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FOB THE YEABS 1860-63. 


New Haven. 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by the 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Connecticut. 





MALAVA : the Sanskrit, with Translations and Remarks. By FITZ- 
EDWARD HALL, D.C.L. - - 24 





ted from the Greek by Rev. C. HAMLIN, D.D., Missionary of the 
A. B. C. F. M. at Constantinople. 143 

WEBB, Missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. in Southern India. - - 271 


Professor of Sanskrit in Yale College. 299 

DHYAYIKA : Text, Translation, and Notes. By WILLIAM D. WHIT- 
NEY, Professor of Sanskrit in Yale College. 333 




Proceedings at New Haven, Oct. Ytth and 18th, 1860. - - - i 

Proceedings at Boston and Cambridge, May '<>2nd, 1861. ix 

Additions to the Library and Cabinet, May 1860 May 1861. - - xv 

Proceedings at New York, Oct. 16th and 17th, 1861. xliii 

Proceedings at Boston and Cambridge, May 21st, 1862, .... 1 

Proceedings at Princeton, Oct. 15th and 16th, 1862. ------ ly 

Additions to the Library and Cabinet, May 1861 Oct. 1862. - - Ixi 

List of Members, Oct. 1863. - Ixyi 





Presented to the Society October 17, 1860. 

IN the fifteenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, pp. 437- 
443, an English rendering will be found, executed by Captain 
Fell, and published posthumously, of the record here presented in 
its own terms and translated anew. But Captain Fell, it should 
appear, had not seenlhe first, thirty-ninth, and forty-fourth stan- 
zas, and that which follows the forty-eighth, agreeably to the 
numbering of the inscriptionist. As for the rest, his labors in 
connection with the monument under notice were manifestly cut 
short by his death. This inference is, indeed, fully authorized 
by the fact that his version of the original was left unaccompa- 
nied by any commentation ; whereas a land-grant, forming part 
of the same paper with that version, is annotated in copious de- 
tail. Except for the circumstance of his untimely decease, many 
of the laxities with which his interpretation of the ensuing text 
is justly chargeable, as it stands, would also, perhaps, have un- 
dergone redress. 

Sir Henry Sleeman, in the August number of the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1837, has discoursed at length 
on the historical, or postmythical, princes of Mandala, on the ba- 
sis of native documents. These documents, as might be antici- 
pated, exhibit a liberal element of the incredible. They consist 
of two manuscript works in the Hindi language, of anonymous 
authorship. Copies of both are in my possession. One of them 
is considerably more specific than the other ; and they are not 
seldom irreconcilable. As, however, we have to do so largely, 
in these accounts, with palpable fables, it matters little that they 
contradict each other. Solely with a view to bring forward a 
specimen of the manner in which the Hindus associate fact and 

2 /'. E. Hall, 

fiction, do I consent to dwell, for a few moments, on such a sorry 
substitute for sober chronicles. 

According to my vouchers, the earliest among the modern 
rulers of Mandala were Haihaya Rajputs, of the lineage of the 
thousand-armed Arjuna. A story is current all circumstantial- 
ity discarded that, in the days of Nizam Shah, a copper-plate 
patent, emanating from one of them, and bearing the. date of 
Samvat 201, or A. D. 143, was exhumed and deciphered. Their 
seats of government were Manipura, Champavati, and Mahish- 
mati; now known as Eatuapura, Lanji, and Mandala. This 
group of families having become extinct, the Gonds obtained the 

At the period when the Gonds predominated, the lord of Ma- 
hishmati repaired to Amarakantaka for the purpose of ceremo- 
nial ablution. Attached to his train, in some ministerial quality, 
was one Yadava Raya, a Kachhwaha Raj put of Khandesh. Once, 
at midnight, while the rest of the camp slumbered, Yadava was 
doing duty as sentry. Suddenly there passed by, in the dark- 
ness, without speaking, two Gond men and a woman of the same 
race, as they were in seeming. And then came a monkey, bear- 
ing in his hand the feather of a peacock. This he threw down, 
and followed the wayfarers. Yadava's turn of watch having ex- 
pired, he slept ; when, in a vision, Narmada, the impersonation 
of the river so-called, stood before him. Tfie men and the wo- 
man whom he had taken for Gonds were not so, she informed 
him, but Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita ; and the supposed ordin- 
ary monkey was Hanumat. Yadava's fortune was to be most 
propitious ; for those sacrosanct beings rarely show themselves 
in the Iron Age. On his pressing Narmada for more definite in- 
dications, she reminded him of the feather dropped by the mon- 
key. Peacock-feathers are worn on the head by Gonds ; and 
the omen which he had witnessed was significant. Accession to 
the headship of the Gonds was destined as his lot. He was to 
visit Gadha, the chieftain of which place was a Gond. Him he 
should succeed eventually, by voluntary demission of power. A 
Brahman of Ramanagara, cherisher of a perpetual fire, would 
aid him with counsel. Yadava, his end achieved, was to enter- 
tain this Brahman as his premier. 

In the course of a few days, Yadava resigned his place near 
his master and bent his steps to Gadha. On conferring with the 
Brahman who had been designated, he was advised to engage 
himself, as an attendant, to the King of Gadha. This he did, 
and by and bye insinuated himself into the entire confidence of 
his new lord. Arrived at the dignity of treasurer, he was joined 
by his family from Khandesh. The King, who had but one 
child, and that a daughter, proposed to contract her to Yadava, a 
widower, on presumption. To this overture Yadava excepted, on 

On the Kings of Mandala. 3 

the ground of caste. Sarve Pathaka, the Brahman before spoken 
of, was applied to for his opinion. It was favorable to the match, 
on condition that the couple should never eat together. To this 
condition the King signified his assent ; and the nuptials were 
celebrated. Upon this, the King, who was well stricken in years, 
abdicated, retaining the revenues of five villages for his mainte- 
nance ; and Yadava reigned in his stead. His enthronement is 
adjudged to the Samvat year 415, corresponding to A. D. 357. 
Sarve Pathaka was installed as prime minister ; he and his em- 
ployer solemnly obtesting Narmada to their compact, and impre- 
cating perdition, each on his own family, in the event of their 
descendants' ever being embroiled. By gradual extension, the 
kingdom expanded so as to skirt the river Hiran in one direction, 
and, in another, the Gaura. Yadava, after enjoying royalty for 
five years, died, and was succeeded by his son Madhava. Seve- 
ral of Sarve Pathaka's progeny served the chiefs of Mandala in 
course. To them the clan called Bhar Vajpeyi is said to trace its 

Karna, it is stated, founded the city of Karanbel. But of this 
I have very grave doubts. It is to be referred, much more pro- 
bably, to a Karna of a different dynasty. Karanbel lies a few 
miles from Jubulpoor. I have explored its ruins. Madana Sinha 
is, further, mentioned as builder of the Madana-mahal, like- 
wise near Jubulpoor. There is no reason why he may not have 
been so. The erections and conquests of other of the potentates 
in question are specified with some minuteness. The towns and 
fortresses enumerated have mostly, if not all, been verified. In 
subjugation, Sangrama was signally successful. A list is given 
of two and fifty strong-holds which he compelled to yield him 

Durgavati, the lady especially commemorated in the following 
pages, was daughter of the Chandel chief of Mahoba. As queen 
regnant, her husband having (Demised, she ventured on a foray 
against Bhelsa. In reprisal for this incursion, A'saf Khan was 
sent, by the Emperor Akbar, to chastise her hardihood. At the 
time when she and her son were slain, the latter had advanced 
to his eighteenth year. 1 

Having extracted from my manuscript materials about all that 
they contain of interest, I turn, for a single matter, to the histo- 
rian Farishta. " Pending a very sharp engagement," says this 
writer, " the Queen was wounded in the eye by an arrow, and 
desisted from the conduct ; and, with an extreme sense of honor 
as to being captured, resolving to die, she took a scimitar from 
her elephant-driver, and put an end to her existence." 2 A'saf 
Khan, after her death, moved on to attack the fort of Choragarh, 3 
where her young son was in hiding. In the tumult of the assault, 
the heir apparent " perished beneath the hands and feet of the 

4 F. E. Hall, 

A lineal descendant of the magnates with whom this paper is 
concerned, having been found implicated in the mutinies, was, in 
the autumn of last year, exploded from before the mouth of a 
cannon, at Jubulpoor. This man left an only son. His family 
would, otherwise, have terminated with his own death. The mis- 
creant had concerted a plan of smothering every Christian that 
should fall into his hands, by enclosing the head of the victim in 
a bag of powdered chillies. When apprehended, he had about 
his person a pious formula of commination, which may be repro- 
duced in these words : "Close the mouth of the tale-bearers, 
chew up the back-biters, trample out the wicked, exterminatrix 
of our foes. Slay the English ; reduce them to dust, Mother 
Chandi. Let not the enemies escape, or their children, destruc- 
tive lady. Protect S'ankara ; keep thy slave. Hearken to the 
cry of the humble. Victory to Mother Halaka! Eat up the im- 
pure ; delay not, Mother. This moment, speedily, devour our 
foes, Kalika." 4 

The inscription now to be given is incised on a stone which 
lies at Ramanagara, in Mandala. As I have had no opportunity 
of inspecting the monument itself, I have had to be satisfied with 
fac-simile impressions, taken by rubbing. 

1 1 

rTrft ^;=Mr4Tl<:<4 Hrft 
rTFT ^ 

FFTsTR ^Mlrl^lriJ II II 

On the Kings of Mandala. 






II ^ n 

rRft ^RT ^TTH^HrT^^^^T ^frT II \o n 
: grft 

? H 

F. E. Hall, 

Pi q ITII Pi ^f 



sFTT sPT^: 11 \t> u 


On the Kings of Mandata. 




.' II II 


* The original has 3T:, which I have not hesitated to alter. 

F. K HaV, 





: II II 

J ^ ri 

J II t^ II 

On the Kings of Mandala. 

tq r #r< 


?l sWIuirttritfM^sSlf^ 1 II \ o ll 

FT^FT ^oR ^l JriH^riJ t 

* In the Sanskrit, the visarga is omitted : clearly by error of the engraver, or of 
his exemplar. 

10 F. E. Hall, 

i: HrTFT 

ft nail's m iqfri 



* I have never before met with f^fif for i^Ti% ; and it may be a mistake. The 
dictionaries have only the latter, in the sense of 'wall.' Metrically considered, 
either will here answer, as being a trochee. 

On the Kings of Mandala. 11 



J i 

12 F. E. Hall 


* For ^rldlil ; perhaps not by the intention of the versifier. 
required by prosody ; and it is exceedingly rare, if not wholly unauthorized. 

f Tliis couplet stands, on the stone, below the rest of the inscription, to the left 
hand. It has no number ; and I have assigned its place by conjecture. 

| The stone has ^^. But the author, with due regard to quantity, wrote as 
I have corrected. 

On the Kings of Mandate. 13 




Glory to the auspicious Ganes'a ! The auspicious Trivikra- 
ma, 5 the beautiful, bears sway. 

1. Salutation to thee, Vishnu, who, though, as if in thy entire- 
ty, manifoldly manifested, art yet assuredly unapprehended in 
any thy real nature 6 whatsoever. 

2. In the country of Gadha 7 was a monarch, Yadavaraya ; a 
sea of virtuous qualities. His son was Madhavasinha ; from 
whom sprang Jagannatha. 

3. Of him was born Kaghunatha. His son was Eudradeva ; 
and his son was Yiharisinha. Narasinhadeva was his offspring. 

4. His son was Suryabhanu ; and his son was Vasudeva. Of 
him was born Gopalasahi ; and of him, Bhiipalasahi. 

5. From him issued Gopmatha ; and from him, King Eama- 
chandra. The son of Eamachandra was Suratanasinha, so called. 

6. Hariharadeva was his son. Krishnadeva was his. Of him 
was born Jagatsinha ; from whom originated Mahasinha. 

7. Of him came Durjanamalla. From him sprang Yas'ah- 
karna ; and from him, Pratapaditya. Of him was born Yas'as'- 

8. His son was Manoharasinha. Govindasinha was his ; and 
from him proceeded Eamachandra ; and from him, Kama : then, 
from him, Eatnasena. 8 

9. Of him came Kamalanayana ; and his son was King Nara- 
harideva. Of him a son was born, Virasinha 9 ; who procreated 
a duteous son, Tribhuvanaraya. 

* Is fjJTT , for ' white,' ' light,' allowable in place of f^TrT ? The former is by 
no means uncommon in inscriptions, even where, as in this, the first and last sibil- 
ants are carefully discriminated. 

14 F. E. Hall, 

10. From him was derived Prithwiraja. From him sprang 
Bharatichandra. His son was Madanasinha ; and from him 
Ugrasena had his descent. 

11. Ramasahi was his son ; and from him issued Tarachandra. 
Of him was born Udayasinha : of him, Bhanumitra, as was his 

12. His son was Bhavanidasa ; and of him S'ivasinha was the 
heir. His son was denominated Harinarayana ; and his son was 

13. Eajasinha was his son ; and of him was born Dadiraya. 10 
His son was Gorakshadasa ; who begat Arjunasinha. 

14. His son was Sangramasahi ; an exterminating fire 11 to his 
foes, as if they had been masses of cotton- wool : on the radiance 
of whose grandeur being spread abroad, the midday sun became 
like a mere spark : 

15. By which king, when he had reduced the orb of the earth, 
two and fifty fastnesses were constructed ; indestructible from 
their excellent fortifications which were like adamant, and pos- 
sessed the firm strength of mountains and because of their 

16. Of him, gem of princes, King Dalapati was the son ; of 
unsullied glory : to hymn forth whose fame the lord of serpents 
hoped that all his mouths would enduringly remain : 

17. To the dust of whose feet since his hand was constantly 
moist with the water of bounty, 12 and as he was diligent in the 
remembrance of Hari, a refuge to those who were brought under 
his authority, and a guileless guardian of his dependants even 
people infected with the quality of passion continually had re- 

18. His consort was Durgavati ; in sooth the increase of for- 
tune to suppliants ; accumulated holiness actually personified ; 
the very bound of earth's prosperity. 

19. This Purandara 13 of the circuit of the earth having de- 
mised, Durgavati consecrated on the seat of royalty their son, of 
three years of age, the illustrious Viranarayana, so called. 

20. By whom, Durgavati, of repute blazoned throughout the 
triple universe, the whole earth was rendered as it were another ; 
by interminable glittering Hemachalas, 14 in its stately golden 
edifices ; by seas 15 untold, in its abundance of valuable jewels 
everywhere tossing about ; by innumerable Indra's 16 elephants, 
in its herds of spirited elephants : 

21. Who, Durgavati, with her daily occupation, which consis- 
ted in unceasing donations of millions of horses, elephants, and 
pieces of gold, 17 depreciated, in semblance, by her exalted celeb- 
rity, the universal honor of Kamadhenu. 18 

22. Mounted on an elephant, in person, and by force overmas- 
tering, in many a battle, prepotent adversaries, ever studious for 

On the Kings of Mandala. 15 

the safeguard of her subjects, she superseded, to all appearance, 
the protectors of the regions. 19 

23. Appropriating, no less than the tribute of kings, their 
illustrious world-diffused splendor, he, the fortunate Viranara- 
yana, as was his appellation, of renown illimitable, entered on, 

24. Subsequently, some time having elapsed, A'saf Khan, with 
an army, 20 was deputed by King Akbar, 21 Puruhiita 22 of the 
earth, all but compeer of Partha, 23 for the purpose of levying a 

25. At the close of an engagement, by this great warrior a 
Bhima in prowess, whose armaments depressed the face of the 
earth Durgavati, though she had vanquished his entire army, 

26. Being vexed with countless hostile arrows, clove her own 
head, in an instant, with a sword in her hand, as she sat on her 
elephant ; whereupon she penetrated the solar sphere, as did her 
son. 24 

27. Then luas inaugurated the younger brother of King Dala- 
pati, Chandrasahi ; an asylum to the lordless people ; a treasury, 
so to speak, of magnificence ; the inextinguishable irradiator of 
his whole race ; opulent in glory : 

28. Of the wives of whose antagonists the trees, with their 
thorns, snatched away the robes and laid hold of the tresses ; 
while they, the ladies, exhibiting conflagrations in the sheen of 
their persons suddenly exposed, consumed them, the trees, with 
their sighs ; and ever, from very wretchedness, they wore the 
bark of shrubs for clothing. Thus, in the forests, did they, in a 
manner, wage strife with things immovable. 25 

29. Of this monarch a son was born, King 26 Madhukarasahi 
as, of S'iva, 27 Shanmukha 28 of honorable note ; as if a recep- 
tacle of noble greatness : 

30. By the triumphs of whom resistless in enterprise, as 
repelling 29 and destroying the impetuous and overweening, 
stricken deaf with the rushing torrent of the clamor of his drums, 
enough to drown the roar of huge compact cataclysmal rain-clouds 
newly come achieved by the might of his arm, and applauded 
by multitudes of his lieges, the quarters, responsive, oftentimes, 
to this very day, manifestly cause shame to their eight presiding 

31. The son of this king was the fortunate Premanarayana ; 
accomplishing, through his affluence, the desires of the pure ; 
the collective lustre of the tribe of warriors ; the incorporate 
energy of Smara ; a domicile of good report ; the exaltation of 
his family ; the complete estate of virtue ; the measure of crea- 
tive cunning ; a repository of merits ; no path for reproach : 30 

32. Of whom humbling and routing a whole troop of chief- 
tains, by the fresh dense surge of thousands of legions terrible 

16 F. R Hall, 

with serried phalanxes of most infuriate elephants redolent from 
the Vindhyas the adversaries, whose slumbers were straight- 
way broken when first they perceived his refulgent grandeur, do 
not even yet readily leave the caves of the mountains, though 
separated from thei<pives. 

33. Kings indeed presumptuous should be rigorously coerced 
on the battle-field : but one ought not to harbor animosity. Fame 
should be enhanced by performing meritorious acts, unremit- 
tingly, among the people : but one must not foster pride. Their 
wishes should, at all times whatever, promptly be granted to 
petitioners : but one must not wait to be entreatea. 31 Such, obvi- 
ously, is the duty of rulers in this world ; and for the justness of 
these maxims the practice of Premasahi is an argument. 

34. Of him, the auspicious lord Premasahi, was born another, 
the illustrious lord Hridaya, as he was called ; a source of hap- 
piness to the pious, and mighty like his forefathers : as arises the 
year ; teeming with lunar days of numerous moments ; whose 
appearance commences with the first day of the moon's increase ; 
ever augmented by months growing with nycthemera ; 32 alter- 
nating with light and dark fortnights. 33 

35. Thoroughly defending the entire world, this monarch es- 
pecially befriends the helpless ; as a cloud, rain equably as it may, 
yet irrigates most copiously the low places with its water : 

36. By which king have been assigned to Brahmans, with the 
prescribed formalities of grants on plates of copper, sundry villa- 
ges ; begirt by lines of elegant gardens, rising with stuccoed 
dwelling-houses, inhabited by a substantial tenantry, provided 
with pellucid meres stocked with water-lilies, adorned with am- 
ple and frequent habitations of herdsmen, and with spacious 
tillage 34 round about : 

37. Which king keeps up all his vast domain : where, from 
goodly mansions, may be recognized diversities of enunciation ; 
which is eligible from its fine towns and palm-trees ; delightful 
from attachment to the body of revealed and memorial law ; in- 
dependent of its border-lands ; captivating the heart by the pres- 
ence of proper roads ; and easy of attainment only by men 
challenging admiration : and he is likewise conversant in the sci- 
ence of melody and the dance, with its refinements. 35 

38. The whole earth and all potentates are enclosed in the 
hand of lord Hridaya. By the same were traced, midway on a 
golden wall, as it had been fifty immense elephants. 

39. It has been no matter of surprise at all, that a minute sta- 
tionary butt was transfixed by him, who, with his shafts, can 
sever, almost simultaneously, at quite distinct points, an arrow 
launched obliquely : 

40. Who, at the time of the chase, hunting on foot, has, all of 
a sudden, slain, with his bolt, a tiger assaulting from aloft, of 
forefront fearful as an enormous serpent's, and formidable : 

On the Kings of Mandala. 17 

Regarding whom is this speech of Indra when he was thus 
bespoken : 

41. 'Prithee tell us, Jishnu, 36 why thou art dejected :' ' What! 
is it not known to you, worthy deities, that this King Hridaya 
makes, on the earth, of Brahmans, many S'atakratus ?' 37 

42. Of this lord of earth the queen is Sundari Devi ; the abode 
of prosperity, as being, in effect, the wealth of merit, embodied : 

43. From whom are constantly obtained, by Brahmans, 38 ele- 
phants, beauteous as dusky clouds, with the copious ichor of 
their frontal exudation ; given with the water of donation 39 ever 
at hand ; precluding, to the needy, the cause of clustering mis- 
eries : 

44. Who shines, resplendent, throughout the world, with her 
fair fame ; earned, unceasingly, by endowments, in succession as 
ordained ; which endowments, finding, among the nations, strait- 
ened scope for encomium, reached to heaven ; giving forth such 
effulgence as a hundred autumnal moons would realize : 

45. Who observes, without intermission, the holy ordinances, 
by innumerable conservatory liberalities, 40 in the making of reser- 
voirs, gardens, ponds, and the like, entailing munificent gratuities : 

46. Who, establishing this fane, has enshrined therein Vishnu, 
S'ambhu, Ganes'a, Durga, and Tarani. 41 

47. Who is there capable of fitly eulogizing her, by whom an 
abode has been provided to the adorable S'ankara, 42 S'ridhara, 43 
and others, deities as they are ? 

48. Who, the queen, evermore pays worship to the gods and 
to the comely Trivikrama as chief in the Brahmans whom she 
employs in it, and by dispensing good cheer, by keeping jubilees, 
and by bestowing unmeted riches. 

. Moreover, by the command of the king, the youthful Mri- 
gavati 44 constantly brings various articles of food for oblation to 
Muradwit. 45 

49. Surpassingly victorious is the lord King Hridaya, and pre- 
eminent in power by his clemency ; even as the moon, with its 
beams, subdues by the force of gentleness. 

50. At his behest, the clerkly Jayagovinda son of the learned 
Mandana, of favorable repute, versed in the exegesis of the 
Mimansa, a master of dialectic, and proficient in expounding the 
sacred oracles and their supplements -has composed, in epitome, 
this account relating to the sovereigns of his lineage. 

51. By dexterous artificers, named Sinhasahi, Dayarama, and 
Bhagiratha, this temple ivas constructed, 

52. On the day of Vishnu, 46 in the light fortnight of Jyeshtha, 
in the year one thousand seven hundred and twenty -four, this 
record was transcribed by Sadas'iva,. and engraven by these 
skillful artisans aforesaid. 

18 F. E. Hall, 

Friday, the 12th day of the bright semi-lunation of Jyeshtha, 
in the year of Samvat 1724 


1, 7, 11, 13, 42, 45, ) r 
46, 47, , 49, 51, 52. [ 

2, 4, 5, 6, 24. A'ryd. 

3, 8, 48. Giti. 

9, 16, 27, 29, 41. Pushpitdgrd. 

10, 12. Upagiti. 
14, 15. S'alini. 

17, 44. Avitatha** 

18, Priyd. 

19, S'ubhd. 

20, 31, 34, 36, 37. S'&rdulavikrldita. 

21, 39. Upendravajrd. 

22, 23. IMntt. 

25. Varidhara. 

26. Smriti. 
28, 30, 32, 33. Srdgdhara. 

35. Pramitdkshard. 

38, 40. Aupachhandasika. 

43. Vans'astha. 

50. S'ikharini. 


1. Durgavati underwent cremation some ten or twelve miles from 
Jubulpore, between the Mandala road and the Nerbudda. Her tomb is 
much frequented as a place of pilgrimage. It is spoken of in Sir Henry 
Sleeman's Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official. 

2. Poona lithograph edition of Farishta, i. 481. This is the correct 
paging, and not 281, as is printed. I have collated four MSS. for the 
Persian of the passage under reference and its relative context ; and I 
am unable to suggest a single reading, out of dozens, in supersession, 
at an improvement, of what I find in the lithograph. Evidently it was 
prepared with great care, if one may thus judge by synecdoche. 

3. This is in the pargana of Gadarwara, District of Nursinghpoor, 
according to the prevailing official chorography of Central India. 

4. For the original of this precious production, which runs as below, 
I am beholden to the kindness of my friend Major Erskine, Commis- 
sioner of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. The language is rustic 
Hindi, and that of a very crude order. Still the Sanskrit scholar, at 
least with the aid of my version, will scarcely fail to divine the bource 
of many of its expressions. 

cRT inyil JJTfr try i WIT I 

On the Kings of Mandala. 19 

5. A title of Vishnu. Its import, according to the Puranas, is given 
in the dictionaries. For an explanation of the Vaidika Vishnu's three 
steps, see a passage, cited from Durga A'charya, in Dr. Muir's Matapa- 
rikshd, Part the First, p. 105 of the Sanskrit. Also see Prof. Wilson's 
Translation of the Rig-veda, i. 53, 54. 

6. Such, or ' very essence,' pdramarthikam sadrupam, appears to be 
the most preferable rendering of itthambhava; a term which, among the 
grammarians, has served as a theme of most voluminous contention. 

The various significations of iltham, and of its synonyme tathd, have 
not as yet, to my knowledge, received much consideration. The latter 
obviously implies ' seasonableness,' in this couplet : 

Shad-dars'ana-samuchchaya, s'l. 21. 

In fact, the precise shade of meaning borne by tathd seems frequently 
to depend entirely on the requirements of the context. But even the 
natural transition of its import from ' so' or ' thus' to ' conformably,' and 
thence to ' rightly,' ' well,' ' as desired,' may perhaps lead to a correct 
apprehension of the Bauddha Tath&gata, convertible with Sugala, or 
' the departed in peace.' Cf. Mirabar hoc si sic abieret. Terent., Andr., 
I. ii. 4. If this explanation of Tathdgata be inadmissible, we may, by 
the analogy of other languages as the Greek, in which OVTCD; some- 
times stands for (jctdlw; take its element tathd to intend ' easily,' ' with- 
out impediment :' or, ' notoriously.' Another strictly derivative sense 
of which this particle is susceptible is ' for good and forever,' ' conclu- 
sively,' 'in perpetuity :' he passed away not to return. Or, 'just as he 
was ;' that is to say, absolved from the necessity of renewing his earthly 

7. A region whose extent is not yet determined with any certainty, 
but which included more or less of the present District of Jubulpore. 
Four miles to the S. W. of the city so called lies what is now the village 
of Gadha ; a place which is supposed to have been, in former times, the 
capital of the kingdom mentioned in the text. 

8. This name and the last, with the connective that couples them, are 
fused, by Captain Fell, into the portentous combination " Karnotha- 

9. Sir W. H. Sleeman transposes Virasinha and his sire. 

10. He is referred to in the Baghela -vans' a-charita, chapter iv. In 
his time Baber sat on the throne of Delhi. 

20 F. K Hall, 

11. Literally, 'conflagration at the end of the world.' 

12. "Solemn donations are ratified by pouring water into the hand 
of the donee." Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 259, foot-note. 

13. A name of Indra: 'the spoiler of the cities' of his foes. 

14. ' The golden mountain :' Meru. 

15. Represented, in order to secure an equivoque, by an epithet signi- 
fying ' mine of precious stones.' 

16. The original has swargis'a, 'lord of paradise;' one of Indra's 

17. Suvarna, in the Sanskrit; the name of a weight and of a coin. 
For its definition and value, see the As. Res. (8vo. edition), v. 93 : also 
Prof. Wilson's Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus (second 
edition), i. 47, foot-note. 

1. The ever-beneficent cow of Hindu fable, who gratifies every desire. 

19. In the original there is an intention to palter with the expressions 
prajd and loka. 

20. This, and not * powerful,' is, I think, here the designed sense of 
balav&n, by a strain. 

21. In the Sanskrit, Akabara. Just before we also have, partly as 
being unavoidable, A'sapha Khana. 

22. A title of Indra : ' the much-invoked.' 

23. The same as Arjuna. Partha is the matronymic of Pritha. 

24. To entitle either the queen or the heir apparent to such a desti- 
nation as he has assigned them, the poet may be suspected of having 
taken one of the liberties of his craft. S'ridhara Swamin while anno- 
tating the Bhagavata-purana, vi. 10, S3 cites the following apposite 
scripture, but without supplying means for its verification : 

<juKjai%j "pir ZTT >s 

' These two persons notoriously rend and enter the disk of the sun : 
the contemplative superannuated ascetic, and he that is slain in battle, 
affronting the foe.' 

Captain Fell englishes the twenty-fifth and twenty -sixth stanzas in 
these words : " Upon a battle taking place, this illustrious warrior, who 
made the earth bend beneath his vast army, and who had ever defeated 
his foes by his dreadful valor, was slain by hundreds of thousands of his 
adversary's arrows. Durgavati, who was mounted on an elephant, sev- 
ered her own head with the scimitar she held in her hand : she reached 
the supreme spirit, pierced the sun's orb (obtained salvation)." 

25. As following a different classification of natural objects, we should 
here say, but only as an approximate equivalent, ' inanimate.' 

26. In the expansiveness of the original, ' the lord of the face of the 

On the Kings of Mandala. 21 

27. "Word for word, 'the burner of Smara,' one of the names of the 
Hindu Eros, signifying ' remembrance.' The story of his destruction by 
S'iva's frontal eye cannot require repeating. 

2. ' The six-faced :' Kartikeya, the god of war. 

29. Vidhuta; a very common, yet solecistic, form of the past parti- 
ciple, for vidhuta. In the thirty-second stanza it occurs again. 

30. Many Hindu writers, particularly the later, greatly affect this 
species of delineation by similes. An extract from the description of the 
heroine of Subandhu's novelette may not unaptly be introduced as a 
longer specimen in the same style : ' As it were, a picture on the wall of 
versatile life, the rendezvous of the daintiness of the triple universe, the 
alchemical master-remedy of the archmagician Youth, the ideal of erotic 
conception/ a lodgment of joyousness, Cupid's ensign in the conquest 
of the three spheres, the realization of fancy, the rebuke of Love, a 
magistery to brace the senses, the fascinating energy of the Heart- 
agitator, the native pleasure-ground of beauty, chief chamber in the fane 
of good fortune, the fountain-head of pulchritude, the perfection of soul's 
attracting incantations, the sight-deluding quality of Passion the con- 
juror, Prajapati's creation for the allurement of the threefold world.' 

For the original, see my edition of the Vasavadattd, in the Bibliotheca 
Indica ; pp. 64-67. In the Sanskrit, every clause of this passage is ac- 
companied by the quasific particle iva. 

31. Thus far this stanza gestates with puns. Under my obstetrication 
into English, they have fallen still-born : no loss of consequence. 

32. More scrupulously, ' hemeronyktia.' 

33. The sense may be, ' taking its departure during the currency of 
the dark fortnight ;' agreeably to the reckoning which obtains to the 
south of the Nerbudda. 

34. Urvard. Its resemblance to the #ou, 'fruitful plain,' of Homer 
and Hesiod may, or may not, be accidental. 

35. The equivoques with which this stanza is studded are quite un- 
translatable ; except a few at the end, which are printed in italics. What 
is meant, in the terminology of Hindu music, by sthdna, dharma, and 
mbrga, I am at a loss to say. The last is, perhaps, ' mode.' 

I understand, by the word kinnara, ' a man provoking admiration ;' as 
the context should seem to exact this acceptation, the etymological : 
kim implying ' surprise,' favorable or otherwise. Kshira Swamin and 
Lingaya Suri, in their scholia on the Amara-kos'a, allege that ' a low 
man' is also imported by this compound. As designating the celestial 
songsters, I would suggest that ' or' interrogative rather represents its 
first member. Compare, on this theory, the kindred derivation of vdnara, 
' a monkey ;' literally, ' whether a man ?' 

36. Being interpreted, ' the conqueror ;' a name of Indra. 

37. A hundred hippocausts are said to raise the mortal that offers 
them to the rank of Indra ; who is, accordingly, agnominated s'atakratu. 
The drift of the text is, that Hridaya's favor for the priesthood was sig- 

22 F. E. Hall, 

nalized by such munificent liberality as to enable Brahmans, through 
the performance of meritorious ceremonies, to endanger the stability of 
the rank of Indra himself, the lord of heaven. 

3. Analytically, ' Titan-foes of the earth ;' and the foes of the Titans 
are the gods. The result is, ' terrestrial deities.' 

39. See the note on the seventeenth stanza. 

40. An explanation of this technicality will be seen in Colebrooke's 
Two Treatises on the Hindu Law of Inheritance, pp. 274 and 334. 

41. S'ambhu is S'iva; Tarani is Siirya, or the sun. 

42. Or ' the propitious :' a name of S'iva. 

43. The possessor of S'ri ;' that is to say, Vishnu : S'ri, or Lakshrni, 
being his wife. 

44. King Hridaya's daughter, probably. No mention of her is found 

A note on this distich has been given above, after its original. 

45. Or Murari, etc. ; ' the enemy of Mura :' an epithet of Vishnu, 
who slew a demon so called. 

46. With the astrologers, this day is the next after that so called by the 
theogonists: for, according to the Padma-purana and the Brahmanda- 
purana, the eleventh of the fortnight is the prime favorite of Vishnu, 
who is its regent. The second numeral of what I now read 12, at the 
end of the inscription, is very indistinct. To ensure certainty, it was, 
therefore, necessary to resort to computation. The result is, the satis- 
faction of knowing that ' the clerkly Jayagovinda' followed the astrolo- 
gers. The date in the text answers to the fifth of June, A. D. 1667, 
N. S. 

For convenience of reference, I subjoin a list of the tutelars of the 
days of the lunar fortnights ; for both which they are the same. 

1st. Fire. 9th. Gauri. 

2d. Brahma. 10th. Yama. 

3d. Gauri. llth. The Vis'we devdh. 

4th. Ganes'a. 12th. Vishnu. 

5th. The serpent tribe. 13th. Kama. 

6th. Kartikeya. 14th. S'iva. 

7th. The Sun. 15th. The Moon. 

8th. S'iva. 

The pilri-gana, or bands of manes, preside over the conjunction. 

47. The heroic measure, according to its prescribed scheme, is stro- 
phic. Yet, as regards the adjacent pairs of its verses, all material devia- 
tions from the canons laid down in the S'ruta-bodha such as, when 
the fourth syllable is long, of elongating, at pleasure, the fifth are con- 
fined, usually, if not universally, to the third hemistich. This is the 
case, for instance, throughout this inscription. Thus : the first hemistich, 
conformably to the ancient rule, everywhere exhibiting an epitrite, in s'l. 
1, 46, 47, 51, and 52, the third ends, after a long syllable, with a fourth 
.pa3on ; in s'l. 13 and 45, with a dispondee ; and, in s'l. 49, with a cho- 

On the Kings of Mandate. 23 

While usage allows greater freedom to at least the third hemistich of 
the heroic measure, in its latter half, than is accorded by the S'ruta- 
bodha, it refuses to avail itself of much of the liberty which that work 
silently permits in the first halves of the distichs generally. The middle 
syllables are not found to be a pyrrhic in any of them ; and the closing 
two, in the second and fourth, are never an iamb. 

M. Lancereau's section on the s'loka, though correctly representing 
the intent of his author, does not, therefore, give an account of actual 
custom. See his Sroutabodha, p. 26. 

I here cite a portion of Professor Wilson's first description of the 
Anushtubh measure, from p. 436 of the last edition of his Sanskrit Gram- 
mar : " In its most regular form, the first foot is any one except a tri- 
brach ; the second may be a dactyl, a tribrach, cretic, or anapaest : the 
other two syllables are indifferently long or short." But the first foot 
is also forbidden to be a dactyl ; since it is the concurrence of two short 
syllables as the second and third that is to be avoided. Again, in the 
second and fourth quarters of the stanza, the second foot may not be a 
dactyl or a cretic, where an amphibrach or an antibacchic has preceded. 
Nor are the final two syllables arbitrary. The seventh is never short, 
in the first and third hemistichs, unless the fourth is so ; and, in the sec- 
ond and last hemistichs, it is, under no circumstances, long. Other cor- 
rections of the description just cited, and integrations of it, may be 
gathered from what has been said above. Nor is it intimated, by Pro- 
fessor Wilson, that the hemistichs of the half Anushtubh are not uniform. 

It was, thus, ill-advised, in a German editor, to prefer the reading : 

STff rd*rRi 

Three of my MSS. of the S'akuntala have <T7T ; which is, for more 
than one reason, most undoubtedly to be accepted. See Professor Boeht- 
lingk's S'akuntala, pp. HI, 214, and 289. I have in vain searched 
the whole of Kalidasa's works for a similar license. Moreover, the 
older form is Piiru, not Puru. Professor Wilson says that " the first 
vowel of Puru is short." Translation of the Rig-veda, iii. 163, third 
foot-note. In the Vishnu-pur ana it is so ; where, by the bye, Puru's 
brother is Uru, not Uru, contrarily to the learned translator. But we 
find Puru in the Bhagavata, and also in the Rig-veda ; as Professor 
Wilson afterwards discovered. He does not, however, remark on his 
former error. 

48. The Avitatha, Narkutaka, and Kokilaka contain the same num- 
ber and the same disposition of feet : only the first has no caesuras ; and 
these pauses, in the last two, differ. Yet Sundara Upadhyaya, in his 
commentary on the Vritta-ratnakara, the Sugama-vritti, says that the 
Narkutaka and Kokilaka are two names for one measure. 

Colebrooke Miscellaneous Essays, ii. 148 has inadvertently consid- 
ered the Avitatha and Narkutaka to be identical. The stanza which 
lie prints is of the former metre, a " very uncommon" one, as he justly 
observes. In the Veda-stuti Bhagavata-purana, x, latter section, 
eighty-seventh chapter a number of instances of it are to be seen, with 
one stanza in narkut.aka and one in kokilaka. 

Saiigor, March, 1858. 






Presented to the Society October 17, 1860. 

THOUGH the kings mentioned in the memorials 1 under notice 
have already been made known to the world, jet the statements 
which have been put forth concerning their connection and suc- 
cession require to be rectified. Their names are subjoined. The 
comments which have been suggested with reference to them, as 
being by -matter, are added in the form of notes. 

Bhoja Deva. 

TJdayaditya Deva. 2 

Naravarma Deva. 

Yas'ovarma Deva. 

Ajayavarman. 3 



Arjunavarma Deva. A. D. 1211-1215. 

Devapala Deva was reigning, as I have brought to light in 
another paper, in the year 1353 of our era, at Dhara. This city 
had been the royal seat of the last Bhoja, about three hundred 
years before ; and likewise that of Yas'ovarman, in 1143. Jaya- 
varman dates one edict from Vardhamanapura ; 4 and Arjuna 
publishes another at Mandapa. 5 But these two places may have 
served only for temporary residence. 6 

The copper-plates containing the following inscriptions are de- 
posited in the library of the Begum's school at Sehore in Bhopal, 
where I examined them in February of last year. 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 25 




5 \\\\\ 

^TT fPrPrFTJ \\\\\ 

rTFTt virt rtrtilrJ r 

II o U 

: II 5 II 
: ll 


: E. Hall 

J H \ II 



r r 





On the Paramura Rulers of Mdlava, 27 


28 F, E. Hall, 

?TFT ^ gHHiU FT^I r^T 
^T ?ft 

?ft Horfl'J II ^ U 

: n ii 

On the Paramdra Balers of Mdlava. 29 

VI T I g 


Om ! Glory to Virtue, the frontlet-gem of the four human 
ends! 7 

1. May the Lord of the twice-born gladdener of the world, 
from notoriously occupying the earth, in being as it were a 
shadow bestow on you prosperity. 8 

2. May he, Paras'urama, be exalted ; penetrated by the Ksha- 
tras slain, in strife, by whom, in order to become donor of the earth 
to Brahmans, the disk of the rising and declining sun has perma- 
nently acquired a coppery hue. 9 

3. May Kama who, in battle, allayed, with the water of Man- 
dodari's tears, the fire of severance from the mistress of his life 
be of avail for your welfare. 

4. May Yudhishthira be triumphant : whose feet even Bhima 
placed upon his head, and whom the founder of his race, the 
moon, framed, so to speak, in the similitude of himself, for gen- 
tleness. 10 

5. There was a sovereign, the auspicious Bhojadeva : the or- 
nament of the Paramara lineage ; in glory, a Kansajit j 11 a man 
whose ploughs overpassed the face of the earth ; 12 

6. The moonlight of whose fame having irradiated the undu- 
lating ridges of the quarters, the lilies of the abundant renown 
of hostile princes became closed. 13 

7. From him sprang Udayaditya ; whose sole delight was con- 
stant enterprise ; of peculiar felicity as a champion ; and a source 
of infelicity to his antagonists ; 

8. By whose arrows, discharged in fierce destructive war, how 
many lofty monarchs, formidable with armies, were not extirpa- 
ted !' 14 

9. Of him was born King Naravarman : who clove the vital 
parts of his enemies ; sagacious in sustaining virtue ; the limit 
of princes -, 15 

30 F. K Hall, 

10. Who, by shares 16 of villages which he, every morning, 
himself bestowed upon Brahmans, rendered Virtue, one-footed 
as it was, multiped. 

11. Of him a son was born, Yas'ovarman, the frontlet of 
Kshatriyas. From him issued a son, Ajayavarman ; renowned 
for his conquests and fortune. 

12. Vindhyavarman was born as his son ; at the head of he- 
roes, of well-omened birth, zealous in the extinction of the Gur- 
jaras, 17 long-armed. 

13. Of whom, skilled in warfare, the sword, with its edge up- 
raised, 18 as if to deliver the three worlds, assumed a triple edge. 

14. Subsequently, his high-born 19 son, King Subhatavarman, 
affluent as Sutraman, persevering in religious duties, incited the 
earth to their observance: 

15. Of whom, conqueror of the directions, of sun-like lustre, 
the splendor, as it were a forest-fire, even to this day blazes, re- 
sounding, in Pattana 20 of the Gurjaras. 

16. He having attained apotheosis, 21 his son, King Arjuna, now 
sustains, with his arm, the circuit of the earth, like a bracelet z 22 

17. Whose celebrity since Jayasinha 23 took to flight in the 
war of his juvenile diversions as it had been the laughter of 
the custodians of the quarters, extended in all directions : 

18. Who, a repository of the entire wealth of poesy and song, 
fitly relieved the goddess Saraswati of the burthen of her vol- 
umes and her lute. 

19. Who, possessing three descriptions of combatants, 24 spread 
abroad his renown as threefold. Else, how have the three worlds 
acquired their whiteness ? 25 

The same, a sovereign exalted above all, in respect of the land, 
remaining over and beyond that bestowed by former princes, in 
the village of Hathinavara, on the north bank of the Narmada, 
in the district 26 of Pagara, gives notice to 27 all imperial officers, 
to Brahmans the eminent, 28 to the local village head-men, 29 to 
his people, and to others, 

Be it known to you as follows : By us, sojourning at the holy 
station of the blessed Amares'wara, 30 after bathing at the junc- 
tion 31 of the Reva and Kapila, at the sacred season of an eclipse 
of the moon, at its full in Bhadrapada, in the year twelve hun- 
dred and seventy-two, and after worshipping the adorable lord 
of Bhavani, 32 Onkara, 33 the consort of Lakshmi, and the master 
of the discus ; 34 considering the vanity of the world, as thus set 
forth : 

' Unstable as the storm-cloud is this delusive primacy of earth. 
Sweet for only the fleeting moment is the fruition of objects of 
sense. Like a water-drop on the tip of a spear of grass is the 
vital breath of men. Ah! virtue is the sole attendant on the 
journey of the other world :' 35 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 31 

Reflecting on all this, and electing spiritual recompense ; has, 
from motives of the greatest piety, 36 with preliminary presentation 
of water, been granted, by patent ; for enhancement of the merit 
and renown of our mother, our father, and of ourself ; for dura- 
tion coexistent with the moon, the sun, the seas, and the earth ; 
to the family priest, the learned and auspicious Grovinda S'arman, 
a Brahman ; settled at the place called Muktavasthii ; 37 student 
of the Vajasaneya subdivision of the Veda; 38 of the stock of Kas /: 
yapa, 39 and of the three branches, Kas'yapa, A'vatsara, and 
Naidhruva ; son of the learned Jaitrasinha, grandson of the 
learned Somadeva, and great grandson of Delha, maintainer of a 
perpetual fire ; 40 this land ; of which the four boundaries are de- 
fined ; 41 filled with fields containing trees j 42 together with mon- 
ey-rent, share of produce, house-tax, 43 ferry -tolls, impost on salt, 
and all other the like dues ; and with its hidden treasure and de- 

Mindful hereof, the resident head man of this village, and our 
subjects dwelling here, being observant of our behests, will deliver 
to him, Oovinda S'arman, all charges, as they fall to be paid ; 
namely, share of produce, taxes, rent in cash, and so forth. 

Moreover, knowing the requital of this meritorious act to be 
common, the coming occupants of our title, born in our line, or 
strangers, should admit and uphold this virtuous donation by us 
assigned. 44 

And it has been said : 

1. By numerous kings, Sagara and others, the earth has been 
enjoyed. Whosesoever, for custody, at any time, has been the 
soil, his, at that time, has been the fruit of even the previous 
lestowment thereof. 45 

2. He who resumes land, given by himself or given by another, 
transformed to a worm in ordure, grovels there with his ances- 
tors. 46 

3. Thus does Ramachandra again and again conjure all these 
and future protectors of the glebe : ' Universal to men is this 
bridge of good works, liberality, and to be guarded, by you, from 
age to age.' 

4. Reckoning, 47 accordingly, good fortune and human life to 
be as uncertain as a bead of water on the petal of a lotos, and 
conscious 48 that all this is appositely propounded, of a surety it 
behoves not men to cut short the repute of others. 

Done in the year 1272, on the fifteenth of the light fortnight 
of Bhadrapada, on Wednesday. 49 

This was executed by Madana, the king's spiritual adviser, 
with the approbation of Rajasalakhana, 50 chief minister of peace 
and war. 51 

This is the autograph of the great king, the auspicious Arju- 
navarma Deva. 

Engraved by Bapyadeva, clerk. 

32 /'. K Hall, 



On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 33 


\^o oft 


'fhis same sovereign, exalted over all, in respect of Ubhuvo- 
saha, 53 in the village of Uttarayano, appertaining to Savairisole, 5 * 
advertises all royal officials, Brahmans the eminent, the resident 
village head-man, his people generally, and others. 

Be it known to you as follows: After ablution at the holy 
station of Somavati, on Monday, the fifteenth day of the moon's 
wane in A'shadha, the auspicious Arjunavarma Deva did grant, 
with prior presentation of water, to the excellent family priest, the 
learned Govinda, a ground-plot for a temple 55 to Dandadhipati, 56 
extending as far as the boundary of the edifices 57 on the main 
street, in the city of Mahakala. 58 

Likewise; by us } sojourning at the fortunate Bhrigukachchha, 59 
after bathing at the sacred season of a solar eclipse, at the change 
of the moon, in the dark fortnight of Vais'akha, in the year 
twelve hundred and seventy ; and after worshipping the divine 
consort of Bhavani; considering the vanity of the world, etc. : 
* * * reflecting on all this, and electing spiritual reward ; 
has, from motives of the greatest piety, with initiatory gift of water, 

U F. E. Ua.ll, 

been granted, by patent ; to augment the merit and good name 
of our mother, our father, and ourself ; for duration coexistent 
with the moon, the sun, the seas, and the earth ; to the domestic 
chaplain, the learned Govinda S'arman, Brahman ; settled at the 
place called Muktavasthu ; reader of the Vajasaneya Vaidika 
subdivision ; of the stock of Kas'yapa, and of the three branches, 
Kas'yapa, A'vatsara, and Naidhruva ; son of the learned Jaitra- 
sinha, grandson of the learned 60 Somadeva, and great grandson 
of Delha, who maintained a perpetual fire; even the entire vil- 
lage aforesaid' of which the four boundaries are defined; filled 
with fields containing trees ; together with money-rent arid share 
of produce, with house-tax, including all dues, and with its hid- 
den treasure and deposits. 

Mindful hereof, the local head-man of this village, and our sub- 
jects here abiding, observant of our injunction, will disburse to 
him, Govinda S'arman, all charges, as they fall to be paid; to-wit, 
share of produce, 61 taxes, rent in money, and the rest, the per- 
quisites of the gods and of Brahmans excepted. 


Done in the year 1270, on Monday, the fifteenth day of the 
dark semi-lunation of Vais'akha. 

This was executed by Madana, the king's spiritual guide, with 
the acquiescence of the learned and fortunate Bilhana, chief min- 
ister of peace and war. 

This is the sign manual of the great king, the auspicious Ar- 
junavarrna Deva. 

Incised by Bapyadeva, clerk. 


1. In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1836, pp. 377 
etc., is a land-grant of Arjunavarman, edited and translated by the late 
Mr. L.Wilkinson. In a subsequent volume, that for 1838, pp. 736 etc., 
this gentleman writes, pointing to that instrument : " I was about to 
add translations also of the other two inscriptions : but, finding that 
they both correspond, word for word, with that formerly sent to you, in 
all respects but the dates which are later, the one only by three, and 
the other only by five years, than that of the former inscription and 
that they both record grants by the same Raja Arjuna, translations of 
them would be but an idle repetition." But the correspondence is not 
so close as is thus asserted. The two inscriptions referred to are those 
now published. 

2. I now redeem the promise which I once made, to demonstrate 
that a mistake has been committed in throwing back Udayaditya to 
A.D. 618. Two facsimile copies of the Udaypur inscription, which I 
was at much pains in getting executed, have been of material aid to me 
towards arriving at a determination on this point. 

On the Paramdra Riders of Mdlava. 35 

The person for whom that wretched scrawl was indited calls himself 
a, descendant of Udayaditya of Malava : but it is clear that, whether so 
or not, he knew nothing of Udayaditya's family. The word ^cil^ 
rightly, yjjcffy in the monument adverted to, is not the name of a 
king. Gondala is the first regal personage whom it notices. His son 
seems to be Gyata ; for which crnrr has been printed ; the vernacular 
corruption, perhaps, of fTTrTT, nominative of TTTrT. yf^ycrWy^T, if such 
be the true reading, is an epithet of the doubtful Gyata, and, by no pos- 
sibility, an appellation. Udayaditya is represented as son of the last ; 
and he is distinctly stated to have been ruling in Samvat 1116, or S'aka 
981, i. e., A. D. 1059. For four hundred and forty-six years subse- 
quently, it is alleged, the Yavanas had been in the ascendant : and this 
term brings us to Samvat 1562, S'aka. 1447 which should be 1427 
or the year 4607 not 4669, as printed of the Kali-yuga, \. e., A. D. 
1506 ; at which time the person at whose instance the inscription was 
written appears to have assumed some sort of authority. Six years later, 
in S'rimukha an item wanting to Capt. Burt's copy or A. D. 1513, 
he engaged in a pious transaction in honor of S'iva. His name was 
Sagaravarman metamorphosed, as printed, into ifUiiynr commonly 
styled Chanddeva, or Chandra Deva. Nor is S'alivahana given as son 
of Udayaditya. 

More might be said on the present topic : but it is enough, if I have 
shown that we have here to do with a thing of no importance, abstrac- 
ted from its liability to beget error. See the Journal of the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Bengal for 1840, pp. 545 etc. 

Professor Lassen, I am told, has accepted the inscription thus dispos- 
ed of, as sufficient voucher for antedating Udayaditya some four hun- 
dred and fifty years. It is scarcely credible. 

Udayaditya was, very likely, in power in A. D. 1059, however reluc- 
tantly we receive the word of such as Sagaravarman, or his historicaster. 

There is an inscription, still undeciphered, lying at Bhopal, in which 
occurs the name of Udayaditya. Its date is Samvat 1241, if I may rely 
on a blundering transcript of it. In another inscription, in the Bija- 
mandira, a temple at the same place with the record just spoken of, an 
Udayaditya is mentioned, in a Sanskrit couplet, as having been king 
over Bhupala in the S'aka year 1108, or A. D. 1186. The words are 
these : 

WPT oiMMuiyoi: STFf ll 

3. Mr. Wilkinson quietly assumes Jayavarman and Ajayavarman to 
be identical; though, in the inscriptions, each is said to have had a dif- 
ferent successor : the former, Haris'chandra ; and the latter, Vindhyavar- 
man. To reconcile the discrepancy resulting from this confusion, he 
resorts to the theory that Haris'chandra " was only a prince of the royal 
family, and, as such, became possessed of an appanage, and not of the 
whole kingdom." This view, he thinks, is countenanced by the title of 
T^lchm^ being given to Haris'chandra. The same term, however, but 
dropped in the English version, is applied to his father, Lakshmivarman ; 

36 F, E, Hall, 

who, it should seem, if not himself a king, was the eldest son of one. 
Mr. Wilkinson was unaware of this fact ; not having seen, apparently, 
the relative inscriptions translated by Colebrooke. 

Speaking of Yas'ovarman and Lakshmivarman, Colebrooke says, as 
touching the latter ; " He did not become his successor : for Jayavar- 
man is, in another inscription, named immediately after Yas'ovarman ; 
and was reigning sovereign." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303. But Colebrooke 
was unacquainted with the after-history of the family to which they 

As Lakshmivarman sat on the throne with his sire, it is reasonable to 
suppose that he was the first-born. His brother, Jayavarman, also speaks 
,of himself as if a sovereign ruler. Lakshmivarman may have died while 
Haris'chandra was still a child, and Jayavarman have acted as regent on 
behalf of his nephew, to whom the government eventually devolved 
from him ; if they did not administer it conjointly. Yet it is noticea- 
ble that Jayavarman granted away land, at one period, precisely as if h e 
were the sole and substantive head of the state. Possibly the extreme 
youth of his ward prevented his being named at that time. 

Lakshmivarman being mentioned, by his son, under the title of 
^IcM-ll^, and not as king, it may be that he deceased during the life- 
time of Yas'ovarman. Haris'chandra designates himself in a similar 
manner, where he would certainly have called himself, without qualifica- 
tion, sovereign, had he laid claim to undivided power. His complete 
style, in fact, is that which his father used as prince regnant. Policy, 
.or some other motive, may have dissuaded him from the style of full 
royalty, his hereditary right. It may, therefore, be conjectured that 
Jayavarman was still living in A.D. 11 79. 

The words in which Haris'chandra takes notice of his own accession 
.are worthy of remark. Premising his ancestors, while he passes over 
his father, he mentions his uncle, and adds, of himself: frrl^ld' tT^WSmT: 
In other words, he acknowledges that he had 

obtained" his supreme r/ink by the favor of this, the very last, ruler.' 
Yet, notwithstanding this assertion, it will be observed that he does not 
unequivocally pretend to kingship. The delicacy of the distinction is 
truly Hindu. 

If the phrase eri^MmTrT be designed to indicate the succession of a 
son to like dignity with his father's, a strain is put on it as regards its 
application to Jayavarman, provided he was not a usurper. Haris'chan- 
dra, in the body of his patent, does not say whose son he himself was : 
and, if he had done so, perhaps he could not have employed this for- 
mula with : any jnore propriety ; as I conceive that its strict tenor, in its 
most usual acceptation, is to mark connection between monarchs succes- 
sively in actual possession. 

Ajayavarman, being son of Yas'ovarman, must have been brother 
presumably, younger brother of Lakshmivarman and Jayavarman. 
His son, or grandson, came to the chief power ; bat how, remains to be 
discovered. Of offspring of Haris'chandra and Jayavarman we hear 

Devadhara, entitled raja-putra, or ' king"s son, 1 is found as a subscri- 
bing witness to a donative instrument of Yas'ovarinan. This is all that 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava, 37 

can be said of him at present. It may be that he was simply a Rajput, 
and not of the issue of Yas'ovannan. 

These speculations are founded, in part, on the presumption that the 
sons of Yas'ovarman were not independent masters of as many distinct 

See the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1836, pp. 377 
etc. ; and for 1838, pp. 736 etc. : also Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, 
ii. 297 etc. 

Between Vindhyavarman and Subhatavarman a King "Amushya- 
yana" is interposed by Mr. Wilkinson, who mistakes an epithet for a 
proper name. This and several other misinterpretations are copied, 
without correction, by Mr. A. K. Forbes, in his Rds-mala, i. 114, 208. 

I am perplexed what to make of " Wullal, the King of Oujein," who 
is said to have been conquered by Kumarapala of Gujerat. Kumara- 
pala's time was between A. D. 1142 and 1173. Can it be that Ballala 
as I should spell the word was another name of Jayavarman ? See 
the ftas-mala, i. 184-187. 

That Naravarman ruled as early as A. D. 1107, AVC have the evidence 
of an inscription on marble, seen by Col. Tod. Transactions of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, i. 223, 226. 

4. ^noraJTM^y^ldiyiHj " from his abode at the auspicious Vardha- 
manapura :" an improbable idiom. Miscell. Essays, ii. 307, 309. Cole- 
brooke's facsimile of his original leads me to believe that the right 
reading is ^TicfyrrRq-f ^1^4 Id IOT <S3T : ' here, resident at the auspicious 
Vardhamanapura.' The ? is unmistakable ; and, as the ardhakdra was 
not to be expected, there wants nothing, to bring out my wording, but 
the stroke which converts d into o. 

5. This is, probably, either the original, or the Sanskritized form, of 
the present Mandu. We have the same word, I presume, in Kath- 
rnandu, usually derived from Kashthamandira. Whether mnndapa ever 
means ' city,' I am unable to say. If it does, like pattana and nagara, 
its synonymes, it has come to be an appellation. Compare nohs in the 
vulgar Romaic 's ity n&i), Stambol, or Constantinople. 

6. Mr. Wilkinson errs in understanding that Haris'chandra issues a 
patent " from his capital of Nilagiri." The document recites that Nila- 
giri was the district mandala in which the land alienated was situate. 

O * 

7. According to Hindu conception, the purpose of life is fourfold : 
virtue, wealth, gratification of the senses, and final blessedness. I know 
of no warrant for considering the third, or qTT*T, to imply " love of God," 
as Colebrooke explains it on one occasion. Digest of Hindu Law etc. 
(8vo. edition), ii. 382. 

There is something peculiar in the salutations of nearly all the edicts, 
hitherto discovered, of the later rulers of Malava. In one of the grants 
published by Colebrooke, we find 5?ferf -si-'ZF^yJU, " auspicious victory 
and elevation." Another of them has ?TllT?ft -sl<y*J, ' auspiciousness, 
victory, and elevation.' Colebrooke seems silently to have departed, 
here, from his facsimile. See his Miscell. Essays, ii. 307, 308. 

38 F. E. Hall, 

Mr. Wilkinson changes HfdRl^sjfaiTTe^ to yfHfsj^HiJT. Imagin- 
ing the couplet to be pregnant with puns, he translates it in three differ- 
ent ways. The true sense which would come in place of that which he 
ranks as principal is, however, defeated by reading ufHRj^HiJI ; however 
we might then find something, in the verses, about eclipses of the moot) ; 
the writer of them being assumed to hold the rational opinions of Bhas- 
kara A'charya concerning the cause of those phenomena. But it is 
impossible, on either lection, to extort from the passage anything appli- 
cable to the serpent S'esha. 

The moon but not here is sometimes called f^d'V. or fed^ id, 
' chief of the twice-born.' Its primary emanation from the eye of Atri 
counts as birth the first ; and its extraction from the sea of inilk, into 
which it was cast, is its second birth. 

The nineteen stanzas which commence my original are in every wise 
identical with as many at the beginning of the inscription translated 
by Mr. Wilkinson in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 
1836, pp. 377 etc. I write with a copy before me, in manuscript, taken 
from his facsimile. 

9. Such is a literal rendering of the scarcely less awkward original. 

Warriors who fall in battle are supposed, by the Hindus, to reach 
Paradise through the sun. 

Mr. Wilkinson, by two bold strokes, alters the Sanskrit entirely : and, 
after all, he entirely misapprehends the drift of his alteration. After 
correcting an obvious error of the press, wcrar for ^rumi, his reading 
will run thus : 


His English of this is in these words : " May that Paras'urama, who 
gave to the Brahmans the whole earth, after it had become red as the 
setting sun, being drenched in the blood of the race of Kshatriyas pros- 
trated, in terrible conflicts, ever be praised." I should be disposed to 
substitute as follows : ' May he, Paras'urama, be exalted ; of whom, 
munificent, the earth as measurable by the sun's disk throughout the 
turns of the day worn by Kshatras slain in strife, assumed a coppery tint.' 

10. Mr. Wilkinson turns the plurals urn": and qr^T: of the original 
into duals, yrTT and trnfir. The latter are more nicely exact, in the 
article of grammar ; but the former are held to be more respectful. 

11. Kansajit, ' the conqueror of Kansa,' is Krishna. As none, how- 
ever, but the initiated, will be likely to look into such a paper as the 
present, I may dispense with indications of this sort. Hence many of 
the historical allusions are also left unexplained. 

12. With the latter line of this stanza Mr. Wilkinson takes some- 
thing of a liberty, in transforming it to : 

Bhojadeva is thus made to have ' subjugated the face of the earth to 
its borders.' The old rendering of the above is : " He traversed the 
earth, in victory, even to its ocean limits." 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 89 

13. The meaning is, that, since the influence of Bhoja reached to 
the ends of terrestrial space, all opposition vailed before him. 
There is a species of lotos which shuts at night-fall. 
In this couplet the earth is supposed to terminate in rugged declivities. 
Mr. Wilkinson alters tfyuiyfSflKftrf to 

14. The second half of this couplet palters with several words, to 
this effect: 'how many towering mountains, impregnable from their 
escarpments, were not eradicated I' 

15. Here, again, Mr. Wilkinson arbitrarily innovates, in putting 
fil^T- for f^T-, ' broken' for ' cleft.' 

The 'limit of princes' denotes their ne plus ultra. 

16. My authority for representing q^ by ' share' is an inscription 
published by me in another volume of this Journal (vi. 542 etc.). 

17. In the original, JT?T7". And so the word seems to be written 
quite as often as rprr. Still the latter alone is reputed correct. 

1. The Sanskrit is here peculiar ; the idiom employed being of very 
questionable purity. 

Id. This is the term which, as mentioned above, Mr. Wilkinson pro- 
motes to the name of a king. It is the adjective of ygwjiym, ' son of 
somebody,' an hidalgo, a eupatrid. 

2O. Or Analavata ; vulgarly, Anhilwara. Without much demur, 
we should so understand the word ; allowance being made for a fraudu- 
lent vaunt. But it would be just as permissible to render ' in the cities.' 
The ambiguity of the Sanskrit looks as if intentional. 

According to Mr. Forbes, Subhatavarman contemplated an incursion 
into Gujerat, in the time of Bhima II, but did not carry his design into 
execution. His son, it is said, was more successful. Ras-mala, i. 208. 

Mr. Wilkinson, at the cost of sense and grammar, puts 


21. This implies a death of happy hopes; absorption into deity, and 
hence identification with him. 

22. The frivolous equivoques of the original appear sufficiently in 
the English, without the necessity of comment. 

23. There is a difficulty here : but, with the aid of Mr. Forbes, it 
may, perhaps, be solved. 

Jayasinha of Gujerat taking for granted that he is intended 
reigned in A.D. 1093-1142 or 1144 ; whereas A.D. 1210 and 1215 are 
among the ascertained regnal years of Arjunavarman. But Bhima II, 
whose date is A.D. 1178-1214, is called, in one inscription, "a second 
Siddharaja ;" Siddharaja having been the title of one of Jayasinha's 
ancestors. May not Bhima have been popularly called "a second Jaya- 
sinha" also ? If so, there was a taunting appositeness in Arjuna's choos- 
ing to give him this designation, dropping the qualification of " second ;" 
since the real Jayasinha aggressed on Malava, took Dhar& by storm, 

40 F. /:. UaV, 

defeated Arjuna's predecessor, Yas'ovarman, and carried him captive to 
Analavata. Rds-mdld, i. 66, 113, 114, 208. 

In the inscription which Mr. Forbes speaks of at p. 66, Jayasinha 
appears as conqueror of " Wurwurk, the lord of Oojein ;" meaning 
Yas'ovarman. Does " Wurwurk," (partly owing to the printer), stand 
for Yarmarka, 'the sun of Kshatriyas?' What Mr. Forbes writes at 
p. 116 has not passed unnoticed. 

Col. Tod says that Siddharaja his Siddharaya took Naravarman 
prisoner, after seizing his capital. He adds that Siddharaja " ruled 
from Samvat 1150 to Samvat 1201." Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, i. 222. Greatly preferring to trust Mr. Forbes, I believe that 
Col. Tod has mixed up Naravarman with Yas'ovarman. 

24. That is to say, elephantry, cavalry, and infantry. In ancient 
times, chariots were added as a fourth arm. They must have been dis- 
used long before the thirteenth century. 

Mr. Wilkinson changes JTT to FFT. 

25. Renown, in the Hindu typology, is of a white color. 

There is a play on the word yol^ror, which means both ' whiteness ' 
and ' purity,' ' fairness.' 

These stanzas, which are in the pathydvuktra measure, are, even in 
Hindu estimation, of rather indifferent fabric. A number of their allu- 
sions, as being of commonplace occurrence, have been left unannotated. 
Alike in these verses and in the rest of the inscription, the engraver of 
the plate has here and there omitted a visarga, and has substituted the 
dental sibilant for the palatal. All errors of greater moment than these 
are specially pointed out. 

26. Pratijdgaranaka^ in the original. I have remarked, in a previous 
paper (see this Journal, vi. 531, n. 3), on the word pattnld, which I 
take to intend a canton or commune. That this term and pratijdgara- 
naka are synonymes, I am indisposed to believe without further proof; 
especially since the latter is used as if it were the subdivision of a king- 
dom, next interior to the mandala or province. See the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1838, p. 737; and for 1836, p. 379. 

Sir H. M. Elliot, discussing the antiquity of the word pnrgana^ as a 
geographical technicality, says that it is found so employed " even on an 
inscription dated A. D. 1210, discovered at Piplianugur in Bhopal ;" and 
he adds a reference to the second of the land-grants just indicated. Sup- 
plemental Glossary, p. 1 86. Had Sir Henry taken the trouble to turn 
back a leaf, he would have seen that Mr. Wilkinson's " pargana" was 
only meant as a substitute for the Sanskrit pratijdgaranaka. 

27. I here take prati to be a preposition ; though, as such, it is su- 
perfluous in its place in the sentence. It may be a distributive prefix ; 
and, in that case, must not stand independent. 

2. Colebrooke, in haste, twice renders brdhmanotlaran by " Brah- 
manas and others." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303, 309. 

29. Pattakila, which, Colebrooke says, " is probably the Pattdil of 
the moderns." Miscell. Essays, ii. 303. Professor Wilson could scarcely 

On the Paramdra Riders of Mdlava, 41 

have remembered this observation, when he set down pdtil as the orig- 
inal form of the word, and wrote of it as follows: "the term is princi- 
pally current in the countries inhabited by, or subject to, the Marathas, 
and appears to be an essential Marathi word, being used as a respectful 
title in addressing one of that nation, or a Sudra in general : it may be 
derived from Pat, a water-course, the supply of water being fitly under 
the care of the chief person of the village; or from Pat, a register or 
roll (of the inhabitants, etc.) of the village." Glossary of Indian Terms, 
pp. 407, 408. 

It is at least plausible to suppose that pattakila is a depravation, by 
metathesis, of pattalika. It may, then, be allied to pattald, 'canton;' 
which, likely enough, besides being the same with patala, was also writ- 
ten pattald : as we have both pattana and pattana for ' city.' 

If this be tenable, the jurisdiction of the paUakila may have been 
wider formerly than it is at present ; though a functionary of this sort 
sometimes has, even in our day, three or four villages under him. 
Accordingly, by the phrase 'patt.akila of such and such village' would 
be understood an officer holding certain authority over the shire of 
country in which it was comprehended. 

Otherwise, if we connect pattakila with patala, ' the filing of suits,' 
it may have denoted the magistrate presiding over a court of primary 

There is still much to determine as to what is imported by patta and 
several of its real or apparent conjugates, when employed relatively to' 
matters judicial. 

30. This place has not been identified, any more than several others 
specified in this inscription and in that which follows. The phallus of 
Amares'wara lies to the west of Mount Paryanka, according to the 26th 
chapter of the Revd-mdhdtmya. Mount Paryanka is son of Vindhya, 
in mythology. 

31. This junction is east of the Vaidurya mountain, in Dharmaranya, 
at Siddhimanwantara. It lies to the north of the Reva, or Narmada. 
The Kapila takes its rise in the highlands of Khandesh, and disem- 
bogues opposite the temple of Onkara-mandhata, a little to the east of 
the u Churar." It arose from the water used at a sacrifice performed 
by King Vasudana. Great is the merit of dying at the confluence of 
the Reva and Kapila. Again : 

That is to say, so efficacious is the holiness of the Narmada, at all points 
throughout its length, that the very trees sprinkled by its spray are pro- 
nounced to be secure of future beatitude. Revd-mdhdtmya, chapters 
1-15, et alibi. 

32. This is S'iva. 

33. In the original, the anuswdra is wanting over the last syllable of 
this word. Onkara, or ' the syllable Om,' is, among the S'aivas, the 
sensible type of S'iva ; among the Yaishnavas, of Vasudeva or Vishnu. 

VOL. VII. 6 

42 /-; K. 

34. I suspect that the engraver had before him, in his written exem- 
plar, -cjihmfrjT. He has cut r^^ifiM, which, though it cannot be 
called altogether inadmissible, is yet anomalous. 

35. These verses I have translated in other inscriptions. Their me- 
tre is the Vasantatilakd. 

36. Colebrooke mistakes this expression, q^JT Hct-cm, for qTTTT 
"to be fully possessed." Miscell. Essays, ii. 308, 310. 

37. This name and several others to follow are misprinted in the first 
inscription published by Mr. Wilkinson. 

38. The white Yajur-veda. 

39. There are three such, named from Naidhruva, Raibha, and S'an- 
dila. The first is here denoted. 

40. A'vasathika, See Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 305, foot-note 24. 

41. Chatuh-kankata-vh'uddha. This expression is found, among 
other places, in one of the inscriptions published and translated by Cole- 
brooke. But he forgets to translate it. Miscell. Essays, ii. 301, 305. 
The more common phrase is chatur-aghata-vis'uddha. Kankata, in the 
sense of ' boundary,' is not in any dictionary that I have been able to 

42. Sa-vriksha-malakula. Colebrooke resolves this combination 
into ma/a, 'field,' and kula, 'abode.' He adds that "the passage may 
admit a different interpretation." The hint proposed by Col. Tod is 
little to the purpose. Miscell. Essays, ii. 305, 306. 

In the note here cited, Colebrooke gives the Sanskrit word in question 
for ' field ' correctly. But he considers kula to be annexed to it ; thus 
lengthening it to mala ; for which there is no warrant. The last mem- 
ber of the compound is akula, 'filled.' For this acceptation of the 
verb kula with the prefix d, as it is omitted in Professor Westergaard's 
Radices Sanscrit*, see my edition of the Vdsavadattd, p. 249, first line, 
in the Bibliotheca Indica of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; and the 
Daa'a-rupaKa, iii. 49. 

43. "Superior taxes." Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, ii. 312. 
Both renderings are tentative. 

Mr. Wilkinson turns ^qfch into 

44. Colebrooke calls a passage, almost word for word like this, a 
" stanza." Miscell. Essays, ii. 306 ; where he refers to another reading 
of it, at p. 318 ibid. Neither of them can be reduced to any prosodial 

The formula in the text has a number of shapes in prose : and it is 
not unusual to find something of the same kind in metre. One version 
runs thus : 


% <~^ 

I IJfoT 

% J 3=T 


On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 43 

4 To all future kings on earth, sprung from my race, or descendants 
of other monarchs, with hearts free from wickedness, I clasp my hands 
to my head, praying that they will uphold this my virtuous deed.' 

I quote the ensuing verses from Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, ii. 311 : 

^cn \n i 

" This donation ought to be approved by those who exemplify the he- 
reditary liberality of our race, and by others. The flash of lightning 
from Lakshmi swoln with the raindrop, is gift ; and the fruit is preserva- 
tion of another's fame." 

This import, by the bye, cannot even be extorted from the Sanskrit. 
Colebrooke annotates : " I have here hazarded a conjectural emenda- 
tion ; being unable to make sense of the text, as it stands. Perhaps 
the transcriber had erroneously written tunduld for tundild ; and the 
engraver, by mistake, transformed it into the unmeaning vandala, which 
the text exhibits. Lakshmi is here characterized as a thunder-cloud 
pregnant with fertilizing rain." 

But the facsimile has, with tolerable distinctness: ~c<-cj<riiyi. I there- 
fore construe as follows : ' This donation a gift of fortune, fugitive as 
is the lightning's flash, or as a bubble and its fruit, and the preserva- 
tion of another's fame, should be respected by those who exemplify the 
munificent practice of our family, and by others.' 

45. These four stanzas have often before been translated, and by my- 
self among others. The full intent of the first couplet is something 
more than I formerly apprehended. 

46. A common addition to the above is in these words : 

f rTrft JTToJT 

' Then he is born in the insect tribe, and subsequently among out- 

Similar denunciations are forthcoming in great variety. A selection 
of them is here presented : 

' Resumers of land-gifts are produced anew, in another birth, as black 
serpents, lying in arid hollows of trees, in the waterless wilds of the 


' Land appropriated inequitably, or inequitably caused to be appro- 
priated, burns, to the seventh generation, the usurper and his agent.' 

44 F. E. Hall, 

_ ____i ."*...- '-- 

.*ffi WIUM ^^jy rtiiiiMi vin ^ l<j i 

'Not by laying out .thousands .of gardens, nor even by excavating 
jhundreds of reservoirs, nor by the donation of ten millions of cows, is 
happiness assured to the confiscator of land.' 

Menace and the converse are, in some cases, propounded together : 


'By withholding after promise, or by usurping what has been bestowed, 
all the benefactions conferred since one's birth become ineffectual. 

' He, on the other hand, that grants away land will abide in the sphere 
,of Brahma myriads of millions of cycles, or thousands of millions.' 

But it is the sacerdotal class in especial which the priests would en- 
sure from dispossession : 

^T fsfGT 

' Poison, it is said, is not properly poison ; but a Brahman's property, 
wrongfully occupied, is justly so denominated : for ordinary p.oison de- 
.stroys but onej whereas the property of a Brahman, illegally appropri- 
ated, ruins one's children and grandchildren, as well as one's self? 

' Trifling, in substance, as grass, is all the happiness .of life, in this 
world of animation, transitory as the play of the clouds. Sensible of 
this, let that evil-minded person who longs to fall into the whirlpools of 
hell's profound abysses deprive Brahmans of their patents.' 

The superior virtue .of maintaining ancient assignments is thus insis- 
ted on : 

' A gift outright involves no trouble ; but long guardianship is bnr- 
thensome. Hence the sages have declared that protection, as earning 
merit, surpasses alienation.' 

Finally, the praise and the meed of liberality in general are quaintly 
.delivered in these three stanzas : 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 45 

JUST: i 

vj ^ ^ vs 

rTT VTcTa^^T ^j?f ST. dn 1*1-1 JTT =3" IT^T =3" <i.<JlrHl 


' Gold is the chief offspring of fire ; the earth appertains to Vishnu ; 
and milch cattle are progeny of the' sun. He, therefore, who gives away 
gold, kine, and land, bestows what will ensure him the benefit of the 
three worlds. 

' For years as many as the roots of the stalks of all crops, and as the 
hairs of all cattle, will that man be honored in the solar sphere. 

'His parents clap their hands, and his remoter progenitors augment 
in vigor, saying: "A giver of land has appeared in our family, and 
will work its redemption." ' 

47. A portion of the stanza which here begins has been rendered by 
the Rev. Dr. Stevenson, and in a way which well exemplifies the sciol- 
ism of a certain section of Sanskrit scholars of the old school. His 
version is as follows : " Thus [departed he] who was nothing less than 
the friend of all (Vishnu), contemplating the goddess of eloquence and 
prosperity, as she resembled a drop of pure water resting on the leaf of 
the lotus ; and at the same time guarding the life of man." Journal of 
the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, for April, 1842 ; No. 
iv, p. 154. Dr. Stevenson's original ended with ^ch^fir-, to which he 
must have mentally subjoined 5T, in order to make out his " friend," 

4. These verses likewise conclude one of the inscriptions published 
by Colebrooke. Where they have *3 ^5TT ne finds a difficulty in his 
original, on which he remarks : "^TVT, in the text, is an evident mis- 
take ; it should undoubtedly be s^rVT." Miscellaneous Essays, ii. 313, 
foot-note. This positiveness is a little unfortunate ; as sr^JT sins against 
the metre, the Pushpitagra. 

The inscription just now referred to is one of three, published in the 
original, with English versions, by Colebrooke, in his Miscell. Essays, 
ii. 297-314. Together with transcripts of these records, in the ordinary 
Devanagari, Colebrooke has given facsimile impressions of them. An 
examination of the latter has discovered that the learned decipherer has 
scarcely made them out with unfailing accuracy. The following correc- 
tions, supplementary to those which I have already noted, are confined 
to the more important errors, dependent on a wrong apprehension of 
characters. Hence I pass by the misrendering of rT^oPrf etc., at pp. 
302 and 309. 

P. 300, 1. 11. For eq^fHtiMch-, "inhabiting," read *H*Kdfomf5ffi-, 
See lower down the inscription, at p. 301, 1. 19. The village head-men 
and others, 'throughout the entire realm,' are addressed. Colebrooke's 

4G F. E. Hall, 

reading gives no sense. The case of the word which precedes the ex- 
pression is not the genitive, but the locative of relation. 

P. 300, 1. 19. For MtrithUI- substitute unlWj.1-. I remark this inad- 
vertence, slight as it is, because Mr. Wilkinson, misled by the dental 
sibilant, puts ^far^U!-. 

P. 301, 1. 10. In lieu of -fefe^- the facsimile has -fi^R;-. Cole- 
brooke says, in a note : " Dwivid is one who studies two vedas : as 
Trivid, one who studies three." It is not so : and, moreover, the word 
in the text does not end in a consonant. Had it so ended, its final d 
would have become t. Colebrooke was thinking of dwivedin and trive- 
din. Dwiveda is an unusual equivalent of the first. 

At p. 308, 1. 13-15, is a couplet, printed thus : 

" Having gained prosperity, which is the receptacle of the skips and 
bounds of a revolving world, whoever give not donations, repentance is 
their chief reward." 

To this interpretation a note is appended : " Valgagra-dhara-dh&rd : 
an allusion is probably intended to Dhard, the seat of government of 
this dynasty. Volga signifies a leap ; and dhura, a horse's pace." 

In order to bring out a very different result, we have only to restore 
the right reading, by putting =^ for cT^JT, ' a wheel,' not " a leap." 
The translation will then run : ' Having gained prosperity, whose abode 
is the rim at the top of the wheel of the revolving world,' etc. 

^triqi is, of course, a printer's mistake for i^rltii ; as 5^:, be- 
sides not being in the original, violates the measure ^>f the verse, and is 
no word. 

As for an?7T for =gsff, Colebrooke had said, at p. 237 : " the Ndgari 
letters sr and =9"" are " very liable to be confounded." He might have 
added 5T. On*his reading -en MJ jjx into ol) idiilL I have remarked 
elsewhere. See this Journal, vi. 532. 

4J>. The mystical letters and numeral which here follow, in the Sans- 
krit, I must leave even as I found them. They occur again in this 
paper. Colebrooke ventures no explanation of the first, which is in one 
of the inscriptions by him deciphered. Miscell. Essays, ii. 311. ^ might 
stand for 7TcFr ' ambassador,' ' deputy ;' but that does not help us : and 
there is a cyclical year entitled S'rimukha, which might be shortly rep- 
resented by 5Tfrr ; but neither does this hint an admissible explanation, 
since the same abbreviation is found in both the inscriptions, though 
dating from different years. 

50. Depraved from Rajasalakshana. 

51. Expressed by an abbreviation of q^iMlPyfdijf^*'. And so at 
the end of the next inscription as well. 

On the Paramdra Rulers of Mdlava. 47 

52. The portions of this inscription which are identically common to 
it with the last are not repeated. 

53. This word has no case-ending in the original. The place was, 
probably, a ward, or a precinct. 

54. Perhaps this means 'the sixteen villages of Savairi.' sftFr closely 
approximates to the vernacular corruption of bTUm. For an aggregation 
of villages similar to that here surmised, see Colebrooke's Miscell. 
Essays, ii. 309. 

55. I thus translate oTW&il^, with submission to the amendment of 

56. ' The primate of the mace ;' S'iva. 

57. So signify 3ET7ny and fliill^ ; and so, on supposition, does qTJTT^. 

58. This is the city of Ujjayini. Its temple of Mahakala has long 
been famous. Mention is made of it in the 103d chapter of the Reva- 

59. This place is considered to be one with Bhera Ghat, on the 
Nerbudda, a few miles from Jubulpoor. 

60. On the plate, qiTUrl is abridged of its final letter. At the end 
of the inscription, the place of the same letter, in this word, is supplied 
by a vertical stroke. 

61. Without hesitation, T have exchanged irtTTiJtTT for 
Saugor, Central India, October, 1858. 





Presented to the Society October 36, 1859. 

SOON after the news reached this country that the sarcophagus 
of Ashmunezer, King of Sidon, had been brought to Paris and 
deposited in the Louvre through the munificence of a distin- 
guished cultivator and patron of Oriental learning, a request was 
made to Prof. Henry, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, by some members of this Society, to procure, if possible, 
for the use of American scholars, a rubbing of the inscription 
on the lid, and also of that around the head of the sarcophagus. 
Prof. Henry addressed the Due de Luynes on the subject, and 
the latter promptly and generously complied, sending to the In- 
stitution a carefully made rubbing of both inscriptions, and also 
a copy of his own memoir on the subject. The copies of these 
inscriptions which you see before you are tracings carefully made 
from these rubbings; and consequently they exhibit, in their 
exact proportions, each line as made by the ancient sculptor of 
this most venerable document. Upon its great philological and 
historical interest it is unnecessary here to enlarge; it is sufficient 
to say that it consists of twenty-two perfect lines of from forty to 
fifty-five letters each, and that the whole number of its characters 
exceeds one thousand. If viewed merely as an addition to the 
pure ancient language of the Old Testament, its importance will 
be evident from the fact that it is almost exactly equivalent in 
extent to the tenth chapter of Genesis, or to the one hundred 
and fourth Psalm. 

My object in the remarks to which your attention is invited 
will be to show what is the present state of our knowledge of the 
contents of the inscription, and to whose learning and labors we 
are indebted for this knowledge. 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 


By way of introduction to these remarks, I will here give, in 
a tabular form, the names of all the writers who have published 
a reading and interpretation of the inscription, arranged chrono- 
logically, as near as may be, according to the dates of their re- 
spective publications, placing opposite the name of each writer 
the names of those of his predecessors whose interpretations he 
had an opportunity to consult. 




Previous Interpreters 


May 31, 1855. 



May 31, 1855. 

July 3, 1855. 


June 15, 1855. 

*Dietrich and ) 
Gildemeister. ) 

April 25, 1855. 

July 1855. 


Sept. 1855. 

Rodiger, Dietrich. 



Rb'diger, Dietrich, 

Hitzig, De Luynes 

(prelim, transl.). In 

his supplementary 

remarks (dated Apr. 

26, 1856) he makes 

use of the memoirs 

of De Luynes and 


De Luynes. 

Aug. 14, 1855. 

Dec. 15, 1855. 


Jan. 19, 1855. 

Salisbury, Turner, 

Rodiger, Dietrich, 



Feb. 1856. 


Salisbury, Turner, 

Rodiger, Dietrich, 

Hitzig, De Luynes, 

Ewald (?). 


April 6, 1856. 

Salisbury, Turner, 

Rodiger, Dietrich, 

Hitzig, De Luynes, 

Barges (prelimin. 



End of Aug., 1856. 

Salisbury, Turner, 

Rodiger, Dietrich, 

Hitzig, Ewald, De 

Luynes. In his sup- 

plementary remarks 

(p. 59 etc.) he makes 

use of Munk's me- 


* From the copies furnished by the American missionaries, 
f His memoir appears to have been published after that of Munk. 
p. 27. 

See Hunk, 

50 W. W. Turner, 

The first complete translation given to the world was a preli- 
minary one, the concluding portion by myself, in a paper drawn 
up by Messrs. Salisbury and Gibbs, and printed in the New Ha- 
ven Daily Palladium of May 31, 1855. This agrees in all essen- 
tials with the versions we afterwards published. 

As regards the order of arrangement of the several versions, 
it should be remarked that, although that of Prof. Kodiger was 
printed some weeks before those of Prof. Salisbury and myself, 
yet I have placed the two American versions first, as containing 
traits in common which separate them from the efforts of Euro- 
pean scholars, in consequence of our having exchanged views 
freely on the subject, with the intention of making a joint affair 
of the interpretation, before it was generously proposed by Prof. 
Salisbury that my paper should be given separately. 

There is one feature which disadvantageously distinguishes 
our productions from all the rest ; it is the erroneous value given 
almost throughout to the character 'V. We were led astray by 
Gesenius's alphabet in the Monumenta, Tab. 1, in which he has 
given it only the value of ">,* although he had correctly read the 
character as T in the third Athenian inscription (Tab. 10), being 
guided by the accompanying Greek. 

A close examination of the legends which he cites in support 
of this value shows that it is nowhere certain. This error runs 
entirely through my reading, and ought to have been avoided 
by an inspection of the alphabet of Judas in his Etude Demon- 
strative, and of pp. 33-37 of that work, where he discusses the 
forms of the letter T. 

We also labored under a difficulty which was shared in by 
Messrs. Kodiger, Dietrich, Hitzig, and Schlottmann that of hav- 
ing to work upon the copies of the inscription made in haste by 
the American missionaries ; so that those who had before them 
the carefully reduced fac-simile furnished by the liberality of the 
Dae de Luynes after the monument reached Europe, enjoyed a 
great advantage over us. 


The copies of the Inscription to which we have access for 
ascertaining its readings are the following: 

Copies of the American Missionaries. On the 3rd of April, 1855, 
the Secretary of the Albany Institute laid before a meeting of 
that body a copy of the inscription received from Dr. C. V. A. 
Van Dyck, a corresponding member of the Institute, and of this 
Society, then in Syria. This was promptly lithographed, and 

* Gesenius has given (from a Oilician coin) T. as the earliest form of Zain. Be- 
tween this and the somewhat oblique form "^, (in Cilie. H) be thinks there is a deci- 
ded difference, and so regards the latter as a Yod (p. 284), although be bad seen 
Zain in a still more oblique position in Athen. 3. 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 51 

published in Vol. iv, Part 1, of the Institute's Transactions. A 
faithful copy accompanies Prof. Kodiger's paper in the Ztschr. 
der D. M. G. The II. States Magazine of the loth of April also 
published a copy made from Dr. Van Dyck's manuscript. 

Another MS. copy was sent by Dr. H. A. De Forest, another 
member of the Syrian Mission, to Prof. Salisbury. This differs 
somewhat from the preceding (see Prof. Salisbury, p. 229), and 
generally on the side of correctness. 

A third copy in MS. was sent by Dr. W. M. Thomson, also of 
the Syrian Mission, to Chev. Bunsen in London, who communi- 
cated it to Prof. Dietrich of Marburg. This, as published by 
Prof. D., is decidedly the worst copy of the whole. The fault 
would seem to be that of the engraver or other persons who 
reduced it: since it emanated from the same source- as the rest. 
Dr. Thomson, in a letter to Prof. Salisbury, dated Oct. 5, 1855, 
says : " The copy from which all those sent to America, and 
most of those to Europe, so far as I know, were obtained, was 
taken by me." 

The copies taken by the American missionaries were evidently 
made with a great deal of care, and compare favorably with 
many in the great work of Gesenius ; yet, like all copies of un- 
intelligible inscriptions, in which the eye and hand of the copy- 
ist are depended upon, they leave much to be desired in the way 
of perfect accuracy. Hence they are now entirely superseded 
by the 

Copies from the Due de Luynes. The Due de Luynes has pub- 
lished, in his memoir on the subject of the inscription, a beauti- 
fully engraved copy of it, made doubtless from a photograph, 
and from a careful examination of the stone itself. The same 
plate accompanies the memoir of Munk in the Journal Asiatique ; 
and a lithographed fac-simile that of the Abbe" Barges. The 
copy appended to the memoir of Ewald was, as he informs us, 
prepared from a photograph received from the Due de Luynes ; 
the same, evidently (i. e. from the same negative), that was used 
by the Duke himself, it being of the same dimensions. 

In addition to and above all these materials for our study of 
this interesting monument is the rubbing, furnished by the Due 
de Luynes to the Smithsonian Institution, of the inscription on 
the breast, and also of that around the head of the sarcophagus, 
of which latter no fac-simile or engraving has yet appeared. 


An examination and comparison of the two forms of the in- 
scription, that on the breast and that around the head, show us 
that the former consists of twenty -two lines, and the latter of six 
perfect lines and the commencement of a seventh. Both are 

52 W. W. Turner, 

written continuously, without separation of words, and without 
marks of interpunction or other sign of pause, except a space of 
over an inch in line 13, which divides the great inscription into 
two nearly equal parts, which, for convenience, I shall call Parts 
I and II. The lines are not perfectly straight, being more or less 
curved, especially towards the end of Part I. Those of Part II 
are straighter. The spaces between them are irregular, and the 
letters are by no means of uniform size, those in Part II being 
generally smaller than in Part I : thus the first V of "ob;ab in 
line 1 is 2|- inches in length, while that of QrVtt at the end of 
line 18 is less than of an inch. The difference in size begins 
immediately with Part II. The letters are also placed at varia- 
ble distances apart, from half an inch to almost nothing, those 
in Part II being closer together than those in Part I. 

In the size of its characters, and their distance apart, the head 
inscription agrees with the latter part of the breast inscription. 
The letters towards the close of the 6th line are pressed very 
closely together, as if for the purpose of bringing in the whole 
of the sentence which ends Part I. The 7th line contains only 
nine whole characters, which form the beginning of Part II ; and 
it breaks off with an unfinished letter in the middle of a proper 
name (-its>2ttm). 

All these facts lead us to conclude, with the Due de Luynes, 
that the inscription was first written out with a free hand on the 
stone (without any drawing of lines or measuring of letters as 
in modern times), and that these traces were then followed by 
the artisan. As the first letters of the three first lines of the 
breast inscription (1. 1. 1-11; 2. 1-12; 3. 1-7), are cut thicker 
and rougher than the rest, it is evident that the sculptor began 
to cut three lines at once ; but, his work being unsatisfactory, he 
was either made to continue his task more neatly or was ex- 
changed for a more skillful workman. 

From the differences in execution which have been pointed, 
out between the two portions of the breast inscription, it would 
appear as if it had at first terminated with Part I, Part II being 
added subsequently. As for the inscription around the head, 
the general resemblance in the size and style of its characters to 
those of Part II of the breast inscription leads one to conclude 
that it was made after this latter ; wherefore, it is difficult to say, 
but perhaps because it was thought desirable to mark indelibly 
both parts of the sarcophagus as the property of its tenant. It 
would appear that the original intention was to copy the whole 
of the breast inscription ; but after a few letters of the second 
part had been engraved, it was concluded for some reason not to 
add it, perhaps because the ornamental line which runs round 
the outside of the sarcophagus, about midway of its height, 
would have made an ugly division of the inscription. 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 53 

It is true that a different theory has been broached as to the 
connection between the two inscriptions. The Due de Luynes 
having reported the existence of five discrepancies between them, 
four of which were errors of the head inscription, Prof. Ewald 
suggested that it was perhaps originally intended to engrave the 
entire inscription around the head of the sculptured image of the 
deceased, as if to represent it as proceeding from his mouth, but 
that the errors made in it caused it to be left unfinished, and the 
whole to be engraved over again on the breast. An examina- 
tion, however, of the rubbing of the head inscription shows that 
three of these errors viz: the omissions of a letter at the end of 
its second and fourth lines, and at the beginning of the sixth 
have in reality no existence, the letters in question being found 
in their proper places. The mistake must have been caused by 
the circumstance that the rubbing from which the Duke drew 
up his description was not carried far enough ; this is shown, 
too, by the reduced engraving of a portion of the head inscrip- 
tion, which he has given in the side view of the sarcophagus, 
where a blank appears in place of the initial letter of the sixth 
line. Of the two remaining discrepancies, one (nbtttt for robtttt, 
1. 11) is undoubtedly an error of the breast inscription, the other 
(iwao for &UTND, 1. 5) is considered to be an error of the head 

Allowing this (though not perfectly certain) to be the case, the 
errors are balanced, and no conclusion is to be drawn from them 
as to the superiority or priority of the one inscription over the 

In the breast inscription the forty-fifth character of the 6th line, 
a b, was evidently omitted by mistake and afterwards inserted. 

The fourth letter of the 7th line of the breast inscription has 
its shaft slightly curved (a defect exaggerated in Ewald's copy), 
and has consequently been read by several interpreters as 5. 
The head inscription, however, presents us with a well formed i, 
the letter which the context requires. 

In the breast inscription there is a space partly occupied by 
an. irregular depression between the thirty-first and thirty -second 
letters of the 9th line. The Due de Luynes correctly remarks 
that there probably existed here a little flaw in the surface of the 
marble, which was passed over by the engraver ; for there is no 
trace of any intermediate letter, and in the corresponding por- 
tion of the head inscription there is neither intermediate letter 
nor space. 

At the bottom of the large flaw in line 17th, the Duke has also 
observed that we have the word Jfcm, at first written erroneously 
f aaN, but with the tail of the first p partially obliterated, so as 

to convert it into a u) : thus, 

54 W. W. Turner, 

So far we are led by a comparison of the inscriptions them- 
selves, which shows us, among other facts, that ancient engrav- 
ers were not immaculate, even in the execution of a monument 
of such importance as the present : so that modern scholarship 
is not to be denied the right of exercising a sound and sober dis- 
cretion in occasionally correcting the readings they present. 

On comparing with the rubbing of the breast inscription the 
copies of it that have been published, a variety of minor dis- 
crepancies are perceived. We will notice, however, only the 
most important. 

In the printed copies the thirty- fourth letter of the 7th line is 
a ; in the rubbing it is a perfectly plain in, the letter required. 
From this it is evident that the copy published by Ewald, which 
exhibits the same error, was not made exclusively from the pho- 
tograph which he received from the Due de Luynes. 

Of the seventh letter of line 16th, at the beginning of the la- 
mentable flaw made by the stroke of a pickaxe when the sarco- 
phagus was exhumed, the copies present us only with the upper 
portion of a broken-off and almost perpendicular stroke ; where- 
as in the inscription itself there are preserved both the upper 
portion of the descending shaft and the greater part of the hook 
of a n, making the letter perfectly certain. So, too, the printed 
copies represent the twenty-third letter of line 20th as entirely 
obliterated by a minor flaw, whereas the marble itself exhibits 
clearly the upper part of the letter . 

Before concluding these remarks on the external features of 
this inscription, I will call attention to one curious peculiarity in 
the forms of the Phoenician letters, which does not seem hitherto 
to have attracted especial attention : it is that, of those letters 
which have a well defined descending shaft, some turn, in de- 
scending, towards the right, and others towards the left, so that 
the whole alphabet may be divided into three portions : 

*\ ? \ ^ ^ 1 "^ ^ ^ turned to the right ; 

i p x o n i n i N 

J-, j lj Lfj 4 / Q turned to the left ; 

n D a a V => D 

U/ O /?/ A" A ^ neutral. 

tD " T 3 a 

If it were asked in which category it would be possible to in- 
clude these last, I would answer that the might be placed in 
the first, and the T, *, and ID in the second. The characters of the 
Marseilles inscription agree precisely with ours in this respect. 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 55 

The origin and significance of this peculiarity it may be diffi- 
cult to explain. But the degree of fidelity with which it is re- 
tained will probably serve as a valuable test in determining the 
comparative age and character of inscriptions. The mere per- 
ception of the fact will evidently be of great use in identifying 
imperfectly formed or mutilated characters, as is exemplified in 
the inscription under consideration, where two rather imper- 
fectly formed at's (1. 16. 10, 15), were read by the American copy- 
ists, and most of the interpreters who followed them, as n, and 
where the ^ of the word jba in 1. 2. 5 ; 14. 31 ; 15. 33 (made 
with an upturned hook, like the ^ of the Marseilles inscription) 
is read by Schlottmann as 1 mistakes which would not have 
been made, had the characteristic inclination of these several 
letters been duly observed.* 

Although the inscription, as it has been remarked, was written 
on the marble without any attempt at perfect uniformity in the 
form and size of the letters, yet the work was done with such 
care and neatness, and the characteristic features of each letter 
were so well preserved, notwithstanding the slight variations in 
their forms, that there is no difficulty in distinguishing any of 
them, except in a few instances the n and *v The characteristic 
differences of the three letters S, 1, and "i, are well exhibited in 
the words im (1. 2. 17-19), and iav (6. 27-30), where it will be 
seen that, while the down stroke of the 5 curves strongly to the 
left, those of the n and *i are straight, and inclined in the same 
direction, but distinguished from each other by that of the "1 
being much longer than that of the 1. From measuring a num- 
ber of examples, it would appear that the normal length of the 
entire down stroke of the n is about equal to twice the outer 
length of the loop ; that is, that the portion below and clear of 
the loop is about one-half of the entire length, while in the *i 
this lower part is half as long again. These proportions, how- 
ever, have been frequently departed from, and in some instances 
so far as to be actually reversed ; so that, for instance, the 1 in 
9. 20 ; 14. 33 ; 15. 38 has the proportions of a "i, and the *i in 
16. 29 and 18. 14 is about the proper length of a *i. Here, of 
course, a satisfactory explanation of the context can alone decide 
between the two letters, and it is chiefly on this account that the 
proper reading of several passages (in lines 6, 19, 21), still re- 
mains undecided. 

* The peculiarity of the Phoenician alphabet here referred to is fully illustrated 
in a MS. volume, prepared by Mr. Turner, with his usual industry and thoroughness, 
in which different forms of the letters as presented by the inscription, to the number 
of three hundred and thirty-four in all, in exact fac-simile, are arranged together for 
comparison, under the head of the separate letters. The volume may be examined 
in the Library of the Society. COMM. OF PUBL. 

56 W. W. Turner, 

As has been remarked, the whole inscription is written with- 
out space or points to separate the words. Yet the correctness of 
our division of the words is confirmed by the observation of the 
Due de Luynes, that, out of the twenty -two lines of the inscrip- 
tion, only four viz : lines 5, 7, 9, 12 end in the middle of a 
word, while all the full lines of the head inscription end with a 
perfect word. In three instances viz: lines 4, 6, 11 the con- 
junction l is placed at the end of a line, and in one instance 
1. 21 at the beginning. Hence we may conjecture that it was 
regarded as an independent word. 


The following reading and translation of the inscription are 
the result of a selection made, to the best of my ability, and I 
trust without partiality or prejudice, from the views of all the 
writers enumerated. 

(Here insert Transcript and Translation.)* 

The principle on which credit has been assigned to the several 
elucidators of the inscription must here be explained. By re- 
ferring to the table before given, it will be observed that the 
entirely original interpreters of the inscription that is, those 
who had no previously published lucubrations to consult are 
Salisbury, Turner, Rodiger, Dietrich and Gildemeister, and De 
Luynes. In those portions of the inscription where they agree, 
the interpretation has been regarded as their common property, 
and no mark of authorship is attached ; but where they differ in 
opinion, the initials attached indicate the author or authors of 
the reading or translation adopted. Where another interpreta- 
tion is adopted as more satisfactory than that of either of the 
writers named, the initial of that author is attached to it by whom 
it was first given to the world. 

It is by no means intended to abuse your patience by going 
into a discussion of the value of every rendering that has been 

* We cannot too much regret that this important part of Mr. Turner's paper has 
been left a blank by his untimely death : his nice discernment would doubtless have 
helped us much to see where we stand as regards the interpretation of the inscrip- 
tion. The fragment which follows is, however, all that we have to indicate the con- 
clusions to which a review of the whole ground had brought him. Being but the 
beginning of a critical discussion of the difficult passages, which our lamented asso- 
ciate designed to give us at a later meeting of the Society, it was not read by him 
when the previous part of the paper was presented. That Mr. Turner had care- 
fully prepared the way for such a discussion appears from a volume in his own 
hand, found among his manuscripts, which exhibits in parallel lines, the several in- 
terpretations of each line of the inscription ; and from critical notes on each publi- 
cation on the subject which had come out either in France or Germany. But it is 
not deemed just to his memory to submit to the public eye what he evidently re- 
garded only as an apparatus for his own use. COMM. OF POBL. 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 57 

suggested. A mere comparison of all the published interpre- 
tations will show that the true meaning of more than three- 
fourths of the inscription may be regarded as perfectly clear and 
certain. My observations will therefore be confined to the more 
plausible renderings of the difficult and doubtful portions, and 
in remarking on them I shall endeavor to be as concise as the 
nature of the topic will allow. 

The repetition of the date of the king's death in numeral char- 
acters, after writing it out in full the very practice resorted to 
for increased certainty in modern times shows, as Dietrich well 
observes, that we have here, as in the Marseilles inscription, an 
illustration of the commercial experience and accurate business 
habits of the Phoenicians. 

The first really difficult passage commences with the last end 
of the second line. The interpretation adopted is that of Gilde- 
meister, who renders : ' I was snatched away before my time 
(comp. ^f\s> 4^3 Eccl. vii. 17) among those who look for (length 
of) days ; "then 'was I laid to rest (rPXH i. q. Heb. viTan::) ; with- 
out a son I was brought to silence (rtfoVN i. q. Heb. Wjlww) :' 
meaning that, while entertaining a reasonable expectation of a 
long life, he died prematurely without posterity. This interpre- 
tation, it is true, is not so simple as to carry instant conviction 
of its correctness ; yet it consists of words and meanings author' 
ized by Hebrew usage, and is grammatically constructed : taken 
altogether, it is the most satisfactory yet proposed. As for the 
word nbn, it clearly denotes, says Dietrich, " something artifi- 
cially dug or hollowed out ; and as the sarcophagi in Phoenicia 
and Syria consist of a block of stone chiselled out, and a stone 
lid, it evidently means the stone trough which can thus be 

The word "VDSp, in line 4, has been variously explained ; but the 
only interpretations which seem to require notice here are those 
which derive it from the Talmudic Sip, and render ' my curse, 
imprecatory prohibition, or adjuration,' or which regard it as the 

Syriac wiDQj.2 'I myself.' "The words roV ^>D ntt ^2p," says 
Munk, " evidently begin a new sentence, and can by no means be 
attached to what precedes, as several interpreters have thought, 
for it is perfectly evident that here, as in lines 6, 10, 11, 20, the 
word nsbatt is opposed to dntf. This being the case, we must 

give up the idea of seeing in fiap the Syriac word fcooj_o 'per- 
son,' and of translating i3p by ' my person, myself.' " The word 
fcii p figures in the Mishna among different expressions used in 
making vows or oaths, and which, according to the statement of 
the Talmudists, were borrowed from the language of the heathen 
(Babyl. Talmud, tract Nedarim, fol. 10). Hence nothing is more 

VOL. VII. 8 

58 W. W. Turner, 

natural than to render - | a:p by 'my adjuration,' the suffix show- 
ing that we have a substantive here. It was first suggested by 
Prof. Ewald that the word roV&a is not to be taken precisely in 
the sense of the Hebrew Si3ba ' kingdom,' as it had been by pre- 
ceding interpreters, but rather in that of ' magistracy,' i. e. ' mag- 
istrates.' This idea, that the word denotes a superior class of 
persons, in opposition to the common people, has been adopted 
by all the subsequent interpreters, who render variously ' royal 
persons' (Barges), ' royal race' (Munk), ' nobility,' i. e. ' nobles' 
(Levy). Munk says : ."The word robEQ designates the 'royal 
family' or all those in authority, to whom are opposed the ' com- 
mon people,' designated by the term tnfit, just as tHN is opposed 
to t^nia 'princes' (Ps. Ixxxii. 7), and dnK ^3 to TZTK T>I 33 (Ps. xlix. 
3) and'to D->ip\H (Prov. viii. 4)." 

The best explanation of the obscure passage after the words 
ftps' 1 T^tt in line 5, appears decidedly to be that of Prof. Dietrich, 
who renders : ' nor seek with us treasures, as with us there are 
no treasures.' The expression f3, i. q. Heb. 133 ' by or with us,' 
corresponds precisely to the fb ' to us' of line 18. The word D3 
he renders 'treasures,' and derives it from the Heb. r3 'to di- 
vide, apportion, allot;' whence T3iq 'lot, fortune,' and ?i5 'por- 
tion.' On this Munk observes : "'The group Q333 appears at 
first somewhat difficult, and has been variously interpreted. The 
most natural explanation, it seems to me, is that of M. Dietrich, 
adopted also by the Abbe Barges. I had fixed upon it myself r 
before becoming acquainted with the translation of these two 
scholars, and M. Derenbourg had arrived at the same solution. 
This concurrence of opinions seems to prove that there is more 
in it than a mere conjecture. Accordingly I read D3J3 f3, i. e. 
trsE 133, and render: 'let them not seek treasures by us.' The 
word CP3E (plur. of tt3X) ' the weight of a mina') might be used 
to denote large quantities of silver or gold, treasures ; just as in 
the Mishna ni3>tt (plur. of SiJ> ' copper coin') is used for money 
in general. The ancient historians have recorded many facts 
which show that under certain circumstances tombs were rifled 
in the hope of finding treasures in them." This is fully elucida- 
ted by Dietrich, who has collected many interesting proofs of 
the fact, with specimens of similar adjurations in ancient epitaphs. 
3 is i. q. Heb. ""s 'for' (so the Due de Luynes) ; "^ is a negative, 
i. q. Heb. TN used with participles, and also "'K (so Dietrich), and 
fcTU pass. part, tpiu (Dietrich), or act. SiZ) (Munk). As for the con- 
struction, comp. 3b ^y dto tfTN TNI ' and no man layeth it to 
heart' Is. Ivii. 1. 

The great difficulty in interpreting the first portion of line 6 
is how to reconcile it with the similar passage in 1. 20. If we 
read T aaicsa 33 & bai, considering 33 as the elevated base of 
the sarcophagus with Dietrich, or the body deposited within it, 

On the Phoenician Inscription of Sidon. 59 

as suggested by myself, it is necessary to suppose an ellipsis of 
the particle 'or' or 'and' before the word rbv 'cover;' and if, 
with all the later interpreters, we regard f [of 53] as a suffix, and 
render ' let them not lay upon me the cover of another resting- 
place,' then the passage in line 21, ' let them not lay upon me' or 
'burden me,' is imperfect, and requires an ellipsis which, although 
adopted by several, is so violent as to be altogether inadmissible. 
The difficulty, however, can be removed by considering 53 to be 
synonymous with nVj>, which its etymology as given by Dietrich, 
readily allows, and rendering it 'top' or ' roof.' We have, then, 
the following terms applied to the different parts of the tomb : 
'nip, the excavated sepulchre or burial vault ; 33U5&, the couch, 
or entire coffin, as in 2 Chron. xvi. 14 (Schlottmann contends 
that it is the interior space in which the body is deposited) ; 
nbrr, the hollowed part forming the trough or body of the sar- 
cophagus ; * 







Presented to the Society Oct. 27, 1859. 

THE desire to know more of early Muslim history, especially 
as determined by the character and actions of Muhammad, has 
naturally directed attention, of late years, to Muslim tradition as 
the most important source of knowledge on this subject, next to 
the Kuran ; and the working of this mine, with such critical tact 
as Weil, Sprenger, and Muir have brought to the task, has led 
to very valuable results. Meanwhile, however, the system of 
tradition developed among the Muslims themselves into a special 
science, and constituting one of the main foundations of their 
faith and jurisprudence, has been, comparatively, little dwelt 
upon. It seems, indeed, to have been deliberately slighted, in 
the praiseworthy earnestness of criticism to avoid being led by 
it to erroneous conclusions. Yet, without surrendering our 
right of independent judgment upon the veraciousness of tra- 
ditionary statements, we may certainly profit by investigating 
the system within which they have been enshrined and handed 
down to us even if it be regarded only as a manifestation of 
the genius and grade of scientific culture of the people to whom 
we are indebted for them ; and as constituting an indispensable 
basis, whether well or ill laid, of actual doctrinal belief and legal 
decision in all Muslim countries the source of multifarious laws, 
usages, and dogmas of the followers of Muhammad, supplement- 
ary to the Kuran, like the Jewish Mishna in relation to the Scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament. With this view are offered for con- 
sideration the following contributions to our knowledge of the 
science of Muslim tradition, which have been gathered from orig- 
inal sources, either only in manuscript or so little accessible as to 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 61 

be nearly equivalent to unpublished authorities we say, contri- 
butions, because we do not pretend to have exhausted the subject. 
The sources from which we have chiefly drawn are : 

1. The iSaMh of 'al-Bukhari, in MS., being the copy numbered 
28 in the Bibliotheque de M. le B n Silvestre de Sacy, Tome 3 me ; 
where, however, the notice of this manuscript erroneously 
represents it as containing only a portion of the work. The 
author died A. H. 256 ; 

2. Muslim's preface to his collection of traditions, 'al-Musnad 
'as-SaMh, lithographed at Dehli. This author died A. H. 261 ; 

3. A treatise on the principles of tradition by the Saiyid 'Ali 
'aj-Jurjani, lithographed at Dehli in 1849-50, and prefixed to 
an edition of 'at-Tarmidhi traditions, 'aj-JdmV 'as-Sahih, also 
lithographed at Dehli. 'Aj-Jurjani died A. H. 816 ; 

4. An introductory explanation of some of the technical terms 
of the science of tradition by 'Abd 'al-Hakk, prefixed to an 
edition of Mishkdt 'al-Masdbih lithographed at Dehli in 1851- 
52. The author was associated with Sprenger in editing a 
Dictionary of the Technical Terms used in the Sciences of the 
Musalmans, which forms a part of the Bibliotheca Indica : 

these we shall refer to, in our citations, by the letters B, M, J, 
and H, respectively. 

Haji Khalfah* defines the science of tradition to be the 
means of a discriminating knowledge of the sayings of the 
Prophet, together with his actions and his circumstances 
*Jij^ aJbetj ^*A& ^j^\ $j\ &j ^JAJ [*^_^_5 and divides it 
into two parts : 1. the science of the reporting of tradition 
ivoL\ll *jL j JlxJi which treats of the conditions under which 

"-O* \ 

a tradition is considered as reaching back to the Prophet, and 2. 
the science of the understanding of tradition i^sJsXs: '^^ f^ 
which treats of the meaning of a particular tradition, as ascer- 
tained by its language, by reference to the fixed principles of 
Muslim law, or by the analogy of known circumstances relating 
to the Prophet. The definitions and statements which we have 
here to present relate chiefly to the former part of the science. 

The ultimate criterion of the quality of the report of any tra- 
dition is made up of the personal character and attainments of 
its reporters. It will be proper, then, to begin by distinguish- 
ing several grades of traditionists, as we find them stated in 
the .Dictionary of the Technical Terms etc., already referred to :f 
1. the inquirer 

the inquirer, that is, the beginner, the seeker after tradition " 
* Lex., iii. 23, ed. Fluegel. f p. 27. 

62 & E. Salisbury, 

a class represented in the early times of Islam by followers of 
the Prophet ardently enthusiastic for the preservation of every 
memorial of him, who sometimes undertook long and perilous 
journeys for the sake of securing a single tradition, or of hearing 
it from the lips of a particular reporter : the class of pupils in 
tradition, of every age, who of course are not relied upon for 
any traditional statement ; 2. the traditionist 

" the traditionist, that is, the accomplished teacher, also called the 
shaikh and the imam, with the same meaning" 

but whose teachings are at second hand, for the designation of 
this special title is more fully defined as follows * 

" he is .... one who has been a writer and reader of tradition, and has 
heard it and committed it to memory, journeying to cities and towns, 
and who has summed up principles, and noted special rules, from books 
of sustained tradition, of archaeology and of history, to the number of 
nearly a thousand ; according to another definition, one who takes up 
tradition as reported, and is solicitous that it should be known ;" 

3. the magnate in learning 

*' the magnate in learning, who is one whose knowledge embraces both 
the text (<^M) and the allegation of authority (OLU*.^) of a hundred 
thousand traditions, together with the circumstances pertaining to re- 
porters, constituting the ground for their rejection or approval, and their 
history " 

differing from the traditionist only in the extent of his acquisi- 
tions in the science ; 4. the responsible teacher 


. La .-cjj xJ! J^oj Lo j^. ^y . 

" the responsible teacher, that is, one whose knowledge embraces three 
hundred thousand traditions .... according to 'aj-Jazarl . . . , the re- 
porter, the authoritative transmitter of tradition, while the traditionist is 
one who takes up tradition on its report, and is solicitous that it should 

* Diet. Techn. Terms, p. 282. 

On the /Science of Muslim Tradition. 63 

be known, and the memorist (JaslJl) is he who reports what reaches 
him, and keeps in mind whatever may be of use." 

This highest class of traditionists is made up of those whose 
names may be properly given as authorities for tradition, and 
who are alone relied upon for what is called sound tradition, as 
distinguished from that which is fair and that which is weak. 

The inquiry now arises, what are the necessary qualifications 
of the responsible teacher ? They are, in brief, integrity (xSitXxJt) 
and retentiveness (JaxcoJI). The first of these is thus defined 
by J. :* 

iL^ -* U-Ju ^I'iLc UL*wo lilb tf- 

"integrity consists in the reporter's being of full age, a Muslim, intelli- 
gent, and void of tendencies to impiety and the vagaries of opinion ;" 

and again : 

" " 


" the being of the male sex is not made a condition, nor freedom, nor 
knowledge of the jurisprudence based upon tradition, or of any thing 
foreign to the subject, nor sight, nor the being one of many ; and integ- 
rity is determined by the affirmation of two upright men, or by common 
rumor ;" 

and by H. as follows :f 

r* 1 *^ * , 

(ji2*J ,-jC- SixxJi Sj-tlj OUtj BjAA^ \3_yJG 


JtXfi ...Is b'^Lg^iJt JAc Q^ ** 

" integrity is an acquisition which impels the person possessing it to act 
with decision and manliness meaning by ' decision ' the turning away 
from the evil deeds of idolatry, impiety, and heresy (whether even a 
little fault must be avoided, is undetermined : it is preferable to regard 
this as not required, because exceeding the bounds of possibility ; except 
that persistence in a small fault is inadmissible, because it constitutes a 

* page 5. f fol. 2, rect. 

64 E. E, Salisbury, 

great one), and meaning by ' manliness ' exemption from certain gross- 
nesses and vices which shock the sensibility and judgment, for example, 
certain acts of sensual license, such as eating and drinking in the 
market, making water in the highway, and the like : it is proper to be 
known, also, that integrity with reference to the reporting of tradition 
is less restricted than integrity in testimony ; for integrity in testimony 
is predicable only of the free man, whereas integrity in the reporting 
of tradition may pertain to the slave as well as the free man." 

Of the other qualifications we have the following definitions. 
J. says :* 

sLw " ^l&Jw i L-3SL> UoJLJC/i 

O 1 

" retentiveness consists in the reporter's being observant and mindful, 
not heedless nor careless, nor dubious, whether in taking up tradition or 
in reciting it ; for, if he gives out tradition by his memory, he must 
needs be mindful, and if he gives it out by his book, he must firmly hold 
to that, and if by the sense, he must know how to sieze the sense ;" 

and also : 

" and retentiveness is determined upon comparison of one's report with 
the report of reliable authorities, known for their retentiveness ; so that, 
if he agrees with them for the most part, and rarely disagrees, he is 
known to be certainly retentive ;" 

and H. says :f 


"retentiveness signifies the retaining of what has been heard, and its 
being held fast from escaping or growing faint, so that it can be called 
up ; it consists of two parts : retentiveness by mind, and retentiveness 
by book; retentiveness by mind comes of committing to heart and 
keeping in memory, and retentiveness by book results from preserving 
it without change against the time for reciting it." 

These qualifications of the reporter are more exactly defined 
by the following specifications of causes by which they are vitia- 
ted, drawn from H. First, as to integrity, we read 4 

* page 5. t fl- 2 rec *- t fol- 2 rec t- and vers. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition 
i_*\=aJLj Ju,"^ 




-, y e 

-c I/a vjs^ 

ftj J 


^.i xobl^ ,5 l.> 


ys! viLoXc! t^j ^LtU xciA>Ji 


i QL*JJI xi 

J LaxiX^' ...! 

66 R E. Salisbury, 

oiArs- cXj>i ...I iJ^^ii ^ i.c'P^ 

" As to integrity, there are five ways in which it is vitiated 
.^'ajj) : 1. by falsehood; 2. by suspicion of falsehood; 3. by impiety; 
4. by want of information ; 5. by heresy. 

" By falsehood on the part of the reporter (1^5^ S- *J^) is meant 
his setting up some false statement of his as part of the tradition of the 
Prophet .... either by affirmation as a deponent, or by some other 
such means ; and the tradition of one dishonored by falsehood is called 
suppositions (cytoya). Whoever is proved to have purposely set up 
falsehood as part of tradition, although, only once in his life, and not- 
withstanding repentance, is dishonored as a reporter of received tradi- 
tion wherein there is a difference between him and the repentant false 
witness. Such, then, is the signification of suppositions tradition, in the 
technical language of traditionists ; for it consists in this, that one is 
known to have set up some falsehood of his, definitely, as part of the 
tradition of the Prophet. In case it is a question of opinion, and one 
is judged to have fabricated and falsified by the judgment of prepon- 
derating opinion, since that affords no means of decision and certainty, 
the falsifier is esteemed truthful. This is at variance with what is com- 
monly said respecting knowledge derived from deposition, with the 
affirmation of a deponent, namely, that one may be false in such affirma- 
tion, and that preponderating opinion determines whether one is truth- 
ful ; and, if such were not the principle [as regards testimony in court], 
how could it be lawful to put to death a man who affirms that he has 
committed murder, and not so to stone him who confesses fornication \ 
Therefore, consider. 

" With regard to suspicion of falsehood in the reporter ((^US ik-^ 
v_jJsXILi), in case one is notorious for falsehood, and generally remarked 
upon for it (though he may not have actually set up any falsehood of his 
as part of the tradition of the Prophet), and there is derived from him 
the report of something which is at variance with the known and essen- 
tial fundamental principles of law the same is to be said as before [that 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 67 

tradition from him is not to be received] ; and this subdivision is called 
let-alone tradition (^ J0), as when one says : ' a tradition let alone,' 
and 'Such a one's tradition is let alone.' If the man repents, and signs 
of his truthfulness appear, it is allowable to hear tradition from him. 

" Occasional and infrequent falsehood in what one says, irrespective 
of the tradition of the Prophet, although it is a thing to be abhorred, 
does not operate to give the name of ' suppositions' or ' let-alone' to his 

"By impiety (oj**i!!) is meant impiety in conduct, not that which 
respects belief; for the latter has to do with heresy, and the term heresy 
is most commonly applied to a corrupt faith ; and, although falsehood 
enters into impiety, yet people count that as a separate principle, be- 
cause its influence in dishonoring integrity is most potent and over- 

"Again, want of information respecting a reporter (t^jU^ *^Lf>) 
causes integrity to be vitiated, in the case of tradition, because, when 
one's name and personality are unknown, it is not ascertained what sort 
of a man he was, whether he was a reliable authority, or the contrary ; 
as, for example, when it is said : ' a certain guarantee taught me as a 
tradition so and so,' or ' I learnt from a certain teacher so and so as a 
tradition.' Such a reporter is called doubtful (*^*), and the tradition 
of a doubtful person is not to be received, unless he was a witness of 
the Prophet (^jlsJP) for all witnesses had integrity. As to the case 
of a doubtful reporter's declaring the integrity of his authority in express 
terms for instance, when one says : ' I learnt from a person of integrity 
so and so as a tradition,' or 'A reliable authority taught me as a tradi- 
tion so and so,' there is difference of opinion the soundest judgment 
is against receiving the tradition, because there may be the belief of 
integrity without its reality. If, however, such language is used by an 
eminent teacher possessed of nice discernment, the tradition is received. 

" Heresy (XetA^J') is the holding to some novelty of opinion, at vari- 
ance with what is recognized as a part of religion, and has come down 
from the Prophet of God . . . and his Companions, by virtue of some 
figurative and allegorical interpretation, not in the way of absolute de- 
nial and repudiation which is a species of infidelity ; and the tradition 
of a heretic is most generally rejected. Some, indeed, receive it, if 
characterized by truthfulness of language and guarded phraseology. 
Others say that, if it contradicts something often repeated in the law, 
and which is known to be a necessary part of religion, it is to be re- 
jected, and, if it has not this character, that it is to be received, however 
discredited by opposers, provided it be reported with retentiveness, in a 
religious spirit, in the way of confirmation of received doctrine, and in 
circumspect and guarded language. It is best to reject it, in case it 
leans towards a heresy of the reporter, and is to him a connecting link 
of argument, and otherwise to receive it ; yet, if one reports something 
whereby his heresy is in fact strengthened, it is decisively to be rejected. 

" To speak more generally, eminent teachers differ as to receiving the 
tradition of innovating and loose sects, and of leaders in heterodox 

68 E. E. Salisbury, 

ways of thinking. Says the author of the Jdm? 'al-'Usul :* 'A num- 
ber of eminent teachers of tradition have taken from the Khawarij, and 
from those whose distinctive names refer to their doctrine of free will 
(^L\iil), their separation (*.yCXji), and their alienation (^eisyl), as well 
as from all innovating and lax parties ; while a number of others have 
been circumspect, and have warned against taking tradition from these 
parties. All have their motives.' Doubtless, tradition is taken from 
these parties deliberately and approvingly ; yet should the practice be 
avoided, because it is established as a fact that these parties were once 
in the habit of fabricating traditions in order to give currency to their 
doctrines which, indeed, used to be affirmed by themselves, after re- 
pentance and return to orthodoxy God knows." 

Next, as to retentiveness, we read as follows :f 

.i c ^r a^nj 

U&M &aJLs? L'J Joii^i Bi 

idLiiJLs QjlftX+s _bJL*M aytfji AiaiJt Jy Loi 


vJuu oL 

LC gXJ' Q^ ^c 


>> &IL> *;^ 

* A critical compend of the six great collections of Muslim tradition, -with ex- 
planations of unusual terras, by 'Ibn 'Athir 'aj-Jazari, -who died A. H. 606, on the 
basis of an earlier work of the same sort by Kazin 'al-'Abdari ; see Haji Khalfah's 
Lex., iii. 33, and ii. 501. 

f foil Z, vers., and 3, rect. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 69 

"Again, tliere are five ways in which retentiveness is vitiated : 1. by 
excess of carelessness ; 2. by great blundering ; 3. by disagreement 
with reliable authorities ; 4. by oversight ; 5. by badness of memory. 

"Excess of carelessness (iJL&iJ! -^) and great blundering ( JaJjfcJ! Jy^) 
are allied to one another, for carelessness is predicated of the oral state- 
ment (cUw^!) of tradition, as well as of the taking of it up ; while blun- 
dering has respect to the oral statement and the recitation (^ta^l) of it. 

"Disagreement with reliable authorities (oU&i! KaJLs^), which re- 
spects either the allegation of authority or the text, and has various 
phases, promotes the violation of analogy (^(XiJl) in tradition ; and 
the reason for its being set down as one of the ways^in which reten- 
tiveness is vitiated, is that disagreement with reliable authorities arises 
only from the want of retentiveness and memory, together Avith lack of 
care to avoid changes and substitutions. 

" With respect to that vitiation of retentiveness which is owing to 
the oversight (*PjJi) and neglect (,.jLy*wL!!) whereby one commits error 
and reports fancifully, if the publication of a tradition in such fanciful 
form is accompanied with evidences of pretexts, or of originating 
grounds which impair its force, the tradition becomes simulated (JJ-xxi). 
Here is the most obscure and subtle part of the science of tradition, and 
no one masters it who is not possessed of intelligence and an ample 
memory, as well as a perfect knowledge of the several grades of re- 
porters, and of the circumstances affecting the character of allegations 
of authority and texts, like the great masters of the science in former 
times, down to 'ad-Darakutni since whose day, it is said, no one simi- 
larly proficient on this subject has appeared God knows. 

"As for badness of memory (Jaa^sl *>-w), people say that by this is 
meant that one is not right more frequently than he goes astray, and 
that he does not remember and exactly know oftener than he lets slip 
and forgets : that is to say, if he is more habitually wrong and forgetful 
than right and exact, or equally so, that goes to constitute badness of 
memory ; so that a reporter, to be relied upon, must be correct and 
exact in his knowledge, and possess these qualities in large measure. 
The tradition of one whose badness of memory is a constant circum- 
stance of his condition, having pertained to him through his whole life, 
has no weight ; and, in the opinion of some traditionists, such badness 
of memory enters into the idea of separate tradition (<3L*J!). If bad- 
ness of memory is due to some accidental circumstance, like diminution 
of the recollective faculty on account of one's great age, or the failure 
of one's sight, or the loss of one's books, this constitutes what is called 
a confused tradition (JabLs^") ; but what one reported before his tradi- 
tion became confused, and his memory was impaired, being distinguished 

70 E. E. Salisbury, 

from that reported subsequently, is to be received : without this dis- ' 
crimination, there is no reaching back to the Prophet by the report of 
one whose memory has thus failed him ; so too, in case the distinction 
cannot be clearly made out. If there exist imitative (oljulx^), or wit- 
nessing (iAP[^-i), traditions which answer to that which is confused, it 
is thereby elevated from the grade of rejection to that of acceptance 
and prevalence ; as is the case, also, with the tradition of a reporter 
who is of questionable character ( ,_jJu**i!), or who disguises 
or who gives out tradition loosely (J 

The disqualifying defects in a reporter, which, render him un- 
trustworthy, are also summarily presented by J. in the following 

passage :* 

I Jl )L\^> -.bUi]! ^i jo xX 


" Respecting confutation (_.>!). The report of one who is known to 
have been in the habit of falling asleep, or of being absent-minded, in 
the hearing read to him, or in the oral statement, of tradition, is not to 
be received ; nor that of one who teaches tradition from an unconnected 
copy, or who is very careless when he teaches from a copy which has 
been corrected, or who reports many separate (O^iJ!), or undetermined 
(-^ilM) traditions : and whoever blunders in his tradition, and, after 
his blundering has been made manifest to him, holds on to it and does 
not abandon it, is said to have lost his integrity, provided, as 'Ibn 'as- 
Salah says, he does so in the way of opposition, or of captiousness in 
discussion " 

to which the author adds the important remark that reliableness 
in a reporter was not, in his time, estimated strictly according to 
the specified conditions of it, as follows :f 

* page 5. f page 6. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 71 

"But, to cut the matter short, men in these times treat with slight 
all the specified conditions [of reliableness], and are satisfied, as regards 
a reporter's integrity, with his being one whose integrity is neither 
proved nor disproved ( .yXv*/)) ; and, as regards his retentiveness, 
with the fact that what he hears read to him as a teacher (*.cU*) is set 
down in a handwriting which can be depended upon, and that his re- 
port is from an autograph corresponding to the autograph of his mas- 
ter and this because the books of the eminent teachers include not 
only sound tradition, but also the fair, and that which is neither sound 
nor fair, so that all tradition whatever is gathered up ; besides that the 
object of the teacher's hearing tradition read to him is only to perpet- 
uate the chain of connection in an allegation of authority which has 
currency in a particular school." 

In contrast with the laxness indicated in this last paragraph, 
there is even a religious importance attached to the character of 
the authorities for a tradition, in the following from M., which 
thus bears the impress of much earlier times :* 

Q-. o 

JlS . 

LJls J)LLw^l ^ ^jJUo |>J^J J jLs cr-s**" ^ 


Lo (j-J^i 
&U! tX* LoiA^-j iiJLc lAi? LJLo Q!^ Q! jii' 0-^5 v^>^ Q^ Lf^' 1 

LJ i/ixxiAJI tA*^ 5 ji \*j * ^^ *^^ CT*" 5 *"^^ 

^ LJU iiiC*>Lo ...I/ ,..! jtfti 1^X5^, 


xj.Lo iOjOctli vi^/,^^ JlS xoi ^c objJl ^1 ^1 ^c ^yt^jo^l li 

5 ^ LX*^ 8 LoA5> iJL^! t j^ (j*-J JLftj v>-JtXsiS A^LC iA3^J U 





* pages 10, 11. 

72 E. E. Salisbury, 


LU.O Jyu all A*e vi>otf* jls i 
^jL^wwl LI o 

v -j*=JI lAic LI LJ w^LII ^ dJI ^XotJ vi>JLi 

XP *J oJls Jo I<AP ^c ^Lffww-l LI LJ iJJI LX>X: aJ jl5s jo 
j ^L^^5 ^,, ^Ui jo ( .j+z. Xaj jo <jiLr> ^ vk 
! LI L jo jvL^ \.dc ^ f l ^^JLo dJI j^* j'o vi>JLs jo ( c. xai j'S 

ui^U^I wJu=JI 

" Chapter on the Allegation of Authority, as a Matter of Religion. 

"Hasan Bin 'ar-Rabi' tells us for a tradition, saying: 'We are in- 
formed by Hammad Bin Zaid, on the authority of 'Aiyub and Hisham, 
on the authority of Muhammad, as follows' and Fudhail tells us for a 
tradition, on the authority of a saying of Hisham, as follows and Mak- 
lad Bin Husain tells us for a tradition, on the authority of Hisham, on 
the authority of a saying of Muhammad Bin Sirin: "This science is a 
religion : beware, then, on whose authority ye take up your religion." ' 

"'Abu-Ja'far Muhammad Bin 'as-Sabbah tells us for a tradition, say- 
ing : 'We are informed by 'Isma'il Bin Zakariya, on the authority of 
'Asim 'al-'Ahwal, on the authority of a saying of 'Ibn Sirin: "People 
were not accustomed to ask about the support ; but after there came to 
be dissension among them, some said : ' Name to us your guarantees 
(JL>.),' and so those who held to the orthodox traditional law were 
respected, and their tradition Avas taken up, while care was taken not to 
take up the tradition of heretics." ' 

"'Ishak Bin 'Ibrahim 'al-Hanzali tells us for a tradition, saying: 'We 
are informed by 'Isa, the sou of Yuuus, saying : " 'Al-'Auza'i tells us for 
a tradition, on the authority of a saying of Sulaiman Bin Musa: 'I met 
Ta/us, and said : " Such an one tells me for a tradition so and so ;" said 
he : " If he is diligent to perform all the duties of religion, take up 
tradition on his authority." ' 

" 'Abdallah Bin 'Abd 'ar-Rahman 'ad-Darimi tells us for a tradition, 
saying : ' We are informed by Marwan ' he means 'Ibn Muhammad 
'ad Dimashki ' saying : " We are informed by Sa'id Bin 'Abd 'al-'Aziz, 
on the authority of a saying of Sulaiman Bin Musa : ' I said to Ta'us : 
"Such an one tells me for a tradition so and so;" said he: "If thy 
teacher is diligent to perform all the duties of religion, take up tradition 
on his authority." ' 

" Nasr Bin ' All 'aj-Juhdhami tells us for a tradition, saying : ' We are 
informed by 'al-'Asma'i, on the authority of 'Ibn 'Abu-z-Zinad, on the 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 73 

authority of a saying of his father : " I saw at Madinah a hundred per- 
sons, all believers, on whose authority tradition was not taken up of 
whom it was said that they were not the people to transmit tradition." ' 

" Muhammad Bin 'Abu-'Umar 'al-Makki tells us for a tradition, say- 
ing : ' We are informed by Sufyan, as follows and 'Abu-Bakr Bin Khal- 
lad 'al-Bahili tells us for a tradition, in his own words, saying : " I heard 
Sufyan Bin 'Uyainah say on the authority of Mis'ar : ' I heard Sa'ad 
Bin 'Ibrahim say : " Only reliable authorities give out tradition which 
has the authority of the Messenger of God . . ." .' 

" Muhammad Bin 'Abdallah Bin Kuhzadh, an inhabitant of Marv, tells 
us for a tradition, saying : ' I heard 'Abdallah Bin 'al-Mubarak say : 
" The allegation of authority is a matter of religion ; and, were it not 
for this support, whoever pleased would say whatever he pleased." ' 

" Muhammad Bin 'Abdallah tells us for a tradition, saying : ' It is told 
to me for a tradition by 'al-' Abbas 'Ibn 'Abu-Rizmah, saying : " I heard 
'Abdallah say : 'Between us and our enemies there are the standards' 
meaning the allegation of authority."' 

" Muhammad also says : ' I heard 'Abu-'Ishak 'Ibrahim Bin 'f sa 'at- 
Talakani say : " I said to 'Abdallah Bin 'al-Mubarak : ' 'Abu 'Abd 
'ar-Rahman, what of the tradition handed down to us in the words : " It 
ever pertains to piety that thou shouldst pray for thy parents in thy 
prayer, and fast for them in thy fasting " ?' Whereupon 'Abdallah said 
to him : " O 'Abu-'Ishak, on whose authority is this ?" " to which," said 
he, " I replied : ' This is a tradition of Shihab Bin Khirash ;' said 'Abd- 
allah : ' A reliable authority on whose authority does he give it ?' to 
which I replied : ' It is on the authority of 'al-Hajjaj Bin Dinar ;' said 
'Abdallah : ' A reliable authority on whose authority does he give it ?' 
to which I replied : ' That of the Messenger of God . . . ;' said 'Abdal- 
lah : ' O 'Abu-'Ishak, between 'al-Hajjaj Bin Dinar and the Prophet . . . 
there are deserts in which the beast's supply of water fails him,'* though 
no one disputes the truthfulness of that reporter.' " 

This passage is followed, in Muslim's introduction, by a chap- 
ter of traditions disproving the authority of certain individual 
reporters. But even so early a writer as Muslim notices a laxness 
in the application of the principle of dependence upon reliable 
authorities alone, closing that chapter as follows :f 

* L e. The break in the connection of the tradition is too wide for safe trans- 
mission. ( page 20. 

VOL. VII. 10 

E. E. Salisbury, 

-Lc ^wLLil (^ ju . ^->yiS *_ 

> l y^t L) JUb Q^ (!>*'* JJ* ^-y^CJ^ aJ>^ L^J 

" Says 'Abu-1-Husain Muslim Bin 'al-Hajjaj : Of remarks by tradition- 
ists respecting suspicious reporters of tradition, and of traditional state- 
ments by them with regard to the faults of such reporters, similar to 
those which we have cited, there are many, which it would take long to 
mention, in writing, even briefly. But what we have given is sufficient 
for one who is intelligent, and understands, from what people have said 
and plainly declared, their general way of thinking. 

" Yet traditionists themselves do not consider it obligatory to expose 
the faults of reporters of tradition, and transmitters of traditional state- 
ments, and to pronounce decisions accordingly, except when they are 
inquired of in respect to something involving great risk. In case tradi- 
tional statements refer to a matter of religion, whatever bearing they 
have is to convey permission or disapprobation, command or prohibition, 
incitement or restraint; so that, if their reporter is not a man of fixed 
veracity and trustworthiness, and if objection has been made to reporting 
on his authority, by some one acquainted with him, and if others, having 
no knowledge respecting him, are not informed of the state of the case, by 
one's thus acting deceptively the generality of Muslims become involved 
in guilt inasmuch as it is safe for no one who hears those traditional 
statements to use them, or any of them, because, perhaps, they or most 
of them are false and groundless ; besides that sound traditional state- 
ments, coming from reliable reporters and persons possessed of a tran- 
quil assurance of mind, are too numerous that there should be need of 
what is transmitted by reporters who are unreliable, or devoid of assur- 
ance. For myself, I think not much of those men who lay stress upon 
such weak traditions, and ignored supports, as we have described, and 
make account of reporting them, after they know their infirmity and 
weakness, for the mere reason that they are impelled to report them, 
and to make account of them, by the wish to appear to common people 
as multipliers of tradition, and for the sake of its being said: 'How 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 75 

many traditions has such an one collected!' and 'How by the thousand 
does such a one count traditions !' Whoever proceeds on such grounds 
in the science, and acts thus, has no part in it, and is to be called igno- 
rant rather than learned." 

We may next consider certain stipulations respecting the 
modes of communicating tradition, by which additional guards 
to its purity are provided in the system which we aim to devel- 
ope. This will throw light upon some expressions in the ex- 
tracts already given, which may not have been fully understood 
by the reader, and naturally precedes the consideration of what 
relates to tradition itself. Here J. will be our first authority, 
whose third chapter reads thus :* 

f Joiix^i Oj!c_^ *JUU.o 

* page 6. 

76 E. E. Salisbury, 


" Tradition may properly be taken up before a profession of islamism, 
and likewise before full age ; for 'al-Hasan, 'al-Husain, 'Ibn 'Abbas, and 
'Ibn Zubair took up tradition before they had reached maturity, and 
youths have ever been admitted to the hearing of tradition ; though 
there is difference of opinion as to the exact time when a youth may 
properly become a hearer some saying that this may be at five years of 
age, and some, that the case of each young person is to be separately 
considered, and that, if he understands what is addressed to him, and 
how to answer, they approve of his becoming a hearer of tradition, 
although he be less than five years old, and, otherwise, that he can not 
properly be a hearer. 

"There are several ways of taking up tradition: 1. by hearing the 
oral communication of a master (^-yiJ! Jai^ Q- pUs*J!) ; 2. by read- 
ing to him (*^Jle t!jL'S); 3. by license (a;L>-'^!) of which there are 
several kinds : [a] license of a particular individual for something spe- 
cific, as : ' I license thee for the book of 'al-Bukhari,' or ' I license such 
an one for all that is in my table of contents ;' [b] license of a particu- 
lar individual in respect to something not specified, as : ' I license thee 
as to whatever I hear read to me,' or ' ---- as to whatever is reported by 
me;' [c] license of people in general, as: 'I license Muslims,' or '. . . . 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 77 

all my cotemporaries :' and in these forms tradition is properly allowed 
to be reported ; [d] license of a person who does not exist, as : ' I 
license whoever may be. born to such a one' which ought not to be 
admitted, though, if one says : ' . . . . such a one and whoever may be 
born to him,' or ' . . . . thee and thy posterity,' it is admissible, on the 
same principle as a permanent charitable bequest (^ aSjJ!) ; [e] license 
of a little child who is not marked by any maturity of mind ; for matu- 
rity of mind constitutes a free permission to report, and the free per- 
mission of reporting holds good in respect to one who has not attained 
to years of intelligence as well as to one who has ; [ f ] license as to 
what has been licensed, as : 'I license thee as to whatever has been 
licensed to me :' it is preferable, in the case of license, that both he who 
licenses and he who is licensed should be conversant with the science 
of tradition, because there is a looseness about this form of transmis- 
sion, which requires to be controlled by persons so instructed : one who 
licenses by a writing does well to say off what he writes ; yet, if he 
limits himself to the writing, that holds good ; 4. by presentation 
(xi^Ult) of which the highest sort [a] is that accompanied with 
license, which consists in the master's handing to one either an auto- 
graph, or a copy therewith collated, of what he hears read to him, and 
saying: 'This is what I hear read' (or, 'my report'), 'on the authority 
of such a one, I license to thee the reporting of it ;' after which he 
leaves it in his hands, for his own, or until he can copy it ; another sort 
of presentation [b] consists in the inquirer's handing to the master that 
which he hears read to him, which the latter then dwells upon with 
discrimination and attention, and afterwards presents to the inquirer, 
saying : ' It is my tradition' (or, ' what I hear read'), ' so report on my 
authority' this is called reverse presentation (x^Uif (j-c) : and there 
are also other subdivisions; 5. by written communication (x*j'lXU), 
which consists in the master's writing in his own hand, or permitting 
to be written, that which he hears read to him, expressly for one who 
is absent, or for one who is present ; and is either accompanied with 
license, as, for example, when one writes : ' I license thee ....,' or with- 
out this form to report in either mode is admissible and proper ; 6. 
by certification (*^Lc^!), which consists in the master's making known 
to the inquirer that a certain book is his report of tradition, without 
saying : ' Report it on my authority ' which is not an admissible re- 
porting of it, according to the most proper view, since there is a possi- 
bility that the master may have recognized in the inquirer some pravity, 
in consequence of which he does not authorize him in respect to it; 
7. by discovery (J>L>^J5) a term of recent origin, from cXj>^ ^Xi? 
which consists in one's carefully reading some book in the handwriting 
of a master, which contains traditions, without receiving any report of 
of it other than is comprised in the traditions themselves, and then 
saying: 'I have found' (or, 'I have read') 'in the handwriting of such 
an one ' (or, ' in a book of such an one, in his handwriting') ' as follows : 
" we learn from such an one as tradition so and so " ' leaving the rest 
of the allegation of authority, and the text, at loose ends a practice 
which has held its ground both in ancient and modern times, and 

78 E. E. Salisbury, 

constitutes a sort of loosened tradition (Jjw.1!), with something in it of 
continuousness (ijuai'^l). 

"Some persons, be it known, are strict, and say that no legal proof 
can be made out from tradition not reported by memory ; while others 
say that reporting by one's book is allowable, so long as one has it 
under his control. Others again are so lax as to say that one may re- 
port from copies not collated with their originals. The truth is that 
one becomes a reliable authority for tradition by the continued habit of 
taking it up, persevering effort at retention, and constant application to 
collating with an earlier text; and this, even if one's book is not con- 
trolled, since the probability is that it is not varied from, especially if 
the reporter be one who would be likely to know of any alteration of it." 

The books of tradition show us a distinction of form which is 
supposed to refer to the mode of receiving traditional statements, 
in their use of the terms cyAs* and ^>t, the former being ap- 
propriated, as is believed, to the case of a teacher's making an 
oral communication, and the latter to that of the pupil's reading 
to him. On this distinctive use of the two terms we quote the 
following from the Dictionary of the Technical Terms . . . :* 

"There are some who think that there should be a difference in the 
form of reporting tradition, with reference to a distinction in the^mode 
of taking it up, and accordingly appropriate the expression oJo to 
what the master gives out orally, and -*3-5 to what is read to him. 
Such was the doctrine of 'Ibn Juraij, 'al-'Auza'i, 'ash-Shafi'i, and 'Ibn 
Wahab,f and of all the people of the West ; and the later masters have 
originated another distinction, according to which whoever, himself 
alone, hears a master speak, uses the single number and says ^'Jo, 
and whoever hears as one of several uses the plural number, while he who 

* p. 282. 

f 'Ibn Juraij died A. H. 150 ; 'al-'Auza'i, one of the teachers of 'Ibn Juraij, and 
a resident of Bairut, d. A. H. 151 ; 'ash-Shafi'i, a native of Gaza, \vho became a resi- 
dent of Egypt, and the founder of a school of Muslim law, d. A. H. 204 ; 'Ibn Wnhab 
of Egypt d. A. H. 197. These dates are derived from the Kitdb Tabakdt 'al-Hufdz 
(v. 9, v. 20, vii. 36) ed. by Wiistenfeld under the title Liber Classium Virorum qui 
Korani et Traditionum Cognit. excell., auct. Abu Abdalla Dahabio. In epit. coegit 
et contin. Auonymus .... Gottinguse, 1833-34 : to which we shall refer hereafter, as 
we may have occasion, eimply as the Kitdb Tabakdt. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 79 

himself reads to a master says in the singular number ^^>\ which 
is approved, though not necessary in the opinion of those just referred to, 
who only meant to distinguish between modes of taking up tradition." 

A farther distinction of form in the reporting of tradition, 
which wejind in the collections, is the use of v^ot^v instead of 
either ^ooXXs*- or ^>.*5>-\. This is a comprehensive expression, 
denoting of itself simply the fact of hearing from a master, with- 
out indication of the mode ; but the technical phraseology of 
Muslim traditionists distinguishes it, in an artificial manner, from 
both the other expressions. Such seems, at least, to be the import 
of the following words in Muslim's introduction :* ij^j^lj ^ ^^ui 
vijjiAaJLij [^Jjj ^ " narrating on the ascending grade [by 
if they proceed upwards, and on the descending grade 
[by i/jA5>- or ^^=>\'] if they proceed downwards." 

In the extract from J. last given, it is stated that objection 
had been made by some to any reporting of tradition except by 
memory. We therefore present, here, from B., a statement of 
earlier opinion as to the propriety of reporting by the pupil's 
reading, and by the form called " presentation." It is to be found 
in that book of the Sahih which is entitled Book of the Science 


_ * 

"bu^ bbis b 

La 13! jLs 1**" 

Lo v_ 


* page 24. f fol. 6, vers. 

80 E. E. Salisbury. 

J 5 &J^ alJI 

J! A) jlas 
jLai &*ju ^ JLc iX^ 1 ' bis X 

.-A A 

xS^UI! ^ ; 

.j x* 
*L^ J 


>-^>- U o^^ i}>^5 jLas j^jti |^Jj! jJL-j xJic aJJI 

* L?^ cr 

JiJ iicas Q* Ui'L> uXarls Lo^Ls^ 1 "5! blxi" IAJ 
^jij jo v* tsoUaS c>Jlft5 AJ 5 x-sLj 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 81 

" Chapter on Reading to and Laying before the Teacher of Tradition. 

" 'Al-Hasan, 'ath-Thauri, and Malik* regarded the reading of tradi- 
tion as allowable ; and some have alleged, in favor of reading to a well- 
informed teacher, a tradition of Dhimam Bin Tha'labah, who said to the 
Prophet . . . : ' Hath God commanded thee that we should pray with 
the prescribed form of prayer?' to which he replied : 'Yes,' and the 
other rejoined : 'Then is this something to be read to the Prophet' 
of which Dhimam informed his people, who accordingly regarded the 
incident as an authoritative guide. Malik adduces in proof the case of 
a judicial sentence which is read to people, who thereupon say : ' We 
call such a one to witness,' or which is read to one who causes it to be 
read, whereupon the reader says : ' Such a one made me read.' 

" Muhammad Bin Salam- tells us for a tradition, as told by Muham- 
mad Bin 'al-Hasan 'al-Wasiti, on the authority of 'Auf, from 'al-Hasan : 
' There is no harm in reading to a well-informed teacher ;' and we are 
told by 'Ubaidallah Bin Musa, from Sufyan, as follows : ' In case one 
i-eads to the teacher of tradition, there is no harm in his saying^ " Such 
a one tells me for a tradition ;" ' and I have heard from 'Abu-'Asim, on 
the authority of Malik and Sufyau, the following: 'Reading to a well- 
informed teacher and his reading are equivalent.' 

" 'Abdallah Bin Yusuf tells us for a tradition, as told by 'al-Laith, on. 
the authority of Sa'id, namely 'al-Makbari, on the authority of Sharik 
Bin 'Abdallah Bin 'Abu-Namir, that the latter heard 'Anas Bin Malik 
to whom may God be gracious ! say : ' While we were seated with 
the Prophet ... in the mosque, a man entered upon a camel, which he 
made kneel within the mosque, and afterwards fettered, and then said : 
" Which of you is Muhammad?" ' the Prophet being supported in the 
midst of the group ' to which we replied : " This pure man who leans- 
here." Then the man said to him : " O son of 'Abd 'al-Mutallib "" 
and the Prophet . . . replied : " Be sure, I will answer thee ;" upon 
which the man said to the Prophet . . . : "I have a question to ask 
thee, and I insist upon an answer; so be not adverse to me r " and the 
Prophet . . . said : " Ask about what thou wilt ;" whereupon the man 
rejoined : " I ask thee, by thy Lord and the Lord of those before thee,. 
hath God sent thee as a messenger to all men ?" and the Prophet 
replied : " O God, yes ;" the man said, again : " I adjure thee by God, 
hath God commanded thee that we should pray the five prayers ?" and 
he replied : " O God, yes ;" said the man : " I adjure thee by God, hath 
God commanded thee that we should fast this month of the year ?" and 
he replied : " O God, yes ;" said the man : " I adjure thee by God, hath 
God commanded thee to take this offering of alms from our rich men, 
and to divide it among our poor?" and the Prophet answered : "0 God, 
yes." Then the man said : "I trust in thy message, and will be a mes- 
senger to those who shall come after me, of my people and I am 
Dhimam Bin Tha'labah, a brother of the tribe of Sa'ad Bin Bakr" 'a 

* 'Ath-Thauri, of Kufah, died A.H. 169; Malik Bin 'Anas of Hirah, the founder 
of one of the schools of Muslim law, who is probably the Malik here mentioned, 
died A. H. 179. See KitAb Tabakdt, v. 40, 41. 

VOL. VII. 11 

82 E. E. Salisbury, 

tradition which is reported by Musa and 'All Bin 'Abd 'al-Hamid, on tbe 
authority of Sulaiman, on the authority of 'Anas, from the Prophet . . . 
" To this add the following. 

" Chapter of Statements respecting Presentation, and the Communication 
of the Science to the Provinces, by its Cultivators, in Writing. 

" Says 'Anas : ' 'Uthman caused the standard copies of the Kuran to 
be written out, and sent them to the several quarters ;' and 'Abdallah 
Bin 'Umar, Yahya Bin Sa'id,* and Malik regarded this as a lawful mode 
of communication ; moreover, some people of the Hijaz allege, in favor 
of presentation, a tradition of the Prophet ... to the effect that he 
wrote an order for the captain of a troop of horse, and said : ' Read not 
until thou reachest the place so and so,' and that, accordingly, after the 
man had reached that place, he read it to the troopers, and informed 
them of the order of the Prophet . . .' 

" 'Isma'il Bin 'Abdallah tells us for a tradition, as told to him by 'Ibra- 
him Bin Sa'ad, on the authority of Salih, on the authority of 'Ibn Shi- 
hab, on the authority of 'Ubaidallah Bin : Utbah Bin Mas'ud, that 'Ab- 
dallah Bin 'Abbas may God be gracious to them both ! told him that 
the Messenger of God . . . sent a written order of his to a certain man, 
and commanded him to remit it to the chief of 'al-Bahrain ; whereupon 
the chief of 'al-Bahrain remitted it to the Emperor, who, after reading, 
tore it in connection with which, as I think, 'Ibn 'al-Masib says : ' so 
the Messenger of God . . . gave it strictly in charge to his people that 
that they should tear every one who tears.' 

" Muhammad Bin Mukatil 'Abu-1-Hasan tells us for a tradition, as com- 
municated by 'Abdallah, as communicated by Shu'bah, on the authority 
of Kutadah, on the authority of 'Anas Bin Malik to whom may God 
be gracious! the following: 'The Prophet of God . . . wrote, or had a 
mind to write, an order ; whereupon it was said to him that the persons 
concerned would read no writing not sealed ; and so, while I w r as look- 
ing at the paper in his hand, he grasped a silver seal, the inscription 
upon which was " Muhammad the Messenger of God." Said I to Kuta- 
dah, on hearing this : " AVho said that ' Muhammad the Messenger of 
God' was inscribed upon it?" 'to which he replied : "'Anas.'" 

It will be perceived that the applicability of several of the 
traditions reported in the foregoing passage from the Sahih, to 
the particular points which they are intended to illustrate, de- 
pends upon their involving general principles which the exam- 
ple of the Prophet established ; and, indeed, the whole of the 
Book of the Science appears to refer, not to that which is pre- 
eminently the science of the Muslims namely, the system of 
tradition alone, but to all departments of instruction, in general. 
The same sort of illustration from general principles is found, 
also, in another chapter of that book, entitled jJj^li JuU^v-jl i. e. 
Chapter on Committing the Science to Writing, which, being 

* Yahya Bin Sa'id died A.H. 194, aged 80 years. See Kitdb Tab., vi. 77. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. S3 

made up of reported instances of the Prophet's writing down 
what he wished to preserve for the instruction of others, is sup- 
posed to sanction the substitution of writing for oral statement 
by the teacher of tradition. 

We will now cite a few other brief chapters from this same 
book of the Sahih, for the sake of similar illustration of differ- 
ent points pertaining to the order of a school of tradition. The 
first to be cited relates to the age at which one may hear instruc- 
tion in traditional science.* 


C G 

.j aJJ! .~c. V* 
le L/yi. oJUsi jo U^-c alii 
w^ xJcvOJi ^.Lo alii 

" Chapter on the Propriety of a Stripling's Hearing Tradition. 

il tells us, as told to him by Malik, on the authority of 'Ibn 
Shihab, on the authority of 'Ubaidallah Bin 'Abdallah Bin 'Utbab, from 
'Abdallab Bin 'Abbas may God be gracious to both ! that the latter 
said : " I arrived mounted upon a female ass, having at the time nearly 
reached manhood, while the Prophet . . . was praying from Mina to 
Ghair Jidar; so I passed on in front of some of the train, having let 
my beast go at large with the words : " now mayst thou feed well," and 
joined the train without any one's blaming me for so doing. 

" Muhammad Bin Yusuf tells us, as told by 'Abu-Mushir, as told to 
him by Muhammad Bin Harb, as told to him by 'az-Zubaidi, on the au- 
thority of 'az-Zuhri, from Mahmud Bin 'ar-Rabi' to whom may God 
be gracious ! that the latter said : ' I paid to the Prophet . . . the for- 
feit for a drop of wine which trickled on my face from a cup, when I 
was a boy of five yearsY'f 

The following refer to tokens of respect due to the teacher 4 

* fol. 6, rect. 

f That is to say, even a boy of five years of age, beinj chargeable with disobedi- 
ence to a law of the Prophet, might be made responsible for the transmission of 

\ fol. 7, rect, ; fol. 8, rect. 

84 E. E. Salisbury, 

Lo JwO 
*as ,- Ju ' 

LaJ> .bLw'iiljj bj xUL A*. 

" Chapter about one's Kneeling before the 'Imam, or the Teacher of 

" Abu-1-Yaman tells us, as communicated by Shu'aib, on the author- 
ity of 'az-Zuhri, as communicated to him by 'Anas Bin Malik to whom 
may God be gracious ! that the Messenger of God . . . went out once 
upon a time, when he was accosted by 'Abdallah Bin Hudhafah, saying : 
' Who was my father,' to which lie replied : ' Thy father was'Hudhafah/ 
and then said several times : ' Question me ;' whereupon 'Umar knelt 
down and said : ' We accept God for our Lord, Islam for our religion, 
and Muhammad for our prophet,' and was silent." 

s " 

UJ J * 

" Chapter on the Commanding of Silence by the Masters of the Science. 

" Hajaj tells us, as told by Shu'bah, as communicated to him by 'All 
Bin Mudrik, on the authority of 'Abu-Zur'ah Bin 'Auiru, on the author- 
ity of Jarir to whom may God be gracious ! that the Prophet of God 
. . . said to the latter, when giving his farewell testimony : ' Bid the men 
be silent,' after which he said : ' Become not infidels, again, after I am 
gone, by smiting each other's necks.' " 

*L> Js 

s au x s .5 
LJUJ1 * 

" Chapter on one's Making Inquiry, in a Standing Posture, of a Master 
of the Science Seated. 

" 'Uthman tells us, as told by Jarir, on the authority of Mausur, on the 
authority of 'Abu-Wa'il, on the authority of 'Abu-Musa, that the latter 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 85 

said : ' There came a man to thte Prophet . . . and said : " Messen- 
ger of God, what is it to fight in the way of God ? may He be magni- 
fied and glorified ! for one of us fights with anger and indignation ;' 
whereupon he lifted his head to him' (says the relator : ' and the Prophet 
would not have lifted his head to him, unless the latter had been stand- 
ing') ' and said : " Whoever fights in order that the word of God may 
be the supreme word, he is in the way of God." ' 

Another chapter bears upon the question of the admissibilitj 
of women to the hearing of tradition, as follows :* 

xUI ,J^ tfy^i Jlc LX^ii! jo U^c UI 



" Chapter on the Warning and Instructing of Women by the 'Imam. 

" Salaiman Bin Harb tells us, as told by Shu'bah, on the authority of 
'Aiyub, who said that he had heard 'Ata' say that he had heard 'Ibn 
'Abbas may God be gracious to both ! say : ' I call the Prophet of 
God ... to witness' (or, otherwise, that he had heard 'Ata' say : ' I call 
'Ibn 'Abbas to witness') that the Prophet of God . . . went out, once 
upon a time, attended by Bilal : now it was supposed that the Prophet 
did not cause women to hear his teachings ; he took occasion, therefore, 
at this time, to warn the sex, and to bid them give alms ; in consequence 
of which the women began to carry themselves haughtily, and Bilal laid 
hold of the hem of the Prophet's garment.' Another form of the tra- 
dition is that 'Isma'il says on the authority of 'Aiyub, on the authority 
of 'Ata', that 'Ibn 'Abbas said : ' I call the Prophet of God ... to wit- 
ness, etc.'" 

This question touching the rights of women is settled by J. to 
the same effect, in a paragraph already quoted :f 

JLxJl s Ju, io^f X 

" The being of the male sex is not made a condition [of the respon- 
sible teacher], nor freedom, nor knowledge of the jurisprudence based 
upon tradition, or of any thing foreign to the subject, nor sight, nor the 
being one of many." 

To pursue the subject of the transmission of tradition, after 
the foregoing exhibition of the qualifications of the reliable re- 

* fol. 7, rcct. f See p. 63. 

86 R E. Salisbury, 

porter, the several ways of communication which are admissible, 
and the disposition required in the pupil, we have next to 
turn our attention to certain circumstances of form relative to 
tradition itself, in respect to which there are important dis- 
tinctions involved in the science under consideration. 

Every tradition (vi^jiA^-), or report (xjl^Ji), consists of two 
parts: 1. the text (^xli), which J. defines in these words:* 

i n i tt ^ f i f ' 

,31*1) lj p^J (jroi vi>.jL\^ J-?uL)i _j.P .yC.) " the text, which consists 

of those words of the tradition by which sentiments are established," 
and H. as follows :f 

t>U,M/j) &jJ{ ^.g-XJi La <v^ " and the text is that with which the 
allegation of authority ends ;" 

and 2. the support (Ou.*J!), defined by J. thus 4 

^c j^*>~\ L\^AvJ! " the support is information of the 
way by which the text has come down," 

and by H. : 

8 35; ,.~:>Xl! aJLspt * vi>j>X=>-! uAJ-i3 >-X~U*Ji "the support is the 
course of descent of the tradition, consisting of its guarantees, by whom 
it is reported." 

The term ^LLw^l is often used as synonymous with t\M*3|, 
though properly signifying " the action of supporting." J. says :|| 

&Lls ,Ji viv.iA=l s^ _jP i>U-w^i " the term ^U///^! denotes the car- 
rying up of tradition to its original enunciator ;" 

and H. says:^[ 

'j\ v.Jby3 ^ iubCrii,, L\-L**J1 -To ^^*f. ^^. ^3 Lov. kiLywiH} 

"the term i>'jjw^^ has the same meaning [as OUUJt], but is also, in- 
deed, used to signify the statement of the support, and the giving 
account of the way by which a text has come down." 

The text of a tradition consists either of a saying (Jyui), or 
of an action (Jjtaj'5), or of a confirmation (pfy&dl), of the Prophet; 
of which the last is involved in the two former, according to a 
definition of it which H. gives us:** 


* page 1. f fol. 1, rect. | page 1. fol. 1, rect. 

| page 1. [ fol. 1, rect. ** fol. 1, rect. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 87 

** the term .j j&l\ signifies that some one either did or said something 
JH the presence of the Prophet . . . and that he did not blame him, nor 
forbid him to do or say that thing, but on the contrary was s lent and 
confirmed it." 

What is to be understood by a saying, and by an action, of the 
Prophet, as constituting the substance of tradition, is set forth in 
the Dictionary of the Technical Terms ... in the following passage :* 

" The science of tradition is that by which sayings and actions of the 
Prophet . . . are authenticated. As to his sayings . . . , they consist of 
discourse in the Arabic language ; so that one who is not familiar with 
the genius of Arabic discourse can not attain to this science. What is 
said is something by itself or in its connection, metaphorical or literal, 
general or special, absolute or qualified, express or implied, and the like, 
in conformity with the rules of the Arabic language, as set forth distinct- 
ively by the grammarians, and with the principles of Arab usage, exhib- 
ited in the science of lexicography. As to his actions . . . , they are 
things of which he set the example, whether he commanded us to imi- 
tate him therein or not for instance, actions which he exemplified out 
of natural impulse or in consequence of some individual peculiarity." 

This classification of the texts of tradition will facilitate the 
understanding of certain expressions in passages presently to be 
quoted from our authorities. With respect to the comparative 
weight of a tradition, however, its support, and not its text, is 
primarily considered : in other words, the Muslim man of the 
law receives or rejects tradition on external evidence, rather than 
internal. J. tells us expressly :f 

* page 27. t P a S e 

88 E. R Salisbury, 

- ..J^t 


" Be it known that the text itself of a tradition is but rarely taken 
into account : on the contrary, a tradition is qualified as strong, or weak, 
or intermediate, with reference to the qualities of integrity, retentiveness, 
and good memory, and their opposites and intermediates, possessed by 
the reporters, as well as with reference to continuousness (JLaJ"^!) or 
disseverance (cLIaiJ^I), looseness (jLpM), instability (u-^-^ 5 "^)* and 
the like, in the support : on this ground, then, tradition is divided into 

sound (<2vA^>), fair ( .~H*^>~), and weak (OUJLO). When reference is 
\fj / ^i_j ' 

made to the qualities of reporters, one is said to be reliable (&&'), up- 
right (J^c), retentive ( JOJ'UD), or not reliable (& ,A), fanciful (*A^*), 
ignored (J^-g^), false (> j^uVf ), and the like giving rise to discussion 
in respect to confutation (r^r?-) and approbation QucXxXll). When the 
question is, how the reporters came to get a tradition, and by what 
ways they took it up, there arises discussion in respect to modes of pur- 
suing inquiry. When their names and surnames are looked into, there 
is inquisition regarding their identification and individualization. Con- 
sequently, our propositions are arranged in four chapters." 

"We proceed, therefore, to follow our authorities in their defini- 
tions of certain varieties of support to tradition, which constitute, 
together with distinctions in regard to the qualifications of the 
responsible teacher, the chief ground of the classification of tra- 
dition as sound, fair, or weak. From the definition of the science 
of tradition with which we began, and which is substantially 
repeated in our last quotation from the Dictionary of the Tech- 
nical Terms . . . , it is obvious that the ultimate design of what is 
called " the support" must be to attach the authority of Muham- 
mad to some saying or action reported as his, or sanctioned by 
him ; and here is to be observed, in the first place, that tradition 
is said to be carried back to the Prophet either positively or 
potentially, as in the following passage from H. :* 


* fol. l.rect. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 89 

aJJ! ^ oof, ^L^AoM i^ST JUilS J, \^ $3 aoi fa 
Joe xjt jJLvj, xJLc xUS ^JUo xU! 4>*^ a fr -^ '^ ^ f^*"- 5 ^^ 

" The carrying back (&~>\} is either positive or potential. 

" As to carrying back positively, that, in the case of a tradition of 
saying, is exemplified by this declaration of a witness of the Prophet : 
1 1 heard the Messenger of God . . . say so and so,' or by his or anoth- 
er's saying : ' Said the Messenger of God . . .' (or, ' It comes from the 
Messenger of God . . . that he said') 'so and so ;' or, in the case of a 
tradition of action, by the declaration of a witness of the Prophet : ' I 
saw the Messenger of God ... do so and so,' or ' It comes from the 
Messenger of God . . . that he did so and so,' or by the expression : ' It 
comes from a witness of the Prophet' (or, 'from some one else'), 'as a 
tradition carried back' (or, 'which he carried back to the Prophet'), 
' that he did so and so ;' or, in the case of a tradition of confirmation, 
by the declaration of a witness of the Prophet, or of some one else, in 
the following words: 'Such a one' (or, 'A certain person') 'did so 
and so in the presence of the Prophet, and there is no account of his 
blaming him.' 

" As to carrying back potentially, that is exemplified by those state- 
ments of a witness of the Prophet which he makes independently of the 
authority of ancient books, and which cannot be ascribed to human ca- 
price (^LjiXs- 1 ^), respecting circumstances of past time, such as stories 
of the prophets or imams their conflicts and trials, for instance and 
respecting the terrors of the day of judgment, or the assignment to a 
certain action of a special reward, or a special punishment ; for such in- 
formation can have been obtained only by a hearing from the Prophet . . . 
The potential carrying back may, also, be exemplified by the doing, on 
the part of a witness of the Prophet, of something in which human 

VOL. VII. 12 

90 & E. Salisbury, 

caprice could have had no concern ; or by his telling that people did so 
and so in the time of the Prophet ... or said so and so, inasmuch as it 
is obvious that the Prophet . . . must have given the suggestion, and that 
by divine inspiration ; or by the expression : ' so and so is a part of the 
Sunnah,' for the Sunnah is plainly the traditional law of the Messenger 
of God . . . , though some persons say that the term may signifv the 
traditional law of the Prophet's Companions and the traditional law of 
his orthodox successors, in which case Sunnah becomes a generic word." 

When, therefore, the authority of the Prophet is either posi- 
tively or potentially attached to a tradition, it is said to be car- 
ried back (pjiyo) ; otherwise, it is said to be stopped (oViy)). 
But the varieties of support to tradition respect not the last link, 
alone, in the chain of connection with the Prophet : in determin- 
ing the quality of the support belonging to a particular tradition, 
the whole series of attestations through which it is handed down 
must also be considered. If all those which precede the last fol- 
low one another in uninterrupted succession, each reporter hav- 
ing derived the tradition immediately from him who is named 
next before him in the support, the tradition is said to be con- 
tinuous (J^aX*) : and this continuousness, combined with the car- 
rying back to the Prophet, constitutes a sustained (L\^V*/>) tradi- 
tion, that is, a tradition of which the support is perfect. Unin- 
terruptedness of succession, however, is far from marking the 
descent of every tradition ; and hence arise technical distinctions 
with reference to the several ways in which the want of it ap- 
pears. The following passage from H. sets forth the more im- 
portant of these distinctions ;* 

UuLu JzUu/^l ItAP laLw rf*** <Ai*J! Jt XJ U! 


o Lo 

:>iSP j4> sA-Lc oU*i O^o ^JLt & ^J Jo A^y 

U J^tj j.U^ L\ic *= ^ y^ jLftJ^ J-Jj 

* fol. 1, rect. and vent 

On the /Science of Muslim Tradition. 01 

A! ,Ji / 

alii JU? all! jj jLs l*^ iJji 

oLai A olai" 

Jo JJu ^ 5 iJLwjj ^ 'U^^P JoLc a 5o ^ ^ iJiiJ! ^ p^bu! o "i> 

-5>5 *^rt^ 

olftiSi .AC 

...'i' ...^ iCxftw'^! _- j- ^jjL^uJ! 8^3 ti5\Jo Q* LXJ;! 

a-oL*Ii ^otXju L! xlc 

^o.LJ! Jtc .LAd LVgJ^ *AjL^\ 

*bi;i ^xXj^ ^15 -v2j jj*JjU1 IaJLs * 

"4(5 s 


,, ^yix!! jls 

92 E. K Salisbury, 

, i 

_ ,L 

-tf-} ^axca .._c 

jj jj^T. ^U JiLaJ^I ya^UiJ Q^ Lx.! 5 
CT -^^^ *r>!$; ^i.^5^ ^^ XfltXcj j^?-! J. L_J a^ax vi^ut t2v ^ o^> ^ .a5>i 5 .i ^i> 



iOiXsli fcjy* 

On the /Science of Muslim Tradition. 93 

-ftJ^ftJ! ^c O. JLvw5 iV.r^ *J 

,..!/ ...!) 

" If DO one of the reporters lias dropped out from the chain of con- 
nection, the tradition is continuous (JsAoiL*), and the absence of all 
dropping out (_byuJ!) is called continuousness (jUzjl). If one re- 
porter has dropped out, or more, the tradition is dissevered 
and it is this dropping out which constitutes a disseverance 

" The dropping out may be [1] at the beginning of the support, and 
the tradition is then said to be given summarily (olLsw), the letting drop 
being in this case called a summary statement (oLd*j). Either one 
reporter or more may have dropped out ; or the complement of the 
support may have been entirely left off, after the manner of those 
authors who say: 'Said the Messenger of God . . .' Summary tradi- 
tions are numerous in the chapters of the Sahih of 'al-Bukhari, and are 
accounted as if they had continuousness, because it is strenuously main- 
tained that this book contains only sound tradition ; yet do they not 
rank with sound traditions which are sustained (tX~oL*w3), except those 
given as sustained in some other part of 'al-Bukhari's book. 

" A distinction, indeed, exists among these summary traditions, on 
the ground that such oik them as are given with an appearance of con- 
ciseness, and as something well-known for example, in the form : 
; Such a one says' imply the stability of their support in the opinion 
of 'al-Bukhari, so that they are decisively sound ; while in the case of 
such as are given in a form which indicates some defect, and that there 
is want of knowledge respecting them for example : ' It has been said,' 
or ' It is said,' or ' It is mentioned ' there may be a question as to 'al- 
Bukhari's opinion of their soundness, although, inasmuch as he intro- 
duces them into that book, they are firmly based, and people, therefore, 
say that the summary traditions of 'al-Bukhari are continuous and sound. 

" If the dropping out is [2] at the end of the support, then, in case 
it comes after a follower of the Prophet in the second degree r-xjLJl), 
the tradition is loosened (J^-) this participle being derived from 
the fourth form of the verb : as, for instance, the saying by a follower 
in the second degree : ' Said the Messenger of God . . .' The terms 
' loosened ' and ' dissevered ' are used, indeed, by teachers of the 
science as synonymous ; but the technical meaning above given to 
the latter is the most generally received. By most of the doctors, 
loosened tradition is accounted as stopped, because no one can know 
whether the reporter who has dropped out was a reliable authority 
(&&) or not, since one follower in the second degree may report on 
the word of another, and among such followers of the Prophet there 
were both reliable and unreliable authorities. According to 'Abu-Hani- 

94 E. E. Salisbury, 

fah* and Malik, however, loosened tradition is generally to be received ; 
and there are those who say that one lets a tradition go loose only 
because it is wholly indisputable and to be relied upon, since there can 
be no question except in regard to loosening by a reliable authority, 
and if, in the opinion of such a one, the tradition was not sound, he 
would not have let it go loose, and say : ' Said the Messenger of God . . .' 
The opinion of 'ash-Shafi'i was that, provided it be helped out by some 
other form of it, either loosened or sustained, it is to be received, even 
though it be weak. From 'Ahmadf we have two declarations of opin- 
ion, as follows : ' All this presupposes that the follower in the second 
degree is known to have been in the habit of letting tradition go loose 
only when supported by reliable authorities. If he was addicted to 
letting go loose in dependence upon both reliable and unreliable authori- 
ties, the tradition is by common consent adjudged to be stopped.' Such 
are the different views expressed. A fuller specification relative to the 
matter is presented by 'as-Sakhawi in his commentary on the 'Alfiyah.\ 

" If the dropping out is [3] in the midst of the support, then, in case 
two consecutive reporters have dropped out, the tradition is called 
straitened (J^cm/i) the participle being pronounced with fath on the 
dhad ; but, in case only one has dropped out, or more than one, not 
from the same place, it is called dissevered. Agreeably to this use. of 
terms, dissevered tradition is a subdivision of that which is not contin- 
uous : the term ' dissevered ' is, indeed, applied to tradition not contin- 
uous, in general, as comprehending all species of it ; but in the sense 
here given to it, it becomes a special term. 

"The fact of disseverance and of the dropping out of a reporter is 
ascertained by knowing that there was no concurrence between a cer- 
tain reporter and one reported from, in consequence either of the want 
of contemporaneousness or of association, or of the fact that the former 
was not licensed by the latter, as proved by the science of history, which 
tells the dates of the births and deaths of reporters, and the special 
circumstances of the times of their inquiry after traditions and journey- 
ing in quest of them : so that history becomes a radical and funda- 
mental science to the teachers of tradition. 

"Another of the varieties of dissevered tradition is the disguised 
((j*JjvII) the participle being pronounced with dkamm on the mini, 
and fa th on the lam, together with taskdtd : w the verbal noun being 
jMjJjoJt, and the active form of participle jJvX, with kasr on the 

lam. Its form depends upon a reporter's not naming his master, from 
whom he heard the tradition, but reporting on the authority of some 
one superior to him, in terms which convey the idea of his having 
heard from this other person, without direct falsehood as if, for exam- 
ple, he should say : ' On the authority of such a one, so and so,' or 

* 'Abu-Hanifah, the founder of a school of Muslim law, died A.H. 150-53. See 
Kitdb Tab.', v. 8. 

f i. e. 'Ahmad Bin Hanbal, the founder of one of the four great schools of 
Muslim law, who died A. H. 241. See Kitdb Tab., viii. 18. 

\ i. e. the 'Alfiyat 'al- Iraki a work on the principles of tradition. See Hdji 
Khalf. Ltx., i. 416' 418. The commentator died A. H. 902. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 95 

* Such a one says so and so.' In common parlance, the term 
has the signification of ' concealment of the defects of merchandise,' 
and is said to be derived from jj**XJ!, 'the involving in darkness, on 
purpose;' and the disguising of tradition is said to be called by this term 
because it partakes of the insidiousness involved in such concealment. 

" Says the Shaikh :* ' It is not judged proper to receive tradition 
from any one who countenance's disguising, except when he distinctly 
states by whom he was taught.' Says 'ash-Shumunni :f ' In the opinion 
of the eminent teachers, disguising is forbidden.' From Wakfj it is 
reported that he said: 'Disguising in the case of clothes [offered for 
sale] is unlawful : how then must it be with disguising practised on tra- 
dition ?' Shu'bah, also, was earnest in condemnation of it. But, as 
to the reception of the report of one who disguises, there is diversity 
of sentiment on the part of the doctors. Certain traditionists and 
jurisconsults think that disguising amounts to a confutation (_.:>), and 
that the tradition of any one who is notorious for it is absolutely not to 
be received ; others say that it may be received. Most persons, how- 
ever, approve of receiving tradition which is disguised by one who is 
understood to have had, in all cases, good authority for what he dis- 
guised, such as 'Ibn 'Uyainah, and of rejecting the report of any one 
accustomed to disguise tradition which he was taught by weak authori- 
ties, or others not reliable, except when he expressly declares from 
whom he heard the tradition, using the words: 'I have heard,' or 
' Such a one tells us for a tradition,' or ' Such a one informs us.' 

" The inducement to disguising, in the case of some men, is certainly 
a corrupt motive, as, for example, to hide the fact of one's having heard 
a tradition from one's real master, on account of his youth, or his want 
of reputation and consequence among men. But the disguising prac- 
tised by some of the great reporters cannot be ascribed to such a motive, 
and must, on the contrary, be owing to their assurance in respect to the 
soundness of a tradition, and to their thinking it enough that the cir- 
cumstances of the case were generally known. Says 'ash-Shumunni : 
' It may be that one has heard the tradition from several reliable author- 
ities, on the word of that guarantee whom he names; so that he is 
content to mention the latter, without mentioning either one or all of 
the former, on account of that confidence in the matter with which the 
soundness of the tradition inspires him ; which is like what the reporter 
does who lets a tradition go loose.' 

"If it happens that there is disagreement among reporters, in respect 
either to a support or a text, in consequence of transposition, addition 
or curtailment, or substitution either of one reporter or of one text for 
another, or error as to the names belonging to the support, or as to the 

* i. e. 'Abu-Hanifah. 

f Probably Taki 'ad-Din 'ash-Shumunni, the teacher of 'as-Suyuti in tradition, 
who died A. H. 872. See Hdji Khalf. Lex,, iv. 59, and vii. 614. 

\ A traditionist of Kufah. He died A. H. 189. See Kitdb Tab., vi. 63. 

An eminent traditionist and jurist of Basrah, -who died A. H. 160. See Kitdb 
Tab., v. 28. 

96 E. E. Salisbury, 

parts of which the text consists, whether owing to compression, omis- 
sion, or the like, the tradition becomes unstable (>-j Ja*i^c). In case any 
one form of the tradition can be agreed upon, under such circumstances, 
it is well ; otherwise, the tradition is stopped. 

" If a reporter has interwoven a remark of his own, or of some wit- 
ness of the Prophet, or follower in the second degree designed, for 
instance, for some such purpose as to explain the common meanings of 
words, or to interpret the sense, or to limit a general expression, or the 
like the tradition becomes involved ( ,vX<). 

" Section of a Warning. 

" The topic last suggested leads us to speak, also, of the reporting of 
a tradition, and its transmission, by the sense. In regard to this, there 
is difference of opinion. The great majority of persons think it allow- 
able on the part of one so conversant with the Arabic language, skilled 
in the modes of discourse, and acquainted with the niceties of compo- 
sition and the implied meanings of language, that he is not subject to 
err, either by adding to or taking from the sense. Others say that it is 
allowable as respects single words, not as respects phrases. Again, it 
is said by some to be allowable for one who recalls the words of the 
tradition, so that he is able to use discretion in the matter. It is also 
said that necessity in respect to making out judicial decisions renders it 
allowable for one who remembers the sentiments of tradition, but has 
forgotten the words in which they are expressed ; while, on the other 
hand, one who remembers the words is not to be allowed to report by 
the sense, because there is no necessity. But does not all this difference 
of opinion respecting its admissibility and its inadmissibility amount to 
the principle that to report in the very words, without using any lib- 
erty, is the more proper way ? Accordingly, on account of a saying of 
the Prophet . . . ' God will assuredly cheer the face of him who hears 
my sentences, and retains them in memory, and recites them in the veuy 
words of tradition which he has heard,' it is so agreed. Yet transmis- 
sion by the sense occurs in the Six Books, as well as in other works. 

"The term bsa*A*JI signifies the reporting of tradition by the expres- 
sion : ' On the authority of such a one, on the authority of such a 
one,' and what is called tradition on authority Qyuotl!) is that which 
is reported in this form. Muslim makes it a condition of reporting by 
the expression mentioned, that the two persons thus named were con- 
temporaneous : 'al-Bukhari requires that they have met ; and others 
say that one must have taken the tradition from the other; but Muslim 
is strenuous and persistent in rejecting the views of the two latter par- 
ties. The reporting by this expression of a tradition also disguised 
is inadmissible. 

" Every tradition carried back to the Prophet, of which the support 
is continuous, is sustained (<X^) : this is universally acknowledged 
and held to. But some persons call every continuous tradition sus- 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 97 

ta'ned, although it be stopped, or fall short of the Prophet ; and some 
call a tradition sustained which is carried back, even though it be oos- 
ened, or straitened, or dissevered." 

Certain other technical distinctions, by which the weight of a 
tradition is affected, involving comparison between one tradition 
and another, in respect either to the text or the support, are 
presented in the following section, which is a continuation of 
the passage last cited from H. :* 

XaJL5?u! Xo yj-t^ oLiJ! ^i l^yuio ^ *-*^*- 

U oUxii jjJLa,, LftA*xa _,\ Uyi 

L Alt .\*.5 ^'jjwi 'JJ! ^.NxflJ 

JLc K^l xatiiS 

u La -tf*) ^J **j'j' JtX^si Jb L 

uJOs *)j ,,-jjyij,) x^.* 

* fed. 2, rect. 

98 E. E. Salisbury, 


" Section. 
"Other subdivisions of tradition are the separate (3LiJI), the unde- 

termined ((XC^), and the specious (A 

" The term oLiwi , in common parlance, signifies one who stands 
apart from the multitude, or comes out therefrom. In technical lan- 
guage, it denotes that which is reported at variance with the report of 
reliable authorities (oLaiJt). lf ? therefore, its reporters are not reliable, 
it is to be rejected ; but, in case they are reliable, the method to be 
pursued in regard to it is to give the preference to whichever tradition 
has the greater degree of memory and retentiveness, or the larger num- 
ber, on its side, or to choose between them according to other criteria 
of relative weight. That which preponderates, then, is called remem- 
bered tradition (JsyLs?), and the one of inferior weight is called sepa- 

"Undetermined (,Xl^) tradition is that which is reported by a weak 
reporter, at variance with one less weak than himself. Its con-elate is 
recognized tradition (o^jtli). Accordingly, both the undetermined 
and the recognized are reported by weak authorities, of whom one is 
weaker than the other ; whereas the reporters of separate and of re- 
membered tradition differ from each other in relative strength. Yet 
both the separate and the undetermined are overbalanced sorts of tradi- 
tion, while the remembered and the recognized are two preponderating 
varieties. Some persons, however, do not make it a condition of sepa- 
rate and undetermined tradition, that one reporter differs to some extent 
from another, being either strong or weak, and say that the separate 
is that which a reliable authority reports alone, and for which is found 
no original that accords with it and gives it countenance ; and that 
such tradition is trustworthy, inasmuch as it is upheld by a single 
sound reliable authority. Others, again, not taking into account either 
the existence of a reliable authority, or the fact of variance between 
two reporters, give a different definition of the undetermined from that 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 99 

above stated, and call that tradition undetermined which comes from a 
reporter who is dishonored by some impiety, or by excess of careless- 
ness and great blundering. The technical terms of which we here 
speak are used with freedom. 

"Specious tradition QJl*!t) the participle being pronounced with 
fath on the lam is so named from the fact that certain hidden, subtle 
pretences and assumptions, injurious to its soundness, are involved in its 
support, which put upon their guard acute and skillful traditionists, in 
like manner as they are cautious of some loosening in the case of tradi- 
tion [apparently] unbroken, and of some stoppage in that [which pro- 
fesses to be] carried back to the Prophet, and the like. The term is 
sufficiently explained by the use of JJjttI with kasr on the lam to 
signify the action of instituting a specious argument against one's claim, 
after the manner of the money-changer who selects the better dinar, 
or dirham. 

" When one reporter has reported a tradition, and another reports a 
tradition answering thereto, the latter is called imitative tradition (*ut*x) 
the participle having the active form. This explains the saying of 
teachers of tradition: 'Such a one imitates it;' instead of which 
'al-Bnkhari and other teachers often use the expression : ' There are 
imitations of it.' Imitation serves for corroboration and helping out, 
though imitative tradition is not necessarily equal in grade to its orig- 
inal : it accords with the fact of imitation that it should be of inferior 
grade. A reporter may himself be imitated, or the imitation may be 
of a master above him in the chain of connection : the former case 
comes nearer to the ultimate aim and perfection of this sort of tradition 
than the latter, because the first part of a support is the most liable to 
be weak. If imitative tradition agrees with its original both in words 
and in meaning, it is said to be its like (J^) ; if it agrees in meaning, 
but not in words, it is said to be its equivalent (_^). It is a condition 
of imitation, that both traditions be from one witness of the Prophet. 
In case they come from two witnesses, the imitated tradition is said to 
have testimony (u\PLi) in its favor, as, for example, it is said : ' It has 
testimony in its favor in the tradition of 'Abu-Hurairah ;' another ex- 
pression is : 'It is testified to by so and so,' or ' The tradition of such a 
one bears testimony to it.' Some persons, however, appropriate 'imita- 
tion' to an agreement in Avords, and use the term 'attesting tradition' 
((APUiJi) to signify accordance in meaning, whether the two traditions 
compared are from one witness of the Prophet or from two. Attesting 
tradition and the imitative are, indeed, loosely spoken of in one and the 
same sense ; in Avhich case the matter is to distinguish. To follow out 
the ways by which a tradition has come down, and the supports con- 
sisting thereof, in order to the recognition of imitative and attesting 
tradition, is called criticism ( .UXc^)." 

The technical distinctions which have been stated and ex- 
plained in these last extracts, together with the definitions per- 
taining to the qualifications of the responsible teacher, previously 

100 E. E. Salisbury, 

given, lie at the foundation of the more comprehensive classifi- 
cation of tradition as sound, fair, and weak, which is itself recog- 
nized by the Muslims as the basis of all legal opinions derived 
from traditional sources. What then are sound, fair, and weak 
traditions? The following explanations from H. afford an an- 
swer to this inquiry :* 

b^ Ja^nli iAir.^ Ui! 

(3 ^ 

U j.c. 


LO..C L^i 
ii ^ oLxJ! ^fNJtr. jsb As v-^oytHj ijiS *JL>-. 

* fol. 2, rect, and fol. 3, recL 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 101 

u* US' o'J&U kSiJli^ .Lift! c 

a<: J>UiJ! 


102 E. E. Salisbury, 



j> Q QJ _ 


Xxi! -, 



" Section. 

Traditions are generically distinguished as sound (^N^VX>), fair 
and weak (OUJLCS). 

Sound tradition is the highest in grade, the weak is the lowest, and 
the fair stands mid-way ; and all the above mentioned subdivisions are 
Comprehended under these three denominations. 

" Now then, that tradition which is established by the transmission 
of an upright and perfectly retentive reporter, and which is not spe- 
cious, nor separate, is sound. If it have all these qualities in complete- 
ness, it is intrinsically sound (fciluXJ *^>vxiji); but, if some sort of de- 
ficiency pertains to it, and this deficiency is found to be made up by 
multiplicity of ways in which the tradition has come down, then it is 
^xtrinsically sound (s^-^*] ^s^U*J!). If its deficiency is not made up, 
it becomes intrinsically fair (*i''iAJ ^.^*j*!). That tradition in which 
either all or some of the conditions noted as belonging to the sound 
are wanting, is weak. If a weak tradition has come down by a num- 
ber of different ways, and its internal character is that which consti- 
tutes its weakness, it is called extrinsically fair (j**J tf"*^)- There is 
A way of talking which plainly implies that all the qualities above 
named as belonging to sound tradition may be deficient in the fair : 
the truth, however, is that the deficiency made account of in fair traJi- 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 103 

tion consists only in a want of weight of retentiveness on the part of 
its reporters, while all the other qualities of the sound remain intact. 

" Section. 

" Sound tradition reported by one reporter is called unrelated tradi- 
tion (<^o_c); if it come from two reporters, it is called rare tradition 
(iJit) ; if its reporters are more in number, it is called notorious 
(^j^.i*x) or wide-spread (juxax*.*x) tradition; if its reporters are so 
numerous that the supposition of an agreement to deceive is made ab- 
surd by the habitual repetition of it, it is called reiterated tradition 

" Unrelated tradition is also called unique (^), and what is meant 
by its being reported by one reporter is that it stands thus by itself: 
if, indeed, this is true of it as regards only one link in the support, it 
is called relatively unique ((S:**J v>J) ; but if as regards every link per- 
taining thereto, it is called absolutely unique (OUii* ^j*)- The mean- 
ing of a tradition's being from two reporters is that it has two reporters 
at each liuk in its support : should this be true of it at only one point, 
the tradition is not rare, but unrelated. Multiplicity of reporters, as 
made account of in the case of notorious tradition, is to be understood 
after this analogy, to mean that there are more than two at each link in. 
the support. Such is the signification of the common saying that the 
less overrules the more in respect to this species. Be, therefore, wary. 

" From what has been said one may know that the fact of a tradition 
being unrelated is not inconsistent with soundness, and that it is sound 
without affinity (^o-c. ^r^ 3 ), provided each of the guarantees making 
up its line of descent be a reliable authority. The term 'unrelated' is 
also used as synonymous with ' separate,' that is, separate by a want of 
analogy which constitutes one of the forms in which tradition is dis- 
honored : such is the meaning of a remark made by the author of the 
Mosabih* namely : * As stated by him, this tradition is unrelated,' for 
he would intimate that the tradition is dishonored. Some persons, how- 
ever, as before said, explain the terra 'separate' to mean tradition 
which has but one reporter, whether he be at variance with reliable au- 
thorities or not, and say : ' sound and separate,' or ' sound not separate :' 
in this sense, separateness, being nothing more than the fact that a tra- 
dition is unrelated, is not inconsistent with soundness. But that sepa- 
rateness which is intended to attach dishonor to a tradition, must be 
variance from reliable authorities. 

" Section. 

"Weak tradition is that in which either all or some othe conditions 
considered as requisite to soundness and fairness are wanting of which, 
therefore, the reporter is marked by something of separateness, inde- 

* i. e. Mosabih 'qs-Sunnah, a collection of traditions made by 'al-Baghawi, who 
died A. H. 516. The Mishkdt 'al-Masdbih mentioned in our introductory remarks 
is a recension of this work. See Hdji Khalf. Lex., v. 564, ff. 

101 E. E. Salisbury, 

terminateness, or speciousness. This definition is, in effect, an enumer- 
ation of the subdivisions of weak tradition. It is more or less weak 
according as its characteristics exist singly or in combination. 

"The degrees of sound and fair tradition, also including both the 
intrinsically and the extrinsically sound and fair vary according to the 
gradations and measures therein existing of completeness in respect to 
the qualities noted and assumed as belonging to the conception of the 
two respectively, there being in all a participation in the fundamental 
quality of soundness or fairness. Certain persons have noted down and 
distinguished the several degrees of soundness, and cited supports ex- 
emplifying them ; and it is their declaration that uprightness and reten- 
tiveness are qualities possessed in common by all guarantees constituting 
supports of that character, though some s,uch supports take precedence 
over others. 

" With regard to what particular support should be viewed as abso- 
lutely the soundest, there is difference of opinion. Some say that the 
soundest of all supports is: 'Zain 'al-'Abidin, on the authority of his 
father, on the authority of his grandfather;' others that it is: 'Malik, 
on the authority of 'Ibn 'Uraar ;' others again give the preeminence to : 
' 'Az-Zuhri, on the authority of Salirn. on the authority of 'Ibn 'Umar.' 
But the truth is that to attribute to any particular support the quality 
of preeminent soundness, absolutely, is not allowable : we can only dis- 
tinguish higher degrees of soundness from those which are lower, and 
a number of representative supports, taken together, from certain others. 
If a limitation is indicated, by saying that such is ' the soundest tradi- 
tion of the country so and so' (or, 'under such a head,' or, 'on such ft 
topic,') it is all right God knows. 

" Section. 

"Among the expressions habitually used by 'at-Tarmidhi in his Jdmi\ 
are the following : ' a fair and sound tradition,' ' an unrelated and fair 
tradition,' and 'a fair, unrelated and sound tradition.' Now, there is 
no doubt that, inasmuch as a tradition may be fair, as viewed by itself, 
and at the same time sound, taken in connection with other traditions, 
fairness and soundness may be combined ; so, too, the quality of being 
unrelated is compatible with soundness, as we have already stated. 
But the combination with fairness of the quality of being unrelated is 
found difficult to be understood, since 'at-Tarmidht considered multi- 
plicity of ways of descent to be a characteristic of fair tradition ; for 
how, then, can fair tradition be unrelated ? To this it is replied, that 
the consideration of multiplicity of ways of descent as a characteristic 
of fair tradition is not absolute, but has reference to one subdivision of 
it, and that, wherever tradition is represented as combining fairness with 
the quality of being unrelated, another subdivision of fair tradition 
must be intended. Some persons, however, say that the author makes 
allusion, in that expression, to the descent of a tradition by various 
ways, it having come down unrelated by one way, and fair by another. 
It is also said that the conjunction 5 [in the expression "unrelated 
and fair"] may be interpreted as equivalent to ^5, denoting a doubt 
and indecision whether the tradition was unrelated, or fair, from the 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 105 

want of definite knowledge. Another suggestion is that ' fair,' in the 
case referred to, has not its technical meaning, but its signification as 
used in common parlance, denoting that by which man is naturally 
attracted which is very far-fetched. 

" Section. 

"It is universally agreed that, in judicial decisions, one may argue 
from a traditional statement ( j*->5) which is sound ; and most of the 
doctors allow of arguing, in like manner, from one which is intrinsic- 
ally fair, and such tradition is actually coupled with the sound in argu- 
mentation, although its grade is inferior. Such weak tradition, also, as 
attains, by multiplicity of ways of descent, to the rank of extraneously 
fair, is used together with the other sorts. The widely received opin- 
ion that weak tradition is to be taken into account on the subject of 
the active virtues, though not on any other topic meaning single 
traditions of this sort, not a combination of several, for otherwise they 
should be called fair, arid not weak is distinctly expressed by eminent 
teachers : and some of them say that, if a tradition is weak on account 
of defective memory, or confusion, or disguising, while yet the reporter 
was truthful and religious, it may be elevated in rank by multiplicity 
of ways of descent ; but that, if it is weak on account of a falsifying 
indulgence of fancy, or separateness, or blamable error, it is not 
elevated by multiplicity of ways of descent, and is judged to be weak, 
and treated accordingly, even on the subject of the active virtues. 
Agreeably to some such explanation must, also, be understood the 
saying that the coupling of the weak with the weak hinders not force ; 
otherwise, this saying is manifestly incorrect. Proceed, therefore, with 

Another statement of the distinctive peculiarities of sound,. 
fair, and weak tradition, as well as of the subordinate varie- 
ties included in each of these leading divisions, is presented in 
one of the chapters of J., which we here give entire, as follows :* 

j1 La ^ 
It Jutfuib ^oJUj 
It OiXaJLj tkSjywc Uisb> OJ X: 

i Lo 's 

* pages 1-5. 

VOL. VII. 14 

106 E. E. Salisbury, 

to Ju3, 

j L-i Jlc 
sj! Lo Jf aulc Uwji La ^j^\x=J! 

i jJLc Q!^ U ^5 JL**x j *XRJ! L 
Lo Jf ^JLvvo _bi Jf 

* Lalj 

CT L5J^3 
\ . 

U 3 

Lj xlc x^y. Jf jSTls o UaS (Jj^ A^ jj*^ xJc zJJt 

Us! eAjj^^. oyj O LA> ^j! Jo 

LiJI ^ + i^Ca Pl tXJLc " 


Li s 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 107 

O La -vS 

Q j- 


v^ftAJtOaJb *J _>^ol.J _}-=>* 3! &iix X>j -^c Q- ^_5>-J it^ 
_j! i-j 

- 1 jis ^x 

^ -L^uJI Lfxi ^ J^LMO Q'U^L> Q-^5 tfwoLat! ,3 

A^UJ ^ jJiwi., *J_jt. u^AXls v^JLouii!! Lo!^ **+ *J 
ig^Ji jo xooj-s Jljtj f 5 t.JLb vj^jt 

108 E. K Salisbury, 

cr J^ r c ^- 


La Jijli u>J^ 


alii JLo jJ! fci5otXs> Us 

,* c 
La LJw4 y^uotca!! .vw^L xx^UoJI cvci l\xii-l *ww*J5^1 X^J uiJCXo Lo 


Csi 13! Jo^x^ w! ^s-s^Ui!!.) ^^13 ^c ^bU iXLw ^ jUb 

.^U^I QJ^ jis (J^SS^UoI! ^ c0 3 t .AS,, (j-vJjOd! Q 8*L 

|j bjL>^j ^ ^ JLjuu-t w,l5 Lo 3 li. 

Lo oil*;!. -w^-. *vj - 

^c Jo Ul JLs 


' U o.t: LJ' 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 

..JOs ^ O- 


_ . 





c^ 5 Lo 
a-y^ Xf:L*j>- Xi vXfij --^ 


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5_b ^ iuLiSLi v^^0 

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i^ U5" 



E. E. Salisbury, 


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c L\*>J "^ ( 


o Lo 


AC KaJLs?., 


On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 

Q^ rf>^ ^jXlL JJliW jPj 

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112 & E. Salisbury, 

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- - iuw 

I Liis *jb> Jlc wJk> "^ Li iCA 



" Kinds and Species of Tradition, in Three Sections. 


" Sound Tradition. 

" This is that of which the support is continuous, by the transmission 
of an upright and retentive reporter, on the authority of his like, and 
which is free from separateness and speciousness. We mean by ' con- 
tinuous' that which is not, in any manner whatever, interrupted (cjia&a) ; 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 113 

by 'upright,' one whose uprightness is neither doubtful nor dishonored; 
by ' retentive,' one who is vigilant to remember ; our use of ' separate- 
ness' refers to that which a reliable authority reports at variance with 
the general report; and under 'speciousness' we allude to tradition in 
which certain hidden, subtle assumptions, injurious to its character, are 
involved. The degrees of sound tradition differ from one another in 
proportion to the strength or weakness of its conditions. 'Al-Bukhari 
was the first to compose a book of sound tradition alone ; the next was 
Muslim ; and their two books are the most perfect of all books after the 
Glorious Book of God : as for the saying of 'ash-Shafi'i to whom may 
God be merciful ! ' I know of no book, after the Book of God, more 
perfect than the Muwatta' of Malik,'* that was said before the existence 
of the books of 'al-Bukhari and Muslim. Now, the highest subdivision 
of sound tradition is that which these two authors agree in bringing 
forward ; the next is that which 'al-Bukhari alone presents ; then comes 
that which Muslim alone presents ; then that which accords with the 
conditioning of the two, although not given out by both ; then that 
which is in accordance with what 'al-Bukhari stipulates ; then that 
which accords with what Muslim stipulates ; and last, that which other 
eminent teachers regard as sound in all, seven subdivisions. 

"With respect to traditions, found in the two books, of whicli the 
reports are abridged numerous in the chapters of 'al-Bukhart, and 
very few in Muslim's book those of them which are given in an ex- 
pressly concise form, for example: 'Such a one says' (or 'did,' or 
' commands,' or 'reports,' or 'states,') ' [so and so],' as being well known, 
are judged to be sound ; but those which are given as if there were 
want of knowledge respecting them are not deemed sound, while yet 
their being brought forward in a book of sound tradition indicates the 
soundness of their originals. 

"The saying of 'al-Hakim,f that "al-Bukhari and Muslim chose to 
state, in their books, only those traditions which are reported by some 
well known witness of the Prophet, on the authority of the Messenger 
of God . . . , and handed down by two reliable authorities, and so con- 
tinued on ; and which are also reported by some well known follower 
of the Prophet in the second degree, on the authority of a witness, 
and so continued on ; and of which the like of this is true at each 
stage,' has been made the subject of dispute. The master MuM 'ad-din 
'an-NawawiJ to whom may God be merciful! denies that such stipu- 
lations were made by the two authors, because they actually give out 
traditions with only one support, as, for example, the tradition: *Ac- 

* The Muwatta' of Malik Bin 'Anas is by sonic Arab authors supposed to have 
been the earliest book composed bv a Muslim. Others give the preeminence to a 
collection of traditions made by 'Ibn Juruij. See Hdji Khalf. Lex., iii. 28. 

f 'Abu-'Ahmad of Nisapur, snrnamed the Great Judge ('al-Hakim 'al-Kabir), 
who is said to have been " preeminent in knowledge of the conditions of sound tra- 
dition," died A. H. 378. See Kitdb Tab., xii. 59. 

\ 'An-Nawawi of Damascus, the author of several useful -works on tradition and 
jurisprudence, and among others of a commentary on Muslim's collection of tradi- 
tions, which is frequently cited on the margin of the Dehli edition of this work, 
died A. H. 676. See Kitdb Tab., xx. 3. 

VOL. VII. 15 

114 E. E. Salisbury, 

tions are only according to intentions,'* of the like of which many 
are to be found in the two Snhihs. 'Ibn Hibbanf says that the tradi- 
tion : ' Actions are only according to intentions' belonged to the people 
of Madinah alone, and was not known among the inhabitants of 'Irak, 
nor of Makkah, nor'of Yaman, Syria, or Egypt, and that its reporter is 
Yahya Bin Sa'id 'al-Kattan, on the authority of Muhammad Bin 'Ibra- 
him, on the authority of 'Alkamah, on the authority of 'Umar Bin 
'al-Khattab to whom may God be gracious ! and it is thus handed 
down by 'al-Bukhari and Muslim, as well as by 'Abu-Dawud, 'at-Tar- 
midhi, 'an-Nasa'i and 'Ibn Majali, with some difference in respect to the 
reporters after Yahya, which may be ascertained by reference to the 
Suhihs of these authors. 

"Fair Tradition. 

"According to 'at-Tarmidhi, this is that of which the support includes 
no suspected reporter, and which is not separate, and is equivalently 
reported in some other form. According to 'al-Khattabl, J it is that 
given out by a recognized traditionist, of which the guarantees are per- 
sons of reputation, and which forms the centre of a cluster of tradi- 
tions ; and so dissevered tradition, and the like, in the view of this 
teacher, is that given out by some one not recognized, as also the dis- 
guised, in case there is no explanation of it. According to certain of 
the moderns, it is that in which there is something of weakness, and 
which, while almost up to the mark, may be regarded diversely, and is 
at the same time of a practical character. According to 'Ibn ; as-Salah, 
there are two subdivisions of it : first, that of which the support in- 
cludes some guarantee who is questionable, though not convicted of 

* This tradition, in the form " Actions are according to the intention," is found in 
one of the chapters of the Book of the Faith of 'al-Bukhari's Sahih. The heading 
of the chapter is as follows : 

luJs J^Jvi (^3 to j^yif (jJjj Ju*J&3 X&Jl jUetfl Q! *L> L i_jj 
J^ Jso jf JJ5 JlSj (.[<>% r _^ gJlj S 
*Jic. *JJi t^ J^ ^-^^ i4>-^^. *J^ ^Jlc Jo-y 

" Chapter of information that actions arc according to the intention and purpose, 
and that every man is credited for that which he intends ; so that intention compre- 
hends both belief, purification, prayer, alms-givina, pilgrimage and fasting, and 
the subordinate requirements of law as, indeed, it is said in the Kurdn [xvii. 86] 
' Declare thou, that whoever performs required action in purpose, i. e. so far as 
intention goes, etc. ; and a man's expenditure upon his people is there reckoned as 
alms-giving ; and it was a saying of the Prophet : ' . . . but a warring for the faith 
with an intention.'" See MS., fol. 5, rect. 

f 'Ibn Hibban of Samarkand, who was not only a jurist and traditionist, but also 
an astronomer, physician, etc., died A. H. 354. See Kitdb Tab., xii. 30. 

% Of Sabtah in Nbrth-W. Africa: he died A.H. 388. See Kitdb Tab., xiii. 20. 

By birth a Kurd, who became one of the most distinguished of the interpre- 
ters of the Kuran, and the traditionists and jurists of bis time : he died A. H. 643. 
See Kitdb Tab., xviii. 21. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 115 

carelessness in any report, and -which is reported in the same words, or 
equivalently, by another way of descent ; and second, that reported by 
a man of reputation for truthfulness and trustiness, though, in respect to 
memory and confidence of knowledge, of a grade below the guarantees 
of sound tradition so that it is not accounted as that sort of tradition 
received on a single authority, which is undetermined and both sub- 
divisions must necessarily be clear of separateness and speciousness. 
All these different views have been expressed. 

" The foundation of the statement of certain of the moderns is the 
principle that a knowledge of fair tradition depends upon a knowledge 
of the sound and the weak, because it stands midway between the two ; 
their expression ' almost up to the mark,' therefore, means that it is 
almost equal to sound tradition as regards the person who gives it out; 
and that it 'may be regarded diversely' signifies the possibility of its 
falsity, on account of the doubt which there is in respect to the char- 
acter of its guarantees. 

"The boundary-line between the sound and the fair is marked by the 
circumstance that, while the conditions of sound tradition are reckoned 
in for the definition of the fair, yet uprightness must be manifest, and 
confidence of knowledge perfect, for sound tradition which is not essen- 
tial for the fair ; and hence arises the necessity of that requisition signi- 
fied by the words above used : 'reported, in the same words or equiva- 
lently, by another way of descent,' in order that one tradition may make 
good the other. Weak tradition, then, is that which is brought out by 
a reporter widely differing in character from one who brings out sound 
tradition, and which may be either true or false, or cannot be supposed 
unconditionally true, as, for example, suppositious tradition. The name 
of 'fair' is given to tradition only on account of the fairness of the 
reputation of its reporter ; and if one should say that fair tradition is 
that which is sustained, given out by a reporter nearly equal in grade 
to the reliable authority, or that which a reliable authority lets go loose, 
being in either case reported also by another way of descent, and free 
from all separateness and speciousness that would be the most com- 
prehensive and exact, and the least involved, definition : by the expres- 
sion 'sustained' we mean that of which the support is continuous to its 
end ; and by ' the reliable authority,' one who unites uprightness and 
retentiveness we say, indefinitely, 'a reliable authority' [in the ex- 
pression : 'that which a reliable authority lets go loose'], because our 
meaning, which we shall explain under the head of loosened tradition, 
is too well known to need specification. 

" Fair tradition is legal proof, like the sound, and, so far as that goes, 
is ranked with the latter : says 'Ibn 'as-Salah : ' There is a lack of strict- 
ness in Muhi 'as-sunnah's designation of traditions as fair, in the Ma- 
sabth, because among those so called are included both sound and fair 
and weak.' But 'at-Tarmidhi's expression : ' a fair and sound tradition' 
signifies that it is reported with two supports, of y/hich the one makes 
it to have the quality of soundness, and the other that of fairness; or 
else the meaning of 'fair' is that recognized in common parlance, 
namely, something towards which man's sensitive nature is attracted, 
and which it esteems. 

116 E. E. Salisbury, 

"The reporting of a fair tradition by some other way of descend 
may elevate it from the rank of the fair to that of the sound, for its 
strength lies in both aspects of it, and so the one way of descent may 
be helped out by the other: \ve mean by 'elevation' ('i^l\] that a 
tradition partakes of the strength of sound tradition, not that it is in- 
trinsically sound. As to weak tradition, inasmuch as the reporter of 
such is chargeable with either falseness or impiety, it cannot be strength- 
ened by multiplicity of ways of descent, which is true, for example, of 
the tradition: 'The investigation of science is a revealed requirement:' 
this tradition, in the words of 'al-Baihaki, is one widely known among 
men, with a weak support it is reported, indeed, by many ways of de- 
scent, every one of which is weak. 

" Weak Tradition. 

" This is that which does not embrace the conditions of the sound 
and the fair. It varies in degrees of weakness in proportion as it is 
remote from the conditions of soundness and fairness. In the opinion 
of the doctors, a laxity respecting the supports of weak tradition, with 
the exception of the suppositions, is admissible, to the neglect of any 
declaration of its weakness, in the case of admonitions, narratives, and 
the active virtues, but not when the tradition lias reference to the 
attributes of the Supreme God, or to judicial decisions with regard to 
the lawful and the forbidden. The practice of 'an-Nasa'i is said to have 
been to give out tradition on the. authority of any one whom men had 
not agreed to abandon as a guide ; 'Abu-Dawud was accustomed to take 
whatever offered, to give out weak tradition when he found no other 
under a particular head, and to ascribe to that a weight superior to 
the mere judgment of the guarantees ; 'ash-Sha'bi,* also, is said to have 
remarked : 'Whatever these persons tell thee for a tradition, take it up ; 
but cast away from thee what they say on their own judgment,' and 
another saying of his is the following : ' Opinion is carrion when need 
requires, eat it ;' of 'ash-Shaft'i to whom may God be merciful ! we 
are told that he said : ' Whatever I declare as a saying of the Prophet 
. .. . , or lay down as a principle, by the expression : " on the authority 
of the Messenger of God . . . ," at variance with something otherwise 
said by me, the true saying is that of the Prophet . . . , which I hereby 
make my declaration, to the refutation of anything so said by me [to 
the contrary]' of which there are numerous interpretations, some 
applying it to all three divisions of tradition, to wit, the sound, the fair, 
and the weak, and some restricting it to the weak. 

" Now to the first kind of tradition pertain the following: 
[1.] "The sustained (i-XJ-<*.i>), namely, that of which the support is con- 
tinuous, being at the same time carried back to the Messenger of God. . . . 

* 'Ash-Slia'bi died A. II. 96. He reported traditions on the wars of (lie Prophet 
" Xo man tells me a tradition without my remembering it," was another of his say- 
ings. See Kitdb Tab., iii. 11. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 117 

[2.] "The continuous (JJdJii!), namely, that of which the support is 
continuous, whether it be carried back to the Prophet ... or stopped. 

[3.] " The carried back (, or that which is attributed to the 
Prophet . . . , as his in particular, of saying, or action, or confirmation, 
whether it be continuous or dissevered : so that continuous tradition may 
be either carried back or not carried back, and tradition which is carried 
back may be either continuous or not continuous ; whereas sustained 
tradition is both continuous and carried back. 

[4.] "Tradition on authority (.yoLxIi), namely, that which is sup- 
ported by the expression : 'Such a one says on the authority of such 
a one,' which may be correctly viewed as continuous, in case the two 
persons can have met, and provided there be no disguising, of which 
examples are to be found in the SaMh of 'al-Bukhari as well as in that 
of Muslim. 'Ibn 'as-Salah says : ' In our time, and within a short period, 
there has been much use made of the expression " on the authority of," 
in the act of license ; but, when one says : " Such a one says on the 
authority of a certain guarantee, on the authority of such a one," it is 
most likely that the tradition is dissevered, and that without being so 
much as a loosened tradition.' 

[5.] " The summarily given (vJlUil), namely, that from which one 
reporter, or more, of the support, has been cut off at the beginning 
the term being derived from the closing up of a wall, or the despatch of 
a writing of divorce, a cutting short of connection being implied in those 
two actions. There may be a cutting off either [a] at the beginning of 
the support, in which case the tradition is summarily given, or [b] in the 
middle, which makes it dissevered, or [c] at the end, whereby it be- 
comes loosened. 'Al-Bukhari admits many traditions of this species into 
his Sahih, nor is any summary tradition, contained in that book, out of 
place, because either the reliable authorities depended upon in the 
summary statement of it have caused it to be recognized, or else it is 
mentioned by the author, in some other part of his book, as a continu- 
ous tradition. 

[6.] " Unique traditions(oLs^l). A tradition may be unique either as 
regards all reporters, or in a certain respect, as, for example, that the peo- 
ple of Makkah alone report it ; unique tradition, therefore, is not weak, 
unless the term be used to signify that one single reporter gives it out. 

[7.] "The involved (^ .iXil), consisting of the words of some reporter 

interwoven with a tradition, so that they are believed to form a part of 
it. It may also happen that two texts, having two supports, are woven 
together, as in the case of the report of Sa'id Bin 'Abu-Miryain : ' Hate 
ye not one another, neither be envious one of another, nor turn the back 
upon one another, nor be rivals one of another,' where the words : ' nor 
be rivals one of another' are interwoven by 'Ibn 'Abu-Miryam from an- 
other text ; or else a reporter may lay hold of some text, at the end of 
a tradition, together with some master's support which belongs to an- 
other text, and then report both texts on the authority of that master, 
with one support, the two supports being reduced to one ; or else he may 
hear a single tradition from a number of persons, who differ in respect 

118 E. E. Salisbury, 

either to its support or its text, and thereupon, by interweaving, make 
it appear that they all report harmoniously, not mentioning the disagree- 
ment all which it is forbidden to do intentionally. 

[8.] " The notorious ( ^_^ili), namely, that which is particularly wide 
spread among traditionists, because of its being transmitted by many 
reporters, such as, for example, the tradition that 'the Messenger of 
God . . . worshipped God for a month, in prayer at the head of a com- 
pany ;' or which is well known both among traditionists and others, as, 
for example, the tradition: 'Actions are not without intentions;' or 
which is known particularly among others than traditionists : says the 
eminent teacher 'Ahmad : ' That the Prophet said to an inquirer: "It 
is a duty, though one come mounted upon a horse,"* and: "The day 
of your slaying for sacrifice is the day on which you are to fast," are 
traditions current in the market-place, though, when criticised, they are 
found to be without foundation.' 

[9.] " The unrelated and the rare (jJi*^ v^u.i-!). Unrelated tradi- 
tion is said to be the tradition, for example, of 'az Zuhri, or of some such 
individual, being one whose uprightness and retentiveness suffice to 
secure a place for his tradition in collections. If a certain guarantee 
stands alone in giving a tradition, it is called unrelated ; but if two or 
three, apart from others, report it, it is called rare ; if reported by a 
number of persons, it is called notorious. Traditions unique as belong- 
ing to certain provinces are not unrelated. Unrelated tradition is either 
sound, like the unique traditions given out in 'al-Bukhari's Sahih, or not 
sound, the latter being most commonly the case. Again, unrelated tra- 
dition is such in respect either to the support or the text, namely, that 
of which only one person reports the text, or in respect to support and 
not text, as, for example, any tradition of which the text is recognized 
on the authority of several of the Companions of the Prophet, in case 
it is reported, on the authority of some other witness of the Prophet, 
by one person alone, to which 'at-Tarmidhi refers in his expression : 
' unrelated by this way of descent.' There is no such thing as a tradi- 
tion unrelated in respect to text, without being so in respect to support, 
except when an [absolutely] unique tradition becomes notorious, so that 
many persons report it on the authority of him who alone vouches for 
it whereby it is made a notorious unrelated tradition : as for the tradi- 
tion : 'Actions are only according to intentions,' the first part of its sup- 
port has the quality of being unrelated, while the last part of it is 

[10.] " The wrongly told (^a^usii), which may be such [a] in re- 
spect to the identity of a reporter, as, for example, a tradition of Shu'- 
bah on the authority of 'al-'Auwam Bin Murajim with ro! and jim 
which Yahya Bin Ma'in tells wrongly, saying : ' Muzahim ' with zay 
and ha' ; or [b] in respect to the identity of a tradition, as, for example, 
in the case of the saying of the Prophet . . . ' Whoever fasts in Raina- 
dhan, and continues fasting for six days of the month Shauwal,' which 
some persons tell wrongly, using the expression ' for some days' shai'an 
for sitian. 

* i. e., for all, high and low. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 119 

[11.] "The chain-wise (Jo*!**!!), namely, that of which the guaran- 
tees who make up its support, even back to the Prophet . . . , follow one 
another, in reporting it, on one and the same footing, whether this be a 
matter which [a] concerns the reporter himself, for example, the tradi- 
tion being a saying : ' I heard such a one say : " I heard such a one 
say," ' and so on to the end, or : ' Such a one informs us, in the name 
of God, saying : " Such a one informs us, in the name of God," ' and so 
on to the end ; or, the tradition being an action, like that in respect to 
folding the fingers together;* or, it being both a saying and an action, 
like the tradition : ' O God, it concerns me that I owe thee remembrance, 
and gratitude, and fair service,' which, as reported by 'Abu-Dawud, 
'Ahmad and 'an-Nasa'i, runs thus, in the words of the reporter : ' The 
Messenger of God . . . took me by the hand, and said : " Truly I love 
thee ; so then do thou say : ' God, it concerns me, etc.' " '; .or, the tra- 
dition being dependent upon a qualification, like the jurists' tradition, 
told by jurist from jurist: 'Two persons who have bargained together 
with reference to a sale, are at liberty in regard to it so long as they 
have not parted from each other ;'f or whether it be a matter which [b] 
concerns the report, as in the case of a tradition which is chain-wise by 
virtue of coincidence in name, or surname, or genealogy, or national 
appellative, between reporters and their predecessors : says the eminent 
teacher 'an-Nawawl : ' I also report three traditions which are chain- 
wise through natives of Damascus.' 

" Investigation of the state of a tradition, in order to ascertain whether 
its reporter stands alone with it or not, and whether it is recognized or 
not, is called criticism (^UXs^). 

"To the second kind of tradition, distinguished as the weak, pertain 
the following : 

[1.] " The stopped (oy^X!), namely, in general, whatever is reported 
from a witness of the Prophet, being a tradition either of saying or ac- 
tion, whether continuous or dissevered. It is not legal proof, according 
to the soundest view. The term is also used in a restricted sense, with 
reference to others than a witness of the Prophet, as, for example, in the 
remark : ' It is stopped by Mu'ammar at Hammam,' and in the follow- 
ing: 'It is stopped by Malik at Nafi'.' A declaration by a witness of 
the Prophet in the words : ' We were accustomed to do so and so in the 
time of the Prophet . . .' constitutes a tradition carried back, because 
the action, obviously, must have been noticed by the Prophet, and have 
received his confirmation ; equally carried back, to all intents, is the 
tradition : ' His Companions were wont to knock upon his door with 
their nails.' Kuranic exposition by a witness of the Prophet is stopped 
tradition ; but any tradition of a witness which is of the nature of a 
reason for a particular revelation, as, for example, the saying of Jabir : 

* One of the chapters of the Book of Prayer in 'al-Bukhari's Sahih is entitled 
ST^CJ <-V^um ^> uLaji li^x^ij' \^$f ) i. e. Chapter on Folding the Fingers 
together in the Mosque and elsewhere. See MS., fol. 22, rect. 

+ This tradition makes the forty-third chapter of the Book of Sales in 'al- 
Sahih. See MS., fol. 86, rect. 

120 E. E. Salisbury, 

4 The Jews were wont to say so and so, whereupon the Glorious and 
Supreme God made a revelation so and so,' or the like, is carried back. 

[2.] " The mutilated (^^ixail), which is whatever has come down from 
followers of the Prophet in the second degree, of their sayings and do- 
ings, being stopped at them. It is not legal proof. 

[3.] "The loosened (J-*^), which consists in the saying by a follower 

of the Prophet in the second degree: 'The Messenger of God 

said so and so' (or, ' did so and so'). This, according to both practice 
and theory in jurisprudence, is recognized tradition, while at the same 
time there is some difference of opinion with regard to it, and 'ash- 
Shafi'i makes it the subject of a distinction which is stated in the ' Usul 

[4.] " The dissevered (y-hfoll), namely, that of which the support is, 
anywise, not continuous, be it that a reporter is passed over either at the 
beginning of the support, or in the middle, or at the end of it ; only that 
the term is commonly employed with reference to reporting on the au- 
thority of a witness of the Prophet, by one of a later age than a follower 
in the second degree, as, for example : ' Says Malik, on the authority of 

[5.] " The straitened (J^Aiixl!) the participle being pronounced with 
fath on the dhad namely, that from the support of which two or more 
reporters have dropped out, as, for example, Malik's saying : ' Says the 
Messenger of God . . . ,' and 'ash-Shafi'i's saying : ' Says 'Ibn 'Umar so 
and so.' 

[6.] "The separate and the undetermined (^-1^ 3UxM). Says 'ash- 
ShafTi to whom may God be merciful ! ' Separate tradition is that 
which a reliable authority reports at variance with common report.' In 
the words of 'Ibn 'as-Salah : ' There are several sorts of separate tradi- 
tion : that from which varies some reporter who has better memory and 
more retentiveness than its single repprter, is rejected separate tradition ; 
if no one of better memory differs from the single reporter, and the lat- 
ter is upright and retentive, the tradition is sound ; if he who reports 
the separate tradition is not retentive, yet not far from the rank of a 
retentive reporter, it is fair ; if its reporter is far from being retentive, it 
is undetermined.' The discrimination of the words : ' some reporter who 
has better memory and more retentiveness' denotes that a tradition 
differed from is not rejected when equal as respects the grade of its 
reporter to that which differs from it. What undetermined tradition is, 
may be seen from the classification just quoted. 

[7.] "The specious (jJlxll), namely, that involving certain hidden, 
subtle assumptions, to its injury, which are evidently unauthorized. Such 
assumptions are discovered by the circumstance that a tradition has only 
one reporter, or is differed from, in connection with certain other things 
by which an intelligent person is put upon his guard against either a 
loosening in tradition which is [apparently] unbroken, or a stoppage in 
that which is [seemingly] carried back to the Prophet, or a confounding 
of one tradition with another, or an error on the part of some person 
deficient in accuracy so that he is constrained not to think the tradi- 
tion to be what it seems, and judges accordingly, or is embarrassed and 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 121 

made undecided, inasmuch as all the circumstances referred to hinder 
the pronouncing of a tradition to be sound. The tradition of Ya'la Bin 
'Ubaid, on the authority of 'ath-Thauri, on the authority of 'Amru Bin 
Dinar, on the authority of 'Ibn 'Umar, on the authority of the Prophet . . . 
' The seller and buyer are at liberty,' is supported continuously by the 
authority of an upright and retentive reporter, and the text is sound, 
while at the same time it is a specious tradition : for 'Amru Bin Dinar 
has been put in the place of his brother 'Abdallah Bin Dinar it is thus 
that the eminent teachers among the followers of 'ath-Thauri report it 
from him so that Ya'la has fallen into an error. The term ' pretence' 
(id*j!) is, indeed, applied, in the general sense [of something unreliable], 
to falseness, carelessness, defect of memory, and the like ; and some per- 
sons even use it to signify what it has no applicability to, and is not in- 
jurious to the soundness of a tradition, as, for example, the loosening of 
some tradition which virtually reaches to the Prophet by the report of a 
retentive, reliable authority, so that they go so far as to say : ' one de- 
partment of sound tradition is the specious sound,' just as another says : 
' one department of sound tradition is the separate sound,' including un- 
der this latter appellation the tradition of Ya'la Bin 'Ubaid : ' The seller 
and buyer are at liberty.' 

[8.] " The disguised (j^JiAl^), of which the defect lies hidden, either 
[a] in the making np of its support, namely, that one reports on the au- 
thority of a person whom he had met, or whose contemporary he was, 
without having received instruction in tradition from him, in such a way 
as to lead to the supposition that he was instructed by him (for he ought 
not to say : 'Such a one tells us for a tradition,' but, instead of this : 
' Such a one says,' or ' Such a one is responsible for the following,' or 
the like) ; and often it is not his master whom the disguiser drops out, 
but some weak guarantee, or one of immature age [farther on in the 
chain of connection], thereby giving a fair appearance to the tradition, 
as did, for example, 'al-'A'mash, 'ath-Thauri, and others both which 
ways of reporting offend very much the sense of propriety, and are con- 
demned by most of the doctors : there is, however, a difference of opin- 
ion with regard to the reception of a disguised report of tradition ; and 
it is most correct to draw a distinction, that which is reported in lan- 
guage capable of being understood not to express an actual hearing of 
it being judged of in the same manner as tradition which is loosened, 
or of that sort,* while that which is reported in language clearly expres- 
sive of continuousness, as, for example : ' I have heard,' or ' Such a one 
informs us,' or ' Such a one tells us for a tradition,' or the like, is used 
as legal proof; or [b] in the designation of actual masters, namely, that 
one reports, on the authority of some master, a tradition which he did 
indeed hear from him, but gives him a name, or a surname, or a gene- 
alogy, or an appellative, by which he is not known, in order that he may 
not be recognized : to do this is a very light matter, and yet such a pro- 
ceeding renders worthless whatever is reported on the authority of the 
person so disguised, causing difficulty, as it does, in the way of knowing 
his circumstances, and is more or less displeasing according to the mo- 

* viz., by the character of the reporter. 
VOL. vn. 16 

122 E. K Salisbury, 

live which impels to it, be this either that reports on the authority of the 
disguised person abound (for it is not agreeable to multiply traditions 
from a single individual, in one and the same form), or that one is im- 
pelled to the disguise by the fact that his master, whose designation he 
alters, was not a reliable authority, or was younger than himself, or by 
some such consideration. 

[9.] "The unstable (-jJoooIl), namely, that of which the report va- 
ries, without any preponderance in authority of one report over another, 
such as that the reporter of one had better memory, or more followers 
in respect to reporting tradition on his authority, than another, leading 
to a decision in favor of that which has the greater weight : in case a 
decision between differing reports is practicable, the tradition is not un- 
stable ; but instability arises where there is no preponderance. 

[10.] " The reversed (v_j^Uii!), namely, for example, a tradition, noto- 
rious on the authority of Salim, which is put down as authorized by 
Nan"', in order that it may, for one's pleasure, become an unrelated tra- 
dition. The tradition about 'al-Bukhari, when he came to Baghdad, 
and the masters put him to trial by reversing supports, is well-known.* 

[11.] "The suppositions (pyi^Ii), namely, hearsay (j-*->) whether it 
must be regarded as true, having been shown by eminent teachers to be 
correct, or whether it must be pronounced false, such teachers having 
shown it to be fictitious, or whether it be doubtful, on account of the 
possibility of either truth or falsehood in the case, like other rumors. 
Suppositions tradition must not be reported by one who is aware of its 
character, let it signify what it may, unless accompanied with a declara- 
tion of its suppositiousness. It may be known either by confession on 
the part of him who made it up, or by the want of sense in its phrase- 
ology, or by the discovery of some such error in it as that which Thabit 
'Ibn Musa 'az-Zahid fell into respecting the tradition: 'Whoever prays 
much at night has a fair countenance by day :' a certain master, it is 
said, was giving out tradition in the midst of an assembly of people, 
when a man of fair countenance entered ; whereupon the master said, 
on repeating his tradition : ' Whoever prays much, etc.,' which led Tha- 
bit to think that these words were a part of the tradition, and he report- 
ed accordingly. Suppositions tradition may originate with several sorts 
of persons, most of whom make it up at some risk, like 'az-Zahid, and 
therefore blameably. Entire traditions of a suppositions character were 
made up by the Zanadikah,f whose bad wares, and the disgrace of whose 
conduct, have been in later times successfully exposed by men skilled in 
the science, and brought to nought to God be the praise ! The Karra- 
miyahjj and the 'Innovating Sect,' considered it lawful to make np tra- 
dition with regard to religious contemplation and the monastic life. 
This species of tradition is referred to in a report on the authority of 
'Abu-'IJsmah Nuh 'Ibn Miryam, namely, that he was asked : ' How is 
it that thou hast traditions on the authority of 'Ikrimah, on the author- 
ity of 'Ibn 'Abbas, respecting the virtues of the Kuran, chapter by 

* See Zeitxchrifl d. D. M. Gesellschaft, iv. 6. 

f A sect of dualists. 

j A sect of anthropomorphists. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 123 

chapter ?' to which he replied : ' I saw that men were diverted from the 
Kuran, and busied themselves with the Fikh of 'Abu-Hanifah, and the 
Maghazi of Muhammad Bin 'Ishak, and so I made up these traditions as 
a substitute : now commentators on the Kuran, not prevented by the 
grace of God, have committed the error of bringing forward such tradi- 
tions in their commentaries ; and among others which they cite is the 
following, that the Prophet . . . when he had read the words : " and 
Manah the third, the other,"* added : " As for those tender girls, there 
is no hope of their intercession," which we have enlarged npon, by way 
of refuting it, under the chapter headed " It is worship of God to read 
the Kuran :" accordingly, whatever they who treat of the principles of 
Islam allege as having been said by the Prophet, in case I am referred 
to as authority for any tradition, confront it with the Book of God, and, 
if it agrees therewith, accept it; otherwise, reject it.' 'Al-Khattabi 
says : ' The Zanadikah made up tradition, notwithstanding the discoun- 
tenance of that saying of the Prophet . . . " The Book, and that which 
is equivalent thereto" (or, as it is also reported, "and the like of it 
together with it"), was brought to me by divine inspiration."' 'Ibn 
'aj-Janzif composed volumes relative to suppositions traditions, wherein, 
as 'Ibn 'as-Salah says, he brings forward many simply weak traditions, not 
proved to have been made up, for which the proper place would be among 
weak traditions. There is also a work by the master 'al-Hasan Bin Mu- 
hammad 'as-Saghghani, entitled The Choice Pearl on the Detection of 

On comparing these definitions given of the several kinds and 
species of tradition by 'Abd 'al-Hakk and 'aj-Jurjani, we find no 
radical disagreement between the two writers, notwithstanding 
the four centuries and a half which separated them from each 
other, but only some differences of form which seem not to require 
any comment. We may, therefore, proceed at once to another 
extract, which will be from Muslim's introduction to his SaMh. 
We have not met with any classification of traditions by this 
author ; but in the following passage he throws some additional 
light upon the received system of tradition, by a discussion of 
what constitutes soundness of report, arguing against a certain 
condition which some held to be essential to it. It may be well 
to remind the reader that Muslim lived about five centuries 
and a half before the earliest of the authorities last quoted 

* See Kur., liii. 20. f Died A. H. 597. 

\ See Hdji Khalf. Lex., iii. 191. This passage is quoted from pp. 20-27. 

124 E. & Salisbury, 


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On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 125 

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On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 127 

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On tiie Science of Muslim Tradition. 129 

" Chapter on tohat constitutes Soundness in the Report of one Reporter 
on the Authority of Another, with Warning against such as have erred 
on the subject. 

" One of our contemporaries, professing a knowledge of tradition, has 
argued respecting what constitutes sound and unsound reports, in lan- 
guage which it would be well judged, r.nd perfectly reasonable, to avoid 
speaking of, and the viciousness of which might well be left unnoticed, 
since to disregard the language thus obtruded upon us would be another 
mode of getting rid of it, and of obscuring the remembrance of its au- 
thor, beside that it were more suitable not to warn the ignorant against 
what they know nothing of, by calling attention to it. Yet, because we 
fear bad consequences, in the end, and that the ignorant may be deceived 
by certain novel injunctions, and may be induced to put confidence in 
the false views of errorists, and in sayings not maintained among the 
doctors, we have thought fit to expose the viciousness of our contempo- 
rary's language, and to refute his notion by a sufficiency of argument 
against it. This I propose to do, with no reliance upon man. Praise 
be to God for my success, if He, the Great and Glorious, wills it. 

" The person whose language we design to speak of, and whose incon- 
siderateness we intend to set forth in the remarks which we have begun, 
imagines that, in the case of every support of a tradition in which occurs 
the expression ' . . . such a one, on the authority of such a one,' the 
two are known to have been of one and the same generation ; whereas 
it is admissible that a tradition reported on the authority of any one 
was heard by the reporter from him, and was uttered to the reporter by 
him, though it be not known for certain that the one received tradition 
orally from the other, and though we find it not stated, in any report 
whatever, that the two ever met, or spoke tradition one to the other. In 
his opinion, no traditional statement (,^->) which has come down in the 
form referred to avails for the establishment of law, until one absolutely 
knows that the two reporters were together once or oftener in their life 
time, or communicated tradition orally one to the other, or until one gets 
hold of some traditional statement which distinctly recognizes that the 
two were together, or met, once, at least, in their life-time ; so that, if 
one possesses no positive knowledge of the fact, and no report reaches 
him which implies that he who thus reports ' on the authority of his 
alleged master did actually once meet him, and hear some tradition from 
him, the statement, as transmitted by such reporter, wants that authority 
in its favor which is constituted by a person, reported from, of whom 
such knowledge exists : whereas a tradition of the sort here described is 

VOL. Til. 17 

130 E. E. Salisbury, 

legal proof. Moreover, in his opinion, a traditional statement in the form 
referred to is stopped (s_jy5*/a), xintil, by some report which is like to 
that in question, one learns of the reporter's having heard more or less 
of tradition from him on whose authority he reports. 

"Now, this language may God mercifully preserve thee from defam- 
ing the supports of tradition ! is strange, innovating, without ground in 
the views of any earlier author, and not favored by any other tradition- 
ist : that is to say, the language universally accepted and current among 
those conversant with traditional statements and reports, both in ancient 
and modern times, is this, that every supporter of tradition, being a 
reliable authority, reports on the authority of his like, and that his hav- 
ing met the latter, and having received oral instruction in tradition from 
him, consequently upon the contemporaneousness of the two, is a thing 
to be admitted, which may or may not have been a fact, although one 
never gets hold of a traditional statement that the two were at any time 
together, or ever made any oral communication one to the other. A 
report is, therefore, established, and the legal proof which it involves is 
binding, unless it be clearly shown that the reporter, in a particular case 
of report ' on the authority of another, did not meet him whose au- 
thority he alleges, or did not receive any 6ral instruction in tradition 
from him ; so that, however uncertain the fact may be, on account of 
that possibility either way which we have set forth, yet the report 
forever rests on the basis of oral communication, until one has the 
demonstration to the contrary just spoken of. 

" We say, then, in reply to him who has set on foot this talk of which 
we have presented the substance, or rather to put a stop to it : in all 
that thou sayest, thou grantest that the traditional statement of one 
reporter who is reliable, 'on the authority of a reliable reporter, con- 
stitutes legal proof, and obligates conduct; and then thou bringest in a 
condition, and sayest 'so long as it is known that the two had met once 
or oftener, or that the one had received some oral instruction in tradition 
from the other ;' but how dost thou ascertain this that thou conditionest 
to be a fact, on the authority of one whose word is binding ? and if such 
ascertainment is wanting, what becomes of all evidence in favor of the 
notion thou hast taken up ? Should he pretend that even a single one 
of the primitive doctors expressed himself in favor of his notion as to 
making a certain condition essential to the confirmation of that form of 
traditional statement which is in question, most certainly neither he nor 
any one else will be able to produce such an expression. But if he pre- 
tends that there is any argumentative proof of the correctness of his opin- 
ion, we reply to him by inquiring what that proof is. Should he say : 
4 1 adopt this language because I have found reporters of traditional state- 
ments, both ancient and modern, reporting tradition one from another, 
in spite of the fact that the reporter had not seen him on whose author- 
ity he reports, and had not heard any tradition from him. For, after I 
saw that reporters allowed themselves to report tradition in such a loose 
manner (jU^t (_^ fi )^ without any oral communication loose report, 
according to fundamental principles which we maintain in common with 
all who are conversant with traditional statements, not being legal proof 
I felt it to be necessary, for the reason indicated, to investigate re- 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 131 

specting the fact of a reporter's having heard whatever traditional state- 
ment he gives 'on the authority of another. So, now, having ascer- 
tained that the former did receive the least oral instruction in tradition 
from the latter, I become satisfied of the validity of all that he reports on 
the lattcr's authority ; but, if the knowledge of that fact fails me, I regard 
his statement as stopped (f^ o-ai*^), and the possibility of its being 
a loose report is, in my opinion, a reason for rejecting it as a vehicle of 
legal proof should he say this, we reply as follows : 

" If thou regardest a traditional statement as weak, and dost renounce 
making out legal proof by means of it, on account of the possibility of 
looseness in it, thou art necessitated not to consider a support ' on au- 
thority' ( ,.*Jow u>Luw!) as stable until thou seest that oral communica- 
tion extends from the beginning to the end of it. That is to say, in the 
case of a tradition which comes to us with the support of '. . . Hisham' 
Bin 'Urwab, on the authority of his father, on the authority of 'A'ishah.' 
to whom may God be gracious! we are assured that Hisham heard 
tradition from his father, and that his father heard from 'A'ishah to 
whom may God be gracious ! as we are assured that 'A'ishah heard tra- 
dition from the Prophet . . . ; and yet, since Hisham does not say, in 
any report which he gives on his father's authority : ' I heard . . . ', or 
' . . . told me,' it is possible that, in the report just referred to as an ex- 
ample, there belongs between him and his father some other guarantee, 
by whom he was told it on his father's authority, and that he himself 
did not hear it from his father (he having chosen to give the report 
loosely, without referring it to him from whom he heard it) ; and, as 
that possibility exists in respect to Hisham's reporting 'on the authority 
of his father, so again it exists in respect to his father's reporting ' on 
the authority' of 'A'ishah to whom may God be gracious ! So must 
it be, also, with every support 1o a tradition in which there is no mention 
made of the reporters having heard it one from another; and, even if it 
be known, in general, that each one received much oral instruction in 
tradition from the person whose authority he alleges, still it may be true 
of each that, in some of his reporting, he even narrates on the ascend- 
ing grade [by vi^otf*] without other hearing of the particular tradition 
than, on the authority of him whom he names, from another; and 
moreover it may be that he sometimes gave out tradition loosely, 'on 
the authority of some individual mentioned, without naming him from 
whom he really heard it, and sometimes, to avoid looseness, was careful 
to name the guarantee from whom he actually took it up. Indeed, 
what we have here suggested is a fact as regards tradition, and has been 
notoriously practised by reliable traditionists and eminent teachers of the 
science. We will mention a number of instances of their reporting in 
the mode referred to if it be the will of the Supreme God to serve as 
examples. One of these is a report of 'as-Sikhtiyani,* 'Ibn 'al-Mubarak,f 

* A traclitionlst of the city of Jurjan, near the southern end of the Caspian Sca 
\vl\o died A. H. 305. See Kitdb Tab., x. 104. 

f One of the most critical traditionists of bis time: he died A. H. 181. Sco 
Kitdb Tab., vi. SO. 

132 E. E. Salisbury, 

TVaki', 'Ibn Namir,* and several others, on the authority of Hisham 'Ibn 
'Urwah, 'on the authority of his father, on the authority of 'A'ishah 
to whom may God be gracious ! namely : 'I was in the habit of perfum- 
ing the Messenger of God ... as well on common as on sacred days, with 
the most fragrant perfume I could find,' a report which is identical fv given 
out by 'al-Laith 'Ibn Sa'd,f Da'ud 'al-' Attar, Humaid Bin 'al-'Aswad, 
"Wuhaib Bin Kluilid, and 'Abu-'UsamabjJ on the authority of Hisham, as 
having said that he was told it by 'Uthman Bin'Urwah, on the authority 
of 'Urwah, on the authority of 'A'ishah to whom may God be gracious ! 
on the authority of the Prophet . . . Another report by Hisham, ' on 
the authority of his father, on the authority of 'A'ishah to vrhoiu may 
God be gracious ! is as follows : 'The Prophet ... in the act of devotion 
was wont to lean his head towards me, for me to comb it, while I was in 
my monthly state,' which Malik Bin 'Anas reports, identically, on the 
authority of 'az-Zuhri, on the ^authority of 'Urwah, on the authority of 
'Amrah, on the authority of 'A'ishah to whom may God be gracious! 
on the authority of the Prophet . . . Again, it is reported by 'az-Zuhri 
and Sjlih 'Ibn 'Abu-Hassan, on the authority of 'Abu-Salamah, 'on 
the authority' of 'A'ishah . .. that 'the Prophet . . . was accustomed to 
kiss while performing fast,' a traditional statement which Yahya Bin 
'Abu-Kathir gives on the subject of kissing, as follows: "Abu-Salamah 
Bin 'Abd 'ar-Rahman told me, that he was told by 'Umar 'Ibn 'Abd 'al- 
'Aziz, that 'Urwah told him, that he was told by 'A'ishah .. . that the 
Prophet . . . was wont to kiss her while performing fast.' Again, it is 
reported by 'Ibn 'Uyainah | and others, ' on the authority of 'Amru Bin 
Dinar, on the authority of Jabir to whom may God be gracious! say- 
ing : ' The Prophet . . . gave us horseflesh for food, and forbade us to eat 
the flesh of tame asses,' which Hammad Bin Zaid^J" reports on the 
authority of 'Amru and of Muhammad Bin 'All, on the authority of 
Jabir ... on the authority of the Prophet . . . There are many other such 
reports, which it would take long to enumerate; those here mentioned 
are sufficient for the intelligent. Now, inasmuch as he whose language 
we have previously set forth, to the effect that a tradition is corrupt and 
weak in case it be not known for certain that the reporter heard any tra- 
dition from him on whose authority he reports, pretends that, on account 
of the possibility of looseness in a tradition, one is bound to make no 
nse for legal argumentation of the report of a person of whom we are 
assured that he heard tradition from him on whose authority he reports, 
unless this assurance is conveyed in some traditional statement which it- 
self expresses the fact of oral communication by one to the other it ap- 
pears from what we have shown of the practice of eminent teachers who 
have handed down traditional statements, that they sometimes give out 
a tradition loosely, without mentioning from whom they heard it, and 

* Of Kufah. 'Al-Buklfiri. Muslim, 'Ibn Daw ml, 'Ibn Mnjah and other*, arc said to 
have received traditions on his authority. He dii-d A.M. 234. See Kitab Tab., viii. 26. 

f A teacher of 'Ibn 'al -Mubarak in tradition, \vhoschoiuc was Egypt. He died 
A . II. 175. See Kitab Tab., v. 52. 

% Of Iviif.ih: he died A. H. 201. See Kitab Tab., vi. 71. 

g Died A. H. 129. See Kitab Tab., iv. 20. 

j| Of Kufiih, a very exact teachwr of tradition, who died A. H. 193. Seo Kitab 

T,,h.,v\. 19. 

^f A traditionist of Basrah, who died A. H. 179. See Kitab Tab., v. 65. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 133 

sometimes are careful to support the statement in the form of something 
which they heard, narrating on the ascending grade, if they proceed up- 
wards, and on the descending grade, if they proceed downwards, as we 
have made it plain that they did.* Moreover, we know of r.o eminent 
teacher of primitive times, accustomed to employ traditional statements, 
and to scrutinize supports with reference to their soundness or unsound- 
ness, equal to 'as-Sikhtiyani, 'Ibn 'Aun,f Malik Bin 'Anas, Shu'bah Bin 
'al-Hajjaj, Yahya Bin Sa'id 'al-Kattan,| and 'Abd 'ar-Kahman 'Ibn Mah- 
di, and the succeeding traditionists who have investigated the matter 
of the explicit mention of oral communication in the supports of tradi- 
tion, contended for by him whose language we have set forth ; and no 
one of these was ever wont to inquire whether the reporters of tradition 
did in fact receive oral instruction from those on whose authority they 
report, except when a reporter was known to disguise tradition (*_i -e 
U^x.'juC!.)), and noted for doing so. In that case, indeed, the inquiry was 
instituted whether the individual did report as he had heard, and care- 
ful consideration was given to this question, in order to avoid all com- 
plicity with disguising. But as to looking into the matter irrespectively 
of disguised tradition, in the way approved of by him whose language 
we have stated, we hear of no such thing being practised by those whom 
we have named, or by any other eminent teacher. 'Abdallah Bin Yazid 
'al-'Ansari, who saw the Prophet . . . , for instance, reports 'on the author- 
ity of Hudhaifah and of 'Abu-Mas'ud 'al-'Ansari, and 'on the authority 
of each one of the two, a tradition which he refers to the Prophet . . . , 
although, in reporting it on their authority, he makes no mention of 
having heard it from them, and we do not remember any report which 
makes it appear that 'Abdallah 'Ibn Yazid ever recited tradition as a 
pupil of Hudhaifah or of 'Abu-Mas'ud to both of whom may God be 
gracious ! nor have we found it explicitly mentioned, in any report, 
that he ever saw those two persons. No traditionist, either of past time 
or among ourselves, was ever heard to object to the two traditional state- 
ments just referred to, reported by 'Abdallah 'Ibn Yazid, on the author- 
ity of Hudhaifah and of 'Abu-Mas'ud, as inherently weak ; on the con- 
trary, all persons conversant with tradition, whom we have met, regard 
these and whatever are like them as being sound and strong in their 
supports, and approve of using the information thereby transmitted, and 
of alleging as legal proof the rules (Q-^*) and reminiscences ( ^0!) 
which they convey to us : and yet he whose language we have set forth 
imagines such statements to be wanting in solidity and precision, until 
we and out by investigation that the reporter did hear tradition from 
him on whose authority he reports. 

" Were we to proceed to enumerate distinctly all the traditional state- 
ments, sound in the opinion of traditionists, which have come down to 

* For explanation of the terms "ascending grade" and "descending grade," see 
p. 70. 

f Of Basrah : he died A.H. 151. Sec Kitdh Tab-, iv. 55. 

\ 1'h is person is said to have been the lender of the people of 'Irak in the science 
of tradition, and to have been deep in criticism respecting reliable authorities. He 
died A. II. 198. See Kitdb Tab., vi.49. 

A traditionist of Basrah, who died A. H. 198. Sec Kitdb Tab., vii. 1. 

13 i E. E. Salisbury, 

ns from those whom our author regards as feeble authorities, we should 
fail lo accomplish the undertaking; but we have thought proper to call 
attention to a number of them, which may serve as a specimen for him 
whom we herewith make an end of replying to. For instance, 'Abu- 
'U th man 'an-Naluli and 'Abu-Kafi' ';is Sa'igh, who both lived in the days 
of ignorance, and also had intercourse with the Companions of the Mes- 
senger of God . . . who fought at Badr, and so on, and both of whom 
transmitted traditional statements on their authority, even to citing tradi- 
tions told by men like ', 'Ibn 'Umar, and their friends, give 
out, each of them, a tradition as sustained 'on the authority of 'Ubaiy 
Bin Ka'b to whom may God be gracious! on the authority of the. 
Prophet . . . although no one has heard, by any express report, that 
they two ever saw 'Ubaiy or ever heard any tradition from him. Again, 
'Abu-'Amru 'ash-Shaibani, who lived in the days of ignorance, and in 
the time of the Prophet . . . had grown to be a man, as well as 'Abd- 
Ma'mar 'Abdallah Bin Sinhabarah, gives out two traditional statements as 
sustained, 'on the authority of 'Abu-Mas'ud 'al-'Ansaii, on the auihority 
of the Prophet . . .; and, again, 'Ubaid Bin 'Umair, who was born in 
the time of the Prophet, gives out a tradition as sustained 'on the au- 
thority of 'Uinni Salamah, wife, of the Prophet . . . , on the authority of 
the Prophet; and, again, Kais Bin 'Abu-Hazim, a contemporary of the 
Prophet . . . gives out three traditional statements as sustained 'on the 
authority of 'Abu-Mas'ud 'al-'Ansari, on the authority of the Prophet . . . ; 
and, again, 'Abd 'ar-Iiahmau Bin 'Abu-Laila, who committed traditions 
to memory on the authority of 'Umar Bin 'al Klutttab, and had inter- 
course with 'Ali to both of whom may God be gracious! gives out a 
tradition as sustained, 'on the authority of 'Anas Bin Malik, on the au- 
thori'.y of tho Prophet . . .; and, again, Rib'i Bin Hirasli gives out two 
traditions as sustained, 'on the authority of 'Imran Bin Husain, on the 
authority of the Prophet . . . , and one tradition 'on the authority of 
'Abu-Bakrah, on the authority of the Prophet . . . , although Rib'i heard 
tradition from 'Ali Bin 'Abu-Talib to whom may God be gracious ! 
and reports on his authority; and, again, NafT 'Ibn Jubair Bin Mut'am 
gives out a tradition as sustained, 'on the authority of 'Abu Shuraih 
'al-KhuzjVi, on the authority of the Prophet. . .; and, again, 'an-Nu'maii 
Bin 'Abu-'Aiyash gives out three traditions as sustained, ' on the authority 
of 'Abu-Sa'id 'al-Khudii to whom may God be gracious! on the 
authority of the Prophet . . . ; and, again, 'Ata/ 'Ibn Yazid 'ad-Daithl gives 
out a tradition as sustained, 'on the authority of Tamim 'ad-Dari. on the 
authority of the Prophet . . .; and, again, Sulaiman Bin Yasar gives out 
a tradition as sustained, 'on the authority of Kafi' 'Ibn Khadij, on the 
authority of the Prophet . . .; and, again, Humaid Bin 'Abd 'ar-Kahman 
'al-IIimyart gives out traditions as sustained, 'on the authority of 'Abu- 
llurairah, on the authority of the Prophet . . . 

"Now, as for all these followers of the Prophet in the second degree, 
whose reporting 'on the authority of Companions whom we have named 
is here noticed, there is no express memorial, so far as we know, in any 
report, of their having heard tradition from those whom they refer to as 
their authorities, nor, in any traditional stateinent itself, of their having 
ever met them ; an 1 yet the supports referred to are held to be sound by 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 135 

those familiar with traditional statements and reports, who havo never, 
to our knowledge, regarded any of them as weak, nor sought to mako 
out in regard to them the fact of oral communication from one lo an- 
other of the reporters, inasmuch as each one of them may possibly havo 
heard tradition from his given authority, without any absurdity, because, 
living at the period they did, they were in habits of intercourse with the 

"This new-fangled talk of our author which we have set forth, to the 
effect that tradition is rendered weak by the cause alleged, is too trifling 
to be long dwelt upon, or brought prominently into notice, forasmuch as 
it is an innovation, and a wrong-headed way of treating the subject, 
which no primitive traditionist ever gave expression to, and those of 
later times know nothing of. We therefore need not add anything by 
way of refutation of it, the opinion expressed having no more force than 
we have represented, either in itself or as advocated by our author. May 
God prosper the setting aside of whatever is opposed to the views of our 
doctors in Him is my confidence !" 

To these contributions to our knowledge of the science of Mus- 
lim tradition we add two extracts from H. and J., which introduce 
us to the collections of tradition in highest repute among the 
Muslims, and furnish some dates of importance in the history of 
the science, already, however, in part anticipated by notes on 
preceding pages, bur first extract is from H. :* 

iLj.LJJLi., LaJ! UxJLt xiiftXi! v^o 

* fol. 3, rcct. and vert. 


U J (JlM/a., 

E. E. Salisbury, 

^ U j jju9 

L f 

Ls=kJi (3 Li 

^j U O l 




U x 



Ui v^suaxj ^5 oLaj^L ^RAaX* JLs-Ji C 


as* Jo xit 

j U 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 137 

Q* O U;> ^1 O 

JasLxJ] SU^vi! 


Ls (JL'J LJ 

^\ & 






138 R E. Salisbury, 

" Section. 

" Since the grades of sound tradition differ one from another, and some 
sound traditions are sounder than others, be it known that the Sahih of 
'al-Bukhari is established in the estimation of traditionists as superior to 
all other books of human authorship, so that, as they say, ' the Sahih of 
'al-Bukhari is the most perfect of books, next to the Book of God.' 
Some of the people of the West, however, attach greater weight to Mus- 
lim's Sahih than,to that of 'al-Bukhari ; though every one says that this 
preference is based upon particulars relative to nicety of expression, 
together with the fullness of that collection, the arrangement, and the 
preservation, in the supports, of references to minute points and nice dis- 
tinctive marks all which is aside from the subject-matter, and has noth- 
ing to do with the question of the soundness and strength of a tradition, 
and points therewith connected, as regards which there is no book equal 
to the Sahih of 'al-Bukhari, since the guarantees whom he relies upon 
unite every quality taken into account with reference to soundness of tra- 
dition. Others, agxin, hesitate about preferring either of the two to the 
other. The true view is the first which we have stated. 

"That tradition which both Muslim and 'al-Bukhari give out is said 
to be agreed upon (oiaXa), ' provided,' as the Shaikh says, ' it be given 
on the authority of one and the same witness of the Prophet ;' and the 
traditions thus agreed upon are said to amount, in number, to two thou- 
sand three hundred and twenty-six. To be brief, that which the two 
masters agree upon is preferred to all other tradition ; next comes that 
which 'al-Bukhari alone gives out; then, that which Muslim alone gives 
out; then, that which answers to the stipulation of both 'al-Bukhari and 
Muslim ; then, that which answers to the stipulation of 'al-Bukhari 
alone ; then, that which answers to the stipulation of Muslim alone ; and 
lastly, that which is reported by other eminent teachers strenuous for 
soundness, and which they regard as sound. There are, therefore, seven 
subdivisions. The force of the expression : ' stipulation of 'al-Bukhari and 
Muslim' is that the given guarantees of a tradition were characterized by 
those qualities which the guarantees relied upon by 'al-Bukhari and Mus- 
lim possessed, namely, retentiveness, integrity, and freedom from sepa- 
rateness, ind-eterminateness, and carelessness. Another explanation of 
the expression: 'stipulation of 'al-Bukhari and Muslim' is this, that it 
denotes an identity of the guarantees of a tradition with those whom they 
two rely upon. The discussion of this point has been drawn out to a 
great length : we have given an account of it in the introduction to the 
Commentary on the Rook of Felicity ( 

" Section. 

" Sound traditions are not confined to the Sahihs of 'al-Bukhari and 
Muslim, nor arc these two works all the Sahihs. On the contrary, these 
are two among the Sahihs ; nor do their authors bring forward, in the 
two books, all those traditions which, in their opinion and according to 
their stipulation, are sound, to say nothing of such as are sound in the 
view of others than themselves. Says 'al-Bukhari : ' I have brought for- 
ward, in this my book, nothing but sound tradition, and have also left 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 139 

out many traditions which are sound ;' and Muslim says : 'Whatever tra- 
ditions I have brought forward in this book are sound, while I do not say 
that what I have left out is weak tradition.' Yet, doubtless, in this leav- 
ing out and bringing forward there was that sort of particularization which 
belongs to those acts, either in respect to soundness or in respect to some 
other points kept in view. 'Al-Hakim 'Abu-'Abdallah 'an-Nisapuri com- 
posed a book which he called the Repaired Sahih (wS.tXO*>!^), a name 
signifying that in this book were brought forward by him sound tradi- 
tions which 'al-Bukhari and Muslim had left out, mended and repaired, 
some according to the stipulation of both of tho two masters, others 
according to the stipulation of one or other of the two, and others still 
according to other stipulation than theirs ;* and this author says that 
"al-Bukhari and Muslim did not judge other traditions than those which 
they brought forward in their two books to be unsound,' adding : ' for 
all that this has been asserted, in our time, by a party of the " Innovating 
Sect," who have protruded their tongues in reproach against the eminent 
teachers of religion, with the words : " All the traditions which are 
sound, in your view, do not come up to the number of ten thousand."' 
Moreover, 'al-Bukhari himself is reported to have said : ' I have com- 
mitted to memory one hundred thousand sound traditions, and two 
hundred thousand unsound' and it is plain, and God knows, that he 
means to speak of that which is sound according to his own stipulation 
whereas the sum total of what he has brought forward in his book, 
repetition included, is seven thousand two hundred and seventy-five tra- 
ditions, and, exclusive of repetition, four thousand. 

" Sahihs have been composed, also, by later eminent teachers, for ex- 
ample : the Sahih of 'Ibn Hazimah,f surnamed the 'Imam of 'Imams, 
who was the master of 'Ibn Hibban, and in praise of whom 'Ibn Hibban 
says : ' I have not seen, on the face of the earth, any one of nicer per- 
ception with regard to what constitutes a traditional law, or whose mem- 
ory was more stored with sound memorials all traditional laws and tra- 
ditions were present to his mind ;' and the Sahih of 'Ibn Hibban,J the 
pupil of 'Ibn Hazimah, a reliable authority of superior qualifications, an 
eminent teacher of high intelligence, of whom 'al-Hakim says : ' 'Ibn 
Hibban was a repository of learning, a living dictionary, a store-house of 
tradition and instruction in duty, and a man of genius;' and that called 
the Repaired Sahih, by 'al-Hakim 'Abu-'Abdallah 'an-Nisapuri, the mem- 
orizer, the reliable authority, whose book has, to its injury, that want 
of strict legitimacy which wo have referred to, and to whom people have 
made the objection that 'Ibn Hazimah and 'Ibn Hibban are of more 
weight and stronger than 'al-Hakim, as well as more nice and elegantly 
discriminating in respect to supports and texts ; and the Selection 
from the Sahih (SjU&tt), by the memorizer Dhiya' 'ad-Din 'al-Makdasi, 
who also brought out sound traditions which are not in the Sahihs of 

* A similar account of this book is given by Haji Khalfah, v. 521, who puts (he 
death of the author A. H. 405. 

f Died A. H. 311. His Sahih is mentioned by Haji Khalfah, iv. 99. 

j See Haji Khalf. Lex., iv. 99. 

Mentioned by Haji Khalfah, v. 440, -who gives for the title of the work 
'al-Mukht&rahfi 'al-Hadith, and says that the author died A.H. 643. 

140 E. E. Salisbury, 

'al-Bukhari and Muslim, whose book is said to be more nice than the Re- 
paired Sahih; and the Sahih of 'Abu-'Awanah and that of 'Ibn 'as-Sakan ;* 
and the Marrow of the Sahih (^yiXii!), by 'Ibn Jarud.f All these books 
are designated as Sahihs, though a certain set of persons discriminate 
with regard to them, as well in the spirit of strenuous purism as with 
impartial criticism there is one who knows, superior to all instructed 
men God knows. 

" Section. 

" The six books, universally known and of established authority within 
the pale of Islam, called the Six Sahihs, are the Sahih of 'al-Bukhari, 
the Sahih of Muslim, the J&mi 1 of 'at-Tarmidhi, the Sunan of 'Abu- 
Dawud, the Sunan of 'Ibn Majah,J and the Muwatta 1 which last is by 
so'me put in the place of 'Ibn Majah's collection, and was preferred by 
the author of the Jam? 'al- Us&l. But these last named four books em- 
brace traditions of more than one class, namely, both sound, fair, and 
weak : the Six Sahihs are so named by way of ascribing to them a cer- 
tain superiority ; and the author of the Mosablh calls all traditions given 
out by others than the two masters fair, which is a derived form of ex- 
pression, either allied to the usage of that term in common parlance, or 
being a new technical application of it on the part of the author. Some 
persons say that the book of 'ad-Darimi is more worthy and suitable to 
be ranked as the sixth book, because fewer guarantees marked by any 
weakness are relied upon in it, and traditions undetermined, or separate, 
are rarely introduced, while it has some supports of a superior character, 
and its trebly supported traditions (oLo^Li) are more numerous than 
those of 'al-Bukhari.|| 

" These which we have mentioned are the most noted books of tradi- 
tion ; but others are in extensive repute. Indeed, 'as-Suyuti, in the 
Kitab Jam? 'aj-Jawdmi\ cites many books, to the number of more than 
forty, as containing both sound, fair, and weak traditions, and says : ' I 
have not brought out, as contained in either book, any tradition to which 
is attached the stigma of being made up, which traditionists have agreed 
to leave out and reject God knows.' The author of the Mishkat, also, 
in the preface to his book, mentions a multitude of eminent teachers of 
tradition, of devout lives, namely : 'al-Bukhari, Muslim, the eminent 
teacher Malik, the eminent teacher 'ash-Shafi'i, the eminent teacher 
'Ahmad Bin Hanbal, 'at-Tarmidhi, 'Abu-Dawud, 'an-Nasa'l, 'Ibn Majah, 
'ad-Darimi, 'ad-Darakutni, 'al-Baihaki, Razin, etc., about whom we have 
written in a special book entitled the Complete Statement of the Names 
of the Guarantees of Tradition (JL>J! plfw!y\\j jUi"^)) depending 
upon God's providence, and asking His aid from first to last." 

* The Sahih of 'Ibn 'as-Sakan, -who died A. H. 353, is called by HAji Khalfah 
'as Sahih 'al-Muntaka. See iv. 99, 100. The work of 'Abu-'Awanah here referred to 
appears to be an epitome of Muslim's Musnad, entitled Mustakhraj 'Abi'Awdnah: 
the author died A. H. 316. See Hdji Khalf. Lex., v. 520. 

f See Hdji Khalf. Lex., vi. 167. 

J See Hdji Khalf. Lex., iii. 621. The author died A. H. 273. 

Entitled Musnad 'ad-Ddrimi. The author died A. H. 253. See Kitdb Tab., 
be. 17 and Hdji Khalf. Lex., v. 539. 

| There is another work by 'ad-Darimi, entitled Thaldthiydt 'ad-Ddrimi. See 
Hdji Khalf. Lex., il 492. 

On the Science of Muslim Tradition. 141 

Our last extract is from. J. :* 

Ji' (jLx 

fJ f^fj JWi v-'V^ v^^lj if^'ls *Uv-^l 
^*o KJLw xoiAlb di&Lx ,J*j ' 

Kj.l ^i 


K.W AA iwa.xJ 

" Chapter Fourth. 
" Names of Guarantees. 

"The term 'witness' r^Ls^Aalt) denotes any Muslim who saw the 
Prophet . . . , or, as the professed teachers of the foundations of religion 
say, one who had long sittings with him ; and the term ' follower in the 
second degree' (^^jLJ!) means any Muslim who was associated with, or, 
as is also said, who met, a witness. . So much is most plain. But to look 
into all the distinctions of names, titles, epithets, and degrees, which be- 
long to the science, and to apply them to these and the succeeding orders 
of reporters, would be a long affair. 

* pages 6, 7. 

142 JE". E. Salisbury, on the Science of Muslim Tradition. 

"Malik died at Madinah in the year 179, and was born in 03, or 91, 
or 94, or 97. 'Abu Hanifah died at Baghdad in 150, aged seventy 
years. 'Ash-Shafi'i died in Egypt in 204, and was born in 150. 'Ahmad 
Bin Hanbal died at Baghdad in 241, and was born in 164. 'Al-Bukhari 
was born on Friday, the 13th of Shauwal, in the year 194, and died on 
the night of the festival succeeding Raraadhan, in the year 256, in the 
city of Khartank in Bukhara. Muslim died at Nisabur in 261, aged 
fifty-five years. 'Abu-Dawud died at 'al-Basrah in 277. 'At-Tarmidhi 
died at Tarmidh in 279. 'An-Nasa'i died in the year 303. 'Ad-Dara- 
kutni died at Baghdad in 385, and was born there in 306. 'Al-Hakiin 
died at Nisabur in 405, and was born there in 321. 'Al-Baihaki was 
born in 334, and died at Nisabur in 458. 

" End of the treatise, etc." 





BY A. G. PASPATI, A.M., M. D. 


Presented to the Society May 17th, 1860. 


THE following memoir is a translation but in part. The learned 
author has written the whole of the Grammar and some other parts in 
English, which has needed very little correction. The original is written 
in so pure a Greek style, that any one who has studied the ancient 
Greek might read it, occasionally noticing an interesting change of 
meaning without a change of form, or the reverse. If all our Greek 
Professors should study the living Greek, in Greece, it would reanimate 
the dead language, and clothe it with a new power and beauty. 

We are confident that this article will be acceptable to American 
scholars, both for its intrinsic merits and as a specimen of the present 
literature and learning of the Greeks. c. H. 

This memoir on the Language of the Gypsies will be divided 
into five sections, as follows; 1st. Introductory remarks on the 
history and present condition of the Gypsy race ; 2nd. General 
explanation of the character and connections of their language, 
and a critical estimate of the works which have hitherto appeared 
upon the subject; 3rd. A vocabulary, with comparative ety? 
mologies from the Sanskrit and other languages; 4th. A com- 
parison of the phonetical system of the Gypsy with, that of the 
Sanskrit ; 5th. A grammar of the language, 

VOL. VII. 19 

144 A. G. Paspati, 


Most of the writings relating to the Gypsies have hitherto 
been unsatisfactory and obscure. In various ways, laborious 
and learned writers have endeavored to explain the origin and 
affinities of these nomadic, wandering people, who dwell or roam 
in the midst of us, but are generally regarded with aversion and 

The leading subject of this memoir will be the language and 
origin of the Gypsies, and not their customs and history. A 
few preliminary notices, however, may help the reader to appre- 
ciate what we shall offer in regard to their language. 

A valuable authority upon the Gypsies of Western Europe is 
the Englishman George Borrow. His work, "The Zincali, or an 
Account of the Gypsies of Spain," exhibits from beginning to end 
a man thoroughly acquainted with this people, speaking their 
own language with such facility, and with such a knowledge of 
their habits and customs, that he was everywhere received as a 
veritable Gypsy. His vocabulary of the language is invaluable, 
although, as we shall see, his want of acquaintance with the 
Sanskrit prevented his carrying forward his most useful labors 
to the desired consummation. 

In 1417,* in the reign of Sigismond, emperor of the Romans 
and king of Hungary, the Gypsies first appeared in Europe, to 
the number of about three thousand. They resided first in Mol- 
davia, and thence spread through Transylvania and Hungary. 
A part, led by Ladislaus their chief, having obtained leave to 
settle upon the crown-lands, and living unmolested .under the 
protection of the autocrat, gradually adopted the religion of the 
country which they inhabited. And, to the present time, such is 
the very common custom of this race : everywhere they adopt 
the common worship, caring little for its dogmas. 

They received from Sigismond the privilege of having their 
own chief, but this was taken from them in 1609. In 1782, 
according to the census of that time, there were about 50,000 
Gypsies in all Hungary, but their number afterwards diminished. 
In vain did Joseph II. endeavor to civilize them. 

It is worthy of remark that in Hungary, according to the 
testimony of the Gypsies themselves, they have retained their 
original language in the highest degree of purity. 

They are now found scattered over Europe, and through 
Russia, excepting the province of Petersburg, whence they were 
long since expelled. They also prefer the extended and fruitful 

* Bataillard, as we shall presently see, gives an ealier date than this. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 145 

plains of Interior Kussia, where they find abundant pasturage 
for their horses, to the trade in which they are so much addicted. 
But nowhere have they been so fortunate as in the province of 
Moscow, where many of them have magnificent dwellings, splen- 
did carriages, and near relationship with highborn Russians, 
preserving that singular good fortune, the sweet voice of the 
maidens, peculiar to their uncultivated tribes, and highly esteemed 
by the Russians. 

About the beginning of the fifteenth century, says a French 
historian, the Gypsies appeared in Paris, to the number of one 
hundred and thirty-two. The French looked upon them as 
most satanic witches, and persecuted them with such severity 
that they fled into Spain. 

In Spain they are numerous, in certain large cities, having 
quarters called Gitanerie. The fertility of the soil, and the mild- 
ness of the climate, were both favorable to this roaming race. 
The most part took refuge in Andalusia, where they live to this 
day, no longer nomadic, but laboring in the cities and villages. 

A celebrated law of Charles III., who deceased in 1788, intro- 
duced a healthy and saving amelioration into the life of the race, 
which had become intolerable from its addiction to theft and 
robbery. What the civil arm and the severest laws were power- 
less to do, this wise law speedily effected. Charles repealed the 
inhuman laws which had been published against the Gypsies, 
invited them to dwell fearlessly with the native Spaniards,/ and 
secured to them the privileges of education and of participation 
in civil offices. While he threatened to punish the Gypsies who 
did not conform to the law, he invited the Spaniards to forget 
their ancient hatred, and live with them under the laws and 
government, as children of the same country. 

This law, as also the philanthropy of the monarch, had a great 
effect upon the Gypsies. They collected into cities and villages, 
abandoned their thievish life, and, forgetting past evils, gave 
themselves up to the common labors of civilized existence. 

But this law, the like of which Europe had not then seen, 
had the fate of many other laws, in not attaining its immediate 
design, which was to make the Gypsies forget their language, 
and become Catholic Christians and faithful Spaniards. No 
such result followed, and they remain to this day, in Spain, as 
elsewhere, a distinct race, and having a language common to all 
the branches dispersed through the world. 

They appeared in England about three centuries ago, where 
they were mercilessly persecuted. Most of them were hung as 
magicians and satanic witches. A few survivors concealed them- 
selves in dens and caves, and came out only in the night to beg 
their food. As the rage of the bigoted masses softened down, 
the starved and naked Gypsies reappeared, and, spreading them- 

14:6 A. 0. Paspati, 

selves according to their national custom, remained in different 
places and cities of England. 

It is worthy of remark that the foggy and sunless climate of 
England has given to the Gypsies more muscular strength and 
beauty than their fellow-countrymen have elsewhere, and more 
even than the English have in a similar rank of life. 

Every where the Gypsy race is strongly marked by similar 
traits and customs. 

They are celebrated dealers in horses, they are famous horse- 
doctors, their old women are noted fortune-tellers, and the young- 
women drive a very profitable business in singing love-songs, 
decent and indecent, in the streets and public places. 

They have no principles, they serve no God but the God of 
gain and fraud, they conform to all religions. They excite the 
voluptuous passions of others, but they rarely fall themselves 
into the sins which they lead others into. A merciless death 
hangs over the woman who has illicit intercourse, whether with 
a Gypsy or a foreigner. 

I have followed Borrow in his general description of the Gyp- 
sies of Europe. As regards those in Turkey and in the Walla- 
chiau provinces, or rather in all those countries formerly known 
under the denomination of Dacia, I must refer the reader to other 
authorities, who have treated the subject more at length, particu- 
larly as my remarks upon their dialect may be elucidated by 
their history and social position in these countries. 

The latest writer on the Gypsies is J. A. Vaillant.* This au- 
thor resided for many years in the Danubian provinces, and paid 
particular attention to the history of the numerous Gypsies 
scattered over those countries. In describing the origin of these 
people, whose emigrations he makes coeval with those of the 
ancient world, he launches himself into such an ocean of crude 
and undigested learning, he unites such wild theories with posi- 
tive facts, he distorts ancient history in such an unphilosophical 
manner, that the reader never knows where he is, or whither he 
is drifting. With the exception of his valuable remarks on the 
noble efforts of the Hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia, to 
liberate from bondage and oppression so many Gypsies in those 
provinces, his work is of little value, either in a historical or 
a philological point of view. He appears to have studied these 
people for a long time,f and he would have bestowed an ines- 
timable boon upon philology and ethnography, if, like Borrow, 
he had given us a vocabulary of the dialect of the Wallachian 
Gypsies, to which he appears to have paid little attention, though 

* Les Homes Histoire Vraie des Vrais Bohemians, par J. A. Vaillant, Fonda- 
teur du College Interne de Bucarest. Paris, 1857. 

f " Je n'aurai point a regretter les dixhuit annees que j'ai employees a la bible 
de leur science.." p. 22. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 147 

be confesses that the foundation of their language is Sanskrit.* 
Though he confesses in another place that their language is 
the only criterion of their origin, f it appears strange that he 
has not based his work on this idea, by which their mysterious 
history would have been still farther elucidated. 

Later writers on the social and political history of the Danu- 
bian provinces have followed Vaillant as an authority on the 
Gypsies, so numerous in those countries and in the provinces of 
Turkey south of the Danube. As no general persecutions ever 
took place against them, either on religious or political grounds, 
they have been suffered to live quietly in those provinces, and 
have multiplied to such a degree that they are superior in num- 
ber to their fellow-countrymen in all the other states of Europe. 

Those who are acquainted with the political state of Turkey 
are aware how difficult it is to give even an approximate estimate 
of its inhabitants. What confidence then can we give to Vail- 
lant's statistics,^: who makes the number of Gypsies residing in 
Wallachia 125,000, in Moldavia 137,000, Turkey 200,000, Tran- 
sylvania and the Banat of Temeswar 140,000 total 602,000 ? 
According to the same author, the number of Gypsies scat- 
tered over Europe amounts to 837,000, so that nearly three 
fourths of all the Gypsies of Europe are to be found in Turkey 
and the provinces north of the Danube. Ubicini || has followed 
Vaillant, with slight variations. Regnault^f makes the Gypsy 
population of Wallachia and Moldavia 300,000, more numerous 
however in Moldavia than in Wallachia. He assigns 140,000 to 
Transylvania. Bucovina, and the Banat of Temeswar. All these 
numbers appear to me to be greatly exaggerated, and they may 
be owing in part to information from the Gypsies themselves, 
who by such mendacious accounts are inclined to give themselves 
importance and consideration in these provinces. Certain it is, 
that in Turkey proper, where the Gypsies are set down by 
Vaillant as 200,000, no census can be taken of them, even 
approximately ; for a great part of the Gypsy population are 
continually roaming from plain to plain. Still, such information 
is valuable, as tending to show the great numbers of the Gypsy 
population in these countries, a fact remarked by travellers 
whose object has not been either the census or the history of 
this degraded people. 

* "Mais il n'en est pas moins vrai, que, si la forme en varie, le fond en est tou- 
jours un partout, et pour tous, et ce fond est le Sanscrit." p. 13. 

f " Leur langage, seul criterium de leur origine." p. 4. 


A late writer on Constantinople and Turkey, Louis Enault (Paris, 1855, p. 226), 
estimates the number of Gypsies in all the provinces of the Sultan at 214,000. 

J Provinces d'Origine Roumaine. TJnivers Pittoresque. Paris, 1856, p. 11. 

f Histoire Politique et Sociale des Principautes Danubiennes, par M. Elias Reg- 
nault. Paris, 1855. 

148 A. G. Paspat't, 

The Gypsies in the Danubian provinces are divided into three 
classes :* 

1. The La'iesi, including artisans in works of wood and iron, 
musicians, exhibitors of bears, etc. 

2. The Vatrari, employed in all the menial employments of the 
household. They are generally the servants of the servants. 
At times they have become head-cooks, coachmen, and valets de 
chambre of their wealthy masters. 

3. The Netotsi, half savage, half naked, living by theft and 
rapine, feeding in times of want upon cats, dogs, and mice; they 
are the most degraded and debased of all the Gypsy population. 
This class, by their turbulent conduct and nocturnal depredations, 
have brought upon themselves dire persecution on the part of 
the local authorities, in which their more innocent fellow-coun- 
trymen have been in part sufferers. The Netotsi are of a darker 
hue, with short frizzled hair. Some are nearly black, and this 
difference of complexion may corroborate the statements of some 
authors, who make them the descendants of a separate immigra- 
tion, and from a climate differing from that of the former two. 

All the Gj^psies in the Danubian provinces, like their fellow- 
countrymen in the rest of Europe, follow the religion of the 
people among whom they live. Here, as elsewhere, they seem 
indifferent to every external form of worship, and are considered 
by the Christian people in the same light as the Mohammedans 
view their Gypsy co-religionists in Turkey. The Turks, who are 
not particularly punctilious in the choice of their wives, often 
marry Gypsy women. Not so with the Christians, who have 
kept themselves aloof from family connections with the Gypsies, 
and will rarely have any intercourse with them. No Gypsy is 
ever permitted to enter into any of the sacerdotal offices of the 
Greek church. 

A singular trait in the political history of the Gypsies residing 
in the Danubian provinces has been their state of bondage from 
time immemorial. Bataillard,f who has written on the Gypsies 
scattered over Europe, states that, from two charts discovered 
lately among the archives of the monastery of Tismana in Little 
Wallachia, it appears that they were to be found in Wallachia in 
the middle of the fourteenth century, and were then as now in a 
state of slavery. The long immunity from persecution enjoyed 
by the Wallachian Gypsies was probably owing to their state of 
slavery to the great landholders and the all-powerful monaste- 
ries, by whom their misdeeds were often concealed, and by whose 
power and influence, as interested masters, the iron rod of per- 
secution was often arrested. As many of them passed to the 

* Vaillant, p. 319. 

) Nouvelles Recherches sur 1'Apparition et la Dispersion des Bobemicns ?u 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 149 

monasteries with landed property, on the death of charitable 
individuals, no doubt, from reverence to these asylums, such 
must have been protected in preference to those belonging to 
the state or to private proprietors, who at times suffered in the 
stormy periods of political disturbance. 

Did these men subject themselves voluntarily to bondage? 
Were they driven to seek a shelter in slavery, to avoid ruthless 
persecution and impending death ? Why did they not emigrate 
to other parts of Europe, where their countrymen are often suf- 
fered to roam, and in this manner avoid political and religious 
persecutions by flight and concealment ? It is probably owing 
to a milder treatment on the part of the people among whom 
they came to dwell, and to the reports of heartless and bloody 
persecutions suffered by their countrymen in other provinces of 
Europe. Whatever the reasons may be which induced these 
despised people to subject themselves to bondage, in preference 
to a lawless and persecuted life, certain it is that in no part of 
Europe have they multiplied in such vast numbers as in these 
Danubian provinces. 

Both in Wallachia and Moldavia a change has been lately 
effected in their condition. Alexander Ghika, Hospodar of Wal- 
lachia, and Stourja of Moldavia,* the former in 1837, and the 
latter in 1844, have both decreed the freedom of the Gypsies in 
their respective provinces, and this people, so long oppressed, 
enslaved in body and mind, will probably in a short time, as 
they rise in wealth and learning under the fostering hand of 
freedom, attain to some yet higher consideration.f 


We come now to the principal subject of our memoir, the lan- 
guage of the Gypsies, which, with our present unsatisfactory 
knowledge of this people, is of paramount importance as a his- 
torical demonstration of their origin and nationality. The entire 
history of this race is in its idiom, and this point of comparative 
philology will, I hope, prove to the reader the inestimable ad- 
vantages accruing to history from the comparative study of 
spoken idioms. It is wonderful that a race differing so widely 
from the races around them, so universally avoided, as foreign 
and barbarous, should have been so long in possession of indis- 

* Vaillant, p. 435-442. 

f The Gypsies are now allowed to intermarry with "Wallachians, and such mar- 
riages are consecrated by the Church. Formerly the price of a Gypsy was 150 to 
200 francs. Ami BouS, Turquie d'Europe (Paris, 1840), iii. 325. 

150 A. G. Paspati, 

putable proofs of their origin and fatherland. History has not 
traced their mysterious migrations, or noted any sudden irrup- 
tions into more cultivated lands. It has marked, however, their 
notorious wickedness, their unconquerable propensity to roam- 
ing and pilfering, and their universal abhorrence of the customs 
and religion of the people amongst whom they roamed or dwelt. 
Their origin has till of late been a mystery, and such it would 
have continued to be had not philologists undertaken the study 
of their spoken language, a study of extreme difficulty, owing 
to their long continued ignorance, and constant avoidance of a 
higher mental cultivation. 

The study of the Gypsy language differs so widely from that 
of all other idioms, that the reader will excuse the following re- 
marks upon the subject. Not only does it differ from that of 
other languages preserved both in writing and in the mouth of 
the people, but it is another thing, also, from the acquisition of 
unwritten dialects of savage tribes. In these latter,, the language 
is one and the same, easily acquired by the laborious philologist 
who may mingle with the people, and from long colloquial usage 
fix their grammatical rules. But the Gypsies constantly avoid all 
who are foreign to their tribe, and, being universally abhorred, 
they shun intercourse, and suspect the most godlike benevolence 
shown to them. Acquainted as they are with the spoken lan- 
guage of the people among whom they dwell, they generally 
use it in the hearing of all, so that even here in Turkey, where 
they are so numerous, many do not even suspect the existence 
of any idiom peculiar to themselves. 

Another consideration, extremely important in the study of 
this idiom, is the intermixture of foreign terms, generally bor- 
rowed from the language of the surrounding people, at times 
remodelled to the Gypsy forms of speech, and at times so dis- 
torted as to bear a very distant resemblance to the original word. 
Sheer ignorance, and long separation from those of their own 
tribe, have induced many Gypsies here in Turkey to make use 
of exotic terms, while many in their own neighborhood were 
constantly using well known and pure Gypsy terms. In such 
cases the student is extremely embarrassed, unless some one 
kinder than the others may direct him to a more learned Gypsy 
for farther information. It is, therefore, of the utmost import- 
ance that the student should possess a perfect acquaintance with 
the language of the people among whom they dwell, and par- 
ticularly with the vulgar jargon, which can never be learned in 
dictionaries or books, words floating from mouth to mouth, ex- 
tremely significant, and precisely of a stamp to please the low 
taste of a Gypsy in speaking to foreigners of similar education. 
This knowledge is of primary importance; otherwise he may 
introduce into his vocabulary, as vernacular terms, words which 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 151 

have no connection with the Gypsy language.* In this manner 
alone can -we obtain a vocabulary of their language free from all 
words of foreign idioms, and capable of affording a solid histor- 
ical basis for farther philological researches. This observation 
has often occurred to me in the course of this memoir, and 
such is the importance of it that its full weight can be felt only 
by those who nave had the courage to undertake such an un- 
grateful task. Even in the composition of every Gypsy vocabu- 
lary, there should be a well-defined demarcation between foreign 
words and those native to the Gypsies, as a guide to others. Bor- 
row is an illustration of this. In his vocabulary he has added 
a vast number of Spanish words, some pure, some mutilated, and 
every reader cannot but be perplexed with such a heterogeneous 
mass of terms, Spanish and Gypsy, without any guide as to their 
origin or etymology. Of what use, I ask, can a Gypsy vocabu- 
lary be, but as a foundation-stone to the history of ttie Gypsies? 
And in the vocabulary of Borrow, how can the student separate 
from the Spanish jargon the vernacular Gypsy ? Who should 
have undertaken a similar work but a man like Borrow, who, 
moved by love to his fellow-men, went among the Gypsies, like 
a harbinger of peace, learned and spoke their language, and was 
perfectly conversant with the Spanish and with their jargon? 

Even after all the learned works on the history and language 
of the Gypsies which I shall presently mention, a vast amount 
of treasure still lies hidden in the remains of their idiom which 
are scattered over their settlements in Europe. A comparative 
vocabulary, that should exhibit all the pure indigenous words 
preserved among all the Gypsies of Europe, to the entire ex- 
clusion of every foreign word, is still a desideratum, and would 
be a most precious acquisition to comparative philology, upon 
which might be finally based the true and ^indisputable theory 
of the origin of this people. Even as their language is now pre- 
sented, most of the vocabularies exhibit a striking uniformity in 
all those terms which can be compared with the Indian languages, 
and which by common consent belong to the Gypsies. This, 
certainly, is a great incitement to farther labors. 

The attempt to christianize the Gypsies, and to elevate them 
from their half-brutish state, by translations of the Holy Scrip- 
tures and other Christian works into their own idiom, I consider 
as perfectly useless. For by whom are such translations to be 
made, and by whom read? Here in Turkey, Gypsies roaming 
over the vast plains of Bulgaria, and speaking a -purer Gypsy 
dialect, often cannot understand those south of the Balkans, 

* The perusal of the Vocabulary will convince the reader of the truth of this 
proposition, and of the necessity of having some acquaintance with the language of 
those nations with whom the Gypsies have corne into contact on their way to 

VOL. VII. 20 

152 A. O. Paspati, 

and near Constantinople. Plain translations into the languages 
of the people among whom they dwell, Christian benevolence, 
and Christian oblivion of their misdeeds, may supply the want: 
they hate us as heartily as we hate them ; they pilfer and injure 
us, because we persecute and despise them. 

Before proceeding to give an account of my own labors on the 
language of the Gypsies, as preliminary to the understanding of 
the Vocabulary, I will succinctly describe to the reader the labors 
of the many learned men who have up to this day paid particu- 
lar attention to the study of this idiom. As the subject is little 
known, many, no doubt, will be surprised to learn how much 
has been already done in this field of literature. 

Pott, who in his admirable work on the Gypsies has labori- 
ously collected every thing that had been said on the subject up 
to the date of his labors (1844-5), may serve as a guide in the 
history of Gypsy literature.* 

The first writer on the Gypsies was Bonaventura Vulcanius, 
professor of Greek literature in Leyden, where he died in 1614. 
In his small treatise " De Nubianis Erronibus, quos Itali Cinga- 
ros appellant, eorumque Lingua" published in the body of a 
greater work on the language of the Goths, at Leyden, 1597 
he gives about sixty -seven Gypsy words, without any derivation, 
or plausible clue to their etymology or relationship. Of course, 
before the study of the Hindu languages became common in 
Europe, no plausible account could have been given of their ori- 
gin. Vulcanius makes the Gypsies come from Nubia, in doing 
which he appears to adopt the opinion of the famous Scaliger. 

After Vulcanius, no historical or linguistic work of much im- 
portance appeared on the language of the Gypsies, till the great 
work of Grellmann : " Die Zigeuner Ein Historischer Versuch 
iiber die Lebensart und Verfassung, Sitten und Schicksale dieses 
Volks in Europa, nebst ihrem TJrsprunge, von M. H. M. G. 
Grellmann ;" Dessau und Leipzig, 1783. An improved and en- 
larged edition of this work was published in 1787, and, about 
the same time, it was translated into French by Baron de Bock.f 
The work of Grellmann produced considerable impression at the 
time of its publication, and though as a work of comparative 
philology it is of little value now, still it can be usefully consul- 
ted for its historical observations, as the author has judiciously 
collected nearly every thing that was known of the Gypsies ante- 
rior to his time.:}: Indian literature, then so little known, has 
made his work of comparatively little value to us now. 

* Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien, i. 8. 
f Oriental Collections [by W. Ouseley], ii. 386. 

j This author calculated the number "of Gypsies in Europe as between 700,000 
and 800,000, of whom 40,000 were in Spain, chiefly hi the southern provinces. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 153 

In the Archseologia, or Miscellaneous Tracts relating to An- 
tiquity, published by the Society of Antiquaries of London, vol. 
vii., London, 1785, are contained "Observations on the Lan- 
guage of the People commonly called Gypsies," in a letter to Sir 
Joseph Banks from Wm. Marsden. This learned author has made 
some observations on the relationship of the Gypsy language to 
the Hindustani, which had already been remarked by Ludolphus 
in 1691.* In this same work are contained the observations of 
Jacob Bryant on the Zingara or Gypsy language, transmitted to 
O. Salisbury Brereton, in a letter from the Rev. Dr. Douglas. 
Both these works contain a great number of Gypsy words. Pott 
however remarks that "the comparison with the Hindustani and 
Persian, etc., is weak." 

In the work of Franz Carl Alter, " Ueber die Samskrd. 
Sprache," Wien, 1799, are contained some Gypsy words, extrac- 
ted from Catherine's Comparative Dictionary. 

"Zigeuner. in Herodot, oder Neue Aufschliisse liber die Aeltere 
Zigeunergeschichte, aus Griechischen Schriftstellern, von Dr. 
Johann Gottfr. Hasse;" Konigsburg, 1803. The author has been 
imitated in a still more unphilosophical spirit than his own by 
Vaillant, in his late work. 

John Hoy land's "Historical Survey of the Customs etc. of the 
Gypsies;" York, 1816. f This author has made large use of the 
valuable work of Grellmann, adding also much of his own. 

Another treatise, "On the Similitude between the Gypsy and 
Hindu Languages," in the Transactions of the Lit. Soc. of Bom- 
bay, 1819, was published by Irvine "of no special value," 
according to Pott. 

The next in order of time is the remarkable work of Anton 
JaroslavPuchmayer "Romani Chib, d. i., Grarnmatik und Wor- 
terbuch der Zigeunersprache, nebst einigen Fabeln in derselben. 
Dazu als Anhang die Hantyrka oder die Czechische Diebes- 
sprache;" Prague, 1821. This work is extremely valuable, and 
Pott frequently refers to it. Though I have not seen the work, 
the quotations often found in Pott, and the frequent references 
to it, amply prove the value which he set upon the labors of 
this learned author. There is a striking similarity between his 
Gypsy terms and those in my Vocabulary, so that I arn induced 
to believe that Wallachian Gypsies must have afforded him his 
principal information. 

"Deutsch-Zigeunerisches Worterbuch, von Dr. Ferd. Bischoff;" 
Ilmenau, 1827 a work often quoted by Pott. 

* Pott, p. 6. 

f The full title of this work is given in the Penny Cyclopedia " Historical 
Survey of the Customs-, Habits, and Present State of the Gypsies, designed to 
develop the origin of this singular people, and to promote the amelioration of their 

154 A. 0. Paspati, 

" Travels in Hungary," by Bright. In this work are contained 
some views of the origin and language of the Gypsies. The 
orthography of Bright's Gypsy words differs widely from that of 
most other authors. Many of his Gypsy terms were collected in 
England, and comparisons are instituted between the forms of 
the language as spoken in Hungary, Spain, and England. 

In the Transactions of the Royal As. Soc. of Great Britain and 
Ireland, vol. ii., London, 1830, is the following work : " Obser- 
vations on the Oriental Origin of the Roranichal, or Tribe mis- 
called Gypsev and Bohemian. ~By Colonel John Staples Harriot, 
Bengal Infantry (read Dec. 5. 1829, and Jan. 2, 1830)." This 
work, according to Pott, is superior to every other one in Eng- 
lish on the origin and language of the Gypsies. It gives a very 
plausible account of the progress of- the Gypsies from India 
through Persia. 

G. Louis Dorneny de Rienzi's "De 1'Origine des Tzengaris," in 
Revue Encyclopedique, Nov. 1832, p. 365-373 ; also his "Es- 
quisse d'un Tableau Comparatif de la Langue T/cengare ou Bohe- 
inienne d'Europe, avec le Tzengare de 1'Hindustan, et neuf 
Idiomes de I'Orient." Rienzi, as he himself confesses, was not 
profoundly versed in such philological studies. His work is not 
of much value. 

"Geschichte der Zigeuner, ihrerllerkunft, Natur, und Art, von 
Dr. Theod. Tetzner;" Weimar und Ilmenau, 1835. It gives in- 
teresting notices on the Prussian mode of governing the Gypsies 
inhabiting that kingdom, and on the laws regulating their social 

In 1835 was published at Erfurt, by Graffunder, " Ueber die 
Sprache d-er Zigeuner. Eine Grammatische Skizze." This work 
was reviewed in 1836 by the justly celebrated Bopp, in the 
Jahrbueher der Wissenschaftlichen Kritik, Nos. 38 and 39, and 
the relationship of the two idioms, Gypsy and Hindu, corrobora- 
ted by the judicious remarks of this great Orientalist.* This 
work, together with that of Grellmann, forms the basis of the 
French work of Michel de Kogalnitcha-n, published at Berlin, 
1837 : "Esquisse sur 1'Histoire, les Moeurs et la Langue des 
Cigains, snivie d'un recueil de sept cent mots Cigains."f 

In 1841 was published the work of George Borrow: "The 
Zincali, or an Account of the Gypsies of Spain, with an Original 
Collection of their Songs arid Poetry, and a Copious Dictionary 
of their Language ;" London, in two volumes. Borrow, while in 
Spain as agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, trans- 
lated a portion of the Scriptures into the dialect spoken by the 

* Bibliotheca Sanscrit.-!, by Friedrich Adelung, 1687, p. 67. Pott, i. 22. 

f Vaillant is mistaken in saying that the work was published at Jassy, in Molda- 
via (p. 11). Pott (p. 23) remarks of the work : " The collection of words is not 
worthy -of much commendation." 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 155 

Spanish Gypsies. His work is well known, and is valuable for 
the historical information which it gives respecting the Gypsies 
in general ; but its principal value is in the description of the 
numerous Gypsies of Spain, and in the vocabulary, the richest 
which had appeared up to his day. He has drawn largely from 
Grellrnann and Marsden. To this author I shall have occasion 
frequently to refer in the course of this memoir. 

Besides the above works, written expressly on this subject, 
notices of the Gypsies and their language are to be found scat- 
tered in different works on ethnography and comparative phi- 
lology. In Adelung's Mithridates, continued by Yater, are some 
notices of the Gypsies and their language.* In 1818 was pub- 
lished, at Frankfort, the work of Chr. Gottlieb von Arndt: " Ueber 
den Ursprung der Europaischen Sprachen." The author gives 
some notices of the Gypsies, and their probable origin from India 
and the central parts of Asia. He gives at the end of his work 
some words of their language, which I have inserted in notes: 
they seem to belong to the Danubian G^ypsies. 

In 1841 was published at Milan the work of Francisco Pre- 
dazi : "Origine e Vicende dei Zingari, con Document! intorno le 
Special! loro Proprieta Fisiche e Morali, la loro Keligione, le loro 
Usi e Costumi, le loro Arti, e le Attuali loro Condizioni Politiche 
e Civili in Asia, Africa, ed Europa, con un Saggio di Grammatica 
e di Vocabolario dell' Arcano loro Linguaggio." This author 
seems to have borrowed largely from Grellmann and Kogalnitch- 
an, and to have had little personal acquaintance with the lan- 
guage, which he terms "linguaggio arcano." 

The most important work on the Gypsies is undoubtedly the 
German one of Dr. A. F. Pott, published in two octavo volumes, 
the first in 1844, the second in 1845, in Halle "Die Zigeuner 
in Europa und Asien." To this work was awarded by the In- 
stitute of Paris, in 1845, the premium of comparative philology, 
originally instituted by Volney. It is a work of high character, 
showing unwearied application, and the most profound scholar- 
ship, in every department connected with its subject. Its author 
has collected and compared every thing written up to his time on 
the language of the Gypsies, so that the reader has in a single 
view every thing that had been gathered by many learned au- 
thors. He appears to have studied the subject for a long time, 
and no difficulty or dryness seems for a moment to have abated 
the courage of this learned and indefatigable author. It is the 
Thesaurus of the Gypsy language, and other dialects, better 
able to repay so much labor, might be justly proud of a simi- 
lar grammar. The work of Pott is principally directed to the 
language and to its grammatical construction ; his notices of the 

* Bibliotbeca Sanscrita, by Friedrich Adelung, p. 67. 

156 A. (?. Paspati, 

Gypsies artd their peregrinations are scanty and meagre. He 
has paid particular attention to the relation of the Hindustani 
and other spoken dialects of India to the Gypsy language, vising 
as a reference the excellent work of John Shakespear on the 
subject.* His references to the present spoken Persian are very 
frequent, and often extremely judicious. The second volume 
contains a vocabulary, in which are inserted all the words found 
in the various vocabularies of the Gypsy language drawn up by 
preceding authors. Borrow's entire vocabulary is inserted, but 
no effort is made to separate what appears to be Spanish from 
Gypsy. Pott has had, however, the precaution to mark with an 
asterisk every word undoubtedly Sanskrit, and those of doubt- 
ful origin with a cross the rest are left for farther investigation. 
The first volume is far from possessing the interest of the second, 
for the Gypsy language in its grammatical construction has lost 
nearly every mark of its Sanskrit character, and varies extremely 
in the different provinces of Europe, ingrafting upon itself very 
intimately the spirit and analytical character of the language 
spoken by the people. In this manner, the construction offers 
less interest than the primitive signification of the words. In 
his grammar, Pott gives nearly every author's construction, with 
numerous quotations for the elucidation of the subject, which 
render the work extremely voluminous. 

It was not till I had completed nearly the whole of my vocab- 
ulary that I obtained this work of Pott, and I consider it as a 
very fortunate circumstance that I had not by me such a guide 
from the beginning, for so masterly a hand must have kept me 
in the path which he had already trodden. Left to myself, with 
what scanty help I obtained from Borrow's vocabulary, I have 
searched and researched for myself, and have assiduously exam- 
ined the relation of the Gypsy to the Sanskrit, setting aside every 
term which to me appeared of other than Gj'psy origin. Sub- 
sequently, I have compared many of my derivations with Pott's. 
There, is a striking similarity in both, with this difference, that I 
have given in many of my derivations more attention to the Sans- 
krit than Pott. An example the reader may see in the defini- 
tion of yak, 'fire,' which Pott refers to the Sanskrit agni, 'fire/ 
Lat. ignis, Pol. ogien. I have referred it to the root yaksh, 'to 
sacrifice,' since nearly all words in Sanskrit having the consonant 
Jcs/i, in passing into the Gypsy, lose the final s/?, and exhibit pure k. 
The reader will see numerous examples of this in Section IV. 
There is a marked difference in our derivations of tav, 'thread,' 
which Pott leaves doubtful, giving the Sanskrit sthawi (a weav- 
,er) ? while I have attempted to show its connection with the 
Sanskrit root tap, ' to heat, to torment,' a connection which be- 

* A Dictionary Hindustani and English. 4to. 

On the Language of Oie Gypsies. 157 

comes extremely probable from the occurrence of a similar word 
in the Persian language. Similar differences in our derivations 
I shall point out in the notes to the Vocabulary. 

Pott's work contains all the words of Sorrow's vocabulary, 
which to me appears rather a blemish, as many of them are 
the purest Spanish. Nothing should enter into a Gypsy vocabu- 
lary but what can be proved or shown to be pure Gypsy. It is 
on this account that I have eschewed nearly all borrowed terms, 
Greek and Turkish, from my own, inserting merely a few, in 
order to show the manner in which such words are mutilated and 
distorted. Whether Pott himself had much personal acquaint- 
ance with the Gvpsies, with their language and pronunciation, it 
is difficult to say. For nearly every thing he refers to others. 

No work on the language of the Gypsies has appeared since 
the publication of this great work of Pott. Vaillant, before the 
publication of his work, had given to some of the French peri- 
odicals dissertations on the Gypsies, but they are historical and 
descriptive. In his large work, of which we have already spo- 
ken, and which contains everything scattered in his other trea- 
tises, he has at the end a few Gypsy words, which I have inserted 
in notes, and which, with slight variations, resemble those in my 
Vocabulary, coming as they do from the Danubian Gypsies. No 
confidence can be placed in his derivations, even when he tries 
to his utmost to arrive at something like truth, for he is as wild 
here as in his descriptions of the Gypsy peregrinations. I give 
the reader a specimen. "Ma-garu, 'ane,' mot a mot, 'longue 
oreille;' kar-pu, ' melon,' mot a mot, 'fruit de la terre;' kol-pu, 
' tour, golfe,' mot a mot, 'rond terre;' Tcris 'tal, 'cristal,' mot a mot, 
' transparente et solide surface.'" Now magdra is a Bulgarian 
word, signifying ' a donkey ;' karpu is the Turkish karpuz prob- 
ably from the Greek xotQnbg, 'fruit' a name now given to the 
watermelon by the Turks; kolpu is the Greek x6i.7iog, 'a harbor,' 
pronounced by the Turks kiorfuz ; krislal is the Greek x^orraUog, 
'glass, ice,' etc. 

I come now to my own labors, a notice of which is neces- 
sary to the understanding of the Vocabulary, and of the few 
grammatical observations inserted in Section V. I have re- 
marked already, how widely the acquisition of the Gypsy lan- 
guage differs from that of every other language. The reader 
therefore should perfectly understand it, in order to judge of the 
accuracy of the author's observations, and the truth of every 
point in dispute. 

About four years ago, Mr. John P. Brown, the learned Orien- 
talist, and dragoman of the American Embassy in Constantinople, 
gave me a short vocabulary of the Gypsy language, which he 
had collected in his excursions in the suburbs of Constantino- 
ple. Up to that time, I had given little attention to this idiom, 

153 A. G. Paspati, 

and knew not much of it, except what at times I met with in the 
course of my Sanskrit studies. Most of it had been collected 
from Moslem Gypsies, a few words being added by a Christian 
Gypsy. There was nothing in the vocabulary but the simple 
definitions in English. All the words, together with a few nu- 
merals, were about seventy. As the subject became extremely 
interesting to me, from the relationship so palpable in many 
words, I determined to continue the work, and to corroborate 
Mr. Brown's definitions by other Gypsies, adding whatever else I 
could obtain from other sources. After many months' assiduous 
labor, after repairing to different Gypsy haunts in Constantinople 
and its suburbs, and mingling with the people in search of more 
intelligent Gypsies, I collected about one hundred and fifty words, 
which I attempted to explain, unassisted by works on the sub- 
ject. My observations were published, in the fall of 1857, in the 
excellent Greek periodical of Athens, the New Pandora. These 
studies, extremely imperfect, were praised by the learned editors, 
and kind words of commendation were forwarded to me by some 
friends and literati of Athens. All this was a farther incitement 
to proceed with my labors, and ever since I have been assiduously 
employed in collecting materials, in making acquaintance with 
Gypsies, and in awakening their interest for their native idiom. 
This has tended to flatter their vanity ; and so I have been able 
to obtain abundant materials for a more perfect work: up to the 
present time they come forward with new words, frequently 
transmitting them to me by correspondence. These materials I 
kept scrupulously by me for future use, hoping to have occasion 
to add whatever I collected to a new edition of the Greek article. 
Precisely at this point of time, towards the latter part of last 
year, the Rev. Cyrus Hamlin. missionary of the A. B. C. F. M., 
offered to translate my little work into English, for the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society. In this I acquiesced with all my heart, 
persuaded that this eminent and laborious friend of long years, 
perfectly conversant with the polished Greek of the present day, 
would make a faithful translation of the whole. I have re- 
viewed the whole translation in company with Mr. Hamlin, and 
can testify to its accuracy. 

In this manner has originated the present memoir, which is 
presented to the public enriched with all the additional materi- 
als collected by me since the first publication of my researches 
in Athens additions which render it essentially a new work. 

My first method of acquiring the language was to give a word 
to the Gypsies, either in Greek or Turkish, and to obtain from 
them the corresponding term in their language. This method, 
pursued for some time, is tiresome and extremely fallacious for 
they may give you another word, in order to cover their ignor- 
ance, or this same word, with pronouns, in the plural, and often 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 159 

united to a verb. This, at first, is extremely perplexing, and the 
student cannot properly understand his position, or feel any de- 
gree of confidence, until he has in some manner fathomed the 
depth and breadth of their brutal ignorance. They will do their 
best, particularly when incited to such uncouth and unknown 
martyrdom by the exhibition of money as a spur to their sluggish 
memory. They will torment themselves, look at heaven and 
earth, scratch their heads, or put their fingers upon their temples, 
to recall the lost term, which, according to their expression, is 
sticking at the tip of their tongue. I have frequently pitied 
the poor fellows, since they seemed so in earnest to satisfy my 
curiosity ; and I have desisted from farther demands for a par- 
ticular word, which they professed they knew, but could not 
possibly recall. 

With the Moslem Gypsies I have had great difficulty, for they 
are fast losing their idiom, and few of the new generation know- 
any thing of it.* The Christian G} ? psies, however, still retain 
it, with an incongruous mixture of Greek and Turkish terms, 
and from them I have obtained nearly all the materials contained 
in this memoir. The profound hatred of the Moslem Gypsies f 
or rather their contempt of every thing pertaining to a Christian, 
inherited from the genuine Moslems, makes them shy, and very 
poor guides in such matters. 

This process of collecting words from single individuals soon 
disheartened me, on account of its imperfections, and the great 
difficulty of obtaining by it even a scanty knowledge of Gypsy 
terms. I therefore, after numerous trials, resorted to dialogues, 
which succeeded admirably, and which I can recommend to any 
individual in similar circumstances. One can hardly keep pace 
with their volubility. Words flow as in a torrent, while the 
elements and combinations of which it consists can afterwards 
be arranged in a systematic manner by the student, and easily 
elucidated one by the other. I cannot but make this remark, 
and say how much trouble might have been saved, had I begun 
with this plan, which has cleared up wonderfully all my notions 
and views of this very interesting idiom. I have permitted my 
Gypsy masters to add whatever came into their neads, in the 
course of the dialogue. In this manner a rich treasure of knowl- 
edge resulted from our studies. 

It was my good fortune, however, in prosecuting these studies, 
to make the acquaintance of a Greek Gypsy, Andrea George, 
living twenty miles distant from Constantinople. His amiable 
character had induced a Greek gentleman, some years ago, to 

* They strive to show zeal in their new religion, and consider their vernacular 
idiom as partaking of Christian heresy, and of course avoid speaking it as much as 

VOL. VII. 21 

160 A. G. Paspati, 

put him into a Greek school, where he went through the first 
elements of the Greek grammar. To this young man, to whom 
education has imparted feelings nobler than those of his fellow- 
countrymen, the subject became very attractive, and to his kind- 
ness 1 am greatly indebted for the help he has rendered me in 
the latter part of my studies. He has, in his short excursions 
to the neighboring villages, collected from different Gypsies, 
coming from the north of Turkey, many terms unknown to him, 
which he has given to me, and which I have examined and 
inserted in the Vocabulary. We have reviewed together all the 
Vocabulary, and all the dialogues, collected from different quar- 
ters, which have served as the basis of it. I have noted with 
the greatest accuracy his accents, and the sounds of his voice 
in the pronunciation of the various consonants, and I have every 
reason to put entire confidence in his information. It coincided 
with whatever I had previously collected from numerous sources, 
and which I continually submitted to his examination. He 
himself was often unable to give me the desired information 
except in the form of dialogue, and by degrees he was induced 
to write for me dialogues in his vernacular idiom. In this way 
he acquired for himself a great number of terms, ascertained 
my wants, and with kindness of heart entered into my vie\vs. 
and has even attempted to collect whatever of his native idiom 
is known among the Gypsies dwelling in the villages near Con- 
stantinople, or roaming in tents, and coming from the distant 
plains of Bulgaria and Servia. Having become extremely inter- 
ested in these labors upon his own language, Andrea still con- 
tinues his observations, and submits them to me, ften demanding 
whether such a word should be pronounced in such a manner, 
and not in another. He asked me once, for example, whether 
the word for 'he, sells' should be biklel or biknel: I told him that 
the latter was the proper form, and that he should always avoid 

In this manner have been collected and arranged all the 
materials which enter into the Vocabulary. There is nothing 
borrowed from any work on the Gypsies, and I am warranted in 
saying that all the terms are in constant use among the Gypsies 
dwelling around Constantinople and in the Roumelian villages, 
up to the skirts of the Balkans. My long intercourse with them 
has rendered me somewhat familiar with their idiom, and in the 
present state of my knowledge I offer this Vocabulary as ex- 
hibiting the actual condition of their spoken language, the result 
of four years' constant application and study. It is my earnest 
hope that it may prove of some utility to students in ethno- 
graphical science, and in all those scientific and philosophical 
pursuits that have for their object to ascertain the true origin of 
tribes and nations. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 161 

In the definitions, I have often inserted quotations from my 
dialogues, as pronounced by the Gypsies, quotations which in 
numerous cases serve to illustrate the term under consideration. 
They are extremely important, and may serve as points of illus- 
tration to those who shall desire to make farther researches upon 
this interesting subject. The reader may put implicit confi- 
dence in their accuracy, for they have been repeatedly sifted and 

The object of this memoir is to demonstrate the relation of the 
Gypsy language to the Sanskrit; and in this part of my work, 
as I have said before, I was perfectly unassisted. What I have 
done I humbly submit to the public. Though persuaded of 
its near connection with the Sanskrit, more intimate than that 
of any other spoken language of Europe, I confess that I have 
not always succeeded in pointing out the relationship of Gypsy 
terms to the Sanskrit, even in cases where their structure would 
seem to bear an undeniable stamp of Hindu origin. But I feel no 
discouragement; and when I consider that our immortal Coray 
has been able by long and unwearied study to define and trace 
to the ancient language most of our pure modern Greek jargon, 
and thus to explain so many obscure passages in ancient Greek 
authors, what cannot we hope to effect by a similar process, when 
Sanskrit shall be better known, and its etymologies better de- 
fined? I have no doubt, as I have remarked in the Vocabulary, 
that, as the modern Greek has vastly elucidated the ancient, so 
the Gypsy, which is so closely related to the Sanskrit, will impart 
the same advantage to Sanskrit, when the relation of the two is 
fully established and universally acknowledged. It will then 
become evident that Sanskrit verbs, most of which remain unal- 
tered in form in the Gypsy, but have different significations, may 
have originally possessed these significations. Coincidence of 
original meaning becomes undeniably apparent in the case of 
many adjectives and nouns. 

As the language of the Gypsies has been thoroughly permeated 
by the spirit of the modern Greek and Turkish, as spoken in and 
around Constantinople, I have derived considerable assistance 
from both these languages, in elucidating many points under 
discussion. Pott himself often makes reference to modern Greek 
words, with a judgment and an accuracy worthy of all praise. 
The reader will see the opportunity for similar references in the 
course of the Vocabulary. 

As to the orthography of the Gypsy language, it is well to 
inform the reader that I have adopted for the vowels that of the 
Italians, as the most perfect, and least liable to error : a should 
be pronounced as a in far e, as in met i, as in pin o, as in no 
it, as in butt. As to the consonants, I have retained the ordin- 
ary notation of orientalists, writing ch for the sound of those 

162 A. 0. Paspali, 

letters in child, chime, Italian cimaj, which by common consent 
corresponds to the Sanskrit j, I have constantly written j for 
example, jandva, 'I know' (written by others djandva) as better 
suited to English readers. The strongly aspirated Sanskrit pala- 
tal I write chh, the guttural kh, and the aspirate h. The Gypsies 
in these countries have no sound corresponding to that of the 
English th in this, that, Greek 8. The lingual and palatal sibil- 
ants of the Sanskrit I have represented by sh and g; to both 
belongs very nearly the same pronunciation, that of the English 
sh, as in shall, shore. 

There is such a softness in the pronunciation by the Gypsies of 
some consonants, that I am at a loss how to write them. The 
word puro, ' old,' is an example. It is not puro, nor furo, nor 
phuro, nor pfuro. I cannot pronounce it ; the sound is like blow- 
ing from the mouth, as in blowing out a candle. As to writing 
or expressing it by Eoman characters, there is a difficulty similar 
to that which Europeans experience when trying to represent 
the ghain of the Arabs. This word by some is written puro, by 
others furo ; still, to me, all are wrong, and do not give the true 
pronunciation of the word. But I have preserved furo, generally 
adopted by others. The same difficulty occurs in the pronuncia- 
tion of mindo, ' mine,' which at times is heard as though pro- 
nounced minro. I have pronounced it in both ways, in the hear- 
ing of Gypsies, and they have made no remark. But I could not 
pronounce it as they do themselves. Their manner is like an 
imperceptible breath, passing upon a word mindro, so gentle that 
both consonants are heard, while one is at a loss to say which 
predominates. It must be heard to be appreciated. So with 
their pronunciation of soft k the Turkish kef which at times 
appears like a pure t, particularly when in the middle of words. 
Utkiavdva, 'I mount, I hang,' at times appeared to me as though 
it should be written utiavdva, and at times ukiavdva; so gentle 
is the sound of k in similar cases, that with some Gypsies it is not 
heard at all. I have folio sved the more general usage, and have 
often been guided by the aorist in determining the proper or- 
thography of the present of the verb. These delicacies in the 
pronunciation I have noted in the Vocabulary. Some Gypsies, 
and particularly the Moslem, pronounce the gently aspirated p 
as a pure p, saying always pur6, 'an old man.' The reader will 
see farther notices of the pronunciation of the consonants in 
Section IV, where their mutation in passing from the Sanskrit 
to the Gypsy language is spoken of. 

I have pointed out all the Persian words found in the idiom, 
as they are an important element in the history of the Gypsies. 
It is evident that a people using so many pure Persian words 
must have formerly had close connection with the Persian peo- 
ple. They could not have borrowed them from the Turks, who 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 163 

make no use of these particular words. The reader will observe 
them in their proper place. 

Less interest is attached to the Slavonic terms, for the Gypsies 
are still found scattered among the numerous Slavonic tribes of 
the banks of the Danube. 

All Mr, Brown's terms are inserted in their proper places, and 
marked "Br.," to distinguish them from Borrow's, marked "Bor." 

Mr. Hamlin's remarks upon the Armenian language I have 
inserted in notes, and marked "In." 



To ABANDON mukava. This is probably connected with the Sanskrit 
root much, 'to release, to let go.' The change of a palatal into a 
guttural, and vice versd, is common in all languages. Kamuk&v tut, 
4 1 shall leave thee ;' ndpalal mukelaman bizoral6, 'afterwards it leaves 
me weak. 1 

To be ACQUAINTED with pinchardva. This seems to be a compound 
verb, formed from the Sr. root char, 'to go, to proceed,' and the par- 
ticle vi, which, joined to the verb, imparts to it in the causative the 
meaning of ' to pass back and forth in one's mind, to consider, to 
meditate upon.' Pinthardva shows the addition of a euphonic n 
after vi, and the change of v into p, so common among the Gypsies. 
Meya pinchardvales, ' I also am acquainted with him :' though tran- 
sitive in form, it has here a neuter signification. 

AFAR dur ; Bor., dur. From the Sr. c?Am, 'distant.' Keti diir isi 
chin ti Silivri? 'how far is it to Silivria?' Dural, 'from a distance:' 
dural allian? 'have you come from a distance?'* 

AFFIRMATION vd ; Br., nangar ; Bor., unga. I think there is an error 
in the definition of Mr. Brown, as it seems to me impossible that such 
an affirmative particle should have the negative na in its first sylla- 
ble. Still, it is valuable as tending to elucidate Borrow's word. Va 
is the Sr. indeclinable vdi, a particle of asseveration or confirmation. 
The Gypsies in these quarters know of no other particle, and will ac- 
knowledge no other, but most of the Moslem Gypsies use the Turk- 
ish or Greek. Borrow's form, although to appearance obscure, may 
be referred to a pure Sr. origin ; namely, to the word anga, itself also 
an asseverative or assenting particle, ' yes, truly.' 

ALL sarro, sarvd, sdrrore, savvore, sdrvolo ;\ Br., sarvillee ; Bor., saro. 
Almost unchanged from the Sr. sarva, 'all, the whole, entire.' As 
concerns the final syllables lee and lo, I do not know whence they 
come. Te dikel sarre, ' should he see all ;' sarre o manushe isi kho- 
khavne, 'all men are liars;' sdvvoreorom, 'all the Gypsies;' ketiisunas 
savvore ? ' how many were you all ?' sarvenghe te penesles, ' to declare 

* Armenian dar, dara, in composition ; as daratsaincl, ' to sound abroad.' TB. 
f " Sare, 'tous.'" Vaillant, p. 456. 

164: A. 0. Paspati, 

(lit. 'to say') it to all.' It is a very common word, and understood by 
all the Gypsies, wherever they are to be found. 

ALMS lachipe ; Bor., lachipen. This is an abstract noun, from lachd, 
'good,' and the common suffix pe or pen ; it signifies 'goodness, 
benevolence.' It is used, however, by the Gypsies, in the sense of 
' alms.' They have followed in this respect the usage of the Greeks, 
who frequently, in the place of l^er^oavvi), ' alms,' use the term yv-/t,- 
xbv, contribution for the salvation of the soul.' Compare Turk. 
sadakd, 'alms,' lit. 'goodness, righteousness.' Kamdva to lachipe m6 
chavo, ' I desire thy happiness, my child.' 

ALWAYS gheles. Possibly connected with the Sanskrit kdla, ' time.' 

AND td, te. This conjunction may be identified with the Sr. tu, in 
preference to cha, which is more usual among Sr. authors. The fol- 
lowing colloquial phrases amply illustrate its signification. Td e cha- 
ven, ' and the children ;' td penena, ' and they say ;' td nd penena cha- 
chipes, ' and they do not speak (say) the truth ;' td isi kodrom but 
chikd, ' and there is in the road much mud (muds).' In the follow- 
ing examples it can be rendered ' also ' : terela la yek dulon (Gr. 
douAo*) , 'he has also a servant;' terela la khelia, 'it has also figs;' 
kamesa td mol ? ' dost thou wish also wine ?' This conjunction is 
frequently pronounced te, particularly when it is not at the beginning 
of a sentence. 

ANVIL amuni ; Br., ammunee ; Bor., amini. From the Greek axp\av, 
1 anvil,' pronounced by us now ap t u6vtov and d t ufi6vt. 

APPLE papal, hapai. This term, like many other denominations of 
plants and fruits, is obscure, and difficult to be explained. 

ARMFUL angdli. This is the Greek term ctyxaiKi and (iyxtUjf, mean- 
ing 'whatever can be held between the arms.' Cf. dyxdir; %6qiov 
(Xenophon). Yek angdli char, ' an dyxtUj? of hay.' 

To be ASHAMED lajdva ; Bor., lacha. From the Sr. root lajj, ' to be 
shamefaced or ashamed.' This is the term to which the Gypsies of 
Spain attach so high an importance, (Bor., ch. vii.) meaning by it as 
a substantive 'the unblemished chastity of the unmarried female.' 
With the Gypsies in these countries the signification of the word is 
simply ' shame,' and they translate it by the Greek sfr^on^, or the 
Turkish 'ayb, 'shame.' Lachano, 'shameful.' 

ASHES prdhos, This is the Slav, prah", ' dust.' Among the Bulga- 
rians, however, the term pepdl is in common use for ' ashes,' from the 
ancient Slav, pepel", ' ashes ;' Gr. yratTrdijy, ' the very finest of flour,' 
and ' whatever is rubbed to extreme fineness.' Kalo prdhos, ' black 
ashes ;' e boveskori prdhos, ' the ashes of the baker ;' keti prdhos 
kamesa? 'how much ashes dost thou wish ?' keti prdhos reselalul? 
' how much ashes suffices thee ?'* 

To ASK puchdva. From the Sr. root prachh, ' to ask, to inquire, to 
desire to know.' The liquid r has been dropped, as in other similar 
examples (Section IV). This verb is at times pronounced pachdva and 
pechdva. S6ske puchesa mdnder ? ' why dost thou ask (from) me ?' 
kapuchdv lestar, ' I shall ask (from) him ;' td te puchdv lestar, ' and 
that I may ask (from) him.' 

* Prdchos (arSna), and again, pracos, "staub." Pott, ii. 361. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 165 

Ass kher ; Br., kher ; Bor., gel, guel, jeroro fern, kherni ; Bor., jeni, 
jerini. The Sr. hara, from the root hri, ' to bring, to bear,' signifies 
' bearer,' and secondly ' the ass,' as the Turks call the ass merkeb, 
from the Arabic root rakaba, ' to bear.' Thus hara signifies ' beast 
of burden' in general, and, by secondary meaning, 'the ass,' which, 
through all the East, is the burden-bearer in domestic works. This 
term is also written khara : compare Zend khara and Pers. kher, ; an 
ass.' My term kherni is ' the female ass.' Those of Borrow are of 
different provinces, but all of the same origin. Sigo kher, ' a swift 
ass;' tumari khereskoro i zen chorghia, 'your ass's saddle they have 
stolen ;' terela pdnj kher, ' he has (owns) five asses.' 

To AWAKE janguva. The Sr. root jagri is ' to awake, to be awake or 
watchful.' We shall see in the next Section that the r of the Sans- 
krit, particularly when in composition with other consonants, is fre- 
quently dropped, as in this case. Jangavava, the passive form, is ' to 
be awaked;' jangavdo, 'he is awake.' It corresponds to the Turkish 
oyanik, ' awake, a man of talent :' Gr. 'e^vnvos. JanganiUom (pass, 
aorist), 'I have awaked;' janganilo, 'he is awaked.' 

AXE tover, tovel. This word is pronounced in both ways by many 
Gypsies, for the liquids are often commutable. It is a pure Persian 
word, taber and taver, 'the two-edged axe used in felling wood.' 
Tovereskoro, 'one who uses an axe,' or 'one who makes and sells 
axes.' The Turkish is battaji. 


BACK dumo. This is a frequently used term among all the Gypsies, 
for the hinder part of the trunk, extending from the neck to the ox 
sacrum. The Greeks now call the body xoqulor or xo^wl, diminutive 
of xoQfidg, ' the trunk of a tree.' May not, then, dumo be compared 
with Sr. druma, ' a tree,' which, by dropping the liquid r, has become 
dumo ? To me this origin appears very probable, particularly upon 
comparing it with dudum, 'a gourd,' in which the same word druma 
appears to exist. 

BAD ffdrko. This is the usual adjective used in opposition to lacho, 
' good.' Gorko maniish, ' a bad man ;' o rashai marela e gorke chaven, 
' the master beats the bad children ;' gorkipe, ' badness, wickedness.' 

BALD pako. The Sr. verb pack means ' to mature, by cooking or rip- 
ening;' and derivatives from it signify 'maturity, suppuration,' and 
even ' gray hairs,' as the maturity of age. The Sr. word paka has 
all these significations, and the same term is by the Gypsies referred 
to baldness, as an attribute of grey hairs and old age. Pako ist, nd 
terela bal, ' he is bald, (and) has no hair.' 

To BAPTIZE bolava. This word of the Christian Gypsies, which, like 
all the rest of this class, is of peculiar interest, seems to belong to 
the Sr. bul, of the 10th class, 'to sink, to dive and emerge again.' 

In embracing Christianity, the Gypsies must have been at a loss, at 
times, to express by appropriate terms the new order of things which 
they constantly saw before them. They have done, in this matter, 
what other nations in embracing Christianity had done before them. 
The Slavonians call the cross krcst", undoubtedlv from the Greek 

166 A. G. Paspati, 

iu;; and say krestdyu, 'I baptize,' analogous with the English 
" I christen," i. e. 'I baptize, I make one a Christian.' Have not 
most of the nations who received the blessed tidings of Christianity 
from the Greeks adopted also Greek terms ? But whenever words 
were found in the idiom of the Gypsies capable of expressing the new 
idea, they would naturally be adopted by them. We shall see another 
example in the name of the cross. Banrl^aj, the transitive of /Jurrrw, 
meant originally ' to color by dyeing.' The word to this very day is 
used for ' dyeing, painting, besmearing the face with rouge,' etc. : it 
is a neuter and transitive verb. As color was transmitted to cloth 
by immersing it in water, the word very naturally came to mean ' to 
immerse in water.' What difficulty then had the Gypsies in giving 
to this act of Christianity the word which corresponded to the Greek ? 
Those Gypsies unacquainted with the word use vaptizdva, ' I baptize,' 
the Greek QumlLw. Boldva e chaves, ' I baptize the child ;' bolipe, 
' baptism ;' bolavdo, ' baptized ;' bibolavdo, ' not baptized.' 

BAREFOOTED pirnangd. A compound word, pir, piro, 'foot,' and 
nango, ' naked ;' literally ' naked-footed.' In another part of the Vo- 
cabulary, I treat of the etymology of pir 6, pirno, the Gypsy terras for 
' foot.' " 

BARLEY -jov. This is the Persian jav, ' barley,' which the Gypsies have 
borrowed directly from the Persians. Sr. yava, ' barley.' The Per- 
sian form of this term is undoubtedly from the Sanskrit, as the Per- 
sian language very generally changes the Sr. y into j : compare jugh, 
' yoke,' Sr. yiifja ; javan, ' young man,' Sr. yuvan. 

BASKET koshnika ; Br., sevlia ; Bor., cornicha. This is a Bulgarian 
word, from the Slavonic kosK 1 and kosnitza, ' a basket.' The origin 
of Mr. Brown's term is unknown to me. 

BATH tatto, bdynia ; Bor., fait. Borrow defines this word "fever," 
Sp. calentura. Although it has not the signification of ' bath' in his 
vocabulary, yet the meaning which he gives may serve to elucidate 
my own. From the Sr. root tap, 'to heat, to burn,' is formed the 
part. taj)ta, ' hot, burning,' and this, by the customary change of p to 
t, becomes tatta, just as the Italians pronounce the Latin aptus "aMo." 
The Arabs, from the word kamma, ' to heat,' have formed hammdm, 
'bath,' and humma, 'fever.' This word, as well as rat, ratti, 'blood,' 
should be written with tt, tatto. Some Gypsies use the word bdgnia, 
It. bagno, a common word in these countries for 'bath.' 

BEAN* bopi. A Bulgarian word, bop, ' a bean,' but particularly the spe- 
cies called the Egyptian : Gr. xovxxla, Turk, bakld. PI. bdpia. 

BEAR richini. As numerous Gypsies in Roumelia and the Danubian 
provinces gain their livelihood by exhibiting bears in the streets and 
public places, it is natural to suppose that this term would be a com- 
mon one among them all. To me it appears related to the Sr. riksha, 
' a bear,' and hence to the Gr. &QXW;, Lat. ursus. Should this deriva- 
tion be found to be true, it will be one of the rare examples of the 
change of ksh into ch, as I shall have occasion to show in the follow- 
ing Section. 

To BEAT mardva. This verb seems to be of the same root with the 
verb merdva, ' I die.' In order to distinguish it from merdva, it is 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 167 

always pronounced mardva, and the aor. marghiom. It means also 
4 to pound, to grind, to bruise.' raskdi marela e chaven, ' the teacher 
beats the children ;' marelala? 'does he beat her?' 

BEAUTIFUL sukdr ; Br., shukd ; Bor., jucal. These words are from 
the Sr. sukara, compounded of the prefix su, ' well,' Gr. ew, and the 
adjective kara, ' making,' Gr. mwos, from the root kri (Lat. era?), ' to 
do, to make.' Kara, in Sanskrit as well as in Persian composite 
words, indicates action ; as sukdra, ' the well-doer, the generous be- 
stower,' and hence ' whoever is beautiful in soul or body.' To Mr. 
Brown's word, shukd, a final r should be added; in Sorrow's, the 
final r is changed to I. The fern, jucali is the Sr. sukard. The Gyp- 
sies form all feminine nouns in i, as we shall see in speaking of the 
nouns (Section V). 

BECAUSE sostar. Appears to be the pronoun so, with the ablative 
particle tar (lit. 'from which'), 'on account of;' precisely as the 
Greek <5*6, composed of the prep. Siu, and the rel. pron. 6,rt ; also 
octey, rel. pron. and the ablat. &ev. Sostdr isds kelipe, 'because 
there was a dance.' 

To BEGET bendva. This term, like its cognate ben, 'birth,' I have not 
been able to refer to any Sr. root, with any degree of satisfaction. 
The term is common to both sexes, in man and animals. I romnl 
benela, ' the woman begets,' i. e. ' produces, brings forth ;' gurumni 
amari bengkids yek moskdre (Gr. fwax&qiov'), ' our cow has brought 
forth a calf;' i chukli benghi&s pdnj rukone, 'the bitch has begotten 
(brought forth) five whelps.' 

BEHIND palal. This evidently is the Sr. para, ' distant, remote, after.' 
Here, as in many other adverbs of location, the term is in the abla- 
tive form, a very favorite one with the Gypsies.' According to the 
formation of other similar adverbs, it would be, in its simple form, 
pal: as avry, 'out,' avrydl, 'from the outside,' Gr. HSiafrev; adre,and- 
rydl, and andrdl, ' from the inner side.' It is often to be heard united 
with the comparative particle po, as popaldl, ' still more backwards.' 
Ldvales paldl, ' I take it back ;' palalutno, ' the next in order, the 
second ;' polaleste, ' farther back ;' napalul, ' afterwards ;' kdna chinesa 
bar, nu palalutne ghen, ' when thou throwest a stone, the afterwards 
(i. e. 'the consequences') consider;' peliom paldl, 'I fell behind,' i. e. 
' I followed him.' 

To BELIEVE pakiava. This verb I refer to the Sr. root paksh, ' to take 
a part or side.' Pakidva ki anekd m, ' I believe that it is so ;' na 
2?akidva ki muld, ' I do not believe that he died.'* 

BELLOWS pishot; Br., pishata. Mr. Brown's word is in the plural form. 

BELLY bar; Bor., pos, po. This is one of the many terms of the 
Gypsy language, the derivation of which is not clear to me. Terdvas 
duk me poridti, 'I had pain in my belly.' 

* Pott (ii. 346) writes the word patdv, and derives it from the Sr. prati -f- i, ' con- 
fidere.' The Gypsies here pronounce it as I have written it. I have frequently 
heard it. The difference, however, may have been occasioned by the pronunciation 
of the consonant t, which with the Gypsies is often a soft k. A similar commuta- 
tion is often to be heard among the Greeks, particularly in the island of Lesbos 

VOL. VH. 22 

168 A. G. Paspati, 

BETWEEN maskare. This tenn comes from the Sr. madhya, ' middle, 
intermediate,' Lat. medius, Gr. fidaao;, Slav, mezdyu, ' between.' Mas- 
kare to diti ker, ' between the two houses ;' maskare to dui drom, and 
maskare dui dromende, 'between two roads;' maskure dui manushende, 
' between two men ;' maskardl, ' from between,' Lat. ex medio, de medio, 
Mod. Gr, find T^V (jfaTjv. 

BIRD chirikld ; Bor., chiriclo. The Sr. chtri, ' a parrot,' is the only 
word to which can be referred this Gypsy term. Probably the term 
had also the more general signification in the Sanskrit, for we have 
in the present spoken language of the Hindus chiriya, for 'birds' in 
general. The signification of this word among the Gypsies is ex- 
tremely vague; it is applied to all the feathered tribe. I have heard 
it used of quails, partridges, pigeons, etc. Never have I been able to 
ascertain any term for particular species of birds or fishes. The Gyp- 
sies call them by their Greek or Turkish names. 

BIRTH ben.-~- See to BEGET. 

BITCH chukli. This is the fein. of chukel, ' dog,' by the addition of 
i, the usual affix of Gypsy feminine nouns. The e of the final syllable 
is always rejected : chukel, chuk(e)li. Amari chukli, ' our bitch ;' 
katdr kinahidn ti chuklid ? ' whence didst thou buy thy bitch ?' 

To BITE dantdva, dantildva. Both these verbs are in use ; they have 
been formed directly from the Sr. noun danta, ' tooth ' (see TOOTH). 
The second, dantildva, is a compound verb, formed of danta and the 
verb lava, ' I take,' both of which are separately explained in the 
present vocabulary. Unlike its mother tongue, the Gypsy language 
is not generally fond of compound words. Ta o chukel danyhianles, 
' and the dog bit him/ 

BITTER kerkd. This is the Slav, gdrkie, ' bitter,' in general use among 
the Bulgarians, from whom the Gypsies have received it. It is a com- 
mon term among all the nations that speak the various dialects of the 

BLACK kalo (fern, kali) ;* Br., calo ; Bor., calo, callardo, caloro. 
These terms are derived from the Sr. kdla, ' black, of a dark color.' 
The second of Borrow is a Spanish form. Compare the Slav, kaleme, 
' color, dye.' The reader will observe that the Turkish Gypsies have 
preserved many words of their mother tongue pure from all foreign 
intermixture. Isi kali, ' she is black ;' kale romd, ' black men :' kalo 
is used for ' a negro ;' kali, for ' a negro woman :' kald manrd, ' black 

BLACKSMITH master ; Br., masteros. Master is a word very generally 
used by all classes of people in Constantinople, from the vulgar Italian 
maestro, to designate ' a chief workman,' or artist of any profession : 
Turk, and Persian ustad. Many Gypsies, in place of this term, use 
their own shastireskoro, 'iron-worker' (see IRON). 

BLIND koro.\ Compare the Sr. oiri, ' a certain disease of the eyes ;' 
girikdna, ' one blind from the disease giri? This word is used at 
times by the Gypsies as an imprecation : o devil te koro kerelman, 
' may God reduce thee to blindness !' 

* "Cali, 'noir et beau.'" yaillant, p. 179, f Armenian goir, 'blind.' TE. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 169 

BLIND MAN tam-manush. I give here this second word for ' blind,' as 
it is applicable only to the human race, whilst the former, koro, is 
used, as in other languages, for inanimate objects. It is a compound 
word. Tarn is from the Sr. root tarn, ' to be senseless, to be dark.' 
The derivatives of this root signify 'blindness, bodily or mental, 
gloom, perplexity,' etc. 

BLOOD ratt ;* Bor., rati, arati. From the Sr. root ran/, 'to color, to 
dye' (Pers. renk), comes the participle rakta, 'colored, dyed, red,' 
neut. raktam, ' blood.' In the above Gypsy terms, the k of the Sr. is 
changed to t, for the sake of euphony ; like the Italian prattico from 
the Latin practicus. Dukhdva but e ratt, ' he likes much to bleed 1 
(lit. 'he likes blood'). 

To BOIL tavidva, tapidva. By the transmutation of the labial p into 1 
its cognate v, this Gypsy verb is easily referred to the Sr. root tap, 'to 
heat, to burn,' and, in the Gypsy language, ' to boil,' as an effect of 

BONE kokkalo. This term is common to all the Gypsies. I have never 
been able to ascertain any other denomination for bone, even among 
the Moslem Gypsies. It is the common Greek xoxxociov, derived from 
x6xxog, ' the kernel of fruit :' xoxxah&ru is ' to become hard,' and is 
a very common term among the Greeks now.f 

BOSOM kolin. I leave to others to determine whether this word can 
be referred to Sr. kola, signifying, among other things, ' the bosom, 
the lap, embrace.' The names of parts of the body in the Gypsy lan- 
guage are often extremely difficult and dubious. 

BOWEL buko ; Bor., porias. Buko may be referred to the Sr. bukkct 
and bukka, both meaning ' the heart,' in the same way as the Greeks 
(.ailed (TTil&yxvov every internal organ of the body, and often, to this 
day, the common people call the stomach and the bowels xa^Slu. 

' Borrow has the Sr. puritat, ' an entrail, a gut,' which seems in fact 
to furnish the proper etymology of the word used by the Gypsies of 

BOY-CHILD chavo ;J Br., schago; Bor., chavo, pi. chai. 

GIRL chai; Br., schay ; Bor., chavory. The Sanskrit has more than 
one term to which the above words can be referred : tuch, tuj, and 
toka, ' progeny, children,' cdva or cdvaka, ' the new born of any ani- 
mal.' The Gypsy word I have always heard pronounced chavo. Some 
of the Moslem Gypsies reject the v, and pronounce chao. Mo chavd, 
' my child ;* dui chaven terdva, ' I have two children ;' rovela ani 
khurdo chavo, ' he cries like a little child ;' o rashdi marela e gorke 
chaven, e lache chaven na marelalen, ' the teacher beats the bad chil- 
dren, the good children he does not beat ;' te chavenghe, ' to thy chil- 
dren ;' astarghiom e chaves, ' I caught the child ;' e chaveskoro ndv so 
isi ? ' what is the child's name f td e chaven, ' and the boys ' {ace. 
case) ; terela chaven ? ' has he (or she) children ?' mi chdi, ' my girl ;' 
terela yek murs, yek chdi, 'he has one boy (and) one girl/ 

* Armenian ariune, ' blood.' Ta. 

\ This terra should always be written with double x 

\ " Tfhai, ' jeune homtne.' " Vaillant, p. 457. 

170 A. G. Paspati, 

BRAIN goti. Used by the Gypsies for ' brain ' and ' mind.' Teravales 
me gotidte, ' I keep it in my mind,' i. e. ' I remember it.' It may be 
referred to Sr. goda, ' the brain,' or to godhi, ' the forehead.' From 
this word is formed gotiaver, ' having a brain, intelligent.' ' Brain ' for 
'intelligence' is very common also among the Greeks. "/e ftvelbv, 
' be is wise,' lit, ' he has brain.' Mi goti, ' my mind ;' ate olio amare 
gotidte, ' there came to our mind,' i. e. ' we were reminded ;' te n'avesa 
me gotidte, ' should I not bring to my mind.' 

BRAVE murs. This term is often used as equivalent to the common 
Greek naklijZ and 7taM.i]x&()iov, 'a brave, one endowed with courage ;' 
Turk, yiyit, Pers. pehlivan. The Gypsy term probably originates 
from the Sr. mri, ' to die,' and its participle mrita, ' dead, mortal,' Gr. 
J?^OTOJ, &vT]ibt;, of which we shall speak in elucidating the verb merdva, 
' to die,' so common in all the Indo-European languages. Compare 
Slav, muzz, ' a man, a male.' The Gypsies frequently use the term 
for the male sex, whenever they intend to indicate manliness and cour- 
age in the pel-sou spoken of. It properly signifies a person of cour- 
age, but who makes no ostentatious parade of it. It is used also for 
' boy :' terdva dm chaven, yek chdi, yek murs, ' I have two children, a 
girl (and) a boy.' 

BREAD manro, mando, marno, marly; Br., maru ; Bor., marno, jumeri, 
tato. Cognate with the Sr. mar&ra, ' granary or storehouse,' where 
all kinds of produce, and whatever is used 'for food in general, are 
kept. Sorrow's tato is evidently the Sr. tapta, participle of tap, ' to 
heat, to burn,' and consequently signifies that which is heated or 
cooked, as the Lat. pants biscoctus, Fr. biscuit, Gr. #910? dlnvoo;, i. e. 
' bread subjected to two fires.' Manr6 khandi khdva, 'a little bread 
I eat ;' kalo manro, ' black bread ;' manreskoro, ' a baker,' or ' one who 
sells bread.' 

To BREAK pangdva. Sr. bhanj, ( to break.' Panghiola, ' it broke,' aor. 
of the mid. voice ; panghiovdva, ' I have been broken.' 

BREAST -chuche, chuchi ; Bor., chucha. From the Sr. chuchi, 'breast,' 
(Gr. /Macros) ; chuchuka, ' a nipple.' Chuchi ddvales, ' I give it the 
breast ;' piela chuchi, ' it drinks the breast ;' nd lela chuchi, ' it does 
not take the breast ;' chuchia dukena, ' the breasts pain.' 

BRIDGE purt. From the Sr. root par or pri, ' to pass over, to go to 
the other side.' The Greek, from neyw, niq&o), has yre^cirj??, < one who 
passes to the other side,' and nlga, ' on the other side.' Compare 
Zend peretus, 'bridge.' 

To BRING anava. Perhaps from the Sr. root nt, ' to lead,' with the 
prefix a, ' hither, to.' ' It is extremely common among the Gypsies. 
Its aorist is anghiom, ' I brought ;' fut. kandv, 1 1 shall bring.' Katdr 
anghidn te romnid? 'whence didst thou bring thy wife?' so anyhidn? 
' what didst thou bring ?' 

BROAD buglo. This adjective, of which the derivation is unknown to 
me, means ' broad, wide, expanded :' fern, bugli. Bugl6 dr6m, 4 wide 
road.' It serves to form the verb bugliovdva, ' to expand, to stretch, 
to put out clothes to dry,' probably from the custom of stretching 
clothes on the ground to dry them. JSugliarghiom e yismata, ' I have 
spread the linen (to dry).' Bugliovava means also ' to widen, to scat- 
ter;' Gr. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 171 

BROTHER pral, plal ;* Bor., plan, piano, 

SISTER pen; Bor., plani. Except for the first of these forms, one 
would hardly believe them to be the Sr. bhrAtri, the correlative of so 
many Asiatic and European synonymes : in the Zend brdtar; Pers. 
berader; Lat. f rater; Gr. qp^irw^; Goth, brothar; Genn.bruder; Eng. 
brother; Slav, brash ; Russ. brat; Bulg. vrat. The Turkish Gypsies 
have fortunately preserved the word nearly like its archetype, to which 
we can thus refer the three forms of Borrow, which are undoubtedly 
from bhrdtri, metamorphosed according to the natural interchanges 
of letters. Plal approaches the Lithuanian brolis, 'brother' (Bopp). 
Pen and plani are from the same Sr. original. The Hindus use 
another word, svasri, 'sister,' Lat. soror. Amare penid, 'our sister' 
(ace. case); te praleskoro ndv? 'thy brother's name?' keti pralen 
teresa ? ' how many brothers hast thou ?' me praleskoro kereste, ' in 
my brother's house.' 

BUCK buzos. Related to the Sr. papu, ' an animal in general, a beast, 
a goat.' A diminutive form of this term is buznd, buzni, ' a she-goat.' 
Chungali buzni, .' a good-for-nothing she-goat ;' buznoro, ' kid ;' ker- 
ghias diii buznore, 'she had (lit. 'begat') two kids.' 

BULGARIAN das. This appellation is given by the Gypsies to the nu- 
merous Bulgarians living among them, or coming from Bulgaria in 
the summer season to till the lands of the Greek and Turkish land- 
holders. The Bulgarians are found in vast numbers on the lands of 
Roumelia. They are called BovlyaQoi by the Greeks, Bulghar by the 
Turks, and Bulgar by themselves. To them this appellation das is 
utterly unknown. It is, however, extremely interesting, as being, per- 
haps, a reminiscence of the words Dacia, Dacian. Dashdi, pi. of das ; 
dasni, 'a Bulgarian woman;' dasoro (pi. dasore), 'a young Bulgarian ;' 
dasniori, ' a young Bulgarian girl ;' dasikano, adj., ' Bulgarian ;' dasi- 
kani chip, ' the Bulgarian language ;' dasikanes, ' in a Bulgarian 
manner ' Bovl.yuqiail. 

To BURN tapidva, tapiovdva. In speaking of BATH, I have referred to 
the Sr. verb tap, ' to burn, to be hot.' It is only here and in tavidva, 
' I boil,' that we meet it as a verb, used as tap is in Sanskrit. 

BUSINESS puti, buti. This term, in frequent use among all the Gyp- 
sies, I have rendered by the term ' business' in English, in preference 
to any other. It is the Greek doviela, ' service, work, business ;' the 
use of which may be illustrated by a few colloquial expressions : thus 
we frequently say, e^w dovleiaf noM.ty t ' I have a great deal of business ;' 
elg itvog dovlsiav elacu ? ' in whose service art thou ?' The Gypsy 
word seems to be related to Sr. bhtiti, primarily ' being, existence,' 
but ordinarily meaning ' prosperity, success, power :' the Gypsies have 
made it mean ' work, labor,' as what is necessary to the enjoyment 
and preservation of one's life, or the acquisition of wealth and pleas- 
ure. JBhukti, ' eating, possession, fruition,' from bhuj, ' to eat,' does 
not appear to me to have any connection with this Gypsy term. Sik- 
lilidn neve putid ? 'hast thou learnt (any) new business ?' kapichavdv 
ttit ti polin (Tc6liv) yek putidti, ' I shall send thee to the city for (one) 

* "Prales, ' fibres.' " Vaillant, p. 456. 

172 A. G. Paspati, 

business ;' terdoa but putid, ' I Lave much business.' Pali (pL putid) 
is also applied to the implements of work. Deman me putid, 4 give 
me my implements.' -Butiakoro, ' a day-laborer.'* 
To BUY kindva. This verb I refer to the Sr. root kri (pres. krinami), 
' to buy, to barter, to exchange.' It is a striking example of the un- 
questionable relation of the Gypsy and Sanskrit idioms.f The r has 
been lost, as in many other like cases (see Section IV). With vi 
prefixed, kri means ' to sell :' so also among the Gypsies, bikindva or 
hikndva means ' to sell.' Kinghi6m yek grdst, ' I bought a horse ;' 
kdrin klnghidn te chukles ? ' when didst thou buy thy dog ?' isds 
leskoro, meya kinghiomles, ' it was his, and I bought it.' 


CABBAGE shah; Bor., chaja, resis. This may possibly be the Sr. fdkha, 
1 plant,' limited by the Gypsies to signify ' cabbage,' in like manner 
as by the modern Greeks the ancient term Mt%avov, ' vegetable.' This 
conjecture is strengthened by the analogy of Borrow's term resis, 
which we shall have occasion to explain in speaking of VINEYARD: 
applied in former times to savory substances in general, it has come- 
to be limited exclusively to the vine by the Gypsies of Turkey, and 
to the cabbage by those of Spain. 

CACARE khidva, khlidva. The verb is pronounced in both these 
ways. Fut. kamakhlidv, ' I shall void, cacabo ;' khlendo and khendo, 
' cacatus ;' khlenghidm, ' I have voided.' The origin of this term is 
unknown to me. 

CANE ran. Of uncertain etymology. 

CARRIAGE vordon. This term is intimately related to berd, 'a sailing 
vessel,' which we shall note in defining SHIP. Both seem to belong- 
to the Sr. root bhri, ' to carry, to bear.' Vordon I have heard used 
at times for ' a pack-horse.' 

To be CHEATED khokhdvniovdva. Compound verb, from khokhavno, 
' a liar, one cheated,' and avdva. Te dikel sarre o manush ndna kho- 
khdvniovel, ' were he to see all (i. e. 'every thing'), a man would not 
be cheated.' For a clear understanding of these compound verbs, the 
reader must examine the explanation of the component parts of the 
verb, in their respective places. Khokhdvniovelman, 'he cheated me.' 

CHEESE kerdl. The Sr. kshira is defined 'water, milk,' and from it is 
derived this Gypsy term. The compound consonant ksh, as we shall 
have occasion to show in the next Section, is constantly changed to 
the simple k. Kotor kerdl, ' a little cheese ;' ke o yaver kerdsales kerdl, 
' and the remainder (i. e. ' milk ') we make cheese.' 

To CHEW -chamkerdva. This is a compound verb, composed of cham 
Sr. cham, ' to eat, to drink, to take any thing into the mouth as 
food' and the Gypsy verb kerdva, ' I make, I do,' from the Sr. kri, 
' to make,' which we shall explain in speaking of the verb to MARK. 

CHICKEN chavri. This is the usual Turkish yavru or yavri, 'the young- 
of any animal ;' Gr. veoaabc. 

* Pott proposes vritti as a probable origin of this term. 

f The Armenian ki/nel, by change of r to n, may be from this root. TR. 

On the Language of the Gypsies, 173 

CHILD raklo ; fern, rakli, 'a female child, a daughter.' This term, 
though frequently confounded with chavo, 'a boy, a child,' means prop- 
erly ' the little one,' TO /HIXQOV of the Greeks. Terela panje raklen, 'she 
has five children ;' yavre raklenja, ' with other children.' It is used 
often for 'the child at the the breast, the babe;' Gr. fiaiQw. 

CHRISTMAS khristune. Although I have made particular inquiries after 
terms of a religious character in the native Gypsy language, I must 
confess that very few are to be found. I have noted in other parts of 
the Vocabulary such as are of pure Sr. origin. The rest are from 
the Greek. Christmas, in modern Greek, is called id xQiaTbvyewu 
(XptOTOu yiwyais), i. e. ' Christ's birth,' from which has been formed 
this Gypsy word, with the accent on the final syllable. 

CHURCH karghiri ; Bor., cangri. These two words are of European 
origin, from the Gr. ixxlrjvla, and xvQtaxog oixo? ; Germ, kirche, Eng. 
kirk and church, are from the latter. The Latin nations have prefer- 
red lxxA);or/; It. chiesa, Fr. eglise.* 

CLEAN shucho, shuzo. The Sr. adjective cuchi, from the root fitch, 
1 to be pure or clean,' means ' white, pure,' etc. All the numerous de- 
rivatives from this verb have the same idea of cleanliness, physical or 
mental. By some Gypsies the word is pronounced shuzo ; shuch6, 
however, is the more common pronunciation. Shuchipe, ' cleanliness,' 
is formed by the addition of the usual particle pe. Shuchi romni, ' a 
clean woman ;' shucho chavo, ' a clean child.' 

To CLEANSE koshdva, goshdva. The signification of this term is ' to 
make clean, either by rubbing, washing, or sponging.' The Greeks 
now use the word anoyyltpt, ' I clean,' from #716)70?, ' a sponge.' Its 
etymology is obscure. Aor. koshliom, ' I made clean, I cleansed.' 

CLOTHING pdta ; Bor., plata. This term I derive from the Sr. pata, 
pati, patta, etc., all meaning 'cloth, colored cloth, a garment,' The 
Gypsies of Spain, for euphony's sake, have inserted an / in the first 
syllable. The word, pronounced patane by some Gypsies, is by them 
applied to the bands and various pieces of cloth with which babes are 

COAL angdr; Br., anga ; Bor., langar. This is the unchanged Sr. an- 
gara, 'coal.' Borrow adds an initial I by mistake; or, more proba- 
bly, it is a fragment of the article el, which the Spanish Gypsies have 
universally adopted. The Gypsy language suffers what many others 
do, sometimes cutting off from, and sometimes adding to, the most 
common words: as JV<io? (the name of the island), pronounced now 
*A$la ; elg TTJV n6l.iv ('to the city'), Turk. Stamboul; European Salon- 
ica for Thessalonica; Eng. dropsy for hydropsy (wJowi//). Angareskoro, 
' a collier, one who sells coals.' 

COCK basno, bashno ; Bor., basno. This word, though apparently 
more changed than many others, I am inclined to refer to the Sr. 
pakshin, ' fowl, bird,' from paksha, ' wing, feather.' The interchange 
of the consonants is natural. bashno kaleskoro isi? 'the cock, whose 
is it f e basneskoro, 'of the cock ;' e basnengoro, ' of the cocks.' 

* The Armenian word for church is yegeghetzi, which is ixxtyaia,, transformed 
to accord with Armenian rules of euphony, and shows us how strangely a word can 
be modified in passing from one tongue to another. TR. 

174 A. 0. Paspati, 

COLD shil, shilalo ; Bor., jil, jir, gris. These terras are derived from 
the common Sr. ftla, ' cold, frozen.' Borrow's form gris is, I think, 
a mistake ; for it seems connected with the Sr. griahma, which signi- 
fies 'heat, the hot season of the year.' In comparing words of the 
Gypsy language with the corresponding Sr. adjectives in to, we see 
that they often change this final syllable to I ; thus fatam, ' hundred,' 
becomes shel and shevel ; sita, 'grain,' becomes /tf; and this word 
pita, shil. Shilalo, ' frigid ;' shil but, ' very cold ;' shilald pahdl, 
4 cold wind.' 

To feel COLD shildliovdva. Verb compounded of shilalo, ' cold,' and 
avtiva, ' to come, to be ' (Section V). 

COLT kuri, furi ; Br., kuree ; Bor., saullo. May not the first words 
be related to the Sr. kurdha, ' a light bay horse with black legs ?' 

COMB kangli. There are two Sr. words to which this term can be 
referred : kankata, ' a comb, an instrument for cleaning the hair,' and 
kankala, ' a skeleton.' I am inclined to give the preference to the 
latter, as more natural, and more congenial to the commutation of 
consonants observed in the formation of the Gypsy language. 

To COMB ghantava* This verb seems to have no relation to kangli, 
'a comb,' but may be connected with Sr. kanta, kantaka, 'a thorn, 
goad,' etc. Ghantava mo &hero, ' I comb my head ;' ghantdvaman, 
' I comb myself;' Gr. xisvicp^at. 

To COME avdva. Aor. avghiom and alliom. Ich alliom te dikdv tut, 
1 yesterday I came to see thee ;' nashkidn f allidn, ' they left and 
came;' soskealle? 'why have they come?' alliom katdr ki len, 'I 
came from the river;' kdnakamaves? 'when wilt thou come?' but 
laches, avdva, 'very well, I am coming;' favela to ddt, te penes mdn- 
ghe, 'should thy father come, let me know it' (i.e. 'thou shouldst 
tell it to me'). 

To CONCEAL gardva. It is difficult to refer this verb to any known Sr. 
root, without violating the common rules of Gypsy derivation. Garda- 
vaman, 'I hide myself,' xQtinwfjai; gardvtut, 'hide thyself ;' garati- 
cano manush, ' a hidden man' (i. e. ' a mysterious person'), pvauxbg. 

To COOK pekdva. Sr. pach, 'to mature by cooking or ripening, to 
boil, to dress.' Pers. pukhten, ' to cook ;' pukhle, ' cooked, matured ;' 
Slav, peku, ' I cook,' which has changed the Sr. palatal ch into the 
guttural k, like the Gypsy. This verb is extremely common, and well 
known to all the Gypsies. Pekilo, 'baked, cooked' (3d pers. aor. 
pass.) ; peko, ' cooked ;' Sr. pakva, ' cooked, matured.' 

COOL sudro. Evidently the Pers. serd, ' cold, frigid.' It is often ap- 
plied to water, to express its freshness. Sudro pani, ' cool water ;' 
sudrd tut, 'cold milk.' It is often confounded with shilalo, 'cold.' 

To COVER uchardva. The close coincidence of form between this 
word and the Sr. uchchardmi, ' I arise, go up,' leads me to conjecture 
their relationship, notwithstanding the difference of meaning. Mid. 
voice: uchardvaman, 'I cover myself;' uchardvaman e paplomatenja 
(Gr. 7r7rA(fy/aT), ' I cover myself with quilts :' part, uchardd, ' cov- 
ered ;' biuchardo, ' uncovered,' pronounced often buchanlo ; as bu- 

* Pronounced yantdva, with a Gr. y (yavt dfia). 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 175 

chardo isi o ctmaksi (Or. (i.wuSt), ' the carriage was uncovered.' 
ghiom (aor.), 'I have covered.' 

COUGH has ; Bon, pichiscas. 

To COUGH hasdwii From the Sr. root M*, 'to cough.' The change of 
the guttural k into the aspirate h is observable in other Gypsy words, 
as we shall have occasion frequently to notice in the course of this 
memoir. Many Gypsies pronounce the noun as though it were writ- 
ten with a Greek %. Their pronunciation of the aspirate h is so feeble 
at times as to be scarcely heard. Borrow derives his term from Sr. 
vikshava, 'cough.' Bat hasava, 'I cough much,' 

To COUNT ghendva ',; Bor., ginar, jinar. The Sr. verb gan means 'to 
count, to reckon up by number, to calculate.' Though applied to cal-> 
dilations of a higher order by the Hindfts, it is now by the Gypsies 
confined solely to counting. Many of them can count no higher than 
ten in their vernacular tongue. The word is frequently used in the" 
sense of considering or reflecting. Palalutne ffhen, ' consider the 
consequences' (lit. 'the afterward things'). So also the Greeks? 
,wero TU {xnegivu oov. 

Cow see ox. 

CREPITUS VENTRIS khan. Of doubtful etymology. 

CROSS tarshul, trushul / Bor., trijul. All the religious terms of the 
< Jypsies are of peculiar interest. Unfortunately for their history, they 
have few such which are vernacular, and, like the Persians and Turks, 
have borrowed nearly all from the people among whom they live,- 
and whose religion they have embraced. This, however, is a singu- 
lar exception. It seems to be related to the ST. trif&lu, 'a trident, 
a three-pointed pike or spear, especially the weapon of Siva.' To 
many Gypsies this word is entirely unknown, and in its place they 
use the Greek aianobg: kerava, mo stavros, 'I make my cross, I cross- 

To CRY our bash&va. This Gypsy verb may be referred to Sr. v&p, ' to 
sound, to cry as a bird, to call,' etc. These definitions go to prove 
that the verb was applied by the Hindus to all those sounds of ani- 
mals expressed by the Lat. ululare. So, too, with the Gypsies, who 
use it in a very general sense, and apply it not only to quadrupeds, 
but to birds also. bam6 bashela^ *the cock crows;' bashela o chukel, 
' the dog barks.' 

CURSE armdn. This is an imprecation very much in use among tlie 
Gypsies. I will endeavor to explain it by the usages of the natives, 
both Greeks and Turks, Arman and (irma signify in Sanskrit 'disease 
of the eyes, and consequent blindness.' The Tnrks, among their 
imprecations, frequently make use of the phrases k>6r ol, ' mayest thou 
become blind,' kior olsun, 'may he become blind. 1 The Greeks very 
often exclaim to one another T^qptar, 'blindness;' vd nqpfetvH}?, 'mayest 
thou become blind/ In a similar manner, as I conceive, this Sr. word 
in the mouth of the Gypsies became a word of imprecation, having 
the same signification with the Greek and Turkish terms. They know 
nothing of the primary Sr. signification of arman, and, when asked 
the meaning of the term, they answer " it is a ^toaqD^w/a, 'a curse.' " 
The phrase Ma demon annan, ' do not give me a curse/ is extremely 

VOL. VII. 23 

176 A. O. Paspati, 

common among them all, and they use it as we use the phrase "do 
not revile me." Armdn ddva is ' to curse.' But it is rarely used in 
any other form than the one given above, precisely as the Greeks 
never use the term ffxfin save as an imprecation. 

To CUT chindva; Bor., chinelar, achinelar. The Gypsies use this word 
indifferently, either for cutting in the ordinary sense of the word r or 
for reaping. Borrow also defines the word chinelar "to cut, to reap.' r 
The Sr. chhid, ' to cut, to divide,' inserts an n before its final radical, 
like all verbs of the same conjugation : chhinna, from this root, is 
' divided, cut.' The Gypsies have rejected the final radical conso- 
nant, and in its place have preserved the characteristic n of the con>- 
jugation. Sorrow's addition of an initial a to chinelar is a pleonasm 
frequently found in his vocabulary. Chindva, and, in the passive form, 
chiniovdva, is used frequently in the sense of ' I am tired.' Among 
the ancient Greeks, the word xdnru had this signification : 'inno? ibv 
&va@<iTi}i> xunrfi (Xen.), and x6no;, 'pain, labor,' evidently prove it. 
Compare Mod. Greek ixonrjv, ixonrjxa, ' I am tired ;' TO 656i>Ti fie XOTII, 
' the tooth pains me.' The Turks use the passive, kesilmek, ' to be cut' 
(act. kesmek], for 'to be tired or wearied.' So that the Gypsies have 
imitated the usages of their neighbors. Chiniovdva kdna pirdva, 'I 
get tired when I walk;' kdna shundvales moghi chindo, 'when I hear 
him my heart (is) afflicted' (lit. 'cut'): chinghiom, aor. 

To CUT with a knife, to WHITTLE choldva. The Sr. root chhur we shall 
have occasion to explain in speaking of churi, 'knife,' to which it has 
doubtless given origin, as well as to this verb choldva. It is singular 
that the liquid r should have been retained in the noun, and changed 
to / in the verb. 


DAY dives, ghives; Br., ghives; Bor., chibes. Related to the Sr. div,* 
denoting ' heaven, day.' From dives comes disilo, ' the day breaks.' 
Khandi dives, 'few days;' diveseskoro, 'wages for a day's work;' saro 
dives, 'everyday;' keti dives? ' how many days ?' Ghives is more 
general among the Moslem Gypsies. 

DEAF kasukov ; Bor,, cajuco. This is a common word, well known 
and familiar to all the Gypsies. I am unable to give it any satisfac- 
tory Sr. derivation, though it seems to be related to that idiom. 

DEATH mold, meripe; Bor., meripen. This is evidently from the Sr. 
root mri, ' to die,' which we find in nearly all the European lan- 
guages, living and dead. Mold is the Sr. mdra, ' death, murder,' by 
the change of r to I. The ultimate pe, pen is the customary particle 
forming abstract nouns, numerous examples of which are to be met 
with in our Vocabulary. For farther elucidation of this term, see 
to DIE. 

DEEP khor. This term derives itself from the Sr. root khur,\ ' to cut, 
to scratch, to dig.' Khor chin ti puv, ' deep into the earth.' 

To DEPART nashdva; Bor., najabar, najar. This verb I refer to the 
root nac, ' to disappear, to cease to be, to perish.' Nasghid f allid, 

* Armenian div. TB. f Armenian klior, Ichorln. TB. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 177 

'they left and came ;' kdna kanashes ? 'when wilt thou depart?' but 
nasheta, 'it goes swiftly' (of a horse); nash amendar, olendar, 'de- 
part from us, from them :' part, nasto, ' departed.' 

DEVIL benk; Br., benk; Bor., bengue, bengui. Bcngo isi, or bengosi, 
' he is a devil ;' ja tuke benke, ' go thou also to the devil,' an impre- 
cation ; bengald manush, * a devilish man,' i. e. 'a cunning man.' 

To DIE merdva. We have in other parts of our Vocabulary terms 
which are connected with this verb, as mold, ' dead, death,' meripe, 
4 death,' merd6, 'sick' (Bor.), murtardva, 'I murder.' We have oc- 
casion, in defining these terms, to speak of the Sr. root mri, ' to die,' 
which is to be found in a great many languages, bearing intimate 
relation to the Sanskrit. It was naturally to be expected that a word 
which has retained its place in so many languages, having more or 
less affinity to the Sanskrit, should also be preserved in the Gypsy. 
In speaking of meripe, ' death,' we have noticed some of the affinities 
of this verb among the Indo-European languages. The reader may 
be pleased to see the word running with slight variations through so 
many languages. The Zend has mere, ' to die,' and the transitive 
mcrec, ' to kill.' Pers. merden, ' to die,' mere?, ' a man,' corresponding 
to the English use of the word mortal, ' one liable to death, a man.' 
With the Sr. part, mrlta corresponds the Or. SQOTOS, and with amrita, 
<fy/$joro, 'immortal,' and tiftfigoala, 'the food of immortals.' The 
Albanians, from the Gr. pgotbs, have formed their verb (%*?, ' to die,' 
while they have retained the original in a purer form in (*6yyT t 
'death.' The Lat. morior has no need of explanation. The Gr. 
fiaoatvw has even to this day the same signification among the modern 
Greeks that it had among their fathers : it is applied to the death of 
plants, and to the wasting of life by long disease, the ftn^aofibg of 
the ancient Greeks. The European languages, Latin and German, 
have retained the word, particularly in its transitive form, to murder. 
Slav, umyrayu, ' I die,' and moriu, ' to kill.'* Mulotar, ' after 

To DIG khatava. The Sr. verbal root khan is 'to dig, to delve.' Kha- 
n&mi, ' I dig,' would be in the Gypsy language khandva, instead of 
khatava. But the Gypsies, as we shall have hereafter occasion to 
demonstrate, instead of borrowing directly from the original root, 
have made use of participles as roots, and from thence have formed 
many of their verbs. We have an example in duk, ' pain,' dukdva, 
1 to be in pain.' So here the part, khata, ' dug, excavated,' has served 
as the root of khatava, ' I dig.' Kon khatelalen ? ' who digs (i. e. 
'cultivates') them?' 

DIRT mcl. 

DIRTY melalo. Compare the Sr. noun mala, ' dirt, filth, sediment,' and 
the same as an adjective, ' dirty, filthy.' The Sr. adjective malina 
may have given origin to the Gypsy adj. melalo, by the mutation of 
n to I. It appears to me, however, to be a regular Gypsy forma- 
tion from mel, ' dirt,' by the addition of lo, which is a common adjec- 

* The Arm. language has mer-nil, ' to die ;' mertzoonel, ' to murder ;' maril, ' to 
faint away;' mah, ' death ;' ' mahganattou! ' mortal ;' ' anmah,' 'immortal.' TE. 

178 A. 0. Paspati, 

tive termination among the Gypsies. As whiteness is a symbol of 
purity, so is blackness associated with whatever is filthy and unclean. 
This word, which has also the signification of 'black' in Sr., is un- 
doubtedly related, then, with the Gr. /w^;, 'black,' and wa^i^io*, 'ink.' 
To the same origin I refer another Gypsy word, muland, ' dark,' from 
the Sr. adj. malina. Borrow has mulani, ' sad.' Te tikne isi melale, 
' thy children are dirty.' 

To become DIRTY meldliovdva. A compound verb, of the mid. voice, 
compounded of melalo, 'dirty,' and avdva (see Section Y). Melaliom, 
' I have been dirtied.' 

Doou dar, vuddr; Bor., burda. The derivation of both these terms 
is very evident. The Sr. dvara, ' door, gate, passage,' appears in both 
ancient and modern languages : Zend dvara, Pers. der, Gr. -U-i-yu, 
Goth, dattr, Eng. door.* Puradvdra, composed of dvara and pura, 
' city,' is the same as our nvli], ' gate, city-gate.' I refer Sorrow's 
word to this compound, which in the mouth of the Gypsies has lost 
its last syllable. If this etymology be correct, we may here find the 
derivation of the Latin porta. This term is by some Gypsies pro- 
nounced dal, by the natural commutation of the liquids. Kon dela 
o vutdr ? 'who knocks at the door?' land o vutdr, " shut the door ;' 
dui dar terela, ' it has two doore.' 

DOWN, BELOW tele, fele; Bor., ostelis, osteli. This word, common 
also to the Slavonic (doly, ' down'), I refer to the Sr. tola, ' deep, a 
low place, the foundation of any thing.' With it is connected, prob- 
ably, the Latin tellus, * earth.' The tele of the Gypsies is the regular 
locative case of tala tale. The analogy is manifest. In Borrow 
these forms seem to have an initial euphonic syllable, foreign to the 
original word. 

DREAM sunno. Compare Sr. svapna, Gr. vnvog, Lat. sopnus, somnus, 
'sleep;' Lat. sopnium, somnium, Gr. Mnviov, ' dream,' lit 'in sleep' 
(iv vxt w) ; Slav, sonie, ' dream,' from sow", ' sleep.' In the same inan- 
uer, by the rejection of the radical p, has been formed the Gypsy 
sunno, which, like the Latin somnium from sopnium, was probably at 
first snpno. Me sunneste, ' in my dream.' 

To DRESS uryavdva. In order to make intelligible the meaning of this 
verb, it is well to say that it is used precisely as the Greeks use their 
ajoli;oua^ ' I adorn myself, I put on clean clothes, or fine clothes.' 
It has also the signification of * changing clothes,' and often simple 
' dressing, 1 as to dress for a ball or party, etc. To me it seems related 
to the Sr. adj. arya t 'of a good family, apposite, proper:' unless it 
be rather connected with the root urnu, 'to cover, envelop, dress.' 
Uryo'ipe, 'raiment;' uryanghids tut, ' thou hast dressed thyself.' Some 
Gypsies say urydva, 'I dress.' 

To DRINK piava;\ Bor., piyar, tapillar, Two Sr. roots exist, inti- 
mately related to each other, to which these Gypsy terms can be re- 
ferred; namely, p& and pi, 'to drink, to nourish.' Borrow has pita, 

* Armenian toor. TE. 

f "tfapilel, 'a boire'" (probably tapilel). Vaillant, p. 369. " Tepau, piau, 
piaioe, pi." Arndt, p. 391. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 179 

' drink,' related to the Sr. pita, Lat. potum, Gr. noriv. Slav, piyu, 
'I drink.' Pilids akhid mol, 'lie drank that wine;' an te pids, 'bring 
(i. e. 'come'), let us drink;' khandi mol pidva, 'a little wine I drink.' 

DRUNK, INTOXICATED matto ; Bor., mato. From the Sr. root mad, 
' to be merry, intoxicated, excited, or mad,' part, matta, ' intoxicated.' 
"We find this word in the Latin : Pliny calls the white vine (Brionia 
alba) madon, and Plautus the intoxicated madulsa ; and although 
these terms are derived by the lexicographers from madeo, still I 
think they should rather be referred to the Sr. mad. Gr. [*ujlu and 
parli}, 'levity, folly,' properly originate from this Sr. root. Matt 6 , 
coming evidently from the Sr. matta, should be written with it. 
Matto isi, ' he is drunken,' pronounced in an abbreviated form 

To become DRUNK mdttiovdva. A compound verb, from matto, ' drunk- 
en,' and avdva. The form is the usual mid. voice. Mattiliom (aor.), 
'I became intoxicated;' mattiovena, 'they became intoxicated.' 

DRY, EMACIATED shuko ; Bor., juco, fern. juqui.From the Sr. ver- 
bal root push, ' to dry,' is formed the adj. fushka, ' dry, slim, emacia- 
ted.' Compare Slav, suhii, ' dry,' sushta, ' dry land,' in distinction 
from the sea; Lat. siccus. Shuko manro, 'dry bread,' denoting bread 
without any other food ; shuko manro na khaliola, ' bread alone can- 
not be eaten ;' shuko manush, ' an emaciated man ;' shuki romni, ' a 
lean woman.' 

To DRY shukiarava, shukiovava. Of these two terms, the former is 
transitive, ' to dry, to expose any thing to the sun or fire to be dried ;' 
the latter is a middle verb, 'to become dry' (Gr. orej'j'o*'o//cu), as with 
other verbs of this formation (Section V). Shukiliom, ' I have be- 
come dry ;' kashukiovel (fut.), ' he will be dried.' 

DUNG goshno. There seems to exist, in the first syllable of this term, 
the Sr. po, ' a cow ;' compare modern Greek fiowtb, < the dung of the 
bovine species,' to which may be referred another Gypsy term, bimista, 
' dung.' Goshne, ' dungs,' corresponds to x/m^os, xdngot, xongavov, 
xbnQuva, ' excrements.'* 

DOG chukel; Br., rikono; Bor., chuquel. For the explanation of rikono, 
see WHELP. The other two are perhaps from the Sr. jukuta and 
jakuta, 'dog.' Kon dinids amare chukles? 'who struck our dog?' 

DWARFISH, SMALL khurdo ; Bor., chirdo. Both these terms are refer- 
able to the Sr. krit, ' to cut off,' whence the Lat. curlus,\ It. corto, 
Fr. court, Germ. kurz. Our xt^ro?, which is of the same derivation 
with the Lat. curtus, signifies generally ' humpbacked.' I think also 
that our xovyeitg, XOVQEIOV, xovyl; are of the same origin. Khurdo is 
applied to a child at the breast, to a young man, etc. Kamela te 
pandrevel khurdo, 'he wished to be married young' (pandrevel = 
touvdoe&ofJtu) ; khurdo chavo, 'a young child;' khurde machorenghe, 
^ to the small fish :' khurdo is properly ' small in body or mind.' 

* Pott, under groni, has " Poln. gnoy, Walach. gunoin, ' mist ;' grengro gurum- 
niakro grojjo, 'pferde-, kuhmist."' 

f Armenian kodrods, by transposition of r and d. TE. 

180 A. G. Paspati, 


EAR kann; Br., kana; Bor., cam'. The Sr. karna, 'ear.' 

EARLY rdno. This is a Slavonic term, rdnv (adv.), early, very early.' 
The Gr. ooftQiog and o^fl^o? of the New Testament are always trans- 
lated by this term. Rdno rdno is frequently to be heard in the 
mouth of the Gypsies. The Greeks often say in a similar way, nfxat 
TT^ott, ' very early.' Turk, chapuk chapuk, ' quickly.' (x&de\ rdno, 
'every morning.' 

EARTH puv, phuv, pfuv.* This is the Sr. bh&, 'the earth.' Many Gyp- 
sies pronounce it bhu, others fu. To the pronunciation of this word 
are applicable the observations which I have already made in the 
preceding Section (p. 162). Puveskero, 'of the earth;' chin ti puv, 
' to the ground.' 

To EAT khdva. This is the common Sr. root kh&d, 'to eat.' Isi te khds 
manro khandi? 'can (lit. 'is there') I eat a little bread?' dikdva ka 
teres onyhi tekhd*, 'I see that thou hast appetite (lit. 'heart') to eat;' 
shuko manro nd khalidla, ' dry bread is not to be eaten :' khaliola is 
the mid. form of khaliovdva. Jfhasoi, 'food,' is applied to whatever 
is eaten with bread ; Gr. 6'yoc, Turk, katek : arakela manro, khasoi te 
kheaa, 'there is found bread (and) food for thee to eat ;' ta na khdvas, 
' and should I not eat ;' khandi khdsales, ' a little we eat (of) it ;' te 
khen e chave audio tut, 'that the children may drink (lit. 'eat') sweet 

EGG vanro ; Bor., anrd. The Sr. neuter noun anda means 'an egg,' 
also ' a testicle.' It has both these significations among the Gypsies. 
In this they have followed not only the usage of their mother tongue, 
but that of the Turks and Greeks : cf. Turk, yumurta, ' an egg, a tes- 
ticle ;' Gr. bvfbv (anc. (boy), ' an egg, a testicle.' The Gypsies of Tur- 
key have added an initial v to their noun. This word I have some- 
times heard pronounced vanto. The pronunciation of the dental con- 
sonant in it resembles that of do and ro in mindo, minro, 'mine,' of 
which we have already spoken in the former Section (p. 162). 


EMPTY chucho. Referable to the Sr. adj. tuchha, ' void, empty.' It is 
often used by the Gypsies for 'a dull man, an empty mind :' compare 
Turk, bosh, ' empty.' The Greeks also, borrowing this Turkish term, 
say a/'v^omo; pnuaixo;, ' a good-for-nothing man.' 

EXCOMMUNICATION kalipe. This abstract noun is formed from icalo, 
'black,' by the addition of the usual particle pe. I have noted the 
word merely to show its peculiar use among the Gypsies, and because 
of its interest as a religious term. Excommunication is frequently 
resorted to in order to induce thieves to give up stolen property ; 
although but rarely in the case of Gypsy^ delinquents, on account of 
their irreligion. 

EXTINGUISHER vrehtula. This is a Greek term, /%;/Toi5Aa. By the 
Gypsy blacksmiths it is applied to small pieces of old straw carpet, 

* u Bfiu,ebhu, 'terre.'" Vaillant, p. 33 ; "pou." do., p. 395; "obhu, 'laterre."* 
do., p. 457. " Pu, bu, pube, epebu." Arndt, p. 357. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 181 

soaked in water, which is then sprinkled over the charcoal fire, in 
order to extinguish it. This term is nowhere to be found in the dic- 
tionaries of our language, to my knowledge, although it is of a regular 
formation. It is in use among some of the Greek blacksmiths, but is 
principally to be heard among the Gypsies. 

EYE yak;* Br., yaka; Bor., aquia. The final a of Mr. Brown's form 
is the characteristic vowel of the plural. Yak is evidently from the 
Sr. akshi, aksha, 'eye,' which is cognate with the words used to denote 
' eye' in many of the Indo-European languages. The Latin oculus 
implies an ancient form ocus, of which it is a diminutive. The Sla- 
vonic has preserved this unchanged, in oko, ' eye ;' Germ, auge; Eng. 
eye. The initial y of this term is a euphonic prefix : so, in Greek, 
we say often yema for fy/, ' blood.' Mono yak, ' my eye ;' perdile 
me yaka, ' my eyes were full (of tears) ;' dikela man to yaka, 'he looked 
me in the eyes ;' banddva me yaka, ' I close my eyes.'f 

EYE-BROW pov. This may be referred to the Sr. bhr&, ' an eye-brow,' 
which appears in so many cognate languages, more or less altered : 
Zend brvat; Pers. ibru; Slav, brov; Gr. tupgiig ; Eng. brow, etc. The 
rejection of the liquid r, when united to other consonants, is extremely 
common with the Gypsies (see Section IV). Makavde povd, 'painted 


To FALL perava. This is the Sr. pat, ' to move downwards, to fall, to 
descend.' Aor. peliom, 'I have fallen.' It is a very common word 
among all the Gypsies. yek pelotar, 'the one after falling;' per te 
devleste, 'fall on thy back' (lit. 'on thy God'); pil6 and pelo, 'fallen;' 
pilo isom, ' I am fallen,' ' I fell.' The change of t to r we have 
noticed above. 

FAT parvardo. From the Sr. root vardh, 'to increase,' with the prefix 
pra or pari ; pravriddha, 'increased.' Parvardo mas, 'fat meat.' 

FATHER dat ;J Br., dat ; Bor., bato, batu. Dat corresponds to the Sr. 
tdta, tata, 'father,' while bato, batu probably come from the Sr. pita, 
'father,' which has correlatives in nearly all the ancient and modern 
European languages, modified according to the spirit of each language : 
Pers. beder, Gr. Tranfc, Lat. pater, Germ. vater, Eng. father. Ate isi t6 
dat? ' is thy father here ?' lakoro dat, 'her father;' mro dat, to dat, 
'my father, thy father.' 

FATHER-IN-LAW shastrd, sastro. 

MOTHER-IN-LAW shasui, sashui. Both these terms may be easily con- 
nected with the well known Sr. words cvacura, 'father-in-law,' and 
fvacru, ' mother-in-law,' which have passed into the Latin socerus and 
Greek txvgbs : compare Germ, schwaher and schwieger vater. 

* "lak, 'oeil.'" Vaillant, p. 359. "Jakch, 'auge.'" Arndt, p. 374. 

f The Armenian aclik is from the same root, accommodated to the favorite sounds 
of the language, which indulges freely in transposition of letters and interchange of 
similar sounds. TR. 

$ " Tat, ' pere.'" Vaillant, p. 481. 

It is found in many languages, as Eng. daddy, Welsh tad, Irish laid, Russian 
tatra, etc. Ta. 

182 A. G. Paspati, 

FEAR dar; Bor., dar, dal. 

To FEAR, to be AFRAID darava; Bor., darabar, daranar. These de- 
finitions are all referable to the Sr. verbal root dri, dar, ' to respect, 
venerate, dread,' whence comes dara, ' fear, terror.' 

FEVER tresca. This is a Bulgarian word for 'fever,' particularly the 
intermittent autumnal fever, so prevalent in the great valley of the 
Danube. It is related to the Slavonic, 'I shake, I move.' 
Both Greeks and Bulgarians, in speaking of intermittent fevers, give 
them this denomination. Gr. &i$firi and &e$uuala. The Gypsies have 
followed the usage of their neighbors, and apply this word solely to 
intermittent fevers. Borrow's term for 'fever' we have already ex- 
plained (see BATH). 

FIG k/tcli. 

FIG-TREE kJielin. Of doubtful etymology. Terela te khelia, ' it has 
also figs.' 

FILE verni. Of origin unknown to me : pi. vernia. Ketenghe kinghidn 
oka verni? 'for how much didst thou buy that file?' jovenghe, 'for 
six' ( ' pieces of money ' understood).* 

To FILL perdva. From the Sanskrit root par, pri, ' to fill.' 

FINGER angiist, angrust ; Br., wass ; Bor., angusti. See RING. Mr. 
Brown's wass is a mistake for ' hand.' 

To FINISH resdva. This is one of the many Gypsy words whose deri- 
vation is to me doubtful. The proper meaning of the word, as used 
by the Gypsies, is 'to finish business, work, a day's labor:' resavghi- 
6m mi puti, ' I have finished my business.' It is often used imper- 
sonally : as resela, ' it is enough ;' resela man, tut, les, ' it is enough 
for me, thee, him ;' na resela, ' it is not enough.' It is used also in 
the sense of ' arriving, reaching :' nastl resavghiomles, ' I could not 
reach him;' avdives resavghiom, 'today I have arrived;' kamaresel? 
' will he arrive ?' 

FIRE yak ;f Br., yak; Bor., yaque. This word, at first, might seem 
to be from the Turkish verb yafymak, ' to burn,' imp. yak, ' burn 
thou.' But it is my opinion that in the genuine Gypsy language 
we have no Turkish words. I am not unaware of the general cor- 
rupt use of Turkish words among the Gypsies, whether Christian or 
Moslem, as well as among uneducated Greeks and Armenians. But 
if the word be Turkish, how did the Gypsies of Spain get it un- 
changed ? They have neither known the Turks, nor had their fathers, 
in passing through Europe, the slightest intercourse with them. 
I think, then, that this word yak is from the Sr. root yaksh, and its 
derivative and synonym yaj, both meaning ' to sacrifice, to oft'er in 
worship.'^ Tebeshas bashe ti yak, ' let us sit near the fire ;' murta- 
rdva i yak, ' I quench (lit. ' I murder ') the fire ;' murtdr i yak, 
' quench the fire.' 

FIRST avkos. This word, which I translate 'first,' seems to be related 
to atid, 'here,' with the particle ka, expressing presence, time. It 

* Pott writes the word yerni, 'lima, file.' 

f " lag, ' feu.' " Vaillant, p. 480. "Jag,jak,jago, 'fieber.'" Arndt, p. 357. 

j See what has been already said respecting this word, in Section II (p. 156). 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 183 

may be translated ' this one,' and, in an emphatic tone, ' the first.' 
There is some analogy between this Gypsy term and the Slavonic, 
which has made its number one 'edyn\ from the Sr. adya, ' first, 
initial.' Avkos angle, ' the foremost.' 

FISH macho ; Br., matcho ; Bor., macho. This is the Sr. matsya, ' fish.' 
Machord, ' a small fish ;' khurde machorenghe Ion chivela, ' to tho 
small fish he throws salt ;' macheskoro, ' a fisherman ;' londe mache, 
1 salted fish.' 

FIST domuk ; Br., domuk. A term well known to all the Gypsies. 

FLAX vus. This probably originates from the same root as bus, ' straw.' 
While the one name was applied to straw, the other was given to 
flax. The Sr. has busha and busa, ' chaff.' It is well to remark that 
flax is a very important branch of trade with many Gypsies, in the 
neighborhood of populous cities. 

FLEA pushum: pi. pushuma. But pushumd terdvas akhidratt, 'many 
fleas I had this night.' 

FLOUR var6 ; Bor., roi. This term may be referred to the root bhri, 
' to nourish, to cherish, to maintain ;' bhara, ' one who cherishes, up- 
holds, supports,' etc. Soske nd terdsas varo, ' because we had not 
flour ;' deman khandi vard, ( give me a little flour.' 

FLY makid ; Bor., macha. These terms are referable to the Sr. mak- 
shikd, ' a fly.' Bopp derives from this term the Latin musca, and the 
Old German mucca, ' a gnat, a mosquito.' 

FOOL denild ; Bor., dinelo, ninelo. The Sr. adjective dina is defined 
' poor, distressed, frightened.' By the addition of lo the Gypsies 
have formed this word, applied now to those who are either extrava- 
gant in their speech and actions, or suffering under alienation of mind. 
Here in Turkey, it is translated constantly by the Turkish deli, ' a 
fool,' Gr. AwWc, 'fool, lunatic.' The second word of Borrow has 
merely changed the initial d into n. Borrow, in the etymology of 
the word dinelo, gives the Pers. diwanah (divane), a word common 
also among the Turks. This has no connection with the above men- 
tioned word, being from div, Sr. deva, ' a god,' by the addition of 
the usual Pers. suffix dne, meaning ' one in the power of a god or 
demon;' the daifi6vios of the Greek, the dat/uovicr/utvo; ('enraged') of 
the present Greeks. Pilids akhid mol ta denilo, ' he drank that wine 
and (became) a fool,' i. e. ' was intoxicated.' From denilo is formed 
deniliovdva, ' I become a fool :' meya pilidm ta deniliom, ' I also drank 
and became a fool.' 

FOOT piro, pindo, pinro, pirno ;* Br., peera ; Bor., pinro, pindro. 
The Sr. usually employs the words pad and pdda, from the root pad, 
' to go, to move,' whence our no&g, nodog, Lat. pedis.\ The above 
Gypsy words have no relation to this Sr. root, but appear to come 
from the verb par, ' to pass, to traverse.' Of the four forms which I 
have given, the first appears to me to be most in use among all the 
Gypsies. Mr. Brown's peera is probably a plural form. Pindo is 
often pronounced pinro, like mindo, minro, 'mine' (see p. 162). 

* " Geroi, pir, ' fuss.' " Arndt, p. 382. 
f Armenian vod. Ta. 

VOL. vii. 24 

184 A. O. Paspati, 

Java ti Silivri grastesa, ta nd pindentza, ' I go to Silivria with a 
horse (i.e. 'on horseback') and not with the feet' (i.e. 4 on foot'); 
me pire dukenaman, ' my feet pain me :' piripe, ' gait,' applied par- 
ticularly to the horse: pirindos, 'going on foot;' pirindos kajes? 
kamajdv grastesa, 'art thou going on foot? I shall go with a horse ? 
(i. e. 'on horseback'). 

FOREIGN peryul. Thjs term seems to have originated from the Per- 
sian perghiul, ' a stranger, a foreigner.' Peryulicano tan, ' a foreign 
country' (lit. 'place'). 

FOREST vesh.* This is the Pers. bishe, ' a wood, a forest.' By some 
Gypsies it is used for ' mountain,' probably on account of the moun- 
tains of Roumelia being so thickly wooded.f 

FORWARDS angle ; Bor., anglal. The Sr. adjective agra, ' chief, prin- 
cipal, first,' corresponds with &XQOS, so often used by the Greek writers : 
agre is its locative case, frequently used as an adverb, signifying ' in 
front, in the forepart.' By the usual change of r into I, and by the 
interposition of a euphonic n, it has become angle. Adj. anglutno, 
'the first, the one foremost.' Angle isds mindi, 'formerly it was 
mine (mm);' po angle, 'still more forwards;' anglal, 'from the front' 
(Borrow's form) : anglal to ker, ' from the front of the house,' or 
' from the house in front ;' anglal mdnde, ' in front of me, before me ;' 
anglal to pasha, ' before the pasha ;' Gr. IV&IHOV iov naoaa. This 
ablative form is now mostly used for angle. Anglal devleste, or anglal 
to devel, ' before God, in the presence of God.' 

FRIEND parnavo.^ This term is not very common among the Gypsies 
here. It is related to the Sr. root pri, 'to please, to delight, to be 
pleased or satisfied.' This root has given to the Gothic frijo, ' I love,' 
and frijonds, ' loving ;' to the Slavonic priydte'ie, ' loved, pleased ;' 
to the Greek <pd<o, qo/Xo?. The participle prina, ' pleased, satisfied,' 
may have given origin to this Gypsy term, by the addition of the final 
syllable vo, common in forming Gypsy adjectives. Java ti polin (n6hv) 
te dikdv me parnaves, ' I go to the city to see my friend ;' i.ii mo par- 
navo, 'he is my friend;' po laches ta teresales parnavo, 'it is better 
that thou shouldst have him a friend' (i. e. 'friendly'); ta te penes 
same parnavenghe f aven, ' tell all the friends to come.' From this is 
formed the abstract parnavoipe, ' friendship :' ker mdnghe akd parna- 
voipe, 'do me this friendship' (i. e. 'favor'). 

FROG zdrnpa. I do not know the derivation of this word, which, 
however, appears to me to be of Slavonic origin. 

FROM katdr. Ablative part. tar. From the rel. pronoun Icon. Katdr 
ti hindovi, ' from India ;' katdr ti polin (n6).iv) avdva, ' from the city 
I come ;' katdr to sast6, 'from the right' (i. e. 'side') ; katdr ti drdk 
kerena mol, ' from the grape they make wine.' 

* " Vesh, ' foret.' " Vaillant, p. 457. 

f Pott writes the word weesh, vesz, vash, more in harmony with bishe. I Lave 
heard the word pronounced vest, though rarely. 

J "7?m, pries 'ang pani om, 'je suis votre ami, votre frere.'" Vaillant, p. 391. 
This is extremely corrupt. It should probably stand thus : tiro pries 'som, pral 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 185 

FULL perdo; Bor., perdo. From the Sr. root pri, 'to fill,' is formed 
the participle pitrta, ' full, filled, complete.' There is a striking resem- 
blance between the Spanish and Turkish Gypsy words, whenever they 
can be traced to their proper Sr. root. 

To become FULL pertiovava. A compound verb, of the mid. voice, 
composed of perdo, ' full,' and avdva, ' I come.' Perdile me yakd, 
' my eyes have become full (of tears) ;' Greek yenlfyfiai, from yfy, 
' 1 fill.' 


GAIT piripe. From piro, ' a foot,' by the addition of the particle pe. 
It is applied to horses and donkeys, especially to the former, which 
are valued according to the smoothness of their gait, so much es- 
teemed by the Turks. Piripe is mostly applied to that pace of the 
horse called amble ; Pers. rahvan, ' easily moving on a road.' Piripe 
terela ? terela, ' has it a good gait ? it has ;' amare grasteskoro piripe 
nandi lacho, ' our horse's gait is not good.' 

GARLIC sir; Bor., sar. This word is probably of Persian origin, from 
sir, ' garlic, allium.' The present Hindustani word is seer, ' garlic,' 
as given by Borrow in his vocabulary. 

GIRDLE kiustik. This is a Persian word, kiustek, meaning generally 
' the fetters put to the feet of horses', as in the stables of the East. 
Kiustek, as it signifies ' something that binds, a tie,' has been applied 
by the Gypsies to the girdle, as a fastening. 


To GIVE ddva ; Bor., dinar. This is evidently from the Sr. da,* ' to 
give,' which is extremely common in all the Indo-European languages, 
ancient and modern. This verb is irregular in its conjugation : imp. 
de, 'give thou ;' deman, 'give to me:' aor. dinidm, 'I gave,' which 
approaches more nearly to Borrow's form. Ddva has also another 
signification, ' to beat, to strike, to knock,' extremely common among 
all the Gypsies, taken probably from the colloquial usages of the 
Greeks. Kon dela o vutdr ? ' who knocks at the door ?' instead of 
marela, ' strikes ;' diniomles ti pak, ' I struck it on the wing ;' dinids 
e castesa amare chukles, ' he struck with a stick (i. e. ' wood ') our 
dog ;' o manush dinidspes e yek baresa, ' the man was struck with a 
stone ;' kon dinids te romnia ? ' who struck thy wife ?' Dino, part., 
' given, struck, flogged.' 

To GO jdva. This verb I refer to the Sr. gd, 'to go, to move.' It is 
universal among the Gypsies, and used as the Greeks use their tfmiyw, 
and the Turks gitmek. Aorist, oheliom, ' I went,' pronounced at 
times gherghiom : kdrin kajes, or kamajes ? ' where wilt thou go ?' 
gheliom to gdv, ' I went to the village ;' ghelo avri, ' he went out ;' 
jela po gorkes, ' he goes worse ;' jeV avela, ' he goes (and) comes,' Gr. 
u/rcr/et ?pTat, Turk, ghider ghelir, meaning to go continually to and 
fro. At times jdva is used in a transitive sense : gherghiom giv t6 
vusidv, ' I went (i. e. ' I carried') wheat to the mill ;' ghelidn ti polin 
(nfoiv} ? gheliom, ' didst thou go to the city ? I went;' jdva te dikdv, 
' I go to see.' 

* Armenian dal. TE. 

186 A. G. Paspati, 

To GO out niglavdva. A compound verb, formed of the Sr. root kram, 
' to go, to walk, to step,' joined to nir, ' out' Aor. niglistiniom and 
niglistiliom, ' I went out.' The Sr. kram is a favorite word with the 
Gypsies, and, joined to prepositions, it is frequently to be heard among 
them. Niglistiniom avri, ' I went out,' Gr. ixfiulvta 'w ; kamanig- 
lavdv, ' I shall go out ;' imp. nigldv, ' go thou out.' 

GOD devil ;* Br., devil ; Bor., debel, ostebel, umdebel. These terms 
have a striking similarity, and are derived from the Sr. deva, ' a god,' 
Lat. deus, Gr. fobs. In regard to the first syllables of Borrow's terms, 
os-debel and um-debel, I think they are Spanish articles. He says that 
the um of the third word is probably (the 6m) the ineffable and mys- 
terious name of the Hindu Godhead. Mr. Borrow remarks in his 
glossary that the word was pronounced by a Christian Gypsy o-del, 
o-dand, and o-devel. The o in this case is the Greek article, which 
the Moslem Gypsies generally reject. In this, the Gypsies have imi- 
tated the Greeks, who never pronounce the name of God without the 
article, o 6et>s. This term, among the Gypsies, when used as an invo- 
cation, admits the pronoun at the end of -the word, contrary to the 
general usages of their language : devldm, 'my God;' more usually 
they say madel, mo devel. Duk e devles, ' love God :' devles instead of 
develes, a clipped form of the ace. of nouns in el. Achen devlesa, 
' rest ye with God,' a common form of salutation ; ja devlesa, ' go thou 
with God.' There is a peculiar use of this term which has always 
appeared to me very curious ; peli6m opre me devleste, ' 1 fell upon 
my back ' (lit. * upon my God ') ; per te devleste, l fall on thy back ;' 
per devlikanes, ' fall on thy back.' Devlikano, adj., ' godly,' Lat. divi- 
nus : devlikano manush, ' a godly man ;' devlikani romni, ' a godly 

GOOD lachd ; Br., Iach6; Bor., lacho, fendo. The origin of this word 
is quite unknown to me. It is extremely common among all the Gyp- 
sies, and well known in Boumelia and Wallachia. Lacho dives, ' good 
day, good morning ;' lacho manush, ' a good man ;' lachi romni, ' a 
good woman ;' lache romnia, 'good women ;' lacho mas, 'good meat;' 
lacho grast, ' good horse :' laches, adv., 'well ;' po laches, ' better.' The 
Moslem Gypsies make use of Turk, dahi, ' more,' to form the com- 
parative degree (Section V) ; dahi laches, ' better.' 

GOLD somnakdi, gdlpea; Bor., sonacai. Gdlpea I cannot explain. The 
Sr. kanaka, ' gold,' to which Borrow refers, appears to me an improb- 
able, not to say an impossible, derivation. The derivation of somna- 
kdi may be sought in the Sr. word sanasi, ' gold.' 

GOURD dudum.\ This term is applied to all the species of this plant, 
common in these countries, and very generally used by all classes of 
people. The only Sr. word with which I am able to compare it is 
dudruma, ' a green onion.' As to the rejection of the liquid r, we 
have occasion to note numerous examples of it in the course of the 

GRAIN, WHEAT giv, iv ; Bor., gi, guy,jil. These terms, and our CTITO?, 
' wheat, corn,' I refer to the Sr. sit& and sttya, both having the signifi- 

* " O del, ' le dieu.'" Vaillant, p. 457. " Dowel." Aradt , p. 174. 
\ Armeoiao tutum, ' squash, vegetable, marrow.' TE. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 187 

cation of the above. Sita also denotes ' the furrow made by the plow,' 
as well as ' the goddess of fruits ;' sitya, ' grain,' and, in general, ' every 
kind of cereal product,' and ' rice.' The Gypsy forms are made by 
cutting off the final syllable to, which the Greek has preserved. The 
Slavonic, which has preserved many archetypal Sanskrit words in 
their utmost purity, has zito and zeta, signifying ' all kinds of cereal 
products.' This term is very frequently pronounced iv, 

GRAPE drak ; Bor., dracay, traguias, mollati. These are evidently 
derived from the Sr. drdkshd, ' grape.' The third word of Borrow I 
refer to mol, ' wine.' Though this term, molati, is unknown to the 
Gypsies near Constantinople, Vaillant has marked it as common among 
those on the banks of the Danube, writing it moleti. The Sr. word 
is madhuta, 'sweetness,' not found, however, in the great dictionary 
of Wilson. Drakd lar.he isi, ' the grapes are good ;' kerela drak, ' it 
makes (i. e. ' produces') grape' (' grapes') ; i drak khenala, ' the grape 
(grapes), they eat them ;' katdr t,i drak kerena mol, ' from the grapes 
they make wine.' 

GRASS char ; Bor., char. 

To GRAZE chardva. The Sr. verb char, ' to go, to eat,' is applied also 
to the grazing of cattle. The Gypsy word char is applied principally 
to hay, and the verb itself to the feeding of animals, by hay or other 
vegetable substances ; it corresponds to the Greek zQ T &t: etv , which at 
first was applied to feeding animals with hay (x^os\ and by degrees 
came to mean also the taking of food by man ; hence our ^o^rafyw, 
' I am satiated.' Borrow defines char as ' grass, yerba? 

GREAT This adjective seems to be related to the Sr. bhara, 
' much, excessive.' Mo ker isi bard, ' my house is great ;' bard man- 
ush, ' a great man.' 

GREEK balamo ; Bor., paillo. These two terms, which appear to be 
'related, I am totally unable to explain. It is extremely difficult to 
give plausible explanations of all the terms which the Gypsies have 
given to the neighboring nations. Here in Turkey, with the excep- 
tion of a few names, which I have noted in the Vocabulary as peculiar 
to them, they use the same terms as the Greeks and Turks. PI. 
balame, ' Greeks ;' balamano gdv, 4 a Greek village ;' balamni, ' a Greek 
woman ;' pi. balamnia ; balamanes, adv. form, i. q. F^aixicrrl ; bala- 
manes janes? ' dost thou know Greek?' 

To GRIND pishdva. From the Sr. verbal root pish, ' to grind, to pound, 
to bruise, to powder,' Lat. pinsere. With the Gypsies this word is 
used merely for grinding corn in mills, or between two large circular 
stones. Giv gherghiom to vasidv, kamapishdvles, ' wheat I have car- 
ried to the mill ; I shall grind it.' 

GUARD arakdv ; Bor., aracate. 

To GUARD arakdva; Bor., aracatear. Both these terms can with 
perfect propriety be referred to the Sr. root raksh, ' to guard, to pro- 
tect.' The initial a, so constant in all these forms, may be explained 
as an inorganic prefix. It may be, however, that the a is the rem- 
nant of a preposition. The Gypsies have dropped the final sibilant 
of the Sr. root, a proceeding upon which we shall have occasion to 
remark in the next Section. This term has often the signification of 

188 A. Q. Paspati, 

' waiting.' Ta arakavel khandi dives, ' to wait a few days' arakavel 
is here in the middle voice; arakiovdva, arakavghidm, 'I have guard- 
ed;' arakdv, 'wait thou.' 

GYPSY r6m. All the various denominations for this strange race com- 
mon among foreigners are to the Gypsies themselves totally unknown. 
It is still more to be wondered at that foreigners should never have 
adopted the appellation by which they call themselves, and which is 
common to them wherever they live, whether in Asia or Europe. Be- 
fore I proceed to the explanation of this term, I will give the various 
names by which they are known among foreigners in various parts of 
the world.* The German zigeuner, Russian zigari, zigani, Persian 
and Turkish zengi and chingene, and faalyyavoi, of the Greeks,f seem 
to come from one and the same original, which Borrow makes to be 
" zincali, the black men of Zend or Ind :" a derivation of no value. 
Another class of words seem to belong to the term dtytfjmo?, ' Egyp- 
tian,' they having been formerly supposed to originate from Egypt. 
This word has been corrupted by us into yuyrrat, yvqutat, a term 
which we now very frequently apply to dirty and ragged people. 
The Bulgarians call them gupti, the Spaniards gitanos (properly gip- 
tanos), and their haunts in the cities of Spain gitaneria. The Eng- 
lish gypsy is from the same root. The Greeks also have another 
term, xar^elog, more in use in Roumelia. The French call them ' 
JBohemiens, probably from their having come to France from Bohemia, 
as they also have been called Germans and Flemish from their com- 
ing from those countries. All these terms are known to the Gypsies, 
but are never used by them ; never will a Gypsy call a fellow-coun- 
tryman faatyyavov or xax^eioy ; here, as in other parts of the world, 
they scrupulously avoid all the usual foreign terms. The derivation 
of the Turkish chingene and its correspondents in other languages, is 
still a desideratum, and probably much time will pass before its ety- 
mology will be fully explained. 

As to the term rom, it has a double signification being used for 
man in general, and likewise for a man of their own race as distinct 
from one of other descent ; romni, in like manner, means ' woman.' 
Rom is also used for 'husband,' and romni for 'wife.' Romano (fern. 
romani) is the adjective form. This term, it appears to me, can be 
referred to the Sr. r&ma, a name of the god Vishnu, and of three of 
his incarnations. By the Gypsies it may have been given to their 
tribe as worshipping in an especial manner this god. Karin isi to 
rom ? ' where is thy husband ?' chori romni, ' a poor woman ;' lachi 
romni, ' a good woman ;' sdvvore o rom, ' all the men ;' romani chip, 
' the Gypsy language ;' Icon dinids amare romd, ' who struck our men ?' 
i romni leskeri isi phuri, ' his wife is old ;' me praleskoro romni, ' my 

* Vaillant (p. 4) gives sixty-eight various denominations of these people, which 
are mostly varieties of those which I note. 

f Alessio da Somavera, who published his "Tesoro della Lingua Greca Volgare" 
in Paris, 1709, gives the following terms, which are still in use : atvyxdra, 
' zingana, zingara ;' df^tyxai/opiw, 'bottega di zingano;' o^tyxavtfw, dr^iyxcwtvw, 
a.r%iyxavi*>vu, 'zinganare;' arf^tyxdvixa, 'da zingano;' ai'^tyxcwojtoifl.oi', 'zingarino;' 
drfiyxcu'os 1 , 'zingano, zingaro.' 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 189 

brother's wife ;' e yavreskoro romni, ' the wife of the other ;' o ddt 
romnidkori, 'the father of the wife' (i.e. 'father-in-law'); dikdva e 
romes, ' I see the man ;' romano lav, ' a Gypsy word :' pi. romd ' men ;' 
romnia ' women :' khorakhano rom, ' a Moslem Gypsy ;' balamano 
rom, ' a Greek Gypsy.' 

The Gypsies themselves call malkoch a tribe of their own country- 
men, who continually roam from village to village, particularly in 
Asia, working in brass and iron, and who, on the score of religion, 
are always of the profession of the village where for the time they 
work. Should a child be born whilst in a Greek village, it is baptized, 
and in the next circumcised. They travel to Jerusalem, and there be- 
come hadjis, ' pilgrims.' They are industrious, and are considered by 
their fellow-countrymen as wealthy. I have never been able to 
ascertain any other denominations peculiar to their tribes, though I 
have repeatedly questioned Gypsies from various parts of Turkey. 
GYPSY TENT katuna. This term is applied by the Gypsies in general 
to the black and dirty tents used by their nomadic fellow-countrymen 
in* their roaming expeditions. They bear no resemblance to the ordi- 
nary tents used by Mohammedans in their wars or military expedi- 
ditions. These Gypsy tents are formed by a pole raised from the 
ground, of rather more than the height of a man, and supported at 
its two ends by other poles. Over this horizontal pole is thrown the 
covering, blacked by the soot and smoke of the fires, and under this 
frail covering squat the family, with a host of naked and loathsome 
offspring. So frail and light is this tent, that many of them are placed 
upon a single horse, and so transported from place to place. Katuna, 
has no relation to any of the terms for 'tent' belonging to the coun- 
tries in which the Gypsies live. I refer it to the Sr. katin, 'matted, 
screened,' from kata, ' a mat, a twist of straw or grass,' ' a screen of 
the same.' PI. katunes. Katunenyhoro rom, ' a Gypsy of the tents,' 
as distinguished from those living in villages and never roaming ; 
katunengheri romni, ' a Gypsy woman of the tents.' 


HABITATION bashipe ; Bor., bestipen. 

To INHABIT beshdva ; Bor., bestelar. These words are doubtless con- 
nected with the Sr. roots vas, ' to dwell, to inhabit,' and vip, ' to en- 
ter, to settle, to sit.' Bisto som, ' I am sitting.' Bashipe is from this 
verb, by the change of * into a, and the addition of the usual particle 
pe, which we have already explained. .Kamabeshes otid but dives ? 
' wilt thou stay there many days ?' beshela bashe mdnde, ' he resides 
near me.' Borrow defines bestipen as meaning ' wealth, riches.' Let 
the reader remember that the Latin possideo, ' to possess,' and posses- 
sio, express the idea of ' sitting, residing upon' what is our own, and, 
in course of time, the property itself. So that we can with perfect 
propriety translate bestipen ' possession.' 

HAIL kukudi. This is a Greek term, xovxxovdiov, diminutive form of 
x6xxog, ' a grain, any small body.' It is applied by the Greeks to 
small pustules on the human body, and to the kernels of fruits ; Lat. 

190 A. G. Paspati, 

acinus. In this latter case, the word is written xotixxovT^ov and xoux- 
xouito*'. The Gypsies accent this word on the final syllable, differ- 
ing much from the universal pronunciation of the Greeks them- 

HAIR bal ; Br., bala ; Bor., bal. The Sr. bala, to which I have refer- 
red in speaking of FOOT, is applied by the Gypsies exclusively to the 
hair of the head. Compare the Lat. pilus, Fr. poil.\ Pako isi, na 
terela bal, ' he is bald, (and) has no hair :' plur. bald, rarely used ; Mr. 
Brown's word is in the plur. form. 

HALF yekpdsh ; Bor., pas, pasque, majara. My own term for 'half 
is a compound, .having the well known Sr. numeral eka, ' one,' prefixed 
to a word corresponding to Borrow's pas. The latter part may be 
referred to the Sr. paksha, ' a side, a half.' The Gypsies of Turkey, 
unlike those of Spain, constantly join it with yek, ' one,' like the 
English ' one half, a half.' It is found in the terms yekpashardtti, 
' midnight,' yekpashdives, ' noon.' The third term given by Borrow 
is related to Sr. madhya, ' middle.' 

HAMMER sivri ; Br., sivree ; Bor., casto. The etymology of this term 
is unknown to me. Casto appears to be from the Sr. kash, 'to strike, 
to torment,' part, kasht.a, ' the striker, the instrument of striking.' 

HAND vast ;\ Br., domuk ; Bor., chova, bas (plur. bastes). The Sr. 
hasta signifies 'hand.' Borrow explains chova as derived from char- 
pata, ' the palm with the fingers open.' This explanation is extreme- 
ly improbable. Bas, bastes, are evidently related to the above Sr. 
hasta, and not, as Borrow indicates, to the Persian bazu, as that is 
from the Sr. bahu, 'arm.' Mr. Brown's term, domuk, is 'fist.' Te 
shukiovel m6 vast, 'let my hand become dry' (i. e. ' paralyzed') ; 61- 
vastenghoro, 'without hands' (i. e. 'workmen'). 

HANDFUL burnek. This appears to be the Persian burmik, or burenk, 
' res acquisita, reposita, thesaurus' (Vullers, Lex. Pers.). It is a very 
common term among the Gypsies. 

HARE shoshoi. Sr. caca. ' a hare, a rabbit.' This is one of the many 
words which the Gypsies have inherited directly from their Hindu 
ancestors, and has no connection with the names generally given to 
this animal by the other Indo-European nations. 

HARLOT lubni, nubli ; Br., lobnee ; Bor., lumi, lumiaka. The Sr. ad- 
jective lobhini, from lobha, 'appetite, lust, desire,' signifies 'the de- 
sirer, the enamored,' and generally, ' one given to illicit passions.' 

To HAVE terdva ; Bor., terelar. Following the analogy of formation 
of Gypsy verbs, it is most natural to refer this word to the Sr. verbal 
root tri or tar, ' to pass over, to cross,' also ' to prevail over, to 
preserve.' Its signification, however, connects it rather with dhri, 
dhar, ' to hold, to keep.' devel terela lenke, ' God has (i. e. ' care ') 
of them;' from the Greek 2/et d'afootis, i. e. <pgovilei,' terdva te pendv 

* The Armenian word gargood is nearer this Gypsy sound of kukudt, and all 
these forms probably have a Sanskrit origin. The Greek words introduced into the 
Armenian are but slightly changed except in the gutturals. TE. 

\ It is a singular coincidence that the Armenian word hair is, in orthography and 
pronunciation, precisely the English word hair. TE. 

f " Watt, was*, hand." Arndt, p. 382. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 191 

tuke, ' I have (i. e. ' I intend') to speak to "thee ;' terdva dui cha- 
ven, ' 1 have two children;' terdva yek grdst, ' I have a horse.' 

HEAD sherd, shoro ;* Bor., joro. I refer these words to the Sr. firas, 
' head.' Me shereste, ' in my head ' (i. e. ' mind') ; tovdva mo shoro, ' 1 
wash my head ;' gheralo shoro, 4 a scabby head.' 

HEALTHY shast6 ; Br., sasto. I refer this word to the vulgar Sr. fas ia, 
' fortunate, commendable, excellent,' part, of the verbal root fas, ' to 
bless, to wish good to, to confer a benediction.' It is very natural to 
pass from this meaning to that of health. To many Gypsies the 
term is unknown, and in its stead they use the Turkish sagh, 'heal- 
thy, strong, entire.' Shastd manush, ' a robust man ;' but shasto, 
' very healthy.' Shusto means also 'the right hand,' precisely as the 
Turks use the above sagh for ' the right side :' katako shasto terela 
ves te ruk, ' on the right it has a mountain and trees.' 

To HEAR shundva ; Bor., junar. From the Sr. root fru, ' to hear,' 
present prinomi, which has been changed by the Gypsies into shundva, 
by throwing out the semivowel r of the root. A similar example of 
the rejection of r we shall presently see in shingh, ' horn.' Aor. shun- 
ghiom, ' I have heard :' shunghiom ti p6lin (mM-tv) kamajes, ' I have 
heard that thou wilt go to the city ;' te nd shunel, so te penen leske, 
' and not to hear what they may say to him ;' na shunel, ' he does not 
hear' (i. e. 'he is deaf). 

HEART oghi, onghi. For want of a better derivation, I am inclined to 
refer this Gypsy term to the Sr. anga, ' a limb, member.' Kamela, 
m> oghi te lav, ' my heart desires to take ;' dikdva kd teresa oghi te 
khds, 'I see that thou hast heart (i. e. 'appetite') to eat;' ogheske, 
' for the soul,' i. e. ' alms,' also ' religious austerities for the salvation 
of the soul.' 

HEAT tattipe. Formed from the adjective tatto, ' warm,' Sr. tapta, by 
the addition of the usual particle pe. In the place of this word I 
have frequently heard tabioipe, from the same Sr. root tap, ' to heat.' 

HEAVY baro. We shall have occasion to notice a similar word, in 
speaking of STONE. The Sr. bhdra, 'burden, weight' (Gr. @&(>os), has 
in this term been changed into an adjective by the Gypsies. 

HEEL kfur, khur. This belongs to the Sr. khura, ' a hoof, a horse's 
hoof, the foot of a bedstead :' with no other Sr. term can it be so rea- 
sonably identified. The pronunciation is very peculiar, nor do the 
above consonants accurately indicate it. 

HEN kdini, kagni, kdind ; Br., kahnee ; Bor., cani. I derive this term 
from the Sr. hansa, ' goose,' fern, hansi, whence our xty, cutting off the 
final *, Eng. goose, Lat. anser, cutting off the initial consonant, Germ. 
gans and hahn, Slav, gus' and gonsi. Another Gypsy term, gusto, 
' goose,' referred to by Borrow, confirms this derivation. A Gypsy 
woman told me that kaind means ' hen,' and papina, ' goose.' But I 
suspect that the latter is our common numa, ' a duck.'f 

HEUE ate, avatid. The relation of these terms to the Sr. is not per- 
fectly clear. Ate may be related to atra, 'in this place, here,' which, 

* " Schero, tschero, cheru, 'kopf.'" Arndt, p. 382. 
f Geese in Routnelia are an article of extensive traffic with the Gypsies. 
VOL. vu. 25 

192 A. Q. Paspali, 

like many other Sr. words, in passing into the Gypsy idiom, has drop- 
ped its r (Section IV). The second term, also a common one, may 
have been formed in a manner similar to dives, avdives ; it is more 
emphatic. Zend, aeadha, 'here,' from the Sr. ava, is probablv inti- 
mately related to avatid. Ate isi t6 ddt ? ' is thy father here V net 
isdmas ate, ' I was not here.' Attar, ' from here,' idio&er, is a corrup- 
tion of atiatdr, or atetdr : tar is the usual particle forming the abla- 
tive cases of Gypsy nouns, the Gr. &e> ; see Grammar, Section V. 

To HOLD astardca. This verb I refer to the Sr. root stri, ' to spread, 
to strew.' The initial a of the Gypsy verb is an addition often ob- 
served in Gypsy words, and common also to the Turks, who can never 
pronounce a word beginning with st without adding a vowel.* As- 
tardo, ' held, seized ;' astardilo, ' he was taken ;' nasti astarghiomles, 
' I could not seize him ;' kdna astarghidnks ? ' where didst thou take 

HOLE khdv. We have already explained the verb khatdva, ' to dig.' 
From the same Sr. root khan comes khani, 'a mine;' it is applied 
however to whatever is dug, or excavated. Khdv has been formed by 
the change of the final n into v. 

HONEY avghin. This appears to be a Persian word, abgin, ' a bee,' 
and abgin khane, ' apiarium, alveare' (Vullers, Lex. Pers.). It is sin- 
gular that the Gypsies should have abandoned the ordinary Sr. madhti, 
' honey,' and adopted this new and foreign term. 

HORN shingh ; Bor., singe, sungalo. Comp. the Sr. pringa, ' a horn.' 
The Gypsies have rejected the liquid r in many syllables containing 
it. The pronunciation of this liquid, in many cases, resembles that 
of the French at Paris, where the r is often a dead letter to a foreign 
ear, and at times appears like a liquid L Borrow defines sungalo ' a 
he-goat,' evidently analogous to the Sr. pringina, ' a ram,' literally 
' horned.' 

HORSE grdst ;f Br., gras ; Bor., gras, gra. 

MARE grastni ; Br., grasnee ; Bor., grani. These terms I derive from 
the Sr. verbal root gras, ' to eat, to feed.' This conjecture of mine 
may be confirmed by an example from the Greek qx>{$&;, ' mare, 
cow,' from <pt($Q>, ' to nourish, to feed, to graze.' For the formation of 
the fern, grastni by the suffix ni, see Section Y. Lacho grdst, ' a good 
horse ;' akle grastesa allidn? aklesa, ' with that horse didst thou come ? 
with that (horse)' ; lacho grdst isi, 'it is a good horse;' terela deshe 
grasten, ' he has (i. e. ' owns') ten horses.' Grasteskoro, 'of the horse,' 
or 'horseman,' also grastano, Inmxbs, grdi among the Wallachian 
Gypsies ; grastoro, ' a small horse.' The reader, in perusing my re- 
marks on the formation of feminine nouns (Section Y), will be con- 
vinced of the correctness of writing this word with a final t, which 
has been omitted in both Mr. Brown's and Mr. Sorrow's terms. 

HOCSE ker ;\ Br., kerr; Bor., quer. This term may be related to the 
Sr. agdra or dgdra, 'house, residence.' The change of gh to k is con- 
firmed by agosto, changed to querosto, 'the month of August' (Bor.). 

* See the definition of number six. 
f " Grrri, ' chevaL' " Vaillant, p. 363. 
j " Ker, ' maison.' " Vaillant, p. 363. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 193 

~erdva nevo ker, ' I am making a new house ;' ich isomas me prales- 
koro kereste, ' yesterday I was in my brother's house ;' to tat to ker isi ? 
'is thy father in the house ?' bar6 ker, 'a large house;' tapilo o ker, 

* the house was burnt ;' mo ker isi baro, l my house is large ;' mokavdti 
ker, ' painted house ;' kaleskoro isi o ker ? ' whose is the house ?' me 
praleskoro ker, ' the house of my brother ;' isom to ker, ' I am in the 
house,' or kereste, ' in the house.' 

How MANY kebor. Kebor chaven teresa? 'how many children hast 
thou f 

How MUCH keti. Compare Sr. kati, ' how many, how much,' a word 
related to ka, the interrogative pronoun. This term has the same 
uses and significations as the Sr. term. Keti dives teresa tresca ? 

* how many days hast thou the intermittent fever ?' keti isdnas sdv- 
vore ? ' how many were you all ?' keti bersh kerghidn to rashdi ? ' how 
many years didst thou make with the teacher' (i. e. ' pass in school') 1 
keti chaven terela? 'how many children has he' (or 'she')? keti ber- 
shenghoro isi, 'how old is he' (i. e. 'of how many years') ? keti love 
dinidn ? ' how much money didst thou give ?' This word is often 
used in the quantitive case ; as ketenghe lilidnles ? ' for how much 
didst thou take (i. e. 'buy') it?' bishenghe, 'for twenty.' 

To be HUNGRY bokdliovdva. Compare the Sr. verb bhuj, ' to eat, to 
enjoy,' bubhukshu, ' wishing to eat, hungry.' Bokalo, ' hungry :' 60- 
kalo isom, ' I am hungry.' The verb is formed from this adjective 
and the verb avdva, and is in constant use in this form. Te bokalio- 
vela arakela manro, ' and should he be hungry, he finds bread.' 


To INCREASE bariovdva. A verb in the mid. voice, from baro, ' great,' 
and avdva. So kerena te chaven? bariovdvalen, 'how are thy chil- 
dren ? I am increasing them ' (i. e. ' I am rearing them') ; bariona 
o ruk, 'the trees grow' (i. e. 'increase'). 

INFANT, YOUNG tikno. This term is used often, like chavo, ' a child,' 
and raklo, ' a young one.' Keti tiknen terela ? ' how many children 
has he' (or ' she') ? td e tikne isi melale, ' and the children are dirty :' 
here the word is used without reference to a mother or a father. 
Penghids yek tiknes, ' she begat a young one ;' in the same manner 
a Greek may say tyiwriae era fiixgov. Mulo o yek tikno, ' the one 
child died;' achile o dui, 'the two remained.' Fern, tikni: tiknia 
teresa ? ' hast thou female children ?' 


INVALID naisvdli ; Br., nashvalli ; Bor., merdo. The first two terms 
are composed of the negative na and vali, the meaning of which we 
shall examine. The s is euphonic. The Sr. bala means ' power, 
strength, an army ;' compare also the Slav, velii, and velikie, ' strong, 
powerful.' The etymology of this term is elucidated by the Lat. de- 
bilis, ' invalid,' formed by the neg. de and the word bala, ' strength.' 
Borrow's word, merdo, is from the Sr. part, mrita, ' dead, mortal :' 
among the Gypsies, as with us in the term f^a^aiv6fievos, it means 
' emaciated, wasting.' Our ttyQwyjos and da&ev^s, and the Slav, ne- 
mozenie, from the neg. ne and mogu, ' to be strong,' have the same 

194 A. 0. Paspati, 

formation with the Gypsy naisvali. Mr. Brown's term should be writ- 
ten with one /. To many Gypsies this term is totally unknown, and 
in its stead they use namporeme, a Greek word, composed of the neg. 
net and ifino^t, 'I can, I am able.' Namporema, 'sickness' (8lv iu- 
noyti, 'I am unwell'). They have adopted the word from the Greeks, 
using bvenTTOftlav, instead of tia&iveict. Such incongruous combina- 
tions of terms from different languages, often remarked even in culti- 
vated European languages, are entirely excusable among the ignorant 
Gypsies. Me isdmas namporeme, ' I was sick.' 

IRON shastir, shastri ; Br., sastir ; Bor., sas. The Sr. pastra signifies 
'a weapon made of iron,' and ' iron' itself; it is from the root fan, 
' to wound, to kill.' Kerela shastir, ' he makes (i. e. 'he works') iron' ; 
shastir eskoro, ' a worker in iron ;' to shastir, ' in iron' (i. e. ' in prison'). 

ITCH gher ; Bor.. guel. 

ITCHY gheralo. The Sr. noun gara is 'poisonous drink, a poison, sick- 
ness, disease ;' garala, from the same root, is ' venom' in general, and 
appears to have given origin to gheralo. In the word given by Bor- 
row, guel, we observe the transmutation of the liquid r into I. That 
this general name should have been applied by the Gypsies to a spe- 
cial disease, naturally affords a presumption that the disease was a 
common one among them, or among the people with whom they had 
intercourse. Such is the case with the Gypsies, and with the common 
people of the countries where they have passed, or among whom they 
have settled. Vermin, scabby heads, loathsome rashes, and the itch, 
are the usual companions of poverty, filth, and ignorance. It is no 
wonder, then, that they should have applied the term 'poison' to this 
particular disease. It is well to remark that the common people of 
the East, like other people of similar education elsewhere, attribute 
most of their diseases to internal poisoning, remnants of former medi- 
cal theories. Borrow defines garipe, another similar word, as meaning 
' scab.' In this sense gherald is used by some Gypsies, as mo shoro 
gheralo, ' my scabby head.' This is properly a Greek expression 
tfxitQtt, itch ; yioQiaafievos, ' one affected with loathsome cutaneous 
eruptions.' Gher, pronounced jel, I have heard applied to the small 
pox by some Gypsies. It is from the same base as gher. 


JEW; jut. This is from the Turks, who call these people jehud and chi- 
fut, by way of contempt. Yahudi is also another term in use among 
the Turks, corresponding to the Greek 'Iovdato$. The Greeks now 
always call them 'E^galot (pron. 'Oj^xuot). PI. jutne, 'Jews ;' jutni, 
' a Jewish woman ;' jutano, ' Jewish ;' jutoro, , a young Jew ;' jutnidri, 
' a young Jewish girl ;' brakeresa jutanes ? ' dost thou speak the Jew- 
ish language ?' 


To KICK lahtdava. The Gr. iaxr^cu can hardly have given origin to 
this Gypsy verb, as it has become altogether obsolete among the peo- 
ple, and in its stead we use X*TW, ' I kick.' Only the educated of 
our nation make use of JUxxr/^w. The Persian has leked zeden, ' to kick, 

On the Language of the Gypsies, 195 

calcitrarej to which this Gypsy verb can be referred : many Gypsy 
words are intimately related to the present Persian. I know of no 
Sr. word to which the Persian can be referred. The verb is a com- 
pound one: ddva, 'I give,' serves to form also some other verbs. 

KING takkdr, taakdr ;* Bor., crallis. My word resembles the Pers. 
khatkiar, 'king, ruler,' with transposition of the initial consonants, or 
more probably with rejection of the initial kh, which is pronounced 
so gently by the Gypsies as often not to be heard at all. Even in 
pronouncing tahkdr, the h is so gently aspirated as to be virtually 
omitted, and in fact many Gypsies pronounce the word as I have writ- 
ten it in the second form. The Sr. chakravat, l an emperor,' may bear 
relation to this term, as perhaps also to the Persian. Crallis is the 
Slav, kral, 'a king,' so common among the nations that speak the 
Slavonic dialects. The absence of a well defined root in all these de- 
finitions evidently goes to prove that the Gypsies, in leaving their 
country, and coming among people under regular regal power, had no 
appropriate word to express the idea of a king, as he appeared to 
them in their gradual peregrinations westward. Their word r&jan we 
shall meet in ' nobleman.' Takareskoro, ' of the king ;' takarni, 
' queen.' 

Kiss chumi, chdm ; Bor., chupendi. 

To KISS chumiddva. We have here a word easily referable to the Sr. 
root chumb, ' to kiss.' The final b has been dropped by the Gypsies, 
precisely as the Greeks pronounce the Ital. ampula, ampola, ' a small 
flask,' aftovla. Liom tutdr yek cham, ' I have taken from thee a kiss ' 
(i. e. ' I have kissed thee'). Chumiddva is compounded of chum and 
the verb ddva, ' to give.' 

KNEE koch. Gr. x6T^iov and xort, generally applied to warts, often to 
small bones, and at times to bones in general. The Greeks say novovv 
x<i x6r&& fiov, ' my knees pain me.' By the Gypsies the term has 
been applied exclusively to the knees. Plur. kochd, ' knees.' It is 
a term well known to all Gypsies, and probably comes from the Slav. 
kosf , i bone.' Me kochd dukenaman, ' my knees pain me.' 

KNIFE churi ; Bor., chuld, chori. From the Sr. root chhur, ' to eat, 
scindere, secure? Borrow's first term is formed by a commutation of 
the liquids, so common in all languages. Bari churi, 'a large knife.' 


LAME panko, pango. 

To LAME pangherdva. We find in the Sanskrit pangu, ' lame, crippled, 
one who has lost his legs.' Pangherdva,, ' to lame, to make one lame,' 
is a compound verb, formed from pangd and the verb kerdva, 'to 
make.' K before n is constantly changed to gh ; the form is properly 
pan-kerdva. Of pangd united to the verb avdva is formed another 
verb, panghiovdva, in the middle form, often heard among the Gyp- 
sies : ' I have become lame ;' xwiMlvofiat,. Pankli6m mo pindo, ' I 
have lamed my foot.' 

* This word has a close resemblance to the Armenian word for ' king,' takav6r, 
derived from tak, ' crown.' TE. 

196 A. 0. Paspati, 

To LAUGH as&va. Compare Sr. has, ' to laugh.' I shall have occasion 
to show in the following Section that the Gypsies commute the Sr. 

futturals for soft aspirates, and reject these latter in many words, 
n hearing them pronounce such aspirated words, one doubts whether 
the word should be written with or without an aspirate. So asesa ? 
1 why dost thou laugh ?' 

LEAF patrin ; Bor., paroji. The Sr. patra signifies 'a leaf,' and, as in 
our language, 'any thing light, like a leaf:' it means also 'wing.' 
From this are probably derived Slav. per6, ' wing,' Germ, feder, Eng. 
feather.* Borrow's form is much changed from the original, and in- 
dicates what I have said above, that the Gypsies of Turkey have pre- 
served their language in greater purity than their fellow-tribes in the 
West. This term is used at times for ' branch.' 

To LEARN shikliovdva. A verb in the middle voice, compounded of 
shiklo, ' instructed,' and av&va. We have the Sr. root fiksh, ' to 
learn, to acquire knowledge ;' fiksha, ' learning, or the acquisition of 
knowledge.' I have never heard the verb excepting in this middle 
form. Like /uay^dyw, it is at times neuter, and at times transitive : 
' I myself learn, I study,' and ' I make others learn, I instruct.' Ka- 
mdva ta shikliovdv katdr alle, ' T wish to learn whence came ;' akand 
kamena te shiklion (for shikliovena), ' now they wish to learn ;' to. 
nd isdnas ote ta shiklioves, ' and thou wast not there to learn ;' karin 
shiklilo (3rd p. aor.), 'where did he learn' (i. e. ' study') ? 

LEATHER morti ; Bor., morchas.\ The Sr. murti, from which originate 
these two terms, is defined to mean ' matter, substance, solidity, any 
definite shape or image.' Here, by the Gypsies, the word is often 
applied to sheepskins before undergoing the operation of tanning, 
nqofita, 7TQo{ii&. Mortiakoro, ' a worker in leather.' 

LIE khohaimpe ; Bor., jojana. Connected with the Sr. kuhaka, ' de- 
ceiver, hypocrite,' kultand, ' hypocrisy.' Khohavnd, ' a liar, one who 
deceives,' pronounced often khohand. I have no doubt that khoha- 
impe is formed from khohand, khohanipe having been corrupted into 
khohaimpe ; since all the abstract nouns ending in pe are formed 
from adjectives or participles. From this adj. khohavnd is formed 
khohdvniovdva, 'to be cheated, to be deceived.' Chachipanes o 
manush kayek far ndna khoh&vniovel, 'in truth man would never be 

LIGHT loko. From the Sr. laghu, 'light;' Gr. i^axi>s. 

LINEN yismata. Used always in the plural form. It designates that 
part of dress which can be subjected to washing; Eng. linen, It. 
biancheria, Gr. dtm^eipov^a, ' white garments.' Tovde yismata, ' washed 

LIP v iist ; Br., ushta. This is the Sr. oshtha, ' lip.' We shall explain 
the term mui, ' mouth,' in its proper place. Respecting the addition 
of v at the beginning of words, the reader will see in Section IV. 

LITTLE khandi. The Sanskrit word khanda signifies ' a part, a por- 
tion, a fragment.' That the Gypsy term means properly ' a portion 

* Armenian pedur. Ta. f Armenian morte. Ta. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 197 

or part,' there is no doubt, and the transmutation of the word ' por- 
tion, fragment' into an adverb, 4ittle,' is corroborated by both the 
Greek and Turkish languages. K6f*/*a, from x6mu, and its diminu- 
tive xofifi&riov, are universally used by the Greeks of the present day 
in the sense of ' little ;' as 86s ^ xo/npfaiov, ' give me a little.' The 
Turks say bir parchd su ver, 'give me a little water' (lit. ' give me a 
piece of water'). Jfhandisi, often to be heard, is khandi-isi, ' a little 
(it) is,' used for 'it is not enough.' Khandi is used also as an adjec- 
tive, Lat. parvus, Gr. falyog. Deman khandi pani, * give me a little 
water ;' chikhandi, ' in a little while,' Gr. IVTOS Mlyov (HULQOV under- 
stood) ; khandi varo, ' a little flour ;' khandi pidsales, khandi khdsales, 
o yaver kerasales kerdl, ' a little we drink, a little we eat, (and) the 
rest we make (into) cheese ;' khandi achilo te merdv, ' I came near 
dying' (i. e. 'little was wanting') ; khandi dives, 'few days.' 

To LIVE jivdva. This is undoubtedly related to the Sr. root jiv, ' to 
live,' which is to be traced in some of the Indo-European languages, 
and particularly in the Slavonic (zyvu, ' I live '), which has preserved 
so many of the Sr. roots in their utmost purity. It is used also in 
the sense of ' inhabit,' similar to the nsage of the word in other lan- 
guages : i'^aa ei> Ev^ny, ' I lived in Europe, j'ai vecu en Europe.' 

To LOSE nashavdva ; Bor., nojabar. There seems to be an intimate 
connection between this Gypsy verb and nashdva, ' to depart.' Both 
have their origin from the Sr. root nap, ' to destroy, to annihilate, to 
lose.' Borrow's najipen, ' loss, perdition,' is from the same. 

LOUSE juv. We have seen, in speaking of BAKLEY, the transmutation 
of the Sr. y into,;': yava, Gypsy jov, 'barley.' We might with per- 
fect reason seek the origin of this term in a Sr. word having a similar 
initial consonant, viz. yuka, ' a louse.' Plur. juvd, ' lice.' 


To MAKE kerdva ; Bor., querar, querelar. This is the well known Sr. 
root kri or kar, ' to make, to do,' which can easily be traced through 
the Persian, Greek, Latin, and other cognate European languages : 
comp. Pers. kerden (Sr. inf. kartum), ' to make, to do ;' Gr. x^cttVw, whose 
ancient signification was ' to do, to accomplish ;' Lat. creo, ' to create.' 
The Gypsies of Spain, like those here in Turkey, have preserved the 
pure sound of the initial radical consonant. Some Gypsies here pro- 
nounce the word as though written gherdva. The signification which 
I have given above is the most general, both in the Danubian prov- 
inces and in Turkey. The word has, however, another, contracted 
from the colloquial usages of the Turks, who employ their verb yap- 
mak, ' to make, to do,' in the sense also of ' building :' yapy yapdrym, 
' I am building.' The Greeks also, in imitation of the Turks, fre- 
quently join to their verb xd^uyw, I do,' the Turkish yapy, saying 
lant xdftvu, ' I am making a building.' Though the Sr. verb has an 
extraordinary latitude of meaning, and though it may reasonably be 
applied to any verb expressive of action, still I am inclined to think 
that many of its definitions among the Gypsies of Turkey should be 
elucidated and explained by the colloquial usages of the Greeks and 
Turks, with whom they are constantly associated. Gypsies in Turkey 

198 A. G. Paspati, 

never hear any other language, Turkish or Greek, but the most vulgar 
and corrupted, for they are debarred from polite society, which they 
themselves also avoid. Kerdva nevo ker, ' I am making a new house ;' 
laches kamakeren, ' they will do well,' pronounced by others kamkeren, 
or kakeren (see Section V) ; so kerena te chave ? ' what are doing thy 
children' (i. e. ' how are thy children ') ? sd te kerdv ? l what can I do 2' 
il t>& xiiiuu ; so kerghidn ? ' what hadst thou done ?' ker tuya yavreske, 

* do thou also to others ;' tu kerghidnles ? ' didst thou do it ?' so keres ? 
' how art thou ?' a usual salutation : Gr. il xdjuvetg ? 

MAN manush ;* Br., manush ; Bor., manu, manus, maru, marupe. 
From the Sr. manusha and manushya, ' man, a human being,' manushi, 

* woman, the companion of man :' among the Gypsies, romni is now 
in general use in the latter sense. It comes from the root man, ' to 
think, reason, examine.' In Borrow's third form the n is changed 
to r ; in his fourth appears the terminal pe, elsewhere pen : marupe, 
' mankind,' avd-qom6iijg. Amare manushenghere, ' of our men ;' shasto 
manush, ' a robust man ;' isdmas peninda manush, ' we were fifty 
men ;' sarre o manush, ' all the men,' and ' all men ;' manushen</he, 
' to the men.' 


MARKET-PLACE -foros; Bor., foros, foro. This term reminds us of the 
Latin forum, which signified anciently ' the market-place,' and was 
afterwards given to certain cities, as the Turks call many towns from 
the market fairs held there. Among us the term cpfyos, ' a duty, 
impost,' comes from the Sr. bhdra, 'a weight, burden.' Borrow defines 
his two words 'city,' Sp. ciudad. The Sr. pura and purt both mean 
' city,' preserved in the names of many Indian cities, as Hastinapoor, 
Singapoor, etc. By a customary change of^> to/ comes the present 
Gypsy term, which the Gypsies here sometimes use for ' city,' but 
more often for ' market-place.' 

MARRIAGE bidv, pidv. This is of Sanskrit origin, though it has a 
Persian form, like some other words, as derydv, ' sea,' vasidv, l mill.' 
The Sr. root vah, 'to carry, to bear' (L. veho, Gr. ^e'a), means also 
' to marry, ducere uxorem? When joined with the preposition vi it 
has constantly the signification of ' marrying,' as in vivdha, ' marriage,' 
vivdhita, ' married.' Very probably these words have given origin to 
bidv. It is a common term, and, united to kerdva, ' to make,' it means 
'to marry, to celebrate a marriage.' Kamakeres bidv? 'wilt thou 
make marriage' (i. e. ' art thou to be married ') ? te praleskoro biavesti, 
' at the marriage of thy brother ;' tumaro bidv isi ? ' is it thy mar- 
riage ;' kdna kamovel o bidv ? ' when will the marriage be f 

MEAT mas ; Bor., maas, many. The origin of these terms is clear. 
I refer them to dmisha, ' meat, food, anything eaten with bread ;' 
compare Slav, mast, signifying 'fat,' which the Bulgarians have 
changed to meso, understanding by it ' meat ;' Goth, mats, Eng. meat^ 
Albanian mishe, misht. Kgeas and Lat. caro are connected with 
another Sr. word, kravya, denoting for the most part 'the flesh of 

* " Manuseh, rom, gadsfie, ' mensch.' " Arndt, p. 375. 
f Armenian mis. TR. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 199 

wild animals.' Besides the above dmisha, there is another term, 
mdnsa, ' flesh, food,' from which originates Lat. mensa, signifying 
sometimes ' the table,' and sometimes ' the food upon the table.' To 
this I refer the Eng. mess, mess-mate. So kerena? mas biknena 1 
' what are they doing ? they sell meat ;' maseskoro, ' a butcher ;' londe 
masd, 'salted meat;' avdives mas khdsa, 'to-day we eat meat' (not a 
day of fasting). 

MILK tut, sut ; Br., sout ; Bor., chuti This word Mr. Brown desig- 
nates as Turkish sud, ' milk.' But the comparison of the three terms 
gives a better explanation of their etymology. In the definition of 
BREAST, we have spoken of the Sr. root chush, ' to suck.' Derived 
from that root, the present terms signify properly ' what is sucked 
from the breasts.' I may add that there is no known Turkish word 
in the vocabulary of Borrow. Gudlo tut, ' sweet milk ; sudro tut, 
' cold milk.' 

MILL vasidv. A Persian word, which, like many others derived from 
that language, has been preserved almost unaltered: asya, 'a mill- 
stone,' anciently, and more properly, asyab, or asyav, to which the 
Gypsies have only added an initial v. All the Persian dictionaries 
of an older date write the word asyab, and such was probably the 
pronunciation of the Persians when the Gypsies passed through their 
country. Ghiv gherghiom to vasidv, 'I have carried grain to the 

MISERABLE chungalo. This adjective, applied to persons in distress 
as an expression of commiseration, corresponds to the Turk, zavdl 
and the Gr. xax6 l uot<)o$. It is extremely common among the Gypsies. 
Fern, chungali. Though apparently of Hindu origin, I have not been 
able to refer it to any -Sr. word. Chungali rakli, ' the miserable 

MONET love. This term is mostly used by the Gypsies in the plural 
number : love, ' money ' in general. They make use, like the natives, 
of para, and ghrush, the Turk, piastre. Me love line, ' my money 
they have taken ;' keti loven dinidn ? ' how much money hadst thou 
given?' linidn te loven? 'hadst thou taken thy money?' keti loven 
terela ? ' how much money has he ?' or, ' how much is he worth 1* 

MONTH chon, masek; Bor., chono. We shall speak of chon in speak- 
ing of MOON. The Gypsies, like many other nations, use the same 
word for 'moon' and 'month.' Compare Gr. ^VTJ, anc, 'the moon, 
the half moon ;' (ity, ' month ;' Lat. mensis. Chon is used by the 
Moslem Gypsies, imitating their coreligionists the Turks, who say ay, 
' moon, month.' Masek, the second term, is from the Sr. mdsika, 
' monthly, relating or belonging to a month ;' it is in very common 
use among the Christian Gypsies. Compare Slav, miesiach, 'a 
month.' In this word appears plainly the tendency of the Gypsies 
to make use of adjective forms, instead of substantive. Similar 
examples we see in MOUSE, WELL, etc. Keti masekengoro isi? 'of 
how many months is she' (i. e. 'pregnant') ? yek masekestar ndpalal, 
' after a month.' 
VOL. vii. 26 

200 .4. 0. Paspati, 

MOON chon;* Br., chon ; Bor., chimutra, astra. The derivation of 
these words is a little obscure, as the difference between the two first 
and Borrow's is considerable. Mine and Mr. Brown's are derived 
from the Sr. chandra, 'moon.' The second word of Borrow, astra, 
is a name given to the moon precisely as we often call the moon 
tiargov r^g wxrb$, ' star of night' 

MOTHER ddi, de ; Br., dy ; Bor., day, chinday. Dy, pronounced dd'i, 
is a child's pet term for its mother, as Borrow testifies in his vocabu- 
lary, under the word day, remarking that this word, sometimes applied 
by children to their mother, signifies ' nurse.' Dais is used by the 
Christian inhabitants of these countries, sometimes for 'father,' mostly 
however for 'uncle' and 'benefactor.' The derivation of this word 
is very obscure, and that it has any relation to the common Sr. malri, 
' mother,' does not appear to me probable. It is pronounced ddi and 
tui. Mi ddi, ' my mother ;' me daidkori love, ' my mother's money ;' 
ti tdi isi kereste, ' thy mother is in the house.' 


To MOUNT uklidva. This verb may be referred to the Sr. root kram, 
' to go, to walk, to step,' with the preposition ut, ' up.' -Oklisto, 
' mounted :' this term is applied to a young man who has been pre- 
sented to his future bride, and has gone to her house. The Greeks 
have the same term, dveflaaftdvos, ' gone up,' i. e., to the house of the 

MOUSE mishdkos, musho. Derived evidently from the Sr. musha, 
mushaka, mushikd, 'mouse, rat,' from the root mush, 'to steal.' "We 
find this word in many languages : Gr. .wvc, pvtoxos ; Lat. mus, muris ; 
Slav. misH; Germ, maus ; Eng. mouse.\ Jfer musho, ' house-rat :' 
here the term approaches nearer to the Sr. musha. 

MOUTH mm. Compare the Sr. mukha, 'mouth.' The final guttural 
kh has been dropped, as in ndi, ' nail,' from nakha. From this term 
mui, by the addition of al, is formed the adverb muydl or muiydl, ' on 
the face, in front, from the front.' Peliom muydl, ' I fell on the face.' 

MUCH but ;J Br., bout ; Bor., bus, baribu. This may possibly be refer- 
red to the Sr. puru, ' much.' The common and most usual words in 
a language are frequently most metamorphosed. But is used as an 
adjective and an adverb. But manushe, ' many men ;' but chave, 
'many children;' but romnia, 'many women;' but love, 'much money;' 
but dukelaman, ' it pains me much ;' but nashela, ' it goes well ;' but 
laches, ' very well ;' but vuches, ' very high.' At times it is heard as 
butlo, ' much.' 

Mucus of the nose Urn. This word is extremely common among the 
Gypsies. I refer it to the Sr. lip, ' to anoint, to smear,' whence limpa, 
' smearing, anointing.' 

MUD chik, chikd ; Bor., chique. The only Sr. word to which I am 
able to refer this term is chikila, ' mud, mire,' from the root chik, ' to 
obstruct.' Borrow defines chique as ' earth, ground,' a natural transi- 

* " 0-tchanda, 'la lune.'" Vaillant, p. 457. "Tschon, schon, tschemut, mrascha, 
mond.'" Arndt, p. 366. 

f Armenian moog.Tv.. \ " But, ' longteraps.' " Vaillant, p. 363. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 201 

tion of meaning of the word. Isi ko drom but chikd, ' there is in the 
road much mud.' 

To MURDER murdardva. We have often had occasion to refer to the 
Sr. root mri, ' to die,' whence comes this transitive, precisely as the 
Germ, morden, Eng. murder, Fr. meurtre. Murdardva tut, ' I murder 
thee,' a common expression in the mouth of a person intending to 
strike another ; murdarghiomles, ' I have murdered him ;' aor. ndpalal 
murdarghidles, 'afterwards he murdered him.' This verb is used 
also of the killing of animals. When applied to fire, it signifies 'to 
quench :' murdardva i yak, ' I quench the fire ;' murddr i y&k, ' quench 
the fire.' 

MUSKET pudino ; Bor., pusca. Both these terms are Slavonic, from 
the verb pushtdyu, ' to send, to throw out, emittere? I have spoken 
to many Gypsies about the word pusca, which they constantly avoid, 
as foreign to their idiom. Pusca is known only to the Bulgarians, 
Who use it in common with the Russians. Mo pudino isi inglis, ' my 
musket (gun) is English.' 

NAIL, FINGER-NAIL ndi ; Bor., ungla. Sorrow's word is from the 
Latin ungula,* ' hoof,' from the common unguis, ' nail.' The Spanish 
is una. My own term is from the Sr. nakha, ' nail.' Borrow has in 
his vocabulary another term, turra, ' nail,' unknown to me. 

NAKED nango. This is easily referable to the Sr. nagna, ' naked.' 

NAME nav ;\ Bor., nao. There is hardly an Indo-European word that 
is so general in its occurrence. Compare Zend ndman,^ Pers. nam, 
Lat. nomen, Gr. ovofia, Goth, namu, Slav, nma, Bulg. ime. The final 
syllable of ndman has been changed into a simple v by the Gypsies 
of Turkey, whilst those of Spain have changed the whole syllable 
into o. This change of m into v we shall have occasion to observe 
in other words. E chaveskoro nav, ' the child's name ;' e pasheskoro 
ndv, ' the pasha's name.' 

NAVEL pol. The usual term among the Hindus for 'navel' is ndbhi 
or ndbhila. It has given birth to Pers. naf, Germ, nabel, Eng. navel. 
As to this Gypsy word, I am unable to give any satisfactory account 
of it, unless we suppose that the first syllable nd has been thrown off 
by the Gypsies from the second term ndbhila. 

NEAR bashe, pashe; Bor., sumpacel. Concerning the etymology of 
this term I can form no probable conjecture. Bashe to len, ' near the 
river;' bashe tute, 'near thee; kaleste bashe didevesa (Gr. dovlsha) ? 
'near whom workest thou ?' bashe to bahtze (Turk, baghche], 'near the 
garden ;' bashe mdnde, tumende, lende, ' near UP, you, them ;' bashdl, 
' from near.' Sumpacel, Borrow's word, is a phrase common among 
the Gypsies, formed of sun, imperative of sundva, 'to hear,' and 
bashdl. It is an order to ' go and be attentive,' lit. ' hear from near.' 
I have frequently heard it. Pott has fallen into the same error as 
Borrow, in considering it a simple term. Ja ta sun pashdl, ' go and 
hear from near.' 

* Armenian ungunk. Ta. f " Nam, ' nom.' " Vaillant, p. 1 80. 

Arm. anun. TE. 

202 A. G. Paspati, 


NEGATION na, nandi, nasti, ma ; Br., nee ; Bor., na, nandi, naxti, ne. 
There are few words in all the range of the Gypsy language so clear 
and well defined as these terms. Na is the Sr. na, a particle of nega- 
tion. Na, in Gypsy colloquial usage, is employed principally with 
verbs : as na jandva, * I do not know ;' na kamdva, ' I do not wish ;' 
na isdmas ote, ' I was not here ;' na pakidva, ' I do not believe ;' na 
dikliomles, ' I did not see him ; ndi, isi Undo, ' no, it is thine.' They 
never say nandi dikliomles, or nandi jandva. In the subjunctive, na 
is inserted between te and the verb ; as ie na dikdv, ' that I may not 
see ;' te na jav, ' that I may not go ;' te na khel, ' that he may not 
eat.' It is to be observed in adjectives : as naisvali, ' invalid ;' nai- 
sukdr, ' not handsome ;' namporeme, ' sick.' Nandi is properly used 
to express negation joined to the third person of the auxiliary verb 
isom, ' I am,' which is always understood : it means properly ' it is 
not.' It has evidently taken the place of the following nasti, which 
by the Gypsies is applied to other usages. Nandi is a reduplication 
of na. Nandi mindo, 'it is not mine ;' nanai lacho, 'it is not good ;' 
nanai but phuro, ' he is not very old ;' ta na kamniovel nanai laches, 
' not to perspire is not well ;' nanai palvdl, ' there is no wind ;' nanai 
khohaimpe, ' it is not a lie.' Nasti is evidently the Sr. nasti, ' it is 
not,' from na and asti, the 3d pers. sing, of the verb a*, ' to be,' Gr. 
lort. The Persian has a similar phrase, nist, composed of the neg. 
ne and est, ' is.' So also the Slav, niest, ' non est,' used in this form. 
Ndsti is defined by Wilson ' non-existence, not so, it is not' The 
Gypsies, however, have given this definition to nandi, and have re- 
served nasti to express impossibility or difficulty. Having lost all 
traces of its proper signification, it is now applied by them to all 
persons indistinctly, and to all numbers, whilst the similar phrase in 
Persian retains its proper signification. Nasti astarghiomles, ' I could 
not seize him ;' nasti kerdvales, ' I cannot do it ;' amen nasti kerdsales, 
4 we cannot do it ;' nasti sovdva, ' I cannot sleep ;' nasti pirdva, ' I 
cannot walk' and in a similar manner with all the persons and tenses 
of a verb. It is never used except with verbs, and the inflection of 
the verb itself shows the person speaking. Ma is a particle which, 
like th'e Gr. /"^, is always prefixed to the imperative. It is the Sr. md, 
a prohibitive and negative particle, chiefly prefixed to verbs in the 
imp. mood: as md kuru, 'do not do.' With the Gypsies, though 
heard sometimes alone, as the modern Gr. t*i\, ' don't,' it supposes a 
verb which by the speaker is not uttered. Ma ker tuya, ' do thou not 
also ;' ma deman armdn, ' do not curse me ;' ma kush, ' do not revile ;' 
ma vraker, ' do not talk ;' maja, * do not go ;' ma dik, ' do not look ;' 
ma sun, 'do not hear.;' ma kha, 'do not eat;' ma le, 'do not take'; 
ma jn, ' do not drink.' With the exception of this negative particle, 
there is a striking similarity between mine and Borrow's terms. 

NEW nevo ; Bor., nebo, nebel, ternord. With the exception of ternord, 
all these words are from the Sr. adj. nava, with which correspond the 
Gr. vios, Lat. novus, Slav, nov'ie, ' new, young.' and many other similar 
words in the present spoken languages of Europe. Nebel of Borrow 
has been formed from the primitive Sr. in a way similar to the Lat. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 203 

novellus from novus. Ternoro will be explained under YOUNG MAN. 
Neva ker, ' new house ;' nevo gav, ' new village ;' neve yismata, ' new 

NIGHT rat, ratti, aratti ; Br.,rakilo; Bor., rachi. The Gr. ?i, Lat. 
nox, Slav. nos^f, correspond with Sr. nakta, ' night.' These terms 
have left no traces in the Gypsy language, which has preserved the 
more usual Sr. rdtri, ( night.' By the assimilation of r to t, so com- 
mon in modern languages, it has become rat, ' night,' and ratti, ' in 
the night-time,' Lat. node. Mr. Brown's rakilo is the 3d pers. aor. 
passive, ' it is getting dark.' Ratti seems to be a remnant of a loca- 
tive case. This term is sometimes pronounced with an initial a, 
aratti. This initial a is less common here than among the Gypsies 
of Spain. Yek rat, ' one night ;' yekpashardt, ' midnight ;' sard rat, 
' every night.' 

No ONE kayekjeno. This term, extremely common among the Gyp- 
sies, is composed of two words, the relation of which to the Sanskrit 
is extremely evident. The latter word is never used alone. Kayek 
seems to be the Sr. ekdika, ' singly, one by one,' from eka, ' one,' 
repeated. Like the Gr. xavels, from xav els, ' no one,' so likewise this 
word among the Gypsies is at times affirmative, and at times negative. 
Negat. kayekjeno najanela man, 'no one knows me;' nasti dulave- 
na (Gr. dovletw, 'to work') kayek jeno, 'no one can work.' Affirm. 
te kamniovel kayek jeno laches isi, ' for one to perspire is a good 
thing.' Kayek alone signifies ' no one,' Fr. aucun, personne : kayeke, 
'to no one:' kayeke manushe, 'to no man,' Gr. elg xaviva dvb^anov 
kapendv tuke yek lav, ta na penesles kayeske, ' I will tell thee a word, 
but thou shouldst not tell it to any one.' This term, in receiving the 
particle ke, is pronounced kayekske and kayekke ; the latter is the 
proper mode. Kayek is joined to other terms: as kayek far, 'some- 
times, never;' po kayek far, 'oftentimes.' Jeno is evidently the Sr. 
jana, 'man,' individually or collectively, 'mankind,' from the root 
jan, * to be born ;' compare Pers. jins, Lat. genus, Gr. yivos, etc. I 
have never heard it used except in connection with kayek. 

NOBLEMAN rdi. The peculiar circumstances in which the Gypsies are 
placed in these countries have made all foreign words of this category 
of little use to them. The common terms among them for persons 
ennobled, either by wealth, education, or political authority, are pure 
Turkish. Even the lowest order of the Greeks rarely use any but 
the Turkish terms, as agha, efendi, pasha, and the like. E^sv^g, etina- 
zQldrjs, etc., are totally unknown to them. I once asked an illiterate 
Bulgarian, what 'famous' meant in their language. He gave me the 
word chorbadji, i. e. ' the magistrate of a small rural district.' The 
Gypsies, however, have retained this word rdi, referable to the Sr. 
r&jan, ' a king, a monarch, a prince.' It is applied particularly to 
those persons of their clan who are set over them by the local Turk- 
ish authorities, as collectors of the capitation-tax and other duties 
due to the government. It is also given to the head men of their 
corporations. Those foreign to their tribe are called by their usual 
Turkish titles. Tnis term is not known to all. The wife of the rdi 
is called rani, Sr. r&jfit, so common to this day for the wives of the 

204 A. 0. Paspati, 

Rajas and other native rulers of Hindustan. E rayeskoro chavo, ' the 
child of the Rai ;' dik&va e rayes, ' I see the nobleman.' 

NOSE nak ; Br., nak ; Bor., naqui, pavi. The first three of these 
words are derived from the Sr. no*, ' nose,' n&sika, l nostril.' Some 
Gypsies use the word rutuni for ' nose ;' it is the Gr. wtfciytoy, dim. 
of (tafroiv, ' nostril.' To a great many of them nak is unknown. The 
pavi of Borrow is unknown to me. 

To NOURISH parvardva. This is the verb of which the word parvardo, 
given above for FAT, is properly a participle. Perhaps a more plausi- 
ble etymology than is there proposed for it may be found in the Sr. 
root bhri, ' to bear, sustain, nourish,' with the prefix pari or pra. 

Now akand, okand ; Bor., ocana, acana. This term, common and 
well known to all the Gypsies, both in Spain and Turkey, I compare 
with the Sr. akshna, ' time ;' the Sr. ksh being constantly changed by 
the Gypsies to k. There is another cognate Sr. term, kshana, 'a 
moment.' By the prefixion of an a, as in avdives, ' this day, to-day,' 
the word would signify ' this moment,' resembling the Gr. z'wpo, ' this 
hour, now.' 


ONE yek ; Br., yak ; Bor., icque, iesque, ies. From the Sr. eka, 'one.' 
The Pers. has the same form, in yek, ' one.' In the Greek, the word 
eka is to be found in ^xdre^o.;, a comparative form of eka, Sr. ekatara 


TVO dui ;* Br., duy ; Bor., dui. From Sr. dvi, ' two,' with which cor- 
respond the synonymous arithmetical terms of Europe, as Pers. du, 
Gr. tfi-w, Lat duo. 

THREE tri, trin ; Br. triu ; Bor., trin. From the Sr. tri, ' three.' Trin 
is the Sr. neuter trtni. Both these terms are used. The Pali has 
tinni, 'three' (Essai sur le Pali, p. 92). 

FOUR ishtar ; Br., ushtdr ; Bor., estar. The Sr. chatur is here changed 
more than the preceding terms. 

FIVE panch ; Br., pandji ; Bor., panche. Sr. pa.ncha, ' five.' This 
Gypsy word is nearer the original than the corresponding term of any 
other language, and in Spain and Turkey it has been preserved 
almost unchanged. 

six shov ; Br., sho ; Bor., job. Sr. shash, ' six.' The Greek has laid 
aside the initial sh, the Latin has preserved it : 21, sex, ' six.' Slav. 

SEVEN eftd; Br., efta; Bor., efta. From the Sr. sapta, 'seven.' Here 
also the Greek has laid aside the initial s of the Sr. At first sight 
one would think this word to be our ^TITU, commonly pronounced 
i<pT<x. So too the Persian heft. The eftd of the Gypsies presents the 
natural change of p into/, to euphonize with t, a change daily heard 
among us, as vulgar rather than classical, but regular among the Per- 
sians. The ancient Greeks made a similar change, saying eSSo/uog, 
tfidou^xoyTa, instead of 7rro,uo, kmofi^xovTa (Bopp). Compare Zend 
haptan, ' seven,' changing the initial * to h, whence the Pers. heft, as 

* " Dui, ' deux.'" Vaillant, p. 879. 

f The Armenian has vets, and, in combination, veth : as veshdasan, ' sixteen: TR. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 205 

EIGHT ohto ; Br., oht6 ; Bor., ostor, ottolcjo. Sr. ashta, 'eight.' Com- 
pare Zend ashtan, Pers. hesht, Gr. 6xro>, Lat. octo, Germ. acht. 

SINE iniya ; Br., iniya ; Bor., enia. Sr. nava, ' nine.' In Greek we 
have prefixed the vowel e for the sake of euphony, and the Gypsies i. 

TEN desk ; Br., desk ; Bor., deque. Sr. daf a. The Gypsies of Turkey 
have preserved the original word better than those of Spain, who 
approach nearer the languages of Europe ; Gr. Jexo, Lat. decem* 
Slav, desyat. 

ELEVEN desh-i-yek ; Bor., esden-y-yesque. 

TWELVE desh-i-dui Bor., esden-y duis. 

THIRTEEN dcsk-i-trl ; Bor., esden-y-trin. 

FOURTEEN desk-t-ishtar ; Bor., esden-y-ostar. 

FIFTEEN desh-i-panch ; Bor., esden-y-panche. 

SIXTEEN desh-i-shov ; Bor., esden-y-jobe. 

SEVENTEEN dcsh-i-eftd ; Bor., esden-y-estar. 

EIGHTEEN desh-i-ohl6 ; Bor., esden-y-ostor. 

NINETEEN desk-i-inia ; Bor., esden-y-esne. 
Mr. Brown has omitted the above numbers. 

TWENTY bisk; Br., bisk; Bor., bis. The form of this number, from the 
Sr. vinpati, resembles the Pers. bist, which preserves the final conso- 
nant t. 

THIRTY trdnda Br., otrenta ; Bor., trianda. 

FORTY sardnda; Br., saranda; Bor., estardi. 

FIFTY peninda ; Br., paninda. ; Bor., pancherdi. 

SIXTY shovarderi ; Br., showur ; BQT., joberdi. 

SEVENTY eftavarderi; Br., eftawardesh ; Bor., esterdi. 

EIGHTY ohtovarderi Br., ohtowardesh j Bor., ostordi. 

NINETY iniyavarderi ; Br., iniyavardesh ; Bor., esnerdi. 

In Mr. Brown's term for ' sixty,' showar, the final desk has been 
omitted by mistake. 

The first three terms of Mr. Brown and myself, and the first of 
Borrow, are the common forms of our Modern Greek numbers, used 
by the common people,f which the Gypsies in passing through or 
residing here have adopted, while they have rejected the others. The 
remainder are formed regularly from the numerals with the addition 
of desk, 'ten.' In my glossary the sh of desk is changed into ri; in 
Borrow's the final desk is changed into di. 

HUNDRED shil, shel ; Br., shevel ; Bor., gres. The first two are related 
to the Sr. fata, ' hundred ;' the origin of gres is unknown to me. 

TWO HUNDRED dll shel. 

THREE HUNDRED tri shel. 

THOUSAND milia ; Bor., milan. From the Lat. mille. This is foreign to 
the Sr. sahasra, ' thousand.'^ 

I have not given the Sr. numerals, as the reader can easily obtain 
them from the ordinary Sr. grammars. 

* Armenian ddsa, and in composition dasdn ; as medasan, megda&an. TR. 

f For those unacquainted with the Modern Greek, it may be well to say that 
these numerals have beui modified as follows: tpidxov-ta. we call tfMvta; ttaoo.- 
pdxovra, oapdv-ta ; rtevtijxovta, Tttvrjvta. ; tsj^xovr 

\ Armenian hasar or hazar, of Sr. origin. TR. 

206 A. Q. Paspati, 

The Gypsy numerals, when joined to nouns in the accusative case, 
receive a final e ; deshe yrasten terdva, ' I have ten horses ;' shele 
bakre terela, ' a hundred sheep he has (owns).' 

NUT abhor, akor. 

NUT-TKEE akhorin, akorin. The Pers. kerdu has relation with the Gr. 
x&gvov and xayvdiov, ' a nut.' The Sr. term to which it may most 
probably be referred is akota, 'the betel-nut-tree' (Areca faufel, or 
catechu). It is here used for the fruit of the great walnut tree 
(Corylus avellana), so common in every part of Turkey. 


OLD phurO) phuru, puro, furd ; Br., pooree ; Bor., puro. This is a 
pure Sr. word, pura, ' former, more ancient.' By the addition of pe 
is formed puripe, 4 old age.' phuro kamela ia dikena to phuripe, 
4 the old man desires that they should see (i. e. ' nurse ') him in his 
old age.' Fern, puri : i romni leskeri isi puri, ' his wife is old.' 

OLD, ANCIENT purano. From the Sr. adj. purdna, ' old, ancient.' 
Among the Gypsies it has also the signification of ' old in age,' like 
the preceding puru. It is frequently to be heard, and is often inter- 
changed with the preceding term. 

To grow OLD phuriovdva. A compound verb, from phuro, ' old,' and 
avdva : lit. ' to become old ;' Gr. yj^iaxw, Lat. senesco, Te phuriola 
te dikenales e chave, ' when he becomes old, the children should nurse 
(lit. 'see') him.' 

OPPOSITE mamui. A compound word, from the poss. pronoun ma, 
wo, ' my,' and mui, ' mouth.' Similar expressions are common in 
many languages : compare Pers. ru-be-ru, ' opposite,' lit. ' face to face ;' 
Fr. en face; Il.infaccia. Kon isi mamui mande? 'who is opposite 
me ?' mamui to gdv, ' opposite the village.' Mamuydl, ' from the 
opposite side,' is formed like other similar adverbs, by the addition 
of al : mamuydl avava, ' I come from the opposite side ;' pelidm ma- 
muydl, ' I fell on my face.' 

ONION purum. A very common word among all the Gypsies : plur. 

OTHER yaver ; Bor., aver t avel. This term can be referred to the Sr. 
apara, ' other.' The p has been changed to v^ and the semivowel 
prefixed to the initial a, as in many other Gypsy words. Ma ker tuya 
yavreske, ' do not thou also to others :' yavreske, a clipped form of 
yavereske ; e yavreskero romni) ' and the other's wife ;' te pends ameya 
e yavreske f avena, 'that we also may communicate (lit. 'say') it to 
others, in order that they may come ;' dikliom e yavres, ' I saw the 
other (one).' 

OVEN bov. This term is applied to the furnace, to lime-kilns, and to 
the oven for baking bread. Its origin is not clear. E boveskero na 
pekela mo manro, ' the baker does not bake my bread ;' e boveskero na 
delaman manro, ' the baker does not give me bread.' 

OVER the water. -perddl, preddl. This is used precisely as the Greeks 
use TiEQa and ntgav, ' in another place, between which and the speaker 
there is a sheet of water.' Perddl is in the ablative form of adverbs. 
It is not solely confined to this signification. Java perddl, ' I go on 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 207 

the other side.' It supposes another term perd, which may be refer- 
red to the Sr. paradepa, ' a foreign country,' from which has been 
elegantly formed the Gr. notQ&deKro?, Pers. ferdus, and all the cognate 
terms of the European languages. Perddl tan, ' a place on the far- 
ther side.' 

OUT avri ; Bor., abri. Probably derived from the Sr. bakis and bahir, 
' out, outside.' By transposition of le'tters it becomes avri. DiMva 
avri prdgmata (nyiypaia), ' I see strange things ;' avridl, ' from the 
outside, out of:' avridl to ker nastotctr, 'after they departed out of 
the house;' avrutno, 'a foreigner,' Gr. a>reour6j : avrutnd manush, 
' a foreigner, a stranger, a man not of the Gypsy race.' 

Ox guruv,guri; Br., ghuree ; Bor., gorbi. 

Cow guruvni, gurumm ; Br., ghurumnee. The Sr. go or g&u signifies 
'the ox kind in general ;' this is preserved in the Gr. y<Wa*(ro5), Lat. 
lac, lactis, anciently denoting 'the milk of the cow.' We have also in 
Sanskrit gaura, gauri, signifying ' a buffalo.' This Gypsy term has 
suffered alterations for which it is difficult now to account. The femi- 
nine is pronounced as I have -written it. It is regularly formed, by 
the addition of ni, the common termination of feminine nouns. Ka- 
puchdv lestar te kamela te kinel gurumni, ''I shall ask him if he wishes 
to buy a cow ;' i gurumni isi mindl, ' the cow ia mine ;' parvardi 
gurumni, 'fat cow/ 


PAIN duk ;* Bor., duquipen, duga, dua. 

To be in PAIN dukdva. These terms are from the Sr. duhkha, ' pain, 
sorrow, affliction.' The first term given by Borrow is formed by the 
addition to the noun of the suffix pen : he defines it ' grief.' Duk 
terdva, ' I have pain ;' dukelaman, 'it pains me ? dukena Idkari chu- 
chia, ' her breasts pain.' This verb at times means ' to be in love :' 
hence dukhaipe, ' love ; T dukhani, ' a mistress ;' dukela m'oghi, ' my 
heart loves ;' duk e devles te oyhesa, ' love God with thy heart.' 

To PAINT makdva. Possibly from the Sr. maksh, 'to fill r to mix, to 
combine.' This term is applied by the Gypsies to the painting of 
houses, the smearing of women's faces with rouge or other colors a 
practice extremely common among the young, women the painting 
of the eyebrows and eyelashes with black, and the like. Makavdo, 
part., ' painted, besmeared :' mo ker isi makavdd, ' my house is painted ;' 
makavde povd, ' painted eyebrows ;' bimakavdo, ' not painted.' 

PANTALOON dimi, dimish: plur. dimnia and dimia. Dimia isi bttgle, 
' the pantaloons are large ;' dimial6 T ' wearing pantaloons, braccatus ;' 
bidimnialo, ' without pantaloons.' 

PAPER lir, HI; Bor., li. The Sr. Ukh means generally 'to write, to 
draw ;' llkha, ' one who writes,' or ' what is written,' and hence, ' what 
is written upon,' as paper, iron or stone tablets, etc. The Gypsies of 

* Armenian dukhrootiane, root dukhr. The Armenian language loves to increase 
the guttural sound, and often changes h, and even k, into the strongly aspirated 
guttural kh ; and, what i9 more singular, it generally changes the liquid / of foreign 
languages into the deep guttural ghad or gh ; e. g. Xaopoj, ghazaros. TB. 

VOL. vn. 27 

208 A. 0. Paspati, 

Turkey have corrupted the word by adding an r, and changing it at 
times to /. In Spain they have cut oft" the final syllable, or, more 
properly, it is changed to an i, and blended with the foregoing one : 
compare Sr. mukha, Gypsy mui. Compare Slav, list, ' leaf, page.' 
This term is also used in the sense of ' epistle :' pichardva lil, ' I send 
a letter.' 

PARTNER amdl. A Persian \vord, hemal, ' companion,' Mod. Greek 
avvjQoyo;. Though used as ' companion' is in English, it is more gen- 
erally applied to those who work together, as partners in business. 
Tovghiom man amdl, ' I have taken a partner.' 

To PASS nakdva. Evidently related to the Sr. naksh, ' to approach, to 
arrive at.' 

PASSOVER patrankl ; Bor., pachandra, ciria. This is undoubtedly a 
corruption of the Gr. ndax<* or mxa^aA/a, ' Easter.' The word cannot 
be Bulgarian, as this people have retained unchanged the Gr. term 
pdskha. The second word given by Borrow, ciria, may have origin- 
ated from the Greek XVQIOS or xvgiaxr h * Sunday,' ' the Lord's day.' 
The Greeks very frequently call Easter /.wwn^u, ' glorious, resplendent.' 

PEAR ambrol. 

PEAR-TREE ambrolin. This is a Persian word, from emrud, and enbrut, 
4 a pear,' from which comes the Turkish armud, ' a pear.' Names of 
trees terminate in in. The reader will see a few other examples in 
this Vocabulary. 

PERSPIRATION kamlioipe, kamnioipe. This appears to me to be of 
pure Sr. origin. I have noted both forms of the word, since they 
are equally common. Kamiliom, ' 1 have perspired,' supposes a 
present kamdva, which, however, I have never heard : for it is used 
kamlo isom, ' I am perspiring,' from kamlo, ' perspiring, in perspira- 
tion,' and kdmniovdva, kamliovdva, from the same and avava. 

PIASTRE astalo. We have met with another word in the Vocabulary, 
love, ' money,' in use among the Gypsies. This is frequently used for 
'piastres 'in the plural, as is the Turk, ghrush in the singular. I 
know of no clue to the etymology of the term, unless it can be refer- 
red to Pers. astar, ' pondus quoddam indefinitum et varians, quum 
hie decem, illic sex drachmarum cum semisse ponderi aequet. Vox e 
Gr. aiar^ corrupta esse videtur' (Vullers, Lex. Pers.). It does not 
resemble any of the terms used by the natives here. Plur. astale : 
keti astale teresa te desman, 'how many piastres hast tbou to give me' 
(i.e. 'owest thou')? yek astalo, 'one piastre;' eftd astale, 'seven 

To PIERCE chinkerdva, chingherdva. This word signifies ' to perforate, 
to cut through, to pierce with a sharp sword.' It is a compound 
verb, made up of chin and kerdva, " to do.' Chin I refer to Sr. chhid,. 
' to divide, to cut, to split.' Aor. chingherghiom, ' I have pierced, I 
have wounded.' 

p JT guva, khar. The first of these terms can be referred to the Sr. 
gupti, from gup, ' to hide,' meaning ' hiding, a hole in the ground, a 
cavern.' As to the other word, khar, I leave to others to say whether 
it can be referred to khan, ' to dig,' a verb which has given sundry 
words to the present Gypsy language (see WELL). Bashe to bahlzes 
(Turk, baghche, 'garden') isi yek khar, 'near the garden is a pit.' 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 209 

PITY bezeh. This is a Persian word, beze, ' crimen, peccatum, injuria, 
violentia' (Vullers, Lex. Pers.). It is used by the Gypsies as the 
Greeks use their X?(M, ' pity, commiseration.' Bezeh chorenghe, ' pity 
to the poor ;' Gr. x^l/na elg TO^S TTTW^OT^ : i. e. ' the poor are to be 
pitied.' The plural, bezeha, is very rarely to be heard. 

PLACE tun. From the root sthd, ' to stand,' Gr. la-n^i, Lat. sto, sisto, 
comes the noun sthdna, which is so frequent in the Persian language, 
as stan : compare guUstan, ' a place of roses ;' hindistan, ' the place 
of the Hindus,' etc. It is natural that a term so common in so many 
languages should have left traces of its existence in the Gypsy lan- 
guage. Among the Gypsies it has precisely the same signification as 
among the Hindus. Kamajdv me taneste, ' 1 shall go to my (native) 
place;' so penena to tan? 'what do they call thy place?' In this 
sense tan is more generally used than gdv, ' village.' Peryulikand 
tan, ' a foreign place (land).' 

PLATE charo. I refer this term to charu, from the root char, ' to eat,' 
signifying ' an oblation of rice, barley, and pulse, boiled with butter 
and milk for presentation to the gods or manes; and the vessel in 
which such an oblation is prepared.' The word charo is now used 
for plates of wood, metal, or clay, in which the Gypsies eat, but more 
commonly an ordinary plate of red clay, in which poor people take 
their food. Plur. chare : akle taneste kerena chare, ' in that place 
they make plates ;' khor chare, ' deep plates ;' chareskoro, ' a plate- 

To PLAY (on instruments of music) keldva, gheldva. This I refer to 
the Sr. kal, ' to sound, to throw or cast :' kalatd, from this root, is 
' melody, music.' The consonant k is often changed to gh. 

PLUM kildv. 

PLUM-TREE kilavin. The origin of these terms is to me unknown. 
Plur. kilavd, l plums.' 


POMEGRANATE-TREE daravin ; Bor., meligrana. This word appears to 
be connected with the Sr. ddrava, ' wooden, made of wood,' Lat. lig- 
neus, from the word ddru, ' wood, timber.' Borrow's meligrana is 
connected with the Ital. melagranata and the Spanish granada. 

POOR chord. Connected with the Sr. chivara, 'the tattered dress of a 
Bauddha mendicant, or of any mendicant.' Bopp defines it " vestis 
pannosa." It may be connected also with another Sr. term, chira, ' a 
rag, an old and torn cloth.' So kamakeren e chore? ' what will the 
poor do ?' choripe, ' poverty :' but chitdva choripe, ' I suffer (lit. ' I 
draw') much poverty;' me choridkeri, 'of me the poor (woman).' 
The word is applied to a poor man and to professional beggars by 
the Gypsies here in Turkey. Fern, chori ; dim. chorord, ' a beggar 
boy.' Chord I have heard used for 'an orphan.' 

To PRAISE ashardva. This transitive verb I refer to the Sr. root arch, 
' to worship, to honor or treat with respect, to praise.' Pass, ashard- 
vaman, ' I praise myself,' ^natvov/nat, ; asharghidmman, ' I have praised 
myself;' so asharestut, 'why dost thou boast' (lit. 'praise thyself')? 
ashardd, ' praised :' ashardo is6m, ' I am praised.' 

210 A. 0. Paspati, 

PREGNANT kamni ; Br., kamnee; Bor., cambri. Related to the Sr. 
garbhint, ' a pregnant woman,' from garbha, ' an embryo, a child.' 
Terela chaven ? na, hi kamni, 'has she children ? no, she is pregnant.' 

PRIEST rashdi ; Bor., erajay, arajay. Borrow defines these terms 
" friar, frayle" (Span.). By the Gypsies of Turkey the name is given 
to the ordinary priests in the churches, and is an equivalent of the 
nanna; of their coreligionists the Greeks. They often also apply the 
term to the did&oxalos of the Greeks, following in this respect the 
usages of the Christian inhabitants of Turkey, among whom, till a 
few years ago, the priest was always the teacher (dtdiiaxulos) of the 
village, and was called indiscriminately by the inhabitants both 
"priest" and " teacher," nannag and diStiaxakos. I am not aware 
of any word among the Gypsies for the order of monks as distinct 
from this denomination of rashdi. JRashani, ' the wife of the rashdiS 
As priests are frequently married in the villages, the term of course 
is given to the priest's wife ; Gr. namiaSlct. 

No Sanskrit term can have given origin to this word but rishi, ' a 
saint, a sanctified personage,' and I accept it, on account of the simi- 
larity of sound, and of the idea of sanctity attached to the term both 
by Hindus and Gypsies. 

PROP pikalo. A long stick, used in loading pack-horses ; it supports 
the weight of one side before the other is loaded. 

PUDENDUM VIRILE kar. I know of no satisfactory derivation of 
this term, which however appears to me of Hindu origin. 

PUDENDUM MUHEBRE minch. This term does not appear con- 
nected with the Sr. madana. It appears to be related to terms such 
as mingo, oftlxot, /ulyw/ji; this latter often implying carnal connection. 
Compare Sr. mifr, ' to mix, to mingle,' mih, ' to sprinkle, effundere, 
praesertim mingere? It is proper here to remark that in all languages 
such terms have usually been difficult of derivation, owing to the 
indelicacy of the subject, and because they have been altered and dis- 
torted according to the unchecked inclination of the most vulgar of 
the people. 


QUICK, "QUICKLY sig6 ; Bor., singo* This term may be referred to the 
Sr. sanga, 'meeting, encountering, joining, uniting,' if it does not 
rather come from ftghra, 'swift, quick.' It is used at times for 
'often.' Dikesales sigo, 'dost thou see him often?' sigo ker, 'a 
quick ass.;' sigo sig.6, ' very quickly.' 


It KAINS dela. This term is the 3d pers. sing, of the pres. tense. It is 
difficult to find a Gypsy who can give the first person of the verb. 
According to the formation of the Gypsy verb, which I shall explain 
in Section V, dela is the 3d pers. sing, pres., desa, 2d pers., ddva, 1st 
pers., ' I rain.' Ddva I refer to the Sr. und or ud, ' to wet, to moisten, 
to be or become wet.' From this verb comes uda, ' water ;' compare 

* " Siffo, ' vite.' " Vaillant, p. 857. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 211 

the Gr. vdog, vdcag, and Slav, voda, ' water.' The Latin unda has pre- 
served the n of the root. The Gypsies have cut off the initial sylla- 
ble of the Sr. root. Kamdva te del, 'I wish it would rain ;' but dela 
avdives, ' it rains much today.' 

RAIN brishind6,burshin; Hor.,brijindel. Comp. Sr.prisk, 'to sprinkle, 
to pour out water ;' also vrish, ' to sprinkle, to pour out, to rain.' In 
the Gypsy, 6 has taken the place of the Sr. initial. Borrow explains 
brijindel by the Sr. purana (p&rana), which, though meaning some- 
times 'rain,' is generally used for 'perfection, a work well wrought 
out,' etc. But brishindo, ' much rain.' Burshin is less frequently 

RAISIN porik, porikin. The same confusion exists among the Gyp- 
sies as to the signification of this word as among the Greeks, from 
whom undoubtedly the Gypsies have borrowed it. ' OTIC^U, in ancient 
Greek, designated that time of the year in which fruit ripened, from 
July to November; OTTW^XOC, 'autumnal' and 'matured;' innaqixbv 
and 'nugixbi' we now call the fruits themselves, applying the term 
particularly to esculent fruits growing on trees, and these trees, for- 
merly called Suka xfyntpa, we now call IvAoxajwr/a, in order to distin- 
guish them from trees giving no fruit, n^ixov is a very vague term, 
and the Gypsies very rarely can agree to what fruit or particular tree 
the word porikin should be applied. I have heard it applied to 
plums, to plum-trees themselves, and very often to raisins and figs. 
Porikin is similar in formation to kilavin, ' plum-tree,' and ambrolin, 
' pear-tree.' 

RED lolo ; Bor., lolo, lole. Compare Sr. lohita, ' red, reddish, blood.' 
The Gypsies have preserved the first syllable, which they have 
doubled. Borrow defines the word in his vocabulary ' tomato,' the 
well known vegetable called by us To,u(ira. The rejection of whole 
syllables is common in many languages. 

To REJOICE loshdniovdva. A verb in the middle voice, composed of 
loshano, ' rejoicing,' xaigoftevog, and avdva. It is a very common verb 
among the Gypsies. I refer it to Sr. lush, 'to adorn, to decorate.' 
This verb I have never heard excepting in the middle form. Losha- 
noipe, 'joy.' 

To REST achdva. This I refer to the Sr. root ach, ' to go to or towards, 
to worship.' Ach devlesa, 'rest thou with God,' addressed to persons 
departing ; achardo isi, ' he has remained.' 

To REVILE kushdva. -This may be connected with the Sr. kufa, 
' wicked, depraved, mad, inebriate,'* resembling the Gr. xaxbg, which 
has given origin to xax^w, ' to revile one as a bad man.' Ma kush, 
' do not revile.' 

RICH baravald. This may be referred to Sr. prabala, ' strong, power- 
ful.' Isi kilavdo, ta but baravalo, 'he is fat, and very rich.' 

To RIDICULE prasdva. This is a compound term, composed of the 
prep, pro, and has, which we have defined : see to LAUGH. It is rare 
in the Gypsy language to meet with verbs united to prepositions. 
Even in modern Greek there has always been a tendency among the 

* Armenian keth, ' bad, wicked.' Ta. 

212 A. G. Paspati, 

more uncultivated of the people to strike off all those prepositions 
which vary the primary signification of the verb. The same remark 
is also applicable to the Bulgarians, as regards their mother Slavonic. 

RING, FINGER-RING angrusti, anguslri. The form is Persian, though it 
has been borrowed from the Sr. anguri or anguli, ' a finger, a toe ;' 
anaushta, ' the thumb :' Pers. enaiusht, ' finger ;' engiushter and engi- 
ushteri, * finger-ring.' 

RIPE mulano. 

To RIPEN, to become RIPE mulanokerdva. Of doubtful etymology. 

RIVER len ; Bor., len.* This is one of many Gypsy words whose deri- 
vation, at first sight, is not so palpable as that of many others. But 
it may plausibly be referred to the Sr. root It or ri, 'to dissolve, to 
flow.' Bashe to len, ' near the river ;' sigo len, ' a swift river.' 

ROAD drom ; Bor., dron, drun. Some light may be thrown on the 
derivation of this word by the Gr. dqifua; 5p>i*oz, ' a road.' This Gr. 
term has its origin from the Sr. dram, ' to go, to move ;' and probably 
the same Sr. root has given origin to these Gypsy words. Bugl6 
drom, 'a wide road.' 

ROD rubli. Applied to represent the common Gr. qafiSiov, dim. of 
y&pdos, ' a rod,' and denoting something larger and stouter than the 
ran, ' switch, cane.' Of its origin I know nothing. 

ROOT korin. A Bulgarian word, very common among the Gypsies : 
Bulg. k6ren, ' root;' Slav. k6ren\ ' root.' E rukeskero korini, ' the root 
of the tree.' This term is by some Gypsies used for the ' bark,' cor- 
responding to the Slav, kord, ' bark ;' Gr. <pioit>g. 

ROPE shelo. Compare Sr. fulla, 'a cord, a rope, a string,' and its 
cognate fulva, of the same signification. 

RUSSIAN moskovis. The ordinary term used by the Turks, moskov, ' a 
Russian ;' Gr. /xoaxopog. The Greeks also often call them gwaaovj. 


SACK kisi. Probably the Turkish kiese, ' sack, bag.' 

SADDLE zen. A Persian word, zen, ' a saddle,' often written zen-i-asp, 
' saddle of the horse.' This term, as used by the Gypsies, is properly 
' a saddle upon which a person can ride ;' for ' a pack-saddle,' they 
have adopted the Turkish semer, as have the Greeks, aauugt. Chor- 
ghid tumare khereskoro i zen, l they have stolen your ass's saddle.' 

SALT Ion; Bor., Ion. These two identical words I refer to the Sr. 
lavana, ' salt, mineral and marine.' Hence, as with us, it signifies 
' salted, well seasoned or flavored, any fluid containing salt.' 

To SALT londardva. From the above Ion. It is a transitive verb. 
Londarghiom, ' I have salted.' 

To be SATED chaliovdva. A compound verb, formed of chal and 
avdva. Chal appears to me to be the verb char, ' to go, to graze,' 
which I have had occasion to explain in speaking of to GRAZE. As 
char by the Gypsies is used for 'grass,' and for 'the grazing of ani- 
mals,' it came very naturally to correspond, in course of time, to the 
and xogrulvw of the Greeks. United to the usual avdva, like 

* " Lorn, ' ruisseau.' " Vaillant, p. 364. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 213 

most of the middle verbs of the Gypsy idiom, it has become chario- 
vdva, and, by the commutation of the liquids, chaliovdva. These 
words literally mean ' I have grazed.' Ta khdva khandi chaliovdva, 
' and though I eat little, I am sated ;' chaliovela, ' he is satiated.' 

To SAY bendv a, pendva ; Bor., penar. There are two Sr. verbal roots 
to which this verb may be referred : bhan, ' to say, to speak,' and pan, 
' to praise :' the former of them is much the more likely to be the origi- 
nal of the Gypsy term. The 3d pers. of the present, benena, is used 
frequently as an impersonal : ' it is said, they say ;' Gr. Uyow, Myerai. 
Benena ki o takdr kamulo, ' they say that the king has died ;' so 
kamesa te penes mdnghe? 'what dost thou wish to say to me?' na 
penena chachipes, ' they do not speak the truth ;' na penghiomles, ' I 
did not say it;' ma pen, 'do not say' (i. e. 'speak'); penghidm yav- 
reske C oven, ' I told the others to come.' This term is generally 
pronounced bendva, very rarely pendva. 

To SCRATCH khanjovdva, khandiovdva. This verb can be referred to 
the Sr. kandti, ' itching, scratching.' It is in the middle voice, and 
means 'I scratch myself.' The neuter is khanjdva, 'I scratch.' By 
some Gypsies the word is pronounced khandiovdva, approaching 
nearer to the Sr. form. The change of k into kh is common. 

SCYTHE -fdrkia. This term appears to belong to the Wallachians, 
from whom the Gypsies have borrowed it. As the language spoken 
in Wallachia and Moldavia is a corrupted Latin, springing from the 
language of the Roman legions settled in those parts by the Roman 
emperors, falx, ' a sickle,' may have given origin to this term, with 
commutation of the liquids. Compare also Pers. evrak, ' falx foenaria.' 
The Latin origin appears to me the more probable. Some Gypsies, 
instead of this word, use kosa, the Bulgarian word for ' scythe.' 

SEA derydv, mdra ; Br., dardv ; Bor., loria. This is a Persian term, 
derya and deryab, very usual also among the Turks. It signifies ' a 
sea,' and at times ' a river,' or ' any great collection of water.' By 
the change of d into / has been formed Borrow's word. My second 
term, mdra, I have repeatedly heard from Moslem Gypsies. It is the 
Sr. v&ri, ' water,' Slav, more, Lat. mare. Though derya is usual among 
the Turks, it is never to be heard except in a high flown style, very 
rarely in conversation ; and certainly it can never have come to the 
ears of the rude Gypsy, who hears only the usual term of the people, 
deniz, ' sea.' Mdra may have been learned from the Slavonic nations, 
and the Bulgarians particularly, who still make use of it : more, ' sea.' 

SECRETLY chorydl. Formed from chor, ' a thief, a robber,' and in the 
ablative form, like many other adverbs. Secresy and robbery are 
always intimately united : compare xteyivoog, xleylyQiav, Mod. Gr. 
xAeqpnira, ' secretly ;' Fr. furtivement. Chorydl diniomles, ' I struck 
him secretly.' 

To SEE dikdva, dikhdva ; Bor., dicar, diar. I know of no Sr. verb to 
which this term may be so reasonably referred as to drif, ' to see, to 
behold,' Gr. dtyxouat. We have had occasion to notice in many in- 
stances the omission of an r, and the conversion of the Sr. sibilant f 
into the guttural k. The second form of Borrow, diar, resembles the 
pronunciation of many Turkish Gypsies, who give the word as though 

214 A. G. Paspati, 

written dikhdva, and dihdva, didva. In fact, the aspirate h is so gentle 
as to be scarcely heard. This pronunciation of the guttural k, or 
rather its mutation into a soft aspirate, cannot be attributed to any 
local usage of the Gypsies, acquired from the natives, as it is preva- 
lent only in the Asiatic provinces of Turkey, in the west of Asia Mi- 
nor. Dikinilo, 'he appeared;' dikidla, 'it appears;' dui manushe 
dikliom, ' two men I saw ;' te na dikdv, ' that I may not see ;' diklidm- 
Ja yek dives, ' I saw her one day ;' dikdva leskere chaven, ' I see his 

To SELL see to BUY. 

SERPENT sapp. The Sr. sarpa, ' a snake, a serpent,' from the root srip, 
' to glide, to creep.'* The Gypsies have assimilated the r to the fol- 
lowing p, as in many other like cases (see Section IV). The term is 
extremely common in all the cognate dialects of the Sr. : compare 
Lat. serpens, It. serpe, Fr. serpent, Gr. t^irjs and spnu, by the aspiration 
of the initial , so common among the Greeks. v O<pt? is probably 
derived from Sr. ahi, ' a snake,' bv the commutation of the aspirates 

To SEW sivdva. 

NEEDLE suv ; Bor., jutia. Both these terms have a common origin, 
from the Sr. root syu, siv, ' to sew,' Lat. suere, Slav, shiyu. Compare 
also Sr. suchi, 'needle,' from a cognate root such, 'to sew.' 

To SHAVE muntava ; Bor., palabear. The origin of this word is very 
clear; it comes from the Sr. root mund, 'to grind, to cut the hair, to 
shave.' Its derivatives have all a similar meaning : as mundaka, ' a 
barber;' mundana, 'the act of shaving.' Borrow's term, palabear, is 
derived from palyula in his vocabulary. This is the Sr. palyul, 'to 
eat, to purify.' But the word appears to me of Spanish origin. 

SHEEP bakro, bakricho; Br., bakroo ; Bor., bracuni, bacria. I have 
placed here Borrow's second term, although he defines it ' a goat :' it 
appears to be a word of the same origin. The Hindus call the goat 
bukka. Compare also Germ, bock, Eng. buck, Fr, bouc. Bakri, ' ewe ;' 
bakricho, 'lamb,' dim. form, instead of bakroro. Alle bakre, 'sheep 
have come ;' terela shele bakre, ' he has (owns) a hundred sheep.' 

SHIP ford ; Br., ghamee ; Bor., bero, berdo. Ber6 seems to be naturally 
related to the root bhri, 'to uphold, to support, to cherish.' Borrow's 
berdo I refer to another cognate word, bhartri, ' a supporter, a holder.' 
This derivation is corroborated by vordon or bordon, 'a carriage,' which 
is referable to the same word. Mr. Brown's ghamee is the Turk. 
gemi, 'a vessel, a ship.' Bereskoro, 'a seaman,' yaur^c, Turk. ge michi. 

SHOE tridk. I have nothing satisfactory to propose for the derivation 
of this singular term, which does not resemble any of the words usu- 
ally applied by the people of these countries to shoes. The Mod. Gr. 
TianovT^ia is from the Pers. papush and pabuj, ' shoes ;' i^aoov/ia is 
from the Turk, charuk, 'shoes formed of a piece of thick leather, 
fastened to the foot by strong thongs of the same material,' worn by 
farmers and shepherds. Plnr. triakti, and triakhd : Idkoro pral kerela, 
triakha, 'her brother makes shoes.' 

* Armenian zeral, ' to creep.' TB. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 215 

SHOOT (of a vine) vicha. This is a Bulgarian word, coming from Slav. 
vich\ ' a twig, a switch.' Tt is not a very common word. The Greeks 
also say (ftr, but more commonly (&ty/' a S fr m the Italian verga, Lat. 
virga. E manukleri vicha, 'the shoot of the stnmp.' 

SHOULDER viko, pik6. Of origin unknown to me. 

To SHUT bandava. This is the well known Sr. root bandh, ' to bind, 
to tie,' which corresponds with many terms in the cognate languages : 
Pers. bend, ' a bond,' bend kerden, ' to bind ;' Germ, binden, band ; Fr. 
bvtnde ; Eng. band, to bind, bondage, bonds, etc. Among the Gypsies 
this verb has the signification also of ' tying,' as both are intimately 
related : thus, band o vutar, ' shut the door ;' bandela pi kori, ' he ties 
his neck' (i. e. 'his neckkerchief) ; bandava mi kori, 'I tie my neck- 
kerchief;' bandloipe, 'band:' bandloipe me m6ste, 'a band to my 
mouth.' Aor. bandliom, ' I have shut, or tied :' bandliom mo grast, 
' I have tied my horse.' 

SIEVE resheto. A common word, borrowed from the Bulgarians, who 1 
pronounce it riseto. 

To SIGH acharava. This word I have not been able to refer to any 
corresponding Sr. term. It means ' to groan, to lament, to sigh 
deeply.' Aor. acharghiom and akiarghiom. Sar6 dives acharela, 
' all day (long) he sighs.' 

SILVER rup ; Bor., paquilli, plubi, pomi. This term is evidently from 
the Sr. rupya, ' worked silver, silver and gold.' Our common word 
lia^fttof, used now for ^gyvim;, ' silver,' which some regard as derived 
from ffTjua, ' a stamp, a sign,' is cognate with the Pers. aim, ' silver,' 
and 4 silver coin.' The reader must not confound rup with the com- 
mon Turk, rub, derived from the Arabic rub 1 , ' fourth.' The three 
forms of Borrow I do not know how to explain. The second, how- 
ever, may be the Sp. plomo, ' lead,' which Borrow may have written 
by mistake. I do not agree with him as to its derivation from rupi. 
The Sr. word has given name to the common Hindu coin of the pres- 
ent day, commonly written "rupee." Rupovano, 'made of silver, 
argenteus? No doubt, also, the Russian ruble has an intimate con- 
nection with this Sr. term. 

SIMILAR, LIKE sar. manush sar char, ' man (is) like grass ;' sar luludi 
(Gr. lovMvdiov, ' flower') e puviakeri, 'like the flower of the earth;' 
sar tut, 'like thee;' sar lubni, 'like a strumpet.' 

SONG ahili. 

To SING ghiliava, ghiliovava ; Bor., guillabar. The Sr. root art is 
' to sound, to speak, to sing :' from it comes gir, i a song.' Ghilidva 
is derived from this root, by the commutation of r for I, in accordance 
with all the Gypsy verbs derived from Sr. verbal roots ending in ri or 
ri. Borrow's term corresponds with the one used in Turkey. He 
has another in his vocabulary, labelar, ' cantar, hablar,' which he re- 
fers to the Sr. lap, 'to speak, to utter.' It appears to me to be con- 
nected rather with the Sp. hablar, 'to speak.' Ghiliovdva is in the 
middle voice, formed from ghild, ' song,' and the usual avdva. 

These terms are extremely common among all the Gypsies of Tur- 
key, and particularly among their women, who gain their livelihood 
by roaming in the streets, and singing every kind of lascivious and 
VOL. vii. 28 

216 A. Q. Paspati, 

erotic song. Ghilimpe, ' an instrument of music ;' i ghilid e devles- 
kero, ' the songs of God.' 


SLEEP lindr. This is evidently the Sr. nidrd, 'sleep, sleepiness, sloth.' 
From this noun is formed an adj. lindralo, ' sleepy ;' bilindralo, 
' sleepless :' na isom lindralo, ' I am not sleepy.' Here \ve see the 
commutation of the liquids n and /, so common among the Gypsies 
and Greeks. 

To SLEEP sovdva;* Bor., sobelar, sornar. Com p. the Sr. svap, 'to 
sleep,' svapna, ' sleep,' with which correspond Gr. vnvo;, Lat. sopnus, 
somnus. The final radical of the Sr. root has been changed into the 
kindred v. Sottisom. 'I am asleep' (for sollo isom). Sotlo, 'asleep,' 
is the Sr. part, supta, ' sleeping, asleep :' solid 'si i likhnari (Gr. x,^- 
yd^to*'), 'the lamp is quenched' (lit. 'asleep'). This phrase I have 
heard from Gypsies residing near Constantinople. It is taken from 
the Greeks, who call iv/yciptov tixoluyrov the lamp that is kept burn- 
ing night and day before the household images. Na sovdva, ' I am 
not sleeping.' 

SLIM sanno. Compare the Sr. part, sanna, ' shrunk, diminished,' from 
the verbal root sad, ' to wane, to perish gradually.' Leskeri i romni 
isi sanni, ' his wife is slim.' 

SLOWLY pares. This seems to originate from the Sr. para, whose defi- 
nitions are exceedingly numerous and varied. I have often heard it 
used in this sense. As it is an adverb, it supposes an adj. paro, 'slow. 1 
Pares pares, ' slowly ;' pares ker, ' work slowly.' 

To SNEEZE chikldva. This, like many other similar verbs, is a com- 
pound, made up of chik, 'a sneeze,' and ddva, 'I give.' Compare Sr. 
chhikkd, chhikkana, ' sneezing.' The verb ddva, ' I give,' is frequently 
joined to nouns. Some of these are never used iq their simple form, 
and are extremely rare, even in the mouth of other Gypsies. An 
example of the usage of the simple and compound verb we have in 
tapaoa, ' to strike,' which is also frequently used in the compound 
form, lap ddva, ' I give a stroke, I strike.' Aor. chiktiniom, from 
diniom, SLOT, of ddva. 

SNOW iv, Uo ; Bor., bifi, give. From the Sr. hima, ' snow,' is derived 
our x^ v i X^^ a i Lat. hiems, Slav, zima, ' winter.' Iv is a regular 
formation ; h is dropped, and m changed to v (see Section IV). 

SOIL poshilc. This is one of many terms which, in want of a better 
definition, I refer conjecturally to the root push, 'to cherish or nur- 
ture, to rear or bring up.' This definition might have been given 
to the soil, as the ultimate source of nutrition. 

SON-IN-LAW -jamulro. The Sr. possesses two cognate terms, with 
which this word closely coincides: ydmdlri and jdmdtri, 'a daugh- 
ter's husband.' 

To SPEAK vrakerdva. A compound verb, vra and kerava, ' to make.' 
Bhran, bran, and vran, are cognate Sr. verbs, signifying 'to sound;' 
but I prefer as the origin of this Gypsy verb the root brii, ' to speak, 
to say,' which is to be met with in many European languages. The 

* "Sot'Ao, 'il dort.'" Vaillant, p. 363. " Paxsjuval, ' sclilafen.'" Arndt, p. 391. 

On tfie Language of the Gypsies. 217 

word is a very common one among all the Gypsies, particularly when 
they wish to impose silence. Ma vraker, 'do not speak' (i. e. 'be 
silent'), Gr. atdnu na vrakerdva, 'I do not talk;' ta i romnia ka 
dukena but ta vrakereita, 'and the women that love to talk much.'* 

To SPIN katdva. This Gypsy verb cannot easily be referred to a sat- 
isfactory Sr. original. But compare Sr. krit, 'to cut,' also 'to spin/ 
and its derivative kartana, ' cutting, spinning.' 

To SPIT chungarva. I know of no Sr. root to which this Gypsy word 
may with propriety be referred. It means 'to spit upon, to revile.' 
Among the common people in these countries, spitting upon one 
another is an act of contempt and reviling. Chungartini6m, aor. 
pass., ' I was spit upon,' i. e. ' I was insulted;' chunger, 'spittle, phlegm,' 
and whatever else is ejected from the mouth. 

SPONSOR kirv6. This is a term common to all the Gypsies, who cer- 
tainly cannot have brought it from India. The Greek uvbdoxos, 
'godfather, sponsor,' designates one who undertakes to execute some- 
thing, a guarantee. May it not then be allowable to refer this term 
to the Sr. kurvat, ' doing, acting, an agent,' from kri, ' to make, to 
do?' Kirvii 'god-mother;' mo kirvo isi but baravalo, 'my godfather 
is very rich.' 

SPOON royi, roi. The origin of this term is unknown to me. 

STAKE kilo. Compare Sr. kila, 'a stake, a pin, a bolt,' etc. This 
term by the Gypsies is used for poles set up around a field, upon which 
is formed the fence ; also, for the poles set up around the threshing 
floors; and again, for poles stuck deep into the ground, to which 
horses are fastened while grazing. Bandliom mo graates to kilo, ' I 
have tied my horse to the stake.' Compare Slav. kol\ ' stake, pike.' 

To STAND terghiovdva, tertiovdva. This is a verb in the middle voice, 
in common use among the Gypsies. Aor. tertiniliom, and by some 
pronounced terghiniliom. Like the Greek or^xo,oa, it is always used 
in the passive voice. Terghiovdva supposes terdva as the active voice, 
which we have referred above (see to HAVE) to the Sr. dhri, ' to have, 
to hold, to keep.' Add terghiovdva, 'here I stand ;' Idfa VTexopai'. 

STAR cfiergheni ;f Br., tcherhinee ; Bor., cherdillas, trebene. Compare 
Sr. tara, ' star, planet, constellation,' probably from the Vedic stdrd, 
by throwing off the initial s. From this is our darr^ and ftargov, Lat. 
aster, astrum.\ Cherdillas, and cherdino, found in another place in 
Sorrow's glossary, I conjecture to be of Spanish origin. 

To STEAL chordva, choldva. 

THIKF chor ; Bor., c/ior, choro. These terms, so similar to each other, 
are referable to the Sr. root chur, 'to steal, to rob.' According to 
Bopp, this root gives origin to the Lat. fur and Gr. (pty. From it 

* Pott writes the word u Rakkerof, 'eprechen, reden.'" Nearly all the authors 
on the Gypsies write the word in a similar manner. The word is pronounced by 
the Gypsies here as I have written it, and I have heard it very often with the ini- 
tial v strongly marked. 

f " Tcheacren, ' astres.'" Vaillant, p. 457. " Tschergeny, zerhene, ' stern.' " Arndt, 
p. 366. 

\ The Armenian asdeyh is evidently of the same origin, as that language often 
changes r and I to the guttural gh. TR. 

" Tchordel, ' tu voles' " (write tchorel, ' il vole '). Vaillant, p. 369. 

218 A. G. Paspati, 

comes chaura, ' a thief, a robber, a pilferer,' whence the above chor 
and choro. At times, instead of chor, the Gypsies use chorno and 
churno, ' a thief.' Chordicano, ' stolen ;' kon chorghidles ? ' who stole 
it ?' axtarghiom e chores, ' I have taken the thief.' 

STEEL abchin. This term, ordinarily meaning ' steel,' is very often ap- 
plied to the steel and flint used generally in Turkey for striking fire, 
and which people always carry with them for lighting their tobacco- 
'pipes. It is difficult to refer it to any known Sr. term. I bring to 
the memory of the reader the Pers. abyine, ' vitrum, crystallum,' a 
name given to substances similar to the flint, and so, perhaps, in 
course of time to the steel itself, which constituted a necessary ac- 
companiment of these instruments. In this manner the word may 
have come to be applied to steel in general.* 

To STEP ukiavdva, uktiavdva. This verb is derived from the Sr. kram, 
' to go, to walk, to step,' with some preposition prefixed. It is used 
also for ' stamping, trampling,' etc. 

It STINKS kandela. Of doubtful etymology. Kandiniko, l stinking.' 

STONE bar; Bor., bar. Compare Sr. bhara, 'weight, burden.' It is 
possible that the Gypsies gave this name to 'stone,' as being preemi- 
nently heavy. It is very well known to all of them. Dinidles yek 
bare baresa, ' he struck him with a large stone ;' ov isds ta chivghids o 
bar, ' it was he who threw the stone ;' bareskoro, ' a stone-cutter, a 
worker in stones.' 

STRAW bus. Referable to the Sr. busa, ' chaff.' Compare FLAX. 

To STRIKE tapdra, tap-ddva. Tap is not a very usual word among the 
Gypsies, and when used, it is mostly joined to ddua, ' I give :' tap 
ddra, ' I give a blow, I strike.' Tap dela, ' it beats' (i. e., the pulse). 
Both tap and tapdva seem to be related to the Sr. tup, ' to injure, to 
hurt, to kill,' which has passed into Greek, as T^TTIW. It may be well 
to remark that tap, ' to heat, to torment,' may possibly have given 
origin to this verb. 

STRONG zoralo. This is a word of Persian origin, very common 
among the Gypsies, from zor, 'strength, vigor.' It is very usual with 
the Turks also, who have formed from it adjectives of their own : 
zorTu, 'strong,' instead of the Pers. zormend or zordar, 'having 
strength.' Bizoralo, ' weak ;' but zoralo isom, ' I am very strong.'f 

STUMP of a vine manuklo, maniklo. Applied to the vine in vine- 
yards, before the plant has shot out the sprouts upon which the 
grapes are produced. It is like the trunk of a tree. E manuklieri 
vicha kerela drak, 'the shoots of the stump make (i. e. 'produce') 

SUMMER nildi. Of doubtful etymology. 

SUN kam ;J Br., cam ; Bor., cam, can. The similarity of these words 
makes their common derivation plain. The usual name of the sun 

* All the derivatious of Pott are as unsatisfactory as mine. They may serve as 
a guide to others. 

f Armt-niiua zoravor, 'strong;' zoranal, 'to grow strong;' zorutiune, 'strength.' 

\ "0-cham, 'lesoleiL'" Vaillant, p. 457. " Kam, cliam, okam, ' sonne.'" Aradt, 
p. 366. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 219 

among the Hindus was surya, from the root sur, 'to shine.' The 
above kam, can seems related to the Sr. root kan, ' to shine ;' com- 
pare Lat. candeo, whence also candela, candidus, ' white ;' like onr 
ffeAiji'i?, ' moon,' from fffiuw, 'to shine,' and Mod. Gr. qoeyj'ii^to*', 'moon,' 
from <jpfyy<*>, 'to shine.'* 

SUNDAY kttrko ; Bor., culco, curque. See CHURCH. 

SWEET gudlo ; Br., goodlu, ; Bor., busni. Concerning these terms I 
have nothing satisfactory to propose. Gudlo tut, 'sweet milk.' 

SWINE bal6, balicho ; Br., baleetrho ; Bor., balicho. Compare the Sr. 
adjective balin, ' strong, powerful,' and, as substantive, among other 
meanings, 'swine.' Balicho is a diminutive form, probably from the 
language of the Turks, as the word, according to the general forma- 
tion of the Gypsy diminutives, would be baloro. Parvardo balo, ' a 
fat pig.' 

SWORD hanlo ; Bor., estuche. Neither of these words appears to me 
to have any clear relation to Sr. roots. In want of anything better, 
I propose for hanlo (at times khanlo], the common Sr. hnn, 'to hurt 
or kill.' The final syllable lo is the regular adjective form of many 
Gypsy nouns. Borrow's estuche may be related to the Italian stocco, 
' a small sword.' We have seen another Italian word in Borrow's 
vocabulary, viz. meligrana. 


TAIL pori. I know of no Sr. word to which this term can be traced. 

To TAKE, to GET luoa ; Bor., lillar. Undoubtedly related to the Sr. 
la, 'to take, to obtain.' This verb I formerly considered as referable 
to Sr. labh, 'to take, to seize,' from which originates the Gr. lu@ulina, 
iafi^Avut; but its indicative present should in that case be lai'ava, 
and its aorist lavyhiom. Kama lei yek yrast, ' he will take (i. e. ' buy ') 
ahorse;' liniomles panjenyhe, 'I bought it for five' (i. e. 'pieces of 
money'). Borrow's form lillar does not appear to be connected 
with lava. 

TALL I'ucho, ucho ; Br., utcho ; Bor., saste. This word is the Sr. uch- 
cArt, 'high, tall.' Probably Borrow's saste, 'high, tall,' is related to 
the Sr. pasta, ' fortunate, excellent, great.' This term is by nearly 
all the Gypsies pronounced vucho : uchd is in use only among a few 
of the Moslems. Vucho manush, ' a tall man ;' vucho ruk, ' a tall 
tree ; adv. vuches, ' highly :' po vuches, ' more highly.' 

TEAR usfa. The Sr. vashpa, written also v&spa, 'vapor, tear,' by 
dropping its initial consonant, and converting the p of the last sylla- 
ble into its cognate/, has formed the present as/a. 

TENT sahriz ; Br., serka. Words of origin unknown to me. 

TESTICLE peld. I have inserted another word in the Vocabulary, used 
for ' testicle ' (see EGG). Pelo (pi. pete) maybe referred to the Sr. 
pela, 'a testicle.' 


* Armenian looxin, ' moon,' from loosnil, ' to shine.' TR. 

220 A. 0. Paspati, 

THIRST trnsh, trust. 

To THIRST tarava. These terms have a common origin, from the Sr* 
frisk, 'to thirst.' From this root have originated the Germ, durst, 
Eng. thirst. As thirst implies the idea of want of water and dryness, 
it is consequently natural to suppose that from the same Sr. root 
have sprung the Gr. r^ao/aui and reQaaltxn, ' to dry.' The Sr. semi- 
vowel r is rarely lost in the European languages ; it is, in fact, the 
most constant of all the Sr. consonants. Trushalo, ' thirsty :' truskalo 
'som, ' I am thirsty.' 

To become THIRSTY. truskdliovdva. A verb in the middle form, com- 
posed of the above trushalo, ' thirsty,' and avdva. The Gypsies are 
extremely fond of these compound verbs, and neglect the simple, as 
in this case. The same is true of the Greeks. The Moslem Gypsies 
make use of terdva, and, though they understand trushaliovdva, will 
not employ it. 

THIS avakd, avkd. There is a great confusion in the use of this de- 
monstrative pronoun. Even among the Gypsies themselves, one hears 
the word continually varied, without any apparent reason : avaka, 
'this;' nvakhd (or akhd) isi minro, 'this is mine;' avaklia (or akld) 
resd, ' these vineyards ;' akhid mot, ' this wine ;' okhid romni, ' this 
woman ;' okle manushenghere, ' of these men.' Both masculine and 
neuter have the same termination. Avakhd manush, 'this man.;' 
avakhd chavo, 'this child.' It is difficult to say to which of the Sr. 
pronouns this term should be referred. 

THREAD tav. This word appears to be of pure Sr. origin. The root 
tap, 'to heat, to vex, to torment,' we have noticed in tins Vocabulary, 
as the parent stock of many words among the Gypsies here in Turkey. 
It appears also in the Pers. tabiden and taften, 'to burn, to vex, to tor- 
ment.' To this verb properly belongs tab, ' curvatura funis, comae' 
(Vullers), and risman tnften, ' to weave,' charkh riaman-i-tav, ' an instru- 
ment for weaving.' All these terms imply the idea of tormenting, as 
is the case with any filament when it is twisted into thread, or rather 
tormented into this new form. In Greek, xiwor^, from xfo5#o, 'to 
twist, to weave,' is used now very generally for yja, ' thread.' So 
too in Latin, torquere, ' to twist, to torment,' gave origin to torques, 
'a chain worn round the neck.' From orpeqpoi, 'to turn, to whirl,' 
came the ar^qpo; of the ancient Greek physicians, by which they 
indicated violent shooting pains in the bowels, the tormina of the 
Romans. In this way I conceive that the Gypsy word tav was either 
borrowed from the Persians, or formed directly from the Sr. root 
from which the Persians have taken their own tabiden. The Persians 
have also tav, ' thread,' and tabdi, ' torquens funem,' which the Turk- 
ish translator (Vullers s. v.) explains by ip ve iplik bukiji, ' a weaver 
of thread or rope.' 

THROAT kurl6. A very indefinite word : it signifies ' the back of the 
mouth,' and frequently ' the neck,' particularly its front part. To me 
it appears to be the Bulgarian gurlo, 'throat, pharynx.' 7" astar- 
ghiovel mo chip me kurleste, ' may my tongue be bound (lit. ' held ') 
in my throat.' 

To THROW chivdva, chitdva. Compare Sr. kship, ' to throw or cast,' 
part, kshipta, ' thrown, despatched,' which seems to have given origin 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 221 

to this Gypsy verb, which retains the same signification as the Sr. 
original. By the usual change of the consonants, this participle be- 
comes kshitto or chitto, and hence the verb chitdra. Aor. chivghiom : 
chivghiom yek bar, ' I threw a stone ;' kdna chivesa bar, ' when thou 
throwest (a) stone ;' chivdilo o bar, ' the stone was thrown ;' chivghidn 
bar, dik ndpalab, 'thou hast thrown (a) stone, look behind' a com- 
mon proverb, ' consider the consequences of thy actions.' 
TILL chin. This term is common to all the Gypsies, wherever they 
are to be found. Keti dur isi (pronounced durst) chin ti Silivri? 
'how far is it to Silivria?' chin ti puv, 'to the ground;' Gr. ewg slg 
T ^" Y*i" > chin vuches, 'on high.' 

TIME, TIMES -far, var. Corresponds to the Gr. <poo(i, as nott&g cpoga;, 
(Ufyj tpoQ&g, used now in the place of nolk'txig, ohytixis. The word 
is pronounced indifferently far and var, and in this the Gypsies imi- 
tate their neighbors the Greeks, who say (fo^ft and j?oA(i. Yvk far, 
' one time, once;' kayek far, 'sometimes' and 'never;' like the Gr. 
xaufiiuv cpog&v, which has both these significations. This term is the 
Pers. bar, which has often the meaning of the Lat. vicis, Turk. defa\ 
' turn :' compare Pers. yek bar, ' one time, once.' Vullers derives it 
from Sr. bhdra, from the root bhri, Gr. <pt(*, whence qnooci. But 
compare Sr. vdra, ' a turn, a successive time.' Ke yaver far dinids 
man, ' and at other times he struck me ;' po kayek far, ' at times, 
sometimes ;' duvdr, trivdr, panjvdr, ' twice, thrice, five times.' 
To be TIRED chiniovdva. See to CUT. 

TOBACCO-PIPE chukni. This is a common term for the long tobacco- 
pipes, used in the Levant by all the inhabitants indiscriminately. An 
i chukni, 'bring the tobacco-pipe.' The usual term among the Turks 
is chibuk, Gr. r^iunouxtor. 

TODAY avdives, apdives ;* Bor., achibes. \Ve have in this term the 
Sr. divA^ which I have had occasion to mention in explaining the 
term dives, 'day, morning.' The initial a, av may be the Sr. dem. 
pron. sa, which has rejected, like many Greek words, the Sr. s at its 
beginning. The formation of this adverb may be explained by the 
Gr. o-^ufQov, T-rj.ueooj', ' this day ;' Trjrec, r-f'rog, ' this year ;' T-w^a, 
' this hour, now.' Avdives avdva, ' today I am coming.' 
TOGETHER eketane. This appears to me a pure Sr. term, coming from 
eka, ' one.' Compare Lat. una, ' together, in company ;' Pers. yekser, 
'together, at the same time.' Here is an example of a purer preser- 
vation of this Sr. numeral than we have in the term yck, ' one.' The 
Gypsies always pronounce it as I have written it. Achdi chor eketane, 
' and other thieves together ;' eketane amentza, ' together with us ;' 
eketane e chaventza, 'together with the children.'^ 

TOMB mermori, mnemdri. Of modern Greek origin. JMvijftogtov and 
are diminutive forms of <WTJ, 'a tomb.' The ancients 


* " Abdes, odea, ' aujoiird'hui.' " Vaillant, p. 

f Armenian div, ' day.' Ta. 

j Pott writes the word kettcne, ketdne, kefeny, catane, catanar, catnnar, 'to assem- 
ble.' In speaking of its etymology he says: "der TJrsprung hochst zweifelhaft," 
It is certninly clearer, as pronounced in these countries. Similar comparisons may 
nerve to illustrate many other passages. 

222 A. G. Paspati, 

also had their diminutive, {tv^u&nov. In the use of terms of this 
class, the Gypsies have always adopted those of the new faith which 
they have embraced. The Moslem Gypsies say mezdr, 'a tomb,' 
from Turk, mezar. 

TOMORROW takkiara. I have nothing to propose for this term. Po 
takhidra, ' day after tomorrow ;' takkiara avdi>a, * tomorrow I am 
coming;' takhidra kamoves otia? 'tomorrow wilt thou be there?' 
takhidra kamajel, ' tomorrow he will go.' 

TOXGS ktill&bi, kailldvi. I have noted this word, which is of the 
purest Greek, though nowadays no Greek understands it, and it could 
not have been lately borrowed from the Greeks, since they make no 
use of it, nor is it to be found in any of the modern Greek glossaries. 
nvwiyQa was anciently the name of the instrument by which heated 
or burning substances were seized, also A(?Jf, from lu^ulm, lu/j@<ivo>. 
An@i8a. we now call the long-handled and extremely shallow spoon 
used in administering the communion. A^ and J-j9l;, with ovv 
(TvHafiii and ffuM(ftc, or i/M5^ and SvMapl; is an instrument for 
seizing anything. These latter terms are not in use now among the 
common people, but the existence of such a Greek term in the lan- 
guage of the Gypsies certainly proves the employment of it among 
the Greeks at the period of their irruption into these countries. It 
may be well to remark that the proper term for tongs, TTvotifoa, is 
nearly forgotten, and that the Greeks now use the Turkish mashd, 
'tongs.' The term ksilldbi is peculiar to the Gypsy blacksmiths. In 
other cases they use the Turkish mashd. The presence of the com- 
pound consonant ks amply proves the word to be foreign, as this 
consonant never occurs in pure Gypsy words. 

TONGUE chip; Bor., chipe, chipi. From the Sr. jihva, 'tongue,' .;' 
being changed to ch, as is common in many languages. Romani chip, 
1 the Gypsy language ;' me chipeste, ' on my tongue.' Chip, ' tongue,' 
as in many other idioms, is used both for * tongue ' and ' language.' 

TOOTH ddnt ; Br., danda; Bor., dani. From the Sr. dat or danta, 

TREE ruk. This Gypsy word bears no relation to the Sr. dru, with 
which are connected the synonymous terms in so many other Indo- 
European languages, but may be referred to the root ruh, 'to grow 
from seed, to grow as a tree,' by the changing of the aspirate, h, into 
a guttural, k. From this root come ruhvan, ' a tree,' precisely as the 
Greeks applied the term yviu; to trees and plants in general, and 
riiksha, 'a tree in general.'* Plur. ruka, : opre to rukd, 'upon the 
trees ;' vuch6 ruk, ' a high tree.' 

TROUGH ( wooden )^kopdna. A Bulgarian word, kopdnka, from the 
Slav, kopdin, 'I dig,' precisely as the corresponding Gr. term, axucfi,, 
comes from oxdmTtn, ' I dig.' 

TRUTH chachipe ; Bor., chachipe. We have the following derivation 
by Borrow : " This word, which the English Gypsies pronounce 

* In their Essai sur le Pali, Burnouf and Lassen compare the Pali roukkha, ' a 
tree,' to the Sr. vrikcha, ' a tree.' Both the Pali and Gypsy appear to me to be 
from the above rukuha. The same form, roukko, ' a tree,' is found in the Prakrit. 
Ibid., p. 159. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 223 

fxatsipe, seems to be a compound of the Sr. sat, which signifies ' true,' 
and the word of Sanskrit origin chipe, 'a tongue.' Chachipe there- 
fore is literally ' a true tongue.' " This is one of Sorrow's random 
derivations. He has said elsewhere in his vocabulary that pen is a 
] (article frequently used in the Gypsy language in the formation of 
nouns: e.g. chungalipen, 'ugliness,' from chungalo, 'ugly.' Here, 
however, the final pe or pen is this very particle, common to the Gyp- 
sies of Spain with those here in Turkey, as we have already seen in 
the course of this memoir. The rest of the word is probably the Sr. 
sutya, 'true, sincere, honest.' From chachipe is formed the adj. cha- 
chipano, ' true,' and the adv. chachipanes, ' truly :' chachipe isi, ' it is 
true,' lit. ' it is a truth,' like the Gr. &h\ttEKx e?*at, for (Ur;#i; ii>ai. 
TURK khorakhai. The Turks, who call themselves osmanly and oth- 
manly, as descendants from the house of Othman, would be surprised 
to hear such a name applied to them. Their language, however, they 
call turk. The Greeks always call them TOJ^XOUJ. Borrow defines 
the Gypsy term, written by him corajay, as follows : *' ' The Moors, 
los moro.,' probably derived from the word kurret, a term of execra- 
tion and contempt too frequently employed by the common Moors in 
their discourse." The similarity of the two terms, as employed here 
and in Spain, amply proves the necessity of looking for another origin 
than that which has been advanced by Borrow. Khorakhai is both 
singular and plural. Jfhorakhano, ' Turkish ;' khorakhani, khorakhni, 
4 a Turkish woman ;' khorakhnia, ' Turkish women ;' khorakhano gav, 
' a Turkish village ;' khorakhani chip, ' the Turkish language ;' khora- 
khftnes janesa ? ' dost thou know Turkish ?' khorakhniori, ' a young 
Turkish woman ;' khorakhane rom, ' Turkish Gypsies/ i. e. 4 Gypsies 
of the Mohammedan religion.' 


UGLY, NOT BEAUTIFUL nasukdr ; Bor. r chungalo. For chungalo see 
MISERABLE. My own term is from sukdr, ' beautiful,' with the neg- 
ative particle na. See NEGATION and BEAUTIFUL. 

UNFORTUNATE bahtalo. This originates from a Persian term, bakht,* 
'fortune, luck,' to which the Gypsies have given the form of their 
vernacular idiom, precisely as we have observed in other words bor- 
rowed by them. So the Greeks have made r from the Turkish zavdl, 
a#(Utxoc, ^dj^tti^c, and a^<Utaff, ' miserable.' Though bahtalo, 
from bakht, ' good fortune,' would properly indicate prosperity and 
happiness, still it is given to men and animals as a term of affection 
and hearty commiseration. bahtalo pelo ti puv, 'the unfortunate 
(i. e. ' bird ') fell to the ground.' 

UP opre ; Bor., aupre, opre. From the Sr. upari r 'above, up, up 
above :' compare Gr. i5^e^, Lat. super, Germ, ober, Eng. owr.f Opretar 
tut (tar, abl. particle), 'from the rest of the milk;' besf/hiom opre to 
amaksi (Gr. d//(iSt), ' I sat upon the carriage ;' opre to rukd, ' upon the 
trees;' opre to bar, 'upon the stone;' opre ti puv, 'upon the ground 

* Armenian pakht or paht, ' fortune-; pakktdvor, ' fortuuate.' Tn. 
f Armenian veri, ver, verd. Ta. 
VOL. vii. 29 

224 A. 0. Paspati, 

(earth) ;' oprdl and oprydl, ' from above :' oprdl peliom, ' I fell from 
on high.' 

URINE muter. 

To void URINE mulrdva ; Bor., mutrar, muclar. These terms bear 
the stamp of undisputed descent from the Sr. mutra, 'urine.' Bor- 
row's muclar is probably a corruption of the original mutrar, although 
I have not met elsewhere the change of trar into clar. 


VILLAGE gav ; Bor., gao. Compare Sr. grama, 'village,' which has 
lost the liquid r, and changed the final m into v, a change which we 
have already observed elsewhere (see NAME), and shall have occasion 
fully to prove, in speaking of the commutation of the consonants. 
The Gypsy word is often applied to denote 'one's native town' or 
' home,' Tiurglg, just as the Greeks use x^tov, and the Turks kioy, for 
their native place. Mo gav, ' my village,' is to be understood as ' my 
native town ;' gheliom to gav, * I went to the village ;' gavudno, ' a 
villager:' mo gavudno, 'one of my village;' tuya kamoves to gav? 
' wilt thou also be in the village ?' te gaveskoro manushe isi but gorke, 
1 of thy village the men are very bad.' 

VINEGAR shut; Br., shutt ; HOT., juter, juti. Compare Sr. fata, 'sour, 
astringent.' It is worthy of remark, that this term by some Gypsies is 
pronounced shutko, and applied to 'vinegar,' although it properly 
means ' sour.' From this noun, by the addition of lo, has been 
formed shutlo, 'sour:' shutlo mol, 'sour wine:' it is pronounced also 
shudlo : shudlo tat, ' sour milk,' the Turkish yoghurt. 

VINEYARD res, rez ; Bor., eresia. Compare Sr. ras, ' gustare, amare ;' 
the noun rasa has also the definition of 'grape,' though its general 
signification is ' taste of any kind.' Persian bagh rez, ' a vineyard.' 
By the Gypsies this term is applied particularly to the vine. Kerena 
resd, ' they make (i. e. ' plant ') vineyards ;' kaleskoro isi e resd ? ' whose 
are the vineyards ?' 

VOMITING chartimpe, chattimpe. 

To VOMIT chartdva, chattdva^ Compare Sr. chhard, ' to vomit, to be 
sick.' The Gypsies, in pronouncing chartdva, give such a slight sound 
to the r that it is scarcely heard, or even, at times, is not heard at all. 
Many Gypsies contend that it contains no r, and pronounce always 
chattdva. Chartimpe is the Sr. chhardi, ' vomiting,' by the addition 
of the common pe or pen, which we have already noticed. 


To WALK pirdva ; Bor., pirar. Compare piro, ' foot,' which I have re- 
ferred above to the Sr. pri or par, to pass.' But pirel, 'he walks 
fast ;' kapirdv, ' I shall walk.' 

WALLACHIAN vldkhia. The Greek (Wd/og, a denomination given to 
the inhabitants of Wallachia and Moldavia. Vlakhina, l a Walla- 
chran _woman.' 

WARM tatto. This word I have explained in speaking of BATH. I 
notice it here merely to add that the Gypsies use it in this sense 
also, apart from its signification of ' bath.' 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 225 

To WASH tovAva. This verb may be referred to the Sr. verbal root 
dhdv, ' to cleanse, to be clean or pure.' Aor. iomom and tovghidm : 
toviom mo shoro keralo, 'I have washed my scabby head ;' todvaman 
(mid. voice), ' I wash myself,' used for the Gr. vlmopai, koi>o(j<xi, nlv- 
vofiai : so keres ? todvaman, ' what art thou doing ? I am washing 
myself;' tovdva me yismata, 'I wash my linen ;' tovdd, 'washed:' 
tovde yismata, ' washed linen.' 

WATER pani, pai;* Br., pagnee; Bor., pani. The Sr. adj. pdniya, 
from pa, ' to drink,' signifies ' anything fit to drink, potable,' and con- 
sequently ' water.' Water is also termed pdya, from the same root 
pa. Demon khandi pani, ' give me a little water ;' sudrd pani, ' cool 

To WATER paniddva. A compound verb, from the above and ddva, 
'I give.' The verb has been formed in imitation of the Greeks and 
Turks : the former often say dldw yegor, instead of noil'Qai ; the Turks, 
su veririm, for ichirmek. 

To WEEP rovdva ; Bor., orobar. Both these words I am inclined to 
refer to the Sr. verbal root ru, ' to cry, to make a noise, to yell, to 
shriek.' Compare virdva, 'sound, noise;' virdvin, 'shouting, weep- 
ing, crying.' Weeping with howling and yelling, amongst barbarous 
people, is an ordinary phenomenon, on all occasions where the exhi- 
bition of sorrow is necessary or official. The initial o in Borrow is 
euphonic. raklo rovela, ' the child cries ;' saro dives rovela, ' all 
day he cries.' 

WEIGHT vdria. This term, usual among the Gypsy blacksmiths, is 
applied to the hammer which beats the heated iron. It is from the 
Gr. f&i^o?, ' weight,' from which comes (2ow, ' to strike.' 

WELL khanink, khaink ; Bor., putar. These words differ so much 
from each other that they cannot be referred to the same origin. 
My own are from the Sr. khan, 'to dig, to delve,' whence the Gr. 
zaltxa. From this archetypal root khan probably comes the Lat. 
canalis, and also cuniculus, denoting 'the hare' and 'a mine' (Bopp). 
Compare from the same root the Sr. adj. khanaka, ' whatever pertains 
to digging, and to making canals and wells,' whence the present 
khanink and khaink, denoting 'whatever is dug,' and consequently 
4 a well.' The use of an adjective for a substantive is extremely com- 
mon. Borrow's putar I regard as Spanish, or rather as from the Lat. 
puteus, and not, as he explains it, as from pdtala. 

WELL laches. An adverb, from lacho, ' good.' Laches isi, ' it is well ;' 
po laches, 'better:' po laches isom, 'I am better;' nandi but laches, 
' it is not very well ;' po laches tejas, ' it is better for thce to go.' 

WHAT so. This term, the neuter of the interrogative pronoun kon, is 
used precisely as the Eng. ' what.' The following phrases will explain 
it : so teresa ? ' what hast thou ' (i. e. ' what is the matter with thee ') ? 
so kamesa ? ' what dost thou wish ?' 

WHEEL asdn. Compare Sr. era, 'the spoke or radius of a wheel.' 
The change of r into s is extremely common, not only in Sr., but in 
many other languages. 

* " Pany, panto, ' wasser/ " Arndt, p. 357. 

226 A. G. Paspati, 

WHELP rukono. This term is used for the young of dogs ; Gr. axvfi- 
vo:, Mod. Gr. otviuxiov. It seems to me to be related to the Sr. ruh, 
4 to grow, to be produced or become manifest, to be boru.' I chukli 
penghids panj rukone, ' the bitch has produced five whelps.' 

WHEN kanna. Compare Sr. kadd, ' when.' Jfdnna kanashes ? ' when 
wilt thou go ?' kanna kamulo ? ' when will he die ?' kanna kinghidn- 
lea ? ' when didst thou buy it ?' kdnna kamabiel ? ' when will she be 
delivered' (i. e., 'of a child') ? 

WHENCE katdr. Intimately related to the pron. kon and ka, 'who' 
and ' which.' The final tar ia the ablative particle (see Section V). 
Katdr allo amare manush? ' whence caine our men?' katdr avesa ? 
4 whence cornest thou ?' katdr anyhidn te romnid ? ' whence didst 
thou bring thy wife ?' katdr allidn ? ' whence hast thou come ?' 

WHERE kdrin. Also related to the interrogative pron. kon, 'who.' 
Kdrin kamajes ? 'where wilt thou go?' kdrin isi to rom? 'where is 
thy husband ?' kdrin jesa? 'where art thou going?' It is used at 
times as the Italians use their ove : takhidra kamovdv ti polin (Gr. 
jroit?) kdrin ta isi to dot, ' tomorrow I shall go to the city, where also 
thy father is.' 

WHITE parno ; Bor., parno, parne. The origin of this term, so com- 
mon among all the Gypsies, is extremely obscure. Borrow defines 
parno "bianco, Sr. pandu" This term, pdndu, well known in the 
history of India as the name of the founder of the Pandava race, 
means also ' white, yellow, jaundice.' I see no relation between the 
Sr. and Gypsy terms. Parno manro, ' white bread ; o yek kalo, o 
yek parno, ' the one black, the other white.' 

WHO kon. This is evidently the Sr. ka, neut. kirn, which, with slight 
variations, is found in most of the Indo-European languages. Kon 
dinids e chukel ? ' who struck the dog ?' kaleakoro isi o ker ? ' whose 
is the house?' kalestebashe? 'near whom?' ta kales? 'and whom?' 
These examples show that the oblique cases of this pronoun are ex- 
tremely irregular, and are far from resembling the declination of the 
Sr. kim. To kon is related the relative ka and ke, which is ex- 
tremely common with the Gypsies, and used as the Italians use their 
che, and the Mod. Gr. their TTOU, relative pronouns that have lost both 
gender and number. A few illustrations will give the reader a clear 
idea of this pronoun: ki ov ka isi, 'and he who is;' ta i romn'ia ka 
dukhena, 'and the women that love;' sdvore ka katnel, 'all that he 
desired ;' oka gorkipe ka na kamesa te keren tuke, ' whatever evil that 
thou dost not desire they should do to thee ;' lacho o manush ka ka- 
madel tut, 'happy (good) the man who will give thee.' 

WHY soske. Related to so, ' what,' the neuter of the intcrr. pron., with 
the particle ke, of which we shall speak in treating of the cases (Sec- 
tion V). S6ake allidn? 'why did they come?' sotke puchesa? 'why 
dost thou ask!' soske isdnas olid? 'why were ye there?' 

WIDOW pivli. This appears to be a corrupted form of the Sr. vidhavd, 
4 a widow.' It is found more or less altered in many cognate dialects : 
compare Pers. beva, ' widow,' Lat. vidua, Germ, witlwe, Eng. widow. 

WIFE romni ; Br., milomnee ; Bor., romi. For the explanation of 
these terms, see GYPSV. Mr. Brown's milomnee should be written 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 227 

mi romni, 'my wife.' So gentle is the pronunciation of the liquids, 
that whoever is not somewhat conversant with the idiom easily falls 
into such mistakes. 


WIFE'S SISTER sail. This term may be referred to the Sr. calm, ' be- 
longing to a house, domestic,' from cdla, ' a house.' We have in Eng. 
domestic, and Fr. domestique, 'a servant,' while the term domesticus is 
properly ' any one belonging to a house.' The Gypsies, who arc in 
the habit of living together in such numbers, must naturally have 
been inclined to give such names to members of a family. 

WIND palval. This is used for the Gr. ave^o;, which at present is 
mostly applied to mean ' a strong wind, a gale.' It is difficult to give 
any satisfactory etymology of it, although it appears to be of Hindu 
origin. Terela palval, 'it has (i. e. 'there is') wind;' palval but, 
4 strong wind.' The word is often used for ' the atmosphere, air :' ti 
palval vuches, ' high in the air.' 

WINE niol ;* Br., mol ; Bor., mol. The similarity of these terms 
makes their etymology plain. Borrow says the word mol is " a pure 
Persian word." It is true the Persian word for wine is mol, but the 
Persians and Gypsies both derive it from the Sr. madhu, Gr. [*&&v 
and peh, 'an intoxicating drink,' Lat. met, Lithuan. madus, Slav, med, 
and Bulg. met. Kamesa te mol ? * dost thou wish wine also ?' shudld 
mol, 'sour wine.' 

WING pak. Compare Sr. pakt-ha, ' a wing. 1 The Gypsies give this 
denomination indifferently either to the wing or to feathers, like the 
Gr. meQuv, ' feather, wing.' Plur. pakd. Te sas chares (Turk, chare) 
te terel pak o manush, ' if it were possible that man should have 
wings;' ta diniomles ti pak, 'and I struck it on the wing.' 

WINTER vent. I have spoken of the term iv, ' snow,' elsewhere, as 
from the hima of the Hindus. The Sr. adj. himavant is ' cold, freez- 
ing, chilly, frosty.' As in the word iv, ' snow,' the initial aspirate 
was dropped, so in this word the vowel also, and the word thus mu- 
tilated is now in use among all the Gypsies. 

To WISH kamdva ; Bor., camelar. This verb is the Sr. kam, 'to desire, 
to love ;' kdma is the Cupid of the Latins, the % of the Greeks. 
This verb among the Gypsies is used whenever they intend to express 
desire, wish, or love, in perfect accordance with the definitions gene- 
rally given to the Sr. root. Borrow defines camelar ' to love, Sp. 
amar." 1 I have placed it with my own word, as it is evidently the 
same verb, proceeding from the same original. In treating of the 
derivation of the tenses, I shall have occasion to speak of this verb, 
as an auxiliary forming the future. It is there that its signification 
becomes extremely clear. So kamesa? 'what dost thou wish?' 
akand kamena te shiklioven, ' now they wish to learn ;' kamdva te 
desman, ' I wish thee to give me;' kamdvales : so kamakeres les? 'I 
wish him' (i. c. 'I have need of him'): 'what art thou to do with 
him?' avdives kamdva te jav to rez, 'today I wish to go to the vine- 
yard ;' ka na kamesa te keren iukc, ' which thou dost not wish that 
they should do to tLee.' 

* " Afoleti, ' vin.' " Vaillant, p. 369. 

228 A. G. Paspati, 

WITHIN andre ; Bor., andre, enre. This is evidently from the Sr. 
antar, 'in, within, between.' In compound words its signification is 
'internal, interior.' But andre ti puv, 'deep into the earth' (lit. 
' much within ') ; Java andre, ' I go in, I enter ;' andrdl, ' from within,' 
tawftev : andrdl akata ti polin (Gr. n6hv), ' from within the city ;' 
Mod. Gr. Q-no fiecra drib r^v n63.ii'. 

WITHOUT bi. This negative particle is extremely common, and cor- 
responds to the Sr. vi, a preposition signifying separation or disjunc- 
tion. The Slavonic is extremely fond of this particle, to* which it 
has added a z, forming bez ; as glas\ l voice, echo,' bezglasrfiy, ' with- 
out a voice, mute ;' bog, ' God ;' bezbozn'iy, ' atheist, ci#eos.' It exists 
in the Persian bi, ' without,' generally corresponding to the Lat. sine, 
and denoting absence or want : as, bi ab, ' without water ;' bi edeb, 
'without civility, uncultivated.' We have noticed it among the 
Gypsy verbs : see to SELL, bikndva. It is used with adjectives : as 
uchardo, ' covered,' buchardo (bi-uchardo), ' uncovered ;' namporeme, 
' sick,' binamporeme, ' healthy ;' bimakavdo, ' not painted ;' bizoralo, 
'not strong;' bilindralo, 'not sleeping;' bibahtalo, 'not fortunate.' 
When bi is united to nouns and pronouns, these are constantly in the 
genitive case of both numbers: as bi shereskoro, 'without a head' 
(i. e. 'a fool'); bi loveskoro, 'without salt;' bi maseskoro, 'without 
meat;' bi lovenghoro, ' without money ;' bi gotiakoro, ' without mind ;' 
bi balamenghoro, ' without Greeks ;' bi khorakhenghoro, ' without 
Turks;' bi vastenghoro, 'without hands' (i.e. 'workmen'). With 
pronouns : bi mangoro, ' without me ;' bi oleskoro, ' without him ;' bi 
Idkeri, amenghoro, tumenghoro, ' without her, us, you.' 

WOLF ruv ; Bor., orioz, arvje, luey. The first two terms seem to be 
related to the Sr. verbal root ru, which I have noticed in speaking of 
the verb to WEEP. This verb, among the Hindus, gives origin to two 
names of animals, in imitation of their sounds : ruru, ' a sort of deer,' 
and ruvathu, ' sound, noise, a cock.' I see no difficulty in supposing 
that the Gypsies may have applied it to the wolf, an animal remarka- 
ble for howling, which is one of the most common significations of 
the verb ru. The third form of Borrow, luey, seems to be of Spanish 
origin : compare lobo, ' a wolf.' 

WOMAN romni; Br., rumenee. See GYPSY. 

WOOD kasht, kash ; Bor., casian. Related to the Sr. kdshta, ' wood.' 
Borrow's casian may correspond to the adj., ' woody.' Kast 
is used for ' a stick :' dinidsman kastesa, ' he struck me with a stick.' 
This word is sometimes pronounced without the final t, as kash, and 
most of the Greek Gypsies pronounce it kas. 

WOOL posom. In want of a better derivation, I propose for this word 
the Sr. verbal root push, ' to cherish, to nurture.' 

WORD lav. Compare Sr. lap, ' to speak, to utter ;' lapana, ' the mouth, 

talking.' I have not observed in the Gypsy language any other traces 
of this Sr. verb, which has given to the Indo-European languages so 
many terms. As the Hindus have denominated the month lapana, 
as the instrument of talking, so also have the Persians their leb ; the 
Romans labium, labrum, and the Greeks kiios and io^w, by the change 
of p to 1. Lav, plur. lava, is well known to all the Gypsies. Kape- 
ndv luke yek lav, ' I will tell thee a word ;' lav romane, ' Gypsy words.' 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 229 

WORM kermo ; Bor., cremen. Compare Sr. krimi, written also 
and krami, ' worm, insect.' It has also the signification of the Gr. 
Bptrg, which is applied exclusively to intestinal worms. By some 
Gypsies the word is pronounced ghermo. 

To WRITE grafava. I have noted this word merely to show the man- 
ner in which the Gypsies have introduced Gr. words into their idiom, 
by giving them a Gypsy form. Grafava (Gr. YQ&<f<*>), ' I write ;' aor. 
grafghiom (fy^a^/a), ' I have written.' It would be useless to note 
the numerous instances of such words which the Gypsies have bor- 
rowed from the Greeks. Their origin is generally very evident. 
Some are distorted, because borrowed from terms which the Greeks 
themselves have corrupted : so dialezdva, ' I select,' from #cuUyn, pro- 
nounced by us often diaUtp. They have adopted another form of 
verbs similar to those in use among the people with whom they inter- 
mingle : thus kholiterdva, 'I.^vm angry,' lit. 'I have bile,' from the 
Gr. zolri and their own verb terava, 'to have;' also kholiazava, 'I am 
angry,' Gr. #oAcioaeu, 'to be angry:' hence kholiniakoro, 'angry.' 
Kholiterava is common among them. 


YEAR bersh ; Bor., berji. Both these words are from Sr. varsha, ' rain, 
the rainy season, year,' from the root vrish, 'to be wet, to moisten.' 
The term was first applied to the rains, then to the season in which 
the rains were prevalent, and in course of time to the year itself. 
This use of 'rainy season' for 'year' is corroborated by the usage of 
the Anglo-Saxons and other northern nations, who reckoned by win- 
ters instead of years. Both, of course, were struck by circumstances 
peculiar to their own climate. Keti bershenghoro isi ? ' of how many 
years (i. e. 'how old') is he?' keti bersh kerghidn to rashdi? 'how 
many years was he (lit. ' did he make') with the teacher (priest) ?' 

YESTERDAY yich ; Bor., callicaste. I leave to philologists to determine 
whether this term bears any relation to the Sr. hyas, ' yesterday.' 
Yich penghids mdnghe, ' yesterday was said to me ;' yichaver, ' day 
before yesterday,' composed of yich and aver, yaver, ' other,' which 
latter term I have explained in its proper place : yichaver o kurko, 
' day before yesterday, (which was) Sunday ;' poyichaver, with the 
comparative part, po, ' two days before yesterday,' Gr. &Tlnf>ox&ec. 

YET, STILL achdi. Achdi but kamadikes, ' yet more thou wilt see ;' 
achdi chor eketane, 'and other thieves together;' achdi paldl, 'still 
more backwards :' for this phrase another, po polaleste, is frequently 
used ; achdi lav romane, ' still more Gypsy words.' 

YOUNG terno, yerno ; Br., yernee; Bor., dernd. This is the Sr. tarn-no, 
'young.' It is often pronounced yerno, or rather, the pronunciation 
of / so much resembles that of y that to all purposes it can be writ- 
ten with this semivowel. The Sr. yuvan, ' young,' which is found in 
many Indo-European languages, I have not been able to detect in the 
Gypsy idiom. A diminutive form of terno is ternoro, ' a youngster/ 
Tern6 is principally used in opposition to phuro or puro, ' old.' 

230 A. G. Paspati, 



These are five : a, e, i, o, u. The union of many vowels is 
rarely to be met with in the Gypsy language. Of diphthongs 
there are almost none. In verbs of the middle voice occurs the 
combination io, resulting from the blending of o and a: as mat- 
to-audva, mattiovdva. So also in the formation of abstract nouns : 
parnavo, parnavoipe, 'friendship;' bandlo, bandloipe, 'band.' The 
reader cannot but have observed the rarity of other combinations 
of a like character in the Vocabulary. Terms such as ndi, 'nail,' 
mui, 'mouth,' are not diphthongs: the vowel of the final syllable 
has merely dropped its aspirate. The distinction of the vowels 
into long and short is difficult to be determined. So, too, in 
modern Greek, where in most cases such distinctions are of no 
practical value: o and w have a similar sound ; only the accent 
seems at times to occasion a prolongation of the sound of a 
vowel. It is for this reason that I have noted with accuracy all 
the accents upon the Gypsy vowels. 

A. This vowel, which represents the Sr. a and a, seems to 
have but one simple sound. 

A is retained unaltered in man}' words: as Sr. manusha, 
'man,'* G. manush; Sr. angdra, 'coal,' G. angdr; Sr. nakha, 
' nail,' G. ndi. 

It is frequently changed to e: as Sr. da$an, 'ten,' G. desk; 
Sr. rasa, 'taste,' G. res, 'grape;' Sr. nava, 'new,' G. nevo] Sr. 
ham, 'ass,' G. kher ; Sr. tola, 'ground,' G. tele, 'down;' Sr. taru- 
na, 'young,' G. terno. 

The Gypsies of Spain are fond of adding an initial a to words 
beginning with r: as eresia (Turk. Gyp. res), 'vineyard;' ara- 
shai (T. G. rasAai), 'priest;' orobar (T. G. rovdva), 'to weep,' etc. 
Here in Turkey, I have noted this initial a in arakdva, 'to guard,' 
and in aratti, 'tonight.' Both, however, may justly be referred 
to Sr. words which have this initial a as an actual component 

The final a of the Sr. adjectives and participles is invariably 
changed to o, and strongly accented: as Sr. kdla, 'black,' G. 
kalo ; Sr. uchcha, 'high,' G. ucfio; Sr. matta, 'glad,' G. matto, 
'drunk;' Sr.tapta, ' burning,' G. tatto, 'warm;' Sr. sanna, 'slim,' 
G. sanno; Sr. kritta, 'cut/ G. khurdo, 'small;' Sr. $ushka, 'dry,' 
G. shuko ; Sr. ptirta, 'full,' G. perd6 ; Sr. purdna,' old,' G. pura- 
no; Sr. mri ta, 'mortal,' G. merdo, 'sick.' 

* "When both Sanskrit and Gypsy terms have the same signification, I have noted 
only that of the Sanskrit. In other cases I write both. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 231 

Also in other words it is changed to o: as Sr. shash, 'six,' G. 
\shov ; Sr. ja^a, 'rabbit,' G. shoshoi. 

E. E is more constant: as Sr. deva, 'God,' G. devel ; Sr. eka, 
' one,' G. yek. 

I. / and ni are the most usual terminations of Gypsy femi- 
nine nouns: chukel, 'dog,' chuk(e)li j 'bitch;' devel, 'God,' dev(e}li, 
'goddess;' grast, 'horse,' grastnt, 'mare;' rom, 'Gypsy,' romni, 
' Gypsy woman ;' kher, 'ass,' kherni, 'she-ass;' manush, 'man,' 
manuahni, ' woman ;' guruv, ' ox,' guruvni, ' cow ; r * jjfel, 'brother,' 
plcmi, sister, f 

In numerous Gypsy words the i and % of the Sanskrit remain 
unchanged: as Sr. dvi, 'two,' G. dui; Sr. tri, 'three,' G. in ' ; 
Sr. rdiri, 'night,' G. aratti, 'tonight;' Sr. gili, 'sound,' G. ghili, 
'song;' Sr. clihuri, 'knife,' G. churi ; Sr. pdniya, 'potable,' G. 
pani, ' water.' 

The Sr. vowel r, or ri, undergoes many changes, which are of 
much importance in the study of the Gypsy language, and in the 
explanation and philosophical analysis of the verbs, and also 
extremely interesting. Ri is changed to ri in Sr. riksha, ' bear,' 
G. richini : to ro in Sr. jdmdtri, ' son-in-law,' G. jamutro : to ru 
in Sr. trigula, 'trident,' G. trushul, turshul. 

In the verbal roots, ri or ri is changed to ar or er in Sr. dri\ 
'to be afraid,' G. dardva; Sr. mri, 'to die,' G. merdva ; Sr. kri, 
'to make,' G. kerdva; Sr. pri, 'to fill,' G. perdva: to il in Sr. gri, 
' to sound,' G. ghilidva. 

0. No precise rules can be given as to the pronunciation of 
this vowel, for it is often left to the option of the speaker to use 
either the o or the u in a great number of words. With the 
exception of the final o, the common characteristic of the masc. 
gender among the Gypsies, this vowel usually corresponds with 
the Sr. M and u: as Sr. m&rti, 'matter,' G. morti, 'leather;' Sr. 
dura, 'distant,' G. dur; Sr. bhu, 'earth,' G. phuv. 

It also represents the Sr. a: as Sr. chandra, 'rnoon,' G. chon ; 
Sr. madhu, 'sweet,' G. moZ, 'honey:' or the Sr. o: as Sr. lobhini, 
'desirous,' G. lubni, kbni, 'harlot;' Sr. loha, 'red,' G. lolo: or 
the Sr. i: as Sr. krimi, ' worm/ G. kermo. 

The final o of nouns, adjectives, and participles is changed to ?', 
whenever abstract substantives are formed by the addition of the 
particle pe or pen: as kalo, 'black,' kalipe, 'blackness, excommu- 

* Pronounced also gurumni. 

f I have heard Gypsies, extremely ignorant of their language, making no distinc- 
tion between the masculine and feminine of adjectives, saying kali (fein.) for kalo 
(masc.), 'black;' terni for terno. These were all Moslem Gypsies, speaking the 
Turkish, in which language the adjectives, as in English, have a single termination 
for both genders. Those in the habit of frequently speaking their language never 
make such blunders ; they are extremely attentive to all their generic- terminations. 

VOL. VII. 30 

232 A. G. Paspati, 

nication;' matto, 'drunk,' mattipe, 'drunkenness;' iaito, 'warm,' 
tattipe, 'heat;' molo, 'dead,' meripe, 'death; 1 phuro, 'old,' phuripe, 
'old age;' lacho, 'good,' lachipe, 'goodness, alms;' piro, 'foot/ 
ptripe, ' gait ;' shucho, ' clean,' shuchipe, ' cleanliness.' 

This rule suffers exception : as in kamlo, ' perspiring, ' kamlioipe, 
' perspiration ;' bandlo, ' bound,' bandlioipe, ' band ;' parnavo, 
'friend,' parnavoipe, 'friendship;' loshano, 'rejoicing,' loshanoipe, 
'joy;' tatto, 'warm,' tabioipe, 'heat.' 

TT. This vowel is extremely common ; it is a favorite sound 
with all the Gypsies, whether Moslem or Christian. It is often 
pronounced o. It represents the Sr. o in Sr. go, 'ox,' G. guruv; 
Sr. lobhini, 'desiring,' G. lubni: the Sr. u in Sr. manusha, 'man,' 
G. manush; Sr. sukara, 'benevolent,' G. sukdr, 'beautiful;' Sr. 
pura, 'former,' G. phuro, 'old;' Sr. uchcha, 'high,' G. uchd ; Sr. 
pangu, ' lame,' G. panko. 


K. Very common in the Gypsy language. It is often the 
unaltered representative of the Sanskrit k: as in Sr. M?a, 'black,' 
G. kalo ; Sr. kan, 'to shine,' G. kan, Team, 'sun;' Sr. hdshtha, 
'wood,' G. kasht ; Sr. kri, 'to make,' G. kerdva; Sr. krimi, 
' worm,' G. kermo. 

It is changed into / in kuri, ' a colt,' pronounced frequently 
furi ; or to gh, in Sr. kal, ' to sound,' G. gheldva, ' to play on 

It is assimilated to the following consonant, as in Sr. rakta, 
'red,' G. ratt, 'blood.' 

It frequently becomes a very gentle aspirate : as in Sr. kdsa, 
'cough,' G. has; Sr. kuh, 'to surprise,' G. hohaimpe, khohaimpe, 
'a lie;' Sr. krilta, 'cut,' G. hirdo, 'dwarfish;' Sr. Icand, 'to itch,' 
G. handiovava, hanjiovdva, ' to scratch.' 

Ksh. This compound consonant of the Sanskrit is very con- 
stant in its transformation, and may serve as a clue to the true 
etymology of many Gypsy words. It does not appear in the 
proper Gypsy language, and the Gypsies never employ it except 
in ksildbi, 'tongs.' In speaking Greek, they pronounce I as the 
Greeks do. This consonant generally becomes a simple k : as 
in Sr. drdkshd, 'grapes,' Gr.drak; Sr. aksha, 'eye,' G. yak ; Sr. 
yakshj 'to sacrifice,' G. yak, ' fire;' Sr. rtiksha, 'tree,' G. ruk; Sr. 
makshikd, 'fly,' G. makid; Sr. draksh, 'to preserve,' G. arakdv, 
'guard;' Sr. $iksh, 'to learn,' G. shikdva; Sr. kshtra, 'milk,' G. 
kerdl, ' cheese ;' Sr. akshna, ' time,' G. akand, ' now ;' Sr. naksh, 
'to go,' G. nakdva, 'to pass;' Sr. maksh, 'to mix,' G. makdva, 
' to paint ;' Sr. paksha, ' wing,' G. pak. 

If my etymology of bashno, ' a cock/ as from pakshin, be true, 
then this would be an exception to the above rule. 

On Oie Language of the Gypsies. 233 

Kh. This Sanskrit consonant often retains in the Gypsy its 
strong aspirated sound, like that of the kh of ' the Arabs and 
Turks: as in Sr. khanaka, 'digging,' G. khaink, ' well ;' Sr. khan- 
din, 'divided,' Gr.khandi, 'a little;' Sr. Man, 'to dig,' G.khatdva; 
Sr. Mam, ' a mine,' G. khdv, 'a hole ;' Sr. Mao 7 , ' to eat,' G. khtiva. 

It is at times dopped, or very gently aspirated : as in Sr. nakha, 
'nail,' G. ndi ; Sr. ?aMa, 'vegetable,' G. shah, 'cabbage;' Sr. 
mukha, ' mouth,' G. mid. 

It is changed to k in Sr. duhkha, ' pain,' G. duk. 

G 'This retains generally its proper Sanskrit sound : as in Sr. 
gan, ' to count,' G. ghendva ; Sr. gara, ' poison,' G. gher, ' itch ;' 
Sr. gras, ' to eat,' G. grast, 'horse;' Sr. angdra, 'coal,' G. angar. 

It is changed to k in agdra, ' house,' G. ker. 

Ch Is generally retained unchanged : as in Sr. char, ' to eat,' 
G. chardva, 'to graze;' Sr. chush, 'to suck,' G. chuche, 'breast;' 
Sr. chumb, ' to kiss,' G. chumi, ' kiss ;' Sr. chik, ' to obstruct,' G. 
chik, ' mud.' 

It is changed to its cognate guttural k in Sr. much, ' to release,' 
G. mukdva ; Sr. pach, ' to cook,' G. pekdva. It becomes simple 5 
in Sr. chush, 'to suck,' G. sut, 'milk;' Sr.chatur, 'four,' G. ishtar. 

Chh. This consonant is pronounced like simple ch : as Sr. 
chhinna, ' divided,' G. chindva, ' to cut ;' Sr. chhuri, ' knife,' G. 
cliari; Sr. chhard, 'to vomit,' G. chattdva ; Sr. tuchchha, 'empty,' 
G. chucho. 

J. This letter retains its genuine Sanskrit sound: as in Sr. jnd, 
1 to know,' G. janava; Sr. jw, 'to live,' G. jivdva ; Sr. jdmdtri, 
' son-in-law,' G. jamutro. 

T, Th, D These consonants are pronounced like t and d : as 
in Sr. pata, 'cloth,' G. pdta, 'garment;' Sr. kdshtha, ' wood,' G. 
Jcasht; Sr. mund, 'to shave,' G. muntdva ; Sr. anda, 'egg,' G. 
vanto; Sr. khandin, 'divided,' G. khandi, 'little.' 

N. This nasal, also, is not distinguished from the common 
dental n: Sr. gan, 'to count,' G. ghendva] Sr. purdna, 'old,' G. 

T When at the end of a word, this consonant is often drop- 
ped : as in grast, ' a horse,' also frequently pronounced gras and 
gra: kasht, ' wood, ' also kasli vast, 'hand,' also vas. It is dis- 
tinctly heard, however, when the following word begins with a 
vowel: as lacho grast isi, ' it is a good horse.' When preceded by 
r, it is pronounced like a pure d, as in Sr. purta, ' full,' G. perdo. 
At times it is changed to /, as in Sr. tala, 'earth,' G. tele andfele, 
' downwards.' 

D. This has the sound of the Latin d: as Sr. dram, 'to go,' 
G. drom, ' road ;' Sr. ddrava, ' wooden,' G. daravin, ' pomegran- 
ate;' Sr. dina, 'distressed,' G. denilo, 'fool.' 

It is changed into gh in Sr. diva, ' day,' G. ghives. 

234 A. G. Paspati, 

Dh. This Sanskrit consonant I have not been able to hear 
among the Gypsies. Whenever it occurs in terms of Sanskrit 
derivation, it is invariably changed to d or t: as in Sr. bandh, 'to 
tie,' G. banddva; Sr. dhdv, 'to cleanse,' G. tovdva, 'to wash ;' Sr. 
dhrila, ' held,' G. tertiovdva, ' to stand.' 

N. Is perfectly similar to the Latin n. 

P This consonant usually has the sound of p: as in Sr. 
pdniya, 'potable,' G. parti, 'water;' Sr. patrin, 'winged,' G. pal- 
rin, 'feather.' 

It is frequently changed to /: as in Sr. par, ' to precede,' G. 
furo, 'old man;' Sr. pura, 'city,' G. fords, 'market-place;' Sr. 
vdshpa, 'tear,' G. as/a. 

Or at times to v: as in Sr. apara, 'other,' G. yaver; Sr. lapa, 
' word,' G. lav. 

Or it is assimilated to the consonant following it : as in Sr. 
tapta, 'warm/ G. tatto ; Sr. supta, 'asleep,' G. sotlo ; Sr. svapna, 
'sleep,' G. sanno, 'dream.' 

It is changed to b: as in Sr, pdka, 'grey -haired,' G. boko, 'bald ;' 
Sr. pish., 'to inhabit,' G. bishdva; Sr. prish, 'to sprinkle,' G. bur- 
shin, 'rain.' 

B Has the sound of the Latin b: as Sr. Z>aZa, 'hairs,' G. bal; 
Sr. balin, 'strong,' G. balo, 'hog;' Sr. bala, 'strength,' G. naisbali, 
'weak;' Sr. bul, 'to plunge,' G. boldva, 'to baptize.' 

Bh. Bh is not a Gypsy sound. In the words of Sanskrit ori- 
gin containing it it is sometimes changed to p: as in Sr. bhrdlri, 
'brother,' G. pra, pral; Sr. bhfi,, 'earth,' G. puv ; Sr. bhara, 
'much/ G. paro, 'great;' Sr. bhfiti, 'dignity/ G. puti, 'business.' 

It becomes b in Sr. lobhim, 'desirous,' G. lubni, 'strumpet;' Sr. 
bhanj, ' to break,' G. bangdva. 

M Mis mostly pronounced like the Latin TO. In a few words 
it is changed to v: as Sr. grdma, ' a village/ G. gav; Sr. ndman, 
'name,' G, nav- Sr, himd, 'snow,' G. iv. 

Y Is frequently unchanged : as Sr. ydksJi, l to sacrifice, G. 
yak, 'fire.' 

It is frequently added to words beginning with a vowel: as Sr. 
aksha, 'eye,' G. yak ; Sr, eka, 'one/ G. yek; Sr. apara, 'other/ 
-G. yaver. 

E. The Gypsy r often corresponds to the Sanskrit r: as in 
Sr. r&pya, 'silver,' G. rup ; Sr. rasa, 'taste/ G. res, l vineyard.' 

It is frequently changed to I: as in Sr. dvdra, 'door,' G. dal; 
Sr. ehur, Ho steal,' G. choldva; Sr. ogre, 'forwards,' G. angle; Sr. 
gir, 'sound,' G. ghili, 'song;' Sr. bhrdtri, 'brother/ Gr.plal; Sr. 
mdra, 'death,' G. molo: also in Sr. kram, ^to go,' united with 
various prepositions : as niklavdva, ' to go out ;' uklavdva, ' to 

On the Language of the Gypsies, 235 

In combinations of r with another consonant, the r is often 
dropped: as in Sr. gringa, ' horn,' G. shingh; Sr. prachh, 'to ask,' 
Gr.puchdva; Sr. gru, 'to hear,' G. shundva; Sr. gvagru, 'mother- 
in-law,' G. shasui; Sr. 6Arw, 'eyebrow,' Gr. pov ; Sr. grama, 'vil- 
lage,' G-. <7au; Sr. krindmi, 'I buy,' G-. Tcindva, 

It is also often assimilated to the consonant following it : as 
in Sr. karna, 'ear,' G. kann; Sr. sarva, 'all,' G. savvo; Sr. sarpa, 
'serpent,' G. sapp ; Sr. chhard, 'to vomit,' G. chatdva. 

Or to the consonant preceding it: as in Sr. rdtri, 'night,' G. 
aratti, 'tonight.' 

L Kequires no remark. 

V. V in many words is preserved unchanged, having in the 
Gypsy the sound of the Latin v and Gr. 0: as Sr. deva, 'god,' G. 
devil; Sr. nava, 'new,' G. nevo; Sr. vdi, 'verily,' G. va, 'yes.' 

It is changed to p in Sr. vichardmi, 'I deliberate,' G. pincha- 
rdva, ' to be acquainted.' 

It is frequently prefixed to Sanskrit words beginning with 
vowels: as Sr. uchcha, 'high,' G. vucho; Sr. anda, 'egg,' G. vanto; 
Sr. oshtha, 'mouth,' G. vust, 'lip;' Pers. asiav, 'mill,' G. vasidv. 

Or it is changed to b: as in Sr. vingati, 'twenty,' G. bish; Sr. 
varsha, 'year,' G. bersh; Sr. vag, 'to sound,' G. bashdva, 'to cry 
out;' Sr. vi, 'without,' G. hi. 

It is dropped at the beginning of vdshpa, ' tear,' G. dsfa. 

It is omitted, or, with a, becomes o, in Sr. lavana, 'salt,' G. 
Ion; Sr. svap, *to sleep,' G. sovdva; Sr. qvagura, 'father-in-law,' 
G. shastro; Sr. qvaqrti, 'mother-in-law,' G. shasui. 

C, Sh. Both these Sanskrit sibilants are represented by the 
Gypsy sA, pronounced as in shall, shore. 

Those Gypsies who live mostly among the Greeks, however, 
particularly in Eoumelia, frequently pronounce this consonant 
like the Greeks, as o : but the Moslem Gypsies give it its proper 
sound, on account of their familiarity with the Turkish, where 
the consonant sh is extremely common. It is important to bear 
this in mind. Shasto, ' healthy,' I have heard pronounced very 
often sasto. The modern Greeks experience considerable diffi- 
culty in pronouncing this sh, excepting those inhabiting the 
Epirus, particularly the villages near Joannina, who give it its 
proper sound. 

Instances are Sr. $asta, 'healthy,' G. shasto; Sr. gru, 'to hear,' 
G. shundva; Sr. gringa, 'horn,' G. shingh; Sr. castra, 'iron,' G. 
shastri; Sr. cita, 'cold,'G. shil, shilalo ; Sr. culla, 'cord,' G. shelo, 
'rope;' Sr. tri(fila, 'trident,' G. turshul, 'cross;' Sr. $aca, 'rabbit,' 
G. shoshoi. 

^is changed to k in Sr. drig, 'to see,' G. dikava. 

Sh is dropped before k in Sr. gushka, ' dry,' G. shuko. 

8. This consonant needs no explanation or comparison. 


A. 0. Paspati, 

H. H is changed to k in Sr. hansa, 'goose,' G. kaind, 'hen.' 
It is dropped in Sr. has, 'to laugh,' G. asdva. 
At times it is commutable with v: as in Sr. /iosto, 'hand,' G. 
vast; Sr. hima, 'snow,' G. fo'v, viv. 


The following remarks on the grammar of the Gypsy lan- 
guage are the results of my studies up to the present time, being 
drawn from my numerous notes and manuscript dialogues. The 
reader can see an illustration of them in the numerous colloquial 
phrases scattered through the Vocabulary. 


The ancient Hindus had no article, and to their demonstra- 
tive pronouns correspond the articles of the cognate European 
languages, which have become separate parts of speech. It 
was natural, then, that the Gypsies, following the example of 
other analytical languages, should also acquire an article. In 
Spain, the article of the Gitanos is the Spanish : here, there is 
evident the influence of the Greek article ; for the Moslem Gyp- 
sies use their article very sparingly, since the Turkish, which 
they mostly employ, possesses no article, properly speaking. 
The Gypsy article is o for the nom. and voc. sing, of the masc. 
and neut. genders, and e for the oblique cases of the singular 
and for the whole plural. The fern, form is i throughout. The 
e of the plural is at times pronounced like o. 



Mane, and Neut. 






Masc. and Neut. Fem. 

Nom. e * 

Acc. e i 

Gen. e t 

Voc. e i 

Whoever is acquainted with the variations of the Greek article 
in the mouth of the common people, cannot be astonished by 
the indefinite character of the Gypsy article. Some Greeks say 

j'^l &v&ix!moi for ioi>s bv&ixbnovi;, t^i yvvaixes for T(ij yvj-cuxaj, TJ yvvatXEZ 

for at ywaixe?, etc. I am certain that whoever should attempt 
to investigate the Greek article, as heard in the mouth of the 
illiterate among our countrymen, would be extremely embar- 
rassed in forming a clear idea of its nature, without referring to 
the ancient language. How then can we look for accuracy and 
exactitude from the mouth of this ignorant people, who have 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 237 

not the least idea of anything more perfect than what they con- 
stantly use in their every day conversation ? 


The Gypsy noun ends either in a vowel or a consonant. 
Nouns ending in Vowels. 

A few end in a: as vrehtula, 'an extinguisher;' as/a, 'tear;' 
makid, 'fly;' vdria, 'weight;' guva, 'pit;' katuna, 'Gypsy tent.' 

Those ending in o are numerous, and are all of the masculine 
and neuter genders: as manro, 'bread;' buko, 'bowel;' chavo, 
'child;' mo/o, 'death;' sunno, 'dream;' charo, 'plate;' gosno, 
'dung;' kurko, 'Sunday;' macho, 'fish;' koro, 'bracelet;' par- 
navo, 'friend;' raklo, 'boy.' 

Nouns in i are less numerous, and are of the masc. and fern, 

Masculine nouns in i are ndi, 'nail;' nildi, 'summer;' mui, 
'mouth;' richini, 'bear;' shoshoi, 'rabbit;' kangli, 'comb;' roY, 
'nobleman;' angustri, 'finger-ring;' rashdi, 'priest;' chum, 'knife;' 
amuni, ' anvil ;' goti, ' brain.' 

Feminine nouns in i are of two classes : 1, those formed from 
the masculine by the addition of nil as guruv, 'ox,' guruvni, 
'cow;' grast, 'horse,' grastni, 'mare;' kfier, 'ass,' kherni, 'she- 
ass;' manush, 'man,' manushni, 'woman;' rdi, 'nobleman,' rant, 
'nobleman's wife;' rashdi, 'priest/ rashani, 'priest's wife:' 2, 
those which are naturally feminine; asoW, 'mother;' soli, 'wife's 
sister;' shashui, 'mother-in-law;' chd-i, 'girl;' kamni, 'pregnant;' 
nubli, 'strumpet.' 

There are other feminine nouns, formed from the noun by 
simply adding the ending i: as chukel, 'dog,' chukeli, chukti, 
'bitch;' devel, 'god,' develi., devli, 'goddess.' As regards such 
feminine nouns as romni, ' woman,' from rom, ' a Gypsy, a man,' 
dasni, ' a Bulgarian woman,' from das, 'a Bulgarian,' I am in- 
clined to think that they are properly feminine adjectives, from 
the masculines ending in ano: thus rom, romano, fern, romani, 
romni; dds, 'Bulgarian,' dasano, 'of a Bulgarian,' {iovtya(>ix6$, 
dasani, dasni, ' a Bulgarian woman ;' grdst, ' horse,' grastano, ' of 
a horse,' Inmxbs, grastani, grastni, Inntxfi, i. e. 'mare;' manush, 
' man/ manushano, ' humanus/ manushani, manushm, ' humana, 
woman.' This termination of i or ni for the fern, nouns has one 
exception, viz. pen, ' sister.' 

Nouns terminating in Consonants. 

These are by far the greatest number. The final consonants 
are g, gh, k, /, m, n, p, r, s, sh, t, v. 


A. #. Paspati, 

Nouns in g are beng, 'devil:' in gh, shingh, 'horn:' in k, yak, 
'fire;' drak, 'grape;' pak, 'wing;' chik, 'mud;' nak, 'nose;' 
poshik, 'soil;' khdink, 'well:' in I, prdl, 'brother;' kerdl, 'cheese;' 
turshul, 'cross;' chukel, 'dog;' devel, 'God:' in ra, row, 'Gypsy;' 
Urn, 'mucus of the nose;' drom, 'road;' kam, 'sun:' in w, arwan, 
'curse;' kann, 'ear;' patrin, 'leaf;' chon, 'moon;' ton, 'place;' 
len, 'river:' injo, rup, 'silver;' sapp, 'serpent;' chip, 'tongue:' 
in r, kher, 'ass;' ker, 'house;' angdr, 'coal;' muter, 'urine;' lindr, 
'sleep;' gher, 'itch:' ins, murs, 'brave;' dives, 'day;' vus, 'flax;' 
mas. 'meat;' res, 'vineyard:' msh, manush, 'man;' trush, 'thirst;' 
bersh, 'year:' in t, ratt, 'blood;' purt, 'bridge;' dat, 'father;' 
grast, 'horse;' vast, 'hand;' shut, 'vinegar;' vent, 'winter:' in v, 
puv, 'earth;' pov, 'eye-brow;' giv, 'grain;' arakdv, 'guard;' suv, 
'needle;' guruv, 'ox;' gav, 'village;' nav, 'name;' lav, 'word.' 

The Gypsy noun has no dual number. Its declension I shall 
attempt in the following remarks to make as plain as possible. 

Declension of masculines in o : 


Nora, o chavo, 'the child,' 
Ace. e chaves, ' the child, 1 
Gen. e chaveskoro, ' of the child,' 
Voc. o chavo, ' child !' 

Of masculines in i: 


e chave, ' the children,' 
e chaven, ' the children,' 
e chavenghoro, ' of the children,' 
o chavdle, ' children !' 


Nom. o rat, ' the nobleman,' 
Ace. e rayes, ' the nobleman,' 
Gen. e rayeskoro, ' of the nobleman,' 
Voc. o rot, ' O nobleman I 1 

Of masculines ending in consonants : 


Nom. o prat, ' the brother,' 
Ace. e prales, ' the brother,' 
Gen. e praleskoro, ' of the brother,' 
Voc. o pral, ' O brother !' 

Nom. o drak, ' the grape,' 
Ace. e drakes, ' the grape,' 
Gen. e drakeskoro, ' of the grape,' 
Voc. o drak, ' O grape !' 

Declension of feminine nouns 


e raye, ' the noblemen, 1 
e rayen, 'the noblemen,' 
e rayenghoro, ' of the noblemen,' 
o raydle, ' O noblemen !' 


e prale, i the brothers,' 
e pralen, ' the brothers,' 
e pralenahoro, ' of the brothers, 1 
o pralale, ' O brothers !' 

e drakd, ' the grapes, 1 

e drakd, ' the grapes, 1 

e drakenghoro, ' of the grapes, 1 

o drakdle, ' O grapes I 1 


Nom. i ddi, ' the mother,' 
Ace. e daid, ' the mother,' 
Gen. e daidkori, of the mother,' 
Voc. e daia. ' mother !' 


e daia, ' the mothers, 1 
e daia, ' the mothers, 1 
e daidnghoro, ' of the mothers,' 
e daidle, ' mothers !' 

On tfie Language of the Gypsies. 239 


Notn. i rakli, ' the girl,' e ra klia, ' the girls,' 

Ace. e raklid, 'the girl,' e rnklia, 'the girls,' 

Gen. eraklidkori, 'of the girl,' e raklienghoro, 'of the girls,' 

Voc. e raft/td, ' O girl !' e raklidle,- ' O girls !' 

The above examples are sufficient to show the reader the gen- 
eral declension of Gypsy nouns ; but before I make any remarks 
upon the cases, it may be proper to bring forward an example 
from Pott's work, in order farther to elucidate the subject. I 
take an example from Puchmayer as found in' Pott (i. 1196) : 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. cziriklo, czirikle, 

Ace. czirikles, cziriklen, 

Voc. czirikleja, cziriklale, 

J)g J * * 

Dat. 2, cziriklcske, cziriklenge, 

Abl. cziriklestar, cziriklendar, 

Soc. czirikleha, cziriklenpa, 

Gen. czirikleskero, cziriklengero. 

These forms are identical with those found among the Gypsies 
of these countries. I decline a noun as pronounced here., fol- 
lowing in the cases the order of the above author : 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. o raklo, ' the child,' e rakle, ' the children/ 

Ace. e rakles, ' the child,' e raklen, ' the children,' 

Voc. e raklo, ' O child !' e rakldle, ' O children !' 

Dat. 1, e rakleste, 'in the child,' e raklende, 'in the children,' 

Dat. 2, e rakleske, ' to the child,' e raklenghe, ' to the children,' 

Abl. e raklestar, ' from the child,' e raklendar, ' from the children,' 

Soc. e raklessa, ' with the child,' e raklentza, ' with the children,' 

Gen. e rakleskoro, ' of the child,' e raklenffhoro, ' of the children.' 

To the reader, at first sight, such a declension must appear 
wonderfully rich and expressive, and so much the more, as it is 
in the mouth of a people who have no intellectual cultivation, 
and who would naturally simplify their language to the utmost. 
But all this richness, which even the Sanskrit does not possess, 
is owing merely to the union of particles with the noun in its 
simplest form ; for the Gypsy noun has properly only four cases : 
nominative, accusative, genitive, and vocative ; while to the ac- 
cusative are joined all these particles, which are similar in both 
numbers, and cannot be properly considered as forming cases. 
Before proceeding to speak of the formation of each case sepa- 
rately, I shall analyze a noun, in order to illustrate and make 
plain the combination of which I have spoken : 

* These cases, omitted by Puchmayer, are eeirikleste in the singular, and eziri- 
klende in the plural. 

VOL. VII. 31 

240 A. G. Paspati, 

Sing. Plur. 

Xom. o raklo, e rakle, 

Ace. e rakles, e raklen, 

Dat. 1, e rakles-te, e raklen-te, 

Dat. 2, e rakles-ke, e raklen-ke, 

Abl. e rakles-tar, e raklen-tar, 

Soc. e rakles-sa, e raklen-sa, 

Gen. e rakles-koro, e raklen-koro. 

The occurrence of the liquid n in the plural varies considera- 
bly the pronunciation of the following consonants, thus : 

Dat. 1, raklen-te is pronounced raklende, 

Dat. 2, raklen-ke " raklenghe, 

Abl. raklen-tar " rnklendar, 

Soc. raklen-sa " raklentza, 

Gen. raklen-koro " raklenghoro. 

In this manner the declension of the Gypsy noun becomes 
extremely clear, and can be reduced to very simple elements. 
There is no more reason for calling rdklendar a case than for 
giving the name of cases to all those adverbs in Greek which are 
formed by the ablative particle tfev, or to such Latin words as 
mecum, tecum, which correspond with the so-called social case of 
the above Gypsy nouns. 

The same mode of declension which is followed by nouns end- 
ing in o holds good also as regards feminine nouns ending in i, 
arid the appended particles are not less distinct and clear. As an 
instance, I give the forms of declension of romni, ' woman :' 

Sing. Plur. 

Nom. i romni, i romnia, 

Ace. t romnid, i ronmia, 

Dat. 1, i romnia-te, i romnian-te (romniande), 

Dat. 2, t romnid-ke, i romnian-ke (romnianghe), 

Abl. t romnia-tar, i romnian-tar (romniandar), 

Soc. t romnid-sa, i romnian-sa (romniantza), 

Gen. i romnid-kori, i romnian-koro (romnianghoro). 

This comparison of the declension of masculine and feminine 
nouns is interesting, as it demonstrates two particulars in the his- 
tory of the Gypsy noun. First, were it not for the so-called 
social case of the plural, we should have been at a loss to know 
whether the final syllable of the singular case was a sa, or a 
simple a united to the accusative, since all nouns without distinc- 
tion have this termination: thus grast, 'horse,' grastessa, 'with a 
horse ' (' on horseback ') ; red, ' a nobleman,' rayessa, ' with a 
nobleman:' plur. grastentza, 'with horses;' rayentza, 'with noble- 
men.' In the feminine gender the case is clear, since Gypsies 
say rakli, 'a female child,' ace. raklid; soc. sing, raklzd-sa, 'with 
the female" child.' This evidently proves the addition of the 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 241 

syllable sa to the accusative, which we shall presently consider. 
As to the plural social, the fact is palpably evident : thus piro, 
pirentza, 'with feet;' chavo, chaventza, 'with children.' 

The second consideration, which is extremely important, is 
that though in the accusative plural of feminine nouns no final 
n exists, it is to be found in all the compound cases of the plural : 
a fact which to me amply demonstrates the former presence of 
this liquid in the accusative plural, although the Gypsies have 
later entirely abandoned its pronunciation. 

I will now proceed to consider more in detail the formation of 
the different cases, taking them up in their order. 

Accusative singular. This case, in the singular of nouns end- 
ing in o, is es: thus par 'navo, 'friend,' ace. parnaves ; macho, 'fish,' 
maches ; sunno, ' dream,' sunnes; manro, ' bread,' is often used un- 
changed : as khandi manro khdva, ' I eat a little bread.' Feminine 
nouns in i form the ace. in a, with the accent on this vowel : 
as romni, 'woman,' ace. romnid; buti, 'business,' butid; nubli, 
' strumpet,' nublid. Nouns in a generally have the same form in 
the accusative : as dsfa, ' a tear,' ace. dsfa ; katiina, ' a Gypsy tent,' 
ace. katuna. To me, however, such words, which are few, are 
properly nouns forming the accusative in as or es, judging from 
their genitives etc.: as katuneskoro, 'of the tent;' a form of this 
character presupposes an accusative katunas or katunes, of which, 
in ordinary usage, the final s has been dropped. Nouns ending 
in consonants, by far the most numerous, form their accusative 
by the addition of es: thus pral, 'brother,' ace. proles; tan, 
' place,' tones ; dat, 'father,' dates ; gav, ' village,' gaves. In nouns 
ending in el and er, as devel, ' God,' chukel, ' dog,' tov er, ' axe,' etc., 
the final syllable drops its vowel : thus devel, ace. devles '; chukel, 
chukles ; tover, tovres. 

Nouns ending in k, as pak, 'wing,' yak, 'fire,' are generally 
pronounced in the accusative with the vowel a: as pakd, ace., 
' the wing,' yakd, ' the eye.' The regular accusative form, with 
its final s, is observed in the genitive pakeskoro, 'of the wing,' 
yakeskoro, ' of the fire.' 

Taking the compound cases, so uniform in their formation, as 
a guide, it appears to me not implausible to lay down the general 
rule that the accusative singular of all Gypsy nouns of the mas- 
culine gender ends in s, and of the feminine in a. 

Vocative singular. This case, of which few Gypsies can give 
any account, is formed, in nouns ending in o, by changing this 
vowel to e: as choro, chore, 'O poor man!' 6tn-ro>x^; chavo, chave, 
1 O boy !' In the feminine it is formed by adding a to i: as ddi, 
ddia, ' mother !' In nouns ending in consonants this case is 
formed by the addition of e: as manush, manushe, '0 man!' 
dot, date, 'O father!' 


Nominative plural In this case, the forms are nearly the same 
with those just given. The nominative of nouns ending in o is 
formed by changing this vowel into e: as chavo, 'child,' chave, 
'children;' charo, chare, 'plates;' raklo, rakle, 'boys;' bakro, bakre, 
' sheep.' 

Nouns in i, whether masculine or feminine, form the nomina- 
tive plural by the addition of a; as rakli, raklia, 'girls;' romni, 
romnia, 'women;' rdi,rdia, 'noblemen;' rashdi, rashdia, 'priests.' 

Nouns in k, by the addition of a; as yak, yakd, 'eyes;' _?>a/t, 
paled, ' wings ;' ruk, rukd, ' trees :' also those in v: as pov, povd, 
' eyebrows. ' 

Nouns ending in other consonants, by adding e: as grast, graste, 
' horses ;' manush, manushe, i men ;' pral, prate, ' brothers.' This 
vowel is. however, often interchanged with a; as rome or romd, 
' Gypsies.' 

Accusative plural This case, of which I have already had oc- 
casion to speak, is formed, in nouns ending in o, by changing this 
vowel to en: as chavo, chaven, 'children;' buko, buken, 'bowels;' 
parnavo, parnaven, ' friends.' 

In feminine nouns in i, it is formed by the addition of a : as 
romni, romnia, 'women;' chdi, chaia, 'girls;' nubli, nublia, 'harlots.' 
The same vowel is added also to masculine nouns ending in i: 
as rashdi, rashdia., 'priests;' mui, muia, 'mouths;' nui, ndia, 
' nails :' also to nouns ending in k and v : as pah, pakd, ' wings ;' 
drak, drakd, 'grapes;' tridk, triakd, 'shoes;' pov, povd, 'eyebrows ;' 
gav, gavd, 'villages.' 

In all the numerous class of nouns ending in other conso- 
nants, this case is formed by the addition of en : as grast, grasten, 
'horses;' pral, pralen, 'brothers;' shingK, shinghen, l horns.' 

Vocative plural-^- This case is formed, in nouns ending in o, by 
the change of the final vowel to die: as chord, chorale, 'O poor 
men!' chavo, chavdle, '0 children.!' In nouns ending in conso- 
nants the same formation is observed : as rom, romidle or romdle, 
' Gypsies !' manush, manushdle, ' O men !' Likewise in feminine 
nouns in i: as rakli, raklidle, 'O girls j' and also with masculine 
nouns in i: as rashdi, rashdle, 'O priests]' 

The reader must not suppose that there is to be found in the 
Gypsy the uniformity observed in many other languages, where 
grammatical usages are more constant, and where even the Ian' 
guage of the most ignorant has always had persons of more re- 
finement speaking it On the contrary, among the Gypsies 
there is such a difference in pronunciation, and such tendency 
to alter the vowels in these case-endings, that the subject at 
times becomes extremely difficult and embarrassing. 

There are remnants of the locative ease of the Sanskrit, but 
the case itself does not exist as an independent one : its place ia 
supplied, as in most European languages, by a particle : the rem- 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 243 

nants referred to are ratti, aratti, 'by night;' tele, ' under, below ;' 
angle, 'forwards.' 

Genitive, singular and plural. The genitive is formed by the 
addition of koro, in both numbers and genders : as richini, richi- 
neskoro, 'of a bear;' sunno, sunneskoro, 'of a dream;' pak, pokes- 
koro, ' of the wing ;' richinenghoro, ' of bears ;' sunnertghoro, ' of 
dreams;' 'pakenghoro, 'of wings.' In the feminine, ddi, daidkori, 
'of the mother;'* chori, choridkori, 'of the poor woman;' plur. 
daidnghon,^ 'of the mothers;' choridnghori, 'of the poor women.' 

This termination, which is no other than the Sanskrit word 
kara (Gr. noiog, I^o,t,faciens), from the root kri, 'to make,' serves 
also to form a great variety of nouns, in a way similar to the 
Greek and Latin terms mentioned. Thus charo, ' plate,' chares- 
koro, 'of a plate,' and 'a plate-maker;' shastri, 'iron,' shastiresko- 
ro, ' of iron,' and ' a worker in iron ;' buti, ' business,' butidkoro, 
'of the business,' and 'a business man, a craftsman ;' bar, 'stone,' 
bareskoro, 'of a stone,' and 'a stone-cutter;' mas, 'meat,' mases- 
koro, 'of the meat,' and 'butcher;' angdr, 'coal,' angareskoro, 'of 
the coal,' and 'a collier.' All these terms, and many other 
similar ones, serve as genitive cases, and are used also frequently 
as adjectives: thus katuna, 'Gypsy tent,' katuneskoro rom, 'a 
Gypsy of the tent,' i. e. oxrjvir^ ; katuneskeri romni, ' a Gypsy 
woman of the tent.' Like all other adjectives, these nouns take 
the usual feminine termination in i : as butidkori, ' a craftswoman ;' 
maseskori, 'a butcher's wife;' macheskori, 'a female dealing in 
fish.' In the declension, also, the final o of the genitive mascu- 
line constantly becomes i in the feminine: as rani, 'the noble- 
man's wife,' gen. ranidkori, and never ranidkoro. 

The confusion resulting from the identity of these terms is 
somewhat avoided by the use of the masculine article 0:0 katu- 
neskoro, ' the tent-maker,' e katuneskoro, ' of the tent ;' o maseskoro, 
'the butcher,' e maseskoro chavo, 'the child of the butcher.' 

There is no other genitive throughout the Gypsy language than 
that formed by the termination koro ; we shall meet it in both, 
adjectives and pronouns, constant and invariable, demonstrating 
amply that the genitive case is properly a possessive, which in. 
course of time lost entirely this signification. 

I come now to consider the other four so-called cases, the first 
and second dative, the social, and the ablative ; and as they are 
common to the nouns and pronouns, what I offer now is equally 
applicable to both. As I differ in my view of them from all who 
have written on the subject before me, it is just to lay before the 
reader the reasons which have convinced me, and have brought 
me to an independent conclusion. 

* Pronounced often ddkwi aud dtikeri f Also daidnghere. 

244 A. 0. Paspatl, 

Grellmann appears first to have studied the formation of the 
cases of the Gypsy noun, and all subsequent writers have more 
or less imitated him. I have remarked, in speaking of the noun, 
that it has properly only two cases, the nominative and the accu- 
sative, from which latter is formed the genitive, by the addition 
of koro, both in the singular and plural, and both in the masculine 
and feminine. I have given also the cases of other authors, called 
dative first and second, social, and ablative. The two datives end 
in te and ke respectively, the social in sa, and the ablative in tar ; 
in the plural, they end usually in de, ghe, tea, and dar, owing to 
the preceding liquid n, which, though lost at present in the accu- 
sative, has been tenaciously preserved in the compounds. The 
social and ablative are well understood, but the difference between 
the two datives is not well defined in the grammars of this idiom. 
The dative ending in te means, according to what I have been 
able to ascertain, 'in, within:' as me sunneste, 'in my dream;' me 
taneste, 'in my town;' terdva me shereste, 'I have in my head;' 
me gotidte, 'in my brain ;' me praleskoro kereste, 'in the house of 
my brother ;' terdvas duk me boriati, ' I had pain in my belly ;' te 
praleskoro biaveste, 'in the marriage of thy brother.' This is 
often heard inverted : as tipak, 'in the wing,' for pakeste ; ti bidv, 
'in the marriage,' for biaveste; Ulcer, for kereste, 'in the house.' 
These examples fully elucidate the meaning of the particle te, 
joined to the noun. 

The second dative, ending in ke, means 'to, towards:' as ma 
' pen yavreske, 'do not say (it) to another;' machenghe Ion chivela, 
' he throws salt to the fish ;' ogheske, ' to the soul,' or ' for the soul.' 
The Gypsies, as in the former case, seem to be abandoning this 
form, and make use of ko and ke before the noun. Still the reg- 
ular form is extremely common in the pronouns, where less 
license can be taken, and where the meaning of these forms may 
be still farther explained and clearly understood. Examples of 
similar inversions we have in modern Greek, where Mwtfe*', txei&er 
have been abandoned for &n' tdu> } tin' Ixer, and the like ; and in 
some parts of Greece, as the Ionian islands, for cbi' td&frsv, &n' 
txt#ei>, a usage found existing among the Greeks of Homer's 

In the pronouns, the particle ke is never placed before the term 
to be expressed, as is the case often in nouns : thus pen mdnghe 
(for mdn-ke), 'say to me;' yavreske, 'to another;' amenghe, 'to 
us;' tumenghe, 'to you;' tuke, 'to thee;' leske, 'to him;' lake, 'to 
ker ;' lenghe, ' to them.' This particle is also often joined to nu- 
merals : as ketenghe kinghidn les ? jovenghe, ' for how much didst 
thou buy it ? for six ; ' bishenghe, ' for twenty ;' and so with all the 

The above examples prove the signification which this particle 
imparts to Gypsy words, and, though less in use than the other 
particle te, it is still extremely clear and definite. 

OH the Language of the Gypsies. ii4o 

The social case, formed by the addition of sa (probably the 
Sr. saha, ' with, together with'), is simple in its construction, and 
very plain in its signification, both in the singular and plural. 
It denotes junction, union, and accompaniment, and is united to 
both nouns and pronouns : as Java grastessa, ' I go with a horse ' 
(i. e. ' on horseback ') ; pindentza, ' with the feet ' (i. e. ' on foot ') ; 
yavre raklentza, ' with other children ;' romnidsa, ' with the wo- 
man;' romniantza, 'with the women.' In the pronouns it is 
universally found: as mdntza, 'with me,' Lat. mecum ; tiisa, 
* with thee ;' amentza, lumentza, lentza, ' with us, with you, with 

The ablative, formed by the addition of tar (probably the Sr. 
tas, which has the same signification, and a somewhat similar use), 
is found also constantly in both numbers and genders, and in both 
nouns and pronouns. That it is a particle, independent of the 
noun, is amply demonstrated by its use in verbs and participles, 
whenever action from a place is intended to be expressed : thus 
nastotar, ' after he departed ' ()iasto, part., ' departed, gone ') ; tapi- 
lotar, 'after it was buried;' allidtar, 'after he came;' Jcamulutar, 
' after dying ;' pelotar, ' after falling.' So also in sostdr, ' because,' 
formed evidently of so the neut. of kon, 'who' and tar; and 
in the local adverbs, as ate, 'here,' attar, 'from here. 7 These 
examples cannot be made to support the opinion of those writers 
who would make this a case. On such principles we should be 
compelled to regard as cases all those combinations with parti- 
cles which impart the idea of direction of action to the noun, or 
indicate its relation to another object, whether animate or inani- 

Such are the considerations which have induced me to exclude 
from the declension of the noun all these forms, which are not 
cases in the proper sense of the word, and to limit that appellation 
to the nominative, accusative, genitive, and vocative alone. 

Diminutive nouns are formed by the addition of oro, and are 
frequently to be heard among all the Gypsies : thus grast, l horse,' 
grastoro, ' a small horse, a young horse ;' chavo, chavoro, ' a young 
child;' das, dasoro, 'a young Bulgarian ; ; jut, jutoro, 'a young 
Jew ;' terno, temoro, 'a youngster. The fern, of these diminutives 
is regular : as chavori, ' a young female child ; ' dasori, jutori, ter- 
nori, etc. They are declined like other nouns in o and i. 

Another class of diminutives ends in tzo: zsbalo, 'hog,' balitzo, 
1 a young pig ;' bakro, bakritzo, ' a lamb.' 


Adjectives end in o, plural e, and correspond in their declen- 
sion to nouns in o. There are some exceptions to this rule : as 
sukdr, 'beautiful;' naisukdr, 'ugly;' naisvdli, 'invalid;' kasuk>'>r, 
'deaf;' namporcme, 'sick.' 

24(5 .1. (/. Paapati, 

All adjectives ending in o and in consonants are masculine 
or neuter. The feminine is formed by changing o to i: as kald, 
' black, 'kali romni, 'black woman;' melalo, 'dirty,' melali chai, 
' dirty girl.' 

The feminine of the above mentioned adjectives not ending in 
o is formed by adding i, often with some variations of the final 
syllable: as sukdr, ' beautiful,' fern, sukarori or sukari; naisvdli 
serves for both genders ; kasukov, fern, kasukovi, ' deaf woman.' 

The other adjectives not ending in vowels are declined like 
nouns ending in the corresponding consonants. 

When adjectives are used otherwise than attributively, they are 
thus declined like nouns ; but when in combination with substan- 
tives, these latter receive the case-terminations, and the adjectives 
then change their o into e: as e kaleskero, 'of the black (man),' e 
kale, manusheskoro, ' of the black man ;' melalen chaven (ace.) is 
pronounced melale chaven, 'the dirty children.' I think, howev- 
er, we may come nearer the truth in assuming that the adjectives, 
in the accusative of both genders, drop the final s and n in pro- 

The comparative degree of the adjective is extremely variable. 
It is mostly formed by adding to the positive the particle po, 
which appears to me to be the Greek nUov, pronounced by us at 
present mo: as po lacho, 'better;' po kalo, 'blacker;' po vuch6, 
' higher.' What inclines me to believe that this is our nw for 
nUov is the fact that the Moslem Gypsies, less acquainted with 
the Greek, adopt the corresponding Turkish word daha, which 
the Turks universally use to form their comparative degree : thus 
daha ey, 'better.' They are not acquainted with the particle po, 
and only a few use it, who mingle with their fellow-countrymen 
the Christian Gypsies. Po is not confined to the pure adjective, 
but is also used in the adverbial form : as po laches, ' better, ' Gr. 
x&Uiov, Lat. melius po vuches, 'higher,' tf^i^Tepo*', aliius. 

Though this is the most constant form of the comparative, and 
though the Gypsies have in this respect imitated their neighbors, 
who have lost in great part the ancient forms of the comparative, 
and have substituted in its stead the nUov, the Gypsy language 
has preserved traces of the ancient comparative of the Sr. in tara, 
the rego; of the Greeks, and which in Persian is regular and ex- 
tremely common. The Latin has not preserved so universally 
as the Greek this original ending of comparison, although it evi- 
dently exists in such terms as exter, inter, alter, etc. 

The Sr. tara is evidently to be recognized in such words as 
me bareder (baro, 'great'), 'my superior;' me ucheder (ucho, 
' high '), ' one higher than me,' ity^Wre^og ^ou. In this form the 
word is at times to be heard, though it is necessary to remark 
that it is not common, and that the Gypsies prefer saying me po 
lacho, me po ucho. At times, like other ignorant people, they 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 247 

join the particle po to the comparative : as po kaloder, 'blacker,' 
lit. 'more blacker;" po parnoder, 'more whiter.' In this they 
have every day imitators, among the Greeks particularly, who 

say mo tiifJijMisgos, nib fi^u^r^isoo?, for simple ^/^ Te ? and (ieyalr\- 
reoog. This form of the comparative is, I am sorry to say, fast 
going out of use. One may hear Gypsies discourse for a long 
time without suspecting its existence. 

As to the superlative, I know of none. Gypsies experience 
the same difficulty as the common Greeks, when they attempt to 
express such an idea: thus lacho, 'good;'jt>o lacho, 'better;' o po 
lacho, ' the best ;' opo Jcalo, ' the blackest ;' Gr. xalbg ) mo xalb?, 6 mb 
xalb?, ' the best.' 

From the adjectives are formed adverbs, as numerous as the 
adjectives, and here the Gypsies experience no difficulty. All 
these terms, extremely common among them, are formed by 
changing the final o into es. They are simple and very expres- 
sive: thus lacho, 'good,' laches, 'well;' shucho, 'clean/ shuches, 
'in a clean manner;' romano, romanes, 'in a Gypsy manner;' 
dasano, dasanes, 'in a Bulgarian manner.' These latter forms 
correspond to the Greek dT^payK/ti, fiovtyagujTi, 

To these adverbs is prefixed the comparative particle po : as 
po vuches, 'higher, altius ;' po laches, 'better;'^*? kales, 'blacker.' 
Also to the proper adverbs of place : as po angldl, ' farther ahead ;' 
po ndpalal, 'still more backwards ;' >o andre, 'farther inwards;' 
po avri, ' farther outwards.' 

The Moslem Gypsies use precisely the same expression, sub- 
stituting the Turkish daha for po, as we have already remarked, 
in treating of the formation of the comparative : thus daha vu- 
ches, daha laches. 


ist Rxrson. 

Sing. Plur. 

Norn 1 , me, * I, f amen, ' we,' 

Ace. man, 'me/ , amdn, 'us,' 

(me, > 

n 1 mindo, t * f f amaro, ) , ,. , 

Gen.< . / > c ofnie, , ', v'ofus.' 

I mmro, ( amanghoro, \ 


2d fh-son. 

Sinff. Plur. 

Nora, tu, ' thou,' tumen, ' ye, 1 

Ace. tut, 'thee,' tumen, 'you/ 

( te > ) t t ' v 

Gen. \ tindd, [ of thee/ \ tumaro [ , f . 

] tinr6, } < tumenghoro, j 

VOL. vn. 32 


Nom. ov, 'he,' 
Ace. les, 'him,' 
Gen. leskero, ' of him,' 

A. G. Paspati, 
3d Person, mate. 

oZ, 'they,' 
len, 'them,' 
Unghero, ' of them.' 

3d Person, fern. 

Sing. Plur. 

Noin. ov y ' she,' o, ' they,' 

Ace. la, ' her,' len, ' them,' 

Gen. lakero, ' of her,' Unghero t ' of them.' 

masc. and neut. 

Nom. mo, 
Ace. mo, 
Gen. me, 

e. and neut. 
Nom. to, 
Ace. to, 
Gen. te, 





1st Person. 

me, ' my, 1 
me, 'my,' 
wif, 'of my,' 

2d Person. 


3d Person. 


amaro, ' our,' 
amare, 'our,' 
amarenghoro, ' of our.' 

tumard, 'your,' 
tumare, 'your,' 
tumarenghoro, ' of your.' 

Whenever the possessive pronoun is used substantively, mo 
becomes mindo or minro; to becomes Undo or tinro. The reader 
has already seen numerous illustrations of this general usage in 
the Vocabulary. All the pronouns are declined like nouns in 

and i. 

There is another form of the possessive pronoun, which is not 
common among the Gypsies in these countries, viz. pes and pi. 
The first is never used except with the 8d person of the passive 
verb, and corresponds to the usual les, ' him ;' the second, pi, is a 
form often found in the place of Uskero, ' of him, his.' To many 
Gypsies this latter is entirely unknown. 

The perusal of the above pronouns illustrates the general 
usage of many languages, where the genitive of the personal 
pronoun seems to form most of the possessives, varied according 
to their union with the substantive. Compare Gr. fyo>, gen. tftov; 

tftb?, fibs, fatTeqos, etc. 

Before comparing these pronouns with those in the Sanskrit, 

1 shall elucidate the use of them by familiar colloquial phrases, 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 249 

by which their meaning and proper employment may be more 
perfectly understood. The same particles which we have so fre- 
quently met in studying the nouns, forming a kind of cases, 
will be observed also with these pronouns. The reader can 
easily understand them by simply referring to what we have 
said on the subject there. 

Is* Person. Kon dela o vutdr ? ' who knocks at the door ?' me 
isom, 'it is I,' fy&e?^/ me nasti kerdva, 'I cannot do;' kon isi? 
me, l who is it ? I.' Kayek jeno na janela man, l no one knows 
me;' te des man, 'that thou shouldst give me;' de man, 'give 
me;' ma de man, 'do not give me;' ma kus m,an, 'do not revile 
me;' mukela man, 'it leaves me.' Me praleskero kereste, 'in the 
house of my brother;' me grasteskoro i zen, 'my horse's saddle;' 
bi mdnghoro, ' without me.' Amen isdmas otid, ' we were there.' 
Na diikeV amdn, 'he does not love us.' Amaro manush, 'our 
man;' amare manushe, 'our men;' amari chip, 'our language;' 
dinids amare chukles, 'he struck our dog;' gurumni amari, 'our 
cow;' amare gotidte, 'in our mind;' kon dinids amare penid? 
' who struck our sister ?' 

2c? Person. Tu ghellidn ti polin? 'didst thou go to the city?' 
tu kerghidnles ? ' didst thou make it ?' tu nasti keresa, ' thou canst 
not do it.' Na resela tut, ' it does not suffice thee ;' murdardva 
tut, ' I kill thee ;' alliom ta dikdv tut, ' I have come to see thee.' 
Te gaveskoro manushe, ' the men of thy village ;' tepraleskoro nav ? 
'the name of thy brother?' Nandi tindo, 'it is not thine;' isi 
tindo, ' it is thine.' Tumen so pendsa ? ' what do ye say ?' Tu- 
maro bidv isi f ' is it your marriage ?' tumare khereskoro, l of your 

Sd Person, masculine. Ki ov ki isds otid, ' and he who was 
there ;' meya, tuya, ki ov, ' and I, and thou, and he,' Kamdva les, 
' I want him ;' astarghiom les, ' I seized him ;' dikdva les, ' I see 
him.' 1 romni teskoro, 'his wife;' leskoro dot, 'his father;' angle 
isds oleskoro, 'formerly it was his;' isi oleskoro, 'it is his.' 01 
manushe, ' those men.' This pronoun is rarely used, and in its 
stead the Gypsies employ akld, akid, ' these,' which we have no- 
ticed in the Vocabulary. Na marela ten, ' he does not beat them ;' 
dikiom len, ' I saw them ;' na pichardv len, ' I do not know them.' 
Lenghero vasidv, 'their mill;' lenghero love, ' their money.' 

3d Person, feminine. 01 romni, 'that woman;' ol gurumni, 
' that cow.' Dikliom la yek dives, i I saw her one day ;' bighidn la, 
' he sold her ;' marelala, ' he beats her.' pral kerela shastri, 
1 her brother makes iron ;' Idkeri dat, ' her father ;' Idkeri moskdri 
(Gr. t*oazfyi), ' her calf;' Idkeri chuchia, ' her breasts.' The plural 
is similar to the plural of the 3d person masculine. 

Possessives. These are extremely regular. Mo dat, ' my fa- 
ther;' mo'shero, 'my head;' middi, 'my mother;' mi pen, 'my 
sister.' To rom, 'thy husband ;' ti romm, 'thy wife;' ti gurumni, 

250 A. 0. Paspati, 

'thy cow.' KaUskero m o Jeer? ' whose is the house?' isi mindo 
or minro, ' it is mine,' No Gypsy says isi mo. The plural does 
not differ from the declension of adjectives in o. Me love, ' my 
money;' me yismata, ' my linen ;' fe tikne isi melale, ' thy children 
are dirty;' 50 kerena te chave? 'how are thy children?' Len- 
ghero is used both for the masculine and feminine of the 3d 
person : lenghero chave, ' of these (women) the children ;' lenghero 
love, l of these (men) the money.' Though these pronouns are 
pronounced without an initial vowel, it appears to me, judging 
from the nominative ov, o, that they should be written olenyhero, 

There is a particular form of the 1st and 2d personal pro- 
nouns, extremely common among all the Gypsies, and which 
cannot but strike a person in conversation with them. This 
form is meya, 'I also;' tuya, 'thou also;' ameya, tumeya, 'we, 
ye also.' Meya pinchardvaks, ' I also am acquainted with him ;' 
isds leskoro, meya kinghiom Us, 'it was his, and I bought it;' tuya 
kamoves ti gav, ' and thou wilt be in the village ;' ameya, tumeya 
ki ol f aven, ' and we, and ye, and they should come.' 


The declension of the relative pronoun, which we have already 
noticed in the Vocabulary, is as follows : 

Sing., Plur. 

masc. fern, neut. 

Nom. kon, kay.a, so, so, 

Ace, kales, kale, kales, kalen, 

Gen. kaleskoro, kaleskeri, kaleskoro, kalenghero. 

It is extremely difficult to obtain an exact statement of this 
pronoun ; even with all my endeavors, I do not know whether 
I have set down the proper forms. The feminine kayo, is rarely 
heard, and the masculine is often substituted in its place. Both 
Turks and Greeks have corrupted their relative pronouns. The 
latter rarely use anything else but their ri, for its, Ti, rives, r/m, 
etc. Of course, the Gypsies are no better than their neighbors. 
It is for this reason that I have not written the feminine and 
neuter of the plural, as I have been particular in the course of 
this memoir not to give to the public aught but what I am con- 
fident is true. 

All the foregoing pronouns are found united to those particles 
which we have noticed in speaking of the cases of nouns. They 
corroborate what I have already advanced, that the so-called 
cases of the Gypsy noun are particles united to the accusative, 
varying according to the characteristic final consonants 5 or n. 

For farther illustration of this subject, I shall follow the same 
plan which I have adopted in other parts of this memoir. Be- 
fhela bashe mdnde, tumende, lende, ' he lives near me, you, them ;' 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 251 

mejdvatusa, ' I go with thee ;' mdnja, 'with me;' nash amendar, 
'depart from us; 1 otendar, 'from them;' nashdva tumendar, 'I 
depart from you ;' penena mdnghe, ' they say to me ;' soske puche- 
sa mdndar? ' why dost thou ask me ?' so kapenes mdnghe ? ' what 
wilt thou say to me?' kapuchdv lestar, 'I shall ask him;' o devel 
terela lenghe, 'God has (care) of them;' kaleste pashe? 'near 
whom?' bi mdngoro nasti keresa, ' without me thou canst not do ;' 
sarnenghe ta penes ks., ke tumarenghe, k' amarenghe, same parna- 
venghe, ' tell it to all, and to your, and to our, and to all the 
friends ;' penghid mdnghe mi tdi, ' said to me my mother ;' te 
pendv tuke, ' that I may speak to thee ;' dikinilo lake, ' appeared 
to her;' tejivel tube, 'may it live to thee' (a form of salutation 
when an animal is bought), .Gr. vb. aov Jijoij; andre lende, 'within 

The following is the complete declension of the personal pro- 
noun, with its particles. 

Sing. PLur. 

Norn, me, * I,' amen, ' we,' 

Ace. man, ' me,' aman, ( us,' 

Dat. 1, mdnde (man-te), ' in me,' amende (amen-te), ' in us,' 

Dat. 2, mdnghe (man-Jce), ' to me,' amenghe (amen-ke\ ' to us,' 

AbL mdndar (man-tar), l from me,' amendar (amen-tar), ' from us,' 

Soc. manja {man-so), ' with me,' amenja (amen-sa), ' with us,' 

Gen. manghoro (mdn-koro), 'of me,' amenghoro (amen-koro), ' of us.' 

The genitive, of both singular and plural, is never used ex- 
cept in connection with bi, ' without:' bi manghoro, bi amenghoro, 
' without me, without us. 1 

Sing. Plur. 

Norn. tu^ ' thou,' tumen, ' ye,' 

Ace. tut, 'thee,' .tumen, 'you,' 

Dat. 1, tutte, ' in thee,' tumende, ' in you,' 

Dat. 2, tuke, ' to thee,' iumenghe, ' to you,' 

Abl. tutar, ' from thee,' tumendar, f from you,' 

Soc. tusa, ' with thee,' tumen ja, ' with you,' 

Gen. tumenghoro, 'of you.' 

In a similar way are declined all the other pronouns. The 
reader has had frequent occasions to observe the cases of the 
relative kon, ' who,' in the Vocabulary. 

Though the Gypsies are fond of placing these particles before 
the noun as ti len, 'in the river,' for leneste ; ti ker, 'in the 
house,' for kereste and though the ablative particle tar is found 
united to indeclinables as often as to nouns, still, in the cases of 
pronouns, these particles seem to be constant, and so tenacious, 
that a Gypsy will laugh at your ignorance, if he should ever 
hear you saying te man instead of mdnde, ko man instead of 

* Unknown to me. 

252 A. 0. Paspati, 


The Gypsy verbs may be classified in two methods : 

1st, Verbs Simple and Verbs Compound ; 

2d, Verbs Neuter, Active, Middle, and Passive. 

Simple verbs are those in which the Gypsy verb is the simple 
Sanskrit root: as dikdva, 'I see;' shundva, 'I hear;' asdva, 'I 

Compound verbs are made up of a primitive word in combi- 
nation with a verb, such as kerdva, ' I do,' avdva, ' I come,' ddva, 
' I give.' I have spoken of these verbs in the Vocabulary (see 
to CHEW), and have shown that the usage corresponds with that 
of the Persians. Kerdva, ' I do,' the kerden of the Persians (Sr. 
kri), united to the primitive word, serves to form active verbs : 
as chamkerdva, 'I chew,' i. e. 'I make chewing;' vrakerdva, 'I 
talk,' i. e. 'I make speech.' This form of the compound verb is 
not so common among the Gypsies as among the Persians or 
the Turks, for the Gypsies have another form of transitive verbs 
which they prefer, as more congenial to their language : at least, 
so it appears to me from their conversation. In fact, the reader 
will observe that in the Vocabulary, in a long list of verbs, there 
occur few compound ones. By many Gypsies these verbs are 
never used, since they prefer the other form of the transitive 
verb, of which I shall, presently speak. The second verb, avdva, 
' to come,' the ameden of the Persians, is extremely common, and 
serves to form a long list of passive verbs, by combination with 
adjectives and participles: as phuriovdva, 'to become old,' Gr. 
yrjQ&axu, Lat. senesco; bariovdva, 'to become great;' bukaliovdva, 
4 to become hungry ;' khokhavniovdva, 'to be cheated;' mattiovdva, 
'to become intoxicated;' shukiovdva, 'to become dry;' melalio- 
vdva, ' to become dirty.' So natural and easy is this form to the 
Gypsies, that they are constantly using it, and with very little 
variation. Avdva, in combination with the adjective or parti- 
ciple, possesses the signification of the Latin fieri, ' to become,' 
and, of course, no other form but an adjective or a participle is 
ever united to it. The final vowel of the adjective or participle 
and the initial a of the verb are blended in such a manner that 
they produce io: as matto-avdva, mattiovdva. This pronuncia- 
tion is very constant. The reader has seen frequent examples 
of such compound verbs in the Vocabulary, and will have re- 
marked their signification in the numerous colloquial phrases 
given under the various verbs. 

I do not refer to this class of verbs those which are formed 
with the auxiliary worn, ' to be,' and more rarely with terdva, 
1 to have,' since these do not differ from similar verbs in other 

Neuter verbs are very common, and are formed directly from 
the Sanskrit root, without any alteration. They are in fact the 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 253 

Sanskrit verb itself, with its active present, of which the final syl- 
lable mi is simply changed into va : as chardva, ' I graze,' Sr. 
char ami; asdva, 'I laugh, 'Sr. hasdmi. 

Active verbs. Besides those formed by the addition of kerdva 
to the root, and which are naturally active, the Gypsies form 
another and very numerous class, whose characteristic sign is the 
penultimate ra: as tapardva, 'I heat,' Gr. ^e^uatvca. This forma- 
tion is so natural, and so usual, that a Gypsy is never at a loss to 
understand it, or instantly to form it, even were it from a Turk- 
ish or Greek root. To his mind it always conveys the idea of a 
transitive action, precisely as we say ctyaraw, 'I love,' fyaniija, 'I 
induce love, I make one love.' 

These transitive verbs must not be confounded with such 
neuter verbs as have the penultimate in ra, and which originate 
from a root ending in r: as chorava, ' I steal,' dardva, 'I fear,' 
terdva, 'I have,' mutrdva, 'I void urine.' Verbs of this class are 
of four syllables, while nearly all the Gypsy neuter verbs have 
three, and a few only two: as ddva, 'I give,' lava, 'I take.' 

These verbs are formed by the addition of ardv a to the primi- 
tive root: as murdardva, 'I murder;' tapardva, ' I cause to burn ;' 
muntardva, 'I shave one.' Tapdva, 'I heat,' is a striking ex- 
ample of the variation of the Gypsy verb : Sr. tap, ' to torment, 
to heat;' G. tapdva, 'I feel warm;' tapardva, '1 cause to burn;' 
tattiovdva, I become hot.' 

Middle verbs. These are extremely simple, formed by the 
addition to the verb of the accusative cases of the personal pro- 
nouns, precisely as the Europeans form their verbs of a similar 
signification : thus Fr. je me lave ; It. io mi lavo. 

Passive verbs. These are rarely used by the Gypsies, who 
prefer the active voice, and instead of saying " I was beaten," 
adopt the expression "one has beaten me." On this account, 
the passive voice is extremely difficult to describe, and such are 
the circumlocutions to which the Gypsies have recourse whenever 
they desire to express a passive idea, that one wonders at the 
ambiguity and vagueness of their language. Often they differ 
so much that the hearer doubts whether he has understood them. 
In a long discourse, the hearer may not meet with a single pas- 
sive form. Even after satisfying himself that a verb is passive, 
upon pronouncing it in the hearing of other Gypsies he may 
meet with contradictions, or his hearers may be unable to under- 
stand him. In such cases, a Gypsy may tell you that such an 
expression is not Gypsy, and that the speaker has no knowledge 
of his language. In fact, I have written many paradigms of 
passive verbs formerly, and, upon examining them, I have found 
that they were at variance with sound grammatical principles. 
For a long time I thought the Gypsies had no passive voice. 
Still not despairing, I have made the paradigm of the passive 


A. Or. Paspati, 

verb, and have finally satisfied myself as to the truth of its 
grammatical construction. 

The reader will see this passive form in the following pages. 
At times the middle voice is used, with the accusative pronouns 
constantly joined to the verb. At times the compound form is 
used for the passive, and the verb which is united is evidently 
avdva. It is united to the Sanskrit root, and not to adjectives 
and participles, as in the more common compound verbs. 

These observations will be better elucidated by paradigms of 
the verb, after giving which, I shall proceed to speak of the 
formation of the tenses. I hope that this course, which I have 
followed in my studies on the subject, will be of service to the 
reader, assisting him to form a clear understanding of the vari- 
ous forms and significations of the Gypsy verb, and of its inti- 
mate relationship to the Sanskrit. 

Of the auxiliary verbs terava, ' I have,' and isom, ' I am,' I have 
little to say. The first is rarely used to form such verbs as we 
see in modern European languages. Its use is mainly restricted 
to express the idea of possession : as terava duk, ' I have pain,' 
i. e. 'I am in pain.' Isom forms a perfect passive, which I shall 
note in its proper place. 


1. isom, 'I am,' 

2. isdn, ' thou art,' 

3. isi, 'he is,' 


1. isomas, 'I was,' 

2. isdnas, ' thou wast,' 

3. isus, * he was,' 

ISOM, ' I am.' 



1. isdmas, 'we are,' 

2. isdna, ( ye are,' 

3. isi, ' they are.' 



1. isdmas, 'we were,' 

2. isdnas, ' ye were,' 

3. isds, ' they were.' 

Sing. Plur. 

1. kamovdv, 'I shall be,' etc. 1. kamovdsa, 'we shall be,' etc. 

2. kamoves, 2. kamovena, 

3. kamovel, 3. kamovena. 

These are all the tenses used : I have never been able to ob- 
tain any knowledge of any other forms. 

CHINAVA, ' I cut.' CHORAVA, ' I steal.' 

Sing. Sing. 

1. chindva, 'I cut,' etc. chorava, 'I steal,' etc. 

2. chinesa, choresa, 

3. chinela, chorela, 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 255 

Plur. Plur. 

1. chindsas, chordsas, 

2. chinena, chorena, 

3. chinena. chorena. 


Sinff. Sing. 

1. chindvas, 'I was cutting,' etc. chor&vas, ' I was stealing,' etc. 

2. chinesas, choresas, 

3. chinelas, chorelas, 

Plur. Plur.- 

1. chinasas, ckordsas^ 

2. chinenas, chorenas, 

3. chinenas. chorenas* 


Sinff. Sinff. 

1 . chinghiom, ' 1 cut,' etc. chorghi6m, 1 1 stole,' etc. 

2. ckinghidn, chorghi&n, 

3. chinghi&s, chorghids, 

Plur. Plur. 

1. chinghiama$i chorghidmas, 

2. ckinghidrij chorghidn, 

3. ckinghid. chorghid.- 

Sing. Sing. 

1 . kamachindva, ' I shall cut,' etc. kamachordva, ' I shall steal,' etc. 

2. kamackinesa, kamachoresa, 

3. Jdantachinelaj kamachorela,- 

Plur. Plur. 

1. kamachindsa, kamachordsa, 

2. kamachinencij kamachorena, 

3. kamachinena. kamachorena. 


2. c^iw, ' cut them,' eAor, ' steal thou,' 

3. me chinelj 'let him cut r ' me chorel, 'let him steal.' 

PZiw. P/wr. 

2. chinen, 'steal ye,' choren, 'cut ye,' 

3. me chinen, ' let them steal.' me choren, ' let them cut.' 


Sinff. Sing. 

1 . /e chindva, ' that I may cut,' etc. te chordvd, 'that I may steal,' etc- 
2. te chinesa, te choresa, 

2. te chinela, te chorela, 

VOL. vit. 33 


A, O. Paspaii, 


1. te chindsa, 

2. te chinena, 

3. te chinena. 



te chordsa, 
te chorena, 
te chorena. 



te chindvas, ' that I might 6ut/ etc. te chordvas, ' that I might steal/ etc 

te chinesas, 
te chinelas, 


te chindsas, 
te chinenas, 
te chinenas. 

chinavdo, ' cut.' 
Verbs ending in vowels : 
DAVA, ' I give.* 

te choresas, 
te chorelas, 


te chordsas, 
te chorenas, 
te chorenas. 


choravdo, l stolen/ 

ddva, ' I give,' etc. 




ddvas, ' I was giving,' etft. 


diniom, ' I gave/ etc. 





LAVA, 'I take/ 



Idva, ' I take,' etc. 
lesa r 


lena r 



Idvas, ' I was taking/ etc. 






liniom, ' I took,' etc. 


On the Language of the Gypsies. 257 

Sing. Sing. 

1. kamaddva, 'I shall give,' etc. kamaldva, 'I shall take,' etc. 

2. kamadesa, kamalesa, 

3. kamadela, kqmalela, 

Plur. Plur. 

1. kamaddsa, kamaldsa, 

2. kamadena, kamalena, 

3. kamadena. kamalena. 


Sing. Sing. 

2. de, ' give thou, 1 /e, ' take thou,' 

3. me del, ' let him give,' me lei, ' let him take,' 

2. cfen, ' give ye,' len, ' take ye,' 

3. me c?ew, ' let them give.' me len, ' let them take.' 


Sing. Sing. 

1. te c?<iva, 'that I may give,' etc. if lava, 'that I may take,' etc. 


Sing. Sing. 

1. te davas, 'that I might give,' etc. te lavas, 'that I might take,' etc. 

dino, 'given.' linilo, 'taken.' 

All the simple verbs are declined in the same manner. There 
is some difference in the aorist, which we shall note in speaking 
of the formation of the aorist. In verbs compounded with k$- 
rdva, ' I make, ' ddva, ' I give, ' the root suffers no alteration in 
the various inflections : as cham-kerdva, 'I chew;' cham-kerghiom, 
'I chewed;' chumi-ddva, 'I kiss;' chumi-diniom, 'I kissed.' 

Compound verbs, as mattiovdva, 'to become intoxicated,' shu- 
kiovdva, ' to become dry,' present no difficulty in their inflection, 
for they differ iu no respect from the above paradigms. The 
aorist of avdva, which alone is inflected, is alliom: mattiUiom, 
1 1 became intoxicated ;' shukilliom, ' I became dry.' 

Verbs of the Middle Voice, 

The conjugation of these verbs is very simple, and differs 
in nowise from the above, except in the pronouns, which form 
the essential character of this class of verbs. 


A. 6r. Paspati, 



ckindva man, * I cut myself/ 
chinesa tut, ' thou cuttest thyself,' 
chinela pes, ' be cuts himself,' 


chindsa 'men, ' we cut ourselves,' 
chinena tumen, ' ye cut yourselves,' 
chinena pes, ' they cut themselves.' 

tovdva man, 4 1 wash myself,' etc, 
tovesa tut, 
tovela pes, 


tovdsa 'men, 
tovena tumen, 
tovena pes. 



I was cutting my- tovdvas man, ' I was washing my- 
self,' etc, 
tovesas tut, 
tovelas pes, 


tovdsas 'men, 
tovenas tumen, 
tovenas pes. 


tovghidm man, ' I washed myself,' 


chinghidn tut, tovghian tut, 

chinghids peg,, tovghids pes, 

Plur. Plur. 

chinghidm 'men,* tovghidm 'men, 

chinghidn tumen, tovghidn tumen, 

chinghid pes f tovghid pes. 

chindvas man, 

self,' etc. 
ckinesas tut, 
chinelas pes, 


chindsas 'men, 
chinenas tumen, 
chinenas pes. 

chinghi6m man, ' I cut myself/ etc, 


1. kamachindva man, ( 

myself,' etc. 

2. kamachinesa tut, 

3. kamachinela pes, 


1. kamachindsa'men^ 

2. kamachinena tumen, 

3. kamachinena pes. 


I shall cut 

kamatovdva man, ' 

myself,' etc. 
kamatovesa tut, 
kamatovela pes, 


kamatovdsa 'men, 
kamatovena tumen, 
kamatovena pes. 

I shall wash 


2. chin tut, ' cut thyself,' tov tut, ' wash thyself.* 

3. me chinel pes, ' let hinj cut him- me tovel pes, ' let him wash him- 

self.' self.' 

* Properly chinghidmas 'men. 

On the Language of ilie Gypsies. 259 



1. te chindva man, 'that I may cut te tovdva man, 'that I may wash 
myself,' etc. myself,' etc. 


1. te chindvas man, 'that I might te tovdvas man, 'that I might 
cut myself,' etc. wash myself,' etc. 

Passive voice. 

Sing. Sing. 

1. chinavdva man, ' I am cut,' etc. choravdva man, ' I am stolen,' etc. 

2. chinavesa tut, choravesa tut, 

3. chinavela pes, choravela pes, 

Plur. Plur. 

1. chinavdsa ''men, choravdva 'mew, 

2. chinavena tumen, choravena tumen, 

3. chinavena pes. choravena pes. 

Sing. Sing. 

1. chinavdvas man, * I was being choravdvas man, ' I was being 

cut,' etc. stolen,' etc. 

2. ckinavesas tut, choravesas tut, 

3. chinavelas pes, choravelas pes, 

Plur. Plur. 

1. chinavdsas 'mm, choravdsas 'man, 

2. chinavenas tumen, choravenas tumen, 

3. chinavenas pes. choravenas pes. 

Sing. Sing. 

1. chintilliom* 'I was cut,' etc. chortillidm, 'I was stolen,' etc. 

2. chintillidn, chortillidn, 

3. chintill6, chortillo, 

Plur. Plur. 

1. chintilldmas, chortilldmas, 

2. chintillidn, chortillidn, 

3. chintillid. chortillid. 


Sing. Sing. 

1. kamachinavdva man, 'I shall be kamachoravdva man, 'I shall be 

cut,' etc. stolen,' etc. 

2. kamachinavesa tut, kamachoravesa tut, 

3. kamachinavela pes, kamachoravela pes, 

* The first person of this tense has a very marked liquid sound of the //. The 
3d, chintlllo, is a simple I always. 


A. 0. Paspati, 


1. kamachinavdsa 'men, 

2. kamachinavena tumen, 

3. kamachinavena pes. 


kamachoravdsa ''men, 
kamachoravena tumen, 
kamachoravena peg. 



1. chinavdo isom, 'I have been cut,' 


2. chinavdo isan, 

3. chinavdo isi, 


1. chinavdo isdm, 

2. chinavdo isdn, 

3. chinavdo isi. 


choravdo isom, ' I have been Bto- 

len,' etc. 
choravdo isdn, 
choravdd isi, 


choravdo warn, 
choravdo isdn, 
choravdo isi. 

For the imperative I have no certain data: the subjunctive is 
usually employed in its place. 



1. te chinavdva man, 'that I may te choravdva man, 'that I may 
be cut,' etc. be stolen,' etc. 


1. te chinavdsa man t 'that I might te choravdsa man, 'that I might 
be cut,' etc. be stolen,' etc. 

The pronunciation of the different persons of the verb used 
by the Gypsies is very peculiar. They are very prone to clip 
off the final vowel of the tenses : thus, instead of chindva, they 
say chindv ; for chordva, chordv, etc. ; in the 2d and 3d persons, 
likewise, for chinesa, chines; chinela, chinel. So also with the 
future, which, more than the other tenses, loses its terminal 
vowel. In fact, very few Gypsies pronounce it in full, and prefer 
the word as though written kachindv, Jcachordv, or kamachmdv, 
Jcamachordv. So also with the aorist, which, in the 1st person 
plural, instead of chorghidmas, chinghidmas, is commonly pro- 
nounced chorghidm, chinghidm. Many Gypsies are aware of this, 
and they tell you that chivel for chivela, chorel for chorela, is vul- 
gar. In this manner are clipped all their verbs. In general, 
the verb retains its final vowel whenever it is at the end of a 
sentence. In their songs the final vowel is generally pronounced. 
I make these remarks, that the reader may the better understand 
many of the colloquial phrases, where I have written the words 
as ordinarily pronounced. To make a paradigm of a verb in 
this clipped form would be preposterous, and would exhibit a 
want of judgment in an author, who should take as a standard 
the constant fluctuations of colloquial use. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 261 

TENSES. Present. This invariably ends, in the first person, 
in va: as sivdva, 'I sew;' chardva, 'I graze;' kamdva, 'I wish;' 
kerdva, ' I make.' It corresponds with the present active of the 
Sanskrit, for we have seen, in speaking of the commutation of 
the consonants, that the m of the Sanskrit is frequently changed 
by the Gypsies to v: compare chardva, 'I graze,' with Sr. chard- 
mi; kerdva, 'I make,' with Sr. karomi, etc. The 2d person sin- 
gular, ending in esa, resembles the corresponding person of the 
Sanskrit, which ends in M: compare charesa, 'thou grazest,' Sr. 
charasi; keresa, ' thou makest,' Sr. karoshi. But the 3d persons 
singular and plural bear no relation to the corresponding San- 
skrit forms. 

Imperfect. The Gypsy language has no augment of any kind 
in any of its verbs. This tense is a mere imitation of the pres- 
ent, to which it adds a final s. It is always pronounced as I 
have written it, without any clipping of consonants or vowels. 

Aorist This is of very frequent use, as it expresses action 
which, among more cultivated nations, belongs to the perfect, 
pluperfect, and aorist. By this tense is expressed past action, 
whatever its state or relation to other subjects, or its state of 
completion with reference to the time expressed. It is formed 
by adding to the root the syllable ghiom or Horn, whenever the 
root ends in a consonant: as chindva, aor. chinghiom, 'I cut;' 
sovdva, aor. sovghiom, 'I slept;' pendva, aor. penghiom, 'I said;' 
bisdva, aor. bisghiom, 'I inhabited;' bashdva, aor. bashghiom, 'I 
cried;' chivdva, aor. chivghiom, 'I threw;' shundva,aoT.shunghi6?n 
or shinghiom, 'I heard;' merdva, aor. merghiom, 'I died.' 

Verbs whose roots end in vowels form the aorist in Ii6m or 
tiiom:* as lava, aor. liniom, liom, or liliom, 'I took;' ddva, aor. 
diniom, 'I gave;' jdva, aor. ghelliom, 'I went;' avdva, aor. alliom, 
'I came.' 

Verbs whose penultimate is ka form the aorist in a similar 
manner : as dikdva, aor. dikliom, ' I saw ;' chikdva, aor. chikliom, 
' I muddied ;' pekdva, aor. pekliom, ; I cooked ;' nakdva, aor. nak- 
liom, 'I passed;' makdva, aor. makliom, 'I painted.' 

The passives, and such compound verbs as have avdva for their 
compound verbal element, never can have any other aorist than 
that of avdva, viz. alliom. They are always easily distinguished, 
and form a very prominent part in every Gypsy's conversation : 
thus kindilo is the 3d pers, sing. aor. of the pass, kinavdva man, 
'I am bought,' kindilliom, 'I was bought;' limlo, 'it was taken,' 
from lavdva man, 'I am taken,' liniliom, 'I was taken.' These 
forms, linilo, kindilo, and the like, are used as passive imperson- 
als, and at times, united to the auxiliary verb isom, they form a 
distinct tens) or rather, enforce the original meaning of the 
aorist itself. 

* So also, exceptionally, banddva, aor. bancUiotn, ' I tied.' 

262 A. G. Paspati, 

Future. The formation of this tense is extremely interesting, 
for it originates from another verb, kamdva, ' I wish, ' Sr. kam, 
which we have already explained in the Vocabulary. It is pre- 
fixed to the Gypsy verb without any intermediate term, and it 
then forms the future. There are three modes of uniting it with 
the verb. A Gypsy can say kamajdva, kamjdva, or kajdva, ' I 
will go ;' kamakerdva, kamkerdva, or kakerdva, ' I will make.' I 
have heard these various forms used indifferently, and I have 
put similar questions to different Gypsies, and the word has 
been pronounced in these various forms. However, the first 
form, kamakerdva, is rarely used : they prefer kamkerdva, follow- 
ing their usual habit of clipping the vowels in their conversa- 
tion. This form of the future is of altogether modern origin. 
The Modern Greek has also lost the ancient form, and has 
adopted the auxiliary x^iw. corrupted to #d : as #<i tfTKtyw, ' I will 
go.' We say now. more generally #*w fridyety, though the com- 
mon people still cling to the #<i. Kam is added to itself to 
express future wish: as kamkamdv, l l shall wish;' precisely as 
we now say #d to'iw. I do not think that the Gypsies have 
imitated their neighbors the Greeks in the formation of this 
tense : they have followed the general analytical spirit, which 
has so extensively pervaded modern languages. The English 
makes large use of will, shall, would, should, in the formation of 
its futures. 

Imperative. This mood exhibits in most cases a striking simi- 
larity to the primitive Sanskrit root. Were not the different 
formations of the Gypsy verb so very clear, it would have been 
extremely easy to recognize the root in the simple form of the 
imperative: thus kerdva, 'I make,' imp. ker; shundva, 'I hear,' 
imp. shun; dikdva, 'I see,' imp. dik ; Java, 'I go,' imp.ya; ku- 
shdva, 'I revile,' imp. kush; ddva, 'I give,' imp. de; lava, 'I 
take,' imp. la or le. In the compound verbs, the imperative is 
formed solely from the second verb: as vrdkerdva, 'I speak,' 
imp. vraker ; chumiddva, 'I kiss,' imp. chumide. In the transi- 
tive verbs, the formation follows the same rule as in the simple 
neuter verbs, by rejecting the final syllable ava: as tapardva, ' I 
make warm,' imp. tapdr ; murdardva, 'I murder,' imp. murddr. 
As for the imperative of the passive, I have always heard the 
subjunctive used in its stead. 

Subjunctive. This mood represents both the subjunctive and 
the infinitive, and the usage of it becomes very clear after ob- 
taining a little knowledge of the language. There is no vestige 
of the Sanskrit infinitive, and the Gypsies, like the Greeks and 
modern Slavonians, make use of the indicative mood. The 
Greeks use their particle vft, the ancient Iva ; and the Slavo- 
nians dko and da. This latter was in use among the ancient 
Slavonic nations, in the optative and imperative moods, pre- 
cisely as the particle ?** of the Greeks was an optative, and in 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 263 

course of time lost its initial *, and became the " of our modern 
Greek, so common now in the language that it is constantly to 
be heard wherever the modern Greek is spoken. To us, and to 
the Bulgarians, the subjunctive of the Gypsies is perfectly intel- 
ligible and extremely natural, but to others this is not the case. 
Te is the particle always prefixed, and it is never pronounced 
ta but, whenever the verb begins with a vowel, te drops its 
own. A few examples will fully illustrate the subject: alliom 
te dikdv, 'I have come to see,' i. e. 'in order that I may see;' 
pen lenghe t' aven, 'tell them to come;' Gr. tint &VTOV? *d &#OK, 
' that they come.' Again, it is used as a pure optative mood : 
thus te jivel tuke, 'may it live to thee;' Gr. Iva ^ay, or va ^ajj: 
the whole phrase naturally would be e^o^/at Iva z^o^, < I pray that 
it may live;' kamdva te shikliovava, 'I wish to learn.' In this 
example, the subjunctive is evidently a pure infinitive. 

I have heard at times the Gypsies using the infinitive as a 
noun, as the modern Greeks do : to t>& (Itema, TO v& zplena. 

The aorist is sometimes used in the subjunctive with the par- 
ticle te ; more generally the imperfect is employed. 

The subjunctive used as infinitive is not altogether devoid of 
expression, for it possesses number and person, which the ancient 
infinitives had not. At times it is extremely clear and definite, 
far more so than the ancient. This form of the infinitive ia 
known both to the Christian and Moslem Gypsies. These latter, 
many of whom know not a word of Greek or Bulgarian, could 
not have borrowed it from the Turkish, which has a proper and 
regular infinitive, and whose verb in richness and variety is not 
surpassed by that of any language, ancient or modern. Besides 
this, the Gypsy verb makes but a poor comparison with the va- 
rious complex moods and tenses of the Turkish verb. To me 
it appears probable that the natural bent of the human mind, 
and its progress towards simplicity of expression, have operated 
with equal force upon the spirit of the Gypsy as upon that of 
other modern languages, in which such a striking similarity 
exists in the various forms of their verbal expression. 

Participle. This is not so clear or so well defined as the other 
parts of the Gypsy verb. Some participles are pure Sanskrit 
words. Others are formed from the Gypsy verb itself, in a man- 
ner altogether peculiar to this idiom. In the first class belong 
such terms as Sr. tapta, 'heated,' G. tatto ; Sr. supta, 'asleep,' G-. 
sutto or sotto ; Sr. purta, 'full,' G. per do. To the second class 
belong a great number formed from the Gypsy verbs, pronounced 
in various ways by different Gypsies, and not always familiar to 
them all. They seem to take their origin, at times, from indi- 
viduals who have more or less knowledge of their idiom. The 
same remark applies to the modern Greek, where one may hear, 
as participles of Uyu t foy& t uevo; t iey^eyos, and 
VOL. vii. 34 

264 A. G. Paspati, 

The following is a list of those Gypsy participles which have 
appeared to me to be correct, and which I have frequently heard 
used : sivdva, ' I sew,' part, sivdo, ' sewn ;' chardva, ' I eat,' part. 
charavdo ; asdva, 'I laugh,' part, asavdo ; ddva, 'I give,' part. 
dino ; jandva, ' I know,' part, jando ; chindva, ' I cut,' part, chindo 
or chinavdo; kerdva, 'I make,' part, kerdo ; pidva, 'I drink,' part. 
pilo; mutrdva, 'I void urine,' part, muterdo ; nashdva, 'I depart,' 
part, nashto ; chumiddva, 'I kiss,' part, chumidino dardva, 'I 
fear,' part, daravdo ; shundva, ' I hear,' part, shundo ; bishdva, ' I 
inhabit,' part, bishto; munddva, 'I shave,' part, mundavdo ; pird- 
va, 'I walk,' part. pirdo ; astardva, 'I hold,' part, astardo; jdva, 
' I go,' part, jadlo ; mukdva, ' I let go,' part, mukavdo ; bashdva, 
' I cry out,' part, bashto; chivdva, ' I throw,' part, chivdo ; pekdva, 
'I cook,' part, peko ; tovdva, 'I wash,' part, tovdo ; mardva, 'I 
strike,' part, maravdo; resdva, 'I finish,' part, resavdo ; makdva, 
' I paint,' part, makavdo. 

From this list the reader can see the great variety of the par- 
ticiples existing in the idiom of the Gypsies. Those formed 
from simple neuter verbs, as makdva, makavdo, 'painted/ resdva, 
resavdo, ' finished,' are of pure Gypsy formation ; whilst peko, 
' cooked,' is related to Sr. pakva, ' baked, heated, cooked,' etc. 
I have in the course of the Vocabulary noticed such participles 
as are of indisputable Sanskrit origin. 

The reader will observe in the paradigms of the active verb 
that I have noted the participles chinavdo and choravdo. These 
participles have a passive signification, and as such they are con- 
stantly used by the Gypsies. As to the proper active partici- 
ples, I confess that I know of none ; the Gypsies seem to make 
no use of such forms, but in their stead employ the verb, as the 
modern Greeks constantly do. The Turks, however, are ex- 
tremely fond of the participle, and are using it constantly. 

This want of active participles is another proof of my asser- 
tion, that whilst both Greeks and Turks have given many ex- 
pressions to the Gypsies, they have not influenced their gram- 
matical system, which has followed those natural principles by 
the operation of which languages of older date have been 
moulded into their present form, each one by itself, and independ- 
ent of the others. This holds good with the Gypsy, and if I have 
remarked in the course of this memoir that the Gypsy language 
has been thoroughly permeated by the Greek and Turkish lan- 
guages, it still appears to me true that it has been formed, as to 
its fundamental principles, independently of both. So also the 
Modern Greek, which, though constantly imitating the Turkish, 
has never had any connection with it in its elementary and 
grammatical forms, for both languages are essentially distinct 
from each other. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 



abchin, steel. 

achdi, yet. 

achardva, to sigh. 

achdva, to rest ; achardd, remained. 

achibes, Bor., to-day. 

achinelar, Bor., to cut. 

akand, now. 

akata (s. within). 

akhor, akor, nut ; akhorin, akorin, nut-tree. 

akiarghiom, sighed. 

akld, akhid, this. 

alliom (s. come), came (cf. 261). 

amdksi (s. up), carriage. 

amdl, partner. 

ambrol, pear ; ambrolin, pear-tree. 

amuni (Bor., amini), anvil. 

andva, to bring. 

andre, within; andrdl (andrydl), from 

within ; cf. behind. 
angdli, armful. 

angdr, coal ; angareskoro, collier. 
angle, forwards ; anglutrw, foremost ; an- 

gldl, from the front. 
august, angrust, finger. 
angustri, angrusti, ring. 
anro, Bor., egg. 
apdives, to-day. 
aquia, Bor., eye. 
arajay, Bor., priest. 
arakdv (Bor., aracate\ guard; arakdva 

(Bor., arakatear), to guard. 
arati, Bor., blood. 
aratti, night. 
armdn, curse. 
aruje, Bor., wolf. 
asdn, wheel. 
asdva, to laugh, 
as/it, tear. 
ashardva, to praise. 
astalo, piastre. 
astardva, to hold. 
astra, Bor., moon, 
ate', here ; attdr, hence. 
avakd, avkd, avakhd, avakUd, this. 
avatid, here. 
avdva, to come. 
avdives, to-day. 
aver, avel, Bor., other. 
avghin, honey. 

avkos, first. [eigner. 

avri, out ; avridl, from out ; amdno', for- 

bacria (a. sheep), Bor., goat. 

bdgnm, bath. 

bahtald, unfortunate. 

bafitze (s. near), garden. 

bako (2ai), paU. 

bakro, sheep; bakri, ewe; bakricho (bak- 

ritzo, 245), lamb. 
bal, hair. 

'balamo, Greek ; balamano, adj. 
toW, swine ; balicho (balifzo, 245), dimin. 

banddva, to shut, to tie ; bandlmpd, band. 

bangdva (234), pangdva. 

bar, stone ; bareskoro, stone-cutter. 

baravalo, rich. 

baribu, Bor., much. 

baro, great ; bareder (246), comp. ; bario- 

vdva (s. increase). 
baro, heavy. 
bos, Bor., hand. 
bashdva, to cry out. 
bashe, near ; bashdl, from near. 
bashipe, habitation, 
feosno, bashno, cock. 
6a<o, 6a<w, Bor., father. 
ben, birth. 
bendva, to beget. 
bendva, to say. 
6enA (Bor., bengue), devil ; 6en^ (238) ; ben- 

galo, devilish. [seaman. 

bero (Bor., bero, berdo), ship; bereskoro, 
bersh (Bor., berji), year. [possess. 

beshdva (s. habitation), to inhabit, sit, 
bestipen, Bor., habitation; bestelar, Bor., 

to inhabit. 
6eze'A, pity. 
6t, without. 
bidv, marriage. 

bidva (s. when), to be delivered. 
bighidn (249), he sold. 
bikindva, bikndva (s. buy), to sell. 
bush, Bor., bis, (s. numbers) twenty. 
bishdva (234), busdva (261), beshdva. 
bteto (s. habitation), seated. 
biv (Bor., 6i/!), snow. [hungry. 

bokalo, hungry; bokaliovdva, to become 
boldva, to baptize ; bolipe, baptism. 
bopi, bean. 
bor, belly. 

bordon (s. ship), tweWn. 
6ov, oven ; boveskero, baker. 
bracuni, Bor., sheep. 
brakerdva (s. Jew), for vrakerdva. 
brishundo (Bor., brijindel), rain. 
buchardo (s. cover), uncovered. 
buglo, broad ; bugliomva, to spread out. 
biiko, bowel. 
bunista, dung. 
burda, Bor., door. 
burnek, handful. 
burshin, rain. 
&M*, straw. 
6ws, Bor., much. 
busni, Bor., sweet. 
6w<, butld, much. 

buti, business ; butiakoro, day-laborer. 
buzno, buzni (s. buck), she-goat ; buznord, 
buzos, buck. [kid. 

cajuco, Bor., deaf. 
callicaste, Bor., yesterday. 
calo, callardo, caloro, Bor., black. 
cambri, Bor., pregnant. 

* Added by the Committee of Publication, as an important, and almost indispens- 
able, appendix to Dr. Paspati's article. 


A. 0. Paspati, 

cangri, Bor., church. 

cant, Bor., hen. 

eastern, Bor., wood. 

canto, Bor., hammer. 

chachipe, truth ; chachipand, true. 

chdi (s. boy), girl. 

ehaja, Bor., cabbage. 

chaliovdva, to be sated. 

Maw, kiss. 

chamkerdva, to chew. 

Mad, boy. 

Mar, grass ; chardva, 

chare it (s. wing), possible. 

cfiaro, plate ; chare'skoro, plate-maker. 

chartdva, to vomit ; chartimpd, vomiting. 

chattdva, to vomit ; chattimpe", vomiting. 

chavo, boy-child. 

chavory (s. boy), Bor., girl. 

chavr'i, chicken. 

chergheni (Bor., cherdillas), star. 

chibes, Bor., day. 

chik, chikd, mud ; chikdva (261), to muddy. 

chikhandi (a. little), in a little while. 

chiktdva, to sneeze. 

chimutra, Bor., moon. 

chin, till. 

chindva (Bor., chinelar), to cut. 

chinday, Bor., mother. 

chiniovdva, to be tired. 

chinkerdva, chingherdva, to pierce. 

chip, tongue. 

chirdo, Bor., dwarfish, small. 

chiriklo, bird. 

chivdva, chitdva, to throw (also s. poor). 

choldva, to steal. 

choldva (s. cut), to whittle. 

MOM, moon, month. 

chordva, to steal; chor, chornd, chitrno, 

thief; chordikano, stolen. 
chori, Bor., knife. 
chord, poor ; choript, poverty. 
chorydl, secretly. 
chova, Bor., hand. 
chuche, chuchi, breast. 
chuchd, empty. 
chukel, dog ; chukli, bitch. 
chukni, tobacco-pipe. [to kiss. 

chumi (Bor., chupendi), kiss; chumiddva, 
chungalo, miserable. 
chungdrva, to spit ; chungtr, spittle, 
churn (Bor., chulo), knife. 
churno (s. steal), thief. 
chtiti, Bor., milk, 
etna, Bor., passover. 
cornicha, Bor., basket. 
crallis, Bor., king. ) 
cremen, Bor., worm, 
cwfco, curque, Bor., Sunday. 

daAa (246), more, 
drfi, mother, 
da?, door. 
dal, Bor., fear. 
da (Bor., dani), tooth. 
dantdva, dantildva, to bite. 
dar, door. 

dar, fear ; dardva (Bor., darabar, daranar), 
to fear. [ate-tree. 

dardv, pomegranate ; daravin, pomegran- 
das, Bulgarian ; dasikant, adj. 

dat, father. 

ddva, to give ; de, imper. 
de, mother. 
deW/, Bor., god. 
dela, it rains. 

denilo, fool ; deniliovdva, to become a fool. 
dento, Bor., young. 
derydv, sea. 

desA (s. numbers), ten. [godly. 

d<?iK#, god ; devli (231), goddess ; devlikano, 
dialezdva (s. write), to select, 
diar, dicar, Bor., to see. 
dikdva, dikhdva (dihdva, didva), to see. 
dimi, dimish, pantaloon ; dimioM, wearing- 
dinar, Bor., to give. [pantaloons. 
dinelo, Bor., fool. 
dind (257), given. 
disild, day breaks. 

dives day ; diveseskoro, day's wages. 
domuk, fist, 
draft, grape. 

drom (Bor., dron, drwn), road, 
dwa, dw^a, Bor., pain. 
dudum, gourd. 
dui (s. numbers), two. 
duk, pain ; dukdva, to be in pain, to love ; 

dukhaipd, love ; dukhani, mistress. 
dulevdva (s. near), to work. 
dum6, back. 
duquipen, Bor., pain, 
dwr, afar ; durdl, from afar. 

eftd (s. numbers), seven ; eftavardJri, sev- 
eketane, together. [enty. 

enre, Bor., within. 
erajay, Bor., priest. 
eresia, Bor., vineyard. 
estuche, Bor., sword. 

/ar, time, times. 
fdrkia, scythe. 
fele, down. 
fendo, Bor., good. 
foros, market-place. 
furi, colt. 
/rd, old. 

gdlpea, gold. 

500, Bor., village. 

gardva, to conceal ; flrara<iArawd,mysterions. 

garipe (s. itch), Bor., scab. 

gav, village ; gavudnd, villager. 

gel, Bor.. ass. 

ghamee, Br., ship. 

ghantdva, to comb. 

gheldva, to play (in music). 

gheles, always. 

gheliom, gherghidm (s. go), went ; cf. 261. 

ghendva, to count. 

gher, itch ; gheralo, itchy. 

gherdva, to make. 

ghermo, worm. 

ghili (ghild), song ; ghilidva, ghiliovdva, to 

sing ; ghilimpe, instrument of music. 
ffhiveg, day. 
ginar, Bor., to count. 
giv (Bor., <#), grain, wheat. 
give, Bor., snow. 
gorbi, Bor., ox 
, bad. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 


goshdva, to cleanse. 

goshnd, dung (gosnd, 237). 

god, brain ; gotiave'r, intelligent. 

grafdva, to write. 

grant (Bor., gras, gra), horse; grastni 

(Bor., grani), mare; grastand (grdi), 

adj. ; grasteskoro, horseman. 
gris, Bor., cold. 
gudlo, sweet. 
guel, Bor., ass; itch. 
guillabar, Bor., to sing. 
guruv, guri, ox ; guruvni, gurumni, cow. 
(s. hen), Bor., goose. 

<7?<y, Bor., grain, wheat. 

handiovdva (332), khandiovdva. 

hanld, sword. 

hapai, apple. 

has, cough ; hasdva, to cough. 

Mndovi (s. from), India. 

hirdd (232), = khurdo. 

hohaimpe (232), =- khohaimpe. 

ich (s. come), yich. 

iniya (s. numbers), nine; iniyavarderi, 

ishtdr (s. numbers), four. [ninety. 

iv, snow. 

iv, grain, wheat. 

jamutrd, son-in-law. 

jandva (s. negation), to know. 

jangdva, to awake. 

jdva, to go ; jadld (264), part. 

jel (s. itch), small-pox. 

Jeni, Bor., ass. 

jend: kayekjend, no one. 

jeroro, Bor., ass ; jerini, fern. 

jil,jir, Bor.. cold. 

j'M, Bor., grain, wheat. 

jinar, Bor., to count. 

jivdva, to live. 

jojana, Bor., lie. 

jw-o, Bor., head. 

jVw, barley. 

joz/ (s. file), six. 

jucal, Bor., beautiful. 

juco, Bor., dry. 

jumeri, Bor., bread. 

junar, Bor., to hear. 

Jw<, Jew ; jutano, Jewish. 

juter,juti, Bor., vinegar. 

jw<ia (s. sew), Bor., needle. 

juv, louse. 

to, who, which. 

kdde (a. early), every. 

Ttdini, kogni, kaind, hen. 

kalipe, excommunication. 

kalo, black. 

kam (Bor., cam, ca), sun. 

kamdva (Bor., camelar), to wish. 

kamlioipd, kamnioipJ, perspiration ; kam- 

16, perspiring ; kamniovdva, kamlwvdva, 

to perspire. 
kamni, pregnant. 

kdndela, it stinks ; kandiniko, stinking. 
kangli, comb. 
kann, ear. 

'cdnna, when. 

kar, pudendum virile. 

'carghiri, church. 

fcdrijt, where. 

kasM, kash, kast, kas, wood. 
kasukov, deaf. 
katdr, from. 
katdr, whence. 
katdva, to spin. 
katuna, Gypsy tent. 
kayekjend, no one. 
ke, who, which. 
kebor, how many. 
keldva, to play (in music). 
kelipe (s. because), dance. 
far, house. 
kerdl, cheese. 

keral6 (s. wash), gTierald. 
kerdva, to make. 
kerkd, bitter. 
kermd, worm. 
keti, how much. 
kfur, heel. 

khan, crepitus ventris. 
khandi, little. 

khanink, kfiaink, well. \jdva, neut. 

khanjovdva, khandiovdva, to scratch ; khan- 
khanld, sword. 
Mar, pit. 

khasoi (s. eat), food. 
khatdva, to dig. 
khdva, to eat. 

kheli, fig ; khelin, flg-tree. [part. 

khidva, khlidva, cacare; khendd, khlendd, 
khohaimpe, lie; khohavnd, khohand, liar; 
khohavnfovdva, to be deceived. 

khokhavnwvdva, to be cheated. 

kholiterdva, kholiazdva (s. write), to be an- 
gry ; kholiniakoro, angry. 

khor, deep. 

khorakhdi, Turk ; khorakhand, Turkish. 

khristune, Christmas. 

khur, heel. 

khurdo, dwarfish, small. 

kildv, plum ; kilavin, plum-tree. 

kilavdd (s. rich), fat. 

kilo, stake. 

kindva, to buy. 

kirvd, sponsor ; kirvi, god-mother. 

kisi, sack. 

kiustik, girdle. 

koch, knee. 

kdkkalo, bone. 

kolin, bosom. 

kon, who. 

kopdna, trough. 

kori (s. shut), neck. 

korin, root. 

kord, blind. 

kwd (237), bracelet. 

koshdva, to cleanse. 

kdshnika, basket. 

kotor (s. cheese), little. 

ksUldbi, ksittdvi, tongs. 

kukudi, hail. 

kuri, colt. 

kurkd, Sunday. 

kurld, throat. 

kushdva, to revile (also ifcws, 249). 


A. O. Paspati, 

labelar, Bor., to sing. 

/iii-hii//ij (s. ashamed), shameful. 

laches, well. 

lachipe, alms. 

lacho, good. 

lahtddva, to kick. 

lajdva, to be ashamed. 

lattgar, Bor., coal. 

lav, word. 

lava, to take, get. 

len, river. 

li, Bor., paper. 

Ukhnari (s. sleep), lamp. 

lillar, Bor., to take, get. 

Urn, mucus. 

lindr, sleep ; lindrald, sleepy. 

linilo (257), taken. 

frr, ZiJ, paper. 

loko, light. 

Zo?d, red. 

7o, salt ; londardva, to salt. 

?ona, Bor., sea, 

loshaniovdva, to rejoice; loshand, rejoic- 

?<><?, money, [ing; loshanaipt, joy. 

7w6wi (to&nt, 331), harlot. 

Zwy, Bor., wolf. 

Ivludi (s. similar), flower. 

Zmi, lumiaka, Bor., harlot. 

nwi, negation. 

macha, Bor., fly. 

macho, fish ; macheskoro, fisherman. 

inajara, Bor., half. 

makdva, to paint. 

makid, fly. 

malkoch, a Gypsy tribe. [posite side. 

wiamwi, opposite ; mamuydl, from the op- 

mang, Bor., meat. 

WWMWO, mando, bread ; manreskoro, baker. 

manukio, maniklo, stump (of vine). 

manush (Bor., manu, mamts), man; mo- 

mwAtti (231), woman ; manushanti (237), 
mdra, sea. [human. 

mardva, to beat. 
marno, marly, bread, 
man*, Bor., man; manipe, mankind. 
WKM, meat ; maseskoro, butcher. 
masek, month. 

mashd, tongs. [tween. 

maskare, between; maskardl, from be- 
master, blacksmith. [drunk. 

matto, drunk ; mattiovdva, to become 
mel, dirt ; melalo, dirty ; melaliovdva, to 

become dirty. 

meligrdna, Bor., pomegranate-tree. 
merdva, to die. 

merdo (s. die), Bor., sick ; see also invalid. 
meripe, death. 
mermori, tomb. 

milia, Bor., milan(s. numbers), thousand. 
minch, pudendum muliebre. 
mishdkos, mouse. 
mnemori, tomb. 
mol, wine. 
mollati, Bor., grape. 

molo, death. [worker in leather. 

morti (Bor., morchas), leather ; mortidkoro, 
moxkdre (s. beget), calf. 
moste (s. shut), from miii. 

moskovis, Russian. 

muclar, Bor., to void urine. 

mwt, mouth ; muydl, muiydl, in front. 

mukdva, to abandon. 

mitlano, ripe ; mulanokerdva, to ripen. 

mulana (s. dirty), dark. 

mulotar (s. die, also 245), after dying. 

muntdva (munddva, 264), to shave ; mun- 

tardva (253). 
murdardva, to murder. 
murt, brave, male, boy. 
murtardva (s. die), to murder. 
mustio, mouse. [void urine. 

muter, urine; mutrdva (Bor., mutrar), to 

na, negation. 

ndi, nail. 

naisvdli (naisbali, 234), invalid. 

naisukdr (s. negation), not handsome. 

najabar, najar, Bor., to depart; to lose; 

nak, nose. [najipen, loss. 

nakdva, to pass. 

namporeme, invalid ; nampw'ma,sickness. 

nandi, negation. 

nan</6, naked. 

nao, Bor., name. 

napaldl (s. behind), afterwards. 

naqui, Bor., nose. 

nashdva, to depart. 

nashavdva, to lose. 

nasti, negation. 

nasto, departed. 

nasukdr, ugly. 

nav, name. 

ne, negation. 

nevo (Bor., nebo, nebel), new. 

niglavdva (niklavdva, 234), to go out. 

nildi, summer. 

ninelo, Bor., fool. 

mtbli, harlot. 

oghi, heart ; oykeske, alms. [eighty. 

ohto (s. numbers), eight; ohtovardM, 

okand, now. 

okhid, this. 

oklixto, mounted. 

onghi, heart. 

opre, up ; oprdl, oprydl, from above. 

orioz, Bor., wolf. 

orobar, Bor., to weep. 

ostebel, Bor., god. 

ostelis, osteli, Bor., down. 

oil (s. negation), for ate. 

otid (s. why), there. 

pachandra, Bor , passover. 
pachdva, to ask. 
pai, water. 
paillo, Bor., Greek. 
pak, wing. 
pakidva, to believe. 
pako, bald. 

palabear, Bor., to shave. 
paldl, behind ; palalutiio, second. 
palt'dl, wind. 
patich (s. numbers), five. 
pangdi>a, to break. 

pangherdva, to lame ; panghiovdva, to be- 
come lame. 

On the Language of the Gypsies. 


pani, water; paniddva, to water. 

panko, pango, lame. 

papai, apple. 

papina (s. hen), goose. 

paquilli, EOT., silver. 

pares, slowly. 

parnavo, friend ; parnavoipe, friendship. 

parno, white. 

paro (234), bard. 

paroji, Bor., leaf. 

parvardva, to nourish. 

parvardo, fat. 

pas, pasqtie, Bor., half. 

pashe, near. 

pdta, clothing. 

patranki, passover. 

patrin, leaf, feather. 

pavi, Bor., nose. 

pechdva, to ask. 

pekdva, to cook ; pekiU, peko, cooked. 

peliom, fell ; pelotar, after falling. 

pelo, testicle. 

pen (s. brother), sister. 

pendva (Bor., penar), to say ; also for be- 

ndva (s. infant). 
peninda (s. numbers), fifty. 
perdva, to fall. 
perdva, to fill. 
perddl, over (the water). 
perdo, full ; pertiavdva, to become full. 
peryul, peryulikano, foreign. 

pfuv, phuv, earth. fold. 

phuro, phuru, old ; phuriovdva, to grow 

pidy, marriage. 

pidva, to drink. [va (a. paper). 

pichavdvafs. business), to send ; pichard- 

pichiscas, Bor., cough. 

pikalo, prop. 

piko, shoulder. 

pilo, pelo, fallen ; pilo (263), drunk. 

pinchardva, to be acquainted with. 

pindo, pinro, foot. 

pirdva (Bor.,pirar), to walk. 

pirindos, on foot. 

piripe, gait. 

pirnango, barefooted. 

piro, pirno, foot. 

pishdva, to grind. 

pishot, bellows. 

pivli, widow. 

piyar, Bor., to drink; pita, drink. 

plal (Bor., plan, piano), brother. 

plata, Bor., clothing. 

plvbi, Bor., silver. 

po (s. behind), more. 

pol, navel. 

pdaleste (s. behind), farther back. 

pomi, Bor., silver. 

port, tail. 

porias, Bor., bowel. 

porik, porikin, raisin. 

pos,po, Bor., belly. 

poshik, soil. 

posotn, wool. 

pov, eye-brow. 

poyichdver (s. yesterday). 

prdhos, ashes. 

pral, brother ; pra (234). 

prasdva, to ridicule. 

preddl, over (the water). 
puchdva, to ask. 
oudino, musket. 
tntrano, old (ancient). 
ouro, old ; puripe, old age. 
mart, bridge. 
nurum, onion. 
pusca, Bor., musket. 
vushum, flea. 
putar, Bor., well. 
pw<i, business. 
puv, earth. 

r, Bor., house. 
querar, querelar, Bor., to make. 
querosto (s. house), Bor., August. 

rachi, Bor., night. 

rdi, nobleman. 

rakUo (s. night), it is growing dark. 

raklo, rakli, child. 

ran, cane. 

rani, nobleman's wife. 

rdno, early. 

rashdi, priest ; rashani, priest's wife. 

rat, ratti, night. 

ratt (Bor., rati), blood. 

res, rez, vineyard. 

resdva, to finish, suffice. 

re'xheto, sieve. 

rests, Bor., cabbage. 

richini, bear. 

roi, spoon. 

roi, Bor., flour. 

rom, romni, romano, Gypsy. 

romni (Bor., romi), wife. 

rovdva, to weep. 

royi, spoon. 

rubli, rod. 

rt/A;, tree. 

rukono, whelp. 

rup, silver ; rupovano, of silver. 

rutuni, nose. 

rMt>, wolf. 

sahriz, tent. 

soZo, wife's brother ; soZi, wife's sister. 

tanno, slim. 

sannd (234), sunno. 

sapp, serpent. 

sar, similar, like. 

sar, Bor., garlic. 

sardnda (s. numbers), forty. 

saro, Bor., all. 

sarr6, ndrrore, sarno (251), all. 

sarvo, sdrvolo, all. 

sas, Bor., iron. 

sashui, mother-in-law. 

saste, Bor., tall. 

sar<d (s. from and 235), healthy, right. 

sastro, father-in-law. 

saullo, Bor., colt. 

sdvvore, savvo (235), all. 

semer, pack-saddle. 

serka, Br., tent. 

sevlia, Br., basket. 

shah, cabbage. [smith. 

shastir, shastri, iron ; shastirtskoro, black- 

shastd, healthy, right. 

270 A. O. Paspati, on the Language of the Gypsies. 

shastro, father-in-law. 

Khasui, mother-in-law. 

s?tel (s. numbers), hundred. 

sheld, rope. 

sherd, head. 

shevel (s. cold), hundred. 

shikdva (232), to learn; shikld, learned; 

shikliovdva, to learn. 
shil (s. numbers), hundred. 
shil, shilalo, cold ; shilalwvdva, to feel cold. 
shingh, horn. 
shoro, head. 
shoshoi, hare. 
shov (s. numbers), six. 
shovarderi (s. numbers), sixty. 
shucho, shuz6, clean. 
shuko, dry, emaciated; shukiovdva (252), 

to become dry ; shukiardva, shukiavdva, 
shundva, to hear. [to dry. 

shut, shutkd, vinegar ; shutU, shudld, sour. 
trigo, quick. 
singe, Bor., horn. 
singo, Bpr., quick, 
sir, garlic. 
sivdva, to sew. 
sivri, hammer, 
so, what. 

sobelar, sornar, Bor., to sleep. 
Komnakdi (Bor., sonacai), gold. 
soske, why. 
sostdr, because. 
notto (s. sleep), asleep. 
sovdva, to sleep. 
stavros, cross. 
sudro, cool. 
sukdr, beautiful. 
sumpacd, Bor., near. 
sundva (s. near), shundva. 
sungalo, Bor., horned. 
sunno, dream. 
sut, milk. 
swo(263), sotto. 
MW (s. sew), needle. 

to, to, and. 

tairioipe, heat. 

tahkdr, taakdr, king ; takarni, queen. 

<di (251), dai. 

takhidra, tomorrow. 

tam-manush, blind man. 

tan, place. 

tapardva (253), to heat. 

tapdva, tap-ddva, to strike- [feel warm, 

tapidva, to boil, to burn ; tapdva (253X to 

tapillar, Bor., to drink. 

tapwvdva,. to buan, 

tardva r to thirst, 

tarzhid, cross, 

tato, Bor., bread. 

tattipt, heat. [hot, 

totto', warm; tattiovdva (253), to become 

<ad (Bor., <a), bath. 

tot>, thread. 

tavidva, to boil. 

/c, and. 

tele, down. 

terdva (Bor., terelar), to have. 

terghtovdva, tertfovdva, to stand. 

<mio, young; ternoro, Bor., new. 

tikno, infant, young. 

tovdva, todva, to wash. 

<<w#r, tovel, axe ; tovere'skoro, axe-maker. 

trdnda (s. numbers), thirty. 

traquias, Bor., grape. 

trebene, Bor., star. 

tresca, fever. 

<ri, <riw (s. numbers), three. 

tridk, shoe. 

trijul, Bor., cross. 

<rwA, <rw<, thirst ; trushaM, thirsty ; 

trushaliovdva, to become thirsty. 
trushul, cross. 
turra, Bor., nail. 
turshul (231), cross. 
tut, milk. 

uchardva, to cover. 

wcAo', tall ; ucheder (246), one taller. 

ukiavdva, uktiavdva, to step. 

uklidva, ukiavdva (S34), to mount. 

umdebel, Bor., god. 

Mwja, Bor., affirmation. 

ungla, Bor., nail. 

urydva, uryavdva, to dress. 

uryoip^, dress. 

frf, affirmation. 

vonro, vanto, egg. 

vaptizdva, to baptize. 

wr, time, times. 

i;dria, weight. 

faro, flour. 

vasidv, mill. 

va< (t>as, 233), hand. 

we<, winter. 

verni, file. 

wesA, ves (s. healthy), forest. 

vicha, shoot. 

viko, shoulder. 

w(236), biv. 

vldkhia, Wallachian. 

vordon, carriage. 

vrakerdva, to speak. 

vrehtula, extinguisher. 

vucho, tall. 

vuddr y vutdr, door. 

vus, flax. 

vust, lip. 

yak, fire, 
yaver, other. 
yek (a. numbers), one. 
yekpdsh, half. 

yerno, young. [terday. 

yich, yesterday ; yicfutv^ day before yes- 
yismota, linen. 

zdmpa, frog. 
zen, saddle. 







Presented to the Society October 16th, 1861. 

Extract from Mr. Webb's Letter accompanying the following Article. 

Indian Ocean, May 21st, 1861. 

. . . "The remarks you make on the affiliation of the Dravidian lan- 
guages have led me to examine somewhat more attentively the argu- 
ments and proofs adduced by Mr. Caldwell, in his Comparative Grammar 
of the Dravidian Languages, in confirmation of the Scythian affinities 
of those idioms. As a result of that investigation, I became better 
satisfied with their general correctness, and assured that, were they col- 
lected and presented in combination, their weight and importance would 
be acknowledged by those interested in these investigations. The force 
of Mr. Caldwell's proofs is greatly diminished by their being thinly 
scattered through his entire work. His first object being, not to prove 
a Scythian affinity, but to compare the idioms one with another, the 
notices of an extra-Dravidian relationship occur, as it were, incidentally. 

My work, in this paper, has been to collect, combine, and condense 
the proofs rather lavishly strewn over the treatise. I have generally, 
though not uniformly, used the words of the author ; yet my plan of 
epitomizing and condensing as much as possible would seldom allow me 
to quote more than a sentence or two in a place word for word. Only 
here and there have I introduced a suggestion from other sources, and 
always either in confirmation or in amplification of the author's thought. 
When a paragraph of considerable length has been introduced verbatim, 
it has been included within quotation marks; in other cases it has not 
been thought, necessary to encumber the page with them." . . . 

272 E. Wdb, 

THE term Dravida has been adopted from the Sanskrit. It 
properly denotes the Tamil country only. The Brahmans of 
that country are called " Dravida Brahmans." Its original 
meaning, according to Sanskrit lexicons, is 'a man of an out- 
cast tribe, descended from a degraded Kshatriya.' It was applied 
by the Sanskrit geographers to the aborigines of the extreme 
south, prior to the introduction among them of Brahmanical civ- 
ilization. It has recently been employed to designate the cluster 
of idioms spoken by more than thirty millions of people inhab- 
iting the southern portion of the Indian peninsula. In this little 
group of dialects, the author of the treatise from which the 
present abstract is made enumerates nine, which are distinct and 
well denned. Among these, five have written characters and a 
cultivated literature : they are the Tamil, Telugu, Canarese, Mala- 
ydlam, and Tulu. These idioms differ one from another in their 
written characters, in their vocables and inflectional forms, and 
in their literary culture. They differ so essentially that a person 
acquainted with but one is unable to understand either of the 
others. They cannot, therefore, be regarded as provincial dia- 
lects of a single language, but are to be considered and treated as 
distinct, though affiliated. They are said to be affiliated because 
of the large number of roots of primary importance, and the 
essential and distinctive grammatical characteristics, which they 
all possess in common. They are on this account regarded as 
having had a common origin, and as forming a distinct family of 

The term " Scythian " was first employed by Professor Eask 
to designate that group of tongues which comprises the Finnish, 
Turkish, Mongolian, Tungusian, and Samoiedic families. This 
great kingdom of speech, as it has been termed, includes all those 
languages spoken in Asia or Europe (excepting only the Chinese) 
which are not embraced in the other two great divisions, the 
Aryan and Semitic. They have by some been designated the 
"Tartar," by others the "Finnish," "Ural-Altaic," "Mongolian," 
and " Turanian." The objection to these terms is that, having 
been often used to designate one or more species, to the exclusion 
of the rest, they cannot properly be employed as common desig- 
nations of the genus. But the term " Scythian," having been 
used in the classics in a vague, undefined sense, to denote gen- 
erally the barbarous tribes of unknown origin that inhabited the 
northern part of Europe and Asia, seems to be appropriate, con- 
venient, and available. 

Mr. Caldwell claims, for the Dravidian idioms, " not merely a 
general relationship to the whole Scythian group, but also a 
position in that group which is independent of its other mem- 
bers, as a distinct family or genus ; or, at least, as a distinct 
sub-genus of tongues." He regards it as most nearly allied to 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 273 

the Finnish or Ugrian family, with special affinities to the Ostiak. 
This connection seems to be radical, though remote, and estab- 
lished by particulars of primary importance. 

Mr. Caldwell has arrived at his conclusions by a comparison 
of the Dravidian dialects of which he has a thorough and accu- 
rate scientific and practical knowledge with the grammars and 
vocabularies of the group in which he classes them. He acknowl- 
edges that a great diversity exists among the members of this 
group ; so great, indeed, that, while the Indo-European idioms 
form only one family or genus, of which the ten families classified 
under that term are but species, in the Scythian family five or six 
authenticated genera have been enumerated, each of which in- 
cludes as many species as are contained in the solitary Indo-Eu- 
ropean genus, besides twenty or thirty isolated languages, which 
have up to this time resisted every effort to classify them. 

Notwithstanding this diversity, however, the generic charac- 
teristics of the Scythian group are very strongly marked, and in- 
capable of being mistaken. The Ugrian and Turkish families, 
for instance, can be proved by their grammatical structure and 
vital spirit to be cognate, with as much certainty as the Gothic 
and the Sanskrit, or the Zend and the Greek. 

I. The history of the Dravidian people is not unfavorable to 
the hypothesis of the Scythian relationship of their languages. 

There is sufficient evidence that the Dravidas lived in the 
Indian peninsula long prior to the commencement of history, 
and before the Sanskrit-speaking race had made their way over 
the snow-capped mountains which separated their ancestral home 
from the plains of the Ganges, Nerbudda, and Cavery. The 
Dravidas were doubtless the earliest inhabitants of India; or, at 
least, the first to enter from the northwest and cross the Indus. 
There is no evidence from Sanskrit authors and they are our 
only authority on this point that the Dravidians ever had any 
relations with the primitive Aryans but those of a peaceable 
and friendly character; and this could not have been true, had 
they followed that race into India. There is evidence that the 
Brahmans crossed the Vindhya mountains and entered the Dek- 
han and Southern India, not as conquerors, but as colonists; as 
priests and instructors, not as soldiers. The kings of the Pan- 
diyas, Cholas, Calingas, and other Dravidians, appear to have 
been simply Dravidian chieftains, dignified by the new Brahman 
priests with Aryan titles. At the time when these events were 
taking place some 500 years, perhaps, before the Christian era 
the Dravidians were destitute of a written language, and unac- 
quainted with the higher arts of life ; but, from an examination 
of their language, it appears that they had acquired at least the 
elements of civilization. By a reference to the vocabulary of 
the early Tamilians, for instance, we gather, by our author's aid, 
the following items of information : 

274: E. Well, 

"They had 'kings,' who dwelt in 'fortified houses,' and ruled 
over small ' districts of country ;' they were without books, but 
they had 'minstrels' who recited 'songs' at 'festivals;' they were 
without hereditary priests and idols, and appear to have had no 
idea of heaven or hell, of the soul or sin; but they acknowledged 
the existence of God, whom they styled ko or ' king,' a realis- 
tic title which is unknown to orthodox Hinduism ; they erected 
to his honor a temple, which they called ko-il, 'God's house.' 
They were acquainted with all the ordinary ' metals,' with the 
exception of tin and zinc ; with the ' planets 5 which were ordina- 
rily known to the ancients, excepting Mercury and Saturn. 
They had numerals up to a 'hundred,' some of them to a 'thou- 
sand;' but were ignorant of the higher denominations, a lakh 
and a crore; they had 'medicines,' but no medical science, and 
no doctors; 'hamlets' and 'towns,' but no cities; 'canoes,' 
1 boats,' and even ' ships ' i. e. small ' decked ' coasting vessels 
but no foreign commerce ; and no word expressive of the geo- 
graphical idea of island, or continent. They were well acquaint- 
ed with ' agriculture,' and delighted in ' war.' They understood 
' cotton-weaving ' and ' dyeing.' They had no acquaintance with 
painting, sculpture, architecture, astronomy, astrology, philoso- 
phy, or grammar. Their only words for the mind were ' dia- 
phragm,' 'the inner parts,' or 'interior;' they had a word for 
' thought,' but no word distinct from this for memory, judgment, 
conscience, or will ; to express the will, they would have been 
obliged to describe it as ' that which in the inner parts says, / 
am going to do so and so.' " But although there existed among 
them these elements of civilization previous to the arrival of the 
Brahmans, in intellectual, social, and political standing they were 
centuries behind this priestly race. They soon, however, rose in 
the social scale, and formed communities and states in the Dek- 
han rivalling those of the Aryans in the north. 

II. The absence of physiological evidence to the contrary. It 
is acknowledged that, while in some instances physiology has 
contributed much to the discovery of the affiliations of races, in 
the effort to prove the Scythian relationship of the Dravidians 
it renders no aid ; but seems, so far as the study has been pur- 
sued, to be utterly at fault. The Dravidians might, on the 
ground of physical characteristics only, as well be classed with 
the Caucasians, or would readily admit of being affiliated with 
the Indo-Europeans ; for no essential difference is observed be- 
tween the heads and features of the Dravidians and those of the 
Brahmans; and, in fact, the Dravidian type of head will even 
bear to be directly compared with the European, with more 
definite marks of suppleness and subtlety in the former, and of 
straight-forward moral and mental energy in the latter. 

It is not safe, however, in the presence of the strong lingual 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 275 

evidences to be adduced, to draw any conclusion on this ground 
adverse to their Mongolian or Scythian origin; for a similar 
change has passed upon the features of the Mohammedans of In- 
dia, who are all, without doubt, of Tatar-Mongolian extraction : 
with the exception of a somewhat greater breadth of face and 
head, and a more olive complexion, they do not differ physiolog- 
ically from the Hindus, properly so called. A change appears to 
have passed over them, similar to that which is observed in the 
Osmanli Turks since they settled in Europe, which has trans- 
formed them from Tatars into Europeans. 

It may farther be suggested in this connection, that possibly 
the distinctive Mongolian type, the absence of which is acknowl- 
edged in the Dravidians, has been developed in the course of 
time, since the period when the plains of India were first colon 
ized by the progenitors of their race. 

III. Evidence derived from religious usages. In proving the 
origin and relationship of any people, the evidence gathered 
from their religious usages is always more satisfactory and relia- 
ble than that which is founded on physiological comparisons. 
The religions of the ancient Indo-European nations and those of 
the old Scythians of Upper Asia present many essential points of 
difference. In Shamanism so is termed the superstition which 
prevails among the Ugrians of Siberia and elsewhere, and which 
was the religion of the whole Tatar race before Buddhism and 
Mohammedanism were disseminated among them there was 
nothing which resembled the three prominent characteristics of 
the religion of the Indo-European family : viz., the doctrine of 
metempsychosis ; the worship of the elements of nature, or of a 
pantheon of heroes and heroines; and the maintenance of a dis- 
tinct and generally hereditary order of priests. 

Shamanism acknowledges the existence of a Supreme Being, 
but no worship is rendered to him ; nor are the objects of worship 
an inferior order of gods or heroes, but wicked and cruel spirits 
or demons. Any one who pleases may at any time officiate as 
priest, though ordinarily the father of the family, or the head-man 
of the hamlet or community, fills that office. Bloody sacrifices 
are offered with wild dances ; the officiating priest or magician 
meanwhile exciting himself to frenzy, professes to have ascer- 
tained the mind of the propitiated demon, and, when the cere- 
monies are over, communicates it to those who consult him. 
Such is Shamanism, and the demonolatry practiced in India by 
the more primitive Dravidian tribes is not only similar to this, 
but the very same. The Brahmans by whom the Aryan civili- 
zation and superstition was grafted on the ruder Dravidian stock 
labored assiduously to extirpate their religion, and in this they 
were generally successful ; yet is it still possible to discriminate 
between the doctrines and practices introduced by them and the 

276 E. Webb, 

older religion of the people. Many vestiges of the primitive 
superstitions still remain, and in some districts they prevail exten- 
sively, especially among the Shanars, and other rude and less 
Aryanized tribes, inhabiting the provinces in the extreme south 
of the peninsula. So far as yet appears, every religious usage 
of the Dravidians which is not of Brahmanical origin is either 
identical with Shamanism, or closely allied to it. 

IV. Evidence furnished by the Behistun tablets. Before pro- 
ceeding to the proofs derived from direct linguistic analysis, we 
notice an incidental evidence of the Scythian relationship of the 
Dravidian tongues. The famous inscriptions on the tablets at 
Behistun, in Beluchistan, which record the political autobiogra- 
phy of Darius Hystaspes, in the old Persian, Babylonian, Scyth- 
ian, and Medo-Persian languages, have recently been translated. 
The translation of the Scythic portion enables us to compare the 
Dravidian idioms with a fully developed copious language of 
the Scythian family, as spoken in the fifth century B. C, The 
principal points of resemblance between the Dravidian dialects 
and the language of the tablets are : 1. The use of the cere- 
bral class of consonants, t, d, n, which are indigenous to the 
Dravidian languages. 2. The use of the same consonant as a 
surd when initial and when doubled, and as a sonant when 
single and medial. 3. The employment in both of similar suf- 
fixes for the genitive and the dative cases of nouns, and the 
accusative of pronouns. 4. The use of a similar word for the 
numeral ' one (the only numeral which occurs in letters in the 
tablets), and the uniform employment in both of the same suffix 
to express the ordinal numbers. 5. The pronoun of the second 
person singular is exactly the same in the tablets as in the Dra- 
vidian languages. The plural, unfortunately, does not occur. 
6. The use of a relative participle. Perhaps this is the most re- 
markable characteristic of every unaltered dialect of the Scythian 
family. 7. The analogous etymons in the tablets are : nan, ' to 
say,' corresponding to the Dravidian an or en; uri, 'make 
known,' Dravidian urai; pori, 'to go,' Dravidian p6 ; ko, 'a 
king,' Dravidian kd. From the discovery of these analogies, 
Mr. Caldwell concludes that " the Dravidian race, though resi- 
dent in India from a period long prior to the commencement of 
history, originated in the central tracts of Asia, the seed-plot of 
nations (and languages); and that from thence, after parting 
company with the rest of the Ugro-Turanian horde, and leaving 
a colony in Beluchistan, they entered India by way of the 

V. Evidence from grammatical analysis. 

1. The laws of sound. The phonetic laws which govern the 
Dravidian languages contribute to determine the question of 
their affiliation. 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 277 

a. Vowels. The only point of resemblance noticed under this 
head is what is termed "the harmonic sequence of vowels," 
which appears in all the languages of the Scythian group, and 
in the phonetic systems of at least two of the Dravidian lan- 
guages. The law of harmonic sequence is that a given vowel 
occurring in one syllable requires a vowel of the same class in 
the following syllables of the same word, and the vowels of such 
syllables are altered accordingly. In Telugu, the range of this 
law, although restricted to the two vowels i and w, appears to be 
identical with that of the Scythian law; u being changed into i, 
and i into w, according to the nature of the accompanying vowel. 
In some cases, the vowels of the appended particles are changed 
through the attraction of the roots to which they are suffixed ; 
in other instances, the vowel of one of the suffixed particles 
draws that of the root and that of its other appendages also into 
harmony with itself: e. g. kalugu, 'to be able,' from which is 
formed with perfect regularity the aorist first pers. sing, kalugu- 
du-nu; but the preterit first person is kaligi-ti-ni, where the change 
of the two final vowels of the root kalugu to kaligi, and of the 
personal termination nu to ra, is effected by the particle ti\ which 
is the characteristic of the tense ; for in the inflexion of Telugu 
words the most influential particles are those which indicate the 

b. Consonants. One distinctive peculiarity of the Dravidian 
consonants is the convertibility of surds and sonants. There are 
four surd letters which are thus convertible ; they are &, t, t, p : 
k is convertible into its related sonant g ; t into d; t into d; and 
p into b. They are said to be convertible, because they are 
pronounced as surds at the beginning of words, and when- 
ever they are doubled ; and they are always pronounced as so- 
nants when single and mediate. A sonant cannot commence a 
word, neither is a surd admissible in the middle except when 
doubled. In Tamil, and partly in Malayalam, one set of conso- 
nants serves for both purposes, and the change is made in the 
pronunciation alone. This peculiarity is not found in any of 
the Indo-European languages ; but the resemblances which are 
found to exist between it and the laws of sound which prevail 
in some of the languages of the Scythian family amounts to 
identity. In the Finnish and Lappish there is a clearly marked 
distinction between surds and sonants : a sonant never commen- 
ces a word in either tongue. The same remark has been already 
made of the Scythic version of the Behistun tablets. 

The Tamil differs from the other Dravidian dialects in refus- 
ing to combine the surd lingual t with the lingual nasal n, 
changing it in such a combination into its corresponding sonant 
d. This is in accordance with a general law of sound in that 
language, which is, that nasals will not combine with surds, but 
with sonants only. 

278 E. Wtbb, 

A similar rule respecting the coalescing of nasals with sonants 
only is found in the Finnish, and may be attributed to that deli- 
cacy of ear which both Finns and Tamilians appear to possess. 

Much use is made in the Dravidian languages as also, in 
truth, in all the languages of India of a class of letters which 
have been termed by some "cerebrals," by others, more cor- 
rectly, " linguals." They are t, d, n. 

Mr. Norris, in. his paper on the language of the Scythic tab- 
lets, says that Castren, a Finlander, in his Ostiak grammar, uses 
distinct characters for the lingual and dental d and t, observing 
that similar sounds occur in the Lappish and Finnish tongues; 
and this argument has been employee! in favor of the Scythian 
relationship of the Dravidian languages. 

It has been replied, however, that, as this class of letters are 
used to a far greater extent in the Sanskrit and northern vernac- 
ulars of India than in those languages which are acknowledged 
to be Scythian, the conclusion would rather be that the Dravid- 
ian languages were Indo-European in their origin. 

Mr. Caldwell attempts to prove that these letters were bor- 
rowed from the Dravidian languages by the Sanskrit after the 
arrival of the Aryan race in India; his reasons are: 1. That 
these consonants are not found in any of the primitive lan- 
guages which are related to the Sanskrit. There is no case of 
these sounds in the Aryan family of tongues west of the Indus. 
2. These consonants are essential component elements of a large 
number of primitive Dravidian roots, and are often necessary 
for the discrimination of one root from another; whereas, in 
most cases, their use in the Sanskrit is merely euphonic. 3. 
Those consonants which the Tamil has borrowed from the Sans- 
krit have been greatly modified to accord with its own laws of 
sound. It systematically softens down every harsh sound which 
it adopts ; hence it seems improbable that a series of harsh, ring- 
ing sounds, like , d, n, should have been adopted without 
change, and used in the expression of a large number of its 
most essential roots. 4. Though the Telugu has been more ex- 
posed to Sanskrit influences than the Tamil, yet larger use is 
made of these sounds in Tamil than in Telugu. 

c. Dialectic interchange of consonants. Only two interchanges 
common to the Dravidian and Scythian families are specified. 

1. A change of I to r. A similar interchange between these 
letters takes place in the languages of Central Asia ; I in the 
Manchu is converted into r in the Mongolian. It should, how- 
ever, be remarked that, though this change is not infrequent, 
the evident tendency, especially in Tamil, is the reverse of this, 
or from r to I. 

2. The change of the peculiar vocalic lingual r to d and I. 
This interchange brings to view a very important dialectic 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 279 

which is, that the ^?ame consonant which is r in Tamil is gene- 
rally d in Telugu, and always I in Canarese: e.g. the numeral 
seven is in Tamil eru, in Telugu edu, and in Canarese elu. It 
thus appears that I and d are as intimately allied as d and r. 
This is a point of some importance in the question under con- 
sideration ; for a similar interchange is also characteristic of the 
Ugrian family of languages ; the same word is written with t 
or d in the Ostiak, and with I in the Magyar and Finnish. 

d. Principles of syllabication. The chief peculiarity of the 
Dravidian system of syllabication is its extreme simplicity, and 
its dislike of compound or concurrent consonants. Double or 
treble consonants at the beginning of a word or syllable, like 
str in strength, are altogether inadmissible. In such positions 
only one consonant is allowed. If, in the middle of a word of 
several syllables, one syllable ends with a consonant, and the 
succeeding one begins with another and different consonant, the 
concurrent letters must be euphonically assimilated, or they 
must be separated by a vowel, At the conclusion of a word, 
double and treble consonants are as inadmissible as at the begin- 
ning. Words must end either with a vowel (as they do invaria- 
bly in Telugu and Canarese), or in one of the nasals or semi- 
vowels. Whenever vowels are concurrent in Tamil, Canarese, 
and Malayalam, the consonants v and y are used to prevent 
hiatus. In Telugu the letter n is used in the same way, and for 
the same purpose. These principles of syllabication differ widely 
from those of the Indo-European tongues, But they correspond 
in many respects to the system of the Scythian group. In all 
the particulars specified above, they accord precisely with the 
Finnish, the Hungarian, and other languages of the Ugrian 
family. The same law is observable in the language of the Be- 
histun tablets: e.g. the word Sparta occurs w.ith an initial i 
thus, Isparta just as it would be written at the present day in 
Magyar, or in Tamil. 

2. Roots. The manner in which languages deal with their 
roots is strongly illustrative of their essential spirit and distinc- 
tive character. It is chiefly with reference to their differences 
in this particular that the languages of Europe and Asia admit 
of being arranged into classes. The class which embraces both 
the Indo-European and Scythian groups of tongues has been 
termed by grammarians agglutinative. In this class, grammatical 
relations are expressed by affixes or suffixes appended to the 
root or compounded with it. These agglutinated particles have 
in the Indo-European languages been gradually melted down 
into inflections, and sometimes even blended with the root. But 
in the Scythian group every root and particle of every com- 
pound word has not only maintained its original position, but 
VOL. vii. 36 

280 E. Webb, 

held fast its separate individuality. The two families agree in 
original construction, but differ in development. 

The Dravidian languages differ from the Sanskrit and Greek, 
and accord with the languages of the Scythian group, in this 
particular. The root always stands out in distinct relief, unob- 
scured, unabsorbed, though followed by a large family of aux- 
iliary suffixes. This distinctness and prominence which the root 
assumes in every word is a chief characteristic of the Dravidian 
languages, as of all the Scythian group. When roots receive 
formative or inflectional additions, they sustain no internal 
change. Both the vowels and consonants, one or more, of which 
the root is composed, remain unalterable. They sustain no change 
or modification on the addition of signs of gender, number, and 
case, or of person, tense, and mood ; these are successively ag- 
glutinated to the root, not welded into combination with it. 
All this is as true of the Dravidian roots as of those of the 
Scythic family generally. Whatever be the length or weight of 
the additions made to them, they persistently continue un- 
changed ; appearing as fully and as faithfully in the oblique 
cases as in the nominative ; in the preterit and future as in the 
present or imperative. 

To this general rule there are, however, some euphonic, and 
a few real, exceptions. Among the latter is noticed one, which 
singularly enough is a Scythian, as well as a Dravidian excep- 
tion. The long vowels of the roots of the personal pronouns 
and numerals are shortened. In the Scythian version of the 
Behistun tablets, while the nominative of the pronoun of the 
2d person is m, ' thou,' as in the Dravidian languages, the pos- 
sessive case is m, 'thy,' and the accusative nin, 'thee.' Corres- 
ponding in quantity are the Dravidian oblique cases : e. g. Te- 
lugu and Tulu have mnu, 'thee;' High Tamil mn, 'thy,' and 
ninaij 'thee.' 

It may just be remarked in this connection, that the Dravidian 
languages differ from those of the Aryan family, and accord with 
those of the Scythian family, in generally using the crude root 
of the verb, without any addition, as the imperative singular. 

3. Nouns. a. Gender. The laws of gender in the Dravidian 
languages are sui generis, yet accord more closely with those of 
the Scythian than with those of the Indo-European family. In 
all the Aryan languages, not only is gender attributed to words 
as well as objects, but words implying inanimate objects, and 
abstract ideas, are said to possess sexual distinctions, and to be 
male or female, according to their form, and are consequently 
fitted, not with neuter, but with masculine and feminine case- 
terminations, and with pronouns of corresponding genders. 
This remark applies also to the Semitic languages. On the 
other hand, in the Manchu, Mongolian, Turkish, and Finnish 

On the Sc.ytiiian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 281 

family of tongues, no nouns whatever, not even those which 
denote human beings, are regarded as in themselves masculine 
or feminine, but they are considered to be destitute of gender. 
They have inherently no mark of gender, nor is that idea in- 
volved in any of the case-terminations ; but, wherever it is neces- 
sary to distinguish the sex, some word equivalent to "male" or 
"female," "he" or "she," is prefixed. 

In like manner all primitive Dravidian nouns are destitute of 
gender, and sex is distinguished by suffixed fragments of pro- 
nouns, so that every word in which the idea of gender is ex- 
pressed is treated as a divisible or compound word, and in the 
poetical dialect the ordinary suffixes of gender or rationality 
are generally discarded, and all nouns, as far as possible, are 
treated as abstract neuters. Even Devu (Sanskrit deva, masc.), 
a crude noun, destitute of gender, is regarded as more classical 
than the corresponding masculine noun used for God in modern 
and colloquial Tamil. 

But in many important respects the Dravidian laws of gender 
differ from those of the other Scythian tongues: e. g. the dis- 
tinction between rational arid irrational is regarded as more mo- 
mentous and essential than that between male and female, and, 
in the plural, this is the only distinction provided for. Not 
only all nouns, but even pronouns and verbs, are epicene in the 

The Telugu language, which is said to be spoken by fourteen 
millions of the Hindus, has actually no feminine singular even, 
but uses in the place of it the singular of the neuter: this rule 
applies to goddesses and queens as well as to ordinary women ; 
but in the plural they are honored, as in the other dialects, with 
the rational suffixes which are applied to men, gods, and de- 
mons. Some of the rude aborigines on the Nilagiri hills employ 
in such cases the masculine instead of the neuter, reminding us 
of the use in Old Hebrew of the pronoun hu to signify both ' he' 
and ' she.' 

This law of gender peculiar to the Dravidian tongues is the 
result of grammatical culture, and is decidedly more philosophi- 
cal, though not so imaginative, as that of the Indo-European 
and Semitic tongues. 

b. Number. In the primitive Indo-European tongues the plu- 
ral is carefully distinguished from the singular. Number is 
always clearly denoted by inflectional terminations. In the 
Scythian languages, number is generally left indefinite, so that 
the connection alone determines whether a noun is singular or 
plural. In this respect, the Dravidian languages differ from the 
Indo-European, and accord remarkably with those of the Scyth- 
ian stock. Poets and peasants, the most faithful guardians of 
antique forms of speech in all countries, very rarely pluralize 

282 E. Webb, 

the neuter of Dravidian words. This rule is adhered to with 
especial strictness by the Tamil, which in this, as in many other 
particulars, exhibits most faithfully the primitive condition of 
the Dravidian languages. Even when a neuter noun is plural- 
ized, the verb is very rarely pluralized to correspond. In fact, 
the Tamil verb contains no third person plural for the future or 
aorist: in this particular the verb is more decidedly Scythian 
than the noun. 

In this connection must be noticed another point of difference 
between the Indo-European and Scythian languages. In the 
former, the signs of plurality and case are so blended that each 
inflection in the plural includes the two-fold idea of number and 
of case. The plural has a different set of case-terminations from 
the singular, by the use of which the complex idea of plurality 
and case-relation is indicated. There is no inflection for any 
case as such, irrespective of number, nor for number as such, 
irrespective of case. Moreover, there is no apparent connection 
between the case-terminations of the singular and those which 
are used in and constitute the plural. But, in the Scythian fam- 
ily, plurality is expressed by a sign of plurality common to all 
the cases, which is affixed directly to the singular, or crude form 
of the noun. To this sign of plurality are added the case-ter- 
minations, which are fixed and unalterable, expressing the idea 
of case, and nothing more, and are the same in the plural as in 
the singular. 

In the Dravidian languages, a singular simplicity and rigidity 
of structure characterizes the particles of plurality, as will ap- 
pear from a comparison of the declensions of the Hungarian 
noun hdz, 'house,' and the Tamil noun manai, having the same 

Declension of Hungarian noun HAZ. 
Singular. Plural. 

Norn. kdz, kdz-ak. 

Gen. h&z-nak, hdz-ak-nak. 

Dat. h&z-nak, hdz-ak-nak. 

Ace. hdz-at, h&s-ak-at. 

Declension of Tamil noun MANAI. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. manai, manai-gal. 

Ace. manai-(y)-ai, manai-gal-aL 

Inst. manai-(y)-al, manai-gal-al. 

Conj. manai- (y)-6du, manai-gal-odu. 

Dat. manai-kku, manai-gal-(u)-kku. 

Abl. manai-(y\-illirundu t manai-gal-illirundu. 

Gen. manai-(y)-in, inanai-gai-in. 

Loc. manai-(y)-idattil, manai-ffal-idattil, 

Voc. manai-(y)-t, manai-gal-e. 

On tfie Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 283 

The Dravidian languages possess, in addition to a neuter plu- 
ralizing particle, which was originally restricted exclusively to 
neuter nouns, a sign of the plural which is appropriated only to 
rational or personal nouns, and which is common to both mas- 
culine and feminine. In the nouns, pronouns, and verbs of 
these languages, the primitive form of this epicene pluralizing 
particle is ar. In Tamil and Malayalam, there is still another 
particle of plurality applicable to rational beings, viz. mar or 
mar. This seems to be related to some of the pluralizing parti- 
cles of certain Scythian, languages ; in Turkish it is lar or ler, 
which is inserted, as in the Dravidian languages, between the 
crude noun and each of the case-terminations. Mongolian nouns 
which end with a vowel are pluralized by the addition of nar 
or ner. How remarkable is the resemblance to the Dravidian 
mar, both in the final ar and in the prefixed nasal ! The Dra- 
vidian mar may be allied to, and perhaps the original of, the 
high Asian nar. In the Scythian tongues n is often elided, and 
the same peculiarity characterizes the Dravidian family; for 
mar has been softened into ar ; and if both forms continued to 
be occasional^ used, mar, the older of the two, would naturally 
and regularly acquire a honorific signification and this we find 
to be the fact. 

This particle is sometimes isolated from the noun which it 
pluralizes in a peculiarly Scythian manner: e. g. tdy-tagappan- 
mar, 'mothers and fathers,' in which both 'mother' and 'father' 
are in the singular, and mar is appended separately to qualify 
both. In modern Tamil, mdr is appended to nouns signifying 
priests, kings, and parents, as a plural of honor, like the Hun- 
garian mek. 

The plural suffix of neuter nouns was originally and essen- 
tially gal or kal; it is indeed very generally, though perhaps 
improperly, used at the present day as a plural suffix of rational 
nouns and pronouns. In modern Canarese we have galu ; far- 
ther north its shape is more considerably modified. In Telugu 
it is lu, I in Telugu corresponding to the lingual I of other dia- 
lects ; lu therefore accords with the final syllable of the Canarese 
galu, the only difference being the omission of the initial ga. 
Thus, in colloquial Tamil, avargal, ' they,' is softened into aval. 

The letters k and g are dropped in a similar way in many of 
the Scythian languages. It is not uncommon to find one por- 
tion of a much used suffix in one language or dialect of a family, 
and another portion of it in another member of the same family; 
accordingly, in Gond, a Dravidian hill-dialect, we find that the 
plural neuter is formed by the addition of k alone : e. g. ndi, 
' dog ; ' nd'i-Tc, 'dogs;' in Tamil it is nay-gal, 'dogs.' The letter 
k is also sometimes found interchangeable with t: e. g. in Gond 
amat, ' we,' and imat, ' you.' Compare now with these Dravid- 

284 E. Wtbb, 

ian forms the Magyar and Lappish plural in k or a&, also the i 
by which k is displaced in almost all the other dialects of the 
Finnish family, and the reappearance of I and t in the Ostiak 
plural suffix tl. Observe also the plural k in the Turkish idum, 
4 1 was;' iduk, 'we were.' On the other hand, t is the sign of 
the plural in Mongolian, which in the Kalmuk is softened into d. 

c. Case. It has been already remarked that, in both the 
Indo-European and Scythian families, case- relations of nouns 
are expressed by means of post-positions, or auxiliary words ; 
the difference between them being that, in the former, these have 
been in process of time converted into technical case-signs or 
inflectional terminations, which have been so welded into com- 
bination with the roots as to render it in many cases impossible 
to distinguish between the root and its suffix ; whereas, in the 
Scythian family, these post-positions, or auxiliary words, ap- 
pended to express the reciprocal relations of the noun to the 
other parts of the sentence, have rigidly held fast their individ- 
ual and separate existence. 

Another particular in which the case-formations of the two 
families of language differ has been alluded to. The languages 
of the Indo-European family appear to have been used from the 
beginning on the principle of expressing the case-relations of 
the singular by one set of forms, and those of the plural by 
another. On the other hand, in all the languages of the Scyth- 
ian group, the same case-signs are employed, without alteration, 
both in the singular and in the plural. In the singular they 
are appended directly to the nominative, which is identical with 
the base ; in the plural they are appended, not to the nomina- 
tive or base, but to the particle of pluralization which is suffixed 
to the base. The only exception of importance is that, in some of 
the Scythian tongues, especially in the languages of the Finnish 
family, the included vowel of the case-sign differs in the two 
numbers, being generally a in the singular, and e in the plural. 
In both these particulars the Dravidian languages differ from 
those of the Indo-European family, and are in perfect accord- 
ance with the Scythian tongues. As in the Scythian languages 
generally, so in the Dravidian, there is but one declension, 
properly so called. 

Note, that the use of v and y to prevent hiatus between con- 
current vowels (before alluded to) extends in its application to 
the concurrence of the case-signs and roots, when the former 
begin and the latter end with a vowel : e. g. nadu-v-il, ' in the 
middle,' vari-y~il, ' in the way.' Compare this with the use of v 
for a similar purpose in Magyar: e. g. 16, 'a horse,' and a/, the 
sign of the objective case when united, appear not as 16-at, but 
as 16-v-at, precisely as would be the case in Tamil. 

Accusative case-signs. The only sign in Tamil is at; in Mala- 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 285 

yalam it is 3 ; the Canarese accusative is am and an, then annu 
and anna, and nu; in Telugu it is nu or m; when preceded by i 
it is m, when by any other vowel it is nu: e. g. inti-ni, l domum ;' 
bidd,a-nu, ' puerum.' In the Finnish tongues, the greater num- 
ber of singular accusatives are formed by suffixing en or an ; in 
the Wotiak, by adding a to the root: e.g. ton, 'thou,' ton-d, 
' thee;' the Turkish accusative is i or yi; the Mongolian, i after 
a consonant. The Turkish i is doubtless a softened form of the 
oriental accusative case-sign m, from which it has been derived. 
So in the Kalmuk pronouns we find bida, 'we,' bida-ni, 'us;' 
na-ma'i, 'me,' and dzi-mai, 'thee.' Ascending farther and far- 
ther towards the source of the Scythian tongues, we find in the 
tablets at Behistun that the accusative singular of the pronoun 
ni is m'n, ' thee ;' compare this with the Tulu (a Draviaian dia- 
lect), where it is nin-u, ' thee,' and observe how close is the re- 

The consonants m and n are extensively used as accusative 
case-signs in the Indo-European languages also. In this in- 
stance we must conclude that both languages have retained a 
relic of their original oneness. There are reasons, however, for 
connecting the Dravidian case-sign with the Scythian rather 
than with the Indo-European family. 

The Instrumental, or 3d case. The sign of this case in Tamil 
and Malayalam is dl, probably from kdl, ' a channel,' which has 
lost its initial k ; as the plural sign kal in Tamil has become Iv, 
by corruption from kal-u. Another mode of forming this case in 
the Dravidian languages is by means of the preterit verbal par- 
ticiple of the verb " to take," suffixed to the accusative of any 
noun : e. g. vdl-ai(k)kondu, ' having taken a knife.' This has 
arisen from the repugnance of the Dravidian (as of all Scythian, 
and in contradistinction to the Indo-European) languages to con- 
tinue to make use of any inflectional form after it has ceased to 
express its original meaning, and has become a mere technical 
sign. In such cases, a word or phrase is often adopted, which 
has a distinct meaning of its own. The frequent use ofkondu 
in the place of dl or kdl is an illustration of this practice. 

The Conjunctive case. This is sometimes called in Dravidian 
grammar " the social ablative." The fundamental sign of this 
case in all the Dravidian languages is udan, meaning ' with, 7 or 
'together with' in the conjunctive, and not the instrumental, 
sense of the word ' with.' The Sanskrit and the other languages 
of that family are destitute of this case, while most of the 
Scythian tongues have a regularly formed conjunctive case, like 
the Dravidian languages. Den, the conjunctive case-sign of the 
Kalmuk, may be compared with the Tamil udan. 

The Dative. In all the dialects of the Dravidian family, in 
the rudest as well as in the most polished, there is but one suffix 

286 E. Webb, 

of the dative, which takes the forms ku, ki, lea, orgc: the guttural 
k, or its sonant g, is the essential part of this suffix. In the 
primitive Indo-European tongues we discover no trace of any 
such dative suffix or case-sign ; but on turning to the Scythian 
family, interesting analogies meet us at every step. In Oriental 
Turkish, the forms of this suffix are ke, ka, ge, ga, etc. In Os- 
manli Turkish it is eh or yeh ; the initial k or g having been 
softened into y, and then discarded altogether. A softening of 
the guttural in this case-sign, precisely similar, is observed in 
the Malayalam. In the Finnish family, the Turko-Dravidian 
dative reappears. In the Irtish and Surgutish dialects of the 
Ostiak it is ga. We learn from the Scythian tablets that a da- 
tive suffix almost identical with the Dravidian, Turkish, and 
Ostiak was used by the oldest Scythian dialects of Central Asia 
of which any remains are extant. The dative case-sign there 
used is ikki or ikka. In composition, the Tamil ku becomes 
akku or ukku, and in Malayalam, kka and ikka. Compare the 
cuneiform Scythian ni-ikka or ni-ikki, ' to thee,' with the Mala- 
yalam nani-kka, and the Telugu ni-ku. 

Ablative of motion. No Scvthian analogies are observed in 

* / 

this case. 

The Genitive, or 6th case. This case is formed in various ways, 
and by means of various suffixes, in the Dravidian languages. 
The personal pronouns in Tamil form their genitive by shorten- 
ing the included vowel of the root : e. g. ni or nin, ' thou ;' nin, 
'thy;' ndm, 'we;' ndm, 'our.' In the Behistun tablets we find 
ni, 'thou,' and ni, the enclitic possessive. Of all genitive case- 
signs, in is that which is most frequently used for both numbers 
and all genders. 

In Sanskrit, and in other members of the Aryan family, dis- 
tinct traces are recognized of the use of a genitival particle, in 
which the consonant n is the most essential element. But in 
the languages of the Scythian stock, we find a large number of 
still more important analogies with the Dravidian genitival suf- 
fixes in and ni: e. g. Manchu and Mongolian mi-ni, ' of me ;' 
Mongolian chi-ni, and Manchu si-ni, 'of thee.' In Finnish, the 
suffix universally employed is n: as kudo, 'house,' kudon, 'of a 
house.' In Mordwin, the genitive plural suffix is nen. The Lap- 
pish genitive singular takes n or en. In the Tatar or High Asian 
families, as in the Behistun tablets, the prevailing form of the 
genitive is nen, which systematically alternates with the simple 
suffix un or in. In Oriental Turkish, it is ning, nin, ning, or nin. 
In Ottoman Turkish, it is un in the plural, and un or nun in the 
singular. In Mongolian, it is u after n, un after any other con- 
sonant, and yin after a vowel : compare the Mongolian kol-un, 
'of a foot,' with the Tamil kdl-in, 'of a foot.' The Kalmuk 
and Tibetan genitives are formed by suffixing i or yin. Other 
analogies are traced, but these may suffice. 

On the /Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 287 

Another essential suffix of the genitive in the Dravidian Ian* 
guages is a. Though little used in the Tamil, yet, when all the 
Dravidian idioms are taken into consideration, it is perhaps more 
largely employed than any other suffix of the genitive; on 
which account it is placed first in the list of case-signs by Tamil 
grammarians a proof of the accuracy of the Tamil classification. 
There is no direct Scythian analogy for this suffix. Its affini- 
ties appear to be rather with the Indo-European. In the later 
Teutonic dialects, however, a genitive case-sign in a becomes 
exceedingly common, and is found in the plural as well as the 
singular ; e. g., in the Frisian and Icelandic. This resemblance 
between the possessives of some of the Teutonic vernaculars 
and that of the Dravidian languages is deserving of notice. 

To the signs of the locative and vocative no analogies are 

It has only to be farther noted under this particular that, as 
in the Hungarian and some other Scythian tongues, so in the 
Dravidian, two or more case-signs are occasionally compounded 
or united in one word. 

4. Numerals. Not the smallest trace of resemblance has been 
discovered between the Dravidian numerals and those of any 
Indo-European language, with the single exception of the Te- 
lugu oka, 'one,' as compared with the Sanskrit eka in which 
instance the Sanskrit itself has in all probability inherited a 
Scythian numeral, as the numeral one in several other members 
of the Aryan family is evidently derived from a different base. 
When therefore we find, with this abnormal exception, no re- 
semblance in the Dravidian numerals to those of the Indo-Euro- 
pean tongues, we are led to the conclusion that the Dravidian 
languages must be derived from some other source. On the 
other hand, a comparison of the Dravidian numerals with those 
of the Scythian tongues appears to establish the fact of the ex- 
istence of Scythian, and especially of tlgrian and Finnish anal- 
ogies. It cannot properly be urged as an objection that in re- 
spect to most of the numerals no such resemblance is observed ; 
for the same objection could be urged against the classification 
of many of those languages which are claimed and allowed to 
be of Scythian affinities. Thus it cannot be doubted that the 
Magyar and Finnish are sister tongues, essentially and very 
closely allied, yet with respect to four numerals viz. 7, 8, 9, and 
10 no distinct trace of resemblance between them survives, 
and it is only in the case of the numerals 1, 2, and 4 that it can 
be said, without hesitation, that the same root was used in both 

The numeral one. Two forms of the cardinal numeral 'one' 
are found in the Dravidian languages, which appear, however, 
to be remotely allied : viz. oru and oka. The basis of the first 
VOL. vii. 37 

288 E. Webb, 

and most commonly used form is or, which is its adjectival form, 
and the representative of the crude root. If the k in the second 
form, which is used only in the Telugu, be radical, as is most 
probable, then the crude adjectival form from which it was de- 
rived may have been kor ; if so, we may at once conclude that 
kor was the original form of the Tamil-Canarese or, for there are 
several instances of the disappearance of an initial &, as we have 
before shown, while it could not have been prefixed to or if it 
had not originally stood before it. If this supposition be allowed, 
it is easy to see how kor and oka are allied, by the corruption of 
both from a common root. Kor, or, and oka would naturally 
and regularly be derived from the root okor, which corresponds 
to the Samoiede okur. This supposition receives a beautiful 
illustration and confirmation from the form which the numeral 
assumes in the Behistun tablets ; which, be it remembered, are 
the oldest extant specimens of the language of the ancient 
Scythians. The word there employed for 'one' is kir, and the 
numeral adjective derived from it is irra or ra. Here, then, 
we have a word for 'one' discovered in the very fountain of 
ancient Scythian forms, containing both k and r; and a derived 
numeral adjective, from which the k has been softened off.* It 
is interesting also to notice, in passing, that the numeral adjec- 
tive ra of the tables is identical with ra, the same numeral ad- 
jective of the Ku, a Dravidian dialect. The Caucasian numerals 
for 'one' exhibit a close resemblance to the Dravidian : they are 
ar, arti, trthi. As in the Dravidian or, 'one/ and ir, 'two,' so 
in these dialects, r forms an essential part of both. 

The numeral four. It is evident from a comparison of all the 
Dravidian dialects that the primitive form of this numeral was 
ndl or nal. In the entire family of the Indo-European lan- 
guages, there is not a word signifying ' four' which in the small- 
est degree resembles the Dravidian ndl. But, in this instance, 
Finnish and Ugrian affinities are more than usually distinct; 
the resemblance amounts to identity, and cannot have been acci- 
dental. In Cheremiss 'four' is nil; in the Mordwin, nile and 
nilen; in Yogul, nila; in Ostiak, nul, nd, njedla, nixda; in Finn- 
ish proper, nelja ; in Lappish, nielj, nelje, nelld; in Magyar, negy. 
The root of all these numerals is evidently nil or nel, the analogy 
of which to the Dravidian ndl or nal is very remarkable. In 
the Telugu, the word for fourteen is pad-ndji, where the I of ndl 

* The direct derivation of the Telugu oka, ' one,' from the Sanskrit eka, seems 
improbable, since that language has borrowed, and occasionally uses, the Sanskrit 
numeral eka, in addition to its own oka, and never confounds the two. Telugu 
grammarians regard them as altogether independent one of another. Moreover, 
words closely analogous to oka are used in all the Finnish languages, which can- 
not be supposed to have borrowed them from the Sanskrit. Thus the numeral 
'one' is in Wotiak og ; in Vogul, ak ; in Magyar, egy ; in Lappish, akt ; in Finnish, 
yxi (yk-si); in Samoiede, okur. 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 289 

is softened down, as in the Ostiak, Lappish, and others just 
quoted. The resemblance between the Dravidian 'one' and 
' four,' and the corresponding numerals in the Ugrian languages 
is so complete, that we may justly regard them as identical. 

It is a characteristic of the Scythian languages that they use 
for 'eight' and 'nine' compounds which signify 'ten minus two' 
and ' ten minus one.' In some instances an uncompounded word 
is used for 'eight,' but 'nine' is always compounded as we have 
stated. The Dravidian word for 'nine' is formed in this way; 
and the same seems to be a rational explanation of the Telugu 
word enimidi, ' eight.' 

5. Pronouns. Much light is thrown by the pronouns on the 
relationships of languages. In some instances, the pronouns, 
and especially that of the first person, constitute the only appre- 
ciable point of contact. 

a. Pronoun of the first person singular. The form of this 
pronoun in colloquial Tamil is nan; in Malayalam, nydn ; in 
Canarese, ndnu; in Tulu, ydn ; in Telugu, nenu. From a com- 
parison of the different forms in use, we are led to regard the 
Tamil nan as the best existing representative of the old Dravid- 
ian nominative of this pronoun, and nd as the primitive unmod- 
ified root. The final n seems to be merely a sign of number, or 
perhaps only a euphonic formative. 

There seems to be reason to conclude that the Dravidian na 
and the old Indo-European ma are allied, and, if so, that the 
former has been derived from the latter. 

An examination of this pronoun in the Scythian group of 
tongues brings to light some very interesting analogies between 
the forms which it assumes in them and that which it takes in 
the Dravidian languages. The nominative, as well as the ob- 
lique cases, of the first personal pronoun in all existing languages 
of the Scythian group is derived from a base in ma, and not 
unfrequently comes into perfect accordance with the Dravidian, 
by changing into na. This ma is in most existing Scythian ver- 
naculars nasalized into man. In Oriental Turkish, this pronoun 
takes the form of men; in Turkoman, man; in Khivan, mam; 
in Ottoman Turkish, ben (m degraded to b) ; in Finnish proper, 
mind; in Lappish, mon ; in Ostiak, ma, plural men; in the Sa- 
mo'iede dialects, man, mani; in Mongolian and Manchu it is bi t 
evidently corrupted from mi, like the Ottoman ben from men; 
the Magyar has $n in the singular, and mi in the plural. It 
thus appears that the true representative of this pronoun in the 
Scythian tongues is ma, and that as ma has been generally eu- 
phonised into man in the western families of that group, so it 
evinces in the eastern stems a tendency to change into na. 

The initial and radical m is occasionally converted into n in 
the Indo-European languages, and a similar change from m to n 

290 K Webb, 

is apparent in the Scythian tongues, so that this nasal has be- 
come distinctive of the first personal pronoun in those languages, 
just as it has in the Dravidian family. 

It would thus appear that the various forms of the pronoun 
of the first person singular, TT?, nor, and the High Asian nga, are 
identical, and that this word was the common property of man- 
kind, prior to the separation of the Indo-European tribes from 
the rest of the Japhetic family. 

b. Pronoun of the second person singular. In Tamil, rii is in- 
variably used as the isolated nominative, though nm, correspond- 
ing by rule to nan (the pronoun of the first person), was, with- 
out doubt, the primitive form; for the final w, though totally 
lost in the nominative, is invariably retained in the oblique cases. 
In the personal termination of the verb, this pronoun is repre- 
sented by the suffixes dy, ai, or 2, from each of which both the 
initial and final n have disappeared ; of these two w's, the former 
appears to be essential, and the latter euphonic. There is some 
doubt as to the included vowel, but authority preponderates in 
favor of i. As in Tamil, so in Canarese and Malayalam, rii is 
regarded as the crude base of this pronoun, although in Cana- 
rese the nominative is mn, and in Malayalam the oblique cases 
are nan and nin. The Telugu nominative is ni-vu, the vu being 
only euphonic. In the personal terminations of the verb, the 
Telugu rejects every portion of the pronominal root, and em- 
ploys only the euphonic suffix vu or vi. 

As the result of this comparison of the Dravidian dialects, we 
conclude that the primitive form of this pronoun was ni, but 
the only essential part of the pronoun appears to be the initial 
n; just as, in the Indo-European languages, t is the essential 
part of the corresponding pronoun ; with a preference for the 
vowel i by the former, and u by the latter. 

The relationship of this pronoun, unlike that of the pronoun 
of the first person, which has both Japhetic and Scythian affini- 
ties, is distinctly and specifically Scythian. 

Throughout the Scythian as well as the Indo-European group, 
the most prevalent form of this pronoun in the singular is that 
which comes from the consonant t, with a preference for its pho- 
netic equivalent s; which, however, is generally euphonized by 
the addition of a final nasal, usually the consonant w, as in the 
pronoun of the first person: e. g., tu, atf, Turkish siu; Samo- 
i'ede tan ; Lappish don. The only other consonant form used in 
any family of either of these groups is that which is formed 
from the consonant w, of which the cuneiform Scythian and the 
Dravidian rii is the best representative. No connexion can be 
traced between these roots, nor is there a change in any instance 
from one form into the other. The Magyar has te, the Armenian 
tu, the Mongolian chi or dzi (notice here the progress of t towards 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 291 

the softer form s) ; the Finnish dialects se, sina, sia, ste. It is 
evident that there is no resemblance whatever between any of 
these pronouns and the Dravidian ni, which is doubtless an 
ultimate underived pronominal root. And it thus appears that 
there are two Japhetic bases of the pronoun of the second per- 
son, as well as two of the first. 

There are traces more or less distinct, in various languages of 
the Scythian group, of the existence of a pronoun of the second 
person identical with, or evidently allied to, the Dravidian rn, 
while there are none in any members of the Aryan family. 
The most ancient, remarkable, and decisive is the pronoun used 
in the Scythian tablets at Behistun ; this is ni, precisely as in 
the Dravidian idioms. In the Ugro-Ostiak, 'thou' is nen, 'you' 
is nen; mother Ostiak dialects we find num and nyn; in Vogul, 
nei, ny, nan ; plural, nen and non. 

This form of the pronoun of the second person appears in the 
possessive compounds, and in the personal verbal terminations 
of some languages: thus, in the Ostiak, ime-n, 'thy wife.' So, 
in another of the Finnish dialects, we find kery-n, 'thou hast 
done;' so in Turkish, bdbd-n, 'thy father;' bdbd-nuz, 'your father;' 
and idu-n, ' thou wast.' More remarkable than all these is the 
Chinese ni, which is identical with the Dravidian-Behistun- 
Scythian pronoun. Compare also the ni of the Horpa, a dialect 
of the Tibetan, and also the ninna of the Australian dialects. 

It is very evident that the affinities of the Dravidian ni are 
wholly Scythian, and this contributes largely to the establish- 
ment of the Scythian relationship of the Dravidian family. 

c. The plurals of these pronouns. These are generally formed 
in the Dravidian dialects by the addition of the pluralizing par- 
ticle m: e. g., in Tamil, n&m, 'we,' and nir, 'you,' instead of the 
more regular mm ; and, in the colloquial dialect, ndng-gal, ' we,' 
and mng-gal, 'you,' for ndm-gal and nim-gal; a double plural 
has thus crept into use, similar to that which has obtained in 
the Turkish, where ben, 'I,' is regularly pluralized into biz, 'we;' 
sen, 'thou,' into siz, 'you;' which are then pluralized again by 
the addition of ler, the ordinary suffix of plurality; thus biz-ler, 
'we,' siz-ler, 'you.' 

In several of the languages of the Scythian family we discover 
traces of the use of m as a sign of the plural ; we can, however, 
scarcely expect to find there a sign of plurality perfectly corres- 
ponding to that of the Dravidian, for in those languages the 
personal pronouns are generally pluralized by a change of the 
final vowel, and not by any change or addition of consonants. 

In all the Dravidian dialects, excepting the Canarese, there 
are in constant use two plurals of the pronouns of the first per- 
son, of which one denotes not only the party of the speaker, 
but also the party addressed, and may be called the " plural in- 

292 E. Webb, 

elusive ;" the other excludes the party addressed, and includes 
only the party of the speaker, and may be called the " plural 
exclusive." This idiom is a distinctly Scythian one; there is 
no trace of it in the Sanskrit, or in any of the languages of the 
Aryan family; but it is found everywhere in Central Asia. 

d. Demonstrative pronouns. The Dravidian languages, like 
most if not all other primitive uncompounded tongues, are des- 
titute of pronouns of the third person, properly so called, and use 
instead demonstrative bases signifying 'this' or 'that,' with the 
addition of suffixes of gender and number. Four such bases 
are recognized in one or other of the Dravidian dialects, each of 
which is a pure vowel : viz. a, the remote, t, the proximate, 
and w, the medial demonstrative; also e, which is used as a de- 
monstrative only in the Ku dialect. The first two only are in 
common use. The suffixes which are annexed to these for the 
purpose of forming the gender are d for the neuter singular, an 
for the masculine, and al for the feminine. When these demon- 
strative bases are simply prefixed to substantives, they convey 
the signification of the demonstrative adjectives 'that' and 'this.' 

The Magyar demonstratives are somewhat in accordance with 
the Dravidian a and i: e.g., 02, 'that;' eg, 'this;' but in most 
of the languages of the Scythian family no resemblance what- 
ever is observed. 

6. The Verb. The structure of the Dravidian verb has already 
been partially treated of in noticing the roots ; a few farther 
statements only will be added. 

The verb has but one conjugation ; class differences do indeed 
exist, but they are not of sufficient importance to constitute dif- 
ferent conjugations. The Dravidian verb is remarkable for the 
simplicity of its structure, having but four moods the indica- 
tive, infinitive, imperative, and negative and but three tenses 
the past, present, and aorist. The modifications of thought 
indicated in other languages by the various moods and tenses 
are expressed in these by means of suffixed particles and auxil- 
iary verbs. In these respects it resembles, though it does not 
equal, the simplicity of the ancient Scythian verb. It is more 
rarely compounded than the Indo-European verb, and the com- 
pound of a verb with a preposition, so common in the latter, is 
especially rare in the former. Though compound verbs are not 
unknown in the Dravidiau languages, their use is not in har- 
raony with the purer idiom, and when the component elements 
of such compounds are examined, it will be observed that the 
principle on which they are compounded differs widely from 
that of the Aryan tongues. The same remark applies to all the 
Scythian languages. 

a. Causals. In the Dravidian dialects, there is a class of 
verbs termed causals. They have been classed with transitives 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 293 

by both European and native grammarians ; they differ, how- 
ever, from transitives, as well as from intransitives, both in sig- 
nification and form. They differ also from what have been 
termed causals in the Indo-European languages. These latter 
govern two accusatives, one the object of the causation, the other 
that of the action caused ; e. g., ' I caused him to build the house ' 
(domum) ; whereas Dravidian causals govern the one accusative 
only, that of the object, leaving the person to be understood, as 
if we should say ' I caused to build the house :' or else the per- 
son is put in the instrumental, 'I caused the house to be built 
by him.' Tamil idiom, and the analogy of the other Dravidian 
dialects, in contradistinction to the Aryan, requires that -causals 
should be formed, not from neuter or intransitive verbs, but from 
transitives alone. 

In all these particulars, these verbs not only differ from those 
of the Indo-European languages, but resemble closely the Turk- 
ish and other members of the Scythian stock. If, for example, 
we should take the transitive verb ' to send,' which would be 
regarded as a causal in the Indo-European languages, and desire 
to express the idea of ' causing to send,' i. e., of causing one 
person to send another, it would be impossible, by any modifica- 
tion of structure, to get a single Indo-European verb to express 
the idea ; but it would be necessary to make use of a phrase, 
as in English. Whereas, in the Dravidian languages, as in the 
languages of the Scythian family generally, there is a form of 
the verb which will express the entire idea; e. g.,. anuppu-vi, 
which is formed from anuppu, ' to send,' by the addition of the 
particle vi. So, in Turkish, sev-dur, ' to cause to love/ from sev r 
' to love.' 

b. The negative. This is rather a mood or voice than a con- 
jugation, and is expressed by means of inflectional additions or 
changes. In the Indo-European family, negation is usually ex- 
pressed by means of a separate particle, used adverbially 
whereas, in the Scythian family, every verb has a negative 
voice or mood, as well as an affirmative. This voice or mood is 
generally formed by the insertion of a particle of negation be- 
tween the theme and the pronominal suffix ; and this mode of 
forming the negative is as distinctive of the Dravidian as of the 
Turkish and Finnish. The Dravidian sign of negation inserted 
between the theme of the verb and the personal suffixes is a, 
probably derived from a?, the isolated particle of negation in the 
oldest Tamil dialect. The widely extended affinities of this par- 
ticle are deserving of a notice. The Finnish prohibitive is did ; 
the Ostiak, ild. And we find a similar prohibitive even in the 
Hebrew al and Chaldee Id. 

In Gond, one of the Dravidian dialects, the prohibitive parti- 
cle minni is used. This particle is not suffixed, but prefixed to 

294 E. Webb, 

the verb, like the Latin noli. It closely resembles inni, the pro- 
hibitive particle of the Behistun tablets. 

c. The preterite tense. The manner in which a language forms 
its preterite constitutes one of the most distinctive features in 
its grammatical character, and one which contributes to the 
determination of the question of its relationship. In the primi- 
tive Indo-European languages, this tense was generally formed 
by reduplicating the first syllable of the root or verbal theme ; 
but this reduplication has in many instances been so softened 
and euphonized, that it has dwindled into the mere use of a 
different vowel in the preterite from that which forms part of 
the root. 

The letter d is the older and more characteristic sign of the 
Dravidian preterite. It has many interesting affinities with cor- 
responding signs of past time in various Indo-European and 
Scythian languages. It evidently has an anterior, though re- 
mote, connexion with t or ta, the ordinary suffix of the Indo- 
European passive participle ; for in Sanskrit, this participle, 
though distinctively passive, has occasionally, when connected 
with neuter verbs, a preterite signification : e. g M gatas, 'one who 
went,' But though there is probably an ultimate connexion 
between the two, the use of the preterite suffix d is too essential 
a characteristic of the Dravidian languages, and that of t too 
rare an exception in Sanskrit, to admit of the supposition that 
the former borrowed it from the latter. 

It is notable, however, how very generally the preterite is 
formed in the Turkish and Ugrian tongues, as in the Dravidian, 
by suffixing d: e. g., Turkish, sever^im, ' I love ;' sever-d-im, ' I 
loved.' In Finnish, the preterite is regularly formed by suffix- 
ing t. So also in Hungarian : e. g., from the root k, ' to become,' 
is formed the past participle le-tt, and le*tt-em., ' I have become.' 
In Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian, this particle is no way con- 
nected, as in the Sanskrit, with the passive participle, but is a 
distinctive sign of past time, and of that alone, and it is suffixed 
to all indicatives, whether active, neuter, or passive in the 
latter case, in addition to the sign of passivity. In this particu- 
lar, therefore, the analogy between the Dravidian preterite and 
the Turko-Ugrian is closer than the Indo-European analogies 
which have been referred to. 

d. The pronominal signs. These, in the Dravidian languages, 
are always suffixed, not prefixed, as in the modern Indo-Euro- 
pean vernaculars. Still another peculiarity is this, that the per- 
sonal terminations are annexed, not directly to the root, as in 
the Aryan tongues, but to the tense participles ; so that every 
pure Dravidian verb is, by Tamil grammarians, arranged in the 
the following order: 1st. the root; 2d. the medial particle, 
which is the sign of tense ; 3d. the variation, i. e., the pronom- 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 295 

inal termination. In the Indo-European languages we meet 
with no instance of a formation of this kind ; but it is an 
essential element in the family likeness by which the Dravidian 
family is pervaded. It is also distinctive of the Turkish and 
other tongues of the Scythian group: e. g., in the Turkish 61- 
ur-sen, 'thou art,' 61 is the root, olur the present participle, and 
sen the pronominal termination of the second person : in Tamil 
d-n-dy, ' thou hast become,' d is the root, n the tense-sign, and 
dy the personal termination. 

e. The Relative Participle. It is a marked peculiarity of all 
the Dravidian idioms, that they have no relative pronoun what- 
ever, and that its place is supplied by a part of the verb called 
the relative participle. This partakes of the nature of an ad- 
jective, and is invariably followed by a noun. Like the adjec- 
tive, it undergoes no alteration on account of the number or 
gender of the related noun ; but, in that it is a verb as well as 
an adjective, it governs the preceding noun, like any other par- 
ticiple of the verb to which it belongs. 

The suffix most generally used by the Dravidians to form 
their relative participles is a, which is appended to the verbal 
participle or gerund. In this way the verbal becomes converted 
into a relative participle: e. g., from odugir, 'running,' comes 
6dugir-a, ' that runs' and so for the other tenses. This a seems 
to have been originally the possessive case-sign, containing the 
signification ' possessed of,' ' which has.' 

In the Scythian languages, a relative participle is used in- 
stead of a relative pronoun, as in the Dravidian tongues ; and 
the existence of a family likeness in so remarkable a particular 
is a strong proof of relationship. The particle used for forming 
the relative participle is in both groups identical with the sign 
of the possessive case used in the languages respectively ; and 
farther, this sign is appended, as in Tamil or Canarese, to the 
verbal participle: e. g., in Manchu, from ara, the root, comes 
aracha, the past verbal participle, and from this is formed the 
relative participle aracha-ngge, 'which wrote.' The Scythian 
tablets, as also the Mongolian, have relative suffixes, appended 
and used as in the Dravidian languages. 

In the Turkish and Finnish, and some other languages of the 
Scythian group, we find the existence of a relative pronoun, as 
well as of a relative participle, but this is foreign to the gram- 
matical structure of those languages, and has evidently been 
borrowed from the usage of languages of the Indo-European 

7. Glossarial affinities. Very many Dravidian words exhibit 

a near relationship to words found in some of the languages of 

the Scythian, particularly to those of the Finnish dialects. 

These are clearer, more direct, and of a more essential character 

VOL. vii. 38 

296 E. Weib, 

than any observed correspondences with words in the Indo- 
European or Semitic languages. It is, moreover, to be particu- 
larly noted that many of those words in which affinities have 
been observed are of a primary character, and almost vital neces- 
sity. (For a list of these words see Caldwell, pp. 476-489.) 

"How remarkable that the closest and most distinct affinities 
to the speech of the Dravidians of intertropical India should be 
those that are discovered in the languages of the Finns and 
Lapps of northern Europe, and of the Ostiaks and other Ugri- 
ans of Siberia ! How remarkable that the Pre- Aryan inhabit- 
ants of the Dekhan should be proved by their language alone, 
in the silence of history, in the absence of all ordinary proba- 
bilities, to be allied to the tribes that appear to have overspread 
Europe before the arrival of the Goths and the Pelasgi, and 
even before the arrival of the Celts! What a confirmation of 
the statement that ( God hath made of one blood all nations of 
men, to dwell upon the face of the whole earth !' " 


We cannot refrain from offering here a few remarks upon the subject 
of the preceding paper, particularly as Mr. Webb states himself to have 
been urged to its preparation by our, in part unfavorable, criticisms upon 
Mr. Caldwell's work. While fully acknowledging the merits of the lat- 
ter as regards its proper subject, the comparison with one another of the 
Dravidian languages, we ventured to express our doubts as to the con- 
clusivcness of its author's argument to prove the affiliation of those lan- 
guages with the Scythian stock. And this chiefly for the reason that, 
as he himself acknowledges, he is master of only one of the terms of 
the comparison, having no familiar acquaintance with any of the Scyth- 
ian dialects, much less a comprehensive knowledge of them, in their 
history and mutual relations. This objection has been urged, with much 
force, against Miiller's parallel reasonings upon the same subject, in his 
Letter on the Turanian Languages. To compare, for the purpose of es- 
tablishing a relationship which is at best a remote one, languages of 
which one has not a knowledge both extensive and penetrating, so as to 
be able to distinguish ancient from modern, fundamental from accidental, 
and the like, cannot but be an uncertain and unsatisfactory process. If 
the comparative grammar of the Scythian languages had been worked 
out with the same thoroughness with that of the Indo-European, such 
an undertaking would be vastly more feasible. But this is very far from 
being the case as yet. Moreover, the dialects of the Scythian family 
are remarkable for their great discordance with one another, for the 
slenderness of the ties which connect them, and the immense variety of 
elements and forms which they exhibit ; hence the facility of going astray 
in an incautious ramble through such a wilderness of lexical and gram- 

On the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages. 297 

matical materials is extreme, and a careful comparative study of the dif- 
ferent idioms, and a wary determination and selection of features among 
them which can be pronounced of general occurrence, and genuinely an- 
cient, ought to precede any detailed comparison with another family of 
languages. Here, however, Mr. Caldwell's philological method is at 
fault ; it is fairly open to criticism throughout as superficial, venturesome, 
and credulous. He is much too ready to accept coincidences of any 
kind, degree, or origin, as evidences of historical connection. He even 
catches, as lawful matter of comparison, at the degenerate forms of the 
modern Persian, and the dialectic peculiarities of present Teutonic ver- 
naculars ! His whole parallelism of Dravidian words and forms with 
Indo-European and Semitic, for the purpose of proving an ultimate con- 
nection of the former with the two latter also, contains the merest asso- 
nances and chance coincidences, of no account as historical evidence. We 
should have expected sound philological method, if anywhere, in the 
comparison of Dravidian and Sanskrit, considering the accessibility of 
the material, and the position of the author as an Indian philologist : but 
of the Sanskrit words compared, at least four-fifths would at once be 
recognized by a Sanskrit scholar as not ancient or genuine constituents 
of the language. Nor is Mr. Caldwell more accurate in his character- 
ization of the primitive religion of the Indo-European race : of the 
three distinguishing features laid down by him as belonging to it (see 
p. 275, above), the first, metempsychosis, is so far from being original 
that it does not even appear in the oldest form of the Hindu religion, 
the Vedic; the third, a priestly order, is equally absent from the Vedic, 
as from the other primitive forms of the religion of the family ; while 
the second, worship of the powers of Nature, is common to the Indo- 
European with other ancient forms of faith. It is not too much to say, 
we think, that all that part of Mr. Caldwell's work which concerns the 
comparison of the Dravidian race with any other than the Scythi-an is 
so nearly destitute of scientific value that its omission would have been 
a gain rather than a loss. That much of the comparison with the Scyth- 
ian also is of the same character, we can hardly doubt ; yet here the 
mass and variety of the collected evidence is so considerable, and the 
chance that it may contain items of genuine and decisive value so good, 
that considering the interest of the question, and the rarity of Mr. 
Caldwell's work we were very ready to admit into the Journal, for 
more general and convenient examination, Mr. Webb's condensed and 
compacted sketch of the comparison ; and would merely add here a few 
words farther of comment and criticism. 

How far the so-called Scythian of the Mesopotamian and Persian 
monuments is entitled to be employed as a medial term in this compar- 
ison will be for the present a doubtful question among scholars, who 
have not yet generally accepted with confidence the results of the few 
investigators who claim to have made the remarkable discovery of an 
ancient Ugrian language and civilization although it must be confessed 
that those investigations inspire the most lively hope that a light as 
welcome as unexpected is here to be shed on the remote history of the 
Scythic race. It can hardly be otherwise than in a linguistic way, how- 
ever, at any rate, that this dialect should help in settling the question of 

298 K Webb, &c. 

Dravidian and Scythian affiliation ; since the place of the people speak- 
ing it is too uncertain to justify us in regarding them as a local interme- 
diary between Ugria and India, or as marking a line of emigration from 
the former to the latter.* 

The phonetic correspondences pointed out by Mr. Caldwell are for 
the most part too universal in their character, too readily explainable by 
ordinary physiological processes, to be of weight as evidences of special 
affiliation : there is hardly one to which abundant analogies might not 
be pointed out in languages confessedly not of Scythian stock. Even 
the appearance in Southern India of the peculiar Scythian law of har- 
monic sequence of vowels, in a sporadic and partial manner, we should 
not be inclined to lay much stress upon, considering the naturalness of 
the phenomenon, and the evident possibility of its independent develop- 
ment, at least to the extent shown, in languages not historically connect- 
ed with the Scythian. 

Among the numerous special coincidences of form industriously as- 
sembled and recorded by Mr. Caldwell, while there are unquestionably 
some which a profounder examination would show to be fallacious, oth- 
ers have a look of genuineness which is very prepossessing. Whether 
these are in such numbers, and of such character, as entirely to exclude 
the possibility of explaining them as casual resemblances, such as may 
be found by careful search between any two groups of languages on the 
earth's surface, we should think would have to be reserved for farther 
investigation and more careful sifting to determine. 

The most cogent arguments in favor of the relationship of the Dra- 
vidian and Scythian languages which the comparison instituted between 
them brings to light are, in our view, the correspondences of general 
form and spirit, apprehension of grammatical relations and treatment 
of linguistic materials, which they undeniably present. And if the sci- 
ence, of comparative philology is strong enough to pronounce with con- 
fidence that such correspondences as are here displayed cannot be the 
result of analogous qualities of race, equal grade of capacity and cul- 
ture, then the whole question is settled. But we are not certain that 
he has yet so far mastered the immense field of human speech as to be 
able to do this, and certainly there are few men living who are entitled 
to be accepted as her mouth-pieces in making the decision. We shall 
prefer, then, to consider the question of Dravidian affiliation as one not 
yet authoritatively settled, while giving Mr. Caldwell full credit for con- 
tributing most essentially to its final settlement, by such a thorough 
genetical and comparative exhibition of the Dravidian idioms as few 
groups of kindred languages, out of the Indo-European family, have yet 

* Mr. "Webb, apparently from a misapprehension of the meaning of an ambigu- 
ous expression once employed by Mr. Caldwell, places Behistun in BelucLtistaa ; it 
is in fact in western Media, not very far from the Meaopotamian valley. 





Presented to the Society October 17th, 1861, 

MORE than once, within no longtime past, inquiries have been 
addressed to us by those to whom the subject was one of prac- 
tical importance, respecting the " Standard Alphabet" of Prof. 
Lepsius of Berlin : whether its method was so thorough, its re- 
sults so correctly deduced, and the system of signs for sounds 
proposed by it so unexceptionable, that it deserved to be impli- 
citly accepted, and should be made the absolute foundation of 
the reduction of new languages to a written form, and even al- 
lowed to supersede systems of orthography already for some 
time in use. We have therefore thought that it might be well to 
bring the matter before the Society at one of its meetings, when 
it was hoped that there would be those present who had had oc- 
casion to consider the orthographical question practically, and to 
make experience of its difficulties, and when, accordingly, a com- 
parison of opinions might lead to more enlightened conclusions 
respecting it than are within the reach of a single inquirer. It 
would have been highly proper if this Society, which maintains 
so intimate scholarly relations with so large a body of missiona- 
ries, scattered over every part of the heathen world, had at the 
outset given an express examination to Prof. Lepsius's proposed 
system, and formally sanctioned it, if found worthy of formal 

* Standard Alphabet for reducing Unwritten Languages and Foreign Graphic 
Systems to a Uniform Orthography in European Letters. By Dr. R. Lepsius, etc. 
London: 1855. 8vo. pp. ix, 73. This is a translation of Das Allgemeine Linguist- 
ische Alphabet. Grundsatze der Uebertragung fremder Schriftsysteme und bisher 
noch ungeschriebener Sprachen in europaische Buchstaben. Von R. Lepsius, etc. 
Berlin: 1855. 8vo. pp. 64. 

Since the final revision and preparation for the press of the present Article was 
completed (Dec. 1861), we have received two additional contributions, of very high 
importance and interest, made by Prof. Lepsius to the same general subject with that 
of the work here treated of, in the form of communications to the Berlin Academy 
on the Phonetic Relations and Transcription of the Chinese and Tibetan Languages, 
and on the Spoken Alphabet of the Arabic and its Transcription. In both of them 
reference is made to a second edition of the Standard Alphabet, as in course of 

300 W. D. Whitney, 

sanction, or else offered criticisms and suggested amendments af- 
fecting it. So much might have been regarded as due to the 
importance of the work, the character of its author, and the 
auspices under which it was put forth : it having received the 
express approval of the Berlin Academy, one of the most emi- 
nent bodies of learned men, both philologists and physiologists, 
in the world, and been farther endorsed and recommended by 
several of the principal English and continental Missionary So- 
cieties ; as well as, at a later date, by our own American Board. 
How extensive an actual trial and application the new alphabet 
has had, and what have been the results of such a practical test- 
ing of its merits, we are not fully informed : that it has been sub- 
stituted at one important mission, at least that to the Zulus in 
South Africa for the alphabet formerly employed, is certain : 
and it is precisely from that quarter that one remonstrance or 
expression of dissent has been received. But such remonstran- 
ces are by no means to be taken as certain evidence of serious 
imperfection in a proposed orthographical system. It is a mat- 
ter of common remark how extremely conservative we are in 
the matter of the spelling of our own language ; what worship- 
pers of the letter as well as of the word ; how obstinately un- 
willing to write a vocable otherwise than as we have been taught 
to believe was the true traditional way of writing it : and the 
same tendency to hold fast that which is written does not quit us 
on foreign soil, and in dealing with strange tongues. Hence a 
general uniformity of orthographical method is hardly to be 
hoped for; the end which we may aim to attain is the provid- 
ing of something like a uniform method for languages still to be 
reduced to writing, and a norm to which such alterations of exist- 
ing orthographies as may be found practicable shall be made to 

If the missionaries and emissaries sent out to unlettered coun- 
tries, and destined to be the first introducers there of modes of 
writing, had from the beginning been only Italians and Germans, 
the orthographical question would have worn a far less intricate 

preparation. We greatly regret that -we could not have made this the basis of our 
examination of Prof. Lepsius's system, and had almost decided to cancel our Article, 
or withhold it until we could take due note of any modifications of his views which 
their republication should exhibit. But, in view of the fact that our criticism has 
already (in the Proceedings of the Society for Oct. 1861) been announced as to 
be published in the present number of the Journal, and considering the uncer- 
tainty of the time of appearance of the new work, and that the first edition has 
been very extensively circulated, in its two versions, among missionaries and others, 
into whose hands the second may never cotne, we have concluded not to stop the 
printer. Such changes or fuller expositions of Prof. Lepsius's views as are brought 
to light in the two papers referred to will be set forth in marginal notes to this ar- 
ticle, and should the revised Standard Alphabet, on its appearance, seem to call for 
yet farther attention, in justice to its author, we shall make it the subject of a sep- 
arate treatment. 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 301 

and pressing phase than now belongs to it. Unfortunately in 
this respect unfortunately they have been, in much the greater 
part, men to whom was native the English language, a language 
whose phonetical and orthographical system is more frightfully 
corrupt and confused than that of any other known form of hu- 
man speech ; men to whom, accordingly, it seemed not unnatural 
to write all kinds of sounds almost all kinds of ways ; who lacked a 
distinct conception that each single sign was originally meant to 
have a single sound, and each single sound a separate and invaria- 
ble sign, and that, in the history of writing, certain sounds and no 
others originally belonged to the characters of our own alphabet. 
Hence, in part, the confusion, to remedy which so much effort has 
been expended, and with only partial success. But there is also 
another, and a more deeply seated cause. Our written system is 
a scanty, and a rigid and non-elastic thing, compared with our spo- 
ken systems. The European alphabet, as it may well enough 
be called now, was invented or, rather, modified into nearly its 
present form to suit the Latin language at a certain stage of its 
development. Now phonetical systems grow, both by alteration 
and by extension ; a still scantier system of characters would 
have answered the purposes of the Latin at a considerably ear- 
lier period in its history ; but there is not one of the daughters 
of the Latin which is not both pinched and distorted in the tight 
and ill-fitting orthographical dress of the mother-tongue. More 
than this, some languages, or whole families of languages, offer 
sounds which Latin organs never formed ; and these, too, must 
have their representatives in a general scheme. And yet once 
more, sounds, occurring in languages either nearly akin with one 
another or of altogether diverse descent, which to a dull ear, or 
on brief and imperfect acquaintance, appear quite the same, are 
yet found, after an intimate familiarity formed with them, to be 
distinguished by slight differences of quality, dependent upon 
slightly varying positions of the mouth-organs in their utterance. 
From these various causes arises the necessity of eking out an 
imperfect scheme of written characters, in order to make it rep- 
resent sufficiently a greater number of sounds. This is evidently 
a thing which cannot be done upon principles commanding uni- 
versal assent, by the application of rules admitting of distinct 
statement and impregnable demonstration : it is one into which 
considerations of history, of usage, of practical convenience, 
must enter, and which therefore cannot but be differently solved 
by different people, according to the variations of individual 
preference : given a system of sounds to be represented, and a 
system of signs by modified forms of which the representation 
must be made, and ten different laborers will produce ten differ- 
ent alphabets, each, perhaps, having its advantages, and such 
that between two or three of them any one may find it hard to 

802 W. D. Whitney, 

select the best. In order, then, to produce an alphabet for gen- 
eral use, two things, of quite diverse character, are requisite: 
first, a thorough acquaintance with all matters pertaining to the 
system of articulate sounds and their established representatives 
including an understanding of the physiology of the voice and 
the mode of production of spoken sounds, an acquaintance with 
the origin and history of alphabets and the primitive and now 
prevailing values of the characters composing them, and a famil- 
iarity with many tongues, of varying type and second, such 
prominence before the eyes of the world, such acknowledged 
weight as an authority, such support from those for whose sake 
the work is done, as shall give that work at once a general cur- 
rency, and recognition as a conventional standard. This second 
requisite is apt to receive less acknowledgment than it deserves; 
but it must be evident on a slight consideration that where, in 
the nature of the case, actual completeness cannot possibly be 
attained, nor universal satisfaction given, it will be better to ac- 
cept in toto a system which has been and is likely to be accepted 
by a great many others, than either to alter it considerably, to 
suit our own ideas, or to take another system, which may be 
more to our mind, but which will probably be known to and no- 
ticed by only a few. And it appears to us that the Standard 
Alphabet of Prof. Lepsius may at least be claimed to unite and 
embody these different requisites in a higher degree than any 
other which has hitherto been put forth. 

In the first place, as regards its vogue and acceptance. The 
name itself of Lepsius is sufficient to attract a high degree of at- 
tention and favor to anything to which it is attached. Where- 
ever throughout the world there are scholars, there he is known 
as one of the foremost scholars of the age, distinguished alike in 
philology, in archaeology, and in history. This work of his, 
moreover, was brought out under most favorable auspices. It 
was formally discussed and accepted, before publication, at a con- 
vention in London of men representing the most important in- 
terests to be affected by such a work. It has since been endorsed 
by the authorized representatives of four English societies, one 
French, three German, and one American, as we are informed in 
the Advertisement prefixed to the book as it lies in our hands : 
what other associations may since have followed their example, 
we do not know. This general acceptance, while it is a telling 
testimony in favor of the work itself, furnishes also a powerful 
reason why we should incline to take the most favorable view- 
possible of it, even overlooking defects of not too serious a char- 
acter which it may be found to contain, for the sake of securing 
a uniformity long desired, and now more hopefully in prospect 
than ever before. Of course, however, if the new system prove 
false in its fundamental principles, imperfect in its execution, or 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 303 

cumbersome in use, no weight of authority should prevail on us 
to give it our endorsement. Let us therefore inquire more par- 
ticularly into our author's qualifications for the task he undertook, 
and examine critically his method and its results. 

That Lepsius, before he threw himself especially into the study 
of Egyptian antiquity, had distinguished himself by philologi- 
cal and palaeographical researches exhibiting great learning and 
great acuteness, is well known to all students of language. That 
since that time he has devoted much attention to phonology is 
less known, but not less true. In the year 1853, he exhibited to 
the writer at Berlin the nearly-completed manuscript of an ex- 
tended work on phonetics, and explained its general plan and 
execution. That work has never yet been published, but the one 
before us may be regarded as founded upon it, perhaps in part 
excerpted from it. How wide is the basis of observation and 
comparison upon which its system has been founded is evidenced 
by the series of more than fifty languages half of them African, 
the rest Asiatic, Polynesian, and American to which, at the 
close of the little manual, the standard alphabet is applied. We 
thus have the fullest assurance that we are not solicited to ac- 
cept the results of a hasty and half-digested, or of a narrow and 
one-sided, series of investigations; and we cannot help entering 
upon their examination with no small degree of prepossession 
in their favor. 

A principal distinctive peculiarity claimed to belong to the 
Standard Alphabet of our author is that it is founded on a 
physiological basis. The exposition of this basis is, for the sake 
of brevity, omitted in the treatise ; we are left to judge it from 
the results it yields, in the classification and arrangement of the 
sounds of the spoken alphabet offered, and in the selection of 
the signs allotted to them. The claim means, doubtless, that the 
alphabet is to be looked upon as underlaid by a correct analysis 
and description of the whole system of articulate sounds, or as 
involving an accurate determination of tbe manner in which 
each is produced, both absolutely, and relatively to others. This 
is, of course, a prime requisite, without which no alphabet-maker 
can be anything but a bungler. It does not necessarily imply, 
however, a knowledge of the anatomy of the vocal organs, a de- 
tailed understanding of the construction and action of the parts 
of the throat which are concerned in the production of sound 
although this subject is a highly interesting and curious one, and 
well repays study. For the organs employed in giving individual 
and articulate form to the material unintonated or intonated 
breath furnished by the lungs to the mouth for tbe purposes of 
speech, are sufficiently within the reach of conscious observa- 
tion to enable any one who has trained himself to watch their 
operations to describe and explain, with sufficient minuteness, 
VOL. vii. 39 

S04 W. D. Whitney, 

the mode of production of the sounds which he utters. There 
is also another requisite, hardly less fundamental, and which, 
though not put prominently forward by Prof. Lepsius, is a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of his work : one must be thoroughly 
acquainted with the history, original significance, and various 
applications of the characters out of which the alphabet is to be 
constructed. With these two a thorough comprehension of the 
sounds for which signs are to be provided, and a complete knowl- 
edge of the signs to be employed to represent them one may 
hope for a valuable result to his labors : the lack of either would 
be equally fatal to success. 

As we cannot in all points approve and accept the physiologi- 
cal basis upon which our author's alphabet is constructed, we 
propose to offer here some criticisms upon it, although they may 
affect only here and there, and in a subordinate degree, the prac- 
tical result of his work, or the system of signs selected to com- 
pose the written alphabet. 

In the first place, we object to the division of the spoken alpha- 
bet, in a physiological discussion, into the two distinct classes 
of vowels and consonants. This is a convenient practical classi- 
fication, but it possesses only a superficial correctness. Even 
common usage is compelled to bridge over the gulf apparently 
assumed to exist between the two, by the admission of a class of 
"semivowels" that is to say, of sounds which are half vowel 
and half consonant. In fact, vowel and consonant are only the 
opposite poles of a continuous line of progression, the successive 
steps of which are marked by the degrees of approximation of 
the mouth organs toward a complete closure. All sounds pro- 
nounced with more than a certain degree of openness have the 
quality which we call vocal, and are, to our apprehension, deci- 
dedly vowels ; all, on the other hand, which have more than a 
certain degree of closeness possess the consonantal quality only, 
and are as distinctly consonants. But there is between these 
two degrees a neutral territory, so to speak ; there are degrees of 
closure producing sounds which, without change of quality, may 
have the value either of consonants or of vowels. On this neu- 
tral ground stand the semivowels, the nasals, and even, in one 
or two exceptional cases, the sibilants. We cannot sanction, then, 
a theoretical system which makes the distinction of vowel and 
consonant absolute and fundamental, which holds the two classes 
apart from one another, and adopts for them two different meth- 
ods of classification and arrangement: the unity which belongs 
to the alphabet as a whole, as a single concordant system, is thus, 
in our opinion, quite broken up or obscured. In seeking for a 
principle of arrangement under which to marshal the whole al- 
phabet, we would adopt the same on which is founded the dis- 
tinction of vowel and consonant, but we would apply it in a 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 305 

different manner. The ground of distinction is virtually the 
antithesis of material and form, and the preponderance of the 
one or of the other. The material is the stream of breath, unin- 
tonated or intonated, furnished by the lungs, or by the lungs and 
larynx, to the mouth organs: the form consists in the modifying 
action of the latter, converting the material into the greatly 
varied products which constitute the system of articulate sounds. 
Now the vowel a ("Italian a," as in car, father) is pure material: 
if the mouth be opened wide, all its organs retained inactive, 
and the intonated breath suffered to stream forth unimpeded and 
unmodified, this vowel sound is the result. A, then, with this its 
original and proper value, has a right in theory to stand, as in 
practice it so generally does stand, at the head of the alphabet. 
On the other hand, the forming element, the approach and mod- 
ifying influence of the mouth organs, may be suffered to extin- 
guish the material, as it were, by complete closure, and entire 
stoppage of the emission of breath, as in the production of the 
letters we call mutes: these, then, constitute the extreme limit 
of the alphabet on the consonantal side, as a on the vowel side ; 
and between the perfectly open a and the entirely close &, t, p* 
must admit of being arranged the whole system of spoken sounds. 
And not only do all the other sounds lie between these two 
extremes, but we shall even find that they arrange themselves 
approximately along lines joining the two, or drawn from the 
one point a to the three k. t, />, respectivel}'. That is to say, 
there are lines of progression from the neutral openness of a 
towards closure at three different points in the mouth one pro- 
duced by a contact of the upper surface of the tongue with the 
palate in the back part of the mouth, another by contact of the 
tip of the tongue with the roof of the mouth directly behind and 
at the base of the upper teeth, the third by contact of the lips 
with one another ; and different degrees of approximation along 
these lines give rise to the other sounds of the alphabet. On the 
line of palatal closure, the closest position capable of producing 
a sound which shall possess a vowel quality gives the vowel i (as 
short and long in pin, pique). In like manner, on the line of la- 
bial closure, the closest producible vowel is u (as short and long 
in full, rule). The line of lingual closure produces no vowels. 
These two vowels, i and u, the farthest removed from a in their 
respective directions, are, with a, the most primitive and the 
most universally occurring of all the vowels : and manifestly for 

* Of course, the consonantal limit may consist, in any given language, of as 
many different members as there are mutes in that language, or points in the mouth 
at which complete closure is allowed to take place: for the sake of brevity and sim- 
plicity, however, we shall here take notice only of those three which are met with 
in almost every language, and whicli in a majority of languages, probably, are the 
only ones found to occur namely the palatal, lingual, and labial mutes. 

806 W. D. Whitney, 

the reason that, in the development of the system of articula- 
tions, those sounds were first struck out and employed for pur- 
poses of speech which were most broadly and markedly distin- 
guished from one another: the more nicely shaded sounds, the 
intermediate vowels, as also most of the fricative consonants, are 
the growth of a later time, the product of a longer training of 
both voice and ear. Between a and i on the one hand, and a and 
u on the other, the two vowels of intermediate position, e (short 
and long in then, they) and o (long in note: the English has no 
short o, except in the pronunciation, frequent in this country, but 
unacknowledged by the orthoepists, of a few words, as home, 
stone, none], have been first struck out, and, either in their long 
or short forms, or both, are present in almost all languages ; and 
finally, a few tongues, our own among the number, have devel- 
oped between a and e the sound of a in hat, and between a and 
o the sound of a in all, usually called by us the "short or flat a" 
and the " broad a" respectively. These last are written by our 
author with an underlined e and o: thus, e, o a method of tran- 
scription to which, as we conceive, no valid objection can be 
made, and for which we are perfectly willing to relinquish the 
signs which we have ourselves been hitherto accustomed to use 
for the sounds in question. 

Prof. Lepsius constructs the usual triangle or pyramid of vow- 
els, in the same form as that in which we have here stated it, viz : 


e o 

e o 

t u 

but, as we cannot but think, without any due explanation of why 
they should be thus arranged. Indeed, his treatment of the 
vowel system is more unsatisfactory and open to criticism than 
any other part of his work. In the first place, he quits here al- 
together the physiological basis upon which he professes himself 
to stand, and, instead of giving us any account of the mode of 
formation of a, i, u, their relations to one another, and the rea- 
sons of their prominence in the history of language, he suffers 
himself to be seduced into drawing out a fantastic analogy be- 
tween the vowel sounds and the colors, which has not the slight- 
est substantial ground, neither teaches nor illustrates anything, 
and can only stand in the way of a clear and objective view of 
the actual phonetic relations of the subject. " There are three 
primary vowels," he tells us, "as there are three primary colors," 
and " the other vowels are formed between these three, as all 
colors between red, yellow, and blue" ! And so onward, through 
his whole discussion of the vowels, we have nothing in the way 
of description and illustration other than what is afforded by the 
drawing out of this fanciful parallel : in place of a physical defi- 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 307 

nitioii of any vowel sound, we are referred to the combination of 
colors which it may be imagined to represent. We submit that 
this is not merely a leaving out of sight one's physiological 
basis, but a trampling it under foot and rejecting it for a founda- 
tion of cloud ; that it is a backsliding into the old reprehensible 
method in phonetics, of describing and naming things from sub- 
jective comparison, instead of from actual analysis and deter- 
mination of character ; and that the whole color analogy is quite 
unworthy of a place in our author's phonetic manual. Again 
and doubtless as a consequence, in the main, of thus leaving out 
of account the physical mode of production of the vowels our 
author appears to misapprehend the relation in which the Ger- 
man u (French u) and the German 6 (French eii) stand to the 
rest of the vowel system. He speaks of u as standing " be- 
tween" iand u, and of o as standing "between" e and <?, in the 
same manner as e between a and i; and the reason why, between 
a and i, language has developed two vowels, e and e (a in fat), 
while between i and u it shows but one, is, in his apprehension, 
that "the distance between a and i is greater than that between 
i and u." But, in fact, the two cases are of entirely diverse 
character. From a to i is a line of direct progression, a process 
of gradual approximation of the organs, in which there are the- 
oretically an infinite number of different points, or degrees of 
closure, each of them giving a different vowel sound just as 
there are between the key-note and the fourth an infinite num- 
ber of possible musical tones, distinguished from one another by 
minute differences of pitch ; although the natural scale makes 
use of but two of them, the second and the third, as the spoken 
alphabet of but two of the vowels intermediate between a and i, 
viz. e and e. But between i and u, as being produced by approx- 
imation of the organs at two distinct points in the mouth, there 
is no line of continuous progression, except by going from either 
of them back to the neutral point a, and thence taking a new 
start in the direction of the other. It is plain, then, thatii can- 
not be a vowel intermediate between i and u, in the same sense 
as e between t'and a; it is rather a vowel combined of i and u, 
or in the pronunciation of which the position of the lips is that 
in which u is uttered, and, at the same time, the position of the 
tongue is that in which i is uttered. It is quite possible to de- 
scribe this sound, usually so difficult to be learned by those in 
whose mother-tongues it does not occur, and to make its acquire- 
ment a matter comparatively easy, by laying down this rule : fix 
the tongue to say i (as in pique, machine), and pronounce that let- 
ter ; and then, without moving the tongue, fix the lips to say u 
(in rule) : the combination gives the required sound. To define 
and teach o is by no means so easy, because the positions as- 
sumed by the tongue and lips respectively in its utterance are 

308 W. D. Whitney, 

less distinct and marked, and so are harder to maintain by con- 
scious effort : there is also less persistent uniformity in its pro- 
nunciation than in that of u: while the French u and German 
u are absolutely identical in character, a slight difference is gen- 
erally acknowledged between the French eu and German o; both 
are, without doubt, combinations of a medial palatal with a me- 
dial labial approach of the organs, but the degrees of approxi- 
mation are very slightly different in the two: indeed, French 
orthoepists also recognize differences in the quality of their eu in 
different classes of words. We can hardly trust ourselves to 
pronounce a decided opinion upon matters of so delicate distinc- 
tion between sounds not native in our own mouth ; but we do 
not think that the differences of quality referred to are greater 
than subsist between the short and the long i in German or Eng- 
lish (in kinn, ihn, or pin, pique), or between the short i of the 
German and English (which is a little more open than the long i) 
on the one hand, and that of the French (which has precisely the 
same quality as the English, German, and French long?') on the 
other, or that they call for different characters to represent them. 
And that there is any like combination of the positions of and 
o (a in fat and a in all], forming a third vowel of the same class 
as is assumed by our author, in order to fill up his system we 
do not at all believe: his p may be omitted as superfluous. 

Prof. Lepsius proposes to write these two combined vowels, 
vowels of double position, or palato-labial vowels, as we may 
call them, in a manner analogous to that adopted in German, but 
with the double point, or diaeresis, written below instead of above 
the letter, in order to leave room above for marks of quantity, 
accent, nasalization, and the like. This consideration is well 
worthy of being taken into account; yet we would suggest that, 
as most fonts of type contain o and u, and not the reversed forms, 
it be allowed to employ either without incurring the blame of 
violating the system. In practice, both forms are about equally 
serviceable, as it is not usual in continuous text to mark accent 
and quantity; nor could any ambiguity arise from the license, 
as the two dots are not elsewhere employed as diacritical signs in 
the alphabet proposed. 

In like manner as the separation of o into two sounds (o and o), 
arid yet more into three (o, o, and o), seems to us superfluous, "so 
does also that of e into e and'e, and of o into o and o.* Our au- 
thor, indeed, is inconsistent with himself as regards them: now he 
gives both (p. 26 [24]) ;f now he gives only one, and at one time 
only the simple forms, at another (p. 29 [26]) only the dotted. 

* A single dot beneath the vowel is meant to indicate a closer utterance. 
f We cite first, in all references to the Standard Alphabet, the page of the Eng- 
lish version, adding in brackets the corresponding page of the German original. 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 309 

In his list of the vowels with illustrative examples (pp. 47, 48 [42, 
43]) he includes both, but virtually admits the uselessness of the 
distinction, by being forced to leave one of the two forms with- 
out an example, or else to illustrate it by setting up as discord- 
ant the pronunciation of the English e in men and the German 
in wenn, between which we defy the keenest living ear to detect 
a difference of quality. We are thus able to dispense with all 
those signs which have a twofold diacritical mark below a great 
advantage, since they could not but be found very cumbersome 
in practical use. 

The vowel usually known in English as "short u" (the u of 
but, current, and the like ; the o of son) is one of the hardest mat- 
ters with which the constructor of a phonetic alphabet is called 
upon to deal. Its distinctive character is the absence of charac- 
ter; it is the neutral, the indefinite, the uncharacterized vowel, 
a product of the intonation of the breath alone, with the lips just 
parted to give it exit. It differs from a, in that for the utterance 
of the latter the mouth is opened with the honest design and ef- 
fort to give forth a sound, while for that of the other it is indo- 
lently left as nearly shut as may be : both are alike free from 
any consciously modifying and individualizing action of the 
mouth organs. The opinion referred to by our author (p. 26 
[24]) as held by "some scholars," that the other vowel sounds 
issued forth and grew into individuality from this one, seems to 
us to lack even the semblance of a basis. We know of no his- 
torical evidence supporting it, nor can we regard it as called for 
by, or consistent with, sound theory. When an untaught race 
begin to learn to paint, they do not use neutral tints, but the 
brightest and most startling colors. The beginnings of speech 
were attended with hearty effort and labor; the most strongly 
characterized and broadly distinguished sounds composed its first 
alphabet; it no more began its vowel system with the neutral 
vowel than its consonant system with sibilants and spirants. The 
vowel in question comes in rather by the corruption of other 
vowels, by the process of slighting them, and robbing them of 
their distinctive qualities. It can hardly be said to appear at all 
in the best style of German pronunciation ; in French it occurs 
only as the lightest and briefest possible succedaneum of an e 
which is to be made as nearly mute as may be, or as nasalized 
in the combination un ; the English is the only modern Euro- 
pean language, so far as is known to us, which elevates it to an 
entire equality with the other vowels, allows it in accented aa 
well as unaccented syllables, and gives it both a short and a long 
value (as in hut, hurt). It is also found extensively in the lan- 
guages of India, as the result of the dimming of an original 
short a, and it abounds in the idioms of the aborigines of this 
continent, the general pronunciation of whose vowels, except in 

310 W. D. Whitney, 

accented syllables, is peculiarly dull and indistinct. The practi- 
cal question is, what sign shall we choose to represent it? the u 
which to the English apprehension is its most natural sign, the e 
to which alone it belongs in French and German, or the a out of 
which it has generally grown in countries farther east ? Our 
author decides for the second, and writes it as an e with a little 
circle beneath as diacritical point: thus, . This will answer 
well enough ; we have no such objections to urge to the sign as 
should lead us to reject it entirely ; yet we confess that we should 
ourselves have rather chosen the a as a basis, for the reason that 
there is a nearer relationship between a and the sound in ques- 
tion than between the latter and e. E is a palatal vowel : a is 
neither palatal nor labial, but is, like the neutral vowel, unchar- 
acterized ; only in the one case the mouth organs have been by 
a conscious effort removed, that they may not affect the uttered 
stream of intonated breath, while in the other, though they con- 
tribute nothing by conscious action to the production of the 
sound, yet, by being left in the way of the breath's free passage, 
they dim and dull it, producing this grunting sound, the most 
ungraceful of the whole vowel system or only less ungraceful 
than the nasalized form which it assumes in the French un. 

There are some other points in the scheme of vowel-signs and 
examples given by our author (pp. 47, 48 [42, 43]), besides those 
we have already noticed above, which seem to us open to criti- 
cism. The English vowel sounds, the special difficulty of which 
Prof. Lepsius alludes to in another place (p. 25 [23], note), are not 
always well placed and properly paralleled. The designation 
of the diphthongs and nasal sounds is also in various instances 
defective in point of consistency with the rest of the alphabet. 
To represent, for example, the English oi in join by a simple ot, 
while the first constituent of the compound is not the sound to 
which the system assigns o for a sign, but that represented by o, 
is an undesirable inaccuracy. So also the French nasal sound 
in it'en, vin, cannot properly be written with e, as our author pro- 
poses, since the vowel sound which receives the nasal quality is 
that to which e has been before assigned as representative. 

We come now to the consonants. And, having already ex- 
pressed ourselves as not entirely satisfied with our author's gen- 
eral treatment of them as a class altogether separate from the 
vowels, and requiring a diverse method of arrangement we will 
here first proceed to set forth our own ideas as to how both 
classes may and should be presented in one harmonious and 
concordant system. 

As has been remarked above, i and u are the two vowels of 
closest possible position on the side of the palate and of the lips 
respectively. In them we are on the very borders of the con- 
sonantal territory ; so that even i and u themselves, when com- 

On Lepsiuds Standard Alphabet. 311 

ing before an opener vowel, as a, in the same syllable, take on a 
character no longer purely vocal, and become the "semivowels" 
y and w. That the latter are not at all closer in position than 
their corresponding vowels, we are riot prepared to maintain : in- 
deed, it is certain that they are sometimes made so, else we could 
not utter the syllables ye } woo: but it is questionable whether 
they have this greater degree of closeness except when it becomes 
necessary to distinguish them from a following 1 and u ; and, at 
any rate, the difference between them and I and u respectively 
is not greater than between long and short i, long and short w, 
as pronounced by English and Germans; it is so insignificant 
that some languages, as the Latin, have no more thought of dis- 
tinguishing by a different character y from 2, and w from w, than 
i from i, and u from u. It is practically more convenient, how- 
ever, to have separate signs for the consonantal values of these 
two vowels, and the great majority of orthographers will agree 
with our author in adopting sucn. With y and w are to be 
classed, as semivowels, r and I. In these sounds we begin, at 
last, the lingual series. We have already noticed that the lingual 
approximation of the organs, or that of the tip of the tongue to 
the fore part of the roof of the mouth, gives rise to no vowels 
proper. The modifying action seems too far from the throat to 
act with effect upon the stream of intonated breath. It is to be 
observed that in the production of the labial series of vowels the 
approach of the lips is not solely the immediate, but in part also 
the mediate producing cause, by the action which it accompanies 
and facilitates at the base of the tongue. For it is possible, by a 
violent effort to change the position of the tongue at its root, to 
pronounce a pretty clear a, even with the lips in the position in 
which u is ordinarily uttered ; and, on the other hand, one may 
bring forth, by a like effort, the whole series of labial vowels, 
with the lips and teeth held immovably in the position in which 
one naturally pronounces i. But if the lingual position produces 
no sounds which are solely or prevailingly vocal in their charac- 
ter, its semivowels have in many languages the value of vowels, 
and it is also much more fertile of consonants than either of the 
others. Thus, in the rank now under consideration, we have, 
instead of one semivowel only, two different ones; which, how- 
ever, are very closely allied, most frequently pass into one an- 
other, and in etymology, as is well known to all students of his- 
torical philology, hardly count together for more than one letter. 
They are described by Prof. Lepsius (p. 30 [27]) as both " formed 
by a contact, which is vibrating in r, and partial in I" This is 
not altogether satisfactory : for, as any one who speaks English 
can perceive, vibration is not necessarily characteristic of r; that 
sound may be uttered as smoothly over the tip of the tongue, as 
any other ; and what a "partial contact" is, as distinct from a 

VOL. VII. 40 

312 W. D. Whitney, 

near approximation of the organs, such as is universally charac- 
teristic of fricative sounds, it is not easy to see. The real defini- 
tion, if we are not mistaken, is this: r and I are both breaches of 
the close position in which a t or d is produced ; in the r, the 
breach is made at the tip of the tongue; in the Z, it takes place 
at the sides, the tip remaining in contact with the palate.* Both 
may be formed at many different positions along the roof of the 
mouth : wherever a d can be uttered, there it can be broken into 
an r and an I. In English, as in Sanskrit, the r is ordinarily 
uttered with the tip of the tongue reverted into the dome of the 
palate, and is not vibrated or trilled, as it hardly admits of being 
in that position : in languages which have developed a " cerebral" 
series, r is properly placed at the head of that rank ; where there 
is none such, it may well enough be left with Z, in the lingual 
series. There is also another I not referred to, we believe, by 
Prof. Lepsius, but forming an important constituent of more than, 
one modern alphabet which possesses a markedly palatal char- 
acter, and stands in intimate relations with y. It has the dis- 
tinctive and indispensable characteristic of an I, that it is pro- 
duced by an opening at the sides of the tongue; but the inter- 
vening closure is made by the middle surface, and not by the tip, 
of the tongue : it is the breach of such a d as is formed by press- 
ing the flat of the tongue against the roof of the mouth, well 
within the dome of the palate. 

From y and w respectively, a very slight additional degree of 
closure gives us the full stoppage of the breath represented by 
k and p. And if there is any reason why our author should have 
arranged the vowels in the triangular method adopted by him, 
there is precisely the same reason why he should have prolonged 
the sides of his triangle to their natural terminations in the mutes. 
If we may follow down the line of progression from a to e, from 
e to e, from e to i } why not keep on in the same direction, from 
i to ?/, and from y to kf and why not, in like manner, from a to 
jo, instead of stopping short at u? If the triangle be thus com- 
pleted, t will properly enough occupy the middle of its base, as 
belonging in the same rank with k and p, and as being produced 
by closure of the organs at a point between the labial and the 
palatal. But before we proceed to construct the triangle, it is 
necessary to take account of two matters which have not yet 
been considered. First, though the aperture of the mouth be 
closed by contact at the three points referred to, there is still a 
way for the exit of the breath, namely through the nostrils, and 
the permission of its escape in this way gives rise to a distinct 
class of sounds, called nasals. There may be, or must be, in any 
language, as many sounds of this class as there are mutes ; 

* In liis paper op the Arabic (p. 140), Prof. Lepsius explicitly speaks of the / as 
thus formed. 

On Lepsius 1 s Standard Alphabet. 313 

each letter of complete closure has its corresponding nasal : so 
to JD, , k correspond w, w, and the English ng (in sing ; or n in 
anger, ink). Observation shows us, however, that hardly any 
language gives to the palatal nasal the same value, as an inde- 
pendent constituent of the alphabet, as to the other two : it is 
employed only in a subordinate capacity, either solely before a 
palatal mute, or also at the end of a syllable, where a palatal 
mute has in pronunciation been lost after it, as in English and 
German. Hence it has no sign allotted to it in the Latin alpha- 
bet, and one must be devised and applied to its designation. Our 
author chooses n with a dot above as diacritical point: thus, n 
which seems unobjectionable, if not found to be inconsistent with 
other signs to be adopted later. The second point to be noticed 
is that the close positions in which &, , p are uttered give rise, 
not to those letters only, but also to another set, </, c/, b. Prof. 
Lepsius distinguishes the two classes by calling the latter "soft," 
the former "strong" or "sharp" terms which he prefers, appar- 
ently, to the more natural and usual correlative of "soft, viz. 
"hard." This whole nomenclature seems to us exceedingly 
objectionable, as founded on fanciful analogy rather than on phys- 
ical analysis. The terms hard and soft, once so usual, have of 
late become in good degree banished from phonetical works, and 
their re-introduction by our author is a regrettable step in a back- 
ward direction. Much as we dislike the color analogy, already 
spoken of, we would almost as lief see a, ?', w, w, etc., habitually 
called in our author's pages the red, the yellow, the blue, and the 
green vowel, etc., respectively, as to find p and 6, and s and z, 
entitled the strong and the soft mute or sibilant. The use of 
these terms by our author, however, depends in great part upon 
an actual defect in his physiological analysis of the sounds to 
which they are applied: he has no clear, penetrating, and ever- 
present appreciation of the difference between what he calls the 
strong and the soft letters. This defect is something rather char- 
acteristically German : it is really amazing how some of the 
most able physiologists and philologists of that nation have 
blundered over the simple and seemingly obvious distinction be- 
tween an s and a z, any' and a v, a p and a 6, etc. Thus, to cite 
but an instance or two, the really eminent physiologist Johannes 
Miiller can see no difference between a p and a b except a 
difference in regard to the force of utterance; and the noted 
grammarian Becker can find nothing better to say of them than 
that the one, the soft, is naturally fitted to stand at the beginning 
of a syllable, and the other, the hard, at its end: that is to say, 
that but is a correct and normal compound of sounds, while tub 
is something topsy-turvy, an infraction of the order of nature, 
and ought not, we suppose, to be uttered as, by most Germans, 
it cannot be. The more usual way of settling the difficulty is 

314 W.D. Whitney, 

to assume what is implied in the names "hard" and "soft" : that 
s differs from z in being pronounced with a greater effort of the 
organs ; that it is a hard or strong utterance, while z is weak or 
soft : and this is utterly erroneous, for either can, without altera- 
tion of its distinctive character, be pronounced with any required 
degree of force with the gentlest possible emission of breath, 
such as hardly yields an audible sound, or with the most violent 
expulsion of which the organs are capable and in ordinary use 
they do not at all differ from one another in this respect. Our 
author should have allowed himself to be instructed as regards 
the point in question by the Hindu grammarians, to whom he 
finds just occasion to refer more than once as distinguished for 
their skill in phonetic analysis, and capable of becoming our 
guides to the understanding of the sounds of our own languages 
(p. 15 [14]) : none of them, so far as we know, fails to define 
correctly the difference between "hard" and "soft" letters. He 
himself comes very near the true explanation once or twice, as 
where he notices (p. 27 [24]) that all the soft fricative consonants 
include in themselves an intonated sound, or vowel: such a sound 
is, indeed, included in them, as well as in the soft explosives, and 
it is precisely this that makes them soft, for " soft" differs from 
" hard" solely in being uttered with intonated breath, instead of 
unintonated ; that is to say, with sound, instead of breath alone. 
It may seem a contradiction to speak of a mute letter for in- 
stance, a b as uttered with intonated breath ; but the difficulty 
is only an apparent one. Intonated breath, as any one may read- 
ily convince himself by experiment, can be forced up into the 
mouth even when closed, until the cavity of the mouth is filled 
with the air so expelled. Thus, with the lips compressed, and 
no exit permitted through the nose, one may make a sound, in 
which, even without the closure broken, the ear will recognize a 
b quality, and which will last until the cheeks are fully distended, 
perhaps a second or two : time enough, though short, to utter a 
dozen 6's in. The syllable pa differs from ba, then, in this : in 
the former ease, the intonation of the breath, the expulsion of 
sound, begins the instant that the labial contact is broken ; in 
the latter case, it begins the instant before : apa differs from aba 
in that, in the one, the breath loses its sonant quality during the 
instant of closure represented by p; in the other, there is no ces- 
sation of intonation from beginning to end of the utterance. In 
the fricative or continuous letters, as s, z, or / v, the case is yet 
more conspicuously clear ; and no one, we are confident, can fail 
to convince himself by a very little trial that the only difference 
between any such pair of sounds lies in the difference of the 
material which is furnished from the lungs and throat to that 
position of the mouth organs which is characteristic of both. 
The only proper names, then, by which the two classes of sounds 
should be distinguished are intonated and unintonated, vocal and 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 315 

aspirate, sonant and surd, or the like, and such terms ought to 
be substituted throughout for our author's "soft" and "strong," 
to the rigorous exclusion of the latter.* 

* In his papers on the Chinese and Tibetan and on the Arabic, Prof. Lepsius 
recognizes the difference in respect to intonation between the two classes of sounds 
here in question, and more usually calls them by names which are measurably 
free from the objections \ve have urged against "soft" and "strong." But in the 
latter paper (pp. 106-10), after an elaborate discussion of the phonetic relations of 
the two classes, he comes anew to the conclusion, which we cannot but deem an er- 
roneous one, that, while intonation does indeed constitute a usual distinction between 
strong and soft sounds, it is not, after all, the primary and fundamental one : this 
being, rather, the difference in strength of the emitted breath. Without entering 
into a detailed analysis of his argument, which would necessarily occupy several 
pages, we woulJ point out that there are two circumstances by the misinterpreta- 
tion of which he seems to be especially led astray. The first is, that there is actu- 
ally a less emission of breath in the production of the intonated than in that of the 
unintonated letters. If there is no intonation, if the vocal cords remain relaxed, 
the whole aperture of the larynx is left open for the escape of breath, and the lungs 
may in a very brief moment be entirely emptied of their content: if there is into- 
nation, the aperture is almost closed by the elevation and approximation of the 
membranous valves the vibration of whose edges produces the tone ; a mere slit is 
left for the passage of the breath, and this cannot be completely expelled from the 
lungs until after a prolonged utterance of sound. Thus, other things being equal, a 
surd letter will cause a greater expenditure of breath than a sonant; but it is, we 
are sure, a direct reversal of the true relation of things to make the diminution of 
the column of breath the primary, and the intonation the secondary and subordinate 
circumstance. We understand I'rof. Lepsius, by his scale of maxima and minima, 
to admit that more breath may be expended in the violent utterance of a sonant 
than in the gentle utterance of a surd ; yet to hold that the strength of utterance is 
the main thing, because, through the whole scale of degrees of force, the surd sound 
would employ mure breath than the sonant of corresponding strength. Is not this 
very much as if one were to say thut the essential physical difference between male 
and female lies in the inferior strength of the latter; since, though a man of mini- 
mum power may be weaker than a woman of maximum power, yet a maximum 
man is stronger than a maximum woman, and a minimum man than a minimum 
woman ? If we may increase and diminish the force of utterance of either a surd 
or a sonant letter, and to a marked degree, without alteration of their distinctive 
character, then it seems clear that force of utterance cannot be their distinguishing 
characteristic : while, on the other hand, if it be true, as we confidently maintain, 
that the element of intonation cannot possibly be introduced into nn/, for instance, 
without immediately and necessarily converting it into a v, nor the element of into- 
nation taken away from a v without at once making an /of it, we cannot hesitate to 
regard the presence or absence of intonation as determining absolutely the distinc- 
tive character of the sounds in question. 

The other circumstance to which we regard Prof. Lepsius as giving a false value is 
that in whispering we are able, to a certain extent, to make audible the distinction 
between surd and sonant. In whispeting, the place of tone is taken by a rustling 
of the breath through the larynx we presume, between the edges of the vocal 
cords, which are approximated, but not sufficiently so, nor with tension enough, to 
produce actual sonant vibration, although approaching this in proportion to the effort 
which is made to attain loudness and distinctness. It may be compared to the first 
hoarse rush of steam through an imperfect steam whistle, approaching, and finally 
passing over into, clear sound. There is enough of resonance in it to make all the 
vowels and semivowels distinctly audible, and it can in some measure perform the 
same office for the sonant consonants : yet very imperfectly; it requires a labored 
effort at distinctness of utterance, and the close attention of an ear not too far re- 
moved, to distinguish a whispered saza and fava from itasa and vafa. We cannot 
see that the possibility of this partial substitution of an imperfect for a perfect in- 
tonation militates at all against the theory which regards intonation as the essential 
distinction of the sonant letter from the surd. 

S16 TF. D. Whitney, 

We would construct as follows the complete tableau of the 
principal sounds thus far treated of : 

Vowels, e 

( i tt / 

Semivowels, y r, I w / Sonant - 

Nasals, n n in 

Mutes, \ I d f b ' ^ 

( k t p Surd. 

The nasals create a little difficulty in the arrangement of the 
alphabet, inasmuch as they introduce an element which has no 
part in the formation of the other letters, and, while in position 
of the mouth organs they are close, like the mutes, they are nev- 
ertheless, in virtue of the freedom of the passage which they 
unclose, quite open letters, having many important analogies with, 
the semivowels and vowels. Thus, both n and ra are sometimes 
used as vowels, like r and I. For this reason we place them next 
the semivowels, between these and the mutes. Again and this 
is perhaps the most marked common characteristic which unites 
them into one class the vowels, semi-vowels, and nasals have all 
together but one corresponding surd, the letter h. This letter 
our author refers to a new class which he sets up, and calls the 
"faucal": he describes it as produced "behind the guttural point, 
immediately at the larynx" (p. 39 [34]). We cannot quite agree 
with this treatment of the A, which seems to imply that it has a 
characteristic position of its own, or is pronounced with the 
mouth organs h'xed in a certain way, which we think is plainly 
not the case. Our European /?, although in great part of guttural 
origin, has become a mere breathing, and is always uttered in 
the same position with the next following letter, which letter can 
be no other than a vowel, semivowel, or nasal. The h which pre- 
cedes an , as in the word Ae, is an emission of unintonated breath 
through the same position of the organs which belongs to the 
t, or through the close palatal position ; before u, as in hoot, it is 
uttered through the close labial position ; the same is true of the 
h which precedes the semivowels y and w, as in the words Itue 
(hyu) and when (hweri); and the Greek rough breathing before Q 
was doubtless of like character. That is to say, in the production 
of the vowels, semivowels, and nasals, the approximation of 
the organs is not so close that the utterance through them of 
unintonated breath can give sounds individually characterized, 
and capable of being employed as independent members of the 
alphabetic system : all their positions together add but a single 
surd to the alphabet, the simple breathing or aspiration h. In 
the rest of the system, on the other hand, each position of the 
mouth organs adds to the alphabet two sounds, produced by the 
emission, the one of intonated breath, the other of unintonated. 

On Lepsius 1 s Standard Alphabet. 817 

And this distinction seems to us to draw through the system a 
more marked line of separation, to divide it into two classes more 
decidedly different from one another, than that between vowels 
and consonants. If we were to separate the alphabet into two 
great classes, it would be rather here than there. 

In proceeding to fill in the other classes of sounds which help 
to make up the complete alphabetic system, we may commence 
with the sibilants. The sibilant most universally found to occur, 
and the oldest and only primitive one in our family of languages, 
is the lingual 5. This is, like r, a breach, made at the tip of the 
tongue, of the position of closure in which t is pronounced: the 
breach is a less open one, and the material expelled through it is 
the unintonated breath. Hence the so frequent historical transi- 
tion of s into r ; and hence even, in the Sanskrit, the prevailing 
phonetic relation of s and r as corresponding surd and sonant. 
The s, however, has its precise sonant correlative in z, which is 
pronounced with exactly the same position and degree of clo- 
sure, and differs only in the material expelled, which is intonated. 
The other common sibilant is that which in our language is writ- 
ten, though a simple sound, with the compound sign sh. Prof. 
Lepsius does not expressly define it, yet we gather from what he 
says of it on page 45 [40], and from his classing it as "dental," 
that he would describe it in a manner with which we could not 
agree. The most instructive and decisive experiment which one 
can try in his own mouth upon the sibilants, is to apply the tip 
of the tongue to the roof of the mouth in front, just behind the 
upper teeth, uttering an s there, and then to pass the tip slowly 
backward along the palate, continuing the sibilant sound. It 
will be perceived that, for a brief space, the resulting sound is 
clearly such as we should call an s, but that, as soon as the tongue 
passes the ridge at which the dome of the palate rather abruptly 
rises, the sibilant assumes the character of an sh, and maintains 
it, with unimportant change of quality, as far back as the tongue 
can reach in the mouth. The ridge referred to forms the dividing 
line between the region where s and that where sh is uttered, and 
this difference of region constitutes the essential distinction be- 
tween the two sounds. The tip of the tongue is not necessary 
to the formation of either: its upper flat surface, applied in front 
of the ridge, is used by some persons in their ordinary utterance 
of s ; while the usual sh is always produced by that part of the 
organ, applied within the dome : the sh sound, slightly different 
in quality from this, which is brought forth by turning the tip 
of the tongue back into the dome of the palate, is the Sanskrit 
"cerebral" sh a distinct cerebral, like all the other letters of its 
class, and not identical with our s//, although so nearly akin 
with it. The position of the sh and its corresponding sonant zh 
(z in azure: the French,;') is thus between the palatal and the 

318 W. D. Whitney, 

lingual letters, but very decidedly more akin with the former. 
The term "dental" is an incorrect one as applied to it, since not 
only are the teeth not at all concerned in its production, but it is 
even originated at a point quite distant from them. We have 
carefully avoided the use of the term dental throughout, because 
we think it a misnomer, even as allotted to s, z, d, and t. By 
long and careful trial, we have convinced ourselves that the close 
approach and contact which give origin to these sounds are not 
upon the teeth themselves, but immediately at their base and 
behind them. Even though the tip of the tongue touch the teeth 
in the utterance of t and d, the determining contact is upon the 
gum : the only sound producible between the tongue and the 
teeth themselves is that of th ; the teeth are not tight enough to 
make a mute closure. 

In his selection of a sign for this pair of sibilants, our author 
has not been quite so happy as usual. After rejecting the s with 
a spiritus asper above it (thus: 5), because the latter has a value 
of its own, which would not belong to it as thus used, he adopts 
as diacritical mark the usual sign of a short vowel, which is lia- 
ble to precisely the same objection, and writes s, z. We should 
have chosen s', for just the analogy on account of which our 
author rejects it because we regard the sound as properly pala- 
tal, and think it identical with the Sanskrit palatal sibilant. A 
dotted 5, or s, would also have pleased us better than the sign 
adopted, as being more easily written, and not suggesting a value 
which it does not possess. Still, the point is one of inferior con- 
sequence, and we should not think of seriously quarreling with 
the method of representation proposed by Prof. Lepsius.* 

The sounds of the English ch in church, and j and g \njudge, 
are represented in our author's system by is and dz, as being evi- 
dently compound sounds, containing as their final elements the 
surd and sonant sibilants just treated. These signs, however, 
include a slight inaccuracy, which we presume did not escape the 
notice of Prof. Lepsius, but was neglected by him as of insig- 
nificant importance. The t and c?, namely, which form the first 
constituents of the compounds, are not the ordinary t and d, as 
uttered close behind the teeth, and with the tip of the tongue : 
they are brought forth within the dome of the palate, and by the 
flat of the tongue that is to say, by a contact of the same or- 
gans, and at the same point, where a near approximation gives 
the sh sound. We properly require, then, some diacritical point 
to distinguish them from the common linguals, from which they 
differ quite as much, and in very nearly the same way, as the 

* Tn his later papers, we observe that he substitutes an angular mark, like a cir- 
cumflex inverted, for the circular one : thus, * following, apparently, the Slavonian 
usage to which he refers on page 35 [31]. 

On Lepsius 's Standard A IphabeL 319 

Semitic sounds written by our author with a line beneath (t and 
d) perhaps still more nearly as the Sanskrit palatals (according 
to his understanding of their character), which he represents by 
&', g'. The inaccuracy, it is true, is in great measure excused by 
the practical inconvenience of adding a second diacritical mark 
to the compounds, and by the awkwardness of introducing two 
new characters into alphabets which know the sounds represented 
by them only in these combinations ; yet we should be inclined 
to draw from it an argument in favor of a yet simpler mode of 
representation. Considering the peculiar intimacy with which 
the elements of the sounds in question are combined such that 
some orthoepists still persist in regarding them as simple, and 
that more than one language, elsewhere very careful to make its 
vowels long before double consonants, does not allow them to 
constitute position we should not be unwilling to turn to 
account in their representation the otherwise useless c and j of 
the Latin alphabet. To write c for the sound ch, and to retain j 
with its English value would, indeed, involve the inconsistency 
of writing compound sounds with simple signs ; but this incon- 
sistency may be set off against the inaccuracy of writing ts, dz ; 
and if we are dealing with a matter so knotty as to compel us at 
any rate to a violation of our system, is it not better to err on 
the side of practical convenience ?* 

The labial series has no sibilants ; for its pair of fricatives, surd 
and sonant, expressed in our author's system by /and v, with 
their English values, so lack the hissing quality which distin- 
guishes the lingual, palatal, and cerebral sibilants, that it seems 
preferable to put them into another class ; which, for lack of a 
better name at hand, we will call the " spirants." Of these two, 
the / is more universally found, and of earlier development 
which is apt to be the case, as between surd and sonant letters 
of the same organic position. In their ordinary pronunciation, 
the upper teeth are placed directly upon the lower lip, and the 
breath, unintonated or intonated, forced out between them. They 
would be most accurately described, then, as dento-labials. The 
German utterance of these sounds, however (and the same thing 
is claimed by some for the Latin/), brings the teeth much less 
distinctly into action: the German /and v (w) are almost purely 
lip sounds, crowded in upon the labial series between w andp, b. 

* The later papers of our author, already more than once referred to, show that 
he appreciates the force of this argument, and that the second edition of his Stand- 
ard Alphabet will permit the use of c and j to represent the compound sounds here 
in question yet with the addition to them of the same diacritical mark which he 
finally adopts for the sA and zh sounds : thus, c, j. These signs are quite an im- 
provement, in our view on the ts and dz which they replace, yet we hardly appre- 
ciate the necessity of writing with diacritical points characters not elsewhere em- 
ployed in the alphabet. 

VOL. vn. 41 

320 W. D. Whitney, 

The spirants of the lingual series are the two sounds, surd and 
sonant, of the English th, as instanced in the two words thin and 
this. They are properly dento-linguals, being, unlike the other 
letters commonly called " dental," actually produced between the 
tongue and the upper teeth. What part of either shall be used 
is a matter of indifference : the same sound is originated, whether 
the tip of the tongue be set against the inner surface of the 
teeth (only not so as to form a contact upon the gums), or whether 
its tip or any part of its upper surface be applied under the points 
of the teeth. For foreigners, who are wont to find great diffi- 
culty in catching and imitating this sound, it is a method infalli- 
bly attended with success to seize the end of the tongue between 
the teeth, and hold it firmly there, while the breath is forced out 
over it. 

Before examining the characters adopted by Prof. Lepsius for 
the lingual spirants, it will be well to consider the rules which, 
at the outset of his treatment of the consonants (pp. 81-2 [28]), 
he lays down as necessary to be followed in the work of fitting 
signs and sounds to each other. The first two of these rules 
that every simple sound is to be represented by a simple sign, 
and that different sounds are not to be expressed by one and the 
same sign are of obvious propriety, and their generally bind- 
ing character will, we are sure, be universally assented to yet 
even to the first of these we have been ready above to admit a 
single exception (or rather, to replace by it an exception admitted 
by our author himself to the second), in a peculiar case, and in 
order to gain what seemed to us an important practical advantage. 
The third rule is to the effect that those European characters 
which have a different value in the principal European alpha- 
bets are not to be admitted into a general alphabet. This shuts 
out from all employment such letters as c, j, x. To such a rule 
we are very loth to yield assent. With so scanty an alphabet as 
the Latin for material to make our system of characters of, it is 
very hard to have any part of it ruled out of use in advance, 
unless for more cogent reasons than can be urged in favor of this 
rule. The multiplication of diacritical points, the introduction 
among the familiar letters of our alphabet of others of a discord- 
ant form and style, like the Greek, are both very inconvenient 
and very distasteful, and if they can possibly be avoided, wholly 
or partly, by a judicious use of Roman letters which would oth- 
erwise be left idle, practical good sense would seem to teacli us 
so to avoid them. The value of the signs composing the general 
alphabet must, of course, be learned by every person who is to 
use it : not a single language possesses all its characters in the 
signification it attributes to them ; it is but a small matter to add 
one or two more to the list of those which each person must teach 
himself to apply in a different way from that to which he has 

On Lepsius 1 s Standard Alphabet. 321 

been accustomed, or to adopt one or two convenient signs which 
in their assigned value must be learned by a majority instead of 
a minority, or a larger instead of a smaller majority, of those 
who use the alphabet. In fact, Prof. Lepsius himself furnishes a 
sufficient argument against his own rule, by palpably violating 
it in more than one instance : we will not insist upon the cir- 
cumstance that he presumes to write the vowels and diphthongs 
by characters used according to their Italian values, while the 
English language, and in a less degree the French, gives them in 
many cases a quite diiferent signification : but he also adopts w 
for the labial semivowel, in spite of the more usual value of the 
sonant spirant (v), which it has in other languages than English ; 
he takes y for the palatal semivowel, although it is vowel, vowel 
and semivowel combined, and diphthong, one or all, in the prin- 
cipal languages of Europe : he represents the deeper palatal of 
the Semitic languages by <?, which has not that value in a single 
European language ; nor is his use of v and z free from similar 
objections. In every one of these cases, we heartily approve of 
the choice which he has made ; but we do not approve of his 
cutting himself and us off from other such convenient adapta- 
tions, by the peremptory action of a rule which he observes so 
imperfectly. The fourth rule runs as follows : Explosive letters 
are not to be used to express fricative sounds, and vice versa. 
That is to say, for instance, c, of which the original sound was 
that of &, an explosive, or full mute, must not be used as a base 
upon which to form a character to represent the fricative, or con- 
tinuable, sound of the German ch ; t must not be altered to ex- 
press the th sound, and so on. It is difficult to see why this 
should be made a peremptory rule, the binding force of which is 
not to be set aside by any opposing considerations. On the con- 
trary, since the spirants, for example, historically develop them- 
selves in numerous instances from the mutes, there would seem 
to be a peculiar propriety in developing their representative 
signs also from those of the mutes if practical considerations be 
found to favor rather than oppose such a process. Our author's 
last two rules, we think, might better have been stated as import- 
ant leading principles, not to be set aside without good and 
sufficient reasons. 

But to return to the lingual spirants. For the surd th sound, 
as heard in thin, throw, path, Prof. Lepsius adopts the Greek & as 
representative: not without reluctance, for he feels the great 
undesirableness of introducing foreign characters into the Latin 
alphabet, and also allows that the primitive sound of & was not 
fricative, like our th, but an aspirated t, or a t with an h closely 
following it. He is restrained, however, by his fourth rule from 
accepting any diacritically distinguished form of our explosives 
t and d to indicate the fricative spirants. We, on the other 

322 W. D. Whitney, 

hand, do not see why, if the rule is a good one, it ought not to 
hold good in dealing with the Greek as well as with the Latin 
alphabet, and we should have decidedly preferred to see our 
author devise some modification of t and d, of a different kind 
from those assumed to represent the "cerebral" and "palatal" t 
and d for instance, a t and d with a stroke drawn through 
them to stand for the sounds in question. But there are ob- 
jections yet more powerful to his manner of dealing with the 
sonant sound, the th of this, though, with. Recurring to his 
erroneous explanation of the difference between surd and sonant 
letters, and regarding the sonant as a weaker or softer utterance 
of the surd, he proposes to mark the former with the same Greek 
letter #, only writing a spiritus lenis above it to indicate its gen- 
tler pronunciation. Here, for the first time, we must positively 
decline to accept his proposal. It is hard enough to have to 
borrow a Greek letter for the surd sound ; but to take the same 
sign for the sonant also, while everywhere hitherto surd and 
sonant have had different characters, and then to mark their 
difference by a sign which is founded upon and implies a false 
theory this is more than we can possibly consent to do. Far 
better were it to follow the course for which our author himself 
expresses a preference, but, from an underestimate of the diffi- 
culties attending the other course, does not venture to adopt; 
namely, to take the Greek d for the sonant character. If we 
must accept &, let us by all means have <? also, in its Modern 
Greek value : that is even a less violation of the proprieties of 
the Ancient Greek than to set the smooth breathing over a con- 
sonant, and with a value in no way belonging to it.* 

The two sounds of the German ch the one following a, and 
the labial vowels o, u, the other following the vowels of palatal 
position, e, i, u, o, and those compounds of which the final ele- 
ment is palatal, as ei, eu are allotted by Prof. Lepsius to the 
guttural and palatal classes respectively. The distinction be- 
tween the two in respect to mode of formation is sufficiently 
clear : each is a rough h, as we may call it, rasped through the 
organs with the least possible change from the position of the 
preceding vowel. If the vowel is a palatal one, uttered between 
the upper surface of the tongue and the roof of the mouth, the 
succeeding ch is of the same character ; it is produced by an ex- 
pulsion of unintonated breath through the same position made a 
little more <jlose : or it may even be by a more violent expulsion 
through the unchanged position, a throwing out of more breath 
than can pass the organs without audible friction. The ch after 
a, o, u is brought forth farther back, at the deepest point in the 

* We note that Prof. Lepsius has himself later definitively adopted 8 and y 88 
signs for the dental ami palatal sonant spirants. 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 323 

throat, as it seems to us, where the organs can be so approxi- 
mated as to yield a fricative sound, or at the point where the 
familiar and ungraceful operation of clearing the throat, or hawk- 
ing, is performed. The former of the two, we think, approaches 
decidedly more nearly than the other to the point at which k and 
g are produced, and it is to be reckoned as of the same class with 
them. Prof. Lepsius calls k and g " gutturals," according to a 
very generally received nomenclature, and he ranks with them 
the deeper ch sound. We have all along avoided the use of the 
term guttural, as applied to the series in which the two mutes 
referred to belong, because it seems to us to suggest and imply a 
point farther back in the mouth than that at which they are ac- 
tually produced. We entirely agree with our author (p. 40 [36]) 
in locating the place of utterance of k upon the soft palate, close 
upon where it joins the hard palate: their junction seems to be 
the line of division between lingual and palatal mutes, and be- 
hind it, even with the tip of the tongue, one produces a sound 
which is rather a k than a t. But the anterior part of the soft 
palate is hardly entitled to be called " guttural", or regarded as 
generating " guttural" letters : that term should rather be reserved 
for the deeper place of origin of the other ch ; at or very near 
which is also produced, if our author's description be correct, the 
Semitic koph (Arabic o, Hebrew p), very properly written by 
him with , its graphic, though not its phonetic, equivalent in 
the European alphabet. 

To represent the ch sounds, our author proposes to make use 
of the Greek letter *, writing the deeper or guttural sound with 
the simple character, #, and the higher or palatal with the same 
character accented, or x> Precisely the same objections lie against 
this expedient as against the adoption of -9-, already treated of; 
and for our own part, at least, we should have preferred to take 
another course. There is a Latin letter still left unemployed in 
our author's proposed alphabet, which, although its usual signifi- 
cation is quite different from the sound now sought to be repre- 
sented, has that signification in at least one of the principal lan- 
guages of Europe, the Spanish ; and which, moreover, is the 
graphic correspondent in Latin of the Greek x : we mean the 
letter a;. Prof. Lepsius has considered the question of applying 
this letter to signify the ch sounds, and he rejects it, pronouncing 
it (p. 33 [30]) "altogether improper" for such a use. It is true 
that there are considerations of weight against it, of which we 
are by no means sure that they will not with many or with most 
judges have a preponderating 'influence, and cause the rejection 
of our proposal: but, in our own apprehension, they are all 
overborne by the signal advantage of taking a proper Latin sign, 
and turning to account all the characters of the Latin alphabet. 
The two points of connection between the sound and the sign 


IF". D. Whitney, 

which are furnished by the Spanish value of the latter, and by 
its graphic relation to x, we are ready to accept as sufficient, 
scanty though they are. It were, in fact, a great pity to come so 
near to adopting x, and yet not quite take it. If our author's 
proposal is followed, we shall, whenever his character is to be 
written as a capital, use the Latin X: why not accept the other 
form also calling it, if we choose, latinizing our x, in order to 
adapt it to being written and printed with the other Latin letters ? 

The sonant corresponding to the surd ch sound is compara- 
tively rare, and, if we are not mistaken, chiefly restricted to the 
deeper or guttural pronunciation: the palatal would pass too 
readily into y to be easily kept distinct from that semivowel. If 
the surd is to be written with *, we should unhesitatingly take y 
for the sonant, as is half proposed by our author ; the x which he 
finally decides to adopt is to be rejected, like ff, and for the same 
reason.* K x should be accepted as the sign of the surd, it 
would be necessary, probably, to devise some modification of g 
for the sonant. 

We have, then, the following, as a more complete scheme of a 
developed alphabet than was the skeleton formerly given : it 
contains the consonantal sounds most widely met with, including 
all those found in the English spoken alphabet : 

Sonant 4 





Sonant J 

Surd c 





m Nasals. 


I Sibilants. 

/. > Spirants. 

J . 

b \ 

p ) 



y Compound. 

Some things in this scheme require explanation, since it is not 
in all points so theoretically exact as the simpler one before pre- 
sented. The vowels of double position, u and o, are placed 

* See the preceding note. 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 325 

where they stand for the sake of convenience, and not as belong- 
ing in any manner to the lingual series : this is indicated by the 
line drawn below them, from which the lingual series is to be 
regarded as commencing. For the same reason, the neutral 
vowel is given a position under the a, with which, as explained 
above, it has the nearest relation. The labial spirants might 
suitably enough be set somewhat to the left, and the lingual spi- 
rants somewhat to the right, of the places allotted to them re- 
spectively, since each pair brings in a new organ, the teeth, inter- 
mediate in position between the lips and tongue. For a like 
reason, the palatal sibilants are entitled to a position farther to the 
right : they might, in a yet more fully expanded scheme, be set 
in an independent column. That the labial and lingual spirants 
are letters of closer position than the sibilants, and therefore to 
be placed between these and the mutes, is very clear. In their 
production, the teeth are actually in contact with the lip and 
with the tongue respectively, and it is only because the teeth are 
too open among themselves to be capable of making a close po- 
sition that the resulting sounds are fricative, and not explosive. 
This is not the case with the ch sounds, which we have put in 
the same rank; these have, in many respects, closer analogies 
with the sibilants than with the spirants, and would be quite as 
properly ranked with the former; yet, as they lack the full 
measure of sibilation, are certainly somewhat closer in position 
than their nearest relatives among the sibilants, the sh sounds, 
and have historical analogies with the spirants coming, in great 
part, from M, as & from th, and / from ph we have ventured to 
give them the place they occupy in the scheme. 

The alphabet, as thus drawn out, by no means includes all the 
sounds which our author treats, and for which he provides repre- 
sentatives. Some languages present whole series of consonantal 
sounds differing from those we have thus far considered. In 
most cases, however, they admit of being arranged without diffi- 
culty within the same general alphabetic frame-work. Thus, the 
series representing the Arabic J?, QW, <jo, Jo would come in just 
at the left of the common lingual series, being uttered, according 
to our author's description of them,* by applying the flat of the 
tongue, instead of its tip, to the same part of the palate where 
the tip produces the lingual letters, and being also, by general 
acknowledgment, uttered with greater effort, or stress of enun- 
ciation : they are very suitably represented in our author's sys- 
tem by the ordinary lingual letters, t, d, s, z, with an underscored 
line : thus, t, d, s, z. The Sanskrit so-called "cerebrals" would 
come next in order to the left ; they have been already referred 

* See his special paper on the Arabic for a more penetrating 'investigation of 
these sounds, leading to somewhat different views respecting their character. 

326 W. D. Whitney, 

to, as uttered by turning back the tip of the tongue within the 
dome of the palate : Prof. Lepsius represents them in the usual 
manner, by lingual letters dotted beneath : thus, t, d, s, n. To 
the left of these, again, would have to be ranged the letters of 
the Sanskrit series usually called the " palatal," if our author's 
view of them, as simple sounds, be accepted as the true one. 
They are now pronounced like the English ch and j, and are 
more usually regarded as having had that signification from the 
beginning. It is not the proper place here to enter into a discus- 
sion of this difficult point : we will only say that the considera- 
tions adduced by our author in opposition to the common view, 
though very weighty, do not appear to us entirely convincing ; 
and that we cannot regard the mutes of the series in question as 
differing from the English ch and j in such a manner and degree 
as to require other representatives than the signs already pro- 
vided for those sounds. As for the sibilant of the class, we have 
already expressed our belief in its virtual identity with our 
English sh. Prof. Lepsius adopts the acute accent as sign of the 
peculiar palatal quality inherent in these letters, and writes the 
mutes, sibilant, and nasal as follows : Jc, g, x, ri. To the two 
last, as representing the palatal ch sound of the German, and the 
English n in inch, hinge (if the latter is worth expressing by a 
peculiar character at all), we have no objection except that, as 
already explained, we would substitute x' for z the other two 
we do not think well chosen, even allowing the correctness of 
our author's explanation of their quality : for sounds produced 
by pressing the broad middle of the tongue against the middle 
of the hard palate (p. 42 [38]) would not have anything of that 
quality which we represent by &, #, but would be distinctly a 
kind of <, d: no letter produced farther forward than the soft 
palate can be entitled to use k or g as its representative. The 
difference between our alleged "palatal" pronunciation of k before 
e, i, and our " guttural" before a, o, u, is exceedingly slight, and 
by no means such as would be made in any alphabet the foun- 
dation of a distinction of classes and characters : the only way 
to establish a valid distinction between a palatal and a guttural 
k and g in the Sanskrit system would be to regard the latter 
class as uttered at the deep guttural position of our author's q 
(Semitic Tcoph\ and the former as corresponding to our custom- 
ary k, g. 

Finally, Prof. Lepsius gives us a class of " faucal" sounds, 
which has not, so far as we know, been recognized by any other 
author as a distinct and connected series. As constructed by 
him, it has a very regular and normal look, comprising a pair of 
fricatives and a pair of explosives, each pair being composed, as 
elsewhere, of a "soft" and a "strong" sound; insomuch that the 
series seems quite analogous to the lingual s, z, t, d, or to the 

On Leptius's Standard Alphabet, 327 

labial f, v, p, 5. But the analogy turns out, on closer exam- 
ination, to be only apparent, and there are such weak points in 
the construction of the class as forbid us to accept it and place it 
parallel with those already received into the general alphabetic 
scheme. The first member of the series is the common aspira- 
tion h. Of this we have already sufficiently spoken, showing 
why we cannot regard it as "faucal": it is faucal in no other 
sense than as all voice, intonated or unintonated, must of course 
come through the fauces ; and so, if there is no modifying action 
on the part of the mouth organs, the sound produced might, in 
a negative way, be styled a throat-sound, or a faucal, or a laryn- 
gal. But the h is plainly no member of a faucal series in the 
sense in which the other sounds we have been considering are 
members of a palatal series, a lingual series, and so on namely, 
as having received a distinctive character by the action of the 
organ from which it derives its name ; it is simple unintonated 
material, breath uncharacterized, or insufficiently characterized. 
The next member of the series is the Greek smooth breathing. 
This is regarded by Prof. Lepsius as a consonant, which necessa- 
rily and invariably precedes and ushers in a vowel not immedi- 
ately preceded by any other consonant; he defines it as consist- 
ing in a slight explosion produced by the opening of the throat 
for the effort of utterance. Now we are quite unable to convince 
ourselves that there is any such thing as this alleged smooth 
breathing, having a positive and necessary existence. It is, 
indeed, possible to shut the throat and open it again before a 
vowel with an audible click (and yet the click will hardly be 
audible unless the following vowel is whispered only, instead of 
being intonated, or unless between it and the click a little emis- 
sion of unintonated breath be suffered to intervene) ; but it is 
equally possible to substitute for the click a very slight open 
breathing, an infinitesimal h; and not less so, again, to com- 
mence the vowel without any prefix whatever which the nicest 
ear can remark. Why should it be necessary to close the throat 
as a preliminary to articulate speech ? cannot one pass in the 
very midst of a breath from simple breathing to intonation and 
articulation ? and are the vocal cords so sluggishly obedient to 
the will, that their approach to the vibratory position and the 
expulsion of the breath in the effort of speaking may not be 
made truly simultaneous ? We can credit either of these things 
only when our own mouth bears witness to our own ears of 
their truth ; and this we have been thus far unable to make it 
do. Our author assumes that this consonant comes in where- 
ever we suppose ourselves to be pronouncing two vowels in suc- 
cession, but uncombined, as in " the English go 'over" This is 
the same thing as to say that it is identical with the hiatus : but, 
if we can trust our own organs, this is a case where the closing 
VOL. vii. 42 

328 W. D. Whitney, 

and reopening of the throat would not take place, but, instead of 
it, merely an instant of silence, an actual hiatus of sound. We 
can hardly believe that the use of the spiritus lenis by the Greeks 
was owing to their having noticed, and desiring to represent, 
the sound which our author defines : in our view, it was em- 
ployed rather by way of antithesis to the spiritus asper : just as 
we, sometimes, for more marked distinction from a negative 
quantity, write a positive quantity with a plus sign, setting +1, 
instead of simply 1, over against 1. The use of the Semitic 
aleph is sufficiently explained by the syllabic character of the 
alphabet, and does not necessarily imply any recognition of the 
smooth breathing as a member of the spoken system of sounds. 
Our author even sets down the Sanscrit ?r as representing this 
breathing ; but we do not understand upon what ground ; for 
the sign stands distinctly for a, and for nothing else ; and we 
are not aware that the Hindu grammarians themselves acute 
and hair-splitting as they were in catching and noting the finest 
shades of sound, and much as they would have been delighted 
with, and have made the most of, just such a nicety as this 
ever took any notice of a smooth breathing. It has not, to our 
apprehension, any claim to be recognized as a distinct element 
in the spoken system, and as requiring a sign for its repre- 

Of that most difficult and puzzling sound, the Semitic ain 
(Ar. , Heb. 3>), which is the third in our author's faucal class, 
we shall not venture to speak, as we must confess ourselves un- 
able either to utter or to describe it. So much as this we seem 
to see, that the definition given by Prof. Lepsius is not entirely 
satisfactory. He makes it a "hard" sound, corresponding to the 
spiritus lenis as "soft." According to the general meaning of 
the terms hard and soft, as used by our author, this would sig- 
nify that the spiritus lenis was sonant, and this its corresponding 
surd which is, of course, impossible. If, on the other nand, it 
mean that the am is produced by an actually more violent and 
audible unclosing of the throat before a vowel, we do not see 
how this is to be brought into accordance with the descriptions 
of it given by the grammars. 

The Semitic strong h (Ar. , Heb. It), our author's fourth 
faucal, has more claim to the title, probably, than any of the 
others, as an A which, instead of being left in the condition of 
uncharacterized breath, is, by some degree of approach at the 
deep guttural point, made slightly fricative, although not to the 
degree of the *-sound, with which it is most nearly allied in 

* See the article of Prof. Lepsius on the Arabic, p. 127 etc., for a reeiamination 
and mure careful description, of the " faucal " sounds. 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 829 

We have thus gone over nearly the whole of our author's 
system, turning our chief attention, as was natural, to those 
points in which we could not agree with him, and making our 
criticisms upon them with entire freedom, while at the same 
time cherishing the highest respect for the work as a whole, and 
deeming it in many important regards superior to any other of 
the kind with which we are acquainted. In no other, to our 
seeming, are learning and practical good sense the want of 
either of which is equally fatal to the success of such a work as 
is here undertaken united in the same degree. With Prof. 
Lepsius's view of the general method in which the standard 
alphabet is to be constructed we are fully agreed ; it is to be by 
the employment of the Latin alphabet to the farthest possible 
extent, and by the application of diacritical signs to the most 
suitable bases to fill up its deficiencies; rather than, as some 
have proposed, by the introduction of italics and capitals among 
the ordinary "roman" letters; or, according to the method of 
others, by turning letters topsy-turvy or wrong side before, by 
cutting away parts of characters, manufacturing arbitrary signs 
for sounds, and the like, forming compounds even more offen- 
sive to the eye than that artificial and incongruous pot-pourri 
of characters, the Eussian alphabet. As has been seen above, 
we only wish that he had gone yet farther in the carrying out 
of this principle, doing without Greek characters altogether, and 
pressing into active service the three anomalous letters c, j\ and 
cc, as well as q. We heartily approve, also, of Prof. Lepsius's 
moderation in the distinction of sounds and the setting up of 
signs for them. To compose a complete universal alphabet, 
offering a sign for every shade of sound which human lips utter, 
however slightly differentiated, and requiring the use of that 
sign for that sound in all cases without exception, forms no part 
of his plan. Even if the execution of such a work be allowed 
to be possible, the resulting alphabet would be lifted far out of 
the domain of practical availability, in which our author desires 
it to rest. The varieties of possible pronunciation are well-nigh 
infinite, and the signs of a general alphabet must be allowed to 
cover and designate each a certain territory, as we may call it, of 
articulation, rather than a single point. It might be laid down 
as a general rule, that no two modes of pronunciation of a sound 
require to be distinguished by separate signs, unless they may 
and do coexist as independent sounds in the same spoken sj r s- 
tem. Thus, for instance, notwithstanding the difference in mode 
of pronunciation between the English and the German / and 
v (w], they are not to be regarded as demanding different signs : 
it must belong to the description of the methods of utterance of 
each language to point out their distinction. And yet farther, 
if a language were found to lack the more usual and normal 

830 Tf. D. Whitney, 

pronunciation of a letter or a series of letters, and to substitute 
for it one of those modes of utterance which are indicated in the 
general alphabet by a diacritical mark, it would yet be superflu- 
ous to use, in writing that language, the diacritical point. If, 
for example for no actual instance now occurs to us the Ara- 
bic had no t, d, s, z but _b, (jo, <jo, Jb, which are written in our 
author's system with the underscored line, it would be proper, 
in transcribing the language, to use for them the simple lingual 
letters, it being left for description to explain their peculiarity 
of utterance. Careful and detailed description must necessarily 
accompany any and every application of an alphabet to a new 
language, and even when that has done its utmost, there will 
remain much which only oral instruction can impart, much that 
cannot be learned but by long practice and familiar usage, and 
probably even much that can never be perfectly acquired by 
one to whom the language is not native. 

It is evident that adherence to a uniform standard of orthog- 
raphy is not in all cases to the same degree requisite and neces- 
sary. The adoption of one alphabetic system throughout is 
most to be insisted upon where independent laborers are reduc- 
ing to writing, for practical use, the same or nearly kindred 
idioms. Here, a diversity of characters employed leads to a 
confusion of which the consequences may be long and keenly 
felt. Where languages are quite independent of one another, 
minor inconsistencies in the mode of writing them are of com- 
paratively small account, since, in the acquisition of a new lan- 
guage, whether for practical or scientific purposes, its phonetic 
and orthographic systems must receive an amount of attention 
and study in which such little incongruities will almost entirely 
disappear. In isolated articles, essays, and treatises, in the ma- 
king up of empirical alphabets for collectors of vocabularies, and 
the like, greater freedom may very properly be allowed : con- 
venience of writing and printing, conformity with the previous 
usages of those for whose information or practical employment 
the alphabet is devised, leading to its greater intelligibility, or 
accuracy of application these and other like considerations rise 
to an importance which authorizes and justifies deviation from 
strict theory. It may be well here to review and classify the 
Standard Alphabet in a summary manner, with reference to the 
greater or less authority and availability of its signs. 

First, as regards the vowels. Here the most important and 
imperative rule is, that the five vowel sounds of almost univer- 
sal occurrence, illustrated by the English words far, prey, pique, 
note, rule, should be written by the characters a, e, t, o, u, which 
originally and properly belong to them, and by no other; in 
other words, that the vowels should receive the "Italian" sound. 
No alphabet, under any circumstances whatever, is to be toler- 

On Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 331 

ated, if it neglect this rule. The same rule implies and requires 
that the diphthongal sound which we call "long i" (as in pine, 
aisle, buy) should be represented by the digraph ai, and the diph- 
thong ou (as in house, how) by au. It is much less easy to lay 
down peremptory rules for the other five vowel sounds which 
most frequently call for representation. But the vowels of 
double position, the German u (French u) and o (French eu), can 
hardly be better written than with the two dots, either above or 
below, and we sho.uld think that a virtual unanimity as regards 
them might be pretty easily established. The neutral vowel 
(in English but, burn) will occasion much greater difficulty, and 
probably no sign can be suggested for it which will not encoun- 
ter strong opposition in many quarters. Our author's proposal 
will seem a strange one to most of those who come to it from 
English usages, and we have ourselves not been able to assent to 
it without some misgivings : but we have had nothing preferable 
to suggest, unless to transfer the diacritical point from e to a, 
writing a. The vowels intermediate between a and e and a and 
o respectively, represented in the English words cat and call, are 
also hard subjects for unanimity of treatment: and the more so, 
as they vary more in quality, in different languages, than the 
others. As said above, we should be very willing to see our 
author's signs generally adopted as their representatives. As 
the sign of long quantity, our author, with entire reason, prefers 
the horizontal line above the vowel (thus, a) : the circumflex 
(a) is also available for this purpose : but the use of the acute 
accent (a) to denote the length of a vowel, which has most un- 
fortunately become very prevalent among the English, is con- 
trary to all analogy, and unsupported by any consideration of 
fitness, convenience, or neatness of appearance, and it ought to 
be summarily suppressed. The only customary and available 
sign of short quantity is the concave line above the vowel (a). 
Whether it be necessary or desirable to distinguish long and 
short quantity in writing must be determined for each language 
by itself: it can hardly ever be advisable, we should think, to 
employ the diacritical marks of both classes in the same system. 
To indicate the nasalization of a vowel, by the expulsion through 
the nose of part of the breath by which it is uttered, Prof. Lep- 
sius employs the Greek circumflex above it (as a, o, u), a very 
suitable sign : where this is for practical reasons not available, a 
postposed superior n (as a", o n , u n ) is a very good substitute. 

Secondly, as regards the consonants. We feel confident that 
almost no one to whom English is native will find any difficulty 
in assenting to our author's adoption of the signs k, g, t, d, p, b, 
f, v, s, z, h, m, n, y, w, r, I to represent the values which those 
letters have in the English words kick, gig, tit, did, pap, bib, fife, 
valve, sauce, zeal, hat, mum, nun, ye, woo, rare, lull: and the larger 

332 W. D. Whitney, on Lepsius's Standard Alphabet. 

and more important part of the consonantal system is thus dis- 
posed of at a blow. Of the remaining members of the system, 
those which most press for uniformity of representation, being 
of widest occurrence, are the palatal nasal and sibilants, the 
English ng in singing, sh in she, and z in azure. With our views 
of the connected nature of these sounds, we should prefer to 
see them distinguished from the lingual n, s, z by the same dia- 
critical sign, a dot or an accent ; yet this is not a point which 
needs to be pressed, and, as above remarked, jve should have no 
difficulty in accepting our author's proposals. Next in conse- 
quence are the lingual spirants, the English th in thin and in this. 
To those who are unwilling to adopt our author's # and 9, the 
linguals with affixed rough breathing as V, d' might seem 
natural and convenient substitutes : evidently, if a tis made the 
basis of the surd sound, a d should be that of the sonant. So 
also with the palatal spirants : if x and y be rejected, and if x 
be deemed inadmissible, a k f and a g would not be unsuited to 
take their places. The compounds ch and j, most accurately 
represented by the prefixion of a diacritically distinguished t 
and d to the signs adopted for the palatal sibilants sh and zh, 
may have the diacritical distinction omitted, as by our author, 
or they may, as exceptional cases, be written by c and j. 

Although the use of compounds with h to represent simple 
sounds is a violation of strict theory, and discordant with the 
rules by which it is desirable to be governed in the construction 
of an alphabet, yet there may be cases where practical consider- 
ations shall justify the employment of the whole series of such 
compounds, sh, zh, th, dh, kh, gh, ch. 

Cases beyond these will be of so exceptional and isolated oc- 
currence that they may, with less danger of serious inconven- 
ience, be left to the good judgment and enlightened insight of 
those who are called upon to construct alphabetic systems for 
practical use. No slight responsibility, however, rests upon him 
who first puts into written characters a virgin tongue, since it 
is impossible to say of how many individuals and generations 
the convenience depends upon his work. There can be no 
better preparation for this than a thorough physical comprehen- 
sion of the sounds of one's own native speech, and a correct 
understanding of the history of the signs with which it is writ- 
ten ; and a searching and intelligible analysis of the English 
spoken alphabet must be the most valuable phonetical assistant 
to any one who, having the English for his mother tongue, is 
required to study the phonetic system of another language, 
whether for description or for reduction to a written form. 








Presented to the Society May 21st, 1862. 


THE distinctive title of the work here published is QdunaMyd catur- 
ddhydyikd, ' Caunaka's Treatise in Four Chapters.' We have for it, 
however, only the authority of the signatures to the different portions of 
the manuscript containing the treatise ; no reference to the latter by 
name has yet been discovered, so far as I am aware, in any other work 
of the Sanskrit literature. As regards the gender of the word, whether 
feminine or neuter, there is some question. In the signature to the first 
section (pdda) of the first chapter (adhydyd), it is styled caturddhydyikd, 
as also at the close of the first chapter. With this accords, farther, the 
name, caturddhydyi-bhdshya, given to the commentary in the signature 
of chapter IV, section 1, and at the close of the whole work. The 
neuter form, and the ascription to Caunaka, are found only in the final 
signature, which reads as follows (unamended) : iti fdunakiyamcaturd- 
dhydyike caturthah pddah: caturddhydyibhdshya samdptah.* The trea- 
tise was first brought to light, and its character determined, by Roth 
(see the Preface to his Nirnkta, p. xlvii). It was recognized by him as 
being what is indicated by our title, a Prati^akhya to a text of the 
Atharva-Veda. That it has any inherent right to be called the Pratic,a- 
khya to the Atharva-Veda is not, of course, claimed for it ; but, consid- 
ering the extreme improbability that any other like phonetic treatise, 
belonging to any of the other schools of that Veda, will ever be brought 
to light, the title of Atharva-Veda Pratigakhya finds a sufficient justifi- 
cation in its convenience, and in its analogy with the names given to the 

* Weber (Cat. Berl. MSS., p. 87; Ind. Literaturgeschichte, p. 14$) calls the trea- 
tise caturadhydyikd ; and Muller (Hist. Anc. Sansk, Lit., p, 139, etc.) styles it c&tura- 
dhydj/ikd each by a different emendation of the name given in the manuscript : I 
do not see the necessity of departing from the authority of the hitter. 

334 W. D. Whitney, 

other kindred treatises by their respective editors, Regnier, Weber, and 
Miiller.* Any special investigation of the questions of the authorship 
and date of our treatise, its relation to the other Pratisakhyas and to 
the present received text of the Atharva-Veda, and the like, is reserved 
for the commentary and the additional notes : it will be sufficient to say 
here, in a general way, that it concerns itself with that part of the Athar- 
van text which is comprised in its first eighteen books, and with that 
alone, and that it covers the whole ground which the comparison of the 
other treatises shows us to be necessary to the completeness of a Prati- 
^akhya, differing from any of them not more than they differ from one 

The manuscript authority upon which the present edition is founded 
is a single codex (Chambers collection, No. 143; Weber, No. 361), be- 
longing to the Royal Library of Berlin, a copy of which was made by 
me in the winter of 1852-3 ; it contains, besides the text of the Prati- 
<;akhya, a commentary upon it, by an author not named, which styles 
itself simply catur&dky&yt-bh&skya, ' Commentary to the Four-chaptered 
Treatise,' as already noticed above. It is briefly described in Weber's 
Catalogue of the Berlin Sanskrit Manuscripts (p. 87-8). The signature 
at the end is as follows (with one or two obvious emendations) : prir 
astu : lekhakap&tkakayoh pubham bhavatu : fricandikay&i namah : H- 
ratnah : samvat 1714 varshe jy&ishthapuddha 9 dine samaptalikhilam 
pustakam. The date corresponds to May, 1656; but it must, as in 
many other cases, be doubtful whether this is the date of the manu- 
script in our possession, or of the one from which this was copied ; in 
the present instance, the latter supposition may be regarded as decidedly 
the more probable. Most unfortunately, considering the extreme rarity 
of the work, the manuscript is a very poor one. Not only is it every 
where excessively incorrect, often beyond the possibility of successful 
emendation ; it is also defective, exhibiting lacunae at several points. 
Some may be of opinion, then, that the publication of the Pratigakhya 
upon its authority alone is premature, and should not have been under- 
taken. This would certainly be the case, were any other copies of the 
work known to be in existence : to neglect to procure their collation 
before proceeding to publish would be altogether inexcusable. But, so 
far as is hitherto known, the Berlin codex is unique. No public or pri- 
vate library in Europe, nor any in India accessible to Europeans, has 
been shown to possess a duplicate of it. For assistance in procuring a 
second copy, I made application some years since to Prof. Fitz-Edward 
Hall, then of Benares, whose knowledge, experience, and public and 
private position made him the person of all others most likely to be of 
service in such a way ; and he was kind enough to interest himself zeal- 
ously in my behalf in searching for the work : but entirely without suc- 
cess ; while he collected for me a mass of valuable materials respecting 

* PratifAkhya du Rig-V6da. Par M. Ad. Regnier, eta Published in the Journal 
Asiatique, Ve s6rie, Tomes vii-xii, Paris, 1856-58. Das Vajasaneyi-Praticakhyam. 
Published by Prof. Albrecht Weber, in his Indische Studien/VoL iv, Berlin, 1858. 
Miiller's edition of the Rig- Veda Pratifakhya includes only the first six chapters, 
one third of the whole, and forms part of his text-edition of the Rig- Veda itself, 
which also remains a fragment. 

Atharva-Veda Prdtiqakhya. 335 

the other PraticAkhyas, for that of the Atharva-Veda nothing could be 
found. Considering, then, the faintness of the hope that additional 
manuscripts would later be obtainable, and considering the peculiar 
interest of this class of worts well attested by the triple publications, 
within a few years past, of Regnier, Weber, and Muller and the desir- 
ableness of placing as speedily as possible before the eyes of scholars the 
whole material furnished by them, in order to the greater force and con- 
clusiveness of the results which some are already hastening to draw from 
them for the literary history of India, it has seemed best to publish the 
treatise without farther delay. Several circumstances deserve to be 
noted as supporting this decision, by diminishing the disadvantages 
arising from the scantiness and poorness of the manuscript material. In 
the first place, as regards the lacunae, they are, with two exceptions, of 
insignificant importance, and do not either cause the loss of a rule or 
render its interpretation doubtful: while, in the two instances (both 
occurring in chapter III) in which one or more rules are lost, the loss at 
least lies within the limits of a certain definite subject, and, though much 
to be regretted, is of no great extent or essential consequence. As con- 
cerns, again, the corruption of the readings, it is to be observed that the 
commentary is generally full enough to establish the true version of the 
rules, and yet, at the same time, too poor and scanty to render its own 
restoration important. The general method of the commentator is as 
follows : he first states the rule, then restates it in the baldest possible 
paraphrase, merely supplying the lacking copula, and adding the specifi- 
cations, if any, of which the presence is inferrible from previous rules ; 
next follow the illustrative citations ; and finally, the rule is given once 
more, along with the one next following, which is euphonically com- 
bined with it, and of which the paraphrase and illustration then follow 
in their turn. As an example, I cite here in full rule i. Y, with its com- 
mentary, beginning from the final repetition of the next preceding rule : 


Thus we have everywhere (unless, as is sometimes the case, a few 
words have dropped out from the copy) a threefold repetition of each 
rule, and its true form is almost always restorable from their comparison, 
notwithstanding the corruptions of the manuscript. If, now, the com- 
mentary were as full and elaborate as those of the other known Prati- 
cAkhyas, it would have been alike trying and unsatisfactory either to 
endeavor to edit it, or to disregard it : while, as the case actually stands, 
it has itself attempted so little that we care comparatively little to 
know precisely what it says. Wherever its usual meagre method is 
followed, accordingly, little attention will be found paid to it in the 
notes. Nor has it seemed to me otherwise than a needless labor to 
notice, except in special cases, the corrupt readings of the manuscript 
and this the more especially, as my distance from the original renders 
it impossible to test by a renewed collation the accuracy of my copy.* 

* Prof. Weber has had the kindness to verify for me, during the progress of 
publication, sundry passages, of special importance or of doubtful reading, which I 
took the liberty of submitting to him. 

VOL. vii. 43 

336 W. D. Whitney, 

The citations from the Atharvan text are also given in their correct 
form, without farther remark ; since, whatever the disguise under which 
the manuscript may present them, it has generally been not difficult for 
one familiar with the Atharvan, and in possession of a verbal index to 
its text, to trace them out and restore their true readings. There are a 
few notable instances in which the commentator abandons his custom- 
ary reticence, and dispreads himself upon the subject with which he is 
dealing : and in such cases the attempt is made to follow him as closely 
as the manuscript will allow. Much more frequently than he ventures 
to speak in his own person, he cites the dicta of other authorities ; 
occasionally referring to them by name ; more often introducing his 
quotations by a simple apara Aha, ' another has said ;' and very fre- 
quently making extracts without any introduction whatever, as if of 
matter which might lawfully be woven in as an integral part of his own 
comment. The work, if it be a single work, from which these anony- 
mous citations are made, is written in the common floka, and is seem- 
ingly of the same general character with our treatise itself, or a kind of 
metrical Pratisakhya to the Atharva-Veda ; wearing, however, more 
the aspect of a commentary than does the metrical Pratigakhya to the 

What has here been said of the commentary applies only to that 
part of it which ends with the third section of the fourth chapter : the 
concluding section, on the krama-pdtha, is of an entirely different char- 
acter, as will be explained at the place. 

While thus but imperfectly aided by the native commentator, I have 
enjoyed one compensating advantage over those who have undertaken 
hitherto the publication of works of this class, in that I have been able 
to avail myself of the results of their labors. Had it not been for their 
efficient help, much in the present treatise might have remained obscure, 
of which the explanation has now been satisfactorily made ont; and I 
desire here to make a general acknowledgment of my indebtedness to 
them, which I shall have occasion to repeat hereafter in particular cases. 
T have thought it incumbent upon me to refer, under every rule, or in 
connection with every subject treated of, in the work here published, to 
the corresponding portions of the other Praticakhyas, giving a briefer 
or more detailed statement of the harmonies and discrepancies of doc- 
trine which they contain. To the Rig-Veda Pratic,akhya reference is 
made primarily by chapter (patala) and verse (floka)* the number of 
the rule cited being then also added, according to the enumeration of 
both Regnier and Miiller ; the latter (in the first six chapters only) in 
Roman figures, the former in Arabic. The Vajasaneyi Prati$akhya is 
cited from Weber's edition, already referred to, and according to his 
enumeration of its rules. For my ability to include in the conspectus 
of phonetic doctrines the Taittiriya Prati$akhya of Karttikeya, I have 
to thank Prof. Hall, as above acknowledged ; the excellent manuscripts 
of the text and of the text and commentary (tribhdshyaralna) which 
he procured for me will be made, I trust, to help the publication of that 

* In the first chapter, of which the verses are uumbered differently by Miiller 
and Regnier, the former counting in the ten prefixed introductory verses, the refer- 
ence is according to Regnier: to find the corresponding verse in Miiller, add ten to 
the number given. 

Atharva- Veda Prdti$dkhya. 337 

treatise in the course of the next year, either by myself or by some one 
else. The mode of reference to the Taittiriya Praticakhya which has 
hitherto been usual I have abandoned. The work is divided into 
twenty-four chapters (adhydyoi), which are classed together in two sec- 
tions (praf no), each of twelve chapters : and Roth as also Weber, fol- 
lowing his example has cited it by section and chapter, omitting any 
enumeration and specification of the rules into which each chapter is 
divided. But the prapna division is of as little account as the corres- 
ponding division of the Rik Pratigakhya into three sections (adhy&ya) ; 
and there appears to be no good reason why this treatise should not be 
cited, like those pertaining to the Rik, the White Yajus, and the Athar- 
van, by chapter and rule simply ; as I have done. To Panini's grammar 
(in Bohtlingk's edition) reference is also frequently made in all cases, 
it is hoped, where the comparison would be of any particular interest. 
The special relation exhibited by our treatise in many points to the sys- 
tem of general grammar whereof Panini is the authoritative exponent 
would perhaps have justified a more detailed comparison; but I have 
both feared to be led too far, and distrusted my ability to draw out the 
correspondences of the two in a perfectly satisfactory manner. To 
determine in full the relations of Panini and the Praticakhyas, when 
the latter shall have been all made public, will be an important and a 
highly repaying task for some one more versed than I am in the intri- 
cacies of the Paninean system. 

The peculiar method, so commonly adopted in our treatise (e. g. i. 64, 
65, 85), of applying a rule to the series of passages or words to which 
it refers, by mentioning only one of them and including the rest in an 
"etc." (Adi) which is to be filled out elsewhere or the familiarly 
known ^rcrna-method of Panini and the remissness of the commenta- 
tor, whose duty it was to fill out the ga.nas, but who has almost always 
failed to do so, have rendered necessary on the part of the editor a 
more careful examination of the Atharvan text, and comparison of it 
with the Pratigakhya, than has been called for or attempted in connec- 
tion with any other of the kindred treatises. It has been necessary to 
construct, as it were, an independent Praticakhya upon the text, and to 
compare it with that one which has been handed down to us by the 
Hindu tradition, in order to test the completeness of the latter, fill up 
its deficiencies, and note its redundancies. The results of the compari- 
son, as scattered through the notes upon the rules, will be summed up 
in the additional notes, to which are also relegated other matters which 
would otherwise call for attention in this introduction. In examining 
and excerpting the text, full account has been taken of the nineteenth 
book, and of those parts of the twentieth which are not extracted 
bodily and without variation from the Rig- Veda. References are made, 
of course, to the published text of the Atharva-Veda ;* if a phrase or 
word occurs more than once in the text, the first instance of its occur- 
rence is given, with an "e. g." prefixed. 

Readings of the manuscript which it is thought desirable to give are 
generally referred by numbers to the bottom of the page. 

* Atharva-Veda Sanhita, herausgegeben von R. Roth und W. D. Whitny. 
Erster Band. Text. Berlin, 1856. toy. 8vo. 

838 W. D. Whitney, 

The occurrence, here and there in the notes, of emendations of the 
published text of the Atharvan calls for a few words of explanation here. 
The work of constructing the text was, by the compelling force of cir- 
cumstances, so divided between the two editors that the collation of the 
manuscripts, the writing out of a text, and the preparation of a critical 
apparatus, fell to myself, while Prof. Roth undertook the final revision of 
the text, and the carrying of it through the press after my return to 
this country. Such being the case, and free communication being im- 
possible, occasional misconceptions and errors could not well be avoided;, 
Moreover, the condition of the Atharvan as handed down by the tradi- 
tion was such as to impose upon the editors as a duty what in the case 
of any of the other Vedas would have, been an almost inexcusable lib- 
erty namely, the emendation of the text-readings in many places. In 
so treating such a text, it is not easy to hit the precise mean between 
too much and too little ; and while most of the alterations made were 
palpably and imperatively called for, and while many others would have 
to be made in translating, there are also a few cases in which a closer 
adherence to the manuscript authorities might have been preferable. 
Farther, in the matter of modes of orthography, where the usage of the 
manuscripts was varying and inconsistent, our choice was not always 
such as more mature study and reflection justify. Whenever cases of 
any of these kinds are brought up in connection with the rules and illus- 
trations of the Pratigakhya, I am free to suggest what appears to me a 
preferable reading or usage. In referring to the manuscripts of the 
Atharvan, I make use of the following abbreviations (which are also 
those employed in the marg'n of the edited text, in books xix and 
xx) : 1st, sanhitb MSS.: "B." is the Berlin MS. (Ch. 115, Weber 338), 
containing books xi-xx ; "P." is the Paris MS. (D. 204, 205), and con- 
tains the whole text, and books vii-x repeated; "M." and "W." are 
manuscripts of the Bodleian library at Oxford, M. in the Mill collection, 
and W. in the Wilson : M. is a copy of the same original, by the same 
hand, and in the same form, as P., and it lacks the part of the text which 
is found double in the other : W. lacks book xviii ; " E." is the East India 
House manuscript, Nos. 682 and 760; "H." is in the same library, No. 
1137, and contains only books i-vi; "I." is the Polier MS., in the Brit- 
ish Museum : a copy made from it for Col. Martin is also to be found in 
the East India House library, Nos. (I believe) 901 and 2142. 2nd, pada 
MSS. These are all in the Berlin library. "Bp." is Ch. 8 (Weber 332) 
for books i-ix, and Ch. 108 (Weber 335) for books x-xviii : these are two 
independent manuscripts, but are included under one designation for 
convenience's sake, as complementing one another. "Bp. 2 " is Ch. 117 
(Weber 331) for book i, and Ch. 109, 107 (Weber 333, 334) for book v, 
and books vi-ix : the two latter are accidentally separated parts of the 
same manuscript, and stand also in very close relationship, as respects 
their original, with Bp. (Ch. 8) : the other is independent. Of book xix 
there is no pada-text to be found, and probably none was ever in exist- 
ence : and the pada MSS. of book xx are only extracts from the Rik 

The mode of transcription of Sanskrit words is the same with that 
which has been hitherto followed in this Journal. 



CONTENTS: SECTION L 1-2, introductory, scope of the treatise ; 3-9, sounds which 
may occur as finals; 10-13, aspirates, nasals, surds, and sonants; 14-17, descrip- 
tion of accents ; 18-28, description and classification of sounds according to their 
place and organ of production ; 29-36, do. according to the degree of approxima- 
tion of the organs ; 37-39, the r and I vowels ; 40-41, diphthongs. 

SECTION II. 42, visarjaniya ; 43-48, abhinidhdna ; 49-50, conjunction of con- 
sonants; 51-54, quantity of syllables; 55-58, division into syllables; 59-62, 
quantity of vowels. 

SECTION III. 63-66, abnormal alterations and interchanges of sounds ; 67-72, 
occurrence of nasalized vowels ; 73-81, pragrhya vowels ; 82, treatment in pada- 
text of pragrhya vowels followed by iva ; 83-91, occurrence of long nasalized 
vowels in the interior of a word. 

SECTION IV. 92, definition of upadhd; 93, what makes a syllable ; 94, only 
an unaspirated consonant allowed before an aspirated ; 95, mode of application 
of rules respecting conversion of sounds ; 96, special case of accent ; 97, special 
cases of omission of pluti before Hi; 98, conjunction of consonants; 99, yama; 
IQQ, ndsikya ; 101-104, svarabhakti and sphotana and their effect; 105, cases of 

ETTfrTsFT II 111 


1. Of the four kinds of words viz. noun, verb, preposition, 
and particle the qualities exhibited in euphonic combination 
and in the state of disconnected vocables are here made the 
subject of treatment. 

Here is clearly set forth the main object of such a treatise as we are 
accustomed to call a pr&tip&khya : it is to establish the relations of the 
combined and the disjoined forms of the text to which it belongs, or of 
the sanhitA-text and the joarfa-text : sandhyapadyau might have been 
directly translated 'in the sanhitd and pada texts respectively.' The 
ultimate end to be attained is the utterance of the sacred text (p&khA, 
'branch' of the Veda), held and taught by the school, in precisely the 
form in which the school receives and teaches it. The general material 
of the text must, of course, be assumed to be known, before it can be 
made the subject of rules : it is accordingly assumed in its simplest and 
most material-like form, in the state of padas or separate words, each 

340 W. D. Whitney, [i. 1- 

having the form it would wear if uttered alone, compounds being also 
divided into their constituent parts, and many affixes and inflectional 
endings separated from their themes ; and the Pratigakhya teaches 
how to put together correctly this analyzed text. An essential part of 
such a treatise is also its analysis, description, and classification of the 
sounds of the spoken alphabet, as leading to correctness of utterance, 
and as underlying and explaining the complicated system of phonetic 
changes which the treatise has to inculcate. These two subjects a 
theoretical system of phonetics, and the rules, general and particular, 
by which ^oc?a-text is converted into sanhitd are the only ones which 
are found to be fully treated in all the Prati$akhyas ; although none of 
the treatises confines itself to them alone. Thus, our own work gives 
in its fourth chapter the rules for the construction of the porfa-text 
itself, as does also the Vajasaneyi Prati^akhya ; and likewise, in the 
final section of that chapter (which is, however, evidently a later ap- 
pendix to the work), a brief statement of the method of forming the 
Arrawia-text, of which it has also taken account in more than one of the 
rules of its earlier portions : and the PraticAkhyas of the Rik and the 
Vajasaneyi have corresponding sections. Nor are the instances infre- 
quent in which it more or less arbitrarily oversteps the limits it has 
marked out for itself, and deals with matters which lie properly beyond 
its scope, as will be pointed out in the notes. A summary exhibition of 
these irregularities, and a comparative analysis of the other Pratia- 
khyas, will be presented in an additional note. 

As the Prati$akhya deals with words chiefly as phonetic combina- 
tions, and not as significant parts of speech (as Worter, ' vocables,' not 
Worte, 'words'), their grammatical character is unessential, and the 
distinction of the four classes made in the rule is rather gratuitous : 
the names of the classes do not often occur in the sequel, although our 
treatise is notably more free than any other of its class in availing itself 
of grammatical distinctions in the statement of its rules. For a fuller 
exhibition of the fourfold classification of words as parts of speech, see 
Rik Pr. xii. 5-9, and Vaj. Pr. viii. 52-57. 

In illustration of the term sandhya, the commentator says : " words 
that end thus and thus take such and such forms before words that 
begin so and so." To illustrate padya, he cites rule 8, below a by no 
means well-chosen example. To show how it is that the treatise has to 
do only with the qualities of words as exhibited in sanhitd, and pada, 
he cites an instance of what must be done by a general grammarian in 
explanation of a derivative form, as follows : sandhyapady&v iti kim 
artham : lidham ity atra ho-dha-tvam : paracaturthatvam: (MS. padaca ) 
shtun&-xht,u-tvam : dho-dhe-lopo dirghatvam iti vaiyakaranena vaktavy- 
am: 'why is it said "the qualities in sanhitd, and pada"? Because 
the general grammarian must say, in explanation of lidha, " here ap- 
plies the rule ho dhah (Pan, viii. 2. 31), that for the change of the fol- 
lowing letter into its aspirated sonant, the rule shtuna shtuh (Pan. viii. 
4. 41), the rule dho dhe lopah (Pan. viii. 3. 13), and that for the length- 
ening of the vowel." ' These rules teach the formation of the partici- 
ple lidha from the root lih, through the following series of changes : 
lih-la, lidh-ta, lidh-dha, lidh-dha, li-dha, lidha ; and they are for the 

i. 2.] Atharva- Veda Prdtiqdkhya. 341 

most part taken directly from Panini, or at least correspond precisely 
with his rules ; only, in the second case, paracaturthatvam takes the 
place of Pan. viii. 2. 40,jhashas tathor dho ' dhah ; and, in the last case, 
dirghatvam stands for dhralope purvasya dirgho ' nah (Pan. vi. 3. 111). 
Whether the commentator thus deviates arbitrarily or through careless- 
ness from the letter of the great grammarian's rules, or whether he cites 
from some other authority, anterior to or independent of Panini, and 
with whom the latter agrees only in part, is a question of which the 
solution need not be attempted here : while the former supposition may 
appear the more probable, the other, in the present state of our knowl- 
edge respecting the relations between Panini and the PraticAkhyas and 
their commentators, is not to be summarily rejected as impossible. 


oM(<mHIH tllll-M 

2. Farther, that respecting which general grammar allows 
diversity of usage is made subject of treatment, to the effect of 
determining the usage in this gdkhd. 

This is a broadly periphrastic translation of the rule, which reads more 
literally: '"thus and thus it is here" to this effect, also, that which 
is allowed to be diversely treated in the general language (is made the 
subject of the rules of the treatise).' The commentator's exposition is 
as follows : evam iha iti ca : asydm pdkhdydm tat prdtijnam manyantel 
yaro ' nundsike ' nundsiko ve 'ti vibhdshdprdptam sdmdnye : kim s&m&~ 
nyam : vydkaranam : vakshyati : uttamd uttameshv iti : ' " thus it is 
here :" in these words also : i. e., in this fdkhd they regard this as 
matter of precept : by the rule (Pan. viii. 4. 45) " the letters from y to 
s may or may not be made nasal before a nasal," a choice of usage is 
allowed in general grammar sdmdnya means vydkarana, 'grammar' 
but the Pratiakhya is going to say (ii. 5) " mutes other than nasals 
become nasals before nasals." ' The rule is somewhat obscure and dif- 
ficult of construction, and the commentary not unequivocal, substitut- 
ing, as before, an illustration in place of a real exposition of its meaning, 
but I am persuaded that it is fairly rendered by the translation above 
given. M tiller, having occasion to refer to it, gives it somewhat differ- 
ently, as follows (p. xii) : " what by the grammatical text books is left 
free, that is here thus and thus : so says the Pratic,akhya." But this 
leaves the ca unexplained, and supposes the iti to be in another place, 
making the rule to read rather evam iha vibhdshdprdptam sdmdnya iti ; 
nor does it accord with the commentator's exposition. It seems neces- 
sary, in order to account for the ca, to bring down prdtijnam as general 
predicate from the preceding rule ; and the iti must be understood as 
pointing out that the Pratic,akhya says evam iha, ' so and so is proper 
here,' respecting any matter which the rules of grammar leave doubtful. 

The rule is properly neither an addition to, nor a limitation of, the 
one which precedes it, but rather a specification of a particularly im- 
portant matter among those included in the other ; for the Praticjakhya 
does not overstep the limits of its subject as already laid down, in order 
to determine points of derivation, form, etc., which general grammar 

342 W. D. Whitney, [i. 2- 

may have left unsettled ; nor does it restrict itself within those limits 
to matters respecting which general usage is allowed to vary : it does 
not at all imply or base itself upon the general science of grammar and 
its text book, but is an independent and a complete treatise as regards 
its own subject. 

Of which f&kha of the Atharva-Veda this work is the Pratic.akhya, 
it gives us itself no information whatever, nor does it even let us know 
that it belongs to the Atharvan. The name by which it is called, how- 
ever, leads us to suppose that it was produced in the school of the Q&u- 
nakas, which is mentioned in the Caranavyuha among those of the 
Atharvan (see Weber's Indische Studien, iii. 277-8). Its relation to 
the only text of the Atharvan known to be now in existence will be 
made the subject of an additional note. 

3. A letter capable of occurring at the end of a word is called 

This is simply a definition of the term padya, which, in this sense, is 
peculiar to the present treatise ; it is not found at all in either of the 
Yajur-Veda Pratigakhyas, or in Panini, and in the Rik Prati^akhya it 
means ' member of a compound word.' The term signifies, by its ety- 
mology, 'belonging to a pada, or disjoined word' (in the technical 
sense), and it is evidently applied specifically to the last letter of such a 
word as being the one which is most especially affected by the resolu- 
tion of sanhiia into pada. 

As instances, the commentary cites a series of four words, ending 
respectively in guttural, lingual, dental, and labial mutes, which he gives 
also repeatedly under other rules ; viz. godhuk (p. go-dhuk : e. g. viL 
73. 6), vir&t (p. vi-r&t : e. g. viii. 9. 8), drshat (ii. 31. 1), trishtup (p. 
tri-stup : e. g. viii. 9. 20). 

; TO: II 3 ii 

4. Any yowel, excepting Z, may occur as final. 

The Rik Pratig&khya treats of possible final letters in xii. 1, and ex- 
cepts the long f -vowel, as well as Z, from their number. The latter is 
also excluded by the introductory verse 9 to the first chapter, as given 
by Miiller (p. x). The Vajasaneyi Pratigakhya also pays attention to 
the same subject, in i. 85-89, and its rule respecting the vowels (i. 87) 
precisely agrees with ours. It farther specifies, however (i. 88), that r 
is found only at the end of the first member of a compound, which 
is equally true as regards the Atharvan text. 

The illustrations brought forward by the commentator are brahma 
(e. g. i. 19. 4), f&lA (ix. 8. 17), nUa (not found in AV.), dadhi (in dadhi- 
-vdn, xviii. 4. 17), kumari (x. 8. 27), madhu (e. g. i. 34. 2), vAyu (only 
in indravayA, iii. 20. 6), kartr (no such case in AV., nor any case of 
this word as member of a compound : take instead pitr-bhih, e. g. vi. 
63. 3 ; pitr-lokam, xviii. 4. 64), cakshate (e. g. ix. 10. 26), asy&i (e. g. 
ii. 36. 1), v&yo (e. g. ii. 20. 1), t&u (e. g. iii. 24. 7). 

Atharva- Veda Prdtigdkhya. 343 

5. Also I and visarjaniya. 

The instances given by the commentator are bdl (e. g. i. 3. 1), and 
vrkshah (e. g. iv. 7. 5). The word b&l, an onomatopoetic exclamation, 
is the only one in the Atharvan ending in I excepting the similar 
words pal and phal, in xx. 135. 2, 3, a part of the text of which our 
treatise takes no account. Both the other Pratigakhyas (R. Pr. xii. 1 ; 
V. Pr. i. 86) omit I from the number of possible finals, no word in 
their texts, apparently, ending with it. 

! II l 

6. Of the mutes, the first and last of each series. 

That is to say, the unaspirated surds and the nasals, or k, t, <, p, and 
n, n, n, TO; c and n being excepted by the next following rule. In 
speaking of the mutes, our treatise follows the same method with that 
of the other Prati^akhyas, calling the surd, the surd aspirate, the sonant, 
the sonant aspirate, and the nasal, of each series or varga, the "first," 
" second," " third," " fourth," and " last" of that series respectively. The 
Vaj. Pr. alone also calls the nasal by the name " fifth." 

The commentator gives no instances under this rule : they may be 
added, as follows: pratyak (e. g. iv. 18. 2), vashat (e. g. i. 11. 1), yat 
(e. g. i. 2. 3), tri-slup (e. g. viii. 9. 20) ; arvdri (e. g. iii. 2. 3), brahman- 
-vatim (vi. 108. 2), asmdn (e. g. i. 1. 4), tesham (e. g, i. 1. 1). The 
guttural nasal, n, appears only as final of masculine nominatives singular 
of derivatives of the root anc ; the lingual, n, only in a few instances, 
at the end of the first member of a compound, where, by a specific 
rule (iv. 99), it is left in the pada in its sanhita form (the Vaj. Pr. [i. 88] 
expressly notices this as true of its text) : t is found almost only as 
euphonic substitute of a final c, j, sh, or p (yit-l>hyah, iii. 3. 3 : in the 
onomato poetic phat [iv. 18. 3], it doubtless stands for either sh or c ; 
bat [xiii. 2. 29], the only other like case, is doubtful) : k and p are also 
comparatively rare, and especially the latter. 

The Vaj. Pr. (i. 85) gives the same rule, comprising with it also the 
one here next following. The RikPr. (xii. 1) forbids only to the aspi- 
rates a place as finals; but the phonetic rules of its fourth chapter 
imply the occurrence only of surds at the end of a word : see the note 
to rule 8, below. 

n on 

7. Excepting the palatal series. 

The commentator mentions all the palatal mutes, c, ch,j,jh, n, as ex- 
cluded from the final position by this rule ; but it properly applies only 
to c and w, the others being disposed of already by rule 6. The Vaj. 
Pr. (i. 85) specifies c and n : the Rik Pr. (xii. 1) speaks, like our rule, 
of the whole class. 

VOL. vii. 44 

344 17. D. Whitney, [i. "fr- 

it does not belong to the Pratigakhya. of course, to explain into what 
an original palatal is converted when it would occur as a final. 

; ii E u 

8. That the words thus declared to end in first mutes end 
rather in thirds is Qaunaka's precept, but not authorized usage. 

That is to say, Qaunaka prescribes that those words which, as noted 
in rule 6 above, and as implied throughout the rest of the treatise, have 
for their final letters the unaspirated surd, must be pronounced with the 
unaspirated sonant instead : but, although the sage to whom the treatise 
is ascribed, or from whom the school to which it belongs derives its 
name, is thus honored by the citation of his opinion, the binding au- 
thority of the latter is denied. With regard to the question whether 
a final mute is surd or sonant, opinions seem to have been somewhat 
divided among the Hindu grammarians. Panini (viii. 4. 56) does not 
decide the point, but permits either pronunciation. The Rik Pr. (i. 3, 
r. 15, 16, xvi, xvii) cites Gargya as holding the sonant utterance, and 
Qakatayana the surd : it itself declares itself for neither, and at another 
place (xii. 1), as already noted, treats both surd and sonant as allowable : 
its phonetic rules, however (iv. 1), being constructed to apply only to 
the surd final. If the Rik Pr. were actually, as it claims to be, the work 
of Qaunaka, the rule of our treatise now under consideration would lead 
us to expect it to favor unequivocally the sonant pronunciation. The 
Vaj. Pr., as we have seen above (under r. 6), teaches the surd pronun- 
ciation. The Taitt. Pr., liberal as it usually is in citing the varying opin- 
ions of the grammarians on controverted topics, takes no notice what- 
ever of this point ; but its rules (viii. 1 etc.), like those of all the other 
treatises, imply that the final mute, if not nasal, is surd. 

It would seem from this that the sound which a sonant mute assumed 
when final in Sanskrit (for that an original surd, when final, should 
have tended to take on a sonant character is very hard to believe) 
wavered somewhat upon the limit between a surd and a sonant pronun- 
ciation : but that it verged decidedly upon the surd is indicated by the 
great preponderance of authority upon that side, and by the unanimous 
employment of the surd in the written literature. 

In his exposition of this rule, the commentator first gives a bald 
paraphrase of it : pratkamantdni padani trtiyantani J ti faunakasyA 
"c&ryasya pratijnanam bhavati: na tu vrttih; adding as instances the 
words already given (see under r. 3), godhuk, virdt, drshat, trishtup ; 
he then, without any preface, cites two or three lines from his metrical 
authority, which need a good deal of emendation to be brought into a 
translatable shape, but of which the meaning appears to be nearly as 
follows : " mutes other than nasals, standing in pausa, are to be re- 
garded as firsts : a word ending in a first may be considered as ending 
in a third, but must in no case be actually so read (compare Uvata to 

i, 9.] Atharva- Veda Pratiq&khya. 345 

R. Pr. ill. 8, r. 13, cc), owing to the non-exhibition of authoritative usage 
in its favor" (MS. mavasananikan spar f An padyan [ddydn?] ananuna- 
sikdn : prathamdn trtiydn [prathamdntam trtiydntam?] vidydt no. tu 
pathet leva cit: vrtter ananudarcandt). 

^T u H 

9. Also adhisparcam. 

The meaning and scope of this rule are exceedingly obscure, and the 
commentator so signally fails to throw any light upon it, that we can 
hardly help concluding that he did not understand it himself. His ex- 
position, without any amendment, is as follows : adhisparca ca pratijnd 
\Jddin md 'vasitdn spar can padyan anunasikan : trtiydn caunakamatai\ 
nam bhavati : na nu vrttih : kim adhisparca nama : vakshyati : yakaram- 
vakarayor lecavrttir adhisparcam, cakatayanasya . . .* I have to thank 
Prof. Weber for the highly probable suggestion, made in a private com- 
munication, that the words jddin to matdt, or those enclosed in brack- 
ets, have strayed into the commentary, out of place; so that the true 
reading is adhisparcam ca pratijndnam bhavati : na tu vrttih : ' adhis- 
parcam also is a dictum of Qaunaka, but not authoritative usage.' The 
interpolated words form part of a verse, and are apparently identical or 
akin in signification with the verses cited under the preceding rule : a 
restatement of the same thing, in slightly different terms, and so, we 
may conclude, by a different authority. To explain what adhisparca 
means here, the commentator simply cites rule ii. 24, in which the same 
word occurs again : a rule which informs us of the opinion of Qakata- 
yana, that final y and v, the result of euphonic processes, are not omitted 
altogether, but imperfectly uttered as regards the contact (adhisparcam), 
the tongue and lips, in their pronunciation, not making the partial con- 
tact (i. 30) which is characteristic of the semivowels. But how can the 
use of adhisparcam in that rule, as an adverb, give a hint of its mean- 
ing here, where it seems to be treated as a noun 1 Are we to under- 
stand that it is taken as the name of that peculiar utterance of y and v, 
and that our rule means to say that the mode of utterance in question 
is also a teaching of Qaunaka, but not authoritative ? This is scarcely 
credible : it does not appear hereafter that Qaunaka had anything to do 
with that utterance, which is sufficiently put down by the positive rules 
of the treatise against it, nor would its mention here, in a passage 
treating of padyas, be otherwise than impertinent. Or is adhisparca 
to be interpreted as the name of a slighted or imperfect utterance, and 
did Qaunaka teach such an utterance as belonging to a final mute, 
which wavered, as it were, between sonant and surd 1 This appears 
somewhat more plausible, but not sufficiently so to be accepted as at all 
satisfactory : there is no question of a difference of contact of the 

* Here, as also in the citation of the rule ii. 5, under rule 2 above, the whole 
series of illustrative citations from the Atharvan text, as given by the commentary 
under the rules themselves, are rehearsed : I have omitted them as superfluous. 

346 W. D. Whitney, [i. 9- 

organs (spar f a) in such a case, and it is one to which the prescription 
of abhinidhdna (i. 45) applies.* 

': n \o u 

10. The second and fourth of each series are aspirates. 

The term ushman, literally 'heat, hot vapor, steam,' is in the gram- 
matical language applied to designate all those sounds which are pro- 
duced by a rush of unintonated breath through an open position of 
the mouth organs, or whose utterance has a certain similarity to the 
escape of steam through a pipe : they are the sibilants and aspirations 
or breathings (see below, i. 31). In the term soshman, ' aspirated mute,' 
and in its correlative anushman, 'unaspirated mute' (i. 94), ushman is 
to be understood not in this specific sense, but in that of ' rush of air, 
expulsion of unintonated breath.' To this rule correspond Rik Pr. i. 3 
(r. 13, xiv) and Vaj. Pr. i. 54, the latter being also verbally coincident 
with it. The Taitt. Pr. has nothing analogous, and does not employ 
the terms soshman and anushman. 

The commentator merely adds the list of surd and sonant aspirates 
to his paraphrase of the rule, citing no examples. For the sonant pala- 
tal aspirate, jh, the Atharvan text affords no example. He next cites 
a verse from his metrical authority : sasthdndir ushmabkih prktds trtiydh 
prathamdf ca ye : caturthdp ca dvitiydp ca sampudyanta iti sthitih ; 
' thirds and firsts, when closely combined with flatus of position corres- 
ponding to their own, become fourths and seconds : that is the way.' 
The most natural rendering of sasthdndir ushmabhih would be ' with 
their corresponding ushmans or spirants ;' but this is hardly to be toler- 
ated, since it would give us, for example, ts and ds, instead of th and dh y 
as the dental aspirates. This view is distinctly put forth, however, as 
regards the surd aspirates, by another authority which the commentator 
proceeds to cite at considerable length : the first portion, which alone 
bears upon the subject of our rule, is as follows : " another has said, 
' the fourths are formed with h :' " (now begin the clokas) " some know- 
ing ones have said that there are five ' first' mutes ; of these, by the suc- 
cessive accretion of secondary qualities (guna), there takes place a con- 
version into others. They are known as 'seconds' when combined with 
the qualities of jihvdmuliya, c, sh, s, and upadhmdniya. The same, 
when uttered with intonation, are known as ' thirds :' and these, with 
the second spirant, are known as ' fourths.' When the ' firsts ' are pro- 
nounced with intonation, and through the nose, they are called 'fifth' 
mutes. Thus are noted the qualities of the letters." The remaining 
verses of the quoted passage treat of the combination and doubling of 
consonants, and I am unable in all points to restore and translate them. 

* I add Weber's conjecture: "possibly 'as regards contact also' the view of 
(^aunaka is only a pratijnanam, and not vrtti ; that is, when the padyas enter into 
sandhi, they are to be converted into trtiyas before nasals (e. g. tad me, not tan me) : 
but this is only pratijndnant, not vrtti." I cannot regard this as the true explana- 
tion, since we have no doctrine of (^aunaka's, to the effect implied, anywhere stated, 
and since spar fa is not, so far as I am aware, ever used of the contact or concur- 
rence of one sound with another. 

i. 13.] Atharva- Veda Prdtifdkhya. 347 

11. The last in each series is nasal. 

The term anunasika in this treatise means simply ' uttered through 
the nose,' and is applied to any sound in the production of which the 
nose bears a part: see rule 27, below. In ii. 35, it is used of the I 
into which a nasal is converted before an I: in all other cases of its 
occurrence, it designates a nasalized vowel, or what is ordinarily known 
as the independent and necessary anusvara. Our treatise stands alone 
among the Pratic,akhyas in ignoring any such constituent of the alpha- 
bet as the anusvara, acknowledging only nasal consonants and nasal 
vowels. For a comprehensive statement of the teachings of the other 
treatises respecting nasal sounds, see Roth, Zur Litteratur und Geschichte 
<les Weda, pp. 68-82. 

The Rik Pr. (i. 3, r. 14, xv) and Vaj. Pr. (i. 89) describe the nasal 
mutes as anunasika ; as does also the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 30), including with 
them the anusvara. 

ll V? I \$ \\ 

12. In the surd consonants, the emission is breath ; 

13. In the sonant consonants and the vowels, it is sound. 

In this case and the one next following, two or three rules are stated 
and explained together by the commentator; that the division and enu- 
meration is to be made as here given, is attested by the statement at 
the close of the section respecting the number of rules contained in it. 

The Pratigakhya here lays down with entire correctness the distinc- 
tion between surd and sonant sounds, which consists in the different 
nature of the material furnished in the two classes to the mouth organs 
by the lungs and throat : in the one class it is mere breath, simple un- 
intonated air; in the other class, it is breath made sonant by the vocal 
chords on its passage through the throat, and thus converted into sound. 
The same thing is taught by two of the other treatises : see Rik Pr. 
xiii. 2 (r. 4, 5), and Taitt. Pr. ii. 8, 10 : the Vaj. Pr. gives no corres- 
ponding definition, nor does it use the terms aghosha and ghoshavant, 
but adopts instead of them the arbitrary and meaningless designations 
jit and mud for the surds, dhi for the sonants (i. 50-53). No one of 
the treatises confuses itself with that false distinction of "hard" or 
"strong," and "soft" or "weak," which has been the bane of so much 
of our modern phonology. 

The word anupradana means ' a giving along forth, a continuous 
emission,' and hence, ' that which is given forth, emitted material :' 
compare Taitt. Pr. xxiii. 2, where anupradana, ' emitted material,' is 
mentioned first among the circumstances which determine the distinc- 
tive character of a sound. The Rik Pr. (xiii. 2) uses instead prakrti, 
* material.' 

Our commentator gives the full list of the sonant letters : the vowels 
in their three forms, short, long, and protracted (pluta), the sonant 

348 W. D. Whitney, [i.13- 

mutes, the semivowels, A, and, by way of examples of the sonant yamas 
(see below, i. 99), those of g and gh. 1 He then cites again a verse 
from his metrical authority, as follows : vyanjanam ghoshavatsamjnam 
antastha hah parau yamau : trayas trayaf ca vargantyd aghoshah 
fesha ucyate ; 'the consonants termed sonant are the semivowels, A, 
the two latter yamas, and the three last of each class of mutes : the 
rest are called surd.' There is one striking anomaly in this classifi- 
cation ; namely, the inclusion among the sonants of A, which in our 
pronunciation is a surd of surds. The Sanskrit h is, as is well known, 
the etymological descendant, in almost all cases, of a guttural sonant 
aspirate, gh : are we then to assume that it retained, down to the 
time of establishment of the phonetic system of the language, some- 
thing of its sonant guttural pronunciation, and was rather an Arabic 
ghuin than our simple aspiration ? or would it be allowable to sup- 
pose that, while in actual utterance a pure A, it was yet able, by a 
reminiscence of its former value, to exercise the phonetic influence of 
a sonant letter ? The question is not an easy one to decide ; for, while 
the latter supposition is of doubtful admissibility, it is equally hard to 
see how the A should have retained any sonancy without retaining at 
the same time more of a guttural character than it manifests in its 
euphonic combinations. The PraticAkhya which treats most fully of 
the A is that belonging to the Taittiriya Sanhita : we read there (ii. 4-6) 
that, while sound is produced in a closed throat, and simple breath in 
an open one, the A-tone is uttered in an intermediate condition ; and 
(ii. 9) that this A-tone is the emitted material in the consonant A, and 
in "fourth" mutes, or sonant aspirates. I confess myself unable to 
derive any distinct idea from this description, knowing no intermedi- 
ate utterance between breath and sound, excepting the stridulous tone 
of the loud whisper, which I cannot bring into any connection with 
an A. The Rik Pr. (xiii. 2, r. 6) declares both breath and sound to be 
present in the sonant aspirates and in A, which could not possibly be 
true of the latter, unless it were composed, like the former, of two 
separate parts, a sonant and a surd : and this is impossible. The Taitt. 
Pr., in another place (ii. 46, 47), after defining A as a throat sound, 
adds that, in the opinion of some, it is uttered in the same position of 
the organs with the following vowel ; which so accurately describes the 
mode of pronunciation of our own A that we cannot but regard it as 
an important indication that the Sanskrit A also was a pure surd aspi- 


14. In a given key, a syllable uttered in a high tone is called 
acute ; 

15. One uttered in a low tone is called grave ; 

1 MS. TOT, BO that, but for the following verse, it would be very doubtful what 
was meant 

i. 16.] Atharva- Veda Prdtigdkhya. 349 

16. One carried from the high to the low tone is called cir- 

The word samanayame signifies literally ' on the same pitch :' yama 
has this sense once in the Rik Pr. (xiii. 17), and several times in the 
Taitt. Pr. (xv. 9, xix. 3, etc.). The specification which it conveys is 
omitted in all the other treatises, probably as being too obvious to re- 
quire statement. The meaning evidently is that the acute and grave 
pronunciations are bound to no absolute or fixed tones, but that, wher- 
ever one's voice is pitched, a higher tone of utterance gives the acute, 
a lower the grave. Our treatise, the Vaj. Pr. (i. 108,1 09), the Taitt. 
Pr. (i. 38, 39), and Panini (i. 2. 29, 30) precisely accord in their de- 
scription of the udatta and anudatta accents: the Rik Pr. (iii. 1) tries 
to be more profound, describing the cause rather than the nature of 
their difference, and succeeds in being obscure : its definition of them, 
as spoken " with tension and relaxation respectively," would teach us 
little about them but for the help of the other authorities. As regards 
the svarita, the definitions virtually correspond, though different in 
form : the Taitt. Pr. (i. 40) and Panini call it a samahara, or ' combi- 
nation,' of the other two ; the Vaj. Pr. (i. 110) says that a syllable pos- 
sessing both the other tones is svarita ; the Rik Pr. {iii. 2), that a sylla- 
ble is svarita into which the two other tones enter together. The term 
dkshipta, used in the definition of our treatise, is difficult of explanation. 
It corresponds with the term dkshepa, by which in the Rik Pr. (iii. 1) 
the accent in question is characterized, and which Regnier translates 
"addition," Miiller "a clinging to, continuance, persistence (anhalten)" 
and Roth (Preface to Nirukta, p. Ivii) nearly the same (aushalten, 4 per- 
sistence, perseverance'); while Weber (p. 133) renders our akshiptam 
"slurred, drawled (geschleift)? Regniers translation is supported by 
the analogy of the corresponding expressions in the other treatises, nor 
would it imply too great an ellipsis in the connection in which it stands 
in his text ; but to understand the participle here in a corresponding 
sense, as meaning ' exhibiting the addition of the other two to each 
other,' could hardly be tolerated. Uvata's commentary explains akshe- 
pa by tiryaggamana, which would admit of being rendered ' a passing 
through, or across, from one to the other;' and I have accordingly 
translated Akshipta as having the sense of ' thrown, transferred, or car- 
ried from one to the other of the two already mentioned.' 

The words udatta and anudatta mean literally 4 elevated' and *not 
elevated' that is to say, above the average pitch of the voice. Sva- 
rita is more difficult to understand, and has received many different 
explanations, none of which has been satisfactorily established. I have 
myself formerly (Journ. Am, Or. Soc., v. 204) ventured the suggestion 
that it might come from .ivara r ' vowel,' and mean ' vocalized, exhibiting 
a conversion of semivowel into vowel,' as would be necessary, in order 
to the full enunciation of the double tone, in the great majority of the 
syllables which exhibit it : but 1 am far from confident that this is the 
true explanation. The accent is once called in the Taitt. Pr. (xix. 3) 
dviyama, ' of double tone or pitch.' The three Sanskrit accents, udatta, 
anudatta, and svarita, so precisely correspond in phonetic character 

350 W. D. Whitney, [i. 16- 

with what we are accustomed to call acute, grave, and circumflex, that 
it has not seemed to me worth while to avoid the use of these terms in 
treating of them. 

The commentator gives only a paraphrase, and no explanation, of 
these rules, which he states and treats together, as I have done. As 
illustrations of the accents, he cites amavasyfr (e. g. vii. 79. 2) and 
kanya^ (e. g. i. 14. 2), both circumflex on the final syllable, and the 
words pra 1 V/iu' ca roha, which are not found in the Atharvan : but the 
reading is probably corrupt, and the phrase meant may be praja'm ca 
roha (xiii. 1. 34); this would furnish instances of the uddtta and anu- 
d&tta although, indeed, not better than a thousand other phrases 
which might have been selected. 

17. Half the measure of a circumflex, at its commencement, 
is acute. 

Our treatise, with which the Vaj. Pr. (i. 126) precisely agrees, con- 
tents itself with this description of the svarita or circumflex, and we 
must commend their moderation. The other two treatises give way 
more or less to the characteristic Hindu predilection for hair-splitting 
in matters unessential, and try to define more particularly the degree of 
elevation of the higher portion, and the degree of depression of the 
lower. Thus the Kik Pr. (iii. 2, 3) describes the higher portion 
which it allows to be either a half-mora or half the whole quantity of 
the syllable as higher than udatta or acute, while the after portion is 
indeed anudatta or grave, yet has the udatta pitch. The Taitt. Pr. 
(i. 46) notices the doctrine held by our treatise as that of some teach- 
ers, and also remarks (i. 47) that some regard the whole syllable as a 
slide or continuous descent from the higher to the lower pitch. Its 
own doctrine (i. 41-45) is that, when the svarita follows an udatta, its 
first half-mora only is higher than udatta, its remaining portion being 
either the same as udatta, or lower, or the same as anudatta. 

We have in this part of the work only the general description of the 
accents : a more detailed treatment of them, as they arise and as they 
affect one another in the combinations of the continuous text, is given 
in the third section of the third chapter (iii. 55 etc.). 

The commentator merely cites, as offering instances of the circumflex 
accent, the following words : amavasytf (e. g. vii. 79. 2), kanyft (e. g. 
i. 14. 2), dhanyam (e. g. iii. 24. 2), acaryah (e. g. xi. 5. 3), rajanyah 
(e. g. v. 17. 9), nyak (vi. 91. 2), kva (e. g. ix. 9. 4), svah (e. g. ii. 5. 2) : 
they all appear again, as instances of the jatya or original svarita, under 
iii. 57. 

n \c 11 

18. In the mouth there are differences of producing organ. 

This rule is simply introductory to those that follow, respecting the 
place and mode of production of the different sounds of the spoken 

i. 19.] Atharva- Veda Prdti<fikhya. 351 

alphabet. As regards each of these, two circumstances are to be con- 
sidered : the sthana, or ' position,' and the karana, or ' producer/ The 
distinction between the two is laid down by the commentator twice 
over, in identical phrase, under rules 19 and 25 : kimpunah sthdnam : 
kim karanam : . . . yad upakramyate tat sthdnam : yeno 'pakramyate tat 
karanam ' what, again, is " position," and what " organ " ? that is posi- 
tion to which approach is made ; that is organ by which approach is 
made.' The Taitt. Pr. has a similar definition in its text (ii. 31-34): 
" in case of the vowels, that is position to which there is approximation ; 
that is organ which makes the approximation : in the case of the other 
letters, that is position upon which contact is made ; that is organ by 
which one makes the contact." That is to say ; two organs are always 
concerned in the production of a sound, and by their contact or ap- 
proximation the sound receives its character : of these, the more im- 
movable one is called the sthana, or place of production, and it is from 
this that the sound derives its class designation ; the more movable or 
active one is called the karana, or instrument of production. The 
sthdna does not require to be stated, since it is implied in the very 
name of the sound ; but, lest it should chance to be erroneously imag- 
ined that all the sounds are produced by one and the same organ at the 
places indicated, we are expressly taught the contrary in this rule, and 
the treatise goes on to specify the different organs.* 

! II U II 

19. Of the throat-sounds, the lower part of the throat is the 
producing organ. 

That is to say, as the commentator goes on to explain, the upper part 
of the throat, as place of production, is approached by the lower part 
of the throat, as instrument of production. As the sounds constituting 
the class, he mentions a, in its short, long, and protracted values, h, and 
the visarjaniya. The same sounds are defined as kanthya by the Bik 
Pr. (i. 8, r. 38-40, xxxix-xli), which also notices that some call h and 
visarjaniya " chest-sounds" (urasya). The Vaj. Pr. (i. 71) declares them 
formed in the throat, but (i. 84) by the middle of the jaw as organ a 
strange description, and not very creditable to the accuracy of observa- 
tion of its author. The Taitt. Pr. (ii. 46) reckons only h and visarja- 
niya as throat-sounds, and then adds (ii. 47, 48) that some regard h as 
having the same position with the following vowel, and visarjaniya as 
having the same position with the preceding vowel. This latter is the 
most significant hint which any of the Pratigakhyas afford us respecting 
the phonetic value of the rather problematical visarjaniya, indicating it 
as a mere uncharacterized breathing, a final h. There is an obvious 
propriety in detaching these two aspirations and a from the following 
class of " gutturals," k etc., in which the Paninean scheme (under Pan. 

* The meaning i under the title karana in the Bohtlingk-Roth lexicon viz. 
" Ausspracbe, Articulation " is accordingly to be struck out : Weber's translation 
of the vrord, also "Hervorbringvngsweixe, ' method of production ' "is both inac- 
curate and peculiarly cumbersome and unwieldy. 
VOL. vii. 45 

852 W. D. Whitney, [i. 19- 

i. 1. 9) ranks them, as they receive no modifying action from any of the 
mouth organs : and the authority who called the aspirations chest- 
sounds may also be commended for his acuteness, since in their produc- 
tion it may even be said that the throat has no part : it is only, like the 
mouth, the avenue by which the breath expelled from the chest finds exit. 
The commentator quotes a verse again, of which the general drift is 
clear, although I have .not succeeded in restoring its readings so as to 
translate it with closeness. It speaks of the diphthongs as also con- 
taining an element of throat-sound, and says that they, as well as the 
nasal mutes, are declared to have a twofold position. 

20. Of the gutturals, the base of the jaw is the producing 

The namejihvdmultya,'})y which the class of sounds here spoken of 
is called, means ' formed at the base of the tongue : r I retain for them, 
however, the brief and familiar appellation of "gutturals." They are 
stated by the commentary to be the r vowels, short, long, and pro- 
tracted, the guttural mutes &, kh, g, gh, , the jihvamu&ya spirant, or 
that modification of visarjaniya which is exhibited before the surd gnt- 
turals k and kh (intimated by him by means of an illustrative instance, 
purushah khanati : the phrase is a fabricated one, not occurring in the 
Atharvan text), and the vowel I (also intimated by an example, klptah 
[x. 10. 23]). Precisely the same series of sounds is stated by the Rik 
Pr. (i. 8, r. 41, xlii) to constitute the class of jihvambUy&s. The Vaj. 
Pr. declares the same, with the exception of the Z-vowel, to be formed 
at the base of the tongue (i. 65) by the base of the jaw (i. 83). The 
Taitt. Pr. (ii. 35, 44) includes in the class only the guttural mutes and 
spirant, and reverses the relation of position and organ, making the jaw 
the former, and the tongue the latter. This is evidently the more natu- 
ral way of defining the mode of production of the class, and the more 
analogous with the method of our own treatise elsewhere, as in the 
cases of the throat-letters, palatals, and labials, the lower and more 
mobile of the two organs concerned being taken as the producer. But 
the usage of naming the class from the sthana seems to have required 
that the jihv&mula be declared the sthana, and not the karana, of the 
sounds of which the well established name viasjihvamtiliya. By hanu- 
mula, ' root or base of the jaw,' must be here understood, it should seem, 
the posterior edge of the hard palate, which might well enough be re- 
garded as the base of the upper jaw, or of the bony structure in which 
the upper teeth are set. It is, in fact, by a contact produced at this 
point between the roof of the mouth and the nearest part of the upper 
surface of the tongue that our own gutturals, k and y, are uttered. That 
the r-vowel should be included by the Pratic,akhyas among the guttural 
sounds, instead of among the linguals, where its euphonic value so dis- 
tinctly places it, and where it is arranged in the Paninean scheme, is 
very strange, and would point to a guttural pronunciation of the r in 
certain localities or among certain classes ; a guttural r is a well recog- 
nized constituent of many modern alphabets. The definition of the 

i, 21.] Atharva- Veda, Prdticdkhya. 353 

(-vowel as a guttural by part of the authorities is probably explainable 
by its occurrence only in the root kip, after a guttural, where it might 
naturally enough be so far assimilated as to take on something of a 
guttural character, being removed to a point considerably posterior to 
that in which the common I is uttered. The Vaj. Pr. (i. 69) and the 
Paninean scheme make it dental. The jihvamuliya spirant and its 
compeer, the upadhmaniya or labial spirant, are nowhere expressly 
mentioned iu our treatise, but are apparently necessarily implied in ii. 
40, and are regarded by the commentator as forming part of the alpha- 
bet which the work contemplates. It does not seem probable that they 
were important modifications of the neutral breathing, the visarjaniya. 

The commentator again closes his exposition with a verse, which, 
with some doubtful emendations, reads as follows : jihvamulam rvar- 
nasya kavargasya ca bhashyate ; yap * cai 'va jihvamuliya Ivarnaf ce 'ti 
te smrtah 2 : the root of the tongue is declared the organ of the r- 
vowels and the &-series ; also the spirant which is jihvamuliya, and the 
/-vowels are so explained.' 


21. Of the palatals, the middle of the tongue is the producing 

The sounds composing this class are stated by the commentator to be 
, ai, y, c, c, ch, j, jh, ra, and the vowel i, in its short, long, and pro- 
tracted values. In this enumeration, he follows the order of the half 
verse which he goes on to quote, as follows: t&lv diyacacavarganam, 
ivarnasya ca bhashyate : ' the palate is explained to be the place of pro- 
duction of ai, y, c, the c-series, and the t-vowels.' The same sounds 
are specified by the Rik Pr. (i. 9, r. 42, xliii) as palatals, and are de- 
scribed by the Vaj. Pr. (i. 66, 79) as formed upon the palate, by the 
middle of the tongue, precisely as by our treatise. The Taitt. Pr. (ii. 
36) furnishes the same definition of the c-series and (ii. 44) of f, but 
holds (ii. 40) that y is formed upon the palate by the middle and end 
of the tongue ; and, as in other cases, it does not include any vowels in 
the class. 

The ancient Sanskrit c and j can hardly have been so distinctly com- 
pound sounds as our ch and,; (in church, judge), or they would have been 
analyzed and described as such by the phonetists. At the same time, 
their inability to stand as finals, the euphonic conversion of t and fol- 
lowing c into ck, the Prakritic origin of c and j from ty and dy, etc., 
are too powerful indications to be overlooked of their close kindred 
with our sounds, and deviation from strict simplicity of nature. That 
the c was our sh, or something only infinitesimally differing from it, we 
see no good reason to doubt : and certainly, those who hold to the Eng- 
lish ch and j pronunciation for the mutes cannot possibly avoid accept- 
ing the sh pronunciation for the sibilant. 

It has already been noticed above (under r. 10) that one of the palatal 
mutes, jhj does not once occur in the Atharvan text. 

1 yac. s Ivarnasye '< sa smrtah. 

$54 W. D. Whitney, [i. 22- 

U ^ u 

22. Of the linguals, the tip of the tongue, rolled back, is the 
producing organ. 

The sounds composing this class are sh, and the t series, or t, th, d, 
dh, n ; so says the commentator, and fortifies his assertion hy adding 
the half verse murdkasthanam shakdrasya tavargasya tatha matam. 
They are known in all the Praticakhyas hy the same name (R. Pr. i. 9, 
r. 43, xliv; V. Pr. i. 67, 78; T. Pr. ii. 37, 44), and the Vaj. Pr. and 
Taitt. Pr. describe them in the same manner with our treatise, even to 
using the same verb to express the action of reverting or rolling back 
the tip of the tongue into the highest part of the mouth cavity. The 
semivowel and vowel r are in the Paninean scheme, and in our custom- 
ary classification of the Sanskrit alphabet, also reckoned as linguals ; 
and, as the euphonic laws of the language show, with entire propriety, 
since it is in no inconsiderable measure under the assimilating influence 
of the r that the others have come into the alphabet, or won their present 
degree of extension in the spoken system of sounds. The only letter of 
nearly corresponding position in our modern European alphabets is the 
r, which in English, at least, is ordinarily pronounced smoothly over the 
tip of the tongue within the dome of the palate, although not at a 
point so far back as would seem to be indicated by the term murdhan. 
This word means literally ' head, caput? and hence an exact translation 
of its derivative murdhanya would be ' capital,' and this would be the 
proper name by which to call the class, if the term had not in English 
another well recognized meaning as applied to letters. Miiller (p. xviii) 
holds murdhan to be used directly in the sense of 'dome of the palate' 
(Gaumendach), and Weber (p. 108) accepts the same meaning for firas, 
but it seems to me exceedingly doubtful whether words which mean so 
distinctly ' head,' as usually employed, can, without limiting addition, be 
taken as signifying a certain region in the mouth : especially when we 
see the Vaj. Pr. (i. 30) once use bhrumadhya, ' the middle of the brows,' 
in a corresponding sense, and the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 3) mention the mouth 
(mukha) along with the "head" (piras) among the organs which give 
form to sound. Murdhan must be taken to mean ' dome of the palate ' 
indirectly, if at all, in so far as that is the highest point in "the head" 
which the tongue is capable of reaching. Miiller proposes "cacuminal" 
as a name for the class ; a far from unsuitable term, but one which has 
not found acceptance, perhaps as being rather cacophonous. The name 
employed by Bopp and many other biter grammarians, "lingual," seems 
as free from objection as any other, "Cerebral" does injustice to the 
Hindu grammarians, and obtrudes offensively a false and absurd theory, 

23. Of sh, the trough-shaped tongue is the producing organ. 

Our treatise is the only one which singles out sh from among the 
other lingual letters, to make it the subject of a special description. 

i. 25.] Aiharva- Veda Prdti^dkhya. 355 

Both the commentator and his metrical authority regard the sh as in- 
cluded in the class which the last rule describes : wo are to regard this, 
then, only as a specification which so far modifies the description already 
given. It is very possibly a later interpolation in the text of our 
treatise. The commentary, as usual, offers no explanation of the word 
dronika, which does not occur elsewhere in the grammatical language. 
It is a derivative from rfrona, ' wooden tub or trough,' and is explained 
in the Bohtlingk-Roth lexicon as " the tongue bent together in the form 
of a trough," which is undoubtedly the true rendering. It can hardly 
be claimed that this rule adds to the distinctness of our apprehension of 
the character of this sibilant, which is clearly enough exhibited by its 
relation to the other lingual sounds : it is not our sh which is rather, 
as above noticed, the palatal f but such a sibilant as is formed by re- 
verting the tip of the tongue into the dome of the palate ; much more 
nearly resembling our sh than our *, because uttered at nearly the same 
point with the former, only with the tip, instead of the broad upper 
surface, of the tongue : an s can only be produced pretty close behind 
the tipper teeth. 

As an instance of this sibilant, the commentator cites the phrase shad 
Ahuh fitan shad u masah (viii. 9. 17). 

II ^8 II 

24. Of the dentals, the tip of the tongue thrust forward is 
the producing organ. 

The commentator makes this class include Z, *, t t th, d, dh, and n, 
citing again a quarter verse to the same effect: danta 1 lasatavarganam. 
The Vaj. Pr. adds the Z-vowel to the class, which it defines (i. 69, 76) 
as formed at the teeth by the tip of the tongue. The Rik Pr. (i. 9, 10, 
r. 44, 45, xlv, xlvi) composes the class of /, *, and r, besides the f-series, 
and calls them dantamuliyas, ' letters of the roots of the teeth.' The 
Taitt. Pr. (ii. 38, 42, 44) defines the same letters, except r, as formed 
dantamuleshu, ' at the roots of the teeth,' the ^-series and s by the tip 
of the tongue, and I by its middle part. The description of the two 
latter authorities is undoubtedly the more accurate, since the contact 
by which our " dentals " are produced is not upon the teeth themselves, 
but just at their base or behind them : between the tip of the tongue and 
the teeth, where no close contact is possible, are brought forth the Eng- 
lish th sounds. What makes in all cases the peculiar character of an I 
is that in its production the tongue is in contact with the roof of the 
mouth in front, but open at the sides. The Taitt. Pr., then, in defining 
the I as produced by the middle of the tongue, doubtless refers to the 
part where the escape of the breath takes place, while the others are 
thinking only of the part by which the contact is made. 

25. Of the labials, the lower lip is producing organ. 

1 dantyd. 

3 -oshthyam; as also la more tbao OD instance in what follow*. 

356 W. D. Whitney, [i. 25- 

That is to say, as in the case of the throat sounds (r. 19, above) the 
upper surface of the throat was regarded as the passive organ, or posi- 
tion, and the under surface as the active organ, or producer, so here the 
upper lip is passive organ, and the lower lip active : or, as the commen- 
tary phrases it, " the upper lip, the position (sthdna), is approached by 
the lower lip, the producer (karana)" The labials are, according to 
the commentator, the diphthongs o and du, in the normal and the pro- 
tracted form, the _p-series, or p, ph, b, bh, m, the upadhmaniya spirant 
(which is not named, but indicated by an example, purushah pibati : 
the phrase is not found in the Atharvan), and the vowel u, short, long, 
and protracted. That the semivowel v is omitted here is doubtless the 
fault of the copyist only, since the sound is not provided with a place 
elsewhere. The verses cited from the metrical treatise are as follows : 
sandhyakshareshu varneshu varndntam oshthyam ucyate : upadhmdni- 
yam ukaro vah pavargas tatha maldh : 1 'in the diphthongal sounds, the 
final sound is called labial ; the upadhmaniya, u, v, and the ^-series are 
also so considered.' The Rik. Pr. (i. 10, r. 47, xlviii) agrees with our 
treatise; the Vaj. Pr. (i. 70, 80, 81) also defines the same sounds as 
produced upon the lip, and by the lip,* but then adds farther that in 
the utterance of v the tips of the teeth are employed : the same speci- 
fication as to the v is made by the Taitt Pr. (ii. 43 : its commentator ex- 
plaining that in the utterance of that letter the points of the upper teeth 
are placed on the edge of the lower lip) ; and the latter treatise also, 
as in other cases, omits the vowels and diphthongs from the class. The 
descriptions of v given by the two Pratiakhyas of the Yajur Veda, as 
well as that offered in the Paninean scheme (which declares its organs 
of utterance to be the teeth and lips), leave no room to doubt that at 
their period the v had already generally lost its original and proper value 
as English w as which alone it has any right to be called a semivowel, 
and to rank with y and, doubtless passing through the intermediate 
stage of the German w, had acquired the precise pronunciation of the 
English v. Whether the silence of the Rik and Atharvan Pratiakhyas 
on this point is due to their prior date, or to a local or scholastic differ- 
ence in their utterance of the v, or to the fact that, in view of the ex- 
clusively labial euphonic character of the sound they were willing to 
overlook the peculiarity of utterance distinguishing it from the other 
labials, I would not undertake to decide : but should consider the first 
supposition the least possible, and the second the most probable, of the 

26. Of the nose-sounds, the nose is producing organ. 

The commentary paraphrases nasikydh by ndsikdsthdnd varndh, 

1 pavargaf ca tathd matah. 

* Weber misundertands rule 80, tamdnasthdnakarand ndsikydushthydh, to sig- 
nify that the nasals and labials have the same sthdna and karana with one another : 
the meaning evidently is that, in each of these two classes of sounds, sthdna and 
karana are the same organ : in the one case, they are both the nose ; in the other, 
both are the lips. 

i. 27.] Atharva- Veda Prdti^dkhya. 357 

' sounds which have the nose as their place of production,' and cites, 
without farther explanation, as instances, brahma (e.g. i. 19. 4), payansi 
(e. g. i. 9. 3), ZR jpf jf sj, and n, n, n, n, m : that is to say, the nasikya 
(see below, i. 100), anusvdra, the yamas (see below, i. 99), and the 
nasal mutes. A verse from the metrical authority follows, sustaining 
this exposition : ndsikye ndsikd sthdnam tathd 'nusvdra ucyate : yama 
vargottamac cd ''pi yatho 'ktam cdi 'va t$ matdh ; ' in the case of nasikya, 
as likewise of anusvdra, the nose is called the place of production ; the 
yamas, and the finals of the several mute series are also understood to 
be as explained.' But there are grave objections to be made to this 
exposition. In the first place, the nasal mutes have been expressly de- 
clared above (i. 11) to be anundaika, and the anundsikds are the sub- 
ject, not of this rule, but of the next. Again, this treatise, as already 
noticed, acknowledges no anusvdra, and regards such syllables as the 
second of payansi to contain nasalized or anundsika vowels, which also 
fall under the next rule. We can hardly doubt that the commentator 
has here allowed himself to be misled by the authority on which he 
relies, and which may have treated the nasals in a manner essentially 
different from that of our treatise. The sounds to which the rule is 
meant to apply must be merely the nasikya and the yamas. This con- 
clusion is supported by the authority of the Rik Pr., which (i. 10, r. 48, 
xlix) gives the name of nose-sounds (nasikya) to the nasikya, yamas, 
and anusvdra;* and also by that of the Vaj. Pr,, which (i. 74) declares 
the same sounds to be formed in the nose, and pronounces (i. 80) their 
place and organ of production to be the same, only specifying farther 
(i. 82) that the yamas are uttered " with the root of the nose." The 
doctrine of the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 49-51) is less definite and distinct: it 
states that the nose-sounds are uttered with the nose, or else with the 
nose and mouth both, when their organ varies according to the varga 
or mute series to which they belong. 

n yo n 

27. Of the nasalized sounds, the mouth and nose together 
are the producing organs. 

The commentator explains anundsikdh by anundsikasthdnd varndh, 
'sounds which have for their place of production the awundsika.' I 
know of no other case in which anundsika is treated as the name of 
any part or organ in the mouth, and cannot but regard this paraphrase 
as an unintelligent and mechanical continuance of tbe same mode of 
explication which has been correctly applied to the class appellations in 
the preceding rules. Without any statement of what sounds are to be 
considered as referred to in this rule, the commentary cites the follow- 
ing illustrative instances : dve ca me vincatic ca (v. 15. 2) ; tisrac ca me 
trincac ca (v. 15. 3) ; catasrac ca me catvarincac ca (v. 15. 4) ; puman 

* The commentary of one of Miiller's manuscripts (see p. xix), by a noteworthy 
agreement in misinterpretation with our own, tries to bring in the nasal mutes also 
as belonging to the class. 

S58 W. D. Whitney, [i. 27- 

pumsah (e. g. iii. 6. 1); tatra pumsuvanam (vi. 11. 1) : they are cases, 
wanting both in brevity and variety, of the nasalized vowels only. But, 
besides the nasal vowels, the rule must be intended to describe the 
character of the nasal semivowel I (ii. 35), and of the nasal mutes 
(i. 11). In the production of all these sounds, the mouth bears a part 
not less essential than the nose : each of them requires a given position 
of the mouth organs, to which the expulsion of the breath, in part or 
in whole, through the nose, thefi communicates a nasal quality. 

The corresponding definition of the Rik Pr., " a nasal sound is pro- 
duced by the mouth and nose together," does not occur until the latter 
portion of that treatise (xiii. 6, r. 20). The Vaj. Pr. (i. 75) gives an 
equivalent explanation ; the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 52) says, with equal justice, 
"nasal quality is communicated by the unclosing of the nose" of 
course, in any given position of the mouth organs. 

A verse is again cited by the commentator, as follows : mukhandsike 
ye varnd ucyante te 'nundsikdh: samdndsyaprayatnd ye te savarnd ili 
smrtdh ' the sounds uttered in the mouth and nose together are called 
nasalized. Those produced by a like effort of the mouth are styled 
similar.' The term savarna, 'similar,' applied to sounds differing in 
quantity only, and not in quality, is used but once in our treatise (iii. 
42), and is not defined by it : the cited definition is almost the same 
with that of Panini (i. 1.9): that of the Vaj. Pr. (i. 43) is more ex- 
plicit : the other treatises, like our own, employ the word without tak- 
ing the trouble to explain it. 


28. Of r, the roots of the teeth are the producing organs. 

By the ' roots of the teeth ' must be understood, doubtless, the bases 
of the upper front teeth, at which, according to the Rik Pr. (i. 9-10) 
and the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 38, 42), the whole class called in our treatise 
simply "dentals" (see rule 24, above) is produced. It seems strange to 
find them here called the karana, instead of the sthdna, of r, and we 
are almost ready to assume a break in the anuvrtti of the term karana, 
and supply sthdna in place of it ; and the more especially, as the cited 
verse favors the substitution: rephasya dantamulani pratyag vd tebhya 
ishyate: iti sthdndni varndndm kirtitdni yathakramam ; *"of r, the place 
is taught to be the roots of the teeth, or a point close to them : thus 
have the places of the sounds been set forth in order.' The commen- 
tator farther adds: apara aha: hanumuleshu rephasya dantamulesku 
vd punah : pratyag vd dantamulebhyo rnurdhanya iti cd 'pare; ' another 
has said : "the place of r is at the roots of the jaw, OT, again, at the 
roots of the teeth, or close behind the roots of the teeth : others say 
that it is a lingual.'" A considerable difference of opinion among the 
Hindu phonetists respecting the position of the r is indicated by these 
citations and by the teachings of the different phonetic treatises. The 
Rik Pr., as we have seen (under rule 24), includes it with the other 
dentals, as dantamuliya, but adds (i. 10, r. 46, xlvii) that some regard it 
as gingival. The Vaj. Pr. defines it as produced at the roots of the 

i. 30.] Atharva-Veda PrdticdTchya. 359 

teeth (i. 68), by the tip of the tongue (i. 77) ; the Taitt. Pr. (ii. 41), 
by the tip and middle of the tongue, at a point close behind the roots 
of the teeth : the Paninean scheme alone reckons it as murdhanya t 
4 lingual.' The separation of r and r from one another, and of both 
from the lingual class, is the strangest and least defensible feature in the 
alphabetic classification of the Pratic,akhyas. By its effect in the eu- 
phonic system of the language, r is clearly a lingual, and can hardly be 
supposed to have been uttered otherwise than as our smooth English r 
is uttered, with the tip of the tongue reverted into the dome of the 
palate, to the lingual position. In this position, however, it cannot be 
vibrated or trilled ; and it is possible that in the laborious and some- 
what artificial pronunciation of the Vedic schools it was, for greater 
distinctness, thrown farther forward in the mouth, to the teeth or neat 

As instances of the r, the commentator cites faradah puruclh (ii. 13. 
3), puna raktam vasah (not in AV.), punA rupani (i. 24. 4), jaghnu ra- 
kshansi (iv. 37. 1), agni rakshansi (viii. 3. 26), agni rakshafy (xii. 3. 43). 

29. In the case of the mutes, the organ forms a contact. 

From this contact (sparfa) of the organ with the place of produc- 
tion, the mutes (spar f a) derive their name. 

The Rik Pr. (xiii. 3, r. 9) gives the same definition, with the addition 
that the organ is also asthitam, ' not stationary.' The Taitt. Pr. (in ii. 
33, 34, cited above, under i, 18) implies a contact in the case of all 
sounds excepting vowels and spirants (ii. 45), not laying down any dis- 
tinction between the complete contact of the mutes, and the imperfect 
one of the semivowels. 

The commentator cites a verse which establishes a noteworthy ex- 
ception to this rule ; svaramadhye dadhau yatra pidanam latra varjayet : 
mrduprayatnav uccarydv ida midham nidarfanam ; 'where d and dh 
occur between two vowels, there one must avoid a close contact ; they 
are to be uttered with a gentle effort: instances are ida (v. 12. 8) and 
midham (puru-midham, iv. 29. 4).' This corresponds, if it does not 
coincide, with the conversion of these letters in a like case into a lin- 
gual i, unaspirated and aspirated, usual in the Rik and in some schools 
of the White Yajus, and taught by the Rik Pr. in i. 11, 12 (r. 51, 52, 
lii, liii), as resting upon the authority of Vedamitra, and by the Vaj. Pr. 
in iv. 143 as the doctrine of some teachers. Our verse does not indeed 
point out that the relaxation of the contact takes place at the sides of 
the tongue, and that the resulting sound is hence of the nature of an I ; 
but this is altogether probable. 


tt 3 o a 

30. In the case of the semivowels, it is partially in contact. 

That is to say, the organs are so nearly approximated that their posi- 
tion may be called an imperfect contact. The Rik Pr. (xiii. 3, r. 10) 
VOL. vn. 46 

860 W. D. Whitney, [i. 30- 

calls it duhsprshtam, ' imperfectly or hardly in contact.' The Taitt. Pr., 
as just remarked, does not distinguish the degree of contact of the semi- 
vowels from that of the mutes. 

The name by which the semivowels y, r, I, v are called namely 
antah/tthd, 'intermediate, standing between ' is generally explained as 
indicating that the sounds in question, in the arrangement of the alpha- 
bet, stand between the mutes and the spirants. The Bohtlingk-Roth 
lexicon, however (sub verbo), defines it to mean ' occurring only in the 
interior of a sentence, never at its end.' This latter interpretation is 
exceedingly \insatisfactory : in the first place, the definition would be as 
true of the spirants and aspirates as of the semivowels ; in the second 
place, it would not be true of the I ; in the third place, no letter could 
be called antahstka in this sense which could occur at the beginning of 
a sentence, as all the semivowels do. But the other explanation also 
seems too indefinite and indistinctive. Is it not more likely that these 
sounds were named " intermediate " in reference to the mode of their 
formation, as being neither by a complete contact, like the full mutes, 
nor by an open position, like the vowels ? The name antahstha would 
then be virtually accordant with our own "semivowel." 

31. In the case of the spirants, it is also open. 

The final ca of the rule indicates, according to the commentator, that 
ishatsprshtam is also to be inferred from the preceding rule : in the 
formation of the spirants (f, sh, s, and h are specified by the commen- 
tary as constituting the class), the organ is both in partial contact and 
open a rather awkward way of saying, apparently, that its position is 
neither very close nor very open. The Taitt. Pr. (ii. 44, 45) declares 
that the spirants, in their order, are uttered in the positions of the 
mutes, but with the middle part of the producing organ opened. The 
Rik Pr. (xiii. 3, r. 11) includes the vowels, anusvara, and the spirants 
together, as produced without contact, and with the organ stationary. 

In the absence of a varnasamdmndya, 'list of spoken sounds,' or 
' alphabet,' such as the other Pratigakhyas give (Rik Pr., introductory 
verse, and i. 1, 2 ; Vaj. Pr. viii. 1-31 ; Taitt. Pr. i. 1-10), it is not easy 
to assure ourselves how many spirants the treatise acknowledges, and in 
what order it would assume them to stand. As we have already seen, 
the commentary accepts the jihvdmuliya and upadhmdniya, which are 
nowhere expressly mentioned in the text, but of which the existence 
seems necessarily implied in ii. 40. The class of spirants is then prob- 
ably composed of h (visarjaniya), A, hk (jihvdmultya), f, sh, s, and hp 
(upadhmdniya). The Rik Pr. (i. 2, r. 10, xi) includes in the class these 
seven, along with anusvdra; the Vaj. Pr. (viii. 22), only p, sh, s, h; the 
Taitt. Pr. (i. 9), the seven of our treatise, with the exception of visar- 

32. In the case of the vowels also, it is open. 

i. 36.] Atharva- Veda Pr&tigSJchya. 361 

The commentator understands, and doubtless correctly, that vivrtam 
only, and not ishatsprshtam also, is implied in this rule by inference 
from the preceding. He adds the whole list of vowels, both simple 
vowels and diphthongs, in their short, long, and protracted (pluta) form. 

The Rik Pratigakhya's doctrine respecting the vowels was cited under 
the last rule. The Taitt. Pr., in its rules ii. 31, 32 (cited above, under 
i. 18), implies that in the utterance of the vowels the organs only ap- 
proximate, and do not touch one another. 

33. Some consider it as forming a contact. 

That is, the commentator says, some maintain that in the utterance 
of the vowels the organs are in contact ; others, that they remain open. 
The former opinion is too obviously and grossly incorrect, one would 
think, to be worth quoting. No one of the other treatises favors it in 
any degree. 


34. In the case of e and o, it is very widely open. 

The word eke, ' some,' is no longer in force, but this and the two fol- 
lowing rules are more detailed explanations of our treatise itself under 
its own rule 32. For the pronunciation of the Sanskrit e and o, see 
below, under rule 40. 

The commentator cites, as instances of these diphthongs, eke taranti 
(vi. 122. 2), oko asya (v. 22. 5). 


35. And even more so, in the case of a. 

The a-sound (" Italian a," as in father) is unquestionably the most 
open of all the sounds of the alphabet, the only one in the utterance of 
which all the mouth organs are removed, so far as is possible, from the 
path of the intonated breath, which is thus suffered to stream forth 
wholly unimpeded and unmodified. 

36. The a is obscured. 

The modes of utterance of the short a, of the r-vowel, and of the 
diphthongs e and o, taught by the Pratic,akhyas, are matters of special 
interest in their phonetical systems, as helping to characterize the period 
in the history of the language represented by these treatises. Neither 
of the sounds in question has fully retained, down to their time, that 
value which general considerations, and the euphonic system of the 
Sanskrit language, show to have been the original and proper one. As 
regards the short a, it was no longer generally spoken with the full 

362 W. D. Whitney, [i. 36- 

openness of d, or as its correspondent short sound. See what Weber 
says upon the subject, under Vaj. Pr. i. 72 which rule, lite the final 
one of Panini's grammar (viii. 4. 68), prescribes that the short a is to 
be treated throughout as if coincident in quality with long a a pre- 
scription which implies, of course, that in actual pronunciation it was 
different. Whatever degradation from its pure open quality the a had 
suffered mutt have been, it seems to me, in the direction of the neutral 
vowel (English "shorts," in but, son, blood), which has so generally 
taken its place in the modern pronunciation of India, rather than to- 
ward an e or o, as suggested by Weber. The term samvrta, 'covered 
up, enveloped, obscured' (antithesis of vivrta, 'opened'), very well ex- 
presses the quality of this neutral sound, which differs from a only in 
not having the mouth freely opened for its utterance, and which does 
not, like e and o, call for a placing in position of any of the mouth 
organs. The Taitt. Pr. does not separate a from A, but says of both 
(ii. 12) that they are to be spoken "with the lips and jaws not too much 
approximated, and not too widely parted" a description too indefinite 
to derive any distinct idea from. The Rik Pr. also fails to note any 
difference of quality between the long and short values of this vowel. 
But it is very doubtful whether we are to regard the silence of these 
two treatises upon the point in question as any evidence that they are 
of notably earlier date than the others, as Weber seems inclined to do : 
their peculiarity is much more likely to be due to a local or a scholastic 
difference of pronunciation, or they may have simply disregarded, as of 
little account, the discordance of quality between a and d. 

The commentary gives, as furnishing instances of short a, the words 
apvah (e. g. ii. 30. 5), ajah (e. g. iv. 14. 1), and agnih (e. g. i. 7. 4), 

II ?o It 

37. The r-vowels are combined with an r, 

In the grammatical language of our treatise and of the Taitt. Pr., 
varna appended to the name of a short vowel causes it to include also 
the long and protracted (pluta) vowels of the same quality: it is a de- 
signation of the quality, without distinction of quantity. The Taitt. Pr. 
(i. 20) gives a special rule establishing the usage. Thus rvarna means 
rkara, rkara, and rzkara. 

The commentator gives no explanation of this rule : he simply re- 
peats it with an added bhavati, and then cites a couple of phrases con- 
taining the r, viz.: idam pilrbhyah pro, bharami barhih (xviii. 4. 51), 
and putrair bhrdtrbhir aditih (vi. 4. 1). But he next proceeds to quote 
from his metrical authority a few verses which are more to the point ; 
they read as follows, with the exception of the first and last lines, which 
are corrupt : . . . . 1 rvarne svaramatrA ya tasya madhye 'rdhamatraya : 
repho bhavati samsprshto yatha 'ngulya nakham tatha: sutre manir ive 
' 'ty eke true krimir ive J ti ca : , . , .2 ' an r is combined with a half-mora 

1 rvarnasya madhye yugapac ca canorah. 

2 anena mdtratyddhdydh prafleshe A ubhayar apt. 

i. 38.] Atharva- Veda Prdtiqdkhya. 363 

in the middle of the vowel mora in the r-vowel, just as a nail is with 
the finger ; like a pearl on a string, some say ; like a worm in grass, say 
others.' With this accords quite nearly the doctrine of the Rik Pr., 
which says (xiii. 14) that r forms part of the r-vowel, and is found in 
the middle of it. Neither treatise attempts to define what constitutes 
the remainder of the vowel. In the analogous rule (iv. 145) of the 
Vaj. Pr., that remainder is (if the rule is in this point correctly inter- 
preted by Weber, which is doubtful ; my own manuscript of the com- 
mentary is too corrupt just here to be made anything of) declared to be 

of the character of a; so that, according to Weber, r = z"l-o+7' The 
Taitt. Pr. does not, any more than the Rik Pr. in the earlier and more 
genuine part of its text, take any notice of the presence of heterogene- 
ous elements in the r and I vowels; it only says (ii. 18) that in their 
utterance the jaws are somewhat closely approximated, and the tip of 
the tongue brought near to the parts immediately above and behind 
the row of teeth. The etymological and euphonic character of the 
sound in question is simply that of a vocal r, an r which is employed 
with the value of a vowel, as r has been and is employed in other lan- 
guages in different parts of the earth ; and there seems no good reason 
for regarding it as having originally deviated in mode of pronunciation 
from the semivowel r. But it is clear that, at the time of the Pratiga- 
khyas, the Hindus had begun to find that difficulty in its utterance and 
use as a vowel which caused its entire disappearance in the later forms 
of the language, and has made of it in the mouth of the modern Brah- 
mans the syllables ri and ri. If I may judge from experiments made 
in my own mouth, the bringing of the r far enough forward in the 
mouth to be trilled would render very natural, and almost unavoidable, 
the slipping in, before and after it, of a fragment of the neutral vowel, 
our u in but, the "obscure (samvrta) a" of our treatise : of this char- 
acter, it can hardly be doubted, would be what elements the sound con- 
tained which were not r. 

.38. Of the long and protracted forms of the vowel, the first 
mora is so combined. 

The commentary paraphrases thus : dirghaplutayos tu purva matrA 
samsprshtarepham rvarnam bhavati; which is a palpable blunder for 
samsprshtarephd bhavati: i. e. if the vowel is extended so as to occupy 
two or three moras, the r-element which it contains is not prolonged, 
but is found only in the first mora : the whole remainder of the sound 
is composed of the other element. The Rik Pr. says in like manner 
(xiii. 14) that the r is found only in the former half of long r, and is 
either shorter ,or of the same length with that which enters into r. 

Two instances of the long r are given by the commentator as illus- 
trations : they an kartrn akshasva (x. 1.14), and pitrnr upe 'mam, 
(xviii 4. 40), 

364 W. D. Whitney, [\. 39- 

39. The J-vowels are combined with I. 

This doubtless means what is more clearly and unequivocally stated 
by the Rik Pr. (xiii. 14, r. 35) : that when, in such combinations as those 
which have just been described, I takes the place of r, the result is the 
(-vowel. The other two treatises, as we have seen above, treat the two 
vowels together, in the same rules. The use of the term harna in the 
rule would seem to imply the possible occurrence of the long and pro- 
tracted forms of the vowel, which are, on the other hand, impliedly 
denied in rule 4 above ; they are also ignored by the Taitt. Pr., as they 
are by the Rik Pr. in its proper text (i. 1, r. 1) ; while the prefixed in- 
troductory verses to the latter treatise, and the Vaj. Pr. (viii. 7), ac- 
knowledge them. 

The commentator cites, as instances of this vowel, pancadapena Jclptah 
(viii. 9. 15), and sinivdly aciklpat (vi. 11. 3) : the Rik. Pr. (xiii. 14, r. 35) 
notices the fact that the I occurs nowhere excepting in the root kip. 
He then adds a verse from his^metrical authority : rvarne ca rvarne 1 lah 
praclishtap ca yad& layoh : II iti tad ichanti prayogam, tadvido jandh ; 
the general meaning is clear enough, but the verse needs amending to 
be made translatable. 

II So ii 

40. The diphthongs are composed of combined vowels ; their 
treatment is that of a simple vowel. 

The term sandhyakshara means literally * syllable of combination ;' it 
is the usual name for a diphthong in all the treatises excepting the Taitt. 
Pr. The correlative sam&ndkshara, 'homogeneous syllable,' is but 
rarely used, as indicating the simple vowels, when it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish them from the diphthongs (in our treatise, only in iii. 42). 
The diphthongs are vowel sounds which, though not simple and homo- 
geneous, yet form but a single syllable, and are treated as if they were 
simple sounds. They are e, o, ai, &u. The two former would be more 
properly written at, a, since the euphonic processes of the language 
clearly show these to have been their original values, each containing a 
short a as its first element, followed by an i or an u respectively. That 
they should be so readily composable of a and t, a and w, in the acci- 
dental and momentary combinations of the phrase, and especially, that 
they should be so regularly resolvable into the same sounds, if they did 
not actually contain those sounds, is not to be credited. The same evi- 
dence proves the other two to be made up of long d, with i or u following. 
The mutual relation of e (at) and di must have been nearly that of our 
/ and aye. In the Prakrit languages, however, e and o have gained the 
pronunciation of the e in they and o in note ; they have become sounds 
intermediate between, instead of made up of, a and i and a and u; and 
they have acquired short values as well as long. As e and o they are like- 
wise pronounced in the usage of the modern Brahmans. But even at the 

1 Ivarno, 

i. 41.] Atharva- Veda Prdtigdlchya. 365 

period of the Praticjakhyas, and in the phonetic systems of the Vedic 
schools, they no longer had uniformly their original ralue. From the 
present rule, indeed, no such inference could be drawn ; but the one which 
next follows establishes a distinction in value between them and Ai, Au. 
The Rik Pr. (xiii. 16, r. 38) predicates doubleness of position of all the 
four, and goes on (r. 39) to cite Qakatayana to the effect that a forms 
half of each, and i and u the remaining half: but it adds (r. 40) that e 
and o, by reason of the fusion of their parts, have not a sound in which 
the separate components are distinct. This might, however, be fairly 
enough said of our own ai and au (in pine, house). The Vaj. Pr. (i. 73) 
defines only ai and au as composed of two different elements (the com- 
mentary explains them to be a+l^ and -^a+l-^o respectively), and 
directs them (iv. 142) to be treated as simple sounds, without seeing any 
reason for giving the same precept as to e and o. The Taitt. Pr. is not 
less explicit: it says of o (ii. 13, 14) that in its enunciation the jaws are 
to be neither too nearly approached nor too widely sundered, while the 
lips are to be closer than in a ; of e (ii. 15-17), that the lips are to be 
somewhat protracted, the jaws pretty closely approached, and the mid- 
dle part and end of the tongue in contact with the upper rows of teeth 
(jambhan) ; and finally (ii. 23), that in e, as in i, the middle of the tongue 
is brought near the palate. More distinctive descriptions of our e and o 
could hardly be given : there is evidently no thought at all of the com- 
bination of two phonetic elements into one in them. On the other 
hand, ai and au are defined with equal clearness (ii. 26-29) as contain- 
ing each the half of an a (which some held to be of closer position 
than the ordinary a), followed by one and a half times i and u in the 
two cases respectively. 

41. Not so, however, with di and du, in a rule of position. 

The commentator's paraphrase is aikaraukarayoh sthanavidhane eka* 
varnavad vrttir na bhavati. What the meaning and valu'e of the rule is f 
is not altogether clear ; I can see no other application of it than to for- 
bid the inclusion of Ai among the palatals only, and of au among the 
labials only, since they are both throat-sounds as well. By implication, 
then, e and o would admit of being ranked as merely palatal and labial ; 
but the commentary to rule 19, above, treated these,, as well as the othefs,- 
as of double position, and as containing an element of throat-sound. 

A verse is added in the commentary, as follows : aikaraukarayop cA 
'pi piirva matrd para ca ya : ardhamalra tayor madhye sarnspfshia Hi 
smrtah. The last pada is corrupt, and I am too uncertain of the scope 
of the verse to venture to amend it : perhaps the meaning is that, while 
the beginning and end of di, for instance, are clearly a and *, a mora in 
the middle of the sound is of a mixed character. 

This rule ends the first section of the first chapter : the signature is 
caturadhyayikaya'i'n prathamasyd 'dhyayasya prathamah padah: sutra 
41 : ekacatvarihfat. This is the only case in which the number of rules 
reckoned is assured by being expressed in words as well as in figures. 

366 ir D. Whitney, [i. 42- 

42. Visarjaniya is abhinishtdna. 

The commentator vouchsafes no explanation of the rule, but merely 
paraphrases it, as follows : visarjaniyo varnah : abhinishtano bhavati ; 
and adds, as instances of visarjaniya, agnih (e. g. i. 7. 4) and vrkshah 
(e. g. iv. 7. 5). The term abhinisht&na does not form part of the gram- 
matical language of the Pratic.akhyas or of Panini : among the former, 
it occurs only in this place : a rule of the latter (viii. 3. 86) determines 
its derivation and orthography, and the instances given in the com- 
mentary show its equivalence with visarjamya; the Bohtlingk-Roth 
lexicon also refers (sub verbo) to several vocabularies which contain the 
word, giving it the same meaning. More significant is its occurrence 
several times in the grhya-sutras (as cited in the lexica of Bohtlingk- 
Roth and Goldstiicker), also with the signification visarga* It looks 
as if it bad belonged to an earlier grammatical terminology than that 
of our treatises, and had been retained merely as a reminiscence of 
something formerly current : its introduction into our text is otherwise 
quite unexplained, and, so far as can be seen, without significance. 
Probably it is an ancient name of visarjaniya or visarga, crowded out 
of use by the latter terms. The Bohtlingk-Roth lexicon gives it, with 
reference to this passage, the meaning " an expiring or vanishing sound 
(ein verklingender Laut)" but this is merely a conjecture, and by no 
means so well supported by the etymology of the word (which would 
suggest rather 'a sounding forth, a resonance') as to be placed beyond 
the reach of question. Panini's rule must be taken as conclusive re- 
specting the derivation and form favored in his time, or by his school ; 
but the analogy of the words abhinidhana, abhinihita, abhinihata, abhi- 
nipata cannot but suggest abhinishthdna as the true form, coming from 
the root stha with the prefixes abhi and ni. This would not, however, 
relieve the obscurity investing the primitive meaning and application of 
the term ; an obscurity which also attaches, in some measure, to the 
word visarjaniya and its more modern representative visarga. 

H n 

43. The holding apart of a consonant is aWiinidlidna ; it is 
pinched, quite weakened, lacking breath and sound. 

* That the word ever means 'a sound of the alphabet in general,' as stated in 
both the lexicons, seems to me very doubtful : I have not access to all the authorities 
referred to by Bohtlingk-Roth, but the commentary to Panini, abhinishtano varnah, 
does not necessarily imply any thing of the kind, but may rather mean ' an abhi- 
nishtdna letter ;' while, in the citation given by Goldstiicker as an instance of the 
general meaning, it evidently signifies visarga : dirghdbhinishtdndntam, ' (a name) 
ending in a long vowel or in visarga' If the other cases relied on are not less 
equivocal than these, the general definition ' sound ' must be rejected. 

i. 43.] Alharva- Veda Prdtigdkhya. 867 

We have here one of those subtleties of phonetic analysis which 
are such marked characteristics of the Hindu science. In order to any 
satisfactory understanding of it, we must call in to our aid theoretical 
considerations, as the dark and scanty expositions of the grammatical 
treatises and their commentators are insufficient. The phenomenon 
forming the subject of the rule evidently is or includes a defective pro- 
nunciation or indistinctness of utterance, and the two next rules teach 
us that it affects a mute which is followed by another mute, and one 
which stands as final. In what does the peculiarity of utterance of such 
a letter in such a position consist? A mute is a sound produced by a 
complete closure of the organs of articulation in some defined position, 
entirely cutting off the escape of breath through the mouth ; and it is 
by the breaking of the closure with the utterance of a following open 
sound that the mute is itself made audible. In speaking a j, for in- 
stance, so long as the lips are kept compressed, there is no audible 
sound ; but as soon as the contact is severed with the expulsion of either 
unintonated or intonated breath, in the passing of the voice to the 
utterance of some other sound, the p is clearly heard. A sonant mute, 
as a 6, is less absolutely a dumb letter before the breach of the contact, 
because it includes an expulsion of resonant breath from the throat into 
the cavity of the mouth during the closure of the organs, and this re- 
sonance is sufficient to indicate imperfectly the character of the contact. 
A nasal mute, as ra, is yet less dependent upon the explosion for its dis- 
tinctness of utterance, since it implies a free flow of sonant breath 
through the nose, and so is continuous and even quasi-vocalic in its 
nature; yet even the nasals, and still more the sonants, are explosive 
letters, and do not have a perfect utterance unless the contact is broken. 
A following vowel, of course, discovers them most completely ; yet any 
open and continuable letter, as a semivowel or a sibilant, answers the 
same purpose, and in the syllables pya, psa, for instance, we feel that p 
is fairly enunciated. If, however, one mute letter follows another, the 
explosion of the former cannot properly occur ; the organs are supposed 
to pass from one position of complete contact to another, without any 
intervening open sound : the former mute is imperfectly uttered. A 
like thing takes place when a mute is final, or when there is no follow- 
ing open sound to break the contact with : we then have only that very 
imperfect hint of its pronunciation which is given by the formation of 
the contact upon the preceding open sound. We are accustomed, in- 
deed, in order to give distinctness to a final mute, to unclose the organs 
again after making the contact, thus whispering after it, as it were, a bit 
of a vowel ; and the absence of this unclosure is remarked by phonet- 
ists as a peculiarity of the pronunciation of some dialects of spoken 
Chinese, rendering their final mutes almost inaudible : it is hardly pos- 
sible, too, to make one mute follow another so closely that there shall 
not slip out, in the transfer of the organs from one contact to the other, 
a bit of breath or sound, which greatly helps to make the former of the 
two audible : and of both these inorganic or involuntary additions or 
insertions we shall see hereafter that the Hindu theory takes note : but 
they do not wholly remedy the theoretic imperfection of the utterance. 
That the indistinct pronunciation thus described is the abhinidhana of 
VOL. vii. 47 

S68 \Y.D. Whitney, [i.43- 

the Hindu theory, or at least the central and most important fact of 
those comprehended under that name, seems to me tolerably certain, 
although it must be confessed that there are difficulties attending such 
an explanation : none, I think, that may not be done away by supposing 
that the Hindus had not made a complete physical analysis of the phe- 
nomenon, and hence that their descriptions of it partake of vagueness 
and inconsistency ; and also, that they have brought together under the 
name abhinidhdna things not entirely accordant, although analogous, in 
character. The difficulty of the subject is sufficiently attested by the 
doubtful and discordant views taken of it by those who have had occa- 
sion hitherto to examine it, as Muller, Regnier, Weber, Goldstucker 
(s. v. abhinidhdna). An alternate view to which I have myself been 
somewhat attracted is that by the abhinidhdna is meant the instant of 
silence which intervenes between the closure of the organs for the first 
mute, and their opening for the second : that the Hindu theory regards, 
in the word dpta, for example, the utterance of the p as complete by 
the closure of the lips upon the preceding d, and that of the t as com- 
plete by the unclosure of the tongue before the following a, while the 
brief interval of suspended utterance separating the two acts is abhini- 
dhdna. This, better than anything else, would give meaning to the 
first word of our rule, " a holding apart of the consonants," and would 
accord well enough with the rest of the description, translating the last 
term ' deprived of both breath and sound.' Fatal objections, however, 
to this explanation are : the treatment of the phenomenon as something 
affecting the former consonant, not interposed after it ; the difficulty of 
assuming any such interval of silence in the case of a concurrence with 
sonant and nasal mutes; and the non-applicability of the theory to the 
case of a final consonant. The term vyanjanavidhdranam must there- 
fore be understood as used simply in antithesis to the samyuklam of 
rule 49 : whereas, in other cases of concurrence of consonants, there is 
actual combination, with partial assimilation of the latter to the former 
(rule 50), here each is held apart from the other as distinct. This, it is 
true, applies only to the concurrence of consonants, and not to a final ; 
but it is allowable to regard as contemplated in a general description or 
designation of a phonetic phenomenon its principal case only, although 
not to adopt an explanation of the phenomenon itself which should 
shut out any of the cases included by it. If I am not mistaken, the 
term abhinidhdna has also a similar meaning. Etymologically, and by 
its use in other than grammatical senses, it should signify, as a neuter 
noun, simply ' a setting down against' the following letter, as distin- 
guished from an actual combination with it. That it is used in our 
treatise as a masculine is somewhat surprising, but cannot be regarded 
as an error of the manuscript. The word seems to be taken almost in 
the sense of abhinihita, as denoting the sound affected by the process 
rather than the process itself, and so to be attracted to the gender of 
varnah or sparpah : the explanations which follow it in the rule, it will be 
noticed, apply rather to the altered letter than to the alteration. The 
Rik Pr. (vi. 5, r. 17, cccxciii) treats the word as neuter, and defines it 
clearly as a process : aamdhdranam samvaranam ca vdcah, ' a repressing 
and obscuring (holding together and covering up) of the voice.' 

i. 45.] Atharva- Veda Prdti$dkhya. 369 

Our own commentary, as is its wont in difficult cases, leaves us here 
altogether without valuable aid. It simply paraphrases the rule, adds 
the dicta of a couple of other authorities, and closes with a verse ; as 
follows: vyanjanavidh&ranam abhinidhano bhavati: piditaf ca cvAsanA- 
dabhyam : apara Aha : vyanjanavidharanam abhinipalo matro japano 
bhavati piditaf ca cvasanadabhyam : apara aha : vyanjanavidharanam 
abhinipato matro japane gurula bhavati : antahpade padante vA piditah 
sanna eva tu : avakrxhtatara sthAnAd avasannatara p ca sah : htnap ca 
cvasanadabhyam yo yatrartho bhidhiyate, I will not attempt to trans- 
late the passage, as I could do so but in part, and as it seems incapable 
of throwing any valuable light upon the subject in hand. The most 
noteworthy circumstance about it is its presentation of abhinipAta, 'a 
falling down against,' as a synonym of abhinidhana. 


44. A mute suffers abhinidhana before a mute. 

The phraseology of the rule would be the same, if abhinidhana were 
here intended to be taken adjectively, as conjectured above, and if it 
were meant to say that ' a mute before another mute becomes abhini- 
dhana.'' The commentary merely cites as instances the three words 
brhadbhih, samidbhih, marudbhih, of which only the last is found in 
the Atharvan (p. marut-bhih, e. g. ii. 29. 4). 

The cases in which abhinidhana alone ensues (only accompanied in 
part by duplication, according to iii. 28 etc.) are those in which a mute 
is followed by another mute (and, if itself non-nasal, then by another 
non-nasal) of the same or a succeeding series. Followed by a mute of 
a preceding series, it suffers also the intervention of sphotana, by ii. 38 ; 
if followed by a nasal, a yama is interposed, by i. 99. In an additional 
note at the end of the work will be presented a conspectus of all the 
consonantal combinations occurring in the Atharva- \ r eda, with an exhi- 
bition of the forms assumed by them according to the phonetic rules 
of our treatise. 

The Rik Pr. (vi. 5, r. 17, cccxciii) pronounces not only the mutes, but 
also the semivowels, except r, to suffer abhinidhana when followed by 
mutes. This would, however, in the Atharvan text, add only the 
groups Ik, Ig, Ip, Iph, Z6, Im, and vn to those which by our own treatise 
admit the modification, so that the extension of the rule is meant vir- 
tually to include merely the /, a letter which our rule 46 shows to be 
regarded as especially liable to abhinidhana. The I requires so marked 
a contact of the tongue at its tip that the omission of the breach of that 
contact by a following open letter may well enough have been felt by 
the Hindu phonetists as needing to be looked upon as abhinidh&na. 

u \ \\ 

45. Also at the end of a word, or of the first member of a 

The commentator paraphrases as follows : padante avagrahe ca spar- 

870 W. D. Whitney, [i. 45- 

fasya sparpe paratah: abhinidhdno bhavati: but it is clear that the 
specification sparge paratah, ' before a following mute,' has no business 
here : that case is included in the preceding rule, and the present pre- 
cept applies to the pronunciation of a final as a final, without any refer- 
ence to what may follow it. This appears partly from the nature of the 
case, partly from the analogy of the corresponding rule in the Rik Pr. 
(vi. 5, r. 18, cccxciv), and partly from the cited illustrations of the com- 
mentator himself: the words given by him under the preceding rule 
would be cases of avayraha in the puda-text, and, of those which he 
presents under this, the last two are instances of avaaraha before vowels. 
His citations are tan : vah : yah : devdndm (xi. 1. o), ap-tu (e. g. i. 6. 2), 
sdldcrkdn-iva (ii. 27. 5), and kkalvan-ira (ii. 31. 1). 

The rule of the Rik Pr., already referred to, api ca 'vasdne, ' also an 
pausaj is coincident in meaning with our own. The Taitt. Pr. takes no 
notice whatever of the doctrine of abhinidhdna,, nor does the Vaj. Pr. 
directly. The latter, however, presents a couple of rules which are wor- 
thy of remark, as having to do with the same general subject. In i. 90, 
91, it teaches that when a final mute stands either in pausa or before a 
following word, there takes place a release or separation of the organs 
of production, the passive and the active organ, or sthana and karana ; 
that is to say, the contact is dissolved (Weber, and Goldstiicker following 
him, have failed to apprehend the true meaning of the phenomenon de- 
scribed). This dissolution of the contact, in the case of the mute in 
pausa, is what was referred to above as taking place in our ordinary 
pronunciation after a final contact-letter, in order to make the mute 
more distinctly audible : as occurring before another word, it is analo- 
gous with the sphotana of our treatise (ii. 38), and the dhruva of the 
Rik Pr. (vi. 11), although having a different sphere of occurrence from 
both of them, as they from one another : it is a formal release of the 
organs of articulation from the position belonging to the close of one 
word, before they take up that belonging to the beginning of another, 
in order to the more distinct separation of the two independent mem- 
bers of the sentence. 

n M 

46. L suffers abhinidhdna before spirants. 

The only spirants before which I is found actually to occur in the 
Atharva-Veda are f and h : the commentary cites instances of both, 
as follows: fatabalfd vi roha (vi. 30. 2) ; sa yamishyati balhikdn (v. 22. 
9); vihalho ndma (vi. 16. 2); nor are the combinations to be met with 
in the text in any other words than those here quoted. The rule and 
its comment are of particular interest as settling authoritatively the 
reading of the word balhika, ' of Balkh,' which, owing to the customary 
carelessness of the scribes, in not distinguishing Ih from hi (our own 
manuscripts vary between the two), has often been read and explained 
as bahlika. 

L is also noted by the Rik Pr. (vi. 6, r. 20, cccxcvi) as suffering abhi- 
nidhdna before spirants, according to the Qakala doctrine, which is not 
that of .the treatise itself. By the Vaj. Pr. (iv. 16) it is regarded as to 

i. 48.] Atharva- Veda Pr&tifikhya. 371 

be treated in the same manner as r in a like position, ft before a spi- 
rant suffers svarabhakti, or the insertion of a vowel-fragment, according 
to all the other Pratigakhyas (see below, rule 101) ; and the treatment 
of the Vaj. Pr. is virtually, though not formally, the same. The doc- 
trine, then, of the Vaj. Pr., in admitting a svarubhakti between I and a 
spirant, would differ little from that presented in the Rik Pr. which 
(by vi. 11) would admit a dhruva, or (by vi. 13, r. 47, ccccxxii) even a 
svarabhakti, after the abhinidhana of the I except by omission of the 
abhinidhana, of which, as already remarked, it nowhere takes any no- 
tice ; but our own treatise, by prescribing abhinidhana, and not allowing 
even sphotana after it, differs quite notably from the others. I must 
confess myself unable to explain why either / before a spirant, or the 
nasals before A, as taught in the next rule, should suffer or be regarded 
as suffering the obscuring process of abhinidhana. 

47. Also the guttural, palatal, and dental nasals before h. 

The instances cited by the commentary, in illustration of this rule, 
are as follows: pratyan hi (iv. 19. 7); gan hi (a fabricated case: the 
lingual nasal never occurs before h in the Atharvan text) ; krimin hantu 
(ii. 32. 1); amun hetih (vi. 29. 1). 

The only consonants ever found to precede h in the Atharva-Veda 
are r, , /i, and n. The first case, rh. is one of svarabhakti (i. 101) ; the 
second, M, falls under the preceding rule ; the other two are provided 
for by this rule, which is moreover, like many others in the treatise, 
cast in a theoretical form, or made more general than the requirements 
of the text justify. Since, according to the theory of this Pratic.akb.ya 
(see ii. 9), no nasal ever occurs immediately before a sibilant, rules 46 
and 47 might have been cast together into the form : " the nasals and I 
suffer abhinidhana, before the spirants." 

The cases which this rule contemplates are in the Rik Pr. (vi. 7, r. 23, 
cccxcix) included in a much more general precept of the Qakalas, viz., 
that all the mutes except m, when final and followed by initial spirants 
or y, r, and v, suffer abhinidhana. 

rf a n 

48. Abhinidhana is also called dsthdpita. 

I translate in obedience to the commentator, who says : asthapita- 
samjnaf ca bhavati: abhinidhana f ca : etany evo "'daharanani ; 'it both 
receives the name asthapita and abhinidhana : the instances are those 
already given.' Unfortunately, this alternative title for the phenomenon 
which we have found so obscure does not notably help our comprehen- 
sion of it : the word admits of being translated, in accordance with the 
explanation of abhinidhana offered above, 'made to stand up to, or 
against ;' but it may also be rendered ' stopped,' that is, ' silenced,' and 
so may favor another theory of the phenomenon. 

372 W.D.Whitney, [i.49- 

49. Any other combination of consonants is conjunct. 

That is to say, all other combinations of consonants than those speci- 
fied in rules 44-47 as accompanied with abhinidhana are simply sam- 
yukta, ' yoked together, conjoined ;' the precise nature of such conjunc- 
tion being defined by the next rule. The commentator says : alah anye 
vyanjanasamdhayah samyukta bhavanti : anye abhinidhanat padanta- 
sparcah: 1 antahsthoshmasu padadishu 2 ca samyujyante : 'other combi- 
nations of consonants than these are conjunct ; other final mutes than 
abhinidhana, before semivowels and sibilants commencing a word, are 
conjoined with them ;' and then, instead of citing from the text any 
actual cases, he goes on to put the series of words with which we are 
already acquainted, godhuk, virdt, drshat, trishtup (see rules 3, 8), in 
lengthy and tedious succession, before yati, vayati, rathe, fete, shande, 
and sdye. This by no means exhausts all the possible cases to which 
the name samyukta applies ; nor has there been any restriction of abhi- 
nidhana to cases of contact between a final and an initial, as the com- 
mentator's language would seem to imply. 

This rule has the appearance of restricting the term samyoga to such 
combinations of consonants as are not accompanied with abhinidhana. 
But such is not its meaning, at least as regards the general usage of the 
treatise : samyoga is employed everywhere in the more general sense 
expressly attributed to it by a later rule of this chapter (i. 98). 

Nothing is to be found in the other Pratigakhyas corresponding to 
this rule and the one next following. 

tiiM=t^u T^T 11 HO n 

50. The latter half-measure of the first constituent has the 
same organ of production with the second constituent. 

The term purvarupa is not elsewhere found in our treatise with this 
meaning, although it occurs twice in a like sense in the Rik Pr. (ii. 
12, iii. 7). The construction of the rule is also irregular, and its ellipsis 
of pararupena or parena at the end (parena is added by the commenta- 
tor in his paraphrase) is bolder and more obscure than is usual else- 
where. These anomalies may be owing to the fact that the rule is 
taken in its present form and extent from some other treatise, and a 
metrical one. Weber (p. 127) has noted that it forms a half-^/oAra, and 
it is actually cited as such by the commentator, along with the other 
half-verse, as follows : purvarupaaya matrardham samdnakaraitam pa- 
ram : pratyayena bhauet kdryam elat samyuktum ishyate ; l the latter 
half-measure of the first element must be made to have the same organ 
of production with the succeeding element ; such a combination is re- 
garded as conjunct.' We can hardly help, however, both here and in 
the rule, assuming a different meaning for karana from that which it 

1 padantdt tparfah. a paddbhidhisfiv. 

i. 52.] Atharva- Veda Prutigdkhya. 873 

has elsewhere in our treatise, and usually also in the other kindred 
works, and translating it rather 'mode of production' than 'organ;' 
and this is an additional indication of the foreign origin of the rule 
itself. The only instances given by the commentator are such as do 
not show any difference of organ between the two constituents of the 
conjunction : they are vatsdu virdjah (viii. 9. 1), stomd dsan (xiv. 1. 8), 
and ayam vaste (xiii. 1. 16). Of the accuracy of the physical observa- 
tions which could discover any actual assimilation of the first element 
of these and other similar combinations, in its final portion, to the lat- 
ter, I find it hard to say much in praise : I am unable to discover that 
any part of the t in vatsdu becomes an s, or any part of the s in vaste 
a <, any more than the s and t respectively become converted in part 
into the following vowels du and e. 


51. A syllable containing a short vowel, excepting before a 
conjunction of consonants, is light. 

The distinction of syllables, as regards their metrical value, is prop- 
erly into light (laffhu) and heavy (guru] ; long (dirgha) and short 
(krasva) are terms to be used of vowels only. The neuter gender of 
the terms in the rule is to be explained by their agreement with akska- 
ram, ' syllable,' understood. 

The Rik Pr. (xviii. 19, r. 37) and the Taitt. Pr. (xxii. 15) have rules 
closely agreeing with this. The former also adds (xviii. 20, r. 42, 43) 
that a short vowel with a consonant makes a light syllable, but without 
a consonant one still lighter an unpractical and useless distinction. 
The Vaj. Pr. has no passage corresponding to our rules 51-54, but re- 
marks, rather out of place, in iv. 105, that vowels which precede a con- 
junction of consonants or a final consonant, or which stand in pausa, 
are of double quantity ; a loose and inaccurate statement, as compared 
with those of the other treatises, since it is the value of the syllable, 
and not the quantity of the vowels, that is increased in the cases men- 

The commentator gives as illustrations the indifferent words dadhi 
and madhu, which we have had already (under i. 4), and shall meet 
with many times more. 


O *v 

52. Any other is heavy, 

That is, as the commentator goes on to explain, those syllables are 
heavy which contain a short vowel before a group of consonants, or a 
long vowel, or a protracted (pluta) vowel. As instances of the first 
case, he gives takshati (takshati, ix. 10. 21) and rakshati (e. g. viii. 9. 
13); of the second, fdldh (viii. 6.10); of the third, bhuyd3 iddsm (ix. 
6. 18). 

The corresponding rules of the other treatises are Rik Pr. i. 4 (r. 20, 
21, xxi, xxii) and xviii. 19 (r. 36, 37), Taitt. Pr. xxii. 14, Vaj. Pr. 

374 IF. D. Whitney, [i. 52- 

iv. 105. The Rik Pr. farther adds (xviii. 20, r. 40, 41) that, while a long 
vowel is heavy, it is yet heavier if accompanied by a consonant. 

^ II M^ II 

53. Also a syllable containing a nasalized vowel. 

The commentator's illustrative citations are the same which he has 
already once given us, under rule 27 ; it is unnecessary to repeat them 

The other treatises have the same rule (R. Pr. i. 4, r. 21, xxii, and 
xviii. 19, r. 38 ; T. Pr. xxii. 14), but with the difference that the former, 
admitting the anusvara as a separate constituent of the alphabet, de- 
clares a vowel followed by anusvara to be heavy. 

54. And at the end of a word. 

The commentator simply paraphrases the rule, and adds one of his 
staple lists of illustrations, viz. yodhuk etc. (see under i. 3). The Vaj. 
Pr. (iv. 105, cited under r. 51, above) holds a like doctrine. The Taitt. 
Pr. (xxii. 14, 15) restricts the heaviness to such final syllables as end 
with a consonant, as our own commentator would seem to do by the 
instances he cites. It is not meant, of course, that in the combinations 
of the phrase the final syllables of words are heavy, but in the disjoined 
or porfa-text, where each final is followed by a pause, or at the end of a 
verse or phrase. The Rik Pr. makes no mention of this case. 

ii HH H 

55. Consonants belong to the following vowel. 

This and the three succeeding rules concern the division of words into 
syllables, and the assignment of the consonants they contain to the 
proper vowels. It is a matter of pretty pure theory ; the only practical 
bearing it can have must be in determining whether such and such a 
consonant shall receive one or another accent, as being that of the pre- 
ceding or of the following vowel : and this itself must be almost un- 
mixed theory, since it can hardly be claimed that even sonant conso- 
nants share at all in accentuation : certainly they do not do so con- 
sciously. The teachings of the different Prati^akhyas are very nearly 
accordant upon the subject, and this general introductory rule is equiv- 
alently stated by all (R. Pr. i. 5, r. 23, xxiv, and xviii. 17, r. 32 ; V. Pr. 
i. 100; T. Pr. xxi. 2). 

The commentator gives as instances again dadhi and madhu, which 
are to be divided da-dhi and ma'dhu. 


56. The first consonant of a group belongs to the preceding 

i. 58.] Atharva-Veda Prdti^dkhya. 375 

The commentator here does his work very unsatisfactorily : he fabri- 
cates his illustrations, instead of drawing them from the Atharvan text, 
giving atra sati, ddravati, pradravati, and he does not note for us tlie 
fact that, in the combinations which he presents, the former consonant 
is to be doubled, by iii. 28, and then inform us to which of the two 
products of duplication the precept of the rule applies. In the Rik Pr, 
(i. 5, r. 25, xxvi; also xviii. 18, r. 34), the name samyogddi belongs to 
the second letter, as being the first of the original combination or sam- 
yoga, while the one preceding it is specifically the product of the dupli- 
cation (kramaja) : and the treatise allows it to be counted either with 
the preceding or following syllable : thus, either at'tra or att'ra. The 
Vaj. Pr. (i. 102) calls the first consonant of the group as it stands after 
duplication samyoyadi, and unites it with the former syllable : and in 
the same sense, probably, the term is to be understood in oar own 
treatise and in the Taitt. Pr. (xxi. 4) : we are to write and divide at'tra 
sati, ad ' dravati, prod ' dravati. 

The commentary adds : apara aha : hasayamam purvasye 1 ti, of which 
the meaning is obscure and the pertinence questionable. If it has to 
do with the disposition of the yama 1 it ought to come in under rule 58 
or 104. 

57. As does also a final consonant. 

The commentary offers once more godhuJc etc, (as under i. 3), 
The equivalent rules of the other treatises are Rik Pr. Xviii, 17 (r, 
32), Vaj. Pr. i. 101, and Taitt. Pr. xxi. 3. 

58. And one generated by krama after r and h, 

The commentator offers no explanation of the rule, merely adding to* 
it, in his paraphrase, the words purvasvarasya bhavati, and proceeding at 
once to give his illustrations. These are the same which appear again 
under iii. 31, and also, in part, under i. 100 : they are for the most part 
words which do not occur in the Atharvan text, and, being much cor- 
rupted, are in more than one case of doubtful reading, A comparison 
of the illustrations under some of Panini's rules (viii. 3. 26, 27 j 4, 46) 
is of important use in restoring their true form. They are artcah, area 
(so under Pan. viii. 4. 46 ; MS. artha 1 arcco), vartah/ (MS. gartte, vartto), 
bhargafy (MS. bhagnah, bhagafy: found in AV. only at xix. 37, l), prah* 
nah, ptirvdknah, apardhnah (ix. 6. 46), apa hmalayati (MS. apa brahtna 
layati, apa hyalati), vi hmalayati (MS. under iii. 31 vi hyalati), apa 
hnute (omitted under i. 100), vi knute (omitted here), and brahma (e, g, 
i. 19. 4). In all these words, the consonant following the r or the h is 
doubled, by iii. 31, and the former of the two, which is regarded as the 
one that owes its existence to the krama, or duplication, is to be reck- 
oned as belonging to the preceding syllable. Thus we are to read and 

VOL. vn. 48 

376 W. D. Whitney, [i. 58- 

divide ark kah, arc cd, vart tah, bharg ~gah, prahn naA, purv vahn ruth, 
aparahn'nah, apahm malayati, apahn-nute, brahm-ma. 

The rule i. 104 of the Vaj. Pr. corresponds in meaning with this, 
although more general in its form ; the Taitt. Pr. (xxi. 5) teaches that 
a consonant not combined immediately with a vowel belongs to the 
preceding syllable, which would leave only the final member of any 
group to be attached to the following vowel : there are some exceptions 
made, which need not be noticed here. In the Rik Pr., the simple and 
frequent case of a consonant doubled after an r does not seem to be 
provided for at all : its rule (i. 5, r. 26, xxvii) is constructed only for a 
case in which the consonant following the r is itself succeeded by an- 
other : one is tempted there to reject the commentator's interpretation, 
and understand the rule to mean "two consonants are reckoned as be- 
longing to the preceding vowel, when there is duplication of the second 
of a group :" this would make it accord with our own. 

n H u 

59. A short vowel is of a single mora. 

The commentator gives us again, as instances, dadhi and madhu. 

The word translated 'mora' is matra, 'measure,' a term common- in 
this sense to all the Pratisakhyas. It is the fundamental measure, 
which cannot itself be defined by anything else. Only the Rik Pr. 
(xiii. 20) attempts to fix the length of the short, long, and protracted 
vowels, by comparing them with the cries of certain birds. 

The corresponding definitions of the other treatises are Rik Pr. i. 6> 
(r. 27, xxviii) ; Vaj. Pr. i. 55, 56 ; Taitt. Pr. i. 33. 

60. The consonants are of the same length, 

The commentator's illustrative instances are again dadhi and 
All the other treatises (R. Pr. i. 7, r. 34, xxxv ; V. Pr. i. 59 ; T. Pr. 
i. 37) agree in assigning but half a mora as the length of a consonant. 

61. A long vowel has two moras. 

The commentator's instance is f&la (ix. 3. 17). 
There is no discordance among the Pratigakhyas upon this point : 
compare Rik Pr. i. 6 (r. 29, xxx) ; Vaj. Pr. i. 57 ; Taitt. Pr. i. 35. 

RrTJ II ($ II 

62. A protracted vowel has three moras. 

The instance cited is iddsm (ix. 6. 18). All the cases of protracted 
vowels which the Atharvan text contains are rehearsed below, in rule 105. 

i. 65.] Atharva- Veda Prdtiqakhya. 377 

Compare the accordant rules of the other treatises in Rik Pr. i. 6 
(r. 30, xxxi) ; Vaj. Pr. i. 58 ; Taitt. Pr. i. 36. 

With this rule ends the second section of the first chapter. The sig- 
nature in the manuscript is pralhamasya dvitiyah padah : 62. 

n u 

63. The final of shash and puras becomes u before daga and 
dd$a respectively, with substitution of a lingual for the follow- 
ing initial. 

That is to say, shash before dapa becomes sho, and the dapa becomes 
dapa, making the compound shodapa ; and puras with d&pa, in like 
manner, forms purodapa. The commentator cites from the text the 
words themselves merely, viz.: shodapam (iii. 29. 1), purodapdu (e. g. 
ix. 6. 12). Neither of the words is analyzed, or restored to its theoreti- 
cally regular form, by the ^>arfa-text ; and our treatise, accordingly, ac- 
cording to its own programme, has nothing to do with them : and the 
same is true of the words referred to in the three following rules. 

These two words, with others of somewhat analogous character, are 
treated in the Vaj. Pr., iii. 39-46. 

64. In the root top, I is substituted for r. 

The whole commentary upon this rule is lost, and only its repetition 
before the next rule remains. Apparently, the copyist has carelessly 
skipped from the repetition of the rule in the commentator's paraphrase 
to that with which, as usual, the whole exposition closes. The loss is 
of very insignificant consequence : the missing passage would probably 
have afforded us some instances from the Atharvan text of verbal forms 
or derivatives of the root kip or kalp, which are frequent there. The 
rule may be taken as the assertion of an opinion that the original form 
of this root is karp ; an opinion rendered plausible by the derivative 
noun krp (see the next rule), and by the analogy of the root bar, of 
which the other seems to be a secondary form. With it corresponds 
Panini's rule viii. 2. 18; none of the other Pratigakhyas offers anything 
equivalent. If our treatise has set itself to note the words in which a 
I appears in the place of a more original r, it should not pass over the 
words in which the root car becomes ca/, as avicdcala, punpcali, etc., 
fflaha and glahana, which are hardly to be separated from the root grah, 
udumbala (viii. 6. 17), etc. 

65. Not, however, in the words Irpd etc. 

878 W. D. Whitney, [i. 65- 

This is the first instance in our treatise of a rule stated in this form, 
the words or phrases to which the precept contained in the rule refers 
being conceived to form a series, or gana, of which the first only is 
given in the rule, and the others comprehended in an et cetera. The 
form of statement is characteristic of the Atharva Pratic,akhya and of 
Panini, and of them only : the Vaj. Pr. employs it but once (v. 38), 
the others not at all (R. Pr. iv. 39, where, for convenience's sake, a list 
.is thus referred to in one verse which is given in full in the next, fur- 
nishes but an accidental and insignificant analogy). It would seem to 
be the business of a commentator to give the list in full, but the author 
of our commentary evidently does not think so, for he very seldom, if 
the gana have any extent, presents us more than specimens from it. 
Here, he gives Jcrpa pavaka (xviii. 4. 59), and krpat svah 1 (vii. 14. 2 : 
the reading doubtless is a corrupt one, and should be krp& svah, as is 
read by both the Sama and Yajur-Vedas, in their corresponding verses) ; 
also krpanah (krpanah, xi. 8. 28), and ite derivative karpanyam (not 
found in AV.). If these two words, which come from altogether an- 
other root, actually belong to the gana, it should contain also krpama- 
nasya (v. 19. 13) and akrpran (xviii. 3. 23). 

With this and the preceding and following rules are to be compared 
Pan. viiL 2. 18, and the vartikas upon it. 

66. In pddam arigulim etc., r is substituted for I. 

The instances given by the commentary as coming under this rule 
are fapre pddam angurim (iv. 18. 6 and v. 31. 11), sahamur&n anu 
daha (v. 29. 11), yahi mayuraromabhih (vii. 117. 1), and afvasya varah 
parushasya varah (x. 4. 2). The gana should also include pancangurih 
(iv. 6. 4), svangurih (vii. 46. 2), anangureh (viii. 6. 22), and perhaps 
tirya (for tilya, from tila : iv. 7. 3) : angurim also occurs again in xx. 
136. 13. As counter-instances, to show the necessity of constructing a 
gana, of a limited number of instances, the commentator cites anguli- 
bhyo nakhebhyah (ii. 33. 6), and balas te prokshanih santu (x. 9. 3). 

It is not in accordance with the usage of our treatise elsewhere to 
give, in citing a word or phrase in a rule, another form than that which 
it actually has in the text : we should have expected here 

The form ity evam adi, instead of simply Adi, is found once more, in 
ii. 29. 

\\ \ U 

67. In ease of the loss of a n or m, the preceding sound be- 
comes nasalized. 

The cases of elision of n and m are taught below, in ii. 32-34, which 
see for illustrations. The commentator offers here only the words 

1 Jcrpaivih. 

i. 70.] Atharva-Veda Prdlicdkhya. 379 

vinpatih (e. g. v. 15. 2) and payansi (e. g. i. 9. 3) which are very ill 
chosen, since, though each offers an example of a nasalized vowel, nei- 
ther exhibits an elision of an original nasal mute, according to any rules 
contained in this treatise. 

Corresponding rules to this and the following one of our treatise are 
offered by the other Pratic,akhyas : see Rik Pr. iv. 35 (r. 79, ccxcix) ; 
Vaj. Pr. iii. 129, iv. 3 ; Taitt. Pr. xv. 1 : there are some differences of 
application, but chiefly dependent upon the different modes of treat- 
ment of the nasal mutes adopted by the different authorities, which 
will be explained in their place. 

^ II n 

68. Also in case of their conversion into y, r, or a spirant. 

The instances given by the commentary are as follows : ralhan iva 
(v. 13. 6), saldrrkan iva (ii. 27. o), khalvan iva (e. g. ii. 31. 1) in all 
these cases, the final n is first, by ii. 27, converted into the spirant visar- 
janhja, the latter then changed, by ii. 41, into y, and this finally, by ii. 
21, dropped altogether; so that we have the successive steps ralhan iva, 
rathanh iva, rathany iva, rathdn ira farther, rtunr rlubhih (not found 
in AV.), rtunr ut srjate vaci (vi. 36. 2), mo shu paninr abhi (v. 11. 7 : 
the commentator repeats the first word in its pada form, mo iti, at the 
end of the citation), and dasyunr uta bodhi (iv. 32. 6) in these in 
stances, the final n, by rule ii. 29, becomes r, and, the preceding vowel 
being nasalized, rtun ut is converted into rtunr ut. 

As the 11 must always be converted into the spirant visarjaniya before 
it becomes y, it seems superfluous to make separate mention of the latter 
in the rule. The commentator apparently feels this objection, and ven- 
tures for once a defence, as follows : ushmano grahanal siddhe punar- 
grahanena kim : nityatvam na sydt: rtunr ut srjate vafi; 'when the 
matter is made certain by the use of the term mhman, why any farther 
mention ? it is because this does not apply to all cases, as is shown by 
the instance rtunr ut srjate vafi? I do not see the point of this defence : 
it does, indeed, explain the mention of r in the rule, but it has nothing 
to do with that of y. 

n u 

O rf\ \ 

69. And in case of the combination of a nasalized vowel with 
a preceding vowel. 

The only cases cited by the commentary are those of the combina- 
tion of the initial vowel of anfa with a preceding final vowel, by simple 
fusion or by the elision of the initial a; they are: ubhav updnfu (pada 
upa-ah?u} prathama pibava (iv. 32. 7), somasya 'npo (vii. 81. 3), and ye 
vrihayo yavA nirupyante 'rifavah (ix. 6. 14). 

Compare Rik Pr. xiii. 10 (r. 26), Vaj. Pr. iv. 51, Taitt. Pr. x. 11. 

70. In the passage purusha d labhuvdn, the vowel is nasal be- 
fore the pause. 

880 W. D. Whitney, [i. TO^- 

The passage referred to is x. 2. 28 : sarvd difnli pitrusha a babhuvdn, 
where, in a case of doubt and questioning, the final a of babkuva is both 
protracted and nasalized. The pada-ta\t reads simply puruskah: a: 
babhui-dnz: and there would be no call for such a rule as that given 
here, but for the requirements of the &rama-text, in which babhuva, as 
the last word in a verse, must suffer parildra (iv. 117), or repetition 
with Hi interposed, and in which it might be made a question whether 
the nasality of the vowel should or should not be preserved before the 
iti. This rule teaches us that the nasal quality is lost before the iti, as 
rule 97, below, teaches also with respect to the protraction; and the 
same things are taught once more by iv. 120, 121. The three last 
Jcrnnwpadiis of the verse will be, then: purusha a babkuvdns: a babku- 
vdn.3 : babhiive 'ti bubhuvdns. 

II \ II 

71. Of the r-vowels, the part following the r receives the 
nasal quality. 

^Vc have seen above, in rules 37 and 38, that the r-vowel is regarded 
as composed of a piece of a r, with a fragment of vowel sound pre- 
ceding and following it, and that, when it is long or protracted, the r- 
quality is found only in the first mora. Here we learn that, when such 
a vowel is nasalized, the nasal quality does not aft'ect the r, but only the 
part of a vowel which follows it. Any one may perceive, however, 
upon trying the experiment, that there is no physical difficulty in the 
way of nasalizing the r itself, supposing the r-vowel to be properly ac- 
cordant in pronunciation with that letter throughout. 

The commentator cites bhumidrfiham acyntam pdrayishnu (v. 28. 14), 
drnha pratndn (vi. 136. 2), and jandn drnhanlam (xii. 2. 9). The in- 
stances, as in many other cases, are wanting in variety and in complete- 
ness : as an example of the long vowel nasalized, we may take pitrnr 
itpe 'mam, already cited under rule 38 : no case of the protracted vowel 
nasalized occurs in the text. 

The other treatises offer nothing corresponding to this rule. 

H <3i> II 

72. U\s nasalized when standing alone, before iti. 

In the padu-ie\t of th'e Atharvan, as in those of the other Yedas, the 
particle u is always written itn iti. In this rule, its nasality in such a 
situation is noticed : in the rule next succeeding are taught its long- 
quantity and its exemption from conversion into a semivowel before the 
following vowel. 

The term aprkta means 'uncombined with any other letter:' it is 
said also of the particles a and o (=d + u) in rules i. 79, iv. 113, below. 

I n II 

73. In the same situation it is also long, and pragrlnja. 

i. 74.] Atharva- Veda PrdlicdkJiya. 381 

The term pragfhya means, by implication, that the vowel to which 
it applies is not liable to the ordinary changes of sandhi, viz. fusion 
with, or conversion into a semivowel before, a following vowel. I say, 
by implication : for only in the Taitt Pr. (which uses, however, not 
pragrhya, but the related term pragraha) does the pronouncing a vowel 
pragrhya exempt it from change ; all the other treatises find it necessary 
to teach by a specific rule (see iii. 33, below, and the quotations there 
given) that the vowels declared to be pragrhya are not subject to eu- 
phonic alteration. The whole proceeding is somewhat analogous with 
that by which the Rik Pr. teaches the conversion of visarjaniya into r ; 
first rehearsing all the cases in which the conversion takes place, and 
pronouncing their visarjaniya to be rephin or riphita, and then finally 
declaring the riphita visarjaniya convertible into r. The word pragrhya 
is explained by Bohtlingk-Roth to mean literally " to be held apart, or 
isolated," i. e., from the combinations of sandhi. 

Any satisfactory reason why the particle u should be treated in this 
peculiar manner by the framers of the pada-text is not readily apparent. 
There are but few cases in our text in which it assumes a long form in 
sanhita (viz. eight instances : they are given under iii. 4), so that it can 
hardly be said to exhibit any special tendency to protraction ; it nowhere 
assumes a nasal quality in the combined text ; and it has hardly a trace 
of a proper pragrhya character : if, indeed, it be preceded by an un- 
combined vowel and followed by another vowel, it remains uncombined 
with the latter (by iii. 36, which see : only three such cases occur in our 
text) ; but, on the other hand, if preceded by a consonant, it combines 
regularly with a following vowel (of this also there are only four cases 
in AV. : see ii. 37). It seems as if the protraction must have been 
made in order to give the word more substance as an independent pada 
in the disjoined text, it being the only instance of a single short vowel 
possessing such a value ; and as if the nasalization and addition of iti 
were intended to mark it more distinctly as an exceptional case, requir- 
ing a different treatment in the sanAi/d-text. Panini (i. 1. 17, 18) allows 
it to be read either u or un. 

The treatise now goes on to detail the other cases of pragrhya final 

74. Final * and & are also pragrhya, in a form having a loca- 
tive sense. 

The instances cited by the commentator are dshtri padam krnute 
agnidhane (vi. 27. 3: the Rig-Veda, in the corresponding passage, has 
the proper locative form, dshtryam), atojataso dh&rayanta urvi (xviii. 
1. 32), mahi no vatah (xviii. 1. 39), and tanu daksham a suvatam (iv. 
25. 5). This last, however, is a doubtful case, since the word tanu may 
quite as plausibly, or more so, be taken as nominative dual, ' their very 
selves.' A more unequivocal case of u is m&yh in xviii. 4. 4, and it is 
the only one which I have noted in the text. There is also a single 
case of a locative in i not given by the commentary : it is abhihruti, in 

882 W. D. Whitney, [i. 74- 

vi. 3. 3. As counter examples, of final i and u in other than a locative 
sense, and therefore not pragrhya, the commentator offers dhitt vA ye 
(vii. 1. 1), tasya 'mu sarva (xiii. 4. 28). Of cases analogous with the 
former of these, where the i represents an instrumental case, there are 
several others in the text, as vii. 48. 1, 77. 1 ; ix. 9. 8. 

The pada-text carefully notes these locatives in i and u as pragrhya, 
in the usual manner, by writing an Hi after them : thus, ashtri iti, urvi 
iti, tanu iti, etc. The commentator, in citing the several passages, 
under this and the following rules, always repeats at the end of each 
citation the pragrhya word, in its pada form, or with iti appended : I 
have omitted such repetitions, as unnecessary here. 

A corresponding rule in the Rik Pr. is found in i. 18 (r. 72, Ixxiii) : 
also in Panini, i. 1. 19. The Vaj. Pr. notes no such cases as those to 
which this rule applies : and the Taitt. Pr., instead of classifying and 
defining the pragrhya terminations according to their grammatical 
values, describes them all in an entirely empirical way (in iv. 1-54), by 
their position and surroundings, whence its rules do not generally admit 
of detailed comparison with those of the other treatises. 

II U\ U 

75. The same vowels, i and u, are pragrhya as dual termina- 

The commentator's illustrations are Jeena parshni Abhrle (x. 2. 1), 
indravayu ubhau (iii. 20. 6), ubhav indragni a bharatam (v. 7. 6). 

Corresponding rules are Rik Pr. i. 18 (r. 71, Ixxii) and Vaj. Pr. i. 93 ; 
both of them include also the cases noted by our treatise in the next 
following rule. 

II '3 U 

76. As is also e. 

The commentator cites air a dadhete (v. 1. 3), rodhacakre vavrdhete 
(v. 1. 5), sampitarav rtviye (xiv. 2. 37). 

77. Also the words asme, yushme, tve, and me, when accented. 

The specification "when accented" is, of course, meant only for the 
two latter of the words named, as the others would