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Full text of "The journal of the Linnean Society of London, Volume 32"

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The journal of the Linnean 
Society of London 

Linnean Society of London 



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THE 



JOURNAL 



OP 



THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. 



BOTANT. 



VOL. XXXII. 



LONDON: 

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APAETMENTS, BURLINaTON HOUSE, 
PICCADILLY, W., 

AKD BY 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

AND 

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE. 



1896. 

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Lis] 






Issued complete, 2nd November, 1896. 



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LIST OF PAPERS. 



FAGS 

Druce, Qborgs Claridgb, F.L.S. 

On a New Species of Grass, Bromus ttUerrupttts, in 
Britain .« 426-430 

Dtbr, W. T. Thiselton, C.M.a, C.I.E., F.RS., F.L.S. (see 
Weight, C. H.). 

Eluot, G. F. Scott, F.L.S. 

A Bevision of the Gknus Pentas 431-438 

Geben, Professor Rbtnolds, D.Sc, F.RS., F.L.S. (see 
Seward, A. C). 

Lowe, K J., F.RS., F.L.S. 

On Discoveries Besolting from the Division of a 
Prothallns of a Variety of Scolapendriwn vulgare, 
Sm. (With Process Block.) 629-639 

Mueller, Dr. Johanv, F.M.L.S. 

Lichenes Colensoani a Beverendias. Colenso in Nov& 
ZelandiA septentrionali prope Napier lecti, et nuperius 
missi, in Herbario Beg. Kewensi servati 197-208 

Murray, George, F.L.S. (see Weber van Bosse). 

BiDLET, Mr. Henrt Nicholas, M.A., F.L.S. 

Cyrtandrace® Malayenses 497-628 

The Orchidese and Apostasiacese of the Malay Peninsula 213-416 

BoLFE, R Allen, AL.S. 

A Bevision of the Genus Fani^ 439-478 

Seward, Mr. A C. 

A New Species ci Conifer, PinUes Ruffordiy from the 
English Wealden Formation. (Communicated by 
Professor Beynolds Green, D.Sc., F.RS., F.L.S.) 
(Plates II. and IIL) 417-426 



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PAOB 

Staff, Dr. Otto. 

On the Structure of the Female Flower and Fruit of 
Sararanga nnuata, HemsL (Fandanaoese), with an 
Amended Description of the Qenus and the Species 
by W. Botting Hemsley. (Communicated by the 
President.) (Plates IV.-VIL) 479-489 

WlBKB VAN BOSSB, MtB. 

On a New Genus of Siphonean Algsd, FseudococUun^ 
(Ck)mmunicated by George Murray, F.L.S.) (Plate I.) 209-212 

Williams, Frederic N., F.L.S. 

A Bevision of the QeaoB SUmiey Linn 1-196 

Wright, Charles Henrt. 

On the Genus StemonOy Lour. (Communicated by 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, C.M.G., CLE., F.RS., F.L.S.) 490-496 



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ERRATA 



Page 76, 
,. 77, 
120, 
168, 
214, 
215, 
224,, 
260, 
278, 



, 449, 

, 468, 

., 491, 

, 498, 

, 4©8, 



line 6 (from bottom), far I nk read 1 think. 

„ 21, for MUiTDiAKA read Muia>iAirA. 

» 8, far KOT80HTI read KOT8OHTI. 

„ 24, far PBnreuii read Pbinglbi. 

„ 3 (£rom bottom), for clandestium read elandestinum. 

„ 9, for Calogyne read Codogyne, 

„ 23, /of* L. nenrosa read X. iMroo«a. 

„ 18, for D. Mtfoidftitm read D. .BrieniamMn. 

„ 23, far TBEfoumc read TBivoLnrM. 
last line, for Dipidium read Dipodium. 
line 8 (from bottom), for longibbaotata read lon0i- 

BBAOTBATA. 

„ 16, for Phacelnopeie read PhaUenopsie. 

,, 17, for Ser. ii. read Ser. II. 

„ 8, for Miq. reeu^ Franch. & SaT. 

„ 30, for Didymoroarpui read Didymooarpus. 

„ 32, for eemitata read ee/mUorta, 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Flatb 

I. Pbhtdoooditm Di.Ybibbbi, Bo68e. 

H-lTo illustnto Mr. Seward's paper on Pikitbs BimoRDi, 
in. J Seward. 
IV. > 

V. 1 To illustrate Dr. Otto Stapf 'b paper on the female flower of 
YI. I Sababanga 8IKU08A, Hemsl. 

7n.- 



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THE JOURNAL 



OP 



THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 



A Bevision of the Genns Silene, Linn. 
Bj Frbdbric N. Williams, F.L.S. 

[Bead 20th June, 1895.] 

I. Systematio Affinities of Silene with other Genera, p. 1. 

n. Subdiyision of the Gl^nus into Groups, p. 12. 
in. Plan and Scope of this Beyision, p. 19. 
lY. Classified List of the Species, p. 23. 

y. Systematic Enumeration of the Species, p. 38. 

I. Systematic Affinities of Silene with other Genera. 

As long ago as the year 1813 the elder De CandoUe* 
recommended to botanists in search of a sabject the genns 
Silene as the subject for a monograph, and in 1824 one 
appeared in the first volume of De Candolle's * Prodromns.'f 
This, however, was not the work of De Candolle himself, bnt 
was undertaken at his suggestion by Adolph Otth, and is an 
undiscriminating catalogue of the then known forms, rather than 
a monograph in the proper sense of the word. In this enumera- 
tion, not only are series of the same species under different 
names given in different sections of the genus, but the diagnoses 
are so short and meagre, that they are quite useless for satis- 
factory determination of the species. Up to the time of the 
publication of Paul Bohrbach's monograph in 1868, no botanist 
since Otth had undertaken a revision of the entire genus, since 

* Oat Fl. Hort. Bot. Monspeliensis, p. 146. 
t Prodr., i, p. 367. 
LINN. JOUEN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. B 



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Z MR. F. M. WILLIAMS ON THE GRNUS SILENE. 

the valuable eontribations to onr knowledge of the genus hj 
Godron,* Willkomm,t and more especially Boissier,^ dealt 
with the species of definite geographical areas; and the pro- 
visional schemes of classification put forward by each of them^ 
as well as their grouping of species, were based on what 
appeared to be the primary qharacters, not of the known 
species of the whole genas, but of those which were found 
within a definite area. On account of the great number of 
species which were described after the publication of the first 
volume of the * Prodix)mu8,* the literature of which was 
scattered in various works in many languages, it became very 
desirable, as Rohrbach says, in spite of the difficulties of the 
subject, that a revision of the genus in the form of a systematic 
monograph should be undertaken by a botanist who was willing- 
to devote time and labour to the work, both in examining the 
material, in overhauling and collating the authorities, and in 
bringing together and codifying on a uniform plan the scattered 
descriptions of the species. 

It is more than a quarter of a century since Paul Rohrbach 
(whose early death from consumption cut short a promising 
career and was a great loss to science), at the suggestion of 
Grisebach and under the direction of Alexander Braun, 
enriched systematic botany with an elaborate analysis of the 
genus Stlene, It would be beside my purpose to expatiate 
on the merits of this memoir, and it is with much diffidence 
that I have essayed to revise it. Since 1868 a large number 
of new species have been described (especially from Eastern 
countries), and much material for the elucidation of previously 
described species has been accumulated and in part examined : 
the re-adjustment of groups of species has proceeded with the 
esamination of new material : the affinities of species among 
themselves, both in their relation to systematic position and to 
geographical distribution, have been more critically studied: 
and in a matter subsidiary to these, in the direction of precision 
and uniformity, conflicting schools of nomenclature have for- 
mulated and codified their rules, requiring here and there a 
cban£(o of name ; so that in a revision of the genus, much has 
to l)e le-considered. 

• Obs. crit. 8ur Tinflor. du genre Silene (1847). 

t Ic. Descr. PI. Not. Crit. Ear. Hispani©, i, p. 73 (1853). 

J Fl. OrientaliB, i, pi . 667-667 (1867). 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENLS SILGNE. S 

The question as to whether Silenacesd and Alsinaceae should 
be considered as distinct nataral orders or as suborders of 
GaryophjUaceeB need not be discussed, as it would be outside 
the scope of the present memoir. Garuel, in the continuation of 
Parlatore's 'Flora Italiana,'* substitutes the name Dianthaceao 
for GarjophyllaceaB, which is quite feasible, as being founded 
on the best known genus of the order, instead of on the 
somewhat fanciful name of one of the species of that genus, 
widely known under various forms iu cultivation, but not very 
widely distributed as an indigenous plant. 

The division of the suborder SilenesB proposed by Alexander 
Braunf (and generally accepted by botanists), on the presence 
or absence of commissural nerves in the calyx, I regard as 
satisfactory and natural ; but I would consider this character 
as a secondary factor in the grouping of genera after the 
primary division into the tribes of Diantheas and LychnideeB, 
based on the character of the seeds, — a modification introduced 
by Boissier in his conspectus of the genera in the ' Flora 
Orientalis,' and followed by Willkomm in the ' Prodromus 
Florsd Hispanicae.' This modification has the further recom- 
mendation of dispensing with the obscure and uncertain 
character of the mode of overlapping of petals in praefloration. 
The mode of overlapping is certainly not constant within the 
limits of the same genus. As to Brauu's cardinal character 
derived fi-om the nervation of the calyx, it does not seem to be 
absolutely constant. Schott J has shown that in Viscaria alpina 
(i.e.. Lychnis alpina, Linn.) the commissural nerves of the 
calyx are wanting, and for this reason he proposed the species 
as the type of an intermediate genus Liponeurum. The same 
objection was urged against including Cucubalus Pumilio^ Linn., 
in SUeney but the nervation of the calyx in this species is at 
best very faint and indistinct, and the rudiments of commissural 
nerves are clearly evident at the base, more especially on the 
inner surface in the dried plant. This latter plant, however, 
shows more affinity with some species of Saponaria than does 
Viscaria alpina, which differs from typical forms of Viscaria 
only in this one characteristic. In comparing Viscaria alpina 
with F. vulgaris (a plant found at low-lying stations), though 

• Vol. ix, p. 239(1892). 
t Flora (1843), i, p. 303. 
X Analecta Botanica, i, p. 55. 

B 2 



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4 MB. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 

they are closely allied to one another and ongbt certainly to be 
inclnded in the same genns, they are readily distinguishable as 
species ; and it would be an unnatural separation to transfer 
the former to another group altogether, or to set ifc up as the 
type of a new genus. Then, again, we have Braun's observa- 
tions from living specimens, in which faint commissural nerves 
are sometimes to be found, and at other times the nerve loses 
its commissural character by bifurcating at the base of the 
calyx into two branches, so that each segment of the calyx 
appears to have three nerves. Here, then, is a fresh proof, if 
one were needed, for the maintenance of the position that 
within the limits of the same group of plants, the classifi- 
catory value of a character, often of more than generic 
importance in single genera, at the most made use of for 
the discrimination of species, can be even altogether worthless, 
without thereby undervaluing its importance as a character 
for separating groups of species. Moreover, a similar anomalous 
exception occurs sometimes in Drypis spinoaa. 

I here propose the names of '' Silenoideas ** and *' Gypso- 
philoideae" for the two subtribes of Lychnidea. The sub- 
order " SOenoideee *' of Engler and Prantl* is co-extensive and 
synonymous with the suborder ** Silenineao " in the classification 
and conspectus of genera as given at the end of this introduc- 
tion. In this terminology of groups I have followed a general 
suggestion made by Mr. E. M. Holmes at the International 
Botanical Congress of Genoa in 1892. 

I will now discuss the distinguishing characters of the group 
of genera included in the subtribe Silenoidece. What are they ? 
As in other groups or divisions, the usual answer to the 
question is that all species which agree in essential characters 
should belong to one genns. But what these essential 
characters or distinguishing marks in any particular group 
may be, will depend most frequently on the critical judgment 
of the individual botanist. Nageli lays it down that for any 
particular plant that character is to be considered as primary 
and essential which is shown to be constant. In known 
relationships, Nageli is right: a constant character is at the 
same time an essential one ; but the question is, whether it is 
in general essential to the conception of the organism as a 
plant, or rather as characteristic of the order, the tribe, the 
* Die NatiLrlichen PflanzenfamilieD, Theil ill (1889), 1 b, p. 69. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 5 

genus, or the species. Thus the presence of chlorophyll is 
essential to the structure of the higher plants, hut green leaves 
do not constitute an essential character in the natural order or 
the genus. There can be, therefore, constant characters, which, 
in spite of their constancy, are not essential to the appreciation 
of affinities, or for the grouping of species and of genera, and 
which in fact need not imply that they are in any way related 
to one another. Generally we can, as Nageii very rightly 
remarks, say that there is no character, however important it 
may seem to be, whether morphological or physiological, which 
is of necessity of systematic value. In each grade we must 
rather decide by analogy and by demonstration, what characters 
in this particular grade of subdivision are of systematic value 
in their relation to the grouping of genera or of species. Let 
us then apply the methods of these theoretical " points d'appui " 
to the group of genera comprised within the subtribe of 
SilenoidecB (i.e., the tribe Lychnidece of Braun). If we look 
about, in various series of species which seem to fall into more 
or less natural groups, for that character in the floral organs 
which, constant in certain groups of species, can be used for the 
larger grouping of genera, the one that more especially suggests 
itself, after eicamining the points of resemblance in several 
series of species, is the structure of the fruit. The following 
points are obvious and worthy of notice : — 

(1) The nature of the fruit ; whether a berry (Gucuhalus)^ or 
a capsule. 

(2) The relative position of the carpels to the segments of 
the floral envelope; whether alternate with the lobes of the 
calyx (Jlehelinia and Agrostemma, in which also the indicated 
segments of the capsule are isomerous and never oligomerous), 
or whether they are opposite to them. 

(3) The manner of dehiscence of the capsule ; whether circum- 
scissile somewhat in the form of a pyxidium (Drypis)^ or by 
teeth as many {Goronaria^ Viscaria), or twice as many {Sileney 
Melandryum)y as the styles. 

(4) The internal structure of the capsule ; whether without 
(Lychnis, Coronaria), or with dissepiments (Eudianths^ Silene). 

To these may be added that the carpophore is very short in 
Brypis and Jlehelinia, and absent in Agrostemma, and that 
Uebelinia is further distinguished from the latter in the clawa 
of the petals being without lamellated margins. 



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6 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENK. 

The characters which are thus selected for the pnrpose of 
gronping allied genera are of primary importance; to these 
may be added two genera widely diverse from one another, but 
which are apparently of lower grade in differentiation, and the 
species of which by some systematic botanists would be very 
properly distributed among one or more of the other genera. 
These are — Peirocoptis and Heliosperma, The first is evidently 
very near Goronaria; the species of the other combine the 
unilocular capsule of Melandryum with the habit of Silene, 
The salient character of both is found in the morphological 
character of the seeds, which after all is of specific rather than 
of generic value. Though the presence of an appendix or ligule 
at the junction of the claw with the blade of the petal is of 
subordinate specific importance, we find that the petals are 
imbricate (in the narrow sense) in praBfloration in the case of 
Petrocoptis, while in Goronaria they are strictly convolute in 
prsBfloration. 

In the delimitation of genera and transference of groups of 
species which have taken place from time to time in the suborder 
Sileninese, no genus has probably received such rough handling 
and mutilation, more particularly at the hands of critical 
isystematists in continental floras, as the genus Lychnis, Even 
in an attenuated Linnean sense it is not so much as admitted 
into some of the German floras ; while the compilers of various 
English floras, rather than introduce strange names into their 
lists of genera, have indefensibly enriched Silene at its expense. 

The only absolute difference between Silene and Lychnis, as 
defined by Linnaeus, was that the former had three styles, and 
the latter five; and Agrostemma is only distinguished from 
Lychnis in having the lamina of the petal undivided. However, 
as the species of these three genera came to be more carefully 
studied, it was soon apparent that they should either be fused in 
one genus and broken up into natural sections, or that new 
genera should be formed out of them, in which the number of 
the styles should be considered as a character of very secondary 
importance, and in which the general structure of the ovary 
and capsule should determine the grouping of the species. 

A unilocular capsule, occasionally pluriiocular at the base, is 
characteristic of the natural order Caryophyllaceaa ; and this 
character has been selected for grouping the species of Silenoideo 
(after eliminating the genus Cucuhalus) into two other primary 



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MB. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENDS SILENE. 7 

sabdivisions — those in which the capsule is truly nnilocalar, 
and those in which the capsale has remains of dissepiments at 
the base. The latter will include most of the species hitherto 
included in Silene^ and exclude such species as S, nodifiora and 
nirginicdy Linn., for which (with some species of Lychnis) the 
genus Melandryum^ was founded by Bohling in 1812. The 
former will include Lychnis, in a very limited sense, and 
Agrostemmay and also the Linnean genus Coronaria, which was 
proposed in the first and second editions of ' Genera Plantarum,'t 
but fused with Agrostemma in Species Plantarum. In following 
np the secondary subdivisions of these two main groups, we will 
notice first the affinities of the Lychnis group, and then the 
affinities of the SUene group. 

In Agrostemma Oithago J the carpids are alternate with the 
teeth of the calyx, in Lychnis chalcedonica they are opposite to 
them ; this is a more natural distinguishing character between 
the two genera than the segmentation of the petal. Moreover, 
in the former species, there is an indication of segmentation in 
the emarginate petals. In L, chalcedonica again, which may be 
considered a typical species of the genus, the dehiscent capsule 
is 5-dentate (isomerous with the styles) ; in Rdhling's genus 
Melandryum, which includes L, dioica, Linn., and L, didinis. 
Lag., as well as those species of Silene in which the capsule is 
unilocular, the teeth of the dehiscent capsule are twice as many 
as the styles (dimerous). The genus J7eZia«penna,§ which 
branches off, as it were, from Melandryum (both having common 
characters which separate them from Lychnis proper), was 
founded by Beichenbach in 1841 on Silene quadrifida, Linn., to 
include those species of SUene in which the capsule is unilocular 
and dehisces by twice as many teeth as there are styles, and in 
which the seeds are crested on the dorsal surface. A. Braun 
further circumscribed the limits of Lychnis by including in his 
gennsPetrocoptisW two Pyrenean species. If. nwmwwZarta, Lapeyr., 
and Sil&nopsis Lagasc<B, Willk., which have imbricated petals, 

* The name of this genus is frequently spelled Melandrium ; bat the 
name is borrowed from Pliny, who spells it as Melandryum in bis Natural 
History. 

t Ed. 1, p. 185, n. 380; ed. 2, p. 200, n. 450. 

X Cosson regards this as a quasi-cultirated form, of which the tjpe it 
the Anatolian A. yraeile, Boiss. There are no other species known. 

§ Beichb., Bepert. Herb., p. 206. 

II Flora (1843), p. 370. 



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8 ME. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENK. 

and seeds bearded at the hilam. With the view of still further 
restiicting the significance of Lychnis, he also* proposed to 
revive the Linnean genns Coronaria, which, as far as the 
Enropean species of Lychnis are concerned, would include 
L. Coronaria, Lam. (Agrostemma Coronaria, Linn.), L, CyriUir 
Bicliter, and L. sihirica. So that this wo aid leave the genus 
Lychnis represented in Europe solely by L. chalcedonica of 
Russia. Coronaria glabra, etc., of ' Hort. Upsal.,' p. 115, having 
capsules plurilocular at the base, is to be referred to the Silene 
group, and is the species on which Reichenbach founded his 
genus Eudianthe. 

The genus Coronaria, which it is proposed to revive, is thus 
defined by Linnrous: — ^^ Calyx, Perianthium monophyllum, 
clavceforme, striatum, erectum, coriaceum, 5-angulare, 5-den- 
tatum, persistens : angulis minoribus interjectis. Corolla. 
Petala 5 : ungues longit. calycis, margine aucti : limbus planus,, 
speciosus : bracteae cordataa : nectarium componitur ex 2 
denticulis in singuli petali coUo enatis. Stamina. Filamenta 
10, longit. tubi coroUsB, altema seriora, singulo ungui petalorum 
singulum insidens ; anther® incumbent«s. Pistillum. Oermen 
subcylindraceum. Styli 5, distantes, erecti, longit. staminum. 
Stigmata simplicia. Pericarpium. Capsula cylindracea, unilo- 
cularis, apice dehiscens. Semina plurima, subrotunda.*' This 
genus has been taken up by Garcke in the successive editions 
of 'Deutschlands Flora,' who uses it in very much the same sense 
as A. Braun. Engler and Prantlf divide Lychnis into two 
subgenera, Eu-lychnis and Coronaria. If we consider each of 
these as a genus. Lychnis in this very limited sense will almost 
exactly correspond with the Hedone J of Loureiro, who recorded 
L, coronata under the name of Hedone sinensis. 

We come now to the SilsTie group, including the species in 
which the capsule is plurilocular at the base. The species 
referable to this group can be divided into two sections : — (1) 
those in which the capsule dehisces by twice as many teeth as 
there are styles, and which include Silene, Linn, (sensd limitato),. 
and some species of Lychnis with plurilocular capsules, for 
which Reichenbach proposed the genus Eudianthe § ; and 

• Flora (1843), p. 868. 

t Die Nattlrlichen PfbDzenfamilien, Theil iii (1889), lb, p. 78. 

t Fl. Cochinch., p. 351. 

§ Nom., p. 206(1841). 



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ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 9 

(2) those species in which the capsular teeth are isomerous with 
the styles, and which comprise the genus Viscaria of Bohling. 
If species which haye five styles are ezclnded from Silene^ it 
would be better perhaps to include Polyschemone nivalis, Sohott 
{Lychnis nividis. Kit.), in Eudicmthe, though Eohrbach in his 
monograph has preferred to retain this species bjs well as 
Agrostemma Gceli-rosa* in SHene. As long ago as 1825, Eobert 
Sweet, in discussing the affinities of the plant now known as 
Hdiosperma aVpesbre^ remarked that the genus iSilene was very 
much overgrown, and threw out the suggestion that ''those 
(species) with an inflated calyx will probably form another 
natural genus." Though the disintegration of such genera as 
Silene has not proceeded on the lines indicated by this distin* 
guished horticulturist, and though superficial and obvious 
characters such as the structure of the floral envelope have not 
been considered of generic importance, a study of essential 
characters in definite groups of species only emphasizes still 
more what Fries said, that it is a '* genus vastissimum undiquo 
ad reliqua radios emittens.*' f 

Turning to the subtribe of Gypsophileae, we find that in the 
species of Vaccaria only are there dissepiments at the base of 
the capsule, and that Aca'fUhophophyllum X (with which should 
now be united Bunge*s genus AUochrusa) is alone distinguished 
from the others in having a subindehiscent capsule, and like 
Drypis opens irregularly by circumscissile rupture. These 
subsidiary characters only show how genera artificially or 
arbitrarily delimitated tend to intergrade with, even if they da 
not sometimes overlap, one another. It would be outside the 
scope of our subject to discuss the affinities of Saponaria and 
Qypsophila, though if one were sunk in the other, which would 
be quite feasible, the necessity for earmarking any characters 
as difierential would be removed. A connecting link between 
Oypsophila and the Dianthece is Oypsophila ortegioidesy Boiss., 
but what is to become of this species I do not know. It con- 
stitutes the section Phryna in Boissier*s grouping of the 
oriental species; as the Greek name suggests an outcast, it 
might have to become the type of a new genus. Lastly, in the 

* Linn., Sp. Plantarum, ed. I, p. 436. 
t Flora (1843), I, p. 123. 

t For a recent reyision of this genus, see an interesting and yaluable 
memoir by M. Golenkin in Act. Hort. Petropolit., xiii (1893), p. 77. 



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10 IIR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 81LBNE. 

Diantheas, connecting links between Tunica and Dtanthus are 
Tunica Pamphylica^ Boiss. et Bal., in which each segment of 
the calyx has six or seven nerves (instead of 1-3), and on the 
other hand Dianthus proUfer and Dtanthus leptopetalus, G^nerallj 
speaking, as may be seen from this review of differentia 1 
characters, the characters which separate the genera Saponarta^ 
€fyp8ophila, Tunica, Dtanthus^ and Velezia are much less dis- 
tinctive than those which separate other genera in the suborder 
SileninesB. Some German botanists have proposed to establish 
intergradient genera C^ Mittelgattnngen ") for definitely charac- 
terized species of an evidently intermediate type: but this device 
wonld certainly force npon systematists the fact that many genera 
are nnnatnral entities. 

We find it frequently stated that the production of hybrid 
forms is an important matter, in so far as minute variations in 
the form of the floral organs determine the position of certain 
genem. Herbert enunciated the principle that successful 
crossings can only take place between two individuals of the 
same natural genus, and that, therefore, species which possess 
this faculty ought to be included in the same genus. Nageli 
also seems to join issue on this principle. On the other hand, 
the exceptions to this rule are not many, and the question 
whether in these cases the two genera should not be united, 
presents itself. The capacity for producing hybrids is inherent 
in the productive elements of the species concerned, a kind 
of natural affinity which, apparently homogeneous with the 
similarity in external structure of the reproductive organs, on 
which, as explained above, the systematic position of genera is 
based, need not necessarily be associated with it. This sexual 
affinity or selective relationship then is peculiar to the species, 
sometimes only to the individual under favoured conditions. 
This sexual affinity, moreover, is apparent only in certain 
species of the same genus, and further in a group of closely 
allied genera it is found that the species of one may hybridize 
easily, as in Dtanthus, while the species of another hybridize 
with difficulty, as in this particular genus SUene, So that it 
may happen, though not necessarily, that sexual affinity and 
morphological relationship may go hand in hand. Crossing of 
species then, when successfal, produces hybrids. In these the 
characteristics of the two species are combined sometimes in 
equal proportions, sometimes with great prepondei'ance of one 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 



11 



or the other parent ; and there is often a difference in the 
resnlt in reciprocal fertilizations. Moreover, certain hybrids, 
such as those of Datura^ which are fully fertile per se, divide in 
the offspring, partly in the first generation, and completely in 
iiwo or three succeeding generations, into the two component 
species, even when close- fertilized. 

In discussing the crossing of Melandryum ruhrum, Garcke, 
«nd Melandryum pratense, R5hl., with Silene tiscosa, Pers., 
Bohrbach draws conclusions as to the greater sexual affinity 
between Melandryum and Silene^ than between Lychnis and 
Silene; but in this particular instance it does not apply, as 
L. Celakovsky has shown that in 8. viscosa the capsule is tniiy 
unilocular, and not more or less septate at the base, and that 
therefore this species should be transferred to Melandryum. 
If then we take into consideration the number of the styles, 
and the number of the teeth formed by dehiscence of the ripe 
•capsule, we find that the following genera are isotypic with 
iihese three : — Eudianthe^ Viscaria^ Heliosperma, Petrocoptis, and 
lastly Coronaria. 

A tabular conspectus of the genera here mentioned will best 
illustrate their differential diagnosis : — 

Tribe Lychnidece (or SileneoB)^ Suhtrihe Silenoidew, 

A. Capsule unilocular. 

a. Carpels alternate with 

calyx. Anthophore 

Capsule 5-dentate . • . • • • Agrostemma. 

b. Carpels opposite the teeth of the calyx. 

Anthophore conspicuous, often elon- 
gated, 
a. Capsule dehiscing by teeth equal in 
number to the styles. 

• Petals convolute in preBfloration. 

Appendices fornicate at the base . • Lychnis. 
•• Petals convolute in pradfloration. 

Appendices efomicate at the base • • Coronabl4. 
•*• Petals imbricate in praefloration. 

Seeds bearded at the hilum . . Petbocoptjs. 

ft. Capsule dehiscing by twice as many 
teeth as the styles. 

* Seeds crested on the dorsal surface. 

Styles 8 Heliospeama. 

•• Seeds not crested on the dorsal 

surface. Styles 5, rarely 3 . . Melandetuai. 



the teeth of the 
Styles 5. 



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12 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

B. Capsule plnrilocular at the base. 

a. Capsale dehincing hy teeth equal in 

number to the styles • . • . . . Yiscaria. 

b. Capsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth 

as the styles. 

a. Styles 5 Eudianthe. 

fi. Styles 3 Silene. 



II. Subdivision op the Genus into Groups. 

The genus Silene was founded by Linnaeus, and was defined 
by biai in the first edition of his ' Genera Plantamm.' • The 
genus is characterized as follows f : — 

Calyx, Perianthium monophyllum, clavatum, leye, 5-denta- 

tum, persistans. 
Corolla, Petala 5. Ungues angusti, longitudine calycis^ 

marginati. Limbus planus, obtnsus, emarginatus. Neo- 

tarium componitur e duobus denticulis, in coUo cujusviff 

petali. 
Stamina, Filamenta 10, subulatu, altema, ungaibus peta- 

lorum inserta, seriora. Anther® oblongs. 
PisHllum, Ovarium cylindraceum. Styli 3 vel 5, simplices,. 

staminibus longiores. Stigmata contra solem flexa. 
Pericarpium. Capsula cylindracea, tecta, 3-5-locularis, apice 

6-fariam dehiscens. 
Semina plurima, reniformia. 

This description sufficiently circumscribes the species in the 
genus as understood by Bohrbach, except that the calyx 
(perianth) is not always '* leve," and that the lamina (limbus) 
of the petal is not often ** emarginatus." 

By Adanson,;!; Silene was disintegrated into six distinct 
genera, in contravention, however, of the Linnean canon^ 
which says, ^* Habitus occulte consulendus est, ne genus 
erroneum IsDvi de caussa fingatur."§ It was on such a 
secondary character that Adanson carved his six genera out 
of the Linnean genus. They are— Silene, Atocion, Oberna, 
Otites, Steris, and Kaleria. As a synonym Linnadus cites- 
Viscago, Dill. Hort. Eltham. p. 309. 

• p. 132, n. 372 (1787). 

t With the verbal emendatioiis of Bichter's ' Codex linneanu?.' 

; Families des Plantes, ii, p. 254 (1763). 

§ Philosophia Botanica, ed. II, p. 121. 



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MB. V. N. WILLIAMS ON THK GENUS SILENE. 13 

The sections into which Adolph Otth proposed to group the 
species in the first yoliime of De Candolle's * Prodromns ' are 
so Tinnataral, and characterized hy such indefinite characters, 
that it woald be impossible to attempt a revision of the genus 
on the principles followed by that botanist. Others followed 
Otth's classification, with nnimportant alterations, in subse- 
quent works, in which the plants of the order Caryophyllaceae 
were systematically or geographically dealt with, so that the 
first classification of species of Silene which can properly claim 
tmy attention from a scientific point of view dates from 
Oodron's* masterly essay on the forms of inflorescence in 
this genus. 

Godron certainly attaches no importance to the existence 
of septa at the base in the ripe capsule or to their absence, 
and includes, therefore, all species belonging to Melandryum 
subg. Elisanthe, as well as the genus Heliosperma (to which 
he falsely ascribes capsular dissepiments), in Silene^ and this 
same view of the limits of the genus is taken by Bentham and 
Hooker.t 

The grouping of the genera of the suborder Silenineee on 
the principle first proposed by Alexander Braun has already 
been alluded to, and Bohrbach has adopted in the main 
Godron's primary character of the disposition and mode of 
inflorescence, except in reference to the group Lychmotdes, 
which he has relegated to a subordinate and secondary position, 
but which, however, in this revision disappears altogether, 
as the species are placed in the genus Eudianthe, The genus 
Silene^ as understood and circumscribed by Braun, included 
a large number of species which formed a very natural group 
sufficiently marked ofl* fiom other genera, as defined at that 
time, but very difficult to form into subsidiary groups, on 
account of the absence of well-defined primary and secondary 
characters within the limits of the genus which might be 
utilized for the purpose. In the first place, however, he fixes 
on the character of the mode of overlapping of the petals in 
prsefloi'ation as the basis of division into two subgenera, before 
proceeding to group the species into sections. Boissier points 
out that Alexander Braun first drew attention to this character 

• Obacrr. crit. »up Tinflor. du geore Silene (1847). 

t Q-enera Plantsrum, i, p. 147: *' Ovarium uniloctdare yel imk basi 
septatum multdoTulatum ; stjli Tulgo 8. Oapsola apice in dentes yel yalvas 
breyes 6 rariut 8 dehiscens." 



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14 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENE. 

in tbe genus, and the specionsness of snch a line of cleavage- 
is best explained in his own words, which are here translated 
from ' Fl. Orientalis,' vol. i : — " A genns very diflBcnlt to break 
np into groups of species, since the characters for defining 
sections are either absent or not strongly marked. Thus 
Oodron demonstrated that all forms of inflorescence which 
were met with in the genns, the dichotomy, the panicle, the 
unilateral raceme, are only modifications of the cyme, and that 
they pass one into another in allied species, and even in plantn 
of the same species. The number of the nerves of the calyx 
varies in plants otherwise alike in all their characters. 
Alexander Braun pointed out a character depending on the 
imbricative (quincuncial) sdstivation of certain species, but 
this mode of overlapping of the petals in sBstivation in the 
genus is not really quincuncial (arising, as it were, from spiral 
insertion of the petals), but is a deformation of convolute 
88stiyation (arising from verticillary insertion), to which, in 
allied species and often in the same species, it returns. The 
seeds, which are generally canaliculate on the dorsal surface, 
may become plane, then convex, and, finally, in Heliosperma^ 
carinate [with the rows of tubercles transformed into crested 
spines*]. With these considerations, I have not proposed 
sections such as it would be incumbent on a future mono- 
grapher of the whole genus to specify, but I have attempted 
to arrange the Eastern species in natural groups, as far as 
I was able, according to general characters and habit in the 
absence of definite and well-marked characters." Boissier 
says how he tried first one character, and then another, and 
afterwards a combination of two or more, only to find that 
his hypothetical sections invariably either overlapped one 
another or failed to include some of the species. 

Rohrbach first of all divides the genus into two subgenera: — 
(1) Behen, in which the leading character is ^'sBstivatio peta- 
lorum imbricativa " ; and (2) Silene proper, in which the leading 
character is ** aestivatio petalorum altematim contorta." In 
connection with this I should like to refer to an interesting 
letter from Alexander Braun to J. Gay, preserved in Herb. Kew. 
In this letter diagrams are given of the mode of overlapping of 
the petals in aestivation in Silene Pumilio ; and quoting from a 
letter from Pacher, he says that usually the petals are imbricate 
in aestivation in this species, but that this is not constant, and 
* Not in the original. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS OX THE GEXCS SILEXE. 15 

occasionallj they are contorted. There is also an interesting 
note in J. Oaj's handwriting on specimens of Arenaria putigens 
in reference to this same character: — "Petalorum sestivatio 
nunc imbricata, nunc sinistrorsum contorta." I consalted the 
late Sereno Watson (who has studied the North American 
species of Silene) as to his views on the importance of these 
primary characters. In a letter received from him only a few 
weeks before his lamented death, he says : — " I have never 
considered the characters that you mention of any special 
importance, and have paid them no attention. If S. Douglasit 
and 8, nivea are to be separated from our other species on the 
imbrication of the petals, it is evident that the division is not a 
natural one." Again, " sBstivatio altematim contorta " is some- 
what obscure, but Mr. Watson points out that it appears to be 
illustrated in Eichler's * Bliithendiagramme,' on p. 106, fig. 41a ; 
and is what is called ** antidromy " or '* heterodromy,** the 
petals in the fiowors of the axis overlapping in one direction, 
and those of the branches in the opposite. Now the species of 
Silene are difficult to discriminate in living specimens, especially 
before the ripening of the capsules, and still more so in the case 
of herbarium specimens ; and were the mode of imbrication of 
the petals, if such variation is to be depended upon, to be 
insisted on as a primary character, it would of necessity impair, 
if not stultify, the value of the result obtained from an 
attempted examination of the greater part of the material 
afforded by collectors and distributors. I propose, therefore, by 
slightly modifying Rohrbach's arrangement, to base the primary 
subdivisions of the genus on the structure of the calyx ; and to 
exclude from his subgenus Behen those few species in which the 
two characters of a calyx with anastomosing veins and inflated 
at the time of flowering are not associated, viz., S, pygmceay 
S. turgida, and S. Bouglasii. I propose also to follow Engler 
and Prantl* in considering each division of Silene proper as a 
subgenus, thus making three subgenera instead of two. I 
would further suggest Qastrosilene as a substitute for BeheUy 
which is somewhat of a misnomer. Cucuhalus Behen, Linn., and 
Behen vulgaris, Moench, are certainly superseded names for 
Silene inflata, the best known species of the subgenus, but 
Silene Behen, Linn., is a good species, and belongs to another 
subgenus, so that the name as taken up by Bohrbach is mis- 
leading. Gastrosilene in pseudhomonymic also with Gastrohjchnis, 
• Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Theil iii (1889), p. 70. 



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16 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GEXDS SILENE. 

one of the sections of the genus Lychnis proposed by Fenzl in 
Endliclier*s monumental work. 

The limits of the genns will be more conveniently circnm- 
scribed if Bohrbach's generic character of a unilocular capsule 
septate at the base is maintained ; so that many of the North 
American species described by Sereno Watson and most of the 
species from the province of Yun-nan, described by M. Franchet,* 
in which the ovary and capsule are strictly unilocular, should 
be transferred to the genus Melandryum, It would be better 
also to exclude four species, retained by Bohrbach in his 
monograph, in which the ovary has five styles, and is, of cou]*se, 
5-septate at the base, viz., Polyschemone nivalis^ Schott, Eudi- 
anthe Gcelt-rosa, Fenzl, E, Corsica^ Fenzl, and IS. Iceta, Fenzl. 

Eusilene itself is divided into three sections according to the 
form of the inflorescence. In the same way that the principal 
primary subdivisions in the grouping of natural genera within 
the limits of the same family cannot be carried out with logical 
precision, in so far as a character in one genus is of first 
importance, and in another may be of no systematic value 
whatever, so the same thing obtains in the subdivision of a 
genus into several groups of higher or lower grade. Thus it 
would be unnatural to separate S. grisea from 8. flavescens; yet, 
strictly speaking, the first should be in Botryostleney while 
8. flavescens is in its place in Dichasiosilene. Similarly the 
same reason holds with 8. 8i€beri, 8, Fenzlti, and certain forms 
of 8. ttcUica^ which should be in the section Dichasiosilene^ were 
it not that their special characters unmistakably show their 
relationship with 8, italica. We must, therefore, take into 
consideration other characteristics in admitting apparently 
aberrant types into one or the other of the primary groups in 
the subdivision of the genus. Bohrbach's greatest difficulty 
was in the section Botryosilene, The peculiarity in certain 
species for the flowers to bend downwards at the time of flower- 
ing, an observed fact utilized by Otth in his grouping of species, 
when applied to the section as a whole, leads to unnatural 
separation of closely allied forms. In the same way it is 
impossible correctly to circumscribe a natural series of forms 
by means of the various modifications of the raceme, since 
frequently one type of racemose inflorescence grades into 
another, and also species having varied modifications of the 
raceme are allied by more distinctive and important characters. 
• Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii (1886), pp. 417-428. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 17 

And here, as in many other cases, it cannot be too clearly laid 
•down that nataral relationship is to be found in the possession 
of essential characters in the aggregate, and forms cannot be 
classified by the arbitrary selection of a single, albeit though a 
•conspicuonsly distinctive character, and that the constancy of 
the specific type is due to the maintenance of the balance and 
the absolute correlation of the structure of the different parts 
•of the plant with the conditions of life and the environment 
in which it lives ; so that any undue exaltation or deficiency in 
the structure or function of any organ or part of an organ, 
whether arising within the plant itself or in its environment, 
tends to the impairment or to the loss of that balance, and 
•consequently to instability and variation. 

Eiohrbach first of all divides the section Botryosilene into 
two groups, according to the structure of the substance of the 
•ealyx, whether coriaceous or membranaceous; and then the 
second group lends itself more readily to division into sub- 
sidiary groups on the basis of the type of the form of racemose 
inflorescence. I wish to draw attention more particularly to 
this section rather than to any of the other primary groups, 
because if some working botanists hold that there are weak 
points in the method and arrangement in Rohrbach's classifica- 
tion, it is in this section of Botryosilene that such are to be 
found. But, as he says, after a good deal of consideration and 
comparison of the relative value and specific importance of 
salient characters, he has not succeeded in finding a more 
natural method of associating the known species into definite 
subsidiary groups ; and in any future improvement upon this, 
the critical reviser must have in his mind a general idea of the 
complete series of species, otherwise, instead of improving upon 
the scheme of classification submitted, he is likely to fall into 
worse errors. 

I will now, therefore, discuss a few specific characters in 
•detail. A pre-eminent character to select is the form of the 
seed. Within the limits of the same group of allied forms the 
seed varies chiefly in its size (generally depending relatively on 
the size of the flower and capsule), in its form and structure 
scarcely at all. However, in a widely distributed and poly- 
morphous species like Silene tnflata, we find transitional 
modifications in the form of the seed. On the other hand, 
almost the only difference between S, rigidula and 8. echino- 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTUnr, VOL. IXXII. C 



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18 IIK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THG GENUS SILEXE. 

sperma is in the stractnre of the seed. Of not less importance 
as a character is the nervation of the calyz, especially in respect 
of the branching of the ten primary nerves. The presence or 
absence of snch anastomosing branches is a variation not 
altogether unknown within the limits of the same species ; yet 
by this character is S. linearis separated from S, arenosa. Of 
often more than specific importance is the form of the fruc- 
tiferous calyx, as to whether it is contracted and almost closed 
above, or uniformly cylindrical, or campanulate and expanded 
under the reflexed petals. 

Again, to take an example from other organs, within the 
same group of species, the filaments, which are usually glabrous, 
in a number of species are invested with long cilia. 

As to the duration of the life of the plant, this seems a fairly 
constant and reliable character; likewise the manner of growth^ 
whether uniaxial (as is generally the case) or biaxial. As an 
exception under abnormal conditions, we may instance 8. dliatay 
in which the flowering stems are terminal, but which under 
cultivation sometimes produces a main axis with infrarosular 
flowering stems as in 8, melandryoides. The form of the 
difierent calyx-teeth varies sometimes in the same flower ; since 
this, however, is associated with other characters in the structure 
of the calyx, it is therefore of value in sepai*atiug species. On 
the contrary, should snch variation be found in individuals of 
what are supposed to be the same species, then analogy must 
decide whether it is desirable to separate the two as distinct 
species. In this connection may be noted the foinn of the calyx, 
which at the time of flowering is often very different, from that 
which incloses the ripe capsule. 

As to the form of the capsule, and the relative length of the 
capsnle and carpophore, the variations within certain limits to 
which both are subject are different for different groups, and 
their importance as a character can only be ascertained and 
appraised by comparison in the different groups. On the other 
hand, the presence of cilia on the claws of the petals is a 
character subject to variation more often, even in the flowers 
of the same stem ; eppecially is this noticeable in the group of 
8. Saxifraga, while in most other groups the character of 
** ungues glabri " and " ungues ciliati " is sharply defined. The 
same obtains in the definite character of the auriculate appen- 
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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 19 

whioh, wHile, for example, in Dichasiosilene distingnishes the 
series Auriculatm from all the other peremiial species of the 
Rection, in some species is to be found in all stages of transition 
from sb'ght broadening at the apex of the claw to the develop- 
ment of a distinct lobe on each side of it. The degree of segmen- 
tation in the blade, the width of the lobes, and lastly the oolonr of 
the petals are not characters which may serve for the separation 
of species, apart from other and more distinctive characters. 

Of still less importance is the general pnbescence of the 
plant; which, as is well known, is a character that often 
depends on external conditions, and on difference in station and 
in vertical range. Somewhat more constant and reliable is the 
pubescence of the calyx, thongh this is subject to considerable 
variation. The least important, or which amoonts to the same 
thing, the most unreliable character to make use of in the 
limitation of species is that of the form of the foliage-leaves. 
Although this has been long recognised by systematic botanists, 
in a genus like Silency it is necessary to emphasize the fact ; to 
justify, for example, the circumscription of 8. chlorcefoUa, whose 
aberrant forms present indeed a very diverse type and appear- 
ance, forms which Rohrbach thought desirable to include in 
this species, and, as he shows in his diagnosis, by a continuous 
series of intermediate forms are connected one with another, 
which makes a separation into four distinct specific types 
scarcely feasible or possible. In the same way and by the same 
variable character is justified the inclusion of several forms 
(superficially distinct) within the limits of a species. 

In giving greater importance to the presence or absence of 
the coronal appendix, I venture to differ from Rohrbach, as 
modifications of it have a systematic value in other genera. 

in. Plan and Scope op this Revision. 

The Revision of the genus is based on Rohrbach*s Monograph, 
published in 1868. Specimens of most of the species described 
by him have been examined, excepting only those of which 
authentic types were not obtainable for examination. Species 
have been transferred from one group to another, only after 
examination of properly authenticated specimens and the 
remarks on their structural character by other observers have 
satisfied me that occasional deviation from the sequence in 

c 2 



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20 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENE. 

BolirbacIi*s enumeration is desirable in the interest of accuracy 
of description, and with due regard to the affinities of allied 
species. Spebies described since the publication of Bohrbach's 
work have been intercalated in their proper place, or (in manj 
cases) reduced as synonyms or as varieties of previously known 
species. 

The matter under the head of each species is arranged as 
follows. The name of the species is followed by the authority 
for the name and the work or memoir in which it was first 
published.* This is followed by the citation of a published 
figpire of the plant, if a satisfactory one is known to me : the 
third reference is to the page of Bohrbach's * Monograph ' on 
which the species is described. The species described by 
Bohrbach have not been again described in this Bevision, 
unless subsequent re-examination of specimens has obviously 
impaired the accuracy of Bohrbach's description ; slight varia- 
tions, discrepancy, or hiatus in his diagnosis have been noted 
and rectified in form of addenda after the references following 
the name. The species known and discovered subsequently to 
the publication of Bohrbach's work have been described on a 
uniform plan, and as far as practicable the diagnoses are of 
uniform length and conciseness ; and species which have been 
transferred to another group or section have not been re- 
described unless such transference has entailed considerable 
And important verbal alterations. After the description or 
bibliographical references are often given a few differential 
<;haracters distinguishing it from allied forms, more particularly 
in subsidiary groups which include several species. The 
synonymy, in so far as it is identical with that given by 
Bohrbach, is omitted, but under this heading additional 
synonyms (reduction of new ? species) are given, and some 
synonyms, incorrectly given by Bohrbach, are excluded. This 
is occasionally followed by critical notes or explanatory com- 
ments on the species, where they may seem to be required. 
The last item under the heading of each species gives the limits 
of the geographical range. It has not been thought necessary 
to give the complete geographical distribution, as any extension 
of the range of the species as defined by Bohrbach is thus 

* For species described since 1868, references are sometimes given to 
two works in which a description of the species is to be found, as the 
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MB. F. N» WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 21 

safficientlj indicated. The habitat of species not distributed 
over a wide area is given in the nsual way. In the case of 
species of wide distribution the extreme geographical limits in 
each direction are given. Eecords extending the limits of the 
species are everywhere given. As frequently as possible I have 
added the date of publication to the reference cited for the 
species, except in the case of works repeatedly cited.* For the 
dates of works and memoirs not readily accessible I am often 
indebted to the excellent and carefully edited series of Botanical 
Catalogues issued by Messrs. Dulau of London, and by Messrs. 
Friedlander of Berlin; in all cases in which I have referred 
from the Catalogpie to the work cited I have found absolute 
accuracy in titles and dates. 

In the matter of absolute priority in names of species, I have 
preferred not to change a few old-established names which are 
always met with in the floras generally used, and under which 
the literature of the species is always to be found, in favour of 
obscure, little known (and usually inappropriate) names, which 
may possibly have antedated them in publication by a few 
months. The "plea of convenience" and stability in nomen- 
clature is of far more scientific importance in morphology than 
endless name-changing for reasons of priority. 

Of the 390 species enumerated in this Revision, published 
figures are cited for 172 species ; and of the 141 varieties 
enumerated, additional figures are cited for 29. Where a 
figure is obviously bad and misleading, I have not thought it 
worth while to refer to it. I have not always cited what may 
appear to be the best plate, but, for convenience of reference 
and to facilitate the comparison of species, have preferred to 
quote works in which several species are figured, such as 
the 'Flora Graeca,' Reichenbach's *Ic. Flor. Germ. Helv.,' 
Willkomm's sumptuous *Icones,' and Gosson's * Ulustr. Fl. 
Atlanticse.' 

The position of Silene and its relationships with the other 
genera of Silenoideas are shown at the end of a previous 
section. The following table shows the position of the subtribe 
Silenoideee in the natural order Caryophyllacese : — 



• This, however, is everywhere added in the index, to which reference* 
should be made for the dates. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE QENUS 8ILENE. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 23 

SILENE. 

Herb88 annnsB, biennes vel perennes snffraticesve. Radix 
simplex vel ramosa, perpendicolaris vel obliqua, in perennibus 
crassa, lignosa, rhizoma repens B88pe formanB, caules foliosos 
et floriferoB emittens. Gaulis altitadine valde yarians, teres 
vel raro nervo folioram mediano decnrrente triangnlatus, glaber 
vel pabescens vel glandulosns, sffipe prsBsertim snpeme yiscosus, 
foliosos ant, foliis infeme in rosnlam confertis, apbyllns et 
apice florifer, raro in foliomm rosnlam abbreviatns et turn 
ramos florigeros lateraliter emittens ; simplex et apice tantnm 
flores nonnollos ferens ant pins minus ramosns. Folia integra, 
sessilia vel basi in petiolnm angnstata, opposita, decnssata, 
rarissime qnasi snperposita qnaterna, latitndine valde variantia, 
ovato-lanceolata lanceolatave, linearia vel triqnetra interdnm 
pnngentia, glabra vel pubescentia. Bracte» et propbylla 
herbacesB, saape margine membranacee et ciliatee, vel scarios®. 
Inflorescentia racemosa, racemo ant simplici interdnm ad 
florem nnnm temosve terminales reducto vel in dichasium 
pins minns compositnm laxum capitatnmve transmntato vel 
altero dichasii ramo abortivo scorpioideo (racemnm nni- 
lateralem), ant racemo composito ramis racemos simplices 
vel infeme mrsnm composites raro dichasia formantibns, 
interdnm ramis contractis verticillastra fingentibus. Floree 
hermaphroditi, interdnm abortn dioici, plus minns longe 
pedicellati, erecti, patentes vel nntantes. — Calyx gamophyllns, 
tnbnlosns, clavatns, tnrbinatns vel campannlatns, interdnm 
ampliatns, glaber vel pnbescens, nmbilicatns vel nmbilico 
destitntns vel infra basin annnlo circnlari anctns, 5-dentatns, 
dentibns margine saepe scariosis ciliatis, 10-20-30-vel 60-nervins, 
evenins vel nervis anastoiuosantibns. Petala 5 nngnicnlata, 
raro snbobsoleta inoonspicna, cnm staminibns carpopbori vel 
stipitiformis pins minns elongati vel cyathiformis crassi 
brevis apice inserta, prsafloratione ant altematim contorta ant 
imbricata, nngnibns ciliatis vel glabris, interdnm apice 
dilatatis vel ntrinqne anricnlatis, lamina integra biloba vel 
bipartita vel interdnm mnltifida, ad fancem biappendiculata 
bigibbosa sqnamata vel ecoronata. Stamina 10, petalis altema 
5 majora, opposita 5 nngnibns basi coh»rentibns minora : fila- 
menta filiformia ; anthersB bilocnlares longitndinaliter introrsnm 
dehiscentes. Ovarinm basi triloculare, septis supra placentes 



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24 MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

centralis apicem, yel in medio desinentibas, supeme unilocolare ; 
OYula plarima amphitropa faniculis distinctis in singulis locolis 
biseriatim placentis inserta. Styli 3, filiformes vel snbclavati^ 
intns papillosi. Gapsula obartacea vel crostacca, oblongav 
ovata vel sabglobosa, basi plus minus trilocularis, apice in 
denies duplo stylorom numerum dehiscens. Semina plurima 
reniformia vel globosa, interdum dorso uirinque al& undulate 
cincta, leyia striolata granulata vel tubercnlata: embrjo fere 
annularis vel hemicjclicus, excentricus, albumen farinaceum 
cingens, raro albumine in seminum alis undnlafcis incluso ; 
radicnla dorsalis. 

Silene, Linn., Sjst. Nat., ed. I (17i>5); Gen. Plant., ed. I> 

p. 132, n. 372 (1737). 
Viscago, Hall, Enum. Stirp. Helv., i, p. 373 (1742). 
Muscipula, Rupp,y Fl. Jenensis (ed. Hall.), p. 125 (1745). 
Atocion, Adaiis,, Fam. PI., ii (1763), p. 254. 
Obema, Adams., I.e., p. 255. 
Otites, Adans.y Z.c, p, 255. 
Kaleria, Adans,, i.e., p. 506. 
Behen, Moench, Meth., p. 709 (1794). 
Corone, Hoffmg. ex. Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. II, i, p. 422 

(1840). 
Diplogama, Opiz, Seznam, p. 38 (1852). 
Cheiropetalum, Fnes, Ind. Sem. Hort. Upsal., 1857: ex 

Urban, Addit. Ind. Sem. Horfc. Berolin. (1881), p. 11. 
Oncerum, Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pjr., p. 255 (1867). 
Leptosilene, Fourr., in Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, xvi (1868)^ 

p. 344. 
Petrosilene, Fourr,, he. 
Behenantha, Schur, in Verb. Naturf. Yer. Briinn, xv, II, 

(1877), p. 130. 
Species in tria subgenera disponuntur : — 



I. GASTROSILENE. II. CONOSILENE. III. EUSILENE. 

Subgenus L GASTROSILENE. 

Calyx 10-vel 20-nerviu8, nervis reticulato-venoeis, vesicarie inflatoA 
post anthesin semper ampliatus, f ructif er a capsulA remotus. Spedea 
erennes* 



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MR. ¥. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 25 

1. Petala, unguibus supeme dilatatis vel aariculatis, bifida, rarius 
emarginata vel subintegra. 

A. Calyx 10-nervius. 

a. Folia subulatapungentia. 
o. pungens, 

b. Folia mutica. 

a. Caules florlgeri e basi roeulae foliorum terminalis lateraliter 
edentes. 
S. odoTitopstala^ htbanensis, tuhuniflorOy Brotherana, candicansy 
caxucina, Atkinfy'ktn, 

/3. CSaoles florigeri e foliorum rosulse medio edentes (sive folia 
non rosulata). 

t Caljx sub authesi ore aperto. 

(1) Petala unguibus ciliatis. 
S. nubigma^ plut&nica, 

(2) Petala unguibus glabris. 

S, Fabaria, monantha, mongoHcOy kumaonermSy thebana, faharioidei^ 
ccensty vctriegcUa. 

ft Calyx sub anthesi ore contracto. 
S. ampvMata, 

B. Calyx 20-nerviu8. 

a. Petala apice subintegra. 
S, procumbensy PumUio. 

b. Petala bifida vel bipartita. 

S. Thoreiy mariHmay glareosa^ infkUay comnmtatay Cserei. 

2. Petala, unguibus non auriculatis, fimbriato-multifida. 
8. phytdlodeiy fmbricUa, campanvlata. 

Subgenus II. CONOSILENE. 

Calyx 20-30-vel GQ-nei-vius, nervis baud anastomosantibus ; fructifer 
e basi ampliatft apicem versus attenuatus. Flores in dichasio simplict 
vel composito dispositi, ramus alter ssepe abbreviatus, alter in latere 
ramo accessorio auctus, rarius flores solitarii Herbas annuae. 

a. Calyx 20-nerviu8. 
S. ammophila, coniflora, 

b. Calyx 30-nervius. 

a. Capsula carpophoro brevi stipitata. 
S. subconicctyjuvenalis. 

/3. Capsula sessilis. 

t Filamenta pubescentia. 
S. lifdiay Sartority canica. 



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^6 MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THB GENUS SILENE. 

ft Filameuta glabra. 
S, conoidea, multinervia, amphorina, 

c Galys 60-nerviu8. 
S. macrodontcL 

Subgenus III. EUSILENE. 

Calyx semper lO-nervius, vel evenius vel nervis anaBtomosantibus, 
nunquam vesicarie inflatua, fructifer autem supra carpophorum 8»pe 
SL capsulA maturescente distentus. Inflorescentia valde varians. 
Species annus, biennes, vel perenues. 

SeCtio i. ClNCINNOSILENE. 

Flores in cincinnis plus minus laxis (racemis secundis scorpioideis) 
simplidbus vel geminatis, breviter vel raro longe pedicellati vel 
subsessiles, interdum primo dichasium simplex vel duplex formantes, 
•dichasii deinde ramis scorpioideis. Herbae annuae vel biennes, paucse 
perennes. 

A. Species annus vel biennes. 

a. Apterospermse. 
Semina reniformia vel globosa, dorso nunquam alis imdulatis 
marginato. 

Series 1. Dichotoiinoe. 

Flores in cincinnis geminatis brevissime pedicellati vel subsessiles, 
primo in dichasio simplici vel duplici, ramis dichasii lateralibus 
scorpioideis. Calyx evenius, finictifer apice contractus. Herbee 
interdum bienne& 

a. Semina faciebus plana. 

S. lagenoealyx^ grcecoy dichotoma, racemosa, 

b. Semina faciebus curvato-excavata. 
S, vespertinay disticha. 

Series 2. Scorpioidece. 

Flores in cincinnis simplidbus; interdum infra florem axiA primaris 
terminalem unilateraliter ramus scorpioideus evolutus, ita ut stirps 
dichotoma esse videatur, dichotomia autem nunquam florigera. 

A. Semina reniformia, fadebus curvato-excavata, dorso (exc. 
S. gaUica and 8, Oiraldii) obtuse canaliculata. 

a. Calyx fractifer apice contractua 
a. Filamenta basi villosa ; calyx evenius. 
S.gaUioa. 

/3. Filamenta glabra. 

t Calyx evenius. 
8. Oircddii. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE 6BNUS SILENE. 27 

ft Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
*S. cerastioides, c<dycina, 

b. Calyx fractifer apice non contractus. 

o. Filamenta basi villosa. 
S. rejlexa, 

p. Filamenta glabra. 
t Capaula oblonga subsessilis. 
*S'. noctuma^ hrachypetala, 

ft Capsiila carpophorom bis terve superans, vel fere 
sequans. 
S. remoUflora, oUudfolia^ hirtutOj pompeiopolUana, mogadorensis, 
paJUutinOy affinU, 

B. Semina reniformia valde compressa, faciebus concavinscula, 

dorso acute canaliculata. 

a. Calycis strise anastomosantes, vel supeme conjunct®. 

a. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 
S. hremstipes, 

fi. Calyx fructifer apice non contractus. 
JS. eanopica, Kuichaiewicny setacea, marocoana, 

b. Calyx striatus evenius. 

a. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 
JS. Hddreichity oxyodonta, 

/3. Calyx fructifer apice non contractus. 
S, Sckweinfurthi, arabioa^ chirensis, 

C. Semina reniformia, faciebus plana, dorso plus minus obtuse 

canaliculata. 

a. Calycis evenii nervi pilis basi bulbosis vel squamulis acntis 

vestiti, calyx fructifer apice contractus. 
JS. trinerviay scabrtdoy oropediomm, 

b. Calyx glaber vel, si pnbescens, pilis basi non bulbosis 

vestitus. 

a. Calyx fructifer apice non contractus, 
t Calyx nervis anastomosantibus. 
JS. micropetaUiy cisplatensis, imbriccUcu 

tt Calyx evenius. 
S. elandeiHnay discolor ^ villosa, 

fi. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 
S.pendvla, 



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28 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

D. Semina globosa, dorao convexa, faciebus plano-convexa^ 
undique obtuse tuberculata. 

a. Calyx fructifer apice non contractus, evenius. 
S. (xdscendensy littarea, 

b. Calyx fructifer apice contractus, striis anastomosantibns. 

S. Ptammitis, 

b. Dipterospermse. 

Semina rotundo-reniformia compressa, faciebus planiuscula, dorso 
alis duabus undulatis marginato profunde canal iculata. Flores in 
cincinnis simplicibus vel interdum geminatis. 

a. Capsulse carpophorum puberulum. 
S. sericea, glauca, glahrescens, longicavlit. 

b. Capsulffi carpophorum glabrum. 
8, apetala, decipiens. 

B, Species perennes, f ruticulosae. 

a. Apterospermse. 

Semina reniformia vel auriformia, dorso nunquam alis undulatis 
marginato. Flores in cincinnis simplicibus. 

A. Caules florigeii e basi rosulae foliorum terminalis lateraliter 

edentes. 
S. legionemisy atlantica. 

B. Caules florigeri terminales, ex rosula foliorum medio edentes. 

(sive folia non rosulata). 

a. Oalycis dentes elongato-lanceolati acuti. 
a. Flores calyce multo brevius pedicellati. 

S, ChauleUeij ffochateiten. 

/3. Flores calyce lougius pedicellatL 
S. Biafrce. 

b. Calycis dentes obtusi, vel raro ovati acuti. 

o. Herb» nunquam ceespitem formantes. 
S, Burckelliiy primtUcB/loraf cramfolia^ 

/3. Herbae csespitem densum formantea 
t Calyx evenius. 
S. MundianOy degans, 

tt Calyx striis bifurcatim conjunctis. 
S. cUiata, 

b. Dipterospermse. 

Semina rotundo-reniformia, faciebus planiuscula, dorso alis duabos 
undulatis marginato profunde acute canaliculata. Flores in cincinnis 
laxis duplicibus vel triplicibus. 

S, intruia. 



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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILBNE. 29 

Sectio ii. Dichasiosilene. 

Herbse perennes vel annnse, paucse biennes. Flores in dichasio 
simplici vel plus minus composito, breviter vel longe pedicellati, 
dichasii ramis sequalibus aut insequalibus, ramo altero in speciebus 
nonnullis in florem nnum reducto ; inteFdom flores dichajaio contracto 
capitolom formantes, in speciebus perennibus multis, dichasii flores 
plerique abortivi, caulis uni-vel biflorus ; — ^rarissime inter Brnchypodas 
flores in racemo simplici paucifloro dispositi. 

A. Species perennes, inter Compactas paucas biennes vel annuae. 
a. Petala unguibus utrinque auriculatis. 

Series 1. AurundcUce, 

Species alpinse uni-vel ^bifloree, petalorum unguibus utrinque dente 
obtuso vel acuto auriculatis. 

A. Caules florigeri terminales. 

a. Folia subulata vel falcata, interdum pungentia. 
a. Calyx dentibus obtusis. 

t Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
S./alccUOj masmenceOy argcea^ meifUagefims^ rhyncocarpoy steiUoria, 

t Calyx evenius. 
S. trctgctcarUha. 

/3. Calyx dentibus acutis, striis anastomosantibus. 
S, EchinuSy sitbtUcUa, pindicola, 

y. Calyx dentibus altematim acutis et retusis, striis apice 
anastomosantibus 
S, xylohans. 

b. Folia mutica, recta, hand falcata. 

a. Calyx dentibus obtusis, striis latis rubris supeme anas- 
tomosantibus. 
8. diarUhifoliOy OrphanidiSy Sargenti, humilisy tachiemisy Orayiy 
Watsoniy Suksdorfit, 

/3l Calyx dentibus acutis. 

t Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
S, commelirUfoltay SMumbergeri, Moorcrofiianay persioa, 

tt Calyx evenius. 
S. hremoaulis. 

B. Caules florigeri e foliorum roeuld. terminali lateraliter adscen- 

dentes. Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
S, Boryiy mdandrioidesy caucasica, vaUesia. 
b. Petala unguibus exauriculatis. 



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30 MK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Series 2. MacrarUkce. 

Species l-S-florse, floribus breviter raro loDge pedicellatis ; autflores 
in dichasio duplid, aut dichasii ramo altero abbreviato in foliomm 
axilliB geminati, calyce brevius pedicellati ; calyx elongato-clayatos. 
seu in speciebus paucis uni-vel biflorus, floribus longe pedicellatis, 
breviter clavatus. 

A. Caules e foliorom ro8ul4 terminali lateraliter edentes. 

S. pcUinotricka, Schafta, pygmoeai longitvhdoaa^ heterodonta, parvtUay 
ccespitom. 

B. Caules florigeri terminales. 

a. Capsula globosa carpophore ter quaterve superata. 
S. deprestOy PorterL 

b. Capsula carpophorum sequans vel plus minus superans. 
CL Calyx evenius. 

t Capsula carpophorum sequans. 
iS. sticctUerUa, Uhdeana, papiUifolia^ thymifolia^ microphylla^ bur- 
manica, cretacea, infidelittm, 

ft Capsula carpophorum bis quaterve supei^ans. 
S, argutOy msia/nicay graciUima, Schmuckeri, khanana, vagaru. 
0. Caljx striis anastomosantibus. 
t Calyx dentibus obtusis. 
S. oreophiloy Aucheriana, nurensii, capillipeSy Campanula^ Saxi- 
pragay Barheyana. 

ft Calyx dentibus altematim acutis et obtusis. 
S. fhiticuloiOy fUipes. 

f +t Calyx dentibus acutis. 
S, niuUtcauliSy mcuropodoy incurmfoliay acutifoliay fcstiday Maximo- 
vriczianay cordifoHoy lazica. 

Series 3. NamosUeiie. 

Species nanse uniflorse ; calyx campanulatus. 
S, acavlisy Baumgarteni. 

Series 4. Brachypodce, 

Species montanse caulibus strictis ; flores solitarii vel bini, longissime 
pedicellati, vel in dichasio simplici laxo ; calyx sub anthesi clavatus, 
fructifer oblongus; capsula carpophorum multies raro tantum bis 
superans. 

a. Caules florigeri e basi rosulss foliorum terminalis lateraliter 
edentes. 
S* grtsea, leptoclada. 



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ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 31 

b. Caules e folioram rosulse medio edei^tes (terminales). 

a. Flores solitarii vel bini, loDgissime pedicellatL 
S.flavesoensj motieranthojjlamintilafolia. 

^. Flores in dichatiio laxo quasi pseudoracemosi. 
S. thetsaJUmica^ macronychioy yememis^ japonica. 

Series 5. Brachyanthoe, 

Species montan» inflorescentift dichasiiformi valde compositA ; 
calyx vel obconicus vel breviter clavatus et turn hyalinos. 

a. Calyx obconicus. 

S. rupestriSf Memiesiiy cryptopetala, 

b. Calyx hyalinns, breviter clavatus basi truncatus. 
S. TcUannotm, macedonica^ Lerchenfddiana, 

Series 6. CompacUe, 

Species aimuse, biennes, vel perennes. Flores in dichasio plus minus 
denso contracto, capituliformi, brevissime pedicellati; calyx mem- 
branaceus glaber, nervis apice bifurcatim conjunctis ; petala Integra 
vel emarginata. 

8. Armeria, compacta^ Reuteriana, Asterias. 

B. Species annuae. 

a. Inflorescentise rami valde inaequales, altero in florem unuui 
reducto, ita ut flores in foliorum axillis geminati esse videantur ; 
interdum inflorescentia supeme scorpioidea. 

Series 7. Nicoeenses, 

a. Calyx fructif er apice contractus. 
8. ramosissima, ciiierea. 

b. Calyx fructifer apice non contractus. 
8. Kremeriy cirtenns, nicceensis, 

b. Flores in dichasio composito regulari, ramis asqualibus vel rai'o 
paullum insaqualibus. 

Series 8. Atocia. 

Calyx fructifer apice non contractus. Semina faciebus curvato- 
excurvata, vel subglobosa profunde umbilicata. 
a. Semina faciebus curvato-excnrvata. 

a. Semina dorso tuberculorum seriebus 3 ornato, plano- 
convexa medio leviter canaliculata. 
8, fusccUOy PseudO'Atocion, 

^. Semina dorso obtuse canaliculata. 
t Calyx evenius. 
8* divaricata, rubelloj Bergiaiuxy turbinataf segetalw. 



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S2 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

ft Calyx nervis anastomosantibus. 
S. argillosa, 

b. Semina subglobosa tuberculata profunde umbilicata. Calyx 
nervis anastomosantibiis. 
S. <egyptiaca, virescens, atocioides, mekinensts, delicatidoy insularis. 

Series 9. Rigidulce. 
Calyx fructifer apice non contractus. Semina faciebus plana. 

A. Semina dorso utrinque al& nndulat4 omato, canaliculata. 
S, nana, 

B. Semina dorso plana. 

a. Capsula carpophorum bis superans. 
S, Hussonu 

b. Capsula carpophorum asquans vel paullum superans. 
S. rigidulu, echinosperma, juncea, 

c. Capsula carpophoro bis terve superata. 
S. portengU. 

C. Semina dorso canaliculata, margine baud alata. 

a. Capsula carpophoro 3-4-plo superata. 
S, reticulata, 

b. Capsula carpophorum sequans. 
a. Filamenta villoso-ciliata. 

S, Kotschyi^ tntricata. 

p, Filamenta glabra. 
JS. canensis, irUegripetalay laconica, arenosa, linearis, 
c Capsula carpophorum 2-4-plo superans. 
a, Flores laterales calyce brevius pedicellati. 
JS. chastodonta^ striata, 

p, Flores laterales calyce longius pedicellati. 
t Petala e calyce exserta.. 
S, pinetorum^ sedoides, pentelica, HausshieclUii, 

tt Petala tota in calyce occulta sive nulla. 
8, inaperta. 

Series 10. Leiocalycinoe, 

Calyx fructifer apice contractus. Calyx glaber vel brevissime 
scabriusculus, vel raro glanduloso-puboscens. 
a. Calyx evenius. 
a. Calyx dentibus acutis. 
S, cretica, lingerie grandtfhra, 

/3. Calyx dentibus obtusis. 
JS, antirrhVitay Icevigata^ Boissieri, 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 33 

b. Calyx nervis anastomosantibus. 
a. Calyx dentibus acutift. 
8. AlmolcBf MtuciptUOy Reinholdiy stricta, tenu\flora. 

p. Calyx dentibus obtosis. 
S. Beheriy Holzmanniy linioolay crassipes. 

Series 11. Lasiocalycince. 

Calyx fractifer apice contractas. Calyx evenius, valde costatos, 
«oet8e pilis longis vel squamis distinctis vestitse. 

a. Petala intei;^ vel emarginata. 
8, gonocalyxy pteroneura. 

b. Petala bilida vel bipartita. 

8, papifloiOy echinatOy iquamigeraf vesicultfera. 

Sectio iii. Botryosilene 

Herbie perennes suffrnticesve. Flores in racemo simplici vel 
<»mpo6ito, breviter vel longe pedicellati : racemi ranus aut brevibus 
paucifloris, ant elongatis itemm racemoeis vel cymulifens vel, omnibus 
cymarum intemodiis abbreviatis, verticillastriferis ; interdum axis 
primarise intra inflorescentiam flores intemodiis contractis capitnlum 
formantes ; cauUs raro abortu tri-vel uniflorus. 

A. Calyx glaberrimns coriaceos, cylindrico- vel conico-clavatus, 
saepe basi annulo circnlari pseudoumbilicatus. 

Series 1. 8clerocalycirw!, 

a. Pedicelli im& basi bibracteolati. 
8 Frvwaldshya/na, 

b. Pedicelli medium versus vel infra calycem bibracteolati. 
a. FUamenta glabra. 

t Flores erectL 

(1) Calyx dentibus omnibus acutis vel mucronatis. 

8. hupleuroideSy avramanoy caramanica, Rouyana, macroMoleriy 
tenuCcatUiSf megalocalyx, Parrovnana. 

(2) Calyx dentibus alternatim obtusis et acutis, albo- 

marginatis dliatis. 
a. Folia glabra. 
8. ddoroBfolia^ Umgijlora^ staticifolia^ coemreay laxa, peduncularisy 
cnntfUL 

0, Folia serrulato-scabra. 
8, derrulcUcu 

Lnnr. joubn. — botany, vol. xxxii. * d 



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34 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENE. 

(3) Caljx dentibos omnibus ovatis obtosis, albo- 
marginatis ciliatis. 
S. Balamce, 

tt Floree cemui. 

(1) Calyx dentibus omnibus acutis vel obtcuds. 
S. itruthiolaideif ManUsctdJiani, 

(2) Calyx dentibus altematim acutis et obtusis albo- 

marginatis. 
S. libanoHca. 

fi, Filamenta ciliata. 

t Flores erecti. 
S. radicoMy tunicoides, 

tt Flores cenmi. 
S. oligantha, 

R Calyx membranaceus, rarissime coriaceus simulque pubescens> 

basi truncatus vel umbilicatus. 

a. Flores in raoemis simplicibus, axis primarbe intemodiis nunquam 

abbreviatis, racemi ramis brevibus oppositis interdum altero abortivo^ 

alterius omnibus unifloris vel interdum inferioribus 3-7-floris et 

superioribus tantum unifloris. 

Series 2. Ckloranttioe. 

Pedicelli im& basi binis prophyllis pi-aKliti. Petala bipartita, raro 
retusa. 

A. Petala bipartita vel bifida. 

a. Capsula carpophorum 2-4-plo superaus ; calyx glaberrimus, 

raro glanduloso-pubescens. 
S. chloranthay tatarica^folioM^ tenuis^ Doufflasii^ Macounii, lychmdta^ 
Reichenbcuihiu 

b. Capsula carpophorum sequans. 
S. linifclifXy genUtifolia^ turgida, 

B. Petala retusa. 
S. scaposa. 

Series 3. SufrtUico9ce, 

Pedicelli medium versus seu apice binis prophyllis praMlitL Petala 
iutegra, bipartita vel rarius laciniatoH^uadripartita. 

A. Petala Integra vel bijmrtita. 
a. Capsula carpophoro superata. 
S. nodulosoj goniocaula. 



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MB. F. V. WILLIAMS ON THE QENUS SILENE. 85 

b. CapsoU carpophoram sdquans, rarissime eo sesqailongior. 

a. Calyx coriacens, petala ungoibns glabris. 

t Petala bipartita, unguibns aoriculatis. 
& m'iooalydncty ccuptoa^ hirticalyx, 

ft Petala linearia Integra. 
S. Uptopetala, 

/3. Calyx membranaceus. 
t Petala onguibos ciliatis. 
S. petrcBay lineata. 

ft Petala xmgaibas glabria 
S, Montbretiana^ hrahuica^ UrviUei. 

c. Capsula carpophoram bis terve saperans, vel subseBsilb. 
a. Folia pungentia ; semina dorso faciebusque plana. 

/3. Folia matica ; semina dorso canaliculata, f aciebos plana, 
t Calyx glaberrimos. 
S. UthophUa^ tenella, 

ft Calyx pubesoena 

(1) Ungaes et filamenta glabra. 
S. oanarienuisy nocteolem, 

(2) Ungaes et filamenta ciliata. 
8. stenobotfysy Semenavii. 

R Petala laciniato-qaadripartita. 
S. odoratunma. 

b. Flores in racemo simplici vel composito verticillastrifero, aut^ 
axis primariflB intemodiis intra inflorescentiam abbreviatis, capitalum 
formantes ; (rarissime racemos non contractus paacifiorus, sed tnm 
calyx brevis obconicas et ungues ciliati). 

Series 4. Capitdlatce, 

Flores in racemo simplici, axis primaiise intemodiis abbreviatis, 
contracto capituliformi, rarissime in racemo paucifloro non contracto ; 
caJyx brevis turbinatus vel oblongo-campanulatus, evenius ; ungues 
ciliati. 

A. Petala unguibus auriculatio. 
8. ArisHdis, citrina. 

B. Petala anguibos edentulis. 

a. Petala bipartita. 
t Filamenta glabra. 
8. phamMceifolict, cephcdarUha^ dianthoides, 

D 2 



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36 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THK GENUS SILENE. 

ft Filamenta ciliata. 

fi. Petala Integra lineari-spathulata. 
S, capiteUata. 

Series 6. Otitece, 

Flores in racemis simplicibus vel compositis verticillastriferis ; 
pedicelli im& basi binia prophyllis praMliti. 

A. Petala Integra raro leviter emai^ginata, ecoronata. 

a. Capeula seasilis. 
S. Smdtneriy (kites, 

b. Capsula carpophomm bis-qnater superans vel fere aequans. 
S. andtyaUrfolia^ holopetaloy dbiricaf Falconeriana, Oebleriana, 

B. Petala bipartita. 

a. Gapsola carpophorom subsequans. 
S, mtUti/hra, cephalenicu 

b. Capsula carpophorom 3-4-plo excedens. 
S. gigantea^ congesta^ Bridgesiy tfunnanerms. 

Series 6. Spergvlifolics, 

Flores in racemis simplidbns compositisve, vertidllastra plus minus 
densa interdum paudflora fereniibus ; pedicelli medio seu apice binis 
prophyllis prsediti. 

A. Petala multifida, lobis lateralibus brevibus. 
S. pachyrrhuay Olgce. 

R Petala bipartita vel bifida. 

a. Capsula carpophomm sequans vel fere bis superans. 
8, repens, spergtUifolia, BommueUeri^ mpina, 

b. Capsula subsessilis ; flores dioici. 
S. pruinosoj brachycarpa, cappadodca, 

c. Flores in racemo composite, ramis racemosis sive dichasia 
composita ferentibus, aut in raoemo simplid ramis strictis uni-vel 
paucifloris elongatis ; (rarissime in formis alpinis caulis uni-vel 
paudflorus). 

Series 7. Lasimttmon$$, 

Flores erecti vel nutantes. Petalorum ungues et filamenta lanu- 
ginoso-ciliata. 

a. Petala uuguibus exauriculatis. 
S. afghanicoy pvbenda^ Niederi^ longipetala, ku7iawareim$. 



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MK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GSKUS SitENE. 87 

b. Petala unguibus aoriculatiB ; flores nutantes. 
a. Ungues dente obtnso auriculatL 
S. Marschallty saxoHlis, apricOf Pringlei. 

fi. Ungues dente acuto auriculati. 
S. Scatderi. 

Series 8. NutarUes. 

Flores nutantes. Petalomm ungues et filamenta glabra. 

a. Calyx basi sensim in pedolum attenuatus. 
S. UucophyllOy amcma^ virid\flora, 

b. Calyx tnmcatos basi umbUicatus. 
a. Petala unguibus exauriculatis. 

S. meUifa^ OcUholica^ mvea, stdlata^ nutans^ langicUta^ vduHnoides. 

^. Petala ungruibus auriculatis. 
S. otodoTUa^ SpcUdingitj OdUxtcsa, 

Series 9. ItaZxooe, 
Flores erectL Ungues glabri vel dliatuli, filamenta glabra. 

A. Ungues ciliatulL 
8. splendeTis^ itaHcOy paeudo-nutanSy nemorcdis^ ipinMoens, TamdkcBy 
SUheri. 

R Ungues glabri. 

a. Capsula carpophore sesqui-vel du][>lo brevier. 
8, Schvxxrzenbergeriy Femlxiy Forttmei, 

b. Capeula carpophorum bis terve superans. 
a. Petala multifida. 

8. ovatcL 

^. Petala bifida. 
8, nevcuknais, rhodopea^ 8horpU% Behriiy Luisana^ pecHnatay LyaUiiy 
phrygictj eremUioa. 

y, Petala integra. 
8. lanceolcUOy Alexandri. 

c Ciqpsula carpophorum asquans, vel eo sesqui-longior. 

a. Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
8, paueifloray 8<dzmanniyJrtUtcosay rostUcUOy mollinma, 

/9L Calyx evenius. 
8, gibraUaricay hifacensisy paradoxa. 



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38 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THB GENUS 8ILENE. 

Subgenus!. GASTROSILENB. 

Galjx 10-yel 20-nerviu8, nervis retioulato-yenosis, yesicarie 
inflatus et post anthesin semper ampliatus, fructifer a capsule 
remotus. Species perennes. 

I. Petala, onguibus supeme dilatatis yel auriculatis, bifida 
rarius emarginata yel subintegra. 

A. Calyx lO-nervius. 
a. Folia subulata pungentia. 

1. SiLBNB PONGBNS, BoiBs.y Dtogn. PL Nov. Or.y Ser. I. i. p. 32 ; 
Mohrh.^ Manogr.y p. 77. 

Hah. Turkish Armenia ; Mt. Oljmpns, and Mt. Tech-Dagb, 
near Erzeroum; also near Erzinghan, westward of Erzeroum 
(Stntenisy It. Orientale, 1889). 

b. Folia mutica. 

•a. Caules florigeri e basi rosulsB foliorum terminalis lateraliter 

edentes. 

2. S. ODONWPETiLA, Fenzl, PugiU. PI, p. 9, n. 28 (1842) ; 
Mohrb.f Monogr., p. 78. 

a. GBNUINA, Bohrb,, l.C. 

Caules humiles, interdum foliorum rosnlam yix ezcedentee, 
cum calyce glanduloso-pubescentes. Folia lanceolata yel lineari- 
lanceolata acuminata scabrida yel glandulosa. Flores pauci 
interdum solitarii. 

/8. CBRA8TIIP0LIA, Boiss., Fl. Orient.^ i. p. 626. 

7. LATIFOLU, Boi8S.y l.C. 

8yn. S. phjsocaljz, Ledeh., Fl. Boss.^ i. p. 321. 
S. odontopetala var. phjsocalyz, Bohrh. 

d. CONGESTA, Boies.^ l.C. 

Syn. S. Sinaioa, Boiss., Biagn. PL Nov. Or.^ Ser. L i. p. 25. 
S. odontopetala var. sinaica, Bohrh. 
S. Baddeana, Trautv. in Act. Hort. Petrop., ii. (1873) 
p. 472. 
Oeogr. Umtts. — N. The Western Caucasus (^var. 7). 

8. St. Catherine's Peak, on Mt. Sinai (var. 2). 
E. Mt. Elburz, in N. Persia (var. 7). 
W. Mt. Ak-Dagh, in Anatolia (var. P). 



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MB. F. N. WILLLAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 39 

3. SiLENE EUBANENSis, Somm. et Lev, in AcU Hort. Petrop., 
xui. (1893) p. 37. 

Caules ciBspitosi glanduloso-pubescentes infeme glabriosculi 
numerosi foliosi adscendentes, ploa minus laxe ramoso-racemoei 
rarios lUiiflori, yirescentes, basi vaginis foliomm induratis 
persistentibns sope denae obeiti. Folia nnineryia acuta apicu- 
lata, radicalia et rosalamm sterilium lanceolata oblonga vel 
flubspatholata in petiolum attenuata, caulina angustiora acutiora ; 
bracteo submembranaceae glanduloso-pubescentes; inferiores 
lanceolatsB acutao, superiores ovato-oblongfld obtusao. Flores 
plerumque breviter pedioellati. Calyx a basi parum dilatatus 
cylindricus vel elongate obconicus subumbilicatus glanduloso- 
pubescens membranaceus pallide virens vel dilute purpurascens, 
deutibos ovatis obtusissimis margine hyalinis ciliatis. Petala 
supra albida, subtus Tirescenti-liTida, ultra medium bipartita, 
lobis linearibus obtusis, appendicibus brevibus semi-orbicu- 
laribus, unguibus glabris yel soperne ciliatis. Filamenta glabra. 
Capsula ovata yel elliptioo-oblonga, carpophoro dense retrorsum 
hispido plerumque sesquilongior. Semina fusco-grisea reni- 
formia granulata, faciebus plana, dorso canaliculata. 

A 8. odontopetala differt, colore viridi, indumento minus dense, 
caulibus Bsspe a basi ramosis, et praesertim caljce longiore 
dentibus rotundatis. 

Hah, In the mountainous district of Kuban, in the Western 
Caucasus, proy. of Cis-Caucasia. 

4. S. SUBUNIFLOBA, 8omm. et Lev. in Act Hort. Petrop,, xiii. 
(1893) p. 39. 

Caules CflBspitosi glanduloso - pubescentes, basi interdum 
glabriosculi supeme parce foliati adsoendentes, uniflori rarius 
biflorL Folia unineryia glanduloso-ciliata, radicalia et rosa- 
lamm sterilium anguste lanceolata acuta rarius spatbolata et 
apice rotundata, caulina angusta lanceolato-linearia yel linearia 
fere subulata; braote» membranace» nunc lineari-lanceolatae, 
nunc oyat» acuto. Flores nutantes, pedunculis brevibus. 
Calyx in alabastro late cylindricus, in flore eyoluto oboyato- 
campanulatus, subumbilicatus glanduloso-pubescens, membrana- 
ceos purpurascens, striis yiridi - livescentibas yel saturate 
purpureis, dentibus obtusis membranaceis. Petala liyida ultra 
medium bipartita, lobis divaricatis rotundatis, appendicibus 
oblongis yel lineari-oblongis, unguibus glabris yel soperne 



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40 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS OX THE QKNUS SILENI. 

ciliatis. Filamenta glabra. Gapsula ovata vel ell]ptic(M>blonga, 
carpophoro doDse retrorsum hispido plemmque sesquilongior. 
Semina faciebus plana, dorso canalicnlata. 

A preDcedenti Talde disorepat, caule scapiformi (nnnquam 
ramoso) eir paroe foHoso, caljoe saturatias colorato latiore^ 
fonn& petalorum, appendicibas duplo longioribus. 8. ciUata^ 
en jus Bpecimina pauciflora quoad habitum nostris simillima^ 
recedit defectu glandalaram, caule rarius unifloro, caljce 
angustiore basi attenuate non umbilicato. 

Hah. In the mountainous district of Kuban, in the Western 
Caucasus, prov. of Cis-Caucasia. 

5. SiLKNE Brotherana, Somm,, et Lev, in Act, Hort, Petrop,, xiii. 
(1893) p. 36. 

Caules basi suffrutescentes retrorsum tomentelli grisei 
numerosi adscendentes, axillis fasciculiferis. Folia breviter 
lanceolato-linearia mucronulata recurva apicem versus latiora, 
basi prassertim cib'ata ceterum glabrescentia ; bracte» foliaceiB 
latiuscul» OYat» acuminata. CjmulaB 3-6-flor8B pedunculatee, 
plurimn opposite, in racemum interraptum disposit® vel apice 
caulis suboapitatee. Calyx cjlindrico-conicus glandnloso-hirsutua 
umbilicatus, fructifer 07atus basi vix angustatas nenris valde 
prominentibus costatus, dentibus ovatis obtusis apice ciliatis 
conniventibus. Petala alba bipartita, unguibus ezsertis glabria, 
iobis linearibus, appendicibus binis brevibus ovatis obtusis. 
Filamenta glabra. Capsala ovato-conica sub lente corrugata, 
carpophorum retrorsum pubescens aequans. Semina reniformia^ 
f usca, obtuse tuberculata, f aciebus plana, dorso canaliculata. 

Charaoteribus, S.spergulifoliam et 8,pru%no8am, Boiss., revocat, 
primo intuitu autem dignoscitur caljce ampliato et evidenter 
a capsulU remoto, ergo inter species subgeneris EusUene 
(sectionis Botryosilene) enumerari non possit. A 8, sperguUfoUa 
iusnper differt, foliis latioribus et brevioribus, capsul& paryft ; 
a 8, hrachycarpa, Boiss. et Bal., pr»fcerea capsule non abrupte 
conico-rostrati, carpophoro tenui magis elongato. 

8yn, S. spergulifolia (non Bieb,) in Brothertu, ezsicc. (1881)^ 
n. 138 bis. 

Hab. In the mountainous district of Azchur, in the Western 
Caucasus, prov. of Cis-Caucasia. 

6. S. CANDICANS, Oel(ik. in Oestei-r. Bot. Zeitschr, (1876)> 
p. 321 Boies,, Fl, Orient., suppL, p. 100. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENI. 41 

Ganles cesspitosi eglanduloso-pubescentes, erecti yel suberecti,. 
simplices, parce foliosi, 1&-21 centim. longi, basi foliolis parvis 
in squamas vergentibus densioribas cincti. Folia rosularam 
sterilinm obovato-spathnlata acuminata in petiolum longnm 
attenuata, caulina spathulato-oblonga longius acniniData, dense 
pubescenti-tomentella canescentia ; bracteee et propb jUa oVat8& 
acntee candicantes. Inflorescentia cymosa 7-10-flora, cymis 
trifloris in snmmo canlis approximatis confertis, yel cym& 
infimll triflor& axillari remot&; flores breviter pedicellati. 
Calyx campanulatns, albidns vel livide sabcoloratns, molliter 
tomentosus, dentibns late triangularibns acnminatis. Petala 
alba, nngnibus ntrinquo obtnsiuscnle anricnlatis glabris ; lamina 
oblonga bifida bigibbosa lobis lineaid-oblongis. Capsala snb- 
globosa, oarpopbomm fere feqnans. Semina dorse tuberculato 
conyexa. 

Hob. Syria ; Zebdaine, near Damaacns. 

7. SiLENE ARAXINA, Trautv. in Act Hort Petrop,, iii. -p&rs lu 
(1875) p. 278; Boiss., Fl, Orient, suppL, p. 101. 

Canles siye rami florigeri nnmerosi glandulosi foliosi, 30 
centim. longi. Folia glandnlosa nnineryia, radicalia angoste 
oblonga in petiolnm attennata, canlina majora late oblonga, 
bracteae et propbylla oyato-lanceolat». Cyma dicbotoma multi- 
flora floribus coarctatis. Calyx albidus glandnloso-pubescens, 
fructifer subclayatns, dentibus oyatis acnminatis. Petala 
albida, unguibus utrinque obtusiuscule auriculatis, lamin& 
bilobll, appendicibus obtusis. Capsula carpopboro yix iongion 
Semina dorso canalicnlata bicarinata minute tuberoulata, 
faciebufi plana leyia. 

Hah, Turkish Armenia ; along the B. Aras, in the district 
of £rzeroum. 

8. S. Akinfijewi, Schmalhj Neue Pfl. aus Kaukasus, in Ber. 
Deutsch, Bot. Oesellsch. (1892), p. 286. 

Caules humiles glanduloso-pubescentes. Folia oyata acuta; 
bracte» herbace». Inflorescentia terminalis cymosa, cymis 
2-4i-floriB; pedicelli calyci aequilong^ yel duplo longiores. 
Calyx albidus oblongus, dentibus triangulari-oblougis obtusis. 
Petala alba bifida ecoronata. Capsula carpophorum ter superans. 

A 8. odontopetcdd differt foliis multo latioribus, pedicellis 
longioribus, dentibus calycinis obtusiusculis. 

Hab. In the Centl*al Caucasus, on tbe Harvos glacier. 



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42 MR. F. K. WILLIAMS ON THE GSNUS SILENE. 

)9. Caules florigeri e folioram rosnlss medio edentes (Bive folia 

non rosnlata). 

t Calyx snb anthesi ore aperfco. 

(1) Petala uDgQibus ciliatis. 

9. SiLBNB NUBIGENA, Phil, in And, Univ. Chil. (1862), ii. 
p. 378 ; Rohrh,^ Monogr,^ p. 80. 

Bah. Chile. 

10. S. PLUTONTCA, Naudiny in C, Oay, Ft Chily i. p. 258; 
J?oAr6., Monogr.y p. 80. 

Hah. Chile. 

In the specimens in Horb. Kew., the leaves are l-nerved, the stems 
appear to be uniflonl, and the capsule is scarcely three times as long as the 
•carpophore. 

(2) Petala unguibus glabris. 

11. S. Fabaru, Sihth. et 8m., Fl. Grceae Prodr., i. p. 293; Fl. 
Orceca^ v. t. 415. 

Geogr. limits, — N. Near Odessa, in prov. Kherson. 

8. Island of Samoa, in the Turkish Archipelago. 

E, Ohemlek, in prov. Siwas. 

W. Island of Cephalonia, Ionian Isles. 

12. S. MONANTHA, 8, Wats. in Proc Am^r, Acad.^ x. (1875) 
p. 340 ; B. L, Eohinson, Lc, xxviii. (1893) p. 145 (S. Donglasii 
var. monantha). 

Ganlis tennis laxe assui^ens ramosus glaber. Folia anguste 
oblanceolata longe acuminata basi breviter ciliata. Flores 
Bolitarii longe pednncnlati erecti. Calyx campannlatus pube- 
mlos soperne reticuloso-yenosus, dentibns triangnlaribus 
acntinscnlis albo-marginatis snbciliatis. Petala alba yel pallide 
rosea, nngnibns anguste auriculatis longe exsertis, bifida 
lobis late ovatis, appendicibus lanceolatis integris dimidiam 
laminam SBquantibus. Filamenta glabra. Capsnla oblonga 
longe stipitata. 

Geogr. limits. — W. United States. 

N, and W, — Castle Bock, Cascade Mountains, 

Washington Tenitory. 
8, Webber Lake, California {Lemmofi, ex Proc. 

Amer. Acad., xxviii. [1898] p. 145). 
E, N. Utah (Parry^ ex Proc. Amer. Acad., 
xxviii. [1893] p. 145). 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8TLENB. 43 

13. SiLENB MONGOLICA, M<ixim., Enum, PL Mongol,, p. 88, t. 13 
<1889). 

Caules caaspitosi basi sofimticosi griseo-virides minute 
pubemlo-scabri. Folia cartilagineo-apicnlata, inferiora con- 
ferta basi attennata lineari-lanceolata obfuRiascola, cetera 
linearia mncronata. Flores snb anthesi vix cemoiy postea 
striete erecti in dichasio 1-2-rarinB 3-floro dispositi, pedicellis 
qnam calyx longioribus. Calyx inflaix>-cylindTicus, frnctifer 
late clavatns, nmbilicatnB, dentibns subcordatis late hyalino- 
inarginatis. Petala angasta emarginata, nngaibns exsertis, 
:appendicibns binis ovoideis. Capsula ellipsoidea carpophoram 
bis snperans. Semina tnberealata, dorso plano-conyexa, 
faciebns concavinscnla. 

flofc.— Northern Gobi ; Mt. Tosta (1886). 

A species anomalous in habit, perhaps a connecting link between this and 
the next subgenus. 

14. S. KUMAONENSIS, sp, nOV. 

Ganles adscendentes ramosi hirtello-pubescentes. Folia acn- 
minata, inferiora lineari-lanceolata, caalina lanceolata, bracteas 
foliis conformes. Flores in canle distantes, laxe snbdichotomi, 
longe pedancnlati. Calyx membranacens ovato-caropannlatns 
nmbilicatns scabrido-pnberalns, dentibns lanceolatis acntis cilio- 
latis. Petala viridnla angasta bifida, lobis oblongo-linearibus. 
Oapsnla ovata carpophomm glabnun ter qnaterve superans. 
Semina seriatim tnberculata, dorso lato convexa, faciebns 
«xcavata. (Herb, KeWy coll. J. F. Dnthie, n. 5366.) 

Hob. Dhanli Valley, Kumaon (1886). 

15. S. THEBANA, Orph. in BoUs,, Fl, Orient, i. p. 627 ; Bohrb., 
Monogr,, p. 81. 

A 8, Fabarid diversa foliis dissitis, petalis ob coronam 
■amplam yelnti 4-partitis. 

Hab, Near Thebes (Thivee), in Greece. 

16. S. FABABIOIDES, Haussk, in Mittkeil, Thiiring, BoU Ver,, 
Heft V. (1893) p. 47. 

Caules arcoato-adscendentes glauccscentes glabri. Folia 
-oamosnla glaucescentia basi breviter connata glabra oblongo- 
lanceolata basin versus subangastata, superiora minora elliptico- 
lanoeolata acuta. Cym® ramis iu»qualibus dichotomse : flores 
4snbcemui laxe racemosi, alares longioscule pedunculati. Bracte® 



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44 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

lanceolatae acutss membranacece. Calyx glaber ovoideo-mflatas 
nmbilicatas, nervis Tiridibas vel erabescentibns, dentibas late 
triangularibns acatis. Petala alba bipartita, lobis spathnlatis^ 
appendicibus bifid ih. Capsala ovoidea carpophoram ter quaterve 
Buperans. Semina tubercalato-mgosa. 

S. FaharicB affinis, qam planta maritima snrculis sterilibas 
dense foliosiS; canlibns minns dichotome-ramosis, foliis in- 
ferioribuB obovatis mneronatis crassioribas marginibns ezas- 
peratis, caljce minus inflate breviore et vix venaloso, differt ; 
a 8. thehana vix diversa. 

Hah, The peak of Zygos, in Grreece, Haussknecht (1885). 

17. SiLENE C^siA, Sibth. et Sm., Fl. Orcecce Prodr., i. p. 294; 
Fl OrcEca, v. p. 12, t. 417 ; Bohrb,, Monogr., p. 82. 

Oeogr. limits, — N. and W. Mt. Velngo, in Livadia. 
S, Mt. Ghelmos, in Morea. 
E. Island of Khio, in the Tarkish Archipelago. 

18. S. VABiEGATA, Boiss. et Heldr,, Biagn, Fl, Nov. Or,^ Ser. I. 
viii. p. 82 ; Besf,, Cor, Toum., p. 74, t. 66 (Lychnis) ; Eohrh,^ 
Monogr,y p. 82. 

A pr89cedenti distincta canlibns ad scapes pnmilos rednctis, 
floribns majoribns, petalomm lobis latioribns. 

Oeogr. limits, — N. Mt. Famassas, in Livadia. S. Crete. 

tt Calyx sub anthesi ore contracto. 

19. S. AMPULLATA, Boiss,, Diogti, PL Nov, Or,^ Ser. I. i. p. 26 ;, 
Bohrb,, Monogr,^ p. 82. 

Hob. Turkish Kurdistan. 

B. Calyx 20-nerviu8. 
a. Petala apice subintegra. 

20. S. PKOCUMBENS, MuTT, in Oomm. Ootting,^ vii. (1784) p. 83,. 
t. 2 ; Bohrb,, Monogr,, p. 83. 

Adde : Folia lanceolata acuminata subtrinervia, nervo mediano 
prominente, nervis lateralibus inconspicnis incompletis. 

fi, OCHOTENSIS, Wright, in Herb, U.S, North Pacific Explor. 
Exped, (ined.), 

Caules plus minus caespitoso-adscendentes pubescenti-scabri. 
Folia scabra trinervia, nervis conformibus. Calyx campanu* 
latus, dentibus ovato-rotundis. 



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MK. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE QENUS SILENB. 45 

In all the speounens I haye examined at Herb. Kew. and Herb. Mas. 
Biit.y the leayes are acuminate and lanceolate rather than oblong-lanceolate, 
«• stated by Bohrbach, and the midrib is prominent, and the two lateral 
nervee yery faint: in the yariety the three nerves are distinct, and the 
midrib is not more prominent than the lateral nerres. 

Oeogr, limits, — N. Along the B. Irtysch, near Semipalaiinsk, 

Siberia. 
8, Desert of Sonngaria, Central Asia. 
E. Coast of Okhotzk, Siberia (var. p), 
W, Banks of the R. Moskwa, in Central 

Russia {ClerCy ex Nym., Consp. FL Eur., 

suppL, ii. p. 51). 

21. SiLBNB PuMiLio, Wulf. in Jocq. Fl. Austr., v. -4pp., p. 26, 
t. 2 (1778) ; Linn,, Mant PZ., i. (1767), p. 71 (Cncubalus) ; 
Tanfani, in Pari, Fl, Italidna, is. p. 327 (Saponaria). 

Canles csBspitosi simplices triarticnlati glabri. Folia cam 
bracteis linearia obtnsa ciliata, basin versus attenuata. Flores 
solitarii graoiliter pedicellati. Calyx oblongo-campanalatns 
nmbilicatns, pnbescens pilis patentibns mollibas longis, eglan- 
dolosas, raembranaceos, viridis totus et viridi violacens, fmctifer 
ellipsoideas ore late apertus 18-22 mm. longns; tenoissime 
reticaloso-venosns, nervis tennibus commissaralibos subobso- 
letis ; lobis ovatis obtnsis rotnndatis ciliolatis. Petala indivisa, 
nngnibos inclasis, appendicibas setaceis. Capsnla ovato- 
cylindrica snbsessilis carpophoro glaberrimo. Semina dorso 
obtuse canaliculata, faciebus plana marginata, levia. 

This plant has been shifted about from one genas to another, chiefly on 
account of the presumed absence of commissural neryes. It would be yery 
inconyenient to include it in Saponaria owing to its S-styled oyary. 
The neryation of the calyx is at best yery faint and indistinct, but the 
rudiments of commissural neryes at the base, especially on the inner 
surface, is clearly demonstrable, and quite as apparent as the interlacing of 
the indiyidual nerres. Taking into consideration its general habit and 
other characters, it is therefore reasonable to refer the species to the genus 
in which it was placed by Wulfen. The species is usually included in the 
principal Italian floras, but all the localities given are now in Austrian 
territory. 

8yn. S. pumila, St. Lag. in Ann. 8oc, Bot. Lyon, vii. (1880) 
p. 135. 

Oeogr. limits, — N, Moravia. E, Transylvania. 

8, Camiola. W, Tyrol. 



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46 MK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OEKUS SILENE. 

b. Petala bifida vel bipartita. 

22. SiLBNE Thorei, Buf. in Ann. 8ci. Nat, S6t. I. v. (1825), 
p. 84; EeiM.j le. Fl. Germ. Helv., n. 5120 (S. inflata var, 
glanca) ; Eohrb., Monogr., p. 83. 

Adde : Planta csespitosa glanca, floribos sub anthesi eemtiis. 
Petala bicallosa (appendicibas non instrncta). 

Oeogr. limits. — N, Depart, of Basses- Pji^n^es, on the coast 
between Bajonne and Biarritz. 
8. and E. Catalonia (Vayreda, ex Nym., Consp^ 

Fl. Eur., 8wppl., ii. p. 51). 
IT. San Sebastian, in prov. of Biscay (Lange^ 
in Prodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 670). 

23. S. MARiTiMA, With,, Bot. Arr. Brit. PI, ed. III. ii. p. 414 
(1796); 8ym^, Engl Botany, ed. III. ii. p. 57, t. 200; Fohrb., 
Monogr,, p. 84. 

Adde syn. S. Bastardi, Bor. in Bull Soc. Dauph. (1888), p. 64. 
S. amoena, Hill, Veg, Syst,, xiii. p. 55. 
— forma aDgostifolia. 

Syn. S. stenophylla. Plan., Fl Gall, p. 121. 

S. maritima var. angustifolia^ /. Gay, Herb, in Herb. 
Kew. 

ft. MONTANA, Arrand. (sp.) in Bull. 8oc. Polym. du Morbihan 
(1863). 
Folia angnstiora. Semina minora, aliter inscnlpta. 

The Icelandic specimens collected bj Mr. Backhoase in 1885 are more 
stunted, and the base of the stems more woody : thej differ in this respect 
from Mr. Babington's more typical specimens collected in 1846. 

Geogr. limits. — N. and E. Kola Peninsnla, in Lapland {ex 
Nym. Consp. Fl. Eur,, suppl, ii. p. 51). 
S. Morocco. 
W. Iceland ; along the coast. 

24. S. GLAREOSA, Jord., Pugill PI Nov. in Mem. Acad. Nat. 
Lyon (1851), p. 242 ; Willk., Ic. Deser. PI Bar. Hisp., i. p. 38, 
t. 22 ; Willk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 668 (S. inflata 
var. glareosa). 

Canles ccespitosi laxe adscendentes pnmili glabri snpeme 
ramosi tortnosi. Folia glancescentia basi attennata, radicalia 
oblonga fere spathnlata tamen acnta, snperiora ramealia 
anguste lanceolata ; bractesB scariosaa. CjmeB dichotomsB ramis 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GEXtJS SILBNE. 47 

inseqoalibns paucifloris. Calyx oyato-ellipticns nmbilicatas^ 
dentibiLR late triangularibiis obtasiusciilis. Petala alba bifida, 
appendicibas bilobis. Capsula ovato-globosa carpophomm 
ter superans. Semina rotnndata tabercalatomTiricata, dorso 
conyeza, faciebns plana. 

A S. inflaid differt prsBsertim iiiflore8centi& seriore, calyce 
minus inflate, petalis coronatis, canlibos hamilioribas magis 
diffnsis, foliis angnstioribus glancescentibns. 

Oeogr. limits, — N, and E. Depart, of Bli6ne ; near Lyons. 
8. Gadaqnes, in prov. Catalonia. 
W, Bielsa, in prov. Aragon. 

25. SiLENE INFLATA, Swith, Fl, Brit, p. 467 (1800) ; Syme, 
Engl, Botany, ed. III. ii. p. 56, t. 199 ; Bohrh.y Monogr,, p. 84 
(S. Cncubalas). 

Adde syn, S. amoena, Huds,, Fl, Anglica, ed. I. p. 164; 
S. crispata, Stev, ; S. Cserei, Schur (non Baumg.) ; S. Ante- 
lopnm, Steud,, Nom, Bot., ed. II. i. p. 450 ; S. sersnensis, Pomel, 
Nouv, Mat. Fl, AUant,, p. 209 ; S. vulgaris, Garcke, FL Nord, 
Mitt, DeutscM., ed. IX. p. 64 (1869). 

j3. ciLUTA, Lange, in Kjoeh. Vidensk, Meddel, 1865 (1866), 
p. Ill (Pugill, PZ., p. 306) ; WiUk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp., 
iii. p. 668. 

Folia ntrinqne pnberola, margine aspero-ciliata, inferiora 
eUiptico-ovata. Petala rosea, calyce pamm longiora. 

Syn. S. puberula, Jord, in Bor, Fl, Gent, France, ed. lU. 
ii. p. 94. 

7. ALPiNA, Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 87 ; S. alpina, Thomas, Gat. 
(1837), p. 45 ; Willk., Ic, Descr. PI, Bar. Hisp., i, p. 38, t. 23. 
Adde syn. S. brachyantha, Schur (non Schott). 
Ex syn. 8. glareosa, est species propria. 

To substitute for tbis old-establisbed name of tbe plant tbat of S, Cueu- 
halu9 is not only indefensible, but inaccurate. Bobrbacb, in his monograpli, 
selected Wibel's name for the species, but as the specific name is that of a 
neighbouring genus, it is hardly admissible, as well as pedantic ; even if it 
were otherwise suitable, a still older name (by three years) is " Cucubalus 
inflatus, Salisb." (* Prodr. Stirp./ p. 802), published in 1796, which name 
Smith retained in transferring the species to Silene. With respect to 
Bohrbaoh's change of name, the following note by the late Mr. Ball 
(* Joum. Linn. Soc.,* xri. 1877, p. 366), is much to the point : — ** Nomen 
triyiale ab omnibus fere botanicis receptum cl. Bohrbach infauste mutavit. 
Si solo antiquitatis jure iegamur, Silene vulgaris erit. Komen *Behen 
Tolgaris' (in Moench, Method,), est enim Wibeliano pluribus annis 



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48 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THB GENUS SILENE. 

antiquinB." Where a correct and suitable name has thus been in general 
circulation for nearly 70 years, nothing is to be gained by substituting for 
it an obscure and unsuitable name which happens to occur in an almost 
forgotten flora published less than a year before. The citation as giyen in 
Bohrbaoh's synonymy of the species is erroneous, being the page of the 
* English Flora ' (1824), instead of the correct one of the ' Flora Britannica * 
(1800). 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and E, Siberia. 
8, Hindostan. 

W. Ireland; county of Kerry (Moore^ Cybele 
Hibemica). 

26. SiLENE COMMUTATA, Gu88,, FL Siculce Prodv., i. p. 499 
(1827), et FL Siculce Syn,, i. p. 485; Ousin et Awib.y Herb. Fl 
Frang,, iv. (1869), t. 554 ; Eohrh., Monogr,, p. 86 (S. Cucubalus 
var. commntata). 

Ganles ascendentes, simplices vel e basi ramosi, robusti, 
glabri. Folia glauca glabra, inferiora ovata interdam cilia ta, 
intermedia subcordato-ovata, snperiora elliptica vel ovato- 
lanceolata, omnia longe mncronata margine cartilaginea ; 
bracteaB herbaceas foliis conformes minores, prophylla scariosa. 
Flores, etiam alares, longe pedicellati, sub anthesi nutantes, 
in cymam corymbosam dispositi. Calyx ovoideus umbilicatus, 
dentibuB ovato-triangularibus obtusis. Petala alba, unguibus 
supeme dilatatis subexsertis, laming obovat^ bilob&, lobis 
oblongo-linearibus, coroni ad duo tnbercula rednct^. Capsula 
ovoideo-globosa carpophorum tor superans. Semina granulatai 
dorso faciebusque plano-snbconvexa. 

A 8. inflatd differt foliis latioribns basi ssepe coidatis, calyce 
minus globoso, seminibus granulatis. 

/3. LONOIPOLIA, Willk, et Lange, Frodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. (1878) 
p. 669. 

Folia omnia basi attenuata lanceolato-linearia longe acutata, 
superiora e basi rotundata longe acuminata. Flores magni. 
Oeogr. Umits.-^N. Corsica (Pouzolx, ex Oren. et Godr., Fl. de 
France, i. p. 202). 
8. Cyprus (Kotschy, ex Boiss.^ Fl. Orient. , i> 

p. 629). 
E. Near Elizabethpol, in Trans - Caucasia 
(HoJienackerj ex Ledeh., Fl. Bossica, i. 
p. 305). 
W. (Hbraltar (Willk. et Lange, Frodr. Fl. 
Bisp.y iii. p. 669). 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GKNUS SILENE. 4A^ 

27. SiLKNB CsBREi, jBautit^., Enum. TranssUv,, p. 345 (1816) ; 
Lindm. in Act. Hort, Bergian,, i. (1891) n. 6. p. 14, f. 34) 
(sphahnate, " S. Fabaria ")• 

Canles flexuosi glabri. Folia oordato-Ianceolata in apicem 
attennata, mncronnlata, glabra, camosula; bracte® et prophylla 
lanceolatoB albo-membranacead. Cjma semel dichotoma, ramis 
longissimis flexnosis ob ramnlnm altemm dichotomisB in vicem 
abbreviatam racemoso-cjmaliferis ; flores snbnatantes caljce 
longing pedicellati. Calyx angnste campanalatos in petiolnm 
attennatns glancescens, dentibos triangalari-ovatis obtnsis albo- 
marginatis apice lanaginosis, f rnctifer e basi breviter turbinate 
ampliato-ovatns apice leviter contractus. Petala alba bipartita 
eooronata, lobis lineari-caneatis emarginatis. Capsola ovata 
carpophomm 5-6-pIo snperans. Semina seriatim tnbercnlata, 
dorso plano-convexa, faciebas subconcava. 

This species was wrongly sunk in 8, Fabaria by Bohrbaoh ; among other 
differential characters the calyx has 20 nenres (not 10), as pointed out by 
Lindman. 

Hab. Transjlvania ; and Mt. Snlnca, in Dobrudscha, Janka 
(1876). 

2. Petala, nngnibos non auricnlatis, fimbriato-mnltifida. 

28. S. PHY8A LODES, Boiss,, Dtagti. PI. Nov. Or.^ Ser. I. viii. 
p. 83 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 88. 

Inflorescenti^ petalis minntis, pedicellis refractis, a 8. fim- 
briatd distincta. 

Hab. Near Csesarea Philippi (Banias), in N. Palestine. 

29. S. FiMBRiATA, Stms, Bot Mag., t. 908 (1806) ; Eohrh., 
Monogr.y p. 88 (S. multifida). 

Syn, Lychnis Behen, etc., Buxb., PL Cent., iii. p. 31, t. 57 
(1735). 

Cacnbalns fimbriatns, Gueldenst. Eeise, ii. p. 24 (1791) ; C. 
mnltifidas, Adams, in Herb. Banks; C. ninltifidus, Weber et 
Mohr, Beitr., i. p. 57 (1805) ; C. fimbriatas, Bieb., Fl. Taur.- 
Cauc., i. p. 333 (1808). 

Viscago fimbnata, Homem. Hort. Hafn., i. p. 409 (1813). 

It is not worth while to change Sims's name, since all the literature 
connected with the plant is under this name ; it has been long in circula- 
tion, and by this name it is known in most of the floras, so that the adoption 
of the name proposed by Bohrbaoh would only cause confusion in a genus 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. E 



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50 MK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

in -which the sjnonjmj is already suffioientlj involTed. In 8. lacera^ 
which is given as a rarietj of this species, the ovarj is not trilocolar at the 
base, so that it must be transferred to Melandryum, and appears to be neajr 
Melandrywm Slizabethm. 

Hah. In the monntaina of Lazistan, Bnssian Armenia, and 
the Caucasus. 

30. SiLENB. CAMPANULATA, 8. Wats. in Ftoc, Amer, Acod.j x. 
(1875) p. 341 ; B.L. Bohtnson, I.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 137. 

Caulis erectns, simplex vel apice dichotome ramosus, glandu- 
loso-pubescens. Folia ovata vel lanceolata. Flores solitarii vel 
pauci, nntantes, breviter pedicellati. Calyx viridis, campanu- 
Jatus, profunde dentatus, snpeme reticulato-venosus, dentibua 
late ovatis, obtusiuscnlis. Petala angnsta 4-partita, lobis ad 
medium bifidis seu lateralibus integris vel emarginatis, appen^ 
dicibns oblongis camosis integris. Filamenta villosa exserta. 
Capsula snborbicularis, breviter stipitata. 

a. LATiFOLU. Folia ovata acuta. Petala albo-viridula. 

Syn. S. campanulata var. Greenei, 8. Wats. Iierh, ap. B. L. 
Robinson, I.e. 

Hah. Canonville, in Oregon, and Treka, in California. 

/3. ANOUSTiFOLiA. Planta Icviter glanduloso-pubescens. Folia 
lanceolata acuminata. Petala camea. 

Hah. Mendocino County and Humboldt County, in North 
California. 

According to Robinson the broad-leaved is the commoner form, so that 
this is here considered as the type of the species. 

Subgenus II. CONOSILENE. 

Calyx 20-30- vel 60-norvius, nervis hand anastomosantibus ; 
fructifer e basi ampliati, apicem versns attenuatus. Florea 
in dichasio simplici vel composito, saepe ramo altero abbreviato 
et alterius in axillfl ramo accessorio e vol a to, rarins florea 
solitarii. HerbsD aniinsd. 

a. Calyx 20-nervius. 

31. S. AMMOPHiLA, Boiss. et Heldr., JDiagn. PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. 
viii. p. 82 ; Boiss., FL Orient., suppl., p. 90 ; Rohrh., Monogr.^ 
p. 89. 

Hah. The islands of Crete and Gaidaronisos. 



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MB. F. K. WILLIAMS ON TUE GENUS 8ILEXE. 51 

32. SiLENE CONIFLORA, Nees, ex DG, Prodr,, i. p. 371 ; Rohrb,, 
Monogr,f p. 89. 

fi. PURPUREA, Fenzl. Gaulis a medio ramosus, scabro-pnbes- 
cens. Calyx dentibus lineari-laDceolatis acaminatis. Petala 
purpurea. 

Syn. S. molopica var, pnrpurea, Fenzl, in Herb. Kew. 
Hah. Near Aleppo. 

Oeoffr, limits. — N, Ejsil-Arwafc, in Russian Turkestan (1884). 
U. Ssertsohah, in Persia. 
S. Bnins of Persepolis, in Persia. 
W. Tafilah, in Palestine. 

b. Caljx 30-nervius. 
a. Capsula carpophoro brevi stipitata. 

33. S. 8UBC0NICA, Friw. in Flora, xviii.. (1835) p. 334 ; 
Bohrh., Monogr.j p. 90. 

Adde : Filamenta basi yillosa. 

Differt a 8. juvenali calyce angustiori et longiori, petalorum 
unguibus exsertis, capsul& stipite longiori suffult^. 

There is no necesnfy for citing S. camca, Hampe, (non Linn.) as a 
sjnonjm, as the context is sufficiently clear. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and W. Servia (ex Nym., Gonsp. Fl. Europ.) . 
E. Philippopoli«, in E. Bumelia. 
8. Mekri, in Greece. 

34. S. JUVENALis, Delile, Ind. Sem. Hort. Monsp. (1836) p. 28 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 90. 

Planta 8. conicd saBpius major, cymis laxioribus, floribus 
longius pedicellatis, calyce breviori latiori, lamind. amp]&, 
capsuU breviori stipitat&. 

So called from Port Juvenal, near Montpellier, where it was first dis- 
oorered, having been accidentally introduced from the East, but has not 
been met with since. 

Geogr. limits. — N, Boli, in Anatolia. 

E. Kara-Khoi, in prov. Siwas. 
8. Elmala, in Anatolia. 

W. Near Volo, in Thessaly, at the base of 
Mt. Pelion (Heldreich (1883), ex Nym., 
Consp. FL Eur., suppL, ii. p. 56). 

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52 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE QEXUS SILENB. 

B. Capsnla sessilis. 
t Filamenta pubescentia. 

35. SiLENB LYDU, Botss,^ Diogn, PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 37 ; 
Rohrb,, Monogr.y p. 91. 

Affinis 8. juvenaliy qnaB tamen calyce breviore mnbilicato, 
capsal& stipitatii seminumqae form& diversa est. 
Oeogr. limits, — W. Near Smyroa, in Anatolia. 

E, Arjish-Dagh (Mt. ArgsBus), in prov. Kara- 
mania. 

36. S. Sartorii, Boiss, et Heldr., Dlagn. PL Nov. Or., Ser. II. 
V. p. 53 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 91. 

Differt a S. conicd canlibns prostatis, foliis obtnsis pingnibns, 
calycibns snbnmbilicatis ejnsqne dentibas brevioribns, seminibas 
levibns. 

Geogr. limits. — N. and W. Rbaphti, near Athens (Heldreich, 
exNym., Consp. Fl. Eur., suppL, ii. p. 56). 
8. and E. Islands of Milo and Mjkoni, in the 
Greek Archipelago. 

37. S. CONICA, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 418; 8yme, Engl. 
Bot., ed. III. ii. p. 58, t. 201 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 91. 

Inflorescentia brevit^r corymbosa vel abortn alter! as ex 
azibns secnndariis nnilateraliter spicata, yel uniflora. 

Oeogr, limits. — N. and E, Between Tobolsk and Tomsk, in 
Siberia, 58°. 
8. Algeria. 
W, Spain ; prov. of Old Castile. 

tt Filamenta glabra. 

38. S. CONOIDEA, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 418 ; Beichh,, Ic, 
FL Germ. Helv., n. 5062* ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 92. 

Forma obgobdata; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 92; lamina major 
obcordata. 

8yn, S. conoidea var. obcordata, Boiss,, Fl. Orient., i. p. 580. 

fi. GLABRESCENS, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 580 ; Bohrh., Monogr,, 
p. 92. Glabra ; rostrum capsnlaa abbreviatum. 

Bohrbach says that the species is not found in Italy, but it is included 



• The names of ** conoidea** and ** oonica** haye been inadvertently 
transposed on the plates. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILEXE. 53 

by Tanfani in Parlatore's * Fl. Italiana/ and it is ^tUo found about Nice, in 
the adjoining French department of Alpes-Maritimee. 

Oeogr. limits, — E, Tsaidam Mts., in prov. of Tangut, long. 96** 

(Maximowicz). 
W. Andalusia, in Spain. 
A^. Mont^limar, in the department of Dr6me, 

45**. (ViUars, ex Oren. and Godr., Fl. de 

France, i. p. 205.) 
S, Mt. Sinai, 28^ 

39. SiLENE MULTiNEBYiA, 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad,, xxr. 
(1890) p. 126 ; B. L. Bohinson, I.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 131. 

Canlis paroe ramosns, ereotus, glandnloso-pnbescens. Folia 
inferiora oblanceolata, obtnsa^ superiora lineari-oblonga yel 
linearia acuta ; bracteeo lineares aoutaa. Caljx anguste ovatus, 
dentibus aouminatis pnrpureo-marginatis. Petala pnrpnras- 
centia emarginata. Capsula oblongo-ovata inclusa. Semina 
minuta tuberculata. 

Califomian botanists are inclined to regard this as an introduced pUmt, 
and Dayidson (in Efythea, i. p. 58), reduces it to 8. eomndea, a species 
which differs in its larger flowers, acute radical leayes, and globular rostrated 
capsule. 

Hah. Galifomia. 

40. S. AMPHOBINA, Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atlant., p. 330. 
Gaulis ramosus adscendens, tenuis, brevissime hirtello- 

pnberulus. Folia parva, inferiora spathulata, superiora 
linearia, plus minus ciliata basi lanata; bracteao valde 
insdquales, lineares. Galjx florifer turbinatus, fructifer e 
basi ampliat& ovato-conicus, umbilicatus, dentibus herbaceis 
triangularibus barbulato-ciliatis. Petala purpurea bipartita, 
unguibus exsertis glabris, appendicibus bifidis acutis. Capsula 
globosa longe rostrata glabrescens carpopboro sublongior. 
Semina badia, compressa, dorso prof unde canaliculata, faoiebus 
planiuscnla alis duabns undulatis marginatis. 
Hab. Algeria ; Oued Cherilla, base of the Filfila. 

c. Calyx 60-nervius. 

41. S. MACBODONTA, Boiss., Diogn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 37 ; 
Bohrb., Manogr., p. 92. 

fi. PAMPHTLICA, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 581 ; Boiss. et Heldr. 
(sp.), Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. viii. p. 82. Lamina amplior 
magis exserta : capsula ovata. 



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54 MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE QENQS SILVNE. 

Species inflorescentiad ramalTs stricte cymosis, axibus secnn- 
dariis plus minus elongatis, capsule ek 8. conicce longiori angns- 
tioriqne. 

Oeogr, limits, — N, Modurlu, in Anatolia. 
8. Cyprus. 
E. Prov. Aleppo. 
W. Elmalu, in Anatolia. 



Subgenus III. EUSILENE. 

Calyx semper lO-nervius, vel evenius vel nervis anastomo- 
santibus, nunquam vesicarie inflatns, fructifer autem supra 
carpophorum sape a capsnl& maturescente distentns. Inflores- 
centia valde varians. Species annuse, biennes, vel perennes. 

Sectio I. CiNCINNOSILENE. 

Flores in cincinnis plus minus laxis (racemis secundis scor- 
pioideis) simplicibus vel geminatis, breyiter vel raro longe 
pedicellati vel subsessiles, interdum primo dichasium simplex 
yel duplex formantes, dichasii deinde ramis scorpioideis. 
Herbae annuas vel biennes, pauc» perennes. 

A. Species annu» yel biennes. 

a. APTEROSPERMiE. 

Semina reniformia yel globosa, dorso nunquam alis undulatis 
marginato. 

Series 1. Dichotomce. 

Flores in cincinnis geminatis breyissime pedicellati yel sub- 
sessiles, primo in dichasio simplici yel daplici, ramis dichasii 
lateralibus scorpioideis. Calyx eyenius, fructifer apice con- 
tractus. HerbsB interdum biennes. 

a. Semina faciebus plana. 

42. SiLENE LAGENOCALYX, Fenzl, in Kotschy, PI Pers, Austr. 
(1845) ; Bo%88., Fl. Orient, i. p. 587 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 93. 

: Forma purpurea. 

8yn, S. lagenocalyx var, purpurea, Boiss.^ Fl. Orient.^ i. p. 588. 
Hah. S. Persia. 

43. S. GRfiCA, Boiss, et 8prun,^ Biagn. PL Nov. Or,, Ser. I. i. 
p. 36 ; Bohrh., Monogr. p. 93. 



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MR. F. N, WILLUMS ON THE QENUS SILENB. 55 

Facies S. Behen a qnk differt inflorescentill, calyce haad 
Tenoso-reticnlato, capsali anguBtiore caljcem distendente, 
petalisqae. 

Qeogr. limits.— N. Epirns, in Turkey, Chodzea (1879). 
8. and E, Nome of Messenia, in Greece. 
W. Ionian Isles ; Cephalonia. 

44. SiLENB DICHOTOMA, Ehrh.^ Beitr.y vii. p. 144; Eeichh,, Ic. 
Fl. Germ, Helv., n. 5071 ; Eokrb., Monogr., p. 94. 

/3. IBKRTCA, Bieb.y Fl. Taur. Cauc., i. p. 335 (sp.) ; Bohrh., 
Monogr.y p. 94. Calyx glabrescens. 

Adde syn. S. noctnma, Pall.^ TahL Taur., p. 50. 

Some specimens found in 1880 near Deventer, in Holland, bejond the 
^geographical limits, were probably introduced. 

Qeogr, limits. — N, Moravia, in Austria. 

W. Montpellier, in S. France. 
8. and E. Prov. of Talysch, in Trans- 
Caucasia. 

45. S. RACEMOSA, Otthy in DC. Frodr., i. p. 384 ; 8ihtK Fl. 
OroRcay V. t. 414 (S. divaricata) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 95 (S. 
dichotbma vwr. racemosa). 

Caulis pluries et divaricatim dichotomus, pilis crispis canes- 
«ens. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, in petiolum barbato- 
yillosum attenuata; braci^ead membranacese. Inflorescentias 
rami divaricato-ramosi. Calyx breviter cylindricus, fructifer 
ovato-oblongus, nervis viridibus, dentibus ovato-lanceolatis, 
acutis, membranaceo-marginatis, setosis. Petala alba, rarius 
purpurea, bipartita, lobis obovatis, appendicibus minimis 
obtusis. Capsula ovata carpophorum glabrum ter quaterve 
fluperans. Semina rugoso-tuberculata, dorso snbcanaliculata, 
faciebus plana. 

Syn, S. Tbirkeana, 0. Koch, in Linncea, xix. (1847) p. 56. 
. p. BIQIBBOSA, mihi. Corona minima, appendicibus ad duas 
squamulas vel gibbos reductis. 

Syn. S. dicbotoma, Sihth., FL Ormca, v. p. 10, t. 413 ; S. 
fiessiliflora, PotV., Encyc. Suppl., v. p. 154, et Herb. ; S. Sibtbor- 
piana, Beichb., FL, Oerm. Exc, p. 815 (in nota) ; S. racemosa 
var. Sibtborpiana, Boiss., Fl, Orient, i. p. 589. 

Species a 8, dichotomd racemis longis laxis divaricatis, 
calyce 8-10 mm. tantum longo, petalis profundius bipartitis, 
capBu1& oyatA, differre videtur. 



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56 MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

7. CAUCASIGA, iniht. Rami graciles. Pednncali flomm Ion- 
giores. Calyx brevior. Stjli longe exserfci. Forma minus 
canescens. (Badde^ exsicc. (1893), n. 674). 

Syn. S. dichotoma var, gracilis, Alhoff^ Enum, PL Transcauc. 
Occid., p. 32 (1895). 

Hah, Gircassia. 

B. BUXINA, Rupr., Fl. Caucasia p. 184 ; Boiss,, Fl. Orient., suppl., 
p. 92. 

Planta biennis. Canles numerosi, laterales decambentes. 
Folia basilaria lanceolato-spatliulata. Semina minora. 
Geogr, limits. — N. Between Poti and Batonm, in Trans- 
Caucasia (var. euxina). 
S. Palestine. 

E. Persia; between Teheran and Tabreez. 
W. Slivno, in B. Rumelia (Skorpil, ex Nym.^ 
Consp. Fl. Eur., suppl. ii. p. 54). 

b. Semina faciebus curvato-excavata. 

46. SiLENE VESPKRTiNA, Retz.f Obs. Bot,^ ii. p. 31 ; Willk., Ic. 
Bescr. PI. Nov. Hisp., i. p. 44, t. 29a ; Eohrh., Monogr., p. 95. 

From Betsiu8*8 description this plant is certainly identical with 8. hirsutat 
Poir., and S* hupida, Desf . Bj authors it is often confused with S. terioea^ 
which, howerer, difters from it in habit and in the remarkable form of the 
seeds. It is also near S. hirtuta, Lag. (^ S. laxiflora, Brot.), which latter 
is distinguished by cincinni simple never geminate, fructiferous calyx not 
contracted abdTe with oTate obtuse teeth, and claws of the petals exserted. 

Geogr. limits, — N. Near Trieste, in Istria. 
S. N. Algeria. 
E. Crete. 
W. Portugal (ex Nym., Gonsp. Fl. Eur., p. 96). 

47. S. DiSTiCHA, Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol, p. 476, et herb.,, 
n. 8660 ; Schranh, PI. Ear., t. 39 (micropetala) ; Bahrh., Monogr., 
p. 96. 

Adde syn. S. hirsnta, Schoush. ex Ball, in Joum. Linn, 8oc. 
(Bot.), xvi. (1877) p. 356. 
S. pilosa, WiUd., Enum. Hort. Berol., p. 476 (in 
herb, abest). 
Geogr. limits. — N. and E. Minorca, in the Balearic Isles. 
S. Algeria. 

W. Portugal (Daveau, Magn. Fl. Sel., exs. 
n. 1382). 



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MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 57 

Series 2. Scorpioidecp, 

Flores in cincinnis simplicibns ; iDterdum infra florem axis 
primariad terminalem nnilateraliter ramus scorpioidens evolatost 
ita ut stirps dichotoma esse videatar, dichotomia autem nnn* 
qnam florigera. 

A. Semina reniformia faciebns curvato-excavata, dorso (exc^ 
8, gallica et 8. Giraldix) obtuse canal iculata. 

a. Calyx fructifer apice contractus, 
a. Filamenta bast villosa ; calyx evenios. 

48. SiLENE GALLICA, Linn., Sp, Plant., ed. I. p. 417 ; Rohrb.y 
Monogr., p. 96. 

Species per totam fere orbem terrarum aafaga ob formas 
pro diverso climate et substratu habitu saepe valde distantea 
difficillime describenda. In Europ^ medi4 et australi indigena, 
ad totius fere orbis terraram littora translata et quasi spon- 
tanea. 

(1) Forma genaina, calyx florifer pilis adpressis, fructifer 
erectis vel patentibus. 

— S. gallica, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 417 ; All. Fl. Pedem. 
iii. t. 79, fig. 3. 

(2) Forma pilosior, calyx fructifer pilis horizontaliter 
patentibus. 

— S. lusitanica, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 416 ; Dill. Hort^ 
EUham., p. 420, t. 311, fig. 401. 

(3) Forma ramosior minus pilosa, calyx fructifer pilis 
reflexis. 

— S. anglica, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 416 ; 8yme, Eng. Bot.y 
ed. III. ii. p. 60, t. 202. 

(4) Forma floribus ad ramosum apicem in glomerulos scorpi> 
oideos 5-10-floro8 aggregatis. 

— S. pygmsoa. Link, in Hort. Erfurt, (1838) ; ex Eohrh.,. 
I.C., 98. 

(5) Forma cincinnis duplicibus. 

— S. Haenkeana, Presl, in Bel. Haenk., ii. p. 19 (sp. ??). 

(6) Forma, petalorum macula punicoo-sangaiuea limbo albido. 

— S. qninqneyulnera, Linri., Sp. Plant., ed. I. p. 416 ; Syrae^ 
Engl. Bot., ed. III. ii. p. 60, t. 203. 



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^ MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENK. 

Qeogr, limits, — N. Germany. 
W. Portugal. 

8. The Lesser Oasis (El Baliarijeli), in 
Lower Efcypt (Ascherson^ in M4m. Inst, 
Egypt, ii. (1889) p. 46). 
E. Western Gancasns (Nardmann, ex Ledeb., 
Fl. Bossica, i. (1842) p. 815). 

p. Filamenta glabra. 

t Calyx evening. 

49. SUiBNE GiRALDii, Qu88., PL Inarim,, p. 36, 1. 1 (1855) ; 
SoAr6., Monogr., p. 98. 

Hah. District of Naples; and Magdalena Archipeli^, 
between Corsica and Sardinia (Vdccari, in Malpighia, 1894, 
p. 233). 

1 1 Calyx stidis anastomosantibns. 

50. S. CBRASTioiDE8,inn7i., 8p, Plant, ed. I. p. 117; Sihth.^Fl 
Oroeca, v. p. 9, t. 412 ; Bohrh., Monogr,, p: 98. 

Anctoribns cum 8, galHcd confusa, diff ert autem calycis striis 
^anastomosantibns, filamentis glabris, capsul4 rostrate. 

8yn, S. tridentata, Botss.^Fl, Orient, suppL^ p. 93 (neo Desf,), 
Ex $yn. S. articulata = S. gallica. 
Oeogr, limits. — N. The Alps of Carinthia. 
E. Anatolia. 
W. Near Madrid. 

S. Egypt, on the coast {Asch. et Schweinf. 
in Mem. Inst Egypt ii. (1889) p. 46). 

51. S. CALYCINA, Salz.,It Hisp. Tingit.; WilUc., Ic. Descr. PL 
Nov. Hisp., i. p. 51, t. 86 (S. tridentata) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 99 
(S. tridentata). 

Species priori valde affinis differt habitu majore, floribus 
majoribus subsessilibus nee pedicellatis, calycis sub anthesi 
latioris dentibus longioribus, petalis inclusis et capsuled forma. 
Petala nunqnam tridentata, 

8yn. S. coarctata. Lag. (vide Willk., Prodr. Fl. Hisp., suppL, 
p. 279 [1893]). 

In this plant the petals are invariably bifid : for thie reason Salsmann's 
later name has been substituted for Desfontaines^s erroneous and inaccurate 
name of " S. tridentata." 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 59 

Oeogr, limits. — 8. and TT. Canary Isles. 

N, and E, Near Lerida, in prov. of Catalonia, 
Spain {Gonzales, ex Willh et Lge., Prodr. 
FL Hisp., iii, p. 648). 

b. Caljx f ractifer apice non contractus. 
a. Filamenta basi yillosa. 

52. SiLENE REFLEXA, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. II. iii. p. 86, (1813) ; 
Tenore, Fl. Najcolitana, t. 230 (S.neglecta); Bohrh., Monogr., p. 99. 

Yalde affinis 8. noctumcBy a qn4 caljce evenio ejnsque denti- 
bus linearibas herbaceis, petalis emarginatis, filamentis basi 
▼illosis, capsnl4 oyato-oblong&, differt. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Pr^jas, in the depart, of Var, France. 
8. and W. Algeria. 
E. Calabria. 

/3. Filamenta glabra. 

t Capsnla oblonga snbsessilis. 

53. S. NOCTUENA, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 416 ; Beichh., Ic. 
Fl. Germ. Helv., n. 5059 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 100. 

8yn. S. Boullni, Jord. ex Mars., Gat. PI. Cors., p. 28. 

S. gailica (non JWnn.), Groves, Fl. Terr. Otrant, inNuovo 

Glom. Bot. Ital, xix. (1887) p. 130. 
S. apetala (non WiUd.), Groves, I.e. 
S. decipiens, BaU, in Joum. Bot. xi. (1873) p. 301. 

fi. LASIOCALTX, 8oy-Will., 8il. Alg., p. 20; Bohrh., Monogr., 
p. 101. 

Yarietas calyce lannginoso. 

7. BOSEA, Haussh, in MittheU, Thilring. Bot. Ver., Heft v. 
<1893) p. 52. 

Folia inferiora et intermedia spatlinlata mucronnlata. Inflo- 
rescentia laxior. Petala rosea. 
Hab, Elensis in the nome of Attica, and near Corinth. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Lignria, in Italy. 
E. Palestine. 
8. and W. Canary Isles. 

54. 8. BttACHYPETALA, Boh. et Cast, in DO., FL Frang., v. 
p. 607 (1815) ; Ueichh., Ic. Fl. Germ. Helv., n. 505H ; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 101 (S. noctnma var. brachy petala). 



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60 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS OX THE GEXUS 8ILENE. 

8yn, S. noctuma var, brachjpetala, Benth., Gat. Fl, Fyren.y 
p. 122 (1826). 
S. apetala (non WilXd,)^ QroveSy Contrih. Fl, Terr, Otrant, 
in Nuovo Qiom. Bot. ItoZ., ix. (1877) p. 64. 
Canlis erectos, simplex vel e basi aliematim ramosns, sea bride 
pubemlns sapeme Yiscidulas. Folia spatbnlato - lanceolata 
lanceolatave, pubescentia, inferiora basi ssepe longe ciliata; 
bractesB ovatsB herbaceeo ciliat® inaBqnales. Flores plus minus 
distantes. Calyx tubalosns, fmctifer oblongos, pilis brevibns 
ad nervos virides snpeme anasiomosantes panllnm longioribus, 
scabridas, dentibns lanceolatis acutis margine scariosis ciliatis ; 
petala alba subtus viridia raro purpurea albo-marginata 
cuneata emarginata ecoronata subinclusa. Capsula cylindrica 
carpophorum pubemlum sexies superans. Semina dorso mar- 
gine tuberoulaia. 

fi. PEBMIXTA, Jord. (sp.) FugilL Flant, Nov,^ in MSm, Acad. 
Lym, (1851) p. 243; WiUk., Ic. Besar. Fl. Nov. Htsp., i. p. 69, 
t. 50 A (S. noctuma var. micrantha); Bohrb., Monogr.^ p. 101. 
Qeogr. limits. — N. Narbonne, in the depart, of Aude. 
8. Algeria. 

E. Pompeiopolis, in Cilicia. 
W. Teneriffe. 

tt Capsula carpopborum bis terye superans, vel fere soquans. 

55. SiLENE REMOTIFLORA, Fw., Fl. Bdlmatica, iii. p. 166, t. 53 
(1852); Bohrh., Monogr., p. 101. 
Hah. Near Gelsa, in Dalmatia. 

66. S. OBTUSIFOLU, Willd., Enum.Hort. Berol.y p. 473, et Herb., 
n. 8629; Goss., Elustr. Fl. Atlant., fasc. iy.(1890) p. 125, t. 79; 
Bohrh., Monogr.y p. 102. 

Adde syn, S. mauritanica, Fomel^ Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atlanta 
p. 328 (1874). 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Faro, in prov. Algarve, Portugal. 
8. and W. Canary Isles. 
E. Lower Egypt. 

67. S. HIBSUTA, Lag., Varied, de Cienc. (1805) p. 212 ; WUlk.y 
Ic. Descr. Fl. Nov. Hisp., i. p. 43, t. 29 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 102. 

Adde syn. S. hispida, 8alzm. ex Ball, in Joum. Linn. 8oc, 
{Bot.), xvi. (1877) p. 358. 

Oeogr. limits. — Spain and Portugal. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON IHB OENUS SILENE. 61 

58. SiLENB POMPEIOPOUTANA, /. Oaijy ex Boiss,, Fl. Orient, J i. 
p. 595 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 108. 

Hdb, Buins of Pompeiopolis, on the coast of Cilicia, sear 
Mersina. 

59. S. MOGADOREN8I8, Goss. et BaL in Bdl., PL Marocc, Exsicc, 
(1867), ap. Goss. in Bull 8oc. Bot. Fr., xxii. (1875) p. 55 ; et 
lUustr. Fl. Atlant.JaBC. iv. (1890) p. 126, tt. 80, 81. 

Caules 20-60-ceiitim. longi, solitarii v. plures, saBpius a basi 
vel infra niedinm ramoai, erecti vel laterales adscendentes, 
pnbescenti-glandnlosi. Folia inf eriora obovato-oblonga, obtasa, 
in petiolum attennata, pilis brevissimis quasi punctata, margine 
ciliata, ciliis inferionbns Baapins elongatis, media et snperiora 
sspins longins snpescentia et ciliata oblongo-lanceolata yel 
lanceolata acnta, in vai*. fi ohlonga vel obvato-oblonga obtnsa. 
Bracteaa inferiores conformes, superiores valde insaqnales lineari- 
lanceolataa vel lineares cam pedicellis et caljcibns plus minus 
pubescenti-glanduloB®. Flores erecti vel suberecti, inferioribus 
ssepius longe superioribus brevius vel brevissime pedicellatis, 
in pseudoracemos terminales geminates, rarius solitaries, 
simplices vel bifidos, subsecundos, laxos 4-9-floros dispositi. 
Galjx tubuloso-infundibnliformis truncato-umbilicatus, f mctifer 
infra capsulam constrictus, pubescenti-glandulosus, membran- 
aceus, nervis virentibus vel rubescentibus, supeme vix anas* 
tomosantibus, dentibus ovatis obtnsiusculis membranaceo- 
marginatis ciliatis. Petala purpurascentia bipartita, lobis 
oblongis, appendicibus binis ovato-oblongis subintegris vel 
erosulis. Capsnla cjlindraceo-oblonga carpophorum glabrum 
fere bis superans. 

a. OENUINA. Planta dense pubescenti-glandulosa pube pilis 
numerosis elongatis permizt&. Folia caulina oblongo-lanceoiata 
vel lanceolata apice sensim acutata. 

8yn. S. canariensis, Otth^ in DO. Frod/r.^ i. p. 372. 

S. corrogata, Ball, in Joum. Bot., xi. (1873) p. 301, et 
Spicil. Fl. Marocc. in Joum. Linn. 8oc. (Bot.), xvi. 
(1877) p. 359. 
S. adasta, Ball, in Joum. Linn, 8oc. (Bot.), xvi. (1877) 
p. 360. 

fi. OBTUSIFOLIA, Ooss., lUustr. FL Ailant., fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 127, t. 81. Planta parcius pubescenti-glandulosa pilis minus 
infloqualibus. Folia caulina oblonga vel obovato-oblonga obtusa. 



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62 MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILEXE. 

7. MACROSPEEMA, CoM, Illnstr, Fl, AilanL, fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 127. Planta sparse pabescenti-glandnlosa pilis partus 
inasqualibas. Folia canlina obtasa. Caljx amplior, fractifer 
Rupeme obloDgo-snbolavatns. Semioa maxima dorso evideniias 
canalicalata. 

Hab, Marocco. 

60. SiLENE PAL^STINA, Boiss,^ Dtogn, PL Nov, Or,^ Ser. I. viii. 
p. 80 ; Bohrb.j Monogr., p. 103. 

fi, DAMiSCENA,Bow«. et Godll, (sp.) Diagn, PL Nov. Or,^ Ser. II. 
vi. p. 34 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 103. 

In the BpeoimenB sent to Bolirl>ac1i by Boissier himself as authentic, 
the capsule is found Bometimes to be twice the length of the carpophore 
(as under the name of 8. damatcena), at another time nearly equal to it, 
so that in this character it cannot be distinguished from 8, tiderophila, 
Boiss. et GkiU., and as 8, damatcena can only be considered as a yariety 
of 8. palasHna, 8. ndsrophila is reduced to a synonym. In Fl, OrUM.,. 
Jtuppl., p. 94, Boissier coincides with this riew of the species — "Huic 
speciei 8. damaseenam et 8, $iderophilam ut yarietatee cl. Bohrbach con- 
jungit quod ulterioribus obserrationibus mihi cooprobandum esse yidetur.*' 

Oeogr. limits. — N Mt. Lebanon (yar. damascena). 

E, Near Damascus (var, damascena). 
S. and W. Gaza, on the coast of Syria. 

61. S. AFFiNis, Boiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. II. i. p. 72; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 104. 

Differt a S. viUosd floribns snb antbesi breviter nee calyci 
BBquilonge pedicdllatis, calycis brevioris dentibus elongatis 
obtasis, petalomm lobis linearibos, capsule ovatd, seminom 
duplo majornm form& diversissimft. 

As Bohrbach points out, Boissier in Fl. Orient., i. p. 698, misquotes 
himself in citing 8. affinis as a MS« name. The reason, howeyer, why 
he re-named the plant 8. arabica was his recognition of 8. afflnU, Godr., 
as a good species (* Fl. Juyen.,' ed. I. p. 9), which latter Bohrbach shows 
is in no way to be distinguished from 8. micropetala, so that Boissier's 
first name is one to be restored, which Bohrbach has done. 

PLab. At the base of Mt. Sinai. 

B. Semina reniformia valde compressa, faciebus concayioscala^ 
dorso acute canaliculata. 

a. Calycis strisB anastomosantes, yel snperne conjunctae. 

o. Calyx fructiferapice contractus. 

62. S. BREviSTiPKS, sp. nov. 

Gaules 35-40 centim. simplices vel parce ramosi, centralis 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 6S 

erectns, laterales adscendentes, pilis crispalis vestiti. Folia 
oblanceolato-spathnlata macronata pnberala parce ciliata, basi in 
petiolnm attenuata, apice rotundata, snperiora angnstiora, 
omnia uninervia ; bractesB lineari-Ianceolat® acnt«B lannginoso- 
ciliat®. Flores breviter pedioellati. Caljx tubnlosus infeme 
hand nmbilicatns, frnctifer ampliato ovoidens infra capsnlam 
vix attennatns, nervis viridibns snpeme yen& nnidL conjnnctis, 
pilis longis oonfervoideis patentibns vestitis, inter nervos 
antem scabrido-pnbernlns, dentibns lanceolatis acuminaiis 
albo-marginatis ciliatis. Petala e caljce exserta bipartita lobis 
lineari-oblongis. Filamenta glabra. Capsnla ovata snbsessilis, 
carpopfaomm glabmm mnlties snperans. — ^Valde affinis S, Tnaroc- 
canoe, ab e4 primo antem dignoscenda caljce fmctifero apice 
eontracto, prseterea differt foliis oblanceolato-spathnlatis mucro- 
natis, bracteis lannginoso-ciliatis, petalomm lobis latioribns, 
carpopboro glabro brevissimo; a S, setaced differt jam primo 
aspecta, caljcis nervis confervoideis, etc. 

Described from specimens sent by Rev. R. P. Murray. 

Hah, Near Lagnna, TenerifEe, Bev. E. P. Murray (Jane, 
(1892). 

/3. Calyx frnctifer apice non contractus. 

Of the next species described by Rohrbaoh (No. 46), which 
is 8, ligulata, Viv., 

Lusus 1 = S. setacea. 

Lusus 2 = S. sei-icea a. pnbicalycina. 

63. SiLENE CANOPICA, Boiss., Fl, Orient.^ i. p. 696; Bohrh.y 
Monogr,^ p. 105 (S. biappendiculata, Ehrenb,) ; Coss,, lUustr. Ft, 
AtlanL, fasc. iv. (1890) t. 79 (semina). 

Differt a 8, setaced, foliis oblongis vel oblongo-linearibus 
non anguste linearibus, calycis dentibns obtnsis, nervis com- 
missaralibns snpeme latins vennlis anastomosaDtibns retica- 
latis, petalis parpnrascentibus, lobis oblongo-linearibns snpeme 
latioribns, seminibns roajoribns dorso, profandins et angustins 
canalicnlatis, canalicnlo utrinqae marginato, marginibns 
angnstis planis vel snbnndulatis. 

Bohrbaoh suppressed the name of S. canopica, misled by the erroneous 
supposition that the specimens from Denderah (Monoffr.y p. 110), thus 
labelled and distributed bj Sieber were authentic, whereas this plant 
of Sieber's is S, inlloaa, Forsk., a species which does not occur at or near 
Aboiiklr, the present name of the ancient Canopus. Ehrenberg's authentic 
specimens of '* S, biappendiculata,'* asd Delile*s authentic specimens of 



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^4 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILBNE. 

** S. eanopica,** which are in the Monfcpellier herbarium, are, aooording to 
Sohweinfurth, identical plants; but the descriptions of these specimens 
were not published till 1867, and in each case posthumously. Delile's plant 
was described by Boissier (Fl, Orient , i. p. 506), and Ehrenberg's plant 
was described by Bohrbaoh (BoL Zeit, xxv. (1867) p. 82) ; Bohrbaoh after- 
wards rejecting S. eanopica^ because he was tmaware that Sieber^s specimens, 
which were the ones that he examined, were wrongly labelled. Therefore, 
in riew of Bohrbach's misapprehension of the identity of the species, the 
name taken up by Boissier is to be preferred as the name of the species, 
and Boissier's description should be cited as the authority, since the 
specimens do not seem to hare been adequately distributed. 

Hab, Lower Egypt ; near Alexandria and Damietta. 

64 SiLENB KuscHAKBWiczi, Begel et Schmalh, in Act, Hort, 
Petrop., V. (1877) p. 246. 

Caulis simplex, adscendens, geniculato-flexnosns, retrorso- 
paberalos. Folia obverse oblonga, acuta, integerrima, aspenda, 
ramalomm sterilium in petiolom ima basi ciliatnm attennata. 
Flores initio snbsessiles demum longe pedicellati. Pedancnli 
pedicelli calyeesqae pilis tennibns albis confervoideo-crispiR 
eglandolosis albido-villosnli. Calyx cylindrico-clavatns albido- 
membranaceas, nervis pnrporascentibns apicem versus lateraliter 
anastomosantibus instructus, dentibus elliptioo-lanceolatis 
obtusis late albo-marginatis. Petala alba bifida, unguibus 
paullulum exsertis, limbo obovato, lobis obovato-oblongis 
obtusis, appendicibus binis emarginatis. 

Hah, Near Wernoje, in Turkestan. 

65. S. SETACBA, Ftt?., FL Lyh., p. 23, t. 12 (1824) ; Bohrh., 
Monogr,, p. 105. 

Lusus 1. Caulis ssepe ramosus; calyx inter nervos glaber 
nervis densissime hirsntis ; ungues petalorum ezserti. 

Adde syn, S. ligulata, FVt;., Fl. Lyb., p. 24, t. 12; Bohrb., 
Monogr,, p. 104, et in Linncea^ xxxvi. (1870) p. 261. 

Lusus 2. Caulis humilior; flores paullum minores; calyx 
totus breviter pubescens ; ungnes petalorum inclusi. 

Adde syn. S. brachystachys, Webb, Fragm, FL Aethiop.-Aegypty 
p. 34; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 109, et in LinnoRa, xxxvi. (1870) 
p. 261. 

Geogr, limits, — N, Tunis. 
S, Nubia. 
E, Arabia Petraea. 
W, Djebel Tizelmi, in S.W. Morocco. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 65 

66. SiLENE MAROCCANA, Coss., lllustr, Fl. Atlanta fasc. iv. 
(1890) p. 130, t. 83. 

Canles 12-^0 centim. longi, plures, graciles, simplices vel 
parce ramosi, centrali erecto lateralibas adscendentibus, rarius 
solitarii erecti. Folia linearia plana vel condnpHcata rarius 
oblongo-lanceolata acata, dense pubemla; bractesB lanceolatie 
vel lineares, hispidie ciliataB. Flores erecti, breviter pedicellati, 
in psendoracemos terminates simplices sabsecundos 3-12-floros 
disposiii. Calyx tnbnlosns, fructifer ojlindraceo-dilatatns infra 
capsulam constrictas, albido-membranacens, inter nervos vix 
snb lente puberulns vel glabresoens, nervis longe villosis 
viridibns, dentibns lanceolato-triangalaribus acatis albo-mar- 
ginatis ciliatis. Petala alba, prof ande bipartita, lobis anguste 
linearibns, appendicibns binis ovatis, omnibus in tnbnm 
connatis. Filamenta glabra. Capsnla oblongo-cylindracea, 
carpophomm pilis retrorsis pnbescens bis terve superans. 
Semina marginibas alasformibus latiusculis plus minus nndnlatis. 

A S. setaced differt foliis saepius minus angnstis, stipite 
capsniil bis terve breviore non pauUo breviore, et imprimis 
seminum fabric^ nempe sub lente vix striatul4 dorso profunde 
et anguste canaliculate, canaliculo in fundo baud tuberculat.o 
utrinque marginato, marginibns alsBformibus latiusculis plus 
minus undulatis. 

Syn, S. getula, Pomel, Nouv. Mai. Fl. Atlant.^ p. 329. 

Hah. Marocco, Seignette (1870). 

b. Calyx striatus evenius. 
a. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 

67. S. Heldreichii, Baiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or.^ Ser. I. viii. 
p. 81 ; Fl. Orient, suppl, p. 92 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 106. 

Adde: Calyx fructifer oblongus infra capsulam valde con- 
strictus, dentibus carinatim nervosis. Capsula ovato-oblonga 
dentibns calycinis longe superata. Semina tuberculata. 

Differt a S. dichotomd jam primo aspectu caule simplici 
nee dichotomo, bracteis herbaceis, floribus sessilibus, calycis 
dentibus elongatis. 

Hob. Anatolia, near Adalia; and Cilicia Trachea, on the 
promontory of Alaya, Cape Anamour, and Mt. Yamourdabe- 
dagh. 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. F 



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66 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

68. SiLENE OXYODONTA, Barhey, Serhor. an Levant^ p. 121 , 
t. 11 (1882). 

Caulis e basi ramosns, ramis adscendentibna pilis longis crispis 
griseo-pubescentibus. Folia inferiora oblongo-spathnlata basi 
attennata acuta ; braotsB horbace® oblongo-lineares acnts basi 
dilatatsB. Flores snbsessiles, inferiore alari. Calyx oblongns 
basi truncatas, nerris latis in cristas acutas prominentibns 
viridibns pilis crispis longis hirsutis, dentibus rigidis lanceo- 
latis acntis snbrecnryis. Petala intense purpurea, magna 
obcordata, bifida, lobis obtnsis, appendicibns binis minimis 
ovatis. Carpopbornm cum ovarii ^ parte aBquilongum. 

8, racemosoB et prsesertim 8, Heldretchii affinis a qn& floribns 
inferioribua alaribns, caljce florifero oblongo nee cjlindrico, 
nervis in cristas prominentibus percurso, difFert. 

ffah. In the Plain of Esdraelon, below Nazareth. 

fi. Caljx fnictifer apice non contractus. 

69. S. ScHWEiNPURTHi, Bohrh, in Bot. Zeitung^ xxv. (1867) 
p. 82 ; Monogr., p. 106. 

Hab. Nubia and Abyssinia. 

70. S. ARABIC A, sp. nov. 

Caulis adscendens, pauUnm ramosus, pnbescens. Folia glan- 
cescentia, inferiora ovato-Ianceolata, acuta, intermedia lanceo- 
lato-spathulata in petiolum tenuem longe attenuata, superiora 
minima; bracteee lineares acnminatad longe ciliateB. Calyx 
gracilis cylindricus, fructifer clavatas ampliatns infra capsulam 
fK)nstrictus, striis purpureis, dentibus lanceolatis acutis albo- 
marginatis densissime ciliatis. Petala rosea, appendicibns 
ovatis. Capsula ovata, carpophoram fere bis superans. 

A 8. Schweinfurthi differfc praesertim habitu laxiore glau- 
cescenti, foliis latis longius attenuatis, calyce angusto, striis 
purpnreis. 

8yn. S. chirensis, A. Rich, ex Barley , PL Arab. Schweinf. 
(1889). 

This specific name was one substituted by Boissier (Fl. Orient, i. p. 593), 
for his own 8. affinis (which he misquotes as a MS. name), when he 
found that Godron had also described a S. affinia. But, as Eohrbach 
points out, 6K>dron*6 plant is in no way to be distinguished from 8. micro- 
petala^ so that Boissier^s first name stands, and <^. ardbica becomes a 
synonym and ayailable for a new species. 

Hab, Gebel Schibam, near Menacha, in Arabia Felix 
( Schweinfurth) , 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 67 

71. SiLENE CHiRENSis, A, Bich.y Tent, Fl, Abyss,, i. p. 44 
(1847); Rohrb.y Monogr., p. 106 (S. schirensis). 

Hab, Abyssinia. 

C. Semina reniformia, faciebns plana, dorso plas minus obtuse 
canaliculata. 

a. Caljcis evenii nervi pilis basi balbosis vel squamulis acutis 
vestiti, calyx fructifer apice contractus. 

72. S. TBINEBVU, Sebast, et Mauri, Fl. Bom., p. 152, t. 2 ; 
Beichb., Ic. Flor. Germ, Helv., n. 5069 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 107. 

Adds: Caulis simplex, vel interdum dicbotome ramosus. 
Pedicelli calyce breviores pilis retrorsis pubescentes. Calyx 
anguste clavatus, fructifer ampliatus. Petala obcordato- 
cuneata. Filamenta glabra. Carpophorum puberulam (non 
glabrum). 

Oeogr, limits. — N, The Banat, in Hungary. 
IT. Near Rome. 
8. Anavryti, in the nome of Messenia, 

Greece. 
E. Island of Khio, in the Turkish Archi- 
pelago. 

73. S. SCABRIDA, Say. -Will et Qodr., Sil. AlgSr.,'p. 33; Exped, 
Scient. en Alg&rie, Bot., t. 81 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 107. 

Differt a 8. trinervid floribus minoribus approximate, calyois 
exumbilicati nervis squamulas, nee piles curvatos, gerentibBfl, 
commissuris levibus, dentibus acutis, petalorum appendicibus 
obtuse bipartitis, capsul& ovoided. carpophore glabro sufPultft. 

Hab. Algeria. 

74. S. OROPEDiORUM, Goss., Blustr. Fl. Atlant., fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 132, t. 84. 

Caules 10-40 centim. longi, simplices vel parce ramosi, 
nonnunquam supeme dichotomi, adpresse puberulo-scabridi. 
Folia infeme ciliata, infeHora obovata yel oblonga, in petioluni 
breviter attenuata, media oblongo-lanceolata obtusinscula, 
superiora linearia basi et apice attenuata ; bracteie lineares, 
pediceUos longe suporantes. Floras erecti, breviter pedicellati, 
in pseudoraoemos 3-10-floro9 dispositi. Calyx oblongo-tubu- 
losus albidns, fructifer dilatatus infra capsulam angustatus, 
nervis viridibus latis planis crassis, a pilis latis rigidis squamu- 

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68 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENE. 

laBformibus adpressis obtectis, dentibns longis lineari-lanceolaiis 
acntis albo-marginatis ciliatis. Petala alba profande bipartita, 
lobis anguste linearibas, appendicibas bipartitis, lobis oblongis 
in tabnm sabcobsBrentibns. FilameDta glabra. Capsnla ovato- 
oblonga supeme acatata, oarpophomm glabrum 3-4-p1o 
snperans. Semina tenuiter cormgata, faciebns anfractuosa; 
canalicnli dorsalis marginibus cerebriformi-anfractaosis. 

A 8. scahridd differt, calycis dentibns angnstioribns longiori- 
bnsqne, petalomm lobis linearibas, et prffisertim seminnm 
fabridL. 

Hah, Algeria. 

b. Calyx glaber vel, si pnbesceus, pilis basi non bnlbosis 

vestitns. 

a. Calyx fructifer apioe non contractus. 

t Calyx nervis anastomosantibns. 

75. SiLENE MiCEOPETALA, Log.^ Chn. et Sp. PI.J p. 15 (1816) ; 
Soy.'Wtllj Exp. ScienL en Algeriej Bot.^ t. 81 (S. vestita) ; 
Rohrb., Monogr.f p. 108. 

Geogr, limits, -—N. Foencarral, in prov. of New Castile, Spain. 
S. and E. Near Oran, in Algeria. 
W. Faro, in prov. of Algarve, Portugal . 

76. S. ciSPLATBNSis, Cambess, in A, St, Hil, Fl, BrasU, Merid,, ii. 
p. 117, t. 108 ; Mart., Fl. Brasil., xiv. pars ii. p. 291, t. m 
(1872) ; Eohrh., Morwgr., p. 108. 

Species priori valde affinis, differt tamen pabescenti^, calycis 
dentibns ovatis, petalis longe diversis. 

Hab, Umgaay ; near tbe city of Monte- Video. 

77. S. IMBRICATA, Desf., FL Atlantica, i. p. 349, t. 98 (1798) ; 
Eohrb.f Monogr,j p. 109. 

/3. PoMRLi, Battand. (sp.) in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxviii. 
(1891) p. 219. 

Planta bispida ; calyx nervis parce anastomosantibns. 
Syn. S. obtnsifolia (non Willd.) Pomel, 

This plant is not sufficiently distinct from S. imbricata to be considered 
a separate species. 

Hob. Algeria. 

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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OENUS SILENE. 69 

tt Calyx evenins. 

78. SiLENE CLAKDESTiNA, Jocq.y Collect,, suppL, p. Ill (1796) 
t. 3 ; Bohrb.y Monogr,, p. 109. 

Adde syn. S. angnstifolia, Z>. Dietr,, Syn. Plant, ii. p. 1568 
(1839-1862). 

Qeogr, area. — ^Africa. — N, Algeria. S. Cape Colony. 

79. S. DISCOLOR, Sihth. et Smith, Prodr. FL Oroec, i. p. 292 
(1806); FL Qrceca, v. t. 410 ; Bohrb,, Monogr,, p. 110. 

Habitu yalde accedit ad S. pompeiopolitanam, differt tamen 
pnbescentii, floribas omnibus breviter pedicellatis, petaloram 
colore, seminumqae forrn^ divers^. 

Oeogr. limits. — E. Cyprus. 

W. Island of Milo, in the Grecian Archipelago. 

80. S. viLLOSA, Forsk., Fl, Aegypt, Arab., p. 88 (1775) ; Reichb., 
Ic. FL Germ. Helv., n. 5066 (S. sericea) ; Bohrb,, Mmogr., p. 110. 

fi. MICROPETALA, O088. in Bowg. PL Alger. Bar., n. 229 (1856) ; 
Batt., Fl. de VAlgerie, p. 136 (1888). 
Petala redncta, laminis roseis. 

Losas 2. forma indumento longiore magis viscoso, floribus 
albidis. 

Syn. S. yillosa var. isma&litica, Schweinf. in Asch. et 
Schtceinf., Illustr. Fl. d'^gypte, in Mem. Inst. JSgypt ii. (1889) 
p. 748. 

7. DESKRTICOLA, Schweiuf. exs., n. 53 (1880), in Herb. Kew. 
(ined.). 

Densissime et aspemle viscido-tomentosa. Caules foliosi 
mnltiflori. Folia trinervia, sed nervis pnbescenti4 obscnratis. 

Syn. Silene sp., n. 142, Bromfield (1851), Herb. Hook, in 
Herb. Kew. 

Hah. Yadi Tnmil&t, near Ismail ia. Lower Egypt. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Palestine, near the Dead Sea {Tristram, 
Surv. West. Palest. Bot., p. 242). 
S. Upper Egypt. 
E. Mt. Sinai, in Arabia Petrsea. 
W. Ain Sefra, in the Algerian Desert. 

p. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 

81. S. PENDULA, Linn., Sp. Plant., ed. I. p. 418 ; Curt., Bot. 
Mag., t. 114 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 111. 



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70 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GBNUS SILENE. 

Adde: Canles decnmbentes. Calyx vix nmbilicatns. Pila- 
menta glabra. 

Adde syn, S. Corsica (non DC), Sang., Fl. Bom. Prodr. Alt., 
p. 769 (1855). 
/. lepinensis, Terrace. inNuovo Qiom. Bot. Ital, (1894), p. 153. 
Canles abbreviati, erecfci nee decnmbentes, parce ramosi. 
Folia ima dense rosnlata, cetera minora rarioraqne. Mores 
subnnilaterales mediocres. Semina snbrotando-reniformia, 
tnbercnlato-hispida. 

Hah. Mt. Lepini, near Rome. 
Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Borne. 
E. Cypms. 

8. Djordjnra, in Algeria (Debeaux, in Rev. 
Bot. France, xi. (1893) p. 57). 

D. Semina globosa, dorso convexa, facidbus plano-convexa. 
nndique obtuse tnberculata. 

a. Calyx frnctifer apice non contractus, evenins. 

82. SiLBNB ADSCEKDENS, Lag., Gen. et 8p. PL, p. 15, n. 194 
(1816) ; walk., Ic. Desc. PI. Nov. Hisp., i. p. 41, t. 27 ; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 111. 

In mountain specimens the petals are larger. 
HaJb. S. Spain. 

83. S. LiTTOBEA, Brot.,Fl. Lusit., ii. (1804) p. 186; Willk., 
Ic. Desc. PL Nov. Hisp., i. p. 49, t. 34 a ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 112. 

fi. BLATIOR, Willk., I.e., t. 34 b; Willk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. 
Hisp., iii. p. 650; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 112 (S. littorea, lusus 2). 

Species a S. villosd, qu4 confnsa est, di£fert calycis dentibus 
lanceolatis obtnsis et praesertim seminum forma. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Vigfo Bay, in Gralicia. 

E. Iviza, in the Balearic Islands. 
S. Coast of Andalusia. 
W. Near Lisbon. 

b. Calyx fructifer apice contractus, striis anastomosantibus. 

84. S. PSAMMiTis, Link, ap. Spreng., Nov. Prov. Hal. BeroL, 
p. 39 ; Willk., Ic. Desc. PL Nov. Hisp., p. 40, t. 25 (S. Agro- 
stemma) ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 113. 

Nomen Linkii Rohrbach anteposuit, quod hflsc forma est 
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MB. P. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 71 

altera in alfceram speciem Linkianam transeat neqne varietates 
dignosci possant. (Confer Ascherson in *Bot. Zeitnng/ xvii. 
1859, p. 293.) 

— Differt S, psammitia a S. villosd et a S, penduld prsBsertim 
seminibas ; S. pendulce ealyce fructif ero ampliato, apice contracto, 
magis accedit, di£Eert autem jam nervis anastomosantibna et 
capsaU ovato-conic^. 

fi. LASIOSTYLA, Boiss. (sp.), Diogn. PL Nov. Or.y Ser. I. viii. 
p. 79 ; Willk,, Ic. Besc, PI Nov. Hisp., i. p. 40, t. 26 ; Willk, et 
Lange^ Prodr. Fl. Hisp,, iii. p. 651. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Sierra de Gnadarrama, prov. of Old Castile. 
S. Near Tangier, in Morocco. 
E. Sierra de Segnra, prov. of Mnrcia. 
W. Portugal. 

b. DipterospemwB. 

Semina rotund o-reniformia compressa, faciebns plaoiuscula, 
dorso alis duabus undulatis marginato profuude canaliculata. 
Flores in cincinnis simplicibus vel interdum geminatis. 

a. Capsul® carpophorum pnberulum. 

85. SiLBNB SERiCEA, AU., Fl. Pedem., ii. p. 81, t. 79, f. 3 
(1785) ; Desf., Fl. Atlant., i. p. 362, t. 100 (S. bipartita) ; 
Jacq.y Fragm., i. 59 (S. hispauica) ; Eeichb.y Ic. Fl. Oerm. 
Hdv., n. 5068 (S. vespertina) ; Moris, Fl. Sardoa, i. p. 253, 
t. 17, f . I (var. angustifolia) ; Willd.y Hort. BeroL, faac. ii. t. 23 
(S. hirta) ; Willk., Ic. Descr. PI. Nov. Hisp., p. 45, t. 30 (S. 
bipartita o vulgaris, B : forma parviflora,), t. 31 (forma angus- 
tifolia), t. 32 (S. sericea) ; Tanfani, in Pari. Fl. Italiana, ix. 
p. 369 ; Bohrh., Monogr., pp. 113-117 (S. sericea, et S. colorata, 
PotV.). 

HsBc species poljmorpha in duas subspecies divideatur : — 

1. Subspec. S. colorata, Poir. 

2. Subspec. S. Oliveriana, Otth. 

1. Subspec. S. colorata, Poir., Voy. en Barb.y p. 163 (1798). 

Folia inferiora obtnsa. Caljx pilis adpressis plus minus longis 
vestitusy ad strias iuterdum lanuginosus, dentibus ovatis. 
Petala rosea, unguibus longe exsertis, lobis cnneato-oblongis 
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72 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENU3 8ILENE. 

Grex a. pnbicalycina FenzL Canlis erectas vel adscendens ; 
calyx pube brevisaim^ ad strias adpress^ vix longiore vestitus, 
interdam inter strias glaber. 

a. yuLGARis, WiUL, Ic, Bescr. PL Nov. Hisp., i. p. 45, t. 30 a ; 
Willk, et Lange, Prodr. FL Hisp.y iii. p. 651. 
Adde syn. S. saxicola, Bouy, in Bull, Soc. Bot France , xxix. 
(1882) p. 43. 
S. seoandiflora, Otth, in DC. Prodr., i. p. 375. 

/3. DECUMBENS, 5ir. (sp.), Stcul PI Cent., i. p. 75, t. 6 (1806) ; 
Sims, Bot. Mag., t. 677 (1803), (S. vespertina). 

Grex h. trichocal jcina, FenzL Caalis erectas vel adscendens ; 
calyx ad strias pilis longis confervoideis pnbescens, inter strias 
glaber. 

7. DISTACHYA, Brot. (sp.), Fl. Lujtit., ii. p. 189 (1804) ; Phytogr. 
LusiL seL, t. 71 ; Willk., Tc. Descr. PL Nov. Hisp., i. p. 45, t. 30, 
CD. (S. bipartita va/r. lasiocalyx) ; Willk. et Lange, Prodr. FL 
Hisp., iii. p. 652. 

B. PTEROPLEUBA, Co88. in Bourg. PL d'Alg. (1856), n. 224 (S. 
bipartita var. pteroplenra). 

Grex c. crassifolia, Moris. Canlis hnmilis decnmbens. Folia 
camosa saborbicnlata vel spatbnlata. Cincinni panciflori. 
Calyx totns pilis longis sericeis adpressis vestitus. 

Syn. S. sericea var. crassifolia, Moris, FL Sardoa, i. p. 253^ 
U 17 (1837). 

2. snbspec. S. Oliveriana, Otth, in DC. Prodr., i. p. 373. 

Canlis adpresse vel patnle pnbescens. Folia omnia acnta 
linearia vel lanceolata ; bractesB lineares. Calyx ad strias pilis 
brevibns recnrvis vestitns, inter strias scabridns, dentibus 
oblongis. Petala alba, ungnibns panllnm exsertis, lobis lineari- 
bus, appendicibns ovatis obtnsis. 

As the late Enrico Tan&ni points out, the description of the seeds of 
S. sericea as giren by Bohrbach is erroneous, and that they are exactly 
similar to those of S. colorata; this being so, there is no reason for 
separating the two species, and S. sericea being the older name becomes 
the proper name for this extremely variable and polymorphous species. 
He says: '*Anche Bohrbach, il monografo del genere, guidato forse in 
errore dalla figura di Willkomm (loc. cit,, t. 32) nella quale il seme h 
rappresentato esageratamente sotto una forma cui talora si avvicina, ha 
creduto che la S, sericea non corrispondesse alia pianta tanto estesamente 
diffusa nella regione mediterranea e per la quale cred^ dover quindi 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 73 

adottare il nome di 8. eolorata. Ma h indubitato che la pianta di AUioni 
non h altro cbe la comune 8, sericea tanto abbondante in tutto il nostro 
littorale. Talora i semi in alcuni frutti mal sviluppati restano piii piccoli^ 
e con le ali mono ben syiluppate. lo in un medeaimo fr ut to ho potuto 
osservare semi perfetti reniformi e semi striminziti e che assumeyano forma 
paragonabile a quella di im orecchio." Tbe iconography of this species 
has been more fully given in order to compare and estimate the Talue 
of the deviations from the type, and to avoid confusion from the over- 
lapping descriptions in the discrimination of the various forms figured. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Trieste, in Istria. 
S. Abyssinia. 

E, Near Teheran, in Persia. 
W. Canary Islands. 

86. SiLENE GLAUCA, Pourr. herb, ex Lag., Elench. Hort. Madrit. 
(1808), ^de ej. Gen. et Sp. Nov., p. 15; (et sec. specim. ex horto 
Madritensi in herb. Link>) ; Willk., Ic. Descr. PI. Nov. Hisp., i. 
p. 42, t. 28 ; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 117. 

Adde : Flores erecto-patnli. Calyx striis virentibus vel 
purpurascentibos. Petala obovato-cuneata, tinguibxis inclusis. 

Differt a S. sericed, bracteis fere aBqnalibns, calyce breviore 
fraetifero valde ampliato nmbilicato, striis latioribns snperne 
venosis, petalis minus profunde bipartitis (bilobis), capsullL 
globosH, seminibas duplo majoribus. 

Ex syn. S. secundiflora = S. sericea. 

fi. MiNoe, Bouy, Exc. Bot. Esp., ii. (1883) p. 63 ; Willk., 
Prodr. Fl. Hisp., suppl, p. 279 (1893). Caulis hnmilis, 
8-15 centim. longas, subsimplex 1-2-florus. Folia brevia^ 
basilaria lanceolata, caulina inferiora angaste lanceolata, 
saperiora linearia fere subnlata. Flores minores. 
Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Barcelona, in Catalonia. 
S^ Algeria. 
E. Balearic Isles. 
W. Near Tangier, in Marocco. 

87. S. GLABRESCENS, Coss., Ulustr. Fl. Atlaut., fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 133, t. 85. 

Glabrescens. Caules 10-20 centim. longi, erecti vel late- 
rales ascendent es, ad medium vol a basi ramosi, rarius 
simpHces. Folia pilis ad tuberculum redactis, punctata, 
margine scabra, infeme longe et parce ciliata, inferiora obovata 
vel obovato-oblonga in petiolum latum attenuata, subrasulata. 



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74 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

caulina oblongo-lanccolata vel lanceolata snbsessilia. Bracteaa 
foliis Buperioribxus conformes, saperiores valde insBqnales. 
Flores saberecti vel erecto.patuli inferiores ssepius longe 
superiores breviter pedicellati in cincinnos simplices 2-7-floro8 
dispositi. Caljx glaber tubalosas nmbilicattLS, fructifer tantum 
dilatatus, supeme hand constrictiis, albo-membranaceos, nervis 
viridibus vel rubentibus commissuralibas supeme vennlas plures 
emittentibas sed venula nnic^ suprema cam reticnlo nervi 
sepalini conflaentibas, dentibns ovato-triangularibus acntis 
albo-marginatis breviter ciliatis. PetaJa bipartita, lobis 
obloDgis, ungnibns subexsertis, appendicibus binis ovato- 
suborbicnlatis, omnibus in coronam snbcobaBrentibas. Fila- 
menta glabra. Capsnla ovato-oblonga, carpophornm sabeequans. 

Ab h&c plants S. longicaulis differt foliis pnbescentibns, 
fioribas parvulis, caljce basi attennata, appendicibus parvnlis 
acatis, capsultl oblongi carpophornm bis terve snperante. 

Hob, Marocco. 

88. SiLENB LONGICAULIS, Pourr. ex Lag., Blench, Hort, Madrit.f 
ISOS.Jide ej. Gen, et Sp, Nov., p. 15 ; Willk., Ic, Desor. PI Nov, 
Htsp,, i, p. 61, t. 4A B"; Eohrh., Monogr., p. 117. 

Adds: Inconspicna. Caalis simplex vel farcato-ramosns, 
s8Bpe pnrpurascens. Flores erecto-patuli. Petala parvnla, 
nngnibus inclnsis fance in tnbnm connatis. 

Oeogr, limits, — E, Puerto Real, on S. coast of Spain. 
Wf Faro, on S. coast of Portugal. 

b. Capsules carpophornm glabrum. 

89. S. APETALA, WiUd,, Sp. Plant,, ii. p. 703 (non 307 nt 
passim), et Herb,, n. 8656 (1799); Reichh,, Ic, Fl. Germ, Helv., 
u, 5060 ; Bohrb,, Monogr,, p. 118. 

^. ALEXANDRINA, Asch,, Illustr. Fl. d' Egypte, iti Mem, Inst, 
^Egypte, ii. (1889) p. 46. 

Calycis nervi villis tuberculis insidentibus hirsnti. 

Hab, Egypt ; on the coast. 

Geogr, limits, — N, Talavera, in prov. of New Castile, Spain. 

S. Island of Korgo, in the Persian Gulf. 

E. Afghanistan. 

W, Canary Isles. 

90. S. DECIPIENS, Barcelo, in Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist, Nat., viii. 
(1879) p. 340; Fl, Isl, Baleares, p. 61. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON TH£ GENUS SILENE. 75 

Gaolis erectns e basi ramostis pnbescens, 12-27 centim. lon^us. 
Folia uninervia, inferiora ovato-lanceolata in petiolnm vagin- 
antem attenuata, intermedia lanceolato-linearia acata ; bractece 
parvcB ovato-lanceolatae, acntfo. Flores breviter pedicellati. 
Calyx tobnloHns, fructifer ovato-oblongnn, striis viridibns 
pilosis supeme anastomosantibos, dentibns elongato-lanceolatis 
aontis margine scariosis. Petala bi partita rosea, lobis linearibns 
obtnsis, appendicibns binis linearibns obtasis. Capsnla ovato- 
cjliudrica carpophomm sexies snperans. Semina parva, faciebns 
concavinscnia, dorso obtnse canalicniata. 

Hah, Majorca, in the Balearic Isles. 

B. Species perennes. 
a. ApterospermsB. 
Semina reniformia vel auriformia, dorso nnnquam alis 
ondnlatis marginato. Flores in cincinnis simplicibns. 

A. Canles florigeri e basi rosnlsB foliorum terminalis latcr- 
aliter edent.es. 

91. SiLENE LEGiOMENSis, Lag,, Oen, et Sp. PI,, p. 14, n. 188 
(1816) ; WUlk,, Ic, Vescr, PL Nov, Hisp,, i, p. 67, t. 51 ; Bohrh,, 
Monogr,, p. 118. 

Adde : Flores snb anthesi patnli, postea erecti. 
Geogr, limits, — N. and W, Cantabrian Mountains, in Galicia. 
S. and E, Sierra de Segura, in prov. of 
Murcia. 

92. S. ATLANTiCA, Co88. el Lur. in Bull, Soc, Bot, France, 
ii. (1855) p. 307; Illustr, n, Atlant., fasc. iv. (1890) p. 135, 
t. 86; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 119. 

A S, legumensi differt, foliis rosnlsB erectis obovatis vel 
oblongis in petiolnm longam attenuatis, non patentibus 
lanceolatis vel lanceolato-linearibns in parte inferiore vix 
attenuatis, floribus majoribus in pseudoracemos 2-4-floros 
dispositis, capsuU oblonga, seminibus utr4que facie excavatis. 

Hah. Algeria and Tunis. 

B. Caules florigeri terminales, e rosulsB foliorum medio 
edentes (aut folia non rosulata). 

a. Calycis dentes elougato-lanceolati acuti. 
a, Flores caljco malto brevius pedicellati. 

93. S. Choulettbi, Com, in Bull, Soc, Bot, France, ix. (1862) 



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76 ME. p. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENOS SILENK. 

p. 169; niustr. Fl, Atlant, fasc. iv. (1890) p. 136, t. 87; 
Bohrh.j Monogr., p. 119. 

A S. atlanticd differt, canlibns caudicis ramulos terminan- 
tibus, foliis infimis in petiolam brevem attennatis, pseudo- 
racemis saBpins plnri Boris non 2-4-floriB, caljce tnbaloso- 
infundibaliformi, stipite capsalsB longitadinem dimidiam 
soperaute. 

Hah. Algeria. 

94. SiLENE HocHSTETTERf, Bohrb. in Bot. Zeitung, xxv. (1867) 
p. 81 ; Monogr., p. 120. 
Hah. Abjssinia. 

p, Flores calyce longius pedicellati. 
96. S. BiAFRJE, Hook.f. in Jowm. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vii. (1864) 
p. 183 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 120. 

Hah. The Cameroons on the Bight of Biafra, German West 
Africa. 

b. Caljcis dentes obtnsi, vel rare ovati acuti. 
a. HerbsB Dnnquam caespitem formantes. 

96. S. BuKCHELLii, Otth, in DC. Prodr., i. p. 374; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 120. 

8yn. ? ? S. SBthiopica, Burm. f., Fl. Cap. Prodr.,^. 13 (1768). 

(Fide speciminis manci in Herb. Kew.) 
a. CEENUA, Bartl. (sp.) in Linncea, vii. (1832) p. 623. 
p. LATiFOLU, Bond., in Harv. et Bond., Fl, Capensis, i. p. 128. 
7. PiLOSELLiEFOLlA, Cham, et Schlecht. (sp.) in Linncea, i. 
(1826) p. 41. 

Adde syn. S. piloselloides, Q. Bon, Gen. Syst., i. p. 404. 

" Harvey, in his ' Fl. Cspendfl/ i. p. 128, does not quote nnd probably had 
not seen Burchell*s n. 271, which was the type specimen of this species. 
Consequently he has described from other forms. On the other hand, 
S. Thunbergiana {vide Rohrb., * Monogr.,* p. 121, n. 76), founded on their 
(Ecklon and Zeyher) n. 263, is obTiously identical with Burchell's 
n. 271, — the last name, 8. Thunbergiana^ must therefore be suppressed. 
The forms hitherto commonly marked in herbaria 8. Burchellii, Otth 
(see Burchell's nos. 580, 1254, 6789), and those of many recent collectors^ 
must, I nk, be regarded as a mere yariety, with more erect habit, and 
generally tendency to narrower leaves — n. 271 being the maritime form, 
with broader leaves (see Gerrard's n. 605 from Natal), these forms are 
connected by intermediate states, but I can find no difFereoces whatever in 
the calyx-teeth or fruit. Under these varieties and under various names 
(including 8. chirentit and 8. sericea of A. Rich., ' Tent. Fl. Abyssin.*), thi» 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENOS SILENE. 17 

species extends yery widely over Africa from the Gape to Abyssinia.'* — 
(H, BolmM, MS., in Herb, Kew.) 

The aboTe is a yaluable note by Mr. Bolus on the type-specimens, though 
I am not inclined to sink 8. cJUrentU and S. »ericea, A. Rich., in the species. 
With this resenration, the distribution of the species is, however, not 
restricted to Cape Colony and Natal. It has recently been recorded for 
Oriqualand East. 

Geogr, limits, — N, and E. Mt. Kilima-Njaro, in German East 
Africa. 
S. Plettenbnrg Bay, in Cape Colony (var. 7). 
W. Hnilla, in Angola ; Portuguese West Africa 
(Welwitsch, herb., n. 1082). 

97. SiLENE PRIMULJIFLORA, Eckl, et Zey., Enum. PL Afr, 
Austr. Extratr,, p. 32 (1835) ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 122. 

Hob, Cape Colony. 

98. S. CBA88IFOLLA, Linn., Sp. Plant,, ed. II. p. 597 ; Rohrh., 
Motiogr,, p. 122. 

Hah. Natal. 

p. IlerbaB ceespitem densum formantes. 
t Calyx evenius. 

99. S. M UN DIANA, Eckl. et Zey., Enum. PI, Afr. Austr. 
Extratr,, p. 32 (1835) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 123. 

Hab, Paardekop, near Plettenberg Bay, Cape Colony. 

100. S. ELEOANS, Link, av. Brot. Fl. Ludt., ii. (1804?) p. 185 ; 
Willk,, Ic. Desc, PL Nov. Htap., i, p. 71, t. 52 A ; Rohrb., Monogr., 
p. 123. 

Adde: Nana. Folia rosalata subenervia. Calyx rubellus 
niembranaceus. Petala nnguibns subauriculatis late alatis 
villoBO-ciliatis. Capsula ovato-oblonga carpophoruoi sBquans. 

Difiert a 8, ciliaid, cui valde affinis, prsssertim calyoe hand 
ainpliato umbilicato evenio. 

Syn, S. Campanula (non Pers.), Lapeyr., Hist. Abr. Pyren,, 
p. 248. 
S. Borderi, Jord., ex Bohrb., Monogr., p. 137, n. 113; 

Willk, et Lange, Prodr, FL Hisp., iii. p. 655. 
S. punctata, Bub, Herb,, ex Willk, et Lange, Prodr, FL 

Hisp.^ iii. p. 655. 
S. Campoi, Lose, ex Tratad. PL Arag., ii. (1877) p. 23. 



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78 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 

Oeogr. limits, — N. Pyrenees (French side). 

8. and W, Sierra d'Estrella, in Portugal. 
E. Pyrenees (Spanish side). 

tt Calyx striis bifurcatim conjanctis. 

101. SiLENE ciLUTA, FouTT, in MSm. Acad. Toul., iii. (1788) 
p. 328 ; WillK Ic. Descr, PI Nov. Hisp., i. p. 58, t. 42 a (S. ciliafca, 
typ. I. pyrenaicus). 

Adde : Semina dorso canalicniata, nee plana, 
a. GENUINA, Bohrh., Monogr.y p. 124. 

p. GENICULATA, Pourr. (sp.), l.c. ; Willk., Ic. Descr. PL Nov, 
Hisp.^ i. p. 59, t. 42 b (S. ciliata, typ. 11. hispanicos) ; Bohrh,, 
Monogr.y p. 124. 

Oeogr. limits. — JV^. Mt. Plomb de Cantal, in Anvergne, France 
(var, a). 
S. and E, Mt. Olympns, in Thessaly, Greece 

(var, a). 
W. Mt. Penafnrada, near Ai-vac, in prov. of 
Asturias (var. /3). 

b. DipterospermsB. 
Semina rotundo-reniformia, faciebas planinscnla, dorso alis 
daabns nndolatis margin ato profunde acute canaliculata. 
Flores in cincinnis laxis duplicibus vel triplicibus. 

102. S. INTRUSA, Wight et Am,, Prodr, Penins. Ind, Or,, p. 42. 
Caules valde et laxe ramosi erecti, infeme glabri supeme 

scabri viscidi; florigen terminales. Folia lanceolata obtusi- 
uscula; bractesB parvaB lanceolatae dense dliatad. Flores 
breviter pedicellati, medio interdum abortivi. Calyx plus 
minus elongatns clavato-truncatus, friictifer pauUum ampliatns 
infra capsulam leviter constrictus, umbilicatus, glanduloso- 
pubescens, nervis nigricantibus supeme arcuatira conjunctis, 
dentibus lanceolatis acutis dense ciliatis. Petala rosea, magna, 
unguibus glabris exsertis, bipartita, lobis late ovato-oblongis, 
appendicibus bin is oblongis. Capsula ovoidea oarpophorom 
subsBquans. 

8. sericeam in memoriam ducit, non solum seminum form& 
sed etiam toto habitu. 

8yn, S. indica, var. Wall., Cat., n. 642 e. 

Melandryum intrusum, Bohrh., Monogr., p. 233, et in 
Linncea, xxxvi. (1869) p. 242. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 79 

This species was excluded by Rohrbacli from the genus, as the capsule 
appeared to be unilocular, but Dr. T. Thomson has demonstrated the 
existence of septa ; it is therefore here restored. 

Hah, The Nilagiri Mts., in Malabar. 

Sectio II. DICHASIOSILENE. 

Herbse perennes vel annuaB, paucsB biennes. Flores in dichasio 
Bimplici yel plus minas composito breviter yel longe pedicellati, 
dichasii ramis fldqualibos ant ineeqnalibus, ramo altero in specie- 
bag nonnnllis in florem nnnm reducto ; interdnm flores dichasio 
contracto capitnlum formantes, in speciebas perennibns maltis, 
dichasii floribns plerisque abortivis, canlis nni-vel biflorus ; — 
rarissime inter Brachypodas flores in racemo simplici pancifloro 
dispositi. 

A. Species perennes, inter Compactas pancaa biennes vel annnje. 
a. Petala nngaibns ntrinqne auricnlatis. 

Series I. AurimdatoB. 

Species alpiniB nni-vel bifloree, petala nngnibns ntrinqne 
dente obtnso vel acuto anricnlatis. 

A. Canles florigeri terminales. 

a. Folia snbnlata vel falcata, interdnm pnngentia. 

a. Calyx dentibns obtasis. 

t Calyx striis anastomosantibns. 

103. SiLENE FALCATA, SiUh, et 8m., Prodr. Fl. Orcec, i. p. 301 
(1806) ; Fl, GroEca, v. p. 25, t. 436 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 125. 

Species ab aflBnibns capsnU e calyce exsert& distinctissima. 
Hab, Mt. Kheshish-tagh (Mt. Olympns), in Anatolia. 

104. S. MASMENJiA, Boiss,, Diagn. PL Nov, Or., Ser. II. v. p. 57 ; 
Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 126. 

Differt a 8. Echino foliis tennioribus ciliatis, calyce florifero 
tenniori non clavato, capsal4 qnam carpophorum longiore. 

Hah, Masmenen-dagh, Aslan-dagh, and Beryt-dagh, in the 
provinces of Karamania and Marasch ; Asia Minor. 

105. S. ARGJIA, Fisch, et Mey. in Ann, Sc, Nat., Ser. IV. i. 
(1854) p. 36 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 126. 



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80 MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Hab. Arjish-Dagh (Mt. ArgsBus), in prov. of Karamania. 

106. SiLENE MENTAGENSI8, Co88,, Blustr. FL Atlunt., fasc. iv. 
(1890) p. 145, t. 94. 

Caules 30-50 centim. longi, erecti, graciles infeme simplices 
vel fere a basi ramosi, sapeme dichotome ramosi, glabrescentes. 
Folia anguste linearia, acuta, glabrescentia ; bractesB lineares, 
infeme marginato-membranaceo), ciliolatsB. Floras longe pedi- 
cellati, pedicellis quam bractead mnlio lougioribns, in cjmas 
laterales et terminales laxas dispositi. Calyx tnbnloso-infun- 
dibuliformis glaber, fmctifer ovatns vel sabglobosas superne 
clavatns apice baud contractns, infra capsnlam constrictus, 
albido-vel rabenti-membranaoeos, nervis filiform ibus, dentibos 
brevibus ovato-oblongis membranaceo-marginatis cilialis. Petala 
livida, nngaibos exsertis glabris dente parvo obtuso anricnlatis, 
bifida, lobis oblongis obtosis, appendicibus binis parvis ovatis, 
integris inter se liberis. Filamenta glabra. Capsala ovoidea, 
sapeme acntata carpopboram Bcabram saquans vel hoc sesqai- 
brevior. Semina reniformia compressa, dorso faciebusqne plana 
et tnbercnloram praemiiientinm seriebas ecbinatis. 

Caulibus elatis dichotomis, calycibas fructiferis clavatis, S. 
portensem refert, sed ab h4c et ceteris speciebns ejnsdem gregis 
EigidulcB (series 9) candice perenni eximie distincta. 

Hah. Djebel Mentaga, in S.-W. Marocco. 

107. S. RHYNCHOCARPA, Boiss.^ Diagn. PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 33 ; Rohrb., Motwgr., p. 126. 

Hah. Anatolia. 

108. S. STENTOBiA, Feml, Pugill. PI. Nov. Syr., p. 9 (1842) ; 
Eusse^g., Eeise Illustr., t. 2 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 127 (S. caryo- 
phylloides). 

Syn. Cncabalas caryophylloides, Poir., Encyc, suppL, i. 
p. 416. 

Tbe older specific name is not only misleading but inappropriate ; I have 
therefore followed Boissier (FL Orient, i. p. 619) in retaim'ng Fenzl's name, 
by which all misunderstanding is avoided and the plea of conyenience is 
sustained. 

Geogr. limits. — N. and E. R. Euphrates, in prov. of Marasch. 
S. Summit of Mt. Lebanon, in Syria. 
W. Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 



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MB. F. N. WILLUHS ON THE 0ENU8 SILENE. 81 

ft Calyx evenias. 

109. SiLENB TRAQAClNTHA, Fenzl, op. Boiss,, Fl. Orienty i. 
p. 621 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 125. 

Adde : Pedicelli mediam versas vel infra caljcem bracteati. 
Petala bipartita. 

Thifl plant has the habit and appearance of a speoies of Tratfocantka or 
Acantholimon, Boissier's description is fragmentary, and, as he says, is 
drawn up from imperfect material, additional characters are here giTcn from 
examination of specimens in Herb. Eew. Bohrbach's description was 
drawn up from specimens preserred in the Vienna Herbarium. 

Hah, Mt. Knh-Dagna, in S. Persia. 

/3. Calyx dentibus aoutis, striis anastomosantibus. 

110. S. Echinus, Botes, et Hddr., Dtagn. PI. Nov. Or,, Ser. II. 
V. p. 56 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 125. 

A formis minoribus 8, suhulatm prsBter petala foliis planis 
aceroso-pnngentibos distincta. 

Hah, Mt. Budron, near the town of Isbarta, in Anatolia. 

111. S. SUBULATA, Boi88,y Diogn. PL Nov, Or,, Ser. I. viii. p. 33; 
Rohrh,y Monogr,, p. 127 (S. caryophylloides var, nardifolia in 
parte). 

Canles caespitosi erecti yiscido-pubescentes pumili nniflori. 
Folia angoste linearia snbtriqaetra rigida snbalata scabride 
pnbescentia basi ciliata. Flores longe pedicellati, Calyx 
tubulosas glanduloso-pnbescens, dentibas oblongis. Petala 
alba, nngnibns exsertis dente acnto anricnlatis, laming 
obcordat& parv^ appendicibns binis oblongis crennlatis. Cap- 
snla oblonga carpophomm glabrnm aeqaans. Semina dorso 
graonlata, leviter canal iculata, faciebas plana. 

A 8, stentorid differt praoter folia tenniora calyce post 
anthesin clavato, capsolas adpresso nee torbinato. 

Chogr, limits, — JE, Baibont, in prov. of Erzeronm. 

W. Gnmnchkhane, in prov. of Trebizond. 

112. S. PINDICOLA, Haussk. in Mittheil, Thimng. Bot, Ver^ v. 
(1887) p. 85 ; et Heft v. (1893) p. 50. 

Canles caaspitosi erecti tenerrimi nniflori, in parte inferiore 
dense foliosi, in parte dimidi& snperiore bibracteati, infeme 
tenniter papilloei, snpeme glandnloso-viscidi. Folia linearia 
acnta papilloso-scabriascnla basi dilatato-vaginantia saape 
snbrecnrva, in axillis plemmqne ramnlis sterilibns florendi 

UHN. JOUBN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXIL Q 



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82 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

tempore nondum evolutis munita. Calyx longe cylindrico- 
clavatus glaberrimus membranaceiis roseo-suffnsus, striis 
filiformibus, dentibus trianfipilaribiis albo-marginatis. Petala 
sordide fusca bi partita, lobis oblongis obtusis. Capsnla oblongo- 
ovoidea, carpophoro glabro bis snperata. Semina grannlata. 

Facies S, OrphanidtSj quae differt statura robustiore, foliis 
longioribus latioribusqne nimis confertis, caljcis dentibus 
latioribus, bracteis binis lanceolatis acutis ad calycis basin (nee 
flore nudo), capsule longiore. 

Hah. Greece ; tbe peak of Zjgos, on Mt. Pindns, in Thessalj. 

7. Calyx dentibus altematim acatis et retusis, striis apice 
anastoniosantibns. 

113. SiLENE XYLOBASis, Freyn, in Bull. Herb. Boiss,, iii. (1895) 
p. 100. 

Dense pnlvinaris. Caules pumili densissime ceespitosi erecti 
tenerrimi nniflori, snpeme glandnloso - viscidi. Folia basi 
dilatato-vaginantia pallida coriacea ciliolata, lanceolata, infima 
congesta, reliqna pauca distantia, snprema albo-marginata 
purpureo-snffnsa. Calyx tnbuloso-clavatns glaber nmbilicatus 
pallidas, nervis mbellis, dentibns ovatis scarioso-marginatis 
ciliolatis. Petala livida bipartita lobis lineari -oblongis, 
ungnibns exsertis, appendicibns binis trapezoideo-ovatis obtusis. 
Capsnla ellipsoidea carpophoro bis snperata. 

Hah, Summit of Mt. Ak-dagh, in prov. of Siwas, near 
Amasia (July, 1891). 

b. Folia mutica recta baud falcata. 
a. Calyx dentibus obtusis, striis latis rubris snpeme anastomo- 

santibus. 
.114. S. DUNTHiPOLiA, /. Gay, ap, Tchihat., Asie Min. Bot, i. 
p. 193 (1860) ; Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 128. 

Oeogr, limits, — N. Mt. Beryt-dagh, in prov. of Marasch. 
8, and E. Mt. Kuh-Delu, in S. Persia. 
W, Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 

115. S. Oephanidis, Boiss,, Fl, Orient, i. p. 651 ; Bohrh,, 
Monogr., p. 128. 

Adde : Semina ruguloso-tuberculata. 
Hah. Mt. AthoB, in Bumelia. 

116. S. Saegenti, 8, Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xiv. (1879) 
p. 290 ; B. L. Bohinson, I.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 142. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 83 

CaBspitosa, mnltiflora, pnbernla, 15 centim. alt. Folia linearia 
vel oblanceolata. Calyx cylindricns, fructifer infra capsulani 
consfcrictus. Petala alba vel camea, bifida, nngnibus exsertis 
anricnlis latis, laciniatim dentatis, laming obovati, appendicibns 
majnsculis dentatis. Capsnla cylindrica longe stipitata. Semina 
dorso cristato-tnbercnlata, faciebns levia. 

Habitn 8. Bouglasii revooat, sed calyx hand inflatns. 

Hah, Table Min., Monitor Range, N. Nevada. 

117. SiLENE HUMiLis, 0. A, Mey.y Enum, PI. Oauc., p. 215 
(1831) ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 128. 

Adde : Canles procnmbentes vel adsoendentes. Petala camea 
vel sangninea. 

Hah. The Eastern Cancasns. 

118. S. TACHTENSis, Franch. in Ann, Sc. Nat, SSr. VI. xv. 
(1883) p. 239. 

E basi f mticnlos&, ramosissima, ramnlis erectis inf erne tennis- 
sime pnbemlis. Folia oblongo-lanceolata acnta aspemlata, 
infeme in petiolnm longe attennata ; bracten lanceolataa, 
margine albo-hyalin», lannginossB. Pedioelli calyce snbbre- 
viores. Calyx clavato-cylindricns membranacens nmbilicatns, 
dentibns brevibns fere orbicnlatis snbtiliter ciliolatis, marginibns 
late hyalino-membranaceis. Petala alba, nnguibns glabris yix 
exsertis. Filamenta glabra. Capsnla carpophoro bis snperata. 

Hah, Tnrkestan. 

119. S. Grati, 8, Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad.y xiv. (1879) 
p. 291 ; B, L, Bohinaon, i.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 143; Goult, Bot, 
Gazette, xvi. (1891) p. 44, t. 6, f. 7-8. 

CflBspitosa stricta pnmila canescenti-pnbescens viseidnla 
panciflora. Canles erecti, 12 oentim. longi, snpeme parcins 
foliati. Folia oblanceolata. Flores 2-3 in canle. Calyx 
clavato-cylindricns, dentibns rotnndatifl. Petala camea bifida, 
nngnibns angnste anricnlatis, appendicibns latis snbintegris. 
Capsnla ovoidea snbsessilis. 

Hah, California; Mt. Shasta, near the snow-line. 

120. S. Watsoni, B, L. BobinsoUyinProc, Amer. Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 143. 

CsBspitosa, stricta, gracilis, snpeme glandnloso-pnbeiTila, 
infeme snbglabra. Canles erecti gimplices, 12-20 centim. 

o 2 



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84 MB. p. N. WILLIAMS ON THE QENUS SILENE. 

longi. Folia linearia vel angaste oblanceolata acuta, basi in 
petiolnm yaginantem attennata. Flores 1-3 in oaule. Caljx 
ovatns, dentibns albo-marginatis. Petala alba vel rosea, bifida, 
appendicibns obtnsis. 

8yn. Lychnis califomica, 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., 
xii. (1877) p. 248. 

Hah. California ; Plumas and Sierra counties, Mt. Dana, and 
near Ebbett*s Pass. 

121. SiLBNB SuKSDORFii, 5. L. Bobifison, in Goult., Bot. Oazette, 
xvi. (1891) p. 44, t. 5, f. 9-11 ; et in Proc. Amer, Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 143. 

GsBspitosa, stricta, pumila, infeme pubemla, supeme yiscidula. 
Gaules erecti, simplioes, 7-8 centim. longi, supeme parcius 
foliati. Folia radicalia subspathulata, caulina linearia, acuta. 
Calyx campanulatus. Petala alba, biloba, lobis obtusis, appen- 
dicibus oblongis retusis. Capsula subsessilis. 

Qeogr. range. — California to Washing^ton. 

p. Calyx dentibns acatis. 
t Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 

122. S. COMMELINIFOLIA, Boiss., Diogn. PI Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 35 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 128. 

Adds : Folia 5-nervia. 

Qeogr. limits. — N. and W. Turkish Armenia. 

8. Persian Kurdistan (Haussknecht, in Boiss., 
Fl. Orient., suppl., p. 99). 

E. Mt. Elburz, in Persia. 

123. S. ScHLUMBBBOSBi, Boiss., Fl. Orient., suppl., p. 106. 
Glabra. Gaules plurimi, erecti, ienues, foliosi^ uni-yel rarius 

biflori. Folia lineari-setacea, stricta, subconyoluta, acuta, 
caulina tenuissima; bracteaa parysB, lanceolatse, acuminata. 
Pedicelli calyce triple breyiores. Calyx longe obconicus, mem- 
branaceus, glaber, striis purpureis, dentibns triangulan-lanceo- 
latis, anguste albo-marginatis. Petala alba, biloba. Capsula 
oblonga, carpophore snblongior. Semina ruguloso-tuberculata, 
dorso plana, &ciebus subconyexa. 

Afi^is 8. dianthifolicB qusa rhizomate surcnlos steriles dense 
csespitosos edente, foliis caulinis breyioribus, calycis dentibns 
oyatis obtusis, late albo-marginatis, petalis ultra medium 
bipartitis, differre yidetur. 

Hab. The Anti-Lebanon. 



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MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THB OBNUS 8ILENE. 85 

124. SiLBNE MooRCBOFTiANA, WoU,^ Cat., n. 626; et ex Bohrb.^ 
Monogr,, p. 129. 

Forma 1. — ^Altior gracilis, canle 2-3-floro. 
Forma 2. — Nana, foliis liaearibns, et pedicelliB qiiam bractesB 
longioribns (ex Hook,/., Fl. Brit. India, i. p. 219). 
Hah. W. Tibet, W. Himalayas, and AfFghanistan. 

125. S. PBBSici, Boies., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 27 ; 
Bohrh., Monogr., p. 129. 

8yn. S. erysimifolia, Stapf, in Denkschr. Akad. Wien, (1886) 
p. 284. 

/3. ANGISTOMA, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 622. 

Ganles 7-10 centim. longi, abbreviati. Floras submajores, 
calyoe longiore. Species calycis dentibus spatbalato-cncnllatis 
notabilis. 

Hab. W. Persia. 

tt Calyx evenios. 

126. S. BBEViOAULis, Boiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 34; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 130. 

Facies S. depresice yar. Meyeri, a qu& difFei*t indnmento glan- 
dnloBo, foliis acntioribus, calyoe evenio graciliore, ejusdem 
dentibus lanceolatis acntis, petalomm nngaibns auriculatis, 
capsnli longins ovatft. 

Hab. ProY. of Siwas, in Asia Minor. 

B. Canles florig^ri e foliorum rosal& terminali lateraliter 
adscendentes. Calyx striis anastomosantibns. 

127. S. BoBTi, Boiss., Elench. PL Nov. Hisp., p. 19, n. 28 
(1838) ; et Voy. Bot. Esp., p. 94, t. 25 a ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 130. 

Adde : Planta sordide yirens velcanesoens. Petala unguibns 
longe exsertis. 

Hah. In the prov. of Granada; Sierra Nevada, Sierra de 
B<mda, and Sierra de Maria. 

p. TBJEDBNSis, Boiss. (sp.), Elench. PI. Nov. Hisp., p. 20, n. 29; 
et Voy. Bot. Esp., p. 94, t. 25b; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 130. 

Hab. In the prov. of Granada ; Sierra Tejeda, Sierra de la 
Nieve, and Sierra Nevada ; also on Mt. Makmel in the Lebanon, 
on Mt. Hermon in the Anti- Lebanon, and in the moontains of 
Syria, and Western Persia. 



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S6 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

According to Cutanda (* Fl. Madrit./ p. 178), S, tefedetuU occurs also 
on the Sierra de G-uadarrama, near Lozojai in the proT. of New Castile. 
Willkomm says that he has not seen the specimens, and he thinks that this 
plant is scarcely likely to be found in the alpine districts of the elevated 
country in Central Spain, and recommends further observations in the 
locality mentioned, with the probability of its being identified with another 
species. 

Boissier's ' Voyage Botanique,' containing the results of his exploration 
of the country in the year 1887, was issued in two volumes, with excellent 
coloured plates, during the years 1839-45. 

Bohrbach considers Kotschy's specimens from Mt. Euh-Da@na, in South- 
West Persia (exs., n. 768), as a deviation from the type, and includes 
them under limu 2. 

128. SiLENB MKLANDBioiDES, Lufige, Dtagn. PI. Penins. Iber., in 
Kjohn, Vidensk. Middel, 1877-78, p. 33; WiUk,, lUustr, FL 
Hisp^ i. t. 60. 

Caoles 16-25 ceutim. lon^, adscendentes vel dilhisi, glutinoso- 
et crispalo-villosi. Folia rosularia elliptico-lanceolata, in 
petiolnm alato-dilatatum breviter angnstata, caolina elliptico- 
ovata, basi angastato-amplexicauli-snbcounata, snmmis ovatis, 
acuminata. Flores in dichasinm regnlare repetitnm vel ter 
xlicbotomnm dispositi, pednncnlo centrali quam calyx longiore. 
Calyx primo cylindricns, dein ovato-campannlatns, ampliatos, 
ba8i truncatas, glandnloso-pilosus, dentibus sobnlato-acnminatis. 
Petala violaceo-rosea venis satoratioribos, bifida. Gapsola 
carpophoro 3-4- plo longior. Semina reniformia, tuberculata, 
dorso plana. 

Hah. Bnssaco, near Goimbra^ Portugal; and Orense, in 
Galicia, Spain. 

129. S. CAUCA8ICA, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 622; Eohrl., 
Monogr., p. 131. 

S. vallesia longias distat, indumento glanduloso, foliis 
canlinis longis, floribus longe pedunculatis, et calyce latiore : 
Ledebour autem (Fl. Ross., i, p. 321) dicit, " planta caucasica 
spontanea ab occidentali non diversa videtur." 

p. MULTiFLOKA, Rupr., Fl. Caucosi, p. 187; Boiss., Fl. Orient., 
suppl., p. 99. 

Major. Flores 3-5-temiinales, conferti vel in 2-3-verti- 
cillastra remota dispositi : calyce saspe eglandnloso. 

Syn. S. repens, Ledeb., FL Bossica, i. p. 308, quoad Armeniam 
et Gaucasum. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 87 

Hob, Trans-Caucasia. 

130. SiLENB VALLBSiA, Ltnti,, Sp, Plant, ed. II. p. 603; 
Eeichb.,lc. Fl. Oerm, Helv., n. 5087a; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 131. 

Adde : Petala snpra roseo-violacea sabtus virentia, ungnibns 
ciliatalis. Filamenta glabra. Carpophomm puberulnm. 

p. GRAMINEA, Bohrh, Monogr., p. 131 ; Vis,, FL Balmatica, iii. 
(1852) p. 166, t. 34 (S. graminea) ; Beichh., Ic. Fl, Oerm. Helv,, 
n. 5087)tf. 

Tanfani says that cultiyated specimens of this yariety are scarcely to be 
distmguished from the specific type, and that intermediate and connecting 
forms are to be met with. 

Oeogr, limits, ^N, The Alps of Yalais, Switzerland. 

8. Montenegro (var, graminea) ; Mt. Dur- 

mitor, Baldacciy Fl, ex$, Cmaeg, (1890). 
E, Bosnia (var, graminea) ; (ex Nym. Consp, 

Fl, Eur,, p. 92). 
W. The Alps of Danpbiny, France. 

b^. Petala ongnibus exanricnlatis. 
Series 2. MacrantbsB. 
Species l-3-flor8B, floribns breviter raro longe pedicellatis ; 
ant flores in dichasio dnplioi, ant dichasii ramo altero abbreviato 
in foliomm axillis geminati, calyce bre^ius pedicellati ; calyx 
elongato-clavatas sen in speciebos pancis nni-vel bifloris, 
floribns longe pedicellatis, breyiter clavatas. 

A. Canles e foliomm rosal& terminali lateraliter edentes. 

131. S. PALINOTBICHA, Fenzl, ap, Boiss., Fl, Orient,, i. p. 621 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 132. 

Very similar to S, Boryi, 

Hob, N. Persia; in the provinces of Mazandei'an and 
Khorassan. 

132. S.ScHAFTA, O. Gm4:l,,BeiseBus8l,(l774r'l7SS),exHohen, 
in Bull, Soc, Nat, Mosc, xii. (18:38) p. 397 ; Lindl, Bot, Beg, 
(1846) t. 20; Bohrb,, Monogr,, p. 132. 

Species a seminibas echinatis et tempore florendi serotino 
insignis. 

Hdb» Rnssia, prov. of Trans- Cancasia ; and Persia, prov. of 
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88 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE QENUS SILENE. 

138. SiLENE PTOUSA, AdamSy in Weber et Mohr, Beitr.y 
i. (1805) p. 59 ; Bohrh.y Monogr,, n. 2, p. 78. 

Caules sive rami florigeri adscendentes dense pnbescentes. 
Folia radlcalia rosalata, obovato-spathalata, xnutica, in petiolam 
longam attennata, pnbescentia, ciliata ; caulina minora elliptica, 
obtusa, in petiolnra brevem attennata; bracteaa et prophjlla 
parysB albo-marginatsB ciliatsB. Flores in dichasio paucifloro 
brevtssime pedicellati, odoratissimi. Calyx angaste cjlindricDS 
evenins sangninens vel pallidns, fmctifer vix ampliatna infra 
capsnlam constrictns, basi truncate leviter nmbilicatus pnber- 
alns, dentibns obtnsis albo-marginatis dense lannginoso-ciliafcis. 
Petala rosea, nngnibns glabris, bipartita lobis obloogis, appen- 
dicibns binis magnis ovatis. Filamenta glabra. Gapsula oyata 
carpophomm pnbescens fere bis snperans. Semina reniformia 
compressa, dorso canalicnlata, margine rotnndata, plnriserialiter 
cristato-eohinnlata, faciebns cnrvato-excayata. 

Authentic specimens of this plant are seldom found in herbaria ; descrip- 
tions of the species Tarj, and appear to be based upon the examination of 
imperfect material. In this case the description has been drawn up from 
specimens collected in the Iocum classicus bj Buprecht, and authenticated 
by him in Herb. Mus. Brit., with notes on his observations on the living 
plant in his ' Fl. Caucasi.' Apparently this plant is wrongly placed in the 
subgenus OoHrosilene by Bohrbach. The calyx is not inflated, and is 
without anastomosing nerves : this is easUy demonstrated in the specimens 
preserved in Herb. Kew and Herb. Mus. Brit., and the Kew specimens 
certainly seem to be authentic, as they are verified by Buprecht and 
labelled "Mus. Bot. Acad. Petrop." Further, nothing is said in the 
original description as to the presence of anastomosing nerves on the sur&ce 
of the calyx. 

Hah, In alpine districts of the Western Cancasos, in the 
prov. of Trans- Cancasia. 

134. S. liONOiTUBULOSA, Engl, Pfianzemo, OsL-Afr., Th. C, 
p. 176 (1895). 

Glabra, 50 centim. alt. Canles adscendentes, ramnlis 1-2- 
floris. Folia lineari-lauceolata, acuminata, glabra; bracteee 
lanceolatae, acntissimsB. Calyx elongato-infhndibaliformis, 
3 centim. longns, basi trnncatus, glaber, dentibns semi-ovatis 
albo-marginatis, exterioribus acnminatis. Petala alba vel 
rosacea, snbtns braneo-venosa. Capsnla oblonga, carpophoro 
bis terve snperata. 

Hob. Xordseite, in German East Africa, at an elevation of 
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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENB, 89 

135. SiLENS UETEBODONTA, 8p. flOV, 

Glandnloso-pabescens. Caules diffnsi vel a basi arcoat^ 
adficendentes, simplices vel infra mediam dichofcomo-bifarcati^ 
ramo lateral! altero dichotomic deficiente. Folia inferiora 
ovato-spathulata, in petiolnm attennata, apice rotnndata obtu- 
siBsima mncronolato-apicnlata, hispido-ciliata, snperiora angns- 
tiora sessilia. Flores solitarii. Galjx tnbnloBO-clavatns, hirtolo- 
pnbescens, basi tmncatns, fmctifer dilatato-clavatns infra 
capsolam attenuatns vix constrictus, nervis rubellis vel 
viridibns sparse anastomosantibns, dentibos ovato - triangu- 
laribos, aliis acntis aliis obtusis, albo-marginatis, ciliatis. 
Petala biloba, lobis obovato-oblongis, nngnibas exsertis, infeme 
ciliatnlis, appendicibas bipartitis segmentis ovato-lanceolatis 
acntis. Capsnla oblooga carpophomm pubescens ter snperans. 
Semina compressa, faciebas auricnliformi-concavinscnla, dorso 
acute canaliculata, grannlata. {Herh, Kew,^ Atlas Expedition 
(1888), coll. /. Thomson.) 

Speciei seqnenti valde affinis, sed insigniter diveraa. Hsecce 
differt, — ^in bifnrcatione infra canlis medinm, foliis apice magis 
Totnndatis, caljce basi trancato infra capsnlam attenuate, 
petalis bilobis nee bipartitis, appendicibus bipartitis, carpophore 
pubescente breviore, seminibus dorso acute canaliculatis. 

The name ia deriyed from the dissimilar calyx-teeth. 

Hah, Marocco ; between Titula and Tizi-N -Telnet. 

136. S. PABVFLA, Oo88., Illustr. FL Atlant, fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 137, t. 88. 

GaBspitosa, parvula, brevissime pnberula. Caules difEusi vel 
a basi arcuat& adscendentes, rarins erecti, simplices vel rarius 
supra medium dichotomo-bifurcati, ramo lateral! altero dicho- 
tomi» deficiente. Folia radicalia rosulata, parvula, infeme 
longe attennata, petiole in squamam latam dilatato, oblonga 
vel ovato-spathulata, obtusa vel apiculata, oaulina lineari- 
oblonga vel oblonga, brevius petiolata vel superiora sessilia, 
parte petiolari pilis lon^is ciliata. Flores solitarii. Calyx 
tubuloso - infundibuliformis umbilicatns, fmctifer supeme 
dilatato-subolavatus infra capsulam contractus, post anthesin 
apice hand contractus, membranaceus albidus vel rubescens, 
nervis mbescenti-violaceis sparse anastomosantibns, dentibus 
ovato-triangularibus, aliis acntis aliis obtusis, albo-marginatis. 



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90 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

ciliatis. Petala bipartita, lobis oblongis, tmguibas exsertis, 
appendicibus binis ovato-triangalaribas. Filamenta glabra. 
Gapsnla oblonga carpophorum glabram paullum Biiperans. 
Semina minnta, reniformia, compressa, faciebus plana yel 
auricnliformi-concaviuscala, dorso obtuse canalicnlata tnber- 
cnlata. 

A praBcedenti inter alia differt, caljce vix tuboloso evidentins 
nmbilicato, nervis anastomosantibns, dentibns altematim acntis 
obtnsisqne, et carpophoro glabro. 

Hcib. Marocco. 

137. SiLBNB CJCSPiTOSA, 8tev. in Mem, Soc, Nat, Mosc,, iii. 
(1812) p. 262; Trans, Linn. Soc, xi. (1816) p. 412, t. 36; 
Bohrb,, Monogr.f p. 133. 

Adde: Planta vaJde caespitosa. Caljx evenins, petalorum 
nngnibns exsertis. 

Hah, Near Sudor, in the Kuban district of the Western 
Caucasus, in the prov. of Cis- Caucasia. 

B. Caules e foliorum rosula terminali medio edentes. 
a. Capsula globosa carpophoro ter quaterve superata. 

138. S. DEPRESSA, Bieb., Fl. Taur. Cauc., i. p. 336 (1808) ; 
Kohrh., Monogr,y p. 133. 

p, Meybri, Fenzl (sp.) in Kotschy, PL Pers. Bor, ap, Boiss,^ 
Fl. Orient,, i. p. 623 ; Eohrh,, Monogr,, p. 133. 
Hah, Trans- Caucasia and Persia. 

139. S. Porteri, Post, in Boiss., Fl. Orient., suppl., p. 104. 
Basi suffrutescens, cadspitosa, pruinoso-scabrida. Caules 

pauci humiles tenues simplices uniflori vel parce dichotomi 
2-3-flori. Folia basilaria brevia, lineari-spathulata, intermedia 
acuta, superiora subulata, brevissima. Calyx anguste cylindricus 
glaberrimus membranaceo-coriaceus, fructifer clavatus, nervis 
rubris, dentibus ovato-triangularibus albo-marginatis ciliolatis. 
Petala bifida, lamina obcuneata coronata, unguibus exsertis. 
Capsula' ovato-oblonga carpophoro brevior. Semina dorso 
canalicnlata. 

Hah. The peak of Ziaret-Dagb, on Mt. Amanus, prov. of 
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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 91 

b. Capsula carpopboram asquans, vel plus minus superans. 
o. Calyx cvenius. 
t Capsula carpopborum adquans. 
140. SiLENE succuLENTA, FoTsJc., Fl. Aegypt. Arab., p. 66 
(1775); BelUe, Fl. AegypL, p. 89, t. 29; Bohrb,, Monogr., p. 134. 

p. CORSICA, Eohrh.y Ic, ; DG., Fl Frang., iv. p. 756 
{S. Corsica) ; WiUh., Ic. Besar. PL Nov. Hisp., i, t. 39 B. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Calvi, in Corsica. 

S. Near Alexandria, in Egypt. 
E. Near Sidon, in Syria. 
W. S. Antioco, in Sardinia. 

.141. S. Uhdeana, Eohrh., Appefui. alt, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 
(1867) p. 2 ; Monogr.y p. 134. 
Hah, Mexico. 

This species is omitted in ' Biologia Centrali- Americana.' 

142. S. PAPILLIFOLIA, sp. nov. 

Caules adscendentes, infome retrorsum puberuli, supeme 
glabri. Folia faciebus papillosa, margine ciliata, radicalia 
obovata vel ovato-lanceolaia, acuta, ad basin longe attenuata, 
utrinque pubescentia; caulina linearia, magis acuta, sessilia, 
utrinque sparsim puberulo-birsnta. Flores in dichasium com- 
positum laxnm dispositi, cymulis tridoris, brevitor pedicellati. 
Calyx elongato-clavatus scaber, basi truncatus, striis viridibus, 
dentibus longe lanceolatis, acuminatis, albo-marginatis, ciliolatis. 
Petala alba bipartita, lobis oblongo-spatbulatis, appendicibus 
binis. Capsula oblonga, carpophoro glabro. Semina valde 
compressa, dorao obtuse canaliculata, faciebus concava. 

Hab. Erzingban, Mt. Sipikor - Dagb, Sintenis, n. 1166 
(1889). 

143. S. THYMIFOLIA, Stbth. et Sm., Fl. Grcecm Prodr. i. p. 292 ; 
Fl. Grceca, v. p. 8, t. 411; Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 648, suppl., 
p. 106. 

Caules lignosi prostrati e basi ramosi, ramis adscendentibus 
griseo-puberulis. Folia crassa, parva, ovata, acuta, birta, in 
axillis fasciculata. Bracte88 parvse, ovatae, acutsB, glabrae, ciliatsa. 
Flores in cymis trifloris erecti breviter pedicellati. Calyx 
clavatus villoso-viscidus, nervis rubris, dentibus triangularibus. 



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92 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILBNE. 

Petala snpra nivea sabtus virescentia (vel rabicunda), cnneato- 
oblonga bifida lobis linearibns obtusis, appendicibus bifidis. 
Species maritima, foliis camosis. 
Geogr. limits. — 8. and E. Cyprus. 

W. West coast of Anatolia. 
N. Kila, near Constantinople (Coumany, ex 
Boiss.y Fl. Orient, supply p. 106). 

144. SiLBNE MiCROPHTLLA, Boiss., Biogn. PL Nov. Or., Ser I. i. 
p. 33 ; Rohrh.y Monogr., p. 135. 

Species foliis parvis insignis. 
Hob. N. Persia. 

145. S. BURMANiCA, Coll. et Hemsl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. 
(Bot) xxviii. (1890) p. 23. 

Canles erecti plus minusve aspere fermgineo-pnbescentes, 
robnstiusculi, vix ramosi. Folia caulina aspemla ^essilia, 
ovato-oblonga vel lanceolata, interdum obovata vel spatbnlata, 
acuta vel acuminata, subtrinervia. Flores dicbotomo-cymosi, 
pedunculis brevibus glanduloso-hirsutis. Calyx fere cylindricus 
glanduloso-hirsutus, dentibus brevibus ovato-oblongis, obtusis 
vel rotundatis. Petala insequaliter quadrifida (lobis lateralibus 
minoribus interdum fere ad dentes auriculiformes reductis), 
lobis ovato-oblongis obtusis, appendicibus binis angustis 
elongatis. Capsula ovoideo-oblonga, longe stipitata. Semina 
bippocrepiformia, rugosa. 

Hah. Sban Hills, in Upper Burma, at 1,200 metres-; and 
Momyen, in pro v. of Yun-nan, China. 

146. S. CRBTACEA, Fisch. in Spreng., Syst. Veget., u. p. 405 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 135. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and E. Siberia. 
8. and W. R. Don. 

147. S. INPIDELIUM, Post, ap. Post et Autran, in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss., in. (Apr., 1895) p. 154. 

Glabra, basi multicaulis, 20-30 centim. alt. Caules rigidi 
geniculati supeme 1-2-flori. Folia infima lineari-spathulata, 
cetera linearia longe acuminata. Calyx pallide viridis vel 
rubro-vittatus cylindricus dein clavatus, dentibus triangn- 
laribus late scarioso-marginatis. Petala pallida, unguibus 
dilatatis glabris paullum exsertis, lamina lineari-cuneata ultra 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 93 

medinm bifida, lobis oblongis, appendicibas gibbosis. Capsnla 
ovata. Semina triangalaria, dorso canaliculata. 

Hah. Mt. Gaionr-dagh, in pro v. of Aleppo, Postf n. 304. 

tt Capsnla carpopboram bis quaterve superans. 

148. SiLBNB AEOUTA, Fetusl, Pugtll, PL Nov. 8yr., p. 8, n. 25 
(1842) ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 135. 

/3. ARMBNA, Botss., Fl. Orient.^ i. p. 618; Bohrb., Monogr., 
p. 136. 

(S. arguta, lusus 2.) 

Affinis 8. AucheriancCf foliis rigidis mnltinerviis, calyce argute 
nervoso, distincta. 

Geogr. limits. — N. and E, Near Erzeronm, in Turkish 
Armenia. 
S, and W. Mt. Tanrus, in Gilicia, 

149. S. sisiANiCA, Boi88. et Buhse, Aufedhl. Transkauk. Pers. 
Pfi., in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc, xii. (1860) p. 36 ; Fl. 
Orient.^ i. p. 617, et suppl.^ p. 98; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 136 
(S. argnta var. sisianica). 

PJanta pilis defiexis breviter hirtola. Ganles stricti snpeme 
parce et stricte ramnlosi, tenues, angulati, foliosi. Folia lanceo- 
laia acuminata, stricta, trinervia; bractea? e basi latiori 
liueari-setaceae. GymsB 3-5-flor8B, peduuculis brevissimis. 
Galyx cylindrico-clavatus, membranaceus, ad nervos papillosus, 
dentibus oblongis obtusis. Pefcala alba, biloba, lobis oblongis, 
appendicibus binis oblongis truncato-retusis. Gapsula oblonga, 
carpophoro pubescente 3-4-plo breviore. 

8. repens est 8. sisianidB similis facie foliisque, nihilominus 
hsBCce satis est a 8. argutd distincta. 

Hob. Sisian, in Trans-Gaucasia ; and Mt. Scbabu and Mt. 
Avroman, in Persian Kurdistan {Haussknecht^ in Boiss., Fl. 
Orient, suppL). 

150. S. GRACiLLiMA, Bohrb. in Linnma, xxxvi. (1870) p. 679. 

Gaules debiles, filiformes, parum ramosi, decumbentes, ramis 
floriferis capillaribus, gracillimis, erectis, basi pilis pauois 
adspersi, oeterum glabri. Folia plana, lanceolata, louge 
acuminata, ad basin angustata ac breviter petiolata, glabra. 
Flos terminalis longissime pedunculatus. Galyx clavato- 
campannlatus, glaber, striis viridibus, dentibus lanceolatis 
acutis margiue scariosis vix ciliolatis. Petala alba, unguibus 



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94 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENDS SILENE. 

glabris longe exsertis, lasiintL oblongo-ovattL bipartite, lobift 
oblongis, appendicibus binis magnis lanceolato-ovatis, obtusis. 
Capsala ovata carpophoram bis stiperans. 

Syn. S. Saxifraga (non Linn.), Thunh., Fl. Japonica, p. 184 
(1784). 

Ex habitu in affinitatem 8. Saxifragce nameranda est, hnjns 
speciei formas depaaperatas in meraoriam revocat. 

Hah. Prov. of Ouari, in tbe island of Nippon, Japan. 

151. SiLENE ScHMUCKEBi, Wettst., Beitr, FL Alhan.^ p. 30, t. 2 
(1892). 

SufPrntescens basi ramosus. Oanles laxi filiformes, tennes, 
adscendentes, snpeme foliati, breviter sed dense pilosi, snpeme 
non visciduli, G-10-centim. longi. Folia lanceolata, acnta, fere 
nninervia, sessilia basin versus attennata, tota pilis brevibns 
pilosa, itaqne griseo-viridia ; bracteeB parvse lineares, acatae, 
pilos88, ad basin breviter albo-marginat». Flores terminales 
solitarii vel rarius bini, longe pedicellati. Calyx breviter 
clavatns membranacens albido-rufescens, totns pilis minntis 
crispulis pnbescens, nervis incoDspicnis pallide virescentibns 
vel mbescentibns, dentibns obtnsis late albo-marginatis 
ciliatis. Petala purpurea, biloba, lobis linearibus, appendicibus 
binis obtusis, unguibns inferne villosis, superne dilatatis. 

Hab. Serdarica-Dnran, in Albania, Turkey. 

152. S. KHASIANA, Bohrh. in Linncea, xxxvi. (1869) p. 258 ; 
Hook. /., Fl. Brit India, i. p. 221. 

Gaulis geniculatus adscendenti-erectus, birtello-pubescens^ 
subglaudulosus. Folia late ovato-lanceolata, 3-5-nervia, sensim 
acuminata, glabrescentia dense serrulato-ciliata, superiora cum 
bracteis roqualia, minora. Flores pauci, aut solitarii, terminales, 
aut in dichasio paucifloro, floribus plerumque quam calyx 
longioribns, pedicellatis, interdum ramo florigero ex foliorum 
inferiorum axilld. accedente. Calyx oblongus scabrido-et 
glandnloso-pubescens, striis viridibus superne tantum con- 
junctis, dentibus lanceolatis acutis. Petala (alba vel) purpurea, 
unguibos calycem seqnantibus glabris, laminA parv& bipartite, 
lobis obtusis, appendicibus binis parvis. Capsula oblouga 
carpophorum 5-plo superans. Semina dorso faciebusque 
granulata plana. 

Ad nuUam speciem habitu vel characteribus aocedit, nulli 
affinis esse videtur. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 95 

Hah. Khasia, in Assam, at 1,500-1,800 metres. 

153. SiLENE VAGANS, (7. B. Clarke, in Joum. Linn, Soc. {Bot.)y 
XXV. (1889) p. 6, t. 2. 

Pnbescens. Rami vagantes vix scandentes. Folia lanceolata 
acuminata, basi attennata, vix trinervia; bracte88 minut® 
medium versus pedicellorum. Calyx cylindricus, infra capsulam 
deinde breviter contractus, basi truncatus, pubescens, dentibns 
lanceolatis acatis. Capsula ovoidea carpophorum bis terve 
superans. Semina dorso faciebusque oonvexa, tnberculata. 

Ad 8, kha^nam affinis, sed magis pubescens, foliis basi 
attenuatis, cjmis oompositis plurifloris, et seminibns convexis. 

The oliaracten not mentioned in the original deecription of the species 
are based upon an examination of the tjpe-specimens in Herb. Eew. 

Hah. Kobima, in Assam, at 1,650 metres. 

p. Calyx striis anastomosantibus. 
t Calyx dentibus obtusis. 

154. S. OREOPHiLA, Boiss,, FL Orient^ i. p. 617 ; Bohrh.y 
Monogr., p. 136. 

Corrige et adde : Caules triflori ; folia angnste linearia subtri- 
nervia subobtusa nee acuta strisB calycinaB rubrsd. 

A S. Aucheriandy cni arete affinis, difPert floribus quam 
calyx carpopborumque excedentibus. 

Hah. Turkey in Asia : Mt. Ali-dagh, in pro v. of Marasch ; 
Mt. Ananias-dagb, in Anatolia, Whittall (1893) ; Mt. Yildiz-dagb, 
in prov. of Si was, Bornmiiller, Plant. AnatoliaB Orient. (1890). 

155. S. AucHEEiANA, Boiss., Diagn. PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 27 (ex parte), et viii. p. 87 ; Fl. Orient, i. p. 617 ; Bohrh.y 
Monogr., p. 36. 

p. viscosA, Freyn et Sint. in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitsch/r., xli. 
(1891) p. 364. 

Multicaulis, ramosissima, basi snffrntioosa. Folia elliptico- 
lanceolata scabrido-pubescentia, sparse glandulosa (nee velutino- 
hirsuta). Panicula cum calycibns glandulosa. Capsula car- 
popboro subsaquilonga. 

Habitu et facie species 8. Monthretianam revocat. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and W. Prov. of Van, in Turkish Kurdistan. 
8. Mountains of Elwend, Persia, 
E. Mt. Elburz, Persia. 



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d6 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

156. SiLENE NURENSis, Botss. et Haussk. in Boiss., Fl. Orient, 
stq>pl,, p. 99. 

CsBspitosa, piimi]a, breviter glandaloso-pnbescens. Rhizoma 
ramnloBom indnratmn. Rami tenues fere a basi patale dioho- 
tome 3~7-flori, flore alari longioscale pednnonlato. Folia minima 
sessilia, infima lineari-spathulata obtnsa, dichotomiamm 
bracte89qne ovatsa acntiuscnlffi. Calyx anguste cylindricuB, 
umbilicatns, papillis glandnlosis sparsis obsitas, nervis mbris, 
dentibus ovafcis. Petala albida, ongaibus glabris, laming ad 
^ partem bilob^ lobis obtasis. Gapsala oblonga carpophorum 
aM][uan8. Semina mgulosa, dorso vix canaliculata, faciebns 
sabconcava. 

Habitu ref ert S. pruinosamy sed calyx dnplo longior, nngaes 
non ciliati quamvis edentali esse videantur. 

Hob. Mt. Kub-Nur, in S.-W. Persia. 

157. S. CAPiLLiPES, Bo%88. et Heldr.f Diagn. PI, Nov, Or,, 
Ser. 11. V. p. 55 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 137. 

Corrige : Caales e rhizomate cylindrico plnres adscendentes 
(nee procumbentes). 
Hob, Cilicia. 

158. S. Campanula, Pers., Syn, PL, i. p. 500 (1805) ; All, 
Auct, Fl, Pedem,, p. 28, t. 3 (1789) (Cucubalus alpesfcris) ; 
Eohrb., Monogr., p. 137. 

Adde : Calyx nmbllicatns. Filamenta glabra. Semina dorso 
grannlata canalicnlafca, faciebns plana. 

By the striot application of the canons of priority, tliis species might he 
cited by the name of 8. alpettrit, since SUene alpestris, Jacq. (of 1778), is 
to he referred to the genus Reliosperma : but it is not worth while, from 
the point of view of oonyenienoe, to change Fersoon's name, which has been 
in circulation for 90 years. And, on the other hand, Silene campan%l<Ua, 
S. Wats., should stand, as the slight difference in spelling is sufficient, 
though it might not satisfy the more critical nomenclaturists. 

Hah, Piedmont. 

159. S. Saxifraga, Linn., Sp. Plant,, ed. I. p. 421 ; Beichb., 
Ic, Fl, Oerm, Helv,, n. 5095 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 138. 

Species valde polymorpba et difficilllme oircaroscribenda. 
Adde syn, S. Notarisii, Gesati, in Bibl, Ital., xci. (1838) p. 346 ; 
Jiohrb., Monogr., p. 140. 

p. HisPANiCA, Bouy, in Bull. 8oc. Bot. France, xxix. (1882) 
p. 43. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 97 

Canles breviores. Folia punctnlato-scabrida oblongo-spathu- 
lata yel oblongo-lanceolata, basi rosnlata. Bracteae ovato-lanceo- 
latsB, omnino scariosse. Gapsula carpopboro sesqailongior. 

7. Smithii, Bohrh.^ Monogr,^ p. 138 ; Boiss.^ Diagn, PI. Nov. 
Or., Ser. II. i. p. 76 (S. Smitbii) ; Sibth. et Sm., Fl. Groeca, 
iv. p. 79, t. 389 (Saponaria cBBspitosa). 

At first referred to Saponaria, as the original specimens appeared to have 
only two styles. 

B. Oreades, Bohrh., Monogr., p. 139; Boiss. et Heldr.^ 
Diagn. Fl. Nov. Or., Ser. I. viii. p. 92 (S. Oreades). 
Oeogr. limits. — N W. Switzerland. 

W. Prov. of Astnrias, Spain. 

8. Mt. Gbei-dagb, above Alaya, in Cilicia. 

E. Mt. Stavros, in prov. of Karamania. 

160. SiLENE Barbetana, Helcb-. ap. Boiss., Fl. Orient., suppL, 
p. 107. 

Stirps dense pnlvinaris. Gandienli petiolis vetnstis, imbri- 
catis, coDgestis vestiti. Folia radicalia, anguste linearia, acuta, 
margine scabridola. Caules floriferi filiformes, nniflori, pnmili. 
Calyx breviter tnrbinatos, glaber, nervis mbellis, dentibus 
ovatis late membranaceis. Petala rosea obcordata, ungnibus 
glabris, laming cam calyce snbaeqmlong^, appendicibns binis 
ovatis. Capsnla oblonga, carpoplioro brevissimo. 

Hah. Mt. Korax, up to 2,200 metres, in the nome of ^tolia, 
Greece. 

ft Calyx dentibns altematim acutis et obtnsis. 

161. S. FRUTICULOSA, Steher, pi. exs., et DG. Prodr., i. p. 376 
(1824) ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 139. 

Species arete affinis 8. SaosifrcigcB, sed calycis dentibns 
altematim acntis et obtnsis, petalis fere totis e calyce exsertis 
et calyce fructifero carpophore dense adpresso, satis differre 
videtnr. Snnt antem etiam 8. 8a3dfrag(B formee capsnl4 fere 
tot& e calyce snpeme dilacerato exsert^. 
Adde syn. S. gymnotheca. Pane. exs. 
Oeogr. iimits. — N The Styrian Alps, in Austria. 
8. and E. Mt. Ida, in Crete. 
W. Lake of Iseo, in Lombardy, 

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98 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OENUS SILENE. 

162. SiLENB FiLiPES, Freyn et Bint, in Bull, Herb. Botss.y iii. 
(1896) p. 98. 

Dense ceespitosa, glabra vel in feme brevissime retrorsnm 
scabridula, snpeme hand viscida. Ganles filiformes erecti, vel 
e basi arcnat&, gcnicnlate-adscendentes, foliosi, ramosi, ramis 
tennissimis ereeids bracteatis nnifloris. Folia elevatim 
punctata, lanceolato-linearia, acuta, rigida, infimomm yagin& 
pallid &, coriace&, dilatat&, margine ciliato-asperft. Flores 
solitarii, pednncniis calyce longioribus vel snbeequantibns 
filiformibns. Calyx tubnloso - clavatns nmbilicatus glaber, 
pallido-pnrpnrascens, dentibns ovatis, membranaceo-marginatis, 
ciliolatis. Petala Inteo-virescentia, bipartita, lobis lineari- 
oblongis, appendicibns binis parvis triangnlaribns, nnguibns 
glabris, snpeme dilatatis. Gapsnla ellipsoidea, carpophore 
snblongior inclnsa. 

A prsBcedenti distingnitnr canle hand viscido et ca{>snU 
inclnB&. 

Hob, Turkish Armenia ; Gnmnchkhane and Mt. Argjri-dagh 
(June, 1894). 

ttt Calyx dentibns acntis. 

163. S. MULTiCAULis, Oiiss., PI Bar, /Sic., p. 172, t. 35 (1826) ; 
Sibth. et 8m., Fl. Grceca, v. p. 14, t. 420 (S. inaperta) ; Bohrh., 
Monogr,, p. 139. 

Facie affinis 8. linifolioB, sed basi non lignosa, inflorescentia 
non cymoso-paniculata, calyx longior basi valde angustatns. 

Bertoloni and Bohrbaoh have confused this plant with S. NotariHi of 
Gesati, which is only a local form of 8. Saxifraga, Bohrbach also mentions 
the absence in this species of anastomosing nerves in the calyx, and that 
the teeth are alternately acute and obtuse ; but an examination of authentic 
specimens shows that the nerres of the calyx do not anastomose, and 
the teeth seem to be all acute, with occasional yariations. For this reason 
I ihave transferred the species to another group, and reduced 8, clavata 
(n. 117) to a Tariety of it. It is quite possible that the teeth of the 
oalyx in the preceding species maj be found to be onlj an occasional 
yariation, and that they are either all acute or all obtuse ; if so, there is no 
necessity for continuing to keep 8, ftruticulosa distinct and in a separate 
group. 

p, CLAVATA, Hampe, in Flora, xx. (1837) p. 233 (S. Saxifraga 
var. clavata) ; Waldd. et Kit., PL Bar., ii. p. 177, t. 163 
(S. Saxifraga) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 140 (S. clavata). 

Folia mucronata ; bracteee lanceolat®. Calyx nervis virentibus 
vel variantibns rnbris. Petala alba, appendicibns brevibus. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 99 

8. muUteavlis yar. me/roipilaa (of Boiffs., ' Fl. Orient.,' i. p. 651), may 
possibly be referred to this Tariety : a form foand in a locality which marks 
the south limit of the species. 

Oeogr. limits. — N, The Apennines of Central Italy. 

8. MegaspilaBon, in the nome of Achaia, 

Greece. 
E. Island of Samotliraki, in the Turkish 

Archipelago (Von Degen, 1891). 
W. Corsica. 

164. SiLENE MACROPODA, Vehn. in Abh. Bohm, Oes. Wise., VII. 
i. (1886) n. 8, p. 8, et FL Bulgarica, p. 64. 

Glabra, densissime caBspitosa, rhizomate lignoso ramoso. 
Canles 30 centim. longi, recti, tennes, supeme visciduli, foliosi, 
apice in racemnm laxum panciflomm abenntes. Folia setaceo- 
linearia margine sermlato-ciliata ; bractesB setacesB. Pedicelli 
calycem snbaequantes. Calyx lineari-elongatns, apice clavatns, 
nervis viridibns, dentibus ovato-triangnlaribns, late albo- 
marginatis. Petaloram lamina virens cuneata, bifida. Antherad 
violaoesB. Capsola ellipsoidea, carpophoro bis brevier. 

Hah, Bulgaria ; Mt. Yitos, near the city of Sofia, Mt. Bilo, 
and Mt. Osogovska Planina. 

165. S. INCURVIFOLIA, Kar. et Kir,, JEnwn, Fl, Fl, Altaicce, 
n. 160, in Bull, 8oc. Nat. Mosc, (1841), p. 391 ; Bohrb,, Monogr,, 
p. 141. 

8. incurvifolia differt a 8, n/rgutd, qnS^am a cl. Fenzl 
confasa est, calyce toto glandnloso-hirto, nervis anastomo- 
santibus, dentibus acntis, capsule oblongo-conic4 carpophomm 
sequante neqne eo plnries longiore. 

p. TURKESTANiCA, Begel (sp.), in Act. Hort. Fetrop,, ii. (1873) 
p. 436. 

Faroe ramosa, dense glandoloso-pilosa. Calyx fmctifer 
paullo clavatns, nervis viridibns, dentibns inseqnalibus. Petala 
extus violascentia, nnguibns glabris exsertis, fance coronatis, 
appendicibns denticnlatis. 

Hah, Near Ajagns, in the desert of Sonngaria, and Mt. 
Alatan, in Tnrkestan. 

166. S. ACUTIFOLU, Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 141. 

Differt a 8. fcetidd jam primo aspectn, calycibns dimidio 
brevioribns, et petalomm forrn^. 

Hob, Serra da Estrella, in Portugal. 

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100 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

167. SiLENE FCETiDJL, Link, ex Spreng., Syst VegeL, ii. p. 406, et 
WiUd., Herb., n. 8610; WiUL, lUustr. Fl, Hisp., t. 61; Bohrb,, 
Monogr,, p. 141. 

Adde syn. S. fnscata var, (Brot.). 

S. Herminii, Welw, ap, Eouy, in Le Naturdliste 
(1888), p. 43. 
H(ib, Pico de Arvas, in prov. of Astorias, and Serra da 
Estrella, in Portugal. 

168. S. Maximowiczlana, Bohrh. in LinncBO, xxxvi. (1870) 
p. 680. 

Stirps pilis brevibns reversis hirsnta. Caulis repens, laxns, 
ramos florigeros permnltos erectos humiles graciles sub- 
simplices, 8-10 centim. longos edens, atqne ipse apice 
adscendens floribusqne terminatus. Folia lanceolata vel 
lineari-lanceolata attenuato-acuminata, ad basin versus angus- 
tata quasi-petiolata, margine serrulato-ciliolata, utrinque 
Bcabrido-punctulata. Flores solitarii vel bini. Calyx sub- 
ampliatus, oblongo-clavatus, viridi-rubellus, striis supeme 
anastomosantibus, dentibns lanceolatis anguste scarioso-cilio- 
latis. Petala rosea, unguibus glabris, longe ezsertis, lamin& 
oblongo-oboyat&, bifida, lobis oblongis, appendicibus bipartiiis 
oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis. Capsula ovato-oblonga carpo- 
phomm quater superans. Semina reniformia, compressa, 
faciebus plana, dorso plana, margine {Heliospermatis fero 
modo) tuberculorum magnorum crista irregulariter omato. 

Lusus 1 ; Maxim, in Bull. Acad, 8c, Petersh,, xxxii. (1888) 
p. 482. 

Nana, etiam ad calyces pubescens ; flores solitarii vel bini. 

Lusus 2 ; Maxim,, l,c. 

Major, fere duplo altior, glaberrima ; dicbasium pluriflornm. 
Species, seminum indumento valde insignis, 8, 8chafl<B 
admodum affinis, differt autem jam prime aspectu caulibus 
florigeris non infrarosularibus calycibusque ampliatis ; prsBterea 
8, repentem revocat basibus caulicxdorum procumbentibus. 

Hah, Mt. Motoyama, prov. of Kai, in the island of Nippon, 
Japan. 

169. S. COBDIFOLIA, All,, Fl. Pedem,, ii. p. 82, t. 23 ; Beichb,, 
Ic, Fl, Oerm. Heh., n. 5089 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 142. 

Hob, The Alps of Piedmont. 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 101 

170. SiLENB LAZiCA, Boiss., Dtagn. PI Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 35 ; Eohrh,, Monogr., p. 142. 

Hob, Turkish Armenia. 

Bohrbacli's next series, viz., Polyschemone, includes only one species, 
8, nivalis. As has been pointed out in the Introduction to this rerision, 
I hare considered it to be better to exclude from the genus those species 
which hare 5 styles, in which, of course, the capsule is 5-septate at the 
base, and to distribute them if possible among allied genera. Some 
botanists, especially those with analytical bias, would prefer to maintain 
Sohott's original genus, and to consider Folyschemone nivalis as the type of 
the genus, of which Schott gives a Tery complete description in Analecta 
hotanioa^ i, p. 66 (1854). The plant was first described as a Lychnis by 
Kitaibel in 1814, and in the most recent floras is included in Melandrymm. 

Series 3. Nanosilene, 
Species nansD aniflorae : calyx campannlatos. 

171. S. ACAULis, Linn., Sp. Plant, ed. II. (1762) p. 603 ; Sp. 
Plant, ed. I. p. 415 (Cucubalus) ; Beichb., Ic. Ft. Oerm. Helv,, 
n. 5084; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 143. 

a. GENUINA. 

Calyx nmbilicatus. Petala profunde emarginata. Capsnla 
oblongo-cylindrica e calyce longe exserta. Semina parva. 

Adde syn. S. alpina, 8. F, Gray, Nat Arr. Brit PL, ii. p. 643. 

Forma subagaulescbns, mihi : — subacaulescens, foliis anguste 
linearibos 25-35 mm. 

Hab, United States; Rocky Mts. of Colorado, and in 
Arizona. 

/3. BRTOiDES, Jord, (sp.), PugUL, PL Nov. in Mem. Acad. Nat 
Lyon, 1851, p. 241 ; Obs. PL France, v. p. 35, t. 1 ; Willk., Ic. 
Bescr. PL Nov. Hisp., p. 70, t. 51 a. 

Calyx hand nmbilicatns, sed in pednncnium angustatns. 
Petala emarginata. Capsnla e calyce brevins exserta. Semina 
majora. 

8yn. S. acaulis, Willk. in Flora, xxxiv. (1851) p. 601. 

Hob. Alps of Dauphiny and Savoy ; Spanish Pyrenees, Mt. 
Izas, Mt. Soba, and the Baths of Panticosa, in prov. of Aragon 
(ex Willk. at Lange, Prodr. Ft. Hisp., iii.) ; Switzerland, Plans de 
laman in canton of Vaud, and Albula Pass in canton of Orisons 
(ex Nym., Gonsp. Fl. Eur., suppl.). 

7. EXSCAPA, All. (sp.), Fl. Pedem., ii. p. 83, t. 79 (1785) ; Jord., 
Obs. PL France, v. p. 35, t. 1. 



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102 MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

8yn. S. acanlis var, parviflora, OUhy in DC. Prodr,, i. p. 367. 
S. polytrichoides, Zumagl, Fl. Pedem., ii. p. 269 (1860). 
S. acanlis,' 2t£«tM 2, Bohrb,, Monogr,, p. 144. 

Hab, Dept. of Alpes-Maritimes in France, and adjacent 
localities in the Spanish Pyrenees (ex Willk, et Lange, Prodr, 
Fl. Hisp,, iii.); the Alps of Piedmont, and of the adjacent 
canton of Valais, in Switzerland (ex Nym., Consp, FL Eur.^ 
suppl.) ; near Bodna, in Transsylvania, F, Porcius (1878). 

Oeogr. range, — Arctic and N. temperate zones, north of lat. 35", 
as far north as lat. 74'', according to Nordenskiold's ' Voyage 
of the Vega ' ; also in Novaya Zemlya, lat. 73° (Ekstam, 1896). 

172. SiLENE Baumgabtini, Schott et Kotschy, PL Fxsicc. 
TranssUv., n. 459; Beichb,, Ic. Fl. Germ. Helv., n. 5114; Eohrb.y 
Monogr., p. 144 (S. dinarica). 

8yn. S. depressa, Bawng., Enum. Stirp. Transdlv.^ i. (1836) 

p. 404. 
S. dinarica, Spreng., Syst. Veget, ii. p. 405. 
Saponaria Banmgarteni, Janka, in Linncea, xxx. (1859- , 

60) p. 559. 

Sprengel's name is passed over, being bad and inadmissible, as the plant 
does not occur, and has nerer been found, in the Dinaric Alps. According 
to Kotschj the specific name is founded upon a geographical error, and 
therefore cannot stand. 

Hab, Transsylvania, and the Banat, in Hungary. 

Series 4. Brachypodce. 

Species montanee canlibns strictis: flores solitarii vel bini 
longissime pedicellati, vel in dichasio simplici laxo ; calyx sab 
anthesi clavatns, frnctifer oblongns; capsnla carpophomm 
multies, raro tantnm bis, snperans. 

a. Canles florigeri e basi rosnlaa f oliomm terminalis lateraliter 
edentes. 

173. S. GBISEA, Boiss., Diagn. PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. vii. p. 88 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 145. 

Jam primo aspectn a S. Jlavescente dignoscenda capsnlis 
cemnis. 

The seeds are incorrectly described by Bohrbach ; I have examined and 
compared the seeds of authentic specimens, and their character should be 
amended as follows : — " Semina tenuiter rugulosa, auricuUformia, compresss, 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OBNDS SILENE. 103 

dorso granulato suboanaliculsta yel fere plana, faoiebus concayiuscula." 
This character still further serres to distinguish the plant from the next 
two species. 

Hah. Syria; Mt. Lebanon. 

174. SiLENB LBPTOCLADA, Botss., FL OnenL, i. p. 647 ; Bohrb,^ 
Monogr,, p. 145. 

Differt a priori, jam primo aspectu floribus longe pedicellatis, 
calycis striis anastomosantibns, dentibas obtnsis, petalis breviter 
bifidis. 

Hah, Near Elmalu, in Anatolia. 

b. Ganles e folioram rosalsD medio edentes (terminaJes). 
oc. Flores solitarii vel bini, longissime pedicellati. 

175. S. FLAVESCENS, WaldsL et Kit,^ PL Bar, Hung,, ii. p. 19], 
t. 175 (1804); Beichh., Ic, Fl, Germ, Helv., n. 5090; Bohrh., 
^onogr,, p. 146. 

According to Simonkai, the record of its occurrence in Transsylrania is 
erroneous. Bohrbach has joined with this species 8. thessalonicay Boiss. 
et Heldr., but it seems better to separate it on account of the disposition 
of the flowers and other well-marked characters. 

Oeogr. limits, — N, Hercnles-bad, in Banat, Hungary. 

8, Island of Thasos, off the coast of Rnmelia 
{Bomm, et 8mt,, n. 585, sub S, thessa- 
lonica). 
E, Szaszkam, near Be, in Wallachia. 
W. Croatia. 

176. S. MONBRAirrflA, wihi, 

8yn. S. monantha, Boiss. et Haussh, in Boiss., Fl. Orient, , 
suppl, p. 99 (1888) ; non S. monantha, 8. Wats. (1875), 

Glanduloso-pubescens caBspitosa pumila. Caules stHcti erecti 
simplices foliosi. Folia infima oblongo-spathulata in petiolum 
attenuata, cetera sessilia, latiora, ovato-cordata, amplezicaulia, 
mucronata. Calyx cylindrico-clavatus, umbilicatus, papillis 
albis hirsutus, striis virentibus, dentibus ovatis, acutis, albo- 
marginatis, fructifer nutans infra capsulam constrictus. Petala 
pallida, cuneata, biloba, unguibus ezsertis, appendicibus trun- 
catis 4-dcntatis. Capsnla oblonga, carpophorum 5-6-plo 
Buperans. 



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104 MR. r. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Ex afi&nitate S. cordifoUce et S, laztcce, floribus solitariis et 
calyce post anthesin nufcanie insignis. 

The spelling of the name of this species has been slightly altered, as the 
name selected hj Boissier is pre-occupied hj a North American species 
described by the late Sereno Watson in 1875. 

Hab. Mt. Sindjar, in Mesopotamia. 

177. SiLENE ptammulj:folia, Steud. in Schimp., Iter Abyss., II. 
n. 676, et A. Eich., Tent, Fl. Abyss,, i. p. 43 (1847) ; Bohrb,, 
Monogr,, p. 146. 

Hab, Mt. Silke, in the district of Semen, Abyssinia. 

fi, CANBSCKNS, mihi. 

Planta incano-pubescens ; calycis norvis scabro-pnbescentibos 
inter nervos snbglabris, dentibus triangnlari-ovatis, acntis. 

Syn. S. flammnleefolia, Barbey, PI, Arabic, Schweinf, (1889), 
in Herb, Kew, 

Hab, Gebel Schibam, above Menacha, in Arabia Felix. 

p, Flores in dichasio laxo qnasi psendoracemosi. 

178. S. thessalonica, Boiss, et Heldr,, Diagn, PI, Nov. Or,, 
Ser. II. i. p. 74. 

Velutino-canescens snpeme glandnloso-viscida, basi snffm- 
tescens. Canles adseendentes e basi ramosi snpeme breviter 
ramnlosi. Folia rosolarum inferioraqne oblongo-spatbnlata, in 
petiolnm attennata, superiora linearia; bracteae late albo- 
marginatsd ciliat©. Flomm pedicelli calycem aeqnantes. Calyx 
cylindricus glandnloso-hirsntus, fmctifer clavatns, evenius, 
striis viridibns, dentibns ovato-lanceolatis acntis. Petala ochro- 
lenca bifida, lobis linearibns, appendicibns binis parvis, oyatis, 
obtnsis. Capsnla oblonga, carpopbomm 4-plo snperans. Semina 
dorso granulato canalicnlata, faciebns plana striata. 

Syn, S. flavescens var. plnriflora, Griseb, in Herb, Vindob, 
S. flavescens, lusus 2, Bohrb,, Monogr., p. 146. 
S. flavescens var. thessalonica, Boiss., Fl. Orient,, suppL, 
p. 106. 
Geogr. limits. — N, Mt. Chortiascb, above the city of Salonica, 
in Rnmelia. 
E. Island of Tbasos, off the coast of Rnmelia. 
8, and W, Mt. Hagion Stephanos, in Thessaly, 
Greece, 1885 (Hattssknecht, in Mittheil, 
Thunng, Bot. Ver., Heft v. (1893) p. 48). 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 105 

179. SiLENE MACRONTCHIA, B(yi8S,, Fl, Orient, mppl,, p. 100. 
Glandaloso-pabescens. Caules semel vel bis dichotomi, erecti, 

foliosi, pauciflori. Folia inferiora, oblonga, acnta, basi breviter 
attennata, intermedia ovata ; bractad a basi sessili rotnndata 
oblongo-lanceolatflB acnminatse. Pedunculi calyci snbseqnilongi 
(illi florum alarinm lougiores). Calyx papillari-hispidnlns, 
striis pallide virentibus, dentibns lanceolato-snbulatis, fructifer 
snb capsola subconstrictus. Petala alba, bipartita, lobis lineari- 
oblongis, nngaibas exsertis glabris, appendicibns triangularibQs, 
elongatis. Capsula oblonga, carpophoram 4-plo snperans. 

Praocedenti valde affinis. 

Hab. Between the villages of Pewar and Alikhel, in the 
Knrram Valley, Afghanistan. 

180. S. YEMENSis, Deflers, Voy. au Yemen, p. 112 (1889). 
GaBspitosa, velatino-canescens, yiscidola. Caales erecti 

simplices vel dichotomi in racemnm terminalem strictam 
nnilateralem 3-5-floram abeuntes. Folia pabescentia, ciliata, 
inferiora conferta, longe petiolata, ssepius acuminata, canlina 
paaca, parva, sessilia, lineari-lanceolata. Pedicelli erecti, 
bracteas vix snpcrantes, apice snbincrassati, = \ calycis tubnm. 
Calyx tnbalosas, glandnlosas, albidas, fnictifer clavatns hirsa- 
tiusculns, nervis paullo prominentibas, purpureis, viridi- 
marginatis, dentibns ovato-lanceolatis, obtasis. Petala pallide 
rosea, bifida, nngnibos glabris, appendicibns pam's binis, 
linearibns, obtnsis. Capsnla ovata, carpophorum snbaBqnans. 
Hah, Yemen, in S.-W. Arabia. 

181. S. JAPONiCA, JBoArfe. in Linncea, xxxvi. (1870) p. 689. 
Caolis pilis brevissimis hirsutinsculas, snpeme glaber. Folia 

coriacea, patentia, lineari-lanceolata, longe acuminata, carinata, 
punctulato - scabrida. Flores bini, terminales, ut videtur, 
racemum pauciflorum formantes ; brae teed parvsD lineares 
recurvae. Calyx albido-viridis, tubuloso-clavatus basi truncatus, 
striis viridibus per totam longitudinem reticuloso-venosus, 
dentibns lanceolatis recurvis, angaste albo-marginatis. Petala 
saturate purpurea, unguibus calycem aequantibus glabris, 
laming obovati bifida, lobis ovatis obtasis, appendicibns binis 
fomicatis ovatis. 

A species founded by Bohrbach on a single fragmentary specimen, and 
for the present doubtfully and tentatiyely placed in this group: in its 
ooUectiTe characters appears to be distinct from other species. 

Hah. Prov. of Ouari, in the island of Nippon, Japan. 

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106 MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILEWE. 



Series 5. Brachyanthce, 

Species montanee inflorescentill dichasiif ormi valde composite ; 
calyx vel obconicns vel breviter clavatus, et turn hjalinas. 

a. Calyx obconicns. 

182. SiLENE RUPESTRis, Linn., Sp. Plant, ed. II. (1762) p. 602 ; 
Reichh.y Ic. FL Oerm, Helv., n. 5091 ; Jiohrb., Monogr.j p. 147. 

Addesyn, S. alpestris, Willd. (ex Nym., Consp., p. 92). 

Tho character of the seeds varies in different descriptions. 

Oeogr, limits. — N, Lapland. 

8. Sierra Nevada, in Andalnsia. 
E, Werchoiurie, in N. Siberia, 60". 
W, Mtns. of Astnrias, in N. Spain. 

183. S. Menziesii, Hook., Fl. Amer. Ben-., i. p. 90, t. 30 (1833) ; 
Kellogg, in Proc, Calif, Acad., iii. p. 44, f. 12 (S. Dorrii) ; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 147. 

Adde : Caales foliosi. Petala non semper ecoronata. 

Hah. The mountains of N.-W. America from Oregon 
Territory ; Vancouver's Island, the Rocky Mountains, and the 
Black Hills as far as Slave Lake ; and in the United States 
from Vancouver's Island to Colorado, South California and 
New Mexico. 

184. S. CRTPTOPETALA, HUleb., Fl. Hawaiian Isl, p. 29 (1888). 
Caules proceri decumbentes ramosi. Folia lineari-lanceolata 

uninervia sensim breviter petiolata glabra apice atque basi 
acuta ; bracteee cum prophyllis foliis conformes. Cyma) 
axillares subpaniculatse. omni inflorescenti4 paniculam longam 
thyrsoideam formante. Calyx clavatus viscose - pubeml us 
breviter dentatus, ore contracto. Corolla staminaque intra 
calycem iuclusa. Petala pallida obovato-oblonga minuta 
emarginata ecoronata. Anthersa ovoidesD obtusas basi bifid®. 
Capsula coriacea, ovoidea carpophorum esquans vel ab eo 
paullum superata. Semina reniformia tuberculato-aculeata. 

The characters supplementary to those giTen in the original description 
are based upon the examination of authentic specimens. 

Hah. Hawaiian Islands. 



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ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 107 

b. Calyx hyalinns, breviter clavatus basi truncatns. 

185. SiLENE Tatarinowii, Regel,inBull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. (1861) 
p. 663 ; Eohrb.y Monogr,, p. 131, n. 99, et in Linncsaj xxxvi. 
(1870) p. 681. 

Caules laxi, 30-60 centim. longi, procuinbentes vel adscen- 
dentes, anpeme laxe et diyaricatim ramosi, pills miniitis retrorsis 
pnberulo-hirsnti. Folia e basi ovatll oblongo-lanceolata, attenn- 
ato-acnminafca, breviasime petiolata, hirtello-puberula. Flores 
in dichasio laxo pins minns composito, calyce panllnm brevins 
pedicellati, lumis florigeris, e foliornm inferiomm axillis ssepe 
accedentibus ; bracteeB herbaceae, superiores minntee ovato-vel 
lineari-lanceolato longe acuminatae, dense pubernlae. Calyx 
nervis viridibns snpeme yix anasfcomosantibns, dentibns 
lanceolatis, acntis, ciliatis. Petala rubella, nngnibns longe 
exsertis, lamin& obovatd, bifida, lobis oblongis, obtnsis interdnm 
emarginatis, ntrinqne lacinul^ parva obtusinscnl4 anctis, 
appendicibns binis oblongis. Capsnla oblonga, carpophoram 
subflBqnans. Semina dorso convexa, faciebns plana obtnse 
grannlata. 

8yn. Silene n. sp., Maxim.y Prim, Fl, Amur., suppl., p. 469. 

Sohrbach based the position of this species in his monograph only upon 
Begel's description, but after he had examined the original specimens 
colleoted by Tatarinoff subsequently to the publication of his monograph, 
he rightly considered that the species should be transferred to this group, 
and should follow n. 131, where it is now placed in this revision. He 
says : — *' Species, quum generis monographiam seripserim, mihi nisi ex cl. 
Beglalii descriptione ignota. Itaque auctorem ilium, qui speciem sinensem 
8, Sckafta ai&nem esse dicat, secutus sum eamque, quum ex descriptione 
citata petalorum ungues auriculatos esse putarem inter Aurioulatas 
enumeravi. Nunc autem speeiminibus originalibus comparatis, ex inflo- 
rescentia oomposita calycisque forma naturalius mihi esse yidetur, earn ad 
Brachyanihas numerare, inter quas juxta S. Lerchenfeldianam inserenda est." 

Hah. North China ; prov. of Pe-chi-li, near Peking {Bretsch- 
neider)^ Jehol (David). 

186. S. MACEDONICA, ForTuaneky in Verh.y Naiurf. Ver. Brilnny 
xxxii. (1893) p. 183 [1894]. 

Canles florigeri e foliornm rosnlea terminalis basi lateraliter 
adscendentes, debiles, simplices vel apice ramosi. Folia 
glancescentia, velntino-pnbescentia vel glabra, margine inter- 
dnm breviter ciliolata, inferiora oblongo-spathnlata in petiolum 
longnm atfcennata, obtnsa, rosnlata, media ovato-oblonga, 



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108 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

superiora lanceolata basi connata ; bracteee lineares. Flores 3-4 
axillares, ceteri cymam terminalem coiymbosam 2-5 (speci- 
minibas pygmeeis etiam nnam) — floram formantes, breviter 
pedicellati. Caljx glaber, dentibns ovatis, obtusis. Petala 
alba, lanceolata-cuneata, obtusa. Capsnla ovata, carpopboro 
daplo loDgior. Semina reniformia, tubercnlata, dorso profunde 
canalicnlata, faciebus concava. 

Ab hao S. Lerchenfeldiana imprimis difEert floribus roseis 
densius dispositis, petalis emarginatis, et capsal& carpopboro 
duplo longiore. 

Hah. Bulgaria. 

187. SiLENE Lerchenfeldiana, Baumg,, Enum. Stirp, Trans- 
silv.y i. p. 398 (1836) ; Beichh., Ic, FL Germ. Eelv., n. 5091 ; 
Bohrh,, Monogr.j p. 148. 

8yn. S. rupestris (non Linn,), SchuVy Enum, PL Transsilv., 
p. 105. 

Oeogr, limits. — N. Near Kronstadfc, in the Transylvanian 
Alps (S. rupestris, Schur). 
S, Mt. Choi'tiasch, near Salonica, in Bumelia. 
E. Mt. Rbodope, near Carlo va, in Eastern 

Bumelia (S. Bulgaria). 
W. Mt. Kasovati, near Gergussowatz, in Servia. 

Series 6. Oompactoe, 

Species annuea, biennes, vel perennes. Flores in dicbasio 
plus minus denso contracto capituliformi, brevissime pedi- 
cellati : calyx membranaceus glaber, nervis aplce bifurcatim 
conjunctis ; petala integra vel emarginata. 

188. S. Armeria, Linn., Sp. Plant,, ed. I. p. 420 ; Syme, Engl 
Botany, ed. HI. ii. p. 61, t. 204; Rohrh., Monogr., p. 149. 

Di£Fert a sequente, cui valde affinis, radice annu& nee bienni ; 
bracteis linearibus margine tantum scariosis; dicbasio minus 
contracto ; calyce paullum breviore, dentibus rotundatis non 
ciliatis ; carpopboro interdum breviore ; seminum dorso angus- 
tiore. Hasc planta occidentalis, orientalis ilia. 

Adde syn. S. latifolia, S, F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl.^ ii. 
p. 647. 

A species distributed throughout Central and Southern Europe; intro- 
duced in India, North America, Brazil, and probably elsewhere. The 
geographical area is not so wide as the references in many floras would seem 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 109 

to justify, for the records in manj localities are only such as would indicate 
it as an escape from gardens, where it is generally in cultivation, or in a 
state of semi-cultiyation, and otherwise imperfectly naturalized. In 
England it is found occasionally hy river-sides, in cornfields, and in waste 
places, but apparently only' where it has escaped from gardens ; and does 
not seem to be permanently naturalized. The pretensions of this species 
to a place in the British flora seem very slight. Dr. Richardson informed 
Dillenius that it grew on the banks of the River Dee half a mile below the 
city of Chester, but no one has confirmed his account. In the appendix to 
Hooker's ' Student's Flora,' it is mentioned among the excluded species as 
a casual. Similarly in Belgium, Denmark, and Sweden, it occurs sub- 
spontaneously. In the United States it is occasionally found on roadsides 
and in fields, haying escaped from gardens ; it has also been introduce 
into India and Brazil. In various localities in the northern provinces of 
Spain it is an uncertain denizen. The specimens found in Luxemburg 
appear to be naturally wild, as certainly the plant occurs under natural 
conditions in the neighbouring Prussian province of Rhine-land. 

Geogr. limits, — N. Valley of the Moselle, in Rhenish Prussia. 
S. Sicily. 
E, Prov. of Koursk, in Russia (ex Nym., 

Consp, FL Eur,, suppL). 
W, Portugal. 

189. SiLENE OOMPACTA, Fisch,, Rort GorenJc.j ed. II. (1812) 
p. 60; et in Eornem,, Eort Eafn., i. (1813) p. 417; Beiclib., 
Ic. FL Germ. Helv., n. 6093 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 149. 

Differt ab antecedente imprimis infloresoenti4 magis com- 
pact^ floribus longioribus, petalorum laming integra, radice 
bienni. 

Geogr, limits, — N, Prov. of Podolia, in W. Russia. 
S, Amanus, N. Syria. 

E, In the Djimil Valley, Turkish Lazistan. 
W, The Banat, in Hungary. 

190. S. Reutebuna, Boiss, et Blanche, Diagn. PL Nov, Or,, 
Ser. II. V. p. 54 ; Bohrh.^ Monogr,, p. 150. 

Ab antecedente caule tenuiori, ramis lateralibus elongatis, 
foliis angustioribus, rameis brevissimis, floribus sparsis, petalis 
bilobis, distincta. 

Hah, Syria. 

191. S. AsTBEiAS, Griseh.j SjpiciL Fl, Bith. BumeL, i. p. 168; 
Bouy, lUustr. PL Ewr, Bar,, fasc. i. (1895) n. 4; Bohrh,, 
Monogr,, p. 150. 



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110 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Oeogr. limits. — N, Mt. Kopaonik, near Kmschewatz, in Servia. 
S. and E. Petrov Han, in the Balkans, N. 

Bulgaria, Velenovsky (1887). 
W, Herzegovina (ex Nym,^ Consp, Fl, Eur., 
p. 89). 

B, Species annnsB. 
a. InflorescentisB rami valde ineequales, altero in florem nnnm 
redncto, ita ut flores in foliorom axillis geminati esse videantar ; 
interdnm inflorescentia supeme scorpioidea. 

Series 7. Nicoeemes, 
a. Calyx fructifer apice contractus. 

192. SiLENE RAMOSissiMA, Besf., Fl. AtlauL, i. (1798) p. 354; 
WillJc., Ic. Bescr. PL Nov. Eisp., i. p. 54, t. 39 A; Bohrb., 
Monogr.y p. 161. 

fi. GRAVEOLENS, Buf. (sp.) m Bull. Soc. Bot, France, vii. 
(1860) p. 242. 

Flores longe peduncnlati, axillaribns solitariis erectis, valde 
odorati, vespertini. Caljcis dentes basi membran& conjnncti. 
Petala rosea nee alba, linoari-bipartita. 

Desfontaines erroneously marked bis plant as perennial, and this misled 
Dufour into describing S. graveolent as a distinct species. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Salon, 1 . ^ , , . « . 

E. Near Tarragona,/"' Catalonm. Spam. 
S. Near Oran, in Algeria. 
W. Morocco. 

193. S. ciNBBEA, Besf., Fl. Atlant., i. (1798) p. 355; Com., 
lUustr. Fl. Atlant., fasc. iv. (1890) p. 138, t. 89. 

Adde : Canlis 30-60-centim. longns, virgatns, snpeme vel a 
medio dicbotome ramosus, saspe fere a basi ramos axillares canli 
conformes emittens, snb lente crebre pnnctiformi-pnberiilas 
pilis eglandalosis. BractsB herbacese. Calyx fmctifer snpeme 
clavatns infra capsnlam angustatns. Gapsnla carpophore pabes- 
cente panllum longior. Semina compressa, facicbas profande 
anricnliformi-excavata, dorso plana granulata. 

Bohrbaoh had not seen the plant, but trusting apparently to Soyer- 
WiUemet's description, placed it after 8. Kremeri : as the fructiferous 
calyx is contracted at the mouth, it should come after S. ramoHisima. 

Hah. Algeria. 



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MR. r. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. Ill 

b. Calyx fmctifer aplce non contractus. 

194. SiLENE Kbembri, 8oy.-WilL et Oodr.^ SiL Alg., p. 31; 
Cow., lUustr, Fl. Atlant, fasc. iv. (1890) p. 140, t. 90; Bohrb., 
Monogr.y p. 161. 

Adde ; Caulis 10-60-centim. longas, virgatas, superne vel a 
medio dichotome ramosns. Folia inferiora obtusa, snperiora 
obtnsa, vel ssepe acnta. Bracteee herbacead, longe ciliatea. 
Petala albida, ochrolenca, ungnibas ciliatis. Capsula car- 
popboro pabescente panllum brevior. Semina compressa, 
faciebns anricnliformi-subconcava, dorso obtase canaliculata 
tnberculata. 

HsBO species habitu 8. cinerecB affinis, sed distincta caljce 
fractifero superne ovato- vel subgloboso-clavato infra oapsulam 
constricto, petalorum unguibus dorso glabris, marginibus 
ciliatis, filamentis in parte inferiore pubescenti-ciliatis, carpo- 
phori longitudine, seminibus faciebus subconcavis dorso 
canaliculatis. 

As in the previous species, Bohrbaoh did not examine any specimens, but 
relied on Soyer-Willemet's description, to which are here added other 
characters given bj Cosson in his account of the plant. 

Hab. Algeria. 

195. S. ciRTiNSis, Pomel, Nouv. Mat, Fl, Atlant., p. 328. 
Caulis erectus, robustus, e basi ramosus, ramulis strictis, 

brevissime pubescens. Folia glauca, obovata vel oblonga, 
superiora sublinearia, omnia pubei*ula, ciliata. Flores breviter 
pedunculati Galjx tubulosus, fmctifer ovoideo-oblongus infra 
capsulam constrictus, nervis pilis articulatis vestitis, superne 
reticnlato-venosus, dentibus obtusis oblongis. Petala bifida, 
unguibus ciliatis, appendicibus brovibus bilobis. Filamenta 
glabra. Capsula oblongo-ovoidea carpophorum quater superans. 
Semina brunea, faciebus excavata striata. 
Hah, Environs of Constantine, Algeria. 

196. S. NiCiKENSis, All, Misc, Taurin,, v. p. 88 ; Fl. Pedem., ii. 
(1785) p. 81, t. 44; Eohrb,, Monogr,, p. 152. 

Adde syn, S. Yallosiaca, Link., Handb., ii. p. 244. 
A Inennial species, according to E. Tanfani. 

Oeogr. limits, — 8, and E, Cyprus. 

, N, Island of Lido, near Venice (KeUner, ex 
Tanfani, iv Pari., Fl, Italiana, ix. p. 394 
[1892]). 



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112 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

b. Flores in dichasio composito regulari, ramis sequalibus vel 
raro paullum insBqaalibas. 

Series 8. Atocia, 

Caljx fractifei apice non contractus. Semina faciebns 
curvato-excavata, vel subglobosa profunde umbilicata. 

a. Semina faciebos cnrvato-excayata (conoavinscula). 

<f. Semina dorso, tnberoalomm seriebus 3 omato, plano- 
convexa medio leviter canalicniata. 

197. SiLENE FUSCATA, Lifik^ ap, Brot., Fl. LusiL, ii. (1804) 
-p. 187 ; WiWc, Ic. Bescr. PI. Nov. Eisp., i. p. 66, t. 48 A ; Bohrh., 
Monogr., p. 153. 

Geogr, limits, — N. Liguria ; the Gulf of Genoa. 
E. Beyrout, in Syria. 
S. Algeria. 
TT. Near Lisbon. 

198. S. Pseudo-Atocion, Besf,, FL Atlant, i. (1798) p. 353 ; 
Willk,, Ic. Bescr, PL Nov, Hisp.^ i. p. 66, t. 49 ; Bohrh,, Monogr., 
p. 154. 

Valde affinis 8, fuscatcBj a quA differt caule e basi ramoso ; 
floribus non appropinquatis ; calyce longiore baud umbilicato, 
nervis reticulato-venosis, commissuris glabris, dentibus acatis ; 
carpopboro pubescente multo longiore; seminibus paullum 
majoribus. 

fi, ORANENSis, Battand., Fl. de VAlgSrie, p. 138 (1888). 

Petala maxima obovato-cuneata subemarginata. Capsula 
earpopborum subaequans. 

Hob. Majorca, in the Balearic Isles, and Algeria ; also near 
Jerez, in Andalusia, Perez Lara (1886). 

p, Semina dorso obtuse canalicniata. 
t Calyx eveniuB. 

199. S. DiVARiCATA, Clem., Flench, Hort Mad/rit (1806), 
p. 103 ; Willk., Ic. Bescr. PL Nov. Hisp., i. p. 50, t. 35; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 154. 

Habitu baec valde aocedit ad 8. sedoidem, a qu& differt 
omnium partium magnitudine; pubescentiaa modo; calycis 
evenii dentibus lanceolatis acutis seminum forrn^ diversissimft. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 113 

/3. WiLLKOMMIANA, /. Oay (sp.), op. C088.y Not. PI Grit, u. 
(I860) p. 32 ; Wtllk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 660. 

Robnstior, ramosissiina, dense hirsnta, valdo viseosa, foliis 
camosnlis, corolla pallida. 

Gfeogr, limits. — N, Sierra de Carascoj, near Mnrcia. 

8. Dschebel Santo (Sacred Moantain), in 

Algeria. 
E. Dschemma Ghazawat, in Algeria. 
W. Andalasia, near Malaga. 

200. SiLENE RUBELLA, BroL, Fl. Lusit, ii. (1804) p. 188; 
WiUk., Ic. Descr. PI Nov. Eisp., p. 66, t. 48 B ; Bohrb., Monogr., 
p. 165. 

Differt a 8. fuscatd, cni habita valde aocedit, calyco hand 
nmbilicato, scabride nee viscoso-pnbescente, dentibas rotnn- 
datis; carpophore multo breviore; seminom fonn&; a ceteris 
magis distat. 

The Liimean deeoripUon is loosely worded, and does not sufficienUj 
identify the plant, which is described from Portogaese specimens. It is as 
follows : — " Badix annoa. Oaulis erectus, rectus, tIx pedaUs, non ramosos. 
Folia inferiora cuneif ormia obtosa, superiora lanceolata ; artioulos supremus 
caulis longior. Flores oonferti caulem terminant, diohotomi, 8 Tel 7. 
Calyces glabri, cesii, subglobosi, Tcnosi. CoroUsD rubrs, bifldsB, nectarifero, 
yix onqoam aperte, minutiisimflD et yix oonspicus." 

Adde syn. S. antirrhina, Otth, in DO. Prodr., i. p. 378 (non 
Linn.), 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Monserrat, in Catalonia. 
8. Upper Egypt. 

E. Near Bagdad, in Asiatic Turkey. 
W. Near Lisbon. 

201. S. Bkrgiana, Lindm, in Act. Sort. Berg., i. (1891) p. 3, 
n. 6, f . 1-8. 

Ganlis erectos simplex vel rarias e basi ramosns, pilis 
recurvis scabride puberulos. Folia inferiora ovato-spathnlata 
ad basin attennato-petiolata, obtasissima, snperiora oblongo- 
lanceolata, acata, basi angnstata, omnia ciliata; bracteaB et 
prophylla nndnlatse late lineares, acmninatae, ciliatsB, pobemlae. 
Dichasinm remotifloram; pedicelli fractiferi calycem nsqne 
3-plo snperantes. Calyx pallide virens 9 mm. long, obovato- 
cylindracens, f mctifer obovato-turbinatns, basi attenaatus, hand 
nmbilicatns, pnbemlns, dentibns sabtriangolari-rotandatis 
albido-mai-ginatis lannginoso-ciliatis, norvis latis viridibas. 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, YOL. XXXII. I 



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114 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE3 GENUS SILENB. 

Petala pallide rosea, bifida, nDgoibos snpemo paullum connatis, 
laming minnt& obcordatft, appendicibas binis parvis leviter 
emarginatis, Bon in tnbam connatis. Capsala ovoidea carpo- 
phornm 3-4-plo saperans. 

8yn. S. rubella, Hort. Olyssiponensis. 

Hob. Portagal. 

202. SiLENE TURBiNATA, Gu88., Fl, SiculfB Prodr,, i. (1827) 
p. 506; Moris, FL Sardoa, i. (1837) p. 249, t. 14 (S. rubella 
var, brachypetala). 

Caulis erectus, simplex vel e basi ramosus, glaber. Folia 
radicalia lanceolato-spathulata, obtusa, media lanceolata acuta, 
superiora linearia acuminata, omnia margine scabra, uninervia. 
Flores laxe paniculato-fasciculati, breviter pedicellati. Calyx 
albidus clayatus basi in petiolam attenuatus, fructifer turbi- 
natus, dentibus i*otundatis obtusis, late albo-marginatis, ciliatis. 
Petala rosea bifida, unguibas inclusis, lamin& minimi obcor- 
datft, lobis obovato-linearibus, appendicibus bilobis, inter se 
connatis. Capsula ovata carpophorum ter superans. 

A 8. ruhdld certissime diversa. 

Hah. Sardinia and Sicily. 

203. S. SEOETALis, Buf, in Bull. Soc, Bot. France, vii. (1860) 
p. 241. 

Caulis erectus, dichotome ramosus, pruinoso-pubescens. Folia 
ovato-oblonga, omnia margine undnlata, ad basin attenuata, 
ciliata. Flores erecti. Calyx purpurascens glaber, breviter 
tabulosus, fructifer turbinato-clavatus, dentibus ovatis, obtusis, 
late albo-marginatis, lannginoso-ciliatis. Petala emarginata 
rosea, appendicibus oblongis, bilobis, inter se connatis. Capsula 
ovato-oblonga, carpopbornm bis terve superans. 

Syn. S. patula, Lag, ex Buf., I.e., p. 242 (non Desf.). 

S. rubella, Soy, -Will et Godr., SU, d' Alger., p. 37 

(non Linn, f) 
S. undulata, Pourr. in Herb. Salvad., n. 109 (non Ait.), 

fide Rohrh.y Monogr., p. 155. 
S. stricta, Achar. in Herb. Holm, (non Linn.), fide Lindm. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Tudela, in Navarre. 
E. Tunis. 
S. Algeria. 
W. Near Cadiz, in Andalusia. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 115 

tt Calyx neryis anastomosantibns. 

204. SiLENE ARGILLOSA, Munbyy in Bull. 8oc, Bot, France, xi. 
(1864) p. 44; Coss.y Bustr. Fl. AtlanL, fasc. iv. (1890) p. 141, 
t.91. 

Pubescenti-glandalosa. Canles 14-40 centim. longi, erecti, 
Bopeme dichotomi, plures vel solitarii, pilis inferioribas, cris- 
pulis longioribas, anperioribus brevibas. Folia hand nndulata, 
margine eiliato-scabra ; inferiora obovato-oblonga vel oblonga 
obtnsa, infeme attennata; snperiora lanceolata, acuta, infeme 
hand attennata ; bracteee herbace©, pedicellis breviores. Flores 
erecti, longissime pedicellati, dichotomiis pins minus diver* 
gentibns. Calyx oblongo-tnbulosus, basi umbilicatns, pallide 
yirescens vel mbescens, fructifer snpome cylindracens infra cap- 
sulam angnstatus, nervis viridibus, dentibos ovato-hiangnlaribus 
snbacutis, albo-marginatis, lanuginoso-ciliatis. Petala rosea, 
ungnibns parnm exsertis, laminS. integra oblongo-cnneata, 
appendicibns oblongis integris et omnibus ad coronam snperne 
crenulatam adnatis. Filamenta glabra. Capsula ovato-cylin^ 
drica carpophoro snbtriplo lougior. Semina reniformia, cora- 
presso-subglobosa, dorso lato tubercnlomm seriebus tribns 
omato. 

Habitn notisque plnrimis affinis S.fuscatce, sed difiPert dentibus 
calycinis snbacutis non obtnsinscnlis, petalis ad faucem lamella 
integr^ non emarginato-bilob& donaiis, capsule ovato-cylindracei, 
carpophoro brevi. 

By Bohrbach joined with 8, rubella, but is essentially distinct, as Cosson 
shows. 

Hah. Prov. of Oran, in Algeria. 

b. Semina subglobosa tnbercnlata profunde urobilicata. Calyx 
nervis anastomosantibns. 

205. S. .BGYPTiACA, lAnn. /., Suppl. Plant, p. 241 ; Linn., Sp. 
Plant, ed. I. p. 415 (Cncubalus) ; Jacq.jHort. Vindoh., iii. (1776) 
p. 19, t. 32 (S. Atocion) ; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 156. 

Adde syn. S. atocia, St. Lntj. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon, vii. 
(1880) p. 134. 

S. retroflexa, Steud., Nomend. Bot., ed I. p. 780 ; ed. II. p. 587. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Cilicia, in Asia Minor. 
E. Prov. of Aleppo. 
S. Egypt, near Alexandria. 
W. Algeria, luar Tiaret. 



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116 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

206. SiLENE viRESCENS, Co88., Elustr, Fl, Atlatitj fasc. iv. 
(1890) p. 143, t. 92. 

Canles 15-30-centim. longi, erecti, ad medium vel supeme 
dichotomi, glandoloso-pabescentes. Folia haud nndnlata, pilis 
balbosis conspersa, margine ciliata ; inf eriora oboyata yel ovato- 
oblonga obkusa infeme in pekiolum attenuata; caulina ovato- 
oblonga ; bractesB pedicellis snbdnplo breviores. Flores longis- 
sime pedicellati, pedicellis post antbesin patentibus, dicbotomiis 
divergentibas vel divaricatis. Calyx pallide yirescens, oblongo- 
tnbnloscs, basi nmbilicatus, fructifer cylindraceo-dilatatus, 
apice hand contractus infra capsalam angnstatns, dentibns 
triangalaribas, acntis, albo-marginatis ciliatis. Petala purpn- 
rasceotia, nngnibns exserfcis, laming minnt& oblongo-cnneatft 
emarginata, appendicibas bipartitis minntis acntis. Filamenta 
glabra. Capsnla cjlindracea snbsessilis carpophomm mnlties 
snperans. Semina reniformia. 

Ab ek 8. divaricata differt villositate omninm partinm mnlto 
longiore, f oliis angnstioribns plerisqne lanceolatis, acntis, calyce 
in nervis anastomosantibns loDge hirsnto, fmctifero snpeme 
oblongo, infeme attennato, petalomm lamella elongate in lobos 
lineares acntos bipartitli, capsnl^ demdm calycem excedente, 
snpeme panllnlnm attenuate, seminibns striatis latins depressis 
et dorso obtnse canalicnlatis. 

Hab. S.W. Morocco. 

207. S. ATOCioiDES, Boiss.f Biagn, PL Nov. Or.y Ser. I. v. 
p. 83 ; Bohrh.y Monogr., p. 156. 

Ad S. cegyptiacam valde afl&nis, a qn& difPert bracteis 
herbaceis, foliis minoribns acntioribns, capsnl^ breviore, et 
prsesertim seminnm form& et magnitndine. 
Hab. S. Anatolia. 

208. S. MBKiNKNSis, Oow., IlUistr. FL Atlant.y fasc. iv. (1890) 
p. 144, t. 93. 

Pnbescenti - glandnlosa. Canles erecti vel diffnso-adscen- 
dentes, dichotome ramosi. Folia hand nndnlata, pilis basi 
bnlboso-incrassatis conspersa, margine ciliata ; inferiora obovata 
vel obovato-oblonga, obtnsa, in petiolnm brevem attennata ; 
canlina ovata vel ovato-oblonga, obtnsa rarins acnta. Bracteaa 
pedicellis breviores. Flores longe pedicellati, dichotomi© ramis 
divergentibus, ramo altero dichotomiarum interdnm abortn 
nnifloro vel deficiente. Calyx albido-virescens vel mbescens 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 117 

oblongo-tubnlosns, nmbilicattis, fmctifer dilaiatus, oblongus, 
snpeme attenuatns, infra capsolam aDgnstatns, nervis pilis 
patentibtLB yestitis, dentibTis ovato-triangularibns rotnndatis 
albo-marginatis, longe ciliatis. Petala pnrpurascentia, ungnibus 
ezsertis, laming oblongo-cuneati, emarginat&, appendicibns binis 
elongatis lineari-lanceolatis, acntis, inter se liberis. Filamenta 
glabra. Capsnia ovato-oblonga sub-sessilis carpophoro 4-5-plo 
loDgior. 

8. vvrescenti yillositate brevi magis proxima, sed distdnota 
calyce fmotifero oblongo snpeme atteunato, non cylindraceo, 
petalis mnlto majoribns, appendicibns binis lineari-lanceolafcis, 
capsnU oTato-oblong& snpeme attennat^. 

Hah, Djebel Sadig, near Mekinez, in Morocco. 

209. SiLENE DELICATULA, Boiss.^ Dtagn. PL Nov, Or,, Ser. I. i. 
p. 41 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 157. 

Hab. Gilicia, in Auia Minor. 

210. S. INSULARI8, Barhey, in Bull. Soc, VawJ, Sc, Nat. (1886), 
p. 220 ; Boiss.y Fl. Orient., 8H(ppl., p. 95. 

Breviter et crisp ale pnbescenti-yiscida, obscure virens. 
Ganles plnres ascendent] -prostrati fragillimi 2-5-flori. Folia 
minima, ovato-oblonga, obtnsa, infima brevissime petiolata, 
snprema sessilia, elliptica, acuta. Flores ob dichotomiaa 
ramum alterum abortivum solitarii, peduncnlo filiformi eis 
2-8-plo longiore snffolti. Calyx florifer tnbulosus, fmctifer 
ovato-oblongus, dentibus oblongis obtnsis. Petala rosea, 
ungnibus paullulnm exsertis, laming oblong^. Capsula ovaia 
carpophoro 6-plo longior. Semina muriculata, dorso plano- 
convexiuseula, faciebus plana. 

Affinis praecedenti, caulibus elongatis erectis valde dicho- 
tomis, foliis acutis, caljce longiore obconico, capsule carpophoro 
tantum duplo longiore, seminibus muricnlatis, ab hftcce dis- 
tincta. Fades 8, sedoidis. 

Hdb. Mt. Kalolamni, in the island of Scarpanto, in the 
Turkish Archipelago. 

Series 9. Bigidtdce, 
Calyx fmctifer apice non contractus. Semina faciebus plana. 
A. Semina dorso utrinquo al& undulate omato canaliculata. 

211. S. NANA, Kar. et Kir. in Bull, 8oc. Nat. Mosc,^ xv. 
(1842) p. 169; Bohrl., Monogr., p. 157. 



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118 MB. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

8. clandestincB quadammodo ex habita similis, plaribus noiis 
antem diversissima, — petalis integris, oalyoe fractifero ampliak), 
foliis acnmiDatis, glabris, margine pilis raris ciliatis nee scabris, 
Beminibns al4 andalaUL marginatis. 

Bj Ledebour (*F1. Bossica/ i. p. 777, in suppl.) placed in ihe group 
Muanthe, which is now a section of the genus Melandr^m, From wa 
examination of the capsules of dried specimens in Herb. Kew, I am 
inclined to agree with this view, as I was unable to detect the remains of 
septa at the base of the capsules I examined ; but I should prefer not 
to be responsible for excluding the species from Silene unless I had the 
opportimitj of examining the fresh capsules of liying plants. Boissier 
(Fl. Orient, i. p. 681) has " capsula basi trilocularis," though the statement 
seems based onlj on presumptiye eyidenoe. 

Oeogr, limits. — N. Agathme, in Turkestan. 
S. Belnchistan. 
E, The spring of Sassjk-pastan, in the Desert 

of Sonngaria. 
W. Kerman, in S.E. Persia. 

B. Semina dorso plana, 
a. Capsnla carpophorum bis Buperans. 

212. SiLENE HussoNi, Boiss., Diagn. PL Nov. Or,^ Ser. I. viii. 
p. 76 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 158. 

Hah. Wadi Sannoar, in the Egypto-Arabian Desert. 

b. Capsula carpophorom eqnans vel panllnm snperans. 

213. S. EiGiDULA, Sihths et 8m., Prodr. Fl. Qroec, i. p. 299 ; 
Fl. Oroeca, v. p. 21, t. 430 ; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 168. 

Adde syn. S. methansea, Heldr. Exs. Herh. Norm., n. 828. 

Haussknecht is disposed to consider this species as merely a form of 
8. portensiSf in which the capsule and carpophore are nearly of the same 
length : there is no difference in the seeds of the two plants. 

Geogr. limits. — N, Mt. Hymettus, near Athens. 
E. Island of Rhodes. 
W. Mt. Maleyo, in the Morea. 
S. Island of Crete. 

214. S. BCHINOSPERMA, Boiss., Diogii. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. viii. 
p. 78 ; Bohrb. Monogr., p. 158. 

Difiert a priori, coi valde affinis, pr»8ertim colore petalomm 
et seminibns. 
Hah. Mt. Taygetus, in the nome of Messenia, Greece. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. L19 

215. SiLENB JUNCBA, 8ibth. et 8m., Prodr, Fl, Orcec, i. p. 297 
(1806) ; Fl. Orceca, v. p. 15, t. 421 ; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gcvrd., 
i. t. 92 (S. picta) ; Eohrh., Monogr., p. 159 (S. picta). 

A prionbns, floribas brevissime pedicellatis jam primo aspecta 
disiingui potest. 

Addesyn. S. reticulata, Link, Enum. Hart. BeroL, i. p. 426 
(nonDesf.). 

/3. PALLIDA, Boiss.y Fl. Orient., i. p. 605. 

Pallide yirens. Rami strictiores. Caljcis nervi pallidiores. 
Petaloram lobi angastiores acutiores, nervis panels non 
anastomosantibiis. 

Syn. S. syriaca, Beut. in Oat. Hort. Oenev, (1857), p. 4. 

S. filiformis, Ehrenh. Herb., an Otth, in DO. Prodr.y i. 
p. 376 ? 

To avoid confuaion of names and dates, it is best to follow Boissier in 
the name for this species in place of 8. picta, Pers. (1805). Persoon 
identifies with his plant 8. btcolor, Thore, which is oertainlj a sjnonjm of 
8. partensit (the next species), but Bohrbach seems to infer that Persoon's 
brief diagnosis of 8. picta does not acouratelj describe authentic speci- 
mens of 8. pieta, Thore, and while admitting the latter as a synonym 
of 8. portentis, credits Persoon with a new species with Thore's name 
tacked on to it. This subordination of the law of common sense to the law 
of priority only tends to bring the latter more into disrepute than it already 
is. Inaccuracy and ambiguity in Persoon*8 brief description is much more 
likely than actual differences in the authentic specimens. Compare also 
8. pieta, Desf., Cat. Hort. Paris, ed. I. p. 159 (1804), which Bohrbach 
refers also to the next species ; also 8. picta, DC, PI. Bar. Hort. Gener. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and W. Island of Rhodes {Bourgeaxi, 1888). 
8. Sidon, in Syria. 
E. Baalbec, in the Lebanon {yar. /3). 



c. Capsnla carpopboro bis terve snperata. 

216. S. PORTENSis, Linn., 8p. Plant, ed. I. p. 420; Beichb., 
Ic. Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5074 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 159. 
Oeogr. limits. — N. Lignria, in Italy {Tanfani, in Pari. Fl- 
Italiana, ix.). 
8. Andalusia, in Spain. 

E. Island of Negropont, in the Greek Archi- 
pelago. 
W. Near Oporto, Portugal. 



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120 ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS 8ILENE. 

0. Semina dorso canalicnlata. 
a. Capsnla carpopboro ter quaterve snperata. 

217. SiLENE RETICULATA, De«/., Fl, Atlant, i. (1798) p. 350, 
t. 99 ; Rohrh., Monoyr., p. 160. 

Hah, Mt. Atlas, in Algeria. 

b. Capsala carpopbomm ssquans. 
a. Filamenta villoso-ciliata. 

218. S. KOTSCHYi, Boies., Diagn PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 40. 
Breviter praiDOBO-piibescens, snperne viscidula, viridis. Gaulis 

gracilis snperne dichotome ramosus, ramis filiformibns rigidis. 
Folia inferiora anguste lineari-lanceolata, inncronata, supe- 
riora linearia; bractesB et propbylla setacesB, acntee, albo- 
marginatad ciliatsB. Flores mediani calyce mnlto longius 
pedicellati, flores laterales caljce brevius pedicellati. Calyx 
papilloRo-hirtalns, tabnloso-clayatus, evenixis, tmncato-umbili- 
eatns, fructifer ubiongo-clavatas, infra capsulam leyiter con- 
strictns, dentibos lanceolatis acaminatis, ciliatis. Petala rosea, 
emarginato-bifida, cnneata, appendicibns binis rotnndatis. 
Capsnla ovato-oblonga. 

/3. MARiTiMA, Boiss,, Fl, Orient, i. p. 602. 
7-10 contim. alt., hnmilior, intemodia abbreviata. 
8yn, S. microsperma, Fenzl, Pugill. Plant. Nov, Syr., p. 9, 
n.27. 

7. EXSUDANS, Boiss. et Heldr, (sp.), Diagn, PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. 
viii. p. 76 ; Fl. Orient., i. p. 602. 

Inferne crispnle pnbernla, snperne yiscidnla, a basi divari- 
catim et dichotome ramosissima, pnmila. Calyx yiridi-vittAtns. 
Capsnla oyata. 

Hah, Tcbinoya, and near Adalia, in Anatolia. 

5. EFFUSissiMA, Boiss., Fl, Orient., suppl., p. 95. 

Canles 45-centiin. longi, longe et tennissime ramosissimi. 
Appendices corollsB acntiores, triangulares. 

Hah. Mt. Avronian, prov. of Marascb, and Mt. Scbabn, in 
Kni'distan. 

€. CASSLA, Boiss, (sp.), Diagn, PI. Nov, Or., Ser. I. viii. p. 78 ; 
Bohrh. Monogr., p. 160. 

Inferne papilloso-scabridula, snperne glabra viscida. Canles 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 121 

e basi ramosi. Flores omnes calyce longins pedicellati. Petala 
alba, profundins bifida. 
Hob. N. Syria ; Mt. Cassins. 

f. COBINTHUICA, Botes, et Heldr. (sp.), Boiss.^ Ft. Orient..^ 
sufpl,^ p. 96. 

Calyx glaber rabellns, dentibns ovatis, obtnsis, altemis, 
mnoronnlatis. Peiala albida. 

Bah, Lutraki, on the Corinth Canal (Heldreich). 

There is some ambiguity and confosion in Rohrbach's account of the 
TariouB forms of this polymorphous species. The grouping of the Tarieties 
as giyen above is based upon my examination of the material at Kew. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Prov. of Marasoh, in Torkey in Asia 
(forma typica). 
8. Mt. Lebanon (forma typica). 
E. Mt. Schahn, in Kurdistan (var. S). 
W. Lutraki, on the Corinth Canal (yar. f ). 

219. SiLENE INTRICATA, Posty in Post et Autran^ in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss., iii. (Apr., 1895) p. 154. 

Infeme et usque ad inflorescentisB basin tenuissime papilloso- 
aspera, superne glabra viscida. Caules numerosi, erecti, effuse 
et intricatim paniculati, ramis filiformibus. Folia graminosa, 
linearia, plana, papilloso-scabridula, superiora decrescentia. 
Pedunculi calyce multo breviores. Calyx glaberrimuE, evenius, 
mbro-lineatus, dentibus ovatis, obtusis. Petala viridia, cuneata, 
ultra medium bipartita, appendicibuE binis minimis denti- 
formibus. 

Species prsBcedentis var. effusissimfs affinis, differt foliis 
planis non complicatis, calyce glaberrimo rubro- (nee viridi-) 
lineato dentibus ovatis obtusis, petalis viiidibus. 

Hob. Mt. Gaiour-dagh, in prov. of Aleppo (n. 302). 

fi. Filamenta glabra. 

220. S. CARiENSis, Boiss.y Diagn. PL Nov. (Jr., Ser. I. i. p. 40 
(1842) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 161. 

Adds : Caulis gracilis, superne dichotome ramosus. Lamina 
magna cuneato-obcordata, appendicibus linearibus, unguibus 
glabris. Species elegans facie Eudianthes OoRli-rosce. 

Hob. Anatolia. 



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122 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

221. SiLENE INTEGRIPETALA, Bory et Ghauh., Fl. Pelopon., 
p. 27, n. 687, t. 14 (1832) ; Bohrb.y Monogr., p. 161. 

Hah. Morea, in Greece. 

222. S. LACONiCA, Boiss. et Orph., Biagn. Fl. Nov. Or., Ser. II. 
vi. p. 34 ; Bohrb.f Monogr., p. 165. 

S. pentelicce affinis, sed dilEeii prsesertim floribns majoribns, 
petalis bilobis. 
Hah. Mt. Malevo, in tbe nome of Laconia, Greece. 

223. S. ARENOSA, C. Koch^ in Linnoia, xv. (1841) p. 711; 
.Stschegl. in Bull. 8oc. Nat. Mosc. (1853), i. p. 322, t. 5 

(S. Kowalewskyi) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 161. 

S. linearis est planta major, foliis latioribuH, caljce reticulato- 
venoso. 
Qeogr. limits. — N. Nakbtscbewan, on tbe R. Aras, in Russian 
Armenia. 
S. Lake of Nemeckdenja, in S. Persia. 
E. Pesbawnr, in tbe Punj&b. 
W. Ruins of Babylon, prov. of Bagdad. 

224. S. LINEARIS, Decne., Fl. Sinaic, in Ann. Sc. Nat., S6t. II. 
iii. (1835) p. 276 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 162. 

A. S. Kotschyi differt canle crassiore albido, foliis minus 
tenuibus, caljcis dentibus margine membranacdis non ciliatis. 
Qeogr. area. — Tbe Eg jpto- Arabian Desert. 

N. Wadi Hebran, in Arabia Petrssa. 
S. Between Kosseir and Ras Benass, on the 
Egyptian coast of tbe Red Sea (Schwein- 
furth). 
E. The peninsula of Mt. Sinai (Schweinfurth). 
W. Bir Beda, near Suez. 

c. Capsula carpopborum 2-4-plo superans. 
a. Flores laterales caljce brevius pediceilati. 

225. S. CH^TODONTA, Botss., Biagn. Fl. No%\ (Jr., Ser. I. i. 
p. 39 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 162. 

Facies it?. Musciptdca^ sed cal jz fruotifer apice non contractus, 
nervis non anastomosantibus. 

Adde syn. S. debilis, Stapf, in Benlcschr. Akad. Wien., li. 
(1886) 282. 

fi. PiiTODES, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 606; Bohrh., Monogr., 
p. 162. 



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ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 123 

Yarietas hnmilis viscosissima, ramis abbreviatis, floribns 
omnibuB brevissime pedicellatis. 

Oeogr. limits. — N, Turkey in Asia ; prov. of Orfah, near the 
B. Euphrates. 
8. S. Persia. 
E, N. Persia; Schahimd, in prov. of 

Khorassan. 
W, Syria ; near Beyrout. 

226. SiLENE STBUTA, Bohrh, in Bot, Zeitung^ xxv. (1867) 
p. 83 ; Monogr,, p, 163. 

Adde : Calyx anguste cylindricus inter costas eleyatas 
sulcato-striatus, fructifer clavatus. 

Facie et characteribus valde affinis formis pumilis 8, Kotschyi, 
quIUsum confusa fuerat et a qu& difFert calyce glaberrimo, 
pedunculis crassioribus, appendicis corolleo form^, filamentis 
glabris, et carpophori loDgitndine. 

Hah. Near Baalbec, in the Lebanon. 

p. Flores laterales calyce loDgius pedicellati. 
t Petala e calyce exserta. 

227. S. PiNETOBUM, Boiss. et Heldr., Diagii. PI. Nov. Or., 
Ser. I. viii. p. 75 ; BauL, tie de Crete, p. 600, t. 9 ; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 164. 

Differt a S. pentelicd rigiditate, foliorum form&, pedunculis 
longioribus, form& capsulae. 
Hob. Crete. 

228. S. SEDOiDES, Poir., Voy. Barb., ii, p. 164 ; Beichb., Ic. Ft. 
Oerm. Helv., n. 5064 b ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 164. 

A priori differt calyce oblongo reticulato-venoso, capsulU 
oblong& carpophore broviore, seminibus multo minoribus. 

Adde syn. S. delicatnla, Bertol., Fl. Halica, iv. p. 624. 

S. sicula, Cyr., ex Schrank, in Denkschr, Bot. Oes. Begensb,, ii. 
(1822) p. 46. 

fi. LAXA, Haussh in Mittheil. Thuring. Bot. Ver., Heft v. 
(1893) p. 51. 

Caules elongati, subflaccidi, filiformes. Folia majora, 
tenuiora, pallide viridia, intemodiis valde remotis. Petala, 
unguibas exsertis. 

Hah. Vromolimni, in S. Greece. 



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124 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

7. PACHYPHTLLA, Haussk, in Nym, Consp, Fl. Eur,^ sv/ppl,^ ii. 
p. 55 (1889) [nomen] ; Haussh, in MittheU, Thiiring, Bot. Ver.^ 
Heft V. (1893) p. 51. 

Canles crassiores, rigid!, dense glandaloso-viscosi, lateralibns 
B89pe prostratis, elongatis. Folia basilaria majora, obovato- 
spathulata, apice rotandata, omnia crassa, pilis longioribns 
obtecta, summa ovata. Inflorescentia divaricatim et laze 
cymosa. Calyx obovoideo - clavatus, dentibns latioribus 
obtnsioribns. Capsnla carpophoro bis longior. 
Hah. Near Athens. 

Oeogr. limits. — N, Istria, in Austria (ex Nym.^ Gonsp, FL 
Eur.). 
S. and E. Near Sidon, in Syria. 
W. Carthagena, in pro v. of Mnrcia (WiUk. 
et Lange^ Prod/r. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 661). 

229. SiLENE PBNTELICA, Boiss., Didgn, PL Nov. Or., Ser. I. 
viii. p. 74 ; Roh/rb.y Monogr., p. 164. 

Tota patnle et breviter birsnta viscida. Gaalis humilis e 
basi divaricatim ramosissimus. Folia radicalia oblongo- 
spathnlata, obtasa, floralia sensim diminuta, oblongo-linearia. 
Inflorescentia divaricatim et laxe cymosa, nee snpeme snbra- 
cemosa ; pedicelli fractiferi erecti, flomm dichotomialium calyce 
mnlto longiores. Calyx papillari - yiscidus, obconico-ovatns, 
nmbilicatus, nervis anastomosantibus, dentibas ovatis obtosis. 
Petala rosea, cnneata, retasa, appendicibos bipartitis, segmentis 
oblongis, nnguibus longias exsertis. Capsala Crustacea nee 
membranacea, oblonga, carpopboram ter superans. Sen[iina 
transverse striata. 

Affinis praecedenti, differt cymis regulariter dicbotomis, 
pednncnlis longioribns erectis, laminis longias exsertis. 

Hah. Livadia ; Mt. Pentelicns, between Atbens and Marathon. 

230. S. Haussknechtii, Heldr,, PL exsicc. in Itin. Qrcec. 
(1885) ; et in MittheiL Thiiring. Bot. Ver., Heft v. (1893) 
p. 51. 

Canlis bumilis, e basi divaricatim ramosns, scabro-pnbesoens, 
glandnlosos. Folia subcarnosa scabro-pabescentia, glandnlosa, 
inferiora lanceolate- spatbnlata, obtnsioscnla, ciliata, snperiora 
elliptico-ovata, acntioscnla, brevissima, snmma lanceolata, magis 
acuta. Calyx glandnloso-viscosus, clavato-cylindricns, nmbili- 
catos, frnctifer oblongo-clavatas, infra capsnlam constrictns, 



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MR. F. K. WILLIAMS ON THE 0BNU8 8ILBNB. 125 

nervis anastomosantibns, dentibns ovatis obtnsiR albomarginatis 
ciliatis. Petala rosea, lamin& ovato-rotandatft, integr&, yenis 
obsonrioribus peronrsft, appendicibas bidentatis. Capsnia 
carpophoro ter longior. 

Affinis prsBcedenti, differt foliis latioribus minus obtnsis, 
caljce angnstiore, petalis integris, appendicibns bidentatis, etc. 

Described from authentio Bpecimens in Herb. Eew. 

Hah, On tbe peak of Zygos of Mt. Pindus, above Metzovo, 
upon tbe frontier between Greece and tbe Tnrkish province of 
Epims. 

tt Petala tota in calyce inclnsa sive nulla. 

231. SiLENE iNAPERTA, Linn., 8p. Plant.f ed. I. p. 419 (non 
Linn. Herh.^ quae = S. multicaulis, Ouas,) ; Dill,, Hort, Eltham,, 
p. 424, t. 316, fig. 407 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 165. 

Forma foliosa, mihi, 

Planta csespitosa ; caules foliosi ; folia camosula basi 
ciliolata. 

Hah. Villa Nova de Portimao, in Portugal, 1847 (Welw., 
Herb. Algarh,, n. 693). 

/3. ARAGONENSis, Pau^ Not, Bot, Ft, JSspan., i. p. 21 (1887) ; 
WiUk,, Frod/r, Fl, Hisp,, suppl, p. 281 (1893). 

Calyx nervis vix anastomosantibus. Petala bidentata, denti- 
bns nee divergentibus. 
Hah. Aragon. 

Oeogr, limits. — N. France, depart, of Drdme. 
E, Corsica, near Calvi. 
8, Canary Isles. 
W. Madeira. 

Series 10. Leiocalycincs,* 

Calyx fructifer apice contractus. Calyx glaber vel brevissime 
scabrius-culus, vel rarius glanduloso-pubescens. 

a. Calyx evenius. 
a. Calyx dentibns acutis. 

232. S. CRETiCA, Linn., 8p, Plant, ed. I. p. 420; Dill, 
Hort. Eltham,, p. 423, t. 314, fig. 404; Uohrh., Motwgr., p. 167. 

* The characters of this and the next series are modified in accordance 
with the suggestions of 0. M. Lindman (1891). 



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126 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 

Adde syn, S. Dilleniana, Schott, in Deaf. Oat Hort. Paris, 
ed. III. p. 264 (vide Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 228, nti sp. dubia). 
Ex syn. S. tenniflora, Ou$8. (species propria). 

In a few floras this species is described as haying nerves anastomosing on 
the caljx, but in all the authentic specimens I have examined, the ten 
simple prominent nerves have been quite free from anj secondary or con- 
necting stris : this is the more easy to demonstrate, since the surface of 
the calyx is quite glabrous. 

This polymorphous species is generally distributed through almost the 
whole of the Mediterranean region, and from thence into the warmer parts 
of Central Europe : being sometimes introduced with flax, it has become 
naturalized elsewhere, as almost to appear indigenous. 

233. SiLENB Ungeri, Fenzl, in linger, Beise in Griechenl., 
p. 136 (1862) ; Bohrb,, Monogr., p. 155, n. 145. 

HsBC species pnlchra ex cl. Heldreichii observationibus et ex 
speciminibxLS fmctiferis, calyce fractifero apice contracto 
gaudet ideo non inter Seriem 8 — Atocia — sed jnxta 8, 
antirrhinam militat : vide Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift, 1878, p. 29. 
Ergo planta iterom hie descripta est. 

Caulis erectns snpeme vel e basi panllnm ramosos, glaberri- 
mus supeme viscidus. Folia inferiora rosulata, obovato- 
spatbnlata, obtusissima, hirtello-pnbemla, ciliolata, snperiora 
lanceolata vel lineari-lanceolata, acuta ; bracteee cum propbyllis 
parvaB acutee ciliatae. Pedunculi tenues calyce niulto longiores. 
Calyx cylindrico-clavatus, rubellus, basi afctenuatus, suburabili- 
catus, nervis saturatius rubellis prominentibus, dentibus ovatis, 
aouminatis, late albo-marginatis. Petala purpurea, unguibus 
exsertis, laming oblong^ integr^ vel vix emarginati, appeu- 
dicibus binis eloDgatis, lanceolatis. Capsula ovali-oblonga, 
carpopborum adquans. Semina tuberculata, dorso convexa, 
faciebus plauiuscula. 

Syn. S. flBtolica, Heldr. in Atti, Gongr. Bot. Firenze (1874), 
p. 239. 
S. Rohrbacbiana, Aschers., mss. in PI. Schrad. e Corcyrd. 

Hob. Greece.-^, and W. Corfiil j^ ^^^ j^^.^ j^j^^^^ 
S. Ithaca J 

E. Near Mesolongbi, in Livadia. 

234. S. GRAXDIPLORA, Franch., PI. Yunnan, in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
France, xxxiii. (1886) p. 427; PI. Belavay., t. 23. 

Caulis elatus e basi ramosus, ramis gracilibus elongatis, 
tenuiter retrorsum pubescentibas, ultra medium foliatis. Folia 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 127 

e basi brevissime attenuata yel subrotunda angasto lanceolata, 
longe acuminata, scabrida, margine ciliata; bractesB cum 
prophjUis paullum minores angustiores. Flores pauci, pedi- 
cellis, praasertim in flore primario, elongatis pubescentibus. 
Calyx clavato-tubulosus rubescens, pubescens, inferne angus- 
tatus et leviter umbilicatus, deiitibus ovatis. Petala intense 
rubra, unguibus exsertis, glabrls, in auriculas rotundatas 
erosas dilatatis, lamina obcordatd. bilobfl, lobis rotundatis. 
Filamenta glabra. Capsula ovata carpophorum eaquans. 

A plant with yery Urge flowers, and in thia respect rather resembling a 
species of Eudianthe or Lyehnit ; but the ovary is trilocular at the base, 
and the dehiscent capsule has six teeth. The petals are nearly 30 mm. 
long, and 12 mm. across at the broadest part of the blade ; and the broadly 
aoricolate claws distinguish it from most of the annual species of the 
section Dichasiosilene. It may be here obsenred that the majority of the 
17 species of Silene from Yon-nan, described by Mons. Franchet, should be 
excluded from the genus, as the capsules are not trilocular at the base. 

Hah. Near Tali, in the plain of Ho-kin, in the prov. of 
Yun-nan, China. 

p. Calyx dentibus obtusis. 
235. SiLENE ANTiRRHiNA, Liun.y Sp. PUnt., ed. I. p. 419; 
DUl, Hort. Eltham., p. 422, t. 313, fig. 403; Eohrh., Monogr.. 
p. 168. 

8yn. Saponaria dioica, Cham, et Schlecht. in LinnoBa, i. (1826) 
p. 38 (non Linn.). 
Saponaria Vaccaria, Mandon, PI. BoUv., n. 984 (non 
Linn.). 
Lusus 2. Tenuissima, Folia iinearia, iDfimis lineari-spat.hu- 
latis. Calyx subglobosas. 

Syn. S. antirrhina var. gracilis, Gamb. in A. St. Hil. Fl. 
Brasil. Mer., ii. p. 118; Mart. Fl. Brasil, xiv. 
pars II. (1872) p. 291. 
S. antirrhina var. linaria. Wood, Class-Book, ed. 1861, 
p. 256 ; 8. Wats., Bihl. Index, p. 107 ; B. L. Robinson, 
in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. (1893) p. 132. 
Hah. Georgia and Florida, in the United States. 
Lusus 3. Tenuissima. Folia Iinearia vel lanceolato-iinearia. 
Rami floriferi divaricatim divergentes. Calyx ovoideus. Petala 
inclnsa. 

Syn. S. antirrhina var. divaricata, B. L. Robinson, in Proc. 
Am^er. Acad., xxviii. (1893) p. 132. 



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128 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Hah, Illinois, in the United States. 

Qeogr. limits, — N, Canada ; Rocky Mountains. 

8. S. Chili. 

E. Brazil. 

W. Vancouver's Island (Lyall, 1858, in Herb. 
Kew.). 

236. SiLENE lj:vioata, Sibth. et Sm., Prodr. FL Orcee., i. 
(1806) p. 295 ; Fl. Orcaca, v. p. 13, t. 418 ; Bohrh., Monogr., 
p. 168. 

Emenda : Semina dorso trisnlcata, faciebus plana. 

Cf. 8. BeJien, qui flores. Flores eis 8. Behen, pins dimidio 
minores, lamina minor et angnstior minus bifida, et uervi 
calycini venulis destituti. 

Hab. Cyprus. 

237. S. BoissiERi, /. Oay, ap, Coss.y Not. PI. Crit. Esp., ii. 
(1850) p. 32; Boiss., Voy. Bot Esp., ii. (1845) p. 93, t. 24 
(S. ramosissima) ; Bohrb.., Monogr,, p. 169. 

Bj an oyer-Btriot applicatioii of the law of priority, S. germaiuif which 
is reduced to this species, might stand as the name of the plant, since it is 
described on the preceding page, but there seems to be inacouraqj in details 
in the textual description of the authentic specimens, bj which its affinity 
with allied plants is obscured, so that to avoid possible confusion it is best 
and most conyenient to adopt Gaj's other plant as the type, as Bohrbach 
has done in his monograph, but without noting the discrepancy. Both 
plants are found on the same mountain. 

Hab, Andalusia and Sicily ; but Todaro's record in Sicily is 
somewhat doubtful. 

b. Calyx nervis anastomosantibns. 
a. Calyx dentibus acutis. 

238. S. Almolj:, /. Oay, op, Coss,, Not. PI. Crit. Esp.y ii. 
(1850) p. 31 ; WiUK lo. Descr. PL Nov. Hisp., i. (1853) p. 48, 
t. 33 ; Eohrb., Monogr., p. 169. 

Oeogr. area. Spain. — N. and E. New Castile ; near Aranjuez. 
8. and W. Andalusia ; near Honda. 

239. S. MusciPULA, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 420 ; Beichb., 
Ic. Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5077; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 170. 

Forma angustipolia. — Rami patnli. Folia omnia angaste 
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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS OX THE GENUS SILENE. 129 

Syn. S. Mnscipula var. angnstifolia, Costa, Ampl. PL Catah, 
p. 32 (1873) ; Willk. et Lange, Prodr. Ft. Hisp., iii. 
(1878) p. 663. 
S. arvensis, Lose, Trat. PI. Aragon, p. ?»1 (1876) ; 
Willk., Prodr. Fl. Hisp., suppL, p. 281 (1893). 

ft. CORYMBIFERA, Bertol. (sp.), Fl, Italicn, iv. p. 591 ; Tanfani, 
in Pari. FL Italiana, ix. (1892) p. 406. 

Pauciflora, ciliato-scabra ; dichasio corymboso-fastigiato. 
Oeogr. limits. — N. Liguria, in Italy. 

E. Coast of Syria, near Sidon. 

S. Algeria. 

W. Portugal (ut S. stricta Link [non Linn.'\). 

240. SiLENE Reinholdi, Heldr. in Atti Congr. Bot. Firenze, 
(1874) p. 239; et FL Cephaltm., p. 25 (1870). 

Canlis erectus dichotomus. Folia glaueescentia, inferiora 
spathulata, ovato-oblonga, eiliata, apice rotandata, mucronato, 
superiora oblongo-lanceolata, floralia admodnm diminnta. Flores 
laxe cymoso-racemosi, alares, longiuscule pedancnlati, soperiores 
Recnndi, cernui, pedunculis fructiferis patentibns. Calyx 
oblongas, citd ovoideo-inflatus, basi attennatus, sed nnnqnam 
umbilicatns, apicem versas pnrparascens, valde attenuato- 
constrictas, dentibns brevibus scariosis. Petala biloba, intense 
rosea, appendicibas brevibus acatis. Capsula subglobosa bre- 
vissime stipitata, apice conico-attenuata. Semina 4-5-sulcata, 
ecbinato-tubei'culata. 

Sytf. S. pseado-beben, Heldr. exs. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Kastri (Delpbi), in Livadia. 

S. and E. Island of Lero, off the coast of 

Anatolia. 
W. Ionian Islands ; Cepbalonia. 

241. S. STRICTA, Linn., Cent. Plant., ii. p. 17 ; et Amoen. Acad., 
iv. p. 314 (1756) ; Willk., Ic. Descr. PL Nov. Hisp., i. (1853) 
p. 56, t. 40 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 171. 

A S. Muscipuld differt, calycis dentibus elongatis, acutis- 
simis, ciliatis, nervis primariis horbaceo-alatis, petalis parvis 
exauricnlatis, capsulse seminumque forma. 
Geogr. limits. — N. and E. Sicily. 
8. Morocco. 
W. Portugal (ex Nym., Consp. Fl. Eur.). 

[ilNN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. K 



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L30 MR, F. X. WILLIAMS OX THE GENUS SILENE. 

242. SiLENE TEXUiFLOBA, Gu8s., PL Bar., p. 177, t. 36 (1826) ; 
JDni., Eort. Eltham., p. 423, t. 314, fig. 404; Lindm. in Act, 
HorL Berg,,i. (1891) n. 6, p. 6, figg. 21-25; Bohrb., Monogr., 
p. 167 (sub S. cretic&). 

Inferne pubernla, super ae viscidula. Caulis tenois in c} mam 
corymbosam stricte dichotomam dividens. Folia radicalia 
spatbulata, obtnsa, in petiolnm attenuata, saperiora cum 
bracteis angnste Hnearia, acuta. Flores in cymas regu lares 
dispositi, et mediani et laterales longe pedicellati. Calyx 14-16 
mm. longus, clavato-cyiindraceus leviter umbilicatus snpeme 
atro-purpurascens, fructifer clavatuB infra medium leviter 
constrictus apice sensim contractus, nervis rnbris, dentibus 
ovato-triangularibus anguste albo-marginatis. Petala pur- 
purea, ungnibns exsertis, obovato-cuneata, obcordato-emarginata, 
appendicibas bipartitis, hajusque laciniis oblongis rotundato- 
obtusis, vel interdnm subacutis. Capsola ovata carpophorum 
duplo superans. Semina tubcrculata, dorso faciebusque 
planiuscula. 

LindmoD, who has carefuUy studied the characters of the plant in the 
Jiving state, shares the opinion of Boissier (FL Orient., i. p. 585), that this 
i^pecies is quite distinct from S. cretica, 

Geogr, limits. — N. Albano, near Rome, Lindman. 
S. Sicily, Gussone, 
E. Base of Mt. Pamassas, in Greece, Heldreich, 

ex Boiss.y FL Orient., I.e. 
W. Andalusia, Beverchon (*'S. cretica**). 

y3. Calyx dentibus obtusis. 

243. S. Behen, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 418 ; Dill., Sort. 
Eliham., p. 427, t. 317, fig. 409; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 169. 

Affinis S. Icpvigatce a qud, ceteris neglectis, jam calyce 
umbilicato nervis anastomosantibas difPert. 

Geogr, limits. — N. Prov. of Caglian, in Sardinia. 

S. and W. Canary Islands (S. ignobilis, Lowe). 
E. Palestine. 

244. S. HoLZMANxr, Heldr. in Boise., FL Orient., suppL, p. 91 
(1888) ; Nym., Consp, Fl. Eur., suppL, ii. p. 54. 

Glaucescens, glabra. Caulis dichotomus, ramis crassiuscnlis. 
Folia lanceolata ntrinqne attenuata, obtusa, suprema lanceolato- 
linearia, acuta. Dichasii internodii brovissimi. Calyx oblongus 
rubelias, fructifer ovato-inflatus, dentibus ovatis. Petala 



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MK. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 131 

niinuta, biloha, ungaibns exsertis. Capsala ovata subsessilis. 
Semina seriatim echinulata, dorso plana, faciebus concava. 

Valde affinis 8. Behen ; an ejus varietas salsuginosa ? Differt 
inflorescentill ob internodia abbreviata coarctatii, caule efc ramis 
crassis, calycibns basi attcnnatis, seminibus echinnlatis. 

Hah, The rock of Arpedon, off the coast of Anatolia. 

245. SiLENE LTNicoLA, C. C. Gmel, Fl. Bad^ns., iv. (1626) 
p. 304; Reichb., Ic. FL Germ. Helv., n. 5076; JR^hrb., Monogr., 
p. 171. 

Adde : Calyx umbilicatus ; filamcnta glabra ; semina granu- 
late. 

Geogr, limits. — N. and W. Luxemburg {Nym., Consp. Fl. Eur.y 

suppl., ii. p. 54). 

S, Campo Marzio, on the Austrian coa.st, in 

the prov. of Goritz, near Trieste (Mar- 

chesetti, ex Path, Fl, Italiana, ix,j). 410). 

E. Prov. of Camiola. 

Tenore's southern record in Sicily is erroneous, though it has been intro- 
duced into the island with flax, as into other localities. 

246. S. CRASsiPEs, Fenzl, Pugill. Plant. Nov. Si/r., p. 8 
(1842) ; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 172. 

1^. ASSTRLACA, Haussk. et Bomm. exs. (sp.) in Bomm., It. 
PersicO'turciruvi, 1893, n. 975 (an species propria ?). 
Folia inferiora ovata. Petala emarginato-biloba. 

As C. M. landman rightly points out, this species should not be referred 
to the series LaMiocal^cina, as the nerres of the calyx anastomose, and the 
plant otherwise differs very little from 8. linieola. For the same reason t 
•^. gonocalyx^ Boiss., should be a distinct species, instead of being joined 
with S. crasttpet, as Rohrbaeh has done. 

Geogr. limits. — N. Mt. Nimroud-dagh, in prov. of Musch 
(Sintetiis, Iter Orientale, 1888). 
S. and W, Coast of Syria, near Sidon. 
E, Mt. Kuh-Sefin, in Kurdistan (var, ft). 

Series 11. LasiocalydruB. 

Calyx fructifer apice contractus. Calyx evenius, yalde 
costatus ; costeo pilis loDgis vel squamis distinctis vestitae. 

a. Petala integra vel emarginata. 

247. S. GONOCALYX, Boiss.y I>iagn. PI, Nov. Dr., Ser. I. viii. 
p. 38 ; Fl. Orient., i. p. 587, et suppl, p. 92. 

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132 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS StLENE. 

, Canlis ercctus e hasi divaricatim ramosus punctato-scabri- 
dnlns. Folia inferiora oblongo-spathnlata, superiora lanceolata, 
acuta, scabrida ; bractete lineares. Flores snbsessiles, alares, et 
ad ramos supremos breves 3-5-conferti. Calyx coriaceus, 
cylindricus, fructifer clavatus, infra capsulam conslrictus, 
dentibus rotundis, ovatis, late albo-marginatis, ciliatis. Petala 
rosea, obovato-oblonga, Integra, appendicibus binis acutis. 
Capsula ovata, carpophoro crasso duplo longior. Semina dorso 
lato obtuse cnnaliculata, faciebus auriformi-curvato-excavata. 

Inflorescentia vel dichotoma cyraosa vel saepius e cymis con- 
tractiR ad ramos altemos terminalibus paniculatis constans. 

Geogr, limits. — N. Ain-Tab, in prov. of Aleppo. 
S, Jerusalem. 

248. SiLENE PTERONEURA, mthi ; Ball et Claroz (var.), in 
Joum. Linn. Hoc. (Bot.), xxi. (1886) p. 213. 

Basi retrorsum puberula, supeme glabra viscida. Caules 
erecti furcati. Folia elongato-linearia, acuminata, ciliata; 
bractesB foliis conformes. Flores longissime pedicellati. Calyx 
viridis ovatus, fructifer ovoideus, costis herbaceis undulato- 
alatis, dentibus oblongo-ovatis obtusis. Petala camea, emar- 
ginata, appendicibus binis parvis. Capsula ovoidea subsessilis. 
Semina seriatim tuberculata, dorso faciebusque plana. 

Od account of the distinctire character of the nerres of the calyx, it 
does not seem to belong to the same series as S. antirrhina. 

Hah. Near Bahia Blanca, in tlie Argentine Republic. 

b. Petala bifida vel bipartita. 

249. S. PAPILL03A, Boiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. p. 39 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 172. 

Affinis S. crassipedif sed distinctissima nervorum dentiumque 
calycinorum structure, et laming bifida magis exsert4. 
Qeogr. limits, — N. Guzuldere, near Mersina, in Cilicia. 

S. Nahr el Kelb, on the"^ (Peyron, ex Boiss., 
Syrian coast > Fl. Orient., suppL, 

E. Gadir, in the Lebanon J p. 92). 
W. S. coast of Anatolia. 

250. S. ECHiNATA, Otthy in DC. Prodr., i. p. 380; Bohrh.y 
Monogr., p. 172. 

Calycis indumento accedit ad S. trinerviam^ quae tamen 
primo aspectu inflorescentia difFert. S. papillosa calyce breviore, 



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MR. F. X. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 133 

fmctifero infra capsulam carpophorum ter superantem con- 
stricto facile distinguitur. 
Hab. Italy 

251. SiLENE SQUAMiGERA, Boiss., Diogu, PL Nov, Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 38; Jauh. et Spach, Elustr. Plant. Or., i. p. 8, t. 4 (S. 
echinata) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 173. 

Differt a 8. echinatd calycis nervis a squamis nee pilis obsitis, 
petalis albis, seminum form4. 

ft. ANTIOCHICA, Freyn (sp.), tw Bull. Herb. J5ow.,iii. (1895) p. 7S. 
Caules dicbotomi, ramis rigidis. Calyx cylindricus pnr- 
purescens. Petala camea. 

Geogr. limits. — N. Mt. Sipuli, in Anatolia. 
E. Prov. of Marascb. 
S. Elmalu, in Anatolia. 
W. Nome of -<Etolia, in Livadia. 

252. S. VBSICULIFBRA, /. Gaij, ap. Boisa., FL Orient., i. p. 586 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 173. 

Valde affinis priori, a qu4 tamen calycis formd, dentibus 
elongatis, squamamm natnr^, petalis angnstioribus et capsule 
globosA satis differt. 

Hab. Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 

Sectio III. BOTRYOSILBNE. 

Herbie perennes suffmticesve. Flore s in racemo simplici vel 
composito breviter vel longe pedicellati: racemi ramis aut 
brevibus paucifloris, aut elongatis iterum racemosis vel 
cyrauliferis vel, omnibus cymamm intemodiis abbreviatis, 
verticillastriferis, interdum axis primariaB intra inflorescentiam 
intemodiis contractis flores capitulum formantes; raro abortu 
caulis tri-vel uniflorus. 

A. Calyx glaberrimus coiiaceus, cylindrico-vel conico-clavatus, 
Effipe basi annulo circulari pseudoumbilicatus. 

Series 1. Sclerocalyeinas. 
a. Pedicelli ima basi bibracteolati. 

253. S. Friwaldzktana, Hampe, in Flora, xx. (1837) p. 226; 
liohrb., Monogr., p. 175. 

Ab 8. colorata, Poir., is now sunk in S. $ericea, by the strict application 
of the law of priority Hampe's name (1837) would yield to 8. colorata, 



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134 MU. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Friw. (1835) ; but Friwaldzlcy hiraself , knowing afterwards of 5. colorafa^ 
Vo'iT.j in a letter to Grisebach (1839) changed the name of his plant to 
*S. tivctOf not, however, before Harape had published a description of the 
same plant under the name by which it is at present known. 

Giogr. limits, — N, and W. Carlova, in Bulgaria. 1 Velenovsky 
E, Varna, in Bulgaria. J (1885). 

S. Mt. Ebodope, in Turkey. 

b. Pedicclli medium versus vel infra calyeem bibracteolati. 

a. Filamenta glabra. 

t Flores erecti. 

(1) Calyx dentibus omnibus acutis vel mucronatis. 

254. SiLENE BUPLEUROiDES, Liwi., Sp, Flant^ ed. I. p. 421 ; 
Toumef.f Ooroll. Voy., p. 380, t. 154 (Lychnis oiientalis 
bupleurifolia) ; Rohrh.^ Monogr,, p. 175. 

Species ab auctoribus fere omnibus cum S. longiflord com- 
mutata, a qnk calycis dimidio brevioris dentibus omnibus acutiei 
facile diatingui potest; 8, caramani^^a autem jam pruinosa. et 
calyce multo longiore punctate differt. 

Hab, Armenia. 

255 S. AVROMANA, Boiss. et Hatissk, in Boiss,^ FL Orient.^ 
suppl., p. 105. 

Csespitosa, glabra, glauca. Caules erecti, infeme parce 
foliosi, viscidi. FoHa radicalia ssepe elevatim punctata, oblonga, 
obtusa, mncronulata, in petiolum longe attenuata, margine 
scabridula, superiora viscid a la, anguste linearia, longe subulata. 
Flores magni approximati, pedunculo alarium calyeem ssBpe 
(equante, lateralium breviore. Calyx tubulosus, sensim dilatatus, 
umbilicatus, fructifer clavatus, evenitis, dentibus triangulari- 
lanceolatis, acutis. Petala fuscescentia, biloba, appendicibus 
binis ovatis. Capsula oblonga carpophorum aequans. 

Quamvis f oliis, inflorescentill, habitu 8. Sieberi et 8. eremificcB 
similis, tamen ob calyce :n e venium coriaceum acute dentatum 
fructiferum sub capsuld. non abrupte constrictum militat, folii 
parvis brevibus obtusis, ab omnibus affinibns distincta. 

Hab. Mt. Avroman. 

256. S. CARAMAKICA, Boiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. viii. 
p. 90 ; Co88., niuatr. FL AtlarU., fasc. iv. (1890) t. 95 : Bohrh., 
Monogr., p. 1 76. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 135 

Adde : Nervi calycini sparse f urcati vix conjuncti. 

ft. SOLENOCALTX, Boiss., Biagu. PL Nov, Or., Ser. 11. v. p. 57 
(S. bnpleuroides var. solenocalyx) ; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 17G. 
Folia linearia graminea, vix scabrida ; calyx rabro-venias. 

Geogr. limits, — Turkey in Asia. 

N. Near Erzeroum, in Armenia. 
S. and W. Between Ermenek and Karaman, 

in Cilicia. 
E. Mt. Bingol-Dagb, in prov. of Musch. 

257. SiLENE RouYAXA, Battand. in Bull. Soc. Bot, France y xxxv. 
(1888) p. 385; Goss., Illustr. FL Atlant., fasc. iv. (1890) p. 147, 
t. 95. 

CsBspitosa, glabra, glaaea. Caulcs basi snffrutescentes erecti, 
saperne viscidi. Folia radicalia lineari-lanceolata, vel anguste 
oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, in petiolam infeme squamiformi- 
dilatatum attenuata, media seepius angustiora, snperiora lineari- 
subnlaba, rigidula, saepius pnngentia, plus minus membranaceo- 
marginata, margine membranaceo tenuissime denticnlato. 
Fiores solitarii, caulem et ramos laterales quando adsunt 
terminantes. Calyx 22-30 mm. longus, tubuloso-infundibuli- 
formis, annulo circulari pseudoumbilicatas, fructifer superne 
cylindraceo-dilatatns, infra capsnlam angustior, nervis anas- 
tomosantibas saape rubellis, dentibus insequilongis, ovato- 
triangularibus, mncronatis, membranaceo-marginatis, brevissime 
ciliatis. Petala bifida, intus albida, extus tigrino-purpurea, 
lobis oblongo-linearibus obtnsis, appendicibus binis ovato- 
lanceolatis, acutis, inferue convexo-gibbosis. Filamenta glabra. 
Capsula cylindrica, apice conica, carpophoro duplo longior. 
Semina reniformia, compressa, dorso granulato canalicnlata, 
faciebus plana. 

S. caramanica difEert, ceteris neglectis, calyce punctis 
elevatis tuberculato, petalorum laminis linearibas angustioribos, 
appendicibus apice fimbriatis vel serrato-erosulis, et stipite 
capsules subeequilongo non subdnplo breviore. 

Hah, Algeria ; Mt. Mzi, in prov. Oran. 

258. S. MACROSOLEN, Steud. in Schimp., PL Ahyssin.^ ii. 
n. G61 ; ex A. Rich., Tent. FL Ahysnn., i. p. 44 (1847) ; Rohrb.^ 
Monogr., p. 176. 

Hab, Abyssinia. 



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136 MR. F. X. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

259. SiLENE TENUiCAULis, Freyti et Bornm. (ined.) in PI. Exs. 
Anatolice Orient., n. 1314 (anno 1889). 

Glanca, glabra, ccespitosa. Caules adscendenti-erecti sen 
erecfci, seape turiones foliosos edentes, graciliter tennes, 
simplices. Folia inferiora angaste lineai^ManceoIata, acumi- 
nata, in petiolum longissimnm attenuata, snperiora elongato- 
linearia, longins acaminata, basi membranaceo-vaginantia, 
omnia nninervia, glabra ; bracteee e basi ovat^ caudato- 
acuminat^, semi-herbaceaa. Flores in racemis simplicibus, 
breviers pedicellati. Caljx longe clavato-cylindricus, annulo 
circulari pseadoumbilicatos, fmctifer infra capsalam admodnm 
attenuatus, evenius. Petala albida (?) siccitate fuscescentia, 
biloba. Capsala oblonga carpopborum fere saquans. Semina 
tubercalata parva, dorso canaliculata, faciebus plana. 

Described from specimens preserved in Herb. Kew. The name is derived 
from the slender flowering stems. S. avromatia, S. Farrowianay and 
S. tenuicauliM are distinguished from the other four species of the group 
in the caljx being without anastomosing nerves : though in S. caramanica 
the bifurcations of the primary nerves arc very faint and scarcely, to be 
made out. 

Hah. Pine-forests on Mt. Ak-dagh. 

260. S. MEGALOCALYX, Freyn, in Bull. Herb. Boiss., iii. (1895) 
p. 82. 

Glauca, glabra, caespitosa, viscida, 60 centim. alt. Canles 
diohotomi, ramis unifloris. Folia inferiora spathulato-lanceo- 
lata, apicalata, in petiolum longnm sensim angustata, vagina 
pallida snbciliatd, caulina lanceolata sensim diminnta. Flores 
in anthel4 dispositi, maximi, longe pednncnlati Calyx 
cylindricus, fmctifer valde clavatus, evenius, dentibns acutis 
triangnlaribus. Petaia bifida, lobis obovato-oblongis, appen- 
dicibus binis linearibns. Capsnla ellipsoidea carpopborum fere 
aequans. Semina magna, dorso tnberculato-mgnlosa canalicu- 
lata, faciebus compressa. 

Hah. Turkish Armenia; Mt. Kyl-Magbara-dagh, near Egin, 
in prov. of Siwas (Sintenis, exsicc. n. 2895). 

261. S. PARROWIANA, Boiss. et Haussk, in Boiss., Fl. Orient.^ 
suppl., p. 97. 

Glauca, glabra, 30 centim. alt. Caaies simplices foliati. 
Folia camosula, acuta, vel acumiuata inferiora oblonga in 
petiolum longum attenuata, superiora linearia dimtnuta; 



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MR. k\ N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 137 

bractece brevissimsB lineari-subulatce. CjmuleB oppositee pedan- 
culatae racemum oblongum formantes ; flores parvi, pedicsellis 
caljce brevioribus. Calyx obconico-tnrhinatas, subcostatus, 
dentibus ovatis, late membranaceo - marginatis, ciliolatis. 
Petala virentia, bipartita, lobis linearibus, ungaibus ciliatis, 
apice dilatatis. Capsula carpophore malfcoties longior. 

Ab omnibas affinlbas, cito distingoitur capsula snbsessili. 

Hah, Mt. Lolan and Mt. Parrow, in W. Persia, near 
Kermanschah. 

(2) Calyx dentibus alternatim obtusis et acutis, albo- 
marginatts ciliatis. 

a. Folia glabra. 

262. SiLENE CHLOR^FOLiA, 8m,, Ic, Ined., i. p. 14, t. 13 (1789) ; 
Bot. Mag,, t, 807; Bohrh,, Monugr., p. 177. 

Adde ayn, S. perfoliata, Otth, in DC, Prodr,, i. p. 384. 

p, SWERTLEFOLIA, Boiss, (sp.), Biagii, PL Nov, Or,, Ser. T. 
i. p. 32. 

7. MAKMELIANA, Boiss, (sp.), Z.c, viii. p. 89. 

c. ScHiMPERiANA, Boiss, (sp.), Z.C., i. p. 31. 
Oeogr, limits. — N, Prov. of Trans-Caucasia {Uapr., Fi. 
CaiLcasi, p. 196). 
S. Mt. Sinai (Schimper, nos. 422, 283, 

" S. dianthoides," non Pers,), 
E, Mt. Demawend, in prov. of Mazandei-an, 
N. Persia (t?ar. /3, vide Aacher-Eloy, 
no. 4215). 
W. Anatolia. 

263. S. LONGIPLORA, Ehrh,, Beitr,, \ii, p. 144; Beichb,, Ic. 
Fl. Qerm, Helv., n. 5107; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 178. 

Ex syn, S. staticefolia est species propria. 

Oeogr. limits, — N, and W. At the base of the Radobil, near 

Leitmeritz, in Bohemia ((7. A, Mayer, 

and vide Qarcke, FL BeutschL [ed. 

1885], p. 65). 

8, Near Bethlehem, in Judeea (Pichler [1889], 

ex Bull, Herb. Boiss., iii. [1895] p. 82). 
E. Mt. Demawend, in prov. of MazanderaD, 
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138 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

264. SiLENE 8TATICIF0LIA, Sibth, et Sm., Fl. GrofC. Frodr., i. 
(1806) p. 301 ; Fl GrcBca, v. p. 24, t. 434. 

Cffispitx)sa, ^lauca, glabra, foliosa, pauciflora, viscida. Caulis 
adscendenti-erectas simplex, apice racemosns, nodoso-iucnw?- 
satus. Folia acuta, plana, integerrima, uninervia, radicalia, 
angaste lanceolate vel spathulata, in petiolnm longuni 
attennata, canlina abbreviata, erecto-adpressa, vix petiolata ; 
bracteaB binae ovatee, acuminatce, medium versus pedunculorum. 
Flores 3-5, majnsculi, remoti. Calyx 18-20 mm. longuF, 
clavatns, pallidus, nervis rubicundis anastomosantibus. Petala 
supra nivua, subtus ferruginea, uuguibus superne dilatatis, 
bipartita, lobis obovatis incurvis obtusis appendicibus bifid is 
obtusis. Capsula ovata carpophoro duplo brevior. 

E. Boissier banc e montibns Korax Aetoliad et (Eta Phtliio- 
tidis, ab Heldreich lectam vidit (non e Peloponneso cognitam) ; 
secus Haussknccbt, qui earn in Pindo Tympheea 1885 legit, a 
S, longtflora valde diversa est. 

Syn. S. longiflora, var. statieifolia, Boiss., FL Onent., suppl., 
p. 103. 

Hab. N. Greece. 

265. S. cj:sarea, Boies, et Bah, Diagn, PI, Nov. Or,, Ser. II. 
vi. p. 31 ; Bohrh., Monogr,, p. 179. 

Hah. Elmaln, in Anatolia, and Mt. Ali-dagh, in prov. of 
Siwas. 

266. S. LAXA, Boiss, et Kotschj in Boiss., FL Orient., i, p. 638 ; 
Bohrh., Monogr., p. 179. 

Prsecedenti affinis, differt foliis superioribus subcordatis, 
snmmis ad basin panicnlae vix diminutis, paniculao laxioris 
ramis elongatis. 

Hab. Near Goschkar, at the base of Mt. Bingol-dagb, in 
Turkish Armenia. 

267. S. PKDUNCULAEis, Boiss., Diagn. FL Nov. Or., Ser. I. i. 
p. 30 ; Delponte in Mem. Accad. Torino, Ser. II. xxvi. (1871) 
t. 3; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 180. 

Forma macrocalyx, Boiss., FL Orient., snppL, p. 105. 
Calyx elougatus, 18 mm. longns. 
Hab. Mt. Sawers, in W. Persia. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 139 

Geogr. limits. — N. Near Alliar, in disfcrict of Karabagb, Trans- 
Caucasia. 
S, and W. Mt. Hermon, in Syria. 
£, Mt. Elburz, in N. Persia. 

268. SiLENE ARMENA, Boiss., Bxogn, PL Nov. Or., Ser. 1. 
p. 29 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 180. 

ft. SCABRIDULA, Boiss. (sp.), Fl. Orient., i. p. 643. 
Prainoso-scabridula, canescens, supeme glabra, viscidula. 
Caules sflBpias simplices. Folia inferiora lineari-lanceolata. 
Calyx albidns tenniter cylindricns, dentibus lanceolatis. 
Geogr. limits. — N. Mountains of Trebizond. 
E. Prov. of Erzeroum. 
S. and W. Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 

ft. Folia serrulato-scabra. 

269. S. SERRULATA, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 643 ; Eohrh., 
Moriogr., p. 180. 

Hab. Anatolia ; hills near Elmalu. 

(3) Calyx dentibus omnibus ovatis obtusis albo-marginatis 

ciliatis. 

270. S. Balansj:, Boiss., Diagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. II. vi. p. 31 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 181. 

Hab. Mt. Aslan-dagh and Mt. Masmeneu-dagh, in Cappa- 
docia. 

tt Flores cemui. 

(1) Calyx dentibus omnibus acutis vel obtusis. 

271. S. STRUTHiOLOiDES, A. Gray, Bot, U.S. Expl. Exped., i. 
p. 109, t. 10; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 181. 

A upecies remarkable for its iiquarrose habit ; a character not noted in 
the description. 

HaK Sandwich Islands. 

272. S. Manissadjiani, Frey^i, in Bull Herb. Boiss., iii. (1895) 
p. 83.. 

Glaucescens, praeter basin tomentellam glabra, supeme viscida, 
suSrutescens. Caules 30-60 centim., diffuse paniculati, ramis 
1-3-floris, fragilibus tenuissimis bracteatis. Folia glabra, plana, 
unineryia, acuta, inferiora lanceolato-spathulata, in petiolum 
sequilongum basi dilatatum sensim angustata, margine seirulato- 
scabra, caulina lanceolata, subsessilia ; bracte» lanceolato 



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140 MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILEXE. 

lineares, parvae. Flores parvi, pedicellis divaricatis. Calyx 
10 mm. longas, nervis snperne anastomosantibns, dentibns 
ovatis obfcusis membranaceo-marginatis ciliolatis. Petala flavo- 
virescentia, ecoronata, bifida, lobis linearibus. Capsnla 
cllipsoidea carpophore pubescenfce tripio longior. 

Hab, On pastures of Mt. Ak-das^h, near Amasia, in prov. of 
Si was, Asia Minor (Sept., 1892), where also is found S. xylohasls. 

(2) Calyx dentibns altematim acutis et obtusis albo- 
marginatis. 

273. SiLENE LiBANOTiCA, Boiss., Diagn. PI, Nov, Or,y Ser. I. 
viii. p. 89; Bohrh., Monogr,, p. 181. 

Oeogr. limits, — N. Mt. Lebanon, in Syria. 
S. Hebron, in Judaea. 

ft, Filamenta ciliata. 
t Flores erecti. 
274 S. RADICOSA, Boiss, et Heldr.y Diagn, PL Nor, (^., 
Ser. I. vi. p. 24 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 182. 

Species foliis dense ciliatis et calyce coriaceo sulcato notabilis. 
Ex syn. S. oligantha est species propria. 

S. radicosa var, brevi flora = S. oligantha. 

HauMknecht sajs that the yery different form of the leaves, the nodiiing 
flowers, the short broad calyx-teeth, and the shorter calyx and capsule, 
should serve to distinguish easily 8, oligantha from this plant. 

Hah, Greece. 

275. S. TUNicoiDES, Boiss.y Diagn, PI, Not: Or,^ Ser. I. i. p. 34 ; 
Rohrb,, Monogr.y p. 182. 

TuniccB sp. videtur, sed nervi calycini commissurales et styli 
3 adsunt. 

Hah, Marmoritza, in Anatolia. 

tt Flores cemui. 

276. S. OLIGANTHA, Botss, et Eeldr,, Diagn, PI, Nov, Or.y 
Ser. II. i. p. 75 (1854). 

Canles c8Bspitosi,nnmero8i, ad8cendente8,parce foliosi, ramnlis 
secns partem superiorem caulis oppositis, remotis, altero abortivo 
brevibuB strictis nnifloris rarius 2-3-flori8, inferne hirtulo- 
pubescentes, sapeme glabri. Folia inferiora oboyata, spathulata, 
obtusa, brevios macronata, in petiolnm longnm ciliatnm 



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MR. F. X. WJLLIAMS ON THE GEMS SILENE. 141 

attenuaia, cauliua pauca, linearia; bractesB lineari-ldnceolataB, 
acuiao, albo-marginatsB, ciliatse. Flores pauci, long! as pedicellati. 
Calyx 8 mm. loDgus, obconico-pyriformis, fructifer breviter 
clayatns, leviter nmbilicatus, evenius, nervis costatis, dentibus 
ovato-tnangularibus, acutis, rectis, albo-raarginatis, ciliatis. 
Petala flavida, unguibua glabiis, bipartita, lobis linearibus, 
appendicibus bipartitis, laciniis ovato-triangularibus. Capsula 
ovata, carpophorum bis suporans. Semina dorso tnbercalato 
canaliculata, faciebus plana. 

Syn. S. radicosa var. breviflora, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 645. 

Forma scbuniflora, mihi : Baldacci, It, Albanicum (1892), 
n. 112 ; et in Malpighia (1894), p. 85. 

Karat uniflori. 

Hab, Mt. Kiore [Monies Ceraunii], in Albania. 

Forma sxENOPnYLLA, mihi. 

Folia angnstata, lineari-spathulata, lineariave. 

Syn. S. oligantha var. stenophylla, Boiss. et Heldr>, Diagn. 
PL Nov. Or., Ser. II. i. p. 75. 

Hab. Mt. Parnassus, near Delphi ; and Mt. Malevo, in tlie 
nomo of Laconia. 

Haee species est affiiiis S. radicosoB, qu89 difPert foliis radicali- 
bus angnstioribns, longios mucronatis, floribus erectis, caljce 
flonfei*o campanulato-cjliodrico, 12 mm. longo, in dentes 
patenti-recurvos abennti. 

Geogr. area. — Greece. 

B. Calyx membranaceus, rarissime coriaceus simnlque 
pubescens, basi truncatas vel umbilicatns. 

a. Flores in racemis simplicibus, axis primaricB internodiis 
nunquam abbreTiatis, i*acemi ramis brevibus oppositis interdum 
altero abortivo alternis, omnibas uniflons vel interdum inferi- 
oribus 3-7-flori8, superioribus tantum unifloris. 

Series 2. Chloranthce. 

Pedicelli im4 basi binis prophyllit) pr»diti. Petala bipartita' 
raro retasa. 

A. Petala bipartita vel bifida. 

a. Capsula carpophorum 2-4-plo superans : calyx glaberrimus, 

raro glanduloso-pubescens. 
277. SiLENE CHLORANTHA^ Ehrh.y Beitr., vii. p. 145 ; Dill., 
Hort. EUham., p. 425, t. 316, ^g. 408 ; Bohrh., Monc^r., p. 184. 



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142 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Geogr. limits. — TT. Prov. of Pomerania, in Prussia. 
8. The Crimea. 

N. Prov. of Livonia, in Russia. 
E. Between the rivers Jaik and Irtjsch, in 
Siberia. 

278. SiLENB TATARICA, Pers., Syn. Plant,, i. p. 497; Reichb., 
Ic. Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5100 ; Rohrb,, Monogr., p. 184. 

A beato Regel, S. foliosa et S. macrostyla, Maxim, cum 
8» tatarica conjanf^untur. Differt autem utraque calycibus 
multo minorihus 5-7 mm. longis (in 8. tatarica 9-12 mm.), 
eub anthesi clavato-campanulatis, nee clavato-tubulosis, striis 
caljcinis superno arcuatim conjunctis, neque eveniis, calyce 
f ructifero ampliato, neque oblongo, capsula ovato-oblonga, neque 
oblonga, bracteis ac prophyllis herbaceis, margins ciliato 
tautummodo scariosis, in ;Si. tatarica totis scariosis. 
Geogr. limits. — N. and E. Siberia. 

8. On the banks of R. Terek, in prov. of Cis- 

Caucasia. 
W. Banks of the Oder, near Frankfort, in the 
prov. of Brandenburg, Prussia (ex Nym.^ 
Gonnp. FL Eur., suppL, ii. p. 53 ; et Garcke, 
Fl. Deutschl, ed. 1885, p. 64). 

279. S. FOLI08A, Maxim., Prim. Fl. Amur., p. 53 (1859) ; 
Rohrb., Mmiogr., p. 185. 

a. TYPiCA, Rohrb. in Linncea, xxxvi. (1870) p. 683. 

Inflorescentia viscida. Petala, unguibus superne dilatatis, 
longe exsertis, profande bipartita, lobis linearibus, appendieibus 
minutis vel nuUis. 

/J. MACROSTYLA, Maxlm. (sp.). Prim. Fl. Amur., p. 54; Rohrb., 
Monogr., p. 185, et in Linncea, xxxvi. (1870) p. 684. 

Inflorescentia glabrescens, raro pubemla. Petala, unguibus 
non dilatatis longe exsertis, lineari-oblonga ad medium bifida, 
ecoronata. 

7. MONGOLICA, Maxim., Enum. PL Mongol., p. 91 (1889). 

Elatior, non viscida. Folia linearia. Calyx dentibus subob- 
tusis. Petala, unguibus nou dilatatis, parum exsertis, cuneata 
ad medium bifida, appendicibus minutis. 



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MU. F. X. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 143 

Geogr. limits. — N. R. Amur, on the borders of Siberia and 
Mandschnria. 
S. and E. Japan; island of Tesso (far. a). 
TT. Mongolia (yar, 7). 

2S0. Selene tenuis, Willd,^ Enum, Hort, BeroL, p. 474; 
Ledeb., PL Fl. Eossicoe, t. 160 ; Bohrh., Monogr,, p. 186. 

Variat caulis altitudine : eo elongato polyphyllo vel abbreviato 
oligopbyllo, glabro vel plus minus viscido, raceroo simplici 
raro basi ramoso, interdum, in formis humilibus grandiflons, 
in flores 1-2 reducto ; — foliis latioribus et angustioribus, 
glabns, et basi tantum ciliatis, vel cum caulibus dense pube- 
rulis ; — floribus erectis vel nutantibas, majoribus et minoribus. 
His omnibus cbaracteribus minime constantibus ad varietates 
distinguendas uti nobis probabiie non esse videfur, nam, ut boo 
raodo formse valde affines secernantur, ex beato Regel conspectu 
quisque intelligere potest. 

1. Ungues petalorum ciltati. Variat floribus majoribus et 
minoribus. 

2. Ungues petalorum glabri. Variat floribus majoribus et 
minoribus, erectis et nutantibus : caulibus glabris et viscosis. 

a. DASYPHYLLA : Caules erecti cum foliis lineari-setaoeis dense 
puberuli, simplices raro basi subramosi. 

6. jenissea : Caulis glabri sive viscosi, folia glabra basi tantum 
ciliata ; petala lobis oblongis obtusis. 

c. PAUCIFOLIA: Caules glabri bundles 1-2-flori, flores per- 
magni ; petala lobis magnis obovatis. 

Geogr. limits. — N. Shores of the Arctic Ocean, N. Siberia. 
S. N. W. India. 

E. Stanowoi Mountains, E. Siberia. 
W. Territory of the Samojedes, N.W. Siberia. 

281. S. DouGLAsii, Hook., Fl. Bar. Amer., i. (1833) p. 88; 
B. L. Bohinson, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. (1893) p. 144; 
Rohrh.f Monogr., p. 80. 

Puberula vix glanduloso-viscida. Caules tenues, basi decum 
bentes, geniculati, dein ascendentes, simplices, remote foliati. 
Folia linearia vel anguste lanceolato-linearia, apice basiquo 
attenuata ; bracteae parvas, acutee. Flores in racemo paucifloro 



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T44r MK. F. X. WILLIAMS ON THE GENCS SILENE. 

JoDge pedicellati. Calyx obloDgns, fructifer infra capsulam 
attennatus vix constrictus, baud umbilicatus, striis viridibus 
supeme conjunctis, dentibus ovato-lanceolatis, obtusis, albo- 
marginatis, ciliatis, inflexis. Petala alba vel carnea, unguibus 
glabris, utriDque dente acuto auriculatis, paullum exsertip, 
bifida, lobis obtusis, appendicibus binis oblongis, obtusis. 
Capsnla oblongo-cylindrica, supemo attenuata, carpophorum 
ter superans. Seraina dorso canaliculata, faciebns plana. 
Syn. Cucubalus Donglaaii, Eaton, Man., ed. VII. p. 266. 

In tliis revision of the genus, S. Douglasii is excluded from the subgenus 
Qa$tro9xlene, in which it is placed by Rolirbach, for reasons which are 
giren at length in the introduction. Examination of authentic specimens 
by different botanists requires that Robrbach's description should be con- 
siderably amended. It is here described again, therefore, in its proper 
place in the genus. It is a common and polymorphous species in the 
United States, and the following varieties all of them tend to intergrade 
with the type, and are separated from it and from each other by no constant 
or important floral character. S, mullicaulis, Maeoun (non Guss. nee 
Nutt.), has also been reduced to this species, but is best considered as 
distinct, and is so described as the next species, S. Macounii. 

p. MULTICAULIS, Nutt, (sp.) in Torr. et Gray, FL, i. p. 192 ; 
B. L. Robinson, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. (1893) p. 144. 

Griseo-tomentella. Caules rigidiores, magis foliati. FoKa 
anguste lanceolata vel oblonga acuminata. 

Syn. S. Drummondi var., Torr. et Gray, FL, i. p. 675. 

Hab. States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. 

7. MACROCALYX, B. L. liobinson, in Froc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 145. 
Pubemla vel subglabra. Calyx cylindricus, 15 mm. longus. 
Hab. States of Washington and Nevada. 

c. visciDA, B. L, Hobiuson, in Froc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 145. 

Glanduloso-viscida, preesertim in parte snperiore. Caules erect i, 
rigidi, e basi ramosa simplices. Folia magis camosula. Calyx 
late oblongus vel fere campannlatus, brevis. 

Hab. State of Washington, and Kicking Horse Pass in 
British Columbia. 

€. BRACHTCALYX, B. L, Robinsov, in Froc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 145. 

Puberula, non viscida. Folia anguste oblanceolata. Calyx 
rampanulatns, brevis, latus. 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 14f5 

Hah. State of Oregon, 

Oeogr, limits, — N, Kicking Horse Pass, in the Rocky Mtns., 
British Columbia (var, ^). 
8. Wahsatch Mtns., in Utah (var, a). 
E, Montana ( Canhy, var. /3). 
TT. Oregon, on Sauvie's Island (Howell, 1880, 
var. e). 

282. SiLENE Macounii, 8. Wats, in Proe. Amer. Acad., xxvi. 
(1891) p. 124; B. L. EoUnson, I.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 145 
(S. Donglasii, var. Macounii). 

Gaulis gracilis, adscendens, ramosns, puberolos, snpeme 
glanduloso-yiscidus, 30 centim. longns, sparse foliatns. Folia 
lineari-oblanceolata, apice basique attenuata. Flores pauci, 
breviter pedicellati. Galyx-oblongo-campanulatus 9 mm. longus, 
dentibns triangalaribns, obtosis, reticulate- venosis, purpureo- 
marginatis. Petala bifida, unguibus late auriculatis vix exsertis, 
lamin4flabelliformi, appendicibus quadratis sabintegris* Capsula 
oblongo-ovata, carpophorum ter superans. 

8. monanthcB yalde similis, sed calyx florifer baud inflatus. 

8yn. S. multicaulis, Macouv, Cat. Canad. PI., p. 494 
(1883-1888). 

Geogr. limits. — N. British Columbia, Selkirk Range. 
E. British Columbia, Rocky Mtns. 
8. and W. State of Washington. 

283. S. LYCHNiDEA, G. A.Mey., Verz. Pfl. Gauc, p. 213 (1831) ; 
Eohrh., Monogr., p. 213. 

Geogr. limits. — E. E. Caucasus (Buprecht, ex Boiss., Fl. Orient., 
suppl., p. 106). 
W. W. Caucasus. 

284. S. Reichenbachii, Vis.,Fl.Dahnatica,iii.p. 169; Eohrh., 
Monogr., p. 188. 

/3. UMBEOSA, Vandas, in 8itzungsh. K. Bohm. Ges. Wiss. (1890) 
p. 254. 

Robustior, circa 50-60 centim. alta; foliis rosularibus et 
radicalibus latins lanceolatis, cum intemodiis caulis inferioribus 
dense retrorsum puberulis. 

Hob. In thickets on the slopes of Mt. VeleS Planina, above 
Potoci Han, in Herzegovina. 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANT, VOL. XXXII. L 



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146 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Geogr, limits,— N, and TT. Mfc. Velebifcz, in Croatia, near 
Ostaria {Borh&s^ ex Nym., Consp. FL 
Eur,, suppL, ii. p. 53). 
8. Mfc. Orien, near Gafctaro, in Herzegovina. 
E, Herz^^vina (var, fi), 

b. GapsDla carpophornm aBqnans. 
285. SiLENB LiNiFOLiA, Sibth, et Sm,^ Prodr, Fl. OrmCj i, 
(1806) p. 301; Fl. Ormca, v. p. 33, t. 433; Bohrb,, Monogr., 
p. 188. 

fi, UMBBOSA, mihi. 

Canles flaccidiores, foliis hate viridibus, longioribns latiori- 
bnsqne. Calyx 17 mm. longos, nee 13 mm. 

8yn, S. Ceccariniana, Baiss, et Heldr,, MSS. 

S. linifolia, var, Ceccariniana, HauMsk, in MittheU, 
ThuHng, Bot, Ver,, Heft v. (1893) p. 50. 

Eab, S. Albania (Bcddacci, It. Albanicum [1892], n. 54; 
et in Mulpighia [1894], p. 85) ; above Kalabaka, on Mfc. 
Mefceora (Hattssknecht) ; Mfc. Parnassus ; near Livadia ; and 
(var, p) near Phersala, in Thessaly. 

186. S. GENiSTiFOLiA, Haldcsy, in Oesterr. Bot, Zeitschr,^ xlii. 
(1892) p. 368. 

Canles ramosi, elati, infeme scabridnli, snpeme viscidi. Folia 
radicalia sub anfchesi emarcida, caulina lanceolata vel lineari- 
lanceolafca, acufca, glabra, margine serrulato-scabra ; bracfceaB 
lineares. Flores longiuscule pedicellati, virginei subcemui. 
Calyx cylindrico-clavatus glaber, frncfcifer clavafcus, nervis 
rubellis, denfcibus acufcis, albo-marginafcis, ciliolatis. Petala 
livida, bipartifca, lobis oblongis, appendicibus binis, parvis, 
lanceolafcis. Capsula ovafca, carpophore subbrevior. 

Characters verified from speoinions in Herb. Sew. 

Hah, Bumelia ; Mfc. Afchos, befcween Krio-nero and Sfcradi- 
chori. 

287. S. TURGIDA, Bieb. ap. Bunge, Enum, Altaic., p. 23 (1835) ; 
Ledeb.y PI, FL Bossicce, t. 138 (S. graminifolia) ; Bohrb,, Monogr,, 
p. 79. 

No specimens in Herb. Kew, or Herb. Mus. Brit. 

Hab, Alfca'i Mounfcains. (Schrenk*s specimens from N.-W. 
Siberia monfciuned by Ledebour, are to be referred to 8, tenuis.) 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILEXE. 147 

B. Petala retusa. 

288. SiLENB 8CAP0SA, B. L. Bohiruon^ in Proe. Amer. Acad.y. 
Mviii. (1893) p. 146. 

Canles simplices, elati, 35 centim. longi, infeme scabriduli, 
supemo Tiscidi, erecti. Folia glauca crassiuscola, radicalia 
oblauceolata, acuta, trinervia, caulina panca, redueta, bractese^ 
foliis canlinis subconformes. Flores erecti. Calyx ellipticus,. 
eyenius, nervis viridibas. Petala albida, ungnibus anricnlatis 
yix exsertis, appendicibns binis parvis, obtusis. 

Hah. United States ; Oregon. 

Series 3. SuffruHcosce, 

Pedicelli mediam versus sen apice binis prophyllis prsdditi. 
Petala integra, bipartita vel rarias laoiniato-qnadripartita. 

A. Petala integra vel bipartita. 
a. Capsnla carpophore snperata. 

289. S. NODULOSA, Boisa.y Diayn. PL Nov, Or,^ Ser. I. i. p. 31 ; 
Rohrh., Monogr.j p. 189. 

Oeogr, limits, — Persia. 

JV^. Mt. Elamont, in N. Persia. 
fif. Mt. Kah-Eschker, in prov. Fars (Hauss- 
hnecht, ex Boiss., FL Orient , suppL, p. 98). 
E. Schiraz, in prov. Fars. 
W, Mt. Knh-Daena, in prov. Fars. 

290. S. GONiocAULA, Boiss., Diogn, PI Nov. Or,, Ser. I. i. p. 31 
Bohrh.y Monogr,y p. 189. 

Priori valde affinis, sed caulis pecnliaritate ab hie et ceteris 
diyersa. 

Hab, Persia ; Mt. Elwend, in prov. of Irak- Adjemi. 

b. Capsnla carpophomm sdqnans, rarissime eo sesqnilongior. 

a. Calyx coriaceus, petala nngnibns glabris. 

t Petala bipartita, nngnibns anricnlatis. 

291. S. ERIOCALYCINA, Botss., Diogn, PL Nov. Or,, Ser. I. i. 
p. 28 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 190. 

fi. LINEARIS, Fenzl, in Kotschy PL exs, n. 489, 6» Boi$$,, Fl. 
Orient, i. p. 615 (emend.). 

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I4f8 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Tomentello-canescens, fere argyrea. Folia inferiora lineari- 
lanceolata, snperiora linearia. Calyx crispule hirsutos, brevior, 
clavato - pyriformis, fmctifer amplius pyriforinis, elevatirn 
obtuse costatns inter costas viridis, insigniter salcatns. 

Hah. Prov. of Bagdad, and S. Persia. 

292. SiLENB CASPICA, Per*., 8yn, PZ., i. p. 497 (1805) ; Bet'chb,, 
Ic. PI CrU., 263 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 190. 

Adde syn. S. fruticulosa, Bieb. Tabl.y n. 17, ex DC. Prodr., i. 
p. 381. 

This plant is frequently cited as S. suffrutescens Bieb., e.g., by 
Ledeboar (Fl. Bossica) and Boissier {Fl. Orient.), though that 
name is three years later. 

Geogr. limits. — N. N. Turkestan. 

8. E. shore of the Caspian Sea. 
E. Desert of Soungaria. 

W, Between Kuba and Schamachi, in the 
Eastern Caucasus (^S. fruticulosa). 

293. S. HIRTICALYX, Boiss. et Haussk. in Boiss., Fl. Oriefnt., 
suppl.y p. 104. 

Glauca, glabra. Caules e rhizomate indurate adscendentes, 
inferne dichotome et pluries ramosi, inter intemodia brevia 
nodoso - incrassati, apice 1-2-flori. Folia inferiora anguste 
oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, basi longe attenuata, superiora 
abbreviata, acuta. Pedicelli calyce 5-plo breviores. Calyx 
cylindricus, pilis crispulis velutinus, fmctifer clavatus, nervis 
pallidis, dentibus ovatis late membranaceis. Petala fuscesccntia, 
btloba, appendicibus circumcircd. denticulatis. Capsula oblonga 
carpophoix) sublong^or. 

Hab. On mountains of Persian Kurdistan, above Inanro. 

tt Petala linearia integra. 

294. S. LEPTOPETALA, SchrenJc, in Bull. Phys. Math. A<uid. 
Pitersb., ii. p. 198 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 191. 

Hab. Soungaria. 

fi. Calyx membranaceus. 
t Petala unguibus ciliatis. 

295. S. petrj:a, Adams in Weber et Mohr, Beitr., i. (1805) 
p. 58 ; Bohrb.y Monogr., p. 191. 

fi. GYMNOCALYCINA, Trautv. in Act. Hort. Petrop., v. pars ii. 
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ME. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 149 

Oeogr. limits, — N. R. Terek, in prov. of Cis-Caucasia, near 
Wladikawkas. 
8. and E. W. Tibet. 
W. Central Cancasos. 

295. SiLENE LiNEATA, Boiss, et Buhse, Aufz. Transhauh, Per8,f 
p. 37 (1860) ; Rohrh,, Monogr., p. 191. 

Facies et inflorescentia formaium uormalium 8. tenuis ; base 
autem caljce longo gracili cjlindrico, pedicellis medium versuB 
bracteolatis difFert. 

Hob. N.-W. Persia. 

tt Petala nogaibns glabris. 

297. S. MoNTBRETUNA, Bow5., Diagn. PL Nov, Or,, Ser. I. i. 
p. 26 ; Bohrhy Monogr,, p. 192. 

Habitus et flores abbreviati 8. pruinosce, sed inflorescentia 
nou panicnlata. 

fi. ANisoLOBA, 8chrenky (sp.) in Bull. Phys, Math, Acad. 
Petersh., ii. p. 198 ; Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 196. 
Magis Buffrnticosay minus pubescens ; caljcis dentes ovati. 

Trautvetter, in examining SohrenVs specimens, was unable to find anj 
traces of lateral lobes in the limb of the petals, which appeared to be bifid 
like those of S. Monthretiana. He thinks, therefore, that it might bo 
referred to 8, longijlora^ as a suffraticose and narrow-leayed form of that 
species (Bull. Soc. Nat. Moac.^l^Oy^.l^). There are no specimens in 
Herb. £ew. 

7- MiCEOPHYLLA, Boiss,, Fl. Orient., suppl, p. 98. 
Folia minuta, inflna spatbulata, suprema angustissimai acuta 
recurva ; calyx densissime pubescens, f ructifer minus clavatus. 
Hob, A'in-Tab, in prov. of Aleppo (HaussknecJd). 
Geogr. limits, — N. Gumuchkbane, in prov. of Trebizond, 
Turkey in Asia. 
8. Ain-Tab, in prov. of Aleppo (var. 7). 
E. Valleys of the Ala- tan range, in Soungaria 

(var. /3). 
W, Mt. Ak-dagb, in prov. of Siwas. 



S. BRAHUICA, Boiss,, Fl, Orient,, i. p. 615; Bohrh,^ 
Monogr., p. 1S2. 

Hah. Choky, in Afghanistan, and Doubund, in Beloocbistan. 



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150 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE QENUS SILENE. 

299. SiLENE Ubvillei, Scliott^ ex Urv, in Mem. Soc. Linn, 
Par., i. (1822) p. 304; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 192. 

Adde: Nervi calycini pnrparei ; semina dorso canalicalata, 
fadebns plana. 

Hab. Anatolia; Mt. Sipuli-dagb, and Island of Cos, off the 
S.W. coast, also Island of Samos (Herb. Kew., Major, 1886). 

c. Capsnla carpopbomm bis terve snperans, yel snbsessilis. 
a. Folia pungentia ; semina dorso faciebnsqne plana. 

300. S. altaYca, Pera., Syn. PL, i. p. 497 (1805) ; Ledeh., PI. 
Fl. Bossicce, t. 172; Rohrb., Monogr., p. 193. 

Hah. Asiatic Bassia. — N. Kirghiz Steppes. 

E. Altai Mtns. 

S. Desert of Soangaria. 

W. R. Ural. 

fi. Folia mntica; semina dorso canalicalata, faciebns plana, 
t Calyx glaberrimus. 

301. S. LiTMOPHiLA, Kar. et Kir. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc., xv. 
<1842) p. 167; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 193. 

Habitn 8. altatcce similis, sed carpopliomm glabmm, petala 
bipartita (nee bifida) eooronata, semina dorso cannlicnlata. 
Hab. Sonngaria. 

3C2. S. TENELLA, G. A. Meij., Vers. Pfl. Cauc., p. 216 (1831) ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 194. 

Hab. Prov. of Talysch in Trans-Gancasia, and Mt. Ararat in 
Turkish Armeoia. 

tt Calyx pnbescens. 
1. Ungaes et filamenta glabra. 

303. S. CANAEIEN8I8, Willd. in Spreng. Neue Entd., iii. p. 60 ; 
Bohrb.y Monogr.y p. 194. 

Hsdc vera 8. canariensis : planta perennis floribns racemosis. 
Species annna inflorescenti^ scorpioide^ qnm ab Otth, in DC. 
Prodr., i. p. 372, snb hoc nomine edita et in Phytogr. Canar., i. 
p. 142, 1. 18, depicta est, hnc non pertinet, sed = 8. mogadorensisj 
Coss. et Bal. in PI. Marocc. exsicc. (1867). 

Hab. TenerifPe. 



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HB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OENUS SILENE. 151 

304. SiLENE N0CTK0LBN8, Wehh et Berth,y Phtjtogr. Canar., i. 
p. 141, t. 20; Bohrh., Monogr,, p. 194. 

Adde : Semina dorso obtnse canalicnlata (ex obaerv.). 
Hob. Canary Isles. 

2. Ungues et filamenta ciliati. 

305. S. STEN0B0TRY8, Boiss. et Haussk, in Boiss,, Fl. Orient,^ i. 
p. 611, et 8uppl,^ p. 97 ; Bohrh,, Monogr.^ p. 195. 

A S. spergulifolid et affinibus, Rtamiaibas hirsntis longe 
ezseiiis, discedens. 

Adde 8yn, S. snpina, AucKer-Eloy^ n. 482. 
Oeogr, area, — Tnrkey in Asia. 

W. Rascheya, in the Anti-Lebanon. 
N. Prov. of Diarbekir, along the east branch 
of B. Euphrates (Sintenie, It. Orientale^ 
1888; Herb. Kew). 
E. At the base of Mt. Sindjar, in prov. of 
Mosonl {Hatisshnecht in Boiss.^ Fl. Orient, ^ 
suppL, p. 97). 
8. Mar Elias, between Damascns and the ruins 
of Palmyra, in the Syrian Desert. 

306. S. SKHENOVii, Begel et Herder, in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
(1866), p. 536; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 195. 

Hob. Soungaria ; the Ala- tan Range, north of the B. Tabya 
and Lake Issyk-kul. 

B. Petala laciniato-quadripartita. 

307. S. ODORATissiMA, Bungo in Ledeh.y Fl. Altaic., ii. p. 148 ; 
Ic. Fl. BossiccB, t. 396 (petala erronea) ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 195. 

Hab. Kirghiz Steppes and Desert of Soungaria. 

b. Flores in racemo simplici vel composito yerticillastrifero, 
aut, axis primariao intemodiis intra inflorescentiam abbreviatis, 
capitulum plus minus densum formantes; (rarissime racemus 
non contractus paucidorus, sed tarn calyx bi*evis obconicus et 
ungues ciliati). 

Series 4. GapUellatce, 

Flores in racemo simplici, axis primarisB intemodiis abbre- 
yiatis, oapituliformi, rarissime in racemo paucifloro non 



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152 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

contracto : calyx brevis turbinatus vel oblongo-campannlatnB, 
evenius ; ungues ciliati. 

A. Petala nngiiibus aaricnlatis. 

308. SiLENE Aristidis, Pomelf Novv, Mat, Fl, Atlanta p. 330 
(1874); Battand. et Trahut, FL AlgSr., 140; Goss., lUustr. Fl. 
AtlanL, fasc. iv. (1890) p. 150, t. 97. 

Basi suffriiticosa. Can lea erecti vel arcuato-adscendentes, 
glabrescentes, floriferi dichotome ramosi. Folia glabra vel 
inferiora basi tantnm breviter ciliata, obvato - oblonga, 
breviter apicnlata, in petiolnm plus minus latum attenuata ; 
bractead lineari-lanceolatsB, superiores pnbescenti-glandulosse. 
Flores breviter pedicellati. Caljx 20 mm. longus, pubesoenti- 
glandnlosus tubnlosus, f rnctifer supeme oblongo-dilatatus infra 
capsulam contractus, albido-membranaceus, nervis virentibue, 
dentibus triangulari-lanceolatis, acutis, albo-marginatis, cilio- 
latis. Petala, unguibus exsertis obtuse auriculatis, intns 
albida, extns lutescentia, laming oblongo-cuneat& bilob^ appen- 
dicibus binis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis interdum dentatis. 
Filamenta glabra. Gapsula superne paullulum attenuata, 
carpophorum bis superans. Semina compressa, dorse lato 
piano, tuberculis seriatim echinulato, faciebus concavis etriatis. 

S. fruticosa habitu notisque plurimis necnon seminum fabric^ 
cum S, Aristidis congrnifc et tantum distinguenda floribus 
minus confertis, petalorum laming pui'purascente, unguibus 
edentulis, stipite capsulaa subeeqnilongo vel paullo brevioi*e. 

Hah, Algeria (Letoumeux^ 1874). 

309. S. ciTRiNA, Boiss,^ Fl, Orient,, suppl,, p. 101. 
Caespitosa breviter tomentella, pallide virens. Caules erecti, 

simplices, foliosi. Folia radicalia late lanceolato-linearia, 
acuminata, in petiolum longum attenuata, caulina abbreviata, 
sessilia subamplexicaulia ; bractefls subulatsB. Calyx ampliato- 
ovatns, frnctifer sub capsule vix constrictus, glanduloso- 
pubescens, umbilicatus, dentibus lanceolatis acuminatis. Petala 
citrina, biloba, parva, unguibus exsertis, appendicibus binis 
ovatis. Capsula ovata carpophoro sublongior. Semina granu- 
lata. 

Facies Melandrii Requieni, sed caules non eztrarosnlares, et 
rudimenta dissepimentorum in capsule yideri possunt. 

8yn, Melandrium cabulicum, Boiss,, Diagn,, Ser. II. i. p. 79. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 153 

Lychnis cahuUca, Aitch. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), xix. (1882) 
p. 153, is a very different plant. 

Hob, Shendtoi, in Afghanistan (Aitchison). 

B. Petala UDgaibns edentnlis. 
a, Petala bipartita. 
t Filamenta glabra. 

310. SiLENE PHAKNACBiFOLiA, Feml, Pugill Fl Nov. Syr.y p. 26 
(1842); Russegg,, III PL Taur,, t. 10; Bohrb., Monogr., 
p. 196. 

Hab. Mt. Lebanon, above Adros {Peyron, ex Boiss., Fl. 
Orient., suppL, p. 97) ; and Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 

311. S. CEPHALANTHA, Botss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 613; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 197. 

Differt a formis S. spergulifolice, Bieb., calyce eglanduloso, 
unguibus ciliatis, superne non dilatatis; a 8. Montbretiand, 
Boiss., cujus formis paucifloris habitu valde accedit, striis 
caljcinis superne tantum conjunctis, unguibus ciliatis edentulip, 
carpophoro breviore. 

Hah. Palanteaken, in Turkish Armenia. 

312. S. DiANTHOiDES, Pers., Syn. PL, i. p. 500 (1805); 
Schreber, Dec. (1766), p. 9, t. 5 (Cueubalus saxifragus, Linn.) ; 
Rohrb., Monogr. y p. 197. 

Species habitu generis Gypsophilw. 

a. TYPICA, Trautv. in Act Hort. Petrop., ii. (1873) p. 511. 
Gaulis basi foliaque dense et brevissime puberala. 

fi. GLABRATA, l.C. 

Caulis glaberrimus; folia basi breviter ciliata, ceterum 
glaberrima. 

Geogr. area. — Asia Minor. 

S. Mt. Jokardi-dagh, near Egin, in prov. 
of Siwas {Sintenisy If. Orientale [1890], 
n. 2497). 
N. and E. District of Kara-bagh, in prov. of 

Trans-Caucasia. 
W. The hills above Gumuchkhane, in prov. of 
Trebizond. 



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tt« Pilamenta ciliata. 

313. SiLENE RoEMBBi, Friuj. in Flora^ xix. (1836) p. 439; 
Rohrh.f Monogr.f p. 198. 

According to E. Tanfani, the petals are bigibbons, and the filaments ciliate. 

Oeogr. limita. — JV^ Near Garlova, in N. Bulgaria. 

S. Mt. Pindus, in Thessalj, Greece (HausS' 

Jenecht, in Mittheil. Thiiring, Bot. Ver,^ 

Heftv. (1893)p.50). 
E, £. Bnmelia (Skarjnl, 1886, ex JVym., Contp. 

Fl Eur,, supply ii. p. 53). 
W. Prov. of Abmzzi, Central Italy. 

314. S. OLYMPICA, Boiss.y Diagn. PL Nov, Or,, Ser. I. i. p. 24 
(1842) ; Eohrh,, Monogr., p. 198. 

a. QLABBATA, mihl. 

Folia radicalia scabrido-ciliolata, cetenim glabra. Hacemns 
spiciformis. Calyx 5 mm. longns. Petalorum appendices biui, 
breves, ovati. 

y9. PUBESCENS, Boiss., Fl, Orient, i. p. 610. 
Folia radicalia undiqne tomentella. Racemns longior, laxior. 
Calyx 8 mm. longns. Petalomm appendices interdnm obsoleti. 
7. CALYOULATA, G, Koch, (sp.) in Linncea, xix. (1847) p. 56. 
Folia angustiora. Bacemns laxus. Petala bigibba, lobis 
linearibas, appendicibns ad gibbos reductis. 

Speciei formsB capituliformes a 8, capitellatd petalis bifidis 
statim dignoscendiB. 

Oeogr. limits, — N, Prov. of Kara-bagh, in tbe Caacasns 
(var. 7). 
8, Mt. Tanms, in Cilicia. 
E, Mt. Elbnrz, in N. Persia, above Warahosul 

(var, 7). 
W. Mt. Khesbish-dagh (Bithynian Olympus). 

/9. Petala integra lineari-spathulata. 

315. S. CAPiTELLATA, Boiss,, Diogn, PI, Nov, Or,, Ser. I. i. p. 25 ; 
Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 199. 

Differt a priori, petalis integris, filamentis glabris ; a proximo, 
floribus dimidio minoribus hermaphroditis, petalis minus 
exsertis, unguibus ciliatis. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 155 

Qeogr, limits. — Tarkey in Asia. 

8, Prov. of Marascli. 

N, and E, Turkish Armenia; between Erze- 

roam and Ispir. 
W. Anatolia ; Mt. Davros-dagh. 

Series 5. OtitecB, 

Flores in racemis simplicibus compositisve verticillastriferis ; 
pedicelli im4 basi binis prophjllis prsediti. 

A. Petala integra raro leviter emarginata, ecoronata. 
a. Capsala sessilis. 

316. SiLENE Sbndtneri, Boise., Fl, Orient., i. p. 608 ; Bohrh., 
Monogr., p. 199. 

A formis 8. Otitis imprimis differt petalis latis cal jce dnplo 
longioribns. 

Ckogr. limits. — N. and W. Near Fnzine, in Croatia (S. Schlos- 
seri, Vukot. [1876] ). 
8. and E. Mt. Vitosa, in Bulgaria, VeUnovsky 
(1890). 
Adds syn. S. Schlosseri, Vukot. in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., xxx. 
(1880) p. 382. 

317. S. Otites, 8m., Fl. Brit., ii. p. 469 ; ex Gomp., Fl. Brit., 
p. 65 (1800); Beichh., lo. Fl. Qerm. Eelv., n. 6094; Bohrb., 
Monogr., p. 199. 

1. Bacemi simplices Terticillastriferi aat rami primarii 
inferiores paullnm elongati ; flores dioici ant poljgami. 

». genuina ; Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 415 (Cucnbalns Otites) ; 
Syme, Engl. Bot., ed. III. ii. p. 63, t. 206 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 200. 

Folia inferiora spathalato-lanceolata, pnbemla vel obovato- 
oblonga, canescentia ; pedicelli caljcesqne glabri ; petala glabra, 
raro basi ciliolata. 

Lnsns 2. Folia snpra glabrata, snbcoriacea, in canle mox 
diminnta. Capsnla ovato-elUptiea, 6-7 mm. longa. 

8yn. S. Otites, var. dnrinseala, Velen. in 8itzungsb. k. Bohm. 
Ges. Wiss. (1893), p. 13 (sep.). 
S. psendotites, Bota, Prosp. Plant. 8vizz. Ins., p. 47. 

p. PABVIFLORA, Bohrb., Monogr., p. 200; Ehrh., Beitr., vii. 



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156 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

p. 143 (Cucubalus parviflorns) ; Beichh., Ic. FL Qerm» Helv.^ 
n. 5096. 

Folia lineari-spathulata, pedicelli caljcesqae scabri; petala 
basi ciliata. 

7. Hellmanni, Rohrb.^ Monogr,^ p. 183; Claus^ (sp.) Beitr. 
Pflanzenk. Bussisch. Beichs^ (1851) p. 289; TrautvAn Act, Hort. 
Petrop., ii. (1873) p. 508. 

Humilis, dcpauperata. Caulis, pedicelli et calyces tenuiHsime 
pubenili. Folia inferiora obovato-spathulata, snperiora angns- 
tiora vel linearia ; bractesD subalatsB. Gapsnla major. 

2. Bacemi effusi ramis elongatis verticillastriferis; flores 
polygami ; pedicelli glabri. 

B, wolgensis, Bohrb.f Monogr., p. 201 ; Willd., Enum, BorL 
BeroL, suppL, p. 24 (1813) (Cucabalus wolgensis) ; Beichh,, Ic. 
FL Germ. Helv., u. 6095. 

Canlis inferno retrorsnm pubemlus ; folia lineari-spathnlata 
scabriuscnla ; verticillastra laxa ; calyx glaber, abbreviatus. 

€. densiflora, Bohrh., Monogr,, p. 201 ; Un\ (sp.) in Mem, 
Soc, Linn. Far., i. (1822) p. 303. 

Gaolis elatus, crassns, cum foliis dense molliter villosas^ 
snpeme glaber, viscidas ; folia ovato- vel oblongo-spathulata^ 
interdnm undalata, rarins lineari-lanceolata, acutinscula; 
verticillastra dense congesta; calyx 5-6 mm. longus, glaber; 
semina majora. 

Bohrbach does not record the occurrence of tliis species so far west as^ 
Spain ; and, on the other hand, it is not found so far south as Syria, as 
mentioned in vol. i. of DC. Frodromvs. In this latter case "Syriaca" ia 
an obvious error for " Piriac,*' a locality on the west coast of France. The 
original reference for Smith's name is seldom given correctly. It is 
generally cited as vol. ii. p. 469, though there is no necessity to specify the^ 
volume. Bohrbach cites vol. ii, p. 298, but this volume and page refers to 
Smith's * English Flora.* 

Geogr. limits. — N. and E. Siberia. 

S. Elmaln, in Anatolia (var. densiflora /orma 

stenophylla). 
W. Salamanca, in prov. of Leon, Spain (Quer^ 
ex Willk. et Lange, Prodr, FL Hisp., iii. 
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. MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENK. lo7 

b. Capsula carpophorum bis-qnater superans vel fere seqnans. 

318. SiLENE ANDRTALiEFOLLA., PoTweZ, Nouv, Mat, Fl, Atlatit., 
p. 331 (1874). 

CsBspitosa, glanca, pnbescens. Canlis simplex, rectos vel 
adscendens, velutino-pnbescens, foliosus, multi floras, non 
viscidus. Folia inferiora conferta, spathnlato-lanceolata, in 
petiolum longum attenaata, tomentosa, acuta vel subacnminata, 
snperiora lanceolato-linearia vel spathalata; bractesB parvae, 
scariosfld. Flores erecti, breviter pedicel lati, in panicalis 
tricbotomis corymbiformibus dispositi. Calyx tenuiter cj'lin- 
dricas, glaudaloso-pnbescens, fructifer supeme obconico- 
ovoideus, infeme claveeformis, nervis angostis reticnloso- 
anastomosantibus, dentibns oblongis, obtusis, rotnndatis, late 
scariosis. Petala ochrolenca, nngnibus glabris. Filamenta 
glabra. Capsula ovoideo-conica, carpophoropubescente. Semina 
fusca, faciebus concaviuscula, striata, dorso plana vel compres- 
siuscula, seriatim tubercnlata. 

Hah. Djurdjura, in Algeria. 

319. S. MOLOPETALA, Bunge in Ledeh., FL Altaica, ii. p. 142 ; 
Ic, PI. Fl. Bossic, 163 ; Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 202. 

Hah. Desert of Soungaria. 

320. S. siBiRiCA, Fers., Syn, Fl., i. P- 497 (1805) ; Rohrh., 
Monogr., p. 202. 

Geogr. limits. — 8. The stream of Kantschahar, in the desert 
of Chinese Soungaria. 
N. and F. Between the rivers Olenek and Lena, 

in Arctic Siberia {Czekanotcski [1875]). 
W. W. Russia ; province of Podolia. 

321. S .Falconebiana, Boyle, Illustr. Fl. EimaL, p. 79, t. 20 a ; 
Rohrh., Monogr., p. 202. 

Adde : Calyx basi truncatus ; petala alba. 
Hah. N.-W. Himalayas. 

322. S. Geblebiana, Schrenk, Enum, PL Nov., p. 91 ; Rohrh., 
Monogr., p. 203. 

Planta 8, sibiricm similis, sed calycibus cum carpophoro 

pubescente elongatis ab ill& satis distincta; a S. multiflord 

petalis diversa; 8. Falconertance valde affinis sed statim 
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158 HR. F. N. WILLIAMS OK THE GENUS SILENE. 

Hab, B. ITrdschar, in the desert of Sonngaria ; vallejs north 
of the Thian-Schan Range (Buprecht, ex M4m. Acad. 8c. 8t. 
Pitersh.y xiv. [1869]) ; Unzere Boratola (Begel, It. Turkestan., 
viii.). 

B. Petala bipartita. 

a. Gapsula carpophoram subsBqaans. 

323. SiLENE MULTiFLORA, Pers., 8yn. PI, i. p. 496 (1805) ; 
Waldst. et Kit., PL Rar. Hung., i. t. 56 (Gacubalns mnltiflorus) ; 
Rohrh., Monogr., p. 203. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Near Semipalatinsk, on the R. Irtysch, 
Sibei*ia. 
8. The Dobmdscha, in Ronmania (Kanitz, PI. 

Roman., suppl, p. 182 [1881]). 
E. Desert of Sonngaria. 
W. Nensiedler See, in Hungary. 

324. S. CKPHALENiA, Heldr., Fl. Gephalon., p. 26 (1883) ; Boiss., 
Fl. Orient., suppL, p. 106. 

Infeme pnbe aspern]& canescens. Ganles adscendentos, 
superne viscidi, laxe racemoso-panicnlati. Folia inferiora con- 
ferta spathnlata acnta, snperiora admodnm dirninnta b'nearia. 
Ramuli panicnlte patentes, apice panciflori ; flores breviter pedi- 
cellati secnndi, pedicellis fmctiferis cemnis. Calyx cylindrico- 
clavatns gland nloso-pnbescens, dentibns triangnlaribnH, acntis, 
albo-marginatis. Petala livida, ecoronata, lobis linearibns. 
Semiua mgnlosa dorso canaliculata. 

AffiniR facie 8. congested a qn& differt pnbe aspemU, inflores- 
centi& laxiore, foliis acntis, calycis dentibns acntis, carpophoro 
capsniam saqnante. 

Kah. Ionian Islands; Gephalonia (Heldreich [1872]). 

b. Capsnla carpophomm 3-4-plo excedens. 

325. S. GiGANTEA, Linn., Sp. Plant., ed. 1. p. 418, et (accnra- 
tins) in ed. II. p. 598; Sibth. et 8m., Fl. GrcBca, v. t. 432 ; 
Rohrb., Monogr., p. 203. 

fi. viRiDESCiNS, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 646. 
Viridescens, indnmento parciore. Panicnla viscosissima ; 
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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 159 

Oeogr, Umits* — N. Bamelia. 

W, Ionian Islands ; Zante. 
E. Mt. Oaioor-dagb, in prov. of Aleppo (Posty 
ex Bull. Herb, Boiss., iii. [1895] p. 154). 
8, Broammana, in the Lebanon (var. fi), 

326. SiLENB CONGESTA, Sihth. et 8fn.j Prodr. Fl, Orcec, i. 
p. 300 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 204. 

Oeogr, Uinit?. — N, Thessaly (HattssknechU ex Nym,, Consp. FL 

Ewr.f suppL, ii. p. 52). 
8, Mt. TajgetoSy in tlie nome of Laconia^ 

Morea (Haussknecht^ Z.c). 
E, Mt. Parnassus, in the nome of Attica, 

Livadia. 
TT. Mt. Kjllenes, in the nome of Arcadia 

{Heldreich, ex Boiss., Fl. Orient,, suppLy 

p. 106). 

327. S. Bbidgesi, Eohrb, in App, II. Ind. 8em. Hort, BeroL 
(1867) p. 5 ; Monogr,, p. 204. 

Adde: Petala alba vel parparascentia, nngaibos angoste 
anricnlatis. 

8yn. S. incompta, A, Gray, in Proc, Amer, Acad,, vii. (1868) 

p. 330; vide B. L. Bobinson, l,c,, xxviii. (1893) p. 139. 

S. Engelmanni, Bohrb, in App, II. Ind. 8em, Hort, 

Berol. (1867), p. 5; Monogr,,p, 213. 
S. mnlticanlis, Durand, in Joum, Acad, Nat. 8c, Philad, 
(1855) ; ex 8. Wats,, Bibl, Ind,, p. 108. 
Hab. California. 

328. S. TUNNANiNSis, Franch, in BuU. 8oc. Bot. France, xxxiii. 
(1886) p. 425. 

E basi ramosa, andiqne tennissime pubescens, glauca. Bami 
erecti, rigidi, ultra medium crebre foliati. Folia e basi brevitcT 
aitenoata, angiiste lanceolata, acuminata, 3-nervia, nervis 
lateralibus marginantibus, supra aspernlata, infra dense 
puberula. Inflorescentia paDiculato-corymboea, in cymas 2-3- 
floras congestas disposita ; pedicellis abbreviatis. Calyx tubu- 
loso-clavatus, apice parum constrictcs, infeme viz angustatus, 
pr»sertim ad nervos purpurascentes pilis crispis vestitus, denti- 
bus ovato-triangularibus acutis, Petala rosea, lamina late 



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160 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

obcordata, lobis latis ovatis, cimi dente vel lobulo laterali, 
appendicibus oblongis. Filamenta glabra. Capsula oblonga. 

Habitus 8. repentU in formft antem petalorum diversa, etiam 
dispositione bracteamm in pedicellis. 

Characters Terified from authentic tpeoimeiiB in Herb. Kew. 

Hah. China ; prov. of Ynn-nan. 

Series 6. SperguUfolice. 

Flores in racemis simplicibns sive compositis, vertieillastra 
plas minns densa, interdnm panciflora ferentibus : pedicelli 
medio sen apico binis prophyllis prwditi. 

A. Petala multifida, lobis lateralibus brevibus. 

329. SiCiENE PACHYRRHIZA, Frauch. in Bull, Soe, Bot. France, 
xxxiii. (1886) p. 427. 

Canles e radice crassd^ debiles, erecti, pnberalo-scabri ad 
apicem usqae folios i. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, breviter petio- 
lata, Bcabra, caulina mox decrescentia. Jnflorescentia obligan tha, 
floribos 3-4; bractesd minntsd, acnminate; pedicelli dense 
pnberuli. Caljx tnbuloso-campanulatns, umbilicatus, inferno 
param angustatus, pilis brevissimis obsessns, dentibus ovatis, 
acntis. Petala rosea, nnguibns anriculatis, glabris, lobis latera- 
libus triangularibus, lobis mediis linearibns, appendicibus 
oblongis. Filamenta glabra. Capsula ovato-conica. 

Characters verified, as in the preceding, from specimens in Herb. Kew. 
Hah. China ; prov. of Yun-nan. 

330. S. Olgjj, Bohrh, in Linncea^ xxxvi. (1870) p. 687 ; Maxim, 
in BuU, Acad. Imp, 8c. Petersh., vii. (1865) p. 332 (Melandrium 
OlgfB). 

Caules erecti, solitarii vel plurimi, simplices vel paullum 
stricto ramosi, pilis crispis viscidis dense vestiti, 10-30 centim. 
longi. Folia lanceolata vel ovato - lanceolata acuminata, 
basi paullum angustata, hirtella, margine pilis longis ciliata, 
superiora et bracteee pedunculorum medium versus sessiles 
sensim angustiores ac minores. Racemi rami 1-3-vel rarius 
pluriflori, caljce brevius pedunculati, peduncnlis dense viscido- 
pubescentibus. Calyx 8-10 mm. longus, ssepe rubescens, tur- 
binate- oblongns, fructifer ampliatns ovatus, pilis viscidis dense 



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vestitas, striis viridibiis vel nigricanti-rabellis sapeme arcuatim 
coDJnnctis et intra denies reticnlato-yenosis, dentibns elongato- 
lanceolatis, aoominatis albo-marginatis, ciliatis. Petala pur- 
purea vel sordide mbro-violacea, onguibus exsertis, longe 
ciliatis, lobis medianis oblongis, lateralibus lacinulatis, appen- 
dicibus binis fomicatis elongato-lanceolatis. Filamenta glabra. 
Capsala ovato-oblonga, snbsessilis. Semina reniformia, dorso 
faciebosque plana dense acute tnberculata. 

Hob, S.E. Siberia ; on the shores of the bay of St. Olga. «nd 
near the R. Wai-Pudin. 

B. Petala bipartita vel bifida, 
a. Gapsula carpophorum eequans vel fere bis superans. 

881. SiLENE REPENS, Fair, in Pers. Syn. PI, i. p. 500 ; Ledeb., 
Ic, FL Bosnc, t. 425 ; Boh/rh., Monogr,, p. 206. 

a, ANGUSTiFOLLA (typica), Turcz. ap. Begel, in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc, (1861) p. 561. 

Folia linearia vel anguste lineari-lanoeolata, 1^-6 mm. lata. 

f. SINENSIS, mihi (= S. repens, Franch, in Joum, Botanique, 
[1890], p. 302). 

Folia scabridiora quam in speciminibus Sibiricis. Petalorum 
appendices lineares, paullum divergentes. Carpophomni 
yelutinum. 

Hah. N. China; Suen-hoa-fou. 

p. LATIFOLIA, Turcz. ap. Begel in BuU. Soc. Nat. Mosc. (1861) 
p. 561. 

Folia lineari-lanceolata vel angnste lanceolata, 6-12 mm. lata. 

7. TRANSCAUOASICA, Trautv. in Act. Hort. Petrop., ii. (1873) 
p. 608. 

Canles simplidssimi ; foliorum fasciculis vel ramulis foliiferis 
in foliomm canlinorum axillis plane deficientibus. 
Oeogr. limits. — N and F. Kamtschatka, in Siberia. 
W. Slatoust, in Central Russia. 
8. Japan. 

332. S. sPERGULiroLU, Bieh., Ft. Taur. Gauc., iii. (1819) 
p. 805 ; Beichh., Ic. Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5101 ; Bohrh.^ Monogr., 
p. 206. 

Syn. S. spergulifolia var. clavata, Trautv. in Act. Hort. 
Petrop., ii. (1873) p. 508. 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, YOL. XXXII. M 



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162 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENl. 

Lusns 2. Calyx f ructifer brevior, ob oarpophomm breyissi- 
mmn ellipsoideus. 

8yn, S. spergnlifolia, var, ellipsoidea, Trautv. in Ad, Eort. 
Petrop,, ii. (1873) p. 508. 

Lnsus 3. Canles debiles, genicnlati, glabrinsculi; inflorescentise 
rami primarii elon^ti. 

Syn. S. spergulifolia, var, elongata, Botes., Fl. Orient,, i. 
p. 612. 

p. ARBUSCULA, BoisS,, Lc, 

Damosa, caudice lignoso. Folia lineari-lanceolata. Bacemns 
elongatns. Galjx solum ad strias hirsatns. 
Oeogr. limits, — N. Trans- Cancasia. 

S, and E, Persia; Bains of Persepolis, in 

prov. of Fars (var. fi), 
W, Mt. Arjish-tagb, in prov. of Karamania. 

333. SiLENE BoRNMUELLERi, Freyn, in Oesterr, Bot, Zeitsch. 
xli. (1891) p. 363. 

Tota glandnloso-hirta, viscosa, e basi snffmtescente mnlti- 
canlis. Caulis inf rafoliommrosnlamterminalemlateraliteredens. 
Canles stricte erecti, apice 1-3-flori. Folia lanceolata, acuta, 
infima subspathulata, caulina vix diminata, floralia berbacea, 
conspicue minora. Calyx florum masculorum major, cyHndrico- 
conicus, rubro-striatus, apice purpurens, dentibus ovatis obtusis ; 
florum feminomm et florum bermapbroditorum minor, sub- 
turbinatus, viridi- vel purpureo-striatus, dentibus oblongis, 
obtusis, margine subbyalinis. Petala alba, nngnibus ciliatis, 
lobis oblongis, appendicibus binis, oblique ovatis, acutis, 
donticulatis. Capsula (perjuvenilis) turbinata, carpopboro 
glabro duplo saltim longiore sufEulta. 

Hah, Prov. of Siwas ; Mfc. Yildiz-dagb {Bommueller, exs., 
n. 2022). 

p, SUBALPINA, Freyn, l.c, 

Elatior, vegetior, subpedalis, laxe paniculata, paniculfls ramis 
panois, apice cymoso-trifloris, inferioribus divaric^tis vel 
arrectis, foliis majoribus. 

Hah, Mfc. Yildiz-dagb {Bommueller, exs., n. 2023). 

334. S. SUPINA, Bieh,, Fl, Taur, Cauc,, l p. 336, iii. p. 304; 
Bot. Mag., t. 1997 ; Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 207. 



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MR. r. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 163 

Oeogr. limits. — N. and E. Altai Mtns., in Siberia. 
S. Prov. of Ghil&n, N. Persia. 
W, Bnlgaria ; nr. Varna (Bommueller, PI. exs. 
BulgarieB Or. [1889], n. 3). 

b. Capsula subsessilis : flores dioici. 
335. SiLENE PRUINOSA, Boiss., Diagn. PL Nov, Or,^ Ser. I. i. p. 23, 
et viii. p. 85 ; Eohrh,, Monogr., p. 2D8 (S. snpina var, pminosa). 

Tota grisea, retrorsum tomentella, e basi suffrutescente 
multicaalis. Canles adscendentes paniculati, paniculso ramis 
Bsepins altemis. Folia brevia, lanceolato-linearia, acuta, sub- 
spatbnlata. Calyx glanduloso-hirsutas, cjlindrico-conioiiB, 
fractifer clavatus, infra capsulam leviter oonstrictus, nervis 
anastomosantibus, bispidulis, dentibus ovatis, obtnsis, albo- 
marginatis, ciliatis. Petala alba, ungnibus ciliatis inclnsis, 
bifida lobis linearibus, appendicibns binis, parvis, ovatis, 
obtnsis. Capsula oblongo-oonica. Semina globosa, dorso lato 
convexa, faciebus plana. 

Species polymorpba, affinis 8. spergulifolice, a qu& tamen sat 
differre videtur indumento, foliorum form^ inflorescenti^ 
ramosiori paniculate, ramis saapius altemis ; occurrunt tamen 
formsB subracemossB. Hanc ut yarietatem 8. supines Bobrbach 
habet, sed secus Boissier et suo sensu erron^e; etenim lisec 
floribus saltern duplo longioribns a 8. pruinosa distingaitur. 
Specimina armena ex Gumuschkhan^ 8. pruinosce sistunt ex 
Bobrbtkch speciem propriam 8. armeniaca Bohrb., sed a typo 
tantum difEerunt carpophoro pauUulum breyiore et transitus 
adsunt innumeri. 

8yn. S. virgata, 8tapf, in Denkschr. Akad. Wien, li. (1886) 
p. 283. 

p, ALPiNA, Boiss., Fl. Orient, i. p. 613. 

Canles humiliores procumbentes pauciflori. 

7. AEMENLACA, Bohrh, (sp.) in App, Alt. Ind, Hort. Berol. 
(1867) p. 5. 

Canles suberecti foliosi, basi magis casspitosi. 
8yn, S. pruinosa, var, fasciculata, Boiss,, berb. 
Oeogr, limits, — N. Gumuschkban^, in prov. of Trebizond, 
Armenia (var, 7). 
8. Mt. Cassius, in prov. of Aleppo. 
E, W, Persia (8tapf). 
W, Prov. of Anatolia. 

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164 MB. F. N. WILLIIHS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

336. SiLENB BRACHTCiRPA, Botss, et Bal,, Biagn. PI. Nov. 
Or,, Ser. II. vi. p. 29; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 208. 

Isflorescentia S. spergulifolus, folia S, pruino8(B, ab nbAque 
distincta capsuld. globos^ sulcata, in rosiram pangens abrupt.e 
abeanti. 

Hah, Provinces of Anatolia and Siwas. 

337. S. CAPPADOCICA, Boiss. et Heldr., Biagn, PI. Nov, Or., 
Ser. I. viii. p. 86 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 209 (S. argentea, var, 
cappadocica). 

Hsec et 8. argentea* specifice non differre videntur, sed hocce 
nomen speciei cujus forms plnrimaa virides glabriascnlfls sunt 
servendum esse Tidetnr. 8, argentea ergo =. 8. cappadocica 
var. argentea. 

Calyx 6 mm. longos, in floribns femineis minor et magis 
clayatns ; petala florum mascnlornm majora profundius 
bipartita. 

Affinis 8, sibiricoB qu89 differt foliis latioribus, petalis indivisis, 
carpophoro elongato. A 8, sperguUfolid et affinibns, nngnibas 
glabris non dilatatis, floribns minoribas, caljce non glandnloso 
semper distingaenda. 

fi, ABGENTEA, Ledeh. (sp.), Ft. Bossica, i, p. 311. 

Tota dense cano-velatina, sicnt argentacea. Folia latiora. 
Calyx flavidns. 

This plant is only briefly and insufficiently described by Ledebour, and 
its affinities with other species not satisfaotoiily made out and compared. 

7. GLANDULOSA, Freyn, in Bonvm,, PI, Anatolim Orientalis 
(1890), n. 71 ; et in Bull, Herb, Boiss., iii. (1896) p. 78. 

Stirps pilis reversis glandnlosis, scabro-pubescens. Canles 
simplices vel infra medium subramosi. Folia spathulato-linearia. 
Calyx 8-9 mm. longns, scabro-pnbescens glandnlosns. 

Hab. N, and E, Trans-Cancasia. 8. and W, Anatolia. 

c. Flores in racemo composito, ramis racemosis sive dichasia 
composita ferentibns, ant in racemo simplici ramis strictis 
nni-vel pancifloris elongatis ; (rarissime in f ormis alpinis canlis 
nni-vel pauciflorus). 

Series 7. Lasiostemones, 

Flores erecti vel nntantes. Petalorum nngnes et filamenta 
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MK. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE QENUS SILENE. 165 

a. Petala ungnibns exanricQlatis. 

338. SiLENE AFFGHANICA, Boli^h. in App. Alt, Ind, Sort, Berol, 
(1867), p. 5; Bohrh,, Monogr., p. 210. 

Hah, Afghanistan. 

339. S. PUBERULA, Boiss.y Fl. OrienLy i. p. 636; Bohrb,^ 
Monogr,, p. 210. 

Hob. Mt. Pir Oraar Ondran, in Persian Knrdistan (Hauss- 
knecJU ex Boise. ^ FL Orient , auppl.^ p. 103) ; hills near Baibont^ 
in Turkish Armenia. 

340. S. NiEDBRi, Eeldr. in Boies., Diagn. PI Nov. Or., Ser. II. 
vi. p. 32 ; Bohrb.j Monogr., p. 211. 

Ab affinibns coron4 sabnnll4 discrepans. 
Hob. N. Greece (vide Haueekneoht, in Mittheil. Thiiring. Bot. 
Ver., Heft v. [1893] p. 49). 
E. Garpenisi, in the nome of ^tolia. 
N. Peak of Zygos. 

S. and W. Ionian Islands; vineyards in the Isle of 
Sta. Maura (Baldacci, n. 229, ex Bull. Herb. 
Boiee.j iv. p. 203 [Mars, 1896]) ; also Janina, in 
prov. of Epirus, Turkey (Baldacdy in litt., July, 
1896). 

341. S. LONGiPETALA, Vent., PL Jard. Cele.t. 83; Sibth. et Sm., 
Fl. Grcsca, v. p. 13, t. 419; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 211. 

Adde : Petala alba vel purpurascentia, rarius ochroleuca. 
Species ab affinibus radice repenti, paniculaa amplsa ramis 
Jongis divaricatis, distincta. 

Adde syn. S. Ehrenbergiana, Bohrb., Monogr., p. 163, n. 164. 
S. cbloropetala, B/upr,, Fl. Caucaei, p. 195 (1869). 

/3. ASPBEIFOLIA, Freyn (sp.), in Bull. Herb. Boiee.,ui. (1895) p. 97. 
Folia tomentoso-aspera. Pedicelli stricti, ad medium bibrac- 
teati. Gapsala oblonga. 

Oeogr. limite. — N. and E. Prov. of Daghestan, in Gis-Caucasia 
(S. cbloropetala). 
S. El Arish, on the coast of Egypt, near the 
frontier of Palestine (Aech. et Schweinf. 
in Mem. Inst. Egypt., u. [1889] p. 749). 
W. Greece ; Gorinth (Haueeknecht, in Mittheil. 
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166 MR. F. N. WILLUM8 ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

342. SiLENE KUNAWARENSis, Eoyle, lUusir. BoU Eimalay.y 
p. 79 ; Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 211. 

Adde: Caules puberuli vel glabri, tennes, foliis pnbemlis. 
Calyx nmbilicatns. 

Mah, W. Tibet ; Knnawar in the Himalayas. 

b. Petala nngnibus auricalatis ; flores nntantes. 
a. Ungues dente obtuso anriculati. 

343. S. Marschalli, 0. A. Mey., Verz. Pfl. Cauc, p. 214 
(1831) ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 212. 

/3. EIJROPAA, mihi. 

Folia omnia angnste Hnearia glabra. Calyx glaber. 
Syn, S. Guiceiardii, Boiss, et Heldr.^ Dtagn. PL Nov, Or.^ 
iSer. 11. vi. p. 32. 

Oeogr. limits. — N, Eastern Cancasas. 

S, Elmaln, in Anatolia. 

E, N. Persia ; Elbarz Mtns., between 

Teheran and Tabreez. 
W, N. Greece ; slopes of Mt. Parnassus, above 
Livadi. 

344. S. SAXATiLis, Sims, Bot, Mag,, t. 689 ; Bohrh,, Monogr., 
p. 212. 

DifEert a S. nutante, qn^nm ssepe conf asa f aerat, nngnibns 
et filamentis ciliatis, capsnloe cum earpophoro proportione. 

/3. CONGESTA, Boiss.y Fl, Orient., i. p. 635. 
Caules snbsimplices ; flores brevius pedicellati in 1-2 cymas 
fasciculifoimes congesti. 

7 DJIMILENSI8, Boiss,, Fl. Orient., suppl, p. 103. 
Folia inferiora latiora ; flores in cymas fasciculiformes 
breviter pedicellatas congesti. 

a. DAGHESTANICA, Rupr. (sp.) Fl, Caucasi, p. 194 ; Boiss,^ Fl. 
Orient., suppl., p. 103. 

Caules in part« inferiore laxius csespitosi, intricati, crebrins 
foliati, axillis fasciculiferis. Folia abbreviata, lanceolato- 
spathulata, acuta, margine aculcolata. Panicula laxa, depau- 
perata. 

€. ATROPURPUREA, Bupr,, Fl. Caucosi, p. 193. 
Petala atropurpurea. 



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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILBNB. 167 

Oeogr. limits, — N, Prov. of Daghestan, in Gis-Cancasia 
(var, a). 
8, Mt. Elamat, in North Persia (var. a), 
E, Russian Armenia {var, ft), 
W, Turkish Armenia ; prov. of Trebizond. 

345. SiLENE AFRICA, TwTcz, in Fisch, et Mey.y Ind. Sem. Hort 
Petrop,, i. p. 38 (1835) ; Turcz,, Cat, PL Baikal, n. 221, in 
Bull, 8oc, Nat. Mo8c. (1838) p. 88 (sensu limitato). 

Canles stricti, erecti, simplices yel panllnm stricte ramosi, 
infeme nodosi. Folia snbcoriacea lanceolata, inferiora in 
petiolnm attennata, snperiora linearia, omnia acuta, dense 
pnbescentia. Flores in racemo valde elongate, ramis dichasia 
plus minus composita, yerticillastra fingentia ferentibus, 
interdnm elongatis. BractesB parvas, villoso-ciliatsB, pedicel- 
lorum basi confert©. Calyx breviter oblongus, fructifer infra 
capsnlam leviter constrictus, basi sensim in petiolum attenuatus, 
dense incano-pubescens, striis viridibus quarum vense paucaa 
conjunctas, dentibus ovato-lanceolatis, acutis, albo-marginatis, 
eiUatis. Petala albida, yel rosea, laming pary& bifida, lobis 
lineari-oblongis, unguibus inclusis, appendicibus parvis. 
Gapsnla oblonga, carpophorum 5-6-plo snperans. Semina 
dorso faciebusque plana seriatim tuberculata. 

a, TTPICA, Bohrh, in Linncea, xxxvi. (1870) p. 685. 

Caules folia et calyces plus minnsye dense pubescentes. 

Lusus 1. Caules incano-pubemli. Folia dense scabridulo- 
pubescentia. Flores in racemo yalde elongate yerticillastrifero, 
Buperne non raro in dichasium compositum mutato. Caljx 
7-9 mm. longus, sub anthesi oblongus, fructifer subampliatus. 
Petala subinclusa. 

8yn, Melandrium apricum, Bohrh,, Monogr,, p. 231, et in 
LinnoBa, xxxyi. (1869) p. 239. 

Lusus 2. Caules dense molliter canescenti-pubescentes. 
Folia scabriuscula. Flores in dichasiis compositis, ramis 
florigeris infra inflorescentiam terminalem hand raro acce- 
dentibus. Calyx (5-6) 7-9 mm. longus, sub anthesi oyato- 
oblongus, fructifer ampliatus. Petala plus minus longe 
exserta. 

8yn, S. Oldhamiana, Miq., Annal, Mus, Lugd, Bat,, iii. p. 187. 

Melandrium Oldhamiannm, Bohrh,, Monogr,^ p. 233, et in 
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168 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GBNtJS SILENE. 

/3« FiRMA, Sieh, et Zucc. (sp.) in Ahhandl. Munch. Akad,, It. 
II. p. 166. 

Canles glaberrimi aut infeme pilis reyersis leviter poberuli, 
nodis valde incrassati. Folia magis coriacea, inferiora S89pe 
late ovato-lanceolata, raro omnia late ovata, ant omnia glabra 
ac margiae Integra vel sermlato-ciliaia, ant inferiora leviter 
pnbescentia. Flores semper in racemo verticillastrifero raro 
pancifloro. Calyx glaberrimns 6-10 mm. longas. 
8yn, S. firmnla, Herb. Lugd. Bat. 

S. melandriiformis, Maxim., Prim. Fl. Amur,, p. 54 

(1859). 
Melandrium firmnm, Bohrh., Monogr., p. 232. 
Melandrimn apricum, var. firmnm, Bohrb. in LinnoBa, 
xxxvi. (1869) p. 240. 
Geogr, limits. — N. Lake Baltkal, in Siberia (the original 
specimens). 
S. China ; nr. Amoy, on the coast of prov. of 
Fo-kien (var. typica, Insus 2, Herb. 
Hance, n. 7410). 
E. Japan ; nr. Yokohama (var, typica, lusns 1, 
sed forma verticillastris plurifloris, 
Wichura, n. 1085). 
W. Mongolia (Kirilow). 

346. SiLENE rRiNGLBi, 8. Wats. in Proc. Amer, Acad., xxiii. 
(1888) p. 269 ; B. L. Robinson, I.e., xxviii. (1893) p. 145. 

Canles tennes, erecti, snbglandnlosi, scabrido-tormentosi. 
Folia lineari-lanceolata, acnminata, basi sensim attennata, 
3-nervia papilloso-scabra. Calyx cylindricns, nmbilicatns, 
dentibns ovatis, fimbriato-ciliatis, reticnlato-venosis. Petala 
fosco-pnrpurea, bipartita, appendicibns saccatis integris. 
Capsnla oblongo-ovata. Semina grannlata. 

Hab. Arizona and New Mexico, in the United States, and 
Chihnahna, in North Mexico. 

/3. IJngnes dente acnto auricolati. 

347. S. ScouLKEi, Hook., Fl. Bor.^Amer., i. p. 83 (1833) ; 
kohrb., Monogr., p. 213. 

8yn. S. Drummoudii (non Hook.)^ A. Gray, in Proc. Amer. 
Acad., viii. (1863). 
Elisanthe Soouleri, Bupr., Fl. Oaucasi, p. 200 (1869). 



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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE QBNUS SILENE. 1C9 

/3. C08TATA, mihi. 

Hispido-pubescens. Folia oarinata. Calyx oblongo-oyatns, 
nervis prominentibas. 

Syn. S. Hallii, 8. Wats, in Proc, Am&r. Acad,, xxi. (1886) 
p. 446. 
S. parparata, Oreene, in Fittonia, ii. (1891) p. 229 ; et 
ex B. L, Bobinson, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxviii. 
(1893) p. 141. 
Oeogr. limits. — N. and W. Vancouver Island, British North 
America. 
8. and E. The Caucasus. 



Series 8. Nutantes. 
Flores nutantes. Ungues et filamenta glabri. 

a. Calyx basi sensim in petiolum attenuatus. 

348. SiLENE LEUCOPHYLLA, Boxss., Bxagn. PI. Nov. Or., Ser. I. 
i. p. 29 ; Bohrb., Monogr., p. 214. 

Hah. St. Catherine's Peak, on Mt. Sinai. 

349. S. AMANA, Boiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 634. 
Facies et folia 8. viridifiorce sed capsula stipitata. 
Hah. Mt. Amanus, in prov. Aleppo, near Beilan. 

350. S. viEiDiFLORA, Linn., 8p. Plant., ed. II. p. 697 ; Beichb., 
Ic. Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5104 (non n. 5004) ; Bohrb., Monogr., 
p. 214. 

Planta rotrorsum glanduloso-pubescens. 
Geogr. limits. — N. The Noric Alps, in Styria. 

8. Western Himalayas, lat. 34°. 

E. Western Himalayas, long. 75°. 

W. Portugal. 

b. Calyx truncatus basi umbilicatns. 
a. Petala ungnibns exauriculatis. 

351. S. MELLiFERA, Boiss. et Beut., Diagn. PI. Nov., p. 8 
(1842) ; Willk., Ic. Desc. PI. Nov. Hisp., i. (1853) p. 63, t. 46 ; 
Bohrb., Monogr., p. 215. 

8. nevadensis cum qu& 8» mellifera saspe oonf usa fuerat, ab e& 
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170 MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THK GENUS SILENE. 

ntrinque acate auriculatis, capsuled cam carpophore proportione, 
seminnm form&. 

Oeogr. limits, — N. Sierra de Toledo, in prov. of New Castile. 
S, and E. Algeria ; slopes of Mt. Atlas, above 

Blidah. 
W. Serra Monchiqne, in Portugal. 

352. SiLENE CATHOLICA, Ait,^ Hort. Keio, ed. 11. iii. (1812) p. 85 ; 
Beichb,^ Ic, Fl, Germ, Heh,, n. 5103 ; Bohrb.y Monogr., p. 215. 

Adde Syn. S. Campelli, Sang., FL Bom. Prodr, Alt, p. 770, 
t. 7. 

Bohrbach gives the environs of Paris as the northern limit of the species, 
but here it can only be considered a casual introduction. He also gives 
Aragon as the western limit, but the Spanish specimens are to be referred 
to S. italica. The claws of the petals, unlike those of the preceding 
species, are slightly exserted from the calyx. 

Oeogr. limits. — N. Proy. of Ekaterinoslav, in S. Russia. 
E. Crimea. 
S. Calabria {Tenore). 
W. Near Rome. 

353. S. NiYEA, Otth, in BO. Prodr., i. p. 377 ; Rohrh., Monogr., 
p. 236. 

Caulis erectus laxus, simplex, glaber vel vix puberulus. 
Folia numerosa, elongato-lanceolata, vel lanceolata, acuminata, 
margine minatissime serrulato-scabrida, superiora cum bracteis 
herbaceis paullatim minora. Flores pauci, laxe dichotomi, 
longissime pedicellati. Calyx oblongo-tubulosus glaber, nervis 
anastomosantibus, dentibus ovatis obtusis, late albo-margi- 
natis, glabris. Petal a alba, uDguibus longe exsertis, obovato- 
cuneata, bifida, lobis late ovatis, appendicibus parvis obtusis. 
Capsula subglobosa, carpophorum sequans. Semina dorso 
canaliculata. 

Geogr. limits. — 8, Illinois. 

E. Pennsylvania. 

N. Minnesota 1 (MacMiUan, Metasp. Minnes. 

W. Iowa J Valley, p. 220 [1892]). 

354. S. STELLATA, Ait., Hort. Kew, ed. II. iii. (1812) p. 84 ; 
Sims, Bot. Mag.f t. 1107 (Cucubalus) ; Bohrb,, Monogr. p. 216. 

Geogr. limits. — N. Canada. E. Massachusetts. 

S. Georgia. W. Texas. 



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MR. P. N. WILLUMS ON THE OKNUS SILENB. 171 

355. SiLENB NUTANS, Linn., 8p, Plant, ed. I. p. 417 ; Byrne, 
Eng. Botany, ed. III. ii. p. 64, t. 207 ; Eohrb., Monogr., p. 216. 

Ex syn, S. longicilia, est species propria. 

Adde syn, S. insnbrica, Oaud,, Fl. Velvet., iii. p. 173. 

S. viridella. Link, Handh,, ii. p. 242. 

S. enprea, Beichh,, Ic. Fl. Oerm, Helv,, iii. p. 52. 

/?. FiLiFORMis, Lange in Kjoeh. Vidensk, Meddel. 1865 (1866), 
p. 113; Wtllk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 665. 

Canles tennes, atro-pnrpurascentes. Folia radicalia, glabra, 
obscure viridia. Podicelli elongati, filiformes, erecti, apice 
inclinati. Calyx 6 mm. (non 10 mm.) longus, striis nigrescen. 
tibus. Petala lateolo-alba. 

Apparenilj a form intermediate between S. nutans and S, italica with 
luboemuous flowers. 

7. DUBiA, Herhich, Fl. Bucov,, p. 388 (sp.). 
Pili breviores recurvi nee stricti. Flores minores, petalis 
yiridi-luteis. Capsala carpopborum qninquies superans. 
Qeogr. area. — N. and E. Arctic Siberia. 
8. and W. Canary Isles. 

356. S. LONGICILIA, Otth, in DG, Prodr., i. p. 377. 
CaBspitosa, mnlticanlis. Canlis erectns aut interdam obliqnns, 

infeme pnbescens, et obscure purpurascens, supeme glaber et 
viscosus, geniculatus, infeme usque ad apicem ramosus, ram is 
patentibus dicbotomis. Folia subpuberula, infcrioria oblan- 
ceolata, rel obovato-spatbulata, obtusa vel acuta, non scabra, 
inferne in petiolum longum attenuata, marginatim lanuginoso- 
ciliata, snperiora lineari-lanceolata, acuta, sessilia; bracteaa 
parrsB ovataB acut® albo-marginatsB ciliataB. Flores laxi dicbo- 
tome paniculati, ad apices ramulorum temi. Calyx clavatus 
glabriusculuH, striis viridibus supeme anastomosantibus, 
dentibns ovatis, obtosinsculis, albo-marginatis. Petala supra 
albida, subtus purpurascentia, unguibus exsertis, bipartita 
lobis cuneatis, fauce bicallosa. Capsula ovato-conica, carpo- 
pborum 4-plo superans. Semina parva, reniformia, dorso 
canaliculata, faciebus plana, granulata. 

A 8. nutante diversa, magis caespitosa et dicbotome ramosa, 
foliis radicalibus non scabris, basi longe lanuginoso-ciliatis, 
floribus plus minus laxis, petalis fauce bicallosis, nee lamellatis. 

Syn. Cucubalus longicilius, Brot., Fl. Lusit., ii. (1804) p. 180. 



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172 MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THl GENUS SILENB. 

fiiotero, in his original description, oompares the species with S, nutans, 
and notes the points of difference. 

Hob. Central Portugal. 

367. SiLENE VELUTiNOiDES, Pomel, Nouv. Mat Fl, Atlant, 
p. 208 ; Oo88., Ulusir, Fl. Atlanty fasc. iv. (1890) p. 148, t. 96. 

Velntino-subtomentosa. Caules florigeri inf rarosnlares adscen- 
dentes rarius e recti, plurifoliati, simplices, infra racemnm 
ramosam snpeme glanduloso-viscosi. Folia inferiora obovata 
vel oblonga, callo mncronata, in petdolam attennata, ntrinqne 
yelntino - snbtomentosa, caulina minora ; bracteas lanceolato- 
lineares condnplicato-snbinyolntse, cum pedicellis et caljcibus 
glanduloso-pubescentes. Flores breviter pedicellati, in cjmnlas 
3-5-flora8, nonnunqaam ad florem terminalem redactas conferti, 
cjmiis saDpins in panicnlam generalem angnstam racemiformem 
dispoflitis. Calyx 8-10 mm. longns, tnbnloso-infondibnli- 
formis, fructifer snpeme dilatatns, apice hand constrictns, 
albido-virescens, striis snpeme anastomosantibns, dentibas 
ovato-triangularibns, acntiuscnlis, late albo-marginatis, ciliatis. 
Petala intns alba extns viridnli-pnrpnrascentia, bipartita lobis 
linearibus, bicallosa. Capsnla ovata, carpophornm birtnlnm 
bis snperans. Semina compressa, faciebns plana striata, dorso 
obtnse caDalicnlata ibiqne tnbercnlata. 

A 8. nutante di versa, candice crasso snberoso-snblignoso, 
foliomm emarcidomm vestigiis snpeme sqnamato, pnbe totins 
planted velutino-snbtomentos^, canlibns infra rosnlas foliomm 
radicalinm, non e centro rosnlamm enatis, peialis fance bical- 
losis, stipite capsnlsB longitndinem dimidiam snbsBqnante. 

Hah. Algeria. 

/3. Petala nngnibns anricalatis. 

358. S. OTODONTA, Franch. in Bull, Soc, Bot, France, xxxiii. 
(1886) p. 426. 

Canlis eiectns, ramosns, pnbemlus, foliosns. Folia breviter 
petiolata, e basi attennata, ovato-lanceolata, mncronnlata, snbtns 
ad nervnm nnno parce pnbescentia, margine eiliolata, ceteriim 
glabra; bractecB et bracteolse breves, lineares, acntes, cinereo- 
pnbescentes, margine ssepins membranacese. Inflorescentiad 
rami elongati, paniculato-corjmbosi, cymis 4-7-floris ; pedicellis 
caljcibusqne pabescentibns. Calyx 12-15 mm. longns, cam- 
pannlatas, dentibns ovatis mncronatis, margine membranaceis, 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 173 

Bsapins pnrpnreo-tinctis, dliolatis. Petala pallide rosea, unguibus 
exsertis, bifida, lobis linearibus, appendicibus binis, lanceolato- 
linearibas, acntis. Capsula ovato-conica, carpophoro 3-4-plo 
longior. Semina reniformia, undiqae toberculata, dorso plana. 

8, nutantis habitas, diversa autem f oliis mucronulatis latioribas 
efc nuraerosioribns, petalomm form4. 

Hah. China ; prov. of Yun-nan. 

359. SiLENE SPALDiNOn, 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad.y x. 
(1875) p. 344 ; B, L. Eohinson^ in Proc, Amer. Acad,, xxviii. 
(1893) p. 146. 

Caalis erectns, foliosns, toraentosas, simplex vel ramosus, 
supeme glanduloso-viscosas. Folia inferiora oblongo-lanceolata, 
acatiascnla, saperiora lanceolata, acnta. Flores in panicnlam 
breyem strictam racemosam dispositi. Calyx subherbacens, 
oblongo-cylindricu8,fructifer obconicus, nervis anastomosantibus, 
dentibns ovato-triangxJaribus, acutiusculis, ciliolatis. Petala 
viridi-albida, nnguibus panllum exsertis, laming bidentat^ 
breviter triangulari, appendicibus 4-partiti8, parvis, lanceolatis, 
obtusis. Capsula ovato-oblonga, breviter stipitata. 

Hab, On the Clear Water, Central Idaho ; and on the 
Lumnaha, Union Co., Oregon. 

360. S. GALATJiA, Boiss,, Fl, Orient,, suppl, p. 103 (1888). 
Caules adscendentes, flexuosi, tenues, saepe ramulosi. Folia 

oblongo-rhombea, breviter petiolata, apice abrupte acuminata, 
breviter velutino-puberula ; bractess lineares vel setacese, breves. 
Panicula elongata, laxa paucifloi'a ; floribus longe pedicellatis. 
Calyx scaber, rubellus, cylindrico-conicus, fmctifer clavatus, 
sub capsuld, constrictus, dentibus alternatim ovatis obtusis, 
triangularibus acutis. Petala livida, bifida, appendicibus 
truncatis, erosnlis. Capsula oblonga, carpophoro sesquilongior. 
Semina tuberculata, faciebus subconcava. 

A 8, nutante eximie distincta, foliis abrupte acuminatis, caulis 
et pedicel lorum gracilitate, carpophoro bis longiore. 

Hah, Cyprus, near Galata. 

SeTeral more species hare been described, which are referred to the 
8, nutans group, but which are scarcely to be differentiated from the type 
itself and are best included in it. The list of synonyms following Rohrboch's 
description is Tery formidable, and implies that he considered the species 
as of a polymorphic type. 



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174 MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Series 9. Italicce, 
Floras erecti. Ungues glabri vel ciliatuli, filamenta glabra. 
A. Ungues ciliatuli. 

361. SiLENE SPLENDENS, Boiss.y Fl. Orient, i. p. 631 ; Bohrh,, 
Monogr.y p. 218. 

Proximaa affinis, sed distincta seminibus dimidio minoribus 
rugoso-tuberculatis, dorso planis. 

Described bj Boissier from specimens collected bj Balansa and distri- 
buted bj him in 1857, not in 1847, ns stated bj Boissier in his original 
description. 

Hah, Near Uscbak, in Anatolia. 

362. S. ITALICA, Fers,, Syn. PL, i. p. 498 (1805) ; Beichh.y Ic. 
FL Germ. Helv., n. 5110 ; Boh/rb., Monogr,, p. 218. 

Ex syn, S. insubrica = S. nutans ; S. livida = S. viridiflora ; 
S. pilosa, est var. propria ; S. sicula, est yar. propria. 
Var. p, floccosa = S. nemoralis, Waldst, et Kit, 
Adde syn, S. nemoralis (non Waldst, et Kit,), Maly, Enum. 
PI, Imp, Austr., p. 306. 
S. catholica (non Ait,), Willk, in Flora, xxxiv. 
(1851) p. 600. 

p, PILOSA, Spreng, (sp.), Syst, Veget,, ii. p. 411 ; Waldst. et 
Kit, Plant, Bar, Hung,, iii. (1812) p. 277, t. 248 (Cucubalus 
mollissimus). 

Folia andnlata pilis densissimis tomentoso-glauca. 
Syn, Cucubalus pilosus, Willd., Enum, Hort. Berol., p. 471 
(1809). 
C. mollissimus, Waldst et Kit,, Plant Bar, Hung, iii. 

(1812), p. 277, t. 248. 
Viscago pilosa, Homem,, Hort, Hafn., i. p. 410. 
V. mollissima, Homem,, l,c, 
S. mollissima, BG, Prodr,, i. (1824) p. 382. 
S. nemoralis var, platypetala, Griseb., Spicil, Fl, Bumel, 

Bithyn.j i, p. 173. 
Cucubalus undulatus, Kit, in WiUd, Herb,, n. 8593, 
Bohrb,, l,c,, p. 219. 

7. SICULA, Presl. (sp.), Fl. Sicula, p. 115 (1826); Arcang,, 
0(ynvp, Fl, Ital,, p. 93 ; Tanfani, in Pari, Fl, Italiana, ix. (1892) 
p. 422. 

Planta humilior 1-3-flora, floribus mbris. 



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ME. r. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 175 

8yn, S. CfiBsia, Jan^ Elench. PL, p. 7. 
S. nebrodensis., Jan, Ix. 
S. italica var, hnmilis, Tenore, SylL, p. 216. 
S. italica var, montana, Ouss,, FL Siculce Prodr., i. p. 504. 
S. italica vwr, panciflora, Gttis., I.e., p. 489, 
S. panciflora (non Salzm,), Tomah,, FL Aetnea, p. 161 
(1889-90). 

5. ATHOA, HaZdcsy, in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., xlii. (1892) p. 368. 
Oeogr. limits, — N. Between Dartford and Darenth, in Kent. 

S. Algeria. 

E. Asterabad, in prov. of Khorassan, Persia. 

W. Portugal. 

This species was found at Dorer in 1825 bj Feete, who described it as a 
new species under the name of S. patens^ and cited as a synonym Cucubalus 
vt9C09uSf Huds. (not Linn., which » Melandryum viscaaum, Celak. [1868]). 
He was at first inclined to refer the specimens to S. paradoxa, a species then 
known from Dauphinj, but which has since been found in Luxemburg. I 
haye examined fresh specimens from Hythe; according to Syme (*£ngl. 
Botany/ ed. III. toI. ii. p. 66), it has also been found on Salisbury Crags, 
near Edinburgh ; but this record has not been verified. 

363. SiLENB PSEUD0-NUTAN8, Pand,, Addit FL Serb., p. 116; 
Velen., Fl. Bulgarica, p. 63. 

Ganles c«3Spitosi, erecti, a medio in ramos tennes divisi, 
infeme dense pnbescentes, snpeme viscidi. Folia inferiorn 
spathulata, in petiolam attennata, canlina dimorpha, linearia, 
basi tenniora, rigida, f alcato-recarva ; bractesB minimsB, lineares, 
snmmaB ovato-inflatse. Flores solitani vel ad 2-3 fascicniati. 
pedieellis caljci sabseqnilongis. Calyx tennis, fmctifer infra 
capsulam constrictns, sparse glandnlosns, dentibns triangnlari- 
ovatis, albo-marginatis, ciliatis. Petala Inteo-alba, bifida, 
nngnibns anricalatis dente obtnso. Capsnla ovoideo-oblonga, 
carpophoro 3.plo longior. Semina grannlata. 

Praeoedenti affinis, sed in 8. italica — canles simplices vel 
ramosi infeme tomentello-canescentes, flores in racemo pins 
minns oomposito rar6 in racemo simplici paucifloro, capsnla 
carpophomm snbaBqaans vel nsque dnplo longior. 

Hah. Serria, N. Bulgaria, and Eastern Bonmelia. 

364. S. NEMOBALis, Waldst. et Kit., Plant. Bar. Hung., iii. 
(1812) p. 277, t. 249 ; Ficin. in Zeitschr. Natur. HeiUc., i. t. i. 
(Gncnbalns floocosos) ; Rohrh., Monogr., p. 220 (S. italica var. 
floccosa). 



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176 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Gatdes ceaspitosi, erecti, ssepins simplices, infeme cano-hirsiiti, 
snpeme viscidi. Folia scabriuscnla pilis brevissimis canescentia, 
inferiora oyato-rotnindata, spathulata, ondulata, apicnlata, in 
petdolnm barbato - ciliatnm angostata, superiora sessilia 
demum lanceolata; bractesB lineari-subnlatca, dense ciliatae. 
Floras in panicnlft erects, mnltiflorft, ramis inferioribns 5-flori8, 
snperioribus dichotome trifloris, flore intermedio breviter 
pedicellato. Calyx clavatus, tmncatus, pubescens, striis 
anastomosantibns pnrpnrascentibas, dentibns brevibns, obtosis, 
ciliatis. Petala alba, nngoibns ezsertis, bipartita, lobis lineari- 
oblongis, appendicibns bifidis. Capsnla ovaia, carpopboro 
panllnm brevior. Semina dorso leviter canalicalata, faciebns 
plana rugaloso-tubercnlata. 

/3. PEDEMONTANA, Bumat et Barheyy Not, Voy, Bot. Bat 
JTwp., p. 53 (1882). 

Planta major, 75 centim. alt., canlibns semper ramosis, 
snpeme snbglabris. Folia canlina snperiora acuminata. Calyx 
inter strias glaber, striis mbellis vel pnrpnrascentibns scabro- 
pnberulis. 

Hdb. Val Pesio, near Gias Serpentera. 

7, CRASSICAULI8, Willh, et Costa (sp.) in Linncea, xxx. (1859) 
p. 91 ; Bum, et Barb,, Not, Voy, Bot, Bal, Hisp,, p. 53 (1882) ; 
Bull Herb, Botes., i. (1893) App. ii. 

Stirps gigantea, stolonifera, moUiter pnbernla. Calyx oblongo- 
olavatos. Petala latescentia ecoronata biloba. 
Oeogr, limits, — Central Europe. 

N. Saxony; near Dresden. 

8. Servia. 

E. Transylvania. 

W, Catalonia (var, 7). 

365. SiLENE SFINE8CENS, Stbth, et 8m,, Fl. Onvc. Prodr., i. 
p. 299 ; Fl, Qrceca, v. p. 22, t. 431 ; Uohrb,, Monogr., p. 220. 

Ex 8. italicoi aflflnitate, differt antem canlibns snffmtescen- 
tibus ramos steriles rigidos edentibns, foliis, calyce breviore, 
striis supeme tantnm yenosis, totoqne habitn. 

Geogr, area. — Greece. 

366. S. Tanakje, Maxim, in Bull, Imp, Acad. Fetersb., xxxii. 
(1888) p. 481. 

Snffruticosa a basi ramosissima, ramis omnibus longiusculip, 



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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 177 

plerisqne foliosis sterilibus, panels elongatis floriferis, internodiis 
glabris. Folia minute puberula, canliculorum sterilinm crebra, 
elliptico-spathnlatck, feridlium remota, lanceolato-spathulata ; 
omnia in petiolnm brevem basi ciliafcnm attennata. Inflores- 
centisB rami primarii triflori ; braetese lanceolataB ; pedicelli 
calyei saqnilongi. Calyx cylindrions nmbilicatus pnbemlns, 
dentibns ovatis villoso-ciliatis. Petala purpurea, cuneata, 
emarginata, unguibus ezauriculatis vix exsertis, appendicibuR 
brevibus. Ovarium carpophoram SBquans. 

Planta suffmticosa habitu melius cum S. struthioloidi quam 
cum S, lanceolatd (speciebus Sandvicensibus) conveniens, ad 
quam posteriorem tamen e characteribus (calyce hujus brevi 
excepto) accedere videfcur. Priori, a Rohrbach ad " Sclero- 
calyciu88 '' related, quamvis in desoriptione originali calycis duri 
nulla mentio facta sit, hsecce ob floris f ormam totumque habitum 
propior, sed foliorum magnitude potius 8, lanceolatce. Beliquce 
species hujus divisionis, fere omnes medifcerranesB, rosulas saspius 
sessiles habcnt et habitu minus similes sunt. 

Origiually deeoribed from Bpecimens raised from seed sent by D. Tanaka, 
which flowered in the St. Petersburg Botanic Ghirdens in October, 1887. 

Hah, S. Japan. 

367. SiLENE SiEBERi, Fetizl, PugilL Plant Nov. Syr.y p. 8, n. 22, 
et in Bussegg, Beise^ ii. p. 912, lasus 2 ; Bohrb.y Monogr,, p. 221. 

HaBC species et sequens toto habitu et calycis form^ ad seriem 
ItaliccB^ arti6cialiter autem inflorescentid, ssBpius dichotomy vel 
alternatim ramulosA ad seriem AuriculatcR accedunt. 

Hah, Island of Crete. 

B. Ungues glabri. 
a. Gapsula carpophore sesqui-vel duplo brevier. 

368. S. ScHWARZBNBERGERi, Haldcsy, in Denhschr. Math, 
Naturwiss, GL Akad, Wien (1894), p. 472, cum icone ; et in litt. 
ab auctore (1895). 

Infeme griseo-pubescens, supeme viscidula, basi suffru- 
tescens. Gaules numerosi, erecti, simplices, bi- vel abortii 
uniflori. Folia basilaria, parva, obovato-spathulata, mucronata, 
canlina minima, angaste linearia. Calyx nmbilicatus, etiam 
sub anthesi elongate -clavatus, viridi-vittatns, pubescens, 
dentibus ovatis, obtusiusculis, albo-marginatis, ciliatis. Petala 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. IXXII. N 



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178 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OENUS SILENE. 

livida, in lobos oblongo-spathulatos bipartita, appendicibus 
binis, lanceolatis, acntis. Antherad porpnresd. Capsula 
oblonga, carpophoro sabbrevior. 

Yalde affinis S. Sieberi^ a qn& tamen difiPert foliis basilaribaa 
mncronatis sessilibas, floribns minoribns, nngnibus glabris, et 
appendicibns binis, acntis. 

Hah, Mfc. Pindna, in Thessalj ; on the cliffs of Oxya, 1,500 
metres, above KhaUki, just beyond the Turkish frontier in the 
nome of Trikhala. 

369. SiLENB Fbnzlii, Boiss, et Bal., Diagn, PL Nov. Or.^ 
Ser. II. vi. p. 30 (1859) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 221. 

Yalde affinis 8. Stehert, a qu& tamen differt floribos longe 
pedicellatis, calycis mult5 lougioris striis superne venosis, 
petalis roseis, unguibns obsolete auricnlatis glabns, lobis 
obovatis, capsulee cum carpophoro proportione. 

Hab, Mt. Taurus, in Cilicia. 

The description of the next species in Bohrbach's * Monograph* is 
incomplete and somewhat inaccurate, as good specimens were not ayailable 
for examination. It should be placed with 8, FenzUiy and not with 8. ovata. 
Haying had the opportunity of examining a good series of specimens, I 
haye thought it beet to draw up a fresh description based upon the material 
to hand. 

.370. S. FoBTDNBi, Vis.y Ind. Hart, Patav. (1847), ex Linnoea, 
xxiv. (1851) p. 181; Maxim,, Fl. Asice Or, Fragm,, p. 6; 
Franch., PL David,, p. 47 ; Forbes et HemsL in Joum, Linn. 
8oc, (Bat.), xxiii. (1886) p. 65. 

Scaberulo-pubescens, basi suffruticosa. Caules numerosi, 
crecti, apicem versus yiscosi, infeme seepe ramos breves 
altemos foliosos adscendentes edentes. Folia lineari-lanceolata, 
acuta, in petiolnm ciliatum attenuata, superiora saape fasciculata, 
cum bracteis ac prophyllis minoribns linearia. Flores, racemi 
ramis brevibus cymosis vel unifloris approximatis, breviter 
pedicellati. Calyx 30-35 mm. longus, elongato-tubulosus, basi 
truncate umbilicatus, glaber, striis superne anastomosantibus, 
dentibus ovatis, acntiusculis, late albo-margiuatis, ciliolatis. 
Petala rosea vel alba, unguibus dente elongato-lineari biauricu- 
latis, lamin& bipartite, lobis irregulariter plus minus profunde 
incisis, appendicibus binis, linearibus, crenulatis. Capsula 
oblonga, carpophoro glabro suffulta. Semina tuberoulata, 
dorso lato obtuse canaliculata, faciebus planiuscula. 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 179 

8yn, ? S. sinensis, Hook, in Bosse, Handb. Bhimengari., ed. II. 
iii. p. 388 (1842). 
S. fissipetala, Turcz. in Bull, 8oe, NaL Mosc^ xxvii. 
(1854) pars ii. p. 371. 
Oeogr. area, — China. 

N, Prov. of Che-kiang. 
8. Island of Formosa. 
m. Island of Chusan, off the coast of prov. of 

Che-kiang. 
W, Kin-kiang, in the prov. of Baang-si. 

b. Capsnla carpophomm bis terve saperans. 
a. Petala maltifida. 

371. SiLENB OVATA, Pursh, Fl, Amer. 8ept., i. p. 316 (1814) ; 
B. L, Bohinson, in Proc. Amer, Acad,^ xxviii. (1893) p. 133 ; 
Bohrh.y Monogr., p. 222. 

Adde : Planta glabra vel pnbescens ; petala alba nee palHde 
rosea. 

Qeoqr, limits, — N, Kentucky. E, N. Carolina. 
8, Georgia. W, Alabama. 

/3. Petala bifida. 

372. S. NEYADBNSIS, Boist,, Voy. Bot. Esp,, ii. p. 721 (suppl) ; 
WillJc,, Ic. Desc, PI, Nov. Hisp,, i. p. 62, t. 46 A ; Bohrh,, Monogr., 
p. 222. 

Diffort a 8, italicd (cai nt varietatem primnm earn Boissier 
rctalit), floribus minoribos, calyce fmctifero aperto, glabro, 
neqne apice constricto, pubemlo, petalis acute biauriculatis, 
capsuled seminumque form&. 
Oeogr, area. — Spain. 

8, and W, Andalusia; Sierra Nevada. 

N, Santander, in Old Castile (jSoZc, ex Nym,^ 

Consp, Fl, Eur,y suppl,, ii. p. 52) . 
E, Near Horta, in Catalonia (Gotta, AmpL 
Cat, Oatal. [1873] ). 

373. S. BHODOPKA, Janka, Descr, PI. Nov. in TermSsz. Fuz., ii. 
(1878) 28 ; Boiss., Fl. Orient., suppl, p. 108. 

Pnbescens, viscosa. Caulis erectus, elatus, foliosus, axillis 
fasciculigeris, supeme valde ramosus, effuse paniculatus. 
Folia cuneato-spathulata, acuta, in petiolum attenuata, suprema 
linearia; bractesd ovato-naviculares, obtus89, semi-scariosae. 

N 2 



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180 MB. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Calyx obconico-tubnlostLS, fmctifer siib capsnl^ consirictns, 
glaber nmbilicatns, dentibus oyatis, ciliolatis. Petala albida, 
ecoronata. Gapsnla ovata. 

Hah. E. Bumelia; Staminak, near Pbilippopolis. 

374. SiLENB Skoepili, Velen., PL Exs, (1889), et ej, FL 
Bulgarica, p. 64. 

Pubescens, viscosa. Caulis erectns, elatus, foliosus, snpeme 
valde ramoBus. Folia obloDgo-lanceolata, muctonata, sessilia, 
saprema linearia. Inflorescentisd rami rigidi ; flores ad ramos 
3-6-ni fasciculati, rarius rarnis racemiformibus, breviter pedi- 
cellati. Calyx obloDgo-clavatus membranaceo-coriaceiis, glaber- 
rimus, yiscidus, brevissime dentatns, fmctifer clavatiis, dentibus 
triangularibiis, ciliolatis. Petala virentia, nngnibus anguste 
biauriculatis, laming bifida ecoronata, lobis linearibns. 
Capsula oblongo-ellipsoidea. Semina minute tnbercnlata. 

Hob. Bulgaria. 

376. S. Behrii, mihi. Bohrh. (var.) in Linncea, xxxvi. (1869) 
p. 264. 

Basi suffrutescens, infeme puberula, supeme glanduloso- 
viscida. Caules erecti, simplices, infeme foliosi. Folia acuta, 
inferiora oblongo-lanceolata, superiora lanceolata, yel lanceo- 
lato-linearia. Flores laxe paniculati, longe pedicellati. Calyx 
oblongo-cylindricus, fmctifer infra capsulam constrictus, 
dentibus reticulato-venosis, triangularibus, acutiusculis, albo- 
marginatis ciliolatis. Petala rosea, unguibus latis auriculatis, 
laming oblong^, lobis linearibus extus dente uno acuto auctis, 
appendicibus binis, oblongis, obtusis, denticulatis. Filamenta 
inclusa. Capsula ovoidea. 

Syn, S. niceeensis, Cham, et Schlecht. in lAnncea, i. (1826) 
p. 41 (Don AIL). 
S. verecunda, S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad.y x. (1875) 
p. 344. 

Hab. On rocky hills above Mission Dolores, near San 
Francisco, California (Behr), 

376. S. LUiSANA, 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad.y xxiii. (1888) 
p. 261 ; B. L. Bobinsony Lc.y xxviii. (1893) p. 141. 

Puberula, superne viscida. Caules erecti, simplices, infeme 
foliosi. Folia acuta, inferiora lanceolato-linearia, superiora 
elongato-linearia. Panicula diffusa, floribus breviter pedi- 



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MR. F. N. WILLUM8 ON THE GENUS SILENE. 181 

cellatis. Calyx oblongo-clavatus, fructifer clavatus infra 
capsnlam coDstrictns, dentibus obloDgo-oyatis, aciitis, albo- 
marginatis, ciliolatis. Petala alba, ungxdbuB aurictdatis, 
laming oblong4, lobis linearibus, extra dente nno acnto auctis, 
appendicibus binis, lanceolatis, acutis, denticnlatis. Capsnla 
snbcylindrica. Semina compressa, dorso graimlata. 

Hob. California; San Luis Obispo, Tolon, and monntainB 
south of Fort Tejon. 

377. SiLENE PECTiNATA, iSf. Wots, in Proc.Amer, Acod.^x. (1875) 
p. 344 ; B. L. Bobtnson, Ic, xxviii. (1893) p. 139. 

Basi sufPrutescens, glanduloso-pubescens. Caules erecti, 
simplices vel ramosi. Folia lanceolata, inferiora acuta, in 
petiolum laminam sBquantem attenuata, superiora acuminata. 
Panicula stricta vel dicbotome ramosa, floribus longe pedi- 
cellatis. Calyx oblongo-tubulosus, fructifer ovatus, dentibua 
lanceolato-linearibus acutis. Petala rubella vel purpurascentia, 
profunde bipartita, laminA oblong^, lobis linearibus, appen- 
dicibus binis, lanceolatis. Capsula ovata. 

Lusus 2. Vix viscidula. Caules subsimplices foliis inferi- 
oribus fere glabris. 

8yn, S. pectinata vwr, subnuda, B. L. Bohinson, I.e., p. 140. 

Hab. United States ; CaliforDia and Nevada. 

378. S. Ltallii, 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad,, x. (1875) 
p. 342 ; B. L, Eobinson, Z.c, xxviii. (1893) p. 144. 

Minute puberula, multicaulis, csBspitosa. Caales foliosi, 
adscendentes. Folia inferiora lineari-lanceolata, acuta, basi 
attenuata, sabpetiolata. Inflorescentia diffusa; cjmte glandu- 
loso-pabescentes, dichotomsB paucifloree; pedicelli tenuiter 
graciles. Calyx ampliato-campanulatus, dentibas triangulari- 
bus, obtusifl, reticulato-venosis. Petala fusco-purpurea, bifida, 
lobis late ovatis, appendicibus oblongis, integris. Anthersd 
purpure®, inclusae. Capsula anguste oblonga. 

In some of tiiese species the anthers are often infested with a fungut 
{U$tilago antherarum), and in consequence enlarge and turn purple. 

Hah, Cascade Mountains, Washington Territory, and Sierra 
Co., California. 

379. S. PHRTGU, Buiss., Fl. Orient., i. p. 644 ; Bohrh., Monogr,^ 
p. 223. 



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182 MB. p. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 

At fiwt Bight tliifl would appear to be an annual, bb the plant has a yery 
slender root. 

Hah. Anatolia. 

380. SiLENE EREMiTiCA, Boiss,, Fl, Orient, i. p. 644; Bohrh., 
Monogr,, p. 223. 

Species floribiis minoribus et carpopboio brevi ad seriem 
Brachypodce accedens, eed ob calycem glabrum hie coUocata. 

p. AsTARTES, Bo%88, et Blanche (sp.) in Boiss.y FL Orient., 
suppL, p. 102. 

Folia tomentella, pallide virentia, snrculorum ovato-oblonga 
in petiolam longum attennata, caalina anguste linearia. Calyx 
nervis viridibus. 

Hah. Prov. of Aderbidjan, in N. Persia; var. p. in the 
Lebanon (Blanche), and in the Anti-Lebanon {Fost, in Bull., 
Herh. Boiss., i. [1893] p. 396). 

7. Petala integra. 

881. S. LANCEOLATA, -4. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Fxped., i. p. Ill, 
1. 10 (1854) ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 223. 
Adde : Calyx evenius, in petiolam attenaatns. 

p. ANGUSTiFOLiA, Hillehrand, Fl. Haw. Isl, p. 28. 
Folia linearia tantnm 2 mm. lata. 
Hah. Hawaiian Islands. 

382. S. Alexandei, Hillehrand, Fl Haw. hi., p. 28 (1883). 
Canlis erectas, glaber, panllum ramosns. Folia coriacea, 

glabra, laneeolata, acuta, ad basin angnstatam ciliata ; bracteee 
et prophylla linearise ciliatsB, infra pedicellomm medinm. 
Flores snbpanicnlati, longins pedicellati. Calyx tenniter clava- 
tns, leviter nmbilicatns, glaber, dentibns ovatis, acntis. Petala 
alba, onneata, interdnm leviter emarginata, nngnibns exsertis, 
appendicibns minntis vel nullis. Capsnla ovoidea. Semina 
tnbercnlata. 

Hah. Hawaiian Islands. 

c. Capsnla carpophomm seqnans, vel eo 1^-longior. 
dt. Calyx striis anastomosantibns. 

383. S. PAUCiPLORA, Salzm. ex BO. Frodr., i. p. 382 (1824) ; 
Moris, Fl. Sardoa, i. p. 251, t. 16 ; Bohrh., Monogr.^ p. 224. 



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ME. F. N. WILLUlfS ON THE OGNCS SILENE. 188 

Adde : Platita subsericeo-pnbescens ; striaB calycineB snperDe 
anastomosantes. 

Prffiter alias notas, a 8, italicd et affinibus jam primo aspectn 
oanlibns differt infrarosalaribus. 

Kah, Corsica and Sardinia. 

384. SiLENE Salzmanni, Badaro, ex Moretti in Brugnat. 
Oiom. ix. (1826) p. 78 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 224. 

Species 8. italtcce valde affinis, sed characteribus minoribns 
sat diversa. 

Adde syn. S. italica var, Salzmanni, Arcang, Comp, Fl. Ital,^ 
p. 93. 

Oeogr, limits, — N. and W, Coast of liguria, near Noli. 
8, Corsica. 
E, Island of Capraja, in the gulf of Genoa. 

385. S. PRUTicosA, Linn,^ 8p. Plant., ed. I. p. 417 ; 8ibth. et 
8m., FL OrcBca, v. p. 20, t. 428 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 225. 

Adde : BractesB et propbjlla lineariie acnminatee. 

Adde syn. S. agrigentina, Loj. in Nat. 8iGtl.j ii. (1883) p. 295. 

fi. EOSEA, Tomah., Fl. Aetnea, i. p. 165 (1889). 
Panicula elata, mnbellata. BractesB lineari-ovatse acntae. 
Lamina palHde rosea. 

Qeogr. limits. — N, Island of Saria, in the Turkish Archi- 
pelago (to the north of Karpathos), also 
Island of Kasos. {Major and Barhey, 
nn. 474, 753, ex Bull, Herb. Boiss., ii. 
[1894] pp. 242, 333). 
8. and E. Cyprus. 
W, Sicily; near Palermo. 

386. S. ROSULATA, 8oy.'WilL et Oodr., Monogr, 8il. Alg&r., 
p. 50 ; Exped. 8c. Alger. Bot., t. 82 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 226. 

fi. AMUKENSis, mihi. Pomel, (sp.) Nouv, Mat. Fl. Atlant., 
p. 209. 

E basi lignos^ suffi-uticosa. BractesB glabrescentes. Capsula 
ovoideo-oblonga, pubescens. 

Hah. Algeria. 

387. S. MOLLissiMA, Pers., 8yn. Plant., i. p. 498 (1805) ; WillJe., 
Ic. JDesc, PI. Nov. Hisp,, i. p. 59, t. 43 ; Bohrh., Monogr., p. 



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184 MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

Qeogr. limits. — N, Corsica. 

JE7. Sardinia {Lisa [1837], in Herb. Moris.). 
8. Algeria. 
W. Andalusia. 

p. Calyx evenins. 

388. SiLENE GiBRALTAEiCA, Boiss., JEJlench. Pl.t p. 20 ; Voy. Bot. 
Esp.y p. 91, fc. 26 A ; Rohrh., Monogr., p. 227. 

A 8. mollissimd differt, caulibus supeme glabris viscidis, 
caljcis striis rabelli^, velatinis, hand anastomosantibns, petal- 
omm laminA pallida violace^ semilnnari-excis&, seminnm facie- 
bns leviter concavis. 

Adde syn. S. anriculflefolia. Pomelo Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atlant, 
p. 332. 

Hah. Gibraltar, in fissures of rocks on the east side ; and 
Serra de Cintra, near Lisbon (Winkler [1876], ex Willk. et 
Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp., iii. p. 667). 

389. S. HiFACENSis, JBot*y, in Willk. Blustr. Fl. Hisp., i. (1885) 
p. 150, t. 89 ; Prod/r. Fl. Hisp., suppl, p. 282 (1893). 

Suffrutescens ; rbizomate vel candice reliquiis petiolorum 
foliorum emortuomm squamato, foliorum rosulas caulesque 
floriferos edente. Caulis erectus, robustus, sulcatus, angulatus, 
aut non nisi cymam terminalem 4-5-fioram umbelliformem, aut 
cymam terminalem compositam multifloram compactam, et sub 
e& cymas azillares simplices ferens. Folia leete virentia, 
spathulato-lanceolata vel obovato-laneeolata, cum caule brac- 
teisque dense sed brevissime velutina, inferiora in petiolum latum 
basi vaginantem attenuata, bracteas et propliylla ovato-lanceo- 
latfiB. Plores speciosi breviter pedicellati. Calyx cylindrico- 
clavatus, fructifer clavatus, umbilicatus tenuissime puberulus, 
dentibus sen lobis suborbicularibus, late albo-marginatis, dense 
ciliatis, sinubus interlobaribus rotundato-excavatis. Petala 
supra ochroleuca, subtuB purpurascentia, unguibus exsertis, 
laming late obovatft, bilob&, lobis latis subtruncatis, ecoronata. 
Capsula ovata rostrata. 

a. PSEUDOQiBBALTAEiCA, Bouy, in WiUk. lUustr. Fl. Hisp., i. 
(1885) p. 150 ; Prodr. Fl. Hisp., suppl., p. 282. 

Folia rosularum dense congesta spatbulaia obtusa, 3-4 centim. 
longa. Caulis brevis 8-10 centim. longus, duo solum foliorum 
paria ferens. Cyma simplex umbelliformis 4-5-flora. 



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ME. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 185 

p. PABVIFOLIA, Rouy^ II, CO. 

Folia rosnlamm minora, valde congesta acntiascTila. Ganles 
altiores. Cyma panciflora ut in var. (typica) o. 

7. PSBUDOVELUTINA, Bouy, II, cc.y 151, 282. 

Folia rosularum magna, obovato-oblonga, acuta, 8-12 centim. 
longa. Canles 25-35 centim. longi, 4-6 foliorum paria, et 
cjman compositam multifloram terminalem, ssepe etiam cjmas 
simplices axillares ferentes. Calyx sub anthesi 16-18 mm. 
longus. 

A species oHieflj distinguished from 8. gibraltarica by tbe peculiar 
structure of the lobes of the oaljx. 

Hob, E. Spain, district of Alicante; on Mt. Hifac (Bouy^ 
1883), and on tbe promontory of San Antonio, near 
Denia (Lacaita, 1884). 

390. SiLENE PARADOXA, Linn,, 8p. Plant, ed. II. p. 1678 ; 
Betchh., Ic, Fl. Oerm. Helv., n. 5113 ; Bohrb., Monogr,, p. 225. 

/3. MARiTiMA, Beverch., PI Sard, Exs, (1881), n. 180 (ined,). 

Folia basilaria latiora in petiolnm brevem attenuata. Flores 
in racemo multifloro, in pedicellis calyce multo brevioribus 
Buffulti. 

Hab. Sta. Liberata, coast of Sardinia. 

In all the specimens I have examined, the nerves of the caljx are simple, 
and do not anastomose : this is still more evident in the smoother calyx of 
Tar. /3. I have therefore transferred the species hither from the place 
assigned to it by Bohrbach. 

Oeogr, limits, — N. Near Luxemburg. 

S, Greece ; Pylos (Navarino), in the nome of 

Messenia. 
E, Rumelia ; Mt. Chortiasch, near Salonica. 
W, France ; mountains of Dauphiny. 



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186 mr. f. n. williams on the genus silbne. 

Species Exglusj;.* 

(Ad genus Mdandryum imprimis referendcD.) 

Silene adenantha, Franch., PL Delavay., p. 84 (1889-90). 

8. asclepiadeay Franch. in Bull. Soo. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 422. 
S, (i6pera, A. Br. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 174. 
8. Bemardina, S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxiv. (1889) 

p. 82. 
8. ccespitosa, Bin. at Franch. in Joum. Botaniqne (1891), 

p. 22. 
8. cardiopetaUiy Franch. in Bull. Sec. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 418. 
8. Godi-rosa^ A. Br. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 174. 
8. comollina, Ser., Fl. Jard., iii. (1849) p. 337 (hortensis). 
8. Belavayiy Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 424. 
8. Drummondif Hook, ex Bohrb., Monogr., p. 183. 
8, Hoefftiana, Fisch. ex Rohrb., I.e., p. 148. 
8. laceray Sims, ex Rohrb., I.e., p. 88. 
8, Imta, A. Br. ex Rohrb., I.e., p. 166. 
8. lankovgerms^ Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. 

(1886) p. 421. 
8. Lemmonii, S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., x. (1875) p. 342. 
8. Loiseleurii, Godr. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 166. 
8. longistylisj Engelm. in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxii. (1886) 

p. 469. 
S. melanantha^ Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 429. 
8. moniana, S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., x. (1875) p. 343. 
8, multifida, Edgew. ex Rohrb., Mongr., p. 205. 
8. napuligera, Franch., PI. Delavay., p. 82 (1889-90). 
8, nivalis^ Rohrb., Monogr., p. 142. 

8. occidentalism S. Wats., Proc. Amer. Acad., x. (1875) p 343. 
8, oregana, S. Wats., I.e. 
8. Palmerl, S. Wats, I.e., xi. (1876) p. 124. 
8. Parishii, S. Wats., I.e., xvii. (1881-82) p. 366. 

* Sapplementu7 onlj to those giren bj Bohrbaoh (' Monogr.,* p. 281). 



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MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 187 

Silene phoenicodonta, Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Prance, xxziii. 

(1886) p. 422. 
S.platyotOy S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xvii. (1881-82) 

p. 366. 
8. platypetala, Bin. et Franch. in Joum. Botaniqne (1891), 

p. 22. 
8, plcUyphylla^ Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 419. 
S.pUcata, S. Wats, in Proc. Amor. Acad., xvii. (1881-82) 

p. 866. 
8. Potanini, Maxim, in Act. Hort. Petrop., xi. (1890) p. 66. 
8. pteroeperma, Maxim., I.e., p. 67. 
8. qimdriloha, Tnrcz. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 205. 
8. Boyeni, Pers. ex Rohrb., I.e., p. 205. 
8, rubicunda^ Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 417. 
8. sachdlinensisy F. Schmidt, Reisen Amnrl., p. 116. 
8. sarawschanicay Regel et Scbmalh. PL, Nov. Fedtsch., p. 14. 
8. BchizolepU^ Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc, xxvii. (1854) 

II. p. 370. 
8, sccpuhrumy Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 423. 
8, 8hockleyi^ S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad., xxv. (1890) 

p. 127. 
8. 8igeri, Banmg. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 143. 
8. si^nulans, Greene, in Pittonia, i. p. 68. 
8. 8tracheyiy Edgew. in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., i. p. 221 

(Ftscona). 
8. suaveolens, Kar. et Kir. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 206. 
8, subdliaiaj Robinson in Proc. Amer. Accul., xxix. (1894) 

p. 327. 
8. Thurberi, S. Wats., I.e., x. (1876) p. 343. 
8. Tilingi, Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop., i. (1871) p. 99. 
8. trackyphylla, Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxiii. (1886) 

p. 417. 
8. viscosa^ Pers. ex Rohrb., Monogr., p. 205. 
a. Tancei, Makino, in 111. Fl. Japan, i. (1891) p. 52. 



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188 MR. p. N. WILLIAMS ON THE OENUS SILENE. 

Species CAKDOLLEANiE. 
(OHh, in DO. Prodr., vol. i. pp. 367-385.) 

In the first volame of the * Prodromus,' Adolph Otth 
ennmerates 217 species. It will be interesting to go through 
this list for the purpose of comparing the nomber of good 
species with the nnmber enumerated in the present revision. 
Of the 217 there given, 103 are maintained and admitted 
uuder the same name in the foregoing enumeration as good 
species. Rather more than half, viz. 114, are to be accounted 
for by a process of elimination, which is carried out in the 
following paragraphs. 

Three species cannot be satisfactorily identified : — 8. amasna^ 
Linn., 8. distans, Otth, and 8. IdHfolia, Poir. The last has 
been referred to 8. iialica, Pers., but the meagre description 
does not warrant it: 28 are to be referred to other genera, 
viz., Melandryum (22), Heliosperma (3), aud one each to 
Ch/psophila, PetrocopHs, and Eudianthe. They are disposed of 
as follows : — 

8. Allamanni, laciniata, mexicana, Modnio/na = Melandryum 
laciniatum, Bohrb. 

8. (mriculata = Melandryum auricnlatum, Bohrb. 

8. Baldwynii = Melandryum Baldwini, Bohrb, 

S. capensis, omata, undvlata = Melandryum omatum, 
Aschers. 

8. Oatesbm, virginica = Melandryum virginicum, A. Br. 

8. pennsylvanica, platypetcUa = Melandryum pennsylvani- 
cum, Bohrb. 

8. indA,ca = Melandryum indicum, Walp. 

8. lanuginosa = Melandryum lanuginosum, Bohrb. 

8. lacera = Melandryum lacerum, mihi (near M. Eliza- 
bethsa). 

8. noctifiora = Melandryum noctiflorum, Fries. 

8. regia = Melandryum iUinoense, Bohrb. 

8. Bequieni = Melandryum Bequieni, Bohrb. 

8. rotundifolia = Melandryum rotundifolium, Rohrb. 

8. Siegeri = Melandryum nivale, Nym. 

8. viscosa = Melandryum viscosum, Gelak. 



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MR. F. N. WILLUMS ON THE 0ENU8 SILENB. 189 

Silene dlpegtris^ quadridentata, viscida = Heliosperma 

alpestre, Beichb. 
8. polygonoides = Grypsophila hirsata, Spreng, 
8, glaucifolia = Petrocoptis pyrenaica, A» Br. 
8, rugosa = Eudianthe G(Bli-rosa, Beichb. 

Three names have been changed : — 

8. Atocioriy Murr. = S. eegypfciaca, Linn. f. 
8. caryophylloides, Otth = S. stentoria, Fenzl. 
8. tridentata, Desf. = S. calycina, Salzm. 

The species, to the unmber of 80, which form the remainder, 
are either reduced to varieties or become ordinary synonyms of 
other species of the genus. They are as follows (as far as may 
be, in the order given by Otth) : — 

8. Goulteriana = S. inflata. 

8. graminifolia, viscaginoides, jeniseens^^, tenuifolia = S. 

tenuis. 
8. ohlongifoliay diveraifoUa^ crispa = S. rubella. 
8. gypsophila =: S. repens. 
8. hlspanica = S. littorea. 

8. camosa, inclusa, nyctamtha^ piuguis = S. noctuma. 
S. angustifolia, linearifolia = S. petraBa. 
8. wolgensis, parvijiora, effusa = S. Otites. 
8. verticillata = S. spergulitblia. 
8. elata = S. chlorantha. 
8. ruthenica = S. tatarica. 
8. invduta = S. pruinosa ? ? 
8. cylindriflora = S. conoidea. 

8. anglica, ItfMtanicay quinquevulnera, sciotica = S. gallica. 
8. coa/rctata = S. calycina. 
8. ocymouies, patula = S. italica. 
8. hirsutissiTnay laxiflora^ sahuleiorum = S. hirsuta. 
8. micranthay cheiranthifolia = S. micropetala. 
8. canariensis = S. mogadorensis. 
8. setacea = S. discolor. 
S. hispida, hellidifolia = S. vespertina. 
S. canescensy Oliverianay diffusa^ puhescens = S. sericea. 
S. decumbens = S. procumbens. 
S. dianthifolia :s S. altaica. 



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190 MB. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 

8Uene tbericay sessiliflora = S. dicbotoma. 

S. velutinay ScUzmannt, tamentosa = S. mollissima. 

8, colorata, gemintflora = S. obtusifolia. 

8. gracilis = S. longioanlis. 

8. secundiflora = S. glanca. 

8. viscosissima^ leucophcea = S. nicfleensis. 

8. grata = S. reticulata, 

8. lychnidiflora = S. cretica. 

8. Unifolia, cemtuiy costata, arena/rioides = S. clandestina. 

8. JUtformis, picta = S. jnncea. 

8. parvifolia = S. disticha. 

8. petrcea = S. Saxifraga. 

8. qtiadrijiday ruhens = S. nutans. 

8, spathdata = S. pygmsBa. 

8, glauca = S. crassipes. 

8. Corsica = S. saccalenta. 

8, bicolor, polyphylla = S. portensis. 

8, Kaulfussii = S. rupestris ? 

8. ramosa = S. sedoides. 

8. cana, paniculata = S. nemorallB. ' 

8. linoides = S. linifolia. 

8. perfoliata = S. chlorssfolia. 

This disposes of the 114 names not kept np as species ; those 
maintained will be found in tlie Index. 



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191 



INDEX. 



The following index consists of two sets of names arranged in a single 
alphabetical series : — (I) The names of the 390 admitted species enumerated 
in the foregoing Bevision, each name being followed by the date of publica- 
tion and its number in the list ; and (2) Synonyms supplementary to those 
given by Bohrbach, or incorrectly given by him, each name being followed 
by the name of the species to which it is reduced. 



acaulis, Linn. (1762), 171. 
aoutifolia, Rohrb, (1868), 166. 
adscendens, Lag. (1816), 82. 
ad^tta^ Ball (mogEidorensis). 
sDgyptiaca, Linn.f. (1781), 205. 
€rtMopiea, Burm. f. (?? Burchellii). 
atolica, Heldr. (Ungeri). 
afiFghanica, Bohrb, (1867), 338. 
affinis, Boifs. (1864), 61. 
offrestinGf Jord. & Fourr. (eallica). 
agriffentina, Loj. (frutieosa)- 
Akinfijewi, SchmoLh. (1892), 8. 
Alexandri, EilUh. (1883), 382. 
Almoltt, J, Gay (1850), 238. 
aJpettriSy Willd. (rupestris^. 
alpina, S. F. Gray (acaulis). 
altalca. Pert, (1806), 800. 
amana, Boiss. (1867), 349. 
ammophila,Boif«. fSeldr. (1849) , 31. 
amana. Hill (mantima). 
amana, Huds. (inflata). 
amphorina, Pomel (1874), 40. 
ampullata, Boiss. (1842), 19. 
amurensU, Pomel (rosulata) . 
andryalafolia, Pomel (1874), 318. 
anglica, Linn, (gallica). 
anguiiifoUa, D. Dietr. (dandestina). 
anUoloha, Schrenk (Montbretiana). 
Antelopumy Steud. (inflata). 
antiochicha, Freyn (squamigera). 
antirrhina, Linn, (1753), 235. 
aniirrhina, Ottb (rubella). 
apetala, Ghrovet , Fl. Terr, (nocturna 

var. a). 
apetala, Groves, Contrib. (nocturna 

var, p). 
apetahi, Willd, (1799), 89. 
apnea, Turct, (1836), 345. 
arabica, Williams (1896), 70. 
araxina, Trautv. (1875), 7. 
arenota, Koch (1841), 223. 
argaea, Fisch. S( Meg. (1854), 105. 
or gent ea, Ledeb. (cappadocica). 
argiUosa, Munbg (1864), 204. 
arguta, Fenel (1842), 148. 
Arintidis, Pomel (1874), 308. 
armena, Boist. (1842), 268. 



armeniaoa, Bohrb. (pruinosa). 
Armeria, Asso (rubella). 
Armeria, Idnn. (1753). 188. 
articulaia, Viv. (gallica). 
arvensis, Lose, (muscipula). 
aepetrfolia, Freyn (longipetala). 
aeevriaoa, Haussk. & Bomm. 

(crassipes). 
Astartes, "BoIbb, & Blanche (ere- 

mitica). 
Asterias, Oriseb. (1843), 191. 
atlantioa, Coef, Sf Dw, (1855), 92. 
atooia. Lag. (sgyptiaoa). 
atocioides, Boiu, (1844), 207. 
Aucheriana, Boise, (1842), 155. 
awriculafolia, Pomel (gibraltarica). 
ayromana, Boiet, Sf Sauetk. (1888), 

255. 
baiealeneie, Turci. (tenuis). 
Balans», Boise. (1859), 270. 
Barbeyana, Heldr. MS8., ap, Boies, 
(1888), 160. 

Basiardi, Bor. (maritima). 

Baumgarteni, Schott Sr Kotschy 
(1868), 172. 

Behen, L%nn. (1753), 243. 

Behrii, Bohrb, (1869), 876. 

Bergiana, Undm. (1891), 201. 

Biafrw, Hook,f, (1864), 95. 

biappAidiculatatX^hrenh. (canopica). 

bohemiea, Jord. & Fourr. (gallica). 

Boissieri, J. Qay (1850), ^87. 

Boissieri, Tineo (sericea). 

Borderi, Jord. (elegans). 

Bommuel]eri, Freyn (1891), 333. 

Boryi, Boies, (1838), 127. 

BouUui, Jord. (nocturna). 

braohyantha, Schur (inflata). 

brachycarpa, Boiss. <$• Bal, (1869), 
336. 

brachypetala. Bob. Sc Cast. (1816) , 64. 

brachystachys, Webb (sAtacea). 

brahuica, Boiss, (1867), 298. 

brevicaulis, Boiss. (1842), 126. 

brevistipes, Williams (1896), 62. 

Bridffcsi, Bohrb, (1867), 827. 

Brotherana, Somm. ^ Lev. (1893), 5. 



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MB. v. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 



hryoideSf Jord. (aoaulis). 
bupleuroidesi Linn, (1758), 254. 
BurohelUi, Otlh (1824), 96. 
bunnanica, Coll. ^ SemsL (1800), 

145. 
cfesarea, Baiu, Sr Bal. (1859), 265. 
Offida, Sihth. 4r Sm. (1806), 17. 
csspitosa, Stev. (1812), 187. 
calycina, Salzm. (1868), 51. 
Campanula, Lapeyr. (elegans). 
Oampanula, Fert. (1805), 158. 
oampanulata, 8. Wats. (1875), 80. 
CampeUif Sang, (catholioa). 
Campoiy Lose, (elegans). 
canariensUf Otth (mogadorenais). 
oanariensis, Willd. (1822), 308. 
candicans, Celak, (1876), 6. 
canopica, Sous, (1867), 68. 
cantabrica, Jord. & Fourr. (gallioa). 
oapiUipes, Boitt, Sf RMr, (1856), 

157. 
capitellata, BoUt, (1842), 815. 
cappadooica, Boist, 4* J^Ttf^dr. (1849), 

837. 
caramanioa, BoUi. ^ Reldr. (1849), 

256. 
oariensis, Boist, (1842), 220. 
caryophylloidesy Otth (stentoria). 
caspioa. Pert, (1805), 292. 
coiiia, Boiss. (KotschTi). 
catbolica, Alton (1812), 852. 
oatholicay Willk. (italica). 
oaucasica, Bunge (1837), 129. 
cephalantba, BoUs. (1867), 311. 
cephalenia, Heldr, (1883), 824. 
cerastioides, Linn, (1758), 50. 
cbsetodonta, Boiss. (1842), 225. 
chirenris. Barb, (arabica). 
chirensifl. Rich, (1847), 71. 
cblor»folia. Smith (1789), 262. 
cblorantba, J^ArA. (1792), 277. 
chloropetala, Rupr. (longipetala). 
Cboulettei, Cost, (1862), 93. 
dliata, Pourr, (1788), 101. 
cinerea, Dwf. (1798), 193. 
drtensis, Pomel (1874), 195. 
cisplatensis, Cambess. (1885), 76. 
citrina, Boiss. (1888), 309. 
clandestina, Jacq. (1796), 78. 
clavata, Rohrb. (multicaulis). 
coarctata^ Lag. (caljcina). 
colorata^ Poir. (sericea). 
oommelineBfolia, Boiss. (1842), 122. 
commuta, Bert, (maritima). 
commutata, Ouss, (1827), 26. 
comollina^ Ser. (hortensis). 
compacta, Ftsch. (1812), 189. 
conj^esta. Sibth. Sf Sm. (1806), 326. 
(•x>nica, Linn. (1753), 37. 
coniflora, Nees (1824), 32. 



conoidea, Linn, (1758), 88. 
cordata, Link (oordifolia). 
cordifoUa, AU. (1785), 169. 
corinthiaca, Boiss. & Heldr. 

(Kotschyi). 
oorrugeUa, Ball (mogadorensis). 
Corsica, Sang, (pendula). 
crassioaulis, Wulk. & Costa (nemo- 

rails). 
crassi/olia, Bartl. (Burcbellii). 
crassifolia, Linn, (1762), 98. 
crassifolia, Thunb. (Burcbellii). 
crassipes, Fenzl (1842), 246. 
cretacea, Fisch, (1826), 146. 
oretica, Linn. (1758), 232. 
cruentata, Jord. &. Fourr. (gallioa). 
crjptopetala, RilUb, (1888), 184. 
Cserei, Baumg. (1816), 27. 
Cierei, Scbur (inflata). 
Cucubalusy Wibel (inflata). 
cuprea, Reiobb. (nutans). 
daghestanioa, Rupr. (saxatilis). 
debilis, Stapf (chsetodonta). 
decipiens. Ball (noctuma). 
decipiens, 5arr. (1879), 90. 
decumbenSf Biv. (sericea). 
delicatulof Bert, (sedoides). 
delicatula, Boi««. (1842), 209. 
depressa, fiitf^. (1808), 188. 
diantbifolia,^. Gay (1850), 114. 
diantboidcs, Pers. (1805), 812. 
dicbotoma, Bhrk, (1792), 44. 
dichotoma, Sibth. & Sm. (raoemota). 
Dilleniana, Schott (oretica). 
dinarica, Spreng. (Baumga^rteni). 
discolor, Sibth. <J* Sm. (1806), 79. 
distachgat Brot. (sericea). 
disticha, Willd. (1809), 47. 
diyaricata, Clem. (1806), 199. 
divaricatay Sibth. & Sm. (raoemosa). 
Dorrii, Kell. (Menziesii). 
Douglasu, ^ooAr. (1838), 281. 
Drummondiy Torr, & Gray 

(Douglasii). 
DrummondUy A. Gray (Scouleri). 
ecbinata, O^M (1824), 250. 
echinospermu, Boiss. ^ Heldr. (1S4Q), 

214. 
echinus, Bous. 4- Heldr. (1856), 110. 
Ehrenbergiana, Rolirb. (longipetala). 
elegans. Link (1804), 100. 
EngeUnanni, Rohrb. (Bridgesi). 
eremitica, Boiss. (1867), 380. 
eremophila, Bien. (sericea). 
eriocalyoina, Boiss. (1842), 291. 
eriophoray Willd. (sericea). 
ergsimifolia, Stapf (persica). 
euxina^ Rupr. (dichotoma). 
exaltata, Nees (sericea). 
fabana, Sibth. i^Sm. (18O6), 11. 



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MR. F. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENB. 



193 



fabarioides, Hau9»Jc. (1893), 16. 
falcata, Sibtk, ^ 8m. (1806). 103. 
Falooneriana, RoyU (1839), 821. 
Fenzlii, Boits, ^ Bal. (1859), 869. 
filipes, FreynSf8int. (1895), 162. 
fimbriata, i9im« (1806), 29. 
^rma,Sieb. k Zuco. (aprica). 
firmula, Herb. Lugd. Bat. (aprica). 
fianpetala^ Turcz. (Fortune!), 
flammulffifolia, 8Uud. (1847), 177. 
flavesceiw, Waldtt, Sc Kit (1804), 

175. 
foBtida, Link (1826), 167. 
foliosa, Maxim. (1859), 279. 
foliosa, Regel (macros tj la). 
Fortune!, Vis, (1847), 370. 
Friwaldzkyana, JTampe (1837), 253. 
fruticosa, Linn. (1753), 885. 
fruticulosa^ Dietr. (caspica). 
fruticulosa, Sieb. (1824), 161. 
fuscata, Link (1804), 197. 
galatsea, Boiss. (1888), 360. 
gallica, Grores (noctuma). 
gallica, Linn. (1753), 48. 
Gebleriana, 8ckrenk (1841), 822. 
genistifolia, Ralacsy (1892), 286. 
getula^ Pamel (maroccana). 
gibraltarica, Boiss. (1838), 388. 
gigantea, Linn. (1753), 325. 
Giraldii, Ow<8. (1855), 49. 
glttbresceng, Cou. (1890), 87. 
glandulosa^ Hampe (plutonica). 
glareosa, Jord. (1851), 24. 
glauca, Pourr. (1803), 86. 
goniocaula, Boits. (1842), 290. 
gonocalyx, Boitt. (1842), 247. 
graciUima, Rohrh. (1870), 150. 
greeca, B<n8S. Sc 8prun. (1842), 43. 
grandiflora, Franch. (1886), 284. 
Grayi, 8. Wats. (1879). 119. 
grisea, Boiss. (1849), 173. 
Ouicciardiif fioiss. et Heldr. 

(Marschalli). 
gifmnotheca^ Pane, (fruticulosa). 
Haenkeanat Preslf (gallica). 
HaUii, S. Wats. (Scouleri). 
HauBsknechtu, Held, (1885, 1893), 

230. 
Heldreiohii, Boiss. (1849), 67. 
Hellmannif Glaus (Otites). 
RerminUy Welw. (fcetida). 
heterodonta, Williams (1896), 135. 
hifacensis, Rouy (1885), 889. 
hirsuta, Lag. (1805), 57. 
hirsuia, Schousb. (disticha). 
hirticaljx, Boiss, 4" Eaussk, (1888), 

293. 
hispanica, Jacq. (sericea). 
hispida, Willd. (disticha). 
hispidtty Salzm. (hirsuta). 



Hochstetteri, Bohrh. (1867), 94. 
bolopetala, Bunge (1834), 319. 
Hoizmanni, Reldr, (1888), 244. 
humilU, C,A,Mey. (1831), 117. 
Hussoni, Boiss. (1849), 212. 
imbricata, Desf. (1798), 77. 
inaperta, Linn. (1753), 231. 
inaperta, Linn. herb, (multicaulis). 
incompta, A. Gray (firidgesi). 
iacurrifolia, Kar.S^Kir, (1841), 165. 
infidelium, Post (1895), 147. 
inflata, 8mith (1800), 25. 
insuhrica^ Gaud, (nutans), 
insularis, Barhey (1885), 210. 
integripetala, Bory S( Chaub. (1882), 

221. 
intricata. Post (1895), 219. 
intrusa, Wight ^Arn. (1834), 102. 
italica, Pers. (1805), 362. 
italicay Poll, (nutans), 
japonica, Rohrb, (1870), 181. 
jucuttda, Jord. & Fourr. (fl;allica). 
juncea, Sibth. j- 8m. (1806), 215. 
juYenalis, Delile (1836), 34. 
khaeiana, RoArb, (1869), 152. 
Kotschyi, Boiss. (1842), 218. 
Kremeri, Soy,- Will. Sr Godr. (1861), 

194. 
kubanensis, 8omm.Sc Lev. (1898), 8. 
kumaonensis, Williams (1896), 14. 
kunawarensis, Royle (1839), 342. 
Kuschakewiozi, Regel 4* Sckmalh. 

(1877), 64. 
laoonica, Boiss. ^ Orph. (1859), 222. 
IsBTigata, Sibth. & 8m. (1806), 236. 
lagenocalyx, Fenzl (1867), 42. 
lanceolata, A. Gray (1854), 381. 
latifoliay S. F. Gray (S. Armeria). 
laxa, Boiss, Sf Kotschy (1867), 266. 
lazica, Boiss. (1842), 170. 
legionensi", Lag. (1816), 91. 
leptoclada, Boiss. (1867), 174. 
leptopetala, 8chrenk (1844), 294. 
Lercnenfeldiana, Baumg, (1836), 

187. 
leurojifoliaf Ors. (dliata). 
leucopbylla, Boiss. (1842), 348. 
libanotioa, Boiss. (1849), 273. 
ligulata^ Yiy. lusus 1 (setacea). 
ligulata, Yiy. lusus 2 (sericea). 
linearis, Decne. (1885), 224. 
lineata, Boiss. Sf Buhse (1860), 296. 
linicola, C. C. Qmel. (1826), 245. 
linifolia, 8ibth. 4- 8m. (1806), 285. 
lithophila, Kar. Sf Kir. (1842), 801. 
littorea, Brot. (1804), 88. 
lividoy Wierzb. (viridiflora). 
longicaulis, Ponrr. (1803 >, 88. 
longicilia, Otth (1824), 856. 
longiilora, Fhrh, (1792), 263. 



LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 



Digitized by 



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194 



ME, P. N, WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 



longipetals, Vent. (1800), 341. 
longitubttlosa, En^l, (1895), 134. 
luisana, S, Wats. (1888), 876. 
hmtanicaf Linn, (gallica). 
LyaUii, S. Wats. (1875), 378. 
lyohnidea, C. A. Mey. (1831), 283. 
lydia, BoUs. (1842), 35. 
macedonica, Formansk (1893), 186. 
Maooumi, S. Wats, (1891), 282. 
macrodonta, Boiss. (1842), 41. 
macron jchia, Boiss. (1888), 179. 
roaoropoda, Velen. (1886), 164. 
maorosolen, Steud. (1847), 258. 
macrosttfla, Maxim, (foliosa). 
Manissadjiani, Freyn (1895), 272. 
maritima. With. (1796), 23. 
maroocana. Coss. (1890), 66. 
Manchalli, C. A. Mey. (1831), 343. 
masmeniea, Boiss, (1856), 104. 
mauritanica, Pomel (obtusifolia). 
Maximowicziana, Bohrb. (1870), 168. 
megalocalyx, Freifn (1895), 260. 
mekinensis, Co#f.' (1890), 208. 
melandryiformis, Maxim, (aprica). 
melandryoides, Langs (1878), 128. 
mellifera, Boiss. 4* Beut. (1842), 351. 
mentagensis, Coss. (1890), 106. 
Menziedii, Rook. (1838), 183. 
methanaa^ Heldr. (rigidula). 
Meyerif Fenzl (depresaa). 
micropetala. Lag. (1816), 76. 
microphjlia, Boiss. (1842), 144. 
microspermay Fenzl (Kotechyi). 
fdodest'Jt Jord. & Fourr. (gallica). 
mogadorensis, Coss. (1875), 59. 
mollissima. Pars. (1806), 387. 
monantha, Boiss. & Haassk. (mone- 

rantha). 
monantha, 8. Wats. (1875), 12. 
monerantha, Williams (1896), 176. 
mongolica, Iftfxtm. (1889), 13. 
montanay Arrand. (maritima). 
Montbretiana, Boiss. (1842), 297. 
Moorcrofliana, Rook, f, Sf Thorns. 

(1868), 124. 
mvlticavlisy Durand (Bridgesi). 
multicaulis, Guss. (1826), 163. 
multieauliSy Maconn (Macounii). 
multicaulis f Nutt. (Douglasii). 
multifida^ Bohrb. (fimbriata). 
multiflora, Fers. (1806), 323. 
multineryia, S. Wats. (1890), 39. 
Mimdiana, Fck. S( Zey. (1835), 99. 
muscipula, Linn. (1753), 239. 
mytoptera^ Jord. & Fourr. (gallica). 
nana, Kar.S(Kir. (1841), 211. 
nardifolia, Boiss. (subulata). 
nemoralis, Waldst. ^ Kit. (1812), 

364. 
neTadensis, Boiss. (1845), 372. 



nioiBensis, AU. (1770-1773), 196. 
Niederi, Reldr. (1859), 340. 
nivea, DC. (1824), 353. 
nocteolens, Webb ^ Berth. (1839- 

1840), 304. 
noctuma, Linn. (1753), 63. 
noctumOf Pall, (dichotoma). 
nodulosa, Boiss. (1842), 289. 
Notarisii, Ces. (Saxifraga). 
nubigena, Fhil. (1862), 9. 
nurensis, Boiss. 4* Raussk, (1888), 

156. 
nutans, Linn. (1753), 355. 
obtusifolia, Pomel (imbricata). 
obtusifolia, Willd. (1809), 5t5. 
odontopetala, Fenzl (1842), 2. 
odoratissima, Bunge (1834), 307. 
Oldhamiana, Miq. (aprica). 
01g», Bohrb. (1870), 330. 
oligantba, Boiss. ^ Reldr. (1854), 

276. 
Oliveriana, Otth (sericea) . 
olympica, Boiss. (1842), 314. 
oreophila, Boiss. (1867), 154. 
oropediorum, Coss. (18SK}), 74. 
Orpbanidis. Boiss. (1867), 115. 
OrsinianOf Beichb. (ciliaia). 
Otites, Smith (1800), 317. 
otodonta. Franch. (1886), 358. 
ovata, Pursh (1814), 371. 
oxyodonta, C. S( W. Barbeif (1882), 

68. 
pachyrrhiza, Franch. (1886), 329. 
palsstina, Boiss. (1849), 60. 
palinotricha, Fenzl (1867), 131. 
papillifolia, Williams (1896), 142. 
papillosa, Boiss. (1842), 249. 
paradoxa, Linn. (1763), 390. 
Parrowiana, Boiss. Sr Raussk. (1888), 

261. 
parviflora, Turcz. (tenuis), 
parvula, Coss. (1890), 136. 
patula, Lag. (segetalis). 
pauciflora, Salzm. (1824), 384. 
paucifloray Tomah, (italica). 
pectinata, S. Wats. (1875), 377. 
peduncularis, Boiss. (184^), 267. 
pendula, Linn. (1753), 81. 
pentelica, Boiss. (1849), 229. 
perfoliata, Otth (chlonefolia). 
permi'xta, Jord. (bracbypetala). 
pemoctanSf Link (sericea). 
persica, Boiss. (1842), 125. 
petrsa, Adams (1805), 295. 
pbarnaceifolia, Fenzl (1842), 310. 
pbrygia, J5oM*. (1867), 379. 
pbysalodes, Boiss. (1849), 28. 
pictUf Pers. (juncea). 
pifosa, Pourr. (sericea). 
pilosa^ Willd. (disticha). 



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MR. P. N. WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 



195 



piloselloides, G-. Don (BurohelHi). 
pindicola, Hauask, (1887), 112. 
pinetorum, BoUs. St Meldr, (1849), 

227. 
plutonica, Naud. (1845), 10. 
poUfgcmuii Stokes (Saxifraga). 
poUftriehoideSy Zumagl. (acaulis). 
Fomeliy Bafctand. (imbricata). 
pompeiopolitana, J, Oay (1867), 58. 
portensis, lAnn, (1763), 216. 
Porteri, Pott (1888), 139. 
primubeflura, Eck, ic Zey. (1835), 97. 
Pringlei, 8. Wat*. (1888), 346. 
ppocumbens, llfurr. (1786), 20. 
pruinosa, Boisi, (1842), 335. 
peammitiB, Link (1820), 84. 
Pseudo-Atocion, Derf. n.798), 198. 
PieudO'Behen, Heldr. (Reinholdi). 
PteudO'Behen^ Schur (inflata). 
pseudo-nutoDB, Pane. (1883), 363. 
pteudotitea^'RotBk (Otifces). 
pteroneora, William* (1886, 1896), 

248. 
puherulaf Berfr. (serioea). 
puberula, Bois*. (1867), 339. 
pumila, St. Lag. (Puniilio). 
PumiUo, Wulf. (1778), 21. 
punctata, Bub. (elegans). 
pungens, Bois*. (1842), 1. 
purpnrata, Greene (Scooleri), 
pjgmeea, Adam* (1805), 133. 
pygmaa. Herd, (gallica). 
pygmaa^ Less (? caspica). 
pyrmtatca, Pourr. (sericea). 
pyriformi*, Cosf. (glauca). 
quinquevulnera, Linn, (gallica). 
raoemoea, Otth (1824), 45. 
BaddeanOy Trautr. (odontopetala). 
radicosa, Boi**. <!jr Heldr. (1845),274. 
ramosissima, Desf. (1798), 192. 
reflexa, Aiton (1813), 52. 
Beiohenbachii, Vi*. (1852), 284. 
:^inlioldi, Heldr. (1874), 240. 
remotiflora, Vi*. (1852), 55. 
repen*, Boiss. (tenuis). 
repen*, Eichw. (oaucadica). 
repens, Patr. (1805), 331. 
reticulata, De*f. (1798), 217. 
reticulata^ lAnk (jonoea). 
retroflexay Stead, (egyptiaca). 
Beuteriana, Boi**. 4* Blanch* (1856), 

190. 
rbodopea, Janka (1878), 373. 
rhynchocarpa, Boi**. (1842), 107. 
rigidula, Sibth.S;^ Sm. (1806), 213. 
Roemeri, FHw. (1836), 313. 
Bohrbachianay Aschers. (Ungeri). 
rosulata, Soy. - WW. S( Qodr. 

(1851), 386. 
Roayana, Battand. (1888), 257. 



rubella, Brot. (1804), 200. 

rubella, Linn. (? ? agg.). 

rubella. Soy.- Will. A Qodr. (sege- 

taUs). 
rupestris, Linn. (1762), 182. 
rupe*tri*y Schur (Lerchenfeldiana). 
Salzmanni, Badaro (1826), 384. 
Sargenti, 8. Wat*. (1879), 116. 
Sartorii, Boi**. ^ Heldr. (1856), 36. 
saxatilis. Sim* (1803), 344. 
*axicolaf Bony (sericea). 
Saxifraga, I/fnn. (1753), 159. 
Saxifraga, Thunb. (gracillima). 
scabrida. Soy. -Will. ^ Qodr. (1851), 

73. 
Bcaposa, B. L. Bobin*on (1893), 288. 
Schafta, Omel. (1838), 132. 
*chiren*i*y Bohrb. (chirensis). 
Schlos*eri, Vukot. (Sandtneri). 
Schlumbergeri, Boi**. (1888), 123. 
Schmucken, WetUt. (1892), 151. 
Sohwarzenbergeri, Halac*y (1894), 

368. 
Schweinfurthi, Bohrb. (1867), 69. 
Scouleri, Hook. (1833), 347. 
sedoides, Poir. (1796), 228. 
segetalis, Luf. (1860), 203. 
8emeuoT'u,£egelifrHerd. (1866),306. 
Sendtneri, Boi**. (1867), 316. 
sericea. All. (1785), 85. 
serrulato, Boit*. (1867), 269. 
*ertuen*i*, Pomel (inflata). 
*e**iliJloraf Poir. (racemosa). 
setacea, Viv. (1824), 65. 
sibiriea, Per*. (1805), 320. 
Sibthorpiana, Beichb. (rawmoss). 
*icula, Cyr. ^sedoides). 
*icula, Ker (sericea). 
Sieberi, Fenzl (1842), 367. 
nnalca, Boiss. (odontopetala). 
*inen*i*, Hook. (Fortunei). 
sisianica, Boi**. ^ Buh*e (I860), 149. 
Skorpili, Velen. (1889), 374. 
Spaldingii, 8. Wat*. (1875), 359. 
spergulifolia, Bieb. (1819), 332. 
spinescens, Sibth. Sf Sm. (1806), 365. 
splendens, Boi**. (1867), 361. 
squamigera, Boi**. (184is), 251. 
staticifoUa, Sibth. f Sm. (1806), 264. 
stellata, Aiton (1812), 354. 
stenobotiys, Boi**. Sf Hauttk. (1867) , 

305. 
*tenophylla. Plan, (maritima). 
stentoria, Fenzl (1842), 108. 
striata, Bohrb. (1867), 226. 
etricta, Achar. (segetalis). 
striota, Linn. (1756), 241. 
struthioloides, A, Gray (1854), 271. 
subconictt, Friw. (1835), 33. 
subulata, Boi**. (1842), 111. 

2 



Digitized by 



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196 



MR. F. Ji, WILLIAMS ON THE GENUS SILENE. 



subuniflora, 8omm. ^ Lev, (1893), 4. 
Buoculenta, Forsk. (1775), 140. 
Suksdorfii, B, L. Rohinton (1891), 

121. 
supina, Auch.-Eloj (stenobotrys). 
Bupina, Bieb. (1819), 884. 
tachtensiB, Franch, (1883), 118. 
Tanakffi, Maxim. (1888), 366. 
tarhctgataica, Kryl. (? P tenuis), 
tatarioa, Pera. (1806), 278. 
TstsrlDOwii, Regel (1861), 185. 
tenella, C. A. Mey. (1831), 302. 
tenuioauliB, Freyn Sc Bornm.y 259. 
tenuiflon, Chus, (1826), 246. 
tenuis, Willd. (1809), 280. 
thebana, Orph. (1867), 15. 
ttiessalonioft, Boiu. 4* ffeldr. (1854), 

178. 
Thirkeaiuiy G. £ocb (raoemosa). 
Thorei, Duf. (1825), 22. 
Thunbergianay £ck. & Zey. (Bur- 

chellii). 
thymifolia, Sibth. & Sm, (1806), 143. 
Tatnmannii, Willk. (sedoides). 
tragacantba, Fenzl (1867), 109. 
tridentataj Boiss. (cerastioides). 
tridentataf Desf. (caljcina). 
trinervia, Seb. ^ MauH (1818), 72. 
iubyiora, Duf. (sericea). 



tuniooides, ^ow#. (1842), 275. 
turbinata, Guss. (1827), 202. 
turgida, Bieb. (1835), 287. 
iurkestawicaj Kegel (inourvifolia). 
Ubdeana, i2oAr6. (1867), 141. 
undulatat Pourr. (segetalis). 
Ungeri, Fenzl (1862), 233. 
UmUei, SchoH (1822), 299. 
▼agans, C.B. Clarke (1889), 153. 
yafiesia, Linn. (1762), 130. 
vaUetiacay Link (nicsensis). 
Tariegata, Boiee. S( Seldr. (1849), 

18. 
yelutinoides, Pomel (1874), 857. 
verecunda^ S. Wats. (Behrii). 
vesiculifera, J. Qay (1867), 252. 
veepertinay Curt, (sericea). 
vespertina, Rett. (1779-91), 46. 
viUosa, Forek. (1775), 80. 
Tiresoens, Coa$. (1890), 206. 
virgata^ Stapf (proinosa). 
virideUa^ Link (nutans). 
Tiridifloia, Linn. (1762), 350. 
vulgaris, Giurcke (inflata). 
Watsoni, B. L. Robinson (1893), 120. 
WiUkommiana, J. Gay (divarioata). 
xylobasis, Freyn (1895), 113. 
yemensis, Dejl. (1889), 180. 
yunnanensis, Franch. (1886), 328. 



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DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 197 



LiCHENES CoLENSOANi a Reverendiss. Colenso in Nov& Zelandii 
septentrionali prope Napier lecti, et nuperius niissi, in 
Herbario Reg. Kewensi servati, qnos determinavit Dr. J. 
Mueller [Argoviensis], (Commnnicated with the sanction 
of W. T. Thiselton Dter, C.M.G., C.T.E., P.R.S., F.L.S.) 

[Bead 21st March, 1895.] 

Ohs. Quoad characteres ordinum, tribnum et genemm conf. 
ad Mueller Arg. Consp. syst. Lich. Nov. Zelandiae in Bulletin 
de I'Herbier Boissier, vol. ii. App. i. (1894). 

Lichenes pro Noy& Zelandi& novi asterico designati sunt. 



Ordo I. COLLEMACE^. 

Trib. C0LLEME-«. 

1. Leptogium phyllocarpum, Mont. f. isidiosa, Muell. Arg. in 

Bull. Herb. Baiss.^ ii. App. i. p. 18. — Colenso, 1634, 1816. 

2. Leptogium tremblloides, Fr. H. Scan,, p. 293. — Colenso, 

1631. 

V. azurbum, NyLj Syn,, p. 126. — Colenso, 1667, 

1810, 1815. 

V. PiCHNEUM, NyL, Inch. Nov. ZeL, p. 10. — 

Colenso, 1597. 

♦ V. LAOINUTUM, Tuckemt. in Proc. Am. Acad., vii. 

(1868) p. 234.— CoZerwo, 1688. 
♦3. Leptogidm Pecten, F, WiU. in Joum. Linn. Boo. (Bot), 
xxviii. (1891) p. 'SbS.—Colenso, 1630, 1644 (ambo 
sterilia). 
4. Leptogium dendroides, Nyl. in Flora, xix. (1867) p. 438 ; 
Dendriscocaulon filicinellum, Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel., p. 10. 
—Colenso, 1646, 1702. 
♦5. CoLLEMA FURVUM, Ach., Lichenog. Univ., p. 650. — Colenso, 
1501, 1523 (specim. sterilia). 

V. MiGROPHTLLiMUMy MueU. Arg. in BuU. 8oc. Bot. 

Belg., xxxi. (1892) p. 22.— Colenso, 1563. 
6. CoLLEMA suBCONViNiENS, Nyl, Lich. Nov. Zel, p. 8. Ad 
cortices et ramulos et inter mnscos. — Colenso, 1619, 1569, 
1629, 1643, 1669 (magis pulviniforme), 1743, 1777. 



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198 DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 

7. CoLLEMA PULPOSUM, Ach., 8yn, Lich,^ p. 311. — Colenso^ 

1541. 

8. Synbchoblistus leucocarpds, MueU. Arg, in Flora, Ixv. 

(1882) p. 294, sub n. 379.~-Oofewro, 1634. 

9. Stnkchoblastus aggrbgatus, Th. M, Fries^ Lick, Arct, 

p. 280.— Colenso, 1525, 1604, 1609, 1645, 1647, 1708, 
1760. 

V. CoLENSOi, Muell, Arg. ; Gollema fasdcula/re 

V. Colensoi, Ch. Bab. in Hook, f., Fl. N. Zel., ii. 309. 
Thallns pnlvinatas, crassulns, plicato-rngalosns, e 
plumbeo fnscus, praesertim e lobis erectis, oonfertis, 
convolutis et crispis apice dense fertilibns formatns. — 
Golenso, 1539, 1696. 

10. Stnechoblastus LiEVis, MueU. Arg. in Flora^ Ixx. (1887) 

p. 283, n. 1127.— Golenso, 1522, 1575, 1642. 

11. Stnechoblastus flaccidus, Koerb. Syst, p. 413 ; corticola, 

Golenso, 1694 (pnlchre fertilis, levis). 



Ordo n. EPICONIACE^. 

Trib. SPHJlROPHOREiE. 

12. Sphjsbophoron tenerum. Lour, in Linncea, ii. (1827) p. 45, 

t. 1, fig. 4i.—Golen80, 1732. 

13. Sprsrophoron gompressum, Ach.y Metk., p. 135. — Golenso, 

1711 pr. p. 

♦ V. CANDIDUM, Muell. Arg. in Flora, bdv. (1881) 

p. bOb.—Golenso, 1686. 

14. Sphjerophoron australe, Laur. in Linncea, ii. (1827) p. 44. 

—Golenso, 1509, 1510, 1515, 1516, 1555, 1612, 1636, 1637, 
1682, 1683, 1684, 1685, 1687, 1689, 1691, 1697, 1698, 
1711 pr. p., 1712, 1713, 1731. 

Trib. CONIOPHTLLEiE. 

15. CoNiOPHTLLUM CoLBNSOi, Muell. Arg. in Bull. 8oc. Bot. 

Belg., xxxi. (1892) p. 23.— CoZetwo, 1651. 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



DE. J. MUELLER — LICHENES C0LEN80ANI. 199 

Ordo ni. DISCOCARPE^. 

Ser. I. DIPLOBLAST^. 
Trib. Stereocaule*. 

16. Stereocaulon ramulosum, Ach,, Meth.^ p. 314. — Golensoy 

1620, 1709. 

* V. NUDATUM. St. proximum v. nudatum, Muell. 

Arg, in Flora, Ixix. (1886) p. 253.— OoZetwo, 1735. 

17. CoRYNOPHORON CoLBNSOi, Nyl,, lAch, Nov. ZeL, p. 15. — 

Colenso, 741. 

Trib. Cladoniejs. 

18. Clathrina aggregata.. MuelL Arg. in Flora, Ixvi. (1883) 

p. SO,— Colenso, 1511, 1512, 1517, 1536, 1567, 1618, 1670, 
1779, 1784, 1785, 1788, 1807. 

♦ V. STRAMiNEA, Muell Arg,, Z.c, Ixii. (1879) p. 162. 

—Golenso, 1591. 

19. Cladonu capitellata. Oh. Bah, in Hook, /., Fl. N. Zel, 

ii. 296.—Golen80, 1736. 
♦20. Cladonia furcata v. asperata, Muell. Arg, in Flora, Ixv. 

(1882) p. 29S.—Colen8o, 1661, 1786, 1787, 1795. 
V. adspersa, Floerke, Deuisch. Lich., n. 198. — 

Colenso. 1581. 
♦ V. FARiNACEA, Wainio, Monogr. Cladon., p. 339 

(sab formi).— CoZetMo, 1803. 
♦ V. GRACiLLiMA, Muell Arg, in Flora, Ixv. (1882) 

p. 296.— OoZeawo, 1738. 
*21. Cladonu squamosa v. asperella, Floerke, Cladon., p. 132. 

—Colenso, 1580. 

22. Cladonla degenerans y. uaplotea, Floerke, Cladon.^ p. 42. 

—Colento, 1809. 

♦ V. JAVANICA, Muell. Arg. in Flora, Ixv. (1882) 

p. 294.— Golenso, 1567 pp. p. 

23. Cladonu pittrba, Floerke, Gladon, p. 79. — Golenso, 1551, 

1552, 1553, 1554, 1623, 1625, 1648, 1695, 1714, 1805, 
1806 pr. p., 1808. 
♦24. Cladonia fimbruta v. abortiva, Babenh., Deutsch. Krypt., 
p. 108.— Golenso, 1553. 



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200 DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES C0LEN80ANI. 

♦ ClADONLL FIMBRIATA V. DENDBOIDES, FloL, Lich, StleS,, p. 33. 

—Oolensoy 1802, 1806. 
25. Claponia pyxidata, jPV., Lich. Eur,, p. 210.— CoZe««o, 1621, 

1622, 1624. 
* V. COSTATA, Floerke, Cladon,, p. 06. — Golenso, 

1579, 1582, 1583, 1584, 1804. 
♦26. Cladonia pleurota, Schaer., Enum., p. 186. — Colenso, 1550, 

1666, 1796. 

27. Cladonu macilenta, Hoffm., Fl. Oerm., p. 126.— CoZetwo, 

1739. 

Trib. Bmokycem. 

28. Bj:omyces fungoides, Ach., Meth., p. 320. — Golenso, 1817. 

29. B^OMYCES HJEMOTROPUS, Leight. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), 

X (1867), p. 31, t. 4, fig. l.^Colenso, 1716, 1717, 1718, 
1719, 1720. 

Ser. 11. THAMNO'PHYLLOBLAST^. 

Trib. UsNEEiE. 

30. USNBA BABBATA V. FLORIDA, JFV., Llch. Europ., p. 18. — 

Colenso, 1559. 
V. RUBiGiNEA, Mey. et Flot. in Act. Acad. Nat. 

Cur., xix. I. p. 210.— Colenso, 1794. 

♦ V. pendula, Koerb., Parerga,]^. 1. — Colenao, 1558. 

♦ V. soREDiosuLA, Muell. Arg. in Engl. Jahrb., xx. 

(1894) p. 245.— OoZetwo, 1797. 
♦31. UsNEA MELAXANTHA V. SOREDIIFERA. Neuropogon melaxanthiis 

V. sorediifera, Cromb. in Jonm. Linn. Soc. (Bof.), xv. 

(1876) p. lS2.—0ol€n8o, 1776. 

Trib. Ramaline£. 

32. Bamalina Eckloni y. membranacea, Muell. Arg. in Flora, 

Ixvii. (1884) p. 619. Specimina (ramillicolsB) pjgmaea, 
tantum 6-10 mm. longa, ambita et con8istenti& nee non 
apotheciis et sporis bene congmentia. — Colenso, 1733, 
1737. 

33. Anaptychu leucomeljna, Wainio, £tude, i. p. 128. — 

Colenso, 1610. 



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DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 201 



Sect. Peltigere^. 

34. Peltigera pusilla, Koerb.y Syst, p. 59.— Oofen«), 1611. 

35. Peltigera polydacttla, Hoffm.j Flor. Oerm., p. 106, f. 

MINOR, Krempelh,, Lich. Novara, p. 121. — Colenso, 1590, 

1594, 1703. 
♦ y. scuTATA, Nyl, Syn, Inch,, p. 327.— OoZeTwo, 

1658. 
* V. DOLiCHORRHiZA, NyL, Syn. Lich., p. 327. — 

Colenso, 1513, 1568, 1617, 1618, 1635, 1671, 1704, 1751. 



Trib. Parmblieje. 

36. Stictina ftjliqinosa, Nyl, Syn. Lich., p. 347.— OoZetwo, 

1531, 1588, 1710, 1747, 1812. 
•37. Stictina intricata, Nyl, Syn. Lich., p. 334. — Colenso, 1596. 

V. Thouarsii, NyL, I.e., p. 335. — Colenso, 1692, 

1707, 1759. 

38. Stictina cinnamomea, Muell. Arg. in Jf^lora, Ixvi. (1883) 

p. 22.— OoZeiwo, 1674, 1758, 1783 pr. p. 

39. Stictina crocata, Nyl., Syn. Lich., p. 338. — Colenso, 1593. 

40. Stictina Mougeotuna, NyL, I.e., p. 340 (v. xantholoma, 

Nyh, I.C., p. Z4i\).— Colenso, 1545. 

♦41. Stictina scrobiculata, Nyl., Consp. Stict., p. 6, n. 33. — 
Colenso, 1752 pr. p. 

♦42. Stictina dictyophora, Muell. Arg.; thallas circ. 2-3 centim. 
latus et minor, horizontalis, lacinioso-divians, laciniso 
brevinscnle lobatse, crenatse, totns tennis, firmns ntraqne 
pagina levis, snpra plnmbeo-fuscescens, subpolitns niti- 
dnlns, hinc inde minnte isidiosns, sabtns pallidns et indn- 
mento nigro-fnsco snbsparso v. demnm distincte rhombo- 
areolato prfieditns; cyphellaB nnllae; gonimia Stictince; 
apothecia ignota. — Est species insignis et sterilis tantnm 
nota, nnlli cognitamm, nisi Stiettnm retigerce, Maell. 
Arg. in Flora, Ixi. (1878) p. 484, leviter acoedens, sed 
toto habitn, tennitate, colore plnmbeo, tballo non bnlloso^. 
gibboso bene diversa. A Eiccasoliis Nyl. jam gonimiis 
distat. Etiam ad Nephromiwm LyaUii Cb. Bab. habitn 
et gonimiis accedit, sed thallns pecnliariter vestitna est. 
--Colenso, 1772. 



Digitized by 



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202 DB. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 

43. Sticta latifrons v. Menziesii, Gh, Bab, in Hook. /., Fl. Nov. 

Zel, ii. p. 277.— CoZetwo, 1655, 1754, 1767, 1780, 1783 
pr. p., 1811. 

44. Sticta Filix, Hoffm,, Lichen., t. bb.—Colenso, 1726, 1744. 

45. Sticta lacera, Muell. Arg. in Flora, Ixxi. (1888) p. 131. — 

GoUnso, 1586, 1589, 1690, 1799. 
♦46. Sticta sinuosa v. subcaperata, Muell. Arg. ; Sticta sub- 

cnperata, Nyl. Lich. Nov. Zel., p. 31. — Golenso, 1530, 

1570, 1607, 1614. 
* V. caperata ; Sticta damcecomi$ v. caperta, Nyl., 

Syn. Licb., p. SBl.—Colenso, 1535, 1770. 

47. Sticta varubilis, Ach., Lich. Univ., p. 455. —OoZcfwo, 1608. 

48. Sticta psilophylla, Muell, Arg. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg., 

xxxi. II. (1892), p. 29.— Oolenso, 1755. 

49. Sticta episticta, Nyl^ Lich. New Zeal., p. 248, n. 17. — 

Colenso, 1771. 

50. Sticta subcorucea, Nyl. in Flora, xlviii. (1865) p. 298. — 

Golenso, 1507, 1706, 1752. 
♦51. Sticta Fretcinetii, Delise, Stict, p. 124, t. 14, fig. 51. — 
Golenso, 1715. 

52. Sticta sdbvariabilis, Nyl. in Flora, I. (1867) p. 439. — 

Golenso, 1616, 1792. 

53. Sticta Richardi, Mont, in Ann. Sc. Nat., Sir. II. iv. 

(1835) p. 89.— Golenso, 1742, 1756, 1766, 1793. 

V. RUFOViRESCENS, Gh. Bab. in Hook. /., Fl, N. Zd., 

ii. p. 278.— Colenso, 1781. 

54. Sticta Billardibri, Delise, Stict., p. 99, t. 8, fig. 35. — 

Golenso, 1574, 1721, 1722, 1725, 1757, 1761, 1764. 

55. Sticta granulata, Gh. Bab. in Hook. /., Fl. N. Zel., ii. 

p. 281.— (7oZen«o, 1773. 

56. Sticta pubescens, Muell. Arg. in Bull. Soc. Bot, Belg., xxxi. 

II. (1892) p. 28.— Golenso, 1672. 

57. Sticta ortgmaa, Ach., Meth., p. 278.— Golenso, 1724, 1749, 

1753, 1765, 1768 (ster.), 1769, 1782, 1813. 

58. Sticta endochrysea v. flavicans, Muell. Arg. in Flora, Ixxi. 

(1888) p. Ue.— Golenso, 1746, 1783 pr.p. 

59. Sticta Montagnei, Gh. Bab. in Hook. /., Fl. N, Zel., ii 

p. 284 ; Eicasolia Montagnei, Nyl., Syn. Lich., p. 373. — 
Golenso, 1527. 
♦60. Parhelia perlata y. ciliata, DG., f., sorediifera, Muell. 
Arg. in Flora, Ixxiv. (1891) p. ^2.— Golenso, 1500, 1520. 



Digitized by 



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DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 203 

61. Parhelia cetrata, Ach, Syn., p. 198. — Colenso, 1727. 
•62. Parhelia physodes v. pulverata, Muell. Arg.in FZora, Ixvi. 

(1883) p. I^.—Oolenso, 1791. 

♦ V. SOLUTA, MueU. Arg,, Lc. — Colenso, 1762. 

* V. LCGUBRis, NyL, Enum. Qin., p. 104. — Colenso, 

1745. 

63. Parmelu pertransita, SHrt. in Froc. Phil, Soc, Olasg,, x. 

(1877) p. 294.— OoZen*o, 1602. 

64. Anzia angustata, MueU, Arg. in Flora, Ixxii. (1889) p. 507. 

—Colenso, 1560. 

65. Xanthoria parietina v. spinulosa, MuelL Arg, in BvU. Herb, 

Boise,, ii. App ii. (1894) p. 40. — Colenso, 1632 (speciiDina 
ad modium juyenilia). 

66. PSEUDOPHYSCIA SPECI08A V. HYPOLEUCA f. SOREDIIFERA, Muell, 

Arg., lc, — Colenso, 1728. 

Trib. PsoROMEJB. 

67. PsoROMA ARANEOSUM, Nyl,f Syn, Lich., ii. p. 23. — Colenso, 

1626, 1656, 1688. 

68. PsoROMA SPHINCTRINUM, NyL, Enum, Oen., p. 108. — Colenso, 

1526, 1540, 1542, 1546 bis, 1562, 1592, 1633, 1667, 1748, 
1798. 
V. DiscRETUM, NyL, Syn, Lioh,, ii. p. 25. — Colenso, 

1633 pr. min. p. 

V. PHOLiDOTOiDES, NyL, Ltch. Nov, ZeL, p. 52. — 



Colenso, 1663, 1814. 
*69. PsoROMA ASPERELLUM, NyL ap. Cromh, in Joum, Linn, Soc. 
(BoL), xvii. (1879) p. 398,— Colenso, 1564, 1565, 1595, 
1699, 1763 (in meo specim. Hampeano Lecanorm 
cLspereUoe Hampe, sched. locus indicatus est : Australia 
felix (nee Promontorinm BonsB Spei). 

Trib. PANNARIEiE. 

*70. Pannaria fulvescens, NyL, Enum, Oen., p. 109. — Colenso, 

1534 pr. p. 
71. Pannaria immixta v. gyrantha, NyL, Lich, Nov. Zel., 

p. 49.— Colenso, 1659. 
•72. Pannaria granulifbra, MuelL Arg. ; thallus cinereo-luridns, 

sqnamnlosns, hypothallo nigro in strains ; sqnamnlaB dense 

discretaa, adpress®, snbrosnlares, lacioioso-lobatse, crenatee, 



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204 DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 

moz adscendentes, imbricatsB, demum oonglobateB, snper- 
ficie integrse; apothecia ^^ mm. lata, plana, margine 

thalliiio yalido grannloso et radiatim snbplicato cincta ; 
discus cameus nudus; sporse et gonimia generis. — ^Est 
proxima P. intennixtcB Nyl. et ej. varietati gyrarUhcB Nyl., 
sed thallns aliter coloratns, mox imbricato-sqnamnlosns 
et margo thallinns apotheciomm crassior et granifems. 
Apothecia nt in landatlL yar. gyrantha subinde ambitn 
irregularia, reniformia et plieatula. — Corticola, ColensOy 
1652. 
♦73. Pannaria imbricatula, Muell. Arg. in FUyra, Ixiv. (1881) 
p. 507.— OoZen«o, 1561. 

Trib. Parmelielleje. 

74. Parmeliella Gayana, Mtiell. Arg, in Flora, Ixix. (1886) 

p. 286, sub. n. 1021,— Colenso, 1740 pr. p. 

75. Parmeliella triptophtlla, Muell, Arg, in Mem. Soe, Phys. 

Geneve, xvi. (1862) p. 378.— Oo?enw, 1571. 

76. CoccocARPiA AURANTiACA, Mont. et V. d. Bosch, in Miq. PL 

JungTi., p. 465.— OoZe?wo, 1668. 

♦ V. FURFURACEA, Mucll, Arg, in Flora, Ixv. (1882) 

p. 326,— Colenso, 1740. 



Trib. Phtllopsork*. 

77. Phyllopsora parvifolia, Muell, Arg, in Bull, Herb. Boiss., ii. 
App. I. (1894) p. 4&.— Colenso, 1653. 



Ser. III. KBYOBLAST^, 

Trib. LECANOREiE. 

78. Lecanora atra, Ach.y Lichenog, Univ., p. 344. — Colenso, 1508, 

1549, 1627. 

79. Lecania Babingtonu, Muell, Arg, in BuU, Herb, Boiss., ii. 

App. I. (1894) p. bO.—Colenso, 1677. 

80. Mtxodictyon chrysostictum, Massal,, Esam, Compaq,, p. 10. 

—Colenso, 1503, 1521, 1547, 1587, 1662, 1679, 1681. 

81. Pertusarla subyaqinata, Nyl. in Flora,, xlix. (1866) p. 290. 

—Colenso, 1538. 



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DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 205 

82. Pertdsaria creberrima, 8HrL ex Muell. Arg, in BuU. Herb. 

Boiss,, ii. App. i. (1894) p. 53.— O'ofenw, 1543. 

83. Phlyctella neozelandica, Nyl, Inch. Nov, Zel,, p. 72. — 

CoUnso, 1502, 1505, 1577, 1673, 1675, 1680, 1800. 



Trib. LECiDEEiE. 

84. Lecidea cinnabarina, Somnerf., Sappl. FL Lapp., p. 170. — 
Colensn, 1650. 

♦85. Lecidea bacidioides, Muell. Arg. in Flora., Ixv. (1882) 
p. 4Se.—Colenso, 1649. 

♦86. Lecidea coarctata, Nyl. v. decipiens, Muell. Arg. ; thallus 
minute sqaamTilosus, subuallas; apothecia testaceo- 
rosea, ambitn pallida, subondalata, 1^ mm. lata, 
sqnamulas parvulas Psorm decipieniis Hoffm. optime 
simalantia. — Golenso, 1693. 

♦87. Lecidea PARASEBiA,^yZ., Lich. Scand., p. 216. — Oolenso, 1585. 
88. Lecidea crustulata, Koerh., Syst., p. 249. — Colenso, 1720. 

♦89. Patellaru (s. Biatorina) variegata, Muell. Arg. ; thallus 
albidus, minute subsparso • granulans, demum eva- 
nesceus ; hypothallus albus, verniceo-levis ; apothecia 
\-^ mm. lata, plana, tenuiter marginata, gilvo-carnea, 
obsolete esBsio-pruinosa aut nuda, demum prassertim in 
margine v. etiam undique sensim nigrescenti-obscurata ; 
lamina apotheciorum pallidorum undique hjalina; 
paraphyses conglutinataB ; sporsD in ascis augustis 
biseriatim 8-nae, cylindrico-ellipsoideaB, 8-10 ^ longsB, 
2J-3 /4 latfiB. — Juxta P. subcameam, Muell. Arg., locanda 
est, extus tamen etiam P. ccesio»pallentem, Muell. Arg., 
refert, sed hsBC longius distat margine apotheciorum 
crassiore et sporis multo majoribus. Apothecia colore 
yalde ludunt. — Corticola, Golenso, 1578. 

90. Patellaria melaclina, Muell. Arg. in Bull. Herb. Boiss., 

i. (1893) p. 48 ; Lecidea melaclina, Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel., 
p. SS.^Colenso, 1504, 1532, 1600. 

91. Patellaru maroiniflexa, IfweZZ. Arg. in Flora, Ixxi. (1888) 

p. 539 ; Lecidea ma/rginijlexa. Hook. f. et Tayl. in Hook., 
Lond. Joum. Bot., iii. (1844) p. 638.— CoZewo, 1514, 
1548, 1639. 

92. Patellaria millegrana, Muell. Arg. in Flora, Ixiii. (1880) 

p. 280, sub n. 204.— OoZetwo, 1678, 1734. 



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206 DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 

93. Patellabia melasema, Muell. Arg. in Bull, Herb. Boiss., 
ii. App I. (1894) p. 69,—Golen8o, 1566. 

*94. Blastekla Colensoi, MueU, Arg.; thallus persicinus, in 
hypothallo C8?9io-albo tennissimo instratns, tennissime 
clato-granulofius, grannla circ. x^ mm. lata, vnlgo 
plnrima in glebnlas circ. ^ mm. latas dense conglobata ; 
apothecia ^1 mm. lata, sessilia, plana, demnm margine 
nndnlata, intense sangnineo-pnnicea ; margo concolor, 
tennis et leviter prominens ; lamina h jalina ; spor» 
8-nae, circ. 13 /t longsB, 7| /t latee. — Est species elegans, 
affinis australiensi,BZ. |?t*Zc^ern7Wfle, Mnell. Arg. in Floi'a, 
Ixxi. (1888) p. 141, nbi apothecia obscnriora et thallns 
alins. — Ad lapillos feldspatbicos. — Colenso, 1729. 

*95. LoPADiUM FERRUGINEUM, Muell. Arg. in Nuovo Giom. Bot. 
Ital., xxiii. (1891) p. 127.— Golenso, 1556. 

Trib. BlATORINOPSIDEJC. 

96. BiATORTNOPSis LUTEA, Muell. Arg. in Flora, Ixiv. (1881) 

p. 102.— Colenso, 1660. 
♦97. BuTORiDiUM neozelandicum, Muell. Arg. ; thallus olivaceo- 
uigricans, tennissimns, madefactns mollis ; gonimia 
gloeo-capsoideo-composita, demnm in filamenta monili- 
formia solnta, olivacea, diametro 3^ /i eqnantia, membrana 
indistincta; apothecia sessilia, plana, demnm f mm. 
lata, juniora dnplo et plnries minora, nonnibil gyalec- 
toideo-concava, nnda, margine proprio pallidiore obsolete 
prominnlo cincta ; epithecinm hyalino - fuscidnlnm ; 
hypothecinm leviter obscnratum ; paraphyses capillares, 
facile liber® ; asci angnsti, circ. 50-80-8pori ; spone 
varie ellipsoideee, circ. 7-8^ /t longsB et 4-5 ft latae.- 
Corticola : Colenso, 1640. — Obs. Hoc. genns ob stmc- 
tnram gonimiomm ad Biatoriiuypsideas pertinet. 

Trib. Byssocauleje. 

98. Btssocaulon niveum, Mont, in Ann. Sc. Nat., Ser. II. iii. 
(1835) 355 ; B.filamentosum, Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.,p. 77. 
—Colenso, 1613. 

Trib. C(EN0G0NIEiE. 

♦99. C(EN0G0NiUM TOMENTOSUM, Muell. Arg. ; thallus obscure 
flavescenti-glancus, dense csespitoso-tomentosus, fi la- 



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DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 207 

menta erecta, brevia, param v. non interiexta, circ. 13 /i 
lata, inter articulos non constricta, hypbis distinctis 
yalidinscnlis obdncta ; articuli subduplo longiores qnam 
lati ; apotbecia novella alba, magis evoluta |^1 mm. 
lata, cameo-aurantiaca, margine albido cincta, leviter 
concavo plana ; sporse S-nee, nniseriatim 8-n», 10-11 u 
longaB 2J /t lataB, fusiformes. — Inter C. pannosum, MnelL 
Arg. et C. diffractum, Krempelh. babita et erassitie fila- 
mentomm medinm tenet. — Cortieola, Colenso, 1615. 
♦100. C(EN0G0NiUM SUBTORULOSUM, MuelL Arg. ; thallns albido- 
glancns, caespitulos exiguos orbicnlares nano-bemispbee- 
ricos et demnm conflnentes formans; filamenta brevia, 
intrieata, 20-25 ;* lata, inter articulos modice lyrato- 
constricta, in superficie creberrime bypbemoideo-papil- 
losa; articuli fere duplo longiores quam lati, ellipsoidei; 
apotbecia ignota. — Juxta 0. heterotrichum, Muell. Arg. 
inserendum est.— Cortieola, ColensOy 1656. 

Trib. TflELOTREMEJE. 

101. OcELLULARiA CAVATA, MuelL Arg. in Flora, Ixv. (1882) 

p. 499.— Colenso, 1544. 

102. Thelotrema lepadinum, AcJi., Lichenog. Univ., p. 312. — 

Golenso, 1601, 1774. 

Trib. GRAPHIDEiE. 

103. Opegrapha subfarinosa, MueU. Arg. in Bull. Herb. Boiss., 

ii. App. I. (1894) p. 78.— Colenso, 1572, 1573. 

104. Graphis assimilis, Nyl., Prodr. Oall. et Alger., p. 150. — 

Colenso, 1603. 
•105. Graphis emersa, Mtiell. Arg. in Hedtcigia, xxxii. (1898) 
p. 133.~ CoZe?wo, 1628. 

106. Graphis comparilis, Nyl., Syn. Lich. Nov. Galedon., p. 89. 

— Golenso, 1524. 

107. Arthonu complanata. Fie, Esm., p. 54. — Golenso, 1775. 

108. Nesolechu oxyspora, Massal., Misc., p. 13 ; Lecidea 

oicyspora, Njl., Scand., p. 246. — In tballo Stictm cujus- 
dam valde mutilatae. — Golenso, 1528. Antea {in Bull. 
Herb, Boiss., ii. App. i. (1894) p. 61) banc speciem 
inter Lecideds recepi, quibuscnm tbalamii stmctui^ 



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208 DR. J. MUELLER — LICHENES COLENSOANI. 

convenifc, sed apotbecia omnino immarginata hinc inde 
e form4 regulari in arthonioideo-irregnlarem abeunt 
efc affinitatem arctiorem cum tribn Oraphidearum 
indicant. Locum nunc babeat juxta Gelidium. 

Ordo IV. PYRENOCARPE^. 

Trib. PrRENULEfi. 

♦109. PoRiNA (sect. Sagedia) leucothallina, MueU. Arg. ; 
tballus albus, tenuissimus, continuus et IsBvis, demum 
farinulentus (gonidiis cbroolepoideis) ; apotbecia 
\ mm. lata, leviter depresso-globosa, fere parte dimidia 
emersa, rotnndato-obtusa, nigra, opaca; peritbecium 
integrum, basi tenue ; paraphyses firme capillares ; 
asci angusti, 1 -seriatim 6-8-spori; sporsB 12-15 ft 
longsB, 2|-3 /I latae, obtuse fusiformes, 2-loculares v. 
rarissime et 4-loculares. — Juxta cubensem P. mundu- 
lam, MueU. Arg., locanda est. Subsimilis neozelan- 
dica P. albinula, Muell. Arg., difEert thallo minus albo, 
apotheciis minoribus et peritbecio dimidiato. — Corti- 
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HRS. WEBER VAN BOSSE OK PSEUBOCODIUM. 209 



On a new genus of Siphonean Algae — Pseudocodium, By 
Mrs. Weber van Bossi. (Communicated by George 
Murray, F.L.S.) 

(Plate I.) 

[Bead 6th June, 1895.] 

On the rocks near Tsipinga, and at the foot of the well-known 
bluff near Durban, I collected in the month of November, 1894, 
an alga, which proved to be new to science, and to belong to a 
new genus of the family of CodiaceeD, Wille. Unfortunately 1 
found it only in a sterile state, but its anatomical characters 
are very marked, and distinguish it well from all the other 
members of this family. It may be described as follows : — 

PsEUi»0C0DiUM, gen. nov. 

Frondes virides dichotomi, rami cylindrici omnino consimiles 
ex filis tubulosis subparallelis, longitudinaliter dispositi, apice 
iterum atque iterum divisi contesti, articuli exterioses apice in 
vesiculos oblongos evoluti corticem pseudoparenchymaticam 
formantes, rhizini filiformes cum granulis sabulosis et inter se 
dense intertextis. Progatio ignota. 

Species unica. P. De-Vriesei. 

Hah, Rupicola, ad littora Nataliad, AfricsB australis. 

It resembles in its outward appearance a Godium (Plate I. 
fig. 1), above all when taken freshly out of the water. Size, 
colour, habit, recall that genus ; but on looking more attentively 
the observer will be struck by the fact that the vesicles or clavate 
ramuli, as Harvey called the peripheral branches of Godium^ 
adhere closely together and so firmly that it is impossible 
to detach them from each other without injuring the plant 
(£g. 2). The peripheral ramuli of Godiu/m, on the contrary, 
are, as everybody knows, entirely free from the base to the top. 
The likeness to Godium, however, is so great, that I still 
thought my alga might belong to this genus, and might 
perhaps constitute an extreme member of it. Sections made 
through the frond convinced me of my erroneous opinion and 
indicated clearly that Pseudocodium is, in fact, much nearer 
related to Halimeda than to Godixi/m, notwithstanding that the 
calcareous incrustation and the wedge-shaped joints, both 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXH. P 



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210 MBS. WEBEB TAN BOSSE ON PSEUDOCODIUM. 

distingaisbing ihe HalimedaB from all the other Godiacese, are 
wantiDg. 

A section through the top of one of the branches of Pseudo- 
codium shows clearly that the growth of this plant is distinctly- 
apical (Plate I. fig. 3). The same occurs in Halimeda. At the top 
the tubes are much thinner than lower down ; they are densely 
filled with protoplasm, and give off many branches ; each tube 
bearing its branches mostly on one side. These branches 
(^g. 4) may divide again or swell up at the apices, trans- 
forming themselves at once into vesicles, which on their first 
appearance are roundish and quite free, but soon grow oblong 
and acquire a generally hexagonal form in transverse section by 
mutual pressure. When they have assumed this form they 
adhere so closely together that a section or a piece of the frond 
must be exposed during a considerable time to the influence of 
caustic potash, or eventually be boiled in this solution, which 
dissolves the cork layer covering the surface of the vesicles, 
before they are detached from each other. Each vesicle is 
borne on a single shorter or longer stalk by which it is con- 
nected with the tube from which it sprang. These stalks may 
be very narrow at the base of the vesicles but a stopper of 
cellulose, so often seen in the tubes of the Codieae, was not 
observed (fig. 2). 

Besides the branches at the top, all due to apical growth, the 
primitive tubes may later on and lower down give off secondary 
tubes or branches, though more rarely. These secondary tubes 
or later branches grow in all directions between the other 
tubes. All the tubes are densely filled with grains of amylum, 
becoming intensely blue on applying chloriodide of zinc. I was 
unable to study the chromatophores in living material while 
staying in Natal. 

In Oodium the mode of growth is quite different from that 
of Pseudocodium. First of all the tubes that constitute the 
interior of the plant, are much thinner. Sections made 
through an apex of Codium tomentosum, indicate that every 
tube in this region swells at the top and transforms itself into 
one of the well-known clavate ramuli of the genus Codium. 
After this ramulus or vesicle has attained a certain size, a little 
protuberance appears at its base, and this grows out into a 
lateral tube (figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). The number of lateral tubes 
given off in this way may be one or more These new tubes 



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MRS. WEBER VAN BOSSE ON PSEUDOCODIUM. 211 

increase in size, thej may divide themselves or not, but tbey 
invariably end by inflating their top into another vesicle. This 
explains why the vesicles of Godium are always connected with 
two and often with more tubes at their base. In fact, with the 
formation of every vesicle ends the growth of a tube ; at the 
base of the vesicle springs forth a new tube, which repeats the 
process, that calls to mind the mode of growth of the so-called 
scorpioid-cyme inflorescence of phanerogamous plants. 

The hairs of Godium tomentosum appear later as excrescences 
at the top of the vesicles. 

As I have already stated, I was not successful in finding the 
organs of fructification of Pseudocodium during the short time 
at my disposal. I suppose that they must appear in a manner 
somewhat Hke those of Halimeda and at the outside of the 
plant, for the vesicles form a pseudo-parenchymatous layer of 
cells, through which no spores could escape. It will be useless, 
therefore, to look for sporangia at the base of the vesicles, 
where they are found in Godium, 1 hope that the zealous 
investigators of algse in South Africa will soon be able to fill 
up this blank in the life-history of Pseudocodium, 

On examining preserved and much shrunk material in 
alcohol, I observed a few constrictions on the fronds. I had 
not remarked these before on the living plants, but I cannot 
tell whether they escaped my notice or became only visible 
after exposure of Pseudocodium to the influence of alcohol. 
These constrictions are places where the growtd from one 
reason or another springs forth with new vigour and reminded 
me of what happens at the base of every joint of Halimsda. 

Pseudocodium has a green filamentous alga living among its 
tubes, beneath the pseudo-parenchymatous layer of vesicles. 
This green alga twines between the tubes and adheres pretty 
firmly to them. Here, again, I could find no spores and must 
content myself with calling the attention of others to this 
curious little plant. 

I propose the name of Pseudocodium for our alga, on account 
of its superficial resemblance to Oodium. 1 have the honour to 
join to it, as specific name, the well-known name of Prof. Hugo 
de Vries, of Amsterdam, in grateful remembrance of the hours 
spent under his tuition. 

p2 



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212 MRS. WEBER VAN BOSSE ON PSEUDOCODIUM. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Pteudocodiwn De-Vriesei, nat. size. 

2. Peripheral yesioles of Pseudocodium, (a) seen from above, (b) seen 

from the side. Obj. 0, oc. 2, of Zeiss. 

3. Section through the top of a branch. Obj. A, oc. 2. 

4. A single tube more enlarged, showing the apical growth. Obj. C, 

oc. 2. 

5. 6, 7, 8, and 9. Different stages of deyelopment of the yeflicles of 

Codium : 6, end of a tube swelling out in a yesicle; 6, first appear- 
ance of a small protuberance ; 7, 8, 9, yarious stages of the new 
lateral tube. Obj. 0, oc. 2, slightly reduced. 



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ON THE ORCHIDEJE AND APOSTASIACEiE. 213 

The Orchidece and ApostasiaoecB of the Malay Peninsula. By 
Heney Ridley, M.A., P.L.S., Director Gardens and Forest 
Department, Singapore. 

[Bead 5th April and 3rd May, 1894.] 

The plants enumerated and described in this paper are those 
of the Malay Peninsula, from Kedah State (lat. 7^ N., long. 
QO^'-SO to 104''-30 E.) to Singapore, including the Lankawi 
Islands, and all other islands adjacent to the west coast, and 
the islands of Pulau Tioman, Pulau Tinggi, and Pulau Aor, on 
the east coast of Johore. I have added a few from Southern 
Siam, on the borders of the Malay Peninsula. 

The whole area is about 60,000 square miles in extent. 
Much of this country is as yet practically unknown botanically ; 
the northern States and the hill ranges which form the main 
chain of the peninsula, when it is possible to explore these, will 
doubtless add very largely to our knowledge. Of the earlier 
collectors, Cuming and Lobb found many species in Singapore, 
and both visited Mount Ophir in Malacca. Unfortunately 
Lobb*s collections were so irregularly labelled that it is often 
doubtful as to where he obtained his specimens. In Wallich*s 
Herbarium are a number of species collected by himself in 
Singapore and Penang, and by Finlayson in Penang and other 
parts of the peninsula. Griffith collected many on Mount 
Ophir and other parts of Malacca, and Maingay collected also 
in Penang and Malacca. Perak, a very rich district, has been 
explored by Father Scortechini, Mr. Wray, of the Perak 
Museum, Kunstler, Mr. Curtis, and myself. Mr. Curtis has 
obtained many species also in Penang, Kedah, the Lankawi 
Islands, and on the Siamese coast. I have visited myself, 
within the last six years, the States of Johore, Malacca, Pahang, 
Selangor, Sungei Ujong, Perak, Kedah, and the Island of 
Penang ; as well as investigated pretty thoroughly the Island 
of Singapore ; and I have received from many other parts of 
the peninsula, living and herbarium specimens from native 
dealers, and from various private persons ; among the latter 
Lieut. Kelsall, R.A., obtained valuable series from the high 
hill, Bukit Hitam, and from the limestone caves of Kwala 
Lumpur in Selangor, and also from various parts of the interior 
of Johore, during an expedition across the peninsula in company 



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214 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

^nth Mr. Lake ; and Dr. Keith while residing at Bangtaphan 
in Siam sent a number of herbarium specimens, with sketches 
and notes, as well as living plants. 

In the following list, I have marked with " v.s." those that I 
have only examined in a dry state, and due allowance must be 
made for post-mortem changes in these. A large proportion of 
the species described are or have been under cultivation in the 
botanic Gardens in Singapore. I have added here and there a 
few descriptions of species from outside the Malay Peninsula, 
•chiefly plants closely allied to the peninsular species. These 
descriptions are enclosed in brackets. AW the localities marked 
with a ! and no collector's name, were obtained by myself; 
and those which have no ! are species which I have not 
.seen in the peninsula. 

Habitats, — The greater part of the Malay Peninsula is covered 
with dense jungle which extends to the tops of nearly all the 
hills, though the trees at about 4,000 feet elevation are more 
stunted. In the low country forest epiphytic orchids are com- 
paratively rare, and when they occur are usually situated on 
the upper branches of the loftiest trees, so as to be nearly 
inaccessible. Terrestrial orchids, chiefly Neottiece, some of 
which are saprophytic, occur scattered all through the forests, 
usually sparingly, and owing to their dull or brown colouring 
are often very inconspicuous. The mangrove swamps and tidal 
river banks are often very rich in epiphytic species, which 
sometimes thickly cover the branches of the trees. In the 
drier and more sunny spots along the sea coast, and the more open 
rivers, species of Thrixspermum, Renanthera, and Aerides scramble 
over the rocks in thick masses. The open country where the 
forests have disappeared produces but few species ; Spathoglottis 
plicata, Blume, Eulophiay Qeodorum, Bromheadia palustris^ 
Lindl., Habenaria lacertifera, Benth., occur in dry grassy spots. 
Liparis paradoxa, Reichb. f ., Thrlxspermum lilacinum, Reichb. f ., 
and Vanda Hookeriana, Reichb. f ., grow in the grassy swamps. 
A few common species are abundant in the orchards and 
gardens of the villages ; such are Dendrohium crumenatum^ Sw., 
D. pumilum, Roxb., D. Leonis, Reichb. f., D. micranthum^ 
Lindl., Cirrhopetalum vaginatum^ Lindl., Bulbophyllum clan- 
destiumy Lindl., Dendrocolla Trichoglottis, and D. JUiformtSj and 
Acriopsis javanica, Reinw. 

In many of the hill forests, orchids become more abundant, as 



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APOSTASUCEJE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 215 

one ascends ; the jnDgle becomes more open, and on the exposed 
rocky slopes, called Padang Batu (stone fields) by the natives, 
a great variety can often be fotind. And in these places it is 
noticeable that species which in the low conntry are only to be 
found on the tops of the loftiest trees, are here to be seen 
growing on the ground or quite low down on the stems and 
branches of the bushes and small trees. Thus, on Kedah Peak, 
at about 3,000 feet elevation, the ground in some places is 
thickly carpeted with plants of Bulbophyllum, Ocelogyne, 
Dendrohium, PlatycUnis, Erta, &c., in such a manner that one 
is up to one's waist in them. 

A very difiPerent orchid flora is that of the limestone hills, 
which are scattered about all over the peninsula, but which 
chiefly run in a broken line north and south. These hills are 
usually mere isolated masses of crystalline limestone, of no 
great size or altitude, often many miles apart, but apparently 
forming lines parallel to the main chain of granite mountains 
which forms the backbone of the peninsula. Orchids are here 
very plentiful, growing both on the weathered pinnacles of 
rock, and on the small trees and shrubs growing in the crevices. 
The rocks of the Lankawi Islands, which have produced so 
many peculiar plants of all orders, are also of limestone. 

Flowering of Orchids, — The rainfall being very heavy, and 
spread over the whole year, there is no distinction of wet and 
dry seasons ; this is probably the reason why there is no special 
flowering season for most orchids. The greater part of the 
species flower at longer or shorter intervals throughout the 
year, though perhaps more may be found in bloom in the first 
three months. Calanthe curculigoides, Lindl., and GrammatO' 
phyllum speciosumy Blume, are exceptions ; the former flowering 
regularly in November, the latter in August or September. 
Saprophytic plants appear generally when hot and dry weather 
follows heavy rains ; and this applies not only to orchids such 
as Lecanorchis and Didymoplexis, but also to the BunnanniaeecB 
{Thismiaj Burmannia tuberosay Becc, and Oymnosiphon) and 
saprophytes of other orders ; so that when one or other of these 
is found, the others may be expected to be in flower as well ; but 
merely clearing a track through the jungle will often cause these 
plants to appear in a few weeks, whatever be the weather. A 
certain number of species flower irregularly all through the year, 
and are indeed rarely out of flower. Others, of which Bendro^ 



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216 MR. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEiE AND 

hium crumenatum, Sw., is the best known, invariably produce 
their flowers simnltaneonsly on certain days. The special day 
holds good throughout the district ; almost every plant bursts 
into blossom, and may remain in flower for but a few hours, . 
sometimes a whole day ; after which the flowers wither and no 
more appear till the next flowering day. Even plants brought 
from as far north as Siam to Singapore conform immediately 
to the Singapore day, and do not flower on that of their native 
place. Observation seems to show no correlation with the 
weather ; though if there is very heavy rain on the day that 
the flowers are ready to open, they usually delay till it is 
over. Besides Dendrobium crumenatum, Sw., D, teres, Lindl., 
D. Kunstleri, Hook, f., D. crimferum, Lindl., and other species 
of the Desmotrichum section of Dendrohium, BulbophyUum 
concinnum, Hook, f., B. macranthum, Lindl., £ria floribunda^ 
Lindl., E. densa, mihi, &c., behave in the same way. The 
advantages for purposes of fertilization, especially in the case 
of plants producing flowers singly, is obvious ; for were these 
to flower one at a time, as their blossoms are but short-lived, 
they would run a great risk of not being fertilized at all. But 
what causes the plants to break out into bloom on a definite day 
is not at all clear. 

There is a considerable variation in the method of opening 
of the fluwers. 

In some, all the flowers in the raceme open simultaneously, 
as in Cirrhopetalum. Others produce a raceme which, g^wing 
and elongating slowly, bears each day three or four fully open 
flowers only ; these, unless fertilized, fall the next day, before 
or as soon as the next three or four open. A raceme of 
GraTtmiatophyllum, developing in this manner, will last for a 
month and a half. The intervals of time between the opening 
of the two adjacent flowers may be thus from one to several 
days ; but they are longest in the FomicarioBy Thriasperma, and 
Bulbophylla of the section Intervallaioe, Here the rhachis grows 
very slowly, and the flowers open one by one, with intervals of 
from about 10 days (Dendrocolla fiUformis, Ridl.) to more than a 
month (BulbophyUum Stella, Ridl.) ; so that a raceme may take 
nearly a year before it has come to the last flower. 

Distribution, — The orchid - flora of the whole region is 
tolerably homogeneous, and may be generally spoken of as 
strictly Malayan ; a considerable proportion being common to 



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apostasiacej: op the malay peninsula. 217 

Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. In the north, however, above 
Eedah Peak, a number of Tenasserim species, such as Spatho- 
glottis Handingtana, Par. et Reichb. f., Bendrohia of the 
Speciosce section, Stauropsis gtganteus^ Benth., Vanda teres, Lindl., 
appear; and many of the typical Malayan genera, such as 
Claderia, Dipodium^ Appendicula and Podochilus become scarce 
or disappear. When this portion of the country is explored, 
I believe we shall find a tolerably clear line of demar- 
cation between the two floras, somewhere between the latitude 
of the Lankawi Islands and Kedah Peak. The flora of this 
latter mountain has a remarkable similarity to that of Mount 
Ophir, far away to the south, and is very different from that of 
the intermediate Perak hills. 

Throughout the peninsula there is an Australian element in 
the flora, chieOy to be observed in the open country, by the 
seashore, or on the tops of the higher hills. This is illustrated 
by the representation of such genera as Casuarina, Lepidosperma^ 
Bceckea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, and Gahnia. But the only 
typical Australian genera of orchids are Cryptostylis and Cory- 
santhes; the former of which is found as far north and west as 
the Himalayas and Ceylon. 

There is no trace here of the African element as illustrated 
by the genera Mijstacidium, Satyrium, and Disperis in the Indian 
flora. 

Of the 87 genera as yet known from this region, 9 are common 
to both hemispheres, viz., Microstylis, lAparis, Bulhophyllum , 
Calanthe, Polystachya, Vanilla, Pogoniu, Habenaria, and Cypri- 
pedium. Four others occur through India as far west as Africa, 
viz., Eulophia, Acampe, Corymbis, and Zeuxine, Fifteen are 
confined to the Malay Peninsula and archipelago, and are 
absent from the Indian region, viz., Claderta, PlatycUnis, 
Dendrochilufn, Chrysoglossum, Qrammatophyllum, Bromheadia, 
Ploeoglottis, Microsaccus, Adenoncos, Vrydag2synea, Cystorchis^ 
Dossinta, Hylophila, Dilochia, Oxyanthera; while Hcemaria is 
also found in China, Lecanorchis in Japan, and Cory santhes and 
Cryptostylis in Australia. The remainder occur also in India, 
with the exception of L&iicolena, BenanfherelUiy and Ascochilus, 
which have as yet been only met with in the Malay Peninsula. 

Native Names. — The Malays call all the epiphytic species 
generically " Angrek,'* or " Sakat.** The latter name, however, 
is applied also to a number of other epiphytic plants, such as 



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218 ME. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

Bhaphidophora and Epipremnum, They seldom confuse other 
epiphytic plants with orchids ; and distinguish them from 
epiphytic ferns, &c., with considerable accuracy. The terrestrial 
orchids with large plicate leaves, such as Calanthe and Spaiho- 
glottis^ are usually called ^^ Lumbahy*' or the reduplicative 
" Lulumhah " for " Lumhah-Lumhah.^* Properly speaking, this 
name belongs to Gurculigo sumatrana, Roxb., and the similarity 
of the leaves is the cause of the ti-ansference of the name. 



OBERONIA, Lindl. 
Sect. 1. Acaules* 

0. DI88ITIFLORA, Ridl., sp, ftova. Acaulis. Radices copio6». 
Foliay 4f-5, 3 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata (vel minora), ensiformia, 
falcata, subacuta, camosnla. Spicu 5 poll, longa, gracilis, 
ferme omnino florifera; rhachis basi anceps, supeme teres. 
Flares copiosi, minimi, dissiti nee fasciculati, flavi. Bractem 
ovatse, obtus89, ciliatse, virides apice albae. Ovarium brevius- 
culum, glabrum. Sepala late ovata, obtusa, integra, glabra. 
Petala lanceolata, angustiora, integra, glabra. Lahellvm 
sepalis paullo longins, ovatum, quadratum, obtusum, apice 
ciliatum ; fovea couspicua, smaragdina. Anthera ovata, citrina ; 
pollinia majuscula, mfescentia. 

Hah, Singapore : Kranji, rare ! 

This distinct little species, with very short-pedicelled flowers, 
belongs to the group with rather broad petals and an entire lip. 

O. STENOPHYLLA, Ridl., sp, fwva. Acaulis, caBspitosa. Radices 
copiosaB. Folia 2^ poll, longa, ^J poll, lata, ensiformia, 
falcata, acuta vel subacuta. Spica 3| poll, longa, gracilis, 
curva, ferme omnino florifera; rhachis teres, canaliculata. 
Flores copiosi, minuti, fasciculati ; fasciculi dissiti. Bractem 
cum pedicellis sequilongse, lanceolatae, acuminatsB. Sepala et 
petala subaequalia, ovato-oblonga, obtusa. Labelli lobi laterales 
late oblongi laciniati, medins obtriangularis emarginatus, 
angulis acutis. 

Hah. Johore : Hulu Sembrong, Lake and Kelsall ! v.s. 

This species belongs to the group with broad petals, and a 
three-lobed lip (the median lobe nearly bifid). It is allied to 
0. insectifera, Hook, f . The flowers appear to have been yellow. 



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APOSTASIACEfi OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 219 

[Oberonia Treubii, Eidl, sp. nova, Acaulis, pnsilla. Folia 
1^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, ensiformia, acuta, carnosa, ssepe 
rufescentia. Spica 2-3-poll. longa, ferme omDino florifera. 
Flares miuuti, subverticillati. Bractece cnm pedicellis sequi- 
longae, lanceolatae, acnminatae. Sepala et petala subsiinilia, 
snbaBqualia, ovato-lanceolata, obtnsa, pallide rufescentia ; sepala 
lateralia deflexa. Labellum 3-lobum, laete rubrum ; lobi lateral es 
rotundati, medius longior rotund afcus obtusus. Golumna parva, 
flava. Capsula -^ poll, longa, oblonga. 

Hab. Java ; on trees in Buitenzorg Gardens. 

Dr. Treub first sent me this pretty little species ; subse- 
quently I saw it in the Baitenzorg Gardens.] 

0. ScoRTECHiNi, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 683. 
Hab. Perak : Scortechini. 

0. INSECTIFERA, Hook. /., Ic. PI, t. 2004. 

Hab, Perak : Larut, King's Collector, 
Pahang : Tahan River. 

O. LUNATA, Lindl, Gen, et Sp, Orch., p. 17. 
Hab, Singapore : Selitar ! On a high tree, Ridley (n. 364). 
A very pretty tufted species with innumerable flowers, so 
closely arranged that the red lips alone are visible. 

O. ROSEA, Hook.f., Ic. PL, t. 2005. 

Hab. Perak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray, Larut Hills, 
King's Collector. 

Sect. 2. Caulescent es, 

O, ANCEPS, Lindl, Sert. Orch,, sub t. 8 B. 
Hab, Singapore : Kranji ! 

Malacca : Tanjong Kling ! (by the sea, on Calophyllum 

and Terminalia Catappa) ; Pengkalan Minyak ! 
Penang: Waterfall Hill ! 

Pahang : Passir Loyang ! Pahang River mouth ! 
Perak : Bindings ! 
The commonest species in the peninsula : abundant on trees 
in many parts of the low country. Flowers ochre-yellow. In 
Malacca it is known as " Sakat Lidah Buaya " — " Crocodile's 
tongue Orchid,*' and the leaves are made into poultices for 
boils. 



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220 MR. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEJ: AND 

Obebonia minuta, LindL, Bot, Reg, (1843) Misc., p. 6. 

Hah. Singapore : Sort Loddiges, 

I have not met with this. As it is stated to occur in the 
Philippine Islands (Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 685), it was 
probably wrongly localised in Loddiges' (Jardens. 

0. GBACiLis, Hook, /., Fl. Brit. Ind,, v. p. 685. 
Hah. Perak : Kinta River, King*8 Collector. 

0. POBPHYBOCHILA, Rtdl.y sp. tiova. SubacauHs. Radices 
longse, tennes. Folia usque ad 6 poll, longa, i poll, lata, 
lorata, acuminata, falcata, flaccida. Spica 4 poll, longa, 
tenuis, forme omnino florifera ; rhachis angulata, glabra. 
Floras minimi, in spicae basi approximati in apice fasciculati, 
flavescentes. Bractem lineares, acutae, integrae. Sepala brevia, 
ovata, obtusa. Petala linearia, sepalis multo augustiora, 
flavescentia. Lahellum 3-lobum, ovatum, purpureum, auri- 
culis longis recurvis ; lobus medius lobis brevibus divaricatis 
bifidus, margine undique denticulatus. 

Hah. Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Lieut. Kelsall ! 

0. ciLiOLATA, Hook. f. J Fl. Brit. Ind.,Yi, p. 181. 

Ha^. Singapore : not rare in the mangrove swamps, Kranji t 

Sungei Morai ! Chan Chu Kang ! Changi ! Ridley 

(n. 2034 a). 
Malacca : Sungei Kesang ! 
Flowers whitish-yellow. 

0. brunescens, Ridl.j sp. nova, Gaulis 1 poll, longus. 
Folia f poll, longa, \ poll, lata, cultrata, falcata, acuta. Spica 
4 poll, longa, gracillima, teres, basi longe nuda. Flores remoti, 
minimi, rufo-brunei ; pedicelli graciles. Bractece ovataB, acutaa. 
Sepala ovato-oblonga, integra. Petala lata, ovata, laciniata. 
Lahellum ovatum, laciniatum, non lobatum. Oapsula ^ poll, 
longa, ellipsoideo-pyriforrais. 

Hah. Perak : Larut Hills ! 



MICROSTYLIS, Nutt. 

M. CALOPHTLLA, Reichh. f. in Oard. Chron. (1879), ii. p. 718. 
Jlf. Scotiii, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 678, et Bot. Mag., 
t. 7268. Liparis elegantissima, Hort. 

M. Scottiiy Hook, f., was described from a drawing of a plant 



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apostasiacej: of the malat peninsula. 221 

found at Rangoon by Mr. Scott. Later a plant obtained from a 
native dealer by the Singapore Gturdens was sent to Kew ; where 
it flowered, and was figured in the * Bot. Mag.* In 1893, a number 
of plants were brought down from the Tonka district (in Siam) 
to the Fenang Gkirdens. Reichenbach's If. calophylla was 
described without locality. I received some years ago a speci- 
men from Mr. Moore, of Glasnevin Oardens, which he informed 
me was from the plant sent to Beichenbach ; and I have seen 
specimens of this plant collected in Borneo by Dr. Haviland. 
M. calophylla, Reichb. f., and M. Scottiiy Hook, f., are I think 
identical. 

MiCROSTYLIS ACUTANGULA, Mooh, /., Ic. PI, t. 1835, et Ft. 

-Bi^. In(f.,v. p. 688. 

Hoib, Perak : Batang Padang, Wray ! Larut Hills ! (rocks 
at 4,000 feet alt.). 
Selangor : Bukit Hitam, LieuL KeUall. 
Flowers light green. 

M. MiCRANTHA, Hooh, /., Ic, PI, t. 1834, et Fl. Brit. Ind,, 
V. p. 688. Terrestris, longe repens. Gaules 6 poll, longi, 
teretes, succulenti, ebulbosi. Folia subdisticha, petiolata, 
tenuia, lanceolata, acuta, crispa, patula, dissita, pulcherrime 
cuprea subtus virescentia ; petiolus | poll, longus, purpureus ; 
lamina 2-4 poll, loiiga, | poll. lata. Bacemus 4-6 poll, longus, 
erectus, gracilis, teres, purpureus, basi longe (usque ad f 
partem) nudus. Flores parvi, copiosi, dissiti. Bractece lineares, 
acuminated, recurvsB. Sepala lorata, obtusa, recurva, purpuras- 
centia. Petala sepalis subsimilia, paullo minora. Labellum 
ovate, laete flavum, auriculis magnis loratis obtusis ; laminae 
dentes 5, viz. 4 breves acuti, 1 medius major obtusus ; fovea 
distincta, viridi-rotundata. Oolumna brevis, viridis ; stelidia 
magna, porrecta, rotundata : anthera flava. Gapsula \ poll, 
longa, brevissime pedicellata, oblonga. 

Hah, Singapore : Bukit Mandai ! Selitar ! Changi ! Chan 
Ghu Kang ! 
Malacca : B, Berry ! 
Perak : Larut Hills, alt. 5,000 feet ! 
Johore : Gunong Pulai ! 

This foliage species (resembling Avanturina) belongs to the 
small group of creeping Microstylides ; its nearest ally being 
If. commelinifolia, Zoll. et Mor., of Java and Borneo. It 



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222 MR. HENRY RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJ! AND 

inhabits damp woods, where it grows on and through the damp 
woods like an AnoectochUus, It is very impatient of cnltivation. 

MiCROSTYLis PERAKENSis, Ridl.^ sp. fiova, M, plantoginea. Hook, 
f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 688 (non Stend., Nomencl., ed. II. ii. 
p. 144). Gaulis repens, § poll, crassns. Folia plnra, dissita, 
admodam insequalia, ovata aut ovato-lanceolata, acuta, plicata, 
costata, admodum ineeqnilatera, tennia, yiridia ; petiolus 1-2 
poll, longns, crassns, canalicnlatns ; lamina 6 poll, longa, 2 poll, 
lata. Scopus pedalis, erectns, validns, qnadrangnlaris, basi 
(bracteis pancis exceptis) nndns. Flores plnrimi, dissiti, pro 
genere spectabiles. Bractece j poll, longse, deflexae, lanceolatao 
acuminatee acatae. Fedicdli ^ poll, longi, patentes. Sepalum 
posticnm oblongnm cbtnsnm, lateralia ^ poll, longa ovato- 
oblonga postico latiora labello breviora. LdbeUum maximum ; 
auriculsB | poll, longae, lanceolatae acutaa, sepalum posticnm 
Buperantes, violaceo-rosesB ; lamina parva, rotundata, dentibus 
6 longis incurvis roseis ; fovea profunda, elliptica, marginibus 
multum elevatis. Columna alta, pro genere smaragdina; 
stelidia porrecta, oblonga, truncata ; anthera depressa, flava. 

Hah, Perak: Batu Kuran, G. Curtis (Fl. in Hort. Penang, 
Aug., 1893). 

What is evidently this species was referred by Sir Joseph 
Hooker to If. plantaginea, Steud. (Fterochilus planta^gineus^ 
Hook, and Arn.), a native of the Society Islands, from which I 
believe this plant to be quite distinct. The foliage and stem 
are very similar in the two; but in M. perdkensis the bracts 
are twice as long, the sepals shorter, the lip, instead of being 
nearly quadrate, is almost three-lobed. The auricles are very 
large, longer than the dorsal sepal ; and, between them and 
the dentate mid-lobe, is a distinct notch. The mid-lobe is quite 
short, with six in-curved processes. In M. plantaginea, Steud., 
the lip is oblong, squared in outline, there being no distinction 
of the mid-lobe; the teeth are shorter, more equal, more 
numerous, and straight ; and the fovea oval-rounded. 

Crepidium Bheedii, Blnme, also referred to M, plantaginea, 
Steud., is I believe a totally difEerent plant, with much smaller 
flowers. I have received it from Java. Lindley*s If. Bheedii 
consisted of a mixture of Epidendrum resupinatum, Forst. f . (i.e., 
M. plantagineusy Steud.), Malaxis Bheedii, Willd. (syn. MicrO' 
stylis Bheedii, Wight), a native of India; and Orepidium 



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APOSTASUCEiE OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 223 

Bheedii, Blame (which, however, he marks with a ?), the 
Javanese plant. In the monograph of Microstylts I adopted 
Lindlej's name for the Polynesian plant as being the oldest 
name, and as being the onlj one of the three plants Lindley 
incladed of which he had seen anything. But it wonld perhaps 
have been better to suppress the name altogether, as Sir Joseph 
Hooker has done. 

MiCROSTYLis PRAsiNA, BidLy sp, fiova. PseudO'hulhi vetusti 
3 poll.longi, f poll, lati, basi incrassati, novi crassi undiqne foliati. 
Folia nsqne ad 7-9 poll, longa 3 poll, lata, tennia ; petiolns 
crassns, canaliculatus, marginatns ; lamina lanceolata ant ovato- 
lanceolata acuta, in petiolnm attennata, 5-nervis, viridis vel 
pnrpnreo - nervata, margine crispata. Bacemus 6 poll, vel 
ultra longus, crassns, obscure angulatus, basi longe nudus 
supeme sublaxe racemosus, viridis vel purpurascens. Flores 
plures, virides. BracteoB I poll, longae, lanceolatse, triangulares 
acuminatse, deflexse. Pedicelli | poll, longi, graciles, patentes. 
SepaJa ^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, oblonga, obtusa. Petala 
sepalis longiora, anguste linearia. Labellum f poll, lougum et 
latum, snborbicnlare, apice late obtuse 3-lobatum ; auriculee 
magnsB, rotundataD, falcatsB; fovea parva, profunda, margine 
hand elevata. Golumna smaragdina ; stelidia elongata, erecta, 
apice obtusa. 

Hah. Siam: Tonka! 

Allied to If. Wallichii, Liudl. Leaves very variable. Flowers 
light semi-transparent green, darker in the centre of the lip, 
where the texture round the fovea appears glandular. 

M. MACROCHILA, Bolfe, in Kew Bull, n. 97 (1895), p. 6. 
Hah. Siam. 

Brought (with M. proMtia) from Siam, sent to England by 
Mr. Curtis. Not from Pulau Aor, as suggested by Rolfe. 

M. CONOESTA, Beichb. f. in Walp. Ann., vi. p. 206. 
Hob, Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! Kranji ! Teban ! Sungei 
Pandan! 
Malacca : Sungei Hudang ! Bukit Batu Fija ! 
Penang : Pulau Batong, 0. Curtis ! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills ! Rhio ; Christ. 
Smith (in Herb. Mus. Brit.). 
This is common in open dry woods in many parts of the 



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224 MR. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEJE AND 

peninstila. It is a terrestrial plant. There are two forms ; the 
commonest here being the one with purple flowers (the var. 
fusca^Dienia fmca^ Lindl.), which grows in the damper woods ; 
while the other, with green or greenish yellow flowers, grows 
in drier spots. 

It is commonly self -fertilized, the pollinia falling out of the 
anther upon the stigina over the edge of the very small 
rostellum. It almost invariably fruits, hardly a flower failing 
to set, and, like Spathoglottis plicatOj Blume, and Spiranthes 
australiSf Lindl., both self -fertilized plants, it is very widely 
distributed, occurring in Northern India, Burmah, Siam, 
Andaman Islands, China, Java, and Northern Australia. The 
natives in Malacca call it *' Siqundol Hutan." 



LIPARIS, L. C. Rich. 

L. VENOSA, BidL in Journ. Linn. 8oc. (Bot,) xxiv. (1888) p. 350. 
Hob. Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! 

Johore : Drawing at Kew ! 

Perak: Scortechini. 
A very beautiful plant, but by no means common. 

L. FERRUGINEA, Lindl. in Gard. Chron. (1848) p. 55. 
Hah. Malacca : Griffith ! (in herb. Kew.) 

Perak : King* 8 Gollector. 
Perhaps not distinct from L. nervosa, Lindl. 

L. NERVOSA, Lindl.y Gen. et 8p. Orch., p. 26. L. odorata, Lindl., 
I.e., p. 26. L. paradoxa, Reichb. f . in Walp. Ann., vi. p. 218. 

Hdb. Singapore : Changi ! Ang Mokio ! Reservoir ! 
Malacca : Chabau ! (in rice fields.) 

In the genera and species of Orchidaceous plants Lindley 
described, as three distinct plants, Empusa paradoxal based on 
specimens collected by Wallich in Northern India ; L. odorata^ 
based on a figure by Rheede in the Hortus Malabaricus, and 
L. nervosa, based on figures by Reeves and Thunberg. The first 
two have long since been recognised as belonging to the same 
species, a very widely distributed one. But L. nervosa I 
thought better to keep separate (see my monograph of Liparis 
in * Journ. Linn. Soc' (Bot.), xxii. (1886) 262), on the ground 
that it was quite distinct in colour, being purple flowered 



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APOSTASIACEJS OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 225 

instead of yellow, aud a native of China and Japan, whereas 
Z. paradoxa was only known from the Indian region, though I 
CO a Id see no stmctural difiPerence between the two. 

In March, 1889, however, while collecting in a marshy spot 
at Ang Mo Kio, in Singapore, I found three plants of a species 
of Liparis, one of which was in flower, and was evidently 
L. paradoxes, Beichb. f. It had greenish yellow flowers much 
the colour of those of L, Loeselii, A. Rich. The other two 
plants were in bud. The locality was a hot exposed wet grassy 
field, full of such grasses as Leersia hexandra, Sw., and Isachne 
austraUsj B. Br. ; and Thrixspermum lilacinnmi, Beichb. f., was 
scrambling through the grasses. The water was about 2 feet 
deep, with the Liparis growing in it. I removed the two 
unopened plants to the Botanic Gttrdens, had them potted and 
put into a sbady place ; both flowered in a few days, and were 
exactly similar in colouring. The sepals were exposed to the 
light when in bud, and the centres of the lip were of a deep 
purple black ; while that part of the sepals which was covered 
by the lip and the edges of the lip (which were turned down- 
wards, and so not exposed to full light) were green. In fact 
the flowers exactly resembled figures of L. nervosa of China. 

This change of colour was the more striking as one of the 
plants had its buds very well developed when moved to the 
garden, and did not show any signs of darkening till it had 
been put in the shade. 

From this I think it is clear that the two species are really 
the same, and that the colouring of the S. nervosa form is due 
to something analogous to melanism in animals. 

I have already referred to a similar variation in colour in 
Microstylis congestay Beichb. f. The Thrixspermum Ula^num, 
Beichb. f., too, which I got out of the same marsh as the 
Liparis, had its flowers nearly white, but grown in shade they 
put on the fine lilac colouring from which the plant takes its 
name. Indeed this plant varies very much in depth of colour 
in cultivation according to the brilliancy of the sun before 
opening. 

Liparis Wrayii, Hook, /l, Fl, Brit Ind,, vi. p. 181. 
Hah. Perak: Wray. 

L. TRANSTILLATA, Hidl., sp. nova. Pseudo-hulbus vetujtus 
1^ poll, longns, f poll, crassus, cylindricus. Gaulis junior a 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. q 



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226 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEiE AND 

foliorum vaginis fere omnino tectns. Folia circa 4, 6 poll, 
longa, 2 poll, lata, ovata ant ovato-lanceolata, acnta, admodam 
obliqua, plicata, Isete virentia, neryis 8 depressis ; petioli 2 poll, 
long], lati, profande canalicalati ; vagined 1 poll, longae. 
B-acemus 6 poU. longns; rhachis alata, basi nnda, snpeme 
crispo-angalata. Flares mediocres, reyersi; pedicelli f poll. 
loDgi, graciles, purparei. Sepala lorata, patula, lateralia 
^ poll, longa conyoluta parpnrascentia. Petala sepalis angus- 
tiora, linearia, pallidiora. Lahellum nngaiculatum, latum; 
lamina ^ poll, lata, late oblonga, tmncata, deflexa, obscure 
crenulata, atro-purpurea ; canaliculus median us olivaceus; 
callus basalis viridis e cost^ rect4 transversa (in cuspidibus 
purpureA) structus. Columna suberecta, apice cucullata recurva^ 
albescenti-flava ; stelidia parva, oblonga, truncata; clinandrii 
margo integer, rotundatus ; anthera plana, flava. 

Eah. Perak: Maxwell's Hill, alt. 3,000 feet! 

Grew with Microstylis acutangula, Hook. f. Flowered in 
the Singapore Garden. Allied to L, atropurpureaj Lindl., of 
Ceylon ; but differs, inter alia, in the form of the callus. 

LiPABis Maingayi, RicU. Microstylis Maingayi, Hook, f., Ic, 
PI., t. 1826, et ¥1. Brit. Ind., v. p. 689. 
Hab, Penang : Waterfall Hill, 0. Curtis ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 
Perak: Larut Hills ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
Grows on vertical, constantly wet, rock-faces. The amount 
of laciniation of the lip is very irregular; in a Penang 
specimen the lip was distinctly 2-lobed. 

L. PABVULA, BM, Microstylis parvula, Hook, f., Ic. PL, 
t. 1827 B, et Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 690. 

Hob, Perak : Larut Hills, Maxwell's Hill, on dry rocks ! 

This, and the preceding species, with L. furcata [t.e., 
Microstylis furcata, Hook, f., Ic. PL, t. 1827 A, et FL Brit. 
Ind., V. p. 690], are closely allied plants of quite peculiar habit, 
possessing a single large well developed leaf, borne on a short 
stem covered with three or four sheathing leaves, which is, 
after flowering, developed into a large, oval, thick, pale green 
pseudo-bulb. Sir Joseph Hooker, Ic. PL, t. 1826, is in doubt 
whether to refer the first-named to Microstylis or Liparis, 
deciding eventually for the former. I am more inclined to 



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APOSTASIACKE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 227 

the affinities of all three being with Ltparis, for the following^ 
reasons; the column (in L. Maingayi especiallj) is much 
longer than is usual in Microstylis, and as this appears to me 
to be the chief distinguishing mark between the two genera^ 
it must be allowed to have great weight. With respect to the 
form of the column, it is (in specimens from Penang Hill 
examined alive) broadly dilated at the base, narrowed upwards^ 
and arched over the lip. The stelidia are distinct, though not 
very large. In L, parvula the column is much shorter, but 
still stands up well over the base of the lip, and the stelidia 
are much larger. Turning to the lip, we find that there is 
no claw, as in many (but not all) Liparides. There is a 
distinct fovea at the base in both species, and in the fovea 
are distinct but small calli. The presence of the fovea, a 
rounded depression at the base of the lip, is usual in Mtcrostylis, 
but it does occur, also, in some of the Liparides, e.g., L, venosay 
Bidl., where there is also a callus behind it. Finally, the lip 
is not auricled, as it is in most of the Crepidium section of 
Microstylis, For these reasons, I think that these plants 
should be referred to the genus Liparis. The colour of the 
flowers of both these species is not " dark blue *' (as given 
doubtless from tickets written by native collectors), but a deep 
claret colour. (The Malay has no word in his own language 
for blue, and does not seem clearly to distinguish it, but always 
calls dark-red blue.) 

Liparis parvula, Bidl., so closely resembles young plants of 
L. Maingayi, Bidl., that it is quite impossible to distinguish 
it when out of flower. In specimens from Maxwell's Hill, 
Larut Hills, Perak, I find the lip thickened by a longitudinal 
bar down the centre with a transverse bar at the upper end, 
which forms the lower wall of the fovea ; while at the lower 
end it bifurcates, one arm going into each of the tails at the 
end of the lip. The margins of the lip are much thinner ; and 
on the tails are numerous unicellular processes, doubtless 
rudiments of laciniation. 

Liparis (§ Coriifoli^) lacerata, Bidl. in Joum. Linn, 8oc. 
(Bot), xxii. (1886) p. 284. 
Hob. Perak : Scortechini, Ac. 

Kedah : Ounong Bayah, 0. Cwtis ! Borneo. 
On trees in dense jungle. Flowers white, with orange lip. 

Q 2 



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228 MR. HENRY RIDLET ON ORCHIDE£ AND 

LiPARis LATiFOLU, LifidL, Qen. et Sp. Orch.<^ p. 30. L. Scortechiniy 
Hook, f., Ic. PL, t. 2009, et Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 703. 

Hob. Perak : Qiinong Hijan, and other parts of Larut Hills ! 
Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Lieut, KeUall ! — Java. 

Bather a handsome species ; sepals and petals pallid pinkish 
white ; lips reddish apricot colour. On trees, at 4-5,000 feet alt. 

L. ELEGANS, Lindl.y Qen, et Sp, Orch.y p. 30, in Wall. List, 
n. 1943. L, gracilis, Hook, f., Ic. PL, t. 2011. 

Hab. Singapore : common ; Selitar ! Kranji, Sungei Buloh ! 

Johore : Near the town ! 

Malacca : Bnkit Bmang ! Mt. Ophir ! 

Perak : Near the Waterfall, ThaipiDg ! 

Pahang ; Pekan ! 

Penang : Moniot's Road, Waterfall Hill, Curtis ! 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, alt. 3,000 feet ! 

Lankawi Islands : Kwala Malacca, Curtis ! 
This species, so long doubtful, proves to be the commonest 
species of the genus in the peninsala. It is almost always 
terrestrial, growing either directly on the ground or on old 
stumps in dry woods, more rarely on the lower branches or 
trunk of a tree. It is most abundant in the low country near 
the sea ; but ascends to 3,000 or 4,000 feet altitade on Kedah 
Peak and Mount Ophir. It frequently produces a rather long, 
fltiff, woody rhizome, with distant pseudo-bulbs ; but I have seen 
forms with crowded pseudo-bulbs and short leaves, which look 
at first sight as if of a distinct species. The sepals and petals 
are pale yellowish, the lip orange. The fruit varies from ^ to 
^ in. in length. 

I cannot separate L, gracilis, Hook. f. L. elegans, LindL, Sir 
Joseph Hooker pats under a section with a solitary leaf, and says 
that the pseudo-bulbs are hardly developed ; but in all the plants 
which I have seen there are very conspicuoas pseudo-bulbs, 
And two or more leaves to each, as Mr. Rolfe, too, describes it. 

L. FLACCiPA, Beichh,/, in Linnoea, xli. (1877) p. 45. 

Hah, Malacca : Machap, B, Berry ! 
Perak : King's Collector, 

The Malacca specimens are fully as big as the Javanese. 
Those obtained by King^s Collector in Perak were, according 
to Sir Joseph Hooker, much smaller and had no calli on the 
lip. The Malacca plants have, at the base of the lip, two small 



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APOSTASIACEJI OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 22^ 

bosse3, which might easily be overlooked in dry specimens.. 
The flowers are coloured exactly as in L. elegans, Lindl., and 
a big clump, with numerous nodding racemes of the very small 
flowers, is really very elegant. It grows usually on very lofty 
trees. 

LiPARis LONQIPES, Inndl., Oen, et Sp. Orch., p. 30 ; et in Wall.y. 
PL As. Bar., i. p. 31, t. 35. 

Hob, Penang : Sungkei River, Curtis ! n. 507. 
Perak : Batang Padang, Wray ! 

This common Indian species seems very scarce in the Malay 
Peninsula. I have only seen two or three specimens collected 
in Penang by Mr. Curtis, and those in the Kew Herbarium 
obtained by Mr. Wray. 

L. COMOSA, Bidl.y sp. nova. Pseudo-hulbi f poll, longi,. 
approximati, conici. Folia 4^ poll, longa, j poll, lata, anguste 
lanceolata acuta, basi longe attenuata. Bacemus 6 poll, 
longus, erectus, basi loDge nudus complanatus tenuiter alatus. 
Flores parvi ; pedicelli ^ poll, longi. Bra^ctece J poll, longsa, cum 
floribus subsBquilongee, lanceolatee, setaceaB. Sepalum posticum 
lanceolatum loratum, lateralia multo latiora lanceolata. Petala 
linearia. Lahellum oblongum, subquadratum, apice rotundatum ;. 
calli nulli. Columna basi incrassata, superne paullo arcuata ; 
alsB breves, obscurse. Capsula J poll, longa, ellipsoidea,. 
subglobosa. 

Hah. Perak: Tea Gardens, Larut Hills, alt. 1,500 feet, 
0. GuHis ! 

Allied to L. ccegpUosa, Lindl., L. angustifolia, Lindl., and 
L. ohscura, Hook, f., but larger than these. The flowers 
appear to have been green. 

L. (§ Distich*) disticha, Lindl. in Bot. Reg., sub t. 882. 
Bah. Singapore : Kranji ! Chan Chu Kang ! Sungei Moral \ 
Bukit Mandai ! 
Johore : Kwala Kahang, Lake and Kelscdl ! 
PahaDg : KotA Glanggi, on limestone rocks ! 
Lankawi Islands : G. Curtis ! 
A tufted plant, growing on low trees in or close to mangrove 
swamps in Singapore, and on the rocks and bushes in the 
limestone districts of Kota Glanggi and Lankawi. 
The flowers are of an apricot orange colour. 



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"230 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiB AND 

LiPARis COMPRESSA, LindL, Qen, et Sp, Orch,, p. 32. 
Hah. Perak : On trees in thick jungle in the Lamt Hills, up 
to 5,000 feet altitude ! 



PLATYCLINIS, Benth. 

P. LONGIFOLIA, Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. (1881) il. p. 656. 
Dendrochilum longifolium, Reichb. f. in Bonplandia, iv. (1856) 
p. 329. 

Sing9.pore : Kranji ! Sungei Jurong ! Sungei Morai ! 

Johore : Tanab Runto ! Batu Pahat ! 

Abundant in some places, growing on old stumps or on the 
ground in dry woods. This flowers all the year round. It has 
dull yellowish flowers with a brown blotch on the lip ; they 
have but little scent. I have seen a small Rhynchophorous 
beetle creeping about among the flowers with the pollen masses 
on its head. 

P. KiNGii, Hook.f., Fl. Brit Ind,,Y. p. 708, et Ic. PI, t 2015. 

Eah. Perak: C. Curtis! v.s. 

In Curtis's plant I find the lateral lobes of the lip smaller 
and the medium lobe larger in proportion than in Hooker's 
figure. 

P. LINEARIS, BidL.^ 8p, nova. CsBspitosa, terrestris. Rhizoma 
crassum, lignosum. Fseudobulbi 1^ poll, longi, elongati, 
conici, a vaginis membranaceis tecti. Folium ultra pedale, 
-jt poll, latum, lineari-lanceolatum, obtusum, basi longe angus- 
tatum. Scopus 8 poll, longus, gracilis, nudus ; racemu^ 4 poll, 
longus. Flores parvi, albescentes. Bractem lanceolatce, acutsB ; 
pedicelli J poll, longi, cum ovariis eequilongi. Sepala linearia, 
trinervia. Petala ^ poll, longa, uninervia, sepalis subsimilia. 
Lahellum I poll, longum, lineare, obtusum ; lobi laterales vix 
distincti, apice acuti; carinee 2 crassce basi elevatee, tertia 
mediana vix elevata. Golumna arcuata, elongata, in dorso 
acute carinata; stelidia magna, lanceolata acuminata acuta, 
versus columnsB basin exorta, clinandrii marginem denticulatum 
superantia. Anthera longe rostrata ; rostellum elongatum, 
triangulare. Stigma a margine incrassato product© basi 
auctum. 

Hah. Kedah: Kedah Peak, 3,000-4,000 feet alt., very 
abundant, forming large masses on the ground ! 



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APOSTASIACEJI OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 231 

This Platyclinis was nearly out of flower at the time of my 
visit to Kedah Peak in August; but I succeeded in finding 
some few sprays of flowers and half -ripe fruits. The flower is 
nearly white. The lip is remarkably narrow, and the lateral 
lobes very obscure. In the dried specimens, the lip is coiled up 
at the end, like a butterfly's tongue. The narrow petals, sepals, 
and lip are distinctive marks of the species. 

Plattclinis gracilis, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 708, et 
Ic. PL, t. 2016. 

Hah. Perak : King's Collector. 

P. LINEARIFOLIUM, Ridl. Deudrochilum linearifolium, Hook, 
f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 782, et Ic. PL, t. 1859. 

Hah. Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

Perak : Scortechini ; Batang Padang, Wray. 

Common on trees on Mount Ophir at 4,000 feet elevation, 
flowering in May. The Ophir plant is evidently that figured 
in the Icones, from Perak, and seems to me certainly a 
Platyclinis. 

DENDROBIUM, Swartz. 

This large genus is by no means easy to break up into 
satisfactory groups; the best characters for classifying the 
species appear to be those of the stem. The genus can first be 
broken up into two series: one with the primary stem 
branched and usually extensively developed ; the other, with 
a short unbranched primary stem. To the first series belong 
Sarcopodium, with an elongate creeping rhizome throwing up 
two-leaved, i.e., binodal pseudo-bulbs, such as D. TreacherianuM, 
Reichb. f ., D. geminatitm, Lindl. ; and among aberrant forms 
D. funifomie, Blume, must be placed here. D. longicolle, Lindl., 
must be excluded, as it has no creeping rhizome, or at least 
it is exceedingly short; it is evidently nearest to D. hetero- 
ideum, Blume, and Cadetia a/ngustifolia, Blume, and may be 
classed as a Cadetia. This name has been used (Fl. Brit. Ind.) 
for a section for which I propose to retain the old name o( 
Desmotrichum, a generic name given by Blume for several of the 
species included in it, such as Besmotrichum fimhriatnm and 
D. convexum. This section is a very distinct one in possessing 
an extensively branched stem, with usually a creeping primary 



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232 MR. HENRT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJ! AND 

stem, and the terminal nodes of each branch dilated into a 
terete or flattened psendo-bnlb, bearing a single (rarely and 
only exceptionally a second) leaf. 

Bolhidiv/m is retained as a section for a few plants with a 
distinct bnfc short primary stem and pancinodal pseudo-bnlbs 
bearing a pair of leaves. 

The remaining species have a very short primary Htem and 
tufted polynodal secondary stems, which are bnt seldom 
branched. Many species emit lateral shoots when the terminal 
bud is destroyed, and several species normally emit lateral 
shootB, such, for instance, as Dendrohtum inconcinum, Bidl., 
and D. prostratumy Bidl., which latter, though closely allied to 
the tufted crest, D. (§ Aporum) Leonis, Reichb. f., has taken on 
a creeping habit, and emits roots from the underside of the 
stem and branches in every direction. Most of the species have 
terete or more or less compressed secondary stems, rarely 
dilated into pseudo-bulbs properly so-called. The section 
Clavatoe has some of the lower internodes swollen into a 
fusiform shape. D. tameUatwn^ Liudl,, has a shortened 
polynodal stem, broadly dilated upwards but very thin. I 
have referred it to the Pedilonwm section on account of the form 
of its flowers. 

The whole of this series can be broken up into those with 
persistent leaves, t.e, that bear flowers on the leafy stems and 
those that bear them on the old stems only after the leaves 
have fallen. To the first series belong — 

Aporum, Blume, with its flattened stem and leaves ; 

Strongyle with subterete acute leaves ; 

Virgatm with a tall, slender stem and narrow linear leaves ; 

OlavatoB with stems similar to the last, except that several 
nodes at the base are more or less swollen ; 

DistichophyllcB with stout stems with usually short distichous 
leaves, and a very distinct form of flower 

Brevtflares resembling the next seiies, but with the terminal 
leaves persistent, and short broad flowers — ^not a very good 
section. 

Of the large series with the flowers borne on leafless stems, 
PedUonmn is distinguished by its long mentum and compara- 
tively short sepals and petals, but there are many species 
intermediate between typical Pedilonums (such as D. secundum, 
Lindl.) and the remaining section Eudetidrobium. 



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APOSTASIACEJE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 233 

The Eudendrobia are but scantily represented here. The 
large section of SpecioscBy plentiful in Burma, hardly descend 
as far south as our region. The AntennatcB (D. strehloceras, 
Beichb. f., D, antennatum, Lindl., Ac), characterised by their 
erect elongate twisted petals, are strictly Papuan, and 
apparently do not occur even so far west as Borneo. The 
absence of the Formosoa section is more remarkable, as it is 
well represented in Borneo as well as in Burmah. The constant 
rain without any dry period in this region is doubtless the 
cause of the absence of many species such as the SpecioscBy 
which require a period of rest in order to produce flowers; 
many species of which hardly exist even under careful culti- 
vation in our climate. 

Dendrobium (§ Sarcopodium) gbminatum, Lindl.y Oen. et Sp. 
Orch., p. 77 ; Hook. /., Fl. Brit, Ind., v. p. 713. 

Hab, Perak : Gxinong Hijan, Larut Hills ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak, abundant ! 

This plant creeps far among moss on rocks and stumps of 
trees. The flowers are white, with yellow and brown marks on 
the lip. 

D. MACROPODUM, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ltd., v. p. 713. 
Hah. Perak: Scortechtia, Wray. 

D. LONGiPES, Hook.f.f Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 713. 
Hab. Perak: Bcortechim, 

D. PERAKENSE, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 712. 
Hab. Perak. 

Scortechini's drawing of this appears to represent Eria 
stellafa, Lindl. I have seen no specimen. 

D. (§ Cadetia) lonoicolle, Lindl.y Bot. Beg. (1840) Misc.y 
p. 74 ; Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 712. 

Hab. Singapore : Sungei Morai ! 

This very curious species was first found by Cuming, in 
Singapore, and sent home alive. It is very local here, but 
when it occurs is found in large clumps. It grows with 
Platyelinis longifolioy Hemsl., on stumps in dry, sandy woods 
near mangrove swamps. There is only one leaf on each pseudo- 
bulb, but above this is a dry, brown sheath, which wraps the 
base of the ovary and the short pedicel of the flower. The 
flowers are solitary, and are produced two or three times a 



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234 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJJ AND 

year. They last but a few Lours. I have never seen fruit, 
which must be very rarely produced. 

Dendrobium (§ Bolbidium) pumilum, Boxhj Hort. Beng., 
p. 63; i'l. Jnd., iii. p. 479. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Selitar ! Bajau ! 

Johore : Kota Tuiggi ! Kwala Sembrong, Lake and 
Kelsall ! 

Malacca : ! 

Sungei Ujong : Bukit Kupayiang ! 

Pahang : Pekan ! 

Penang : Pulau Tikus ! 0. Curtis. 

Perak : Scortechini, 

Rhio ! . Borneo ! 
A common little plant in mangrove swamps, orchards, and 
open country. The plain yellow form and the one veined with 
red occur mixed. It generally grows on trees low down. In 
Sungei Ujong it is called " Sakat Kalumbai^^^ and the roots are 
boiled and applied in cases of dropsy. D. camoswn^ Teysm. 
et Binn. in Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind., v. (1853) p. 489, seems to 
be intended for this species. 

The section, § JDesmotrichum, includes the species given 
under Gadetia in the Flora of British India, but not the Gadetias 
of Blume and Gaudichaud, which form, as it seems to me, a 
very distinct section of themselves. The name was originally 
given by Blume to a number of species of Bendrohium^ most of 
which I would retain in this section, while others evidently 
belong to the Sa/rcopodium section. In Desmotrichum the 
primary stem is sometimes elongate and creeping, and some- 
times short, but in any case it throws up many slender 
polynodal stems, which branch again and again, and each 
branch is terminated by a pseudo-bulb composed of one, rarely 
two, intemodes : one, the lower, very large and dilate ; the 
other, when present, very short. The lower one bears a broad, 
more rarely narrow, somewhat coriaceous leaf, from the axil of 
which are emitted one or two inflorescences. These are 
racemose, but, as a rule, only one flower is produced at a time. 
The two inflorescences are not synchronous, but develop one 
after the other at considerable intervals of time. They are 
enclosed at the base by two bracts, dry and cartilaginous, 
which eventually break up before flowering into fibrils. In 



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APOSTASIACEJS OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 235 

D. Kunsfleri, Hook, f., the inner bract in the bnd exudes a deep 
crimson, oily, viscid liquid in drops, which probably serves to 
protect the bud from the action of water. This, when the 
flower is open, remains in the now dry bract in the form of red 
spots. In D, crintferumy Lindl., the arrangement is much the 
same, but the plant is rather peculiar among Desmotrichums in 
throwing up tall, erect shoots, each internode of which is 
enwrapped in a sheathing leaf, narrowed at the base and 
broadly dilated above. These soon drop off, leaving the slender, 
erect stem bare. Meanwhile, the terminal internode enlarges 
and produces the leaf, and eventually the flowers. Then, from 
the node below the dilated terminal internode (but often also 
from other nodes) another lateral shoot is produced, which 
develops in the same manner. In this plant also there ai^ 
several inflorescences in each axil, which develop singly, more 
rarely two together, at long intervals of time, and inflorescences 
are often also emitted from nodes which have never borne a 
fully developed leaf. The inflorescence which appears to 
terminate the stem is really emitted from the axil of the leaf, 
so that it is strictly axillary, though the arrested development 
of the stem above the leaf makes it appear as if it was 
terminated. Like many other orchids in the Malay Peninsula, 
Desmotrichums have no definite flowering season, but at 
intervals of a few months every individual of the same species 
flowers on the same day. 

But two species are described from the Malay Peninsula, 
although many more occur. This is due to the fugaciousness 
of the flowers, which last but a few hours in the morning, and 
so are seldom to be met with by collectors. They are also very 
thin textured and preserve badly. To describe these plants 
properly it is essential to cultivate them and examine the 
flowers during life. Another diflBculty in working from dried 
material arises from the alteration in form of the pseudo-bulb 
under pressure. Verj good characters are to be obtained from 
the form of the pseudo-bulb, but these have been often over- 
looked or misunderstood : thus, D. Macrfrd, Lindl., D. loncho- 
phyUum^ Hook, f., and D. Kunstleri, Hook, f ., have all been 
described, simply as having fusiform pseudo-bulbs, whereas 
during life they are quite different in shape from each other. 
The best way of classifying the species is, I believe, by the 
form of the lip. Thus — 



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236 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE* AND 

Tei*minal lobe of lip not broader than the lateral lobes (t.e.> 
when the lip is spread out). 

(A) Lip glabrous ; apex bilobed. 

D. lonchophjllum, Hook./., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 714. 

D. convexum, LindL, Gen. et Sp. OrcJi., p. 76. 

D. KelsalH, Ridl 

D. angustifolium, Lindh, Oen. et Sp. Orch.^ p. 76. 

D. appeudiculatum, Lindh, I.e. 

(B) Lip bearded ; apex entire. 

D. criniferum, Lindl,, Bot. Reg. (1844) Misc., p. 41. 

D. ZoUingerianum, Teysm. et Binn. in Tijdsch. NederL 

Ind., xxiv. (1862) p. 313. 
D. comatum, Inndl., Gen, et Sp. Orch., p. 76. 

These two are probably identical with the preceding. 
D. angulatum, Lindl, ^ l.c.^ p. 76. 
D. Scopa, Lindl, Bot. Beg. (1842) Misc., p. 65. 

Terminal lobe much broader than laterals, fan-shaped, when 
expanded almost entire ; margins waved. 

(C) D. Kunstleri, Hook. /., FL Bnt. Ind., v. p. 714. 
D. Macrsei, Lindl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 75. 

D. fimbriatum, Lindl., I.e., p. 76 (non Hook. f.). 

D. roseo-punctum, Bidl. 

D. pallidiflorum, Bidl. 

D. grandiflorum, Lindl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 77. 

D. pallens, Bidl. 

Terminal lobe as in Section C, but lacerate or fimbriate. 

(D) D. CsBlopogon, Beichb. /., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 23, t. 109. 
D. Hasseltii, Lindl., Oen. et Sp. Orch., p. 87. 

D. striolatum, Beichb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz., xiii. (1857)» 

p. 313. 
D. laciniosum, Bidl. 

Dendrobium lonchophyllum. Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 714,. 
ef Ic. PL, t. 2018. 

This is common in the Malay Peninsula, especially in the 
south, often growing in clumps on the boughs of mangroves. 

Abundant in Singapore, Johore, and also in Perak. 

The stems are much branched, and swollen at intervals into- 
club-shaped pseudo-bulbs, but slightly flattened, polishedv 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 237 

ridged, and grooved. The flowers appear singly or in pairs, 
on the short raceme, snnk in a depression in the pseudo-bulb 
below the leaf. Thej are small and fugacious, yellowish, with 
pink stripes on the sepals and petals. The lip is naiTow, 
oblong spathulate, with two thin inflexed narrow lobes ; 
terminal lobe bifid, with the lobes oblong and rounded ; three 
low ridges run along the lip to the base of the mid-lobe, where 
two converge to a point. The centre of the lip to the epichil is 
crimson, the lateral lobes pink ; the terminal lobe is yellow. 
The flowers are very fugacious, lasting but a day. 

Dendrobium Kelsalli, Bidl.j sp. nova, Caules plures aggre- 
gati, 15 poll, longi, teretes, flavi. Fseudo-hulhi 1 poll, longi, 
^ poll, lati, subfusiformes, teretes nee compressi, curvuli, 
politi, flavi. Folia 1\ poll, longa, \ poll, lata, lanceolata, 
subobtusa, coriacea, canaliculata nee carinata. Flores paf vuli ; 
pedicelli (ovario viridi incl.) § poll, longi. Sepalum posticum 
ovatum obtusum, lateralia multo majora ^ poll, longa et lata 
late ovata obtusa ; mentum grande, latum, obtusum, in medio 
dilatatum. Petdla sepalo postico minora lorata, obtusa, pallide 
viridia. LdbeUi basis angusta; lobi laterales late, obtusi, 
erecti, virescentes ; discus kermesino-purpureus, S-caiinatus ; 
canned subeoquales in basi lobi medii terminatsB ; lobus medius 
hippocrepiformis, rotundatus, 2-lobus ; lobi paralleli, leete pallide 
aurantiacei. Golumna subrecta, virescens ; anthera obtusa ; 
stelidia deotiformia, erecta, acuta. Stigma late oblongum. 

Hah, Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Lieut. KeUall ! 

Pulau Aor : east coast of Johore, J". Fielding ! 

Perak: Max welFs Hill ! 

Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, Gunong Jerai ! 

This species is common on trees in the hilly disti'icts. It is 
distinguished from 2>. lonchophyllum. Hook, f., by its slenderer 
form, smaller in all parts, shorter mentum, and hoi-se-shoe 
shaped mid-lobe of the lip. 

D. convexaniy Lindl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 76 ; Reichb. f., Xenia 
Orch., ii. p. 73, 1. 118, 1 only know from the author's figui*e and 
description. It seems to have a creeping stem emitting roots, 
and the mid- lobe of the lip is longer and narrowed at the base. 
It was collected by Blurae at the foot of Mt. Salak, in Java. 

JD. xantholeucunij'Reichh. f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 73, t. 118, was 



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238 MB. HENRT BIDLET ON ORCHIDE£ AND 

described by the author from a drawing in Knhl and Hasselt*8 
collection. It is remarkable for having a single keel ronoing 
the whole length of the lip. As this is most unusual in this 
section and may be a misinterpretation of the original drawing, 
the plant must remain doubtful till further specimens are 
obtained. 

Dendbobium CEiNiFERDM, lAtidl.^ Bot, Reg. (1884), Miac.y 
p. 41. Caules ramosissimi, erecti, plures, usque ad 2 ped. 
loDgi, flavi, nitidi ; internodi teretes, apice paullo incrassati. 
Psettdo'bulbt in apicibus ramorum siti, crassi. Folia 3 poll, 
longa et lata, elliptica vel ovato-elliptica, obtusa, coriacea; 
carina caniculata distincta, nervi conspicui. Bdc^mus ^ poll, 
longus, a vaginis bruneis tectns. Flores bini ; ovaria gracilia, 
viridia; pedicelli (ovariis incl.) J poll, longi. • Sepala § poll, 
longa (posticum paullo minus), patentia, lanceolata, acuta, 
straminea ; mentum brevissimum, latum, obtusum, apice 
purpureo - punctatum. Fetala sepalis breviora, linearia, 
straminea. Ldbellum cum sepalis lateralibus sequilongum, 
basi angustum 3-lobum ; lobi laterales arcuati, acuti, straminei, 
intus kermesino-lineati ; disci straminei vel purpureo-maculati 
carineB 2, kermesinsB, in lobum medium incurrentes, in hoc loco 
sinuataB ; lobus medius linearis elongatus, in margine sinuatns, 
apice prsesertim a filiamentis flavis tortis tectus. Columna 
bi-evis, crassiuscula, alba purpureo-punctata ; anthera majuscula, 
smaragdina; rostrum latum; pollinia oblonga, flava; st-elidia 
erecta, dentiformia, acuta. Stigma magnum, oboyatum. 
Reichb. /. in Walp. Ann,, vi. p. 303. D. Zollinger Umunij 
Teysm. et Binn. in Tijdsch. Nederl. Ind., xxiv. (1862) 
p. 313. B. comatum, Lindl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 76. 
BesTnotrichum comatum, Blume, Bijdr., p. 230 ? Oalgptranthera 
fimhriatay Blume, MS. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Ghangi ! Sungei Morai ! 
Rhio ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat, Lake and Kelsall ! 

This plant forms large clumps on trees usually near the sea. 
It was first described by Lindley from a plant introduced by 
the Duke of Northumberland, who received it from Mr. Power 
from Ceylon. It does not seem to have been since seen wild 
there, and as some other strictly Malayan orchids, e,g,y 
Bendrohium sanguinolentum, Lindl., and B, crumenatum, Sw., 



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APOSTASUCEiE OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 239 

are also recorded in the same manner, it is reasonable to 
suppose that Mr. Power obtained these plants from the Malay 
Peninsula. 

2>. Zollingerianum^ Teysm. et Binn., seems from the 
description to be this species; and 1 suspect B. comatnm, 
Lindl. (Desmotrichum' coinatum, Blume), is the same thing. If 
H0» this is the oldest name for the species. There is a flowerlesK 
specimen of what appears to be this in the Buitenzorg Herbarium, 
with the name Calyptranthera fimbriata^ in Blume*s handwriting, 
a name never taken up as far as I know. 
The flowers have a faint scent of cowslips. 

Dendrobium Kunstlebi, Hook, /., Fl. Brit, Ind.^ v. p. 714. 
Caules repentes, validuli; rami crassi, suberecti, teretes, politi. 
Psettdo-buUri 2 poll, longi, 1 poll, lati, ^ poll, crassi, ovati, 
compressi, olivacei vel purpurascentes. Folium 5-6 poll, 
longum, 2 poll, latum, ovatum ovato-lanceolatum aut lanceo- 
latum, obtusum, coriaceum, carinatum et costatum, atroviride 
(juvene purpureum). Flares saepius siogulatim expansi ; 
pedunculi \ poll, longi, albi. Bracteca 2, oyatse, lanceolatae, in 
fibrillos mox solutse. Bractea floralis minima, ovata, alba ; 
pedicellus eum ovario ^ poll, longns, albus. Sepdla f poll, 
longa, ^ poll, lata (vel latiora), lanceolata acuta, recur va ; 
meutum cum sepalis SBquilongum (vel longius) rectum, conicum, 
subacutum. Petala cum sepalis SBquilonga multo angustiora, 
linearia, recur va, ochrolenca, roseo-maculata. Lahellum basi 
anguste lineare stramineum, in apice loborum lateralinm 
it)seum; lobi laterales angnsti, acuti, medius pandnrato- 
oblongus marginibus plicatis erectis ; carinaD 2, crassce, in disco 
rectee, in lobo medio sinuatse, tertia media in disco recta minus 
elevata. Columna recta, ventre excavate ; stelidia et filamentum 
erecta, dentiforraia, acuta. Anthera oblonga, apice rotundata. 
Stigma profundum, rotundatum. D, Fldbellum^ Reich, f., Xenia 
Orch., ii. p. 75, t. 118. 

Hah, Singapore : Bukit Tomali ! Kranji ! Changi ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat, Lake and Kelsall ! 
Siam : Ghirbee, Curtis ! 
Perak: Scortechini! 

A common and somewhat variable plant, with for the seetiou 
rather showy sweet-scented flowers. I imagine Beichenbach'n 
D. Flahellum is intended for this, but he says that that has 
three sinuate keels. 



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240 MB. HENRT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

D. Kunstleri, Hook, f., has three keels on the disc between the 
mid-lobe, the two outer of which only are carried on to the mid- 
lobe, and are there sinuous. 

Dbndbobium roseo-pdnctatum, Bidl.y sp. nova. Caules 
repentes ; rami 6-8 poll, lotifi^, giticiles. Pseudo-bulhi 2 poll. 
loDgi, I poll, lati, I poll, crassi, fusiformes, paullo compressi, 
utrinque attenuati, leves, olivacei. Folium 6 poll, loiigum, 
f poll, latum, lanceolatum, loratum, obtusum, carinatum, basi 
attenuatum, atro-viride. Inflorescentia subterminalis ; pedun- 
culus bracteas ^-poll. longas paallo superans, albus. Flores 
mediocres ; bractea floralis minuta, ovata, alba. Otarium 
incrassatam. Sepala subaBqualia, ^ poll, looga, ^ poll, lata, 
lanceolata, acata, pateutia nee reflexa ; mentum breve, latum, 
obtusum, decurvum. Petala linearia, alba. Lahellum f poll, 
longum ; lobi laterales breves, acuti, curvati intus kermesiiio- 
punctati, medius flabellatus obcordato-emarginatus ochroleucus ; 
carinae 2 (tertia mediana vix elevata), in disco rectee, in lobi 
medii isthmo magis elevatsB, sinuatae, plicatsB, kermesinas. 
Golumna brevis, supeme attennata, rufo-punctata ; stigma 
rotundum ; stelidia brevia, antheram hand superantia. 

Hdb, Malay Peninsula : in Hort. Bot. Singapore culta. 

Allied to D. Kunstleri, Hook, f., but distinct in its strictly 
fusiform pse ado-bulbs elliptic in section, narrower leaf, sepals 
and petals pure white, column and side-lobes of lip much 
shorter, isthmus longer, keels large, sinuate diverging at the 
middle, not running on to the lamina of the mid-lobe (though 
there is a faint trace of them there). 

D. PALLIDIFLORDM, Ridl., sp. nova. Caules graciles, ramosi, 
flavi. Pseudo-bulbi 1^ poll, longi, ^ poll, lati, ^ poll, crassi, 
complanati, elongato-ovoidei, tenues, rugosuli, flavo-virides. 
Folia 3 poll. loDga, 1 poll, lata, ovata, acuta, tenuiter coriaoea, 
carinata et eanaliculata. Racemi brevissimi, in bracteis pluribus 
\ poll, longis bruneis inclusi ; pedicellus, ovario incluso, \ poll, 
longus. Flores singuli, parvi ; bractea floralis ovario brevior, 
ovata, lanceolata, acuta, purpureo-punctata. Sej^oZuiTt posticum 
\ poll, longum ovato-lanceolatum obtusum reflezum, lateralia 
multo majora ovata obtusa ; mentum sepalo paullisper longius, 
subrectum, obtusum. Petala cum sepalo postico aequilouga, 
lanceolata, porrecta, pallide flavescentia ferme alba. LaheUi 
lobi laterales erecti triangulares elongati acuti, medius triangu- 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAT PENINSULA. 241 

laris emarginatiLS flavns in margine siniiattLS lobis obtnsis ; 
carinsB 2, magnsB, basi rectae, in lobo medio sinnateo carin& 
intermedin rect& addit&. Oolumnce pes reotns ; stelidia erecta, 
ovata, subacnta. Anthera smaragdina, apice obtnsa; rostrum 
ovatnm, brevissimnm ; pollinia seqaalia, lineari-oblonga ; candi- 
cnlns longus. Stigma latam nee profnndnm, transversnm, 
ovale. Bostellum subelongatnm, porrectnm, truncatum, bitidom, 
lobis paralleliB. 

Hah, Singapore : mangrove swamps, Kranji ! 

A small straggling plant with weak stems, the flowers small 
yellowish-white, with the terminal lobe of the lip brighter 
yellow, and the anther and a spot at the apex of the column 
foot bright emerald green. It is very distinct in its thin, 
broad pseudo-bulbs and the form of the mid-lobe of the lip, 
which is broader than the lateral lobes, and so deeply emar- 
ginate that it is almost bi-lobed. 

Dendrobium pallins, Eu2Z., «p. nova, Gaules 10 poll, longi, 
rami subteretes, flavo-virides. Pseudo-hulhi IJ-lf poll, longi, 
§ poll, crassi, paullo complanati ferme cylindrici, longitudinaliter 
rugosi, flavi. Folium 3 poll, longum, 1 poll, latum, oblongum 
vel oblongo - lanoeolatum, obtusum, coriaceum, carinatum, 
canaliculatum, striatum. Bacemua brevis, in bracte& ^ poll. 
lougk sicc& flav& involutus. Bractea floralis parva, ovata, 
mucronata, ad pedicellum arete appressa ; pedicellus cum 
ovario f poll, longus, viridis. Flo8 singulus, nutans, mediocris. 
Sepala subeequalia, ^ poll, longa -^ poll, lata, oblongo-lan- 
ceolata, recurva, pallide viridia; mentum \ poll, longum, 
obtusum, viride cum sepalis lateralibus s»pe roseopunctatum. 
Petala minora, lineari-lanceolata, acuta. LabeUum album ; lobi 
laterales falcati acuti, medius obcordatus profunde emarginatus 
lateralibus multo latior, apice divaricati obtusi truncati in 
marginibus sinuati; carinsB 2, altee, in disco rectsB, in lobo 
medio sinuatee, terti& mediant rect& additft. Columna brevis, 
crassa, viridis ; pes longus ; margines elevati ; clinandrium 
vix profundum. Anthera conica, truncata ; pollinia oblonga ; 
stelidia parva, recta, dentiformia. Stigma rotundatum, margine 
basali rectum. Gapmla oblonga, basi angustata ; cost® steriles 
lineares, f ertiles duplo latiores in dorso rotundatse. 

Hab. Siam: Bangkok! 

Brought down by natives and cultivated in the Singapore 

LINN. JODRN. — BOTANY., VOL. XXXII. R 



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242 MR. HENRY BIDLET ON ORCHIDEJ! AND 

Botanic Garden. The species somewhat resembles the last, 
but differs in the form of the psendo-bnlb, which' is oval in 
section, and in the form of the lip, which has the strongly 
plicate edge of D. Kunstleri, Hook, f . The flowers are as incon- 
spicuous as those of D. paliidiflorunif Bidl., the sepals and 
petals being of a dull green more or less spotted with pink, 
the lip white. They have a scent of cloves. 

I received also from native collectors a similar plant from 
Djainbi, in Sumatra, which differed slightly in the less plicate 
edge of the lip, broader terminal lobe with a short mucro in 
the notch, and broader sepals ; the flowers were entirely cream 
colour except for the emerald-green anther. 

Dendrobium laciniosum, HidLy sp. nova, Gaules pedales vel 
ultra, erecti, validuli, a flbrillis vaginarum vetustarum tecti; 
rami plures. Pseudo-htdhi 2-1 J poll, longi, } poll, lati, vix J poll, 
crassi, ovoideo-elliptici, plani, admodum tenues, rugosi, flavo- 
virides. Folium 4 poll, longnm 1^ poll, latum, lanceolatum, 
obtusum, tenuiter coriaceum, IsBte virens. Bacemus ultra 
1 poll, longus, a bracteis ovato-lanceolatis bruneis tectus. Flos 
singulus, roediocris, pallide flavus. Sepala subeequalia, \ poll. 
loDga, late lanceolata, apice incrassata obtusa ; mentum ^ poll, 
longum, curvatum, obtusum. Petala sepalis angustiora, lanceo- 
lata acuta. Ldbelli lobi laterales ovato-oblongi falcati, medius 
basi linearis supeme transverse oblongus truncatus multo latior 
irregulariter digitatus; carinsB 2, elevated, in disco rectse, in 
lobi medii ungue sinuatse. Golumna alba; clinandrium sub- 
profundum. Anthera oblongo-quadrata, obtusa, in margine 
antico flmbriata ; stelidia erecta, dentif ormia ; rostellum parvum, 
Totundatum, lamelliforme. Stigma profundum, subquadratum. 
Hah, Singapore : Pulau Selitar ! (in the Johore Strait.) 
Near D. calopogon, Reichb. f. This species is peculiar among 
the peninsular species in having the expanded blade of the 
mid-lobe of the labellum laciniated. 

D. (§ Stachyobium) trinervium, Bidl, sp, nova, Gavlea 
3 poll, longi, \ poll, crassi, plures congesti, flexuosi, succulenti, 
paucinodi; intemodi ^ poll, longi, teretes, striati. Folia 2^ 
poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata, succulenta, carinata, apice 
ineequaliter biloba; lobi acuti, mucrone interjecto. Flos sin- 
gulus, lateralis, pendulus ; pedunculus \ poll, longus. BractecB 
bin®, -ry poll, longee, ovato-lanceolat©, acut»; ovarium cum 



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AP0STASIACE2 OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 243^ 

pedicello f poll, longam. Sepcdum posticmn ^ poll, longam 
ovato-oblongnm acntnm, sepala lateralia multo majora ; mentnm 
i poll, longum, obtusum. Petala Be^eMs mioora, lanceolata^ 
mnoronata, alba. Lahellum | poll. loDgam, § poll, latum, 
oblongum, panduratum, retusum, citrinum basi parpnreo-pxinc- 
tatum; cariosB 3, elevatsB, leete virides, in basi lobi medii 
abmpte terminataB inorassatse. Oolumna brevis, lata, alba. 
Anthera depressa. 

Hah, Siam : Pungah, C, Curtis. 

A very dwarf species, with single lateral wbite flowers, of 
donbtfal affinity. D. alpestre^ D, Boyleiy &c., differ by the 
snbterminal flower. 

Dendbobium (§ Aporum) Seera, LindL in Joum. Linn. 8oc. 
(Bot), iii. (1859) p. 3. 

A very common species occurring on trees on river banks, 
mangrove swamps, orchards, and such places in the low 
country. In hot wet places the whole plant often becomes 
of a bright red colour. The flowers are always white. The 
capsule is a quarter of an inch long, pendulous, unequally pear- 
shaped, i.e., with one side longer than the other, the barren ribs 
narrow lorate, the placentiferous ones much broader and lanceo- 
late in outline. 

Hob. Singapore : Very common, Kranji ! Changi ! Rhio ! 

Johore : Tana Bunto ! Eota Tinggi ! Ewala Kahang ! 

Batu Pabat ! 
Malacca: Sungei Rambei! 
Selangor : Kwala Lumpor ! Seppan River ! 
Penang ! 

Pahang : Kwala Pahang ! 
Also Java and Borneo ! 
D. (§ Aporum) rhodostele, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. 
(Bot.), iii. (1893) p. 360. 

Hob. Pahang : Jahan River, on trees in thick jungle. 

D. (§ Aporum) rosellum, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), 
xxxi. (1896) p. 268. 
Hab. Johore : Onnong Panti ! 

D. (§ Aporum) grande, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 724. 
Hab. Johore : Kidala Sembrong ! 

Selangor : Kidala Lumpur ! 

Pahang : Jahang River Woods ! 

R 2 



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244 MR. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDBiE AND 

Tbis usTially grows on lofty trees. It is not very common, 
rarely met with in flower, nor does it often flower in cultivation. 

Dendbobium (§ Apobum) cochinchinensb, Bidl, sp, nova, Herba 
D, Serra admodam affinis, quoad babitum similis sed multo 
major. Oaules 1^ ped. longi, f poll. lati. Folia 1 poll, longa, 
I poU. lata, late ovata, iis D. Serra tenuiora obtusiora. Mores 
iis D, Serra similes, sed duplo majores, ferme ^ poll, longi, albi. 
Sepala oblonga, lorata ; mentum breve, ovario et pedioello multo 
brevius. Petala lanceolata. Lahellttm basi anguste oblongum ; 
lobi laterales parvi rotundati, medius latus obovatus bypochilio 
multo latior rotunde bilobus ; callus f urcatus, conspiouus, basi 
lobi medii situs. Oolunma brevis, crassa; pes brevissimus; 
•clinandrium latum, nee profundum. Anthera pileata, truncata, 
lata, apice obtusa; rostellum breve, crassum, lingusB forme. 
Stigma magnum latum. 

Hah, Cochin-China : Saigon, Haffner ! Culta in Herb. Bot. 
Singapore. 

This species is very closely allied to D. Serra^ Lindl., but is 
distinct in its broader leaves and stems, remarkably short foot 
of the column, and correspondingly short mentum, and 
especially in the very much broader mid-lobe of the lip, which 
in J), Serra, lindl., is but little shorter than the basal portion. 

D. (§ Apobum) sinuatum, Lindl,, e Eeichb. /. in Walp. Ann., 
vi. p. 280. 

Hah, Singapore : Selitar ! Kranji ! (common among man- 
groves.) 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

This much resembles D. atropurpureum, Miq., but is a taller 
plant with shorter leaves. There are a number of bracts at the 
base of the peduncle, but they do not break up into fibrils as in 
D, atropurpureum, Miq. The flowers are larger, orange yellow, 
the petals tipped with red. The lip is pale red with a darker 
callus composed of two club-shaped caruncles meeting in a 
V shape (that of D, atropurpureum, Miq., is semicircular). The 
tubercle under the lip is like that of D, atropvrpureum. At the 
base of the lip are two very small lanceolate or tooth-like 
acute lateral lobes. The column is pale red with a darker spot 
at the base. 

D. (§ Apobum) eulophotum, Lindl, in Joum. Linn, Soc, (Bot)., 
iii. (1859) p. 5. 



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Hah, Singapore : Kranji ! Bajan ! 
Bbio : Native collector, 
Pahang : Pekan ! 
Laukawi : Terutan, Curtis ! 
Common low down on trees, especially mangroves, in the low 
country. Flowers all tbe year. The flowers are yellow, striped 
on the inner face with red. 

Dendeobium (§ Aporum) ehizophoeeti, Eidl,, sp, nova. Cavlea 
ultra pedales, ramosi, penduli, undique foliati. Folia 1 poll, 
longa, I poll, lata, oblonga, acuminata, acuta, pallide viridia, in 
sicco nigricantia. Capitula lateralia, pauci-bracteata. Flores 
f poll, lati, inversi. Sepala flavescentia, posticura oblongum 
subacutum, lateralia multo majora late ovata subfalcata; 
mentum sepalis brevius, latum oblongum obtusum. Petala 
sepalis multo minora, linearia, flavescentia (line& mediant 
rosea). LdbelU unguis linearis, roseus ; lamina subreniformis, 
lata, abropte defleza, flavescens, apice acuta, in margine 
sinuata ; callus in disco ruber ; dentes 2, subulati, basi incras- 
sati. OolumncB pes longu^, linearis, rubro-maculatus ; dinan- 
drium parvum, profundum. Anthera parva, ovoidea, flava ; 
candiculus brevis ; rostellum oblongum, integrum. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Sungei Buloh ! 

Johore : Batu Pahat ! Tana Runto ! Hulu Sembrong ! 

(n. 4038.) 
Perak: Scortechini (deliuet^tio). 

This species is allied to D. eulopTwlwriy Lindl., and indeed has 
been confused with it. However, it is very distinct. It is a 
longer and weaker plant, the leaves are thin, of the texture of 
those of D. grande. Hook, f., and not fleshy like those of D. eulo- 
photum, Lindl. The flowers are larger, and have a more 
distinct mentom, and are quite differently coloured, the petals 
are narrower and longer, the lip has a long claw, ending in a 
semi-linear broad deflexed blade, the ends long and acute. The 
callus consists of two setaceous curved processes swollen at the 
base where they are connate. 

There is a good sketch of this in Scorfcechini's drawings, as 
well as one of B. eulophotum. 

D. TEEMiNALE, Far, et Beichh. f. in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxx. 
(1874) p. 149. 
Hah. Malacca : (Ic. in Herb. Calc), not seen. 



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'246 MR. HENRT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

Dendrobium (§ Aporum) Mannii, EtdZ.,5p. nova. (7auZe« 5-6 poll, 
'longi, erecti, congest!, complanati. Folia f poll, longa, ^ poll, 
lata, lanceolata acuta, leetevirentia, iis D. cochinchinensis ferme 
similia. Flores in racemis axillaribus brevissimis (in caulibns 
nndis, foliis delapsis, sitis) saepissime bini, iis B, Leonis similes 
sed minores tenuiores, primulini, inodori; pedicelli ^ poll, 
long], graciles, recti vel nutantes ; ovarium breve. Sepalum 
posticum ovato-oblongum, lateralia multo majora ovata triangu- 
laria obtusa falcatnla; mentum cum sepalo § poll, longum, 
•crassum, curvum, obtusum. Petala sepalis multo minora, 
linearia, lorata. Ldbellum oblongum, cuneatum ; lobi laterales 
-deflexi abrupte truncati, medius 2-lobus lobis approximatis 
rotundatis crispulis quam lobi laterales pauUo longioribus; 
kHscus primulinus a maculd, ochrea omatus. Columna subrecta, 
angusta, basi ocreo-maculata, in ventre plana. Anthera 
plana, in dinandrio immersa, margine recto truncato; locali 
disjuncti ; pollinia 4, obovata, flava ; stelidia 0. Stignia ovato- 
^cutiforme ; discus viscidus, citrinus. 

Hah, Assam : G. Mann ! . 

Malacca : Mfc. Ophir district, Berry ! . 

(Flowered in Hort. Bot. Singapore, Nov., 1890, and Jan., 1891.) 

This is a plant allied to B, Leonis, Reichb. f., but remarkable 
in not baring the tuft of bracts as usual in an Aporum, but a 
short distinct raceme. The flowers appear only on the leafless 
«tems, or if, as may happen, the leaves persist, it is merely on 
the older ones. In most Apora one flower appears from each 
raceme or capitulnm at a time, so that the plant may be 
almost always in flower, yet only a few flowers appear. In 
B. Mannii the whole of the plant is in flower at once, and then 
after flowering remains quiescent for a time. 

D. (§ Aporum) atropurpureum, Miq., Fl. Ind, Bat, iii. p. 644. 
Hah, Singapore : Kranji, Tanglin ! 

Johore ! 

Malacca : Sungei Rambei ! 

Pahang : Pekan, Kwala Pahang ! 

Selangor : Kwala Lnmpur, Kelsall ! 

Penang : Government Hill ! 

Siam : Singgora ! Punga ! Gwrtis, 

Borneo : Sarawak, Bishop Hose ! 

Java : Buitenzorg, Treuh ! 

New Guinea : fide Blume in Rumphia ! 



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APOSTASIACEA OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 247 

Very common npon trees in the low country. 

There are two forms of this one, the true D. atropurpureum 
of Miqnel with deep brownish-red flowers, the other (2). con- 
dnnwny Miq.), with yellow flowers, sometimes, but rarely, 
dotted minutely with deep red. The apex of the lip is ciliate. 

Dendeobium (§ Aporum) atrorubens, RidL, sp. nova. Caules 
9 poll, longi, crassi, hand raro ramosi ; radices plures, longoe, 
tenues, atratse. Folia 1 poll, longa, f poll, lata, approximata, 
lanceolata, acuta, in sicco ruf o-brunea. Capitula terminalia, S8Bpe 
magna, ^ poll, longa, | poll, in diam., nntantia. BractecB plnres 
vel plurimoB, | poll, long©, lanceolat«B acut©, sicca. Flores 
^ poll, longi, atro-rubentes. Sepalum posticum lanceolatnra 
acutum, lateralia majora triangularia ; mentnm latum, obtusum. 
Petala sepalis breviora, linearia. Lahellum lineari-cuneatum, 
rubrum ; lobi lateral es breves, dentiform es acuti ; apex incras- 
satus, camosus, atro-rubens, subtus tuberculatus. 

Hah. Kedah : on Gunong Jerai (Kedah Peak) at 3,000 feet 
elevation on stumps and low trees (5,140) ! 

Allied to D. atropurpureum, Miq., but very much larger. 
Some specimens have very large heads of flowers, others much 
smaller. 

The flowers much larger than those of D. atropurpureum, 
Miq., of a very deep red colour. The lip is bent in the middle ; 
it is narrow, with a pair of little lateral lobes and a fleshy 
rounded terminal one, which is thickened and has a tubercle 
beneath. 

D. (§ Aporum) Keithii, Eidl., sp. nova. Gaules s»pe 1^ ped. 
longi, usque ad f poll, lati, ramosi, debiles. Folia usque ad 
2 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata, acuminata, falcata, acuta 
(textur© D. grandis) ; vagin© admodum compress©. Capitula 
plura, axillaria, ^ poll, longa; bracte© plures, sice©. Flores 
f poll, longi, breviter pedicellati. Sepalum posticum ovatum 
obtusum purpurascens, lateralia latiora ; mentum sepalis multo 
longius, curvum, obtusum. Petala sepalis breviora, lanceolata, 
obtusa. Lahellum cum sepalis vix ©quilongum, cuneato- 
spathulatum, apice bilobum ; lobi rotundati, minute denticulati, 
involuti basi elevatim 3-nervosi, apice pluri-nervosi ; callus 
0. ColumnoB pes longus, excavatus. Anthera lata, pileata, in 
marg^ne recta integra. 

Hab. Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! Pungah, 0. Curtis t 



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248 MB. HENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

This plant is most nearly allied to D. grande, Hook. f. It 
has the same thin-textured foliage and hroad stem. The 
flowers have an unusually long mentum for a plant of this 
section, and look like those of some very small PediUmum. 
Mr. Curtis describes them as dull yellow, — Dr. Keith, as 
having the petals and sepals purplish green, the lip greenish 
yellow with bright pink borders. The lip has a narrow linear 
base, and gradually widens upwards till it ends in a rounded 
bilobed blade, the margins of which are very obscurely toothed. 
There is no caruncle or callus on the lip, but the end is thickened 
and fleshier than the rest of the flower. 

Dendrobium (§ Apordm) Leonis, Beichh. /. in Walp, Ann,, vi. 
p. 280. Apcyrum Leonis, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1840) Misc., p. 59. 

A common plant, growing on trees low down in orchards, 
dry forests, and open places, flowering irregularly all the year. 
The leaves are dark, dull green. The flower, which is strongly 
scented of vanilla, is yellowish, thickly dotted with purple 
outside and cream colour or brownish within, the lip paler 
above, with a reddish central bar beneath, dotted with purple. 
It is usually more or less emarginate at the apex and ciliate. 
The column is rather short, yellowish, with an orange spot at 
the base. The anther is rather large, cap-shaped, truncate. 
The stigma very small. Pollinia oblong orange. 
Hah. Singapore : Selitar ! Toas ! Tauglin ! Pulau Tekong ! 
(in Johore Strait.) 

Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

Bhio : Native collector ! 

Malacca : Merliman ! Sungei Bakru Ulu ! 

Selangor : Seppan ! 

Pahang : Kwala Pahang ! Kota Glanggi ! 

Perak: Scortechini. 

Eedah : Yan ! 

Cochin-China : Saigon, Haffner ! 

D. (§ Aporum) prostratum, Bidl, sp. nova. Caules c. pedales, 
procumbentes, ramosi, radicati. Folia i poll, longa, ferme 
\ poll, lata, oblongo-triangularia, subacuta vel obtusa, oamoso- 
coriacea, rugosa, alro-viridia saspe purpurascentia. Flores iis 
B. Leonis similes sed minores, pallide flavi baud raro rufo-tincti, 
sub expansione odori. Sepalum postkmm ovatum obtusum, 
lateralia multo majora ovata subfalcata; mentum breve, 



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APOSTASIACEiB OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 249 

curvuiu, latum, obtnsiim. Petdla sepalis breviora multo angns- 
tiora tenniora pallidiora, spathalata. Ldbellum oblongum, 
apice dilatatum rotasnm, marginibus erectis; carina basi 
elevaia, apice attenuata anrantiaca a callo parvo oblongo vel 
quadrato ei*ecto ornata. « 

Hab, Singapore : On trees in mangrove swamps, Kranji ! 
Selitar I Sungei Blukang ! 
Selangor: Seppan ! 

This little species is allied to D, Leonts, Keichb. f ., wbich it 
resembles in form of leaf and flower, bat it is always prostrate 
in habit, the stems lying flat on the tree trunks, emitting roots 
from their under side, and branching. The flowers are much 
smaller than those of 2). Leonis, and have a vanilla scent. The 
lip bears at its end in the broadest part a small almost cubical 
callus. 

Dendrobium (§ Strongtle) tbrbs, Lindly Bot Beg. (1840) 
Misc., p. 51. Caules plores congesti, 10-15 poll, longi, graciles, 
rig^di. Folia plura, 3-4 poll, longa, ^ poll, crassa, teretia, 
obtnsa, atroviridia ; vagi use 1^ poll. long89, teretes, ore obliqno- 
integrae. Flores majusouli, singulatim expansi, e bractearum 
fasciouHs, in apicibus canlium vetastorum (ob folia delapsa) 
nudis, exorti ; pedicelli cum ovario j poll, longi, virescentes. 
Sepala subsequalia, ^ poll, longa, sobpatula, lanceolata, acuta, 
alba ; mentum ultra ^ poll, longum, rectum, conicum, obtusum. 
Petala sepalis SBquilonga, paollisper augustiora. Ldbellum 
sepalis brevius, 3-1obum, carinis in disco 3 (medio breviore) 
acutis rubro-flammeis ornatum; lobi laterales oblongo-ovati, 
subacuti, erecti, a nervis flammeis omati, medius angustior lan- 
ceolatns acuminatus acutus. Columna fere recta, alba ; venter 
excavatum, canaliculatum ; clinandrium profundnm; stelidia 
erecta, antheram hand superantia. Anthera conica, obtusa; 
loculi disjuncti; rostrum ovatum, integrum; rostellum in- 
tegrum, decurvum, rotnndatum. Stigma parvum, profundnm, 
ovale, marginibus paullisper elevatis. 

Hob. Singapore : on high trees, Toas ! 
Johore : Kota Tinggi ! 

I have little doubt as to the correctness of this identification, 
though I have not seen the type specimen. But, as Lindley's 
description does not, in some respects, fit my specimen, I have 
given a fresh description. 



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250 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJB AND 

The plant is very stoat and large for tlie section, witb thick, 
terete, blant leaves, very distant, on account of the long inter- 
nodes. The flowers are of a thicker textnre than most in the 
section, and last longer. They are pure white, except for the 
^me-colonred veins on the inner side of the lateral lobes of 
the lip and the .three red keels in the middle. They have a 
scent of heliotrope. The lip is distinctly three-lobed, a rarity 
in the section, the mid-lobe being sharp and acute. 

It is not a common plant. 

Dendrobidm (§ Stkongyle) juncecm, Lindl,y BoL Beg. (1842) 
Misc,^ p. 9. 

Hah, Singapore : Hort. Loddiges. 

I have met with nothing corresponding to this species in 
Singapore ; but what I take to be the plant intended I received 
from Manilla, sent by Sr. Vidal. If I am correct in this, its 
affinity is with J), crumenatum, Sw., not with the section 
Strongyle^ although the leaves are terete, or nearly so. 

D. ACicuLARB, LindL, Bot. Beg, (1840) Ifwc, p. 81. Said to 
come from Singapore, but was doubtless erroneously located. 

D. (§ Strongyle) albicolob, BidL^ sp, nova, Caules usque 
ad 8 poll, longi, soepe ramosi, basi ob folia delapsa nudi ; 
intemodi superne dilatati. Folia 1-1^ poll, longa, crassa, 
teretia, acuta, atro-viridia. Flores ssBpe terminales, singuli, 
pro sectione maximi, albi; pedicelli ferme 1^ poll, longi, 
graciles. SepaXam posticum parvum oblongum obtusum, 
lateralia multo majora: mentam cum sepalis SBquilonguro, 
cui'vum, obtusum. Petala sepalis angustiora, lineari-oblonga. 
Labellum obcuneatum, emarginatum, album, apice flavo-tinc- 
tum ; marg^nes crispi ; linea mediana elevata. Columna brevis ; 
pes loDgus ; stelidia erecta. Anthera ovoidea. Stigma rotun- 
datum, ovatum. 

Hah, Siam : Pnngah, Curtis ! 

I had some fine plants of this in the Singapore Botanic Grarden, 
which I believe came from Mr. G. Mann, in Assam, but their 
label was lost. It has the largest flowers in the section, nearly 
pure white, except a yellow tint on the lip and some pink spots 
on the column foot. 

D. (§ Strongylh) kbntrophyllum, Hooh. /., Fl. Brit, Ind., v. 
p. 725. 



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APOSTASUCEJB OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 251 

Hab, Perak: Scortechini, 

Pabang : Tahan River Woods ? (a fruiting specimen 
only.) 
This seems most to resemble D, acerosum, Lindl., but the 
mentnm is very narrow and acute. 

Dendrobiom (§ Strongyle) subulatum, Hook. /., Fl, Brit. 
Ind., V. p. 726. 

Hah. Singapore : Bnkit Timab ! Bukit Mandai ! Selitar ! 
Penang : Western Road, G. Curtis ! 
Rhio : Native collector ! 
Also Sumatra : Djambi ! 
A small tufted plant witb semi-transparent wbitisb flowei-s 
veined with pink, the lip white with a central orange spot. 

D. (§ Strongyle) acerosom, Lindl, Bot. Beg. (1841) lfwc.,p.43. 
Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Common on trees and bushes. 

Jobore : Kwala Kahang, Kwala Sembrong, Lake and 
KeUall ! Tanab Runto ! 

Pahang : Kwala Pahang ! 

Penang : Near the town, G. Gurtia ! 

Rhio! 

Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! 

D. (§ Strongyle) flexile, Bidl., sp. nova, Oaules plnres, 
usque ad 3 poll, lougi, tenues, gracillimi, flezuosi, pendnli. 
Folia i poll, longa, teretia, acuminata acuta, ad caulem ad- 
pressa. Flores subterminales, | poll, longi, penduli. Sepalum 
posticum parvnm lanceolatum acutum, lateralia ovato-trian- 
gularia acuta ; mentum multo majus, latum, obtusum, curvum. 
Petala parva, linearia, alba. Lahellum album, macule in medio 
aurantiac^; unguis linearis; lamina lata, obovato-rotundata, 
apice obscore 3-loba, in margine denticulata. 

Hah. Singapore : Bnkit Tinah ! 

Pulau Aor : East comer of Johore, Feilding ! 

The smallest plant of the section that 1 have seen, with 
£owers nearly as large as those of D. suhulatum, Hook. f. 

D. (§ Virgatj:) conostalix, Beichh., /., in Walp. Awn., vi. 
p. 292. B. calcaratum, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1840) Misc., p. 89. 

Hah, Singapore : Changi ! Bukit Mandai ! Tampinis ! 
Malacca : Bnkit Bruang ! 

This inconspicQons slender plant almost always grows in 
shallow water. It is called '' Bumput Baja,^* Sari, in Malacca. 



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Dendbobium (§ ViBGAT^) viLLOSULUM, Wall List, n. 2006. 
D. Lobhii, Teysm. et Binn. in Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind., v. (1853) 
p. 491. 

Hah, Singapore : Bajan, in dry woods ! Toas ! Kranji ! 
Snngei Buloh ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! Alt. 8,000 feet. 
Peiiang : Fcrrter (Wall. List, n. 2006). 
Kedab : Eedah Peak ! At 4,000 feet elevation. 
I have little doubt but that Teysmann's D. Lohbii is the 
same as Wallich's plant, as there are specimens quite identical 
with the common species in Lobb's Herbarium (n. 482). It is 
always terrestrial, growing among dry leaves and in moss, and 
ascending to the tops of the mountains. 

D. (§ V1BGATJ5) ABIETINUM, Bidl,^ sp. nova, Cau?e« pi d res, 
pedales, gracilcs ; intemodi inferiores longi, canaliculati, 
glabri. FoUa remota, 4 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, acuta, canali- 
culata. Flores parvi, in racemo brevissimo bini ; bracfceee 
parvae, lanceolatao, cum ^ parte pedicelli eeqailongae. Sepala 
explanata, alba rufo-striata, oblonga obtusa, lateralia (postico 
latiora) ^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata ; mentum cum sepalis SBqui- 
longum. Petala anguste linearia, acuta, virescentia line4 
mediana mfescente. Lahellum camosum, spathulatam, obscure 
4-lobum ; lobi laterales vix distincti, medius paullo longior 
emarginatus obtusas pallide viridis ; carinsB in disco 2, paullo 
elevated. Columna angusta, fere recta, basi excavata, alba; 
stelidia recta dentiformia. Anthera oblonga, quadrata. Stigma 
magnum. 

Hah, Kedah : Ghinong Jerai ! 4,000 feet alt. ; OuDODg 
Baya, Gwrtis! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! 3,000 feet alt. 

An ally of J), jpinifolia^ Bidl., but differing in its thinner 
glabrous stems, linear channelled leaves, much smaller flowers, 
and different lip. The base of the colamn is excavate, so as to 
form a nectary. It is epiphytic, growing on trees, at no great 
height from the ground in dense woods. 

D. (§ Bambusifoli^) gemellum, Lindty Gen, et Sp. Orch.^ 
p. 81. Epiphytica, 2-3-pedaliR. Caules erecti, basi teretep, 
supeme compressi. FoUa 4 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata, 
lorata, tenoiter coriacea, graminea, striata, nee carinata neo 
canaliculata, apice obtusa insBqoaliter biloba ; vaginae j poll, 
longas, transversim rugosaB, ore integrae. Bacemus brevissimus, 



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APOSTASIACEa OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 253 

in bracteis 2 oblongis obtosis celatus, bifloms, e medio internodi 
(folio oppositus) extrusus. Flores parvuli, flavescentes. Bractea 
iloralis minnta, ovata; pedicellus ^ poll, longas, gracilis; 
ovarium distinctnm, ^ poll, longum, crassiusculum. Sepalttm 
posticum lanceolatnm subobtasam, lateralia majora triangulari- 
lanceolata ; mentum cam sepalis sBquilonga, crassnm, obinsum, 
carvTim. Petala lineari-lanceolata, acuta, flavescentia vel 
yirescentia. LaheUum sepalis brevins, angustum, spathalatum, 
tenne, albescens, integrum ; margines erecti ; linea mediana 
pauUo elevata. Oolumna brevis, crassa; clinandrinm prof nu- 
dum ; pes longiusculus. Anthera calvariiformis, minute 
verrucosula margine retuso ; poUinia 4, aequalia, elliptica, 
parallela ; stelidia brevissima, vix distinguenda ; rostellum 
poculiforme, latum, crassum, integrum. Stigma magnum, 
oblongum, profundum, basi a callo conioo bifido auctum. 

Hah, Singapore : On mangroves ! 

Malacca : Bukit Bruang, Griffith^ in herb. Lindley ! 
Also Java ! Sumatra, Djambi ! A broader-leaved form 
with larger, whiter flowers. 

An unattractive plant, with greenish or yellowish f agacious 
flowers. It is often brought in by natives, and appears to be 
quite common among the Malay Islands. 

Dendrobium (§ Bambusifoli^) pensile, Bidl, sp. nova. 
Caules plures, 2-3-pedales, penduli, congesti, per totam longi- 
tudinem foliati, teretes. Folia 3 poll, longa, | poll, lata, disticha, 
subobtusa, \mie vireutia. Bacemi brevissimi, e medi& parte 
internodi orti; bractea ovato-triangularis, lata sicca. Flores 
bini, sessiles, flavi ; ovaria ^ poll, longa, crassa. Sepala lanceolata 
attenuata contorta, lateralia triangularia obtusa : mentum breve, 
latum, obtusum. Petala angusta, lanceolata. Lahellum sepalis 
multo minus, trilobum ; lobi laterales breves erecti curvi f alcati, 
medius longior lanceolatns acutus pubescens apice recurvus 
flavus a lined, mediant. rubr& percursus. Oolumna crassa, 
subglobosa, superne attenuata ; pes angustus. Anthera crassa, 
subglobosa. Stigma rotundatum. 
Hab. Singapore : Selitar ! 

Johore : Native collector ! 

Bhio : Native collector ! 
A very curious plant with a large number of long, hanging 
stems, covered with thick fleshy leaves. The flowers have a 



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254 MB. HENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ! AND 

very thick conical ovarj and no pedicel. They are produced in 
pairs subtended by a large dry bract. The lip is remarkably 
small and the globose colnmn narrowed at the top is very 
singular. 

It grows on mangrove trees overhanging the river. 

DeNDROBIUM (§ CLAVAT-fi) TUBERIPERUM, Hook. /., Fl. Brit 

Ind,, V. p. 728. 

Hah. Singapore : Selitar ! Toas ! 
Pahang : Kwala Pahang ! 

Perak : Ounong Hijan, Murton^ fide Hook. /., I.e. 
On trees usually in the low country, local and never common. 

D. (§ Clavatj:) clavipes, Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind., v. p. 728. 
Hab. Pahang : Pulau Chengei ! 

Perak: Scortechint. 
On trees in thick woods, low country. 
I have also received this from Djambi, in Eastern Sumatra. 

D. (§ Clavatj:) cbumenatum, Sw. in Schrad. Joiim., ii. (1799) 
p. 237. 

Hab, Singapore: common everywhere on trees and rocks 
by the sea. Selangor ! Negri Sembilau ! Perak ! 
Johore ! 
Malacca ! Penang : Common everywhere in the low 

country ! 
Pahang: Pekan! 
Kedah: Tan! 

Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! 
Cochin-China : Saigon, Dr. Haffner ! 
This common plant, known to the residents as the Pigeon- 
orchid on account of the form of the unopened flower, has, like 
some other orchids here, the habit of flowering on particular 
days. At intervals of about nine weeks all the plants in a 
given district burst into flower on a certain day, and as the 
flowers are very conspicuous and abundant, it has a striking 
efEect. They are all withered by the end of the day, and no 
more are seen till the next Howering day. Sometimes there 
are a few isolated plants which flower a few days or even weeks 
distant from the others, but far the greater number open on 
the same day. I observed that in Malacca on one occasion all 
the plants flowered on the day before those in Singapore, but 



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APOSTASUOEJe OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 255 

plants brongbt down to Singapore from as far north as Siam 
flowered simultaneously with those in Singapore. 

The natives call it ^^ Bunga Angin" (lit. Windflower) in 
Malacca, and boil the pseudo-bulbs and use them for earache. 

Dendrobium (§ Clavatj)) inconcinnum, Bidl.,, sp, nova. Bodices 
longee, crassee. Oaules ultrapedales, basi pollicari teretes, dein 
pseudo-bulbosi 1^-pollicares fusiformes, superne graciles ramosi 
teretes. Folia dissita; vaginaa 1^ poll. long»; laminaB 1| poll. 
long» ^ poll, latae, apice ohtusae. Hacemi ^ poll, longi, a bracteis 
siccis tecti, ex intemodorum basibus extrusi. Flores 1 poll, 
longi, singulatim expansi, albi. iSepaZum posticnm lanceolatum 
acutum, lateralia multo majora ovata acuta falcata ; mentum 
rectum, longius. Petala linearia, falcata. Lahellum obcor- 
datum, emarginatum ; lobi laterales lati apice rotundati, medius 
suppressus. Oolumna lata, erecta ; stelidia par?a, erecta. 
Stigma oblongum, majusculum. 

Hob. Siam : Pungah, on trees near the village, C. Curtis ! 

A very insignificant straggling plant, with the stem swollen 
into a pseudo-bulb an inch and a half above the base. 

It appears to be most nearly allied to D. orvmienatum, Sw. 

D. (§ Clavat-s) Clavator, Eddl.j sp, nova. Caules ultra* 
pedales, basi et apice nudi, superne graciles ; intemodi 
basales pauci, teretes, unus f poll, longus incrassatus fusi- 
formis 10-costatns olivaceus. Folia 3 poll, longa, iV poll, crassa, 
pauca, remota, teretia, acuta, canaliculata. Bacemi breves, e 
caulis parte nud& terminali orti ; bracteas plures bruneaa. 
Flores parvi, singulatim expansi, pallide flavescentes rubrotincti. 
SepaJum posticum f poll, longum lanceolatum acutum, lateralia 
-^ poll, lata late ovata falcata ; mentum latum, curvum, 
crassum. Petala ^ poll, longa, lanceolata, sepalo postico 
breviora angustiora. Labelli lobi laterales oblongi rotundati 
pallidi rubronervosi, medius ovatus obtusus minate denticulatus ; 
discus elevatus flavescenti-rubescens. Columna brevis, striato- 
rubescens. Antkera rotundato-oblonga, late marginata ; stelidia 
obscura. Stigma rotundatum, viride. 

Hab. Perak: Thaiping! 

This species is allied to D. clavipes. Hook, f., but differs in the 
terete leaves grooved on the upper surface, and the denticulate 
mid-lobe of the lip. 



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256 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ) AND 

Dbndrobium (§ DisTiCHOPHYLL*) BEVOLUTUM, lAndl,^ Bot, Beg. 
(1840) Miscy p. 61 ; Hook.f., Bot Mag,, t. 6706. 
Hab, Johore : Batu Pahat ! Native collector, 

Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 3,000 feet alt. on low trees. 
Moalmein : Parish. 
Bather a local plant, but abundant in a few places. I have 
never seen it in Singapore. 

D. (§ DiSTICHOPHYLL J!) TJNIFLORUM, Ortff,, NotuL, iii. p. 305, Ic. 
PL As., t. 303. 

Hab. Malacca : Mount Ophir ! (all collectors) ; on low trees 
at 2,000-3,000 feet alt. 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! . 

I have already (in Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. Bot. iii. p. 363) 
described this species so as to show its distinctness from the 
preceding, with which it has been confused. 

Lindley's specimens on which he based D. revolutum were a 
mixture of this species and the last. His plants were received 
from Mr. Barker, of Birmingham (specimen not extant), from 
Messrs. Loddiges ; specimen in herb. Lindley is D. revolutum, 
specimen from ** Singapore, Cuming," is D. uniflorvm, Griff., 
and doubtless came from Mount Ophir, where Cuming had 
already collected other orchids. 

D. (§ DiSTiCHOPflYLLj:) METACHiLiNUM, Eekhb.f. in Bovplandia, 
iii. (1855) p. 222. 

Hah. Malacca : On the tops of lofty trees, B. Berry ! Also 
collected by Cuming and Maingay. 

This appears to be a rare plant, but perhaps its habitat makes 
it difficult to obtain. Its flowers are described as "chrome 
yellow," but this is not the case in the living plants I have 
flowered in Singapore. They were of a bright raw sienna 
colour. 

D. (§ DiSTiCHOPHYLL^) BiFARiUM, lAfidL in Wall. List, 
n. 2002. B. excisum, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1841) Misc., p. 77. 
Hab. Singapore : Tanglin ! Toas ! Chan Chu Kang ! 
Sirangoon ! Often on roadside trees. 
Penang : Wallich. 
The commonest species of the section, with small primrose 
yellow flowers. The description of the lip as having ** 7-9 close 
set ridges " only applies to dried specimens. In a living state 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 257 

the lip IB corered with a pnlverulence arranged more or less in 
lines, with a median channel down the centre. The capsule is 
an inch in length and half an inch thick, pear-shaped and 
oblique. 

DeNDROBIUM (§ D£STICflOPHYLL«) PANDANETI, lUdL, Sp. TWVa, 

Caules elongati, ramosi ; rami 8-12 poll, longi ; radices paucaB. 
Folia 3 poll, longa, f poll lata, oblanceolata acuminata inaBqua- 
liter biloba, tenuia, herbacea, pallide flavo-viridia ; vaginae 
subteretes, carinatsB, virides, ore integro f poll. lato. Bacemi 
J poll. loDgi, aidllares, pauciflori ; bractea) minuteB ovataa virides ; 
pedicelli cum ovariis 1 poll, longi, albi. Mores patentes, iis B. 
metachilini aBquales. Sepalum posticum \ poll, lougum \ poll, 
latum, lanceolatum, acutum, lateralia similia ; mentum curvum, 
obtusum, gracile sepalo minus. Petcda linearia, acuta ; sepala 
petala (menti dorso cervino excepto) alba. Lahellum basi 
angustatum lineare ; lobi laterales breves, obtusi, incurvi, medins 
cordatus obtusus carnosulus rubro-aurantiacus marginibus 
convolutis appressis ; carinee in disco 3, SBquales, aurantiaca). 
Golumna recta, olivaceo-brunea, in ventre canaliculata ; stelidia 
ovata, incurva, stigma partim integentia. Anthera immersa,. 
brunea. Capstila 1 poll, longa, cervina (nunquam viridis) ; 
costsB fertiles sterilibus bis latiores, caualiculi profundi inter 
costas siti. 

Hah, Singapore : Bukit Mandai ! (n. 5029), on Pcundanus 
atrocarpusy Griff. 
Johore : Pnlau Kukub, on Sago Palms. Also in similar 
localities at Tanjong Kopang, on the Johore Strait. 

I believe the affinity of this plant is with D. revolutum, Lindl.^ 
although the vegetative organs are very different from any in 
the section Distichophyllm, .The stems are long, weak, and 
branching, emitting slender roots at intervals by which it 
scrambles up the vertical stems of Sago-palms, Fa/ndani^ &q. 
The leaves are long and thin, and very unequally bilobed at the 
apex. The racemes are axillary and few-flowered. The 
flowers are inconspicuous, almost entirely white, except that the 
back of the spur, three lines on the lip, and the whole of the 
terminal lobe of the lip are dull orange. The capsule is curious 
frum its being apparently never green, but from its earliest 
stage is of a light fawn colour. 

LINN. JODEN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. S 



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258 MB. HENRT RIDLET ON OBCHIDEJE AND 

Dendrobium (§ DiSTiCHOPHTLLiE) HosET, Bidl, in Trans. Linth 
*Soc., Ser. II. (Bot) iii. (1893) p. 363. 
Hah, Pahang : TaHan River Woods ! 

D. (§ BREViFLOBiB) CALLiBOTBYS, Ridl., sp. nova. Cuules 
plures, 6 poll, longi, IJ poll, erassi, snbterefces, snlcati, hand 
incrassati; intemodi IJ poll, longi. Folia pauca, in apice 
caulis sita, 4 poll, longa 1 poll, lata, lanceolata, tenniter coriacea ; 
nei-vi 6, distincti ; carina acuta, non multum elevata. Bacemi 
1 poll, longi, cauliam apices versus siti, 6-flori. Flores mediocres, 
congesti, carnoei, odorati, vix expansi ; pedicelli J poll longi ; 
bracteaa perlatse, ovatso acutss, tenues herbaceee, persistentes, 
bruneo-striat». Sepalum posticum ^ poll, longum ^ poll, latum, 
late ovatum obtusum, lateralia longiora ovata acuta f alcatula ; 
mentum sepalis multo brevius, crassum. Petala lanceolata, 
falcata, sepalo postico longiora ; sepala petala alba. Lahellum 
obovatum cuneatum,cochleatQin,camosum, apice crassius flavum, 
basi album a striis purpureis omatum. Golumna ferme recta, 
alba, ventre plana, basi excavata. Anthera apice rotundata, 
alba ; poUinia anguste linearia ; rostellum breve bilobum, lobis 
rotundatis. Stigma majusculum, semicirculare, in margine 
elevatum. Capstda 1^ poll, longa, oblonga; pedicelli pedun- 
calusque elongati incrassati. 

Hab, Singapore : Toas, Sungei Mora ! 

Very local on tree trunks. It is a pretty species with sweetly- 
scented flowers. The peduncle and pedicels elongate in fruiting, 
and the large capsule splits up into its separate ribs when 
dehiscing. I should have taken this plant for D. bretnfiorumy 
Lindl., in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) iii. (1859) p. 14 ; but Sir 
J. D. Hooker refers this to D. bicamerattim, Lindl. Lindley's 
description is rather incomplete. 

D. (§ Bbeviflobjb) hercoglossdm, Beichh, f. in Hamh. 
OaHene., xlii. (1886) p. 558; Oard. Ghron, (1886) ii. p. 487. 
B. aduncum. Hook, f., Bot. Mag., t. 6784. 

Hah, Pulau Tioman : an island off the east coast of Johore, 
W. Nanson v. v. ! 

D. (§ Beeviflob«) etjphlebium, Beichh. f, ex Lindl. in Joum, 
Linn, Soc. (Bot,) iii. (1859) p. 7, Xenia Orck., ii. p. 26. t. 110. 

Hah, Singapore : In mangrove swamps, Kranji. Selitar and 
Toas! 



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APOSTASUCIJe OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 259 

This also occurs in Borneo and Java. It is omitted from the 
Flora of British India, but is not rare in Singapore. 

Dendrobium (§ Bbbviflobj)) plavidulum, RicU, ex Hook, /., 
Fl. Brit Ind,, vi. p. 185. 

Hob, Singapore : Kranji ! Jnrong ! In mangrove swamps. 
Rbio. 

D. (§ Breviplorjj) yiridulum, Bidl., sp, nova. CaiUes 
pedales, graciles, flexuosi, basi dilatati incrassati, supeme 
^ poll, crassi teretes ; intemodi 1 poll, longi. Folia 3 poll, 
longa, I poll, lata, lanceolata acuminata acuta, 6accida, 
insBqualiter biloba, lobus alter altero ^ poll, longior. Flores 
parvi, iis D. flaviduli eequales, virides, bini in caulibus 
defoliatis, in peduncnlo brevissimo siti ; ovaria cum pedicellis 
J poll, longa. Sepala lanceolata, acuta ; mentum brevissimum, 
crassum, obtasissimum. Fetala sepalis latiora, tenuiora, 
pallidiora. Lahellum cum sepalis SBquilongum, oblongum, 
cuspidatum ; discus crassior ; margines tenuiores minute 
denticulati, pubescentes. Golumna brevis, lata ; stelidia brevia, 
obtusa. 

Hab. Siam : Pungah, Curtis ! 

Near D. Jlavidulum, Bidl., but weaker and more slender ; 
sepals and petals narrower, longer in proportion. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) secundum, Lindl, in Bot Beg,, t. 1291 ; 
WaU. List, n. 1996. 
Hab, Long Island, south of Singapore, W, Nanson ! 
Johore : Common on the East Coast. 
Pahang : Kwantan ! , Ewala Pahang ! 
Penang: WaUich, 
This species occurs also in Tenasserim and Cochin-China, 
Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

It does not seem to be at all common in the Malay Peninsula. 
I have onlj gathered it myself on low trees in open country in 
Pahang. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) virescens, Bddl,, sp. nova, Cavles ultra- 
pedales, graciles, teretes, ssBpe flexuosi. Folia 4 poll, longa, 
1 poll, lata, lanceolata acuminata, tenuia, apice admodum 
insequalia. B<icemi e caulibus nudis orti, laxi, usque ad 
12-flori ; bractesB breves, lanceolatae, cuspidatie ; pedicelli 1 poll. 

s 2 



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260 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON 0BCHIDE2 AND 

longi, graciles, patentee. Flares pedioellis longiores. Sepalum 
posticum ^ poll, longum, 07atum acntom, lateralia panllo 
latiora ; mentum f poll, longum, pendulum, cylindricum, 
clavatum. Petala sepalis breviora, late ovata. LabeUumi longe 
anguste unguiculatum, apice dilatatum, margines incrassati; 
lamina transversa eamosa, apice tenuiter rotundata apiculata, 
margo denticulatus. Oolwmna lata ; elinandrium profundum ; 
margines elevati ; stelidia tenuia, lata. Anthera pileata, apice 
conica ; caudicula longa ; clinandrii margo elevatus ; rostellum 
latum obtusum. Stigma profundum ; columnaa margines 
multum elevati. 

Hob, Legeh : Toraoh, A. Machado ! v.s. 

A curious species, allied to D. brievianum, Bolfe, with greenish- 
yellow flowers. The lip has a very narrow linear base, adnate to 
the mentum, enlarging gradually towards the apex till near the 
end, where the margins are thickened and fleshy, and a fleshy 
transverse bar connects them. The epichil is deflexed, it is 
quite thin and rounded when spread out, and denticulate. The 
sides of the column above the very slender foot are raised into 
fleshy wings. The anther is remarkable for being attached by 
the very apex to an unusually long filament, which takes its 
rise from the base of a triangular process of the elinandrium 
margin, such as one generally considers to be the fllament 
itself. 

Dendbobium (§ Pedilonum) Mqle, BidLf sp, nova. Gaules usque 
ad 2 ped. longi, ^ poll, crassi, canaliculati. Folia 3 poll, longa 
f poll, lata, lanceolata subacuta, coriacea. Bacemi ^ poll, longi, 
e caulibus defoliatis orti; bracteaa breves, lanceolatsd acutse; 
pedicelli cum ovario ^ poll, longi, filiformes. Flares plures, 
laete rosei. Sepalum posticum J poll, longum oblongum 
obtusum, lateralia lanceolato-ovata subobtusa curva ; mentum 
\ poll, longum, teres, obtusum, in medio flexujn. Petala 
sepalis breviora latiora tenuiora, obtusa. Lahellum spathu- 
latum, basi anguste lineare ; lamina obovata, in margine 
laciniata ; callus nullus. Oolumiia brevis. Anthera hemis- 
pheBrica ; caudiculus longus ; stelidia erecta, triangularia. 

Hah, Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Lurut Hills ! 

This much resembles D. camutum, Hook, f., but has smaller 
flowers, with the edge of the lip lacerate. The flowers are of a 
beautiful mauve colour. It grows sometimes very high up on 



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APOSTASIACEa OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 261 

the trees in the jungle at Maxwell's Hill. The description is 
mainly from dried specimens. 

Dendrobium (§ Pedilonum) roseatum, Bidl.f sp, nova, Caules 
ultra 2 ped. longi, graciles, snlcati. Folia 3 poll, longa, -J poll, 
lata, lanceolata acuta. Eacemi 1 poll, longi, usque ad 6-flori ; 
bracteaa ^V P^^- longse, ovatae, persistentes ; pedicelli 1 poll. 
^ongiy graciles. Flores magni. Sepala ^ poll, longa, ovata; 
mentum cum sepalis sequilongum, basi rectum, apice clavatum 
curynm. Petala sepalis latiora, late ovata obtusa. Lahellum 
spathulatum, basi anguste lineare ; margines involuii ; lamina 
late rotundata, crenulata; sepala petala alba roseo-tincta. 
Columna brev^is, crassa ; pes angustus ; stelidia brevia, lata, 
rotundata incurva ; clinandrium profundum, marginibus pro- 
ductis. Anthera lata, calvariiformis. 

Hab. Perak: Maxwell's Hill, G, Curtis! v.s. 

This is evidently very near D. megaceras^ Hook, f., which, 
however, has a three-lobed lip, a long, curved mentum not 
dilated before the tip, and petals smaller than the sepals. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) pyropum, Eidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. 
(Hot.) ill. (1893), p. 862. 
Hah. Pahang : Tahan Woods ! Sungei Ujong, Dr. Braddon ! 

Singapore: Choa Chu Kang (1894). 
I have had a single plant from each of these localties. 

U. (§ Pedilonum) crocatum. Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind., vi. p. 185. 
Hab. Perak : Larut (King's Collector). 

Resembles apparently the preceding, but has a crenulate lip 
and an oblong reversed callus at the base. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) kentrochilum. Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. 
p. 731, et Ic. PL, t. 2030. 

Hab. Perak : Batang Padaug Valley, Wray. 

D. megaceras, Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ltd., v. p. 731. 
Hab. Malacca, Maingay. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) Eoum, Bidl., sp. nova. Caulis 2 ped. 
longus, ^ poll, crassus, canaliculatus, purpurascens ; intemodi 
1 poll, longi. Folia non visa. Bacemus ^ poll, longus, 2-florus ; 
bractead minutaB, ovatae. Flores magni, rosei ; pedicelli J poll, 
longi. Sepalum posticum ^ poll, longum ^ poll, latum, oblongo- 
ovatum obtusum roseum, lateralia majora oblonga obliqua 



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262 MR. HEMRT R1DL£T ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

pallidiora; mentum | poll, longum, angnBtnm, complanatum, 
apice dilatatum uncatum subacutum. PetcUa sepalis multo 
longiora latiora, obovata obtusa. Ldbellum cum petalis 8Bqui- 
longnm, ^ poll, latum, basi angustum canaliculatum, dente brevi 
acuminato retrorso addiio ; lamina oblonga, alba yiolaceo- 
punctata, apice dilatata emarginata minus violaceo-punctata ; 
discus a lineis 3 punctorum violaceorum percursus. Columva 
superne multum incrassata ; pes longus canaliculatus ; stelidia 
brevia, erecta. Stigma profundum ; margines mulfcum incrassati. 

Eah, Siam : Kopab, Curtis ! (1894) v.v. 

A very charming species of the Pedilonum section with large 
rosy flowers, the petals a good deal larger than the sepals, the 
mentum long and narrow, dilated towards the apex, which is 
then narrow and decurved. The lip has a broad spade-shaped 
blade with a terminal notch. It bears a short white retrorse 
tooth in the lower part of the narrow claw. The whole flower 
is rosy, deeper coloured at the apex of the petals and mentum, 
which has a reddish tint. The lip is white with three lines of 
violet dots and other dots scattered over it ; the apex is also 
violet-mauve. 

Dendrobium (§ Pedilonum) lamellatum, Lindhy Gen. et Sp. 
Orch., p. 89. 

Hah. Singapore : Changi ! In damp, swampy woods on. tree 
stems. 
Selangor : Kwala Lumpur ! 
Pahang : Kwantan ! 
Perak: Scortechini, 
Not a very rare plant, though certainly local. It is very 
widely distributed, occurring from Tenasserim to Java. The 
stems are remarkably thin for their height and breadth. 

The flowers open white but soon turn ochreous yellow, as 
figured in the 'Botanical Register* (1844), t. 63. It seems to 
me this should be placed with Pedilonum rather than with 
Eudendrohiumi. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) sanguinolentum, LindLy Bot. Beg. (1842) 
Misc.^ p. 62. 

Hah. Penang Hill : on trees in the Cypripedium Valley, 
2,000 feet alt. 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! alt. 3,000 feet, abundant on low 
trees and stumps. 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 26ft 

It also oocnrs in Borneo ! and the Tembelan Isles ! 

There are two forms of this: the true D, sanguinolentufiy 
Lindl., with light, creamy yellow petals and sepals and lip 
tipped with violet pink, and an ochreons-yellow spot (not redy 
as usnally described) in the centre of the lip ; and var. cerinumy 
with no spots on the tips of the petals and sepals. B, cerinwrny 
Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1879) ii. p. 554, collected in 
the Sulu Archipelago by Burbidge, seems to me to be hardly 
distinct fi*om the latter variety, but, according to Burbidge's^ 
drawing and Reichenbach's description, the lip is obscurely 
three-lobed. I doubt its being a distinct species. The yellow 
variety was much more common in Kedah Peak than the violet- 
tipped one. 

Dendrobium hymenanthum. Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind., v. p. 732. 
D. hymenopterwm, Hook, f ., Ic. PL, t. 2032. 
Hob. Perak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray. 

D. HuGHii, Beichh. /. in Oard. Chron, (1882), i. p. 764. 
Gaules pedales vel ultra, teretes vel superne incrassati, graciles, 
debiles, purpurei; intemodi breviores. Folia pauca, 3 polL 
longa i poll, lata, linearia, acuminata. Flares majusculi, 
1^ poll, lati, caulium nudorum apices versus siti, singuli expla- 
nati, tenues, speciosi. Sepala elliptica, obtusa, alba sspe 
pallide violaceo-tincta ; mentum cum sepalo vix aaquilongum,. 
elongatum, rectum, gracile, acuminatum. Petala sepalis paullo 
majora, alba. Lahellum integram, spathulatum, apice lato 
truncatum, album (basi nervisqne citrinis exceptis) ; carinsB 2,. 
in labelli ungue connatsB, in laming divaricatce ; nervi in 
laminaB disco 2, elevati, paralleli. Columna brevis ; pes longus ; 
venter profunde canaliculatum, apice incrassatum, margines 
incrassati antheram subquadratam superantes ; rostellum latum ^ 
retusum. Stigma magnum, rotundatum. 

Hab, Kedah Peak : alt. 3-4,000 feet, on small trees ! 

A pretty species, with fairly large thin, white flowers, more 
or less tinted with violet, except on the backs of the sepals. 
The lip has two ridges on the claw, which separate on the 
blade, and their edges meet in the middle line, so as to foim 
a nectary or tube on the claw, and there are also two thickened 
nerves on the mid-line of the blade with a channel between. 

The column is greenish-white, with the upper part orange. 
It is evidently allied to the preceding species. 



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264 ME. HENEY EIDLEY ON OECHIDEJE AND 

Mr. Boxall, who introduced this species, tells me he obtained 
it at Kedah Peak, and that this is the plant described by 
Beichenbach under the name of D. KughiL The description is 
not a good one, and the locality is incorrect. 

The section (§ Speciosce) hardly occurs in the Malay Penin- 
sula, though it is well represented in Siam. 

Dendeobium ceuentom, Beichh, f. in Qard. Chron. (1884) i. 
p. 604. 

Hab. Siam : near Toukah, local, C. Curtis ! 

Tho figure of this remarkable plant in Warner and Williams's 
Orchid Album, iv. t. 174, does not quite resemble the plants 
cultivated here in colour. The Siamese specimens had yellow 
flowers tinted only with green, not the bright apple-green of 
the figure, and the markings are cinnabar-red. 

D. Farmeeii, Faxt., Mag, Bot, xv. (1849) p. 241. 
Hob. Siam : Punga, rare, Curtis, 

D. LiTUiFLOBUM, Lindl. in Oard. Chron. (1856) p. 372 — was 
sent from Chantaboon, in Siam, by Dr. Keith. 

D. AGGREGATDM, Jioxh,, Hort, Beng.y p. 63, Fl, Ind., iii. p. 477. 

Hah, Siam : Chantaboon, Dr, Keith ! Puugah, Curtis. 
Perak: Scortechini. 

There is a figure of this in Scortechini's drawings, but no 
locality is given, and I have no other evidence of its being wild 
in Perak. , 

D. (§ SPEcrosa) Dalhousieandm, Wall, ex. Faxt,, Mag, Bot,^ 
xi. (1844) p. 145. 

Hah, Singapore: ChanChuKang! (1890). 

Of this species, not hitherto known south of Tenasserim, 1 
obtained a single large plant on a big fallen Dipterocarpous 
tree in dense forests at Chan Chu Kang. On the same tree was 
another orchid not known from the Malay Peninsula hitherto, 
viz., Saccohibiu/m gigantetim, Lindl., in fine flower. Both were 
indisputably wild, but I have never seen or heard of plants of 
'either species occuriing in the peninsula since. 

1). ScoETECHlNi, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 741. 
Hab, Perak : Scortechini, 



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APOSTASUCEJS OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 265 

This I cannot distinguish from D. $ujperhum, Reichb. f. 
Possibly the specimen and drawing were from cultivated plants 
of this species, which is often to be found in gardens in Singa- 
pore, being imported from Borneo. 



BULBOPHYLLUM, Thou. 

B. (§ Sestochilos) mackanthum, LindL, Bot Beg, (1844) 
t. 13. 

Hab. Singapore : Common. Tanglin ! Chan Chu Kang ! &c. 
Malacca ! 
Pahang : Pekan Woods ! 

B. MEGALANTHUM, Qriff., Notvl, iii. p. 286, et Ic, PI. As,, 
t. 292. 

Hah. Malacca : Pulau Besar, Ortfith. 

1 have sought for this on Pulau Besar, but can find nothing 
like it. 

B. PATENS, King, ex Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 187. 

Hah. Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! Ac. 
Johore : Tana Runto ! 

The foliage and pseudo-bulbs of this so closely resemble 
those of B. macranthum, Lindl., that it is very diflBcult to dis- 
tinguish the two apart unless in flower. The flowers are 
smaller than those of typical B. macranthum, and, like them, 
have a scent of cloves. 

B. {§ Sestochilos) sanguineo-maculatum, Bidl., sp. nova. 
Bhieoma gracile; radices copiossB, congest sb. Pseudo-huUn 1^ 
poll, longi, I poll, crassi, subteretes, curvi. Folium 4 poll, 
longam, 1 poll, latum, lanceolatum acutum, tenuiter coriaceum, 
laste virens, reticnlatum ; carina basi crassa supeme attenuata, 
canaliculata. Flos singulus, majusculus, speciosus; scapus 
2 poll, longus, a vaginis pluribus ampliafcis tenuibus tectas ; 
bractea ovario multo brevior. Ovarium acute carinatum, viride 
rubro-macnlatum. Sepalwn posticum 1 poll, longum, \ poll, 
latum lanceolatum acutum camosum, lateralia 1^ poll, longa, 
semi-ova tia elliptica, basi depressa, libera. Petala lanceolata 
acuta, basi angustata; sepala petala flavescenti-viridia, trans- 
lucentia, rubro-maculata. Lahellum breve, parvum, crassum. 



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266 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

carnosum, stipitatum, cnrvnm, basi latnm ; lobi laterales 
distincti denticulati, medius canaliculatns, flavns rabro-maca- 
latus, apice et in canalicnlo prsBsertim papillosns ; papilli 
canalicnlusque atro-kermesini. Columna brevis, crassa, flava 
rubro-punctata ; dorsnm rotandatnm; apex liber; pes longns. 
Anthera depressa, obtusa, rubra, margine recto ; stelidia biden- 
tata, dens posticus, erectns acutns, anticns porrectns cnrvns. 
Stigma grande, rotandatnm. Oapsula 1^ poll, longa, viridia 
pnrpnreo-macnlata ; costaB eeqnales. 

Hob. Selangor : Kwala Lnmpnr, in woods, G. Curtis ! v,v. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Sestochilos) rugosum, Ridl.^ sp. tiova. 
Bhizoma gracile, ramosnm. Fseudo-bulbi plures, 2 poll, longi, 
^ poll, lati, aggregati, oylindrici, mgosi, virides. Folium 6 poll, 
longam, 1^ poll, latum, petiolatum, oblanceolatum acutum, 
carinatum, submembranaceum. Scapus ^ poll, longus, pseudo- 
bulbo approximatus ; bracteae paucsB, ovato-lanceolat89 ; pedi- 
cellus cum ovario 1 poll, longus. Flos ^ poll, in diam., vix 
apertus. Sepala 1 poll, longa, lanceolata acuta, pallide flava, 
extus multi-rugosa, lateralia sub labello approximata. Fetala 
sepales breviora, albo-flavescentia. Labellum j poll, longum, 
crassum, breviter stipitatum, carnosum, oblongum, apice decur- 
vum, basi excavatum, in medio anguste canaliculatum, rufescens. 
Columna brevis, crassa, fusca ; pes longiusculus ; stelidia 
obtusa, triang^aria. Anthera conica ; margo retusus. Ovarii 
coBtm carinatee, sinuatee. 

Hab, Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! (Fl. July and September) 
v.v. 

This plant forms a tuft of pseudo-bulbs, tolerably close 
together and cylindric in shape, barely larger at the base than 
at the apex. The flowers, of which each plant usually produces 
a number at once, are dull and inconspicuous. They are of a 
putty-yellow, curiously ribbed on the outside. The lip is small,, 
broad, and thick, the apex decurved and the sides alsodeflexed; 
it is fleshy and squared in outline, in colour of a dull pinkish 
red. The ovary ribs are elevated into sharp, waved keels. 

B. (§ Sestochilos) pileatum, Lindl, Bat. Beg, (1844) Misc^ 
p. 73. 

Hab. Singapore : Selitar ! 

Penang: Maingay, Curtis! 
Perak : Wray, 



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APOSTASIACBJC OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 267 

To the description in the * Flora of British India,' I would add 
that the rhizome is rather slender, and the pseudo-bulbs, which 
are conic and about an inch long, are more than an inch apart. 
The flowers are widely open, all ochreous yellow, except that 
on the lip on each side of the groove at the base is a bar of red 
spots. The lip much resembles that of B. patens, King, in 
form. I see no " mesial ridges " ; but there is a deep channel 
from the base of the lip for rather less than half its length. 
The column is greenish, rather longer than usual, and there are 
no distinct stelidia. The anther is conical and stands well 
above the clinandrium ; it is green with a purple edge ; the 
front margin is prolonged and emarginate. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Sestochilos) Reinwardtii, Beicho. /., in 
Walp, Ann., vi. p. 246. 
Hah. Perak : Wray, <fec. 

B. (§ Sestochilos) galbinum, JBtrfZ., sp. nova. Bhizoma 
longe repens, Pseudo-hulbi 3 poll, longi, j poll, crassi, cylin- 
drici, costati, inter se 1-3 poll, dissiti. Folium petiolatum, 
ellipticnm, acutum, tenuiter coriaceum ; petiolus 1 poll, longus, 
canaliculatus ; lamina 6 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, striata. 
Pedunculi 3 poll, longi, pseudo-bulbis approxiraati, gracile^, 
2-flori. Flores magni, speciosi, explanati; bractese \ poll. 
longsD, ovatsB acutea; ovarium cum pedicello 3 poll, longum. 
Sepalum posticum 1^ poll, longum, lanceolatum acuminatum 
acutum, lateralia 1^ poll, longa, f poll, lata ovata acuminata. 
Petala ferme 1 poll, longa, ovata acuminata; sepala petala 
olivaceo-flava. Ldbellum cordatum, acuminatum, camosum, 
stipitatum, basi profuude excavatum kermesinum subtns pro 
parte album, apice recurvatum. Golunvna lata ; stelidia brevia, 
angulata, subobtusa ; pes | poll, longus, linearis. Anthera dis- 
tincte 2-loculari8, subtriloba, apice rotundata ; pollinia excavata. 
Stigma oblongum, basi rotundatum profundum. 

Hab. Perak: Maxwell's Hill, climbing on trees, in dense 
jungle abundant ! 

This is a fine species, though the sepals and petals are of 
rather a dirty olive yellow. I should have taken it for B, Bein- 
wardtii, Reichb. f., if that had not been described as having the 
lip not stipitate. There is a sketch of B, gaJhinum among Scor- 
techini's drawings. The anther is nearly 3-lobed, the mid-lobe 
(crest) taller than the others, which are the loculi. The 



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268 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

rostellum is orange and sticky. The lip moves very readily on 
its stipes. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Sestochilos) longiflorum, Bidl, sp. nova. 
lihizoma ^ poll, crassum, longe repens, lignosum ; radices 
plures, validae. Pseudo-hulhi 1^-1^ poll, longi, cylindrici, inter 
se 2 poll, dissiti. Folium 6-7 poll, longnm, 2-2^ poll, latum, 
petiolatum, lanceolatum ssBpins obovatnm vel ellipticnm, 
acutum, subcoriaceum in sicco membranaceum ; petiolus ] 
poll, longus ; nervi plurimi, reticulati. Scapus 1 poll, longus, 
psendo-bnlbo seepins approximatns, a bracteis lanceolatis acumi- 
natis membranaceis tectas ; pedicellus l^ poll, loogi, basi a 
bracte& longk involutus. Flos 2 poll, longus, tenuis, baud 
explanatus. Sepala lanceolata, caudata, lateralia postico paullo 
latiora f poll. lata. Petala 1^ poll, louga, lineari-lanoeolata, 
caudata, sepalis breviora angustiora. Sepala petala rosea, 
obscurius striata. LaheUum ^ poll, longum, crassum, curvum, 
bi eviter stipitatum, a latere visum reniforme, pallide auranti- 
acum, apice papillosum. Columna brevis ; stelidia longa, 
porrecta, subteretia. Ovarii costse, sinuatse, elevatse. 

Hab, Eedab : Eedah Peak ! alt. 3,000 feet, on trees and on 
the ground, abundant, v. v. 
Penang: Government Hill, C. Curtis! 

This belongs to the group with a stipitate broad thick fleshy 
lip, almost cubic in proportions, like that of B. insigne, Ridl. 

The flowers are thin in texture and of a dull pink with darker 
veins, with an apricot-orange lip. The Penang specimens are 
rather smaller than those from Kedah, but appear to belong to 
the same species. 

B. (§ Sestochilos) hispidum, BidLy sp. nova. Rhizoma 
validum, lignosum, longe repens; radices longee, rigidse. 
Pseudo-hulbi 1 poll, longi, conici, crassi, inter se usque ad 
3 poll, dissiti. Folium lanceolatum, obtusum, coriaceum, in 
sicco nigricans, striatum, politum ; petiolus I poll, longus ; 
lamina 3-6 poll, longa, 2 poll. lata. Scapi ^ poll, longi, pseudo- 
bulbis approximati, crassi, a bracteis undique tecti. Racemus 
^ poll, longus ; rhachis crassa ; bractesB ^ poll, longse, ovatee, 
acutae. Flores roajuscoli, patentes, atropurpurei, foetidi, usque 
ad 8 in racemo congesti. Sepala sequalia, ^ poll, longa, f poll, 
lata, ovata subacuta, polita, atrorubra in marginibus hispida, 
lateralia connata. Petala ^ poll, longa, lanceolata, falcata. 



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APOSTASUCEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 269 

rubra bnmeo-striata, in marginibns bispida. Labellum crassuni, 
sessile; unguis crassns, brevis ; lamina lingusBformis, lata, 
obtusa, verrnculosa, basi a processubus 2 uncatis aucta ; carinea 
2 humiles ; canaliculus medianus. Columna longiuscula, pallida 
rubro-maculata ; pes brevior ; stelidia parva, erectia, denii- 
formia. Anthera conica, obtusa, flava rubro-punctata. Stigma 
scutiforme. 

Hab. Kedah : Kedah Peak, alt. 4,000 feet. v. v. 

I found this singular orcbid growing in a dense dark wood of 
low trees on the summit of Kedah Peak, scrambling along the 
branches. The flowers form so compact a raceme that they 
look as if they were capitate. They are of a very deep red 
with long hairs on the edges of the sepals and petals, and are 
polished on the inner face. They exhale a strong odour of 
carrion. The lateral sepals are connate at the base and beyond 
the column foot. The species is most nearly allied to B. Daya- 
nuvi, Keichb. f., differing in the long rhizome and distant 
pseudo-bulbs, the more numerous differently-coloured flowers, 
the connate sepals, &c. Except in size of flower neither this 
nor B. Dayanum, Keichb. f., has any clear relationship with the 
true Sestochili^ but it iu difficult to see where else to class them. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Sestochilos) membranifolium, HooJc. /., FI. 
Brit. Ind., v. p. 756. 

Hab. Perak : Ghinong Batu Putih, Wray. 

B. Sectio nova. Monanthaparva. 

There are a number of one-flowered BulbophyUa, of very 
small size which differ so much from typical Sestochili that one 
can hardly class them in that group. They include : — 

B. STRUTELLUM, BidL in Ann, Bot., iv. (1890) p. 335. 

B. viTTATUM, Teytm. and Binn. in Tijdsehr. Nederl. Ind.^ xxiv. 
(1862) p. 308 ; Miq., Ghoix des Flantes, t. 20. f. 2. 

B. ocuLATUM, Teyam. and Binn,, i.e., p. 309; Miq,, Z.c, t. xxii. 
f. 2. 

B. MONiLiFORMB, Par, and Eeichb, f, in Trans, Linn, 8oc., xxx. 
(1874) p. 151. 

B. CATENARiUM, Bidl, (vide p. 270). 

B. AViCELLA, Bidl. (vide p. 270). 



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270 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

BuLBOPHiLLUM CORIACEUM, Bidl. in Tratu, Linn. Soc, Ser. II. 
(BoL) iv. (1894) p. 235. 

B. STRUTELLUM, BidL in Ann. Bot.^ iv. (1890) p. 335 t. 22, 
fig. 7-9. 

Hab. Singapore : Chan Chn Kang ! 

The stelidia in the drawing of the above-mentioned figure 
having been shown a little more slender than they should be 
has led Sir Joseph Hooker to imagine (Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 189) 
tbat tbere was some confusion in the description and drawing. 
However, both were taken from the then only specimen I had 
seen. It is not very scarce in this locality, but one very rarely 
can get flowers. 

B. CATENARIUM, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. 8oc., Ser. II. (Bot.) iv. 
(1894) p. 235. 

Hab. Singapore : Sungei Buloh ! On mangrove trees very 
abundant, Changi ! Chan Chu Kang ! . 

B. (§ Monanthapabva) Avicella, Bldl., sp. nova. Bhizoma 
elongatum, gracillimum. Pseudo-bulbi ^ poll, longi, pyriformes, 
rugosi, IfiBte virentes, inter so 1 poll, distantes. Folium J poll, 
longum, -j^ poll, latum, exacte ovatum, subacutum, crassum, 
coriaceum, cariuatum canaliculatum, atroviride. Scapi ^ poll, 
longi, 1-flori ; bracteea minimee, cupuliformes, mucronataa. 
Floret parvi, reversi. Sepalum posticum ^ poll, longum, 
lanceolatum acutum virens, lateralia multo latiora conniventia 
cymbeeformia acuta atro-kermesina. Petala minima, ouneata, 
mucronata, pallida. Ldbellum brevissime stipitatum ; unguis 
incrassatus, erectus ; lamina lanceolata subobtusa, porrecta, 
plana, angusta, aurantiaca subtus purpurea, papillosa ; carina 
media, basi kermesina. Oolumna crassa, rosea; pes curvus, 
subsBqualis; stelidia elongata, linearia, apice truncata sub- 
biloba, lobo superiore brevissimo, inferiore decurvo-falcato. 
Anthera apice rotundata, margine rostrato ; rostellum brevissi- 
mum subtriangulum, obtusum. Stigma ovatum, latum. Capsula 
^ poll, longa, pro flore maxima, erecta, ovoidea; carinae 6, 
acutaB, magnaa, eequaJes. 

Hab. Singapore : Kranji, Bajan (2361), Toas, on man- 
groves ! 

This little plant is very common in the mangrove swamps, 
but is seldom to be met with in flower. It dimbs on the stems 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 271 

and brancbes low down. Tbe flowers are borne on very abort 
Bcapes, sometimes singly close to a psendo-bnlb, sometimes one 
on eacb side of a psendo-bulb, or again, sometimes, at some 
distance fi^m it. Tbey are reversed, i.e., tbe lateral sepals are 
uppermost, and open but a little, resembling tbe bead of some 
large-beaked bird. Tbe lateral sepals are dark crimson, and 
meet togetber by tbeir edges, so as to form a kind of reversed 
boat. Tbe petals are small and inconspicuous. The lip is 
sborter tban tbe sepals, narrow, witb a tbickened claw, orange- 
coloured, with a crimson groove at tbe base, and minutely 
papillose. Tbe capsule is very large in proportion to tbe size 
of the flower, witb very well-developed keels. 

BULBOPHYLLUM (§ MoNANTHAPARVA) VITELLINUM, BtdL^ sp, nova. 

Bhuama elongatum, gracile. Pseudo-bulbi 1 poll, longi, conici, 
obliqui, quadrangulares, inter se f poll, dissiti. Folium 1| poll, 
longum, ^ poll, latum, lanceolatum, obtusum, pallide viride. 
PeduncuU ^ poll, longi, capillares, 3-4 prope ad pseudo-bulbum 
congesti aut distantes ; pedicellus cum flore expanse aequilongus, 
proven tu 2-plo longior. Flos vix J poll, longus. Sepcdum 
posticum oblongo-ovatum aurantiacum apice a lineis 3 ker- 
mesinis nigro-maculatis marginatum, lateralia lanceolate ovata 
patentia flava. Petala cum ^ parte sepali postici sequilonga 
obovato-oblonga, retusa, aurantiaca apice a 4 maculis atris 
glandulosis marginata, in margine minute ciliata. LaheUum 
cum sepalo sequilongum, oblongum, obtusum, subcamosum, 
aurantiacum, basi excavatum, canaliculatum. Columna brevins- 
cula ; pes productus ; stelidia linearis, obtusa, longiuscula, 
erecta. OapstUa ^ poll, longa, fusiformis, pendula. 

Hah. Sumatra ? (c. in Hort. Ranch, Singapore, Jan., 1894). 

Belongs to the same set as B. catenartum, Ridl., but has 
larger bulbs and leaves than any of tbe species which I have 
seen. The flowers are, however, smaller than those of B. 
conaceum, Bidl., from Kinabalu. The pedicel of the flower 
lengthens to double its size in the fruit. 

This was found on a tree in a garden in Singapore with 
B, Epicrianthes, Hook, f., and Dendrocolla fulgens^ mihi. All 
were said to have been obtained in Singapore, but I think they 
probably came from Sumatra. 

B. (§ Monanthapaeva) monanthos, Ridl., sp. nova. Bhizoma 
gracillimum, longe- repens ; radices copiossB. Pseudo-bulhi 



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272 ME. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

^ poll, longi, ovoideo-coDici, dissiti. Folium 1^ poll, longntn, 
f poll, latum, elliptico-lanceolatnm, obtttfiom. Scapi plurimi, 
1 poll, longi, filiformes. Flos singulus, parvus ; bractea cupuli- 
formis, mucronata. Sepalum posticum lanceolatum obtusum 
rubronervium, lateralia (postico majora) ferme ^ poll, longa 
lanceolata acuta flava. Petala cum ^ parte sepali vix 8Bquilonga, 
late ovata acuta, apice purpurea. Labellum sepalis brevius, 
lanceolatum, planum, subobtuHum, flavum basi purpnreo- 
maculatum. Oolumna breviuscula; stelidia longa, subulata, 
aBcendentia. Anthera ovata, depressa. 

Hob, Siam : Pungah, Kasoom Road, C, Curtis ! 

This species, of which I have seen but one flower, is closely 
allied to B, catenarium, Bidl., which it much resembles in the 
form of the flower, but the pseudo-bulbs and foliage more 
resemble those of B. modestum, Hook., f. The bract is like 
that of B, Avicella^ Ridl., a wineglass-shaped cup, from one side 
of which projects a small point or mucro. 

BcLBOPHYLLUM CLANDESTiNUM, Lindl, Bot, Reg, (1841) Misc.^ 
p. 77. 

Hah, Singapore: Very common; Kranji, Tanglia, Sungei 
Morai, Chan Chu Kang ! 

Johore : Kota Tinggi ! 

Malacca : Batu Berendam (R. Derry) ! 

Penang: Telak Tikus, 0. Curtis! 

Pahang : Pekan, Tahan River ! 

Perak: Scortechini. 

Also Rhio ! (Native Collector). Java, Dr. Treuh ! 
Abundant on trees in open country, river banks, &c. 

B. CAPiTATUM, Lindl, Oen. et Sp. Orch., p. 66. 
HaJ). Johore : Batu Pahat, Lake and Kelsall ! 
Penang : Government Hill, Curtis ! 
Perak : Gunong Hijan ! Gunong Batu Putih, Wray, 
Also occurs in Java and Borneo. 
The flowers are orange red, brightest at the tips of the 
sepals. They are not really capitate, as the name implies, bat 
in short racemes. It appears to be always a native of hill 
districts. 

B. Epicbianthes, Hook.f.y Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 753. 
In specimens cultivated here, I find 14 petal threads, two 
pairs of threes, and two single ones. They are not strap- 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE UALAT PENINSULA. 273 

shaped, but terete and clubbed, dark grey at the apices, white 
at the base. The plants were brought to me from the same 
tree as B. vitellinum^ mihi. 

BuLBOPHTLLUM M0DB8TUM, Hook, /., Fl. BHt, Ind,^ V. p. 759, 
Ic. PI, t. 2038, B. 

Hob. Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! 2,000 feet alt. 

A small long creeping species with green flowers, growing on 
stamps on the ground. 

B. CONCINNUM, Hook, /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 187, Ic. PL, 
t. 2038, A. 

Hah. Singapore: abundant! Kranjil Sungei Buloh ! North 
Selitar! 
Johore : Sungei Kahang, Lake and KeUall ! 
Also Borneo : Br. HavUand. 
This is common on branches of trees in the Singapore 
mangrove swamps, and especially where there is much moss. 
The flowers, though small, are very pretty, being of a bright 
flame colour, darkest at the points of the sepals, much after the 
style of those of B. capitatum, Lindl. 

B. VEBMicuLABB, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind.y vi p. 188. 

Hah. Singapore : Selitar ! Eranji ! Sungei Morai ! Ghangi ! 
Johore : Kwala Kahang ! 

Very conunon in the mangrove swamps, its long slender 
rhizome creeping far on the branches. Flowers greenish 
white. 

B. ADBNOPETALUM, LincIL, Bot. Beg. (1842) Misc., p. 85 ; Hook. 
/., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 188. 

Hah. ** Singapore : Hort. Loddiges." 

B. APODUM, Hook./., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 766, Ic. PI, t. 204;^. 
Hab. Singapore : Kranji, Chan Ghu Kang, North Selitar ! 
Johore : Tanah Runto ! 
Malacca: Merliman! 
Perak : Batu Kuran, Scortechini ; The Cottage, Thaiping 

Hills ! alt. 4,000 feet. 
Also Djambi (Sumatra!) 
Bather a common species with lemon-yellow flowers emitting 
a somewhat unpleasant odour. It usually grows in masses on 
tolerably high trees in thick woods. A form found on the top 

LINN. JODRN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXIT. T 



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274 JAR. HENRY BIDLET ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

of the Thaiping Hills difPered in haying the sepals more pointed 
and keeled, 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEPTOSBPALUM, Hooh, /., Fl. Brit, Ifld.^ V. 

p, 767, Ic. PI, t 2045. 
Hah. Malacca: Maingay. 

Penang : Oovemment Hill, 0. Ourtis ! 
Perak : Hermitage Hill ! 
Flower, greenish-yellow. 

B. ODORATUM, Lindl., Oen. et 8p. OrcJi., p. 54. 

[Lindlej merely places in the gen as Bulbophyllum the Diphyes 
odorata, Blame (Bijdr. 312), adding nothing to the meagre 
description of Blnme. The plant, which from the description 
I conclude to he Blnme's Diphyes odorata, occnrs in the Malay 
Peninsula as well as in Java and Borneo ; I add a fall descrip- 
tion of this.] Epiphyticum. Bhizoma longe repens, lignosnm. 
Pseudo-hulbi minimi, globosi, vix distincti. Folium 7-8 polL 
longam, 1 poll, latum, ohlanceolatam, ohtusum, subpetiolatum, 
coriaceum, apice rotandatam. Scapus 1^ ped. longus, ferme 
onmino floriferus, crassus, angulatus, pallide yiridis, basi a 
vaginis paucis suflWtus. Flores parvi, copiosi, subverticillati, 
reversi, aarantiaci mox albi ; bractesD ^ poll, longse, cum ovariis 
soquilongsa, lanceolatse, acuminataB, albs. Sepala e basi 
triangulari lanceolato-linearia, acuminata, aurantiaca moz 
alba; mentum nullum. Pdala minima, cum column^ sequi- 
longa, ovato-lanceolata, alba. Labellum minimum, crassum, 
album vel aurantiacum ; lobi laterales majusculi, erecti, rotun- 
dati, medius brevis linguiformis planus obtusus. Golumna 
crassa, alba ; pes crassus, porrectus, oblongus ; st^lidia integra 
vel bidentata, dente antico elongato angusto acuto, postico 
brevi subobtuso ssdpe obsolete. Anthera depressa, tennis. 
Stigma magnum, subcuneatum. 

Hob. Pahang : Kwala Jahan ! 

Borneo : often brought by collectors. 
Java : Dr. Treub ! 

This species has [a long slender raceme of innumerable 
flowers, orange-coloured in the bud and when first open, and 
finally white. They are sweet-scented. There is a considerable 
amount of variation in the plant ; the pseudo-bulb is often so 
slightly enlarged that it is difficult to distinguish it from the 
base of the leaf, sometimes it is dilated and forms a small 
globose body. The lip is sometimes entirely orange-coloured, 



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APOSTASIACEA OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 275 

sometimes wHte with an orange tip, and the size of the lateral 
lobes in proportion to the mid-lobe varies a good deal. The 
arms of the column are sometimes quite simple, and sometimes 
have an accessory tooth at the back. 

BuLBOPHTLLUM PEDiCELLATUM, Ridl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.)y 
xxxi. (1896) p. 278, t. 14. 

JEdb, Siam : Pnngah, 0. Curtis ! 

Also Borneo. 
Flowers light yellow, sweetly scented. 

B. Globulus, Hook,/., Fl Brit Ind., v. p. 767, Ic. PI, t. 2047. 
Hah, Perak : Bcortechini. 
I have never met with this. 

B, Wbati, HooJc.f,, Fl. Brit Ind,, v. p. 766, Jc. PI, t. 2044. 
Hab. Perak ; Ghinong Bemmbun Pahang, Wray. 
I have not met with this. 

B. LASIANTHUM, Lindl. in Oard, Ghron. (1855), p. 53. 
Hah, Penang : On the big rock on the top of GK)vemment 
HiU! 
Perak: Scoriechini, 

B. (§ Racbmosji) botetophorum, Bidl, sp, nova. Dense 
C89spitosa, ebnlbosa. Bhizoma longe repens, a foliis nndiqne 
tectum. Folia 1 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, elliptica, plana, 
camosa, atro-viridia subtus pallidiora, canaliculata,apice intogra, 
inter se ^ poll, distantia. Bacemi ^ poll, longi, penduli ; rhachis 
crassiuscala ; bracteas minutse, ovatsD. Flores minimi, vix 
^ poll, lati, pauci, congesti, atropurpurei. Sepalum posticum 
lanceolatum acuminatum pallidum a striis 3 rubris percursum, 
lateralia multo majora semiovata falcata cymbiformia atro- 
kermesina. Petala majuscula, quadrata, truncata, basi ad 
sepalum posticum adnata, in margine pallida atrokermesina 
denticulata, Labellum camosam ; unguis brevis, pallidus, 
truncatus; lamina ovato-elliptica, obtusa, decurva, atropur- 
purea, papillosa, basi a carin& semicirculari elevate omata- 
Cohtmna pro genere alta; venter canaliculatum ; margines 
involuti; clinandrium parvum, profundum. Anthera magna, 
galeata pnstulosa, rubra, margine antico retuso; pollinia 
globosa, aurantiaca; stelidia magna, crassa, rotundata, ker- 
mesina. Capsula ^ poll. loDga, oblongo-elliptica, sessilis, pur- 
purascenti-viridis ; costaa SBquales nee carinatsD. 

T 2 



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276 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON OBCHIDE£ AND 

Hah, Singapore : Sungei Buloh, Toas, Eranji ! 
PabaDg : Near Pekan ! 

This plant grows thickly on branches and trunks of trees, 
especially on the borders of mangrove swamps. The leaves 
lie flat on the rhizome, and the flowers are crowded into small 
pendoloas bunches. It is quite nnlike any other species from 
this region, but the flowers somewhat resemble in structure 
those of another species from Madagascar. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Racemosje) boseum, Bidl,, «p. fwva. 
Bhizoma breve, gracile. Fseudo-hulbt J poll, longi, f poll, 
crassi, subglobosi, approximati, atrovirides. FolitMn 3 poll, 
longum, ^ poll, latum, angnste lanceolatum acuminatum acutum, 
camosam, atroviride. Bacemus 1 poll, longus, usque ad 4-florus; 
bractese lanceolatse, acut», ovario breviores. Flores f poll, 
longi. Sepala ovato-lanceolata acuta, pallide rosea. Petala 
sepalis multo minora, linearia. LaheUum sepalis paullisper 
longias, sessile, ellipticum obtnsum, planum, carnosum, cera- 
sinum ; carinee 2 curvsB, basi dissit®, in lamin& medilt approxi- 
mated. Golumna recta, longi ascula, rosea ; pes brevior ; stelidia 
obscura, antherA breviora. Anthera ovata. Stigina majnsculum, 
subrotundum. 

Eab. Siam: Pungah, 0. Curtis! 

B. (§ Racemosje) lilacinitm, Bidl.^ «p. nova. Bhizoma 
validulum, lignosum; radices oopiosse, graciles. Psettdo-htUbi 
1| poll, longi, 1 poll, lati, conici, crassi, longe dissiti. Folium 
5 poll, longum, 1 poll, latum, oblongo-lanceolatum, crassum, 
subpetiolatum ; petiolas ^ poll, longus. Scapua 1^ poll, longus, 
crassus, psendo-bulbo approximatus, a vaginis tectus ; racemus 
3 poll, longus, densns. Flores plurimi, i poll, longi; bractesB 
^ poll. long89, cum ovariis seqnilongaB, lanceolataB acuminata. 
Sepalum posticnm lanceolatum acutum, lateralia longiora 
approximata. Petala sepalis multo breviora, late ovata, apico 
subulata. LaheUum sepalis multo brevius, basi in canaliculo 
2-cariDatum ; unguis crassns ; lamina lanceola^a obtusa, plana, 
recta ; sepala petala pallide lilacina (in marginibus sepalorum 
et labelli caualicnlo pwesertim) roseo-punctata. Oolumna erecta, 
long^U8Cula ; pes cam column^ sBquilongus, ab hlU) ferme liber ; 
stelidia erecta, lanceolata acuta, antheram superantia. Stigma 
magnum, rotnndatum. 

Hab, Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 

Southern Siam : C, Curtis ! 



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APOSTASIACB^ OP THE HALAT PENINSULA. 277 

This species is allied to B. Pechei (Horb. Ball) from 
Monlmein. 

BULBOPHTLLTTM (§ RACEMOSiS) DENSIFLORUM, Eldl,, sp. nOVa. 

Bhizoma loDgissimum, lignosnm, crassam ; internodi^ poll, longi, 
a yaginamm fibrillis tecti ; radices paucse, graciles. Fseudo-hulbi 
1 poll, longi i poll, lati, angaste oblongi, teretes panllisper 
compressi, basi baud incrassati, inter se (usque ad 6 poll.) 
distantes, atrovirides basi purpurascentes. Folium 12 poll, 
longum, 1-2 poll, latum, angaste lanceolatum acuminatum 
acutum, tenuiter coriaceum, atroviride in dorso pallidius, 
canaliculatum, carinatum. Bacemus 2-poll. longus, densus, 
pendulus; pedunculus 1^ poll, longus, crassus, a vaginis 
ampliatis olivaceis rubropunctatis tectas. Flores parvuli; 
bractesB ferme -^ poll, longee, lanceolatsB, ovarium breve minute 
pubescens pedicellumque snperantes. Sepalum posticum f poll, 
longum, ovatum, lanceolatum, carinatum, mucronatum, basi 
virescens apice extds purpurascens purpureo - punctatum, 
lateralia | poll, longa, postico longiora, lanceolata acuminata 
acata, carinata, torta, porrecta, colore (quam sepali postici) 
pallidiore ; margines approximati. Petala } poll, longa, 
lanceolata, mucronata. Labellum linguasforme, camosum, 
purpureum, basi profunde canaliculatum, apice decurvum ; 
margines erecti, carinati. Golumna ferme globosa, brevis, 
albescens purpureo-punctata; pes angastus, apice liber; stelidia 
erecta triangularia, acuta. Stigma parvum, profundum. 
Capsula 1^ poll, longa, crassa, elongata, pyriformis. 

Hab. Singapore : Selitar ! Bukit Mandai ! Bakit Timab ! 
Kranji ! Choa Ghu Kang ! 

Allied to B, crassipes^ Hook, f., but with different foliar 
organs, and differently coloured flowers. It frequents the 
trunks of trees, usually in dense woods. 

B. CBASSIPES, Hook. /., Fl. Brit, Ind,, v. p. 760. 
Hab. "Penang: Herb. Lindl." 
I have not met with this. 

B. LiMBATUM, Lindl.y Bot. Reg, (1840) Misc., p. 74. 
Hab. " Singapore : (Hort. Loddiges)." 

B. (§ BAOiMOSiB) OiGAS, Ridl,, sp. nova, Bhizoma elongatum, 
lignosum, ramosnm. Fseudo-hulbi ^-| poll, longi, \ poll, crassi, 



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278 MR. HENBY BIDLET ON OBCHIDEA AND 

cylindrici, longe (nsqne ad 6 poll.) dissiti. Folium 18 poll. 
loDgum, 6 poll, latum, obovatnm ant oblanceolatam, coriaceum, 
carinatnm, in petiolum longnm attenuatum. Scapus 1^ ped. 
longns, crassus, erectus, psendo-bulbo approximatus ; vaginaB 
f erme 4 poll, longee, superne ampliatsB remotaB. Eacemus 5 poll, 
loogns, densns, multifloms, nutans; bractese ^f poll, longss, 
ovatee, flores ferme tegentes. Flores \ poll, longi, breviter 
pedicellati. Sepala lanceolata acuta, lateralia a mento g^bboso 
brevi aucta. Petala sepalis angustiora, linearia ; sepala petala 
alba rubro-maculata. Lahellum parvuro, sessile, column^ 
brevius, hastatum, obtusum, aurantiacum, basi incrassatum 
emarginatam, apice decurvum; carinas 2, subparallolaB. Golumna 
crassa, alba, maculis purpureis 2 parvis in stigmatis latere, 1 
magn4 in basi sitis; pes brevlusculus, aurantiacus; stelidia 
2-dentata, dente postico brevissimo, antico longiore acnto. 
Capsula 1| poll, longa, elongato-pyriformis. 

Hob, Perak: On rocks and trees at Maxwell's Hill, Larnt 
Hills! 

This is, I think, the largest of all known BulhophyUa^ as far 
at least as foliar organs go. It is an ally evidently of B, Beccariiy 
Beichb. f. The racemes are dense, but not large, and the 
flowers bj no means conspicuous. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Bacemosje) tbifolium, BioU., itp. twva. 
PseudO'hulbi \ poll, longi, compacte aggregati, conoideo-ovoidei, 
virides ; radices copiosaB, flbrosas. Folium 6 poll, longnm, 1 poll, 
latum, lanceolatum acutum, subtus pallidins ; margines et carina 
yix elevata pnrpurascentes. Scapus 1 poll, longns, crassns, 
albns, k yragmk bmnei tectns ; racemns ^ poll, loogus, erectus, 
capitatus. Flores parvi, dense congesti; ovaria brevissima, 
pnbescentia, viridia ; bracteas lanceolatae acntas, pubescentes, 
albaa. S^alum posticnm late lanceolatum acutum, pnbescens, 
a striis 3 roseo-striatnm, lateralia postico longiora obliqua 
lanceolata ab acumine excurvo acuminata tristriata pubescentia 
a macul& kermesinit basali striis punctisque roseis omata. 
Petala sepalo postico breyiora, lineari-lorata obtusa, unistriata, 
pubescentia, rosea. Lahellum breve, ungniculatum, linguaeforme, 
apice rotundato camosulum, canaliculatum, album roseo- 
kermesino crebre punctatum, verrucosum ; canaliculus medins, 
atrokermesinns. Oolumna brevis, flavescenti-viridis ; dens 
magnus, albus, porrectus, e ventre ortus ; pes longus, planus, 



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APOSTASUGEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 279 

albns mbro-marginatuB. Anthera obtuse conica, margine recto ; 
stelidia elongata, lata, tmncata, suberecta. 

Hab. Singapore: Sungei Moral! (Flowers Aug.-Dec.). 

A very curious plant with a capitulnm looking like a head of 
pink clover (Trifolium medium^ Linn.). The pubescence of the 
flowers and the remarkable tooth on the face of the column are 
its most striking peculiarities. 

BuLBOPHYLLUM (§ Intebvallat*), Stblla, Bidl. in Journ, 
Linn. 8oc. (Bot.) xxxi. (1896) p. 277. 

Hab. Singapore: Bukit Mandai! JurongI Choa Gha 
Eang! 
Kedah : Woods on Kedah Peak ! 
Perak ? : (A sketch among Scortechini's drawings.) 
This grows on the stems of trees in thick jungle* 

B. (§ Intebvallata) gleistooamum, Bidl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
(Bot) xxxi. (1896) p. 277. 
Hdb. Perak : Waterloo, G. Curtis. 
Rhio: (Native collector). 



CIRRHOPETALUM, Lindl. 

C. Mbdusjc, Lindl., Bot. Beg. (1842), t. 12. 
Hab. Singapore : Tanglin ! On trees by the roadside, Bukit 
Timah, and on very lofty trees, Chan Cha Kang ! 
Johore : Tengarah, T. Feilding ! 
Perak : Dindings at Lumut ! 
Pahang : Tahan River ! 
This does not seem to be a very uncommon plant, but it so 
frequently inhabits the tops of the loftiest trees that it is often 
quite inaccessible. 

C. VAGiNATUM, Lindl, Oen. et Sp. Orch., p. 69, et in WaU. List, 
n. 1979. 

Hab. Singapore : Tanglin, &c. ! 

Johore : Tana Runto ! 

Selangor: Bukit Hitam, ZekoZZ .' Sepan ! Petaling ! 

Malacca : Ghing ! Mt. Ophir ! 

Pahang : Kwala Pahang ! Kwantan ! Chelating ! 

Penang : Government Hill, 0. Curtis ! 



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280 ME. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJK AND 

The commonest species here, often densely covering branches 
of trees. The flowers are of a pale straw-colonr. It is very 
floriferons and easy of cultivation. 

CiRRHOPETALUM psiTTACOiDES, BicU,, sp. nova, Ehxzoma breve. 
FseudO'hulhi^ poll, longi, congesti, conici, mgosi neqne angulati. 
FoUum 4 poll, longnm, 1 poll, latum, elliptico-lanoeolatam 
obtnsnm, coriacenm, apice bifidnm. Scapus 8 poll, longns, 
gracillimns, ruber. Flares pro genere minimi, 8-9-nim verti- 
cillati ; bractesD ^ poll, longse, lanceolate acuminataB. Ovarium 
cum pedicello ^ poll, longum, rubrum. Sepalum posticum 
ovatum, cucallatum, longe cuspidatum, in margine ciliatnm, 
basi flavnm apice rubrum, lateralia 1| poll, longa basi connata 
tubum ore rotundatum formaniia apice libera longe setacea 
omnino (maculis 2 flavis in tubi ore sitis exceptis) atro-rubentia. 
Petala lanceolata acuminata, longe aristata, in margine ciliata. 
Lahellum lingusBforme, ovatum acutum, carnosum, violaceum 
in medidr parte pallidius lucidum. Golwnna conica, in pede 
lato sigmoideo flava, in ventre rubro-punctata ; stelidia lata, 
tenuia, translucentia. 

Hab. Singapore : On Freshwater Island, south of Singapore ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat, Lake and KeUall ! 
Malacca: N. Oantley ! 

This is a very distinct little species, and, though the flowers 
are small, is really pretty. The lateral sepals are so bent and 
connate at the base as to form a tube with a circular mouth, over 
which hangs the small violet lip. Their apices are separate 
and hang down, and are very slender and setaceous. The 
petals are rather long in proportion and strongly ciliate. The 
flowers form a perfect circle and look like a series of very small 
parrots' heads, the lip representing the beak. They are (as 
indeed all the Cirrhopetcda are) fertilized by a minute Dipteron, 
which usually settles upon the long pendent sepals and climbs 
up them till it reaches the lip upon which it sits, and when it 
has got beyond the balancing point of the lip is pitched off upon 
the column, where it receives the pollinia. I have seen one fly 
ride on the lips of all the flowers in an umbel in turn, bat as a 
rule only one or two flowers at most are fertilized. 

C. LONGissiMUM, EidLy sp, nova. Bhizoma crassiusculum. 
Fseudo-hulbi 1 poll, longi, J poll, crassi, congesti, conici, curvi. 
Folium 6-8 poll, longum, 1 poll, latum, oblongo-lanceolatum 



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APOSTASIACE^ OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 281 

acntuin, coriaceuin, basi tortum; petiolus crassus. Scapus 
8 poll. longos, pendolas, crassiusculns, basi cam psendo-bulba 
in yag^& 1^ poll, longa siccA striata inyolntns ; vaginsB 2-3, 
1 poll. long89, acuminatsB remotsB addantnr. Umbella 4-7-flora ; 
bractesd ^ poll, longsa, lanceolatse acuminatae. Sepalum posticam 
f poll, longnni ^ poll, latmn, lanceolatnTn caudatnin, in margino 
minute ciliatnm, cameum a nervis 5 mbris percurstim, lateralia 
8-12 poll. loDga pallida camea nsqne ad ^-| longitndinem 
connata apice libera filiformia. Petala ^ poll, longa, lanceolata,. 
falcata, in margine ciliata, rosea. Lahellum longins, ling^se-^ 
forme, acatum, camosnm, in medio canaliculatum, album. 
Golumna majnscula; stelidia brevia, obtasa; clinandriam in 
margine minute denticulatum. Anthera oblongs, depressa, 
atra ; rostrum obtusum. 

Hob. Siam: Punga, G. GurHs (Fl. H. B. Penang, Oct. 1893). 

This species is remarkable for the immense length of the 
lateral sepals, which are upwards of a foot long. They are 
connate for from a half to a third of their length, the free 
portions being exceedingly slender. The dorsal sepal ia 
minutely dliate, the dark pink petals more distinctly so, the 
trichomes in the latter being glandular and very different from 
those of such species as 0. gamosepalumy Oriff. The column ia 
rather thin textured, the lip large and fleshy, of a dirty white. 

CiREHOPBTALUM GAMOSEPALUM, Qriff.^ NotuL, iii. p. 296. 

Hab, Singapore : Bajan ! dbc., common. 

Johore: Batu Pahat! Sungei Eahang, common, Lake 

and Kehall, 
Malacca : Sungei Bambei ! 
Perak: Scortechini, 

Also Borneo and Sumatra, Teuasserim and the Andaman 
Isles. 
I take this to be the correct name of a plant much resembling 
0. concinnumy Hook, f., but with a very much longer scape. 
It is very variable in colouring on account of the varying pre- 
ponderance of pink or crimson specks, the ground colour of 
the flowers being cream yellow. Perhaps more than one speciea 
is mixed in the description in the ' Flora of British India,' for in 
the Malay Peninsula species the lateral sepals are nearly always, 
connate for their whole length, the tips only being free, and 
even if they are free for some way up they never become 
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282 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEiE AND 

CiRBHOPETALUM GAMOSBPALUM var» ANGUSTUM, BldL, Var. flOVa. 

Folia angosta lanceolata basi acuminata. Sepala lateralia 
angastiora longiora* Stelidia erecta neo prosilientia acatiora. 
GolumniB pes latior, apex dilatatns. 

Hob. Borneo : Sandakan, Mr* Fryer. 

This is a rather distinct looking form with narrower leaves 
and longer acnter sepals. The flowers have more rose colour 
and less buff in them, and the lip is entirely brown, without 
the yellow tip which typical (7. gamos^xilum possesses. 

C. CONCINNUM, Hook. /., Fl, Brit. Ind,, vi. p. 190, Ic. Fl, 
t.2060B. 

Hctb. Singapore : Chan Ghu Kang ! Kranji ! <fec. 
Johore : Tana Runto ! 
Also Rhio ! 

A common and variable species, growing usually low down 
on trees. A very distinct looking variety is : — 

— Var. PUBPUBEUM, BddL, var. nova. 

Pseudo-bulbi et folia formse typicsB. Flores pauUo majores, 
utro-kermesini. Sepalum posticum minus, -^ poll, longum, 
atrokermesinum ciliis concoloribas, lateralia f poll, longum, 
i\ poll, lata, decurva, in vivo canaliculata. LaheUum magis 
abrapte curvum, flavescens, in margine fuscum. Golumna 
flavescens, roseo-maculata ; pes longus, gradatim curvus, longior 
et angusiior. 

Hah, Penang : Government Hill ! 

This has the whole flower of a deep crimson colour, and there 
are a few minor differences in the proportion of the parts. It 
has much the resemblance of 0. Gumingii, Lindl., Bot. Mag., 
t. 4996, from the Philippines. 

G. ACUMINATUM, EidL^ sp. Twva. Bhizoma elongatum, tenue. 
FseudO'bulbi ^ poll, longi, fusiformi-conici, fttrovirides, plnri 
flulcati, inter se 1 poll, distantes. Folia 3 poll, longa, ferme 
1 poll, lata, oblanceolata acuminata, apice obtnsa inssqualiter 
biloba. Scapus 6 poll, longus, gracilis, tenuis, pnrpureus, usque 
ad 5-florus. Flores majusculi, imperfecte umbellati ; bractees 
cum ^ parte pedicelli viz sequilongee, lanceolatse acnt», purpureae. 
Sepalum posticum ovatum, ab arist& longlk ciliat& aristatum, 
aurantiacum rabro-striatum, lateralia angusta elongata 
acuminata libera convoluta, basi rufescentia apice divaricata 
flava. Fetala, ovata, longe aristata, ciliata, aurantiaca rubro- 



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APOSTASUCEJ; OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 283 

striata. LabeUum breve, obtnsQiu, Yirescens pnrpureo-ptLnctatnm, 
band mnlto arcnatnm ; angnii postici obtusi. Oolumna loDgi- 
nscnla, crassinscnla, yirescens, in ventre pnrpnreo-pnnctata. 
AntJiera obtnsa, conica, carinata; stelidia brevia, angnlata. 
Stigma majnscnlnm, margine rotnndato. 

Hab. Singapore : Ghoa Ghn Kang ! 

I have only once collected this. It is allied to G. gamosepaJum^ 
Griff., bnt the flowers are larger and fewer, forming only a 
segment of a circle, with the lateral sepals not connate, 
narrow and acuminate. 

CiBBHOPETALUM MiCBOBULBON, Bidl.y sp. nova, Bhtzoma gracilis. 
Fseudo-bulbi i poll, longi, globosi, inter se 1 poll, dissiti. Folium 
l^lf poll, longom, f poll, latnm, ellipticnm vel obovatnm, 
obtnsnm, coriacenm. Scapua 5 poll, longns, gracillimns fili- 
f ormis ; bracteffi 2-3 parvaa, lanceolate, dissitso. Umbella parva, 
nsqne ad 8-flora; bracteaa -^g poll, long®, lanceolataa. Flores 
parvi. Sepalum posticnm ovatnm, cnspidatnm, in margine 
•ciliatnm, lateralia ^ poll, longa angnste linearia libera rosea. 
Fetala cnm sepalo postico sdqnilonga, lanceolata cnspidata, 
<dliata. LabeUum minimnm, ovatnm. 

Hah, Singapore : Snngei Bum ! v.s. 

I have only met with this once. It is easily distinguished by 
its very small pseudo-bulbs, very slender scape, and small 
flowers with very narrow lateral sepals. 

G. LiNEABiFOLiUM, Uidl,^ sp, nova. BMzoma longe repens, 
gracile, in majore parte a vaginis papyraoeis tectum. Pseudo- 
hvXbi ^ poll, longi, conico-cylindrici, atrovirides, lucidi, inter se 
usque ad 2 poll, distantes. Folium 4 poll, longum, \ poll, 
latum, anguste lineari-lanceolatum, obtusum apice bilobum, 
canaliculatum, ecarinatum, laate-virens. Scapus 6 poll, longns, 
.gracilis, mfescens; vaginas dissit®. Floret pauci, parvi; 
bractesB } longsB, cum pedicello SBquilongaa, lineares, acutae, 
virides. Sepalum posticnm lanceolatum aoutum virescens 
atropurpureo*striatum purpureo oiliato-marginatum, lateralia 
ferme omnino connata lineari-aouminata apice libera setacea 
pallide roseo-rubentia. Petala triangularia lanceolata acuminata, 
virescentiapurpureo-striata. J/a&eZZum linguef orme subacutum, 
curvum, carnosum, atropurpureum ; anguli basi aouti. Columnce 
stelidia brevia, obscura. 

Hdb. Singapore : Eranji ! Bukit Mandai ! Ghoa Ghu Kang ! 



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284 MB. HEKBT BIDLET ON OBGHIDEJi AND 

This nsnallj grows on the lower part of the stems of the 
Nibong Palm, Onco^permaflamentosumj Blnme, creeping np and 
aronnd the stems. It is a poor and insignificant species, easily 
distingaished by its long slender rhizome, with distant pseado- 
balbs and narrow leaves. 

GiBBHOPETALUM SEMIBIFIDUM, Btdl,, sp, fiova, Peeudo-hulht viz 
^ poll, longi, conici, angulati^ yirides, in rhizomate g^racili dissiti. 
Folium 1^ polL longnm, ^ poll, latum, lanoeolatnm sabacntnm, 
coriacenm, atroviride, non carinatam. Scapus 4 poll, longus, 
gracillimns, atrokermesinns ; vaginsB 3-4, J poll. loDgie^ 
aonminat®, albescentes. UmbeUa ferme circularis, 5-flora; 
bractesB lineares, acnminatss, rofse; pedicellns cum ovario- 
i poll, longus. Sepdlum posticum ovatum acuminatum roseum 
obscurius striatum in margine ciliatum, lateralia 1^ poll, longa,^ 
usque ad dimidiam partem connata, ^ poll, in diam, obscure 
rosea, apicibus subdivaricatis loratis acuminatis acutis. Petala 
ovata lanceolata acuta, falcata, in margine ciliata. Labellum 
lingnaBforme, curvum, roseum apice pallidum. Golumna 
longiuscula, flava. Anthera elongata, conica ; steUdia brevia, 
rotundata. 

Hab, Singapore : Kranji ! v. v. 

This is allied to 0. gamosepcUurn, Oriff., but has much smaller 
pseudo-bnlbs i to f inch apart on the slender rhizome, very 
narrow lateral sepals connate for half their length and then 
separate with narrow diverging points, and the flowers are deep 
crimson. 

C. AURATUM, LincU,, Bot, Beg. (1840) Misc, p. 50; (1843) 
t. 61. 

Hob. Selangor: Seppan, on trees overhanging the river ^ 
scarce. 

This is a charming plant closely allied to C elegansy Teysm. 
and Binn., of Java, and much resembling it, differing in the free 
lateral sepals and the entire not denticulate stelidia. The 
figure in the Botanical Register is less deeply coloured than the 
Selangor plant. The name auratum is peculiarly inappropriate,, 
as the yellow colour is the least conspicuous in the flower. It 
has an odour like that of a mushroom. 

C. Makoyanum, Beichb.f. in Oard. Chron. (1879) i. p. 234; 
Hook. /., Bot Mag,, t. 7269. 

Hab, Singapore : Chan Ghu Kang ! 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 285 

CiEEHOPBTALUM Makotanum var. Bbiknianum, t.e., G, Brienianum, 
Bolfe, in Kew BuUetin (1893) p. 62. 

Hab. Jobore: Onnong Panti ! 2,000 feet alt. 
Perak : Thaiping ! 

This was first described by Beichenbach as from Brazil and 
figared in the ' Botanical Magazine ' withont locality. It is not 
conunon in the peninsula, bat seems to be plentiful in Borneo. 
The plaDt yaries a good deal in the form of the psendo-bnlb ; 
one form has large thick approximate bulbs usually four-angled 
and broad elliptic leaves ; the other has a slender rhizome, small 
distant pseudo-bulbs, and narrower lanceolate leaves. What I 
take to be Rolfe's (7. Brienianum is only different in colour. I 
have compared both plants, the spotted one, C Makoyanum, 
Reichb.f.,and C, Brienianum, Elolfe, very carefully, and cannot see 
any constant difference in form in any part, and as the colouring 
of the typical one varies a good deal, I put Brienianum as a 
variety. 

Both forms come from Borneo as well as the peninsula. 

CiERHOPBTALUM ciTEiNUM, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 
xxxi. (1896) p. 279. 

Hah. Singapore : Freshwater Island ! Tanjong Gt)l ! Kranji ! 
Sungei Buluh ! 
Malacca: Mt. Ophir! 
Perak: Thaiping! 

G. LONQESCAPUM, Teysm. and Binn. in Tijdschr. Nederl. Itu2., 
xxiv. (1862) p. 310. 

Hah. '• Penang, Lobb." 

I have not met with anything answering to the description 
of this, which is described as having two-leaved pseudo-bulbs, a 
thing unknown in any Girrhopetalum or BulhophyUum, The 
type specimen in Herb. Buitenzorg consists merely of a portion 
of the scape without the flowers. 

C. PLANIBULBE, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. (Bot) iii. 
(1893) p. 364, t. 64. 
Hab. Pahang : Pekan ! 

Kedah : Yan ! On trees. 

C. (§ Ephippium) Blumei, LindL, Ghn. et Sp. Orch.^ p. 59. 
Bhizoma ^ poll, crassum, ramosum. Pseitdo'hulbi 1-1^ poll, 
longum, f poll, crassum, conici, sulcati, virides. Folium 4 poll. 



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286 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEJI AND 

longam, | poll, latnm, lanceolatum acutnm, basi longe angus- 
tatum atroviride. Scopus 3 poll, longus, filiformis, l-floras ; 
pedicellas cum ovario \ poll, longns ; bractea lanceolata, arete 
adpressa. Sepalum posticnm 1 poll, longam ^poll. latnm, linearis 
lanceolatnm snbnlatnm, basi ciliato-marginatam, rosenm vel 
kermesinum albo-marginatnm, lateralia 1^ poll, longa lanceolata 
snbnlata, falcata, glabra, rosea apioe marginibnsqne flavescentia 
ant alba. Petala parva, obliqne lanceolata acuta, basi approxi* 
mata apice divergentia, glabra, rosea, basi in margine inferiore 
denticulata, a pustulis minntis atropurpureis omata. LabeUum 
vix ^ poll, longum, linguffiforme, stipi tatum, basi crassum 
canalicnlatnm ciliatnm, apice snbnlatum. Golumna recta; 
stelidia dentiformia acuta, antheram oblongam conicam 
superantia. Stigma longam, angustum. Ephippivm oUiatum^ 
Blume, Bijdr., p. 309. 

Hab, Singapore: Kranji! Mangrove swamps rare, Snngei 
Bnloh ! Gban Chu Kang ! 
Java: Buitenzorg! 

The description of Sphippium dliatumj Blume, is very 
meagre, nor does this plant seem to have been met with since 
nor described afresh. I have little doubt, however, that the 
plant above described was the species intended by Blume, the 
dorsal sepal being shorter than the lateral sepals. I have 
retained the species under the genus GirrhopetdLum^ but it 
differs considerably from any other species known to me. The 
sepals are narrow, and end in long terete points. The petals 
are so placed that the upper margins at the base meet over and 
nearly conceal the anther : but the points diverge widely and 
the lower margins are turned outwards. The lip is thick at 
the base, and has a channel in the middle lino. It terminates 
in a long subulate point. The column is rather tall, and the 
stelidia are erect. The pollinia are elliptic and longer in shape 
than is usual in the genus. 

The Singapore form was darker in colour than that from 
Java, otherwise it appeared quite the same. 

GiBBHOPETALUM (§ Ephippium) Restbepia, Bidh in Trans. 
Linn. Soc, Ser. II. {BoL) iii. (1893) p. 365. 

Hab. Pahang: Pekan! On trees. 

This is certainly allied to the preceding species, having the 
solitary flower with large deflexed lateral sepals. 



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APOSTASIACB* OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 287 



DENDROCHILUM, Blume. 

Dendeochilum, Blume, The genus DendrochUum was founded 
by Blume to include a number of plants which Bentham 
rightly separated into DendrochUum and PlatycUnis^ the former 
including Blume's Section 1 of DendrochUum, To this section 
Lindlej added a Madagascar plant which has long been referred 
to Bulhophyllvm. 

Blume's species were D, aurtmtiacum, with orange flowers, 
and D, pallideflavens, with pale yellowish flowers. 

Hooker (* Flora of British India ') gives three species from the 
Malay Peninsula — D, pallidiflorum, Blume (misprint for D, 
pdUideflavenSy Blume), D, linearifoliumj Hook. f. (which from 
the Icones plantarum, fig. 1859, is, it appears to me, a Plaiyclinis) 
and D. hracteosumj'Reichh. f ., collected in the '^ Malay Peninsula " 
by Finlayson. I have met with two more species, apparently 
undescribed, viz., D. crassum and D. alhumy mihi, and two 
others too incomplete for description, one a small species with 
narrow leaves and greenish- white flowers collected on Bnkit 
Hitam, in Selangor, by Lieut. Kelsall, and another, with a much 
branched rhizome, thin-textured oblanceolate leaves, and very 
curious short three-lobed capsules, which I found without 
flowers on a tree far up the Tahan Valley, in Pahang. 

D. pallidbflavbns, Blume, Bijdr,, p. 399, t. 52. 
Hah. Perak : up to 4,000 feet, Scortechiniy King's Collector, 
(I have not met with this.) 

D. album, Btdl.,^ sp, nova, Bhtzoma longum, ^ poU. crassum, 
teres ; intemodi 1 poll, longi. Pseudo'hulbi 1 poll, longi, conici. 
Folium 3-4 poll longum, J-1 poll, latum, elliptico-lanceolatum 
obtusum; petiolus ^ poll, longus. Bacemi 4, 1 poll, longi, 
gracillimi, basi a bracteis membranaceis tecti ; rhachis angu- 
lata. Flores parvi, copiosi, albi ; bracteao minimse, pedicellis 
multo breviores, ovatsB. SepaXa ^ poll, longa, linearia, obtusa, 
carinata, apice incrassata. Petala subsimilia, minora. Lahellum 
petalis brevius, lanceolatum snbacutum ; carinao 2, basi elevatso 
incrassatao ; canaliculus medianus, apice tenuior. Colvmina 
arcuata, supeme incrassata ; clinandrii margo dorsal is productns 
lanceolatus, apice bifidns, antheram parvam subglobosam multo 
superans ; pes brevis ; stelidia linearia acuminata, suberecta. 



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"288 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

Hab. Perak : On trees at Max^velFs Hill, Larut Hill ! 

Siam: Pnngah, on trees in damp shady places, 
0. Ourtia ! 
The Siamese plant has thinner lanceolate acute leaves, and 
lonpfer and more slender psendo-holbs, bnt appears to belong to 
the same species. 

Dendrochilum crassum, BaM.^ sp. nova. Bhizoma ^ poll, 
crassum, teres ; intemodi ^-f poll, longi. Pseudo-hulbi ^ poll. 
loDgi, cylindrici. Folium 4 poll, longnm, 1^ poll, latam, ellip- 
ticnm obtnsnm, coriaceum ; petiolns ^ poll, longns. Bacemi | poll, 
longi, a floribas parvis nndiqne tecti; rhachis angnlata; bractece 
cnm f parte pedicelli ffiqnilongsd, ovato-lanceolatse. Sepala ^ poll, 
longa et ultra, oblonga, obtnsa, camosa. Petala obovata, 
obtusa, carnosa. Lahellum parmm, pandnratam, apice late 
ovatnm ; carina 2, basi camossB. Columna apice cacnllata, 
incrassata ; pes brevissimns ; clinandrii margo latns rotnndatns, 
integer; stelidia lanceolata acuta, falcata; anthera majuscula. 

Hah. Perak : Hermitage Hill ! 

This has broader and thicker leaves than the preceding, 
more fleshy flowers with broader sepals and petals, a pandurate 
lip, broad blunt entire hood to the column, and shorter falcate 
stelidia. The flowers have green sepals and petals and a white 
lip. 



ERIA, Lindl. 

Eria (§ Eriuba) obliqua, Idndl. in Joum. Linn. 8oc. (Bot.) 
iii. (1859) p. 55. 

Hah. Singapore : Mangrove swamps, Kranji ! Bukit Timah ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Also Rhio ! And Borneo, Haviland ! 
This is a small tufted plant with little white pubescent 
flowers, which have usually a row of pale purple spots on each 
lateral lobe, and a yellow spot in the centre of the mid-lobe. 
It was first obtained by Cuming, in Singapore. 

E. (§ Eriur\) major, Bidl. ex Stapf^ in Trans. Linn. Soc.j 
Ser. II. (Bot.) iv. (1894) p. 237, in syn. E. Kingii, Hook, f., PI. 
Brit. Ind., v. p. 790 (non P. Muell). E. Scortechinii, Stapf, in 
Trans. Linn. Soc, Ix. (non Hook. f.). 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 289 

Hab. Perak : Mazwell's Hill ! to the top of the range. 

A tall tnfted plant. Flowers greenish yellow, the lip white, 
lateral lobes spreading spotted pink, mid-lobe deep maroon 
pnrple, with a pnlveralent white callns almost covering the 
disc. There is also a pulvemlent white callus at the base of 
the lip. Column white, edged reddish purple. 

The name E, Kingii (Hook, f., I.e.) was used previously 
by P. von Mueller for an Australian species, and Dr. Stapf, in 
the paper on the flora of Kinabalu (Trans. Linn. Soc, I.e.), 
substituted the name J?. ScortecJUnii for it, overlooking the fact 
that that name also was pre-occupied. I had described the 
Bomean plant as a variety under the name E. Kingii^ ^^var. 
major*' accidentally printed E. major, Ridl., which thus becomes 
the oldest specific name. 

Eru (§ Eriuka) bidens, BidLySp, nova. Gaules 12 poll, longi, 
validi, crassi, subcompressi, plures undique foliati. Folia 
9-18 poll, longa, 1 j- poll, lata, articulata, leete viridia, disticha, 
subcoriacea, graminea, acuta, insequaliter biloba, SDbe recta vel 
longiora nutantia. Scapi 3, in axillis terminalibus erecti, ultra 
pedem longi, lanuginosi, prsBter bracteas paucas basales ovatas 
acutas nudi. Flores parvi, copiosi, dissiti ; bracteae erectse, 
pedicellis appressea. Sepalum posticum ^ poll, longum, ovatum 
obtusum, lateralia multo majora ovata obliqua late explanata, 
omnia in dorso pubescentia pallide purpurascentia, in paginis 
interioribus glabra, virescentia atro-kermesino-maculata, apice 
obscuriora. FetaXa sepalo postico multo minora, lineari-oblonga 
obtusa, rosacea. Labellum ^ poll, longum, pallide flavum in 
disco angusto albo-farinosum ; lobi laterales lati obtusi rotundati 
pallide flavi in marginibus rubro-punctati, in medio a carinis 
2 rubris carinati, medius bifidus laciniis linearibus albis. 
Golttmna gracilis, recta, alba kermesino-marginata ; clinandrium 
profundum, late ellipticum. A^ithera plana, ferme bilocularis ; 
poUinia 8, pyriformia, pallide flava; rostellum breve, linguae- 
forme. 

Hab. Perak: Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills! Alt. 2-4,000 feet. 

— Java. 

I should have taken this for E. iridifolia. Hook, f., except for 
the dehcription of the terminal lobe of the lip, which is described 
and figured as concave and rounded, instead of being bifid. It 
is a very large stout plant, with the habit somewhat of Dipidium 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. U 



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290 MB. HENRT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEiE AND 

paludosumy Reichb. f ., except that it does not emit roots from 
the upper part of the stem. 

Ebia (§ Ebiura) ibidifolia, Hook. /., Fl. Brit hid,, v. p. 790, 
Ic. PL, t. 2067. 

Hah. Perak : Gnnong Batn Putih, Wray. 

E. (§ Eriuba) longifolu, Hooh. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 790, 
Ic. PL, t. 2068. 

Hab. Perak: Maxwell's Hill, OunoDg Hijan, Larut Hills 1 
to 5,000 feet alt. 
Ulu Batang Padang, Wray. 

The flowers are entirely pnre white. The lip in my specimens, 
when the flowers are fnlly developed, is narrower at the base, 
and longer in proportion to the rest of the perianth than in the 
figure. There are two little oblique ridges, one on each side 
in the broadest part. In one rather small form the flowers 
are arranged in whorls on the raceme, but they are not fully 
expanded. 

E. (§ Hymenkria) flobibunda, Ltndl, Bot. Beg. (1843) Misc., 
p. 43 (1844), t. 20, et in Wall. List, n. 7408. 

Hah. Singapore : Common in mangrove swamps ; Kranji ! 
Sangei Morai ! Sungei Buloh, &c. ! 
Johore : Tana Runto ! 
Selangor : Seppan ! 
Perak : Gunong Hijan, Larut Hills ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
The leaves in this species vary very much in size and form 
from linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, and the amount of 
pink colouring in the sepals and petals, which are usually nearly 
pure white, also varies considerably. It is, however, I believe, 
very distinct from the next species, which seems to have been 
confused with it. It was Qrst collected by Cuming, in 
Singapore. 

E. (§ Htmenebia) densa, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. 8oc. (Bot.) 
xxxi. (1896) p. 281. 

Hab. Perak : Common in the Larut Hills at about 4,000 feet 
or lower. Maxwell's Hill ! Hermitage Hill ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
This is a much stouter plant than JB.floribunda, Lindl., and 
much more showy. The flowers are usually quite white, but 



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APOSTASIACEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 291 

I have seen a form with dull parplish flowers on the top of the 
Larut Hills. E.Jloribunda, Lindl., and E. densa, Ridl., have a 
habit, common to some other orchids, of absolutely synchronous 
flowering. All plants of the same species blossom exactly on 
the same day ; and it is curious that, nearly allied as these two 
species are, they have different days for flowering. 

Eela (§ Htmeneria) cepifolu, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. 8oc, 
(Bot) xxxi. (1896) p. 282. 

Hob. Perak : Scortechim (Drawing 140). 

There is a sketch of this species among Scortechini's drawings, 
without locality. I have never seen it in the peninsula, knowing 
it only from Borneo. 

E. (§ Htmeneria) Maingayi, HooLf,, Fl Brit, Tnd,, v. p. 798. 
Hah, Penang : Government Hill, Maingay, 
This has not, so far as I know, been met with since Maingay 
collected it. 

B. (§ Htmeneria) saccifera, Hook.f,, Fl. Brit, Tnd.,Y. p. 797. 
JTa6. Perak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray. 

Pahang : Tahan River ? 
I am doubtful about the Pahang plant, as it is only in fruit. 

£. (§ Htmeneria) tenuifloba, Ridl,, sp, nova, Bhizoma 
crassiusculum ; pseudo-bulbi 6--8 poll, longi, i poll, crassi, 
approximati, teretes, subflexnosi; vaginae pauc®, tenues. 
Folia 3, 3-4 poll, longa, | poll, lata, lanceolata acuta, tennia, 
striata, carinata, apice inaoqualiter biloba. Bacemi 3-4, 5 poll, 
longi, graciles, undique floriferi, infra folia e basibus inter- 
nodorum orti. Flores tenues, copiosi, flavi, glabri; pedicelli 
\ poll, longi, tenues ; bractesB ^ poll, longsa, ovato-lanceolatae, 
reflexffi. Sepala ^ poll, longa, lanceolata acuta; mentum 
nullum. Petala sepalis breviora, subsimilia. LaheUum petalis 
brevius, lanceolatum acutum, integrum, flavum a macul& 
mediant purpurelL maculatum. Oolumna brevis; stelidia 
rotundata, inversa, stigma transversum partim celantia. 
Anthera oblonga, margine antico truncate. 
Hah, Singapore : Sungei Morai ! Toas ! 

Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

Perak : Hermitage Hill, 0. Curtis, 

Pahang: Pekan ! 

u2 



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292 MR. HEMBT BIDLET ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

This fip*ows on trees, often low down. It seems to be most 
nearly allied to E. polystachya, A. Rich., but is qnite glabrous, 
and the racemes are produced from below the leaves. The 
flowers are of a remarkably thin texture, veiy troublesome to 
examine after drying. 

Eru (§ Hymeneria) DissiTiFLORA, BidL, sp. nova, llhizoina 
crassi. Caules 4 poll, crassi, a Ysginis magnis tecti. Folia 2, 
subterminalia ; petiolus ultra poll, longus ; lamina 6 poll, 
longa, 1 poll, lata, oblanceolata subacuta. Bacemi 2, breves, 
graciles, c. 6-flori, ex axillis vaginarum superiorum orti ; 
rhachis gracilis, pubescens. Flares sessiles, parvi, dissiti ; 
bracteao ^ poll, longed, ovat®. Sepalum posticum ferme ^ poll, 
longum, ellipticum aut ovatum, apice obtusum cucullatum, 
lateralia multo latiora ovata falcata apice obtusa cucullata, 
omnia parce pubescentia; mentum brevissimum. Petala sepalo 
postico subsimilia, subaoqualia. LabeUum 3-lobum ; lobi 
laterales majusculi falcati apice obtusi minute papillosi sub- 
carnosi (callis majusoulis oblongis camosis in utroque latere 
disci in lateribus loborum sitis), medius longior ovatus. 
Columna longiuscnla; pes gracilis, curvus. Anthera calvarii- 
formis; caudiculus longus; clinandrium profundnm, mar- 
ginibus tenuibus elevatis. Eostellum tenue, latum, retusum. 
Hah, Johore : Batu Pahat ! (Native collector, v.s.) 
I have only seen one specimen of this, and that dried. It 
belongs to the section with a stout stem cx)vered with large 
sheaths, from the axils of which the racemes arise. The few 
distant flowers, and the distinctly three- lobed lip, and very 
short mentum, are peculiar. 

E. (§ Hymeneria) suaveolens, Bidl,, sp, nova, Pseudo-bulhi 
4 poll, longi, I J poll, crassi, oblongi, usque ad 6-nodi. Folia 
3-4, insequalia, coriacea, atroviridia ; petiolus 1 poll, longus, 
canaliculatus ; lamina 6 poll, longa 1^ poll, lata, lanceolata, 
obtusa, multinervis. Bacemus 7 poll, longus, recurvus, ciassus, 
multiflorus, ex intemodo sub folio imo sito ortus ; rhachis 
crassa, virescenti-alba, a lanugine atro parco tecta ; bractee 
i poll, long©, oblougaa acutae, reflexse, persistentes. Flares 
mediocres ; pedicelli ^ poll, longi, rufi, parce atro-lanuginosi. 
Sepala ovata, | poll, longa, posticum obtusum; mentum 
oblongum, compressum. Petala sepalo postico subaequalia, 
ovata, acuta; sepala petala alba rufo-tinctar. Lahelli unguis 



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APOSTA.SIACEJE OF THE MALA.Y PENINSULA. 29H 

loDguB, canalicnlatns ; lobi laterales rotundati, obtnsi, erectly 
mfesoenfces ; epichilnm breve, late ovatnm camosnm, oaninonla 
flava in disco sita. Oolumna brevinsonla, mfescens ; rostellnm 
dentiforme, longinscnlnm ; pes longiusculiis, canalicniatas. 
Stigma reniforme. 

Hob, Johore : Sedili River (E. Almeida, July, 1894 !). 

This is allied to E, acervata^ Lindl., bnt has large, stout^ 
sausage-shaped pseudo-bulbs, and larger, broad, coriaceous 
leaves. The raceme is stout, and recalls that of some Sacco- 
labium rhachis ; the pedicels and backs of sepals are sprinkled 
over with a little blackish pubescence. The bracts are large, 
bnt not as large as those of E, acervata, Lindl. The flowers are 
whitish, tinted with dull reddish, and sweet scented. The lip 
has a narrow claw fall of nectar, grooved, and the sides of the 
grooves end in short processes. The lateral lobes are dull 
reddish, and on the lamina of the lip, which is very fleshy, is a 
raised carunculated mass of a lemon-yellow colour. 

On the raceme I found one flower with one petal much 
reduced and adnate to the dorsal sepal ; and another small 
flower with no petals nor column, a ridge on the dorsal sepal 
probably representing the latter. 

Eria (§ Hymeneria) bractescens, Lindl,, BoU Beg. (1841) 
Jtfwc, p. 18. 

Hah. Smgapore: Chan Chu EZang! Pulau Tekong ! Pulau 
Selitar ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Pahang : Praman, at Pekan ! 
Lanka wi Islands : G, Curtis ! 
Kedah : On Pulau Song Song, an island lying off the 

Kedah Coast, north of Penang ! 
Also Borneo ! And Tenasserim. 
This species grows in open country, usually low down on 
trees, and often near the se^. 

E. (§ Hthenebia) recubvata, Hook. /., FL Brit. Ind.^ v. 
p. 797, Ic. PL, t. 2070. 
Hah, Perak: Kuiutler, 

E. (§ Hymeneria) latibractbata, Bidl., sp, nova, OatUes 
12 poll, longi, i poll, crassi, plures congesti, teretes basi paullo 
incrassati, primo a vaginis tenuibus papyraceis griseis teoti^ 



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294 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

mox Ills decidias olivaceo-viridos striolati; radices copiosfla. 
Folia 4, subterminalia, usque ad 7 poll, longa, If poll, lata, 
lanceolata acuta, tenuia, plicata, elevatim 4-nervia, atroviridia, 
cariuata, canaliculata. Bacemi 2-3, ferme 2 poll, longi, 
laterales, sessiles, capituliformes ; bracteae ^ poll. loDgse, ovatae, 
acuto vel subobtus®, prasinse. Flores usque ad 12, ferme 
^ poll. loDgi, ferme glabri; pedicelli cum ovariis J poll, longi, 
•canaliculati, torti, pubescentes. Sepalum posticum lanceolatum 
acutum, lateralia falcata carinata, omnia alba basi rubro- 
striata; mentum breve, latum, obtusum. Petala sepalis 
breviora latiora, obtusa, basi angustata, alba. Labellum sepalis 
brevius, curvum ; lobi laterales falcati obtusi rubri a carinis 
2 elevatis curvis rubro-marginatis (et inter has a nervis 
2 eleyatis) percursi, medius lateral ibus longior late ovatus 
retusus albus ; discus basi elcvatus, rotundatus, bruneo-rubix). 
maculatus. Colwnna longiuscula, lata, alba ; pes vix longior, 
ruber. Anthera conico-calvariiformis, in dorso incrassata; 
loculorum parietes 4 t^nues, parti m iterum subdivisi. 
^linavdrtum profundum; stelidia erecta; rostellum breve. 
Stigma longum, oblongum ; crura conspicua. 

Hab, Sungei UjoDg, Dr, Braddon^ May, 1894. 

Rather a pretty plant, the large apple-green bracts setting 
ofiE the white and madder coloured flowers. The habit is that 
of B.flonbunda^ Lindl., but the affinity appears rather to be 
with the E. acervata, Lindl., and E. recurvata^ Hook. f. 

Eria (§ Hymeneria) pudica, Ridh, sp, nova, Pseudo-bulbi 
1^ poll, longi, ^ poll, crassi, conges ti, cylindrici, plurinodi, a 
vaginis chartaceis bruneis (summ4 1 \)o\\. longll, lanceolatA 
.acut&) tecti. Folia 6 poll, longa, If poll, lata, oblanceolata 
subacuta, basi longe attenuata, coriacea. Racemi 2 poll, longi, 
erecti, e nodis inferioribus orti, in dimidi^ parte nudi. Flares 
plures, congesti, iis E, floribuTidai aequales; bracteae cum 
J parte ovarii aaquilongas, ovatee. Ovarium cum pedicello vix 
^ poll, longum, albo-romentosum. Sepalum posticum ellipticom 
obtusum extra pubescens, lateralia multo majora ovata. Petala 
cum sepalo postico aequilonga, elliptica falcatula obtusa, glabra ; 
sepala petala alba. Lahellum oblongum ; lobi laterales breves 
falcati subacuti in margine violacei, medius major late oblongus 
truncatus ; calli 2, majusculi, oblongi, plani, roseo-marginati, 
inter lobos laterales siti ; lobi medii discus a macule rosea 



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APOSTASIACEJE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 295 

ornatos. Columna longinscula, lata. Anthera rotnndata, in 
margine emarginata; rostellum ovatnm. Stigma grande, 
reuiforme. 

Hab. Singapore : Changi ! 

Jobore : Batn Pahat ! Kwala Kahang ! 

A small, compact plant, with sliort racemes of white flowers. 

Erl\ (§ Hymeneria) Endymion, Bidl, sp. nova, Fseudo-hulhi 
(juvenes) 3 poll, longi, crassi, congesti, 2-3-nodi, conico- 
cylindrici ; vaginae elongatse, lanceolate, acntse, summa (longis- 
sima) 3 poll, longa, 1 poll. lata. Folia 8 poll, longa, 1^ poll, 
lata, lanceolata, subacuta, basi attenuata, coriacea. Bacemi 
6 poll, longi, erecti, validi, basi (c. triente) nudi. Flores ^ poll, 
in diam., plares, resapinati ; pedicelli crassiascali, pabescentes ; 
bracteffi cam ^ parte pedicelli sequilongse, lanceolatsB. Sepala 
alba, extra pnbescentia, posticum late lanceolatum, snbobtnsnm, 
lateralia late ovata acuta falcata; mentum breve, latum, 
obtusum. Petala ovata, glabra, alba. Lahellum 3-lobum ; lobi 
laterales falcati, acuti, bruneo-rosei, in medio canaliculati, in 
margine ioteriore elevato lamineformi albi ; lobus medius 
ovatus, obtusus, albescenti-flavus, a disco calloso carnoso 
ornatus. Columna recta, in ventre flava ; clinandrium pro- 
fandum. Anthera pileata, depressa ; pollinia subequalia, 
pjriformia, aurantiaca. Stigmu transversim ellipticum. 

Hab, Singapore: Selitar! 

This has been cultivated for several years in the Botanic 
Gardens, but its habitat was not known. A plant, however, 
was brought in from the Selitar jungle recently; I am told 
also it is a native of Borneo. It is a very pretty species, with 
stout racemes of pure white flowers, relieved by the madder- 
red lobes of the lip. The inner sides of the lateral lobes are 
produced into flat laminas, which nearly meet in the middle 
line, leaving only a channel between them. 

E. (§ Aeridostachya) aeridostachya, Beichb. /., ex Lindl, in 
Journ, Linn, Soc, (Bot,) iii. (1859) p. 48. 
Hah, Johore : Tanah Runto ! 
Malacca : loc. incerfc. ! 
Perak: Larut Hills (King's Collector), 
I presume that I am correct in this, as I have a copy of an 
excellent drawing by Scortechini which exactly represents the 
Johore and Malacca plant, and is labelled '' E, aeridostachya,** 



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296 MB. HENRY BIDLET ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

but I am quite unable to reconcile it with the description in the 
' Flora of British India.' In the description of the section the 
psendo-balb is said to be one-leaved instead of two or more, 
and the scape rises from the base of tho pseado-bnlbs instead 
of from the axil of one of the uppermost sheaths. 

In the speciBc description the lip is described as " Coriaceous 
.... side lobes very small.*' In my specimens it is rather 
thin in texture, and I can see no trace of any side lobes. The 
apex is rather fleshier than tlie base, and I imagine that this 
fleshier portion represents the epichil. 

The capsule is ^ inch long, elliptic, splitting into its com- 
ponent costsB when ripe, so that they are quite separate 
except at the ends, where they are held together by the withered 
perianth. 

Eria (§ AfiRiDOSTACHTA) DASYSTACHYS, Btdl,, sp. nova. Bhtzoma 
crassum, lignosum. Psendo-bulbi 3 poll, longi, crassi, validi, 
conico-cylindrici, a vaginis chartaceis tecti. Folia usque ad 4, 
8 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, oblanceolata, in petiolos attenuata, 
hand coriacea. Bticemi 2, in axillis foliorum inferiorum orti, 
4-5 poll, longi, erecti, basi longe nudi ferrugineo-tomentosi ; 
bracteffi c. 7, dissitsB, ovatas ; pars florifera 2 poll, longa. Flores 
dense congesti, resupinati, ferrugineo-tomentosi ; bracteao ^ poll, 
longas, cum ovariis sBquilongae vel paullo longiores, ovato- 
lanceolat® subacutsB. Sepala ovata, acuta ; mentum crassum, 
obtusum, ferrugineo-tomentosum. Fetala sepalis breviora, 
linearia acuminata, subobtnsa, glabra. LabeUum tenue ; unguis 
linearis, in marginibns incrassatus: lobi laterales breves, 
rotundati, crispi, medius ovatus obtusus crispns. Oolumna 
crassinscula. Anthera tenuis, complanata, apice retusa, in 
margine emarginata ; rostellum majusculum. 

Hab. Pahang : Ewala Pahang, on a low tree ! 

This species in its dense spike of rusty pubescent flowers 
resembles E, aeridostachya, Reichb. f., but the pseudo-bulb is 
not covered with the persistent sheaths but with their decayed 
papery ones. There are four leaves, and the inflorescences 
spring from the axils of the two lower ones and not from the 
axils of sheaths. 

E. (§ AfiRiDOSTACHYA) LORiFOLiA, EidL, sp, ^Kxva, Ehizoniu 
ferme 1 poll, crass am, lignosum. Caules 1 poll, longi, crassi, 
a vaginis magnis (summS. fere 5 poll. long&) chartaceis tecti. 



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APOSTASlACEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 297 

Folia 15 poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata, lorata, acuta, coriacea. 
liacemi cum foliis aaqnilongi vel longiores, bani longe nndi, 
glabri ; pars florifera 6 poll. loDga ; rhachis stellatim pnbescens. 
Flores parvi, plnrimi, dissiti. Bractem minntaB, ovatae ; pedicelli 
cum ovariis \ poll, longi, pubescentes. Sepala extra parce 
rufo-pubescentia, posticDm breve ovatam lateralia brevia late 
ovata; mentam longnra, pendulum, clavatum. Petala sepalo 
postico latiora, late ovata, tenuiora, glabra. Lahellum sepalin 
brevins, oblongum, basi ang^stnm; lobi laterales brevissimi 
medius multo major oblongus obtusissimus in margine undu- 
latns. Columna brevissima; pes longus, canaliculatus, in 
margine incrassatus; clinandrium vix profundum; rostellum 
tenue. Stigma cordatum, in margine elevatum. 

Hah, Kedah : Eedah Peak, on trees at 4,000 feet alt. ! 

A very stout plant, with long thick leaves. The rhizome is 
remarkably thick and woody. The flowers are nearly \ inch 
long, brown. It is distinguished from E, aeridostachya, Reichb. f ., 
by its more linear leaves, tall glabi'ous peduncle, laxer flowers, 
and distinctly trilobed lip. 

Ekia (§ AfiBiDOSTACHYA) BRUNEA, Bidl, $p, nova. Folia 9 poll, 
longa, j poll, lata, anguste lanceolata acuta, basi longe 
attenuata, coriacea. Bacemi ex axillis superioribus orti ; 
pcdunculus 5-6 poll, longus, a tomento ferrugineo tectus ; 
pars superior 3-6 poll, longa, nutans, a floribus copiosis dense 
congestis omata. Bractem minimae, ovatae acutae, ferrugineo- 
tomentosas. Flores parvi, brunei ; ovaria cum pedicellis -^g poll, 
longa, ferrugineo-tomentosa. Sepala extra a tomento rufo 
stellato parce tecta, posticum parvum ellipticum obtusum 
lateralia multo latiora ovata obliqua ; men turn longum, pen- 
dulum. Fetala linearia, obtusa, curva. Lahellum tenue ; unguis 
longus, angustus ; lamina ovata, spathulata, in margine undu- 
lata. Columna brevis, lata; pes longus; clinandrium pro- 
fundum, marginibus tenuibus; rostellum tennius, integrum. 
Stigma grande, ovatum. 

Hah. Perak : Hermitage Hill, G. Curtis ! 

Near E. aeridostachya, Reichb. f ., but with smaller flowers 
and thin spathulate lip. The raceme is very compact; the 
flowers open wide, and are of a light-brownish colour. The 
narrow petals are peculiar for the section. 

E. (§ Bambusifolij:) minutiflora, BfidL^ i.e., AgrostophyUum 



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298 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

^attctflorum^ Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 824, et Ic. PL, 
t. 2097. Caules 2 ped. longi, pauci, elongati, graciles. Folia 
2 poll. loDga, ^ poll, lata, plnra, linearia, obtosa, inaeqnaliter 
biloba ; vaginsB ^ poll, longae, profunde fissee. Racemi laterales, 
breves, e vaginis vix exserti, pauciflori, prope ad folii laminam 
approximati ; bracte© cum ^ parte pedicelli sBquilongee, ovatse, 
acumiDatse. Flores minuti, albi. Sepala lanceolata, acnminata, 
acuta, carinata, lateralia basi connata mentnm breve formantia. 
Petala sepalis breviora, linearia, obtusa. Labelli unguis oolumnae 
pedi adnatus : lamina sepalis lougior, porrecta, spathulata, basi 
angusta, canaliculata, in margin ibus elevata, apice ovata acuta ; 
linea incrassata camosa in disco sita. Columna brevis, crassa ; 
stelidia longa, acuta, suberecta. Anthera ovata, apice incra.<isata, 
antice rostrata ; pollinia 4, sabsBqoalia, ovoidea. 

Hab, Johore : Batu Pabat ! 

Pabang : Tahan River Woods ! 
Perak : Scortechinu 

A weak plant, with the habit of some of the Appendiculas, 
growing on trees. The racemes are verj short, and protruded 
fi'om the loaf-sheaths close to the leaf -blade. There are four 
or five flowers rather distant on each raceme. The sepals are 
keeled, and the laterals are connate along the edge at the base 
beneath the lip. The column-foot is adnate by its edges to 
the claw of the lip. The stelidia are rather bix)ad ; they 
have a thin edge ending in an obscure tooth, and a fleshier outer 
portion ending in a longer point. 

It is difficult to refer this plant to any genus. In habit, 
pollinia, short column, it is very distinct from AgrostophyUum^ 
to which Sir Joseph Hooker has referred it. Qlomera^ with 
four pollen-masses instead of eight, has so much the habit 
and form of lip and column of Agrostophyllum that I think its 
affinities can hardly lie there. 

On the other hand, in many respects it resembles Erta, and 
I think shonld bo classed there. 

I have re-described it because the materials for the original 
description being insufficient, the account and figure differed 
somewhat from the specimens I have collected. Pig. 2 of the 
Icones from Scortechini's drawings by no means gives a correct 
idea of the column and lip ; the claw of the latter is very much 
narrower, and the base, which is parallel to the column-foot, is 
also adnate to it, and the blade stands at an angle with it. 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 299 

The conical portion at the end was intended evidently to 
represent the uptomed side of the broad ovate portion. I see 
nothing like the process on the side of the column below the 
stelidia. 

There being already an Erta paitciflora, I have been unable 
to use tbis specific name in transferring the species to the 
genus Eria. 

Eria (§ Bambusifoli^) PiLiFEBA, Bidl.^ sp. nova, Caules 
1^ ped. longi, debiles, subteretes. Folia 2^ poll, longa, ^ poll, 
lata, lanceolata acuminata, tenuia, pallide viridia, apice 
ineequaliter biloba, lobo altero ^ longiore acuto ; vaginsB ferme 

1 poll. longflB, ore integrsB. Bacmni brevissimi, pauciflori. 
Flores parvi, tenues, singulatim expansi. Bracte(e ^ poll. 
longaB, lanceolate, patentes, persistentes, pubescentes, pallide 
flavae. Ovarium cum pedicello f poll, longum, tortum, parce 
pubescens, flavum. Sepala f poll, longa, oblongo-lanceolata, 
obtusa, tenuia, alba, lateralia falcata, magis acuta; mentum 
cum ^ parte sepali subsBquilongum, obtusum. Petala cum sepalia 
sequiloDga, lanceolata, subobtusa. Labellum petalis brevius, 
angustum, cuneatum; lobi laterales apice rotundati, medius 
lateralibns vix longior crassus subtrilobus a pilis brevibus 
flavis tectus. Columna curva, basi angustata, supeme incras- 
sata, alba. Anthera brevis, rotundata, albescenti-ochracea, 
bilocDlaris; pollinia 8, admodum inaequalia. Stigma pro- 
f undnm, transverse ovatum ; rostellum linguaeforme, obtusum, 
decurvum ; stelidia dentiformia, incurva. Capsiila (immatura) 

2 poll, longa, teres. 

Hab, Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! On trees in thick jungle. 

A slender, leafy-stemmed plant, with thin textured white 
flowers, which are produced singly in racemes bearing four 
yellow empty bracts beneath the flower. The lip has the apex 
covered with mealy yellow hairs like those of Dendrohium 
criniferum, Lindl. The column has two small tooth-like 
processes which curve in over the large stigma. The pollinia 
are remarkably unequal, the upper four being four times as 
large as the others. The capsule splits for its whole length 
along one side only. It belongs apparently to the section 
Bambustfolice, 

The next four species form a good sub-section of Nutantes, 
distinguished by a tall somewhat terete (i.e., not pseudo- 



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300 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

balbous stem), bearing a few leaves at the top, and short 
racemes below these, with one or more fairly large glabrons 
flowers with large nsuallj oohreous bracts. 

Eria (§ NuTANTEs) LEPTOCARPA, Hoolc. /., Fl. BHU Ind.y V* 
p. 805. 

Hah. Perak: Scortechini! 

I have only seen this from Borneo. 

E. (§ NuTANTEs) NUTANS, Lindl, Bot, Reg. (1840) Misc., p. 83. 
Hah. Singapore : common ; Selitar ! Toa ! Kranji ! 

Johore: Tana Runto ! Limpai, Khi Batu Pahat! 

Lake and Kelsall, Gunong Panti (2,000 ped. alt.). 
Malacca: Mt. Ophir! 
Penang : Government Hill ! 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
This is a common mangrove swamp species ; but 1 have also 
met with it in the higher parts of several hills of the interior. 

The flowers are nsually pure white, except for a little pink 
on the mentnm and lip, and some yellow also on the latter. 
At the base of the foot of the column is a large square cushion 
(palvinns) of an orange-red colour. I have also, however^ 
seen a form in damp hill woods, in which the sepals and petals 
are coloured a dirty pink. 

E. (§ NuTANTEs) NEOLECTA, Eidl. in Joum, Linn. Soc. (Bot.). 
xxxi. (1896) p. 283. 

Hah, Singapore: Kranji! Selitar! Sungei Buluh ! 
Johore : Tana Runto ! 
Also Borneo. 

It is sometimes difficult to tell dried specimens of this from 
E. nutansy LindL, but it is very distinct when alive. It forms 
often quite a mat of rhizomes on the branches of the trees in 
the mangrove swamps. The flowers are of a dull flesh colour^ 
with the yellow on the lip as in E, nutans, Lindl. 

The figure in Scortechini's drawings alluded to by Hook, 
f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 800, is evidently intended for this 
species. 

E. (§ NuTANTEs) LONGE-REPENs, BddL in Joum. Linn. 8oc. 
(Bot.) xxxi. (1896) p. 282. 
Hah. Singapore : Sungei Morai. 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THK MALAY PENINSULA. 3'jl 

This very cnrious plant creeps on the gronnd and ascends 
small trees in thick drj woods, mnch after the manner of 
Claderia, I have only met it in this one spot in the Malay 
Peninsula, bat it is abundant there, and occurs also in Borneo. 

Eria (§ Dendrolirion) albido-tomentosa, Lindl., Gen. et Sp. 
Orch., p. 66. Bhizoma longe repens. Pseudo-hulbi 2 poll, lonji^i, 
ovoidei, compressi, remoti. Folia 3, 5 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, 
lanceolata, basi attenuata. Scapus 6 poll, longus, laterah's, 
lanuginosus, c. 10 floims, basi a vaginis pluribus lanceolatis 
obtusis tectus. Flares mediocres, explanati. Bracte^n lanceo- 
lataB acnminataa, brunesB, lanuginosaB. Sepala reflexa, extra 
albo-lanuginosa, intus glabra, viridia, posticum lanceolatam 
acntum, lateralia late triangularia lanceolata acuta, basi 
rnbro-maculata. Petala cum ^ parte sepali sequilonga, lineari- 
lanceolata, acuta, basi angnstata, recurva, viridia. Lahellum 
panduratum; lobi latenUes breves oblongi obtusi, modius late 
oblongus obtusissimus, viridis dense purpureo-maculatas et 
punctatus, apice acutus flavus ; callus elevatus ; macula brevis 
glabra atropurpurea inter brachia sita. Columna longa, gracilis, 
alba; macula rosea in pede sita ; stelidia brevia, obtusa, rotun- 
data. Anthera obtusa, conica, brunea. Bendrolnnm albiihi- 
tomensiim, Blnme, Bijdr., p. 345. 

Hab. Lankawi Islands : 0. Curtis ! v.v. 
Tonka: Native dealers. 

Java ! There is a good sketch of this among Zollinger's 
drawings at Buitenzorg. 

The descriptions of this species are either inadequate to 
determine it by, or are somewhat different from the plant 
which I take to be intended. The figure in Reichenbach's 
'Xenia Orchidacea,' ii. t. 136, taken from one of Kuhl and 
Hasselt's drawings, is a remarkably bad one, and, indeed, 
hardly recognisable. The flowers are so thickly covered with 
white wool on the backs that the ground colour of the sejjals 
cannot be seen; in front, however, they are of a sea-green. 
The lip is also green, but for the greater part so thickly 
spotted and blotched with purple that it appears all purple 
at first sight. In the middle of the lip is a raised V-shaped 
ridge, which is yellow, and in the fork is a raised, polished, 
dark purple spot. The column is very long for the genus. 

I found a plant closely resembling this on Kedah Peak, but 
flowerless. 



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802 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

Eria (§ Dendrolirion) ornata, lAndl.y Gen, et 8p. Oreh., 
p. 66 P . Bhtzoma graoile, ramosam ; radioes tenaces, teretes. 
Pseudo-bulbi 1^2 poll, longi, J-J poll, lati, J— f poll, crassi, 
oblongi, compressi, 4-nodi, inter se 2-2^ poll, remoti. Folia 
2-3, 6 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, lanceolata acata, apice inaaqna- 
liter biloba, coriacea, Isete rirentia seepe rabromarginata. 
Sca]ptA8 1 ped. longas, lateralis, basi nadns, superne laxe race- 
mosas ; bracteao 1^ poll, longae, ot'atss vel lanceolatsB, acntro, 
glabi*88, anrantiaco-rubrsa. Flores 12-20 ; ovaria cum pedicellis 
1^ poll, longa, bninea, pnbesceutia. Sepala basi bmnea apice 
flavescenti-alba, extra pnbescentia intos glabra flavescenti- 
alba, posticam 1 poll, longnm, basi ^ poll, latum liueari- 
lanceolatam obtosnm apice incrassatum, lateraiia snbsimilia; 
mentum ^ poll, longum, late scrotiforme. Petala sepalis 
breviora, lanceolata acuminata, alba. Lahellum basi latum 
album ; lobi laterales suberecti vix distincti albi in margine 
atrobrunei, medius anguste lanceolatus acutus, sinuatus, ker- 
mesinus; carinsB 2, in disco inter lobos laterales elevate. 
Columna curva, alba ; pes longiusculns. Anthera conica, obtusa, 
alba. Stigma elongatum, oblongum. Dendrobium omaium, 
Blume, Bijdr., p. 346 ? . 

Hah. Slam: Pungah, C, Curtis! 
Also Borneo. 

This species is very distinct from the Philippine E. 
armeniaca^ Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1841) Misc., p. 38, t. 42 
(Cuming*s Collections, Philippines, n. 2048), but it seems to 
have been passed over for that species. Blume's description is 
very incomplete (and I have not seen any specimens from Java), 
but as far as it goes it will suit this plant very well. 

The bracts are of a beautiful apricot orange, broader at the 
base than those of E, armeniacay Lindl., and glabrous. The 
sepals are dull purplish brown, and covered on the outer face 
with a fine white pubescence. The apices are yellowish and 
more fleshy. The lip is very different. The two outer nerves 
of the disc are raised, and developed into thin plates, the 
median nerve is not elevated. The epichil is narrow and 
acuminate. In E. armeniaca, Lindl., the lateral nerves are but 
little thickened and raised, but the median one is strongly 
developed, and on the broad ovate epichil bears an elliptic thick 
callus with a depressed centre. 

E, tom«nto5a, Hook, f., differs in having the mid-lobe "clawed 



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APOSTASIACEJE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 303 

sabqnadrately cordate," oblanceolate petals, and bracts hardly 
an incli with a broad, thickened, roughened area from the base 
to the apiculate tip. It is the only other species of the gronp 
known to me. 

Eria (§ Dendbolieion) pulchella, Lindhy Bot. Beg. (1841) 
Misc., p. 52, et in Wall. List., n. 7407. 

Hob. Singapore : Kranji ! Pulau Tekong ! Snngei Morai ! 

Johore : Kwala Kahang, Lake and Kelsall ! Bata 

Pahat! 
Malacca : Bukit Batu Tiga, R. Berry ! 
Penanpf : Goyemment Hill, 0. Curtis, rocks near 

Beach ! 
Pahang : Pulau Tinman ! 
Perak: Scorteehini. 
Sungei tJjong : N. Gantley ! 
Kedah: Kedah Peak. 
Also Rhio ! And Borneo, Haviland ! 
A yery common plant growing often high up on branches of 
tree?, often creeping oyer rocks by the sea or on the rivers. It 
is called '^Pard Ghinduai'^ and " Sakat Bigus,'' by the Malays 
of Sungei Ujong. 

The flowers are of a buff yellow, the lip has a white claw 
with a central purple spot, and three purple bars ending in a 
purple blotch on the lamina. The lip is not " mobile " in any 
plants which I haye seen, as described by Bin me. 

E. (§ Dendrolieion) pannea, LindL, Bot. Beg. (1842) Misc., 
p. 64. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Chan Ghu Kang ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! Tana Bunto ! 
Malacca : Merliman ! Snngei Bahra, B. Berry, Mt. 

Ophir ! 
Perak: Scorteehini. 
This is called in Malacca ^^ Poko Kura Kubong,'" and the 
leaves and roots are boiled and the decoction used for bathing 
by the aborigines (Jakuns) in cases of shivering fever. It is a 
common little plant creeping on branches of trees often very 
high up. 

E. (§ Dendrolirion) pbllipes, Beichb.f., ex Hook. /., Ft. Brit. 
Ind., V. p. 802. 



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*W4 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

Hdb. Malacca : On trees on Mt. Ophir, common ! 
Perak : Thaiping Hills, 5,000 feet ! 
Penang : Government Hill ! 
Also Borneo ! 
A curious little plant creeping on trees nsnallj at aboat 
2,000 feet elevation. Frotn the shape of the leaves resembling 
elephants* tusks, the Malays on Mt. Ophir called it " Angrek 
Qading *' ("Ivory Orchid ")• 

Eru (§ Dkndeolirion) leiophylla, Lindl, in Joum. Linn, Soc, 
(BoL) ill. (1859) p. 57. 
Hah. Penang : Top of Government Hill, Curtis ! 

E. (§ Dendrolirion) lancifolia, Hook. /., FL Brit. Ind., v. 
p. 804. 

Hah. Perak : At low elevation {King* 8 Collector). 

E. (§ Dendrolirion) stellata, Lindl. Bot. Be^., t. 904 ; et in 
Bot. Mag., t. 3605. 

Hah. Singapore : Choa Chu Kang ! 

Pahang : Limestone rocks at Kota Glanggi ! 

Apparently common in Borneo and Sumatra, whence (from 
Djambi) I have received very fine forms. 

E. (§ Dendrolirion) striolata, Beichb. f. in Illustr. Hortic. 
(1888) p. 35, t. 48. 
Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! 

Johore : Batn Pah at ! 

Common in Borneo. 

E. (§ Dendrolirion) elata, Hook. /., Ic. PI, t. 1848, FL Brit. 
Lid., V. p. 994. 

Hah. Perak : Scortechini. 

E. (§ Trichotosia) vestita, Lindl., Bot. Beg. (1844) Misc., 
p. 76 (1845), t. 2. 

Hah. Singapore : Sungei Brih ! Kranji ! Sungei Morai ! 
Malacca : Merliman ! Mt. Ophir ! 
Pahang : Pekan ! 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Selangor : Seppan ! 
The finest species in the section, growing on trees in damp 
spots often low down. 



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APOSTASIACBJB OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 305 

Ebia (§ Teichotosu) fbeox, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat^ ii. 
p. 184 

Hab, Penang : Lohh, Matngay, 

Perak: GtinoDg Hijan, Lamt Hills, 4,500 feet on 

trees! 
Kedab : Kedah Peak, alt. 4,000 feet, on rocks and trees ! 
A tall tufted plant, with nameroos greenish yellow flowers. 
Sometimes epiphytic, at other times terrestrial. 

B. (§ Teichotosu) monticola. Hook. /., Fl Brit Ind.^ v. 
p. 806. 

Hah, Pnlau Aor (an island east of Johore), /. Feilding ! 

Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

Selangor : Bukit Hitam, KeUdll ! 

Perak: Scartechini, 

B. (§ Teichotosu) oeacius, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind,, v. p. 806. 
Hah. Perak: Scortechini. 

B. (§ Teichotosu) txjbeeosa, Hooh /., Fl. Brit. Ind.^ y. p. 807. 
Hah. Perak: Gnnong Hijan, Lanit Hills, 5,000 feet 
elevation ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

E. (§ Teichotosu) aporina, Hooh.f.^ Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 808. 
Hah. Perak: Lanit Hills ! 

B. (§ Teichotosu) poculata, lUdl.^ sp. nova. Oaules 2 ped. 
longi, graciles, teretes, a vaginis 1^ poll, longis scabridis 
(1amin& carentibns) tecti. Folia 3 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, 
lanceolata acuminata acnta, insBqnilateralia, coriacea, glabra, 
ecarinata, ecanalicalata ; vagin» 1^ poll, longs, in ore rotnndo 
integro castaneo-pilossB. Bacemi yix \ poll, longi, ploriflori, 
be si a bracte& poculiformi castaneo-pilos& snffnlti. Pedunctdus 
^ poll, longus, pilosns; bractesB florales i poll, long®, cum 
floribns ferme aaqailongsd, ovatas, rofo-pilossB ; pedicelli yix 
^ poll, longi, mfo-pilosi. Sepalum posticnm i poll, longnm 
lanceolatnm sabacntnm flayescens extra pilosnm, lateralia 
latiora magis acnta carinata ; mentnm cum sepalis sequilongnm, 
latum, obtusum. Petala sepalis minora, lauceolata, acuta, 
tonuia, glabra, in margine minutissime denticulata. LaheUum 
album, basi aurantiacum lineari-cuneatum, apice dilatatum 
emarginatum; latera iuvoluta; margines fimbriati. Oolumna 

UNN. JOUEN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. X 



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306 MR. HSlf ftT BIDLBt OK OBCttlDS^ AND 

lata, Bupeme incrassata, purpurea. Antherd Bnb^nadratay 
emarginata, minnte pnstnlosa, atropnrpnrea ; pollinia minntft, 
oblonga vel ctmeata, insequalia. SHguMi lattim, reniforme; 
rostellun labiatnm, deflezum. 

Hah. Kedah : Kedah Peak ! Alt. 3,000 feet ; on rocks and on 
the ground abundant. 
Flowered in Hort Bot. Singapore, Feb., 1893 ! 

This has the smallest flowers of any species of the seciion, 
and the plant is one of the tallest. The inflorescence bract is 
of the shape of a cup and quite entire. The metLtum is 
remarkably short. The lip is small and narrow, nearly bilobed 
at its apex, the edges waved and fimbriate. An elevated line 
runs down the disc from the base, which is full of nectar. 

Eria (§ Trichotosia) olioantha, HooTc. /., J?7. Brit. Ind,, v. 
p. 807. ^ 

Hob, Singapore: Toas! 

Penang : Government Hill, Curtis ! 
' Pahang : Tahan Woods ! 
Perak : Hermitage Hill ! 

E. (§ Trichotosia) velutina, Lodd, ex Lindl, Bot, Beg. 
(1840) Misc., p. 86. 

* Hah. Singapore : Snngei Morai ! Kranji ! Jarong ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 
Penang : Government Hill, Curtis ! 
Kedah : Teratan ! Cwrtis ! 
A common plant with dull- coloured inconspicuous flowers. 

E. (§ PORPAX) Meirax, N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. (1880) 
II. p. 603, 

I found a quantity of a plant much resembling this on rock 
faces on Kedah Peak, but it was out of flower. 

E. (§ DiLOCHiOPSis) ScORTBCHiNU, Eooh /., Fl. Brit. Ind., 
V. p. 809. 

Hob. Perak: Scortechini, 
I have not met with this. 



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AP0STASUGEJ6 OF THB MALAY PENINSULA. 307 

PHREATIA, Lindl. 

P. Mtosubxjs, Lindl. in Joum. Linn. 8oc, {Bot.) iii. (1869) 
p. 61. 

Hah, Perak : Larut Hills, Gtmong Hijan, 5,000 feet alt ! 

P. MiNUTiFLORA, Lindl. in Joum. Linn. Boo. (Bo§.) iii. (1859) 
p. 82. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Toas ! Jurong ! (4679.) 
Johore : {Native collector) ! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills ! 
Bather common in the mangroye swamps in Singapore. 1 
have also received it from Djambi, in Sumatra. 

P. NANA, Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 811, et Ic. PI, t. 2084. 
Hah. Perak : Scortechini. 

P. LiSTBOPHOBA, Bidl.y sp. nova. CsBspitosa ; radices copiosse. 
Oatdes 1 poll, longi. Folia 6 poll, longa, vix ^ poll, lata, 
anguste lanceolata acuta, apice insequaliter biloba, disticha, in 
petiolis ^ poll, longis articulata. Eacemi 1-2, 7-8 poll, longi, 
elongati, graciles, usque ad ^ partem yel ultra nudi (vaginis 
apice acuminatis exceptis). Flores minuti, plurimi, albi, sub- 
dissiti. BractecB ^ poll. longaB, lanceolatae acuminatsB, pedicel los 
cum oyariis superantes. Sepala lateralia postico majora, ovata 
subacuta. Petala sepalis minora, oblongo-ovata. Lahelli 
unguis linearis, lamina reniformis. Gohimna crassa. Anthera 
ovata ; caudiculus latus ; rostellum latum, supeme bidentatum. 
SHgma maximum, oblongum. Oapsida -^ poll, longa, oblonga, 
in pedicello gracili sita. 

Hob. Perak : Larut Hills, 5,000 feet alt. I 
Kedah : Ounoug Baya, G. Curtis ! 

A very naiTow-leaved species with slender racemes of minute 
flowers, more distant than in P. Myosurus, Lindl. The lip has a 
narrow linear claw ending in a reniform blade. The rostellum 
is remarkable for being distinctly bifid. 

CERATOSTTLIS, Blume. 

C. GRACILIS, Bhime, Bijdr,, p. 306 ; Eeichh. /., Xenia Orch., 
ii. p. 92, t. 127. G. teres, Beichb. f. in Bonplandia, ii. (1854) 
p. 89 ; Walp. Ann., vi. 470. 

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Oeratostylis moLaccenM, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 825, 
et Ic. PL, t. 2098. 

A^endicula teres^ QrifE., Notul., iii. p. 359, et Ic. PI. As. 
t. 332. 
Hah, Malacca : Mt. Ophir, common at 2-4,000 feet ! 

Johore : Bata Pahat ! 

Selangor : Near Kwala Lnmpnr, in the low oonntrj ! 

Perak: Lanit Hills, 3-4,000 feet elevation! (Scor- 
techim ! drawings.) 

Kedah Peak : alt. 4,000 feet! 

Also occurs in Assam, Khasia, Java, Somatra. 
I am quite unable to separate the Assam and Javan plants 
from that of the Malay Peninsula. Griffith's figure and descrip- 
tion of Appendicula tereSy upon which Beichenbach apparently 
based his 0. teres^ would very well suit the peninsular plant. 
Blume's 0. gracilis^ as figured and described by Heichenbach in 
the ' Xenia,' I.e., shows no difEerence. In 0. malaccensiB^ Hook, f., 
the figure in the 'Jcones Plantarum' certainly looks as if 
intended for a different plant, for it has a lanceolate lip, 
narrower at the apex than at the middle, with three distinct 
ridges and convex, whereas in all that I have seen the lip is 
broadest and thickened at the apex, concave at the base. The 
mentum is strictly scrotiform in my specimens. Scortechini's 
figures labelled Oeratostylis malaccensis are exactly like the 
plants I have collected. Perhaps the differences between the 
figure in the ' Icones ' and the common plant are, in part at 
least, due to the former being drawn from dried and perhaps 
crashed flowers, or it may have been an exceptional form. I 
have received a form with very much thicker and shorter stems 
and leaves from Djambi, in Sumatra, the flowers, however, are 
quite similar, even in colouring, to the peninsular form. 
The plant grows, usually abundantly, on trees in the mountain 
districts at a considerable elevation ; but I once found it on a 
big fallen tree in dense jungle in Kwala Lumpur, in the low 
country. The stems are dull, dark green. The flowers in 
compact tufts, two or three in each tuft opening at a time. 
They are usually, but not always, more or less pubescent. 
They do not open wide, but the apices of the perianth segments 
separate a little. The sepals and petals are pink, rarely yellow, 
the lip yellowish, with the thickened apex bright chrome yellow. 
The mentum and base of the lip are full of honey. There are 



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APOSTASUGBiB Off THE HALAT PENINSULA. 309 

some raised nerves in the concave part of the lip, but they are 
very obscure during life. The column arms are broad, long, 
and hooded; and the rostellum, a thin retuse membrane, is 
joined to them, being adnate to their interior faces. From the 
position of the floor of the clinandrium (i.e., the rostellum) 
I believe that these column arms consist of the stelidia (i.e., 
filaments of the aborted stamens) combined with a portion of 
the hinder margin of the clinandrium. The thin, flat anther 
cap is divided into eight compartments. The poUinia are eight, 
equal and pyriform in shape. They are joined together by a 
short but distinct translucent peduncle which bears at its 
other end an oval honey-yellow disc. This is figured also by 
Griffith in the *Ic. PI. As.,' and the presence of this was 
probably the reason why he referred the plant to Appendicula. 
Till I have had opportunities of examining a good series of the 
allied species in a living state I am unwilling to remove this 
plant from the neighbourhood of EriOy although the pollen is 
much more like that of a Vandea than that of an Epidendrea. 

Ceratosttlis clathrata, Hook, /., Fl. Brit Ind.^ v. p. 825, 
et Ic. PI, t. 2092. 
Hob. Perak : Batang Padang, 4,900 feet alt., Wray. 

0. LANCiPOLU, Hook, /., Fl. Brit Ind., v. p. 826, et Ic, PZ., 
t. 2102. 

Hah. Perak : Scortechtni. • 

C. ROBUSTA, Hook /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 827, et Ic. Pi, 
t. 2103. 

Hah. Perak: Wray. 

C. CRTPTANTHA, Bidl,, sp. tiova. CauUs { poll, longi, 
CflBspitosi, a vaginis siccis striatis tecti ; radices copiosse, tenues. 
Folia bina, 5 poll, longa, i poll, lata, subacuta, apice insequaliter 
biloba. Scapi f poll, longi, filiformes, tomentosi, ex axillis 
vaginarum singuli, 1-flori. Bractea minuta, ovata; pedicellns 
brevis, lanuginosus. Flos ^ poll, longus. Sepala ovata, acuta, 
cucullata, mucronulata, parce pubescentia; mentum longius, 
pendulum, clavatum. PetcUa anguste linearia. Lahellum 
longum, tenue, basi lineare, apice dilatatum a callo camoso 
ovato auctum. Oolumna brevis, crassa; clinandrium pro- 
fundum; stelidia camosa, antheram non superantia. AiUhera 



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tenuis, plana, 2-locnlaris, late ovata, in parte mediH camosa; 
rostellnm latum, ovatum, tenue. Stigma parvum, lamini^ 
oblong& lateraliter complanata auctum. Oap$ula ^ poll, longa, 
elliptica, erecta. 

Hab. Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills, on a fallen tree ! 
Hermitage Hill ! Kwala Kangsa ! 

This forms close tufts 2 inches across or less, with very many 
short stems covered with brown sheaths, each stem bearing two 
narrow linear leaves. The flowers are borne on slender, woolly 
peduncles, so short as to be almost hidden among the leaves. 
They are of a pale pinkish colour and very inconspicuous. The 
mentum of the sepals is longer than the rest of the flower, and 
dabbed. 

The lip is long and narrow, thin textured, except at the 
apex, where it is fleshy and thickened, a thickened band runs 
from the base to this fleshy portion. The " auricles " of the 
column, i.e., the stelidia, are shorter and less distinct than in such 
species as 0. malaccensis, Hook, f., the rostellum in the form 
of a thin membrane with a terminal lip being well developed, 
and connecting them for their complete length. From the 
centre of the stigma rises a laterally flattened lamina which 
nearly tonches the lip of the rostellum. A somewhat similar 
process occurs in AgrostophyUum javanicum^ Blume. 

The anther is thin except in the centre, where there is a 
thickened band which runs down to the blunt truncate beak. 

The species is clearly near O, ericeoidesy Hook, f., from which 
it differs, especially in the much longer mentum and lip, and 
much smaller flowers. 

Cbbatobttlis BBiJEOiDBS, Hook. /., Ic, PL, t. 2074 B. 
EriapygmcBa, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 804. 
Hob. Perak: Wray, 

C. PENDULA, Hook,/., Fl Brit. Ind.y v. p. 826. 
Hah, Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! 

Pahang : Near Pekan, on bushes in open country ! 
Also Borneo, Celebes, and Manila, Vidal ! 
By no means common, though so widely distributed. A 
slender pendulons plant with thin woolly roots. Leaves dark 
green, polished above, channelled on the upper surface, convex 
and paler beneath. Flowers very small white, the short ovary 
and base of sepals covered with fine appressed white hairs, very 



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APOSTASUGSiE OF TES IfALAT TSNINSULA. 31] 

inconspicnoas when alive. Each flower is borne on a short 
stem with several ovate mncronnlate scarions braots a good 
deal longer than the ovarj. Sepals ovate acnte, or at least 
subacute, petals rather lanceolate than linear glabrous. The lip 
is very like that of some BtdbopkyUa, but the claw narrow 
and upcurved belongs to the li]^. PoUinia eight, all equal 
and acinif orm. 



AGROSTOPHYLLUM, Blume. 

A. MAJUS, Hooh.f., Fl, Brit Ind., v. p. 824, Ic. PI, t. 2096. 
Hob. Singapore : Chan Ghu Kang ! Eranji ! Common. 

Pahang: PekanI 

Perak : Larut Hills, low down ! 

Java: Treuh ! 

A. GLUMACBUM, Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind., v. p. 824, et le. Fl, 
t. 2095. 

Hah. Sungei Ujong : {Native collector) ! 

Perak: Scortechini. 
The native name in Sungei Ujong for this is " Sahat Bunga^ 



IPSEA, Lindl. 

I. ? Wratana, HooJcf,, Ft Britlnd., v. p. 812. 
Hah. Perak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray. 



SPATHOQLOTTIS, Blume. 

S. PLICATA, Blume, Bijdr., p. 401, t. 76. 

Hah. Singapore : common in diy open country and also on 
wet rocks ! 

Johore : Near the town ! 

Sungei Ujong : Seremban ! 

Malacca : Sungei Hudang ! 

Perak : on the waterfall rocks, Thaiping ! 

Patani : Tomoh, Legeh, Machado ! 

Also Garimon Islands ! Borneo j Ac. 
This is a very common plant in many districts, and very 
showy. There are several forms, chiefly due to local causes. 



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312 MB. HENBT BIDLBT ON OBCHIDBiE AND 

In long grass it often attains a considerable size. Mr. Hallett 
saw a plant over 6 feet tall in lingga. These large forms 
nsnally liaye broad plicate leaves somewhat resembling those 
of Curculigo recurvaia^ whence the natives of Sungei Ujong call 
it <' Foho Lwmhah Ttkus^** Lumbah being the native name for 
CurcuUgo. " Tikus " (moose) means that it is not so large as 
that plant. On damp rocks by streams it is often much smaller, 
with much narrower grassy leaves, bat there are many inter- 
mediate forms. 

A more distinct form is the variety alba^ which has the 
flowers and bracts pure white ; I have met with it at Pnlan 
Sembilai, in the Bindings, also at Tjiboddas, in Java. This 
variety is very local, and, as far as I have seen, does not occnr 
with the pnrple form. 

The typical plant is not " lilac," as mentioned in the ' Flora of 
British India,' bnt of a purplish crimson : flowers and bracts 
being all of the same colour, except the yellow spot on the lip. 

As described by H. O. Forbes (* Naturalist's Wanderings,' 
p. 89), the flowers are constantly self- fertilized, although they 
are brilliantly coloured, and are, when the blossoms first open, 
quite fertilizable by insects. 

Spathoglottis aubea, Lindl, in Joum. Hort. Soc, v. (1850) 
p. 34; Lindl. Sf Paxt, Flow. Owrd., i. (1850-61) p. 16. 

8. Wrayiy Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 813, et Ic. PI., t. 2086. 

Hah, Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

Perak : Larut Hills, by the tea gardens ! Gunong Batu 

Putih, Wray. 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 

This is common on the open ** stone-fields " (Padang Batu of 
the Malays), on the granite hills at from 2,000 feet upwards, 
growing usually in spots where water trickles. 

8. Wrayi, Hook, f., is merely a full-sized form of a sfcrong 
plant. It invariably grows with the small form, and is the 
variety most sought by the orchid dealers. The flowers are 
often even bigger than in the figure in the * Icones Plantarum,' 
and are of a richer orange than the small flowered form. The 
scape often attains the height of 4 feet. 

S. Handingiana, Par, et Beichb, /., OHa Bot. Hamb,y 
p. 45. 
Hah, Lankawi Islands, 0. OurHs ! 



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apostasucej: of the malat peninsula. 313 

This charming little plant was first collected at Bhamo by 
Parish, and appears to be very rare. Mr. Curtis bronght living 
plants down from Lankawi, where he found it growing on the 
rocks. The flowers are rosy purple when they first open, 
gradually changing to a pale rose. 



PHAIUS, Lonr. 

P. Wallichii, Lindl in Wall PL As. Bar., ii. 46 t. 168. 

Hah. Malacca : Dense woods at Bokit Sadanen ! 

I am also told it is to be found near Kwala Lnmpnr, in 
Selangor. 

Commonly the self-fertilized form. 

Our form resembles P. Blumei, Idndl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., 
p. 127 ; Blnme, Orch. Archip. Ind, 2, t. 1, in its slightly more 
acute and redder sepals and petals, but it is impossible to 
separate these specifically. What Loureiro's P. grandifolius 
can be I cannot think, but if his description is correct it must 
be a very striking and distinct plant. P. Wallichii, Lindl., is, 
however, often cultivated by the Chinese. 

P. CALLOSUS, Lindlj Oen. et fl^. Orch., p. 128, et in Oard. 
Ghron. (1848) p. 287. 

Hah. Perak: abundant on rocks in dense jungle, Larut 
Hills : fl. June ! 

A very fine plant, quite as showy as P. Walliohii, Lindl., 
which at first sight it resembles. I do not find the scape from 
the top of the pseudo-bulb as described in * Fl. Brit. Ind.,' but it 
is placed exactly as in P. Wallichii, Lindl. The calli from 
which it takes its name are two very low processes at the base 
of the mid-lobe. The lip is bilobed at the apex with a short 
mucro in the notch as in Blume's figure. The blunt rounded 
sepals and petals distinguish it readily from P. Wallichii, 
Lindl. 

P. (§ LiMATODEs) PALLIDU9, Bidl., ap. nova. Gardes 2-3 ped. 
longi, validi, erecti, quadrangulati, in parte inferiore a vaginis 
longis longe acuminatis tenuibus stria tis dissitis vaginati, in 
parte superiore foliigeri. Folia 9 poll, longa, 3 poll, lata, ovata, 
cuspidata, plicata, costata, subtus glaacescentia. Bacemi 3-4, 
4 poll, longi, e vaginis perforatis (in parte inferiore caulis sitis) 



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314 IfR. HBNBT BIPLET ON ORGHIDE^ AND 

extmsi. Bractece j poll, longea, lanceolatea acuminat» acntee. 
Flores maJTisculi, 7--8 in i*acemo remoti, singulatim expansi ; 
pedicelli cum ovariis l-poU. longi. Sepala | poll, longa, 
lanceolate acuta, flavescentia. Fetala sepalis latiora, alba, baei 
intus a maculis violaceis omata. Ldbellum oblongo-lanceo- 
latum subacutum, aurantiaco - flavum secuB lineas rubro- 
maculatum ; calcar ^ poll, lotigum, rectum, cylindricum, 
acuminatum, pallide roseum. Golumna longa ; stelidia brevia 
curva, obtusa, baai dilatata. Anthera rostrata. 

Eab. Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills ! 
Selangor : Bukit Hitam, KelsaU I 
Pahang : Tahan Woods ! 

It is quite possible that Limatodis punctata^ Lindl., Fol. Orcb. 
Limat., p. 2, may be this plant. It is a Sumatran plant only 
known from a drawing by De Yriese. The description is too 
meagre to be certain of what was intended. 

NEPHBLAPHYLLUM, Blume. 

N. PULCHRUM, Blume, Bijdr., p. 373 t. 32. 
Hah, Singapore: In a damp, swampy wood, at Bukit 
Mandai ! Sungei Brih ! 
Malacca: woods at the foot of Mt. Ophir! Bukit 

Sadanen, E, Berry ! 
Perak : Maxwell*s Hill, Larut Hills ! 
A terrestrial plant growing on dead leaves in damp spots. 

N. TENUiFLOBUM, Blume, Bijdr.y p. 373. 
Hah. Perak, Scortechini. 

Kedah : Kedah Peak, in damp woods on the top of the 
hill, 4,000 feet alt! 

TAINIA, Blume. 

T. PENANGIANA, HooJc. /., Fl Brit. Ind., v. p. 820. 

Hah. Penang : Government Hill, C. Ourtis ! 

The specimens sent by Mr. Curtis differ in some respects 
from the description, but the type was apparently in bad 
condition. The plant has an unusually large stout conic 
pseudo-bulb 3 inches long and 2 inches thick, purple, covered 
partially with the remains of sheathing leaves. The leaf is 



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APOSTASUCSil 07 THE HILAT PENINSITLA. 315 

lanceolate acnte long-petioled. The scape is much taller, 
purplish green; it bears nine or ten distant flowers. The 
sepals and petals are paJe yellow yeined with purple. The lip 
is buff and rose, dotted (especiallj towards the apex) with 
darker! rose. The spur is short and clubbed, orange in colour. 
The column is narrowed at the base and widened above, buff 
thickly spotted with rose. The anther has the apex obscurely 
three-lobed, the front margin retuse. The pollinia are eight, 
the four upper oblong oblique lamelliform, the four lower 
smaller ovate flattened. There is a small retase disc. 

Tainu LATiLiNGUA, EooJc. /., Fl. BHt Ind., V. p. 822, Ic. PL, 
t. 2093. 

Hob. Perak, Scortechini. 

T. ATEOPUEPUBBA, BicU. Tcrrcstris. Ehizoma repens ; 
radices crassae. Folia ovata, profunde cordata, subacuta, 
herbacea ; petiolus 4 poll, longus, crassus ; lamina 6 poll longa, 
4 poll. lata. Scapus 1 ped. longns, basi a vaginis membranaceis 
tectus, supeme laxe racemosns. Flores majusculi, dissiti, 
purpurei. BracteoB f poll, longed, lineares, acuminatsB ; pedicelli 
(ovario incluso) bracte& breviores. Sepalum posticnm ^ poll, 
longum, 3*7 poll, latum, lanceolatum acntum, lateralia basi in 
mentum f poll, longum producta. Petala cum sepalis aequi- 
longa, pauUo latiora. Labellum | poll, longum, ^ poll, latum, 
ovatum acutum, a nervis 8 paullo elevatis percursum ; carinso 
2 parallel®, lamelliformes, inter has nervus camosus lamelli- 
formis minus elevatns. Golumna ^ poll, longa, erecta ; pea 
longior ; alee majnsculsd, rect» ; clinandrium ovatum, margine 
postice elevato; rostellum latum, ovatum, obtnsum. Stigma 
ovatum, margine inferiore elevato. NephelajphyUum grandi- 
florum, Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 192. 

Hah. Perak : Maxwell's Hill, 2,000 feet alt. ; growing among 
dead leaves ! 

This was described from two drawings, one by Scortechini, 
the other by Kunstler. The former, evidently unfinished and 
without details, I have seen ; and it is clearly intended for the 
plant above described, which was sent me in flower by 
Mr. Gartis, and of which I have also twice collected living 
plants on the banks of the road leading to the top of the Larat 
Hill range from Thaiping. Unfortunately the only flowers I 
have seen were very withered, and had lost their pollen. It is 



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a handsome plant, but Terj difficult of coltare. The petioles 
and scape are pnrple, the flowers of a dark pink, the tip of the 
lip (which is more fleshy than the rest) being of a deep maroon. 

It cannot, I think, be referred to Nephelaphyllum, which has 
a spur to the lip and not a mentnm formed by the lateral 
sepals adnate to the long foot of the oolnmn. It seems to me 
clearly to belong to the genns Tainia, 

In removing it to this genus, I have not retained the specific 
name grandiflora, because the flowers are really much smaller 
than those of T. speciosa^ Blume, and T. Maingayi^ Hook, f . 

Tainia speciosa, Blumcy Bijdr., p. 354. 

Hah. Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 
Perak : Scortechini, 
Kedah : Kedah Peak, abundant ! 

This grows in dry woods, in the hill districts, at about 
3,000 feet altitude. Maingay gives "flowers white, tails 
slightly yellow." But in the plants which I have seen the 
sepals and petals are greem'sh yellow with red lines, the lip 
bright yellow, with some red streaks on the lateral lobes. The 
anther horns are very short and violet. 

T. Maingayi, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 822, et Ic. Pl.^ 
t. 2094. 

Hah. Penang: Maingayi. 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 

The Kedah plant apparently is this species, but the buds are 
too young to make out clearly. The flowers appeared to be 
deep purple. 

CHRYSOGLOSSUM, Blume. 

C. VILLOSUM, Blume, Bijdr., p. 338, t. 17. 
Hah. Perak : Scortechini. 

I have only seen a sketch of this among Scortechini's 
drawings. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS, Blume. 

The peculiar form of the poUinia in this genus has caused 
some doubt as to where in the order it should be placed ; in 
Bentham and Hooker's 'Genera Plantarum' it is doubtfully 



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▲FOSTASUCBJS OP THE HALAT PENINSULA. 317 

referred to Vandece. The poDinia, however, are not those of 
any Vandeay but seem to be not yeiy much modified from those 
of some species of Tainia, to which genus Plocoglottis in 
other respects seems most nearly allied. 

In P. porphyrophyUa^ Ridl., the pollinia consist of four 
kidnej-shaped masses of rather pnlvernlent pollen, attached 
by their inner edges to stalks, of which two are longer than 
the others ; these end below in a mass of roughly triangular 
outline. Both the stalks and this disc-like mass are of a yellow 
colour, and contain much pollen mixed with viscid matter ; and 
it appears that the supposed disc rather corresponds to the two 
lowest pairs of pollinia of such a plant as Tainia speciosay 
Blnme, than to the viscid disc of, say, a Saccolahium. A large 
mass of white viscous matt-er overlies the rostellum, and, 
becoming readily attached to the pollinia, acts as a viscid disc. 
The arrangements for insect fertilization are very curious, and 
difEer from any other species known to me. 

The flowers open singly, two or throe at a time, in all I have 
seen, though Blame figures the whole raceme open at once in 
several species. They are of dull colour, often purple and 
yellow, and one species at least (P. fostida^ Bidl.) has a most 
unpleasant carrion odonr. Hence one would expect them to be 
fertilized by Diptera, which is indeed the case. In P. porphy- 
rophyUa, Bidl., the flowers open wide ; the dorsal sepal and 
petals are narrow and yellowish coloured, and are thrown back 
when the flower expands. The column is arched over the lip. 
The lateral sepals are much larger than the dorsal one, of a 
bright purple colour, polished, and the most conspicuous part 
of the flower, their inner half, is thickened and involute. The 
lip is broad and shorter than the sepals. It has a yellow 
ground, thickly marbled with red ; the basal edges are thinner 
in texture, yellow with black spots, and fringed with small 
processes. The apex of the lip is very broad, and the outer 
angles project a short distance. On the disc near the angles 
are a pair of shining, deep purple horns, which resemble drops 
of nectar. In the bud, the lip lies flat against the column, but, 
as the flower opens, it is drawn down in such a manner as to 
lie flat at some distance below it. This is effected by the 
lateral sepals, the thickened inner edges of which overlap the 
prolonged angles of the lip, and, as they are deflexed, draw 
down the lip. When a fly alights on the lip in search of 



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318 MB. HENBT RIDLBT ON OROHIDBA AND 

nectar, it sets it free hj its weight or by slightly separating 
the lateral sepals ¥rith its feet, and the lip springs np suddenly 
(its flexible claw acting as a spring) and strikes the face of the 
colnmn, where it permanently remains, pressing the insect 
against the pollen masses, so that it cannot escape from the 
trap without withdrawing the pollen. As the lip remains then 
pressed against the colnmn, it is impossible for a fly to get at 
the nectar any more ; so that the first flower visited by a fly 
cannot be fertilized, bnt, by pollinating, the insect can fertilize 
the next one visited. A somewhat similar arrangement occurs 
in the MarantaceoB, where the style is held back in the hooded 
staminode till the entry of the fertilizer aeis it free, when it 
suddenly curves downwards, sweeping the pollen out of its 
chamber as it does so, and plastering it on the insect's back. 

In P. javanica^ Blume, a somewhat different arrangement 
occurs. Here the sepals and petals are all nearly equal in size, 
and all are orange with darker spots. There is no thickening 
or in-rolling of the lateral sepals, which, indeed, are divaricate 
at the apices, but they grasp the basal angles of the square lip 
with their basal inner edges, and, being deflexed, draw the lip 
down as in P. porphyrophyllaf Bidl. A slight touch on the 
pale-coloured lip sets it free, and it springs up suddenly as 
before. 

Flocoglottis poephtbophtlla, Bidl in Trans. Linn, 8oc,j 
Ser. n. (Bot.) iii. (1893) p. 368. 
Hab. Singapore : Kranji ! Selitar ! Teas ! 

Johore : Batu Pahat ! Tana Bunto ! TJlu Kahang. 

Pahang: Pekan! 

Perak: Scortechini. 

Kedah : From near the coast (native dealer) ! 
Common in many places in diy woods. The leaves are of a 
lovely purple colour beneath, and as they stand erect have a 
beautiful stained glass appearance by transmitted sunlight. I 
suppose the plant referred to P. acuminata^ Blume, in * Fl. Brit. 
Ind.,' from " Perak, 2-3,000 feet. King's Collector," is this plant. 
There is a good sketch of it in Scortechini's drawings. A 
dealer gave me a plant from the Kedah Coast, in which leaves, 
bulbs, scape were all green, as were also the sepals. It is 
evidently specifically the same, but looked very different at first 
sight. 



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APOSTASIACE^ OF THB MALAY PBNINSITLA. B19 

Plocoglottis javanica, Blume, Bijdr,^ p. 381. t. 21. 
Hah. Singapore : Local ; Chan Ghu Kang, and Choa Chn 
Kang! 
Jobore: Hnlu Batn Pahab, Lake and KeUall! Ten- 

garah, /. Feilddng ! 
Pabang : Kota Glanggi Woods ! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills ! 
Kedab : Kedab Peak, woods ! 
Tbis grows in damp, tbick woods. As in all tbe species, I 
bave seen tbe flowers open one by one, tbe lower ones, nnless 
fertilized, falling off as tbe ones above open. In Blame's 
fignre, I.e., bowever, many flowers are represented as opening 
at once. 

P. FOBTIDA, Kndl., sp, nova. Bhizoma crassinscnlnm ; radices 
crass8B, lanoginoBSB. Gaules 3 ped longi, plures, foliati. Folia 
6 poll, longa, l^lf poll, lata, late lanceolata vel elliptico- 
lanceolata, acnta, a costis 3-5 elevatis percnrsa ; yaginsB teretes, 
ore integrsB. Scajpus altior, validns, pnbescens, basi (vaginis 
pancis exceptis) nndus, supeme laxe racemosns. Flores usqne 
ad 20, majnsculi, singnlatim expansi, foetidi. Bractece ^ poll, 
longea, ovatsD acntsB, pubescentes, persistentes. Sepalum 
posticnm } poll. Ion gum, § . poll, latum, ovato-lanceolatum 
acutum, lateralia torta deflexa. Petala cum sepalis subsdqui- 
longa, lanceolata acuta; sepala petala aurantiaca rubro- 
maculata. Lahellum f poll, longum, ferme f poll, latum, 
quadratum, 3-dentatum, camosum, citrinum, basi ad columnsB 
margines adnatum. Golumna brevis, crassa. Anthera conica ; 
pollinia globosa, pulverulenta. 
Hah. Singapore : Bukit Timab 1 

Jobore : Tanjong Kopang, near Jobor. 

Malacca : Jus ! 

Selangor : Kwala Lumpur ! 
Tbis is not very rare, bat seems to flower very rarely. It is 
called *' Oalumhdk " in Malacca. 

Tbe flower emits a most fcetid stercoraceous odour. It occurs 
in dense, damp jungles. Tbe affinity of tbe plant is witb 
P. dtlaiataj Blume. 



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320 MR. HENRT RIDLET ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

CLADEllIA, Hook. f. 

C. viRiDiPLORA, HooJe. /., Fl, Brit. Ind., v. p. 810. 
Hab, Singapore : Bajan, Tanglin, &c., very common. 

Johore: Simpai! 

Malacca : common ! 

Penang: Government Hill ! West Hill! 

Perak : Hermitage Hill ! Dindings ! 

Pabang : Tahan Woods ! 

Also Borneo, at Matang ! and elsewhere. 
Common in the forests, but seldom met witb in flower. The 
flowers are light green, reticulate with darker markings. The 
lip, which i» pubescent at the base, has a club-sliaped white- 
grooved ridge on the disc ; the epichil consists of two oblong 
blunt divaricate lobes. The column is simplj arched in life, 
hardly sigmoid ; it is pubescent at the base. The pollinia are 
two in number, elliptic, joined by their points at the apex, and 
divaricate below ; a ridge runs down the back of each. 

CCBLOGTNB, Lindl. 

C. TBSTACEA, Ir/noZ., Bot Beg. (1842) Misc., p. 38. 
Hab, Singapore: common in sandy places near the coast, 
usually terrestrial. Sungei Morai ! Chan Chu 
Kang! Eranji! 
Johore : Tana Bunto ! &c 
The commonest species in the south of the peninsula, 
growing in large clumps often on the ground, never high upon 
trees. The racemes are rather short and pendulous. The 
flowers have an unpleasant scent. 

C. T0MBNT08A, Lindl., FoL Orchid. Coelog., p. 3. 
Hab. Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 

Perak : upper part of the Larut Hills ! Abundant. 
Selangor : Bukit Hitom, KeUaU ! 
Penang : (Jovernment Hill, Curtis ! 
Common at about 4,000 feet elevation on trees. The var P 
penangensis (* Fl. Brit. Ind.,' v. p. 830) is distinguished by its 
shorter pseudo-bulb elliptic-obovate leaves and ridges of lip not 
coalescing. The species varies very much, as do most in the 
genus, as to bulb and leaf; most specimens I have seen have 



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APOSTASIACEJE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 321 

the lidges on the disc quite free and not coalesced. The Bukit 
Hitam plant had remarkably narrow and slender pseado-bnlbs, 
not at all ovoid. 

CcELOGYNE Massangbana, Eexchh, /. in Oard, Chron. (1878) ii- 
p. 684. 

Hah, Perak : Larut Hills, Maxwell's HiU ! In dense jangle 
on tree trunks at 3,000 feet alt. ; not at all common. 

. C. Roohussbnii, De Vriese^ Illusii\ Orch,j t. 2 et t. 11 f . 6 ; 
Beichh, /., Xenia Orch., i. p. 212 t. 85. 

C. macrohulbon, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind'., v. p. 830. 
Hah, Singapore : At Selitar ! 

Johore : Gunong Janeng ! Batu Pah at ! Lake and 
KeUall; Pulau Dayak, an island east of Johore, 
/. Feilding, 
Pahang : Tahan River Woods ! 
Sungei Ujong : (Native collector) ! 
Penang : Wallich n. 1969/2. 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Also Borneo ! Sumatra ! Java. 
This is often brought in by the orchid dealers, and, indeed, 
has been shipped home in bulk as C. Dayana^ Beiohb. f ., which 
out of flower it somewhat resembles. 

The natives of Sungei Ujong call it " Sakat Ttdo Ular " 
(Snake-bones orchid). 

C. CuMiNGir, Lindl, Bot, Beg. (1840) Misc., p. 76. 
Hah. Singapore : Bukit Timah, on high trees ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 
Pahang : Tahan Woods ! 

Perak : Larut Hills ! Waterloo estate, Kwala Kangsa 1 
In the forests this plant grows on the tops of the loftiest 
trees, and is very inaccessible. On Mount Ophir it forms large 
mats on the bare and smooth granite rocks. 

The arrangement and number of ridges on the lip vary very 
much, and, indeed, are often very unsafe diagnostic characters 
in Godlogyne. 

C. SPECIOSA, Lindl, Qen. et 8p. Orch.,p. 39. 
Hah. Pahang : Tahan River Woods ! 

Perak : Lai'ut Hills, at about 3,000 feet elevation and 
upwards; abundant! 

Penang: Government Hill ! ' 

LINK. JOUBN. — BOTANY VOL. XXXII. T 



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322 MR. HENBT BIDLET ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

On trees in dense jungle ; often common in the hill districts. 
A native also of Java. 

C<EL0GTNE CASTA, Eu2Z., ap. fiova, Psetido-hulhi 3 poll, longi, 
1 poll, crassi, elongati conici, costati. Folia 2, 8 poll, longa, 
1^ poll, lata, anguste lanceolata acuta, in petiolnm attenoata, 
flaccida, costata. Scopus lateralis, eiecto-nntans, basi a yaginis 
viridibns (snmmis foliaceis) tectns, ferme nsqne ad vaginas flori- 
fems. Flores c. 5 magni, 3 poll, lati, speciosi. Bractem 2 poll. 
longsB, lanceolataa acnminat®, papyraceas ; pedicelli 1 poll, longi. 
Sepala l^ poll, longa, \ poll, lata, lanceolata acuminata acuta. 
Fetala sepalis angustiora, lineari -lanceolata acuminata. LdbeUum 
sepalis brevius, ovatum ; lobi lateralea magni obtusi flavi 
aurantiaco-venosi, medius breviusculns ovatus cuspidatus basi 
crispo-marginatus, albus basi a macule citrin^ notatus ; carinee in 
hypochilii disco 3 parallelaB, crispsB, albee, in epichilio 2 eztemaB 
adduntur. Columna obscure aurantiaca, supeme alata ; 
clinandrii margo elevatus, truncatus, utrinque 1-dentatus. 
AfUhera campanulata, apice incrassata; rostellum latum, in 
margine sinuatum ; poUinia inaequalia, semi-elliptica, com- 
planata, 2 postica minoi*a. Stigma oblongnm, breve. 

Hob. Selangor : Bukit Hitam, H. J. KeUall ! 

A very beautiful plant with widely expanded flowers, 
remarkable for the acuminate sepals and petals of the purest 
white. 

C. FoEBSTERMANNi, Beichh. f. in Oard, Chron. (1886) ii. 
p. 262. 

0. Maingayi, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 831. 

Hab, Malacca : said to be common on lofty trees, B, Berry ! 
Pahang : Kwantan, Burnford ! Tahan River ! 
Also Borneo ! 

I am assured by the orchid collectors that this plant is the 
one introduced from Borneo by Forstermann, and described by 
Beichenbach as 0. Foerstermanni, It is a very noble species 
but not easy to cultivate, and, as it seems to prefer the upper 
branches of the loftiest trees, is difficult to collect and rarely 
brought in by collectors. 

C. LONGiBRACTATA, Hook. /., Fl, Brit, Ind,, vi. p. 194. 
Hah, Perak: Kunstler. 

C, ANQUSTiFOLii, B/idLj ap, nova, Pseudo-bulbi 2| poll. 



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APOSTASUCE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. ^^23 

iongi, 1 poll, crassi, conici, leves, olivacei, in latere altero 
racemifero, sulcata. Folia 2, 10 poll, longa, I poll, lata, 
lanceolata acuminata, petiolata, S-nervia, erecto - nutantia. 
Scapus foliis brevior, pauciflorus ; bracteae basales, ovat», 
obtussB. Flares iis G. testacece, Lindl., eequales, sabsecundi. 
Bractece lanceolatad acut®, pallide brune®, caducae. SepcUa 
1 poll, longa, I poll, lata, lanceolate- lorata, subacuta, carinata, 
ochroleuca, in margine recurva. Petala cum sepalis aequi- 
longa, multo angustiora, spathulato-linearia. Labellum J polL 
longum, trilobum ; lobi laterales Iongi, obtusi, intus bimnei, 
extra pallidi, medius obovato-oblongus apice rotundatus in 
margine uudulatus ; discus albus in mai*gine flavns bruneo- 
macnlatus ; carinas 3, 2 laterales altse albae, media minor (basi 
pra^sertim) sinuata. Oolumna | poll, longa, basi angusta 
fiuperne arcuata, ochroleuca bruneo-tincta ; clinandrium alte 
marginatum, rotundatum. Anthera conica, pileata; rostellum 
magnum, latum, rotundatum, rufo-bruneum. Stigma semi- 
ovale, margine elevato. 

Hah. Lanka wi Islands, C Curtis ! 

This seems to be nearest to C graminifolta, Par. and Reiclib. 
f., but is not so narrow in the leaf, and has a different lip. 

CiELOGYNE QUADRANGULARis, RidL, sp, nova. Rkizoma crassum, 
lignosum Pseudo-bulhi 3 poll. Iongi, basi 1^ poll, crassi, 
4-angulati, conici, leves, saepissime arete approximati. Folia 
6 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, late lanceolata acuta, basi attenuata, 
5-nervia. Ba^emi 8 poll. Iongi, usque ad 8-flori, penduli. 
Flores iis C. tanientosce sequales, dissiti. Pedicelli Ij poll, long^, 
albi, sparse nigro-tomentosi ; bracteee J poll, longas, oblongae, 
convolutae. Sepalum posticum 1^ poll, longum ^ poll, latum 
lanceolatum acutum, lateralia paullisper longiora falcata acute 
carinata. Petala 1 poll, longa |- poll, lata, lanceolato-linearia 
acuta. Labellum (explanatum) 1 poll, longum f poll, latum ; 
lobi laterales oblongi obtusi extra albi intus brunei albo-nervosi ; 
discus albus, S-carinatus, basi carinarum lateralium a pro- 
cessubus parvis oblongis ciliatis auctus ; carina media usque ad 
trientem magis elevata ; carinas omnes denticulataa ; lobus 
medius ovatus obtnsus, albus in medio bruneo-maculatus, a 
carinis 5 integris percursns. Columna } poll, longa, alba basi 
brunescens, in margine brunea, in ventre bruneo-3-striata ; 
clinandrii marge dorsalis truncatus, irregulariter denticulatns. 

T 2 



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324 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

Anthera atro-branea; rostellam ovatura, obtusum. Stigma 
hippocrepiforme, in margine incrassatum. 

Hah. Pei^k : Trees on Gunong Hijan, alt. 5,000 ! 

A.n ally of C. fomentom, Lindl., like which it has the minute 
black tomentnm, though much more sparingly on the pedicel. 
The bracts are very much shorter, the leaves and bulbs quite 
different in form, and the five ridges on the lip are entire and 
not broken up into truncate processes as in that species. 
It flowers in July. 

CcELOOYNE PACHYBULBON, Bidl., sp. nova. Rhizoma ^ poll, in 
diam., lignosum ; radices longae, albse. Pseudo-bulbi 2 poll, longi, 
1| lati, ovoidei, leves, olivaceo-flavi. Folia 12 poll, longa, 
2 poll, lata, lauceolata acuta, laste viridia, tenniter coriacea ; 
petiolus 2 poll, longus, canaliculatus ; carina crassa ; nervi 2, 
elevati. Scapus 6 poll, longus, lateralis, basi a vaginis dense 
tectus. Flores c. 6, subsecundi, iis G, testaceoB, Lindl., SBquales. 
Braeteob IJ poll, longes, oblongo-ovatas obtusae, cervinae, 
decidu8B; pedicelli cum ovariis 1 poll, longi, pallide cervini. 
Sepala | poll, longa, lanceolata, ochroleuca, lateralia carinata. 
Petala linearia, obtusa, ochroleuca. Lahellum petalis pauUo 
brevius; lobi laterales rotundati obtusi intus brunei, mediua 
multo longior basi oblongus citrinus apice dilatatus truncatu» 
integer bruneus, in margine albus ; carinse 2 sinuatee, baud 
multum elevatae, apice crispee. Columna ^ poll, longa, arcuata, 
clavata; clinandrii margo integer, rotundatus, antheram baud 
multo superans. Anthera brunea, pileata ; poUinia aciniformia, 
teiiuia, plana ; rostellum latum, tenue, planum, integrum. 

Hah, Siam : Pungah, Curtis (1894) ! 

A handsome and free-flowering species, remarkable for the 
thick conic smooth bulbs hardly at all grooved. The lip has 
broad blunt lateral lobes, the terminal one being rather long 
and oblong till the apex, where it rather suddenly enlarges into 
an almost reniform blade. The base is chrome yellow except 
between the two keels ; the end is white with a sienna brown 
centre. The intermediate keel is very obscure, hardly to be 
seen. 

C. !Mayeriana, Eeichb. /. in Oard. Chron, (1877) ii. p. 134. 
Bhizoma longum, ferme J poll, crasdum, validum, lignosum, a 
vaginis tectum. Pseudo-hulhi 2 poll, longi, 1 poll, lati, ^ poll, 
crassi, ovates, compressi, longitudinaliter rugosi, IsBte virentes. 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 325 

inter se 3-4 poll, distantes. Folia 8 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, 
lanceolata acuta, carinata, laete virentia; petiolns crassas, 
canalicalatns ; nervi dorsales 4, elevati. Scapi 1 ped. longi, 
laterales, a pseudo-bulbis remoti, erecti, basi a vaginis puncticu- 
latis omnino tecti ; racemiis pauciflores. Flores magni, pulchri, 
dissiti. BracteoB 1 poll, longae, oblongsB, obtnssB, coDvolutae, 
pnnctatse, dia persistentes ; pedicelli If poll, longi, pallide 
virides ; ovaria J poll, longa, pallide viridia. Sepala 1^ poll, 
longa, ^ poll, lata, oblonga, obtusa, oarinata, Isete viridia. 
Petala | poll, longa, :j^ poll, lata, lineari-lanceolata acata, laote 
vindia; nervos medius conspienns. Labellum 1 poll, longum, 
S-lobum; lobi laterales elongati, lati, basi colnmnam amplec- 
tentes, apice lati subobtnsi viridi-albi atro-3-nervati ; discus 
latus, viridis ; carinsB 3, 2 exteriores altw acutee minute atro- 
denticulatae, interior pauUo elevata a crista parv4 albsl mos 
terminata ; macula ochrea in carinarum basi additur; lobus 
medius panduratus, crispus, bilobus ; lobi subrotundi dente 
mediano interjecto; carinao 4, valde (preesertim 2 interiores) 
cristatae, viridi-nervisB, atro-macnlatee. Columna | poll, longa, 
basi angustata, superne clavata, smaragdina, late alata ; clinan- 
drium profundum, in margine dorsali cucullatum. Anthera 
parva, subconica, obtusa, viridis, in margine truncata ; pollinia 
4, compressa, triangulari-ovata ; discus majusculus, triangu- 
laris ; rostellum latum, trancatum, laminsBforme, integrum. 
Stigma prominens, semicirculare. 

Hab, Singapore : Sungei Buloh ! Kranji ! 

Jobore : Tana Runto ! Also near Jobore town. 
Rhio : Native dealers ! Also Sumatra, at Djambi ! 

Tbis cbarming plant grows ujiually at tbe foot of tbe Nibong 
palms, Oncosperma Jilamentosum, Blume, in sandy places on the 
coast near the mangrove swamps. It appears to be almost con- 
fined to the coasts of the Johore Strait, where. However, it is by 
no means rare. It is a strajrgling, far-creeping plant, with flowers 
resembling in colouring those of Cpandurata, Lindl., but some- 
what smaller. I presume this is Reichenbacb*s 0. Mayenana, 
a plant described without locality, and which has been lost from 
European cultivation. As it seems to be so little known 1 have 
re-described it more fully. 

CcELOOYNE PANDURATA, Lindl. in Gard. Chron, (1853) p. 791. 
Hab. Perak : Scoi-techini, rather rare. Abundant in Borneo 
and Sumatra. 



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326 MR. HEXRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJI AND 

CcELOOYNE ASPERATA, LindL in Joum. Sort, Soc,y iv. (1849) 
p. 221. 

Hah. Perak : on rocks ! Local. Abundant in Borneo, and 
occunin^ in Sumatra. 

C. PRASiXA, Bidl., sp. nova. Ehizoma longe repens, I poll, in 
diam. ; radices longissimaB, crassae. Pseudo-hulhi 2 poll, longiy 
fusiformes, remoti. Folia bina, 5 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, 
ovata vel elliptica, acuta, 3-5-nervia; petiolua ^-| poll, longus. 
Scaptis 6 poll, longus, ex apice pseudo-bulbi ortus, basi (3 poll.) 
iiudus flexuosus ; bracteaB 1 poll, longae, lanceolatae acuminatsB, 
deciduee. Flores c. 5, pai*vi, prasini; pedicelli ^ poll, longi,. 
graciles. Sepala § poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata acuta. 
Petala sepalis breviora, basi laaceolata apice setacea. LabeUwm 
sepalo multo longius, panduratum ; lobi laterales breves, rotun- 
dati, medius multo longior oblongus basi paullo angusiatus; 
carina? 2, crassee, integra?, in disco hypochilio sitae, in lobo medio- 
products?; linea mediana paullo elevata. Cohimna brevis, in 
dorso carinata utrinque elevato-lineata ; cliuandrii margo 
integer, I'otundatus, antheram paullo superans; rostellum 
ovatum, aeiitum. Anthera apice rotundata, retusa, in margine- 
acuta. 

Hah, Kedah Peak : 3-4,000 feet, abundant! (5131). 

This grows at Kedali Peak upon trees, and on the ground in 
greab masses. The rhizome is rather slender, and bears- 
distant loose sheaths from a quarter to half an inch longy 
brown, thin, and blunt. The pseudo-bulbs are about 2 or 3 
inches apart. The flowers are produced on lax slender racemea 
rising fi-om between the leaves and but little longer. The 
flowers, opening one at a time, are as small as any in the genus ; 
of an apple green colour and verj inconspicuous. 

The petals are remarkably narrow, in fact quite setaceous at 
the apices. The lip has very short lateral lobes and a much 
longer tei-minal one, which is narrowed at the base, so that the 
lip when spread out is pandurate. It is most nearly allied to* 
G. stenochiJa, Hook. f. (Described from dry specimens and 
field notes.) 

C. STENOCHILA, Hoolc. /., Fl. Brtt, Ind,, v. p. 837, et le. Plr 
t. 2106. 

Hah. Pei'ak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray, 

C. CARXEA, Hoohf., FL Brit Ind., v. p. 838, et Ic. PL, t. 2107. 
Hah. Perak: Scortechini. 



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APOSTASUCEJ! OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 827 

C(ELOOTNE ANCEPS, HooL f., Fl. BHt. Ind., V. p. 840, et Ic. PZ., 
t. 2109. 

Hah. Perak: Scortechtni, 

C. BIMACULATA, BidL, sp. nova. PseudO'hulbi 3 poll, longi, 
3^ poll, crassi, conici raro subcylindrici. FoUa bina, 8 poll, 
longa, 2 poll, lata, lanceolata acnta, breviter petiolata. Scapus 
ex apice psendo-bulbi ortus, erectxis, gracilis, basi longe nudus. 
Bractece \^ poll, longae, lanceolatsB acuminataB, papyraceaB, 
deciduae, flores superantes ; pedicelli ^ poll, longi. Flores 
explanati 1 poll. lati. Sepala lanceolata, acuta, alba. Petala 
sepalis angustiora, lanceolata, spatholata. LaheUum petalis 
brevins, angnste oblongum ; lobi laterales parvi, breves, obtnsi, 
medius mnlto longior albns; macula anrantiaca in ntroqne 
latere loborum lafceralinm sita ; lobi medii discus a macule 
aurantiacd, omatus; callus transrersus semilunaris in basi 
labelli ; carinse 3, infracted. Golumna virescens, alata ; clinan* 
drii margo rotundatus, integer. Anthera plana, lata, bilocularis, 
tenuis, bruaea; pollinia 1-seriata 4, pjriformia. Stigma 
magnum, rotundatum, ovatum. 
Eab. Perak : ? (cult, in Hort. Bot. Singapore, 1893.) 
The exact locality of this plant, which flowered in the Botanic 
Gardens, I do not know ; but I believe it came from the Larut 
Hills. The mid-epichil is longer than the rest of the lip. 
Three keels not crisped, but broken up at intervals at the base, 
run down the hypocbil on to the epichil ; two start from near 
the base, the median one from some way up the middle, and is 
carried further on the terminal lobe than the two side ones. 
The pollen masses are very dissimilar to those of most 
Caslogynes. 

C. PUSILLA, Bidl.y ap. nova, Pseudo-hulbi 1 poll, longi, ^ poll, 
crassi, conici, congesti, a vaginis ovatis membranaceis tecti. 
FoUa singula, 3-4 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, lanceolata acuta, 
coriacea ; petiolus 1 poll, longns. Seapus 4 poll, longus, foliis 
brevior, erectus, basi a vaginis lanceolatis tectus, Rupeme 
floriferus. Bractece 1 poll, longed, lanceolate^ acutee, flores 
superantes, papyracees, raox deflexee; pedicelli f poll, longi, 
tenues. Flores parvuli. Sepala \ poll, longa, lanceolata acuta, 
camea. Petala sepalis multo angustiora, linearia. Lahelli 
ochracei basis oblonga, lamina flexa; lobi laterales parvi, 
oblongi, truncati, in angulo inferiore dentiformes; discus late 
obloneus; carinee 2, acutee; lobus terminalis albus, bilobus, 



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328 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

lobis rotnndatis. Columna ^ poll, longa, basi oblonga, superne 
late dilatata, in margin e late siunata. Anther a parva, ovata, 
anrantiaca; rostellnm oyatnm, tenue. Stigma reniforme, 
margine elevata. 

Hah. Perak: Larufc Hills ! 4,000 feet alt. 

A small compact plant with the foliage and psendo-bnlbs of a 
PhoUdota, and a short erect scape. The lip is pandurate in 
outline with the disc thickened and bearing two low keels. At 
the base, which is slightly saccate, is a good deal of nectar. 

PHOLIDOTA, Lindl. 

P. IMBRICATA, Lindl in Hook,, Exot. Fl., ii. t. 138. 
H(ib. Lankawi Islands : 0, Curtis ! 

Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! Tonka (Native 

collector). 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Apparently common in Java and Borneo. The peninsula 
form is generally the stunted one with short leaves and 
peduncle. 

P. MiCBANTHA, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 847, et Ic. PI, 
t. 1891. 

Hah. Perak : Gunong Batu Putih, Wray. 

P. DECDRVA, Btdl., sp. nova. Oaules elongati, ramosi ; inter- 
nodii 3-4 poll, longi, pseudo-bulbosi, teretes, olivacei, basi 
vaginati superne nudi. Folia bina, 4 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, 
late obovata vel oblanceolata, acuta, canaliculata, striata, atro- 
viridia. Bacemus 6 poll, longus, gracilis, decurvus, basi nudus 
superne flexuosus; bracteas lanceolataB acutae, caducae. Flores 
ferme 1 poll, lati, plures. Sepala ^ poll, longa, ovata aut 
oblonga, subacuta. Petala sepalis minora, oblonga; sepala 
petala camea. Lahellum oblongum, cymbaeforme, margin ibus 
involutis ; carinae 5, basi incrassatae, apices versus attennatae : 
epichilium bilobum, subquadratum, basi tortum, roseo-carneum 
basi aurantiacum. Columna recta, oblonga, rosea. AntJiera 
depressa, plana, bilocularis ; margo posticus prolongatus lobis 
2 oblongis rotnndatis, anticus rostratus; rostellum ovatum 
acuminatum acutum, integrum. 

Hah. Perak : C. Curtis ! (cultivated in Penang Gardens.) 
This is most nearly allied to P. articulata, Lindl. 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 329 



CALANTHE, R. Br. 

C. YERATRi FOLIA, R Br. til Bot. Beg. 8uh t. 573. 

Hah, Johore ; Sedili River ! 

Perak : Larut Hills, 2,000 feet alt. 
Selangor : Bnkit Hitam, KeUall ! 

Common in Sumatra (at Siak and other localities). 

I cannot satisfactorily distinguish what I take to be 0. c2tp- 
loxvpUion^ Hook, f ., from the common G. veratrifolia^ R. Br. ; it 
seems to be merely a form growing in thick wet jungle. The 
common plant is very variable in form of leaf, size of bracts, 
compactness of raceme, and length of spur, and in the Larut 
Hills almost every plant looks different. In the drier woods of 
the Sedili River, one gets the compact-headed form with fairly 
large flowers; -and the same form is brought by the orchid 
collectors from Siak in Sumatra. A very distinct looking form 
from Perak ha8 a lax elongate raceme, with broad bracts, and 
large flowers with the sepals tipped with bright green ; but it 
passes into the common form. The colour of the callus varies 
from white to yellow and orange-red. 

C. Wrayi, Hook. /., Ic. PI, t. 2114, except for the pectinate 
calli, seems to me the same species. The plant described in the 
* Flora of British India,* v, p. 850, under the same name, I take 
to be 0. CecilicBf Hort. Low. 

C. CECiLiiB, Hort. Low, ex Eeiclih. f. in Qard. Chron. (1883) 
I. p. 432. 

Hah. Sungei Ujong : Ounong Talan ! 

Perak ; Hermitage Hill, 2,000 feet alt ! 
Pahang : Kota Olauggi Woods ? 

This plant was described by Reichenbach from a living 
specimen sent from Perak by Sir Hugh Low. The description 
was overlooked accidentally in the * Flora of British India.' The 
well-known locality for it is on the slopes of the Hermitage 
Hill, near Kwala Kangsa, where it grows on granite rocks. 

The natives of Sungei Ujong call it " Suhoy.** 

Reichenbach gives its affinity as with C. parviflora, Lindl., 
a Javan plant. I do not know this, but it is certain that 
C. Oecilice is very near 0. Masuca, Lindl. There is a figure of 
it among Scortechini's drawings, and I take it that this is the 



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330 MR. HENBT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJS AND 

C. Wrayi var. ? Scortechinii of the * Flora of British India.* Afl to 
the type of 0. Wrayi^ I am i*ather at fault, the descriptioii in 
the ' Floi^ of Bntish India,' v, p. 850, snits some forms of 
C. Gedlice very well; but the figure and description in the 
* Icones Plantarum/ t. 2114, do not. In the first the lip is 
described as having the ^'mid-lobe cleft into two dimidiate 
obovate crenulate segments disc with conical calli"; in the 
latter, " lobis oblong is obtusis divaricatis disco basi callis parvis 
pectinatis instructo," and the lobes are figured quite entire. 

The Pahang plant may possibly be distinct ; the flowers were 
as dark violet as 0. Mdsuca, Lindl. 

Calanthe cuRCaLiGOiDES, Lindl.^ Oen. et Sp. Orch,^ p. 251; 
et in Wall. List, n. 7340. 
Hab, Singapore : Common ; Choa Chu Kang ! Kranji ! Toa 
Payoh ! 
Johore : Ounong Pulai ! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill, Larut Hills ! 
Also occurs in Luigga (Uullett) I 
This charming plant grows, often abundantly, in wet swampy 
woods in dead and rotten leaves. It flowers in September and 
October. I have seen small woods dotted all over with its 
showy orange spikes. 

The Gcdanthe curculigaides of the ' Botanical Magazine/ t. 6104, 
is quite a distinct plant. 

C. Scortechinii, Hoohf., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 854. 

Hah. Perak : Larut Hills, abundant. 

This much resembles C. curculigoides, Lindl., when out of 
flower, and is sometimes brought in by collectors for that 
species. It is a very shabby uninteresting plant. The 
enormous pale greenish bracts, very much longer than the 
flower, 2 inches in length, fall off as the flowers develop. The 
flower is light yellow. It seems to barely open. 

C. ANODSTIPOLU, Lindl, Oen. et 8p. Orch., p. 251. 

Hah. Malacca : Woods on the lower slope of Mt. Ophir ! 
Perak : Ghinong Hijan, Larut Hills ; 6,000 feet alt. ! 

The bracts are 1^ inches long, narrow lanceolate acuminate. 
This is described as having ** stem very short or " in the * Fl. 
Brit. Ind.,' v. p. 854 ; but it has, as shown in the figure in 
' Xenia Orcbidacea,' i. t. 79, quite a long slender rhizome. 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 331 

Calanthe ? GiGANTEA, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 856. 
Hah, Perak : Wray^ King^s Collector. 
I know notbinjgp of this. 

C. (§ Peeptanthe) RUBENS, Eidl in Oard. Chron. (1890) 
I. p. 576. 

Hah. Lankawi Islands : 0. Curtis ! 

There are several forms of this, varying in colour from white, 
or cream, to deep rose colour. It is, however, very distinct in 
size and form of lip from C. vestita, Wall. 

ARUNDINA, Blnme. 

A. SPECIOSA, Blume, Bljdr., p. 401, t. 73. 
A. hambusifoliay Lindl. in Wall. Cat., n. 3751. 
A. denm, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1842) Misc., p. 25, t. 38. 
A. densifloray Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 857, sphalm. 
Hah. Johore : Ganong Janeng, Kelsall ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir, abundant ! 
Pahang : River Tahan ! 
Perak : Kinta ! 
The Singapore locality given in * Fl. Brit. Ind.* must be an 
error. The plant only occurs in the higher mountain districts, 
growing on rocks or gravelly islets in streams, and there is no 
such locality in Singapore. 

A. EEVOLUTA, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., v. p. 858. 

Hah. Perak : On rocks at the waterfall, Thaiping ! 

A very small-flowered species. The sepals and petals are 
pale rose coloured, the lip rosy pink, darkest at the apex, with 
some yellow in the disc. 

A. CHiNENSis, Bluine, Bijdr., p. 402 ? 

Hah. Kedah Peak: on rocks, often precipitous. Flowers 
white with brown streaks and a yellow patch on the lip. 

I am very doubtful as to what Blume^s plant is. The Hong- 
Kong plant, commonly called A. chinensis, is A. Philippic 
Reichb. f., with only three elevated ridges on the lip. The 
Kedah plant is quite different, but I can only see three really 
thickened nerves on the lip, instead of five lamellate ones. The 
flowers are rather bigger than those of A. Philippii, and quite 
different in colour. 



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332 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiB AND 

DILOCHIA, Lindl. 

D. Wallichii, Lindhy Oen. ^t Sp, Oroh,, p. 38, et in Wall. 
List, n. 1952. 

Hah. Singapore : Wallich (n. 1952). 

This plant has never been seen in the Malay Peninsula since 
Wallich collected it. It appears to be fairly common in Borneo. 

D. Cantleyi, Ridl., i.e., Arundina Gantleyi, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. 
Ind., V. p. 858. 

Hab. Perak : Gunong Bubu, alt. 4,000-5,000 feet, Oantley, 
Wray. 
1 believe I saw this out of flower on Kedah Peak. 

Tribe VANBE^. 
EULOPHIA, R. Br. 

E. SQUALiDA, Lindl., Bot. Beg, (1841) Misc., p. 77. 

Hah. Singapore : common ; Tanglin, Changi, Chan Chu 
Kang! 
Johore : Sedili River ! Batu Pahat ! Kota Tinggi ! 

Gunong Pulai. 
Selangor : Bukit Euda ! Kwala Lumpur. 
Common in open grassy spots near villages, orchards, &c. 

E. elata, Hooh.f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 3. 
Hah. Perak: Scortechinu 

E. graminea, Lindl., Oen. et 8p. Orch., p. 182, et in Wall. 
List, n. 7372. 
Hah. Singapore : Tanglin ! Choa Chu Kang ! Chan Chu 
Kang! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Malacca : Merliman ! Bukit Sabukor ! 
Pahang : Rampin River ! Sungei Meang ! 
Lankawi : Coah ! C. Curtis. 
Common in sandy spots, especially near tbe sea. It is called 
" Bawang Hanta " by the Malays, lit., Ghost's onion, i.e., 
onion-like plant that is not 6t for human beings. 

It is a very variable plant as regards size of bulb and 
development of panicle. 



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AP0STA8IACEJE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 333 

EuLOPHU Keithii, Bidl,^ sp, nova, Pseudo-huUn 3-5 poll, 
longi, 1 poll, crassi, cylindrico-conici, virides, 6-nodi. Folia 
2^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, graminea, acute carinata. Scapus 
1 ped. longas, rigidns, gracilis, teres, basi (vaginis paacis 
exceptis) nndns, supeme laze racemosus. Flores nsqne ad 9, 
iis E, graminece majores, explanati, dissiti. Bractece ^ poll. 
longaB, lanceolatad acatsB ; pedicelli cam OTariis 1 poll, longi. 
Sejpala | poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, linearia, acnta, yiridia. PeicUa 
sepalis breviora, latiora. LdbeUum latum, viride in disco 
albescens ; lobi laterales breves carvi erecti falcati, medins 
\ poll, longns et latos late obovatas apice retnsns crispns ; 
uervi elevati, reticalati, bronei ; carinsB in disco 3 undulataB, a 
callo conico flavo terminates. Calcar ^ poll, longnm, clavatum, 
pendnlnm. Golumna lata, rectiascnla, snpeme alata, in dorso 
complanata, viridis mbro-lineata. Anthera lata, apice bifida ; 
lobi obtnsi, recur vi, rabri. 

Hob. Lankawi Isles, 0. Curtis I 

Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr, Keith ! 

This has the habit of E. graminea, Lindl., hot the flowers 
are very different. The broad, reticalately-yeined lip bears 
three thick white veins ending in a raised conical mass on the 
mid-lobe. 

Dr. Keith says it grows in masses at the roots of trees. 



CYMBIDIUM, Swartz. 

C. ALOiFOLiuM, 8w. in Nov. Act. 8oc. fife. Upsal, vi. (1799) 
p. 73. 

C. Finlaysonianum, Lindl. in Wall. Cat., n. 7358. 
Hah, Singapore: common on the island; also on Pnlau 
Ubin, between Singapore and Johore ! 
Carimon Isles ! 

Johore : Tanjong Eopang ! Batn Pahat ! 
Pahang : Pekan ! 
Malacca : common. 
Penang: Telok Bahang, Curtis! 
Perak : Scortechini (drawings). 
Var. PUBESCENS, t.e., C. puheseens, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1840) 
Misc., p. 75; (1841), t. 38. 



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334 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON OECHIDE^ AND 

Hah. Singapore : Sungei Btdah ! 
Malacca ! 

Lankawi Islands, Ourtis ! 
Siam : Bangtapban ! Br. Keith. 
As I liaye elsewhere mentioiied, C. puhescens, lindl., when 
typical, looks very different from C. aloifolium, Sw., but the 
two plants pass into each other, and it is really often hard to 
draw the line between them. 

The var. puheseens is mnch less abundant than the very common 
0. (doifoUum, which grows everywhere on trees, especially near 
the sea coast. 

It is visited and fertilized by hornets, Vespa cincta, Fabr., 
and also by Carpenter bees, Xylocopa, spp. 

Cymbidium acutum, Bidl.^ sp. nova. Ceespitosa. Bhizoma 
crassnm. Folia 12 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, plorima, erecta, 
graminea. Scopus 6-8 poll, longns, erectns .vel sub-erectus 
frnctifer nutans. Flores pauci, 1^ poll, in diam., remoti. 
BractecB breves, ovatsB, acutee ; pedicelli 1 poll, longi efc ultra. 
Sepala I poll, longa, \ poll, lata, lanceolata acuta, albescentia 
a fascii mediant purpurea tincta. Petala sepalis breviora. 
LaheUum sepalis brevius ; lobi * laterales longinscnli, obtusi, 
albescentes in margine nervisque kermesini ; discus ochreus ; 
carinaa 2 integrse apice crassiores ; lobus medius ovatns, in 
margine sinuatus, mucronatus, atro-kermesinus, in medio a 
maculft aurantiacd. omatus. Columna recta, lata, in ventre 
plana, violaceo-purpurea. Anthera pileata, ochrea ; margo 
anticus latus, retusus; poUinia triangularia, obovata; discus 
latus, transverse ellipticns, utrinque acutus. Stigma trana- 
versim oblongum, angustum. Capsula 3 poll, longa, fusiformis, 
rostrata ; pedicellus 1^ poll, longus, incrassatus. 

Hah. Perak: Waterloo Estate, Kwala Kangsa Valley, Sir 
Orceme Elphinstone ! Thaiping Hills ! 

This is a very distinct plant, forming large tufts of narrow, 
grassy leaves, which are not articulated above the base as in 
G. aloifolium, Sw. 

The scape is rather short and erect ; the flowers smaller than 
in 0. ahifolium, Sw., with nearly white sepals and petals, with 
a medium bar of purple. The lip has the form of 0. aloifolium, 
but is differently coloured. It is a very distinct and pretty 
plant. 



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APOSTASUCE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 335 

Ctmbidium lancifolium, Eook. Exot Fl., t. 51. 

Hah. Malacca : Bukit Sadanen ! 
Perak: Scartechinu 

This grows on the groTrnd in dense jangle. Plants flowered 
in the Botanic Ghirdens from Malacca had apple-green sepals 
and petals, the latter with a medinm pink line and a white lip 
spotted and marked with deep crimson. 



GEODOEUM, Jacks. 

G. PURPUREUM, E. Br. in Ait Hort, Kew,, Ed. II. v. p. 207 ? 

(?. fucatum, Inndl., Bot. Reg., t. 1687 ! 

Hab, Malacca: Open fields at Rellan, at the base of Mt. 
Ophir ! Bnkit Sadanen, B. Berry ! 

This exactly resembles Lindley's figure above qnoted, which 
was based on a plant said to have been imported from Ceylon, 
and I believe 0. purpureiwi, R. Br., I.e., is intended for the same 
species. A white-flowered plant with pink markings and a 
yellowish central blotch, collected in Pnlan Hajong Dnri, north 
of Lankawi, by Cnrtis, seems to me to be a white variety 
merely, though, according to a sketch, the apex of the lip is 
retuse. 

I have also another form (apparently) which has yellowish 
flowers, with an acute lip veined with brown, from Saigon ; 
and a somewhat similar form was found in Province Wellesley 
by Curtis. 

G. CITRINUM, Jacks, in Andr. Bot Eep,^ t. 626. 

Hah. Siamese Islands, north of Lankawi, 0. Curtis ! 

GRAMMATOPHYLLUM, Blume. 

G. sPECiosuM, Blume, Bijdr., p. 378 f. 20. 
Hab, Singapore : Toas, Pulau Ubin ! 

Malacca : Tanjong Eling ! 

Selangor : Near Kwala Lumpur ! 

Perak: Bindings! 

Pahang : Banks of Tahan River ! 

Eedah : On Kedah Peak, 3,000 feet alt. ! 
The numerous descriptions of this, the finest of East Indian 
orchids, leave little to be added. It is probably the largest 



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336 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

species in the order. A plant was brought down from Malacca 
to Singapore which weighed, with the portion of the tree on 
which it grew, three quarters of a ton, and specimens in Penang 
and Singapore Gardens measure 40 feet in circumference. It. 
grows on trees, rarely at any great height above the ground, 
and often over streams ; but when the tree has fallen it often 
continues to live and grow on the ground. The flowering 
season is August or September ; the scapes are very rapidly 
developed, and remain in flower for some weeks. Strong plants 
flower every year ; but they require to be full grown before 
they commence. The capsule is very large, and pendulous ; it 
is oblong pyriform, and about 6 inches long and 3 inches 
thick. 

The flowers vary in size in different parts of the raceme, 
the lowest being the largest. The column is described in the 
* Genera Plan tar um * and ' Flora of British India * as footless, but 
this is hardly so. The margins at the base are carried forward 
beyond the point of attachment of the column to the ovary, so 
as to form a nectary a quarter of an inch deep, in which, how- 
ever, I have never seen any nectar. The front wall of this 
nectary is formed by the base or claw of the lip, which is 
adnate to the sides, and on this base the lamina of the Hp is 
articulated, and is, to a certain extent, movable. 

The flowers are fertilized by two species of Xylocopa, viz., 
X. IcUipeSy Drury, and X. cestuans, Linn. 

They are also visited by ants and other small-winged 
hymenoptera in search of the sweet exudation, not only from 
the flowers but also from the bases of the pedicels. 

Each flower remains open for a few days without any altera- 
tion unless fertilized, when, although it is still un withered, a 
change takes place which prevents its ever being fertilized. 
The apex of the column begins to curve over towards the 
stigma, pressing down the rostellum and pushing aside the 
side lobes (stelidia). The disc of the pollen and the anther 
become black and show sigus of decay. The red spots on 
the upper part of the column become paler, and the whole 
column more greenish coloured. The lip becomes duller and 
withers. In a few days the apex of the column is coiled up 
almost into the stigma, pressing the poUinia into the stigmatic 
mouth. Then the whole flower oommences to droop and 
wither. 



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APOSTASIACEJE OF THB MALAY PENINSULA. 337 

I believe that there is actual growth of the colnmn apex^ 
and this is borne out by the alteration in form of the spots on 
the npper part of the colnmn, which appear to lengthen as the 
colnmn cnrves over. 

Removal of the pollinia does not arrest this growth. 

The same growth takes place after fertilization, bnt much 
more rapidly. On November 27th, at 11 a.m., I fertilized two 
flowers with the pollen of each other. Next day, at 8.30 a.m., 
the colnmn was distinctly cnrved over and nearly concealed 
the stigma, and by noon the curving into the stigma was 
complete. Meanwhile the lower flowers on the raceme, which 
had been open for some days, had not commenced to alter 
ataU. 

All the flowers I fertilized set f mifc, but those which were not 
so treated never did so, although their own pollen was pushed 
into the stigma by the incurving of the column. 

I compared with this the action in the allied genus Gymhidum. 
In an unfertilized flower of C, aloifoUum, Sw., the column 
merely withers up and does not alter at all ; but on fertiliza- 
tion a rapid change takes place. The column increases to 
double its width — from 4^ ram. to 9 mm., and at the same 
time shortens about 2 mm. The part that enlarges is chiefly 
the front wall (venter). The whole length of the column in 
thus modified, and not merely the upper part, as in Oram' 
mcUophyUum, 

In the latter orchid cross-fertilization is absolutely necessary,. 
and that within a few days after the flower opens. Accidental 
self-impregnation destroys the flower by setting up at once the 
growth of the column, which almost immediately prevents any 
possibility of any chms-fertilization by covering the stigma, 
and is itself incapable of producing fertilization. The advan- 
tage of the incurving of the column after fertilization is 
obvious ; for if, as often happens, the pollinia are not placed 
exactly on the stigmatic surface, the apex of the column forces 
them well into the stigma and covers them up in it. At the 
same time, the action in the unfertilized plant is absolutely 
injurious, for thereby the flower is rendered unable to set seed 
long before it is withered. 

In Cymbidium, on the other hand, this action only com- 
mences on impregnation, so that the flower is fertilizable till 

LINN. JOUBN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. Z 



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338 MB. HSNKT EIDinBT ON OB0HII>BJB AND 

it withers, while the fnll advantage of the incnrving of the 
column in pressing the pollinia into the stigma is received by 
the flower. 

At the base of the scapes in QrammatophyUwm,^ there are 
always five or six monstrous flowers, the lowest quite at the 
base, the upper ones much more distant from each other than 
are the normal ones above. These monstroas flowers are quite 
sterile. Thej consist of two pairs of perianth segments, 
distinctly, though shortly, separated from each other, and 
exactly alternate, and a rudimentary column. The perianth 
segments of each pair are exactly opposite each other. They 
are longer, and narrower in proportion to their length, than 
those of the normal flowers (being 3 inches long by I^ inches 
broad, as opposed to 2 inches by 1} inches), and they are also 
much duller in colouring. The column faces one of the lower 
pairs, i.e.y it alternates with the upper pair. It is very much 
thinner laterally than that of a normal flower ; and the broad 
front face is reduced to a sharp edge. The upper part is 
dabbed. There is no trace of an anther ; but in one or two 
specimens I have seen a narrow linear process rising from 
the centre of the back of the column which is possibly a 
rudimentary filament. The stigma is very small, and almost 
entirely closed over, a minate hole only being visible on the 
front face. A section of the ovary shows fonr lobes, corre- 
sponding to the four perianth segpcnents ; and each has a single 
fibro- vascular bundle passing through it, except the front one, 
which has several bundles, and is indeed broader than the 
other lobes. One of these bundles supplies the front segment, 
the other the column. 

The foot of the column is well marked in all the monstrouB 
flowers, but it is thin. There is no nectary, and no trace of 
the base of the lip. 

Another monstrons flower consisted of two perianth segments 
only, very much smaller than those of the ordinary abnormal 
ones. These segments were opposite and distinctly separated, 
oblong obtuse. 



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AP0STA8UCEA OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 389 

DIPODIUM, E. Br. 

D. PICTUM, Eeichb.f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 15 t. 107. 
Hdb. Singapore : common ; E!ranji, Chan Ghn Kang ! &o. 
Selangor: Klang! 
Malacca: common! 
Pahang: Taban Woods ! 
This is quite a common plant, but verj seldom flowers. It 
grows on the ground, ascending small trees, and clasping them 
quite round with its roots. It would be well worthy of cul- 
tivation if it were not such a shy flowerer, as the racemes are 
long and the flowers showy. 

D. PALUDOSUM, Eeichh.f.^ Xefiia Orch., ii. p. 15. 
Hah. Malacca : Ayer Panas ! 

Perak: Wray, 
A much rarer plant than the preceding. 
Both species occur also in Bomea 

BROMHEADIA, lindl. 

B. PALUSTBis, LindL, Bot Beg. (1841) Misc.^ p. 89. 

Ccdogyne caulescens, Oriff., Notul., iii. p. 282. 

To the localities given for this in the * Journal of the Linnean 
Society,* zxviii. (1891) p. 387, 1 can add now Johore, at Batu 
Pahat ! and on Onnong Panti ! Perak, in the Bindings ! 
and at Thaiping Waterfall ! Kedah, on Kedah Peak ! and 
Legeh, at Tomoh ! These last two are the most northern 
localities I have any record of. 

The specimen of Gcelogyne caulesceru, OrifE. in Herb. Lindl., 
consists of a portion of stem and rhachis of this plant, with two 
leaves of a Dracosnay probably D, temiflora, Roxb. 

B. STLVESTKis, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. 8oc. (Bot), xxviii. (1891) 

p. as7. 

Again met with on Gunong Panti, in Johore, at 2,000 feet 
elevation. 

B. ALTfCOLA, Bidl. in Joum. Linn. 8oe. (Bot.)^ xxviii. (1891) 
p. 338. 

Occurs also on Mt. Ophir, in Malacca; and on the Tahan 
Biver, in Pahang. 

z 2 



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840 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

Bromheadia APOROiDES, E&ichh, /., Olia BoL Eamb., p. 44. 
Occurs on Mt. Ophir, and on Hermitage Hill, in Perak. 
There is a sketch of it among Scortechini's drawings. 

I have three more species to add to this genns. 

B. (§ Epiphytic-s) pungens, MdLj sp, nova. Caules 6-8 poll, 
longi, complanati, per totnm longitndinem foliati. Folia 4 polL 
longa, i poll, lata, disticha, ensiformia, complanata, rigida, 
pungentia, laete viridia. Bacemi 1 poll, longi, a bracteis lanceo- 
latis acotis brnneis fere omnino tecti. Flares explanati 1^ polL 
lati ; pedicelli 1^ poll, longi. Sepala 1^ poll, longa, lanceolata 
acuta, flavescentia. Petala sepalis angustiora, alba. Lahellwmr 
oblongum, album ; lobi laterales obscuri ; lobns medius explan- 
atus orispo-marginatufl, apice rotundato-emarginatus, basi 
canaliculatus, in medio a callo crasso lobato flavo ornatus. 
Columna ferme recta, supeme incrassata, in ventre plana 
virescenti-flava. Anthera oblonga, plana, apiculata, bilocnlaris,. 
flavescens; pollinia elliptica, pallida; discus semilunaris. 
Stigma transversim ellipticum. 

Hah. Malacca : On trees at Mt. Ophir, 4,000 ped. alt. 

This is even more like an Ajporum than B» aporoides, Beichb. f , 
The leaves are much longer and more pungent than in that 
species, and the lip is quite different in shape, the lateral lobes 
being very obscurely marked. 

I brought live plants from Mt. Ophir, where it appears rare^ 
and flowered them in the Botanic Gardens at Singapore. 

B. BREViPOLiA, BidL, sp, nova. Epiphytica. Caules plnres,. 
6-8 poll, longi, congesti, complanati, per totam longitndinem 
foliati. Folia ^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata acuta, 
disticha, striata, coriacea, atroviridia; vagince striat®, breves. 
FUyres ^ poll, longi, e fasciculis bractearum terminales. Ovarium 
cum pedicello recto ^ poll, longum, rnbrura. Sepala ^ poll, longa,. 
^ poll, lata, lanceolata acuminata acuta, rosacea. Petala sepalis 
breviora, lanceolata, albescenti-flava. Lahellum cum petalis sub- 
aequilongum; lobi laterales lati, curvi, falcati, acuti, basi 
fasciculatim pilosi, albescenti-flavi ; discos purpureo-punctatns ; 
lobus medius ovatns, albus in medio flavus. ColiMnna gracilis,, 
alba; clinandrii margo bilobus. Capsula ultra ^ poll, longa, 
a columns, maroid^ coronata, ferme sessilis, supeme incrassata ; 
costee fertiles sterilibus triple latiores, in dorso teretes. 



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AP08TASIACEJ5 OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 341 

Hah, Perak : On a fallen tree, Hermitage Hill ! 
Also Borneo : Sarawak, Dr. Haviland I 

This has the stem and leaves of some species of Aporuniy 
snch as Dendrohtum (§ Aporum) nnuatum^ Lindl., and rather 
small reddish-yellow flowers springing from a taft of dry 
bracts at the end of the stem. 

Bromheadla. kupestr[s, BidLy sp. nova. Terrestris. Catdes 
5 ped. longi, f poll, lati, complanati. Folia 4 poll, longa, f poll, 
lata, lorata, lanceolata, apice inseqaaliter biloba rotandata, 
canalicnlata, carinata, tenuiter coriacea, atro-viridia ; yaginsd 
^ poll, longae. Flores laterales nee terminales, 2-3 in canle 
ono dissiti, singnlatim expansi, snbcamosi. Ovarium cum 
pedioello ^ poll, longnm. Sepala 1 poll, longa, i poll, lata, 
lorata, lanceolata obtnsa, pallide flava mbro-tincta, nitida. 
Petala sepalis paullo breviora latiora, lanceolata, pallide citrina. 
LaheUum com sepalis ferme ssquilongnm; lobi laterales longi 
falcati acnti paullo elevati albi kermesino-nenrosi, medios 
caruosior lanceolatus flayescens kermesino-pnnctatus in mar- 
gine crispo-inyolatus ; hypochilii flayescentis discos a fascift 
mediauft eleyat& omatns. Columna semiteres, flaya, paollo 
carya, in yentre excayata rafara; clinandriam profnndum in 
margine rotandatnm. 

Hab. Malacca : on rocks on Ounong Mering, a spar of the 
Ophir range, 4,000 feet alt. ! 
Eedah : Kedah Peak, 3,000 feet alt. ! 

This plant is remarkable for being the only species with 
lateral, not terminal, flowers. It forms a large tuft, with several 
tall stems, 5 feet or less in height. The lower leaves fall oft as 
the stem grows, so that the lower part is bare of all bnt the 
sheaths. The leaves are thicker than nsnal in the genas, and 
when dry are dark brown, wrinkled, and polished. The apices 
are very unequal, one being one-eighth of an inch longer than 
the other. 

The flowers are rather fleshy, and, like those of the rest of 
the genus, do not preserye well. The sepals and petals are 
pale yellow tinted with red. The lip has the lateral lobes white 
with a few red streaks and spots, on the disc between them is a 
honey-colonred raised portion. The mid-lobe (epichil) is more 
fleshy in texture, honey-coloured with crimson dots, its sides 
are rolled np so as to meet in the middle line. 



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342 MR. HENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJB AND 

Though the position of the flowers is qaite unlike that of the 
other species, jet as the plant snfficientlj resembles in habit 
the others, and the flower has just the same strnctore, it eannot 
be referred to any other genns. Of all the species it is nearesir 
to B. alHcolay Ridl. 

LEUCOLENA, Ridl. 
L. OKNATA, Eidl, in Joum. Linn. 8oe. (Bot)^ xxviii. (1891) 
p. 340, t. 43. 
Hah. Malacca : Bnkit Sadanen ! 

POLTSTACHTA, Hook. 

Polysfdchya is one of the very few epiphytic genera of orchids 
which are common to both hemispheres. The headquarters of 
the genus appears to be Africa. There are but few species in 
the East Indies ; but there are a number in the New World. 
The Malayan species are not only few in number but always 
scanty in individuals, so that it is not easy to get a good series 
of specimens for comparison. Three species are mentioned in the 
* Flora of British India ' ; two of these, P. WigJitiiy Heichb. f ., 
and P. purpurea^ Wight, belong to the simple-racemed series, 
and are apparently closely allied to P. liUeola, Hook. To these 
I have added P. singapurewis and P. namensis. The latter 
much resembles P. luteola^ Hook., if I am correct in referring to 
that species a plant I formerly collected in Pemambuco ; and 
it even more resembles a specimen received from Dublin 
Gkirdens, having been imported from Trinidad. It is quite 
possible that all these species, together with some others from 
the African region, will eventually be reduced to a single one. 
The chief differences lie in the form and proportions of the lip, 

P. penangensis, sp. nov., belongs to the P. zeylanica group 
with a longer branched panicle. The development of the 
panicle is not a good sectional character, as there are inter* 
mediate forms between the simple raceme and panicled 
inflorescence in the African region. I am very doubtful as to 
the affinities of the genus, but as the pollinia usually at least 
possess an oblong pedicel, it is perhaps best to retain it in the 
neighbourhood of Cymbidiece. All are probably self -fertilized, 
as some species undoubtedly are, and this makes the form of 
the pollen masses and their pedicel often difficult to make out, 
for fertilization has begun before the flower opens. 



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APOSTASUCBiB OF THE MALAY PEKINSULA* 343 

PoLTSTACHTA siNGAPUBBKSis, BidL^ ip. nova. BocUces crasso. 
Pseudo'hulbi ^ poll, longi, yetnsti globosi, arete approximati. 
FoUa 2-4, usque ad 4 poll, longa 1 poll, lata, insequalia lorata, 
apice ineoqualiter biloba, Isste yirentia. Eacemus 2 poll, longus, 
anceps, a yaginifl pap jraceiB dissitis fere usque ad flores teotus ; 
rhachis pubescens. Flores pauci, parvi, flayo-yirentes. BracieoB 
cum \ parte pedicelli fldquilonge, oyatas acuminataB, yirides. 
Sepala bullata, posticum lanceolatum, lateralia triangularia. 
Petala sepalis paullo breyiora, anguste spathulata. Lahelli 
lobi laterales longiusculi lineares falcati acuti, medius oyalis 
margine inyolutus apice subacutus decuryus, prsBter basin 
roseam flayescens, intus pulyerulentus. Golwrrma breyis, apice 
rosea; pes longus. Anihera galeata, obtusa, ferme bilocu- 
laris ; margo anticus profnnde emarginatus, quasi bilobus ; 
pollinia 4, semiglobosa, pulyerulenta ; rostellum nullum. 
Stigma magnum. 

Hah. Singapore : Sungei Morai, on old low trees on the edge 
of a mangroye swamp, rare ! 

This plant I find to be cleistogamous. The rostellum being 
absent, the pollinia slip easily into the stigmatic cayity. The 
lip is longer than broad, and the mid-lobe is considerably longer 
than the narrow falcate lateral lobes. The plant is allied to 
P. purpureoy Wight; but that is said to haye purple flowers, 
and only a short median ridge furfuraceous on the lip ; 
whereas, in P. singapitrensis, the whole of the Hp is mealy 
within. 

P. suMENSis, Bidl.y sp, nova, Piettdo-hulhi i poll, longi, 
conici, yetusti approximati. OavUs supra pseudo-bulbum 
I poll, longa. Folia usque ad 5 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, 
lineari-lanceolata, disticha, inssquaHa, apice ineequaliter biloba. 
Bacemus yix 4 poll, longus ; pedunculus anceps, a yaginis arete 
appressis tectus. Flores e. 15, paryi, yirides. Bractece minim», 
basi oyatae, apice subulatas. PecUceUtts cum oyario i poll, 
longus. SepcUa prasina, posticum oyato-lanceolatum, lateralia 
postico multo majora triangularia acuta. Petala sepalis multo 
minora, cuneata, acuta, alba. LdbeUwn oboyatum, undique 
farinosum, album; lobi laterales paryi angusti falcati obtusi, 
medius rotundatus apice breyiter bifidus, margine sinuatus. 
Columna breyis; pes longiusculus, canaliculatua ; clinandrium 
yix depressum. Anthera lata, oyata, obtusa, margine antico 



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344 3(R. HSKBT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

recto integro; pollinia 4, elliptioa; discus oblongns, tenuis. 
J5U>8telliim planum, latum, bifidnm. 

Hob, Siam : Pnngah, 0. GurHs! 

This plant has mnch the habit and appearance of the 
Singapore species, P. singapurensisy but differs in the sepals 
not being bnllate, and in the form of the lip, which in this 
species has mnch shorter lateral lobes, and a broader rounded 
mid-lobe with sinuate edges. 

POLTSTACHYA PBNANGENSis, lUdl.y sp, tiova. Pseudo-hidht 1 poll, 
longi, conici. Folia 5, 4 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, lanceolata sub- 
acuta, disticha, insequalia, apice insBqual iter biloba. PanicuLa 6 poll . 
longa, stricta, erecta ; vagina basalis 2 poll, longa ; rami 1 poll, 
longi. BraetecB cum ^ parte ovarii aequilongsB, lineari-setaceee. 
Flores parvi, bullati, flavescenti-virides. Sepalum posticum 
lanceolatum acutum, lateralia triangularia acuta. Petala 
sepalis multo minora pallidiorsc, spathulata, obtusa. LdbeUi 
lobi laterales breves ovati falcati, medius vix longior ovatus 
obtusus intus pubescenti-fiavus, in medio bmneo-lineatus. 
Golumna brevis, crassa. Anthera lata, oblonga; pollioia 
globosa. P. zeylamca^ Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1838) Misc., p. 78, 
pro parte? 

Hab, Peuang : Government Hill ! 

This is allied closely to Lindlej's P. zeylanica, and may 
indeed be perhaps eventually reduced to a form of the Ceylon 
plant. The lip, however, seems to me different in form. 
Lindley's description, I.e., included both the Ceylon species and 
the Dendrohiwm polystachys^ Thou., Orch. Afr., t. 85, that is, 
Polystachya mauritianaj Spreng., Syst., iii, p. 742. 



SuBTBiBB SABGANTHEJU. 

This large section of VandecB is a clearly-marked one ; dis- 
tinguished by its habit, absence of pseudo-bulbs, coriaceous 
narrow leaves, and lateral inflorescence. 1 would, however, 
exclude from it the South American genera Lockhariia (an 
Oncidea with the habit of an Aporum) and GetUropetalum and 
Pachyphyllum (though the former of these has certainly the 
habit of Adenoncos), -which seem to me to form a distinct group. 
The section thus curtailed is, with the exception of two 
American genera, closely allied to Angrcectim (Dendrophylax 



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APOSTASUCEiB OP THE MALAT PENINSULA. 345 

and Gampylocentron), confined to tropical and snbtropical Asia, 
and to Africa. The section can be 9ubdiyided into the 
Ecalcaratm and GalcarcUoB ; according to the presence or 
absence of a spnr; and the latter again according to the 
presence or absence of a foot to the colnmn. 

Of the spnrless genera Luisia^ Gottonia^ Adenoncos (which, 
by some accident, has been mixed np in some books with 
MicrosaccuSy a genns closely allied to Saccolahiumy if, indeed, it 
should not be merged in it) form a group characterised by the 
narrow, nearly entire, flat lip^ Luisia is disl>ingaished by its 
terete leaves ; Adenoncos has them narrowly lanceolate and very 
thick; and Gottonia has the broader, flattened leaves common 
to many other genera in the section. Esmeralda is a good 
genns, with a spnrless lip, two small lateral lobes, and a broad 
epichil. E, Gathcartiy Reichb. f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 39, and 
E. GlarJcei, Reichb. f., Gard. Chron. (1886) ii. p. 552, belong 
to it ; and I am inclined to refer to it also Vanda Sanderiana^ 
Beichb. f., on account of the peculiar form of the lip, which is 
very unlike that of a typical Vanda^ and much more like that 
of Esmeralda, V. cristata^ Lindl., and V, aljpina^ Lindl., are 
certainly nearer to Esmeralda than to Vanda. 

Stauropsisy Beichb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz., xvi. (1860) p. 117 
(Xenia Orch. ii. p. 7 ?), was a genus founded by Beichenbach 
to include Trichoglottis paUens, Lindl., from Manila, a little- 
known plant; 8. vtolacea, Beichb. f. (possibly PhaUenopsii 
violaceay Teysm. and Binn.) ; and Trichoglottis philippinensiSy 
Lindl., one of Cuming's Philippine plants. To these Bentham 
added (Benth. and Hook., Gen. PI., iii. p. 572) Fieldia lisso- 
chiloideSy Gaudich., Vanda gigantea, Lindl., Vanda unduUtta^ 
Lindl., and Trichoglottis fasciata, Beichb. f. 

The original three seem to belong to the genus PhaUsnopsis ; 
while, of the remainder, Fieldia and Vanda gigantea, Lindl., 
with probably F. undulataj Lindl., form a good genus, 
characterised by the fleshy trilobed lip with erect short lateral 
lobes, and a callus at the base of the epichil with a depression 
in the middle of the lip and short stout column. Gaudichaad's 
name, Fieldia^ is preoccupied, so that another name is wanted 
for this genus; and I would suggest that Bentham's generic 
name of Stauropsis should be retained for this. 

Trichoglottis fasciata^ Beichb. f., differs from Trichoglottis^ 
Blume, in the absence of a spur, and from Stauropsis in the 



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346 MB. HEKRT SIDLET ON ORCHIDEii AKD 

spreading lateral lobes of the aonte terminal lobe, and tbe 
absence of calli. Tbe habit is that of Esmeralda Clarkei^ 
Reichb. f . It is so distinct from all other genera known to 
me that it shonld, I think, form the type of a distinct genns, 
and for this plant I would suggest the generic name of 
Staurochilus, Blinding to the cross-shaped lip. 

The remaining genera of spnrless Sarcanthece are FhaloBnopstSy 
DorittSy and Biploprara. 

In Acampey which has sometimes been referred to the genus 
Saccolahium, the spur is reallj so slightly developed that some 
of the species might well be referred to the spurless group. 
I do not see any good reason for merging it in Saccolahxwn^ as 
has been done in the ' Flora of British India.' 

8arcanthe<B CalcaratcB, 

I have classed as spurred Sarcanths, all in which the 
labellum is so depressed that a protuberance is formed on the 
under side, t.«., the morphological under-side. The dimensions, 
form, and position of the spur vary very much in the different 
genera. The greater part of the East Indian species, being 
fertilized by Diptera or Hymenoptera, have short spurs, while 
those of Africa and America, being fertilized by Lepidoptera, 
have long spurs. 

It would appear at first sight that the position of the spur, 
i,e.y whether epichilary or hypochilary, would be of value in 
classifying the genera, but I have found it often so difficult to 
determine where the hypochil ends and the epichil begins that 
I am quite unable at present to utilise this as a differential 
point. 

The variations in the direction of the spur in the open flower 
are very remarkable. In Trichoglottu and Rhynchostylts it 
points backwards in a horizontal direction, parallel to the plane 
of the lamina of the lip, and at right angles to the column. In 
Benanthera and Saccolabimn it is vertical ; while in Sarcoehtlus 
it points forwards, lying in a plane at right angles to the 
column. 

The whole section can be divided into those which have a 
foot to the column and those which have not ; the latter include 
the larger number. 

The subsection ApodcB includes the Benanthera group, Benan- 
ihera, Benantherella, Vanday with large or conspicuous flowers and 



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APOSTASUCBii OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 347 

a abort, usually vertical, spur ; Bhynchostylu and PelatarUheriaj 
with a horizontal laterally flattened broad spur ; TrichoglotHsj 
with a terete horizontal spur ; and the Scuxolabiwn group, with 
small flowers, with usually a comparatively small epichil and a 
longer or shorter dependent spur. This includes Sdccolahium^ 
8chomorchi8j Mtcroioccmy TceniophyUumy Cleisoitomoj Sarcanthtu, 
and Gri/ptochUus. These genera are all somewhat closely 
allied, and it might perhaps be more satisfactory to merge 
some of them in Saccolabivm, From this latter genus I have 
excluded Acampe for reasons given above. The other sections, 
as laid down in the * Flora of British India,' I have retained. 
The flrst four genera have no callus, either epichilary or 
hypochilary , on the lip. The greater number of the SaccolMum 
have a small, often minute, epichil, but the section Calceolaria 
(which might perhaps be kept as a distinct genus) has a lai^, 
rounded epichil, and the lateral lobes meet in the middle line 
so as to wall off the epichil from the broad, basin-shaped spur. 
SchomorchU is a Saccolahium^ with well-developed stelidia, 
M%Cfro9accu9 and Tosniophylla more distinct in habit than 
anything else. In Cleisottama and 8arcanthu$ there are 
well-developed calli. The distinctions between the two genera 
are laid down under Gleisostoma, GryptochUua is a remarkable 
plant, which stands quite alone. 

The remaining group of this subsection is that of the 
AngroBca^ none of which occur in our region as far as is yet 
known. Nearly all are long- spurred, with an entire lip 
(except Oryptopus and one or two Angrceca), and many 
have the pollinia on separate pedicels, which rarely, if ever, 
occurs in the other g^ups. 

The SarcanthecB calcaratcej with a foot to the column, include 
the genus Airides and several others included under the poly- 
morphic genus Sarcochilus, which, however, has been broken up 
into sections by several authors, of which clearly the following, 
at least, should be kept distinct generically, GucuUa^ Fomtcaria, 
and Tuhera, 

Cnculla has a compressed rhachis with persistent distichous 
bracts and a saccate lip. The oldest generic name for any 
species included in it is Loureiro's Thrixspermum^ which name 
I propose to retain for it. A very curious and rare little plant 
was described in the *' Flora of British India ' as the representa- 
tive of a new section, Bidleya ; a rather puzzling plant, as it 



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348 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJJ AND 

has an evident aflSnity with Thnxspermum, bnt has the short 
stem of a SwrcochiluSy an entire lip, and apparently no foot to 
the coliunn, to which the sides of the lip are adnate. I believe 
that in reality the column has a foot, bnt it is adnate to the 
sides of the lip, and, excepting by the arrangements of the 
nerves, is indistinguishable from it. Perhaps it would be best 
to leave it as a distinct genus, as Sir Joseph Hooker appears 
inclined to do. 

Fomicaria has a thickened terete rhachis with persistent 
quaquaversal ovate acute bracts. The lip is saccate, with a 
small epichil (usually), and the side lobes are often rolled up 
so as to give the lip a trumpet shape. 

The oldest name for any species of this genus is Blume's 
Bendrocolla, which, however, included Thrtxspermum as well. 
Reichenbach's Orosourdya, Bot. Zeit., xxii. (1864) p. 297, was 
made to include several of this section, but the type of the 
genus, O. elegans, seems to be a very different plant. Thwaites's 
GylindrochiluSy Enum. PI. Zeyl., p. 307, belongs to the same 
genus, but it will cause less change to adopt Blume's old name. 

In these genera the rhachis of the inflorescence grows veiy 
slowly, the flowers opening at considerable intervals of time, so 
that as much as a week may elapse between the opening of two 
consecutive flowers, and the whole inflorescence may take 
months to develop all its flowers. The blossoms are very 
fugacious, so that it is impossible for one to be fertilized by 
another on the same raceme. 

Sarcochilus I would propose to retain for the section Tuhera, 
Blume, and of the * Genera Plantarum * for the most part, to 
include all the species with a long foot to the column, a porrect 
spur, with a small, often fleshy, epichil. 

AscoCHiLUS I would propose as the name for a small genus in 
which the column has a very long foot, on the end of which is borne 
the lip, far from the body of the column. The spur is pendulous, 
rather long, with large lateral lobes, and a well-developed, 
sometimes bilobed epichil. 

In these two genera the inflorescence usually, at least, 
develops rapidly, so that several flowers may be open at once, 
and frequently all are open on the same day. 

Stereochtlus, Lindl., Micropera, Lindl. (Cama/rotiej Lindl.), 
Ghiloschistay Inndl., seem to me distinct. They do not occur in 
our region as far as is at present known. 



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APOSTASIACEJ: OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 349 



LUISIA, Gandich. 

L. TRiSTis, Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind., vi. p. 25. 

Hah. Penang : Penara Bukit, Curtis ! 

Sepals white, blotched with pink. Petals white, tipped rose. 
Lip deep blackish purple, with a whitish V-shaped line between 
the oblong narrow hypochil and the much broader ovate 
epichil. 

L. ANTENNiPERA, Blume, Bumphta, iv. p. 50. 
Hah, Pahang : Pulan Ghengi, Pahang River ! 

Perak: Scortechini, 
Climbing on branches of low bashes, or small trees in thickets 
in open country. 

L. BBACHYSTACHYS, Blume, RumpJita, iv. p. 50. 

Hah. Siam : On trees by the river at Ghirbee, GurHa ! 

Lankawi Isles : Curtis ! 
Sepals and petals greenish with violet edges ; lip violet 
purple. 

L. TERETiFOLiA, Oaudich., in Freyc. Voff, Bot., p. 427 t. 37. 
Hah, Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr Keith ! 



ADENONCOS, Blume. 

A. viRiNS, Blume, Bijdr,, p. 381. Humilis, 2-6-pollicaris. 
Caules suberecti. Folia 1 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lineari- 
oblonga acuta, supeme sulcata, camosa, recurva, mgosa; 
vaginae vetustsB transversim mgosaB. Bacemi brevissimi, 
3-4-flori, flexuosi. Fhres parvi, virides, odorati, explanati. 
Bractece ^ poll. longsB, ovat» ; pedicelli -^ poll, longi. Sepala 
lanceolata acuminata, lateralia subfalcata. Petala sepalis 
breviora angustiora; sepala petala IsBte viridia. LaheUum 
integrum, late cordatum, subacutum, camosulum, viride, basi a 
callo oblongo granulato auctum. Oolumna brevis, crassa, alba ; 
stelidia parva, obscura ; clinandrium baud profundum. Anthera 
unilocularis, galeata, apice prolongata; pollinia 4, globosa, 
fiava; caudiculus linearis, ad discum ovatum majusculum 
junctus; rostellum brevissimum. Stigma grande, oblongum* 
Microsaccus virens, Hook, f, Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 77. 



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850 MB. UENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJB AND 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji, Ac. ! Common on trees in man- 
grove swamps. 
Selangor : Pataling, near Kwala Lnmpnr ! 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Also occurs in Java. 
This little plant is common on mangroves, and occurs also in 
damp forests, on branches of trees. It has a strong scent of 
Friar's Balsam. 

The leaves described as trigonous are only so when the plant 
is dried. During life they are very thick and deeply channelled 
above, but not really trigonous. The lip is quite entire ; I see 
no trace of the short lateral lobes of the other species. At the 
base is a low oblong mass of papillsB. The anther is helmet- 
shaped, with a distinct blunt beak. The pollinia are not sessile 
on the pedicel, but each pair is borne on a short, distinct stalk, 
which is affixed to the pedicel a short way from the end. The 
stigma is very large and occupies nearly the whole of the face 
of the very short column. 

Adenoncos major, Ridl.y sp, nova, Caules 6-10 poll, longi, 
subflexuosi. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, f poll, lata, lorata, obtusa, 
camoso-coriacea, apice inssqualiter biloba; vagin» \ poll. 
longaB, rugossB. Floras sessiles, axillares, singuli, virides. 
BractecB 3, ovatse, coriacesB, ovaria tegentes. Sepala ^ poll, 
longa, ovato-Ianceolata acuta. Petala sepalis multo minora, 
linearia, acutae. LaheUum cuneatum, obovatum, camosum ; lobi 
laterales minuti, medius apice rotundatus obtusissimus excavatus, 
carina basi papillosus, sub apice parvi-mucronatus. Gapsula 
^ poll, longa, oblonga ; costsB f ertiles late, sterilibus latiores. 

Hah, Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

Pahang : Eota Glanggi, on limestone rocks ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 

This much resembles A, vireus, Blume ; but the whole plant 
is very much larger, the leaves broader, longer, and of a different 
shape. The lip is rounded at the apex, and has distinct though 
minute lateral lobes. The petals, too, are much narrower. 
The sepals and bracts are full of bundles of white raphides. 

A. parviflora, Bidl,, sp, nova, Caules 2-4 poll, longi, 
suberecti, per totam longitudinem foliati; radices tenues. 
Folia 1 poll, longa, linearia acuta, crassa camosa, in dorso 
convexa, supeme canaliculata, recurva ; vaginsB rugosae. Florei 



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APOSTASUCEii OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 351 

xninimi, sessiles. Bractece minim», ovato. Sepala vix ^ poll, 
longa, ovato-oblonga acuta. Petala sepalis breviora angnstiora, 
linearia ; sepala petala ochrea. LabeUum sepalis brevins, ovatum 
acntum, camosnm; lobi laterales breyes obtnsi erecti, medins 
ovatns acatns ezcayatiis atro-parpureos. Golumna brevissima, 
crassa, alba; clinandrii margo band elevatns. BoHeUum 
bilobum; lobi paralleli, rotundati. Oaptula j- poll, longa, 
elliptica, a perianthio marcido coronata ; costsa f erme seqnales. 

Hah. Selangor: Kwala Lumpur, on trees at the limestone 
caves, H, J. KeUaU ! 

This cnrions little plant seems a connecting link between 
Luisia and Adenoncos, The leaves are very narrow and fleshy, 
80 as to be nearly terete. The lip has two little anricnlar 
lateral lobes and an obscnre distinction between the hjpochil 
and epichil. It has also the deep purple colour of that of most 
of the Luisice; in other respects it resembles the other 
Adenonci. 

STAUROPSIS, Beichb. f. 

S. GiGANTBUS, Benth, ex Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind.^ vi. p. 27. 
Hah. Lankawi Islands : 0, Curtis ! 

Siam : Tonka ! (Native coUector) ; Pulau Eendong ! 

Pungah, Curtis. 

Collectors say this plant grows on the rocks. The stem is 

much shorter than that of 8. lissochiloides, Pfitzer, which 

attains a height of over 6 feet. Mr. Curtis saw a plant at 

PuDgah with 50 flower spikes. 



STAUROCHILUS, Ridl., gen. nov. 

S. PASCJATUS, Ridl. Trichoglotbis fasdata, Reichb. f . in Gard. 
Chron. (1872) p. 699. 

Hah. Siam : Tonka ! Pulau Rendong ! (Native collector.) 
Lankawi : Terutan, C. Curtis ! 

It is commonly stated in horticultural books that this is a 
native of the Philippines. I have not seen any thence. It is 
often cultivated in Singapore on trees, where it climbs like a 
BenatUhera and flowers annually. The flowers last a long time 
and are very sweetly scented. 



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352 MR. HENRT BIDLET OK OBCHIDEA AND 



PHAli^NOPSIS, Blnme. 

P. CoRNU-CERn, Blume et Beichb. /. in Hamb.^ Oartenz,, xvi, 
(1860) p. 116. 
Hah. Selangor : Telebu, Davison ! 

Perak: Scortechini, 

Siam : Bangtapban, Dr. Keith ! 

P. viOLACEA, Teysm. et Binn. in Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind., xxiv. 
(1862) p. 320. 

Hob. Perak : Kinta district ! 

Also occurs in Borneo and Sumatra. 

The locality, Singapore, given (Warner, * Orch. Album,* iv. 
t. 182) must be a mistake, the plant being imported here. The 
figure represents the var. Murtoni. 

I have seen two examples of a hybrid found in a wild state in 
Perak, between this and the last. 

P. SUMATRANA, KoHh. et Boichh. f. in Hanib. Oartenz., xvi. 
(1860) p. 115. 
P. uehrina^ Teysm and Binn., PI. Cult, in Hort. Bogor., p. 320. 
Hob. Johore : Batu Pahat (Natite collector !) 

P. MUSCICOLA, Eidl. in Trans. Linn. 8oc., Ser. II. (Bot.) iii. 
(1893) p. 373. 
Hah. Pahang : Tahan River ! 

P. KuNSTLERi, Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 30. 
Hah. Perak : Kunstler ! 

P. PUSCATA, Beichb. /. in Oard. Chron. (1874) ii. p. 6. 
Hah. " Malayan Peninsula " : Hort. Bull. 
I know no more than the somewhat inadequate description 
quoted above. 

P. Esmeralda, Beichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1874) ii. 
p. 582. 

Hah. Lankawi Islands : 0. Curtis ! 
Kedah : Setul, Dr. Ellis ! 

P. ALBOVIOLACEA, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc.y Ser. II. {Bot.) iiL 
(1893) p. 373. 



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APOSTASlACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 353 

Hah. Lankawi Islands : Ourtis ! 

Pulau Tioman : W, Nanson ! 
Malacca : Bukit Bankong, E. Berry ! 



RENANTHERA, Lour. 

R. Arachnites, Lindl., Oen. et Sp. Orch,, p. 217. 
Arachnanthe moschifera, Blmne, Rumphia, iv. p. 55, t. 196, 199. 
Hah. Perak: Kinta ! 



Also Borneo ! 

linn JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 A 



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354 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE* AND 

This occurs in great abundance in open country usually near 
the sea. On Pulau Selitar (a very small island in the Jobore 
Strait) it clambers over the thickets, sending down a dense 
curtain of roots. 

Renanthbrjl angustifolia, Hooh, /., Fl. Brit. Ind,, vi. p. 49, 
Ic. PI, t. 2128. 

Hah, Perak : Qunong Batu Putih, Wray ! 

R. ELONGATA, Litidl., Oen, et 8p. Orch., p. 218. 

JR. micrantTMy Blume, Mus. Bot., i. 60. 

Hob. Singapore : Rocks on the sea coast on Pulau Ubin ! 
Johore : Kwala Batu Pahat, Kelsall ! 
Perak : Bindings, near Lumut ! 
Penang: Government Hill, Our^w.' 

This usually grows straggling over rocks by the sea, and 
produces abundantly its horizontal panicles of innumerable 
cinnabar red flowers. It flowers every two or three months, 
and lasts long in bloom. 

The natives call it ''FoTco Api-Api SesuduV '' Apt- Apt'' 
signifies a parasite, especially a Loranthus, Suduh {Sesuduk is 
Siiduk'Suduk) is a spoon or a kris, possibly referring to the 
shape of the lip. The whole flower is of a dark cinnabar red 
except the white calli, a white spot at the base of the mid-lobe 
and a yellow crest to the anther. The lip is pinched in at the 
upper part of the spur, so that the two lateral lobes meet, leaving 
only a narrow slit as an entrance. The spur is dilated at the 
apex and full of nectar, a very different arrangement to that of 
the other species, which have an open spur narrowest at the 
apex without any nectar. The pollinia are elliptic, the caudicle 
oblanceolate narrowed in the middle, and the gland ovate blunt 
and rather large. The rostellum projects a little from the 
clinandrium floor; it is thin, and shortly bifid. There is a 
raised lump in the middle of the clinandrium. 

RENANTHERBLLA, Ridl., genus nov. 

Scandens. Caules graciles. Folia lineari-lanceolata, semi- 
teretia, acuminata, pungentia. Racemi breves, graciles ; 
rhachis flexuosa. Flores parvi, pauci, remoti. Sepala 
oblanceolata obtusa, lateralia obliqua. Petala sepalis angus- 
tiora, linearia. Labellum Eenantherce ; lobi laterales oblongi 



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APOSTASUCB^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 355 

erecti; medins linearis recnrms basi a callis 2 qnadratis 
omatns; calcar breve conicnm. Golumna elongata, gracilis, 
arcnata; clinandHimi conyexnm; stelidia breria, rotnndata. 
Anthera conica, margine retnso ; poUinia 2 elliptica, spathulata ; 
pedicellns latns, oblanceolatus ; discos latns oblongo-qnadratas. 
Gapsala 1^ poll, longa, obconica. 

Renanthbrella histbioniga, Eidl, Caules 2 ped. longi. Folia 
3 poll, longa, supeme canalicnlata, patentia, crassa, atro-viridia. 
Bacemi 4 poll, longi ; bracte» breves, ovatad, acut», amplexi- 
canles. Sepalum posticmn erectnm, lateralia postico breviora 
latiora convexa obliqna sab labello posita. Petala obtnsa, ut 
sepala flava mbro-macnlata mbro-marginata. Labellnm sepalis 
mnlto brevius, 3-lobnm; lobi laterales flavi mbro-macnlati, 
apice rotnndati marginibus rectis, medins lateralibns brevior 
flavns callis pallidis. Golumna yirescens mbro-marginata. 
Ovarium elongatnm, gracile. Benanthera histrionica^ Beichb. 
f. in Gard. Chron. (1878) p. 74; Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. 
p. 49. 

Hah. Singapore : Sirangoon, in a mangrove swamp ! 
Malacca : Mt. Opbir, on trees ! 

This cnrions plant was described by Beiohenbach from a 
plant of unknown locality cultivated in Day's (harden, and 
referred to the genns Benanthera^ with which indeed it has 
much in common. Bnt beside the habit, utterly unlike that of 
an ordinary Benanthera^ it has an elongate, graceful, arched 
column, quite peculiar in the Sarcanthece. It is an epiphyte, 
scrambling on tree branches, to which it clings by its long) 
white, stout, cylindrical roots. The narrow, fleshy, half-terete 
leaves, sharply pointed, are of a dark, dnll green. The slender 
racemes bear a few flowers, opening but two or three at a time, 
of an orange yellow, with Indian red blotches. It flowers 
several times in the year. 

VANDA, B. Br. 

V. Hookebiana, Beichb, /. in Bonplandia^ iv. (1856) p. 324. 
Hob. Johore : Batu Pahat, Lake and KeUaU ! 

Perak: Kinta! 
A terrestrial plant growing among bushes in swamps. The 
flowers vary very much in colour and size. It is commonly 
cultivated in Singapore under the name of the Kinta Weed. 

2 A 2 



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356 MB. HENRT RIOLET ON 0BCHIDEJ5 AND 

This species is peculiar among the trae Vandas from the 
absence of a spnr, a mere depression representing it. It might 
be better to exclude it from the genns. It has, however, been 
successfully crossed here with F. teres, Lindl., a spurred species 
producing a remarkably handsome offspring, F. x Miss Joaquim. 

Vanda teres, Lindl. in Wall. Oat., n. 7324. 
Hah. Siam : Tonka {Native collector) ! 

This locality is hardly within our borders ; I record it as the 
most southern known for the species. 



RHYNCHOSTTLIS, Blume. 

R. RETUSA, Blume, Bijdr., p. 286. t. 49. 

Hab. Southern Siam : C. Curtis ! 

I have it on Mr. Boxall's authority (himself the introducer of 
the species) that Saccolahivmi littorale, Beichb. f. in Gard. 
Chron. (1881) ii. p. 198, is the same plant as Rhyncostylis 
retusa, Blume. 

B. GiOANTEA, Bidl. Saccoldbium giganteum^ lindl., Oen. et 
Sp. Orch., p. 221. 

Hah. Singapore : at Selitar, on a big Dipterocarpous tree ! 

Pulau Aor, an island off the east coast of Johore 
(native) ! 

This is commonly imported by natives from tbe more distant 
islands, Tambilan, &c. A single plant found with Dendrohium 
Balhousieanum, Wall., in Singapore, is the only known record 
from the peninsula. 

The white flowered form is as commonly introduced here as 
tbe pink-spotted one. 



TRICHOGLOTTIS, Blume. 

T. RETUSA, BluTne, Bijdr., p. 360. fig. 8. 

Hah. Selangor : Kwala Lumpur, on limestone rocks, Kelsall ! 

Pahang : Kota Glanggi, caves ! 

Siam: Pulau Bendong (native dealers !). 

Also occurs in Borneo ! and Java. 
Tbis plant agrees with Blume's figure and description as far 
as they go. It is a tall, stout plant, about 3 feet in length, 



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AP08TASUCEJG OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 357 

with thick, broad, blnnt, emarginate leaves, the sheaths of 
which are reticnlatelj ribbed when dry. The flowers are 
solitary, on slender pedicels, orange yellow with red spots, the 
lip white and pubescent. They are abont an inch across. 

The Bomean form nsnally has shorter leaves, and looks a 
very different plant, but I see no difference in the flowers. 

Tbichoqlottis scaphioera, Bidly sp. nova. Oaulis 2 ped. 
longns, gracilis. Folia 3 poll, longa, \ poll, lata, lanceolata 
acnta, snbpetiolata, coriacea; vaginsB ^ poll. longsB, longitndi- 
naliter costatae. Flores singoli, e basi internodorum orti. 
Bra^eteca 3-4, ovatse, parvsB; pedicelli ^ poll, longi, graciles. 
Sepala ^ poll, longa, oblanceolata obtnsa, camosa, minnte 
pnbesoentia. Petala similia. Labdlum petalis brevins, basi 
cymbif orme ; lobi laterales breves, obtusi, basi a callo hispido 
elongate omati ; lobns medius 3-lobns, lacinies laterales 
lineares obtusse, medi& longior ; discus a callo maximo pnbes- 
cente notatns. Oohimna brevis, crassa, labello adnata; 
stelidia erecta, elongata, hispida, antheram hand saperantia; 
clinandrii margo in dorso hispidns. Anthera ovata, rostrata, 
pnbescens; pollinia 2, elliptica, transversim sulcata; candi- 
cnlns late linearis; discos com caadicnlo snbeoqnilongns, 
oblongos. 

Hah, Penang : Gk>yemment Hill, Curtis (n. 1964) ! 

This has the base of the lip formed into a boat, hispid withiu, 
and bearing a hispid callus in the middle. Two small earlike 
processes represent the lateral lobes. The mid-lobe has a very 
large pubescent lump in the centre, and two narrow, linear 
lobes, one on each side, shorter than the terminal one. 

T. TETRACERAS, Bidl, sp. Hova, Caulis ultrapedalis, ^ poll, 
crassus. FoUa 3 poll, longa, ultra ^ poll, lata, lanceolata 
acuminata, coriacea (sicca 5-co8tata), valde insequaliter biloba 
lobo longiore acuto; vagine 1 poll, long®, costatsB. Flores 
\ poll, lati, singuli, foliis (semper ?) oppositi, camosi ; pedunculi 
brevissimi, pedicelli \ poll, longi. Sepala oblongo-obovata. 
Petala sepalis minora, ligulata, obtusa. Lahellum horizoutale ; 
lobi laterales breves dentiformes; lobi 2 postici multo 
longiores; lobus medius lanceolato-ovatussubobtusus; cariD8e2, 
e lobis anticis ort», inter lobos posticos in callo pubescente 
terminatae ; calcar pendulum, acnminatam, obtusum ; callus 
elongatus, camosus, elongatus, in ore lineari - truncatus. 



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^58 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEJB AND 

Columna breris, crassa ; steb'dia breyia, dentil ormia ; rostellom 
breye, distincte bilobnm ; pollinia globosa ; caudicolus linearis. 

Hah. Lankawi : Goa Chirita, Ourtts, n. 2817 ! 

This species is allied to T, quadneomuta, Knrz, of the 
Nicobar Islands, bat differs in the entire, not bifid terminal 
lobe of the lip and the two ridges mnning from the posterior 
horns, and meeting at the base of the epichil in the form of a 
pubescent callus. 

ACAMPE, Lindl. 

A. PENANOUNA, EtcU.f sp. nova. Gaulis brevis, crassns. FoUa 
7 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, lorata, valde rigide coriacea, 
ecarinata, apice vix biloba. Racemus 2| poll, longus ; pedun- 
culns crassns, teres; vaginfis annnliformes. Bractece ovatad, 
obtus89, cncnllatsB. Flores mediocres, snbcorymbosi, camosi ; 
ovarium cum pedioello ^ poll, longpim, crasse cjlindricnm. 
Bepala \ poll, longa, \ poll, lata, late oblongo-oboyata, obtnsa, 
flava in dorso dense sangnineo-macnlata ; pagina interior 
sangninea transversim f asciata. Petala cum sepalis soqnilonga 
soncoloria, angnstiora, spathulata, obtusa. Lahellum petalis 
panllo longius, ecalcaratum ; lobi laterales elongati cnrvi obtusi 
erecti orassi fiavi mbro-3-striati, medios ovatns snbacntus 
crassns canalicnlatns ; discus inter lobos laterales pnbescens. 
Columna brevis, yalde crassa, conica, flava, basi a 2 costis 
semicircularibns rosaceis omata; clinandrinm planum, in 
margine hand elevatum. Anthera late ovata, apice obtusa; 
rostrum parvum; pollinia seniglobosa; candicnlus linearis 
angustatns ; discus ovalis ; stelidia minuta, erecta, dentiformia. 
Btigma grande, latum; rostellum deflexum bifidum, lobis 
acutis dentiformibus. 

Hah. Penang : Government Hill, G. Curtis ! 

This is allied to Acampe longifolia^ Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 
Acampe, p. 1 (i.e., Vanda multiflora^ Lindl., Collect. Bot., t. 38), 
a native of Tenasserim ; but has no spur. 

SACCOLABIUM, Blume. 

S. (§ Micbanthj:) pebpusillum. Hook. /., Fl. Brit Ind,y vi. 
p. 56, et Ic. PI, t. 2129 A. 

Hah. Singapore: Mangrove swamps ; EIranji! SungeiBuloh! 
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AFOSTASUCEiE OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 359 

This very curious little plant was figured and described from 
dried specimens, and, as the flowers are so minute and difficult 
of analysis when dry, additional remarks are requisite to 
explain their structure. The flowers are snow white, turning 
rather bright yellow before withering, and have the scent of 
cucumbers, so common in Saccolahium, They are, when alive, 
hardly as pubescent as shown in the ' Icones ' ; in fact, they are 
rather minutely papillose. The sepals have a very faint violet 
streak on the outside. The lip has been flattened out in the 
figure above quoted. During life the sides are raised and 
concave, forming the lateral lobes; the *' fleshy subcordate 
appendage " is the median lobe (epichil). There are no calli to 
the lip, but the entrance to the spur, which is full of nectar, is 
partially closed by the long beak of the anther and the viscid 
disc of the pollinia and the rostellnm. The column is bright 
green, and the anther yellow. The latter is rounded on the 
top, and in front ends in a long, broad beak abruptly upcurved. 
The pollinia are globose, on a lineai* pedicel, which stands at an 
obtuse angle, with an equally long linear disc which, indeed, is 
prolonged beyond the insertion posticously as well as anticously. 
When the pollinia are removed from the column, the pedicel 
bends gradually down till it lies flat in the same plane with the 
disc. The rostellar arms are very long and drawn out into fine 
points, and stand nearly erect, being bent up at an angle with 
the base. The clinandrinm is fairly deep, and has two little 
dentiform stelidia, one on each side. From its structure I 
imagine this flower must be fertilized by some small species of 
moth. 

SACOOLAfiiUM (§ Micranthje) misebum, Eu2Z., sp. nova. Cau li 
ultra-pedalis, 1 poll, crassns, rigidus. Folia 5 poll, longa, ^ poll, 
lata, patentia vel recurva, coriacea, in»qualiter biloba ; vagin® 
f poll. long8B, ore oblique. Bacemi brevissimi, 3-4-flori, e 
basibus vaginarum protrusi. Flores minimi, flavescentes. 
Sepcda elliptico-ovata, vel ovata, lateralia paullo majora. Petala 
sepalis minora, lanceolato-oblonga. Lahelli lobi laterales parvi, 
oblongo-quadrati iruncati erecti oblongi, medius ovalis obtusus 
porrectus basi a callo minuto omatus ; calcar breve, incurvum 
conicum, obtusum. Columna brevis, crassa; stelidia brevia, 
ovalia, obtnsa. Anthera depressa. 

Hah. Penang: Government Hill, G. Curtis, (n. 2184)! 
Lanka wi Islands : 0. Curtis ! 



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860 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON OBCHIDB* AND 

A straggling, stiff plant with very short racemes of small and 
inconspionous flowers of a yellow colour, with a pinkish tint at 
the month of the spur. 

Saccolabium tenuicaule, Hooh /., Fl. Brit Ind,, vi. p. 64. 
Hah. Penang : Government Hill, West Hill, Curtis ! 
Perak: Scorteehini, 

S. (§ MiCRANTHJc) LuisiFOLiUM, Ewtt., «p. fiova. Cwulis Iji ped. 
longns ; radices elongatse, crassse, teretes, grisesB. Folia 12 pol]. 
longa, ferme ^ poll, crassa, plarima, subteretia, canalicnlata, 
atroviridia. Ea^cemus 6 poll, longns, gracilis, ramis 2. Bractecp 
remotae, minutee, oyatae, acntsB. Flores plnres, panri; pedioelli 
J poll, longi, rubri. Sepala oblongo-ovata, obtnsa, rosea obscure 
maculata. Petala sepalis minora, oblongo-obtusa, rosea obscure 
maculata. Lahellum cum sepalis subsBquilongnm, albo-hyalinum ; 
lobi laterales majusculi rotundati, medius cymbiformis acutus 
in utroque latere a lacinii pary& ]ineari auctus. Galcar sigmoi- 
deum, obtusnm, cum pedicello soquilongum. Oolumna alta, 
alba. Anthera ovata ; rostrum longum ; pollinia parva, globosa, 
canaliculata ; caudiculns longus, tenuis, apice spathulatus; 
discus rotundatns, minutns; rostellum longum, basi latum, 
apice gracillimum. Stigma longum, latum, profundum. 

Hah. Siam : Pungah, G. Curtis ! 

A slender plant with something of the habit of a Luisia and 
very small flowers in few-branched slender panicles. The 
rostellum, which is very long, appears to arise very far down 
the column. The leaves are nearly terete. 

S. (§ MiCRANTHJc) FLAVEOLUM, Bidl, sp. nova, Caulis 1 ped. 
longus, vix ^ poll, crassus; radices long®, teretes. Folia 
3 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, coriacea; vagin® f poll. longSB. 
Bacemi 2-3 poll, longi, basi nudi teretes ; rhachis incrassata, 
sursum flexa. Bractem parvae, ovatse, acutee, persistentes. 
Flores plures, singulatim expansi ; pedicelli J poll, longi. 
Bepala oblonga, obtusa, flavescentia in dorso rubro-carinata. 
Petala minima, oblonga, acuta, obliqua. LaheVU lobi laterales 
lati quadrato-rotnndati, medius brevissimus triangularis ; callns 
linguiformis ; calcar f poll, longum, oalceiforme, obtusum. 
Columna crassa, brevis, subqaadrangularis ; clinandrium pro- 
fundum. Bostellum longum, sursum curvum, integrum, canali- 
culatum. Anthera tenuis, ovata, rostrata ; pollinia 2, globosa ; 
caudiculns tenuis, linearis. 



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APOSTASUCEA OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 361 

Hah, Kedah Peak : (Native collector), C. Curtis, Aug., 1893. 

Flowers waxy, dull yellowish, small. This was brought 
down from Kedah Peak by a native collector to Mr. Cnrtis, who 
flowered it at Penang. It is a very inconspicaons plant, allied 
to 8. penangiantim, Hook, f . 

Saccolabiijh (§ Micbanthje) fissum, Bidl, sp, nova, Caules 
crassi ; radices longsB, rigidsB, albsB. Folia 4 poll, longa, ^ poll, 
lata, lorata, crasse coriacea, carinata, canaliculata, atroviridia 
pnrpnreo-maculata, apice profonde biloba acuta. Bacemus 3 poll . 
longus, basi (vaginis paucis ezceptis) nudus ; rhachis brevis, 
crassa, teres. Flores J poll, lati, plures, dissiti, camosuli; 
pedicelli cum ovariis j poll, longi, rosei. Bractece cum ovarii 
triente sequilongee, ovatae, brunese. Sepala ovata, subacuta, 
alba. Petala sepalis breviora, linearia, alba. Lahellum album ; 
lobi laterales breves erecti obtusi, medius oblongo-ovatus 
obtusns; macula in utroque lobo laterali violacea; lobi medii 
discus violaceus, basi a callo hemisphserico albo auctus. Cdlcar 
breve, obtusum, pendulum, crassiusculum, cum -^ parte ovarii 
aaqnilongum. Columna brevissima, crassa; stelidia obscura, 
rotundata, incurva. Anthera ovata, rostrata, flava, in line& 
mediant violacea; pollinia ovata oblonga, aurantiaca; caudi- 
culus spathulatus, apice late triangularis, ad discum ovatum 
majusculum junctus. 

Hah, Lankawi Islands : G, GurtU ! 

This belongs to the set with broad, rather stiff leaves, and 
spur much shorter than the ovary. 

S. (§ MiCEANTHJi) COBNIGEEUM, Bidl., sp. nova. Gaulis 
elongatus, flexuosus ; intemodi f poll, longi ; radices elongatse. 
Folia 3^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceolata acuta, apice ineequaliter 
biloba; vaginae costatee, ore obliquae. Bacemus brevissimus, 
1-2-florus, intemodi basin versus extrusus. Bractece brevissimoB. 
ovatte obtussB. Flores mediocres ; ovaria cum pedioellis ^ poll, 
longa. Sepala | poll, longa, oblonga, spathulata subobtusa; 
bruneo-flava. Petala sepalis latiora, bmneo-flava. Lahellum 
petalis paullo brevius, flavesoenti-album ; lobi laterales comuti 
erecti, medius oblongo-spathulatus obtusus. Galcar ^ poll, 
longum, conicum, obtusum, rectum. Golunvna brevis, crassa ; 
stelidia lata, rotundata. Anthera elongata, conica. 

Hah, Penang : West Hill, G, Guriis, March, 1892 ! 



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S62 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBGHIDEJS AND 

A straggling plant with inconspionons flowers. It is allied 
to 8. penangianum^ Hook, f ., but has a very different lip, with a 
larger mid-lobe, and horn-like lateral lobes. 

Saccolabium pbnangianum, Hook, /., Fl, Brit. Ind,^ vi. p. 57, 
et Ic. Fl, t. 2129 B. 

Hah, Perak : Songkei River, Curtis ! 

This plant is nnfortonately named, as the locality whence it 
was obtained is in Perak, and not in Penang. 

S. MiNiMiFLOBUM, HooJc, f., Fl. Brit. Ind.y vi. p. 59, et Ic. Ply 
t. 2133. 

Hob. Perak: Scortechini. 

1 only know this from Scortechini's drawings, and take it to 
be a SarcochUus. 

8. (§ Spbciosj;) miniatum, LincU.y Bot. Reg. (1847), sub t. 26, 
t. 58. 

Hob. Lankawi Islands : 0. Curtis ! 

S. (§ SpECiosa) SAXicoLUM, JBtcK. in Trans. Linn. 8oc., Ser. II. 
(Bot.) iii. (1893) p. 374. 
Hah. Pahang : Kota Glanggi ! 

§ Calceolares. 

This section is one of the most distinct in the genns, and 
might almost be generically separated. Its great peculiarity is 
that the lateral lobes of the lip meet and are connate in front, 
so as to form a wall between the mouth of the spur and the 
epiohil, instead of having free apices. 

The basin-shaped spur is also peculiar in the genus. 

S. CALGEOLABE, Lindl. in Wall. Cat., n. 7302. 
Hah. Perak : Gxmong Hijan, summit of the Larut Hills, 
abundant on trees, low down ! 
Pahang : Kota Glanggi, on rocks ! 
This form has very long narrow falcate leaves, attaining a 
length of 6 inches. The flowers are barely half an inch across. 

S. BiGiBBUM, Eeichh. /., ex Hook.f., Bot. Mag., t. 5767. 

Hob. Perak : Scortechini. 

Scortechini's drawing, labelled 8. higibbum, seems to be 
different from that in ^Bot. Mag.,' t. 5767. I have not seen 
anything else of this species. 



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apostasiacej: of the malat peninsula. 363 



MICROSACCUS, Blume. 

MiCBOSACCUS, Blume, Bijdr.^ p. 367^ is a monotjpio genas^ 
which should probably be reduced to Saccolahium, from which 
it chiefly differs in habit. It has somehow got confused with 
the yery distinct genus Adenoncos, which is a spurless plant 
allied to Luisia, 

M. jAYENSis, Blumey l.c, is a tufted plant, with curved stems 
4 inches to 6 inches long, coyered with dark green leaves, 
which are equitant and scalpelliform. The flowers are one or 
two in number, white, except for a yellow spot at the base 
of the lip, with rather large white bracts. The pollinia are 
four in number, equal, globose, on a slender narrow pedicel 
which bears a small lanceolate disc. The rostellum is rather 
long, tooth-shaped, and entire. The stigma transversely 
oblong. 
It is common in mangrove swamps and on rocks. 
Hah. Singapore : EIranji ! &c, 

Selangor : Bukit Hitam, KeUall ! 

Perak : Scorteehini. 

Also in Tenasserim, Cambodia, and Java ! 



T^NIOPHYLLUM, Blume. 

T. Sebeula, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 77. Bodices 
long89, copiossB, leBte virides. CauUa brevissimus. Bacemi 
^1 poll, longi, plures, ferme omnino floriferi. Bractece dis- 
tichso, acutee, minute pnbescentes vel quasi-muricataB. Flares 
minimi, singulatim expansi, ochrei. Sepala anguste lanceo- 
lata, obtusa. Betala sepalis angustiora. Labellum cymbiforme 
(explanatum), obovatum, ferme integrum, album ; lobi laterales 
obtusi, rotundad. CcUcar breve, scrotiforme, olivaceum. 
Oolwnna brevis, crassa; clinandrii margines vix elevati. 
Anthera magna, compressa, alba purpureo-2-maculata ; rostrum 
latum truncatum; pollinia 4, globosa, soqualia; caudiculua 
anguste linearis ; stelidia late obtusa, incurva ; rostellum rostri- 
forme, obtusum, integrum. Oapsula 1 poll, longa, elougata 
saroinisBformis, apice attenuata, segmentis indistinotis. 



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364 MB. HENBT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDBJI AND 

Hah. Singapore : common on Podocarpi and otber trees 
near mangrove swamps, also on orchard trees ; 
Kranji, Sungei Buloh ! Chan Ghn Kang ! Toas ! 
Serangoon, &c. 
JMalacca : Sungei Bambei ! 
Johore : Kota Tinggi ! 

Pahang : Pekan J C berating River ! Palau Ghengei ! 
Penang : Western Road, Curtis ! 
Selangor : Kwala Lumpur ! 
Perak: Larut (fide Hooker). 
Tceniophylla are so difficult to describe from dried specimens 
that I make no apology for re-describing this from living 
plants. It is not easy to compare it with any otber of the 
small genus, as most of the species are but indifferently 
described. I have never seen any leaves on the plant. 

T^NiOPHTLLUM RUBRUM, Bidl.y 8p. tiova. Bodices paucse, 
graciles, teretes, virescentes. Gaulis viz ullus. £acemri8 1 poll, 
longus, gracilis, ruber, basi nudus, in ^ parte superiore florifer. 
Bractece cvataa, distichse, minute pubescentes, rubrae. Flares 
minuti, rubri ; ovaria brevia ; pedicelli vix ulli. Sepala petala, 
labellum connata. Sepala lanceolata, acuta. Petala linearia. 
LaheUum cum petalis eeqailongum, triangulari-lanceolatum 
acutum, basi latam. Oalcar ovario brevius, saccatum, latum, 
obtusum. Golumna brevis. 

Hab, Sungei Ujong : on a coffee tree on Linsum estate ! 

I have only seen one plant of this, which is very distinct in 
its very short stem, slender elongate scape, and connate 
perianth of a red colour. 

CLEISOSTOMA, Blume. 

This genus is usually distinguished from Saccolabium by the 
presence of a callus within the spur, and from Sareanthus by 
the absence of the septum, which in that genus divides the 
spur more or less in two. It has several times been proposed 
to merge both genera into Saccolahium, especially as the calli 
are often difficult to make out in dried specimens. I should 
be inclined to retain both genera, although they are certainly 
very closely allied to Saccolabium, The septum in Sareanthus is 
evidently the well-developed longitudinal central ridge of which 
traces can be seen in most of the genera of Sarcanthecs and in 



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APOSTASUCEf OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 365 

many other groups. The bifid lamella of the back of the spar 
in Gleisostoma seems to correspond to the hypochilary callas of 
many orchids. From its being often glandular pubescent on 
the lower face I imagine that its function is to secrete nectar. 
Both of these organs differ considerably in size, extent of 
development, and form, so that it is difficult to use them as 
means of separation of the genera. But there is another 
distinguishing mark which is much easier to utilize. In 
Barcanthus the lateral lobes of the lip are usually short, and do 
not meet in the middle line ; the terminal lobe is often small, 
and it is generally more or less channelled ; so that a depression 
leads from it into the horizontal spur. In Oleisostoma we have 
the short wall like lateral lobes meeting or nearly meeting in 
the middle lobe ; while the mid-lobe is oval or reniform, and 
barred off from the pendent spur by the lateral lobes. The 
structure of the Gleisostoma lip is that of the Calceolaria section 
of Saccoldbium, except that the spur is usually longer and 
contains the lamellary callus. With these characters there is also 
a difference in colouring, which though not of any great generic 
importance, yet is worth noting. In Sarcanthus the prevailing 
colouring is sepals and petals green with a more or less distinct 
longitudinal central red bar, and lip violet or pale rose; 
whereas in Gleisostoma the ground colour of the whole flower is 
yellow, and it is irregularly marked with dark red spots. 

Of the Indian Cleisostomas, Gleisostoma andamanicwn, Hook, 
f., 0. Manniiy Reichb. f., G. hicuspidatumj Hook, f., 0. spicatum^ 
Lindl., 0. latifolium, Lindl., G, parvum, Bidl., 0. m^iculosumy 
Lindl., C crassum, Bidl., 0. uteriferum, Hook, f., and probably 
most of the others in the ' Flora of British India,' possess nearly 
all these characters, and form a group which can be easily 
distinguished from Sarcanthus and Saccolahium, I imagine 
Saccolahium Helferi, Hook, f., Ic. PI., t. 2130, will prove to be a 
Gleisostoma ; it has the form and habit as well as the shape of 
the b'p of Gleisostoma^ though the callus appears to be sometimes 
wanting. 

Gleisostoma latifolium, Lindl,,, Bot. Beg. (1840) Misc., p. 60. 
Hah. Singapore : (fide Lindley, I.e.). 

Malacca: Griffith. 

Perak: Wray. 

Pahang : Temerloh ! 

Also Sumatra, at Djambi ! 



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366 MB. HENBT RIDLET ON ORCHIDEA AND 

A very tall stout plant, scrambling over trees, bearing large 
spreading panicles of small flowers. 

Cleisostoma spicatum, Lindl, Bot. Beg. (1847), sub t. 32. 
Hah, Singapore: Jnrong! 
Johore : Tana Bunto ! 

Penang : common on orchard trees, in the town and at 
Tanjong Bnnga ! 
It also occurs in Tenasserim, and is apparently abondant at 
Sarawak, in Borneo. 

C. UTERiFERUM, HooJc. /., Fl, Brit. Ind., vi. p. 74. 
Hah. Perak: Kunstler. 

C. PARYDM, BidLj sp. nova. Gaulis yix 1 poll, longns ; radices 
longee, tennes, grisese. Folia 1^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, lanceo- 
lata falcata acuta, tenuia, apice insaqualiter biloba. BoLcemus 
\ poll, longus, pauciflorus. Bractece OYat«e, parv», remot«e. 
Flores ^ poll, lati, camosi. Sepalum posticum lanceolato- 
oblongum obtusum, lateralia magis ovata. Petala 'cum sepalo 
postico aBquilonga, lorata, oblonga. Lahelli lobi laterales 
quadrati, medius late ovatus ; calcar saccatum oblongum, 
crassum; callns loratus bifidus. Oolwmna brevis, crassa; 
clinandrium in medio elevatum. Anthera ovata, magna, 
tenuis ; rostellum elongatum, lineare, decurvum. 

Hah. Pahang : Kota Glanggi, on limestone rocks ; only one 
specimen obtained, v.s. 

A very small species with a remarkably short stem and 
rather thin textured leaves. 

G. loNOSMA, 12tc2Z., sp. nova. Oaulis 6 poll, longus ; radices 
oopios8B. Folia 6 poll, longa, f poll, lata, lorata, coriacea, 
atroviridia, apice ineequiloba lobis rotundatis. Banxculce plures, 
8 poll. lohgsB, ]ax8B, multi-ramo88B. Flores plurimi, remoti ; 
bractesB minutes, ovatsB, acutsB ; pedicelli \ poll, longi. Sepala 
-^ poll, longa, oblonga, obtusa. Petala sepalis minora ; sepala 
petala extra fusca, intus olivacea, a lineis plurimis transversis 
violaceis notata. LaheUum sepalis brevius ; lobi laterales trian- 
gulares obtusi violacei, medius ovatus apice 2-callosu8 ; calcar 
f poll, longum, rectum, obtusum, roseo-album, in ore a callo 
linguiformi albo omatum. Golumna brevis, violacea; stelidia 
brevia, rotundata, involuta; clinandriam baud profundum. 
Anthera subplana, flava ; margo anticus elevatus, bifidus ; 



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APOSTASIACE^ OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 367 

pollinia 4 (i.e. 2 biloba) ovoidea, tenaia, pallida; candiculns 
linearis ; discus parvus, ovatus. Bostellum elevatnm, apice 
deflexnm lobis obtosis bifidmn. SUgma latum. 

Hah, Perak : Thaiping Hills (June, 1893 ! ). 

Remarkably sweetly scented of violets. The calliis in the 
throat of the spur is a thick decnrved tongae, which only 
partly blocks the entrance. 



SARCANTHUS, Lindl. 

S. HALOPHiLus, BicU.y sp. nova, CsBspitosa. Oavlea 3-12 
poll, longi, graciles, teretes, cnrvi; radices copies®. Fclia 
3 poll, longa, viz ^ poll, crassa, teretia, pnngentia, cnrva; 
vagin89 \ poll. longsB, ragos®. BacenU usqne ad 6 poll, longi, 
plnres, graciles, plnriflorL Bradece minim», ovat», persistentes. 
PediceUi onm ovariis ^ poll, longi, patentes. Flores expansi 
^ poll. lati. Sepala oblonga, obtasa. Petala sepalis minora, 
oblongo-obovata obtnsa ;. sepala petala pallide olivacea rabro- 
tincta. LaheUum roseum ; lobi laterales breviuscnli ovati erecti 
obtnsi apice roseo-violacei, medins malto longior hastatns 
obtnsns ; callus dorsalis obtriangularis, incorvus, crassus, albus ; 
calcar pedicello multo brevius. horizontale, rectum, hand 
septatum. Golumna recta, subcylindrica ; clinandriam planum, 
subrotundum, virescens. Anthera obovata, obtusa, rostrata, 
flava; pollinia parva, globosa; caudicalns linearis ; discus latus 
hastatus, truncatus ; stelidia quadrata, parallela, approximata. 
Stigma prof undnm, obovatum. GapsuLa § poll, longa, oblonga. 

Hah, Singapore : Elranji ! Sungei Morai ! Sungei Tengeh ! 
Pulau Tekong ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! Tana Bunto I 
Also in the Garimon Isles! Bhio! and Pulau Bum! 
south of Singapore. 

Common on trees near the sea. 

1 can find no description to suit this little plant, so abundant 
along our sea-coasts. The oolouring and form of the lip 
resemble those of 8, seeundw, Grifi., but there is no real septum 
in the short horizontal spur, though a channelled ridge runs 
down it. The dorsal callus is large and thick. The pedicel of 
the pollinia, which are sessile, passes into a broad triangular 
thin disc, with the two angles prolonged in the form of teeth. 



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368 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON ORCHIDEA AND 

Sarcanthus sacculatus, Bidl., sp. nova. Caults 8 poll, long^s, 
•jV poll. craBSua. Folia 6 poll, longa, ^ poll, crassa, teretia, 
obtnsa ; yagineB 1 poll, long®, costatse, transversim reticalat». 
Bacemi 3 poll, longi, graciles. Flores usque ad 20, parvi dissiti. 
Bractem minatsB, oYatse; pedicelli ^ poll, longi, patented. 
Sepala ovata, snbacnta. Petala sepalis minora, lorata. Lahelli 
nngais brevis; lobi laterales majascnli oyati erecti, medins 
elongatus lineari-lanceolatns hastatns marginibns involatis 
crassas ; calcar majnscnliim, saccatmn, obtnsum, supeme con- 
tractnm, hand septatnm ; carina in lobo medio panllo elevata ; 
callns dorsalis clavatus, sab-bilobas. Golumna elongata, semi- 
teres. Anthera ovata, tennis, hand rostrata. 

Hah. Lankawi Islands: Curtis, v.s. (n. 2560). 

A slender plant, with the habit of 8. filiformis, Lindl., bnt 
with very different flowers. The lip has a narrow terminal 
lobe with the edges involute; the median keel ends at the 
entrance of the spur. The spur is rather large and saccate, 
but pinched in at the npper part like a conventional money- 
bag. The dorsal callns is large and clubbed, paw-shaped and 
bilobed, glandular on the lower surface. 

S. SECUNDUS, Griff., Notul.y iii. 362, et Ic. PI. As., t. 336. 
Hob. Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

Malacca : Sungei Bambei ! Kesang ! 
Snngei Ujong ! 

Perak : The Cottage, Lamt Hills, Hervey ! 
Bhio : {Native collector) ! Saigon ! 
This is often brought in by orchid dealers from the islands 
near Singapore. The leaves are dark green and very thick, 
but flattened and lorate till an inc\^ from the end, where they 
suddenly become terete and pungent. This, which is well 
shown in Griffith's drawing and is probably the origin of 
Wallich's MSS. name oxyphyllus, is overlooked in the descrip- 
tion in the * Flora of British India.' 

It is called ^^ Sakat Ularj** i.e., Snake orchid, in Sungei 
Ujong. 

S. ScoRTECHiNii, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 68. 
Hah. Pahang : Biver Tahan ! Kota Glanggi ! 

Perak: Scortechini. 

Penang : near the coast, Curtis, 2130 ! 



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APOSTASIACEJE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 36^ 

Saroantuus pbnsilis, Eidl.y sp, nova, GauUs nsqae ad 3 poll, 
longns, crassns. Folia panca, 6 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, lorata, 
apioe obtuse biloba, atroviridia, polita. Bacemus foliis longior, 
gracilis, pendnlns, in | parte inferiore nudns; rbachiB pur- 
purea. Flores ^ pol. lati, remoti. Bractem parvsB ovatsB^ 
pedieelli ^ poll, longi, purpurei. Sepala oblongo-ovata, obtusa. 
Petala sepalis minora, oblanceolata, obtusa, virescentia rubro- 
tincta. Lahellum roseum; lobi laterales majusculi comuti 
erecti, medius brevis ovatus obtusus ; callus dorsalis elongatus,. 
crassus, obtusus ; septum completum, supeme sub callo dorsali 
inorassatum. Columna brevis, crassa, flexa. Anthera ovata,. 
rostrata; polliuia ovoidea, ferme bipartita, in pedicello ad 
caudioulum linearem longius adnato sita; discus parvus,, 
ovoideus. 

Hah. Johore : Batu Pahat ! 

Near 8. Pari$hit, Hook, f . ; but the flowers are differently 
coloured, the lateral lobes of the lip much longer, and the 
septum of the spur much longer, completely separating the 
spur into two halves except at the top and bottom, with a 
thickened portion where it rises from the mid-lobe on which 
the dorsal callus rests. The pedicels of the flowers are much 
longer, and the flowers more distant. The pollinia much 
resemble those of S. Parishtu 

S. CASTANEUs, Eidl.y sp. nova. Caulis 1 ped. longus, crassus,. 
panllo oompressus. Folia 6 poll, longa, 3 poll, lata, obtusa, 
coriacea, apice valde ineoqualia; vaginae 1 poll, long®, ore 
obliqu89. Panicula usque ad 8 poll, longa, biramosa, pendula, 
in majore parte a floribus dense tecta; rhachis pubescens,. 
caliginosa. Flores \ poll, lati, camosi. BracteoB \ poll, longee. 
lanceolatflB, acuminata, reflexse; pedieelli cum ovariis crassis 
\ poll, longi. Sepala ovato-lanceolata obtusa, flavescentia 
dense castaneo-maculata. Petala sepalis minora, lanceolata. 
LabeUum flavum rufo-tinctum, basi columnae adnatum; lobk 
laterales oblongi obtusi lobulo antico minore, medius lanceo- 
latus subobtusus camosus; calcar ^ poll, longnm, pendnlum, 
latum, clavatum ; septum breve, calcaris dorso baud adnatum ;. 
callus anticus tenuis, furcatos. Columna crassa; clinandrium 
in medio elevatum ; stelidia crassa, obtusa, parallela. Anthera 
quadrate, rostrata; rostrum obtusum uniloculare ; pollinia 2,. 
globosa, postice sub-biloba; caudiculus e basi latiore acu- 

linn. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 B 



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370 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

minatus; discus minutissimns. Stigma grande, ellipticum, 
marglnatnm. 

Hah, Singapore : on a tree in Dalvey Road, very rare ! 

It has also been brought in by dealers from some of the 
other islands. 

This pretty species was flrst fonnd on a roadside tree in 
Singapore by a native. It is a stout broad-leaved plant, with 
a dense hanging panicle (only one-branched) or a simple 
raceme of chestnut-coloured flowers with a yellow lip. 

The lip in section shows a short ridge on the epichilary 
portion which meets, but is not adnate to, the back of the 
spur ; above it on the back of the spur is a very slender forked 
process. This is so delicate that it is very easily overlooked, 
even in a living specimen. 

The clinandrium is elevated in the centre, the pedicel of the 
pollinia overlying this. The disc of the pollinia is so minute 
as to be almost invisible. 

Sabcanthus bracteatus, Ridl,, sp. nova. Caules 1 ped. longi, 
^ poll, crassi, complanati, a vaginis costatis tecti. Folia 
6 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata, lorata, coriacea, apice lobis rotundatis 
insequaliter bifida. Paniculm 6 poll, longae, axillares, apice 
nutantes, basi (paucis vaginis exceptis) nudae, pauci-ramosee, 
pubescentes. Flores plures, congesti, parvi. Bractem magnae, 
ovatee, acutsB, flores superantes, flavo-virentes in linell mediant 
rubrse. Ovarium breve, crassum, albo-lanuginosum. Sepala 
^ poll, longa, cymbiformia lanceolata, carinata, pubescentia, 
ci*assa, atrosanguinea in margine tenuiora viridia. Petala 
sepalis breviora, elliptica, obtusa, tenuia, in margine minute 
lacerate viridia, in medio bruneo-maculata. LaheUum sepalis 
brevius, horizontale, camosum; lobi laterales porrecti lanceo- 
lato-triangulares acuti virescentes, medius cordatus cymbi- 
formis apice suberecto-2-comuto albus margine comubusque 
roseo-violaceus ; callus magnus e medio disci ortus, basi 
elevatus incrassatus, flavescens violaceo-punctatus, in lateribus 
pubescens; calcar horizontale, breve, crassum, apice rotun- 
datum, flavescens. Columna brevis, crassa, alba, basi lata. 
Anthera parva, ovata, obtuse rostrata; loculi baud disjuncti; 
pollinia 2, ovoidea ; caudiculus basi angustus, superne dilatatus 
et in ^ parte longitudinis fissus, tenuis; discus parvus, lan- 
ceolatus. Clinandrium parvum; margo anticus incrassatus. 



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APOSTASIACE-B OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 371 

eleyatns. BosteUum lobis lanceolatis decurvis bifidnm. Stigma 
OYoideum, profniidiiin, viride; columoeB marines valde in- 
crassati. Capsula ^ poll, looga; costsB steriles lineares, fertiles 
multo latiores. 

Hab, Southern Siam : Ghirbee, G. Curtis; (fl. Hort. Bot. 
Penang, June, 1893). 

A single plant of this remarkable species alone was found. 
The most striking feature of it at first sight is the large size 



in habit. The stems ai*e usually tall, and the racemes short. 

2 B 2 



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372 MR. HENRT RIDLET ON ORGHIDEiE AND 

The oolnnm is remarkably broad and thick. The pollinia are 
yery distinct in the broad short quadrate candicle and equally 
large disc. 

P^LATANTHBRiA CxENOGLOSSUM, BicU., sp. nova. Gaules 8-10 poll, 
longif compressi, erecti, rigidi. Folia 1 poll, longa, i^ poll, lata, 
plnra, lanceolata, crassa, oamosa, carinata, apice iusaqnaliter 
biloba ; vagineB in altero latere prof onde fisse, in sioco mgosae. 
Bdcemi ^ poll, longi, crassi, 2-flori. Bractece ovataB, pedicellis 
arete appressaa; pedicelli cum ovariis ^ poll, longis, crassi. 
Flores ferme ^ poll, lati, camosi. 8epala ovata, obtusa, pauUo 
oucuUata, flava rubro-striata, lateralia magis oblonga. Petala 
lanceolato-ovata, obtusa, sepaUs pallidiora. Lahellum oolumniB 
adnatum ; lobi laterales rotundati albescentes, medius semi- 
ovatus scotiformis acuminatus camosas flavus in medio elevatus 
in utroque latere fimbriato-acuminatus ; calcar cum } parte 
pedicelli asquilongum, crassum, paullisper uncatum, obtnsum, 
virescens rubro-striolatum ;• callus glandulosus, in line4 mediant 
fasciatus elevatus, in utroque latere lanuginosus, in calcaris 
f auce situs ; processus linearis, dentiformis, horizontalis in lobo 
medio additur. Golumna brevis, lata ; clinandrium haud 
profundum; s6elidia erecta, curva, cornuta. Anthera magna, 
plana, bilocularis ; pollinia 2, semiglobosa, postice fissa; 
caudiculus latus, quadratns, truncatus lateribus comutis sursum 
cnrvis ; discus magnus, semicircularis, subtus excavatus. 
BosteUum lobis crassis prosilientibus decurvis bifidum. Stigma 
a lateribus columnsB incrassatis tectum. 

Hah. Saigon: Haff tier ! y.y. 

A very singular plant with an erect stiff stem emitting roots 
at intervals. Leaves short and fleshy, channelled above and 
strongly keeled, the keel running downwards into stem, red 
edged with a few red spots. The lip has the lateral lobes 
adnate to the sides of the column. Between them, at the 
entrance to the spur, is a curious glandular body with a linear 
median bar, and a woolly mass on each side. The epichil is 
semiovate, ending in a narrow point which bears a comb-like 
fringe on each side. The column is remarkably broad. The 
anther cells are widely separated by a broad connective. The 
pedicel is square broad and truncate, the sides curved up in the 
fonti of two horns, the disc large hemispheric and excavate 
below. 



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APOSTASIACB£ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 373 

PsLATANTHEBU CBISTATA, Eidl. deuostoma crutatum^ Bidl. in 
Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. (Bot.) iii. (1893) p. 370. 

Hah, Pahang : Tahan and Pahang rivers ! 

I have obtained additional specimens of this species from iher 
Tahan River throngh a native collector. They are very mnoh 
larger than the plant originally described, being 8 inches 
long, and possess longer deflexed racemes 4, inches in length, 
and bearing several flowers. 

P. IN8ECTIFERA, Bidl. SarcatUhui insecHfer^ Beichb. f. in Bot 
Zeit., XV. (1857) p. 159 ; Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 68, et Ic. 
PI., t. 2137. 

Hah, Bengal to Tenasserim. 

Belongs apparently to this genns. 



SARCOCHILUS, B. Br. 

S. GALiGARis, Ridl, in Trans. Linn. Soc,, Ser. II. (Bot) iii 
(1893) p. 372. 

Phaloenofpsis fugaxy Kraonzlin, in Gard. Ghron. (1893) ii. p. 360. 

Hah. Singapore : Bnkit Timah ; Chan Chn Kang ! 
PahaDg : Kwala Pahang ! 

The plant described as Fhalcmopna fugax by Kraenzlin, l.c., 
must be allied to this species, if indeed it is not the same. It 
is evidently no Phalcenopns, 

S. TANTPHTLLUS, Bidl, in Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. II. (Bot.) iiL 
(1893) p. 372. 
Hah. Pahang : Limestone rocks ; Kota Glanggi ! 

S. STENOGLOrris, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 34. 

S. BRACHYQLOTTIS, HooJc. f., l.C. 

S. AUREUS, Hook. /., Z.C., p. 35. 

S. CLAD08TACHTS, Hook. /., l.C. 

S. HIE8UTUS, Hook. /., Z.O., p. 38. 

All obtained in Perak by the Calcutta Garden's collectors and 
Father Soortechini. I know nothing of them. 

S. ADNATUS, Bidl., sp. nova. OauUs elongatns, validos, 
snbteres. Folia 6 poll, longa, 1 poU. lata, lorata, ooriaoea, 
canalicnlata,carinata, apice obtase inaequaliter bilobamncronato 



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374 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ; AND 

inter jecto. Bacemi 3 poll, longi, laterales, ascendentes ; 
pedancnlus validnliis, purpureas ; vaginse paacse, dissitaB. 
Flores 12-16, 1 poll, longi, inversi, camosi ; pedioelli 1 poll, 
longi, snberecti, crassinsculi ; bractesB breves, ovata9, pedicello 
arete appressw. Sepalum posticnm elliptico-obovatum obtusnm, 
lateralia latiora ad ungnem labelli adnata apice obtnsa, excurva, 
flava apice rnbro-punctata. Petala ^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, 
lanceolata, explanata, flava. Lahellum sepalis longins, camosum ; 
ungnis rectns, canaliculatns ; lobi laterales longi obtnsi erecti, 
medins lateralibos brevier ovatns ; calcar porrectum, enrvum, 
latnm, obtusum, a prooessu intus partim clausom, flavum apice 
brnnenm. Columna longiuscnla, erecta; pes brevis, distinctos. 
Anthera tennis, ovata, obtnsa ; pollinia 2, globosa ; pedicellns 
brevis, linearis, in candicnlo longiore tennissimo insertus ; 
discns minutns ovatus. Bostellum elongatnm, snbnlatnm, 
acntum. 

Hob. Singapore : Teas district ; one plant ! 
Johore : Kota Tinggi ; one plant ! 

This is a very rare and cnrious plant, and in many respects 
so utterly different from typical Sarcochili that I am doubtful 
whether it should not be considered as the type of a new genus. 
It has a tall stout stem like that of a Saccolahium, a short stout 
erect raceme of firm-textured flowers which open one or two at 
a time, but without any long interval. The flowers are yellow 
and brown, inserted from the normal position of orchids so that 
the spur points upwards. The lateral sepals are adnate to the 
back of the lip, which latter has the regular shoe-shape of the 
genus. The pollinia have the double pedicel of several of the 
SarcantheoB — a short pedicel attached to a longer one at right 
angles to it (in the first position). I have only twice met with 
it : once on a tree in Western Singapore, and once I gathered 
it on the banks of a tidal river in Southern Johore. 



ASCOCHILUS, Ridl., genus nov. 

Gaulis brevis, paucifoliatas. Folia falcata, acuta, subcoriacea. 
Pedunculi singuli, plures, gracillimi, muricati. Flores parvi, 
tenues, in raoemo brevi siti. BractesB parvea, ovatsB. Sepala 
insBqualia, lateralia postico multo latiora, saepe obliqua, ad 
pedem columnsa adnata. Petala sepalo postico simiiia. 



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APOSTASUCEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 375 

Labellnm 3-4-lobiim ; lobi laterales majascnli, medias integer 
yel bilobns; calcar pendalnm; calli 0. Colomna elongata; 
pes longQS, porrectas, com columDa eaquilongns vel panllo 
brevior. CliDandrii margo posticus elevatos. Bostellum 
elongatnm, acatnm. Capsnla elongata, cjlindrica. 

Species 2. A. hirtulus, Bidl. Sarcochilus hiriulus, Hook. f. 

A. 8IAMENSIS, Sp, nOV. 

This genus has the habit of some of the Sarcochtli ; but it ia 
distinct from any of the allied genera in the long column, with 
a long foot at right angles to the body of the column, on the 
end of which is borne a lip with two large erect lateral lobes, 
and an entire or bilobed terminal lobe. The inequality of the 
size and form of the sepals is unusual in the whole group. The 
raceme develops rapidly as in Saccolabium^ <tc., and does not 
continue to grow after the flowers have begun to open, as in 
Thrixiipermuni, 

A. HIRTULUS, EidL Sarcochilus hirtulus, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. 
Ind., vi. p. 89, et Ic. PL, t. 2121. 

Hah. Pahang : Tahan River, Kota Glanggi, Limestone 
rocks! 
Perak : Scortechini. 
Malacca : Maingay, 

The flowers are cream colour with pink spots, pretty though 
small. I found this little plant very abundant on the limestone 
rocks at Kota Olanggi. 

I have no doubt as to the correctness of my identification with 
the species described and figured by Sii* Joseph Hooker ; but I 
find the following differences: — The lateral sepals are much 
broader than the posticous one and distinctly keeled, and are 
adnate to the very long column foot. The petals are more 
linear. The foot of the column is remarkably long and slender, 
and stands at right angles to the body of the column. On the 
extreme end is borne the lip, the terminal lobes of which are 
distinctly broader than the lateral ones. 

A. siAMENSis, Ridl, sp. nova, Caulis 1 poll, longus ; 
radices copios», tonnes. Folia 5 poll, longa, vix \ poll, 
lata, lorata, falcata, in sicco striata, apice ineequaliter biloba 
subacute. Racemi 8 poll, longi, plures, graciles, muriculati, 
basi longe nudi. Bractem minut®, ovat®; pedicelli ^ poll. 



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376 MB. HENBT RIDLEY ON OBCHIDBiB AND 

longi. Flares perparyi, 2-^ simul expansi. Bepahim posticam 
«lliptioain, lanceolatam, lateralia malto latiora rhomboid^ 
obliqoa carinata acuta. Petala lineari - lanceolata, onrra. 
LaheUum longe ungniculatnm, album; lobi laterales magni 
oblongi apioe rotundati, medius lingusBformis sureum curyus ; 
calcar angustum, longe cylindrioum obtnsum. Golumna 
longiusoula; stelidia in parte superiore sita, oblonga sub- 
triangularia, obtusa. PoUinia globosa; caudiculus angus- 
tissimns, apice furcatus. 

Hah. Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! On the bole of a tree 
in jungle, y.s. 

This has much the habit of A. hirtuluSf Ridl., but differs in 
the very unequal sepals (a rare character in SarcanthecB, the 
very long claw, entire epichil, broad lateral lobes, and very 
long, narrow spur. 

AEBIDES, Lour. 

A. ODORATUM, Lour., Fl. Gochinch,, p. 525. 
A. suamsnmwfn^ Lindl. in Joum. Hort. Soc., iv. (1849) p. 264. 
A, virenSf Lindl., Bot. Beg. (1843) Misc., p. 41. 
Hah, Johore : Pulau Tiuggi, Feildtng I 
Selangor : Bukit Hitam, KeUall ! 
Malacca: Maingay! 
Lankawi: Curtis! 
Kedah : Pulau Song Song ! Yan ! 
This usually grows on rocks and trees overhanging the sea. 
It seems especially abundant in the small islands to the south 
of the peninsula. A, suavissimunif Lindl., is the best variety, 
with a longer raceme. It is commoner in the north of the 
peninsula. 

A. MULTIFLOBUM, Boxh^ PL CoTom,^ iii. p. 68, t. 271. 
Hah, Siam: Bangtaphan, T)r, Keith! Tonka (native 
dealers ! ). 

THRIXSPERMUM, Lour. 

Thrixspebmum, Lowr,^ Fl. Cochinch., p. 519. 
DendrocoUa (§ CucuUa), Blume, Bijdr., p. 287. 
Orsidice^ Beichb. f . in Bonplandia, iL (1854) p. 93. 
PlantsB terrestres vel rupestres. Caules saepe elongati, 
nndique radicantes. Folia amplexicaulia, ovata aut oblonga, 



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APOSTASUCBJB OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 377 

lorata. Pednnculi saepe longi, porrecti; racemi breyes vel 
longri, din crescentes, complanati ; braotesB distichaB, lateraliter 
compresssB, persistentes. Flores majosouli, fugaces, singalatim 
interyallis longis ezpansi. Sepala petala subsimilia, ovata, 
subobtnsa vel caadata. Labellum .saocainm ; lobi laterales 
falcati, medius ssBpe carnosus ; callus 1 (vel 2) parrns in disco 
situs. Cohiinna brevinscula. 

Species, sepalis petalisqne hand candatis. 

THRixsPERiinH LiLACiNUM, Reichb. f,, Xenia Orch,, ii. p. 121. 
T. Calceolus, Retchh. /., I.e., p. 122. 

T. BRACHTSTACHTS, BicU. Sarcochilus hrachygtachysy Hook, f . 
T. pauciflorum, Bidl. Sareoehilus pauciflorus, Hook, f., 

PI. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 41. 
T. SERRJCFORME, Beichb. f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 121. 
T. Centipeda, Lour., Fl. GocUnch., p. 520. 
T. purpurascens, Eeichb.f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 121. 
T. OBTUSUM, Reichh. /., I.e. 

Species sepalis petalisqne candatis. 

T. Arachnitis, Reichh. /., I.e. 

T. ScopA, Reichh. f., ex Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 40. 
T. ScoRTECHiNii, R/idl. Sareoehilus Beorteehini, Hook, f. 
T. roRPURASCENS, Reichh. /., Xenia Orch., ii, p. 121. 

T. LILACINUM, Reichh. f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 121. 
Sareoehilus lUacinus, Oriff,, Notnl., iii. p. 334, et Ic. PI. As., 
t. 320, fig. 2. 

Hah. Singapore : common ; Selitar, Gbangi, Ang Mo Kio ! 
Pahang : Pnlan CboDgei, Pekan ! 
Malacca : Ajer Panas ! 
Perak: Thaiping! 
Also Java ! 
This plant grows scrambling tbrough long grass and herbage in 
hot open marshes. The stems attain a length often of many feet. 
The flowers are showy, and vary from white to lilac according 
to the amount of exposure to the sun. The peduncle stands 
at right angles to the stem as a rule, and the pedicel of the 
flower stands at right angles to the rhaohis. The flower is so 
placed that the apex of the lip points upwards, while the 
sepals, petals, and saccate portion of the lip are horizontal : a 
position which I do not remember to have seen as a normal 



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378 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ: AND 

occurrence in any other orchid. The flowers open at intervals 
of abont five days, and last about half a day in perfection. 

Blume's DendrocoUa amplemcaulisy Bijdr., p. 288, is referred 
by Beichenbach to this species ; but his description, such as it 
is, does not agree very well. He says " sepalis oblongis acutis, 
labello interne muricato." 

Theixspermum Calceolus, Eeichh, /., Xmia Orch,^ ii. p. 122. 

Sarcochilus Calceolus, Lindl., Bot. Reg. (1846) t. 19. 

S, hrachystachySf Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 41. 

Hob. Singapore : Sungei Morai ! Pulau Ubin ! Palau 
Tekong Vesar ! Krauji ! 
Johore : Tanah Eunto ! Kwala Batu Pahat, Kelsall ! 
Pahang : Pekan, Kwala Teuok, Tahan Biver ! 
Bindings : Telok Sera, Curtis ! 
Penang : Penang Hill, Maingay (in herb. Kew) ! 

This is a very common plant which, perhaps from the 
fugacious character of its flowers, seems to have escaped the 
notice of almost all the botanists in the peninsula. It was first 
described from a cultivated specimen sent by Cuming from the 
" Philippines." 

It grows in masses on the ground, and especially on rocks on 
the banks of rivers or by the sea. The stems attain a length of 
12 feet, and the short racemes are emitted at intervals all along 
them. The flowers here are large and pure white, except for a 
yellow spot round the epichil and a few red or orange dots at 
the entrance to the spur. They are deliciously scented. The 
plant would be well worthy of cultivation but that it seldom 
flowers, and when it does, the flowers last but a few hours. 

The figure of Sarcochilus paucijlorusj Hook, f ., in Scortechini's 
di*awing resembles this in most points, but the description in 
' Fl. Brit. Ind.' seems to be that of a distinct species. 

T. PAUCiFLORUM, RidL Sarcochilus paucijlorus, Hook, f., Fl. 
Brit. Ind., vi. p. 41, was collected by Scortechini in the Thaiping 
Hills, Perak. 

T. ScoPA, Eeichb, /., ex Hook /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 40. 
Hah. Perak: Larut (King^s Collector). 

T. ScoRTBCHiNii, Bidl. Sarcochilus Scortechini, Hook, f., Fl. 
Brit. Ind., vi. p. 40. 

Hah. Perak: Scortechini. 



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APOSTASUCEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 379 

This looks like a gigantic T. Arachnites, Reichb. f . ; I found a 
plant somewhat like it on rocks of Kedah Peak, but the flowers 
were not open. 

Thrixspermum Arachnites, Reichb. f., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 121. 
Hah. Singapore : Selitar ! 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Selangor: Bukit Hitam, Kelsall ! Kwala Lumpur, 

Jelebu ! 
Penang : Kunstler ! 

Also India, Burmab, Assam, Java ! Sumatra at Djambi ! 

Borneo ! 

Evidently a common plant, but seldom collected as it is not 

often found in flower. Sarcochilus bemeensis, Bolfe, in Illustr. 

Hortic, xxzix. (1892) p. 99, t. 161, looks like a finely-grown 

plant of this species. 

T. leucarachne, Ridl., sp. nova. Caulis 4-5 poll, lougus, 
validulus, a vaginis omnino tectus, eo T. Ara/^hniiis similis. 
Folia 6 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, linearia, lorata, obtusa, apice 
ineequaliter biloba. Fedunculi cum foliis aequilongi vel paullo 
longiores ; racemus breviusculus ; bracteaB ^ poll, longae, acutas. 
Sepala petala 3 poll, longa, anguste linearia, acuminata, 
patentia, alba. Lahellum basi saccatum ; lobi laterales elongati 
falcati acuti, medius longiusculus lanceolatns acutus albus basi 
kermesinus ; lobi et discus violaceo-maculati, intus pubescentes ; 
callus parvus, papilliformis, violaceus. Columna latiuscula, in 
lateribus recta, in ventre plana, basi baud dilatata, alba a fascisL 
mediana travers& violascens. Anthera tenuis, uuilocularis, 
pallide citrina, in margine antico truncata; pollinia elongata, 
elliptica angusta ; caudiculus brevis, linearis. 

Hab. Siam : Pungah, C. Curtis ! 

This is near T. longicauda^ Ridl., from Borneo, but has longer 
and narrower leaves, closely approximated as in T. ArachtdteSf 
Reichb. f., of which the plant has much the habit. It differs 
from that species, however, in its much longer and narrower 
leaves, mnch larger flower, and different colouring. It is the 
pi*8ttiest species I have seen. 

T. (§ Ridleya) notabile, Ridl. Sarcochilus notabilis. Hook, f., 
Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 42, et Ic. PL, t. 2126. 
Hab. Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! Bukit Mandai ! 



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380 MR. HENBT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

This very rare little plant has deep red leaves and pink 
flowers. It is so closely allied to Thrixspermum that, in spite of 
its cnrions entire lip and apparent absence of column foot, it 
can, I think, hardly be generically separated. 



DENDROCOLLA. 

Dendrocolla, Blume, Bijdr.f p. 291, partim (Sectio JPomi- 
caria). 

Strictly speaking the species of this genus have no spur and 
sometimes not even a saccate portion to the lip ; but their 
affinity with Tkrixspermwrn (which has the saccate lip of Aerides) 
cannot be doubted. The number of species described which I 
can certainly refer to this genus is but small ; probably many 
more will be met with when more attention is paid to these 
small fugacious flowered plants. Besides the species described or 
mentioned below, the following should, I think, be referred 
here. 

D. Htstbix, Blume, Bijdr., p. 291. 
Hah, Tenasserim et Java. 

D. PULCHELLA, Thw,, Enum. PL Zeyhy p. 430. 
Hah, Ceylon. 

D. MERGUENSis, Uidl. SarcocMlus merguensis, Hook. f. 
Hah, Mergui. 

D. PUGiONiFOLiA, Bidl, Sarcochilus pugionifolius, Hook. f. 
Hah, Ceylon. 

D. ANGUSTIFOLIA, Blume, Bijdr., p. 291. 
Hah, Java. 

D. SQBULATA, Blume, Btjdr., p. 291. 
Hah. Java. 

D. ANCEPS, Blume, Bijdr.y p. 292. 

Hah. Java. 

Of some of these species, the flowers are only partially 
described, and in some not described at all. The species seem 
to have a remarkable predilection for orchard trees, especially 
mangosteens, and some are rarely to be met with elsewhere. 



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APOSTASIACBiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 381 

Dendbogolla magulata, Bidl.f sp, nova. Caules nsque ad 
3 poll, longi, graciles. Folia 4 poll. loDga, ^ poll, lata, linearia, 
coriacea, apice biloba. Scapus 3 poll, longos, gracilis, strictus ; 
racemi rhachis inorassata ; bractees ovatss, acutss. Florea parvi ; 
pedicelli longinsculi, gpraciles. Sepalum posticnm lanceolatum 
spathulatam, lateralia similia basi dilatata, flava. Petala 
sepalis angnstiora, lanceolata, spatbolata, flava. LaheUum 
sepalis brevins; lobi laterales rotandati obtosi denticulati 
pnbescentes flavi kermesino-maculati, mediuB linearis pnbesoens 
flavns ; saccos longinscolus obtnsns ; callas oblongus, retnsos. 
Golwnna crassa ; pes longiosculos, flavescenti-viridis ; alse lata), 
incurvea, inter se appressas; clinandrinm parynm, ovale. 
Anthera oblonga, obtnse longi-rostrata, alba ; poUinia semi- 
elliptica ; discos hippocrepiformis. 

Hab. Singapore : Bokit Mandai ! 

I have only once bad this plant brought to me. It is allied 
to D. Trichoglottisy bnt has much longer and narrower leaves^ 
a longer and more slender peduncle, and the mid-lobe of the 
lip is a rather long linear process. The colouring, too, is quite 
different. 

D. Tbichoolottis, Eidl. Sarcochilus TrichogloHis^ Hook, f.^ 
Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 39, et Ic. PI., t. 2123. Caidis 2-6 poll, 
longus; radices longse, copiossD, albas. Folia lorata, obtusa, 
insdqualiter biloba, canaliculata ; vaginas ferme ^ poll, longas, 
rugosas compressas. Pedunculi foliis saepe breviores, validi ; 
racemi rhachis incrassata. Bra^cteee ovatas, a muorone crasso 
^ poll, longo terminataD: pedicelli f poll, longi. Sepalum 
posticnm ^ poll, longum lanceolatum acutum, lateralia postico 
multo latiora ovato-lanceolata acuta carinata inasquilatei-a 
pallide flava. Petala sepalis angnstiora, spathulata, pallide 
flava. LaheUwrn sepalis multo brevius, citrinum, basi obtuse 
saocatnm ; lobi laterales lati truncati erecti longe ciliati, medius 
brevissimus truncatus sub apice muoronulatus ; callus parvus, 
oblongus, retusus, in disco inter lobos laterales situs; juxta 
callum macula aurantiaca adest; macnlad ochraceaa extra 
labellum in lobis lateralibus et e medio adsunt. Golumna alba, 
brevis, lata, in ventre profunde canaliculata ; margines crassi ; 
pes tenuis, linearis, aurantiacus ; clinandrium subprof undum ; 
dentes 2 prope rostellum (verosimiliter stelidia) minuii. 
Anthera tenuis, ovata, obtusa, alba; poUinia minuta, oblonga^ 



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382 MB. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEffi AND 

insequaliter biloba ; rostellum plaimin, integrum, tennissimiim, 
album. Stigma profdndum. Capsula 5 poll, longa, cjlindrica, 
gracilis. 

Hah. Singapore : very common on orchard trees, in gardens 
and elsewhere often doing considerable injury by 
overloadiug the boughs and eventually killing them. 
Pahang : Pekan ! 
Perak : Ewala Kangsa ! 

The figure in the ' Icones Plantamm,' t. 2123, was partly based 
on a drawing I sent to Kew, which was taken from a flower 
partly withered, and fertilized. The flowers are so fugacious, 
that unless they are carefully watched they cannot be got in 
good condition. The sepals are very unequal ; the lateral ones 
having the lower margin at the base prolonged downwards, as 
if to form a mentum. The lip has the ordinary form of a 
Dendrocolla, the lateral lobes being turned up, and they as well 
as the disc behind the callus are covered with white hairs. The 
column as figui'ed in the * Icones ' represents that of a fertilized 
flower, the sides and the upper edge of the clinandrium having 
folded in over the stigma. 

Dendrocolla. pardalis, RidL Sarcochilus pardalis, Ridl. in 
Trans. Linn. Soc, Ser. II. (Bot.) iii. (1893) p. 371. 
Hob. Pahang : thickets along the River Pahang ! 

D. CARINATIFOLU, Ridl. Sarcochilus carinatifdins, Ridl. in 
Joum. As. Soc., Straits branch (June, 1891) p. 136. 

Hah. Pulau Aor, /. Feilding ! 

This little plant, which I obtained in Christmas Island, south 
of Java, was found in abundance in Pulau Aor, an island lying 
east of Johore, by Mr. Feilding. It has not yet appeared on 
the mainland. The lip with its long falcate lateral lobes 
and well-developed epichil somewhat resembles that of a 
Thrixspermum. 

Sarcochilus recurvus, Hook, f., PI. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 39, et 
Ic. PL, t. 2122, is, I fear, unrecognisable with certainty. It was 
described from flowerless specimens. It might be D. pardalis, 
or one of the others of this g^oup ; but there are a number of 
which my materials are insufficient, which would pretty well 
suit the figure. 

D. FILIFORM IS, RidL Sarcochilus filiformis. Hook, f., FJ. 
Brit. Ind., vi. p. 39, et lo. PL, t. 2124. Caulis 2-4 poll. 



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apostasiacej: of the malat peninsula. Z8S 

longna. Folia 4-5, 6 poll, longa, graoilia, teretia, acniA, yiridia 
roseo-punctata ; vaginsB ^ poll, long®, teretes, ore integrsB. 
Racemt 3-4, Bingnli vel bini, 3 poll. loDgi, laterales, patentes, 
graciles, teretes, basi longe nndi; rhachis florifera ^ poll, longa, 
teres, incrassata; bractesB minimsB, ovatsB, obtosae. Flares 
singnlatim intervallis longis expansi, albi, odori ; pedicelli com 
ovariis 3 poll, longi, albi. Sepala ^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, 
lanceolata obtnsa, alba roseo-tincta. Fetala sepalis paallo 
minora. Lahellum sepalis mnlto brevius, basi angostatnm ; 
discns excavatus ; lobi laterales erecti rotund at i obtnsi anran- 
tiaci, medins oblongo-elliptions obtoBns camosos pnlvemlentns 
flavos. Columna longiusonla, crassinscnla, cnrva, albescens; 
margines superne dilatati appressi, basi divergentes; clinan- 
driam vix depressnm, subqnadratum, in margine kermesinum. 
Anthera oblonga, qoadrata, tennis, depressa, alba, in margine 
antico excavata; pollinia cuneata, aarantiaca; candiculus 
brevis, late spathnlatus; discns ovalis, mber. Stigma in 
margine basali rotundato kermesinnm, a marginibus colnmnsB 
incrassatis ferme tectum. 

Hah, Singapore : Bukit Mandai ! Rare ; Chan Chn Kang, on 
mangosteen trees in an old orchard ! Dalvey Road ! 
Perak: Scortechini, 

I make no apology for re-describing this, as the type-specimen 
figured in the ' Icones ' wsb admittedly a bad one ; and these 
plants, owing to the fugacity of their flowers, require to be 
described from living specimens. 

Dendrocolla fulgens, Bidl,, sp. nova, Caules 3-4 poll, longi, 
graciles; radices tenues, albas. Folia 1 ped. longa, teretia, 
subacuta, pendula. Feduncalus 1^^ poll, longas, gracilis, teres. 
Racemus 8 poll, longus vel ultra, crassus. Bractece ovates, acntaa, 
recurvae, approzimatas. Flos explanatus 1 poll, latus, pulcher. 
Sepalwm posticnm lineari-oblougum, lateralia lanceolata acuta, 
rubra. Fetala linearia, spathulata, rubra. Lahellum glabrum, 
breviter lineari-unguiculatnm, aurantiacnm ; lamina cordata, 
obtusa lateribus suberectis ; callus rotundatus, pnbescens in 
basi laminae adest; fttsciae et maculae mfae in lateribus et in 
ungue adsnnt. Columna brevis, flammea ; pes longiusoulis ; 
clinandrium planum, marginibus paullo elevatis. Anthera 
plana, ovata, bilocularis, flava ; pollinia 2, ovoidea ; candiculus 
spathnlatus, latus; discus subtriangularis. Stigma cordatum. 
Capsula 1^ poll, longa, teres. 



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384 MB. HENBT RIDLEY ON OBCHIDEA AND 

Locality uncertain. I received this from a tree in the garden 
of Mr. Ranch in Singapore. The plants were not known to 
have been introdnced, bnt it is qnite possible that they came 
originally from Sumatra. BulhophyUum Ephippianthus was 
growing with it. 

The habit of the plant is that of D. JUiformis, mihi ; bat the 
bracts are longer and recurved, the flower has the sepals and 
petals of a fine dark red, the lip is quite glabrous, except tho 
pubescent callus, and hastate-cordate in shape, hardly saccat(> 
at all. It is of a bright orange yellow with reddish bars on the 
sides, and some red spots on the claw. The column is of a red 
orange. It is the prettiest species I have yet seen. 



Tribe NOTYLIE^, 

ACRIOPSIS, Reinw. 

A. JAVANICA, Beinw, ex Blume^ OaJt, Oew. Buitenz,^ p. 97, et 
Blume, Bijdr., p. 377. 

Hob, Singapore : common ; Changi ! Eranji ! Tanglin, &c. ! 

Johore : Gtinong Pulai ! Bukit Murdom ! Batu Pahat I 

Malacca! 

Sungei Ujong ! 

Selangor : Kwala Lumpur ! 

Penang : Balik Pulau ! Penang Hill, Curtis f 

Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! Hermitage Hill ! 

Pahang : Pekan, Kwala Pahang ! 
A very common plant usually to be found on orchard or 
roadside trees. It varies a good deal in size of pseudo-bulb, 
breadth of foliage, and development of panicle. I once found a 
quantity growing in tufts of grass on the sea-shore at Kwala 
Pahang. It is called " Angrek Darat " (sea-shore orchid), 
" Sakat Bawang " (onion-epiphyte), and *' Sakat Uhat Kapialu '* 
(epiphyte, medicine for headache) by the natives. The roots 
and leaves are boiled to make a drink for fever. 

A. INDICA, Wight, Ic, V. t. 1748. 
Hah. Penang: Maingay. 

A. PURPUKiA, BicU. in Trans. Linn. 8oc., Ser. II. (Bot.) iii. 
(1893) p. 406. 



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APOSTASIACEJJ OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 385 

Hob, Pabang : near Pekan. 
Also Borneo ! 

AcRiOPSis RiDLEYi, Hook, /., Fl. Brit, Ind,^ vi. p. 79. 

Hah, Singapore : Bakit Mandai ! 

The only specimen known is one which was found on a 
pepper post in Bakit Mandai. It had, I think, been planted 
there; having been fonnd in the jungle close by when the 
forest was felled to make the pepper garden. 

THECOSTELE, Reichb. f. 

T. MACULOSA, Bidl. in Trans, Linn, 8oc,, Ser. II. {Bot) iii. 
(1893) p. 374. 

GoUabium Wrayi, Hook, f., PL Brit. Ind., v. p. 784, et Ic. 
PI., t. 2065. 

Hah, Pahang : Tahan River ! 
Kedah : Jan ! 
Perak: Taiping! 

T. ZoLLiNGERi, Beichb.f. in Bonplandia^ v. (1857) p. 37. 
Hah, Perak : Waterloo Estate, Kwala Kangsa Valley, Curtis ! 
Penang : Government Hill, Curtis ! 

T. SECUNDA, Bidl, in Joum, Linn, Soc. Bot,^ xxxi. (1896) 
p. 299. 

Hah. Perak: Thaiping ! 
Also Borneo. 

T. Maingayi, Hook. /., Fl, Brit, Ind,, vi. p. 20. 
Hab. Malacca: Maingay. 

T. QUINQUEPIDA, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind,^ vi. p. 20. 
Hah. Malacca: Maingay, 

SuBTRiBE FOBOGHILEJS, 
The erect elongate rostellum serves to distinguish this group. 

PODOCHILUS, Blnme. 

P. UNCiFEEUS, Hook, /., Fl, Brit. Ind., vi. p. 81, et Ic, PL, 
t, 2145. 

Appendicula purpurascensy Blame, Bijdr., p. 302 ; De Vriese, 
Illustr. [t. 12, f. 1]. 

LINN. JOUBN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 C 



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386 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON ORCHlDEiE AND 

Hah, Perak : Scortechini^ Maxwell's Hill ! 

Pahang : Kota Glanggi, on limestone rocks ! 
Also occurs in Java and Snmatra ! 

There is a fairly good drawing of this in De Vriese's illnatra- 
tions. It is very dissimilar in hahit, and in several other 
points differs from the rest of the genns. The stems are long, 
pendulous, and weak. The racemes are very slender, and 
usually hear several flowers ; hut these develop one hy one at a 
few days' interval of time. The flowers are pale rose colour, 
deepening into crimson at the apices of the petals and sepals ; 
the lip is white with a crimson violet apex ; towards the apex 
of the lip are two blunt linear calli. The appendage is linear 
oblong retuse. The pollinia are six in number on pedicels. 
These pedicels are spoon-shaped, broader than the pollinia, 
which are planted at the base of the broad portion and are but 
little longer than it. The disc is round. The rostellam is very 
small ; shorter indeed than the raised edge of the clinandrium. 

PoDOCHiLUS LUCESCENS, Blume, Btjdr.y p. 295, t. 12, et 
Bumphia, iv. p. 43. 

Hah. Kedah : Ounong Rayah, alt. 2,500 feet, abundant; 
CuHis, n. 2559 ! 

P. MICROPHTLLDS, LindL in Wall, Cat.^ 7335 A, et Oen, et Sp. 
Orch., p. 234, partim. 
Hab. Singapore : Chan Chu Kang, Ang Mo Kio, Kranji ! 
Johore : Gunong Pulai ! 
Malacca: Mt. Ophir! 
Pahang : Tahan River ! 

Penang : Gx>vemment Hill ! Bukit Laksamana, Curtis. 
Kedah: Kedah Peak J 
Common on mossy trees and rocks. The flowers are white, 
except for a crimson spot towards the apex of each petal and 
one on the disc of the lip. 

P. ACicuLARis, Hook /., Fl, Brit Ind., vi. p. 82, et Ic, PL, 
t. 2147. 

Hah, Perak : rocks at the Waterfall, Thaiping ! 

Penang: Maingay ! 

Pahang : Tahan Woods, on trees ! 

Kedah: Kedah Peak! 
This mossy- looking plant usuallj is to be found creeping over 



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APOSTASUCEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 387 

damp rocks ; but it eometimes grows on slender trees, covering 
them with a mat of stems. It oomparativelj seldom flowers. 
The flowers are white. 



APPENDICULA, Blume. 

The variation in the form of the nnmber and form of ite 
pollinia in this genus is very striking. Some species, e.g, 
A . pendulaj Blume, have eight very unequal pollinia, connate at 
a point near the base, with a very short pedicel. A. callosa, 
Blume, has also eight ; but they are nearly equal, slender, and 
quite free to the disc. A, reflexa^ Blame, has six, with hardly 
any pedicel, i.e., they are free on the disc nearly to the base. 
A. hifaria, Lindl., again has eight, two of which are rudi- 
mentary ; grouped in two bundles, on one fairly long pedicel. 
A muricatay Teysm. and Binn., has but four, seated on a veiy 
long pedicel, slender at the base and widening upwards into a 
spoon-like termination. Fodochilus unciferus^ Hook, f ., has a 
similar arrangement, except that there are six pollinia, with 
two spoon-sbaped pedicels, each of which bears three pollinia. 
The form of the anther-cap and rostellum vary correspondingly ; 
being short and broad in the forms with short pollinia and no 
pedicel, and longer in the others. It becomes indeed not easy 
to separate the two genera, PodocMlus and Appendicula. The 
former appears generally to have a rudiment at least of the 
third pair of pollinia, and does not always have the pedicel 
split to the disc. Usually it has the reflexed lamina-like callus, 
at the base of the lip ; and this may perhaps be taken as its 
best characteristic. But both genera require much study from 
living specimens before they can be satisfactoiily classified. 

A. BiPARiA, Lindl. in Hnok,, Kew Joum., vii. (1855) p. 35. 
Hob, Singapore : Sungei Morai ! EIranji ! Bukit Timah ! 

Malacca: Lower woods of Ghinong Mei-ing, Ophir 
Ranges ! 

Pahang : Biver Tahan ! 

Selangor : Kwala Lumpur, KelsaU^ Bukit Hitam ! 

Penang : Government Hill ! 

Kedah : Gunong Raya, 2,500 feet alt, Gurtis ! 

Perak : Scortechini. 

Also Rhio ! and Borneo ! 

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388 MR. HBNEY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE^ AND 

On trees in mangrove swamps or dense jungle. Flowers 
white. Plants with lateral racemes often occur ; and in some 
of these the callus is more two-lobed, and the lip slightly three- 
lobed ; while in others the callus is quite entire and the lip 
rounded or even acute at the tip, so that the var. WalUchtava 
can hardly, I think, be kept up. 

The pollinia are very long and slender, tapering into the 
pedicel. Six are large and apparently fully developed; the 
other two (the inner ones in each fascicle) are much smaller and 
slenderer, and apparently abortive. The pedicel is short in 
comparison with the pollinia, and the disc lanceolate acute. 

Appendtcula callosa, Blume, Bijdr., p. 303. 

Hob. Singapore : Sambanang, Sungei Morai, Bukit Timah ! 

Johore: Qunong Panti, alt. 1,000 feet ! Kwala Kahan I 
KeUall. 

Malacca : Gunong Mering, Ophir range ! 

Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! 

Penang : Government Hill, Curtis ! 

Pahang : Tahan River ! 

Sungei Ujong : Bukit Sula ! N. Gantley, 
A very common plant in mangrove swamps or dense jungle, 
flowering all the year. The flowers appear one or two at a 
time ; they are pure white, except for the thick yellow callus on 
the lip, and the base of the lip, and violet-rose apices of the 
stelidia. The lip is parallel and adnate by its edges to the- 
column for the greater part of its length, then abruptly bent 
just before the mid-lobe, at the bend between the raised lateral 
lobes, and passing on to the mid-lobe is a thickened yellow 
patch, which is the transverse appendage of the description in 
the * Flora of British India.' It evidently corresponds to the 
epichiliary ridges and calli of other orchids and not to the 
basal callus (appendage) of Podochilus, I do not see that it is 
tubercled, as described. The mid-lobe is channelled in the 
centre. It is usually as broad or broader than the hypochilary 
portion. The mentum is full of nectar. Owing to the approxi- 
mation of the thickened disc between the two lateral lobes, the 
entrance to the mentum is very small. The anther is rather 
tall, with a blunt beak, and is partially divided in two by a 
couple of thin walls. The pollinia are eight, very thin and 
transparent, unequal and narrowly obliquely pyriform in out- 



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apostastacej: op the malat peninsula. 389 

line. They are free to the disc, there being no pedicel. The 
disc is large, circular, and browo in colonr. The clinandrinm 
is deep with a median ridge. The filament of the anther-cap 
is short but distinct, broad and truncate. The rostellum is 
long and entire. 

Appendicdla elongata, BidL in Trans. Linn. Soc.j Ser. II. 
(Bot.) iii. ri893) p. 375. 
Hob. Pahang: Trees overhanging the River Tahan ! 2371. 

A. Lewisii, Qriff. in Calc. Joum. Nat. Hist.^ iv. (1844) p. 378, 
t. 19, et Ic. PL As., t. 337. 
Hab. Singapore: Wallich. 

Penang : West Hill, Ourtis, 993 ! 

Perak: Scortechini, Wray, 

A. COMPLANATA, Mdl., sp. nova. Caules 1 ped. longi, com- 
planati, pallid e virides. Folia subremota, lanceolata, sub- 
membranacea, basi rotundata, apice inaequaliter bifida obtasa 
longiuscule mncronata, conspicue 3-nervia; vaginse ^ poll. 
long8B, ancipites, ore integree obliquae. Eacemi ^ poll, longi, 
terminales rarius laterales. Bractece lanceolataB, subobtusse, 
reflexae. Flores parvi, virescenti-albi ; ovaria cum pedicellis 
brevia. Sepala ovata, obtusa; mentum breve, scrotiforme, 
obtusum. Petala sepalis paullo minora. LaheUum sepalis 
brevius, adnatum, ovatum, obtusum, album in fauce purpureo- 
2.1ineatum. Columna brevis, supeme purpurea; pes latus. 
Anthera ovato-lanceolata acutsB, minute pustulata, kermesina; 
pollinia 6, inaequalia, clavata, pallide flava; discus minimus, 
lanceolatus, obtusus, rufus ; rostellum ovatum, acutum, breviter 
bifidum, viride in medio purpureum. Stigma latum, in 
margine inferiore sinuatum : stelidia 0; caudiculus majus- 
culus, ovatus, acutus. 

Hab. Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Kelsall ! 
Johore : Qunong Pulai ! 

Remarkable for its flattened stem, which appears slightly 
winged when dry. The foliage is rather thin, and dries green. 

A. Mainqayi, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 85, et Ic. PL, 
t. 2151. 

Hab. Perak : Scortechini. 

Penang : West Hill, Curtis! 



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390 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDE-E AND 

Appendicula lancifolia, Hoolc. /., Fl. Brit Ind,, vi. p. 84, et 
Ic. PI, t. 2150. 

Hab. Perak: Ganong Bata Putih, alt. 3,000-4,000 feet 
(King's Collector), Maxwell's Hill, alt. 3,000 feet ! 

The plant, which I found at the above-mentioned locality, 
had green, inconspicuous flowers. It was, however, nearly 
over ; and the lips, which are not adnate to the column, had 
fallen away from the flowers; but I believe this to be the 
species figured and described. It has distinct, though short, 
truncate stelidia. 

A. UNCATA, Ridl., sp, nova. Elata, ultra-pedalis. Folia 
2 poll, longa, f poll, lata, oblongo-lanceolata, submembranacea, 
distincto 3-nervia, apice ineequaliter biloba mucronulo inter- 
jecto ; vaginae f poll, lougee, subteretes, supeme ampliatsB. 
Bacemi ^ poll, longi, subterminales aut laterales, peuduli, basi 
saepe nudi. Bractece majusculee, cjmbiformes, ovatae. Flares 
c. 10, virides. Sepala ovata acuta; mentum majusculum 
obtusum. Petala sepalis breviora, ovata-lanceolata. LabeUum 
integrum, oblongum, apice rotundatum, liberum ; callus in 
disco situs indivisus. Columna brevis, crassa. Anthera elongata, 
lanceolata, acuta; stelidia 0. Bostellum magnum, lanceo- 
latum, triaugulare, biiidum. Stigma grande, hemisphaBricum, 
marginatum. 

Hab. Selangor: Pataling, near Kwala Lumpur, on an old 
tree in dense jungle ! 

This i^ allied closely to A. pendula, Blume, and A. landfolia. 
Hook, f . ; but the former has a broad adnate lip, and the 
latter has longer racemes, and indistinct nerves on the leaves, 
and no callus on the lip. 

A. REFLEXA, Blume, Bijdr., p. 301. Caules ferme 2-podales, 
validuli. Folia 1 poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, oblongo-elliptica, 
approzimata, tenuiter coriacea, supeme canaliculata, atroviridia 
subtus pallidiora, in gicco nigricantia, apice ferme aequaliter 
biloba mucrone interjecto ; vaginae | poll. longaB, teretes, hand 
ampliataB, ore obliquae. Bacemi ^ poll, longi, plures, laterales, 
basi a bracteis paucis lanceolatis acuminatis ornati, supeme a 
floribus coDgestis tecti. Bractece florales lancolatae, obtusae, 
reflexaB. Fhres minimi. Sepalum posticum lanceolato-ovatum 
obtusum, lateralia multo majora ovata; mentum cum sepalis 
aequilongum, obtusum. Petala parva, linearia; sepala petala 



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APOSTASUCEA OF THB MALAY PBNINSULA. 391 

viridia. LabeUum albnm calceolatum ; lobus medinB ovatus, 
acutns, recurvus. Columna brevis, crassa; Anthera ovata, 
tennis, biloonlaris, breviter rostrata; pollinia 6, pjrriformia, 
snbsBqnalia; discns parvns, bmnens. Stigma latnm, hand 
profnndnm. Oapsula sessilis, oblonga ; cost® eleyat», eBqnales. 

Hab, Jobore : Batn Pabat ! 

Also Bnitenzorg, in Java, Dr. Treub, 

Blnme's description is yeiy short ; bnt as far as it goes, it 
agrees with this species. The flowers are remarkably small. 
A. cordatOj Hook, f., is near this, if not identical. 

Appindicula torta, Blume, Bijdr,^ p. 303. 

Hob. Selan^or : limestone caves, Kwala Lnmpnr ! 
Perak : Maxwell's Hill ! 

Flowers pale yellow, with a crimson anther. I do not 
understand how Bieichenbach's A. rhodiola, Xenia Oroh., ii. 
p. 118, differs from this species. I have received plants from 
Dr. Treub, from Java, and also collected it in the above- 
mentioned localities ; and in all the bracts of the inflorescence 
were of a creamy white, and not pink. 

A. XYTRiOPHORA, Beichb. f. in Seem. Fl. Vit., p. 299. 
Hab. Perak : Scortechini. 

A. BUPESTBis, Bidl.^ $p. nova. Ceespitosa, mpicola. Bodices 
copiossB; rhizoma breve, crassiuscalom. Caules 8 poll, longi, 
plnres, teretes, graciles. Folia | poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, 
lanceolato-linearia, apice tmncata emarginata longins mncro- 
nnlata; vaginae ^ poll, longse, snperne ampliatee. Bacemi 
i-li poll, longi, terminales, basi a bracteis pancis linearibus 
tecti. BractecB florales lanceolate snbacntea, deflexaB. Flores 
parvi. Sepalum posticam ovatum, lateralia majora; mentum 
breve, rectum, obtusum. PetcUa sepalis minora lanceolata; 
sepala petala alba. LabeUum oblongo-ellipticum obtusum, fere 
liberum, ecallosum. Columna brevis ; pes longus. Anthera 
rotundata, bilocularis; rostellum breve, bifldnm. Stigm^a 
latum, rotundatum ; clinandrium prof nudum ; stelidia 0. 

HaB. Pahang : Bocks in the stream, Tahan Biver ! 

This grows in clefts in the rooks in the Tahan Biver. It has 
a thick though short rhizome, emitting copious roots. The 
stems are very slender, and covered with grassy leaves. The 
flowers are very small. The lip is free from the column to the 
base, quite entire, with the edges at the apex thickened. 



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392 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDFJE AND 

Appendicula mubicata, Teysm. and Binn. in Tijdschr, NederL 
Ind., xxiv. (1862) p. 322. 

A. echinocarpay Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 85, et Ic. PI., 
t. 2162. 

Habm Perak: Scortechini. 

Kcdah : Kedah Peak, alt. 3,000 feet, common ! 
Java : Mt. Salak, Teysmann, 

Tejsmann and Binnendijk's description of this plant is really 
a good one, and I think it is qnite clear what they intended. 
The only dilFerences I note between their plant and the Kedah 
one are that they describe the sepals as *' violascentia apice 
lutescentia " ; whereas the Kedah plant has them of a greenish 
white ; the petals are described as linear, whereas I should call 
them lanceolate. The sepals, which are slightly keeled, are 
covered, as in the ovary, with remarkable crystalline processes. 
The lip bears, on the upper side at the apex, a short conical 
tooth. The colnmn is somewhat remarkable ; it has a pair of 
broad stelidia, one angle of which is acute. The stigma is 
terminal; but the front margin projects beyond the stelidia. 
The whole of it, including the viscid fluid on its surface, is 
amethyst crimson. The very long rostellum and anther are 
erect and stand far behind it. The anther has a fairly long) 
slender, emerald green filament. The base is nearly globose 
and it ends in a long slender beak. The pollen masses are four 
only, thin, lanceolate, and nearly equal. They are fixed to the 
outer face of the upper part of the very long spoon-shaped 
pedicel. The disc is elliptic, fairly large, and bufF coloured. 
The rostellum is large, the edges involute, the apex shortly 
bifid. 

The plant grows on trees low down, forming large tufts. 

A. LuciDA, Eidl.f $p. nova, Oaules 6 poll, longi, plures, 
congesti, erecti. Folia | poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, cordata, 
ovata, amplexicaulia, polita, atroviridia, apice inaequaliter 
biloba, minute mucronata; vaginae ^ poll. longsB, striolat®. 
Paniculce } poll, longee, axillares ; rami plares, tenues. Bractem 
breves, ovataB, acatae. Flores minuti, albescenti - virides ; 
pedicelli tenues. Sepalum posticum ovatum obtuBum aut 
subacutum, lateralia ovata subacuta ; mentum saccatum. 
Petala sepalo postico pauUo breviora, lauceolata ; sepala petala 
virescentia, a lineis medianis purpurascentibus omata. 



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APOSTASIACEJS OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 393 

LabeUum integrum, album, basi oblongnm, apice (epichilio) 
ovato-orbiculare deflexum ; caUns medianus conicas adest. 
Oolumna crassa, alba. Anthera pyriformis, obtuse rostrata; 
pollinia 6, angusta, elongata, insdqnalia, in discam ovatom 
attenoata ; rostellam lineari-oblongnm, bifidum. Stigma 
column^ latins, qnadratnm, pnrpnreo-marginatnm. 

Hah. Singapore : Kranji ! Chan Chn Kang ! 
Selangor: Seppan! 
Also Rhio. 

A tnfted plant remarkable for its shining dark green leaves 
and branching inflorescence of minnte flowers. When dry, the 
whole plant becomes black. It is common on trees in mangrove 
Bwamps and banks of tidal rivers. 

THELASIS, Blame. 

T. ELONGATA, Blume, Orch, Archip. Ind,, p. 23, t. 7, fig. 2, et 
t. 5, fig. C. 

Hah, Singapore : Kranji, on mangroves ! Ac. 
Johore : Batu Pahat ! 
Pahang: Pekan ! 

The common plant is so similar to Blame's figure, that I 
have no doubt as to its being the plant he intended. It is 
abundant on the branches of trees in mangrove swamps. 
Cuming's n. 2062, Philippines, looks exactly the same to me. 

It is a small insignificant plant with light green flowers. 

Var. MAJOR, Ridl.^ var, nova, Omnino major et validior. 
Pseudo-bulbi ferme pollicares. Folia 4 poll, longa, \ lata. Scapi 
5 poll, longa, validi; vagina in medio ^ poll, longa. Spica 
crassa. Bractesd majores. 

Hab, Selangor : Kwala Lumpur, KeUall ! 
Pahang: Tahan River Woods! 

Different as this form looks from the common little stunted 
plant, I can only think it is a much larger and stronger 
variety, growing in wetter, more shaded, spots. 

T. CAPiTATA, Blume, Bijdr.y p. 386, et Orch. Archip. Ind.y 
p. 20, t. 7, fig. 1. 

Hah. Perak: Scortechini. 

T. MACROBULBON, BicU., sp. nova. Bodices tenues copiosso. 
Fseudo-buUma e 2 nodis stmctus ; nodus inferior \ poll, longus 



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394 MB. HENBT RIDLEY ON OBCHIDBJC AND 

sobglobosus, superior ^ poll. loDgns cylindricas a vagin& folii 
iDferioris tectas. Folia 2, inferins 1 poll, longam, ^ poll, latiim, 
lanceolatum, Baperins 4-6 poll, longnm, 1 poll, latum, lanceolatam 
vel ellipticum obtosnm petiolatum. Scapi 6-10 poll, longi, 
laterales, erecti vel nntantes, in ^ parte inferiore (vaginis 
paacis acnminatis exceptis) nudi ; racemas laxas, multiflonis. 
Mores parvi, sessileu, yirides. Bractece ^ poll. longSB, lanceolatse 
cuBpidatsB. Sepala oblonga obtusa, ecarinata. PetcUa sepalis 
minora. Labellum petalis brevius magis camosum, lanceolatum 
subacntum. Anthera lanceolata, acuta; pollinia 4, parva, 
glabra. Bostellum anther^ longius, ovatum acuminatum, 
prof undo bifidum. 

Hob, Maxweirs Hill, on a fallen tree ! 

A very distinct plant, with the pseudo-bulbs of T. longifolia. 
Hook f ., but with two well-developed but unequal broad leaves, 
and a very different lip. The rostellum is bipartite; as, 
indeed, it is also in T. elongata, Blume, so that this cannot be 
used as a distinguishing character for Oxyanthera, 

OXYANTHERA, Brongn. 

0. ELATA, Hook. /., Ic, Fly t. 2156. 

Thelads elata, Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 87. 

Hab. Singapore : Blranji ! Sungei Buloh ! Sungei Morai ! 

Pahang : Kwala Pahang, Kota Glanggi ! 

Perak: Thaiping Hills ! 

Penang: Government Hill, Maingay, 

Also Djambi in Sumatra ! and Borneo ! 
A common plant, with insignificant greenish and bnff 
flowers. 

0. DECURVA, Hook. /., Ic. Fl, t. 2167. 
Thelasis clecurva, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 87. 
Hab, Singapore: Sungei Morai, Selitar! Kranji! Bukit 
Mandai, Serangoon, &c. ! 

Penang: Maingay, 

Pahang : Tahan River ! 
I have it also from Pulau Condore near Saigon, Rhio, 
Borneo, and Djambi in Sumatra. 

It is common in mangrove swamps, <&c. 

In the figures of both of these species in the ' Icones Plantarum' 



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APOSTASIACEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 895 

the flowers are made to spread widely open. In nature 
thej are closed, and only the tips of the sepals and petals 
separate. 

Teibe NE0TTIE2E. 

GALEOLA, Lour. 

G. JAYANICA, Benth, et Hook. /., Oen. PL, iii. p. 590. 
I found a single plant of what may be this species in the 
jungle on Maxwell's Hill in Perak. 

G. ALTissiMA, Beichh. /., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 77. 
Hob. Singapore : Chan Chu Kang ! 

Johore : Bukit Murdom ! Gunong Panti ! 

Penang: Curtis. 

Perak : Scortechini, 

G. Htdra, Beichh. /., Xenia Orch., ii. p. 77. 
Hob. Singapore : Kranji ! Sungei Buloh ! 
Johore : Gunong Taning ! 
Selangor: Kwala Lumpur, G. Curtis! 
Perak : Thaiping Hills, at Maxwell's Hill ! and 

Waterloo Estate ! 
Siam : Bangtaphan, Dr. Keith ! 
These curious plants appear in the most unexpected places, 
sometimes covering old stumps, or climbing up tree trunks in 
thick jungle, sometimes in hot and dry exposed grass fields, 
and I have even seen them clambering on roofs of native huts. 

VANILLA, Swartz. 

V. Geiffithii, Beichh. f. in Bonplandia, ii. (1854) p. 88. 
V. aXbida, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 91 (non Blume). 
F. tolypephcn-ay Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc, Ser II. (Bot.) iii. 
(1893) p. 376. 
Hah. Singapore : on Pulau Ubin, abundant ! 

Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Kelsall ! 

Malacca: Gnffith. 

Perak : fide Hooker f.. I.e. 

Penang : Waterfall Hill ! and Telok Bahang, Curtis ! 
I have also seen this plant on the Carimon Islands. The 
natives call it " Telinah Kerhau Bukity** and " Akar Punuhal.*' 



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396 MR. HENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEJ! AND 

They ponnd up the flowers with water, and rub the paste over 
the body in cases of fever; and also use the leaves mashed 
with oil to thicken and strengthen the hair. The whitish latex 
of the plant has a very irritating action on the skin. 

I met with a plant in Pahang with larger and blnnter leaves, 
which was out of flower, and may be a distinct species. 

I believe that GriflBth's description of a Vanilla (Notulfls, iii. 
247), and the figure (Ic. PI. As., t. 281), is intended for this 
species, and consequently Reichen bach's V. Griffithii, I.e., is the 
oldest name. There are, however, some slight differences 
between the Singapore plants and Griffith's figure and descrip- 
tion, and no locality is given for the latter. 

CORYMBIS, Thouars. 

C. LONGIFLORA, Hook. /., FL Brit. Ind., vi. p. 92. 

Hab. Singapore : Pulau Ubin ! Choa Chu Kang ! 
Malacca : Selandor ! Panchor ! 
Selangor : Kwala Ijumpur ! 
Perak : Gunong Hijan ! Thaiping Hills ! 

It is really difficult to separate the species of this genus 
satisfactorily ; and I think it highly probable that a good suite 
of specimens will show that all or nearly all the named species 
are merely forms of one. 

C, Thouarsii, Reichb. f., from Africa and its islands is, 
according to Blume's figure (Orch. Archip. Ind., t. 44, fig. 1, 
A — C), distinguishable by its narrower perianth segments ; and 
C. veratrifolia, Reichb. f., has shorter flowers than C longifloray 
Hook, f., in which, too, I find the sepals and petals are more 
spathulate and the latter more crisped along the edge. The 
height of the plant and form of leaf are characters too variable 
to be of any value ; and I am very doubtful as to the value of 
the length of the capsule, and proportionate size of the column. 

G, longiflora, Hook, f., is widely scattered over the peninsula, 
and sometimes may be found in abundance ; but it seldom 
flowers. It is an inhabitant of damp dark jungle, sometimes 
growing on rocks. The flowers are pure white and deliciously 
scented. The natives call it ^^ Lulumhah Payahy^ i.e.. Marsh 
CurcuUgo, 

C. RHTTiDOCARPA, Hooh. /., Fl. Brit Ind., vi. p. 92. 
Hah. Perak: Scortechini, Wray. 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 397 

CoRYMBis BREViSTYLis, Hook, /., Fl. Brit, Ind.y vi. p. 92. 
Hah, Perak: limestone rocks {King's Collector), 



TROPIDIA, Lindl. 

T. SQUAMATA, Blume, Orch, Archyp, Ind,^ p. 123, t. 41. 

Hab, Malacca : Mt. Opbir ! Ayer Pannas ! Panchor ! 
Selangor : Bukit Hitam, Kelsall ! 
Perak: Maxwell's Hill ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak (n. 5129) ! 

Not rare, but very seldom flowering. The flowers are 
greenish-white, sweetly scented of vanilla. It grows in dense, 
shady woods. Plants cultivated in Singapore closely resembled 
Blame's drawings. Perhaps tbe T, graminea of the * Fl. Brit. 
Ind.,* vi. p. 93, of which only one specimen was seen, and that 
from a locality wbere T. squamata is abundant, is a form of this. 
Blume figures no floral details of T, squamata, Tbey much 
resemble those of T. graminea^ except that there are no crests 
on the lip. He distinguishes it by its bi*oader leaves, and 
lateral racemes. 

T. Mainqayi, Hook, /., FU Brit, Ind,, vi. p. 93. 
Hob, Malacca: Mt. Opbir! 

T. CUECULIGOIDES, Lindl,, Gen, et 8p, Orch., p. 497, et in 
WaU, List, n. 7386. 

Hab. ? Perak: Wray (Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 93). 

I have seen nothing bere like this species, and the specimen 
in Herb. Kew looks not unlike T, squamata, Blume. 



VRYDAGZYNEA, Blume. 

V. ALBiDA, Blume, Orch, Archip, Ind,, p. 76, t. 19, f. 2. 
Hah. Singapore: Cban Chu Kang! Bukit Mandai! Choa 
ChuEang! 
Perak: Padang, Wray, 
A tolerably abundant little plant in some of the damp dense 
jungles. The margins of the leaves are often undulate ; but I 
think Scortechini's drawing n. 5, referred doubtfully to this, 
may be rather V. lancifolia, Ridl. The " glandulsB pedicellatcB " 



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398 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON ORCHIDEJE AND 

in the spar in this genns rise from the column just below the 
rostellum in the buds ; and descend with the spur, lengthening 
as it lengthens, eventually becoming attached to it. 

Vbtdagzynea gracilis, Blumcj Orch, Archip. Ind., p. 72, t. 17, 
et t. 20, fig. 1. 

Hah. Perak : Horum, Scortechini. 

V. LANCIPOLIA, BidL, *p. nova. Bhieoma S89pe longum. Gavles 
6-9 poll, longi, erecti, succulenti. Folia lJ-3 poll, louga, 
^f poll, lata, lanceolata, acuta, obliqua, viridia, basi ssspe 
acuta ; petiolus ^-\ poll, longus. Pedunculus brevis vel 
longiuscula ; racemus usque ad 2 poll, longus, multiflorus, 
densus, cylindricus. Flares glabri ; bracteae ^ poll, longee, lanceo- 
latsB acuminatae. Sepala lanceolata, lateralia latiora falcata. 
Petala sepalo postico agglutinata breyiora, in marginibus 
tenuia. LaheUum petalis multo brevins, oblongum, obtusum ; 
mai'gines involuti ; linea mediana tenuis, glabra, elevaia ; calcar 
subcylindricum, obtusum ; glandnlsB globos», in pedicellis 
brevibus brevissime libersB. Golwnna brevis, crassa; rostelli 
lobi oblongi, obtusi. Anthera ovata, glanduloso - cristata. 
Oapsula ferme \ poll, longa, ovoidea, superne attenuata. 

Hob. Singapore : Bukit Timah ! 
Johore : Qunong Panti ! 

Abundant by streams, and in wet spots in dense jungle on 
Bukit Timah. The leaves, which are very variable in size, are 
much narrower in proportion to their leugth than in other 
species, often narrowly lanceolate and acute at both ends. The 
two lateral nerves and the keel are prominent. Usually the 
leaves are tufted at the top of the stem ; but sometimes the 
stem is leafy throughout. The raceme is often nearly sessile 
when young, but the peduncle continues to grow as the raceme 
lengthens. The flowers are white, but the tips of the sepals 
are commonly tinted with pink. 

V. TRISTRIATA, Bidl^ sp. Hova. Caules 6 poll, longi. FoUa 
1^ poll, longa, ^ poll, lata, ovata, acuta, tenuia, remota, olivacea, 
roseo-B-striata. Racemus foliis brevier, subsessilis, densus, 
multiflorus. Bractece lanceolate, acumiuatae, rufescentes. Flares 
parvi, albi. Sepala lanceolato-oblonga, alba basi olivacea, 
lateralia paullo obliqua. Petala sepalo postico adnata, cum hoc 
eequilonga. LaheUum sepalis brevius, lanceolatum, linguiforme, 



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APOSTASIACEiE OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 399 

obiosnm, incrassatum, album, in medio a pnlvino pastnloso 
aiictnm ; calcar elongatnm, saccatam : glandalaB ^ parti calcaris 
adnat8B, pedicellatee, globosae, flayae. Columna brevis, crassa. 
Anthera ovata, rostrata ; pollinia 2, elougata, pjriformia. 

Hob. Singapore : Chan Cbu Kang ! 

Sporadic in thick wet woods. 

A very pretty little species, with deep reddish oliye-leaves 
with three distinct pink stripes. 

MACODES, Blnme. 

M. Pbtola, Lindl, Oen. et Sjf. Orch.j p. 497 ; Blume, Orch. 
Archip. Ind., p. 119, t. 31, f. 2. 
Hah, Singapore: Selitar ! 
Selangor ! 

Johore : Gnnong Panti ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir ! 
This is decidedly nncommon, though widely scattered 
throaghont the peninsala. It is very seldom to be met with in 
flower. Blame's fignre is a very good one of the peninsular 
plant ; but he figures the bract as much shorter than the ovary, 
instead of being quite as long as it, as it is in our plant ; and 
the pollinia I found in the Mount Ophir plant are longer and 
narrower, and have a longer pedicel and much smaller disc than 
those he figures. 

CYSTORCHIS, Blume. 

C. VARiEGATA, Blume, Orch. Archip. Ind., p. 89, t. 24, f . 3. 
Hah, Singapore : Chan Chu Kang, Bokit Mandai, &c. ! 
Johore : Gunong Panti ! 
Pahang : Tahan River Woods ! 
Perak : Batu Kuran, Curtis ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
By no means a rare plant ; growing in dense jungle, and often 
along paths therein. The leaves are pale apple-green reticulated 
with darker bars. 

Var. PURPUREA, Eidl, 0, javantea, Blume, I.e., p. 87 ; Hetceria 
javanica, Blume, Bijdr., p. 410. 

Hob, Singapore: Choa Chu Kang ! 

Pahang : Tahan Woods, with the commoner variety ! 
I cannot make anything but a variety of this plant. The 



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400 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEA AND 

qqIj differences that I can see lie in the deep purple colour of 
the leaf. The " crenate " rather undulate margin is by no 
means constant in the form. 

I have kept the green form 0. variegata as the tjpe, as it is 
by far the commonest ; and altered the varietal name to purpurea 
instead of using javanica because (both species being indigenous 
to Java) it has no distinctive meaning. 

Cystobchis aphylla, BidL, sp. nova, Herba 4-pollicaris, 
pallida, saprophytica, aphylla ; vaginaB acuminatsB, supeme rufes- 
centes ; radices paucsB, crassse, fasciculatae. Flares 3-4, parvi ; 
ovaria \ poll, longa ; bractesB ovariis paullo breviores, lanceolatsa 
acuminatsa acutsB. Sepala ^ poll, longa, lanceolata acuminata, 
basi connata gibbosa, flavescentia apice rufescentia. Fetala 
sepalis breviora angustiora. Labellum lanceolatum, basi 
saccatum, apice obtusum ; margines pro majore parte involuti. 
Oolumna subteres, supeme incrussata. Anthera ovata ; rostrum 
sursum curvum ; caudiculus longiusculus, acutus ; stelidia 
dentiformia, lata, divaricata ; rostellum 0. Pollinia admodum 
fissilia ; fasciculi lineares, in pedicellis elongatis planis cuneati. 
SUgma terminale. 

Hob, Malacca : Dense jungle at Merlimau, fl. November ! 

A remarkable saprophytic species, in which the rostellum 
seems to be entirely suppressed, and the stigma upturned so 
that the pollen readily falls into it and fertilizes it. The lip 
has the shape of that of 0. variegata, Blume ; the base is 
excavate or depressed, the middle portion has the sides rolled 
in till they meet, but are open again at the apex. The thick 
rounded column may have been modified in the few flowers I 
have seen by fertilization. Although the plant is self -fertilized 
there is plenty of nectar in the spur of the lip. The pollen is 
very pulverulent, broken up into very narrow wedge-shaped 
pieces, which readily fall into the lip, and as there is no 
rostellum, into the stigpma also. It is a rare plant and I have 
only met with a few specimens in fruit and one in flower. 



ODONTOCHILUS, Blume. 

O. MACBANTHUS, Hooh. /., FL Brit Ind.y vi. p. 90, et Ic, Fl, 
t. 2161. 
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AP0STA6IACEA OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 401 

Odontochilus calcaeatus, Hook, /., Fl, Brit Ind., vi. p. 99, 
€t Ic. PI, t. 2162. 

Hah. Perak : on a rock on the Hermitage Hill ! 

0. PECTINATUM, Hook, /., Fl, Brtt. Ind., vi. p. 99, et Ic, PI, 
t. 2165. 

Hob, Perak : on rocks on Maxwell's Hill near the top ! 

Bather a prettj plant, flowering in Jane. Leaves dark green, 
sepals and petals green, lip white. 

0. BEEVI8TTLIS, Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind.y vi. p. 100, et Ic. PZ., 
t. 2166. 

Hob, Perak : Gnnong Batu Putih, Wray. 

H^MARIA, Lindl. 

H. DISCOLOR, Lindl., Oen. et 8p. Orch., p. 490. 

Hah. Johore : Pnlau Tioman ! Pulau Aor ! Pnlan Tinggi ! 
Penang : Penang Hill, G. Curtis ! 

Var. Ordiana, var. nor., with the leaves bright velvety green, 
with pale veins, is obtained in Pnlan Tinggi. It is very 
mnch rarer than the dark red form. 

Var. CoNOOLOR, var. nov. Leaves deep olive green with pink 
midrib. I received this from Saigon from Dr. Bronsmiche. 

Var. Otletje, Ridl. H. Otletce, Rolfe, in Illnstr. Hortic, 
xxxviii. (1891) p. 31, t. 124, is a narrow- leaved form which 
sometimes appears with the commoner forms. 

The well-known locality for this orchid is on the islands lying 
off the east coast of Johore. On the nearest, Pnlan Tioman, I 
have fonnd it growing on rocks in the streams. The natives, 
who deal in it and import it in large quantities, call it '' Daun 
Low" i.e., Sir Hugh Low's leaf. 

The flowers, which are pure white, except for the conspicuons 
yellow anther-cap and apex of the column, are unusually showy 
for this section of Neottece. I have seen them fertilized by a 
butterfly, viz., Plesioneura asmara. This insect, which has very 
long legs, settled on the spreading sepals and lip, and plunged 
its proboscis into the opening of the spur between the lip and 
column, which are closely appressed together. While thus 
engaged one of its lefb legs struck against the viscid disc of 
the poUinia, which it withdrew, and which remained adhering 

LINN. JOURN. — botany, VOL. XXIII. 2 D 



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402 MB. HENBT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEA AND 

to it. The column in this plant is so twisted to one side that 
an insect seeking honey in the spar could not, unless yeiy large, 
touch the poUinia with its head. The stigma is a projecting 
cushion placed a little below the anther-cap. The butterfly, 
after sucking the nectar for some seconds, darted suddenly to 
another flower, and struck with its leg the stigma implanting 
the pollinia on it ; but as it immediately flew off again a portion 
only of the pollen adhered to the stigma. I caught another 
specimen at the flowers which bore the pollen masses firmly 
attached to the right fore-foot. 

Hcemaria seems to be specially adapted for butterfly-fertiliza- 
tion in several points. Unlike many Neottiece, it inhabits sunny 
rocks near streams where butterflies are abundant. The flowers 
are showy and white, the colour of most of the butterfly -haunted 
flowers in the jungle ; and the remarkable twist in the column 
and lip seem to be intended to ensure the visiting insect in 
striking the viscid disc and stigma with its legs. 

DOSSINIA, Morjren. 

D. MARMOBATA, C. MoTT. in Ann. Soc. Gand^ iv. (1848) p. 171, 
1. 195. 

Hob. Penang : Government Hill, C, Curtis ! 
The only locality known outside Borneo. 

ZEUXINE, Lindl. 

Z. AFFiNis, Benth, ex Hook, /., Fl. Brit. Ind.^ vi. p. 108. 
Hah. Penang : Maingay^ Curtis ! 

L. BENiFOBMis, HooJc. /., Fl. Brit. IrA., vi. p. 107, et Ic. Pi., 
t. 2173. 

Hah. Perak: Scortechini. 

HYLOPHILA, Lindl. 

H. MOLLIS, Lindl, Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 490, et in WaU, List^ 
n. 7396. 

Hah. Singapore: common; Chan Chu Kang! Choa Chu 
Kang ! Toa Payoh ! Tehan ! Kranji ! 
Malacca: Griffith. 
Perak: Scortechini. 



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apostasiackj: op the malat peninsula. 403 

This plant grows often in great abundance in wet swamps in 
thick jungle, usually with Galanthe curcultgoides, Wall. It is 
a very sticky plant with green flowers. 

Hylophila lanceolata, Hook. /., Fl Brit. Ind., vi. p. 110. 
Hob. Perak: Scortechint. 



GOODYERA, R. Br. 

G. GRACILIS, Hook, /., FL Brit Ind., vi. p. 112. 

Hob, Perak : Gunong Hijan, Thaiping Hills ! 

I have twice met with this little plant in the same spot, but 
it is not very common there. It grows on mossy banks on the 
highest part of the Gunong Hijan ridge. The leaves are very 
deep velvety green and waved along the edge; the flowers 
white and sweet-scented. The capsule is oblong elliptic ^ inch 
in length. It flowers in June. 

G. RUBENS, Blume, Orch. Archip, Ind,, p. 43, t. 9, fig, 1. 
Hah, Perak : Batang Padang, Wray. 

G. CORDATA, Nichols., Did, Oard., ii. p. 81. 

Oeorchis cordata, Lindl., Gen. et Sp. Orch., p. 496. 

Hab, ? Perak : Scortechini (Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 114). 

HET^RIA, Blume. 

H. ORLIQUA, Blume, Orch, Archip. Ind., p. 104, t. 34, fig. 1. 

Hah, Singapore : Bukit Timah, in dense jungle, rare ! 
Flowering in September* 
Sungei Ujong : Bukit Danan ! 

This was described and figured by Blume from Lake Babay, 
in Borneo. The Singapore plant differs slightly in having a 
silver central bar on the leaf. The lip is full of nectar, and 
bears two pairs of small plates, each ending in a point in the 
sac. 

It is called ^* Poko Tumhah Utar,** and the leaves are used 
for poolticing sore legs by the natives. 

H. ELATA, Hook, /., Fl. Brit. Ivd., vi. p. 116, et Ic, FL, 
t. 2191. 

Hah. Perak : Batang Padang, Wray. 

2d2 



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404 MR. HENRT RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

Hetjeria elonoata, LincU,, Oen. et 8p. Orch,, p. 494, et in 
WaU, List, n. 7384. 

Hob. " Malay Peninsula" : FirUayson (Wall. List, I.e.). 

This is perhaps from Cochin - China, where Finlayson 
collected. It seems never to have been collected by anyone 
else. 

H. NITIDA, Ridl.f sp. nova. Caulis ultra J poll, crassns, 
snccnlentus, ascendens, olivaceus ; radices crassse. Folia 3 poll, 
longa, 1-^ poll, lata, ovata, acnta, atro-viridia, nitida ; petiolns 
1^ poll, longus, canalicnlatns ; vagina ^ poll, longa, ore obliqna. 
Scapus 9 poll, longus, gracilis, erectus, pubescens ; vagin» 
plures, dissitse ; racemus plurimifloms. Flores parvi, rhachidi 
appressi, resapinati. Bractece \ poll, longse, lanceolatae, 
acuminatfiB, rubr». OvaHum \ poll, longum, cylindricum, 
sessile, glanduloso-pubescens. Sepala ^ poll, longa, oblongo- 
ovata, »qualia, baud gibbosa, rufescentia, extra pubescentia. 
Peiala sepalis breviora tenuiora, spathulata, glabra, alba, basi 
libera. LaheUum sepalis multo brevius, camosum, flavum, 
columnse adnatum, cymbiforme, basi saccatum a papillis parvis 
2-seriatis omatam, apice rostratum marginibus involutis. 
Columna brevis, sapeme incrassata; clinandrium parvum, 
profundum. Anthera ovata, acuminata, rufescens; locoli 
disjuncti ; margines tenues, albi, basi divaricati. PoUdnia 2, 
pyriformia; caudiculus 1, breviter linearis, cum disco lineari- 
oblongo »quilongus. EosteUi lobi 2, breviter lineares. Stigma 
latum, olivaceum ; stelidia linearia, cum rostello aequilonga. 
Hab. Penang : Pulau Butong ! Balik Pulau ! (7. Curtis, 
Near H, micrantha, Blume, but with spathulate not linear 
petals and witb a very different lip. The leaves are deep 
green and polished. As is usual in the genus, the flowers are 
reversed, the small lip and lateral sepals being uppermost. The 
latter are of a dull red colour, and the pare white petals are the 
most conspicuous portion of the flower. 

H. ALBA, Bidl,, sp. nova. Herba elata, ferme 2^ pedalis ; 
radices longee, crasssB, lanuginosse. Folia usque ad 4 poll, 
longa, 1 f lata, plora, ovata vel ovato-acuminata, acuta, obliqua ; 
petioli 1 poll, longi, graciles ; vaginse magnsB, supeme ampliatas. 
Eacemus 10 poll, longus, pluriflorus ; rhachis pubescens. Flores 
parvi, tenues, glabri, flavi. Bractece \ poll. longsB, lanceolatse, 



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APOSTASIACEiE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 405 

acnminatae. Ovarium J poll, longum, cylindricum, sessile, 
pnbescens. Sepala lanceolata, obtusa, glabra. Petala sepalis 
tenniora, cum his aeqnilonga. Lahellum petalis panllo brevius, 
membranacenm, basi cymbiforme saccatnm a callis 2 brevibus 
linearibns omatnm, im& basi colnmnfle adnatnra ; lamina 
lanceolata, marginibns inyolntis. Golumiia brevis. Anthera 
rostello longior, lanceolato-linearis ; stelidia magna, oblique 
cuneato-oblonga. BosteUum breyius; lobi lanceolato-lineares, 
apice incurvi. Gafsula \ poll, longa, ellipsoidea. 

Hah, Perak : on a bank by the road, Hermitage Hill, Kwala 
Kangsa Valley ; a single plant (descr. ex sicco) ! 

The only specimen I have seen was nearly out of flower, and 
the pollen had all gone. It is a tall plant of the habit of Ooodyera 
ruhtnsj Blume, and differs from other Hetserias in the short bracts, 
thin textured glabrous perianth. The lip and petal contain 
many bundles of rhaphides. The anther is remarkably long 
and narrow. The stelidia very large, flattened and enlarged 
upwards ; the rostellar lobes are quite short. 



LEPIDOGYNE, Blume. 

L. LONGiFOLiA, BVumBy Orch, Archip, Ind,, p. 94, t. 25. 

This rare plant has been re-discovered by Mr. Hullett in the 
Island of Idngga, on the mountain called Ounong Dai, and by 
Mr. Curtis in Penang. Blume collected it on Mt. Salak, in 
Java. 

APHYLLORCHIS, Blume. 

A. PALLIDA, Blume, Bijdr,, t. 77 ; Mus. Boi, Lugd. Bat,, i. p. 30, 
et Orch, Archip, Ind,, p. 52, t. 13. 

Hab. Singapore : Tanglin ! Reservoir Woods ! 
Pahang : Tahan Woods ! 
Perak : Scortechini, Ac. 
All the plant3 which I have seen were of a pale straw colour 
with pink dots. It is a very difficult plant to find, owing to 
its very inconspicuous colouring. In Singapore and Pahang it 
grows in dry woods, among dead leaves. 



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406 MR. HENBY RIDLEY ON ORCUIDBJE AMD 



ANCBCTOCHILUS, Blume. 

A. Rbinwardtii, Bhimej Orch. Archip. Ind., p. 48, t. 12, 
%2. 

Hah. PeraJc : Maxwell's Hill ! 

Eedah: Eedah Peak ! 
Not as common as the next.' 

A. GENICULATA, EidL^ sp, Hova, Caulis repens. Folia 2-3, 
1-2 poll, longa, 1^ poll, lata, ovata, acnta vel subacnta, 
▼elntina, branea anreo-reticulata ; petioli breves. Bacemus 
S poll, longos, pauoiflorQs, pnbescens, olivaceus ; vagin® ^ poll. 
long», acominatfla. Braciece ^ poll, longse, ovariis breviores, 
lanceolatee acominatae, pnbescentes, rnfescentes. Sepalum 
posticnm lanceolatum acntnm rnfescens petalis albis pellacidis 
adnatam, lateralia paten ti-deflexa basi gibbosa rafa pnbescentia. 
LabeUum album ; basis angnsta, colnmnse parallela, tunc 
abropte genicalata deflexa ; macnlsB 2, mf», sab geniculo sitae ; 
fimbrise usqne ad 18, longse ; lobi obcuneati, erecti, trancati ; 
labelli apex acntos, dentiformis, deflexns. Calcar f poll, 
longnm, sepalis longins, cnrvnm, obtnsum, latum, lateraliter 
compressum, basi a glandulis 2 ovoideis papillosis ornatum. 
Columna brevis, lata. Anthera elongata acuminata, rufescens. 
PolUma clayata, incur^a ; caudiculus linearis, planus, in dorso 
canalicolatus ; discus cuneatus, acutus. Stelidia falcata, decurva. 
Eostellum loratum, bifidum. Stigmata lateralia, rotundata. 
Hob. Singapore: Toas! Chan Chu Kang! and other 
wooded districts. 

Johore : Gunong Panti ! 

Penang : West Hill, Curtis. 

Malacca: Mt. Ophir. 
This species differs from the last chiefly in the form ot the 
lip. In habit and colouring of leaf it seems indistinguishable. 
The claw of the lip runs at first parallel to the erect colomn, 
then is abruptly bent downwards, and then again at right 
angles to the base. On this portion only are borne the white 
processes, about nine on each side, sometimes branched. The 
terminal lobes are rather narrower than in A. Beinwardtii^ 
Blume, and are cnrvate, enlarged at the apex, and the point of 
the lip is tooth-like and abruptly deflexed. The knee of the 
claw is polished white, except for two red spots just below the 



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APOSTASIACEJE OP THE MALAT PENINSULA. 407 

bend. The spur is considerably longer than the deflexed 
sepals, curved, broad, and laterally flattened. The anther is 
very mnch longer than in A, Beinwa/rdtii^ and consequently the 
pedicel of the pollen masses is also elongate. The AnoBctocMU 
frequent the densest jungles, where they grow among dead 
leaves, among which their brown foliage is not at all con- 
spicuous. The natives call them in Malacca " Bunga Tulis^'' 
lit., Written flowers — the reticulations on the leaf being 
supposed to resemble writing. 



CRFPTOSTYLIS, R. Br. 

C. Arachnites, Blvme, Orch. Arehip, Ind,y 138, t. 46, f. 2. 

There are two very distinct looking forms of this plant which 
will probably eventually be shown to be specifically distinct. 
One has a very broad, pale lip with darker spots, evidently 
typical 0. Arachnites, I have collected it on Maxwell's Hill, 
in Perak. 

The other, which is commoner, has a narrower dark brown 
lip, and is perhaps 0. fXijormis^ Blume, though it differs from 
the figure and description in having mottled leaves, and some- 
times a very tall, slender raceme considerably over a foot in 
length. I have this from Merlimau, in Malacca; Government 
Hill, Penang ; Bnkit Hitam, in Selangor (colL B., KeUaU) ; 
Kedah Peak ; and Bukit Timah, in Singapore. 

Cryptosiylts inhabits banks, usually at considerable elevations 
(from 2-5,000 feet), the Malacca and Singapore localities 
being the only low-country spots whence I have seen it. It is 
called *' Bunga Bangkong " in Malacca. 

CORYSANTHES, R. Br. 

C. PICTA, Lindl.y Oen. et 8p. Orch.y p. 394. 

Hab. Kedah Peak : alt., 4,000. 

Perak : Tambak Batak, Scorteckini, 

Scortechini's drawing seems more to resemble C. mucronata^ 
Blume. The Kedah Peak plant, too, does not altogether 
resemble Blume's figure, in which the leaves, which are much 
larger, are veined with purple instead of white, and the flower 
is violet with dark sepals and petals, while the Kedah plant 



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408 MR. HENRT BIDLET ON OBCHIDEiE AND 

had white sepals and petals and a deep maroon lip. It grew 
abundantly, deep in moss, but seems to flower rarely. The 
remarkable growth of the pedicel jnst as the fruit is ripening 
I have alladed to under Didymoplexis. 

I have seen this or the next species out of flower on Mt* 
Ophir and Bukit Hitam, in Selangor. 

CoRYSANTHES FORNiCATA, Lindl., Oen. et 8p. Orch,j p. 394. 
Hah. Perak : Tambak Batak ; Ounong Euar, Scortechini. 

POGONIA, Juss. 

P. PUNCTATA, Blume, Mu8. Bot Lugd. Bat., i. p. 32, et Orch. 
Arehip. Ind., p. 150, t. 49, f . 2. 

Hab. Singapore : Bukit Timah ! 

Lankawi Islands : Terutan, 0. Curtis ! 

This grows in very wet spots in the jungle on Bukit Timah. 
It is not recorded from the Malay Peninsula in the * Flora of 
British India.' 

P. rLABBLLiFOBMis, Lindl. in Wall. List, n. 7400. 

Hab. Pahang : Kwala Tembeling Woods P 

Perak : damp grassy fields, Padang Brengas ! 

I am doubtful as to the leaf specimens from the Pahang 
locality, but I have little doubt as to the flowering ones from 
Perak. 

P. P STRUTA, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. 8oc., Ser. 11. (Bot.) iii. 
(1893) p. 377. 
Hab. Pahang : Tahan Biyer Woods ! 

DIDYMOPLEXIS, GrifF. 

D. FALLENS, Oriff. in GcUc. Joum. Nat. Hist., iv. (1844) p. 383, 
t.l7. 

Hab. Singapore : Chan Ghu Eang ! Bajan ! 
Johore : Gunong Panti ! 
Perak : Scortechim. 
Kedah : Eedah Peak ! 
A very succulent, fi^agile plant, very inconspicuous when 
in flower. It grows usually in dry woods. The remarkable 
lengthening of the pedicel of the flower after fertilization has 
been described and figured by Hemsley in * Jonrn. Linn. Soc. 
(Bot.) * XX. (1883) p. 311, t. 28. The object of it is, as Hemsley 



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APOSTASIACEJC OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 409 

suggests, to carry the fruit above the decaying vegetation. 
The plant is so deeply buried in the ground, as is often the 
case with small saprophytes, that the seeds would be scattered 
when ripe close to the plant, whereas, by the rapid growth of 
the pedicel, they are carried up so far that when the capsule 
splits the breezes sweeping through the forest can drift the 
seeds far away. The same thing occurs in CorysantheSy which 
is a yerj small plant often deeply imbedded in moss. As the 
fruit ripens the pedicel rather rapidly elongates about an inch 
and a half ; and then, and not till then, the capsule bursts, and 
the seeds are borne away by the wind. 



LECANORCHIS, Blume. 

L. MALACCENSis, RtdL in Trans. Linn. Soe., Ser. II. {Bot.) iii. 
(1893) p. 377, t. 65. 

Hab. Singapore : Bukit Timah ! Bajan ! 

Johore : Ounong Panti ! Bukit Tenabang, Kelsall. 
Malacca : Bukit Sadanen ! Mt. Ophir ! 
Pahang : Tahan Woods ! 
Kedah : Eedah Peak ! 
By no means a rare plant, but, owing to the slendemess of 
its black stems, it is very inconspicuous. 

GASTRODIA, R. Br. 

G. JAVAKICA, Ltndl, Oen. et 8p. Orch.y p. 384 ; Blume^ Orch. 
Arehip. Ind., p. 145, t. 52, f. 1. 

Hah. Singapore : very rare. On an old fallen tree at Chan 
Chu Eang ! And also at Bukit Mandai ! 

The lip in the Singapore plant is less distinctly lobed, 
broader and blunter than in Blume*s figure. The capsule is 
fusiform at first, becoming nearly globose as it splits. As is 
usual in these plants, the separate carpels split for the whole 
length except at the top and bottom. 

G.? Hasseltii, Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat., ii. 175. 
Hah. Perak : Ic. Scortechini. 

The drawing may represent this species of Blume's. It is 
certainly distinct from the preceding. 



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410 mr. henry ridley on oechideie and 

Tribe OPHUYBBJE. 
HABENARIA, Willd. 

H. LiNDLEYANA, Steud, Nom,, ed. II. i. p. 717. 

Hah. "Malay Peninsola": Ic. Finlayson (in Herb. Kew.). 

Probably from Siam. 

H. MuRTONi, Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 144. 
Hah. Perak : limestone rocks, Scortechini, Ac. 

Gnnong Pondok: Murton (in Herb. Kew.). 

H. KiNGii, Hooh.f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 144. 
Hah. Perak : limestone rocks (King's Collector). 

H. siNGAPURENSiH, Bidl., sp. novQ. Caulis 3-pedalis, erectns, 
teres, pnrpurascens, in feme vaginatus, supeme foliatns. Folia 
c. 12, 6 poll, longa, 4 poll, lata, lanceolata, acuminata, atro- 
viridia, subpetiolata ; yaginae 1 poll, longee, ore obliqued ; caulis 
supra folia glaucescens, a bracteis lanceolatis acuminatis tectus. 
Bacemus densns plurimiflorus ; flores pro genere mediocres. 
Bra^ctece | poll, longae, lanceolatsd acuminatae, glanced. Pedicelli 
^ poll, longi, glaucescentes ; ovarium ^ poll, longum. Sepalum 
posticum f poll, longum, lanceolato-oblongnm, cymbiforme a 
mucrone ^ poll, longo capillari pallide glauco-viridi termin- 
atum, lateralia f poll, longa ^ poll, lata oblonga obtusa 
obliqua alba viridi-3-nervia a mucrone ^ poll, longo capillari 
terminata. Petala bifida ; lobus posticus f poll, longas linearis 
recurvus olivaceo-prasinus, antious multo minor linearis 
deflezus. Lahellum ferme ad basin 3-fidum; lobi lineares, 
laterales | poll, longi obtusi glauci olivaceo-virides patentee 
lobo centrali paullo breviores. Calcar J poll, longam, cylin- 
dricum, gracile, porrectum. Columna J- poll, longa, in dorso 
rotund ata rufa. Anthera flavescens, processubus longis rectis. 
Pollinia pyriformia, flavidula, granulis parvis ; caudiculi longi, 
capillares snperne dilatati aurei; discus ovalis, ater. SteUdia 
cum ^ parte column® aequilonga, oblonga, truncata, albescentia. 
Stigmata majuscula, oblonga, truncata, decurva. Eostellum 
triangulare, erectum, rnfescens. 

Hah. Singapore : very rare. A single plant in the woods at 
Choa Chu Kang, in a thick wet spot ! (August, 1894.) 



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APOSTASIACEJE OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 411 

This species is near H, saJaccensts, Blume, of Jaya, bat is 
very distinct in the dense thick raceme of pale whitish flowers. 
The dorsal sepal is mnch narrower, of a glancoos greyish green, 
minntely pnnctate. It has a slender hair-like awn at the apex. 
The lateral sepals are white with three green veins, the 
awn mQch longer. The petals mnch resemble those of H. 
sakuxensis, but the lip is longer in proportion to the sepals ; 
the lobes yery narrow, of a doll glaocons olive-green. The 
spnr is long and straight. The stigmatic lobes are mnch 
shorter than in the other species, and the anther processes 
much longer. The pollen grannies are very fine, the pedicel 
of a clear translucent golden colour, very slender. 

ThoDgh by no means a showy plant, this has a pleasing 
appearance ; the peculiar greyish-green colour mixed with the 
white of the sepals being rather striking. 

Habenabia xanthochila, RicU.j sp. nova, Tvhera 1 poll, longa, 
oblonga. Gaulis pedalis. Folia nsque ad 6 poll, longa, 1^ poll, 
lata, lanceolata acuminata, iusequalia, basi caulis congesta, reticu- 
lata; folia caulina plura, vaginantia, lanceolata acuminata. 
Racemus laxus, c. 10-florus. Flares magni, speciosi. Bracteae 
1 poll. long», cum ^ parte ovarii sBquilongae, acuminatae acntae, 
ovaria involventes. SepcUum . posticum cum petalis galeam 
formans, ovatum, subobtusum, carinatum, viride, lateralia 
Ovatu-obloDga decurva torta. Petala spathulata, oblonga, 
falcata, viridia. Lahellum \^ poll, longum, trilobnm, vitt-l- 
linum ; lobi laterales oblougi spathulati falcati apice dilatati 
truncati, medius basi auguste obovatus apice a lobis parallelis 
bifidus ; calcar 2 poll, longum deflexum, subteres, apice minute 
uncatum. Anthera galeata, curva, olivacea, brachiis latis 
porrectis. Follinia granulosa, fosiformia, curva; caudiculi 
longissimi, capillares, basi late triangulares; discos parvus, 
oblongoB, ruber. EosteUum magnum, ovatum. Stigmata brevia, 
decurva ; glandulae laterales ovoideae. 

Hob. Penang: (7. Curtis! 

A veiy rare and beautiful plant, allied to H, militarise 
Reichb. f., of Cochin-Chiua, but with the lip of a beautiful 
bright yellow. 

H. Z08TBR08TYLOIDKS, Hook. f.^ FL Brit. Ind., vi. p. 155. 
Hah. Malacci: Mt. Ophir range, on Gunong Mering ! 
Perak : Scortechini, Wray ! 



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412 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiS AND 

This grows in moss, often plentifully, on Mt. Ophir ; but it 
is difficult to get good specimens, as the flowers are constantly 
devoured by caterpillars. The foliage is certainly very similar 
to that of Gryptostylis, having even the darker blotching of that 
plant. The flowers are green. 

Habenaria GiGAS, Hook,/., Fl, Brit, Ind,, vi. p. 160. 
Hob, Perak : Batang Padang, Wray, 

H. carnka, N, E. Br. in Gard. Chron. (1891) ii. p. 729, % 105 ; 
(1892) II. p. 300. 

Hob, Lankawi Island, 0, Curtis. 

There are two forms of this ; the typical one with pale rose 
or white tinted with rose flowers, several on the raceme, and 
brown leaves with silver spots, and — 

Var. CONCOLOR, var. nov. 

Leaves entirely green. Raceme 1-2-flowered. Flowers 
smaller, pure white. 

This I have received from native dealeru, who say that they 
got it in Tonka. 

H. GLAUCESCENS, Bidl., sp. nova. Herba 2-pedalis. Tuber 
2 poll, longum, ^ poll, crassum, oblongnm; radices crassse lanugi- 
nosse. Folia 3, in canlis medio sita, insequalia, usque ad 
5 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, ovata, acuta, in margine undnlata, 
9-nervia, subtus glaucescentia ci*asse carinata, superne atro- 
viridia. Gaulis pars sapra folia 5 poll, longa, teres, prseter 
bracteas parvas elongato-lanceolatas nuda. Bacemus 8 poll, 
longus, validus ; flores copiosi, subsecundi ; rhachis sulcata. 
Bractece ^ poll, longss, cum ovariis aequilongas, lanceolate, 
acuminatsB, glauco-virides. Flores aperti, pro genere majusculi, 
virides. Sepala ^ poll, longa, anguste linearia, patentia, viridia 
mox rubescentia, pubescentia. Petala sepalis breviora latiora 
crassiora, Janceolata, integra, olivaceo- viridia. Labellum cum 
petalis sequilongum, sequaliter 3-lobum, snb colamn& saccatum ; 
lobi lanceolati, obtusi; calcar brevius, scrotiforme. Anthera 
parva, apice obtusa, viridis; loculi paralleli; processus 0. 
Pollinia ovata, clavata, citrina ; caudiculi breves ; disci minimi. 
Bostellum breve, latum, apice obtusum, hand productum. 
Stigmatis processas laterales erecti, clavati, anther^ vix 
breviores. 

Hab. Lankawi Isles : brought by a native from somewhere 
near Lankawi, G, Gurtis (April, 1894) ! 



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APOSTASIACE^ OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 413 

A tall stout plant, with the leaves nearly 6 inches above 
the base of the stem, of a rich dark green above, glaucous 
beneath. Raceme of many fleshy flowers ; rhachis and bracts 
sea-green. Sepals narrow, linear, pubescent, at first olive- 
green, soon becoming reddish. Petals and lip lobes equal and 
similar spreading-recnrved, dull greyish olive-green. The lip 
is dilate at the base just above the enti*ance to the short spur. 

Its affinity is with iT. goodyeroidesy D. Don. 

Habenaria LACBRTiFEEA, Benth,, Fl. Hongk., p. 362. 

Hab. Singapore : Selitar ! Jurong ! Pasir Panjang ! Blakang 
Mati ! Bukit Timah ! &c. 
Malacca : Sungei Hudang ! Bukit Bruang ! 
Penang : Government Hill. 

Mr. Hullett found it also very abundant on Gunong Dai, in 
the islands of Lingga. 

It grows along paths and roadsides in open country, but 
seems never to be very abundant in Singapore. The flowers are 
pure white, and sweetly scented. 

The var. rohusftor, Kraenzl. in Engl. Jahrb., xvi. (1892) 
p. 160 (var. rohusta, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 163), is 
merely a strongly grown plant in richer soil. 

The lip has usually three short equal lobes, but I have met 
with a form (at Jurong, Singapore) in which the two lateral 
lobes were prolonged into slender linear processes, much longer 
than the median one. This is given as part of the character 
of rohustioTy but the specimens were not bigger than the 
ordinary form. They were also remarkable for apparently 
having no spur to the lip; but I found that the spurs all 
withered and fell off shortly after the flowers opened. 

H. MONTICOLA, Bidhy sp, nova, Tubera ^ poll, longa, oblonga. 
Folia 3-4 basalia, 1 poll, longa, \ poll, lata, lanceolata, acuta, 
atroviridia. Caulis 7-18 poll, longus, gracillimus, prsBter 
bracteas lanceolatas acuminatas basin versus sitae nudus. 
B<icemiis laxus, multiflorus. Flares perparvi, virides, Bractece 
i poll, longse, lanoeolatsB acutaa ; pedicelli bracteis viz longiores. 
Sepala -^ poll, longa, oblongo-ovata. Fetala sepalis paullo 
breviora, elliptico-oblonga, obtusa, integra. Lahellum 3-fidum ; 
unguis brevis; lobi laterales J poll, longi filiformes, medius 
multo brevior obtusus ; calcar cum sepalis lequilongnm, rectum. 



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414 MR. HENRY RIDLEY ON ORCHIDEiE AND 

bifida m. Anthera brevis, in dorso carinata, apice tmncata; 
rostellum longinsciilnm. 

Hob, Malacca : Mt. Ophir, alt. 3,000 feet ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak, 3,000 feet ! 

This is a very slender small-flowered species, growing among 
moss in streams on these two monniains, and apparently rarely 
flowering, as I only met with a conple of plants in flower in 
each locality. It is allied to H. lacertifera, Benth., and H, tenict- 
culata^ Reichb. f . ; but the flowers are very mnch smaller, the 
bracts narrower, and the short spur is distinctly bilobed at the 
apex. 

CYPRIPEDIUM, Linn. 

C. NiVEUM, Beichb.f. in Gard. Ghron. (1869) p. 1038. 
Hah. Lankawi Islands, Curtis, Ac. 

It is remarkable that the only other locality known for this 
species is the Tembilan Islands, near Borneo. 

C. BARBATUM, LindL, Bot, Beg, (1841) Misc, p. 53. 

Hab. Johore : Otinong Panti, a single plant in dense 
jungle ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir, abundant ! Remban Hills ! 
Penang : Government Hill, abundant ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 

This well known species is often most abundant, sometimes 
covering rocks in masses, as on Penang Hill. On Mt. Ophir 
and Kedah Peak, though plentiful, it is more scattered, 
growing in moss by the stream in exposed places. Nearly all 
the named cultural varieties grow together. 0. superbietis, 
Reichb. f. in Bonplandia, iii. (1856) p. 227, I am quite unable 
to distinguish specifically ; it seems to be merely a fine form, 
and said to have been obtained on Mt. Ophir ; it is commonly 
called " Bunga Kami ** (Shoe flower) by the Malacca natives. 

I have found a few plants of a Oypripedium on the sea- shore, 
growing in sand beneath Pandani, in Johore, but the plant 
never flowered. It resembles a dwarf G. harbatum, but the 
leaves are much less distinctly marbled. It may prove a new 
species. 

Just outside the boundary, in Siam, grow C, insignej var. 
Exul, Ridl. in Gard. Cbron. (1891) ii. p. 92 (G. Exul, Hort., 



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AP0STA8UCEJC OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 415 

O'Brien, in Gard. Chron. (1892) ii. p. 522), and C. bellatulum, 
Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1888) i. p. 648, and its variety 
Oodefroyce. 

AP08TASIAGEM. 

APOSTASIA, Blame. 

A. NUDA, E. Br. in Wall. PI. As. Bar., i. p. 76, t. 85. 
Hab. Singapore : Bukit Timab, Jnrong, Ohangi, <fcc. ; very 
common in dry woods ! 
Johore : Bnkit Murdom, Johore Bahm ! 
Malacca : Mt. Ophir, Merliman, Selandor ! 
Penang : Government Hill ! 
Perak : Wray ; Bindings ! 
Kedah : Kedah Peak ! 
I have also collected it on the Carimon Islands, sonth of 
Singapore. 

A very abundant plant, called by the natives ^^ Pulampas 
Btidak" and "*' Kinching Pelandok" (Mousedeer's nrine) and 
" San Juan Hutan " (San JuaA being a Portuguese name for 
Dianella, has been adopted by the Malays witb the addition 
of Hutan, i.e., wood, for this plant). It is used for several 
complaints, including hydrophobia. 

The flowers are coloured yellow in Wallich's Plantaa 
Asiatic® Bariores, I.e. ; but, out of the numerous specimens I 
have seen, I have only found one with yellow or yellowish 
flowers, viz., on Mt. Ophir. The petals and sepals were, with 
this exception, white. It varies very much in the development 
of the panicle, which is sometimes very large, though short. 

A. Wallichii, B. Br. in Wall PI. As. Bar., p. 75, t. 84. 
Hah. Johore : Gunong Panti ! 

Pahang : Tahan River Woods, <fcc. ! 

Penang: Curtis. 

Perak : Scortechini, <tc. 
Much less common than the preceding. Flowers white 
whenever I have seen them. 

A. LATiFOLiA, Bolfe, in Joum. Linn, Soc. (Bot^y xxv. (1889) 
p. 242. 

Hab, Malacca: Mt. Ophir ! 

Perak: Scortechini, 
A much rarer plant than the other two. 



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416 MR. HENRY RIDLKT ON ORCHIDEjE AND APOSTASIACE-«. 



NEUWIEDIA, Blnme. 

N. LiNDLEYi, Rolfe, in Jown. Linn. Soc, (Bot), xxv. (1889) 
p. 232, t. 118, f. 10-12. 

Hah. Singapore : not very rare ! 

Malacca : Ayer Panas ! Chaban ! Sungei Udang, Bnkit 

Siutang ! 
Sangei Ujong ! 
Penang : Government Hill ! 
This has beautiful bright yellow flowers. The ftnit is 
capsular. It frequents damp jungle, and is called '' Jamba " by 
the natives. 

N. Curtisii, Bolfe, in Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot), xxv. (1889) 
p. 233. 

Tupistra singapureana. Wall. List, n. 5195 ; Baker, in Joum. 
Linn. Soc. (Bot.), xiv. (1875) p. 581 ; Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 
vi. p. 325. 

Hab. Singapore : Changi ! 

Johore : Gunong Panti ! 
Penang : Government Hill ! 

In flower this resembles the last ; but the fruit, instead of 
being a trigonous green capsule, is a succulent scarlet berry 
looking at first sight like the fruit of a Braccena. Wallich's 
type of Tupistra singapureana is a specimen of this plant in 
fruit, from Singapore. 

N. Griffithii, Beichb. /., Xenia Orch.y ii. p. 215. 
Hab, Singapore : Bukit Timah ! Bukit Mandai ! Sungei 
Morai ! Chua Chu Elang ! 
Malacca: Griffith. 
Perak : {King^s Collector.) 
This is a very local plant, growing in damp spots, sometimes 
even in streams, with Fa/ndani^ <&c. The stem is much longer 
than that of the other two species, and it has more of a 
tendency to creep. The flowers are white, tipped with green. 
The fruit resembles that of N. Lindleyiy Rolfe, being capsular. 



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ON ▲ NEW SPECIES OP CONIFER, P1NITE8 ECFFOEDI. 417 



A New Species of Conifer, Pinites Buffordi, from the English 
Woalden Formation. By A. C. Seward, M.A., P.G.S. 
(Communicated by Prof. Reynolds Qrben, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.L.S.) 

[Bead 2l8t NoTomber, 1895.] 

Among fossil plants there are perhaps none which are more 
nnsatisfactory, from the point of view of generic and specific 
determination, than the structureless casts or impressions of 
coniferous twigs. On the other hand, the frequent occurrence 
of well-preserved wood in Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic 
strata, has led to detailed comparative investigations on the 
histological structure of fossil and recent ConifercBy and it has 
been found possible to make use of certain anatomical characters 
as fairly trustworthy guides in generic identification. 

The genus PiniteSj first used by Witham, Goppert, and other 
early writers, has been adopted by many palsBobotanists as a 
convenient designation for fossil stems, foliage, and cones, 
exhibiting such characters as agree fairly closely with those 
of recent Pines. Used in its wider sense, Pinites serves as 
a representative genus for fossil Abietinece, The question of 
nomenclature is often one of some difficulty in dealing with 
fragments of fossil plants. The same term has been employed 
by various writers in a difEerent sense, and no little confusion 
has been caused by this inconvenient, though not altogether 
unnecessary practice. In Brongniart's ' Prodrome,' * we find 
the terms Pinus and Abies applied to fossil conifers which are 
regarded as closely allied to existing species of these genera ; 
but in a later work f by the same author, Goppert*s example 
is followed, and the generic term Pinites is used in a wide 
sense, including other genera of the Abietinece in addition to 
Pinus, 

Endlicher, in his * Synopsis Conif erarum,' J confines the generic 
name Pinites to cones and leaves, and makes use of the genus Peu<:e 
for specimens of fossil wood ; Brongniart accepts this application 
of the two genera. Goppert § prefers to extend the meaning 

• * Prodrome Hist. V^. Fom.,* p. 107. 
t 'Tableau,' p. 67. 
I Pp. 283 aod 291. 
§ * Monograph. Foss. Conif.,* p. 211. 
LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 £ 



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418 MB. ▲. C. SEWARD ON ▲ NEW SPECIES OF CONIFER, 

of Pinites, and inclades under that name leaves, cones, and fossil 
wood, possessing such characters as are found in Ptnus, Abie$^ 
Larix, and other members of the Ahietinece, More recently, 
Krans proposed the name Pityoxylon for fossil wood with the 
following type and structure: — "Lignum stratis concentricis 
angastis latioribusqae, cellalis prosenchjmatosis porosis, poris 
magnis, rotnndis, nni vel plariserialibus, oppositis; cellulis 
dnctibusque resiniferis baud raris; radiis medullaribus com- 
positis ductamque resiniferum inclndentibus vel simplicibos, 
cellnlsd eorum hand raro biformes.'** The custom of employing 
a special terminology for mineralized fossil wood has been 
followed by several writers, and has much to recommend it. 

The specimen described in the present communication may 
possibly be generically identical with the recent Pinus, but 
having only a fragment of wood before us, and no evidence 
as to the leaves or cones, it would be unwise to adopt the 
name Pinus in the restricted sense of the existing genus. 
Probably the most convenient course to follow is to make use 
of the fairly comprehensive genus Pinites, with the addition of 
Kraus's term Pityoxylon, 

In the recent genus Pinus, the horizontal tracheids accom- 
panying the medallary rays, with their characteristic irregular 
ingrowths, afford a distinguishing feature ; f these have not 
been detected in the present species. Other characters, 
associated with the existing representatives of the genos, 
such as the arrangement of the bordered pits, the vertical 
and horizontal resin ducts, and the distinctly marked rings 
of growth, are clearly seen in the Wealden fossil. 

The oldest species of fossil wood hitherto described to which 
the genus Pinites may reasonably be applied, is that described by 
Goppert and Stenzel from the Coal-Measures of Waldenburg, in 
Silesia, under the name of P. Gonwentzianus.X Schenk § includes 
this species in Kraus*s genus Pityoxylon, It is interesting to 
note, as Gonwentz has pointed out, that bordered pits occur in 
considerable numbers on the tangential walls of the tracheids 

• Schimper, * Trait. Pal. V^g.,' toI. ii. p. 877. 

t MdUer, N. J. G. * Erl&ut. Text -Atlas der Holntraotar,' 1888, p. 51. 

{ Gdppert and Stenzel, " Naohtrftge zur Eenntniat der Coniferenhdlzer der 
Palsozoischen Formationen '' (in ' Abhand. K, Preuss. Akad. Wias.,' Berlin, 
1887), p. 64, pie. 11, 12. 

§ ' Zittel's Handbuoh/ toI. ii. p. 876. Solms-Laubaoh (< Fossil Botony,' 
p. 88) regards this species as a doubtful example of Fiwiies, 



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PINITBS EUPFOEDI, FROM THE ENGLISH WBALDEN FORMATION. 419 

of this species ; if the interpretation of the sections is correct, 
this character constitutes a striking peculiarity in the straotnre 
of Finites Oonwentzianus, Passing to Jarassic and Lower 
Cretaceous strata, we find Pinites well represented ; from the 
Rhadtic beds of Sweden, Nathorst * has described some struc- 
tureless specimens of the genus, and a species of Pityoxylon is 
recorded from the Trias of Germany. In a recent monograph 
on fossil wood from the Holma Sandstone of Sweden, Oonwentz 
describes some fairly well-preserved specimens of wood referred 
to the genus Pinites, Although coniferous wood is by no means 
rare in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks, it is 
seldom that we find specimens with the minute structure 
clearly preserved. Man tell, Carruthers, Gardner, and others, 
have recorded several examples of cones from Wealden beds 
as species of Pinites; and more recently another species has 
been discovered in the Wealden rocks near Hastings, which 
shows cones and leaf -bearing branches in organic connection .f 
The fossil wood of the so-called " Pine raft " of Brook Point, 
in the Isle of Wight, has long been known to geologists ; but, 
as a rule, the specimens from this locality do not admit of 
any accurate diagnosis by means of microscopical examination. 
In Dixon's * Geology of Sussex,' Carruthers % speaks of certain 
specimens of Wealden fossil wood as possessing a structure 
similar to that of recent species of the genus Pinus. In the 
' Geological Magazine ' for 1872, p. 10, the same author figures 
two sections of a piece of " Pine wood " from the Wealden of 
the Isle of Wight. An examination of the specimens now in 
the British Museum leads me to regard Carruthers's plant as 
a distinct species. 

As a specific designation for the fossil wood described below, 
I have ventured to make use of Mr. Ru£ford's name; it is 
to him we are indebted for the type specimen, and for the 
large and valuable collection of Wealden plants recently 
acquii*ed by the British Museum. The material obtained by 
Mr. Rufford from Ecclesbourne, Fairlight, and other localities 
in the neighbourhood of Hastings, has enabled us to con- 
siderably extend our knowledge of the Wealden flora. In 

* Bidr. Syerif^es foss. flora, in Svensk. yet..Akad Handl., toI. zir., d. 8 
(1876) p. 62-64. 
t Wealden Flora (toI. ii, p. 196), Brit. Mas. Cat., 1895. 
X * Geol. Sussex/ edit. II. p. 279. 

2e2 



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420 MR. A. C. SEWAED ON A NEW SPECIES OF CONIFER, 

the varietj and Dumber of its species, the flora of this epoch 
seems to have been almost equal to that of which so many 
specimens have been obtained from the older Jurassic beds of 
the Yorkshire coast and other districts. 

There is abundant evidence that in Lower Cretaceous and 
Upper Jurassic times Pinites was widely distributed; species 
have been recorded from England, France, Germany, Austria, 
Russia, Portugal, Belgium, Greenland, Spitzbergen, North 
America, Japan, and other parts of the world. 

Pinites (§ Pittoxtlon) Ruffobdi, Seward, Cat. Mesozoic PI. 
Brit. Mus. (Wealden Fl.), part ii. p. 199, absque descriptione. 
Pinites ligni stratis concentricis distinctia, tracheidis punctatis, 
punctis rotundis discretis in un& serie vel in du&bus seriebus 
in eodem piano horizontali juxtapositis, ductis resiniferis 
copiosis ; radii medullares uni- vel multiseriales e cellulis 
parenchyraatosis formati; cellulsB parenchymatossB porossB in 
medio radiorum multiseriatium ductum resiniferum solitarium 
includentes. 

Annual lings well marked. Resin ducts numerous, occurring 
in regular rows in the spring and summer (autumn) wood, and 
scattered irregularly throughout the zylem tissue. Bordered 
pits on the radial, and rarely on the tangential walls of the 
tracheids, in single or double rows ; when in a double row the 
pits of tbe two rows are opposite ; the pairs of pits being on the 
same horizontal line. Medullary rays numerous, con.sisting of 
one row or more than thirty rows of cells, as seen in tangential 
section ; the radial walls possessing simple oval or circular pits. 
In most cases the medullary rays are made up of a single 
vertical row of cells, but broader rays of more than one tier 
are fairly abundant, and often contain horizontal resin passages. 
Xylem parenchyma surrounds the resin ducts, and frequently 
the cavity of the ducts is occupied by large rounded cells, 
which appear to have grown like tiillen into the resin passage. 

Type Specimen in the British Museum (F. 2.^04). 

In a transverse section* 2*7 cm. in length, there occur 18 well 
marked "annual" rings, which show a striking irregularity in 
their relative breadth. The width of the broadest zone being 

* The Bpecimen on which the species, Pinites Ruffordi, is founded is 
probably a portion of a stem. Dr. Conwentz, to whom 1 showed the 
sections during his recent visit to England, expressed this opinion after a 
hurried microscopical examination. 



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PraiTES RUPPORDI, FROM THE ENGLISH WEILDEN PORMATION. 421 

aboat 3 mm., and of the narrowest 1 mm. ; between these 
extremes the breadth varies considerably. In some parts of 
the section one finds two rings of narrower tracheids separated 
by seven or eight wider tracheids, one of the rings being a 
typical annual zone of summer wood, and the other consisting 
of fewer narrow elements, and occasionally incomplete. Sach 
appearances may probably be referred to local changes in 
growth or in the sopply of nutrition, and, when the two zones 
of narrow tracheids are complete, we may regard them as an 
example of two rings of growth formed in one year. In 
fig. 1 a transverse section is somewhat diagrammatically repre- 
sented about three times the natural size. On the left-hand 
side of ring 1 (on the left-hand side of the figure), and 

Fio. 1. 




Tranarene section of the wood of Finite$ Itvffordij showing annual rings, 
resin ducts, &o. ( x 8). 

separated from it by six to ten tracheids, there is a second 
narrower zone of smaller tracheids ; similarly, close to ring 2, 
a second zone of narrower elements occurs ; both these may be 
described as double rings. Instances of *' double rings of 
growth *' have been recorded by Kny, Strasburger • and other 
writers in recent trees. Another striking feature presented by 
a transverse section, is the abundance of resin ducts ; on the 
right of ring 4 we find a row of numerous and crowded canals 
and on the right hand side of these, the diameter of the 
tracheids next to the duct is about the same as that of the 
summer tracheids. Again, in the summer wood of ring 6, 
there are a fairly large number of canals, also between rings 10 

* Strasburger, < Histologische Beitrige,* Heft Hi. 1891, p. 25. 



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422 MB. ▲. G. SEWABD ON A NBW SPECIES OF COmFEB, 

and 11. Between rings 10 and 11 there occur only abont 
15 tracheids ; between rings 12 and 13 as many as 40 or 
60 tracheids. 

The nnmerous dark patches scattered thronghont the section 
represent disorganised groups of woody tissue ; it is, however, 
not an easy matter to determine how far some of these are 
due to ordinary decay, or to the agency of some wood-boring 
animal, or to patches of resiniferous cells. There is evidence 
in places of the destructive action of parasitic fungi, but no 
distinct traces have been detected of fungal hjphad. The 
unusually large number of resin canals in certain parts of the 
section, may probably be regarded as an expression of some 
injury sustained by the tree. 

A more detailed examination of the transverse section brings 
to light the following structural features. The tracheids have 
thin and sharply defined walls, with their cavities occupied by 
crystalline material, probably calcite ; the thinness of the walls 
is no doubt not an original character, but a pathological 
feature, or the result of partial decay before mineralization. 
The individual tracheids are often found to be more or less 
separated from one another, as in the summer wood of (PI. II. 
fig. 1). As seen in (PI. II. fig. 1), the rings of growth are sharply 
defined. The medullary rays stand out conspicuously by reason 
of the darker coloured contents of the cells, in most cases they 
appear in the transverse section of the stem as single rows of 
radially elongated cells. In the cavities of these ray cells there 
are often found light brown highly refractive granules ; these 
may be the remains of cell contents, but it is difficult, or indeed 
impossible, to determine their exact nature, even under the 
highest magnifying power. In one or two places the elements 
of the medullary rays show faint indications of thin projections 
into the cell cavity ; these may possibly represent the imper- 
fectly preserved ingrowths characteristic of the medullary ray 
tracheids in Finns, or may be faint indications of a spiral 
striation on the tracheid walls. Conwentz has figured 
examples of cleai'ly marked striation in tracheids of the Eocene 
species, Pinus mcctnifera Conw.,* and less perfect sugges- 
tions of such a striature may be seen in longitudinal sections of 
the present species of Ptnites. 

The resin ducts in some cases have their cavity occupied by 

• < Monograph, baltisohen Berntteinbftiiiiie,' 1890, p. 43. pi. 4. fig. 5, 
and pi. 10 fig. 4. 



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PINITE8 BUFFORDI, FROM THE ENGLISH WEALDEN FORMATION. 423 

clear crystalline material, as in fig. 3; in others, again, the 
canal is more or less completely filled with dark coloured and 
somewhat rounded cells. If we compare figs. 4 and 5 with 
those given bj Conwentz in his pi. 5. figs. 5 and 6, the two sets 
of canals are found to be practically identical in appearance. 
The filling cells are described by Conwentz as tiillen-like 
ingrowths of epithelial cells; that such an explanation is 
correct, at least in certain canals of Pinites Buffordi, there is 
fairly clear evidence afforded hj an examination of transverse 
and longitudinal sections. In some cases, however, the form 
and arrangement of the cells would seem to be characteristic of 
tissue in process of forming a schizolysigenons canal (e.^., 
fig. 4). These filling cells occupying the canals, cannot well be 
regarded as examples of true tiillen such as Dyer, Williamson, 
and others have described in the trachesd of fossil plants ; they 
are probably, in part, ingrowths of epithelial cells, and in part 
the ordinary cells of the xylem parenchyma in which the resin 
ducts occur. There frequently occur two resin ducts in close 
contact, as seen in transverse section, and occasionally such 
become fused together ; in other words, two longitudinal canals 
anastomose.* 

The darker patches seen in fig. 1 are for the most part 
occupied by broken fragments of tracheids : the tracheids 
which form the limit of these patches usually show signs of 
tearing and disorganisation. Some of the large oval patches 
are bounded by rows of tracheids, which curve round the mass 
of more or less completely destroyed tissue in such a manner 
as to suggest a forcing apart of rows of xylem elements. In 
many of these areas the central portion consists of clear 
crystalline substance, and the periphery of numerous and 
irregular thin brown lines presenting the appearance of delicate 
parenchyma ; it is probable that this structure is due to fine 
cracks in a crystalline matrix along which brown colouring 
matter has been introduced. 

The form and manner of occurrence of these disorganised 
patches suggest the presence of a parasitic fungus, such as 
Trametes radictperda; a comparison of fig. 1 with Hartig's figure 
of a piece of spruce fir attacked by this fungus shows a fairly 
close resemblance.f 

• Cf. Kny, < BoUniMbe Wandtafelxi,' p. 210, fig. 6. 

t Manhall Ward, * Timber and Some of ito DiBeaies,' p. 151, fig. 13. 



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424 UB. A. C. SEWARD OM A NEW SPECIES 0¥ CONIFER, 

Passing to the longitudinal sections : the radial walls of the 
tracheids show very clearlj single or doable rows of bordered 
pits, in the latter case the pits occar in opposite pairs as seen in 
fig. 10. In fig. 11 is represented a slight modification of this 
arrangement : but this is exceptional. In fig. 6 a single 
bordered pit is shown on the tangential wall of a tracheid ; as a 
rule, howeyer, the pits are confined to the radial walls. The 
filled-in cavities of the tracheid are traversed by numerous 
cracks, which occasionally extend across from one wall to the 
other; in addition to these apparent septa, there occur here 
and there, what are in all probability true transverse septa. 
Such walls are not confined to the xylem parenchyma, but also 
occur in the tracheids. Conwentz* notes the occurrence of 
transverse septa in the tracheids of Pinus suceinifera, and 
recognises two kinds, comparatively thick walls and others 
much more delicate. In the Wealden species the preservation 
is less perfect than in Conwentz*s specimens, and no such* 
distinction can be recognised ; indeed it is always difficult in 
dealing with petrified plant tissues, to distinguish original from 
secondary structures. A thin wall in a fossil by no means 
necessarily means a thin wall in the living plant. The septa 
in a specimen of Oordaioxylon Braiidlingi, Grand 'Eury, figured 
by Schenk in Zittel's *Handbuch,'t are probably transverse walls 
across the tracheids, and not the septa of tiillen cells as is 
suggested in the description of the figure. 

The character of the medullary rays is clearly shown in 
fig. 7; the contents of the cells have in many cases been 
preserved as a dark coloured or carbonized substance in the 
cell cavity. In fig. 6 is represented one of the comparatively 
short and broad medullary rays, ^rans versed by a horizontally 
running resin duct. In figs. 8 and 9 is shown the nature of the 
pits in the medullary ray cells, these vary somewhat in size and 
shape ; no bordered pits have been detected in these cells. The 
connection between the parenchyma of the medullary rays and 
the xylem parenchyma in which the resin ducts occur, may be 
recognised in the radial longitudinal sections.^ 

The histological characteristics brought out by the above 
brief description are, I believe, such as to justify the institution 

* ' Mongraph. baltiaohen Berntteinb&ume/ 1890, p. 44. pi. 4. 

t P. 858, fig. 408. 

{ Cf, Strasburger, Histologiiohe Beitrige, Heft iii. p. 4. 



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.i^ UPN br.T /-I .mil }\.. 



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Sewdrd . 



Linn Soc Jouhn.Bot.Voi..XXX11.Pl.3 





PUSHES RUFFORDI 



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PINITES EUFFORDI, FROM THK ENGLISH WEALDEN FOEMATIOX. 425 

of a new specific type of the ji^emis Finites. A comparison of 
Finites Ruffordi with the type described bj Goppert andMenge,* 
and more fully by Conwentz,t reveals a striking similarity 
between the Weald en and Eocene plant. The species more 
recently described by Conwentz as Finites Nathorsti^X from the 
Lower Cretaceous Holma Sandstone of Sweden, agrees very 
closely with P. Buffordi; in the former there are the same 
parenchymatous filled canals, and other points of resemblance ; 
but in the Swedish species the bordered pits appear to occur 
only in single rows on the radial walls of the tracheids. 
Unfortunately it is seldom possible to connect petrified 
coniferous stems with their leaf-bearing hranches and cones, 
and in this species we are ignorant as to the leaves and flowers 
borne by the branches of Finites Buffordi. In any case we 
have abundant evidence of the existence in Wealden rocks 
of a conifer possessing anatomical features practically identical 
with those characteristic of recent species of the genus Finns, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
The figtires are approximately 240 times natural size. 

Plate II. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Transyerse section showing well marked zones of summer 

(autumn) wood, medullary ray cells, and (in fig. 1) a resin duct. 
Fig. 8. Besin duct filled with crystalline material. 

4. Besin duct, with small cavitj, surrounded by some t^en-like cells 
and partially disorganised xjlem parenchyma. 

Plate IU. 

Fig. 6. Resin duct filled with large rounded cells. 

6. Tangential section showing tracheids and a broad medullary ray 

trayersed by a resin duct. 

7. Tangential section showing the different lengths of medullary rays. 
Figs. 8 and 9. Badial section of pitted medullary raj cells. 

10 and 11. Bordered pits on the radial walls of tracheids. 



* GOppert and Menge, * Die Flora des Bemsteins,* yoL i. 1888, p. 27. 

t Conwentz, loc. eii, 

X Conwentz, *' Untersuchungen ilher fossile Hdker Schwedens," in 
*Syensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl.,* voL xxiy. No. 18 (1892), p. 18, pis. 1, 2, 8, 
6, and 7. 



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426 MR. G. C. DRUCE ON A NEW SPECIES OP GRASS, 



On a New Species of Orass, Bromus interruptus, in Britain. Bj 
O. Claridge Druce, M.A., F.L.S. 

[BmcI 6th December, 1895.] 

The history of the species is as follows : — In 1888 I found what 
I thought was a peculiar variety of Bromus moUis occnrring in 
considerable quantity in a barren chalky field, in which a crop 
of barley had been sown the preceding year, but which was 
then lying fallow. The field is situated on the Lower Chalk 
formation between Unwell Wood and Blewburton Gamp, in 
Berkshire. In the adjoining fields B, moUia var. glahrescens 
occurred more frequently than the ordinary form. Subse- 
quently I found the same peculiar form in smaller quantity, 
in a c I oyer field on the same geological formation on the 
Oxfordshire side of the river, between Goring and Gktthampton. 
An examination of our herbaria and of botanical works having 
failed to yield anything like these specimens, I sent a supply to 
the Botanical Exchange Clab in 1888, under the name of 
B, moUis var. aggregatus. One of these Berkshire specimens 
was sent to Professor Hackel so labelled. He quite agreed in 
considering it a new variety, and while offering to retain my 
suggested name thought that the name interruptus would be 
more suitable, to which I willingly acceded. Professor Hackel 
diagnosed it as follows : — " B. m4)lUs L. var. interrupta, mihi 
(Hackel). Panicnla brevis, interrupta, spiculis glomeratis 
obovato-ellipticis, gluma sterili superiore dimidiam spiculam 
aequante vel superante. Affinis B. moUt var. congloTnemto, 
Persoon, Syn. i. p. 8, cujus panicula sdqualiter compacta, 
spicuUo angustiores, villosiores.*' 

For the last seven years I have kept the plant under obser- 
vation. I find it comes true from seed, and it is fairly persistant 
in its localities. It must be borne in mind that so far it has 
only been met with in arable ground. It is by no means 
confined to the two fields where I first discovered it in 1888, 
but is found over a considerable area of the Lower Chalk 
cornfields. 

This season it was very abandant in a field of vetches near 
Upton, in Berkshire. From the result of my observations I was 
led to believe it to be at least sub-specifically distinct from 
B, mollisy and I had described it as a species in my forthcoming 



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BROMUS INTERRUPTUS, IN BRITAIN. 427 

* Flora of Berkshire.' This sammer Mr. L. Lester fonnd it in a 
sandy cornfield, on the Coralline Oolite, between Elsfield and 
Headington, near Oxford, and pointed ont to me that in his 
specimen the inner pale was split to the base. I was at once 
stmck with the importance of this character in deciding upon 
its specific position, and in order to test its constancy proceeded 
to examine all the specimens of Bromus I could meet with. 
The result of mj investigations is that I find all the specimens 
of B, mollis and its varieties, glabrescens and Lloydtanusy have 
the upper pale entire. Some hundreds of specimens from 
Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Hungary, Turkey, 
Madeira, and Tasmania have been examined. I have also never 
found specimens of B, commutatus or B. rcLcemosus with the 
upper palea split. On the other hand, all the specimens of 
B. interruptus which I have examined have the inner palea 
split to the base. This is true, not only of my gatherings of 
1888, but of those gathered since that time. The specimens 
which have been cultivated by Mr. F. Tufnail as the var. inter- 
rupius, and for seeds of which I am indebted to him, show the 
same character. It may be well to add that specimens labelled 
B. mollis var. interrupiuSf which were collected by Captain 
Wolley-Dod, near Dartford Hospital, in West Kent, and sent to 
the Exchange Club in 1893, were referred to B, mollis by 
Professor Hackel. The two specimens in my possession from 
that locality, and which I referred to B, interruptus from their 
general appearance, show on examination that the palea is split. 
The question may be asked : Is B. interruptus a native plant 
to Britain ? This question I am unable to answer positively in 
the affirmative. We may urge in its favour that when it was 
sent to Professor Hackel seven years ago it was a new form to 
him, nor since that time have I been able to see a continental 
specimen. From its occurring exclusively in arable ground and 
chiefly in crops of vetches, seeds, and clover, it may be urged 
with some force that the desigpiation colonist would be more 
suitable. In these fields I have not observed any specimens of 
Silene dichotoma^ Crepis taraxadfolia^ or 0. nicceensis, which are 
often present among continental grass seeds. B. commutatus 
occurs with B. interruptus more frequently than B, mollis^ 
althoagh I have seen these two growing together The sugges- 
tion of its being a form due to local peculiarities of soil is, 
therefore, not tenable. 



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428 MR. O. C. DBTJCE ON A NEW SPECIES OF GRASS, 

Mr. F. Tnfnail tells me that it has been cultiyated at 
Reading by the side of B. mollis, and that it keeps quite distinct. 
B, interruptus is not so mnch inclined to vary either as to 
height or condition of hairiness as B. Tnollis, and seeds of the 
two species may be separated one from the other. 

Since the publication of the eighth edition of the * London 
Catalogue ' more than a hundred species hare been added to the 
list of British plants ; it is scarcely probable that botanists of 
another decade will agree in retaining all of these. In bringing 
forward the claims of an aspirant for specific distinction, I 
place stress upon a well-marked character which differentiates 
it from its nearest ally, this structural character not being made 
out until its peculiar habit, its more perennial growth, <!bc., 
had marked it as being a probably distinct species. In fact the 
suggestion made by the lamented Professor Babington in his 
preface to the * Manual,' has in this instance been complied with, 
namely, to make the species afPord the character, not the 
character the species. 

I have seen specimens of B, interruptus from Oxfordshire, 
Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, W. Kent, and Norfolk. Mr. 
Tufiiail says he has found it rather plentiful near Lowestoft, in 
Suffolk, and that he had seen specimens from Lincolnshire. 

Bromus interruptus, mihi. Herba annua, biennis aut 
perennis, saepius perennis. Spioulae in pedicellis brevibus 
rigidis singillatim (alternatim dextrorsum et sinistrorsum) in 
rhachide dispositee ; singuli pedicelli cum 3-5 sessilibus ant 
subsessilibus spiculis apice pedicelli i*acemosim dispositi. 
Panicula, florem et fructum gerens, erecta angusta evidenter 
tnterrupta. SpiculsB, florem et fructum gerentes, erect® primnm 
ovali-lanceolatflB acutee; proventu ovales et obtuse cum 6-12 
floribus glauco-yiridis pubescentes. Oluma interior et vacua 
dimidia non supra in partem sexti floris (tertii fioris in eodem 
latere) producta. Glumes, florem et fructum gerentes, arete 
imbricated. Palea inferior exteiior marginibus dimidi& parte 
inter mediam paleam et apicem utroque latere obtuse angu- 
lata, 5-7 costata; apice nonnihil emarginata, pubescens aut 
subglabra marginibus late scariosis. Arista ex una emar- 
ginatione infenoris paleeB procedens, fere directa aut erecta, 
pale4 nonnihil brevior. Palea superior interior (gluma jlorens 
superior) pccne ad basin in hinas angustas lanceolatas partes, paled 



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BROMUS INTERRUPTUS, IN BRITAIN. 429 

inferiore vel exteriore dimidid parte aut dudhus partihus mmtts 
longaSj divisa. 

Synonym. Bromus mollis^ Linn. yar. interrwptus^ Hackel, in 
' Report Botanical Exchange Glab British Isles for 1888/ p. 240. 

The most striking feature of this plant when first seen is the 
inflorescence, which differs from all other species of Bromus 
known to me, in that single short stiff pedicels arise, alternately 
right and left of the main raohis, each bearing at its extremity 
3-5 sessile (or in some cases shortly stalked) spikelets. To this 
fact is dne the peculiar and strikingly intermpted and compact 
appearance of the whole inflorescence, which is made np of two 
rows of clustered groups of 3-5 spikelets. 

This peculiar feature does not obtain in its nearest allies, 
since in them 4-5 slender pedicels of various lengths arise at 
the same level on the rachis, each bearing one or two, rarely 
more, spikelets ; hence the inflorescence in these species is more 
loosely continuous. 

As will be seen, the alliance of B. interruptus is essentially 
with B, mollisy since the larger or inner glume extends half way 
to the apex of the sixth floret (the third on the same side), 
whereas in B, racemostis and B, commtUaius it reaches only to the 
fourth flower (the second on the same side). The texture and 
pubescence too of the spikelets of B, interruptus are similar to 
those of B. mollis. The character which at once separates 
B. interruptus from B, mollis, B. commutatus, B. racemosuSy <&c., 
is to be found (as pointed out to me by Mr. L. Lester, M.A., of 
St. John's College, Oxford) in the upper pale (the inner palea 
of Parnoll), which is uniformly split to the hose, and is much 
shorter than the outer or lower pale. 

B, interruptus is further distingnished from B. mollis by its 
more perennial growth, its greater height, and narrow strict 
interrupted panicle. The fruits of B, intemtptus are shorter 
and darker in colour with a more conspicuous groove. In 
B. mollis the palea is more or less adherent to the surface of the 
caryopsis, than which it is slightly narrower, so that a small 
margin of the fruit is to be seen. In B. interruptus the pales 
are only rarely adherent and then not to the face but to the 
margins of the fruit. I can see no difference in the lodicules. 
The suggestion may be made that the split palea may be an 
accidental rupture during the growth of the fruit. That it is 



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430 MR. 0. C. DBUCE ON A NEW SPECIES OF GRASS. 

not dne to this cause is eyident from tho fact that oxamination 
shows the pales are split from its early flowering stage. 

[In all the examples of B, interrupttts^ Dmce, the upper pale 
is, even in theyonng flower, divided to the base or at least \^ih% 
of its length into two snbeqnal lanceolar lobes ; each of these 
has the green nerye down its middle (not exactly median), and 
the two lobes stand soon rather divaricately apart. There is 
nothing in any other species of Bromus approaching this ; and 
no such complete division of the upper pale is well established 
in the whole order. Dr. Stapf has lately examined into the few 
alleged cases of the occurrence of a split upper pale in grasses ; 
and he cannot find in verifying these any case parallel to that 
of Bromus interruptus; the split is either only partial, hardly 
half-way down, or it is mechanical, t.e., does not exist in the 
young flower. 

Hackel, of course, overlooked the split pale in Bromus inter- 
rupius, because he never thought of looking for anything so 
abnormal. 

Dr. Stapf argaed, when Mr. Druce's paper was read, that 
Bromus interruptus^ Dmce, must be treated as a monstrosity and 
could in no case be made a new species. It may indeed be 
maintained that the character of the completely bifid upper pale 
is either generic or monstrous, one or the other, and cannot be 
speci6c. 

The remarkable uniformity with which the upper pale is 
split to the base in every fiower, in every specimen yet got from 
diverse localities, may be held to negative for the present the 
view that B. interruptus is a monstrosity. Of all the innumer- 
able species proposed as split-offs from Bromus mcllis^ there is 
no one so well worth a specific name as B, interruptus^ Dmce, 
and no one to be compared with it in morphologic interest. — 
C. B. Clarke.] 

The foregoing note in square brackets waa drawn up 25th 
June, 1896, from materials kindly supplied by Dr. Stapf. 



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MB. G. F. SCOTT ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTAS. 431 



A Revision of the Genus Pentas. By G. F. Scott Elliot, 
M.A., F.L.S., P.R.G.S. 

[Bead 7th Noyember, 1895.] 

In the course of working out my collections, I found this 
genus in a very unsatisfactory state of confusion, and thought 
it well worth while to examine all the species carefully as a 
guide to their African distribution. 

The following list may be found useful. Great diffionlty has 
arisen from the new species which have been described in the 
interval betwixt writing and reading the paper : — 

Table of Species. 

Central Watershed 1. vertieiUata. 

East Africa 2. lonffUuba, 

Somaliland 3. glahrescens. 

Arabia 4. SchweinfitrihU. 

Comoros and Arabia 5. lanceolata, 

Stevenson Boad 6. conferfifolia, 

Somaliland 1, poMciflora, 

Masai Highlands 8. AinnoortUi. 

Masai and Shire Highlands . . . • 9. longiflora. 
General (not Western) . . . . 10. eamea. 

Transraal and Natal 11. Woodii. 

Western and Congo .12. elata. 

Western and Congo 18. oecidentdlU. 

Abjssinia 14. Schimperiana. 

Eastern Desert 16, parvifoUa, 

Masai Highlands 16. ThomtoHii, 

Masai and Shire Highlands . . . . 17. purpurea. 

Angola, Upper Nile 18. arvenns. 

Western 19. parv\/lora. 

Western 20. volubilu, 

Angola . . . . 21. sp. nor. 

Madagascar Central 22. musgandoides. 

Madagascar Central 28. micrantha. 

Madagascar Central 24. hirtiflora, 

1. P. verticillata, K. Schum, ined. M8S, in Herb. Kevo. 
Oentral Watershed, TJkiro, Fischer^ 319 ! On dry grassy hills. 
East side Albert Edward Nyanza, ScoU Elliot, 8045 ! 
Flowers in Angnst, at from 4-5,000 feet. 



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432 MR. O. P. 8C01T ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTAS. 

2. Pentas longituba, K, Schum. in Pflanz, Ost-Afr.^ Bd. v. 
p. 377. 

In rock cleEts in the higher regions of East Africa, HoUt^ 41 8. 
(Specimens not seen.) 

3. P. GLABRESCENS. Baker, in Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. 67. 
Easily distinguished from P. verticellata by the hairy, broadly 

ovate petioled leaves. 

Somaliland, in rocks. Mrs, Lort Phillips and Miss Edith 
Cole, 11, 12, 13, 14. Miss Cole, no. 9, seems to me a glabrous 
maritime form of this. 

4. P. ScHWEiNFURTHii, S, Elliot, sp. nov. 

Fmtex l-metr. ramis obscure striatis breviter hirsutis ; foliis 
5-10 cm. long., 14-24 mm. lat. densis lanceolatis pilosis ad 
apicem attenuatis ; acute subapiculatis vel fere obtasis ad basin 
attenuatis breviter (2-3 mm.) petiolatis, venis circa 12-jugis, 
plurime sapra subtnsque elevatis sed cost& supra siepius depress^ 
Iiirsut^ue, supra sparse, subtus densiascule ; stipularum setis 
5-10 mm. ; cymis hand congestis, floribus vix pedicellafcis ; 
calycis tubo sub-campanulato fructa lineis 10 elevatis con- 
spicuis omato, 5 mm. long., 4 mm. lat., lobis ovatis ad 7 mm. 
long. ; corollsB tubo 25-30 mm. ad fauoem ampliato interne 
albo barbato antheris (formis visis) inclusis ; lobis ovatis sub- 
apiculatis, exteme hirsutis 5-7 mm. long. 

Arabia. " Fuch," Menacha Yemen, Schweinfurth, 1370 ! 
Jebel Hain, Al Hatte, near Aden, Hunter, 4 ! 20 ! 258 ! in an 
elevated valley, Ad Heggias, Figari ! 

Flowers white, fragrant ; March to May, at from 5-7,000 feet. 

5. P. LANCEOLATA, K. Schum., MSS. (an confertifolia f). 
" Arabia and Comores." 

6. P. CONFERTIFOLIA, Baker, in Kew Bulletin (1895), p. 67. 
About 5,000 feet altitude. 

Zambesi — Congo Watershed. Fuambo, Carson, 113! 23! in 
Herb. Kew. 

7. P. PAUCiFLORA, Baker, in Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. ^^, 
Distinguished from P. Schweinfurthii by the 4-7 nerved 

leaves and the longer 3-nerved calyx bracts. 

Flowers (pink) Febraary, to 8,000 feet, Golis Eange. 
Ayhner, 10 ! Aalayra, Wardi, Darraas, Mrs. Lort Phillips^ and 
Miss Edith Cole, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 ! 



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MR. 0. F. SOOTT ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTA8. 433 

8. Pentas Ainswoethii, 8. ElUot, sp. nov. 

Fmtex ramis albidis sabteretibns jnventnte dense pilis crispis 
conspersis ; f oliis ovatis vel ellipticis obtuse snbaciiminatis vel 
apiculatis ad basin attennatis breviter petiolatis margine 
revolnto supra sparse pilosis (venis plants) subtns densinscnle 
prsBcipue ad venas hirsntis, venis plarime 8-jngis, 2-3 cm. long., 
7-17 mm. lat., petiolis 1-2 mm.; floribna terminalibns con- 
gestis ; caljcis lobis subacutis externe hirsntis majore, 3-5 mm. 
long., 1 mm. lat. ; brevioribns ad 1 mm. ; corollsB tnbo 22-30 
mm. ad fancem per longitndinem 5 mm. dilatato, externe 
hirsute, interne dense albo barbato, lobis 5-6 mm. subinflexis 
crispatis, externe hirsntis ; antheris (f ormA yisA) inclusis 4 mm. ; 
stylo exsertOy lobis hirsntis, 1 mm. 

Masai Highlands. Ukambane, 8coU EUioi, 6437. At from 
4-6,000 feet. Flowers in December. From P. longiflora readily 
distinguished by the broad leaves. This is named after my 
kind host who has long administered the district. 

9. P. LONOiFLOEA, OZtver, in Trans, Linn. Soc.y Ser. II. (Bot.) 
vol. ii. (1887) p. 335. 

Buwenxori. Kasagama's, Scott Elliot, 7548 ! 

Central Watershed, Umndi Hills, N.E. Tanganyika, Scott 
EUiot, 8038 ! 

Masai Highlands. Sotik, Man, Jackson! Ukambane, Scott 
Elliot, 64Q2 I 6457! 

Kilimanjaro. Johnston ! New ! Marangu, Volkens, 721 1 
St. Paul ! 

Usambara T . Mlalo River, Hoist, 2445 ! 

— ^Var. NTASSANA, Scott Elliot, var. nov. ; foliis fere nigris, 
subtus glabrioribus, stipulis ad 15 mm. longis. 

Plateau North Nyassa, Thomson ! Shir6 Highlands, Buchanan, 
475 and 85 ! Flowers at beginning of greater and lesser rains 
(November and March). Altitude 4-6,000 feet. 

10. P. CARNEA, Benth. in Bot. Mag., t. 4086. 

The following varieties might almost be considered specifi- 
cally distinct; indeed German botanists seem from MSS. notes 
to uphold var. c and var. d, as distinct species. 

Var. a. hortensis, Scott Elliot, var. nov.; corollas tube 
18 mm. longo, lobis 5 mm. fere glabris, floribus cameis 
dimorphis. 

LINN. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 F 



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434 MR. G. p. SCOTT ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTAS. 

Hort. Serampore ! Kew ! T. Moore^ Chelsea ! Herb. Ghiy f 
Marti aiqtie ! 

— Var. b. coMORKNSis, Scott Elliot, var. nov. ; corollse tnba 
15 mm. longo; lobis 5 mm. externe vix hirsutis; floribns 
lilacinis fere zjgomorphis, antberis plnrime inclnsis, sed non- 
nallis exsertis. 

Johanna Island, Hildehrand, 1614 ! Humhlot, 24 ! Bojer t 
Lindsey ! Hutton ! Spehe ! Kirk ! Blackhume ! Terry ! Angacilla, 
Brewster! Kirk! 

Mohilla (corolla lobes t5 mm. pubescence whiter) decomposed 
volcanic matter, Qaeenstown, Bojer ! Kirk ! Boivin ! 

Snnny places up to 1,500 feet. Flowers Jane to August. 

— ^Var. c. QoABTiNiANA ; corollsB tubo 17 mm. longo, lobis 
6 mm., externe fere glabris, antheris plurime inclnsis. 

Abyssinia. Banks of dry streams, Amora gellel, Schimpery 
548 ! Schahagenne, Schimper, 93 ! high gorges, Madi rocks, 
Speke ! open ground, Ukidi Forest, Speke ! Parkyns ! Salt t 
Plowden ! 5,500 feet altitude. 

Kilimanjaro. 6,000 feet, Johnston ! 

Buwenzori. 9-11,000 feet, Scott Elliot, 7959 ! 

Uganda, Wilson ? 

Flowers (crimson ?) in rains, July and November to December 

— Var. d. Klotzschii ; corollee tubo 13 mm., lobis 5 mm., 
externe sparse hirsutis, floribns dimorphicis imbris. 

Eastern Desert. Ribe, Wakefield ! Mombasa, Kirk ! Scott 
Elliot, 6122 ! 

Zanzibar. Coral, Rildebrandt, 1124 ! 

Usambara. Dugobnsch, Hoist, 3211 (sub nomine, P. zanzi- 
barica, in Herb. Kew). 

Nyassa. Buchanan, 1187 ! 1285 ! 

— Var. e. Welwitschii; wood meadows, Menino Huilla, WeU 
witsch, 6308 ! 

11. Pentas Woodii, S. Elliot, sp. nov. 

Frutex ramis teretibus hirsutis ; foliis lanceolatis subacutis 
ad basin longe attenuatis petiolatis (petiolis ad 12 mm. sed 
plurime 2-3 mm.), supra subtusque sparse hirsutis, venis 
lO-jugis, 9-16 cm. longis, 6-22 mm. latis ; stipularum setis circa 
10 mm. ; oymad ramis primariis plurime 4, cum 6-10 floribns 
albis sessilibus distantibns (more Otomerice et varietatum 
P. camooei) ; calycis tubo campanulato obscure sulcato, lobis 



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MR. G. P. SCOTT ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTAS. 435 

11 mm. longis, 3 mm. latis glandnlis minatis altemis ; corollas 
tabo gracile 15 mm., lobis 4 mm. obtuse inflexis, margine 
orispato, interne ad fancem barbate. 

Transvaal. Barberton in bushy hillsides (Thomcroft, no. 49), 
Wood, 4152 ! , Oal^n, 749 ! . 

12. Pentas elata, K, Schum, in PJl. Ost-Afr., Bd. v. p. 377. 
Himo to 2,800 m., Volhens, 1822. 

13. P. occidentalis, Benth, et Hook. /. ex Oliver, PI. Trap. Afr., 
iii. 46. 

Buwenzori. East side Kivata, Scott Elliot, 7684 ! and 7687 ! 
Wimi River, Scott Elliot, 7914 ! West Butagu Valley, Scott 
Elliot, 8022 ! 

West Africa. Cameroons, Mann, 1993 ! 1227 ! Fernando Po, 
Mann ! Kalbreyer ! 

Flowers May to July at 7,700-9,000 feet on Ruwenzori. 

14. P. ScHiMPERiANA, Vatke, in Linnea, xl. (1876) p. 192. 
Abyssinia, Mount Scholoda in rocky declivities, Schimper, 

38 ! north side, Schvm/per, 916 ! Tigre Mount Semcigata, 
Schimper, 613! Quartin Dillon, 126! Parhyns! Franqueville t 
Ankobe, Bothe, 313 ! 

Flowers (pinky white) July to September, over 7,000 feet 
altitude. 

15. P. parvifolia, Hiem, in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vol. xvi. 
(1877) p. 262. 

Eastern Desert and Momhassa, Ukambane, Scott Elliot, 
6416! Kibwezi, Scott Elliot, 6298! Mkuyuni Teita, Scott 
Elliot, 6167! Ndara Teita and Kitiu, Hildebrandt, 2458! 
Maungu, Johnston! Mombasa Island, Hildebrandt, 1994! 
Wakefield! 

Flowers (red to crimson) at the beginning of the lesser and 
greater rains; apparently almost always below 4,000 feet 
altitude. 

16. P. Thomsonii, S. Elliot, sp. nov. 

Frutex congestus ubique tomento f errugineo-sericeo vestitus ; 
foliis lanceolatis acutis ad basin attenuatis, supra pilosis, subtua 
dense (venis venulisque) tomentosis, margine snbrevoluto 
7-15 cm. long, et 2-3 cm. lat., venis 12-16 — ^jngis, petiolia 

2f2 



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436 MB. G. F. SCOTT ELLIOT ON THR GENUS PENTA8. 

• 

breyibns (ad 5 mm.), Btipnlamm setis aontis villosis 5-10 mm. ; 
braoteis linearibns, floriboB namerosis snbsessilibns umbellam 
simolantibns ; caljcis lobis tubnm coroll» equantibus, 6-7 mm., 
tnbo carapanolato dense hirsuto fere 3 mm. lat. ; ooroUao lobis 
fere 6-7 mm. long., 2 mm. lat., exteme birsutis, tnbo ad &ncem 
minnte ampliato. 

Masai Highlands. Sbadj place, Nandi Hills, Scott Elliot, 
6954 ! Leikipia platean (?), Tlumson ! 

Flowers in December, abont 6-8,000 feet altitude. 

17. Pbntas pubpubea, Oliver, in Trans, Linn, Soc,, vol. xxix. 
(1873) p. 83. 

— Var. a. ttpica; trimorphica, corollso tnbo 8 mm., lobis 

2 mm., antberis yix 2 mm. 

Zanzibar, dry berbaceous meadows, Hildebrandt, 1128 ! 
Spehe, 15 ! Kirk, 81 ! 

Pemba, Kirk! 

East Coast. XTsni, Bpeke, 140 ! Marangu, Volkens, 418 ! Bibe, 
Wakefield! 

Flowers (pnrple or lilac) June P or September ? It is very 
possible tbat tbe Zanzibar Island form (P. zanzibarica, Vatke) 
is scarcely the same as the East Coast specimens. 

— ^Yar. b. Buohanani ; corollsB tnbo 8 mm., dense hirsute, lobis 

3 mm., floribns congestis dimorphicis. 

Shird Highlands, Mbame villages, Mauganja, Kirk ! Sotchi, 
Kirk! Blantyre, Buchanan, 14! 456! 1057! 

Flowers March, at 3-4,000 feet. 

—Var. c. ? 

Kilmanjaro, Johnston! C. E, Smith! At about 5,000 feet 
altitude. Also Welwitsch^ 5315 ! 

18. P. ARVENSis, Hiem, in Oliver, Fl, Trop, Afr,, vol. iii. p. 47. 
Nileland, On cultivation, Derargo Mittu, Schtceinfurth, 

2775! 

Flowers (white, violet throat) January. 

Var. viOLACEA, Hiem, MSS, 

Rocky slopes 2,400-3,800 feet. Pungo Andongo., Weltoitsch, 
5309, 5310, 5311 ! 

19. P. PARVirLORA, Benth. in Bot, Mag., sub. t. 4086. 

West Coast. Accra [Niger], Vogel ! In Herb. Kew. Flowers 
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MB. 0. F. SCOTT ILLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTA8. 437 

20. Pentas yolubilis, K, Bchum.y M88. 

Eamerun Yaondestation, Zinker, 308 ! No d&scription 
appended to the specimen. 

21. P. «p. fww., Hiern, MSS. 

Amongst palms Golango Alto. Caango River, Welvntsch, 
5304! 

22. P. MCSSXNDOIDES, Baker^ in Joum, Linn, 8oc. (Bot.), vol. 
XX. (1883) p. 165. 

A very abnormal form closely approaching other genera. 
Madagascar, wet places in forest, East Imerina, Hildebrandty 
3825 ! moist hnmns, Ankeramadinika, Scott Elliot, 1884 ! 1753 ! 
Andrangaloaka, Parker! Lyall, 195! Baron, 370, 1059, 1921, 
4718, 4849 ! 

23. P. MiCRANTHA, Baker, in Joum. Linn. Sac. (Bot.), vol. xxi. 
(1885) p. 408. 

Allied to P. cornea. 

Tanala Forest, North and Central Madagascar, Baron, 310, 
3292, 3980, 6295 1 

24. P. HiRTiFLORA, Bdk^, in Jowm. Linn. Soc. (Bot,), vol. 
xxii. (1887) p. 482. 

Nearly allied to P. Thomsonii^ &c. 
Central Madagascar, Baron, 4732 ! 

Excluded Species. 

P. INVOLUCBATA, Baker, in Kew Bulletin (1895), p. ^^. 

This is Spermacoce dibraehiata, Oliver — Fnambo, Canon, 40 ! 
which is common in the Shir6 Highlands {BucTuman, 204, 1094, 
3951). 

P. SPBGIOSA, Baker. 

This is a new species of Otomeria closely allied to 0. dilatata ; 
this latter genus should, I think, be included in Pentas, but it is 
distinctly not advisable to make alterations in the genera unless 
the entire order is monographed. 

The original Otomeria dilatata, Hiern, contains the following 
plants : Barter, 1287 ! Congo, Hens, 34 ! Blantyre, Last ! Milanje 
Whyte ! Buchanan, 310 ! 1493 ! 

Otomeria spedosa, S. Elliot, contains Welwitsch, 5316 ! 5317 ! 
and Scott EUiot, 5239 and 5392 ! 203 miles south of Niamkolia 
Tanganyika, Carson! 



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438 ME. Q. p. SCOTT ELLIOT ON THE GENUS PENTAS. 



Key to Collectors* Numbers. 

AiflmeTf 10 s P. pauoiflora. 

Baron, 870, 1059, 1921, 4718, 4849 » P. musMendoides ; 310, 3292, 3980, 

6295 » P. micmntha ; 4782 - P. hirtiflora. 
Barter, 1237 » Otomeria dilatata. 

Buchanan, 85, 475 « loDgiflora ; 1187, 1285 » caraea d. ; 14, 466, 
' 1057 = purpurea ; 204, 1094, 8951 « Sp«rmacoc6 ; 1498, 310 = 

Otomeria dilatata. 
Carton, 113, 23 » ooufertifolia ; 40 — Spermacooe. 
Scott Elliot, 7959 » camea c. ; 6122 » camea d. ; 6954 - TboxnBonii 

8045 » Tertioillata ; 1884, 1753 — mussaendoides ; 6487 » Ainfvrorthii ; 

6482, 6467, 7548, 8088 - longiflora; 7684, 7687, 7914, 8022 - ooci- 

dentaliB; 5239, 5392 -> Otomeria speciosa; 6416, 6298, 6167 » 

panrifolia. 
Fitcker, 819 » Terticillata. 
Galpin, 749 « Woodii. 
M^nt, 34 » Otomeria. 
Hildehrandt, 1614 - camea b. ; 1124 » camea d. ; 2458, 1994 » parrifolia ; 

1128 a* purpurea ; 3825 » musuendoides. 
Holtt, 418 » longituba ; 2445 » longifiora ; 3211 » camea d. 
Sumblot, 24 B camea b. 
Munter, 20, 47, 258 « Schweinfurthii. 
Kirk, 81 = purpurea. 

Zort Philips and Cole, 9, 11->14 = glabreecens ; 1-8, 10 ~ pauciflora. 
LyaU, 195 a miissffindoides. 
Mann, 1227, 1993 » ocddentalis. 
Quartin Dillon, 126 -■ Sobimperiana. 
Rothe, 313 » Schimperiana. 

Schimper, 93, 548 — oamea o ; 38, 513, 916 « Schimperiana. 
Schweinfurth, 2775 « arvensis ; 1370 =» Schweinfurthii. 
Speke, 15, 140 » purpurea. 

Volkent, 1822 « elata; 418 - purpurea; 721 - longifiora. 
Welwittch, 5315 = purpurea; 5308 => caraea; 5309, 5310, 5311 » arrensis 

Tar; 6316, 6317 — Otomeria speciosa ; 6304 => n. sp. 
Wood, 4152 - Woodii. 
Zinker, 308 = Tolubilis. 



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HE. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS YANILLA. 439 



A Revision of the Genus Vanilla, By R. Allbn Rolfb, A.L.S., 
Assistant in the Herbarium of the Rojal Gardens, Kew. 

[Bead 19th December, 1895.] 

1. Historical Introduction, p. 489. 

2. Fertilization, p. 442. 

3. Affinities, p. 443. 

4. Classification, p. 443. 

5. Geographical Distribution, p. 443. 

6. Economic Uses, p. 444. 

7. Generic Cliaracters, p. 446. 

8. Key to Species, p. 446. 

9. Description of Species, p. 449. 

A PArER entitled '* Vanillas of Commerce " appeared in the 
Kew Bulletin in August, 1895 (pp. 169-178), in which the 
history of the species yielding aromatic fruits, more or less used 
in commerce, was given. In preparing that account it became 
increasingly apparent that the economic species had been 
hopelessly confused, both with each other and with those 
whose fruits are not aromatic, and, therefore, with the 
Directors' sanction, I undertook to revise the botany of the 
genus so far as the somewhat imperfect materials at hand 
permitted, and the results are embodied in the pi'esent paper. 

I have to thank the authorities of the British Museum for 
facilities in comparing the specimens in that establishment, and 
those of the Royal Botanic Garden, Berlin, for the loan of 
types of two species described by Klotzsch. 

Historical Introduction. 

The earliest botanical notice of a species of Yauilla is given 
by Glusius in his * Exoticorum Libri Decem,' published in 1605, 
where fruits of the true Mexican Vanilla of commerce are 
described under the name of Lohus oblongus a/roTruUicus (p. 72). 
They had been obtained from Hugh Morgan, apothecary to 
Queen Elizabeth, but nothing appears to have been known of 
their native country or uses. In 1651 Hernandez figured the 
characteristic growth and fruits of the plant under the name of 
Araco aromcUico (*Nova Plantarum Mexicanorum Histoiia,' 
p. 38), mentioning its use as a drug and recording its native 



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440 MR. E. ALLEN ROLFB ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

name as ** Tlilxoohitl." In 1658 Piso added the information 
that it was used by the Spaniards as an ingredient in the manu- 
factnre of chocolate on account of its fragrance, and that they 
called it " Vajnilla" or little pod ('Mantissa/ pp. 200, 201). 

Soon afterwards Dampier gave some valuable information 
about the same plant, which in 1676 he had seen growing on 
the coast of the Bay of Campeachy, South Mexico (' Voy.,' ii. 
p. 123), and in 1681 at Boca-toro, in Costa Eica (Z.c, i. p. 38). 
It was largely collected by the Indians, who sold it to the 
Spaniards. He also describes the method of cui*ing the fruit, 
and remarks that the plant bears a yellow flower (Z.c, i. p. 234). 

In 1796 a Jamaican species was confused with the preceding, 
both by Plukenet C Almagest. Bot.,' p. 381) and Sloane C Cat. 
PL Ins. Jam.,' p. 70), which is now known to be F. tnotiora, 
whose fruits are not aromatic. This confusion was particularly 
unfortunate, as it has been continued in some form or another 
by almost every writer down to the present time. 

In 1703 Plumier briefly defined the genus Vcmilla for the 
first time, enumerating three species from the West Indies 
(*Nov. PI. Amer. Gen.,' p. 25X one of which still remains 
doubtful. The Mexican VantUa was not included. In 1705 
Merian figured the fruiting branch of a species from Surinam 
(* Metamorph. Insect. Surinam.,' t. 25), but in the text confused 
it with the Mexican species. Three species were now confused 
together, and these, in 1753, were all included by Linneus 
under his Epidendrum Vanilla (* Sp. PI.,* p. 952), which in turn 
became the Vanilla aromatica of Swartz on his reviving 
Plumier's genus Vanilla in 1799 (' Nov. Act. Soc. Sc. Upsal.,* 
vi. p. 66), A leafless West Indian species, F. davicvlata^ was 
now added for the first time. 

The Mexican Vanilla had been introduced to cultivation prior 
to 1739, when the second edition of MiUer's ' (hardener's 
Dictionary' was published, but appears to have been again 
lost. It was, hoifvever, re-introduced by the Marquis of 
Blandford and flowered in the collection of the Eight Hon. 
Charles Greville, at Paddington, prior to 1807, in which year 
a flowering specimen was figured and described by Salisbury 
under the name of Mychroma fragrans (' Parad. Lond.,' t. 82), 
and a year later Andrews published another figure as Vanilla 
plamfoUa (*Bot. Rep.,* viii. t. 538). Both of these authors 
wrongly identified the plant with a West Indian species, and 



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MR. B. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 441 

both eqnally failed to recognise in it the true Mexican VantUa 
of commerce, whose flowers were now figured for the first time. 
It is not a little curions that Francis Bauer shonld have prepared 
a drawing from the self-same plant in 1807, showing a fresh 
fmit. The plate was not published until some years later, 
between 1830 and 1838 (* III. Orch. PL, Gen.,' tt. 10, 11), but a 
note states that it was " drawn by Mr. Bauer in 1807." This 
is the first evidence of the production of fruit in Europe. How 
the flower became fertilized is not known. 

Accounts of the Vanilla in its native habitat were successively 
published by Aublet in 1775 (*Hist. PI. Guian. Franc.,* ii. 
Mem. 4, pp. 77-86), by Humboldt in 1811 (' Voj. de Humb. et 
Bonpl.,' pt. 3, vol. ii. p. 437), and by Schiede in 1829 (Linnaaa, 
iv. pp. 573-576), chiefly with regard to their economic aspect, 
though the latter described four supposed new species, all of 
which, however, were previously known under other names. 
In 1825 Blume described two species from the Malayan 
Archipelago (' Bijdr.,' p. 422) and a third which had flowered 
in the Buitenzorg Botanic Gurden, whence it had been obtained 
from Europe, and which subsequently proved to be V. planifoUa, 

In 1838 a remarkable paper was read before the Bntish 
Association at Newcastle by Professor Charles Morren, entitled, 
'^ On the production of Yanilla in Europe,'' which was published 
in the following year (Ann. Nat. Hist., Ser. I. iii. pp. 1-9), in 
which the author showed how he had obtained two large crops 
of pods by fertilizing the flowers artificially, and suggested 
that its failure to fruit in India was probably due to the absence 
of some species of insect which doubtless existed in Mexico, and 
there fertilized the flowers. 

In 1840 Dr. Lindley admitted twelve species in his * Genera 
and Species of Orchidaceous Plants ' (pp. 434-437), but several 
of these are much confused and others synonymous, most of the 
old errors being here reproduced. Since that period about 25 
additional species have been described in various scattered 
publications, and in 1895 a full account of the species known to 
have aromatic fruits appeared in the Kew BulleHn (pp. 169-1 78) > 
in which the history of the economic species was traced and two 
additional ones described ; but no systematic revision of the 
entire genus has been attempted until now. 

In the present paper 50 species are admitted, of which 17 are 
new, including five which have been confused with previously 



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442 MB. B. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS YANILLA. 

known forms. Several, however, are still very imperfectly 
known, and it is greatly to be wished that those who have the 
opportnnities would collect a series of flowerin|2f and fraiting 
specimens, which wonld materially assist in completing oar 
knowledge of this very difficult genus. 

Fertilization. 

Owing to their highly complex structure the flowers are 
incapable of self-fertilization, and in the case of F. planifolia, 
which is so largely cultivated as an economic plant, artificial 
fertilization is invariably practised, except in Mexico and 
Central America, where the species is indigenous. Here 
Deltiel records that the flowers are fertilized by bees of the 
genus Melipone^ which visit the flowers for the honey they 
afford. I have not succeeded in finding any further records on 
the subject, and it would be interesting if this point could be 
cleared up. In other regions nothing whatever seems to be 
known of the insects which fertilize the flowers, although the 
genus is so widely diffused through the tropics. As regards 
V. planifolia it may be said that the flowers are fragrant, and 
that they secrete a large amount of honey at the bottom of the 
tube, which would naturally attract insects. The front lobe of 
the lip is reflexed and somewhat rough, and thus would afford 
a lighting place for the insect, which would then crawl into the 
tube to suck the honey. A small bee would easily get the 
front part of its body past the anther, because the appendages 
of the crest are all deflexed towards the base, but on retreating 
these would present an obstacle, and in order to pass them the 
bee would have to elevate its body, and thus would press 
against the incumbent anther and dislodge the pollinia. In 
what way these become attached to the insect in this case is 
perhaps not known, but it may be safely assumed that they do 
become so attached and are carried away. On retreating from the 
flower the bee would also lift up the flap-like rostellum which 
protects the stigma, and thus any pollen wonld inevitably be 
deposited on the latter and fertilize the flower. In other 
species of the genus the structure is similar, so that it may 
safely be assumed that fertilization is effected in the same way. 



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mr. r. allen rolfe on the gen os vanilla. 443 

Aphnities. 

VaniUa belongs to ihe small snbtribe Vanilleoe^ which com- 
prises also Epistephiumy Eriaxisy Oaleola, Sobraliay and Sertifera^ 
thongh the latter two are excluded by Pfitzer. The species of 
Epistephium are erect herbs, natives of ti'opical America, with 
pnrple flowers and a calycnlns at the base of the perianth 
segments — an organ which is also found in VaniUa palmarum. 
The species of Galeola are leafless saprophytes, in colour ranging 
from yellow to brown and red ; the genus ranges from India 
and Japan to Australia. Eriaxis is from New Caledonia and 
has been referred to the latter, but has leafy shoots besides some 
differences in structure. Sohralia and Sertifera are erect 
herbs, natives of tropical America, and quite distinct in habit. 

Classification. 

In the following enumeration an attempt has been made to 
arrange the species in as natural a sequence as possible, so far 
as the materials at hand permitted, but some modification is 
sure to be found necessary when flowers and fruit of all the 
species are known. Owing to the incomplete materials of some 
of the species, I have had to utilise geographical limitations in 
a few cases in the key, but in all such cases the species 
bracketed together appear to be intimately allied. The 
division into leaf-bearing or leafless species seems to be the 
most natural, and the latter evidently forming a very highly 
specialized group are placed at the end. Conversely, those with 
the tube extremely short and the lip without a central crest are 
placed at the beginning, being obviously the least specialized. 
The remainder form a fairly natural transition between the 
two. 

Geographical Distribution. 

The genus is widely diffused throughout the forest region of 
the tropics, but the species themselves are very local. From 
the annexed table it will be seen that of the 50 species, 29 are 
American, 11 Asiatic, and 10 African, the headquarters of the 
genas being in Brazil and Guiana, where 15 species occur, but 
of these only four are common to both, so far as our present 
knowledge extends. 



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444 MR. R. ALLEN ROLPE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 



Endemic Species of Vanilla. 

Central America . . Pfaviana, planifoUa. 

West Indies . . . . phcBanthaj daviculatay barbeUata, 

Eggersii, Poitcei. 
Brazil and Guiana . . ovata, organensis, acuta^ pwrvifoliay 

palmaruTn, Kostmanni^ Qardneri^ 

Velloxii, carinata, hicolor, appen- 

diculata, Chamiseonis, 
Colombia . . . . Metlumicaj Sprucei, Columbiana^ 

ensifoUa. 
Pern and Ecuador . . haTnata, Buiziana, odorata. 
West tropical Africa., africana^ acuminata^ cucullata^ ra- 

mosa^ ovalifoliay grandifolia. 
East tropical Africa . . Boscheri, 
Mascarene Islands . . Tnadaga^cariensts, Phalcenopsis, Hum- 

blotii, 
Ceylon and S. India . . Mooniiy Wightiana, Walkertce. 
Bnrma. . . . . . ParishiL 

Malaya . . . . Oriffithii, albida, bomeenstSy palem- 

banica, aphylla, 
Philippine Islands . . philippinensis, calqpogon. 

Distributed Species of Vanilla. 

West Indies, Brazil, and Guiana. . . . . . Wrightii. 

Central America, West Indies, Brazil, and 

Guiana • • . . . • . . . . . . inodora. 

Central America, Brazil, Guiana, and Columbia Pompona. 

Economic Uses. 

The fruit of Vanilla planifolia is the true Vanilla of 
commerce, which is said to have been first brought to Europe 
as a perfume about the year 1510. For some time it was also 
used in medicine, but soon passed entirely into the hands of the 
confectioners, by whom it is very larjjfely used for flavouring 
purposes. At first collected only in Mexico and Guatemala, 
where it is indigenous, it has also been cultivated there for 
nearly a century, and some time later it was introduced into 
other tropical countries, where, however, artificial fertilization 



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Mfi. R. ALLEN BOLFB ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 445 

has to be practised. In Reunion, where the industry com- 
menced about half a century ago, it is estimated that probably 
3,000 acres are under cultivation, and the crop of 1889 
exceeded 500,000 lbs. It is also cultivated in the Seychelles, 
Mauritius, Java, Tahiti, and Fiji. The finest Yanilla is said to 
be still produced in Mexico, and in 1891 the amount imported 
into the United States was 135,875 lbs., this being the chief 
market for Mexican Yanilla. 

The fruit of F. Fompona comes into the market under the 
name of Vanillons, the bulk of those entering into commerce 
being obtained from the West Indies ; Guadeloupe and 
Martinique being the principal places of export. Some are 
also collected in Mexico from wild plants. Their principal 
consumption is said to be among the tobacco mannfacturers 
and perfumers, for the manufacture of sachet powders. The 
fruits are very fleshy and difficult to dry, but are largely used 
in a fresh state for flavouring confectionery. 

The source of what is known as South American Yanilla is a 
little donbtf ul, bat is thought to be V, Oardneriy for Gardner 
says : — *' This is the plant which yields the Yanilla (Banilha 
of the Brazilians) in Brazil," and frnits in the Kew Museum 
labelled *' Brazilian or Bahia Yanilla," have the same rank 
odour as is ascribed to '* South American Yanilla." Of the 
latter, as much as 9,000 lbs. are said to have been imported 
into the United Kingdom in 1891, and it has been suggested 
that it is chiefly used as an adulterant. 

F. phceantha has also been cultivated in the West Indies, bat 
its frnits are said to possess very little perfume. F. odorata 
and F. appendiculata have also aromatic fruits, but are not 
known in commerce. Humboldt also records one as occurring 
in Peru ; it is probable that our information under this head is 
still very imperfect. 

Generic Character. 
Yanilla, 8w, in Nov. Act. Soc. 8c. Upsal, vi. (1799) p. 66^ 
t. 5. Sepala subaequalia, libera, patentia vel subpatentia. 
Petala sepalis snbsimilia. Labelli ungais columned plus minusve 
adnatus, saepissime tubum long^um formans, limbus latus, 
integer vel trilobus, facie laDvis, puberulus vel varie appendicu- 
latus, medio ssepius cristatus, columna elongata, subincurva, 
apoda, ad latera stigmatis biauricnlata. Antbera margini 



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446 



MR. R. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE GENUS YANILLA. 



clinandrio affixa, incumbens, conv^exa vel semiglobosa, opercn- 
lata, localis discretis, pollinia palyereo-granalosa. Stigma 
transversnm sub rostello sitam ; rostellum latum snbartica- 
latum. Gapsula linearis vel oblonga, camosa, tarde dehiscens ; 
semina nigra, nitida. 

Herbsd validsB, alte scandentes, ramossB, foliossB vel aphjlls, 
ramiu radices adventicias emittentibns. Folia coriacea yel 
camosa, sessilia vel breviter petiolata. Racemi ssspissime 
axillares, snbsessiles yel pedancolati. Floras magni. Bractea^ 
ovatad vel oblongsd s»pias parvae. Ltndl.y Qen. and Sp. Orch., 
p. 434; Bauer, III Orch. Qen., tt. 10, 11; Benth. et Hook, f.^ 
Qen. PL, iii. p. 690. Mjobroma, Salish, Farad. Lond., t. 82. 



Kit to Species. 

A. Stems leafy Section Folios^e. 

* Disc of lip without a crest or tuft of hairs or appendages, 
t Lip three-lobed, adnate to column at base only. 
J Stem leaves 4-7 in. long, or occasionallj longer, 
a. Leaves broadly elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, 
a. Leaves elliptic ovate to elliptical 
i. Inflorescence axillary or subterminal; bracts much smaller 

than leaves, 
a. Sepals and petals 6-7 lin. broad.... 
/3. Sepals and petals 3-4 lin. broad. 
Leaves ovate. Guiana species .... 
Leaves elliptic - ovate. New 

Granada species 

ii. Inflorescence terminal ; bracts !ai^ 

and leaf-like 

aa. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate 

aa. Leaves oblong «. 

IX Stem leaves about 3 in. long 

ft Lip entire or subentire, adnate to 
sides of column, up to middle or 
beyond. 
Inflorescence axillary ; fruits 

elongate-linear 

Inflorescence terminal ; fruits 
linear-oblong 
** Disc of lip with a central crest or tuft of 
hairs or appendages, 
t Tube, formed by union of sides of lip 
with column, about as broad as long. 



1. F. inodora. 

2. V.ovcUa. 

3. V.Methonica. 

4. V. Pfaviana. 
6. F. organensis. 

6. F. acuta. 

7. V. parvifolia. 



8. V. Wrightit. 

9. V. palmarum. 



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MR. R. ALLEN ROLPE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 447 

X Front lobe of lip acate or apiculate. 
African species. 

a. Leaves broadlv lanceolate or elliptic- 

lanceolate. 
L Column with upper third free from 

lip. 

Leaves 2-5 in. long ; front lobe of 

lip triangular 10. V, africana. 

Leaves 6-7 in. long ; front lobe of 

lip broadly oblong ».. 11. V. cummtnoUa. 

ii. Column with upper two-thirds free 

from lip 12. V, cucvllata, 

b. Leaves oblong or elliptical-oblong. 

Leaves 4-6 in. long ; front lobe of 

lip acute 13. V, ramosa. 

Leaves 3-3^ in. long ; front lobe of 

lip subobtuse 14. F. ovcdifolia. 

XX Front lobe of lip retuse or emarginate. 

Asiatic species 15. V. Chiffitkii, 

ft Tube, formed by union of sides of lip 

with column, much longer than broad. 

Leaves very broadly eliiptic-ovate or 

suborbicular 16. V, grandi/olia. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic or narrower. 

Asiatic species. 

a. Racemes 6 in. long; fruit oblong .... 17. V, phtltppinensis^ 
p. Eacemes 1^-3 in. long ; fruit linear- 
oblong or elongate linear, 
i. Fruit elongate-linear. 

Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate. 

Bracts numerous, crowded .... 18. F. aUnda, 

Bracts few, lax 19. F. borneenns. 

Leaves ovate ^ 20. F. palembamca. 

ii. Fruit linear-oblong 21. F. Moonii. 

American species. 

Leaves elliptic - lanceolate or broadly 
lanceolate, equally tapering at both 
ends 22. V. Sprueei. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong ,to linear -lanceo- 
late, not equally tapering at both 
ends. 

Leaves broadly elliptical .... 23. F. hamaUu 

Leaves oblong or narrower. 



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448 



MB. E. ALLEN ROLFB ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 



* Leaves oblong or elliptical- oblong, 
t Nerves of lip smooth or verrucose. 
§ Sepals and petals 1 j in. long, or longer. 

Extra-Braadlian species. 

a. Bracts oblong or linear-oblong, small. 

Disc of lip smooth 24. V. Hostmanni 

Disc of lip verrucose 26. V. planifolia, 

b. Bracts elliptical or elliptical-oblong, 

larger. 
Fruits subcjlindrical, 3 in. long .... 26. V. phasantha. 
Fruits trigonous, 6-7 in. long .... 27. F. Pompona, 

Brazilian species. 

a. Lip not strongly keeled in front. 

Bracts subdistichous 

Bracts scattered .... 

b. Lip strongly keeled in front 

§§ Sepals and petals 1^ in. long 

tt Nerves of lip bearing small foliaceous 
appendages. 
Lip with broad sub-obtuse apex 

Lip with narrow acute apex 

** Leaves linear-oblong or linear-lanceolate. 
a. Leaves over an inch broad. 

Leaves broad at base. Brazilian species 
Leaves somewhat narrowed at base. 

Peruvian species 

/3. Leaves J to scarcely an inch broad. 

Leaves ensiform, 7-10 lin. broad .... 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, 5-7 in. broad 



28. V. Oardneri 

29. V.Velloni 

30. V. carinata, 

31. r. Columbiana. 



B. Stems aphyllous, or with leaves reduced to 
bract-like scales 

* Sepals and petak 1-1|, or rarely 2 in. long. 
t West Indian species. 

a. Scales ^2 in. long, and rather narrow. 
Disc of lip glabrous, or nearly so .... 
Disc of lip barbellate 

b. Scales 2^^ in. long, and rather 

broader 

tt Asiatic species. 

a. Hairs on disc of lip 2 or more lines 
long. 
Hairs on, disc of lip arranged in a 
single median line 



32. V, bicolor, 

33. F. appendiculata. 

34. V. Chamtssonis. 

35. V, Ruiziana. 

36. r. ensifolia. 

37. V. odorata. 

Section APHYLLiK. 



38. V. clamctdata, 

39. V. barbeOata, 

40. V, Eggeriiu 



41. V.aphylUu 



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MB. B. ALLEN KOLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 



449 



Hairs on disc of lip numerous and 
spreading. 
Lip 3-lobed, with broad side lobes 

Lip obscurely 3-lobed ^. 

h. Hairs on disc of lip under 1 lin. long 

♦* Sepals and petals 2--3J in. long ^. 

a. Lip glabrous, with two pubescent lines 
from base to middle. 

i. Ceylon species 

ii. African species. 

Continental African species 
Mascarene species. 
Hairy lines of disc nearly obsolete. 

(Madagascar) 

Disc with two broad pubescent 

lines below middle. (Seychelles) 

h. Lip velvety, disc villose towards the 

centre 



42. V.ParuJUl 

43. V, calopogon, 

44. F. Wightiana. 



45. V. Walkerice, 

46. V. Roscheri. 

47. V.madagcuoariensis. 

48. V, Phaalnapns. 

49. F. Eumblotii. 



Section doubtful. Lip margined and veined 

with dark violet. Santo Domingo species 50. V. PoitceL 

Description op Species. 

Sect. I. Folios j;. — Caules foliati, foliis altemis variis. 
Sp. 1-37. 

1. Vanilla inodora, Schiede, in Linnceay iv. (1829) p. 674, efc 
vi. (1831) p. 59; canle crassiusculo, paullo flezuoso ; foliis 
subsessilibus ovato-ellipticis vel elliptico - oblongis breviter 
acuminatis ; racemis axillaribns vel snbterminalibas fleznosis ; 
bracteis ovato-oblongis vel lanceolato-ovatis subacntis rarius 
foliaceis; sepalis petalisque lanceolato^blongis subobtusis; 
labello trilobo sepalis petalisque fere eaquilongo latissimo bafii 
columned adnato, lobis lateralibus oblongis obtnsis, lobo inter- 
medio late ovato-oblongo subacuto ; disco tricarinato, column^ 
clavat4; capsnlis lineari-elongatis graeilibus inodoris. — IdncU.y 
Gen. and Sp. Orch., p. 437 ; Klotzsch, in Bot, Zeit., iv. (1846) 
p. 564 ; Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer., iii. p. 294. 

Epidendrum VaniUa, L. Sp. PL, ed. I. p. 962 (partim). 

Vanilla mexicana, i/iZZ., Gard. Bict.^ ed. 8 (1768), n. 1 
(partim). V. aroraatica, Sw. in Nov. Act. Sac. Sci. Upsal., vi. 
(1799) p. 66, et in Schrad. Joum., ii. p. 208 (partim); LincU.^ 
Gen. and Sp. Orch., p. 434 (partim) ; Oogn. in Mart. Fl, Bras., 

linn. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 



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450 MR. B. ALLEN ROLPE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

iii. IV. p. 149 (partim). V. Epidendrnm, Mirh., Hist PZ.,ed. II. 
ix. p. 249 (partim). V. gaianensis, Splitg. in Ann. 8c. Nat., 
s^r. n. XV. (1841) p. 279 (partim) ; De Vriese in Tuinb. Fl., 
iii, pp. 78, 81, tt. 5, 6 (excl. fruit) ; Cogn., I.e., p. 151 (partim). 
V. Bnrinamensis, Beichb. f. in Nederl. Kruidk. Arch., iv. (1859) 
p. 321 (partim). V. anaromatica, Oriseb., Fl. Brit W. Ind. 
(1864) p. 638 ; et Oat, PL Cub., p. 267. 

Hab. Mexico, W. Indies et G-uiana. South Mexico, Misantla, 
Schiede ! Mirador, Liebman, 297 ! Nicaragua, Seemann, 181 1 
Jamaica, Purdie ! Morris ! Cuba, Wright, 3353 ! Porto Rico, 
Sierra de Loguillo, Eggers, 1322! Sintenis, 1739! San 
Domingo, Eggers, 2086 ! Dominica, De Ponthieu ! Imray, 138 ! 
Uanuige ! Trinidad, Crueger ! Surinam, Hostman, 71 ! Britisli 
Guiana, Mazaruni Biver, Jernnan, 682! Pomeroon River, 
Jenman, 1614 ! 

Folia 3-11 poll, longa, 1^-4^ poll. lata. Racemi 3-5 poll, 
longi. Bractefld J-IJ poll. long®. Pedicelli 1^ poll. longT. 
Sepala et petala l|-2 poll, longa, 5-7 lin. lata. Labellum 
1|-1| poll, longum. Columna 1 poll, longa. Capsula 
5-10 poll, longa. 

The history of this common species has been much confused. 
It was originally described by Plumier in 1703 (* Nov. (Jen. PL 
Amer.,' p. 25) as Vanilla flore viride et oLbo, frudu nigrescente, 
and afterwards figured (*P1. Amer.,' ed. Barm., p. 183, t. 188), 
on the latter occasion being confused with various other species, 
including the true Vanilla of commerce. LinnsBus failed to 
detect this confusion when establishing his Epidendrum Vanilla, 
and both Miller and Swartz repeated the error when establish- 
ing their species; both cited Plumier's figure, and Swartz 
applied a misleading specific name in consequence, for it is now 
known that the fruit is not aromatic. Splitzgerber was not 
more fortunate, for he re-described what are evidently flowering 
specimens of this and fruits of V, Pompona under the name of 
Vanilla guianensis, and De Yriese afterwards figured the same 
combination. Reichenbach followed, changing the name to 
Vamlla surinamensis, evidently through a slip. That Splitz- 
gerber fell into this error is apparent from his remarks, for he 
was only able to distinguish the species from F. aramatica by 
its different fruit, and these he identified with those figured by 
Merian (* Metamorph. Insect. Surinam.,' t. 25), and described 
by Aublet (* Hist. PI. Ghiian. Franc.,' ii. Mem. 4, p. 79). The 



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MB. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 451 

froit figured by De Vriese is diaracteristic of F. Pompona, and 
the bracts quite differeut from tbose of his flowering specimen. 
The flowers and fruit of both species are now well known, and 
the confusion is therefore evident. Grisebach changed the 
name to Vanilla anaromatica, evidently on the ground that the 
fruit is not aromatic, but wrongly excluded F. guianensis 
(probably because of the fruit) and Catesby's figure (*Nat. 
Hist. Carol./ i. App., p. 7, t. 7). In Martins's * Flora Brasi- 
liensis/ F. aromatica and F. guianensis are kept distinct by 
Cogniauz, but four specimens representing F. organensis, Rolfe, 
are included under the former, and the description is evidently 
partly drawn from them. F. inodora, Schiede, was described 
from fruiting specimens which belong here, and as the name 
is the earliest correct one which was applied to the species it is 
here adopted. 

2. Vanilla ovata, Rolfe ; caule subgracili suflexuoso ; foliis 
breviter petiolatis ovatis subacutis ; racemis axillaribus vel sub- 
terminalibus gracilibus paucifloris ; bracteis ovatis subacutis ; 
sepalis petal isque lineari-obiongis subacutis undulatis ; labello 
trilobo basi columned adnato, lobis lateralibus oblongis apioe 
rotundato-obtusis, lobo intermedio late oblongo subobtuso ; disco 
tricarinato ; column^ clavat4. 

Hah. Guiana, Martin ! (Mas. Brit.) 

Folia 6^ poll. longa, 4 poll. lata. Racemi 4-5 poll, longi. 
Bracte» 4-9 lin. long®. Pedicelli 1^ poll, longi. Sepala et 
petala 1^ poll. longa, 3-4 lin. lata. Labellum 1^ poll, longum. 
Columna 1 poll, longa. Capsula ignota. 

Distinguished from the preceding by its more slender stems 
and racemes, and its smaller flowers with narrower segments. 

8. y. Methonica, Beichh. /. et Warsz, in Bonplandia^ ii. 
(1854) p. 97 ; caule subgracili flezuoso ; foliis elliptico-oblongis 
breviter acuminatis vel subobtusis ; racemis lateralibus pauci- 
floris ; bracteis oblongis vel elliptico-oblongis subacutis ; sepalis 
petalisque lineari-obiongis acutis undulatis ; labello trilobo basi 
oolumnsB adnato, lobis lateralibus oblongis apice rotundatis, lobo 
intermedio brevi triangulari-ovato subobtuso; disco medio 
nervis crassinsculis apice rnguloso ; column^ clavatft ; capsule 
(ex Reichb. f .) '* maxime aromaticft." 

Hah. New Granada, 6,000-8,000 ped.,Tramctt;ic«/ Antioquia, 
PatinI Ibague, OoudotI 

2o2 



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452 MB. R. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

Folia 2-8 poll, longa, 1-2 J poll lata. Bracteaa 4-6 poll. 
longsB. Sepala et petala l^lf poll. Ion gee. Labellnm l^ poll, 
longam. Colamna 1 poll, longa. Gapsula (ex Reiclib. f.) 
" 5-6 poll, longa." 

Reichenbach describes the fruit as very aromatic and states 
that it yields the finest Vanilla which comes into the market, 
though how he obtained the information cannot be ascertained. 
Part of the type specimen is in Lindley's Herbarium, but is 
only in the flowering stage, while the fruits of other species 
of this group, so fai* as known, are not aromatic ; so that, no 
other evidence of the occurrence of an economic species in 
New Granada being obtainable, some mistake must be 
suspected. 

4. Vanilla Pfavuna, Reichb.f. in Oard. Chron., N.S. xx. (1883) 
p. 230 ; caule flexuoso gracili ; foliis oblong^s acuminatis ; 
racemis terminalibus ; bracteis foliaceis oblongo - lanceolatis 
acutis ; sepalis petalisque oblongis acutis tortilibus ; labello 
trilobo basi columnas adnato, lobis lateralibus oblongis, 
lobo intermedio producto emarginato crenato ; disco medio 
crassiusculo. 

Hah. Mexico, Ffau. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa. 

Only known from the original description. It is evidently 
allied to the preceding, but in what respect it differs in 
uncertain, both species being very imperfectly known. 

5. V. ORGANENSis, Bolfe ; caule subgracili ; foliis sub- 
sessilibus lanceolato-oblongis subacuminatis ; racemis termi- 
nalibus paucifloris ; bracteis foliaceis, sepalis petalisque lineari- 
lanceolatis subacuminatis apice recurvis marginibus crispo- 
nndulatis ; labello sublibero trilobo, lobis lateralibus rotundato- 
oblongis, lobo intermedio oblongis acuto ; disco ecristato nervo 
medio paullo incrassato ; column^ clavata ; capsule elongato- 
lineari. 

V. aromatica, Lindl.^ Gen. and Sp. Orch., p. 434, partim 
(non 8w.) ; Cogn. in Mart, Fl. Bras., iii. pars iv. p. 150, 
partim (non Sw.). 

Hah. Brazil, Organ Mountains, at mai*gin of waterfall , 
Gardner y 632 ! Miers ! Near Rio de Janeiro, Glaziou, 11,620, 
14,320 ! 

Folia 2|-5 poll, longa, |-1 J poll. lata. Pedicelli 2 poll, longi. 



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MB. B. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE OENUS YAKILLA. 453 

Sepala et petala 1^-1 J poll, longa. Labellnm 1^-1^ poll longBm. 
Colamna 10 lin. longa. Capsula 5 lin. longa. 

Readily distinguislied from F. inodoray ScHede (F. aromatica, 
Sw.), with which Lindley and sabseqnent authors have con- 
f Qsed it, by its terminal inflorescence, with large leaf -like bracts, 
narrower sepals and petals, and other characters. The fruit is 
not aromatio. 

6. Vanilla acuta, Solfe ; caule crassiusculo ; foliis breviter 
petiolatis elliptico - oblongis ; racemis axillaribas brevibus 
paucifloris flexuosis ; bracteis oyatis acuminatis ; sepalis petal- 
isque oblongo-lanceolatis acutis ; labello basi columned adnato 
trilobo, lobis lateralibns oblongis, lobo intermedio ovato-oblongo 
subobtuso ; disco ecristato nervis tribus incrassatis apice rugu- 
losis ; column^ clavatll. 

Hah, Surinam, Kappler ! A drawing by Schomburgk (at 
the British Museum) labelled River Berbice, British Guiana, 
probably belongs here. 

Folia 6-7 poll, longa, 3 poll. lata. Racemi 2r-2\ poll, longi. 
Bracte» 5-8 lin. longad. Pedicelli 2 poll, longi. Sepala et 
petala 1^ poll, longa, 6 lin. lata. Labellum 1^ poll, longum. 
Columna 1 poll, longa. 

Allied to the preceding, but readily distinguished by the 
oblong leaves, acuminate bracts, more acute sepals and petals, 
and by the proportionately narrower lip. The flowers are 
described by Kappler as yellow. Schomburgk's drawing 
has greenish sepals and petals and a whitish lip, but it agrees 
so well in other respects that I think it must be this species. 
It shows an elongate-linear fruit 5 inches long. 

7. V. PAKVIFOLIA, Rodr.^ Qen, et 8p, Orch. Nov., ii. (1881) 
p. 271 ; caule subgracili intemodiis brevibus ; foliis ovato- 
oblongis brevissime acuminatis; racemis terminalibus pauci- 
floris, bracteis foliaceis ; sepalis petalisque lanceolato-oblongis 
subobtusis; labello libero trilobo, lobis lateralibus rotundato- 
obloDgis, lobo intermedio semiorbicnlari margine plicato- 
Qudulato ; disco medio crassiuscalo nervis paullo elevatis, 
column& glabdt; capsule lineari-oblongft. — Cogn. in Mart. Fl, 
Bras., iii. pars iv. p. 151, t. 33. 

Hob. Brazil in the forests of Parana, near Curityba, 
Rodrigues. 



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454 MB. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

Folia lf-8 poll, longa, 1-lJ poll. lata. Pedicelli 2 poll, 
longi. Sepala et petala 2 poll, longa. Labellum 1^ poll, 
longnm. Colomna 1 poll. longa. 

Allied to the preceding, bnt readily distingnisbed by its 
tbree-lobed lip and longer fmit, which is probably not 
aromatic. The flowers are green. I have only seen a 
drawing. 

8. Vanilla Wbiohtii, Beichb. /. in Flora, xlviii. (1865) p. 273 ; 
canle subgracili; foliis elliptico- vel lanceolato-oblon^s sab- 
obtnsis vel rarins acatis breviter petiolatis ; racemis brevibas 
pancifloris, rhachi subcompresso, bracteis distichis triangn- 
lari-ovatis obtnsis condnplicato-ooncavis ; sepalis petalisqne 
lanceolatis snbobtnsis; labello integro; disco laBvi; colmnna 
clavat4 ; capsulA elongato-lineari gracili. — Oriseb.^ Cat. PL Cuh.y 
p. 267. 

V. clavicalata, LincU. in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. III. i. 
(1858) p. 334; et in Mem. Am. Acad., N.S ., viii. p. 219 
(non Sto.). V. palmamm, Griseh., I.e. ; Sauv., Fl. Cub.y p. 232 
(non Lindl.). V. lutea, Wright, ex Oriseb., I.e.; Sauv., I.e. V. 
gratiosa, Oriseb., I.e. ; Sauv., I.e. V. palmarum, Cogn. in Mart. 
Fl. Bras.y iii. pars iv. p. 152 (partim). 

? V. palmamm var. grandifolia, Cogn., I.e., p. 154. 

Hab. W. Indies and Oaiana. Cuba, without locality, Wright, 
672 ! Monte de la Prenda, at 2,000 feet alt., Eggers, 5248 ! 
Trinidad, Fendler, 1007! Surinam, Hostman, 33! British 
Guiana, Macouria River, Jenman, 2561 ! E^aieteur Savannah, 
Potaro River, Jenman, 803 ! A drawing by Schomburgk (at 
the British Museum) from British Guiana, labelled '^Dry 
savannahs, chiefly on skirts of woods, climbing on trees," 
probably belongs here. The flowera are white with the front 
of the lip yellow. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa, |-1^ poll. lata. Bractesd 2-3 lin. 
longsB. Sepala et petala 2 poll, longa. Labellam 2 liu; longum. 
Columna l^ poll, longa. Capsula 5-6 poll, longa. 

This species has been curiously confused with Vanilla clam- 
culata, Sw., and V. palmarum, Lindl., the former leafless and 
the latter easily distinguished by its terminal inflorescence and 
very short fruit. Grisebach appears not to have seen a specimen 
of what he calls V. palmarum (apparently citing it from Wright's 
note), bat it probably belongs here, for there is no other 



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MB. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE OBNDS VANILLA. 455 

evidence that that species grows in the West Indies, and 
Lindlej himself wrongly labelled Hostman*s specimen cited 
above as F. pcUmarum. V, pcUma/rwn var. grandifolia, Oogn,^ 
is referred here with some doubt, on account of its much 
longer leaves, which are described as about 5 inches long. 

9. Vanilla palmarum, Lindl, Oen. and Bp, Orch. (1840) p. 436 
(excL syn. Fl. Flum.) ; caule subgracili intemodiis brevibus ; 
foliis sessilibus elliptico-ovatis vel ovato-oblongis subobtusis ; 
racemis terminalibas, bracteis ovato-oblongis subacntis ; sepalis 
petalisque lanceolato-oblongis subobtusis; labello colnmnad 
semiadnato integro obovato retoso vel apiculato; disco infra 
medium line4 media instructo ; column^ facie villo8& ; capsul4 
oblongIL paullo falcata. — LindL.y Bot, Beg.^ zxviii. Misc., p. 63 ; 
et in Qard. Chron. (1842) p. 639; SpUtg, in Ann, Sc. Nat., 
S^r. 11. XV. (1841) p. 283; Beichb. f. in NederL Kruidk. 
Arch., iv. (1859) p. 321 ; De Vriese in Belg. Hort., vi. (1856) 
pp. 313, 374, t. 76, fig. 10; Cogn. in Mart. Fl. Bras.y iii. 
pars IV. p. 152 (partim). 

Epidendrum palmarum, Salzm. ex IdndL, Oen. and Sp. Orch., 
p. 4:36. 

Ha^. Brazil and Guiana. Bahia, on palm stems, Salzmann ! 
Between Ma9eio and Alagoas, on palm stems, Oardiier, 1419 ! 
Pernambuco, at Caxanga, Monteiro, and Macacos, common, 
Bidley, Lea, and Ramage ! Surinam, SplUgerber, 409. 

Folia lJ-3 poll, longa, 1-lJ poll. lata. Racemi ^-2 poll, 
longi. BractesB 2-5 lin. long®. Pedicelli f poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala l^lf poll, longa. Golumna 1^ poll, longa. 
Capsula 1^1| poll, longa. 

Readily distinguished from the preceding, which has been 
confused with it, by its terminal inflorescence and very short 
fruit, which is very distinctly calyculate. There is no clear 
evidence that this species grows in the West Indies, for all the 
so-called West Indian specimens which I have seen belong to 
the preceding. 

10. Vanilla africana, Lindl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) vi. 
(1862) p. 137 ; caule gracili alte scandente ; foliis petiolatis 
oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis; bracteis ovatis acutis; labello 
trilobo, lobis lateralibus rotundato-oblongis obtusis denti- 
culatis, lobo intermedio deltoideo-ovato acuto; disco medio 



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456 MB. R. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

cristatA, iafra medium carinam papillosam ad basin extensi, 
ramentace& ornato, column^ brevi. 

Hah. W. Trop. Africa, Loddtges! Brass, Niger Territory, 
Barter, 47 ! Mt. John, Kongui River, Mann, 1881 ! 

Folia 2-5 poll, longa, J-l^ poll. lata. Racemi { poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala Don visa. Bracteaa 1^ lin. longee. Labellnm 
8 lin. longnm. Colnmna ^ poll, longa. 

This species is very remarkable in the shape of the lip ; 
Lindley, who received a flowering branch from Loddiges, 
unfortunately did not preserve the sepals and petals, though 
he both sketched and carefully dried the lip and column. No 
other specimens are in flower, but they appear to belong to the 
same species. 

11. V. ACUMINATA, Bolfe; caule subgracili ; foliis petiolatis 
lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis ; racemisbrevibus, 
bracteis ovato-oblongis subobtusis; sepalo postico lanceolato, 
sepaliB lateralibuB lanceolato-oblongis ; petalis falcato-laoceo- 
latis omnibus acutis; labello prof undo trilobo, lobis lateralibus 
rotandato-oblongis obtusis, lobo intermedio oblongo obtuso 
apiculato ; disco medio ramentaceo vix cristato ; columna 
clavat^. 

Hah. W. Trop. Africa. Gabon, in the province of Monda, 
Soywux, 134. " Frequent in woods, but seldom flowers." 

Folia 6-7 poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata ; petiolus J poll, longus. 
Racemus 1 poll, longus. Bractese 1^-4 lin. longsd. Sepalum 
posticum 10-12 lin. longnm, 3 lin. latum; sepala lateralia 
4 lin. lata. Petala 9-10 lin. longa, 2^ lin. lata. Labellnm 
7-8 lin. longum. Columna 6-7 lin. longa. 

Allied to the preceding species, but the stem stouter, leaves 
and bracts longer, and the lip quite differently shaped. The 
crest is unusually small, being reduced to a few scaly 
appendages. 

12. V. CUCULLATA, Kroenzl. in Mittheil. deutsch. Schutzg., 
ii. (1889) [Reprint, p. 8] ; foliis oblongis acuminatis basi 
oblique cordatis brevi-petiolatis ; rhachi crassinsculi rarius 
basi ramosa, bracteis squamiformibas triangularibus ; sepalis 
lateralibus ovatis subobliqnis, sepalo intermedio oblongo recto 
quam lateralia paullo breviore; petalis subconformibus ; labello 
ovato fere triangnlari acuto ; disco seriebus 2 linearibus 



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MR. B. ALLIN ROLF£ ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 457 

laminarnm instructo, lamellis lammed appressis laciniatis^ 
laciDiis hjalinis reflexis; colninii4 cnrvati cum basi labelli 
coalite. 

Hah, W. Trop. Africa, South Cameroons, Braunj 4. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 1^-2^ poll. lata. Flos 1 poll, longus. 

Apparently allied to the preceding, but the lip not nearly 
so much united to the column, and seemingly different in 
shape. 

13. Vanilla ramosa, EoZ/e; caule subgracili; foliis petiolati» 
oblongis vel elliptico-oblongis breviter acuminatis subobtusis ; 
racemis subbrevibus ssBpe parce ramosis, bracteis ovatis sub- 
obtusis; sepalis petalisque oblongo-lanceolatis subacutis sub- 
eequalibus ; labello profunde trilobo, lobis lateralibus transverse 
oblongis, lobo intermedio oblongo subacuto margine crennlato 
reflezo-plicato, crista foliolis ramentaeeis composita; colnmna 
clavat&. 

Yanilla, sp., Lindl. in Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), vi. (1862) 
p. 137. 

Hah. W. Trop. Africa. Niger, about Angiama, abundant. 
Barter^ 20134 ! Interior of Western Lagos, Rowland ! 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 1-2^ poll, lata; petiolns ^-f poll, 
longus. Racemi 1^2 poll, longi. Bractesa 1-2 lin. longse. 
Sepala ct petala 10-12 lin. louga. Labellum 7-8 lin. longum. 
Columna 7-8 lin. longa. Gapsula non visa. 

This differs from the two preceding species in its much 
broader leaves, and in the details of the flower. The branched 
inflorescence is remarkable. Nothing is known about the 
fruit. 

14. V. OVALIPOLIA, Bolfe; caule gracili ; foliis petiolatis 
late ellipticis breviter et abrupto acuminatis subobtusis; 
racemis subbrevibus, rbachi compressiusculo ; bracteis trian- 
gulo - ovatis subacutis brevibus ; sepalis petalisque Ian- 
ceolato-oblongis subobtusis paullo inaequalibus ; labello pro- 
funde trilobo, lobis lateralibus rotundato-oblongis obtusis, lobo 
intermedio oblongo crenulato subobtuso, nervo medio in- 
crassato; crista foliolis ramentaeeis latis composite; column^ 
clavati. 

Hob. W. Trop. Africa. Old Calabar, Thomson^ 132 ! 
Folia 3-3^ poll, longa, lJ-2 poll, lata; petiolus 4-6 lin. 
longus. Racemi 1^2 poll, longi. Bractead 1 lin. longe. 



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458 MR. K. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE OENUS VANILLA. 

Pedicelli l^-lf poll, longi. Sepala et petaJa 8-9 lin. longa. 
Labellam 7-8 lin. longam. Columna 6-7 lin. longa. Capsola 
ignota. 

Readily distinguished from the preceding by its very short 
broad leayes, and different floral structure. 

15. Vanilla Grifpithii. Beichh. /. in Bonplandia, ii. (1854) 
p. 88; foliis elliptico-oblongis vol rarius lanceolate- oblongis 
cuspid atis; racemis brevibus subcorymbosis, bracteis ovatis 
vel ovato-oblongis subacutis; sepalis petalisqne elliptico- 
oblongis obtusis ; label lo trilobo, lobis lateralibus rotundatis 
obtusis, lobo intermedio transverse oblongo vel suborbiculari 
emarginato lateribus plicatis hirsutis, cristi globos4 villosissima ; 
oolumndr brevi ; capsulis lineari-oblongis. Eolfe, in Orch. Eev., 
iii. (1895) p. 69. 

Vanilla sp., Griff., Notul, iii. p. 247, Ic. PI. Asiat., t. 281. 

V. albida, Hook. /., FL Brit. Ind., vi. p. 91, in part (not of 
Blume). V. tolypephora, Bddl. in Trans, Linn. Soc, Ser. ii. 
(Bot.) iii. (1893) p. 376. 

• Hah. India. Malacca, Griffith ! Maingay ! Penang, Wallick! 
Curtis, 1167! Perak, Scortechini! Wray ! King's Collector I 
Singapore, Lohh! At Ghangi, Ridley, 3924 ! Pnlau Ubin and 
Selangor, Ridley. 

Planta 40-60 ped. alta. Folia 3-7^ poll, longa, 1^-3^ poll, 
lata. Racemi 1^-2^ poll, longi. BractesB 2^-5 lin. longae. 
Pedicelli i-\\ poll, longi. Sepala et petala 10-15 lin. longa. 
Labellum |-1 poll, longum. Columna ^ poll, longa. Capsula 
2^-3 poll, longa. 

This is said to be the common species all over the Malay 
Peninsula, the stems growing 40 to 60 feet long, the flowers 
waxy white or cream colour, with the lip pinkish inside, and 
the fruit yellow when ripe, sweet and eatable, like a small 
banana. The crest resembles a ball of wool. 

A specimen collected at Bankinsing, in the Island of Formosa, 
by Dr. A. Henry (n. 479), has the inflorescence and bracts 
remarkably like Curtis n. 1179 from Penang, but the leaves 
are smaller, and whether it represents a distinct species or 
otherwise cannot, in the absence of the flowers, be determined. 

16. V. GKANDiFOLiA, Lindl, in Joum, Linn. Soc. {Bot.) vi. 
(1862) p. 138; foliis petiolatis late ellipticis vel suborbica- 
laribus breviter et abrupte acuminatis obtusis ; bracteis ovato- 



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MB. B. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE GENUS TANILLA. 469 

oblongis obtosis ; sepalis petalisqne oblongo-lanceolatis obtasis ; 
labello sabintegro (?) nndalato, disci nervis snpeme crassins- 
calis, orist4 appendicibas capillaribos composite; capsulis 
orassinscnlis elongatis. 

Hob. W. Trop. Africa. Prince's Island, Barter, n. 1981 ! 
Monteiro ! Henriques ! 

Folia 6-8 poll, longa, 4-5 poll. lata. Bacemi 4 poll, longi. 
BractesB 6 lin. longas. Pedicelli 2^ poll. loDgi. Sepala et petala 
2:^ poll, longa. Labellum 2 poll, longom. Golamna \\ poll, 
longa. Hostellum 5 lin. longnm. Gapsula 6-10 lin. longa. 

A verj distinct species, characterized by its broad leaves, 
stout raceme of large flowers, and long fruit. The lip of the 
only flower seen is somewhat broken in front, so that its exact 
shape cannot be made out. 

17. Vanilla PHiLiPPiNEN8is,^Z/e; foliis elliptico-oblongis bre- 
viter acuminatis ; racemis paullo elongatis multifloris, bracteis 
ovato-oblongis obtasis ooncavis; sepalis petalisqne oblongo- 
lanceolatis sabobtusis ; labello tinlobo, lobis lateralibus amplis 
apice obfcDsis, lobo intermedio oblongo obtuso yillosissimo, 
disco medio villosissimo ; colnmn4 clavat& ; capsul4 obloDg4. 

Hah, Philippine Islands; without precise locality; Cuming^ 
2132. 

Folia 6-9 poll, longa, 1}-2| poll. lata. Racemi 6 poll, longi. 
Bractese 2-5 lin. longsB. Pedicelli 1^-2 poll, longi. Sepala et 
petala If poll, longa. Labellum 1^ poll, longum. Columna 
1 poll, longa. Gapsula 2^ poll, longa, } poll. lata. 

A very distinct species, well characterized by its long raceme, 
the very villose front lobe of the lip, and the short stout fruit. 

18. V. ALBIDA, Blume, Cat. Oew, BtUtenz. (1823) p. 100; 
foliis petiolatis lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis acaminatis; 
racemis C-multifloris, bracteis late ovatis obtusis concavis; 
sepalis petalisqne oblongo- lanceolatis acutis; labello integro 
margine reflexo plicato; disco line4 medill camoso apice 
hirsute, crista parv& villos^ subglobos^; capsulis lineari- 
oblongis. Blumsy Bijdr,, p. 422, t. 43, et Bumphia, i. p. 197, 
t. 67 ; 3f»g., Fl, Ned. Ind., iii. p. 719 ; Beichb. f. in Bonplandia, 
V. (1857) p. 37 (non Hook. /.). 

Hah. Java, in damp woods and on the mountains, BlumCy 
Horsjield! Lampong, Zollinger, 961. Borneo, Kuching, 
Haviland ! 



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460 MB. R. ALLEN ROLPE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

Planta 20-30 ped. alta. Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 1-1| poll, 
lata. Racemi 1-1^ poll, longi. Bracteas 1^2 poll, longed. 
Sepala et petala 1:J-1| poll, longa. Labelium 1^-1^ poll, 
longam. Colnmna } poll, longa. Capsula 5-6 poll, longa, 
i poll. lata. 

I have only seen a fruiting specimen from Borneo, which 
has more numerous bracts than in Blnme*s original figure, 
though in other respects it agi*ees well with it. It is very 
distinct from F. Chiffithiiy Reichb. f., which has been confused 
with it. The fruit appears not to be aromatic. 

19. Vanilla borneensis, Bolfe ; caule crassiusculo flcxuoso ; 
foliis petiolatis oblongis vel elliptico-oblongis, acuminatis ; 
racemis brevibus flezuosis pancifloris, bracteis ovatis vel 
triangulari-ovatis acutis ; capsulis elongato-linearibus. 

Hah. BorneO) at Banjarmassing, Motley, 1248 ! 

Intemodi 2^-4 poll, longi. Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 1-2 poll, 
lata; petioli 4-6 lin. longi. Racemi l-lj poll, longi. Bractese 
2-3 lin. longas. Capsula 3-3^ poll, longa. 

Readily distinguished from its allies by its lax, few-flowered 
racemes. 

A sketch of a flower and leaf, made by Mr. F. W. Barbidge, 
and preserved at the British Museum together with a piece of 
the stem, may belong here, both the leaf and the habitat being 
substantially identical. The sepals and petals arc oblong and 
obtuse, and the lip has largish rounded side lobes, a shoi't, 
broad, front lobe, and five verrucose keels near the front. The 
details of the central crest are not clearly indicated. It is 
labelled Tawaran and Tampasuk Rivers, N.-W. Borneo. 
Flowers large, waxy white and brown. Fruit not seen. Grows 
on trees near wet rocks by river side. 

20. V. palembanica, Teysm. et Binn, in Tijdschr, Nederl. 
Ind., xxix (1867) p. 243 ; foliis petiolatis ovatis acuminatis, 
basi rotnndatis obsolete venosis ; spicis 6-8-floris bifariis, 
bracteis parvis ovatis squamiformibus ; sepalis ovalis obtusis 
carnosulis convexiusculis levibus ; petaiis similibus late 
carinatis ; labelli tubo ventricoso limbo retuso undulato 
barbato ; column^ glabra ; capsulis obsolete triquetris rectius- 
culis. 

Hah, Sumatra, in prov. Palembang, Teysman. 



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MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 461 

Folia 3^ poll, longa. If poll. lata. Capsales 4 poll, longce. 

Only known by the original description, according to which 
the sepals and petals are whitish-green, the lip lined with lilac 
in the tabe and with pale reddish hairs, and the colamn white 
with some orange spots at the base. 

21. Vanilla Moonii, Thw., Enum. PL Zeyl. (1861) p. 312; 
habitu F. planifolioB ; foliis efc racemis brevioribns ; bracteis 
ovatis subacutis ; sepalis petalisqae lanceolato-oblongis snb- 
obtnsis ; labello sabintegro panllo undnlato, apice reflexo ; disci 
nervis snperne eorragatis papillosis ; crista hirsute reflex^ ; 
capsnlis lineari-oblongis. Hook. /., Fl. Brit. Ind., vi. p. 90. 

Hab. Ceylon, Negumbo and Kornegalle, Thwaites, 3204! 
Galle, Champion ! Withont locality, Gardner ! Mrs. Walker ! 

Folia 3^-5 poll, longa, 1-1| poll. lata. Racemi 1^-2 poll, 
bngi. BractesB 1^ poll, longae. PedicelU f-l poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 1^ poll, longa. Labellam 1 poll, longnm. 
Capsala 4 poll, longa, 7-9 lin. lata. 

Not nnlike a reduced edition of V. planifolioy but smaller in 
all its parts, and the fruits much shorter and stouter. There 
is no record as to whether its possesses any aromatic properties. 
A drawing by Mrs. Walker shows the sepals and petals dusky 
yellow and the lip light yellow with brown papillsB in front. 

A specimen in Wight's Herbarium labelled "Hab. — ? 
Peninsula ? ** looks somewhat different, but is too imperfect for 
certain determination. 

22. V. Spbucei, Eolfe; caule gracili flexuosis; foliis 
petiolatis lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis sub- 
obtusis ; racemis axillaribus brevibus paucifloris ; bracteis 
oblongis sabobtusis ; sepalis petalisque lineari - lanceolatis 
acutis, basi angustis ; labello columnsB longe adnato basi 
augusto tubuloso, apice paullo ampliato integro subobtuso 
undulate ; disco ruguloso medio cristate, crista oblonga, foliolis 
ramentaceis denticulatis compobita ; column& elougato-clavatH. 

Hah. Columbia, in shady woods near the Uaupes Ri^er, on 
the Upper Amazon, Spruce, 2727 ! 

Folia 4-4^ poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata ; petiolus 5-6 lin. latus. 
Racemus | poll, longus. Bracteae 2-4 lin. long®. Sepala et 
petala 2^-2^ poll, longa, 2^3 lin. lata. Labellum 2j poll, 
longum. Columna 1| poll, longa. Capsula ignota. 

Remarkable for its broadly lanceolate leaves and long, narrow 



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462 MR. R. ALLEN ROLPB ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

perianth segments. The specimen is not in very good state, 
and the fruit is unknown. Spruce records the flowers as 
whitish -green. 

23. Vanilla hamata, Klotzsch, in Bot. Zeit., iv. (1846) p. 563 ; 
foliis breviter petiolatis late ellipticis vel obovato-ellipticis, 
apiculatis apicalo recurvo ; sepalis et petalis oblongo-lanceolatis 
subobtusis ; labello subintegro obtuso crispo-undulato, crista 
appendicibus fimbriatis composite ; disci nervis ternis supeme 
carinatis crenulatis. 

Hah, Peru, Ihitz et Pavon ! 

Caules (sicci) 4 lin. lati ; intemodi 4 - 4 | poll, longi. Folia 
5^-6 poll, longa, 3i poll. lata. Sepala et petala 3 poll, longa. 
Labellum 2 poll, longam. Colnmna 1^ poll, longa. 

Very distinct from every other species in the shape of the 
leaves, but nothing is known about the inflorescence and fruit. 
Humboldt speaks of a Vanilla in the province of Jaen, on the 
Upper Amazon, Peru, with aromatic fruits (Voy. Hnmb. et 
Bonpl., pte. 3, vol. ii. p. 437), but whether it belongs to the 
present species, to F. hamaia^ Klotzsch, or to some unknown 
Peruvian species, there is no means of knowing. It was 
described from a barren specimen, but a piece from Pavon at 
the British Museum (hitherto unidentified) enables the details 
of the flower to be added. 

24. V. HosTMANNi, Bolfe ; caulibus crassiusculis ; foliis 
breviter petiolatis lanceolato-oblongis, breviter acuminatis sub- 
obtusis ; racemis crassiusculis subelongatis multifloris, bracteis 
oblongis obtnsis vel subacutis concavis; sepalis petalisque 
lanceolatis subobtusis; labello oblongo subintegro obtuso ; disco 
basi pubescente, crista retrorsim hirsute ; columnll clavat&. 

Hah, Surinam, Hostman, 306 ! 

Folia 5^-9 poll, longa, lf-2| poll. lata. Racemi 2-3 poll, 
longi. BractesB 3-5 lin. long©. Pedicelli IJ poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 2 J-2| poll, longa . Labellum 1 J-2 poll . longum. 
Golumna 1^ poll, longa. Capsula ignota. 

In the absence of fruit the exact affinity of this species is a 
little doubtful. The inflorescence and bracts would place it 
near V, planifoliaj though the disc of the lip is not corrugated 
in front, as in that species. The leaf is also distinctly broader 
in the middle than elsewhere, as is often the case with 
V. Pompona^ which is rery different in other respects. 



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MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 463 

25. Vanilla planifolu, Andr,, Bot 5ep.,viii. (1808) t.538; alte 
scandente, canlibus sacculentis sabflexuosis ; radicibns flexaosis 
oppositifoliis ; foliis subsessilibus oblongis acutis vel breviter 
acuminatis carnulosis ; bracteis oblongis sabacntis vel obtasis 
concavis ; floribns pallide viridibus; sepal is petalisque lineari- 
obloDgis sabobtasis ; label lo convolnto marginibas colnmnflB 
longe adnatis, apice subtrilobo retuso margine revoluto ; disci 
nervis crenulato- verrucosis, crista penicillat^ retrorsft ; colamD& 
facie yillos&; capsulis elongato-linearibas obscure trigonis. — 
R, Br, in Ait. Hort, Kew, ed. TI. v. p. 220 ; Lodd., Bot. Cab,, viii. 
t. 733; Bauer y III, Orch,, Gen., tt. ]0, 11 ; Blumey Rumphia^ i. 
p. 197, fc. QS, fig. 2; lAndl, Qen. and 8p. Orch., p. 435; 
C. Morr. in Ann, Nat. Eist., Ser. I. iii. (1839) p. 1 ; De 
Vriese in Belg, Hort., vi, pp. 315, 365 ; Bentley and Trim. Medic. 
PL, iv. t. 272 (excl. syn.) ; Flueck. and Hanb, Pharmacogr., 
p. 595; Oard, Chron. (1867) p. 997; N.S. xvi. (1881) p. 562; 
Bot, Mag., t. 7167; Cogn. in Mart, Fl, Bras,, iii. pars rv. 
p. 145 ; Rolfe, in Kew Bull. (1895) pp. 169-176. 

Epidendrum Vanilla, Linn,, 8p, PL, ed. I. p. 952 (partim). 

Vanilla mexicana. Mill., Oard. Diet., ed. 8 (1768), n. 1 
(partim). V. aromatica, Sw, in Nov, Act. Soc. Sc. Upsal., vi. 
(1799) p. 66; et in Schrad. Joum., ii. p. 208 (partim). LindL, 
Gen, andSp. Orch., p. 434 (partim). V. Epidendrum, Mirh,, Hist, 
PL, ed. II. ix. p. 249 (partim). V. viridiflora, Blume, Bijdr.^ 
p. 422. V. sativa, Schiede, in Linnma, iv. (1829) p. 573 ; vi. 
(1831) p. 59. Lindl,, Gen, and 8p, Orch., p. 437. V. sylvestris, 
Schiede, ILcc. ; Lindl., I.e. V. majaijensis, Blanco, FL FiUp., 
ed. II. p. 593. 

Myobroma fragrans, Salish., Parad, Lond,, t. 82. 

Hah. South-Eastern Mexico, in the Vera Cruz district, 
Dampier, Humboldt, Schiede. Miaantla, Schiede! Yucatan, 
Schotf, 215 ! British Honduras, Morris. Guatemala, Lehmann, 
1436! Costa Rica, Dampier, Cultivated in the Ikiascarene 
Islands, Java, the West Indies, and other parts of the 
tropics. 

Folia 4-9 poll, longa, 1^2^ poll. lata. Racemi 2-3 poll, 
longi. Bracteee 2-6 lin. longSB. Pedicelli 1^2 poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 2 poll, longa. Labellum paullo ulfcra 2 poll, 
longum. Golnmna 1^1^ poll, longa. Capsula 6-9 poll, longa^ 
6-7 lin. lata. 

This species produces the true Mexican Vanilla of commerce^ 



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464 MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

which has been known ever since the discovery o£ America by 
the Spaniards, and was described by Clusins as long ago as 
1605, as mentioned on p. 439. Its early history is mnch confused, 
as for a long period three or foor species were confounded 
together, and even when the present one was described it was 
not known as the source of the Vanilla of commerce, which was 
then, and for long afterwards, thought to be V. aromatuiay Sw. 
(i.e., F. inodora, Schiede). The collection can be directly 
traced from the Paddington Garden in 1807, as mentioned on 
p. 440, to various continental gardens, to Java (where Blume 
re-described it under the name of F. mridiflora)^ and to 
Reunion — thus originating the present industry in that island. 
Myobroma Jragrans, Salisb., was drawn from the same individual 
as the original Vanilla planifolta, Andr. F. sativa and F. sylvestris 
of Schiede are only known from the original descriptions, but 
are evidently forms of the same species, differing only a little 
in the length of the fruit, the former being a cultivated race 
and the latter the wild original. F. majaijensisy Blanco, is also 
known only from description, and as the fruit is said to be not 
aromatic a doubt remains as to its identity. Succeeding: 
authors, however, have considered it synonymous with the 
present one, and if Blanco's fruits were unripe this view may 
be correct, in which case it seems probable that the species was 
introduced to the Philippines from Mexico by the Spaniards. 
Naves (Blanco, * Fl. Filip.,' ed. HI., Nov. App., p. 248) 
enumerates it as growing in the province of San Mateo, where 
he had seen flowers and fruit, and a confirmation of the identi- 
fication seems desirable. 

26. Vanilla phjjantha, Beichb, /. in Flora, xlviii. (1865), 
p. 274 ; habitu Vanillm planifolice ; bracteis majoribus laxis, 
late elliptico-oblongis subobtnsis ; floribus majoribus viridi- 
flavis ; labello obscure trilobo fere truncate, nervis non 
verrucosis; crista appendicibus foliaceis denticulatis retrorsis 
composita; labelli basi lineis 2 puberulis instructa; capsule 
lineari-oblonga obscure compressa. — Rolfe, in Kew Bull. (1895) 
p. 176. 

V. planifolia, Griseh., Ft, Brit. W. Tnd., p. 638, in part (rum 
Andr.). V. planifolia /3. macrantha, Griseb., Cat. PL Cub.j 
p. 267. 

Eab. West Indies, Cuba, Wright, 3351, in part! St. 



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MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 465 

Vincent, Quilding ! In virgin forest between Mt. St. Andrews 
and the Grand Bonhomme, at 2,000 feet alt.. Smith ! Trinidad, 
Bart! 

Folia 3-7 poll, longa, |-2 poll. lata. Racemi 1^-2 poll, longi. 
BraotesB 3-7 lin. longed, 2-4 lin. latas. Sepala et petala 2|— 2f 
poll, longa. Labellnm 2-2-2 P^^'- longam. Gapsnla 3 poll, 
longa, \ poll. lata. 

This is an indigenous West Indian species which has been 
confused with Vanilla planifolia^ Andr., though it is easily 
distinguished by its much larger flowers, lip without verrucose 
disc, and its much shorter fruit. Mr. Hart states that it is 
indigenous in Trinidad, and that the fruit has little perfume, 
and Messrs. Smith remark that in St. Yincent they only 
observed it in a limited space but in virgin forest. It is 
cultivated in the Botanic Ghu^dens of Jamaica and Trinidad, but 
there is no evidence of its fruits being of any commercial value. 
Wright's Cuban specimen at Kew, and also at the British 
Museum, is mixed with the leafless F. harbellata, Reichb. f., a 
fruiting specimen of each being attached to the same sheet, with 
a single ticket. 

27. Vanilla Pompona, Schiede, in Linncea, iv. (1829) p. 673 ; 
habltu Vanillm planifolice ; foliis majoribus ; bracteis majoribus 
late elliptico-oblongis ; floribus majoribas camosiusculis vindi- 
flavis; labello subintegro, venis paullulo crassiusculis, crista 
appendicibas foliaceis retrorsis composite; capsulis lineari- 
oblongis obtuse trigonis. — lAndhy Gen, and 8p. Orch., p. 437 ; 
Klotz8ch,tn Bot. Zeit., iv. (1846) p. 666; Desv, in Ann. 8c, Nat., 
s6r. III. vi. (1846) p. 120 ; Cogn, in Mwrt, Fl, Bras,, iii. pars iv. 
p. 147 ; Eolfe, in Kew Bull, (1896) p. 176. 

V. grandiflora, Lindl, Oen, and 8p, Orch,, (1840) p. 436. V. 
guianensis, 8plitg, in Ann, 8c, Nat,, s6r. II. xv. (1841) p. 279 
(partim). Be Vriese in Tuinb, Fl., iii. (1856) pp. 78, 81, t. 6 
(partim). Cogn. in Mart, Fl, Bras,, iii. pars iv. p. 151 
(partim). V. surinamensis, Beichb, f, in Nederl, Kruidk, Arch,, 
iv. (1859) p. 321 (partim). V. lutescens, Moq, ex Bupuis, in 
Bev.Hort.,a6T. IV, v. (1866) p. 121 fig. 24; Bull. 8oc, Bot. Fr,, 
iii. (1866) p. 354; Ducharire, in Journ, 8oc, Imp. Hort., v. 
(1869) p. 97, t. U; Fl.des 8erres, xxi. t. 2218. 

Hab, S, E. Mexico, Papantla and Colipa, 8chiede ! Valley 
of Cordova, Bourgeau, 2332 ! Nicaragua, Segovia, Oersted ! 

linn. JOURN. — BOTANY, VOL. XIXII. 2 H 



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466 MB. B. ALLSN BOLFE ON THE GENUS YJLNILLA. 

Panama, Seenumn, 1159! Columbia, Lower Mountains of 
Santa Martha, Purdte! Tolima, bei La Plata, 800-1500 m. 
alt.; Lehmann, 2263! Venezuela, at La Guajra, Trinidad, 
Bradford^ 5285! Hart! British Guiana, Corentjne River, 
♦m Thum. Surinam, Merian, Cayenne, Aublet. — Cultivated 
in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and possibly other localities. 

Folia 6-11 poll, longa, 1^-^ poll. lata. Racemi 1^2 poll, 
longi. Bracte89 5-7 lin. longas, 3-4 lin. lat». Sepala et petala 
3-3^ poll, longa. Labellum 2^-3 poll, longum. Capenla 
4r-7 poll, longa, |-1 poll. lata. 

This species is much more widely diffused than Vanilla plani- 
folxa^ and its fruit has long been known as an article of com- 
merce, being now usually sold under the name of West Indian 
Vanillons. It is the Grosse Yanille of Aublet, the Baynilla de 
acguales of Humboldt, and the Baynilla Pompona of Schiede. 
The pods are much thicker and more fleshy than those of 
F. planifoliay and more difficult to dry. They also fetch a much 
lower price in the market, but the fresh fruits are largely used 
in the same way as those of V, planifolia, 

28. Vanilla Gardneri, Eolfe, in Kew Bull. (1895) p. 177 ; 
caulibus crassiusculis ; foliis subsessilibos oblongis obtusis cras- 
siusculis ; racemis crassiusculis brevibus, bracteis ovatis obtusis 
rigidis patentibus ; sepalis petalisque lineari-lanceolatis subobtu- 
sis ; labello oblongo subintegro obtuso submembranaceo, nervo 
vix incrassato ; disco subpubescente cristate ; column^ clavata. 

Vanilla planifolia, Oardn, in Hook,, Lond. Joum, BoL^ i. (1842) 
p. 542 (non Andr.) ; Travels in BrazU, ed. II. p. 225. 

Hah, Brazil, in dry rocky, bushy places, common, as on the 
Morra do Flamengo, near Rio, Gardner, 245 ! In moist places 
in the district of Pamagua, prov. Piauhy, Gardner, 2733 ! 
Natividade, prov. Goyaz, Gardmer, 3449 ! Pemambuco, at 
Iguarassa, Ridley, Lea and Ramage ! Burchell, 894 from near 
Rio, and 9829 from San Jos^ da Laranjeira, Pard, may repre- 
sent barren branches of the same ; the latter is marked as 
*' Bahunilha. Fructus teres, 4r-b poll." 

Folia 3-5 poll, longa, Ij-lJ poll. lata. Racemi 1^-3 poll, 
longi. BracteflB 3-5 lin. longas. Pedicelli f-l^ poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 2| poll, longa. Labellum 2^ poll, longum. 
Columna 1^ poll, longa. Capsula ignota. 

A species allied to Vanilla Pompona, Schiede, but with 
leaves about half the size, longer racemes with smaller, not 



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MB. R. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE 0ENU8 VANILLA. 467 

reflexed bracts, and rather smallery more membranaceous 
flowers. Grardner confounded it with F. planifoluiy Andr., and 
remarked : " This is the plant which yields the Vanilla 
(Banilha of the Brazilians) in Brazil " (in Hook., Lond. Jowm, 
Botf i. (1842) p. 542), though unfortunately his specimens are 
without frait. There are pods in the museum labelled 
'* Brazilian or Bahia Vanilla," which are 6^ inches long by 
fully 1 inch broad, fleshy, and distinctly triquetrous, and thus 
approaching those of V, Tompona, but with a rank odour. 
These are probably prodaced by the present species. ** South 
American Vanilla" (cf Kew Bull. (1892) p. 214) may also 
have the same origin. They are described as from 6^ to 
7^ inches long, quite broad and flattened, ^ inch or more wide, 
reddish-brown, and the odour rank, somewhat resembling 
fermented molasses or rum. As much as 9,000 lbs. of the 
*' beans " are said to have been produced in 1891, and it is 
suggested that it is most likely used as an adulterant of the 
Mexican cut beans. Flowering and fruit specimens of the 
commercial plant are required to settle these doubtful points. 

29. Vanilla Vellozii, Bolfe; caulibus crassinsculis; foliissub- 
sessilibus oblongis obtusis crassinsculis, margine subrevolutis ; 
racemis crassinsculis brevibus, bracteis ovato-oblongis obtusis 
rigidis ; floribus albido-luteis ; sepalis petalisque lineari-lanceo- 
latis subobtusis; labello oblongo subtrilobo emarginato 
undulato, nervo medio supra cristam incrassato, dein ad basin 
pubescente ; column^ clavat&. 

Epidendrum Vanilla, VeU,, Fl. Flum., ix. (1827) p. 4, t. 1 ; 
Netto, in Arch, Mus, Nac., Bio de Janeiro^ v. (1881) p. 356 (non 
Linn.), 

Vanilla Ghamissonis, var. /5, Oogn. in Mcurt, Fl. Bras., iii. 
pars IV. (1894) p. 149. 

Hah. Brazil, arenosis locis ad littora maris, Vellozo. In pro v. 
Bio de Janeiro, Cfaudichaudy 385 ; Biedel. Ad Copaoabana, sur 
le bord de la mer, Glaziou, 11621 ! 14302 ! In prov. Fork, 
Sieber. Flowers December to January. 

Folia 4-5J poll, longa, IJ-IJ poll. lata. Racemi 2^-3 poll, 
longi. Bractesd 3-4 Hn. longse. Pedicelli 1-1^ poU. longi. 
Sepala et petala l|-2 poll, longa. Labellum lf-2 poll, long^m. 
Columna 1^1^ poll, longa. Gapsula igpiota. 

This species has been much misunderstood. It was originally 

2h2 



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468 MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

identified with Epidendriim Vanilla, Linn. (= Vanilla inodora, 
Schiede) ; then Klotzsch referred it to F. palmarum, Salzm., 
and finally, Professor Cogniaux doubtfully placed it as a variety 
of F. ChamissoniSf Klotzsch (to which latter he refers Glazion, 
14302, though the Kew specimen is certainly the present one). 
That species, however, has narrower and much longer leaves, 
and narrower sepals and petals which are shorter than the lip. 
Although figured as long ago as 1827 we are still without any 
knowledge of the fruit, and consequently it is impossible to 
«ay whether any of the Vanillas of commerce are derived from 
it, which, however, seems unlikely. 

30. Vanilla carinata, Bolfe ; f oliis subsessilibus oblongia sub- 
obtusis ; racemis orassis brevibus, bracteis late ovatis obtnsis 
patentibus; sepalis petalisque lanceolato - oblongis obtnsis; 
labello subtrilobo obtuso subcoriaceo medio carinato, disco 
glabro cristate ; column^ clavat&. 

Hah, Organ Mountains, Brazil, Miers ! 

Folia 5-6 poll, longa, 1^2 poll. lata. Racemus 2 poll, 
longus. Bracteffi 2^-3^ lin. longas. Pedicelli l^-lf poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 2r-2\ poll, longa. Labellum If poll, longum. 
Columna 1^ poll, longa. 

This species is rather imperfectly known, but is distinct from 
«very other in having a strong keel down the centre of the lip, 
in front of the crest. The inflorescence is fully twice as stout 
as in the preceding species, and the bracts much smaller and 
quite different in shape. The succeeding one, besides wanting 
the characteristic keel, has the lip more distinctly 3-lobed, the 
margin undulate, and the central line behind the crest much 
more pubescent. 

31. V. COLUMBIANA, Bolfe; caulibus crassis ; f oliis sessilibus 
oblongis obtusis ciassiusculis ; racemis brevibus subgracilibus ; 
bracteis late ovato-oblongis obtusis sfcriatis ; sepalis petalisque 
lanceolatis acntis camosulis ; labello obovato-oblongo trilobo 
lobis lateralibus latis apice rotundato-obtusis intermedio late 
-quadrate apice obcordato-bilobo apiculato lateribus plicato- 
undulato ; disci venis crassiuscalis corrugatis, crista lamellate 
•deflex& ; column^ clavat&, capsal4 ignot&. 

Hob. New Granada, Valley of the Magdalena, Ooudot. 
Flowers in February. 

Caules 4-6 lin. lati ; internodi 6 poll, longi. Folia 4J poll. 



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MB. B. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE OBNUS VANILLA. 469 

loDga, 1^ poll. lata. Racemi 1^ poll. long!. Bracte» 3-5 lin. 
long89. Pedioelli 1 poll, longi. Sepala et petala 1^ poll, longa. 
Labellum 1^ poll, longmn. Golumna 1 poll, longa. 

A remarkably distinct species, characterized by its strongly 
three-lobed lip, and other details. It is described from a single 
specimen, in which the leaves are much shorter than the inter- 
nodes, which, however, may not hold good when more materials 
can be examined. 

32. Vanilla bicolob, Ltndl, Bob. Beg,, xxiv. (1838) Ifwc, p. 37; 
foliis ovato-oblongis snbsessilibus acutis striatis margine rubes- 
centibos; sepalis lineari-lanceolatis acutis patentibns dorso 
rotnndatis; petalis conformibus dorso carinatis; labello mem> 
branaceo semilibero convolato venis ramentaceis medio dense 
ramentaceo-stuposo ; column^ barbate, auriculis crenulatis. 

Hah. British Guiana, Schomburgk. 

Sepala et petala 1|~2 poll, longa. Labellum 2^ poll, longnm. 

I only know this species by description and a coloured sketch 
of a flower with dissections in Lindley*s Herbarium. The 
sepals and petals are dull reddish, and the lip cream colour. 
It flowered with Messrs. Loddiges in 1838, and Lindley states 
that the flowers are deliciously fragrant, but he apparently 
neglected to dry the specimen. Nothing is known about the 
fruit. 

33. V. APPENDICULATA, Eolfe, in Kew Bull (1895) p. 178 ; 
caulibus crassiusculis ; foliis breviter petiolatis oblongis v. 
elliptico-oblongis breviter et abrupte acuminatis subobtusis; 
racemis crassiusculis brevibus, bract'Ois oblongis obtusis, sepalis 
petalisque lanceolato-linearibus acutis; labello oblongo sub- 
trilobo, lobis lateralibus obtusis, intermedio anguste oblongo 
recurve nervis appendicibus longis linearibas ornate; disco 
medio appendicibus foliaceis cuneato-ebovatis dentatis ornate ; 
capsule angusti elongate. 

Hab, British Guiana, Corentyne River, E, F. im Thurn, 
Folia 3^-4^ poll, longa, 1-1^ poll. lata. Racemi 1-1| poll. 

longi. BractesB 3-^ lin. longsB. Sepala et petala 2^ poll. 

longa. Labellum 2 poll, longum. Golumna 1^ poll, longa. 

Gapsula 4^ poll, longa. 

Remarkable for its narrow sepals and petals, and long narrow 

lip which terminates in a narrow recurved apex covered with 

linear foliaceons appendages. The specimens were gathered in 



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470 MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE OENUS VANILLA. 

1879, and both the fmits have opened, yet they retain a distinct 
aromatic perf ame» though whether the species has any economic 
valne is uncertain. 

34. Vanilla Chamissonis, Klotesch, in BoL Zeit., iv. (1846) 
p. 664 ; habitu Vanillce planifolicBy canle crassiore ; foliis longi- 
oribus et angostioribns marginibas revolutis ; bracteis oblongis 
obtnsis; sepalis petalisqae lineari-lanceolatis ; labello angnste 
oblongo margine crenolato, neryis crassinscnlis minute 
crenulatis, crista penicillat&, tubo basi pubescente. — Cogn. in 
Mart. Fl. Bras., iii. pars iv. p. 148, t. 32. 

Folia 7-9 poll, longa, 1-1 j poll. lata. Racemi S\ poll, longi. 
BractesB 3-5 lin. longSB, 1^2^ lin. lata. Sepala et petala 
2^2^ poll, longa. Labellum 2f poll, longum. 

Hab. Brazil, in insuli Sant& Gathering, Chamisso. S. Brazil, 
EschschoUz. Enyirons de Rio Janeiro et d'Ouro Preto, Glassiou^ 
15661! 

Easily distinguished from the preceding by its long and 
narrow leaves, more slender inflorescence and the lip longer 
than the sepals and petals. The fruit is unknown. Qlasiou, 
14302, cited here by Professor Cogniaux, belongs to V, VeUozii, 
Rolfe. 

36. V. RuiziANA, Klotzsch, in BoL ZeiL, iv. (1846) p. 563 ; 
canle crasso; foliis lanceolato-oblongis subacutis breviter 
petiolatis. 

Caulis 3-5 lin. latis; intemodis 3-5 poll, longis. Folia 
5-7 poll, longa, 1-1^ poll. lata. 

Hah. Peru, Buiz 8f Pavon ! 

A species with very distinct habit, but nothing is known 
about the inflorescence or fruit. Humboldt speaks of a Vanilla 
in the province of Jaen, on the Upper Amazon, Peru, with 
aromatic fruits (Voy. Humb. et Bonpl., pte. 3, vol. ii. p. 437), 
but whether it belongs to the present species, to F. hamatay 
Klotzsch (the one other known from Peru), or to some other 
species, there is no means of determining. 

36. V. ENSiFOLU, Bolfe, inKew BuU. (1892) p. 141 ; scandens ; 
oaulibus elongatis sulcatis lasvibus; foliis petiolatis ensi- 
formibus v. elongato-linearibus subattenuatis acutis breviter 
petiolatis ; racemis abbreviatis, floribus subfasciculatis, bracteis 
lanceolato-ovatis acutis; sepalis lineari-lanceolatis acutis ; petalis 
subsimilibus subfalcatis nervo medio pauUo incrassato ; labello 
elliptico-oblongo crenulato. 



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MB. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 471 

Hah. New Granada, prov. Gauca, Ooudot! Patia, Herb, 
Pharm, Soc» ! 

Folia 4-8 poll, longa, 6-10 poll, lata, petiolns 3-5 lin. loDgns. 
Racemi 1^ poll, longi. Bracteas 2-3 lin. longaB. Sepala et 
petala 2 poll, longa. Golnnma 1^ poll, longa. 

A very distinct species, characterized by its narrow sword- 
like leaves. The lip of the only examinable flower is imperfect, 
BO that the details of the disc and crest cannot be given. 
Nothing is known abont the fruit. 

37. Vanilla odorata, Tresl, Eel. Hcenk. (1830), p. 101 ; folus 
lineari-lanceolatis acntis nervosis brevissime petiolatis ; racemis 
brevibus; capsulis sessilibns lineari-lanceolatis basi et apioe 
attenaatis aromaticis. — Khtzsch^ in Bot. ZeU.^ iv. (1846) p. 563 ; 
Bdfe, in Kew Bull (1895) p. 178. 

- Hah. Ecuador, Guayaquil, Hoenke. 

Folia 5-7 poll, longa, 6-8 lin. lata. Gapsula 6-7 poll, longa. 

Only known from description. Presl remarks that, although 
the fruits had been collected thirty-six years, they still retained 
their aromatic fragrance. 

Sect. II. Aphtllj:. — Gaules aphyllsB v. folia ad bracteas 
abortivas reducta. 

38. V. CLAVicuLATA, 8w. in Nov. Act. 8oc. Sc. Upsat., vi. 
(1799) p. 66 ; caulibus crassis ; foliis abortivis oblongo- 
lanceolatis subobtusis sessilibus ; bracteis ovato - oblongis 
obtusis; sepalis petalisque oblongo-lanceolatis subobtusis, 
labello integro emarginato undulato, disco levi, crista 
appendicibns foliaceis apice denticulatis composite; capsulis 
lineari-oblongis. — Sto. in Schrad. Joum.^ ii. p. 209, i. 1, fig. 1 ; 
et. Fl. Ind. occid., iii. p. 1515; Lindl.^ Qen. and Sp. Orch.^ 
p. 434; ari8eh.y Fl. Brit. W. Ind., p. 638. 

Gereo affinis scandens planta, &o. Sloane, Hist. Jam., ii. 
p. 160, t. 224, fig. 3, 4. 

Epidendrum clavioulatum, Sw. Prodr. (1788) p. 120. 

Hah, Jamaica, Swartx ! March ! 

Intemodi 2-4 poll, longi. Folia abortiva ^\\ poll, longa. 
BractesB 2-3 lin. longas. Pedicelli 1^ lin. longi. Sepala et 
petala 1^ poll longa. Labellum \\ poll, longum. Golomna 
1 poll, longa. Gapsula 5-6 poll, longa. 

This species is still very imperfectly known, and has been 



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472 MB. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

confnsed with the two following ones, as well as with 
F. Wrtghtii, Beichb. f., of the previous section. It is onlj 
known from Jamaica. The scales, or abortive leaves, are 
probably confined to the flowering branches, as they aro not 
shown in Sloane's figure. Grisebach describes the flower as 
white, and the lip bearded along the middle, but the latter 
character was not found in the flower examined. 

39. Vanilla BkRBELLkTk^Beichb.f.inFlorayxWm, (1865) p.S74; 
oaulibus crassis; foliis abortivis lanceolate- linearibus acutis; 
bracteis ovatis subobtusis ; sepalis petalisque oblongo-lanceolatis 
subobtusis; labello integ^ emarginato undulato, disco bar- 
bellato, crista appendicibas foliaceis denticulatis compositii et 
in nervo medio extensis omatA, capsulis elongato-linearibus. 

Vanilla claviculata, Griseb., Gat. PI Cub, (1866) p. 267 {wm 
Bw.) ; Sauv., Fl Cub., p. 231. 

Hob, Cuba, near Monte Verde, Wright, 3352! 3351 in 
part! 

Internodi 2-4 poll, longi. Folia abortiva |-2 poll, longa. 
Bi*acte83 2-4 lin. long®. Pedicelli 1^1^ poll, longi. Sepda 
et petala l^-lj poll, longa. Labellum IJ poll, longum. 
Columna 1 poll, longa. Capsular 4^5^ poll, longse. 

Readily distinguished from the preceding, with which it has 
been confused, by the barbellate lip. The sepals and petals are 
described by Wright as green, and the lip white, with the lower 
hairs yellow. Wright's number 3351 is mixed with a specimen 
of V, phceanthay Beichb. f ., both at Kew and the British Museum. 

40. V. EoaBRSii, Bolfe; caulibus crassis; foliis abortivis 
oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis ; sepalis petalisque virescen- 
tibus ; labello albo v. lilacino ; capsulis cylindricis. 

Vanilla claviculata, Beichb, f, in Ber, Deutsch. Bot. QeseL., III. 
(1885) p. 275 (nmi Sw.), V. aphylla, Eggers, in Vidensh. Medd, 
Kjoebenh. (1889) p. 21. 

Hob, W. Indies. Santo Domingo, Llanos de Bafael, at 
200 m. alt., Eggers, 1958! St. Thomas, Flaghill, Smith's 
Bay, Eggers, Bahamas, New Providence, Eggers, Porto 
Bico, Sierra de Luquillo, Eggers. Prope Maricao in sylvis 
ad Mt. Alegrillo, Sintensis, 517. A specimen collected at 
Yauco, Porto Bico, by Oarber (20), with fruits 4-5 inches 
long, may belong here. 

Internodi 5-10 poll, longi. Folia abortiva 2^-3^ poll, longa. 



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MB. B. ALLEN BOLFE ON THE GENUS YANILLA. 473 

Bracfceaa ^] poll. longsB. Floras 2 poll, longi. GapsalaB 3 poll. 

lODgSB. 

This species is very imperfectlj- described by Eggers, but 
a barren specimen from him shows it to be allied to the two 
preceding, thoagh apparently qnite distinct. Reichenbach's 
plant above mentioned, according to the description, also 
belongs here. The scales, or abortive leaves, are much larger 
than in any species of the group. 

41. Vanilla aphylla, Blume, Bijdr. (1825) p. 422; cauHbus 
subgi'acilibus aphyllis; racemis brevibus paucifloris, bracteis 
fere obsoletis; sepalis petalisque lineari-oblongis subobtnsis 
apice revolutis ; labello trilobo, lobis lateralibus oblongis apice 
rotundatis crennlatis, intermedio oblongo obtuso v. emarginato 
marginibus reflexis et plicato-undulatis, disco medio line^ 
barbata erects instructo ; capsnlis elongato-linearibus. — Blume, 
Bumphia, I. p. 198, t. 68 ; Lindl, Gen, and 8p, Orch.y p. 436 ; 
Beichh, f. in Bonplandia, v. p. 37 ; et Otia Bot. Hamb.^ p. 40. 

Hah, Java, on shrubs in the alluvial region, Blume. Tjikoya, 
Zollinger^ 599 ! In insula Nusa EZambangan, Blume, 

Internodi 2-4 poll, longi. Pedicelli l^-lf poll, longi. 
Sepala et petala 1-1^ poll, longa. Labellum 1-lJ poll, longnm. 
Golumna f poll, longa. Capsula 5-6 poll, longa. 

The earliest known species of this section, and easily distin- 
guished from V, Wightiana, Lindl., which has been confused 
with it, by the different structure of the flower. According to 
Blume, the sepals and petals are light green, and the lip 
lilac-purple. 

42. V. Pabishh, jReic^. /., Otia Bot. Hamb, (1878), p. 39; 
racemis brevibus, bracteis late ovato-oblongis obtusis; sepalis 
petalisque lanceolato-oblongis subacntis; labello trilobo lobis 
lateralibus oblongis apice rotnndatis crennlatis intermedio 
rot undato- oblongo crennlato, disco medio longe barbate, crista 
appendicibus fimbriatis retrorsis composite. — Hook. /,, FL Brit. 
Ind., vi. p. 90. 

Hab. Tenasserim, Parish^ 286 ! Moulmein, Gilbert. 

Bracteaa 1^ lin. longaB. Pedicelli 1^1 ^ poll, longi. Sepala 
et petala 1-1 1^ poll, louga. Labellum 1-1^ poll, longum. 
Colnmna f poll, longa. 

A very distinct species, of which an inflorescence ouly is 
known. According to a drawing of a single flower sent by 



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474 MR. R. ALLEN ROLFE ON THE QENUS VANILLA. 

Gilbert, the sepals and petals are refleied, and the oolonr 
pea-green, with a white lip, and a little yellow at the base 
of the tnbe. 

43. Vanilla calopogon, Reichb. /., Otia Bot. Hamb. (1870) 
p. 40 ; caolibus crassis ; racemis brevibns panoifloris, bracteis 
ovatis snbacutis ; sepalis petalisque oblongo-lanceolatis acnmi- 
natis ; labello trilobo, lobis lateralibns oblongis apice rotnndatis 
nndnlatis, intermedio late oblongo snbacnto, disco longe 
barbato, crista retrorsA dense barbate ; capsnlis elongato- 
oblongis. 

Hab. Philippines, Cuming, 2070 ! 

Intemodi 2-4J poll, longi. Bractees 2-3 lin. long8B. PedieelH 
1^2 poll, longi. Labellnm 1^ poll, longnm. Colnmna | poll, 
longa. Capsnla 4^ poll, longa. 

Easily distingnished from the preceding species by its more 
acuminate sepals and petals, the mnch longer front lobe of the 
lip, and the stonter frnit. 

44. V. WiQHTiANA, LindL in Wight Cat (1833) p. 123 (sine 
descriptione) ; Hook, /., Fl, Brit, Ind., vi. p. 90; canlibns 
crassis; bracteis ovatis snbacatis; sepalis petalisqne oblongo- 
lanceolatis sabacntis; labello trilobo lobis lateralibns late 
rotnndatis intermedio rotnndato-ovato snbacnto, disco line& 
mediA hirsute instmcto, crista barbatft retrors& ; capsnlis elon- 
gato-linearibus. — Hook, f., Fl, Brit. Ind., vi. p. 91. 

V. aphjUa, Lindl., Qen. and Sp, Orch,, p. 436, partim (nan 
Blume), Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. Dr., iii. pt. 3, p. 1, t. 931. 
V. Wightii, Lindl, ex Wight, I.e., p. 1 (in note). 

Hab. S. India, Deccan Peniasnla, Wight, 2091 ! 

Intemodi 2-4 poll, longi. BracteaB 2-3 lin. longse. Pedicelli 
1 poll, longi. Sepala et petala 9-10 lin. longa. Labellnm 9 lin. 
loDgom. Colnmna 7 lin. longa. Capsnla 6-7 poll, longa. 

Qaite distinct from V. aphylla, Blnme, with which it has 
been confused, by its broader segments, and the different 
arrangement of hairs on the disc of the lip. Wight's figure 
is exaggerated, and the lip not correctly drawn, as is clear 
from his own herbarium specimens. 

45. V. Walkerle, Wight, Ic, PL Ind. Or., iii. (1843-5) pt. 3, 
p. 1, t. 932; caulibus crassissimis ; foliis abortivis lanceolatis 



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MR. R. AJLLEN ROLFB ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 475 

acuminatis; racemis pedancnlatis multifloris, bracteis oyatis 
acutis ; sepalis lanceolato-oblongis sabobtasis ; petalis subsimili. 
bas panllo latioribus undolatis ; labello integro ovato-oblongo 
snbacato nhdulato, disco medio lineis binis puberalis ad basin 
extensis ; capsalis elongato-linearibas. — Thw.y Enwm, PL CeyL, 
p. 311 ; Hook,/., Fl, Brit Ltd., vi. p. 90. 

Hob. Ceylon, Walker ! Champion ! At Qalle, Thwaites, 2964 ! 
Wight ! Travancore, at Qailon, Wight ! 

Internodi 3-4 poll, longi. Folia abortiva ^1^ poll, longa. 
Bracteaa 3-5 lin. longe. Pedicelli 1^2 poll, longi. Sepala 
et petala 2-2| poll, longa. Labellam 1^ poll, longmn. Colnmna 
1 poll, longa. Capsala 5-6 poll, longa. 

This species has much larger flowers than the preceding, 
thongh the difference is not well indicated in Wight's figures ; 
and the hairs of the disc are also much less distinct. The 
flowers are white, with a little light yellow in the throat. 

46. Vanilla Roscheri, Eeichh. /. in Linncea, xli. (1877) p. 65 ; 
caulibus crassis; racemis pedunculatis multifloris, bracteis 
triangularibus acutis parvis; sepalis lanceolato-oblongis sub- 
obtusis ; petalis elliptico-oblongis quam sepala paullo lati- 
oribus; labello integro lato obtuso y. apiculato undulato, 
disco medio lineis binis puberulis ad basin extensis, capsulis 
elongato-lineari bus. 

Hab, E. Trop. Africa, Zanzibar, Eoscher, Kirk ! 

Pedicelli 1^ poll, longi. Sepala et petala 3--3^ poll, longa. 
Labellnm 2^2| poll, longum. Colnmna 1 poll, longa. Capsula 
6-7 poll, longa. 

This has much larger flowers than the preceding, as much 
as 3^ inches long. The colour is pure white. From sketqhes 
of the flowers and fruit sent by Sir John Kirk the bracts would 
appear to be deciduous before the capsules are mature. The 
material at hand is very imperfect. 

The following may belong to this species : — A sketch from 
the Rev. T. Wakefield, Mombasa, frequent among trees on the 
margins of maritime creeks between Kilimanjaro and the 
coast, H. H. Johnston; Giryama and Tsimba Mts. Rev. 
W. B. Taylor, and Samburu, Scott Elliot, n. 6132. These are 
all practically from the same region, but the two latter have 
rather smaller flowers. In each case, however, the materials 
are insufficient for certain determination. 



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476 ME. R. ALLEN EOLFE ON THE GENUS VANILLA. 

47. Vanilla madaoasgariensis, Bolfe; racemis peduncalatiB 
multifloris, bracteis oblongis Bubobtusis; sepalis petalisque 
obloDgo - lanceolatis subacutis ; labello subintegro obtnso 
undulato, disco subglabro ; capsnl^ ignot^. 

Hah, Madagascar ; Bomatoe Bay, Bojer ! 

Racemi 8-9 poll, longi. Bracteae 8-5 lin. longsB. Pedioelli 
1^ poll. longi. Sepala et pefcala 2^ poll, longa. Labellum 
2 poll, longum. Columna 10 lin. longa. 

Allied to the preceding, but the flowers are smaller, the 
segments narrower, and the bracts different. 

48. V. Phaljjnopsis, Beichh. /., ex Van Houtte, FL des 
Serves, xvii (1867-8) p. 97, tt. 1769-70; caulibns craesis; 
I'acemis peduncalatis multifloris, bracteis ovatis acutis ; sepalis 
lanceolato-oblongis sabobtosis; petalis elliptico-oblongis sub- 
obtnsis quam sepala panllo latioribos ; labello integro oblongo 
obtnso snbundalato, disco medio lineis binis pnbemlis ad basin 
extensis; capsulis lineari-oblongis. — Beichh, f. in Linnosay xli. 
p. 66. 

Internodi 3-4 poll, longi. Bracteaa 3-5 lin. longse. Pedicelli 
l^-lj poll, longi. Sepala et petala 2J-2^ poll, longa. 
Labellnm l|-2 poll, longum. Columna f poll, longa. Capsula 
4-5 poll, longa. 

Hob. Seychelle Islands, ** common in all the islands," HomCy 
607! 

The disc of the lip of this species is much more pubescent at 
the base than in the two or three preceding ones. Mr. Home 
observes that the roots adhere to rocks that are frequently so 
heated by the sun that they can scarcely be touched by the hand. 

49. V. HuMBLOTii, Beichh. /. in Oard, Chron. N.S. xxiii. 
(1885) p. 726; caulibus crassis ; racemis pedunculatis multifloris^ 
bracteis oblongis obtnsis deciduis ; sepalis lanceolato-oblongis 
subacutis ; petalis elliptico-oblongis subacutis quam sepala multo 
latioribus, labello subintegro rotandato-oblongo, disco puberulo 
medio villoso. — Beichh, f, in Flora, Ixviii. (1885) p. 378. 

Internodi 3-5 lin. longi. Bractea 4-5 lin. longse. Pedicelli 
2 poll, longi. Sepala et petala 2^2| poll, longa. Labellum 
2|-2^ poll, longum. Columna f poll, longa. 

Hab. (jreat Comoro Islands ; Humhlot, 413 ! 

Readily distinguished by its velutinoua lip, which becomes 
somewhat yillose on the lower half. 



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mr. r. allen rolfe on the obnus vanilla. 477 

Section Doubtful. 

50. Vanilla Poitjei, Beichh. f. in Linncea, xli. (1877) p. Q^ ; 
sepalis petalisque lineatis aoutis ; labello cnm co!nmD& connato 
antlce libero expanso latissime dilatato trilobo, lobis lateralibus, 
rotnndatis antice crispis, intermedio triaDgnlo crispo omnibus 
atroviolaceo marginatis et venis insilientibns atroviolaoeo pictis, 
liDe& latiuscnlft pilorum lamellammqiie retrorsamm in line& 
labelli roedi^. 

Hah, Santo Domingo, Poiteau, 

Only known from description, which is very imperfect, and 
•contains no reference to the affinities of the species, whose 
position therefore remains doabtfnl. 

Doubtful OR Excluded Species. 

Vanilla acutifolia, Lodd., Cat, ex W, Baxt. in Lond. Uort. 
Brit.f SuppL III. p. 655. Name only. 

V. angustifolia, Wtlld., 8p. PZ., iv. (1805) p. 121 (Epiden- 
driam domesticum, Linn., 8p. PL, ed. I. p. 952), based npon 
Angurek Wama, Kcempf, Amcan, (1712) pp. 867, 869, fig. 1, 
must probably be excluded from the genus. 

V. axillaris, Mill, Oard, Diet., ed 8 (1768), n. 2, et in errat. 
A doubtful species, probably does not belong to the genus. 

V. Fasciola, Spreng., PL Min. Cogn,, Pugill. ii. (1815) 
p. 83 = Tceniophyllum Fasciola, Reichb. f . 

V. pterosperma, lAndl. in Wall, Gat,, n. 7402 = Qaleola 
Hydra, Reichb. f . 

V. rubiginosa, Qriff., Notul., iii (1851), p. 246 = Galeola 
Hydra, Reichb. f. 

V. speciosa, Boxall, ex Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip., ed. 8, Nov, 
App, (1880) p. 284. Name only, and altogether doubtful. 

Supplementary Note. 

Since the above was read, additional material has come to 
hand, enabling the following species to be described : — 

13a. V. CRENULATA, Bolfe; caulibus subgracilibus ; foliis 
petiolatis elliptico-oblongis abmpte acuminatis ; racemis brevi- 
bus multifloris; bracteis late triangulari-ovatis subobtusis 
concavis ; sepalo postico lanceolato-oblongo subobtuso concavo 



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478 HB. B. ALLEN BOLFB OK THE GENUS VANILLA. 

lateralibns elliptico-oblongis obtasis carinatis ; petalis f alcato- 
obloDgis snbobtusis ; labello trilobo, lobis lateralibns oblongis a 
lateribos colamnaB adsatis marginibns liberis reflexis crenulatis, 
intermedio triangulo - ovato subobtnso reflexo - condaplicato 
crenolato, crist& appendicibos foliaceis pauois composita; 
column^ brevi incnryi. 

Hah. W. Trop. Africa. Sierra Leone, Bamban to Lokko, 
Scott Elliot, 5733! Ashanti, Prabsn, H. A. Cummins, n. 4! 
** Flowers purple and white." 

Intemodi 2-3 poll, longi. Folia 2-5 poll, longa, 15-2^ poll, 
lata ; petioli 3-6 lin. longi. Raoemi 1-1^ poll, longi. Bractesa 
1-3 lin. longse. Pedicelli 1^ poll, longi. Sepala 11-13 lin. 
longa, 4-4^ lin. lata. Petala 11 lin. longa, 3^ lin. lata. 
Labellom 6 lin. loDgnm. Colnmna 9-10 lin. longa. 

Allied to V, rcmiosa, Bolfe, but distinguished by the 
broader and less aaute crenulate bront lobe of the lip, the 
nnbranched inflorescence, &c, Mr. Scott Elliot's specimen 
possessed no flower, but that collected by Dr. Cummins, which 
is evidently identical, enables the description to be prepared. 
The fruit is unknown. 

16a. Vanilla impebialis, Krctenzl. in Notizbl. Bot. Oard. 
BerUn (1896) p. 155, t. 1. 

Allied to V, grandiflora, Lindl., and has yellow flowers of 
about the same size, though different in other respects. 

Hah, W. Trop. Africa. Yaunde, near Ungomessam, Cameroon 
district, Zenker and Staitdt, 626. 



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DR. 0. STAPP ON SARARANGA 8INU0SA. 479 



On the structure of the female flower and fruit of Sararanga 
sinuosa, Hemsl. (Pandanaceas). By O. Staff, Dr. Phil., 
Assistant for India, Kew Herbarium ; with an amended 
description of the genus and the species, by W. Bottino 
Hemslet, A.L.S., F.R.S., Principal Assistant, Herbarium, 
Kew. (Communicated by the President.) 

[Bead 19th March, 1896.] 

Plates IV-VII. 

Introduotion, p. 479 ; the Female Flower, p. 480 ; the Fruit, p. 485 ; Affinities 
with Pandanut, p. 486 ; Be-description of the G^nus and Species, p. 488 ; 
Explanation of Plates, p. 489. 

In the Journal of this Society (Botany), vol. xxx. (1893) 
p. 216, t. 11, Mr. W. Botting Hemsley described a new genus 
of PandanaceflB, Sararanga, the only species belonging to it 
being 8, sinuosay Hemsl. The description and the figures were 
made from a dried specimen, gathered by Dr. H. B. Guppy, in 
Fauro Island, Solomon Group. The plant had already pre- 
viously been collected by Dr. O. Becoari in Jobi Island, off the 
north-west coast of New Guinea; but the condition of his 
specimens was such that little could be said about them save 
that they evidently belonged to a new genus of Pandanaceaa. 
(See Count Solms-Laubach, in Engl. u. Prantl. Naturl. Pflan- 
zenfam, Tb. i. Abth. ii. p. 191.) Since the publication of the 
description of Sararanga further material has been received, 
consisting of leaves and female flowers and fruits gathered by 
the officers of H.M.S. *' Penguin," Commander A. F. Balfour, in 
New Georgia, and presented to Kew by Admiral Wharton, C.B., 
Hydrographer to the Admiralty. There are also some photo- 
graphs showing the habit of the tree, and a description, drawn 
up by Lieutenants B. T. Somerville and S. C. Weigall, was 
communicated to the Herbarium, Kew [cf. Kew Bulletin (1895), 
pp. 159, 273]. The flowering and fruiting specimens from 
New Georgia consisted of portions of the female inflorescence, 
and being preserved in cocoa butter, arrived in excellent 
condition for examination. As the materials from which the 
description of the genus was drawn up were very imperfect, a 
fresh examination was very desirable. I had prepared the 
analyses and part of the drawings of ;Sararaw^a, published in 
Mr. Hemsley's paper, and was thus to a certain extent respon- 



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480 DB 0. STAFF ON SARARANGA SINUOSA. 

sible for them. I uDdertook, therefore, the examination of 
the fresh material, the resalts of which are contained in this 
paper. The male flowers are still unknown, and my observa- 
tions are therefore restricted to the female. 

Finally, I have to express my thanks to Mr. Thiselton Dyer 
for permission to include an illustration from one of the photo- 
graphs mentioned above. 

The Female Flower. 

Before describing the structure of the female flower of 
Sararanga it may be well to repeat part of the description of 
the female tree by Lieutenants Somerville and Weigall as pub- 
lished in the Kew Bulletin above mentioned. This will also 
serve at the same time as an explanation of PI. lY. According 
to this description, Sararanga sinuoaa is a tree which attains an 
average height of "60 feet, including the branches which 
radiate out from the stem at the top of the trank only, to a 
length of about 10 feet." The trunk is coated with " a thick 
covering cf small tendril-like roots, closely adhering together 
and tightly packed to the tree,'* but "there were no aerial 
roots in any instance." 

" The flower head grows in the centre of the leaf branches, 
which themselves occur at the end of the large branches 
radiating from the head of the trunk. It consists of a tough 
main stem, strongly bent at the foot, so as to cause the flower 
head to hang downwards, from which spring 30 flower- 
branchlets diminishing in size to the point, which forms a 
branch itself. They grow two in opposition, followed by two 
more in opposition, but placed on the opposite diameter of the 
main stem. The lowest, largest flower-branchlet had 16 minor 
branches springing from it, growing irregularly both in 
distance and position, and bearing 162 blossoms. When first 
cut down the blossoms had a faint fetid odour like that of a 
harvest bug, which, however, soon passed off." The two 
panicles measured were 45 and 60 inches long ; their rhachis 
was over 1 inch thick at the base, and the lower branches had 
a length of 11 inches. 

Mr. Hemsley described the fleshy sinuously-lobed bodies 
which are bom by the ultimate ramifications of the panicle as 
" receptacula florifera." I may state at once that I shall term 
them " flowers " and give the reasons later on. These female 



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DR. O. STAFF ON SARAEANGA 8INU0SA. 481 

flowers (PI. V. figs. 1, 2) of Sararanga sinuosa consist of a 
radimentarj perianth and of a gynaecenm, no traoes of an 
androecium being discernible. The perianth has the shape of 
a flat, sinnonsly bent saucer. It is, even in a yonng state, rather 
fleshy and thick (PI. Y. figs. 3, 14). It is closely adpressed to 
the base of the gynaeceam, exactly following its sinnons windings, 
but not adnate to it. The margin is entire and there is no 
venation visible to the naked eye, though a microscopic exami* 
nation reyeab the presence of generally simple vascular bundles 
which radiate from the base. The gynaeceum consists of a 
fleshy, roughly semi-globose or subglobose body — about 6 mm. 
in diameter — which is sinuously lobed, as shown in PI. V. 
figs. 1, 2, 6-8. The surface is smooth in a fresh state, and the 
colour white. The stigmas consist of small and dark wart^like 
protuberances, more or less round or slightly reniform. They 
are veiy numerous, upwards of 70 or 80 in one flower, and so 
arranged in a continuous Hne that the line exactly follows the 
branching of the gynaeceum, always keeping strictly to the 
dorsal ridge of the main body as well as of the lobes ; but as it 
runs out almost right to the end of each lobe and returns 
fitrictly parallel to itself till it reaches the next sinus, and so 
on, it forms the sinuous double row of stigmata which is so 
remarkable a feature in the flower and fruit of Sararanga, 
Where the stigmata show an approach to horseshoe shape the 
«inus is always on the inner side (PI. Y. ^g, 12), so that the 
Minuses of two opposite stigmata &ce each otiier. Within this 
double row of stigmata there is a very shallow, and sometimes 
quite obscure depression, in which — with the aid of a lens — 
minute pores (PL Y. fig. 12, 13) may be seen, from which some- 
times a more or less obscure groove extends towards the 
nearest stigma. As these pores and grooves are homologous to 
similar structures present in many species of Pandanus where 
they are assumed to indicate the ventral suture of the carpels, 
1 will speak of these pores briefly as sutural pores. A trans* 
verse section through two opposite stigmas (PI. V. fig. 9 ; 
PL YI. fig. 18) shows that there is one ovary cell below each 
of them and about equally distant from the top and the bottom 
of the gynaeceum, containing a single anatropous ovule (PL YI. 
fig. 22). This is bom on a rather stout funicle, which springs 
from the inner basal angle of the cell. Its structure is essentially 
the same as in Freycinetia javanica (see Solms-Laubach, in Bot. 

LINN. JOUEN. — BOTANY, VOL. XXXII. 2 I 



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482 DR. 0. STAPP ON SARAEANGA SINDOSA. 

Zeit. xxxvi. (1878) t. 10, f. 13). The nucleus was re-absorbed 
almost completely by the embryo sac, even in the youngest 
states which I have seen. In figs. 8 and 9 of Mr. Hemsley's plate, 
illustrating Sararanga, I have represented this ovary cell as 
communicating with the sutural pores by means of a channel. 
When examining the fresh material from New Georgia I 
was convinced that such a communication does not exist. 
Dr. Guppy's dried specimens were very much squeezed by 
pressing, hence it was necessary to treat the dissections with 
hydrate of potassium and to flatten them out with needles. In 
doing this I evidently tore the tissue along a line which I, 
biassed by the diagram of the carpel of Pandanus pygmceus in 
Solms-Laubach's paper on PandaneaB [Bot. Zeit. (1878) 1. 10, 
fig. 25], took to be the stigmatic channel. Thus the gynae- 
eeum appears to be formed by a very great number of carpels 
(PI. V. figs. 10, 11) which are so completely fused into one 
solid fleshy body as to leave only the stigmas free, and perhaps 
a very small portion below them, where traces of the ventral 
suture, in the shape of an obscure groove, and all but micro^ 
wcopic pores are visible. 

The anatomical structure of the flowers is on the whole 
very simple, except one or two peculiarities ; but as Sararanga 
differs considerably from the rest of the Pandanacees in the 
morphology of its flowers and fruits, it may be worth while 
to mention the principal anatomical features. The epidermis 
of the perianth, as well as of the gynaeceum, consists of poly- 
gonal, slightly oblong, or almost isodiametric cells ; the outer 
walls of which are distinctly thicker than the others, and covered 
with a strong and wrinkled or striated cuticle (PI. V., ^g. 15 ; 
VII., fig. 25). There are stomata present in the perianth (PI. V., 
fig. 15) but none, so far as I am aware, in the gynaeceum. 
The stomata are of the ordinary kind, and surrounded by four 
gaard-cells. The succulent parenchyma of the perianth is 
quite homogeneous, except some very large cells which reach 
a maximum length of ^ mm. and contain bundles of rhaphides. 
The parenchymatic tissue of the gynsacium is much more 
differentiated ; but before describing it I will deal with the 
vascular system. A considerable number of vascular bundles 
enter the flower from the pedicel, then, after having given off 
short branches for the perianth, which generally remain simple^ 
they divide at the base of the gynaeceum in such a way that 



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DR. 0. 8TAPP ON SABARANGA SINUOSA. 483 

each carpel has one bandle ascending straight to the stigma 
on its ventral or inner side, and another ascending in a curve 
along its mesial line on the dorsal side (PI. VI. tigs. 18, 23). 
Both bnndles fnse below the stigma and end here in a cluster 
of tracheids, very much in the same way as vascular bundles 
terminate below water pores (PL VI. fig. 21). The ventral 
bundle emits the branch which supplies the funicle and ends 
in the chalaza, where it breaks up into scattered tracheids 
(PL VI. figs. 18, 22). The parenchyma immediately below the 
epidermis is collenchymatic. Along the vascular bundles it 
forms a mantle (PL VI. figs. 18, 23) consisting of smaller and 
more oblong cells which are rather rich in plasma. A similar 
parenchyma fills the space between the two rows of ovary cells 
and surrounds that part out of which the hard endocarp is 
formed later on. This part consists of an outer mantle of large 
thin-walled cells which are radially arranged around the cavity 
(PL VI. ^g, 23) and of au inner mantle which is laterally 
reduced to a single layer of small cells but thicker along the 
edges, where it remains in a meristematio condition for some 
time. The rest of the parenchyma of the gynaeceum consists 
of very wide thin-walled poly