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The Ohio State University Bulletin 

Volume XXVI October 30, 1921 Number 4 


The Journal of Alexander Chesney, 

a South Carolina Loyalist in the 

Revolution and After 

i^- ^'ni'v'} 

Edited by 

1#1 of 

London, England 





Copyright, 1921 
By The Ohio State University 


By Wilbur Henry Siebert 

The Journal of Alexander Chesney may be divided into four 
parts, namely, (1) the account of Mr. Chesney's family connections 
and of the migration of his father, Robert, with wife and children, 
from county Antrim, Ireland, to the Pacolet river. South Caro- 
lina (pp. 1 to 5) ; (2) Alexander Chesney's' experiences in the Revo- 
lution to April 5, 1782 (pp. 5 to 28) ; (3) his life, after his return 
to Ireland, as a loyalist applicant for relief and compensation (pp. 
27 to 36) ; and (4) his career as a revenue officer at Mourne, Ire- 
; \ land, to about 1821 (pp. 36 to 56) . 

In many respects the vicissitudes through which Alexander 
Chesney passed are typical of the experiences of numerous other 
American loyalists. His story, briefly sketched, is that of an ad- 
herent of the British crown who, as a youth, served as a guide for 
Tory refugees. For this he was imprisoned for a few days and then 
r\\ given the alternative of joining the Whigs or standing trial. As his 
i father's family had been threatened with ruin for harboring some 
of these refugees, Alexander joined the Whigs in the hope, he says, 
of protecting his kindred. He served with them as a private from 
April, 1776, in campaigns against the Creek and Cherokee Indians 
and was at Augusta, Georgia, with them in the summer of 1779. 
Between these expeditions he engaged in conveying produce by 
team to Charleston, South Carolina, which was then in the posses- 
sion of the Whig forces. 

When, at length, the British troops captured Charleston, May 
12, 1780, and General Sir Henry Clinton issued a proclamation sum- 
moning the king's friends to embody, Mr. Chesney went within the 
lines, June 25, and became a lieutenant in the loyal militia. From 
this time on he served the crown faithfully in various capacities 
and quickly won the confidence of Major Patrick Ferguson, who was 
placed in command of Fort Ninety-Six. On August 9, 1780, Mr. 
Chesney was appointed captain and, after participating in a few 
minor engagements, was in the defeat and surrender of Ferguson's 
force at King's Mountain, October 9. Soon after this Chesney es- 
caped and reached home, October 31. There he remained for the next 




three weeks, concealing himself in a cave part of the time and stay- 
ing with his father-in-law at intervals. Hearing that Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tarleton had defeated Sumter at Blackstock's Hill, Novem- 
ber 20, Chesney raised a company of militia and joined a strong 
party of Tories under Brigadier-General Cunningham on Little 
river. In December Chesney was placed in command of the militia 
guard at the jail of Ninety-Six, but went with Tarleton when the 
latter came to that neighborhood and was with him in the defeat 
and dispersion of his force at the Cowpens, January 17, 1781. 
Chesney again retired to his home, only to find it despoiled of all his 
personal effects except two horses, with which he was able to bring 
his wife and child to Robert McWhorter's place on the Edisto 
river. Leaving them there, he proceeded to Charleston where he 
was paid for some cattle and provisions he had supplied to Fergu- 
son, and was assigned one of the sequestered houses and plantations 
of the Whig proprietors of the Charleston district, together with 
a quantity of provisions and the use of three negroes. Accordingly, 
in March, 1781, he removed his family to comfrotable quarters on 
the Ponpon river, a tributary of the Edisto, and, employing addi- 
tional negroes, began to cultivate a crop of rice and Indian corn. 

On his return to Charleston in May Chesney raised a troop of 
horse by direction of Colonel Balfour and was stationed with it at 
the British post at Dorchester, South Carolina, whither he now 
brought his family. He promptly informed Lord Rawdon of the 
activity of the Americans in that vicinity and accompanied a de- 
tachment to clear them out. During this skirmish he was wounded 
in the thigh by one of the enemy. Early in July Chesney went with 
Rawdon's force to relieve Fort Ninety-Six. The besieging Ameri- 
cans withdrew, crossed Broad River, and moved down the left bank 
towards Charleston. Rawdon, fearing for the safety of the loyalist 
inhabitants in the direction of Long Cane creek, sent his light 
troops to bring them in and with the remainder of his men took the 
road back to Charleston, but was soon cut off by the enemy. Under 
these circumstances Chesney volunteered to carry a letter from 
Rawdon to Balfour at Charleston, asking aid. In reply to this 
appeal Colonel Balfour sent forward a detachment which enabled 
Rawdon to advance. 

After Lord Rawdon led his force from this section of South 
Carolina, Chesney joined a corps of three companies raised for the 
protection of the sequestered Whig estates by John Cruden, Esq., 


the commissioner "for the seizure, superintendence, custody, and 
management of captured property" in South Carolina. Meantime, 
the Americans had been rapidly regaining control of the Province 
and by December, 1781, the British found themselves confined to 
Charleston and its immediate vicinity. Chesney was now appointed 
to superintend the cutting of wood, which was made necessary by 
the winter season, and took pleasure in relieving the destitute con- 
dition of a number of refugee loyalists by employing them in this 
work. Chesney had lost his wife at the close of November, 1781, 
and was compelled by ill health to give up the supervision of the 
wood cutters early in the following January. As he grew worse, 
instead of better, he sent his child to its relatives and sailed from 
Charleston, April 5, 1782, landing at Castle Haven, Ireland, May 19. 

By June 4 he was in Dublin, where he was introduced to a loyal- 
ist, Mr. Philip Henry, who had been exiled with others from South 
Carolina in June, 1778, and was now an officer in the Customs 
house at Dublin. Mr. Henry advised Mr. Chesney to seek a posi- 
tion in the revenue service and to file a claim for the losses he had 
suffered in the American war. After a short stay in Dublin Ches- 
ney paid a brief visit to his relatives in county Antrim and then 
proceeded to London, where he submitted a memorial, supported by 
testimonials, to the lords of the Treasury, August 3, asking for 
immediate relief. Having thus begun this negotiation, he took 
lodgings at 58 Crown street, Westminster. Through the kindness 
of his landlord Mr. Chesney made the acquaintance of Mr. Lewis 
Wolfe, a clerk in the Treasury, who then or later acted as the agent 
in London for those American refugees who had returned to the 
north-east of Ireland. Mr. Wolfe proved to be helpful in various 
ways to our applicant. 

Later Mr. Chesney attended a large meeting of the Association 
of American Loyalists in London at the Crown and Anchor tavern 
in the Strand, where it was determined to petition the king's min- 
isters, Mr. Chesney being named one of a committee of three to pre- 
pare the petition on behalf of those loyalists who had rendered ser- 
vices to Government and lost their property. After drafting an- 
other memorial and copying his testimonials for Lord North, ar- 
ranging with two loyalists to send him any word from the Treasury, 
calling on Sir Henry Clinton and Lord Comwallis about his personal 
affairs, and authorizing Mr. Wolfe to act for him in his absence, 
Alexander Chesney took his departure from London, August 16. 


On his journey homeward he waited on Lord Rawdon, from whom 
he received a letter soliciting the interest of General Burgoyne — 
now commander of the forces in Ireland — in having the bearer 
appointed to a position in the Irish Customs. At length, on August 
30, he boarded the packet at Liverpool on his way to Dublin. Call- 
ing on Burgoyne in the latter city, he was given little encourage- 
ment in regard to the desired appointment. By September 7 he was 
back in county Antrim with his relatives. A few days later a 
letter from Mr. Wolfe asked for a sworn statement of his losses in 
America, accompanied by certificates from Cornwallis, Tarleton, 
and others. These documents he supplied promptly, his estimate 
of his losses totaling £1,998. 10s. 

By the middle of December, 1782, Chesney heard from Lord 
Rawdon and, by the latter's direction, returned to Dublin to see 
about the Customs appointment. The outcome of this mission was 
an appointment as tide waiter at Waterford, whither the appointee 
betook himself to remain, as it turned out, only two weeks, for 
neither the location nor the duty pleased him. He, therefore, got 
himself removed to Belfast, and on March 1 married his second 

The honeymoon had lasted but little more than a fortnight 
when a letter from Mr. Wolfe called for the presence of the bride- 
groom in London, in connection with his claim as a distressed 
loyalist. Obtaining leave of absence from the Irish board of Cus- 
toms, Chesney made his second journey to the British capital, ar- 
riving March 24, 1783. He spent the next week or more in getting 
his papers ready for the Treasury office. It was not, however, until 
May 6 that he was examined by the commissioners on Loyalist 
Claims. He also served as a witness for some of his fellow exiles 
when their claims were heard. Additional days were spent in call- 
ing on his own witnesses and in paying occasional visits to the 
Treasury. After spending two months in London and receiving a 
temporary allowance of £50 a year, he returned to Belfast. 

On October 13, 1783, Chesney found it necessary to go to Dub- 
lin again to prepare a new memorial for the commissioners on 
Loyalist Claims. He did not overlook the opportunity afforded by 
this visit to apply for another appointment in the Customs. After 
returning to Belfast for a few days he, in company with two loyal- 
ist friends, journeyed for the third time to London, where he 
learned that he had been named coast officer at Bangor, a post that 


paid well and was not distant from county Antrim. Once more he 
wrote out his memorial, this time preparing copies for all the Com- 
missioners. In addition he got his claim certified by other refugees 
from South Carolina, whose claims he certified in turn. He then 
returned to Belfast and removed his family to Bangor late in 
December, 1783. In the fall of the year following the commis- 
sioners put him to the further trouble of furnishing more proofs 
that his property had been confiscated. 

On Christmas day, 1785, Mr. Chesney visited Moume and 
effected an exchange with the coast officer at Annalong, which was 
a fishing village in county Down, where the new Customs officer 
was to have some exciting experiences with the nest of desperate 
smugglers harboring there. He brought his family from Bangor 
to Moume, February 14, 1786, and in August received £133. 12s. in 
part settlement of his claim, the remainder of the award, namely, 
£255. 18s. coming to hand in November. Thus, it had cost our South 
Carolinian three visits to London, the repeated submission of me- 
morials and testimonials, and much correspondence since August 
3, 1782, to obtain an annual allowance of £50 and an award of less 
than £400 on a total claim of £1,998. 10s., which seems to have been 
later reduced to £1,564. 10s. Either at this time or later Mr. Ches- 
ney's annual pension was cut down to £30. Needless to say the 
recipient of these sums was not pleased with the results of his 
efforts, and alleged that both his award and pension had been re- 
duced by the commissioners on account of his employment in the 
Customs which, he said, they included as part compensation. 

During the year 1789 the boatmen and smugglers at Annalong 
formed a combination to get Coast Officer Chesney removed from 
his place. However, he succeeded in thwarting them, clung to a 
position which was proving to be profitable, despite the risks of life 
and limb undoubtedly connected with it, and invested his compen- 
sation money in a town property. That smuggling was not declin- 
ing at Annalong is indicated by the fact that Chesney reported to 
the lord lieutenant the arrival in Glassdrummond Bay on Febru- 
ary 19, 1793, of five vessels engaged in the contraband trade. Ac- 
cordingly, that official, in conjunction with the Irish board of Cus- 
toms, sent several cruisers and two detachments of troops to pro- 
tect the coast. By this time Chesney's personal affairs were pros- 
pering, and he thanked God "for health in the family and plenty of 


Already in 1791 the Association of United Irishmen had been 
formed, and in the fall of 1796 its members in county Down and 
several neighboring counties were secretly drilling in preparation 
for revolt. This activity did not escape the notice of Mr. Chesney, 
who obtained a commission and embodied the Moume Infantry at 
the end of January, 1797. His company was the first under arms 
in county Down, a circumstance to which he was inclined to attrib- 
ute the prevention of a general insurrection in Mourne. 

Despite the pressing nature of his official and military duties 
at this period. Captain Chesney was none the less attentive to the 
interests of his children. His oldest daughter, Eliza, was already 
thirteen and in a boarding school at Newry, and he was applying 
for a cadetship for his boy, Francis, who was only a few months 
more than nine years of age. He was promised an appointment for 
Francis, but was informed that the boy would not be eligible until 
he was fourteen. Nevertheless, the ambitious father obtained a 
commission for this youth in the Mourne Yeomanry from Lord 
Castlereagh in May, 1798, attributing his success to that nobleman's 
ignorance of the appointee's age. At about the same time Mr. 
Chesney reluctantly became a justice of the peace. 

Late in May the Mourne companies, which had been put on 
permanent duty on account of the outbreak of the rebellion, were 
ordered to Newry. Early in the following month Captain Chesney 
returned to Mourne with part of the cavalry, surrounded the 
houses of the suspected leaders there during the night, and carried 
them oif to Newry as hostages for the protection of the inhabitants, 
in case of a rising during the absence of the corps. After going 
with a detachment to Dundalk where, according to report, the 
rebels were under arms, Chesney and the Mourne Yeomanry 
marched back to Mourne, and half of the corps were released from 
permanent duty; but the order was rescinded, August 25, 1798, 
three days after the French had landed at Kallala Bay. 

The closing pages of Alexander Chesney's Journal, which ends 
with the year 1820, is filled for the most part with items concern- 
ing his children. On March 24, 1803, his elder son, Francis, who 
was now fifteen, started alone on his way to London in the hope of 
being admitted to the Royal Military Acadamy at Woolwich. Being 
found deficient, he was placed successively in the Walworth and 
Diptford academies and the Royal Military College at Great Mar- 
low, Bucks, a preparatory college for Woolwich. Eighteen months 


from the time of his first leaving home, Francis was gazetted to a 
second lieutenancy, to the evident satisfaction of his father v^ha, 
in January, 1805, sent his younger son, Charles, to follow in his 
brother's footsteps, having obtained for him the promise of an East 
India cadetship. The expense of Charles's schooling, together with 
some trifling debts, proved somewhat embarrassing to his father 
during the year 1806 ; but the latter rejoiced in the thought that cer- 
tain seizures he had made would "set him free." In 1807 Charles 
was in the Military Academy at Woolwich, and Francis was quar- 
tered with his company at Portsmouth, but was moved in the open- 
ing days of March, 1808, to the island of Guernsey. In the follow- 
ing June Eliza married Captain John Hopkins, and in October, 
1809, Charles, now a lieutenant in the artillery, sailed for India, 
arriving at Madras, February 1, 1910. Jane visited with her sis- 
ter, Mrs. Hopkins, who with her husband, spent part of this year 
in Dublin. Francis remained in Guernsey until November, 1813, 
when he resigned his staff position there and sought for military 
employment on the continent. Mr. Chesney, Sr., with the aid of 
Francis and several friends outside the family, tried to get an ap- 
pointment in the Customs for his son Alexander, but within the 
limits of the Journal seems not to have succeeded. The birth of 
still another son, Thomas Crafer Chesney, is mentioned as having 
occurred on March 13, 1808, but no other entry appears regarding 
him. On February 13, 1814, Matilda died of a fever, which had at- 
tacked other members of the family. In the following September 
Francis, who had been on "an excurtion to France and along the 
ports of Holland," was assigned to a company at Woolwich. In 
1815 he was promoted to a captaincy and in the next year was 
stationed at Leith Fort in Scotland. On November 22, 1816, Jane 
married the Reverend Henry Hayden, while Captain Hopkins re- 
tired from the service on a good pension. In the autumn of 1817 
the fever again broke out in the Chesney family and left Mary, 
Anne, and Charlotte much debilitated. In February, 1918, Mr. 
Chesney was greatly surprised at receiving a letter from his eldest 
son, William, of whose survival he was not even aware, stating that 
he was living in the State of Tennessee, but was not in flourishing 
circumstances. The letter also referred to his grandfather, Robert 
Chesney, as being still alive. 

Meantime, Charles had married in the island of St. Helena 
and, being in poor health, had brought his wife to England and 


later to Ireland. Here they had taken a lodging at Rosstrever and 
were visited by Charlotte, Anne, and Mary, who had not yet fully 
recovered from their former illness. In September, 1819, Charlotte 
married George Washington Bell. Three months later the Reverend 
Mr. Hayden lost his curacy in county Roscommon and brought his 
family to stay with his father-in-law until the following spring, 
when he was sent out as a missionary to St. John, New Brunswick, 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

In January, 1820, Mr. Chesney was charged with neglect of 
duty by Customs officers at Newry, but was cleared by the surveyor- 
general who heard the case fully, and the matter ended with the 
approval of the defendant's conduct by the board of Customs. 

During the previous dozen years at least smuggling had been 
going on at Annalong, as shown by occasional brief references in 
the Journal, and, according to Chesney, outside of Mourne where 
he had been able to hold it in check by the employment of a number 
of guards, the smuggling of tobacco into Ireland had been much 
stimulated by the close of the Napoleonic wars. Naturally, Ches- 
ney's success in foiling the smugglers had aggravated them and led 
him into many quarrels with them. The marked increase in the 
clandestine trade and the falling off in the import duties had 
aroused the lords of the Treasury to try their hand at the suppres- 
sion of smuggling in the summer of 1820 by sending the royal 
naval inspector-general of the Preventive Water Guard to survey 
the Irish Channel with a view to establishing a preventive force. 
The Irish board of Customs instructed their revenue officers to co- 
operate in this project by supplying every assistance and informa- 
tion, an order which Mr. Chesney appears to have complied with to 
the best of his ability, although he was to learn at the end of the 
year that the Water Guard, when established, would supplant his 
office. However, he had made many seizures during the year, for 
which he had received a considerable amount of money, and he be- 
gan at once to make arrangements for building on his farm at Bal- 

Not only is Chesney's record of thirty-five years in the Irish 
Customs highly creditable to him, as affirmed by the surveyor-gen- 
eral and the board of Customs in Ireland, but so also was Chesney's 
concern for the welfare of his children, including his son William, 
from whom he had been so long separated. In the closing sentences 
of the Journal Alexander Chesney notes that he has authorized 


William to draw on Mr. Crafer and thinks it better that he should 
receive his portion of his father's estate and "turn it to account 
where he is," than spend money coming to Ireland "where he would 
find most things unsuited" to him. 

The publication of this Journal, with it accompanying docu- 
ments and its wealth of valuable notes, will add an important num- 
ber to that small group of personal records by American loyalists 
which comprises the Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen; the 
Letters of James Murray, Loyalist; Colonel David Fanning's Nar- 
rative; the Correspondence of Thomas Barclay; the Recollections 
of a Georgia Loyalist; The Journal of a Voyage from Charlestown, 
S. C, to London, 1778; Lieutenant Anthony Allaire's Diary (printed 
in Dr. Lyman C. Draper's King's Mountain and Its Heroes) ; the 
Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson; Lieutenant James 
Moody's Narrative of His Exertions and Sufferings in the Cause of 
Government since 1776; The Narrative of the Transactions, Im- 
prisonment, and Sufferings of John Connelly, an American Loyalist 
and Lieutenant-Colonel in His Majesty's Service; J. F. D. Smyth's 
Tour in the United States of America; The Case of Ferdinand 
Smyth Stuart with His Memorials to the King, &c.; The Winslow 
Papers; Joseph Galloway's Letters to a Nobleman on the Conduct 
of the War in the Middle Colonies; The Examination of Joseph Gal- 
loway before the House of Commons; C. Stedman's History of the 
Origin, Progress, and Termination of the American War, and Judge 
Thomas Jones's History of New York during the Revolutionary 

It may be objected that some of the above named publications 
are not diaries, journals, or personal narratives ; that at least one 
of them is a book of travels and that others are historical in nature. 
It would be futile in the space at command to attempt comparisons 
among the publications listed above. Suffice it to say that the 
authors of all of them were American loyalists and that even those 
publications which, according to their titles, are most removed from 
the autobiographical, will be found on closer inspection to contain 
not a little of the distinctly personal. All of these writings have 
their value for the student of American Revolutionary history and 
especially for the one who is interested in the Tory phase of the 

It is scarcely necessary to speak of the special qualifications of 
Mr. E. Alfred Jones for the task of editing The Journal of Alexan- 


der Chesney, since the admirable results of his labors are manifest 
in this volume. The present writer can not, however, deny him- 
self the pleasure of saying that Mr. Jones has long been familiar 
with the abundant materials relating to the American loyalists that 
are to be found in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and 
other collections in London. Nor can he forbear to add that the 
Editor has greatly increased the value of this volume by his copious 
annotations, many of which contain information not easily avail- 
able and some, information not accessible at all in print. Mr. Jones 
found Chesney's Journal in the British Museum (Additional MSS., 


Collections of Source Material 

American Archives, Series IV., Vols. 3 and 4. Peter Force, ed. 

Audit Office Papers. (Public Record Office, London.) 

Historical MSS. Commission, Report on the American MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vols. I, 


Report on the MSS. of the Earl of DartTnouth, Vol. II. 

Report on the MSS. of Mrs. Stopford-SackviUe, Vol. 11. 

Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario, 1904, Part I. A. Fraser, ed. 
State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIV ; Journal of the House of Commons in. Vol. XXVII. 
The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists, 1783-1785. Roxburghe 

Club, 1915. H. E. Egerton, ed. 
Third Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario, 1905, A. Fraser, ed. 
Treasury Papers. (Public Record Office, London.) 

Memoirs, Biographies, and Local Histories 

Acadiensis, Vols. I, VI, Vll. 

Appleton, Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

A. T. Bethell, The Early Settlers of the Bahama Islands. 1914. 

R. W. Bowers, Sketches of Southwark, Old and New. 1905. 

Col. Charles Cornwallis Chesney, Essays in Military Biography. 1874. 

Collections of the South Carolina Historical Society, Vol. III. 

John Cruden, An Address to the Loyal Part of the British Empire and Friends of Monarchy 

throughout the Globe. (Report on the Management of the Estates sequestered in South 

Carolina, by Order of Lord Cornwallis in 1780-1782.) 1890. Pamphlet. Paul Leicester Ford, 

J. Watts DePeyster, Local Memorials relating to the DePeyster and Watts and affiliated families. 

, "The Affair at King's Mountain," Magazine of American History, 

Vol. V. 
Dictionary of National Biography. 
Lyman Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes. 

William Henry Drayton, Memoirs of the Am. Rev. as relating to South Carolina, 1821, Vol. II. 
H. Jones Ford, The Scotch-Irish in America. 1915. 
C. C. Jones, History of Georgia. 1883. 

Gen. Henry Lee, Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States, Vol. I. 
S. Lane-Poole, ed.. The Life of the late General F. R. Chesney. 1893. 
Lawrence and Stockton, The Judges of New Brinswick ani their Times. 
E. McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780. 

The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1780-1783. 

Lieutenant Roderick Mackenzie, Strictures on Lieut. Col. Tarleton's History. 

William Moultrie, Memoirs, 1802, Vol. II. 

E. R. O'Callaghan, Documents relating to the Colonial History of New York, Vol. VIII. 

Lorenzo Sabine, The Loyalists of the American Revolution, 2 vols. 

A. S. Salley, Jr., History of Orangeburg County, 1898. 

W. H. Siebert, "The Loyalists in West Florida and the Natchez District," Mississippi Valley 

Historical Review, 1916. Vol. II. 
W. B. Stevens, History of Georgia, Vol. II. 1859. 
Colonel Banistre Tarleton, History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces 

of North America, 1787. 
Thornbury, Old and New London, Vols. II and III. 
W. T. Vincent, The Records of the Woolwich District, Vol. I. 
Wheatley and Cunningham, London Past and Present, Vol. L 



Letters, Diaries, Journals, and Newspapers 

Carleton's Correspondence. (Public Record OflBce, London.) 

Chatham Papers, Bundle 220. (Public Record OflSce, London.) 

Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy, 2 vols., B. F. Stevens, ed. 

Colonel David Fanning's Narrative, A. W. Savary, ed., in Canadian Magazine, 1908. 

Correspondence of Charles, first Marquess Cornwallis, 1859, Vol. I. C. Ross, ed. 

Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen, 4th ed., 1864. 

Journal of Rev. John Wesley. 

Military Journal of Colonel John Graves Simcoe. 

Lieutenant Anthony Allaire's Diary in Draper's King's Mountain and its Heroes. 

Papers of Colonel Thomas Fletchall. (Public Record Office, London, A.O. 12 and 18,) 

Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, April 1, 1786. 

Royal Gazette of South Carolina, Vol. IT, No. 108. 

South Carolina and American General Gazette, June 26, 1778. 

Histories of the American Revolution 

S. G. Fisher, The Struggle for American Independence, 1908, Vol 11. 
Gordon, American Revolution, 1788. 

C. Stedman, The History of the Origin, Progress, and Termination of the American War, 2 
vols., Dublin, 1794. 


Col. Charles Cornwallis Chesney, Essays in Military Biography, 1874. 

Alexander Garden, Anecdotes of the American Revolution, 1828. 

Alton and Holland, The King's Customs, 1910, Vol II. 

Fortescue, History of the British Army, Vol. III. 

Notes and Queries, 8th Series, Vol. III. 

Scots Magazine, Vol. 43. 

South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 18. 

J. Eardley Wilmot, Historical View of the Commission for inquiring into the losses, services, 
and the claims of the American Loyalists at the close of the War in 17 8S; with an, 
account of the compensation granted to them by Parliament in 1785 and 1788. 1815. 






Lord Charles Greville Montagu 59 

Colonel John Phillips 60 

Indians in the War 63 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall 66 

Colonel Ambrose Mills 72 

Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Robinson 74 

General Andrew Willlamson 76 

Lieutenant-Colonel James Vernon 78 

Colonel Zacharias Gibbs 79 

Major Patrick Ferguson 82 

Colonel Alexander Innes 83 

Captain Abraham De Peyster 84 

The Battle of King's Mountain 86 

Brigadier-General Robert Cunningham 87 

Colonel Daniel Plummer 88 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Harris Cruger 89 

The British Legion 90 

John Cruden 91 

Colonel Robert Ballingall 94 

Colonel Isaac Hayne 94 

Major John Robinson 95 

Major Michael Egan 96 

James Barber 97 

Philip Henry 97 

James Simpson 99 

Captain James Miller 100 

Lieutenant-Colonel Evan McLaurin 101 

Colonel Richard Pearis 102 

Major Patrick Cunningham 104 

Captain Moses Kirkland 105 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Fanning 108 

Captain John Saunders 108 

Major Thomas Eraser Ill 

Lieutenant-Governor William Bull 112 

The Loyal Militia of South Carolina 113 

Loyalists' Warrant 116 



South Carolina Loyalists in Nova Scotia and Elsewhere 117 

Important Claims and Awards of Some South Carolina 

Loyalists 118 


I. Minutes op the Examination of Alexander Chesney by the 

Commissioners of American Claims in London 125 

11. Alexander Chesney's Memorial 126 

III. An Estimate of Chesney's Property 127 

IV. Evidence on Chesney's Memorial 130 

V. Various Other Papers Relating to Chesney: 

A. His Orders for Wood Cutting 138 

B. His Commission as Captain 138 

c. His Commission as Lieutenant of Independent 

Scouts 139 

D. Testimonial to His Services in Connection with 

Sequestered Estates 139 

E. Other Testimonials to Chesney's Services 140 

F. Letter to the Commissioners from Colonel John 

Phillips 140 

G. Major John Doyle's Certificate to Chesney 141 

H. Colonel Zacharias Gibbs's Certificate 141 

I. Chesney's Letter to the Commissioners 142 

J. Lewis Wolfe's Letter to the Commissioners 144 

K. Lord Cornwallis's Letter to the Commissioners. . . 144 

VI. Resolution of the Loyalists on Pacolet River, South 

Carolina (1775) 144 

VII. Party Divisions in South Carolina Families 145 

VIII. Justification of Taking the Oath to the State by the 
Committee of South Carolina Loyalists in London 
(February 21, 1785) 145 



I was born in the townland of Dunclug near Ballymena in the 
County of Antrim Ireland the 16th or the 12th of September 1756^ 
on Sunday; as appears by a register in my father's Bible. ^ My 
father Robert Chesney^ or McChesney was only son to Alexander 
Chesney of Dunclug aforesaid, and of Jane Fulton his wife; His 
sisters were Ann married to William Purdy of Glenravil who was 
brother to my mother consequently my uncle before this marriage ; 
they are now with their family settled in South Carolina. Second 
Martha Chesney married to Matthew Gillespey* who went to Caro- 
lina and died there shortly after their arrival about the year 1768 ; 
her husband is married again and lives near Enoree-River, South 
Carolina. Third Sarah Chesney who married James Archbold a 
pensioner and lives in County Antrim, 

My grandfather Chesney had several brothers, I recollect to 
have seen some of their sons, who came from County Tyrone, and 
near the Bann-river. 

My grandmother Fulton or Chesney had many Sisters and only 
one Brother named (I believe) George her sister Jenny was mar- 
ried to David Wilson of Dunclug County Antrim, Margaret was 
married to John Symonton near Lough-neagh ; Sarah had been mar- 
ried to John Cook who died in Pensylvenna.^ She removed to Pacho- 
let-River ^ South Carolina where she died a few years ago and 
where her children are married and settled, Also Martha who had 

1 The date of birth is given as Sept. 16 in The Life of the late General F. R. Chesney, ed. 
by S. Lane-Poole, 1893. 

2 On his tombstone in the Mourne Presbyterian churchyard, Kilkeel, county Down, Alex- 
ander Chesney is stated to have died Jan. 12, 1845, at the age of 88 years. 

^ A contribution on the supposed origin of the name Chesney is in Notes and Queries, 
8th Series, Vol. Ill, pp. 58, 135, 214, 296, 336, 490. 

* Query : Was this the Matthew Gillespie who served in the American Revolutionary 
militia as a private in 1781 and 1782, and who resided in that part of South Carolina now 
embraced in Newberry county 7 

^ The State of Pennsylvania. 

^ The river Paeolet is in Spartanburg county and forms part of the boundary between 
Cherokee and Union counties in South Carolina, and flows into Broad river at the junction of 
those two counties with York county. 


been married to Niesbet ' in the Waxhaws in South Carolina « they 
are both dead but they have left children who live there. My 
Grandmother had several other sisters. 

My mother's name was Elizabeth Purdy youngest daughter of 
William Purdy and Martha his wife of Ballyreagh near Clough 
County Antrim. My father and mother were married about two 
years before I was born. My grandmother Purdy's name was 
Martha Peden daughter of Thomas Peden and (I believe) of Jane 
Grier his wife of County Longford she was born the same year in 
which the conditions and capitulations of Limerick « were made. 
Lived to about to the year 1780 and died with her son Wilham Purdy 
in Glenravil County Antrim. 

My Grandfather and Grandmother Purdy had twelve children, 
of which my mother was the youngest. I knew William who lived 
in Glenravil and went with his family to South Carolina ; Robert 
who died in Killymorris near Clough ; Jennie who married Alexan- 
der Wylie and lived in my Grandfather's farm in Ballyreagh ; Jane 
had been married to John McCleland she died in a few years and 
left only one daughter Martha who since married John Barclay; 
Thomas and John went to Pensylvenia and live near Carlile ^° if 
alive. Margaret who married Pouge or Pogue hves near them I 
suppose the other children had died young for I do not recollect to 
have heard their names. 

My father's farm in Dunclug being too small for his family he 
removed to Kirkinreallough or Kirkmareally to one something 
larger, and having lived there about five years went to South Caro- 
lina in the Snow called the James and Mary of and from Lame; 
John Workman master James bold mate, Wilson second mate. 

My father's family consisted of my father mother Alexander 
(myself) Ann, Martha, Jane, William,^^ Robert, John, and Peggy 
about 8 months old who died of the small pox on the passage ; m all 

T^^Nesbitt family was prominent in the early history of Spartanburg county South 
Carolina One member of the famiy. Wilson Nesbitt, owned and operated an iron plant there. 
A yaSt name? William Nesbitt, of South Carolina, was banished and his -tate confiscated 
7see Sabine, The Lovalists of the Am. Rev., II. 119). This loyalist was one of «.e 100 s.gna- 
torTes to the petition that Alexander Constable of Boston. Massachusetts, might be given com- 
mind of a loyalist regiment to be raised at Charleston. South Carolina. He appears to have 
returned to South Carolina after the war. u„+^„™ North 

s Waxhaws was in the present county of Lancaster, near the boundary between North 
and South Carolina, and extended into Union county. North Carohna. 

8 The city of Limerick capitulated to William III in 1691. 

1" Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 

11 WiUiam Chesney served in the Revolutionary militia, though a mere boy. 


eight children, my father and mother making ten, went on board 
& sailed from Larne the 25th. August 1772 and arrived safe in the 
Harbour of Charleston, South Carolina after a passage of seven 
weeks and three days which was I suppose about the 16 October 

The small Pox having been very severe in the Vessel during 
the passage, when the Surgeon came on board an reported to the 
Governor^^ ^j^g g^^^^ ^f ^^^ passengers we were obliged to ride Quar- 
antine first three weeks and then a second three weeks and 8 days ; 
making seven weeks and one day; nearly as long as we were on 
the passage. 

There is no disorder the Americans are so much afraid of as 
the small Pox, and with good reason as few of them have had it; 
We had a large house during the Quarantine allowed for the sick on 
Sullivan's Isle, which was kept for the purpose of an hospital ; one 
Robinson has a salary from government for living there, We went 
back and forwards between the Ship and hospital which made a 
change, and beguiled the time a little ; When the crew and passen- 
gers were recouvered we landed at Prichard's ship-yard on Town 
Creek, 1=^ a few miles above Charles-Town from whence the passen- 
gers proceeded to country as soon as they could respectively find 
Waggons destined for that part of the country where they meant 
to settle. My father and family agreed with John Miller of Turkey 
Creek " to leave his family &c at John Winns ^' old place (now 
Winnsborough) on Jackson's Creek with his waggon for which we 
paid one penny per pound Weight. When we came near Jackson's 
Creek ^^ I went before and acquainted our relations (by marriage) 
Mr. John now Colonel Phillips " who with Mrs. Phillips his wife 
met them at Winn's old place, and brought them to their House. 
We got 100 Acres of land surveyed there, built a cabin and cleared 
some of the land ; when my father received a letter from his Aunt 
Sarah Widow Cook (mentioned before as a sister to my grand- 
mother) who resided Pacholet River about 60 miles higher up in 
the country, inviting them to settle there, on which I proceeded on 
foot in a right direction for that place, there being no direct road 

1= The governor was Lord George Greville Montagu. (See Additional Notes, p. 59). 
13 Town creek divides Down island on the Cooper river from Charleston. 
" Turkey creek rises in York county, South Carolina, and flows into Chester county. 
IS John Winn, founder of the town of Winnsboro in Fairfield county. South Carolina, was 
a colonel of South Carolina militia during the middle period of the Revolutionary war. 
1" Jackson's creek was in the north of South Carolina. 
1" Colonel John Phillips (See Additional Notes, p. 60). 


but I was to enquire for John Quin blacksmith on Sandy-River ^« 
about 20 miles off which was nearly the first house I called at ; from 
thence to Ned Neils on Broad-River, but crossed the river some- 
thing lower down on account of a Canoe being there, thence to 
Eliza Wells' on Pacholet where I crossed being then within 5 miles 
of my Aunt Cooke's ; she had two sons Hugh, and John, and daugh- 
ter Nancy who lived with her unmarried. Thomas and Sarah were 
both settled with their families in the neighbourhood ; Sarah was 
married to Charles Brandon ;^'' the whole family were remarkably 
civil to me, and the greater part of the settlers near them being their 
relations gave them w' eight ; they soon found me a vacant track of 
400 Acres which having got surveyed for my father I returned; 
and removed the family to Pacolet where we settled ^o on the north 
side near Grindall's shoal -^ about 12 miles from where it empties 
itself into Broad-River 50 miles below where the Indian line crosses 
that river, and 15 miles below the place where the Iron works " are 
now built; 60 miles north-east of Ninety-six ;23 and 250 miles ^^ 
nearly north of Charles-town; to which place I went in 1774 to 
hurry the patent of my father's lands through the offices. 

My cousins Cooke came back with me to assist in moving the 
family, bringing with them two horses which being put into a 
pasture of Col Phillips' on Jackson's Creek strayed away and were 
not found for 3 months after. 

Our family lived at my Aunt Cooke's in the first instance whilst 
a Cabin was building by me and some land cleared which I did in 
part without any assistance; before planting time in 1773, when 

18 Sandy river is in Chester county. South Carolina. 

i» One Charles Brandon served in the Revolutionary militia which was commanded durmg 
the last years of the war by Colonel Charles Brandon. 

2« The Chesney plantation was apparently in the north of Union county, at its junction 
with Spartanburg and Cherokee counties. The name is commemorated by the place called 
Chesnee in the north of Spartanburg county. 

21 Grindal shoals, so-called from the family of Grindal, who lived on the north side and 
owned the shoal, which was a noted fishery. It was on the north side of Pacolet nver, at 
Grindal ford, that Morgan camped just before the battle of Cowpens. The place is well 
described by John Kennedy in his novel. Horse Shoe Robinson. 

"These iron works were probably those on the southern side of Lawson's fork of 
Pacolet river, afterwards caUed BivingsvilJe and known later as Glendale, which was half a 
mile higher up on the same bank. The works were destroyed by the loyalists and never rebuilt. 
(Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 85, 90, 91). . v.- * 

23 The district of Ninety-Six, so named because it was 96 miles from Keewie, the chief 
viUage of the Cherokee Indians. According to Lord Comwallis, he had formed in this district, 
the most populous in the province of South Carolina, seven battalions of militia. (C. Boss, 
Correspondence of Charles, first Marquess Comwallis, 1859. Vol. I, p. 489.) The present town 
of Ninety-Six is in Greenwood county. 

2* The Chesney plantation was somewhat under 200 miles in a straight line northwest of 



the family was established in the new residence and began the usual 
farming occupations increasing stock and clearing additional land 
without any particular occurrence save the birth of my brother 
Thomas and sister Eliza untill 1775 that resolutions were presented 
for signatures at the Meeting-house ^^ by the congress party and 
I opposed them. 

When the war broke out between England and America the 
congress party early in 1775 were sending a quantity of Ammuni- 
tion and clothing as presents to the Indians f^ On which the loyal- 
ists who had not joined them assembled and went to Ninety-Six a 
wooden-fort after besieging the place for some days took it," and 
the stores ; after distributing the Ammunition amongst the loyalists, 
both parties agreed to a Cessation of Arms for some weeks untill 
several of the leading men could go and return from Charles-town 
to receive Lord William Campbell's ^^ directions on the business ; 
Colonel Flechall -'■ and Captain John Mayfield ^° were two of the 
delegates sent under the faith and sanction of a treaty ; they were 
lodged in the goal of Charles-town and the papers they had re- 
ceived from the Governor Lord William Campbell were seized. In 
the meantime the congress party sent to the neighbourhood of 
Ninety-Six an Army under the command of Colonel Richardson ^^ 
who seized the leading men of the loyalists and put them in goal 
and disarmed the rest ; all this was accomplished before the expira- 
tion of the truce. 

-^ This was probably the occasion when the Rev. William Tennent, the Congregational 
minister and member of the Provincial Congress, held a meeting and slaughtered a beast at a 
feast, about five miles east of the town of Spartanburg. 

=8 See Additional Notes, p. 63. 

=' For an account of the siege of Ninety-Six, see Colonel Thomas Fletchall in Addi- 
tional Notes, p. 69. 

"^ Lord William Campbell was appointed governor of South Carolina, June 8, 1773, and 
had married, April 17, 1763, a lady of that Province in the person of Sarah, daughter of Ralph 
Izard of Burton, St. George's parish. He did not, however, commence his duties until 1775. 
As a former officer of the Royal Navy, he served as a volunteer on board H. M. S. Bristol in 
the attack on Charleston, June 28, 1776. He died, September 5, 1778, from the effects of a 
wound received in a naval engagement. 

-^ For Colonel Thomas Fletchell, see Additional Notes, p. 66. 

3" Captain John Mayfield and other officers of Colonel Thomas Fletchell's loyal militia 
were brought as prisonei-s early in December, 1775, to the camp of Colonel Richard Richardson 
near Lieut. -Colonel Evan McLaurin's store in Dutch Fork. Among these officers were Benjamin 
Wofford, William Hunt, Daniel Stagner, and Jacob Stack. (Drayton, Memoirs of the American 
Revolution as relating to South Carolina, 1821, Vol. II, pp. 125-126.) 

81 Colonel Richard Richardson, the elder, of the South Carolina militia, who was pro- 
moted to brigadier-general in 1778 and died in September, 1780. His son. Colonel Richard 
Richardson, the younger, was subsequently a colonel of the South Carolina militia in Camden 


I went down to Jackson's Creek when Colonel Richardson's en- 
campment was at Congaree ^^ and piloted Cap*. James Phillips ^^ 
and his company^^ to my father's and provided them a man (Charles 
Brandon) ^^ as a guide to take them to CoP. Mills' ^'^ in North Caro- 
lina who found guides through the Cherokee and Creek nations of 
Indians, on their way to St. Agustine in East Florida " where they 
were kindly received by the Governor ^^ and continued there during 
the greatest part of the war, having been embodied in the South 
Carolina Regiment,^^ commanded by Major now CoP Joseph Robin- 
son *° a neighbour of mine ; which Regiment distinguished itself 
throughout the war particularly at the seige of Savanah where by 
their meritorious exertions they saved the garrison. I piloted all 
the loyalists who came in my way and amongst Cap'° Buchanan 
supposed to be of the Royal Navy who endeavoured to keep up the 
spirits of the loyalists amongst whom a regular correspondence 
was kept up. [1776] For which I was made a prisoner, my house 
ransacked, and Kept a prisoner *^ in the Snowy Camp on Reedy 
River ^^ for about a week ; CoP Richardson released me, but the 
congress party held me at enmity and forced me either to be tryed 
at Richardson's camp or to join the Rebel Army *^ which latter 
alternative I chose in order to save my father's family from threat- 

2- Congaree is about 16 miles southeast of Columbia. Congaree river forms part of the 
boundary between Richland and Calhoun counties, South Carolina. 

^2 Captain James Phillips, a brother of Colonel John Phillips. 

^* Captain James Miller was of this party (see Additional Notes, p. 100). 

^^ See p. 4. 

^^ Colonel Ambrose Mills (see Additional Notes, p. 72.) 

3" St. Augustine. 

^* Patrick Tonyn, the able governor of East Florida. He is remembered for his efforts to 
make that Province an asylum for the loyalist refugees from Georgia and the Carolinas and for 
his championship of the military abilities of the well-known loyalist, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas 
Brown, the brave defender of Augusta, Georgia, in May and June, 1781, against the unjust 
attacks and criticisms of Brigadier-General Augustine Prevost. Many of the letters and docu- 
ments concerned with the controversy between Tonyn and Prevost are summarized in the Report 
of the Historical Manuscripts Commssion on the American MSS. in the Royal Institution. 

^° The formation of the South Carolina Royalists, which is the correct title of this 
regiment, dates from July 20, 1778. Alexander Innes, formerly secretary to Lord William Camp- 
bell, the governor, was appointed colonel and Joseph Robinson lieut.-colonel. It was to consist 
of eight companies of 50 rank and file, with one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel and other officers, 
whose names were submitted by Robinson. A list of these names is in the Royal Institution. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the American MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. I, p. 274.) 

■'"Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Robinson (see Additional Notes, p. 74.) 

*i Alexander Chesney was made a prisoner early in 1776 by "a party of rebels under Col. 
Steen," who was probably James Stein, an American officer who served with distinction in 
various actions under Sumter. {The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American 
Loyalists, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton ; Roxburghe Club, 1915, p. 49). 

*- Reedy river is just west of Greenville in Greenville county. South Carolina. 

** Alexander Chesney rose to the rank of lieutenant in the "rebel army." (See p. 8, n. 56). 


ened ruin, he had been made prisoner already for harbouring some 
loyalists ;** and served from April 1776 untill June 1777 as a private 
during which time I w^as at Charlestown and Bolton's landing place 
opposite Long-Island whilst the British army was encamped there 
under Sir Henry Clinton; going on a reconnoitring party one day 
towards the British lines on Long-Island a gun with grape shot was 
fired, one shot of which was within a few inches of killing me hav- 
ing struck the sand close by where I had squatted down to avoid 
the discharge ; I endeavoured with some others *^ to get to Gen'. 
Clinton's Army but failed for want of a boat *^ and returned to the 

We then marched against the Indians,"*" to which I had no ob- 
jection, helped to destroy 32 of their towns under General William- 
son *^ with CoP Sumpter.*^ We had a severe battle with the Indians 
near the middle settlements ; in the course of the engagement five 
or six of them concealed behind a log fired at me as I ascended the 
hill before the others, and one of their balls struck a saplin of about 
six inches diameter opposite my breast ; fortunately the young tree 
broke the force of the ball and saved my life. 

We were at this time on short allowance and my small portion 
having been put in the bag with the ammunition I threw it away to 
get at the powder &c and was nearly starved in consequence. 

On returning towards Charles-town we were encamped at 
Tachaw near Nielson's ferry ^° on the Santee ; from thence marched 
to Puriesburg ^^ on the Savannah-river; then by water to Savannah- 
town which time we killed a number of Alligators with rifle guns ; 

** A few extracts from this Journal, with various interpolations and free renderings, and 
with several errors in the names of persons, have been published in Essays in Military Biography, 
by Colonel Charles Cornwallis Chesney, 1874, pp. 135-153. 

*^ The others were Charles and Chr. Brandon (see p. 131.) 

*'^ In evidence before the commissioners in London, Chesney said that the little party, 
having been discovered on the river, were obliged to return. 

*'' A map of the marches of General Andrew Williamson's force against the Cherokee 
Indians is in Drayton's Memoirs, Vol. 11, p. 343. The Cherokees had 52 towns in Wesley's time 
(Journal of Rev. John Wesley). 

*^ General Andrew Williamson (see Additional Notes, p. 76). 

*^ Colonel Thomas Sumter, American partisan leader, (see Appleton, Cyclopedia of Amer- 
ican Biography) . 

50 Nelson's ferry on the Santee river was owned by one Reason Nelson, a loyalist and 
native of South Carolina, who died in August, 1781, leaving a widow, Ann, three sons, William, 
Ambrose, and Joshua, and two married daughters, Sarah, wife of John Martin Struden, and 
Frances. The two elder sons died before 15 December, 1787 ; Joshua joined the New York 
Volunteers as a boy on 25 April, 1781, afterwards transferred as a driver to the Royal Artillery, 
and at the end of the war embarked with the 105th. regiment for Ireland. (A.O. 12/51, fos. 
409-414; A.O. 12/102, fo. 110; A.O. 13/133.) 

^'^ Purysburg, Georgia, a place visited by the Rev. John Wesley. 


then marched to Sunbury; thence to Fort Harrington °- on the Alta- 
maha near East Florida where we arrived the 25th March [1777] 
(trees then beginning to bud) . 

A total eclipse of the sun ^" happened when we were at 
Ogreechy-River ''* on our march to Sunbury.^^ 

While at Fort Barrington we had several scrimishes with the 
Creek Indians, in which I was always a volunteer. 

The Altamaha rose gradually (like the Nile) whilst we re- 
mained there. 

Returned to Tacaw latter end of May and home in June 1777 ; 
when I purchased a tract of land on Pacholet River from Peter 
Howard where I remained some time. At a muster soon after I was 
chosen Lieutenant in Cap*" Bullock's ^''' company of Militia by my 
loyal friends. Went with a party to Bailis' fort ^' on the Indian 
line at the head of Pacholet River about 50 miles from home, and 
repaired the fort continued some months there — And was relieved 
the May following 1778 by the white inhabitants making peace with 
the Indians at Duet's corner.^^ 

This winter I began to trade to Charles-Town with a waggon 
at which I had success and realized a good deal, the profits being 
with care 300 per cent. 

In the summer I went out again after the Indians to Georgia 
in Capt'' McWhorter's ^^ company of Volunteers as first lieutenant, 
the whole under command of Gen". Williamson ; We were out as far 

^- Fort Barrington, on the Altamaha river in Georgia, was erected in the colonial period 
as a defence against the Indians. Early in March, 1778, it was the scene of the exploit of Lieut- 
Colonel Thomas Brown of the King's Florida Rangers, when a detachment of that loyalist corps 
with a few Indians stormed the fort and took 23 Americans prisoners. Captain Andrew Johnston 
claimed the honor of being the first officer to enter it. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the 
American MSS. in the Royal Inst., Vol. I, pp. 209, 221.) Captain Johnson afterwards lost his 
life at Augusta, in the siege of May and June, 1781, by Lieut.-Colonel Henry Lee. His father, 
Dr. Andrew Johnston, of Georgia, was taken prisoner in this siege. 

^3 An annular eclipse of the sun on January 9, 1777, was visible in South Carolina, as 
was the total eclipse on June 24, 1778. 

^^ Ogeechee river in Georgia. 

^^ Sunbury in Georgia. 

5^ Captain Zachariah Bullock was not, as might be assumed from Chesney's statement, a 
loyalist, but an officer in the American militia of the district of Ninety-Six. (See p. 9, foot- 
note 62.) 

^' Baylis Earle's ford on the North Pacolet river in North Carolina, so-called from Baylis 
Earle, father-in-law of Captain Edward Hampton, a noted partisan leader on the Amer'can 
side. An action was fought at this spot on July 15, 1780. (See Addition'al Notes — Colonel 
Ambrose Mills — p. 72). 

^* The Cherokee Indians signed a treaty of peace. May 20, 1778, at Duet's Corner, a place 
now known as Due West, in the north of Abbeville county. South Carolina. 

^' This may be Captain Alexander McWhorter, deputy-commissary of Issues in the Ameri- 
can militia of South Carolina. Several men of this name were in the American service. 


as the Altamaha, during this excurtion I suffered greatly from an 
attack of the Flux ; in about three months the whole party returned. 
Col. Phillips ^° was there also. 

In the summer of 1779 I was at Augusta '''^ under General Wil- 
liamson again, who marched to join General Lincoln, I was down at 
Stono for some weeks, and returned home on business '''- before the 
attack was made on the British lines at Stono, by General Lincoln. ^^ 
I continued to go frequently to Charles-town with the waggon laden 
with produce and returned with goods. One waggon and team were 
impressed last summer to Augusta & left there when we marched 
to join Lincoln the Waggon and Horses value 2000 currency were 

On the 3"^ January 1780 I married Margret Hodge eldest 
daughter of Will" Hodge ®* and Elizabeth his wife who was a 
daughter of Widow Cook a sister to my grandmother Chesney my 

*" Colonel John Phillips, the loyalist. (See Additional Notes, p. 60.) 

*i Augusta, Georgia, where a fort was built in 1787: (Journal of Rev. John Wesley). 

0- This business would seem to have been the raising of a new division for the American 
service by Alexander Chesney : 

"State of S° Carolina ) Whereas Alexander Chesney Lieutenant in Capt. Zachariah 
Ninety Six District ( Bullocks company came before me and made Oath that on the 
2d day of June last being Order'd home from the Camps at Stono, in Order to raise, a new 
Division having his Waggon and Team then in the Service ; and on the 3d of June he came by 
the Quarter House See his Team, which he was obliged to leave under the direction of his 
Brother, which Team being lost before his return with the Division, and have made diligent 
search has never found but one of the s Team which consisted of four Horses, and the remaining 
three he has never yet heard off ; and he likewise says that about the middle of the Day his 
Brother informs him he went and see the Horses and that they were all there together, and in 
two or three hours after they were missing and could not be found, and that his brother is of 
opinion they were stole ; and he also say that the Horse he got, he found with M. Wetherford, 
who told him that he took the Horse from a Man who said he found him in an old field near 
the quarter House. 

Sworn before me this 6th. September 1779 Wm Wofford: J. P." (From the Revolutionary 
Account Audited, Alexander Chesney, Office of the Historical Commission of South Carolina.) 

It may be said of William Wofford that he was lieut. colonel of militia in 1779 and that 
he also served in the House of Representatives. 

The wagon and team mentioned in the above affidavit were appraised, August 4, 1779, 
by Robert McWhorter, William Hodge, who was Alexander Chesney's father-in-law, and Meshak 
Inman. A claim was filed by Alexandere Chesney after the war, but there is no record of its 
payment. The Quarter House here mentioned was several miles out of Charleston, to the 

"3 General Benjamin Lincoln's abortive attack on the British at Stono, June 20, 1779. 
(E. McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 382-391.) 

"* William Hodge, father-in-law of Alexander Chesney, and his son, William Hodge, served 
in Colonel Thomas Brandon's regiment of South Carolina militia after the fall of Charleston. 
This regiment was stationed in the county of Spartanburg. William Hodge, the elder, -and 
Alexander Chesney were joint debtors on a bond of £235. IBs., dated 25 December, 1780, to one 
Edward Williams, a schoolmaster, of Ninety-Six district. The original bond with signatures 
is with the papers of Colonel James Vernon, the loyalist, to whom all the assets of Williams 
were bequeathed. (Public Record Office: A. O. 13/123). 


wife of Margret was born 30^'' 1759 ^^ as appears by an entry in 
her Bible a part of which was torn by accident. 

It was firmly believed in the beginning of the year that Charles- 
town would be reduced by the British, which happened accordingly 
on the 12"^ May following,''^ and Sir Henry Clinton having issued a 
proclamation commanding all His Majesty's faithful subjects to 
embody for the defence of his government; a number of loyalists 
assembled at Sugar Creek ^" and the waters of Fair Forest ^^ under 
the command of CoP Balfour,*'" I took protection the 25*'' of June 
1780 ^° from Isaac Grey ^^ Captain South Carolina Reg^ And about 
the middle of June embodied with the Militia as Lieu^ I com- 
manded in an affair at Bullock's' Creek '- where the rebel Party was 
defeated in attempting to cross the ford ; My father was present on 
this occasion and hearing the bullets whistle without seeing by 
whom they were fired, asked me where are they ? I placed him near 
a tree until the affair was over, and resolved he should not be so 
exposed again. 

I then joined Col' Balfour and was in an affair at James Wood's 
house " above the Iron-works on Pacolet but not finding the opposi- 
tion there that we expected, returned again to fair forest; Col' 
Balfour then returned to Ninety-Six, and Major Ferguson "* suc- 
ceeded to the command under the title of CoP and Inspector General 
of Militia. Shortly afterwards he marched to Thickety Creek ^^ 
encamped, and requested me to carry an express to Cap*° Paf" 

^^ The name of the month is not mentioned in Chesney's Journal. 

88 Charleston capitulated to the British, May 12, 1780. 

8" Sugar creek in Ninety-Six district. The number of loyalists was 200. (See p. 131). 

88 Probably Fair Forest creek in Spartanburg and Union counties. South Carolina, in a 
district so named by the first settlers, who exclaimed "What a fair forest is this !" (Draper, 
King's Mountain and its Heroes, p. 76). Fair Forest has been made famous by the pen of 
William Gilmour Simms, the Carolina novelist. 

89 Colonel Nisbet Balfour, of the 23rd Foot (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) was commandant 
at Charleston, and was succeeded in July, 1782, by Lieut.-Colonel Isaac Allen, of the New Jersey 
Volunt€ei-s. His military secretary at this period was Captain Geroge Benson, of the 44th 
Foot, who married in 1781 a daughter of Dr. Alexander Garden, of Charleston, an eminent 
surgeon and botanist and a loyalist. Colonel Balfour is in the Dictionary of National Biography. 

"" A certificate of allegiance to the British, dated June 27, 1780, and signed by Colonel 
Nisbet Balfour, is with the papers of John Hopton, loyalist, of Charleston, in the Public Record 
Oflice in London. (A.O. 13/129.) 

''I Captain Isaac Grey's name cannot be found in the various published or unpublished 
lists of loyalist officers. 

''- Bullocks creek is in York county. South Carolina. 

■^3 This house has not been identified. 

■^■^ Major Patrick Ferguson. (See Additional Notes, p. 82.) 

''^ Thicketty creek is a western tributary of Broad river, with which it unites a few 
miles above the junction with Pacolet river. 


Moore ^^ then commandant at Anderson's fort ^^ with a particular 
private message to him to hold the fort till the last minute and be- 
fore I could return the army had decamped about midnight and re- 
treated towards Cap*° Lewis Boboes ^^ on Tyger-River, where I 
joined them, and we got an account that Col McDole ^^ had without 
opposition reduced Anderson's fort and made them prisoners, Moore 
having shamefully surrendered it thus disappointing Ferguson's 
scheme of bringing the Americans to battle whilst attacking it. 
Major Gibbs *° came to me in this situation of affairs, showed me a 
paper containing instructions to go McDole's camp at the Cherokee 
ford ®^ on Broad-River and leam there numbers, their commanders 
name what carriages they had how many horse and foot, and when- 
ever they made any movement towards CoP Ferguson to return and 
let him know, and that there would be a handsome reward. I told 
Col' Gibbs that what services I could do were not with any lucra- 
tive view and that I would undertake this difficult task for the good 
of H M Service since he could not procure a qualified person to un- 
detake it, I set out immediately and at Pacolet got a man to go with 

"^ Captain Patrick Moore was of Irish descent and was born in Virginia. Early in life 
he settled on Thicketty creek, South Carolina. His force consisted of a sergeant of the Ameri- 
can Volunteers and 93 loyalists and was surprised, 30 July, 1780, by a body of American militia, 
600 strong, under Colonels Isaac Shelby, Elijah Clarke, and Andrew Hampton, and Major Charles 
Robertson. To the peremptory demand for the surrender of the fort, Moore replied that he 
would defend it to the last extremity. But when he saw the formidable force in front of him, 
he relented and surrendered without firing a shot. In surrendering. Captain Moore was charged 
by the officer second in command with cowardice and treachery. Colonel Charles McDowell was 
not present in person on this occasion, as Chesney states, Shelby's force having been detached 
from the main force of McDowell at Cherokee Ford, about 20 miles distant. Patrick Moore is 
believed to have been captured by a party of Americans in 1781 near Ninety-Six and murdered, 
as his remains were afterwards recognised by his great height, 6 feet 7 inches. He left a 
w^idow, a son and three daughters. Plis brother, a noted loyalist partisan, was Colonel John 
Moore. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 87-89 ; Anthony Allaire's "Diary," printed 
in Draper's volume; E. McCrady, Hist, of South Carolina in the Rev., 1775-1780, pp. 634-635.) 

''"' Anderson's fort, or Thicketty fort as it was more generally called, was originally built 
as a defence against the Cherokee Indians and was a quarter of a mile north of Groucher Creek 
and two and one-half miles above the mouth of this small water course, which empties into 
Thicketty creek. 

''^ Captain Lewis Bobo was an officer in the militia on the Revolutionary side. His resi- 
dence was in the present county of Spartanburg. Tiger river runs from Spartanburg county 
and joins Broad river in the south-east of Union county, South Carolina. 

^^ Colonel Charles McDowell, the son of Joseph McDowell, an emigrant from Ulster in 
1780. His brother. Major Joseph McDowell, led the militia from Burke and Rutherford counties. 
North Carolina, at the battle of King's Mountain, where another brother, William, also fought. 
Major Joseph McDowell was in command of a force of mountainmen at the battle of Cowpens, 
17 January, 1781, and in 1788 was a member of the North Carolina Constitutional Convention ; 
in 1792 he was elected a member of Congress. (H. Jones Ford, The Scotch-Irish in America, 
1915, pp. 509-510.) 

^"Colonel Zacharias Gibbs, the loyalist. (See Additional Notes, p. 79.) 

^1 Cherokee ford is on Broad river in Cherokee county, near the junction of the present 
counties of Union, York, and Spartanburg. 


me, who was acquainted with the North CaroHna people; we went 
to McDole's camp at night without being noticed counted all their 
tents and waggons found out who were their leaders, and that 500 
horsemen were gone down to attack Nochols' fort,^^ with this news 
I returned, and on my way found a loyalist in whom I could confide 
and sent him off with the particulars by one route to Col' Ferguson 
whilst I went by another and the CoP got intelligence time enough 
to intercept them at the Iron- Works and defeat them,-^ in returning 
I was taken at Grindall Shoal by a party of Rebels under Eusaw 
Smith *** and Desmond who took from me a Rifle gun borrowed of 
John Heron my brother in law, but as soon as they set out for the 
rebel camp I made my escape joined Col' Ferguson at Culbered*^ and 
received his thanks and friendship ; on the 9th August I was ap- 
pointed Cap'° and assistant Adjutant General to the different Ba- 
talions under Col' Ferguson ; and same day we attacked the enemy 
at the Iron works and defeated them with little trouble to our- 
selves and a good deal of loss to the Americans in whose hands I 
found some of our men prisoners whom I released.*^" 

Our next rout [August 12] was down towards the Fishdam- 
ford on Broad-River,^^ where there was a fight near the mouth of 
Brown's Creek with Neale's Militia when we made many prisoners 
amongst the rest Esaw Smith ;^^ who had taken me so recently; 
after this we crossed that River and formed a junction with the 
troops under the command of Col' Turnbull *^" and the Militia under 

S'^ This fort Is described as Nicholas's fort later (p. 131). Nicholas fort was on the Tiger 
river, seven miles west of the present town of Spartanburg in South Carolina. 

^^ The old or Wofford's Iron Works situated on Lawson's fork of Pacolet river. At these 
iron works a severe action was fought, August 8, 1780, between a force under Colonel Elijah 
Clarke and Isaac Shelby and Major James Dunlap's detachment of loyalists, when Major Fergu- 
son came up to the rescue of the loyalists and saved them from defeat. This action, which is 
also known as the second battle of Cedar Springs, was claimed as a victory by both sides. Colonel 
McDowell was not present in person. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 89-102; 
E. McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 636-640.) 

^* Captain Esaw Smith was in 1779 a member of Captain David Hopkin's company of 
the 3rd. South Carolina regiment of the Continental Line. In 1780 and 1781 he served in the 
militia of the State. 

^^ Cull ered, probably the plantation of Josiah Culbertson, a well known American parti- 
san. According to Allaire's "Diary," it was at this plantation that Major Patrick Ferguson was 
encamped, August 10, 1780. 

*" This engagement apparently at the old or Wofford's Iron Works is not recorded In any 
of the publ'shed histories of the war. 

^^ An action was fought at Fishdam ford on Broad river, below the present town of 
Carlisle, near the junction of Fairfield, Union, and Chester counties, November 9, 1780, the 
Americans being victorious. 

^* Captain Esaw Smith. (See footnote 84 above). 

*" Lieutenant-Colonel George Turnbull (c. 1734-1810), a Scotsman, who had been lieuten- 
ant in 1756 and captain in 1765 in the Royal Americans regiment (now the 60th. or King's 
Koyal Rifles) and had settled in New York. Early in 1777 he was appointed to the Loyal 


Col. Phillips '"' and having received authentic accounts that Sump- 
ter 9^ had cut off our retreat to Lord Cornwallis' Army at Camden, 
we had it in contemplation to cross Broad-River and retreat to 
Charles-town at this time the halfway men (as those not hearty 
in the cause were called) left us; we then marched to the Rebel Col 
Winns' "- and encamped there waiting for more authentic accounts. 
On the 16th we heard a heavy firing towards Camden, which kept 
us in the utmost anxiety untill the 18th when a letter was received 
from Capt'' Ross ^^ aid de camp to Lord Cornwallis informing us 
that his Lordship had attacked & defeated Gates' Army had killed 
or taken 2,200 men 18 Ammunition Waggons and 350 waggons with 
provisions and other stores.''* This news made us as happy as 
people in our situation could possibly be ; until the next night when 
we received an express that the rebels had defeated CoP Ennis ^^ 
at Enoree;^*^ this occasioned a rapid march that way. The main 

American regiment and was transferred, 7 October in the same year as lieut. -commandant 
of the New York Volunteers. This corps distinguished itself at Fort Montgomery, 16 October, 
1777, under the command of Major Alexander Grant, who was killed ; in the gallant defence of 
Savannah in September, 1779 ; at the capture of Charleston in May, 1780 ; at Rocky Mount, 
when Sumpter was defeated ; in the battle of Camden, 16 August, 1780 ; at Hobkirk's Hill, 25 
April, 1781, when Rawdon defeated Greene ; and at Eutaw Springs, 8 September, 1781. Turnbull 
was not, however, present at the two last engagements, having been granted leave to proceed to 
New York, on account of ill health. He married a daughter of Cornelius Clopper of New York 
and died at Bloomingdale, New Jei-sey, in October, 1810. (Carleton's Correspondence in the 
Public Record Office, Folio 41 ; B. F. Stevens, CUnton-Cornwallis Controversy, Index.) 

»" Colonel John Phillips. (See Additional Notes, p. 60.) 

®^ Colonel Thomas Sumter (1734-1832) is in Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

^2 Colonel John Winn. (See p. 3, footnote 15.) Lieutenant Anthony Allaire was 
encamped at his plantation from August 17 to 19, 1780, while Colonel Winn was a prisoner 
on James Island. 

*^ Captain, afterwards General, Alexander Ross (1742-1827), the intimate friend and 
aide-de-camp of Lord Cornwallis. It was Major Ross who, with Colonel Thomas Dundas, con- 
veyed to Washington the determination of Lord Cornwallis to capitulate. 

"* The defeat of Horatio Gates, former officer of the British Army, at Camden, 18 August, 
1780, was received with great enthusiasm. McCrady quoting Bancroft, says that the American 
casualties are not known accurately. Anthony Allaire, the loyalist, estimated the number of 
killed at 1200 and the prisoners at 1000. Tarleton's figures are 70 officers and 2000 men as 
the total American casualties. Gates put the killed, wounded, and missing at only 700 and the 
total loss of the British at 500. Lord Cornwallis gave the American loss as between 800 and 
900 killed and 1000 prisoners. (Tarleton, History, pp. 104-9, 131-5 ; Allaire's "Diary" ; E. 
McCrady, The Hist, of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 666-680; S. G. Fisher, 
The Struggle for American Independence, 1908, Vol. II, 296-9, with a list of authorities ; 
Lord Cornwallis's report in the Stofford-Sackville MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm., Report., Vol. II, 1910, 
pp. 178-182.) 

^^ Colonel Alexander Innes. (See Additional Notes p. 83.) 

^^ The battle of Musgrove's Mills, the residence of the loyalist, Edward Musgrove, on the 
Enoree river, on 19 August, 1780, when the Americans were victorious. The Americans, to the 
number of 500, were commanded by Colonels James Williams, Shelby, and Clarke, while the 
loyalists consisted of a company of New Jersey Volunteers, a detachment of De Lancey's brigade 
and about 100 men of the South Carolina Royalists, under Major Thomas Eraser. (Mackenzie, 
Strictures on Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton's History, 1787, pp. 24-6 ; Draper, King's Mountain 
and its Heroes, p. 110; E. McCrady, The Hist, of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, 
pp. 690-4.) 


body having crossed the Enoree, I was left behind in command of 
the rearguard and being attacked in that situation [August 20] 
we maintained our ground untill the Main body re-crossed to our 
support ; the Americans retreated [August 21] after suffering some 

We encamped for some time in the neighbourhood of Enoree, 
and then marched up to Fair-forest. Some particular business hav- 
ing called Col^ Ferguson to Camden Capt° Depeyster who succeed- 
ed him to the command [September, 1780,] marched us up the Iron- 
Works and I obtained leave to see my home and family whither I 
went for about two hours and sent orders for those who had shame- 
fully abandoned us some time ago to join us at the Iron- Works in 
order to do three months' duty in or on the borders of North Caro- 
lina, and returned to the camp that night ; we continued some time 
at the Iron works and whilst there a party of Loyalists with whom 
I was, defeated CoP Brannan ^^ destroyed some of his party and 
scattered the rest. I was present also at a small affair at Fair- 
Forest, the particulars of which, as well as numerous other skir- 
mishes having escaped my memory, scarcely a day passed without 
some fighting. 

Col' Ferguson having resumed the command and finding him- 
self ^^ pretty strong he marched us to the North Carolina line and 

A dissatisfaction prevailed at this moment amongst the 
Militia founded on general Clinton's hand-bill which required 
every man having but three children, and every single man to do 
six months duty out of their province when required, this appeared 
like compulsion, instead of acting voluntarily as they conceived 
they were doing, and they were in consequence ready to give up the 

*' Alexander Chesney was unaware of Tarleton's surprise and defeat of Sumter at 
Fishing creek on August 18, 1780, when Sumter, asleep under a wagon, barely escaped with 
his life and in the confusion rode off without saddle, hat, or coat, reaching Major Davie's camp 
at Charlotte two days later, unattended by officer, soldier or servant. (E. McCrady, The History 
of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 680-684.) 

"8 Colonel Thomas Brandon (1741-1802), an American of Irish descent, of Union county. 
South Carolina, who shared in the action at Musgrove's Mills and was present at the battles of 
King's Mountain, Blackstocks Hill, and Cowpens. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, 
p. 469.) He was a relentless foe of the loyalists. 

*^ Major Patrick Ferguson, described as colonel by Alexander Chesney in this Journal, 
marched on September 12 with 40 American volunteers and 100 militiai to the head of Cane 
creek in Burke county. North Carolina, to surprise a party of 300 of the enemy. McDowell 
in command of this party, having received intelligence of the presence of Ferguson's force, 
deemed it prudent to remove, but was intercepted and routed. (AUaire, "Diary.") 


cause ;^°° but owing to the exertions of their officers a great part of 
which I attribute to myself, the tumult was happily appeased, and 
same night we marched with all the horse and some foot past Gib- 
bert's town ^°^ towards Col Grimes' ^"^ ^j^q -^^s raising a body of 
rebels to oppose us ; whom we succeeded in dispercing taking many 
prisoners, and then joined the foot at Gilbert's town and encamped 
there for some time ; sending away the old men to their houses, and 
several officers to raise men to supply their places and strengthen 
us. Col Ferguson soon after got intelligence that Col McDole ^°^ 
was encamped on Cain and Silver Creeks ;^°* on which we marched 
towards the enemy, crossed the winding Creek 23 times, found the 
rebel party strongly posted towards the head of it near the moun- 
tains we attacked them instantly and after a determined resistance 
defeated them and made many prisoners, the rest fled towards 
Turkey-Cove ^°^ in order to cross the mountains and get to Hol- 
stein;"*' on this occasion I commanded a division, [September, 1780,] 
and took the person prisoner who was keeper of the records of the 
county which I sent to my father's as a place of safety. We then 
fortified Col^ Walker's house "'' as a protection to the wounded, and 

i"" Sir Henry Clinton's handbill stipulated service in the local militia by the married men 
with families and not elsewhere. Young men without children were expected to serve six 
months out of the year, but were not required to march beyond North Carolina on one side or 
Georgia on the other. (E. McCrady, History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, 
p. 550.) 

i"! Gilbert Town is near the present town of Rutherfordton in North Carolina. 

i''2 Colonel Grimes, in command of some American troops in the district of Catawba 
river in September, 1780. (State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIV, p. 778.) One Richard 
Grimes was appointed a commissioner, 7 July, 1781, to provide horses, by purchase or impress- 
ment, for General Greene's cavalry. (Journal of the House of Commons in the State Records of 
North Carolina, Vol. XXVII, p. 939.) 

103 Colonel Charles McDowell. 

1°^ Cane and Silver creeks are in Burke county. North Carolina. Cane creek is so 
amazingly crooked that Captain Abraham de Peyster and Lieut. Anthony Allaire, with their 
loyalist force, were obliged to cross it nineteen times in a march of four miles (Allaire, "Diary"). 
An indecisive action was fought on these creeks, 12 September, 1780, between Ferguson and 
McDowell (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 147-9, 199). According to a loyalist 
veirsion of this action 80 prisoners were taken, one man killed. Captain White wounded, and 
all the American ammunition captured, the British loss being one man killed and two wounded. 
(AUaire, "Diary.") 

105 Turkey Cove is on the Catawba river, about six miles above the town of Marion, 
North Carolina. 

!"•' The Holstein river district, at that time a portion of North Carolina, but now in east 

^"■^ Colonel Jacob Walker, whose house and plantation were in the fork of Cane creek 
and Second Broad river in Rutherford county. North Carolina. Lieut. Anthony Allaire was 
present on this occasion, on 13 September, at Colonel Walker's house, where he met Captain 
Ryerson, of the New Jersey Volunteers, and Lieut. Duncan Fletcher, of the Loyal American 
regiment. Allaire also alludes in his "Diary" on the 14th. to the large number of "deluded inhabi- 
tants" who were coming in to proclaim their loyalty. Two miles distant from the Walker 
plantation is Little Britain Church, where several loyalist soldiers are buried. 


proceeded in pursuit of the rebels to the Mountains ^"^ at the head 
of Cataba-River sending out detachments to scour the country and 
search the Caves ; A fight happened in the neighbourhood between 
a detachment of ours and the Americans who were posted on a 
broken-hill not accessible to Cavalry, which obliged us to dismount 
and leave our horses behind, whilst employed in dislodging the 
Americans another party of them got round in the rear and took 
the horses mine amongst the rest; but it was returned by the per- 
son who was my prisoner in the last affair; about a week before he 
had been released as was usual at this time with prisoners. At this 
period the North Carolina men joined us fast. Our spies returned 
from beyond the mountains [October] with intelligence that the 
rebels were embodying rapidly; other spies brought us word that 
Col' Clark had taken Fort Augusta ^°^ with its stores &c on which 
we marched towards white oak and Green River "° to intercept him 
on his return from Georgia; Col Ferguson detached the horse in 
three divisions, one under my command with orders to proceed 
along the Indian line untill I could make out Clarke's route & join 
Capt° Taylor^" at Bailis Earls fort;"- I proceeded as far as 
Tyger-river "^ and there learning that Clark was gone up the bushy 
fork of Seluda-river,"* I took six of the best mounted men and got 
on his track untill I overtook the main body and one of the enemy 
prisoner within view of it, whom I carried to Col' Ferguson 
[October 4, 1780,] who thus obtained the information required. 

Our spies from Holsteen as well as some left at the Gap of 
the Mountains "=^ brought us word that the Rebel force amounted 

1"* The Blue Ridg^e Mountains in North Carolina. 

i''^ Colonel Elijah Clarke had laid siege to Augusta from 14 to 16 September, but was 
foiled of success by the timely arrival of Colonel John Harris Cruger, of De Lancey's brigade, 
famous for his defence of the fort of Ninety-Six against Greene in May and June, 1781. Fergn- 
son tarried long in North Carolina in the hope of intercepting Clarke, and left Gilbert Town 
for this purpose, 27 September, 1780. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 199-200.) 

11" White Oak is a creek tributary of Green river in Polk and Rutherford counties. North 

m Captain John Taylor, of Shrewsbury, New Jersey, son of Thomas Taylor, was born 
15 May, 1742, and was appointed lieutenant, 2 July, 1776, and captain, 26 August, 1780, in the 
New Jersey Volunteers. In July, 1776, he accompanied the British forces south and was in 
command of a small corps of cavalry until the battle of King's Mountain, where he distinguished 
himself. Captain Taylor married, 6 August, 1786, Eleanor Taylor, of Middletown, New Jersey, 
the marriage taking place there. He died, 13 November, 1822, leaving a widow, an unmarried 
daughter, and a son, Morris Taylor. (Public Record Office: W.O. 42/T3 ; A.O. 12/14, fos. 
73-81 ; A. O. 12/101, fo. 258 ; A. O. 12/85 ; A. O. 12/109 ; A. O. 13/109 ; A. O. 13/109 ; A. O. 
13/112; Ind. 5606.) 

ii'' Baylis Earle's ford (see page 8, n. 57). 

113 Tiger river (see page 11, n. 78). 

11* Saluda river in South Carolina. 

11^ Gap of the mountains, probably in the Blue Ridge Mountains. 


to 3000 men ; on which we retreated along the North side of Broad- 
river and sent the waggons along the South-side as far as Cherokee- 
ford/^^ where they joined us we marched to King's Mountain and 
there encamped with a view of approaching Lord Cornwallis' Army 
and receiving support; by CoP Ferguson's orders I sent expresses 
to the Militia Officers to join us here; but we were attacked before 
any support arrived by 1500 picked men from Gilbert's-town "^ 
under the command of Col'^ Cleveland,"^ Selby"^ and CampbelP^° all 
of whom were armed with Rifles, well mounted and of course could 
move with the utmost celerity ; so rapid was their attack that I was 
in the act of dismounting to report that all was quiet and the pickets 
on the alert when we heard their firing about half a mile off; I 
immediately paraded the men and posted the officers, during this 
short interval I received a wound which however did not prevent 
my doing duty; and on going towards my horse I found he had 
been killed by the first discharge. [October 9, 1780] . 

Kings Mountain from its height would have enabled us to 
oppose a superior force with advantage, had it not been covered 
with wood which sheltered the Americans and enabled them to 
fight in the favorite manner; in fact after driving in our piquets 
they were able to advance in three divisions under separate leaders 
to the crest of the hill in perfect safety untill they took post and 
opened an irregular but destructive fire ^^^ from behind trees and 
other cover: Col Cleaveland's was first perceived and repulsed by a 
charge made by Col' Ferguson: Col Selly's next and met a similar 
fate being driven down the hill; last the detachment under Col 
Campbell and by desire of CoP Ferguson I presented a new front 
which opposed it with success ; by this time the Americans who had 
been repulsed had regained their former stations and sheltered be- 

11" Cherokee ford (see page 11, n. 81). 

11^ Gilbert Town (see page 15, note 101). 

"s Colonel Benjamin Cleveland. (See page 19, n. 129). 

118 Colonel Isaac Shelby, a noted border leader and one of the commanders at the battle 
of King's Mountain, where he was conspicuous for valor. (Draper, King's Mountain and its 
Heroes, pp. 411-416.) 

i=" General William Campbell (1745-81), of Scotch-Irish origin, who was ruthless in his 
methods with the loyalists, several of whom he condemned to death, e. g., Captain Nathan Read, 
who elected to suffer death rather than submit to the demand that he should join the American 
forces. Draper gives other instances of his violence to the loyalists. At the battle of King's 
Mountain he was in supreme command, Shelby having magnanimously given way in his 
favor. Shelby and Sevier believed him to have shrunk from danger in this memorable victory 
of the Americans, but Washington, Gates, and Greene expressed their high sense of his merits. 
(Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 378-402.) 

1-1 The expression, "an irregular but destructive fire," was apparently borrowed from 
Stedman's American War, Vol. II, p. 246. 


hind trees poured in an irregular destructive fire; in this manner 
the engagement was mantained near an hour, the mountaniers 
flying whenever there was danger of being charged by the Bay- 
onet/-- and returning again so soon as the British detachment had 
faced about to repl another of their parties. Col Ferguson was at 
last recognized by his gallantry although wearing a hunting shirt 
and fell pierced by seven balls at the moment he had killed the 
American Col' Williams ^^^ with his left hand ; (the right being use- 
less ^-*) I had just rallied the troops a second time by Ferguson's 
orders when Cap* De Peyster ^^s succeeded to the command but 
soon after gave up and sent out a flag of truce, but as the Americans 
resumed their fire afterwards ours was also renewed under the 
supposition that they would give no quarter ; and a dreadful havoc 
took place until the flag was sent out a second time, then the work 
of destruction ceased; the Americans surrounded us with double 
lines, and we grounded arms with the loss of one third our num- 
bers.^26 [October 9.] 

I had been wounded by the first fire but was so much occupied 
that I scarcely felt it until the action was over. We passed the night 
on the spot where we surrendered amidst the dead and groans of 
the dying who had not surgical aid, or water to quench their thirst ; 
Early next morning [October 10] we marched at a rapid pace to- 
wards Gilbert's town between double lines of mounted Americans ; 
the officers in the rear and obliged to carry two muskets each which 
was my fate although wounded and stripped of my shoes and silver 
buckles in an inclement season without covering or provisions untill 
Monday night [October 12] when an ear of Indian corn was served 
to each ; at Gilbert's town a mock tryal was held and 24 sentenced 
to death 10 of whom suffered before the approach of Tarlton's 
force ^^^ obliged them to move towards the Yadkin ^^^ cutting and 

122 -pjjg expression, "The mountaineers flying whenever they were in danger of being 
charged with the bayonet," is apparently borrowed from Stedman's American War, Vol. II, p. 

1-3 Colonel James Williams, (see page 20, n. 139). 

1-* Major Patrick Ferguson's right arm had been shattered at the battle of the Brandy- 

1-^ Captain Abraham De Peyster. (See Additional Notes, p. 84.) 
12« The battle of King's Mountain. (See Additional Notes, p. 86.) 

I-'' Colonel Banistre Tarleton, who commanded the British Legion in South Carolina and 
■was the author of a history of the campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Colonies, wherein 
his military merits are much exaggerated. This history brought forth a book as a rejoinder, 
entitled. Strictures on Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton's History, published in 1787 by Lieutenant 
Roderick Mackenzie. In this book the author accuses Tarleton of neglecting to mention the 
bravery of many South Carolina loyalists, "men, whose integrity was incorruptible, undismayed 


striking us by the road in a savage manner CoP Cleveland ^^^ then 
offered to enlarge me on condition that I would teach his Regiment 
for one month the exercise practised by CoP Ferguson ^'-^ which I 
refused, although he swore I should suffer death for it at the 
Moravian town; luckily his threat was not put to the test as I 
had the good fortune to make my escape one evening when close to 
that place ; in the hurry to get off I took the wrong road and did not 
discover my error until I found I was close to the Moravian 
town:^^^ I then retraced my steps until close to the pickets I had 
left and taking a fresh departure I crossed the Yadkin river before 
morning, proceeded through the woods toward home, John Weedy- 
man one of my company had supplied me with a pair of shoes, 
which were of great use on this occasion, but as he remained a 
prisoner I never had an opportunity of making him a return. 

The first night I slept in the woods, next day I was supported 
by haws grapes &c as I could find them in the woods : The second 
or third day in pushing through the woods to get to a ford I heard 
a noise of some people (whom I knew to be Americans by white 
paper in their hats) on which I lay down and was so close to them 
that I could have touched one of their horses in passing; fortu- 
nately I was not observed, and soon after crossed the Creek after 
them : I then made for the Mountains in order to be guided by the 
Apalachian range "^ and get over the rivers with greater facility. 
After crossing Broad-river I met one Heron who had been with me 
in King's Mountain and who had with some others taken flight 

in the hour of danger, who sacrificed their private interest to public good and who . . . fought 
and bled with manly spirit . . . and evinced a probity of mind under every reverse of fortune, 
which must endear them to posterity" (p. 29). 

1"^ The Yadkin river rises in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina. 

1-^ Colonel Benjamin Cleveland commanded the troops from the Upper Yadkin valley 
at the battle of King's Mountain. In the annals of the war in South Carolina no officer on the 
American side treated his political enemies with greater severity. The loyalists were regarded 
by him as so much game, or dangerous pests, worthy only of extermination. At rare moments 
he was capable of generous instincts. He it was who caused the execution of Zachariah Wells, 
on the plea that he was a dangerous Tory, as well as bringing about the executions of the 
loyalists after King's Mountain. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 425-454; S. G. 
Fisher, The Struggle for American Independence, 1908, pp. 416-419.) Colonel Cleveland's brutal 
treatment of Dr. Uzal Johnson, of Newark, New Jersey, who rendered services to the wounded 
on both sides in this battle, was severely criticized. (Allaire, "Diary"; J. Watts de Peyster, "The 
Affair at King's Mountain" in Magazine of American History, Vol. 5, pp. 402-423.) 

i'"'The younger men were thoroughly drilled in military tactics by Major Ferguson. 
(Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, p. 73.) 

131 Alexander Chesney says elsewhere that he was marched about 150 miles to Moravina 
Town. (The Royal Commission on Loyalists Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton ; Rox- 
burghe Club, 1915, p. 50). This town was probably the present Winston-Salem in North Caro- 
lina, a distance of about 100 miles in a direct line from King's Mountain. 

1^2 The Appalachian Mountains, the general name for the great mountain system in the 
east of North America, called the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina. 


early in the action, putting white papers in their hats,^-^^ by which 
disgraceful stratagem they got through the American lines: I 
passed a night at Heron's house and one before at another man's 
on whom I could depend, from both I took some provisions all the 
other nights I slept out ; I do not remember the number exactly, but 
must have been nearly a fortnight.^^* I reached home on the 31^* 
October I found the Americans had left me little. My wife had a 
son on the 20"" whom I named William which was all the christen- 
ing he had. 

As I did not know where to find any British troops I continued 
about home some time [November, 1780,] and as the Americans 
were in possession of the country I was obliged to conceal myself 
in a cave dug in the branch of a creek under a hollow poplar with 
my cousins Hugh Cook ^^^ and Charles Brandon f^''' in which we 
were forced for want of room "'^ to lie flat. Cooke's wife brought 
us food and news every night; I sometimes staid at my father-in- 
laws, untill I heard that CoP Tarlton had defeated Sumpter at 
Black-stocks fort ^^® on Tyger-river on which I raised a company 
with great diflSculty and joined a strong party at Col Williams' 
house on Little-river ^^^ where there was a strong party under 
General Cunningham.i*° Major Plumber ^^^ having been wounded 
at King' Mountain the command of our Regiment devolved on 
Jonathan Frost "- as Major who directed me to assemble my com- 
pany of Militia and join him at an appointed place on the Enoree. 
When I came to that place on the day and time appointed I found 

185 General Francis Marion distinguished his men from the Tories by placing white cockades 
on them, 12 August, 1780. (E. McCrady, The Hist, of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, 
p. 652. ) A similar method of identification may have been employed at King's Mountain. 

13^ The distance traversed by Alexander Chesney to his home on the Pacelot river would 
be about 120 miles in a straight line. 

135 Hugh Cook (see p. 4). 

15" Charles Brandon (see p. 14, n. 98.) 

15" Room in the Journal, obviously room. 

13S rpjjg American and British accounts of the action at Blackstocks Hill on 20 November, 
1780, differ. Tarleton in his book (Hist, of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781, pp. 178, 204.) claims 
it as a victory, while MacKenzie (Strictures on Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton' s History) disagrees 
with this view, as does another British authority, Stedman (American War, Vol. II, pp. 228- 
236). Compare Gordon, American Revolution, 1788 edition. Vol. Ill, p. 471; Lee, Memoirs, 
Vol. I, pp. 213-220 ; Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 376-377 ; B. F. Stevens, 
Clinton-CornwaWs Controversy, Vol. I, pp. 303, 307, 315 ; E. McCrady, The History of South 
Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 827-830 ; and S. G. Fisher, The Strtiggle for American 
Independence, 1908, Vol. II, p. 370). 

158 Colonel James Williams was mortally wounded at King's Mountain. 

I''" Brigadier -General Robert Cunningham (see Additional Notes, p. 87). 

I'^i Major Daniel Plummer (see Additional Notes, p. 88). 

1*- Major Jonathan Frost was killed at the head of a party of loyal militia in an action 
against the Americans in December, 1780. He left a widow, Mary. (Public Record Office: 
T 50/2). 


the Americans under Cap'" then Major Roebuck "^ in possession of 
it who immediately disarmed an marched us off, It was a great 
blunder in Major Frost to alter the place of meeting: however he 
did his best to remedy it; he pursued and overtook us about 12 
miles higher up and having attacked Roebuck's party where they 
were advantageously posted at a house poor Frost was killed the 
rest retreated. Roebuck who was acquainted with me formerly: 
paroled me to Ninety-six where I was exchanged for Captain 
Clerk "* a son to CoP Clerk who had been taken after the attack on 
Augusta in Georgia, I was then sent to garrison the goal of Ninety- 
Six [December, 1780,] which I fortified and had the command of 
the Militia stationed there. CoP^ Allen "^ and Cruger "'^ command- 
ed the fort near the goal; where I continued until Tarleton came 
into Ninety-Six district to go in quest of General Morgan [January, 
1781,] and sent to the garrison for guides acquainted with Morgan's 
situation which was then convenient to my house on Pacholet;^*^ 
I joined Col Tarleton and marched to Fair-forest having failed to 
get intelligence of Morgan's situation he sent me out [January 
16,] to endeavour to do so and to make the mills grind for the Army : 
when I reached Pacholet-river I swam my horse over a private ford 
not likely to be guarded, leaving the man behind me to go on more 
quietly & reconnoitre the samp. I found the fires burning but no 
one there, on which I rode to my father's who said Morgan was 
gone to the Old-fields about an hour before ; my wife said the same 
and that they had used or destroyed my crop & took away almost 
every thing. I immediately returned to Col Tarleton and found he 
had marched towards the Old fields. I overtook them before 10 

^*^ Benjamin Roebuck rose from the rank of lieutenant to that of lieutenant-colonel in the 
American service during the Revolutionary war. He served in the actions at Hanging Rock, 
Musgrove's Mills, and at King's Mountain, where he commanded a company. He distinguished 
himself at the battle of Cowpsns. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, p. 470.). 

''-** Captain John Clarke, son of Colonel Elijah Clarke. 

i*^ Lieut.-Colonel Isaac Allen, (1741-1806) lawyer, of Trenton, New Jersey, who com- 
manded a battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers and served in the campaign in the South with 
singular good conduct, gallantry and reputation. In the siege of Ninety-Six he was in com- 
mand of a body of about 200 New Jersey Volunteers, and in 1782 he was lieutenant-colonel com- 
mandant at Charleston. At the peace he removed to New Brunswick in Canada, with his wife 
Sarah, daughter of Thomas Campbell of Philadelphia, and was appointed a member of the 
Council and a puisne judge of the Supreme Court. His only son, John, was prominent in the 
history of that Province, as was also his grandson. Sir John Campbell Allen, chief justice. 
(Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario, 1904, Vol. I, pp. 248- 
251 ; Lawrence and Stockton, The Judges of New Brunswick and Their Times, pp. 3, 59, 77, 
141, 507; Public Record Office: Ind. 5604-5605-5606; Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revo- 
lution, Vol. I, p. 159.) 

^■•^ Lieut.-Colonel John Harris Cruger (see Additional Notes, p. 89). 

^*' General Daniel Morgan had camped at Grindal ford, on Pacolet river, just before the 
battle of Cowpens. (See page 128, footnote 2.) 


oclock near the Cow-pens on Thickety Creek where we suffered a 
total defeat by some dreadful bad management. ^*^ The Americans 
were posted behind a rivulet with Rifle-men as a front line and 
Cavarly in the rear so as to make a third line ; Col Tarleton charged 
at the head of his Regiment of Cavalry called the British Legion "^ 
which was filled up from the prisoners taken at the battle of Cam- 
den ; the Cavalry supported by a detachment of the 71^' Reg"^ under 
Major McArthur ^^° broke the Riflemen without difficulty, but the 
prisoners on seeing their own Reg* opposed to them in the rear 
would not proceed against it and broke: the remainder charged 
but were repulsed this gave time to the front line to rally and form 
in the rear of their Cavalry which immediately charged and broke 
the 71^' (then unsupported) making many prisoners: the rout was 
almost total. I was with Tarleton in the charge who behaved 
bravely but imprudently the consequence was his force disperced 
in all directions the guns and many prisoners fell into the hands 
of the Americans. 

The men being dispersed I desired them to meet me at General 
Cunningham's, ^^^ I proceeded towards home to bring off my wife 
and child on the 17 Jan""^ [,1781,] and found there was nothing left 
not even a blanket to keep off the inclement weather ; or a change of 
garments ; then leaving a pleasant situation in a lamentable state 
without a shilling in my pocket; proceeded for General Cunning- 
ham's, sleeping encamped that night ai; Fair-forest i^^^ As we could 
not preval on General Cunningham to use any exertions to embody 
his brigade of Militia we went to Edisto river "^ in order to settle 
there having nothing but two horses and our clothes left, everthing 
else being in the hands of the Americans and by them confiscated.^^* 

I have not been at Pacholet since nor am I likely to be. 

I continued at Rob* McWhorter's ^^^ on Edisto for some days 
and leaving my wife and child there proceeded to Charles-town 

1*8 The battle of Cowpens, January 17, 1781, when the British under Tarleton were 

i*® British Legion. (See Additional Notes, p. 90). 

1"'° Major Archibald McArthur had been transferred from the 54th. Foot as major of the 
71st. Foot, 16 November, 1777. He was promoted to lieut.-colonel of the 3rd battalion of the 
60th. Foot, 24 April, 1781. 

1^1 Brigadier-General Robert Cunningham (see Additional Notes, p. 87). 

152 Fair Forest (see p. 10, n. 68). 

15* Edisto river. ? North or South fork of Edisto river, or Edisto river. 

15^ The name of Alexander Chesney is not found in any published lists of confiscated 

155 Robert McWhorter was one of the appraisers of Alexander Chesney's wagon and 
horses. (See p. 9, n. 62.) 


where contrary to my expectations I met with several of the British 
officers who had been taken at King's Mountain ;^^*^ and who very 
readily assisted me to get pay for some cattle and provisions I had 
furnished Col Ferguson with for the use of his detachment, and 
not satisfied with this they introduced me to Col Balfour command- 
ant of Charles-town who hearing from them of my great activity 
and that I had lost my all gave me an order to M'" Cruden commis- 
sioner of sequestered estates ^" to have me accomadated with my 
family on some one of them ; this produced an order to Col' Balling- 
al ^^® and M"" Kinsay ^^^ at Jacksons-borough ^^° who ordered me a 
house and provisions with the use of three negroes to attend my 
family thus was I at once introduced to a new set of loyalists and 
I immediately removed my wife and child and Charles Brandon '^^'^ 
with his family to Fergusons Riverside plantation ^^^ near Parker's- 
ferry ^^^ on Pond-Pond-river [March] where I soon fixed myself 
very comfortably having purchased in Charles-town some bedding 
&c to set up house-keeping a second time. 

I joined the negroes allowed me for my family with others on 
the Plantation and began to make a crop of Indian com and rice. 

The Rebels increased much in the neighbourhood of Pond-pond 
and a general rising being expected I sent express to Col Balfour 
the commandant of Charles-town to acquaint him of it who de- 
tached 100 men to bring off the Militia from Pond-Pond: by his 
desire I sent to communicate confidential intelligence to Cap*'' 
McKinnon ^^^ at Motte's house ^^^ near Nelson's ferry ^'^^ on the 
Santee River which journey of 120 miles I performed in 24 hours: 
I then returned to Charles-town, [May] and at the wish of Col 

IS* All the officers and men at King's Mountain, except Major Patrick Ferguson, were 

1^'' John Cruden (see Additional Notes, p. 91). 

1^* Colonel Robert Ballingall (see Additional Notes, p. 94). 

1^* The name of Kinsey cannot be traced. 

1*" Jacksonsborough, now Jaeksonsboro, is in Colleton county. 

i"! Charles Brandon (see p. 14, n. 98). 

182 This plantation in St. Paul's parish, in Charleston district, was that of Thomas Fer- 
guson, a wealthy planter, who was a member of the South Carolina Provincial Congress and 
of the Council of Safety. 

1*3 Parker's ferry is on the Ponpon river, a tributary of the Edisto river, and is in the 
south-east of Colleton county, a few miles north of Jaeksonsboro. 

1** Captain John McKinnon, deputy quartermaster-general at Charleston at this time, 
and who was one of the directors of the lottery raised for the benefit of the poor loyalist refu- 
gees at Charleston in February, 1782. (Royal Gazette of South Carolina, Vol. II, No. 108.) 

1*^ Motte's house was the summer residence in Calhoun county of a well known planter, 
Jacob Motte, who was a strong adherent of the American cause. At this place was Fort Motte, 
well known in the history of the Revolutionary war. Lee in his Memoirs gives a charming pic- 
ture of Rebecca Motte, the widow of Jacob. 

1** Nelson's ferry (see p. 7, n. 50). 


Balfour raised a troop of horse and was stationed at Dorchester ^^"^ 
a strong British-post and moved my wife and child thither We had 
not been at this place long before I ascertained that Major Snipes,^"^ 
Col'^ Haynes ^'^^ and Marrion ^^° had returned, crossed Pond-Pond 
river and were embodying troops [June, 1781,] which intelligence 
I communicated to Lord Rawdon "^ and His Lordship immediately 
ordered out a detachment of which I was one we crossed Pond- 
Pond river at Parker's ferry,^^^ ^nd the boats having been removed 
to impede our march I swam my horse over accompanied by others 
and procured feather-beds to transport those who could not swim 
across the River; we then proceeded rapidly and reached Snipe's 
plantation ^^^ by day-light, which we soon cleared of him and his 
party driving them out with loss : on this occasion I was wounded 
in the thigh with a spear by a man concealed in a Ha-Ha ^^* whilst 
in the act of leaping my horse over it ; but I made him prisoner and 
took him with the others made on this occasion to Dorchester. 
About this time a detachment was sent and succeeded in taking Col' 
Hynes,^^^ who soon after deservedly suffered for Treason; as it 
was discouvered that he had communicated with the rebels whilst 
a British commissary. There were daily skirmishes at this period, 
the Americans constantly contracting our posts in every direction. 
In the beginning of July I joined the Army under Lord Raw- 
don then marching towards Ninety-Six to relieve the place ;^^*'' on 
our approach the Americans who were besieging it broke up, 
crossed Broad-river, and proceeded along the left bank towards 
Charles-town: Lord Rawdon finding that the country must be 
abandoned, detached his light troops towards Long-canes ^" (a 
branch of Savanna River to bring away the Loyalists and their 
families ; taking himself with the main body the route of Charles- 

es'' Dorchester is in the county of that name in South Carolina. 

168 William Clay Snipes was captain of the Horse Shoe company of the Colleton county 
regiment of South Carolina in 1775 and was afterwards promoted major of that regiment. 

es^ Colonel Isaac Hayne (see Additional Notes, p. 94). 

1'° General Francis Marion. 

^^'1 Lord Rawdon was born in 1754 and was a peer in the Irish peerage. In 1783 he was 
created an English peer under the style of Baron Rawdon of Rawdon, and in 1793 succeeded his 
father as 2nd earl of Moira (see Diet, of Nat. Biog.) 

172 Parker's ferry (see p. 23, n. 163). 

173 William Clay Snipes (see note 168 above). 

17* Ha ha is a sunk fence (Oxford English Dictionary). 

17B Colonel Isaac Hayne. (see Additional Notes, p. 94). 

176 Lord Rawdon went to the relief of Colonel Cruger's force in Ninety-Six in June, not 
in July, (see pp. 16, n. 109; 90). 

17' Long Cane creek is in Abbeville county. South Carolina, where it joins Little river, 
a tributary of the Savannah river. 


town as far as Congaree;^^* where the Americans had recrossed 
the river & made a fruitless effort to oppose his march by prevent- 
ing our crossing the creek which we did without difficulty and pro- 
ceeded to Orangeburgh ;^^^ where we expected to meet reinforce- 
ments from Charles-town and be joined by the light troops and 
Loyalists, but were disappointed in both and soon after surrounded 
by the Americans who pressed us so closely that we had nothing 
but 1 lb of wheat in the straw served out to each man every 24 
hours. The parties going out daily to forage had constant skir- 
mishes with the enemy and one day Major Doyle ^^° sent out with 
what mounted men he could muster (about 20 or 30) to cover the 
foraging; which he did effectually driving off the Americans with 
some loss : on this occasion Lord Edward Fitzgerald ^^^ having 
broken his sword on the back of an American I supplied him with 
another to continue the attack for which he felt greatly obliged. 
A day or two afterwards Major Doyle ^^^ came to me with a 
message from Lord Rawdon to know if I could find any one well 
acquainted with the road to Charlestown and willing to go thither 
with a message of great importance; as all the expresses sent 
hitherto had either been killed of taken prisoners : being perfectly 
acquainted with the whole of the neighbouring country I immedi- 
ately went and offered my services to his Lordship; which were 
readily accepted ; I was offered any horse in the camp I might think 
better than my own, but I thought myself the best mounted officer 
there, and found before many minutes use for every muscle of the 

1^^ The Congaree river in South Carolina. 

1''* Orangeburg, in the county of that name, in South Carolina. 

1*" John Doyle (1856-1834) served throughout the American war of Independence. In 
1778 he vpas attached as captain to the Volunteers of Ireland, raised in America in that year 
and later as major of that corps, which afterwards became the 105th. Foot, reduced in 1784. He 
appears to have been in command of South Carolina militia early in 1782. In 1805 he was 
created a baronet, and died a general. 

181 Lord Edward Fitzgerald, soldier, politician, and conspirator (1763-1798), was at this 
time, at the age of 18, lieutenant in the Volunteers of Ireland, to which he had been appointed 
in 1778. As commanding officer of the 54th. Foot, in 1791 he signed the discharge of the cele- 
brated politician, William Cobbett, who had served in the army from 1784 to 1791, and who 
went to Philadelphia in 1792 and was fined for his attack on American institutions. In 1796 he 
joined the United Irishmen and was discovered as a participator in organizing the ^rish 
rebellion. On this occasion hs was an enemy of Alexander Chesney, who fought on the oppo- 
site side in this rebellion. (See Dictionary of National Biography.) 

1S2 This officer was probably Captain William Brereton, who was in command of a de- 
tachment of the 17th. Foot (Grenadier company) at Charleston. In his order book, preserved in 
the officers' mess of the 1st. battalion of this regiment, he mentions under date of 20 January, 
1782, that a sergeant and four privates of the British Legion had been found guilty of quitting 
their posts in search of plunder and of plundering the house of an American and ill-treating 
his family. Such conduct met with no mercy at Captain Brereton's hands ; he sentenced the 
sergeant and one private to death, and the other privates were punished with the lash. (E. A. H. 
Webb, The Leicestershire Regiment, 1912, p. 82.) 


good animal that carried me. I set out instantly for Charles-town 
and was scarcely past the sentries when I found myself pursued 
by 4 or 5 of the enemy two of whom kept it up about 20 miles 
through the woods; my intention was to come into the Charles- 
town road where it crosses the Cypress-swamp at Cunningham's 
house 2 miles above Dorchester, but by cance I kept too much to 
the right and crossed the swamp by another path a little lower 
down, and soon after I saw a picket of the enemy on the Charles- 
town side of the swamp ; who must inevitably have taken or killed 
me, had I not by good fortune missed the common path, which they 
were carefully guarding. I passed through Dorchester, and re- 
mained with my wife whilst a fresh horse was saddled, and I could 
give Cap' Brereton a message from Lord Rawdon for Col Coates ^^^ 
at Monk's Corner ^** of the 19"' Reg' desiring him to be on the alert 
as the Americans had crossed Broad and Santee Rivers in great 
force ; this was forwarded by express to the CoP. and I set out for 
Charles- town wher I delivered my letter to Col Balfour (the com- 
mandant at 4 oclock P M twelve hours after I received it from 
Lord Rawdon at Orangeburgh ; a distance of 80 miles. The CoP 
was walking under D"" Frazier's ^^^ piazza ; the detachment was 
instantly turned out and marched immediately to relieve Lord 
Moria ^^^ from his uncomfortable situation. On reaching Dor- 
chester I found to my grief that the Americans had visited that 
place during my short absence and taken away my horse with 300 
others out of Major Wright's ^" pasture. So soon as we joined 
Lord Rawdon he found himself strong enough to force his way 

1*^ James Coates was appointed brevet lieutenant-colonel of the 19th. Foot, 26 October, 1775, 
and was promoted colonel of that regiment, 16 May, 1782. He reached the rank of general, 
19 April, 1802. 

^** Moncks Corner is the county seat of Berkeley county. South Carolina. 

185 j)j.. Frazier was probably Dr. James Fraser of Beaufort in South Carolina, where he 
had settled in 1765 as a medical practitioner. In 1773-74 he was a captain-lieutenant in the 
Granville county militia, but in 1775 his resignation was demanded because of his suspected 
Toryism. By his marriage to Mary Ash he formed an alliance with a prominent family in 
South Carolina. Dr. Fraser's loyalty took a practical form early in February, 1779, when he 
joined the British forces on board H. M. S. Vigilant (Captain R. Christian) on duty off the 
coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. In March, 1780, he was appointed commissary of captures 
at Charleston and held other military appointments during the war. Dr. Fraser's estate was 
confiscated and sold, and in the list of "unjust charges" against it was that of Governor John 
Rutledge. At the end of the war he went over to England, and in 1788 he was living with 
his large family at East Greenwich. (Public Record Office: A. O. 12/51, fos. 174-182; A. O. 
12/72, fo. 381 ; A.O. 12/109 ; A.O. 13/83 ; A.O. 13/96 ; A.O. 13/128 ; Hist. MSS. Comm., Report 
on the American MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. H, p. 100.) See page for his certificate 
to Alexander Chesney. 

^^^ Lord Rawdon did not succeed his father as 2nd. earl of Moira until 20 June, 1793. 

1*" This oflicer was perhaps Major James Wright (who was born in America in 1748) 
of the Georgia Loyalists and the King's Florida Rangers until the latter was absorbed in the 
King'.s CaroHna Rangers. He died in 1816. (Ind. 5605-5606). 


through the enemy which he did immediately, marching towards 
Charles-town, and encamped without opposition near Monk's 
corner: where we had some trifling skirmishes without any event 
of importance. 

The Americans by degrees got possession of all the country 
except the small part inside the quarter House where I was posted. 

Lord Rawdon having moved his force to some other part of the 
country, I then joined a corps of three companies raised for the 
defence of the sequestered estates by John Cruden Esq.^*^ In one of 
our excurtions up Cooper's River ^^^ to procure a supply of rice, 
the schooner in which I was upset and 12 men were drowned the 
greater part belonging to my company ; being on deck I saved my- 
self by swimming and 6 or 7 others had the same good fortune. 
The Schooner turned keel up, and not being quite filled with water 
immediately, the men could exist for a little time ; we heard them 
crying for assistance and did all we could to aflford it but unfortu- 
nately only one man could be got out in time to save his life and 
this was effected by cutting a hole in the vessels bottom. I lost my 
watch, sword and several other things. 

Soon after this the troops were obliged to abandon the neigh- 
bourhood of the quarter house and confine themselves entirely to 
Charles-town neck ^^° [December, 1781] ; and a quantity of wood 
being required for fuel I was appointed to superintend the oper- 
ation in which a vast number of people must be required and having 
full power to employ any persons; I chose a number of loyalists 
whom I found within the lines in a destitute condition ; and this 
gave them immeddiate relief; preventing numbers by that means 
from starving. They were continued whilst I had the charge which 
was a great satisfaction to my feelings, but ill health coming with 
the affliction I gave up the charge to Cap'° McMahon "^ early in 
January [1782], soon after the death of my wife who died 28*^ 
Nov 1781 and is buried near Gillen's Gen's landing not far from 
Stuart's house on James Island. 

1*^ John Cruden (see Additional Notes, p. 91) . 

1*^ Cooper river empties itself at Charleston. 

190 'WTien the year 1781 began, the British were in possession of almost the entire State of 
South Carolina. At the end of the year, British rule was practically confined to Charleston and 
its immediate vicinity 

1^1 Captain McMahon was Captain John McMahon (son of John McMahon, comptroller 
of the Customs at Limerick), who was an officer in the Volunteers of Ireland and barrack- 
master at Charleston in 1781. He became an intimate friend of George IV. when prince of 
Wales and was keeper of the prince's privy purse. In 1817 he was created a baronet. 


My illness continued without much hope of recovery: I was 
induced to send the child to my relations, in order to return to 
Europe. I took my passage in a transport called the Lady Susan 
John Gumming master and sailed from Charles-town the 3.^^ April 
under convoy of the Orestes sloop of war commanded by Sir Jacob 
Wheate.^^^ The fleet consisted of 52 sail and we had a pleasant 
passage. My companions were Major Robinson ^^^ late of the Cam- 
den Militia Major Michal Egan,'^* and Lieut James Barber ^°= of 
the Royal Militia. We made Mizen head on the Coast of Ireland the 
lO''' of May [1782] and put into Castlehaven next day in a hard 
gale of wind when we landed and proceeded to Cork by land : I got 
my baggage landed, bought a horse and proceeded to Dublin accom- 
panied by Charles Philip Campbell "^'-"^ and Soloman Smyth ^'-'^ both 
from Charlestown; & their society not only beguiled a long and 
tedious journey but was the means of forming a lasting friendship 
with M"" Campbell; we took lodgings together on reaching Dublin, 
the 4"^ of June in Peter's row. I had brought a letter of introduc- 
tion from Cap'° McMahon to his father ^^^ and by his advice I drew 
up a memorial to the Lord Lieu^^^^ stating my services and reques- 
ting some situation; but the then Lord-Lieu*, being of the party 
which was unfavourable to the Americans I was refused. M"" 
Campbell introduced me to Philip Henry ^°° also a loyalist who had 
obtained a good situation in the Custom-House and by him I was 
advised to turn my thoughts to obtain something of that kind, as 
well as to establish a claim for compensation in lieu of property 
lost or confiscated; but being anxious to see my few remaining 

1*- Sir Jacob Wheate, 5th. baronet, commander in the Royal Navy, who married in De- 
cember, 1782, Maria, daughter of David Shaw of New York. After his death in 1788, his widow 
married Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander F. I. Cochrane. (G. E. C, Complete Baronetage.) 

103 Major John Robinson (see Additional Notes, p. 95). 

1"^ Major Michael Egan (see Additional Notes, p. 96). 

^°'' James Barber (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 

1"^ The name of Charles Philip Campbell cannot be found in any list of loyalist claims 
for compensalion. 

I"'' Solomon Smyth was a prosperous upholsterer at Charleston and the owner of a plan- 
tation of 300 acres fifty miles from that city. Banished from South Carolina because of his 
loyalty, he went first to Bermuda, thence to the West Indies, and to Georgia. According to 
certificates of Lord Cornwallis and Sir Henry Clinton, Smyth served with the British Army and 
"rendered essential services" during the war. From 1783 he was granted a pension of £50 a 
year until his death early in 1824 in England or Ireland. His son, born about 1766, was an 
apothecary and appears to have gone to the West Indies. (Public Record Oflice: A. O. 12/99, 
fo. 176; T. 50/8: T. 50/27.) 

ii's Captain McMahon's father, (see p. 27, or 191). 

199 The lord lieutenant of Ireland was the 3rd. duke of Portland, who was appointed, 
14 April, 1782, and was succeeded by Earl Temple in September following. The duke was 
prime minister in 1783 and again in 1803. 

2»o Philip Henry (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 


relations in the Co Antrim, I went thither before I had matured 
my plans for the future. ^°^ 

My health having improved a good deal since I left Charles- 
town I found myself able to proceed to Ballymena ^°^ after a short 
stay in Dublin : I found my aunt and uncle Purdy in good health, 
she was my father's sister her name Anne, and perceiving that I 
was much cast down in consequence of my great losses and bad 
prospects she told me to take courage and that all might be well 
adding that the family once had been very rich and were entitled 
to an estate situated in one of the Northen Counties of England. 
I paid but little attention to he story at the moment and did not 
make even an entry at the time : but as well as I can remember she 
stated in substance that the above estate belonged to a person called 
Richie or Ritchie who raised a company on it and came over to 
Ireland in the command and died leaving an infant daughter whose 
name was said to be Anne, & she married my paternal great-grand- 
father Robert Chesney of Grange near Toom-ferry who appears to 
have neglected establishing his right probably in consequence of 
the troubles then existing both in England and Ireland: but his 
eldest son John (my grand uncle) went to Dublin to make searches 
and found most satisfactory records respecting the claim but pur- 
sued it no farther nor has anyone taken up the business since until 
this moment when it is probable from the lapse of time that the 
holders of the lands in question coult not be disturbed after being 
so long in peacable possession, by the real heirs. By way of making 
up for my neglect in not committing to writing what my aunt said, 
I have collected in a book all the particulars which came in my way 
from time to time likely to throw any light on the subject; but I 
have never been able to hear what records it is likely my grand 
uncle searched in Dublin: nor did he follow the advice he then 
received of proceeding to England on the business. 

The family must have been of Norman extraction originally; 
and probably came to England with the Conqueror ; the derivation 
of the name 'Cheney formerly de Chesnoye from the Fr : G. Ches- 
noye, a place where the oaks grow, this from Chesne an oak ; which 
Menag again draws from the Latin Quercius, skin : from Quernicus 
oaken, made of oak'. I presume the stock was derived from Ralph 
de Caineto (id est Cheney) who came into England with the Con- 

-"1 For notes on the life of Alexander Chesney in Ireland, see The Life of the late General 
F. R. Chesney, ed by S. Lane-Poole, 1893, pp. 20-54. 

202 Ballymena, a town in county Antrim. It was the scene of an obstinate battle between 
the yoemanry and the United Irishmen of the district, in the rebellion of 1798. 


queror and had large possessions given him by that King, whose 
decendants were very numerous and high in rank having peerages, 
Bishopricks &c; the succeeding branches extended to the north 
of England and Scotland from whence my greatgrandfather is said 
to have removed to this country during the religious troubles ; at 
least such is the belief of one of the branches of the family now 
residing in County Tyrone. 

After a short stay with my relations and friends in Co Antrim 
I proceeded to Dublin to go to London and try what could be done 
with the Ministry; to which step I was urged by friends Henry 
and Campbell :-"=^ on the 28'^ [July, 1782,] sailed from George's 
quay for Liverpool in the Prince of Orange packet; next day we 
saw Holly-head "°* and on the 30 landed in Liverpool, this was my 
first visit to England, and I was gratified the day of the 31^^^ in 
viewing the town the docks and a 64 gunship lying there. In the 
afternoon I set out by the stage for London and arrived at the 
Bull and Mouth inn -°^ on the 2''^ [August] and proceeded to the 
golding cross, Charing Cross 2°" in a hackney coach. 

On the 3'''^ [August, 1782] I went to the War-office, and to 
M'" Townsend's secretary of state office for the American depart- 
ment, where I left my papers and the following memorial 

To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of His 
Majesty' Treasury. 

The humble petition of Alexander Chesney, late of Charles- 
town in the province of South Carolina, 

Humbly Sheweth, 

' That your Petitioner for several years prior to the pres- 
ent American war, resided on Broad-river in Ninety-six district in 
South Carolina aforesaid: that at the commencement of the Re- 
bellion in that province your petitioner took an active part in 
favour of the British government, and rendered the loyal subjects 
in that country, as well as His Majesty's army essential services. 

That soon after the reduction of Charles-town by Sir 
Henry Clinton your petitioner was appointed Captain of a company 

^os Philip Henry and Charles Philip Campbell (see p. 28). 

204 Holyhead, North Wales. 

205 "pj^g By]] Qj^^ Mouth inn, situated in St. Martin's Le Grand, was a celebrated London 
office for coaches to all parts of England and to Scotland. An illustration of this picturesque 
inn, as it stood about 1520, is in Thornbury's Old and New London, Vol. II, p. 217. See also 
Wheatley and Cunningham, London Past and Present, 1891, Vol. I, p. 300. 

206 "pjjg Golden Cross inn. Charing Cross, was a famous inn and coach office, and is illus- 
trated in Thornbury's Old and New London, Vol. Ill, p. 127. See also Wheatley and Cunning- 
ham, London Past and Present, Vol. I, p. 300. 


of Militia, and Adjutant of the different batalions of militia, under 
the late Major Ferguson of the 71^' Reg'; in which capacity he 
served until the defeat of that officer on King's Mountain, where 
your petitioner was wounded and taken prisoner. That your pe- 
titioner after he obtained his liberty again acted in his military 
capacity, until the out posts were drove into the garrison of 

That your petitioner has lost all his lands and other 
property the same being confiscated by the rebels. 

That your petitioner's ill state of health brought on by 
fatigue of service in defence of his King and Country, is now in 
London in hopes to recover strength to return & render government 
every assistance in his power. 

That your petitioner relying on the certificates hereunto 
annexed to corroborate his loyalty, begs to submit his case to your 
Lordships consideration to grant him such relief as to your Lord- 
ships shall seem meet 

And your petitioner as in 

duty bound shall ever pray 

Alex Chesney 

to which I was promised an answer the following morning at 11 
Oclock in the afternoon I took a lodging at M""^ Crisfields No 58 
Crownstreet Westminster: this circumstance was beneficial to me 
as M""^ Crisfield introduced me to M'' Lewis Wolfe ^°^ a clerk in the 
Treasury who kindly offered to render any assistance in his power 
to further my claims ; from which moment he was essentially use- 
ful in many ways, and through me he afterwards became agent for 
all the Loyalists : a place now held by his Brother in law M"" Cra- 
f er 2°^ my particular friend. 

On the 4'*^ August called at M"" Townsend's ^°^ office but did not 
receive any answer to my memorial afterwards at Lord Corn- 
wallis' 210 8 Albemarle Street and found that his Lordship is gone 

""'' Lewis Wolfe acted as agent in London for the American loyalists who had returned 
to the north-east of Ireland. 

208 One Thomas Crafer was paymaster of pensions and allowances to the American loyalists 
and their children who were living in 1833-36. 

-°^ Thomas Townsend (afterwards 1st. Viscount Sydney) was secretary for war in 1782. 

-1" Lord Cornwallis was ever ready to help the loyalists who had sought refuge in the 
British Isles, especially those who had fought under him in America, by giving them certificates 
certifying to their loyalty. In many cases he appeared in person to urge claims before the 
commissioners for American Claims in London. 


to Norfolk; then to Lord Huntingdons -" St James place to enquire 
for Lord Rawdon who is gone to the country for two months : also 
Lord Shelburnes ^^^ with the same bad success, after dinner I went 
to see Westminster Abbey and wah highly gratified by a sight of 
that venerable pile, and hearing an Anthem sung; I also viewed 
Westminster-Hall and the bridge before my return to the lodgings. 

Sunday 5"^ attended service at Westminster Abbey; I dined 
with M""^ Crisfield and two ladies. The person who travelled from 
Liverpool with me under the assumed title of a Russian Major, and 
who said he had been taken prisoner by some of the native powers 
in India, paid his lodging and took his departure having got assist- 
ance from the Russian Ambassador.^^^ It appeared afterwards that 
this man was but a Serjeant Major in the Russian Army so that he 
rather disgraced himself by assuming a title which did not belong 
to him. 

Monday 6"^ on my way to M'' Townsend's office I saw the guard 
releived in the park ; I was told to memorial M"" Townsend in order 
to get his assistance in forwarding my application to the Treasury. 
I gave my papers to M"" Rose,-^* who told me the Board are to sit 
tomorrow but will not enter into the merits of claims, as there is to 
be a gentleman appointed expressly for that purpose. I called at 
the Archbishop of Canterbury's -^^ to enquire for Lord Cornwallis 
and ascertained that his Lordship will not be in town for 5 weeks. 

About this period there was a general meeting of loyalists at 
the Crown and Anchor Tavern,-^*^ General Arnold "^' and almost 
every one who had a claim attended ; after some conversation as to 
the best plan to be pursued it was determined to draw up a general 
petition to the Ministers to take our case into consideration for 
which purpose three of the number were pitched upon viz Lieu' 
Governor Ball ^^^ and M"" Simpson -^^ to represent those who had 
lost property or rendered services to the government; and myself 

'^1 Hans Francis, 10th. earl of Huntingdon, whose sister, Elizabeth, was the mother of 
Lord Rawdon. 

-12 William, 2nd. earl of Shelburne, secretary of state for Foreign Affairs ; prime 
minister, 1782-83 ; and 1st marquis of Landsdowne. 

213 The Russian ambassador in London at this time was Monsieur Jean Simoline. 

21* George Rose, secretary to the Treasury. 

21B Frederick Cornwallis (1713-83), archbishop of Canterbury, uncle of Lord Cornwallis. 

218 The Association of American Loyalists in London in 1779 first met at Spring Gardens 
coffee house, and afterwards at the Crown and Anchor tavern in the Strand, a historic tavern 
which is described by Wheatley and Cunningham in London Past and Present Vol. I, p. 480. 

21' General Benedict Arnold. 

218 Lieutenant-Governor William Bull (see Additional Notes, p. 112). 

21" James Simpson (see Additional Notes, p. 99). 


to act for those who had been actively engaged in the war, besides 
losing property the petition was speedily presented to Ministers, 
and on it was found the act of restitution:^^'' also the resolutions 
of the first Lord of the Treasury classing the Loyalists.^^^ 

August 7'^ employed in preparing a Memorial with copies of 
testimonials for Lord North ; after dinner went to the Treasury and 
met two gentlemen (loyalists) who promise to communicate to me 
any intelligence they may receive from the Treasury; next day I 
called there myself but did not see M'' Rose nor was there any 
answer ; further than there would not be anything decided for some 
time; and that I might appoint some one to act in my absence: I 
ascertained where Major Ross ^^^ Aid de Camp to Lord Cornwallis 
lives also the address of CoP Tarlton.^^^ On the 9'*^ Major Ross 
accompanied me to Sir Henry Clinton's,224 ^^d took my papers to 
consult Lord Cornwallis as to the best steps to be pursued. 

11*'' or 12 my papers were returned from Lord Cornwallis by 
Major Ross' hands with a message that his Lordship would do 
everything to assist my vews ; and as my farther stay would be ex- 
pensive without any immediate utility, I empowered M"" Lewis 
Wolfe 22^ to act in my absence and he kindly promised to write to 
me whenever any thing interesting should occur respecting the 

Aug* 16*'' Left London in a coach from Lad-Lane ^^^ having 
taken my place for Loughborough 227 which I reached next day and 
got to Cavendish,228 j^gg^j. Lord Huntingdons' seat at Dannington 

^20 The acta of Parliament of 1783 and 1785, awarding compensation to the American 

'^^ The loyalists were divided into several classes for the purpose of the above acts. In 
the first were those who had rendered exceptional services to Great Britain. The second was 
composed of those who had borne arms against the Revolution. Loyalists who were zealous and 
uniform were in the third. In the fourth were loyalists resident in Great Britain. The fifth 
embraced those who took the oath of allegiance to the Americans but afterwards joined the 
British, while the sixth class consisted of loyalists who bore arms for the Americans, but later 
joined the British forces. 

222 Major Alexander Ross (see p. 13, n. 93). 

223 Colonel Banistre Tarleton (see p. 18, n. 127). 

22* Sir Henry Clinton. (He is in the Dictionary of National Bioffraphy.) 

226 Lewis Wolfe (see p. 31, n. 207). 

22« Lad lane is now Gresham street. In this lane was the old tavern. The Swan with 
two Necks, the headquarters of coaches to Chester and Holyhead and to Liverpool, through 
Coventry and Lichfield. An advertisement of the coaches from this tavern is in the Morning 
Chronicle and London Advertiser for 1 April, 1786. 

2»T Loughborough in Leicestershire. 

228 The parish of Cavendish, in Leicestershire. 

22* Donington park, in the parish of Cavandish, was once the home of the celebrated Selina, 
countess of Huntingdon, foundress of the religious sect known by her name. It was enlarged 
in 1795 by Francis Rawdon, 2nd. earl of Moirn and 1st marquis of Hastings. 


IS'*" Waited on Lord Rawdon ^^^ who gave me a strong letter of 
recommendation to General Burgoyne,^^^ soliciting his interest to 
get me appointed to some Revenue situation in Ireland. 

On the 19*'' set out for Manchester by the stage and slept at 
the Bell Inn Derby,^^^ next night at the former place and on the 
21^* at Liverpool; but could not get to sea until the 30'*' when the 
packet sailed for Dublin with a fair but very light wind ; so that we 
made little way towards Dublin where we arrived late the evening 
of the 3"^^ of Sep*"" I took up my quarters where I had been formerly 
(in Peter's Row). 

On the 4*^'' I waited on General Burgoyne with Lord Rawdon's 
letter but as I received little or no encouragement from him I de- 
termined to go to Ballymena and endeavour to engage in some busi- 
ness or other until the result could be ascertained of the London 
business : this day I called on M"" Henry ^33 at the Custom House and 
gave him an account of my proceedings in London; which were 
interesting to him as had also lost property. 

ggptr 7th gg^ Q^j^ Q^ 4 oclock in the morning by the Coach for 
Newry ^3* where I slept ; and proceeded on horse-back to Antrim ^^^ 
next day, thence to my uncle Purdy's. 

About the 10*'^ [October, 1782] I received a letter from M' 
Wolfe requiring me to send a sworn account of my losses in 
America accompanied by certificates from Lord Cornwallis CoP 
Tarlton &c &c which I did soon after ; the amount being £1998 10s 
in which all the losses were included that could be substantiated 
with facility before the commissioners. I received a flattering 
letter from Lord Cornwallis some time in Nov"" [1782] inclosing one 
for Col Eustace ^^'^ the Sect^' in Dublin to facilitate my views either 
by obtaining a commission in a Fencibble Reg* but of this letter I 
made no use for some time except consulting M"" Henry, by whose 
advice I sent it some time afterwards : when it appeared the com- 

230 Lord Rawdon became 2nd. earl of Moira in succession to his father in 1793. 

2"- Genera] John Burgoyne, of Saratoga fame, was conunander-in-chief of the forces in 
Ireland from June, 1782, to December, 1783. 

282 Tije Bgu ijjjj^ Derby, was a noted coaching house and opens on Sadler Gate. In the 
early 19th. century it was a conspicuous meeting place of the Whig party. Washington Irving 
describes a wet day there in his story of the stout man in Bracebridge Hail. 

2»s Philip Henry (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 

2** Newry, a seaport in county Down. 

*'^ Antrim, in the county of that name. 

2s« Colonel Charles Eustace became a member of the Irish Parliament and a major- 
general on the staff in Ireland in 1798 ; he died in 1803. 


missions were all given away. I made arrangements with M"" 
Miller ^^ to purchase and open a shop in Ballymena. 

I remained about Ballymena until the middle of Dec [1782] 
when Major Robinson ^^^ brought a message for us to wait on Lord 
Rawdon at Montalto.^^^ 

On the 23'"^ [December] Robinson and I called at Montalto, 
where we did not find his Lordship but received a message to go to 
Dublin and call on Counseller Doyle the Major's brother ^^o who 
would endeavour to assist our views in the Revenue : that night we 
slept at Widow Flinn's near Rathfuland,^" next at Dundalk the 
third within 20 miles of Dublin ; and on the 26'^ reached Dublin by 
12 oclock, the whole of which journey we performed on foot: the 
day of our arrival we called on M"" Campbell,^*^ took our lodgings 
in Pill-lane, and amused ourselves by going to the play. 

27'*' [December] called at Counseller Doyle's who was gone to 
the country; I then waited on CoP Eustace with Lord Cornwallis' 
letter who said the Fencible Regiments are full of officers. 

Robinson ^^^ and I on the 30'^'' called at Counsellor Doyle ^** who 
gave us hopes of success, and said he would call on the Lord 
Lieut ;-*^ next day he told us he had seen the Lord Lieut; but had 
not received an answer to his application. 

On the 2°'' Jan'' 1783 Counsellor Doyle told us that the Lord 
Lieu* had acceded to the request would give us places in the Revenue 
and required our names; which we gladly furnished to the Sect^ 
M'" Scrope Bernard,^**^ who had been a loyalist also. 

Jan'"y 3'"''. [1783] called and left copies of my papers at the 
Castle ^^^ ; and on the 6*'' Robinson and I received a letter 5 Jany 

2^'' Captain James Miller (see Additional Notes, p. 100). 

2 3^ Major John Robinson (see Additional Notes, p. 95). 

-^° Montalo was afterwards sold by the 2nd. earl of Moira to David Ker. 

'*" William Doyle, K. C, master in Chancery, father of Lieut.-General Charles W. 
Doyle, K. C. B., and of Captain Sir Bentinck C. Doyle, R. N., and brother of Major John 
Doyle (afterwards General Sir John Doyle, baronet). (See p. 25, n. 180.) 

^■'^ Rathfriland in county Down. 

^-i^ Charles Philip Campbell (see p. 28, n. 196). 

-■•^ Major John Robinson (see Additional Notes, p. 95). 

-** Major John Doyle (see p. 25, n. 180). 

2*^ The lord lieutenant of Ireland was Earl Temple. 

2*8 Scrope Bernard, son of Sir Francis Bernard, baronet, (governor of Massachusetts, 
1760-69) was born, 1 October, 1758, at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, while his father was governor 
of New Jersey. He was educated at Harrow and at Christ Church, Oxford ; private secretary to 
the lord lieutenant of Ireland in 1782 and 1787 ; member of Parliament ; and under secretary 
of state for the Home Department. He became fourth baronet and assumed the additional name 
of Morland. 

2*' Dublin Castle. 


1783 from Scrope Barnard from the Castle notifying our appoint- 
ments to Tide waiters places — his at Lame and mine at Waterford 
until something better should offer: trifling as this appointment 
was I was truly grateful for it, and found it in my present situa- 
tion and circumstances a most timely relief from idleness and per- 
haps the fear of want ; not knowing that I should ever receive any 
thing else from government. 

On the 7'^ went to the Custom-House and received my com- 
mission for which I paid the fees ; and immediately set out by the 
Kilkenny Coach, from whence I got a conveyance to Waterford in 
a return chaise: I remained about a fortnight, and not liking the 
duty or situation, I took an opportunity of getting myself boarded 
on a vessel for Dublin and on arriving at the Custom House I ap- 
plied to M"" Morgan ^^^ who got me immediately removed to Bel- 
fast whither I soon moved by land: I was back and forwards to 
Ballymena until the 1^ of March ; which was the day I was happily 
united to Jane Wilson ^^^ eldest daughter of John Wilson ^^o and 
Elizabeth Kirkpatrick his wife she has but one sister (Molly) and 
six brothers viz James, John, Samuel, William, David and Charles : 
my wife was born the first Sunday in April 1763 and consequently 
in her lO**" year at the time of our marriage. I continued at the 
Birney-hill until the 12^*^ of April, then removed to a house in Her- 
cules-lane Belfast.251 I was scarcely fixed in my residence when a 
letter arrived from M"" Wolfe requiring my presence in London 
about the American claims, and having through my friend Henry ^^z 
obtained the Board's leave I set out for Dublin,^" and on the IS*'' 

2*8 Probably Francis L. Morgan, who was promoted first clerk in the secretary's oflBce of 
the Irish board of Customs. 

2<9 Jane Chesney died June 13. 1822, and was buried with her husband in the Moume 
Presbyterian churchyard at Kilkeel, county Down. 

2^" John Wilson was the son of John Wilson, a Scotsman, and his wife Jennet Brown, 
who was a conspicuous beauty of the time. John Wilson, the elder, was a strict Covenanter 
refugee from Scotland and settled at Birney Hill in the parish of Skerry or Braid, near Bally- 
mena, and took part in the defence of Carrickfergus in 1690 and was present at the landing 
there of William III. His sister, Margaret Wlison, at the age of 18, suffered death in the Solway 
at the hands of her persecutors, rather than subscribe to the hated prelacy. {The Life of Gc»i- 
eral F. R. Chesney, ed. by S. Lane-Poole, pp. 20-23.) 

*^i Hercules Lane is believed to have been named after Sir Hercules Langford. (Benn, 
Hist, of Belfast, 1877, p. 258) . 

2S2 Philip Henry (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 

2s« The experiences in Dublin at this time of an American-bom officer in the 26th. Foot, 
Lieut. George Inman, of Boston, Massachusetts, are quoted in his journal, in the possession of 
the Cambridge (Massachusetts) Historical Society, under date of 10 April, 1783. Joining his 
regiment, then stationed in Ireland, he complains of having had "a great deal of trouble and 
greatly imposed upon by the Custom House people." He was very glad to quit Ireland and his 
regiment, which had been exceedingly expensive, and where he had been "meeting with the 
greatest imposition from every person whom I had anything to do with." 


took my lodging in Pill lane ; next day I saw my friends Henry & 
Campbell -^* who both advised me strongly to proceed to London : 
M"" Winder ^^s also promised me his support and friendship ; a thing 
of great importance as being Secretary to the Board. 

20'" Sailed in the Fly packet at 10 o'clock in the morning for 
Liverpool, and reached our destination the evening of the 22°'*; I 
slept at the Bull Inn, Dale-street, and next day at 2 oclock set off 
by the Coach for London, and got there in the evening of the 24'''. 

On the 25'" I took a lodging at M-" Wolfe's, and began to copy 
my papers ; next day I called at the Treasury and at Col Phillip's ^^^ : 
I was employed about a week at the papers, and having finished 
them, I obtained certificates of their truth from Lord Comwallis 
Col'* Balfour and Phillips ; and returned them to the office. 

May the 6'" I was examined by the commissioners for Ameri- 
can claims who appeared to be well satisfied with the result; next 
day I was again at the Treasury to give evidence for some of my 
loyal friends, and saw Lords Comwallis & Rawdon there on the 
same good errand also Cap'° Guest.^" 

On the 10'" M"" Wolfe informed us it would be necessary to at- 
tend at the Treasury again on Monday; which accordingly hap- 
pened and we saw Mess" Wilmot & Coke the commissioners,^^* 
afterwards called on Lord Comwallis for a frank. 

14'" Called again on Lord Comwallis with Col' Phillips and 
Cap'° Miller ^^^ also at Lord Rawdon's we took a walk in the park 
afterwards and saw their Majesties going to S' James': it gave me 
great pleasure to see our beloved Monarch in whose cause I had 
sacrificed my all. 

Called at the Treasury and found that the Board had not yet 
taken up Mess""* Wilmots and Coke's report on our claims; wrote 
by post to inform M"" Henry 2"*' of the state of our affairs at the 
Treasury; also to obtain leave of absence for me: I sent at this 

2E* Charles Philip Campbell (see 28, n. 196; 30, 35). 

SEs Thomas Winder, secretary to the Irish board of Customs. 

''^•Colonel John Phillips (see Additional Notes, p. 60). 

2E7 Edward Guest, cornet in the Ist. Beeiment of Horse, 21 May, 1774, and lieutenant, 
4 October, 1777. 

2^* John Eardley Wilmot and Daniel Parker Coke, commissioners of American Claims. (See 
Hist. View of the CoTnmission for inquiring into the losses, services, and the claims of the Am. 
Loyalists at the close of the War . . . in 17 8S: with an account of the compensation granted to 
them by Parliam.ent in 1785 and 1788, by J. Eardley-Wilmot, 1815; Second Report of the Bureau 
of Archives for the Province of Ontario, ed. by A. Fraser, 1904, pp. 13-25, 1314 — 76 ; The Royal 
Com,7ni88ion on Loyalists? Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Eserton ; The Boxburghe Club, 1916, 
pp. xxx-xxxv.) 

^^" Captain James Miller (see Additional Notes, p. 100). 

'•"Philip Henry (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 


time a small sum of money but all I could spare to M" Chesney at 
the same time encouraging her to hope for better times ; and that 
from the appearance of things it would not be necessary to return 
to America as some were doing on chance thinking they could not 
be worse off: which was partly my intention before I came to 

I remained in London until about the 24^'' of May receiving 
many acts of friendly attention from Col Phillips ^^ and M"" 
Wolfe 262 : I had obtained a temporary allowance of £50 a year and 
having put matters in a favourable train for the commissioners' 
report, I set out for Bristol with Col Phillips ^^^ ; & after passing 
a day or two with his family I took a passage in a Brig for Strang- 
ford 284 on the 2°<^ of June we put into Dublin by contrary winds, 
and next day I proceeded to Belfast, where I remained until the 
13"^ of Oct-- [1783] in much anxiety about my London business ; and 
constantly hearing from M-- Henry ^^^ on this subject equally in- 
teresting to him. 

Oct"- 13'*^ proceeded to Dublin to make out a new memorial for 
the Commissioners ; also with a view of getting something better, 
or at least a removal to the West of Ireland ; the journey was per- 
formed; partly on foot the rest in carriages of different kinds: I 
failed in getting removed, and whilst employed in preparing my 
papers I heard of the death of M-- Harman Coast officer at Bangor; 
for which situation I immediately applied through Major Skef- 
fington and M-- Winder ^^e with little hopes of success : and rather 
thought of getting placed on the list of guagers— General Luttrel ^"^ 
exerted himself personally in my favour, and I was every day at 
the Castle or with some friend trying to make interest. 

Nov 4 my papers being ready I set out for Belfast leaving 
things in an uncertain state as to the Coast Officers place: soon 
after I embarked with Col Phillips and another loyalist at Dongha- 
dee 268 for Liverpool which we reached about the ^'^ ; M-" Miller ^^^ 
and I took an inside and an outside place between us for London 

261 Colonel John Phillips (see Additional Notes, p. 60). 

262 Lewis Wolfe (see p. 31, n. 207). 
2»s Colonel John Phillips (see above). 

2** Strangford, a seaport in county Down. 
2«B Philip Henry (see Additional Notes, p. 97). 
28* Thomas Winder (see p. 37, n. 255). 

2«T General Henry Lawes Luttrell (1743-1821), soldier and politician, an opponent of John 
Wilkes, and afterwards 2nd. earl of Carhampton. (DU:t. of Nat. Biog.) 

288 Donaghadee, county Down. 

289 Captain James Miller (see Additional Notes, p. 100). 


which plan was both pleasant and oeconomical — On arriving in Lon- 
don I found that General Luttrel had obtained the Coast-ofRcers 
place for me at Lame or rather Bangor,^^" and that M"" Henry "^ 
was about to set off to establish his claims before the commis- 
sioners; on the 18*^ he arrived with the pleasing news of my ap- 
pointment which placed me at once near County Antrim and above 
want two most agreeable circumstances. I prepared a memorial for 
each of the Commissioners and also the secretary ; and so soon as 
I had got my claims certified by the other loyalists and had per- 
formed the like service for those whose claims were known to me 
I set out for Belfast by way of Dublin; and a few days after re- 
moved my family to Bangor where we took a lodging at M"^^ Scott's 
on the 30'^ Dec"- [1783]. 

Continued at Bangor without any particular event all this year 
[1784] improving myself in writing & Arithmetic; the claims be- 
fore the commissioners being still undecided and causing constant 
correspondence with London, as well as with Col Phillips M"" Henry 

No particular event until the 14''' June [1785] when Eliza 
Chesney ^^^ was born at half past 6 oclock in the morning and was 
called for Lady Moira as well as her two Grandmothers. In autumn 
the commissioners required more proofs that my property was con- 
fiscated '^^ ; in consequence of this I obtained certificates from Lords 
Cornwallis and Rawdon: I also referred the commissioners to an 
act of the provincial congress of Jackson's burgh inserted in the 
Charlestown papers; which act confiscated the property of every 
person under Arms; and was passed soon after the reduction of 
Charles-town in 1780 by the British."^ 

2T0 Reference is made to this appointment by a later addition to the Journal in these 
words: "W. J. Skeffington's letter of 4 Nov'' 1783 and M'' Henry's of 10 Nov' 1783 to M'^ 
Chesney at Belfast" 

Written across page 40 of the Journal in later handwriting is this note : "Zach Gibbs 
one of the Loyalists writes on the 30 August 1784 that he is setting out foi^ Nova Scotia to 
occupy a Grant of Land there." 

^■'i Philip Henry (see p. 38, n. 265). 

^''- Eliza Chesney, eldest daughter of Alexander and Jane Chesney, married Captain John 
Hopkins and died in April 1822. 

^''^ The commissioners of American Claims in London required reliable evidence of con- 
fiscation of loyalists' property. 

^''^ An incomplete list of loyalists whose property was confiscated by the State of South 
Carolina is printed in the Statutes at Large of South Carolina, Vol. 6 (Cooper's edition). 
Appendix, pp. 629-633. Another list was printed by Miss Mabel L. Webber in South Carolina 
Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 14, p. 40. 


22^ August 1785 My Grandfather John Wilson writes to make 
known the death of his son John.^^^ 

A letter of 17 July 1785 from Robert Lusk gives news of my 
grandfather Chesneys family and that my brother William "^ had 
been taken to them from the Hodges. ^^^ But Robert Harper's letter 
of 10 April 1785 mentions that the Law gave him back to the 
Hodges. 29 August this was reversed by the Magistrates who gave 
him to his grandfather.^^s 

On Christmas-day [1785] I visited Moume "^ on my way to 
Dublin to see how I should like an exchange with the Coast-officer 
at Annalong ^^° M"" Williams ^^^ who was obliged to leave the country ; 
in consequence of having killed John Atkinson with a stone in re- 
turn for a blow he gave with a stick ; this exchange being effected ^^^ 
without trouble I proceeded to Dublin to try to get an allowance of 
£14 per Annum which my predecessor had enjoyed; but did not 
succeed ; & returned to Bangor in order to prepare for a removal. 

Fb' 14"^ [1786] removed my family to Moume & was placed in 
a house called the barrack situated in Ballymaiveamore ^^^ nearly 3 
miles from Annalong; there were two families in the house John 
McDowell and James M"=Crumb ^^* a Tide waiter ; but at May I got 
the whole house to myself and began to put in some crop : at this 
time I was very low in cash the consequence of my repeated jour- 
neys to and from London. The same anxiety continued about the 
claims until August when I received £133.12.0 as a dividend; and 
in Nov £255.18 being the remainder of my small allowance ^^^ 
which appeared to have been reduced by the commissioners in con- 
sequence of having received a Revenue employmnt. 

"' This paragraph in the Chesney Journal occurs on page 41. 

27* See page 2, n. 11. 

^^^ Robert Hodge, father-in-law of Alexander Chesney. 

278 This paragraph occurs in the Chesney Journal on page 41. 

*■" Mourne, county Down. 

*"* Annalonc, county Down, a fishing village and the headquarters at that time of a 
desperate band of smugglers. 

281 James Williams. 

2*2 Alexander Chesney's exchange with James Williams is recorded in the Minute Book 
of the Irish board of Customs to take place as from 26 December, 1786. 

28» Ballyveamore, Ballymacveaghmore or Ballyvea, where stood the old "Barracks," 
pulled down a few years ago, which was the birthplace of Alexander Chesney's son. General 
Francis Rawdon Chesney. 

28* or McCrum. 

28B The total amount of Alexander Chesney's claim for the loss of his property in South 
Carolina was £1.664.10«., and the award was £894. (Public Record Office: A. O. 12/109.) 
Included in this claim are the wagon and four horses, impressed into the American service 
(see page 129). The following additional entry is made in the Chesney Journal on page 41; 
"The property not aa yet confiscated though retained for that purpose" [71785]. 


7"^ March [1787] a daughter bom about at 7 Oclock P M called 
for the mother (Jane) ^^^ The communications with Lady Moira ^^ 
by letter commenced this year and she expressed anxiety to give 
me a lift. 

Continued at Ballyvea [1788] under M^ Savage ^^^ and going 
frequently to Dublin in the Barge to look for something better. 
Went to Babbriggan ^89 to look at Straw Hall engaged it and as the 
Board would not allow me to remove in consequence of the combina- 
tion formed against me ; I lost nearly a year's rent. 

1788 Mr. Savage wrote a kind letter of adieu regarding the 
account he had received of my drinking with low people. I deter- 
mined to avoid all that might have this bad appearance in future. 

On the 16'^ of March Francis Rawdon Chesney ^^o was born at 
2 Oclock called after my kind patron Lord Rawdon which I made 
known by a letter on the 29 July 1789. 

In May the American claims were finally settled by the Com- 
missioners, who most unexpectedly and unjustly took into account 
the Revenue employment I obtained through my personal friends 
Lords Cornwallis and Rawdon, and adjudged it to be part compen- 
sation : this arrangement reduced my annual pension to £30. 

During this year there was a combination of the Boatmen 
backed by M"" Savage ^^^ and the smugglers to get me removed and 
although they perjured themselves to gain their ends I foiled them 
at Rosstrevor ^92 in presence of a Commissioner Col Ross,^^^ whose 
friendship I gained by their attack. 

This year I bought Brackany from James Purdy. Was at Dub- 
lin after the tryal endeavouring might and main to get removed or 
get something better or rather more quiet as to employment An 

**• Jane, who married the Rev. Henry Harden, M. A., of Trinity College, Dublin, who 
went out as a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to Foreign Parts, at 
Grand Lake in 1820, and in 1822 was transferred to Rawdon, Nova Scotia. 

287 Lady Moira, wife of Francis Rawdon, 2nd. earl of Moira. 

288 Francis Savage was surveyor at Newcastle, county Down. In a letter to the Irish 
board of Customs, 20 February, 1789, he refers to the growth of refractoriness among the people 
of Mourne and to the frequency of their attacks upon the Revenue officers when seizures of 
smuggled goods were made. The board decided in consequence to send a detachment of military 
to Newcastle to assist the officers in the execution of their duty. 

289 Balbriggan, a seaport in county Dublin. 

280 Francis Rawdon Chesney, (1789-1872), afterwards general, the explorer of the 
Euphrates and founder of the overland route to India. (See Diet, of Nat. Biog. and The Life 
of the late General F. R. Chesney, ed. by S. Lane-Poole, 1893.) 

2»i Francis Savage (see above). 

282 Rostrevor, on Carlingford Lough. 

20* Robert Ross, a high officer in the Irish board of Custoins. 


exchange to Balbreggan was partly arranged in Dec but afterwards 
given up. 

Col Ross' examination took place end of July and in September 
1789 The Atkinsons M-- Savages ^9* relatives & the M-^Neillys "^s 
were censured and affidavits were taken privately from the boat- 
men against me by M"" Savage. 

The Board of Customs decided that in the case of Seizures 
made by the Barge, the Surveyor when at sea should have % : The 
Mate or Deputy acting under him i/8 ^nd the remaining 4/8 equally 
to the [ ?] & crew. The Surveyor when out at Sea to have 

Ys and the Deputy % — The crew as before when present. 

[1790] Still wishing to get removed out of Moume either to an 
equal, or better place ; and felling the ill eff etcs in a pecuniary v/ay 
of my journies to Dublin with that view. 

Tords the end of Jan^ 1791 I had a bad fall from my horse & 
my collar bone broken. 

May 14''' a son bom at 11 Oclock at night whom I named 
Charles Cornwallis,^^*' as a small token of gratitude to my patron 

Nov I bought Ballymacveamore ^^^ from M"" Robert Norman 
which appeared likely to prove a good way of employing the Ameri- 
can compensation money there being at that time a fair interest 
and a strong probability of more by endeavouring to improve this 

On the 4 Dec"" 1790 The famous Smuggling Lugger Morgan 
Rattler being anchored in Glassdrummond Bay with a number of 
Yawls alongside and astern with goods in each preparatory to land- 
ing the Revenue pinnace was sent out, and a part of officers sta- 
tioned on land to prevent a landing. In order to effect this purpose 
16 men were despatched in the Lugger's boat to chive off the Reve- 
nue land party and take the pinnace also — The Revenue party now 
opned a fire on the assailants who were not only deterred from their 
purpose when landed but cut off from their own boat. The Lugger 
now fired a Gun to cover her Men and she sent at the same time a 
reinforcement of 12 men who landed about half a mile north of the 
Revenue party and attacked them by firing in their rear. I moved 
towards the latter party leaving some of my people to protect our 
boat. During this movement, the Smugglers got their first party 

-^* Francis Savage (see p. 41, note 288). 

2DB Probably Henry McNully, coast officer, Moume. 

^^^ Captain Charles Cornwallis Chesney, of the Bengal artillery, who died in 1830. 

^^'^ Ballymacveamore (see p. 40, n. 283). 


and boat to sea and the Revenue party being obliged to retreat be- 
fore the 2^ party of the Lugger's men the landing was effected. My 
party fired some 10 or 12 rounds. The Smugglers were heard to say 
fire at the man on horseback meaning myself. I stated these par- 
ticulars and suggested that a Military party should be stationed 
in Moume to prevent such outrage in future. 

Towards the end of 1791 I received an account (also previously 
from my Father) from I. Purdy on reaching S Carolina of the 
nominal Sale of my property which in fact made a debtor. I also 
found that it would be very difficult to get my son William brought 
over as I had hoped to arrange. 

Jan'"^ 17'^ [1793] Alex-" M'^Dowell preventive officer was mur- 
dered at Turlogh-Hill, which event created a great sensation; and 
a large reward was offered by Government, the officers and inhabi- 
tants of Mourne for the conviction of the person or persons con- 
cerned in this atrocious act: but nothing certain transpired. The 
Board at my recommendation gave a pension of £6 a year to his 

Smuggling was so extensive at this period, that on the 19 Feb 
1793 Five vessels namely 3 Cutters 1 Lugger and 1 Wherry an- 
chored in Glassdrummond Bay during the day. Having made this 
fact duly known the Lord Lieut caused Capt Drury to sail immedi- 
ately in quest of them with His Majesty s Ship Squirrell. The 
Board ordered the Ross, the Breech and Mary cruisers to proceed 
to that part of the Coast and with reference to the possibility of 
some of them being privateers with Arms, the Lord Lieut ordered 
a Troop of Dragoons to proceed (through Newcastle) to Moume, 
and a party to proceed from Rathpebuid ^^^ to 8 Mile Bridge to act 
in conjunction with the Company at Kilkeel ^^^: also that the Reve- 
nue party at Rostrevor should be strengthened from Newry. 

24 June [1793] removed to Prospect &c &c 

1794 Feb"y 3 A kind letter came from Lady Moira offering my 
son Francis a Commission in Col Doyle's Regiment ^"^ if he is old 
enough to be appointed 

The Brig Surprise was wrecked near Annalong 

208 Rathfriland. 

2»» Kilkeel, county Down, where the Chesney family worshiped in the Moume Presby- 
terian Meeting House, and where Captain Alexander Chesney and his wife and nine of his 
children are buried. 

»»» Colonel John Doyle (see page 25, n. 180). 


July 26 A daughter bom at 3 Oclock in the morning named 
after her aunts Molly and Anne.^°^ 

My friend M"" Wolfe joined partnership with his brother In law 
M"" Crafer ^^~ in the Agency to the American loyalists. 

M" Chesney took Francis to Dublin on Oct 17 18 1794 with 
reference to his future and presented him to Lady Moira who was 
all kindness, even wishing her to stay in the House 

Feb""^ [1795] Letters passing between Mess" Wolfe and me 
whose advice I asked about placing my son Francis at the Royal 
Military Academy. 

July 6 1795 Col. Skeffington ^°^ advises an application to Lord 
Moira who was about to proceed to the Continent in command of 
an Army,^"* 

During this summer we had a fever in the house which at- 
tacked M'^ Chesney, Eliza, Francis (slightly) and Mary Anne who 
thank God all recouvered: this was not the only trouble, for some 
malicious person having sent a general charge to the Coll"" of 
Strangford against me and the party for neglect of duty; an in- 
vestigation took place before the Surveyor General M"" Cuthbert. He 
pronounced it to be founded in malice — The Board afterwards 
granted a reward of £50 to the party for their exertions the two 
preceeding years which showed how well they were satisfied. 

Still making enquiries about the Woolwich Academy ^°^ during 
the year [1796] the country was a good deal disturbed by designing 
persons who appeared to have deep designs in view 

Lord Cornwallis had declined on the 24 Feby 96 asking a direct 
commission on account of the age ^^^ 

And Mess"^^ Wolfe & Crafer 3"^ March 1796 recommended the 
Mil Academy ,^°^ and to obtain the Master Gen'' nomination thro 
Lord Cornwallis, age 12 to 16. £20 a year to be given in addition 
to the Gov allowance 

*•"■ His daughter, Marianne, who married John Shannon Moore, and died October 31, 
1868, aged 66. 

^"^ Thomas Crafer, paymaster of pensions to the American loyalists, 1815-1827. 

»o« Major the Hon. W. J. SkefRngton was the second son of Clotworthy, first earl of 
Massereene, and was appointed constable of Dublin Castle, 19 November, 1784. He died in 1811. 

*"* Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd. earl of Moira, was appointed, 15 July, 1795, to com- 
mand the force ordered by Pitt to proceed to Quiberon and to act as auxiliary to the army of 
the count of Artois. 

*°5 Royal Military Academy, Woolwich (see W. T. Vincent, The Records of the Woolwich 
District. Vol. I). 

»os A commission for Alexander Chesney's eldest son, Francis Rawdon. 

'"'' The Royal Military College at Great Marlow, Bucks, a preparatory college for Wool- 


Thank God my affairs are in a most prosperous situation ; health 
in the family with plenty of everything. 

Jan^ [1797] I raised a company, called the Mourne Infantry ,3°^ 
in order to put down the turbulent spirit manifested all through 
the Country last Autumn; by my own exertions they were em- 
bodied on the 30'^ ; but Mess" Henry M'^Neilly ^°^ and Thomas Spence 
(formerly a quarter master of Dragoons) having refused commis- 
sions ; I got Jack Kilpatrick and Henry M«=Neilly son to the former 
appointed in their room. Several disturbances in the County and 
several houses of those who would not join burnt one of mine 
amongst the rest: Mine was the first company under arms in the 
County; which probably prevented a general insurrection in 
Mourne. A guard was mounted agreeably to a letter from the Cas- 
tle ^^" E. Coote 9 Feb. 1787, The augmentation which I proposed 
subsequently was declined (10 April 1797) ; and a later offer of a 
part of the corps to serve permanently was left in abeyance Wel- 
brace 7 July 1797. I had sent my Daughter Eliza to Miss Thomp- 
sons Boarding School in Newry where her progress was satis- 

In April [1797] applied to the Master general of the ordinance 
for a cadetship for Francis ;^" and in June I received a notification 
of that appointment but he cannot be admitted until 14 years of 
age: which will be 6 years hence. I thought it might be a useful 
preparatory step to put him in the yeomanry for a little time there- 
fore got him appointed to a Lieutenancy I had also obtained the 
appointments of . . . .^^^ in the Revenue at Annalong which was 
afterwards cancelled. I had rather hopes at this period that the 
Mourne Yeomanry ^^^ might have been made part of a Fencible 

*"* Although Alexander Chesney was commissioned, 31 October, 1796, to enrol and command 
the Mourne infantry, the force was not actually embodied until the end of January following. 
As the first company under arms in county Down, it was mustered at a moment when the 
Association of United Irishmen, formed in 1791, were drilling secretly and actively in the coun- 
ties of Down, Antrim, Derry, and Donegal. The people of Ulster, proud in the recollection that 
theirs was the first Province to raise the standard of rebellion, issued an address in 1797, exhort- 
ing their fellow-countrymen to revolt. (The Life of the late General F. R. Chesney, ed. by S. 
Lane-Poole, 1885, pp. 39-40.) 

soo Probably Henry McNully, coast oflBcer at Mourne. 

"lo Dublin Castle. 

'1^ Alexander Chesney's eldest son, Francis Rawdon Chesney. 

512 The word is not clear in the text. 

SIS Yeomanry were first established in Ireland in 1796. The rebellious inhabitants of 
Belfast, mostly Presbyterians, opposed their establishment as vehemently as the Roman Catho- 
lics in Dublin. (Sir Richard Musgrave, Memoirs of the different Rebellions in Ireland, 1801, 
pp. 228, 290.) 

Captain Alexander Chesney was in November, 1821, commanding officer of the Mourne 


Corps in which I could have had the rank of Major but this was de- 
clined. Pelham's "* letter 29 Jan^ 1798. 

Although not 10 years of age, and therefore far too young I 
had obtained a Commission for my Son Francis, who accompanied 
the Corpe to Newry although quite unfitted for such Service, Lord 
Castlereagh who could not have known his age had given him a 
Commission. 19 May 1798. 

Accepted a commission of the peace in consequence of a wish 
expressed at the Castle; I had declined this before when the Mar- 
quis of Downshire ^^^ asked me through Rector Warring ^^ 

Jan^' [1798] Some trouble about a stranded Sloop the New 
Loyalty of Belfast; Mess" Matthews Beers, and Jerry Atkinson 
supporting M"" H. McNeilly in his claim as principal Salvager : this 
business was settled satisfactorily in April: about this time I felt 
that I had rather done injustice to my family by spending money 
for the Yeomanry business thereby creating envy; a less active 
part would have preserved more friends with less need of them. 

The Corps put on permanent duty and arrangements were 
made for this purpose by Gen Nugent's ^^^ letters The Rebellion hav- 
ing broken out. Mourne being chiefly through my exertions pretty 
well disarmed and quiet; the corps was ordered to do duty at 
Newry. A few days after our arrival there early in June I came 
back to Mourne with a part of the Newry Cavalry and surrounded 
the houses of the suspected people during the night; I thus seized 
and carried off the supposed leaders of the disaffected and kept 
them as hostages in Newry for the safety of the Mourne people in 
case of a rising in our absence. Major Porter ^^^ of the Argyle 
Fencible Regiment Commanded and his arrangements appear to 
have been very judicious. 

A detachment being ordered to go to Dundalk in consequence 
of an express from thence mentioning that the Rebels were under 

Yeomanry — a corps which had volunteered to serve out of its own district during the war with 
the French in 1815. Chesney, in November, 1821, applied for leave of absence from his official 
Customs duties to serve with the Mourne Yeomanry out of his district, if required. 

^1* Thomas Pelham was appointed a principal secretary of state in Ireland, 24 June, 
1796, and was created earl of Chichester in 1801. 

*i^ Arthur, 2nd. marquis of Downshire. 

*>■• Rev. Lucus Waring, rector of Kilkeel. 

'I'' Field-Marshal Sir George Nugent, baronet, who served during the American Revo- 
lutionary war, was in command of the north-eastern district of Ireland. He married, 16 
November, 1797, Maria, daughter of Brigadier-General Cortlandt Skinner, who raised the well- 
known loyalist regiment, the New Jersey Volunteers, in the American Revolutionary war. 

»18 Captain John Porter was promoted major, 1 October, 1797, in place of Lieut.-Colonel 
John Campbell (resigned) of the 2nd. battalion of the Argyll (or Clavering) Fencible regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Henry M. Clavering. (W. O. 13/3803.) 


Arms in that neighbourhood I volunteered to go ; and on our march : 
having pointed out to Cap' Campbell the commander, the roads by 
which we could be attacked, as well as the general situation of the 
country: as this convinced him I had some knowledge of Military 
matters, he consulted me afterwards on all occasions, and appointed 
me to do staff duty, issuing orders: paroles countersigns &c &c 
one day we took several hundred pikes near the town, and the Rebels 
having dispersed ; soon after we were ordered back to Newry by the 
commandant Major Porter of the Argyle fencibles ^^^ who gave us 
a welcome home dinner and had the Right Honb^® Isaac Corry ^-^ to 
meet us. 

The Corps ordered to return to Mourne [in July] the town of 
Newry having become tranquil by the rebels losing the battle of 
Ballynakinch ^-^ the day on which M""^ Chesney (then all alone at 
Prospect) was confined of a daughter Matilda.^^^ 

Some of their leaders who were forming plans in the neigh- 
bourhood of Newry taken and executed there. 

A further increase of the Mourne Yeomanry was declined altho 
passed. [Herbert Taylor's letter, 21 July, 1798.] I caused the Boats 
throughout Mourne to be numbered and Registered. 

Aug. 7*^ [1798]. half the Corps ordered off permanent duty. 
25*'' The whole corps put on permanent duty again in consequence 
of the French landing in Killala-Bay.^^^ Major Matthews ^^^ obtained 
an order from the Brigade Major Gethen to command both corps, 
as the right of Major in the Army; I applied to the Castle and 
gained my point : Lord Castlereagh ^^^ decided that I am the senior 
Yeomanry Officer 

Sep* 9*'' I transmitted an address from the Roman Catholics of 
lower Mourne to the Lord Lieu* and received a favourable answer. 

16**" Mr Moore and I forwarded a similar one from the Dis- 
senters to Lord Castlereagh to be also laid before the Lord Lieu*. 

S19 Major John Porter (see p. 46, n. 318). 

5-° Isaac Corry (1755-1813), Irish politician; represented Newry in the Irish Parliament, 
1776-1800 ; chief Government speaker in favor of the union, 1799-1800 ; fought a duel with 
Henry Grattan in 1800. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.) 

^-1 The battle of Ballynahinch, where the rebels were defeated. (W. H. Maxwell, Hiat. of 
the Irish Rebellion in 179S, p. 204.) 

'"- Matilda Chesney died in 1814. 

328 The French landed on the shore of Killala Bay, four miles from Killala, 22 August. 1798. 

s^* Joseph Matthews, captain in the 8th. (or King's Royal Irish) regiment of Light 
Dragoons from 1793 to 1796. 

325 Viscount Castlereagh, the statesman, was keeper of the Irish privy seal in 1797-8, 
and chief secretary for Ireland, 1799-1801. 


President [in 1799] of a Court Martial to try Major Matthews 
for Mai conduct as a yeomanry officer of which charge he was ac- 

July [1800] M" Chesney went to see her mother in County 
Antrim taking with her Eliza, Francis and Charles ; they got back 
safe notwithstanding the still disturbed state of the Country — At 
this time I applied to Lord Cornwallis to have me superannu- 
ated: in August saw his Lordship on the business at Dundalk 
who acceded to my wish and desired a Memorial to be made out 
stating the value of my employment; which was done and re- 
ferred to the commissioners [in December] stating the wound I 
got in the Ballagh: but so many difficulties occurred that I was 
sorry I had applied : being uncertain about the result and whether 
to take a farm or not. 

Feb. [1801] went to wait on the commissioners about my ap- 
plication ; found that their report was not favourable to my wishes 
on account of short service 

March 8'^ A Son bom at 3 Oclock in the morning, called him 
Alexander ^^^ after myself 

April 6*'^ Took a deed of a farm in Ballyardle ^^ from James 
Carr for which I paid £145. 

[June] Finding I could not be superannuated on eligible terms, 
I determined to give up all further idea of it for the present : which 
gives me an opportunity of pursuing my usual avocations, without 
further interruption 

In Oct^ [1801] Francis paid a visit to Lady Moira at her par- 
ticular request going each morning to Moira House ^^^ and returning 
to sleep at M"" Normans 

Feb-" [1802] James Purdy ^^g having refused to go the post- 
office he was on my representation suspended, and a tryal took 
place before the Collector at Newry; which ended in his being 

*°^ Alexander Chesney, the younger, died in 1832, unmarried. 

32T General Francis Rawdon Chesney built a house at Ballyardle for his mother, Jane 
Chesney, and called it "Pacholet," in memory of his father's home in South Carolina. Here 
Captain Alexander Chesney died, 12 January, 1845. The house is still standing (1917). 

^"^ Moira House, Dublin, was visited by Rev. John Wesley, who describes it in his Journal: 
it is now the "mendicity institution" (see Memorable Dublin Houses.) 

S-* James Purdy, Customs boatman at Annalong, in succession to John Boyd, who had 
been maltreated in an attempt by an armed mob to rescue a seizure of tobacco from three of the 
Customs' boatmen. 


obliged to take his turn of duty: although M"" Beers,^^° Purdy and 
Wallace swore everthing that malace could dictate to injure me 

April 7 Received a letter from Lord Chatham ^^^ and another 
on the 5 May saying he would appoint my son Francis to a cadetship 
when of the proper age and possess the other qualifications requis- 
ite: he will not be old enough until next March, in the meantime 
he must apply diligently to latin grammar and the other studies. 

Lady Moira expressed her willingness to receive him in Dublin 
to acquire French & Latin &c or else at Belfast. 

M"" Crafer 5 May 1802 agreeably to what is required in Col 
Haddens ^^^ letter recommends that Francis should apply diligently 
to Latin & other studies for the Academy 

IS'*^ March [1803] received a letter of the 9*^ to send my son 
to Woolwich; and on the 24^^ he went off by himself by way of 
Liverpool to London, where I hope he will meet every kind assist- 
ance from Mess" Wolfe and Crafer. [April 19'^] Francis being 
found deficient in height and English grammar was placed by M"" 
Crafer at an Academy near Walworth kept by a Revoult a French- 

In May I sent Charles to Dublin to wait upon Lady Moira with 
the hope that something might turn up for him. 

[June] Francis went to Woolwich again with two gentlemen 
sent by Lady Mora: recommended by Major Phillips to go to D"" 
Towne"s Academy at Deptford ^^^ whither he went immediately 

1803 Lugage taken by Archbold 

**" An enquiry was held by Francis Carleton, collector at Newry, into the allegations of 
William Beers, surveyor at Annalong, and James Purdy, Customs boatman at the same place, 
that Alexander Chesney had been guilty of corrupt connections with smugglers. The board of 
Customs, as a result of Carleton's report, dated 24 March, 1802, informed Chesney that the 
circumstances of the spirits being sent to his house at an unseasonable hour was open to 
suspicion, and cautioned him as to his future conduct respecting smugglers. James Purdy's 
suspension was cancelled. (Minute Book of the Irish board of Customs, No. 278, p. 126 ; in 
the Public Record Office in London.) 

For an account of the laxity in the Irish Customs early in the nineteenth century, see 
Atton and Holland, The King's Customs, 1910, Vol. II. pp. 11-14. 

231 John Pitt, earl of Chatham, was master-general of the Ordnance at this time. 

33- Colonel James Haddon, Royal artillery, afterwards major-general. 

333 John Revoult, M.A., master of Walworth Academy. His portrait was painted by Sir 
William Beechey, R. A., and was presented to him "by the gentlemen who had been educated 
under him as a token of their high respect and affectionate regard towards him — 1798." This 
portrait cannot now be traced. A mezzotint of it was done by James Ward in 1798. He is 
shown holding up a book, entitled Introduction to the Arts and Sciences, 1798. (R. W. 
Bowers, Sketches of Southwark Old and New, 1905, p. 488.) 

33* Alexander Mark Kerr Hamilton, son of Colonel Archibald Hamilton, the loyalist, of 
Flushing, Long Island, New York, and his American wife, Alice Golden, was at Rev. Dr. 
Towne's Academy at Deptford in 1785, at the age of 18. He subsequently became a major- 
general in the British Army. 


On the 2*^ July 1803 M"" Revoult sent to me a satisfactory letter 
about Francis who is now gone to D"^ Townes at Deptford. M"" R 
says he found in him a great ingenuity, much natural good sense 
and such a degree of docility as made me wish that he had come to 
me sooner. I am sorry he staid so short a time because I was in 
hopes he would have profited much. 

[July 13] Francis finally admitted a cadet, warrant made out, 
but he is to remain at Deptford until there shall be a vacancy at 

[September 21^^] Francis went to the Military College at Mar- 
low ^^^ was examined and admitted. 

[December 1^*] Vacation at Marlow commenced Francis came 
home for a month & is to join at Woolwich 12 Jan^. 

The Brig Bristol from Lisbon for Liverpool having on the 16'^'' 
Dec been stranded at Annalong and the entire of her cargo 301 
Bags of cotton 21 Chests of fruit having been saved by me got the 
business amicably settled and every charge thereon paid, every per- 
son concerned paid off and highly pleased. I got in all about £300 
for my exertions ; thank God not an accident nor any person hurt 
or injured at her. 

Francis set out for the Point [January 3, 1804] to go to Wool- 

Joined the Academy on the 12'^'' M"^ Crafer went down with him. 

[April] Francis has got into the Medium Academy good ac- 
counts of his progress. He is acquainted with Oldfields mother who 
is kind to him 

[November 9*^^] Francis gazetted to a 2^ Lieutenancy just 18 
months after he left this house; but with a heavy expence, for 
travelling back and forward and being placed at the Walworth and 
Deptford Academies, to which must be added his outfit. Much is 
due to M"" & M""^ Crafer for their unremitting kindness to Francis 

26 Nov 1804 I sent a very particular letter of advice to Francis 
about his future conduct as an Officer and success in life. 

Determined on sending Charles to M"" Revoults Academy to 
qualify him for any situation which might offer : he set out in Jan^ 
& went to Revoults in Feb^ [1805] at Walworth. Francis at Wool- 
wich doing duty and no situation having been obtained for Charles, 
I determined on bringing him home at the end of the quarter. 

335 A proposal was made by the supreme board of the Royal Military College at Marlow 
in 1806 that the college should be removed from Marlow to Winchester. The proposal was, 
however, negatived. (W. O. 40/37.) 


[June] Wrote to Gen' Lloyd ^^^ and obtained leave for Francis 
to visit us, and bring Charles — 

[June 29'^] Francis and Charles set out from London for Pros- 

[September 29'''] Francis left us for Woolwich to join his com- 
pany at Portsmouth, as a 1^' Lieut of Major Merediths ^^® Compy; 
he remained at M"" Crafer's a while and proceeded to Portsmouth 
23'"'^ Oct"" — His company is under orders for service — my son is 
much respected as far as I can learn, he is a dutiful good son though 
an expensive one. 

[1806] Having obtained the promise of an East India cadet- 
ship for Charles, I send him to Revoults : I hope he will be success- 
ful as the expence will be great, and heavy on me : but I have great 
hopes from him as a scholar and an oeconomist: My lands much 
improved now yielding a clear profit rent of £100 per Annum. This 
with good health in the family ought to silence all murmurs and dis- 
content ; during this year somewhat embarrassed with trifling debts 
and Charles' schooling; but the seizures I have luckely made will 
abundantly set me free, so that I have every reason to be thankful. 

[1807] Charles at the Woolwich Academy, Francis still quar- 
tered at Portsmouth and come home by way of Bristol and Milford 
Haven to see us in Dec after a bad passage. Anxious inquires 
were made in Dublin and answered by M"" Norman 26 Nov 1807. 

Francis set out on 26 Jany [1808] and proceeded with his com- 
pany to Guernsey on the 1^' March and arrived on the 4'^". 

13 March a Son Born whom I afterwards named Tho^ 
Crafer ^^^ after my kind friend in the Treasury. 

[June 16] Eliza married to Cap' Hopkins ^*° with every pros- 
pect of happiness. 

[October, 1809] Charles sailed for Bengal being made a Lieut 
fire worker in the Artillery; which appointment has been expen- 
sive but I hope it will turn out well. 

[November 16] Francis came home to see us from Guernsey. 
Fixed as Surveyor with the increased Salary of £120 which I owe 

338 Lieut.-General Vaughan Lloyd, Royal artillery. 

337 "Prospect," the residence of Alexander Chesney, was six miles from Kilkeel, and has 
since been used as the Annalong Coastguard Station. 

338 Major David Meredith, Royal artillery. 

330 Thomas Crafer Chesney was accidentally drowned in 1825. 
3*" Captain John Hopkins. 


to my friends Sack & J. White ^^^ with Frank Morgan's ^^^ exertions, 
tho being placed under Newry instead of Strangfor'' from 18 Dec" 
[1810] Finding myself more at ease on account of the encreased 
salary: Cap'° and M" Hopkins part of the year at Dublin; Jane 
with them No news from poor Charles since his arrival in Madras 
1st pe^ry last. 

I had the pleasure of succeeding with regard to a Boatmans 
appointment for Francis McDowell whose Father was murdered 
in 1793. 

The two Smuggling cutters Matchless & Jno ^*^ (as supposed) 
were met by the Resolution ^" Cruiser but she did not attempt to 
engage them or either of them. 

April 1811 The Hardwicke ^*^ came to action with the Match- 
less ^*^ and was eventually beaten off by her. The Matchless was 
afterwards taken by the Bat Revenue tender of 4 Guns. 

Francis still in Guernsey and in June appointed Aid de Camp 
to Major General S Albert Gledstanes ^^^ which I hope will con- 
tinue and prove very beneficial to him; in addition to the many 
blessings we have received from Almighty God it would be desirable 
to have my pension at the Treasury continued to my wife in case of 
my death ; on which I have written to my friend M"" Craf er — 

A particular object with me shall be to get a situation for my 
son Alex'" either in the Army or Revenue: and as all the family 
like and wish for Prospect I ought to see whether the promise made 
by M"" Needham ^*^ can be realized by Lord Kilmorey. 

[1812] Writing to the Custom House and sending a Memorial 
to the Lord Lieu*^ to see if my son Alex"" could be joined in the same 
commission with myself; also spoke to Lord Killmorey on the sub- 
ject and received a favourable answer. 

**i Probably John White, who was principal surveyor of Customs at Ringsend in 1813. 

^■'- Francis L. Morgan, who succeeded Madden as first clerk in the secretary's office of 
the Irish board of Customs. 

8*^ Juno. 

344 The Resolution was stationed at Strangford in 1813. 

3*5 Alexander Chesney in his letter of 28 August, 1813, to the board of Customs claims that 
he was the first person to give information to Captain Thomas Lacy, commanding the Hardwick 
cruiser at Rostrevor, of the arrival on the coast of the Matchless smuggling cutter. The board 
accordingly recommended Captain Lacy to pay him 50 guineas as the informer's share of the 
money paid to Captain Lacy and his crew. (Minute Book of the Irish board of Customs, Vol. 
334, p. 133; Vol. 335, p. 14). 

^*'' Major-General Albert Gledstanes was promoted lieut. -general in 1814 and knighted in 
the same year. Francis Rawdon Chesney married in 1822 his (Gledstanes') niece, a daughter 
of John Forster. 

3*^ Francis Jack Needham, only brother of Robert, 11th. viscount Kilmorey. 


[April] Francis visited us from Guernsey; numerous applica- 
tions to Lord Moria now going to get something better for myself 
also my sons ; writing to Sir John Doyle ^^^ on the same subject. 

[1813] Applications for Alex"" to Lord Castlereagh also occu- 
pied with the idea of getting him Joined with me in the commission 
as he is unfit for an appointment by himself. I contemplated thro 
Lord Castlereagh a rise for myself to the post either of Collector 
or Comptroller of the Customs. 

[November] Francis resigned his staff in favour of Sir Al- 
berts ^*^ nephew, in a handsome manner he is now in London try- 
ing to get employed on the Continent. 

[December] A bad fever got into our house and attacked sev- 
eral of the family. Francis came to see us. 

[1814] The fever still in the house and of course in an uncom- 
fortable state a servant girl Mary Fitzpatrick died of it. 

[February 13] I lost poor Matilda — The rest recouvered : occu- 
pied in preparing a Memorial about the Matchless ^^° which Francis 
takes with him [April] to London : Francis joined his company in 
Guernsey. Still occupied with Alex"" business but no success. 

19 May The Treasury referred the question to the Commis- 
sioner of Customs once more and one half of the King's share 
£862.6.114 having been awarded to Cap Lacy & crew I am trying 
to get the same sum for my exertions instead of the pittance of £50 
received by me from Cap* Lacy.^^^ 

[September] Francis is gone on an excurtion to France and 
along the ports of Holland. Francis company ordered to Jamaica^" 
and he to another at Woolwich. 

[1815] Francis still at Woolwich in Aug* he came to see us 
being promoted to be a 2°"^ Cap* at Gibralter; He as well as myself 
much occupied about Alex'', making applications to Lords Killmorey 
Castlereagh &c &c. 

Jack Morgans letter of 20 Nov 1815 mentions the Capture of 
the .... Smuggling Schooner by the .... near . . . . ^^s 

[November] Francis is gone to France to try to be stationed 
there instead of Gibralter. 

'^^ General Sir John Doyle, baronet (see p. 25, n. 180). 

3^" Lieut.-General Sir Albert Gledstanes (see p. 52, n. 346), 

350 iptjg Matchless, smuggling cutter (see p. 52, n. 345). 

^^1 Captain Thomas Lacy (see p. 52, n. 345). 

*^^ Jamaica, West Indies. 

S58 "pjjg words omitted are illegible. 


[March, 1816] Francis exchanged to Leith-fort ^^* which is 
preferable to Gibralter. 

[October] Francis came from Scotland expressly to assist me 
in applying to Lord Castlereagh received a favourable answer 
from his Lordship and the papers sent to Lord Killmorey. 

[November 22] Jane married to the Rev*^ Henry Hayden soon 
after Hopkins ^^^ retired from the service on a good pension by 
which he is clear of much trouble under the Navy. 

In March Francis company ordered from Leith-fort, fixed at 
Island Bridge [May, 1817]. He and I much occupied about Alex'" 
but no answer from Lord Killmorey or Lord Castlereagh. 

[October] The fever again attacked us brought by M"" Hop- 
kins who as well as several others severely attacked: Francis in 
England trying to see Lord Castlereagh about Alex"". 

[November and December] Mary Anne and Charlotte weak 
and sickly after the fever. 

In Feb 1818 I received by a letter from himself of 24 Oct 1817 
the most unexpected intelligence that my eldest Son William ^^^ is 
still alive and residing though not in flourishing circumstances in 
the State of Tenessee. Through our former neighbour the Rev 
James McMechan William obtained news of me. His letter men- 
tions that my aged Father was still alive in 1817. 

[September 16] Charles and his wife Sophia Cauty whom he 
married at S' Helena reached Weymouth poor Charles in bad 

[October] Charles and Sophy in London Francis at home 
making out a Memorial for my resignation. 

[November] Lord Killmorey died just as I was about to resign ; 
I have therefore great reason to be thankful to God for his mercy 
as I do not know what his successor will do. 

[January 1819] Charles & Sophy came over from Carmarthen 
and have taken a lodging at Rosstrevor to which place Mary Anne 
& Charlotte are gone hoping the change of air will do them good : 

S81 Leith, Scotland. 

35B Captain John Hopkins (see p. 39, n. 274). 

356 William, only son of Alexander Chesney and his first wife, Margaret Hodge (see p. 20). 
Alexander Chesney in his will of 1843 recommended his son, William in America, to the 
humanity of the British Government, as he was left without parents or support in infancy by 
the Revolutionary war, and hoped that the Government, to whom he (Alexander Chesney) had 
rendered many services during that war, would be pleased to continue his pension of £30 as a 
loyalist to his said son, William. 


busy sending estimates to get the house raised in order to make 
more room. 

[March] All came home. 

[April] Francis went to Scotland 

[June] began to unroof the house Charles and Charlotte in 
Roscommon Sophy at Strangford. 

[July 12**>] Busy at the house. 

Charles Crafer came over for a few days & goes to Scotland 
with Francis Charles and Sophy. 

[September] Charlotte married to George W. Bell ^^ at Castle- 
rea.3=^ Busy with the house and applying to Lord Killmorey for 
Alex"" no great hopes. 

[November and December] Busy about smuggling, the House 
finished all tolerably well. In the latter end of this year M-" Hay- 
den 2^^ lost his curacy in C° Roscommon, and as he could not get 
another he & family came to live with me. 

In January of this year [1820] Peter West a walking Officer 
of Newry and sent some time ago with a party to Kilkeel made a 
complaint against me for dereliction and neglect of duty in which 
charge he was strongly supported by M"" Thompson Collector of 
Newry who after a partial enquiry made a strong report against 
me ; But on my requesting for a rehearing of the case a Surveyor 
General (Major Crampton)^''" was sent down to investigate. The 
consequence was that M'^ Thompson was obliged to acknowledge the 
inaccuracy of his report and acquiece in M"" Cramptons which was 
very strongly in my favour — The business ended in Board's ap- 
proval of my conduct. 

Owing to the peace the smuggling of Tobacco into Ireland is 
increasing to a very considerable extent; tho' from my exertions 
and the number of persons I have employed it is considerably check- 
ed in Mourne. 

•■"5" Charlotte, fourth daughter of Alexander Chesney and his second wife, married George 
Washington Bell, a surgeon, and died at "Pacholet," 27 April, 1857, aged 62. 

^^* Castlerea, county Roscommon. 

358 Rev. Henry Hayden (see p. 54). 

s*" John Crampton, surveyor-general of the Customs in Ireland. His report of his ex- 
haustive investigation into Chesney's alleged negligence not only exonerates Chesney from all 
blame, but adds that it was with infinite satisfaction that during a service of 35 years in the 
Revenue, perhaps unparalled in activity, no sensible grounds of belief in the rumors concerning 
Alexander Chesney could be found. This report, dated 18 March, 1820, was supported by the 
board of Irish Customs, which completely cleared him of every imputation of neglect of duty. 
(Minute Book of the Irish board of Customs, Vol. 427, pp. 34-35. in the Public Record Office, 
London) . 


In consequence of my so frequently foiling the smugglers in 
their attempts; I find them extremely irritated and consequently 
have had many quarrels with them. 

From the serious falling off in the import duties and the well 
known increase of smuggling the Government seem determined to 
put an effectual stop to smuggling in this country for that purpose 
(in the summer) the Lords of the Treasury directed Lieu* James 
Dombrain R N Inspector General of the Preventive Water Guard 
to survey the Irish Channel for the purpose of establishing a Pre- 
ventive force : Previous to M"" D's surveying the coast the Board of 
Customs directed all their Officers to give him every assistance & 
information in their power — Consequently I made a general state- 
ment of the extent and nature of smuggling, and a proposed plan 
for its abolition on the Mourne coast. In July M'" Dombrain arrived 
and I handed it to him for which he was obliged and I have since 
reason to know it was of essential use to him. 

Some time in the Spring M"" Hayden received an appointment 
as Church Missionary in New Brunswick and in the latter end of 
Summer he went out from Portaferry to S John's N: B: in the 
Brig Dorcas Savage Andrew Pollock Master. 

In the latter end of the year [1820] I ascertained that on the 
establishment of the Water Guard this establishment would be done 
away with and that I would be turned out of the Revenue House I 
occupy; I therefore began to make arrangements for building on 
my farm in Ballyardle. 

Francis at home during a great part of the Year. 

During the year made considerable seizures for which I re- 
ceived a good deal of money. 

My Son William has been authorised to draw on M'" Crafer. 
I mean to give him a child's portion of what I have, and it is ob- 
viously better that he should receive this and turn it to account 
where he is rather than spend money in coming hither where he 
would find most things unsuited. 



Lord Charles Greville Montagu 

Lord Charles Greville Montagu, second son of Robert, third 
duke of Manchester, was appointed governor of South Carolina in 
1766. While in the enjoyment of that office he acquired extensive 
tracts of land in that Province, amounting to 18,138 acres, of which 
a detailed list has been preserved. (A.O. 13/133.) Of this land he 
sold 7,198 acres for £3,331.12.4., the purchasers' names being re- 
corded in the list just mentioned. The large sum of £36,830. 10s. 
was claimed after his death by his brother, the fourth duke, for 
compensation for the loss of these lands in South Carolina, but the 
commissioners of American Claims in London rejected the claim 
because of the absence of satisfactory proof of loss by confiscation 
by the State of South Carolina or by other causes. (A.O. 12/109.) 

In 1780, Lord Charles Greville Montagu, although no longer of- 
ficially connected with South Carolina, prepared a scheme for rais- 
ing a regiment of 500 men in that Province, for service in the Revo- 
lutionary war. The scheme was not, however, accepted until 1782, 
when he was appointed to the command, with the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel. The regiment, which was called the Duke of Cumber- 
land's (and also the Loyal American Rangers), was destined for 
service in the West Indies. A second battalion was, in December, 
1782, authorized to be raised, and Lord Charles G. Montagu pro- 
ceeded from Jamaica for that purpose. (Hist. MSS. Comm. Report 
on the American MSS. in the Royal Inst. Vol. II. pp. 209, 245 ; Vol. 
IIL pp. 108, 273 ; Vol. IV. p. 79.) A list of the officers at the end of 
the war is in the Public Record Office. (Ind. 5606.) . At the end of 
the year 1783 Lord Charles G. Montagu set sail with over 300 men 
of his regiment from Jamaica for Halifax, Nova Scotia, where the 
men proposed to settle. Here he died, 3 February, 1784, at the age of 
45, and was buried in the historic church of St. Paul's, Halifax, 
where many American loyalists have worshiped and have been 
buried. The inscription on his monument in the church states that 
he was employed in settling in Nova Scotia a brave corps of Caro- 
linians whom he had commanded during the late war between Great 
Britain and Spain (Acadiensis, Vol. 5, pp. 81-82) . By his will, Lord 
Charles Greville Montagu bequeathed the two brigs, Montagu and 



Industry, to his son and daughter, and made bequests to these four 
officers of his regiment: Lieutenants Angus McDonald and Brian 
Meighan (or Meighlan), Ensign Robert Barrett, and Thomas Cald- 
well. A clause in the will directs that the command of the three 
divisions of the Duke of Cumberland's regiment should devolve on 
the above Lieutenant Brian Meighan, Ensign Robert Barrett, and 
one Cunningham, who may have been Captain Andrew Cunningham 
or Captain Ralph Gore Cunningham, both of whom were on the 
half -pay list of the regiment. 

Lord Charles Greville Montagu was on terms of friendship 
with General Moultrie, to whom he offered the command of his own 
regiment if he would accompany him to Jamaica, when Moultrie was 
a prisoner on parole (Moultrie, Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 158, 166-7 ; E. 
McCrady, Hist, of S. Carolina in the Revolution, 1780-1783, pp. 350- 

Colonel John Phillips 

John Phillips emigrated with his wife and seven children from 
Ulster to South Carolina in 1770 and settled at Jackson's creek in 
Camden district. 

The first manifestation of his loyalty was in July, 1775, when 
he prevented by his influence at a meeting held at the meeting 
house in his district all the people except two from signing the 
association to support the American cause. In the same year he re- 
fused an offer of a commission as lieutenant-colonel in the American 
militia. (The Royal Comm. on Loyalist Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. 
E. Egerton; Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 48-9.) From this time John 
Phillips was a marked man and suffered imprisonment for his at- 
tachment to the crown. Two sons were also imprisoned for loyalty, 
one of whom died in the jail at Orangeburg. 

In 1780 when Lord Comwallis inaugurated the loyal militia in 
South Carolina, Phillips was one of the first officers selected and 
was given the command of the Jackson's creek militia, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. His two sons, just mentioned, and a 
brother, Robert, joined his regiment. 

Shortly after Tarleton's defeat atCowpens on January 17, 1781, 
Colonel Phillips and a party under the command of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel John Fanning were detached from the main force to escort to 
Camden the British officers who had been wounded in that battle. 
Four days later, however, this party was surrounded by a superior 


force of Americans, which outnumbered the loyalists by four to 
one, and in the skirmish several of the loyalists were killed or 
wounded, Colonel Phillips, with his son David, and his brother, Rob- 
ert, being taken prisoners. In March of the same year Colonel 
Phillips was exchanged for Colonel David Hopkins and his brother 
(A.O. 13/133) was also exchanged and forthwith rejoined the loy- 
alist forces. 

This Irish loyalist was ordered by Lord Rawdon to accompany 
him to Charleston in August, 1781, when the command of his 
regiment devolved temporarily upon his son, David, who had the 
misfortune to be captured by Colonel Hampton and was "inhumanly 
murdered" by his captors. Soon afterwards, Colonel Phillips' wife 
and eight children were turned off his plantation and obliged to 
seek shelter in Charleston. 

Colonel John Phillips received 150 acres of land on "Crocky 
creek," Catawba river, by the death of his widowed sister, Maiy 
Dunsketh, in 1775, and of her only son in 1777. 

Robert Phillips, his brother, first bore arms on the side of the 
Crown in 1775. He was banished from South Carolina and took 
refuge in East Florida, where Governor Patrick Tonyn appointed 
him lieutenant in the East Florida Rangers. Anxious to see his 
family again, he resigned his commission in this corps and joined 
the force of Brigadier-General James Patteson, proceeding from 
Savannah to join Sir Henry Clinton at Charleston in March, 1780. 
On his arrival in South Carolina he joined his brother's regiment, 
the Jackson's creek militia, and was appointed lieutenant. The 
original petition of Robert Phillips bears his autograph signature; 
he died August 25, 1782, at Charleston. (T. 50/2, fo. 85 ; T. 50/4 ; 
T. 50/5.) 

Captain James Phillips, mentioned on page 6, was another 
brother of Colonel John Phillips. 

At one time in his military career Colonel Phillips was sen- 
tenced to be hanged for sedition and loyalty, and was defended at 
the trial by one Thomas Phepoe, an Irish lawyer who had emigrated 
in 1771 to Charleston, but was acquitted. (A.O. 13/132.) 

Colonel Phillips was given the appointment of muster-master 
of the loyal militia and refugees at Charleston in 1782, when the 
Americans had virtually overrun the Province of South Carolina 
and the loyalists had left their homes in large numbers without 
food or clothing and sought shelter at Charleston, taxing the re- 
sources of the British to provide them with the necessaries of life. 


During this anxious time, the refugee hospital, crowded with un- 
happy loyalists, was in charge of Dr. Charles Fyffe, with Dr. Na- 
thaniel Bullein as assistant surgeon. (T. 50/2; T. 50/4.) Some ef- 
fort was made to provide the refugee children with education by a 
schoolmaster, one John Bell; some of these children's names have 
survived. (T. 50/5.) 

The original memorial of Colonel John Phillips is endorsed by 
his fellow-countryman. Lord Rawdon, that no man in South Caro- 
lina had exerted himself more in his station for the support of gov- 
ernment. (A.O. 13/79 ; The Royal Comm. on Loyalist Claims, 1783- 
1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton ; Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 48-9.) With 
this memorial are (1) a letter from Lord Cornwallis to the com- 
missioners of American Claims, introducing his as "my friend Col. 
Phillips of South Carolina, who has as much merit as any man on 
the Continent of America, & whom I beg leave very particularly to 
recommend to your favor"; and (2) Colonel Nisbet Balfour's cer- 
tificate of 1 July, 1782, that "in his rank of life I have known none 
more worthy of it [an! allowance] or a family who have suffered 
more from their fidelity to their King and country." Colonel Bal- 
four also gave evidence in person before the commissioners and 
spoke highly of the services of Colonel Phillips in procuring intelli- 
gence of enemy movements, describing him as "honest and hu- 
mane," and adding that he "never knew an instance of any of his 
reports which did not prove strictly true." Lords Cornwallis and 
Rawdon also gave personal evidence in support of the claim of 
Colonel John Phillips and expressed their appreciation of his serv- 
ices in the war, concluding with the testimony that they were more 
obliged to him than to any other person in his district in South 

Colonel John Phillips died in the country of his birth in 1809, 
and in his will, dated 4 May, 1807, he is described as of Ballyloughan 
in the parish of Ahogill, county Antrim. In this will are mentioned 
his wife, Elizabeth, otherwise Lurkan; two daughters, Rachel and 
Mary Phillips ; and four granddaughters, Lilly and Ann McCrearys, 
Rachel Phillips and Lilly Jean Kirk. To his son, Robert, "if he 
comes home" (being presumably in America) he bequeathed his 
watch. His executors were Captain James Miller (see page 100), 
his daughter, Rachel Phillips, and Thomas Phillips of Ballyloughan. 

Jane, mother of Colonel John Phillips, was a close family con- 
nection of the Chesneys. 


The sum of £860 was granted to Colonel Phillips by the British 
Government as compensation for the loss of his property in South 
Carolina from his claim of £1,874. He also received a pension of 
£84 from 1784 until his death. (A.O. 12/109; A.O. 463/24; T. 
50/8; A.O. 12/46, fos. 171-184; A.O. 12/101, fo. 283; A.O. 13/133.) 

Indians in the War 

Both sides in the American Revolutionary war in the South- 
ern Colonies attempted to secure the support of the Indians. 

The attention of the Colonial Congress was very early drawn 
to the importance of securing the alliance, or at least the neutrality, 
of the Indian tribes during the conflict. (E. B. O'Callaghan, 
Documents relating to the Colonial History of New York, Vol. 
VIII. p. 605.) 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall, the loyalist, fearing an incursion by 
the Indians into his district in South Carolina, recommended the 
governor. Lord William Campbell, by letter of 19 July, 1775, to pro- 
tect the frontiers against them. It was perhaps to this letter that 
the governor replied, ordering Colonel Fletchall to hold himself and 
his militia in readiness to suppress any opposition to Government, 
and if necessary to seek assistance from Alexander Cameron, dep- 
uty superintendent of the Creek and Cherokee Indians. (His-t. MSS. 
Comm. Report on the MSS. of the Earl of Dartmouth, Vol. II. 
p. 355.) 

The powerful influence of Cameron with the Indians was rec- 
ognized by the Council of Safety of South Carolina, who in 1775 
offered him many inducements to join the Americans. (Sabine, 
Loyalists of the American Revolution, Vol. I, p. 287) . It was proba- 
bly after this failure to secure Cameron's influence that William 
Henry Drayton held his conference with the chief of the Cherokees 
on 25 September, 1775, when he attempted to wean them from their 
loyalty by promising them supplies of ammunition and other gifts, 
both for trade and their personal comfort, as he naively describes it. 
(Drayton, Memoirs of the Revolution, Vol. I, pp. 407-8.) Drayton 
at this conference pictured the future condition of the Indians un- 
der royal Government in the most lurid colors, accusing the king and 
the English of claiming to make laws by which they would "have 
a right to take all our money, all our lands, all our cattle and horses 
and such things, and not only all such things, but our wives and 
children, in order to make servants of them; and beside all these 


things, to put us in strong houses, and to put us to death, when- 
ever they please." (Drayton, ibid., p. 421.) Drayton had taken 
with him a man of great influence and popularity among the Chero- 
kees, the father of a natural son by a Cherokee squaw, in the per- 
son of Richard Pearis, a considerable trader among them, who was 
afterwards the chief witness against Drayton's denial of his inten- 
tion to persuade the Indians to fight against the loyalists. 

A vain attempt was made in October, 1775, to rescue Captain 
Robert Cunningham (atferwards a brigadier-general) from the 
hands of his captors by a party of loyalists commanded by his 
brother. Captain Patrick Cunningham (see page 104). The party 
was, however, compenscated in some measure for this failure by 
their seizure of the ammunition destined for the Indians, mentioned 
above. (Drayton, ibid., pp. 64, 66-7.) The Provincial Congress re- 
solved, 8 November, 1775, by 51 votes to 49, to assemble a force 
under the command of Colonel Richard Richardson to seize Captain 
Patrick Cunningham and the other leading loyalists of that party, 
Henry O'Neal, Hugh Brown, David Reese, Henry Green, Nathaniel 
Howard, and Jacob Bochman. (E. McCrady, The Hist, of South Car- 
olina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, p. 88.) 

It is stated that Richard Pearis was so disappointed in failing 
to receive the military command to which he is said to have aspired 
that, in a spirit of malice and vengeance, he had spread a false 
report abroad among the loyalists of Drayton's intention to employ 
the Indians in fighting against them. Pearis went so far as to make 
a solemn affidavit accusing Drayton of endeavoring to persuade the 
Indians for this purpose. (Drayton, ibid., pp. 116-7.) Drayton's 
denial of such intention has been published. (Journal of the Council 
of Safety, 6 December, 1775, in Collections of the South Carolina 
Hist. Society., Vol. III. pp. 55-6 ; see also Force, American Archives, 
Series IV., Vol. 4, p. 29). 

A loyalist version of Drayton's transaction of the gift of am- 
munition to the Cherokees is furnished by Colonel David Fanning, 
at that time a sergeant in the loyal militia of South Carolina. He 
asserts that it was the intention of Drayton that Pearis should 
bring down the Indians to murder the loyalists, and that when cap- 
tured, Pearis confessed his guilt to the charge of attempting to en- 
gage the Indians for that purpose. (Colonel David Fanning, "Nar- 
rative," ed. by A. W. Savary, in the Canadian Magazine, 1908.) 


Reference is made elsewhere to the alleviation that the fear of 
the loyalists of an attack by the Indians at the instigation of Dray- 
ton's party was largely responsible for the conflict at Ninety-Six 
in November, 1775. (Page 63.) 

In the summer of 1776, Major Andrew Williamson organized 
an expedition against the Cherokees, in the belief that they had 
been encouraged to hostility by Colonel John Stuart, superintendent 
of the Indians, and by his deputy, Alexander Cameron. Several 
loyalists, including Alexander Cheseny, Colonels John Phillips and 
Ambrose Mills, joined this expedition, whether in ignorance of this 
rumor or in the expectation of an attack on the white inhabitants 
in general, it is impossible to hazard an opinion. Chesney himself 
offers no reason for joining Williamson, except that he had no ob- 
jection to fighting against the Indians. It must, however, be remem- 
bered that he was at this time a conscript in the American forces. 

By November, 1777, the revolutionists in Georgia had already 
seduced the northern Creek Indians from their allegiance to Eng- 
land, and were now, through the agency of Galphin, threatening the 
Cherokees with destruction for their attachment to Great Britain. 
(W. H. Siebert, "The Loyalists in West Florida and the Natchez 
District," in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1916, Vol. 
II, p. 467.) 

Later attempts were made by the British to encourage the 
support of the Indians. Lord Cornwallis, writing to Sir Henry Clin- 
ton under date of 29 December, 1780, says that when the men from 
the mountains had come down to attack Major Patrick Ferguson 
he directed Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Brown to encourage the 
Indians to attack the settlements of "Watogea, Holstein, Caentuck 
and Nolachuckie, all which are now encroachments on the Indian 
territories." The mountaineers, fearing an attack, were obliged to 
abandon their projected march to join an American force near 
King's Mountain. A report seems to have reached Lord Cornwallis 
that the humanity of the Indians was in "striking contrast to the 
barbarities committed by the mountaineers." (Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Report on the American MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. II., 
p. 225.) 

Moultrie in his Memoirs mentions the efforts made to secure 
the services of the warriors of the Catawba Indians on the side of 
the Americans. (Vol. I. p. 81.) 


The activities of the Indians in South Carolina had virtually 
come to an end early in January, 1782, when Benjamin Thompson, 
better known later as Count Rumford (the Massachusetts loyalist), 
wrote that very little was to be expected from the Indians as 
friends and that as foes they would not be by any means formidable. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the Stopford-Sackville MSS., Vol. 
II. p. 251.) 

Both Burke and Lord Chatham condemned the employment of 
Indians in the war by the British. 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall was probably born in South Carolina, 
where he was the owner of a large plantation in the district of 
Ninety-Six. He was already a justice of the peace and a coroner 
when in the year 1769 he accepted the appointment of colonel of 
a militia regiment of over 2,000 men, from the governor. Lord 
Charles Greville Montagu. 

Sabine in his Loyalists of the American Revolution states that 
Colonel Fletchall was of much consideration in the Colony before the 
war and that he was regarded as undecided in his political views, 
though the Whig party made him a member of an important com- 
mittee, raised to carry out the views of the Continental Congress 
(Moultrie, Memoirs, Vol. I.). Colonel Fletchall, however, describes 
himself as a loyalist from the outbreak of the Revolutionary trou- 
bles in South Carolina, a description which is confirmed by his let- 
ter of 19 July, 1775, to Lord William Campbell, the governor, assur- 
ing him of the loyalty of about 4000 men in his district. In this let- 
ter Colonel Fletchall informs the governor of the seizure of Fort 
Charlotte on the Savannah river by the "rebels," as he calls them. 
Major James Mayson, Captain John Caldwell and others, and of the 
subsequent capture of the leaders by the loyalists. In this same 
letter he suggests that the frontiers should be protected from in- 
cursions not only from the "rebels" but also from the Indians, thus 
anticipating William Henry Drayton's alleged attempt to secure 
the services of the Cherokee Indians for the Revolutionary party 
(see page 64) . This letter brought forth a reply, 1 August follow- 
ing, expressing the governor's appreciation of the capture of the 
rebels at Fort Charlotte, authorizing Fletchall to fortify that fort 
by militia and requesting him to avoid giving offence to the in- 
habitants of his district and generally to preserve peace (Hist. MSS. 


Comm., Report on the MSS. of the Earl of Dartmouth, Vol. II., p. 
355). The seizure of Fort Charlotte by order of the Council of 
Safety, on 12 July, 1775, was the first overt act in the Revolutionary 
war in South Carolina. An important omission from Colonel 
Fletchall's letter was that one of the officers who had participated 
in this seizure was Captain Moses Kirkland, who was soon to turn 
over to the loyalist side (see page 105), While alluding in this 
letter to the capture of Major Mayson and others, who had pro- 
ceeded with the powder and stores from Fort Charlotte to Ninety- 
Six Court House, he concealed the fact that Kirkland, who is stated 
to have had an old grudge against Mayson, had now joined Colonel 
Fletchall and had disclosed a scheme for capturing Mayson and 
the stores. Fletchall, on the authority of an enemy (Drayton, 
Memoirs, Vol. I, pp. 321-3) is said to have declined to appear pub- 
licly as a supporter of ICirkland's scheme, but those more active 
loyalists, Robert and Patrick Cunningham and Joseph Robinson, 
joined by Major Terry (a deserter from the Revolutionary party 
who afterwards recanted and became animated in the American 
cause, ibid, p. 384), rode off with 200 mounted men to Ninety-Six. 
Here they took Major Mayson prisoner on 17 July and committed 
him to jail on a charge of robbing the king's fort, but after some 
hours confinement admitted him to bail. 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall claims, in support of his loyalty, to 
have impeded with the help of Robert Cunningham and Joseph 
Robinson, the raising of the levies of American horse in the back 
country of South Carolina and to have influenced many waverers 
against signing the association of the Revolutionary party. The 
articles of this association were read, 13 July, 1775, by Major Terry 
at Fletchall's plantation to the men of his regiment by his orders, 
but not one would sign it, a decision of which he approved. His men 
then agreed to sign an association of their own, expressing loyalty 
to the king, which had been drawn up by Major Joseph Robinson, 
and which was generally signed from Broad to Savannah rivers. 
(Drayton, Memoirs, Vol. 1, p. 312; Hist. Mss. Comm. Report on the 
MSS. of the Earl of Dartmouth, Vol. II, pp. 341, 351.) 

At this psychological moment Lord William Campbell, the 
governor, had he been a man of greater initiative and of a more 
adventurous spirit, would have seized the opportunity to support 
Colonel Fletchall and the loyalists, by his personal presence among 
them. The exercise of his high position and influence would have 


assured the raising of a strong armed force, which he could have 
employed in what would probably have been the overthrow of the 
proceedings of the Provincial Congress. (E. McCrady, The Hist, of 
South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 38-39). 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall came into conflict with two ardent 
spirits of the Revolutionary party on 17 August, 1775, in the per- 
sons of William Henry Drayton and Rev. William Tennent, the Con- 
gregational minister and member of the committee of the Provincial 
Congress, who in private conversation with him for nearly three 
hours, humored him, laughed with him, remonstrated and en- 
treated him to join his country, America, against the mother coun- 
try, without shaking his loyalty in the slightest. The entreaties of 
Drayton and Tennent were met by this influential loyalist with the 
answer that he "would never take up arms against his King or 
his countrymen and that the proceedings of the Congress at Phila- 
delphia were impolitic, disrespectful and irritating to the King." 
(Ibid., pp. 44-46 ; Force, American Archives, Series IV, Vol. II, pp. 

Drayton, having failed to win Fletchall over to his side, pro- 
ceeded to march out in the following month at the head of about 
400 mounted men and 800 foot to disarm the loyalists of Ninety-Six 
district, especially those in Fletchall's regiment. Colonel Fletchall 
met this threat by ordering out his regiment and marching to meet 
Drayton, who on the 11th. had written somewhat confidently to the 
Council of Safety that Colonel Fletchall, Colonel Thomas Brown, 
and Captain Robert Cunningham were still endeavoring to assem- 
ble men, but had no force embodied, and assuring the Council of 
the declining political influence of these three prominent loyalists 
and of the terrified state of their adherents, adding that they had no 
intention to fight in view of the expected help promised them by 
the governor. (Drayton, Memoirs, Vol, 1, p. 388.) Drayton, how- 
ever, in his letter of the 17 September, in a less confident tone, esti- 
mates Fletchall's force at over 1200, while his own barely reached 
1000, which is 200 less than Fletchall's figure for Drayton's force. 
In this letter Drayton alleges that while his own men were anxious 
to fight, he wished to avoid bloodshed, insinuating that the loyalists 
would not hold long together because of their lack of discipline and 
of supplies. (Ibid., p. 389.) A different version comes from a loyal- 
ist source, David Fanning, who maintains that the "rebels," finding 
themselves not strong enough for an attack, sent an express to 


Fletchall, inviting him to treat with them. (Colonel David Fanning, 
"Narrative," ed. by A. W. Savary, Canadian Magazine, 1908.) This 
version is supported by Fletchall's unpublished memorial, in which 
he says that on advancing within six miles of Drayton's camp, de- 
termined to support Government, Drayton offered terms of accomo- 
dation. (A.O. 12/52, fos. 127-141.) A treaty was now made by 
which hostilities between the two parties should be avoided, Flet- 
chall stating that each party agreed to return home and "remain 
peaceable." This treaty was signed, 16 September, 1775, by Dray- 
ton of the one part and by Fletchall, Captains John Ford, Evan Mc- 
Laurin, Thomas Greer, and Benjamin Wofford of the other part. 
(Drayton, Memoirs, Vol. I., pp. 399-403 ; Force, American Archives, 
Series IV, Vol. 3, pp. 720-1.) 

Captain (afterwards Brigadier-General) Robert Cunningham 
declined in his letter of 6 October to Drayton, in the most vigorous 
terms to be bound by this treaty, which he characterized as false 
and disgraceful and as having been devised to take advantage of 
men "half scared out of their senses at the sight of liberty caps and 
sound of cannon" (Force, Ame7'ican Archives, Series IV, Vol. 3, p. 
755). Cunningham's repudiation of a treaty, made in his opinion 
without authority, and his determination not to disband his men, 
was supported by other stalwart loyalists. (McCrady, The Hist, of 
South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, pp. 51-52.) 

Colonel Thomas Fletchall carried out the terms of the treaty 
both in the letter and the spirit and forthwith disbanded his regi- 
ment, while Drayton and his followers tacitly ignored it. To 
Fletchall's chagrin, information reached him in November, within 
a few weeks of making the treaty, that the "rebels" had been re- 
armed. He instantly embodied his regiment on the 17th and ordered 
an attack to be made on the fort of Ninety-Six. Meanwhile, Cap- 
tain Robert Cunningham was arrested by a party disguised as In- 
dians, under orders from Major Andrew Williamson upon an affi- 
davit of Captain John Caldwell, charging him with sedition, and was 
committed to Charleston jail, 1 November. As an uncompromising 
loyalist, Cunningham did not deny the use of the seditious words, 
but though he did not consider himself bound by the Fletchall- 
Drayton treaty, he had since behaved himself as peaceably as any 
man. He had, however, retained his political opinions, though he 
had not expressed them unless asked to do so. (McCrady, ibid., p. 


Colonel Fletchall's militia force, numbering 2400, now besieged 
the fort, in accordance with orders mentioned above. The com- 
mand of the loyalists had been given to Major Joseph Robinson by 
Fletchall, who was too heavy in weight for active service (Fanning, 
"Narrative"), while the defenders to the number of 562 were com- 
manded by Majors Andrew Williamson and James Mayson. On the 
second day of the siege, which lasted from the 18th. to the 21st. of 
November, the loyalists, represented by Majors Joseph Robinson 
and Evan McLaurin and Captain Patrick Cunningham, had a con- 
ference with Major Mayson and Captain Bowie regarding the loy- 
alists' demand for the surrender of Williamson and his force. While 
Williamson was considering this demand, two of his men are said to 
have been seized and the attempt to rescue them brought about the 
first bloodshed of the revolutionary war. On the 20th, however, the 
ammunition of both sides was almost exhausted and by agreement 
hostilities ceased for twenty days (Drayton, Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 
117-122; Force, American Archives, Series IV, Vol. 3, p. 1606; 
Vol. 4, p. 216) , while the messengers of each party were allowed to 
proceed to Charleston to inform the governor and the Council of 
Safety of the terms of the treaty. Major Robinson's loyalist force 
was allowed to return home. The signatories to this treaty were 
Majors Andrew Williamson, James Mayson, and Joseph Robinson, 
Captains Patrick Cunningham, Richard Pearls, Joseph Pickens, and 
John Bowie. (A. S. Salley, Jr., Hist, of Orangeburg County, 1898, 
pp. 808-312.) 

Thus ended the inglorious siege and conflict of Ninety-Six, a 
conflict largely brought on by the fear of the loyalists that the In- 
dians were about to attack them at the instigation of the Americans. 
(McCrady, The Hist, of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780, 
pp. 90-93.) The loyalists were without a capable leader. Robinson, 
the nominal commander, appears to have been ignored and the vir- 
tual command devolved upon Pearis, who declared his opposition to 
making the treaty, though it bears his signature. 

For the second time the Revolutionary party violated a solemn 
treaty by the refusal of Colonel Richard Richardson and his army 
to be bound by it, despite the stipulation of Majors Williamson and 
Mayson that any reinforcements which might arrive should regard 
the treaty as binding equally upon them. Richardson, under the 
government presided over by Drayton, disregarded the treaty and 
marched upon the loyalists, who on the faith of this same solemn 
covenant had been disbanded. Colonel Fletchall, despite the sus- 


picion of his secret encouragement of further military activity by 
the loyalists, was scrupuously observing the treaty, and to his 
astonishment and mortification, he was taken prisoner, 12 Decem- 
ber, with other loyalists of the "first magnitude," including Captains 
Richard Pearis, Jacob Fry, and George Shuberg, who were sent to 
Charleston four days later. (McCrady, ibid., pp. 89-96; Salley, 
ibid., p. 323). Drayton, in commenting on the capture of these 
loyalists, avoids any reference to the violation of the treaty and 
stigmatizes Fletchall's capture as dishonorable to his military 
talents, concealing the fact that Fletchall had returned to his plan- 
tation and discharged his force, in agreement with the spirit of the 
treaty, while Colonel Richardson now had an army of about 3000 
men. (Drayton, ibid.. Vol. II, p. 129.) Colonel Thomas Fletchall's 
capture was accomplished at his own house, which was surrounded 
by 400 mounted men detached from Richardson's main body. He 
was sent as a prisoner to Charleston and there kept in close con- 
finement until 10 July, 1776, when he appears to have set forth for 
his plantation which had in the meantime been plundered and 
ruined. Nothing more is recorded of any further military service 
by Colonel Fletchall. The corpulence for which he was conspicu- 
ous as well as his age, may have been a deterrent factor. In July, 
1780, he was visited at his old home by the well-known loyalist. Lieu- 
tenant Anthony Allaire, who records in his Diary his interesting 
examination of the Fletchall mill, a curiosity such as he had never 
seen before. ("Diary," in Draper's King's Mountain and its He- 
roes). The worthy colonel was not allowed to remain at home in 
tranquility, for on 10 October in the same year he was obliged to 
escape, with his wife, Leah, and five children, from threatened vio- 
lence and to seek sanctuary at Charleston, then in possession of the 
British. Here they remained until 1 December, when at the age of 
62 he left South Carolina for ever, accompanied by his wife, two 
sons and two daughters, in the transport, Milford (John May, mas- 
ter), for the West Indies, where he settled on the land of Ralph 
Montagu in the parish of St. James in Cornwall county, Jamaica. 
Here also settled two other loyalist refugees from South Carolina, 
namely. Colonel Thomas Edghill and Lieutenant-Colonel James 
Vernon (see pages 78-9). Mrs. Fletchall's sister, Anne Brown, was 
the second wife of Colonel Ambrose Mills, of North Carolina (see 
page 72) . 


A long list of the debtors of Colonel Thomas Fletchall in South 
Carolina and a list of the grants of land made to him there are in 
the Public Record Office. (A. 0. 13/128). 

In July, 1787, Colonel Fletchall was proposing to make the voy- 
age to England to prosecute his claim on the British Government 
for compensation for the loss of his property in South Carolina, 
but was prevented by illness from leaving Jamaica. His claim of 
£2,181 was met by a grant of £1,400 (A. O. 12/109). Colonel 
Fletchall died in 1789, apparently in Jamaica, leaving a widow 
Leah. Joseph Fletchall, a planter, of St. James's parish, Jamaica, 
who had lived from infancy in the district of Ninety-Six in South 
Carolina, was probably his son. (A.O. 12/52, fos. 127-141; A.O. 
13/128 ; South Carolina Hist, and Gen. Mag., Vol. XVIII, pp. 44-51) . 

Colonel Ambrose Mills 

Born in England in 1722, Ambrose Mills was taken in child- 
hood to Maryland. There he married Mourning Stone, a spinster, 
and settled on James river in Virginia, afterwards removing to the 
frontiers of South Carolina, where his wife was killed by Indians 
in the Indian risings of 1755-61. Ambrose Mills married (II), 
Anne Brown, a sister of Leah Fletchall, wife of Colonel Thomas 
Fletchall (see page 71). In or about 1765 he settled on Green 
river. North Carolina. The issue of his first marriage was a son, 
William, born 10 November, 1746, and by his second marriage, 
three sons and three daughters. 

The military services of Ambrose Mills during the Revolution- 
ary war include actions against the Cherokee Indians in 1776, in 
ignorance of the alleged alliance between the Cherokees and the 
British, an ignorance which was shared with the loyalists. Colonel 
John Phillips (see p. 65) and Alexander Chesney. In 1778, Am- 
brose Mills and Colonel David Fanning raised a corps of 500 loyal- 
ists for the purpose of joining the royal standard at St. Augustine 
in East Florida, but this scheme was frustrated by the treachery 
of a traitor in the camp betraying their plans to the enemy. Colonel 
Mills and sixteen others were apprehended and taken to Salisbury 
jail. On the way thither, David Fanning with characteristic 
courage endeavored to rescue his brother loyalist, but his small 
force was too weak to break through the American guard. 

One of the first engagements of Colonel Ambrose Mills after 
his liberation was the action at Baylis Earle's ford on the North 


Pacolet river, North Carolina, when he surprised and attacked the 
American camp of Colonel Charles McDowell on the night of 15 
July, 1780. In this action the loyalists under Mills, and Major 
James Dunlap's party of seventy dragoons, killed Noah Hampton, 
son of Colonel Hampton, and wounded Colonel John Jones of Burke 
county. North Carolina — an attack which was revenged later by 
Captain Edward Hampton's exploit in overtaking Dunlap's party 
and inflicting defeat upon it. Draper, in his King's Mountain and its 
Heroes, is very severe in his condemnation of the killing of Noah 
Hampton by Dunlap while he was asleep, an act which he rightly 
regards as murder, though a precisely similar surprise, achieved 
by the deception of Colonel John Jones, is regarded as almost 
heroic. (Op. cit., p. 79) . Major Dunlap, who had been appointed an 
officer in the Queen's Rangers in 1776, and was one of the most ad- 
venturous spirits among the loyalists, neither giving nor expecting 
quarter, was killed on or about 25 March, 1781, by his guard after 
his surrender at Beattie's mill on Little river in South Carolina. 
General Pickens offered a "handsome reward for the murderers" 
(Draper, op. cit., pp. 163-4). The feud between Colonel John Jones 
and the loyalists had become exceedingly bitter after his deception 
in palming himself off as a loyalist and thereby gaining entrance 
into a loyalist camp, with the object as he had averred of taking 
revenge on some "rebels" who had slain loyalists in a recent skirm- 
ish. Arriving at the camp, which was in a state of self-security 
and the loyalists mostly asleep. Colonel Jones ordered an attack by 
his party and killed one and wounded three. (Draper, op. cit., p. 

Returning to the career of Colonel Ambrose Mills, he com- 
manded the North Carolina loyal militia in the memorable battle 
of King's Mountain and was taken prisoner. The subsequent se- 
verity of his treatment as a prisoner and his execution has been 
the subject of hostile criticism. (Draper, op. cit. p. 82). Lord 
Comwallis in his protest against his execution describes him as 
"always a fair and open enemy," a verdict which was endorsed by 
his opponents. (Correspondence of Lord Comwallis, Vol. I, p. 67). 
Early in the military life of Colonel Ambrose Mills, Lord Com- 
wallis had experienced some difficulty in restraining his ardor, 
and in complaining of his premature activities, desired him to act 
only on the defensive until ordered to act otherwise. (Ibid., op. cit., 
p. 47.) 


William Mills, his son, was very popular, and was engaged 
with his father in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians, and 
at King's Mountain, where he was severely wounded, he acted as 
major under his father. He died in North Carolina, 10 November, 
1834, aged 88. 

Colonel Ambrose Mills has been confused with Colonel William 
Henry Mills, an Irishman who had gone out to America as a sur- 
geon's mate in the British army. Here he served until 1764, when 
he retired from his military duties and settled in South Carolina, 
marrying two years later an American lady at Georgetown in that 
Province. Early in the Revolutionary war, Colonel William Henry 
Mills served in the South Carolina Provincial Congress, but in 
June, 1778, he was appointed colonel of the Cheraws loyal militia. 
He died at Liverpool, England, 7 May, 1786, leaving a widow, Eliza- 
beth, and one daughter. (A. 0. 12/52, fos. 45-46, 327-340 ; Sted- 
man, American War, Vol. II, p. 223; Tarleton, Hist of the Cam- 
paigns of 1780 and 1781, p. 127; Draper, King's Mountain and 
its Heroes, p. 373; B, F. Stevens, Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy, 
Vol. II, pp. 236-7). 

Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Robinson 

Joseph Robinson, a Virginian by birth, was settled on a plan- 
tation on Broad river in South Carolina, where he was deputy sur- 

In 1775 he was appointed major of militia and, 18 November of 
that year, he was in command of 2400 loyalists at Ninety-Six when 
he surrounded an American force under Majors Andrew William- 
son and James Mayson. This inglorious affair ended by the offer 
by Robinson of a cessation of hostilities for twenty days — an offer 
which was joyfully accepted by Williamson and Mayson, whose 
force had nearly expended their ammunition. A party to this treaty 
was Lieutenant-Colonel Evan McLaurin (see pp. 69, 102). 

Colonel Robinson's men were afterwards allowed to return 
home, while he himself went among the friendly Cherokee Indians. 
In his absence his plantation was plundered, his house and buildings 
burnt, and his family driven from home by the Americans. Among 
his possessions destroyed was his valuable library, which included 
60 books on law, the destruction being witnessed by Moses Whealley, 
a loyalist. 


In her petition of October 1, 1816, to Viscount Palmerston, 
secretary of state for war, his wife, Lilley Robinson (whom he 
had married in 1760 in Virginia) states that while a prisoner in the 
hands of the Americans in 1776, she was promised restoration to 
her husband on condition that he consented to be neutral in the war. 
Her answer is not recorded, but she was released in a few days. 
Lilley Robinson proceeded, not to join her husband, but to start on 
a painful journey of 300 miles, accompanied by her two small chil- 
dren, to her father's family in Virginia, traveling mostly by night 
to escape the vigilance of American scouting parties and enduring 
indescribable sufferings. ( W. 0. 42/R8). 

In May, 1778, Colonel Robinson was appointed lieutenant-col- 
onel of the South Carolina Royalists, and in July it was decided that 
this corps should consist of eight companies of 50 rank and file each. 
With this regiment he was present at the battle of Stono, 12 June, 

Mrs. Lilley Robinson, who had returned to South Carolina from 
Virginia, accompanied her husband on the evacuation of Charles- 
ton by the British, to East Florida, where they intended to settle, 
only to find shortly after their arrival that the Colony had been 
ceded to Spain and that they would be included in the 10,000 loyal- 
ists in that Province who suffered privations in consequence of its 
cession. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the American MSS. in the 
Royal Institution, Vol. IV, p. 348.) The harrassed Robinson family, 
in common with many others from the Southern Colonies, now 
sought refugee in the West Indies, but once again they were dogged 
by misfortune, their ship having been wrecked off the coast of 
Florida. Eventually, however, Colonel Joseph Robinson and his 
family reached Jamaica, but after a year's sojourn there, they were 
compelled by the unhealthiness of the climate to seek a home in a 
northern clime. With this object in view, they now set sail for that 
asylum of so many American loyalists, New Brunswick, where they 
lived for three years until 1789, when Colonel Robinson was invited 
to settle at Charlottetown in Prince Edward Island by his friend. 
Colonel Edmund Fanning, lieutenant-governor of that island and 
formerly commanding officer of the loyalist corps, the King's Ameri- 
can regiment. 

Meanwhile, Colonel Robinson had been put on the list of 
seconded Provincial officers and received the half-pay of a lieuten- 
ant-colonel. He was also relieved of anxiety by the grant of £521 


from his claim of £1,618. 10s. for the loss of his property in South 
Carolina and by his appointment as surrogate and judge of probate 
at Charlottetown. This South Carolina loyalist died in that city, 24 
August, 1807, leaving a will (dated 19 July, 1807, and proved 10 
November,) by which he bequeathed property to his widow, Lilley, 
and his three daughters. Lilley Robinson, widow of Colonel Joseph 
Robinson, died at Charlottetown, 11 July, 1823. Elizabeth, the 
eldest daughter bom in New Brunswick in 1788, died unmarried. 
One daughter, Rebecca, married Robert Hodgson, lieutenant in the 
Prince Edward Island Fencibles (reduced in 1802), member of the 
Legislature and speaker until his death, 5 January, 1811, when he 
left four sons and one daughter. Rebecca Hodgson died, 12 May, 
1825, aged 54. Robert Hodgson, the eldest son of Robert and Re- 
becca Hodgson, became judge of probate, chief justice, and lieuten- 
ant-governor of Prince Edward Island, and died a knight at the age 
of 82, 16 September, 1880. The names of the other children of Rob- 
ert and Rebecca Hodgson were: Joseph, Daniel, Christopher, and 
Jane Deborah, 

Matilda, third daughter of Colonel and Lilley Robinson, married 
Ralph Brecken in Prince Edward Island. A daughter of Ralph and 
Matilda Brecken married Donald Macdonald, president of the Legis- 
lative Council of Prince Edward Island, and a son of this marriage 
was Sir William Christopher Macdonald of Montreal, whose muni- 
ficent gifts to McGill University and Macdonald College remain as 
monuments to his memory. (A. O. 13/92; A. 0. 13/138; A. O. 
12/109; Ind. 5605; Hist. MSS. Comm,, Report on the American 
MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. II, pp. 274, 276, 371 ; Second 
Report of the Bureau of Archives, Province of Ontario, 1905, pp. 
791-801; The Royal Commission on Loyalist Claims, 1783-1785, 
ed. by H. E. Egerton ; Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 272-3 ; notes from 
Judge ^neas Macdonald of Charlottetown.) 

General Andrew Williamson 

Andrew Williamson, then a major in the American service, 
received the thanks of the Provincial Congress of South Carolina 
for his services in causing the well-known loyalist, Robert Cunning- 
ham, to be apprehended and sent to Charleston. He with Major 
James Mayson was in command of the American force at Ninety- 
Six in the siege of 18-21 November, 1775 (see pp. 70, 80) . In 1776 


Major Williamson was in command of the expedition against the 
Cherokee Indians. (See p. 7, n. 47). 

Promotion came to this officer in 1778 when he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the Upper brigade of South Carolina militia, 
formed in that year. 

According to Sabine (Loyalists of the American Revolution), 
Williamson changed sides during the war and was active on the 
side of the crown after the fall of Charleston in May, 1780. There 
is not, however, any foundation for the allegation of his martial ac- 
tivity for the British. Believing the American cause to be lost, he 
took protection from his enemies to save his large landed estates, 
just as loyalists had done on the other side. He regarded himself 
as a faithful American and supplied General Greene with informa- 
tion of military value while he was inside the British lines. 

By more than one historian he is described by the opprobrious 
epithet of the "Arnold of Carolina" and the "Southern Arnold" 
(Stevens, History of Georgia, Vol. II, p. 345). The actual capitu- 
lation of Williamson occurred at Ninety-Six, and was regarded by 
the British as a good omen. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the Stop- 
ford-Sackville MSS., Vol. II, p. 169 ; Bancroft, Hist, of the United 
States, Vol. V, p. 378). 

James Simpson, the attorney-general for South Carolina, ad- 
vised the protection of his considerable estates in order to secure 
his influence. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Repoj't on the American MSS. 
in the Royal Inst., Vol. II, p. 150) . One of the acts of infamy alleged 
against him was his advice to his officers when encamped near 
Augusta to return to their homes and accept royal protection, an 
act of treachery for which he is said to have been rewarded by a 
colonel's commission in the British service. (C. C. Jones, Hist, of 
Georgia, II, p. 448). General Williamson's name is included with 
those of General Isaac Huger, Colonels Andrew Pickens, Peter 
Horry, James Mayson, LeRoy Hammond, John Thomas, Sr., 
and Isaac Hayne, and Majors John Postell and John Purvis, in a 
list of American officers who unresistingly gave up their arms and 
took royal protection when detachments of the conquering British 
troops were sent among them (Draper, King's Mountain and its 
Heroes, p. 47) . 

It is evident that the Revolutionary party regarded William- 
son as a deserter or a renegade from the event of 5 July, 1781, when 
Colonel Hayne and his party surrounded his house near Charles- 


ton, seized him, and carried him away. The British thereupon sent 
Major Thomas Fraser and 90 dragoons of the South Carolina Royal- 
ists next day to rescue him. On the 8th. Fraser surprised Hayne's 
camp at Horse Shoe and killed fourteen of the party and wounded 
several others. Colonel Hayne was taken prisoner shortly after- 
wards by Captain Archibald Campbell, of the South Carolina Royal- 
ists, known as "Mad Archy." (E. McCrady, Hist, of South Carolina 
in the Revolution, 1780-1783, pp. 319-321.) 

Although the belief was general in the report of General Wil- 
liamson's acceptance of a commission in the British service, the 
present writer has failed in a diligent search among the loyalist 
documents to find any evidence of the grant of such a commission 
or of any active military service by him on the British side. 

Lieutenant-Colonel James Vernon 

James Vernon emigrated from Scotland in 1760 to Pennsyl- 
vania, where he resided for four or five years until his removal to 
the district of Ninety-Six in South Carolina. Here he bought, in 
conjunction with one John Nicholls, 640 acres of land on Fair 
Forest creek in the present county of Craven. Part of this land 
was sold afterwards by the joint owners to James Martin, and sub- 
sequently John Nicholls disposed of the whole of his share to Aaron 
Harling. The original deed for the purchase of this tract of land 
is still preserved. (A.O. 13/123.) 

James Vernon was granted a commission as ensign, 2 Febru- 
ary, 1774, in the militia regiment of his neighbor. Colonel Thomas 
Fletchall, the original commission being preserved with the deed 
just mentioned. Called up for active service at the commencement 
of the Revolutionary troubles in his own district, this prosperous 
Scotch settler lost all his farm stock in confiscation after the affair 
of Ninety-Six in November, 1775. (See pp. 69, 70.) 

Promoted later by Major Patrick Ferguson to the rank of 
captain in the South Carolina loyal militia, James Vernon received 
further promotion from Lieutenant-Colonel Nisbet Balfour, 2 De- 
cember, 1780, to lieutenant-colonel, the original commission for 
which has survived with the deed and the ensign's commission, men- 
tioned above. In this rank he would seem to have taken over the 
command of Colonel Daniel Plummer's regiment of loyal militia. 

This loyalist officer suffered the ignominy of being taken pris- 
oner twice during the war. 


According to a letter of introduction from Major James Dun- 
lap to Lieutenant-Colonel Nisbet Balfour, dated from Ninety-Six, 
26 January, 1781, Vernon is described as having been driven from 
home by the "rebels" and as "one of the most deserving of our Mi- 
litia Officers." The letter goes on to say that after "Ferguson's af- 
fair," (presumably his defeat at King's Mountain), Lieutenant- 
Colonel Vernon kept his company together and was of infinite serv- 
ice in protecting the neighborhood from plundering parties, as 
well as doing "very material service by killing the noted Ned Hamp- 
ton." (A.O. 13/123.) Ned Hampton was probably Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Edward Hampton (son of Anthony Hampton) who defeated 
Major James Dunlap. (See p. 73.) This American officer's name 
disappears from the pay lists in October, 1780, and therefore it is 
assumed that he was killed between July, 1780 — the date of the 
Dunlap affair — and October. 

At the end of the war, Lieutenant-Colonel James Vernon sought 
refuge with other loyalists in the West Indies, and found employ- 
ment in a subordinate capacity on the estate of William Hall (a 
brother and partner of Thomas Hall of Englefield Green, Egham, 
in Surrey) in the parish of St. James, Jamaica, where also were his 
wife and four sons and two daughters, two of whom were being 
educated in 1790 by the Foundation of the parish of St. James. In 
1790 he was in London, prosecuting his claim for compensation for 
the loss of his property in South Carolina. 

Alexander Vernon, a near kinsman of James Vernon, married 
Margaret Chesney, and resided about ten miles west of Spartanburg 
in South Carolina. (A.O. 12/46, fo. 147 ; A.O. 12/52, fos. 387-400 ; 
A.O. 12/75, fos. 145-147; and A.O. 13/128.) (Papers of Colonel 
Thomas Fletchall.) 

Colonel Zacharias Gibbs 

Born in Virginia in 1741, Zacharias Gibbs migrated to South 
Carolina in or about 1763. Here he was the owner of large planta- 
tions on the fork of Broad river and Saluda river in the district of 
Ninety-Six, as well as large tracts of land at Camden, bought in 
1779 and 1780 from two loyalists, Drury Bishop and John Brown. A 
further addition was made to his property by the purchase in 1781 
of 100 acres at Orangeburg from George Dykes, a loyalist. These 
purchases by Zacharias Gibbs during the war are an indication of 


his faith in the permanence of the subjugation of South Carolina 
in 1780 by the British. 

Captain Zacharias Gibbs, to give him his exact military rank 
at this time, began his military services on the side of the crown 
at Ninety-Six in November, 1775, the engagement which caused the 
first bloodshed in South Carolina in the Revolutionary war, when 
he was present with his company in the attack by the loyalists com- 
manded by Major Joseph Robinson, on the Americans under Major 
Andrew Williamson. (See page 74.) In his evidence before the 
commissioners of American Claims in London he asserted that his 
company took the fort. 

After many adventures and temporary occupations of his plan- 
tations from time to time, he helped Colonel John Boyd to raise 
600 men for the loyalist forces early in 1779, and marched with 
these men to Savannah, which they reached 350 strong in Febru- 
ary, after fighting in two engagements on the way. Shortly after- 
wards he was captured at the battle of Kettle creek in Georgia on 
14 February, 1779, and was marched in irons with other prisoners 
to Ninety-Six, a distance of nearly 400 miles. In this battle the 
loyalists under Colonel Bond were defeated, and Colonel Bond killed. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Moore, of North Carolina, was second in 
command, and Major Spurgen third in command. (C. C. Jones, 
History of Georgia, 1883, pp. 339-342; W. B. Stevens, History of 
Georgia, 1859, Vol. II. pp. 190-192.) 

At Ninety-Six Captain Gibbs was put into prison for fifteen 
months and sentenced to death, but was reprieved. On this occasion 
twenty-two other loyalists were sentenced to share the death pen- 
alty with him. Five only of this number were executed, includ- 
ing his brother-in-law, the remainder having been reprieved on two 
conditions, namely, that they sign their own death warrants and 
that they make written declarations never to return to the 
district of Ninety-Six. During his imprisonment, the gallows and 
grave prepared for him were ever in sight. On his release on 3 
April, 1780, Colonel Gibbs went to Camden, remaining there until 
the capture of Charleston by the British, when he emerged again 
into military activity, and was on 6 July, 1780, commissioned ma- 
jor and later was promoted to the command of his regiment. 

The life of Colonel Zacharias Gibbs from the outbreak of hos- 
tilities in South Carolina until his final departure from the Province 
was full of adventure, as is proved by the loyalist documents. His 


military services were highly praised by Colonel John Harris Cru- 
ger, one of the most distinguished and successful military leaders 
on the loyalist side, in an original certificate which is still pre- 

Colonel Nisbet Balfour, sometime commandant at Charleston, 
testified in evidence in London to his excellent qualities as a man 
and as one of the truest of loyalists, though, with the traditional 
prejudice of the British regular officer against the Provincial or mi- 
litia forces, qualified his praise by adding that Colonel Gibbs was 
not a very good soldier. 

The good-natured Lord Cornwallis gave him a certificate of 
merit, as well as Colonels Balfour and Cruger, all of whose original 
certificates are in the Public Record Office. (A.O. 13/79.) A 
high opinion of the loyalty and meritorious conduct of Colonel 
Zacharias Gibbs was entertained by the commissioners of Ameri- 
can Claims. 

Captain Alexander Chesney was one of his neighbors, their 
plantations being separated by only four miles. 

The name of Colonel Zacharias Gibbs' first wife, who left at 
least two children, is not recorded. His second wife was Jane 
Downes, widow of Major William Downes, an Irish merchant, black- 
smith, and turner, who settled in Camden district. South Carolina, 
after the peace of 1763, having served in the "Royal Irish Artillery" 
in the war in America against the French. He had by his industry 
and thrift acquired valuable plantations and lived in comfort. By 
Lord Rawdon, himself an Irishman, William Downes was appointed 
captain of militia. His military career in the Revolutionary war 
was cut off prematurely by his death on 15 April, 1781, when, by 
an act of treachery, his house was attacked by a party of 164 Amer- 
icans. William Downes ended his life in a gallant defence of his 
home, in which he was assisted by his overseer, who was also 
killed, and by his devoted wife and children in loading his fire-arms. 
This lady was a widow at the time of her marriage in 1773 to this 
Irish loyalist, her first husband having been one William Lindsay, 
the elder, whom she had accompanied in 1763 to South Carolina, 
where they settled near Georgetown. William Lindsay died in 1772, 
leaving a son, Thomas, and two daughters. 

For the loss of her property in South Carolina, derived from 
her husband William Downes, the sum of £2,143 was claimed by 
Jane Downes, and she was awarded £955, as well as a pension of 


£40. She appears to have had seven children by her first and second 
marriages. In September, 1785, she was living with her children at 
Springfield in county Down, Ireland, and was about to join her hus- 
band, Colonel Zacharias Gibbs, in Nova Scotia; but according to 
one document she was still at that Irish place in May, 1789. 

Colonel Zacharias Gibbs settled in 1784 on his grant of 1000 
acres of land in Rawdon in Nova Scotia, where also were settled 
fifty-five other loyalists from South Carolina. (See page 118.) In 
his letter of 4 May, 1787, to Lewis Wolfe, a London agent for Ameri- 
can loyalists, he gives a picture of his life in Nova Scotia, adding 
that he has the large and helpless family of Richard Fenton with a 
wife and four children employed on his wild uncultivated land at 
great expense to him. Fenton was a loyalist from South Carolina, 
though he and his wife were natives of Whitby in Yorkshire. 

Among the other troubles and trials of Colonel Gibbs were the 
absence of his wife in Ireland and the anxiety for his two little 
children by a former wife, in South Carolina. He had made two un- 
successful attempts to obtain these children. One of the attempts 
was made through the agency of a loyalist who was going on a visit 
or returning to that State, but who, on his arrival there, was "mal- 
treated and much abused" because of his loyalty. Letters to South 
Carolina were equally ineffectual in securing them. 

A daughter of Colonel Gibbs by his first marriage, or of Mrs. 
Jane Downes his second wife, by a former marriage, was married 
to Robert Cooper or Cowper, a planter, of Georgetown, South Caro- 
lina. Colonel Zacharias Gibbs was awarded £1,200 on his claim of 
£2,384. 15s, for the loss of his property in South Carolina. (F.0.4/1 ; 
A.O. 12/46, fos. 145-162, 240-252; A.O. 12/99, fos. 26, 225; A.O. 
12/109 ; A. 0. 13/79 ; A. O. 13/129 ; The Royal Commission on Loy- 
alist Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton; Roxburghe Club, 

Major Patrick Ferguson 

Patrick Ferguson was born in Scotland in 1744, and at the age 
of 15 a commission as cornet was bought for him in the British 
Army. He served with conspicuous success in the 2nd. Dragoons in 
the wars in Flanders and Germany. From this regiment he v/as 
transferred as captain to the 70th. Foot, with which he served in 
the American war of Independence until his appointment to the 
command of a body of riflemen, known as the "American Volun- 


teers," composed mostly of native-born loyalists who were selected 
because of their intelligence and skilful marksmanship. The com- 
mand of such a corps was especially congenial to Major Ferguson, 
the best rifle shot in the British Army, and the most versatile and 
brilliant leader in guerilla warfare on the British side, as well as the 
inventor of the first breech-loading rifle used in the British Army. 
The officers were chosen from several of the loyalist regiments, the 
officers in their turn selecting their own men. The original muster 
rolls have been preserved. (Jonas Howe's article in Acadiensis, Vol. 
VI. pp. 237-246 and Vol. VII. pp. 30-41, 149-159.) 

Major Patrick Ferguson was appointed, 22 May, 1780, inspec- 
tor of militia and major-commandant of the first battalion of loyal 
militia raised in South Carolina. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the 
American MSS. in the Royal Inst., Vol. II., pp. 126, 129.) During 
the campaign in South Carolina, Ferguson, while yet a prisoner at 
Charleston, in the house at 5 Liberty Street, of a resourceful and 
resolute English woman, one Elizabeth Thompson, was enabled to 
view the works of the Americans outside, by a daring ruse of that 
loyalist. Ferguson, disguised, was driven by Elizabeth Thompson 
in her own chaise from Charleston through the American lines and 
obtained information of military value. (A.O. 12/46, fos. 74-81; 
The Royal Comm. on Loyalist Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Eger- 
ton, 1915; Roxburghe Club, pp. 30-31.) 

The death of the gallant officer occurred in the battle of King's 
Mountain (see p. 86; Scots Magazine, Vol. 43, pp. 29-30). He is in 
the Dictionary of National Biography. 

Colonel Alexander Innes 

Alexander Innes had been secretary to Lord William Camp- 
bell, governor of South Carolina, before his appointment in Janu- 
ary, 1777, as inspector-general of the Provincial forces in America. 
In 1779 he was given the command of the South Carolina Royalists. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the American MSS. in the Royal 
Inst., Vols. 1-4.) 

Colonel Rudolphus Ritzema, a New York loyalist who had pre- 
viously been in the American service, describes Colonel Innes as 
"a man, whose haughty and supercilious conduct has estranged 
more minds from His Majesty and the British Gov^ than perhaps 
all the other blunders in the conduct of the American war put to- 


gether. This every American officer, not under a national bias, will 
avouch." (Ritzema's petition to Pitt, chancellor of the Exchequer: 
Chatham Papers, Bundle 220.) 

The signature of Colonel Alexander Innes appears in a peti- 
tion shortly after 1791 from officers of the late British-American, 
regiments on half -pay, now in England, offering upon "the present 
prospect of war" with France their military services, which to their 
painful mortification could only be accepted if they joined the Brit- 
ish Army as ensigns, whatever their rank may have been in the 
American war of Independence. (F.O. 4/1.) 

Captain Abraham De Peyster 

Captain Abraham De Peyster was born in New York in 1753, 
the son of James De Peyster and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Hon. 
Joseph Reade. 

Joining the British forces, with other members of this well- 
known New York family, early in the Revolutionary war, he chose 
as his regiment the King's American regiment, composed of volun- 
teers mostly from the Province of New York and formed in Decem- 
ber, 1776, with. Edmund Fanning as colonel. Abraham de Peyster 
was granted a commission as captain within two days of the forma- 
tion of the regiment, namely, on 13 December. 

His brothers, Frederick and James, also joined loyalist corps, 
the former as captain in the "Nassau Blues," a New York corps 
which was raised 1 May, 1779, with William Axtell as colonel, and 
was disbanded in December following, when most of the officers and 
men joined the New York Volunteers. Frederick de Peyster became 
a captain-lieutenant in his brother's regiment, the King's American 

After serving in the Northern Colonies for some time. Captain 
Abraham de Peyster was moved to the South where he went through 
much of the hard fighting in South Carolina in the picked loyalist 
force commanded by Major Patrick Ferguson. (See pp. 82, 83.) 

A brave and enterprising officer, upon him fell the invidious 
duty at the age of 27 of taking over the command of the loyalist 
force at the death of Major Patrick Ferguson, the most brilliant 
leader in guerilla fighting on the British side, at the memorable 
battle of King's Mountain — a battle which was fraught with such 
dire consequences to the British in South Carolina. Captain De 


Peyster's conduct in surrendering has been criticised. Tarleton, 
whose judgments of his brother officers and criticisms of operations 
must be received with caution, maintains that Captain De Peyster 
hoisted the white flag before the blood in Ferguson's body had be- 
come cold, but inasmuch as he was not present in the battle, his 
opinion is not helpful. (Tarleton, History of the Campaigns of 
1780 and 1781, p. 65.) On the other hand such competent 
eye-witnesses as Captains Samuel Ryerson and John Taylor, both 
of the New Jersey Volunteers, and Lieutenant Anthony Allaire, of 
the Loyal American regiment, supported the decision of Captain 
de Peyster to surrender, acquitting him of the charge of timidity 
and declaring that his conduct was in all respects proper. (Mac- 
kenzie, Strictures on Lieut. -Colonel Tarleton's History, 1787, pp. 
58-68) . From a consideration of the evidence on both sides of the 
controversy, it would seem that a defeat for the hard pressed and 
much shaken loyalists, valiant as they were, was inevitable, and that 
he was not guilty of excessive caution in saving his force from 
further suffering. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, p. 

It is unfortunate that Alexander Chesney, a participant in the 
battle, has not offered a definite opinion on the alleged premature 
surrender of the loyalist commander. One important comment, 
however, amounts to a virtual acquittal of the odious charge, name- 
ly, that the Americans having resumed fire after Captain De Pey- 
ster had sent out a flag of truce, he ordered a resumption of the 
battle, in the belief — as subsequent events proved to be true — that 
no quarter would be given to the loyalists, when a "dreadful havoc" 
ensued until the flag was sent out a second time. (See p. 18.) 

At the peace. Captain Abraham De Peyster found an asylum 
with his brother officers in New Brunswick, where he became a 
justice of the peace, treasurer of the Province, and colonel of militia. 
Here he died, 19 February, 1798, leaving a widow and five young 
children. After his death, his widow, a daughter of John Living- 
ston of New York, returned to New York. (Lawrence and Stockton, 
Judges of New Brunswick and Their Times, p. 274; J.W. De Peyster, 
Local Memorials relating to the De Peyster and Watts and affiliated 
families, 1881, pp. 40-45 ; J. W. De Peyster, "The Affair at King's 
Mountain," in The Magazine of American History, Vol. 5, pp. 401- 
404; Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revolution.) 

86 the journal of alexander chesney 

The Battle of King's Mountain 

The memorable battle of King's Mountain was fought Octo- 
ber 7, 1780, between the Americans under the command of Col- 
onels Campbell, Shelby, Cleveland, Sevier, and Williams, and the 
loyalists commanded by Major Patrick Ferguson, composed of de- 
tachments from the King's American regiment, the Queen's 
Rangers, the New Jersey Volunteers, and South Carolina loyal mi- 
litia, and :was one of the most desperately fought battles in the 
Southern Colonies. 

It is not proposed to enter into the controversy regarding the 
numbers of the forces engaged. Whatever the figures may have 
been, the combatants on both sides fought with unsurpassed cour- 
age and determination. The exploit of the Americans deserves all 
the praise bestowed upon it as one of the finest examples of the 
application of Washington's disregarded advice to Braddock to seek 
cover behind trees, and of the splendid marksmanship of the 

The loyalists had fought with unwavering bravery until the 
fall of the intrepid Ferguson somewhat early in the battle, when 
their courage failed them for a moment until their rally by the new 
leader. Captain Abraham De Peyster. The criticisms of this of- 
ficer's alleged premature surrender are considered under the notes 
on Captain De Peyster. 

King's Mountain was the only important battle in the war in 
which the British force was composed entirely of loyalists, except 
Major Ferguson. 

Just as the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga was a momen- 
tous event, not only in hastening the alliance of the Americans with 
France, but also as a great turning point in the war, so the battle 
of King's Mountain may be regarded as the turn of the tide in the 
South, leading to the heartening and the re-organization of the 
American forces in South Carolina for the final triumph in the 
war of Independence. 

It is regrettable that the memory of this signal victory should 
be tarnished by the cruelties inflicted on the loyalists and by the 
execution of nine loyalist officers — Colonel Ambrose Mills, Captains 
James Chitwood, Wilson, Walker, Gilkey, and Grimes, and Lieuten- 
ants Lafferty, John McFall, John Bibby, and Augustine Hobbs. 
(Tarleton, Hist, of the Campaigns 1780 and 1781, p. 168; Moultrie, 
Memoirs, pp. 242-6; Stedman, American War, Vol. II, pp. 245-7; 


Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 332-7 ; Fortescue, Hist, 
of the British Army, Vol. Ill, pp. 323-4 ; E. McCrady, The Hist, of S. 
Carolina in the Rev., 1775-1780, p. 805; S. G. Fisher, The Struggle 
for American Independence, Vol. II, pp. 349-366) . 

Brigadier-General Robert Cunningham 

Robert Cunningham, born in 1741, was the son of John Cun- 
ningham, a member of a Scotch family which settled about 1681 in 
Virginia and removed early in 1769 to the district of Ninety-Six in 
South Carolina. (E. McCrady, The History of South Carolina in 
the Revolution, 1775-1780, p. 38.) Robert Cunningham acquired a 
plantation of his own at Island ford on the Saluda river and by 
energy and industry became a man of wealth and influence. 

From the dawn of the Revolution Robert Cunningham dis- 
played the most uncompromising spirit of loyalty. (Hist. MSS. 
Comm., Report on the MSS. of the Earl of Dartmouth, Vol. II, p. 
355.) The treaty of neutrality made between that urbane and easy- 
going loyalist. Colonel Thomas Fletchall, and William Henry Dray- 
ton, September 16, 1776, provoked his bitter opposition and brought 
forth his refusal to be bound by it, in a letter to Drayton, dated Oc- 
tober 6 following (see p. 69 and Drayton, Memoirs of the Revolu- 
tion, Vol. I, p. 418). So dangerous a foe was not permitted to re- 
main at large and on November 1, while holding the rank of cap- 
tain in the loyal militia, Cunningham was committed to Charleston 
jail on a charge of committing high crimes and misdemeanors 
against the liberties of South Carolina, having, according to a let- 
ter written from Savannah on the 19th., been seized by a party 
disguised as Indians. He was detained a prisoner until February, 
1776. (Force, American Archives, Series IV, Vol. 3, p., 1606; ibid., 
Vol. 4, p. 29 ; E. McCrady, The Hist, of South Carolina in the Revo- 
lution, 1775-1780, p. 86; A. S. Salley, Jr., Hist, of Orangeburg 
County, 1898, pp. 304-7; Moultrie, Memoirs, Vol. I, p. 100.) His 
brother. Major Patrick Cunningham, with a party of loyalists made 
an unsuccessful attempt to rescue him from the hands of his cap- 
tors. (See p. 104.) 

The British Government awarded him compensation to the 
amount of £1,080 from his estimated loss of £1,355 for his South 
Carolina property confiscated by the State. (A.O. 12/109.) 

Brigadier-General Cunningham at the conclusion of the war 
in his own Province set sail for the Bahamas with other com- 


patriots and settled at Nassau in the island of New Providence, so 
aptly named as the harbor of refuge for the distressed loyalists. 
In this new home Robert Cunningham settled on the tracts of valu- 
able land which had been granted to him for his services in the 
American Revolutionary war. Here he died, 9 February, 1813. On 
his tombstone in the western cemetery is inscribed :".... exiled 
from his native Country in the American Revolution for his attach- 
ment to his King and the Laws of his Country." His wife, Mar- 
garet, survived him only a few weeks, having died 26 March at the 
age of 76. 

Four children were left by Robert and Margaret Cunningham, 
namely, John, who married, 5 March, 1795, Ann Harrold ; Charles ; 
Margaret, who was married, 22 June 1790, to Richard Pearis, son 
of Colonel Richard Pearis, a loyalist from South Carolina (see p. 
104) ; and Elizabeth, who married, 1 May, 1792, Robert Brownlee, a 
loyalist. In his will are mentioned, in addition to his wife and chil- 
dren, the following family connections : John, natural son of John 
Cunningham by a woman named Hannah Ridley; his sister, Mar- 
garet Cunningham, and her son, Robert Andrew Cunningham ; his 
cousin, Jean, daughter of Thomas Edwards ; his cousin, Robert Cun- 
ningham, son of David Cunningham, to whom was bequeathed 300 
dollars for his education ; and his two cousins, Margaret Fenny and 
Elizabeth Brown, daughters of Joseph Jefferson. 

Patrick, David, and John Cunningham, three loyalist brothers 
of Brigadier Robert Cunningham, remained in South Carolina after 
the war. (A.O. 12/3, fos. 8-10; A.O. 12/48, fo. 215; A.O. 12/92; 
A.O. 12/109; A.O. 13/97; A.O. 13/127; Sabine, Loyalists of the 
American Revolution, Vol. I, 346, 349; A. T. Bethell, The Early 
Settlers of the Bahama Islands, 1914, pp. 21-23.) William Cunning- 
ham, known as "Bloody Bill," was a cousin of Brigadier-General 
Cunningham, He was only nineteen at the beginning of the war, 
and was lively and jovial, open-hearted and generous, and a remark- 
able horseman. (E. McCrady, The History of South Carolina in the 
Revolution, 1780-1783, pp. 467-476.) 

Colonel Daniel Plummer 

Daniel Plummer, a planter in the district between Fair Forest 
and Tiger river in what is now Spartanburg county in South Caro- 
lina, derives his military title from his command of one of the loyal 
militia regiments, established by Lord Cornwallis in 1780. His 


regiment formed part of the brigade of militia in the district of 
Ninety-Six in South Carolina, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Robert Cunningham, the loyalist. Among his officers was Alexander 
Chesney, who was appointed adjutant and captain in the autumn of 
1780. (Vide his original certificate for pay due to Chesney in T. 

At a period in the Revolutionary war when passions were furi- 
ous on both sides. Colonel Plummer was regarded both by friend 
and foe as honest and generous. As an example of his humanity, at 
a moment when severe measures towards enemies were demanded 
by the loyalists, he spared the life of young Jonathan Hampton, a 
prisoner in his hands in September, 1780, as well as giving security 
for his appearance at trial. 

Colonel Plummer was present with his militia at the memorable 
battle of King's Mountain, the turning point in the war in the South, 
and is stated to have been killed there (E. McCrady, History of 
South CaroliTia in the Revolution, 1775-1780, p. 798) ; but there is 
evidence not only from Chesney (p. 20), but also from an official 
document in the Public Record Office (T. 50/2) that he was alive 
at Charleston on 11 April, 1782. He appears, however, to have been 
badly wounded and to have been incapacitated from active service 
sometime before the conclusion of the war. 

A list of his oflficers and men who accompanied Lieutenant-Col- 
onel John Harris Cruger, of De Lancey's brigade, to Orangeburg 
from June to December, 1780, is in T. 50/1. 

Colonel Daniel Plummer would seem to have found a temporary 
home at Savannah in Georgia before the end of the war. (A.O. 13/ 
100.) A daughter died at Charleston in December, 1781. (T. 50/5.) 

It is assumed from the absence of his name from lists of 
claims and pensions that this worthy loyalist died before the end 
of the war. 

(For other accounts of Colonel Plummer, see Draper, King's 
Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 142-4, 154-5, 483.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Harris Cruger 

John Harris Cruger, of New York, was appointed September 6, 
1776, lieutenant-colonel of the 1st battalion of De Lancey's brigade 
of loyalists, raised by his father-in-law, Oliver De Lancey, of New 
York, In 1778 he sailed with the British force under Colonel Archi- 
bald Campbell for Georgia and was present in several actions in 


S':!uth Carolina. His defence of Ninety-Six was one of the immortal 
episodes of the Revolutionary war. Shut up with a small force of 
about 300 loyalists of his own regiment and of the New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Allen, and 
150 loyal militia of South Carolina under Lieutenant-Colonel Richard 
King, a total of about 450 against General Greene's besieging army 
of over 4,000 and a train of artillery, (which was flushed with the 
conquest of five successive posts) , Cruger held on with indomitable 
courage and resource for 28 days, from May 22, 1781, until June 19, 
when he was relieved by Lord Rawdon. His merits as a leader of 
irregular troops and his natural abilities have not received adequate 
appreciation. (Cruger's original memorial is in the Public Record 
Office, A.O. 13/54.) 

The British Legion 

The regiment of the British Legion was raised in America by 
Lord Cathcart in 1778 and was at first composed of six troops of 
cavalry and six companies of infantry, Banistre Tarleton being ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel commandant, August 1 in the same year 
at the age of 24. (Ind: 5604.) A detachment of its cavalry served 
under Banistre Tarleton in his destruction of Colonel Buf ord's force 
at the Waxhaws in June, 1780. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the 
American MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. 11, p. 143.) Lord 
Rawdon, in recognition of the gallantry of the mounted infantry of 
the Legion at the battle of Hanging Rock (when by a ruse of 
forty of their number spreading themselves out and creating the 
illusion of being a formidable force, they deceived Sumter) offered 
colors to the corps and medals to the officers, an offer which was de- 
clined by Tarleton. (Carleton Correspondence in the Public Record 
Office.) Captain Kenneth McCulloch, of the British Legion, was 
distinguished for his bravery in this action, where he received such 
wounds as caused his death shortly afterwards. (Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Report on the MSS. of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville, Vol. II, p. 178.) 
Major John Garden, of the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers, 
who was in command of a loyalist force in this action at Hanging 
Rock, was disgraced by resigning the command to Captain John 
Rousselet, of the British Legion, in the heat of action. (Stedman, 
American War, Vol. II, pp. 224-5.) 

The employment of prisoners of war as combatants was a com- 
mon practice on both sides in the war. For example, some of the 


prisoners captured by the British at the fall of Charleston, 12 May, 
1780, and in the defeat of Gates at Camden, 16 August, 1780, were 
drafted in February following into the Duke of Cumberland's regi- 
ment (Loyal American Rangers), commanded by Lord Charles 
Greville Montagu, formerly governor of South Carolina, who en- 
deavored to fill it with South Carolinians as officers. These men 
joined the regiment in the West Indies. In a roster, preserved in 
the Public Record Office, these prisoners' names, ages, heights, and 
country of origin, are given. Of a total of 187, the greatest number 
hailed from Virginia, namely, 54. North Carolina contributed 32, 
and England and Ireland 26 each, while 7 came each from South 
Carolina and Pennsylvania. Six were Scotch and three each were 
French and German. Four were from Maryland and the remainder 
were from other American Colonies and from the West Indies and 
Bermuda. (State Papers Domestic, Military, 29.) 

John Cruden 

John Cruden, the younger, was the son of the Rev. William 
Cruden (1725-85), and his wife, Clementina, and was bom in 1754. 
His father, a member of a well-known Aberdeenshire family, took 
the degree of M.A. at the University of Aberdeen in 1743 and, after 
acting as a minister in Scotland for thirty years, was appointed min- 
ister in 1773 of the old Scotch Presbyterian church, in Crown 
Court, Covent Garden, London, which was founded in 1718. This 
Scottish minister was in frequent correspondence with his son, John, 
during the American war of Independence, on the British side. He 
died in London, 5 November, 1785, and was buried in the well- 
known Puritan burial ground in Bunhill fields. (Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography.) 

The subject of this notice became a partner in the house of 
John Cruden and Company, merchants, of Wilmington and other 
places in North Carolina, which consisted of his uncle, John Cruden, 
and his younger brother, James, who was taken into partnership in 
1770. His uncle had amassed a considerable fortune in trade in the 
West Indies and afterwards settled among his Scottish compatriots 
in North Carolina, as a merchant and planter. 

In a letter to his father, dated 28 January, 1778, from New 
York, John Cruden expresses his views on affairs in America, advo- 
cating stronger measures in the restriction of trade among the 
Americans, and condemning the laxity of Lord Howe, commander- 


in-chief of the British Navy on the North American station. In an- 
other letter he refers to his visit with a flag of truce to his uncle, 
John Cruden, then a prisoner "among the rebels." 

From the outbreak of the Revolution young Cruden was an ac- 
tive loyalist, and during the war received a commission as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers. Lord Cornwallis, dis- 
cerning his merits, offered him a commission as commissioner "for 
the seizure, superintendence, custody and management of captured 
property" in South Carolina, the commission (still preserved) being 
dated 16 September, 1780. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on the Amer- 
ican MSS. in the Royal Inst., Vol. II, p. 183.) An example of the 
receipts issued by Cruden for the rents of the sequestered property 
is to be found in the original receipt for the estate of Henry Lau- 
rens, then a prisoner in the Tower of London. (With the papers of 
Robert Frogg in A.O. 13/128.) 

John Cruden published in London, as "President of the As- 
sembly of the United Loyalists," a pamphlet entitled. An Addr-ess 
to the Loyal Part of the British Empire, and friends of Monarchy 
throughout the Globe. (Report on the Management of the Estates 
Sequestered in South Carolina, by Order of Lord Cornwallis, in 
1780-1782, by John Cruden. Edited by Paul Leicester Ford, 1890.) 

This Scotch- American loyalist was the writer of an interesting 
letter to Lord Dartmouth, dated 28 October, 1784, from St. Mary's 
river. East Florida, wherein he refers to his plan for the restora- 
tion of America to England. "America," he says, "shall yet be 
ours, but the House of Brunswick do not deserve the sovereignty 
of it." 

In another letter from John Cruden, dated 12 December, 1784, 
from the same place, he pictures his great distress, having twice 
sacrificed his fortune, and recounts his services in the cause of the 
crown. He had been paymaster to the North Carolina Provincials 
and had refused the offers pressingly made by the enemies of Great 
Britain to join them. An address from the loyalists of East Flor- 
ida to the governor, Patrick Tonyn, testified to John Cruden's great 
services and applauded the governor's choice of Cruden, who by h'.s 
influence, zeal, and spirit had prevented the Province from being 
overrun by a band of desperate men. His precise duties are not, 
however, stated in this address. (Treas. 1/622.) 


During his duties in East Florida, Cruden had occasion to dis- 
approve strongly of the actions of one William Brown, commissioner 
for the evacuation of St. Augustine, whom he alleges had aided and 
abetted one Dobbins, master of a transport, in shipping a cargo of 
mahogany, etc. to Charleston, by which means Dobbins had so en- 
riched himself as to be able to buy a vessel. (Treas. 1/622.) 

John Cruden was a facile writer. In a letter to the lords com- 
missioners of the Treasury, dated 10 February, 1786, he alludes to 
criticism, apparently made in England, of his former endeavors to 
make Florida "a gathering spot to shake in due time the baseless 
fabric of American Independence," and combats the doctrine that 
England was better off without the American or any other Colonies, 
claiming that perhaps he knows more of North and South America 
than any man attached to Great Britain. This letter also contains 
an eloquent plea for the promotion of trade between the Bahamas, 
Bermuda, and Great Britain. A second letter from the same facile 
pen, dated 7 May, 1786, from Nassau in the island of Providence in 
the Bahamas, mentions his lottery scheme for the benefit of the 
distressed American loyalists there. 

John Cruden made the voyage to Nova Scotia later in the year, 
with the object of presenting his claim for compensation for the 
loss of his American property, to the commissioner. Colonel Dundas, 
to whom he mentions in a letter written from Halifax, 30 October, 
1786, his "unfortunate and ill-fated kinsman, D. Forrester of Dona- 

Returning to the Bahamas, John Cruden, the younger, died 
there in the following year, on 18 September, at the age of 33, un- 
married. Here also died his uncle, John Cruden, the elder, in the 
island of Exuma in 1786, leaving a widow and an infant son, also 
named John. 

James Cruden, the younger brother and former partner in the 
business in North Carolina, made a claim on the British Govern- 
ment, as sole surviving partner of John Cruden and Company, for 
the sum of £9,621 and was awarded £2,400. (A.O. 12/109.) He was 
in London in 1789. (A.O. 12/37, fos. 9-29; A.O. 12/73, fos. 117-120; 
A.O. 13/28 ; A.O. 13/97 ; Hist. Miss. Comm., Report on the Mss. of 
the Earl of Dartmouth, Vol. II. pp. 413, 447, 448, 458, 460, 469, 480, 

94 the journal of alexander chesney 

Colonel Robert Ballingall 

Robert Ballingall was a prosperous planter in St. Bartholo- 
mew's parish, South Carolina, as is indicated by the inventory of 
his personal estate — furniture, plate, jewels, and 300 volumes of 
books. His wife, whose name is not recorded in the documents, be- 
queathed to him for his use during his life a plantation in that 
parish, and a large pew in the chapel there, as well as a pew at St. 
Edmundsbury's. All this property was to pass at Robert Balling- 
all's death to her daughter, who was born in 1775. (A.O. 13/125.) 

Robert Ballingall was appointed by Lord Cornwallis to the 
command of the Colleton county loyal militia, with the rank of 
colonel, in 1780. (See p. 113.) 

As chairman of a body of South Carolina loyalists, he signed 
the original address (undated) to Lieutenant-General Alexander 
Leslie, relying upon Leslie's willingness to adopt such measures as 
would effectually prevent the execution of the laws passed by the 
"usurped" Legislature of South Carolina, confiscating the estates 
of the loyalists, and for the accomplishment of these measures ten- 
dering their services at the risk of their lives and fortunes. (Hist. 
MSS. Comm., Report on the American the Royal Institution, 
Vol. n, p. 436.) Colonel Ballingall as secretary of the committee of 
the South Carolina loyalists signed the report, dated July 8, 1784, 
regarding their losses sustained by the payment of debts due to 
them in the depreciated paper currency of South Carolina instead 
of in the lawful money of the State. The other signatories to this 
report were: John Rose, Robert Williams, Dr. Alexander Garden, 
John Hopton, William Ancrum, Robert Williams Powell, Charles 
Ogilvie, and Gideon Dupont. (A.O. 12/48; A.O. 12/99; A.O. 

Colonel Robert Ballingall was awarded £2,070 as compensation 
by the British Government for the loss of his property in South 
Carolina, from his claim £3,974. (A.O. 12/109.) In the year 1788 
he was living at Montrose in Scotland. 

Colonel Isaac Hayne 

Isaac Hayne was senior captain of the Round company in 
the Colleton county regiment when it surrendered to the British 
at the capitulation of Charleston in May, 1780. 

His execution at Charleston, August 4, 1781, excited great re- 
sentment among the Americans. One of many charges made in 


justification of his execution was that Hayne, although he had re- 
newed his oath of allegiance to the king, had been found in arms 
agf)inst the British and therefore deserved death. To General 
Greene's threat of reprisals for his death, Colonel Nisbet Balfour 
replied that at the moment when three loyalist officers suffered 
death (Lieutenant Fulkes, publicly executed at Motte's house; Col- 
onel James Grierson, murdered after his surrender at Augusta; 
and Major James Dunlap, put to death by his guard;) he had in 
his hands the lives of several American officers whom he had spared. 
(Hist. MSS. Comm., Report of the American MSS. in the Royal 
Institution, Vol. II, p. 327.) 

Colonel Isaac Hayne's execution was the subject of a motion 
for information by the duke of Richmond in the House of Lords on 
4 February, 1782, a motion which was negatived. Lord Rawdon, 
considering that a serious imputation had been made on his hu- 
manity, demanded and ultimately received a public apology from 
the duke. (Pari Hist., Vol. XXII., pp. 966-970, n.) 

(See Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revolution; Thomas 
Jones, Hist, of Neiv York, Vol. II, pp. 213-220, 473 ; E. McCrady, 
Hist, of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1780-1783, pp. 382-398; 
S. G. Fisher, The Struggle for American Independence, 1908, Vol. 
II. pp. 333, 432; Roderick Mackenzie, Strictures on Lieut.-Col. 
Tarleton's History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the 
Southern Provinces of North America, 1787, p. 140; Moultrie's 
Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 241-2; Scots Magazine, Vol. 43, pp. 702-5). 

Major John Robinson 

John Robinson, an active loyalist, was a carpenter and jour- 
neyman who emigrated from Ireland in 1771 and settled on a plan- 
tation in the Waxhaws in South Carolina. In casting lots for serv- 
ing in the American militia early in the Revolutionary war, the 
lot fell upon John Robinson and he served for two months. In his 
memorial he claims to have joined the loyalist corps in June, 1780, 
under Colonel Rugeley, presumably Colonel Rowland Rugeley of 
Clermont, or Rugeley's Mills, in Kershaw county. It is not clear 
whether Robinson was present on 1 Decem.ber, 1780, when Colonel 
William Washington with some light cavalry reconnoitered this 
home of Colonel Rugeley, which was occupied by about 100 loyalists. 
Observing that the log barn by which the place was protected could 
only be successfully attacked by artillery. Colonel Washington in- 


geniously deceived Colonel Rugeley by having the trunk of a tree 
formed in the shape of a field piece, and placing it in a menacing 
position in front of the loyalists, whose surrender was thereupon 
formally demanded. Colonel Rugeley, fearing that his defences 
would be powerless against the dummy field piece, surrendered with 
his whole party without firing a shot, to the mortification of the 
loyalists and to the indignation of Lord Comwallis, who had ap- 
parently contemplated promoting him to the rank of brigadier- 
general. (B. E. Stevens, Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy, Vol. I, 
pp. 205, 239, 251, 308 ; S. G. Fisher, The Struggle for American 
Independence, 1908, Vol. II, p. 373.) 

He served at several actions, including the battle of Camden, 
where he was a captain, and was afterwards promoted major of 
the First regiment of Camden militia, commanded by Colonel Rob- 
ert English. In April, 1781, he was wounded in a skirmish at Beaver 
creek, about twenty miles from Camden. A loyalist brother of 
Major John Robinson was killed in action. According to his me- 
morial, he was one of the organizers of a race meeting held for the 
purpose of collecting together the loyalists of the district of Great 
Lynch creek with the object of taking the American magazine at 
Camden, but this ruse to disarm suspicion failed and the party, to 
the number of about seventy, was dispersed and he was taken 

The loyalist, Colonel William Fortune, says that Major Robin- 
son was "the most beloved by his men of any captain except Mr. 
McCulloch" (probably James McCulloch). 

The pay list of his company of Camden militia is in the Public 
Record Office in London. 

Major John Robinson claimed £751 for the loss of his real 
property in South Carolina and was awarded £240. 

He returned to his native Ulster at the end of the war and re- 
ceived the appointment of tide waiter at Lame. 

(Public Record Office: A.O. 12/46, fos. 262-269; A.O. 12/99, 
fo. 228; A.O. 12/109. The Royal Commission on Loyalist Claims, 
1783-1785; Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 55-56.) 

Major Michael Egan 

Michael Egan was one of many Irish emigrants from the Prov- 
ince of Ulster to South Carolina, where he had settled in 1771 
within nine miles of Camden in partnership with one Inglis in 


a plantation, having saved £500 by industry and frugality between 
that date and 1775. 

Early in the Revolutionary war, Michael Egan bore arms for 
the Americans against the loyalist, Brigadier-General Robert Cun- 
ningham, and soon afterwards sold his share in the plantation for 
£500 and settled as a storekeeper at Charleston. At the capitula- 
tion of that city to the British in 1780 Egan joined the loyalists and 
was subsequently given a commission as major in the First Camden 
militia under Colonel Robert English. 

At the end of the war Major Michael Egan returned with 
his wife to Ireland. 

The commissioners of American Claims expressed their dis- 
satisfaction with his conduct in bearing arms for the Americans, 
but in view of the strong certificates to his merits from Lord 
Cornwallis, Lord Rawdon, and General Alexander Leslie, he was 
allowed a bounty of £30 a year and granted compensation for £110, 
from his estimated loss of £272 for property in South Carolina. 

Major Michael Egan probably died in 1831, the date of the 
cessation of his pension. (T. 50/8; T. 50/28; A.O. 12/99, fo. 341; 
A.O. 12/109.) 

James Barber 

James Barber emigrated from Ireland to America in 1776, at 
the age of 16, first to Pennsylvania, where he worked as a laborer. 
Rather than take the oath of allegiance to the Americans he betook 
himself to South Carolina, where he appears to have become the 
owner of a small plantation. After the capitulation of Charleston 
in May, 1780, this young Irishman joined a corps of loyal militia 
under Colonel Rowland Rugeley, with whom he was taken prisoner 
when this officer surrendered without firing a shot, and thus lost his 
chance of promotion to the rank of brigadier-general (see p. 96). 
James Barber served in more than one action in South Carolina and 
rose in rank from private to quartermaster. He returned to his 
native land and received as compensation for the loss of his little 
property the sum of £42. (T. 50/1 ; A.O. 12/46, fos. 82-85 ; A.O. 

Philip Henry 

This loyalist was bom in London in 1749 and emigrated at 
the age of 19 to South Carolina. For many months he was in the 
employ of one Michie, a Charleston merchant. After the death of 


Michie, whose partner he would have become, he started business 
on his own account as a factor and quickly achieved prosperity, his 
income varying from £400 to £800 a year. He was the owner of 
large tracts of land in South Carolina and was the agent for the 
estates of one Bruton; Dr. James Clitherall, surgeon to the South 
Carolina Royalists, a loyalist regiment; Dr. John Farquharson, a 
loyalist ; and others. 

Philip Henry in the early days of the Revolutionary war, confi- 
dent of success of British arms, embarked on extensive specula- 
tions in land. 

As a loyalist who declined to take the oath of allegiance to the 
Americans, (passed by act of 28 March, 1778,) he was banished 
from South Carolina and was obliged to embark with other loyalists 
on board the Providence (Captain Richard Stevens) , bound for Rot- 
terdam. Among the fellow exiles of Philip Henry on board were his 
friends and part owners of this vessel, Robert Rowand, Daniel Man- 
son, and James Weir. The warrant, authorizing the master to take 
Philip Henry on board, was signed by Rawlins Lowndes and dated 
22 June, 1778. The Providence was captured off the American coast 
by the British frigate Rose (Captain James Reed) and taken to 
New York, where she was libelled in the Vice- Admiralty Court and 
the crew pressed into the British navy. Both the vessel and the 
cargo were, however, ordered to be returned to the owners by the 
decision of the judge, Robert Bayard. 

Philip Henry advertised in the South Carolina and American 
General Gazette for June 25, 1778, requesting all his debtors to dis- 
charge their debts and all his creditors to call for payment before 
the date fixed by the General Assembly for his banishment. His 
furniture and silver, which are further proof of his prosperity, had 
been advertised in the same paper for sale on 3 June. 

Accompanying this loyalist on his voyage to Europe on board 
the Sally from New York were his wife, S. M. Henry, and Miss 
Thomey. Soon after landing in England he was appointed to a post 
in the Irish board of Customs. In a letter written from Dublin, 18 
February, 1786, Philip Henry complains bitterly of his reverse of 
fortune by the war and gives a long account of the capture of the 

Philip Henry before his death had become a clerk of the Sta- 
tionary at Dublin, as well as an officer in the Customs. 


He was awarded £2,723. 16s. as compensation for the loss of his 
property in South Carolina, from his claim of £16,351 and a pen- 
sion of £100 a year. (A.O. 12/46; fos. 122-143; A.O. 12/99, fo. 2; 
A.O. 12/109 ; A.0.13/79 ; A.O. 13/129 ; The Royal Comm. on Loyal- 
ist Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton; Roxburghe Club, 
1915, p. 44.) 

James Simpson 

James Simpson was the son of William Simpson, chief justice 
of Georgia, who died in 1768, and was admitted clerk of the Council 
in South Carolina in 1764 and five years later received the appoint- 
ment of judge of the Admirality. In 1774 James Simpson was ap- 
pointed attorney-general for South Carolina. During the Revolu- 
tionary war he took an active but judicious part on the British side 
and was regarded by political opponents with respect, being de- 
scribed by one of these as a "humane and just man." (Alexander 
Garden, Anecdotes of the American Revolution, 1828, p. 112.) 

As a member of the committee of the South Carolina loyalists 
for investigating the value of their property, he made a report 
to the commissioners of American Claims in which he says: ". . . 
many well disposed people [loyalists] were obliged to go down the 
stream who anxiously desired to be rescued from a situation from 
which they could not extricate themselves . . . ," in consequence 
of the lack of energetic measures taken by the governor. Lord 
William Campbell, and of the "sudden and violent introduction of 
the system adopted by the Americans" (A.O. 12/107, fos. 5-13, 39- 
40). His observations on the condition of South Carolina in July, 
1780, when he wrote as follows to Sir Henry Clinton, are of inter- 
est: "... Nothing but the evidence of my senses would have 
convinced me that one half of the distress I am a witness to could 
have been produced in so short a time in so rich and flourishing a 
country as Carolina was when I left it. Numbers of families, who, 
four years ago, abounded in every convenience and luxury of life, 
are without food to live on, clothes to cover them, or the means 
to purchase either. It hath appeared to me the more extraordinary, 
because until 12 months ago it had not been exposed to any other 
devastation of war except the captures made at sea ..." (Hist. 
MSS. Comm., Report on the American MSS. in the Royal Inst. Vol. 
II, 149-150.) 

James Simpson was admitted a member of the Honorable So- 
ciety of the Middle Temple, 14 November, 1777, while occupying the 


dignity of attorney-general of South Carolina — an historic inn 
which includes on its roll of membership five signatories to the 
Declaration of American Independence : Edward Rutledge, Thomas 
Lynch, Thomas Heyward, Arthur Middleton, and Thomas McKean, 
as well as Peyton Randolph, president of the Continental Congress. 
His eldest son, William, was admitted to the same Inn, 13 May, 

Such was James Simpson's prosperity in South Carolina that 
of his claim of £20,608 for the loss of his property there he was 
awarded by the British Government the sum of £8,077. In addition 
he received £3,518 for the loss of his professional income per an- 
num, and was also granted a pension of £860 a year. (A.O. 12/109.) 

Barbara Simpson, wife of James Simpson, died March 2, 1795, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey, near Poet's Comer. Her 
husband died November 30, 1815, aged 78, and was buried in the 
Temple Church. 

Mentioned in his wills and codicil, dated June 9, 1809, and 
April 26, 1815, and proved December 22, 1815, are his three daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth Loftus, Margaret Roadington (who predeceased 
him), and Anne, wife of Henry Trail, his executor, and his son, 
George Augustus, who died between June 9, 1809, and December 
22, 1815, leaving two children, Henry George and Dorothea. 

Captain James Miller 

James Miller was an Irish emigrant who settled in February, 
1775, at Jackson's creek in Camden district. South Carolina, where 
he bought 200 acres of land from one James Phillips for £2 an acre. 
In his petition he states that in the spring of 1775, a Mr. Tanner, 
(probably the Rev. William Tennent) and one Richardson brought 
to his district an association against Great Britain for signature. In- 
cited by this minister in a sermon to sign this association, half the 
congregation signed it, but James Miller and other loyalists refused. 
In this same petition. Miller maintains that the Revolutionary party 
in the spring of 1776 issued a proclamation, promising that all 
loyalists who returned at once to their plantations would not be 
molested. This promise was not fulfilled, however, the planters 
having been seized. After suffering imprisonment for over nine- 
teen weeks, James Miller appears to have joined a loyalist force 
under Captain James Phillips, which had been engaged in the siege 
of Ninety-Six in November, 1775, and was a member of the party 


of loyalists piloted up to Palocet by Alexander Chesney (see page 
6). His steadfast loyalty was rewarded in August, 1780, by his 
appointment as captain in the Jackson's creek loyal militia, com- 
manded by his friend and neighbor. Colonel John Phillips, who 
had known him from infancy. With this corps, or a detachment 
of it, Captain Miller served under Lieutenant-Colonel George Turn- 
bull, of the New York Volunteers, some time during the war. In 1778 
he was induced to buy 150 acres of land on Great Beaver creek from 
George Ray for £300, because the settlers in his own district had 
become "so disaffected to the King that he could not live peacably 
among them." Captain James Miller was not, however, destined 
to live on his new plantation, which was bought or sequestered by 
Captain Hugh Millen, an American oflEicer. He left South Carolina 
before the end of the war and received an appointment as Customs 
officer in Ireland, and a pension of £30 a year. The sum of £370 
was awarded to him as compensation by the British Government 
for the loss of his property in South Carolina. His wife died at 
Charleston in August, 1782. (T. 50/5 ; A.O. 12/109 ; A.O. 12/46, f os. 
202-210; A.O. 13/79; A.O. 13/133; The Royal Comm. on Loyalists 
Claims, 1783-1785, ed. by H. E. Egerton; Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 

Captain James Miller was an executor of Colonel John Phillips 
(see page 62) . 

Lieutenant-Colonel Evan McLaurin 

Evan McLaurin, a Scotsman, had settled in the Dutch fork, at 
a place called Spring Hill, 15 miles from the Saluda river on the 
road from thence to Kennedy's ford on the Enoree river, by the 
Long lane, commonly called the Charleston road, on the west side of 
Broad river and 3 miles distant from that river. It was at this 
spot that Drayton held a public meeting early in the Revolution, 
with the object of persuading the inhabitants of the district to sign 
the association of support for the American cause. Ten had already 
signed, when McLaurin appeared on the scene and by his influence 
prevented the addition of another signature. Drayton, chagrined 
at the Scotsman's opposition, forthwith recommended the Council 
of Safety at Charleston to stop all goods destined for McLaurin's 
store at Dutch fork, a method of coercion by which it was hoped to 
undermine McLaurin's influence among his neighbors. (Drayton 
Memoirs, Vol. I, pp. 363-4, 369-370) . 


Lieutenant Colonel Evan McLaurin was one of the signatories 
to the treaty of neutrality of September 16, 1775, as well as to the 
later treaty in November following. (See Colonel Thomas Fletchall, 
Additional Notes, p. 69). 

In December, 1779, his name appears as lieutenant-colonel in 
the muster roll of the South Carolina Royalists, a rank which he 
shared with Joseph Robinson. 

Lieutenant-Colonel McLaurin died at Charleston in June, 17S2, 
leaving a widow, Isabella, and two children. ( A.O. 12/109 ; T. 50/8 ; 
T. 50/27.) 

Colonel Richard Pearis 

Richard Pearis was born in Ireland and settled in Frederick 
county, Virginia, before 1750. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
war he was a successful planter and Indian trader on the Enoree 
river in South Carolina. 

An orator of rude, savage eloquence and power, he commended 
himself to Governor Dinwiddie by his loyalty and efficiency. He 
became lieutenant in the Virginia Provincial regiment in 1755 and 
was commissioned captain in 1756 to command a company of Chero- 
kees and Catawbas in an expedition against the Shawnee towns 
west of the Ohio, under Major Andrew Lewis. Pearis served under 
Generals Forbes, Stanwix, Monckton, and Bouquet. He was the 
first to enter Fort Duquesne. His military ability was apparent in 
his services on the borders of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Vir- 
ginia, with headquarters at Fort Pitt. 

Having married a Cherokee wife. Captain Pearis acquired 
great influence among the Indians, and was consequently ordered 
south. In 1768 he was settled at the Big Canebrake, on the Reedy 
river. South Carolina. 

Every effort was made by the Whigs in 1775 to induce this 
powerful man and the Indians to join them, or at least to secure 
their neutrality. However, Pearis took part in the siege of Ninety- 
Six on the British side (see page 71) and many other actions. 

In July, 1776, he was one of a party of 260 loyal militia and 
Indians which unsuccessfully attacked 450 "rebels" in a wooden 
fort. (Colonel David Fanning's "Narrative," edited by A. W. Sa- 
vary, Canadian Magazine, 1908.) 

According to his own narrative, his services to the crown in 
the same year include the dispersal of 700 "rebels" in the district 
of Ninety-Six (A.O. 13/93) . By the turn of fortune he was cap- 


tured and consigned to Charleston jail, where he was a prisoner 
in irons for nine months. On his release, Pearis wended his way 
on foot, traversing 700 miles, to West Florida, through the settle- 
ments of the Indians, who supplied him with food. Arriving at 
Pensacola, he was on 13 December, 1777, commissioned captain in 
the West Florida loyalist refugees, by Colonel John Stuart, superin- 
tendent of Indians in the Southern Colonies, who ordered him to 
capture Manshac on the Mississippi river, a task which he accom- 
plished. This corps was also engaged in the suppression of the rum 
trade at Mobile Bay with the northern Creek Indians. (W. H. Sie- 
bert, "The Loyalists in West Florida and the Natchez District," in 
the Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. II, 1916, p. 467.) 
Pearis was present at the capture of Sunbury in Georgia. 

The romantic tale of his exploits includes the raising of 5000 
to 6000 loyalists and the disarming of all rebels from the Savannah 
river to Broad river, near the borders of North Carolina, as well 
as destroying their forts and capturing men, arms and ammunition. 
To his mortification, this series of successes was no sooner accom- 
plished than Colonels Innes and Balfour ordered the arms and am- 
munition to be returned to the "rebels" and their leaders released. 
Incensed by this treatment, he returned to Georgia and settled his 
family near Augusta. 

While Pearis was a prisoner at Charleston, his wife, two 
daughters, and a son were surprised at home by Colonel John 
Thomas and 400 followers, who subjected them to abuse and pun- 
ishment, as well as carrying away their portable property and burn- 
ing the rest. Not content. Colonel Thomas forced the family to 
march on foot 25 miles a day, without food and without protection 
for their heads from the sun. They were also confined for three 
days without food, and were afterwards sent off in an open wagon 
a ditsance of 100 miles, to shift for themselves among "a parcel of 
rebels," without money or provisions. For three years Captain 
Pearis was separated from his family, who were in daily fear of 
massacre by their enemies. 

A son of Captain Pearis was an ensign in the West Florida 

For the loss of his real estate in South Carolina, Colonel Rich- 
ard Pearis claimed £15,576. 18s. and was awarded £5,624. An ac- 
count of his property has been published. ( S. C. Hist, and Gen. 
Mag., Vol. XVIII, pp. 97-9 ; Sec. Rep. Bur. of Archives, Ontario^ 


1904, pp. 190-4.) The name appears also as Paris, whence Paris 
Mountain, near Greenville in South Carolina. 

After the war he settled in Abaco in the Bahamas, where he 
had a grant of 140 acres of land, and where Margaret Pearis, pre- 
sumably his wife, received a grant of 40 acres. Colonel Pearis re- 
ceived a military allowance of £70 a year from 1783 to 1804, when 
he probably died. It was perhaps his son, Richard, who married 
Margaret, daughter of General Robert Cunningham, the South Caro- 
lina loyalist, in Abaco, 22 June, 1790 (see page 88) . (Public Record 
Office: A.O. 12/109; A. T. Bethell, Early Settlers of the Bahama 
Islands, 1914, pp. 21-22; Public Record Office: Ind. 5606.) 

Major Patrick Cunningham 

This officer, a brother of Brigadier-General Robert Cunning- 
ham, was an active loyalist from the outset of the Revolutionary 
war. As a participant in the siege of Ninety-Six he was one of the 
signatories to the treaty of neutrality of 22 November, 1775 (see 
p. 70). Major Patrick Cunningham and his party of loyalists at- 
tempted to rescue his brother, Robert, from his captors while being 
taken to Charleston as a prisoner, but failed in the attempt (see 
p. 87). He was, however, compensated for this failure by his 
capture of the ammunition sent as a gift by the Americans for the 
Cherokee Indians (see p. 64). A member of this party was 
William Gist, who took up arms "to protect some loyalists who had 
taken a magazine of powder which was sent by the rebels to the 
Indians." (The Royal Commission on Loyalist Claims, 1783-1785, 
ed. by H. E. Egerton; Roxburghe Club, 1915, p. 56; Moultrie, 
Memoirs, Vol. I. pp. 96-100.) 

Patrick Cunningham was appointed in 1780 to the command 
of a corps of loyal militia, consisting of 24 officers and 155 men, 
forming a part of the brigade of militia in the district of Ninety- 
Six, commanded by his brother, Robert. 

Great was the joy of the Americans at the capture of so dan- 
gerous a loyalist as Patrick Cunningham, who was condemned to 
a term of imprisonment in Charleston jail. Shortly after his re- 
lease he offered his services to Major Andrew Williamson for his 
expedition against the Cherokee Indians in July, 1776, an expedi- 
tion which was accompanied by Alexander Chesney and other loy- 
alists, though the Cherokees at this time were supposed to be allies 
of the British. Williamson, however, refused the offer of Cunning- 


ham's services, as he did that of Richard Pearis on the same occa- 
sion (Drayton, Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 343-4). (See pp. 65.) 

Major Patrick Cunningham in or about 1785 returned to South 
Carolina and was elected a member of the Legislature, dying in 
1794 (Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revolution, Vol. I, p. 348) . 

Captain Moses Kirkland 

Moses Kirkland was a prosperous planter in the fertile dis- 
trict of Ninety-Six in South Carolina. In 1774 he was chosen a 
member of the Provincial Congress, and was regarded as a warm 
supporter of the American cause (see p. 67). According to his 
memorial, however, he maintains that he spoke strongly in the 
House of Assembly at Charleston in January, 1775, against the pro- 
ceedings of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, but that his 
side was defeated by vote, and after protesting he returned home. 

In June following, he was appointed by the Assembly to com- 
mand a company of rangers, and his commission was sent to him in 
a letter which he refused to accept. (A.O. 12/52, fos. 209-233.) 

Kirkland's next step was to assemble the inhabitants of his 
district and by his influence, combined with the assistance of Col- 
onels Thomas Fletchall and Thomas Brown, he opposed Congress 
so effectually that he had raised over 5,000 signatures to a resolu- 
tion to support the king's Government. In consultation with some 
of his leading neighbors it was now decided that, in view of the 
improbability of immediate military support from the governor and 
from the want of arms and ammunition, he should leave the Prov- 
ince and join the British army at Boston. In this scheme Kirkland 
was supported by his friends and he forthwith left his home in dis- 
guise, accompanied by his only son, a boy of twelve summers, and 
eventually reached the house of Governor Lord William Campbell, 
at Charleston, thence going on board H. M. S. Tamar. From 
Charleston he proceeded to St. Augustine in East Florida, armed 
with letters of recommendation from Lord William Campbell to 
Governor Tonyn and others, and after a brief stay departed for 
Boston, where he arrived in September, 1775. Kirkland's sojourn 
at Boston was of brief duration, for he is next seen in Virginia, 
serving under the governor. Lord Dunmore. Returning again to 
Boston, his ship was captured, 10 December, near that port by the 
American schooner, Lee, commanded by Captain Manly who was 
probably the American officer of that name who was in command 


of the American privateer, Hancock, described by Sir George Col- 
lier as the second officer of rank in the American navy, "a man of 
talent and intrepidity" and more capable of doing mischief than 
General Lee," whom it was "a piece of good fortune" to have cap- 
tured in June, 1777, with the Hancock. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Re- 
port on the Mss. of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville, Vol. II, pp. 69-70.) 

Kirkland was sent to Washington's headquarters at Cambridge, 
where he was detained for 22 days, and then removed to Philadel- 
phia. Here he was a prisoner until June, 1776, when he escaped, and 
by traveling in disguise succeeded in getting to Lord Dunmore's 
vessels in Chesapeake Bay at the end of July. Kirkland after- 
wards joined General Sir William Howe on Staten Island, and was 
present at the capture of Long Island, New York, White Plains, and 
Fort Washington. At the end of March, 1777, Howe requested 
Kirkland to carry despatches to East and West Florida, and he ac- 
complished his mission without mishap, arriving, 1 May, at St. 
Augustine. Proceeding overland, he reached Pensacola, a journey 
of twenty days, and delivered the despatches to Governor Chester 
and to General John Stuart, superintendent of the Indians, who ap- 
pointed him deputy superintendent of Indians, by command of 
General Howe, 22 May, 1777. He remained in West Florida until 
January, 1778, when he went among the Indian tribes, distributing 
presents and endeavoring to persuade them to be loyal and to act 
in concert with the British. Returning to St. Augustine on 1 March, 
Kirkland prepared a plan for an expedition composed of loyalist 
refugees and Indians, against Georgia, which he submitted for the 
approval of the governor and the general, presumably Prevost. 
The consent of the commander-in-chief was, however, necessary 
before the scheme could be put into force, and with this object in 
view, the indefatigable Kirkland set sail for Philadelphia, which 
he reached in May, only to find that Howe had resigned and was 
about to return to England. He succeeded, however, in submitting 
his plan to Howe and Sir Henry Clinton, both of whom approved of 
it. Kirkland remained at Philadelphia until the evacuation of the 
city by the British in June, when he accompanied Clinton to New 
York. Here he was on duty until requested in October by Clinton 
to accompany Colonel Archibald Campbell's expedition to Georgia, 
and there to render every assistance in his power. His first taste 
of war here was at the capture of Savannah by the British. At 
the action of Brier creek, 60 miles from Savannah, Kirkland coia- 


manded part of the Georgia militia and a party of loyalist refugees. 
Later he accompanied Prevost on the expedition to Charleston. 

Kirkland appears to have returned to Georgia, for on 9 October, 
1779, he was captured with about 100 other loyalists under Captain 
French at Ogeechie, 15 miles from Savannah, and he and his son, 
were bound in irons and put on board a galley. Happily, this vessel 
was captured by the British, and he re-joined the British forces at 

Lord Cornwallis, it will be remembered, appointed Robert 
Cunningham to command a brigade of loyal militia in the district 
of Ninety-Six in 1780. One of the regiments was allotted to Moses 
Kirkland, the date of his commission being 6 July. He continued 
on active service in his own district until he joined Colonel John 
Harris Cruger on the expedition for the relief of the gallant Colonel 
Thomas Brown and his force at Augusta in the middle of September. 

Major Kirkland's memorial adds but few details of his 
subsequent career, beyond mentioning that he was put in command 
of the garrison at Augusta after the relief of Brown, and that he 
would seem later to have settled near Savannah. 

After the evacuation of South Carolina by the British, Moses 
Kirkland sought refuge in Jamaica, where he settled in St. George's 
parish and married Catherine Bruce. His life was ended by drown- 
ing while on a voyage from the West Indies to England in Decem- 
ber, 1787. Richard Bruce Kirkland, his only son, was born in 1786 
and became a planter in Jamaica. (A.O. 12/52, fos. 209-233.) 

Drayton gives a different version of the reasons for Kirkland's 
departure from South Carolina, alleging that after his (Drayton's) 
manifesto of 30 August, 1775, warning all persons who should with- 
out lawful authority assemble in arms with, or by the instigation of 
Kirkland, that they would be regarded as public enemies, to be sup- 
pressed by the sword, and that Kirkland was confounded and his 
exertions paralyzed. Offering to surrender on a promise of pardon, 
Drayton demanded his surrender at discretion, but Kirkland fled in 
disguise, with two trusty friends. (Drayton, Memoirs, Vol. I, p. 

Kirkland conceals one important event in his career, namely, 
that he was concerned with Major James Mayson and Captain 
John Caldwell in the seizure of Fort Charlotte and its stores of 
ammunition, which was the first overt act in the Revolutionary war 
in South Carolina. It was after the re-capture of the fort by the 
loyalists that Kirkland turned over to the other side (see p. 67). 


^.lajor Moses Kirkland's prosperous position as a planter may- 
be gauged from the extent- of his award of £4,000 from his claim of 
£12,160 for the loss of his property in South Carolina (A.0. 12/109) . 
This property was sold by the State of South Carolina and realized 
£1,972. 2s. (A.O. 13/36 ; A.O. 12/92, S. C. Hist, and Gen. Mag., Vol. 
XVIII, pp. 69-71.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Fanning 

John Fanning was a South Carolinian by birth and lived on his 
own property in Camden district. In addition to this property he 
was the owner of 250 acres of land on Broad river, received by deed 
of gift from his eldest brother after his father's death, and of other 
property in South Carolina. (Second Report of the Bureau of Ar- 
chives; Province of Ontario, 1904, pp. 717-719.) John Fanning 
first joined the loyalist militia of South Carolina in March, 1779, 
receiving a commission as captain, and later as lieutenant-colonel. 
All his brothers were also loyalists. 

In an engagement at Parker's ferry he commanded a troop 
of horse under Major Thomas Fraser, of the South Carolina 

Alexander Chesney w^as appointed a lieutenant in John Fan- 
ning's Independent company of Scouts, 20 April, 1781. 

At the end of the war, Lieutenant-Colonel John Fanning would 
seem to have settled in Nova Scotia. For his property confiscated 
at Camden he was awarded £440 as compensation by the British 
Government, from his claim of £1,103. (A.O. 12/109.) 

This loyalist officer must not be confused with Colonel David 
Fanning (author of the well-known "Narrative," or with Colonel 
Edmund Fanning, of the King's American regiment, who was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island as a recom- 
pense for his services in the Revolutionary war. (A.O. 12/49 ; A.O. 
12/68; A.O. 12/92; A.O. 13/138.) 

Captain John Saunders 

John Saunders was born, 1 June, 1753, in Princess Anne coun- 
ty, Virginia, and was the only son of Jonathan and Elizabeth 
Saunders, grandson of Captain John Saunders of that county and 
great-grandson of the Rev. Jonathan Saunders, of Lynnhaven par- 
ish in the same county, the date of his birth being recorded in a 
family Bible which in 1834 was in the possession of his brother-in- 
law, Colonel Jacob Ellegood in New Brunswick, Canada. 


According to Sabine (Loyalists of the Aynerican Revolution) , 
this young Virginian was descended from an English royalist fam- 
ily which had emigrated to Virginia and there acquired large es- 
tates. An ardent anti-Whig in his youth, his was the only voice 
raised in opposition to the sending of delegates to attend a Whig 
convention at Williamsburg, at a meeting organized in his own 
county in July, 1774. John Saunders abandoned his academical 
studies and accepted, against the entreaties of his friends and 
neighbors, a commission as captain in the Queen's Own Loyal Vir- 
ginian regiment, from the governor, Lord Dunmore, 16 November, 
1775. This regiment, the only loyalist corps raised in Virginia, 
was commanded by his brother-in-law. Colonel Jacob Ellegood, of 
Kosehall on Lynnhaven river, who had been in charge of the estate 
of John Saunders during the last six years of his minority. (A.O. 

The studied contempt of this youthful loyalist for the Revolu- 
tionary party in his county aroused much ill-feeling, with the re- 
sult that he and two other loyalists, Benjamin Dingley Gray and 
Captain Mitchell Phillips, were not only regarded as inimical to 
the liberties of America, but their neighbors were recommended to 
cease commercial intercourse with them, an act which virtually 
endeavored to stop their supplies of all kinds, including food. 
(Force, American Archives, Series IV, Vol. 2, pp. 76-77.) 

The Queen's Own Loyal Virginian regiment was incorporated, 
some time after its defeat at Great Bridge, with the First American 
regiment, better known as the Queen's Rangers. In the 
dragoons of this loyalist corps, John Saunders received a commis- 
sion as captain on 25 November, 1776. From that time until the 
end of the year 1780, Captain Saunders served in every action of 
that regiment, and was severely wounded at the battle of the 
Brandy wine, where his brother-in-law. Major John McKay of 
the same regiment, was also wounded. Colonel John Graves Sim- 
coe, commanding officer of the Queen's Rangers, treated 
Captain Saunders as his confidential friend and described him as an 
officer of "great address and determination" and as one who had 
performed gallant and active services in the war (Simcoe, Military 
Journal). An original certificate of Simcoe states that from a sense 
of the merit and eminent services of Captain John Saunders, he did 
his utmost to procure him the rank of major (A.O. 13/133) . These 
compliments of Colonel Simcoe were reciprocated by Captain 


Saunders in later years by the bestowal of the name of Simcoe on 
his only son, John Simcoe Saunders. 

Captain Saunders accompanied General Leslie on the expedi- 
tion to Virginia in October, 1780, when he commanded the cavalry 
detachment of his regiment. From Virginia he was removed with 
the Queen's American Rangers to South Caloina, where he was on 
duty until April, 1782, when he sailed for New York and there took 
command of the remnant of his regiment saved from the surrender 
at Yorktown. (A.O. 13/79.) This regiment was placed on the 
British establishment, 25 December, 1782, and at the peace Captain 
John Saunders was granted half-pay. 

The Saunders estate on Lynnhaven river, near Kempe's land- 
ing place (Kempsville) in Princess Anne county, was confiscated 
and sold by order of the court of that county in March, 1780. The 
considerable sum of £4,850 was granted to Captain John Saunders 
as compensation for the loss of this estate, by the British Govern- 
ment after the war. This sum was only £238 below the estimated 
value put upon it by him or his advisers. Captain Saunders, having 
studied law in his youth in Virginia, returned at the end of the 
war to the land of his English ancestors and entered the Middle 
Temple, being called to the bar in 1787. Three years later he 
married Ariana Margaretta Jekyll Chalmers, daughter of Colonel 
James Chalmers, of the Maryland Loyalists, also an American refu- 
gee in England, and his wife, Arianna Margaretta, daughter of 
John Jekyll, the younger, sometime collector of the Customs at 
Boston, Massachusetts, and his wife, Margaret Shippen, of Phila- 
delphia, the marriage having taken place at St. Luke's Church, 
Chelsea, February 16, 1790. (W.O. 42/S4.) Immediately after 
his marriage Captain Saunders proceeded to New Brunswick, 
where he had earlier in the same year been appointed fourth puisne 
judge in the Province, through the influence of Colonel John Graves 
Simcoe. In 1822 he was raised to the dignity of chief justice, as 
well as that of president of the Legislative Council of New Bruns- 
wick. Colonel Jacob Ellegood and Major John McKay, brothers- 
in-law of Captain John Saunders, settled in York county, New 
Brunswick, on half-pay. 

Ever ready to defend his adopted country against threats of 
invasion, by the French in 1798 and by the Americans in 1808, he 
took an active part in the latter year in calling out the militia as a 
defensive measure, and from his long and arduous experience in 
the American war of Independence he was chosen commanding 


officer of one of the two battalions. The fear of invasion having 
passed away, the battalions were disbanded in three months by 
Judge Edward Winslow, who did not share in the feelings of alarm 
of his predecessor, Gabriel G. Ludlow, president and commander- 
in-chief of the Province. 

John Simcoe Saunders, the only son of Captain Saunders, was 
sent to England for his education and matriculated at Worcester 
College, Oxford, in 1810, taking the degree of B.A. in 1815. Fol- 
lowing in his father's footsteps, he was called to the bar, by Lin- 
coln's Inn, having previously read in the chambers of a well known 
lawyer, Joseph Chitty. John Simcoe Saunders became an eminent 
lawyer in New Brunswick, and during his life held the offices of 
advocate-general, surveyor-general, and lieutenant-governor of tJ:ie 
Province, as well as president of the Legislative Council. As author 
of The Law of Pleading and Evidence in Civil Actions, his name is 
remembered in legal circles. 

The arms of Captain John Saunders and his son are illustrated 
in an article on book plates by D. R. Jack in Acadiensis, Vol. II, 
pp. 189-197. 

Chief Justice Saunders died, 24 May, 1834, at Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, where also his wife died in 1845, at the age of 77. (F.O. 
4/1 ; Lawrence and Stockton, The Judges of New Brunswick and 
Their Times', pp. 100-1, 111, 116, 141, 274-5, 352, 423-4, 440, 509; 
notes from Mr. Charles Mcintosh; Ind. 5604.) 

Major Thomas Eraser 

This officer's name appears more than once in the course of the 
preparation of the above Additional Notes. He was appointed 
major of the South Carolina Royalists, 10 August, 1780, at the age 
of 25; and was present in many of the sanguinary actions in South 
Carolina, having served throughout the war in the Provincial 

At about the time that the British were preparing for their 
final evacuation of South Carolina, Major Eraser was married on 
7 November, 1782, to Anne Loughton Smith at Charleston by Rev. 
Edward Jenkins, chaplain to the South Carolina Royalists. His 
wife was the daughter of Thomas Loughton Smith, a prominent 
Charleston merchant and a member of the Commons House of 
Assembly, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of George Inglis, 
merchant, of Charleston. Thomas Loughton Smith died, 16 April, 


1778, and his widow married in 1775 Dr. James Clitherall, surgeon 
to the South Carolina Royalists. 

Major Thomas Fraser died, 31 May, 1820, at Philadelphia and 
was buried there in Christ Church burying ground. His wife died, 
6 August, 1835, at the house of her son-in-law. Prince Lucien Murat, 
at Bordentown, New Jersey. (W.O. 42/F13; Ind. 5604-5-6.) 

Lieutenant-Governor William Bull 

William Bull, a South Carolinian by birth and one of the most 
beloved of men, served his native Province in public offices for 
thirty-five years, acting as governor at various intervals for nine 

Attempts were made in his behalf by influential friends at 
Charleston to secure his valuable estate from confiscation by the 
State. To this end his estate was conveyed temporarily to his 
nephew Stephen Bull, who, as will be shown later, retained possess- 
ion of it by fraudulent means, in spite of the determination of the 
commissioners, appointed to sell confiscated estates, to contest the 
validity of the conveyance. Stephen Bull, by his undoubted polit- 
ical and social influence at Charleston, prevented a suit against 
him for the recovery of the property by the State by representing 
his devoted attachment to the American cause, and by alleging 
great depredations committed by the British troops on his own 

Lieutenant-Governor Bull was prevented by the confiscation 
law of South Carolina from bringing a suit against Stephen Bull 
for the recovery of his property, but the Legislative Council went 
so far as to offer him the rights of citizenship upon the express 
condition that he would return to South Carolina and take the 
oaths of allegiance and fidelity to the State. His nephew, fearing 
that his uncle might agree to these conditions, and thus jeopardize 
his possession of his uncle's property, had exerted his influence with 
the Legislative Council to prevent the offer of these terms, but 
without success. The deep conscientiousness of William Bull and 
his high-minded character, however, were insuperable barriers to 
his renunciation of his oaths of loyalty to the British, deeply as 
he loved South Carolina. 

The 134 prime slaves of Lieutenant-Governor Bull had been 
distributed among American soldiers as bribes to induce them to 
re-inlist in the American forces. 


His first four attorneys in South Carolina — Manigault, Russell, 
Stephen Bull (his nephew), and Robert Williams — conveyed the 
estate of William Bull to Pringle, speaker of the House of Assem- 
bly, who conveyed it to Stephen Bull. These attorneys had agreed 
that the conveyance should be in trust and that Stephen Bull's bond 
was to be taken with it. Such was the treachery of Stephen Bull 
that he did not throw off the mask until an offer of 4,000 guineas 
was made to Lieutenant-Governor Bull for a piece of land, when 
Stephen Bull refused the conveyance. 

William Bull died in 1791 in London, an exile from his native 
land, and was buried at St. Andrew's Church, Holborn. (Public 
Record Office: A.O. 12/52, fos. 85-118.) 

The Loyal Militia of South Carolina 

Lord Cornwallis in a despatch to Sir Henry Clinton, dated 30 
June, 1780, says that (1) as the different districts submitted he 
formed the inhabitants into militia and appointed the officers ac- 
cording to the old divisions of the Province; (2) that he had in- 
vested these field officers with civil as well as military power; C3) 
that he had divided the militia into two classes, the first to consist 
of men above the age of 40 and of certain property, family, or 
service, to keep order in their respective districts and to do patrol 
duty, but never to be called out for active service, except in case of 
an insurrection or an actual invasion of the Province. The second 
class to be composed of the younger men, who would assist in the 
home duties and would be liable to serve in either of the Carolinas 
or Georgia for six months of every year. This class, however, 
would be called upon in such proportions as to cause the least dis- 
tress possible to the country; and (4) that temporary commissions 
had been given these militia regiments. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Re- 
port on the MSS. of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville, Vol. IL, p. 169.) 

Robert Cunningham, a well-known and active loyalist (see 
page 87) was appointed brigadier-general of the brigade of militia 
of the district of Ninety-Six, the most populous and powerful dis- 
trict in the Province. From June to December, 1780, this brigade 
consisted of six regiments commanded by the following officers: 

Colonel Daniel Clary, with 6 officers and 45 men. 

Major Daniel Plummer, with 4 officers and 62 men. 

Major Patrick Cunningham, with 24 officers and 155 men. 

Colonel John Cotton, with 26 officers and 141 men. 


Colonel Richard King, with 12 officers and 11 men. Colonel 
King died, 10 July, 1786. 

Major Zacharias Gibbs, with 13 officers and 50 men. 

The loyal militia in South Carolina from November, 1781, to 
July, 1782, included: 

Jackson's creek regiment, commanded by Colonel John Phillips 
(see p. 101), and divided into two companies under Captains John 
Huey and James Sharp, one of the officers being Lieutenant Wil- 
liam Sharp. 

Stevenson's creek regiment under the command of Colonel 
John Cotton. 

First Camden regiment, commanded by Colonel Robert Eng- 

Second Camden regiment, commanded by Colonel William 

These two Camden regiments would seem to have been formed 
into ten companies, commanded by Captains Adam Thompson, 
Joshua English, Hugh Smith, Michael Egan, Joseph Holt, John 
Robinson, Jasper Rogers, James McCulloch, George Piatt, and 
Abraham Cook. 

The Orangeburg militia at this date consisted of eight com- 
panies under the command of Colonel John Fisher, with the follow- 
ing captains : 

Christian House, Henry Giesondanner, Joseph Noble, Samuel 
Rowe, Thomas Pledger, Daniel Kelly, L. Stromer, and Elias Buck- 
ingham. Captain L. Stromer afterwards deserted to the Ameri- 
cans. Under Colonel Fisher's command was also Captain John 
Sally's company from the Fork of Edisto and Orangeburg. 

Two companies of militia from the Dutch fork of Ninety-six, 
under Colonel Daniel Clary, were commanded by Captains George 
Stroup and James Wright, while Captain George Long was in com- 
mand of a company in Colonel Richard King's regiment. 

Lieutenant-Colonel William Young commanded the Little river 
militia at this period. 

Among other loyal militia regiments included in the lists for 
the year 1782 are the following : 

Colleton county, commanded by Colonel Robert Ballingall. 

Ninety-Six, commanded by Colonel Thomas Pearson. 

Dragoons, commanded by Major William Young. 

Mounted militia, commanded by Major William Cunningham. 

Cheraws, commanded by Colonel Robert Gray. 


Georgetown, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel James Gordon. 
1st Regiment Camden, commanded by Colonel James Carey. 
Santee, commanded by Colonel Samuel Tynes. 
Rocky Mount, commanded by Colonel William Vernon Turner, 
a surgeon at Camden, who at the evacuation of South Carolina by 
the British went to Jamaica, West Indies, with his wife and six 
children. (A.O. 13/96.) 

Colonel Hezekiah Williams was in command of a regiment of 
loyal militia in South Carolina in 1782. 

The following officers' names have been taken from various 

Lieutenant James Johnstone in Colonel Robert English's Cam- 
den militia. 

Captains Alexander Harvey, Andrew Cunningham, and John 
Barton, and Lieutenant Benjamin Smith Legge in the Colleton coun- 
ty militia. 

Lieutenant James Clatworthy in the Camden militia. 
James Alexander, of St. George's parish, Berkeley county, was 
selected, 27 May, 1780, as captain of the Indian Field company of 
foot in that parish, with James Shepperd as lieutenant and Silas 
Canadais as ensign. It was Captain Alexander who with several 
other loyalists deemed it their duty to capture Captain John Felder, 
a magistrate of Orangeburg district, because of his cruel oppression 
of the loyalists. The party in due course assembled at Captain 
Felder's house and demanded his surrender. Anticipating no 
quarter. Captain Felder and his companison, John Fry, defended 
themselves to the bitter end, and killed the first loyalist who knocked 
at the door. Such was Captain Felder's determination that the 
loyalists, finding it impossible to force him out of his house by any 
other means, set fire to it, and in attempting to escape, both Cap- 
tain Felder and John Fry were shot dead. (A.O. 13/125.) 
Colonel William Mills is noticed on page 74. 
The pay of the loyal militia in 1780 was as follows : 
Colonel, 10s. a day. 
Lieut.-Colonel, 7s. 6d. a day. 
Major, 7s. 6d. a day. 
Captain, 4s. 8d. a day. 
Lieutenant, 2s. 4d. a day. 
Cornet and Ensign, 2s. 4d. a day. 
Adjutant, 3s. a day. 
Quartermaster, 3s. a day. 


Sergeant, Is. a day. 
Corporal, 6d. a day. 
Private, 6d. a day. 

Many muster rolls of officers and men of the South Carolina 
loyal militia, with memorials of widows of officers and men who lost 
their lives in the war, and other details, are preserved in the Public 
Record Office. (T. 50/1, T. 50/2, T. 50/3, T. 50/4.) 

A list of loyalists in South Carolina who held royal commis- 
sions during the Revolutionary war is published as an appendix 
to The Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen, 4th. edition, 1864, 
pp. 494-5. 

Lieutenant William Elliott, of Captain Elisha Robinson's com- 
pany of lower Ninety-Six regiment of militia, fought at King's 
Mountain and was probably killed there. Here also fought Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Cunningham, of Major Patrick Cunningham's com- 
pany, and was wounded and taken prisoner. The memorial of 
Sergeant James White of Cotton's Ninety Six militia is in T. 50/2. 

Loyalists' Warrant 

Attached to the papers of Charles Ogilvie, Sr., is the orig- 
inal warrant, dated August 13, 1782, authorizing him and Gideon 
Dupont, Jr., to proceed to New York on behalf of the loyalists 
of South Carolina for the purpose of making representations to the 
commander-in-chief of the British army of the true state of that 
Province and the distress of mind of the inhabitants at the prospect 
of its evacuation by the British troops there. (A.0. 13/133.) These 
two men were urged to make every endeavor to secure such guar- 
antees as would make an evacuation as little injurious as possible 
to the loyalists, and, in the event of an evacuation, to obtain leave 
for the loyalists to indemnify themselves from the sequestered 
estates within the British lines in South Carolina. 

The warrant is signed by the following committee of loyalists : 

Robert William Powell, chairman 
John Champneys James Gordon 

Colonel John Phillips Colonel Gabriel Capers 

William Greenwood Robert Johnston 

John Hamilton Thomas Inglis 

Alexander Baron Colonel Zacharias Gibbs 

Colonel Robert Ballingall Colonel David Fanning 

Colonel William Fortune Colonel Thomas Edghill 


Charles Ogilvie was an Englishman or Scotsman who journ- 
eyed backwards and forwards between America and London on 

Gideon Dupont, Jr., was probably the son of Gideon Dupont 
who was a member of the South Carolina Provincial Congress for 
the parish of St. Peter's, Purrysburg, in January, 1775. 

South Carolina Loyalists in Nova Scotia and Elsewhere 

Reference has been made elsewhere (p. 75) to the large num- 
bers of loyalists banished from the Southern Colonies who sought 
refuge first in Florida and afterwards in the West Indies. A me- 
morial dated 9 February, 1785, from seventy-two loyalist officers 
from North Carolina was presented to Lord Sydney, stating that 
they had forfeited their estates and regretting that their most 
gracious sovereign had been compelled by the rigors of necessity 
to cede to his late refractory subjects all that happy, temperate, and 
Southern climate in America, to which the memorialists and their 
numerous adherents had been accustomed. Many had gone to Nova 
Scotia, but were unable in their present state of finances to clear 
the ground and raise the necessaries of life in a climate to Southern 
constitutions inhospitable and severe. The memorial suggests the 
Bahamas as the only place in the British dominions suitable for 
these loyalists and strongly recommends Colonel John Hamilton, 
late of the Royal North Carolina regiment, as governor of the 
islands, when that dignified office should become vacant. John 
Hamilton, a Scotsman and member of the large firm of Archibald 
Hamilton and Company, merchants and importers in North Caro- 
lina and Virginia, was one of the most interesting figures on the 
loyalist side in the Revolutionary war. An active partisan, he had 
raised 1200 men during the war and had seen much fighting in the 
South. At the battle of Camden he fought with great spirit until 
put out of action by wounds. Dr. David Oliphant, surgeon in the 
American forces, was a debtor to the house of Hamilton and Com- 
pany for the amount of about £15,000, for which he was imprisoned 
at Charleston until released by Lieutenant-Colonel Nisbet Balfour 
in the belief that he would be of service in arranging the exchange 
of prisoners of war. (A.O. 13/95.) In 1794 John Hamilton was 
British consul-general at Norfolk, Virginia, having been selected 
for that appointment because of his popularity, and while in dis- 


charge of his duties there, his loyalty again manifested itself by his 
offer of active service in war against the French. 

It is estimated that about 500 souls had sailed from South Car- 
olina for Nova Scotia at the evacuation of Charleston by the Brit- 
ish. Of this number 300 were at Halifax in that Province in Feb- 
ruary, 1783, when an appeal was made to the British Government 
for further allowances of provisions, clothing, and farming utensils, 
which in their extreme poverty they were unable to procure. (Hist. 
MSS. Comm., Report on the American MSS. in the Royal Inst. Vol. 
Ill, p. 361.) 

In 1784 grants of land were made at Rawdon, Halifax county, 
Nova Scotia, to the following fifty-six South Carolina loyalists; 
Colonel Zacharias Gibbs, Captain John Bond, and Captain William 
Meek, who received 1000 acres each ; Captain George Bond, James 
Nichols, Adam Fralick, John Saunderson, William Bowman, John 
McGuire, Henry Martindale, Reuben Lively, William Wallace, John 
Murphy, Henry Green, John McCullum, William Bryson, Samuel 
Covell, Samuel Meek, John Meek, Richard Attwood, James Fitz- 
simmonds, William Wier, Eli Hoyt, John Lewis, John Withrow, Wil- 
liam Cunningham, Colonel Thomas Pearson, Shubal Dimock, Ben- 
jamin Wier, and Robert Alexander, who were severally granted 
500 acres; John Bryson, Samuel McAllister, Richard McMullen, 
Thomas Thornton, Samuel Procter, Joseph or Jacob Ellis, Jacob 
Withrow, David Withrow, William Bryson, Jr., Jeremiah Cros- 
sian or McCrossian, Henry Martindale, Jr., George Snell, Peter 
Ryland, Robert Costley, John Landerkin, Daniel Snell, David Snell, 
John Bond, Joseph Simpson, Eli Thornton, Abraham Thornton, 
Moses Bruce, Philip Murphy, Roger Wilson, Thomas Williams, and 
Robert Scott, each of whom received 250 acres in this tract of 
23,000 acres of land. 

Important Claims and Awards of Some South Carolina 


A list of the more important claims of South Carolina loyalists, 
and the amounts awarded as compensation by the British Govern- 
ment follows : 

Colonel Elias Ball, Sr. £23,573 £12,700 
Major James Ballmer £16,000 £400 
Thomas Boone (claims for the Col- 
leton family) £41,207.4s £22,533.8s. 


Robert Brailsford's children £15,568 £500 

James Brisbane £20,049 £2,274 

Lieutenant-Governor William Bull £40,086 £6,400 

James Burns £12,350 £5,000 

John Champneys £20,212 £5,204 

Hugh and Daniel Campbell £11,350 

Thomas Fenwick £14,627 £5,000 

William Greenwood £49,604 
Captain Richard Graves and his 

wife £16,852 
Philip Henry £16,351 £2,723.16s. 
Zephaniah Kingsley £16,691.12s £785 
Moses Kirkland £12,160 £4,000 
Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 
formerly governor of the Prov- 
ince £36,830 
Captain John Orde £10,705.10s. £l,208.14s. 
Gideon Dupont £14,131 £2,387.4s. 
R. W. Powell and John Hopton £22,644 £1,518 
Colonel Richard Pearis £15,576.18s. £5,624 
John Rose £40,084.10s. £16,526.16s. 
James Simpson £20,608 £8,077 
Robert Williams £22,692 £1,705 
Alexander Wright £12,916 £8,121 

The three claims of Lord Charles Greville Montagu, Captain 
Richard Graves and his wife, and of William Greenwood were disal- 
lowed because those claimants failed to produce documentary or 
other satisfactory proof of the definite loss of their property by 
confiscation or other means. 

According to the report (A.O. 13/85) of the committee of 
South Carolina loyalists, dated May 24, 1783, the estimated values 
of the property lost by the loyalists of that Province were as 
follows : 

Real estate £569,631. 

Slaves £206,324. 

Debts £389,968. 

Losses by depreciation. . £155,688. 

Contingent losses £ 82,240. 

Removable property. ... £ 22,699. 

Total £1,426,550. sterling 


Official salaries and incomes from professions, per annum, 
were estimated at £28,280, and the total amount of the award was 

The committee, having found that in many cases the values 
were over-estimated, deducted the sum of £165,314 from the 
aggregate amount. 

The value of land was based in most cases on the personal 
knowledge of members of the committee, but where such knowledge 
did not exist, it was valued at six shillings sterling per acre. 

Slaves were valued at an average of £60 sterling each, which 
was the price realized for them at public auction before the war. 

The report of the committee of the South Carolina loyalists 
bears the autograph signatures of Thomas Irving, James Simpson, 
Henry Peronneau, William Ancrum, Robert Williams, John Hop- 
ton, and James Johnston. (A.0. 13/85.) 

The amount awarded by the British Government on the claims 
for compensation was £257,000. In addition, pensions exceeding 
£6,600 per annum were granted to the South Carolina loyalists. 
(A.O. 12/109.) 

Compensation for debts (£389,968) was refused on the ground 
that by the fourth, fifth, and sixth articles of the peace treaty, no 
impediments were to be put in the way of the recovery of debts by 
the colonists. But the States by ignoring these articles (J. B. 
McMaster, Hist, of the People of the U. S., Vol. I, p. 107 ; Cambridge 
Modern History, Vol. VII, 1903, p. 307.) and the Congress by its 
helplessness to enforce the stipulations of its treaties, brought 
America at once into conflict with Great Britain. Many loyalists, 
who had returned to their former homes in America in expectation 
of receiving payment of at least a part of their just debts, and in 
many cases with the intention of remaining there, were not only 
refused payment but were subjected to such abuse and ill treat- 
ment as to compel them to quit the country forthwith. 

Evidence of the refusal of debtors in South Carolina to pay 
their just debts to loyalists is obtained from, among other sources, 
a letter written from Charleston, 4 April, 1785, to Colonel John 
Hamilton. In this letter the writer states that several loyalists who 
had come there in consequence of the peace were ordered to depart 
th country in 60 days, while others had only 30 days to remain. 
The writer, in picturing the lawlessness of the State, mentions the 


case of a loyalist who was hanged, after his acquittal by the cir- 
cuit judge. (A.O. 13/85.) 

A senator of South Carolina refused payment of a note, dated 
1773, due to Paul Hamilton, a loyalist planter there. (From a letter 
from Alexander Chisholm, dated 14 February, 1787, from Charles- 
ton: A.O. 13/129.) 






Minutes of the Examination of Alexander Chesney by the 
Commissioners of American Claims, in London.^ 

6th. May 1783. 

Resided on broad River in the district of Ninety six — lived 
with his Father but had Plantations of his own — he married a Wife 
& had 200 Acres with her — he had 700 Acres besides — he went there 
from Ireland in 1772 — He values the whole 900 Acres (70 of which 
are cultivated) above 1000 at £1516 Sterling — the Value is certified 
by Col°. Philips ^ & likewise by Lord Comwallis & Col°. Balfour — 
his Personal Estate amounted to £480. — he first joined the Kings 
Troops after Charles Town was taken in 1780 — Has a Wife & one 
Child in Belfast^ — he came home in April 1782 — he married in 
America — he has no Property of his own in Ireland but he is sup- 
ported by his Friends who advance him Money when he wants it — 
He has some little Support Lord Rawdon gave him a Supernumary 
Tidewaiters Place which is worth about £20 a year — he does not 
wish to continue in it — he came over from Ireland in Order to at- 
tend here which will be an Expence to him of £20. 

Certificate very sufficient & no further Attendance require 

Decision. £50 p Ann from 5th. January 1783. 

This Person had very singular Merit in South Carolina — ^his 
property was worth £2000. Sterling & we think it would be proper 
to pay him after the Rate of £50. p Ann. from the 5 January 1783. 

1 These minutes are in A.O. 12/99, fo. 219. 

2 Colonel John Phillips (see p. 60). 

' Alexander Chesney was married for the second time, March 1, 1783. The child here 
mentioned was his son, William, by his first wife. He was in South Carolina at that time, not 
at Belfast. It was Alexander Chesney's wife who was at Belfast. 




Alexander Chesney's Memorial 

Docket: N° 193 

Alexander Chesney 
his Memorial 

rceeived 21^' November 1783 
To the Honourable the Commissioners appointed by Act of 
Parliament for enquiring into the Losses and services of the Ameri- 
can Loyalists. 

The Memorial of Cap* Alexander Chesney 
Late of the Province of South Carolina 

That your memorialist for several years prior to the Late un- 
happy Rebellion in america resided on Pacolet River in Ninety six 
district in the Province of South Carolina aforesaid 

That at the commencement of the Rebellion in that Province, 
your memorialist took an active part in favour of the British Gov- 
ernment and rendered the Loyal subjects in that country as well 
as his Majesties army essential services as appear by the certify- 
cates hereunto annexed. 

That soon after the reduction of Charles Town by Sir Henry 
Clinton your memorialist was appointed a Captain of a company of 
militia, and Adjutant of the different batalions of militia under the 
late Major Ferguson of the 71^* Regiment in which capacity he 
acted untill the defeat of that officer on Kings Mountain where your 
memorialist was wounded and taken prisoner. 

That your memorialist after he obtained his Liberty, again 
acted in his military capacities untill the out posts were drove into 
the garison of Charles Town 

That your memorialist has Lost all his Lands and other prop- 
erty, in consequence of his Loyalty, and attachment to the British 
Government; the same being long since seized and confiscated by 
the rebels. 

Your memorialist therefore prays that his case may be taken 
into your consideration, in order that your memorialist may be en- 
abled under [your] Report, to receive such aid or relief, as his 
Losses and services may be found to deserve. 


And your memorialist as in duty bound will ever pray 
London 20*^ Nov 1783 Alex^ Chesney. 

at 31 Brownlow Street 
Long acre, London. 
Witnesses names Places of Residence of the witnesses 

Colonel John Phillips N°. 31 Brownlow Street 

Long Acre, London 

Col. Zacharias Gibbs N°. 32 Charles Street 


Captn James Miller N°. 18 Drury Lane 



An Estimate of Alexander Chesney's Property 

An estimate of the Lands, and other property, of Cap"' Alex- 
ander Chesney, Late of Pacolet River, in the Province of South 
Carolina, Lost by his Loyalty and attachment to Great Britain. 


80 Acres situate on the north bank of Pacolet 
River, being part of a tract of 300 acres 
granted by Gov. Tryon Late Gov^ of North 
Carolina, and purchased by me from Peter 
Howard, as will appear by conveyances 
now in my possession, on said tract was 
about 40 acres cleared and well fenced in 
convenient fields, with good houses and 
other improvements, and a valuable fishery 
together with a commodious seat for a saw 
and flower mill, greatest part of the irons 
and other materials for said works I had 
provided before I was obliged to abandon 
said Lands, the improvements were made 
by me, 

150 acres adjoining the above tract, being part 
of a tract of 400 acres, Granted by Lord 
Charles Grenville Montague,^ Late Gov^ of 


pr. acre 



1 See Additional Notes, p. 59. 




South Carolina, to Robert Chesney my 
father, from whom I received the same 
under deed of gift A. D. 1778 which con- 
veyance was Lost or destroyed at the time 
the Rebel Gen'. Morgan ^ took possession 
of my plantation before Col Tarletons De- 
feat at the Cowpens which happened on 
the 17'^ Jany 1781. 

200 acres situate on Williams creek the waters 
of Pacolet River granted by the Gov. of 
North Carolina to James Cook, from him 
conveyed to William Hodge, from whom 
I received it by a contract of marriage 
with his daughter, in the year 1780. On 
said tract was good houses and 30 acres 
or upward cleared Land, under good fences 
which improvements was rented out at the 
time I was oblidged to leave that place, for 
one third of its produce, the conveyance 
of this was also Lost or destroyed by 
Morgans army when they encamped at my 

200 Acres situate on the waters of Williams 
Creek and joining one square of the afore- 
said tract, surveyed for, and granted to 
me. the grant of this is in the public 
office in Charlestown, there is a valuable 
vein of copper ore runs through this tract 

100 Acres situate on Bush River,^ granted to 
me on a bounty warrant during the Gov- 
ernment of Lord Charles Granvile Mon- 
tague the grant of this is also in the Pub- 
lic office in Cha^ Town 

Amount of my Lands 



pr. acre 








* General Daniel Morgan. 

■ Bush river is in Newberry county. South Carolina. 





One Negro woman named Moll, taken away 
by the Rebel Captn Vardrey Magbee* 
Three horses taken away by D° same time 
One Waggon and team with gears &c &c. 
Six Cows taken by Morgans army 40^ each 
Three hogsheads of Tobaco or thereabouts, 
with about five hundred bushels of Indian 
corn, in store, a quantity of oats and other 
crop taken by the aforesaid Morgans army 

The Schooner Dolphin which I left in 
America when I came to Europe for the 
recovery of my health, which same 
schooner cost me Seventy Guineas but just 
She is by the most authentic accounts since 
taken by the Rebels. 

Cash and Goods on board said Schooner 



pr. acre 









Alex:'" Chesney 

London 20^"^ Nov. 1783. 

I certify that M'' Alexander Chesney was employed by me in 
the Barrack department as Inspector of Wood Cutters from the 
18'*^ November 1790 to the 31"'^ December following and that during 
that time he behaved himself with the greatest Fidelity & Industry 
in the discharge of the Trust reposed in him & was afterwards 
employed by my Successor in Office whom he was obliged to leave 
from his 111 state of Health 

Given under my hand at Charles Town South Carolina 
the 30''^ day of March 1782 — 
James Fraser.^ 

* Vadry McBee was a captain in Colonel Benjamin Roebuck's regiment of South Carolina 
militia. The name is pronounced in South Carolina to this day as if spelled Magbee. 

6 A.O. 13/126. A copy of the above claim is in A.O. 12/146, pp. 186-189. 

* Dr. James Fraser (see p. 26, n. 185). 


London Aug: 11 
I certify that Alexander Chesney was of use to the Kings 
Troops under my command acting between the Broad River & the 
Mountains S** Carolina — in the beginning of the year 81 

Ban: Tarleton^ 
L' Col : Com^ B. L. 

I Certify that the Bearer Mr Alx^ Chesney commanded a Com- 
pany of the Royal Militia in South Carolina ; with which He acquit- 
ted himself as a faithful, zealous, and active officer, & by his attach- 
ment to the cause of Great Britain He lost a very good property. 

J Doyle Major 105^»» Reg' » 


Evidence on Alexander Chesney's Memorial.^ 

Alexander Chesney the Claim' Sworn. 

Says he went from Ireland to America in 1772 — the latter end 
of the Year — Settled on the Pacolet River in the district of Ninety- 
six in South Carolina in 1773. 

Says at the time the Rebellion broke out he lived with his 
Father — Says in the Summer of 1775 — he was pressed to enter 
into the Associat" against Great Britain which he refused to do — 
He then went to join the Loyalists who were collected under Captain 
Phillips — brother to Col. Phillips and guided them up to Pacolet to 
his Fathers This was in the Winter the latter End of 1775 — or 
beginning of 1776 

The Body staid about a fortnight when they divided — He was 
soon afterwards made a prisoner for having lent his Assistance 
to these Loyalists — He was taken off from his Father's by a party 
of Rebels under Col: Steen he remained Prisoner 50 days- when 
he was bailed out — He soon after went home — In the summer foll^ 
in June he was again taken into Custody on the same Account and 
carried part of the way to Charles Town. He had the option of 
going to Goal or joining the party of Rebels and take Arms with 
them. He consented to the latter as his Father's Family wo"^ other- 

■^ Banistre Tarleton, lieutenant-colonel commandment of the British Legion, (see p. 90). 
8 Major John Doyle (see p. 25, n. 180). 

1 Compare with his evidence published in The Royal Commission on Am,erican Loyalists 
Claims: Roxburghe Club, 1915, pp. 49-50. 

- He was kept in prison for about ten days. Ibid., p. 49. 


wise have been certainly ruined. He continued with the Rebels in 
Charles Town till the 16th of August following. In the course of 
a few days after he got to Charles Town he made an attempt in 
company of two others Ch^ and Ch'^ Brandon to join Sir Henry Clin- 
ton who was then upon Long Island. Being discovered upon the 
River they were obliged to desist from their purpose and return. 
He was obliged to continue serving occasionally with the Rebels till 
June 1777 — at wch time the Reg' was discharged & he returned 
home. In the summer of 1778 the State Oath became Gen' and 
Claimant with a party consisting altogether of 30 resolved to go to 
Florida to avoid taking the Oath they accordingly joined Gen' 
Williamson ^ who was marching into Florida intending to quit him 
upon the first favorable Opportunity and sent off one of their party 
to find the way for them but this Man (whose name was David 
Bayley) never returned. And therefore finding themselves unable 
to accomplish it They returned home at the end of the expedition 
& Claimant remained at home till after Charles Town was taken. 
He says the Oath was never tendered to him during the time he 
remained at home — and he took no part * till after Charles Town 
was taken. 

When that Event took place the Loyalists embodyed themselves 
on Sugar Creek in Ninety six District and Claimant among the rest. 
The number was about 200 — They dispersed again and afterwards 
in June 1780 embodied at Bullocks Creek upon hearing that a 
Body of Rebels was coming against them. Claimant was chosen by 
this Body to command them and an Action took place wherein the 
Rebels were beaten, and they soon afterwards joined Col: Balfour 
at Fair Forrest. 

He was afterwards put under the command of Major Ferguson 
who was Inspector Gen' of the Militia and continued serving under 
him till his defeat at Kings Mountain on the 7th of Oct. 1780. He 
was durs this time entrusted by Major Ferguson with private In- 
structions to a Capt. Moore who commanded a Post in Thicketty. 
He delivered the Instr^' according to his orders. 

He was afterwards employed to procure Intelligence of the 
numbers and motions of a large party of the Rebels then encamped 
on Cherokee Ford on Broad River. He got undiscovered into their 
Camp, and discovered that 500 Men were detached to Nicholas's 

3 See p. 7, n. 48. 

* That is, no active military part on the loyalist side. 


Fort. He gave information of this to Major Ferguson in conse- 
quence of wch he intercepted and defeated the party at the Iron 
Works above the Fort He undertook this Service in consequence 
of a paper shewn him by Col. Bibbes wherein a reward of 50 Gu'as 
was offered to any Body who should perform this Service — Claim- 
ant tho he undertook it, yet refused the reward, and says he did it 
merely from a wish to serve the Kings Troops. If he had been 
taken on this Service he should have been hanged as a Spy — Major 
Ferguson talked to him about payment after his return but he per- 
sisted in his refusal to take any thing. He was afterwards appoint- 
ed adjutant of the different of Militia. He reced pay for his Service. 
He was frequently employed by Major Ferguson many hazardous 
Services for procuring Intelligence, and he had the command of 
various parties committed to his charge against the Enemy in wch 
he was always fortunate enough to conduct himself to the Major's 
satisfaction. When Major Ferguson was defeated at Kings Moun- 
tain, Claimant was with him and was taken prisoner and carried 
to Moravian Town in North Carolina, where he was offered to be 
restored to all his Rights & properties if he wo^ serve with the 
Rebels only for one Month, & threatened him with death in case of 
refusal. He did refuse, and was marched almost naked with other 
prisoners in Moravian Town on the Gadkin River, in a course of 
150 Miles. He made his escape from hence & returned home, where 
in the begin^ of Dec 1780 he raised a Company of Militia and joined 
Col. Tarleton. 

Produces a Comm° of Capt. in Col: Plummers Reg* of foot 
under the Hand of Col. Balfour dated 1'' Dec-" 1780. 

Says he continued with Col. Tarleton sometime & when the Col 
Tarleton marched against Gen' Morgan Claimant was with him in 
the Action, of the 17'^ Janry 1781 — at the Cow-pens on Thicketty 
wherein Col : Tarleton was defeated — Claimant then retreated to- 
wards Charles Town, and in his way endeavoured to persuade Gen' 
Cunningham to embody the Militia but not succeeding in his appl'on 
he went to Charles Town. He continued on different Military ser- 
vices till the Evac'n of Charles Town. 

Produces certificates of Loyalty and Credibility under the 
Hands of Lord Cornwallis, Lord Rawdon, Col. Balfour, Colonel 
Tarleton, Major Doyle, Col. Cruden ^ & others. 

^ John Cruden had a lieutenant-coloner's commission. (See Additional Notes, p. 92.) 


Produces t'ndre dated 24 July 1777 — being a Lease for a Year 
of 80 Acres of Land on the North Side of the Pacolet River being 
part of a Tract of 300 — Says he has the Release at home in Ire- 

Says he purchased this Tract in the beginning of 1776 and 
paid part of the Con's'on then, but did not pay the rest till the date 
of the Conveyance — He gave 60^ Sterl. in Money and Goods for 
these 80 Acres. When he bought them about 3 Acres were cleared. 
It was part of a large Plantation whereof 100 Acres were under 
Cultivation. Says he erected a good dwelling house Stable and Corn 
House — He cleared as much as to make up 40 Acres. They were on 
four Fields well fenced. Part of the Goods he paid for this Land 
were Horses, Salt &c. He paid £150 Currency in Money — Says 
when he bought this Land he imagined the British Cause would 
prevail, and that it was safer to invest his property in Land than 
any thing else. 

He gave as much for it as he sho'd have given for it, two years 
before — Lands were rising in value every day — at the same time he 
thinks he got a good bargain of it, and he co'd have got more for it 
a short time afterwards as he was offered more within a month 
than he had given for it. 

Says that £60 Sterling wo"^ not have defrayed the expence of 
the Improvement, besides the Iron Work and Timber for the Mill. 
The Iron work was worth £8 Ster. Says he values it upon his Oath 
at 40/ Sterling an Acre. 

Says his Father Robert Chesney conveyed to him by Deed of 
Gift 150 Acres adjoining to the above in 1778. It was granted to 
his Father in 1773 — He has not the Deed in his poss'ion. It was 
taken away with other Papers from his House by the Rebels Says 
there was little or no Cultivation upon it. He considered this and 
the 80 Acres as one Tract, and was not at any expence on this par- 
t'lar part : No Cultivat" had been made by him or his Father. Thinks 
it was worth 25'' per Acre to him, as it lay contiguous to his other 
property but wo'' not have been so to any body who had not posse'd 
the Tract of 80 Acres. 

Says the 200 Acres sit. on Williams Creek he rec'd as a por- 
tion with his Wife from her Father William Hodge in the year 
1780 But he paid Hodge £25 Sterling on this occasion. It was con- 
veyed to Claimant in fee 


Says there were good Houses, and upwards of 30 Acres of 
cleared Land upon this Tract, when it was conveyed to him and he 
rented it out for one third of its produce. 

Says his Father in Law always took part with the Rebels,*' but 
beP he is not in poss'ion of it at present. Claimant never rec'd but 
one Years rent for it, and does not think he got above £6 Sterling 
for his Share of the produce. 

Says he was promised £100 as a portion with his wife & he 
looked upon this Land as a compensation for the £100 

Says he thinks it would really have sold at that time that he 
left it for 35^ an Acre in Cash. 

Says in the year 1773 — he bought a Warrant for 200 Acres 
adjoining to this Land and applied for the Grant. He paid the Fees 
and understood the Grant was passed but he never had it. There 
was no improvement upon this Land, and he never derived any ad- 
vantage from it. He gave £6 for the Warrant, and the Fees were 
about £4 more Sterling, and a small sum for Taxes. 

Says he values this Land and thinks it wo''' have sold for 30/ 
an Acre 

Says he bought a Warrant for 100 Acres on Bush River he 
never had the Grant He was at no other expence but £6 currency 
for the Survey. He values it at 15^ an Acre, but can't speak posi- 
tively to the value. 

Says he was poss'ed of a Negro Woman who was taken away 
from his House by a Rebel Capt." in the year 1780. She was a 
valuable Slave both within and without Doors — And thinks she was 
worth more than £60. 

The same Man at the same time took away three Horses one 
was a fine riding Horse wch he thinks was worth 20' — the other 
two work Horses wch he values at £10 each. 

Says just before the taking of Charles Town a Waggon & Team 
of 4 Horses were taken from him. The Waggon was 3 year old, and 
he values it at £30. The four Horses were worth 70'.^ 

Says his Wife told him Morgans Army had killed 6 head of his 
Cattle — he values them at Forty Shillings a Head. 

« See p. 9, n. 64. 
' See p. 129, n. 4. 

* The wagon and horses were impressed into the American service while Alexander Chesney 
himself was in that service. See p. 9, n. 62.) 


At the same time (as he was told) were taken away 3 H'h'ds of 
Tobacco w'ch were each 1000 lb weight. He values it at 20^ an Cwt 
w'ch it had cost him, and had paid for it. 

Says at the same time were taken 500 Bushels of Indian Corn 
to the best of his belief — he had the Account from his Wife, he 
values y^ Corn at 10^ Currency per Bushel — Oats and Rye worth 
£5 Sterling. 

Says he meant to include in this Article of his Memor^ his 
Plantation tools and Household Furniture wch he values at £10 Ster. 

Says he bought a Schooner in the year 1781 for wch he paid 70 
G'as. He sent her with Cash and Goods on board to the Value of 
£40 to St. Johns in Florida and to bring back a Cargo — He has since 
been informed She was taken by the Rebels. 
Col. John Phillips — Sworn 

Says he has known Claimant since he was a year old. He first 
came to America in 1772 — or 1773 — They lived near Witness at 
first, and then went to settle on Pacolet. 

Says the first Action of Claimant's Loyalty was after the Battle 
of Ninetysix,^ when Claimant took sev' Loyalists from Jackson's 
Creek to his Fathers at Pacolet & saved them from being taken 
prisoners. This was in the latter end of 1775. He was then a slip 
of a Boy about 18 — among these Loyalists were two Brothers of 
Witness ^" — Thinks his motives were his attachment to Britain. 

Says that he firmly beP Claimant in his mind a determined 
Loyalist from the beginning tho' he was obliged to carry Arms for 
the Rebels. Says that during the time he (Witness) was prisoner 
in Gen' Williamsons Army Claima' took every opportunity in his 
power to converse with Wit. and communicated to him his inten- 
tions to make his Escape from that Army — Says he has known 
many Loyalists forced against their Wills to serve as Soldiers in 
the Rebel Army 

From the time of the Reduction of Charles Town he was always 
most zealous and active Partizan in favor of Gov*. Major Fergu- 
son has told Wit. that he never knew such a little Boy as Claimant. 
He was particularly Serviceable both to Col. Tarleton and Major 
Ferguson and ran risques w'ch nothing would have tempted Wit. to 

* The siege of the fort of Ninety-Six, held by Major Andrew Williamson and Major James 
Mayson, by the loyalists under Majors Joseph Robinson and Evan McLauren, from November 
18 to 21, 1775. (See pp. 69, 70.) 

10 See Colonel John Phillips, p. 60. 


have done. He does not know nor believe that he ever rec'ed any 
reward for these except a trifle from Col. Balfour in Charles Town. 

Says he does not know enough of his Lands to speak to their 
Value. He heard of his having purchased Lands on Pacolet River, 
and that his Father had given him some more. He had likewise 
been upon Land w'ch he was told had been given Claimant by his 
Father in Law. 

Knew besides he had bounty Warrant, but knows nothing 
of the part'lars. 

Knew Claimant had a Waggon wch he heard & beP was taken 
from him by the Rebels. 

Says he knew Claimant had a Schooner wch he purchas'^ (he 
bel«) for £70 Ster. in 1781. Wit. lent him £60 of the M^ to pay for 
her. Says he beP She was taken by the Rebels, for the Master re- 
turned to Charles Town and informed him she had been taken 
Witness suspected the Master of her had behaved treacherously as 
he appeared in Charles Town in a more genteel manner afterw''^ tho 
he pretended the Schooner had been taken. Knows Claimant had 
£40 on board — part in Cash and part in Good. 

He has heard and believes he had a Negro and is satisfied that 
he lost her. 
Col. Zach^ Gibbes " Sworn. 

Says he has known Claimant many Years. He was a Friend 
to Gov* he and all his Fathers Family from the commencement of 
the Troubles. Knows he concealed the Loyalists at his Father's — 
among others Col. Phillip's Brothers. When Wit. returned home 
after being exiled he went to the House of Claimant's Father to 
conceal himself knowing no body whom he co*^ so securely trust, as 
he knew he had concealed some Loyalists. Wit: lay concealed there 
but two days, & found Claimant a sensible Youth and attached to 

Says that Claimant had been before forced into the Rebel Ser- 
vice — that he was then a Youth and held it was contrary to his In- 

Says that they had not a more active Oi!icer or Man in Major 
Fergusons Army during that Campaign. Says that Major Fergu- 
son sent to Wit. and desired he woul"^ point out to him a faithful 
Man who wo'^ go into the Enemy's Camp then at Cherokee Ford & 

11 Colonel Zacharias Gibbs (see pp. 79-82). 


count the number of their Men and bring Intelligence of their 
Movements. Wit. pointed out claimant, who went and brought the 
desired Intellig^® He did not get a Farthing reward for this Service. 
Wit. afterwards wrote to Col. Balfour ^- who gave him 5 G'as — 
Says he does not think he would have gone without the reward as 
it was a very dangerous Service. 

Says that Claim* did propose to Wit. in 1776 for the Loyalists 
in general to sign a Paper testifying their abhorence of the Rebel- 
lion & their resolution to support the British Government. 

Reads the paper produced by Claimant & beP it was to the 
effect expressed in that paper.^^ 

Says he beP that Claimant entred into an Agreement with other 
Loyalists to escape to Florida from Gen' Williamson's Army. 

Knows many instances of the Active Services of Claimant both 
in Action and by procuring Intelligence & had great Trust reposed 
in him. 

He was taken in the Battle of Kings Mountain where he be- 
haved bravely. He knows no Man of whom he can speak more 

Knows Claimant poss'ed 80 Acres on Pacolet River — w'ch he 
values at 30/ an Acre at least. 

Knows he purchased and paid for it, and that he was offered 
30/ an Acre for it. As to the offer he knows it only by hearing. 

Says he heard he was poss'ed of a Tract of Land w'ch had been 
part of his Father's w'ch he beP was 150 Acres. He values it at 20/ 
an Acre. 

Says he knows he had Lands on W™^ Creek w'ch had been W™ 
Hodges. Does not know part'ly the number of Acres. He values it 
at 20/ an Acre. 

Says he knew the Land adjoining but not the Title to them w'ch 
he values at 15/ an Acre. 

Does not know the Land on Bush River. 

Knew Claimant had a Negro which he values at £60. 

Knew he had a Waggon and Team, he supposes it might be 
worth £70. 

Knows he purchased a good deal of Tobacco — but does not know 
the part'lars of it. 

12 See p. 132. 

13 The Resolution of the loyalists is printed on p. 144. 


Capt. James Miller Sworn 

Knows Claimant — confirms his account of conducting the Loy- 
alists to his Father's in 1776 — w'ch he did from Motives of Loyalty 
— He s'^ so at the time. He was always looked upon as a Man in 
whom they might perfectly rely. 

Cannot speak positively as to his property but heard he had a 
Tract of Land from Hodge his Father in Law.^* 


A. Alexander Chesney's Orders for Wood Cutting 

Cap' Alexander Chesney is employed to Superintend the Refu- 
gees cutting wood for the Barrack Department. No wood Cutt by 
any person will be paid for unless the Cutter produces a receipt 
sign'd by Cap' Chesney — he will also take care that the wood is 
cutt as near as possible to the best Landing & that the Cords are 
full measure so that when they come to Charlestown they may hold 
out measure in Case of any disputes arrizing between him & the 
Proprietors of the Lands on the Neck he will apply to M'". Hodge 
who will take the proper measures for settling them 

By Order of the Barrack Master 
A Montell* 

B. Copy of Alexander Chesney's Commission as Captain 

South Carolina 

By Lieutenant Colonel Nesbit Balfour Commandant 

at Charles Town &c &c &c 
To Alexander Chesney 

By virtue of the Power & authority in me vested, I do hereby 
constitute & appoint you to be Capt. in Col Plummer's Regiment of 
Foot ^ — You are to take into your Care & Charge, and duly to Exer- 
cise as well the Officers as Soldiers thereof in Arms, & to use your 
best Endeavors to keep them in good Order Discipline ; & I do here- 
by command them to obey you as their Captain respectively. And 
you are to observe and follow such orders & Directions from time 
to Time as you shall receive from the General or Commander in 
Chief of His Majesty's Forces in North America, now & for the 

1* The above evidence on Alexander Chesney's Memorial is in A.O. 12/46, fos. 190-200. 
1 Colonel Daniel Plummer (see p. 88). 

* Two loyalists of this name, probably father and son, sailed from Charleston and settled 
in the Bahamas. (A.O. 13/70). 


Time being, your Colonel or any other your Superior officer, ac- 
cording to the Rules & Discipline of war, in Pursuance of the Trust 
hereby resposed [sic] in you. 

Given under my Hand & Seal at 

the 1^' Day of December 1780, and in the 20"^ year 
of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the 3*^ 
by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France & Ireland, 
King, Defender of the Faith &c. 

(Signed) N Balfour 

C. Alexander Chesney's Commission as Lieutenant 
OF Independent Scouts 

To M^ Alex--. Chesney 
Reposing especial trust & confidence in your Loyalty and Abil- 
ities, I do hereby empower you to act as Lieutenant of Independent 
Scouts in Capt John Fanning's- Company — And all persons what- 
ever are hereby required and directed to obey you as Lieutenant 
of that Company. 

Given under my hand at Charles Town 
20^'^ April 1781 
( L. S. ) N Balfour 


We do hereby certify, that the above is a true copy compared 
with the original this 7'^ day of Octo--. 1782 

J. Mackintosh 
Lew : Wolfe ^ 

D. Testimonial to Alexander Chesney's Services in Connec- 
tion WITH Sequestered Estates 

I hereby Certify that M"" Alexander Chesney was Employed by 
me as an overseer of the Sequestered Estate of Thos Ferguson Esq^ 
and withal Capacity he behaved himself to my Sattisfaction — He 
was also Employed by me as a Lieutenant in a Corps embodied for 
the Defence of the Sequestered Estates, and during the time he was 
so Employed. In justice to him I can not but acknowledge that he 
gave proof of Zeal & Spirit as well as activity & Enterprise, which 

2 Lieutenant-Colonel John Fanning (see p. 108). 

3 Lewis Wolfe (see p. 31, n. 207). The above documents are in A.O. 13/126. 


I hope will recommend him to the Notice of all those attachd to His 
Majestys Government 

Cha^ Town 8th Febry 1782 J. Cruden * 

Comm^ Loy'^ Estates 

E. Other Testimonials to the Services of Alexander Chesney 

Cherlestown, April 1^' 1782 
Captain Alex"" Chesney having an inclination to return to Eng- 
land on account of his Health — 

I know him to be a very determin'd Loyalist, & that he has 
render'd many Services to His Majesty's Government ever since 
the present Rebellion — That he always has done his Duty as an 
Officer, & has ever faithfully accomplished every matter that has 
been entrusted to him 

Given under my Hand at Charlestown this 1"' April 1782 

N Balfour. 

Culford Aur': 14'^ 1782 
I believe the contents of the Memorial of M^ Alex-". Chesney to 
be perfectly just and recommend him as a proper object of the con- 
sideration of Government Cornwallis 

To The Lords Commissioners 
of His Majesty's Treasury 

The Bearer M"". Alexander Chesney, having requested me 
to give him some testimonial of his good conduct in America, I have 
much pleasure in certifying, that in the Command of a Company 
of Royal Militia he behaved with exemplary zeal & fidelity. Given 
under my hand this 18'*^. of August 1782. Rawdon 

Mansfield Street, Nov. 20'^^ 1783 
I know M"". Alexander Chesney to have been a deserving Man, 
and an active and zealous Loyalist, and I have every reason to be- 
lieve that his estimate of his Losses is perfectly just.* 


F. Letter to the Commissioners from Colonel John Phillips.^ 

Ballymena 12'^ Dec". 1785 
Capt: Chesney showed me your letter of the 28: Novbr: and 
Requests me to write to the Commis'■^ Respecting his property — 

* A.O. 13/126. 
5 Ibid. 


I know that I was informed that after Cap', Chesney's wife and 
family was Drove of from his house & Lands that the Rebell Coil. 
Branon " took poseson of said house and Lands and put a rebell 
fam.ily in possion of it and I am perfectly Convinced it is Conficated 
and I am shure it is irecoverably Lost to him from the many serv- 
ices both publick and secret he rendered Goverm'. 

indeed all who bore Commisons in the British army were in- 
cluded in the Confication act and as he was one of the most active 
one I am convinced he has as littell Chance to In joy any part of 
his property in Caralenia as any Loyalist. I know also that Capt 
James Miller Lands " is sold and a rebell Capt Hugh Millen ^ is liv- 
ing on them and their is two Loyalists heare can and will take their 
oath that they were on the spot in 1784 and saw Millen in possion 
of the same 

G. Major Doyle's Certificate to Alexander Chesney.^ 
Montalto— Ballynahinch Dec. 14'^ 1785 

I Certify that Captain Alexander Chesney late of the Carolina 
Militia was a very active zealous officer in support of his Majesty 
Goverment during the late War: & by that means is (I am con- 
vinced) totally & for ever, deprived of his property in America, 
although He may not have been mentioned in a Confiscation List; 
which however must affect him as having held a Commission in 
the British Service. 

J: Doyle Major 

late 105"^ Reg-' 

H. Colonel Zacharias Gibbs' Certificate.^" 
On an application made to me by Captain Alexander Chesney 
late of Ninety-six in his Majesty's Province, now the State of S° 
Carolina In Justice to his Charector, and Merit I think it my Duty 
to Certify that at the Commencement of the unhappy war, he took 
an Early part for and in Behalf of his Majesty's Government: and 

" Colonel Thomas Brandon. 

'Captain James Miller (see p. 100). 

* Hugh Milling, of that part of South Carolina now embraced in Fairfield county, en- 
listed in Captain Charles Cotesworth Pinckney's company of the 1st South Carolina regiment, 
June 16, 1775, and was immediately appointed a sergeant. He was subsequently promoted 
captain in the 6th Regiment, South Carolina line, and in February, 1780, was transferred to 
the 3rd Regiment, South Carolina line, with which he served until the fall of Charleston in 
May following, when he was taken prisoner. In 1781 he was exchanged. Captain Hugh Milling 
died in July, 1837. 

»A.O. 13/126. 

i» Ibid. 


Rendered many essential Services to Government. More especially 
at the Return of the Royal Government in the year 1780, he joined 
the Royal army and from his Zeal and activity was Appointed Adj^ 
of a Royal Reg' of Militia, and Captain of a Company — And to my 
knowledge remained Singularly active Dureing the British Troops 
Remaining in that Country which was near two years — And I 
must further say I know no man of Captain Chesney's Rank that 
Rendered more Services Dureing that time, and to my knowledge, 
and By my Direction he Rendered many both Publick and Secret 
Services, such as Rideing with Hazardous Expresses &c and in Par- 
ticular to Major Patrick Ferguson, of the 71^'. Reg*. Lord Rawdon, 
and Col. Balfour ; and was taken at the memorable Battle at King's 
Mountain the 8"" Oct"". 1780, when Major Ferguson was killed, and 
was taken some Hundred Miles Prisoner into North Carolina, in 
Close Confinement, and Treated with the Utmost Severity. At 
length made his Escape back and Raised another Company of Mili- 
tia, and Cooperated with the British Troops — In Consequence of 
which I believe and know from Circumstances that his property 
both Real and personal are Irrecoverably lost, as the americans 
Immediately Seized on his Property, having Drove his wife and 
Child off and Into the Britilsh lines ; and I think his Chance Equally 
as Dangerous to return as mine or any other Loyalist. 

Given under my hand at Springfield, County Down. Ireland 
this 15"^ day of Dec-". 1785 

Zach^ Gibbs 

late a Col'. Royal Militia 

South Carolina Ninety-Six District- 

I. Letter to the Commissioners from Alexander Chesney." 

Bangor Dec^ 16'^ 1785 
It gave me infinite pain, to find by M"" Forsters Letter, that 
there remained a doubt with you, of the confiscation, and irrecov- 
erable loss of my Property in America. I was in hopes that it had 
already been made appear to your satisfaction, by the very respect- 
able Witnesses examined on my case, that as early as Jan^, 81. the 
Rebel Col. Brandon, ^^ seized all my Lands, and other Property un- 
der the Confiscation Act, and drove off my family into the Bristish 
Lines, not allowing my Wife so much as a Blanket to protect her 

"A.O. 13/126. 

12 Colonel Thomas Brandon. 


Child of 3 Months old, from the inclemency of the weather. And 
that he (Brandon) immediately apply'd all my Personal Property 
to his own, and the use of Gen'. Morgans ^^ army their encamped 
on the spot. 

I also flattered myself with the hopes that, from my uncom- 
mon exertions in the field as an officer, and from the many very 
essential secr^et services I rendered Gov\ during the late War, and 
from the certifycates in my favour, from Lord Cornwallis; Lord 
Rawdon ; Col. Balfour, Col Tarleton and other Officers, under whom 
I srved in America; to be classed with the most meritorious, and 
deserving men. And to have received some compensation with 
them, to enable me to support my family. And as I have ever 
placed an unlimited confidence on the faith of Goverm'. and sacri- 
ficed my all for its support, I hope you will see that my Property 
is confiscated, & for ever gone from me, and include me in your 
next Report. And be ashured Gentlemen, that I am one of the last 
men, that would be admited back to Carolina. Shou'd I be aban- 
doned by Gov*, and left in poverty, and despair, a prey to the Re- 
belion, yet in that case I cou'd not even think for a moment, of 
soliciting any favours from the late Rebellious States. 

If it will give you any further satisfaction, I will make Oath 
before Lord Moira," or a Justice of Peace, that, all the Lands, and 
other Property, for which I gave you in Claims, are to the best of 
my information, and belief, confiscated. And that I have not the 
most distant expectation of ever receiving any part of it except 
from Gov^, And that I never intend to return to any part of the 
United States unless they are again under a British Gov"^ 

I have called on Col Phillips, and Col Gibbs and got them to 
certify what they know of the matter, and would be glad you wou'd 
enquire the oppinion of my Lord Cornwallis, Lord Rawdon, Col. 
Balfour, Col Tarleton, or Major Saunders ^^ of the Queen's Rang- 
ers, and from any of those Gentlemen, you will learn that from my 
services, it is impossible I shou'd ever enjoy or recover any part of 
my confiscated Property. And as my situation is singularly dis- 
tressing, having been oblig'd to borrow Money to defray the ex- 
pences of three different Journeys to London, on this business al- 
ready. I hope your hon""^ will see the merit of my conduct, and the 

1^ General Daniel Morgan. 

1^ Lord Moira, the father of Lord Rawdon. 

'^^ Captain John Saunders (see Additional Notes, pp. 108-111). 


distresses of my situation, and grant me, and my family some relief 
as soon as in your Power. 

J. Letter to the Commissioners from Lewis PFolfe.^^ 

College Street 
22<J. Dec 1785 
The enclosed letter & Certificates I received by the Post this 
Day from M"". Chesney, who resides at Bangor in Ireland, in ans- 
wer to your Letter to him for further Proofs in support of his 
Claim ; with a desire fro him to lay them before the Commissioners 
for their Information; & to request the favor of being informed 
whether they are satisfactory or not ; as M"". Chesney lives at a great 
Distance, the expence of coming to Town would be attended by 
much Inconvenience to him. 

K. Letter to the Commissioners from Lord Cornwallis." 

Culford Dec: 26'^ 1785 
Having received a letter from M"". Alex"". Chesney, informing 
me that the Commissioners were of opinion that he had not pro- 
duced satisfactory evidence of the confiscation and sale or irre- 
coverable loss of his property; I think it my duty, in justice to that 
very deserving Man, to assure the Commissioners, that I am per- 
fectly convinced, from the active and very material services which 
M^ Chesney rendered to the British Troops, and from the violence 
with which He and his family were persecuted, that his return to 
Carolina is impossible, and that the loss of his property is irre- 


Resolution of the Loyalists on Pacolet River,^ 
South Carolina. [1775] 

We the principle inhabitants of the neighbourhood of pacolet 
River, beholding with the utmost abhorrence and detestation, the 
dareing proceedings of those infatuated people, who call themselvs 
committee men, or Liberty boys, feloniously breaking open the 
houses of his Majesties subjects, and thence carrying away Arms, 

18 A.O. 13/126. 

1' Ibid. 

1 A.O. 13/126. 


Ammunition, and other warlike stores; as well as putting their 
persons in confinement, which proceedings must terminate in the 
ruin and misery, of the poor deluded people themselvs. 

In order therefore to shew our attachment to our King and 
country, we promise goverment and each other, that we will embody 
ourselves at the shortest notice, to support the rights of the crown, 
as soon as called by any Legal Authority from thence — 

Party Divisions in South Carolina Families 

Family divisions in the war were many in South Carolina. 
Such well-known families as Bull, Moultrie, Lowndes, Pinckney, 
Drayton, Garden, Manigault, Heyward, Huger, and Horry were 
represented on both sides of the conflict, as were many less con- 
spicuous families in South Carolina. 

Draper mentions the brothers Goforth fighting as enemies at 
the battle of King's Mountain, where also fought the four brothers 
Logan — William and Joseph on the Whig side and John and Thom- 
as on the loyal side. (Draper, King's Mountain and its Heroes, 
pp. 314-5.) 


Justification of the Taking of the Oath to the State by the 
Committee of the South Carolina Loyalists in London.^ 

A Meeting of the General Committee of the South Carolina Loyalists 


Thomas Irving — Chairman 

John Rose Robert Williams 

Charles Ogilvie Gideon Dupont 

James Simpson Rob* W"" Powell 

John Hopton 

The Committee having agreed to the following Report, M''. 
Powell and M^". Dupont are requested to wait on the Honourable 
William Bull and Thomas Boone ^ Esquires ; their Agents, and to 
beg the favor of them to deliver the same as soon as possible to 
the Honourable the Commissioners appointed by Act of Parlia- 

1 A.O. 13/85. 

2 These gentlemen were former governors of South Carolina. 


ment for enquiring into the Losses and Services of the American 

The Committee of South Carolina Loyalists being informed 
that the taking of the Oath to the State is construed to their pre- 
judice, on the investigation of their Claims for Compensation of 
their Losses and Services under the late Act of Parliament, think 
it their indispensable duty to offer the following Observations to 
the consideration of the Honourable Board of Commissioners, in 
justification of their Conduct, through the intervention of their 

It is a clear proposition that the King's Subjects born in any 
part of his Dominions owe him a Natural Allegiance, which cannot 
be cancelled by any change of time, place, or circumstance, without 
the concurrence of the Legislature. This Allegiance is founded 
on principles of Universal Law, which the Wisdom of the Nation 
has incorporated into its Jurisprudence: And although the Sub- 
ject takes an Oath of Allegiance to any foreign Power, that alle- 
giance is only local and temporary. And his Majesty hath an in- 
dubitable right to require such Subjects to return to his Natural 
Allegiance, under severe penalties. 

Natural Allegiance always presupposes Protection, which are 
reciprocal duties ; but the Governor and other Officers of the Crown 
in South Carolina, having been early forced to relinquish the Exer- 
cise of their respective Offices, and afterwards sent off the Prov- 
ince, the loyal Inhabitants were totally destitute of Protection, and 
exposed to every insult and indignity. In this situation many of 
them would have come away with their Families and what little 
property they could have collected, by the Sale of their Estates for 
a depreciated paper-Currency, there being no Gold or Silver then 
in circulation; but the prohibitory Act passed here, put a stop to 
all Commercial intercourse between the two Countries, and de- 
clared such property subject to Capture; so that the loyal Inhabi- 
tants being obliged to take a circuitous voyage, expected they and 
their Families would be utterly ruined in that event, and reduced 
to a state of poverty and wretchedness, in partts of the world where 
they had neither Money, Credit, nor Connexions. Human Nature 
revolts at the idea of those scenes of misery and distress to which 
they would have been liable: and if the Officers of the Crown ran 
that hazard, in case of disappointment, they had a prospect of 
availing themselves of the patronage and influence of those, by 
whose Interest they had obtained their Offices : and the restitution 


of their captured property was owing to a liberal construction of 
the Act of Parliament in their favor, contrary to the express words, 
which could not be preseen. But others of unquestionable Loyalty 
in private Stations, who destitute of that prospect, were induced 
to remain in the Country to take care of their helpless Families, 
and be ready on every occasion to promote the King's Service, when 
he could give them protection, endured the severest persecution, 
some by painful Imprisonments, others by being dragged in chains 
to work on the Fortifications, and several of them were condemned 
and executed for their Attachment to the British Government. 

Hence it is obvious that the loyal Inhabitants were compelled 
to take the Oath to the State, by the highest legal necessity, a fear 
of injury to their lives or Persons ; to which the people of the King- 
dom in its Civil Wars have submitted by taking an Oath of Alle- 
giance to Usurpers, until the rightful Heir to the Crown asserted 
his Title, rather than leave their Country, Families and Fortunes. 
Besides it is declared to be Law, that in time of War or Rebellion, 
"a man may be justified in doing many treasonable Acts by compul- 
sion of the Enemy, or Rebels," which would admit of no excuse in 
time of Peace" ; And "that if a person be under circumstances of 
actual Force and constraint, through a well-grounded apprehension 
of injury to his life or person, this fear or compulsion will excuse 
his even joining with either Rebels or Enemies in the Kingdom, 
provided he leaves them whenever he hath a safe opportunity" : 
And Obedience to the Government de facto, is so strongly incul- 
cated by the Laws, that Attempts against an Esurper, unless in de- 
fence or aid of the rightful King, have been Capitally punished, 
after the true Prince regains the Sovereignty; because of the 
breach of that temporary Allegiance, which was due to the Usurper 
as King de facto, to whom even the power of pardoning Offences 
belongs, and not to the King de jure. 

But even supposing the conduct of the loyal Inhabitants of 
Carolina, in taking the Oath to the State, under such circumstances 
was criminal, of which they are not conscious, the Right of the King 
to require them to return to their Natural Allegiance, in this in- 
stance as well as that where a Subject takes an Oath of Allegiance 
to a foreign Power, is equally clear, with his right of pardoning 
both by the Constitution. And his Majesty having in pursuance of 
an Act of Parliament, issued a Commission for that purpose under 
the great Seal, to certain Persons, who by their several Proclama- 
tions, bearing date the third day of March, the twenty-second day 


of May, and first day of June in the year of our Lord 1780, not only 
required all his Subjects in his American Colonies, under the se- 
verest Penalties, to return to their Natural Allegiance, but in the 
most solemn manner, explicitly promised pardon, forgiveness, and 
Oblivion for all past Off'ences, and effectual Countenance, protec- 
tion and support to such as should do so and persevere in their Loy- 
alty. With a few Exceptions, it is humbly conceived, that all those 
not included in the exceptions, who, relying on the public Faith of 
those Proclamations, did return to their Natural Allegiance, and 
with integrity discharge their duty to their King and Country, 
(wherein they were afterwards encouraged to persist, from time 
to time, by other Proclamations of the Commanders of his Forces, 
and his gracious assurances to maintain his and their Constitutional 
Rights, signified by the Secretary of State to the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, and communicated by the King's Order to the loyal Inhabi- 
tants;) by all Laws, divine and human, are unquestionably entitled 
to the benefit of those Proclamations, and the Act of Parliament 
"appointing Commissioners to enquire into the Losses and Services 
of all such persons who have suffered in their Rights, properties 
and professions, during the late unhappy dissentions in America, 
in consequence of their Loyalty to his Majesty and Attachment to 
the British Government;" in which act those Proclamations are 
expressly recited: especially as the Commanders of the King's 
Forces advised the loyal Inhabitants of the Colonies from time to 
time, to submit to the Government de facto, until he could give them 
such effectual countenance, protection and support. 

Some of the Persons who were compelled to take the Oath to 
the State, for want of protection from their Government, and when 
that protection was tendered to them, cheerfully returned to their 
Natural Allegiance, pursuant to those Proclamations, died Martyrs 
to their Loyalty in the Field of Battle: Some have manifested it 
by their wounds and loss of Limbs ; and others have demonstrated 
it by the faithful discharge of the most important Trusts reposed 
in them, as well as by the most essential Services; for which they 
have been subjected to Banishment and Confiscation of Estate, and 
even submitted to the Sacrifice of almost every thing that is dear 
to Mankind: So that they have nothing they can call their own 
but their Families and their Sufferings. The Act of Attainder 
against them is likewise an unequivocal proof of their zealous At- 
tachment to the British Government, which can be corroborated by 
the most ample testimonials of many of the King's Officers Civil and 


Military; and by their Memorial to Sir Guy Carleton, previous to 
the Evacuation : wherein, urged by a sense of loyalty to their King 
and love of their Country, they expressed their earnest desire of 
defending their Religious, political and private Rights, with all the 
Ardor which a violation of them could inspire : And therefore they 
trust that their taking of the Oath to the State, and temporary 
submission to the Government by the Usurpers, being legally justi- 
fiable by the cruel necessity to which they were reduced without 
any misbehaviour on their parts, cannot militate to their prejudice 
on the investigation of their Claims for compensation of their losses 
and Services under the late Act of Parliament: and that in any 
construction of their conduct the Public Faith, Justice and honour 
of the Nation, which have invariably been held sacred with her 
Enemies, will not be violated with those who, actuated by prin- 
ciples of the purest loyalty and encouraged by the above proclama- 
tions and Royal Assurances, have given such indubitable proofs of 
their Zealous Attachment to their Sovereign and the British Gov- 
ernment, whereof they are the Natural born Subjects, which always 
was, and ever will be their greatest Felicity. 

(Signed) Thomas Irving 

London, Feb : 21^' : 1785. 


ABACO : see Bahama Islands. 

Abduction, family of Col. Richard Pearis, 103. 

Abuse of returned loyalist in South Carolina, 
82 ; of Col. Richard Pearis's family, 103. 

Address, loyalists (E. Fla.), to Governor Pat- 
rick Tonyn, 92; loyalists (S. C), to Lieut.- 
Gen. Alexander Leslie, 94. 

Address to the Loyal Part of the British Em- 
pire, by John Cruden, 92. 

Alexander, James, loyalist (S. C), captain 
Indian Field company, 115. 

Alexander, Robert, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Allaire, Lieut. Anthony, loyalist. Diary, xi; 
13, n. 92 ; n. 94 ; 14, n. 104 ; 71, 85. 

Allen, Lieut.-Col. Isaac, loyalist (N. J.), 21, 
n. 145: at defense of Ninety-Six (S. C), 90. 

Ancrum, William, loyalist (S. C), 94; mem- 
ber, committee to estimate losses of South 
Carolina loyalists, 120. 

Anderson's Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 

Arnold, Gen. Benedict, loyalist (Conn.), 32. 

Association, American Loyalists, in London, v. 
32, n. 216 ; United Loyalists, 92. (See also 
Tory association, Whig association.) 

Atkinson, John, 40. 

Atwood, Richard, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Augusta (Ga.) ; see Georgia. 

Axtell, Col. William, loyalist (N. Y.), forms 
Nassau Blues, May 1, 1779, 84. 

BAHAMA Islands, Brig.-Gen. Robert Cunning- 
ham, loyalist (S. C), and others settle in, 
87, 88 ; trade with, advocated, 93 ; John 
Cruden, the younger, dies in, 93 ; Col. and 
Mrs. Richard Pearis, loyalists (S. C), re- 
ceive land grants in Abaco island, 104 ; 
suggested for settlement of Southern loyal- 
ists, 117. 

Balfour, Col. Nisbet, commandant at Charles- 
ton, 10, n. 69 ; orders Alexander Chesney to 
raise troop of horse, iv. 23, 24 ; orders 
"rebels" released, 103 ; certificate to Col. 
John Philipps, 62 ; appoints James Vernon 
'lieutenant-colonel, 78 ; letter to, 79 ; testifies 
for Col. Zacharies Gibbs, 81 ; replies to Gen. 
Greene, 95 ; certifies to value of Alexander 
Chesney's estate, 125 ; joined by loyalists 
(S. C), 131; mentioned, 132; rewards Alex- 
ander Chesney, 136, 137 ; issues captain's 
commission to Chesney, 138, 139 ; Chesney 
carries expresses to, 142 ; testimonials to 
Chesney, 140, 143. 

Ball, Col. Elias, Jr., loyalist (S. C), claim 
and award, 118. 

Ballingall, Col. Robert, 94 ; in command of 
Colleton county (S. C.) loyal militia, 114; 
member. South Carolina loyalists' commit- 
tee, 116. 

Ballmer, Maj. George, loyalist (S. C), claim 
and award, 118. 

Banishment, from South Carolina, Robert 
Phillips, loyalist, 61 ; Philip Henry and 
other loyalists, 98 ; Southern loyalists, 117 ; 
Solomon Smythe, 28, n. 197. 

Barber, Lieut. James, loyalist (S. C), goes to 
Ireland, 28, 97. 

Barclay, Thomas, loyalist (N. Y.), Corre- 
spondence of, xi. 

Baron, Alexander, member. South Carolina 
loyalists' committee, 116. 

Barrett, Ensign Robert, 60. 

Barton, Capt. Robert, Colleton county (S. C), 
loyal militia, 115. 

Battles : Baylis Earle's ford, 72, 73 ; Beaver 
Creek (S. C), 96; Blackstocks Hill (S. C), 
20, n. 138; Bullock's creek (S. C), 131; 
Camden (S. C), 91, 96; Col. John Hamilton, 
loyalist (N. C), in, 117; Cedar Springs (S. 
C), 12, n. 83; Cowpens (S. C), Jan. 17, 
1781, 11, n. 79 ; 22, 60 ; Col. Banistre Tarle- 
ton defeated, 128, 132; Great Bridge (Va.), 
109; Hanging Rock (S. C), 90; Kettle creek 
(Ga.), Feb. 14, 1779, 80; King's Mountain, 
Oct. 7, 1780, 17, 18, 19, n. 129; 23, 31, 65, 
73, 79, 83, 84, 85, 89, 126, 131, 132; Alex- 
ander Chesney taken prisoner, 137, 142 ; 
Musgrove's Mills, 13, n. 96 ; Fort Ninety-Six 
(S. C). siege of, Nov. 18-21. 1775, 65, 100, 
135, n. 9 ; Col. Thomas Fletchall's attack on 
Ninety-Six, 69, 70 ; Lieut.-Col. J. H. Crug- 
er's defense of Ninety-Six, May 22-June 19, 
1781, 90; Stono Ferry (S. C), June 12, 
1779, 75; Waxhaws (S. C), June, 1780, 90. 

Bayley, David, loyalist (S. C), 131. 

Seattle's Mill (S. C), 73. 

Beechey, Sir William, 49, n. 333. 

Beers, William, 49, n. 330. 

Bell, Georpre W., 55, n. 357. 

Bell, John, schoolmaster, 62. 

Benson, Capt. George, 10, n. 69. 

Bermuda, Solomon Smyth, loyalist (S. C), 
takes refuge in, 28, n. 197 ; prisoners from, 
join Duke of Cumberland's regiment, 91 ; 
trade with, advocated, 93. 

Bernard, Scrope, loyalist (Mass.), 35, n. 246; 




Bibby, Lieut. John, loyalist, executed, 86. 

Bibliography, xiii, xiv. 

Big Canebrake (S. C), 102. 

Bishop, Drury, loyalist (S. C), 79. 

Blackstocks Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 

Blackstocks Hill (S. C), battle; see Battles. 

Bobo, Capt. Lewis, 11. 

Boehman, Jacob, loyalist, killed, 64. 

Bond, Col , loyalist, killed, 80. 

Bond, Capt. George, loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Bond, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Boone, Thomas, former governor of South 
Carolina, 118, 145. 

Boston (Mass.) ; see Massachusetts. 

Bouquet, Gen. Henry, 102. 

Bowie, Capt. John, 70. 

Bowman, William, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Boyd, Col. John, loyalist (S. C), helps raise 
600 loyalists in 1779, 80. 

Brailsford, Robert, loyalist (S. C), claim and 
award for children of, 119. 

Brandon, Charles, loyalist (S. C), 4, 6, 20, 23, 

Brandon, Christian, loyalist (S. C), 131. 

Brandon ("Brannon") Col. Thomas, 9, n. 64; 
14, n. 98 ; 141, n. 6 ; takes Alexander Ches- 
ney's property, 142. 

Brecken, Ralph, 76. 

Brereton, Capt. William, 25, n. 182 ; 26. 

Brieer creek (Ga.) ; see Creeks. 

Brisbane, James, loyalist (S. C), claim and 
award, 119. 

British Legion ; see Tory corps. 

British troops, at Long Island, S. C, 7 ; at 
Stono, 9 ; take Charleston, 10, 71 ; at Cam- 
den, 13 ; restricted in South Carolina, 27, n. 
190 ; Maj. Patrick Ferguson best rifleshot 
and inventor of first breech-loading rifle in 
use by, 83 ; all loyalists in battle of King's 
Mountain, 86 ; at Savannah, Ga., 107. 

Broad river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Brown, Anne, 71, 72. 

Brown, Elizabeth, 88. 

Brown, Hugh, loyalist (S. C), 64. 

Brown, John, loyalist (S. C), 79. 

Brown, Lieut.-Col. Thomas, loyalist (Ga.), 65, 
68.; helps form Tory association in Ninety- 
Six district, 105 ; needs relief expedition at 
Augusta, Ga., mid-Sept., 1780, 107. 

Brownlee, Robert, loyalist (S. C), 88. 

Brucee, Catherine, marries Capt. Moses Kirk- 
land, Jamaica, W. I., 107. 

Bryson, John, William, and William Jr., loy- 
alists (S. C), land grants in Nova Scotia, 

Buckingham, Capt. Elias, of Orangeburg (S. 
C.) loyal militia, 114. 

Bull, Stephen, gets property of Governor 

William Bull by fraud, 112, 113. 
Bull, William, lieutanant-governor of South 

Carolina, 32, n. 218 ; 112, 113 ; claim and 

award, 119. 
Bullock, Capt. Zachariah, 8, n. 56 ; 9, n. 62. 
Bullock's creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 
Burgoyne, Gen. John, vi, 34, 86. 
Burns, James, loyalist (S. C), claim and 

award, 119. 
Bush river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

CALDWELL, Capt. John, 66, 69; seizure of 
Fort Charlotte, S. C, 107. 

Caldwell, Thomas, 60. 

Cambridge (Mass.) ; see Massachusetts. 

Camden, (S. C), 13, 14, 60; Col. Zacharias 
Gibbs goes to, 80 ; defeat of Gen. Horatio 
Gates at, Aug. 16, 1780, 91 ; battle of, 96 ; 
Col. James Carey in command of 1st regi- 
ment, loyal militia, 114 ; Col. John Hamil- 
ton, loyalist (N .C), in battle of, 117. 

Cameron, Alexander, loyalist (Ga.), deputy- 
superintendent of Indians, 63. 

Campbell, Capt 47. 

Campbell, Col. Archibald and British force 
sail for Georgia, 1778, 89. 

Campbell, Charles Philip, loyalist (S. C), 28, 
n. 196; 30, 35. 

Campbell, Daniel and Hugh, loyalists (S. C), 
claim and award, 119. 

Campbell, Gen. William, 17. 

Campbell, Lord William, last royal governor of 
South Carolina, 5, 63, 66, 67, 83, 99; Capt. 
Moses Kirkland visits, 105. 

Canadais, Silas, loyalist (S. C), ensign in 
Indian Field company, 115. 

Garden, Maj. John, loyalist, in battle of 
Hanging Rock, S. C, 90. 

Carey, Col. James, in command of 1st regi- 
ment, Camden loyal militia, 115. 

Carleton, Francis, 49, n. 330. 

Carlisle (Pa.), 2, n. 10. 

Carr, James, 48. 

Castlereagh, Lord, viii ; 47, n. 325 ; 53, 54. 

Catawba Indians ; see Indians. 

Cathcart, Lord, raises British Legion (Tory 
corps) in 1778, 90. 

Cedar Springs (S. C), battle; see Battles. 

Chalmers, Ariana M. J., marries Capt. John 
Saunders, loyalist (Va.), 110. 

Chalmers, Col. James, in command of Mary- 
land Loyalists (Tory corps), 110. 

Champneys, John, member. South Carolina 
loyalists' committee, 116 ; claim and award, 

Charleston (S. C), 3, 4, 5, 7. 13, 24, 26; 
Capt. Moses Kirkland visits Governor Lord 
William Campbell in, 105 ; loyalist prison- 
ers sent to, 71 ; Maj. Patrick Ferguson, pris- 



oner at, 83 ; Capt. Robert Cunningham, 
prisoner in, 87 ; Maj. Patrick Cunningham, 
prisoner in, 104 ; Col. Richard Pearis, pris- 
oner in, 103 ; Dr. David Oliphant, prisoner 
in, 117; taken by British, 15, 91, 94, 97, 135; 
Alexander Chesney goes to, 22, 125 ; loyalist 
refugees in, 27, 61, garrison, 31 ; confisca- 
tion act published in, 39 ; refuge of Col. 
John Phillips' family, 61 ; Sir Henry Clinton 
in, 61 ; hospital for refugees in, 61 ; Col. 
Thomas Fletchall and family take refuge in, 
71 ; Col. Zacharias Gibbs goes to, 80 ; Maj. 
Michael Egan joins loyalists in, 97 ; daugh- 
ter of Col. Daniel Plummer dies in, Dec, 

1781, 89 ; Col. Daniel Plummer in, Apr., 

1782, 89 ; Lieut.-Col. Evan McLaurin dies 
in, June, 1872, 102 ; wife of Capt. James 
Miller dies in, Aug., 1782, 101 ; Col. Nisbet 
Balfour commandant in, 10, n. 69 ; 81 ; 
Maj. Thomas Eraser married in. 111 ; Brit- 
ish outposts driven in, v. 126 ; loyal refu- 
gees employed in wood-cutting, 129, 138 ; 
Alexander Chesney in, 130, 131 ; commis- 
sioner of sequestered estates in, 139 ; dis- 
tress of South Carolina loyalists over evac- 
uation, 116 ; evacuation by British, 75 ; ex- 
pulsion of returned loyalist, 120. 

Charleston Neck (S. C), 27. 

Charlotte, Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 

Chatham, Lord, 49, n. 331. 

Cheraws (S. C), loyal militia regiment com- 
manded by Col. Robert Gray, 114. 

Cherokee ford (Broad river, S. C), 11, 17, 131, 
133, 135. 

Cherokee Indians ; see Indians. 

Chesney, Alexander, loyalist (S. C), birth, 
1 ; family connections, 1, 2, 3 ; arrival in 
South Carolina, 3 ; settles on Pacolet river, 
3, 4, 5 ; opposes Congress party, 5 ; pilots 
company of loyalists, 6, 130, 135, 136 ; taken 
prisoner, 6 ; fails to reach Sir Henry Clin- 
ton's army, 7 ; with "rebel" army, iii, 6, 7, 
8, 9 ; in campaign against Indians, iii, 7, 8, 
65, 72, 104 ; trades with Whigs in Charles- 
ton, iii, 8, 9 ; marries Margaret Hodge, 9 ; 
goes within British lines and enlists, iii, 10, 
11; in various actions, 12, 13, 14; in opera- 
tions in North Carolina, 14, 15, 16 ; taken 
prisoner, 16 ; in battle of King's Mountain, 
16, 17, 18, 85, 111 ; reports wounding of Col- 
Daniel Plummer at King's Mountain, 89 ; is 
marched prisoner to Gilbert's Town, N. C, 
18 ; escapes home and hides out, 19, 20 ; 
raises company and joins Brig. -Gen. Robert 
Cunningham, 14, 20; captured and ex- 
changed, 21 ; at Ninety-Six, 21 ; joins Lieut.- 
Col. Banistre Tarleton, 21 ; in defeat at 
Cowpens, Jan. 17, 1781, 22 ; brings off fam- 
ily, iv. 22 ; removes family to sequestered 
plantation, 23 ; raises troop of horse, iv, 24 ; 
moves family to Dorchester, iv, 24 ; wounded. 

iv, 24 ; military activities, 24, 25, 26, 27 ; 
lieutenant in Lieut.-Col. John Fanning's 
scouts, 108 ; commissioned captain, 138, 139 ; 
commissioned lieutenant in Independent 
Scouts, 139 ; helps defend sequestered es- 
tates, 14, 139, 140 ; experience on Cooper 
river, 27 ; superintends wood-cutters, v, 27, 
138 ; death of first wife, 27 ; returns to Ire- 
land, V, 28 ; presents memorial and meets 
Philip Henry, loyalist (S. C), v, 28; visits 
relatives, 29 ; gives family history, 29, 30 ; 
pushes claims for losses, v, vi, vii, 30, 31, 
33, 34, 37, 38, 39 ; memorial, 126, 127, 
130 ; evidence on memorial, 130-138 ; ex- 
amined by commissioners on American 
Claims, 125 ; estimate of property, 127-130 ; 
testimonials, 140 ; Col. John Phillips' letter, 
141 ; certificates, 141, 142 ; letter to the 
commissioners, 142-144 ; Lewis Wolfe's let- 
ter, 144 ; claims stttled, 40, n. 285 ; 41 ; ap- 
pointed member loyalists' committee, v, 33 ; 
employed in Irish Customs, v, vi, vii, 36, 

39, 40, 50, 53, 55 ; marries Jane Wilson, 36 ; 
births of children, 30, 41, 44, 48, 51 ; com- 
bats smuggling, vii, x, 41, 42, 52, 53, 55, 56 ; 
active against rebellion in Ireland, viii, 45, 
46, 47 ; appointed justice of peace, viii, 46 ; 
family matters, viii, ix, x, xi, 40, 45, 48, 49, 
50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56 ; seeks superannua- 
tion, 48 ; burial place of, 43, n. 299. 

Chesney Alexander, Jr., ix, 48, 52. 

Chesney, Charles Cornwallis, ix, x, 42, n. 296 ; 

48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55. 
Chesney, Charlotte, ix, x, 54, 55, n. 357. 
Chesney, Eliza, viii, ix, 39, n. 272; 44, 48, 51. 
Chesney, Francis Rawdon, viii, 41, n. 290 ; 43, 

44, 48, n. 327 ; 49, 50, 51, 52, 55. 
Chesney, Jane, ix, 41, n. 286 ; 54. 
Chesney, Marianne, ix, x, 44, n. 301 ; 54. 
Chesney, Matilda, ix, 47, 53. 
Chesney, Robert, ix, 29, gives land to son, 

Alexander, 133. 
Chesney, Thomas Crafer, ix, 51, A, 339. 
Chesney, Sophia, 55. 

Chesney, William, ix, x, 20, 43, 54, n. 356 ; 56. 
Chester, Governor Peter (W. Fla.), visited by 

Capt. Moses Kirkland, 106. 
Chitty, John, lawyer, London, Eng. 
Chitwood, Capt. James, loyalist, executed, 86. 
Claims and awards, of loyalists : Col. Robert 

Ballingall, 94 ; Alexander Chesney, v, vi, vii, 

40, n. 285 ; 125, 129 ; John Cruden and Co., 
93 ; Brig. -Gen. Robert Cunningham, 87 ; Maj. 
Michael Egan, 97 ; Lieut.-Col. John Fanning, 
108 ; Col. Thomas Fletchall, 72 ; Col. Zacha- 
rias Gibbs, 82 ; Mrs. Zacharias Gibbs (nee 
Jane Downes), 81, 82; Philip Henry, 99; 
Capt. Moses Kirkland, 108 ; fourth duke of 
Manchester, 59 ; Capt. James Miller, 101 ; 
Col. Richard Pearis, 103 ; Col. John Phillips, 
63 ; Maj. John Robinson, 75, 76 ; Capt. John 



Saunders, 110 ; James Simpson, 100 ; South 
Carolina loyalists, 118-121. 

Clarke, Col. Elijah, 11, n. 76; 16, n. 109. 

Clarke, Capt. John, 21. 

Clary, Col. Daniel, in command regiment loyal 
militia (S. C), 113; in command two com- 
panies loyal militia of Dutch Fork of Ninety- 
Six, 114. 

Clatworthy, Lieut. James, of Camden (S. C.) 
loyal militia, 115. 

Clavering, Col. Henry M., 46, n. 318. 

Clerk, Capt. John ; see Clarke, Capt. John. 

Cleveland, Col. Benjamin, 17, 19. 

Clinton, Gen. Sir Henry, called on by Alex- 
ander Chesney, v, 33 ; at Long Island, S. C, 
7, 131 ; takes Cherleston, 126 ; at Charleston, 
10, 30, 61; handbill, 14, 15, n. 100; 33; 
letter from Lord Conrwallis to, 65 ; ac- 
companied by Capt. Moses Kirkland on 
evacuation of Philadelphia, 106. 

Clitherall, Dr. James, surgeon. South Carolina 
Royalists, 98, 112. 

Coates, Col. James, 26, n. 183. 

Cobbett, William, celebrated politician, 25, n. 

Cochrane, Sir Alexander F. I., 28, n. 192. 

Coke, Daniel Parker, commissioner of Ameri- 
can Claims, 37, n. 258. 

Colden, Alice, 49, n. 334. 

Colleton county (S. C.) loyal militia, com- 
manded by Col. Robert Ballingall, 114 ; Col- 
leton family, loyalists (S. C), claim and 
award, 118. 

Collier, Sir George, 105. 

Commissioner of loyalists' (or sequestered) 
estates. Col. John Cruden, 139. 

Commissioners of American (or loyalist) 
Claims, 37, n. 258 ; 38, 39, 41, 48, 59, 62, 
93, 97, 99 ; examine Alexander Chesney, vi, 
vii, 125 ; memorial of Alexander Chesney to, 
126, 127 ; letters to, 140, 142, 144 ; report of 
committee of South Carolina loyalists to, 

Committee of South Carolina loyalists, in Lon- 
don, justify taking State oath, 145-148. 

Commons House of Assembly (S. C), 111, 113. 

Concealment of loyalists by Alexander Ches- 
ney, 136. 

Confiscation of loyalist estates, 26, n. 185 ; 
act mentioned, 39, n. 274 ; lists published, 
39, n. 274 ; protests against South Carolina 
laws for, 94 ; of estate of Capt. John Saun- 
ders, 110 ; of Lieut.-Governor William Bull's 
estate thwarted, 112, 113 ; extent of act (S. 
C), 141; of lands of Capt. James Miller, 
141 ; of property of Alexander Chesney, 31, 
142, 143 ; of propert yof Lieut.-Col. James 
Vernon, 78. 

Congress, Colonial (S. C), and Indians, 63; 
Provincial (S. C), resolves to sieze leading 

loyalists, 64 ; Continental, 68, IOC ; Provin- 
cial (S. C), 74. 

Connelly, Col. John, loyalist (Pa.), Narrative 
of, xi. 

Cook, Capt. Abraham, loyalist (S. C), of Cam- 
den loyal militia, 114. 

Cook, Hugh, loyalist (S. C), 4, 20. 

Cooper, Robert, 82. 

Cornwallis, Lord, v, 13, 32, 35, 39, 41, 44, 48 ; 
loyalist refugees in British Isles helped by, 
31, n. 210 ; inauguratees loyal militia in 
South Carolina, 60, 88, 113 ; supports claim 
of Col. John Phillips, 62 ; letter to Sir Henry 
Clinton, 65 ; protests against execution of 
Col. Ambrose Mills, 73 ; certificate to Col. 
Zacharias Gibbs, 81 ; appoints Robert Ball- 
ingall colonel, 94 ; indignant at surrender of 
Col. Rowland Rugeley and loyalists, 96 ; 
certificate to Maj. Michael Egan, 97 ; certi- 
fies to value of Alexander Chesney's prop- 
erty, 125 ; certificate to Alexander Chesney, 
132, 140, 143. 

Corry, Isaac, 47, n. 320. 

Costley, Robert, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Cotton, Col. John, in command of regiment of 
(S. C.) loyal militia, 113, 114, 116. 

Council of Safety (S. C), 63, 68; asked to 
boycott Lieut.-Col. Evan McLaurin, 101. 

Covell, Samuel, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Cowpens, battle of, 11, n. 79 ; 21, n. 147 ; 22, 
n. 148 ; 60 ; defeat of Col. Banistre Tarleton, 
Jan. 17, 1781, iv, 22, 60, 128, 132. 

Crafer, Thomas, xi, 31, n. 208 ; 44, n. 392 ; 49, 
50, 51. 

Crampton, Maj. John, 55, n. 360. 

Creek Indians ; see Indians. 

Creeks: Beaver (S. C), 96; Brandy wine (Pa. 
and Del.), 109; Brier (Ga.), 106; Brown's 
(S. C), 12; Bullock's (S. C), 131; Cane 
(N. C), 14; Crocky (S. C), 61; Fair For- 
est (S. C), 10, 14, 22, 78, 88, 131; Fishing 
(S. C), 14, n. 97; Great Beaver (S. C), 
101; Great Lynch (S. C), 96; Jackson's 
(S. C), 3, 4, 6, 60, 100, 101, 114, 135; Ket- 
tle (Ga.), 80; Long Cane (S. C), iv, 24, n. 
177; Silver (N. C), 14; Sugar (S. C), 10, 
131; Stevenson's (S. C), 114; Thicketty 
(S. C), 11, n. 76; 22, 132; Town (S. C), 
3; Turkey (S. C), 3; Waxhaw (S. C), 
90; White Oak (N. C), 16, n. 110; Williams 
(S. C), 128, 133, 137. 

Crossian, Jeremiah, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Crown and Anchor tavern (London, Eng.) ; 
see England. 

Cruden, James, loyalist (S. C), 93. 

Cruden, Col. John, loyalist (S. C), iv, v, 23, 
27 ; career, 91-93 ; Address to the Loyal Part 



o/ the British Empire, 92 ; certificate to 
Alexander Cliesney, 132 ; testimonial to same, 

Cruden, John, the elder, loyalist (S. C), pris- 
oner, 92. 

Cruger, Lieut.-Col. John Harris, loyalist (N. 
Y.), 16, n. 109; 21, 81, 89-91; accompanied 
to Orangeburg by Col. Daniel Plummer's 
men, 89 ; Capt. Moses Kirkland accompanies 
expedition to Augusta, Ga., 107. 

Cunningham, Capt. Andrew, of Colleton county 
(S. C.) loyal militia. 60, 115. 

Cunningham, David, loyalist, remains in South 
Carolina after the Revolution, 88. 

Cunningham, John, loyalist, remains in South 
Carolina after the Revolution, 88. 

Cunningham, Margaret, widow of Brig.-Gen. 
Robert Cunningham, dies in Bahama Islands, 

Cunningham, Maj. Patrick, loyalist (S. C), 
20, 22, 64, 67, 68, 69, 87-89. 97; Richard 
Pearis, Jr., marries daughter, 104 ; not res- 
cued from Charleston 104 ; commands bri- 
gade of loyal militia, 104, 113. 

Cunningham, Robert Andrew, 88. 

Cunningham, Lieut. Thomas, loyalist (S. C), 
in battle of King's Mountain, 116. 

Cunningham, Maj. William, loyalist (S. C), 
88 ; in command of loyal mounted militia, 
114 ; land grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Curwen, Judge Samuel, loyalist (Mass.), Jour- 
nal and Letters, xi, 116. 

Cuthbert surveyor-general, 44. 

DARTMOUTH, Lord, 92. 

Davis, Maj 14, n. 97. 

De Lancey, Oliver, loyalist (N. Y.), raises De 

Lancey's brigade ; see Tory corps. 
De Peyster, Frederick, loyalist (N. Y.), joins 

Nassau Blues (Tory corps), 84; joins King's 

American regiment (Tory corps), 84. 
De Peyster, James, Sr., 84. 
De Peyster, James, Jr., loyalist (N. Y.), 84. 
Dimock, Shubal, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 

Nova Scotia, 118. 
Dinwiddie, Robert, governor of Virginia, 1752- 

7, 102. 
Dombrain, Lieut. James, 56. 
Dorchester (S. C), iv, v, 24, 26. 
Downes, Jane, second wife of Col. Zacharias 

Gibbs, 81. 
Downes, Maj. William, loyalist (S. C), 81. 
Doyle, Capt. Sir Bentinck C, 35, n. 240. 
Doyle, Lieut.-Gen. Charles W., 35, n. 240. 
Doyle, Col. John, 25, n. 180; 35, n. 240; 43, 

53. n. 348 ; certificate regarding Alexander 

Chesney, 130, 132, 141. 
Doyle, William, 35, n. 240. 
Drayton, William Henry. 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 

70, 71, 87 ; version of Capt. Moses Kirkland's 

departure from South Carolina, 107. 

Drury, Capt. ; 48. 

Dublin (Ireland) ; see Ireland. 

Duet's Corner (S. C), 8. 

Duke of Cumberland's regiment (or Loyal 
American Rangers) ; see Tory corps. 

Duke of Richmond, offers motion in House 
of Lords, 95. 

Dundas, Col. Thomas, commissioner of Amer- 
ican Claims, 93. 

Dunlap, Maj. James, loyalist, 12, n. 83 ; 73, 
79 ; executed, 95. 

Dunmore, Lord John Murray, last royal gov- 
ernor of Virginia, Capt. Moses Kirkland 
serves under, 105 ; Capt. Kirkland returns to 
Dunmore's ships, 106 ; commissions John 
Saunders captain, 109. 

Dupont, Gideon, loyalist (S. C), 94; claim 
and award, 119 ; member, committee of 
South Carolina loyalists in London, 145. 

Dupont, Gideon, Jr., loyalist (S. C), agent. 
South Carolina loyalists, 116, 117. 

Dutch Fork, of Ninety-Six (S. C), 101; loyal 
militia from, 114. 

Dykes, George, loyalist (S. C), 79. 

EAST FLORIDA, company of loyalists on way 
to St. Augustine, 6 ; mentioned, 8 ; Patrick 
Tonyn, governor of, 61, 105; Robert Phillips 
takes refuge in, 61 ; John Cruden, the 
younger, in, 92, 93 ; address of loyalists to 
Governor Patrick Tonyn, 92 ; Cols. Ambrose 
Mills and David Fanning try to lead 500 loy- 
alists to, 72 ; St. Mary's river, 92 ; Capt. 
Moses Kirkland visits, 105; 10,000 loyalists 
suffer by cession to Spain, 75 ; Lieut.-Col. 
Joseph Robinson and wife take refuge in, 
75 ; East Florida Rangers ; see Tory corps. 

Edghill, Col. Thomas, member, South Carolina 
loyalists' committee, 116. 

Edisto river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Egan, Maj. Michael, loyalist (S. C), goes to 
Ireland, 28 ; career, 96-97 ; in Camden loyal 
militia, 114. 

Ellegood, Col. Jacob, loyalist (Va.), commands 
Queen's Own Loyal Virginian regiment, 
109 ; in New Brunswick, 108, 110. 

Ellis, Joseph (or Jacob), loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Elliott, Lieut. William, of lower Ninety-Six 
loyal militia, 116. 

Enoree river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

England, Dr. Frazier (James Eraser), loyalist 
(S. C), goes to, 26, n. 185; loyalist refu- 
gees meet in London, v, 32, n. 216 ; com- 
missioners of American Claims in London, 
vi, vii, 37, n. 268; 38, 39, 41, 48, 59, 62, 
93, 97, 99, 125, 126, 127, 130-138, 140, 142, 
144, 145 ; Lieut-Col. James Vernon in, 79 ; 
Phliip Henry and other loyalists go to, 98 ; 
Capt. Moses Kirkland drowns on way to, 
107 ; Capt. John Saunders goes to, 110 ; 



John Simcoe Saunders in, 111 ; Col. James 
Chalmers and family in, 110 ; Alexander 
Chesney in, v, vi, vii, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38, 
39, 125, 130-138 ; report of committee of 
South Carolina loyalists in London, 145-149. 

English, Capt. Joshua, of Camden loyal militia, 

English, Col. Robert, of Camden loyal militia, 
96, 97, 115. 

Ennis, Col. Alexander ; see Innes. 

Estimate, of Alexander Chesney's property, 

Eustace, Col. Charles, 34, n. 236 ; 35. 

Evidence, on Alexander Chesney's memorial, 

Evacuation, of Charleston (S. C), distress of 
loyalists over, 116. 

Execution, of loyalists, 17, n. 120 ; 25, n. 182 ; 
18, n. 129 ; 86, 95 ; of American officer, Col. 
Isaac Hayne, 94, 95. 

FAIR FOREST (S. C), location, 10, n. 68; 
Alexander Chesney at, 22, n. 152 ; loyalists 
join Col. Nisbet Balfour at, 131. 

Fair Forest creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Fanning, Col. David, loyalist (N. C), Narra- 
tive, xi ; helps raise corps of 500 loyalists, 
72, 108 ; in command of King's American 
regiment, Dec, 1776, 84 ; member. South 
Carolina loyalists' committee, 116. 

Fanning, Col. Edmund, loyalist (N. C), in 
command of King's American regiment, 
Dec, 1776, 84 ; lieutenant-governor. Prince 
Edvi^ard Island, 108 ; career, 108-111. 

Fanning, Capt. John, loyalist, Alexander 
Chesney in company of, 139. 

Farquharson, Dr. John, loyalist (S. C), 98. 

Felder, Capt. John, oppressor of loyalists, 
killed, 115. 

Fenny, Margaret, 88. 

Fenton, Richard, loyalist (S. C), and family 
in Nova Scotia, 82. 

Fenwick, Thomas, loyalist (S. C), claim and 
award, 119. 

Ferguson, Maj. Patrick, iii, 10, 14, n. 99 ; 15, 
17, 18, n. 124 ; 19, 23, 31, 78 ; career, 83-93 ; 
loyal militia under command of, 126 ; in- 
spector-general of loyal militia, 131 ; Alex- 
ander Chesney serviceable to, 132, 135, 136 ; 
defeated and killed at King's Mountain, 131, 

Ferguson, Thomas, 23, n. 162 ; sequestered 
estate of, 139. 

Fishdam ford. Broad river (S. C), 12, n. 87. 

Fishing creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 25. 

Fitzpatrick, Mary, 53. 

Fitzsimmonds, James, loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Fletchall, Joseph, loyalist (S. C), planter in 
Jamaica, 72. 

I'letchall, Col. Thomas, loyalist (S. C), 5, 63, 
78, 87 ; goes with family to Jamaica, 71 ; 
career, 66-72 ; helps form Tory association in 
Ninety-Six district, 105. 

Fletcher, Lieut. Duncan, of Loyal American 
regiment, 14, n. 107. 

Florida, Southern loyalists seek refuge in, 117 ; 
South Carolina loyalists attempt escape from 
Gen. Williamson's army into, 131. (See also 
East Florida and West Florida.) 

Forbes, Gen. John, 102. 

Ford, Capt. John, 69. 

Forrester, D., 93. 

Forts: Anderson's (S. C), 10, 11; Augusta 
(Ga.), 16, 21; Barrington (Ga.), 8; Black- 
stocks (S. C), 20; Charlotte (S. C), 67, 
107; Duquesne (Pa.), 102; Lawson's (S. C), 
12, n. 83; Motte (S. C), 93, n. 165; Nichols' 
(Nicholas's or Nochols', (S. C), 12, n. 82, 
131; Ninety-Six (S. C), 5, 65, 69, 70, 90, 
100; Pitt (Pa.), headquarters of Capt. 
Richard Pearis, 102; Quarter House (S. C), 
9, n. 62; 27; Thicketty (S. C), (also called 
Anderson's), 10, 11, n. 77. 

Fortune, Col. William, loyalist (S. C), 26, n. 
185 ; member. South Carolina loyalists' com- 
mittee. 116. 

Fralick, Adam, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Fraser, Dr. James, loyalist (S. C), 26, n. 185; 
certificate regarding Alexander Chesney, 129, 
n. 6. 

Fraser, Maj. Thomas, loyalist (S. C), 13, n. 
96 ; at Parker's ferry, 108 ; brief account 
of, 111-112. 

Frazier, Dr. James ; see Fraser, Dr. James. 

French, war against the, 117 ; land in Ire- 
land, Aug., 1798; viii, 47, n. 323. 

French and Indian war, 102. 

Frost, Maj. Jonathan, loyalist (S. C), killed, 
20, 21. 

Fry, Capt. Jacob, loyalist (S. C), 71. 

Fry, John, killed, 115. 

Fulkes, Lieut , loyalist, executed, 95. 

Fyffe, Dr. Charles, loyalist (S. C), 62. 

GALLOWAY, Joseph, loyalist (Pa.), Letters 
to a Nobleman, xi ; The Examination of, xi. 

"Gadkin" river ; see Yadkin river. 

Galphin, , 65. 

Garden, Dr. Alexander, loyalist (S. C), 10, n. 
69; 94. 

Gates, Gen. Horatio, 13, n. 94 ; defeat at Cam- 
den, 91. 

General Assembly (S. C), fixes date of Philip 
Henry's banishment, 98. 

Georgetown (S. C), loyal militia commanded 
by Lieut.-Col. James Gordon, 115. 

Georgia, Augusta, 9 ; Brier creek, 106 ; Col. 
Bond, loyalist, killed at Kettle creek, 80 ; 
Alexander Cameron, loyalist of, 64 ; Col. 



Archibald Campbell and British force sail 
for, 1778, 89 ; expedition planned against, 
106 ; expedition for relief of Col. Thomas 
Brown, 107 ; Fort Augusta, 16, 21 ; Fort 
Barrington, 8 ; Georgia Loyalists (Tory 
corps), 26, n. 187 ; Capt. Moses Kirkland 
accompanies expedition to, 106 ; 350 loyal- 
ists march to Savannah, 80 ; loyal miilitia 
of South Carolina liable to service in, 113 ; 
Ogeechee river, 8 ; Ogeechie, 107 ; Col. Rich- 
ard Pearis and family settle near Augusta, 
103 ; Col. Daniel Plummer at Savannah, 89 ; 
Purysburg, 7, n. 51 ; Revolutionists and 
Indians in, 65 ; Savannah river, 24, 103 ; Sec- 
ond Broad river, 14, n. 107 ; William Simp- 
son, chief justice, 99 ; Whig militia oper- 
ates against Indians in, 8, 9. 

Gibbs, Col. Zacharias, 11, 132 ; career, 79-82 ; 
in command of regiment of loyal militia, 
114 ; member. South Carolina loya-ists* com- 
mittee, 116 ; land grant in Nova Scotia, 118 ; 
witness for Alexander Chesney, 127 ; testi- 
mony regarding Alexander Chesney, 136, 
137 ; certificate to Alexander Chesney, 141- 

Giesondanner, Capt. Henry, of Orangeburg 
loyal militia, 114. 

Gilbert Town (N. C), 15, n. 101; 17, 18. 

Gilkey, Capt. _ _ , loyalist, executed, 86. 

Gist, William, loyalist (S. C), 104. 

Gledstanes, Maj.-Gen. S. Albert, 52, n. 346 ; 
53, n. 349. 

Gordon, Lieut.-Col. James, in command of 
Georgetown (S. C.) loyal militia, 115; mem- 
ber, South Carolina loyalists' committee, 116. 

Grant, Maj. Alexander, loyalist, 13, n. 89. 

Grattan, Henry, 47, n. 320. 

Graves, Capt. Richard and wife, loyalists (S. 
C), claim and award, 119. 

Gray, Benjamin Dingley, loyalist (Va.), 109. 

Gray, Col. Robert, in command of Cheraws 
loyal militia, 114. 

Green, Henry, loyalist (S. C), 64; land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Green river (N. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Great Bridge (Va.) ; see Battles. 

Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, loses siege of Ninety- 
Six, 90 ; threatens reprisals, 95. 

Greenwood, William, member. South Carolina 
loyalists' committee, 116; claim and award, 

Greer, Capt. Thomas, 69. 

Grey, Capt. Isaac, loyalist, executed, 86. 

Grieerson, Col. James, loyalist, executed, 95. 

Grimes, Capt -, loyalist, executed, 86. 

Grimes, Col. _ _ , 15, n. 102. 

Grindal ford (S. C), Gen. Daniel Morgan at, 
21, n. 147. 

Grindal shoals (S. C), 4, 12. 

Guest, Edward, 37, n. 257. 

HADDON, Col. John, 49, n. 332. 

Halifax (Nova Scotia) ; see Nova Scotia. 

Hamilton, Mark Kerr, 49, n. 334. 

Hamilton, Col. Archibald, loyalist (N. C), 49, 
n. 334. 

Hamilton, Archibald and Co., merchants, 117. 

Hamilton, John, member. South Carolina loyal- 
ists' committee, 116. 

Hamilton, Lieut.-Col. John, of Royal North 
Carolina regiment, recommended for gov- 
ernorship of Bahama Islands, 117 ; raised 
1200 men, 117. 

Hamilton, Paul, loyalist (S. C), is refused 
payment of note, 121. 

Hammond, Col. LeRoy, 77. 

Hampton, Col. Andrew, 11, n. 76 ; 61, 73. 

Hampton, Anthony, 79. 

Hampton, Capt. Edward, 73, 79. 

Hampton, Jonathan, 89. 

Hampton, Noah, 73. 

Hanging Rock (S. C), battle; see Battles. 

Harling, Aaron, 79. 

Harper, Robert, 40. 

Harvey, Capt. Alexander, of Colleton county 
S. C.) loyal militia, 115. 

Hayden, Rev. Henry, ix, x, 55, 56. 

Hayne, Col. Isaac, 24, 77, 94, 95. 

Henry Philip, loyalist (S. C), v, 28, 30, 34, 
36, n. 252 ; 37, 38 ; career, 97-99 ; claim and 
award, 119. 

Henry, S. M., loyalist (S. C), 98. 

Heyward, Thomas, 100. 

Hobbs, Lieut. Augustine, loyalist, executed, 

Hodge, Margaret, first wife of Alexander 
Chesney, 9. 

Hodge, Robert, 40, n. 277. 

Hodge, William, 9, n. 64; 128, 133, 134, 138. 

Hodgson, Robert, lieutenant, Prince Edward 
Island Fencibles, 76. 

Hodson, Robert, Jr., 76. 

Holstein river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Holt, Capt. Joseph, of Camden (S. C.) loyal 
militia, 114. 

Hopkin, Capt. David, 12, n. 84 ; 61. 

Hopkins, Capt. John, ix, 39, n. 274 ; 51, 54. 

Hopton, John, 10, n. 70 ; 94 ; member, com- 
mittee to estimate losses of South Carolina 
loyalists, 120. 

Horry, Col. Peter, 77. 

House, Capt. Christian, of Orangeburg (S. C.) 
loyal militia, 114. 

House of Assembly (S. C), addressed by Capt. 
Moses Kirkland, 105. 

Howard, Nathaniel, loyalist (S. C), 64. 

Howard, Peter, 8, 127. 

Howe, Lord Admiral, 91, 92. 

Howe, Gen. Sir William, joined by Capt. 
Moses Kirkland, 106. 



Hoyt, Eli, loyalist (S. C), land grant in Nova 

Scotia, 118. 
Huey, Capt. John, of Jackson's creek (S. C.) 

loyal militia, 114. 
Huger, Gen. Isaac, 77. 

Hunt, William, loyalist (S. C), 5, n. 30. 
Huntingdon, Lord, 32. 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Diary and Letters, xi. 

INDIANS, presents for, 5, 6 ; Alexander Ches- 
ney marches against, 7 ; Catawba, 65, 102 ; 
Cherokee, 6, 11, n. 77; 63, 64, 102, 104; 
expedition against, 65 ; William Henry Dray- 
ton's alleged attempt to win, 66 ; actions 
against, 72 ; Col. Ambrose Mills' campaign 
against, 74 ; Creek, 6, 8, 63, 65 ; northern 
Creek, in rum trade, 103 ; under command 
of Capt. Richard Pearis, 102 ; Col. Richard 
Pear is passes through settlements of, 102, 
103 ; Maj. Patrick Cunningham takes pow- 
der sent to, 104 ; Capt. Moses Kirkland, dep- 
uty superintendent of, 106 ; Indian field 
company, 115 ; in the Revolution, 63-66. 

Inglis, George, 111. 

Inglis, Thomas, member. South Carolina loy- 
alists' committee ,116. 

Inman, Lieut. George, loyalist (Mass.), 36, n. 

Innes, Col. Alexander, loyalist (S. C), 13, 83, 
84, 103. 

Inspector-General of Provincial (loyalist) 
forces. Col. Alexander Innes, appointed, 
Jan., 1777, 83. 

Ireland, Alexander Chesney and others go to, 
V. 28, 125; Philip Henry in, 28, 30, 36, n. 
252 ; 37, 38, 98 ; Alexander Chesney in, 29, 
30, 36, 39, 40, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50-56, 
144 ; smuggling in, vii, x, 41, 42, 52, 53, 
55, 56 ; rebellion in, viii, 25, n. 181 ; 45, 46, 
47 ; death of Col. John Phillip's in, 62 ; Jane 
Downs (Mrs. Zacharias Gibbs) in, 62 ; Maj. 
John Robinson returns to, 97 ; Capt. James 
Miller in, 101 ; Col. Zacharias Gibbs in, 142. 

Irish board of Customs, loyalists hold offices 
under, v, vi, vii, 28, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 
98, 101, 125. 

Iron works (S. C), location, 4, n. 22, skir- 
mish near, 10 ; Maj. Patrick Ferguson vic- 
torious at, 12 ; Capt. Abraham de Peyster 
marches to, 14. 

Irving, Thomas, member, committee of South 
Carolina loyalists in London, 145. 

Island ford (Saluda river, S. C), 87. 


Jamaica ; see West Indies. 

James Island (S. C), 27. 

Jefferson, Joseph, 88. 

Jekyll, John, collector of Customs, Boston, 

Mass., 110. 
Johnson, Dr. Uzal, loyalist (N. J.), 19, n. 129. 

Johnston, James, loyalist (S. C), member, 
committee to estimate losses of South Caro- 
lina loyalists, 120. 

Johnston, Robert, member. South Carolina 
loyalists' committee, 116. 

Johnstone, Lieut. James, of Camden county 
(S. C.) loyal militia, 115. 

Jones, E. Alfred, editor. Journal of Alexander 
Chesney, xi, xii. 

Jones, Judge Thomas, loyalist (N. Y. ), His- 
tory of New York during the Revolutionary 
War, xi. 

Journal of a Voyage from Charleston, S. C. to 
London, 1778, xi. 

KELLY, Capt. Daniel, of Orangeburg (S. C.) 
loyal miliita, 114. 

Kempe's landing place (Kempsville, Va.), 110. 

Kennedy's ford (Enoree river, S. C), 101. 

Kettle creek (Ga.) ; see Creeks. 

Killmorey, Lord, 52, 54, 55. 

Kilpatrick, Jack, 45. 

King, Lieut.-Col. Richard, in defense of Nine- 
ty-Six, 1781, 90 ; in command of South Caro- 
lina loyal militia, 114. 

King's American regiment ; see Tory corps. 

King's Carolina Rangers ; see Tory corps. 

King's Florida rangers ; see Tory corps. 

King's Mountain, battle of ; see Battles. 

Kingsley, Zephaniah, loyalist (S. C), claim 
and award, 119. 

Kirkland, Capt. Moses, loyalist (S. C), 67; 
career, 105-108 ; claim and award, 119. 

Kirkland, Richard Bruce, loyalist (S. C), 
planteer in Jamaica, 107. 

LACY, Capt. Thomas, 52, n. 345; 53, n. 351. 

Lafferty, Lieut. , loyalist, executed, 86. 

Landerkin, John, loyalist (S. C), land grants 

in Nova Scotia, 118. 
Land grants, to 56 South Carolina loyalists 

in Nova Scotia, 118. 
Lawson's Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 
Legge, Lieut. Benjamin Smith, of Colleton 

county (S. C.) loyal militia, 115. 
Leslie, Lieut.-Gen. Alexander, South Carolina 

loyalists' address to, 94 ; certificate to Maj. 

Michael Egan, 97 ; expedition to Virginia, 

October, 1780, 110. 
Lewis, Maj. Andrew, 102. 
Lewis, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 

Nova Scotia, 118. 
Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, 9. 

Lincoln's Inn (London, Eng.) ; see England. 
Lindsay, William, 81. 
Little river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 
Lively, Reuben, loyalist (S. C), land grant 

in Nova Scotia, 118. 
Livingston, John, 85. 
Lloyd, Lieut.-Gen. Vaughan, 51, n. 336. 
London (Eng.) ; see England. 



Long, Capt. George, in command of company 
of South Carolina loyal militia, 114. 

Long Cane creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Long Island (N. Y.), Capt. Moses Kirkland at 
capture of, 106. 

Long Island (S. C), Sir Henry Clinton on. 131. 

Lord commissioners of the Treasury, attempt 
to suppress smuggling in Ireland, x, 56 ; 
John Cruden's letter to, 120. 

Losses, of Alexander Chesney, vi, 31, 34, 125, 
126, 127-130, 133-138 ; of South Carolina loy- 
alists, 119, 120. 

Lowndes, Rawlins, 98. 

Loyal American regiment ; see Tory corps. 

Loyal militia, and Indians attack "rebels," 
July, 1776, 102 ; Maj. Patrick Cunningham 
appointed to command corps, 104 ; Gen. Rob- 
ert Cunningham's brigade, 104, 107 ; com- 
manded by Capt. Moses Kirkland at Brier 
creek (Ga.), 106; Capt. Kirkland in charge 
of regiment, 107 ; John Fanning joins South 
Carolina, 108; account of, 113-116; Alexand- 
er Chesney appointed captain and adujtant 
of, 126, 142 ; Alexander Chesney in com- 
mand of company, 130 ; James Miller ap- 
pointed captain in Jackson's creek loyal 
militia, 101 ; Alexander Chesney joins Col. 
Banistre Tarleton with company, 132 ; Maj. 
Patrick Ferguson, inspector-general of, 131 ; 
Zacharias Gibbs colonel of, 142. 

Loyalist refugees petition the king, v ; in East 
Florida, and Indians, to be sent against 
Georgia, 106 ; Alexander Chesney's wife and 
child driven within British lines, 142, 143 ; 
in London, 145. 

Loyalists, exiled from South Carolina, v, 28, 
n. 197 ; 61, 98, 117 ; early activities of 
South Carolina, 5 ; piloted by Alexander 
Chesney, 6 ; harbored by Robert Chesney, 7 ; 
detachment under Maj. James Dunlap, 12, n. 
83 ; in Charleston, S. C, 23 ; near Long Cane 
creek, 24 ; in British Isles, 31, n. 83 ; meet 
at Crown and Anchor tavern, London, 32 ;• 
association in London, 32, n. 216 ; classi- 
fication, 33 ; some return to America, 38 ; 
detachment under Cols. John Phillips and 
John Fanning defeated, 60 ; in Charleston, 
61 ; attempt to sieze leading, in South Caro- 
lina, 64 ; in Ninety-Six district, S. C, 66 ; 
attempt to disarm those of Ninety-Six dis- 
trict, 68 ; of South Carolina repudiate 
treaty of Sept. 16, 1775, 69 ; sent to Charles- 
ton as prisoners, 71 ; 500 raised by Cols. 
David Fanning and Ambrose Mills, 72 ; at- 
tack camp of Col. Charles McDowell, July, 
1780, 73 ; 2400 at Ninety-Six, S. C, in 1775, 
74 ; 10,000 in East Florida suffer by cession 
to Spain, 75 ; executed at Ninety-Six, 80 ; 
enlist in King's American regiment, Dec, 
1776, 84 ; remain in South Carolina after 
Revolution, 88 ; address to Governor Patrick 

Tonyn, 92 ; in house of Col. Rowland Ruge- 
ley, 95 ; of district of Great Lynch creek, 
S. C, 96 ; sail for Rotterdam, 98 ; commit- 
tee of South Carolina reports on value of 
their property, 99 ; of Camden district, S. 
C, refuse to sign Whig association, 100 ; 
over 5,000 raised by Col. Richard Pearis, 
103 ; take part in Maj. Andrew William- 
son's expedition against Indians, 104 ; slay 
Capt. John Felder, 115 ; Southern, seek re- 
fuge in Florida, 117 ; send to British com- 
mander about exacuation of Charleston, 116 ; 
officers of North Carolina suggest Bahama 
Islands for loyalist settlement, 117 ; 1200 
raised by Col. John Hamilton of North 
Carolina, 117 ; 500 South Carolina, go to 
Nova Scotia, 117 ; land grants to 56, at 
Rawdon, Nova Scotia, 117 ; party piloted by 
Alexander Chesney, 130, 135, 136, 138 ; 
forced to serve in "rebel" army, 135 ; losses 
and compensation of South Carolina, 118-121 
(see Claims and awards) ; resolution of, 
137, n. 13 ; 144 ; from South Carolina take 
action in London, 145 ; United, 92. 

Ludlow, Gabriel G., loyalist (N. Y.), holds 
offices in New Brunswick, Canada, 111. 

Lusk, Robert, 40. 

Luttrell, Gen. Henry Lawes, 38, n. 269 ; 39. 

Lynch, Thomas, 100. 

McAllister, Samuel, loyalist (S. C), land 

grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 
McArthur, Maj. Archibald, 22. 
McBee, Capt. Vadry, 129, n. 4. 
McCrumb, James, 40. 
McCulloch, Capt. James, loyalist of Camden 

(S. C.) loyal militia, 86, 114. 
McCullom, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant 

in Nova Scotia, 118. 
McDonald, Donald, 76. 
McDonald, Lieut. Angus, loyalist, 60. 
Macdonald, Sir William Christopher, loyalist 

descent of, 76. 
Macdonald College, 76. 
McDoIe, Col. Charles ; see McDowell, Col. 

McDowell, Alexander, 43. 
McDowell (not "McDole"), Col. Charles, 11, 

n. 76; 12, 14, n. 104; 73. 
McDowell, John, 40. 
McDowell, Maj. Joseph, 11, n. 79. 
McFall, Lieut. John, loyalist, executed, 86. 
McGill University, Montreal, 76. 
McGuire, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant 

in Nova Scotia, 118. 
McKay, Maj. John, loyalist (Va.), in battle 

of the Brandywine, 109 ; settles in New 

Brunswick, Canada, 110. 
McKean, Thomas, 100. 
McKinnon, Capt. John, 22, n. 164. 



McLaurin, Lieut.-Col. Evan, loyalist (S. C), 
69, 70, 74, 101 ; lays siege to Ninety-Six, 
November, 1775, 135, n. 9. 
McMahon, Capt. John, loyalist, 27, n. 191. 
McMechan, Rev. James, 54. 

McMillen, Richard, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

McNeilly, Henry ; see McNuUy. 
McNully, Henry, 42, n. 295 ; 45, 46. 

McWhorter, Capt. Alexander, 8, n. 59. 

McWhorter, Robert, iv, 22. 

Manly, Capt __, and American priva- 
teer captured, 105. 

Manson, Daniel, loyalist (S. C), 98. 

Marion, Gen. Francis, 20, n. 133 ; 24. 

Martindale, Henry, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Martindale, Henry, Jr., loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Maryland, Capt. Richard Pearis serves on 
borders of, 102 ; Col. James Chalmers in 
command of Maryland Loyalists (Tory 
corps), 110. 

Massachusetts, Sir Francis Bernard, gover- 
nor, 35, n. 246 ; Lieut. George Inman, 36, n. 
253 ; Capt. Moses Kirkland visits Boston, 
105 ; Capt. Kirkland, a prisoner in Cam- 
bridge, 106 ; John Jekyll, collector of Cus- 
toms at Boston, 110. 

Matthews, Joseph, 47, n. 324 ; 48. 

Mayfield, Capt. John, loyalist, 5, n. 30 ; ex- 
ecuted, 86. 

Mayson ("Maysen"), Maj. James, 66, 67, 70, 
74, 77, 135, n. 9. 

Meek, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Meek, Samuel, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Meek, Capt. William, loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Meigham (or Meighlan), Lieut. Brian, 60. 

Memorial, of Capt. John Phillips, 62 ; of Col. 
Thomas Fletchall, 69 ; of Capt. Moses Kirk- 
land, 105, 107 ; of widows of loyalists, 116 ; 
of Sergeant James White, 116 ; of loyalist 
officers of North Carolina, 117 ; of Alex- 
ander Chesney, v, vi, vii, 30, 31, 125 ; evi- 
dence on Alexander Chesney's, 130-138. 

Meredith, Maj. David, 51, n. 338. 

Middle Temple (London) ; see England. 

Middleton, Arthur, 100. 

Militia ; see Loyal militia. 

Millen, Capt. Hugh, 101 ; in possession of 
Capt. James Miller's lands, 141. 

Miller, Capt. James, loyalist (S. C), 35, n. 
237 ; 37, 62 ; settler in Camden district, 100, 
101 ; witness for Alexander Chesney, 127, 
138 ; confiscation of his lands, 141. 

Miller, John, 3. 

Milling, Capt. Hugh ; see Millen. 

Mills, Col. Ambrose, loyalist (N. C), 65; 
helps raise 500 loyalists, 72 ; career, 72-74 ; 
executed, 86. 

Mills, Col. William Henry, loyalist (S. C), 
74, 115. 

Moira, Lady, 39, 41, n. 287 ; 43, 48, 49. 

Moira, Lord, 44, 53, 143. 

Moncks Corner (S. C), 26, n. 184. 

Monckton, Gen. Robert, 102. 

Montagu, Lord Cherles Greville, governor of 
South Carolina, in command of Duke of 
Cumberland's regiment (or Loyal American 
Rangers), 59 ,60, 91; comjnissions Thomas 
Fletchall, 66 ; claim and award, 119, 150. 

Montell, Anthony, loyalist (S. C), order for 
wood cutting, 138. 

Moody, Lieut. James, loyalist (N. J.), Narra- 
tive of His Exertions and Sufferings, xi. 

Moore, Lieut.-Col. John, loyalist (N. C), 80. 

Moore, Capt. Patrick, loyalist (S. C), 11, 131. 

Moravian Town (N. C.) ; see North Carolina. 

Morgan, Gen. Daniel, 21, n. 147 ; occupies 
Alexander Chesney's land, 128, n. 2 ; 132, 
143, n. 13. 

Morgan, Francis L., 36, n. 248; 52, n. 342. 

Motte, Jacob and Rebecca, 23, n. 165. 

Moultrie, Maj. -Gen. William, 65. 

Murat, Prince Lucian, 112. 

Musgrove, Edward, loyalist (S. C), 13, n. 96. 

Musgrove,'s Mills, battle of ; see Battles. 

Muster rolls. South Carolina loyal militia, 116. 

NASSAU (New Providence) ; see Bahama Is- 

Needham, Francis Jack, 52, n. 347. 

Neils, Ned, 4. 

Nelson, Reason, loyalist (S. C), 7 ,n. 50. 

Nelson's ("Neilson's") ferry (S. C), 7, n. 50; 

New Brunswick (Canada), missionary to, 56; 
Lieut.-Col. Joseph Robinson goes to, 75 ; 
Capt. Abraham de Peyster and brother of- 
ficers find refuge in, 85 ; Capt. John Saun- 
ders holds offices in, 110, 111 ; Col. Jacob 
Ellegood and Maj. John McKay settle in, 
110; Judge Edward Winslow in. 111; John 
Simcoe Saunders holds offices in. 111. 

New Jersey, treatment of Dr. Uzal Johnson 
of Newark, 19, n. 129 ; Lieut.-Col. Isaac 
Allen of Trenton, 21, n. 145. 

New Jersey Volunteers ; see Tory corps. 

New York, loyalists, 84 ; Nassau Blues, 84 ; 
New York Volunteers, 12, n. 89 ; 13, n. 84 ; 
101 ; Prince of Wales American Volunteers, 
90 ; Queen's Rangers, 73, 86, 109, 110. 

New York Volunteers ; see Tory corps. 

Nichols Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 

Nicholls, James, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Nicholls, John, 78. 



Ninety-Six (S. C), district, 4, 10; jail, 21; 
Maj. Patrick Ferguson in command of Fort, 
iii, 10 ; Lord Rawdon relieves, iv, 90 ; 
siege of Fort, November, 1775, 5, 69, 70, 74, 
76, 80, 100, 102, 135, n. 9; Thomas Flet- 
chall's estate, 66 ; powder and stores re- 
moved to court house, 67 ; attempt to disarm 
loyalists, 68 ; Fletchall's attack on Fort, 
69, 70 ; Joseph Fletchall reared in, 72 ; 
2400 loyalists under Lieut.-Col. Joseph 
Robinson, 1775, 74 ; Lieut.-Col. James Ver- 
non, resident, 78 ; Col. Zacharias Gibbs, resi- 
dent, 79 ; prisoners marched to, 80 ; brigade 
of loyal militia, 89 ; Lieut.-Col. John Harris 
Cruger's defense, 1781, 90 ; Col. Richard 
Pear is active, 102 ; Capt. Moses Kirkland, 
planter, 105 ; loyal militia from Dutch Fork, 
114 ; loyal militia under Col. Thomas Pear- 
son, 114 ; loyal militia of lower, 116. 

Noble, Capt. Joseph, of Orangeburg (S. C.) 
loyal militia, 114. 

Norfolk (Va.) ; see Virginia. 

Norman, Robert, 42, 48. 

North, Lord, v, 33. 

North Carolina, 12, 16 ; Cane creek, 14 ; Con- 
stitutional Convention, 11, n. 79; Col. David 
Fanning, 84, 86, 108, 116 ; Col. Edmund 
Fanning, 84, 86, 108-111; Green river, 72; 
Holstein river, 14, n. 105 ; Col. Archibald 
Hamilton, loyalist, 49, n. 334 ; Lieut.-Col. 
John Hamilton, loyalist, 117 ; loyal militia in 
battle of King's Mountain, 73 ; memorial of 
loyalist officers, 117 ; men join Maj. Patrick 
Ferguson, 16 ; Lieut.-Col. John Moore, 80 ; 
Moravian Town, 19, n. 131 ; 132 ; Royal 
North Carolina regiment, 117 ; Second Broad 
river, 14, n. 107 ; Silver creek, 14 ; Thomas 
Loughton Smith, merchant. 111 ; Maj. Wil- 
liam Spurgeon, 80 ; William Tryon, gover- 
nor, 1765-71, 127 ; Turkey cove, 14, n. 105 ; 
Yadkin river, 19, 132. 

North Carolina Provincials (loyalists), John 
Cruden, paymaster, 92. 

Northern Creek Indians ; see Indians. 

North Pacolet river (N. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Nova Scotia, 500 loyalists sail from Charles- 
ton, S. C, to, 117 ; South Carolina loyalists 
in, 117, 118; North Carolina loyalists in, 
117 ; Lord Charles Greville Montagu and 
300 Loyal American Rangers settle in, 59 ; 
John Cruden, the younger, goes to, 93 ; 
Richard Fenton and family in, 82 ; Col. 
Zacharias Gibbs receives land grant in, 82, 
118 ; land grants to South Carolina loyalists, 
118, 119. 

Nugent, Gen. Sir George, 46, n. 317. 

OATH of allegiance, James Barber refuses 
American, 97 ; Lieut.-Governor William 
Bull (S. C.) keeps British, 112 ; loyalists 
seek to avoid State, 131 ; loyalists' commit- 
tee in London justify taking State, 145-149. 

Ogeechee river (Ga.) ; see Rivers. 

Ogeechie (Ga.) ; see Georgia. 

Ogilvie, Charles, 94 ; member. South Carolina 

loyalists' committee in London, 145. 
Ogilvie, Charles, Sr., agent, Sout hCarolina 

loyalists, 116, 117. 
Old Fields (S. C), 21. 
Oliphant, Dr. David, imprisoned, 117. 
O'Neal, Henry, loyalist (S. C), 64. 
Orangeburg (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 
Orde, Capt. John, loyalist (S. C), claim and 

award, 119. 

PACOLET river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Palmerston, Viscount, 75. 

Parker's ferry (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 

Party divisions, in South Cai'olina families, 

Patteson, Brig.-Gen. James, 61. 

Pearls, Margaret, land grant in Bahama Is- 
lands, 104. 

Pearls, Col. Richard, loyalist (S. C), 64, 70, 
71, 88 ; career, 102-104 ; claim and award, 

Pearis, Richard, Jr., loyalist (S. C), 88, 104. 

Pearson, Col. Thomas, in command of Ninety- 
Six (S. C.) loyal militia regiment, 114; land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Pelham Thomas, 46. n. 314. 

Pennsylvania, Carlisle, 2, n. 10 ; Continental 
Congress, 100; Fort Duquesne (Pitt), 102; 
Maj. Thomas Fraser in Philadelphit, 112 ; 
Capt. Moses Kirkland at evacuation of 
Philadelphia, 106. 

Pensacola (W. Fla.) ; see West Florida. 

Peronneau, Henry, loyalist (S. C), member, 
committee to estimate losses of South Car- 
olina loyalists, 120. 

Petition, of loyalist refugees to king's min- 
isters, V, 32, n. 216 ; of officers of British 
American regiments, 84 ; of Capt. James 
Miller, 100. 

Phepoe, Thomas, 61. 

Philadelphia (Pa.) ; see Pennsylvania. 

Phillips, David, loyalist (S. C), 61. 

Phillips, Capt. James, loyalist (S. C), 6, 61; 
James Miller joins loyalists under, 100 ; and 
loyalists piloted to Pacolet river, 130. 

Phillips, Col. John, loyalist (S. C), 3, 4, 9, 
13, 37, n. 256 ; 38, 39, 130, 136, 143 ; in expe- 
dition against Cherokee, 65, 72 ; career, 60- 
63 ; commands Jackson's creek loyal militia, 
101, 114 ; member. South Carolina loyalists' 
committee, 116 ; witness for Alexander 
Chesney, 125, 127 ; testimony regarding 
Chesney, 135, 136 ; letter to commissioners 
on American Claims, 140. 

Phillips, Capt. Mitchell, loyalist (Va.), boy- 
cotted, 109. 

Phillips, Robert, loyalist (S. C), 60, 61; refu- 
gee in East Florida, 61. 

Pickens, Col. Andrew, 77. 



Pickens, Capt. Joseph, 77. 

Pinckney, Capt. Charles Cotesworth, 141, n. 8. 

Piatt, Capt. George, of Camden (S. C.) loyal 
militia, 114. 

Pledger, Capt. Thomas, of Orangeburg loyal 
militia, 114. 

Plummer, Col. Daniel, 20, 78, 88, 89 ; in com- 
mand of (S. C.) loyal militia regiment, 113, 

Pollock, Savage Andrew, 56. 

Ponpon river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Porter, Maj. John, 46, n. 318; 47. 

Postell. Maj. John, 77. 

Powell, Robert, William, 94 ; chairman, com- 
mittee of South Carolina loyalists, 116 ; 
member, committee of South Carolina loyal- 
ists in London, 145. 

Prevost, Col. Augustine, controversy with Gov- 
ernor Tonyn, 6, accompanied on expedition 
to Charleston by Capt. Moses Kirkland, 106. 

Prince Edward Island, Lieut.-Col. Joseph 
Robinson invited to, 76 ; Legislative Council, 
76; Col. Edmund Fanning, loyalist (N. C), 
lieutenant-governor, 75. 

Prince of Wales American Volunteers ; see 
Tory corps. 

Prisoners, drafted into Duke of Cumberland's 
regiment (or Loyal American Volunteers), 

Proclamation, by Revolutionary party (S. C), 

Proctor, Samuel, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Provincial Congress (S. C), Capt. Moses 
Kirkland, member, 1774, 105 ; Gideon Dupont 
member, January, 1775, 117. 

Publications, by loyalists, xi ; John Cruden's 
pamphlet, 92. Col. David Fanning's Narra- 
tive, 101 ; John Simcoe Saunders' Law of 
Pleading and Evidence, 111 

Purdy, I.. 48. 

Purdy, James, 48, n. 329 ; 49. 

Puriesburg (Ga.) ; see Purysburg. 

Purvis, Maj. John, 77. 

Purysburg ("Puriesburg," Ga.) ; see Georgia. 

QUARTER House (S. C), 9, n. 62; 27. 
Queen's Rangers ; see Tory corps. 
Quin, John, 4. 

RANDOLPH, Peyton. 100. 

Rawdon, Francis, 2nd, earl of Moira, 41, n. 

Rawdon, Lord Francis, iv, vi, 24, 26, 27, 82, 
33, 35, 39, 41, 61, 62, 81 ; relieves Lieut.- 
Col. John Harris Cruger at Ninety-Six, 90 ; 
offers medals to British Legion, 90 ; receives 
apology from Duke of Richmond, 95 ; certifi- 
cate to Maj. Michael Egan, 97 ; gives ap- 
pointment to Alexander Chesney, 125 ; cer- 
tificate to Chesney, 132, 140, 143 ; Chesney 
carries expresses to, 142. 

Ray, George, 101. 

Read, Capt. Nathan, loyalist, 17, n. 120. 

Reade, Joseph, 84. 

Rebellion, in Ireland ; see Ireland. 

Recollections of a Georgia Loyalist, xi. 

Reedy river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Reese, David, loyalist (S. C), 64. 

Refugees ; see Loyalist refugees. 

Report, of committee of South Carolina loy- 
alists on value of their property, 99 ; of 
committee of South Carolina loyalists in 
London, 145-149. 

Return, of loyalists to America, 38 ; one mal- 
treated in South Carolina, 82 ; of Mrs. 
Abraham de Peyster to New York, 85 ; of 
some to South Carolina, who are ordered 
to depart, 85. 

Resolution, South Carolina loyalists, 114, 137, 
n. 13. 

Revoult, John, 49, n. 333 ; 50. 

Richardson, Col. Richard, 5, 6, 64, 70, 71. 

Ridley, Hannah, 88. 

Ritzema, Col. Rudolphus, loyalist (N. Y.), 83, 

Rivers: Altamaha (Ga.), 8, 9; Broad (S. C), 
4, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 24, 26, 30, 74, 79, 101, 
103, 108, 125, 130; Bush (S. C), 128, 137; 
Catawba (N. C), 14, n. 105; 16, 61; Con- 
garee (S. C), 25; Cooper (S. C), 27, n. 189; 
Edisto (S. C), 114; Enoree (S. C), 13, n. 
96; 14, 102; Green (N. C), 72; Holstein (N. 
C), 14, n. 105; 16; Little (S. C), 20. 73, 
114; Lynnhaven (Va.), 109; North Pacolet 
(N. C). 73; Ogeechee (Ga.), 8; Pacolet (S. 
C), 3, 4, 8, 11, 21, 126, 128, 130, 133, 135. 
136, 137, 144; Ponpon (S. C), iv, 23, 24; 
Reedy (S. C), 6, 102; St. Mary's (E. Fla.), 
92; Saluda (S. C), 16, n. 114; 79, 87. 101; 
Sandy (S. C), 4; Santee (S. C), 7. 24, 115; 
Savannah (Ga.), 24, 103; Second Broad (N. 
C), 14, n. 107; Tiger (S. C), 11, 16, 20, 88; 
Yadkin ("Gadkin," N. C), 19. 

Robertson, Maj. Charles, 11, n. 76. 

Robinson, Capt. Elisha, in command of com- 
pany of lower Ninety-Six loyal militia. 116. 

Robinson, Elizabeth. 76. 

Robinson, Maj. John, loyalist (S. C), 28, n. 
193 ; 35, n. 238 ; 95, 96, 114. 

Robinson, Lieut.-Col. Joseph, of South Caro- 
lina Royalists (Tory corps), 6, 67, 70; ca- 
reer, 74-78 ; lays siege to Fort Ninety-Six, 
November, 1775, 139, n. 9. 

Robinson, Mrs. Lilly, flees to Virginia with 
children. 75 ; death of, 76. 

Robinson, Rebecca. 76. 

Rocky Mount (S. C), loyal militia under Col. 
William Vernon Turner, 115. 

Roebuck, Col. Benjamin, 21, 129, n. 4. 

Rogers, Capt. Jasper, of Camden (S. C.) loyal 
militia, 114. 

Rose, George, 32, 38. 



Rose, John, loyalist (S. C), 94; claim and 
award, 119 ; member. South Carolina loyal- 
ists' committee in London, 145. 

Rose, Capt. (later Gen.) Alexander, 13, 33. 

Ross, Robert, 41, n. 293 ; 42. 

Rotterdam (Holland), South Carolina loyalists 
sail for, 94. 

Round O company (American), of Colleton 
county, S. C, 94. 

Rousselet, Capt. John, loyalist, of British 
Legion, in battle of Hanging Rock (S. C), 

Rowand, Robert, loyalist (S. C), 98. 

Rowe, Capt. Samuel, of Orangeburg (S. C.) 
loyal militia, 114. 

Rugeley, Col. Edward, loyalist (S. C), 95, 9C 

Rugeley's Mills (S. C), 95. 

Rumford, Count (Benjamin Thompson), loyal- 
ist (Mass.), 66. 

Rutledge, Edward, 100. 

Ryerson, Capt. Samuel, of New Jersey Vol- 
unteers (Tory corps), 14, n. 107; 85. 

Ryland, Peter, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

ST. AUGUSTINE (E. Fla.) ; see East Florida. 

St. Helena, island, ix. 

Salisbury (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 

Sally, Capt. John, in command of company 
of loyal militia, 114. 

Saluda river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Santee river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Saunders, Capt. John, loyalist (Va.), 143, n. 
15; career, 105-111. 

Saunders, John Simcoe, loyalist (S. C), 110; 
in New Brunswick, Canada, 111. 

Saunders, Rev. Jonathan, 108. 

Saunderson, John, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Savage, Francis, 41, n. 288. 

Savannah (Ga.) ; see Georgia, 

Savannah river (Ga.) ; see Rivers. 

Scott, Robert, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 
Nova Scotia, 118. 

Second Broad river (N. C.) ; see Rivers. 

Sequestered property, in South Carolina, iv, 
92 ; of Capt. James Miller, 101 ; John Cru- 
den, commissioner of, 139 ; services of Alex- 
ander Chesney in connection with, 139. 

Sharp, Capt. James, of Jackson's creek loyal 
militia, 114. 

Sharp, Lieut. William, of Jackson's creek 
loyal militia, 114. 

Shaw, David, 28, n. 192. 

Shelburne, 32. 

Shelby, Col. Isaac, 11, n. 76; 17, n. 120. 

Shepperd, James, loyalist (S. C), lieutenant, 
Indian field company, 115. 

Shuberg, Capt. George, loyalist (S. C), 71. 

Silver creek (N. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Simcoe, Col. John Graves, of Queen's Rangers 
(Tory corps), commends Capt. John Saun- 
ders, 109. 

Simpson, Barbara, wife of James Simpson, 100. 

Simpson, James, attorney-general of South 
Carolina, 32, 99, 100; claim and award, 119; 
member, committee of South Carolina loyal- 
ists to estimate their losses, 120 ; member, 
committee of South Carolina loyalists in 
London, 145. 

Simpson, William, chief justice of Georgia, 99. 

Skeffington, Hon. W. J., 39, n. 270 ; 44, n. 303. 

Slaves, of Lieutenant-Governor William Bull, 
112 ; of those lost by South Carolina loyal- 
ists, 118, 120 ; one lost by Alexander Ches- 
ney, 129, 134, 137. 

Smith, Anne Loughton, marries Maj. Thomas 
Fraser, 111. 

Smith, Capt. Esaw, 12, n. 84. 

Smith. Capt. Hugh, loyalist (S. C), of Cam- 
den loyal militia, 114. 

Smith, Thomas Loughton, merchant of Charles- 
ton, 111. 

Smuggling ; see Ireland. 

Smyth, J. F. D., loyalist (Md.), Tour in the 
United States; see also Stuart, Ferdinand 

Smyth, Solomon, loyalist (S. C), 28, n. 197. 

Snell, Daniel, David, and George, loyalists (S. 
C), land grants in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Snipes, Maj. William Clay, 24. 

South Carolina, abuse of returned loyalist, 
82 ; Assembly, General, 98 ; House of, 105, 
111, 113 ; address of loyalists to Lieut.-Gen. 
Alexander Lesliee, 97 ; banishment of loy- 
alists, 61, 98, 117 ; battles (see Battles) ; 
Seattle's Mill, 73 ; Big Canebrake, 102 ; 
Blackstocks Fort, 20 ; Col. John Boyd raises 
600 loyalists, 80 ; British troops, 7, 9, 10, 13, 
15, 31, 71, 75, 94, 97, 116. 126, 136; Lieut.- 
Governor William Bull, 32, n. 218 ; 112, 113, 
119; Camden, 13, 14, 60, 80, 91, 96, 97, 114, 
115, 117 ; Lord William Campbell, last royal 
governor 5, 63, 66, 67, 83, 99, 105 ; Charles- 
ton (see Charleston) ; Cherokee ford, 11, 17, 
131, 133, 136 ; claims and awards of loyal- 
ists, 118-121 (see also Claims and awards) ; 
commissioner of sequestered property, 139 ; 
loyalists' committee on value of property, 99, 
120 ; committee of loyalists in London, 145- 
148 ; committee's warrant, 116 ; confiscation 
of loyalists' estates, 26, n. 185 ; 39, n. 274 ; 
94, 110, 112, 113, 141, 142; Council of 
Safety, 63, 68, 191 ; creeks (see Creeks) ; 
Duet's Corner, 8 ; Fishdam ford, 12 ; forts 
(see Forts) ; Gilbert Town, 17, 18 ; George- 
town, 115 ; Grindal shoals, 4, 12 ; Indian field 
company, 115 ; Iron works, 4, n. 22 ; 10, 12, 
14 ; Iron works, Wofford's or "old," 12, n. 
83 ; 14 ; Island ford, 87 ; Jacksonborough, 23, 
89 ; James Island, 27 ; losses sustained by loy- 



alists, 119, 120 (see also Claims and awards) ; 
loyal militia, 60, 66, 68, 79, 80, 88, 94, 96, 
97, 101, 102, 104, 106, 107, 108, 113-116, 126, 
131, 132 ; loyalist regiments, viz. Duke of 
Cumberland's or Loyal American Rangers, 
26, n. 187 ; South Carolina Royalists, 6, 13, 
n. 96; 67, 70, 74-78, 80, 83, 102, 111, 112; 
loyalists, 68, 74, 80, 82, 85, 88, 96, 98, 99, 
116, 117, 119, 120, 131, 137, 145; Monk's 
Corner, 26, n. 184 ; Ninety-Six (see Ninety- 
Six) ; Orangeburg, 25, 26, 79, 89 ; Parker's 
ferry, 108 ; Quarter House, 9, n. 62 ; 27 ; 
Rocky Mount, 115 ; Round O company, 94 ; 
Rugeley's Mills, 95 ; Salisbury, 72 ; seques- 
tered property, 92, 101, 139 ; slaves, 112, 118, 
120 ; Spring Hill, 101 ; Sullivan's Island, 3, 
43 ; Tacaw, 7, 8 ; Tory association in Ninety- 
Six district, 105 ; Whig associaition, 60, 67, 
100, 101, 130 ; Whig convention, 109, 145 ; 
Winnsborough, 3. 

South Carolina and American General Gazette, 

South Carolina Royalists ; see Tory corps. 

Spain, cession of East Florida to, 75. 

Spence, Thomas, 45. 

Spring Hill (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 

Spring Gardens coffee house (London, Eng.), 
loyalists meet at, v, 32, n. 216. 

Spurgeon, Maj. William, loyalist (N. C), 80. 

Stack, Jacob, loyalist (S. C), 5, n. 30. 

Stagner, Daniel, loyalist (S. C), 5, n. 30. 

Stanwix, Brig.-Gen. John, 102. 

Stedman, Charles, History of the American 
War, 2 vols., London, 1794, xi. 

Stevenson's creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Stromer, Capt. L., of Orangeburg (S. C.) 
loyal militia, 114. 

Stroup, Capt. George, of loyal militia from 
Dutch Fork, 114. 

Stuart, Ferdinand Smyth, loyalist (Md.), The 
Case of, xi. 

Stuart, Col. John, loyalist (S. C), superin- 
tendent of Indians, 65 ; commissions Richard 
Pearis, 103 ; appoints Capt. Moses Kirkland 
deputy superintendent, 106. 

Sugar Creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Sullivan's Island (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 

Sumter, Col. Thomas, iv, 7, 13, 14, n. 97. 

Sunbury (Ga.) ; see Georgia. 

Sydney, Lord, receives memorial from layalist 
officers of North Carolina, 117. 

TACAW ("Tachaw," S. C.) ; see South Caro- 

Tanner, Mr. , 100. 

Tarleton, Lieut.-Col. Banistre, 14, n. 97 ; 18, n. 
127 ; 20, 21, 22, n. 148 ; 33, 34 ; defeat at 
Cowpens (S. C), Jan., 17, 1781, iv, 22, 60, 
128 ; appointed lieutenant-colonel of British 
Legion, 90 ; joined by Alexander Chesney 
■with company of loyal militia, 1-32 ; Chesney 

serviceable to, 135 ; certificate regarding 
Chesney, vi, 130, 132, 143. 
Taylor, Herbert, 47. 
Taylor, Capt. John, of New Jersey Volunteers 

(Tory corps), 16, n. Ill; 85. 
Tennent, Rev. William, 68, 100. 
Tennesee, William Chesney in, ix, x, 20, 43, 
54, n. 356; 56. 

Terry, Maj __, loyalist (S. C), 67. 

Thicketty creek (S. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Thicketty Fort (S. C.) ; see Forts. 

Thomas, Col. John, 77. 

Thompson, Capt. Adam, loyalist (S. C), of 

Camden loyal militia, 114. 
Thompson, Benjamin, loyalist (Mass.) ; see 

Rumford, Count. 
Thompson, Elizabeth, loyalist (S. C), 33. 

Thorney, Miss __ , 98. 

Thornton, Abraham, loyalist (S. C), land 

grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 
Thornton, Eli, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 

Nova Scotia, 118. 
Tiger ("Tyger") river (S. C.) ; see Rivers. 
Tonyn, Patrick, governor of East Florida, 61 ; 
address of loyalists to, 92 ; visited by Capt. 
Moses Kirkland, 105. 
Tories ; see Loyalists. 

Tory association, Maj. Terry's men sign, 67 ; 
5,000 signers in Ninety-Six district, 105 ; 
proposed by Alexander Chesney, 1775, 137. 
Tory corps : 

American Volunteers, under Maj. Patrick 
Ferguson, 11, n. 76 ; 82, 93 ; Capt. Abra- 
ham de Peyster serves in, 84. 
British Legion, Lieut.-Col. Banistre Tarle- 
ton of, 14, n. 97 ; 18, n. 127 ; 20, 21, 22, n. 
148 ; 25, n. 182 ; 85, n. 182 ; 33, 34 ; 60, 90 ; 
raised by Lord William Shaw Cathcart, 
90 ; in battle of Hanging Rock, 90 ; later 
history, 90, 91 ; Capt. John Rousselet of, 
De Lancey's brigade, 13, n. 96 ; 16, n. 109 ; 
Lieut.-Col. John Harris Cruger, of 1st 
battalion, sails for Georgia, 89 ; defends 
Ninety-Six, 90. 
Duke of Cumberland's regiment (or Loyal 
American Volunteers), commanded by 
Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 59, 60 ; 
prisoners drafted into, 91. 
East Florida Rangers, Robert Phillips, lieu- 
tenant in, 61. 
First American regiment ; see Queen's Rang- 
Georgia Loyalists, 26, n. 187. 
King's American regiment, Cols. David and 
Edmund Fanning in command of, Dec, 
1776, 84 ; Frederick de Peyster joins, 84 ; 
in battle of King's Mountain, 86. 
King's Carolina Rangers, 26, n. 187. 
King's Florida Rangers, 26, n. 187. 



Loyal American Rangers ; see Duke of Cum- 
berland's regiment. 

Loyal American regiment, Duncan Fletcher 
in, 14, n. 107 ; Lieut. Anthony Allaire of, 

Maryland Loyalists, 110. 

Nassau Blues, organized in New York by 
Col. William Axtell, May 1, 1779, 84; 
officers and men later join New York 
Volunteers, 84. 

New Jersey Volunteers, 14, n. 107 ; 16, n. 
Ill; Lieut.-Col. Isaac Allen of, 21, n. 145; 
Cap. Samuel Ryerson of, 14, n. 107 ; Capt. 
John Taylor of, 16, n. Ill ; 85 ; in battle 
of King's Mountain, 86 ; defends Ninety- 
Six, May 22June 19, 1781, 90. 

New York Volunteers, 13, n. 89 ; officers and 
men of Nassau Blues join, 84 ; Lieut.-Col. 
George Trumbull of, 12, n. 89 ; 101. 

Prince of Wales's American Volunteers, 90 ; 
Maj. John Cruden of, 90. 

Queen's Rangers, Maj. James Dunlap of, 73; 
in battle of King's Mountain, 86 ; Col. John 
Graves Simcoe of, commends Capt. John 
Saunders, 109 ; moved from. Virginia to 
South Carolina, 110. 

Queen's Own Loyal Virginia regiment, 109. 

Royal North Carolina rgeiment, 117. 

South Carolina Royalists, Lieut.-Col. Joseph 
Robinson of, 6, 13, n. 96 ; 67, 70, 74-78, 
80, 102 ; Col. Alexander Innes given com- 
mand, 1779, 83 ; Dr. James Clitherall, 
surgeon to, 98, 112; Evan McLaurin, lieu- 
tenant-colonel of, 102 ; Thomas Fraser, ap- 
pointed major, Aug., 1780, 111. 

Volunteers of Ireland, 25, n. 180 ; n. 181 ; 
27, n. 191. 

West Florida Rangers, son of Col. Richard 
Pearls ensign in, 103. 

Towne, Rev. Dr. ._ , 49, n. 334; 50. 

Townsend, Thomas, British secretary for war, 

31, 32. 
Trail, Henry, 99. 
Treaties : treaty of neutrality, Sept. 16, 1775, 

5, 69, 70, 71, 87 ; Lieut.-Col. Evan McLaurin 

signatory of, 102 ; treaty with Cherokee In- 
dians, 8, n. 58 ; treatiees between United 

States and Great Britain disregarded, 120. 
Tyron, William, governor of North Carolina, 

1765-1771, 127. 
Turkey cove (N. C.) ; see North Carolina. 
Turnbull, Lieut.-Col. George, loyalist (N. C), 

of New York Volunteers, 12, n. 89 ; 101. 
Turner, Col. William Vernon, in command of 

Rocky Mount loyal militia, 115. 
"Tyger" river (S. C.) ; see Tiger river. 
Tyne, Col. Samuel, in command of Santee 

loyal militia, 115. 

UNITED Irishmen, association of, viii, 25, n. 

181; 45, n. 308. 
United Loyalists, assembly of, 92. 

VERNON, Alexander, 79. 

Vernon, Lieut.-Col. James, loyalist (S. C), 9, 
n. 64; 71, 78, 79. 

Virginia, Robert Dinwiddle, governor of, 102 ; 
Lord John Murray Dunmore, last royal gov- 
ernor of, 1771-1776, 105, 106, 109; Col. Jacob 
Ellegood, 108, 109, 110 ; Great Bridge, battle 
of, 109 ; Benjamin Dudley Gray, 109 ; Archi- 
bald Hamilton and Co., 117 ; Indians, 102 ; 
Kempe's landing place, 110 ; Capt. Moses 
Kirkland in, 105 ; Lieut.-Gen. Alexander Les- 
lie's expedition to, 110; Norfolk, 117; Rich- 
ard Pearls in Provincial regiment of, 102 
Queen's Own Loyal Virginia regiment, 109 
Capt. John Saunders, 108-116 ; 143, n. 15 
Mrs. Lilly Robinson and children flee to, 75. 

Volunteers of Ireland ; see Tory corps. 

WALKER, Capt , executed, 86. 

Walker, Capt. Jacob, loyalist (N. C), 15, n. 

Wallace, William, loyalist (S. C), land grant 
in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Ward, James, 49, n. 107. 

Waring ("Warring"), Rev. Lucus, 46. 

Washington, Gen. George, headquarters at 
Cambridge, Mass., Capt. Moses Kirkland a 
prisoner at, 106. 

Washington, Col. William, 95. 

Waxhaws (S. C)., 3, n. 8 ; destruction of Col. 
Abraham Buford's force at, June, 1780, 90 ; 
location, 2, n. 8 ; Maj. John Robinson, resi- 
dent, 95. 

Weir, James, loyalist (S. C), 98. 

Weir, Benjamin and William, loyalists (S. C), 
land grants in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Wells, Eliza, 4. 

Wells, Zachariah, loyalist, executed, 19, n. 129. 

Wesley, Rev. John, 48, n. 328. 

West, Peter, 55. 

West Florida, Governor Peter Chester, 106 ; 
northern Creek Indians, 103 ; Rangers, 103 ; 
Col. Richard Pearls goes to, 102, 103 ; son 
of Col. Pearls in Rangers, 103 ; Capt. Kirk- 
land on mission to, 106. 

West Indies, Solomon Smyth takes refuge in, 
28, n. 197 ; Francis Rawdon Chesney's com- 
pany ordered to Jamaica, 53, n. 352 ; Lord 
Greville Montaku's loyalist corps for service 
in Jamaica, 59 ; Col. Thomas Fletchall and 
family settle in, 71, 72 ; Cols. Thomas Edg- 
hill and James Vernon settle in, 71 ; Joseph 
Fletchall planter in, 72 ; Lieut.-Col. Joseph 
Robinson and family go to Jamaica, 75 ; 



Capt. Moses Kirkland takes refuge in, 107 ; 
loyalists take refuge in, 79 ; Col. William 
Vernon Turner and family go to, 115 ; 
Southern loyalists seek refuge in, 117 ; South 
Carolinians join Duke of Cumberland's reg- 
iment in, 91 ; John Cruden and Co. trade 
with, 91. 

Whealley, Moses, loyalist (S. C), 74. 

Wheate, Sir Jacob, 28, n. 192. 

Whig association, opposed in Camden district, 
July, 1775, 60 ; Maj. Terry's men refuse to 
sign, 67 ; James Miller and others refuse to 
sign, 100 ; William Henry Drayton seeks 
signers, 101 ; Alexander Chesney pressed to 
enter, 130. 

Whig convention, John Saunders opposes send- 
ing delegates, 109 ; affiliations with, 145. 

Whigs, Alexander Chesney obliged to side with 
(see Chesney, Alexander) ; seek support of 
Col. Richard Pearis and Indians, 102. 

White, Capt. , 15, n. 104. 

White, John, 52, n. 341. 

White Oak creek (N. C.) ; see Creeks. 

Williams, Edward, 9, n. 64. 

Williams, James, 18, 40, n. 281 ; n. 282. 

Williams, Col. James, 18, n. 123 ; 20. 

Williams, Robert, 94 ; claim and award, 119. 
member, committee to estimate losses of 
South Carolina loyalists, 120 ; also of South 
Carolina loyalists' committee in London, 145. 

Williams, Thomas, loyalist (S. C), land 
grant in Nova Scotia, 118. 

Williams, Col. Hezekiah, in command of regi- 
ment of loyal militia, 115. 

Williamson, Gen. Andrew, 7, in siege of Fort 
Ninety-Six, 69, 70, 74, 76, 80, 135, n. 9 ; ex- 
pedition against Indians, July, 1776, 65, 104 ; 

loyalists attempt escape from army of, 131, 

Wilmington (N. C.) ; see North Carolina. 
Wilmot, John Eardley, commissioner of Ameri- 
can Claims, 37, n. 258. 

Wilson, Capt. , loyalist, executed, 86. 

Wilson, Jane, second wife of Alexander Ches- 
ney, 36, n. 249. 
Wilson, John, 40. 
Wilson, Roger, loyalist (S. C), land grant in 

Nova Scotia, 118. 
Winder, Thomas, 37, n. 255 ; 38. 
Winn, Col. John, 3, n. 15 ; 13. 
Winnsborough (S. C.) ; see South Carolina. 
Winslow, Judge Edward, loyalist (Mass.), in 

New Brunswick, Canada, 111. 
Withrow, David, Jacob, and John, loyalists 

(S. C), land grants in Nova Scotia, 118. 
Wofford, Capt. Benjamin, loyalist (S. C), 5, 

n. 30; 69. 
Wofford, William, 9, n. 62. 
Wofford's Iron works (S. C.) ; see South 

Wolfe, Lewis, agent for loyalists, v, vi, 31, 34, 

36, 37, 38, 44, 49, 82, 139. 
Wright, Alexander, loyalist (S. C), claim and 

award, 119. 
Wright, Maj. James, 26, n. 182; of loyal 

militia from Dutch Fork of Ninety-Six, S. C, 


YADKIN river (N. C.) ; see North Carolina. 
Yorktown (Va. ), British surrender at, 110. 
Young, Lieut.-Col. William, in command of 

loyal militia of Little river, S. C, 114. 
Young, Maj. William, in command of (S. C.) 

loyal militia regiment of Dragoons, 114. 

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