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Nos. I. to IV.— 1860. 

" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish if such 
communications shall be long intermitted : and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease."— 

Sie Wm. Jones. 




-:- - \ 


Amoy, Ornithology of, .. ,. .. • . 240 

Animals known as Wild Asses, Memorandum on Mr. Blyth's 

paper, on the, .. .. .. .... 136 

Apologues, Mediaeval, on certain, . . . . .-.10 

Asia, S. E. on the flat-horned Taurine Cattle of; with a Note 
on the Races of Rein Deer, and a note on Domestic Ani- 
mals in general, . . . . . . .... 282 

Barren Island, account of a visit to, in March, 1858, .. 1 

Bengal, Lower, the Cartilaginous Fishes of, . . . . 35 

Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan, on the Irawadi, Remarks upon 

an ancient, .. .. ... .. .. 346 

Damuda group, on the rocks of, and their associates in Eastern 
and Central India as illustrated by the re-examination of 
the Raniganj field, .. .. .. .... 352 

Darpana, Sahitya, on a passage in the tenth book of the, . . 217 
Difference, Physical, between a rush of water like a torrent 
down a channel and the transmission of a wave down a 
river — with reference to the Inundation of the Indus as 
observed at Attock in August, 1858, . . .. . . 274 

Fishes received chiefly from the Sitang river and its Tributary 

Streams, Tenasserim Provinces, Report on some, .. .. 138 

Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf, &c, collected by 
Capt. C. G. Constable, H. M. I. N., Concluding portion, 
Report on, . . . . . . . . . . 359 

Indus, Memorandum on the great Flood of, August, 1858, .. 128 
Inscriptions, Indian, two letters on, . . . . . . IS 

Irawadi River, Memorandum on, with a monthly Register of its 
rise and fall from 1856 to 1858, and a measurement of its 
Minimum discharge, .. .. .. .... 175 


Kashmir, Memorandum of Survey of, in progress under Capt. 
T. G. Montgomerie, Bengal Engineers, P. B. G. S. and the 
Topographical Map of the valley and surrounding moun- 
tains with Chart of the Triangulation of the same executed 
in the Field Office and under the superintendence of Lt.- 
Col. A. Scott Waugh, F. E. S., F. E. G. S., Surveyor Ge- 
neral of India, &c. &c, . . . . . . 20 

Literary Intelligence, . . . . . . 200, 306, 393 

Malacology, Indian, No. 1., Contributions to, .. .. 117 

Meteorological Observations, (Abstract of the Hourly) taken 
at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the months 
of June, July and August, 1859, . . . . . . i. 

— for Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1859, .. xsv. 

Dec. 1859, .. .. xlk. 

■ ■ Jan., Feb., March and April, 

1860, .. .. .. .. .... lvii. 

Mir Ehusrau, the Kiran-us-Sa'dain of, . . . . 225 

Paper Currency, on attempts by Asiatic Sovereigns to esta- 
blish a, .. .. .. .. .... 1S3 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

— — for January, February, and March, 1860, .. 46 

April, May and June, 1860, .. .. .. 202 

July and August, 1860, . . . . . . 310 

■ Sept., Oct., Nov. and December, 1860, . . . . 405 

Pushto, is it a Semitic language ? .. .. .. 323 

Eein Deer, Note on the Eaces of, .. .. .... 376 

Eussian Eesearches, on Eecent, .. .. .. ..197 

Translation of waves of water, with relation to the great Flood 

of the Indus in 1858, on the, .. .. .... 266 

Waterspouts seen in Bengal between the years 1852 and 1860, 

Notes upon some remarkable, . . . . .... 366 



Blanford, H. F. and W. T. Messrs., of the Geological Survey 

of India, contributions to Indian Malacology, No. 1, . . 117 

— — W. T. Esq., Geological Survey of India, on the rocks 

of the Damuda Group and their Associates in Eastern and 
Central India as illustrated by the re-examination of the 
Baniganj field, .. .. .. .... 352 

Blyth, Edward, Esq., Note on the Baces of Bein Deer, . . 37G 

on the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. 

Asia, with a Note on the Baces of Bein Deer, and a Note 

on Domestic Animals in general, . . . . . . 282 

» - Beport on some Fishes received chiefly 

from the Sitang Biver, and its Tributary Streams, Tenas- 
serim Frovinces, . . . . . . . . . . 138 

The Cartilaginous fishes of Lower Bengal, 35 

Carter, H G. Esq., F. B. S., Concluding portion of a Beport on 
Geological Specimens from the Fersian Gulf, &c, collected 
by Capt. C. G. Constable, H. M. I. N., . . . . 359 

Cowell, E. B. Esq., M. A., On attempts by Asiatic Sovereigns 

to establish a Paper Currency, . . . . .... 183 

• On a passage in the tenth book of 

the Sahitya Darpana, .. .. .. .. 217 

- On certain Mediaeval Apologues, . . 10 

— — ■ The Kiran-us-Sa'dain of Mir Khus- 

rau, .. .. .. .. .. .. 225 

Cunningham, Lieut.-Col. A., Bengal Engineers, Memorandum 
on the Irawadi Biver, with a monthly Begister of its rise 
and fall from 1856 to 1858, and a measurement of its Mi- 
nimum discharge, . . . . . . .... 175 

Hall, FitzEdward, Esq., M. A., Two letters on Indian Inscrip- 
tions, . . . . . . . . . IS 

Liebig, G. Von., account of a visit to Barren Island in March, 

1858, .. .. .. ... .. .. 1 

Loewenthal, Bev. Isidor, Peshawur, Is the Tushto a Semitic 

Language ? . . . . . . . . . . 323 

Long, Bev. J., Oa Becent Russian Besearches, . . . . . . 197 



Montgomerie, Capt. T. G. Bengal Engineers, F. E. G-. S., First 
Assistant G. T. Survey of India, &c, Memorandum on the 
great Flood of the river Indus which reached Attok on the 
10th August, 1858, .. .. .. ..128 

Ohbard, J. Esq., On the Translation of waves of water with 

relation to the great Flood of the Indus in 1858, .. . . 266 

Phayre, Lieut. -Col. A., Commissioner of Pegu, Remarks upon 

an ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan on the Irawadi, 346 

Pratt, Archdeacon, J. H., On the Physical difference "between a 
rush of water like a torrent down a Channel and the trans- 
mission of a wave down a river — with reference to the 
Inundation of the Indus, as observed in Attok, in August, 
1858, .. .. .. .. .. ..274 

Sherwill, Major Walter Stanhope, Boundary Commissioner, 

F. G-. S., F. P. Gr. S., Notes upon some remarkable 
waterspouts seen in Bengal between the years 1852 and 
1860, .. .. .. .. .... 366 

Strachey, Major R., F. R. S., F. L. S., Memorandum on Mr. 

Blyth's paper on the animals known as wild asses, . . 136 

Swinhoe, Robert Esq., Ornithology of Amoy, .. .. .. 240 

Thuillier, Major H. L., F. R. G. S., Deputy Surveyor General of 
India, Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir in progress 
under Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, Bengal Engineers, F. R. 

G. S. and the Topographical Map of the valley and sur- 
rounding mountains, with chart of the Triangulation of the 
same, executed in the Field office and under the superin- 
tendence of Lieut.-Col. A. Scott Waugh,F. R. S., F. R. G. S., 
Surveyor General of India, &c. &c, . . . . . . 20 


Barren Island, .. .. .. .. .. 1 

Opisthostoma Nilgirica, .. .. .. . . 117 

Diagrams shewing the rise and fall of the Irawadi, 1856-58, . . 175 

Sketch of the motion of wave particles, .. .. .. 26S 



Sketch of a portion of river with a barrier, . . . . . . 271 

Figs, illustrative of the motion of water, . . . . . . 275 

Ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pugan, .. . . .. 346 

Plan of ditto ditto, . . . . „ . . . . . 347 

Ditto of a modern ditto, . . . . . . .... 349 

Ditto of a ruined Buddhist Monastery, .. .. .. 351 

Waterspout seen at Dum-dum in 1859, (PI. 1,) .... 368 

Waterspouts seen in Bengal between the years 1855 and 1860, 

(PI- 2,) — 

A Group of twenty Waterspouts seen in the Himalayas, (PL 3,) 

Waterspout seen at Dum-dum in 1860, (PL 4,) .... ■ 





Fig. 2 /& 



No. I. 1860. 

Account of a Visit to Barren Island in March 1858. By G. yon 
Liebig, M. D.* 

Barren Island is a volcanic island, situated in Lat. 12° 17' N. and 
in Long. 9o° 54/ E. Its smallest distance from the Andaman Archi- 
pelago is in a straight line only 36 miles East. The distance from 
the nearest point of the main land, near Tavoy, is about 270 miles 
W. S. W. It lies not far out of the straight course between Port 
Blair and Amherst, about 63 miles from the former, and 330 from the 
latter place. The Semiramis approached the island on the morning 
of the 19fch March, 1858, coming from the N. E., and steamed round 
it by S. keeping close to the shore, until the ship was opposite the en- 
trance of the crater (Fig. 2.) bearing about W. and by N. from the 
centre of the island, where she hove to, and we landed. 

It is stated in former accounts, that all round the island the lead 
finds no bottom at 150 fathoms, only i mile distance from the shore. 
Captain Campbell found however ground at that distance on one side 
of the island, its centre bearing N. E. at a depth varying from 4-| to 
14 fathoms. 

Nearing the island from the North and passing round to the South 
East of it, it looks from a distance like an oval-topped hill ; but com- 
ing closer, the sides of the mountain are discovered to belong to a 
steep circular elevation, sending out spurs towards the sea and en- 
closing a central valley. The sides of the enclosing circle being low- 

* An account of a previous visit to this Island by Dr. G. R. Playfair, Bengal 
army, will be found in the 25th No. of the records of the Government of India. 

No. CII.— New Semes, Vol. XXX. b 

2 Account of a visit to Barren Island. [No. 1, 

er in the direction of the spectator, the upper circumference of this 
valley is seen in the shape of an oval ring, formed by the crest of the 
surrounding ridge. In the middle of this ring, the upper part of a 
regular cone is visible, from the apex of which small white vapour- 
like clouds emanate. It is also distinguished from the surrounding 
darker masses by its grey colour, and some large white marks on it, 
like fields of snow. An entrance is not discernible. 

The slopes towards the sea are generally covered with shrubby ve- 
getation, presenting however some bare patches towards the upper 
edge ; small trees grow about the base, where large rounded stones 
are washed by the sea. 

Turning now to the S. and S. W. the enclosing wall is higher than 
the cone and the crest of the opposite ridge, and both therefore dis- 
appear from the view. On this side the vegetation down the spurs 
to the sea may be called rich, and consists of different forest trees of 
moderate height, interspersed with graceful palms ; and where the 
descent is rocky, the rocks are frequently covered with ferns. 

Passing to the westward of the centre of the island, and continuing 
the survey towards the northern end, one of the first turns discovers 
a large gap in the circular wall, extending quite down to the base of 
the island, through which the interior of the valley, with the cone 
in the middle, opens at once into full view. 

The sides of this gap or fissure in the circular wall form a regular 
cut or short transverse valley through it, opening towards the sea 
into a small bay, and on the other side into the circular valley, to 
which it is the only way of access. Opposite this entrance, in the centre 
of the valley, rises the cone of grey ashes, and surrounding its base the 
bottom of the valley is filled with black masses of cold lava, which 
are continued like a congealed stream through the gap, breaking off 
abruptly when they arrive near the water's-edge. At its termination 
the steam is about 10 or 15 feet high, and its breadth seems less than 
farther up. It looks like a black perpendicular wall drawn across the 
entrance and facing the sea. 

The lava consists of a black basalt mass (matrix) throughout which 
are disseminated innumerable semi-transparent little crystals of a 
variety of common felspar (orthoclase), and also many bright green 
granules of olivine. The lower part of its thickness is homogeneous, 

1S60.] Account of a visit to Barren Island. 3 

with a smooth fracture, but from the upper surface to a depth of 
several feet it is cleft in all directions, whereby the upper part is 
divided into rough blocks, possessing a spongy texture as well as 
countless sharp edges and corners. 

The older lava, composing the rocks on the side of the valley and 
also the strata of the surrounding ridge is slighty different from this. 
The colour of its principal mass is a reddish grey, felspar and olivine 
crystals are embedded in it in the same proportions as before, and in 
addition small pieces of black augite of the granular kind, with con- 
choidal fracture. From underneath the black lava, where it termin- 
ates near the sea, issues a broad but thin sheet of hot water, mixing 
with the sea water between the pebbles of the beach. The Ther- 
mometer I had with me was not graduated high enough to measure 
its temperature, its highest mark being 104° F. (40° C.) The water 
where escaping from the rock must have been nearly at the boiling 
point, judging from the heat felt when the hands were dipped into 
it, or when the hot stones were touched. When bathing, we found 
the sea water warm for many yards from the entrance of the hot 
spring and to a depth of more than 8 feet. It is not impossible that 
a jet of hot steam or water may emerge from the rocks below the 
level of the sea. The hot water tasted quite fresh, and not saline as 
might have been expected, showing that it could not have been long 
in contact with the rocks. 

We ascended to the base of the cone, passing along the sloping 
sides of the transverse valley through dry grass and brushwood or 
over sandy ridges, so long as the solidified stream of lava in the mid- 
dle left us room to do so. At last we had to ascend the rugged sur- 
face of the black lava itself, and cross the circular vallej'", which has 
about the same breadth as the transverse valley (not quite one-eighth 
of a mile), until we arrived at the base about half a mile from the sea. 
The cone rises from the lava accumulated in the circular valley, and its 
base is about 50 feet higher than the level of the sea, at a rough esti- 
mate. It is quite round and smooth, and the inclination of its sides is 
40 degrees. No vegetation of any kind was visible along its surface. 
We turned to the left and went up from the north side, where the 
appearance of a ravine, some way up, only two or three feet deep and 
very narrow with some tufts of grass growing along it, promised an 

b 2 

4 Account of a visit to Barren Island. [No. 1, 

easier ascent for a part of the way, and where a rocky shoulder at 
about two-thirds of the height would offer a place to rest. Our as- 
cent commenced at about 1\ p. M., and was certainly the most fatiguing 
expedition many of us remember ever to have undertaken. The sky 
was almost cloudless, and the heat consequently was great. The 
lower third and more of the slope consisted of a powder of ashes 
into which we sunk ankle-deep, and we often fell a step back for two 
gained. A little higher, stones loosening when the foot stepped on 
them and rolling down in long jumps, were dangerous to any one 

Arrived at the rocks mentioned, their nature and the manner in 
which the side of the cone bulged out in their neighbourhood, show- 
ed that they marked the point from whence an effusion of lava of the 
same kind, as we has seen below, had taken place from the side of the 
cone, not reaching the mouth of the tube at the apex. The last third 
of the way from the rocks upwards offered a firmer footing, the ashes 
being cemented by sulphate of lime (gypsum) which, where it was 
present, formed the white patches we had already observed from a 
great distance when approaching the island. The ground now became 
very hot, not however intolerably so, until about 30 feet from the apex 
a few rocks again offered a convenient seat, not affected by the heat 
of the ground. There the Aneroid barometer and the temperature 
of the air were observed in the shade of an umbrella. 

About half way between these rocks and the highest point cracks 
and fissures commenced to intersect the ground, widening higher up 
to the breadth of several inches, where clouds of hot watery vapour 
issued from them. They were filled with sulphur, often accompanied 
with beautifully crystallised white needles of gypsum, and a sulphu- 
rous smell also accompanied the vapour (sulphurous acid). This smell 
was however not very strong and did not prevent us from penetrat- 
ing the clouds, when we discovered that what had appeared from 
below as the summit was in fact the edge of a small crater, about 
90 or 100 feet wide, and 50 or 60 deep. At that depth it had a 
solid floor of decomposed lava or tufa and volcanic sand. Its walls 
were made up of rocks, in appearance like those of the older lava and 
were highest on the north and south sides. Towards the west the 
crater opened with a similar cleft, to that which had permitted us 

IS 60.] Account of a visit to Barren Island. , 5 

to enter the island. The vapours rose principally from the northern 
and southern quarters of the edge where the fissures were largest 
and longest, running both parallel and across the edge. The rocks 
where the sulphurous vapours issued from between them, were co- 
vered with reddish and white crusts, indicating the beginning of decom- 
position of their substance. From the top the horizon and more or 
less of the sea were visible in all directions, with the exception of 
the quarter between South and "West. The inner slope of the cir- 
cular elevation enclosing the valley, had no spurs, but was like a 
plain wall, falling off with a steep descent all round towai'ds the 
centre. It had a uniform brownish colour, appertaining either to the 
surface of larger masses of the rock itself, or being derived from the 
dry grass and smaller shrubs covering the slope. There were no 
trees or brushwood visible to correspond to the richer vegetation on 
the external circumference. Horizontal parallel lines, traceable 
throughout the circle and rising somewhat like the borders of reced- 
ing steps, indicated the thickness and strike of the different sheets 
of lava and tufa which, superimposed upon one another, formed the 
substance of the circular elevation. A very good transverse section 
of it had already attracted my attention, where the left side of the 
transverse valley debouches into the sea. Several strata of tufaceous 
formation, alternating with older rock like lava, could be seen there 
rising from the rocky beach. One of the most remarkable amongst 
these was a stratum of rounded stones, like large pebbles, cemented 
by tufa, exactly like those of the present beach, but at a considerable 
elevation (about 20 feet) above the high water mark, showing that 
the sub-marine base of the Island must have been raised since those 
pebbles had been washed by the sea. All these strata dipped out- 
wards from the centre of the island, parallel with the external slope 
of the encircling wall. It is interesting to observe that this slope 
continues under the sea level on three sides of the Island at least, 
at the same inclination as above water, which averages about 35°. 
This is shown by the soundings, which exceed 150 fathoms at a 
distance of a quarter of a mile from the shore. 

Judging from what we saw, as I have here attempted to describe 
it, I would conclude that the circular valley and its walls constitute 
the crater of a huge volcanic cone of sub-marine basis, which had 

6 Account of a visit to Barren Island. L Xo. 1, 

been the vent for fluid masses of rock, when such eruptions took 
place on a larger scale than in more recent times. The smaller cone 
in the centre of the old crater, corresponding in its size to the dimi- 
nished forces of volcanic action, is of recent origin, and represents 
those smaller cones of still active volcanoes which are usually dis- 
tinguished as cones of eruption from the original cones, also called 
the cones of elevation. 

We have it on record that about 60 years ago, the crater of the 
little cone was throwing out showers of red hot stones of several 
tons weight and enormous volumes of smoke (Captain Blair's account 
Asiatic Researches 1795), and but for the isolated position of the 
volcano preventing its more frequent observation, we should doubtless 
be able to fix the date of the eruption that left the stream of lava 
behind, which is now filling the valley and its outlet into the sea. 
Since that time it has entered the period of decline of volcanic 
activity, without however leaving us the assurance that it will not 
some day revive again. 

From barometrical observations, I deduced the height of the 
cone by Gauss's formula, allowing for the time of the day and the 
influence of the hot ground near the summit, to be about 980 feet, 
from the level of the sea to the northern edge of the crater. This 
height is confirmed by a trigonometrical measurement of Lieutenant 
Heathcote, I. N., to whom I am indebted for the communication 
of his results. He visited the Island about four months earlier than 
we did, when he found the height of the cone 975 feet above the 
level of the sea, and the diameter of the Island 2,970 yards, 1.68 
miles North and South. 

The few notes I could glean respecting the recent history of the 
Island, are derived from the Island itself, from the records of the 
Asiatic Society, and from Horsburgh. We found on a rock in the 
transverse valley the inscription " Galathea 1846," showing that since 
then no alteration has taken place. The same conclusion can be extend- 
ed farther back to the year 1831 or 1832, judging from an account 
communicated to the Asiatic Society (Asiatic Society's Journal, 
April 1832) by Dr. J. Adam, whose informant landed in the month 
of March, and reached the base of the cone. By this explicit account, 
the descriptions of the Island in " Lyell,"* dated 1843, and in Hum- 
* Lyell's Principles of Geology. 

1S60.] Account of a visit to Barren Island. 7 

boldt's Cosmos, both apparently derived from the same source, must 
be rectified. The narrator states (in "Lyell") that the sea filled the 
circular valley round the cone. 

Horsburgh states that in 1803 the volcano was observed to ex- 
plode regularly every 10 minutes, projecting each time a column of 
black smoke, perpendicularly, to a great height, " and in the night a 
fire of considerable size continued to burn on the east side of the 
crater, which was then in view." 

The oldest account on record is that of Captain Blair, already 
quoted, taken from his Report of the survey of the Andaman Islands. 
He must have visited the Island about 1790, as far as I am able to 
conclude from the publication in the researches and the date of his 
chart of the Andamans which is 1790. He approached nearly to the 
base of the cone, which he describes as the lowest part of the Island, 
very little higher than the level of the sea, but he does not men- 
tion the black stream of lava. The acclivity of the cone he states 
to be 32° 17', and its height 1,800 feet nearly, which, says he, is 
also the elevation of the other parts of the Island. On the other hand 
he remarks that the cone is visible in clear weather at a distance of 
twelve leagues, which would require a height of not more than from 
900 to 1,000 feet. I think therefore that Captain Blair could have 
taken no accurate measurements, contenting himself with a rough 
estimate. If it could be proved otherwise, the Island would have 
subsided 820 feet since he visited it. 

From the description in some of these accounts it would. appear 
that the high vegetation which we found on the external slope of 
the Island, is of quite recent origin. 

Mr. Adam's authority (1831) states as follows : — 

" The summits to the N. E. were completely smooth and covered 
with ashes ; those to the S. W., although partly covered with ashes, 
also have a good many small shrubs over them, with dry and parched 
grass growing on the surface." 

He conjectures from this that the eruptions would take place only 
in the S. W. Monsoon or rainy season, at which time the S. W. 
wind would blow the dust and ashes on the hills in the opposite di - 
rection, or N. E. ; such a conjecture is hardly admissible on the 
ground given, it being easier to account for the vegetation on the 

8 Account of a visit to Barren Inland. [No. 1, 

south-western slope by its angle of descent being much smaller than 
that of the north-eastern slope. 

The sulphur on the top of the cone occurs in such quantity in the 
cracks and fissures, often lining them to the thickness of more than 
half an inch, that the question naturally arises, whether the sulphur 
could not be worked with advantage. 

Although in the immediate neighbourhood of the crater, where 
the fissures are numerous, the ground seems to be completely pene- 
trated with sulphur, this is not so evident in other parts, only a few 
feet lower, where the surface is unbroken. There are however some 
reasons which seem to promise that a search might be successful. 
In eruptive cones, like that of Barren Island, there is always a cen- 
tral tube, or passage, connecting the vent in the crater with the 
heat of volcanic action in the interior. In this tube the sulphur, 
generally in combination with hydrogen, rises in company with the 
watery vapour, and is partly deposited in the fissures and interstices 
of the earth near the vent, the remainder escaping through the 

If in the present case we admit the sensible heat of the ground of 
the upper third of the cone to be principally due to the condensation 
of steam, a process of which we have abundant evidence in the stream 
of hot water rushing out from underneath the cold lava, it is not 
improbable that the whole of the upper part of the interior of the 
cone is intersected with spaces and fissures filled with steam and sul- 
phurous vapour, these being sufficiently near the surface to permit 
the heat to penetrate. It is therefore not unlikely that at a moder- 
ate depth we should find sulphur saturating the volcanic sand that 
covers the outside of the cone. 

I only speak of the outside, as we may conclude from the evidence 
we have in the rocks of lava in the crater and those bulging out on 
the side, that the structure of the cone is supported by solid rock near- 
ly to its summit, the ashes covering it only superficially. 

From what has been said above, the probability of sulphur being 
found near the surface disposed in such a way as to allow of its being 
profitably exhausted, will depend on the following conditions : 

First. — That the communication of the central canal, through 
which the vapours rise, with its outlets, be effected not through a few 

1SG0.] Account of a visit to Barren Island. 9 

large, but through many and smaller passages, distributed throughout 
the thickness of the upper part of the cone. 

Second. — That some of these passages communicate with the loose 
cover of ashes and stones which envelopes the rocky support of the 

Although I have mentioned some facts which seem to indicate the 
existence of such favorable conditions, and which are moreover 
strengthened by an observation by Captain Campbell, who saw vapour 
issuing, and sulphur being deposited near a rocky shoulder about two- 
thirds of the height on the eastern descent of the cone, still their 
presence can only be ascertained satisfactorily by experimental dig- 

The Solfatara at Puzuoli, near Naples, is a similar instance of the 
production of sulphur. It is a crater in which exhalations of watery 
vapour, sulphurous acid and hydrochloric acid take place, and where 
sulphur is also deposited. The sulphur is gained there by distilling 
it out of the sand of the crater, to a depth of 10 metres or 32 feet 
— it becomes too hot lower down — and returning the sand which af- 
ter 25 or 30 years is again charged with sulphur. The permanency 
of the volcano of Barren Island as a source of sulphur would depend 
on the rapidity with which the sulphur would be replaced after the sand 
had been once exhausted. The time required for this is not necessarily 
fixed to periods of 25 or 30 years. In Iceland, at a similar spot, the 
sulphur is renewed every two or three years. 

If a preliminary experiment should make it appear advantageous 
to work the cone regularly, the material about the apex, after being 
exhausted of the sulphur that is present, could by blasting and other 
operations be disposed in such a way as to direct the jets of vapour 
in the most convenient manner through uncharged portions of ground. 
If the sulphur should aggregate in periods of not too long duration, 
it would be possible to carry on the work of filling up new ground 
on one side, and taking away saturated earth on the other at the same 
time, so that after working round the whole circumference, the earth 
that had been first put on would be ready to be taken away. 

If the periods should prove too long to allow the work permanently 
to be carried on, an interval of time might be allowed to pass, before 
resuming operations. 


10 On certain Mediaeval Apologues. [No. 1, 

Water for the labourers could always be obtained from the warm 
spring at the entrance of the Island. 

The distilling or melting of sulphur to separate it from adherent 
earth is a matter of comparatively little expense or trouble. If the 
sulphur be abundant, it might be effected as in Sicily by using a part 
of it as fuel. It is not necessary to do it on the spot ; it might be 
done at any place where bricks and fuel are cheap. 

It is impossible to predict certain and lasting success to an under- 
taking of this kind, all depending on the quantity of sulphur present 
and the rapidity with which it will be replaced. 

The situation of Barren Island offers every facility for a prelimina- 
ry trial. The near proximity of the Andamans insures a supply of 
convict labour, timber, bricks, and lime. All the wood and iron work 
required for facilitating the transport of loads up and down the hill 
could be made on the Andamans. 

On certain Mediaeval Apologues. — JBy E. B. Cowell, M. A. 

Among the many by-paths of inquiry which open in every direction 
from the broad beaten track of literature, few are more inviting than 
those which trace the mutual likenesses between the household le- 
gends of different nations, now widely separated by lands and seas, 
but once linked in close association. Mr. Dasent, in his recent work 
on the Popular Norse Legends, has followed out most successfully 
one of these paths, and has traced the same stories under varying 
names and localities, from nation to nation of the great Indo-Ger- 
manic family, — showing that everywhere the natural literature which 
bursts spontaneously from the heart of the people, bears evidence of 
a common origin for its favourite legends, though now lost in a far 
distant past. 

The present paper is not, however, concerned with those popular 
tales which float from mouth to mouth among the unlettered pea- 
sants, — its business is with certain apologues of a more philosophic 
character, which are yet common to the East and West, and which 
must have flowed from one identical source, though the particular 
channels by which the commerce of ancient thought was conducted, 

I860.] On certain Mediceval Jpolo/jues. 11 

are now no longer to be mapped out by the historian. Nor can we 
trace the course which any particular apologue took, as it found its 
way from land to land ; too often it acts per saltum in its progress, 
and its intermediate history is concealed between its two appearances 
in two different epochs and countries. The stream rises to the sur- 
face in the far East and the far West, but its main current runs 

The first instance which I shall offer is one too well known to be 
dwelt upon at length, but it is one too remarkable to be wholly omit- 
ted in the present sketch, — I refer to the story of Abraham and the 
Eireworshipper, which Jeremy Taylor subjoined as a colophon to his 
Liberty of prophesying,* expressly adding that he found it "in old 
Jewish books." I am not aware, however, that it has ever yet been 
traced to the Rabbinical writings, and its spirit of toleration is wide- 
ly different from the usual bigotry of the Talmud ; and Bishop Heber 
has very plausibly suggested that Jeremy Taylor's memory deceived 
him and that he had really seen it as a quotation from Sadi's Bostan. 
It is thus quoted by Gentius in his preface to a translation of a 
Hebrew History of the Jews published at Amsterdam in 1651 ; and 
it is singular that it was added to the second edition of the ' Liberty 
of Prophesying' published in 1653 — the first, published six years be- 
fore, and therefore earlier than Gentius' work, not containing any 
allusion to it.f 

Still any one who has seen the voluminous stores of mediaeval 
Jewish writings, which fill the shelves of the Bodleian Library, can- 
not but feel a lingering suspicion that Taylor in his omnivorous read- 
ing may have met with the story as he states, — and that it may yet 
be found by the Rabbinical student in some mediaeval Jewish book. 
Bishop Heber in his note remarks that a learned Jew, Mr. J. D'Alle- 
mand, professes to have a strong impression on his mind that he has 
seen it in a Jewish commentary on Genesis xviii. 1. It is a favourite 
story in the East, — it occurs in the Subhat ul Abrar of Jami as well 
as the Bostan of Sadi,— and it may very probably be found in 
Arabic, whence the Rabbis may have derived it as they derived the 

* It was here no doubt that Benjamin Franklin found it, though lie borrowed 
it without acknowledgment. 

t See Bishop Heber's edition of Jeremy Taylor's works, vol. i. note xx. 

C 2 

12 On certain Jlediceval Apologues. [No. 1, 

Ikhivdn-us-Safd, of the Hebrew translation of which there are no less 
than three editions, — printed respectively in 1557, 1703 and 1713.* 

The next of these legends to be noticed occurs in the 237th num- 
ber of the Spectator, in a paper by Hughes, who gives it as an old 
Jewish tradition. I cannot however find any trace of Hughes' pro- 
ficiency in Hebrew or Eabbinical lore, though he was a good classical 
scholar, and I am quite at a loss to trace the source from which he 
derived it. The story, as he relates it, describes an interview between 
Moses and the Supreme Being, respecting the apparent anomalies of 
Providence, and the discourse turns on an incident which takes place 
beside a stream at the mountain's foot. A soldier comes to drink, 
and, as he leaves, drops bis purse, which is soon after picked up by a 
boy who passes by. An old man next totters up to the fountain and 
sits down to rest, when the soldier suddenly returns and accuses him 
of having his purse. An altercation ensues, and the soldier in his 
passion kills him. " Moses fell on his face with horror and amaze- 
ment, when the divine voice thus prevented his expostulation : ' Be 
not surprised, Moses, nor ask why the Judge of the whole earth has 
suffered this tiling to come to pass. The child is the occasion that 
the blood of the old man is spilt ; but, know, that the old man, 
whom thou sawest, was the murderer of that child's father.' " 

The story is particularly interesting to an English reader, as there 
can be no doubt that it must have given, the first idea of ' the Her- 
mit' to Parnell. Whether it occurs in any Hebrew work, I cannot 
say, — but the story wears on its face an oriental aspect. The only 
oriental book, however, where I remember to have seen it, is the 
Subhat ul Abrar of Jami ; and I subjoin the original with a trans- 
lation. There are one or two singular variations between the two 
versions, and the oriental has the advantage in compactness of nar- 


L" ^JfCa*. 


(iij li>i«. jl^jl^ <_£ (^ 

*Af c1j'^«. li*J 

LSJJJ *=*** 


&J /**■»• J= l£>J}*0 J,> (J^-C 

/ $ UioXJ cu*>> ^. 

WJJ p** ji 

* De Sacy, Notices des MSS, vol. ix. p. 406. 
f Metre, — w — ^ v/ vjv, *- 


On certain Mediasval Apologues. 


^»jj o\j| c^J,} ci>j-i» 

* ■ 





J^ j' 

^■i^F* lAt ^ ^A* c5^ °"^ 

^^ -r- 

j^i J* u j, 

*!; ji **f c/^ ^!3' u^ 

^llw U AS" «J.j,i ii)|j| «j.*j 

»«IH -y -rt 


s& B>f 

o**»Uaa> /*^» (^jI i>/^j e^r"" o*^J *"- **°!^ z* 2 ^ wir? <^H oT *~Hr 



JO.J ^S 




d'd 134- i>J J^J )j u° [ <^ 3 j<P. j^i }jj* 

ti'J^J (J*^ i-ZbjZ c/l *^^*>^ 

^♦Jj ^^-^ &Jij-G ^yo 

One day spake Moses in his secret converse with God, 

" Oh thou all-merciful Lord of the world, 

Open a window of wisdom to my heart, 

Shew me thy justice under its guise of wrong." 

God answered, " While the light of truth is not in thee, 

Thou hast no power to behold the mystery." 

14 On certain Medieval Apologues. [No. 1, 

Then Moses prayed, " O God, give me that light, 

Leave me not exiled far away from truth's beams." 

" Then take thou thy station near yonder fountain, 

And watch there, as from ambush, the counsels of my power." 

Thither went the prophet, and sat him down concealed, 

He drew his foot beneath his garment, and waited what would be. 

Lo from the road there came a horseman, 

Who stopped like the prophet Khizr by the fountain. 

He stripped off his clothes and plunged into the stream, 

He bathed and came in haste from the water. 

He put on his clothes and pursued his journey, 

Wending his way to mansion and gardens ; 

But he left behind on the ground a purse of gold, 

Filled fuller with lucre than a miser's heart. 

And after him a stripling came by the road, 

And his eye, as he passed, fell on the purse; 

He glanced to right and to left, but none was in sight ; 

And he snatched it up and hastened to his home. 

Then again the prophet looked, and lo ! a blind old man 

Who tottered to the fountain, leaning on his staff. 

He stopped by its edge and performed his needful ablutions, 

And pilgrim-like bound on him the sacred robe of prayer. 

Suddenly came up he who had left the purse, 

And left with it his wits and his senses too, 

— Up he came, and, when he found not the purse he sought, 

He hastened to make question of the blind old man. 

The old man answered in rude speech to the questioner, [him. 

And in passion the horseman struck him with his sword and slew 

When the prophet beheld this dreadful scene, 

He cried, " Oh thou whose throne is highest heaven, 

It was one man who stole the purse of gold, 

And another who bears the blow of the sword. 

Why to that the purse and to this the wound ? 

This award, methinks, is wrong in the eye of reason or law," 

Then came the Divine Voice, " Oh thou censurer of my ways, 

Square not these doings of mine with thy rule ? 

That young boy had once a father 

I860.] On certain Mediccval Apologues. 15 

Who worked for hire and so gained his bread ; 

He wrought for that horseman and built him his house, 

Long he wrought in that house for hire, 

But ere he received his due, he fell down and died, 

And in that purse was the hire, which the youth carried away. 

Again, that blind old man in his young days of sight 

Had spilt the blood of his murderer's father ; 

The son by the law of retaliation slays him to-day, 

And gives him release from the price of blood in the day of retri- 
bution !" 

In neither of the foregoing apologues have we been able to trace a 
Rabbinical origin, though there are grounds for believing that both 
originally may have come from a Jewish source ; but in the next 
story, I have lately discovered the original Jewish version, which 
affords a strong presumption that a more careful search might iden- 
tify the others too. The subject in itself may seem of small import, — 
but it is not of .small import to trace the progress of ideas among 
nations ; and each of these apologues has a professed philosophical 
aim. They are not mere fables, whose marvels serve only to excite 
amusement or wonder, — they are myths, like those in Plato, with an 
intended meaning, and they passed current from the thinkers of one 
nation to those of another because they came home to all with a cer- 
tain reality and power of their own. At the same time, if we could 
trace a Jewish origin to all the three, it would be a new and interest- 
ing proof of the wide influence which the mediaeval Jewish mind ex- 
ercised upon its contemporaries, in spite of the contempt and persecu- 
tion which universally strove to keep it down. 

This next apologue is one which, I believe, was given by Voltaire, 
but I have not verified the passage in his works. It has been more 
than once copied from him, as for instance by Lord Byron in the 
notes to one of his poems. 

The Persian version is found in the first book of the Masnavi of 
Jalaluddin Rumi, who died A. D. 1272 (A. H. 671.) To understand 
the story aright, we must remember the oriental notions of Solomon's 
power over the elements and the genii. 

One simple of heart came in the morning 

Running into Solomon's judgment-hall, 

16 On certain Mediceval Apologues. [No. 1, 

His face pale with terror and both his lips blue, 

And Solomon said to him, " friend, what meaneth this ?" 

He answered, " The angel 'Izrail 

Hath just thrown on me a glance full of wrath and hatred." 

" Ask," said the king, "what boon thou desirest." 

" Oh thou refuge of the heart, command the wind 

That it bear me from hence to Hindustan, 

It may be that there I may save my life." 

Then Solomon gave to the wind its mission 

And it bore the man away to Somnath. — 

Thus too thou may'st see men flying from poverty, 

They are swallowed as victims by desire and hope, 

That fear of theirs is but like his in the story, 

And desire and its greed is their Hindustan ! — 

He commanded the wind that forthwith in haste 

It should bear him to Hindustan across the sea. 

The next day at the time of audience 

King Solomon spake unto 'Izrail, 

" Thou looked'st with wrath on a true believer, — 

Tell me wherefore, oh messenger of the Lord. 

'Twas a strange action, methinks, this of thine, 

To frighten him an exile from house and home." 

He answered, " Oh thou King of an unsetting empire, 

His fancy interpreted my action wrong. 

How should I have looked with anger on such as him ? 

I but cast a glance of wonder as I passed him in the road, 

For God had commanded me that very day 

To seize his soul in Hindustan. 

I saw him here and greatly did I marvel, 

And I lost myself in a maze of wonder. 

I said in my heart, Though he had an hundred wings 

He could never fly from hence to Hindustan in a day. 

But when I arrived, as God commanded, 

I found him there before me and took his soul." 

Few Oriental Apologues have a more striking outline than the 
above, rising almost to the moral sublime ; but it is only one of the 
many fine legends and fables which are scattered throughout the 

I860.] On certain Mediaeval Apologues. 17 

Masnavi. It is in fact this simplicity and power which distinguish 
the apologues of Jalaluddin from most of those which we find in 
Jami or Fariduddin 'attar ; — the latter are generally only stories, 
graceful enough in their way, hut seldom striking any deeper chord. 
The legend itself is found in al Beidawi's Commentary on the Koran, 
sur. 31. ; v. 34. ;* and the following, from the Talmud, is undoubtedly 
an earlier and cruder version of the same story. It is immeasurably 
poorer in every respect, but the scene and dramatis persons are iden- 
tical. (See Dr. Lightfoot's Sorts TalmudicoB, vol. ii. p. 428, who 
quotes it from the treatise Succah, fol. 53. 1.) 

" Those two men of Cush that stood before Solomon, Elihoreph 
and Ahijah the scribes, sons of Shausha. On a certain day Solomon 
saw the Angel of death weeping ; he said, "Why weepest thou ? He 
answered, Because these two Cushites entreat me, that they may con- 
tinue here. Solomon delivered them over to the devil, who brought 
them to the borders of Luz ; and when they were come to the borders 
of Luz, they died." 

Dr. Lightfoot adds the following from the ancient Gloss. " He 
calb them Cushitesf [ironically], because they were very beautiful. 
They : entreat me that they may continue here.' For the time of 
their death was now come ; but the angel of death could not take 
their souls away, because it had been decreed, that they should not 
die but at the gates of Luz. Solomon, therefore, delivered them over 
to the devils ; for he reigned over the devils, as it is written, And 
Solomon sat upon the throne of the Lord, for he reigned over those 
things that are above and those things that are below." 

I may mention in conclusion, as a fourth instance (though in a 
somewhat different style), the story of the Santon Barsisa, in 
the Guardian, No. 148. Steele avowedly takes it from the once popu- 
lar "Turkish tales;" but the original is probably to be found in the 
fifth majlis of Sacli, and it is singular that even here we can trace some 
apparent signs of a Jewish source, as the tale opens with the words, 
Laxo^jjl j*lJ &yi ^Alj Jj(^ao| ^jd &X ^J| S^_)| •« They have related 
that among the children of Israel there was a Zahid named BarsisS." 

* I may add that Parncll has taken part of his Hermit from the legem? 
in sur. 18. 

i" Scil. Ethiopians, ov negroes. 

18 Two Letters on Indian Inscriptions. [No. 1. 

Two Letters on Indian Inscriptions. — By Fitz E. Hall, M. A. 

[We have received the following letters from. Mr. Hall, in America ; 
—they were enclosed in a letter, dated Troy, New York, Nov. 17th, 
1859.— Eds.] 

Calcutta, April 22nd, 1859. 

To the Secretary, Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Sir, — My agent in this place has instructions to make over to you, 
in my name, an inscription-stone, now on its way hither from Bena- 
res. This monument I wish to present to the Museum of our Society. 
It was found among the ruins of Patan, a decayed city near Eatgurh 
in the Saugor District. 

The inscription, as you will see, is well-nigh effaced. With some 
distrust, I read the beginning of it as follows : 

faff: I #*RJ UU T$ TfrT^Jl^ref^ *= 31t;t I 
f%farrfwftiT5n^r: ^w^wt^t: i 

c Auspiciousness ! Year of Samvat, 1115 : Thursday, the 8th day of 
the dark fortnight of Phalgima. 

1 May S'ambhu's son — with exudation falling on his cheeks, with 
brilliant tusks, protector of the earth, checker of all darkness, waving 
his ears, adorned with a mace-like proboscis, obdurate as adamant, 
potent in removing mental impediments — protect you !' 

All the rest is abundantly doubtful. Even the little that I have 
decyphered of it may, therefore, admit of correction. According to 
my reading, there was a Brahman in the west, apparently a royal 
personage, by name Kandukadripa, of the Vasala ( ?) gotra and Ud- 
gara anivaya ; and among his ascendants was one Rama. Kanduka- 
dripa's wife was called Savitri ; and this pair had issue two sons, 
Purukarva (Purukarya ?) and Mahodadhi ; and a daughter Lakshmi. 

I860.] Two Letters on Indian Inscriptions. 19 

Another family is afterwards spoken of. There was a Brahman 
named Bhima, of the S'andilya gotra and Udgara aniuaya. He had 
a brother Vasudeva and a sister Lakshmi. Her one Vamana seems 
to have married : but I have failed to ascertain who he was, as like- 
wise the purport of all that ensues of the inscription. 

The year 1115 of the Samvat era corresponds to A. D. 1058. 

To the Secretary, Astatic Society of Bengal. 

Sir, — I have the honor to present to our Society, on behalf of 
Major B. R. W. Ellis, a copper-plate land-grant, dated in the year 
of Vikramaditya answering to A. D. 1097. The donor informs me 
that this record was " discovered, six years ago, by the Jdgirddr of 
Koti, in. removing some ruins in a fort, Baipur, near Sohawal, an an- 
cient city four Icos east from Nagod." 

This grant is the first of the two which I have translated in our Jour- 
nal for last year, (Vol. XXVII. pp. 217, 250). On recent reference to 
the original, I find that, at p. 221, 1. 6 ah infra, I should have read 
^fT^J ^ITT^I- in place of ^^TtfJTftfrrsi-. But the change of sense en- 
tailed by this correction is only very immaterial. In my rendering of a 
passage a little higher up the same page, perhaps it would have been 
preferable to restrict ^TCTTWTq*?f?T to "WW^flT ^o & c ., %T*Rf«T to 
fsrfwo &c, and ^Tf^f«T to TTSWfft* &c. 

Calcutta, Maundy Thursday, 1859. 

j> 2 

20 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir in progress under Captain 
T. G. Moktgomeeib, Bengal Engineers, F. B. G. S. and the Topo- 
graphical Map of the Valley and surrounding Mountains, with chart 
of the Triangulation of the same executed in the Field Office and 
under the Superintendence of Lt. -Colonel A. Scott "VVattgh, F. B. S. 
F. R. G. S. Surveyor General of India, Dehra Dhoon, May 1859. 
Bead at a Meeting of the Asiatic Society on the 6th of July, 1859. 
By Major H. L. Thttillier, F. B. G. S. Deputy Surveyor General 
of India. 

In No. 263 of the Asiatic Journal for 1857 a paper was published 
by Lieutenant (now Captain) Montgomerie of the Bengal Engineers, 
1st Assistant Great Trigonometrical Survey of India on the height 
of the Nanga Parbut and other snowy mountains of the Himalaya 
range adjacent to Kashmir ; and it was therein stated that although 
not equal to Mount Everest (29,002 feet) still the Nanga Par- 
but (26,629 feet) was as much the king of the Northern Hima- 
layas as Mount Everest is the king of the Southern Himalaya. 
I have now the satisfaction, through the kind consideration of my 
friend Colonel Waugh, of laying before the Society, the actual results 
of the progress of this magnificent and unparalleled survey, up to a 
very recent date, and the maps now presented to the view of the 
meeting, together with the few details I am about to read, will prove 
better than anything else, the value and the character of the great 
national work which the Surveyor General of India is now rapidly 
carrying out to completion — a work which I believe will bear a 
comparison with any geographical operation undertaken in any country 
with which we are acquainted. 

As the operations proceed, the labours of the Surveyors are rewarded 
with discoveries which certainly of late years have been but of 
infrequent occurrence, Another stupendous mountain has been mea- 
sured and fixed by Captain Montgomerie, which perhaps is second in 
the world only to the one above alluded to, viz. Mount Everest, as 
measured by Col. "Waugh in 1847. A snowy peak very nearly in 
the ray of Skardo from Sirinagur and distant N. E. about one hun- 
dred and fifty -eight miles from that capital, on the Kara Koram 

I860.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 21 

range, termed for the present K. 2, proves to be 28,278 feet above 
the sea level, which is 122 higher than Kanchinginga, but 724 feet 
lower than Mount Everest. It is impossible to say therefore 
what the exploration of the interesting ground in the Northern 
Himalayas now under survey may bring forth. The project in hand 
of bringing all this difficult and hitherto comparatively unknown 
tract of country under minute and accurate survey is a grand one. 
For the eastern portion already achieved, and represented by maps 
in the form of degree sheets on the quarter inch scale, manuscript speci- 
mens of which are laid on the table, together with one sheet No. 47 
of the engraved Atlas of India, containing a portion of the same 
survey, Colonel Waugh has been rewarded by the Royal Geographical 
Society with their gold medal in 1857 ; and when the whole of the 
Himalayas from British Gurhwal to the Indus is completed, it will 
form a noble memorial of the undaunted skill and energy of the 
officer who planned, and his subordinates who executed it. 

This valuable map and beautiful specimen of Topographical Draw- 
ing now exhibited in manuscript, measuring 4 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. 
embraced between the meridians of 74° to 75° 40' East Longitude and 
the parallels of 33° 20' to 34° 44' North Latitude, has been compiled, 
on the scale oihalf an inch to the mile, from the Field work of the 
Trigonometrical and Topographical parties, under the immediate super- 
intendence of Captain T. G. Montgomerie, Bengal Engineers, 1st Asst. 
G. T. Survey of India. It embraces eight thousand and one hundred 
square miles of country including the lovely valley and surrounding 
mountains of the romantic country of Kashmir, with no less than 
four. thousand six hundred and six villages, depending on three hun- 
dred and fifty-two trigonometrical points, and gives the computed 
positions of the principal towns, mountains, &c. with all the topo- 
graghical details, viz. : the villages, roads, passes, lakes, ridges, slopes 
of mountains, &c. 

This is the original scale on which the survey has been projected, 
a reduction to the usual geographical scale of quarter inch to the 
mile is being likewise made and this will be incorporated into the 
Indian Atlas and engraved like the other sheets. 

The compilation of the Map has been executed by Mr. W. H. Scott, 
the able Chief Draftsman at the Surveyor General's Head Quarters, 

22 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

under the immediate inspection and guidance of Colonel Waugh ; and 
the drawing and printing which will bear close examination is due to Mr. 
Scott and Sheikh Gholam Kadar, native draftsman, the hills in brush 
work (Indian ink) being copied from the original plane table sheets 
or sections executed on the ground by the officers of the Survey. 
The skeleton chart of triangles shews the basis of the work on which 
the topographical map has been compiled, and is interesting as illus- 
trating the rigorous and minute method with which every thing is 
conducted in the Department. 

Captain Montgomerie in his report gives the following description 
of the country under survey. 

"Kashmir is a large valley lying between two snowy spurs of the 
great Himala} r an range drained by the ' Vedasta' or ' Jhelum' river 
which with its tributaries is navigable by large boats for about ninety 
miles. The greatest length of the valley from ridge to ridge measured 
from south-east to north-west, which is also the direction of the 
drainage, is about one hundred and eighteen miles. The flat portion 
is about eighty-nine miles long with an average breadth of sixteen 
and three quarter miles, and elevated about 5,200 feet above the sea. 

" The flat ground consists of an upper, lower and level, the former 
separated from the latter by cliffs of clay, coloured with burnt sienna, 
called ' kharewah' by the Kashmiris and forming a distinguishing 
feature on the map, some 200 to 300 feet in height. 

" The upper or table land is often found standing in isolated 
masses,* but is generally connected with the foot of the hills. Most 
of the upper level was formerly irrigated, but is now generally fallow 
and dry. 

" The lower level is subject to inundation, and indeed the portion 
between the city and great lake, still forms one vast marsh, but 
vaguely separated from the lake itself. 

" The slopes of the hills between the flat ground and the limit of 
forest are a mixture of cultivation, good grazing grounds and forests 
of cedars, pines, firs, &c. ; the forests preponderating. 

" The number of lakes in the valley, and of tarns in the mountains 
form a distinctive feature in Himalayan Geography, as they are but 
rarely met with on the Hindustan side of the Himalayan range." 
* Several miles in length and breadth. 

I860.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 23 

The chief features in the valley are the Lakes which are of world- 
wide celebrity. These overflow the country and give it the marshy 
character so delicately depicted on the map before us. 

The " Great Wulur" lake, the largest in the valley, is about twenty- 
one miles north-west of the city of Sirinagar, the capital. Its extreme 
breadth north and south is ten and a half miles ; this does not include 
the marshes on the south side, and which continue past the parallel 
of the city. The extreme breadth a little north of the Island of 
Lunka is ten miles and the circumference nearly thirty miles. 

During a storm the waters lash themselves into high waves, so 
that no boat will venture on it. The waters find their way out of 
the valley by the Burrumulla pass, dashing in a most fearful torrent 
through the mountains and at last meet the Jhelum river about one 
hundred miles above the town of that name. About half way up 
the mountains surrounding this lake a perfectly level water mark is 
to be seen running along them, which would seem to corroborate the 
belief of the natives that the valley was once a large lake. 

The " Manus Bal" lake is twelve and a half miles from Sirinagur and 
in the same direction as the Wulur lake. Its length is two miles 
east and west, and breadth seven-tenths of a mile. 

The hill of " Aha Tung" 6290 feet, bounds the southern face of 
this lake and is remarkable, owing to its isolated position and abrupt 
rise from the level of the surrounding country of 1000 feet. 

The " Anchar" can scarcely be called a lake, it is caused by the 
waters of the Sind river, overflowing the low ground north of the city. 

The lake immediately east of the city supplied by the Arrah river, 
boasts of the far famed Isle of Chinars (Chinar or Platinus Orientalia 
though considered an exotic thrives luxuriantly in the valley). The 
gardens and groves of poplars, cherries, walnut, peach, apricot, apples 
and mulberries along its bank, add considerably to the beauty of 
this lake. 

All over the valley very interesting ruins are found, some near the 
Island of Lunka are entirely under water, whether these have been 
submerged from the ground sinking or owing to the water rising 
above its original level it is difficult to say. 

The east end of the valley consists entirely of rice-fields. At the 
west part there is little or no cultivation, being very woody. Culti- 

24 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. I, 

vation is carried on in the small valleys that run into the mountains, 
viz. the Daras valley, Teregram, Hurripore and Tevil (near Wurtapore). 
These are the prettiest spots, the east end is scarcely worth a journey 
to see it. 

The Great Wulur Lake is a favorite resort of sportsmen in search 
of rare aquatic birds. The lake also abounds with fish of all sizes 
peculiar to hill waters, the larger kinds being speared or harpooned 
from small boats. 

The river Jhelum is navigable from the city to the great lake, and 
indeed most of the marshes and lakes can be crossed in boats, so that 
sportsmen and travellers in search of the beautiful or romantic can 
be easily gratified. 

Ibex, Bara-singha or Elk, brown and black Bears, Musk-deer and 
Gazelle are found on most of the higher ranges, but it needs a keen 
sportsman both willing and able to endure fatigue and hardship, 
to boast of having shot an Ibex. Many are the thrilling incidents 
of a chase after Ibex, over fearful precipices and slippery glaciers, 
where a single false step would have sealed the fate of the daring 

The grandeur and beauty of Kashmirian scenery cannot be described, 
it must be seen to be fully understood or appreciated. The high 
masses of mountains, many covered with snow, which surround the 
valley on every side, the lakes and streams, the variety and luxu- 
riance of the foliage and the mildness of the climate are together 
not to be met with in any other part of India. 

The town of Kashmir or Sirinagur is quite an Eastern Venice, the 
place being intersected with canals in every direction and the houses 
built out from the water. The lake adjoining, with its pretty little 
island of Chinars, and its numberless floating gardens, is like a mirror 
reflecting the surrounding mountains on its surface, so as quite to 
give the idea when passing over in a boat that one is skimming over 
the peaks and crags in an aerial machine. At the bottom of these 
mountains on the borders of the lake are the famous gardens of 
Shalimar and Nishat. Streams from the mountains, are made to 
run through them, forming Cascades and canals, the Chinar trees 
casting their shade over them and the walks lining the sides. 

The houses in the city of Sirinagur are chiefly of brick-work, built 

I860.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 25 

up in frames of wood. The walls seldom exceed a single brick in thick- 
ness, so that but for the wooden frame work, these habitations would 
not be very safe. Siriuagur, like all Indian cities, is exceedingly dirty, 
and the inhabitants, except the shawl and wool merchants, vie with 
each other in uncleanliness. 

The bridges over the Jhelum, shewn on the map opposite Sirinagur, 
are entirely constructed of logs of wood heaped up cross wise, which 
serve as piers, over which a platform is laid of planks and beams 
roughly nailed or tied together, the spaces between the piles of wood 
being left open and of such width, as to allow of the passage of the 
boats on the river. 

The garden houses and dhurrumsallas in the suburbs of the city 
are chiefly used by visitors. 

"The mountains around Kashmir" Capt. Montgomerie observes, 
" are covered with snow for at least eight months in the year, many 
being from 15,000 to nearly 18,000 feet above the sea, include large 
glaciers between their spurs, and retain the snow throughout the year. 

The chief peculiarities of the survey operations arise from this 
great elevation. Special arrangements were required for the protection 
of the natives and for the necessary supplies of food and wood, when 
the surveyors were working far above villages and even above the 
forest itself. 

" The triangulation depends upon the Kashmir Series of the 
Great Trigonometrical Survey, which emanates from a side of the 
North-West Longitudinal Series in low hills near Sealkote. 

" In order to connect the triangulation in the Punjab with Kashmir, 
it was necessary to carry it across the Chatadhar and Pir Punjal 
snowy ridges. This was done by taking observations from the tops 
of the snowy peaks best adapted to form a series of symmetrical 
polygons and quadrilaterals. In this way the triangulation has been 
carried on systematically from the foundation. It consists of one 
main axis, viz. the principal triangulation, which is composed of 
polygons and quadrilaterals. From this axis, diverge numerous minor 
Series of triangles, which starting from one side of the principal 
Series are tested by closing on another side of the same, or upon a 
side of the North-west Himalaya Series. 


26 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

" From these minor series, secondary stations have been fixed, so as 
to cover the whole country with tested trigonometrical points. 

" Though the country to be surveyed was so elevated, the rigorous 
rules of the G. T. Survey of India were adhered to throughout. 

" The highest points suited to the triangulation were always 
occupied and observations were taken from stations upwards of 16,000 
feet above the sea. 

" On the principal series of triangles the observations were invari- 
ably made to luminous signals, viz. Heliotropes and Reverberatory 
lamps on the Argand principle with parabolic reflectors, notwithstand- 
ing the physical difficulties and the severity of the climate on the 
snowy peaks, so especially trying to the natives of India who served 
the signals. 

" Numerous observations being required, it was necessary to reside 
on the peaks for at least two days and nights, generally more. 

" Some of the peaks below 14,000 feet lose the greater part of 
their snow by September, but practically it was necessary to observe 
most of the stations earlier in the season, when the snow was still 
heavy at 11,000 feet, and occasionally in consequence of clouds and 
storms, the party had to remain pitched on the snow for upwards of a 
week at a time." 

Colonel Waugh thus speaks on this point : — 

" The physical difficulties imposed by the nature of the country 
and survey arising from the necessity of ascending and encamping 
on snowy mountains of great elevation were very great. The cha- 
racter of a Trigonometrical survey demands that the stations shall 
be fixed on the highest summits, or on points commanding extensive 
views and the system of the department, requires that an adequate 
number of good observations shall be taken, which usually occupies 
several days. To accomplish this task, not only the observers, but 
the signal men (natives) must encamp at or near the stations. The 
heights of the snowy peaks, ascertained on the Punjal range were 
« Moolee' 14,952 G-. T. Survey and Ahertatopa 13,042 G. T. Survey 
and to the north of Kashmir Hara Mook 16,015 feet. Amongst the 
highest elevations visited in Thibet were the principal stations of 
Shimshak 18,417 and Shunika 18,224 feet. The difficulty of obtain- 
ing supplies and firewood at such elevations may be imagined, yet 

I860.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 27 

they were every-day occurrences. Out of sixteen principal stations 
in Thibet fourteen exceed 15,000 feet in height. Great as the hard- 
ships entailed on the European officers undoubtedly were, they were 
slight compared with those endured by the native establishment, 
with the utmost cheerfulness. The signallers and headmen were 
mostly natives of Hindustan to whom extreme cold is a condition of 
positive suffering, yet these men were loyal and contented as they 
have been in all survey parties over India during the mutiny." 

Capt. Montgomerie states " On the Pir Punjal peaks the electricity 
was so troublesome even when there was no storm, that it was found 
necessaiy to carry a portable lightning conductor for the protection 
of the Theodolite. 

" Space sufficient even for the very small camp could never be got 
quite close to the stations on the peaks. During the day this did 
not matter, but at night, though the distance might not be more 
than two hundred yards, it was rather a difficult matter to get back 
from the Observatory tent after the Surveyor had finished taking 
observations to the lamps. Soon after sunset, the surface of the 
snow becomes as slippery as glass, affording by no means a satis- 
factory footing on a narrow ridge with either a precipitous slope, or 
a precipice on either side. 

" The country was found too difficult to admit of the transport of 
a twenty-four inch theodolite without great delay and expense. Capt. 
Montgomerie was therefore directed to take the principal observa- 
tions with a fourteen-incli theodolite, a first rate instrument made by 
Troughton and Simms which gave every satisfaction. 

" On the Secondary Series or Minor Triangulation, the ground cover- 
ed by which is shewn by shade on the chart, twelve, eight and seven- 
inch Theodolites were used, according to circumstances. 

" By means of the principal and secondary triangulations the whole 
country was covered with Trigonometrical points at an average dis- 
tance of little more than four miles from each other." 

During the first two seasons of the Kashmir Series, no less than six- 
teenthousand square miles of close triangulation have been executed, i. e. 
an area of more than half of Scotland has been covered with trigo- 
nometrical points and thirty-two thousand square miles of topogra- 
phical drawing were sent in, giving all the details of the country. 

E 2 

28 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

Besides these, numerous valuable sketches, routes, heights of passes, 
&c. have been added to the survey. 

The numerous observations taken to the great Snowy mountain 
" Nanga Parbtit" or " Dayarmur" in latitude 35° 14' 21" and longi- 
tude 74° 37' 52" prove that its mean height is 26,629 feet above the 
sea. No peak within sixty miles on any side of the general map of 
the Nanga Parbut comes within 9,000 feet of the same height. This 
pinnacle of the Himalayas is the highest point in the range between 
Nepal and Attock. In consequence of its isolation from all peaks 
of anything like an equal altitude, it naturally forms a noble object 
in whatever aspect it is viewed. 

" The topographical detail was all sketched in the field on Plane 
Tables, according to the system laid down in Colonel Waugh's pamphlet 
of instructions on Topographical Surveying, an arduous task in such 
an elevated country, as it was of course necessary to visit numerous 
peaks and places on the ridge, in addition to the Trigonometrical 
stations which include the highest peak in the Pir Punjab 

" The drawing of the Pield Sections expresses the ground well, 
that of Captains P. Lumsden, Bengal Army and Godwin Austen, 
H. M. Army being more specially artistic. 

" The advantage of this system in a country like India, especially 
in the hilly and mountainous tracts, is that officers with a moderate 
previous knowledge of military drawing, can be readily trained to 
fill up the triangles and the work proceeds rapidly, producing a com- 
plete and valuable map with the topographical features accurately 
delineated at small expense." 

But the difficulty of sketching ground of such a character may be 
imagined. To do so with any degree of faithfulness requires a pecu- 
liar talent, and is a gift as much as copying the human face. Steven- 
son, the Civil Engineer, in his evidence before Parliament on the 
Ordnance Survey of England stated his belief, that there were not 
above eight persons in England who understood how to pourtray 
ground. If difficult therefore in England, it must be still more so 
where the relative commands are so immense. 

Colonel Waugh proceeds to observe — 

" In consequence of the difficulty in obtaining Topographical Assis- 
tants Officers of the Quarter Master General's Department were at 

1S60.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 29 

first employed on the topograph)', but they were soon called away by 
the demands of their own department ; consequently a fresh set bad 
to be trained, involving delay and expense, which would have been 
avoided, if the same assistants could have been employed throughout. 

"Lieut. Basevi of the Engineers made a very careful reconnoissance 
of many of the passes on the Pir Punjal, determined their heights, 
and drew up an able report of their capabilities ; he also sketched a 
portion of the ground near the ridge, and subsequently reported on 
the river Vedusta or Jhelum. Lieutenant Basevi is a most energetic 
talented and able officer and did excellent service, as also did Mr. 
Bell, who is an able Surveyor. 

" Captains P. Lumsden, Allgood, and Johnson, took up their work 
con amore, quickly acquired the requisite knowledge of the system, 
and their zeal in this arduous and harassing work deserves high 
praise. They completed three thousand and two hundred square 
miles on the half inch scale, and the Surveyor General having person- 
ally examined their plans, speaks in the highest terms of the same. 

" Captain Godwin Austen exhibited special talent for the delineation 
of ground, and Lieut. Melville's work was very good. Both of these 
officers proved themselves indefatigable mountaineers and have alto- 
gether exhibited so much zeal as to be deserving of high commend- 
ation. Lieut. Murray also did good service, and proved himself a 
useful Surveyor. 

" The success attending this season's work, the admirable manner in 
which Captain Austen and Lieuts. Melville and Murray acquitted 
themselves, induced the Surveyor General to apply to Government for 
five additional qualified officers, to which sanction was accorded by 
Government, but he has not been yet able to find any suitable persons. 
A great deal of floating talent does exist in the arm}', and qualified 
young officers are frequently to be met with, but the military oper- 
ations consequent on the mutiny have absorbed most of the valuable 
officers and rendered selection difficult. 

" Lieut. Elliot Brownlow of Engineers, an officer of the highest 
promise and beloved by all his contemporaries, volunteered for service 
and joined at Delbi, in eight days from Kashmir, though too late for 
the assault ; he then proceeded to Agra and Lucknow with the Engi- 
neer's Brigade, and was most lamentably killed at Lucknow after the 

30 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [Xo. 1, 

siege by an explosion of gunpowder. The mountain survey thus lost 
a most energetic and valuable member, unrivalled in physical power, 
endurance and cheerfulness under fatigue, whilst the Engineer Corps 
lost a talented and amiable officer. 

" Poor Elliot Brownlow's adventures and achievements in the snowy 
mountains and his hardihood and endurance have been the theme 
of much praise and admiration amongst his brother Surveyors. He 
had intended to devote his rare and splendid qualities as a mountain 
surveyor, had he survived, to the exploration of Central Asia on rigor- 
ous principles. 

" The merits of the various assistants have been duly reported on. 
By means of their zealous co-operation alone, was the Surveyor able 
to finish this difficult piece of work. Though they have had much 
to contend with in such a country, besides the extremes of heat and 
cold, their exertions have been most praiseworthy. 

" The native establishment has from the commencement consisted 
of a mixture of men from the plains and from the hills. They were 
all not a little troubled by the impossibility of boiling or rather 
softening their rice, dal, &c. at such high elevations. Notwith- 
standing that, and the general severity of the climate, they have at 
all times done their work carefully and efficiently. 

" There were many difficulties peculiar to surveying in a partially 
independent state. The natives of the country moreover had preju- 
dices against going up some of the high hills ; but the clouds, mist 
and haze were always by far the worst enemies of the Surveyors. 

" During the last year the party were troubled first by cholera and 
secondly by a flood. The former had stuck to the valley strange to say 
throughout the winter when the snow was up to a man's neck. The 
camp did not suffer much as it was taken up to the high Table Land. 
During the flood they had to take to the boats ; about thirty miles by 
ten to fifteen were submerged. 

" In the after part of the season the triangulation of Little Thibet 
was finished and a good piece of Ladak, all on the other side of the 
Himalayas, where the rains did not interfere so much, though the 
clouds were troublesome. 

"The Latitude and Longitude of Skardo have been obtained, but, 
Leh, has not been laid down yet, though two peaks in its neighbourhood 

1S60.] Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. 31 

have been fixed. It is supposed Leh will prove considerably to the 
west of the old position. 

" The triangulation was commenced in 1855, and finished in 1856, 
with, on an average, three Assistants each year. 

"The topographical work was taken up in 1856 and completed in 
1857 with on an average, four Assistants each year." 

The cost of the entire survey has been only Us. 4-5-2 per square 
mile, or say about 8 shillings and 8 pence, a sum believed to be trifling 
in comparison with the immense advantage gained, and exceedingly 
moderate when contrasted with similar or easier work in other 

The able and successful manner in which Captain Montgomerie 
with the aid of this small party during his first season accomplished 
the arduous task allotted to him has been described in full in a previ- 
ous printed Report of the Survey Operations for 1855-56, and the 
meritorious services of the Captain and his party obtained the acknow- 
ledgments of the Right Hon'ble the Governor General in Council. 
The Surveyor General of India bears his professional testimony to 
the fact that the measure of success attained is highly honorable to 
Captain Montgomerie and all members of the party engaged in the 
work. Colonel Waugh thus expresses himself; " Considering the stu- 
pendous physical difficulties presented by the nature of the country 
to regular and systematic surveying, the quantity and quality of the 
work performed, the ability displayed in command of an unusually 
large party, the quantity of instructions which had to be imparted to 
so many new hands, the judicious character of his general arrange- 
ments combined with minute attention to the smallest details, as well 
as the prudent policy of his relations with the Maharajah and the 
people of the country — all the above marks Captain Montogomerie 
as an officer of no ordinary stamp." The exertions of the party are, 
in the Surveyor General's opinion, well deserving of commendation 
and he particularly solicits that the thanks of the Government may 
be accorded to Captain Montgomerie, and that the services of Mr, 
Johnson who has been with the party from the commencement may 
be noticed favorably as well as those of Messrs. G. ShelvtTton, AY. 
Beverley and Mr. W. H. Scott, the able Chief Draftsman of the 
Field Office in connection with the compilation of the map. 

32 Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [Xo. 1, 

But neither the physical character of the country nor the constant 
task of training new hands formed the chief difficulty of a Survey 
conducted in a foreign territory, and which at no time could be 
expected to he agreeable to the ruler, his officials and people. To 
them the influx of a considerable body of Surveyors spread over the 
country, however orderly and well-conducted, must bear the aspect of 
an intrusion. The tact, delicacy and ability with which Capt. Mont- 
gomerie maintained amicable relations with the Court, a most difficult 
one to deal with, and preserved discipline in a large mixed establish- 
ment, is deserving of the highest praise, and stamps him as an officer 
of great policy and judgment. 

" His difficulties were much enhanced by the military rebellion of 
1857, during the whole of which excited period the party continued 
its peaceful labours without cessation and with only one serious 

" With the old Maharajah Golab Singh, Capt. Montgomerie was on 
the most friendly terms and the estimation in which he is held by 
Maharajah Rumbeer Singh, can best be estimated from the acknow- 
ledgments which his Highness made to the Captain in Durbar, on 
the resumption of operations in 1859. Without such tact and conci- 
liation, it would have been impossible to carry out the complete and 
final survey successfully." 

Although the splendid climate of Kashmir added to the special 
interest attaching to the country, and the unexplored tracts adjoining, 
made the Survey deservedly a great attraction, still the exposure of 
surveying in such a country is very trying to the constitution and 
many persons suffered greatly. The lower valleys are very hot, and 
the solar radiation on hill sides is very powerful. The labor of climb- 
ing to great elevations has often been noticed by explorers. The 
Surveyor however arriving heated by physical exertion at great 
elevations has to stand on ridges or peaks exposed to strong cold 
winds while he is observing angles or sketching the ground. The 
alternations of heat and cold and the laborious exertion limits success 
to those persons who to the requisite professional qualifications can 
add the physical constitution to stand the hardships which the work 
imposes. It is very doubtful in the opinion of the Surveyor General 
whether the ability to undergo the requisite amount of fatigue and 

I860.] Memorandum on the Sarvuy of Kashmir. 33 

exposure which mountain surveys entail can be reckoned on for a long 
continuance, and he apprehends that, except in rare instances, a fre- 
quent succession of well-trained young men would be necessary in 
extensive mountain surveys. 

This map is a first instalment of this survey. The whole mountain 
tract south of Kashmir Proper has been completely Triangulated and 
Topographically surveyed, and the map thereof is now in course of 
construction. Altogether the area already surveyed amounts to twenty- 
two thousand square miles in three years, and forty thousand square 
miles of Triangulation, including all little Thibet, in four years, the chief 
merit of which achievement is due deservedly to Captain Montgomerie. 
The Surveyor General has requested that this may be submitted for 
the opinion of the Council of the Royal Geographical Society together 
with the chart of the Triangulation on which it is based, as a work 
of accurate geography in a region hitherto imperfectly explored, and 
it is hoped that it may obtain for Captain Montogomerie some 
mark of the approbation of that learned body. 

The Surveyor General hopes next year to complete the maps of the 
remaining Sub-Himalayan portion now in hand by the completion of 
which the entire tract of Mountain Frontier from the Ganges to the 
Cabul Territory will have been finished under his superintendence, 
and rendered available for incorporation into the Indian Atlas. 

The party under Captain Montgomerie is now engaged in Thibet. 
The country is exceedingly difficult and the strength of the party 
much diminished. In the progress of the survey advantage has been 
taken of the opportunity to extend accurate geographical knowledge 
by fixing numerous peaks in the Karakoram and Mustag ranges. One 
of those already determined on the Karakoram range, along which 
runs the boundary between Ladakh and Yarkund, one hundred and 
fifty-eight miles N. E. of Srinagar, is 28,27S feet high (provisionally 
settled only, being liable to a small correction when the levelling 
operations from the sea level at Karachi, now in progress, are com- 
pleted). None of the peaks in the neighbourhood of K 2 come nearly 
up to it though there is one fine group about sixteen miles away that 
is generally a little over twenty-six thousand. This is probably the 
second highest mountain in the world, as it exceeds Kauehinginga by 


3^ Memorandum on the Survey of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

122 feet, but is lower than Mount Everest by 724 feet, as measured 
by the Surveyor General in 1847. 

It is expected that Captain Montgomerie will be able to fix points 
up to 36° 30' N. latitude, but it is doubted whether he will be able 
to get in all the Topography quite so far as that, in consequence of 
the wild and Yaghi state of some of the people. 

It has been specially recommended that the map of Kashmir be 
engraved or at least lithographed in England as soon as possible, in 
order that its results may be rendered speedily available for geological 
purposes as well as useful to public officers, travellers and the public 

The panoramic sketch exhibited, taken by Captain Montgomerie, 
which is a fair specimen of Calcutta Lithography, will give some idea 
of the peaks, if the observer supposes himself to be in any way near 
the Takt-i-sulfman close to the city. The sketch begins on the left 
about south-east and goes round nearly to north-west. 

The first long low bit without snow, starting from the left, is where 
the Bamhal road crosses. About 13 T ^ inches from the left the peak 
looking over the Peer is one of the principal stations, by means of 
which the triangulation was brought over the Pir Panjal range. At 
about eighteen inches come in the craggy Koserin Kiitur peaks 
described as the three Bs. 

The Pir Punjal pass is not visible, it is believed the range is about 
twenty-seven inches from the left. The highest peak of all is, Tattakuti 
with a very steep precipice to its right, it is about thirty-two inches 
from the left. The Baramoula gap is three inches from the right. 
If the sketch is held over the map the connection will be seen and 
the cliffs will be made out, coloured burnt sienna on the map, that 
separate the lower from the upper level ground. 

During the present season the snow is very low down and the work 
is nearly all in high ground, which is very inconvenient. It may be 
difficult for a Calcutta resident to imagine snow inconvenient, but 
campaigning on the top of it soon undeceives one. 

The party has now gone into Ladakh and hope to fix Leh and 
some places beyond. The small index plan shews roughly the extent 
of country embraced by the trigonometrical and topographical oper- 
ations in the Himalayas tinted yellow up to the parallel of 36° N. 

1SG0.] The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. 35 

latitude. The Punjab Proper tinted pink having been completed by 
the Revenue Survey operations, the upper portion of the Derajat alone 

The above information is chiefly taken from the reports of Colonel 
Waugh, Surveyor General of India and Captain Montgomerie, I am 
also indebted for assistance to Mr. J. 0. N. James, Chief Draftsman 
of the Surveyor General's Office, who has for some years been 
employed in the survey of the adjoining districts. 

The Cartilaginous Wishes of Lower Bengal. — By Edward Blytb:. 

The following does not profess to be a complete catalogue of the 
cartilaginous fishes that inhabit the embouchure of the Ganges, but 
merely of those which I have personally obtained in the fresh state, 
chiefly in the Calcutta fish-bazars ; and having lately had occasion to 
look them over, and paid some attention to the group, it may be 
useful to give an enumeration of the species observed, especially as 
in the genus Trygon it appears that several permanently distinct 
races or species have been confounded under Tr. uaenak, (Forskal). 

The cartilaginous fishes which I have obtained in Calcutta are as 
follow : — 

1. Stegostoma fasciatum, Milder and Henle : uniformly spotted 
variety, figured and described as St. carinatum in J. A. 8. XVI, 725. 
One specimen only, procured at the Sandheads. Another, like it, is in 
the museum of the Calcutta Medical College. 

2. Sqttaltjs (Scoliodon) xaticaudus, M. and H. A small 
species, occasionally brought to the bazar. I have not seen it more 
than l-§ ft. in length. 

3. Sq. (Cakcharintts) Milberti, (? Val.). One specimen 
obtained, 2\ ft. long. A skull from the Bay, of an individual probably 
about 7 ft. long, has the largest upper teeth measuring | in. and 
upwards along their lateral margins : other teeth, of apparently the 
same species, from the Indian Ocean, have a lateral margin of 1-f in., 
and extreme breadth at base of If in. ;* they more nearly resemble the 

* Even these are small, however, in comparison with the huge fossil teeth of 
the Caechaeias megalodon and others figured by Agassiz, and those by Dr. 
Gibbes in the ' Journal of tho Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' 
for July, 1848. 

F 2 

36 The Cartilaginous lushes of Loicer Bengal. [No. 1, 

teeth of Sq. lamia, 'as figured by Muller and Henle ; but the fins differ 
much from those ofSQ. lamia, the pectorals being of moderate size 
and remarkably falcate : tail and posterior fins conspicuously black-mar- 
gined. Sq. Milbeeti is noted from India in Dr. Gray's British 
Museum catalogue; and tbe present is perhaps Dr. Gray's Indian 
species, though probably distinct from Sq. Milbeeti (verus). 

4. Sq. (C.) gangeticus, (M. and H.) In Muller and Henle's 
outline of the lower surface of the head, drawn evidently from a dry 
specimen, the distance from muzzle to mouth is not sufficiently great. 
I have not known this species to exceed 7 ft. in length, but have seen 
many of that size. 

5. Sq. (C.) Temmikceii, (M. and H.) Very common; but 
rarely exceeding 5 ft. long, so far as I have observed. 

6. Sq. (C.) melanopteetts, (Quoy and Gaymard). Not common : 
small individuals (under 3 ft.) occasionally brought, but we have the 
teeth of one which must have been at least 6 or 7 ft. 

7. Sphyenias Blochii, (Val.) : Zygcena laticeps, Cantor, passim. 
Common. The largest specimens rarely exceed 4 ft. in length. 

8. Galeoceedo tigeintjs, M. and H. One large specimen, 
obtained towards the mouth of the river. Length 11 ft. 

9. Peistis antiqtjoeum, Latham. Small individuals are not 
unfrequeatly brought to the bazar. We have a snout or rostrum in 
the museum 5 ft. in length and 11 in. broad at the hindmost teeth. 

10. Pr. pectinatus, Latham. Much commoner than the other. 
A mutilated specimen and portion of the snout of a larger one were 
sent to the museum from Asam (!) some years ago by Col. Jenkins. 

11. Ehinobatus GBANTJLATTJS, Cuv. Now and then brought; 
sometimes from 6 to 7 ft. in length.* 

* Col. Jenkins heard much of a ' snow fish' of great rarity, the skin of which 
is prized as a medicine by the people of Asam. It is said by them to inhabit 
the snows of the Butan mountains ! Sending me some fragments of the skin for 
examination, there was no difficulty in recognising the Rhinobatus gbanu- 
iatus : probably procured towards the sea ; but as Peistis pectinatus and 
Hypolobhus sephen ascend many hundred miles up the great rivers, perhaps 
the Ehinobatus does so likewise. 

In J. A. S. XIII, 176, the then Lieut. J. T. Cunningham, in his ' General 
account of Kunawar,' remarks that " the mysterious Qangball, or ' snow fish,' 

I860.] The Cartilarjinoics Fishes of Lower Bengal. 37 

12. En. obtusus, M. and H. Comparatively rare. I have not 
seen it more than 1\ ft. long. 

13. Dasyatis microtjra, (Bloch); JRaia pcecilura, Shaw. Eare. 

14. HYPOiiOPnns semen, (Forsk.) : Baia saneur, B. H. (founded 
on mutilated individuals, the caudal spine of which had been extract- 
ed). Common. 

15. Aetobatis flagelltjm, (Bloch.). Of this fine species I 
lately obtained a small specimen, with tail and spines complete, and 
another and larger specimen with mutilated tail. Small dried fish of 
this species are sometimes brought in considerable quantity. 

N. B. — The Myliobatis macropterns of McClelland (Cede. Joum. 
Wat. Hist. I, 60, and pi. II, f. 1.) has never occurred to me. Drs. 
Cantor and Bleeker refer it to Aetobatis narinabi. 

The Trygons or ordinary ' Sting-rays' are here deferred to the last, 
because the species of them do not appear to have been properly dis- 
criminated. All that I have obtained have the tail wholly finless, or 
with merely such rudiment as in Tr. ihbricatus. 

The Indian species fall into two principal groups, which might well 
stand as distinct genera. 

In the first the dorsal surface and tail are sprinkled over through- 
out with detached limpet-shaped tubercles, and there is usually 
no large globular central tubercle (or tubercles, as generally in the 
others and also in Hypolophus sephen).* Anterior margin of the 
disk exceedingly obtuse, the expanded pectorals being continued 
forward almost to a transverse line with the medial peak where they 

with four short legs and a human face, may be in fact, as in description, a fabled 
animal ; but it is talked of, and is said to dwell only about the limits of the snow." 
What is here referred to are probably certain sand-burrowing Lizards of Af- 
ghanistan, which in the dried state are sold as medicine all over India. One 
is the true Egyptian Scinque, Scincus officinalis, Laurenti. Another sent by 
the same name by Major Lumsden, late in charge of the Kandahar Mission, is the 
Sph^nocephalus tridactylus, nobis, J. A. S. XX, G51. Both were obtained 
in the vicinity of Kandahar. 

* Since the above was written, I have seen an example of Tk. MAKGINATTTS 
in the museum of the Calcutta Medical College, winch has a central tubercle of 
moderate size followed by a small one. This, I suspect, is very unusual. 

38 The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. [No. 1, 

unite, on either side of which the outline describes merely a slight 

16. TETGOisr marginattjs, nobis, n. s. Grey above, buffy- white 
below with a dark border except in front ; the tail If- the length of 
the disk. A large species, adults of which are mostly quartered when 
brought to the bazar, and then more or less sliced up by the dealers, 
so that it is difficult to examine them properly. Breadth of one 
52 in., with tail 83 in.: distance of eyes apart 7 in.f Form a trifle 
longer than broad, or shorter than broad if the length be measured 
from front to base of tail. In adults the small limpet-shaped tuber- 
cles are disposed not only over the entire upper surface, but also on 
the broad dark margin of the lower-parts (from which the species 
derives its trivial name) : they are larger and more closely set along 
the middle, though for the most part not in absolute contact, and are 
gradually smaller and less crowded laterally, but again become more 
crowded towards the margin ; and there is commonly an irregular 
range of pointed tubercles larger than the rest on either side, about 
3 in. from the median line in adults. Tail tuberculated all round to 
within 2\ in. of its base underneath, and having scattered and pointed 
tubercles much larger than the rest above, from its base to the large 
caudal spine. The colour of this fish is a light albescent-brown 
above, with still a faint blackish wash ; white, with more or less of a 
buffy tinge, below, and a broad dark margin to the lower-parts except 
in front, but including the ventrals, this border consisting of numerous 
large round spots on its inner edge, some wholly and others partially 
detached from the rest ; a few irregular spots are also generally 
scattered upon the pectorals. The under-surface of the tail is white, 
with similar scattered dark spots, which gradually become more 
numerous and coalescent till they assume a marbled appearance, and 
the apical half of the tail is wholly dark. This dark colour is more 
intense in the young, approaching more or less to black : whereas in 

* I presume this form to be characteristic of the division. In the Medical 
College specimen the peak is stretched out of all shape. However, in a very large 
example just added to the museum, the narrow medial peak projected more than 
in the young. 

f A large specimen has just been presented to the Society, fresh, by Raja 
Radakhant Deb, 5 ft. across ; tail imperfect. 

I860.] TJie Cartilaginous FisJies of Lower Bengal. 39 

adults it is weaker and more greyish, and in them it is also rough, 
ened with minute limpet-shaped tubercles ; these appear again about 
the gill-openings, and more sparingly medially, and a few are scattered 
over the entire lower surface, which are more readily detected by the 
feel than by the sight in the fresh specimen. From between the 
eyes to the sides of the tail, and traceable along two-thirds of that 
organ, are a couple of series of vermiculated lines ; and there is a 
double series of the same along the middle of the back. In a young 
female, measuring 18 in. to base of tail, with greatest breadth of disk 
20 J in., and tail 29 in., the tubercles generally are less crowded than 
in the adult, especially on the tail, where there is little indication of 
their future development. Although the caudal spine had been 
broken away in every specimen examined, yet from the groove which 
it occupied, that of an adult is shewn to be 1\ in. long.* It is by 
no means a rare species, though seldom to be obtained perfect in the 

Te. ateocissimus, nobis, n. s. We have in the museum a portion 
of the tail, above 4 ft. in length, of an enormous Trygon, which is 
evidently a second species of this particular sub-group. The site of 
the caudal spine is conspicuous as usual, indicating a much stouter 
hut not so long a weapon as that of Te. maeginattts. The limpet- 
shaped tubercles are very much larger and fewer in number than in the 
other, each being much expanded at base and abruptly rising to a sharp 
point in the centre ; they are of different sizes intermixed, and here and 
there two or more of them are blended at base, and the tail appears to 
be naturally much compressed. Below the spine, it is naked under- 
neath along the middle, and beyond the spine this medial portion of 
the tail underneath is studded with small tubercles. Where broken 
off, at a distance of 4 ft. from the spine, it seems to expand vertical]}-, 
being there twice as deep as broad. It is a truly frightful and most 

* The Medical College specimen has a perfect caudal spine. It ia larger than 
the young example above described, with tail about 40 in., and spine 2| in. ; 
some small sharp tubercles around the base of the latter. The dorsal tubercles 
are smaller than in the other ; those on the base of the tail more crowded, Sex 
male, that of the other female. The marginal band of the lower surface is repre- 
sented only by a few distantly scattered spots. 

40 Tlie Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. [No. 1, 

formidable weapon. Habitat of the species unknown, but probably 
the Indian Ocean. 

The ordinary Trygons are of a more rbomboidal shape, with close- 
set flattened tubercles on the dorsal surface, occupying its medial 
third only or less (according to the species), and the lateral border 
of this tuberculated space is abruptly denned in adults. They have 
generally one or more large globular bony tubercles in the centre of 
the dorsal surface. 

Some have two spines on a comparatively short tail, as — ■ 

17. Te. imbeicattts, (Bloch), to which I doubt if Eussell's fig. 
IV correctly applies, and upon this is founded JPastinaca dorsalis, 
Swainson. Russell's figure more probably represents the Te. 
immunis, Raffles (Zool. App. to Life of Sir S. Raffles) •* and other 
double-spined species (also with comparatively short tail) exist in 
the Te. lymna figured by Riippell, and Te. akojtt and Te. exhlii 
figured by Miiller and Henle. As Buchanan Hamilton approximates 
his JRaia fluviatilis to H. tymnet, though referring merely to " the 
spine on its tail," I think it likely that the present species is intended 
by him, especially as it is so very abundant. They are not unfre- 
quently brought to the bazar with one spine only torn away by the 
fishermen ; but this small species is commonly brought with both 
caudal spines complete. The males are larger than the females, and 
have proportionally longer tail; and very commonly the second 
caudal spine of the female more especially does not extend beyond 
the first one. I have not seen the male larger than 7f in. to base 
of tail, the tail 13 in., and caudal spines 2| in. Some have a small 
lanceolated tubercle on centre of dorsal surface, others two or more 
even to a series of five or six along the median line. This species is 
so very often brought in pairs to the bazar, a male and a female, that 
I cannot help suspecting that it lives in pairs, the two being com- 
monly taken together. 

Another type has an equally short tail, armed with one spine only, 
and no dorsal tubercles whatever. To this appertains — ■ 

18. Te. walga, M. and H. : probably IV. sindraki, Cuv., and 

* " Tr. corpore subquadrato, omnino kevi, Cauda longiore, spinis duabis serra- 
tis citra medium avmata." 

I860.] The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. 41 

Pastinaca hrevicauda, Swainson, founded on Russell's fig. V ; but in 
this figure the tail is represented as being still shorter than in Tr. 
walga. The larger of two specimens (a female) measures 3^ in. 
to base of tail, the tail 6 in. ; the latter being broad at the base, and 
very rapidly attenuating from base of spine, which last is 1\ in. long. 
These specimens have much the appearance of being the young of 
some considerably larger species ; but the shortness of the tail separates 
it from any of the following.* 

The remainder have exceedingly long tails, from three to four times 
the length of the head and body. All have at least one large bony 
tubercle in the centre of the dorsal surface. At least five species are 
brought more or less commonly to the Calcutta fish-bazars, which 
are easily distinguished at any age, though supposed by Dr. Cantor 
and others to be merely varieties, or characteristic of different ages, 
of Tr. uarnak, (Forsk.) 

19. Tr. Bleekeki, nobis, n. s. A large species, plain dark brown 
above and below with a narrowish white median patch on belly. 
Peak, or anterior junction of pectorals, considerably more prolonged 
and pointed than in the others. Medial third of dorsal surface 
studded with intermixed larger and smaller round flat tubercles, con- 
tinued along the upper surface of the tail as far as the caudal spines, 
then thickly covering the whole tail to its extremity in adults, or 
with a naked line below in specimens more than half-grown. Along 
the median line of the tail above, the tubercles are not larger than 
the rest. The usual large round tubercle on centre of back, and 
commonly three smaller, set in form of a triangle, before it and three 
similar behind it. In all that I have seen the caudal spine had been 
broken or entirely torn out by the fishermen. Length of one 25 in. 
to base of tail, the tail 72 in. ; of another 15 and 56 in. 

20. Tr. Ellioti, nobis, n. s. Pale greyish olive-brown above and 
white below : the united pectorals not more prolonged in front than in 
Tr. tjarnak. Size of last ; at least I have obtained one tail 6 ft. in 
length, but the fish was cut into small slices. A young individual 
8| in. long to base of tail, 9£ in. broad, with tail 29 in., has a central 

* Dr. Bleeker gives the breadth of fivo specimens (four of them females) as 
140 to 190 mill. 

42 The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. [No. 1, 

dorsal tubercle and another behind it, surrounding which is a group 
of small tubercles that might be covered by a crown-piece, except 
anteriorly where a few are scattered along the dorsal line and between 
the eyes, — the rest, including the tail, being wholly naked. A slight 
marbled appearance on the tail beyond the spine, but no distinct 
alternating bands. Another, only 10 in. to base of tail, has the 
dorsal tubercles fully developed, and a band of them upon the tail 
not reaching so far as the caudal spine. In a specimen 13 in. long, 
the tail measures 47 in. ; and the tubercles on the tail (now that it 
is dry and shrunk) appear to extend two-thirds round its base anterior 
to the spine ; but in the tail of 6 ft. long before noticed, the upper 
half only is tuberculated anterior to the spine. The usual central 
dorsal tubercle, with commonly one smaller before and another behind 
it ; and the small tubercles, which extend over the medial third of 
the dorsal surface (as also in Te. Bleekeei), are more uniform in 
size than in the other species. In one specimen of a tail, which I 
assign to this particular species with some hesitation, there are two 
sharp erect prickles in the median line towards its base, and others 
beyond the spine. A commoner species than the last. 

21. Tr. Russellii, Gray ; young figured in Hardwicke's III. 
2nd. Zool. : Tr. Gerrardii, Gray, Brit. Mus. Catal., still younger. 
A beautiful species, covered above with large round dark spots, a few of 
which are generally confluent : tail banded throughout. Anterior 
peak more acute than in Tr. Ellioti, less so than in Tr. Bleekeei. 
In large specimens (3 ft. across) the spots continue as strongly 
marked as in the young, and are then more or less pale-centred, 
forming distinct rings more or less perfect in some specimens. But 
these markings, however vivid in the recent fish, are apt to disappear 
in old stuffed specimens, the tail-bands being longest retained ; and a 
smooth young fish, with the spots on the upper surface obliterated, 
but retaining the bands on the tail, suits the description of Tr. 
Gerrardii, Gray. At the age figured by Hardwicke, the tubercles on 
the back are sparse and heart-shaped, and a single line of them (pro- 
longed more or less into backward-curving prickles) is continued along 
the median line of the tail as far as its spine. These are retained in 
a specimen 12 in. in length (to base of tail) ; but in another of the 
same size tiny had disappeared — or perhaps had never made their 

I860.] The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. 43 

appearance — and the tail is wholly naked. In another, 15 in. (to 
base of tail), the medial portion of the back is densely tuberculated, 
and a series of tubercles (about six in number across) is continued 
along the base of tail to its spine ; in another, 19^ in. (to base of 
tail), with tail 6 ft. in length, the series of caudal tubercles is still 
scarcely wider proportionally, and the tuberculated portion of the 
back is comparatively much narrower than in the several preceding 
species, being little more than a fifth of the entire breadth — instead 
of fully a third as in Tit. Bleekeei of half the size. In the adults, 3 ft. 
across, — a fresh one before me is 2f. ft., and 2| ft. to base of tail, 
with tail 7-§ ft., — the tubercles of the dorsal surface remain as 
in the last described, and cover just the upper half of the base of the 
tail as far as the spine, the lower half being quite naked. In general, 
there are a few tubercles rather larger than the rest, forming an 
irregular mesial line from the anterior third of the dorsal surface to 
the caudal spine. Half-grown individuals have commonly two larger 
tubercles on centre of back, either both heart-shaped or the anterior 
globular, while larger specimens shew an intermediate tubercle ; and 
up to a considerable size, the thong of the tail is more sparsely tuber- 
culated than in the others. In this particular species, also, the 
curious teeth are distinctly of a larger size than in the others, when 
examples of the same size are compared together. 

22. Tb. vaeiegatus, McClelland, Gale. Journ. Nat. Hist. I, 60, 
and pi. II, fig. 2. Shaped as in the last, and remarkable — even when 
half grown — for the caudal tubercles completely surrounding the tail 
to very near its base, — whereas in Tb. Russellii they never more 
than half surround it as far as the spine, even in the largest indi- 
viduals. In an example of yaeiegatus, measuring 16 in. to base 
of tail, with tail exceeding 3^ ft., the tubercles already nearly surround 
it anterior to its spine. Moreover, in examples of equal size, the teeth 
of Russellii are conspicuously larger. The markings, too, are quite 
different ; Tb. yabiegattts having the dorsal surface uniformly and 
beautifully marked throughout with meandering lines, the dark and 
pale colour in equal proportions or even the dark predominating — 
not as represented in McClelland's figure. Length of one 3 ft. to 
base of tail, and 3 ft. 4 in. in greatest width : tail not quite perfect, 
but of the same proportionate length as in the others. The bands 

G 2 

44 The Cartilaginous Fishes of Lower Bengal. [No. 1, 

on the tail are less conspicuous and distinct than in Te. Russellii. 
In stuffed specimens the markings are apt to disappear totally ; and 
it is as well, therefore, to preserve a portion of the fresh skin of this 
and other species in spirit. 

23. Tk. uaenak, (Forsk.) Young figured in Euppell's New 
Wirbeltliiere. Much like Te. Russellii, but not attaining (I suspect) 
to nearly so great a size ; the dorsal surface speckled with numerous 
small spots (as in Ruppell's figure). The teeth also are considerably 
smaller than in Te. Russellii in specimens of corresponding size. 
In an example less than a foot in length (minus the tail), or of a size 
at which Te. Russellii has few and sparse tubercles on the back 
and a single row only of curved tubercles at base of tail (as shewn 
in Hardwicke's figure), Te. uabnae: has the dorsal tubercles fully 
developed, and a broader band of them at base of tail than is seen 
in Te. Russellii of more than double the size, — whence I conclude 
that it is a much smaller species when full-grown, and that the 
tubercles probably surround the base of tail in adults, as in Te. 
vaeiegatus. I have only once obtained it ; and the specimen has a 
single large tubercle on centre of back, and three slightly larger than 
the rest placed in a triangle behind the principal tubercle.* 

Of these various long-tailed Trygons I have seen no intermediate 
specimens ; and in the fresh state they may be recognised at a glance 
by the colouring, which unfortunately disappears more or less com- 
pletely in dry museum specimens. The only species which I have 
obtained with the caudal spine are the small Te. imbeicatus and 
Te. walga, Htpolophus sephen (small), and AiixoBATis ela- 
GELLUM (small) ; and I am not aware that any difference occurs in 
the structure of that formidable weapon in the different species 
here noticed. 

While preparing this paper, I have (in the course of a few weeks) 
obtained fresh examples in the Calcutta fish-bazars of Teygon mae- 

* I have since obtained another, not very much smaller, in which the tail is 
quite naked. Two examples of Tk. Russellii were procured on the same occasion ; 
and the peak is more obtuse in Te. uaenak than in Te. Russellii ; as seen in 
fresh specimens, — the dry being very much subject to be stretched out of the 
proper shape. Dr. Bleeker gives the breadth of Te. uaenak (fsern.) as 240 et 315 
mill. Virh. Bat. Qen., Vol. XXIV, (1852) ; but then he considers Te. Russellii 
to be identical with it. 

I860.] Tlie Cartilaginous "Elsies of Lower Bengal. 45 

ginatus, Tb. imbbicattts, Te. walga, Te. Bleekeei, Te. Ellioti, 
Te. Russellii, Te. uaenak, and Te. vaeiegatus ; besides Htpo- 


Sphtenias Blochei, Peistis antiquorum and Pe. pectinatus, 
and Sqttalus Milbeeti (?), Sq. gangeticus, and Sq. Temminckii ; 
— in all seventeen species of cartilaginous fishes. 

I add a brief notice of a young Trygon which I cannot find to 
be described, obtained on the Arakan coast, and now in the Medical 
College Museum of Calcutta. 

Te. Ceoziebi, nobis, n. s. Tail twice as long as the disk, com- 
pressed, with a considerable membrane on more than half the length 
of its inferior surface, commencing below the insertion of the spine, 
being nowhere however so high or deep as the tail itself. United 
pectorals much prolonged into an acute peak anteriorly. Disk 
smooth, with a mesial dorsal line of tubercles, beginning a little 
behind the head, where a line of 11 (the last of them increasing in 
size) have made their appearance above the surface ; the rest are 
narrower and below the surface of the skin to the base of tail, where 
a series often very stout prickles or decumbent spinelets — compressed 
and pointing backwards and forming a range like the teeth of a saw, 
— is continued nearly to the base of the caudal spine ; the latter 
being much as in other Trygons, and having a backward-directed 
serrature on each side for its terminal third. The colouring appears 
to have been pale above, but no markings are discernible in the dry 
specimen. Length of disk 11 in. and breadth the same ; tail 23 in. 
This Teygon has the appearance of being the young of a very large 
species. Anterior to the range of 11 developed caudal spinelets, two 
others can be distinguished of equally large size within the skin, and 
anterior to these the series consists of much smaller and narrow 
spinelets, until again the size is abruptly greater a little anterior to 
the centre of the disk. 

April 2nd, 1S59. 




Foe January, 1860. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held on the 4th 

A. Grote Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last Meeting, were 
balloted for and elected Ordinary members. 
Prince Mahomed Jallaludiu of Mysore. 
T. R. Grant, Esq. 

H. V. Baydey, Esq., B. C. S. (re-elected). 
W. J. Eivetfc Carnac, Esq. B. C. S. 
Baboo Preonath Sett. 
Dr. Theodore Duka. 
Major J. J. M. Innes, Bengal Engineers. 

B. E. E. Lindsay, Esq. 

Reverend J. C. Thompson, (re-elected). 

C. Oldham Esq. Geological Survey. 

Capt. Alexander Eraser, Bengal Engineers. 

David K. Mair, Esq. M. A. 

The Council proposed for Ballot at the next meeting Mr. Robert 
Swinhoe, of H. M. Consulate, Amoy, and the Rev. H. Baker, 
Junior, Alipie, South Malabar, as corresponding members of the 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary mem- 
bers at the next meeting. 

Colonel E. W. S. Scott, Bengal Artillery, proposed by the Ven'ble 
Archdeacon Pratt, seconded by Colonel Baird Smith. 

Major Geo. Pearse, proposed by Mr. Atkinson, seconded by Mr. 
E. A. Samuells. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 47 

Dr. F. J. Mouat, proposed (for re-election) by Mr. Atkinson, 
seconded by Dr. T. Thomson. 

Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, Bengal Engineers, F. E. G. S., Gt. Trigl. 
Survey of India, proposed by Major H. L. Thuillier, seconded by Col. 

The Secretary read the following Report for 1859 : 

The Council of the Asiatic Society have the satisfaction of sub- 
mitting their usual Annual Report, exhibiting the state of the Society's 
affairs during the past year. 

At the close of the year 1858, there were 132 ordinary members 
on the Rolls of the Society, of whom 39 were absent in Europe. 
The number of retirements since that time has been 4, which, with 
one death, gives a total loss of five; on the other hand, there 
have been no less than 53 elections of ordinary members, which 
have brought up the number on the effective list to 135, against 
Ordinary. Paying. Absent. 95 of the preceding year. The 

total number now on the rolls 
is 180, of whom 44 are absent 
from India, and one is a life mem- 

The Hon'ble Sir J. W. Colvile, 
Kt., the late President of the 
Society, has, on his departure for Europe, been added to the list of 
honorary members and Drs. Max Miiller, P. Bleeker, and H. Fre- 
derick, have been elected corresponding members of the Society. 

In alluding to the obituary of the past year, the Council desire 
especially to express their regret at the loss which the Society and 
the cause of science have sustained by the untimely death of one of 
their corresponding members, Herr Adolphe Schlagintweit, while on 
his travels in the neighbourhood of Kokan. From the time of his 
arrival in India in 1855, he devoted his entire energies to the prosecu- 
tion of physical researches, and contributed several valuable papers 
to the journal of this Society. Sir George Staunton died in June 
last. He was one of the oldest Honorary members of the Society 
and a distinguished Oriental scholar. The only other member lost 
by death is Col. M. E. Loftie. 






.. 139 




.. 146 




.. 155 




.. 162 

128 ■ 



.. 167 




.. 147 




.. 133 




.. 180 



4S Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 


In April 1859, the Council submitted a report, recommending that, 
in modification of the provisions of Rules 8, 10, and 11, of the Society's 
Code, ordinary members should be divided into two classes, Resident 
and Non-resident; that all members who reside within 30 miles of 
Calcutta should be deemed resident and required to pay an admission 
fee of Rupees 32 and a quarterly subscription of Rs. 12, and that 
Non-residents should pay an admission fee of Rs. 32 and a quarterly 
contribution of Rs. 6. This report was adopted at a special general 
meeting held in July last. 

In making this recommendation the Council entertained a hope 
that by rendering the Society more easily accessible to the literary 
and scientific public of India, they might draw to its ranks many 
whose co-operation would prove highly valuable. They are glad to 
find that they were not mistaken. The accessions made to the list 
of members during the last five months number no less than 36, and 
the total number for the year stands at 53, against 16 in 1858, and 6 
in the preceding year. 

The liabilities of the Society amount to Rupees 5,376-9 principally 
on account of printing Journals and Catalogues ; and the Cash assets 
to Rupees 7,878-13, (including Co.'s paper for Rs. 5000) besides 
outstanding claims to the extent of Rs. 6,432-2-4 a great portion of 
which will probably be realised in the course of the current year. 

Owing, however, to the heavy outlay this year for the repairs of 
the Society's premises, the expenditure has been unusually large. 

By Statement No. 1, it will be seen that the disbursements amount 
to Rs. 15,072-12, while the total receipts amount to Rs. 12,921-9. 

The Council would again urge on the members the imperative neces- 
sity of using every exertion to increase their numbers in order that 
the Society may meet the expenses of the coining year without being 
obliged to curtail its usefulness by any untoward retrenchments. 

The probable expenses of the ensuing year may be estimated at 
Rs. 12,603, the estimate under the usual heads being : 
• Expenditure. 

Museum, Rs. 5,200 

Library Establishment, 936 

Purchase of Books, 1,700 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 49 

Book-binding, 425 

Contingencies, 200 

General Establishment, 1,700 

Journal, 1,500 

Miscellaneous,.., 500 

Deposit, 100 

Building, 1,040 

Total, Es. 13,303 

Monthly Average, 1,108 9 4 

This amount would not be met by the present reduced rates of 
subscription, unless with an increased number of members, but the 
Council confidently trust that the late revival of interest in the 
Society will continue, and that with fresh accessions to its numbers 
all cause for anxiety regarding the Society's prospects may be re- 


75 Residents at Es. 48 per annum, Es. 3,600 

60 Non-residents at Es. 24 per annum, 1,440 

Admission Fees, 544 O 

Government Grant, 3,600 

Sale of Books, 780 

Journal, 925 O 

Interest, 245 

Miscellaneous, 50 

Es. 11,184 

Making up the probable Income of the forthcoming year. 
Proposed Imperial Museum. 

The subject having remained for some time in abeyance on account 
of the disturbances in the N. W. Provinces, the Council, in October 
1858, under Authority delegated to them by the Society in May 
1857, submitted a proposition to the Government of India for the 
establishment of a public Museum, to which, under certain restric- 
tions the whole of the Society's collections might be transferred, 
except the Library. 


50 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

The Government of India having intimated their, inability for the 
present to entertain the proposition, the correspondence on the sub- 
ject has since been submitted to the Secretary of State for India, and 
copies have been printed and laid before the members of the Society. 


The Library has received an accession of 345 volumes, among 
which are some important works on Natural History purchased at 
the sale of the late Dr. Walker's Library. The Society has regularly 
received the publications of the different learned and Scientific 
Institutions with which it is in correspondence, and the purchases 
include all important Oriental works together with most of the leading 
scientific and other periodicals of the day. 


Number of visitors from January to Several valuable additions have 

December, 1859, exclusive of Sundays , , . ., _„. 

and other Christian bolidays. been made to tne Museum 

-NTitivP* f Males, 59,123 during the' past year, and it 

natives. "j_ FemaleSj 3)2 88 . , , 

J Males, 2,964 continues to be resorted to 

'• I Females, 1,260 largely by the European and 

Total 66,635 Native community. The average 

number of visitors, as per margin, appears to exceed 185 persons per 


Dr. Falconer's important Catalogue of Fossil Eemains of Verte- 
brata from the Sewalik Hills, the Nerbudda, Perim Island, &c, has 
been completed and copies have been distributed under the orders of 
the Council. 

Mr. W. Theobald, Junior, has been engaged in arranging the 
shells in the Society's Cabinet and in compiling a Catalogue for 
publication ; and Mr. H. F. Blanford has undertaken to arrange and 
catalogue the Fossil remains in the Society's collection which are not 
included in Dr. Falconer's work. 


Four Nos. of the Journal have been published during the year and 
a fifth is in the Press. 

The Council are gratified to notice that the contributions received 
have been of more than usual interest and importance, and they trust 
that with the restoration of peace the cause of Literature and 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 51 

Science in India may keep pace with the advancing prosperity of the 

Oeibntal Fund. 

The Society in October last adopted a recommendation of the 
Council to commence a new series of the Bibliotheca Indica, which 
was to open with a translation of the Surya Siddhanta by Pundit 
Bapu Deva Shastri, the Ven'ble Archdeacon Pratt having undertaken 
to aid in carrying it through the press. The Council is glad to be 
able to announce that the printing of this work has already com- 
menced. Meanwhile the editors of the old series are busily employ- 
ed in completing their several works. In August last the Society 
adopted the proposal of the Council that one of the large Arabic 
works left unfinished at the suspension of the Bibliotheca Indica 
in 1856, should be completed, viz., the Dictionary of technical 
terms. At the suggestion of Captain Lees an arrangement has been 
made by which the expenses of printing and editing will be materially 

The number of Fasciculi issued during the year is 8, of these 6 have 
been carried through the press by Baboo Eajendralal Mittra, one by 
Mr. F. E. Hall, and one by Dr. Eoer and Mr. Cowell, (Dr. Boer's 
official duties occupying too much of his time to permit of his conti- 
nuing the work under his own sole editorship as heretofore.) 

The titles of the Fasciculi published during the year are 

1. Taittiriya Brahmana of the Black Yajur Veda, Fasc. IV. to 
IX., being Nos. 150 to 155, edited by Baboo Eajendralal Mittra. 

2. Vasavadatta, Fasc. III., finishing the work, being No. 118, 
edited by F. E. Hall, M. A. 

3. Sanhita of the Black Yajur Veda, Fasc. IX., being No. 119, 
edited by Dr. Ej Eoer and Mr. E. B. Cowell. 


The Assistant Secretary Baboo Gour Doss Bysack is still absent 
on leave, and Baboo Bhobany Persaud Dutt has continued to act as 
his substitute. 

The Council have every reason to be satisfied with the zeal and 
assiduity with which the Curator and the acting Assistant Secretary 
have discharged their duties. 

u 2 

52 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

The President observed that the report was one which wonld he 
hoped be considered satisfactory by the meeting. It remained to be 
seen how far the late reduction of subscription would succeed in its 
object, but so far as could be judged from the large accession of mem- 
bers during the year, he thought the experiment promised well. 
Although 36 elections only out of the 53 had occurred since the 
reduction was made, the others he thought were in a great measure 
due to the expectation that it would be made. He thought the 
Council were justified in pointing to the improved character of the 
numbers of the Journal which had been published during the year, 
several of the papers published in them having been very interesting. 
He hoped that in the course of the coming year the Council would 
be able, besides the Catalogues on which Mr. Blanford and Mr. 
Theobald were engaged, to bring out another of the Mammal speci- 
mens contained in the Society's Museum. Their Curator Mr. Blyth 
had already made some progress in this compilation and had under- 
taken soon to complete it. 

The meeting then proceeded to ballot for the Council and Officers 
for the ensuing year. 

A. Fisher, Esq. and D. M. Gardner, Esq. were appointed scrutineers, 
and at the close of the ballot the Chairman announced the following 

A. Grote, Esq. President. 

Major R. Strachey, 

Dr. T. Thompson, ^ Vice-Presidents. 

Baboo Ramapersaud Roy, 

Colonel R. Baird Smith. 

Baboo Rajendralal Mittra. 

E. A. Samuells, Esq. 

Baboo Ramgopal Ghose. 

T. Oldham, Esq. 

Capt. C. H. Dickens. 

Capt. W. N. Lees. 

Dr. W. Crozier. 

R. Jones, Esq. 

"W. S. Atkinson, Esq., ") 

Joint Secretaries. 

E. B. Cowell, Esq 


1S60. j Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 53 




THE YEAR, 1859. 

54 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 


Abstract of the Cash Accounts 


Received from Members. 

Admission Fees. 
Received from New Members, 


Sale proceeds and Subscriptions to the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society, 


Sale proceeds of Books. 

Museum oe Zoology. 

Received from the General Treasury at 
300 Rs. per month, 

Secretary's Office, 
Discount on Postage Stamps, 
Refund of Postage, 

Vested Fund. 

Interest on Company's Paper from the 
Bank of Bengal, 

General Establishment. 



W. Theobald, Esq. Junr. ... 
E. B. Cowell, Esq. 
Baboo Nobinchunder Roy, 
Rev. F. Mason, 
Moonshee Narain Dosb, ... 
C. W. Wilmot, Esq. 
Col. J. Abbott, 
Major S. R. Tickell, 

Messrs. Williams and Norgate, ... 90 8 
Received through Rajah Radhacant Deva, duty on 

Proceeds of Sundry Books sold on their account : 
Weber's Modern Investigation on Ancient India, . 
A Copy of Bopp's Comparative Grammar, 
A Copy of Muller's Buddhism, 
Goldstucker's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, Yol 

I. P. I. II. 
Ditto Ditto, Vol. I. P. III. 

,923 8 




496 3 


784 12 3 






22 10 





10 5 


286 1 


36 10 


4 10 


74 4 









98 7 

1 12 







36 4 

Carried over, 12,884 1 

I860.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


No. 1. 

of the Asiatic Society, for 1859. 




Journai, ... ... 352 11 10 





Printing Charges, .... 



Commission on Sale of Books, 




Purchase of Postage Stamps, 





Copying Charges, 


Packing Charges, 



Purchasing a large Tin Box for Journal MSS. 




1,716 4 6 

Library, ... ... 1,595 3 10 

Salary of the Librarian 12 months at 70 per month, 


Establishment ditto, 


Purchase of Books, ... ... .„ 



Book Binding, 

357 12 

Commission on Sale of Books, 



Printing Receipts, &c. 



Stone Pedestals for Almirahs, ... ... 




A new Teak wood double folding-door glass Case, ... 


Landing Charges, ... ... ... 




Petty Charges, 



2,276 1 3 

Museum, ... ... 5,463 15 

Salary of the Curator E. Blyth, Esq. at 250 per month 

12 months, 


House-rent at 40 per month, 12 months, 






Extra Taxidermists' Salary, 



Contingent Charges, 




2 Teak wood Glass Shell-cases and a case for pre- 

serving Skeletons, 



Freight and Godown rent on a case of Ethnological 

Copper Casts, 




Bullock Train hire, 



Making a mould from apiece of Iron Stone and taking 

two casts of the same, ... 


5,604 14 4 

Secretary's Office, ... 1,661 9 

General Establishment, ... 


Secretary's Office Establishment, 



Petty Charges, 




Stationery, ... 




Purchase of Postage Stamps, 








Three Blank Books for Writing, 



A Sheet Almanac for 1859, 


Printing 300 Copies of Society's Rules, &c. 



1,715 18 9 

Carried over, 11,313 1 10 

56 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Brought over, 12,884 1 
Peopit and Loss. 122 

Received from Muddoosoodun Dey, Sale proceeds of 
a Copy of the Mahabharata, in part of amount 
written off in 1856, ... ... ... 10 

Sale proceeds of 9 Old Beams, ... ... 27 8 

Baxance of 1858. 

Bank of Bengal, ... ... 3,442 3 5 

In band, ... ... ... 9 8 10 

. 3,451 12 3 

Inefficient Balance, ... ... 1,578 3 9 


Co.'s Rupees. ... 17,951 9 

The Asiatic Society's Rooms, Bhobanxpbosad Dtttt, 

31^ Dec. 1859. Offg. Asst. Secy. 

IS 60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 57 

Brought over, 11,313 1 10 
Building, ... ... 356 4 

Assessment, ... ... ... ... 270 

Ditto for Lighting, ... ... ... 72 

Thoroughly repairing the Society's Premises as per 
Estimate, after deduction on account of sundry 
works not done, ,.. ... ... 2,206 3 

Sundry Contingent Charges on account of the repairs 

for removing Cases and other Articles, ... ISO 10 

Deposit Account, ... ... 167 15 

E. B. Cowell, Esq. ... ... ... 9 12 

Major J. G. Stephen, ... ... ... 32 

VV. Theobald, Esq., Junr. ... ... 24 

2,728 13 

65 12 

Vested Fund, ... ... 502 15 9 

Paid Commission for the Collection of Interest on 

Company's Paper, ... ... ... 9 10 

Messes. Williams and Noegate, 702 1 11 
Purchase of Books on their account : 

A Copy of Earase Buzurgan, ... ... 10 

A Copy of Bahar Ajum, Vol. I. and II. ... 50 

Freight for ditto, ... ... ... 6140 


Refund of Contributions to Major A. Fytche, ... 64 
Ditto of ditto to Captain G. H. Saxton, ... 64 

Miscellaneous, ... ... 279 8 6 

Repairing the Monument to the Memory of Sir Wil- 
liam Jones, ... ... ... 30 

Advertising Meetings, ... ... ... 23 4 

Meeting Charges, ... ... ... 113 4 3 

Subscription to the Oriental Translation Fund from 

1855 to 1859, ... ... ... 533 5 4 

Repairing 4 Argand Circular Hanging Lamps, ... 10 

Printing 25 Copies of Annual Accounts for 1857, ... 24 

New Mat for small room, ... ... 7 5 9 

Oiling, Cleaning and regulating a Clock, ... 6 

Petty Charges, ... ... ... 31 6 

57 14 


778 9 4 

Balance, ... ... ... ... 15,072 12 

Bank of Bengal, ... ... 2,796 14 3 

In hand, ... ... ... 9 14 9 

2,806 13 

Inefficient Balance, ... ... ... 72 

2 ; S7S 13 

Co.'s Rs.... 17,951 9 

E. E. 
Edw. B. CoWJiLL, 
Secy. As. ISoct/. 

58 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 


Abstract of the Oriental 


Sale of Oriental Publications, Es. 1,015 6 9 

Received by Sale of Bib. Indica, ... ... 1,150 15 6 

Ditto by Subscription to ditto, ... ... 108 10 

Ditto by Sale of White Yajur Veda, ... ... 57 8 

Government Allowance. 

Received from the General Treasury, at 

500 per month, ... ... 6,000 

Vested Eund. 

Interest on Company's Paper from 

the Bank of Bengal, ... ... 140 


Received from Mahomed Hajee, ... 43 11 

Custody oe Omental Woeks. 

Savings of Establishment, ... 3 

Bibl. Indica. 

Received discount on Postage Stamps, 

Balance of 1858. 

Bank of Bengal, 
In hand,... 

Inefficient Ealance, 


5,057 2 
2,116 12 2 


1,317 1 6 



89 4 

6 10 3 

2 6 

7,553 2 3 

7,173 14 2 

The Asiatic Society's Rooms, 
2>lst Dec. 1859. 

Co.'s Rs. 14,727 5 

Bhobanypkosad Dutt, 

Offg. Asst. Secy. 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


No. 2. 

Fund for the year 1859. 


42 8 

35 9 

Sale oe Oriental Publications. 
Commission on Sale of Books, Es. 

Vested Fund. 
Commission paid to the Bank of Bengal 

for collecting Interest on Company's 

Fee for renewing a piece of Company's 



Paid Mahomed Ha jee, ... 

Custody oe Omental Works, ... 911 4 9 

Salary of Librarian at Rs. 30 per month, 

Establishment at Bs. 14 per month, ... 

Book binding, 

Books cleaning, 

A Blank Book for writing, 

Printing 1000 Copies of a RTagree and 

Bengali list of works for sale, 
Petty Charges, 

5 8 














Bibl. Indica, 

Freight, ... 

Packing charges, 

Bullock train hire on two parcels of 

Bibl. Indica, received from Mr. K. 

Printing 250 Copies of a Persian list of 

works for sale, 
Purchase of Postage Stamps, 

Copying- Puean. 
Copying Charges, 
Vedanta Sutbas. 
Editing Charges, 
Taittieiya Sanhita. 

Editing Charges, 

Taittieiya Beahjiana. 
Printing Charges, 

Bank of Bengal, 
In hand, 

Inefficient Balance, 

30 11 4 

42 15 9 
5 10 

4 7 

134 2 

15 8 
12 5 

779 12 3 







31 8 

36 8 

... 186 10 

... 1,150 S 


1,141 14 

... 221 

2,579 12 


11,166 11 
25 15 









— 12,1 17 4 


Rs. 1-1,727 


E. E. 


Secy. As. Society. 

1 — 


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1SC0.] • Proceedings of Che Asiatic Society of Bengal. 01 




The * distinguishes non-subscribing and the f non-resident Members. 

t Abbott, Lieut. -Col. J. Bengal Artillery, Lucknow. 

fAlabaster, C. Esquire, China. 

fAlexander, Lieut. W. Gr. 93rd Highlanders, Eohilcund Horse, 

* Allen, C. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 
*Anderson, Lieut.-Col. W. Bengal Artiller}'', Europe. 
Archer, C, Esq. M. D., B. M. S. ; Calcutta. 
Atkinson, W. S. Esquire, M. A. ; Calcutta. 
Avdall, J. Esquire, Calcutta. 

*Baker, Lieut.-Col. W. E., P. G. S. ; Bengal Engineers, Europe, 
fBatten, J. H. Esquire, B. C. S., Mynpoorie. 
f Bayley, E. C. Esquire, B. C. S., Allahabad. 
fBeadon, C. Esquire, B. C. S., N. W. Provinces. 
Beaufort, F. L. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 
*Beckwith, J. Esquire, Europe. 
*Benson, Lieut.-Col. R., Europe. 
fBirch, Major Genl. R. J. IE, C. B., N. W. Provinces. 
*Bivar, Capt. II. S. 18th Regt. B. N. L, Europe. 
*Blagrave, Capt. T. C. 26th Regt. B. N. I., Europe. 
Blane, Major S. J., H. M. 52nd Regt., Calcutta. 
Blanford, H. F. Esquire, Geological Survey. 
fBlanford, W. T, Esquire, Geological Survey. 
fBlundell, E. A. Esquire, Singapore. 
*Bogle, Lieut.-Col. Sir A. Kb., Europe. 
Boloi Chund Singh Bdbu, Calcutta. 

62 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. • [No. '. 

fBowring, L. B. Esquire, B. C. S. ; N. W. Provinces. 

Boycott, T. Esq., Bombay M. S., Calcutta. 

*Brodie, Capt. T. 5th Regt. B. N. L, Europe. 

Busheerooddeen Sultan Mabamed, Saheb, Calcutta. 

f Calcutta, Right Rev. Lord Bishop of, N. W. Provinces. 

tCampbell, A. Esq., M. D. Darjiling. 

fChapman, C. E. Esquire, B. C. S., Bijnour. 

Chapman, R. B. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 

*Colvin, J. H. B. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

Cowell, E. B. Esquire, M. A., Calcutta. 

Crozier, William, Esq. B. M. S., Calcutta. 

fDalton, Capt. E. S. 9fcb Regt. B. N. I., Chota Nagpore. 

De Bourbel, Capt. R., Bengal Engineers, Calcutta. 

Dickens, Capt. C. H., Bengal Artillery, Calcutta. 

Douglas, Major C, Bengal Artillery, Calcutta. 

Drummond, Hon'ble E., B. C. S., Calcutta. 

Eatwell, W. C. B., Esq. M. D. ; F. L. S., Calcutta. 

*Edgeworth, M. P. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

fEdmonstone, Hon'ble G. P., B. Lieut.-Govr. N. W. P., Allahabad. 

*Elliott, Hon'ble Walter, M. C. S., Europe. 

fElliott, C. A. Esquire, B. C. S., Lucknow. 

*Ellis, Major R. R. 23rd Regt. B. N. I., Europe. 

*Elphinstone, Lieut. N. W. 4th Regt. B. N. I., Europe. 

*Erskine, Major W. C, 73rd Regt. B. N. I., Europe. 

Fayrer, J., Esq. M. D. ; F. R. C. S., B. M. S., Calcutta. 

Fisher, A. Esquire, Calcutta. 

fFitzpatrick, D. Esquire, B. C. S., N. W. Provinces. 

fForlong, Capt. J. G. R,, Maulmein. 

fFreeling, G. H. Esquire, B. C. S., Bolundshuhur. 

Futteh Ally, Moulvie, Calcutta. 

^Fytche, Major A., 70th Regt. B. N. I., Bassein. 

Gardner, D. M. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 

fGastrell, Capt. J. E. 13th Regt. N. I. Serampoor. 

fGeoghegan, J. Esquire, B. C. S., N. W. Provinces. 

*Gladstone, W. Esquire, Europe. 

Goodenougb, F. A. Esquire, Calcutta. 

Goodeve, E. Esq., M. D. ; B. M. S., Calcutta. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 63 

Govinchunder Sen, Babu, Calcutta. 

Grant, Hon'ble J. P., Lieut. -Govr. of Bengal, Calcutta. 

*Grapel, W. Esquire, M. A., Europe. 

Grote, A. Esquire, E. L. S., B. C. S., Calcutta. 

*Hall, F. E. Esquire, M. A., America. 

Halsey, W. S. Esquire, B. C. S. ; Calcutta. 

fHamilton, B. Esquire, China. 

^Hamilton, Sir R. N. E. Bart., B. C. S., Europe. 

Hannyngton, Lieut.-Col. J. C, 63rd Regt. B. N, I., Calcutta. 

Hardie, G. K., Esq. M. D., Staff Surjeon, Calcutta. 

tHaughton, Capt. J. C, 54th Regt. B. N. I., Port Blair. 

Hearsay, Major Genl. Sir J. B., K. C. B., F. L. S., Barrackpore. 

fHenessey, J. B. N. Esquire, Mussooree. 

tHerschel, W. J. Esquire., B. C. S., Shahabad. 

*Hichens, Capt. W. Bengal Engineers, Europe. 

fHopkinson, Capt. H., 70th Regt. B. N. I., Moulmein. 

flshureepershad Singh Rajah, Bahadoor, Benares. 

* Jackson, L. S. Esquire, Europe. 
*Jackson, W. B. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 
Jadava Krishna Singh Babu, Calcutta. 

* James, Capt. H. C. 32nd Regt. B. N. I., Egypt. 
f Jerdon, T. C. Esquire, M. M. S., Darjiling. 

* Johnstone, J. Esquire, Europe. 
Jones, R. Esquire, Calcutta. 
Joygopaul Bysack, Babu, Calcutta. 
fKabeeroodeen Ahmed Shah, Bahadoor, Sassaram. 
Kaliprusunno Singh, Babu, Calcutta. 
Kassinath Roy Chowdry, Babu, Cossipore. 

Kay, Rev. W., D. D., Bishop's College. 

*Laidlay, J. W. Esquire, Europe. 

fLayard, Capt. F. P. 19th Regt. B. N. I., Berhampore. 

Lees, Capt. W. N., L. L. D. 42nd Regt. B. N. I., Calcutta. 

Leonard, H. Esquire, C. E., Calcutta. 

*Liebig, G. Von, M. D., B. M. S., Europe. 

Loch, G. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 

*Low, Major Genl. J., Europe. 

Lushington, F. A. Esquire, B. 0. S,, Rampore Beaulea. 

64 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No, 1, 

fMaclagan, Capt. R., Bengal Engineers, Roorkee. 

•Macleod, D. F. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

Macrae, A. C, Esq. M. D., B. M. S., Calcutta. 

Manackjee Rustomjee, Esquire, Calcutta. 

# Marshman, J. C. Esquire, Europe. 

Mazzuchelli, Bev. F. F., D. D., Calcutta. 

Medlicott, J. Gr. Esquire, Geological Survey. 

*Middleton, J. Esquire, Europe. 

*Mills, A. J. M. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

*Money, D. J. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

Money, J. W. B. Esquire, Calcutta. 

fMorris, Gr. Gr. Esquire, B. C. S., Moorshedabad. 

*Muir, J. Esquire, Europe. 

fMuir, W. Esquire, B. C. S., Allahabad. 

fMurray, Lieut. W. G. 68th B. JN T . I., Rawul Pindee. 

fNarendra Narian Bhupa, Mali a Rajah, Kooch Behar. 

fXieholls, Capt. W. T. 24th Begt. M. N. I., Burmah. 

Nundolala Bose, Babu, Calcutta. 

Obbard, J. Esquire, Calcutta. 

Oldham, T. Esquire, F. R. S., F. G. S., Calcutta. 

O'Shaughnessy, Sir W. B., M. D., F. R. S., Calcutta. 

*Ouseley, Major W. R., Europe. 

fPhayre, Lieut. -Col. A. P., Rangoon. 

tPrasunnonath Roy, Rajah Bahadoor, Degaputti Rajshye. 

Pratabchundra Siriha, Rajah, Calcutta. 

Pratt, the Ven'ble Archdeacon, J. H., M. A., Calcutta. 

*Prinsep, C. R. Esquire, Europe. 

Prosonocoomar Tagore, Babu, Calcutta. 

Radhanath Sikdar, Babu, Calcutta. 

Rajendra Dutt, Babu, Calcutta. 

Rajeiidralal Mittra, Babu, Calcutta. 

Ramanath Tagore, Babu, Calcutta. 

Ramaprasad Roy, Babu, Calcutta. 

tRamchandra Sinha, Raja, Moorshedabad. 

Eamgopal Ghose, Babu, Calcutta. 

Ridtlell, H. P. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 

fRoberts, A. Esquire, B. C. S., Lahore. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 65 

Eoer, E., Esq. Ph. D., Calcutta. 

*Bogers, Capt. T. E., Europe. 

fBussell, E. H. Esquire, B. C. S., Bancoorah. 

fEussell, A. E. Esquire, B. C. S., Balasore. 

Samuells, E. A. Esquire., B. C. S., Calcutta. 

Sanders, J. Esquire, Calcutta. 

fSaxton, Capt. G. H. 38th M. N. I., Cuttack. 

Schiller, F. Esquire, Calcutta. 

fScott, W. H. Esquire, Dehra Dhoon. 

Sherwill, Major, W. S. 66th Eegt. B. N. I. ; E. G. S.; F. E. G. S., 

Dum Bum. 
fSherwill, Capt. J., Darjiling. 
* Smith, Col. J. T., Europe. 

Smith, Colonel E. Baird, C. B., P. G. S., Bengal Engineers, Calcutta. 
Smith, H. Scott, Esquire, B. A., Calcutta. 
fSpankie, B„ Esquire, B. C. S., Saharunpore. 
*Sprenger, Dr. A., Europe. 
Stainforth, H. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 
*Stephen, Major, J. G. 8th N, I., Europe. 
Strachey, Lieut.-Col. E., F. E. S. ; F. G. S. ; F. L. S. ; F. E. G. S. ; 

Bengal Engineers, Calcutta. 
•fStrachey, J. E. Esquire, B. C. S., Moradabad. 
fStubbs, Capt. F. W. Bengal Artillery, Eavvul Pindee. 
fSutherland, H. C. Esquire, B. C. S., Tipperah. 
fSuttischunder Eoy, Maharaja, Krishnagur. 
Suttyasharana Ghosal, Eajah, Calcutta. 
fTheobold, W. Esquire, Geological Survey. 
*Thomas, E. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 
Thomson, T., Esq. M. D. ; F. E. S. ; F. L. S. ; F. E. G. S ; F. H. S., 

Botanical Gardens. 
fThornhill, C. B. Esquire, B. C. S., Allahabad. 
Thuillier, Major, H. L. ; F: E. G. S. ; Bengal Artillery, Calcutta. 
fTickell, Major, S. E., 31st B. N. I., Moulmein. 
Trevor, C. B. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 
Tytler, Major, E. C, 38th Eegt. B. N. I., Barrackpore. 
fWard, J. J. Esquire, B. C. S., Cuttack. 
Warrand, E. H. M. Esquire, B. C. S., Calcutta. 

6G Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

*Watson, J. Esquire, B. C. S., Europe. 

tWaugh, Col. A. S., F. K. S. ; F. R. G. S ; Bengal Engineers, Dehra 

Wells, Sir Mora" aunt, Kt., Calcutta. 
"Williams, F. Fisk, Esquire, Calcutta. 
.fWilmot, C. W. Esquire, Pakour, Sontal Pergunnahs. 
fWillsone, W. L. Esquire, Beerbboom. 
Woodrow, H. Esquire, M. A., Calcutta. 
fWortley, Major, A. H. P. Stuart, Indore. 
Young, Lieut.-Col. C. B., Bengal Engineers, Calcutta. 
fYule, Lieut.-Col. H., Bengal Engineers, N. Vv^. Provinces. 

Elections in 1859. 
Ordinary Members. 
C. Alabaster, Esq., China. 

Maha Bajah Suttis Chunder Roy Bubacloor, Krislinagur. 
lUajor A. H. P. Stuart Wortley, Indore. 
H. Stainforth, Esq., B. C. S., Calcutta. 
Babu Kassy Nauth Boy Chowdry, Cossipore. 
H. Scott Smith, Esq., B. A., Calcutta. 
W. Theobald, Esq., Jr., Geological Survey. 
Lieut. W. G. Alexander, 93rd Highlanders, Pillibheet. 
Capt. F. W. Stubbs, Bengal Artillery, Rawulpindee. 
Sir Mordaunt Wells, Kt., Calcutta. 
Colonel B. Baird Smith, C. B., Calcutta. 
Babu Nundolala Bose, Calcutta. 
The Bight Bev. Lord Bishop of Calcutta, Calcutta. 
E. C. Bayley, Esq. B. C. S., Allahabad. 
Honorable Gr. F. Edmonstone, Lieut. -Govr. N. W. P. 
Major E. C. Tytler, 38th Regt. B. N. I., Barrackpore. 
R. H. M. Warrand, Esq., B. C. S., Calcutta. 
Capt. J. E. Gastrell, 13th Regt. N. I., Seratopoor. 
C. W. Wilmot, Esq., Pakour. 

Maha Rajah Narendra Narain Bhupa, Cooch Behar„ 
Babu Boloi Chund Singh, Calcutta. 
J. Obbard, Esq , Calcutta. 
W. T. Blanford, Esq., Geological Survey. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengnl. 67 

W. H. Scott, Esq., Dehra Dhoon. 

Lieut. W. G. Murray, 68th N. I., Rawulpindee. 

J. B. N. Henessey, Esq., Mussooree. 

A. Campbell, Esq. M. D., Darjiling. 

Capt. J. Sherwill, Darjiling. 

Capt. H. Hopkinson, 70th Eegt. B. N. I., Moulmein. 

A. E. Eussell, Esq., C. S., Balasore. 

W. L. Willsone, Esq., Beerbhoom. 

Rev. F. F. Mazuchelli, D. D., Calcutta. 

Major S. J. Blane, H. M. 52nd Regt., Calcutta. 

J. Geogeghan, Esq., N. W. Provinces. 

E. Goodeve, Esq. M. D., Calcutta. 

Major C. Douglas, Bengal Artillery, Calcutta. 

R. Jones, Esq., Calcutta. 

D. M. Gardner, Esq., B. C. S , Calcutta. 

Capt. J. G. E. Forlong, Moulmein. 

L. B. Bovvring, Esq., B. C. S., N. W. Provinces. 

Capt. J. C. Haugliton, 54th Eegt. B. N. I., Port Blair. 

C. Archer, Esq. M. D., Calcutta. 

D. Fitzpatrick, Esq., B. C. S., N. W. Provinces. 
G. K. Hardie, Esq., M. D. Staff Surgeon, Calcutta. 
A. Fisher, Esq., Calcutta. 

Major S. R. Tickell, 31st Regt. B. N. I., Moulmein. 

J. Sanders, Esq., Calcutta. 

C. A. Elliott, Esq., B. C. S., Lucknow. 

The Honorable J. P. Grant, Lieut.-Govr. of Bengal, Calcutta. 

Moulvie Futteh Ally, Calcutta. 

F. Fisk Williams, Esq., Calcutta. 
F. A. Goodenough, Esq., Calcutta. 
H. Leonard, Esq., C. E., Calcutta. 

Corresponding Members. 
Dr. Max. Midler, Oxford, London. 
Dr. P. Bleeker, Batavia. 
Dr. H. Frederick, Batavia. 

Honorary Member. 
Right Hou'ble Sir James W. Colvilc, Kt., Europe. 

k 2 

68 Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. \ , 

Loss oe Members during the tear 1859. 

By retirement. 

B. J. Colvin, Esq., B. C. S., Calcutta. 
Rev. W. 0. Smith, Calcutta. 
Dr. D. T. Morton, Tounghoo. 

By death. 

Lieut.-Col. M. E. Loftie, Nuseerabad. 

Adolphe Schlagintweit, (Corresponding Member,) Thibet. 

Sir Gr. T. Staunton, Bart. E. R. S., (Honorary Member,) London. 

List oe Honorary Members. 

M. Garcin de Tassy, Membre de 1' Instit, Paris. 

Sir John Phillippart, London. 

Count De Noe, Paris. 

Prof. Erancis Bopp, Memb. de 1' Academie de Berlin. 

Sir J. P. W. Herschel, F. B. S., London. 

Col. W. H. Sykes, F. R. S. Do. 

Prof. Lea, Philadelphia. 

Prof. IT. H. Wilson, F. R. S., London. 

Prof. C. Lassen, Bonn. 

M. Reinaud, Memb. de 1' Instit. Prof, de 1' Arabe, Paris. 

Dr. Ewald, Gottingen. 

His Highness Hekekyan Bey, Egypt. 

Right Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, Kt., London. 

Prof. Jules Mohl, Memb. de 1' Instit, Paris. 

Col. W. Munro, C. B., H. M. 39th Regt., London. 

His Highness the Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Murshedabad 

J. D. Hooker, Esq. M. D., R. N., F. R. S., F. G. S., F. L. S., London. 

Prof. Henry, Princeton, United States. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir C. H. Rawlinson, K. C. B. Persia. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Proby T. Cautley, K. C. B., F. G. S., London. 

Raja Radhakanta Deva Bahadur, Calcutta. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., F. R. S., Europe. 

H. Falconer, Esq. M. D., F. R. S., F. G. S., F. L. S., B. M. S., Europe. 

Right Hon'ble Sir J. W. Colvile, Kt., Europe. 

I860.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 69 

Corresponding Members. 

Kremer, Mons. A. Von, Alexandria. 
Porter, Rev. J., Damascus. 
Schlagintweifc, Herr H. 
Schlagintweit, Herr B. 
Smith, Dr. E. Beyrout. 
Tailor, J. Esq., Bussorah. 
Wilson, Dr., Bombay. 
Metner, J. Esq., Colombo, Ceylon. 
Max. Mliller, Dr., Oxford. 
Bleeker, Dr. P., Batavia. 
Frederick, Dr. H., Batavia. 

Associate Members. 

Blyth, E. Esq., Calcutta. 

Karamut Ali, Syud, Matawalli, Hoogbly. 

Long, Bev. J., Calcutta. 

MacGowan, Bev. J., Europe. 

Stephenson, J. Esq., Europe. 

70 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Foe Febktjaby, 1860. 

At a meeting of the Soeiety held on the 1st Instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From Dr. F. J. Mouat, a Jacket &c, worn hy the Anganii 
Naga Hill chief who killed the French Missionary. 

2. From Dr. W. Hardinger of the Austrian Academy, several 
volumes of the Transactions of that Academy. 

3. From the Seey. to the Royal Society of Sciences at Stockholm, 
Parts 1 to 5 of a Voyage round the world of the It. Swedish Frigate 

4. From H. M. the Ex-King of Oudh, a dead monkey, Preslytes 

5. From Mrs. Turnhull, a fine stuffed specimen of Betaurus 
Sciaurus, Shaw. 

6. From J. J. Atkinson, Esq., a few Birds' skius procured at 

7. From Alex. Thomas, Esq., in medical charge of Khyuk Phyoo, 
Ramsee, Arakan, a fine specimen of Platydactylus gecko. 

8. From F. E. Hall, Esq., an inscription stone found among the 
ruins of Patan, a decayed city near Ratgurh in the Saugor district. 

9. From Major R. R. W. Ellis (through F. E. Hall, Esq.,) a 
copper-plate land grant, dated in the year of Vikramaditya answering 
to A. D. 1097. This grant was translated by Mr. Hall in the 
Journal of 1858. 

A letter was read from C. E. Chapman, Esq., desiring to withdraw 
from the Society. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members. 

Col. E. W. S. Scott. Bengal Artillery. 

Major G. Pearse. 

Dr. F. J. Mouat, re-elected. 

Capt. T. G. Montgomerie, B. E., F. R. G. S. 

Mr. Robert Swinhoe and Rev. H. Baker were also elected corre- 
sponding members of Society. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 7t 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary 
members at tbe next meeting. 

Dr. D. Brandis, proposed by Dr. Thomson seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

Sir H. Bartle Frere, K. C. B. proposed by Capt. Lees, seconded by 
tbe President. 

H. S. Beid, Esq., Director of Public Instruction, 1ST. W. P. proposed 
by Capt. R. Maclagan seconded by Mr. W. Muir. 

Major J. Hovenden, Bengal Engineers, proposed by Capt. Stubbs 
seconded by Major Thuillier. 

Major F. D. Atkinson proposed by Mr. Atkinson seconded by 
Major Thuillier. 

Stephen Lushington, Esq., B. C. S. proposed by the President 
seconded by Mr. Samuells. 

Capt. A. D. Turnbull, Bengal Engineers, Superintendent General 
Irrigation N. W. P., proposed by Lieut.-Col. A. S. Waugh, seconded 
by Capt. R. Maclagan. 

H. B. Medlicott, Esq., F. G. S. Professor of Geology at the 
Thomason College, Rqorkee, proposed by Capt. R. Maclagan, seconded 
by Mr. T. Oldham. 

Lieut. H. Sconce, Assistant Commissioner Assam, proposed by Dr. 
Thomson seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

Rev. J. Cave Brown, proposed by the President seconded by Rev. 
Dr. Kay. 

W. S. Fitz William, Esq., proposed by Mr. Atkinson, seconded by 
Mr. Schiller. 

S. Wauchope, Esq., B. C. S., proposed by the President, seconded 
by Major Thuillier. 

The Council Submitted the following report recommending that 
Professor Max Midler be elected an Honorary Member. 


" The Council beg to recommend Professor Max Midler of Oxford 
for election as an Honorary member of the Society. 

" For the last ten years no name has been more distinguished in 
Europe in connection with the ancient literature of India. His 
edition of the Rig Veda, with the commentary of Sdy&nach&rya, 
(three volumes of which have appeared, containing five of the eight 
ashtakas.,) is alone sufficient to win him a very high place among 

72 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Oriental scholars. He has also laboured successfully in the fields of 
comparative philology and mythology ; and his paper on the latter 
subject in the Oxford essays has been translated into two of the 
continental languages. 

" His last work which has only lately arrived in this country, on 
the " History of ancient Sanskrit Literature so far as it illustrates the 
primitive religion of the Brahmans," not only brings within the 
reach of the general reader, the results of the labours of various Orien- 
talists, but it also abounds with new and interesting materials for 
future investigations. Of this kind is the chapter on the history of 
writing in India, which first appeared in the Society's Journal, the 
author having contributed it when he was elected a corresponding 
member in the February meeting of 1859." 

The Council reported that they had appointed the following gentle- 
men as members of the Sub-Committees for the year 1860. 


Capt. C. H. Dickens. 

Baboo Rajendra Lai Mittra. 

E. A. Samuells, Esq. 

Rev. J. Long. 

Dr. E. Roer. 

Capt. W. N. Lees. 

Baboo Rajendra Lai Mittra. 


E. A. Samuells, Esq. 

Baboo Ramapersaud Roy. 

Major R. Strachey. 

Capt. W. N. Lees. 

R. Jones, Esq. 

Baboo Rajendra Lai Mittra. 

Nattjkal History. 
E. A. Samuells, Esq. 
T. Oldham, Esq. 
Dr. T. Thomson. 
Dr. W. Crozier. 
W. Theobold, Esq. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Major E. Strachey. 
H. F. Blanford, Esq. 

Meteorology and Physical Science. 
The Ven'ble J. H. Pratt. 
Major H. L. Thuillier. 
Major P. Strachey. 
Baboo Radha Nauth Sikdar. 
T. Oldham, Esq. 
Communications were received — 

1. From Baboo Padha Nauth Sikdar, an abstract of the Meteoro- 
logical Observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office in the 
months of June, July, and August, ] 859. 

2. From R. B. Chapman, Esq., Under-Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, copy of a Statement of Doolum, a Convict in Port 

Major Thuillier, F.R.G.S. informed the meeting that he 
had recently had the pleasure of receiving from the Messrs. 
de Schlagintweit now at Berlin, some excellent specimens of Chromo- 
Lithographs and Chromo-Photographs of their series of views of 
the most interesting subjects taken during the course of their magne- 
tical survey of India. These pictures he placed on the Table for the 
inspection of members, the smaller ones being described as Chromo- 
Photographs and the larger as Chromo-Lithographs. 

It was proposed by the Messrs. de Schlagintweit to produce a collec- 
tion of no less than 700 Panoramas and views from India and High 
Asia, the aquarells and drawings from nature by Hermann and 
Adolphe de Schlagintweit, with some Photographs by Robert 
de Schlagintweit, taken between the years 1854 to 1858. 

These views of which a catalogue has been forwarded, are divided 
into 20 groups as follows: 
Groups. Plates 

1. General Panoramic Views, 1 to 

2. Konkun and Western Dekhan, 

3. Bengal to Panjab, 

4. Khassia Hills and surrounding Flains 

5. Central India, ... 

6. Eastern Ghats and Karnatik, 


.. 15 

.. 73 

.. 89 

.. 110 

.. HIS 

74 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

7. Maissur and Nilgiris, ... ... ... 150 

8. Eivers, ... ... ... ... 200 

9. Trees and groups of Vegetation, ... ... 249 

10. Temples, Monumental Buildings, European Eesiden- 

ces, ... ... ... ... 277 

11. Native Buildings, Bridges, Villages, &e... ... 353 

12. Panoramas from the Himalaya, Tibet and Turkistan, 354 

13. Eastern Himalaya, ... ... ... 412 

14. Western Himalaya, ... ... ... 469 

15. Gnari, Khorsum, Central Tibet, ... ... 496 

16. Western Tibet and Karakorum (Muskta), ... 551 

17. From Ladak by the Karakorum and Kuenlun to 

Turkistan, ... ... ... ... 579 

18. Salt-lakes and Thermal springs, ... ... 598 

19. Snow-peaks and Glaciers, ... ... ... 646 

20. Indian Ocean to Egypt, ... ... ... 700 

From the above, the meeting would observe that the series em- 
braced a wide range of interest, and from the specimens on the Table, 
he (Major Thuillier) thought that the collection was well worthy 
of a place in the archives of the Society. He could not inform the 
meeting what the probable cost of the entire set would be, but he 
hoped the object would not be lost sight of. The catalogue shewed 
a long list of subjects which appeared to be of special interest to a 
Society like this and the superior and artistic manner in which such 
publications were brought out in Germany, rendered them valuable. 

With respect to the Chromo-Photographs, he would read an extract 
from Mr. Hermann de Schlagintweit's letter to his address, dated tbe 
9th November last. 

" The three Photographs are aquarell fac-similes and reductions to 
one uniform size of our large originals. By a peculiar combination 
partly of tinted Paper, on which the Photographs are printed, and 
partly of colour put on, they resemble, as near as possible, our originals." 
And as regards tbe larger pictures, he states : 

" The objects of the Chromatic Lithographs are the two highest 
Peaks till now measured, which we thought to be of particular 
interest for you, our atlas will consist of 80 similar Plates." These 
two views the meeting would observe, represented the celebrated moun- 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 75 

tains called " Kanchinjinga" and "Mount Everest" the former being 
28,156 feet and the latter 29,002 feet above mean sea level. To the 
latter Mr. de Schlagintweit had added the name of " Gourisanker," 
a name which he (Major T.) did not remember to have before heard. 
It would be in the recollection of the Society that there was a very 
animated discussion some time back on the subject of the native or 
local appellation of this stupendous mountain, and that Mr. Brian 
Hodgson had affixed to it the name of " Deodhunga." It had been 
very clearly shewn to the Society, by his friend Colonel Waugh, how 
impossible it was for any person, without entering Nipal and conduct- 
ing measurements there in the vicinity of the great snowy mass 
in question, to identify the peak which he had, after years of 
research and computation, fixed by actual observation, and declare 
it to be one and the same. For this reason he had therefore main- 
tained his right to assign to the highest known mountain in the world, 
until its own native designation could be established beyond all 
doubt, a distinguished modern name, which had met with entire 
approval from the Royal Geographical Society at home, as well as 
with scientific men on the continent, and which, no doubt, would now 
be inseparably connected with the mountain for generations to 

Mr. de Schlagintweit had made no allusion to the point, and it was 
therefore not known from whence he had obtained the name of 
" Gourisanker" or from what authority he had deduced it. Probably 
he had been able to derive information on this important subject 
when he visited Katmandhoo from which place also, it was most 
likely the view was taken, although this was not specified on the 
picture, a point to be regretted, looking to the discussions which had 
taken place and to the great interest which attached to the subject. 

Major Thuillier also informed the meeting that Mr. de Schlagintvveit's 
letter stated that the King of Bavaria whose subjects they were, 
had been pleased to confer on both brothers, titles of nobility, a dis- 
tinction which they believed they owed to their important Mission 
to India and to the liberal views and arrangements with which the 
Indian Government at all times assisted them in completing it. 

Major Douglas exhibited a calculating machine, and explained the 

L 2 

76 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. \, 

principle on which it was constructed, and the mode in which various 
arithmetical operations were effected by it. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to Major Thuillier and to 
Major Douglas. 

The Officiating Librarian submitted the usual monthly report. 


List of accessions to the Library since the meeting in January last. 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, New Series, 
vol. IV. Part 1. — By the Academy. 

List of Fellows of the Royal Society for 1858.— By the Royal 

Address of the President delivered at the Anniversary Meeting, 30th 
November, 1858.— Ditto. 

Zwei Vedische Texte iiber Oraena und Portenta. Von. A. Weber, Berlin, 
1859.— By the Author. 

1. Jahrbuch der Kaiser-Koniglichen, Geologischen Reichsanstalt vols. 
VII. VIII. and IX. Vienna. — By the Society. 

List of members of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1858. 

Report of the Joint Committee of the Royal Society and the British 
Association for procuring a continuance of the Magnetic aud Meteorological 

2. Uebersicht der resultate Mineralogischer Forschungen from 1844 to 
1852, 3 vols. Von. Dr. Gustav. Adolph. Kenngott. 

3. Katalog der Bibliothek des K. K. Hof— Mineralien — Cabinets in 

4. Abhandlungen der Mathemat, Physikalischen Classe der Koeniglieh 
Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vols. 30, 31, Munchen. 

5. Ditto Historischen Classe, vol. 32. 

6. Ditto Philosoph Philologischen Classe, vol. 3rd Parts 1, 2 and 3. 

7. Naturwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Von Wilhelm Haidinger, Bauds 
1, 2 3 and 4. 

Auszug aus dem Monatsbericht der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissens- 
chaften Zu Berlin for January and February 1859, 2 pamphlets. 

8. Gelehrte Anzeigen heransgegeben Von Mitgliedern der K. Bayer. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften Parts 42 and 47. 

9. Berichte iiber die mittheilungen von Freunden der naturwissen- 
schaften in Wieu, Von Wilhelm Haidinger, Parts 1 and "• — Wien. 

An unpointed Phonetic Alphabet based upon Lepsius' Standard Alphabet 
by J. G. Thompson, M. C. S. Mangalore 1859.— By the Author. 

1S60.] Proceedings ofilie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 77 

Oriental Christian Spectator for December, 1859.— By the Editor. 
Calcutta Christian Observer for January, I860. — By the Editors. 
Oriental Baptist for January, 1860. — By the Editor. 

1. A paper and Resolutions on the Uniform System of Meteorological 
Observations.— By Major R. Lachlan. 

2. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 27, 1858. 

3. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgeulandischen Gesellschaft Dreizehnter 
Band. 4th Heft, Leipzig, 1859. 

The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal 
of Science, Fourth Series. No. 121, November, 1859. 

4. Denkrede auf Johaun Nepomuf von Fuchs. By Franz von Kobell, 
Munchen. 1856. 

5. Ueber die Physic der Molecularcrafte. By Prof. Dr. Jolly. Munchen, 

6. Wissenschaften altderetscher Sprache und Literatur. By Dr. 
Konrad Hoffman, Munchen, 1857- 

7. Die deutsche Politik Konig Heinrich I. — By Franz Loher, Munchen 

8. Francesco Petrarca's Vortrag. — Br Prof. Georg Martin Thomas. 
Munchen, 1858. 

9. Ueber die geschichtlichen Porstufen der neueren Rechts philosophie. 
— By Prof. Dr. Carl Prantl. Munchen, 1858. 

10. Ueber Johannes Muller. — By Dr. Th. L. W. Bischoff. Munchen, 

11. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Parts, 
1 and 2 of 1858. 

12. Fisher's Mosaic account of the Creation. 

13. Weber's Zvvei Vedische Texte uber Omina und Portenta. 


1. Le Bouddha et Sa Religion. By J. Barthelemig Saint-Hilaire, 

2. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. By M. Milne Edwards and By M. 
M. A. D. Brongniart Et J. Decaisne. Paris 1859. 

3. Revue des Deux Mondes, XXIX. Annee, Seconde Periode. Paris 
October 1859, and November 1859. Tomes XXIII. and XXIV. 

4. Vergleichende Grainmatik. Von Bopp. Zweiter Baud Zweite Hiilfte, 
Berlin, 1859. 

5. Chalef Elahmar's Qasside. Von W. Ahlwardt. Greifswald, 1859. 

6. Die Herabkunft Des Feuers und Des Gottcrtranks. Von Adalbert 
Kuhn. Berlin, 1859. 

78 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

7. The Literary Gazette. Nos. 69, 70, 71, 12 of vol. 3rd. 

8. Comptes Rendus Des Seances De L'Academie des Sciences. Tome 
49. Nos. 12, 13, Hand 15. 

9. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. No 23, November, 
1859. London. 

10. Haji Khalfa, a Biographical Dictionary of the Mahomedans, vol. 7« 

Fob Mabch, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the 7th instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed : — 

Presentations were received : — 

1. Prom Rajah Kundurpeshvvar Singh, Zemindar of Sarun, six gold 
coins of his predecessors of different sizes. 

2. Prom the Bombay Government, No. 54, of the selections from 
its records. 

3. From the Madras Government, No. 61, of the records of that 

4. From the Superintendent, Bombay Government Observatory, 
a copy of the Magnetical and Meteorological Observations made in 

5. From M. Zill, a fragment of the egg-shell of the large Dodo- 
like bird of Madagascar, the JEpiornis maximus. (J. Geofroy,) an egg, 
beside which that of the Ostrich is comparatively diminutive, and 
which holds about two gallons. 

6. Captain Bales, of the Wire Queen, S. V., a specimen of the Chi- 
loscyllium plagiosum, (Bennett,) sis feet in length, from the Aguada 
Reef, the " Sun-fish" of seamen in the Bay of Bengal, found only in 
shoal water. 

7. Capt. Niblett, of the Sydney S. V. a small specimen of the cu- 
rious crustacean, Thalasina scorpionedes, (Leach) forwarded by Mr. 
Voule of Rangoon, who remarks that " This is a land animal, which 
the Burmese call Padzoon Kea or ' scorpion prawn.' It does not live 
on the surface of the ground, but burrows to a depth of three or four 
feet in the mud. This specimen was found at that depth." 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 79 

8. From Rajah Eadha Kanth Deb, Bahadoor, a huge Sunkarra 
Fish (trygon). 

Professor Max Miiller, of Oxford, was balloted for, and elected an 
Honorary Member of the Society. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members : — 
Dr. D. Brandis. 

The Hon'ble Sir H. Bartle Frere, K. C. B. 
H. S. Reid, Esq. B. C. S. 
Major Hovenden. 
Major F. D. Atkinson. 
Stephen Lushington, Esq., B. C. S. 
Capt. A. D. Turnbull. 
H. B. Medlicott, Esq. 
Lieut. H. Sconce. 
Rev. J. Cave Browne. 
W. S. Fitzwilliam Esq. 
S. Wauchope, Esq., B. C. S. 
The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary mem- 
bers at the next meeting. 

J. E. T. Aitchison Esq., M. D. proposed by Major F. W. Stubbs 
and seconded by Col. Baird Smith. 

A. K. Dyer, Esq., proposed by Dr. T. Thomson, seconded by Mr. 

H. Braddon, Esq., proposed by Mr. Atkinson and seconded by the 

Alonzo Money, Esq., B. C. S., proposed by Mr. Atkinson, seconded 
by Mr. Samuells. 

The Council also proposed Dr. M. Haug of Poonah, a corresponding 
member of the Society. 

Col. Sfcrachey suggested that a statement should be prepared and 
laid before the next meeting showing, as far as could be at present 
ascertained, the financial result of the recent reduction in the rate of 

The Secretary said he should be most happy to prepare such a state- 
ment. He could at once state, that since the beginning of last year 
upwards of 70 new members had been elected. 

80 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Capt. Lees enquired what number had been elected in previous 

The Secretary replied that the average of the three preceding years 
had been only nine. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Baboo Radkanauth Sikdar, abstract of the result of the 
Meteorological observations taken at the Surveyor General's office in 
the month of September, 1859. 

2. From W. T. Blanford, Esq., a paper on the Indian Malacology, 
No. 1, by Messrs. W. T. and H. F. Blanford. 

3. From Major H. L. Thuillier, a paper by Capt. Montgomerie 
on the great flood of the river Indus which reached Attock on the 
10th August, 1858. 

4. From Col. R. Strachey a memo, on Mr. Blyth's paper on the 
animals known as wild asses. 

Received the following letter from Major H. L. Thuillier : — 
To "W. S. Atkinson, Esq., 

Secy. Asiatic Society. 

Sir, — I have the pleasure to return the Society's atlas of district 
lithographed maps which I have completed. After adding all the maps 
recently published, an index to the whole set has been prepared, the 
maps numbered, and an index map of Bengal prepared, which I hope 
will make the record more worthy of a place in the Society's library. 

I would suggest that a separate volume of the engraved sheets of 
the Indian Atlas be prepared for the library. I should be happy to 
supply all the sheets published up to the present time from the Sur- 
veyor General's Office, and to arrange them with proper list and index 
map. The cost of the atlas will not be more than about 20 Rupees. 

Your's obediently, 

(Sd.) H. L. Thuillier, Major. 

The hearty acknowledgments of the meeting were given to Major 
Thuillier for his liberal and valuable assistance in completing and ar- 
ranging the Society's atlas. 

His offer to furnish the engraved maps, as they were issued, was 
accepted with thanks. 

I860] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. SI 

Report from the Council. 

The Council beg to submit for the approval of the Society the 
following report of the Philological Committee recommending the 
publication of. Zeeah Burneah in the Bibl. Indica. 


The Philological Committee recommend to the Council that the 
Zeeah Burneah, a Persian History of the reign of Firuz Shah Toghluk, 
should be published in the new series just commenced of the Bibl. 
Indica. Several MSS. have been collected to form an accurate text, 
and Moulavi Syud Ahmed Khan of Moradabad has offered to edit it. 
The work will fill about seven Fasciculi, and as it relates to a "very 
important and but little known period in the history of Muhammadan 
India, and as the book itself is extremely rare, it appears to the Com- 
mittee on every account desirable to have it printed. 

The report was adopted. 

The Council reported that they had addressed the following letter 
to the Supreme Government : — 

From W. S. Atkinson, Esq. Secy. Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
To W. Gbet, Esq., Secy. Govt, of India, Home Dept. 

Asiatic Society's Booms, Calcutta, 27th Feb. 18G0. 

Sir, — I am directed by the Council to bring to the notice of the 
Honorable the President in Council the opportunity afforded by tho 
present expedition to China of investigating the Physical Geography 
and Natural History of portions of that country to which access may 
hereafter be difficult or impossible. 

2. The Council have felt so deeply the importance of not neglect- 
ing this opportunity, that they recently requested their President to 
ascertain the views of the Viceroy, but at that time it appeared to His 
Lordship that he would not be warranted in exposing a naturalist to 
such risk of life, as would be incurred by prosecuting Natural History 
researches in a hostile country. 

3. Since that time considerable extension has been given to tho 
force intended to operate in China, and it appears probable that posts 
must be established to serve as a basis for operations inland, in nor- 
thern China, a country little known to naturalists and of very great 


82 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

4. A naturalist would thus be able either from on boardship or 
from the posts on the seaboard to make good collections and obtain 
valuable information, even if unable to accompany the force into the 
interior in whatever direction it may proceed. 

5. The Council however venture to think that a naturalist would 
find it possible to accompany the advance of the army without serious 
danger, and they are further convinced that an equally good oppor- 
tunity is not likely to occur again, and that it would hereafter be a 
matter for regret if no use were made of it ; nor do they think it 
immaterial to add, in confirmation of their own views, that the French 
Government, as they have recently ascertained, has already dispatched 
a naturalist to the East to accompany the allied forces. 

6. The Council have learnt from the public journals that attention 
has already been called to the subject at home, and they have reason 
to believe that H. M. Government have been addressed on the subject 
by leading men of science in England. They nevertheless feel it a 
duty to lay the subject before the Government here, because they 
believe that a man possessing special qualifications for such a 
task, by his previous studies and by his extensive knowledge of the 
Zoology of Asia, is present on the spot and ready to undertake the 
duties and the risk. Moreover, the name of Mr. Blyth, who has a 
high reputation in Europe, has been prominently put forward in the 
London Times and AtJienceum as the gentleman best suited for such 
a commission. 

7. The Council therefore, while fully appreciating the motives which 
influenced His Excellency in declining to entertain their proposal when 
first submitted to him, still venture to hope that the great importance 
of such a mission in a scientific point of view, the probability that so 
favorable an opportunity may not occur again, and the fact that Mr. 
Blyth is quite willing to encounter the danger, whatever it may be, 
may lead to a reconsideration of the question, and an affirmative de- 

8. The Council have given some attention to the matter of expense 
and think a personal salary of Rs. 500 with travelling expenses would 
be a fair remuneration. 

In addition to this some allowance would be required to provide a 
staff of native taxidermists and collectors. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 83 

These might be procured partly in this country and partly in 

I have, &c, 

(Sd.) W. S. Atkinson, 
Secretary, Asiatic Society. 

Mr. R. Jones previously to giving a microscopic demonstration of 
Diatomacese offered a few remarks descriptive of these organisms. 
They were described as a family of confervoid Algaa differing from 
other unicellular Alga?, in being furnished with an external coating of 
silex. The method of determining the structure of the Diatomaceous 
frustule was explained, and attention was directed to the singular 
beauty of the traceries and markings exhibited by the silicious 
valves and to the difficulty of making out their true condition. 
The mode of increase of the cells was stated to be, like that of 
all vegetable cells, a process of division — the only other mode of 
reproduction known certainly to exist in this class, being that in 
which the operation of conjugation takes place. It was remarked 
however that these phenomena required for their satisfactory demon- 
stration quiet and a happy concurrence of other circumstances. It was 
further stated that the reproduction of Diatomacese, by the break- 
ing up of the Endochrome into Gonidia, was doubtful. Various causes 
were mentioned as having been assigned to account for the motion 
observable in these organisms ; but it was added that, our know- 
ledge on this point was still very imperfect. The habitats of the 
Diatomaceaj were described, and numerous fossil specimens from the 
Himalayas, the Arctic regions, America, and various other localities, 
were exhibited during the evening ; and it was mentioned, as an in- 
teresting fact, that the same species were found under conditions widely 
differing, and in places distantly remote from each other. 

Dr. Crozier remarked that the description of the organization of 
the Diatomaeeaj with which Mr. Jones had so ably favoured the meet- 
ing and the microscopic demonstrations which would now be given of 
them, both recent and fossil, were very interesting, especially as these 
minute organized beings have only very lately been brought to our 
knowledge by the valuable assistance our sense of sight receives from 
the compound achromatic microscope ; and they were, though invisi- 
ble to the naked eye, found wherever there is fresh or salt water— in 

m 2 

84 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

the smallest quantity of water, on the surface or in the deepest fathom- 
able part of the ocean, in the tropical and in the polar regions. Some 
recent Diatornacese in fresh water would be shown under the microscope, 
some from Atlantic soundings 2,070 fathoms, after which he, Dr. C, 
would exhibit some in a state intermediate between recent and fossil 
from guano, the urinary and fcecal excrement of sea-birds. The 
silicious cases of the Diatomaceae which have been taken by the 
birds with their food, generally fish, who also have previously taken 
these Diatomacese as food, (most likely in eating seaweed on which 
they are always very abundant) were not acted upon at all by the 
alimentary secretions but passed out with the fceces unaltered ; besides 
which they were found in innumerable numbers in many strata of the 
earth in different localities, some of which would also be demonstrated. 
From their numbers both recent and fossil, and their peculiar inde- 
structible and often beautifully formed silicious cases they were a very 
interesting study, besides which, though their remains were so perma- 
nently preserved for an almost indefinite time, owing to then' inde- 
structible silicious cases, they were amongst the lowest organized 
beings, yet they possessed some motive power and have been placed by 
some naturalists in the animal kingdom. But this motive power in 
all of the lowest organized beings arose generally from cilia ; now 
these peculiar incessant motive organs were found on some particular 
part of many of the lowest organized beings both animal and vege- 
table and therefore were not recognized now as the distinctive character 
of an animal. The Diatomacese were now placed in the vegetable 
kingdom as they do not possess any internal assimilating or digestive 
organs. The great distinction between the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms (which is very well marked in the higher organized plants 
and animals) in the lower organized beings was this, the animal requires 
for its nourishment, its life, matter organized either by its own or 
vegetable processes, which it takes some way or other into 
the interior of its body, the vegetable for its nourishment, its life, 
possesses the power of obtaining it by absorbing the inorganic 
elements on its exterior. Wherever any organized beings under 
the influence of sun-light were found to decompose carbonic acid 
and to set free oxygen they might be ranked in the vegetable kingdom? 
however active their motions maybe from cilia or other unknown agents. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 85 

This peculiar power of vegetables was strikingly and instructively de- 
monstrated to us in an aquarium ; put fish in an aquarium and they 
soon die, though they may be well fed, if the water is not renewed, 
and this mortality arises from want of oxygen ; but put a water plant 
in the aquarium and the fish will live for days weeks and months with- 
out the water being changed, and this arises from the peculiar power 
the vegetable possesses of decomposing carbonic acid, appropriating the 
carbon to its own life and giving off oxygen for the support of the life 
of the fish. 

Mr. Jones and Dr. Crozier then exhibited numerous specimens of 
Diatomaeeas, Several members of the society having obligingly lent 
their microscopes for the occasion. 

The cordial thanks of the meeting were voted to Mr. Jones and 
Dr. Crozier. 

The Officiating Librarian submitted the usual monthly report. 


The Library had received the following accessions since the meeting in 
February last. 


Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, New Series, 
vol. 4th, Part 2nd. — By the Academy. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
1859. — By the Academy. 

Description of some Asiatic Lepidopterous Insects belonging to the tribe 
Bombyces. — By Frederic Moore. (From the proceedings of the Zoologi- 
cal Society of London, May 1859.) — By the Author. 

A Monograph of the Genus Adolias. — By Frederic Moore. (From the 
Trans. Ent. Society vol. 5, N. S., Part 2nd). — By the Author. 

Synopsis of the known Asiatic species of Silk-producing Moths with 
descriptions of some new species from India, 2 copies. — By Frederic 
Moore. (From the proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, June 
1859. — By the Author. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 15, Part 4, No. 60. 
— By the Editor. 

Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 22, Part 4. — By the 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. 3, No. 6. 
— By the Society. 

86 'Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

The Philosophical Magazine. Fourth Series, Kos. 122, 123, for Decem- 
ber 1859. — By the Editors. 

The Athenasura for November 1859. — By the Editor. 

Calcutta Christian Observer for February and March 1860. — By the 

Oriental Baptist for February and March I860. — By the Editor. 

Preliminary Map of India exhibiting the lines of Electric Telegraph in 
1860. — By Major Thuillier. 

Coal and Iron in the Punjab. — By the Public Works Department. 

Report on '.the Survey Operations in the Lower Provinces. — By the 
Bengal Government. 

Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. 54, New- 
Series. — By the Bombay Government. 

Selections from the Records of the Madras Government, No. 61. — By the 
Madras Government. 

Report on certain Projects. — Ditto Ditto. 

Magnetical and Meteorological observations made in 1858. — By the 
Superintendent, Bombay Government Observatory. 

Selections from the Public correspondence of the Punjab Government, 
vol. 4, No. 3. — By the Punjab Government. 

Bibidharta Sangraha, No. 60, for Choit. — By the Editor. 


Comptes Rendus. Tome 49, Nos. 16 to 23. 

Tables Des Comptes Rendus of Tome 48. 

Journal Des Savants for October 1859. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts for November 1859. 

Revue des Deux Mondes for 15th November and 1st Dec. 1859. 2 Nos. 

Das Leben Muhammed's, vols. 3 and 4. — By Dr. Ferdinand Wus- 


Lexicon Persico-Latinum — Fasciculi 6 of Part I and of Part II. 

Motanabbii Carmina cum Commentario Wahidii, Fasciculus 5. 

Journal Asiatique, No. 54, of Tome 14. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles No. 4, of Tome 11, Fourth Series. 

Revue de Zoologie, No. 10, 1859. 

The Natural History Review, vol. VI. No. 4. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History vol. 4, No. 24. 

The Literary Gazette Nos. 73 to 76- 

Darwin on the Origin of Species, 

Sir Emerson Tennent's Cevlon. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 87 

Report of Curator, Zoological Department. 

The following collections have been received : 

1. E. Swinhoe, Esq., of H. M. Consulate, Amoy. Numerous 
specimens of mammalia and birds, and some in other classes, addi- 
tional to the birds noticed in XXVIII, 280, — collected chiefly about 
Amoy, but some from Formosa ; and among the latter the skull and 
horns of an undescribed Stag, of the Elaphine type of Deer, which 
cannot but be regarded as an interesting discovery. 


Macactjs ? Skull of a young animal, sent as that of " the 

small Formosa Monkey." I am not aware that any species of Mon- 
key has been described from that island ; and the present specimen 
exhibits no special characteristic at so early an age, when the second 
true molars had not been developed. A Monkey of this genus (M. 
speciosus, F. Cuv.,) inhabits Japan. Mr. Swinhoe since writes — 
" The Macactjs from Formosa must have been at least two years 
old. I procured him in spring and kept him alive for several 
months. I have one still alive, with an unmutilated tail, which I 
will send you as ifc is, and you will be able to form your own views of 
the species from the living animal. It is very difficult to get an 
animal of the kind with a full tail, as the Chinese are in the habit 
of docking the tail before Europeans can get hold of them. This 
is the small species and inhabits the camphor forests of the Formosa 
mountains. Its colour is grey with pale uncler-parts, and it has yel- 
lowish-brown ej T es. The large species which frequents the rocks on 
the coast of Formosa, especially in the neighbourhood of SaJcoio or 
' Ape's hill,' is about twice the size and rather darker in colour (both 
have rough coats), with redder face, and with two bright red callosi- 
ties on the rump. This I take to be the Japanese animal, as also 
identical with the Monkeys found in the island of Lintin near Hong- 
kong, but this only on conjecture. The small species stands about 
2 ft. high, the larger about 3 ft. A sporting friend has lately gone 
over to Formosa, and having sent a stuffer with him, I hope to pro- 
cure some of these animals." — Qu. Has the very short tail of 
M. speciosus, as figured by M. Fr. Cuvier, been docked of its na- 
tural proportions? — Again, Mr. Swinhoe subsequently writes — 

88 Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Xo. 1, 

" I have ascertained that the large Formosa Monkey is identical 
with the Japanese one, and it will therefore stand as M. speciostts. 
The small kind, which I am ahout to send you alive, is undoubtedly 
distinct and probably new. The large are found on the coast, the 
small in the forests of the interior of the island.* 

Nycticejus (?) Swinhoei, nobis, n. s. I can find no description 
of a Bat at all applicable to this species ; and can discover in the 
specimen no trace of upper incisors. It is rather a robustly formed 
Bat, with the alar membrane continued to the base of the toes ; with 
unusually short linguiform tragus, and short anti-helix. Fur mostly 
straight and silky, even glossy above, but a little frizzled on the fore- 
head and about the neck ; its surface-colour on the upper-parts an 
umbre-brown with pale tips, below much paler and a little albescent; 
membranes dark, with numerous transverse stripes of minute hairs 
on the lower surface of the interfemoral ; the extreme tip of the tail 
exserted. Head and body about 1\ in. long, the tail \\ in. ; expanse 
about 12 in. : length of fore-arm 2 in. ; longest finger 2>\ in. ; tarse 
\\ in. ; hind-foot with claws \ in. ; ears (posteriorly) about -f- in. in 
the fresh specimen ; tragus barely f in. This with other species not 
expressly stated to be from Formosa, I conclude are from Amoy. 

Scotophii/us pumiloides, R. F. Tomes, Ann. Mag. N. K., XX. 
(1857), p. 228. After much consideration, I think this small species 
is correctly identified. 

Canis (eamiliaris). Skull of a short-faced Dog, from Formosa, 
minus the lower jaw and wanting several of the upper teeth. 

C. (familiakis). Skull of another short-faced Dog, of smaller 
size, and similarly imperfect, from Amoy, — most remarkable for pos- 
sessing no second true molar, nor space for its insertion.f 

* The living monkey lias arrived just as this sheet was going to press. It is a 
half-grown female, and differs in no respect (that I can perceive) from the common 
M. Eadiatus of the peninsula of India, except in being a shade or tvro darker iu 
colouring, with a nigrescent wash on the face and ears. 

+ The Tiger is an occasional visitor in the island of Amoy. In a letter from 
Mr. Swinhoe, dated Nov. 21st, 1859, he writes — " I have, since my last, met 
with little of interest except a Royal Tiger of large size in a Chiuese village. I 
attacked him at close quarters with a fowling-piece and made him bleed ; but to 
avoid an awkward spring at me, I fell down a precipice and nearly killed myself. 
No assistance being at hand and the Chinese not daring to come near the beast, 
I need not tell you that I missed getting his skin. One was killed last year at 
Amoy, and I once bought a cub out of three that a Chinese had for sale, but I 
never met the brutes before in my rambles. I was out after specimens, and was 
not of course provided with ball ; my stock being only shot and cartridges. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 89 

Mustela sibieica, Pallas : M. Hodgsoni, Gray, Ann. Mag. N. II., 
XI (1843), p. 118. A fine skin of a female, and an imperfect skull. 

Soeex MURiNUS (?), L. : S. Swinhoei, nobis, J. A. S. XXVIII, 
285. The specimen formerly described was but half- grown, and has 
the surface-colour of the upper-parts much darker than in four adults 
now sent. In the young of S. mueinus, Dr. Cantor states (J. A. S. 
XV, 191), that " the colour is more of a bluish grey, slightly mixed 
with brown on the back." In the young of our present animal, the 

When I reflect on this adventure, it seems a wonder that I was not killed, but a 
Bight of that glossy striped skin emboldened me to try the odds." I sincerely 
trust that my esteemed friend will admit " discretion" to be " the better part of 
valour" on any future similar occasion. He since writes (Jan. 5th) — " Tigers, 
I am told, are greatly increasing in the neighbouring high hills. The villagers 
report a number of lives lost ; and numerous small cattle carried away." 

Tigers appear to be very troublesome in the new Russian territory of the 
Amur. " In the same places where the Elk is found, the Tiger prowls ; and the 
latter animal may be called quite common, its constant abode being there. I was 
informed by some Zolons, that there are always a great number of Tigers in the 
mountains on the opposite or Chinese side. During winter they cross the river 
and seize the horses of the Zolons, who hunt them at that time." Journ. Roy. 
Geogr. Soc. XXVIII (1858), p. 420. Again, p. 424. " The enquiries I made of 
those few Tunguses confirmed the fact of the Tiger being found all over the 
Hing-gan, especially at its central and lower parts. The population are accord- 
ingly prevented from hunting there, as the Tiger destroys their Horses, parti- 
cularly during winter.*** The Tiger always follows the fresh tracks of the wild 
Boar, which constitutes its principal food. "...And p. 440, " The inhabitants of 
both banks of the Usuri are employed in agriculture, which the extent and fecun- 
dity of their lands render very successful. They have bred cattle for cultivating 
their fields, but being often attacked by Tigers, it is very difficult to keep cattle 
in any number." Vide also Atkinson's Siberia, and Humboldt's notice of Tigers 
in Northern Asia in Asie Centrale. However, they do not quite range to 
America, albeit the poet Campbell places them on the banks of Lake Erie! " On 
Erie's banks where Tigers steal along." Nor to Africa ; though Sir Walter Scott 
locates them in "Lybia!" (Bridal of Triermain.) The Russian Expedition 
employed on the Survey of Lake Aral, found them troublesome even there in 
mid-winter! (Vide J. Ii. Qeog. S. Vol. XXIII, 95). 

Here it may be remarked that Tigers appear to be fast multiplying in Pinang, 
where notices of the occurrence of this animal have several times appeared in the 
Journals from about the middle of 1859. In the Island of Singapore, where 
they are now so numerous and destructive, they made their first appearance five 
or six years after the establishment of the British settlement; and but three or 
four years ago, Dr. Oxley wrote— " The channel between Pinang and the main 
is two miles broad; and this has been sufficient to exclude the Tiger: for 
although there have been examples of individuals having crossed over, it has 
been in an exhausted state, and they have been immediately destroyed." Since 
this was written, the Tiger would appear to have fairly established itself on the 

In another communication, dated Dec. 8th, Mr. Swinhoe notices two other 
species of Eelis. He remarks — "AwildEuLls is found in Hongkong marked 
like the domestic Cat, but much larger ; and an animal known to Anglo-Chinese 
as the 'Tiger cat.'" From the description sent, evidently F. JIACKOCJELIS, or 
F. MACuoCELOiDES if this bo distinct, or an animal very closely akin : a specimen 
is promised shortly. 


90 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

brown of the upper-parts all but totally conceals the dark grey : in 
the adults the brown tips are much less developed, and there is 
scarcely any difference in colour above and below. The largest spe- 
cimen (a skin) has the tarse f in. A female skin in spirit measures 
about 5 in., with the tail nearly 3 in. ; tarse plus f in. Amoy.* 

S. ? The young of a large species of Shrew, which at first 

sight might be deemed an albino, but on closer examination is seen 
to be of a very albescent grey colour, which is probably typical. Ex- 
tremely doubtful as a leucoid variety of the preceding. 

Sciurus castaneoventeis, Gray, Br. Mus. Catal. : Sc. griseopec- 
tus, nobis, J. A. S. XVI, 873. 


M. elavescens, Gray. Not full-grown apparently. 

M. ? A diminutive species seemingly; rather than the 

young of a Mouse affined to M. musculus ; approximating the de- 
scription of M. vagus, Pallas, only the tail is of the same length as 
the head and body. Entire length about 4 inches only ; the tarse with 
toes -f inch, or decidedly long in proportion. Ear-conch as in M. 
MUSCULUS ; but more clad with small hairs within. It is not de- 
sirable to name it from a single skin. 

Ceevus taiouanus, nobis, n. s.f The ' Spotted Deer' of China has 
been currently but vaguely identified with the Axis or ' Spotted Deer' 
of India ; but I have long doubted the correctness of that identifica- 
tion. The question is completely decided, so far at least as the Deer 
of the island of Formosa is concerned — and I am tolerably sure that 
this is the (imported ?) ' Spotted Deer' of China, — by a skull now sent 
by Mr. Swinhoe, which belongs strictly to the JSlapltine and not to the 
Acoine group of Deer : being the smallest and southernmost in its 
distribution of that group, the northern tropic crossing the middle of 
the island, and the southern cape of Formosa lying in about the same 

* I have since obtained what seems to be the same species from the vicinity of 
Calcutta ; and Major Tytler assures me that he has several specimens collected 
at Barrackpore : but it seems distinct from a still darker Shrew sent from S. 
Malabar, my dubious S. vibidescens, J. A. S. XXVIII, 2S5. More extensive 
comparison of the skulls, especially, is needed to determine the identity or non- 
identity of these Shrews from various localities satisfactorily. I had long been 
assured of the existence of a large black Shrew in Lower Bengal, which the natives 
imagine to be fearfully venomous ! 

t This name is suggested by Mr. Swinhoe, in reference to the island's name of 
Taiwan, seu Formosa. 

1SG0.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 91 

parallel as our Bengal Sandheads. All that Mr. Swinhoe says of the 
animal is that " the Formosa Deer are of a reddish colour with 
white spots, and may probably be the Indian species." The spots, 
I suspect, indicate the summer coat of the animal, as in various other 
species more or less (e. g. our Indian Bar a- sing' ha and Hog Deer, the 
European Fallow Deer, &c), and are not permanent at all seasons as 
in the Axis.* Whether in the details of the skull, or in the ramifi- 
cation of the horns, there can be no hesitation about the affinities of 
the Formosan Deer. It has well developed upper canines, which are 
wanting in the Axis ; and the same large round infra-orbital foramina 
as in C. elaphtjs and its immediate congeners. The skull is indeed 
a diminutive of that of 0. elaphtjs : but while all the permanent 
teeth are complete and well worn down (far more so than in an Axis 
skull with fully developed horns), the horns might be supposed to 
indicate an immature animal, and their pedicles are elongated as in a 
two or three, year old C. elaphtjs ! Either, therefore, the skull is that 
of an aged animal with declining horns, which is scarcely consistent 
with the condition of the frontal and other sutures (any more than with 
the length of the horn-pedicles, as compared with other species), or 
the horns may be supposed to represent the typical development, cor- 
responding to that occasional in a young animal of the larger typical 
Stags ! They are little longer than the skull, do not spread much, 
and incline inwards at the tips ; are slender, and the branches or 
antlers are mere snags ; there is no ' bez-antler,' as commonly in 
young C. EEAPHUS and constantly (?) in C. babbartjs ;f but the 

* In a letter received as this was going to press, Mr. Swinhoe describes the 
animal in its winter vesture. " The Stag from the north I only know from 
hearsay. A species from Japan a neighbour has in keeping, and this 1 take to be 
true C. SIKA. Both are evidently distinct from the Formosan species, of which 
a fine male and female are lodged in quarters close to my house. A young male 
has just been shipped for Leyden. 1 give a few remarks as to the peculiarities 
of the living pair. They were too wild to permit of my taking exact measure- 
ments of them. The buck stands about 4 ft. from the forehead to the ground ; 
the doc 3 ft. The buck has horns of about a foot long, with three anterior snags 
and one posterior. General tint reddish mouse-colour, with a black dorsal line 
from the shoulders to the tail, where it expands into the latter T (as it were), 
the buttocks beneath it and each side of the short tail being pure white. Inside 
of ears, base of the back of cars, under muzzle, throat, belly and inner thighs, 
also white. The top of the head is redder. Some long whitish hair on the throat 
and between the legs : a roundish tuft of long while hair on the outer side of 
each tibia. These last characters are more prominent in the buck/' 

f In the series of horns of C. eiapiius figured in Prof. T. Bell's ' History of 
British Quadrupeds,' the' bez-antler' is omitted throughout! 

N 2 

92 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

beam is trifid, the first or lowest snag being external and inclining 
forward (representing the ' royal-antler'), beyond which the final divi- 
sion is transverse to the axis of the body. Extreme length of horn 
(measured by callipers) 13 in. ; greatest distance of pair apart (mea- 
sured externally) 11 in. ; tips apart 7-f in. ; girth of beam, above 
frontal snag, 2f in. ; length of skull, inclusive of lower jaw in situ, 
lOf in. ; extreme breadth of orbits (posteriorly) 4| in. : upper series 
of molars 3 in. 

There is a C. sika, Schlegel {Fauna Japonica, t. 17), from Japan, 
cited by Dr. J. E. Gray (P. Z. 8. 1850, p. 228), and thus briefly 
noticed by him. " Dark brown ; cheeks and throat rather paler ; 
rump brown, without any pale spot ; tail pale, white beneath ; hair 
harsh ; horns rather slender, with a basal and a medial snag, and a 
subapical internal one." This description of the horn suits very well 
the Formosan animal ; but the size is unnoticed, which could hardly 
be were C. sika to be comparatively so small an animal as C. taotja- 
htts, and it may be, judging from Dr. Gray's mode of describing the 
horn, that the JElaphine type of ramification is a degree more deve- 
loped in the Japanese species. He does not, however, mention the 
age of the animal he describes ; and it is quite possible that it may 
temporarily represent, at a certain age, the particular development of 
horn which in C. taouanus is characteristic of maturity. The 
colouring described may very well be that of the winter coat of the 
little Stag of Formosa.* 

* Mr. Swinhoe since writes — " A Stag has just arrived here from the north, 
and is in the possession of a gentleman next door to me. It stands nearly 3 ft. 
at the shoulder, has a short head, and horns about 10 or 11 in. long, shaped 
thus *** Its face and over the eyes are black, neck and ears blackish-grey. 
Median line of back black, blending on the sides with blackish chesnut. Legs 
black, getting grey towards the hoof. Tail and buttocks white." Pretty clearly 
the Siberian Roe, Capeeolus pygaegus, (Pallas). But what is the so called 
' Roebuck' of the Amur territory, noticed in the ' Journal of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society,' Vol. XXVIII, 397 (1858) ?— Ceevus Wallichii, or a kindred spe- 
cies ? " The Roe-buck," we are told, " is an animal resembling the Elk, but has 
a smaller body, although the head is comparatively larger [!] Its flesh is savoury 
and nutritious ; but the principal value of this animal lies in its horns, which 
contain at a certain period of the year — -1 think in March — a marrow [!], of 
peculiar medicinal properties, which is highly prized by the Chinese, who at the 
best season of the year, pay as much as sixty roubles (91. 10s.) for a pair of good 
horns," &c. &c. This animal is mentioned in addition to "the Elk," the common 
Roe, and others. 

Further particulars of the Chinese Deer have again since been received from Mr. 
Swinhoe, dated Dec. 8th, 1859. " The skull I sent you," he remarks, " was that 
of an elderly buck, one of a pair in the possession of a gentleman here. It died 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 93 

Cebttjlus Eeetesii, (Ogilby). The small Chinese Muntjac. A 
skull with horns. 

Masts pestadacttla, L. Skull and flat skin. This particular 
species of Pangolin has long been identified as an inhabitant of China, 
and was obtained by Dr. Cantor in Chusan.* 

while in his care, and its skin was so worthless that I did not keep it. The doe 
is still alive and in good health, and from her personal appearance I observe that 
your surmise as to the summer duration of the white spots is quite correct. 
She has already nearly lost all the white marks. I hear that there are several 
more of the same species, in the possession of a Mandarin here, and I intend 
shortly visiting him to inspect them. As far as I have yet ascertained, the species 
is purely Formosan. A larger Stag replacing it in Shantung and North China 
with large branching horns, and having a redder coat [i. e. summer vesture]. 
This other species I am assured is also found in Formosa, but this requires con- 
firmation. The small Muntjac (Ceetuiits .Reevesii), ' kina' of this dialect, is 
abundant in Formosa, having myself met with it there and seen skins. The 
other Deer-skins shewn me on my tour round Formosa were all of the spotted 
species. You say that no Elapliine Deer are found [in India] south of the 
Himalayas. Let me remark that this Deer is from Formosa, where I have seen 
mountains covered tcith snoto in summer; and it is most probable that these 
animals are sold by the savages to the Chinese settlers, as in our inland tour over 
the hills for some 40 miles we met none, and the Chinese spoke of them as com- 
ing from the mountains, and of their skins as forming articles of barter. 

" We have a Japanese Deer at Amoy witli horns short and somewhat like 
those of the Formosan. It is not so elegant as mine, shorter in the legs, about 
the same height, and of a far more Stag aspect. This I doubt not is the C. sika 
of Schlegel, but what our large northern Stag can be I have not had the opportu- 
nity to ascertain. There are a few of the horns of the Formosan species to 
be got, which I will try to procure for you." 

* The Chinese, like the natives of India, class the Pangolin as a fish, and it is 
curious that both people approximate it to certain Carps. Thus in India this 
animal is known as the JungU-match (Jungle-fish), or Ban Rohi (Jungle Rohi), 
in reference to the Rohita vulgaris, or Cyprinus rohita of B. Hamilton. In 
some amusing notices of Chinese Natural History, published in the ' Chinese 
Repository' for 1838, we find the Pangolin thus described (p. 48). " The 
ling-le, or ' Hill Carp,' is so called, says the Pun Tsaou, because its shape and 
appearance resembles that of the le or Carp ; and since it resides on land, in caves 
and hills, it is called Ling, a character compounded of yu fish, joined to the right 
half of ling, a high rocky place. It has by some been termed the Lung-le, or 
' Dragon-carp,' because it has the scales of the Dragon ; and by others Chaen 
shan teas, or ' boring hill-scales,' because it is the scaly animal that burrows in the 
hills : the last name is the one by which the creature is best known among the 
people of Canton. An ancient name is Shih ling yu or ' stony hill-fish,' given to 
it because the scales on its tail have three corners like the ling tea, or 'water 
calthrops,' and are very hard. Tins animal, for which the Chinese have as many 
synonyms as some anomalous Perch or Hedysarum, is the Manis, Pangolin, or 
Scaly Ant-eater, and is often seen in the hands of the people of Canton, by whom 
it is regarded as a very curious ' muster.' They consider it as ' a fish out of water,' 
an anomaly irreconcilable with any classification ; and in the standard treatises on 
Natural History, it is placed among the Crocodiles and fishes." Further details 
are given ; but I pass to an amusing description of this animal by the old Dutch 
traveller Linschoten, translated into quaint old English. He, too, describes it as 
" a strange Indian fish," caught in the river of Goa, — " the picture whereof, 
by commandment of the Archbishop of that city was painted, and for a wonder 
sent to the king of Spaine." He says : — " It was in bignesse as great as a middle- 

94 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No, 1, 

sized Dog, with a snout like a Hog, small eyes, no eares [the particular specie3 
has a small ear-conch], but two lobes where his eares should be ; it had foure feete 
like an Elephant, the tayle beginning somewhat upon the backe, broad and then 
flat, and at the very end round and somewhat sharpe. It ranne along the hall 
upon the floore, and in every place in the house snorting like a Hog. The whole 
body, tayle, and legs being covered with scales of a thumbe breadth, harder than 
iron or steel [!]. We hewed and layed upon them with weapons, as if men should 
beate upon an anvill, and when we strooke upon him, he rouled himself in a heape, 
head and feet together, so that he lay like a round ball, we not being able to 
judge whether he closed himself together, neyther could we with any instrument 
or strength of hands open him againe, but letting him alone and not touching 
him, he opened himself and ranne away, as I said before." 

So little is known of the mammalia of China that any contribution on the 
subject is of interest to zoologists, There is an animal known at Shanghai as the 
c Musk Cat,' which I suspect is a species of Marten unknown to naturalists. It 
is thus described : — 

" A beautiful animal, of about the size of the common Cat, but longer in form ; 
in fact, somewhat resembling the Marten, with a long bushy tail, like the brush 
of a Fox. Emits an exceedingly powerful and by no means disagreeable musky 
odour. Lives in holes of the ground, and also climbs into trees and bushes in 
search of birds and their nests. Exceedingly destructive to the Pheasants (Pha- 
SlANtrs toeqttatus) when sitting ; and is much hunted by the natives for its 
fur." Bengal Sporting Magazine, n. s. II, 642 (1845). Probably identical with 
the " large Marten" of the Amur territory noticed in Jonm. Boy. Geogr. Soc, 
XXVIII (1858), p. 424. 

Again, in the bird class, there is a Chinese Bustard well known to sportsmen 
from Amoy and also to the northward, but which has not yet been systematically 
described, so far as I can learn. The following is a notice of it from the same 
paper, p. 529. 

" A species of Bustard, somewhat like the common mottled English Turkey, 
only smaller. These birds are generally found singly, at least during the time 
we were there (November and the winter months being the season in which we 
beat for them) : they are exceedingly shy and difficult of approach, and are 
usually found in the long grass and fir-clumps : they seem to rise with difficulty, 
running a considerable distance preparatory to their taking wing, during which 
time they call and cackle, which seems extraordinary, a3 they are generally found 
as odd birds." Mr. Swinhoe is well aware of the existence of this Bustard, but 
hitherto has been unable to procure a specimen, on account of the estimation in 
which it is held for the table. 

For the same reason, comparatively few skins of Bustards are preserved any- 
where, especially of the larger species ; and so it happened that the Great Bus- 
tard of Australia, though met with even by Cook and repeatedly mentioned by 
Flinders and other early navigators, remained unknown to European naturalists 
until Mr. Gould's visit to that country ! Capt. Cook, it may not be remembered, 
on his first voyage, proceeding northward from Botany Bay, lauded a second 
time on the continent of Australia, a little to the south of the Tropic of Capri- 
corn, and there he shot " a kind of Bustard weighing 17 lbs.," and named the 
landing-j)lace Bustard Bay ! 

From a notice published in the ' Journal of the Royal Geographical Societv,' 
Vol. XXVIII, 148 (1858), it appears that—" Of birds, the black and the white 
Cockatoos, bronze-winged Pigeons of various kinds, and the Bustard (or ' wild 
Turkey' of the colonists), were all found in the valley of the Victoria, but they 
were all much smaller than their kindred of the south." Probably, therefore, dis- 
tinct species, according to the common acceptation of the phrase, or such as 
would be figured as different species by Mr. Gould. 

In a collection of Chinese paintings of birds, among numerous species at once 
recognisable, was one of a very fine BoNASA or ' Buffed Grouse,' as yet unde- 
scribed. The collection referred to was taken to England by the late Viscount 

1,860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 05 


Circus ? Female. Affined in general appearance to C. mujj- 

gexosus, but apparently distinct. Mr. Swinhoe writes — " I have at 
last succeeded in procuring what I take to be the male of this spe- 
cies, bluish-grey on the wings and white on the under-parts with a 
few streaks. C. cyajs'eus is also common with us. 

Buxeo vulgaris, Bechstein ; B. vulgaris, var. japonicus, Tem- 
minck and Schlegel (apud ISwinhoe), though why so distinguished I 
cannot perceive. 

Milvus alelakotis ; Saliaetus melanotis, Gray, Hardw. 111. Ind. 
Zool. Like M. goventja, Sjkes, but having a stouter beak, and the 
plumage of the mature bird marked with pale streaks on the upper- 

Ctpselus ? Like C. afeenis, Gray, of India, but with the 

crown and tail conspicuously blacker, and the tail distinctly sub- 

Cortus sinensis, Gould ; Horsfield, Ind. Mas. Catal., II, 556. 
Exceedingly near to the common C. culminatus, Sykes, of India, 
Burma, and the Malayan peninsula, but decidedly larger, and I now 
doubt if either can be correctly identified with C. orientalis, Evers- 
mann, of Middle Asia.f 

* For other Chinese hirds sent, vide Vol. XXVIII, p. 280. 

f C. obie>"Ta:li3 is thus distinguished by Prof. Eversmann from the European 
C. cobone, of which latter the late Dr. Horsfield notes in his Catalogue two 
specimens from Pushut, and also C. CORNIX from Mesopotamia and Afghanistan ! 

" Coevfs Coeone. Cceruleo ater, rostro modice acuminato, lined elevatd hori- 
zontali infra nares, tomium in rostri medio attingente. 

" Cosvrs 0SIENTAXI3. Caruleo-ater, rostro valido, crassiusculo , incurvo, to- 
miis continue invohitis, mandibulari apice recto, spatio inter nares et tomium max- 
illare rotundato, Icevi. 

" JExemplai-ia mea circa fluvium Narym, ultra oppidam JBuchtarma, occisa sunt." 
(Addenda ad celeberrimi Pallasii ZoograpJiiam Rosso-asiaticum. Fasciculus II, 
A. D. 1841.) 

Over India generally and Ceylon, we have only C. ctjiminattjs and C. splen- 
DEXS ; the latter found exclusively where there is a considerable human popu- 
lation. It is only of late years that C. splendens has found its way into Ara- 
kan ; but in Pegu there is a black race of it, and a nearly black race of it in 
Ceylon. Mr. F. Moore, however, describes a C. tenuieosteis from Bombay. 
" Plumage above glossy purple-black, palest on the head, neck, back, and body 
beneath, and these having an ashy cast; forehead jet-black, and contrasting with 
the ashy cast of plumage of the crown. Length 18 in.; of wing i%\ in.; tail 
7 in. ; bill to gape 24 in. ; and tarse 2j in." 

C. cuLiriXATtrs we have received from Malacca, where it co-exists with C. 
maceoehtnchos, Vieillot, a species with remarkably long and slender bill, mea- 
suring 2 J in. to gape ; and this again appeal's to differ from C. ENCA, tlortffield, 

06 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1 

C. toeqtjattjs, Cuv. : C. pectoralis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 18 ; 
G. dominicanus, Bonap. ; G. dauricus apud G. P. Gray, Gen. Birds, 
II, 315. 

Pica media, nobis : P. sericea, Gould. 

Pabus minob, Temminck and Schlegel (figured in Gould's ' Birds 
of Asia'). Like P. cineeeus, Vieillot, but with green on the fore-part 
of the back. 

Lefcodiopteon canoeum, SchifF. ; Turdus canorus, T. sinensis, 
et Laiiius faustus, L. ; Garrulax sinensis apud Gray, nee G. chi- 
nensis, nobis, Catal. No. 483, which is a Tenasserim species, doubtful 
if likewise inhabiting China. Fowchow. 

Gaeeulax perspicillatus, (Gm.) 

Temenuchus cinebaceus, (Tem.) 

Passee montands, (L.), var. Although alike in size and mark- 
ings, specimens of this bird from different regions are readily distin- 
guishable. The British are much darker ashy underneath, like P. 
DOMESTICUS as compared with its Indian representative ; those from 
Arakan are considerably more rufous on the back ; while the Chinese 
race is simply whiter underneath than the European. The Sikhim 
race, if I remember rightly, resembles the Chinese one; while speci- 
mens from Singapore and Java are probably like those from Arakan. 
I have never seen this bird from the N. W. Himalaya ; and the 
Afghan P. montanus of Capt. T. Button proved to be P. salici- 
COLUS (v. Jiispaniolensis) . Nevertheless, in Dr. Horsfield's Catalogue, 
examples of the present species are noted from Kandahar. 

Euspiza peesonata, (Tem.) Specimen of a female. 

Alatjda gttlgula (?), Franklin ; A. ccelivox, Swinhoe, ' Zoologist,' 
p. 6723 (1859). I have only recently seen the true A. malabaeica, 
Scopoli, from S. India, which differs from A. gulgula of Bengal and 

of Java, according to Mr. F. Moore's description and admeasurements of the 

In the N. W., the true British Raven (0. corax) is common in the Punjab 
and Afghanistan ; but is replaced by a still larger race in Tibet, the C. tibeta- 
HTJS, Hodgson. In Peshawur, Kohat, Afghanistan, and Kashmir, the European 
Rook (C. fbttgilegus) occurs ; and in Kashmir also the European Jackdaw (C. 
Moneduia) ; but the Chinese and Japanese Rook (C. pastinatob, Gould,) is 
distinct, and also the Chinese Jackdaw (0. dauricus, Pallas). The Hooded 
Crow (C. corkix) extends eastward to Afghanistan, and the European Carrion 
Crow (C. cobone) to Pushur, as noticed in the text. 

1S60.] Proceedings of tne Asiatic Society of Bengal. 97 

Upper India, by having a well developed pointed crest, as in the 
Galeribj:. An Amoy specimen approximates the true gulgula. 

Motacilla lugubris, Pallas (apu.d Swinhoe") : M. luzoniensis in 
winter dress apud nos, J. A. S. XXVIII, 2S0 : but very like M. alba 
(vera) in winter dress. 

Laistcs schach, Gmelin. 

Drtmoica extexsicaeda, Swinhoe, n. s. ~*\ These have been 

Prixia sonitaxs, Swinhoe, n. s. { described by Mr. 

Orthotonus phylloraphees, Swinhoe, n. s. f Swinhoe in an 

Cisticola tutkabulans, n. s. (?) J article on the 

birds of Amoy forwarded to the Society for publication. 

Merela maxbariwa, Bonap. 

Ture-es reebles, Drapiez (T. modesties, Eyton). Var. ? 

T. BATjLiAS, Tern, et Schl., Fauna Japonica (apud Swinhoe). To 
me this appears to be a mere variety of the last. 

Petrocosstphbs manillensis, (G-m.) 

Peatincola indica, nobis. 

Eettheosterna lebcbra, (Gm.) 

Zaxthopygia narcissixa, (Tern.) : Z. chrysoplirys, nobis, J. A. S. 
XVI, 124. Male, differing from the female described (loc. cit.) by the 
much brighter and more flame-coloured tint of the yellow generally, 
which on the ehin and throat is of a deep orange-colour ; the differ- 
ence, however, being far less than in the sexes of Z. tricolor, (Hart- 
laub), v. Z. leucoplirys, nobis, of the Malayan peninsula. 

Cerreca(?) caktillans, Swinhoe. 

Acrocephaltjs magnirostris, Swinhoe, n. s : Salicaria turdiim 
orientalis, T. et SchL (apud Swinhoe). 

Phyllosgopus sylviceltrlx, Swinhoe, n. s. 

Ph. texellipes, Swinhoe, n. s. 

Pericrocotbs cixereus, Strickland, fcem. Amoy. 

Pycxoxotus atricapilles, (Vieillot), apud Lord A. Hay, Madr. 
Journ. XIII, pt. II, 160 ;* nee JEgithina atricapilla, Vieillot, which 
is another Pycnonotbs from Ceylon, the Sylvia nigricapilla, Drapiez, 
Bubigula aberrans, nobis, J. A. S. XV, 287, XVI, 272, and G. me- 
ropinus, Bonap., — Levaillant, Ois. d? Afr. pi. 140, where much too 
dully coloured). The Chinese species being le Gobc-mouche a tete 
* If I mistake not, Muscicapa atricapilla of Vieillot (nee Lin.) 


98 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

noire de la Cliine of Sonnerat, described J. A. S. XIV, note to p. 
589, also Hcematornis chrgsorrhoides, Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. &c. 

1845, p. 367, and P. hcemorrhous apud Hartlaub, Rev. Zool. &c. 

1846, p. 1. I have no means of determining upon which, of the two 
species M. Vieillot first bestowed the name ateicapillus ; but as 
both cannot bear it in the same genus, I propose to retain ateica- 
pillus, (Vieillot), for the Chinese bird, and nigeicapillus, (Drapier,) 
for that of Ce_ylon.* 

P. sinensis, (Gmelin) : Tardus occipitalis, Tern. 
Obiolus chinensis, Gmelin. 


Teinga alpina, L. ; Te. subabquata, (Gm.), apud nos. XVIII, 

Buphus caboga, (Pennant). 

Ardeola speciosa, (Horsfield, vera), in summer and winter dress. 

Aedetta sinensis, (Gm.) 

Lartjs euscus, L. 

L. kittlitzii (?), Bruch : Gavia kittlitzii (?), Bonap. 

Thalasseus pelicanoides, (King): Sterna cristata, Stephens (nee 
Swainson) ; St. velox, Ruppell. Specimens from the Bay of Bengal, 
the Maldives, and from China, appear to be perfectly identical ; and 
correspond, so far as can be adjudged, with Buppell's figure. 

Anous stolida, (Gm.) 

Pojdiceps ceistatus, L. "Winter dress. 

P. minob, Gm. (or P. philippensis, Gm., if thi3 be considered 
separable). "Winter dress. 


Python molubtjs, (L.) A flat skin, more than 13 feet long 
without the head, from Pormosa ! 

Bungabus multicinctus, nobis, n. s. Another fiat skin, obviously 
of a Bungabus, nearly affined to B. easciatus, (Schneider) ; but 
the golden bands only one-sixth as broad as the black bands, and 
numbering more than fifty in a specimen 4 it. in length minus the 

* The late Prince of Canine- proposed the generic name Meeopixus for the 
Ceylon species. 

t Mr. Swinhoe writes, Dec. 8th — "In Davis's 'China,' II, 333, mention is 
made of a very poisonous striped black and xvhite Snake having reached England 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlw Asiatic Society of Bengal. 99 

A few marine and fresh -water shells, already in the museum with 
the exception of a small Ltaix-Ea and a minute Planoebis. 

2. From E. L. Layard, Esq., on behalf of the Government Mu- 
seum, Cape-town. 

A fine collection of skins of mammalia and birds ; those quite new 
to the museum being here distinguished by an asterisk prefixed. 


Cyxocepiiaixs poecaeius, (Bodd.) The Cape Baboon, or Cliac- 
ma. Adult male. 

*Xa>"thaepyia hottentota, (Tern.) 

# Megalotis caama, (A. Smith). 

*Peoteles ceistatcs, (Sparrman). Tail wanting. 

*Ge>'etta tigei> t a, (Schn.) 2. 

*Heepesies ichstjemo^, (L.J : Ichn. Pharaonis, Geoff. 

*H. caffeb, Wagner. 

*H. paltjdostjs, Cuv. : Mangusta urinatrix, A. Smith. 

*Felis seeval, Schreber. 

*F. cafea, Desmarest. 


*Chetsochloeis holoseeicea, Licht. : CJir. hottentota, A. Smith.* 
Xeefs setosus, (Forster). 
# Geebelltjs apee, Gray. 2. 
*Mtjs prinEUS, Sparrman. 2. 
Bathyeegtts maeitmtjs, (Gm.) 3. 

from Canton. This must be our Btj^gaetjs which you propose to name mtjlti- 
Ci>"CTC3. Its venom is indeed poisonous, and a gentleman at Swatow was nearly- 
dying from the effects of the bite of one that had concealed itself in his room. 
It haunts sewers and chinks in the jetties and such places, where it subsists on 
Eats. It is not by any means common, but in very high tides the overflowing 
water often drives these animals from their holes and lurking-places ; but they 
are difficult to procure as the natives are paid to attack them. It is called here 
the Piva-ke-lca and Hoiu-swanchwa ('umbrella snake')." I should say, both 
ffom the name ' Umbrella Snake' and from the habits indicated, that a Cobra 
(Xaia) was intended ; and, so far as I am aware, the nearly affined Bungaktjs 
iasciattts subsists entirely on other Snakes, of which it is a great devourer; 
hence it is styled Rdj-sdmjp by the natives of Bengal, as realizing their idea of the 
attributes and prowess of a ruler ! 

* A species previously in the museum, presented by Major W. S. Sherwill and 
considered heretofore as Chi. holoseeicea, proves to be Chl. damakensis. 
Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1838, p. 5. 


100 'Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

*Geoehychus capensis, (Pallas). 

G. CiECTJTIENS, (Licht.) 

*Leptjs saxatilis, F. Cuv. 


Htrax capensis, Pallas. 

Oeeoteagus saltateix, (Bodd.). ' Klip-springer.' 
# Caloteagus helanotis, (Thunb.) ' Grys-bok.' 
*C. teagulus, (Forst.) ' Stein-bok.' 
*Eleoteagus capeeolus, (Thunb.) ' Eey-bok.' 
*Cephalophus geimmia, (L.) apud Gray (mergens, Blainville). 
< Duiker-bok.' 

*C. monticoltjs, (Thunb.) ' Blau-bok.' 
Oeycteeopus capensis, Geoffroy. ' Aard-vark.' 


*Serpentaeius seceetaeius, (Scop.) 

Tinntjnculus eupicolus, (Daud.) 2. 

*Buteo jackal, (Daud.) 2. 

Bubo (?) maculosus, (Vieillot). Identical in species with the 
Somali specimen correctly referred to Bubo (?) africanus, (Tem.), in 
J. A. S. XXIV, 298, though very differently coloured. Mr. G. E. 
Gray notes this species both from S. and W. Africa. 

Steix elammea, L. 

LjEmodon nigee, (Tem.) 

Ttjeacus peesa, (L.) 

*Coevus capensis, (Licht.) 

Pyeomelana capensis, (L.) Male in winter dress. 

Hyphantoenis aurierons, (Tem.) 

H. ? With yellow crown and under-parts, black forehead, 

cheeks, chin and throat ; upper-parts greenish-yellow, with dusky 
striae ; wing-edgings whitish, forming two cross-bands. Wing 3 J in.* 

# Serinits canicollis, (Sw.), 2. ' Cape Canary.' 

*Aeaeda magnirostris, (Stephens). 

*Ageodeoma sordida (? Ruppell). 2. Bill shorter and hind- 

* Perhaps H. melanotis, (Lafresnaye), Mag. de Zool. 1839, pi. 7 (which I 
have not for reference) ; but not melanotis, (Sw.), which = PEHSokata, (Vieillot) ; 
nor melanotis, Ohierin, hodie Gueklni, Gr. K. Gray. 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlw Asiatic Society of Bengal. 101 

claw longer than in KuppelTs figure of his Anthus sordidus, the 
Litter also rather longer than in specimens from Abyssinia and from 
the Punjab Salt Range (vide J. A. S. XXIV, 258). The latter are 
also a shade more rufescent, have less distinct pale supercilia, and the 
penultimate tail-feather has a well defined pale mark at tip, which is 
not the case with the Cape specimens. 

Lanius coeiaris, L. 2. 

Tjelophots bacbakiri, (Shaw). 

Meeuba oeiyacea, (L.) 

# Pl£E0CLES :KAAIAQTTA, (Gm.) 2. 

Fean-colentjs (Schlopteea) aeeb, (Latham.) 

SiErTHlo cameles, L. Chick. Also imperfect skin of a superb 
wild-shot male, with head and neck, wings, and tail ; the value of 
which at Cape-town is £5. 

*Choeioxis ceistata, (Sc.) : Otis Tcori, Burchell. Head of a 
specimen weighing 25 lbs. This is the largest of the Bustards, and 
is immediately congeneric with the great Bustards of India, Ara- 
bia, and Australia respectively. Pauw (or ' Peacock') of the Dutch 

*GEdicinemes capensis, Licht. 

Stephaxebis coeo>"ata, (L.). 

*Hoploptebes speciosus, (Wagler). 

*Chaeadeius maegen'ates (?), Vieillot. 

*Ehy>~chea cape^sts, (L.). By no means satisfactorily distin- 
guishable from Eh. beugalensis. 

Fulica ceistata, Gm. 

*Poezajsa. is'iGEA, (Gmelin). 

*Laetjs (Gabianes, Bonap,) pacieices, Lath. Adult. Eather 
smaller than the Australian species figured by Gould under this name, 
and without (?) the black bar on the tail. Tail mutilated. The late 
Prince of Canino referred Gould's species to J. Georgi, King. 

Pha±!to:n~ ^etherees, L. 

*Phaeaceocoeax capeksis, (Sparrman). 

*Htpoeee"ctjs meeanogenis, nobis, n. s. Very like H. vaeius, 
(Gm., Ph.. hypoleucos, Gould), of Australia, but distinguished by its 

102 Proceedings of 'the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

black cheeks and crest-feathers If in. long. Wing 10^ in. Tail 5 in. 
Bill to forehead 2 T ^ in. Foot 4* in. From the ' Crozettes.' 

Chenalopex jegyptiaca, (Gin.) 

Anas elavirostris, A. Smith (A. Buppelli, nobL-). 


Aptenodytes Pennantii, G. E. Gray. 
*Chrysocoma catarractes, (Gm.) Feet wanting. 

3. From Capt. Hodge, commanding the guard-ship ' Sesostris,' 
at Port Blair. 

Two additional collections of sundries from that locality. The list 
of Andamanese mammalia is now extended to five species ; viz. 

Paradoxurtjs mttsanga (r Marsden), v. typus (?), F. Cuvier. 
Skull and other bones of a very aged individual, having naturally lost 
all of its true molars and most of its prae-molars, and the sockets of 
most of those of the lower jaw being completely closed up by depo- 
sition of bone ; a single root only remains of three of the upper prse- 
molars respectively, and three prae-molars remaining in the lower jaw 
are worn away nearly to their bifurcation. The bones of the skull 
and face had long been completely united. The incisors, also, had 
been naturally dropped, save the outermost above, which is almost worn 
to the root ; and the canines are excessively abraded, but what remains 
of them is remarkable for extraordinary size, considerably exceeding 
those of the common P. mitsanga of Bengal, &c. This disposes me 
to hesitate in identifying the species positively, though in other 
respects the size and form of the skull accord satisfactorily with P. 
musanga. Dr. Gray, in his British Museum catalogue, and the 
late Dr. Horsfield, in his catalogue of the specimens of mam- 
malia in the India-house museum, regard the Malayan P. musajS'GA 
and the Indian P. typus, F. Cuv., as distinct species ; but iu Lower 
Bengal this animal varies much, some individuals being without 
markings and others being marked very strongly and undistinguishably 
from the Malayan specimens in our collection. It inhabits the whole 
eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal and Malacca Straits ; and as it 
is quite impossible to distinguish many Bengal specimens from ordi- 

1SG0.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 103 

nary Malacca specimens, I have no hesitation in following Dr. Cantor 
in regarding them as one and the same species. 

The Andaman animal, with its extraordinarily large canines, may 
prove to he different ; but it is likely that we shall soon receive a 
skin of it, that would help to decide the question. It is the species 
which has been lately noticed in various Indian Journals as " a sort 
of Mungoose" and " a kind of wild Cat ;" and it is the only one as 
yet discovered in the Andaman islands appertaining to the Linnsean 
order Ferce. 

Mrs (Leggada ?) asdamaneksis, nobis, n. s. The indigenous Eat 
of the Andamans, — a gigantic representative of the group Leggada, 
Gray, founded on the Mrs platttheis, Bennett, and M. lepidus, 
Elliot, and to which my M. sriNULOSUS (J. A. S. XXIII, 734), ob- 
tained both in the Panjab and in S. Malabar, is likewise referable. 
Size about half that of full-grown Mus decumanus, with tail fully 
as long as in that species ; the colour of tbe upper-parts a shade or 
two darker, and of the lower-parts pure white. Form more slender, 
and the limbs proportionally less robust, tban in M. decumanus. 
Fur much coarser and conspicuously spinous, with a few long black 
fine hairs intermixed ; passing the hand along the fur in a backward 
direction, a very audible crackling sound is produced. The flat spines 
are similar in character to those of my Prickly Dormouse from Mala- 
bar (Plataca^thomts LAsruRTJS, J. A. S. XXVIII, 289), but are very 
much weaker ; and the fur of the under-parts is soft. In fact this specie9 
is a magnified representative of M. spinulosus, but with the rodent 
tusks proportionally much more robust ; the two holding the relation- 
ship of Eat and Mouse towards each other. Length 8 or 9 in. and 
tail ecpual to the head and body ; hind-foot with claws If in. : ear- 
conch (posteriorly) f in. Length of dorsal spinous fur f in. ; the 
spines being whitish on their basal half, and there is a soft dark 
ashy felt below the surface. 

Mus 1TA2TEI, Gray. Taken from the stomach of a venomous Snake 
from Port Blair ; but too far softened by digestion to permit of the 
species being determined with absolute accuracy. (A good specimen 
has since been received entire in spirit.) 

Sirs axdajianensis, nobis (J. A. S. XXVII, 267, XXVIII, 271). 

104 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

A nearly perfect skeleton of an adult boar ; the tail being, however; 
unfortunately again deficient.* 

Halicoee indicus, Owen, vide (J. A. S. XXVIII, 271. 

* Since mounted ; and the height at the shoulder is 19 or 20 in. — Can this be 
the species noticed in Bingley's History of Quadrupeds, as an inhabitant of 
Sumatra, and which certainly cannot be the Stj3 vittatus, S. Miiller, which is 
the only species of wild Swine at present recognised as inhabiting that bland, 
being also found in Java and Banka? For an enumeration of the wild Swine 
of the archipelago, vide J. A. S. XXVII, 268. 

" A species of wild Hog in Sumatra, of a grey colour, and smaller than the 
English Swine, frequents the impenetrable bushes and marshes of the sea-coast ; 
they associate in herds, and live on crabs and roots. At certain periods of the 
year they swim in herds, consisting of sometimes 1000, from one side of the 
river Siak to the other at its mouth, which is three or four miles broad, and again 
return at stated times. This kind of passage also takes place in the small islands, 
by their swimming from one to the other. On these occasions they are hunted 
by the Salettians, a Malay tribe, residing on the coasts of the kingdom of Siak. 

" These men are said to smell the Swine long before they see them, and when 
they do this they immediately prepare their boats. They then send out their 
Dogs, which are trained for this kind of hunting, along the strand, where, by 
their barking, they prevent the Swine from coming ashore and concealing them- 
selves among the bushes. During the passage the boars precede, and are followed 
by the females and young, all in regular rows, each resting its snout on the rump 
of the preceding one. Swimming thus in close rows, they present a singular 

" The Salettians, men and women, meet them in their small flat boats. The 
former row and throw large mats, made of the long leaves of the Pandemics 
odoratissima, interwoven through each other, before the leader of each row of 
Swine, which still continue to swim with great strength, but soon pushing their 
feet into the mats, they get so entangled as to be either disabled altogether from 
moving, or only to move very slowly. The rest are, however, neither alarmed nor 
disconcerted, but keep close to each other, none of them leaving the position in 
which they were placed. The men then row towards them in a lateral direction ; 
and the women, armed with long javelins, stab as many of the Swine as they can 
reach. For those beyond their reach they are furnished with smaller spears, 
about six feet in length, which they dart to the distance of thirty or forty feet 
with a sure aim. As it is impossible for them to throw mats before all the rows, 
the rest of these animals swim off in regular order, to the places for which they 
had set out, and for this time escape the danger ; and the dead Swine, floating 
around in great numbers, are then pulled up and put into larger boats, which 
follow for the purpose. 

" Some of these Swine the Salettians sell to the Chinese traders who visit the 
island ; and of the rest they preserve in general only the skins and fat. The 
latter, after being melted, they sell to the Maki Chinese ; and it is used by the 
common people instead of butter, as long as it is not rancid, and also itsed for 
burning in lamps, instead of cocoa-nut oil." 

I have somewhere read a similar account of the habits of S. pappensis. 

Of the large Indian Hogs, I am now satisfied of the existence of three well 
marked races, or species, which are quite as distinct from each other as are the 
various species of the archipelago, figured and described by Dr. S. Miiller and 

One is the proper Bengal boar, found also in Xutak, which is by far the most 
powerful, as shewn by the entire skeleton, and which has the longest and most 
formidable tusks of any, the louver commonly protruding from the socket from 
3 to 3| in. over the curve. It is specially distinguished by the breadth of its 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 105 

Of birds, fifteen additional species have been added to the sixteen 
mentioned in p. 272 et seq. and p. 412 ; but as yet we have hardly 
made a beginning with the ornithology of the Andamans. 

Of new species, the most notable is a superb large black Wood- 
pecker of the division Mttlleripicus of the late Prince of Carina 
(Hemiloplius, Swainson). 

M. Hodgei, nobis, n. s. Wholly black in both sexes, except 
the crown, occiput, and moustaches of the male, which are vivid 
crimson as usual, and the occiput only of the female. It is smaller 
thanM. Hodg-sonii, (Jerdon), of Malabar, or M. javensis, (Horsfield) > 
of the Malayan peninsula and more western islands ; the closed wing 
measuring but 7\ in., the middle tail-feathers 6 in., and the beak to 
forehead If in. 

Anthus rtjfosttperciliaris, nobis, n. s. ; A.pratensis apud nos, 
J. A. S. XXIV, 173, from Pegu. Like A. pratensis, but with the 

occipital plane, which is 2 to 2\ in. where narrowest, and by the shortness of the 
tail, which numbers only 13 or 14 vertebra?. This may be distinguished as S. 


Another is the ordinary S. indictts, Gray fS. cristatus, Wagler), as noticed by 
Dr. Gray from the Madras Presidency ; it being found over the whole of India, 
the highlands of Ceylon, and also in Arakan, but I cannot pronounce on its diffu- 
sion further. It is likewise an inhabitant of Lower Bengal, as we have a stuffed 
specimen of a particularly fine boar of this race that was speared near Calcutta. 
The domestic Pig3 of India appear to be mainly (if not wholly) derived from it. 
The entire skeleton is conspicuously less robust than in the preceding, the tusks 
less developed, the lower rarely projecting 2| in. from the socket ; the occipital 
plane where narrowest rarely exceeds If in., and the tail is conspicuously much 
longer, consisting of about 20 vertebrae. We have the skull of a sow of this 
race, whicli has the fully developed tusks of the boar, — of course a rare anomaly. 

The third is the species with very elongated skull and narrow occipital plane, 
where narrowest 1 in. only, inhabiting the lowlands of Ceylon, which I denomin- 
ated S. zeyla^ejtsis in J. A. S. XX, 173, and which may also be S. aefinis, 
Gray, from the iNilgiris, mentioned in the List oftlie Osteological Specimens in the 
Collection of the British Museum, where S. indices is cited from the Nepal hills 
and tarai, and also Malabar. 

I have no skull of an European wild Boar for comparison, but judging from 
Blainville's figures, our S. indices approximates it more nearly than S. benga- 
iensis or S. zeylanensis. 

In the new Russian territory of the Amur, it appears, — " Of Cattle or Horses 
few were seen, but many Swine of a peculiar kind, and Fowls." Journ. Hoy. 
Geogr. Soc. XXVIII (1858), p. 381. Wild Hogs are found at all elevations in 
the Himalaya, and generally over Asia. Those of Indo-China, China, and the 
Malayan peninsula require to be carefully examined. As many as three species 
are reported to inhabit the plain of Mesopotamia. Wood, in his Journey to the 
Source of the -Ox us, remarks that — "Descending the eastern side of Junas Da- 
rah, our march wa3 rendered less fatiguing by following Hog-tracks in the snow. 
So numerous are these animals, that they had trodden down the snow as if a 
large flock of Sheep had been driven over it." 

106 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Xo. 1, 

supercilium and moustachial streak of a ruddy rust-colour. Closed 
wing 3f in., tail 2J in., and bill and hind-claw as in A. PEATEffBIS, 
of which it may be regarded as a local variety or sub-species. 

Obeoclncla pneeamaeginata, nobis, n. s. Uniform dark olive 
above, with conspicuous pale rufescent-whitish supercilia, and light 
rufescent spots tipping the wing-coverts ; beneath pale, inclining to 
rufo-fulvous on the breast and front of the neck, pure white at centre 
of belly ; the lower tail-coverts dark olive largely tipped with white : 
each feather of the lower-parts, except on middle of throat and of 
belly, somewhat narrowly tipped with the colour of the back ; outer 
caudal feathers successively more largely tipped with dull white, 
though even on the outermost these white tips are but slight. The 
nsual Obeocincla markings on the inner surface of the wing. Bill 
dusky, and legs pale corneous. Closed wing 4-f in. ; tail 3|- in., its 
outermost feathers f in. shorter than the middle pair ; bill to gape 
l T 3 -g- in. ; tarse ly-g- in. Short first primary f in. long, the second 
equalling the fourth and a little shorter than the third. This bird 
approximates the female of Mebtjla "Wabdii, Jerdon. 

Three other species of true Thrushes inhabiting the Andamans are 
— Ttjedus bttpultts, Drapiez (modestus, Eyton), G-eocichla nraro- 
tata, nobis, and Petbocossyphus pandoo. The following have like- 
wise to be added, — Meeops philippinus, L., Lanius ph^tcueus, 
L., Aeundinax oiivaceus, nobis, Peeiceocottjs speciostjs, (Lath.), 
Hibtjndo bustica, L. (juv.), Osmoteeeon chloeopteea, nobis (here- 
tofore only known from the Wicobars), CHALCOrHAPS ikdicus (iden- 
tical with the Indian race, but different from, a pair received from the 
Nicobars, which seem to be Ch. maeIjE, C. L. Bonap.) ; Thalasseus 
aefinis {Sturna affinis, Raffles, St. hengalensis, Lesson, &c), and 
Ontnochopbion anasthjstus, (Scopoli). 

The Edolius of the Andamans appears to be constantly a little 
larger than Malayan peninsula specimens, with more tendency to 
shew a rudimental frontal crest ; this, however, is less developed than 
in Burmese and Tenasserim specimens. 

Of Temenuchus eettheoptgitjs, nobis, I have seen no Andaman 
example yet with distinctly rufescent upper tail-coverts. 

The black-naped Oriole I think will prove to be Oeioltjs COEONA- 
tus, Sw. (hippocrepis, Wagler), being quite distinct from that of the 
neighbouring Nicobar islands, 0. maceoubus, nobis. 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 107 

The Dlidyal (Copstchtjs saulaeis) is common, and differs in no re- 
spect from that of Bengal and of India generally, as distinguished from 
the larger race of TV. Malasia ; hut the Shama (Kittaclncla albi- 
yexteis, nohis,) has much the appearance of being a fertile hybrid 
between K. iiACEOUEUS and Copsychus satjlabis ! In several spe- 
cimens of it, however, I can detect no variation whatever, nor transi- 
tional examples variously intermediate ; and the female more nearly 
resembles the male than in K. maceoueus. I have a fine healthy 
pair of the Andaman Shama alive, and the male is a fair songster, 
with some very deep notes alternating with some shrill and very 
Dhdyal-llke notes ; and, so far as I have heard as yet, the song is 
more broken or delivered in snatches, like that of the Dhdyal, or less 
continuous than in the common Shama. The bird is also rather 
larger, with the bill somewhat larger in proportion ; but I doubt 
if any practised ornithologist would hesitate about classing it in 
Kittacincla rather than in Copsychus. There is a third Shama, with 
a whitehead (as I am informed), in Borneo (K. Steicklastdi, Mottley 
and Dillwyn) ; and a fourth species exists in K. luzokiensis, (Kit- 
tlitz), of the Philippines. The female of the Andaman Shama is of 
a duller colour than the male, especially on the wings and breast, 
which latter is glossless black; tail also shorter; and the legs in 
both sexes are carneous. 

Of reptiles, the marine Testudinata of the Bay occur of course 5 
but we have only received a very large skull of the common ' Logger- 
head' Turtle (Caouana oliyaoea), a species which is common towards 
the mouths of the Gangetic streams, and is often eaten here for the 
true edible Turtle (restricted Chelonia) ; and here I may remark 
that I once received a young living ' Hawk's bill' or tortoise-shell 
producing Turtle (Caeetta imbeicata) from the interior of the 
Sundarbans, which I kept alive for many months in fresh water. 
The ' Loggerhead' skull from the Andamans measures 8 \ in. long, 
inclusive of occipital projection, and 4f in. in extreme breadth. 

Of the Loricata or Crocodiles, it does not appear that any have 
yet been observed about the islands. 

Of Varanidce, a Hydbosauetjs quite similar to one before received 
from the Nicobar group. I can perceive no difference from the 
common H. saeyatoe, (Laurenti) v. Varanus hivittatus, (Kuhl), in, 

p 2 

108 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

structure ; but it wants the pale neck -streaks and body and caudal 
rings of ordinary H. salvator of Bengal, Ceylon, &c, while the 
upper-parts are freckled throughout (save on the head) with white 
scales aud tips of scales interspersed among the black scales, more 
copiously on the tail, and tending to form close and narrow transverse 
lines on the sides. I have never seen this marking in specimens of 
true H. salyator obtained elsewhere ; and it may be remarked that 
this species commonly attains the dimensions assigned by Dr. Gray 
to his Australian H. gigantetts, viz. 78 in. We have examples of 
that length both from Lower Bengal and from Ceylon ; and the 
occurrence of this reptile in Ceylon is the more remarkable, as it does 
not appear to have been hitherto observed in the peninsula of India. 

No Scincidce have yet been received. 

Of Geckotidce, two species, both of which appear to be undescribed. 

Phelsuma andahanense, nobis, n. s. Differs from Ph. cepedia- 
NUH, (Peron), of the Mauritius, by having a rather (yet distinctly) 
less obtuse muzzle, which is conspicuously longer from the eye to the 
nostril ; the auditory orifice is also much smaller, and round instead 
of oval ; and the pattern of the markings of the dorsal surface is 
different. In Ph. cepee-ianum, there are two sub-lateral pale lines, 
with intermediate pale spots more or less irregularly disposed : in 
Ph. andamanense, there are no sub-lateral lines, but a mesial one 
commencing on the nape and continued half-way along the back, the 
rest of the upper-parts being sprinkled with numerous spots which 
appear to have been bright red or orange : the palettes at the tips of 
the toes are pale in the Mauritius species, dark in the other ; and I 
can distinguish no femoral or pra3-anal pores in Ph. AjSTdamanekse, 
but a fold of skin in place of them along the thighs : in Ph. cepe- 
dianum the femoral pores are continued to meet the opposite series, 
at an angle which completes a triangle with the transverse vent. On 
the chin of our present species, there is a series of five plates of equal 
size and larger than the rest, anteriorly adjoining the labial plates. 
Length of head and body 2 in. ; the tail, which had been renewed, 
If in. 

There can be no hesitation in referring this Gecko to Phelseiia, 
Gray, though the former has hitherto been known to exist only in Ma- 
dagascar and the Mascarine islands. The other appears to be a new 
form altogether ; — 

1SG0.] Proceedings of 'the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 100 

Puellttla, nobis, n. s. Aspect of a Hemidactylus, but with no 
dilated palette on the toes, which are distinctly ribbed excepting on 
the unguinal phalanges. No femoral or prse-anal pores, but a large 
raised glandular space at the base of the thighs underneath, divided 
by a slight median groove on the anterior half, which deepens to 
form a large glandulous cavity on the posterior half, the labia of 
which are covered with scales larger than the rest ; this structure 
being much less developed in the female sex. A very remarkable 
feature, for a Gecko, consists in a distinct rudimentary dorsal crest ; 
and there is also a lateral fold of skin from the fore to the hind limbs, 
dividing the scales of the back from those of the belly, and another 
such fold margining the thighs anteriorly. The pupils of the eyes 
close vertically. 

P. etjbida, nobis, 11. s. Back and limbs above covered with mi- 
nute tubercles, and also thickly studded with tubercles of a larger and 
uniform size, the former requiring a lens for their easy detection ; on 
the tail are few only of the larger kind, and those disposed in trans- 
verse series on its basal half: scales of the head minute and uniform, 
those of the throat very minute, and those of the lower-parts small 
and uniform, save on the borders of the glandulous fissure, where they 
are a little larger ; on the lower surface of the tail the scales are also 
larger. Bordering the lower labial shields in front are four large 
plates, the medial of which exceed the outer in size. Colour of the 
fresh animal very ruddy, a hue which soon disappears by exposure to 
the light in spirit. In the stronger-marked specimens a dark line 
passes backward from the eye, and meets its opposite upon the occi- 
put ; this V-like marking being succeeded by one or two others like it, 
and there are irregular narrow transverse bands throughout, com- 
posed of black tubercles interspersed among the rest, and a series of 
broad dark annuli on the tail. Length about 5 in., of which the tail 
is half. A common species at Port Blair. The young, 2 in. long, 
show some white specks on the neck, and the labial plates are alter- 
nately dark brown and white. This is also seen in the adults, but 
less conspicuously. 

Of Agamidcs, a species of Tiaea, D. and B. 

Tiaea subcristata, nobis, 11. s. : DiLOEHYHTJs apud nos, J. A. S. 
XXVIII, 275. Occiput and nape with a low crest, and merely a slight 

110 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Xo. 1, 

serrated ridge along the back : gular pouch in the males only, covered 
with small keel-less scales of equal size ; the other scales of the lower- 
parts conspicuously carinated ; those of the upper-parts minute, arrang- 
ed in irregular transverse series (as best seen by aid of a lens), their keels 
presenting a tuberculated appearance except towards the ridge of the 
back : a row of about ten large tubercles on each side commencing from 
the occiput. Colours various, but fugitive in spirit ; the young being 
much speckled and reticulated with greyish-black, and the full-grown 
mostly plain, with dark bands on the tail more or less distinct. 
Length 12 in., of which tail 8f in. Common at Port Blair. 

Of Snakes, we have received five harmless and two venomous species. 
The former are — 

Lycopon aulicus, (L.). Uniformly coloured variety. 

Dendrophis pictus, (6m.). Some beautiful varieties. 

Dipsas HEXA.GONOTUS, nobis, J. A. S. XXIV, 360. Several young 
specimens. The adult remains to be described. 

Herpetodryas praspnt/s ; Coluber prasinus, nobis, J. A. S. 
XXIII, 291. Large. Also inhabits the base of the Himalaya, Asam, 
Tenasserim, &c. 

Cerberus boeeormis, (Schneider). 

The latter— 

Hamad eyas vittatus, (Elliot). 

Trtmesurus viribis, (Lacepede), var. Cantori, nobis, J. A. S. 
XV, 377. A Trihesitrus which appears to be exceedingly common 
both in the Andaman and Kicobar islands is altogether similar in 
structure to the common Tr. viridis, but varies much in colouring, 
being grass-green, brown, or blackish, either uniformly coloured or 
variously mottled ; but only in one mottled specimen from the Nico- 
bars do I perceive the lateral line on the scales bordering the abdo- 
minal plates, which is commonly seen in continental examples of Te. 
yiribis. In a green example from Port Blair, 4 ft. in length (!), 
there is no trace of this ; but I may here call attention to the fact 
that there are certainly two nearly affined species confounded under 
Te. yieidis. One common in Lower Bengal has the scales more 
strongly carinated, very conspicuously so on the sides of the head, 
while those of the crown are roughly granular (a modification of the 
more developed keels), instead of being flat or almost flat as in the 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Ill 

other. In this race there is usually no lateral streak, and at most I 
have only seen it obscurely indicated ; but there is a fine porphyra- 
ceous lustre on the grass-green scales of the head and body, which 
does not occur in the true vieidis. If considered worthy of a name, 
it may therefore bear the appellation poephybaceus. 

Of BatracJiia, I cannot learn that any species has yet been ob- 
served at Port Blair. 

The collection of fishes is so large and important that I have made 
it the subject of a special report. As many as 106 osseous species 
have already been received from Port Blair ;* the genera Salaeias, 
Gltphisodo^t, and MuejejN'a, being extraordinarily developed. Of 
Mukjxa alone, I make out sixteen species already received ! A con- 
siderable proportion of the species appear to be quite new, being de- 
scribed neither in the Histoire des Boissons, in the more recent ela- 
borate essays by Dr. Bleeker, nor by Sir J. Richardson and other 
authorities. No fresh-water species has been received ; but a few 
mud-skippers, as the Peeiopthalmtjs papilio, (Bloch), — a fine 
series, and tbe young of which species is B. fuscatus, nobis, J. A. S- 
XXVII, 271.t 

A considerable number of Crustacea, Mollusca, and Badiata have 
likewise been received from Port Blair ; but though I have mostly 
determined the genera and species, I have not at present the leisure to 
draw up a report on them. 

4. The Rev. H. Baker, Junr., of Mundakyam, Alipi, S. Malabar. 

A dozen skins of the Spiny Dormouse (Platacanthomys lasiu- 
EUS, nobis, J. A. S. XXVIII, 289), five skins of Mus (Leggada) 
spinulosus, nobis (J. A. S. XXIII, 734), identical with Punjab spe- 
cimens, — one of a small Mouse affined to, if not identical with, M. 
axbidiyexteis, nobis, of L. Bengal, but of which it is desirable to 

* Several more have since come to hand. 

t Salarias olivafieus, XXVII, p. 271, is identical with S, LINEATUS, C. V. ; 
Golius breviceps is the young of G. albopunctatus, C, V. ; Apogon 5-vittatns, 
p. 272, is the young of Gtlyphisodon eahti, C. V. ; Serranus lanoeolatus, C. V., is 
the young of S. coioides, (B. H.), v. S. suillas, C. V. ; Gerres poetce, C. V. = 
Chanda setifer, (B. H.), ergo G-. setipeb, though the name better applies to GL 
TiLAirENTOSA, C. V., which I have also obtained ; Polotus nitidus = Mesopbion- 
gtjtgutea, (B. H.) C. V., though the generic name Polottjs may stand ; and 
Panchax cyanopthaxma, p. 288, is the unnamed species figured in As. Res. 
XIX, pi. , f. , but in the living fish the azure eye is much less noticeable. 
I have since long kept this species in an aquarium, and it is less of a surface fish 
in its habits than the P. Buchanani, 0. V. 

112 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [No. 1, 

have more examples for comparison, — and a young Gho-samp (MO- 

5. Capt. W. H. Lowther, in command of the 1st Asam Local 
Battalion. Skin of a Binturong (Arctictis binttjrong), killed on 
the Singpho frontier of Upper Asam, where termed by the natives 
Young. Important with reference to the geographical distribution 
of this remarkable animal. 

6. H. M. the ex-King of Oudh. A Snake (Dendrophis orna- 
ta) ; and since a dead Monkey (Presbytia cephaloptertjs). 

7. Prince Mahomed Julaludin, of Baligunge. A Snake, the Baj- 
sdinp of the Bengalis (Bungarus fasciatus). 

8. Babu Rajendra Mallika. Various dead animals, including a 
superb male Golden Pheasant in perfect plumage, which has been set 
up in a manner worthy of its beauty. I take this opportunity to 
remark, that among the objects of particular interest now living in 
the aviaries of our contributor, are two very distinct species of Cas- 
sowary. The Babu has also magnificent adult hybrids, of both 
sexes, raised from the male Payo muticus and female P. cristatus, 
the two species being beautifully blended in colouring, form of crest, 
&c. ; and, still more remarkable, he has a hybrid now nearly full- 
grown, bred between a Curassow and Guan ! Numerous other living 
specimens of great interest adorn his collections. 

One of the Cassowaries being clearly of a new and fourth species 
of its genus, of which quite recently only one species was known, 
I shall here indicate it as 

Casttarius unappendiculattjs, nobis, n. s., from its peculiarity of 
having but a single pendulous caruncle in front of the neck. Speci- 
men apparently more than half grown, and much paler in the colour- 
ing of its plumage than specimens of the same age of the common 
C. galeattjs, two fine examples of which are associated with it in 
the same paddock. In lieu of the two bright red caruncles of the 
latter, the new species has but a single small oblong or elongate 
oval yellow caruncle, and the bright colours of the naked portion of 
the neck are differently disposed. The cheeks and throat are smalt- 
blue, below which is a large wrinkled yellow space in front of the 
neck, terminating in front in the oval button-like caruncle, and its 
lower portion being continued round behind, while on the sides of the 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 113 

neck, the yellow naked portion is continued down to its base, the bor- 
dering feathers more or less covering and concealing this lateral stripe of 
unfeathered skin : on the hind-part of the neck the bare yellow skin 
is not tumous and corrugated as in the common Cassowary, whei'e 
also this part is bright red. The casque is about equally developed 
at this age in the two species. The legs of the new species are 
smaller, from which I doubt if it attains to quite so large a size as 
the other. 

The known species of Casuaritjs now range as follow : 

1. C. galeatfjs, Vieillot : G. emeu, Latham ; Struthio casuarinus, 
L. Hab. N. Guinea. Eastern Moluccas. 

2. C. Be>->-:ettii, Gould (figured in P. Z. S. 1851, pi. 7). The 
Mooruh. Hab. !X. Ireland. 

3. C. ArsTEALis, Gould. Hab. York peninsula, N. E. Australia. 

4. C. r^APPEKDicuLATUS, nobis. Hab. ?* 

9. Alex. Thomas, Esq., in medical charge of Khyook Phoo, Ram- 
ri, Arakan. A fine specimen in spirit of Platydactylus gecko, (L.) 

10. Mrs. Turnbull. A fine stuffed specimen of Petauetjs sciu- 
Eirs, (Shaw). 

11. H. H. Atkinson, Esq. A few bird-skins procured at Singapore. 

12. The Eev. J. Cave Browne, late of Subathoo. A small collection 
chiefly reptiles in spirit, with a few insects, procured in that neigh- 

* In the Conspectus Ineptorum et Strutliionum of the late Prince of Canino, 
published in the Comptes Rendus, torn. XLIII (1856), 840-1, only one species of 
Casuaeius is recognised (!) ; but a second Dkomaius or Emeu, as De. ateb, 
Vieillot, from "l'isle Decres," which would appear to be already extinct ; while a 
third species, from the interior of Australia, with transversely barred plumage, 
has recently been brought to the notice of the Zoological Society. H. H. also 
indicated a second Ostrich doubtfully, as Steuthio epoastictjs, C. L. Bonap., 
■which is doubtless the northern race with smooth and poreless egg-shell noticed 
in J. A. S. XXY1II, 282. The two living species of Nandou, or Khea, — the 
three-toed American Ostrich, — are of course recognised ; and at least three, if not 
four (!), living species of Apteeyx ; with no fewer than 38 species, more or less 
satisfactorily made out, of Inepti and Struthiones of various zoological epochs ; 
but the knowledge of the greater portion of these i3 vague in the extreme ; and 
the Prince's bold attempt at classification of them will simply, as such, meet with 
approval. At the head of the Inepti he places the huge Epioenis of Mada- 
gascar, a fragment of the egg-shell of which I have recently procured for the 
Society's museum, presented to by M. Zill. This giant bird appears to have 
been first indicated (to Europeans) by the missionary Ellis, though not scienti- 
fically brought to notice. The natives of Madagascar imagine that the eggs of 
the Epioekjs are those of some huge saurian. 


114 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Xo. 1, 

Of Lizards, the common Calotes versicolor, a small and young 
Ejopa, and a beautiful new Gecko congeneric, with that described 
from the mountainous interior of the Tenasserim provinces, in J". A. 8. 
XXVIII, 279. 

3S]aultinus (?) easciolatus, nobis, n. s. Tail proportionally long- 
er and more slender than in N. (?) variegatus, nobis, I. c. ■ but 
the larger of two specimens evidently not full-grown. Head very 
similar to that of the other ; but the dark band behind the eye bend- 
ing abruptly to meet its opposite on the occiput ; this is followed by 
23 other blackish cross-bands, continued to the end of the tail, those 
of the body being edged and set off posteriorly with whitish ; a series 
of broad sub-haxagonal plates in both species beginning near the vent' 
and continued to the end of the tail underneath. Abdominal scales 
proportionally smaller than in the other, and no group of conspi- 
cuously larger scales anterior to the vent. The sub-caudal scales are 
also much smaller than in the other. Larger specimen 4| in., of 
which tail 2f in. Both species are remarkable for the beauty of their 

Of Snakes, Corcotella Kttssellii, (Daud.), Coluber mucosus, 
(L.), Dipsas trigonata, Schlegel, Vipera Bussellii, (Shaw), and 
two species which appear to be new : — 

Dipsas multieasciata, nobis, n. s. Form typical ; the muzzle 
shorter and rounder than in D. trigonata : the same whitish spots 
along the ridge of the back as in that species, but somewhat indis- 
tinctly defined ; and narrow black transverse bands on the sides, num- 
bering as many as 72 from neck to vent, beyond which they are 
broken into spots : throat dull white ; the abdominal surface densely 
speckled throughout with triangular black spots, which are more or 
less continued into lines. Length of specimen (evidently young) 
14^ in., of which tail 3 in. 

For the other I must constitute a genus :— 

Platyceps, n. g. Like Coluber (Cortthodon, D. B.), but with 
exceedingly flat head, and tail only about a sixth of the total length. 

Pl. semieasciatus, nobis, n. s. Colour olive-grey above, white 
below ; the posterior two-fifths without markings, and the nuchal 
region marked with broad transverse black bands, having lateral 
black spots alternating on either side. These gradually become 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiat ; « Society of Bengal. 115 

narrower and are broken into alternate bands on the second fifth of 
the body, being still more broken into small spots on the third fifth, 
beyond which they gradually disappear anterior to the vent. Eyes 
of moderate size. Specimen evidently young. Length about lOi 
in., of which tail about 2 in., its extreme tip being lost in the speci- 
men. Scutce 1S7; Scutellce ? 

P. S. — It appears that a species of Deer, which has been named 
CEEvrs psetidaxis, has recently been received in France from the 
mountainous regions of the north of China and Mantcheeria. From 
the geographical region it cannot be a true Axine, and the name 
would imply its being an Axis-like (or spotted) species, — just possibly 
identical with the Formosan Deer. 

E. Bltth. 







No. II. 1860. 

Contributions to Indian Malacology , No. I. — By Messrs. W. T. and 
H. F. Blanford, of the Geological Survey of India. 

In a paper published in the Annuls and Magazine of Natural 
History for 1S57,* Mr. W. H. Benson gave an able resume of the 
distribution^ the Cyclostomacew of South-western Asia and of some 
of the neighbouring islands. As regarded their distribution in India, 
both Cis and Trans-gangetic, it was proved that the evidence then 
available shewed a considerable generic distinction between the forms 
of the Indian peninsula with Ceylon on the one hand, and those 
occupying the Himalayas, the Khasi hills, Burmah, and the Malay 
countries on the other. It was also attempted to be shewn that, if 
two streams of distinct genera were supposed to extend from the 
island of Borneo, one might be imagined to pass up through the 
eastern, the other through the western peninsula, the valley of the 
Ganges and the plains of Northern India being the limit of each line. 

At that time it was believed that no single species of land shell 
occurred at the same time upon the Himalayas, and in India south of 
the Ganges. A few widely disseminated species, such as Helix vitri- 
noides, are certainly to be found at the base of the mountains, as well 
as universally over the plains, but even at the foot of the Himalayas 
a great change takes place in the fauna generally, and when once 
fairly within the mountains, scarcely a species of the Indian plains 
recurs. But there are a few exceptions. In the Annals for April, 
1859, Mr. Benson mentioned the discovery by one of ourselves of 
* Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Vol. XIX. p. 201. 

No. CIII.— New Sebies, Vol. XXIN. b 

118 Contributions to Indian Malacology . [No. 2, 

Helix castra, Benson, on the hills of Balasore in Northern Orissa, and 
more recently a single specimen of a shell perfectly undistinguishable 
from Helix Huttoni, Pfeiffer, has occurred to us on the northern flank 
of the Nilgiri mountains in Southern India.* Both of these species 
have a wide distribution ; H. castra being known to range from 
Sikkim to the Tenasseiim provinces, and H. Huttoni throughout 
the greater portion of the Himalayas. Indeed it is more than pro- 
bable, from an examination of recently collected specimens of H. 
tapeina, Benson, that H. Huttoni is only a variety of that species, 
an identity which, if substantiated, will extend its range to the 
Khasi Hills and Burmah" where the variable but scarcely distinguish- 
able H. rotatoria, V. d. Busch, replaces it, unless the latter also 
prove to be only a variety. 

It is exceedingly probable that, as each region becomes more 
thoroughly searched, many other species will be found to have a far 
more extensive range than is at present supposed. The peninsula of 
India is, as a rule, extremely poor in land shells, and the concbologist 
may travel for miles over its plains without meeting with a single 
mollusk. The plains of Bengal, from a space as large as the British 
Isles, have scarcely furnished twenty species. On the contrary the 
Himalayas, especially their eastern portion, and the Burmese penin- 
sula, appear to be extremely rich both in species and individuals, a 
circumstance doubtless intimately connected with the greater and 
more constant humidity of the climate. With a few exceptions „ 
Cis-o-angetic India has been fairly explored by conchologists, although 
it has not been thoroughly searched. Of Trans-gangetic India, 
nine-tenths are totally unexamined. At least half of the Himalayas 
have never been visited, and all that has been carefully explored 
consists of a considerable tract in the western Himalayas around 
Simla and Masuri, and the outer hills of Sikkim, from which we 
ourselves, but the other day, procured more than twenty undescribed 
forms. The Khasi Hills, a small tract of country, have been fairly 
examined, but the vast peninsula thence to Singapore has only been 
searched in the immediate neighbourhood of Molmain, whilst a few- 
shells have been collected during hurried visits, or (the larger species 

* Mr. Benson also informs us that he has received H.fastigiata, Hutt. from 
the Nikiris. 

I860.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 119 

especially) procured by accident from Pegu, Ava, the Tenasserim 
provinces, Penang, Malacca, Singapore and perhaps one or two other 
places. The greater portion of the mountains north of the Punjab, 
the vast tract of Nepal, the interior vallej's of Sikkim, Bhotan, 
Assam with the mountains both north and soutli of it, Arracan, and, 
with the few exceptions mentioned, the Malay peninsula, are totally 
unsearched. Despite these circumstances, the list of shells descrihed 
from the Himalayas and Burmah alone probably exceeds that from 
all the Indian peninsula. 

But even India proper may yet yield important novelties. Perhaps 
no part has been more carefully or more repeatedly examined than 
the Nilgiri hills of Southern India. They are perhaps the last 
place whence generic forms new to the country might be expected, yet 
we have been so fortunate as to meet with such, among the smaller 
shells as might naturally be expected, but by no means amongst those 
least interesting. 

Amongst the genera enumerated as characterizing India north of 
the Gauges and east of the Bay of Bengal, none perhaps is more 
generally distributed or more abundant than the singular little genus 
Alycceus, Gray. Another form which, however, perhaps chiefly on 
account of its minute size, has not as yet been shewn to have an 
equal range in these countries with Alycceus, but which also occurs 
in Mr. Benson's list of genera confined to the northern and eastern 
regions of India, is Diiplommatina, Benson. The discovery of species 
of both of these genera, in a district so well examined previously as 
the Nilgiri hills have been, must make us pause before we conclude 
that we are in possession of data sufficient to enable us to come to 
definite conclusions upon the distribution of Indian land shells. 

The circumstance of their discovery becomes less surprising when 
we consider that there are several species of shells on the Nilgiris 
closely representative of Himalayan and Burmese forms. Tims Helix 
Cycloplax, Benson, of Sikkim and S. Oxytes, B., of the Khasi hills 
are replaced by H. Thyreus, B. ; Ackatina tenuispira, B. of Sikkim, 
Khasi, Burmah, &c. by A. Sliiplayi, Pfr. ; Bulimus vibex, Hutt, and 
B. ccelebs, B. of the Western Himalaya by B, Nilagiricus, Pfr. &c. 

To return to the genera of Cycloslomacece ; there are to be found 
on the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal and in the Himalayas the 

ii 2 

120 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

following genera which are ahsenfc on the western side of the Bay : 
Megalomastoma, JPupina, Registoma* Raphaulus, Streptaulus, and 
Hybocystis (all of which are closely allied genera and of one type) 
Sydrocena and Pomatias, the last being piobably only an outlier. 
In Ceylon there is one peculiar genus, Aulopoma, but it is evident 
that Ceylon is a generic area by itself. Lastly there are common to 
both sides of the Bay of Bengal or of the Ganges valley Cyclopliorxis, 
Gyclotus, JPterocyclos, Leptopoma, Cataulus,f Alycceus and iJiplom- 
inatina. In the Indian peninsula, properly speaking, not one generic 
form exists, which is wanting in Trans-gangetic countries, with the 
exception perhaps of the little shell which we now describe under 
the name of Opistlwstoma : but even assuming this genus to be 
decidedly operculate, it would be premature to assert that so minute 
a shell has no specific representative in the Himalayan or Burmese 
areas J Otopoma only occurs in Katiwar, where the climate is different 
from that of India proper, and where all organic nature shews an 
intermixture of Indian forms with those of South-western Asia and 
of Africa. 

We can therefore only conclude that scarcely sufficient is yet 
known to justify a decided opinion as to the distribution of the land 
shells of India and the adjoining countries. So far as the most recent 
discoveries enable us to form a judgment, we agree with Mr. Benson 
in considering that a generic distinction does exist between the two 
areas of Cis and Trans-gangetic India, but we doubt whether it is 
satisfactorily shewn that Borneo is the generic centre around which 
all the forms of South-western Asia and the Indian Archipelago are 

* In the Nicobar Islands. 

f One species in the Nicobar Islands. 

J Since these remarks were written, Mr. Benson has described, in the Ann. 
and Mag. for Feb. 1S60, two new genera of operculate land shells from Molmain, 
and has named them EJiiostoma and Closiophis , The former is allied to Ptero- 
cyelos, the latter is a minute form, probably allied to Liplommatina and Opisthcs' 
toma. Like the latter it is separated from the former on account of peculiarities 
in the last whorl, which, in Clostophis, is free and descending. It is possible that 
other species allied to these new forms may hereafter be discovered, and the two 
types be found to represent and replace each other in the Indian and Burmese 

1S60.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 121 

grouped ; or that the distinctions between the Indian areas are satis- 
factorily explained by considering them as " streams" of generic 
affinity radiating from that island. So far as our present knowledge 
extends we are inclined to look upon the distinction as consisting 
mainly in the more favorable conditions for land shells generally in 
the moist countries of the Himalayas and of the Burmese and Malay 
peninsula, in the absence of shells of the Pupina and Megalomastoma 
type in the Indian peninsula, (a circumstance doubtless connected 
with the greater dryness of the country) and in the existence of a 
generic centre in the island of Cejdon, characterized especially among 
the Cyclostomacece by forms of Aulopoma and Cataulus. 

The shells described in the following pages were obtained in collec- 
tions made by Mr. H. F. Blanford in 1857, and by Mr. W. T. 
Blanford during a short visit in 1859. A few other forms procured 
at the same time are also believed to be undescribed, but as they are 
of less interest, they must await further leisure. 

Opisthostoma, gen. nov. 
Testa operculata ? Anfractibus apicialibus obliquiter defiectis, 
anfractu ultimo eonstricto, deinde infiato, denique sinistrorsim ascen- 
dente, anfractibus superioribus contiguo ; apertura reversa, rotundata, 
contiuua ; peristomate duplicato. 

1. — 0. Nilgirica, n. s. 

Testa minima, truncate pupiformis, auguste umhilicata ; spira. irre- 
gulari, apice obtusa, obliqua, sutura profunda ; costulata, interspatiis 
minutissime decussatis, albida, translucens. Anfractus rotundati, 5, 
quorum duo primi obliquiter contorti ; ultimus constrictus, deinde 
inflatus, refractus, ascendens, denique sinistrorsus, anfractum penul- 
timum contingens. Apertura subobliqua, superne versata, orbicularis. 
Peristoma continuum, incrassatum, duplicatum. 

Diam. maj., 1.3 m. m. 

Alt., 1.1 m. m. 

Habitat apud Pykara ad surnmos montes " Nilgiri" inter folia 
caduca humida sylvarum. 

Of this remarkable little shell the first and only known specimens 
were found by one of us rather more than two years since in the dead 
leaves of one of the little thickets termed " sholas" near Pykara on 

122 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

the jftilgiris. As all the specimens found were dead shells and it 
seemed most desirable to obtain living specimens in order to deter- 
mine satisfactorily the nature of the species from an inspection of 
the animal, we have hitherto abstained from publishing a description 
wbich must of necessity be imperfect, in the hope, either that one of 
ourselves might revisit the hills and procure a supply of living speci- 
mens, or that some of our friends conchologically inclined, migbt aid us 
in the matter. We have, we regret to say, been disappointed in tbese 
expectations, and we therefore publish the description and figure of the 
shell, hoping that publicity may lead others to the search, and we 
leave the question of the nature of the animal and the existence of 
an operculum to be settled at some future period. 

To the kind aid of Capt. Mitchell of Madras we are indebted for 
the accompanying figures, drawn with the aid of the camera lucida, 
and magnified about 30 diameters. The specimen from which the 
drawings are taken is in excellent preservation and shews very clearly 
not only the costulation, which bears a great resemblance to that of 
Diplommatina and Alycceus, but also a regular scalariform decussation 
of the interstitial spaces which is represented on an enlarged scale in 
figure 5. This costulation and more especially the Algcceus-Wke 
strangulation and inflation of the last whorl point to the probability 
of the present being an operculate genus, and the round whorls and 
continuous and duplicate peristome lead to the same conclusion. No 
trace of a tube is perceptible on any part of the shell. 

From these characters we should infer that Opisthostoma holds an 
intermediate place between Alycceus and Diplommatina, resembling 
the former in the strangulation and distortion of the last whorl, 
the latter in the pupiform shape and in the rise of the last whorl 
upon the penultimate, and both in the duplication of the peristome, 
and in the regular costulate ornamentation : but the peculiar distor- 
tion of the apicial whorls and the hyperstomoid flexure of the last 
whorl are characters not hitherto found in any operculate genus, and 
having their analogues in Streptaxis and Boysia among inoperculate 
shells. Seeing, however, the great variation of spiral form that 
obtains in the different C\ r clostomaceous genera, no great weight can, 
we think, be attached to spiral peculiarities when opposed to the 
evidence of the characters above enumerated which connect Opisthos- 

1S60.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 123 

toma with operculate forms, and until further evidence shall shew 
such a view to be untenable, we may regard the present as one more 
of the peculiar Cyclophoroid genera which seem specially to charac. 
terize the Indian and Bornean provinces. 


Testa mediocriter umbilicata,depressa,ad anfractos internos ohsolete, 
ad ultimum fortius, ad spatium inflatum valde, crebre costulata, 
corueo-albida, apice diaphane rubella ; spira vix elevata, apice obtusa ; 
sutura impressa ; anfr. 3^- convexi, ultimus ad latus mediocriter in flatus, 
deinde constrictus ; constrictione longa, medio tumida, glabra ; tubulum 
suturale pone constrictionem oriens, mediocriter longum, plerumque 
4- peripheriae subaequans, sed nonnullis exemplis brevius ; apertura cir- 
culars, obliqua, juxta anfr. penultimum retro curvatum ; perist. du- 
plex ; internum breviter porrectum, continuum, externum expansum, 
intenuptum, columellari margine strictum. Operculum corneum, dis- 
tincte multispirum, anfr. 7-8 planulatis, externe perconcavum, nucleo 
centrali interno prominente papiilari. 

Diam. maj 4| m. m. 

Ditto min 3f ditto. 

Alt 2\ ditto. 

Apert. diam.. If ditto. 

Hab. Haud raro ad Neddoowuttom ghat, ad latus septentrionale 
montium "ISIilgiri" Indise australis ct circa 3000 — 4000 ped. alt. 

This species appears to be more depressed in the spire than any 
other of the genus, except perhaps the Bornean A. spiracellum, 
A. Ad. and Reeve. Its nearest Indian ally is A. strangulatus, Hutton, 
and in size it is intermediate between that species and A. stylifer, Bens. 
It belongs to the section CJiarax of Benson, having a wide strangu- 
lation behind the peristome, crossed by a swollen ridge, which, how- 
ever, in A. expatriatus never presents the sharpness so remarkable in 
A. stylifer and Jiebes, but is rather a broad tumid space separating 
two narrow constrictions. The sutural tube is variable in length, 
sometimes being nearly as short as in A. strangulatus, in other 
specimens as long as in A. stylifer ; the latter being the usual case, 
the former the exception, but both occur in perfectly fresh and full 
grown specimens. 

124 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

From A. strangulatus, the species is distinguished by its greater 
size, more depressed form, more oblique aperture, by the recurvation 
of the peristome at its junction witli the penultimate whorl, the longer 
sutural tube, the greater distance of the ridge crossing the constric- 
tion from the mouth, and the closer sculpture. From prosectus and 
styhfer, the characters of the peristome, which is simple in stylifer 
and expanded at the columella!* margin inprosectus, besides the smaller 
size of A. expatriatus ; from hebes and gemmula the slightly prominent 
ridge not recurved and the depressed form afford abundant grounds 
for distinction. A. spiracellum of Borneo is probably closely al- 
lied, but we are only acquainted with that shell by its description. 
Judging therefrom A. expatriatus should be distinguished by its 
smaller size, more narrow umbilicus, greater bluntness of the ridge in 
the constriction, and in general by the greater length of the sutural 
tube, a character which, however, is evidently, from its variability in 
this species, of less value than has hitherto been supposed. 

The species occurred near the base of Neddoowuttom ghat, and a 
little above the village of Goodaloor. The animal is small and 
colourless ; the body very short ; the sole undivided ; tail short and 
rather pointed ; tentacles short, yellowish ; muzzle blunt, not elongated. 


Testa dextrorsa, imperforata, subovata, glabra, tenuis, nitida, cornea ; 
spira conohlea, apice ohtusa ; anfr. 6 convexi, superne leniter crescentes, 
ultinms parum augustior, antice ascendens, carina costiformi circa 
umbilicum munitus; apertura subverticalis, circularis; perist. baud 
dentatum, duplex ; externum breviter expansum, interruptum ; inter- 
num mediocriter porrectum, continuum. Opere. corueum, subcirculare, 
ad suturam angulatum, planum, baud spiratum. 

Long. 3 m. m. 

Diam. max., It ditto. 

Apert. diam., f ditto. 

Anfr. ultimi long.,. 1 ditto. 

Habitat in sylvis prope Pykara versus apices montiurn " Nilgai" 
(ad alt. circa 7000 ped). 

This species is distinguished from all others of the genus yet 
described by the ridge around the umbilicus, which is an exact coun- 

1S60.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 125 

terpart of that in the Sikkim shell, Megalomastoma funiculatum, B. 
The perfect smoothness of Dip. Nilgirica, and the continuity of the 
internal peristome, give it a sub-generic character, yet seem insuffi- 
cient alone to authorize its separation from Liplommatina. 

The animal could not be well observed for the want of a suffi- 
ciently powerful magnifier at hand. It was small, short, and colour- 
less, with two small black tentacles. 

4. — Cyclottts Malabauictjs, n. s. 
Testa subaperte umbilicata, depresso-couica, albida, glabra, nitidula, 
epidermide decidua cornea, ad anfr. ultimum transverse fusco-strigata, 
induta ; spira conica, apice acuta ; sutura profunda; anfr. 4 rotundati, 
celeriter crescentes, ultimus cylindraceus ; apertura parum obliqua, 
circularis, prope umbilicum parum sinuata, superne vix angulata ; 
perist. duplex, externum brevissime expansum, internum porrectum, 
aeutum, continuum ; umbilicus perspectivus. Operculum baud immer- 
surn, duplex, internum corneum multispirum, externum testaceum, 
anfractuum marginibus lamella spirali, albida, scabra ad anfr. exter- 
nos perelevata. et versus centrum incurvata, quasi convexa, rnunitis. 

Diam. maj., 8 J m. m. 

Ditto rnin., , 2f ditto. 

Alt., 2| ditto. 

Apert. diam., 1^. ditto. 

Hab. sub rupibus et saxis in terra humida ad margines sylvarum 
prope Pykara montium "Nilgiri," ad alt. 7000 ped. 

Nearly allied to Cyclotus filocinctus^ Benson, by the peculiarity of 
its operculum, this shell is distinguished by its smaller size, more 
depressed form, and less expanded peristome, by the absence of the 
marked sculpture of C.filocinctus, and by the epidermis being lighter 
in colour and marked by brown transverse streaks on the last whorl. 
That of C. filocinctus is hispid. The last named shell was first 
described by Mr. Benson as a Cyclostoma, to which genus it was 
assigned till lately. The construction of the operculum is very 
peculiar. The testaceous spiral lamina being very much more raised 
towards the exterior than towards the centre, and being curved 
inwards, the interior whorls of the operculum are almost concealed 
and the appearance, unless very closely examined, is that of the oper- 


126 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [Xo. 2, 

culum of a Turbo hollowed out at the centre. The lamella in C 
Afalabaricus is rather more elevated than even in O.filocinctus. 

The animal of C. Malabaricus we have not had an opportunity of 
observing, that of G. Jilocinctus belongs to the Cyclophoroid group,* 
the sole of the foot being undivided, the tentacles tapering, and the 
muzzle short and blunt. The foot is short, broad and rounded at 
the tail, the tentacles are black, rather short, and contractile, with 
the eyes at their base, the body is colourless, with the exception of 
black patches above the head and at the base of the tentacles. 

C. Jilocinctus abounds on the "N. side of the Nilgheris, but we have 
not met with it on the top of the hills. It is found chiefly in decay- 
ing leaves and moist earth beside rocks and stones. G. Malabaricum 
with Dip. Nilgirica, JEnnea JPirriei, Pfr. and some minute Helices, 
occurred at the edges of the small patches of forest, known as 
"sholas," which abound in every small hollow in the hills, and are 
remarkable from the abruptness of their boundaries, a few feet leading 
from dense jungle to the open grassy hill side. Under the shrubs at 
the edges of sholas is generally a great resort of land shells. 

5. — Steeptaxis Watsokt, n. s. 
Testa subumbilicata, compresse ovata, corneo-albida, nitida, superne 
transverse arcuato-striata, infra obsolete striatula, interdum ad ultimum 
anfractum lineis albidis versus suturam cincta ; spira fere plana ; sutura 
impressa ; anfr. 6 convexiusculi, 2 ultimi e axi deviantes, ultimus 
rotundatus ; apertura obliqua, elongato-lunaris, juxta anfr. penulti- 
mum acute retro sinuata, margine basali paulo arcuata ; perist. 
reflexum, subincrassatum, albidum, tridentatum, singulis dentibus 
depressionibus pone peristoma externe correspondentibus ; dentes 2 
lamelliformes margine dextro, 1 columellari quasi basali ; marginibus 
peristomatis callo, duas lamellas approximatas juxta suturam gerente, 

Diam. mnj., 6} ra. m. 

Ditto min 4^ ditto. 

Alt 3 ditto. 

* In common probably witb every other operculated Indian land shell except 
Otopoma clausum, Sow, and perhaps the two species of Fomatias described by 
Mr. Benson from the Himalaya and Khasi Hills. 

1S60.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 127 

Hab. in sylvis, prsesertim prope arborum radices, ad apices montium 
"Nilgiri." Yar. est, peristomate quinque dentato, dente nno minimo 
versus sinum aperturse, tribus normalibus, uno minuto juxta umbilicum ; 
denfce ad marginem coluniellarem alteris latiore, quae prope "Avalan- 
cbe," ad pedem montium " Koondab" habitat. 

This species appears to be more abundant than the previously 
described form, Str. Perrotteti* Petit, from which it differs in its 
much smaller size, and despite this, in the greater development of 
its teeth, and also in the presence of two lamellae instead of one 
on the callus joining the margins of the peristome. It appears to 
inhabit only the more southerly portions of the hills, but our 
researches have not been sufficiently extensive to render this a 
certainty. Str. Perrotteti occurred at Neddiwuttom, and on the 
hills N. of Ootacamund ; Str. Watsoni we found S. of Ootacamund, 
and the variety at the base of the Koondahs. Both were obtained 
at an elevation of 6000 to 7000 feet. Although the variety differs 
slightly in the teeth, in the presence, viz. of two teeth which are 
absent in the normal form, these additional projections are so very 
minute that they might easily become obsolete, and probably addi- 
tional specimens might shew a complete gradition, while the shells 
are so exactly similar in every other detail of form, that we have no 
hesitation in pronouncing them identical. 

Explanation of figures. 

1. — Opisthostoma ISTilgiricum. Natural size. 

2, 3, 4. — The same magnified 90 diameters (900 times). 

5. — Scalariform costulation further enlarged. 

* Or is this Petit's original species and that described by Pfeiffer distinct f 
In that case the names may be exchanged. 

s 2 

128 Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. [No. 2, 

Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus which reached 
Attok on the \Q)th August, 1858. — By Captain T. G. Mo>~t- 
gomebie, Bengal Engineers, F. B. G. S. 1st Asst. O. T. Survey, 
of India, Sfc* 

" At 5 A. M. on the 10th August, 1858, the Indus at Attok was 
very low. At 7 A. m. it had risen 10 feet. By 0.30 p. M. it had risen 
50 feet, and it continued to rise till it stood 90 feet higher than it 
did in the morning. The Cabul river continued to flow upwards for 
ten hours." — Extract from the proceedings of the Asiatic Society for 
September 1858, Journal Vol. XXVII. p. 366. 

The flood destroyed a large amount of property in British 
territory both above and below Attok ; and the back water (on the 
Cabul river) destroyed the greater part of the private property in 
the cantonment of Naoshera. 

After the subsidence of the water, numerous reports were current 
near Attok, viz. : that the river was still blocked up and that 
another similar flood might soon be expected. These reports were 
generally given out on the authority of the inhabitants far up the 
river, who had sent down word to say that the water was still 
dammed up. 

Such a sudden flood or cataclysm on such a gigantic scale, at 
all times an important and interesting subject of enquiry, was rendered 
still more so to me by the above mentioned circumstances. 

Being at the time of the flood in the territories of the Maha- 
rajah Rumbhir Singh. I was in a favorable position for making 
enquiries in the Upper Valley of the Indus as far as the Maharajah's 
territories and influence extended, and I consequently made all the 
enquiries that I could. 

On applying to the Wazeer Punnoo, the governor of Kashmir, 
he told me that had any damage been done in the Maharajah's terri- 
tories by a flood on the Indus, he would certainly have heard of it, 
but up to that time he had received no report on the subject. How- 
ever I begged him to write to all the Maharajah's officials (on the 

* See papers by Capt. Henderson and Major Becker, Journal, Vol. XXYIII. 
pp. 199 and 219. 

1S60.] Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. 129 

Indus and on its tributaries)* to enquire whether any extraordinary 
flood had been noticed. The answers were all in the negative except 
that from Boonjee, (the Maharajah's most northerly fort and canton- 
ment on the Gilgit frontier) the report was as follows, viz. :— 

" That a great flood (bura sailab) was noticed by the sepoys at 
Boonjee on the 27th day of " Sawan Mahina," " derh pahar din gaiya" 
when it first arrived. Shortly afterwards the sepoys saw a mass of 
timbers floating down the stream, which they recognised as belonging 
to the gateway of the Numbul fort." 

The Nfimbul fort is said to have been on the Gilgit river 
below the point where the Naggar river joins the Gilgit river. 

I understand "the 27th day of Sawan Mahina, derh pahar din 
gaiya" to mean the 11th day of August about 9 or 10 in the morn- 
ing. Although this is the day after the flood was noticed at Attok, 
it is in my opinion sufficiently near the date to make it highly pro- 
bable that it was the same flood that was noticed at Attok. 

At a frontier outpost of the Maharajah's (where no one goes 
that has sense enough to make interest to keep away), a mistake of 
two or three days in the date would be no wonderful thing consider- 
ing the general indifference of natives on the subject of dates and 
the numerous doubts as to when their months begin. 

I am therefore of opinion that the flood (sailab) noticed at Boonjee 
was the same that passed Attok on the 10th of August, and for 
reasons given hereafter 1 am of opinion that the sepoys' date at 
Boonjee should have been the 25th of Sawan or the 9th of August 
about 9 or 10 a. jvt. 

The Trigonometrical height of Skardo the capital of Little 
Thibet situated on the river Indus has been ascertained to be about 
7700f feet above the sea and that of the G. T. Station eighteen 
miles above Attok has been found to be about 1050J feet above the 
sea, thus shewing a difference of height between the two places of 
about 6650 feet. The distance between Skardo and the above G. T. 
Station by the course of the river Indus is approximately about three 
hundred and ten miles, and consequently there is an average fall in 

* Specially mentioning the Shayok river. 

t G. T. S. point near Skardo fort 7701 very little above river. 

% Gr. T. S. Station on river eighteen miles above Attok and 1049 feet above sea, 

130 Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. [No. 2, 

the bed of the Indus between those places of about 21 T ^ feet 
per mile. 

Similarly the height of Baramoola where the Jhelum river leaves 
the Kashmir valley is about 4930* feet, that of the riverf two 
miles below Jhelum is about 750 feet above the sea, shewing a differ- 
ence in height between the two places of about 4180 feet. The 
distance by the course of the river Jhelum between those two places 
is about one hundred and ninety-four miles giving an average fall in 
the bed of the Jhelum of a little over 21 t 5 q- feet per mile. 

Consequently we may assume that the Jndus and Jhelum rivers 
flow at (very nearly) the same average rate between the respective 
places mentioned. 

With the assistance of Lieut. MelvilleJ I measured the rate of the 
Jhelum river at Naoshera, one march below Baramoola, in as slow 
a part of the stream, as there is between Baramoola and Jhelum, 
and I found the rate to be nearly 690 feet per minute, or about seven 
miles per hour. And Lieut. Melville quite agreed with me that we 
had taken a place where the rate§ was far below the average. The 
river Jhelum between the points mentioned has in general such rugged 
and precipitous banks that it was with difficulty that even the above 
measurement was made. 

The distance from Boonjee to Attok may be taken approxi- 
mately as about two hundred and twenty miles, and if the flood in 
question was the one noticed at Boonjee it traversed the distance 
between those two places between 10 o'clock in the morning of some 
day before the 10th of August and say 6 A. M. of the 10th August, 
that is the flood must have taken either twenty-one hours or forty - 
five or sixty-nine &c. to traverse two hundred and twenty miles, that 
is, it must have passed Boonjee on 9th, 8th or 7th of August. Had 
the flood passed Boonjee on the Sth August, it would have taken forty- 
five hours and would have travelled at the rate of hardly five miles 
an hour, but it has been shewn above that the average rate of the 

* Baramoola Barometrical height 4938 feet above sea. 
t CK T. S. point two miles below Jhelum 758 feet above sea. 
% Topographical Asst. Great Trigonometrical Survey. 

§ Seven miles an hour may be assumed to have been the minimum rate of the 
Jhelum river. 

1S60.] Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. 131 

Indus must be above seven miles an hour in ordinary times, and of 
course much greater during a flood, so it may, I think, be fairly 
concluded that the flood would take only about twenty-one hours in 
traversing the two hundred and twenty miles, and that it passed 
Boonjee on the 9th August, 185S, about 10 a. m. If so it travelled 
at the rate of ten and half miles per hour, by no means an impro- 
bable rate* as the Ganges when it issues from the hills opposite 
Hurdwar is stated by the Canal officers to flow in ordinary times at 
nine miles an hour, and its pace looks slow compared with that of 
the Jhelum below Baramoola. 

As soon as I got the report from Boonjee I sent for further 
information but could only make out that the flood was understood to 
come from Naggar, an independent district which the Maharajah's 
people called a part of Yaghistan ! quite inaccessible to ordinary 
messengers. Nothing would induce a man to go there ; and the Wazeer 
said that when a present was offered, the man took the money, but 
only went a short distance and returned after a time with a made- 

Though repeated enquiries were made, nothing further was elicited. 

Indeed beyond the fact that the flood had come from the Gilgit 
river, as reported by natives and as shewn by its carrying away 
the well known gateway of the Numbul Fort, nothing positive was 
known as to the cause of the flood or of the exact site of the place 
dammed up, though the Boonjee sepoys believed that it came from 
the Naggar valley which is drained by an Eastern tributary of the 
Gilgit river. 

"Whether the flood in question came from Naggar or not, I feel 
quite certain that it did not come from above Skardo. At the 
time of the flood two of my assistants were working round Skardo, 
and another was working on the Shayok river within a month after- 
wards. I asked them to make particular enquiries, but they heard 
nothing of a large flood from any of the inhabitants of those parts. 

- * A table taken from the Philosophical transactions gives 4S0 feet in one 
minute or nearly five and a half miles an hour as the velocity of absolute torrents 
with an inclination of only 3 feet 1.27 inches per mile. The table gives no 
greater inclinations. 

132 Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. [No. 2, 

Had the flood been generated on any of the tributaries of the 
Shayok I must have heard of it, as the damage done by the water on 
first escaping from the barrier or dam would have been very great in 
the Shayok valley itself. 

No report was prevalent at Boonjee or elsewhere in the Maharajah's 
territories as to any river being still dammed up or as to the prospect 
of another flood. 

Should the river Indus or any of its tributaries be hereafter dammed 
up in any part of the Maharajah's territories, there would not be 
much difficulty in getting information from the Maharajah's officials, 
if proper measures were taken for collecting the same. 

If timely warning were given, I think that the water might 
be eased off, if the place was accessible and labour was available for 
the necessary blasting, mining and other operations. 

If, however, an obstruction should arise on the Gilgit river 
or any of its tributaries, there is, in the present political state of 
those valleys, no chance of getting timely warning or any accurate 
information, and if such was forthcoming, nothing could be done as to 
easing off the water unless the Engineer was accompanied by troops. 

Memorandum in answer to the five following questions* by Captain 
T. G. Montgomeeie, Bengal Engineers, F. B. G. S., 1st Asst. 
G. T. Survey, Sfc. 

1st. Whether there is any truth in a prevalent rumour that the 
Indus or one of its tributaries is still obstructed, and how it arose ? 

2nd. When the late cataclysm of 1858 (August) occurred and 
how it arose ? 

3rd. Whether such accidents are likely to be limited to one lo- 
cality or may occur in several points of the Upper Indus and its 
feeders among the mountains ? 

4th. Where is the probable locality of the cataclysm of 1841, and 
how was it occasioned ? 

* Questions proposed by Major Becher, Bengal Engrs. 

1S60.] Memorandum on the great flood of tlie river Indus. 133 

5th. "What means are the most available for ascertaining the oc- 
currence of such a calamity in future ? 

1st. There is no report prevalent in the Maharajah's territories as 
to any portion of the river Indus or its tributaries being dammed up. 

2nd. In my opinion the late cataclysm of August 1858 was gene- 
rated in the Naggar valley on a tributary of the Gilgit river, see 
accompanying Memorandum on the flood of 1858. 

3rd. I do not think such accidents are likely to be confined to 
one locality only. On the contrary, I think they may occur in a 
great many places both on the main Indus and on its tributaries. 
The main river would not, however, be likely to submit to any ob- 
struction so long as the tributaries would. 

4th. I have made enquiries about the flood or cataclysm of 1841, 
as far as I have heard at present I am inclined to think that it did 
not arise in the Shayok river. The Khapalu Rajah Mahomed Ali 
Khan says in a letter of July 1859, that the last great flood on the 
Shayok river took place about twenty-four years ago, that is in 1835, 
but that he was a small boy at the time and did not remember it 
well. His district suffered very much during the flood and had it 
occurred in 1841 he would have remembered all the circumstances. 
I have again addressed the Rajah on the subject and have asked for 
more precise dates. 

Again I think, on examining the existing maps of the Upper 
Indus, that it is highly improbable that the damming up of 
the head of the Shayok river* would make the Indus look smaller 
at Attok than it otherwise would be. Had the whole of the 
Shayok river been stopped, the Indus at Attok might have looked 
smaller than usual but not so for less than a tenth part. And this 
applies both to the flood of 1841 and 1858, if on the latter occasion 
the river really was much lower than it would have been had there 
been no flood — I am of opinion that if the water that falls into the 
Shayok above Sassar-j- never fell into it again, no one would ever notice 
the loss at Attok. 

* At a point not more than forty miles below its sources. 
f The point where the cataclysm of 1841 was said by some to have been 

134 Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. [_No. 2, 

3. According to accounts of the cataclysm of 1841 the river 
Indus was observed to be unusually low in December 1840 and Janu- 
ary 1841 at Attok and lower still in February and March. If that 
was the case it would point to the damming up of something that 
contributed more water than the head of the Shay ok possibly could. 
Indeed when the channel was open but little water could descend 
during December and January from such a cold tract as that of the 
Shayok above Sassar, when snow only falls and when the melting 
of the glaciers must have almost ceased. Moreover the area drained 
by the Shayok at Sassar is comparatively speaking insignificant. 

It is a question whether it was not simply a matter of gossip 
as to the Indus having been unusually low* both in 1841 and in 
1858. In the latter case the fact is very doubtful. People on the 
river would naturally say " we noticed that it was very low, &c." 

It would require a very careful registration of the height of the 
river for several years in order to come to any trustworthy conclusion 
as to whether the Indus was at any period lower or higher than the 

If some sort of daily register was kept at Attok light might possibly 
be thrown upon any future cataclysm that may occur. Observations 
should be made as to the heightf giving the daily maximum and mini- 
mum heights and noting the time, velocity, temperature, colour, &c. of 
the water with general remarks on the weather. 

As to getting timely warning of the damming up of the Indus 
or any of its tributaries, the Lieut. -Governor of the Punjab will I 
have no doubt be able to get the necessary information from the 
Maharajah's officials if it arises in the Maharajah's territories. 
Should it however arise in the Gilgit river or its tributaries, there is 
no hope of getting any, as I have explained in my memorandum on 
the flood. As far as the Maharajah's territories are concerned I 

* The Indus is, I believe, generally very low in December and January. 

t The height to be referred to some permanent bench mark not liable to 

All the rivers in the Punjab have a tide or daily maximum and minimum 
height in the mountains caused by the difference between the amount of snow 
melted during the night and during the day. 

I860.] Memorandum on the great flood of the river Indus. 135 

recommend that periodical reports should he ohtained from the Maha- 
rajah's officials at Boonjee, Skardo and Leh, say once a month whilst 
the passes are open, in order to shew that their attention is directed 
to the suhject — special reports to be made directly any reliable 
information is obtained as to any obstruction in the Indus or its 
branches. In the winter months men without loads can in fine 
weather often cross from the valley of the Indus to that of Kashmir, 
it only requires a sufficient inducement. 

The officer at Boonjee should he requested to report on the river 
in the neighbourhood of the fort and to get all the information 
that he can from the Gilgit countries, viz. Naggar, Hunza, Yassin, &c. 

The officer at Skardo to report on the river in his neighbour- 
hood* more especially on the Shayok river and its tributaries getting 
information from the Khapalu Rajah and the Kardar of Nubra. 

The Thanadar of Ladak to report on all the rivers in his district. 

The Maharajah is at present preparing for an expedition against 
Gilgit and may possibly succeed next year in establishing his 
posts in that valley, should he do so Hunza and Nuggar will most 
probably come under his rule and Yassin may come under his influ- 
ence. In that case information might be forthcoming as to the state 
of all the countries drained by the Gilgit river. 

Under all circumstances it is very difficult to get information on 
such a subject, the natives take little interest in it, and barriers formed 
by landslips or glaciers may arise in some of the very elevated gorges 
which are rarely if ever visited by men from the Ladak side. 

* Xhapalu and Nubra. 

T 2 

136 Memorandum on Mr. BlylKs paper on Wild Asses. [No. 2, 

Memorandum on Mr. Blyth's paper on the Animals known as Wild 
Asses. — By Major E. Strachey, F. B. S. ; F. L. S. 

In Mr. Blyth's recent paper on the Animals known as wild Asses 
he states that " the late Prof. H. Walker referred the Tibetan 
Kyang to Equtjs hemionus of Pallas ; and the Ghor-khur of this 
country is even more satisfactorily referable to E. onager of Pallas, 
figured by Gmelin : but Prof. Walker committed the extraordinary 
mistake of figuring and describing an Indian Ghor-khur for a Kyang, 
so that the alleged distinctions which he has pointed out are value- 
less. However this mistake originated, there is no doubt whatever of 
the fact."* 

Now I am in a position to say quite positively that Mr. Walker 
was right, and that Mr. Blyth is wrong, in the matter-of-fact. The 
animal in question was bought in my presence for the late Mr. 
Thomason for Rs. 100, at the fair at Bagesar in Kumaon, from a 
Tuhari Bhotiya by whom it had been got in Tibet. The story of its 
attachment to the pony, to which Mr. Blyth also alludes, is odd, and 
I will state it in full, with the hope that I may satisfy everybody 
that I really do know something of the personal history of Dr. 
Walker's Kyang. 

Mr. Thomason paid a visit to Almora (the capital of Kumaon) at 
the end of 1817. I was there at the time, and so was my brother 
Mr. John Strachey. We heard of the Kyang, and Mr. Thomason 
having been informed of its existence, asked my brother to buy it 
for him, and to send it down to Calcutta to be forwarded thence to 
England to the Zoological Society. The animal was bought, as I be- 
fore said. But on attempting to remove it from the place where it 
was tied up, it most flatly refused to stir, neither coaxing nor force 
was of any use. We were rather puzzled what to do, when on enquiry 
of its old Bhotiya owner, we learned that it had always been in com- 
pany with a white pony for which it had a strong affection. It then 
occurred to us that if we got the pony too, the Kyang might be 
induced to follow where the pony led ; and so it turned out. One or 
two attempts were made subsequently to surprise the Kyang into a 
more independent sort of existence, but it was of no use, and so the 
pony and he went off to Calcutta together. 

* Journal Vol. XXVIII. p. 230. 

1S60.] Memorandum on Mr. Blytti s paper on Wild Asses. 137 

The end of the pair was tragical. In a gale of wind off the Cape 
the Kyang died ; and the Captain somewhat savagely threw the pony 
overboard alive, as his existence seemed no longer necessary after the 
Kyang's death. 

Thus much as to the Kyang's identity. I must add, however, that 
although I am thus forced to show Mr. Blyth's mistake in this mat- 
ter-of-fact, I in reality corroborate the force of his arguments as to 
the probable specific identity of the two Asses, — the Kyang and the 
Ghor-khur. It is obvious that Dr. Walker's description of a true 
Kyang, answers perfectly for a true Ghor-khur, — and as Mr. Blyth 
observes (though in a somewhat different sense), the alleged distinc- 
tions pointed out* by Dr. "Walker are probably enough valueless. 

I have no pretensions to such a knowledge of Zoology or Anatomy 
as would make my opinion of any weight on the question of specific 
identity ; but I may add a few words as to some of the more pro- 
minent features of the Kyang, having seen many of these animals 
dead and alive. 

In the first place, my impression as to the voice of the Kyang is 
that it is a shrieking bray — not like that of the common Ass — but 
still a real bray and not a neigh. The differences of opinion on this 
point are easily reconcileable, I think, considering the inarticulate 
nature of the sounds. 

As to the colour of the animal, it varies very greatly, and I think 
no dependence, as regards specific character, can be placed on mere 
depth of tint or brilliancy of hue. So also as to the dorsal and 
humeral stripes. The dorsal stripe is always plain. The humeral 
cross varies much, but is often as strongly marked as in the Ass bred 
in Kumaon, in which, however, it is not commonly very well defined. 

I see nothing in the habits of the Kyang to make it improbable 
that it is, in fact, the same species as the Ghor-khur. The Kyang 
must be a very hardy animal to be able to live on the desert plateaus 
of Tibet ; and though in winter the climate in which he exists is 
different enough from that of the plains of Sindh, yet in the summer 
the arid surface and scorching heat of the mid-day sun place the 
Kyang much more on a par with the Ghor-khur than might be sup- 

The Kyang, so far as external aspect is concerned, is obviously an 
Ass and not a Horse. 

138 Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. [No. 2, 

Report on some Fishes received chiefly from the Sitang River and its 
Tributary Streams, Tenasserim Provinces. — By Ed. Bltth. 

A Report upon fishes which I drew up some months ago has 
gradually attained to such a length that it may be conveniently 
divided; and I shall therefore here confine attention almost entirely 
to fluviatile species, mostly collected by the late Major Berdmore in 
the Sitang river and its tributaries, with a few notices of new or 
little knowi\ species from the Gangetic streams and their outlets ; 
reserving an extensive collection of marine fishes, collected principally 
at Port Blair, Andaman Islands, for a future occasion. 

Fam. Jpogonidce. 
Ambassis notattts, nobis, n. s. Nearly similar to A. lala, (Bu- 
chanan Hamilton), in form, but as large as A. banga, (B. EL), the 
mouth proportionally larger than in the latter and opening more 
distinctly upwards. Diameter of the eye nearly half that of the 
head. Body scales minute, but conspicuously visible to the unassisted 
eye ; and the lateral line distinctly traceable throughout. In this 
genus, the first true dorsal spine is minute and fixed, pointing forwards 
(as in various Scomberoids), and the second or first moveable spine 
is generally reckoned as the first. Counting the moveable species 
only, the dorsal and anal rays are — 

D. 7— 1-13.— A. 3-14. 

The first moveable spine of the anterior dorsal fin is J the length 
of the second, and the third is a little shorter than the second. Of 
the anal spines, the first is but half the length of the second, which 
again is a little shorter than the third. Fins colourless. A silvery 
band on each flank, commencing from a large dusky humeral spot. 
Length 2\ in. Sitang river. 

A. lala, (B. H.), var. A number of specimens of this fish sent 
by Major Berdmore are of small size, not exceeding 1-| in. in length, 
and have the anterior dorsal fin infuscated and the posterior dorsal 
and anal fins margined with blackish, to an extent that I have never 
seen in Bengal specimens ; but I can detect no difference in structure. 
Sitang river. 

1S60.] Report on some Fis7ies received from Sitang River. 139 

Bogoda i:stttscata, nobis, n. s. A minute species (if adult), T 9 g- 
in. long bj 1^ in. deep minus the fins ; with the tail much less forked 
than in B. nama, (B. H.), Bleeker ; and of a dusky or infuscated hue, 
having silvery gill-covers and a greenish-silvery stripe on each side : 
fins paler than the body, with a blackish tinge on the anterior half 
of the first dorsal. 

D. 10—1-10 ?— A. 3-8 ? 

One specimen only, from the Mutla. Presented by Major W. S 

The following are the species of Scicenidce which have occurred to 
me in Lower Bengal : this being an estuary group, of which several 
of the species ascend into fresh water. 

Sci^N'OlDES, nobis, n. g. Certain Asiatic species are here brought 
together, which do not range well (as hitherto) either in Sclena or 
Otolithtjs, but they approach nearer to Johnius, from which they 
indeed chiefly differ in the comparatively small size of the eye. The 
jaws are of equal length, with dentition as in Joknius ; and the 
anal spine is short and feeble. 

1. Sc. biaueitus ; Otolithus oiauritus, Cantor. Common about 
the mouths of the Ganges, and not unfrequently brought to the Cal- 
cutta bazars. I have an impression that, many years ago, I forwarded 
specimens of this fish to the India-house by the M.S. name Bcicena 

2. Sc. pama ; RoJa pama, B. H. : Scicena pama, C. V.* Exceed- 
ingly common, but I have never known it to exceed 2 ft. in length, 
and therefore believe that the examples " between four and five feet 
long" noticed by Buchanan Hamilton appertained to the preceding 
species, which is very similar in form of head, and moreover is 
unnoticed as a distinct species by Hamilton. 

3. Sc. Hardwickii, nobis, n. s. A diminutive species, common 
at the mouths of the Gangetie rivers, which greatly resembles the 

* The so-called 'Whiting' of Calcutta tables. At Madras the Sillago 
acuta is eaten for 'Whiting;' and I consider the Bengal species, S. domika, to 
resemble the flavour of true Whiting much more than does the Sc. pama, or 
' Bola' fish. S. acuta occurs at the Sandheads, but I have never seen this species 
in the Calcutta fish-bazars. 

140 Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. [No. 2, 

Sci^ka lucida, Richardson, figured in the Zoology of the Voyage of 
H. M. S. ' Sulphur,' and is therefore probably that cited as figured 
in one of the unpublished drawings of Gen. Hardwicke in the British 
Museum, No. 130; the Sc. lucida inhabiting the Chinese Seas. 
The eyes, however, are smaller than in Scijenoides lucida, the teeth 
more developed, the medial caudal rays are prolonged into a length- 
ened filament (which, however, may be characteristic of youth), and 
the fore-part of the back is smooth and spineless. It has also many 
more rays to the second dorsal and fewer to the anal fins. 

B 9— 1-43— A 2-7. 

Length to end of caudal filament under 2 in., in all hitherto 
examined. Colour bright silvery with white fins. 

4. Sc. (?) .aspee, nobis, n. s. Another small fish common at the 
mouths of the Gangetic rivers, with body and fins like the last, but 
the back less elevated, and the anal spine considerably more deve- 
loped. Mouth large, opening obliquely upward ; the teeth moderate 
or rather small. Head with many prickles or spinelets, more or less 
developed in different individuals. Eyes placed high, near the plane of 
the forehead, on which two slight ridges — one from above each eye — 
meet behind upon the occiput at a somewhat acute angle. Some have 
a mesial spinelet, pointing a little backward, on and above the move- 
able and protrusile portion of the upper jaw, and another directed 
forward a little behind it : other spinelets, again, are seen (or more 
readily felt) on a raised line posterior to the eye, another upon each 
side of the occiput, and there are spinelets likewise at the margin of 
the pre-opercule. 

J). 9—1-28. A. 2-6. 

Colour silvery, the head brilliant silvery in the recent fish, with 
more or less of a nigrescent wash on the dorsal and the caudal fins, 
and numerous very minute dark specks near the ridge of the back, 
which are likewise seen in Sc. Haedwickii. Length mostly under 
3 in. 

5. Otolithus maculatus, Kuhl and von Hasselt (nee apud Can- 
tor). This is clearly the species described by this name in the Sis- 
toire des Poissons, with numerous black spots on the caudal and 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. 141 

second dorsal. It is occasionally, though rarely, brought to the Cal- 
cutta fish-bazars. 

6. O. submaculatus, nobis, n. s. : 0. maculatus apud Cantor ? 
Spots few in number and comparatively large, ranged chiefly in two 
subregular lines, one bordering the second dorsal and the other 
bordering the lateral line above, with a few spots also bordering the 
lateral line below, — about 24 in all on each side : no decided spots on 
the fins ; but numerous dusky specks on the dorsals, caudal, and a 
few on the anal : a purple spot or patch and below it a yellow one on 
each gill-cover. Mouth opening more decidedly upwards than in the 
other, so that the large canine-like teeth of the lower jaw point 
directly backward when the mouth is closed. 

D. 9—1-31.—^. 2-11. 
Length 7 in. by 1^ in. in greatest depth of body. Two individuals 
only obtained in the bazar, within a few days of each other. 

7. O. bispinosus, Cuvier and Volenciennes. The fry common 
at the Sandheads, together with Scij3noides Habdwickii and 

Sc. (?) ASPEB. 

8. JoHisriTis anei, Bloch : JBola coibor, B. H. Common. Attains 
an enormous size, but the very large are seldom brought to the bazars. 

9. J. maculatus, C. V. : Scicena rnaculata (?), Cray, Hardw. III. 
Ind. Zool. (represented as without spots below the lateral line !) 
Accords minutely with the description in the Histoire des Poissons ; 
and Russell's figure (No. 123) assigned to the same must therefore 
be faulty, especially in the form of the head above the eye, if intended 
to represent the same species. Once only obtained ; two specimens. 

10. J. cataleus (?), C. V. This also must be very faultily 
figured if Russell's pi. 116 is correctly assigned to it. It is not 
uncommon ; and we have specimens from 4§ to 21 in. long. It is 
thoroughly distinct from No. 9 (at least the species are so to which 
I have assigned the names). Kdla Bola of the natives here. 

11. J. chaptis ; Bola chaptis, B. H. Common. 

12. J. sina, C. V. (Russell, No. 111). Rare. 

13. J. coitoe ; Bola coitor, B. H. Common. 

14. Coevina cuja ; Bola cuja, B. H. Common. 

15. Lobotes eeate, C. V. Not rare. A particularly delicate 
fish for the table. 

142 Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. [Xo. 2, 

Of the foregoing fifteen species of Scicenidce, twelve have heen 
obtained in the Calcutta fish-bazars, and only five of them are noticed 
by Buchanan Hamilton, though he appears to have confounded Sci:e- 


A remarkable little fish obtained in the Calcutta fish-bazars may 
be designated — 

Ueanoscopus adh^sipinnis, nobis, n. s. : having the ventral fins 
well separated apart, but each being connected along its whole inner 
edge to the skin of the abdomen, forming apparently an adhesive 
disk. Another curious character consists in a duplicature of the skin 
within the upper angle of the gill-cover, forming a sort of tube 
communicating with the gills when the opercle is closed. The 
anterior dorsal consists of ten almost detached spines, of which the 
first (which is close to the occiput) is longest. The upper part of 
the head is ridged, shewing angular interspaces or compartments, 
mostly of a squarish form : on the gill-covers are five distinct cross- 
ridges, and a sixth less distinct below. Above each lateral line is a 
series of prominent tubercles, and the lateral line is near to and runs 
almost parallel with the middle of the back. The ventrals reach as 
far back as the pectorals. 

D. 1Q— 14 — A. 11.— P. 15.— V. 5.— 0. 11. 

General colour olive-brown, paler below, and whitish about the 
gill-openings, with all the fins blackish and obscurely mottled. 
Largest specimen obtained 2f in. ; but the species doubtless attains 
a much greater size. 

Fam. ? 

Toxotes miceolepis, nobis, n. s. Exceedingly like T. jactjlatoe, 
but the scales conspicuously very much smaller, especially on the 
lower half of the body ; the eye being also proportionally rather larger, 
and the body-markings much more developed, forming broken or 
discontinuous longitudinal bands. The fin-rays appear to be the 
same. From the Sitang river. 
Fam. AnabantidcB . 

Colisa vulgaris, C. V. Sitang river. 
Fam. Zeidce. 

Miceozeus, nobis, «. g. A remarkable minute fish, which is little 

IS 60.] Eeport on some Fishes received from Sitang River. 143 

else than an exceedingly diminutive Zeus (the genus to which the 
British ' John Dory,' or Jaune doree, is referred) ; and both in its 
uniform dark brown colouring,* and its remarkable great humeral 
spine, specially approximating the Z. pangio, C. V., of the Medi- 
terranean, figured in the Histoire des Poissons (pi. 280). From the 
first dorsal, however, which commences at the middle or highest 
portion of the hack, the outline of the head and body (as viewed 
laterally) describes a quarter of a circle, falling vertically at the 
mouth. The mouth, also, is not protrusile, but the lower jaw 
extrudes when it is open ; both jaws being apparently furnished with 
a single row of minute teeth. No scales or lateral line discernible 
(and the latter would appear to be somewhat indistinct in the Zeus 
paxgio). The general shape is nearly as high as long, compressed ; 
the head broader, and armed with a great tumid frontal casque, 
adjoining which are several distinct and prominent ovoid plates 
variously disposed, at the junction of two of which on the gill-cover 
and directly behind the eye, arises the great lateral spine, which, 
though directed backward, stands out from the sides of the body and 
is therefore particularly conspicuous when the fish is viewed from 
above or below. There are two dorsal fins, distinct though conti- 
nuous at base ; the anterior having spinous rays, and greatly resem- 
bling the corresponding fin of Zeus pangio, only proportionally 
much smaller : all the other fins are distinct and well defined, but 
short and compact, with no rays elongated beyond the rest ; tail 
slightly rounded, less so than in Z. pakgio, and the ventrals are not 
elongated as in that species. No proper scales are discernible, but 
the body is uniformly studded with rough tubercles. 

M. AEiiATUS, nobis, n. s. A minute species, % in. long minus the 
tail, by somewhat exceeding \ in. high minus the fins. As in various 
other Scomberoids, &c, there is a minute and concealed forward- 
directed spine (readily ascertained by the sense of touch) anterior to 
the first dorsal, which latter consists often moveable spines, of which 
the third is longest and the rest are successively shorter, followed by 
a distinct though conterminous fin containing about sixteen soft 
rays ; the anal has three short spines, followed by about fourteen 
flexible rays ; the ventrals have one spine and five or six soft rays ; 
* This, however, I since learn is only when preserved in spirit. 

v 2 

144 Report on some Fishes received from Sitang Hiver. [No. 2, 

and the short pectorals have about fifteen rays ; the caudal about 

D. 10-16.—A 3-14.— V. 1-5 or 6.— P. 15 ?— O. 17 ? 

From the diminutive size of the fish, it is difficult to count the 
fin-rays even with the help of a magnifier. The colour (in spirit) is 
uniform dusky-brown ; but Major W. S. Sherwill, who discovered 
this species in the Mutla river during the month of May, swimming 
in shoals of about fifty each, in mid-stream during the height of the 
tide, assures me that about ten individuals of such a shoal were of a 
brilliant cobalt-blue colour, about twenty bright yellow, and the 
remaining twenty a rich brown, — differences no doubt of sex and of 
breeding condition. 

Fam. Macrognathidce. 

Mastacembalus, Grronov. Of this genus we possess — 1. M. uni- 
colok, K. et v. H. ; from the Sitang ; — 2. M. pancalus, (B. H.) ; 
very common in Lower Bengal; — 3. M. zebbinus, nobis, J. A. 8. 
XXVII, 281, from the Sitang, which some might consider to be a 
strongly marked race of the last ; — and 4. M. abmatus, Lacepede 
(apud Cuvier) ; very common in Lower Bengal, and here varying 
chiefly in the markings being more conspicuously developed in the 
young. It is accurately figured by Buchanan Hamilton, and incor- 
rectly coloured (so far as the Bengal race is concerned) in the His- 
toire des Poissons. Dr. Bleeker identifies with it M. ponticerianus 
et M. marmoratus, C. V., and also M. undulatus, McClelland. The 
last is from China, and it agrees sufficiently with some Bengal exam- 
ples of the species, except that it is stated to have three spines 
anterior to the anal fin ; but I have seen none resembling in its 
variegation the M. marmoratus, C. V., and 21. venosus, Val., as 
figured in the Zoology of Jacquemont's Voyage, nor the IT. armatus 
as figured by Sykes. Dr. Jerdon recognised three species in S. India, 
all of which were considered by him to be different from that of 
Sykes — viz. his ponticerianus, which is doubtless true abmatus of 
Bengal, with 78 dorsal and 72 anal rays, — his marmoratus with D. 
84 to 87 and A. 90 to 92,' — and his malabaricus with 74 of each; 
the number of soft rays in the first and second according with those 
given by Cuvier and Valenciennes. A Tenasserim race now sent is a 
little differently marked from abmatus of Bengal, and the fins 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitany River. 145 

(including the pectorals) are minutely speckled : but I considerably 
incline to .the opinion that all will prove to be slight varieties only of 
M. abhatus, — excepting, of course, the tjnicolob, pancalus and 
zebbines, — the last two being again very nearly affined to each 

Fam. Gobiidce. 

Genus Eleotris, Gronov. Five species are more or less common- 
ly brought to the Calcutta fish-bazars. Of these, one — E. maceodon 
■ — has minute scales ; two — E. poeocephalus and E. inceeta (n. s.) 
— have small scales (and the former is less frequently obtainable tban 
the others) ; and there are two with large scales — E. butis, (B. H., 
v. liumeralis, Val.), and another which appears to be undescribed : — 

E. buccata, nobis, n. s. Affined to E. capebata, Cantor, and at 
once distinguished by having a black spot at base of each pectoral 
fin, margined and clotted with bright gamboge-yellow. Scales larger 
than in E. btjtjs, (B. H.), a range of eight of them only from second 
dorsal to anal fins. The head very short, as high as broad, with a 
serrated ridge above each orbit, concave between the orbits and convex 
anteriorly above the mouth, with prominent scaled cheeks or prse- 
opercles ; teeth small and uniform. In some specimens a series of 
dark transverse bands is distinctly traceable ; one of them as broad 
as the first dorsal is long, the other being equal to the second dorsal : 
fins infuscated, more or less mottled, and the lower edged with yel- 
low ; the first ray of the second dorsal being elongated in some spe- 

D. 6-10.— A. 9. 

Length 4 in. By no means a common species.* 

E. cavifeons, nobis, n. s. Affined to E. maceodon, Bleeker, but 
the scales fully twice as large, all the fins much longer, and a remark- 
able depression between the eyes ; also the same scaleless line or 
groove from the eye to the insertion of the prse-opercle, conspicuously 
developed, as is described of E. madagascaeiensis. Head one* fourth 

* Though aware that Dr. Bleeker has subdivided the great genus Eleoteis 
(as it stands in the Histoire des JPoissonsJ , I have not seen his arrangement ; 
but gather incidentally that Butis stands as the type of one group, and another 
distinct type of large-scaled species is exemplified by E. CAPEBATA and E. 


146 Report on some Fishes received from Sit any River. [No. 2, 

of the total length : the pectorals reaching to the middle of the body. 
The lower jaw when closed exceeds in length and rises to the same 
plane as the upper ; and in both jaws there is a row of larger teeth 
bordering the usual band of small teeth. Genital appendage rather 

J). 6-10.— A. 9. 

Colour greenish-albescent, much embrowned above ; all the fins 
much speckled, the variegation shewing as numerous pale dots upon 
the caudal. Longest specimen 4f in. Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

E. incerta, nobis, n. s. This is a species very similar to the last, 
and which is commonly brought to the Calcutta fish-bazars ; but I 
have not known it to exceed 3 in. (or at most 3i in.) in length, and 
the head is more than a quarter of the total length. In an example 
3-| in. long, the head to point of gill-cover measures |- in. In a few 
specimens — one or two thus characterized may generally be selected 
from two or three dozens — the curious feature occurs of a sharp re- 
flected spine at the angle of the prse-opercle. In E. belobrais'Cha, 
C. V., such spines occur on two of the gill-rays. The groove from 
the eye to the angle of the prse-opercle exists, but the naked line is 
more contracted than in E. caviprons. Dentition as in the latter, 
but the teeth are proportionally smaller. Fin-rays the same. Colour 
dull olive-brown, the pectorals whitish and minutely speckled, having 
a dusky spot at their base ahove, which does not occur in E. cati- 
profs : dorsals, anal, and caudal, infuscated, the second dorsal pret- 
tily speckled with whitish and the other fins less distinctly variegat- 
ed. Length mostly under 3 in. 

E. scintillans, nobis, ii. s. A species with only eight rays to the 
second dorsal and 6 (or perhaps 7) to the anal fins. General aspect 
very much that of an Ophicephalus. Form short, the head nearly 
a third of the total length. Colour dull pale green, infuscated above 
and at the sides, with an appearance of two black spots above and 
below at base of tail ; all the fins being inconspicuously speckled. As 
seen in spirit, many of the scales have a brilliant golden sparkle. 
Length of only specimen 2J- in. Port Blair, Andamans. 

E. feliceps, nobis, n. s. Species remarkable for the approxima- 
tion of the eyes, which are separated by an interspace only one-fourth 
of the diameter of the orbit. Scales, as in the preceding species, 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitany River. 147 

moderately small, or of about the same proportionate size as in E. 
porocephaius. Mouth unusually small. Form rather short, with 
the head nearly a fourth of the total length. Hays of the first dorsal 
elongated into slight filaments. Ten rays in the second dorsal, and 
eight in the anal fins. Colour albescent-greenish, with numerous ob- 
scure and more or less confluent dusky spots on the sides (as beift 
seen through a magnifier) : all the fins being somewhat faintly varie- 
gated. Length of only specimen 2 in. Port Blair, Andamans. 

I have introduced these Andaman species whilst treating of this 
genus ; but the species of true Gobitts thence received are very nu- 
merous, and, for the most part, are difficult to determine. An extraordi- 
narily beautiful Goby of which I obtained a single specimen, some 
months ago, in one of the Calcutta fish bazars, appears to be the 

Gr. vikidipu^ctatus, C. V. The fresh fish had a double row of 
brilliant greenish-eserulean large spots or patches on each side, which 
immediately and completely disappeared when it was put into spirit. 
Length 5^- in. 

Amblyoptts ciebattjs, nobis, n. s. A large and remarkable species, 
much shorter in proportion to its thickness than A. hermanniantts, 
having the dorsal and anal fins much more elevated than in that 
species, and the pectorals also considerably broader ; with the tail-fin 
quite distinct from the dorsal and anal, though connected at their 
extreme base only, the tail being broader and much less attenuated 
at tip than in the other; with eyes undiscernible in an adult pre- 
served in spirit, but a pit in the centre of the face, and numerous 
flat lobes of skin around and about it ; also with seven flat and 
pointed cirri about the symphisis of the lower jaw ; and with the mouth 
more strongly reverted than in A. hebmannianus, having all the 
teeth black at base. 

D. 5-42.— .4. 44.— P. 13.— V, 1-5.— C. 15. 

Length of specimen 9 in. ; and body li in. deep posterior to the 
vent. A single example of this very strongly marked species was 
found among a lot of duplicates of A. hebmannlanus : origin un- 
known, but probably obtained in the Calcutta bazar. 

Pebiopthalmtjs papilio, Bloch, Schn. : P.fuscatus, nobis, J. A. S. 
XXIII, 271 (the young). Agrees essentially with M. Valenciennes' 
figure of a species which he refers to P. papilio from the W. coast 

148 Report on some Fishes received from Sitcing River. [No. 2, 

of Africa ; but the tail is obliquely truncated underneath, as usual 
in the genus ; and the high anterior dorsal fin is of a dusky plumbeous 
colour, with a conspicuous black margin which again is slightly 
fringed with white ; there is ordinarily, however, no second white 
line below the black, as figured by M. Valenciennes, though I have 
found this in two small specimens, and the lower portion of the fin 
is often conspicuously speckled with white. General colour of the 
body fuscous above, subdued white beneath, the gill-covers more or 
less spotted with white, and rudimentary short transverse bands 
passing up from the white of the belly ; neutral and anal fins white, 
the pectorals and caudal a little speckled. Length 5 in. ; height of 
anterior dorsal fin 1^ in. in the finest examples. Common at Poit 
Blair, Andaman islands. 

P. 7 — kadiatus, (B. H.) Tenasserim and Calcutta specimens 

P. 13 — eadiatps, (B. H.) Ditto. The rays of the first dorsal 
vaiy from 11 to 13 in the males, and in the females this fin is either 
wanting altogether, or commonly so minute as to be discerned with 
difficulty, while in some examples five short rays are readily percep- 
tible. Occasionally in the males the first or lengthened ray of the 
anterior dorsal is white to its base, and sometimes the second ray 
also. Mostly under 3| in. in length. 

BoLiEOPTHALMUS inoenatus, nobis, n. s. A small species perhaps, 
with proportionally small mouth, the gape barely reaching to between 
the eyes ; of a greenish colour, with about ten dark transverse bands, in 
general not very distinct ; with colourless fins, excepting the two 
dorsal, the membranes of which are minutely speckled with black 
(as seen through a magnifier) ; the first dorsal being not more 
elongated than the second. 

D. 5-22.— A. 22. 

Our largest specimen measures 3 in. long, but is probably not full- 
grown. Tenasserim. 

Earn. ? 

Nandus maemoeattjs, C. V. : Coius nandus, B. H. Tenasserim. 
Common in Lower Bengal. 
Fam. Siluridce. 

Bagrus lettcophasis, nobis, n. s. A restricted Bageus, of very 

I860.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. 149 

remarkable colouring ; the head aud fore-part of the body being 
bright silky-white above, studded with minute pores (as best seen 
under a magnifier). Maxillary cirri reaching to the end of adipose 
dorsal. Teeth and palatal band of them as usual in the genus. 
Eyes one-third of the vertical diameter of the head, and the two 
separated by an interspace equal to the orbit. Occipital process 
nearly as in B. gttlio, (B. H.) First dorsal spine short and trian- 
gular ; the second elongated, moderately slender, and pectinated behind 
for its terminal third ; the next two soft rays being longer than the 
spine. Pectoral spines very strongly pectinated behind. Adipose 
dorsal fin elongated longitudinally. Tail strongly forked. 
Z>. 2-1.— A. 10.— P. 1-9.— V. 6.—0. 17. 

Fins chiefly black, the rajs of the first dorsal pale. Adipose dorsal 
pale and yellowish, studded with minute dusky specks, and having a 
slight dusky border. Base of ventrals yellowish, and an admixture of 
this colour on the pectorals, anal, and caudal. Body chiefly of a dark 
chocolate-brown, passing to silky-white anterior to the dorsal spine.* 
Largest specimen 5f in. long, li in. high at the dorsal spine, and lenght 
of dorsal spine 1 —^ in. From the Sitang and other Burmese rivers. 

B. tekgaba, (B. H.), var. Merely differs from B. tengaba of 
Bengal by having constantly a strongly marked black spot near the 
tail, similar to the pectoral spot in both races. Tenasserim. 

B. catasius, (B. H.), var. Differs only from the Bengal race by 
having a very distinct black mark at base of the dorsal spine, and in 
some individuals a distinct black spot also on the operculum, — mark- 
ings which are only indicated in Gangetic specimens. Tenasserim. 

Batasio, nobis, n. g. A Bagroid form well worthy of distinction ; 
comprising a number of small species with round and prominent 
muzzle, and the contracted mouth opening from below : with eight, 
or sometimes (?) six, cirri, which are very short, the maxillary cirri 
scarcely passing the eye in some. Palatal band of teeth continuous 
with the mass of maxillary teeth, or separated only by a slight 
groove. Best as in Bageits (verus). 

* This white recals to mind that of the male of Hepialfs humuli, an insect 
commonly known in England as the c Ghost-moth.' — In the recent fish, the colour 
of the lower parts should be green, according to a communication just received 
from Major Tickell. 

150 Beport on some Fishes received from Sitting River. [No. 2, 

Type. B. Btjchanani, nobis ; Pimelodus batasio, B. H. 

B. aeeinis, nobis, n. s. Exceedingly like B. Bucha^asi, as de- 
scribed by Buchanan Hamilton and as figured in one of his unpub- 
lished coloured drawings ; whereas his published figure (F. G. pi. 
XXIII. f. 60,) refers to his Pimelodus carcio, which is a true Bageus 
with moderately long maxillary cirri : — but having 12 instead of 16 
anal rays, no distinct longitudinal black stripe on each side of the 
body, but a tendency to shew three or four broad cross-bands, more 
or less distinct, besides a round black spot near the gill-covers, as in 
the other. The first dark band proceeds obliquely downward from 
the fore-part of the first dorsal, to some distance below the lateral 
line ; and posterior to this first band are obscure traces of three or 
four others, the last at base of tail. On the membrane of the dorsal 
fin is a large blackish spot, consisting of minute dark specks. Maxil- 
lary cirri scarcely passing the eye ; the two inferior pairs of cirri 
minute. Length 3f in. by f in. high, of dorsal spine J-g- in., and of 
maxillary cirri under f in. Tenasserim. 

To the same type, but with shorter adipose dorsal, appertain the 
tengana, CHANDAMABA, and eama of Buchanan Hamilton. B. 
CHANDamaba is referred to Silundta by M. Valenciennes, and is 
described by Hamilton to have only two cirri ; but his unpublished 
figure represents six cirri distinctly, and in all this group the minute 
cirri are discernible with difficulty and are extremely liable to be 
overlooked. The Bageus capensis of Sir A. Smith's ' Illustrations 
of S. African Zoology' would appear also to be referrible to this par- 
ticular division. 

Of the well marked type exemplified by Bagbps sondaictjs and 
B. doeoides of Valenciennes, Dr. Bleeker constitutes his genus 
Hexanematicthts. The latter species, however, I consider to be — 
H. sagub ; Pimelodus sagur, B. H. : Bagrus doroides, Val. For 
a few days, in the month of March, 1859, several specimens were 
brought to the Calcutta bazar ; and the largest obtained by me was 
22| in. long, with dorsal spine 2f in., and pectoral spines 3f in. ; the 
membrane prolonged into a short filament beyond the spines : the 
latter are granulose, striated, with a regular series of tubercles in 
front, which are round on the pectoral spines and omega-shaped on 
the dorsal. Maxillary cirri reaching back to beyond the posterior 

1S60.] Beport on some Fishes received from Sitang Biver. 151 

base of the pectorals, as far as the tip of the triangular granulose 
bone above the pectorals and behind the gill-cover. Osseous plate 
broad, and uniformly granulose almost to the ventrals ; the second 
plate, anterior to the base of dorsal, large and bilobate or saddle- 
shaped. A series of granulose ossicles continued along the lateral 
line, nearly as far as the posterior base of the dorsal fin. Colour 
uniform livid plumbeous above, spotless pearly-white below : a series 
of transverse dull silvery bauds, each with a row of pores along its 
anterior margin,* above the lateral line : no dark spot on adipose 
dorsal ; the membrane of anterior dorsal pale, and of the other fins 
purple-black. Eyes moderate, with yellow irides. 

Another type is rightly discriminated by Dr. Bleeker by the name 
Cephalocassis, comprising species both from the Old World and 
the New. Among them are — 

C. so^A ; Pimelodus sona, B. H. : P. auratus, B. H., MS. : 
Bagrus arioides, Val. 

C. gagoeides ; Bagrus gagorides, C. V. ; Pimelodus gagora, B. H. 
(in part), vide J. A. 8. XXVII, 285. 

C. tbachypohtts ; B. trachypomus, C. V. ; which I am now satis- 
fied is distinct from gagoeides, though 1 have not obtained it. 
Indeed, the habitat of this fish is not stated. » 

Abius is restricted by Dr. Bleeker to the type exemplified by P. 
arius and P. gagora, B. H., with two groups of blunt teeth on the 
palate. The following also belongs to it. 

A. jatitjs ; Pimelodus jatius, B. H. Stated to have no palatal 
teeth ; and certainly they are not always discernible in the recent 
fish.f But in most fresh specimens, and always soon after death, 
or in the dry skin, two oblique oval masses of round tubercle-like 
teeth are seen, very far back on the palate, and a few similar teeth 
detached from the others by a long interval are placed in two small 
lateral masses nearer to the card-like maxillary teeth. General aspect 
of A. gagoka, but with the face anterior to the eyes considerably 
longer : maxillary cirri reaching only to the white spot on centre of 

* These are difficult to discern in the dry skin. 

t In a description which I took from the first specimen obtained, I under- 
lined the statement that it had no palatal teeth. 

x 2 

152 Report on some Fishes received Jrom Sitang River. [No. 2, 

forehead. Dorsal and pectoral spines resembling those of A. gagora, 
being of the same proportional length and thickness but less distinctly 
pectinated behind. Cephalic plate much less uniformly tuberculated 
than in A. gagora, and considerably more grooved or lineated and 
having fewer tubercles anteriorly : small bony crescent anterior to 
the dorsal spine prolonged on either side to a point, and tuberculated 
only in the middle. Colour lurid, passing to silvery on the sides 
below the lateral line, and white underneath ; the fins also white, 
and a black spot on the adipose dorsal : irides pearly-white : mouth 
small and of a yellow colour. The largest specimen obtained is 
29 in. long, with dorsal spine 4-g- in. This species is but occasionally 
brought to the Calcutta fish-bazars, and generally more or less stale 
and unfit for preservation, as if not taken in the immediate neigh- 

Gagata, Bleeker. This, as it now stands, is a heterogeneous assem- 
blage of species, and I know of none that can properly range with 
the t} r pe of it, which is Pimelodus gagata, B. H. : a species with the 
maxillary cirri bony towards the base, as in Bagarius to a much 
greater extent. The menoda dubiously referred to this type by 
Dr. Bleeker is identical with JBagrus corsula, Val., which therefore 
must stand as B. menoda, (B. H.) ; the mangois appertaining to 
my genus Amblyoeps ; and another type may be here indicated as — 

Hara, nobis, n. g. With broad maxillary cirri, soft throughout, 
and annulated with two colours : the pectoral spines short, fiat, aud 
pectinated on both edges ; the dorsal spine less stout, serrated on 
both edges or behind only : mouth small, terminal, but opening 
below : head fiattish, with small eyes placed high : a band of card- 
like palatal teeth. Colouring dark and minutely mottled. 

Type. H. buchanani, nobis ; Pimelodus hara, B. H. 

H. eilamentosa, nobis, n. s. Very like H. Buchanaki ; but having 
a long filament continued from the upper segment of the caudal fin. 
The markings are difficult to describe, from their intricacy ; but two 

* To the list of Silurdioe obtained in the Calcutta bazars, published in Yol. 
XXVII, p. 283 et seq., have accordingly to be added— 
Hexanematicthys sague, (B. H.) 
Abius jatius, (B. H.) : as also 
Chaca lophioides, Val. : Platystaca chaca, B. H. 

I860.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. 153 

irregular speckled-whitish transverse bands are constant, preceded 
each by a blackish band, the first white band being anterior and the 
second posterior to the adipose dorsal ; a row of whitish spots on 
the membrane of the dorsal; two dark bands, one of them basal, on 
the ventrals ; and a black band at base of anal fin. Length 3 in. ; 
of caudal filament 1 in. more. Tenasserim. 

To this genus must also be referred the (Pimelodus) co:nta, B. H., 
with a deeply furcate tail, the upper lobe of which is longer and 
more attenuated ; as also the (P.) cabnataca, Jerdon, and the (P.) 
aspeea, McClelland, 0. J. N. H., IV, 401, and pi. XXIV, f. 2. 

Another distinct type occurs in the (P.) cenia and (P.) yiei- 
descexs, B. H. These are referred doubtfully by Dr. Bleeker to 
his Hemipiaieloe-tjs ; as also (P.) jatius, B. H., which is a true 
Abies, as already shewn. If the Nallah Jellali of Russell (pi. 
CLXX) be a pi'oper Hemipimelodtjs as assigned by Dr. Bleeker, 
then the Cenia group is quite distinct ; and the (P.) telchitta, 
B. H., again, represents a special type with additional species in 
S. India. 

Ambltceps, nobis, J. A. S. XXVII, 281. Type Amb. c^cutiens, 
nobis, ibid. (' Cohitis-like Siluroid,' XXIV, 712). To this genus 
should be referred the (Pimelodus) mangois, B. H., figured among 
his unpublished drawings ; but the form is rather less elongated, 
the tail more sharply forked, the eyes (to judge from the drawing) 
more distinct, and the adipose dorsal better defined and less distant 
from the first dorsal, than in A. c^cutiens. 

A. tenuispints, nobis, n. s. A third species, distinguished by the 
slenderness of its short dorsal and pectoral spines, and also by the 
fineness of its eight cirri : eyes minute and difficult to be distin- 
guished : adipose dorsal indistinct and pointed posteriorly : six soft 
rays to the dorsal and nine to the anal, the first of the latter being 
short and the next two successively longer. Colour uniform dark 
greenish olive-brown. The lateral line wanting in all the species. 
Length 2 in. A single specimen procured at Ghazipur by Dr. 
Jerdon, and presented by him to the museum. 

Gltptosteenon, McClelland. It appears that as many as four 
very distinct generic types have been brought together under this 
name by Mr. McClelland, in the five species which he has described 

154 'Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. [No. 2, 

in the second volume of the Calcutta Journal of Natural History, 
pp. 584-8. 

The species first described by him is his Gl. eeticulatus, from 
Afghanistan. It is stated to be " without spines ; the first ray of 
the pectoral and ventral fins soft and pinnate, giving off soft pointed 
cartilaginous rays along the anterior margin, which are enveloped in 
the membrane of the fin. The under surface of the head and of the 
anterior portion of the body forms a flat corrugated surface." Gill- 
covers ? Cirri ? This form will remain as typical Gltp- 


A second type (Pseitdecheneis, nobis, n. g.,) is figured and very 
unsatisfactorily described as Gl. stjlcatus. All that is stated is — 
" An oval disk on the breast between the pectorals, composed of 
transverse plates as in the Eemora (Echeneis), and a series of simi- 
lar plates on the broad lower surface of the first rays of the ventrals." 
No mention of spinous rays : and from the figure published it is 
doubtful if the gill-coverings are visible from below. Adipose dorsal 
distinct and well developed. Mouth figured as small, subterminal; 
with tolerably developed maxillary cirri ; the six other cirri small. 
"Z>. 8,-4. 9.--P. 13.— V. 7.—C. 16." 

The third type is that of his Gl. steiatus and apparently his Gl. 
pectinopteetjs, respectively from the Khasya hills and the vicinity 
of Simla. We have what appears to be the former from Dorjiling ; 
also another species from the same locality, but in too imperfect 
condition to permit of a description being taken of it. A fine third 
species likewise from the Tenasserim provinces. This type may be 

Geyptothoeax, nobis, n. g. Mouth subterminal, large, with a 
band of card-like maxillary teeth above and below : gill-openings 
large, and nearly meeting below ; and behind them a pectoral adhe- 
sive disk grooved longitudinally. Maxillary cirri rather large, with a 
concealed spinelet at their base ; the six other cirri moderate. Adipose 
dorsal distinct and well defined ; the anal fin moderate or somewhat 
large. Dorsal spine well developed, smooth, feebly pectinated behind 
towards its tip ; the pectoral spines broad and flat, and strongly pecti- 
nated behind : a distinct spinous base also to the first ventral ray. 

Gl. teilineatus, nobis, n. s. Typical in structure, and of a 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. 155 

blackish colour, with three longitudinal yellow lines, one along the 
entire ridge of the back from occiput to base of tail, the others along 
each lateral line. Dorsal spine two-thirds of the length of the first 
soft ray. Lobes of the furcate tail subequal, the lower rather^the 
larger and longer. 

D. 1-7.— A. 12.— P. 11.— V. 6.—C. 15. 

The chief structural difference from Gl. steiatus consists in its 
having three more rays to the anal fin. Length 5i in. Tenasserim. 

The fourth type is very distinct in the form of the mouth, and has 
remarkably small gill-openings which are visible only from above. 
I term it 

Exostoma, nobis, n. g. Otherwise generally similar to Glypto- 
thouax, but with no pectoral disk, the dorsal spine exceedingly 
slender (if always present ?), and the eyes somewhat larger. " Lips 
reflected and spread continuously round the mouth, so as to form a 
broad flat sucker." Two distinct lateral lobes of minute card-like 
teeth, both above and below, reflected much apart, and having an 
obviously suctorial centre. Only one pair of lower cirri, situate at 
the posterior corners of the reflected lower or hinder lip : the entire 
lower-parts smooth and flat. Anal fin small ; the adipose dorsal 
lengthened but very slight and low, extending nearly to the caudal. 

Ex. Beed^ioeei, nobis, n. s. Maxillary cirri reaching beyond the 
base of the pectoral spines, and no distinct spinelet at the base of the 
latter ; but a spinous base to the first ray of the ventrals : lower caudal 
lobe much broader and longer than the upper. 

D. 7.— A. 6.— P. 1-10.— V. 1-5.— G. 14. 

Colour dingy olive-brown, with obscure broad dark bands, present- 
ing more or less of a clouded appearance ; the fins mostly darker : 
below pale. Largest specimen 4 in. Tenasserim. 

Ex labiatum ; Glgptosternon labiatus, McClelland. Dorsal de- 
scribed to be " perfectly soft and free from spines and bristling points ; 
cirri very short." No notice of the colouring. From the Mishmi 
hills, E. Asam. 

Dr. Bleeker refers the (Pimelodus) nangea, B. H., to Glyptos- 
teenon ; but this I cannot understand. Vide Hamilton's published 
figures. He also gives a Gl. platypogon, (K. et v. H.), from Java 

156 Report on some Fishes received from Sitang River. [No. 2, 

and Hindustan, and a Gl. platypogonoides, Blkr, from Sumatra ; 
both of which appear to fall under Glyptothoeax, nobis, ut supra. 

Etttbopius macro pthalmos, nobis, n. s. Of the usual form of 
this genus, but with remarkably large eyes, that occupy more than 
half of the height of the head. Longer maxillary cirri reaching to 
the vent, the four inferior cirri to base of pectorals : spines slender, 
the pectoral less so, and all minutely pectinated behind ; the dorsal 
also jagged in front for its basal half. 

D. 1-7.— A. 47 to 54. 

Colour bright silvery, infuscated along the back, with a golden 
lustre on the gill-covers. Soft rays of the dorsal and pectorals infus- 
cated except at base ; also the medial portion of the deeply forked 
caudal, while several outer rays of the caudal above and below are 
white throughout. Ventrals and anal white : the slender adipose 
fin having minute dusky spots. Longest specimen 6j in. Tenasserim. 

Siltteicthys Beedmoeei, nobis, n. s. Maxillary cirri reaching to 
base of ventrals, the inferior to base of pectorals. The upper jaw 
slightly longer than the lower. Eyes small. Dorsal fin slight and 
slender, but seeming to consist of three or four rays. Pectoral spine 
short, only half of the length of the fin. 

D. 3 or 4i.—A. about 65. P. 1-13.— V. 11.— G. 17. 

Anal continuous with the caudal, but distinctly defined. General 
colour dull olive-brown, paler below. Length of specimen 4f in., 
by f in. deep at dorsal. Head f in. Tenasserim. 

Pseudosiltjeus macropthalmos, nobis, 11. s. General form of 
Ps. pabda, (B. H, microcephalics, Blkr), but proportionally less deep 
and more elongated, with eye of twice the diameter, and the lower 
jaw closing evenly with the upper, or very nearly so, though protrud- 
ing when the mouth is open ; maxillary cirri much longer, reaching 
far beyond the more developed pectorals ; the anterior bauds of teeth 
above and below much less broad, and the palatal teeth reduced to 
two straight and well detached transverse patches. 

D. 4.— A. 75.— P. 1-13.— V. 7.—C. 19 or 20. 

Colour dull silvery, much embrowned, especially above, with a 
greenish tinge, probably more decided in the recent fish. Length of 
specimen 9J in., by If in. in a vertical line from dorsal to ventral ; 
head 1^ in. ; pectorals If in. ; maxillary cirri 3| in., becoming 

1860.1 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. 157 

extremely fine towards the end. A large round dark spot on each 
side, situate on the lateral line, a little anterior to the dorsal fin. 

Fam. Ct/prinidce. 

Barbes caedimarginates, nobis, n. s. One of those Ststomi 
(for such they essentially are) which, having four barbules or tenta- 
cles, are currently assigned to the great and comprehensive genus 
Barbes : such are the B. gordonides and B. chrtsopoma figured 
by Valenciennes, and the B. sarana, (B. H), Val., which is S. 
immaculatus as described by McClelland.* In the present species 
the barbules are well developed, the form less deep than usual in the 
particular group, the principal dorsal spine robust and passing into a 
soft ray for its terminal fourth, being finely pectinated behind, and 
preceded by three distinct spines, the first very minute. About 82 
scales on the lateral line, and ten longitudinal series of scales. 
D. 4,-8.— A. 7 (the last divided). 

Colour silvery, above darker and greenish ; with an irregular ver- 
tical black mark behind the gills, and broad black upper and lower 
margins to the caudal fin ; the rest of the caudal, with the ventrals 
and anal, bright crimson (which soon disappears in spirit). Length 
4 in., by If in. from dorsal to ventrals. Vertical diameter of the 
eye fully half that of the head. Irides pale golden. Tenasserim 

Capoeta itacrolepidota (?), K. et v. H. Specimen 2 in. long. 
No serrature discernible on the dorsal spine, and I distinguish seven 
anal rays. The late Dr. Cantor gives this species as inhabiting the 
Tenasserim provinces; and it and Lettciscus rasbora are the only 

* His figure (As. Ties. XIX, II, PI. XL, f. 5), I take, from the colouring, to 
represent a common species of Systomus with one pair of very minute tentacula, 
otherwise resembling S. sophobe except in the absence of markings. For this 
the name immacttlatus might be retained. It grows to about double the size 
of S. sophobe. 

f 'Black and red-tailed Systomus' of the Rev. F. Mason's 'Natural Produc- 
tions of Burma.' Several species are indicated in this work, as Rohita vplga- 
bis, R. calbasu, and R. nandina ; also a large Barbel alfined to B. tor, (B. H.), 
which he terms B. moetonius ; and a mountain Barbs} with minute scales, 
of the Obeijjus group, which requires examination. 


158 Report on some Fishes received from, the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

Cyprinidce winch are included in his Catalogue of Malayan fishes. 

Genus Osteoerama, Heckel. Comprising certain Bream-shaped 
Carps with minute scales, as exemplified by the (Rohtee) Vigoksii 
and (R.) Ogilbii of Sykes, and the (Leuciscus) aefbediastijs of 
Valenciennes.* Dr. Bleeker includes them in SYSTOiius. 

O. miceolbpis; Systomus microlepis, nobis, J. A. S. XXYII, 289. 
(' Tenasserim Bream' of Mason.) A specimen obtained by Mr. Atkin- 
son at Maulmein ; and I am now certain that the example formerly 
described is also from Maulmein, having been sent many years ago by 
the Rev. F. Mason. Colour silvery-ash above the lateral line, white 
below it, and a semi-obsolete large blackish spot near base of tail : 
fins white, a little tinged with yellow ; and the irides apparently pale 
golden. From analogy with kindred species, it is probable that this 
fish attains a weight of 3 or 4 lbs. 

0. cotis ; Cyprinus cotis, B. H. ; Abramis cotis apud McClelland ; 
Leuciscus alfredianus (?), Val. A Tenasserim specimen 3 in. long 
accords with the description, excepting in having but 32 instead of 
38 rays to the anal fin.f The second dorsal ray is spinous, but very 
slender, and is conspicuously serrated on the hind-edge. In lieu of 
the row of four dots close under the lateral line and immediately 
behind the gill-cover, figured by Buchanan Hamilton, are four scales 
of the lateral line having remarkably large tubes ; and most of the 
soft rays of the dorsal are marked anteriorly with black, and the 
rays of the anal are spotted with the same anteriorly, as seen with 
the help of a magnifier. The merest trace of a slight dark spot in 
front of the dorsal fin. 

* Figured in the Histoire des Poissons by this name ; but described as L. 
Duvaucelii (by which appellation a species of Systomus is also described and 
figured), — having "le premier rayon de la dorsale forte et un peu dentele." From 
Nipal. It appears that three divisions of these spined Bream- carps are recog- 
nised by Heckel, bearing the names Acanteobraha, Osteobrama, and G-los- 
sodon. I am unacquainted with the distinctions ; but find that Eohteb 
Ogilbii, Sykes, is assigned to Osteobeama, as is likewise the (CyprinusJ 
coxis, B. H. Vide Hugel's Fauna von Kaschmir, p. 392. 

t McClelland also counts 32 rays. (As. Ees. XIX, II, 5SS). But Valenci- 
ennes counts 36 in his alfkediakus. 

I860.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. 159 

Ststomus (?) MA.cuLA.Tnus, nobis, n. s. Affined to the preceding 
in shape of head : the muzzle unusually prolonged anterior to the 
nostrils, where shewing a considerable concavity above. Body less 
deep than usual ; its lower outline continued straight to the base of 
the anal fin. Principal dorsal spine unusually large in every way, 
and strongly pectinated behind : anterior to it are distinctly three 
others, the first very minute : large anal and first ventral spines 
passing gradually into soft rays towards their tips. Series of 35 or 
36 scales along the lateral line, and of 12 obliquely downward from 
base of dorsal spine. 

D. 4-8.— A. 3-6.— P. 17.— V. 1-8.— C. 21. 

Colour pale olivaceous, deeper on the back ; each scale having a 
distinct shining blackish spot at tip, less conspicuous on the browner 
scales of the back; fins pale; the tail well forked. Length 6 in., 
by If in. high in the body; of principal dorsal spine plus 1£ in. 

S. DTJVATjcELii ; Leuciscus Duvaucelii, Val., H. P. pi. 491. 

S. fhutonio, ( ? B. H.) Five specimens, averaging If in. long, a 
trifle more or less. 

Z>. 2-8.— -4. 1-6. 

Pins spotless. A transverse black bar on the medial third of the 
body, above the middle of the pectorals, and a broader black trans- 
verse bar towards the tail, appearing generally as a round spot that 
had run more or less above and below. From Maulmein. What 
appears to be the same fish in Lower Bengal, I have never obtained 
more than 1-J in. long, and the anterior transverse streak is invariably 
longer and better defined, occupying the medial two-fifths of the 
depth of the body above the middle of the pectoral fins. The fins 
of the Tenasserim fish seem also to be proportionally larger. 

S. (?) ukimactjlatus, nobis, n. s. Species much resembling in 
outline the Leuciscus cosuatis, (B. H., as figured by McClelland 
by the name Systomus maculatus, As. Res. XIX, II, pi. XLIV, f. 9), 
but the scales are proportionally smaller, and there are three distinct 
spines to the dorsal fin, the principal one being very slender, smooth 
or unserrated, and those of the anal barely recognisable as such. 
Colour pale silvery-brown, with one great black spot on the dorsal 

t 2 

160 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

fin towards ks base. Lateral line very indistinct from below the 
commencement of the dorsal. 

D. 3-8.— A. 2-5 ? 
About 24 scales longitudinally, and 8 or 9 obliquely downward 
from the dorsal. Largest specimen but If in. Tenasserim. 

Genus Platycara, McClelland (as originally founded on his Pl. 
kasuta, which is a large-scaled Cyprin altogether distinct from 
Balitora of Gray, which Mr. McClelland most unaccountably unites 
with his Platycara) :* Bangana, Gray (nee B. Hamilton) ; com- 
prising Discognathus, Heckel ; and the more typical Indian species 
doubtfully referred to Lobocheilos by Dr. Bleeker. A genus of 
Gudgeons inhabiting mountain rapids, the more characteristic species 
having a great transverse cleft on the face studded with large tubular 
pores, and also an adhesive disk to the lower lip, — which group Mr. 
McClelland referred to Ricnoehynchus (as adopted by him), with- 
out perceiving that his Platycara nasuta and also his Pi. lisso- 
rhyncha strictly belonged to it, equally with other species which 
he has figured in As. Res. XIX, pi. LI LI, in some of which the face 
is smooth and not cleft and the labial disk is greatly reduced, as illus- 
trated also by the Discognatlius fusiformis, Heckel, of Baron Hugel's 
Fauna von Easohmir (p. 378). As examples of the more typical 
form may be cited the Cyprinus (Bangana) falcata and 0. gofula, 
B. II., of Hardwieke's Illustrations of Indian Zoology : but all shew 
a strong tendency to the Balitora form of pectorals; all that I 
have seen having likewise large ventrals, and the backward position 
of the mouth which opens downwards, and fimbriated anterior lip, 
seem to be of constant occurrence. The cleft and tubercular face 
occurs in another type, exemplified by the Gobio ricnorhywchits 
of McClelland, which (so far as I know at present) stands quite 
alone, as a particular type worthy of a special designation. f The 

* J. A. S. VII, 947, and pi. LY, fs. 2, a and b ; copied into As. Res. XIX, 
pi. LYII, /. 2, with a and b. The mistake of uniting these two incongruous 
genera is repeated in Calc. Journ. N. R., Vol. II, p. 5S7, and pi. XVI ; where 
a species of the mountain type of Gudgeon is described and figured as Platy- 
cara lissorhyncha, and a true Balitora as Pl. anisttrus ! 

f Perhaps true Lobocheilos ? It approximates the Tyloehynchfs, Heckel, 
but the duplication of the lips and great chin-pore are peculiar. To Tiloo- 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from tie Sitang River. 161 

extremes of the present genus are connected by intermediate grada- 
tions, of which the Pl. nasuta of McClelland presents a good illus- 

A highly typical species', with every character developed in the 
utmost degree, may be designated — 

Pl. 2TOTATA, nobis, n. s. Easily recognized by having five conspi- 
cuous black spots on the base of its dorsal fin. Four labial cirri, 
the hindmost liable to be overlooked. Scales on lateral line 33, and 
8 from dorsal to ventral : the dorsal rather high and falcate ante- 
riorly. Yentrals as large as the pectorals, and somewhat falcate ; 
the anal more decidedly so. 

D. 10.— A. 7.— P. 15.— V. 9.-0. 20. 

Colour dusky olive-green above and on the sides, beneath buffy- 
albescent. Base of the dorsal fin whitish, setting off a series of 
black spots, larger anteriorly and the hindmost generally obsolete ; 
rest of the fin a little nigrescent. One or more spots also at base of 
the anal fin. Pectorals somewhat yellowish at base, then blackish : 
a dusky line along each longitudinal row of scales becoming gradually 
visible towards the tail. Length 6 to 6| in. Tenasserim. 

The nest has a smooth muzzle and almost rudimentary disk. 

Pl. latils ; Cyprinus latius, B. H. : Qonorhynchus macrosomus, 
McClelland. Tenasserim. 

Labeo cuechils ; Cyprinus curchius, B. H. What I take to be 
this species accords with the fin-ray formula assigned by McClelland 
(As. Res. XIX, II, 328) ; but I count only about 61 (instead of 78) 
rows of scales along the lateral line, and but 17 or 18 (instead of 30) 
rows from dorsal to ventrals. No proper " stripe along the middle 

KATHTJ3, Dr. Heckel refers the Varicorhinus diplostomus of the Fisohe aus 
Caschmir, by the new specific name of Valenciennesii ; and the Barbus diplo- 
cheilus of the same work is now his T. barbatxtlus. A third species, from the 
Bombay Presidency, is also described by him as T. porcellus. (Vide Fauna 
von Kaschmir, pp. 376, 378, and 38.5). The true Varicorhinits of Ruppell has 
spines to the dorsal fin; wherefore V. bobree of Sykes also cannot properly be 
retained in it. 

* I think, however, that the so-called 'Mountain Trout' ofKumaon, figured 
by Mr. McClelland in J. A. S. IV, 40, with its minute scales and other striking 
distinctions, is erroneously placed by him in this particular group in As. Ses. 
XIX, II, 281, 367. 

162 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

of the anal fin," as described by B. Hamilton ; but all the fins are 
more or less minutely dotted, the dots tending to form a slight stripe 
along the lower half of several of the rays of the dorsal, anal, and 
ventral fins, the ventral and lower half of the caudal being more 
decidedly suffused with blackish. 

D. 17.— A. 8.— P. 15.— V. 9.—C. 19. 

The first rays of the dorsal and anal being minute, and the first 
three rays of each of these fins joined as usual. Tenasserim provinces. 

Dangila Beedmokei, nobis, n. s. Eeadily distinguished by having 
a black spot at the tip of every scale. Head 4| times in the total 
length. Height about the same. Tentacles small and fine. Eye 
larger than in D. Ctjvieri (figured by Valenciennes), and the back 
rising evenly from the muzzle to the base of the dorsal fin. About 
40 scales on the lateral line, and 12 or 13 longitudinal rows. 

D. 28.— A. 9. 

Colour silvery, paler below, and each scale marked as described : 
the membrane of the dorsal fin minutely dotted, and all the fins 
slightly tinged with yellow. Length of only specimen 4-| in. ; the 
dorsal nearly f in. high in front. Tenasserim provinces. 

Lettcisctts an jan a, (B. H.) : L. lateralis, McClelland. Te- 

Nubia, Valenciennes. The members of this genus are Letj- 
Cisci, with the dorsal fin placed far backward as in Pebilamptjs, 
but the anal is short as in Letjciscus proper, and there are four 
slender and rigid maxillary filaments, the upper sometimes of great 
length. To this genus belong N. sutiha, (B. H.), jojia, (ibid.), 
and (Leuciscus) babbattjs, Jerdon. 

N. alta, nobis, n. s. Of comparatively large size and deeper in 
the body than any previously described ; but evidently nearly affined 
to N. barbata, (Jerdon), and like it with 32 scales along the body 
in 7 rows ; each scale having three or four distinct diverging ridges. 
Upper filaments of great length, more than reaching to the anal fin ; 
the other pair minute. Pectorals reaching to the ventrals. 

D. 8.— A. 7. 
Colour ruddy, with a broad yellow lateral band surmounted by a 
nearly obsolete black streak : gill-covers silvery ; and a black spot 
above the base of the pectorals : fins pale and yellowish, more or less 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from the Silang River. 103 

tinged with dusky in the young. Length 4 in., by rather more than 
1 in. in depth. Tenasserim. 

N. albolineata, nobis, n. s. Both broader and deeper in the 
body than N. daneica, (B. H.), with the muzzle scarcely upturned, 
acd a longer anal fin — more immediately approximating the species 
to Peeiiampus (as restricted). Upper filaments reaching to the 
tips of the pectorals, which latter do not reach to the base of the 
ventrals : the base of the dorsal is scarcely anterior to that of the 
anal ; ventrals somewhat short. 

B. 9.— A. 10. 

Colour olive-green on the upper half, buffy-white below, with a 
broadish white stripe along the hind-half of the body chiefly, narrow- 
ing anteriorly, and more or less distinctly bordered s by a blackish 
stripe above and another below, the lower more developed and becom- 
ing conspicuous towards the tail. A fuscous tinge on the pectoral 
fins ; the other fins colourless, or perhaps yellowish. Length 2 in. or 
less. Tenasserim. 

Peeilampus nTLVESCEUS, nobis, n. s. A species without cirri, 
and deep in the body, much resembling in form the P. ioyokula, 
(B. H., v. P. psilopterus, McClelland), but having longer and more 
pointed pectorals reaching nearly to the anal. 
D. 10 — A. 22. 

Colour (in spirit) dull fulvous, with a just perceptible narrow dark 
lateral streak, a little more decided towards the tail : infra-orbital 
plates and gill-covers bright silvery : irides yellow. Fins white, with 
a faint nigrescent wash, especially on the tail ; the first ray of the 
ventrals much lengthened, as in certain affined species. Length 2k 
in. Tenasserim. 

P. aetinis, nobis, n. s. Greatly resembles P. lineolattjs, nobis 
(J. A. S. XXYII, 289) ; but is a degree more typical, with the head 
distinctly upturned, and the anterior base of the dorsal is less 
forward, being more nearly parallel with that of the ventrals. It 
has also 13 dorsal and 16 anal rays, instead of 12 and 14. Markings 
obsolete on the anterior third of body, but the medial streak to base 
of tail very dark, bordered by a narrow pale streak above and by 
another below, and the dark one above this, again, broader than in P. 
lineolattjS. Length 2# in. Tenasserim. 

] Gl Report on some Fishes received from the Bitang Iiiver. [No. 2, 

Peeecbs bacaiea, (B. H.) Tenasserim. 

Mola, nobis, n. g. A well marked group, which Dr. Jerdon 
referred to Khobebs of Agassiz, founded on the Gyprinus amarus, 
auct. It is a form of Leuciscus, having very small scales ; the 
mouth terminal and opening upward, with the lower jaw longer; no 
cirri ; the eyes large, placed laterally near the muzzle. Form com- 
pressed, rather deep, the back considerably arched, with the dorsal 
medial or nearly so, and no osseous ray ; dorsal and anal fins with 
few rays. The lateral line commences high, proceeding downward 
and then backward, and terminating abruptly about the middle of 
the body. No spots or other markings, beyond a broad silvery streak 
along the sides. 

Type M. Bbchanani, nobis ; Gyprinus mola, B. H. 

M. Atkinsonii, nobis, n. s. Very similar to M. Bbcha:na:n t i, but 
attains a larger size, and the scales are conspicuously larger in pro- 
portion, the lateral silvery streak being also much broader and less 
defined ; no tinge of blackish on the fins. Scales about 56 by 20 
(but difficult to count). 

D. 8.— A. 7.— P. 15.— V. 9.— 0. 19. 

Length 4-§ in. by If in. deep. Tenasserim. 

JV. B. — The (lihodeus) inbicbs and (Eh.) macrocephaebs, Jer- 
don (Madr. Joum. Lit. Sc. XV, 321), appertain to this particular 
type; and the Leuciscus microlepis, Blkr. is probably identical with 
M. hacbocephabbs, (Jerdon). The (Leuciscus) habengbea and 
(L.) meteeeina of Valenciennes should also range in the same divi- 
sion, even if the lateral line be continuous, as represented in the 
figures of those species. 

Fam. Gobitidcc. The Loches. As suggested to me by Dr. Jerdon, the 
species of the old genus Cobitis constitute an extensive natural family, 
equivalent to Cyprinidae, Salmonidce, Siluridce, &c, and need to be 
distributed into various genera.* In the LZistoire des JPoissons, 

* Mr. Swainson recognises Cobitidce as a distinct family ; but then he regards 
the Carps, tlie Salmons, the Herrings, the Pikes and the Flying fishes, as 
' subfamilies' only of Salmonidce ! Though why he distinguished Esocince from 
Exoccetince does not appear, unless to complete his magic ' circle' of five; for 
he describes Esox under Exoccetince ! In like manner, he tried (of course) to 
form a ' circle of five' of his Cobitidce, but most unsatisfactorily, and with 

I860.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. 165 

M. Valenciennes recognises Cobitis only, with the addition of Baei- 
toea, Gray, to which he refers the Homalopteea of Kuhl and von 
Hasselt ; but a Tenasserim species conforms in type to the H. eey- 
thbopteba, K. et v. H., and differs considerably from true Balitoea, 
as the latter differs entirely from the Platycaea of McClelland (as 
originally constituted upon his Pe. nastjta, which, as we have seen, 
is a large-scaled Cyprin). The ordinary Loches have been commonly 
arranged according to the presence or absence of a moveable forked 
spine under or before the eye ; but Mr. McClelland divides them 
according to the shape of the tail into Cobitis and Schistura, each 
comprising both spined and spineless species. The series now to 
classify necessitates the adoption of further subdivisions and the 
admission of some entirely new forms. 

I. — Botia, Gray ; founded on B. geandis, Gray, figured in Hard- 
wicke's ' Illustrations of Indian Zoology ;' to which have been rightly 
added the (Cobitis) geta and (O.) baeio of B. Hamilton. These 
have more the form of ordinary Cyprins, and a strongly forked tail : 
the air-vessel as usual in the Carp family. We have now five species 
in the museum, comprising two hitherto undescribed which nearly 
approximate B. geandis, but have the muzzle less prolonged — so 
that the distance from the eye to the muzzle is a fourth less. All 
have a stout forked spine under each eye, of which the second 
or posterior prong is much longer than the anterior ; and their 
colours are bright black and yellow, with barred markings on the fins. 

1. B. sbakdis, Gray (nee apud McClelland, 0. J. N, H. II, 586). 
Of this we possess a blanched specimen from Almoreh, presented by 
the late Major R. Wroughton. 

2. B. nebtjlosa, nobis, n. s. Like B. geandis, but with the 
face shorter (as described), and eight cirri not quite so strongly 

unnecessary coinage of new names. Thus Botta of Gray he terms Biacantha, 
retaining two of i>. Hamilton's species which he refers to, viz. daeio and geta. 
His Diacantha is moreover erroneously stated to have " the body destitute of 
scales;" which again i3 erroneously asserted of his Canthophri/s, to which he 
refers the C. gttm'tea, B. H., by the new name vitlatus. I doubt if any Loche 
is scaleless. The ' circle of five' completed, of course a redistribution is necessary 
as often as any well-marked new form is brought to notice, and especially sucli 
very strongly characterised generic forms as will be here described. 


16G Report on some Fishes received jrom the fitting Biver. [No. 2, 

developed. Body imperfectly banded, shewing about seven irregular 
transverse bands, which are double or dark only on their borders and 
more or less broken and confluent. Three distinct lines of spots on 
the dorsal, besides its dusky tip : three also on the forked caudal, 
besides the base and tip : five in all on the pectorals ; two on the 
ventrals ; and two (indistinct) on the anal. Colours black and gold 
in the recent specimen, as in the various affined species ; the markings 
tending to assume the spotted appearance proper to B. geandis. 
The fin-rays are alike in both. 

D. 10.— A. 6.— P. 13 or 14.— V. 8.—0. 19. 

Length of specimen 5f in. Height of body 1 in. ; at base of tail 
nearly f in. From Dorjiling: presented by the late Dr. Wallich. 

3. B. histrionic A, nobis, n. s. A species of very remarkable 
beauty, similar to the last in form but having the eight cirri still 
less developed. Only five black bands on the body, the first of which 
encloses the gill-covers and the third descends from base of dorsal : 
another crosses the forehead and eyes : another, again, passes from 
before each eye to the cleft of the mouth ; and the medial portion of 
the face is also black to the muzzle. The bands of the body are 
broad and subregular in shape, each containing a pale round spot at 
the lateral line and another on the ridge of the back. Dorsal fin 
with one broad interrupted black band, and some black also at base. 
Pectorals, ventrals, and anal, each with two black bands ; and the 
caudal also with two broad bands and a black tip to each lobe. Fin- 
rays as in the two preceding species ; and the markings exhibit a 
sort of link between those of B. nebttlosa and of B. geta and B. 
daeio. Length 4-| in. Tenasserim. 

II. — Stnceossus, nobis, n. g. Like Botia., but more compressed, 
with similar forked tail ; the head much compressed, small, elongated, 
and tapering to the muzzle, which terminates in one flat filament 
that ramifies into four ; two cirri only on the lower jaw : eyes placed 
high, but laterally ; and nostrils midway between the eyes and 
muzzle. A forked spine anterior to the eye, of which the second 
prong is more developed. 

1. S. Beedmoeei, nobis, n. s. (Probably Schistura grandis apud 
McClelland, from the Khasya mountains, C. J. N. H. II, 58b'.) 
Length 5\ in., by 1^ in. deep at dorsal fin. Eight distinct lateral 

I860.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River, 167 

black bands, the second of which proceeds from the anterior base of 
the dorsal fin ; as seen from above, there are three more anterior 
bands, and an imperfect fourth at the occiput ; these on the sides are 
broken into numerous spots, seen also on the gill-covers, and more or 
less on the sides of the face. Two longitudinal dark bands on the 
occiput unite into one towards the muzzle. Dorsal fin with three 
series of black spots, more or less well defined as distinct rows, and 
sometimes one large black spot towards the end of the first three 
rajs. Tail with four or five transverse rows of distinct spots, conti- 
nuous as a series of bands in some specimens. Pectoral, ventral, and 
anal fins spotless. A dark streak from eye to muzzle. 
D. 11.— A. 6.— P. 13.— V. 8.—0. 17. 

Length oi in., of which head to gill-cover is 1 T 5 ^- in. Tenasserim 

If. B. — The Schistura grandis apud McClelland, from the Khasya 
hills, belongs clearly to this genus, though perhaps to a second species. 
" The head is long, much compressed, with two strong prickles 
beneath each eye; mouth narrow; four short cirri suspended from a 
single pedicle on the snout ; and two from a single pedicle at the 
apex of the lower jaw, and one at each corner of the mouth. 
D. 10.— A. 1-7 [?]— P. 14.— V. 9.—C. 19. 

" Body and fins covered with irregular green spots and streaks 
Habitat Kashya mountains." 

III. — PfiOSTHEACANTHUS, nobis, n. g. Form greatly elongate, 
subcyiindrical ; the head much lengthened, compressed, tapering, with 
the eyes small, placed very high and near together, but laterally 
directed; moveable forked spine situate midway between the eye and 
muzzle, its posterior prong longer. Two minute cirri above, and 
below a broad lappet which tends to divide into four rudimentary 
cirri. Dorsal fin equidistant from the muzzle and tail-tip, its base 
anterior to that of the ventrals. Tail moderately furcate. 

Pe. spectabilis, nobis, n. s. From twelve to fifteen transverse 
black bands on the back, and as many large black spots along the 
lateral line ; between them an irregular longitudinal series of small 
spots : a row of four or five spots along the profile, and a row of smaller 
spots on the cheeks. One row of small spots on the rays of the dorsal 
fin, a large black spot towards the end of its first ray, and a terminal 

z 2 

168 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

series more or less distinct. Tail with one large spot towards the end of 
each lobe, and two or three more intermediate ; also an irregular row 
of spots towards its base. Pectoral, ventral, and anal fins, coluurle.-s 
or nearly so. 

D. 10.— A. 6.— P. 11.— V. 6.—C. 17. 
A very prettily marked fish. Length 5 in., of which head to gill- 
cover 1 in. ; and height at dorsal | in. Tenasserim provinces. 

IV. — Acanthosis, Agassiz. The ordinary spined with 
compressed head, of which the European A. T^NIA is typical. 

Of these, some are of more elongate shape, with the dorsal fin 
placed somewhat backward and distinctly posterior to the ventrals ; 
tail rounded more or less ; and the head not so much compressed as 
in the others, with the eyes placed high, but not approximated as in 
Peostheacanthtjs. Such are Ac. taenia, (L.), and the Indian Ac. 
gongota and Ac. cuecuea, (B. H.) Also 

Ac. Beedmoeei, nobis, n. s. Of a pale reddish clay-colour, thickly 
freckled over with blackish except on the abdominal region ; about a 
dozen larger black spots along the lateral line, more or less distinct ; 
the dorsal aspect uniformly dark or nearly so : head minutely speckled : 
bifurcate spine small, with subequal prongs : well developed cirri : 
dorsal and caudal minutely speckled throughout ; the anal less so ; 
and pectorals and ventrals dark-centred. 

D. 8.— A. 6.— P. 8.—V. 6.—G. 17. 
Length 3| in., of which head -f in. : depth of body § in. Tenas- 
serim provinces. 

Others have a shorter body, with the dorsal in the middle of the 
entire length and opposite to the ventrals ; the head small and much 
compressed. To this division appertains Ac. guntea, (B. H.), which 
is the only species of Loche common about Calcutta. 

Ac. micbopogon, nobis, n. s. Head and body very much com- 
pressed, the tail furcate, and cirri minute : posterior prong of the 
bifurcate spine conspicuously longer and stronger. Body pale, blotched 
and mottled with light ashy-brown, and showing a more or less 
obscure series of ten transversely oval ashy spots along tha. lateral 
line, and a black one at base of tail : each tail-lobe marked with four 
©blione dark cross-bauds, the last of them terminal : four transverse 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. 169 

dusky stria? on the dorsal, not well defined ; the lower fins with one 
or more obscure dark striae, or merely a little powdered with dusky. 

D. 8.— A. Q.—P. 7.— V. 7.— 0. 16. 

Length 2f in., by f in. deep at base of dorsal, and -§- in. across base 
of ventrals, the back much narrower. Tenasserira provinces. 

Other forms of spined Loches will have to be discriminated ; 
amongst which, one very distinct may be termed — 

V. — Pangio, nobis, n. g. Of uniform thickness, elongated, slender, 
with the dorsal fin placed very far backward, much nearer to the tail 
than to the head ; the head short, much compressed between the 
eyes, and each nostril furnished with a short filament, additional to 
the six labial cirri. Anterior prong of the infra-ocular spine dis- 
tinctly longer. 

P. cnnsrAMOMEA : Cobitis pangio, B. H. ; O. cinnamomea, McClel- 
land. This has small fins and a round tail ; but certain Indonesian 
species affined to it have a forked tail. The ventrals are well deve- 

VI. — Aptta, nobis, n. g. Much like the last, but the dorsal placed 
still further backward, and the ventrals wanting altogether. The 
head, and the fins, smaller than in Pangio ; the former still more 
compressed, and the same infra-ocular forked spine, and eight cirri 
(two of which are given off from the nareal apertures), but the cirri 
are more minute. The spines are exceedingly liable to be overlooked. 
Dorsal placed at the commencement of the last fourth of the entire 
length ; the anal near the tail : all the fins being small and narrow. 

A. FTJ8CA, nobis, n. s. Of three specimens of this curious fish, the 
largest measures 1\ in. long, by \ in. deep, and \ in. broad ; head T 5 g- 
in. : from muzzle to base of dorsal If- in. The rays of the dorsal, 
anal, and pectoral fins are difficult to distinguish, but appear to be 

D. 7 or S.—A- Q.—P. Q.—G. 17. 

On a cursory view, the dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins might be 
supposed each to contain two or three rays only, these fins being 
remarkably narrow. Colour uniform dull brown, paler below. Te- 

Had it not been for the total absence of the ventral fins, this form 

170 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

might have been included in Pangio ; and very closely akin to it, 
again, must be the Cobitis micropus, Val., from China, in which 
the ventral fins are minute,* — but this would appear to have no infra- 
ocular spine. M. Valenciennes, however, remarks of it—" La caudale, 
arrondie, a deux carenes charnues sur le dos ou sur la base de la 
queue, qui semble augmenter la longuear de la nageoire ou simuler 
une sorte d' adipose." This exactly describes what is seen in our 
largest specimen of Aptta fusca ; but in the others the ridge is 
continuous. 0. micropus should constitute another generic coup ; 
and another again occurs in the Mtsgurna, Lacepede, founded on 
the European (C.) possiLis.f This last is akin to the first division of 
Acanthopis, but is still more elongated, subcylindrical, or only a 
little compressed laterally, and it has no infra-orbital spine, but an 
indication of the facial slit that conceals the spine in all the preced- 
ing. It has therefore been held to conduct to the spineless Loches, 
to which, for the present, I restrict — 

VII. — Cobitis, L. Type C. barbatula of Europe. These never 
have the head so much compressed as in the majority of Spined Loches, 
and in some it is even broader than the body : the latter also tends in 
many of them to be subcylindrical rather than compressed. Some, 
however, are moderately compressed, approaching to the form of 
Eotia, but more elongated ; having also a large dorsal fin of many 
rays : such is — 

C. rubidipinnis, nobis, n. s. A fine species, 4-f in. long, by -§■ in. 
deep, and \ in. broad ; fully \ in. between the eyes ; from eye to 
muzzle f in. ; and head from gill-cover •§■ in. ; the dorsal fin nearly 
1 in. along its base. Six well developed cirri ; and a peculiar charac- 
ter consists in a short broad obtuse spine-like process projecting from 
the middle of the upper lip : tail somewhat rounded. General colour 
olive-brown with a ruddy wash, paler below ; the fins tinged with 
red ; dorsal and caudal fins transversely rayed with dusky, the other 
fins without markings. On the dorsal are four or five rows of dark 

* He terms it " la Loche aux petites ventrales." 

f Another, again, perhaps, in certain rather elongated Loches of China, which 
have ten cirri ; as the C. bifurcata and 0, pectoealis, McClelland, and C 
anguillicattdata, Cantoi*, figured by Sir J. Richardson in the Zoology of the 
Voyage of the Sulphur. 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. 171 

spots, on the caudal ten or more transverse lines. Pectoral tins much 
larger than the ventrals. The rays are — 

D. 15.— A. 6.—P. 10.— V. 7.—G. 17. 

Tenasserim provinces. 

Others have the body proportionally less deep ; as the C. biltaria, 
B. H. ;* nearly affined to which ranks — 

C. seaiizokata, nobis, n. s. Four well developed cirri above and 
two below : a minute spinelet above the muzzle (as in C. monoceba, 
McClelland) :f tail slightly bilobate : pectorals larger than the ven- 
trals : the dorsal consisting of sixteen rays and the anal of six. A 
series of twelve to fourteen dark transverse dorsal bands, occasionally 
forked or confluent, attenuating and curving backward as they descend 
till they reach the lateral line, below which is a longitudinal row of 
about twelve irregular blackish spots : head spotted with blackish, 
the spots sometimes uniting to form transverse bands on the occiput : 
a black spot surrounded with white at base of tail above : lower parts 
pale and spotless. Dorsal fin with four or five irregular rows of dark 
spots : caudal with seven or eight dark transverse lines. Length 
3|- in., by more than \ in. deep at base of dorsal, and above \ in. 
broad. Tenasserim provinces. 

The great mass of small spineless Loches have the head shorter 
anterior to the eyes, the dorsal fin with fewer rays (commonly nine 
or ten, or not so many), and the tail slightly furcate. The pectorals 

* To C. BiiTABiA I refer a specimen from Masuri, having 12 rays only to the 
dorsal and 7 to the anal fins ; the black spots on the dorsal and black transverse 
lines to the caudal being well defined. Length 2| in. It agrees with a speci- 
men from the Brahmaputra, excepting that the tail-markings are finer and 
more distinct. 

Another species from Masuri, which agrees in all else with Mr. McClelland's 
description of C. Montana, is in every respect a typical Cobitis, but has not 
" a single sub -orbital spine on each side." The zones or bands on the body vary 
in number and breadth and in arrangement in different specimens, and the dorsal 
and caudal fins are more or less speckled, in some much more so than in McClel- 
land's figure. Largest specimen 3^ in. 

These Masuri specimens are in the private collection of Major R. C. Tytler. 

■j- This little nasal process re-appears in Homolopteka bilineata, nobis, 
described in the sequel. 

172 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

and ventrals are mostly nearly equal in size. This form is exem- 
plified by those figured by Mr. McClelland in As. Res. XIX, II, pi. 
53, figs. 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and also by the two Kashmirian species 
figured by Heckel. To it appertain — 

C. zonalteenans, nobis, n. s. Largest specimen If in. long, with 
ten dorsal and six anal rays. It has a dark lateral streak, crossed by 
twelve short transverse bands, which alternate with about the same 
number of dorsal dark cross-bands. The dorsal fin is marked with, 
three and the caudal with four rows of black spots : the other fins 
being spotless. Tenasserim provinces. 

C. cincticatjda, nobis, ii. s. Very like C. scATUBiGnrEA, B. H., 
but with fewer rays to the dorsal and anal (viz. seven and six respec- 
tively), and the body more regularly banded ; shewing about ten 
dorsal transverse bands which are broader than the alternating yel- 
lowish bands, and a strongly marked black transverse bar at base of 
tail, — also a dark bar between the eyes and mouth, crossing the 
muzzle. Two black spots on base of dorsal, and above them a black 
speck on each ray ; the other fins without markings. Length 2 in. 
Tenasserim Provinces. 

VIII. — Homolopteea, Kuhl and von H. asselt. A form inter- 
mediate to the ordinary spineless Loches and Balitoea of Gray. 

H. eilineata, nobis, 11. s. Affined to H. eeythboehina, (figured 
as Balitora erythrorhina by M. Valenciennes,) but with the Balt- 
toea tendencies less decided. A minute blunt knob on the muzzle, 
as in certain species of restricted Cobitis. Nine dorsal and six anal 
rays ; the tail acutely furcate. A narrow dark line from muzzle to 
eye continued behind the eye as a broad, irregular, and somewhat 
zio-zao- band, set off laterally with whitish, and joining its opposite 
behind the dorsal fin : a corresponding but obscure band below the 
lateral line, little seen on the hind-half of the body. Dorsal with a 
large blotch of black and one small posterior spot. Caudal fin also 
black, with the sides of its base and the forking tips white (or yel- 
low ?), but the extreme tips black. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal, 
blotched with black : sides of body somewhat nigrescent. Largest 
specimen 2f in. long. Tenasserim provinces. 
Fam. Clupeadce. 

1S60.] Report on some Fishes received from the Sitan/j River. 173 

Chat-ESSUS MAipfftUA ; Clupanodon manmina, B. H. Tenasserim 

Fam. AnguilUdce. 

A^guilla aeeacana, McClelland. Young, 7 in. long. Tenas- 

Earn. Symlrancliidce. 

AirpniPKOUS cuchia, (B. H.). Tenasserim. Mr. Theobald. 

Fam. Hippocampidce. 

Hippocampus hatstnultts, Cantor. Tenasserim, Mr. O'Reilly. 
Also Port Blair. 

Fam. Tetrodontidce. 

Leiosomus cutctttia ; Tetraodon cutcutia, B. H. : L. marmoratas, 
Swainson. Procured at Maulmein by Mr. Theobald, J. A. S. XXIV, 
712. Type of Monotreton, Bibron. 

Gasteophystts ltjjtaeis ; T. lunaris, Cuv. : T. tepa, B. IT. ; T. 
leiopleura, Gray, et T. spadiceus, Richardson, apud Bleeker. Tenas- 

Aeotheo^t slxiulan's, Cantor : T. Jluviatilis apud nos, J. A. S. 
XXIV, 712. Procured at Maulmein by Mr. Theobald. 

Cho^eehinos naeittjs (?) ; T. naritus (?), Richardson. Some 
small specimens, procured at Amherst by E. O'Reilby, Esq., accord with 
Dr. Cantor's description (J. A. S. XVIII, 1365), except in having 
no dark markings on tbe dorsal, anal and caudal fins. Perhaps, there- 
fore, an affined species ratber than the same. 

Five species of this family are commonly procurable in the Calcutta 
fish-bazars ; but I have never been able to obtain the T. fluviatilis, 
B. H., which is a Gasteophtstjs of J. Miiller.* One approximat- 
ing it in appearance, like the A. simulans, may be designated. 

Aeotheok doesotittattjs, nobis, n. s. Attains to 8 in. long. The 
spines much larger and more sparsely inserted than usual 5 a series of 
about twelve only occurring on the dorsal region, from one pectoral fin 
to the other. Caudal region, from some distance anterior to the dorsal 
and anal fins, quite free from spines. Head exceeding one-fourth of 
the total length. Lateral line indistinct. 

* Type of Dicliotomycteris, Bibron, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1855, p. 279, which 
I have not now to refer to. 

2 A 

174 Report on some Fishes received from the Sitang River. [No. 2, 

D. 15.— A. 13.— P. 21.— C. 12. 

Colour dusky yellowish-green, with usually three distinct pale 
bands crossing the dorsal aspect, anterior to the dorsal fin ; the first 
passes from eye to eye, terminating near the hind-part of the orbits ; 
the second passes in a curve from before the pectorals, and is some- 
times double ; and the third occasionally reaches back as far as the 
dorsal fin, but is generally a little in advance of it ; the interspaces 
of those pale bands being infuscated and undivided, but posterior to the 
third of them the alternating dusky bands are broken into roundish 
spots of various sizes, much as in Gasteophystts fltjvtatilis (as 
figured by Buchanan Hamilton), only the spots run generally smaller ; 
but there are no bars on the caudal fin, though occasionally it is much 
infuscated, together with the entire lower-parts. A common species. 
Gasteophysus hiceopthalmos, nobis, n. s. Still commoner than 
the last, but hitherto overlooked from its general resemblance to G. 
patoca, (B. H.) It has, however, a conspicuously smaller eye, a con- 
siderable development of spinelets both anterior and posterior to the 
pectorals (whereas G. patoca has generally the sides quite smooth 
or at most and rarely a very few spinelets at that part), and the 
nareal apertures have no distinct appendage (whereas in G. patoca 
they have a considerable membranous appendage both before and be- 
hind, approximating this particular species to Abotheon). Again, 
the pale spots of the upper-parts are generally smaller and more 
numerous, also more angular, and they mostly form a series of trans- 
verse stripes on the sides. Head exceeding two-fifths of the total 
length : the fimbriation of the lips internally much developed. Dor- 
sal and anal fins rather falcate ; the caudal square. 

D. 13.— A. 11 or 12,— P. 16.— C. 12. 
Colour dark olive-green on the upper-parts, studded with numerous 
greenish-silvery spots and transverse stripes, the latter prevailing on 
the sides : medial third of body spotless golden ; the belly white > 
and the fins more or less tinged with bright yellow, Irides orange. 
Equally common with G. patoca, and attains to as large a size, or to 
about 18 in. in length. 

Our three other species, obtainable in the Calcutta fish-bazars, are 
Leiosoiitjs cctctjtia, Gasteophysus ltjnaeis, and G. PATOCA, 
(B. H.) 

during the Years 185G, 1857. 1858. 

11 21 





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Memorandum on the Irawadi River. 


memorandum on the Irawadi River, ivith a monthly Register of its 
Rise and Fall from 1856 to 1858, and a measurement of its mini- 
mum discharge. — By Lieut. -Col. A. Cunningham. 

Under instructions from Major Phayre, Commissioner of Pegu, a 
daily register of the rise and fall of the river Irawadi has been kept 
at Thayetmyo, Prome and Henzadah, from the highest flood in 1856 
to the maximum rise in 1S58. The results of these observations at 
Prome and Henzadah are embodied in the accompanying diagrams, 
which show the actual height of the river at each place on every 
tenth day throughout the period of observation. The Thayetmyo 
register has been omitted, because the first twelve months' observa* 
tions are palpably erroneous, and cannot now be corrected, whilst 
the last twelve month's observations correspond so closely with those 
taken at Prome, that I did not think it worth while to draw up an- 
other diagram for a single year. 

2. The Irawadi generally attains its lowest level about the end 
of March, when a slight rise takes place for a week or ten days until 
the middle of April, after which time for about a month, the river 
becomes stationary, occasionally rising and falling until the first 
week of May. This is the usual period for the setting in of the 
monsoon, and the river continues steadily to rise, with but few checks 
until August, when it attains its maximum. The actual period at 
which the river has gained its greatest height during the last three 
years has ranged from the end of July to the beginning of September. 
The following are the dates of maximum at the three places of 
observation : 


Thayetmyo. Pbome. 




29th July. 

10th August. 

4th September. 

30th July. 
10th August. 
5th September. 

30th July. 

11th August. 

1st September. 

2 a 2 

176 Memorandum on the Iraioadi River. [Xo. 2, 

3. The following are the dates of minimum, or lowest level: 






7th April. 
20th March. 

10th March. 
31st March. 

14th April. 
&th March. 

3rd May. 

4. I have no means of comparing the monthly rise of the river 
with the monthly fall of rain, as the only rain registers which I have 
been able to procure are those of Rangoon. The diagrams, however, 
show that an early setting in of the monsoon is accompanied by an 
early rising of the river. For instance, there was no rain in April 
1857, when the first great rise of the river was delayed until the 
20th June. During the present year, however, there was a fall of 
more than six inches of rain during April, and accordingly the 
Irawadi attained its first great rise on the 1st of June or just three 
weeks earlier than in the previous year. 

5. The diagrams also show, by the exact correspondence in time, 
as well as by the relative correspondence in quantity, of the alternate 
risings and fallings both at Prome and at Henzadah, that the annual 
swell of the river is mainly due to the rain-fall in its upper course. 
Thus, the pulsations of the river at Henzadah generally take place 
just one day later than at Prome. This coincidence in the times 
and quantities of the swell and fall of the river above the Delta might 
have been inferred from the narrowness of the strip of land drained 
by the lower Irawadi compared with the greater breadth drained in 
its upper course. 

6. These diagrams further show the very small amount of rise 
that is due to melted snow, and consequently the limited extent of 
the snowy mountain range drained by the Irawadi. As this is a 
point of some interest with reference to the still disputed question 
of the connection of the Irawadi with the Tsanpu River of Tibet, I 
now give the details of the rise and fall of the Irawadi for every ten 
days between the date of lowest level, and that of the first great rise 
due to the setting in of the Monsoon. 


Memorandum on the Irawadi River, 






10th March, 

— 00 

— o-oo 

21st „ 

+ 1-6 

+ 1-60 

1st April, 

— 1-4 

+ 0-20 

31st March. 

— 00 

nth „ 

+ 075 

+ 95 

11th April. 

+ 0-7 

+ 0-7 

21st „ 

— 55 

+ 040 

21st „ 

+ 0-6 

+ 1-3 

1st May, 

+ 4-10 

+ 450 

1st May. 

+ 3-1 

+ 4'4 

11th „ 

— 4-20 

+ 030 

11th „ 

+ 1-8 

+ 62 

21st „ 


+ 995 

21st „ 

+ 0-9 

+ 7-1 





11th March, 

— -OOj 000 

21st „ 

+ 1-65 + 165 

1st April, 

— 0-65! -f- 1-00 

nth „ 

— 0-20 -f 080 

21st „ 

— 010 ! +0-70 

1st May, 

+ 4-10 + 4-80 

11th „ 

— 2 60; +■ 2-20 

21st „ 

+ 4-90 + 7T0 

1st June, 

— 0-10 -f- 700 

7. In all these registers, it will be observed that there is a sudden 
rise of about four feet during the last ten days of April. As this 
rise is succeeded by a sudden decrease, I would attribute the swell of 
the river solely to the fall of these heavy bursts of rain which usual- 
ly precede the steady falls of the Monsoon rain. The small amount 
of rise that takes place before the setting in of the Monsoon is fur- 
ther proved by the state of the Panlang Creek, which, with a mini- 
mum depth of 2 feet of water, is never open for steamers dra win «" 
four feet until the monsoon has fairly set in. 

8. The abstract of the registers kept at Prome and Henzadah is 
given iD the following tables : 


Memorandum on the Irawadi River. 

[No. 2, 

Monthly Rise and Fall of the Irawadi River, during the years 1S56, 
1857 and 1858, in Feet and Decimals. 

























February ... 




































































Annual Rise above the loivest known level. 










Average rise 




9. The volume of water discharged hy the Irawadi in the dry 
season is another subject of considerable importance towards clearing 
up the still disputed question of the sources of the river. The great 
French geographer D'Anville first broached the opinion that the 
upper course of the Irawadi was the Tsanpu River of Tibet, but the 
great English geographer Major Riunell of the Bengal Engineers 
identified the Tsanpu with the upper course of the Brahmaputra 
River. The former opinion was adopted by Klaproth, Dalrymple, 
and Griffith. The latter opinion by Wilcox, whose adventurous 
journey across the Khamti mountains to the upper valley of the 
Irawadi has all but finally established that the sources of the Irawadi 
could not be far to the north of latitude 27° 26', the point where he 

1SG0.] Memorandum on the Irawadi River. lid 

struck the river. The fact that the Irawadi was then only 8*0 yards 
broad and fordable, is absolutely conclusive regarding the small 
volume of its water, and should I think be equally so regarding the 
near vicinity of its source. 

10. The minimum discharge of the Irawadi is differently stated by 
the only two observers who have yet published their measurements. 
On 25th April, 1853, Dr. McClelland found the breadth of the 
river at Prome to be 3,630 feet with a mean depth of 12 - 7083 feet, 
giving a sectional area of 46,131"129 square feet. The velocity of 
the current was 1-f-i- miles per hour, or 2 - 8666 feet per second. Dr. 
McClelland calls this the " mean speed." This measurement refers 
to the surface velocity and not to the average velocity of the mass, 
to obtain which be multiplies the above mean speed by 08, and 
makes the discharge 105,794 cubic feet per second. But the for- 
mula for obtaining the average velocity of the mass which is given 
by Cape, and by Jackson, the Secretary of the Eoyal Geographical 
Society, as determined from the experiments of Du Buat, yields a 
very different result. By this formula the velocity of the mass, 

(v/S— 1) 2 +S 
M_ -=S — v^S-f-^, where S=the surface velocity of the 

stream. By using this formula, the mean velocity of the mass of 
water is reduced to P67352 foot per second, which yields a discharge 
of 77,201' 151 feet per second. But as the river fell fifteen inches 
after the date of Dr. McClelland's measurement, this amount has to 
be brought still lower by deducting l - 25 foot from the mean depth 
of 127083 feet. This will cause a reduction of 7592760 cubic feet, 
and thus make the minimum discharge of the Irawadi in 1853 at 
Prome 69,608-391 cubic feet. 

11. The other measurement of the Irawadi was taken by Mr. 
T. Login, at the head of the Delta, just above the point where the 
Bassein river branches off. The measurements were made I believe 
in 1855, but the details have not been published. The result alone 
is given, which makes the minimum discharge at the head of the 
Delta at 75,000 cubic feet. 

12. On the 30th March, 1857, a third measurement of the Irawadi 
was made at Meaday at my request, by Lieut. G. de P. Falconnet of 
the Madras Engineers. This measurement was conducted with 

180 Memorandum on the Irawadi River. [Xo. 2, 

great care ; the mean depth of the stream having been determined in 
thirteen different places, and the whole operations repeated five dis- 
tinct times. The breadth of the stream was 2,057 feet. The mean 
depth was 2P2423 feet, and the extreme depth 29 feet, with a 
surface velocity of 3 feet per second, or 2 - 04545 miles per hour. 
From these data the sectional area was 43,695 - 411 square feet, and 
the mean velocity of the mass of water, calculated by the formula 
before quoted, was 1'7679 cubic feet per second. The discharge on 
the 30th March, 1857, was therefore 77,249-097 cubic feet. But as 
the river, according to the flood register kept at Thayetmyo, fell ex- 
actly 1 foot after this date, a corresponding decrease must be made 
by deducting 1 foot from the mean depth. This will cause a reduc- 
tion of 3,636-570 cubic feet and thus make the minimum discharge 
of the Irawadi in 1857 at Meaday 73,612-437 cubic feet. 

13. The results of these measurements, although made by three 
different persons, at three different places, and in three different years, 
correspond so well together, that I think we may place considerable 
reliance upon their accuracy. I repeat them for comparison. 
Minimum discharge at Meaday in 1857 73, 612-437 cubic feet. 

„ at Prome in 1853 69,608-391 „ 

„ at Head of Delta in 1855 75,000-000 

The difference between the extremes is only 5,400 cubic feet, an 
amount which is within the limits of variation of the low water level 
of the river, between a very dry season, and an average one. The mean 
of the two observations at Meaday and Prome is 71,610 cubic feet, 
which I think may be taken as a very close approximation of the 
usual minimum discharge of the Irawadi river at those places. The 
discharge at the head of the Delta above Henzadah, as determined 
by Mr. Login at 75,000 cubic feet, corresponds so closely with these 
observations, that I have every confidence in its accuracy. 

14. To bring these measurements of the discharge of the lower 
Irawadi to bear upon the question of its sources, we must compare 
the volume of water discharged at certain points with its area of 
derivation, or extent of surface drained. This question has been 
ably discussed by Captain Yule in his note on the sources of the 
Irawadi, published in his narrative of Major PhajTe's mission to Ava. 
In this note all available information on the subject is detailed and 

1SG0.] Memorandum on the Irawadi River. 181 

compared, and Captain Yule gives his decision in favour of the lower 
estimate of Mr. Login. The following statements of " the areas 
drained by the Irawadi in different parts of its course, assuming its 
sources in the Khamti mountains" are taken from Captain Yule's 

Below Magoung River 5f square degrees. 

At Amarapura 13| ,, 

At Prome 31 „ 

Head of Delta 32£ 

To these I may add Moong Khamti in lat. 27° 26' where Wilcox 
found the Irawadi only SO yards broad and fordable. Assuming the 
sources in the Khamti mountains as before, the area of drainage will 
be only three quarters of a degree, or certainly less than one degree. 

15. Now taking the discharge at the head of the Delta at 75,000 
cubic feet, and the area of derivation at 32J degrees, the volume of 
water will be 2,300 cubic feet per square degree of country drained. 
The discharge at each of the above points will therefore be as follows : 

Moongkhamti 1,733 cubic feet. 

Below Magoung Biver 13,175 „ 

At Amarapura 31,050 „ 

At Prome 71,300 „ 

As the calculated discharge at Prome is within two hundred cubic 
feet of the mean discharge obtained by the actual measurements of 
Dr. McClelland and Lieut. Falconnet, the calculated amounts of 
discharge at the other points may be assumed as fair approximations 
to. the truth. 

16. The calculated discharge of the Irawadi at Moong Khamti 
must now be compared with the state of the river as described by 
Wilcox. He found the river 210 feet broad and fordable : that is, 
the greatest depth was not more than 3 feet, and the mean depth 
about 2 feet. The sectional area would therefore be 480 feet, which, 
compared with the above calculated discharge of 1,733 cubic feet, 
would give the mean velocity of the mass of water at 3*61 feet 
per second ; which is equivalent to a surface velocity of 6T25 feet per 
second, or somewhat more than 4 miles per hour. 

17. If the area of derivation be taken at one whole degree, the 
discharge at Moong Khamti will be 2,300 cubic feet, or one-third 

2 B 

182 Memorandum on the Irawadi River. [No. 2, 

more, and the surface velocity will be increased to upwards of o\ 
miles per hour. Even admitting that the mean depth may have 
been three feet, the discharge would still be under 3,000 cubic feet. 
But as a stream with a mean depth of three feet, and a current of 
5|- miles per hour, would be almost, if not quite, unfordable, a volume 
of 3,000 cubic feet may be considered as the extreme discharge of the 
Irawadi at Moong Khamti, consistent with Wilcox's observations. 

18. If this determination is correct, and I do not see how its 
accuracy can be disputed, what has become of the Tsanpu, the great 
river of Tibet ? The following measurements of the Brahmaputra 
and its tributaries will probably assist in determining this point : 
On 26th December, 1825. On 29th March, 1S26. 

Dihong (Bedford) 56,564 cubic feet. 

Dibong „ 13,100 

Joint stream ... 69,664 86,211 

Brahmaputra (Wilcox) 

at Saduja 19,058 33,965 

Total discharge ... 88,722 120,176 

On comparing the discharge of the Dihong with that of the 
Dibong and Brahmaputra, the only natural way of accounting for 
its immensely superior volume is by supposing that it must be fed 
by some large stream from beyond the Himalaya. No accounts of 
Cis-Himalayan drainage calculated from the data supplied by the 
measurements of the Brahmaputra and Dibong would give a greater 
discharge than 20,000 or at most 25,000 cubic feet. The question 
then arises whence comes the other large volume of 30,000 cubic 
feet of water, to which the only obvious reply is " from the Tsanpu 
Eiver of Tibet beyond the chain of the Himalaya." The lower 
course of the Tsanpu, where it breaks through the mountains, is 
unknown ; but from all the evidence collected by Wilcox, compared 
with the small discharge of the Irawadi, and with the large volume 
of the Dihong, the connection of the Tsanpu and Dihong Rivers 
seem to me to be as clearly and satisfactorily established as any de- 
duction can possibly be without absolute ocular demonstration. 

1S60.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency, 183 

19. The last link of corroborative evidence in favour of the Trans- 
Himalayan source of the Dihong is the greater coldness of its waters 
compared with those of the Ganges and other rivers, for the know- 
ledge of which fact I am indebted to Colonel Phayre. I conclude 
that the greater frigidity of the Dihong is due to the large volume 
of melted snow supplied by the Tsanpu, which imparts some portion. 
of its original coldness to the waters of the Dihonsr. 

Attempts of Asiatic Sovereigns to establish a Paper Currency. — By 
E. B. Cowell, M. A. 

The old motto " Ex Oriente 2«a?" holds true in many departments 
of science ; Europe is no doubt indebted to Asia for many an inven- 
tion and idea ; but if there be one science above others, which is all 
her own and where the Western mind is utterly unindebted to the 
East, it is that peculiar discovery of modern times, Political Economy. 
In fact it is not under despotisms like those which have prevailed 
from time immemorial in the great nations of Asia, that such a 
science could even take root, much less bear fruit. And yet it is 
singular, here and there, in the moral and philosophical treatises of 
Eastern authors, to come upon imperfect attempts to develope some 
of its principles ; and in the same way, amid the bloody annals of 
Eastern kings, to trace an occasional abortive effort to anticipate the 
financial measures of modern times. Their very failures, in fact, are 
deeply interesting. They tell us that mere physical might is 
powerless in the moral world ; that that magic influence of national 
credit, which is the firmest pillar of an empire's stability, is beyond 
the tyrant's control, in spite of his armies. 

It may not be uninteresting at the present time to trace a series of 
these attempts in one particular direction, — I refer to the endeavours 
of the kings of China, Persia and India to establish something like 
a paper currency in their respective dominions. These attempts were 
made during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; they all failed 
after a longer or shorter period, and probably from the same causes. 

We first meet with the idea in China. It is said that the plan was 
originally started by a native Chinese monarch of the Song dynasty, 
two centuries before the Moghul conquest ; and we certainly find it 

2 b 2 

184 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2' 

in full force under the early successors of Chenghiz Khan. After the 
expulsion of the Moghuls in 1366, the founder of the native or Ming 
dynasty tried to revive it, but the attempt appears to have failed. 

We have the accounts of two travellers, who visited China during 
this period, to confirm this account. The first is Marco Polo who 
resided in the court of the Emperor Kublai Khan from about 1274 to 
1291. Kublai Khan, one of the most enlightened of the Moghul mo- 
narchs, had been crowned Great Khan (or more properly Ka-an) of 
Northern China in 1260 ; in 1280 he overthrew the Song dynasty in 
the South, and he reigned over all China (founding the Yuen dynasty,) 
until his death in 1294. 

The second is the Arabian traveller Ibn Batiita, who visited China 
as ambassador from the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad Toghluk, in 
1345, and seems to have spent about a year there. He left during 
the troubles which followed the accession of the last of the Yuen or 
Moghul dynasty. 

Marco Polo's narrative is as follows.* 

" With regard to the money of Kambalu,f the great Khan may be 
called a perfect alchemist, for he makes it himself. He orders people 
to collect the bark of a certain tree, whose leaves are eaten by the 
worms that spin silk. The thin rind between the bark and the 
interior wood is taken, and from it cards are formed, like those of 
paper, all black. He then causes them to be cut into pieces, and 
each is declared worth respectively half a livre, a whole one, a silver 
grosso of Venice, and so on to the value of ten bezants. All these 
cards are stamped with his seal, and so many are fabricated that they 
would buy all the treasuries in the world. He makes all his payments 
with them, and circulates them through the kingdoms and provinces, 
over which he holds dominion ; and none dares to refuse them under 
pain of death. All the nations under his sway receive and pay this 
money for their merchandise, gold, silver, precious stones, and 
whatever they transport, buy or sell. The merchant often brings 
to him goods worth 400,000 bezants, and he pays them all in these 
cards, which they willingly accept, because they can make purchases 
with them throughout the whole empire. He frequently commands 

* Murray's transl. p. 137, (eh, 26.) which I follow as more recent than Mars- 

f Khan-balik or Pekin. 

1SG0.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 185 

those who have gold, silver, cloths of silk and gold, or other precious 
commodities, to bring them to him. Then he calls twelve men 
skilful in these mutters and commands them to look at the articles 
and fix their price. Whatever they name is paid in these cards, 
which the merchant cordially receives. In this manner the great 
sire possesses all the gold, silver, pearls and precious stones in his 
dominions. When any of the cards are torn or spoiled, the owner 
carries them to the place whence they were issued, and receives fresh 
ones, with a reduction of 3 per cent. If any man wishes gold or 
silver to make plates, girdles or other ornaments, he goes to the 
office, carrying a sufficient quantity of cards, and gives them in 
payment for the quantity he requires. This is the reason why the 
Khan has more treasure than any other lord in the world ; nay, all 
the princes in the world together have not an equal amount." 

It has been sometimes said that Marco Polo saw only the court 
and the servile obsequiousness of the courtiers ; but this is by no 
means the case. He continually mentions in the course of his travels 
the fact of the paper currency in the provinces. Thus in Chap. 56, 
(eh. 49 in Marsden) in his account of Cjn-gui (Chintigui in Mars- 
den,) he says, " they have no money except paper," and in that of 
Ca-cian-fu (Pazafu in Marsden.) more than two months' journey dis- 
tant from Cyn-gui, " they are subjects of the Grand Khan, and his 
paper money is current among them." Again in Chap. 60 (ch. 50 
and 51, Marsden,) we have the same remark made about the cities of 
Sin-gui and Cin-gui, which are described as " full of merchandise and 
arts and paying a large revenue to the sovereign." Again in Chap. 
64 in describing the province of Pau-chym, we have, " the people are 
artificers and merchants, and have abundance of silk ; through all that 
country the Khan's paper money is circulated." Beside these, there 
are at least a dozen similar allusions in his travels through various 
parts of the empire. 

There doubtless may be some exaggeration in his narrative ; but 
the very fact of the system's continuance seems to prove that it was 
by no means the oppressive system which it appeared to foreigners, 
and in which character indeed it possessed such attractions to the 
grasping despots of Persia and India. 

The substance of Marco Polo's account is amply confirmed by the 
very similar narrative of Ibn Batiita, who visited the same court 

188 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2, 

nearly fifty years afterwards and found the same system still pursued 
under the later princes of the dynasty. The dynasty was then 
verging to its fall — it had indeed rapidly followed the law of all 
Asiatic dynasties — what Gibbon calls " the unceasing round of va- 
lour, greatness, discord, degeneracy and decay." Marco Polo had 
found the Moghul power in all the youthful vigour of concuiest ; lbn 
Batiita finds it a decrepit stock, " primo nutans casura sub Euro." 

The following is the Muhammaclan traveller's account, as we read 
it in the edition lately published at Paris by MM. Defremery and 
Sanguinetti (Yol. IV. p. 259.) 

" The inhabitants of China do not use pieces of gold or silver in 
their commercial transactions, and all coins that come into the 
country are melted into ingots. They buy and sell by means of 
pieces of paper, each of which is as large as the palm of the hand, 
and bears the Sultan's mark or seal. Twenty-five of these notes are 
called a balisht,* which means the same as our dinar. "When any 
body finds that his notes are worn out or torn, he carries them to 
the office which is just like the mint with us, and there he has 
new ones given him in place of the old. He has nothing to pay 
for this, for the officers who have the charge of supplying these notes 
are paid by the King. The management of the office is entrusted to 
one of the principal Amirs of China. If a person comes to the mar- 
ket with a piece of silver money (dirrliem) or even of gold (dinar), 
in order to purchase any thing, no one will take it or pay him any 
regard, until he has changed it for notes, and then he can buy what 
he pleases. "f 

The chief difference between these two narratives is the absence, in 
the latter, of the heavy seignorage of 3 per cent, which had been 
levied in Marco Polo's time. Dr. Lee in his translation adds a sen- 
tence to explain it, " This is done without interest, — the profit aris- 
ing from their circulation accruing to the King ;" but these words 
have not been kept in the late critical recension of the text. 

* Dr. Lee in his translation wrongly gives the name as Sliat, reading Vil-shat 
instead of lalisht. 

t In the curious account of Ion Batuta's interview with the shekh (iv. p. 
275), we have an instance of the currency of these notes, when one of the saint's 
companions gave him some paper-money ( d,s^J\^jjo i^JuJlyi ) and said, "Take 
these for your hospitable entertainment and depart." 

1S60.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 187 

The Jesuit, Du Hakle, in his " Description de 1' empire de la Chine," 
states that a few of the notes which were issued under these early- 
Chinese kings, are still in existence,* and they are regarded with 
superstitious reverence. They are greatly prized as talismans to 
protect houses from evil, and it is held as an omen of the greatest 
good fortune, if, in building a new house, they can get one to hang to 
the main beam. He gives a picture of one of these notes, on which 
we find the word tscliao as the current name.f The following is Du 
Halde's translation of the Chinese inscription, " La cour des tresoriers 
ayant presente cette requeste, il est ordonne que la monnoye du papier 
aiusi marquee du sceau imperial des Ming, aye cours et soit employee, 
de meme que la monnoye de cuivre. Ceux qui en feront de fausse, 
auront la teste coupee. Celui qui les aura accusez et amenez, sera 
recompense de deux cent cinquante Taels. De plus on lui donnera 
les biens meubles et immeubles du coupable. Fait a telle annee, tel 
mois, tel jour du regne de Hong vou." 

~We now turn to Persia, where we shall find a similar but less suc- 
cessful attempt to have been made. 

In the dissolution of the empire which followed Chenghiz Khan's 
death in 1226, and its division among his sons, his grandson Hulaku 
Khan turned his arms to Persia, and after completing its conquest by 
the taking of Baghdad and the overthrow of the Abbaside dynasty 
of Caliphs, established himself on the vacant throne, founding the 
Tl-khani dynasty. He died in 1264 and was succeeded by his son 
Abaka Khan, who governed wisely and consolidated his father's 
conquests. But after his death, in 1283, a scene of discord and con- 
fusion ensued, until Ky Khatu succeeded to the throne in 1291. He 
found the finances in great disorder, but instead of attempting to 
restore them by economy, he plunged into all kinds of excess, and left 
everything to a Wazir who was himself as extravagant as his master. 
At length in 1294 affairs appear to have reached a crisis, and the 
minister, at his wits' end to provide for the current expences of the 

* There is an interesting communication in the Royal Asiatic Society's 
Joum. Vol. XIII. on the private paper currency now in use in some parts of 

t Tschao is found in De Guignes' Chinese Diet., where it is explained, " papy- 
rus sigillata qua ohm sinenses loco argenti utebantur." 

188 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2, 

state, proposed to introduce into Persia the scheme of an inconverti- 
ble paper currency, which the branch of Chenghiz Khan's family 
that reigned in China, was then carrying out with some success. 
The eastern historians tell us that the minister consulted the Chinese 
ambassador, and obtained from him the details of the measure ; but 
Sir John Malcolm plausibly suggests that Marco Polo may very 
probably have had something to do with it. He arrived in Persia 
about this very time, having accompanied the train of a princess, 
whom Kublai Kaan had consented to give in marriage to Arghun 
Khan. On their arrival in 1292 or 1293 they had found that monarch 
dead and his successor Ky Khatii on the throne. Marco Polo remain- 
ed in Persia nine months, residing at the capital ; and he reached 
Venice in 1295. 

Whether, however, the keen Venetian traveller was consulted or 
not on the scheme, it was resolved by the king and his minister that 
the attempt should be made. It proved, as we shall see, a miserable 
failure, but the record of it remains, forming in fact the one cir- 
cumstance of interest in Ky Khatu's imbecile reign. 

I subjoin the following account of the measure from Mirchond's 
history.* I regret that I cannot present the contemporary account 
of Rashid-ud-din, who wrote his history, the Jami'-ut-Tuwarikh, 
under Ghazan Khan (Ky Khatu's successor) and his son Uljaitii 
Khan ; but unfortunately the only MS. of that rare and interesting 
work which is in the Society's library, is incomplete, and this part of 
the history (which occupies the first volume and is often called the 
Taiikhi Ghazani) is missing. 

Mirchond relates how the Sultan's Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
( Ulj-Jd <—^.Uo ) Sadri Jehan, used every means in vain to meet the 
increasing financial difficulties of the empire. He tried loans, but 
these only increased his embarrassments ; and what with the Sultan's 
extravagance and his own, the treasury became empty, and he had 
no money for the current expenses of the government. In the midst 
of these perplexities, an officer of the Revenue department, named 

* M. de Langles published a similar extract from the Habib-us-siyar (written 
by Mirchond's son, Khondemir) in the Memoires de 1' Iustitut (Literature, &c.) 
vol. IV. p. 129. Mirchond wrote his history towards the close of the 15th 

IbGO] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 189 

'Izz-ud-dfn Muzaffar, gave hini an account of the paper currency of 
China, called chau, and recommended that a similar expedient should 
be adopted in Persia. " ' In this way,' he said, ' the doors of business 
will again be opened, and the wealth of the country will return to 
the treasury without loss or distress accruing to any individual.' " 
The remainder of the narrative shall be given in Mfrchond's words.* 

" In these perplexing circumstances, the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer went with Pulad Changsanik, the ambassador at that time 
from the emperor of China, and laid before the Sultan Tzz-ud-din's 
proposal. Now the external aspect of the plan promised an ample 
field of gain, and a diminution of the burdens of traders, and a 
soothing of the hearts of the poor, — and Ky Khatu Khan, with all 
promptitude, issued a decree that throughout his empire no buying or 
selling should be conducted by means of the current coin, that men 
should draw the line of oblivion over the weaving of gold-embroidered 
cloth except for the especial use of the king and his nobles, and that 
they should abstain from the manufacture of every article which 
involved the consumption of gold or silver; and that the working 
in gold or the smelting of silver be left henceforth to the yellow 
cheeks of lovers and their running tears. In fine, by the seductive 
instigation of this monster in human shape, Izz-ud-din Muzaffar, 
who caused his beneficent master to be thus implicated in such an 
evil design, — the emperor of sea and land appointed certain of his 
nobles to carry out this perilous measure, and sent them into the 
provinces of Iraki- Ajam and 'Arab, Diyarbakr, Rabi'ah, Mayyafarikin, 
Azarbijan, Khurasan, Karman and Shiraz. In every city they built a 
chau-khanah ; and exchangers, writers, and other treasury officers were 
appointed, and every where a certain sum of money was expended 
in the materials for the issue.f At the publication of this order, the 
different nations were filled with astonishment and confusion. 

" Now the form of the chau was an oblong piece of paper, and cer- 
tain words in the language of Cathay were written on it, and on both 
sides was the formula of belief, " There is no God but God, and 
Muhammad is his prophet," and beneath this the words Yiranjiu 
Turji, which were the titles which the Kaans of China had conferred 

* See the Bombay lithographed edition. 
t This is the reading of the Society's MS. 

2 c 

190 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2, 

on the kings of Persia. In the middle of the paper was drawn a 
circle, and starting from the centre was written the value of the note, 
which varied from half a dirrhem to ten din-hems. Certain lines 
were also written on it, the substance of which was as follows, — that 
the emperor in the year 693 (A. H.) had issued these auspicious 
chaus ; that all who altered or forged them should be summarily 
punished with their wives and children, and their property confiscated 
to the treasury ; and that when these auspicious notes were once in 
general circulation, poverty and distress would vanish from the people, 
vegetables would become cheap, and rich and poor would be equal. 
Certain poets and able authors of the time published their produc- 
tions in praise of the scheme, to flatter the king and the minister ; 
this single couplet is given as a specimen. 

If the chau ( «L*. ) becomes current in the world, 
The glory of the empire will be eternal ( OlijLa- ). 

" Since it was part of the edict that all who melted silver or gold in 
their trades, should cease to work any longer therein, and these men 
had accordingly forsaken their businesses, it was provided, as a means 
of their subsistence, that each of them should receive a certain fixed 
amount from the chaukhanah. It was also ordered that whenever the 
chaus became obliterated by use, they should be brought to the chau- 
khanah and new given in exchange. The Persian merchants by sea, 
who traded with foreign countries,* were to bring, on the eve of the 
voyage, their chaus to the mint and there receive gold in exchange. 
In fine, in the month Zu'l ka'dah, in the year 693, chaus were first 
issued in Tabriz ; and in consequence of the stringent orders given, 
for two or three days people used them in buying and selling. For 
an order had been issued that every one should lose his head who 
refused to accept the new currency. Many of the inhabitants of 
Tabriz left the place and carried away their goods and provisions 
from the bazar, so that this city, which is called the little Misr, 
became as empty of people as a lover's heart of patience. The cries 
of young and old rose to heaven, and the common people in the 
Friday's assembly began to exclaim loudly against the tyrannous 

* I have corrected the obscure reading of the Bombay edition to ^^-i d^ J[ 
t>ioUJ ^k i>-Cii>/of, the reading of the Society's MS. 

1S60.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 191 

measure and implore heaven to send them aid; and loud were their 
curses against Izz-ud-din and those who were his partners in the 

" At last with common consent they attacked him, and, having killed 
him with his followers, hroke out into rebellion. All the movements 
of the caravans were stopped in that district ; and robbers and law- 
less men lay in wait in the streets and gardens, and if any poor 
wretch by dint of a hundred stratagems had managed to get a little 
corn or a bag of fruit, they took it away from him, and if he 
attempted to resist, they said to him " take these ' auspicious chaus' 
then in exchange." At length when the matter became really 
serious and the knife, as it were, touched the bone, all the doors of 
business were closed and the imperial revenue seemed abolished. The 
nobles and amirs with the Chancellor of the Exchequer then went to 
the king, and represented to him that the institution of chaus had 
produced ruin to the subject and emptiness to the imperial treasury, 
and if this state of things continued many days longer, the glory 
of the empire would pass away, and no subjects be left in the realm. 
The Sultan, having heard the words of these faithful counsellors, 
issued orders for cancelling the chaus, and, the inhabitants conse- 
quently returning to their homes, in a short time the city and bazar 
of Tabriz resumed their original appearance." 

Short lived, however, as this measure appears to have been, its 
consequences were not so transitory ; for it brought speedy ruin on 
the unfortunate monarch, who had been thus duped by his minister's 
golden promises. A few months afterwards, a rebellion is raised by 
the nobles, and Ky Khatu, after a brief struggle, is dethroned and 
put to death. 

But ill-fated as the measure had proved in Persia, the scheme of 
transferring all the gold and silver of the kingdom into the imperial 
coffers without the loss being felt by the subjects, was too tempting 
to the ignorant mind of an oriental despot, to be at once abandoned. 
We never hear of it again in Persia, but in the next century we find 
it attempted in India by that strange mixture of the grandest and 
the basest of Imperial qualities, the Sultan Muhammad Toghluk of 
Dehli (1325 — 1351). Although in this case copper, not paper, was 
adopted, still as Ferishta expressly tells us that it was done in imita- 

2 c 2 

192 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2, 

tion of the Chinese system of cJiaus, we may allow it to stand in the 
same series of attempts with the foregoing. 

The great authority for these later pre-moghul dynasties is the 
Tarikhi Firozshahi of Zia Barni, — an edition of which is now in the 
press, to appear in the Bibliotheca Indica under the auspices of our 
Society. Of Muhammad Toghluk's reigu he writes as a contemporary, 
and the following is his account of this remarkable measure. 

^i^ii c^+*jj ojj^ bj <Syy. ^jUj^^j ^ULojiMA ^t^^Lo c^-f^w oj- 5 j 

O^a. j\ j OU*o| X&ji j** j^ jLJsl jj-*> J £^ &l*l*/o t£sJu$ £ji& ji}~* 

]j ^wj gj s£ ^Uj] jSziL.jz AaJU c^.& ilsb j\ \j cy+s* ^IkJLo &S ^f 

.X«f |jj.j ( _^J r *a.J| j|^ ^Ij^xa ^l^Jla* j| AJbk^A jj.5' ( >/o d^o^t jb>c| 
c)ljl *&j CHORUS i_,j.^> ^/o^o j| l^xJj lA)jj^ i£X/U* ^Ib ^IjlxL&j 
«*°^ L5* 5 ^ L >^ o^^J A^-^lj y*«| jyljl *A j i^Jj, <yo ^^ 

jJ^J Ij jjm-«o &MJ u^-w^jjti *> oJwiX) ^A iii^. iVof | ^SiLoj^ 
^y^ia &£\i li^oj jj <3L\JJ tiJ^S' ^/o oj=>- ^UaJLs /*■£=>. j| A/ Is^l j tX'jJLs ^^/o 
^ir^ LT^-f 3' J «0 CS* 3 CT"* ^f X ^^ «&bk ja LS^jjjbj 8<H«J 
•^-.J^S (JI^ao j XVj-Xx^o *X=». &£ <X« jfj j j\j-^- 0^«" if' J - ^ -J ^* < * {S® J~?- 

—yi'jl ^j,»/o Axij j OJ^ lyo^l ^'^s-^ cl ^ : Kir 5 J ^i/^-Jii iJfjh jl*f§- 

^j^jvc AJt^j^ Ls^l^ji, ^^a A^« j| &/ t_iIis /0 (-fiJl_j.J: j( ^aj^T j|J»A 
«Aa.|A«| «4^J"> (J** ^jT Cf^ J *^^ Ai^l^^j ^lj| J^_j AiL«t^ 

Ij+se &^« Ji>J j c^*g| jii>X!| ^j ^bliilij j^ lAXjS cIaa) ^^.a; &^u jl 
* So in MS. but query cjU:1_j.2>., agents, sircars ? 

1S60.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 193 

&k.~>\y j>Uif &i\j=*. j SS <*3jji JJ^a. i£bj oJ> ^jj-u &\j^ j| l^sr" 
^^c di-j *->^j«> i>*^ ^tkLj i^J-^jS A5" ^jf ci^a. J| j ^J ,j«a} <x£aj 

" Another project of the Sultan's, which brought ruin upon the 
empire, was his interference with buying and selling, and issuing 
copper money. Since Sultan Muhammad in his lofty ambition had 
conceived the idea of subduing the inhabited part of the world, and 
for this impracticable design were required countless followers and 
attendants, and these could not be procured without ready money, 
and the treasury laboured under emptiness in consequence of the 
royal munificence, — the Sultan for all these reasons invented his 
copper money ; and he issued a decree that in all purchases and sales 
these copper coins should be current as those of gold and silver had 
been. In consequence of this measure every Hindu's house became 
a private mint, and the Hindus of the various cities of the empire 
had lakhs and crores of these copper pieces coined. With these they 
paid their tribute, and with these they bought horses and arms and 
costly goods of every description ; and the ranas, district officers and 
sircars gained immense fortunes, but with serious detriment to the 
empire. Nor was it long ere the distant provinces refused to take 
these copper coins in exchange ; and even there, where the king's 
edict was feared, a tanka of gold rose to the value of a hundred 
copper pieces. Every goldsmith coined copper pieces in his own 
house, and the treasury became filled with the coins. At last the 
copper money became so depreciated that it was reckoned only like 
shingle or potsherds, and the value of the old coins from the exces- 
sive estimation in which they were held, was increased four or even 
five fold. When such ruin everywhere fell upon commerce, and the 
copper tokens became viler than bricks, and were of no use whatever, 
Sultan Muhammad repealed his edict, and issued a new order, though 
with the fiercest wrath within his heart,^that every one who had 
the copper coin, might bring it to the treasury and exchange it for 
the old gold money. Forthwith thousands of men from different 
quarters, who had thousands of these tokens in their houses, and 
utterly sick of them had tossed them into holes and corners with 
the pots and pans, brought them to the treasury and received gold 

194 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [Xo. 2, 

and silver monej' - in exchange.* In such quantities was the copper 
carried to the treasury that there were heaps of it in Toghlakabad 
like mountains, while immense sums passed out from the treasury in 
exchange for it, and this was one great evil which fell upon the state 
from this measure. And again since the Sultan's edict had failed in 
bringing the scheme to pass, and the copper tokens had only ab- 
sorbed a large portion of the revenue, the heart of the Sultan became 
more and more alienated from his subjects." 

Ferishta's account is based upon that of Zfa Barni, but as he 
supplements it from other authorities, it may not be uninteresting 
to subjoin it. I may remark that neither of the historians gives us 
any date for this measure ; it probably took place in the middle of 
Muhammad's reign, but it is rather singular that Ibn Batuta, who 
spent some years in his court and has given copious anecdotes of his 
generosity and tyranny, should have omitted all mention of the 

" The history of the issuing the copper goldf is as follows : — • 
" When the king desired, like Sekander, to conquer the seven 
regions, and his pomp and treasury would not suffice to meet all his 
demands, in order to attain his object, he invented a copper currency, 
and issued orders that just as in China a paper gold is current, so 
too in Hindustan they should coin copper gold in the mint, and make 
it pass current instead of silver or gold money, and employ it in all 
buying and selling. Now the Jau ( j^ ) of China is a piece of paper 
on which is written the name and title of the king, and the people 
there use it commonly instead of silver and gold. But this 
measure did not succeed in Hindustan. The Hindus in the empire 
brought immense quantities of copper to the mint and obtained^ in 
this way lakhs and crores of stamped coins, and having purchased 
goods and arms, sent them to foreign countries and sold them there 
for silver and gold. The goldsmiths also forged the royal stamp and 

* I cannot explain the words which follow this ^Sj^ J ,^&£w« j. They 
would seem to mean " by sixes and twos,"— can this refer to the rate of exchange ? 
More probably, however, they are the names of gold or silver coins. 

t I have given a literal version of the printed edition, as General Briggs' 
translation, generally so excellent, is here unusually wide of the original. 

% General Briggs adds " by a bribe to the officers." 

1SG0.] Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. 195 

coined money in their own houses. In this manner after a time it 
came to pass that the distant provinces refused to take the copper 
money and opposition began to break out on every side. At last 
the discontent gradually spread until the copper tokens lost their 
estimation even in the capital and its neighbourhood. The king 
seeing this state of things began to repent of his order, and as there 
was no help for it, he issued an order that every one who brought 
the copper coins to the treasury, might receive gold and silver in 
exchange. His hope was that by this means perhaps the copper 
tokens woukl again rise in general estimation and maintain their 
currency in commercial transactions. But the people, who in despair 
had flung their copper tokens like stones and bricks in their houses, 
all rushed to the treasury and exchanged them for gold and silver. In 
this way the treasury soon became empty, but the copper coins had 
as little circulation as ever, and a very grievous blow was given to 
the state."* 

I have thus endeavoured to give a sketch of all that is known 
respecting these three attempts to introduce a total change into the 
commercial and financial ideas of the semi-civilized nations of Asia. 
Oriental historians alas ! have only eyes for battles and court-shows, 
— the condition of the people and the progress of ideas lie entirely 
out of the range of their observation ; and hence all that we learn 
from them respecting these schemes is disappointing and barren. In 
two of the instances mentioned, Persia and India, the experiment 
immediately failed ; for the circumstances under which it was tried 
were eminently unpropitious to its success. The reigning monarchs 
were, the one an impotent, the other a furious, tyrant ; the state was 
suffering all the evils of concpiest and despotism ; and the only aim 
of the monarchs in introducing the scheme at all, was to rob their 
subjects the more easily. It was welcomed as a new engine to wring 
their gains into the treasury, — that the Sultan's round of extrava- 

* Though not strictly bearing upon the question, I cannot refrain from 
alluding to the history of the water-carrier who saved Humayun's life at Chonsa. 
He wa3 rewarded by sitting on the imperial throne for half a day. He employed 
his brief reign in providing for his family and friends ; and to commemorate it, 
he had his beestie's skin cut up into leather rupees whicli were gilt and stamped 
with his name and the date of his reign as sovereign prince ! 

196 Asiatic Sovereigns and Paper Currency. [No. 2, 

gance and profligacy might continue unbroken. It was begun only 
to gratify a tyrant's selfishness, and of course it miserably failed. 
But as far as we can tell from our meagre accounts, it was much 
more successful in China ; it was once extensively used by the native 
sovereigns ; and Marco Polo in his various travels abundantly proves 
that the royal notes of the Moghuls had a wide circulation through 
the different provinces. As long as the Moghul dynasty governed 
well, the experiment seems to have succeeded ; and it certainly lasted 
under them for nearly a century. We cannot tell the exact causes of 
its final failure ; but it is not improbable that, as the Moghul dynasty 
grew debased, the effeminate puppets who succeeded to such great 
Kings as Kublai Kaan, under the guidance of designing ministers, 
kept increasing the issues, in the vain idea that it was an inexhausti- 
ble source of revenue, until it ended in a revolution. A change of 
dynasty would introduce new feelings — the old paper currency would 
naturally become associated with the remembrance of the later evils, 
and the earlier benefits be forgotten ; and national hatred would link 
it with the detested name of the expelled Moghul dynasty. Under 
these circumstances we need not be surprised at the failure of the 
attempt which the Chinese successors to the Moghuls made to 
revive it. 

I need not add to the length of this paper, by subjoining any 
detailed remarks on the wide difference between the circumstances of 
the present time and any of these three previous periods, — more 
especially the Indian period under Mohammad Toghluk. India now 
and India then in every respect present a perfect contrast. With 
regard to China, the partial success of the plan there seems highly 
encouraging; and every circumstance which in that case tended to 
impair public confidence, will be absent in the present time. With 
all those drawbacks, we know that the " tschaos" did circulate far 
and wide ; and in Marco Polo's time they were apparently received 
with good will ; and if this effect followed under a semi-barbarous 
despotism in China, why should it not follow to a far wider extent 
under a paternal and civilised government in India ? 

ISGO.j On recent Russian Researches. 197 

On recent Russian Researches. — Ry Rev. J. Long. 

After searching in vain among Europeans in Calcutta for copies of 
the Transactions of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburgh, I pro- 
cured them at last in the Library of a native friend. It is to be 
deeply regretted there is so little literary and scientific intercourse 
between St. Petersburgh and Calcutta, for the Russians have long 
laboured with great research in the investigation of the literature 
and antiquities of Asia and particularly of Central Asia ; and with the 
extension of Russian power and influence to the frontiers of India, 
we may expect that much light will be thrown on the mental and 
social state of the people of Tibet, Bokhara, Khorasan, Kirghistan 
and Ariana. Russia from the prominence she assigns to linguistic 
qualifications among her functionaries, and from her position as a 
Semi-Asiatic power, seems preeminently marked out as a pioneer in 
Asiatic Science and Ethnology ; the works she has already published 
and the liberal patronage of the Czar afford bright hopes for the 

The Imperial Academy of St. Petersburgh was highly favored by 
Alexander the 1st of Russia, and the late Emperor shortly after his 
accession attended with his family its anniversary and patronised 
it in various ways by appointing its members to oriental and scientific 
missions and making grants of money for special oriental objects. 
The Academy has, on various occasions, encouraged and aided scien- 
tific voyages such as those of Pallas, Gmelin ; though it has of late 
years rather helped with its counsel while the Imperial Government 
have defrayed the expenses, as in the cases of — M. Baer who spent 
three years 1853-57 investigating the fisheries of the Caspian. — M. 
Helmersen on geological researches in Olonez. — M. Sehrenck, zoological 
and ethnological enquiries in the countries bordering on the Amour. — 
Middendorffs and Borstch's zoological and botanical researches on the 
coasts of the sea of Aral. — M. Abich on the geology of the Caucasus. 
— M. Struve, trigonometrical surveys between the Atlantic and 

In 1856, an annual prize of 3000 roubles was founded by Count 
Ouevarof to be adjudicated by the Academy for encouraging works 
on Russian history and the drama. Previous to that eight annual 

2 » 

198 On recent Russian Researches. [No. 2, 

prizes were instituted in 1821 called tbe Demidoff Prizes. In 1855, 
the works for the prize amounted to twenty-five, of these eight were on 
History, three on Statistics, two on Jurisprudence, one on Geography, 
two Mathematical, one Natural Science, two Rural Economy, one Me- 
dicine, four Philology. All were in the Russian language, indicating a 
revulsion from the old practice of writing in French and German. 
Prizes were in 1857 assigned for the following works — the Flora of Lake 
Baikal — Fossil fish of the Silurian system near the Baltic — History 
of Russian legislation to the time of Peter the Great — Hoffman's 
tour to the Northern Uralian mountains — The Shipwrecks and 
Burnings in the Russian navy — The inferior alga? and infusoria — His- 
tory of the Moscow Academy — Systematic logic. One subject of the 
prize for 1858 was an historical exposition of and statistical researches 
on the emancipation of the peasantry in the different states of 

In the department of Oriental Literature in 1857, we find Monsieur 
Dorn actively pursuing his researches on the Muhammadan sources 
serving to a history of the people on the South Coast of the Caspian ; 
he has published two volumes of Persian texts on the subject. 
Monsieur Khanikoff has presented a memoir of the Caucasus and a 
notice of the journals of the Persian traveller Zeinel Abidin : valu- 
able contributions of Sassanian coins with dissertations on their 
dates have been made. Several members of the Russian Academy 
are investigating the idiom, history and literature of the Afghans.* 
Others are engaged on Kurd history : Monsieur Lerch, a Kurdish 
scholar, was sent by the Academy to live among a number of Kurdish 
prisoners brought into the Government of Smolensk for the purpose of 
learning the Kurdish colloquially ; the Russian Consuls and Function- 
aries have given warm co-operation in these investigations into Kur- 
dish literature so important to a knowledge of the Iranian race. 
Monsieur Schiefner is labouring on the Buriat, one of the purest off- 
shoots of the Mongolian language as also on a Mongolian translation 
of the Vetdl panchabinsati, which, like the Hitopadesh, has been 
translated into many languages. 

M. Kunik has written a memoir on Russian Expeditions to the 

* On a recent occasion while the English Government subscribed for fire 
copies of a Pushto Dictionary, the Eussian authorities subscribed for two 

1S60.] On recent Hussion Researches. 199 

Caspian coasts in the 9th century. M. Brosset has published a 
Dissertation on political relations between Russia and Georgia since 
15S6, and also a History of Georgia, the work of eighteen years' 
hard labour. Great interest is taken in pointing out the connection 
between the Zend and Slavonic languages. Wasselief of Kazan is 
engaged in a series of researches into Buddhism and also into the 
Tibetan language — while Schiefner in 1854 read an interesting paper 
on the Ceylon, Nepal and Asam coins in the Academy of St. Peters- 

During the year 1857 Memoirs were read on the following sub- 
jects : 

The nebulosity of Orion, by M. Otto Struve. 

The Secular perturbations of the great planets, by M. Perevost- 

Researches on the elasticity of metals, by M. Kupffer. 

The quickness of rotation on the current produced by magneto- 
electric machines, by M. Leng. 

On simplifying and expressing popularly the forces of electricity, 
by M. Jacobi. 

On isothermal lines in Russian Maps, by Vesseloosky. 

Crystalised combinations of Hydrocarbures neutores, by M. 

Action of azotic acid Sfc. Sfc. by Ditto. 

Contributions to a Geology of Russia, by M. Kokcharof. 

On salt genuine and its geological site in Armenian Russia, by M. 

On certain fauna and flora near Talce Aral, by Ditto. 

The Geological 31ap of the Caucasus, by Ditto. 

An inflammable gas in the Crater of Vesuvius and its periodical 
changes, by Ditto. 

The vegetation of the Amour, by M. Euprecht. 

The flora of Russia, TJmbelliferce of Kamslcatleha, by Ditto. 

On Embryos formed without fecundation, by Ditto. 

The changes produced in the soil of Novogorod by drainage, by 
M. Jezelnof. 

On the Hareng fish of the Caspian, by M. Baer. 

The JUammiferce insectivores of Russia. 

2 n 2 

200 Literary Intelligence. [Xo ? ; 

Literary Intelligence. 

Mr. F. E. Hall writes from America, in a letter dated Dec. 24th. 

" You may not be aware that a translation of the Stirya-siddhdnta 
is coming out in the Journal of the American Oriental Society. Part 
has appeared ; and the rest is ready for the press and will probably 
be published by nest April." The translation is made by the Rev. 
— Burgess, assisted by Professor Whitney. Mr. Hall elsewhere re- 
marks, " if I had Pundit Bapii Deva at my side, I think I could 
considerably improve it." Our learned coadjutor will be glad to learn 
that the translation by his fellow editor, is in the press, and will soon 
be issued in the Bibliotheca. 

Professor Midler writes from Oxford, in a letter dated April 1st. 

" The Surya-siddhanta, as you probably have heard before now, has 
been edited and translated (revised by Whitney) in the Journal of 
the American Oriental Society ; it seems very carefully done with 
diagrams and notes. Biot has lately published some articles in the 
Journal des Savans on Indian Astronomy, reiterating his opinion that 
the Hindus borrowed from the Chinese. Whitney believes it ; I 
shall never believe it ; as little should I believe that the Greeks bor- 
rowed their Astronomy from the Goths. You ask me to mention 
some works which are wanted for the Bibliotheca Indica. Would it 
be possible to prepare a complete edition of Kumarila ? He is a most 
instructive writer, and there are no complete MSS. of his Tantra- 
vartika in any library in Europe. Is the Mahabhashya ever to be 
continued ? The plan to publish the Vais'eshika Stitras with com- 
mentary is a very good one. What could be done for the Puranas ? 
Could you get an edition of the Vayu Purana ? This seems to be 
one of the most original. However, the test of the Vishnu Purana 
too would be acceptable. If you think it possible to publish a col- 
lection of the Upanishads, excluding only the most modern compil- 
ations, that would be equally useful The Library of the East India 

House is to be removed to the Board of Control ; happily it has been 
saved from being swallowed up by the British Museum. I hoped for 
a time we might have got all the MSS. for the Bodleian, but this 
was not to be Aufrecht is going on with the Catalogue of our Sans- 
krit MSS., part of which is out, but I do not know whether it is ia 

1S60.] Literary Intelligence. 201 

the trade. His edition of the Unadi Sutras is very useful and care- 
fully edited. There is not much doing in Sanskrit on the Continent. 
... I received the separate copies of the Essay on Writing which was 
inserted in the Journal. Bohtlingk has written an Essay in answer 
to my hypothesis, but it contains no new facts, and does not seem to 
me to remove any of the difficulties which I stated." 

We have received during the present year two new parts of Messrs. 
Bohtlingk and Roth's Sanskrit Dictionary, which carry the work 
down to fiTT^. It is seldom that we can detect any omissions in 
this excellent work ; but we may venture to notice an oversight in 
the latter part. Under the word ^^X we have only a quotation from 
the Mahabh., where it is a proper name, followed by the remark, 
" Welche Bed. hat aber das Wort, Malati-Madhava 148-8 ?" The 
learned editors appear to have overlooked the fact that this obscure 
word is a favourite with Bhavabhuti. It occurs in the Mal-Madh., 
p. 3.3 in the phrase ^WJl«Ti where the scholiast explains it by 
sif^Tf (Prof. Wilson translates it " possessing names of note."). In 
the prologue to the Mahaviraeh. we have ^"jf^^t:* in a similar 
sense. The use of this word in Mai. M., p. 148, 8, 

is by no means so infrequent as the editors' remark would lead us to 
suppose. The same meaning (as applied to the blossoms of the Ka- 
damba) occurs in an earlier part of this very play (p. 48, last line) in 
the lines 

where the scholiast explains it by 9*nf ; and a parallel is also to be 
found in the Mahaviracharita (Trithen's ed. p. 99, 17) where it is 
applied to the masses of clouds, 

f^^^^f ^nrlfe; rr^rft:*? far fw i 


* So the Calcutta edition, explained by Pundit Taranath Tarkabachaspati 
3*K«<cfei41ifll3r7n<; The London edition reads faultily ^"^^TT:. 




Foe Apeil, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society, was held on 
the 4th instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — ■ 

1. From Rajah Kundurpeshwar Sinha, through the Collector of 
Burdwan, four silver coins. 

2. From the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, a copy of 
JEugenies Besa, Heft 6. 

3. From Henri de Saussure, of Geneva, Parts 8 and 9 of Mono- 
grapMe des Guepes Sociales. 

4. From Major H. L. Thuillier, a map of the China coast. 

5. From Captain Jethro Fairweather, commanding the ship For- 
farshire, a skull of Delpldnus eurynome, from the Bay of Bengal ; a 

very beautiful and perfect specimen. 

6. Mrs. Edwards, two fishes from Port Blair, one of them a Ser- 
ranus new to the Museum. 

7. Received by Banghy Dak, the skin of a Lagomys. 

8. From the Curator, a fine stuffed specimen of Rupicola sangui- 
nolenta, Gould. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last Meeting, were 
balloted for, and elected ordinary Members. 

J. E. T. Aitchison, Esq., M. D. ; A. K. Dyer, Esq. ; H. Braddon, 
Esq. ; and Alonzo Money, Esq., B. C. S. 

Dr. M. Haug, of Poonah, was also balloted for, and elected a cor- 
responding member. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary members 
at the nest meeting. 

Tbe Eight Hon'ble J. Wilson, proposed by the President, and 
seconded by Sir Bar tie Frere. 

B. Temple, Esq., B. C. S., proposed by the President, and seconded 
by Col. Strachey. 

Charles Hobhouse, Esq., B. C. S., proposed by the President, and 
seconded by Dr. Kay. 

Dr. H. Halleur, Professor of Natural Philosophy, Presidency Col- 
lege, proposed by Major H. L. Thuillier, seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

Captain Stanton, Bengal Engineers, proposed by Col. Baird Smith, 
seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

Captain Adrian D. Vanrenen, late 71st B. N. I., Revenue Surveyor, 
Jhansie, proposed by Major Thuillier, seconded by Major Sherwill. 

Babu Jogindra Narain Boy, proposed by Babu Rajendralall Mittra 
seconded by the President. 

Communications were received — 

1. From R. B. Chapman, Esq., Under-Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, a copy of a letter from the Superintendent of Port 
Blair, reporting particulars of friendly interviews held with the 
aborigines of the Andaman Islands. 

2. From Babu Radhanath Sikdar, an abstract of the Meteorological 
Observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office, in October last. 

The Secretary submitted the following statement, shewing the 
amount of the Society's Income derivable from the payments of 
members for the last 5 years. 

No. of 

Amount of 

Amount of en- 

Total In- 


subns. at 
Rs. 64. 

trance fees 
at Rs. 32. 


Jan. 1, 1856, . . 





Do. 1857, .. 





Do. 1858, .. 





Do. 1859, .. 






Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

[No. 2, 

Number of 

Amount of Sub- 














at 48 

at 24 

5 M 


1— 1 




§ -5 












Jan. 1, 1860, . . 








April 4, „ . . 









A paper was read " On tbe great Flood of the Indus in August, 
1858," by Captain Montgomerie, Bengal Engineers. 

On tbe motion of Major Thuillier, tbe special thanks of tbe 
meeting were voted to Captain Montgomerie for bis interesting 

The Officiating Librarian submitted tbe usual monthly report. 

The Library has received the following accessions since the meeting in 
March last. 


Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vols. 14, 16 and 1/. 
— By the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Parts 1 to 8 of Vol. 7. — By 
the Academy. 

Monographic des Guepes Sociales, Cahier 8, 9. Par Henri de Saussure. — 
By the Author. 

Selections from the Records of Government, N. "W. P., 2 copies of Part 
33. — By the Government. 

A Classified Catalogue of the Raw Produce of the Madras Exhibition of 
1859, 2 copies. — By the Government of India, Home Department. 

Report of the British Indian Association for 1859. — By the Association. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator for February, 1860. — By the Editor. 

Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. 52. — By 
the Government. 

Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vols. 23, 25 and 26. — By 
the Society. 

* For the three months. 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 205 

Astronomical Observations made at the Observatory of Cambridge, By 
the Rev. James Challis, M. A., F. R. S. — By the Observatory. 

Magnetical and Meteorological Observations made at Toronto in Canada, 
Vol. 3. 

Report of the British Association, held in August, 1856. — By the As- 

The Athenaeum for December, 1859. — By the Editor. 

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 23, Part 2. — By the 

The Philosophical Magazine, No. 124, for January, 1860. — By the 

Voyage round the World of the Royal Frigate Eugene, Part 6. — By the 
Royal Academy of Stockholm. 

Map of the China Coast. — By Major Thuillier. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, No. 5 of Tome 11, 4 series. 
Conchologia Iconica, Parts 188, 189. 
Sanskrit "Worterbuch, Part 3. 
Revue De Zoologie, No. 11, 1859. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. 5, No. 25. 
Deutsches Worterbuch, Vol. 3. 
Comptes Rendus, Tome 50, No. 1. 
Journal Des Savants for November, 1859. 
Die Lieder Des Hans, Vol. 2, Part 4. 
The Literary Gazette, Nos. 77 to 81. 

Revue des Deux Mondes for 15th December, 1859 and 1st January, 1860. 
2 Nos. 

The Westminster Review, No. 33, for January, I860. 

For May, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the 2nd Instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From Major H. L. Thuillier, a few sheets of the engraved 
Indian Atlas. 

2 E 

206 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

2. From the Rev. J. Long, a copy of his work entitled " The 
Indigenous Plants of Bengal." 

3. From Baboo Kaliprusunno Singh a copy of Purana Sangraha, 
part I. (containing a translation in Bengali of the first Book of the 

4. From Captain Layard, through Lieutenant-Colonel Young, 
five base silver coins. 

The following is Captain Layard's account of them : — 

" Berhampore, 3rd April, 1860. 
" My deae Young, — The accompanying five coins were found by 
Assistant Overseer Bheemser Singh in diarshia: the foundations of the 
Post Office buildings at Rajmehal. You will perceive that they 
bear the date, A. H. 1155, and as I read, are of the reign of Mahom- 
med Shah, and were struck at Moorshedabad. They are of a very 
base coinage, seemingly half copper and lead. 

" Will you kindly present these coins to the Asiatic Society. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) F. P. Layaed." 

5. From J. H. Gurney, Esq., M. P., of Catton Hall, Norwich, 
the following skeletons in beautiful condition, and ready mounted : — 

Vtjlpes vtjlgabis, European Fox. 


Meles taxtts, Badger. 

Phoca yitttlina., Seal. 

Eeinacetjs yulgaeis, Hedgehog. 

Aeyicola amphibia, "Water Yole. 

Laetjs maepntts, Great Black-backed Gull. 

Meegtjs meegansee, Goosander. 

Coiymbus AECTicus, Black-throated Loon. 

Featebcula aectica, Puffin. 

Also British skins of Quails, Snipes, and little Grebes, to compare 
with their Indian representatives. 

The special thanks of the meeting were voted to Mr. Gurney for 
this valuable addition to the Society's osteological collection. 

6. From Major G. G. Pearse, Commandant, 3rd Sikh Irregular 
Cavalry, a skin of Hcematoenis cheela. 

Bead the following letters from Government in reply to the appli- 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 207 

cation of the Society that their Curator, Mr. Blyth, might be deput- 
ed as naturalist to accompany the China force. 

From R. B. Chapman, Esq., 

To W. S. Atkinson, Esq., 
Secy, to the Asiatic Society. 
Council Chamber, the 7th April, 1860. 
Sie, — Your letter, No. SS, dated the 27th February last, containing 
the proposal of the Society to send Mr. Blyth to China, in connec- 
tion with the Military Expedition now in course of being despatched 
to that country, having been referred for the orders of His Excellency 
the Governor-General, I am now directed to transmit a copy of a letter, 
No. 78, dated the 19th ultimo from the Secretary with His Lordship 
on the proposal. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedt. servant, 
(Signed,) E. B. Chapman, 

TJnder-Secy. to the Govt, of India. 

From C. Beadon, Esq., 

Secy, to the Govt, of India with the Govr.-Genl. 
To W. Gret, Esq., 

Secy, to the Govt of India, Home Dept. Calcutta, 

Camp Deenanugger, the 19th March, 1860. 
Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, 
No. 463, dated 3rd Inst., submitting copy of a communication from 
Mr. W. S. Atkinson, Secretary to the Asiatic Society, containing a 
proposal to send Mr. Blyth to China, in connection with the Military 
Expedition now in course of being despatched to that country. 

2. In reply I am directed to state that the Governor-General 
much regrets that it is not in his power to view favorably the pro- 
posal contained in Mr. Atkinson's letter. 

3. The Government of India is aware that Her Majesty's 
Government desires to keep the Staff Establishment of the Army in 
China down to the lowest number. 

4. The Government of India knows too that space on ship-board 
will be very valuable. 

5. It is impossible to say whether any base of operations on the 

2 e 2 

208 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

Northern coast will be taken up, or whether the fleet will serve as 
the base ; in the latter ease Mr. Blyth's operations would be carried 
on only at a great disadvantage, if at all. 

6. Mr. Blyth's readiness to run all risks in the pursuit of science 
is creditable to him ; but if the Government of India send him to 
China the Commander of tbe Force will be responsible for his pro- 
tection and that of his Assistants. 

7. The Governor-General is strongly against attaching non- 
combatants to Sir Hope Grant's Force in the present aspect of affairs. 
It may be different if we take a footing on the coast ; and should 
this happen, it may be a reason for reconsidering the proposal of the 
Asiatic Society. But until we see our way more clearly as to the 
nature of the operations in China, His Excellency thinks it is the 
duty of the Government of India to add as little as possible to Sir 
Hope Grant's responsibilities and to keep his Force as compact as 

8. The Governor-General has no knowledge of the intention of 
Her Majesty's Government to send any naturalist. If any person is 
so employed it will most probably be the Medical Officer of one of 
Her Majesty's ships, as has been done on some other occasions. 

9. The Governor-General has before him a nominal list of the 
Staff of the French Expedition. His Excellency cannot say whether 
it is- complete, but there is no sceintific functionary in it. 

I have the honor to be, &c, 

(Signed) C. U. Aitcheso^. 

Bead a letter from Major B. C. Tytler expressing his desire to 
withdraw from the Society. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members. 

The Eight Hon'ble J. Wilson. 

E. Temple, Esq. B. C. S. 

Charles Hobhouse, Esq. B. C. S. 

Dr. H. Halleur. 

Capt. F. S. Stanton, Bengal Engineers. 

Capt. Adrian D. Vanrenen. 

Baboo Jogindra Narain Boy. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot a9 ordinary mem- 
bers at the next meeting. 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 209 

W. Eitchie, Esq., M. A., Advocate General, proposed by Mr. 
Atkinson, seconded by tbe President. 

J. G. Thomson, Esq., proposed by Mr. F. Fisk Williams, seconded 
by Mr. Atkinson. 

The Bev. W. Ayerst, Bector of St. Paul's school, proposed by Mr. 
Cowell, seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

C. J. Campbell, Esq., C. E., Delhi, proposed by Lieut.-Col. H. 
Yule, seconded by Capt C. H. Dickens. 

He-port of tlie Council. 

The Council beg to submit the following report of the Philologi- 
cal Committee for the approval of the Society. 


The Philological Committee beg to recommend to the Council 
that the Persian Historical work entitled Tarikhi Masaudi be pub- 
lished in the new series of tbe Bibliotlieca Indica. Mr. Morley has 
offered to send his transcript of the original, prepared from several 
MSS. for the Oriental Text Society, but which he is willing to hand 
over to the Asiatic Society, to publish in their Bibliotlieca. Indica. 
The work would occupy about four fasciculi, and as it is the com- 
position of Sultan Masatidi' s Secretary, Abul Fuzl Baihaki, it offers a 
contemporary picture of the period. For the importance of the time 
itself, it will be sufficient to quote the following from Elphinstone's 

" Masaudi' s period must have been one of the most deserving of 
notice in the whole course of the career of the Muhammadans in 
India. It must have been then that permanent residence in India, 
and habitual intercourse with the natives, introduced a change into 
the manners and ways of the invaders, that the rudiments of a new 
language were formed and a foundation laid for the present national 
character of the Muhammadan Indians." 

The Committee also beg to recommend the publication of the 
Sanscrit text of the Aphorisms of Sandilya, which Dr. Ballantyne 
has offered to edit, with a native commentary and an English trans- 
lation. The text and commentary will only fill about one fasciculus, 
and the work itself appears to be one on every account well deserv- 
ing of being included in the Bibliotlieca Indica. 

The report was adopted. 

210 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

A paper was read by E. B. Cowell, Esq., M. A., on the Kiran-us- 
Sadain, a Persian historical poem, by Amir Khusrau. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to Mr. Cowell for his 
valuable paper. 

The Officiating Librarian submitted the usual monthly report. 

The Library has received the following accessions since the meeting in 
April last. 


Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Nos. GO and 61. — By the 

Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Vol. IV. Parts 4, 5 
and 6. — By the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1856, 57, and 58, and also 
parts 1, 2, and 3 of 1859. — By the Society. 

General Report of British India, Vols. 1, 2 and 3. — By the Bengal 

Maps and Plans to accompany Government Record, No. 53. — By the 

Annual Progress Reports of the Executive Engineers, No. 53. — By the 

The Indigenous Plants of Bengal. — By the Author. 

Purana Sangraha (being a translation in Bengali of Mahabharata), Part 1. 
— By the Editor. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator for March, 1860. — By the Editor. 

The Annals of Indian Administration, Vol. IV. Part 1. — By the Govern- 
ment of India. 

A Classified Catalogue of the Raw Produce of the Madias Exhibition. — 
By the Madras Government. 

Bibidharta Sangraha for Bhadro. — By the Editor. 

Guide to the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. — By the 

Notices of the Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 
Part IX. November, 1858 to July, 1859. — By the Institution. 

Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. 55. — By 
the Government. 

Journal Asiatique, Vols. 14 and 15 being Nos. 55, 56. — By the Society. 

The Athenaeum for January and February, 1860. — By the Editor. 

The Philosophical Magazine, for February and March, 1860. — By the 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlw Asiatic Society. 211 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. X. No. 37. — By the 

Weber's Vajrasuei Des Acvaghosha. — By the Author. 

Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXIII. Part I. — By 
the Society. 

Jahrbuch, Vol X. No. 3. — By the Austrian Academy. 

Juynboll's Lexicon Geograpbicura, Nonum Fasciculum. — By the 

A pamphlet entitled "English version of the New Taxes." — By the 
Bengal Government. 

A pamphlet entitled " English version of the New Indian Paper Currency." 
— By the Same. 


The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. 5, Nos. 26 and 27. 

The Quarterly Review, No. 213 for January, 1860. 

The Edinburgh Review, No. 225, for June, 1860. 

Revue des Deux Mondes for 15th January, 1st February and 15th Fe- 
bruary, 3 Nos. 

Comptes Rendus, Tome 50. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. - 

The Literary Gazette, Nos. 82 to 89. 

Journal des Savants for December, 1859 and January, 1860. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts for January, 1860. 

The Natural History Review for January, 1860. 

Revue De Zoologie, No. 12, 1859. 

Macnaghten's Hindu and Muhammadan Law. Edited by Prof. IT. II. 

Geschichte des Abbasidenchalifats in Egypten, Vol. I. 

Elfachri, Von W. Ahlwardt. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Tome XL No. 6. 

Sanskrit-Worterbuch, Vol. 3. 

Conchologia Iconica, Part 193. 

Jules Thonuelier's Vendidad Sade. 

Sidi Khalil's Precis de Jurisprudence Musulmane. 

Les Avadanas, Vols. 1, 2 and 3. — By M. Stanislaus Julien. 

Fob June, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the 6th instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the chair, 

212 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

The proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
Presentations were received — 

1. From Major Bouverie, Governor-General's Agent at Bhurt- 
pore, a meteorite which fell at a village about fifteen miles south of 

2. From the Government of India, Home Department, No. 53 of 
the Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government. 

3. From the Bengal Government No. 32, and Parts I. and II. of 
No. 33, of the Selections from its Records, also a copy of Mr. Allen's 
report on the administration of the Cossyah and Jynteah Hill Ter- 

4. From R. Swinhoe, Esq., of H. M. Consulate, Amoy, a large 
collection of Chinese birds and a few quadrupeds, many of the former 
not presented to the Society, but forwarded merely for inspection ; 
also a small collection of birds from the Philippine Islands ; and 
another from South Africa, comprising several species new to the 
Society's Museum. 

5. From Major E. C. Tytler of the late 38th B. N. I., a collec- 
tion of sundries, comprising a few acceptable specimens, but nothing 
new to the Society's Museum excepting a Chinese Syngnatlius, evi- 
dently taken from one of the insect Boxes commonly brought from 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members. 

W. Ritchie, Esq., M. A., Advocate General. 

The Rev. W. Ayerst. 

C. J. Campbell, Esq. 

J. G. Thompson, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary mem- 
bers at the next meeting. 

Rajah Bunsput Sinha of Allahabad, proposed by Mr. Atkinson 
seconded by the President. 

A. B. Sampson, Esq., Assistant Secretary, Department Public 
Works, proposed by Col. Baird Smith, seconded by Dr. Eatwell. 

W. Grey, Esq., Secretary to the Government of India, Home 
Department, proposed by the President, seconded by Col. Baird 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 213 

J. P. Grant, Esq., Jr., proposed by the President, seconded by Mr. 

Dr. Simpson, Civil Surgeon, proposed by the President, seconded 
by Mr. Atkinson. 

George H. M. Batten, Esq., B. C. S., proposed by Mr. J. Strachey, 
seconded by Dr. T. Thomson. 

E. G. Mann, Esq., Rajshaye, proposed by Mr. W. Theobald, Jr., 
seconded by Mr. J. G. Medlicott. 

L. F. Byrne, Esq., C. E., proposed by the President and seconded 
by Mr. Leonard. 

George Shelverton, Esq., proposed by Col. "Waugh, seconded by 
Major Thuillier. 

Syud Ahmed Khan, of Moradabad, proposed by the President, se- 
conded by Mr. Cowell. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Lord H. Ulick Browne, Under-Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, a copy of a letter from the Superintendent of Port 
Blair, reporting an attack made by some of the aborigines on Dr. 
Gamack and his boat's crew. 

2. From Baboo Badhanauth Sikdar, Abstract of the Meteorolo- 
gical Observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office for Novem- 
ber last. 

Mr. Cowell read a paper on " Attempts by Asiatic Monarchs to 
introduce a Paper Currency." 

The thanks of the meeting were given to Mr. Cowell for his 
valuable and interesting communication. 

The Officiating Librarian submitted the usual monthly report. 

The Library has received the following accessions since the meeting in 
!ilay last. 


Denscriften des Kaiserlichen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Bands IX., 
XT. and XVI. — By the Academy. 

Det Norske Sprogs. — By the Ckistiania Society. 

Kongeriget Norge, 3 parts. — By the Same. 

UndervisningsvEesenets Zdstand i Norge, for 1853. — By the Same. 

Kongeriget Norge for 1857. — By the Same. 

Beretning, 1851 — 1855. — By the Same. 

Piperviten og Ruselotbatten. — By the Same. 

2 I- 

214 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

Chart of the Northern Coast, Nos. 13 A, 13 B, 12 A. B„ 12 B.— By the 

Aarsberetning for 1857. — By the Same. 

Beretning for 1857. — By the Same. 

Udtog af Norges Riges histoire. — By the Same. 

Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, Vol. 10, part 2. — By the Same. 

General Beretning for 1856 and 1857- — By the Same. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 17, Part 2. — By the Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. IV. 
No. 1. — By the Society. 

The Athenaeum for March, 1860. — By the Editor. 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, April — September, 1859. — By 
the Madras Literary Society. 

Jahrbuch of the Austrian Academy for January, February and March.- — 
By the Academy. 

Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, Vol. XI. Part 2nd. 
— By the Society. 

Journal Asiatique, Vol. 15, No. 57- — By the Society. 

Les Adventures de Katnrup.— By M. Garcin de Tassy. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator for April, 1S60. — By the Editor. 

The Oriental Baptist for May and June. — By the Editor. 

The Calcutta Christian Observer for May and June. — By the Editors. 

J. C. Horbye om de erratiske Phsenomener. — By the Author. 

M. Sars on Middelhavets Litoral- Fauna, Parts 1 and 2. — By the 

Archiv fur Kunde Osterreichischer Geschichts-Quellin, Vol. XX. Parts 1 
and 2 and Vol. XXI. Part 1. — By the Austrian Academy. 

Notizenblatt for 1858. — By the Same. 

Selections from Papers on Indigo Cultivation, No. 2. — By the British 
Indian Association. 

Mr. Allen's Report on the Administration of the Cossyah and Jynteah 
Hill Territory. — By the Bengal Government. 

Selections from the Records of the Bengal Government, Nos. 32 and 33 
Parts I and 2. — By the Same. 

Middeldorpf's Fistulis Veutriculi Externis. — By the Author. 

Selections from the Records of the Madras Government, Nos. 52 and 53. 
— By the Madras Government. 

Physikalske Meddelelser. — By the Christiania Society. 

London University Calendar for 1859-60. — By the University. 

Sitzungberichte du Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vol. 27, part 2. 
Vol. 30. Nos. 16 and 17; Vol. 31, Nos. 18, 19 and 20; Vol. 32, Nos. 21, 

1S60.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society. 215 

22 and 23 ; Vol. 33, Nos. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 ; Vol. 34, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5 and 6 and Vol. 35, Nos. 7. 8, and 9. — By the Academy. 

Sitzungsberichte (Philosophisch-IIistorische Classe), Vol. 27, Nos. 4 and 
5 ; Vol. 23, Nos. 6, 7 and 8 ; Vol. 29, Nos. 9 and 10 in one Vol. and Vol. 30, 
No. 1. — By the Academy. 

Magnetischen Beobachtungen. — By the Same. 

Universitetels Budget, 1857 — 1860. — By the Christiania Society. 

The Indian Annals of Medical Science, No. XII. — By the Editors. 

The Philosophical Magazine for April, No. 127. — By the Editors. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. 5, No. 28. 
The "Westminster Review for April. 
The Edinburgh Review for April. 
Revue de Zoologie, Nos. 1, 2 and 3 for 1860. 
The Literary Gazette, Nos. 90 to 94. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts for March, 1860. 
Revue des Deux Mondes for 1st March, 15th March and 1st April, I860. 
Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 12, No. 1. 
Journal des Savants for February and March, 1860. 
Comptes Rendus, Vol. 50, Nos. 1 1 to 14. 
Conchologia Iconia, Part 194. 
Integration, By Dr. Joseph Petzoal, Part 6. 

Deutsches Worterbueh, By Jacob and W. Grimm, Vol. 2, Part 7. 
Nala und Damayanti, By II. Brockhaus. 
'Oqba Ibn Nan' el-Fihri. 
Etude La Geographie. 
Buddhistische Triglotte. 
Zeitschrift, Vol. 9. 





No. III. 1860. 

On a Passage in the tenth Book of the Sdhiti/a Darpana. — Hy 
E. B. Cowell, M. A. 

The Sahitya Darpana has been called " the standard of taste 
among the learned Hindus." It was compiled by Vis'wanatha 
Kaviraja, who is said to have lived in the district of Dacca, and 
his date may be conjecturally placed in the 15th century. His book 
contains a complete system of Literary Criticism, from words and 
sentences to dramas and epic poems. Its prevalent fault is a 
proneness to minute subdivision,* and many parts of it relate to 
obscure trivialities ; but much of it displays an ingenuity and insight, 
which only require to be understood to be appreciated. The tenth 
book is devoted to the especial embellishments of style, — alankdra 
in its more technical sense ; and many keen observations are 
scattered through its pages, which often touch on points left unno- 
ticed by the more ambitious writers on Rhetoric in the West. As 
an example, I have chosen the section on Simile, which seems to me a 
very favourable specimen of the delicate analysis of the Hindu 
Rhetoric, while, at the same time, it will afford an opportunity for 
making an important correction to the text as it now stands in print. 

* At once the strength and weakness of the self-developed Hindu mind! 
" Maximum et velut radicale discrimen ingeniorum, quoad philosophiam et 
scientias, illud est; quod alia ingenia sunt potiora et aptiora ad notandas 
rerit/m differentias ; aha ad notandas rerum similitudines. Utrumque ingeninm 
facile labitur in excessuin, prensando aut gradus rerum ant umbras." Nov- 
Qrg. I. If. 

No. CIV.— New Semes, Vol. XXIX. 2 g 

218 The tenth Book of the Sdhitya Darpana. [No. 3, 

Two editions of the original have appeared in Calcutta, in 1S28 and 
1851 ; but in consequence of the imperfect condition of the MSS. 
on which they were founded, an important sentence has, till now, 
remained perfectly unintelligible from an omission of three lines in 
the very centre of the argument. 

The Hindu, analysis of Simile and Metaphor appears in the form 
of a series of four terms, composed (if I may say so) of two factors, 
of which the one decreases while the other increases in equal pro- 
portion. The principle on which the division is founded, is the 
position of the subject of the comparison relatively to the object, and 
the extent to which it is able to maintain its own individuality 
or is forced to yield it up to its rival. These four gradations are 
called TJpamd, TJtprekshd, HupaJca and Atis'ayokti. 

In the first, we have a simple Simile ; the object (upamdna) 
is only introduced for the sake of illustration, and the subject 
(upameya) retains its own independent position. Thus in the 
sentence, " her face is fair as the lotus," the subject, the face, retains 
its individuality unimpaired, and the idea of the lotus is only an 
accessory, which is kept in its strictly subordinate position. 

In the second, UtpreJcshd, we may observe a change in. then- 
relative position ; the individuality of the subject is beginning to 
waver, and retreat into the back ground ; while that of the object is 
assuming a new prominence. In the sentence " her face is, as it 
were,* a lotus," the attributes of the lotus are threatening to encroach 
upon those of the face, — we are beginning already to lose the one in 
the other. 

In the third, Bupaka,f this change has come to pass. In the 
sentence " her face is a lotus" or " the lotus of her face," the attributes 
of the lotus have usurped the place of those of the face, — the one 
seems to have passed into the other and its own personal identity is 
being absorbed. But it is still to be recognised, — -the metamorphosis 
is not wholly complete. It is like Ovid's account of the Centaur's 
daughter, when the curse has begun to operate, 

* The same result is produced by such phrases as " methought," &c. see 
Sutra 691. 

t I may notice in passing a subdivision of Eiipaka, called Parinama, where 
the usurping idea is not purely ornamental (as in Kupaka) but helps on the 
original topic, as e. g. ' Her eyes were stars to guide the wanderer home." 

I860.] The tenth Book of the Sdhitya Barpana. 219 

— nee verba quidem nee equce sonus ille videtur, 
Sed simulantis equam. 
But when Ovid goes on to add 

parvoque in tempore certos 
Bdidit hinnitus, 
we have a parallel to the fourth, Atis 'ayokti, where the metamor- 
phosis is finally accomplished, — the subject being no longer visible, as 
it is wholly swallowed up in the object and identified with it. Thus 
when in Persian poetry we have " narcissus" used for " eye" and 
" cypress" for " a woman's figure" these ideas, which in the simile 
would have been only subordinate, have not only advanced into pro- 
minence, but have completely overgrown and concealed the original.* 
The following may serve as English illustrations of the series. 

She lived among untrodden ways — 

A violet by a mossy stone 

That never meets the eye, (Rupaka.) 

Fair as a star when only one 

Is shining in the sky. ( Upamd.) 

I saw thee weep — the big bright tear 

Stood in thine eye of blue, 
And then, methought, it did appear 

A violet dropping dew. (Uipreksha.) 

To behold the wandering moon, 

Riding near her highest noon, 

Like one that had been led astray 

Through the heaven's wide pathless way, 

And oft, a3 if her head she bowed 

Stooping through a fleecy cloud. (UtpreJcsM.) 

* The most singular specimen of Atis'ayokti I have met with is the following 
anonymous stanza on a woman who stands weeping at her husband's door. 


^ff\^ ^^s fVntrf iw^r H *TW 
^irc *jw ^f^mfw ^Tfa 2if?r*p ii 

2 a 2 

220 The tenth Boole of the Sahitya Darpana. [No. 3, 

Oh what a noble mind was hero o'erthrown ! 

The courtier's, scholar's, soldier's, eye, tongue, sword ; 

The expectancy and rose of the fair state, 

The glass of fashion and the mould of form ! (Rupalca.) 

Atis'ayoTcti, I fear, is but seldom used by our severer western taste, 
but we have it exemplified in the following line of W. S. Landor. 

That rose through which you breathe — come bring that rose. 

In Persian poetry, it is common enough, as in the following line 
of Hafiz : 

" I am the slave of the drunken narcissus of that tall cypress." 

The following is a brief outline of the Sahitya Darpana's account 
of these figures. 

Upamd is defined as " the expressed resemblance [and not implied, 
as in Hupaka] of two things in one sentence, without the mention of 
any dissimilar attribute." 

TJtpreTcshd is " the hypothetical conceiving of the original subject 
under the form of something else." Its hypothetical character must 
always be shown by the employment of such phrases as " methinks," 
" as it were," &c, as otherwise it would merge into Hupaka ; except 
when we are describing only a cause or result, as in the bines of the 
Raghuvans'a, " the arrow shot by Rama, having pierced Ravana's 
heart, flew on and entered the ground as if to bear tbe news to the 
lower world." This would still be an instance of JJtprekshd, even if 
" as if" were omitted. 

RilpaTca is " the superimposition of a conceived form over the 
original subject." 

For Atis'ayoTcti, I subjoin a literal translation of the chapter where 
this figure is described ; its reach, however, as mil be seen, extends 
much wider than the single case, for which I have used it above. 
Additions to the text, by way of explanation, are given in brackets. 

" Sutra 693. Atis'ayoTcti [or hyperbole] is applied when the intro- 
susceptive energy is actually completed [and not merely threatened 
as impending.] 

Adhyavasdya [the introsusceptive energy,] is found where the idea 
is produced of the identity of the object and the subject, from the 
latter's being swallowed up in the former. In UtptreTcshd this was 

1S60.] The tenth Boole of the Sdhitya Darpana. 221 

only regarded as a future liability, since the object was not stated as 
being definitely placed for the subject, [but qualified by " as it were"] ■ 
but here the actual result produced is this very impression. (Still in 
TTtpreJcshi to a certain degree the subject was swallowed up in the 
object in consequence of its being placed in the background, and in 
Atis'ayokti too we can have the same in such phrases as " her face is 
a second moon,"* since they say, 

" The wise hold that the subject is swallowed up in the object 
when the former is not named in the sentence, and even also when 
it is named, if it be thrown as subordinate in the background.") 

Sutra 691. Atis'ayokti may have a five-fold division, — identity ivhere 
there is difference, — disconnection ivhere there is connection, — the oppo- 
sites of these — and a violation of priority and posteriority in cause 
and effect. 

By " the opposites of these" I mean — difference where there is 
identity, and connection where there is disconnection. For an exam- 
ple of identity where there is difference, take these lines of mine. 

" How can it be ! a peacock's feathers above, and under it shines 
a fragment of the moon eight days old, and next a pair of lotuses 
dancing, and then a tila flower, and under that a new shoot !" 

Here we have the introsusceptive energy manifested by the iden- 
tity [in spite of the real difference,] of the fair one's hair, &c, with 
the peacock's feathers, &c. [the half-moon being her forehead, the 
lotuses her eyes, the tila her nose and the new shoot her lips] : or 
again in the verses quoted from Rama's speech, in a former part of 
the treatise : 

" This is the spot where seeking thee I came to the anklet thou 
hadst dropped on the ground ; but I saw it not, as it lay fixed in 
silence, as though from sorrow at its separation from thy lotus-foot." 

Here the attribute of silence in a sentient being is one thing, and 
that in a non-sentient is another ; but the poet produces the idea of 
their identity in spite of their real difference. Or again, in the line, 

* When you boldly say "her face is another moon," as there is only one 
moon (soil, in Hindu science,) you really make as much exaggeration as if you 
dropped the face altogether and spoke only of " her moon." — " Her face is fair 
as the moon" is Uparnd ; "her face shines as if it were a moon" Utprelcslid ; " her 
face is a moon," Mujpaka ; "her face is a second moon," or "her moon" 
Atis ' ayoldi. Many authorities, however, deny that the former of these is 
properly Atis'ayokti at all. 

222 The tenth Booh of the Sahitya Darpana. No. 3, 

" The lover also had raga in her youth as well as her leaf-like 
lower lip." 

Here raga in the case of the lip means ' redness,' hut in the case 
of the lover ' affection' [from the root ranj having these two signi- 
fications] ; hut the two meanings are rhetorically treated as identical. 

2. ' Difference in identity' may be seen in the following : — 

" The grace of her limbs is wholly sui generis, — the wealth of her 
sweet odour is something utterly different ; the freshness of her with 
the eye like a lotus-leaf is indeed supernatural." 

3. " Disconnection in connection ;" as in these lines from the 

" Say, was it the moon, the giver of beauty, who was the Prajapati 
in her creation ? or was it Kama himself, his whole soul immersed in 
love ? or was it the month that is richest with flowers ? How indeed 
could an ancient sage, cold with continued study of the Vedas, and 
his desires turned away from all objects of sense, create this mind- 
ravishing form ?" 

Here the idea of disconnection is produced, in spite of the real 
connection which did exist between her creation and the sage Nara- 
yana [who actually produced her.]* 

4. Connection in disconnection ; as in the following : 

" If two lotuses were planted in the disk of the moon, then her 
fair-eyed face would be exactly imitated." 

Here by the force of the particle " if," the idea is hypothetieally 
suggested of a possible connection between the subject and the object 

5. The violation of priority and posteriority in cause and effect 
can happen in two ways, — a. in the production of the effect before 
the cause, and i. the occurrence of both at the same time. 

a. " First indeed was the mind of the fawn-eyed maidens be- 
wildered with regret, and afterwards appeared the beauty of the 
opening buds of the mango and vahul (mimusops elengi)."f 

b. " Two things were seized together by the hero treading like an 

* For the legend of Urvas'f's birth, See Prof. Wilson's Hindu Drama, Vol. I. 
p. 202. 

t Cf. the lines quoted by Mr. F. E. Hall from Kamila and Somila in Journ. 
Vol. XXVIII. p. 30. 

1S60.] The tenth Booh of the Sdhifya Darpana. 223 

elephant, — the throne of his father, and the circle of earth's monarchs." 
(Kaghu Yans'a.) 

Here some authors maintain that ' in the lines quoted above, the 
natural excellence helonging to the hair, &c. is described as super- 
natural by introsusception ; since, otherwise, if you held that the hair 
&c. were really swallowed \ip by the peacock's tail, &c. [these being 
plainly different things,] the definition would not apply in such cases 
as the lines of § 2, " the grace of her limbs," &c. [as the grace here 
described is not really different.]' But this view is not correct, 
since even in this last instance the grace of her limbs, though really 
not different, is conceived, by introsusception, as if it were different. 
So too, if we altered the phraseology, and read instead of " verily 
sni generis" " as it were sui generis" it would then be a case 
of utprehshd, since the introsusception would be no longer definitely 
completed but only contingent and future. In the same way in the 
example quoted in § 5, " First indeed was the mind of the fawn- 
eyed maidens, &c," — the previous existence of the vakul blossoms, 
&c. is lost under the idea of their posteriority ; but here too we 
should have an instance of utprehshd if we used " as it were." And 
so too in other cases." 

It is this last paragraph which, as we observed in the beginning of 
the paper, is up to the present moment new to print, in spite of the 
two editions already published of the Sahitya Darpana. The MSS. used 
for the collation of the text (as, for instance, that in the Sanskrit 
College Library) were sadly deficient in this passage ; and three or 
four lines were omitted which entirely destroyed the sense. "We give 
below a correct copy of the whole paragraph from a MS. in the 
Society's Library. 

The printed editions read ^^"eWTi'S^nTtfaiW, and omit from 
^R^ - to ^afaTTtfarair. 

On the first and fifth kinds of Atis'ayokti another figure is founded 
called Sahokti (from saha ' with' and u/cti ' speech.') 

224 The tenth Book of the Sdhitya JJarpana. [No. '•>, 

This is produced by the use of the word, ' with,' or any equivalent 
phrase, in connection with the exaggeration which is the especial 
object of Atis'ayokti itself. The last instance in the first class of the 
Sahitya Darpana, (" The lover also had raga &c"), is thus an example 
of the two figures combined. We have an example of Sahokti in 
Byron's Giaour : 

For courtesy and pity died 

With Hasan on the mountain-side. 

To illustrate the subject further, I add a translation of the account 
of Atis'ayokti given in the tenth section of the Kavya Prakas'a, — 
an older treatise on rhetoric compiled by Mammata A'charya, a Cash- 
mirian Brahman, about five centuries ago. 

" Where the original topic is lost and swallowed up in something 
else, — ivhere the original subject is viewed as itself changed, — ichere 
there is an artificial supposition by the force of'\i or its equivalent, — 
and ivhere there is a contradiction of the priority and posteriority of 
cause and effect, — in these four cases we must recognise At is ayoJcti." 

a. The first kind is where the subject of comparison is swallowed 
up in the object, as — 

" A lotus but not in the water, and two blue lotuses in that lotus, 
and the three on a golden creeper ; — and the creeper itself tender 
and dear ! what a series of portents is this !" 

Here the face, the eyes, and the form are swallowed up hi the lotus, 
the blue lotuses and the creeper. 

b. The second is where the original is lost by apparently becoming 
something else, as, 

" Her beauty is something quite different, the aspect of her form is 
quite extraordinary ; this S'yama was not the work of a common 

* The Prakrit of these lines is obscure, 

^W ^T^TfW ^f^T fjf^ 3fTi; ^tUSJ^T^T I 

(The metre is Arya.) The Schol. thus explains them ^JSJ^T^W?*^ 3nfa 

v*s!T f^^q I The S 'yama is technically defined thus -j^^ ^^TW^^ft'Tt tft*IT rT 
^^W^T I rfTrgffTW^WT *?T <^t 1?JT«f(T ^rajTT II 

I860.] The tenth Book of the Sahitya Barpana. 225 

c. The third is where an impossible thing is supposed by the force 
of if or its equivalent, as — 

" If the orb of the treasury of ambrosia (the moon) were void of 
spots at its full, then would her face endure the defeat of having its 
parallel found." 

d. The fourth consists in mentioning the effect first, to impress 
on the reader the rapid efficiency of the cause, as in these lines from 
the drama of Malavika and Agnimitra. 

" Malavika's heart was first possessed by the god with the flowery 
b 0Wj — and then by thee, beloved of the fan - , standing as the object 
of her eye." 

The Kirdn-us-So'dain of Mir Khusrau. — By E. B. Cowell, M. A. 

Among the poetical names of Muhammadan India, none stands 
higher than Tamin-ud-Dfn Abu-'l-Hasan, more commonly known 
as Mir Khusrau. His great faidt is his boundless prodigality of 
authorship, — it is said that he has left behind him some half million 
of verses ! 

Amongst his various works, the most celebrated are his five Masna- 
vis, in imitation of the Khamsah of Nizami ; containing the Matla'-ul- 
Anwar on Sufeyism and morals, the loves of Shirin and Khusrau, 
Laili and Majnun, the Mirror of Alexander, and the Eight Paradises, 
or adventures of Bahram Grur. But beside these better known poems, 
there are two of a different class, which are, for many reasons, much 
more interesting to a European reader. In his more ambitious poems, 
Khusrau had given the reins to his fancy, and let it carry him as it 
willed far away from the actual world into the ideal land of a remote 
antiquity ; in the eras of Shirin and Sekandar he had no fear of facts 
or dates, every thing was lost in distance and obscurity, and the 
traditions could be moulded at his pleasure. He had indeed but 
followed the example of his predecessors ; all Persian poets in their 
narratives had similarly thrown themselves into a legendary past, 
and it is only in their smaller lyric effusions, that we can trace the 
lights and shadows of their own time. But in two of his poems, 

2 H 

226 The Kirdn-us-Sci'dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

as we have said, Mir Khusrau strikes out a new line for himself; 
and he is, we believe, the first, and we might almost add the last, 
of his country's poets who has been bold enough to look away from 
the past to the present, and seek for his inspiration in the actual 
scenes transpiring before his eyes. 

He lived in a stirring time. His father was a military chief of 
the Pre-Moghul empire, and fell in battle when his son was nine years 
old. Khusrau was born A. H. 651 (A. D. 1253,) and he died A. H. 
725 (A. D. 1325.) For many years he was attached to the court, 
and he shared many of the adventures of his royal patrons. He was 
contemporary, in his youth, with the last Slave Kings, and he out- 
lived the whole Khilji dynasty. He had been born under Nasir-ud- 
Dfn, and his early patron was Prince Muhammad, the ' Black Prince' 
of Indian history, whose valour and taste and untimely death throw 
such a colour of romantic interest round his father Bulbun's court, 
in spite of his mean jealousies and tyrannical policy. He was at 
the court when the revolution took place, by which the sceptre passed 
from the Slaves to the Khilji dynasty, and he saw the whole course 
of Ala-ud-din's strangely eventful career, — beginning with the basest 
ingratitude and murder, and ending Lord of all India, with a wider 
empire than any of his predecessors ; though that empire was 
not fated to remain in his family, but passed soon after his death to 
a stranger. Nor was the aspect of India itself less stirring than the 
changeful history of its Kings. When Khusrau was bom, the great 
storm of Moghul invasion which had devastated all central Asia, 
was still threatening from the North-west. He was five years old 
when the tidings came which spread a thrill of horror through the 
Muhammadan world, that Baghdad was taken and the last of the 
Caliphs slain by the idolaters ! He saw Ala-ud-din's adventurous plunge 
into the unknown forests of the Deccan, and he lived to see Warangol 
taken in 1323, the last Hindu kingdom of the South subverted and 
its Bsija brought a prisoner to Dehli ! 

Living then, as he did, in such a busy time, we need not wonder that 
a man who with all his faults was a true poet, could see materials for 
romance in the present around him, as well as in the legendary 
glories of Alexander and Chosroes. Two of his poems have, for their 
subjects, scenes which he had either witnessed or heard of from 

1S60.] The Kirdn-us-Sddam of Mir Khusrau. 227 

others who witnessed them, — the story of the contest between the 
Sultan Kai Kobad and his father, and that of the Mahratta Princess 
Dawal Devi, and her marriage with the crown prince Khizr Khan. 
"We have a copy of each of these poems in the Society's Collection ; 

1. No. 541. jyJ&a-JloljS, 163 foil. 12 lines in a page.* 

2. No. 990. jj~=* j$*>\ *<iaju*^, or, as it is sometimes called, 
^Ij dj& j &[±j»ajL : '&«a3, — it contains 4200 baits. 

The present paper will confine itself to the former poem, the latter 
may be similarly taken up at some future opportunity. 

Dr. Sprenger has given a brief notice of the Kirdn-us-Sd 'dain in his 
Catalogue of the Oude MSS. but his account lacks his usual accuracy, 
as the more detailed analysis in the following pages will sufficiently 
testify. He says of it that " It is an historical poem, the heroes are 
Nasir-ud-Din and Moizz-ud-Din, but the facts are so much clad in 
allegories that the only historical value of the book is, that it offers 
us a specimen of the singular taste of the age in which it was com- 
posed." The style of the poem (as of all Khusrau's works) is full 
of exaggeration and metaphorical description, but the facts of the 
history are generally given with tolerable fidelity. In fact, few 
historical poems in any language adhere more closely to the actual 
order and character of the events, and when we compare Ferishta's 
account with the poetical version, we are struck by their great agree- 
ment in the main points. 

The poem is composed in a singular form, and I do not remember 
any Persian work from which Khusrau may be said to have borrowed 
it. The main body of the poem is like an ordinary Masnavi, as 
for instance any one of Khusrau's own Khamsah, composed in the 
Metre — kj kj — — oo — ■ — - ^ — 
Jane pater Jane tuens, omnium 
Principium fons et origo Deum ; 
but the rubrics of the different Chapters are (like those in Spenser's 
Faery Queen) in a different metre 

— kj — — \j \j — — u v — — \J \j — ,t 

* The Kiran-us-Sa'dain was lithographed, with a commentary, at Lucknow, 
A. H. 1261, but, since the mutiny, copies have become very scarce. 

f Dr. Sprenger, not observing this peculiar novelty, has apparently confused 
these two different initial lines of the poem. 

2 II 2 

228 The Kiran-us-Sd dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

each forming a couplet of a continuous Kasidah in the rhyme ol, which 
if collected together would, of course, supply a running analysis of the 
whole poem. Beside this, every now and then at the end of many of 
the chapters there is given a ghazal, which is supposed to express the 
poet's feelings, contemporary with that part of the story which has 
heen just described, something like the songs introduced between the 
parts of Tennyson's Princess. These ghazals are in various metres 
and serve admirably to diversify the poem, while at the same time 
they form a running commentary, like the choruses of a Greek play, 
on the progress of the action and the hopes and fears which it may 
be supposed to excite in the minds of the spectators. The poet, 
having been actually present throughout the campaign, is in this 
way enabled to throw himself into the scene, and we have thus an 
interesting mixture of the epic and lyric elements, each portion of the 
action being represented from an objective and a subjective point of 

The first couplet of the Kasidah Analysis is 

Ol_jlc /»J^y •H*^ J * A3 ^ J"°y- cJ 't^ - ^J ' *^ (JH£H^ ^ (*i^ J^*" 
but the opening lines of the poem itself are 

o-wo jjixiUj &a>IJ ^j| £jJ> 13 o-*^ /♦ilr*' «Wj|«J^ j+ik 

The usual praises follow to the Prophet and his family, and fill 
several chapters ; then come the praises of the Sultan Moizz-ud-Din 
Kai Kobad in two chapters, followed by a description of Dehli and 
the Jami' Musjid and other public buildings, &c. 

At last, after this tedious series of preliminaries, the story itself opens 
with a description of December, " when the king of the sky lays his 
hand on the bow and shoots an arrow on the world in frost." A curious 
episode follows on the various means of exciting warmth in the cold 
season, by fires,warm clothes and festivities ; and the young king adopts 
the last remedy. His realm is in peace, no sounds of war are heard, 
" the face of the earth is controlled under his sword as the dust of 
the ground is laid by the cloud." His carousings are rudely dis- 
turbed by news from the East, of his father's meditated revolt. 
Nasir-ud-Din (or, as Ferishta calls him, Baghra Khan,) had hoped 
to succeed his father Ghaias-ud-Din Bulbun when the eldest son 
Muhammad died, and had been grievously disappointed when the 

I860.] The Eir&n-us-Sd 'dctin of Mir Klmsrau. 229 

old man fixed his choice on his grandson, — like Lancaster and Kiehard 
II. in our own history. Bulbnn died shortly after, a broken old man, 
and civil war seemed imminent, when the dispute was settled by both 
the rivals retiring and leaving the vacant throne to Nasir's own son, 
Kai Kobad; the son of Muhammad contenting himself with the 
Government of the Punjab, and the young King's father returning 
to his old province of Bengal. But his ambition was only stifled for 
the time, and the tidings of his son's incapacity and follies stirred it 
into new life ; and he prepares to wrest the sceptre from his feeble 

Fierce blew the rumour that the Sun of the East 

Has blazed like lightning across his meridian, 

The Nasir of the world, the conqueror of kingdoms, 

Has drawn his sword seeking revenge. 

He marched his army to the river of Hind, 

That his host might raise up the dust of Sind.* 

See his fortune what ambition it awoke, — 

The descending water inclines to mount up ! 

His army proceeds by land and by water into Oude and occupies 
the province.f 

Night and day, his one speech is this, 
" I am the Sekandar that shall break down Dara. 
If my father is gone, then am I the world's keeper, 
I am the heir of Sulaiman's diadem." 

The King awakes from his dream, and prepares for the contest. 
He summons his various governors and jagirdars to supply their con- 
tingents, and a large army is soon collected from every quarter. If 
we could rely on the poet's accuracy in statistics, we could copy a 
roll call which he gives us ; but we fear his laks are somewhat in- 
definite, like the sands and " sandillions" of older poets ! Khusrau 
concludes his chapter by a warlike ghazal. 

On " Monday in the early morning, in the month of Zul Hijjah, at 
the end of the moon," the king first shakes his banner to the breeze, 
and begins his march from Dehli. He proceeds leisurely by slow 

* So the MS., the printed ed. reads 

**"" } *jt y. *£ cr**~> 13 ***> i^k)* -J ts*y*^J **b 

230 The Kiran-us-Sctdain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

marches and his time is chiefly occupied in festivities and hunting- 
parties. The action of the poem now moves very slowly too, and we 
wade painfully through a long series of descriptions, the varying 
scenery of every month being minutely described, and the different 
employments of the young King and his courtiers. His first stage is 
Kilu Khari ((SJ-^j^f) where a grand castle, belonging to the 
King, is described, as well as the festivities in which he indulges on his 
arrival. While lingering here, he receives news of the invasion of 
his North Western territories by an army of Moghuls. 

By the violence of their torrent as it burst in, 
The glory (yJ\) of Lahore passed over to Multan. 
The king despatches 30,000 chosen horsemen to meet this new 
foe under the command of an officer named Khan Jahan Barbik.* 
They march to the Punjab and soon disperse the enemy. We have 
the names of several of the Moghul leaders mentioned, such as Tamur 
(j+i ), Sarmak, Kill, Khajlik and Baidti. 

These transitory but desolating Moghul incursions are a continual 
feature in the Indian annals of this period, reminding us of those 
devastating inroads by the Danish pirates in our own Saxon period. 
We learn from Ferishta that such an invasion actually occurred at this 
time, and the poet has strictly kept to truth in narrating it ; but 
he omits to mention, what is little to his hero's credit, that alarmed 
lest the many Moghul soldiers in his service should side with their 
countrymen, he assembled their chiefs and had them treacherously put 
to death, — a singular parallel to Ethelred's murder of the Danish hus- 
carles in a somewhat similar juncture. 

When the Sun entered the bull (the signs of the Zodiac forming 
the poet's usual calendar,) the king seems to have commenced the 
campaign in a more business-like manner, and he makes his second 
start in the middle of the month Iiabi'-ul-Awwal.f 

Ferishta gives Khan Jahan and Mullik Yarbeg (in the printed textt_£wjta 
Birlas as the leaders. General Brigg says elsewhere that Barbik is a Turkish title 
for one of the classes of the gold stick ; it may be rendered by the title " gentle- 
man usher in the courts of Europe." (Ferishta, i. p. 281.) 

t This month began April 16th in the year A. H. 686, A. D. 12S7. 

I860.] The Kirdn-us-Sa'dain of Mir Khusrau. 231 

&jS SjjJ &x«) iiji j\ &£> Jl>jA ^J^ LSLf* jZ&j ls^ '^W ^* 

The pomp and circumstance of the march are of course not allowed 
to pass by unnoticed, hut we may leave them to the readers of the 
original. The first halt is made in the district of Talpat and 
Afghanpiir, a district, according to the Scholiast, five or six cos from 
Dehli, and there we have the old revelry renewed. It is singular to 
see hy these ever-recurring scenes of dissipation . and excess, how 
even the ideal descriptions of the court poet are bound down to the 
coarse actual world around him, — these days and weeks of debauchery 
being constantly referred to by the historians of the time as one main 
evil of the young Icing's reign, and as, in fact, ultimately leading to 
his early and miserable fall. 

At this place, the court is enlivened by the arrival in the camp of 
1000 Moghul prisoners from the Punjab. The poet knew only too 
well the savage cruelty of these barbarians, for he had passed two 
years in captivity among them in Balkh, having been taken prisoner 
in the battle a few years before in which his patron prince Muham- 
mad, then Governor of Cabul, had been killed. These captives are 
minutely described, the Tartar features, the high cheekbones, flat 
noses, yellow hue, &c* are dwelt upon with the exaggeration of the 
poet's hatred, and he evidently gloats on the fact, that they were all 
put to death by the royal order. 

It is difficult to trace the King's route, as so few indications occur 
to define it, but we find the army starting from this last place and 
after two marches reaching the Jumna. 

u->^- i-/f w-b c^ UJ { j£& eJjAJ Jj'^o jd &*i Jiff aL/o 

The next stage mentioned is the city of Jaipur (^yaa.) ; here 
Barbik is sent forward with part of the army to the river Sard. There 

* The description is so curious that I subjoin part of it. 

U^.J^ f*i ^ «*"" cMjj-«» (J^'A cr-i" f^rfjl *^ (J^fj-^- ci'JD 

&Iib fLj <Jls* Lsr? ^U. iXJb J %£ ^U f^ 
^d t-rJ LJ &1S Li &iS jj ^j ^iu ttJ, ■ j G ijjl 

232 The'Kirdn-us-Sd'dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

he is joined by several Zamindars with their contingents, among 
them by Chahjui the Amir of Karrah,* and the Khan of Awiz 

The father now determines to send a messenger to try his son's 
temper, to see if his thoughts be those of peace or war, — he accordingly 
sends a trusty ambassador named Shams Dabir. An interview takes 
place between the messenger and Barbik, but of course little but idle 
compliments and threats passes between them. In the meantime the 
king continues his leisurely marches varied with the same round of 
festivities. At lensrth he reaches and crosses the Granges and enters 
the province of Oude. The sun at the same time enters Gemini, and 
we have a very elaborate description of the hot weather, but the poet 
represents the army as marching on without suffering any inconve- 
nience, ' not a soldier knew aught of the heat of the sun, under the 
canopying shade of the king, the Shadow of God !' He at length 
reaches the city of Oude and encamps by the river Gogra. 

Here follows a striking incident, — the first meeting of the father and 
the son. The son is on one side of the river with all his troops,the father 
with his troops on the other. The father bursts into tears as he sees his 
son in the distance and sends a messenger across in a boat. " Carry," 
he bids him, " the news of a father's tears to him who is dear to that 
father as the apple of his eye." The son recognises the messenger from 
the opposite shore, but a feeling of evil pride rises in his bosom and he 
shoots an arrow at him, forbidding him to advance, and the messen- 
ger has to return without delivering the message. Thus ends the 
first interview. 

The father then sends a more official ambassador who delivers a 
formal speech, chiefly upbraiding the king for his youth and indiscre- 
tion, and trying to recal him to a sense of filial duty. This message 
is delivered in full durbar, and the young prince haughtily answers 
it, — his claim is that crowns come not by inheritance but by fate, 

* We read in Ferishta that " Mullik Jujhoo, the nephew of Ghaias-ud-Din 
Bulbun, assumed royal privileges in Ms government of Karrah" during the con- 
fusion which followed the accession of Jalal-ud-Din Khilji. 

I860.] The Kirdn-us-Sa dain of Mir Khasrau. 233 

— besides, he has a peculiar right to the throne from the choice of 
the old king, his grandfather. 

The father, on hearing, at his messenger's return, these stormy- 
words, " drooped his ear like a shell in the sea," but on maturer 
thought determined to send another messenger who might speed 
better in his mission. He accordingly despatches a very impersona- 
tion of Machiavellism. — " a messenger he, who spent his whole life 
in discourse fine as a hair — if a secret came before him finer than a 
hair, he cleft its finest point with his keen wit." In this address 
the father assumes a bolder tone — he appeals from contests of the 
tongue to that of the sword — he boasts of the number and bravery 
of his forces, and especially the number of his elephants which 
he contrasts with the other's cavalry. He admits that his father 
did leave the throne to his grandson, but he maintains that it was 
the grandson's part to yield it up to the true heir. He concludes 
with a challenge, 

If thou bindest firm the girdle of hatred 

I will enter ere thou dost on the conflict ; 

Or if this interchange of words leads to kindly feeling 

I will not turn my face from thy sincerity ; 

But on this condition that, according to my design, 

I take my father's place and thou take mine. 

The young king easily repels his father's boasts of his elephants 
and extols his own cavalry — one of his arguments being a curious 
one — in chess an elephant (or bishop) is worth less than a knight. 

However with all this he feels his inferior place — he owns the 
moral untenableness of his position. 

With all this strength and might of my army 
I do not wish to harm my lord. 
I am not equal to thee in the battle 

Though I could sew Mount Kaf with my javelin as a needle, 
It is an evil rumour on the lips of men and women, — ■ 
The wrath of a child against his father. 
The sword which Sohrab drew against Rustam, — 
Hast thou not heard what he found from fate ? 
If the jewels of peace could but be strung, 

With hearty goodwill would I bear the ring in my ear as thy slave. 

2 i 

234 The Kirdn-us-Sd 'dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

He tries to justify his still occupying the throne, hut with a fal- 
tering argument, and thus concludes, 

But if in very truth this desire is in thy heart, 
I am thy slave — 'tis thine to command. 
Thou askest for me my crown that touches the sky, 
Come and meet me that I may throw it at thy feet. 

This message a little touches the father's heart and he now dis- 
claims all idea of seizing the throne. 

What though I could take the throne from thee ? 
If I took it from thee, to whom should I give it ? 

He then expresses his loyalty and devotion in a style of truly 
oriental hyperbole and concludes by hegging an interview. The son 
dictates an answer — " What though my crown reaches to the 
moon ? my head shall be under thy foot." The father receives it 
with great joy, and sends his second son Ivaiis with a reply and many 
magnificent presents. 

The brother proceeds to the king whom he finds in all his magni- 
ficence, which is well described. He advances to the throne and 
" when the king's eye fell on him, straightway he recognised himself 
in that mirror ; in haste he leaped from the lofty throne and seized 
his princely form in a close embrace." He seated him by his side 
on the throne and treated him with the most cordial affection. 

The next day early the king calls for his own son Kaiomars (then 
quite a babe) and sends him to his grandfather with many rich pre- 
sents, — with him he sends an experienced councillor to carry the secret 
instructions, and the two set off to the prince of Bengal. 

They crossed the water — they went to the king of the East, 

Like rose and nightingale they went to the garden. 

The news came to the king of the realm 

That those fresh fruits are coming from the orchard. 

He went and sat on his Sakandar-like throne 

And with lines of elephants built up a Magog's wall. 

The governor descends from his throne and meets his grandson as 
he enters his presence, and leads him to his seat where he places him 
by his side. He is at first absorbed in the pleasure of seeing his 
grandson, and totally neglects the minister and the presents, until 
his eye happens to fall in that direction, when he recals himself 

I860.] The Kirdn-us-Sd' 'dam of Mir Khusrau. 235 

from his pre-occupation. The minister then presents his message, and, 
after a very lavish interchange of gifts, the great interview is fixed 
for the morrow and the two return to the king. 

On the morning of the day every body is astir — the whole day 
passes in busy preparations — until evening draws near. 

Whan the day waned to its close and the sultry heat had passed 

And the sun was about to sink into the ocean, , 

The king of the East to cross the river 

Asked for a boat swift as the revolving heavens. 

The description of this boat fills half a chapter and then follows 
the meeting. The prince of Bengal crosses. 

The prince's boat flew swifter than an arrow 

And in the twinkling of an eye crossed the river. 

Soon as he had touched the shore 

He saw his pearl on the bank of the stream. 

He longed in the agitation of his restless heart 

To leap ashore and clasp it to his bosom. 

He sought for patience, but it came not to him, 

He sought not for tears, but lo ! they came. 

On the other side stood the King Moizz-ud-Dfn 

With all preparations of courtesy after the manner of kings. 

When the king's eye fell on his bewildered visitant, 

The more he gazed, the more bewildered himself became, 

He rushed forward and scattered a donative of tears, 

He flew to meet him and clasped him in his arms. 

Each locked the other in a close embrace, 

Each lingered long in the other's arms; 

Like rose and rosebud when they leap forth from winter, 

This parts not from that, nor that from this. 
A tender dialogue ensues between them and all their jealousies and 
suspicions are soon set at rest in mutual confidence and affection. 

The poet himself looked on the scene amid the crowd of courtiers, 
and he expresses his own feelings in a triumphant ode of joy, begin- 
ning : 

Kappy the moment when the lover gains the beloved. 
The best couplets are the following. 

None knows the joys of presence but he the sorrow-consumed one 

Who after long exile reaches the beloved. 

None knows the worth of the rose but he the captive bird 

Who has felt the cold of winter and then beholds the springs 

2 i 2 

236 The Kiran-us-Sd'dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3, 

As a specimen of the series of Ghazals which, as we have said. 
are continually interspersed through the narrative, we subjoin it in 
the original. 


tij^^j c£)^£> Jl=>.[^-w ^bi l/*»3' 
jJ^ j(^ c;UH j!^ o^ o<>J 

.s^jj cA)^ <*H* A ^"^ ^-^ J d & ^~j^ 
jS* j\ Cyxi ±&>± AS" i-vsb ^^5^ l^k. ^1 

&LL.JA* cjf jXo c>j!i>J (J^j o<i-> 
^jj^j ti-jLw J^^ cr^ 3' U"v *^ 

We have next an account of the mutual gifts of the father and 
son, and the splendid entertainment which followed, and here the 
action of the poem may be said to terminate. The remainder 
' drags its slow length along' through a wilderness of extraneous mat- 
ter and h-relevant description. 

The poet first describes the night of the festivity, then follow 
chapters devoted to the taper, the lamp, the 27 mansions of the moon, 
and the astrological position of the heavenly constellations at the 
hour of the " conjunction of the two auspicious planets" of the 
earth. After this we have a curious series of chapters on the wine, 
the flaggon, ( t^-Jy* ) the flask ( ^}y> ) the cup, the cupbearer, the 
harp, the Kasrabab, the pipe, the tabour, the singers, the festal 
board, the betel, &c., and the king's crown and throne. Several 

1S60.] The Kirdn-us-Sa'dain of Mir Iihusrau. 237 

similar interviews are described, and in one of them the father takes 
an opportunity of instilling into his son's ear some salutary 
counsel as to his future reign, while in the parting visit he 
is represented as warning him against certain evil counsellors.* We 
know from the narrative of Zi'a Barni that such was actually the 
case, hut the poet only gives us vague generalities where the historian 
adds a contemporary edge. 

The Sultan returns to his capital in the rainy season, which is 
described, as each of the other seasons have been, at great length. 
Then follows a very pleasing and natural chapter of the poet's per- 
sonal history, the best in the whole book. 

He had accompanied the royal expedition and had been an eye- 
witness of many of the scenes described, but he returns with it only 
as far as Kantipiir. His immediate patronf had just received a jaa-fr 
in Oude, and the poet stays behind with him and remains two years 
there. At last however he wishes to return to his family at Dehli, 
and after some time he obtains leave, of which he gladly avails 
himself. After one month of weary travelling, he reaches the im- 
perial city in the month Zii'l Ka'dah, and he describes his joy at 
meeting his aged mother and his friends. Two days after the kino- 
hears of his arrival and sends for him to court, where he is appointed 
to an office about the royal person. The king then in a private in- 
terview condescends to ask a favour. The poet expresses his astonish- 
ment at such condescension, and then the king bids him write in 
verse the history of the meeting of the two Sultans, " the conjunction 
of the two auspicious constellations of the time ;" that he may divert 
his mind by its perusal while parted from his father, who of course 
remains in his quasi independent province of Bengal. From this 
command the poem itself took its birth. Khusrau tells us that it 

f His patron's name is given as 

j|y ,jh.^c Jl=». o)Lg.^. cjLi. 
Amir Ali was Khusrau's patron at Dehli after the death of prince Muhammad 
and we learn from Ferishta that in the beginning of Jalal-ud-Din Khilji's reign 
Amir Ali was " holding the government of Oude under the new title of Hatim 

238 The JKiran-us-Sci dain of Mir Khusrau. [No. 3. 

occupied him six months, it was finished in the month Ramazan of 
the year A. H. 688 corresponding to our A. D. 1289. The poet was 
then in the 37th year of his age and the number of baits in the poem 
he states to he 3944. 

Then follows a description of the king's triumphant entry into his 
capital, and in the closing chapter the poet expresses himself as 
weary of making poetry, and declares, that he did not write the poem 
for the sake of gold hut fame. " If the king gave me the treasures 
of Faridiin and Jamshid, they would he a poor payment for one letter, 
my desire for this highly decorated book is that my name may 
remain high in its place." The poem then ends with the usual moral 
reflections on the vanity of wasting life in the composition of verse 
and devotion to earthly ohjects. 

Nor are these last commonplaces wholly inapplicable. The hook 
is curious, rather for what it professes to be, than for what it is ; it 
reminds us too much of what it misses, to he really a good poem. 
We read the simple account in Ferishta's plain prose, and we feel 
that the poet would have shewn a truer knowledge of his craft, 
had he kept closer to the actual facts as they occurred ; and, little as 
he has deviated from them, every deviation is a positive hlemish in 
his work. We miss too in the poem the evil genius of the true history, 
the treacherous vizier Nizam-ud-Din, whose secret machinations had 
produced the lamentahle rupture from the first. The poet's moral 
cowardice could only venture to disguise this power " behind the 
throne," and his characters act without sufficient motives in his pages ; 
he dared not depict the arch villain* of the court, for the vizier had 
returned to Dehli in unhroken influence with the king. It was he 
who had endeavoured, by every means, to exasperate the parties into 
an open rupture, and to stop every attempt at pacific negociations ; 
and when Baghra Khan had appealed too strongly to his son's un- 
hardened heart to he wholly unheard, the vizier had endeavoured to 
frustrate all the good effects of the interview. He had drawn a line 

* The only allusion to him in the poem is perhaps in certain secret instructions 
and counsels of state which are two or three times mentioned in the interviews 
between Kai Kobad and Nasir-ud-Dfn. Zia Barni'givea long secret dialogues 
between the king and his father, whore the latter warns his son against the 
minister's treachery. 

I860.] The Kirdn-us-Sa'dain of Mir Khisrau. 239 

of humiliating ceremonies round the king to chill the paternal heart 
from the approach. " To all these the prince submitted ; until after 
repeated obeisances he found the king remaining unmoved on his 
throne, when, shocked by this unnatural behaviour, he burst into 
tears. This sight overpowered all the king's resolutions ; he leaped 
from his throne and ran to throw himself at his father's feet ; and 
the father hastening to prevent him, he fell oh his neck and they 
remained for some minutes weeping in each other's arms, while the 
whole court was almost as much affected as themselves." One feels 
that there is nothing in Mir Khusrau's poem one half so truly 
pathetic as this plain prose ; it is one of those touches of nature 
which make the whole world kin, but which Mir Khusrau completely 
overshoots in his endeavours to be original and sublime. 

There is only one observation more, and that relates to the final issue 
of the dramatis personae. We read that the poet wrote for the king 
in the year 688, but in that very year* the king murdered the vizier 
who had been such an evil guide for his youth. Cowed by that 
superior will, he dared not openly to assume his authority, and he 
could only turn to the poison bowl to rid him of the too powerful 
servant. But his own hands were too enervated to seize the reins 
which the dying minister dropped ; the whole empire relapsed into 
confusion, and the great military chiefs openly contended for the 
falling fragments. The dissolute young king found himself utterly 
powerless in the midst of the confusion which he had evoked, and 
he was soon assassinated in Kilii Khari, the scene of so many 
of his revelries ; and one of these Turkish chiefs, Jelal-ud-Dfn 
Khilji, mounted the vacant throne. A party in the court en- 
deavoured to secure the crown for the little child Kaiomars whom 
we watched on his baby mission to his grandfather in Bengal ; he 
was then an infant in arms, and he is even now only three years of age ; 
but the attempt fails, and Khilji's first exercise of power is to sweep 
the poor child for ever out of his path. Baghra Khan retained 
Bengal through these confusions as through the last, and thirty-six 
years after, we still find him there, as Ghaias-ud-Din, the founder of 
the Toghlak dynasty, confirms him in his government. 

* Ferishta gives 687 as tlio last year of his reign, but this must be wrong. 

240 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

Ornithology of Amoy. — By Kobert Swikhoe, Esq. 

The position of Amoy Island and its relative bearings to the 
mainland of China may be ascertained from any ordinary map. A 
few words will therefore suffice to explain the nature of the country 
in which I have followed my favourite pursuit. This island, the neigh- 
bouring shore of the mainland, and the banks of both the rivers (the 
chief one leading to Changchow Foo and the other to Tunggan 
Hien) are all densely populated, and have remarkably little wood 
excepting occasional banyans thriving in the midst of villages. The 
plains are well cultivated and planted for the greater part with rice, 
maize, sugar-cane, Cucurbitacece, and hemp during summer, and 
bearded wheat, spinach (Basella rubra), taro, cabbages, and peas during 
winter. The hills are either composed of granite debris studded with 
large black blocks of granite and extremely barren, or of clay ; and are 
covered with small stones and scanty herbage. The character of the 
country will probably account for the paucity of our resident species 
among land birds, as compared with the occasional visitants or strag- 
glers in the same group. 

The water-birds, however, shew a finer list of winter residents, no 
doubt owing to the suitable feeding-ground afforded them by the large 
mud-fiat of the Amoy creek, those of several other inlets and creeks 
into the mainland, and the marshes at the mouth of the rivers. 

In identifying the following birds, Mr. Blyth of Calcutta has 
rendered me much service, and indeed without his valued aid I 
could have done little among the non-European forms. I have also 
to thank Mr. Stevenson of Norwich for the help which he has afforded 
me ; and Mr. Gr. Schlegel at Amoy, son of Dr. Schlegel of the Leyden 
Museum, merits my warm thanks for the loan of a copy of the 
Fauna Japonica, from which work I have gained considerable assist- 

Amoy, 19th November, 1859. 

Ornithology of Amoy. China. 

(Classified according to Dr. J. B. Hay's Catalogue of Genera.) 
1. Buteo vulgaris, var.japonicus, Temm. andSchleg., Faun. Japon. 

1S60.] Ornithology of Amoy. 241 

A regular winter visitant. 

2. Pandion Jialiaetus, (L.) ? 

Lives on the rocks at the mouth of the harbour and comes occa- 
sionally to Amoy, but is very shy and unapproachable. I have 
never been able to procure a specimen. 

3. Falco peregrinus, (L.) 

Breeds in the neighbourhood and is not unfrequent. 

4. JLypotriorchis subbuteo, (L.) 


5. Tinnuncidus alaudarius, Brisson. 

A common resident. 

6. Milvus govinda, Sykes, var. melanotis, Gray. Faun. Japon* 

[Ante, p. 95.] 
Very common, especially in the harbour. 

7. Accipiter nisus, (L.) ? 

Bare. Differs from the European bird chiefly in having white 
axillaries, as well as in many minor points. 

8. Micronisus badius, Gmelin. 

Beceived from Fouchow, and shot in Amoy, November of this 

8. Circus cyaneus, (L.) 

Pretty common. 

9. Circus csruginosus, (L.) 

Very common up the rivers. 

10. Ninox scutellatus, (Baffles.) 

A straggling winter visitant, common in summer at Fouchow 
where it breeds. The immature plumage is brown, banded with 

11. Bubo maximus, Sibbald. 

Occasionally seen of a winter's evening. Breeds somewhere in the 
neighbourhood, as every early spring the young are sold in the 
streets of the town. 

12. Ephialtes bakhamcena, Pennant. 

Bare. I procured two one winter, one mottled brown on the 
upper-parts, the other mottled buff ; the first I take to be the 
immature plumage, as both these examples were females. Mr. 

2 k 

242 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

Blyth informs me that this is not an uncommon species in the 
vicinity of Calcutta. 

13. Caprimulgus dyticivorus, nohis. [C. indicus, large var., Blyth, 

J. A. S. XIV, 208 ; the small var. there also noticed heing C. 
Kelaarli, Blyth, J. A. S. XX, 175, from the Nilgiris and moun- 
tains of Ceylon.] 

This species is closely akin to the Caprimulgus jotalca of the 
Fauna Japonica ; the following heing the most striking 
points of difference. Our's has the wing \ inch longer and 
the heak 2 lines longer. Instead of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th 
quills in the male having a white band, our's has a white spot 
on the inner web of the 1st, and a band across the 2nd and 3rd 
only. The sides of the head, greater and lesser wing-coverts, and 
scapularies are frosted with white, and a narrow line of frosted 
white runs from the bill to the top of the eye and extends in 
a broken manner beyond. In most other respects it resembles 
C. jotalca, the tail is banded with white pretty much in 
the same style, and the tarsus is feathered to the base of the toes. 
It stays in Amoy the greater part of October and November, 
and is there seen hawking over paddy-fields for water-beetles 
which fly at night. Out of the stomachs of birds shot I have 
repeatedly taken out whole individuals of Dyticus margina- 
tus, and in one instance two perfect specimens were so found, 
but with the hind-legs reversed, apparently with the intention 
of affording no impediment to the passage of so large a beetle 
down the cesopliagus. This species breeds at Fouchow. 

Another and smaller species is met with in a copse about twelve 
miles distant from Amoy during the months of September 
and October. It has naked tarsi, is 10 inches long and has 
the lateral tail-feather white except just at the tip. The 1st 
and 2nd quills are blotched with a large spot of white on 
each, and two white spots occur on the throat. A yellowish 
circle girts the eye. Not having been able as yet to identify 
the species, I have named it passim 

14. Caprimulgus stictomus, nobis. [Akin to C. monticolus, Franklin, 

and C. affinis, Horsfield ; but much richer in colouring, E. B.~] 

15. Cypselus vittatus, Jard. and Selby. 

I860.] Ornithology of Amoxj. 243 

Frequent in spring, flying high in fine weather, but darting about 
low during rain. Does not build here. 

16. Cypselus subfurcatus, Blyth. [Ante, p. 95.] 

A permanent resident, associating in parties and twittering 
together at a great height in the sky, then, suddenly separat- 
ing, the birds dart to all quarters, each displaying its command 
of wing in the chase after insects ; then, again, they meet as 
before, and so on for the greater part of the day, seldom resting. 
The nest is often placed under the rafters of verandahs, and 
resembles that of the House-Martin (Chelidon urbica) at a dis- 
tance ; but is composed of straw and other soft materials 
glued together in regular layers. The old birds roost every 
night in their nests all the year through. 

17. Hiriuidapus nudipes, Hodgson.* 

A straggler in spring during rain-storms. 

18. Hirundo rustica, L., var. gutturalis, Scopoli. 

This appears to be merely a degenerate variety of the European 
species. It is a summer resident here and pretty numerous, 
building mud-nests shaped like a half-dish, and lined with 
straw and a few feathers, over the doors of Chinese huts, where 
they are reverenced as the harbingers of good luck. 

19. Sirundo daurica, L. ; alpestris, Pallas. 

A few passing flocks spend a day or two in Amoy during winter. 
In Formosa it takes the place of the common species, and 
builds domed nests of clay and mud under the roof-tops. 
Those nests are lined properly with feathers, and contain from 
3 to 5 fine white or pinkish eggs. 

20. Eurystomus orientalis, L. 
Very rare. 

21. Halcyon smyrnensis, L. 

A common resident ; called " Fei4suy" by the Chinese, who 
glue the feathers, chiefly those of the wing, over ornaments 
worn by their women. Thus treated the lustrous blue feathers 
give the appearance of turquoise stone. The bird is shy and 
is remarkable for its loud screeching cry. 

* A specimen since sent accords exactly with Gould's figure of the Australian, 
species ; but I consider the latter not to differ from the Himalayan.— ~Czw.As, Soc 

2 K 2 

244 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

22. Halcyon atricapilla, Grmelin ; pileata, Boddaert. 

Rarer than the preceding ; its feathers are also used for orna- 
ments, to which they give a deeper tone. 

23. Alcedo bengalensis, Gmelin. 

A very common resident and generally known as the " King of 
the Shrimps ;" called by Amoy Chinese Any tony mng. 

24. Ceryle rudis, L. 

Very common on the river ; where it rises on the wing at a height 
above the water, and drops suddenly on its scaly prey. I have 
also seen it strike obliquely when flying close to the surface of 
the water. 

25. ZTpupa epops, L. 

Stays all the year and is nowhere common ; builds in the holes 
of walls and exposed coffins ; is called by the natives the Cofiin- 
bird, and flies with long "undulating sweeps. 

26. OrtJiotomus phyllorapheus, n. sp. \_lbis, Vol. II, 49.] 

Length 4| inches ; wing 1 T 9 „- ; tail 2. Bill along culmen -| ; to 
gape T 7 o". Tarsus T 8 „- ; mid-toe T 6 ^ ; hind-toe T % ; outer toe rather 
longer than the inner. Bill pale flesh-colour, along the ridge 
dark hair- brown. Legs and toes pale yellowish-brown. Iris 
buff; narrow circle round the eye, pale buff. Forehead fer- 
:raginous, gradually changing to olive-brown on the head. Back 
bright olive-green. Wings and tail hair-brown, the coverts- 
margined with olive-green, and the quills with yellowish olive- 
brown. Round the eye and all the under-parts, including the 
shoulder-edge, ochreous-white, darker on the flanks, and buff on 
the tibiae. The two central tail-feathers of the male gradually 
lengthen at the commencement of spring until May, when they 
are about 1-| inch or so longer than the others, which are all 
somewhat graduated. I observe that these lengthened feathers 
soon become worn and usually drop after the first nesting, to be 
replaced by others scarcely longer than the lateral ones. 

Mr. Blyth remarks — " Your Orthotomus, I think, is new, and con- 
stitutes the 12th species (!) now to be recognised. The other 
11 are described by Mr. F. Moore in his monograph on the 
genus, read before the Zoological Society, 28th February, 1854." 

This bird is usually seen in pairs, and is very common in most 

1S60.] Ornithology of Amoy. 245 

bushy places. Besides at Amoy, I have also observed it at 
Hongkong and Fowehow. 
27. Prinia sonitans, n. sp. [Ibis, Vol. II, 50.] 

I have named this from the crackling noise it produces when 
hopping or flying from twig to twig. 

Length 5-^ • wing 1 T 7 7 ; tail 3. Bill along culmen ^ to gape 
^. Tarsus -^ ; middle toe ±% ■ outer sightly longer than 
the inner, hind-toe ^-. Bill and inside of mouth black. Irides 
orange-yellow. Legs buff, browner on the claws. Head fine 
deep bluish-grey ; chin and cheeks white ; occiput and back 
olive-green, blending with the grey towards the fore-part and 
becoming tinged with sienna on the rump. Wings light hair- 
brown margined with buff olive-green. Tail pale brown, mar- 
gined and tinged with buff olive-green. Breast a clear pale 
buff tinged with primrose, deepening on the under-parts and 
very deep on the thighs. 

The female has the head less bluish than the male ; and in the 
young the head is uniform with the back. 

This species is resident here, and builds domed nests on the stalks 
of reed-plants ; the eggs, 7 or so in number, are strangely red. 
Mr. Blyth remarks on our bird — " Your Prinia from Amoy 
comes exceedingly close to P.flaviventris, Delessert, which is 
common in the Bengal Sundarbans, Tenasserim, &c, and I 
have received it also from Singapore ; but yours has a longer 
tail, wants the bright yellow of the lower-parts below the 
breast, and there is an admixture of white in the loral region and 
ear-coverts not seen in our species. Moreover, Pr. flaviventris 
lays a similar red egg, as I am informed by Major S. R. 
28. Drymoica extensicauda, n. sp. \_lbis, Vol. II, 50.] 

A common resident, and seems to delight in fields of grain, long 
grass, &c. It is often seen standing on a stalk, throwing up 
its tail and twittering a short series of unmusical notes. 
Length 5^ ; wing 1 t 9 q ; tail 2f, long and graduated deeply, the 
outer feather measuring only 1 T 3 7 . Bill along culmen ^L, to 
gape -j- 6 ^ ; deep blackish-brown, paler just at the tip, and yel- 
lowish flesh-colour at the base of the lower mandible ; inside 

246 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

of mouth pale flesh-colour. Iris orange-yellow, margin of 
eyelids buff. Tarsus T ^ ; middle-toe ^ ; outer toe slightly 
longer than the inner which is -^ ; hind-toe ii ; legs yel- 
low-ochre, flesh-coloured on the upper surface of the toes. Upper 
parts olive-brown; region of the eyes, curvature of wing, and tibiae, 
- buff-ochre. Under parts pale ochreous, with a tinge of primrose- 
yellow. Wings and tail light hair-brown ; the feathers of the 
former margined with yellowish brown-olive on the coverts, and 
reddish on the quills ; those of the latter indistinctly barred with 
a darker shade. " Your Drymoica" adds Mr. Blyth, " is nearly 
akin to the common D.fusca of Bengal, Nipal, &c, represented 
by D. inornata in S. India, but has a conspicuously longer tail, 
more decidedly rufescent lower-parts and around the eye, and 
the crown is distinctly striated, in which last it approximates 
the Cisticolcs" 

29. Cisticola tintinnabulans, nobis, \_lbis, Vol. II, 51.] 

This bird is of rare occurrence in Amoy, but is frequent in 
Shanghai and West Formosa. I have described it as Cala- 
manthella tinnabulans, in the II. Vol of the ' Journal of the 
N. China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.' On comparing 
ours with C. hrunniceps of the Fauna Japonica I note the fol- 
lowing differences. Ours is ^ inch longer, and 5 lines shorter in 
the wing. The 1st quill is very short instead of being nearly 
equal to the 2nd, which is li lines shorter than the 3rd, 4th 
and 5th equal and longest. The bill is longer. The feathers 
of the head are bordered with yellowish-brown. No greyish- 
brown occurs on the breast, but the medial line from the throat 
to the vent is pure white, both sides of it being more or less 
washed with sienna-buff. 

30. Aerocephalus magnirostris. [Ibis, Vol. II, 51.] 

This bird abounds from Amoy to Shanghai in all reedy places and 
is described in the Fauna Japonica under the term Salicaria 
turdina orientalis, and stated there to be found also in Borneo 
Macassar, and Sumatra. 

Length 7 T 2 -g- ; wing 3 T %. Tail graduated and 3. Bill T 8 ^, to gape 
lyo- Upper parts a sienna or yellowish brown ; wings brown, 

1S60.] Ornithology of Amoy. 217 

margined with the same ; tail do., and tipped with yellowish 
grey, eye-streak and throat yellowish-white. Under parts 
sienna-yellow with more or less white, and occasionally with a 
few pale hrown streaks on the throat. 

Mr. Blyth says, of our Acrocephalus, it may he remarked — " that 
(like the two figured in Gould's Birds of Australia) it helps 
to fill up the gap hetween the large and small species of 
Europe and India respectively ; and that it is remarkable 
for the great disproportionate size of the hill, which equals 
that of the European A. arundinaceus, (L.), or of the Indian 
A. brun?iescens,(Jerdon,) both of which are much larger birds." 

Its song is hurried, though sweet and sometimes powerful. 

31. Acroceplwlus (?) bistrigiceps, n. sp. [Ibis, Vol. II, 51.]* 

This small species is easily distinguished by a line of black over 
a yellowish streak above each eye; Length 5J- ; wing 2 r 3 ^ ; 
tail 2^ and graduated. Bill \, to gape T 6 ^. Upper parts olive- 
brown, tinged with sienna, and redder on the rump and edgings 
of the tail. Wings hair-brown margined with the prevailing 
colour. Throat, belly, and under wing-coverts whitish, the 
rest of the lower parts deeply washed with sienna-buff. 

32. Arundinax (?) canturians, n. sp. [Ibis, Vol. II, 52.] 

A winter visitant at Amoy, but found in summer at Shanghai, 
uttering its notes from its concealment, which are so rich and 
full that when first heard you expect them to be the com- 
mencement of a fine song ; but alas ! these 3 or 4 notes are 
all that the bird possesses, and though you strain your ear, 
Hstening, from the same bush you hear at intervals only the 
same few rich notes. 

Length 6^ ; wing 2 T 8 -g-, tail 2 T 9 g-. Bill |-, to gape T 8 ¥ . Forehead 
and crown rufous-brown ; upper-parts and tail olive-brown. 
Wings hair-brown with yellowish-brown margins. Throat, 
under wing-coverts, and belly white ; eye-streak and under- 
parts ochreous and yellowish grey. Bill and feet brownish. 

Mr. Blyth observes : " This seems very like a second species of 

* This does not range well in Acrocephalus, nor is it a Calamodyta, but in 
form of tail approximates Locustella. It is, however, a distinct form, and will 
have to be so recognized. — Cwr. As. Soc. 

248 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

my genus Arundinax. The tail, however, is ohscurely striated 
across, which I do not observe in my A. olivaceus ; and your 
bird has also a much stronger hind-toe and claw, quite dispro- 
portionately so as regards the anterior toes. The white of its 
wings underneath is remarkable. The tail is less graduated 
than in A. olivaceus. 
I have compared this with the descriptions of Salicaria cantons 
and cantillans in the Fauna Japonica, and though closely 
allied to the former it certainly is not the same. The cantons 
seems to bear to the cantillans the same analogy that this 
species bears to the succeeding." 

33. Arundinax (?) minutus, n. sp. [Ibis, Vol. II, 52.] 

This is a most singular miniature of the foregoing, resembling 
it almost exactly in colour, but differing considerably in size. 
Length 5 ; wing 2~ ; 2 T >-. This bird is also more robust in 
build, livelier and more open in habits, and is rarer here than 
the foregoing. Were it not for both birds occuning at the 
same season, one would be inclined to look upon this as merely 
a degenerate variety of the other. 

34. Phylloscopus fuscatus, Blyth. 

Common during winter, and stays so late in spring that I have 
a strong suspicion that it nidificates in the neighbourhood. It 
entertains us during the early vernal months with its pretty 
shake song, but its most frequent note is " chick chick" 

35. Phylloscopus tenellipes, n. sp. [Ihis, Vol. II, 53.] 

This species has delicate light pink-coloured feet, hence the name. 
Length 4 T 9 T , wing 2|, 1st quill | in. ; 2nd 1-f, 3rd 2 in. the 
4th slightly longer and the longest in the wing. The 4th, 5th, 
and 6th quills sinuated on the outer web ; the rest inwards 
with mucronate tips. Tail 2, the feathers nearly equal, moder- 
ately broad, rounded on the outer web towards the tip, and 
sinuated on the inner, both leading to a point. Expanse 7 t 6 q-. 
Bill -2 9 o, to gape t 6 q. Tarsus |^; middle toe -^ ; outer 
longer than the inner ; hind toe f. Beak brownish, pale flesh- 
coloured on the tip and tomia of upper mandible and basal 
half of lower. Inside of mouth flesh-ochre. Upper -parts olive- 
green, brown on the head and upper back. Eye-streak and 

1S60.] Ornithology of Amoy. 249 

cheeks cream-colour. Through the eye and below the eye-streak 
runs a dark line of olive-brown, darker on the coverts ; the eye- 
streak whitening and increasing towards the occiput. Wings 
light hair-brown, margined and tinged with olive-sienna : 
quills darker hair-brown with dark shafts. Some of the large 
coverts tipped with yellowish. Tail light hair-brown, margined 
and tinged with olive-sienna, browner on the rump. Lower 
parts pure white, except sides of the neck, flanks, and thighs, 
which are slightly fibrous and grey. The shoulder, under wing- 
and tail-coverts, are tinged -with primrose-yellow. 
This is a straggling visitant during the cold weather, and may 
be distinguished by its note " charr." 

36. PJiylloscopus syh'icultrix, n. sp. [Ibis, Vol. II, 53.] 

Mr. Blyth remarks on this — " a new species, differing from all bnt 
the European sibilatrix in the minute size of its first primary, 
in which character however sibilatrix exceeds it." 

Length 4± wing 2£, 1st quill ^, 2nd 1|£, 3rd and 4th 1 T V 
Tail 1 t 7 q. Bill \ ; to gape i§. Upper mandible brown with 
a yellow edge, lower yellow with a patch of brown on the 
terminal half. Tarsus \% pale yellowish-brown, yellower on 
the under surface of the toes and browner on the claws. Upper 
parts olive-green, brownish in some lights, especially on the 
crown. Line over the eye, a row of feathers on the lower half 
of eye-circle, and part of the cheeks, pale chrome-yellow ; loral 
space blackish-olive. Feathers of the wings and tail hair- 
brown, broadly margined with olive-green, a spot of yellowish- 
white marks, the tip of the outer web of the first 5 2nd 
coverts. U/nder-parts pale yellowish or primrose white, varying 
in tint. The under-shaffc of all the tail feathers white, and 
the margin of the inner web of the 3 outer tail-feathers faint 
white. The size of the bill differs considerably in different 

It is very numerous here during the months of April and May, 
and again in October and September, on its migrations. 

37. PJiylloscojjus coronatus, (Temm. and Schleg.) 

This species is noticeable from having a faint line of yellow on 
the crown like a Begulus, and is identical with that of the 

2 L 

250 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

Fauna Japonica. It wanders to Arnoy occasionally during Its 
vernal and autumnal migrations. 

38. Reguloides proregulus, (Pallas,) — modestus, Gould, — inomatus, 

"Winters here and is solitary in habits, uttering as it pursues its 
food a long plaintive " sweet," which, in spring, repeated se- 
veral times in rapid succession, constitutes its song. 

39. Heguloides chloronotus, (Hodgson.) 

Often seen in pairs during winter, roaming about from tree to 

40. Copsychus saularis, (L.) 

A common resident ; native name Cliuy Kam-Cliay. 

41. Pratincola indica, Blyth. 

Winters here. 

42. Ruticilla aurorea, (Pallas.) [B. leucoptera, Blyth.] 

Winters here. 

43. Larvivora cyana, Hodgson ? 

Straggles here occasionally, in its migrations. 

44. Ianthia rufilatus, (Hodgson) ; cyanura, Temm. and Schleg., Fauna 

Japon. Winters here. 

45. Muscicapa mugimaki, Temm. and Schleg., Fauna Japon. (see Ap- 


[Genus. Ebttheosteeka, Bonap. In winter dress, I cannot 
distinguish it from the common _27. leucura of India. JE. B.~\ 

This is a species of lively Chat-like habits, but fond of jerking 
up the tail like a robin. It straggles here during its autumnal 
migrations. The female or immature plumage, which has 
occurred here most frequently, may be thus described : — 

Length 4-jV Wing 2 T V ; expanse 7| ; 1st quill T 8 -g-, 2nd 1 T 9 7 , 
3rd and 4th 2^. Tail 2 T 2 -g-, feathers rounded on the outer 
web, sinuate on the inner, and ending in a point. Bill T ^, to 
gape T 5 ^ Tarsus y 6 ^, middle toe if, inner toe slightly shorter 
than the outer, hind toe -^ ; tarse thick ; claws, especially 
the middle and hind one rather long and pointed all black. 
Inside of mouth ochreous. Irides black. Upper parts brown 
with" an ochreous wash. Wings hair-brown edged paler ; 
2nd coverts tipped with ochreous, forming a transverse wing- 

J.860.] Ornithology of Amoy. 251 

bar ; 3res and a few of the interior and 2nes tipped and edged 
with whitish. Urpygials and tail black-tipped and edged 
paler, the lateral rectrices with more than half the basal inner 
web and shaft, the 2nd and 3rd both webs, and the 4th a part 
of the outer web, white, all having some black near their 
bases. Throat, belly, and under tail-coverts pure white. Sides 
of neck and throat, breast, flanks, and under wing-coverts 
brownish with more or less ochre. Thighs brownish. Edge 
of inner webs of quills pale brownish. 

46. Pants minor, Temm. and Schleg. (Figured in Gould's ' Birds of 

The same species as that described in the Fauna Japonica. It 
prevails along the coast of China from Hongkong to Shan- 
ghai. The trivirgatus of the same work is common at Shan- 
ghai, but is not met with so far South as this. 

47. Zosterops japonicus, Temm. and Schleg. 

This answers in every respect to the bird of the Fauna Japonica, 
except that the 1st quill, though very minute, is yet not ivant- 
ing. The bill and legs are of a slaty blue when the bird is 
alive, and not of a blackish brown horn-colour (a fault evidently 
attributable to the descriptions being taken from a dried skin) . 
The breast and flanks are of a pale dingy colour, with but very 
little reddish. Iris dark blackish-brown. It is resident in 
the neighbourhood, and often wanders to Amoy during winter 
in search for food. 

48. Motacilla boarula, (L.) 

Common winter visitant. 

49. Motacilla luzoniensis, Scopoli. 
Common in winter ; a few breed here. 

50. Motacilla lugubris, Temminck. 

Common in winter. 

51. Budgies fiava, (L.) 

I think the European species ; rare. 

52. Budgies sulphurea. 

Both these species are found in autumn, in rice-fields. 

53. Anthus thermophilics, Hodgson. 

Common during winter. Two other species occur, but they still 
remain unidentified, 

2 j, 2 

252 Ornithology of ' Amoij. [No. 3, 

54. Pipastes dgilis, (Sykes.) 
Common during winter. 

55. Gorydalla Ricliardi, (Vieillot.) 

A common winter visitant ; deeply ochreous on its arrival, but 
this appearance wears of as the season advances. 

56. Myioplionus caeruleus, (Scopoli). \_Nec. M. Temmhtcbh, Vigors.] 

Lives among rocky caverns ; not common, and very shy ; native 
name Aiv-clmy. 

57. Turdus daulias, Temminck. 

Our commonest winter Thrush, answering ha every respect to the 
description of the species in the Fauna Japonica, which work 
represents a figure of the bird on Plate 26 ; but the first 
notice of it is due to M. Temminck, who published a repre- 
sentation of it in the Planches color. PI. 515. 

58. Turdus p aliens, Pallas, — pallidus, Gmelin. 

This species varies greatly in size, and is remarkable for its white 
eye-streak. It strikes me that this is the rufulus of Drapiez 
and modestus of Eyton, rather than the following. 

59. Tardus chrysolans, Temminck. Planches coloriees from Japan. 
It arrives here in small parties in early spring, and at that time 

is of frequent occurrence among hushes and gardens. Besides 
the above three, I have procured two other species still un- 

60. Mernla cardis, (Temminck.) 

This small and handsome species, so remarkable for the changes 
it undergoes from the plumage of a Turdus to that of a true 
Mernla, seems to form a natural link between the two sub- 
genera. These changes of plumage have been well described 
and beautifully figured in the ' Fauna Japonica.' It visits us 
chiefly during winter, but I have no doubt that some of them 
spend the summer near at hand, as I have met them here late in 

61. Merula mandarina, Bonaparte ; M. vulgaris of China, auctorun. 

A common resident everywhere up the coast. 

62. Oreocincla varia, (Lath.,) nee Horsfield ; Tardus TVhitci, 

A straggling visitant. Number of rectrices 14. 

i860.] Ornithology ofAmoy. 253 

68. Petrocossyplius manillensis, (Boddaert.) 

Common among the rocks all the year through, 

64. Garrulax perspicittattts, (Gm.) 

Length 12 inches. Wing 4 T V Tail 5 T 2 -. Bill T ^, to gape 1 T \, 
Back, wings, and tail yellowish-brown. Head and neck yel- 
lowish-grey. A hand reaches from one ear-covert over the 
forehead to the other, forming a broad mark over the eyes. 
Under parts pale rafons-ochre, very deep on the vent. Beak 
and legs brown. 

This large Butcher-thrush is common in some parts of the coun- 
try, building a nest a good deal like that of the Blackbird. 
It is a shy bird, but may be known a long way off by its 
loud cry of teo-teo, uttered from time to time, or followed by a 
liquid guzzling low chatter. 

65. Garrulax si?iensis, (L.) [Leucodioptron canorum, Schiffer, apud 

C. L. Bonaparte ; Tardus canorus, T. sinensis, and also Lanius 
infaushcs, L. ; nee L. chinensis, Scopoli.*] 
This is the Hwa-mei or Spectacled Thrush of the Chinese, by 
whom it is prized for its fine vocal powers, as well as for its pugi- 
listic propensities. It is, strictly speaking, a hill-bird, and very 
abundant on the hills hear Fowchow, but as I have, on more 
than one occasion, met with it in the bushes here, I must 
include it in my list. 

66. Oriolus chinensis, L. 

A rare straggler here, but very common in S. W. Formosa. The 
female is slightly greener than the male on the back and 
wings, and is considerably larger. Another species resembling 
this, but spotted on the breast, I have received from Mr. Holt 
at Fowchow, which I take to be the Oriolus maculatus of 
Vieillot. [Young of the preceding? E. _B.] 

67. Pycnonotus sinensis, (Gmelin) ; Turdus occipitalis, Temminck. 

* The latter is Corvus auritus, Daud., Turdus shanhu efc T. melanosis, Ghnelin, 
Crateroptis leucogenys, nobis, passim ; a true Garrulax inhabiting the Tenasserira 
hills, but doubtfully Chinese. In Horsfield's Catalogue, the name Turdus can- 
orus, L., is referred to the Merula bengalensis, Brisson, and the former specific 
name adopted for that most unmusical of birds, which properly stands as Mala- 
cocercus lengalensis, (Br.) — Cur. As. Soc. 

254 Ornithology of Annoy. [No. 3, 

Very common all over the coast from Hongkong to Shanghai^ 

and everywhere in Formosa. 
68. Pycnonotus atricapillus \Muscicapa atricapilla, Vieillot, nee 

L. ; Hcematornis clirysorrhous, Lafr., and P. licemorrlious apud 

Hartlaub, Bev. Zool. &c. 1846, p. 1 .*] 
Pound abundantly in some places in this neighbourhood, but 

peculiarly local, seldom straying far. 
G9. Tcliitrea principalis, (Temminck.) 

Figured in the Planches coloriees, and subsequently in the Fauna 

Japonioa. A rare spring straggler here. 

70. Tcliiirea cceraleocepliala, (Quoy et Gaim.) 

71. Hemiclielidon latirostris, (Raffles) ; cinereo-alba, Temm. and 

Schleg., Faun. Japon. 
A common winter visitant ; remarkable for its singing notes, 
like those of a Ped-breast, or chinking of two pieces of silver. 

72. Hemiclielidon fuliginosa, Hodgson. 
Straggles to Amoy in its vernal migrations. 

73. Hemiclielidon rutilata, n. sp. 

This species approximates H. latirostris in form, but has a bill 
even broader at the base. It is of rare occurrence here and 
only during spring. 

Length 4 T V Wing 2 T %. Tail ? Bill T %, to gape ^, breadth ^ 
Tarsus — •. Head and upper neck blackish-grey. Back and 
scapulars reddish-brown. Wings blackish, margined with 
burnt-sienna. Pump and tail tile-red, the feathers of the 
latter more or less marked with blackish. Throat and fore- 
neck white, yellowish on their sides. The rest of the lower 
parts, excepting just the abdomen which is white, reddish or 
burnt-sienna ochre, more or less intense. 

74. Xantliopygia narcissina, (Temminck) ; — chrysopltrys, Blyth. 

A rare spring visitant. 

75. Cyanoptila cyanomelanwra, (Temminck.) 

Figured in the Fauna Japonica. Of rare occurrence here. 

Myiagra ccerulea, Ginelin ? 

A blue Fly-catcher with a small bill ; procured here once. 

* The Pycnonotus atricapillus of my Catalogue, founded on 2Egiiliia atricapilla, 
Vieillot, v. Sylvia nigricapilla, Drapiez, a Ceylon bird, is referred to a new genus, 
Meropixus, by the Prince of Canino. — Cur. As. Soc. 

1S60.] Ornithology of Amoij. 255 

76. Campephaga cinerea, Blyth ?* 

Of a deep bluish-grey ; with, green-black wings and tail, the 
feathers of both tipped more or less with white, the graduated 
tail-feathers deeply tipped. Vent white. Bill and legs black. 
Length 9 ; wing 4-§- ; tail 3^. The immature plumage is 
lighter grey, tinged with sienna-yellow, and indistinctly barred 
on the under-parts. The basal part of the inner webs of 
several of the wing-feathers are marked with white, forming 
a large bar, conspicuous on the under side or when the bird is 
seen on wing. This species occasionally shews itself here, in 
autumn and in spring. 

77. Pericrocotus cinereits, Strickland. 

Length 8, wing 3 t 8 q . Tail 4, the 3 outer feathers being shorter 
than the rest and equally graduated, measuring 1^, 2, and 2-| 
respectively ; the 6 central ones are nearly equal. Expanse 
1(H. Bill f, to gape T 8 ¥ . Bill and feet black. The description 
from de la Fresnaye runs thus " Cendre en dessus ; lorums, 
ailes, et queue, noirs ; front, une tache mediane alaire, pli de 
l'aile, bord externe des remiges tertiaires, la presque totalite 
de trois rectrices laterales et tout le dessous de corps, blancs , 
Longueur totale Om. 193. Habite l'isle de Lucon (Philip- 
pines"). The female in all mine has greyish-brown wings ; the 
black of the lore extends over the beak ; and four instead of 
three lateral rectrices have a good deal of white on them. 

The male has a broad white forehead, and a black crown which 
gradually blends with the bluish-grey of the back. The wings 
are also blacker, and there is more grey on the sides of the 
breast. In fact the plumage of the male bears great affinity 
to that of the Wagtails ; and this species forms a happy 
transition from the grey of the CampephagcB to the crocus tints 
of the JPericrocoti. It looks in, at Amoy, in parties during the 
vernal and autumnal migrations, and is noticeable for its pretty 
Canary -like trill call-note. 

78. Dieruras macrocercus, Vieillot. 

By no means common in this neighborhood, but remarkably so 
in S. W. Formosa, where several may be seen during the 
* No nam3 of my bestowing. — 22. B. 

256 Ornithology of Amoy. [Xo. 3, 

season, sitting on nests in the same bamboo -tree, swaying to 
and fro with every puff' of wind. 

79. Lanius schacli, L. 

Very common ; has a great habit of shrieking. This is a much 
larger race than that found in the Indian archipelago, and is 
no doubt worthy of specific distinction ; it remains only to be 
ascertained to which of the two the name was first applied. 

80. Lanius lucionensis, Strickland. 

With reference to this species, Mr. Blyth observes that this " is 
decidedly the true L. liccionensis, vide Strickland, Ann. Mag. 
N. H. XIX (1847), p. 132. He considers there that aU the 
various allied races are varieties only of the same. My notion 
is that there are 3 or 4 cognate races, which may breed toge- 
ther when circumstances permit of it, and so grade into one 
another. Certes a Malayan superciliosus is very unlike your 

These are common here during the seasons of migration, and 
I have received them this autumn from Mr. Holt at Fowchow. 

81. Enneoctonus bucephalus, (Temm. and Schleg.) 

I have never met but one of this species here, and that proved 
a female. It has a large rufous head without the usual black 
face-band of the family, and answers in every respect to the 
description of the female in the Fauna Japonica. 

82. Corvus torquatus, Cuv. [Vide J. A. S. XXIX, 96.] 
Our common and only crow at Amoy. 

83. Pica media, Blyth ; — sericea, Gould. 

Very common. 

84. Acridotheres cristatellus, (L.) # 

A very common species from Hongkong to Shanghai ; builds in 
holes of trees or walls, or makes large oval nests in trees ; 
learns to speak with facility and soon becomes docile. 

85. Gracupica {nigricollis,) Paykull ; temporalis, Temminck ; tricolor, 

J. E. Gray. 
A common resident, associating in small parties 5 builds round 

* The Prince of Canino considered tins to be different from true cristatellus 
of the Philippines, and adopted the name fidigiihosus, Bl. t for the China specie;. 
Cur. As. Soc, 

I860.] Ornithology of Amoij. 257 

nests on high trees, and lays clear blue eggs with very fragile 
shells ; is a noisy bird ; and is also found in Siam. 
SG. Temenuclius turdiformis, (Wagler) ; sinensis, Gmelin ; elegans, 
A common summer resident ; very restless ; builds in holes of 
walls ; and is also found in Pegu. Its habit of poking about 
among brick-holes in houses, &e. during the nesting season 
soon causes its newly moulted white plumes to be stained of a 
reddish hue, and the feathers of the wings and tail to be much 
abraded. Before taking its departure from us it undergoes a 
complete moult, and then the plumage is clean enough. 

87. Temenuclius sericeus, (Latham.) 

A winter visitant ; feeds largely on banyan berries. 

88. Temenuclius cineraceus, (Temminck.) 

This resembles the foregoing a good deal in form, but is broader 
across the back, and generally more robust. It also visits us 
during winter ; and is identical with the bird found in Japan. 
S9. Eojphona melanura, (Gmelin.) 

Found here the winter through ; but leaves us before summer ; 
breeds in Shanghai. 

90. JbTunia malacca, (L.) common in autumn. ■% 

91. Munia molucca. (L.) scarce. j [Distinct, E. P.] 

92. Munia rubronigra, Hodgson, veiy scarce. 

93. Oryzornis oryzivora, (L.) Occasional winter flocks. 

94. Ligurinus sinicus, (L.) 

Fringilla haioaralciba minor, Fauna Japonica. 
Half Goldfinch, half Greenfinch ; not uncommon all the year, has 
a pretty tinkling note ; and feeds on thistle-heads as well as 
grain, &c. 

95. Passer montanus, (L.) 

Common about houses, resembles in habits P. domesticus. 

96. Emberiza fucata, Pallas. 

Met among standing grain during winter ; difficult to procure 
from its habit of dropping under cover of the grain, and sel- 
dom perching on exposed places. 

97. Ember iza pusilla, Pallas. 
Occasional flocks during winter. 

2 m 

258 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3, 

98. Emberiza ccmescens, n. sp. \_The Ibis, Vol. II, 62.] 
This occurs during winter, and is probably new. 

Length 5 T V Wing 2 T V Tail 2\ and somewhat forked. Bill ^ 
Head and neck sienna-gray ; crown, cheeks and throat, black- 
ened, of a frosted appearance. Back and scapularies black, 
each feather broadly margined with white and more or less 
tinted with reddish-sienna. Wings blackish-brown, broadly 
margined with sienna-white. Under-parts and rump white, 
sienna-washed. Tail blackish-brown, having the two cen- 
tral feathers broadly margined with white, the rest on each 
side hardly at all ; the outer feathers white except a small 
broad portion of the inner web, the 2nd broadly tipped with 
the same. 

The female is deeply tinged with reddish-brown above and red- 
dish-ochre beneath. 

99. Emberiza personata, Temminck. 

Our commonest winter Bunting. 

100. Emberiza aureola, Pallas. 

Met in flocks in autumn feeding on the ripening corn. 

101. Emberiza Lathami, G-melin. 

Common in winter ; a few breed in the neighbourhood. 

102. Emberiza fruticeti, Kittlitz ; sulpliurata, Fauna Japon. Bare. 

103. Alaucla coelivox, Swinhoe. 

This bird, which I have described under the above name in the 
III vol. of Shanghai Asiatic Society's Journal, differs from 
the Japanese Lark, A. japonica, Temminck, in being much 
smaller. The largest specimen I have measured is one inch 
shorter than the Japanese, though the wing is much the same 
length. The inner toe is -^ longer than the outer instead 
of being shorter. A close comparison of the two birds is of 
course required before any decision can, with safety, be arrived 
at, but it must not be forgotten that our's is a peculiarly 
Southern Chinese Lark, not being found even so far north as 
104. Yunx torquilla, L. 

Common during winter. The \ inch red tree-ant appears to be 
its most favourite food, but it does not despise the large black 

I860.] Ornithology of Amoy. 2-"if> 

105. Oueulus canorus ? L. 

Taken here on its autumnal and vernal migrations, but breeds at 
Fowchow and Shanghai. 

106. Oueulus tenuirostris, Gray. 

A summer visitant ; has a loud-toned whistle repeated 4 times and 
terminating with a shake. 

107. Turtur chinensis, (Scopoli.) 

Common everywhere from Hongkong to Shanghai. 
10S. Turtur humilis, (Temminck.) 

A summer visitant ; extends as far North as Shanghai, and is 
there of a larger size, though evidently of the same species. 

109. Turtur orientalis, (Latham) ; gelastis, Temminck. 

This large species, found in Lapland and Japan, countries so far 
situated apart, has been shot here by myself during winter, but 
it makes short stay with us. I have seen the bird in Formosa, 
and one was caught by a ship off the Madjicosima group. 

110. Francolinus perlatus, (G-melin.) 

Birds of this species are brought to market by the natives from 
some neighbouring part of the country. 

111. Coturnix cJiinensis, (Grm.) 

Met in winter among standing corn ; and evidently as distinct 
from the European species, as from the Japanese. [Evidently 
a misnomer. E. B.] 

112. Squatarola helvetica, (L.) 

Winter visitant ; met with in small flocks on the river mud-flats. 

113. Charadrius virginiews, Bechst. \JPluvialis longipes, Bonap.] 
This species, I think, rather than pluvialis. Winter. Tail not 

distinctly banded, breaking off in the middle ; size smaller 
than the European. Axillae mottled-gray and not white. 

114. Charadrius cantianus, Latham. 

Arrives with the water-fowl, and frequents our sea mud-flats, 
often in large flocks. 

115. Charadrius philippinus, Latham. 

Found on inland marshes, and new-turned fields during winter. 

116. Charadrius Leschenaultii, Lesson. 

I have only one specimen, which was shot out of a flock of 
C. cantianus. It is very much larger than the so-called 

2 m 2 

260 Ornithology of Amoy. [No. 3. 

Kentish Plover, but resembles it in winter garb, except tbat 
this has no ventral white, indications of a perfect breast-band, 
and lighter brown remiges and rectrices. 

117. Hcematopus ostralegits, L. 
Rare winter- visitant. 

118. Ardea cinerea, (L.) 

Often seen here ; but builds large heronries at Fowchow. 

119. Herodias egretta, (L.) ? H modesta, (Gray). 

A large white Heron, seen occasionally ; not identified. 

120. Herodias garzetta, (L.) 

The common resident species ; building in company on large 
banyan trees. 

121. Herodias eulophota, n. sp. 

This differs from H gazetta strikingly in having a yellow bill, 
full-crested occiput, round instead of square tail and shorter 
legs. It is moreover rare and solitary in habits while with us 
during summer. It bears considerable affinity to H. candi- 
dissima, Wagler, of N. American Ornithology. Bill fine yellow, 
becoming flesh-coloured and purplish on the lores and round the 
eye. Irides pearl white. Long loose feathers spring from the 
occiput forming a full crest, the highest ones being longest 
and measuring 4-| each, the length diminishing gradually in 
the lower ones. Long loose feathers also spring from the 
lower neck, and from the back where they become decom- 
posed into hair like silky webs curling upwards at then* ends. 
The whole plumage is of a snowy white. Legs and toes yel- 
lowish or red-green, yellower on the soles and joints ; the upper 
surface of the lower portion of the tarsus is blackened, as also 
are some of the toe-joints but irregularly ; claws blackish- 

Average length 25 inches ; wing 9 t 8 q ; tail 3i. Bill 2 t 9 q, edge 
of lower mandible 3 T 6 ^. Naked part of tibia 1 T 6 ^ ; tarsus 3 t 3 q ; 
mid-toe 1\, outer-toe 2— ; inner 2^ ; hind-toe \\. 

122. Buphus coromandas, (Boddaert) ; russata, Temniinck ; caboga, 

A numerous summer resident. 

123. Ardeola prasinoscelis, n. sp. [The Ibis, II, 61.] 

I have long had suspicions as to the identity of our bird with either 

i860.] Ornithology of Amoy. 261 

the speciosa from Java or the leucoptera from Bengal, and 
now, having 1 satisfied nvyself, I will endeavour to shew the 
difference. In the first place on comparing our Ardeola with 
the description of A. speciosa in " Horsfield's Researches in 
Java," the distinction is at once apparent. We begin with 
ours. Description of male shot 30th May. Bill black for 
nearly one half from the apex, middle portion chrome yellow, 
base and cere indigo-grey. Legs greenish-chrome. Irides 
orange-yellow. Head and neck Indian-red, changing into 
purple as it descends to the back. Throat, median line of 
under neck, belly, ramp and wings white. Back having long 
loose bluish-grey feathers decomposed and hair-like. Long 
and hair-like feathers also spring from the lower neck, nearly 
covering the blue feathers of the breast. Crest composed of two 
long subulated feathers 4|- long, with several shorter ones 
fitting into the grooves on their under sides ; these feathers 
are the same colour as the head. Now Horsfield states that 
the A. speciosa has " in its complete dress the head above, &c. 
isabella-yellow with a rufous tint * * * * colour of the 
back intensely black * * * * feet dark yellowish-brown 
* * * the crest consists of from 4 to 6 greatly lengthened 
linear plumes of a very pure milk white colour. The bill is 
dusky at the base." 

This comparison of the adult plumage is surely convincing of 
non-identity of the two birds. The immature and winter 
plumage would appear to be more similar, but even here there 
are differences. In the Malayan species apud Horsfield " the 
wings and the tail are pure white," in ours they are more or 
less darked with blackish. In his " the feet and the upper 
mandible throughout its whole length, are black." In ours 
the former are bright yellowish-green with brownish claws, 
and the bill pale liver-brown, black on the apical quarter of 
its length ; the naked or loral space greenish-yellow, bluish 
at the base of the bill. 

It will thus be seen that our species is perfectly distinct from 
the Malayan, A. speciosa, and for its non-identity with the 
Bengal species I give the testimony of Mr. Blyth who re- 

262 Ornithology of Amoy. Xo. 3. 

marks on some skins sentfby myself to him, " It is so exceed- 
ing like our common A. leucoptera in winter dress as to be 
hardly, if at all, distinguishable ; but utterly unlike it in sum- 
mer garb."* 
Our bird resides here all the year through, feeding in paddy- 
fields and marshy ground. Its food is not confined to fish, 
but grasshoppers, and insects of most kinds are acceptable. 
In confinement it soon becomes omnivorous. It is more or less 
solitary in habits, building loose nests of sticks on the topmost 
boughs of banyan trees. The fledged young keep together 
for some time after they leave the nest. [I consider this bird 
to be true speciosa. E. B.] 

124. Ardetta flavicollis, (Latham.) 

Rare here ; but common during summer at Fowchow. 

125. Ardetta cinnamomea, (Gmelin.) 
A summer visitant. 

126. Ardetta sinensis, (Grmelin) ; lepida, Horsfield. 

Common during summer among the bushes that line the banks 
of the river. 

127. Butorides javanica, (Horsfield.) Summer visitant. 

128. Nyctiardea grisea, Vigors. 

Rare here, but common at Fowchow. 

129. Platalea leucorodia, L. Rare winter visitant. 

130. Numenius major, Fauna Japon., Temm. 
Regular winter visitant ; frequents mud flats. 

131. Totanus glareola, (L.) 

Common on inland marshy ground during winter. 

132. Totanus ochropus, (L.) 

Met by small streams of fresh water during winter, very seldom 
near pools of salt water. 

133. Totanus chloropygius, Vieillot ? 

Resembles the former in appearance and in habits, but is rarer. 

134. Totanus glottoides, Vigors. [Identical with T glottis. E. B.] 
Common during winter on mud flats at the river's mouth. 
Totanus pulverulentus, Miiller and Schleg. 

In the collection of Gr. Schlegel, Esq., and shot at Amoy. 

* The same^ remark applies to the European and African A. comata r. 
ralloides. E. B. 

1S60.1 Ornithology of Amoy. 2G3 

135. Tringoides hypoleucos, (L.) 

Our common species, found the greater part of the year on the 

136. JRecurvirostra avocetta, L. Occasional winter visitant. 
Chinensis, Gray. 

137. Tringa cinches, L. 

Upper tail-coverts black, and not white as in T. subarquata ; hill 

long and curved. 
Frecpients our shores in large flocks during winter. 
13S. Tringa minuta, Leisler. 

Autumnal flocks drop here. 
139. Tringa TemmincJcii, Leisler. 

Found in small parties scattered over wet fallow paddy-fields in 
the cold season. 

110. Scolopax rusticola, L. 

Drop here during their migrations or on their first arrival. 

111. Gallinago unicJava, Hodgson. 

Our commonest species in paddy-fields ; retires in summer to 

112. Gallinago stenura, (Temminck.) 

Also common, but more solitary than the above. 

113. Gallinago solitaria (?), Hodgson. 

Found in ravines among the hills ; very solitary. It is a large 
species and has the tail slightly rounded and consisting of 
20 nearly equally long feathers ; the 8 middle ones broad and 
the 6 lateral ones narrow, beginning with the 1st which is 
little more than — wide and gradually increasing towards the 
outermost of the 8 central, which is narrower than the rest. 

It differs a good deal from the species described as solitaria in 
the Fauna Japonica. 
111. Gallinago major, (L.) 

This species I have met only during the month of September 
in fields overflowed with salt water. It is rather solitary and 
rises with a cry. It resembles G. major more nearly than 
any I am acquainted with, but has eighteen tail-feathers in- 
stead of sixteen, and the outer toe is disproportionally long. 
115. Gallinula orientalis. Rare. 

264 Ornithology of Avnoy. [No. -3, 

146. Gallinula phcenicura, Pennant ; javanica, Horsfield ; chinemis, 


147. Anser segetum, Latham ? 

Frequents the mouth of the river in immense flocks during winter. 

148. Tadoma vulpanser, Fleming. 

149. Casarca rutila, (Pallas.) 

150. Alias boschas, L. 

151. Anas poscilorhynca, Grm. 

152. Dafila acuta, (L.) 

153. Querquedula crecca, Stephens. 

All more or less common during winter in the river. 

154. Querquedula falcata, (Pallas) ; multicolor, (Scop.) ; manillensis, 

Gmel. ? 

155. Fidigula marila, (L.) 

156. Fuligula cristata, Stephens. 

157. Mergus serrator, L. 

158. Colymbus glacialis, L. 

159. JPodiceps cristatus, L. 

160. JPodiceps auritus, L. 

More or less common during winter. 

161. JPodiceps philippensis, Bonn. 

A resident species in large rush-covered ponds ; chinensis, Tem- 

162. Diomedea brachyura, Temminck ? 

163. Diomedea fuliginosa, L. ? 

Caught by fishermen outside the harbour and brought to market. 

164. Larus canus, L. 

165. Larus fuscus, L. ; fiavipes, Meyer. 

166. Larus melanurus, Temm. and Schleg. 

167. Larus ? 

168. Gavia Kittlitzii, (Bruch) ; maeulipennis, Bonap. 

169. Sterna caspia, Pallas. 

170. Sterna cristata, Stephens ; pelicanoides, King ; velox, Riippell. 
More or less common during winter. 

171. Sterna minuta, L. 

172. Hydrochelidoii jaoanica, Horsfield. 
Bare summer visitant. 

18G0.] Ornithology of Amoy. 2G5 

173. Pelecanus erispw, Bruch ; philippen$is, Gmelin. 

Common in winter. 
17 i. Graculw carlo, L. 


(Remove No. 45 to the Miiscicapidce and before the description 
of the female add) 

The bird that formed the subject of description in the Fauna Japo- 
nica was most probably in full summer plumage. The account in that 
work runs thus : — " Les parties inferieures de cet oiseau, a, partir du 
menton, sont d'un brun ferrugineux jaunatre et tres-vif, mais passant 
au blanc sur le has ventre. Cette derniere teinte occupe egalement les 
couvertures inferieures de la queue, et les superieures des grandes cou- 
vertures exterieures de l'aile. La moitie posterieure de la barbe externe 
des cinq paires exterieures des pennes de la queue est egalement 
teinte de blanc, les superieures des remiges secondaires sout bordees 
de blanc, et on observe une raie blanchatre mais tres peu apparente au 
dessus de la region des oreilles. Toutes les autres parties de l'oiseau 
sont d'un noir, plus pale et tirant au brunatre sur les ailes. Les 
plumes axillaires sont d'un brun ferrugineuse jaunatre, et less petites 
couvertures inferieures des ailes, noires mais bordees de blanc." 

The only male as yet shot here was procured by G. Schlegel, Esq. 
on the loth November, but instead of a black crown, back and scapu- 
laries, it has those parts olive-brown with a reddish wash. The white 
on the upper coverts is more indistinct ; and the basal portion of 
inner webs of the 5 lateral rectrices are more or less white. In all 
essential points it is so similar, that I have little doubt of its being 
the Japanese species in male winter plumage. 

(Add, as a species, after No. 36, P. sylvicultrix.) 

PTiylloscopus hylebata, n. sp. 

From one individual in the collection of G. Schlegel, Esq. of Amoy. 
I have compared this specimen with upwards of 20 or 30 specimens 
of P. sylvicultrix, and come to the conclusion that it must be distinct. 
Though the size of this species is greater, yet the 1st quill is more 
minute than in the foregoing. 


266 On the Translation of Waves of Water. [No. 3, 

Length 5, wing 2 ^ tail 2. Bill ■£$, deep blackish brown with 
pale tomia. Tarsus ^. Legs and claws deep blackish-brown with 
yellow soles and tips to claws. The olive-green above is much the 
same as in sylvicultrix, but the eye-streak and under-parts are much 

On the Translation of Waves of Water with relation to the great flood 
of the Indus m 1858. — By J. Obbakd, JH$q_. 

" At 5 A. M. on the 10th August, 1858, the Indus at Attock was 
very low. At 7 A. M. it had risen ten feet. By 0.30 p. 31. it had 
risen fifty feet, and it continued to rise until it stood ninety feet 
higher than it did in the morning. The Cabul river continued to 
flow upwards for ten hours. The fall was at first slow ; but the river 
was about eight feet below its maximum by sunset ; and continuing 
gradually to fall, it had during the 12th returned very much to the 
position it occupied before the flood came down." — Extracts from 
Journal of Asiatic Society, 1858, 1859. 

1. Several papers have been, recently forwarded to the Society 
upon the great flood of the Indus in August, 1858, and, as it is a sub- 
ject in which I take great interest, I trust that I may be excused 
in submitting my views regarding it. 

2. I propose, therefore, in the following paper, to consider the mode 
in which this vast body of water passed Attock, and with this view, 
I shall first treat cursorily of the nature of waves of water generally, 
more especially, however, dwelling upon waves of the class which from 
their formation and size, seem to be analogous to that which is under 
consideration, stating in general terms, their mode and rate of transit ; 
and the limit within which wave translation is possible ; and I shall 
then endeavour to shew the application of these laws to the speciali- 
ties of the Indus wave, touching briefly upon some erroneous specula- 
tions which seem to have been made upon insufficient data. 

3. A wave is an inequality of smface or variation of level in a 
stream of water, which may be of any size according to the force of 
its original cause. It is unnecessary to enquire into the origin of a 
wave for the purpose of elucidating its specialities, as all waves when 

I860.] On tie Translation of Waves of Water. 267 

once formed and the original cause withdrawn, or as they may be 
termed free, obey the same laws, and are subject to the same pecu- 

4. The undulation upon a smooth sheet of water from a school 
boy's pebble ; the ocean wave thrown up by the wind ; the gush of water 
from a destroyed dam or suddenly- withdrawn barrier ; the swell from 
a steamer's paddle ; and the great free tide-wave which, twice in the 
twenty -four hours is poured into all estuaries and rivers through the 
inequality of the attraction of the heavenly bodies : — all these waves 
so diiferent in origin, size, and formation, are subject to the same 
series of laws, which have been, to a certain extent, investigated. 

5. It should first be remarked that the progress of a wave is not 
the progress of the particles of which it is composed. A traveller, 
upon visiting the sea-shore for the first time, might be led to suppose 
that each wave was bringing with it the mass of water of which it 
was originally composed, and depositing it upon the shore. A little 
closer observation would, however, soon convince him of his mistake, 
as he would perceive that a piece of drift wood or of foam, would 
maintain the same mean distance from the beach, although several 
successive waves lifted it upon their crests, and deposited it in their 
succeeding hollows. 

6. The same law may be shewn to hold with the tidal wave. In 
the accompanying tide table (with a copy of which, if thought useful, 
I shall be happy to furnish the Society annually) — the time of high 
water at Calcutta, or of the passage of the crest of the tidal wave 
at that place, is predicted for every day throughout the year. In 
the lower part of the sheet, the distances of places from Calcutta 
along the river are given in geographical miles, and against each, 
under the column of " correction for high water," is the interval of 
time which the crest of the wave occupies in travelling that distance. 
With these data it will be seen that the tidal wave of the Hooghly 
has a mean speed between Saugor and Calcutta of about 20^ geogra- 
phical or 24 British miles per hour — while the speed of the water 
perhaps never exceeds eight, and is frequently as low as 2 miles 
per hour — without any corresponding variation in the rate of trans- 
lation of the wave. The position, moreover, of the junction of the 
salt water of the ocean, with the fresh water of the river stream, is 

2 n 2 

268 On the Translation of Waves of Water. [NO. 3, 

not permanently affected by the passage of the wave, but oscillates 
between two fixed points upon flood and ebb, according to wave laws 
which will presently be indicated. 

7. The progress of a wave then may be described as the transla- 
tion of a shape or form, in which the particles are continuously 
changing— but these particles although they are successively cast off, 
have a certain motion communicated to them by the wave, though 
it is not that of the wave itself. 

8. The sea side observer would with attentive watching perceive, 
that the piece of drift wood or foam is actually earned forward by 
the crest of the wave to a certain extent, though not in anything 
like the ratio of progression of the wave itself, and that when the 
wave has passed, it is carried backward in the succeeding hollow, so 
that it always occupies the same mean position ; and in like manner, 
a boat or a ship, and the termination of the salt water, are carried a 
certain distance up a river by the flood or crest of a tidal wave, and 
down again by the ebb or hollow, so that if iininfluenced by other 
causes they will recover their original position. 

9. It has been mathematically demonstrated, and direct experi- 
ment has established, that the particles of water of which a wave is 
composed, actually move in a circle ; or an ellipse ; the formation 
of which varies in proportion to the mass of the wave, and the depth 
of the water. 

10. When the wave is small, and the water deep, the particles 
move nearly, if not quite, in a perfect circle, — in other words the 
vertical and horizontal displacements are about equal ; but when the 
wave is very large, as the tidal wave, and the water shallow, the 
vertical displacement is wholly insignificant to the horizontal, and 
the motion of the particle, measured from any fixed point, is an 
extremely flat ellipse, of which the horizontal is the major axis. 

11. In the accompanying sketch, a wave is supposed to be 
travelling along a level sheet of water from X. to Z. — A. is the centre 
of the preceding hollow : — B. the middle of the anterior slope : — 
C. the crest of the wave :— D. the middle of the posterior slope : — 
and E. the centre of the succeeding hollow. A particle of water 
which is at A. will be carried backward or towards the wave : — At 
B. its horizontal motion will be neutralized and it will be found 







I860.] On tlie Translation of Waves of Water. 2G9 

to move directly upwards. At C. it will be carried forwards with the 
wave: — xt D. it will have no horizontal motion, but will be carried 
downwards to the same extent it was moved upwards at B. and at E., 
it will be again carried backwards : — at which point the whole wave 
having passed, it will hold the same actual position which it did at 
A., the vertical and horizontal displacements having exactly balanced 
each other. It is scarcely needful to remark that there is no sudden 
alteration from the horizontal to the vertical motions, and vice versa, 
but that at each intermediate position the motion is a compound one, 
forming a gradual curve : — these fixed points having been only 
selected for convenient illustration. All the particles below the 
surface pursue the same course as those above them ; i. e. — all those 
below the crest of the wave move forwards ; and all those below the 
hollow move backwards, but where the water is deep the motion 
low down becomes imperceptible, and where it is shallow it is practi- 
cally the same as at the surface. 

12. The motion of a wave therefore, being simply the translation 
of a shape, is unaffected by any current which may be running in the 
stream on which it is generated. According to the direction of its 
original impetus it may travel with a current, at right angles to it, or 
even directly against it ; and either up hill or down hill ; without its 
speed or rate of transit being materially affected thereby. I say 
materially, for a current does, to a certain extent, modify the condi- 
tions of a wave, and I have reason therefore to think that it may 
also affect its speed, but that this effect, if there be any, is very slight, 
may be easily demonstrated. 

The Hooghly, like all other rivers, must be considered as a stream of 
fresh water running towards the sea, into which is poured, once every 
twelve hours, a large wave. As the crest of this wave is approaching 
or passing a given spot within the river, the particles of which it is 
temporarily composed are flowing upwards, or it is technically termed 
flood tide. It is evident that the upward speed of the particles is 
checked by the constant resistance of the river stream, and that in 
like manner when the crest of the wave has passed, and the parti- 
cles receding in the hollow, they are aided in their backward course, 
by the velocity of the river stream. 

13. The river stream is therefore a constant — plus to the ebb, 
and minus to the flood. 

270 On the Translation of Waves of Water. [No. 3, 

14. But the speed or force of the river stream varies considerably 

at different times of the year. In the month of March, or the dry 
season, its rate off Calcutta does not exceed half a mile per hour ; 
whereas in the month of August, or the height of the freshets it 
may amount to three miles per hour. Now, if the river stream doe s 
sensibly retard the passage of the wave itself, it is evident that its 
effect is far more potent when it is large, and we have thus a direct 
experiment of variation afforded us to discover if this be the case. 

15. When the time of the lunar transit is Oh. Om. or when the 
sun and moon are in conjunction ; the crest of the tidal wave passes 
the floating light vessel, which is 119 miles below Calcutta, at 
9h. Om. throughout the year. This is not critically correct but suf- 
ficiently so for the purpose. In the month of March the same wave 
reaches Calcutta, at 2h. 35m. ; and in the month of August at 
2h. 10m. by which it would appear that it actually takes less time 
by twenty-five minutes to travel to Calcutta during the height of the 
freshets, than it does in the dry season, and this, although the up- 
ward cm-rent of the particles of which the wave is composed, is 
entirely neutralised by the increased rush of the river stream. 

16. The fact is, that the speed of the wave depends almost entirely 
upon two other contingencies, viz. the depth of the water, and the 
mass of the generated wave. 

17. When the depth of the water is greater than the length of 
the wave, the rate of translation depends entirely upon the mass of 
the wave, and is proportional to the square root of its length. 

18. When the depth of the water is small and the wave very 
great, as in the tidal wave in rivers and those analogous to it, the 
velocity of translation depends solely upon depth of the stream, and 
is proportional to the square root of the depth. 

19. From what has been above stated, the cause of the superior 
velocity of the tidal wave up the Hooghly in August is apparent ; 
and that, if the river stream exerts any sensible retarding effect what- 
ever, the increased natural velocity of the wave, through the river 
being surcharged with water, is sufficient to neutralise it altogether. 

20. The rapidity therefore of a river stream or cm-rent is no crite- 
rion whatever of the rate of translation of a wave upon it ; and such 
a supposition may lead to very erroneous conclusions, as the speed of 




i860.] On the Translation of Waves of Water. 271 

a current is markedly increased by compression, which on the con- 
trary, retards the translation of a wave through friction. 

21. It is now necessary to trace the connection between the phe- 
nomenon of the flooding of the Indus, and the preceding laws ; in 
fact, to answer the question which has been proposed on the assump- 
tion of the cause being some obstruction above. Why may not all 
the water which was heaped up above the dam be supposed to have 
come down the river as a huge cataract when the barrier was overborne : 
without taking the formation of a wave at all ? 

22. To this it may, I believe, be answered. 1st. That it is impos- 
sible according to the laws of fluids, that a variation of level, however 
it may have been caused, should do otherwise than alter its position 
by wave motion, (excepting in the case noted in a succeeding section.) 
The huge superincumbent mass must necessarily force up the water 
about and beyond it, far more rapidly than its own particles could 
run down the declivity for the following reasons. 

Let A B C be a portion of a river flowing towards the sea on a 
slightly inclined plane, and let there be a barrier at B which has so 
completely shut off the water above it, that by the accumulation of 
rain, melted snow, &c. it has risen several feet above the level of the 
river below it. Now, let us suppose the barrier B to be suddenly 
destroyed, what will be the motion of the waters ? 

The triangle A B D is then evidently, for all purposes of calculation, 
a ready formed wave, which will follow the laws of a wave in the 
mode of its translation. A small portion of the water near to B will 
of course topple over upon the water below it in foam through lateral 
pressure, but this will only continue so long as a sufficient slope is 
forming, to support the wave unbroken. The great body of the water 
will follow a different course. 

Let us take the column of water x y z ; each particle under x is 
pressed downwards, but finds no outlet in that direction ; and as 
fluids press equally in all directions, the forces towards A and B are 
equal ; but from A it is also shut out, and it is consequently directed 
towards B with a force proportional to the differential gravitation 
of x z and F z, but beyond B E the particles will be pushed upwards 
as well as forwards, causing the water to be heaped up successively 
at F H J, &c. thus translating a protuberance above the level of the 

272 On the Translation of Waves of Water. ). 3. 

stream to those spots by the simple pressure of gravitation ; long- 
before the particles x, b, <fcc. can reach them — (always conditionally 
that D E, F (x, &c. are sufficiently long to float the wave, which con- 
tingency will be treated of hereafter.) In other words the particles 
x, b, move down the river with a speed proportional to the sine of 
the angle of the inclination of its bed ; minus friction, and plus the 
wave motion communicated to them ; but the wave crest is translated 
directly according to the known ratio of gravitation, minus only the 
retard of friction. 

2ndly. That we have evidence that the phenomenon presented all 
the characteristics of a wave. We are told that in the morning the river 
at Attockwas " unusually low." This was the preceding hollow, — then 
that " the river at first came swelling up quite quietly but very 
rapidly, not less for a little time, than a foot per minute." This was 
the rise on the anterior slope, — then " this of course did not last very 
long, for as the width, the depth and the velocity increased, so did the 
discharge, &c." This was the onward motion of the particles at the 
passage of the crest. — Then we hear of a more gradual fall on the 
posterior slope of the wave, which seems to have been much flatter 
then the anterior slope, as is always the case with large waves in 
shallow water. These facts are apparently in accordance with the 
wave laws, and inconsistent with any other theory. And it may be 

3rdly. That those who doubt may make the matter a direct subject 
of experiment upon a small scale. 

23. From the nature of the phenomenon of the flooding of the 
Indus ; and for the reasons above detailed, I have no hesitation in 
considering it, when it passed Attock, as an immense wave, the mass 
of which was very considerable in proportion to the depth of the 
stream. I consider it therefore analogous to the tidal wave, and it 
is, on that account, that I have treated so fully of waves of that class. 
I have little hesitation in ascribing to the Indus wave a length of 
one hundred miles when it passed Attock, but if it were only five 
miles or as much as five hundred, the following results would not be 
materially affected. 

24. Where the depth of the stream above Attock was not more 
than twenty-five feet — the rate of translation of the wave should 

I860.] On the Translation of Waves of Water. 273 

theoretically have heen about nineteen British miles per hour : and 
where it equalled fifty feet, the speed should have equalled twenty-six 
miles per hour : and so on, increasing in direct proportion to the 
square root of the depth of the river. 

25. It is, however, necessary here to ohserve that the foregoing 
remarks are only applicable within certain limits ; and that when the 
depth of the stream is very small, the continuity of the wave motion 
is lost ; and the crest of the wave topples over in broken water. The 
limit of depth within which, wave motion is impossible, is perhaps 
not very closely ascertained ; but if it be assumed at one-half the 
height of the advancing wave, it will be sufficiently close for the 
present purpose. It seems that when a wave reaches shallow water, 
sufficient particles do not exist in advance, to maintain the altitude 
of the anterior slope. — Its form consequently changes gradually 
from a slope to a perpendicular, until the particles on the crest still 
proceeding with the same velocity, find at last no support and topple 
over by their own momentum in a torrent of foam. The swell upon 
a coral reef : the flood bore of the Hooghly ; and the heavy surge 
upon the Madras coast ; are illustrations of this law respecting large 
waves in shallow water. 

26. It would not have been necessary to dwell upon this fact 
with relation to the Indus wave of 1858, which certainly was not a 
broken one ; but, as discredit has been thrown upon the traditions 
respecting the noise, the foam, and the destruction, &c. of the 
previous flood of 1841, and the diminution of water previous 
thereto, together with the greater altitude it attained, because 
similar phenomena were not present in 1858, I would observe that 
the very concomitancy of these traditions, leads me to yield a general 
belief to the whole of them. It is stated that the flood of 1841, 
culminated at twelve feet higher than that of 1858, and started from 
a much lower zero. It is, therefore, probable that the positive 
altitude of the wave was twenty-four feet greater than that of the 
late flood ; and moreover, that the stream upon which it travelled 
was twelve feet shallower. It is therefore very probable that the 
conditional limits within which wave motion is possible, were not 
present in 1841, though they were in 1858. 

27. I regret that so little practical information can be deduced 

2 o 

274 Archdeacon Pratt on the [No. 3. 

from the preceding theory, regarding the late flood — much local 
knowledge would be requisite to obtain any result which would be 
even generally satisfactory. Moreover, the disturbing effects of 
friction, through varying depths and breadths, and the influence 
of tributaries ; would perhaps always prevent a close approximation 
between observed facts and theoretical deductions. Still, however, 
as correct methods of investigation are only second in importance 
to accurate observations of phenomena ; I trust that the foregoing 
exposition of what I believe to be the true principles of tidology 
will not be wholly valueless — which, it will not be, if it only induce 
those who are better able to deal with the difficulties of the subject, 
to examine and refute the errors into which I may have fallen. 

On the physical difference between a rush of water like a torrent 
down a channel and the transmission of a Wave down a river — with 
reference to the Inundation of the Indus, as observed at Attoch, in 
August, 1858. — By Archdeacon J. H. Pkatt. 

The following paper is the substance of some remarks I made at 
the monthly meeting of the Asiatic Society early in September, after 
the reading of Mr. Obbard's paper published above. That interesting 
communication was shown to me and to one or two other members 
when it was first forwarded to the Society, and a discussion which 
ensued persuaded me that some further explanation of the manner in 
which a wave may have been generated on the Indus, as supposed 
by Mr. Obbard, by the bursting of a bund and the precipitation of 
the pent-up waters, would not be unacceptable. 

I do not stand forth precisely as the advocate of the view, that 
the rise and fall of the water at Attock was produced by the trans- 
mission of a wave, rather than by the ordinary rush of water hi a 
swollen river ; because there are several facts, which it is necessary 
to determine before coming to a decision. We ought to know whe- 
ther there are any great bends and shallows in the river ; and the 
phenomena to be explained ought to be more fully before us. My ob- 
ject is to show the possibility of such an explanation as Mr. Obbard has 
advanced ; and to give my reasons for on the whole inclining to the 
view that the disturbance at Attock was produced by the passage of 
a wave. J. H. P. 


Inundation of the Indus in 1858. 



1. In fig. 1 suppose that A E 
is a surface of still-water, in a 
canal closed at one end and ex- 
tending indefinitely to the left. 
P is a gigantic plug, supposed to 
be thrust down vertically into 
the water. As the plug descends, 
pressure will be continually com- 
municated through the water so 
as to lift up the surface of the 
water in the canal. As the plug 
descends successively to a, b, c, 
d, e (omitted by the engraver) 
the surface will be raised up 
into the curves at A, B, C, D, E. 
The greatest rise at any instant 
will be close to the plug, where 
the pressure has been acting 
longest ; and the elevation of the 
surface in each curve will be less 
and less in passing down the 
canal, because the pressure has 
been acting for a shorter and 
shorter time. At the instant the 
plug reaches the bottom, the sur- 
face will have been elevated into 
half a convex wave L E, its 
length depending upon the rapi- 
dity with which the pressure 
has been communicated. The 
amount of water in this elevated 
half- wave will be equal to the 
volume of water displaced by the 
plug. It is evident, that during 
the formation of this half-wave 
the several particles of water 
beneath its surface have received 
a slight upward and forward mo- 

276 Formation of a Wave [No. 3, 

tion of transfer ; this effect being produced by the plug forcing 
onwards into the canal the water it displaces. 

2. If the plug remains motionless after it has reached the bottom, 
and the half-wave it has forced up is left to itself, the following 
process will take place. The higher parts of the half-wave will sink 
by their own weight and press up its less elevated parts ; and these 
in their turn will by their weight press up the surface of the hitherto 
still water of the canal beyond the originally formed half-wave. By 
this process the half-wave L E which was generated by the plug 
will form itself into a whole-wave of less height and greater length 
than the half-wave, like Gr K in fig. 3. This whole-wave will move 
freely along the canal, elevating the surface of the water at each 
place as it passes it, and then depressing the surface again to the 
original level. The slope of the back of this wave will, in general, 
be longer than the forepart of the wave, because this slope is formed 
by the sinking of the elevated water merely by its weight ; whereas 
the forepart of the wave is formed (as above described) by the forced 
action of the plug, and this force is supposed to be much greater 
than the mere difference of weight arising from the different eleva- 
tions of the different parts of the wave. This free whole-wave is 
represented in fig. 3. The volume of water in this whole-wave, 
which moves solitarily and freely along the canal, is the same as the 
volume of water in the forced half-wave from which it grew, and 
therefore is equal to the volume of water displaced by the plug. 

3. The length of the generated half- wave, (and therefore also the 
length of the free whole-wave which finally moves along the canal,) 
depends upon the rapidity with which pressure is communicated 
through water. This rapidity depends upon the exciting cause. A 
very extreme example of the communication of pressure through 
water is seen in the velocity of sound through water, which has been 
found by careful experiments in the Lake of Geneva to be about 
eight-ninths of a mile in one second, or 3200 miles an hour. At this 
rate is the pressure communicated, which causes the minute but 
rapid vibrations of the water which produce the sound. Another 
example is the velocity of the tidal-wave up the Hooghly, which 
moves (as Mr. Obbard states) at 24 miles an hour. I have myself 
made experiments on the great swell-waves at the Equator and found 

1S60.] and its transmission down the Indus. 277 

them to move at 27 miles an hour.* Waves may he made, as is well 
known, to move much slower than this, if the pressure producing 
them is less. The rapidity of the communication of pressure, and 
therefore the velocity of translation of the wave, depends upon the 
intensity of the cause producing the pressure. 

4. In order to apply these resxdts to the phenomenon in question, 
I suppose, instead of the plug pressing down the surface, a large 
hody of water to have fallen upon the surface of the Indus hy the 
hursting of the harrier, as represented in fig. 2. According to the 
force with which this descending mass struck the river, would be 
the velocity with which the front of the generated half-wave would 
begin to move down the river. As the cataract poured down from 
the broken barrier, its successive portions, after causing the pressure 
by their impact and weight and so aiding in the generation of the 
half-wave, would become themselves in turn part of the river, and so 
part of the medium through which the pressure of the next falling 
portion was transmitted, to continue the generation of the wave. 

* During a voyage from England by the Cape in 1838 I made the following 
experiment with the assistance of the first and second officers. A day was 
chosen when the swell was moving from ahead aft, and the ship was making only 
about three knots. At one end of the log line a large bung was fastened, and 
40 fathoms further up another large bung was tied on, the intermediate forty 
fathoms of line having a number of smaller corks attached to it to make it float. 
The fine thus furnished was thrown into the water astern, and more line allowed 
to run off the reel till the bungs were well clear of the ship. The second officer, 
•who held the reel, then checked the line from running out further : and the 
40 fathoms of line between the two bungs were drawn out straight by the way 
the ship made. As the wave which was to be observed approached the vessel 
from ahead, at the word " let go" the line was allowed to run off the reel, and 
the bungs, with the line between them stretched straight, instantly remained 
stationary in the sea. The moment the wave lifted the first bung to its highest 
point was marked by my giving a " now," and the moment the second bung was 
raised to its highest point by the same wave a second " now." The first officer, 
who had a chronometer in his hand, marked the interval ; it was found to be 
about 6 seconds. That is, the wave moved over 40 fathoms in 6 seconds, or 1 
mile in 132 seconds, or about 27 miles in one hour. Each of us took the several 
places in turn of reel-holder, time-keeper, and observer ; and the results were the 

278 Length and height of the Wave. [No. 3. 

The half- wave would be in the process of generation until the pent-up 
waters were exhausted. 

Major Cunningham states in his work on Ladak, that the mass of 
water which accumulated in 1841 and caused the inundation of the 
Indus in that year, was estimated at 20,000,000,000 cubic feet. This 
equals a volume 100 feet deep, 380 feet wide, and 100 miles long ! 
If the flood of 1858 was only half of this or even much less, the 
reservoir was large enough to generate a half-wave of enormous 
length, and to produce a final free whole-wave much longer still. 

As the Indus varies in width and depth, this wave would undergo 
various modifications as it passed down, especially as we must combine 
with it the natural downward current of the river — probably as much 
as from 7 to 10 miles or more at the season when the flood occurred. 
Thus at Attock where the river is confined at its usual level to a 
width of less than 800 feet by rocks there is no difficulty in assuming, 
that the elevation of the water would be greater than in other parts 
where the stream was wider. 

5. The state of the Indus at Attock in ordinary years is this. 
The water is lowest in March. By the melting of the snow in May, 
and by the rains after that, the surface at Attock has risen by August 
through 50 feet above the lowest or winter level in March. The 
facts of the phenomenon of 1858, as observed by the late Captain 
Henderson at Attock (and recorded in the Journal for 1859, p. 199) 
were these. In August the river was unusually low for that season 
of the year, being only about 25 feet (instead of the usual 50 feet) 
above the winter level. On the 10th August at 6 A. M. the water 
began to rise, and in the first, second, third, and fourth hours rose 
through 26,12,7,4 feet, and in the next three hours and a half through 
6 feet, so as at 1^ p. m. to stand at 80 feet above the winter level. 
After this, it began very slowly to subside and returned to its usual 
level in about (say) 22J hours, making 30 hours for the whole rise 
and fall of the water at Attock. The rise occupied one-fourth of 
this time, and the fall three-fourths. This accords with the form 
of the wave, the slope of which on the back is much longer than the 
rise on the front, as explained in para. 2, and represented in fig. 3. 

6. The difficulties in the way of receiving this explanation arise 
from the possible shallows and rapids and sudden bends in the river. 

1S60.] Explanation, of the Bore in the Hooghly. 279 

and the consequent checks and friction which might materially inter- 
fere with the motion and maintenance of the wave. It may be said, 
however, on the other hand, that the catastrophe occurred at the 
season of the year when the river is fullest of water ; and although 
in 1858, even in August, the river was as low as to be only 25 feet 
(instead of 50 feet) above winter level, nevertheless there must have 
been a considerable amount of water in the river before the flood 
came, sufficient very likely for the generation and propagation of the 
wave. Here, however, is a ground of uncertainty. But even if it 
were admitted that some impediment of the kind existed between 
the broken barrier and Attock, yet the influx of waters would at 
length rise over the impediment like an ordinary rush of water on a 
much swollen river, and commence to generate a wave in the river 
below the impediment, as the influx of the tidal water at the sand- 
heads produces a tidal wave. 

7. We may understand how the water which the wave had raised 
just above the impediment would get over the impediment into the 
part of the river below it, ready to produce another wave by its pres- 
sure, by observing the breakers of the Bore in the Hooghly . The Bore 
is simply the flood-tide-wave moving along the river at the springs 
at which season the influx at the sandheads is greatest. The onward 
movement of this wave or form at the rate of 24 miles an hour is 
accompanied (as stated in para. 1) by an upward and onward move- 
ment of the parts of the water itself in the front of the wave, though 
at a much smaller rate than that of the form or wave itself. Con- 
ceive this wave coming suddenly from deep water into shallow. 
"What will take place at the boundary line between deep and shallow 
water ? The pressure lifts up the water on the deep side of the 
boundary line and so forms the front of the great tidal-wave at that 
spot, and at the same instant gives the water thus lifted up a slight 
onward motion, which carries it on to the shallow side of the boundary 
line between the deep and shallow parts. The pressure-action by 
which the wave should be propagated onwards over the flat is now 
destroyed ; for the upheaved water thus lifted up over the shallow 
has nothing but the hard bottom to press down upon, and this 
unyielding bottom will not communicate the pressure onwards (as it 
would if it had been itself water) to keep up the formation of a wave 

280 The Bore in the llooghhj. [No. 3, 

ahead. Hence the water, lifted upon the shallow bottom by the 
action of the wave moving up to the boundary line, will move on 
over the shallow with its own proper onward motion already acquired, 
increased by the action of gravity upon the unsupported front of the 
mass which has found its way, as described, upon the shallow. The 
water thus heaved up by the wave from the deep side is, so to speak, 
poured out upon the shallow, and it rushes along over the flat in a 
running torrent of breakers, till it covers it over with water to the 
level of the rest of that part of the river now swollen by the flood 
which is come in. 

The violence of this process will depend very much upon the form 
of the bottom of the river, and the degree of abruptness of the 
transition from deep water to shallow. If this transition is gradual, 
the advancing wave will be reduced gradually by the increasing 
friction of the bottom ; and the resisting pressure caused by the 
bottom (as it inclines up and so faces the wave) will reduce the action, 
and when the wave does break, if it break at all, it will do so 
feebly, like ordinary waves on the sea-shore. If, however, the 
transition be abrupt from deep water into shallow, the action will 
be as described above in explaining the Bore. This description 
will show why the phenomenon is so much more sensible when 
the Hooghly is full of water, in the freshes, than in the dry season. 
In the dry season the river lies down in the deep channel, and when 
the accession of water at the spring tides lifts it up, the highest 
part only of the tidal-wave rises above the flats or shallows, and 
runs on them, therefore, without violence. But when the river is 
full, the general level is raised higher than in the dry season and the 
flood-wave at the springs is bodily raised up above the level of the 
flats and falls upon them, and rushes over them with a correspond- 
ingly greater violence. 

This digression about the Bore will serve to illustrate the action 
of the wave in the Indus when it reaches an impediment stretch- 
ing across its breadth, such as a fordable shallow, or a rapid 
caused by broken rocks on a descent. The wave will break, and rush 
over the impediment (aided in this case by the downward current of 
the stream) in a torrent of breakers, and the mass of waters, on 
arriving at the deeper water below the impediment, will again form 

I860.] Wliy tlie Indus-flood teas probably caused by a wave. 281 

a wave by the pressure-action, though not so large as the previous 
one, because some force will have been destroyed by impact and 

8. If the barrier, causing the accumulation of waters, occurred 
on the main-stream, it might be objected, that, owing to the long 
stoppage of the supply, there could not have been water enough 
below the barrier for the descending mass to impinge upon and 
produce the wave. In this case the mass would rush down the dry 
or almost dry channel, and as soon as it came to a part of the river 
where (from its tributaries) the depth of water was sufficient, the 
sudden influx of the flood would by its weight press downwards and 
cause the wave to spring up ahead and run down the stream as 
already described, exactly as the tidal-wave is formed. 

9. The reasons which favour the hypothesis of the wave-explan- 
ation are these : 

(1.) Captain Henderson, who appears to have been the only 
European who observed the disturbance of the river, inclines to a 
velocity which accords more with the notion of a wave of water 
than with that of the water itself rushing down at such a speed : see 
Journal, 1859, p. 207. 

(2.) In his account he says (p. 208) " at first it [the water] came 
welling up quietly, but very rapidly." This looks much more like 
the uplifting of the surface by a pressure from below, than the rush 
of water down the river. 

(3.) He tells us in his account (p. 208) that four hours after 
the rise began, and three hours and a half before the maximum rise 
was attained, he crossed the river in a boat. This he hardly could 
have done had the waters of the swollen river been moving down 
bodily at the wave's velocity. 

10. Mr. Obbard in his paper attributes the low state of the river 
at Attock before the flood came, to the hollow which precedes a wave, 
like the tidal-wave in the Hooghly, and he takes the existence of this 
depression to be an argument in favour of his explanation. But this 
would rather appear to have arisen from the stoppage of the full 
supply of water in consequence of the dam being formed : and it is 
evident that there was no cause producing a hollow in the process 
explained above by which the wave was generated. 

2 p 

282 The Indus-flood of 1858. [No. 3, 

For example, in the illustration I have given above, if the plug 
began to rise again after it had reached the bottom of the river, a 
hollow wave would be formed by the rushing back of the water to sup- 
ply the vacuum caused under the plug. The hollow wave thus produced 
is analogous to the convex wave, and would run along the canal after 
the convex wave. If the plug were thrust down again and then raised 
again, another pair of convex and concave waves would be formed. If 
the rise and fall of the plug occupied six hours each, the action would 
be like the influx and withdrawal of the tidal mass of water at the 
Sandheads from the Bay of Bengal, and the convex and concave waves 
would represent the high and low tides. In this mode of action a 
concave or hollow always precedes, as well as follows, a convex wave. 

But in the case of the Indus there was only the addition of a 
mass of water to the river as it was before the catastrophe took 
place and the wave was formed, and no subtraction of water. A wave 
of elevation only was, therefore, formed, which ran down the river 
and passed off into the sea, spending much of its strength no doubt on 
the way, and in part perhaps restoring the lost level which had arisen 
from the stoppage of the supply. 

On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia ; ivith a Note on 
the Maces of Rein Deer, and a Note on Domestic Animals in 
general. — By Ed. Blyth. 

The species of Bovine animals (so far as known), whether recent 
or fossil, resolve into three primary groups : viz. 

I. Bisontine. II. Taurine. III. Bubaline. Two of these groups 
being again divisable as follow. 

I. Bisontine (adapted for a frigid climate). Subdivided into — 
1. Ovibos (the ' Musk Ox' of the Arctic ' Barren grounds' of Ame- 
rica ; but which, formerly, during the glacial epoch, was far more 
extensively diffused, remains of this animal having been met with in 

I860.] On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 283 

the British islands*).— 2. Bootheeium ; extinct (founded on two 
specific races, one of which is the Ovibos Pallantis of de Blainville, 
and the other is the Bos bombifrons of Harlan). — 3. Bison (the well- 
known broad-fronted and shaggy Bisons of Europe and N. America, 
and formerly of N. Asia) . — 4. Poephagus (the Yak of high Central 
Asia). To this Bisontine division pertain the only indigenous Bovine 
quadrupeds of America. 

II. Taurine (with the exception of the humped cattle suited to 
a temperate climate and restricted to mountainous countries within or 
near the tropics). Subdivided into — 1. Zebus (the Zebu or humped 
cattle of the hotter regions of Asia and Africa). 2. Taurus (the 
humpless cattle with cylindrical horns).- — 3. Gav^us (the humpless 
cattle with flattened horns, peculiar to S. E. Asia). 

III. BubaJine (the flat-horned, thinly clad and thick-hided, wal- 
lowingf cattle of Asia and Africa). Comprising only — 1. Bubalus 
(the Buffaloes, including the Anoa of Celebes) . 

According to the views so very ably expounded by Mr. C. Darwin, 
all the species of one genus have a common origin in the depths of 
time, and we may ascend in the generalization to any extent, needing 
only unlimited lapse of time for the ever accumulating development 
of small variations in any particular direction, under the unconscious 
guidance of the law of Natural Selection. Species, as he maintains, 
are only strongly marked varieties, and varieties he designates as in- 

* As also of the Caribou, or present barren-ground race or variety of the Rein 
Deer ; though I am far from being satisfied that this barren-ground race differs 
in any respect from the wild Rein Deer of Lapland, or of the ' tundras' of Arctic 
Siberia ; while I much suspect that the large race or variety of Rein Deer which 
is ridden by the Tungusi and other Siberian tribes, (and to the backs of 
which the bales of goods are annually transferred, in Mantchuria, from those 
of two-humped Camels,) to be similarly identical with the Woodland Caribou of 
North America. The subject of the races of Rein Deer will be more fully treated 
of in the sequel. 

As the above is passing through the press, I learn, from Lord Wrottesly's 
Address to the British Association at Oxford (June 27th, 1860), that Dr. H. 
Falconer, " aided by Col. Wood, of Glamorganshire, has recently extracted from 
a single cave in the Grower peninsula of South Wales, a vast quantity of the ant- 
lers of a Rein Deer (perhaps of two species of Rein Deer), both allied to the 
living one. These fossils are most of them shed horns ; and there have been 
already no fewer than 1,100 of them dug out of the mud filling one cave." 
—Athenceum, June 30th, 1860, p. 890. 

It is remarkable that Uesus arctos of the major continent should, iu America, 
be restricted in its range to the Arctic barren-grounds. 

t The true Bisons wallow during the summer. 

2 e 2 

284 On the Mat-Jiorned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [No. 3, 

eipient species ; and most assuredly the dividing line between what 
are variously accepted as species or as varieties cannot oftentimes he 
traced : nevertheless, it is admitted by Mr. Darwin that the mass of 
what are generally considered as species have acquired a high degree 
of persistency, and arguments pro and con are abundantly supplied by 
the Bovines, as by endless other groups : on the one hand, we have the 
multitudinous races of cylindrical-horned domestic cattle, whether 
humped or humpless, which surely no naturalist would go the length 
of supposing to be so many separate and distinct creations ; and, on 
the other hand, we have the phenomenon of three wild species, or most 
strongly characterized races (more strongly characterized apart than 
are any of the domestic races of humped or humpless Taurines respec- 
tively), yet exhibiting many peculiarities in common, inhabiting to 
a great extent the very same region, but maintaining their distinc- 
tive characters wherever found, and never (so far as known) hybridiz- 
ing one with another, though at least two of them have interbred in a 
state of domestication (and one of them even in the wild state) with 
the ordinary tame humped cattle of the tropical regions of the major 
continent.* All three are domesticable, as will be shewn ; and as 
regards the reputed indomitable nature of one of them, the gigantic 
Graour (Gr. gaurus), we have only to reflect on the fact, how very 
readily the tamest and one of the most thoroughly and completely 
domesticated of all tame creatures, the humped Ox (Bos or ZEBrs 
GiBBOSUs) relapses into a condition of feral wildness, unsurpassed even 
by the Graour itself, and assuredly beyond that of the renowned 
Chillingham cattle of Northumberland, if not also of the feral hump- 
less cattle of S. America and elsewhere. f 

* The Bos sylhetaniis, F. Cuv., is founded upon a hybrid Gayal (G-. PRoyTAUs) 
of this kind ; and the B. leucoprymnos, Quoy and Grayinard, upon a hybrid 
Banteng (Gr. sondaicus). Sir T. Stamford Raffles remarks, in his History of Java, 
that " the degenerate domestic cows [of that island, humped,] are sometimes 
driven into the forest to couple with the wild Banteng, for the sake of improving 
the breed." Baron Cuvier supposed that the true Gayal was a hybrid between 
the humped cattle and the Buffalo ; but he seems to have known only the hybrid 
animal, from the description and figures sent by M. Duvaucel and published by 
his brother in the Mamm. Lithog. 

f How readily European cattle resume the wild habit, is shewn by the 
following passage in Mr. S. Sydney's excellent work, ' The Three Colonies of 
Australia' (1852), p. 314. " The cattle in bush re-acquire in many respects the 
habits of their wild progenitors ; such is the habit of camping, and such, too, the 
manner in which, like the wild [feral] cattle of Chillingham park in Northumber- 

1SG0.] On tie 'Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 285 

The humped cattle are unknown in an aboriginally wild state ; and 
I am strongly of opinion that they will prove to be of African rather 
than of Asiatic origin, however ancient their introduction into 
India ; for no fossil or semi-fossil remains of this very distinct type 
have as yet been discovered in any part of Asia, where the only 
established fossil Taurine is the Bos namadictjs of the Nerbudda 
deposits, which is barely (if at all satisfactorily) distinguishable 
from the European B. pbimo genius (or true TJrus of Caesar) * It 

land, they march in single file to water, the bulls leading; so, too, when 
threatened, they take advantage of the inequalities of the ground and steal 
off in their hollows unperceived, the bulls, if attacked by clogs, bringing up 
the rear." 

In the Swan Biver colony, both horses and liorned cattle have gone com- 
pletely wild, and Buffaloes in the vicinity of Port Essington. Vide Leichardt, in 
Journ. Hoy. Geogr. Soc. XVI, 237. 

(What are the wild cattle of Albania noticed by Count Karact in Journ. Hoy. 
Geogr. Soc. XII, 57 ? Also, what were those hunted by the ancient monarchs 
of Assyria, as represented in the Nineveh sculptures ? What, indeed, were the 
TJri Sylvestres which haunted the great forests that surrounded London in 
the time of Fitzstephen, i. e. about 1150 A. D. ?. The late Jonathan Couch 
remarked, in his c Cornish Fauna' (1838), that — "The ancient breed in the west 
of England was called ' black cattle,' from the very dark appearance of its coat, 
almost like velvet : circumstances in which it seems to have differed from the 
races of the north of England, which were white)." 

* I refer more especially to the later or post-pliocene (pleistocene, or even 
recent) type, the remains of which are found in almost modern lacustrine depo- 
sits, where likewise occur those of Bison etjrop.zeus of the existing type, as 
distinguished from the wide-horned peiscus type. This later form of pbimo- 
genitts (which is that originally so named by Bojanus) absolutely resembles the 
most finely developed examples of certain (unimproved) domestic races of large and 
very -long-horned cattle, except that the size is fully one- third larger, as remarked 
by Professor Nilsson. In like manner, Mr. Hodgson notices, of the Indian 
Buffalo, that — " The wild animals are fully a third larger than the largest tame 
breeds [in India], and measure from snout to vent 10J ft. and 6 to 6J ft. high at 
the shoulder." (J. A. S. XVI, 710). The older type of pbimogenitts occurs in the 
pliocene drift, together with Bison pbiscits ; and (so far as I have seen) the 
size of the skull is smaller than in the other, but the horns are still larger, and 
curve round more towards each other at the tips ; moreover (if I mistake not), 
they are both thicker and longer in the bull than in the cow, whereas in the 
more modern type (as in domestic cylindrical-horned cattle, whether humped 
or humpless,) they are thicker but shorter in the bull, longer and more slender 
in the ox and cow. With the exception of the Indian Buffalo to some extent, 
I know of no other true bovine in which the horns are not both thicker and 
longer in the bull! In the old type of pbimogenitts, the horn-cores are some- 
times enormous. I have measured a pair which were 3 ft. long and 19 in. round 
at base. Another of the same linear dimensions, but 18 in. in circumference at 
base, is noticed in the Ann. Mag. If. H. Vol. II (1838), p. 163. I have draw- 
ings of a fine frontlet of perhaps a cow of this race, which was found in the 
gravel when digging the foundations of the houses of parliament. Of the 
later race, compare the noble Swedish bull-skull figured in Ann. Mag. N. H., 
2nd series, IV, 257, 259, with the superb Scottish cow-skull in the British 

286 On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [Xo. 3, 

need hardly be remarked that the humped type of domestic cattle 
is generally diffused over the hotter parts of Africa, from east to west 
or ocean to ocean, and on the eastern side as far south as Natal, and 
throughout Madagascar; the same being the only Taurine type 
known in Arabia,* though, curiously, in the essentially Arabian island of 

Museum, figured in Prof. Owen's ' British Fossil Mammala and Birds,' 498, 507. 
The latter measures just 2\ ft. from vertex to tips of intermaxillaries. Compare 
also Prof. Owen's figure of Bison peiscus with Prof. Nilsson's figure of the 
modern type of European Bison from the Swedish peat (p. 490 and p. 415 of 
the same Vols, respectively). Whether the latter has occurred in the British 
Islands I am unaware ; but suspect that it does not, or at least that it has not 
been recognised hitherto. 

Perhaps the latest (though vague) notice of the TJrus, as an existing animal, 
occurs in Bell's 'Travels in Tartary,' Yol. I, Ch. Ill, p. 223 : "Journey from 
Tomsky to Elimsky, in the country of the Tsuliam Tartars." It seems to me 
to refer more probably to the wild taurine Urus than to the Bison ; but in either 
case the notice is sufficiently remarkable. " On the hills, and in the woods near 
this place, are many sorts of wild beasts ; particularly the Urus, or Uhr-ox, one 
of the fiercest animals the world produces. Their force is such, that neither the 
Wolf, Bear, nor Tiger, dares to engage with them. In the same woods," Bell 
continues, " is found another species of Oxen, called Bubul by the Tartars. It 
is not so large as the Urus ; its body and limbs are very handsome : it has a high 
shoulder and flowing with long hair growing from the rump to its extremity, like 
that of a Horse. Those which I saw were tame, and as tractable as other cattle." 
Certainly a remarkable notice of the Yak, both wild and tame (as it would 
seem), in a region where that animal is at present unknown. The word Bubul 
has probably its connexion with Bubulus. 

The difference in the development of the wild and tame Buffalo of India is 
equally observable where the two frequent the same pastures and commonly inter- 
breed ; and I believe the main reason of it to be, that the tame calves are deprived 
of their due supply of milk. The importance of an ample supply of nourishment 
in early life, as bearing on the future development of any animal, cannot be over- 
estimated. A friend remarked to me that he had no idea of what a fine Buffalo 
was, till he saw those of Burma. They are there, he states, much larger than 
in Bengal, with splendid horns, and altogether a vastly superior animal. The- 
Burmese never milk them; having the same strange prejudice against milk which 
the Chinese have, though otherwise both people are nearly omnivorous. There 
is a corresponding difference of development in the wild and tame races of Yak, 
and of Rein Deer in Lapland, — doubtless for the same reason. 

* The humped cattle of Arabia generally are " of a very small and poor race, 
and are never, but with the greatest reluctance, killed for food," (Wallin, in 
Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, Yol. XXIV, 148.) Chesney remarks of them, that 
"bulls and cows take the next place to the Buffalo, and, like those of India, 
they bear a hump, and are of small size; some bullocks purchased at Suwei- 
deyah, produced, each, only about 224 Its. of meat." Again, in his Appendix 
(Vol. I, 279), he enumerates, among the domestic animals of Arabia and Meso- 
potamia, " both the common bull and cow, and the bull and cow with hunch." 
In the province of Kerman, in Persia, Mr. Keith C. Abbot remarks that " the 
oxen of this part of the country are of a small humped kind, and are commonly 
used as beasts of burthen ; people also ride on them, seated on a soft pad, and 
a rope is passed through the nostril, by which they are guided." (Journ. Roy. 
Geogr. Soc, Vol. XXV, 43.) 

1S60.] On tie Mat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 287 

Socotra, the cattle are of the humpless European or N. Asiatic type.* 
Both humped and humpless cattle are represented in the old Egyptian 
paintings ; and the humpless reappear in S. Africa, in the remarkable 
indigenous (so far as known) Caffre cattle, and I have seen fossil remains 
of the same cylindrical-horned humpless type from the banks of a tribu- 
tary of the Gariep river.f In Madagascar, also, where the tame cattle 

* Vide Wellsted, in Journ. Soy. Oeogr. Soc. V, 200. On the confines of India, 
this European and also Tartar type of humpless cattle comes round, evidently 
from the east-ward, into Butan. But the Chinese Taurines (so far as I can 
learn) are mostly hybrid, being variously intermediate to the humped and 
humpless species : except, however, towards the north ; and huge herds of 
splendid Tartar cattle are pastured beyond the great wall of China, — many of 
these, with vast troops of horses, &c, being the property of the emperor. (Vide 
Timkowski and others.) According to Major It. C. Tytler, a white breed of 
humpless (?) cattle is reared and highly prized by the natives of Dacca, who 
never turn them out to pasture. It has " little or no symptoms of a hump." 
Ann. 31. N. H. 2nd series, XIV (1854), 177. 

f Tide Proc. Geol. Soc. 1840, p. 152. Capt. Speke observed some very fine 
humpless cattle on the N. W. shore of the Tanganyika lake, near the equator. 
" Very large cattle, bearing horns of stupendous size. They are of an uniform 
red colour, like our Devonshire breed, but attain a much greater height and 
size." Northward, again, on the shore of his grand Victoria Nyanza lake, he 
remarks that — " The cows, unlike the Tanganyika ones, are small and short- 
horned, and are of a variety of colours. They carry a hump, like the Brahmini 
bull, but give very little milk." Vide 'Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine,' 
No. DXXVIII (October, 1859), pp. 392, 398. A little further northward, 
in the Bari country on the shores of the White Nile, between 4° and 5° 
N. lat., M. Ferdinand Werne tells us — "We remark, as usual among the light- 
coloured cows, many quite white, and few black or dapple. The bulls have the 
customary high and thick humps ; the cows, on the contrary, have exactly the 
appearance of those at Emmerich on the Rhine [?] ; their horns are twisted in 
a surprisingly handsome form, and set off with flaky hair, as well as the ears. 
They carry the latter erect, by which means the head, and the lively eye, acquire 
a brisk and intelligent expression." (Werne's Narrative of Expedition to dis- 
cover the Sources of the Wliite Nile, in the years 1840, 1841, O'Reilly's transla- 
tion, II, 94.) It is not likely that the cows referred to should be entirely 
humpless ; and the large lustrous eye is everywhere one of the many character- 
istics of the humped species, as is the lanceolate form of ear (which I suppose 
is referred to), as contrasted with the broad round ears of the humpless kind ; 
and in hybrids of different degrees of admixture the proportion is more readily 
seen in the shape of the ear than in aught else. Moreover, it seems that, as in 
India, white or greyish-white humped cattle predominate ; but the black tail- 
tuft is constant, except in the rare case of an albino. Between 6° and 7° N. 
lat., among the Kek or Kiak nation, we learn, from the same authority, that — 
"The cattle are generally of a light colour, of moderate size, and have long 
beautifully twisted horns, some of which are turned backwards [as also in India]. 
The bulls have large speckled humps, such as are seen in the hieroglyphics ; the 
cows, on the contrary, only a little elevation on the shoulders." {Ibid. I, 175.) 
As with the humped cow elsewhere; and when Col. Sykes mentions that this 
species of cattle, " when early trained to labour or to carriage, is nearly desti- 
tute of the hump" (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 105), he refers to cows and oxen 
only ; for the labouring bull has always a well developed hump, especially if 
well fed, and this has much to do with the filling out of the hump in oxen and 

288 On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of 8. E. Asia. [No. 3' 

are all of the humped kind, a humpless wild race, not yet scientifically 
described, was long ago indicated by Flacourt, and since by the 
missionary Ellis ; stated to resemble European cattle except in having 
longer limbs.* But to return to the humped cattle. These are now 
the ordinary Taurines of tropical and subtropical Asia, and according 
to Ksempfer extend on to Japan. Though unknown in an abori- 
ginally wild state, the species has relapsed into wildness in various 
parts of India, as especially in Oudh and Eohilkund, in Shahabad, in 
Mysore, and even in Ceylon ; a fact the more interesting, as proving 
(what had been doubted) that these humped cattle can maintain 
themselves, unaided by man, in regions inhabited by the Tiger. 
The origin and history of the wild herds of the Shahabad jungles, 
which still exist, are given by Dr. F. Buchanan Hamiiton,t who 
remarks that — " In the woods of Jagadispur and Damraong are some 
wild cattle of the common breed : they resemble entirely in form and 
in variety of colours J those bred about the villages of this district, 

cows : the fundamental structure is there invariably, and capable of development. 
The huge-horned Bornouese and Galla races of cattle are of the humped species, 
— unlike the fine Tanganyika race " with stupendous horns." Indeed, cattle 
exceedingly like the African Galla race of Bruce and Salt are by no means very 
rare in India. 

It is remarkable that the singular strepsicerine or Cretan breed of Sheep exists 
in the country drained by the White Nile ; modified, however, in its fleece by 
the locality. Thus, Werne tells us (II, 18), that — " I purchased for a couple of 
miserable beads a little Sheep, covered partly with wool and partly with hair, as 
the Sheep here generally are, with a long mane under the throat, and horns twisted 
back. Selim Capifcan says that a similar species [race] is found in Crete." 
Elsewhere (p. 97), he remarks " Rams with horns twisted back and manes," — 
the latter, of course, under the throat, as mentioned in the preceding notice. 

* "Horned cattle are numerous, both tame and wild; many of the latter 
resemble, in shape and size, the cattle of Europe." (Ellis's History of Mada- 
gascar.) These wild cattle abound in the province of Mena-be, which occupies 
much of the western portion of the island. In Mr. J. A. Lloyd's Memoir on 
Madagascar, published in the 20th Vol. of the Royal Geographical Society's 
Journal, we read (p. 63) that " the northern part of Mena-be contains great 
numbers of wild cattle ; Radama and his officers, in one of their warlike expe- 
ditions amongst the Sakalami, passing through this country, killed upwards of 
340 [wild ?] oxen in one day for the use of his army, aud two days afterwards 
431 more were killed by the soldiers." 

f Montgomery Martin's compilation from the Buchanan Hamilton MSS., Vol. 
I, 504. 

% Major W. S. Sherwill, who has often shot over the now famous " Jugdes- 
pur jungle," by permission of the late Kumar (or Kooer) Singha, who allowed 
him to shoot what he pleased so long as he spared the wild cattle, informs me 
that, while, of course, respecting the Raja's injunction, he was curious about 
these cattle, and had opportunities of watching them somewhat closely. All he 
saw were rather of small size and of an earthy-brown colour, with shortish horns, 

I860.] On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 289 

but are more active, and very shy. The Raja of Bhojpur, and his 
kinsman Sahebzadeh Singha [as of late Kumar Singha, the notable 
rebel], carefully preserve them from injury ; and say, that owing to 
the encroachments of agriculture the number is rapidly diminishing. 
Many of their neighbours, however, alleged that the devastation 
committed by these sacred herds was very ruinous, and every year 
occasioned more and more land to be deserted. The origin of these 
herds is well known. "When the Ujayani Rajputs incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Kasim Ali, and for some years were compelled to 
abandon their habitations, some cattle were left in the woods without 
keepers ; and on their owner's return had acquired the wild habits, 
which their offspring retain. Several calves had been caught ; but 
it has been found impossible to rear them, their shyness and regret 
for the loss of liberty having always proved fatal. This shows what 
difficulties mankind must have encountered in first taming this most 
useful animal," &c. &c. The extreme wildness of the feral cattle of 
Oudh is noticed by Capt. (now Col. Sir T. Proby) Cautley, in 
J. A. S. IX, 623. " In the districts of Akhurpur and Doolpur, in 
the province of Oudh," he remarks, " large herds of black oxen are, 
or were, to be found in the wild uncultivated tracts, a fact to which 
I can bear testimony from my own personal observation, having, in 
1820, come in contact with a very large herd of these beasts, of 
which we were only fortunate enough to kill one ; their excessive 
shyness and wildness preventing us from a near approach at any second 
opportunity." Another writer notices herds of these feral humped 
cattle on the road from Agra to Bareilly ; and, from all recent 
accounts, they seem to be on the increase rather than on the 

and he thinks without the Isil-gai markings on the feet (which are often seen in 
domestic liumped cattle). Whether the Oudh herds tend to uniformity of 
colouring I am unaware. The feral herds of hurapless cattle in S. America are, 
I believe, of various colours, like their domestic Spanish pragenitors. 

* In an article "On the Future of Oudh" (published in the Morning Chronicle 
for ilay 17th, 1859), it is remarked that " The forests, and notably among them 
that of the Tarai, towards Nipal, serve as a shelter for innumerable wild cattle, 
which are admirably suited for artillery bullocks and other laborious purposes, 
besides affording excellent fire-wood and pasture for cattle, and also hunting- 
ground for the sportsman. In these forests, and in the estensive jungles, are to be 
found the hides and horns of thousands of wild cattle, rotting, as it were, for want 
of hands to turn them to account, and which alone would prove a most remunera- 
tive branch of commerce, to judge from the success which the very few who 

2 y 

290 On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [No. 3, 

With this fact, therefore, to bear in mind, the excessive 
shyness and wildness of the feral herds known to be descended 
from domestic humped cattle, and also the fact (which I and 
others know from experience) of the extreme difficulty there 
is in subduing the wild propensities of the common Bengal Jun- 
gle-fowl (Gallits FEKRUGiNETTS v. lankivus) , from which wild 
species all the races of domestic poultry are as clearly derived 
as are those of tame Ducks from the Mallard, we are quite justified, 
I think, in withholding assent to the current opinion that the Gaour 
(Bos gattbtts), or any kindred species, is incapable of domestication. 

have attempted to realize this branch of commerce, have met with. From the 
same source tallow might be obtained in abundance, were there only a few specula- 
tors to inaugurate the trade, and to direct it into the natural channels for its 

The making over of a considerable portion of the Tarai region to a Hindu 
Prince (Jungh Bahadur) will, of course, tend to a further preservation of these 
feral cattle. Another and more remarkable locality where many beasts of the 
sort (and of various colours) are little molested, is the churr or alluvial island 
known as the Siddi churr, lying S. E. of Noacolly in the eastern Sundarbans. 
On this churr there is no high tree-jungle, and scarcely brushwood enough to 
afford cover for Tigers, which do not occur on the island. 

It is probable that such feral herds occur also in Africa. Thus, in some 
" Notes on an Expedition down the Western Coast of Africa to ' the Bijuga 
Islands,' and the recently discovered river Iiiddafing," by Col. L. Smyth 
O'Connor, C. B., F. E. G. S., communicated by the Colonial office to the Boyal 
Geographical Society, and published in its Journal for 1859, p. 384, it appears 
that in the island of Ovanga " the finest Oxen are wild in innumerable herds." 
In general, however, the notices of wild cattle in Africa refer either to — 1. 
Bubaline species, — 2. Gnus (Catoblepas), or ' wilde beests' of the Dutch colo- 
nists,— 3. Species of the Hartebeest group, as especially Aceonotfs bv/balts 
in N. Africa, -4. Even the Leucoryx and kindred Antelopes. As an illustration, 
of this vague application of names, Capt. Lyon mentions a chain of mouniains 
to the south of Fezzan, named Wadan, " on account of the immense number of 
Buffaloes to be found there, and which are of three species, viz. the Wadan 
[Ovis teagelaphus !], an animal of the size of an Ass, having very large (or, 
as is elsewhere stated, very long, heavy) horns, and large bunches of hair bung- 
ing from the shoulder, to the length of 18 in. or 2 ft. ; they have very large 
heads, and are very fierce. The Bogua-el-Weish [Acronottts bubalis ?], which 
is a kind of Buffalo, slow in its motion, having very large horns, and being 
of the size of an ordinary cow ; and the White Buffalo [Oetx ieuco- 
EYx!], of a lighter and more active make, very shy and swift, and not easily 
procured. The calving-time of these animals is in April or May." (Travels in 
N. Africa, pp. 76, 271.) Dr. Barth notices the Oris tkagelapht;3 by the 
name Wadan. " Wild Oxen" of some sort are stated to inhabit the country 
bordering on the river Koanza. (Joum. Hoy. Geog. Soc. XXIY, 272J Capt. 
Burton, also, in his recently published work, ' The Lake Begions ot Central 
Africa,' notices that— " The park-lands of Duthumi, the jungles and forests of 
Ugogi and Mgunda Mk'hali, the barrens of Usukuma, and the tangled thickets 
of Ujiji, are full of noble game— Lions and Leopards, Elephants and Rhinoceroses, 
wild cattle (Buffaloes ?), Giraffes, Gnus, Zebras, Quaggas, and Ostriches." Gnus, 
at least, being here discriminated. 

I860.] On the Flat-liorned Taurine Cattle of S. JE. Asia. 291 

From accounts of the savage nature of the wild Yak, the same might 
have been inferred of that species, which we know to be extensively 
domesticated ; or, if we were only acquainted with the wild Rein Deer 
as it exists in arctic America, the varied applicability of the domestic 
herds of the coiTesponding regions of the major continent would 
scarcely have been predicated. So with the African Elephant in 
modern times, as compared with the Asiatic Elephant !* Civilized 
man, as a rule, exterminates but does not domesticate — has not 
hitherto done so at least, whatever efforts may of late have been made 
(with but moderate residt hitherto) by the Acclimation and different 
Zoological Societies. A cultivated country, however, is ill adapted 
for such experiments. Wild animals are rather to be won over, by 
degrees, in their indigenous haunts, where their habits of life are 
little changed by domestication, and their food continues to be 
that to which the race is accustomed : their subjugation being accord- 
ingly effected by human tenants of the same haunts, who can hardly 
have emerged from savagery, but are practically familiar with the 
habits of the creatures they seek to subdue. It is thus that the 
three species of known wild Asiatic Taurines with flattened horns 
have (each of them) been domesticated, to a greater or less extent, 
in their own wildernesses. A few calves may have originally been 
caught and tamed, and some stock established ; but how entire herds 
of full-grown wild animals may be won over and gradually domes- 
ticated, is thus told by Mr. McEae in Lin. Tr. VII, 303 et seg;. 
The G-ayal or Mitfhun, (GrAVEUS frontalis) being the species 
referred to. 

" The Kukis have a very simple method of training the wild Grayals, 

* In a letter just received from Sir J. Emerson Tennent, I learn that the 
Elephant of Ceylon is considered to be identical with that of Sumatra (!), 
which is adjudged to be a peculiar species (intermediate to the existing African 
and Indian Elephants) by Prof. Schlegel and the late Prof. Temminck, as also 
by the late Prince of (Janino. At all events the Sumatran Elephant is descrioed 
by three or four authors, to whom I have had access, to bear generally fine 
tusks (i. e. the males), whereas a fine tusker is exceptional in the instance of the 
Elephant of Ceylon. Sir J. E. Tennent's elaborate and most interesting series 
of chapters on the great proboscidian discloses certain facts, on the family 
resemblances of particular herds of Elephants, which will not fail to interest the 
disciples of Mr. C. Darwin. How about the Elephants of the Malayan penin- 
sula ; if not also of the Indo-Chinese countries, as far at least as Cochin- China? 
I am trying to obtain grinders, i. e. molar teeth, in the hope of coming soon to 
some understanding in the matter. 

2 Q 2 

292 On the Mat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [No. 3, 

It is as follows : — On discovering a herd of wild Gayals in the jungles, 
they prepare a numher of halls, of the size of a man's head, com- 
posed of a particular kind of earth, salt, and cotton ; they then 
drive their tame Gayals towards the wild ones, when the two soon 
meet and assimilate into one herd, the males of the one attaching 
themselves to the females of the other, and vice versa. The Kukis 
now scatter their balls over such parts of the jungle as they think 
the herd most likely to pass, and watch its motions. The Gayals, 
on meeting these halls as they go along, are attracted by their 
appearance and smell, and begin to lick them with their tongues ; 
and relishing the taste of the salt, and the particular earth com- 
posing them, they never quit the place until all the balls are 
destroyed. The Kukis having observed the Gayals to have once 
tasted their balls, prepare what they consider a sufficient supply of 
them to answer the intended purpose, and as the Gayals lick them 
up they throw down more ; and to prevent their being so readily 
destroyed, they mix the cotton with the earth and salt. This 
process generally goes on for three changes of the moon, or for a 
month and a half; during which time the tame and wild Gayals 
are always together, licking the decoy balls ; and the Kuki, after 
the first day or two of their being so, makes his appearance at such 
a distance as not to alarm the wild ones. By degrees he approaches 
nearer and nearer, until at length the sight of him has become so 
familiar that he can advance to stroke his tame Gayals on the back 
and neck without frightening away the wild ones. He nest extends 
his hand to them, and caresses them also, at the same time giving 
them plenty of his decoy balls to lick ; and thus, in the short space 
of time mentioned, he is able to drive them along with his tame ones 
to his parrah or village, without the least exertion of force or 
compulsion ; and so attached do the Gayals become to the parrah, 
that when the Kukis migrate from one place to another they always 
find it necessary to set fire to the huts they are about to abandon, 
lest the Gayals should return to them from the new grounds, were 
they left standing. Experience has taught the Kuki the necessity 
of thus destroying his huts." 

In at least some of the hill-ranges bordering the Brahmaputra 
valley on its left, where Gayals are extensively domesticated by the 

I860.] On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 293 

mountaineers, they have been so far influenced as to vary considerably 
in colour, whatever may be the cause of such variation. Thus, amongst 
the Meris, Lieut. Dalton tells us that — " The Mifhun (or Gayal) is 
the only species of homed cattle possessed by the Meris. It is rather 
a clumsy-looking animal in make ; but a group of MWhuns grazing 
on the steep rocky declivities they seem to love, would be a noble 
study for Landseer : some are milk-white, some nearly black, some 
black and white, and some red and white."* Elsewhere, the herds of 
tame Grayals shew generally a few individuals a little pied or splashed 
with white, with not uncommonly a white tail-tuft ; and they cannot 
be expected to vary much further than this, unless subjected to new 
influences, and above all to that of selection in breeding under 
human superintendence. In the Mishmi hills wild Gayals are still 
numerous ;f but we know little of this species excepting on the out- 
skirts of its range, where its native hills impinge on British territory. J 
The Bev. J. Barbe, B. C. M., who seems to have penetrated further 
into the interior of the Tippera. and Chatgaon (or ' Chittagong') 
hills than any other European, even to the present time, remarks, in 
an account of his tour into the latter territory in 1 844-45, § that — ■ 
" the Gayal, Bos frontalis, is found amongst the hills, particularly 
to the south of Sitacra : there are two species, differing in size and 
[a] little in colour : the large one is of a dark brown, and the male 

* J. A. S. XIV, 265. t Ibid. XIV, 495. 

X The Gaydl of Bishop Heber's Journal, which that much respected prelate 
saw in Barrackpore park, was of course the GrAViEUS tbontalis. But the figure 
and description given are monstrous, and were obviously got up from extreme- 
ly vague recollection : the horns turn down instead of up, the space between 
them is narrow instead of being very broad, the heavy dewlap is not given, nor 
the white stockings ; the tail is figured and described as "' bushy," and as extending 
below the hoclss ; and the outline of the spinal ridge is utterly unlike what it 
should be. He says — " It is very much larger than the largest Indian cattle [he 
could not then have seen an ordnance bullock], but hardly, I think, equal to an 
English bull [!] : its tail is bushy [!], and its horns form almost a mass of white 
and solid bone to the centre of its forehead [!]" He could only have viewed the 
animal from a distance, and have mistaken the pale colour ol the forehead for a 
continuation of the bases of the horns. Neither is it, as he remarks, "a native 
of Tibet and Nipal," nor even of Butan (vide Turner's Embassy). The second 
figure in the distance is meant, we can only suppose, to represent a large humped 
Ox; but here, again, the animal is furnished with a Horse's tail, and is like 
nothing in nature ! Our utmost respect for the reverend Bishop can scarcely 
pardon him such outrageous caricatures, both of figure and description. Vide 
Heber's Journal, I, 31. 

§ J. A, 8. XIV, 386. 

294 On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of 8. E. Asia. [No. 3. 

is nearly as high as a female Elephant : the small one is of a reddish- 
brown ; it is the Tenasserim ' Bison,' and the Arakanese call them 
by the same name as the Burmese do. These Gayals are perfectly 
distinct from the Shio of the Kookies, which are smaller, have 
a projecting skin to their neck, and differ also by the form and 
direction of their horns." Now the Shio or Shidl of the Mughs is, 
for certain, the true Gayal (G. frontalis),* as indeed indicated by 
the " projecting skin to their neck ;" this species having the dewlap 
much more developed than in the Gaour (Gr. and Banteng or 
Tsoing (G. sondaicus), which last I believe to be M. Barbe's smaller 
species " of a reddish-brown," as I have ascertained his larger species 
to be the Gaour (which has hardly even a trace of dewlap). But 
the Gaour and not the Banteng is the 'Bison' of Anglo-Indian 
sportsmen on both sides of the Bay of Bengal ;f the Banteng being 
currently known as the ' wild Ox' of the Indo-Chinese countries. M. 
Barbe has therefore erroneously identified his smaller kind with the 
Tenasserim ' Bison,' and is also wrong in applying the name Bos 
frontalis to either of his species, as obviously so to both of them. 

Soon after the publication of the foregoing notice, I had some 
conversation on the subject with M. Barbe, and have fortunately 
preserved a written memorandum of that conversation, intended for 
publication at the time, though it has not hitherto appeared in print. 
I did not then recognise the third species ; indeed, at that time, I had 
much less knowledge of the Banteng than I have at present : but I now 
give the memo, as originally written : — 

" M. Barbe had informed me, that, besides the common Gayal (Bos 
frontalis), the Kukis of the interior of the Chittagong hills had a 
very different species of Bos in a state of complete domestication 
the exact species of which I could not satisfactorily make out from 
his description ; when, luckily, he remembered that he possessed a 
horn of one of those tame animals, and, to my very considerable 
surprise, it proved to be that of a Gaour, or (so-called) ' Bison' of 
Anglo-Indian sportsmen, an animal which is commonly reputed to 
be untameable. The huge beasts are, however, stated to be most 

* Vide As. Xe*. VIII, 488. 

t In Orissa, the Gaour is known to sportsmen and others as the 'Gayal;' 
although the natives of the province style and pronounce it Goor. The names, 
of course, being branches or ramifications of the same root. 

1S60.] On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 295 

perfectly gentle and quiet ; and they habitually pass the night and 
great part of the day beneath the raised habitations of then- owners : 
and M. Barbe further mentions that he was greatly astonished at the 
facility with which these enormous cattle ascended and descended 
heights so steep and precipitous, that, had he not witnessed the feat, 
he would scarcely have been inclined to credit it." The last observa- 
tion points rather to the Gayal than to the Gaour ! 

As a rule, the proper habitat of the Graour is an undulating 
grassy table-land intermixed with forest ; the heavy and Buffalo- 
shaped G-ayal being habitually much more of a climber, and also more 
exclusively affecting the dense craggy forest, where it browses 
in preference to grazing ; the Graour being much more of a grazer. 
Having possessed both species alive, I can testify to this differ- 
ence in their feeding. The Gaour appears to be diffused through- 
out the Indo-Chinese countries, and all down the Malayan peninsula 
to the extreme south ; but has not been observed on any of the great 
islands of the archipelago. I have lately seen the skull with horns of 
an old bull from the mainland near Singapore ; and in 1858 I purchased 
a live Gaour-calf that was brought from Singapore to Calcutta, toge- 
ther with a Malayan Tapir. This calf was in high health when I 
shipped him for England, and as tame and tractable as any domestic 
animal, yet full of life and frolic ; but he was suddenly taken ill 
when nearing the Cape, and died on the following or next day. He 
was very impatient of the sun, even at the height of the cold weather 
(so called) in Calcutta ; which rendered it difficult to secure a photo- 
graph of the animal, but a good one was taken, and copied in the 
' Illustrated London News ;' only the artist must needs improve 
upon nature by lengthening the tail beyond the hocks, which detracts 
from the vraisemhlance of the wood-cut. The Gaour is the only 
species of the group which inhabits m-Brahmaputran India, in all 
suitable districts ; extending formerly to Ceylon, where we recognise 
it as the Guavera of Knox ; and in Johnson's ' Indian Field Sports,' it 
is familiarly referred to as "the Gour (a kind of wild bullock)" 
inhabiting, in about 1796, the hill-country hording on the Damuda, 
through which the Grand Trunk Boad now runs from Baniganj to 
Shergatti, — a district from which it has been long since extirpated, 
or has retired some hundreds of miles further west. It is still 

296 On the Mat-ltorned Taurine Cattle of 8, E. Asia. "No. 3, 

numerous in various localities, and not always particularly shy where 
little persecuted : for instance, my late friend Capt. Cramp (a distin- 
guished sportsman, who fell most gallantly taking possession of a 
gun at Laknao,) found them so little shy towards the sources of 
the Nerbudda, that, on one occasion, a couple of young bulls came 
trotting fearlessly out of the forest, within easy gunshot of himself 
and companion on horseback, and continued for some time to trot 
alongside of them at that distance, till my friend's sporting (or 
destructive) propensities could brook it no longer. Others would have 
felt much greater pleasure in observing the noble animals thus fear- 
lessly at liberty, and would have been loth to abuse their confidence. 

In the catalogue of the specimens of mammalia in the India-house 
museum, published by the late veteran zoologist, Dr. Horsfield, in 
1851, a Bos asseel is described as a new species, founded on a pre- 
served head, with the skin on, in that collection. I have drawings 
of the identical specimen, which I pronounce, with confidence (as I 
did formerly in J. A. S. XI, 415), to be that of a cow G-aour, with 
horns more slender and turning back more towards the tips than 
usual ; but I have seen others like them, and of all intermediate 
grades between them and the ordinary type of female Gaour-horns, 
resembling those of the bull but more slender, and with always a 
greater amount of inclination backwards at the tips. The specimen 
in question is figured by Gen. Hardwicke in the ' Zoological Journal,' 
III, pi. 7; together with a frontlet of a bull Gaour: and the two 
being by him also supposed to be distinct species. 

Of the Banteng (G. sondaictts), or Tsoing of the Burmese, (who 
designate the Gaour as the Pyoung,) we possess two frontlets from 
Java — one of them particularly fine, — also an imperfect skull with 
horns from Pegu, and a single horn from the Arakan side of the 
mountain range which separates that province from Pe°-u, — both 
presented by Col. Phayre ; — together with a flat skin of a calf from 
Mergui, resembling in colour the Javanese calf figured by Dr. Salomon 
Muller, who has given four excellent coloured representations of this 
animal, of different sexes and ages, and profusely illustrated the 
skulls and horns. For this calf-skin, the Society is indebted to the 
late Major Berdmore. The species was long ago indicated in Pen- 
nant's ' Hindustan,' as a kind of wild Ox " with white horns" inha- 

I860.] On the Fiat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 297 

biting the Indo-Chinese countries ; and our Peguan specimen has 
remarkably albescent horns, while the single horn from Arakan is 
darker, and resembles the Javanese examples in our museum. The 
next and more detailed notice which we can now refer, without hesi- 
tation, to this species, occurs in Herbert's ' Gleanings in Science,' 
III, 61. It would appear that a skull and horns of this animal were 
presented to the Society at its Meeting of February 2nd, 1831 ;* 
" with a descriptive notice by Mr. Maingy ; by which it appears, that, 
when full grown, it is about thirteen hands high, and of a most 
beautiful red colour, except under the belly which is white. It has 
no hump, like the cow of India. Altogether, it resembles the red 
cow of England, but is a much handsomer animal. The bull is a 
large and fine animal, and, with the exception of having a white 
forehead, resembles the cow. Mr. Maingy has seen twenty or more 
of these animals in a herd, but it is a very difficult thing to get a 
shot at them, as they have a most acute sense of hearing and smell- 
ing ; one or two appear to act as sentinels, while the others graze or 
drink. If, in snuffing the air, they find it tainted, off they fly in a 
moment, with a speed almost inconceivable, considering the form and 
bulk of the animal." 

In the foregoing descriptions, the invariable great white patch 
on each buttock (whence the name leucoprymnos bestowed on the 
hybrid by M.M. Quoy and Graymard) is unnoticed, as also the 
dark colour of the old bull : but the alleged " white forehead" of 
the bull refers doubtlessly to the mass of thickened corneous 
substance between the horns, which, in our larger Javanese frontlet, 
is thick and solid enough to turn a musket-ball.f (Vide S. Miiller's 
figure of the mature bull.) But, in a notice of " the Burmese wild 
Cow, or ' Sine Bar,' which appeared in the ' Bengal Sporting Maga- 

* These were not in the museum when I took charge of it in 1841 ; but only 
two frontlets from Java, presented by Prince William Henry of the Netherlands 
(J. A. S. VI, 987), one of which has since been forwarded to the India-house 

t In our smaller Javanese frontlet (figured J. A. S. XI, 490), a portion of 
this enormously thickened epidermis remains attached to the base of each horn, 
which led Mr. Hodgson to remark, when looking at these specimens as they 
hung up, that the horns were less approximated at base in the Peguan specimen. 
However, on close examination, the true base of the horn is seen to be well 
defined, and the supposed distinction disappears. 

2 H 

298 On the Mat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [No. 3, 

zine' for 1841, p. 444, we are informed that " herds of thirty and 
forty frequent the open forest jungles [of the Tenasserim provinces]. 
They are noble-looking animals, with short curved horns, that admit 
of a beautiful polish. The cows are red and white, and the bulls of 
a bluish colour. They are very timid, and not dangerous to approach. 
Their flesh is excellent. They are the only cows indigenous to the 
provinces :" — yet the preceding paragraph mentions " the Bison" or 
Gaour as " attaining a great size in the East." 

Here the difference of colouring of the sexes observable in the 
Banteng (analogous to what is seen in the Nil-gai and Indian 
Antelope, and to a less extent in the Gayal,) is noticed ; and Sir 
T. Stamford Baffles mentions, that (as also in the Nil-gai,) " a 
remarkable change takes place in the appearance of this animal 
after castration, the colour in a few months becoming invariably 
red ;"* i. e. reverting to the hue of the cow and immature bull. 
The horns cannot justly be termed short in an old bull ; but it 
is worthy of remark that, when full grown, they are flattened only 
towards the base, considerably less so than in the Gaour and Gayal, 
wherefore, when but half-grown, only the cylindrical portion of them 
appears, which has given rise to the reports of wild cattle with cylin- 
drical horns inhabiting the Indo-Chinese territories. As shewn by 
Prof. S. Miiller's figures, the Banteng — though still very Gayal-like in 
general aspect — approximates more nearly in contour to the cylin- 
drical-horned humpless cattle of Europe and N. Asia, than is the 
case with its immediate congeners, the Gaour and Gayal ; and the 
increased amount of cylindricity of its horns adds to the resemblance. 
With much of the general aspect of the Gayal, it has longer limbs, 
and is less heavy and Bubaline in its proportions. There is nothing 
exaggerated about its figure ; the spinal ridge is not more elevated 
than in B. taubus, and the tail-tuft descends considerably below the 
hock-joint. Indeed, this animal has been compared to a Devonshire 
Ox ; but it has nevertheless all the general features of the present 
group, and is true to the particular colouring, shewing the white 
stoclcings (like the Gaour and the Gayal, and also not a few Indian 
Buffaloes). The shoulder is a little high, with some appearance of 
the dorsal ridge behind the scapulae, but this slopes off and gra- 
* History of Java, I 3 111. 

1S60.] On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. F. Asia. 299 

dually disappears behind. The rump also is nearly as much squared 
as in European cattle. Dewlap moderate, with a different outline 
from that of the Gayal, more as in the B. tatjrus. Colour of the 
calf bright chesnut, with a black tail-tuft, and also a black dorsal 
line commencing from where the ridge should terminate behind ;* 
the white stockings having much rufous intermixture at this age. 
The cows are deeper-coloured, being of a rich light bay ; and the 
old bulls are blackish, — both however relieved by the white on the 
legs, buttocks, lips, and hair lining the ears, which last are scarcely 
so large as in the Gaour and Gayal, but of similar shape. The de- 
scription here given is drawn up from Dr. S. Midler's elaborately 
careful coloured figures. 

The Banteng inhabits Borneo, Java, and Bali, and I strongly 
incline to the opinion that the Gaour, Gayal, and Banteng alike 
inhabit the Malayan peninsula and Tenasserim provinces ; the Gayal, 
probabiy, being confined to a certain altitude upon the mountains. 
Capt. (since General) Low distinctly indicates three species in the 
Malayan peninsula, besides the Buffalo, in As. Fes. XVIII, 159. 
He mentions — "The Bison [Gaour], which is found of a very large 
size in Thedda, the head [forehead] being of a fawn colour : the 
wild Ox [Gayal ?] of the «ize of a large Buffalo ; and also a species 
[Banteng ?] resembling in every respect the domestic Ox." There is, 
indeed, the skull of a bull Banteng divested of its horns, labelled 
" from the Keddah coast," in the London United Service Museum ;t 
and the considerable resemblance of this animal to the humpless 
domestic cattle of Europe has been mentioned repeatedly. Thus the 
late Major Berdmore, writing of it from the valley of the Sitang 
river, remarks — " They are by no means so common here as they 
are to the south. I have often been in the midst of very large 
herds of them, and they appeared to me to be very like red do- 
mesticated cows." Heifer (no great authority, yet) notices three 
species of wild cattle, besides the Buffalo, in the Tenasserim pro- 
vinces. He tells us that — " The great Bos gaurus is rather rare, but 
Bison guodus [evidently a misprint for gavceus,^ i. e. Bos gavceus of 

* This black list is also conspicuous in the calves of both the Gaour and the 
Gayal, extending both over the dorsal ridge and behind it. 
t Figured in J. A. S. XI, 470, figs. 1, 2, and 3. 
X The words may be written to look very much alike. 

2 q 2 

300 On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. IE. Asia. [Xo. 3, 

Colebrooke, or the Gayal,] very common ; besides another small kind 
of Cow, called by the Burmese Fhain, of which I saw footprints, 
but never the living animal."* He does not mention the Gayal as 
domesticated in the provinces ; and I am not aware that any other 
writer has there noticed it at all. Still, I consider it highly probable 
that the Grayal, in addition to the Graour and Banteng for certain, 
extends to the more elevated regions of the Malayan peninsula.f 

The Banteng is the only species of the three which has been 
observed in certain of the great islands of the archipelago. The 
existence of a " wild Ox" in Borneo was long ago noticed by Beckman, 
as cited by Pennant, who also recorded the occurrence of such an 
animal in Java, and had likewise (as we have seen) obtained intelli- 
gence of one " with white horns" in the Indo-Chinese countries. 
In Java, according to Raffles, "it is found chiefly in the forests 
eastward of Pasuran, and in Bali, though it also occurs in other 
parts of Java." Br. S. Muller remarks that the Banteng is found 
in Java in territories which are seldom visited by man, as well in 
the forests of the plains and of the coast, as in those of the moun- 
tains up to 4,000 ft., where it is tolerably common. " We have 
likewise seen traces of it," he adds, "in Borneo, and have even 
received a calf from the Dyaks about a month old. According to 
Raffles, it is also found in Bali, but in Sumatra it does not appear to 
exist." In the N. E. peninsula of Borneo it would seem to be numer- 
ous. Thus, in a ' Sketch of Borneo,' published in Moor's Notes of the 
Indian Archipelago, the writer remarks — " During the wet season, 
the rivers swell and overflow their adjacent shores, and run down 
with such continued rapidity, that the water may be tasted fresh 
at sea at a distance of six or seven miles from their mouths. * * * 
In the dry season the coast, from these overflowings, presents to the 
eye the richest enamelled fields of full grown grass for miles around. 
It is at this season that whole herds of wild cattle range down from 
the mountains of the interior to fatten on the plains, but during the 

* J. A. S. VIII, 860. 

t The two species- of Malayan wild cattle noticed as the Sapi and the Sapair- 
dang, in the ' Journal of the Indian Archipelago' IV, 354 (as cited in J. A. S. 
XXI, 433), refer, as I am now satisfied, to the Gaour and the wild Buffalo. 
Dr. Cantor describes the Gaour to be "numerous in the Malayan peninsula," 
where known as the Sapi utan (literally 'wild Cow'), J. A. S. XV, 273. But he 
enumerates neither the Gayal nor Banteng in the peninsular fauna. 

I860.] On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. U. Asia. 301 

wet season they ascend to the hills." Hence we gather that the 
Banteng is essentially a grazer, like the Gaour, instead of being chiefly a 
browser like the Gayal, which never descends from its mountain forests. 
Another writer in the same work states that, in Bali, " the breed 
of cattle is extremely fine, almost every one of these beasts being 
fat, plump, and good-looking ; you seldom, if ever, see a poor cow in 
Bali : it is a breed of a much larger size than the common run of 
[humped] cattle in Java, and is obtained from a cross with the wild 
cow [bull ?] with the same animal. They are generally of a red 
colour, and all of them are white between the hind-legs and about 
the rump, so that I do not remember seeing one that was not white- 
breached. The people have no land expressly devoted to grazing ; 
but let their cattle eat their old stubble or fresh grass of the rice- 
fields, after the crops have been taken off; and while the rice is 
growing, they let the cattle stray into the commons or woods, and 
pick up what they can get by the road-side. The rude plough is 
drawn by two abreast, which the plougher drives with one hand 
while he guides the plough with the other." This account pretty 
clearly indicates domesticated Bantengs ; intermingled in blood, per- 
haps, more or less, with the humped cattle ; though there is nought 
to certify such intermixture in the notice quoted, but rather that 
— as in the case of the Gayal — both wild and tame exist and inter- 
breed occasionally. However, we have the authority of Professor 
Yan der Hoeven that the Bos leucojprymnos of Quoy and Gaymard 
is a hybrid Banteng ; and there is a figure of a cow of this mixed 
race among the Hardwieke drawings in the British Museum, which 
— as also in the instance of a hybrid Gayal that I saw alive — partook 
much more of the general aspect of what may be termed the jungle 
parent. These hybrid Bantengs are known as ' Bali cattle' at 

The Bev. F. Mason, in his ' Notes on the Fauna, Flora, &c, of the 
Tenasserim Provinces' (1852), remarks that " a small Ox from the 
Shan country is brought down sometimes in considerable numbers, 
which resembles in its form the English rather than the Indian Ox, 
but is probably derived from the wild race. Occasionally a young- 
wild Ox is domesticated, and brought under the yoke." This notice 
should have been more explicit. Crawfurd remarks — " The Ox is 

302 On tie Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. [No. 3, 

found wild in the Siamese forests, and exists very generally in the 
domestic state, particularly in the Southern provinces. Those we 
saw about the capital were short-limbed, compactly made, and often 
without horns, being never of the white or grey colour so prevalent 
among the cattle of Hindustan. They also want the hump on the 
shoulders which characterises the latter. They are used only in 
agricultural labour, and the slaughter of them, publicly at least, is 
forbidden even to strangers. Hence, during our stay, our servants 
were obliged to go three or four miles out of town, and to slaughter 
the animals at night. The wild cattle, for the protection of religion 
does not extend to them, are shot by professed hunters, on account 
of their hides, horns, bones, and flesh, which last, converted into jerked 
beef, forms an article of commerce with China."* Are domesticated 
Bantenars here intended ? The existence of hornless individuals is 

* ' Mission to Siam and Cochin China,' p. 430. 

The people of Laos "have a great many cattle, very small, which yield scarcely 
any milk, and which they never think of using. When we told them that in 
our country the milk of the cow was much esteemed, and that it formed a 
savoury food, they laughed, and only held our countrymen in contempt." 
(Grandjean, in the Chinese Repository', as quoted by Sir J. Bowring). This 
prejudice against the milk of the cow seems to be common to all the Indo- 
Chinese nations, and prevails also in China, whilst the Mantchurian Tartars are 
great consumers of milk. Even the savages of the Naga hills, bordering on 
Asain, reject milk as food, in the belief that it is of excrementitious nature. 

In Earl's ' Voyage to the Molucca Islands and New Guinea' (p. 361), we are 
informed that "Wild cattle are numerous in Timor Laut, of a brown colour, 
and size about the same as that of two-year old cattle in Holland. The natives 
catch them with rattan, and also shoot them with arrows." 

The Tamarao of the island of Mindoro (one of the Philippines), as I was 
informed by Mr. Hugh Cuming, is a small bovine species, but fierce and dan- 
gerous to attack, of a dark colour, with horns rising at an angle of about 45° 
from the forehead." The nearly similar name Tambadao is applied in Borneo to 
the Banteng. 

These various wild races and humpless tame races of S. E. Asia and its archi- 
pelago demand investigation ; and though I have before published in the So- 
ciety's Journal several of the notices here cited, it is convenient to bring them 
together, to save trotible in reference. What animal the following passage refers 
to, in Mrs. Graham's work in Ceylon, I am unable even to conjecture ; and cer- 
tainly do not credit the existence of such a creature. At the Governor's house, 
this lady " saw, feeding by himself, an animal no less beautiful than terrible, — 
the wild bull, whose milk-white hide is adorned with a black flowing mane !" 
The description is explicit enough, so far as it goes, but most assuredly no such 
animal is known to naturalists ; and with the example before us, of what a 
writer of Bishop Heber's stamp can make of the Gayal, we may cease to wonder 
at any amount of vagary of the kind on the part of unscientific observers ; 
though why people of education, who undertake to describe or notice an 
animal, however cursorily, should make such sorry use of their eyes is difficult 
to comprehend. 

1S60.] On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia, 303 

not more remarkable than that of hornless Buffaloes and other domes- 
tic cattle ; unless in the instance of a race little altered from the 
wild type. Thus the Italian race of Buffaloes, in which hornless 
individuals sometimes occur, (vide figure of the skull of one in Cuvi- 
er's Ossemens Fossiles.) is considerably more removed from the 
aboriginally wild type of the species, than are the domestic Buffaloes 
of India, among which I am not aware that hornless individuals ever 
occur. But I have read of hornless Yaks ; and instances have been 
known of hornless individuals of different species occurring even in 
the wild state : a tame Springbok of this description was long in 
the possession of the Empress Josephine. By specially breeding from 
such animals, a race of them could be readily established. 

In Sumatra, as in Java, the ordinary domestic Taurine cattle are 
humped, small and of inferior quality : but, according to Sir T. 
Stamford Baffles, — " There is a very fine breed of cattle peculiar to 
Sumatra, of which," he remarks, " I saw abundance at Menang Kabu, 
when I visited the capital of that country in 1818. They are short, 
compact, well made animals, without a hump, and almost without ex- 
ception of a light fawn colour, relieved with white. The eyes are 
large and fringed with long white lashes. The legs are delicate and well 
shaped. Among all that I saw I did not observe any that were not 
in excellent condition, in which respect they formed a striking con- 
trast to the cattle generally met with in India [i. e. S. E. Asia and 
its archipelago. India proper is styled " Western India" by Craw- 
ford]. They are universally used in agriculture, and are perfectly 
domesticated. This breed appears to be quite distinct from the 
Banteng of Java and the more eastern islands."* What, then, is it ? 
The remark that these beasts are " perfectly domesticated" would 
hardly have been made of any race appertaining to the humped or 
to the ordinary humpless type, but seems to imply that the writer 
regarded it as a peculiar species, as does also his statement of its 
distinctness from the Banteng. 

In the ' Journal of the Indian Archipelago,' II, 831, is a notice of 

the existence of wild cattle in Celebes ; but I suspect that the small 

Anoa Buffalo (Bubaltjs depbessicoenis) is intended. In an account 

of the province of Minahassa, it is there stated that — " wild Cows 

* Lin. Trans. XIII, 267. 

304 On the 'Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of 8. E. Asia. [No. 3 

^re also found here, principally in the higher parts of the mountains ; 
hut they hear little resemblance to the Banteng of Java ; are belovv 
the middle size, yet possess, notwithstanding, an incredible strength." 
Just possibly an un described Taurine may he here indicated. 

While illustrating the domesticability of all the fiat-horned Tau- 
rine cattle indigenous to S. E. Asia, it is not disputed that some species 
of animals are more easily tameable than others ; for instance, the 
American as compared with the European Bison (by all accounts), or 
even the domestic humped bull as compared with the domestic Euro- 
pean bull. It may be from more thorough association with mankind, 
from its youth continuously, but it rather seems from constitutional 
difference (still the result, perhaps, of countless ages of such complete 
domestication), but the fact is undeniable that the humped bull is 
far more gentle and tractahle than his European compeer ; being 
much more completely in subjection, and hardly (if at all) influenced 
by those paroxysms of sexual excitement which seem to he as irre- 
pressible as ineradicahle in the entire males of most other ruminants. 
It must be conceded, however, that the European bull is rarely sub- 
jected to like conditions, — so much inured to constant handling, and 
governed by a cord passed through his septum narium. But the 
fact remains (as attested by daily observation) that, under existent 
respective conditions, the humped bull is — as a general rule — by far 
the more gentle, tractable, and inoffensive animal of the two. 

Since writing the above, I have seen Professor Isidore Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire's essay ' Sur les Origines des Animaux Domestiques,' 2nd frag- 
ment, published in the " Bulletin Mensual de la Societe Imperial e 
Zoologique d' Acclimation" III, 496. Of the Zebu, or humped Ox, he 
remarks, that in ancient times it was doubtlessly much less diffused 
over the East than at present. " Herodote qui avait voyage en Orient, 
Aristote qui connaissait si bien l'Egypte, la Perse et l'lnde, parlent a 
plusieurs reprises des Boeufs de l'Orient et des particularites de leur 
organization, jamais de leur hosse. Pour Herodote, voy. surtout liv. 
II, III, et V. Je ne trouve pas advantage le Zebu dans 'vElien and dans 
Athenee. Ou contraire, Pline (liv. VIII, LXX,) mentionne son exis- 
tence en Syrie et en Carie. * * * Aristote dit d'ailleurs forinellement, 

I860.] 0/7 the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. F. Asia. 305 

dans un autre passage (liv. II, 1), — " Une chose qui n'appartient qu'au 
Chanieau, entre tous les quadrupeds, c'est qu'il a une bosse sur le dos." 
(Trad, deja citee de Camus, p. 59.) Done Aristote ne eonnaissait 
pas le Zebu." — The frequent representation of the humped bull on 
Indo-Bactrian coins at once recurs to mind : but I have been favour- 
ed with the following note respecting the antiquity of the humped 
bull in India, by our joint-secretary Mr. E. B. Cowell. — " In reply 
to your query," he remarks, " I find that a humped bull is expressly 
mentioned in the tenth book of the Rig Veda. This is generally 
considered to be a later book than the other nine, — but it is certainly 
much older than the Bactrian kingdom, not later, at least, than 
B. C. 900 or 1000. The passage occurs in the 10th Manclala, 8th 
Anuvaka, 2nd Sukta ; — I am sorry to say we have no commentary 
in the Society's library, and the printed edition has only completed 
the former half, so that I cannot exactly determine the entire sense 
of the passage, but part of it is clear enough — that the god of fire 
is described as rushing along in his course roaring like a humped 
bull. The words vrishabhah Jcahudmdn (here used) are the common 
terms, which of course occur frequently enough in the later Sanskrit 
authors. The comparison of Agni (the god of fire) to a bull occurs 
very often in the earlier books of the Rig Veda, but I don't remem- 
ber any mention of the hump." 

It is remarkable that the humped cattle were common enough in 
ancient Egypt, though unknown in the valley of the lower Nile, or 
even northward of Abyssinia at the present time. According to Sir 
J. Gardner Wilkinson, the cattle of the ancient Egyptians " were of 
different kinds, of which three principal distinctions are most deserv- 
ing of notice ; the short, the long-horned cattle, and the Indian or 
humped ox ; and the two last, though no longer natives of Egypt, 
are common to this day in Abyssinia and Upper Ethiopia." Domestic 
Planners of the Ancient Egyptians. Ill, 33. For an unmistakeable 
figure of the humped species, vide p. 19, f. 5 ; though the European 
type is more commonly represented in Wilkinson's copies, and often 
the calf frisking about beside its dam, as in 1, 48. Even here the 
difference of the two species is characteristic ; for the humped cattle, 
when at play, recurve the tail over the back in a remarkable manner ; 
instead of its being held straight out, or assuming the Bisontine bend, 

2 s 

306 On the Flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. No. 3, 

straight for the basal hall' and then downward, as shewn in the figure 
cited. Any one accustomed only to the sight of European or humpless 
calves at play, cannot but feel some surprise, at first, on witnessing the 
mode in which the humped species carries its tail ; and the propensity 
of a humped calf to run thus before or beside a horse in harness, and 
to accompany it for a considerable distance along the road, is a fact of 
daily observation in this country. 

(To be continued.) 

Literary Intelligence. 

The Aynuhi ' Bukht' iz*sj <Ujf is a work which is not, at all events 
under this title, mentioned in Elliott's Historians. Mr. E. C. Barley 
has sent us a copy of the Preface and conclusion of a MS. of it, which 
has come into his possession. Its author is Bukhtawur Khan, and 
its date of composition A. H. 1127. The writer brings down the his- 
tory of the Moghul dynasty from Baber to Aurungzeeb, but we have 
not yet ascertained from what materials he has drawn his narrative — 
nor indeed who he was. A copy of the work is being made for the 
Society's Library. 

The following extract from a letter from Lucknow promises inform- 
ation of great interest from perhaps the most classical spot in India. 

" Bajah Man Singh has drawn up an account of the divisions of 
ancient Ajoodhia which I have asked him to give to the Society. He 
says there were three, viz. " Poorub Basht," " Puchim Basht" and 
" Uttur Kosala!" The latter being the modem Gonda Boraitch- 

He declares also that there were eventually two Buddhist king- 
doms which sprang up on the decline of the Ajoodhia Baj — one of 

1SG0.] Literary Intelligence. 307 

those was at " Sahet Mahet," where he saj's there are a tope and 
ruins between Ekowna and Bulrampore. The other kingdom was at 
Benares — they sprang he declares from the Mourya line of Palibo- 

The most celebrated king of the Sahet Mahet race was " Sohil 
Deo" slain by Syud Salar, the celebrated general of Mahmood of 
G-huzni. The last was " Ram Deo" who fell in battle with Mahomed 
Grhori three generations later. 

He has too given me a hint. He says the copper coins with Lion 
reverses belong to Ajoodlda, the bull and cock coins to Sahet Mahet 
(king's titles " Mittra and Deo" both) and the Benares kings he 
says had a trisul as their symbol. 

He has given me also an account of a tope near Sultanpore. 

Further more he says that in building Sankata Ghat at Benares a 
" lath" larger than that at Allahabad was dug up, but that the bar- 
barians chipped off the letters, and built it into the foundations where 
it still exists and is visible. 

He promises to send me two inscriptions or rather manuscripts in 
modern Sanscrit, and I have ordered for him a transcript in large 
letters of Thomas' comparative table of the Devanagari." 

We are glad to find that there is a prospect of Dr. Sprenger's car- 
rying out his project of publishing Maqdisiy in the Bibliotheca In- 
dica. It will be remembered that he proposed this undertaking when 
in Syria in 1854, (See Journal, Vol. XXIV. p. 47,) and that the Society 
closed with the offer at its meeting in May, 1855, but that on Dr. S.'s 
return to Indian he found the Oriental Fund so reduced in resources as 
to render it unadvisable to proceed with the publication. The subject 
dropped, and in the following year Dr. S. left the country. He now 
renews his offer from Berne, and we earnestly hope that the arrange- 
ments now bein«; made to inve effect to it will be successful. 

308 Literary Intelligence. [No. 3, 

The following is extracted from a letter from Professor Wright of 
Dublin to Dr. W. N. Lees, dated March 19th, 1860. 

Just now the Government and the mass of the people (led by 
Trevelyan, Monier Williams, &c.) are possessed with a rage for Ro- 
manizing the Oriental characters, and anglicizing the Hindu races, 
and what not, the result of which, so far as I can see, is, that Oriental 
learning will sink among us still lower than it is, that we shall have 
lots of bad Hindustani translations of English books, and that the 
native literature, which is really iiseful in a historical point of view 
at least, will be utterly neglected. Your Asiatic Society must bestir 
itself and try to save what it can. For myself, I am working at 
the 2nd vol. of the Arabic Grammar, and after that, I shall probably 
edit a reading book with a complete glossary. Besides, I have on 
hand, an English Hindustani Dictionary, which I am compiling from 
my own reading and the best published sources I can get. Have 
you seen Ahlwardt's onslaught on the fame of Von Hammer, entitled 
" Chalefelahmar's Qasside von W. Ahlwardt, Greifswald, 1859" — a 
good book, as is also his edition of an historical work with the title 
"El Fachri, Geschichte der islamischen Reiche...von Ibn Etthiq- 
thaqa...von W. Ahlwardt, Gotha, 1860." Further there is the 9th 
fasciculus of Juynboll's c^Uslll &*>\ya containing the introduction and 
the notes to the first 2 fasciculi (588 pp. and cviii. pp.) ...Vuller's 
Persian Lexicon goes on slowly, — I have seen 6 fasciculi in 8 parts 
as far as aJjJji'.... Possibly you may not have seen Chwolson " uber 
die Ueberreste der altbabylonischen Literatur in Arabisehen Ueberset- 
zungen," a most extraordinary work and very interesting, if one 
could only believe it all. Yet Chwolson is a good and cautious 
scholar (as his " Ssabier in d. Ssabismus" shows), and has studied 
this particular branch of the Arabian literature more than any man 
alive. The chief work is the Agricultura Nabatha3orum (^*sJ| 
AjJoaUi) along with the translations by ^-jA 2 ^ <i^'- 

A letter from Dr. Sprenger dated last October, an extract from 
which is published in the last No. of the Zeitschrift, announces the 
result of his examination of the MS. of Wakidy's Mughaziy in the 
British Museum. Though an imperfect one, this MS. contains a 
third more of matter than the text published in our Bibliotheca by 

I860,] Literary Intelligence. 309 

M. Von Krenier. It is to be hoped that Dr. Sprenger, who has for 
the furtherance of his own Biography made a copy of the additional 
matter, will enable our Philological Committee to bring out a 4th 
or Supplementary Fasciculus of M. Von Kremer's edition. 

Extract from a letter from Professor Holmboe, Christiania, to 
Baboo Rajendralal Mittra. 

" Dans la derniere mernoire,* j' ai demontre que deux medailles 
d' or qui ont ete decouvertes dans deux tombeaux payens en Nor- 
vege, ont des types et des legendes, qui sont des imitations de medailles 
Ariennes. J'y ai encore proiive, qu' un grand nombre de bracteats 
(lames avec empreintes a l'un des cotes) d'or ont emprunte leurs 
types de representations de Siva ou de Dourga de la mythologie 
Indienne. Comparez par exemple la position du bceuf sur le bracteat 
scandinave Xo. 7 de ma planche I. avec le boeuf des sculptures de 
Mandore et de Java sur ma pi. II. Et les croix mystiques qu'on voit 
si souvent au commencement ou a, la fin des inscriptions anciennes 
de 1' Inde se presentent sur une vingtaine des bracteats surnommes. 
A la page 201 j' ai encore compare d' autres symboles, qui se voient 
moins souvent sur nos bracteats, et qui se trouvent egalement sur des 
medailles de 1' Afghanistan et de 1' Inde." 

* In the last No. of the Transactions of the Christiania Society. 




For July, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Socrety was held 

on the 4th Instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confh'med. 

Presentations were received — ■ 

From the Madras Government, Selections from its Records No. 64 
(containing Report on the Agricultural Exhibitions in the provinces 
in 1859). 

2. From the Government of India, Home Department, a copy 
of a work containing No. 27 of the Appendix of the Bombay Govern- 
ment record. 

3. From the Municipal Commissioners, a copy of their report for 

4. From His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, through Alex- 
ander Murray, Esq., of Edinburgh, a remarkably fine stuffed head, 
with horns, of the Scottish Red Deer with the ' cup' of ' royal crown' 
to the horns and the tines complete. " This animal was killed by 
his Royal Highness, the Prince Consort upon Locknagaar on the 8th 
September, 1859. Weight after being cleaned out 16st. 121bs.' 
Some further particulars about the specimen are given in the Cura- 
tor's report. 

On the motion of the President, a vote of thanks was unanimously 
accorded to His Royal Highness for this valuable addition to the 
Society's collections. 

I860.] Proceedings of tlie Asiatic Society. 311 

5. From J. F. Galiffe, Esq., two living specimens of the largo 
Gecko Lizard, TokJci or Toltfu, (Platydactylas Gecko) captured at 
Eussa near Calcutta. 

6. From Baboo S. S. Ghose a large Medusa cast ashore at Diamond 
Harbour apparently of the genus Cepliia of person, but the appen- 
dages mutilated of all but their peduncles. 

7. From Baboo Bajendra Mallik various eggs laid in his aviaries ; 
also, for exhibition to the Meeting, a stuffed specimen of a newly 
discovered species of Cassowarry, at present unique ; five species of 
this remarkable genus being now recognised, of which two have been 
first brought to notice within the present year. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last Meeting, were 
balloted for, and elected ordinary members. 

Rajah Bunsput Singha. 

A. B. Sampson, Esq. 

W. Grey, Esq. 

J. P. Grant, Esq. Jr. 

Dr. B. Simpson. 

G. H. M. Batten, Esq., B. C. S. 

E. G. Mann, Esq. 

L. F. Byrne, Esq., C. E. 

George Shelverton, Esq., and 

Syud Ahmed Khan. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary mem- 
bers at the next Meeting. 

Dr. A. J. Payne, Superintendent of the Insane Hospital ; propos- 
ed by Mr. F. L. Beaufort, seconded by Major Thuillier. 

Captain C. M. FitzGerald, Deputy Commissary General ; proposed 
by Major F. D. Atkinson, seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

T. E. B. Judge, Esq., proposed by Mr. Atkinson, seconded by 
the President. 

The Council reported that they had added Col. Baird Smith and 
Dr. H. Halleur to the Committee of Meteorology and Physical 

The President proposed the following resolution : — 

Besolved that the Meeting desires to record its sense of the heavy 
loss which the cause of Oriental literature has sustained by the death 

312 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. % 

of Professor H. H. Wilson, and to express at the same time the 
sincere and affectionate regrets with which this Society finds itself 
deprived of the advice and assistance of its oldest and most distin- 
guished memher. 

In moving this resolution, the President spoke as follows : — u I 
need scarcely remind the Meeting that since we last met the mail 
has brought us the announcement of the death of a very old, indeed 
our oldest Memher. Horace Hayman Wilson, late Boden Professor 
at Oxford, died in London on the 18th May at the advanced age of 
73 after a connexion with our Society of more than half a centurv ; 
for he joined us immediately on arriving in this country in 1808, a 
period at which we had only just established ourselves in the building 
in which we now sit. Colebrooke was then our President, and Hunter 
had been our Secretary with a short interval from 1798, so that by his 
succession to Hunter as Secretary, in 1810, Wilson has a title to 
be ranked among our earliest office-bearers. He filled the Secretary- 
ship for 22 years ; in fact until his retirement from India in 1833 ; 
and during this long period he devoted himself almost exclusively to the 
study of the Sanscrit classics. His first work was the translation 
of the Megha Duta, and in 1819 he brought out the first edition of 
the first Sanscrit and English Dictionary which had been compiled. 
He then published his Selections from the Hindoo Drama and the 
catalogue of the Mackenzie MSS., and was, when he left this country, 
engaged on his analysis of the Purans, four of which he completed 
before his departure, and the original MSS. of which are all in our 
Library. These works, however, were by no means all his contribu- 
tions to Oriental literature. One of the most important papers which 
has appeared in our Researches was written by him in 1825 ; I allude 
to his Essay on the Hindoo History of Cashmere, which, with other 
papers, helps to make Vol. XV. of our Researches the most inter- 
esting, perhaps, of the series. 

The address which was presented to Wilson by our President, 
Sir E. Ryan, and his Vice-Presidents, Drs. Mill and Tytler iu 
December 1832, shows how fully our Society then appreciated the 
loss which it was about to sustain of his eminent services, while 
his answer evinced the unabated interest in our Society's proceedings 
which he was carrying away with him. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 313 

At our request he kindly consented to act, as Colebrooke had for 
some years acted, as our London agent, and it was in this capacity 
that he so succesfully pleaded our cause with the late Court of Di- 
rectors and obtained for us the monthly grant which now forms our 
Oriental Fund. The correspondence which we had with Govern- 
ment and with Wilson himself in 1856 is a sufficient proof that he 
wished still to take a part in our deliberations for appropriating 
this grant ; and it must be a source of gratification to us now to 
feel that in bringing out the Persian historical texts which we have 
lately resolved on undertaking, we shall be working more than we 
were a few years back in the special direction in which he wished 
to lead us. 

What Wilson had been to our Society during his stay in this 
country he has since his return to England been to the Boyal Asiatic 
Society which Colebrooke had ftmnded ten years previously. Whether 
as President or Director, he has been its moving spirit at least on 
all occasions on which Indian subjects were to be dealt with. Besides 
his* contributions to the transactions and Journal of that Society 
he found time to bring out a further edition of his Sanscrit Diction- 
ary, " Ariana Antiqua," a work of the greatest archaeological and 
historical value, a Glossary of Indian terms, and a continuation of 
Mill's History of India up to Lord William Bentick's administra- 
tion. His introduction to the Sanscrit Grammar is known to every 
student of the language, and his edition of his old fellow-passenger, 
Moorcroft's Travels in the Himalyan provinces, to eveiy geogra- 
pher. The last work on which he was engaged was the translation 
of the " Big Veda," and his determination himself to effect its com- 
pletion is strikingly shown by the way in which he has anticipated 
Miiller's edition of the Text. Wilson died a few days only before 
the 37th Anniversary Meeting of the Boyal Asiatic Society. He 
had when vacating the Presidentship of that Society in 1858, 
and acknowledging the usual resolution of thanks which Mr. Marsh- 
man had moved, and in which a hope was expressed that he would 
soon re-occupy his proper post, made a touching allusion to the im- 
probability of his surviving the interval which must by the Bules of 
the Society precede his re-election. 

What little I have said does not profess to approach to an ade- 

2 T 

314 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 3, 

quate notice of so indefatigable a man and so complete a scholar. 
It is intended only to preface the Resolution which 1 hold in 
my hand, and to which I am going to ask the assent of this Meeting. 

Communications were received — 

From J. Obbard, Esq., a paper on the " Translation of waves of 
water with relation to the great flood of the Indus in 1858." 

2. Prom T. Oldham, Esq., extracts of letters from J. L. Stewart, 
Esq., M. D., 11th Punjaub Infantry employed with the expedition 
to the Wuzeeree country : — 

" I generally pick up a bit of stone here and there, but as I have 
made no arrangements for the carriage of such heavy goods, I am 
obliged to be contented with very ' wee bits' which I suspect would 
be much too minute to be of use to you. Next time, if I have 
another chance, I purpose making better arrangements in this re- 
spect. Near where we have been encamped recently, blocks big and 
little were abundant (I nowhere have seen it in strata or in situ) of 
a calcareous rock crammed with corals, echinide mata (?) and shells of 
various species, some not uncommon, but I have not seen a trace of 
vegetables or of higher animals. This doubtless partly depends on 
my want of practice. Almost all these are, however, too bulky for 
my means of stowage. 

" The expedition started from Tak (to the N. W. of Dera 
Ismael Khan) and hitherto we have been advancing up the bed of a 
small stream called the Zam. We have only come 21 miles from 
Tak, but will go on to the central city of the Wuzeerees (Kanee- 
gorm) some 25 miles apparently, to the west, on a mountain which 
ought to be near the watershed of what here represents the ' ; Sub- 
man" range. The mountain has been calculated from a distance as 
upwards of 11,000 feet, but as yet although we rise very consider- 
ably with the slope of the bed of the Zam, we have gained no great 
elevation. The stream cuts through the ridges crossing them, and 
gives numerous sections, as do the innumerable ravines and gullies. 

" For the first ten to twelve miles from the plains the rocks were 
all soft standstones and conglomerates alternating, at first dipping 
to the west mostly at a low angle, and presenting a steep escarpment 
towards the plains of Tak on the east, latterly dipping to the east 
and contorted variously at varying angles. We then came on cal- 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 315 

careous strata and for the last five or six miles the rocks are mostly 
of rapidly disintegrating strata, red, greenish, and with salt efflo- 
rescing on the surface. Amongst these, which on the surface become 
earthy masses, are some nummuhtic beds alternating with non- 
fossiliferous grey limestone and strata of sandstone and grit, often 
vitrified and darker coloured externally. All these dip to the east 
at all angles varying from 1° to 90°, but mostly from 15° to 45°, rough- 
ly speaking, amongst them are a few thin beds of flint. The masses 
with corals He about on the surface and in drift masses, in something 
like a line parallel to these strata. 

" Upon the lower parts of these inclined strata in many places 
are plateaux of gravel having amongst it large vitrified-looking blocks. 
These plateaux are of several acres in extent, and from 50 to 100 
feet above the bed of the stream. Occasionally below that, and a few 
feet above the stream, are patches of alluvial soil cultivated by the in- 
habitants, apparently very fertile. 

" The day following we made a march of 4J miles up the Zam ravine, 
till we came to a tanged (a ' tightness' as they call their passes in 
Pushtu) beyond which the General considered it advisable not to 
go that day. The strata composing the hills on either side, so far 
as they were not obscured by the horizontal shingle beds, appeared 
to consist mostly of a brownish limestone alternating with beds of 
the coloured disintegrating shales, the latter far exceeding the former 
in quantity, all dipping to south-east at moderate angles. 

" In front of us, the stream came through a narrow gorge between 
a height of perhaps 200 to 250 feet, composed of a light coloured 
limestone with numerous veins of calcareous spar running in all direc- 
tions through it. Its strata considerably waved, and with a low dip 
to the north-west. The strata of these heights seemed at the point 
of junction to overlie the coloured strata, but I had not an oppor- 
tunity of getting close to the point. 

" The 4th was rather a momentous day, and I had not much time 
for dawdling and looking about, as some five miles up, the Wuzeerees 
stood, and the fight of the expedition came off. 

" After we passed through the tangai the strata were mostly of greyish 
non-fossiliferous limestone overlying unconformably beds of the co- 
loured shales. The uppermost beds of the limestone here had a 

2 u 2 

316 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 3, 

character, which I had occasionally remarked before, of ' tesselatiou,' 
that is, were divided into little quadrilateral blocks, the upper edges of 
which were rounded. 

" Beyond the Barrarra pass, where the fight took place, the lower 
strata visible were the coloured disintegrating beds, generally at a 
high angle with dip to south-west ; the higher hills of the waved 
limestone dipping to S. W. at a low angle. 

" On the 5th, we made a march of 15 miles, notwithstanding our 
many wounded, to Kaneegorm, and the flora was so new, that I had 
not much leisure for looking at the rocks. Our camp at Kaneegorm 
was trigonometrically 6,700 feet above the sea level, and we probably 
rose more than 2,500 feet in that march. 

" We gradually appeared to leave the limestone rocks, although 
(occasionally) the coloured rocks were seen overlaid by limestone, 
and got among hills composed of slate in very thin beds, mostly 
and frequently with markings of angle (?) over then - surface. These 
slate strata were frequently contorted and wavy. 

" For the last two days the quantity of granitic stones among 
the gravel, was very much on the increase. About and below Pala- 
sin> (the place whence I wrote my last letter,) hardly a bit of granite 
was to be seen ; here the shingle is almost entirely granitic. 

" 6th halt. — 7th. — I went with the survey party to the top of a 
hill to the S. S. W. some six miles off, and 1600 feet higher than 
the Kaneegorm camp. The strata on the way appeared mostly of 
what looks like a thin bedded sandstone (?) generally dipping to 
N. W. at pretty high angles. 

" Our road up to Kaneegorm had lain still in the bed of the Zam 
ravine, and latterly in that of one of its tributaries. As we got 
near the centre of the range here the streams became quite small. 

" On the 8th, we marched eight miles down the stream on the 
same road by which we had come, and then I bad more opportunity 
of noticing that in a general way the ranges run north and south, 
and that the strata, although occasionally horizontal and often con- 
torted, are generally at an angle of about 15°, with the dip to the 
west (W. N. W). The beds are mostly thickish and of slaty rock, 
with occasional strata of bluish disintegrating schistose structure. 

" There were, however, but few sections to be seen on account of 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 317 

frequent masses of horizontally deposited shingle, mostly granitic, 
or of the above rocks. Further down, the upper strata appear gene- 
rally the grey contorted and waved slaty, overlying and hardly 
conformable with the thinner bedded blue slaty rocks. 

" 10th. — We left the road by which we came up, and diverged 
to the northward some five miles. The strata mostly of the thick 
bedded grey slaty rocks, cortorted, and at varying angles, and dip 
generally not far from horizontal. 

" Here we were within a mile of another central cluster of their 
villages called Makin and the nearest point to which we got to the 
central mass of this range of hills called Pirghar or Ghal, points of 
which towered some 2000 to 4000 feet above us. Where the stra- 
tification can be seen, as in the nearer masses, it appears nearly ver- 
tical and bent. 

" On the 11th with one of the covering parties of a burning ex- 
pedition to these villages, I got on a ridge somewhat nearer to 
Pirghar. The surface of this ridge is mostly composed of shingle, 
granitic, and very rarely slaty grey rock visible in situ nearly ver- 

" On the 12th a march of eight miles, still northerly, up a bank 
bed, and camp at about 7300 feet ; the highest camp we had. Just 
on reaching camp passed a number of strata of the algse, marked, 
thin, bluish, hard, shaly strata overlying beds of the thick, vitrified 
looking rock. I mentioned before, both at a high angle dipping to 
the west. The general disposition of the grey slaty rock we saw is, 
however, nearly horizontal, with a slight dip to east. Most of the 
valley in which we progressed was a mile wide, and occasionally more, 
filled up by horizontally disposed shingle beds, our road being up the 
bed which the stream has cut through these. 

" 14th. — -Marched five miles still to northward. For 1^ miles 
we rise, then down a steep rocky ravine ; rocks mostly shaly, and 
the vitrified looking varieties generally at high angles, dip to east ; 
some of the strata occasionally much contorted. 

" For days, evidences of the Iron manufacture for which Kanee- 
gorm has long been famous had been visible, such as furnaces and 
slag, &c, with occasionally, in villages, stores of iron stone. None 
of the latter, however, did I happen to see. Here I thought we 

318 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 3, 

must be near the ore, and made some efforts to get at some place 
whence they dig it, but am sorry to say, failed. 

" 15th. — We went more to eastward descending towards Bunnoo 
in the ravine of the Khyssor stream. The rocks mostly slaty, and 
the ' vitrified' at high angle dip to the west, and often covered by 
horizontal shingle beds to 50 or 60 feet, which obscure matters 
greatly, so that sometimes for a mile or two no rock in situ could 
be seen. The lower beds of this shingle are here occasionally con- 
solidated into conglomerate. 

" 16th. — The strata, mostly of the dark " vitrified" surfaced rock, 
generally at about 45° dip to west. Then a grey rock with white 
streaks (limestone) nearly horizontal and contorted, then with a strong 
dip to west and still contorted ; occasional shaly beds. 

" 17th. — Halt. Here we were in a region of plateaux of the horizon- 
tally laid gravel with, a mile or two to south, the western termination 
of a flat sloping hill with the strata dipping slightly to' the east. 

" 18th. — A mile or two on we pass through the gorge formed by 
the stream crossing through the end of the above hill, which is of 
non-fossiliferous limestone. This appears to be near the geological 
' level' of Palasin ; for here, also, there are numeroiis heaps of the 
black decomposed rock we had there, with other particoloured debris : 
vertical strata of the white non-fossiliferous limestone. Numerous 
blocks of the coralline (?) rock seen lying about, but I could not get 
near any of them. Nummulitic blocks and pebbles numerous among 
the shingle. Then after about a mile of these heaps of coloured 
debris we go through a gorge formed by nearly vertical ridges of 
dark coloured hard sandstone, followed by sandstone strata also at a 
high angle (dipping to east) with one or two strata of conglomerate. 
Blocks of the dark superficially vitrified stone profusely strewn over 
all the heights. 

" On the 19th a mile and a half carried us from among these low 
ridges into the Bunnoo plain, here stony, mostly uncultivated, and 
sloping from the hills." 

In forwarding these extracts, Mr. Oldham writes as follow : — 

Nainital, June 9th, 1S60. 

My dear. GtEote,— I enclose you a brief extract from a note received 
from Dr. Stewart of the 14th Punjab Infantry, who is at present with 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 319 

Chamberlain's expedition against the Wuzeerees. Dr. Stewart is 
devoting his leisure moments, principally to botanizing, I believe, but 
he has in his note given some geological details which are of great 
interest. It has hitherto been supposed that the rocks representing 
the Siwalik group extended very much further to the west from the 
plains of upper India, even beyond the Ghilza range, but this note 
shews the occurrence of nummultic beds within a very few miles of 

The soft sandstones and conglomerates are, I think, clearly the 
Siwalik group, and probably the upper portion of this enormously 
thick series. The physical structure of the hills there, also, appears 
to correspond with that of the Siwalik hills here. They run to the 
X. "W. presenting a scarp to the plains of beds dipping sharply into 
the hills. The calcareous beds associated with red, greenish, and 
white shaly beds rapidly disintegrating into earthy masses seem to 
represent the lower part of the nummulitic series ; at least this is the 
general character of that part of the group in these hills. The layers of 
chert or flint are frequent here as there. If this conjecture be correct, 
it must follow that there, as here, a great fault separates these 
two series. 

The remarkable fact of the streams cutting across the ridges of the 
outer or Siwalik rocks is abundantly paralleled here too, and nothing 
is more striking on passing up the river gorges here than the marked 
plateaux or terraces of gravelly detritus which occur at various levels, 
such as are noticed in Dr. Stewart's note. 

I sincerely hope to have further information from the writer of the 
interesting note regarding a country of which we know so little. 

Tours sincerely, 

(Signed) T. Oldham. 

Since forwarding the above notes, specimens of the iron stone used 
on these hills has been received from the Government of the Punjab, 
and submitted to assay in the Geological Survey Office, Calcutta. The 
results are as follow. 

The specimens consist of samples of a rock which is itself composed 
of iron ore in two distinct conditions. 

(a) One portion is a common hydrous peroxide of iron containing 
40.4 per cent, of iron. 

320 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 3. 

(h) The other is a similar mineral mechanically mixed with car- 
honate of lime, in small quantities, the mass containing 31.8 percent, 
of iron. 


The following books have been added to the Library since June last. 

General Report of the Municipal Commissioners of Calcutta for 1859. — 
By the Commissioners. 

Selections from the Public Correspondence of the Punjab Government, 
vol. IV. Nos. 4 and 5. — By the Government. 

Selections from the Records of Travancore. Part I. (containing Memoir 
of Travancore). — By the Madras Government. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator for May. — By the Editor. 

Bibidharta Sangraha for the month of Kartick. — By the Editor. 

Selections from the Records of the Madras Government, No. 64, (con- 
taining Report on the Agricultural Exhibitions in the Provinces in 1859). — 
By the Madras Government. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia from 
October, 1859, to February, 1860. — By the Academy. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. X. No. 38. — By the 

Description of a deformed fragmentary human skull, found in an ancient 
Quarry cave at Jerusalem. — By J. Aitken Meigs, M. D.— By the Au- 


The Athenaeum for April, 1860. 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. New se- 
ries, Vol. IV. Part 3. — By the Academy. 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. Band, XIV. 
Heft I. and II. — By the Society. 

The Philosophical Magazine for May, 1860. — By the Editors. 

The Literary Gazette, Nos. 95, 96, 97 and 98. 
Comptes Rendus, Nos. 15, 16, 17 and 18 of Tome L. 
Revue des Deux Mondes, Tomes 26 and 27. 
Amiales des Sciences Naturelles, Tome XII. No. 2. 
Journal des Savants for April, 1860. 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 321 

The Natural History Review, No. 26. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. V. No. 29. 

Die Leider des Hafis, Vol. II. Part 4. 

Vendidad Sade, VI. Livarisoa. 

Fob August, 1860. 

At a meeting of the Society held on the 1st instant, A. Grote, 
Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Presentations were received — 

1. From C. Hobhouse, Esq., C. S., nine silver coins found in May 
last year, in throwing down one of the old Embankments on the 
light bank of the river Damoodah in Pergunnah Hubilee of the district 
Hoogly. These coins are of the last century, from the Moorshedabad 

2. From Michael M. S. Dutt, Esq., a copy of his work named 
" The Birth of Tillottoma," being the first epic poem in blank verse 
in the Bengali language. 

3. From the British Indian Association, a copy of their Report 
for June last. 

4. From C. J. Evans, Esq., Calcutta, frontal portion of skull of 
an African baboon, probably CynocepJialus hcmnadryas, found by him- 
self in the dry well of the pyramid of Cheops. The specimen is 
quite recent. 

5. From the Rev. H. Baker, Junior, of Mandakyam, Alipee, S. 
Malabar, skins of Sorex mar inns and Sciurus trilineatus. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
ballotted for and elected ordinary members : — 

Dr. A. J. Payne ; Capt. C. M. Fitzgerald, and T. E. B. Judge, 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot at the next 

W. Forbes Gross, Esq., proposed by Mr. Medlicott, and seconded 
by Mr. W. Blandford. 

Major T. James, Bengal Army, proposed by Dr. Crozier, seconded 
by Mr. W. S. Atkinson. 

322 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society^ 

The Council reported that they had nominated Major H. L. Thuil- 
lier a member of their body and also a Vice-President of the Society 
in the room of Col. Strachey, who has left India. 

Communications were received — ■ 

1. From Lient. Col. A. Phayre, Commissioner of Pegu, a paper 
entitled " Remarks upon an ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan 
on the Irrawaddy." 

2. Prom Dr. J. L. Stewart, 14th Punjaub Infantry, a Journal of 
a Botanical Tour in Hazara and Khajan in April and May, 1859. 

Extracts from this paper were read to the meeting by Dr. 

tj? £ — ' uJpQ 



No. IY. 1860. 

Is tlie Pushto a Semitic Language ? — By the Rev. Isidob 
Loewenthal, Peshawur. 

Error is immortal. The old fable concerning Hercules and the 
Hydra has doubtlessly a typical reference to the quixotic bouts men 
sometimes undertake against error ; only seven heads is too small a 
number to typify the vitality of a good blunder, the longevity of a 
plain definite mistake. The fable, too, makes Hercules victorious ; 
but who has ever seen the successful gardener that has really extir- 
pated a weed which once has taken root in his grounds ? This 
ineradicability may be predicated of any error, but necessarily most 
so of such as appear to rest on the authority of a great name, and 
are brought forward now and then by those who have in some way 
or another acquired the reputation of being authorities. This is 
very provoking. Is it really so that men love darkness rather 
than light ? 

More than seventy years ago the first President of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal happened to state that the Pushto language had 
a manifest resemblance to the Chaldaic. There is evidence in the 
earlier volumes of the " Asiatic Researches" that some attention was 
paid in Calcutta to the Pushto language in those days, but, it appears, 
more for literary than philological purposes. At all events the state- 
ment of Sir William Jones remained uncontradicted and unchallenged 
for many years. In Germany even the opinion gained currency 
through Kleuker (the earliest German translator of the Zend Avesta) 

No. CV.— New Series, Vol. XXIX. 2 u 

324 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language? | No. 1 

who published (Eiga 1795) many of the articles of the " Asiatic 
Researches" in a German translation. 

Klaproth, however, the distinguished traveller and orientalist, as 
early as 1810 vigorously attacked this opinion in the first volume 
of the Archives for Asiatic Literature, and dated his conviction that 
the Pushto is an Indo-Grermanic language. In 1826, when he pub- 
lished his Tableaux Historiaues cle V Asie, he held the same view.* 

In 1814, Elphinstone, in his " Account of the Kingdom of Cabul" 
also dissented from the opinion of Sir "William Jones, and stated 
positively that of 218 words of those in common use which he had 
examined, not one had " the smallest appearance of being deducible 
from the Hebrew or Chaldaic." 

In 1829, Dorn, professor of Oriental languages at the University 
of Charkow, then young, but already distinguished for his attain- 
ments in Eastern Literature, in his translation of JSTeamet "Cllah, 
maintained that there was not the least resemblance between Pushto 
and Hebrew or Chaldee. He adduces three words that had been 
referred to as proving a connection between them : 

b| father, compared with the Chaldee st. emph. ^2K 

JJL*A| to ta7ce, with the Hebrew 172$ 

~j\ the side, with the Hebrew TfT 

He simply says that these prove nothing. And he is correct ; but 
it may be added that the word aba, alia, or apd means " father" in 
considerably more than thirty distinct languages (v. Buschmann, JJeler 
den Naturlaut, p. 16, which list is very far from being complete), so 
that such a word would have to be entirely excluded from any 
evidence ; that the Infinitive Ji-^t (dkhistal) is deceptive, the root 
being Jl^l (dkhal), bearing the same relation to the Infinitive that 
the Persian d^ does to its Infinitive &*<-£, and that it is most pro- 
bably connected with the old Persian &^1 " to draw out," " take 
away ;" whilst £jt (arkh) is undoubtedly the Sanskrit ^T¥ (was) 
" breast ;" the slight shifting of the signification finds its exact 
counterpart in the Sanskrit qi^ " the side" as compared with the 
Polish piers' " breast ;" the pronunciation of the Polish s' is precisely 

* Does Captain Baverty mean any pleasantry, when, in his Pushtoo Grammar, 
he " hopes the Professor will change his opinion now" twenty-five years after 
his death? 

1S60.] Is the PusJito a Semitic Language ? 325 

that of the Sanskrit ¥C. The change of the Sanskrit ^ into ^ is 
exemplified in various languages : compare the French savon with 
Spanish jabone (soap) ; Hehrew T\T\ (Mug) and J1D (sug) "to 
encircle ;" T\2T\ JcMka) and H3D (saka) " to look ;" Greek au-rrjp with 
Persian ^y^.! "a star;" Hindustani ^~~«> with Persian ^-^ " socer ;" 
Sanskrit svap with Persian vi^ " sleep," etc. 

Taking his materials solely from Klaproth and Elphinstone, Pott, 
than whom, with all his audacity, no greater etymologist has arisen, 
does not hesitate a moment in assigning the Pushto its place as one 
of the Indo-European languages. He divides the latter into five 
families in his Etymologische Forschiongen (1833), and places the 
Persian and Pushto together into the second family, precisely as he 
puts the German and the Dutch together in the fourth. 

In 1839, Ewald the greatest Hebraist of the present century, gave 
a careful examination of what materials of the language were acces- 
sible to him, and, of course, could not give the slightest support to 
the opinion that Pushto had any connection with a Semitic language. 

The same view was clearly elucidated by Dorn again, in the trans- 
actions of the St. Petersburgh Academy of Sciences at various times 
from 1810 to 1815. In his Pushto Chrestomathy (St. Petersburgh, 
1817), he designates the Pushto as a branch of the Indo-Persian 
languages. • 

" The Bible of Every Land," a work published by Bagster in 
1818, which exhibits in its notices great accuracy and completeness 
of information, says of the Pushto language, " It exhibits none of 
the peculiarities of the Semitic dialects, but, on the contrary, forms 
an important link in the great Indo-European languages." 

The latest edition of Brockhaus' Conversations- Lexikon also cor- 
rectly calls the language a sister of the Persian. 

And as if to clinch the matter, Max Midler, whose authority in 
such things is simply indisputable, without the shadow of a doubt 
ranges the Pushto among those scions of the Arian stock which 
struck root in the soil of Asia, before the Arian reached the shores 
of Europe. (Languages of the Seat of War, London, 1855.) 

To these we may add minor lights to show at least the general 
consent of intelligent philologists, such as Schleicher (Zur Verglei- 
chen den Sprachengeschichte, Bonn, 1818, p. 67,) and (Die Sprachen 

2 u 2 

326 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? [No. 1, 

Europas, Bonn, 1850, p. 130) ; De Vere (Comparative Philology, 
New York, 1853, p. 299) ; Bapp (Grundriss der Gramrnatik, Stutt- 
gart, 1855), and others. 

One might have thought the truth pretty well estahlished hy this 
time, were it not for the feline vitality of error, which in this in- 
stance was aided hy the fact that the pure linguistic question had 
been mixed up with an obscure ethnological problem, which some 
people moreover are inclined to make somewhat of a religious ques- 
tion. The allusion is to the alleged claim of the Afghans to be con- 
sidered children of Israel. It is not intended here to enter upon 
this matter. The question now is simply whether the Pushto. is an 
Indo-European, or a Semitic language. But when Ewald, and Dorn, 
and Pott, and Miiller have pronounced, is there any one yet who can 
doubt ? It is mortifying to be obliged to say that there is. 

When the founder of the Asiatic Society pronounced his opinion, 
perhaps hastily, and certainly on an imperfect inspection of scanty 
and perhaps faulty materials, one willingly forgets it. 

Indignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus ! 

But people must necessarily dig up old bones, Sir George Hose 
published a somewhat wild pamphlet on " The Kings of the East," 
in which he revives the opinion of Sir William Jones, maintains that 
the Pushto language does contain Hebraic elements, and blames Dr. 
Wolff for not finding more than one word which countenances that 

Sir George Rose claimed neither a position as a philologist, nor an 
acquaintance with Pushto ; hence his assertions, however strenuously 
made, might be allowed to rest on their own merits. But now a 
professed philologer enters the lists, namely, the Rev. Charles Fors- 
ter, one of the six preachers of the Cathedral of Canterbury, Rector 
of Stisted, Honorary Member of the Literary Society, author of 
" Mahomedanism Unveiled," and of " The Historical Geography of 
Arabia." These facts are taken from the title page of a work desig- 
nated briefly as follows : " The one primeval language traced experi- 
mentally through ancient inscriptions in alphabetic characters of 
lost powers from the four continents. Including the voice of Israel 
from the rocks of Sinai : and the vestiges of Patriarchal tradition 
from the monuments of Egypt, Etruria, and Southern Arabia." In 

I860.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 327 

this book, as is well known, the author runs a violent tilt against 
men like Grotefend, Beer, Lassen, Rawlinson, St. Martin, and upsets 
them all to his own complete satisfaction and the reader's infinite 
amusement. The third volume of this work is filled up by " A New 
Key for the Recovery of the Lost Ten Tribes," which recovery, we 
are informed— and the information is at least new — is " the most 
interesting problem in the history of the world." It is in this that 
Dr. Forster reprints Jones' note from the second volume of the 
" Researches," and reasserts the Semitic origin of the Pushto lan- 
guage. In proof of this assertion he produces three words, which 
are to establish his position. 

(1). He quotes from Wolff " "lltf (or) light, is the only Hebrew word 
I found in the Afghan tongue." — On this it may be observed that 
or j)\ in Pushto does not mean "light," but " fire," and that the 
word is plainly connected with the Arian tongues. In the language 
still called Zend "fire" is dtar, Persian jit ; the connection of jj\ 
(or) with these is precisely analogous to that of the 
Pushto jj-a (mor) mother with Persian j^*>, Sanskrit ondtar. 
j> JJW (wror) brother with „ J^]y. Zend brdtar. 
„ jjJ (lor) sickle with „ Sanskrit ddtra* 

5? jy ( nor ) other with „ Zend (a) ntar. 

It may be observed that in Irish ur is " fire," but the connection 
of the latter is more likely with the Latin uro which of course 
(us-si, us-tum) must be referred to the root ush ; and, as Pictet 
observes, (Les noms celtiques du soleil), la ressemblance avec 1' 
hebreu or, ur, lumiere, semble done puremenfc fortuite. 

(2). Dr. Forster continues, "I have no Afghans to confer 
with on the matter, but I possess Elphinstone's Cabul ; and 
will undertake, in the second word of his " Pushtoo Vocabulary," 
to find a second Hebrew word: viz. W12W , Samim, with the 
article prefixed, WftlVTl, hesamin, ' The heavens,' of which the 
Pushtoo, ' Asman, Heaven? is clearly only a dialectic variation. 
I notice this merely as a specimen of Dr. Wolff's carelessness and 
hastiness of examination." — This, the readers of the Journal need 
not be told, would prove too much, and hence nothing ; inasmuch 
as uU-«T is also pure Persian ; asman also occurs in Zend and the 
* On the change of d into I see below. 

328 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? [No. 4, 

cuneiform inscriptions in the same sense ; and the Sanskrit a^ma is 
" a cloud." There may possibly be a general connection between 
this thoroughly Arian word, and the Semitic, not peculiarly Hebrew, 
root ''U-w, but that is all. 

(3). " A third Hebrew term in the Pushtoo language, not in Mr. 
Elphinstone's catalogue, viz. *in3, nahar, a river, has been elsewhere 
noticed in the Pushtoo term Ning-nehar, the nine rivers." — "Nor will 
this corroborate Mr. Forster's position materially. Ning-nehar (the 
name of a locality beyond the Peshawur Frontier) is far more fre- 
quently written and called y>j&J (ningrahar), or jh^ (ningahar), 
so that the nahar necessary for the proof entirely disappears. Were 
there a naliar in the word, the derivation given could not be relied 
on, as it is given by Afghan etymologists, who are almost as wild 
as Mr. Forster himself. In this case they are themselves not agreed as 
to the derivation ; for some say the name is j^ *# (nim-naliar) " half- 
hungry," and that the region is called so from the frequent scarcity of 
bread there ; others say the name is really jLgi|k_<jJ (nelcanhdr) " the 
good or pure streams ; anlidr is a pure Arabic plural— the Hebrew 
plural would be quite different. And lastly, j& is not a Pushto word 
at all, is known only in the book language, and not among the people ; 
and even if the latter were the case, it would prove nothing ; for if 
a connection between the Hebrew and the Pushto is to be proved, 
all such words must be excluded from the evidence as are common 
to the Arabic and Hebrew ; for everybody is aware that all Ma- 
homedan nations use Arabic terms very largely, whatever their lan- 
guage be. 

If such sporadic resemblances as the Philo-Semitics have hitherto 
searched for, helped the matter at all, one might be ready to suggest 
to them to compare the Hebrew pH (kheq) with the Pushto j±? 
(ghe/)* " embrace," which is pronounced by the Khalil, Momund, and 

* This article does not adopt, in its spelling, either of the two standard 
alphabets that have been proposed; the reader will have no difficulty, it is appre- 
hended, in making out the words. The vowels have the continental sounds, as 
proposed by Sir William Jones : the consonants their general English value ; 
Ich = ~ • gh = k.; j the Pushto^ which answers most completely to the Polish z ; 
zh = the Persian ': which in the same manner is pronounced precisely like the 
Polish z (s in " pleasure" is between these two sounds) ; c = Sanskrit -gj. 

1S60.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 329 

Yiisufzai " a-hec." But careful investigation will at once prove that 
" o-hej" is the proper pronunciation, and that it has the same paren- 
tage with the Persian (J>y>1 ; T is the inseparable particle, common to 
the Sanskrit, Zend, Parsi, and Persian, as in &±-*>1 V-T"f f^ ^^ 
^r^s-i^f Odj jf, etc. etc. The final <j&, in Persian, often becomes^ in 
Pushto, as \J>J> =^J^ ; lA?^ = j>J^- 5 ^ e substitution of the vowel 
e for o is a mere dialectic variation ; the Banuchis, for instance, 
constantly say mir, ~kir, lir, him, for mor, hor, lur, hum, etc. 

The Pushto *Jj-J (loba) " play" might be imagined to be connected 
with the Hebrew "2,y? • only it is much easier and far more correct 
to derive this Pushto word directly from the Arabic *^*J, of the 
same signification, by the analogy of scores of similar instances, the 
Afghans pronouncing a generally like o, — an incidental proof this that 
their own original speech has not this Semitic guttural. 

Or the Semitic advocates might be told that da is used in Pushto 
to form the GTenitive, whilst H (di) or "J (de) in Chaldee is constantly 
used to form a relation very much like that expressed by the Geni- 
tive ; and it is not unlikely that this constant recurrence of da in 
both Pushto and Chaldee may have imposed on Sir William Jones. 
It must be considered, however, that da also forms the Genitive in 
Panjabf, but as a postposition, like Tea in Hindustani ; it is more 
likely that the Pushto da is connected with the Latin de, which 
again reverts, in the Romanic languages, to form the Genitive. In 
Polish, the Latin de is most frequently translated by od, which is 
beyond a doubt the Sanskrit adlias ; whether de is for ade= adhas, 
as Benfey suggests, is another question. 

Da also is the demonstrative pronoun both in Pushto and Chaldee ; 
only it is so in Zend also, and though the Afghans would like to 
make out their relationship to the Israelites, their language prefers 
to be considered an ancient relict of Zend. 

But, at all events, sound philologists have long since abandoned 
and reprobated the plan of establishing the affinity of languages on 
sporadic resemblances traced in their vocabularies. Organic identity 
in grammatical structure, added to a large community in certain 
household words, is necessary definitely to determine such questions. 

However, the learned decypherer of the pictured rocks seems him- 
self not quite firmly convinced of the Hebrew origin of Pushto, as, 

330 Is the Pashto a Semitic Language ? [No. 4, 

a few pages on, he catches at a statement of Ihn Haukal's that 
Pushto is a Tatar dialect (he says, " Tartar"), and makes many apo- 
logies on behalf of the Afghans for having exchanged Hebrew for a 
Tatar dialect. 

In return, one ought to be ready to make every allowance for Mr. 
Forster. His book was published in 1854 ; the materials for becom- 
ing acquainted with Pushto were then not readily accessible to an 
English scholar, who probably would care little for Russian publica- 
tions though they be in the English language ; it is not likely that 
he had seen Captain Vaughan's " Grammar of the Pooshtoo Lan- 
guage" which was published in Calcutta in the same year ; and Cap- 
tain Eaverty's Grammar was not published till 1856. It would 
be impossible now, with an apparatus like that contained in the last 
mentioned grammar, with its copious paradigms and examples, what- 
ever be the value of the system or the rules, — it would be impossible 
no>v to fall into the wretched mistake of calling an Arian language 
a Semitic one. Alas, for human hopes ! What if the guide himself 
should lead you astray ? Not wilfully perhaps, but blindly ? 

After devoting ten years to the study of Urdu, Persian, Marathi, 
Guzerathi, Arabic, Pushto, Sindi, Punjabi and Multani (see the Pre- 
face to Capt. Eaverty's " Grammar of the Pukhto." p. vi.), and 
after writing a copious Pushto Grammar with all the grammatical 
terms in Arabic, Capt. Eaverty is inclined to consider the Pushto a 
Semitic dialect (see the Introduction to the Grammar, p. 36). Nay, 
he is more than inclined ; he produces five arguments in favour of the 
view : — 

(1). The vowels and consonants used in Pushto have the same 
powers as those of the Arabic, Hebrew and other Semitic dialects. 

(2). Like them it has two genders. 

(3). In common with the Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian, it has the 
peculiar separable and inseparable pronouns. 

(4). The inflexions of the " Afghanian" verbs are formed accord- 
ing to the Arabic, and Hebrew system, with two original tenses only. 

(5). In many respects the Pushto syntax agrees with that of the 

Before examining these arguments, it may be worth while to 
inquire what could have led Captain Eaverty so grievously astray 

1S60.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 331 

And we shall find the cause to he a very common source of error, 
namely a pre-conceived theory. Capt. Eaverty seems hastily to have 
taken up the opinion that the Afghans are children of Israel, and so 
all goes wrong. 

Let the reader bear in mind that it is desired to keep the linguistic 
question quite unencumbered, and that the winter of this notice does 
not intend to enter upon the ethnological question in this place. But 
it is difficult to pass over a remarkable phenomenon in the Introduc- 
tion here spoken of. In p. 30, Capt. Eaverty somewhat pertinently 
observes that had the Afghans " been the aborigines of the country 
at present known as Afghanistan, we must have heard something of 
them from ancient writers, for we find that even in the time of 
Herodotus, Darius had sent an exploring expedition under Scylax 
of Caryanda and others as far as the Indus." He then goes on to 
cite two passages from some English translation of Herodotus, in 
both of which the Afghans are mentioned, but he does not see it. 
The first passage states that Scylax " set out from the city of Cas- 
patyrus and the country of Paktyica, and sailed down the Indus." 
The second says, " there are other Indians bordering on the city of 
Caspatyrus and the country of Paktyica, settled northwards of the 
other Indians." 

Had the Afghans, says Capt. Eaverty, been then in these regions, 
their name must have occurred in these passages. Granted ; what 
name ? Not Afghan, for that is a modern name, given them by the 
Persians, not acknowledged by themselves, and certainly not occur- 
ring before the time of Abu Said, who ruled in Khorasan during the 
fifteenth century. Their own name in the country near the Indus, 
to which the citations refer, is Pahlitu (n) ; how would a Greek have 
spelled this ? Uclktv, I trow. This word, in the plural number, the 
reader will find in JELdt. VII. 67, where the different nationalities are 
enumerated that constituted Xerxes' army. The IlaKTties (Pakhtus) 
are described as wearing posteens, and carrying native bows and 
knives, not a bad description of Afghans at any time ; and they are 
duly mentioned after the Bactrians, Parthians, Khwarismians, 
Sogdians, and Gandarii (Kandaharis ?) — Even the peculiar form of 
the name Paktuika as the name of their nation or their country finds 
its explanation in the fact that the Afghans call themselves collec- 


332 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? [No. 4. 

tively Palchtunlcha. Very few native names suffer so little on the 
part of Englishmen, as these names have suffered at the hands of 
the Greeks. Capt. Raverty says that the country referred to under 
the name of Paktuika is Pukli ; this also is a mistake, for the Greeks 
called the latter, which moreover is not near any navigahle portion of 
the Indus, plainly and correctly TLevKtXa ; the name occurs a numher 
of times in Arrian. 

As for Capt. Raverty's arguments in favour of the view that 
Pushto is of the Semitic family, Argument No. 5 says that in many 
respects the Pushto syntax agrees with that of the Hehrew. This 
argument would be valid, if the grammarian had pointed out some 
peculiarities in the syntax of the one language which agree with 
peculiarities in that of the other. For the good of his argument, it 
must be regretted that he has not done so, and the proposition as it 
stands may be predicated of any two languages whatsoever. No. 2, 
also proves too much ; for French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, 
Gaelic, Danish, Livonian, etc., or, what is more to the point, and 
might have led a candid inquirer into the right track, the Indian 
languages, such as Hindi and Panjabi, have also but two genders. 

What the force of Argument No. 1 is, that "the vowels and 
consonants used in Pushto have the same powers as those of the 
Arabic, Hebrew, and other Semitic dialects," is difficult to tell. If 
the author has reference to the spoken vowels and consonants, that 
is to their sounds, it is sufficient to observe that of articulate sounds 
there is only an extremely limited number, in consequence of which 
the great bulk of the vowels and consonants of all languages are the 
same. He cannot mean that all the Pushto sounds are found in the 
Semitic languages, for he has just laboured for some pages to prove 
that both there are many of the Arabic sounds which are not found 
in Pushto, and that there are a number of Pushto sounds not to be 
found in the Semitic languages, though his statements are by no 
means complete, or correct as far as they go. If he refers to the 
written character, Semitic scholars will be surprised to hear that there 
are letters in the Syro-Arabian languages to express vowels at all. 
And as regards the consonants, every one knows that when Bayazid, 
or whoever may have better claims to the distinction, wrote Pushto 
first, he made use of the Arabic character, and that not the pure 

I860.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 333 

character, but as he knew it from Persian writing, with the addition 
of all the three pointed letters, and that even then he had to modify 
half a score of letters besides to express all the Pushto sounds, in 
which he succeeded only partially. He would have reduced his 
difficulties very materially, had he used the Devanagari alphabet, in 
which the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages can be written with 
greatest ease ; and that Pushto is one of the latter, this matter of 
the letters alone would be sufficient to establish. 

The validity of Argument No. 3, — " in common with the Hebrew, 
Arabic and Persian, it has the peculiar separable* and inseparable 
pionouns, the latter being invariably attached to some preceding 
word" — is very much impaired by the author's adding Persian to 
the other two languages. Is Persian also a Semitic language ? 

It is not at all necessary to be acquainted with Pushto to suspect 
this argument ; for to compare the graceful freedom of the Persian 
inseparable pronouns f — , o — , (jw — with the rigid compulsoriness 
of those of the Semitic languages is the same as to say, " There is a 
river in Macedon ; and there is also moreover a river at Monmouth." 
But the oddity goes much further. Any one acquainted with Pushto 
would rack his brains to discover what the author could mean ; he 
would probably conclude that he must refer to combinations like 
*jjyj cor&a nobis, which might seem to bear some similarity to do, 
but which occur so excessively rarely that not only could they not 
be adduced as a characteristic of the language, but any Grammarian 
would be excused for not noticing them at all in his grammar. Nor 
does Captain Eaverty. What he means by the inseparable pronouns, 
are the common terminations of the verb : laudo, — as, — at, — amus, 
— atis, —ant. These terminations Capt. Eaverty calls " affixed per- 
sonal pronouns." The comparative philologist will probably say, so 
they are. True ; only Capt. Eaverty has no inkling of the truth, 
for he calls them zamdiri mutasila, which are quite different things. 

* What part of speech either in Pu?hto or Hebrew or Arabic or Persian could 
possibly be called a "separable pronoun," is quite beyond divining skill. It is 
most probable that the grammarian means " separate" pronouns ; but as there is 
nothing peculiar in the existence of separate pronouns in any language or number 
of languages, the examination of the argument confines itself to the insepar- 

334 Is the Puslito a Semitic Language ? [No. 4. 

This grammatical term has been introduced into the Persian Grammar 
also by ignorant native compilers in India, but quite improperly. It 
is a pity that Capt. Eaverty has thought fit to encumber his other- 
wise not very clear or correct or practical grammar with the inept 
terminology of Arabic grammarians. There can be no stronger 
proof of the Arian nature of the Pushto than that which Capt. E. 
calls " affixed personal pronouns." 

Argument No. 4, states that the inflexions of the " Afghanian" 
verbs are formed according to the Arabic and Hebrew system, with 
two original tenses only. 

Unless it be admitted that such a statement can originate only in 
the sheerest ignorance of the nature of the Semitic verb, it is difficult 
to disentangle the manifold confusions implied in it. It compares 
incommensurables ; it says that an ounce is as long as an inch. How 
utterly alien and foreign the tenses of the Semitic verb are to 
Occidental, that is Arian, modes of thought and expression, becomes 
glaringly apparent, for instance, in the voluminous investigations of 
their nature, say, in the Hebrew. Hardly two grammars of the 
language have the same nomenclature for them. With some they 
are the past and the future, with others the definite and indefinite, 
with others the perfect and imperfect, with some even the anterior 
and posterior ; Donaldson (Comparative Grammar of the Hebrew 
Language) shrewdly does not call them anything but Primary and 
Secondary, which terms have reference merely to their form, and only 
ventures to say that the former expresses single or transitory acts? 
and the latter represents repeated or continuous action. A perusal 
of a few sentences of the Hebrew Bible is sufficient to convince any 
one that the mere precession of the particle " and" is sufficient to 
make the form that otherwise expresses the future, denote past 
action, and vice versa. How utterly different is this from the 
Grammar of the Indo-European languages. Indeed, the manner in 
which time is expressed in the Semitic tongues, cannot be understood, 
unless, as Nordheimer, the profoundest of Jewish Grammarians, some- 
where observes, We occidentals discard the notions we have acquired 
as to the proper function of the tenses. This is not the place to 
discuss the nature of the Semitic tenses, but it is distressing to see 
that which peculiarly characterizes the modern Arian languages 
mistaken for marks of identity with ancient Semitic peculiarities. 

1S60.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 335 

By " original tenses," Captain Eaverty means those that are not 
formed with the auxiliary to be. If we consult his grammar for 
further light on this suhject, we shall find him giving page after 
page, not two, but four such " original tenses." He calls these, 
present, aorist, imperfect, and past. On further examination, we shall 
find that what he calls the aorist, is no tense at all, as is proved by 
the very quotations that he constantly gives, but is the subjunctive 
mood. Then we are struck by the fact that the past of regular verbs 
differs from the imperfect only by an augment. We have then the 
clue to the grammarian's statement. His two " original" tenses are 
the present and the past imperfect tenses which the Semitic lan- 
guages have not at all. But a candid comparison would at once 
have shown that those languages which have these only as simple 
tenses, such as Parsi, Persian, Russian, Polish, Swedish, Danish, 
German, English, and others, are all Arian languages. 

Compare these two tenses in Pushto : tuaJi-am, loali-alam, (=Latin 
caedo, caedebar,) with the corresponding ones in Polish, for instance : 
gr-am, gr-alem. They differ in meaning in this, that the past tense of 
the Polish is active, and that of the Pushto has a passive sense. How 
thoroughly the latter is characteristic of the Sanskrit and many other 
Indian languages, few readers of the Journal will need to have pointed 
out to them. It is curious that the European languages, even the 
ancient ones, seem to have lost this preference of the passive construction 
in the past tenses to the active, though it may still very distinctly be 
traced, in Latin, in the favourite gerundive construction, in the form 
in which the ablative absolute most frequently appears, and in the 
peculiar conception that must exist in the mind of the speaker or 
writer who can form a passive voice of verbs like " to go" and 
" to come." 

Such astonishing confusion having been introduced into what is 
really a very simple question, it is worth while to inquire what are 
the essential features that distinguish the Semitic from the Arian 
stock of languages. Contradiction need not be feared, if they are 
stated to be the following : — 

1. The Semitic languages, in historical times, consist of triliteral 
and hence polysyllabic roots, the three letters being all consonants. 

2. The roots express the ideas, whilst relations are denoted by an 

336 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? [No. 4. 

internal modification of these roots, effected by vowels, aided by 
certain letters termed servile. 

3. Such modification alone produces from the simple root the 
differences between verb and noun, adjective and substantive, gender, 
number, and tense. 

4. In addition to the distinctions of gender known in the Arian 
languages, the Semitic languages also distinguish gender in the 
pronoun of the second person, and in the second and third person of 
the verb. 

5. Tense-formation is undeveloped. 

6. Composition, with immaterial exceptions, is unknown. 

These features will in vain be searched for in the Pushto language. 

Pushto will attract few students by its literature ; excepting tbose 
who pay attention to it for practical purposes, it is of interest only 
to comparative philology and its cultivators ; and to them, it would 
be interesting mainly on account of its antique look. There is no 
doubt that it has preserved many forms, either altogether, or in 
more original shapes than are to be found in most of the other Arian 
languages ; that is, in its vocabulary, not in its grammar, which is 
on a par with most of the descendants of Prakrit. 

What grieves and perplexes etymologists so often, is the existence 
of orphans in the various branches of the great Arian family, stray 
little things that have lost all love and likeness to then- reputed 
parents, or whose parents have been so long dead that nobody can 
remember who they were. The entrance upon a comparatively new 
field sometimes discovers twin-brothers of such orphans, which dis- 
covery relieves the anomaly at least in some measure. Let a few 
examples from the Pushto suffice. 

The Greek rapydvr] is a rope-basket, a net-work made of rope, 
■n-Xey/xa ti Ik cr^otvtou, says Suiclas. Benfey (Griech. Wurzel Worter- 
buch, I. p. 670) is quite perplexed as to its derivation, and Semitic 
roots which have been compared by some are of little advantage. 
The Pushto has tyfy (tragan), Panjabi tangar for those rope-baskets 
the Afghans so universally use to cany their loads and burdens in. 
It is not a little interesting that the Apostle Paul uses this word 

I860.] Is the Pusldo a Semitic Language ? 337 

(2 Cor. xi. 35*) in describing his escape from Damascus, whilst it is 
a well known practice among the Afghan thieves to use this very- 
means for letting their accomplices down walls and windows. 

The Latin tussis (cough) has as yet not been traced ; Pott sug- 
gests, though but timidly, that it might be connected with tundo ; 
the Pushto for "cough" is tushe. The Greek ev8<±>, "I sleep," "lie 
down" appears to be as yet without an authentic genealogy ; the 
Pushto iij\ (lido) is " asleep, lying down ;" avX-r), the court-yard, 
cattle-yard, etc. is a difficult word ; the Pushto ^Jy (ghole) precisely 
answers it. Pushto {SJ*^ (kanre) " a stone" is difficult to affiliate 
either in the Sanskrit or Persian, but it seems to have two equally 
lonely brothers in the Gaelic cam " a cairn," and the Greek Kpavaos 
" stony." 

The English ant and the Persian mor j_yo, of the same signification, 
seem wide apart, yet by the aid of the Pushto we are able to point 
out a very probable connection between them ; ant is for amt, con- 
tracted from emmet, from the Gothic amaito according to Grimm ; 
from this the German a-meise ; the Pushto is t—j^e (meje), also 
pronounced mege, which connects with the second syllable of the Greek 
fxvpfXTjK — whose first syllable agrees not only with the Persian mor, 
but with thirteen other languages (cited by Grimm in the Deut. 
Worterbuch) whose word for ant is similar to mor or fjuvp ; from which 
the conclusion may be drawn that the Greek is nearest the original 
word whatever that was, and that the descendants have divided the 
inheritance, some taking the first, others taking the second syllable. 
Such a division of inheritance is by no means unexampled ; for 
instance the German ente (Lat. anat) and the English drake meet in 
the Old High German anetreklio ; the Irish gall (swan) and the 
Slavic labud (of the same signification), philologists find united in 
the Sanskrit jdlapdd, though neither of these cases is quite parallel 
to that of [MvpfirjK. 

The Greek a>6V and the English egg — are, as is well known, closely 
related : wov, Latin ovum, Irish ugh, Saxon oeg, English egg ; the change 
of v into g is one of such frequent occurrence as hardly to need an 

* It appears there in the dialectic variation <rapydi/7] ; the change of t into <r 
being like Ionic avyjcros for Doric &vi)tos, <tv, ere, crrtfiepov for Doric tv, re, ryiiepov, 
vavcria = Attic vavria, etc. 

338 Is the Pushto a Semitic Langtiage ? [No. 4. 

exemplification ; but compare Sanskrit vrJca with the Persian <S^ 
(wolf); Latin vespa (wasp) with the French guepe ; Persian fjX 
(garrn) with German warm ; vesper = "Welsh gosper ; and all the 
Spanish names beginning with guada from the Arabic cJ^Lj " a river." 
— But it is curious that both the Greek and the English variations 
of the same word should have their representatives in Pushto : the 
Northern dialect has hagge, the Southern oe. So, in the same manner 
as the German weide is to the English willow, so is the Persian c^i 
to Pushto &)j (loula). The Pushto is extremely fond of changing 
d into I. In the European languages this change of tl e dental into 
I is not common, if the Spanish perhaps be excepted, which gets, for 
instance, the Madril-eTios from Madrid, and evidently manufactured 
the name Isabel from El-izabeth, not unlikely mistaking the initial 
El for an article. The Latin shews a few words with that tendency ; 
the connection between the English tear and the Latin lacryma would 
be difficult to demonstrate but for the Gothic tagrs = Greek Sdicpv 
(SaKpv-fjLo) ; the connection between lingua and tongue can only be 
through an intermediate dingua which is an antique Latin form. So 
the Sanskrit madliu remains in Greek fii6v, German meth, English 
mead, Polish miod etc. ; but in Latin it is mel. In the same way 
the Sanskrit devri (husband's brother) retains the d sound in Greek, 
Lithuanian, Livonian, Slavonic, Servian, Armenian, and Saxon, but 
the Latin has levir, and the Pushto also leioir (jj-h-0 ; the nearest Per- 
sian word seems to be 1 6 1 i> which is used for a brother in a wide sense. 
(Comp. Bopp. Vergl. Gramm. 17). 

This change of the dental into I is so much the more remarkable 
as the Zend has no I ; and it may serve to show the affinities of the 
Pushto, to those who have no inclination to study the language, to 
give a few instances of this preference of I over d or t. 
Hindustani ^j-o Pushto ^jd (las) ten. 
Persian c^«o „ ^-Jl (las) hand. 

*Jf_5-Jj> „ t^yJ (lewanse) mad. 

jiiJ „ j^J (plar) father. 

(•!<> „ pjJ (him) net. 

X&J& „ «»>jJ (lida) seen. 

&*>]& „ ,^-J (laman) skirt. 

(•j!<s „ £j) (laram) I have. 


Is the Push to a Semitic Language ? 


Pers. <**x« Pushto. ^ vIjjuo (spelane) rue ; metathesis un- 
avoidable after the change. 
„ z*y±- „ Jj^- (khol) helmet. 

jj **■*>£ jj lt^-> (welane) mint. 

It has already been intimated that the affinities of the language 
to the Zend are great ; the only two languages that may he thought 
able to dispute this claim, would be the Sanskrit on the one hand, 
and the Persian on the other. An examination of the numerals and 
a few other words may help to clear up this matter and put the 
reader in a position to judge for himself. 

Sans, eka Pers 

. t-£> Zend aeva 

Pushto y„ (yau) — 


, dvi 





&j& (dwa) — 


, tri 


<su> „ 



LSJ* (dre)— 


, chatur 


h* jj 



jj*^ (tsalor)* — 


, panchan 


ft " 



^^^ (pindza) — 


, shash 


J^> „ 



j±£ (shpa/)t — 


, saptan 


4** „ 



Xj\ (uwa)J — 


, ashtan 


0*"*A 5> 


j » 

&J| (ata) — 


, navan 


«* JJ 



&j (no) — 


, dacan 


** ,j 



,jJ (las)— 


, ekadaca 


**jk ,j 



i)Jji (yulas)— 


, dvadaca 


**)\j* „ 



jjiJji (diilas) — 


, trayodaca 


**j*» JJ 



U^J^s? (dy arias) - 


, chaturdac' 


s^A^ j> 


U~bj*~ (ts warlas) - 


, vincati 


L - n - , "V. jj 



cU (shil)§— 


* The change of the dental into I as above ; the change of ch into ts is cha- 
racteristic of the language ; it is really only a change of sh into s. 

t The change of v into p is exemplified in words like Sansksit acva = Zend 
aspa ; Sanskrit sventa = Zend spenta ; Sanskrit vartaka = Greek TrepSi-K ; 
though the opposite change also occurs, e. g. Latin sapere = French, savoir ; Latin 
intrepido = Spanish atrevido ; Latin lupa = Spanish lova : Latin porta = 
Russian vorota ; Latin caper = French chevre, etc. 

X This change looks severe, but it has been fully recognized by Pott (Quinare 
und Vigesimale Zahlmethode, p. 270) ; it really implies nothing more thau the 
change of p into v or w, just noticed, after dropping t; examples of the latter 
are the second person plural of the verb in Spanish as compared with the Latin 
teneis for tenetis, erais for eratis ; Sk. patni = Pol. pani, etc. 

§ This loses the first syllable (vij, drops the last vowel, and changes the dental 

2 Y 


Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 


. trin9at Pers 

. ^g** Zen< 

1 thri9ata Pu 



<^W jj 





*Uf^ „ 





o.~~-*> „ 

csva9ti „ 




ill&A „ 

haptaiti „ 




^LLmA rf 

a9taiti ,. 




& jj 

navaiti „ 




**» „ 

9ata „ 




!(ljuotort-^w spa „ 




U* jj 

azem „ 




JSjllw „ 

stare „ 

Prakrit se 


<—J JJ 

he „ 


. 9ushka 


lS£.±> „ 

hushka „ 




vl?^ jj 

qaf „ 





qanha „ 




^ „ 

kan „ 




r* » 

ham. „ 




> jj 

haurva „ 




>> jj 

du „ 









JJ jj 

zara „ 




JJ jj 

zar „ 




•>JJ jj 

zairita „ 




(V jj 

zima „ 




u^3 j, 

zema (huz- 

[No. 4. 
- 30. 

xj-j^H (pandzos)— 50. 

&lxx£ (shpetaj — 60. 

b>| (awyaj— 70. 

b3| (atiya)— 80. 

iSJ (nwi)— 90. 

JUo (sal)t— 100. 

^ (spge) dog. 
If} (zo) I. 

^j-jyLw (store) star. 
iJ (ye) him. 
^j (wuch) dry. 
c^yjk (khoh) sleep. 
^^ijjA. (Mwainde) sis- 
jjL. (khor) sister, [ters. 
&i^ (kana) dig. 
*A (hum) also. 
Xj\j (wara) all. 
j$ (dau) run. 
Xj) (zro) heart. 
jj (zar) gold. 
JJ) ( z °r) old. 
^j) (zyar) yellow. 
&*J (zhima) winter. 
&£/oj (zmaka) earth, 
varesh p^QU) 

into I as usual ; but in the compound numbers, 21, 22, etc. another form much 
closer to the Zend appears : *£**»i jjj *^^> j& etc. 

* In the Zend, it is evidently the cata which expresses the tens ; of this the 
Pushto retains the first letter alone ; in the following number, 40, it curtails the 
Zend much less ; indeed it loses only the unessential termination, and the single 
letter r which is lost by being crowded out. It has already become plain to the 
reader, that it is long and weighty vowels only that survive in the modern lan- 
guages ; the short ones are soon lost by attrition. 

\ The dental into I. 


Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 


Sans. $iras Pers.^** Zend sara Pushto y (sar) head. 

? svar 

jy± „ hvar (e) „ jy (nvvar) sun. 

( Jjjf ) vaz „ *•«!-; (basa) carry. 

ji Parsi, awar „ j* (par) over. 

oii*o ( ji* ) Zend pasliu *~»J (p sa ) sheep andgoats. 

prishtha „ ^j-* 


U"J^ » 

pereta „ %*jj$} (piroda) bought, 
hizva „ *J f (zhaba) tongue, 
staora „ j*+*> (star) steer. 
*^> (shpa) night. 
j*> (mar) dead. 
<x.L£U«3 (rnyashta) month, 
i£)Ji (pore) beyond, far. 
Axyo (myandz) midst, 
parasta „ y^JJ (wrusto) back. 
var ., <J<>J;j (war-edal) to rain. 

i— fc*» „ csap „ 
J** „ mar „ 
2Lc (# mah I. C.) „ 
\j> (MI.C.) „ 

cjLvxj Zend maidhya „ 

vana (forest) (^ in &^) vana (tree) &j (wana) tree. 

nedistha „ ^y 

hasta „ 

jan „ !3 

paeh „ JrJ 

(9uch, „ 
to shine) 

carad „ 

ap „ 



(nazhde) near. 

<j«i( (las) hand. 
Jjjj (zo-wul) to be born. 
T -?v (p°^^) cooked. 
;j-« (sor) red. 

„ pac 

rj~> „ cukhra 
and )y» (Parsi^Aj-w) 

&j+» „ 9areta „ jy» (sor) cold 



ap ,. 


spar (re- „ 
zdaf „ 

tar (e.g. tiras = trans) taro J 
giri „ gairi 

parama (primus) „ frathemo 

*Jj! (oba) water. 
Jy^ (Ichor) 'ate. 
(SJ$*" (spare) open. 

S.i) (zda) knowing. 

by (tura) sword. 
y£> (ter) passing. 
y- (gh&r) mountain. 
\s^ { JJ (wrum-be)§ first. 

* I. C. for Cuneiform Inscriptions. 
t In Ahura-ma-zda (Ormuzd) = Lord Multiseient. 
X Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica, p. 135. 

§ I is an inorganic addition, of frequent occurrence in most langunges after 

2 Y 2 


Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 

[No. 4. 





^3 » 
jr (bald) „ 

o^ (or 







The following also are submitted to the inspection of the learned 
reader, though I have not met with their Zend equivalents ; literary 
material is not abundant on the Afghan frontier. 
Sans, purven (-dyus) Pers. cJ>J Pushto tyrf (parun) yesterday. 

^jk^. (khw&j) sweet. 

^j**- (Mwale)* sweat. 

^j (zane) chin. 

lj£ (kalawa) shave. 

^j+^jZ (kausai) ringlets. 

j) (la;' or lag) little. 

^jJ (lwash) milk thou. 

Xj^j) (lombara) fox. 

w*>j£* (tsarman) hide. 

j^L* (mashe) midge. 

jjer-o (mach) fly. 

L5 ^° (muchai) bee. 

Xj*> (ma/a) mouse. 

\jj (zhara) cry. 

Hj (wa) weave. 

i^y^ (stan) needle. 

&**jjj (wriidza) brow. 

^s^jj (wrije).J rice. 

j1j (war) Fr. fois. 

LSj** (ngin) he swallows. 

Jjjj (po-wul) to feed. 

c*J (p a y) milk - 
jA) (ter) swift. 
ijya. (chaud) split. 
Cg^*- (tsire) torn. 





keca (hair) 

laghu (light) 






krid, krug 












as dztmb, thumb, for German dumm, damn; or chambre, homlro, hambre for 
camera, kumero, fame (s). 

* Z> into Z. 

f Vullers 1 derivation from O) iSy** " latus feriens" does seem to be marvel- 
lous nonsense, when the Latin suo, Gk. avw (in Kacravw) and the Sanskrit root siv 
(Westergaard, Radd. Ling. Sans. p. 261) are considered. 

X Lassen conjectured that the old Persian ought to have been brizi; the 
Pushto seems to add much. force to his inference. 

1SG0.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 343" 

Sans, kshur Pushto &&*> (Mraya) shear. 

„ stana (breast) (compare £j\ p. 3) „ ^y^ (stunae) throat. 

„ ura „ (SJj (warai) wool. 

„ lap (say) „ 8jJ (lwa) read. 

„ lap, (Benfey, Griechisches Wurzel- *^ (lamba) flame, 
lexicon, II. p. 127). 

„ masyadhara Pushto (jyJI^wo (mashwanre) inkstand 

„ mil (societatem inire) „ iX« (mal) companion. 

„ madana „ *ixx> (mina)* love. \yereor. 

„ bhri „ ijij (wyara) fear ; cf. Lat. 

„ vish „ (j*Jj (wesh) division. 

„ vani „ LLjj (wena) speech. 

The foregoing list the reader will observe consists only of words 
whose identity with their equivalents in the sister languages may be 
recognised at a glance ; if it were extended so as to include such as 
can fairly be proved, by the recognised rules for the shifting of 
consonants (Lautverschiebungsgesetze) , to be unmistakably Arian, by 
far the greater portion of the entire vocabulary would have to be 

A cursory inspection of this list will convince the reader that it 
confirms the truth of the philological maxim that comparatively rude 
dialects preserve old forms better than their more polished relatives ; 
hence for the etymological investigation of the Persian an acquaint- 
ance with Pushto would be more than merely useful. Vuller's 
Lexicon would have been far more satisfactory, or rather far less 
unsatisfactory, if the author had availed himself, for the etymological 
portion of his work, of the connecting links the Pushto offers. The 
length to which this paper has already grown, will admit of but an 
instance or two of such links as one may expect to find. 

* Compare the German minne. The connection with the German will most 
prohably be doubted, at least by Germans, as it is the fashion to connect minne 
with the very opposite of the root of madana, which is mad. It is possible that 
the Pushto mina i3 allied to Venus, and the Sanskrit root van ; the change of v 
into m is quite common in Pushto : nwar (Zend hvar) is pronounced nmar ; 
newasi (Latin nepos), nmasai ; Persian J[jJ = Pushto yh+> (nmanz), etc. 
analogous to the Latin mare for Sanskrit vdri. 

344 Is the Pushto a Semitic Language? Xo. 4. 

Uader^J^Jl " silk" Vullers is mute, as alas he is inmost] 
where one would look for information. In Pushto (J^ijj (wresh-al) 
is " to spin," which at least shows that the a in abresham is prosthetic, 
for euphony, and that the original meaning of the Persian word is 
" that which is spun" by the silkworm. But at the same time a 
conjecture may be ventured as to the Greek apayyr\ " spider" which 
may reasonably be supposed to be connected with a word for " spin- 
ning," like its equivalent in so many languages ; the change o?v into 
a vowel before r is quite common, e. g. Sanskrit vrih = Greek 
opx-eoi ; Pushto ^j^jj (wrbushe) == Greek 6'po/?os (German erbse) . 
Prof. Max Miiller in another conjecture on the same word (Zeitschrift 
fur Vergleichende Sprachforschung, 4, 368), makes a suggestion most 
worthy of consideration. He observes that a specific term in course 
of time often passes over into a general application, and that a word, 
for instance, denoting originally some peculiar kind of " making" 
adopts the sense of " making" generally ; he instances rkyyr] (art) 
from Sans, tvaksh (to work in timber) ; and Latin ars (art) from ar-o 
(I plough) ; and he goes on to say that the Sanskrit rack (to make) 
may originally have meant " to weave." This I would modify so 
far as to say that if a root for apa^-vr} must be sought for in Sanskrit, 
it may be vraj " to make,"* which may originally have signified " to 
spin ;" and support the conjecture not only by the Persian +**ijl 
(which would then be the original form of both *^*J) and /**»tr>\, 
both forms being due to the same principle of dislike to a double 
consonant at the beginning of a word), and the Pushto O^'jj 
(wresh-al) ,t but also by the Greek 7rpay — (do) and the Polish ^rac« 
(work), both of them etymological cruces and nieces; and would 
venture to add even the English work and German loerh. 

Taking the Persian wordj^* "hunting" by itself, it would seem 
rash to connect it with ^liXi " to break," which has for its Imper- 
ative v&»> ; yet this seems to be the connection on the analogy of 
the Pushto ^L* (mate) " hunting" especially that of the lion, as 

[* This very rare root (vrajayati) is explained by the grammarians " to send," 
" to purify," rather than " to make" (" Vraja mdrganasansJcdra-gatyoli.)" Eds.] 

t For the change of the consonant j into sh (vrij = wresh) cf. Sanskrit jiv 
ami = Old Slavic shkni ; Sanskrit jnd = Persian U**>], and the Highlander's 
shenthman for gentleman. 

I860.] Is the Pushto a Semitic Language ? 345 

compared with <t>^> (mat) " broken ;" which again reminds one strongly 
of two difficult French words hearing the same relation to one 
another, viz. chasser "to hunt" and easser " to break." 

Frequently the Pushto preserves the simple form of Persian com- 
pounds : e^Li-w^ " to send" is evidently compounded with the San- 
skrit 5f ; but the Persian o.>lxw| means " to stand" whilst the Pushto 
dsta-icul (wul is the Infinitive termination of transitive verbs) is 
" to send ;" eJ^U^I (compounded with the frequent Sanskrit abhi = 
o|) " to scatter" has no simplex in Persian, but in Pushto " to 
scatter" is J^f- (shandal) ; < jr kk.l£J " to fix in the ground," com- 
pounded with the Sanskrit inseparable preposition ni, has no simplex 
in Persian, but in Pushto J*s*f- (shakh-aivul) is " to bury." 

Such instances might be very largely multiplied, but only a few 
have been hastily culled, without much order, with a view, not to 
exhaust the subject, but rather not to weary the reader who may 
take a greater interest in the general philological question than in 
the Pushto language particularly ; and these instances will at least 
show that a language cannot be Semitic which is so intimately con- 
nected in its lexical store (grammatical forms there is no room in 
this paper to discuss) with the prominent members of the Indo- 
European family of languages, aud that in words not such as could 
be borrowed from another language, but such necessary every-day 
terms as form the staple of every language, and such as every tribe 
and nation, in their separation from the parent stock, take with them 
as a common inheritance. 

Peshawur, August, 1860. 

34G An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan. [No. 4. 

JRemarks upon an ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan, on the 
Irrawaddy. — By Lt.-Col. A. Phatee, Commissioner of Pegu. 

The ruins of the ancient city of Pu-gan are situated, as is well 
known, on the left hank of the river Irrawaddy, ahout three hundred 
and fifty miles above Rangoon. 

In the southern portion of the ruined city, I discovered the remains 
of an ancient monastery. This was the first building of the kind 
that I had met with in Burmah, and it is probably in better preserv- 
ation than any of the ancient Viharas built for Buddhist monks. 
The nature of the masonry, as compared with that of Pagodas at 
Pu-gan, the date of building which is known, leads me to believe 
that the monastery in question was built five or six hundred years 
ago. The building is constructed entirely of brick. 

It is somewhat dilapidated. Still enough remains to show dis- 
tinctly the nature of the building and its several divisions. The 
ground plan is shown in the sketch accompanying, and a rough front 
elevation is added. There was evidently no upper story. 

The building consisted of a square of about 80 feet, the outer 
wall up to the top of its battlemented parapet being about 18 feet 
above the ground. Each corner had a pilaster supporting a deep 
cornice which ran all round the outer wall. The outer wall had been 
plastered, but this protection has now nearly disappeared. The 
corner pilasters rested on basement mouldings, which appear to have 
been placed nearly two feet above the ground; the chief entrance 
was on the eastern face of the building, and here there was a projec- 
tion of about 15 feet from the main wall, forming a part of the outer 
room or vestibule. There was a corresponding projection on the 
opposite face where there was an elevated domed- structure, for the 
reception of an image of Grautama. This was apparently, from what 
remains, some twelve or fourteen feet higher than the outer wall. 
Over the entrance door on the eastern side, there had been an orna- 
mental canopy of flamboyant rays in plaster, such as is seen over 
most of the doors and windows of the temples of Pu-gan. This^ 









=Q £ ^ 

I-*, (N w> ^ tv, 

f 5 ^ 



1SG0.] An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gdn. 347 

however, is now nearly worn away by the weather. Entering this 
door-way, you pass at once into the vestibule or outer room, which is 
about 30 by 25 feet. From this you enter the main enclosure or 
central court of the monastery, more than 40 feet square, and into 
which open the principal surrounding cells, which were for the use 
of the monks. At the west end of this court, and directly fronting 
the main entrance, is an elevated domed tower, once surmounted by 
a graduated steeple now in ruins. Within the domed tower, at a 
height of about fifteen feet above the ground, was a palleng or raised 
throne, for an image of Gautama. This must ordinarily have been 
worshipped from below. There are no existing steps up to the tower, 
which probably was reached from the hall by a ladder when necessary. 
Beneath this throne was a vault below the level of the ground. A 
small opening and descending passage led down to it. In the vault 
also were places for images. This represented the cave which Bud- 
dhists love to construct, to remind them of places for retirement and 
devotion. The walls for the interior cells or apartments of the 
monastery aie now not more than 10 or 12 feet high, and this 
appears to have been their original elevation. The interior walls 
have not been plastered. No portion of a roof anywhere remains. 
Each cell has a separate entrance door and window about 18 inches 
' square. These are all formed with flat arches and no timber appears 
in any part of the building. It is not clear how the cells have been 
roofed or with what material, but probably with planks. Not a 
vestige of a tile was visible. The outer wall of the building is 
pierced to receive stone pipes to carry off the rain water from the 
roof. These are seen obtruding through the top of the outer wall 
below the parapet. The great centre room or court of the monastery 
has also been roofed but probably only with boards laid horizontally. 
The two dotted lines in the plan show where, from marks at the top 
of the inner walls of the side cells, two beams had probably rested. 
In a climate where it seldom rains, planks laid on rafters supported 
by these, would afford sufficient protection from the weather. This 
apartment was evidently the great hall of the monastery where the 
religious discourses and instruction would be conducted. The outer 
room would be that for the reception of strangers and probably for 
teaching the scholars, who daily attended for that purpose, as is now 

2 z 

348 An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gdn. [No. 4. 

customary at existing monasteries in Burmali. At the south-eastern 
angle of the building was an apartment differing from the others- 
It had several recesses in the walls and may probably have been the 
library of the establishment. At its southern end was a staircase 
which led up to a small turret on the roof. This was probably 
intended for the inmates to proceed to the roof in the cool of the 

The monastery was surrounded by an enclosure wall (now nearly 
all in ruins) about nine feet high. Each face was about 200 feet 
long. There was only the appearance of a gate at the centre of the 
eastern face. This was constructed with a double arch, indicating 
that the monastery had been erected by royal bounty. 

This building appears to have been constructed solely as a monas- 
tery or residence for monks, and with places for images of Buddha, 
but no other object of worship. I mention this as Mr. James 
Eergusson in a note on Buddhist structures, appended to Yule's 
Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava in 1855, appears to 
suppose that in Burmese monasteries " a dagoba altar" has been 
introduced, together with images of Buddha, thus converting the 
Vihara or monastery into the purposes of a chaitya hall. I am not 
quite sure that I understand what is meant by a " dagoba altar," to 
which " the priest turns in prayer." If it be a small model dagoba 
representing a relic receptacle, I am very certain I never saw one in a 
modern Burmese kyoung or monastery. In Burmah, Buddhist monks 
do not conduct worship. They simply preach the law. Each indi- 
vidual makes his own offerings, and utters his own ejaculations. 
Prayer is scarcely an appropriate term for the devotions of Buddhists. 
There was no indication in the ancient monastery I have been describ- 
ing that any such object of worship as a " dagoba altar" was intro- 
duced. But in the enclosure wall of the monastery, and entirely 
detached from the building, are two small chambered or vaulted 
pagodas, which evidently were intended as oratories, (so to speak.) 
for the monks. This also would tend to show that no '•' dagoba" 
was placed within the walls of the monastery itself. 

It may be well to add a few words on modern monasteries in 
Burmah. They are almost invariably built entirely of teak wood. 
Indeed Burmese of the present day, clergy and laity, appeal' to have 













' < 














1S60.] An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-c/an. 349 

a prejudice against living in brick edifices, whether sacred or profane. 
Close to the Ananda temple at Pu-gan is a monastery called Ananda 
monastery. It was, when I visited it in October, 1859, about eight 
years old. The building, of which a plan is annexed, rests on a plat- 
form of teak plank, supported by about two hundred massive teak 
posts, each not less than eighteen inches in diameter. The floor or 
platform is raised about eight feet from the ground. The monastery 
itself is 60 feet long from east to west and 45 feet from north to 
south. The outer portion of the platform on which the building 
rests, is left unroofed, being an open space from 14 to 16 feet broad ? 
all round the monastery. A reference to the accompanying ground 
plan will show, that the arrangement of this modern building bears 
no resemblance to that of the ancient one. The outer walls of teak 
plank, are seven feet high. The roof rises with three gradations or 
tiers. The eaves, gables and ridge ornaments are elaborately and 
beautifully carved. No gilding appears in the building. The Abbot 
of this establishment was upwards of eighty years of age. His 
apartment would properly have been the state room (No. 4) but his 
great age rendered it irksome to him to move, so he passed his time, 
during the day, in the long northern apartment, (No. 2) half reclined, 
leaning against one of the great pillars and enjoying the air. About 
half of the north side of the outer wall of the building and the whole of 
the eastern side consisted of shutters working on hinges, which could 
be raised up and supported on poles, or closed at pleasure, usually 
only those on the northern side were kept raised during the day. 
At night the aged Abbot had his bed on the floor, near to where he 
sat during the day, though there was a handsomely carved bedstead 
for him close by, had he wished to use it. Near him slept one of 
the two pazens or deacons, of whom two were attached to the 
monastery. This arrangement also was with reference to the great 
age of the Abbot. Under ordinary circumstances, one or both of 
these pazens would have occupied the room south of the state room 
(No. 5). The long room called western apartment (No. 6) I found 
occupied by one of the pazens and the young probationers, of whom 
there were some half dozen. Usually also this would have been the 
school room for those boys who attended daily for instruction, but 
the old Abbot could not bear the noise of these youngsters, and the 

2 z 2 

350 An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-gan. [No. 4. 

schooling went on in another and separate In the idol 
apartment (No. 3), most of the images of Buddha were arranged 
facing the entrance, that is to the north. Two or three were facing 
the east. They were placed in wooden models of sacred dwellings, 
elaborately carved and gorgeously gilded. Worshippers coming to 
listen to the preaching of the monks, or to make offerings of flowers 
and food to the images, would kneel helow the raised dais, and women 
prohahly outside the raised screens on the uncovered platform, so as 
not to come too near the officiating monk. But they might enter 
the monastery to deposit their offerings, on a receptacle which is 
generally placed hefore the images. No particular room was set 
apart as a library. Some book-cases were in the idol room, and some 
hooks were scattered on bedsteads below the dais on the east side. 

In this monastery the discipline was evidently very las, no doubt 
arising from the great age of the Abbot, and his inability to move 
about, and personally exercise authority. The pazens or deacons 
I found importunate, and the young probationers, notwithstanding 
their shaven heads and yellow robes, as riotous and wild as school 
hoys. However they all were civil and obliging and willingly showed 
me over the establishment. Being much interrupted by them in 
making measurements of the rooms, I left it to be done by a Burmese 
assistant. He afterwards told me he also had been quite perplexed 
by the talking, questioning, joking and laughing of these young 
candidates for monasticism. 

On the same platform with the monastery, and at a distance of 
only 13 feet under a separate roof was what is called a " phra kyoung' 
or image monastery. In this were images of Buddha placed facing 
to the north. But as this building is not an essential part of a 
monastery though in modem times generally added thereto, it need 
not be described. 

References to flan of modern monastery. 

1. Uncovered portion of the platform on which the building 

2. Outer hall extending on three sides of the building. The 
east side and a poi'tion of the north is enclosed by wooden shutters. 

3. The principal division of the monastery called " Phra Khan," 

§ T$ 

i | 2 




3 'k I 

t§ f| ? <J 

K t>3 

^ C\j «1 N 





i ii 























I860.] An ancient Buddhist Monastery at Pu-g&n. 351 

or " Image apartment." The floor is raised about a foot higher 
than the rest of the floor of the building. The idols are facing the 
north and east. 

4. The state room for the Abbot. This is separated by a richly 
panneled wall from the " Image apartment." 

5. Eoom for the pazeng or second in rank to the Abbot. 

6. The " western apartment," where the young probationers and 
students sleep and eat. In this apartment, ordinarily the teaching of 
the day-scholars would be conducted. 

7. This is called " the Image monastery." It is not invariably 
joined to a monastery, but when added it is always on the east side. 
The principal idol in this building faces the north. 

Note on a ruined monastery near the Tsoola Moonee Pagoda at 


Amidst the extensive ruins of Pugan there are probably many 
objects of interest yet to be discovered. I met with a second ruined 
monastery near an ancient temple called the " Tsoola Moonee." A 
rough ground plan which is annexed, shows the arrangement of the 
building. The main building, as seen in front facing the east, 
which included a portion of the interior enclosure wall, was nearly 150 
feet long. The principal entrance was on the east- It was gained 
by ascending a slightly elevated open terrace. In the interior 
were four apartments, including the vestibule, which were arranged 
somewhat in the form of a cross, round a central mound, which had 
probably contained an image of Buddha, within a vaulted chamber. 
Not far from this monastery was another building, within which 
I found a stone inscription on which the Burmese date 678 (A. D. 
1316) was legible, but I have not been able to decipher the inscrip- 
tion itself. 

352 On the rocks of the Damuda group. [No. 4. 

On the rocks of the Damuda group, and their associates in Eastern 
and Central India, as illustrated by the re-examination of the Hani- 
ganj field. — By W. T. Blajstfoed, Esq. Geological Survey of India. 

One of the most interesting problems in Indian Geology is the 
question of the age and mutual relations of the rocks containing coal 
in Bengal and Orissa. The fossils from the first named locality have 
long attracted notice in consequence of the great divergence shewn 
by them from European types of carboniferous vegetation, and of 
their identity with those from beds, also containing coal, in Australia. 
But these fossils being entirely vegetable, and fossil plants not having 
attracted, until very recently, the attention they deserved, except in 
the case of the true carboniferous flora of Europe and America, very 
little progress had been made towards ascertaining the geological 
relations of the Indian coal fields, until the commencement of the 
work of the Q-eological Survey of Mr. Williams. They were almost 
universally massed together as representatives of the carboniferous 
era, and the details of their geology were utterly unknown. They 
had not even received the attention which had been devoted to the 
rocks of Central, Western and Southern India. 

Mr. Williams directed his attention rather to the economical than 
to the scientific questions presented to him, and he appears, in his exa- 
mination of the Raniganj field, not only to have accepted the idea 
of the rocks being of true carboniferous age, but to have supposed 
that he found in the several beds composing them, representatives of 
the subdivisions recognized in Great Britain. But his observations on 
the geological relations of the beds among themselves are generally 
careful and accurate, his map is singularly correct, considering the 
very grave difficulties under which he worked, and although, partly 
perhaps owing to the small area which came under his observation, 
many essential circumstances escaped his notice, his accurate and 
trustworthy descriptions have since proved most valuable in shewing 
the relations of the rocks he surveyed to others which have since 
been examined. 

The only other detailed geological observations are contained in 

I860.] On the rocJcs of the Damuda group. 353 

two papers by Mr. J. Homfray, one published in the Asiatic Society's 
Journal for 1842, the other published in 1847, and reports by Dr. 
McClelland, on the Kaharbali coal field, and on other portions of the 
tract of country between the Ganges and the Grand Trunk Road. 
It is impossible to consider any of these papers as contributions to 
science, all being extremely inaccurate. Indeed in one case injury has 
been done, the plates attached to Dr. McClelland's report, not being 
true delineations of the fossils they are intended to represent (a result 
perhaps of the difficulty of obtaining competent draughtsmen and 
lithographers in Calcutta) have caused erroneous opinions to be enter- 
tained in Europe, amongst Paleontologists, concerning the affinities 
of the plants figured. 

Yeiy little light came from Australia. The plants there associated 
with the coal were examined by Messrs. Morris and McCoy, and the 
rocks themselves by Clarke and Strzelecki. Unfortunately the last 
observers adopted different and irreconcileable opinions, the first 
named stating that the coal-bearing rocks were interstratified with 
others containing marine shells of carboniferous age, the other that 
they rested upon the marine beds. The relations of the plants were 
generally considered to be oolitic. 

This last opinion was supported by the discovery in India of cyca- 
daceous plants, as Zamites, Pterophyllum, &c, allied to forms sup- 
posed, until recently, to be characteristic of Jurassic and Upper Me- 
sozoic rocks. These Cycads were moreover in places, as in Nagpur 
and the Rajmahal hills, found in the neighbourhood of Verte- 
braria, Glossopteris, and other genera, peculiar to the coal-bearing 
rocks, and it was supposed that all were found in the same beds. 

The examination of the beds of the Rajmahal hills, of Orissa, and 
of Central India, by the Geological Survey, together with the valuable 
observations and collections of the Rev. Mr. Hislop at Nagpur, have, 
for some years past, been gradually throwing light upon the true 
relations of the various beds. The re-examination of the Raniganj 
or Damiida field during the past two years has supplied several 
important links in the chain of evidence, and the following is an 
abstract of the views of the writer upon the classification which may 
be adopted. The details of the survey of the Raniganj field will be 
published as usual as the memoirs of the Geological Survey. 


On the rocks of the Damuda group. 

[No. 4. 

( Upper Panchits, 
i Lower Panchits, 



^ Raniganj series, 


... < Iron stones,... 


v Lower Damiidas, ... 




The rocks of the Raniganj field and their approximate thickness in 
feet, are, in descending order, 

1. — Panchit group, 

2. — Damuda group, 
3. — Talchir group, 

Of these heds the Damuda group alone contains coal. This 
enormous thickness of beds is cut off on the south by a fault, the 
downthrow of which cannot be less than 10,000 to 1-1,000 feet. 

The lowest or Talchir group, first separated in 1S56 from observa- 
tions in Orissa, consists of a series of fine sandstones and mudstones, 
frequently of a peculiar greenish colour, and becoming coarser 
towards the top, while towards the base they are commonly com- 
posed of the finest silt, in which there occur, in patches, gneiss 
boulders of enormous size, some having been measured as much as 
15 feet in diameter. It is most difficult to account for so anomalous 
an occurrence as that of these huge blocks in the finest mud, for any 
current which could roll or even move the former would necessarily 
sweep away the latter, and although such a phenomenon appears 
absurd in India, judging from the climate of the present day, the 
action of ice, probably of the form known as ground ice, appears to be 
the only geological agent which can account for all the circumstances, 
by explaining the transport of the boulders. 

The Talchir group had not undergone a very great amount of de- 
nudation, prior to the deposition of the Damuda rocks. It is, however, 
completely overlapped in the eastern portion of the Raniganj field, 
although well developed in the west. Very few fossils have as yet 
been obtained from these beds, those found are entirely plants, and 
shew distinctions from Damuda forms. 

Beds belonging to the Talchir group have now been discovered in 
Orissa, in Central India, in Beerbhoom, where they occur in numer- 
ous scattered patches, and in one or two places on the west side of the 

1S60.] On the rocks of the Damuda group. 355 

Rajmahal hills, besides their occurrence in the fields of Raniganj and 

The Damdda series, thus named from its extensive development on 
the banks of the river Damdda, comprises, with perhaps one exception, 
all those rocks from which coal has been obtained in Bengal ; the 
coal bearing rocks of the Himalaya, Khasi hills and Burma being, 
however, distinct. This series is divided in the Raniganj field by a 
mass of black shales, containing beds of clay ironstone, and attaining 
a total thickness of about 1,500 feet. There is evidence of uncon- 
formity between these shales and the Lower Damudas, but none is 
clearly made out between them and the upper series or Raniganj beds, 
with which they are in consequence classed. 

The Upper Damudas of Raniganj must be carefully distinguished 
from those beds in Central India which have been called Upper 
Damudas,* Mem. Greol. Survey of India, Vol II. pp. 176, 312. 
The Raniganj beds differ from the Lower Damudas in mineral 
character, and also slightly, so far as is at present known, in fossil 
remains. The upper beds consist mainly of very thick false bedded 
sandstones, with seams of coal frequently continuous over considerable 
areas. The lower beds are much coarser and more conglomeritic, and 
are rarely false-bedded ; their coal seams are numerous, but very vari- 
able in quality, and frequently thin out, or change into shale, or 
even sandstone, within very short distances. 

The most characteristic fossil distinction between the two groups 
consists in the abundance of a species of plant referred by Mr. 
Oldham to Schizonema, in the upper division, which has not been 
found in the lower. No animal remains have as yet been discovered 
in the Damiida beds. 

The upper or Raniganj series is not known to be represented 
beyond the Damdda field. The lower group is also found in Orissa, 
and along the Western side of the Rajmahal hills. The superiority 
of the coal of Raniganj is perhaps partly explained by the circum- 

* This name was given for good geological reasons, as will be seen by reference 
to Vol. II. of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey. It has however proved an 
unfortunate appellation, as it conveys an incorrect idea of the relations of the 
beds, which contain a flora completely distinct from that of the true Damudas. 
see Mem. Gcol. Survey, Vol II. p. 176. 

3 A 

356 On the roclcs of the Damuda group. [No. 1. 

stance that most of the best seams occur in a group of rocks unre- 
presented in other fields. It is not known to which group the beds 
of Palamo Bimghar or* Central India belong. 

Above the Damuda beds, and slightly unconformable upon them, 
occurs a series of coarse false bedded sandstones, with intercalations 
of red and grey clays, passing into shale in places. These beds are 
mainly developed in the Southern portion of the Raniganj field, where 
they form the mass of the fine hill of Panchit (Pachete), whence the 
name of Panchit series is suggested for them. The upper part of Pan- 
chit Beharinath and G-aranji hills are composed of a coarse conglo- 
merate, differing in mineral character from the lower portion of the 

This lower portion is of considerable interest, for, besides plants, 
the first distinct animal remains yet discovered in Bengal have been 
procured from them. These consist of various biconcave vertebrae 
and other bones, jaws and teeth, apparently reptilian, and of a small 
crustacean allied to iEstheria. The plants include, besides numerous 
peculiar forms, the Schizonema ? so characteristic of the Baniganj 

The iEstherias appear identical with those found by Mr. Hislop 
in the Mangali shales of Nagpur. Prom these shales was also pro- 
cured a reptile, Brachiops laticeps of Owen, belonging to the same 
group as the Labyrinthodon. It seems probable that the Mangali 
shales are the representatives of the Panchits of Bengal. The Upper 
Damudas of Jabbalpur may also be of the same age. 

In the Bajmahal hills the Lower Damudas are unconformably over- 
laid by a series of grits, conglomerates, and white clays. Above 
these, also unconformably, occur enormous flows of basaltic trap, 
with interstratifications of white and black shales, abounding in plants 
of the genera Zamites, Pterophyllum, Pecopteris, Tceniopteris, &e. 

* Beds containing plants of Damuda age occur also at the base of the Hima- 
layas of Sikkim, a circumstance first noted by Dr. Hooker, in his " Himalayan 
Journals," Vol. I. p. 403, and confirmed by myself in 1856. Nothing however 
could be made out of the extent of the beds, which are distinct from those con- 
taining coal on the Tista river. The only evidence of the existence of Damudas 
were specimens of glossoptcris and vertebraria found in loose blocks in a stream 
below Pankabari. 

I860.] On tlie rocks of tlie Damiida group. 357 

all quite distinct from Damiida forms. These beds were first accu- 
rately described by Professor Oldham in a paper published in the 
Society's Journal for the year 1853. They have since been named 
by him the Rajmahal series. It was, however, at first thought that a 
slight passage existed betweeD the Damiida and Rajmahal groups, a 
view which Professor Oldham has since announced to be erroneous ; 
the passage, if any exists, occurring in the conglomerates and grits 
interposed between the two series. Memoirs of Geological Survey 
of India, Yol. II. pp. 313, 325. 

The conglomerates and grits of Panchit hill, provisionally termed 
the Upper Panchits, agree perfectly in mineral characters with those 
"underlying the traps in the Rajmahal hills. As there is every proba- 
bility that they occupy the same position in the general series, it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that they are an extension of the same beds. 

A still higher group occurs in Orissa and in Central India, to 
which the name of Mahadeva has been given. ISTo representatives of 
it are known in Bengal, and it is possibly considerably higher in the 
series than any of the groups above mentioned.* It is not by any 

* Professor Oldham lias suggested as probable that it is of Nummulitic (Mid- 
dle Eocene) age. (Mem. of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. I. p. 171 and 
Yol. II. p. 210 note), and there are doubtless arguments in favor of his sugges- 
tion. . But the Mahadevas are in Central India overlaid unconformably by an 
intertrappean series abounding in a shell, Physa Prinsepii, said to be very closely 
allied to Physa Nummulitica of D'Archiac from the Nummulitic rocks of the 
Panjab, if not identical with it. (See Hislop on the Tertiary beds and fossils of 
Nagpur, Quarterly Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVI. pp. 163, 164). By 
D'Orbigny (Prodrome de Paleontologie, II. 299) Physa Prinsepii was considered 
identical with P. Gigantea, Du Boissy, from beds near Eheims which are of the 
lowest Eocene age, even below the plastic clay, while Nummulitic rocks are con- 
sidered by the best authors on the subject, as, at lowest, middle Eocene. There 
is much general similarity of facies between the fresh water (? land) shells of the 
Bheims beds (Mem. de la Societe Geologique de France 2e. serie, Tome II. plate 6) 
and those of the intertrappeans of Central India. The identifications of the 
Physas are dubious, especially that of D'Orbigny, but the resemblance of the 
facies is important. So far as this evidence goes, it tends to point out the inter- 
trappean beds as at least as low in the series as the Nummulitics and possibly 
lower. In this event, from the great break between the intertrappeans and the 
Mahadevas the latter must, a fortiori, be of pre-Nutnmulitic date. But all the 
evidence either way is of an extremely Blight description. 

3 a 2 

358 On the rocks of the Damuda group. [No. 4, 

means certain that the beds of Orissa and Central India are of the 
same age. 

The age of the rocks associated with the coal of Bengal is still 
undecided, but it is to be hoped that the examination of the reptilian 
remains from the Panchit beds may throw some light upon the 
question. The occurrence of the little iEstheria, a crustacean sin- 
gularly abundant in the Trias of England and Germany, the coal 
field (Lower Mesozoic and probably Triassic) of Eichmond, Virginia, 
U. S., and in Nagpiir in connexion with a reptile belonging to a 
group peculiar to the Trassic and Permian periods, (Rupert Jones 
on JEstheria Minuta, Quarterly Journal, Geological Society, XII.) 
seems to add weight to the gradually accumulating evidence in favor 
of these beds being classed with the still imperfectly known groups 
which are considered by European geologists to form the close of the 
Paleozoic and the commencement of the Mesozoic epochs. (See Pro- 
fessor Oldham's paper on the geological relations and probable 
geological age of the several systems of rocks in Central India and 
Bengal. Mem. Geological Survey of India, Vol. II. p. 295.) 

There are three localities whence more accurate determination of 
the age of these rocks may be expected. Of these one is in Australia, 
the other two in India, on the banks of the Godavery, S. of Nagpur 
and in Cutch ; and the attention of all interested on the Geology of 
India should be directed to the desirability of obtaining all possible 
accurate information from these places. 

The following diagram represents the views above put forward of 
the relations of the different series referred to together with their 
distribution throughout Eastern and Central India. 

Rdniganj. RdjmaMl. Orissa. Nurbadcla valley. JVagpilr. 

1. „ „ Mahadevas ? Mahadevas. Lametas. Mahadevas. 

2. „ Rajmahals. „ „ „ 

( U PP e ^ Pan " Conglomerates. ) Upper Damudas of Mangali 

' T chlts - C Jubbulpur. shales. 

Lower do. » ) 

fRaniganj ") ? ~") 

series. > „ „ ! 

4.-^ Ironstones.) \- Damiidas. 

j Lower Da- 
^ mudas. Lr. Dms. Lr. Dins. Lr. Dms.J 

5. Talchirs. Talchirs. Talchirs. Talchirs. ? 


I860.] Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. 359 

Report on Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf Sfc, collected 
by Captain C. G. Constable, H. M. I. N. Concluding portion by 
H. J. Cabtek, Esq., F. P. S. 

Since my Eeport on the Geological specimens brought to me by 
Captain Constable from the Persian Gulf was published,* Captain 
Constable and his assistant Lieutenant Strife have been back to the 
Guff to finish their survey, and, having again returned to Bombay 
with the necessary observations for completing their Chart, have, at 
the same time, brought geological specimens from the islands which 
they had not before visited. 

It will be remembered that the specimens first brought were chief- 
ly from the islands at the entrance and on the Persian side of the 
Guff. Those which I have now received are from the islands on the 
Arabian side, and which, with Captain Constable's account of the 
Artesian Springs about Bahreyn, and the occurrence of floating tracts 
of Naphtha a little higher up, will now successively occupy our at- 

After having entered the Persian Gulf and keeping on the Arabian 
side of the islands of Boo Moosa and Surree,f whose geology has 
been mentioned in my last " Report," we come, bearing S. S. W., about 
45 miles from the latter, to the island of Seir Abonade, rising 240 feet 
above the level of the sea at its highest point, whose geology is illus- 
trated by volcanic trappean rock and red ferruginous gypsum, similar 
to that of the nearest island, viz. Surree, which thus connects Seir 
Abonade with the volcanic formations of the whole of the islands on 
the Persian side and extends these formations on to the islands on the 
Arabian coast, with which we are now principally concerned. 

Taking thence a W. by S. course and running along the border of 
the " Great Pearl Bank," which presents nowhere more than ten 
fathoms of water over it, and shoals off to the Arabian coast, we 

* For the former portion vide Bengal Asiatic Journal, No. 97, p. 41. (New- 

f I must here follow the Orthography of the Charts. " Boo Moosa" and 
" Surree" would certainly be better spelt " iiu Musa" and " Sarri" for European 
pronunciation generally. 

360 Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. [Xo. 4, 

cross over its seaward margin, and at 70 miles from the last mention- 
ed island, arrive at those of Zirk&h, Daus, and Jirnain, after which, 
a few miles west, come the islands of Arzenie, Daeny, and Dalmy, 
which latter lie respectively, N.W. and S. W. of the former. 

The island of Zirkiih, which rises 540 feet ahove the level of the 
sea, and is by far the highest in the two groups, presents not merely 
remnants, but an exact geological type of the islands on the Persian 
side, viz. volcanic rock capped with " Milliolite,"* together with 
altered shale and specular iron-ore. 

Of the same type, also are Daus and Jirnain, but toitliout the Milli- 

In the next group, the island of Dalmy, which is 244 feet in its 
highest part, and only 25 miles from the Arabian coast, we find again 
the same kind of volcanic and marine formations ; thus carrying them 
on to within a few miles of the mainland, on which there are no doubt 
points, here and there, where they might be equally well verified, and 
thus completely extended from one side to the other, of the lower 
part of the Persian Gulf. Some of the specimens of " peacock-iron- 
ore" from Dalmy are as beautiful as any that I have ever seen from 
the island of Elba. 

The island of Arzenie is also composed of volcanic rock capped with 
Milliolite, while that of Daeny which is only 9 feet above the water, 
consists of compact limestone altered by heat and also capped with 
Milliolite, shewing at once the kind of strata through which the 
volcanic rock has been thrown up and that which has subsequently 
been deposited on it. 

Lastly the little island of Hawlool, which is outside the " Great 
Pearl Bank," 180 feet high, and 45 miles north of the last mentioned, 
is again composed of volcanic rock capped with Milliolite, while the 
island of Yassart, which lies nearly south of the latter and within ten 
miles of the Arabian coast, presents the Milliolite alone, and thus, as 
far as our observations extend, disappears the volcanic rock from the 
southern-most part of the Persian Gulf. 

Doubtless there are points, as before stated, on the mainland, here 
and there, where the volcanic rock projects above the surface, but 

* For a description of this type and the " Milliolite," see uiy first " Report" 
loc cit. 

1S60.] Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. 3GI 

with the exception of Jibel Allee lying E. S. E. of Seir Abonade, which 
is 220 feet high ; the island of Sir Beni Yas, and the headland close 
to it, which are respectively, 430 and 350 feet high ; Jibel Hadeed, 
about 85 miles futher west, and about 300 feet high, and a few other 
mounds much lower still, the whole of this shore is on a level almost 
with the sea, as far inland as the eye can reach, barren and unin- 
habited, shewing still further how the Gulf, in its lower half, shoals 
off through the " Great Pearl Bank" into the interior of the mainland 
of Arabia. 

Leaving this field of volcanic disturbance, in which the outbursts 
of igneous rocks, 'here and there, have brought up with them the 
great field of rock-salt whose culminating point above water is in the 
island of Hormuz, (for all the others which present volcanic rock are 
thoroughly sodden with salt), we come, on rounding Bas Bekkan 
northward, to the island of Bahreyn, which at its northern part, presents 
an extensive area both above and below the sea, of freshwater springs, 
the artesian nature of wbich is at once established, by the rainless 
locality in the midst of which they are situated, and the approxima- 
tion of the mountain chain on the opposite side of the Gulf, only 160 
miles distant, whose strata raised to upwards of 5000 feet within a few 
miles of the sea on the Persian side, dip downwards to form the Gulf, 
and rising again, apparently without much disturbance, at Bahreyn, 
thus carry their waters with them to issue at a place much lower 
than that on which they fall. That the presence of these springs 
at Bahreyn may be thus explained needs only a reference to Captain 
Constable's beautiful chart, and, for the detail respecting them, here 
is his own account : — 

" The freshwater springs in the sea about Bahreyn and on the 
island itself," Captain Constable states, " are numerous, and there are 
some to be found at intervals near the mainland of Arabia in the 
neighbourhood ; indeed I was informed by the Shekh of Manama that 
there is a lake of freshwater on the mainland close to the shore nearly 
opposite Bahreyn. They are to be found at intervals also as far north 
as the island of Bu Ali, but none beyond, nor are there any others at 
any other part of the Persian Gulf ; so that they are confined to this 
part, that is about 90 miles of the coast of Arabia.. 

" The old travellers who wrote of them, relate how the Arabs dived 

862 Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. [No. 4, 

down to a fresh spring under the sea in five fathoms of water and 
filled their jars returning with them to the surface. Such I take 
to be " travellers' tales." All the springs that I know of, (and be- 
tween us, Lieuts. Whish, Stifle, and myself, I think we visited most 
of them), were situated on the reefs, many of which with the reefs 
were left dry at low water. 

" There is one about 10 miles N. W. of Manama (which is the 
name of the principal town of Bahreyn), close to which H. M. 
Schooner, " Maid," anchored, and from it supplied herself with water. 
They took in 700 gallons of good sweet water from it in one day. 
The spring is about three feet under the sea, and the way they 
managed was by putting a tube into it, to which a short piece of hose 
was joined, and the water rising in the tube, was thus conveyed 
through the hose directly into the boat which lay along side, where 
it was received into casks which had been brought for the purpose, 
without further trouble. 

" Again, there is the island of Maharag, close to the N. E. point of 
Bahreyn, on which is the large town of Maharag with six or seven 
villages, all of which obtain their freshwater from springs under the 
sea or nearly so, situated on the great reef which surrounds the island. 
At low tide the inhabitants walk out to them and fill their vessels. 
Proceeding round the island northwards, from Maharag, we first come 
to one of these springs, on a low flat, rocky islet opposite the village 
of Biseytin, where it is situated in a basin which purifies itself as the 
tide falls but is over-flown at high water. A mile further on, are three 
or four others of good sweet water, all of which are also covered at 
high tide. The inhabitants of the village of El Dir obtain their 
supply entirely from these. Further round the island still and op- 
posite the village of Gallali are two more springs on the reef; in these 
we found that the Arabs had placed bamboos, through which the 
water was bubbling up ; there are also the remains of a building here, 
in the sea, but on the reef close to the springs. Still further round 
about a mile or two to the south, on the reef, is a slab of rock called 
" Bii Shahin" where there are more fresh springs. Then a short dis- 
tance S. E. of the fort of Maharag is another, still under the sea, at 
least at high water, it is called " Bii Mahah." Beside it is an old 
tower and it supplies Maharag chiefly. Thus the island on which 

1S60.] Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. 363 

Maharag is situated is surrounded by freshwater springs which, as 
before stated, are over-flown at high-water ; and in addition to these 
there are others which bubble up through the island itself. 

" There are also many which issue through the northern part of the 
island of Bahreyn, but they appear to be confined to this part of the 
island and are not found southward. 

" I regret that I had not an opportunity of getting geological 
specimens of the island of Bahreyn, the highest point of which is 
about 400 feet above the level of the sea. 

" Reverting to the spring from which the " Malii" was supplied 
with water, I would add that, besides being 10 miles from Manama, 
it is 7 miles also from the nearest land which is the N. W. point 
of the island of Bahreyn. There is a snug anchorage close to it in 
a bight between reefs ; the place is called ' Khor Fusht,' and a 
vessel lying there is sheltered from all winds. It has this convenience, 
viz. that the water is deep close to the reef, so that a vessel can lie 
close to the spring. The difficulty, however, is to find the spring, 
because even at low water, there is from 2 to 3 feet over it. 

" Lastly about 30 miles N. W. of Bahreyn, near Al Katif, is a 
small island called ' Deman,' five miles off which, in the sea, is another 
freshwater spring on a point of the reef called ' Basal Khali,' it has 
also three feet of sea over it at low tide." 

Having thus added what Captain Constable has kindly given me 
respecting the "freshwater area" as it may be termed, of the 
Persian G-ulf, let us proceed still northward to the head of the Gulf, 
keeping on the Arabian side, and the first islands that we pass are 
those of El Kran, Arabi, Farsi and Hurgooz, which in my last report 
I have stated to be composed of limestone-gravel milliolite, and still 
further northward we come to those of Om el Maradim, Garu, and 
Kubbar, of which the geological specimens now before me give the 
same composition. 

But the point of most interest communicated to me by Captain 
Constable respecting this part of the Gulf, is that of his having 
sailed through two floating tracts of Naphtha here at different 
intervals, respectively close to the two groups of islands last mention- 
ed, making this, as it were, the " Naphtha area" of the Gulf. Of 
these phenomena Captain Constable states as follows : — 

3 B 

364 Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. [No. 4, 

" Near Busra is a place called by the Arabs " Om Gheir"or " the 
place of bitumen ;" and close to the town of Koweyt, at the head of 
the Persian Gulf, is another on the sea-shore called " Benaid el 
Qar" or "bitumen dyke;" while up at this part of the Gulf I have 
reason to think that there are also springs of it under the sea, for 
in August 1843, when in a ship 12 miles N. N. E. of the little 
island called " Farsi," we passed through a field of it. The surface 
of the sea was covered with a glairy, oily looking substance which 
was accompanied by a strong smell of Naphtha. 

" Again in October 1859, while sailing from the little island of 
Kubbar to another close by called Garu, we experienced a strong 
smell of Naphtha, and presently passed through large sheets of oily 
substance floating on the surface of the sea. Our Arab Pilot whom 
I had engaged at Koweyt said that this appearance was by no means 
uncommon, and that he was certain there were springs of it near this 
part, and that he knew where to take his boat to collect it, but he did 
not know how to collect it or he could make a fortune by it." 

The last addition to our geological information made by Captain 
Constable is that obtained from his specimens of the Dehmaniyah 
group of islands which lie close to the shore a few miles west of 
Muscat, all of which are formed of limestone like that of the eocene 
strata of the adjacent coast, while a specimen of old diorite from 
Khor Fakn, 165 miles further up towards the Persian Gulf, is also 
of the same kind as that of Muscat. 

As regards the heights of the mountainous range called Jebal 
Akdthur whose extreme summit inland, as seen from the sea close 
to Muscat, I had judged to be about 6,000 feet,* Captain Constable 
by triangulation makes this 43 miles inland and 9,900 feet above the 
level of the sea. The highest point near Pas Mussandum, 6700 feet, 
and Jebel Bees, a mountain about 25 miles inland on the Mekran 
coast opposite, stated at a guess in my last " report" to be from 5 to 
6,000 feet, is now made by triangulation, to be only 4,600 feet above 
the sea ; but there are points which lie inland to the northward of 
Bunder Abbas, respectively, 20, and 30, and 45 miles distant, 7,600, 

* Geology of the S. E. coast of Arabia ia my " Geological Papers on Western 
India," p. 555.— lb. 533. 

I860.] Geological Specimens from the Persian Gulf. 365 

and S,500, and 10,660 feet high, all which, from Bunder Ahbas belong- 
ing to the Imam of Muscat, and the willingness of the Muscat Arabs 
at this place to accompany travellers to them, according to Captain 
Constable's account, might be easily visited. The highest point is 
in 27° 50' N. L. inland. At the head of the Persian Gulf, 45 miles 
N". E. of the village of Delim and 75 miles ~N. E. of Bushire, are two 
other points, respectively 10,900 and 10,200 feet above the sea ; and 
between this and the last mentioned mountain at the other end of the 
Gulf, are points in many places varying from 2,000 to 5,000 feet 
high, many also of which are almost close to the coast. Thus does 
the Persian differ from the Arabian side of the Gulf, which latter we 
have seen to be almost on a level with the sea. 

With this, ends all that I have to state from Captain Constable's 
information and specimens, respecting the geology of the Persian 
Gulf, which a previous personal knowledge of the coast of Arabia and 
Capt. Constable's accuracy have enabled me to use as I have done. 
Captain Constable has now finished his beautiful chart of the Persian 
Gulf and has handed it in to Government, and with the completion of 
this work my supply of geological information from this interesting 
locality ceases ; which I regret, as one regrets the cessation of a 
flow of conversation on a favourite subject from a friend in whose com- 
munications one has every reason to place the greatest confidence. 

Perhaps there is no part of the world which presents such a succes- 
sion of striking phenomena as that between Mekran and Meso- 
potamia inclusive, — beginning with the great area of mud volcanoes 
m the former, in which the cones range from nothing to upwards of 
712 feet high;* and then going round by the Persian Gulf, at 
whose entrance is an area of rock-salt culminating in the island of 
Hormuz ; then the sieve-like state of the earth in and about the 
island of Bahreyn occupying the middle of the Gulf — the " freshwater 
area ;" and lastly the " area of Naphtha springs," at the head of the 
Gulf and in the vale of Mesopotamia ; all of which are in connection 
with the great fault and anticlinal axis which bounds on the south- 
west and south respectively, the highland of Persia, Karmania, and 

* See Captain Kobertson's interesting and valuable " Memoir" — Journal of 
the Bombay Asiatic Society. Vol III. part 2nd, p. S, 1850. 

3 b 2 

366 Notes upon some remarkable Waterspouts. [No. 4, 

Notes upon some remarkable Waterspouts seen in Bengal between the 
years 1852 and I860.— By Major Walter Stanhope Sherwill. 
— Boundary Commissioner, — F. G. S. ; F. B. G. 8. 

During several years in which I have been engaged in recording 
remarkable atmospherical phenomena in Bengal, I have witnessed 
the formation and dispersion of several very remarkable waterspouts 
in and near Calcutta ; of these natural bodies I have made a memo, 
that describes the dates, appearance, times of duration, size, and 
direction of translation of these remarkable natural phenomena, in 
the hope, that it may assist any future enquiries that may be 
instituted into the nature of the laws regulating these bodies ; for up 
to the present time no satisfactory theory has been advanced that 
serves to connect these phenomena with the general law of physics. 

Electricity, doubtless, is the grand mover in the formation, action 
and dispersion of waterspouts, but its mode of action has not yet 
been satisfactorily analyzed. These columns are composed of dense 
masses of vesicular vapours similar to heavy storm, or rain clouds, 
some portion of the column has generally a violent gyratory motion 
as well as a motion of translation. Those seen near Calcutta have all 
been long, slender columns about 1000 feet in length, of a pale blue 
colour, dark at the edges and pale in the middle ; this appearance in- 
dicates them to be solid columns of vapour ; a glass rod held up to 
the light would present the same appearance, as would also a baro- 
meter glass tube filled with water, or a human hair which is a tube 
filled with liquid, or any similar object that possesses transparency. 

In many cases waterspouts are accompanied by thunder and light- 
ning, balls of fire, or great noise, they uproot trees, destroy cultivation, 
overturn hayricks and houses, exhaust tanks of then" water, drawing 
up the fish at the same time, showering them down upon dry land 
and on the tops of houses miles away from the spot from whence taken 
■up : but of the waterspouts mentioned in these notes, not one did any 
harm or the slightest damage, most of them were dissipated into 
heavy rain, or were absorbed upwards into the clouds without effect- 
ing any contact with the ground. Only one, that seen over Howrah, 
was accompanied with lightning and thunder. No one waterspout 

1S60.] Notes upon some remarkable Waterspouts. 3G7 

was accompanied with hail, which often does accompany the 
dispersion of waterspouts ; no one drew any water or other substances 
upwards, as is the case when waterspouts are formed at sea. The 
general length of the waterspouts seen, were a thousand feet, one 
however was iOO feet and another 1500, in length. 

It will be remarked that those waterspouts seen near Calcutta took 
place during the later months of the wet or south-west monsoon, 
August, September, and October. 

That electricity is the grand mover of these bodies I think is 
evidenced by waterspouts being more general in dead calms than in 
windy weather ; the suddenness of their formation ; their instanta- 
neous dispersion when once the condensation of their vapour com- 
mences, their violent and rapid gyratory motion ; their great power 
of destructiveness although no wind may accompany them, their 
peculiarity of tearing trees into dry shreds in a precisely similar 
manner, as a tree struck by lightning is torn and dried by the eva- 
porisation of all particles of sap from excessive heat ; the violent 
electrical discharges, balls of fire and hail tbat oftentimes accom- 
pany tbem ; and the fact that their presence in no way affects the 
barometrical readings of the moment. 

The favourite theory regarding the formation of these phenomena is 
simply, that when the electrical tension of the clouds is very intense, 
the powerful action that arises from this state of tension causes the 
cloud to lower itself towards the earth, for the purpose of discharg- 
ing its electricity ; this sudden rush of the cloud and its contained 
electricity towards the earth together, compose the waterspout : 
during their descent, from some unknown cause, a violent gyratory 
motion takes place, light substances are attracted upwards, and those 
whose weight prevents their leaving the earth, such as trees, houses, 
haystacks, &c, are torn and shreded to pieces ; should the waterspout 
meet with water, it is immediately entangled in the gyratory motion 
and drawn upwards, as was the case some years ago at Cuttack, 
where numbers of small frogs and fish, drawn up with the water from 
a tank, were precipitated from the clouds and were collected alive from 
the roofs of the houses in the station. 

Man has learnt, in a great measure, to disarm the lightning of its 
dangerous power ; he has learnt how to avoid and not only to avoid, 

368 Notes upon some remarkable Waterspouts. [No. 4, 

but he has also learnt how to make use of for his own purposes one of 
the most fearful and hitherto ungovernable and tremendous natural 
phenomena, the cyclone : meeting at sea with this violent and 
formerly much dreaded wind, the intelligent sailor boldly sets his sails 
to meet it, and by his intelligence and foresight makes what might, 
in his ignorance, have been his destruction, a fair and a favorable 
wind to help him on his way to his desired haven ; or else, laying to, 
he bows to the storm and patiently allows it to pass on its way, 
resuming his journey when it has passed. And so it should be with 
waterspouts, to thoroughly search out, and to understand the laws 
that govern these impetuous columns would not only be satisfactory 
to science, but might be the means of affording some protection to 
those who are liable to be harmed by them ; mankind possessing this 
knowledge might be able to disarm these columns of their power of 
uprooting trees, overturning houses, sinking small vessels, disabling 
others, of demolishing valuable plantations and cultivation, and car- 
rying destruction in their path ; but our knowledge concerning water- 
spouts, as it at present stands, allows these phenomena full power to 
do as they please. 

The formation, action and dispersion of the waterspouts observed, 
being very similar, I proceed to detail the above appearances in a very 
grand waterspout that occurred within 1\ miles of my house, merely 
observing, that there appear to be only two methods for then* disper- 
sion, namely either by precipitation of vapour to the earth as heavy 
rain ; or absorption upwards as vapour into the clouds. 

On the 7th October, 1859, a waterspout of colossal dimensions was 
seen to form and burst at Dum Dum 8 miles north-east of Calcutta. 
(See plate I. and plate II. fig 3.) 

The observations made upon this phenomena at the time are as 
follows : — 

The south-west monsoon had, during the week, received its first 
check by the north-east monsoon endeavouring to cross the Himalyah 
Mountains and to drive back the heavy masses of clouds and mois- 
ture that had been banked up along their flanks during the whole 
of the rainy season, or during the prevalence of the south-west 

At Dum Dum, the whole visible heavens were occupied by a dense 

Plate 1. 

JREAT WATER SPOUT seen, at DUMDUM ^BENGAL) 7 '. B OCT: 18,59.. 


* 3 II 

s S 1 

*# ''-.ft\ 

■-'•' s 






1S60.] JVotes iq)on some remarkable Waterspouts. 3G9 

mass of very grandly shaped and massively grouped strata of cumuli, 
at various elevations, the lowest from actual measurement was 2000 
feet above the earth ; the highest, probably reaching to 25,000 ; the 
whole mass being about 5 miles in vertical thickness. 

The aspect of the heavens during the past few days had been 
most remarkable : presenting a scene of great atmospherical disturb- 
ance, the clouds evidently being impelled from the south by the south- 
west monsoon ; but violently checked by the north-east monsoon, 
giving to the whole mass of clouds extending for as many miles as 
the eye could reach from north to south, and from east to west, a 
rotary and at the same time an undulatory motion ; in fact causing 
huge tracts of clouds to revolve rapidly round a centre that appeared 
from my position to be about 5 miles to the south-east. This rotary 
motion performed in a very large circle gave the clouds the appear- 
ance of moving in two distinct directions, for the clouds nearest to 
my position appeared to be going to the north, and those furthest 
removed appeared to be going to the south. 

There had been but little rain during the day ; in the early portion 
of the day the wind had been from the south bringing with it a 
large body of clouds from the sea ; at noon it changed to the south- 
west ; and at 2 p. M. to the west and at 4 P. M. to the north. 

It was between the hours of 3 and 4 p. m. that the greatest distur- 
bance in the clouds took place ; the whole mass revolving and heaving 
violently ; extensive masses of clouds being crushed and driven into 
others but unattended by any electrical discharges. It now rained 
heavily to the north and east. It was during this time that more 
than one waterspout endeavoured to form, but unsuccessfully. It was 
whilst observing the highly agitated masses of clouds that were revol- 
ving and oscillating in a most peculiar manner, that I witnessed the 
commencement and termination of the remarkable waterspout now 
under consideration. At 3 p. M. it became suddenly quite calm and 
during the calm a pale watery -looking but very lofty cumulus/the base 
of which was a right line, and parallel to the horizon, was seen to bulge 
out downwards or towards the earth in a long well-defined and light- 
blue coloured outline ; from the centre of this banging curve a broad 
column of a pale watery vapour rapidly sank towards the earth, close- 
ly resembling a very attenuated cone, dark at the edges and pale blue 

370 Notes upon some remarkable Waterspouts. [ISTo. 4, 

in the centre, plainly showing it to be a solid cylinder ; as it neared 
the earth, the lower half of this elegant column commenced to gyrate 
rapidly, the lower end oscillating violently to the right and to the 
left ; this latter movement I imagine to be a mere optical illusion, 
caused by the lower end of the column revolving in a circle of large 
diameter ; as the column neared the earth it expanded and contracted 
in an agitated and rapid manner about the centre into cloud-like 
protuberances which partook at the same time of the motion of the 
revolving column. 

Upon arriving nearer the earth, the end of the column parted into 
two slender columns about 150 feet each in length, and in this con- 
dition reached the ground. 

The shape of the column was now completely and instantaneously 
altered ; for the whole cumulus burst and was seen pouring down to 
the earth, not as a shower of rain but as a heavy mass of water, 
resembling a waterfall more than a shower of rain, that completely 
exhausted and brought the whole cloud to the ground in a few 
seconds of time. 

The estimated height of the cumulus from its summit to its base 
was 5000 feet, and 3,000 feet in length, the whole of which mass of 
vapour was precipitated tumultuously and instantaneously to the 
ground in the shape of water. 

The period of duration of the column from its first forming to its 
bursting, occupied about 25 seconds, and ' offered a very grand and 
imposing sight. 

The mass of water so suddenly precipitated upon a large grassy 
plain, for the column burst upon the artillery practice ground, was 
simply to put half a square mile of country under water for about 
half a foot deep. This water took 14 days to drain off by the usual 
drainage courses of the country. 

That the waterspout was accompanied by a noise I can hardly 
doubt, judging from the alarm exhibited by the cattle in its neigh- 
bourhood who fled in all directions as it descended. No noise was 
however heard from my position 1^ mile distant. 

By the assistance of a theodolite, a measured base, and observed 
marks upon the walls of my house, I was enabled to accertain that 
the height of the waterspout from its junction with the clouds to its 

1S60.] JS"otes upon some remarkable Waterspouts. 371 

lowest extreme point, at the moment of bursting was 1,500 perpen- 
dicular feet. 

Half an hour after this waterspout had disappeared another form- 
ed to the east of my position ; it was a very attenuated column 
about 900 or 1000 feet in length, but the cloud from whence it de- 
scended being upwards of 2000 feet above the earth, no contact was 
completed ; the column which lasted for half an hour gradually 
faded away, being absorbed upwards into the cloud from whence it 
had descended. The cloud and column were moving rather rapidly 
towards the south, which probably accounts for the column never 
reaching the ground. The column gyrated and oscillated violently, 
lengthening and contracting as shown in the diagram, where eleven 
different positions of the column are given sketched at intervals of 
from 2 to 5 minutes. 

Towards sunset, the clouds began to yield to the north-wind and 
were gradually driven out to sea, leaving a clear cloudless sky, and at 
9 o'clock at night not a cloud was to be seen. 

The north-east monsoon had fairly set in. 

Barometer at the time 3 p. m. ... ... 29.796 

Attached thermometer, ... ... ... 85°. 8 

Dry ditto, ... ... ... ... 86°.2 

Wet ditto, ... ... ... ... 81°.8 

3 o 


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376 Note on the Races of Rein Deer. [No. 4, 

Note on the Maces of Rein Deer. — By Edwaed Blytii. 
(Concluded from page 306.) 

In a foot-note to p. 283, I briefly remarked on the races of Bein 
Deer, and stated that I would recur to the subject in the sequel. 

Mr. Andrew Murray of Edinburgh has been engaged in investi- 
gating the question, whether the Eein Deer of Lapland differs from 
the barren-ground race of N. America, and he has figured what he 
assumes to be characteristic horns of each race, suspecting that the 
broad "vertical plate into which the brow-antler commonly expands in 
the barren-ground Caribou, to be peculiar to that race (Edin. New 
JBh. Joicrn., April, 1858). In a Lapland specimen, however, in the 
Society's museum, received from that of Christiania (and not impro- 
bably the head of a wild animal), the horns more nearly resemble 
the American horns figured by Mr. Murray ; and I therefore greatly 
doubt his supposed distinction between the barren-ground Caribou 
and the toild Lapland Deer. 

Referring also to the detailed notice of the wild Eein Deer of 
northern Scandinavia, in Mr. L. Lloyd's ' Scandinavian Adventures' 
(II, 193), I find that this author remarks (probably on the authority 
of Prof. Nilsson), that the horns of the wild Eein Deer of Europe 
" are large and slender, with brow-antlers which are hroad and pal- 
mated." But the horns of the wild animal of arctic Europe would 
seem to be rare in museums ; while those from America are exclusively 
the production of wild animals, and, as a rule, are undoubtedly picked 
specimens chosen from a considerable number. Hence, perhaps, the 
difference alleged or suggested by Mr. Murray. Moreover, in no 
other species of Deer are the horns so extraordinarily variable ; where- 
fore, to arrive at a fair conclusion, it must be necessary to examine a 
considerable number of unselected horns of the wild animal from 
both regions.* 

* The Cervus corotiatus of Geoffroy was founded on a very remarkable pair, 
supposed by him to have belonged to a peculiar species of true Elk (or Moose) ! 
Vide figure in Griffith's English edition of the Regne Animal (IV, 96), and also 
in Cuvier's Ossemens Fossiles together with a gradation of other horns referring 
them clearly to the Rein Deer : this curious pair consisting of broad palms with- 
out any beam, and dividing anteriorly into spillers. 

I860.] Note on the Races of Rein Beer. 377 

It would appear that the wild Rein Deer of arctic and sub-arctic 
Scandinavia still exists in very considerable numbers. Thus Lloyd, 
quoting Prof. Nilsson, states that — " On the high fj tills in the vicinity 
of Roldahl and Woxlie, the Rein Deer collect at times in astonishing 
numbers. One day in the beginning of June, 1826 (a couple of 
months before my visit to this district), the fjall, for the breadth of 
a Norwegian mile — which is a trifle more than seven English miles 
— was as thickly covered with Rein Deer as the ground is where 
Sheep feed in a flock. * * * The herd extended such a distance, 
that the eye could not embrace the whole at once. Subsequently 
the Deer separated into three divisions. * * * This reminds 
one as well of the interminable herds of Antelopes in the deserts of 
Africa, as of the equally large herds of Bisons in the prairies of 
America. * * * That this account is literally true, the Professor 
adds, is the more certain, because it was given him at different places 
and by different persons, who all agreed in their relations. The 
phenomenon excited a great deal of interest— no person having pre- 
viously seen so large a number of Rein Deer collected in one and 
the same place. On the Jemtland and Herjeadalen mountains in 
Sweden, as well as in the north-eastern portion of Lapland up to the 
North Cape, [the wild] Rein Deer are also pretty abundant. But 
in the intermediate country, which with some propriety may be called 
"Western Lapland, though formerly numerous, very few, according to 
Lsestadius, are now to be found. 

" The number of wild Rein Deer killed annually in Scandinavia, 
by one means or another, is considerable. Yery many, to my know- 
ledge, are shot on the Norwegian mountains by peasants and others ; 
as also in the more northern part of the peninsula. One of my 
guides in Russian Lapland, who was much celebrated as a chasseur, 
assured me, indeed, that in his time he had destroyed hundreds of 
those animals — in one instance as many as nine in a single day. For 
the most part he had shot them during the autumn, when they were 
in the best condition : but many he had also run dovvn on Skidor." 
There ought, therefore, to be no great difficulty in procuring fine 
horns of the wild European animal for museums. 

" Of the tame Rein Deer of Lapland," continues Mr. Lloyd, 
" there are, so to speak, two kinds : the so-called Fjall Ren, or moun- 

378 Note on the Races of Rein Deer. [No. 4 

tain Eein Deer, which for the greater part of the year are herded on 
snch elevated regions as to he destitute, or nearly so, of arborea^ 
vegetation ; and the Scogs Ren, or forest Eein Deer, that all the year 
are pastured in the forests. The Skogs Een is the larger of the two • 
hut even he is much inferior in size and nobility of appearance to the 
wild Eein Deer. The latter is occasionally killed, weigh inp- about 
350 lbs. ; whereas the tame Eein Deer, according to Swedish natur- 
alists, never attain to more than 200 lbs.* The wild Eein Deer is 
of a much lighter and more handsome colour than the tame. His 
coat — in the winter at least — is immensely thick." (Lloyd's ' Scan- 
dinavian Adventures,' II, 190, 192, 198, 206.) 

Another writer describes the wild Eein Deer of Scandinavia as 
" thinner, with more appearance of bone, and considerably stronger,'' 
than the tame ; in fact, a more ' game'-looking animal, as is usually 
the case with species in a state of nature. 

The object of these citations is to shew that the fossil Eein Deer 
of the British Islands may well be identical with the existing wild 
animal of Scandinavia, as distinguished from the tame kind, rather 
than of a race peculiar to the barren -grounds of arctic America (as 
has been suggested), which, however, I suspect to be one and the 
same particular race ;f whereas the Musk Ox, likewise met with fossil 
in Britain, is actually now confined to the American ' barren-grounds ;' 
where, also, upon the western continent, the European Bear is exclu- 
sively observed. 

" Nilsson," continues Mr. Lloyd, " has a curious speculation respect- 
ing the Eein Deer. He imagines that those once inhabiting Scania 
came from the southward immediately after the boulder-formation, 

* The main reason, I suspect, of the inferior size of the tame Eein Deer, as 
compared with the wild, is that the young are deprived of their necessary supply 
of milk. Vide end of note to p. 285, antea. 

t Since the above and the note to p. 283 were written, I have seen the abstract 
of Dr. H. Falconer's paper ' On the Ossiferous Caves of Grower, in Glamorganshire^ 
South Wales,' published in the Ann. Mag. N. H. for October, 1860, p. 297 et seq. 
The fossil Deer referred to in p. 283 (antea) are there referred to " species or 
varieties allied to the Rein Deer (Cervus Guettardi and C. prisons)." Prof. 
Owen's figm'e of what he assigns to C. tauandus in his Palaeontology, p. 374 
is merely a copy of a restored figure of a British fossil figured in his British 
Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 4«79, and is therefore not authoritative. 

1S60.] Note on tie Baces of Bern Beer. 379 

and whilst that province was still united to Germany : that, on the 
contrary, those which at present inhahit the northern portion of Scan- 
dinavia, came at a much later period (and subsequent to the land 
stretching between the Gulf of Bothnia and the White Sea having 
risen from the deeps), hy the way of Finnish Lapland. He has 
come to this conclusion from fossil remains of the Rein Deer having 
"been found in abundance in the alluvial peat-bogs of Scania ; whereas 
in the whole of the Hue of country between that province and south- 
ern Lapland, nothing of the kind has been met with." (Ibid. II, 
191.) No diversity of race is alluded to ; and there can be little 
doubt that the ancient British was identical with the Teutonic, 
and both with the existent wild Deer of Scandinavia. 

The large Asiatic race, which in a tame state is commonly ridden 
hy the Toungouz or Tungusians and others,* and which I suspect to 
be identical with the Woodland Caribou of N. America, is doubt- 
less the so-called ' Boe-huck' of the Amur territory noticed in p. 92 
an feci. This I gather from a passage in the Journal of the celebrated 
pedestrian traveller, Capt. John Dundas Cochrane, B. N. (nephew of 
the late venerable Earl of Dundonald), who was informed, at Boukh- 
tarmisk, that " Bein Deer abound in the mountains [southward, 
beyond which is the lake from which the river Irtisch takes its rise] 
which also contain Sheep. The horns of the former are considered 
valuable, fetching two or three guineas a pair ; when very young th e 
Chinese purchase them and extract a favourite medicine ; the younger 
the animal who has shed the horns, the greater the value." (Coch- 
rane's 'Narrative,' 2nd edit., I, p. 180). Capt. Cochrane should have 
said — the younger the horns of the animal, not " the younger the 
animal." Old Bishop Bontoppidan, as quoted by Mr. Lloyd, remarks 
that — " When the Bein Deer sheds his horns, and gets new ones in 

* The small Lapland race is occasionally ridden. Thus Clarke writes — " The 
lad who had conducted me vaulted on the back of one of them, having a Rein 
Deer skin for his saddle, and two seives by way of stirrups." And again, at 
Erontikis, — " The rest of the night was passed in mirth and rejoicing, we had 
races in sledges, drawn by Rein Deer, and amused ourselves by riding on the 
backs of these animals." (Clarice's Winter in Lapland). Capt. Cochi-ane, 
writing of the Tongousi (as he terms them) l'emarks — " I was amused with their 
manner of catching Rein Deer, as it reminded me of the hunting of wild 
bullocks I had seen in Mexico ; with this difference only, that there the man 
rides a Horse fully trained, and here a Rein Deer," &c. &c. (Pedestrian Journal^ 
I, 373). 

3 D 

380 Notes on the Maces of Rein Deer. [No. 4. 

their stead, they appear at first to be covered [as in all other Deer] 
with a sort of skin, and till they come to a finger's length, are so 
soft, that they may be cut with a knife, like a sausage, and are 
delicate-eating even raw. This we have from the huntsmen's account, 
who, when they are far out in the country, and are pinched for food, 
eat them, which satisfies both hunger and thirst." Of course they 
are then most highly vascular and full of blood ; and thus it appears 
that this strange delicacy is not quite peculiar to the Chinese. 

Professor Pallas, tracing the geographical range of the Eein Deer 
in Asia, notices the occurrence of this animal in the Kinyan Alps 
in Mongolia, between the rivers Amur and Naun. (Zoogr. Bosso- 
asiatica, edit. 1830, I, 203.) It can hardly migrate annually to the 
sea-coast from that mountainous far-inland region, which migration 
is held to be a necessity of existence with the Eein Deer of Lapland. 
But does the large or Woodland race of this animal anywhere 
migrate to the sea-coast ? 

It is remarkable that the Rein Deer has never been domesticated 
in arctic America ; and the more so, as the immediate western shore 
of Behring's Straits and the Aleutian Isles are inhabited by true 
Esquimaux (Vide Von Wrangell, Sabine's Translation, pp. 343, 372), 
who cannot but know of the domestic herds in the possession of their 
neighbours the Tschuktschi ;* but a reason may well be, that where 

* By the way, Dr. Godman remarks that the wild "Eein Deer often pass, 
in summer, by the chain of the Aleutian Islands, from Behring's Straits to 
Kamschatka, subsisting on the moss found on these islands during their passage" 
(i. e. from America to Asia). Pennant stated that " they are not found iu the 
islands that lie between Asia and America, though numerous in Eamschatka." 
They do not appear to inhabit them permanently. 

Cuvier has shewn, by a laborious investigation, that, during the historic 
period, this animal never extended in Europe further south than the Baltic and 
the northern parts of Poland ; and, at present, as Sir C. Lyell remarks, it 
" can scarcely exist to the south of the 65th parallel in Scandinavia ; but 
descends, in consequence of the greater coldness of the climate, to the 50th 
in Chinese Tartary, and often roves into a country of a more southern latitude 
than any part of England." Referring to Dekay's 'Natural History of New 
York,' this author states — " It is with much hesitation that I include the Rein 
Deer in the Fauna of our State ; but the representations of hunters lead me to 
suspect, that, when the yet unexplored parts of the State have been more 
thoroughly examined, its existence may be disclosed. Pennant, in his time, 
asserted that the Rein Deer was not found further south than the most northern 
part of Canada. Charlvoix, however, saw one killed at Quebec. The specimen 
in the cabinet of the Medical College at Albany came from Nova Scotia ; and 
Harlan asserts that it does not pass the State of Maine into the United States, 
implying its existence there." Professor Emmons observes — " It is only a few years 

1S60.] Notes on the Races of Rein Beer. 3S1 

Dogs are employed for sledging, and are unaccustomed to the sight 
of tame Deer, they would he very apt to attack and destroy them, as 
has happened in instances where individual Rein Deer have heen tamed 
in the American fur-countries hy Europeans. In Lapland, however, 
the herds of domestic Rein Deer are always tended by several Dogs, 
which guard and keep them in order and serve to hunt back any 
stragglers. {Vide Lloyd's 8c. Adv. II, 213.) 

Referring to Dr. J. E. Gray's ' Synopsis of the Species of Deer' 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 225), I observe that he admits one species 
only of Rein Deer, but which " varies exceedingly in size." He 
remarks — " They have a large variety in Newfoundland, nearly as 
large as a heifer [a heifer of what race ?*], having very large and 
heavy horns. There are some horns of this variety in the British 
Museum. M. Middendorf informed me that the horns of the large 
Siberian variety were as large as, and greatly resembled, the horns 
from Newfoundland (Nova Scotia) in the British Museum collection." 
In other words, the American Woodland Caribou, and the large race 
of N. Asia, are, in all probability, cpiite identical. 

since this animal appeared in the northern parts of Vermont and N. Hampshire ; 
from which it is not unreasonable to infer, that in earlier time it may have passed 
still further south. Its gregarious habits and unsuspicious character would seem 
to ensure its speedy destruction, when placed within the reach of man." It is 
well known how much the climate of the Atlantic States of N. America has been 
ameliorated, from the seasons being rendered less excessive, by the gradual exten- 
sive clearance of the forests ; as that of N. Europe since the time of Caesar. On 
the Pacific Coast of N. America, Capt. Beechey remarks that Rein Deer occur in 
some seasons of the year in New Caledonia (now, to avoid confusion, termed British 
Columbia), or the country drained by Eraser's River. 

* Clarke remarks, of the Cows which he saw in his journey from Tornea to 
the Muonio river, — " The Cows here are all of the same white colour, and very 
little larger than sucking calves in England ; but so beautiful, and yielding milk 
of a quality so superior to any we had before tasted, that we longed to introduce 
the breed into our own country. It i3 almost all cream ; and this cream, with 
the most delicious sweetness, is, at the same time, even when fresh, so coagulated, 
that a spoon will nearly remain upright after it has been plunged in it. Of course," 
it is added, "its richness must be principally attributed to the nature of the 
food which, during summer, these cows select for themselves in the forests ; and 
this consists entirely of the tender twigs and young shoots of trees." Travels 
to tlie North Cape, p. 309. 

The pretty httle Norwegian cows are thus incidentally noticed : comment about 
the "as if is, of course, unnecessary. " Then came the goats and sheep, and the 
little cows following like dogs, now and then stopping to take a bite, when the turf 
looked particularly sweet and tempting— little fairy cows were they, much smaller 
than our Alderneys, finer in the bone, and more active in the legs ; they looked 
as if they had a cross of the Deer in them. They were all of one colour, a sort of 
dirty cream-colour approaching to dun, and almost black on the legs and muzzle." 
(Forest Scenes in Norway and Sweden. By the Rev. H. Newlancl, p. 156.) 

3 d 2 

382 Notes on the "Races of Rein Deer. [No. 4, 

Still it is rare that even the Woodland race in America attains to 
the weight of 350 lbs. ! One, 4f ft. high at the shoulder, mentioned 
in Capt. Cartright's Journal, weighed, his quarters 270 lbs., the head 
20 fl>s., offal 20 lbs. — 310 lbs. in all : he had an inch of fat on his 
ribs, and \\ in. on his haunches. Another, " an old buck of the 
dwarf breed," five inches lower at the shoulder and which had forty 
points to his antlers* (the former having but 29), " was in excellent 
order, weighing in his quarters 314 lbs., with 2\ lbs. of fat on his 
haunches, and 1\ in. thick on his ribs." A buck of 27 stone is also 
mentioned, which, " had he been killed in prime of grease, would 
have stood at least 31 stone, or 434 lbs. A very fat old doe weighed 
154 lbs., and another 155 lbs. But all of these were particularly fine 
animals." In Lapland, " a fat ox-Deer weighed 122 lbs., and had 
10 lbs. of tallow. This is, I suppose," continues Mr. Laing, " as 
much as the tame animal in general will feed to. The wild race, 
which comes considerably further south, is a good deal larger." 

The domestic Deer of Lapland, however, vary even in neighbouring 
parishes. " None that I saw," relates the Hon'ble A. Dillon, " were 
larger than our common English Fallow Deer. Those in Russian 
Lapland, near Kola, are said to be much taller ; while the wild ones 
in Spitzbergen, though exceedingly fat, are far inferior in size." 
" The Deer which I observed, as I approached Tornea," remarks Sir 
A. C. Brooke, " and those I afterwards met with beyond it, confirmed 
me in what I had been told was the fact, that the further they live 
north, the larger they are ; and when I saw those which were brought 
to England by Mr. Bullock from the Roraas mountains between 
Christiania and Drontheim (being the southernmost limit of tbeir 
range in Scandinavia), their very great inferiority in size to the Deer 
of Finnmark removed all doubt on the point. Large, however, as is 
their size, I have been assured by persons who have made successive 
voyages to Spitzbergen, for the purpose of taking this animal and the 
Walrus, that the Rein Deer found on that island exceed very consider- 
ably in bulk those of Finnmark ; and that their tallow alone, which is a 
principal object in their capture, in many of them amounts to the 
extraordinary weight of 40 lbs. Respecting the size of the Spitz- 

* Capt. Cart wright obtained a pair " with 72 terminal points." (" Journal of 
16 years' residence in Labrador.)" 

I860.] Notes on Hie Races of Eein Veer. 383 

bergen Deer," continues this author (at variance with Mr. Dillon, and 
also with a statement in the Appendix to Sir John Eoss's 2nd voyage) > 
"I have been able to satisfy myself, from having had an opportunity 
of seeing in London a haunch, that was brought to England, having 
been salted, and afterwards dressed ; and from the extraordinary 
dimensions of it, the animal must have been considerably larger than 
any of the Bein Deer of Lapland." According to Clarke, — " The 
breed of Eein Deer in the parish of Eroutikis [in Lapland] is larger 
than that of Bickasjerf, but smaller than that of Kittila ; and this 
difference is wholly to be ascribed to the difference in the soil, as suited 
to the growth of Eein Deer moss ; on which account the Eein Deer 
of the mountains are always smaller than those of the forest." 

Here, indeed, we have probably the key to the difference between 
the barren-ground and woodland races of America, if not elsewhere ;* 
but the difference of habit is remarkable. " In the fur-countries of 
North America," writes Sir John Eichardson, " there are two well 
marked and permanent varieties of this animal [incipient species, 
according to Mr. Darwin's theory], one of them confined to the 
woody and more southern districts, and the other retiring to the woods 
only in winter, and passing the summer on the coasts of the Arctic 
Sea, or on the barren-grounds. f The latter weigh so little, that I 
have seen a Canadian voyageur throw a full grown doe on his shoulders, 
and carry it as an English butcher would a sheep. The bucks are 
larger, and weigh (exclusive of the offal) from 90 to 130 lbs. Those 
of the "Woodland variety from 200 to 24<0 lbs." " A small doe of 
this," remarks Hearne, " is equal to a northern buck : but, though 
so considerably larger, their antlers, although much stronger, are not 
so large and branching." In Sir John Eoss's 2nd Voyage, we read that 
a specimen, " of larger size than ordinary," was obtained in Boothia, 
weighing 250 lbs. From nose to base of tail it measured 5 ft. 10 in. ; 
the tail 5|- in. : height at the shoulder 4J in. ; of the hind-quarters 
4 ft. 5 in. ; and girth behind the four legs 55 in. ; those of Melville 
Island, Boothia, and Spitzbergen, it is stated, " did not average above 
half the weight." Probably, therefore, a straggler of the woodland 

* The American barren-grounds are physically similar to the mountainous 
parts of Lapland, and also to the ' tundras' of Siberia. 

f He subsequently remarks — " Contrary to the habits of the Barren-ground 
Caribou, the Woodland variety travels southward in the spring." 

384 Notes on tlie Races of Rein Beer. [No. 4, 

race. We may accordingly presume that the current statement that 
the further northward this animal inhabits, the larger it grows, is 
true only within certain limitations, depending much on the charac- 
ter of the country. The large woodland race, indeed, inhabits south- 
ward of the small barren-ground race : the former migrating in 
summer to the polar sea ; the latter southward to the mountains of 
the interior ; and this alike in Asia and America. 


To which I am induced by recalling to mind a passage in the 
Introduction to Von Wrangell's ' Narrative of an Expedition to the 
Polar Sea' (Sabine's Translation, p. cxvii), wherein a flint implement 
is mentioned as being in use in modern times (A. D. 1809). 
Indeed, elsewhere (p. 376), Von Wrangell notices, of the Tschuktschi, 
that — " Iron being scarce, they sometimes employ Walrus tusks 
mstead ;" and also that — " The inhabitants of the Aleutian Isles 
use spears pointed with slate in killing Whales" (p. 340). So did 
other Esquimaux further east (i. e. in America) fashion slate as well 
as bone weapons until they became acquainted with the use of iron, 
and acquired possession of metal instruments from their European 
visitors. — " On Fadegew Island, Sannikow found a Jakakir sledge, 
and a knife, such as is generally used for scraping Rein Deer skins. 
The blade, however, was not of iron, but of a hard sk&vpjlint. In 
New Siberia they had found an axe made of the tusk of a Mammoth." 
— Now Nilsson, exploring certain exceedingly antique tumuli in 
Scania (the southernmost province of Sweden), found in them flint 
arrow-heads or spear-heads — the so-called Celts or Kelts, — together 
with bones of now extinct mammalia, and human bones including 
skulls, which skulls were distinctly of the hyperborean type of 
humankind, in a latitude considerably to the southward of the abode 
of the hyperborean Mongol at the present epoch, unless where a 
a much severer winter climate obtains ! Considering the ultra- 
remote antiquity of the ' Celts' elsewhere discovered in temperate 
latitudes, does not Nilsson's discovery somewhat point to the glacial 
period of Agassiz ? Albeit the human animal most assuredly never 
originated in the circum-polar regions, any more than on the minor 
continent now called America, however ancient may be the indis- 

1S60.] Notes on tlie Baces of Rein Deer. 385 

putable human remains discovered by Dr. Lund in certain Brazilian 
caverns, and others since disinterred in the valley of the Mississipi ! 
The human organism pertains strictly to the catarrJdne as opposed 
to the platyrrliine division of anthropomorphous creatures, the former 
proper to the major continent, the latter to the minor continent, — 
the former (as in mankind) having invariably but two prse-molars 
above and below on either side, the latter as constantly a series of 
three pra?-molars, &e. &c. : and it need hardly be added that the 
naked frame (with hah' on scalp affording some protection from the 
sun, but certainly not from cold,) most surely indicates the original 
and indigenous abode of mankind to have been in a hot region of 
the earth, even where, at the present time, the animals most nearly 
akin to humanity — so far as their bodily organization is concerned — 
inhabit. But what do we know of the geology of the regions 
tenanted by the Gorilla, the Chimpanzee, and the Orangs ? Just a 
little ! Of their palaeontology, almost nothing. It is therefore 
exceedingly premature to dogmatize or to venture to affirm whether or 
not a nearer (fossil) link may even yet be brought to light than is 
the formidable Gorilla Ape, itself a re-discovery but of yesterday, 
when the proper regions of the earth for such a quest shall have been 
duly investigated. These remarks are meant to afford little more 
than a hint ; but it is one that will be understood by those for whom 
it is intended. — E. B. 


In page 291 antea, it is remarked that the efforts of modern Zoolo- 
gical and other Societies have not been attended with much result 
hitherto, as regards the domestication of wild animals ; and I believe, 
as there intimated, that the subjection of all the more important 
domestic creatures was effected by human beings in a very rude state 
of savagery. Since writing those remarks, I have seen the article 
in No. CCXXV of the ' Edinburgh Review' on the " Acclimatization 
of Animals," in which the results hitherto attained are brought to 
notice. " The acclimatization of the Eland," we are told, " may be 
now considered a fait accomple ;" but this is, at most, a preliminary 
to its domestication, which by no means necessarily follows, or may 

386 Notes on the Races of Rein Deer. [No. 4, 

even be possible. The Common Pheasant, for example, was probably 
introduced into Britain during the period of Roman domination ; 
yet, however thoroughly naturalized to the country (for the amount 
of acclimatization in this instance is inconsiderable), and also however 
tameable, it certainly manifests no tendency to become a domestic 
bird, like the ordinary Common Fowl or the Turkey. It will not 
attach itself to a home-stead. " The practical results," we are told, 
" of reproduction and acclimatization have been so entirely lost sight 
of for ages, that the Turkey in 1524, the Musk Duck in 1650, the 
Gold Pheasant in 1725, and the Silver Pheasant in 1740, are the 
only additions to our catalogue of domesticated animals since the 
Christian sera." Surely the Gold and Silver Pheasants cannot be 
justly termed domesticated, although tame, and the races permanently 
maintained either in strict confinement, or turned loose into preserves.* 
Most assuredly they are not likely to become free denizens of the 
poultry-yard ; like the Guinea-fowl, the domestication of which is 
really of comparatively modern date. Its name of Guinea-fowl indi- 
cates the indigenous abode of the particular species, a country 
unknown to the Greeks and Romans ; whose Meleagris and Gallina 
numidica (quasi nubica ?) referred to the species of N. E. Africa and 
perhaps of Arabia (Numida ptilobhyncha of Ruppell), received 
by them via JSFubicc.f 

Nest, of the two other instances cited, — the Turkey and the Musk 
Duck — it is remarkable that both of these were found by the Spanish 
discoverers already domesticated in the New World. This Schlegel 

* Neither of them lias begun to vary in colour as yet, as the semi-wild British 
Pheasant often does, to the same extent as the tame Guinea-fowl. 

f According to W. G. Browne's ' Travels in Africa,' &c. (1792 to 179S), p. 
264, those birds were even then brought in cages, " as a profitable commodity," 
to Cairo from Darfour ; and doubtless therefore at the present day also, as like- 
wise in ancient times. There is no reason to suppose that the Romans domes- 
ticated them, even though they may have kept many in captivity. Prince John 
of Portugal, the famous patron of African discovery (but more probably one of 
his successors), has the credit of first introducing and multiplying the modernly 
domesticated species from Guinea; and the earliest known distinctive description 
of it is that by Dr. Caius (1570), in which the purple colour of the neck is men- 
tioned, which will not apply to the E. African N. ptiloehyncha. 

That the E. African bird was that known to the Romans is further distinctly 
indicated by an expression of Columella, who notices its " paleam et cristam" 
(peak and crest) ; referring to the frontal crest of N. ptilobhyncha (whence 
its name), which is utterly wanting in the bald-fronted bird of Guinea, 

1S60.] Notes on tie Races of Rein Deer. 387 

has remarked of the Caeaika moscecata ;* and the Camivora of 
Montezuma's menagerie were fed on the flesh of domestic Turkeys. 

* ' Kevue Critique des Oiseaux cV Europe,' p. 108. Were the G-eese of tltis 
species which were " bred to supply feathers for ornaments" in the now ruined 
city of Quiche (lat. 15° N.), which, like Mexico, had its zoological and botanical 
gardens attached to its palace ? (Stephens's Incidents of Travel in Central 
America, II, 179.) I have not access to the original authorities, and know of no 
traveller more thoroughly indifferent to all matters of Natural History than was 
Mr. Stephens, in a country, too, so teeming with objects of interest in its Fauna 
and Flora. In the hunts of that most exquisitely plumaged bird, the Ocellated 
Turkey (Meleagkis ocellata), where so void of fear that he knocked one over 
with a pistol (I, 397), he does not appear to have distinguished it from the 
common wild Turkey of the United States (M. gallipavo) : and at the ruins 
near Palenque (within the Mexican territory, in about 17° 20'), he remarks — 
" We expected at this place to live upon game, but were disappointed. A wild 
Turkey we could shoot at any time from the door of the palace ; but, after 
trying one, we did not venture to trifle with our teeth upon another" (II, 320). 
Just as, in this country, an old Peafowl has the merited reputation of being tough, 
as has likewise an aged gander ! But it does not follow that all are not excel- 
lent eating when of a proper age. (Indeed, another writer describes the flesh 
of the Ocellated Turkey as " most delicious-eating." Proc. Lin. Soc. 1859, 
pt. 1, p. 62). The Jaguar (Feeis onca) is indifferently styled by Mr. Stephens 
both ' Tiger' and ' Leopard ;' and the Cougar or Puma (P. concolor) is of course 
his ' Lion.' This was to have been expected ; but that the most superficial 
of observers shoidd see the Ocellated Turkey and pass no remark on its extra- 
ordinary beauty is somewhat surprising. At least it is not probable that the 
wild Meleagkis mexicana occurs so far southward even as Palenque ; and at 
the modern village from which the neighbouring ruins derive their current name, 
the author mentions having procured a domestic Turkey for provender. 

It may seem strange that the M. ocellata, in addition to M. mexicana, was 
not domesticated by the populous race which the Spaniards found so highly 
civilized (in some respects) over a vast extent of country which it inhabits ; 
but neither have the Jungle-fowls of S. India and Ceylon respectively (Callus 
Sonnebatii and G. Stanleyi v. Lafayettii) been domesticated, while their con- 
gener of N. India and of all S. E. Asia and its archipelago, even as far as Timor, 
(G. feeetjglneus v. bankivus,) has been diffused in a domestic state over the 
world. Mr. Gosse remarks that — " The common Turkey is, so far as European 
knowledge is concerned, indigenous to the greater Antilles; having been found by 
the Spanish discoverers already domesticated by the Indians ; and the European 
domestic breed is descended from the West Indian, and not from North American 
parentage." (Birds of Jamaica, p. 329.) He gives no authority for the statement, 
and its accuracy is more than doubtful. As the late Mr. Broderip remarked — 
" Mexico was discovered by Crijalva in the year 1518 : and we soon after find a 
description of the Turkey as one of the productions of the country by Gomarra 
and Hernandez, the latter of whom gives its Mexican name Huexototl, and 
makes mention of the wild birds as well as of the tame. Oviedo, whose work 
was published in Toledo in 1526, describes the Turkey well, as a kind of Peacock 
of New Spain, tvhich had been carried over to the islands and the Spanish main, 
and was about the houses of the Christian inhabitants." (Broderip's Recreations 
in Natural History.) This statement of Oviedo quite disposes of Mr. Gosse's 
assertion of its being indigenous to the greater Antilles. 

In tracing the southern natural distribution of the genus Meleagkis, it should 
be borne in mind that the so-called " wild Turkeys" of Guiana, mentioned by various 
authors, are Cttrassoivs, often by their own shewing ; while that of Paraguay is no 
other than the Psophia crepitans ( Vide ' Letters from Paraguay, Brazil, and the 
Plate,' by C. B. Mansfield, M. A., 1856, p. 533) ; and that the Bindons sauvages, 

3 E 

388 Notes on the Races of Rein Deer. [No. 4, 

It is only recently tliat the true prototype of the common Turkey 
(GrALLiPAVO mexicana of Gould) has been made known ; and the 
wild bird is peculiar to the eastern water-shed of N. America ; the 
wild Turkey of the Atlantic side of the Rocky Mountains being 
conspicuously distinct. The domestic Turkey was imported into Spain 
early in the 16th century ; and from Spain it was introduced into 
England in 1524. " This fowl was first seen in France in the reign of 
Francis I, and in England in that of Henry VIII. By the date of the 
reigns of these monarchs, the first Turkeys must liave been brought 
from Mexico ; the conquest of which was completed A. D. 1521."* 
These facts are generally known ; but not the fact, for which there 
is abundant evidence, that the domestic Turkey was introduced from 
Europe into the N. American colonies, where a kindred wild species 
abounded in the forest.f Mr. Gould has remarked that the hybrids 

or c wild Turkeys,' of various regions of the old world are different Bustards ; among 
others the great Bustard of Australia is not unfrequently designated the ' wild Tur- 
key,' and the Australian Taleg-alla Lathami is termed the ' Brush Turkey.' But 
it appears that the true wild Turkey of the Atlantie side of the Bocky mountains 
of North America (M. gallipavo verusj was formerly naturalized in Ireland! 
— " the breed, the true copper-colour, with red legs." (Vide Thompson, ■ On 
the former Existence of the Capercali in Ireland.' Ann. Mag. N. H., X (1S43), 
p. 33.) The Societe d' Acclimation should turn its attention to the naturalization 
of this fine species, before it is quite extirpated, in various forests of Europe. 
(For information regarding the Ocellated Turkey, vide Troc. Lin. Soc. 1859, 
pt. 1, p. 62, and The Ibis, No. VIII.) 

As the indigenous range of the Turkey genus is restricted to North and Cen- 
tral America, so is that of the various Bustards to the major continent with 
Australia. But the name ' Bustard' is misapplied in the West, as that of ' wild 
Turkey' in the East. Thus the so-called ' Bustard' of the N. American fur- 
countries is the Canada Goose ! (Vide Franklin's 2nd Voyage, p. 80.) Hence 
' Bustard Island' on Lake Athabaska! Pernetty, in his Historical Journal of 
the Voyage to the Falkland Islands, under the command of M. de Bougainville, 
states that " We found the Bustard exquisite, either boiled, roasted, or fricasseed. 
It appeared from the account we kept that we ate 1500 of them." The Falkland 
Island Goose is probably here intended. In S. Africa, the largest species of 
Bustard is known as the Paouio (or ' Peacock') to the colonists — perhaps the 
true pronunciation of the Latin Pavo, imitative of the voice of the Peafowl. 

* Encyclopedia Brittanica. 

■f The reverend divine, Mr. Francis Higgeson, who wrote c A Description of 
New England's Plantation' in 1630, remarks of the harbour of Plymouth, that 
" the parsnips, carrots, and turnips are here bigger and sweeter than is ordinary 
to be found in England ; the Turkeys are far greater than our English Turkeys, 
and exceedingly fat and sweet and fleshy." I take this quotation from the 
' Edinburgh Review,' No. CCVIII, p. 560 ; and it may be that wild Turkeys 
are intended ; but the reference to English Turkeys should indicate that the 
latter were never derived from the N. American ' plantations,' at least within the 
knowledge of the colonists more than two centuries ago. Again, Mynheer Van- 
der Donk, in his ' Description of the New Netherlands' (Amsterdam, 1656), 
describing the State of New York as it appeared at its first settlement by Euro- 
peans, states, that " the most important fowl of the country is the wild Turkey. 
They resemble the tame Turkey of the Netherlands .'" 

1S60.] Notes on tie Eaces of Rein Deer. 389 

raised from the domestic Turkey crossed with the wild species of the 
Atlantic States are rarely prolific. 

Civilized man — or at any rate European civilized man — has domes- 
ticated no animal from the New World ; he has tamed and bred 
certain Curassows and Guans, but it is doubtful if they can ever be 
trusted loose and unmutilated in the poultry-yard, like the indi- 
genously domesticated Turkey. The only truly domesticated animals 
of America are sundry native Dogs, the Llama and Alpaca, and the 
little insignificant Gruinea-pig, among mammalia ; and the Turkey 
and the Musk Duck among birds. Of Old World species, the Eabbit 
has been domesticated probably within the Christian sera, and also 
the Ferret (to a certain extent) among Camivora ; but neither of these 
are allowed their liberty (though some Eabbits, I think, might be,) 
any more than are the races of white and parti-coloured Mice, — all of 
which are so far domesticated that individuals require no taming, and 
may be freely handled without occasioning distrust : the development 
of the breeds of domestic Eabbits is, indeed, quite of modern date ; unless, 
perhaps, in the instance of the long-haired Angora Eabbit. I believe 
that all of the true Geese are most readily domesticable ; and the fine 
Canada Goose falls within the category, but although tame Canada 
Geese multiply freely, they have not yet so far succumbed to the usual 
influences of domestication as to vary in colour, like the Pea-fowl and 
Guinea-fowl, and even the semi-wild and protected Pheasant and the 
Fallow Deer. Neither, for that matter, has the semi-domestic Swan, 
which differs in no respect from the wild mute species, nor the 
Pea-fowl and Guinea-fowl more than the semi-wild Pheasant. All of 
the more thoroughly subdued (and highly varying) and of the more 
important of domestic animals would seem to have been subjected by 
mankind in an exceedingly low stage of civilization. 

The only domestic Insessorial bird is the Canary-bird ; and it 
remains to be shewn that this also is not descended from a tame 
stock possessed by the ancient Guanche inhabitants of the Canary 
islands. With the exception of the Canary-bird, all domestic mem- 
bers of the class Aves are either Pavonidce, Columbidee, or Anatidce. 
The only domestic mammalia are the Dog and Cat (and Ferret to a 
certain extent) among the Camivora, the Eabbit, Mouse, and Guinea- 

3 e 2 

390 Notes on tlie Baces of Rein Deer. [No. 4, 

pig among Bodentia, the Horse, Ass, and Pig among PacTiydermata, 
and the rest are Buminantia including the Camelidos. 

Of other Vertehrata, only the Cypbinus or Cabassiits AtTBATrs ; 
and of Invertebrata only one or more species of Hive-bee and of 
Mulberry silk-moth, unless the grana-fina Coccus which is doubtful, 
— but the fact is attested that certain insects are domesticable. Among 
mammalia, however, there is the crowning instance of all-dominant 
civilized and domesticated mankind. Other species are or have been 
(the individual, not the race,) tamed and trained, as the Elephant — 
the Chita, Caracal, and even the Lion, — the Otter and the Cormorant, 
— and various Falconidce ;* but not any of these can claim to be 
regarded as domesticated races. A few more years will perhaps 
show whether civilized man is competent to add to the number of 
the latter. 

I now pass to another and comparatively unimportant matter, which 
I have not before discussed in a scientific Journal. Having treated 
of the domestic Turkey, it may further be remarked that the 
origin of the English name Turlcey has been much discussed, as 
applied to a bird indigenous to America. The question has often 
been asked, and I think that it can be answered satisfactorily. It is 
certain that the Guinea-fowl was commonly termed the " Turkey 
Hen" in former days, and hence a difficulty sometimes in knowing 
which bird is meant by sundry old authors. As the Portuguese 
discoveries along the west coast of Africa preceded those of the 
Spaniards in America, there is reason to infer that our British ances- 
tors became acquainted with the Guinea-fowl prior to their knowledge 
of the Turkey ; and the English trade being then chiefly with the 
Levantine countries, our ancestors may well have fancied that it 
came from thence. Referring to a curious old dictionary in my 
possession (published in 1678), for the word Meleagris, I find it 
translated " a Gruinny or Turkey Hen :-" Gallince Africa/ice sen Na- 
onidicce, Var. sine qiice vulgo Indicts'" (Ooq d' Inde of the French, 
corrupted into Dinde and Dindon !) . Again, Numidica guttata of 
Martial is rendered " a Grinny or Turkey Hen." Looking also into 

* Add the Pig-tailed Monkey (Iurrus nemesteinus) iu Sumatra, where trained 
to gather cocoa-nuts ; whence termed by Raffles Simla carpolegus. Also CoroCE- 
phalus hamadeyas by the ancient Egyptians. {Vide figure in Wilkinson's 
' Domestic Manners of the ancient Egyptians,' I, 150.) 

1S60.] Notes on the Races of Rein Beer. 391 

an English and Spanish Dictionary of so late as 1740, I find Galli- 
pavo rendered " a Turkey or Guinea Cock or Hen." Well, it is 
known that our British forefathers originally derived the domestic 
Turkey from Spain ; and meanwhile they are likely to have obtained 
a knowledge of the true habitat of the Guinea-fowl ; and therefore 
may very probably have supposed the former to be the real Turkey- 
fowl, as distinguished from the Guiiiea-iovA ; and if the word ' fowl' 
be dropped in the one instance and not in the other, be it remembered 
that there was another special meaning for the word Guinea, having 
reference to the Gold Coast ;* otherwise the bird might have come to 
be known as the ' Guinea,' as the Bantam-fowl is now currently desig- 
nated the ' Bantam,' and the Canary-bird as the ' Canary,' or the 
Turkey-fowl the ' Turkey.'f The latin-sounding name Gallipavo seems 
to be of Spanish origin, and obtains among the Spaniards to this 
day ; but their earliest name for it was Ravon de las Indias, " c'est 
a dire," as Buffon remarks, " Raon des Indes Occidentals ;" which 
explains the reference to India (perpetuated in Dindon). 

* The name Guinea-pig, I believe, is not a corruption of ' Guiana-pig' (as has 
been suggested) ; but the animal was brought to Europe in the Guinea slavers 
on their return voyage ; who also brought sundry small African Finches, which 
have been described as natives of Brazil. It is curious that the Musk Duck was 
formerly known in England as the ' Guinea Duck,' also because brought from S. 
America by the Guinea slavers, and it was considered as a great delicacy for the 
table ; and the white breed of it is mentioned by Dr. Caius, so early as 1570, by 
the name of the ' Turkish Duck !' This species was noticed by Crawfurd in the 
Siamese capital, and there known as the ' Manilla Duck.' It has long been 
diffused over S. E. Asia, and is now common even in Polynesia. (Vide Ellis's 
Missionary Tour through Haioaii, &c.) 

f Another curious instance of the kind is that of the small speckled red 
Einches of India (Estrelda amakdava), which have long been known in Eng- 
land by the name of ' Amadavats.' They are more than once familiarly referred 
to, as ' Amadavats,' in Sheridan's 'School for Scandal' (Act V, Sc. 1), brought 
out in 1777. And they actually take this name from the city of Ahmedabad in 
Guzerat ! Witness the following passage from ' A New Account of East India 
and Persia,' by John Fryer, M. D., Cantabriy. (1698). Among other curiosities 
brought to Surat, were — " From Amadavad small birds, who, besides that they 
are spotted with red no bigger than measles, the principal chorister beginning, 
the rest in concert, make an admirable chorus." In the 'History of the Settle- 
ments of the Europeans in the East and West Indies,' translated from the 
French, by J. Justamont in 1776, I find the name of the Guzerat city spelt 
Amadabat ! And hence, again, the specific name Amandava of Linnasus, and 
the generic name Amadina of Swainson ! The French term these pretty little 
birds Bengalis, adopted as the English generic appellation by Swainson in treat- 
ing of sundry African species. Our Indian bird is the Bengalus punctulatus of 
Brisson, le Bengali piquete of Buffon, and Amaduvade Finch of Albin (about 
1750). The name Bengali has probably reference to Benguela in W. Africa, 
whence sundry of the tribe had been brought to Europe. 

392 Notes on the Races on Rein Beer. [No. 4, 

At the present time the domestic Turkey is nowhere raised more 
abundantly, nor is more cheaply procurable, than in the country from 
which it thus erroneously derives its English name : for, although 
the Musalmans of India refuse to eat its flesh, (alleging that it 
partakes of the nature of the Hog, as shewn by the tuft of bristles 
on its breast,) then* co-religionists of Turkey, Egypt, and even 
Arabia (at Jidda at least, the port of Mekka), esteem it highly; and 
at Cairo it is customary, some hours before killing one, to give it a 
dose of rdhi, which is believed to render the flesh more tender. The 
only Turkeys I have seen in India are of the Norfolk breed, with 
generally black plumage ; and this, with the bare skin of the head 
and neck, may possibly have led to a supposition that the bird is 
akin to a common black Vulture of the country, with bare red neck, 
the Otogtps ponticeeiakus ;* yet, if the bird had been introduced 
by Muhammedans — say from Persia, instead of by Christians from 
Europe, it is probable that people of that faith would have eaten the 
Turkey here as elsewhere. Old Chardon mentions its introduction 
into Persia from Venice by some Armenian merchants. 

* Some Turkeys which I onee possessed did actually associate, to a certain 
extent, with a Vulture of the kind chained to a post ; that is to say, they gener- 
ally kept near it, as if imagining the black Vulture to' be one of their own kind. 

1SG0.] Literary Intelligence. 393 

Literary Intelligence. 

Dr. Haug writes from Poona, in a letter dated November 16th, 
that he has sent to press, in Bombay, the text of the Aitareya Brah- 
mana* prepared from three MSS. He is also engaged in making an 
English translation with notes. Dr. Haug has some thoughts of 
having a Mahratta translation prepared as well ; — which will indeed 
be a novelty in India ! " An edition and English translation of the 
most important parts of the Big Yeda and Yajur Veda will follow." 
— The second part of his very able work on the Gathas of Zoroaster 
is also shortly expected from Germany. 

The British Miiseum has lately secured the pick of Capt. Hay's 
Bactrian collections for £260, and the choice cabinets of Col. Abbott 
have also, by the owner's liberality, been temporarily placed in the 
same Institution so as to be available for all scientific purposes. 

The following is an extract from a very interesting letter received 
by the President from Col. Cunningham. It is dated 30th Septem- 
ber, and is, we hope, only the forerunner of further valuable com- 
munications from the same quarter. The inscriptions here referred 
to have arrived in safety, and are now undergoing translation by 
Babu Bajendralal Mitter. We publish also the list of coins sent by 
Col. Cunningham for sale or exchange, in order that others may have 
the opportunity of supplying themselves at the prices fixed with 
such coins as the Society do not take. 

" The inscriptions which I possess are about equal in number and in 
importance to the whole that have yet been published in the Journal 
from its first commencement. 

" The earliest inscription which I can bring to your notice is one of 
Asoka's rock edicts in Indian Pali containing the names of Antiochus, 
Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander. For the knowledge of 
this inscription I am indebted to Mr. Forrest of the Canal Depart- 
ment, who discovered the inscription on a huge boulder, or isolated 
rock, on the western bank of the Jumna, at Khalsi (or Khalsi 
kangra) within the Sewalik range. — I have only seen a portion of 

* M. Eecrnier, we believe, is preparing an edition in Europe, which will bo 
accompanied by Sayana's Commentary. 

394 JJterary Intelligence. 

the inscription copied by hand by Mr. Forrest — but he will no doubt 
be able to make a complete copy during the approaching cold weather. 
— I may mention that the letter R is net used at all in this inscrip- 
tion, L being invariably substituted as in Ley a for Maja, and in dala 
instead of dara in the name of Alexander. 

" I propose to send you the inscriptions by an early opportunity. — 
One of them I enclose at once, which is the earliest that has yet 
been found connected with Gwalior. If Rajendralal will kindly 
undertake to translate the inscriptions, I shall feel myself most 
deeply indebted to him. His knowledge of the various ancient cha- 
racters is extensive, and he will have little difficulty in transferring 
the inscriptions into modern Nagari. But Rajendralal has not the 
same experience of ancient inscriptions that I have had, and I think 
it would be worth while if he, or you, or the Secretary of the Asiatic 
Society would send me the Nagari transcript along with the transla- 
tion for comparison. I ask this because I am aware of the numerous 
mistakes in the transcripts and translations of previous inscriptions. 
I will only refer to tliree inscriptions just now. 

" 1st. — In the inscription on the Boar Statue ab Eran, James 
Prinsep read the Raja's name as Tarapani — whereas it is Toramana. 

" 2nd. — In an inscription translated by H. H. Wilson (see Thomas's 
Prinsep's Antiquities, II. 245 note 2) the 4th and 7th names are given 
as Vradipta and Siddha. They should be Pradipta and Singlia. 
There are other mistakes besides these. 

" 3rd. — In the great inscription from Kajraha in Bundelkhund, 
translated by Sutherland, the mistakes are numerous and important, 
See Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1839. For instance — the 
date should be Samvat 1056 instead of 1019. The inscription was 
not re-engraved in kakuda, or 'bad' letters, but in Jcumuda, or 
'beautiful' letters. The author of the inscription was Dtt ax ga, 
not Banga, and he did not live 109 autumns (satam sanavaTcam) but 
upwards of 100 autumns (satam samadliiJcam) . Of his ancestors 
Vagyati and Yahila should be Vakpati and Rahila. The latter formed 
the lake which is now called Rahilya Sagar to the south of Mahaba. 

" The correction of the name of Banga to Dhanga is of the greatest 
value to the history of the Chandels as it connects the Kajraha 
inscription genealogy, which ends with him, with that of the Mhow 

1S60.] Literary Intelligence. 395 

inscription genealogy which begins with him (see Price's translation 
of this inscription in the 12th vol. Asiatic Researches). 

u The Kajraha inscription must of course be revised — but I possess 
an earlier and equally long inscription of Dhanga, dated in Samvat 
1011 or A. D. 95-1, just forty- five years prior to the other which 
records his death. A third long inscription refers to Sri Kokalla ; 
but the date, I think, precludes the possibility of this referring to 
the great founder of the Kulachuri Haihayas. 

" Of the Gwalior inscriptions one of the most interesting is a record 
of Bhoja Deva, dated in 933 Samvat — both in words and figures = 
A. D. 876. As this date agrees with that assigned to the great 
Bhoja of Malwa by Kalhan pundit, viz. A. D. 883 — 901, there can 
be little hesitation in attributing this inscription to the famous 
Bhoja — (X. B. The form of the figure 9 in this date is the same as 
that which Rajendralal has read as 7.) There are many interesting 
inscriptions of the Kachwahas and Tomaras of G-walior — which will 
afford a sketch of the destinies of the fortress from about A. D. 800 
down to the present time. A poem which I possess by the Bard 
Kharg Rai connects the last Kachwaha prince of Gwalior with the 
founder of the Kachwaha dynasty of Amber (Jaipoor) . The traditions 
still preserved at Narwar connect that large fortress with the same 
prince. Tod calls him Dula Rao — but that was not his name. 
He was called Teg-Pal, and lost his ancestral kingdom by his absence 
for two years in Rajputana, where he went to fetch his bride. The 
beauty of the bride and the dalliance of the ' bridegroom' (dulha) 
are. celebrated by the poet ; and tradition still preserves the story of 
the loss of his kingdom by Dulha Rao, or the ' Bridegroom Prince.' 

" Amongst the latest illustrations of the fortunes of the Gwalior 
family, I may refer to the Sanskrit inscription which was placed over 
the Kathantiya gate of the fort of Rohtas. (See Journ. As. Soc. 
Bengal, Sept. 1839.) In this the family is called Tomara, and not 
Tuar, as by Tod. The name of the 4th prince has been misread : 
it should be Dunggara, and not Hangara. Eight of the family were 
Rajas of Gwalior from Vira Sinha the contemporary of Taimur to 
Vikramaditya, who fell on the field of Paniput, fighting against the 
emperor Baber. You will find all these Rajas mentioned in Ferishta's 
History at different times. 

3 F 

396 Literary Intelligence. [No. 4, 

" I have just packed up five of the Gwalior inscriptions, which will 
be taken down to Calcutta by an officer who starts to-morrow from 
Nynee Tal. I have duplicate copies for comparison with the Xagari 
transcripts that may be sent up to me. I have added also an inscrip- 
tion in small characters from Ratanpur, in the Nagpur district. 

" Another very large inscription in middle-sized well formed letters 
contains a long genealogy of some unknown princes — with, appa- 
rently, the history of a temple between Samvat 960 and 1025, or for 
sixty-five years. The money of the time is called ' Sri-mad Adi 
Varaha dramma] which is clearly the small silver Varaha coinage 
bearing the Boar incarnation on one side, and the legend ' Sri-mad 
Adi Varaha' on the other. A new era is also mentioned, as well as 
I can remember now (for the inscription is with Mr. Griffith) the 
Varahada era, beginning about 438 B. C, which is probably therefore 
the same as the Virat era. There is a Maharaja Bhoja Deva in this 
list also. 

" I enclose a small inscription from Kajraha which will show 
Rajendralal two things. — 1st, that there may be a blunder in a date, 
notwithstanding the care that ought to have been taken — and 2nd, the 
form of the figure 5, which is like our English 5 with rather a long 
head. This peculiar form of the figure is found in one inscription 
along with the common 5. I should be glad to have a translation of 
this inscription if Rajendralal would kindly undertake it. The date 
is probably 1011 — at least I satisfied myself by personal inspection 
that the figure 1 was first engraved and afterwards changed to O- 
I understand the inscription to record a series of gifts to the temple 
of Jinanath by Dhanga Raja. The gifts are numbered. — 1st, the 
Pahila Garden. 2nd, the Chandra Garden. 3rd, the Little Chandra 
Garden. 4th, the Sankara Garden. 5th, the Panch Itala Garden. 
6th, the Mango Garden. 7th, the Dhanga Tank. Perhaps Dhanga 
should be read Ghanga ; but in the 3rd line he is called Raja ; and I 
feel inclined to identify him with the Dhanga Raja of the large 
inscriptions from the Brahmanical temples. 

" Of coins I can tell you but little, not from want of new matter, 
but from want of time. Of novelties I may, however, mention a 
square copper coin of a new king, Epander, and a tetradrachm of 
Antiochus Nilcator with the name of A°;athokles on the reverse. 

1S60.] Literary Intelligence. 397 

The title of Nikator is, I believe, unknown as belonging to an 
Antioebus. I have also a hemiclrachma of Nikias ; and Mr. Bayley 
and I have each a hemidrachma of Diomedes, but of different types. 

" Of Hindu coins I may mention that Mr. Bayley has a gold speci- 
men of Pravarasena of Kashmir, and that I have several specimens 
in copper of Mihira 7cula, and one specimen of Hiranya hula and one 
of Gokarna. These coins prove that Professor Lassen's arrangement of 
the Kashmir dynasties is untenable. I have also a fine specimen of 
Tribhnvana Cupta's coinage. 

" Of Indo-Scythian coins the finest specimens are in gold. One has 
a male figure standing beside a horse with the legend AP0OACIIO, 
'the divine steed.' The figure is like that of MIIPO, Mihir, or 
the sun, to whom the horse was sacred. Another coin has a figure 
standing full face with the legend MAACHNO, that is Malidsena. 
Another coin has two figures both standing to the front with the 
legend CKANAO KOMAPO BIZArO— that is Skanda-ktmdra, Visd- 
Icha. Now Mahasena, Skanda, Kumara, and Visakha are all titles of 
Karttikeya, the god of war — and I believe that these coins give us 
the earliest notices of this god. 

" By a late paragraph in one of the Calcutta newspapers, I see that 
the Asiatic Society are anxious to part with some of the duplicate 
coins of the Stacy collection. I propose therefore to exchange some 
of my duplicates with the Society. For this purpose I have sent off 
a packet of coins to your address — all labelled and priced, as per 
accompanying list — from which the Society can select such corns as 
they may wish to possess to the extent of 800 Bs. in exchange for a 
number of the Society's coins, which I have selected from the Stacy 
collection as per accompanying list. I think that you will find a very 
great variety amongst the coins which I send down — and some most 
beautiful and rare specimens. Amongst them are specimens of the 
Indo-Scythians AP0OACIIO and CKANAO KOMAPO. 

List of Coins for Sale or Exchange. 

G. S. C. Persia. Rs. As. P. 

10 Daric, 30 

3 Darics, 15 O 


398 Literary Intelligence. [No. 4, 


10 Alexander the Great, tetra- 

drachm, 25 

10 I^simachus, drachma, 10 


10 Antiochus Theus, tetradrachm, 30 

2 Ditto ditto drachmas, 12 

1 Demetrius Head of Diana and 

Tripod, 10 

1 Ditto horse's head and ele- 
phant's head, 5 


10 Diodotus, stater, 100 

10 Eucratides, tetradrachma, ... 20 bare head. 

10 Ditto ditto, 25 helmeted 

1 Lycias, 5 [head. 

10 Apollodotus, hemidrachma, 

head, 10 

3 Hippostratus, didrachmas, 3 

types, 60 

10 Hermseus, didrachma, 15 

10 Ditto drachma, 10 

10 Azas, didrachma, Jupiter, ... 16 

4 Ditto hemidi'achmas, 4 types, 8 

2 Azilisas, didrachmas, 2 types, 30 

2 Ditto hemidrachmas, 2 types, 5 

10 Vonones and Spalhores, 10 

10 Vonones and Spalgadames, ... 10 

2 Roman copper As and Semis, 5 
7 Demarii, picked coins at 6, ... 42 
2 Cistopori, Antony and Cleo- 
patra,. 100 

10 Theodosius, 20 . 

3 36 5 628 

























Literary Intelligence. 399 


Aegina, different sizes, 20 Tortoise. 

Lesbos, 6 2calves'heads. 

Tarentum, 5 Man on Dol- 

Argos, 2 Wolf 's head. 

Asia Minor : A Hecta, 15 Electmm. 

Corinth, 2 Pegasus. 

Miletus, 2 Lion's head. 

Colchis, 2 Female head. 

Phoeis, 2 Ox's head. 


Kanerki, Rev. $APPO, 50 large. 

Ditto, Rev. MAO, 50 ditto. 

Ditto, Rev. A0PO, 50 ditto. 

Ditto, Rev. APOOACnO,... 80 ditto. 

Ditto, Rev. OPAArNO, ... 60 ditto. 

OKPO, 50 ditto. 

Oerki, Eev. MIIPO, 50 ditto. 

Ditto, Eev. CKANAO-KOMA- 

POBHArO, 60 ditto. 

Ditto, Eev. $APPO, 16 small. 

Ditto, Eev. APAOXPO, 16 ditto. 

Ditto, Eev. AINO, 16 ditto. 

Co.'s Es. 1,182 

Amethyst. Peleus and Thetis, 
by Pyrgoteles, the gem en- 
graver of Alexander, 300 

Head of Socrates, pink stone, 20 

The 7 Roman Denarii are — 

Licinia, Head of Vejovis C. LICINTVS L. F. MACEE. 

Ditto > Eev. Jupiter on a goat. 

Scribonia, Female head. Eev. PVTEAL. 

400 Literary Intelligence. [Xo. ±, 

Acilia, ... Head of Venus, Juno Sospita with snake. 

Plancia, Youthful head. Rev. Groat. 


Augustus, Bare head, CAESAR, COS. V. Rev. Crocodile 

AEGYPTO capta. 

In a subsequent letter Col. C. adds that he has a square copper 
coin of Demetrius with an Arian legend. ' In the Greek legend he 
takes the title of Nikator, which is translated by Aparajita, and not 
by the Aparahata of the later kings.' 

In another letter dated 16th December, Col. C. writes of still 
further additions of rare and unique coins made to his cabinet. 

" The unique coins are 1st, a gold dinar of Kanishka with Greek 
legends -obverse BACIAEYC BACIAEwN KANHPKOY— and reverse 
HAIOC. 2nd, a similar gold dinar, with the same figure on the 
reverse but with both legends in the native language, but Greek cha- 
racters, respectively PAO NANO PAO KANHPKI KOPANO and 
MIIPO — one of the rarer coins which I have obtained is the dinar of 
HoerJce with three figures on the reverse. The specimen is in the 
most perfect preservation — and the reverse legend is distinct, exactly 
as I formerly read it— CKANAO KOMAPO MAACHNO BIZArO, 
these being three of the well known names of the Indian god of war — 

SJcanda-humdra, MaTtdsena, Visakha. 

" But a still more interesting and valuable discovery of this prince 
Hoerke is the mention of a Vihar named after him in one of the 
newly found Mathura inscriptions. The inscription records a gift 
to the monastery of the great king of kings, the heaven descended 
Huveslika. Now as the name of Kanishka became Kanerke on the 
coins, I infer that Huveshka would have been rendered SuverJce or 
in Greek OOHPKE, which has hitherto been looked upon as equiva- 
lent to Hoerke. The only record of this prince's name is in the 
Raja Tarangini where he is called SushJca, which may either have 
heen the usual contraction of his name — or the casual contraction 
to suit the metre of Kalhan pundit's verse. 

" This discovery has further led to the true reading of the prince's 
name in the Ariano Pali legend of the Wardak Vase. In Prinsep's 
Indian Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 63, Thomas reads the name as Hovesh- 

1SG0.] Literary Intelligence. 401 

shandra, and I was myself inclined to adopt Harischandra, but 1 feel 
satisfied now that the true reading is Hoveslilcasa. 

" Three of the Mathura inscriptions are dated in figures the same 
as those on the Sah coins of Saurashtra, but with the addition of 
the puzzling x , a real unknown quantity, which is also found in the 
Ariano Pah inscriptions of Manikyala and Wardak. One correction 
of a previous error I have already derived from these inscriptions — 
namely that the character di, which I read as 10 in the Sanchi 
inscription, is really only a contraction for divasa = day. The date 
of the Sanchi inscription is therefore san 93 JBJiddrapada di 4. — 
" In the year 931 Bhadrpad, 4th day." 

" Amongst the Muttra inscriptions there is one recording the gift 
of a statue of Sdkya Bliilcsliu, on the pedestal of a small standing 
figure. Amongst the names of donors are Buddhananda, Buddha- 
ghosha, and Buddarakshita. Amongst the sculptures are the well 
known representation of Maya, the mother of Buddha, holding by 
the branch of the Sal tree previous to her confinement. There are 
also the birth of Buddha (the infant with a halo round his head) ; 
the meditation ; the teaching ; and the death. There are several 
colossal figures of Buddha, and numerous pillars belonging to that 
peculiar kind of stone enclosure which I have named the " Buddhist 
railing." No less than twenty-six bases of pillars have already been 
found ; and more will no doubt be found hereafter. Altogether I 
consider that the mounds of Mathura most probably contain remains 
of greater anticmity than those of Benares, and I look forward to 
further discoveries with much interest." 

Dr. Sprenger writes from Berne that he has already printed some 
200 pages of his continuation of the Life of Mahommed. 

In the following extract from a letter from Mr. E. C. Bayley, dated 
10th November, will be found an interesting passage regarding plated 
corns, an instance of which occurred among some .old Egyptian 
coins lately presented to the Society by Mr. C. J. Evans. Mr. B. 
also pursues the subject of the identification of ' Sahet Mahet' 
described in his previous letter on the information communicated to 
him by Rajah Maun Singh. 

402 Literary Intelligence. [No. 4, 

" First as to plated coins, they are not uncommon, and are 
evidently ancient, I have myself met with didrachma of Hippostratus, 
Azilizas, and Azas, with a drachma of Hermteus and with hemidrachmas 
of Menander, Apollodotus and Philoxenes, &c. I have no doubt 
too the celebrated silvered Kadphises was one of this type. I have 
even found a copper hemidrachma of Menander which had clearly 
never been silvered. Once too near Rawul Pindee I found in a 
village an immense hoard of Satnanta Deo coins evidently intended 
to be silvered. They were in brass and blundered terribly in their 
execution. I have no doubt that the ancient Hindu passed bad 
money as often as his modern descendant. 

" This much for that question. In " re Sahetana" I have succeeded 
by the aid of Fa hian, in getting a clear identification of Sahet 
Mahet. I find this in the account of Buddha's death (' Sakya 
Muni') which Laidlay, in speaking of Kusinagar, extracts from 
Tumour's Mahawanso. In it Sakya Muni's disciples are represented 
as remonstrating with him for selecting so insignificant a place as 
Kusinagar as the scene of his ' nirvana,' and ask why he has not 
selected one of the six neighbouring great cities, ' Varanasi' (Benares), 
' Rajagaho' (Rajgriha), ' Sawattho' (Sravarti), Sahetan — Kosambhi 
or Champa. Sahetan is clearly ' Sahet Mahet.' I have since heard 
from C. A. Elliott and from the Raja of Kupoorthulla, who have 
both visited it, and who confirm Maun Singh's description in all 
respects. It is, the former says, Jilnabed on the Raptee. It is 
in the Kupoorthulla Rajah's illaka, and he purposes clearing it of 
jungle. This cold season I have spoken to him about it, but it 
would do no harm if you write to him. He is a very intelligent man 
and speaks admirable English very fluently. It is no doubt a good 
field, and I would advise your trying it. 

As to ' Champa'' and ' Kosambhi'' mentioned above, the former is, 
I suppose, perhaps to be looked for about Champarun, if similarity of 
names is worth anything. Kosambhi, Fa hian places N. W. of 
Sarnath at Benares and at a distance (13 yieow yau = 60 miles) 
which would land it near Sultanpur, near to which as I told you Raja 
Maun Singh says, there are Buddhist remains. 

" But the pundits here declare it is identical with Karra Manikpur. 
I had, however, a discussion on the subject and found that their 

I860.] Literary Intelligence. 403 

authority was the Yrihat Katha or Katha Sarit Sagar, and that this 
they declared maintained that Kosamhhi was on the Ganges. However, 
they brought me a portion of this work to-day, and admitted that 
on referring to it they found that it merely said that the Ganges 
flowed through the realm of Kosambhi, but that one passage almost 
distinctly said that Kosambhi was not on the Ganges, for it said that 
the king built it away from rivers to avoid being washed away by 
them. This book, however, declared that it was founded by ' Sata- 
kanik,' translated as ' him of the hundred battalions' and son to 
' Sahasrakanik, king of the 1000 battalions.' Can Kosambhi be 
the ' Sanakaniha' of the Allahabad and Sanchi inscriptions ?" 

We are at last in possession of a cast in clay of the famous inscrip- 
tion on the Behar pillar of which an incorrect reading was published 
in oiir Journal many years back. The cast is in the hands of 
Babu Bajendralal Mittra, who hopes to succeed in deciphering and 
translating it. 

Several facsimiles of this inscription have been at different times 
procured, but the impressions given by them have been too faint and 
indistinct to allow of the text being correctly read. We owe the 
present cast entirely to the exertions of Mr. Charles Hollings of Gyah, 
who deserves the Society's cordial thanks for the perseverance with 
which he has endeavoured to meet their wishes in regard to this 
pillar and the important record which it is believed to bear. 

Capt. Lees is engaged in printing for the use of his College the 
Klioldi Sarin ( c*Lr? ^ ) of Wahshi ( ^^-j ) who died A. H. 992. 
He was born in Kirman, but as he resided chiefly at Yazd, he is 
generally called Yazcli. The Kholdi Barin is a short Masnawi, written 
in charming Persian and in the same metre as Jami's Sabhat ol-Abrar, 
and is deservedly popular. The author is sometimes, in India, con- 
founded with Wahshi-i Dawlatabadi, but though poems are ascribed 
to him, nothing certain appears to be known about him. Wahshi-i 
Dawlatabadi must apparently be Wahshi-i Kashi, a pupil of Mohta- 
sham i Kashi, who came to India, and lived here for a long time. 
He died in India A. H. 1013. 

3 Cr 

404 Errata. [No. 4, 


Page 124 line 6 ab infra, for ^T^JT¥5;M read ^rnqf "jd^. 
„ 125 „ 19 /or an^nfrT ^ refld wfTrrifsr ^. 
„ 129 „ 15 for ^ read TT. 
„ 129 „ 5 ab infra, /or frr^q m?Jfi?«^j, 


Page 324 line 5 for dated read stated. 

— „ 20 for Htt readim. 

— „ 29 for i^H^ read er L«.«~S'. 
338 „ 24 for \d\d readjd\d. 

343 „ 2 for p. 3 read p. 324. 

344 „ 30 for ^jlk&i read W .LX£. 




Foe September, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the 5th instant — 

Major H. L. Thuillier, Vice President, in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From Dr. C. Hoist, Secretary to the Royal University of 
Christiania, the latest publications of the University. 

2. From the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
a report of the 29th Meeting of the Association held at Aberdeen, 
in September, 1859. 

3. From the Secretary to the Government of Bengal, the latest 
Peport of the Geological Survey of India. 

4. From the Acting Principal of the Grant Medical College, 
Bombay, a copy of the report for the College Session 1859-60. 

5. From Baboo Eungalal Banerjea, a copy of his work on the 
Importance of Physical Education, being the first work of the kind in 
the Bengali language. 

6. From Mr. J. C. Evans, a few coins found by himself in Egypt ; 
among these are some genuine Ptolemies and one or two forgeries 
of the Ptolemaic period. 

7. From Baboo Eajendra Mullick, a pair of very fine adult Cas- 
sowaries, male and female, that have been prepared as skeletons. 

8. From Captain Haughton, Port Blair, Andamans, through the 
President, a marine annelide, taken off the coast of Sumatra. 

9. From G. J. Evans, Esq., a small lizard and two snakes from 

3 g 2 

40G Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 4, 

10. From Mr. W. Theobald a few fossils from the miocene hods 
of Bordeaux. 

11. From Mr. J. H. Reily, Commissioner of Soonderbunds. a 
slab-stone containing an Arabic inscription found in a Musjid, 8 miles 
from Mirzagunge. A sketch of the Musjid drawn by Mr. Gromes 
accompanied the following letter, addressed to the President by 
Mr. Eeily. 

" I send with pleasure the deer and the stone. The latter was found 
on the north bank of the Slab River at an ctbdcl called Byang in a 
Mut or Musjid, which is in tolerable preservation. The land round 
the Mut is now clear, but the temple was found in the jungle when 
it was cut down with the stone in it. There is no story or tradition 
attached to the Mut— the generation that built it seems to have 
passed away, and the place to have run into jungle and remained 
covered with forest jungle for a great number of years. The principal 
room in the Mut has an arched roof in good preservation inside a 
regular dome. The mortar of the building is not soorhie or pound- 
ed bricks but sand and lime, and very adhesive. 

There is a good tank near the Mut ; the inscription on the stone 
appears to me a verse from the Koran." 

Again on the 10th July last he wrote : — ■ 

" I send a sketch of the Musjid drawn by Mr. Gomes, who fortunately 
had a drawing of it in his Field Book. The accompanying extract 
from Lieutenant Hodge's Map will shew that the site of the Musjid 
is about eight miles from Mirzagunge, the nearest decennially settled 
village. The lands about the Musjid are at present under cultivation, 
but there are still a few of the old forest trees standing, and Mr. 
Shawe's Resumption Decree, dated 1842, states that the lands were 
at that time under dense Soonderbun jungle. The jungle about these 
parts is tree, not Null jungle. There are two slabs of sand-stone 
evidently used as steps, but bearing no inscription. The interior of the 
Musjid is ornamented with figures cut in brick, and the dome is very 
substantially built, and is about 30 feet high. There is a tank not far 
from the building, and I was told it was found when the jungle was 
cleared. Of course there are a number of stories connected with this 
Musjid, one is that a holy Fakeer lived in it, and tigers used to sweep 
the floor of the building clean with their tails every evening. 

1S60.] Proceedings of Hie Asiatic Society. 407 

Captain W. N. Lees then read the following account of the in- 

" I have carefully examined the inscription on this stone. The great- 
er portion is sufficiently clearly written to he legible ; but in conse- 
quence of the engraver not having calculated on the length of his 
inscription, the latter portion has been so crowded that, with the aid 
of two of the Mawlavis of the Mohammadan College, I have not been 
able to read it. It is as follows : — 

sJ <s± r ! ^jL )jcs:*" x ^ju ^ A M j &Ac i±\\ ^le> ^JsJJ) JUJ 
al£ djt-zS' ^» *\£ lSjj\j j&]aj] ^1 sdl] 3 UijJ) Sj Jac.3l 

Trans. The Prophet of God (on whom be peace, &c.,) said — 
" Whoso buildeth a Masjid, God shall build for him in Paradise seventy 
palaces." This Masjid was built in the reign of the Soltan the 
Mighty, the Pillar of the Church and State, Aboo al-Mozaffar 
Barbak Shah, son of the Soltan Mahmood Shah, — by Khan Moazzam 
Ojyal (?) Khan son of ***** * Anno Hajri, 870. 

I do not think the builder, or his Engraver, has given the Hadith 
quoted correctly. I find none precisely similar in Moslim or JBokliari. 
Both, however, give the following from Othman the Khalifah. 

* <Us: J | i AlLo <jJ , JUj <*JJ) 
" Whoso buildeth a Masjid, to please, or for the sake of God, God 
shall build for him a house in Paradise" — or as others give it " a house 
like unto it." Tirmidzi again adds after the word Masjid the words 
" great or small" \j#?j\ hj(£ \j±*-*° and in this same Hadith given, apud 
Nasai, on the authority of 'Amr and Anbasah for the words " for 
the sake of God" I find " in which God shall be praised ^JU3<xJJi| <r 5' < W 
<*Jj*. The Prophet, it would appear, then, promised the builder of a 
Mosque one house, not seventy houses in Paradise. 

According to Parishtah, Barbak Shah ascended the throne A. H. 
862, and died A. H. 879. His father was commonly called Nacir 
Shah, perhaps to distinguish him from his predecessor the slave and 

408 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

usurper of the same name, but his full name from the inscription on 
this stone, it will be seen, was Nacir-al-Deen Mahmood Shah, or — 
Barbak was not his son at all. It is to be noticed that Farishtah, 
who is the only authority I have on the kings of Bengal, in entering 
on the subject says " It should not remain concealed that the His- 
tories in use, are for the most part, silent regarding the affairs of the 
Kings of the Eastern and Western [Provinces]. I have therefore 
made use only of the Tarikh-i Alii, complied by my teacher Mawlana 
Ahmad-i Tanawi ; and for this reason, I hope that should my readers 
find any discrepancies in my account of these matters they will not 
blame me." 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last Meeting, were 
balloted for and elected ordinary Members. 

W. Forbes Gross, Esq., M. D., and 

Major T. James, Bengal Army. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot at the next Meet- 

J. E. L. Brandreth, Esq., Commissioner of Delhi, proposed by 
Colonel J. Abbott, and seconded by Mr. Atkinson. 

Moonshee Ameer Ally Khan, Bahadur, proposed by Mr. Atkinson, 
and seconded by Baboo Rajendralal Mittra. 

Messrs. E. B. Harris, Civil Surgeon, and John Christian, (for re- 
election) proposed by Dr. T. Duka, and seconded by the President. 

C. Gr. Wray, Esq., C. E., proposed by Major Thuillier and seconded 
by Major Sherwill. 

The Council reported that in consideration of the long and import- 
ant services of the Zoological curator and the greatly enhanced expense 
of living in Calcutta, they had resolved, subject to the confirmation 
of the Society, to give Mr. Blyth an additional house allowance of 
40 Bs- per mensem, and to pay his whole allowances free of Income 


The following report of the Philological Committee was also sub- 
mitted by the Council for the approval of the Society. 

The Council beg to recommend the publication in the Biblioiheca 
Indica, of the VaisesMka Sutras, with the valuable Commentary by 
Sankara Misra. Pundit Joy Narayan Tarkapanchanana, the pro- 

1S60.] Proceedings of tie Asiatic Society. 409 

fessor of Philosophy in the Calcutta Sanskrit College, has offered to 
edit the work, with a short additional Commentary of his own, which 
is not to exceed one fasciculus. The whole work will fill ahout four 
fasciculi. A similar offer having been previously received from an- 
other Pundit in the same Institution, Pundit Nandakumar Tarka. 
ratna, the Committee recommended that the two Pundits should 
unite in editing the work. This they have agreed to do, and it will 
therefore appear under their joint editorship. 

The report was adopted. 

Mr. Cowell announced the publication in the JBibliotheca Inclica 
of the first fasciculus of Zia. Barni' s Tarikhi Ferozshahi. A short 
account of the work was also given, as it appeared that the details 
communicated at a former Meeting of the Society were incorrect. 

Zia Barni compiled his history in A. H. 758 (A. D. 1357,) in con- 
tinuation of the Tabakciti Nasiri of Minhajuddin Juzjani. It 
gives an account of the eight reigns during the 95 years hetween 
Bulhun's accession in A. H. 664, and the sixth year of Feroz Shah 
(A. H. 758), viz. 1. Bulbun, 2. Kaikobad, 3. Jalaluddin Khilji, 
4. Alauddin Khilji, 5. Kutbudclin Khilji, 6. Ghaiasuddin Toghlak, 
7. Muhammad Toghlak, 8. Feroz Shah, to whom the work is dedicated, 
whence its name. For the later reigns, the author speaks as a contem- 
porary witness, and as such he is often quoted by Ferishta in his history 
of the Toghlak dynasty. The work is edited from the only three manu- 
scripts known to be extant, by Sayyid Ahmud Khan, under the 
supervision of Captain Lees. 

The publication of this work forms an era in Oriental literature. 
Hitherto for the Pre-Moghul Muhammadan history of India, we have 
been dependent on Ferishta who flourished under the Emperor Akbar ; 
Elphinstone's history, for instance, is entirely based on that authority. 
Zia Barni is the first contemporary author who has been printed to 
illustrate the five centuries between Mahmud of Ghazni and Baber. 
It is hoped that the Tarikhi Ferozshahi will be followed by the Taba- 
kati Nasiri, — as the two together will throw a flood of light on a 
confessedly obscure period of Indian history. 

Communications received — 

1. From Major General R. I. H. Birch, K. C. B. Secretary to 
the Government of India, Military Department, a copy of a report 

410 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 4 

drawn up by Officiating Inspector General of Hospitals J. McClel- 
land, on the climate and soils of the three Presidencies as affectin" 


the sanitary condition of European troops in India. 

2. From Lord H. Ulick Browne, Secretary to the Government of 
India, Foreign Department, a copy of the Meteorological observations 
made by Assistant Surgeon Welsh at Muscat during the month of 
June last. 

3. From Baboo Padhanath Sickdar an abstract of meteorolooical 
observations taken at the Surveyor General's office for the month of 
January last. 

4. From Mr. H. Cope, Umritsur, the following accounts of the 
Aerolite which fell at Dhurmsala on Saturday the 14th July last, 
accompanied by a specimen. 

Umritsur, 28t7i July, 1860. 

The Secretary to the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Sib, — About two p. m. on Saturday the 14th of July, a tremendous 
mid-air explosion was heard at Dhurmsala, Kangra, Dalhousie, 
Madhoopoor and Goordaspoor. The vapour or smoke following the 
explosion was distinctly seen at Dalhousie about 30 miles, and at 
Kangra 10 miles from Dhurmsala, where the explosion, said to have 
resembled the discharge of an 84 pounder, was followed by the de- 
scent in various parts of the station, some two miles apart, of large 
masses of aerolite. One piece that fell near the Dhurmsala Police 
Battalion Lines, was ascertained to have been when entire, one foot in 
diameter, but it was broken into several fragments. Mr. P. Saunders, 
C. S., Deputy Commissioner of Kangra, has forwarded to me a portion, 
with a desire that I should do my best to have it analyzed. It strikes 
me I cannot do better than forward it to the Asiatic Society. A 
small part can be taken off for analysis, and the remainder be preserved 
in your Museum. 

I remain, &c, 

He]s t et Cope. 
Umritsur, lOtli September, 1860. 
My dear Sib, 

I have the pleasure to send you an extract from a letter 
received from Kangra, which is about 11 miles from Dhurmsala and 
about 1000 feet lower than the spot on which the main mass of the 
aerolite fell. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 411 

" I did not see the explosion in connexion with the falling 
of the aerolite. I was at the time, reading with my Moonshi in my 
study and heard an extraordinary noise like that of thunder at a 
short distance. There could be no doubt that it was near, and I imme- 
diately supposed it was something else than thunder. The steady 
rattling noise which appeared to be travelling in a horizontal direc- 
tion gradually increased to one tremendous majestic clap ; after 
which the former steady rattling noise continued perhaps for a 
minute, till at last it died off very gradually. The noise appeared to 
be so low that I thought a volcano or something like it would im- 
mediately appear somewhere in our valley. A servant of mine hap- 
pened just to return from the Post Office, and told me that above the 
hill on which our house is situate he had seen a fire travelling to- 
wards Dhurmsala, till at last it disappeared. [This would give it a 
direction from South to North. H. C] The sky was cloudy, yet there 
were no such clouds as would justify the opinion that lightning and 
thunder had issued from them." 

I hope to collect further information, which I will duly commu- 

Yours sincerely, 

Henry Cope. 

5. From Mr. E. F. Saunders, B. C. S. Officiating Deputy Com- 
missioner, Dhurmsala, Punjab, in reply to a letter of inquiry addressed 
to him by the Secretary, the following note accompanying an account 
of the same meteorite. 

Dhurmsala, August 21, 1860. 

My dear Sir, — From the newspapers you will have seen that an 
aerolite fell at this station on the 14th ultimo. 

I possessed myself of as many fragments as I possibly could for 
scientific purposes. 

One of these I now have the honor to send, together with an ac- 
count of its fall, in the hope that the subject may not be without 

Any questions you may send me regarding this phenomenon I shall 
be delighted to answer. 

3 H 

412 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. \ No. -1, 

If* you can furnish me with a brief account of its analysis I shall be 
much obliged. 

Permit me to subscribe myself, 

Very truly yours, 
Reginald F. Sal~>"dees. 
His account of the meteorite was as follows. 

Extract from letter No. 927 from It. F. Saunders, Usq., Deputy 
Commissioner, Kangra, to It. H. Davies, JEsq., Secretary to Punjab 
Government, dated Dhurmsala, 28th July, 1860. 

In the afternoon between the hours of 2 and 2-30 p. M., the 
Station of Dhurmsala was startled by a terrific bursting noise, wbich 
was supposed at first to proceed from a succession of loud blastings or 
from the explosion of a mine in the upper part of the Station, others, 
imagining it to be an earthquake or very large landslip, rushed from 
their houses in the firm belief that they must fall upon them. 

It soon became apparent that this was not the case. The first 
report, which was far louder in its discharge than any volley of artil- 
lery, was quickly followed bj another and another to the number of 14 
or 16 ; most of the latter reports grew gradually less and less loud. 
These were probably but the reverberations of the former, not among 
the hills but amongst the clouds, just as is the case with thunder. 
It was difficult to say which were the reports, and which the echoes. 
There could certainly not have been fewer than 4 or 5 actual reports. 
During the time that the sound lasted, the ground trembled and shook 

From the different accounts of three eye-witnesses, there appears 
to have been observed a flame of fire, described as about two feet in 
depth, and 9 feet in length, darting in an oblique direction above the 
station, after the first explosion had taken place. The Meteoric 
flash was said to be from North 1ST. West to South S. East. Frag- 
ments of the aerolite fell in the same direction at the following 

In the Ravine below the Dhurmsala Kotwallee at the village 

On the Barrack Hill close to the Convalescent Depot. 

At River G-uj 4 miles from the Kotwallee. 

1S60.] Proceedings of 'tlie Asiatic Society. 413 

On the parade ground of the Sheredil Police Battalion, between 
the graveyard and the Native Distillery.* 

In the village of Keyraree on the Hill to the right of the station 
looking towards the plains and at the Bowarna Thanah. 

Specimens from each of the above localities have been brought into 
the station. 

It is said that the Meteoric stones fell likewise at the following 
places, but no specimens have been received from them. At Kangra 
near the slate quarries, at Maclhopore and at Bissowlee on the Bavee, 
and in parts of Chumlea and Bhilloo. 

I am making further enquiries with regard to these places. 

The stones as they fell, buried themselves from a foot to a foot 
and a half in the ground, sending up a cloud of dust in all directions. 

Most providentially no loss of life or property has occurred. 

Some coolies, passing by where one fell, ran to the spot to pick 
up the pieces ; before they had held them in their hands, half a minute, 
they had to drop them owing to the intensity of the cold which be- 
numbed their fingers. 

This, considering the fact that they were, apparently, but a 
moment before in a state of ignition, is very remarkable, each stone 
that fell bore unmistakeable marks of partial fusion. 

The morning and afternoon, preceding the occurrence, had 
been particularly dull and cloudy. Temperature was close, sultry, 
and oppressive. The thermometer was above 80 degrees of Fahrenheit, 
and no rain had fallen. I had no barometer by me at the time, I am 
therefore unable to state what was the precise pressure of the atmos- 
phere. The clouds, which were of the form technically called cumu- 
lus and cirrhus, were hanging low at the time and the atmosphere 
heavily charged with electricity. 

Such are simply the facts of the case as they occurred. 

There are of course all sorts of conjectures as to the probable 
cause of the occurrence, some state the stones to be of volcanic origin, 
others that they were hurled from the heights above the station or 
projected from the moon, but I am inclined to regard them as real bona 
fide meteorolites. Their weight seems to indicate that they are semi- 

* It must be noticed that Keyraree, the Barrack Hill, the Kotwallee, the Kudd, 
the Graveyard and Bowarna are in one direct line, from N. N. W. to S. S. E. 

3 II 2 

414 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

metallic substances composed probably of meteoric iron alloyed with 
nickel and mixed with silica and magnesia or some other earthy* sub- 
stance. They are nearly double the weight of a piece of ordinary 
stone of similar dimensions. 

I have sent specimens of the aerolite to the Museums at 
Lahore and Umritsur, and to a Scientific Institution in America.t 
I am about also to send others to the Academy of Sciences in France, 
to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, and to Mons. H. Schlagintweit at 
Berlin in Prussia, for examination and report. 

One fact, if true, is curious, viz., that the report preceded the 
flash instead of following it ; this I cannot at all account for. 

Another very singular phenomenon was witnessed at Dhurm- 
sala on the evening of the same day, that the aerolite fell ; this ap- 
pears to have been a succession of igneous meteors such as fire balls, 
or falling or shooting stars. This singular sight did not attract the 
attention of most people. I quote the account from the writer who 
describes it, verbatim. 

" I think it was on the evening of the same day that the meteor 
fell that T observed lights in the air. They commenced to appear about 
7 p. M., and lasted for about three hours till 10 ; they appeared for 
about one minute, some for longer, then went out again, other lights 
appearing in their places ; sometimes three or four lights appeared in 
the same place, together, and one or two moved off, the others re- 
maining stationary, they looked like fire-balloons, but appeared in 
places where it was impossible for there to have been any houses or 
any roads, where people could have been. Some were high up in the 
air moving like fire-balloons, but the greater part of them were in the 
distance, in the direction of the lower hills, in front of my house, 
others closer to our house, and between Sir A. Lawrence's and the Bar- 
racks. I am sure from some which I observed closely that they were 
neither fire-balloons, lanterns, nor bonfires or any other thing of that 
sort, but bona fide lights in the heavens. Though I made enquiries 
amongst the natives the next day, I have never been able to find 
out what they were or the cause of their appearance." 

* Probably chrome and cobalt too I think, R. S. 

t The Smithsonian ; also to the Museums of Munich and Vienna ; to Turin, 
Sardinia, The British Museum, London, and to one or two other localities. 

1SG0.] Proceedings of ilie Asiatic Society. 415 

Verily this has been an extraordinary season in more ways than 

In different newspapers I have read accounts of other very ex- 
traordinary phenomena, all occurring within the last few months, for 
instance, an aerial meteor or water spout in the neighbourhood of 
Bhurtpore where an aerolite is said also to have fallen, a luminous 
meteor or something which, from the newspaper account, reads like an 
Aurora Borealis at Delhi, this was on the night before the meteorolite, a 
shower of live fish at Benares, unaccompanied by rain, a similar shower 
accompanied by rain, fell at Agra, a shower of blood at Furruckabad 
and likewise at Meerut previously, also a dark spot observable on the 
disc of the sun. 

Besides the recent shock of an earthquake slightly felt here, there 
was an unnatural yellow fog or darkness of some duration follow- 
ed by a violent Wind storm which lasted from 3 p. M. to 5 p. M. one 
afternoon early in the present month. These were all more or less 
strange phenomena. After the fall the largest piece found was said 
to weigh about 4 maunds. 

6. The following extract from a letter from Dhurmsala on the same 
subject had been also received. 

" What a terrific meteor we had yesterday ! It burst over Dhurm- 
sala. First there was a loud explosion, and then the stone broke into 
fragments ; one falling near the Barracks and sinking 6 feet into the 
ground.another below the Kotwallee on the Noorpore Road, and a third 
in the fines. Two men came running up with some bits in their hand, 
and gave me one. It is a light grey colour, and hard as iron. The 
stone when found was cold as ice. The noise was fearful and unearth- 
ly, followed by long reverberations, the ground trembling as well as the 

air. The heat was fearful all day. Ther. 89°. Major heard the 

noise when sitting inside his tent at Kangra, and he thought one of 
the towers had fallen. The guddees were much frightened and car- 
ried off every bit of the stone to do pooja to it. Capt. saw 

it whirling along in the air and so did the Bisaladar who described it 
as like a pine tree, wfiieh I remember was the illustration used by 
Pliny, when describing the eruption of Vesuvius 1800 years ago, when 
Pompeii was destroyed. Other fragments of stone fell in other parts 
of the district, and beyond it at Madoopore. The piece of stone to 

416 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 4, 

be sent, (dawk banghy) was one inside bit, the outside pieces bearing 
marks of combustion. Before the 14th the weather for several days 
was excessively close and hot at Dhurmsala and all over the country." 

7. The Secretary also read the following extract of a letter from 
Mr. Oldham, containing a communication from Dr. Haidinger of Vien- 
na on the subject of the meteorites lately sent to the Imperial 
Museum, Vienna, by the Society. 

JSTaini Tal, August 27th, 1860. 

My dear Atkinson, — I have had notes from Dr. Haidinger, Vien- 
na, regarding the meteorites. I suppose from what he says that you 
have had a letter of thanks, but in case it should have miscarried, I 
write to tell you the box arrived safely, on 22nd May, and that they 
are greatly pleased and gratified with this addition to their valuable 
series of meteorites. Dr. Haidinger's first note stated that several of 
the specimens had been placed in the lapidary's hands and were then 
being polished. And now in his second note, just received, dated 30th 
June, he gives me the result of some of their analyses. Many pub- 
lic duties connected with proposed changes in the organization of 
some of the scientific bodies of Vienna, with the object of economy, 
had occupied Dr. Haidinger's time and energies more than he wished, 
and he regrets in consequence the little progress he has made in the 
description of these interesting specimens. Of one however he has 
laid an account before the Imperial Academy of Sciences (Vienna) on 
the 8th of June. In this he gave a brief account of the whole six 
meteorites sent to Vienna. The specific gravities of these are : — 

Allahabad, 3.526 

Shalka, 3.412 

Segowlee, 3.425 

Assam, 3.792 

Pegu, 3.737 

(The Pegu specimen was sent by me, not by Asiatic Society.) These 
do not differ materially from each other, and yet the specimens differ 
very materially so as to give an almost complete series of meteoric 
productions, perhaps the class of the Cape or Eokkeveld meteorics 

The Shalka meteorite appeared the most rare and curious. It was 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 417 

carefully analysed by Herr Charles Von Hauer, Chemist to the 
Imperial Geological Institute, who found the following contents ; 

Silica, 57.66 

Alumina, a trace. 

Protox. of Iron, 20.65 

Lime, c 1.53 

Magnesia, 19.00 


In the analysis of Mr. Piddington of the same meteorite, the mag- 
nesia had escaped him and remained with the iron, which has been 
now prevented owing to the later improvements in Chemical Analysis. 
Ton Hauer found the oxygen of the bases to the oxygen of the acids 
in the ratio of 1 : 2,42 or between bisilicates and trisilicates. Dr. Haid- 
inger says : " Stromeyer already had found a somewhat analagous ratio 
in an olivine-like body inclosed in a meteoric iron from Saxony. Pro- 
fessor Shepard had given the name of Chladoite to a real trisilicate 
contained in the Bishopsville meteorites. This certainly new species in 
the Shalka meteorite, I thought it my duty to name Piddingtonite, 
in commemoration of that really indefatigable labourer in Natural 
Sciences to whom we owe the rescue of that most remarkable meteo- 
rite of Shalka, and in commemoration too, of the kindness with which 
you acceded to our proposals of exchange." 

Dr. Haidinger adds that he was engaged in the further investiga- 
tion of the specimens sent and he hoped to forward a series to the 
Society from their collections. 

When the proceedings of the Academy of Vienna for June arrive, 
I would suggest that a translation of the valuable account given by 
Dr. Haidinger of this meteorite should be published in the Journal. 
I have only given a few of the heads of the notice. 

Dr. Haidinger sends two copies of their more recent catalogues 
of meteorites, and begs me to hand you one for Asiatic Society. 

I inclose it, you will see that all the Society sent have been embodi- 
ed in this. The large mass of iron from the Kurruckpur Hills was 
considered as by ourselves doubtfully meteoric, but we shall soon have 
the result of the careful analysis. 

418 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. ■&, 

It may be interesting to the Society to give them a few results at 
their next meeting, so I send them to you at once, and the specific 
gravities could be with advantage attached to the specimens in your 

I hope we shall be able to procure some specimen of the great mass 
said to have fallen at Dhurmsala lately. 

In the absence of Mr. Obbard his paper on the translation of waves 
of water with relation to the great flood of the Indus in 1853, was 
read by the Secretary. 

Archdeacon Pratt made some valuable remarks which have been 
printed at length in the Journal. 

Mr. Temple made some interesting observations on the character of 
the Indus at Attock and the effects of the flood as pointed out to him 
by Captain Henderson on the spot shortly after the event. 

Some discussion ensued on the wave theory as applicable to the 
phenomena of the flood, in which Sir Bartle Frere, Mr. W. T. Blan- 
ford and the Secretary joined. 

On the motion of the Chairman the thanks of the meeting were 
voted to Mr. Obbard and Archdeacon Pratt for their valuable com- 

Major W. S. Sherwill read an interesting paper upon some re- 
markable Waterspouts, that had been observed by him lately in and near 
Calcutta ; he stated that it was his intention merely to put on record 
the fact of these curious bodies having been seen, together with the 
dates of their appearance, times of duration, size and direction of their 
movements, in the hope that the notes might assist any future en- 
quiries into the nature of the laws regulating these phenomena ; as 
up to the present moment, as Major Sherwill observed, no satisfactory 
theory has been advanced, that serves to connect these phenomena 
with the general law of Physics. 

The immediate cause of the paper read was the appearance upon 
the 11th of August last, of two, very perfect and large Waterspouts 
that appeared, the one between Dum-Dum and Calcutta, the other 
crossing the Hooghly river opposite to Sulkea. The former was per- 
haps more than a thousand feet in length, of a pale blue colour, 
depending from a heavy rain cloud ; the upper portion of this im- 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 419 

niense column gyrated in a rapid manner until, no longer able to 
contain itself, it burst into a heavy shower of rain. The Waterspout 
that crossed the river agitated the water beneath it considerably, but 
did no damage. This body was bent into an elegant double curve like 
the letter S. by counter currents of light wind ; this Waterspout 
from its light colour and from its great beauty attracted much atten- 

Major Sherwill then described a group of twenty Waterspouts that 
were seen by him whilst surveying the Daijeeling territory. These 
extraordinary Phenomena were seen to form over the mountain 
Tonghoo, 11t miles from Darjeeling. A diagram showing this wonder- 
ful group was exhibited and claimed the attention of the meeting. 

Other diagrams of variously formed waterspouts were also exhibit- 
ed and described. These notes with reduced diagrams will be pub- 
lished in the Journal. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to Major Sherwill for his 
interesting descriptions. 

Baboo liajendralal Mitra made some remaks on the appearance of 
a waterspout in the direction of Howrah witnessed by himself on the 
same day. 

The Librarian submitted his usual monthly reports for the months 
of August and September last. 


The following auditions to the Library were made during the months of 
August and September, 1S60. 


General Report on Public Instruction in the Lower Provinces of the 
Bengal Presidency for 1858-59 with Appendixes. — By the Director of 

Nyt Magazine fur Naturvedenskaberne, Vol. X. part 4 Vol. XL part I. — 
By the Academy. 

Selections from the Records of Punjab Government, Vol. V. — By the 
India Government. 

The Philosophical Magazine for July, I860.— By the Editoes, 

Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting of the Geological Society 
of London. — By the Society. 

3 I 

420 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

Selections from the Records of Travancore, Part I. — By the Government. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 
January and February, 1^60. — By the Academy. 

Journal of the Academy of Ditto, New Series, Vol. IV. P. 3. — By the Same. 

New York State Library for 1855.— By the Same. 

Ditto ditto State Law Library for 1855. — By the Same. 

Ditto ditto State Bibliography, 1858. — By the Same. 

Ditto ditto State Maps, MSS. Medals, &c. 1856.— By the Same. 

The Cathedral of Throndheim. 

Al-Mufussal opus de re grammatiea Arabicum. — By J. P. Broch. 

Karlamagnus Saga ok Kappa hans. — By the Chrlstiania Academy. 

Forlandlinger Videnskabi Selskubet. — By the Same. 

Tilottama.— By M. M. S. Dutt, Esa. 

Quarterly Journal of Geological Society for May, I860, No. 62. — By the 

Selections from the Records of Madras Government Report on the Agri- 
cultural Exhibitions in the Provinces for 1859, No. 64. — By the Madras 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. II. P. I. — By the 
Geological Museum. 

Journal Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXIII. P. II. — By the 

Oriental Baptist for July and August, 1860. — By the Editor. 

Oriental Christian Spectator for June and July, 1860. — By the Editor. 

Calcutta Christian Observer for August and September, 1860. — By the 

Journal Asiatique, Tome. XV. No. 58.— By the Society. 

Journal of the Indian Archipelago, New Series, Vol. III. P. I. — By the 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. IV. No. 
2 1860. — By the Society. 

Jahrbuch, Vol. X. No. 4.— By the Academy. 

Annual Report of the Geological Survey of India and of the Museum of 
Geology for 1859-60.— By the Govt.Geological Museum of Calcutta. 

On the Importance of Physical Education. — By the Author. 

On the Rise and Progress of Rational Medical Education in Bengal, being 
an Introductory Lecture, delivered on the 15th June, I860.— By Dr. Eat- 

Descriptions of a Defaced Fragmentary Human Skull, found in an 
Ancient Quarry-cave at Jerusalem. — By Dk, Meggs. 

Athenaeum for May and June, 1860. — By the Editor. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 421 


The American Journal of Sciences and Arts for May, 1860. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. V. No. 30, and Vol. VI. 
No. 31. 

The Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. XII. Nos. 2 and 3. 

Comptes Rendus, Vol. L. Nos. 19 to 26, and Vol. LI. No. 1. 

Journal des Savants for April and May, 1860. 

Index ditto for 1859. 

Revue des Deux Mondes for 15th April, 1st May, 15th May, 1st June, 
15th June and 1st July. 

Revue de Zoologie, Nos. 4, 5 and 6, I860. 

Conchologia Iconica, Parts 194 to 198. 

Zainie Nafaarul Uns. 

Goldstucker's Dictionary Sanskrit and English. 

Sanskrit Worterbuch Dritter Theil Bogen, 24 — 30. 

Foe October, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on. 
the 3rd inst. — 

A. Grote, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From Mr. R. F. Saunders, specimens of the aerolite which 
fell at Dhurmsala, an account of which was submitted at the last 
meeting. The larger piece was picked up in the lines at Dhurmsala, 
and the smaller at Bowarna, about 20 miles to the east of Dhurmsala. 

2. From Mr. H. Scott Smith, Registrar Calcutta University, a 
copy of the Calendar and Minutes of the Senate for the last 3 years. 

3. From J. H. Gurney, Esq., M. P., Norfolk, a small collection 
of bird skins. 

4. From Major H. L. Thuillier, a copy of Simm's new map of 
Calcutta, and two Indian Atlas sheets, Nos. 112 and 113. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for, and elected ordinary members : — 

J. E. L. Brandreth, Esq., Commissioner of Delhi ; Moonshee 
Ameer Ally Khan Bahadur, Pleader of the Sudder Court ; E. B. 
Harris, Esq. ; John Christian, Esq., (for re-election) and C. G. Wray, 
Esq., C. E. 

3 i 2 

422 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4 ; 

The Council report the following nominations to fill the six vacan- 
cies on the list of Honorary Members. 

1st. — Dr. Alhrecht Weber, as one of the most eminent Sanskrit 
scholars of Germany. He has particularly devoted himself to the study 
of the White Yajur Veda, and he has the enviable distinction of having 
edited an entire series, comprising the Sanhita of the Hvinns, the 
accompanying Satapatha Brahmana, and the Ritual Sutras of Katya- 
yana. Beside this great work, his four volumes of Indische Studien 
abound with new and valuable information in reference to the Yaidic 
period of Hindu literature. 

2d. — Edward Thomas, Esq., as the author of valuable papers in our 
Journal and in those of the Royal Asiatic and Numismatic Societies, 
on several series of Asiatic medals, and more especially on those series 
which contribute to the early history of India ; and as the editor of 
Prinsep's Indian Antiquities. 

3rd. — Mons. Stanislas Julien, whose researches in the histoiy and 
antiquities of China have raised him among the most distinguished 
Orientalists of the present day. His contributions to the Journal 
Asiatique are numerous and of great interest. Among his separate 
publications may be noticed his Travels and Life of Hiouen Thsang ; 
Mengtsieu, vel Mencius inter Sinenses philosophus ; JO Sistoire die 
Cercle de Craie, and Le Livre des Recompenses et des Peines. They 
are works of consummate erudition, and any one of them is sufficient 
to establish the character of a scholar. 

4th.- — Dr. Aloys Sprenger, as an Arabic scholar of celebrity and as 
a valuable contributor in that capacity to early Mahommedan history, 
and as now engaged on what promises to be the best extant biography 
of Mahommed. 

5th. — Dr. Robert Wight as a valuable contributor to our knowledge 
of Indian Botany, and more especially of that of the Peninsula and 
the Neilgherries. 

6th. — Colonel George Everest, Fellow of the Royal Society, former- 
ly of the Bengal Artillery, Surveyor General of India, and Superin- 
tendent of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India from 1823 to 
1843 and Surveyor General 1830 to 1843. Of the many important 
works executed under Col. Everest's direction, the most important 
and that by which he will be best known to posterity is the northern 

1SG0.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 423 

portion of the Great Meridional Arc of India comprised between the 
Damargida and Dehra Dhoon Base lines 11| degrees in length, the 
account of the measurement of which was published by himself in 
1847. The whole Indian Arc is equal to 21°, 21', 16", or about 1469 
miles. No geodetic measure in any part of the world surpasses, or 
perhaps equals, in accuracy this splendid achievement. By the light 
it throws on researches into the figure and dimensions of the earth, 
it forms one of the most valuable contributions to that branch of 
science which we possess, whilst at the same time, it constitutes a 
foundation for the geography of Northern India, the integrity of 
which must for ever stand unquestioned. 

Col. Everest reduced the whole system of the great national Survey 
of India to order, and established the fixed basis on which the geo- 
graphy of India now rests. His determination of the amplitudes of 
the two Northern sections of the great Meridional Arc by means of 
simultaneous observations taken to the same stars with counterpart 
circular instruments, and his method of determining the celestial 
azimuth, still practised, may be considered the most perfect modes of 
obtaining an astronomical element known to science. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot at the next meeting. 

W. A. D. Anley, Escp Assistant Engineer in the "East Indian 
Railway, proposed by Capt. Layard and seconded by the President. 

Captain C. D. Newmarch, Chief Engineer, Pegu, and Captain 
Horace Browne, Assistant Commissioner, Pegu. 

E. 0. Riley, Escp, Magistrate of Rangoon, proposed by Lieutenant 
^olonel A. Phayre, and seconded by the Secretary. 

Baboo Degumber Mittra, proposed by Baboo Ramapersaud Roy, 
and seconded by Baboo Rajendralal Mittra. 

Reverend K. M. Banerjee (foi re-election,) and 

R. T. H. Griffith, Esq., proposed by Mr. Cowell, seconded by Mr. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Mr. W. T. Blanford, " Notes on a Collection of land shells 
made in Upper Assam by J. "W. Master, Esq., Assistant Commission- 
er of Golughat, with descriptions of a new species of Spiraculum, &c." 

2. From Baboo Radha Nauth Sikdar, " An abstract of Meteoro- 
logical observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office in the 
months of February and March last." 

424 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

3. From Eev. I. Lowenthal, Peshawur, " A paper on the Non- 
Semitic character of the Pushto language." 

This paper was read to the meeting by the Secretary. 

The Librarian submitted his usual monthly report for September last. 

Foe November, 1860. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the 7th instant, 

The Ven. Archdeacon J. H. Pratt, as Senior Member, in the chair. 

Presentations were received — 

1st. From Professor Griffith, through Mr. W. Halsey, a singular 
iron sun-dial called Pratoda or Pratola, (serving also for an hour-glass 
a gun and a spear) believed to have been made by Sirdar Lena Singh 
for Lord Hardinge. 

2nd. From the Eoyal Geological Society of London, the 29th 
Vol. of their Journal. 

3rd. From A. Sconce, Esq., the following Arabic Books : — "VYill- 
met's Arabic Lexicon, Schultens's Hariri and De Sacy's Arabic Gram- 
mar, and Niebuhr's Travels. 

4th. From the Editors of Eajah Badhakant's Subda Kulpa- 
druma the 1st No. of the new edition of the Encyclopedia, to- 
gether with a brief sketch of the Eajah's life. 

5th. From Baboo Kaliprasuno Singh the 2nd No. of his valua- 
ble work " Purana Sangraha," being a Bengalee translation in prose 
of the " Mahabharat." 

The Pratoda (noted above) was accompanied by the following ex- 
tract from an old Hindoo work on astronomy, communicated by 
Pundit Bapu Deva. 

1. I am explaining the instrument called Pratoda (a goad) invent- 
ed by Ganesa, by which the hour of the day can be easily known. 
Take a straight stick of moderate thickness of the tree called 
Dalbergia Sisu, of any length. 

2. Make it of the form of a right prism whose ends should be 
regular pobygons having as many angles as the number of ghatUcas 
contained in the excess of the longest day above the shortest (at the 
given place) ; and for the convenience of holding it join a chain (or 
string) to its top : (and mark the numbers of ghatiJcas from that of 
the ghatihas of the shortest day to that of those of the longest on 
the upper parts of the sides of the prism successively.) 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 425 

3. Below its support, in order to place a gnomon, make holes in 
each side of the prism at the beginning of its length in such a man- 
ner that they may not touch each other in the middle (of the prism). 

4. In order to conceal the gnomon (in this instrument) make 
another hole near the support (of the prism) at its top in the middle. 
Let the length of the gnomon be such as after placing it in the hole 
(made in each side) the length of its external part be nearly equal to 
the sixth part (of the length of the prism). 

5. A twelfth part of the length of the external portion of the 
gnomon should be considered an Angula (a digit) in this Pratoda in- 
strument. And find the sines of the (sun's) zenith distance and alti- 
tude at the end of each of the given ghatikas (from the sun-rise of 
every day, the number of the length of which is marked on the in- 
strument) by the rule mentioned by former Astronomers. 

6. The sine of the (sun's) altitude (found at the end of the given 
ghatikas from sun-rise) multiplied by 12 and divided by the sine of 
the zenith distance (of the sun found at the same time) gives the 
number of digits belonging to the given ghatikas. 

Thus find the digits belonging to the given gliatikas one, two, &c, 
from sun-rise (of every day, the length of which is marked on the 
instrument) and mark these digits on the respective sides (of the 
prism) from the hole. 

7. (When you want to know the time after sun-rise at the given 
day) place the gnomon in the hole of that side (of the prism) on 
which the number of the gliatikas contained in the length of the 
given day are marked, and hang the instrument by holding it in the 
chain in such a manner that the shadow of the gnomon falls on the 
side. And reckon the gliatikas (on the side) from the hole to the end 
of the shadow. These gliatikas are after sun-rise (when you observe 
the shadow) before noon, (but when you observe it) after noon they 
are the gliatikas remaining (to complete the whole day.) (This 
holds then when the end of the shadow falls exactly on the mark of 
the ghatikas) but when it falls between two marks, there will be re- 
quired a proportion." 

The Archdeacon then gave the following account of its character 
and uses : — 

" The instrument appears to be roughly graduated and to be in a 

426 Proceedings of the Asiatic Socic'//. [No. I, 

ricketty condition. It has nine sides. If these are exactly suited to 
the latitude, the place for which it was made was in latitude 27° 56' or 
thereabouts. If the latitude of the place did not accord with an exact 
number of sides, then it must have been between 28° 40' and 29° 12' 
that is, corresponding to 8f and 9^- sides. Delhi lies between these 
last two latitudes. The instrument may, therefore, have been made 
for that city. 

" The manner of using the instrument appears to be this. Suppose 
the day that you use it is the one of which the length is 50 minutes 
longer than the shortest day; then as 50 = 2 x. 24 + 2 and 24 minutes 
make a ghatika, you must screw the gnomon into the hole in the third 
side, in which the figures run down the third shortest length. Then 
hang up the instrument and turn it round, thus hanging, so that the 
shadow of the gnomon may fall on the length of the instrument ; 
the extremity of the shadow will point out the hour of the day in 
ghatikas from sunrise or sunset as it is before or after noon. 

" The instrument is certainly curious, though of no particular scien- 
tific value." 

Colonel Baird Smith communicated to the meeting tbe following 
interesting particulars respecting the constructor of the dial. 

" Lena Singh Majeteeah, the constructor of the Pratoda Dial, was the 
representative of a well known distinguished Sikh family. He did 
not take any very prominent part in the Sikh campaign, but his bro- 
ther Eunjoor Singh commanded the Khalsa army at the battle of 
Aliwal where, as all know, he was signally overthrown by the force 
under Sir Harry Smith. On that occasion an exquisitely beautiful 
battery of six field guns, the property of Lena Singh, and the produce, 
probably, of the same workshops which produced the Pratoda Dial, 
was captured. Nothing could surpass the whole design and details 
of these guns, and while they were ornamented with great taste, they 
were at the same time good working guns, and had been vigorously 
used during the day. 

" Lena Singh had very considerable mechanical capacity. He enjoy- 
ed greatly hearing of all forms of mechanical invention. The long 
range and explosion shells for guns were favorite subjects of experi- 
ment and discussion with him, and he was altogether a notable man 
among his race, and in his position as a Sikh Chieftain of large pos- 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 427 

sessions, having strong intellectual tendencies in spite of the semi-bar- 
barism amid which he lived." 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and elected Honorary Members : — 

Dr. Weber. E. Thomas, Esq. 

M. St. Julien. Dr. R. Wight. 

Dr. A. Sprenger. Col. C Everest. 

The following gentlemen who were proposed at the last meeting 
were also balloted for and elected ordinary members. 

W. A. D. Anley, Esq., Assistant-Surgeon, East Indian Railway. 

Captain C. D. Newmarch, Chief Engineer, Pegu. 

E. O'Riley, Esq., Magistrate, Rangoon. 

Captain Horace Browne, Assistant Commissioner, Pegu. 

Baboo Degumber Mitter, Zemindar. 

Reverend K. M. Banerjee for re-election. 

R. T. H. Griffith, Esq., Benares. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot at the next meeting : 

P. Cooper, Esq., C. S., proposed by the President, and seconded by 
the Secretary. 

Moulavee Abdool Luteef Khan Bahadur, Deputy Magistrate and 
Deputy Collector, 24-Pergunnahs. 

Babu Grooroo Churn Doss, Deputy Magistrate, Jessore, proposed 
by Babu Rajendrolal Mittra and seconded by Mr. Cowell. 

D. H. Macfarlane, Esq., Calcutta, proposed by H. Woodrow, Esq.. 
and seconded by C. Gr. Wray, Esq. 

A note from Dr. F. Mouat announcing his intention to withdraw 
from the Society was recorded. 

The following report was read from the Council on a recommenda- 
tion from the Philological Committee : — 


The Council recommend to the Society the acceptance of Mr. P. 
E. Hall's offer to edit the Dasa HupaJca (text and commentary) in 
the Bib. Indica. This work is the oldest authority for the dramatic 
system of the Hindus, and is also of great interest from the numer- 
ous quotations which are found in it. Mr. Hall has a very old MS. 
which will serve as the basis of his text. The work will occupy about 

3 K 

428 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4' 

two fasciculi, and Mr. Hall will add a translation of the text and an 

The recommendation was adopted by the Meeting. 

A communication was received from Babu Eadha Nauth Sickdar, 
being an abstract of Meteorological observations taken at the Survey- 
or General's office for the month of April last. 

Mr. H. F. Blanford read a paper on the subject of Dr. Bronn's 
work on the laws of development of organised beings. 

Mr. Blanford stated that the work, a brief notice of which he 
proposed bringing before the Society, was written by Dr. Bronn in 
1855, in answer to a series of prize questions proposed by the French 
Academy of Sciences in 1853-4. Dr. Bronn's work was adjudged 
as successful and crowned by the Academy in 1857 and the work it- 
self published shortly after. Its object was to ascertain the laws of 
the development of organised beings in time, a question which the 
recent publication of Mr. Darwin's work had rendered one of general 
interest, and the work possessed this great merit as evidence in the 
discussion provoked by Mr. Darwin, that having appeared long before 
the publication of Mr. Darwin's views, it was unbiassed in its conclu- 
sions by any controversial spirit. 

The objects of Dr. Bronn's work differed in so far from those of 
Mr. Darwin's, that the former sought simply to determine the formal 
laws expressing the nature of the sequence of organisms in time and 
the relation of that sequence to the parallel sequence of geologic 
changes, while the latter endeavoured to solve the higher problem of 
which these formal laws are merely consequences, viz. the modus 
operandi of the cause to which the succession of varying organisms 
in past times is due. Dr. Bronn's objects bear the same relation to 
Mr. Darwin's as those of Kepler and Copernicus, the discoverers of 
the laws of the Heliocentric Planetary System did to Newton's, the 
discoverer of gravitation. 

Of the two parts into which Dr. Bronn's Essay was divided, viz. 
the exposition of the laws of development ; and the proving of these 
laws by the comparison and analysis of tabular evidence, only the 
first could be noticed in the brief space of a single lecture. Mr. 
Blanford's object was simply' to bring to the notice of the Society 
the general results at which Dr. Bronn had arrived, and would refer 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 429 

those who might wish to enter in detail into the question, and satisfy 
themselves of the soundness or unsoundness of Dr. Bronn's views, 
to the original work, which had been published in German, French 
and English, the latter translation by the Ray Society of London. 

The two fundamental laws laid down by Dr. Bronn as having re- 
gulated the sequence of organisms from the earliest period to the 
present time were : 

1. That there had been the operation of an independent produ- 
cing power or force (Kraft) progressive in intensity and in its sphere 
of operation. 

2. That the results of this power or force had been limited by, 
and dependant upon, the nature and changes of the external condi- 
tions of existence, such as climate, habitat, food, &c. 

With respect to the first law, a clear idea of the meaning of 
progression could only be gathered from a consideration of the whole 
range of organized beings, and the evolution of general propositions 
concerning form, organization, and habits of life. In this way, it 
was shewn that the criteria of higher types as compared with lower 
were : — 

Higher. Lower. 

Bilateral symmetry of form. Quadrilateral or circular sym- 
metry of form. 

Few homologous parts. Numerous homologous parts. 

Organs various, specialized to Organs few, fitted to perform 

discharge one or few functions, various functions, dispersed, and 

concentrated, and enclosed. superficial. 

Habits terrestrial. Habits aquatic. 

Breathing ah*. Breathing water. 

Food, (in the case of animals) Food, (in the case of animals) 

vegetable. animal. 

With respect to the second law, the conditions of existence mio-ht 
be considered under two heads, viz. as : — inorganic, which bore 
reference to terrestrial phenomena, such as temperature, climatal 
zones, the composition of the atmosphere, and the distribution of 
land and sea ; and organic, which included the supply of food, a con- 
sideration which had been developed to an extent unanticipated by 

3 k 2 

430 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

Dr. Bronn in Mr. Darwin's well known chapter on the " Struggle for 

The hypothesis to which we had to apply these conditions was, 
that of an originally fluid globe, cooling by radiation, until a solid 
crust had formed, upon which the greater part of the water had 
condensed in the form of seas, while the atmosphere contained a 
larger proportion of aqueous vapour and carbonic acid than at 

The excess of carbonic acid was subsequently fixed in the form of 
limestone, and eliminated, especially during the coal period, by the 
luxuriant vegetation which abstracted the carbon stored up in the 
coal formed of its remains. The carbonic acid since converted into 
coal and limestone had been calculated by Brogniart and Bischof 
to amount to 6 per cent, of the entire atmosphere, or one hundred 
times its actual proportion ; and although it is probable that it never 
reached this amount, and that much of it was evolved from the 
interior of the earth through volcanic vents, contemporaneously 
with its absorption by the vegetation of the epoch, still, it had been 
proved by the experiments of Daubeng and Begnault, that a propor- 
tion of 5 per cent, of carbonic acid was by no means injurious to ferns, 
and that provided sufficient oxygen were present, animals could live 
without apparent inconvenience in an atmosphere containing half its 
volume of the former gas. The surface of the earth being then in 
such a condition as to support animal and vegetable life, we might 
expect, according to Dr. Bronn, the following series of phenomena, 
which, ranged in parallel columns exhibit the historic interdependence 
of the organic and inorganic kingdoms. 

1. The simultaneous appear- 1. When by condensation and 
ance of plants and animals, to chemical absorption the atmos- 
sustain a proper relation in the phere became fitted to support 
components of the atmosphere, life. 

2. An universal and continuous 2. As the temperature universal- 
change in the fauna and flora of ly and continuously diminished, 
the earth, 

a. The primary fauna and flora a. The temperature of the 
were universal and tropical, earth's surface was likewise uni- 

form and tropical, until, 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


b. becoming subsequently di- 
versified according to climate. 

3. New forms of life could not 
have arisen from those preceding 
them, but were provided for by 
a new creation. (Schopfung). 
The assumption of specific and 
generic centres, is therefore un- 
necessary and improbable. 

4. As the older forms disap- 
peared, in consequence of the 
cooling of the earth and the 
formation of continental areas, 
they were continuously replaced 
by new forms with but a slight 
variation in the intensity of the 
producing force. 

5. The general character of the 
first fauna and flora was entirely 
different from that of the present 
day, the passage being, however, 
gradual throughout. 

6. Organisms became more va- 
ried and respectively adapted to 
more diversified conditions of life. 

7. The appearance of most 
plants and animals was condi- 
tional on the previous fulfilment 
of the conditions necessary for 
their existence, as regard nourish- 
ment, habitat, &c. 

8. The absolute number of 
species, genera, and families in- 
creased with the differentiation of 

b. the internal heat being di- 
minished by radiation, the climate 
became differentiated in different 

3. The new stations formed 
were not always in connexion 
with those previously populated. 

4. The cooling of the earth's 
surface and the extension of con- 
tinental land areas proceeded gra- 
dually and equably. 

5. The physical condition of 
the earth's surface was likewise 
originally very different from that 
of the present day, and the pas- 
sage gradual. 

6. In consequence of the above 
change, stations became more 
numerous and varied. 

7. The Earth, having become 
peopled with such plants and 
animals as depended solely on 
each other and on the purely ter- 
restrial conditions, was, by their 
existence, rendered habitable for 
succeeding races. 

8. The differentiation of the 
requisite external conditions pro- 
ceeded continuously, but espe- 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

[No. 4, 

external conditions. 

9. The tendency of all succes- 
sive changes may be termed ter- 
ripetal. The first population of 
the globe was almost exclusively 
pelagic. Land animals succeeded, 
and increased most rapidly both 
in numbers and in perfection of 

10. The higher and more per- 
fect plants and animals are, so are 
the conditions requisite for their 
existence more complicated and 
numerous. The more perfect ani- 
mals could not exist without 
the less perfect. And thus 
a necessary consequence of the 
progressive development of the 
earth's surface, was a gradual 
higher development of the or- 
ganic world as a whole, as well as 
of its subordinate divisions, and 
while the organic world tended 
more and more to the formation 
of the existing higher types, the 
latter tended to increase in a 
more rapid ratio than the les3 
perfect. Meanwhile many of the 
less perfect either simply disap- 
peared or were replaced by more 
perfect compensating forms. 

11. There are also some special 
cases in which the progression of 
the organic world towards a 
higher degree of development, 

cially characterized the close of the 
carboniferous epoch and the com- 
mencement of tertiary times. 

9. Simultaneous and parallel 
with these changes was the di- 
minution and sub-division of 
watery areas and the formation 
of continental, as distinguished 
from insular divisions of the land 

10. The external conditions of 
existence became more varied and 
fitted for the existence of higher 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

either generally and systemati- 
cally, or specially from embryonic 
types, appears to have progressed, 
independently of any apparent ex- 
ternal causes, and in accordance 
with the operation of some inde- 
pendant internal law, except in 
so far as there is a necessary reci- 
procal relation between the laws 
of development of the organic 
and inorganic world, which could 
only be definitely expressed if 
we knew the nature of the power 
or force which gives rise to new 

In commenting on the above, Mr. Blanford remarked that 
although the hypothesis of a cooling globe and an universal equable 
temperature in early geologic times had been rejected by Sir Charles 
Lyell and some other eminent authorities, there were many important 
facts, such as the existence of a coal flora within the Arctic regions 
in a great measure identical with that of the temperate zone, and the 
wide distribution of generic and specific types in Palceozoic times, 
which gave much probability to the hypothesis upon which Dr. 
Bronn's theoretical conclusions were based. 

These views were stated necessarily at much disadvantage before 
the Society, as time would not permit of even an abstract of Dr. 
Bronn's proofs of the laws above enunciated, by a review of the 
geologic record, which could be the only test of their truth or 
falsity. "With respect to the third of Dr. Bronn's secondary laws, 
viz. that new stations were frequently isolated, and consequently that 
their faunas and floras were necessarily of independent origin, it 
appeared to Mr. Blanford that both the fact and inference were 
pure assumption, and neither proved by the author in the subsequent 
part of his work, nor indeed very capable of historic proof. Many 
of the now isolated stations, such as the islands of Polynesia, 
had been shewn to be very probably mere remnants of former widely 
extended stations ; (in the case cited, by Dr. Hooker on botanic 

434 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 4, 

grounds and by Mr. Darwin on geological grounds ;) and even were it 
granted, as it might be theoretically, that such isolated stations may 
occasionally have been formed, until we can ascertain the period at 
which they were first populated, and can assert that no possible 
accidental transport of eggs, seeds, &c. would account for that popu- 
lation, tbe inference drawn by Dr. Bronn would be by no means 

In some other points, it appeared that Dr. Bronn had laid too 
much stress upon negative evidence as e. g. in the ninth of the 
secondary laws, but as this had no important bearing on the principal 
object of the paper, viz. a comparison of Dr. Bronn's laws with 
Mr. Darwin's theory of natural selection, it need not be further 
alluded to. 

Setting aside the assumption of independent faunas and floras, as 
unproved in any case and at variance with the tendency of our 
present knowledge, the laws evolved by Dr. Bronn were stated to be 
in close accordance with the requirements of Mr. Darwin's theory. 
With respect to the formal portion of Dr. Bronn's first fundamental 
law, (i. e. the fact of progression, apart from any hypothesis of a 
force,) very little had been said by Mr. Darwin ; his only reference 
to it being to the following effect, viz. : — the higher forms have 
their organs more distinctly specialized for different functions ; 
and as such division of physiological labour seems to be an advantage 
to each being, natural selection will tend in so far to make the later 
and more modified forms higher than their early progenitors, or than 
the slightly modified descendants of such progenitors.* This view 
appeared to be identical with that taken by Dr. Bronn in the majority 
of cases, as enunciated in Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10 of his secondary laws. 
In No. 11, indeed something more is indicated, viz. a progression of 
type, independent, or apparently independent of external conditions, 
and referred somewhat vaguely to an unknown force ; but this was 
scarcely necessary, and the phenomenon of progression according 
to embryonic types, the progression from general to specialized 
forms, which had been admitted by Agassiz, Owen, Carpenter and 
others, as having obtained in past times, was perfectly and most 
simply explained b}' Mr. Darwin's theory. 

* Origin of species, p. 336. 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 435 

Dr. Bronn's second fundamental law, the correlation of the 
development of organized beings, with that of the external conditions 
of life, and the multiplication of varieties and species as these condi- 
tions became more varied, formed one of the fundamental requirements 
of Mr. Darwin's theory. 

The chief point on which the two authors were at issue, was that 
of the origin of new forms. On this subject, Dr. Bronn did not 
enunciate any theory, and in the expression of his formal laws, referred 
vaguely to an undefined force. He denied, however, the possibility 
of their origin by descent, with variation, from pre-existing forms, 
as well as their origin by spontaneous generation from inorganic 
matter, and regarded that by immediate act of creation repeated for 
every new species, as inconsistent with the tenor of our knowledge of 
all natural operations. It was difficult therefore to understand how 
and upon what, the hypothetical force could be supposed to act, nor 
was this anywhere suggested in the essay. The objection by anti- 
cipation to Mr. Darwin's views, rested as it appeared, solely on the 
assumption of isolated stations before alluded to, and if this be 
rejected as unsound, there appeared nothing in Dr. Bronn's laws at 
all irreconcileable with Mr. Darwin's theory. For the rest Mr. 
Darwin had suggested a vera causa and it remained for the naturalist 
and geologist to say how far it was sufficient to account for the 

Some discussion arose after the lecture was concluded. 

Dr. Kay remarked, that the way in which the subject had been 
treated, appeared to him calculated to produce serious confusion of 
thought. There had been a perpetual vibrating between two entirely 
distinct inquiries ; the search into forms and the search into causes. 
A great deal of fallacious reasoning was owing to the neglect of this 
distinction. Morphology was a deeply interesting study ; but it gave 
absolutely no information about the causes of the differential charac- 
teristics observed in analogous species of plants and animals at suc- 
cessive epochs. In examining such species it was natural to use such 
words, as advance, progression, &c. ; but these terms simply mean that 
the species of a later era are found to differ in certain ways from 
those of an earlier era. The morphological progression proves no- 
thing as to the existence of an oetislogical connexion between the 

3 L 

436 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

successive stages. It is simply a historical fact that there is an ad- 
vance in the ohservecl forms. But to state a fact is not to account 
for it, and Moliere's physician added nothing to science when he averred 
that medicine cured because it possessed a vis meclicatrix. All present 
were aware that theories such as Dr. Bronn's or Dr. Darwin's had a 
far wider and deeper interest than they would have simply as scienti- 
fic speculations, because they touched on questions relating to man's 
spiritual nature. That nature enabled man to look upward to the 
eternal, and downward to the endless variety of cosmical phenomena. 
Would any similarities of structure between man and other contem- 
porary or palceozoic species bridge over the chasm placed between 
him and them by the possession of that spiritual nature ? If it be 
said that the power of ulterior development had existed from the date 
of the primal monad, — this would only increase a billion-fold any 
difficulties that may be supposed to lie in the received theories of 
creation ; — for, whence came this monad ? It must have been creat- 
ed. And what a marvellous creature ! to hold shut up within it the 
numberless forms of all the species that have arisen in the world 
through countless ages, along with all the laws of their successive 
development, each one involving such marvellous adaptations to all 
other portions of the Kosmos ! 

He would add an expression of his hearty concurrence with two re- 
marks made by the lecturer : — viz. where he spoke of the rashness 
with which his author theorized on the early geological periods ; and 
where he stated his belief that Dr. Bronn's assumption of a mysteri- 
ous " Kraft" or power was neither legitimate nor very intelligible. 

Mr. Blyth rose, as the friend of Mr. Darwin of more than a quar- 
ter of a century standing, to advocate his theory. He expatiated 
upon the vastness of geological periods, as amply sufficient for bring- 
ing about the present order of things in the organic kingdoms, by the 
operation of Mr. Darwin's principle of Natural Selection. The 
immensity of the lapses of past time he illustrated by comparing 
them with the profundities of space, and by the computed distances of 
sundry astronomical objects. He also argued a far higher anti- 
quity than is generally supposed for the existence of the human being 
upon this planet, as testified by the discoveries of Dr. Lund in certain 
low caverns in Brazil, more than twenty years ago, and abundantly by 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 437 

recent discoveries in various regions : more especially he referred to cer- 
tain tumuli in Scania, where flint arrow-heads or spear-heads were found 
together with the hones of extinct mammalia, and associated also with 
human remains, the skulls of which indicated them to belong to the 
hyperborean type of mankind, being similar to those of modern Esqui- 
maux ; an important fact, which tended, as he thought, to connect 
the epoch of those remains with the glacial era of Agassiz, or at least 
with the time when the Rein Deer and the Musk Ox roamed over what 
is now Britain. But he maintained that however ancient may be the 
remains of this hyperborean race in modern Scania, perhaps one of the 
present American types of humanity in the New World, still,for various 
reasons adduced, we must look to the tropical regions of the major 
continent for the aboriginal habitat of the human being ; countries of 
which the paloeontology is almost utterly unknown. Mr. Blyth then 
adverted to the incompleteness of the geological record as insisted 
upon by Mr. Darwin ; and touched upon some other points, which 
the lateness of the hour prevented his dwelling upon. 

Mr. Blanford briefly replied to remarks which fell from Dr. Kay, 
that he had not professed to enter upon the subject of causation at 
all ; but only upon the study of forms as indicating the direction 
which causation had taken. 

The interesting discussion was closed by the Chairman, stating that 
the thanks of the meeting were due to Mr. Blanford for laying before 
them the views of Dr. Bronn. He observed that a comparison had 
been made by Mr. Blanford between the progress of this new or 
newly-revived theory of the mutability of species and the establish- 
ment of the theory of universal gravitation. But he would remark 
that in the establishment of the theory of gravitation there had been 
two grand stages, the second of which was far longer and more la- 
borious than the first. The first was the conception of the law, the 
second was its verification. In the second, as well as the first 
Newton did a vast deal himself, but it had been the work of the last 
200 years to complete the demonstration, so long as nearly 100 years 
after Newton the celebrated Clairant had been staggered by an error 
in the moon's motion, which at first he could not explain on Newton's 
theory, and went so far as to suggest that the law varied partly as 
the inverse square and partly as the inverse fourth power of the dis- 

3 l 2 

438 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

tance. So lately as the time of Laplace similar difficulties had pre- 
sented themselves, which his sagacity alone had removed. But now 
such perfection had heen attained that as the instruments of observa- 
tion and the method of calculation are from time to time improved, the 
smallest variations detected in the motions of the heavenly bodies 
are explained, and the theory of gravitation, as applicable to the 
minutest particles of matter, fully established. He added that in 
this new theory of the mutability of species Mr. Darwin seems to 
have taken the first step in striking out a bold generalization. But 
the more laborious and lengthy process of testing his law has yet to 
be gone through, and when completed as satisfactorily as that of gra- 
vitation, he (the Chairman) for one would believe in it as a law of 

With reference to remarks which fell from Mr. Blyth regarding the 
incompleteness of the geological evidence, he recommended to his 
notice two papers in Preiser's Magazine for June and July, by Mr. 
William Hopkins of Cambridge, well known as a first rate mathema- 
tician and geologist. He thought these papers were among the most 
thoughtful and convincing replies to Mr. Darwin's whole theory that 
he had read. 

A vote of thanks was then passed to Mr. Blanford for his lecture. 

The Librarian submitted his usual monthly Report for October last. 

The following books have been added to the Library since November last. 


Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VI. No. 2. — By the 
Oriental Society. 

Burges's Trans, of Surya Siddhanta. — By the Author. 

Report on the Survey operations in the Lower Provinces, for 1858-59. 
— By the Author. 

Oriental Christian Spectator for September and October 1860. — By the 

Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXIII. Part III. — By 
the Society. 

1S60.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 439 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Pt. II. of 18G0. — By 
the Society. 

Ditto, of Royal Society of London, Vol. X. No. 39. — By the Society. 

De Sacy's Arabic Grammar, Vol. I. Pt. II. — By the Author. 

Wil'.met's Lexicon Lingua; Arabica; Niebuhr's Voyage en Arabie, Vol. I* 
Pt. II.— By A. Sconce, Esq. 

Ditto, descriptions del' Arabic Schultens Harriri, Vol. I. Pt. II. — By the 

"Williams F. F. Guide to Indian Photography. — Report on the Teneriffe. 
astronomical experiment of 1856 addressed to the Lord Commissioner of the 
Admiralty, London. — By the Lords Commissioners. 

Monthly notices of Royal Astronomical Society of London, Vol. X. Part 
III. — By the Society. 

The Life of Rajah Radhakanta Deva Bahadur. — By the Editors. 

Sabda Kalpadruma in series, No. 1. — By the Editors. 

Report on the result of the Administration of the Salt Dept, 1858-59, 
Bengal Govt.— By the Bengal Govt. 

Oriental Baptist for November 1860. — By the Editor. 

Calcutta Christian Observer for Nov. 1860. — 'By the Editors. 

Trans, of the Bombay Geographical Society, Vol. XV. — By the Society. 

Bengali Translation of Mahabharata, Pt. II. — By the Editor. 

Selections from the Records of Government of India For. Dept. No. 28, 
By the Government. 

Memoirs of Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. XXVII. — By the Society. 


Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlendischen Gesellschaft, Pt. VIII. 
Athenaeum, for August, 1860. 

London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine, No. 132, for September, 


The Literary Gazette, Nos. 112 to 115. 
Comptes Rendus, Nos. 6 to 9 Tome 51. 

Revue des Deux Mondes, Tome XXX. for 15th August and 1st Septem- 
ber, 1860. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Tome XII. No. 56, 1860. 

Journal des Savants for July and August, 1860. 

Revue de Zoologie, Nos. 7 and 8, 1860. 

The Anuals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. VI. No. 33. 

Flugels die elassen der Hancfitischen Rechtsgelehrten. 

Fon cause Buddhar. 

440 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 4, 

Capt. Raverty's Gulshan-rah— Afghan Poetry and Prose. 
Ditto. Dictionary of the Pushto or Afghan language. 
Ditto. Grammar, Ditto. Ditto. 

Foe, December, 1860. 

At a meeting of the Society held on the 5th Instant — 

A Grote, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Presentations were received — 

1st. From Major Hollings, a baked clay fac-simile of Sanscrit in- 
scription on a stone pillar in the Behar Fort. 

2nd. From the Bombay Geographical Society, tbe 25th Vol. of 
their Transactions. 

3rd. From Mr. W. S. Seton-Karr, Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal, forwarding, on behalf of the India House, certain copies 
of the Memoirs and Reports of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

4th. From the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, a 
copy of the proceedings of the Academy for 1860. 

The Secretary announced the publication of the Shell catalogue, a 
copy of which was laid on the table, price fixed at 3 Rs. a copy. 

The following gentlemen who were proposed at the last meeting 
were balloted for and elected ordinary members. 

F. Cooper, Esq. C. S. 

Moulavie Abdool Luteef Khan Bahadur, Deputy Magistrate and 
Deputy Collector, 24-Pergunnahs. 

Baboo Gooroo Churn Doss, Deputy Magistrate, Jessore. 

D. H. Macfarlane, Esq., Calcutta. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot at the next meeting. 

J. C. Erskine, Esq. proposed by Sir Bartle Frere and seconded by 
Captain W. N. Lees. 

Lewis Jackson, Esq. C. S. proposed by Mr. Atkinson and seconded 
by Mr. Cowell. 

William Thompson Dodsworth, Esq,, Surveyor, Ganges Canal, Deh- 
ra Dhoon, proposed by Colonel Waugh and seconded by Major 

I860.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 411 

Notes from the following gentlemen intimating their wish to with- 
draw from the Society were recorded. 

Messrs. A. K. Dyer, H. V. Bayley and F. A. Goodenough. 
Communications were received — 

1. From Major H. L. Thuillier, forwarding copy of a letter as 
follows from Colonel Waugh, Surveyor General of India, containing 
farther information relative to the fate of the late lamented Mons. A. 

Surveyor General's Field Office, 

Dehra, 13th November, 18G0. 
From Lieut. -Col. A. S. Wauoh, 

Surveyor General of India