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JULY, 1847. 


Inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 

Collected or observed by Theodore Cantor, Esq. M. D., Bengal 

Medical Service. 

[Localities printed in Italics signify those from whence the animals of the Catalogue 
were obtained ; in ordinary type those previously given by authors. The descriptions are 
in most cases taken from life ; in the few in which it is expressly noted, shortly after death ; 
in none from specimens preserved in spirits of wine.] 

Sub-Fam. Cryptoderin^e, Bum. and Bibr. 
Gen. Geoemyda, Gray. 
Head covered with thin continued skin ; chin not bearded. Legs 
strong, not fringed behind. Toes 5-4, strong, short, free, covered 
above by a series of shields ; claws short. Tail tapering ; shell depress- 
ed, three-keeled; hinder edge strongly toothed. Sternum solid, 
broad truncated before, notched behind ; gular plate linear, band-like, 
small ; axillary and inguinal plates small. 

Geoemyda spinosa, (Bell.) 

Syn. — Emys spinosa, Bell apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Emys bispinosa, Schlegel. 
Testudo emys, Miiller ? 
Geoemyda spinosa, Gray. 

Shell oblong, subquadrate, keeled, flattened above, chestnut coloured, 
front and hinder edge strongly serrated ; vertebral plates broad, first 
suburceolate ; costal plates with a posterior, subsuperior areola, with a 
slight subconic tubercle ; beneath yellow, brown rayed ; young depress- 
No. VII. New Series. 4 k 

608 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

ed, pale brown, bluntly keeled, with a distinct spine in the areola of 
each discal plate. 

Habit. — Pinang Hills. 
Two individuals were observed by the Hon'ble Sir William Norris, 
late Recorder of H. M. Court of Judicature in the Straits of Malacca, 
on the Great Hill at Pinang, at a distance from water. The colour of 
the shell is a dirty brownish ochre, here and there with sooty rays, 
which numerously intersect the concave sternum. The keel, the mar- 
ginal spines, and the costal tubercles are nearly obliterated, and the 
shell presents frequent marks of corrosion. The larger individual is of 
the following dimensions : — 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, If 

Ditto ditto shell, 8 

Ditto ditto tail,... If 

A large tick was firmly adhering to the throat of one of these 
tortoises, the presence of which however does not indicate an exclusive- 
ly terrestrial life, as one species at least of the Ricinioe (Ixodes ophio- 
philus, Muller ?) occurs on aquatic as well as terrestrial serpents. The 
following are the characters of Ixodes geoemydoz. The short sucker 
is depressed, slightly widening towards the bifid apex, and encased by 
the palpi. Above, and at a short distance from the latter, are two 
minute rounded fossse. The cephalic, tetragonal plate is of a reddish 
brown colour, with a yellow spot at the posterior angle. The oval body 
is dark pearl- coloured. On each side close to the articulation of the 
posterior leg appears a small rounded horny plate. The legs are red- 
dish brown with a yellow spot at each of the joints, except the last. 
Swollen, as the tick appeared, it measured six-eights of an inch in 
length ; half an inch in breadth. 

Gen. Emys, Brogniart. 
Head moderate, covered with a thin hard skin ; chin not bearded. 
Feet short, covered with scales ; toes 5-4, strong, shielded above, 
webbed to the claws. Tail moderate. Shell depressed. Sternum solid, 
broad, truncated before, notched behind, affixed to the thorax by a bony 
symphysis, covered by the ends of the pectoral and abdominal plates ; 
axillary and inguinal plates moderate, distinct. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 609 

A. — Vertebral plates lozenge-shaped. — Gray. 
Emys crassicollis, Bell, MSS. apud Gray. 
Syn.— -Emys crassicollis, Bell, apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Emys spengleri, Var, Schlegel. 
Shell ovate, oblong, rather convex, re volute on the sides and deeply 
toothed behind, black, slightly three-keeled ; keels close ; first verte- 
bral plate elongate, six-sided ; sternum flat, pale, and keeled on the 
sides ; head and neck thick, black. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 
Sumatra, Java. 
In Malayan individuals, numerously inhabiting rivulets and ponds 
in the valleys, the throat is whitish, and a small white spot appears on 
each side of the occiput. The vertebral keels and the lateral spines 
become obliterated with age. The largest individual observed was of 
the following dimensions :-— 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, If 

Ditto ditto shell, 9 

Ditto ditto tail, \ 1 £ 

It feeds upon frogs and also upon shell-fish and animal offal. Old 
Malay women, who may be seen after every heavy fall of rain, spending 
hours, rod in hand, over the overflowing ditches, out of which their 
huts rise, are often ludicrously disappointed on perceiving this tortoise 
on the hook. 

B. — Vertebral plates broad, six-sided. Gray. 
Emys platynota, — Gray. 
Syn. — " Katong" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Shell ovate, convex, yellow dotted, with the centre of the back quite 
flat, as if truncated ; shields striated, nucleus central ; vertebral shields 
broader than long, six-sided, 5 th keeled ; the front and hinder margin 
strongly toothed ; sternum flat, truncated before ; and slightly notched 
behind ; tail moderate, tapering. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 
Mr. Gray's description refers to the young animal, of which the 
length of the shell is given in Proceed. Zoolog. Soc. 1834. P. 54, 
as 9 inches. The representation of Emys platynotha in Illust. Ind. 

610 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Zool. from its size, and the strongly toothed flat front and hind margins 
of the shell, also appears to be a young animal. The penultimate, the 
fourth, vertebral shield is represented as divided in two pieces, which 
if so in the original, must be accidental, as normally the fourth vertebral 
shield is six-sided, and in size nearly equalling the preceding. The nuclei 
of the costal shields are more central than represented in the plate. 

In the living adult animal the head, neck, shell, tail and feet are of a 
dirty yellowish, or greenish brown, which becomes paler on the sternum. 
The nuclei of the vertebral shields are sKghtly raised. The costal shields 
are depressed, their sides sloping towards the nuclei, thus forming as it 
were very shallow hexagonal basins. The front and hind margins are 
broadly revolute, their toothed appearance worn off. The sternum is 
slightly concave in the centre. The largest individual was of the fol- 
lowing dimensions : 

Length of the head/. feet 3 inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 3 

Ditto ditto shell, 1 7f 

Ditto ditto tail, 2f 

It lived in my garden at Pinang upwards of a twelvemonth, appa- 
rently without food, and it was never observed to enter a tank. The 
shell bears deep white marks of corrosion, in appearance like that 
observed in Testaeea inhabiting stagnant water. The animal suffered 
itself to be touched with impunity, never offering to scratch or bite. 
This tortoise inhabits the valleys, but is apparently not numerous. 
Emys trivittata, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Shell smooth, entire, subcordiform, arched, yellowish green, and with 
three broad longitudinal black bands ; jaws toothed. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 
It inhabits rivers and ponds on the Malayan Peninsula, but appear& 
not to be numerous. In the Malayan adult animal there is a large 
black spot situated at the anterior, lower angle of the marginal shields, 
there is no trace of a keel in the centre of the vertebral shields, and 
the very minute nuchal shield is triangular, with the apex towards the 
vertebral shields. The shield is rather oval than subcordiform. The 
sternum is slightly arched, of a pale whitish yellow. The largest 
individual was of the following dimensions : 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 61! 

Length of the head, feet 3 inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 2f 

Ditto ditto shell, 1 6 

Ditto ditto tail, 2| 

Gen. Cistudo, Fleming. 

Head moderate, covered with a thin hard continued skin, Toes 

5-4, webbed to the claws, web thick, with a small intermediate lobe 

between the claws. Tail short. Shell convex, ovate, or hemispherical. 

Sternum broad, rounded before and behind, completely closing the 

cavity of the thorax, affixed to it by a ligamentous, symphysis, and 

divided by a cross suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates. 

Sternal shields twelve. Inguinal and axillary plates very small, but 

distinct. Marginal plates 23-27. Nuchal plate small or wanting, 

Cistudo amboinensis, (Daudin.) 

Syn. — Testudo amboinensis, Daudin. 

Emys amboinensis, and couro, Sehweigger, 

Tortue a boite d' Amboine, Bosc. 

Terrapene amboinensis, Merrem, 

Kinosternon amboinense, Bell. 

Cistuda amboinensis, Gray. 

Terrapene couro, Fitzinger. 

Emys couro, apud "Wagler. 

Terrapene bicolor. Bell. 

Emys couro, Var. Sehlegel, apud Gray. 

" Baning" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Singapore. 

Java, Amboina, Philippine Islands, Tenasserim provinces. 

Shell hemispherical, slightly three-keeled, blackish, margin broad 

expanded, nuchal shield linear ; sternum black and yellow- varied ; 

animal blackish, varied with yellow, head dark with two broad yellow 

streaks on each side. 

The dorsal keels become obsolete with age, and the margin of the 

shell, particularly the posterior part, becomes revolute. This species 

appears to be numerous in the valleys, in ponds, rivulets and paddy 

fields. It is very timid, withdrawing its head and limbs when handled, 

though it neither bites nor scratches. The largest individual observed 

was of the following dimensions, 

Length of the head, 2 inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 2^ 

Ditto ditto shell, 7 

Ditto ditto tail. . . . 1 

G12 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Gen. Tetraonyx, Lesson, 
Toes five ; nails 4-4 ; sternum solid, broad with six pairs of 
shields ; 25 marginal shields. 

Tetraonyx affinis, N. S. 
Young, Shell orbicular, its breadth exceeding its length ; the back 
sharply keeled longitudinally, slightly arched, laterally depressed ; 
costal shields with a tubercular nucleus at the posterior margin ; grey- 
ish green olive, minutely spotted with brown ; edge sharply toothed, 
pale greenish yellow. Sternum truncated in front, angularly indented 
behind, narrow, yellow ; laterally keeled, compressed, pale yellowish 

Habit. — Sea off Pinang. 

The outline of the shell and its composing shields strikingly resem- 
ble the young of Cyclemys orbicitlata, Bell.* 

The nuchal shield (wanting in one individual,) is small, subrectangular 
or subtriangular, with the base directed backwards. The vertebral shields 
are strongly keeled, laterally sloping, hexagonal, broader than long, 
which however with the first is less the case than with the rest ; the 
second, third and fourth are the broadest, and of nearly equal size ; the 
fifth assumes a broadly truncated triangular shape. The costal shields are 
nearly all as broad as long ; the first, second and third have each a tuber- 
cular nucleus in the centre of the posterior margin, the fourth is smooth, 
and a little smaller than the preceding. The first pair of marginal shields 
is truncated triangular, the second, and third subrectangular ; the fourth 
sixth, and eighth pentagonal ; the rest subrectangular. In all, the pos- 
terior external angle forms a more or less sharp spine, directed over the 
anterior external margin of the next shield. From the first to the 
sixth the shields gradually increase in size, the sixth being the largest 
and broadest, from which the following gradually decrease towards the 
twelfth pair, and their angular spines become obsolete. The sternum 
consists of two parts : one central, and two lateral, formed by the sterno- 
costal processes of the two central pairs, sharply sloping towards the 
marginal shields. The central part is longitudinally a little concave, 
narrowing towards both extremities, truncated in front, angularly in- 

* Syn. Emys dentata. Illust. Ind. Zoolog. — Emys dhor, Gray. — Emys hasseltii, Boie. 
—Emys spengleri, Var. Schlegel.— Cistudo diardii, Dum. and Bibr. 

1847-] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 613 

dentated behind. Thegular pair of shields is very, short, broadly sub- 
triangular with the posterior margin concave, curved backwards. The 
second, and fifth pairs are of nearly equal size, subquadrangular, their 
external margins forming a sharp ridge. The central part of the third 
and fourth pairs is subrectangular, broader than long, their margins 
forming a sharp ridge where they join the sterno-costal processes. 
The latter are of nearly equal size, longer than broad, their united 
length being less than one half of the central part of the sternum. The 
sixth pair is subrhomboidal, longer than broad. The axillary and in- 
guinal pairs are large ; the former subrhomboidal or lozeng-shaped, 
the latter subtriangular. The head is conic ; the muzzle short pointed ; 
the vertex irregularly wrinkled. On the temples, cheeks, and round 
the orbits, and the lower jaw appear some large polygonal scales. The 
occiput, angle of the mouth, and the rounded tympanum are covered 
with similar minute scales. The eyes are large, prominent ; the iris 
silvery grey ; the pupil round black. The nostrils are minute, round, 
horizontally pierced, close together at the apex of the muzzle. The 
jaws are minutely toothed ; the upper has at the symphysis two larger 
teeth, between which fits a similar single one in the lower jaw, thus 
hermetically closing the mouth. The neck, the throat and the other 
soft parts are studded with minute tubercles, except the fore-arm, the 
posterior tarsal margin, and the back of the fingers and toes, which are 
covered with broad, but very short, polygonal scales. On the ulnar 
margin of the fore-arm are four to five large rounded flexible scales. 
The interdigital web is large and lax. The nails are strong, of nearly 
equal size, sharp, and arched. The conical tail reaches but little beyond 
the shell, with a longitudinal furrow behind the vent. The head, neck, 
throat and the limbs are of the same greyish green olive as the shell. 
The interdigital membrane is blackish, except the web connecting the 
fourth and fifth (nailless) toe, which is of a bright greenish yellow 
colour. Of three individuals observed, differing but little in size, the 
largest was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, Of 

Ditto ditto shell, . . . : . 2£ 

Ditto ditto tail, Of 

Greatest transverse diameter of the shell, 2| 

614 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Two were at different times found in fishing stakes placed along the 
sea-shore of Pinang ; a third was also taken out of the sea with a small 
hook, baited with a shrimp. The Malays assert that this tortoise also 
inhabits estuaries and rivers on the Peninsula, and that it grows to a 
considerable size. The young is very timid, withdrawing'the head and 
extremities when touched, and thus it remained immoveable while a 
sketch was taken. 

From the description of the young of Tetraonyx lessonii, Dum. 
and Bibr. given in Erpetologie Generate, Tome 2, p. 338, and from 
the plates of Emys batagur and E?nys baska, in Illustr. Ltd. Zool., 
from B. Hamilton's MSS., the present appears to differ in too 
many particulars, to warrant the conclusion of its being the young of 
those or that species.* The detailed description of the young will 
enable future observers, who may succeed in examining the adult, 
finally to decide the question. 

Gen. Gymnopus, Bum. and Bibr. 

(Trionyx, Geoffroy. — Aspidonectes, Wagler. — Tyrse, Bogania, Chitra, 


Shell cartilaginous in its circumference, very broad, flexible behind, 
and externally not bony ; sternum too narrow behind completely to 
cover the extremities, when the animal withdraws them under the shell. 

Gymnopus gangeticus, (Cuvier.) 

Syn. — Testudo ocellatus, (Young.) "I 

Testudo hurum, > Buchan. Ham. MSS. 

Testudo chim, (Adult.) J 

Trionyx gangeticus, Cuvier. 

Trionyx hurum, Gray. 

Trionyx hurum, Illust. Ind. Zool. 

Trionyx ocellatus, Illust. Ind. Zool. (Young.) 

Trionyx gangeticus, Var, Guerin. (Young.) 

Gymnopus ocellatus, Dum. and Bibr. (Young.) 

Gymnopus duvaucellii, Dum. and Bibr. 

Tyrse gangetica, Gray: Catal. 

Young. — (Testudo ocellatus, B. Ham. MSS.) Head above pale 
olive with one large yellow spot between the eyes and a similar behind 

* M. M. Dumeril and Bibron describe them as two distinct species ; Mr. Gray is of 
opinion that they are identical. 

1847.J Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 6lB 

each eye ; neck, limbs and posterior margin of the shell dark olive 
with paler round spots ; shell olive with black irregular lines, and 4 
or 5 central ocelli, black in the centre, edged with red, round which a 
black ring; sternum pale whitish-olive, 

Testudo kumrn, B. Ham, MSS. is the transition state of the 
former, being about changing the livery. Head yellow olive, with 
irregular dark lines ; shell light olive, vermiculated with blackish or 
dark olive. The four ocelli are present, but are altered in colours and 
shape : the centre, instead of being black, is like the rest of the sur- 
face, light olive, vermiculated with black ; the red ring is changed to 
black, and the outer black one to light olive. The shape is changed 
from round to irregular oval. 

Adult. (Testudo chim, B. Ham. MSS.) Dark olive-green, vermicu- 
lated, and spotted with light olive brown. Beneath greenish white. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang (Rivers and Sea-coast.) 
Rivers and Bay of Bengal. 
It is of fierce habits, desperately defending itself by biting, emit- 
ting when excited a low, hoarse, cackling sound. At Pinang the present 
species appears to be far less numerous than the two following. The 
largest individual was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, feet 4 inch* 

Ditto ditto neck, 4| 

Ditto ditto stiell, 1 1 1 

Ditto ditto tail, 5 

Gymnoptjs cartilaginea, (Boddaert.) 

Syn. — Young. 

Testudo cartilaginea, Boddaert. 

Testudo boddaertii, Schneider. 

Testudo rostrata, Thunberg ? 

Testudo rostrata, apud Schoepff, and Daudin? 

Trionyx stellatus, Geoffroy. 

Trionyx stellatus, apud Merrem. 

Aspidonectes javanicus, Wagler. 


Trionyx javanicus, Geoffroy. 

Trionyx javanicus, apud Scliweigger and Gray* 

Gymnopus javanicus, Dumeril and Bibron. 

Tyrse javanica, Gray : Catal. 

Very Young. — Above olive green ; the head and upper part of the 
neck with numerous small white spots, becoming larger and more 

4 L 

til(j Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

distant on the cheeks and chin ; on the vertex, two round black spots > 
on the occiput two diverging black lines ; the shell with several large 
black white-ringed spots, between which numerous smaller indistinct 
white spots ; margin pale white ; several longitudinal ridges, composed 
of close minute tubercles. Beneath greenish white. 

Older. — Above uniformly olive-green ; the longitudinal ridges of 
the shell consisting of tubercles, more distant and proportionally smaller 
than in the very young. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 

Java,Dukhun, "India," "China." 
This species is numerous in rivers and ponds. The largest indivi- 
dual observed was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, 2|- inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 2f 

Ditto ditto shell, 6f 

Ditto ditto tail, Of 

•Gymnopus indicus, (Gray.) 

Syn. — Testudo chitra, Buchan. Ham. MSS. 
Trionyx, indicus, Gray. 

Trionyx segyptiacus, Var. indica, Gray : 111. Incl. Zool. 
Gymnopus lineatus, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Chitra indica, Gray : Catal. 

Shell remarkably depressed, smooth.* Above greenish olive, vermi- 
culated and spotted with brown or rust colour ; beneath greenish-white. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, (Estuaries, Sea Coast). 
Kivers in India, Philippine Islands. 
At Pinang this species is frequently taken in the fishing stakes. The 
Chinese inhabitants greatly relish this as well as the preceding species 
of Gymnopus, as articles of food. Individuals weighing 240ibs. occur 
in the Ganges, and others of gigantic dimensions are not uncommon at 
Pinang. It is very powerful, and of ferocious habits. The largest 
individual measured : 

* In the living adult no longitudinal central depression is apparent, nor the outline of 
the costae, as represented in the figure in Illustrations of Indian Zoology. 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 617 

Length of the head, feet 6 inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 5 

Ditto ditto shell, 3 1 

Ditto ditto tail, 4 

Gen. Chelonia, Brogniart. 
Body covered with horny plates ; fins with one or two nails. 

Sub-Gen. Chelonia liberoe (Chelonees /ranches). Bum. and Bibr. 

Discal shields 13, not imbricate ; muzzle short, rounded ; upper jaw 

slightly notched in front, toothed on the sides ; lower jaw formed of 

three pieces, and with the edges deeply toothed ; the first finger of each 

fin nailed. 

Chelonia virgata, Schweigger. 

Syn.— Turtle of the Red Sea, Bruce. 

Chelonia virgata, apud Cuvier, Guerin, Dumeril and Bibron, Gray : 

Chelonia midas, Var. D. Gray. 
Chelonia fasciata, Cuvier, apud Schlegel. 
" Pinyu" of the Malays of Pinang. 

Young. — Head, shell and fins greenish black ; margin of the shell 
and fins and sternum white. 

Adult. — Head and fins chestnut, scales edged with yellow ; shell 
greenish yellow with chestnut rays and spots ; sternum gamboge, or 
greenish yellow. 
Habit. — Malayan Seas. 

TenerifTe, Rio Janeiro, Cape of Good Hope, New York, Indian 
Ocean, Red Sea. 

This species is at all seasons plentifully taken in fishing stakes in 
the straits of Malacca, and is the " Green Turtle" of the European 
inhabitants of our Malayan settlements, and of the sea-ports of In- 
dia. In size it equals Chelonia midas y Schweigger, which it rivals in 
flavour. About December and January is the season when the female 
deposits her eggs in the sandy beach of some sequestered island, and 
then the fishermen watch during the moonlight nights to " turn 
turtles." The eggs are of a spherical shape, about one inch in dia- 
meter, covered by a soft hemitransparent membrane of a pale yellow 
colour. The expert eye of the fishermen baffles the pains with which 
the turtle conceals her eggs, and prodigious numbers are disinterred. 

1 l 2 

C)\^ Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

They are very rich, flavoured like marrow, and will keep for weeks al- 
though exposed to the air. 

M. M. Dumeril and Bibron have pointed out the differences between 
the adult of the present species and Chelonia midas, Schweigger, prin- 
cipally consisting in colours, and in the form of the vertebral and 
costal shields, to which may be added the comparative greater length 
of the fronto-nasal shields in Chelonia virgata, in which the breadth is 
one -third of the length, whereas in Chelonia midas it is one-half, and 
these proportions appear to be constant in all ages of the two species. 
The very young of both greatly resemble each other in colours and 
shape. Six living young of the present species were all of the follow- 
ing dimensions : 

Length of the head, 0£ inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, Of 

Ditto ditto shell, 2 

Ditto ditto tail, Of 

The following slight differences are the result of a comparison be- 
tween the living young of Chelonia virgata and the representation of 
Chelonia midas given by Schoepff. Tab. XVII. Fig. 2. 

Chelonia virgata. Chelonia midas. 

1. Shell cordiform ; the length 1. Shell ovate ; the length ex- 
exceeds the breadth by one-eighth, ceeds the breadth by more than 


2. 2d vertebral shield much 2 ^ &M 2ad ^^ rf 

broader than 1st, and is altogether . ,. 

„ . equal dimensions, 

the largest of the series. 

3. 2d costal shield larger than „'. _ __ t , 

3. 2d and 3d costal equal, 
the 3d. ^ 

4. Sincipital plate broader than 4. Sincipital plate longer than 
long. broad. 

5. Breadth of fronto-nasal 5. Breadth of fronto-nasals one 
shields one third of their length. half of their length. 

6. Each fin with a single nail. 6. Each fin with 2 nails. 

Sub. Gen. Chelonice imbricatce, (Chelonees imbriquees,) Bum. and Bibr. 

Discal shields 13, imbricate; muzzle long, compressed; jaws with 
the edge straight, not toothed, at the extremity slightly recurved ; each 
fin with 2 nails. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 619 

Chelonia imbricata, (Linne.) 

Syn. — La Tortue Caret, Dutertre. 
Scaled Tortoise, Grew. 
Caret, Labat, Fermin, Lacep., Bosc, Cuvier. 
Testudo marina americana, Seba. 
Hawksbill Turtle, Brown, Catesby. 




Testudo imbricata, Linne, apud<( j c °®P ' 

Testudo caretta, Knorr. 
La Tuilee, Daubenton. 

Caretta imbricata, Merrem, apud Gray : Catal. 
Chelonia multiscutala, Kuhl ? 

f Prince Maxim. 

Chelonia imbricata, Schweig- J -pv ^ > ., , -„.» 

apud ^ Dumenl and Bibron. 

° ' * ' * | Prince Musignano. 

Chelonee faux caret, Lesson. 
Chelonia caretta, Temminck, and Schlegel. 
" Kura-kura" of the Malays of Pinang. 

Head brown, scales edged or rayed with yellow ; shell yellow, marbled 
or rayed with rich brown ; sternum yellowish white. In the young the 
areola of the sternal shields black. 

Habit. — Malayan Seas. 

Atlantic and Indian Ocean. 
The largest individual observed was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, feet 4f inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 3f 

Ditto ditto shell, 1 7 

Ditto ditto tail, 2| 

Sub. Gen. Caouance y (Caouanes,) Bum. and Bibr. 

Discal shields 15, not imbricate; jaws at the extremity slightly 

Chelonia olivacea, Eschscholtz : Atlas. 

caouana, Var. B. Gra 
dussumierii, Dum. an 
Caouana olivacea, Gray : Catal. 

Syn. — Chelonia caouana, Var. B. Gray. 

Chelonia dussumierii, Dum. and Bibr. 

620 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Young. — xlbove blackish olive, lighter than in the adult ; shell and 
fins edged with pale yellow ; sternum pale greenish yellow, washed with 
chestnut, areolae blackish. 

Adult. — Head brown ; shell blackish green ; some of the marginal 
scales of the fins yellow ; sternum yellow, washed with chestnut ; 27 
marginal shields ; fins with one nail. 

Habit. — Malayan Seas. 

Bay of Bengal, Chinese Seas. 
This species is at Pinang of rare occurrence. A single young indivi- 
dual observed was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto neck, 1 

Ditto • ditto shell, , . . . . 6 

Ditto ditto tail, 0J 

The shell is broad sub-cordiform, (its length exceeding its breadth by 
half an inch,) three-keeled, the vertebral keel strongest, dentated behind ; 
the marginal shields 27, obliquely placed. The 1st and 4th pair of 
costals, and the 4th vertebral shield each divided in two pieces. 

In a not quite full-grown specimen, in the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society, the length of the shell is 2ft. If inch ; its greatest breadth is 
2ft. Of inch, the length exceeding the breadth by. one inch. The 
vertebral shields are still slightly keeled. The 1st and 4th pair of 
costals, the 2nd left costal, and the 4th vertebral are divided. The 
central part of the margin is slightly curved upwards. The edges of the 
jaws are not toothed, but they are transparent with fine white vertical 
lines, which give them a fringed g^pearance. 

The flesh of this turtle, though relished by the Chinese settlers, is 
unpalatable to Europeans. 

184 7. J . Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 621 


FAM. CROCODILIDiE, Bonaparte (ASPIDIOTES, Bum. andBibr.) 

Sub. Gen Crocodilus, apud Cuvier. 

Muzzle oblong, depressed ; teeth unequal, the 4th of the lower jaw 
fitting into lateral notches, and not into hollows of the upper jaw. 
Skull behind the eyes with two large holes, perceptible through the 
integuments. Hind-feet with an external dentated crest, and the toes 

Crocodilus vulgaris, Cuvier. — Var. B., Duul and Bibr. 

Syn. — Crocodilus palustris, Lesson. 

Crocodilus vulgaris, Var. E. Gray. 

Crocodilus biporcatus ranmus, Muller, Tab. 3, Fig, 7- 

Crocodilus palustris, apud Gray : Catal. 

" Buaya" of the Malays. 

Muzzle a little widened, thick, transversally very slightly curved ; 
head covered with angular rugosities ; lateral margins of the skull not 
raised. Above greenish-olive, speckled with black ; beneath yellowish 
or greenish-white. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Java, Sumatra, Tenasserim, Bengal, Coromandel, Malabar. 

It inhabits not only rivers and estuaries, but also the sea-coasts, and 
may in calm weather be seen floating at a distance of two to three miles 
from the shore. Although numerous at Pinang and the opposite coast, 
it appears to be less so than Crocodilus biporcatus. Fishermen while 
working the nets are not seldom attacked by Crocodiles, and would, but 
for their presence of mind, oftener than they do, forfeit their lives. "When 
seized, they force the fingers into the eyes of the Crocodile, which imme- 
diately lets go its victim, who is farther rescued by his comrades. — From 
1842 to 1845 amputations from accidents of this description, were unfor- 
tunately of no rare occurrence in the General Hospital at Pinang. 

Individuals, 15 feet in length are not uncommon ; some attaining to 
20 feet and upwards are reported to occur. — In rivers a single one will 
often appropriate to himself a limited district, which if it happens to be 
in the vicinity of a village, will soon be perceived in the loss of the graz- 
ing cattle. Instances of Malays, who, to avenge the loss of a relative, have 
watched the crocodile, and by diving from below, plunged a Kris into its 

622 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

heart, are on record. The eggs are white, the shell hard, of a cylindri- 
cal form, upwards of 3 inches in length, and about 1£ inch in diameter. 

Crocodilus porqsus, Schneider. 

Syn. — Crocodili Ceylonici ex ovo prodiens, Seba. 

^Tideman, Oppel, Liboschitz. 
Bory de St. Vincent. 

Cr. biporcatus, Cuvier, apud <> Lesson 61 "' 




Crocodilus biporcatus raninus, Miiller, Tab. 3, Fig. 8. 
Crocodilus porosus, Schn., apud Gray : Catal. 
" Buaya" of the Malays. 

Upper jaw surmounted by two rugged ridges, each commencing from 
the anterior angle of the eye ; nuchal plates either none, or two very 
small. Above yellowish green with large black oval spots ; keels of 
the dorsal scales green ; beneath greenish white. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore, 

India, Tenasserim, Sumatra, Java, Timor, Seychelle Islands. 

This, in the Malayan countries exceedingly numerous species, is of 
the same habits, and attains to the same size as the preceding. 

FAM. GECKONID.E, Bonaparte (ASCALABOTES, Bum. andBibr.) 
Gen. Platydactyltjs, Cuvier. 
Toes more or less dilated throughout their length, beneath with 
transverse imbricate plates, either entire or divided by a central longitu- 
dinal groove. 

Platydactyltjs lugubris, Dum. and Bibr. 

Syn. — Amydosaurus lugubris, Gray. 

Thumbs nailless ; transverse plates beneath all the toes ; back finely granu- 
lar. Above whitish, with black spots. 
Habit. — Pinang. 

A single male was captured in my house in the valley of Pinang. 
The integuments correspond to the description given by M. M. 
Dumeril and P.ibron, to which may be added the following characters ; 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 623 

The skin is somewhat loose, forming a slight longitudinal fold on each 
side of the body, and on the anterior margin of the thigh. The anus is 
covered by a transversal fold, reaching across from the one thigh to 
the other. There are no femoral pores. The tail is tapering, much 
depressed, convex on the upper surface, flat beneath, sharp at the sides. 
Near the root, about f of an inch distant from the anus, the skin forms 
an annular fold, completely encircling that part of the tail. The colour 
slightly differs from that of the Otaheite individuals. The upper parts 
and the lower surface of the tail from the annular fold are of a buff or 
pale dust colour, so closely and minutely dotted with reddish brown, 
that the parts have a pale greyish brown appearance. On the loins and 
between the shoulders are a few distant blackish spots, besides in the 
latter place appear two short lateral lines, and an indistinct band pro- 
ceeds from the nostril across the eye to the shoulder. The throat, 
inner side of the limbs, abdomen and the lower surface of the root of 
the tail to the annular fold are buff-coloured. The pupil is black, 
vertical, dentilated, the iris silvery, dotted with reddish brown. 

Length of the head. , Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk If 

Ditto ditto tail 1 1 

Entire length 3 \ inch. 

Platydactylus gecko, (Linne.) 

Syn. — Salamandra indica, Bontius. 
Gekko ceilonicus, Seba. 

Lacerta cauda tereti mediocri, Linne mus. Adolph, 
Lacerta gecko, Linne. 
Gekko teres, "I T .. 

Gekko verticillatus, J ^ amentl - 
Salamandre, ou Gecko de Linneus, Knorr. 
Stellio gecko, Schneider 
Common Gecko, Shaw. 
Gecko guttatus, Daudin, apud Gray. 
Lacerta guttata, Hermann. 

Gecko verus, Merrem, apud -l q ' J* rj a + a i 

Gecko annulatus, Kuhl 

Gecko a gouttelettes, Cuvier 

Platydactylus guttatus, Cuv. apud Guerin, Dum. and Bibr. 

" Toke"' of the Malays.* 

* The Malays denominate the family of Geckotidoc : Gekko, K6ko, Gdgo, Gok6, 
evidently Onomatopoeias, in imitation of the cry of these lizards. 

4 M 

624 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Above ash-coloured with numerous pale orange spots ; beneath yel- 
lowish white. Between the scales of the back 12 longitudinal rows 
of large distant tubercles, and six similar on the tail ; the latter with 
minute scales beneath. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 
Philippine Islands, 

Java, Tenasserim, Burmah, Bengal, Coromandel Coast. 

On the Malayan peninsula this species appears to be less numerous 
than in the Tenasserim Provinces, where its shrill cry, "To-ke" is 
nightly heard in houses. The male has two tubercular scales on each 
side of the root of the tail. The largest individual observed was of 
the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4f 

Ditto ditto tail,. 4| 

Entire length lOf inch. 

Platydactylus stentor. N. S. 

Syn.— "Toke" of the Malays. 

Above light bluish grey with numerous irregular blackish spots, 
forming on the vertex an angle like an inverted V., and on the neck 
short oblique lateral bands. Beneath pearl-coloured. On the back and 
sides 1 longitudinal rows of large distant lenticular scales, and 6 simi- 
lar on the tail ; the latter with scutella beneath. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

In form and size this species closely resembles the preceding, from 
which it however differs in the following particulars. The oval nostrils 
are bordered in front by three scales, viz. the first upper-labial, a smaller 
rectangular, and a larger pentagonal scale, both of which latter are 
situated between the nostril and the rostral. Above the nostrils are 
surrounded by two smaller irregular triangular, and behind by a narrow 
crescent-shaped scale. Of labial scales there are 14 above, 12 below. 
There are about 72 teeth in each jaw. The eye is very large ; pupil 
black dentilated ; iris silvery bluish grey. The ear is very large, ob- 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 625 

liquely oval without dentilations. The cheeks are much swollen. The 
scales of the back are small, rounded, hexagonal, becoming more rec- 
tangular on the sides. The rows of lenticular scales along the vertebrae 
are smaller than the rest, but not so close as in P. guttatus. Behind 
the mental scale is a pair of large elongated scales, and 5 pentagonal larger 
appear on each side behind the lower labials. The gular scales are 
small, polygonal ; the abdominal are rounded, hexagonal, not imbricate, 
and below the root of the tail become somewhat larger. The rest 
of the lower surface of the tail is covered with scutella. Above the 
covering of the tail is like that of P. guttatus. On each side of the 
posterior margin of the cloaca are two very large tubercular scales, 
and towards the centre two rather large postanal pores, covered by a 
loose fold of the skin. Fourteen femoral pores are placed on a slightly- 
angular line. This species is also closely allied to Platydactylus mo- 
narchusy Schlegel, from which it however readily may be distinguished 
by the regular rows of lenticular dorsal scales, by its far greater size, 
and by its loud note. It is not numerous at Pinang. The only indi- 
vidual obtained, from the villa on the Pentland Hills, was a male of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the head, 2f inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 5f 

Ditto ditto tail, 8| 

Entire length 1 ft. 4 inch, 

Platydactylus monarchus, Schlegel, MS. 

Syn. — Platydactylus monarchus, Schl. apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Gecko monarchus, Gray : Catal. 

On the back, sides and limbs numerous conical tubercles irregularly 
scattered among the smaller flat polygonal scales ; on the upper surface 
of the tail 6 to 13 transversal series of small spines ; beneath scutella, 
sometimes mixed with scuta. Chin with 2 larger oblong scales. 

New-born. — Above brown, with the dorsal and caudal tubercles (no 
spines) white ; the posterior part of the tail indistinctly white ringed ; 
beneath uniformly paler brown. 

Adult. — Above buff or ash-coloured or reddish brown, with 8 to 1 2 
pairs of irregularly rounded, distant, dark brown spots along the spine ; 

4 m 2 

'62t3 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

the head, limbs and sides with numerous more or less distinct, irregular 
dark brown spots ; in some younger individuals the tail with whitish 
rings. Beneath yellowish white. 

Ha bit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore. 
Philippine Islands, Amboyna, Borneo. 

The Malayan Geckonidce have the power of somewhat changing the 
ground colour, none however in a greater degree than the present spe- 
cies. In the valley and on the hills of Pinang it is very numerous, 
swarming at night in rooms, on the walls, and under the ceiling, occa- 
sionally giving out a sound, resembling the monosyllable ' ' Tok," repeated 
6 or 8 times with increased celerity. The aim of these lizards is by no 
means unerring ; they frequently miss an insect, and fall from the 
ceiling. Among themselves they are pugnacious : when two or more 
covet an insect, the successful one has to defend its prize, or give it up 
to the stronger. The new-born (with umbilical aperture) and adult 
are of the following dimensions : 

New-born. Adult. 

Length of the head, Of If inch. 

„ trunk, Of 2f 

tail 1! Si 

Entire length, .... 2\ 6| inch. 

Sub-Gen. Ptijchozoon, Kuhl. 
Toes webbed to the last compressed joint ; thumbs nailless ; sides of 
the head, body, limbs and tail with broad scaly membranes, those of 
the tail anteriorly scalloped. Male with femoral pores. On the sides 
scattered tubercles. 

Ptychozoon homalocephalum, (Creveld.) 

Syn. — Lacerta homalocephala, Creveld. 
Gecko homalocephalus, Tilesius. 

f" Fitzinger. 
Ptychozoon homalocephalum, apud \ Wagler. 

L Wiegmann. 
Pteropleura horsfieldii, Gray. 

Platydactylus homalocephalus, Cuv. apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Ptychozoon homalocephala, Kuhl. apud Gray : Catal. 

Head, The ground colour yellowish green olive. Between the eyes 
and muzzle a double figure, in whitish outline, representing in front a 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 627 

broad arrowhead, posteriorly united by a narrow stalk to a rectangular 
transversal band, situated in front of the eyes. On the vertex another, 
larger figure, traced in whitish outline, rectangular in front, spreading 
like a four-rayed star over the occiput. A dark brown band proceeds 
from behind the eye, across the ear, to the shoulders, where it is lost in 
the general dark brown colour of the sides of the body. The superior 
margins of these two lateral bands are white proceeding backwards in 
zig-zag line, approaching each other over the shoulders, where they 
join the anterior black transversal line. The lips white. The mem- 
branes of the cheeks pale flesh-colour, with dark blue spots, and with 
the interstices between the scales pale lilac. The pupil vertical, denti- 
lated ; the iris rich golden brown. 

Back. Of the same ground colour as the head, becoming dark red- 
dish brown on the sides, relieved by 4 to 6 distant transversal black 
dotted lines, on the upper part of the form of the letter M, sending 
oblique, forwards pointed, lines on the sides. The upper part of the 
lateral membrane reddish brown ; the interstices of the small rectan- 
gular scales purple. 

Tail and limbs. Same ground-colour, as that of the head and back, 
with broad, distant, indistinctly whitish, transversal bands. On each 
elbow a whitish ring. Membranes of the tail, limbs and toes are 
yellowish grey with numerous minute spots of brown, purple, blue and 
red, which impart a purple, changing appearance to the general colour. 
The number of the indentations of the caudal membranes varies indivi- 
dually ; the posterior part is entire, with waving surfaces. 

Lower' parts. Brownish white, with a few pale brown spots on the 
throat, innerside of the limbs, in the palms and soles. The tail and its 
membranes brownish. 
Habit. — Pinang Hills. 

Singapore, Java, Ramree Island, (Arracan.) 
As correctly observed by M. M. Dumeril andBibron, the scales of the 
female, corresponding to those with the femoral pores of the male, have 
a slight, yet distinct, central depression. The female has a large tu- 
bercular scale on each side of the root of the tail, as well as the male. 
In colour and size the two sexes resemble each other. Two in- 
dividuals were at different times captured in the villa occupied by 
Sir William Norris on the Great Hill of Pinang;. When the lizard 

628 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

is at rest, the membranes of the cheeks, and the body are kept 
in close contact with these parts ; in leaping those of the body are 
somewhat stretched out, and all the membranes together then act as a 
parachute. Also this lizard has in some degree the power of changing 
the ground colour from a darker to a lighter shade. The apex of the 
tongue is rounded, with a small notch in the centre. A female while 
in my possession refused insects and water. She deposited a single 
egg, of a spherical form, about half an inch in diameter, soft, and of a 
yellowish white colour, which the following day she devoured. A male 
ate the integuments he had been changing. The female was of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the head, 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2-f 

Ditto ditto tail, 3f 

Entire length, 7f inches. 
In the Museum of the Asiatic Society is preserved a specimen of 
Leptophis ornatus, (Merrem,) in the act of devouring one of the pre- 
sent species. The serpent was captured in the island of Ramree on 
the coast of Arracan. 

Gen. Hemidactylus, Cuvier. 
End of the toes widened into an oval disk, with a double series of 
transverse, imbricate plates beneath. From the middle of the disk 
rise the slender second and third nailed phalanx. A series of scuta 
beneath the tail. 

Hemidactylus peronii, Dum. and Bibr. 

Syn. — Hemidactylus leiurus, Gray. 
Peripia peronii, Gray : Catal. 

Under the chin a large triangular figure, composed of six elongated, 
towards the sides decreasing, scales ; thumbs nailless ; male with femoral 
pores ; tail much depressed, very broad at the root, tapering towards 
the point, (sometimes with a small membrane on each side of the 
point,) with a series of scuta beneath ; pupil vertical, shaped like two 
rhombs placed with the angles towards each other.* 

* Such is its appearance in the living- animal, when the eye is exposed to the influence 
of light. M. M. Dumeril and Bibron note the pupil being " elliptical," which pro- 
bably originates in their describing from preserved specimens, although my own in spi- 
rits of wine have retained the original form of the pupil. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 629 

Above ash-coloured, labial scales whitish, each with a brown spot ; 
beneath whitish. Iris silvery grey, spotted with brown. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Isle of France. 

Of two individuals, captured at different times in my house in the 
valley of Pinang, the larger was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, If 

Ditto ditto tail, 2f 

Entire length, 4f inches. 

Hemidactylus coct^ei, Dum. and Bibr. 

Thumbs well developed, nailed j* back with minute granular scales ; 
in some individuals with a few larger ones on the sides ; tail broad at 
the root, tapering, a little depressed, with from 4 to 15 indistinct rings 
and 6 series of minute spines ; beneath with scuta ; chin with 4 larger 
scales ; the central pair elongate pentagonal ; male with 1 2 femoral 
pores ; pupil as in Hemidactylus peronii. 
Above ash-coloured, whitish beneath. 
Habit. — Pinang, 

Bengal, Bombay. 
Of two males observed in houses in the valley of Pinang, the larger 
was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2f 

Ditto ditto tail, 3f 

Entire length, 7 inches. 
Hemidactylus frenatus, Schlegel, MS. 

Syn. — Hemidactylus frenatus, Schlegel, apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Hemidactylus lateralis, \ p • "R M 

Hemidactylus quinquelineatus, J J * • 

Back with some larger granular scales ; tail rounded, tapering above, 
with G series of small spines, scuta beneath ; chin with 4 or G larger 

* Mr. Gray gives the present species as a Syn. of BoUalia mbl&vis, Gray, (Catalogue, 
p. 158.) As the latter species is characterised as having the thumbs " clawless," it 
cannot be identical with II. cocUci. 

630 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

scales ; ears very small ; pupil as in the preceding species ; thumbs very 
small, femoral pores 26 to 28, disposed on a slightly angular line. 

Young and Adult. — Buff or ash-coloured, with or without brown 
spots ; some with one or two brown lateral bands, commencing one 
above the other from the muzzle, interrupted or continued to the tail ; 
the latter in some with indistinct brown rings. Beneath whitish or 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore. 

Amboyna, Timor, Java, Marianne Islands, Ceylon, Bengal 
Assam,* South Africa, Madagascar. 

In the Malayan valleys and hills this small species is very numerous. 
It is of fierce habits, like several other Geckonidas, destroying its own 
species. Its normal colour appears to be greyish, which it however has 
in its power to change. The largest individuals observed were of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the head, , Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 

Ditto ditto tail, 2 

Entire length, 4f inches. 

Hemidactylus platyurus, (Schneider.) 

Syn. — Stellio platyurus, Schneider. 
Lacerta schneideriana, Shaw. 
Gecko platyurus, Merrem. 
Hemidactylus platyurus, Wiegmann. 

f Wagler. 
Hemidactylus marginatus, Cuvier, apud < Wiegmann. 

L Gray. 
Platyurus schneiderianus, Gray : Catal. 

Sides of the body and posterior margin of the thighs with a loose 
membrane ; tail tapering, depressed, with sharp, fringed margins, with 
scuta beneath ; toes webbed half their length ; chin with 4 pentagonal 
broad scales, placed in pairs, behind each other : l~ 6 femoral pores placed 
on a continued line. 

Young and Adult. — Above ash-coloured, in some with a greyish brown 
lateral band, from the muzzle continued to the tail ; the latter with 
indistinct brownish transversal bands ; others irregularly spotted and 

* Specimens in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 

1647-.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 631 

marbled with blackish brown ; pupil and iris as in the preceding 
species. Whitish beneath. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Philippine Islands, Borneo, Java, Bengal, Assam.* 
The individuals were observed in houses in the valley of Pinang, 
In a male the posterior half of the tail happens to be divided so as to 
appear double ; one of the pieces, the continuation of the normal tail, 
is depressed, slightly fringed, and beneath with the row of scuta conti- 
nued, the other is cylindrical, somewhat shorter, and above and below 
covered with minute scales. The largest individual was of the following 
dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch . 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 

Ditto ditto tail, 2\ 

Entire length, 4f inches. 

Gen. Gymnodactylus, Spix. 
Toes not widened into a disk, nor with dentilated margins ; all five 
with non-retractile nails ; fifth hind-toe versatile or capable of turning 
from the others under a right angle. 

Gymnodactylus pulchellus, (Gray.) 

Syn. — Cyrtodaetylus pulchellus, Gray. 

Gonyodactylus pulchellus, Wagler. 
Gymnodactylus pulchellus, Dumeril and Bibron, 

Head, back and limbs with numerous three-sided tubercles among 
the smaller flat scales ; sides of the body with a longitudinal fold of 
the skin ; the anterior upper part of the cylindrical tail with distant 
rings of rounded, pointed tubercles ; beneath a row of scuta. Chin 
with six scales, the centre pair elongated pentagonal. Males with 36 
femoral pores on two not connected lines, between which, in front of 
the anus, a short narrow, longitudinal furrow. Both sexes with 3 or 
4 tubercles obliquely situated on each side of the root of the tail. 

Young and Adidt. — Above a rich brownish ochre ; the nape of the 
neck and back with 6 broad transversal bands (the two anterior horse- 
shoe shaped), of a rich velvety mulberry, or snuff-colour with sulphur 

* Specimens in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 

i N 

G32 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

or chrome-yellow margins. The tail with 8 or 9 complete rings of 
similar colour, without the margins. Beneath : throat and belly whitish 
yellow, or pale brownish, each scale minutely dotted with brown. 
Pupil vertical, dentilated ; iris golden, finely vermiculated with Van 
Dyke brown. 

Habit. — Pinang Hills. 
In the male the two rows of femoral pores commence as two short 
parallel longitudinal lines, separated from each other by a narrow short 
furrow, on the sides of which, (vertically,) the first 5 femoral (preanal), 
pores are placed. In front of the anus the short vertical portions 
turn right and left under a nearly right angle, continuing the entire 
length of the thigh, each supporting 13 more femoral pores. The interval 
between the anus and the latter is partly occupied by a flat, slightly 
raised triangular space, covered by rather large, imbricate, rounded 
scales. In the female the two lines of larger scales carrying the femoral 
pores of the males, are present, each scale having a small shallow, 
round depression. The short, longitudinal furrow of the male is either 
wanting or barely distinguishable, but the triangular space with larger 
scales, in front of the anus, is present. The species appears to be 
rather numerous on the hills at Pinang, where the individuals obtained 
were captured in houses, at an elevation of 2,200 feet. The largest 
male was of the following dimensions : 


Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 

Ditto ditto tail, 5£ 

Entire length, 10 inches. 

Its habits offer nothing peculiar: it bites fiercely in defence. In 
captivity it refuses insects. The integuments, when about being renew- 
ed, are piecemeal torn off by the teeth, and devoured. A single egg 
deposited was of a spherical form, about half an inch in diameter, of a 
whitish yellow colour. M. M. Dumeril and Bibron assign Bengal as 
the Habitat of this species. The specimen originally described by Mr. 
Gray, some in the Museum of the Asiatic Society, and a number in my 
own collection, all are from the hills of Prince of Wales Island (Pulo 

1847-] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 633 

Pinang,) but no authenticated record exists of this species ever having 
been observed in Bengal. Another, widely different species of Gymno- 
dactylus inhabits Bengal, as yet not published, and only known from 
three specimens, preserved in spirits in the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society, where they are marked Gymnodactylus lunatus, Blyth. One 
of these came from Midnapore, the others from Chyebassa. The spe- 
cies somewhat approaches to G. fasciatus, Dum. and Bibr. (Cubina 
fasciata, Gray.) The Museum possesses another nondescript species 
from Almorah, Gymnodactylus nebulosus, Blyth, MSS. allied to G. 
marmoratuSy (Gray). 

The plate of Cyrtodactylus pulckellus in Gray's Illustrations of 
Indian Zoology is not taken from life, and gives a most inadequate idea 
of the physiognomy and beauty of the living animal. This should be 
observed, as M. M. Dumeril and Bibron praise the figure, which evi- 
dently has served as original of their own description, and of copies 
introduced in illustrative works upon that order of animals. 

FAM. VARANID.E, Bonaparte, (PLATYNOTES, Dum. and Bibr.) 
Gen. Varanus, — Merrem. 

Scales set side by side, surrounded by an annular series of very 
minute tubercles ; tail above more or less trenchant ; on the throat a 
fold in front of the chest. 

Varani aquatici, — Dum. and Bibr. 
Varanus nebulosus, — Dumeril and Bibron. 

Syn. — Tupmambis nebulosus, Cuvier MSS. 
Monitor nebulosus, Gray. 
Monitor nebulatus, Schlegel. 
Uaranus nebulosus, apud Gray : Catal. 

Muzzle very elongated ; nostrils obliquely cleft, situated half-ways 
between the muzzle and the anterior angle of the eye ; lips each with 
50 scales ; teeth compressed with sharp but not dentilated edges. 

Young. — Above. Ground-colour deep chocolate brown ; the head largely 
marbled with greenish yellow ; neck with indistinct obliquely converging 
gamboge lines ; back, sides and limbs with gamboge spots, consisting 
of one to five scales, (those of the upper margins of the fingers forming 
continued lines ;) sides of the anterior half of the tail, similarly colour 
ed ; the double row of scales covering the back of the tail gamboge , 

4 n 2 

63 J Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

the posterior half deep chocolate with two distant, (the second subter- 
minal,) indistinct gamboge coloured rings. 

Beneath. Ground-colour pale chocolate. Chin, throat, chest and 
forelimbs transversely undulated with greenish yellow ; abdomen with 
short, interrupted, transversal yellow bands, consisting of from 4 to 12 
scales ; hind-limbs with larger similar spots ; anterior half of the tail 
indistinctly marbled with yellowish green ; posterior half like the upper 
surface. Pupil round ; iris narrow golden. 

Adult. — Above brownish olive with yellow dots ; anterior half of 
the tail yellow with minute square brown spots ; posterior half brown 
and yellow-ringed ; margins of the toes yellow. Beneath marbled and 
barred with brown and yellow. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Java, Siam, Bengal. 
The only individual observed was a young male, captured in the hills 
at Pinang, of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 5f 

Ditto ditto tail, 9 

Entire length, 16 inches. 

Varanus flavescens, (Gray). 

Syn. — Monitor flavescens, Gray. 

Monitor hardwickii. Gray, MSS. 

Varanus russellii, Schlegel, MSS. 

Monitor exanthamaticus, Var indica, Schlegel. 

Varanus picquotii, Dum and Bibr. 

Empagusia flavescens, Gray : Catal. 

Muzzle obtuse ; nostrils oval, oblique, nearer the muzzle than the 
orbit ; a series of supraorbital scales larger than the rest ; scales of 
the back distant, bluntly keeled, of the tail and outside of the hind- 
limbs closer, sharply keeled ; toes very short, nails yellow. 

Above. Ground-colour light green-olive with numerous distant, 
interrupted, transversal, yellow bands ; temples, cheeks and lips yellow. 
Beneath yellow ; the throat with transversal pale brownish bands. 
Habit. — Pinang. 

Bengal, Nipal. 

A single male observed was of the following dimensions : 

IS 7.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 635 

Length of the head, feet 3 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 Of 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 6| 

Entire length, 2 feet 9f inch. 

Varan us salvator. (Lam-enti). 

Syn. — Lacertus indicus, Loclmer? 
Lacerta mexicana, Seba. 

Lacertus americanus, amphibius Tupinambis dictus : Seba, 
Stellio salvator, Laurenti. 
Monitor Lizard, Shaw. 
Lacerta monitor? Hermann. 
Tupinambis bivittatus, Kulil, apud Boie, 
Monitor elegans, Gray. 
Monitor a deux rubans, Cuvier. 
Hydrosaurus bivittatus, Wagler. 
Monitor vittatus, Lesson. 
Varanus bivittattus, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Hydrosaurus salvator, Gray : Catal. 
" Beyawak" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Head very elongated ; nostrils oval, nearly transversal, close to the 
muzzle ; a series of supraorbital scales, larger than the rest ; teeth with 
dentilated edges ; toes very long. Above. Ground colour dark brown 
or black ; a band on the side of the neck from the shoulder to the eye, 
5 to 7 distant, transversal series of separate rings, between which 
numerous spots or interrupted transversal lines, all yellow or yellowish 
white ; the outside of the limbs and the tail spotted, the latter indis- 
tinctly banded with yellow. Beneath yellow, the throat with indistinct 
transversal black bands and minute spots ; the sides of the body and 
limbs in some individuals with large blackish dentilations. 

Habit. — Malayan Pe?ii?isida, Pinang. 

Philippine and Molucca Islands, Amboina, Java, Bengal. 
This species is very numerous both in hilly and marshy localities. 
It is commonly during the day observed in the branches of trees over- 
hanging rivers, preying upon birds and their eggs, and smaller lizards, 
and when disturbed, it throws itself from a considerable height into the 
water. When attacked on level ground, it attempts its escape by run- 
ning, if possible towards the water. Its quickness however is not so 
great as to prevent a man from overtaking it, when it will courageously 
defend itself with teeth and claws and bv strokes of the tail. The 

636 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

lowest casts of Hindoos capture these lizards commonly by digging them 
out of their burrows on the banks of rivers, for the sake of their flesh, 
which by these people is greatly relished. — Some individuals attain to 
nearly 7 feet in length, but the majority are smaller. A female examin- 
ed was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, feet 4f inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 3f 

Ditto ditto tail, 2 84 

Entire length, 4 feet 4f inch. 

FAM. IGUANID.E, Gray, (EUNOTES, DwnSril and Bibron.) 

Sub-Fam. Acrodontinjl (Acrodontes, Dum. and Bibr.) 

Gen. Calotes, Cuvier. 

Head quadrangular pyramidal, more or less elongated, with small 
angular scales of nearly equal diameter. Occipital scale minute. 
Tongue thick, fungous, rounded, with the apex slightly notched. In 
the upper-jaw 5 incisors and 2 canines. Nostrils lateral, pierced through 
a plate situated close to the muzzle. No transversal fold on the throat, 
sometimes with a large longitudinal fold on both sides. A gular pouch 
varying in size. A crest from the nape of the neck to the tail. Scales 
of the sides of the trunk homogeneous, imbricated in oblique series. 
No femoral pores. 

Sub. -Gen. Bronchocela, Kaup. 

Scales of the trunk in oblique series, inclined backwards, their points 
directed downwards. Posterior part of the sides of the head not swollen. 

Bronchocela cristatella, (Kuhl.) 

Syn. — Lacerta mexicana strumosa, &c. Seba, 8.9, 1. 
Agama cristatella, Kuhl. 
Agama gutturosa, Merrem. 

Bronchocela cristatella, Kaup, apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Agama moluccana, Lesson, apud Schinz. 
Calotes gutturosa, Guerin. 
Calotes cristatellus, Schinz. 
Calotes gutturosus, Wiegmann. 
" Gruning" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Cervical crest (6 to 10 scales,) abruptly decreasing on the anterior 
part of the back ; scales of the side of the trunk keeled, scarcely half 
the size of those of abdomen ; behind the posterior angle of the orbit 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 637 

3 to 5 flattened scales, pointing outwards, forming a minute longitu- 
dinal crest. 

Normal colours. Beautiful grass green, lighter beneath, entirely, or 
partially changeable to light grey, greyish olive, greenish brown, or 
blackish, sometimes with orange spots, or with indistinct black net- 
work ; large isolated round spots on the head or back, or the lips, 
eyelids, or margins round tympanum, momentarily black ; sometimes 
with transversal distant brown bands, particularly on the tail.* Scales 
of the outside of the limbs and feet edged with brown. Pupil circular ; 
iris brown with a narrow golden ring. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore. 

Amboyna, Island of, Java, Sumatra. 
This species is very numerous in the Malayan countries both in the 
vallies and on the hills. It moves and leaps with great quickness among 
the branches of trees. The most striking feature is the great power of 
suddenly changing its colours. The Malayan denomination of this 
species is " Griming" which in Marsden's Dictionary is translated " a 
species of lizard, which changes its colour as it is affected by fear or 
anger ; the cameleon." No cameleon however appears to inhabit the 
Malayan countries, but the present lizard passes under that name among 
the European inhabitants. One of the largest males was of the follow- 
ing dimensions : 

Length of the head, feet If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3f 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 2# 

Entire length, 1ft. 7f inch. 
Those of the intestinal canal : 

Small intestines, , 3f inch. 

Large, „ If 

Ccecum, „ Of- 

The stomach is cylindrical, simply a continuation of oesophagus 
without fundus, but separated from the small intestines by a valve. In 

* During life there is no trace of blue, or even bluish green about this lizard, but after 
death it sometimes acquires this colour from the effects of spirits of wine, to which cir- 
cumstance must be attributed the denomination of " Blue Calotes," Gray, in Griffith's 
edition of Cuvier. Vol. 9, p. 55. 

Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

several dissected it contained nothing but mucus. The length of oeso- 
phagus and the stomach together was If inch. The anterior part of the 
small intestines is widened till about a quarter of an inch from the 
pyloric valve, where ductus coledochus enters. Ccecum is very widened, 
more so than any other part of the canal, of a crescent shape. 

Gen. Lophyrus, Dumeril. 
Head triangular, more or less elongated, shelving in front ; orbital 
edge arched or angular ; nostrils lateral, circular, or oval ; tongue papil- 
lary, rounded and very slightly notched at the point ; in the upper jaw 
5 incisors and 2 canines ; tympanum superficial ; skin of the throat 
lax, forming in some a scarcely perceptible, in others a highly developed 
pouch, and an angular cross fold in front of the chest ; neck, trunk and 
tail compressed, with a crest, generally most elevated on the nape of 
the neck ; scales of the trunk rhombic, subimbricate, unequal, (with 
scattered larger scales) ; femoral pores none. 

Lophyrus armatus, (Gray.) 

Syn. — Agama armata, Gray. 

Calotes tropidogaster, Cuvier.* 
Acanthosaura armata, Gray. 

Orbital edge slightly angular, with a long spine at its posterior 
extremity ; no spinous tubercles on the occiput ; on each side of the 
nape of the neck, immediately above the ear, another long spine, sur- 
rounded with 5 to 6 shorter ones, at its base, from whence proceed 
obliquely over the temple and cheek a curved series of 18 larger poly- 
gonal, keeled scales ; tympanum thick, circular ; on the neck a crest of 
8 to 12 long spines, surrounded with numerous smaller ones at the 
base ; at a short interval the dorsal crest, the anterior 5 to 6 spines of 
which are very long, the rest rapidly decreasing towards the tail ; gular 
pouch very small, not toothed, with scales of equal size ; tail subtrian- 
gular, with a toothed crest above. 

Above. Head chestnut ; trunk and limbs blackish green, with a 
black transversal band in the interval between the cervical and dorsal 
crests, continued over the shoulders, with numerous pale yellowish 
white, black-edged, rounded spots, assuming the shape of transversal 
bauds on the limbs and the tail ; the larger single scales on the sides, 
limbs and tail clear sky-blue ; from the orbit over the lip 5 to 6 radiat- 
* P>y mistake : Calotes lepidog-aster, Regno anim. 1829. T. ii. p. 3!). 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 639 

ing, black lines. Beneath yellowish white. Pupil circular, iris brown, 
with a narrow golden ring. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, 

Cochin China. 
At Pinang this species appears to be very local, and not numerous : 
two individuals examined were obtained from spice plantations in the 
valley. They were very active and fierce, possessed in a slight degree 
the power of changing the ground-colour to a lighter hue, and in capti- 
vity refused food and water. In a female were found 13 eggs of a 
yellowish white colour, of an oval shape, f inches in length. The 
stomach contained fragments of leaves and twigs, and a quantity of 
earth and lime. The latter probably originated from the lime water, 
with which the spice-trees are copiously sprinkled, to secure them 
against the attack of insects. The dimensions of the lizard were : 

Length of the head, 1^ inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3| 

Ditto ditto tail, „ , , 6 

Entire length,. . lOf 
Of the intestinal canal : 

Small intestines, 7| inch. 

Large, If 

Ccecum, Of 

The stomach capacious, with thick parietes. The first portion of 
Duodenum is much widened till within half an inch from Pylorus, 
where Ductus coledochus enters. Ccecum is of a crescent-shape, much 
widened, as well as the large intestine. 

Gen. Dilophyrus, Gray. 

Head four-sided. Forehead rather concave, face-ridge high. Eye- 
brows rounded. Occiput with 3 or 4 larger tubercles on each side. 

Parotids unarmed. Nape and back with a crest of high compxessed 
scales, with series of smaller scales at their base. The throat rather 
lax,* with a cross fold behind,f extending up the front of the 
shoulders. Scales of the back small, rhombic, equal ; of the belly rather 

* Add : with a compressed pouch, minutely loathed in front. 
t Questionable-. 

4 o 

6-iO Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

larger, smooth. Tail compressed, keeled and toothed above, with 2 
series of elongated keeled scales beneath. Femoral and preanal scales 

Dilophyrus grandis, Gray. (PI. XX.) 
Habit. — Pinang Hills. 

As the only published characters of this species leave its identity 
with the Malayan somewhat donbtful, they are here preposed. 

" Olive green ; sides white spotted, beneath whitish ; tail black- 
banded ; head with lines of rather larger scales; crest very high, 
formed of broad compressed close-set scales, with 3 or 4 series of scales 
on each side of the base, interrupted over the shoulders." (Gray : 
Catalogue of the Specimens of Lizards, fyc. p. 239.J 

Form. The head is elongated, four-sided pyramidal, its greatest 
height and breadth being equal, and less than one half of the length. 
The muzzle is narrow, rounded, depressed. The upper surface of the 
head is very sloping, with a narrow furrow between the arched orbital 
parietes ; the forehead depressed or concave. The scales are polygo- 
nal, keeled ; those of the margin of the orbits and forehead larger, 
imbricate, forming a sharp ridge ; four similar scales form a short ridge 
in the centre of the forehead, close to the muzzle. Behind the orbit, 
over tympanum, and on each side of the nape of the neck are similar 
short, oblique ridges, each composed of 5 larger pointed tubercular 
scales. The rostral shield is very broad, narrow, triangular ; the men- 
tal, is much smaller, pointed, triangular, with two large polygonal scales 
on each side. The upper jaw is covered with 26, the lower with 24 
elongated, narrow, rectangular scales. 


t • 6 ,i 1 — 1 ™ i 14-14 36 

lncis. — ; Caum. Molar, == 

4 1—1 ' 14.14 34 

The incisors and anterior molars are very small ; the latter gradually 
increasing in size, flat, sharply edged, bluntly tricuspidate. The tongue 
is thick, flattened, very slightly notched in front, the anterior half 
spongy, the posterior with large backwards pointed papillae. The nos- 
trils are nearly circular, pierced in a large oval scale, in front of which 
3 scales intervene between the rostral. The eyes are large, sunk in 
the orbits ; the pupil circular, black ; the iris blue with golden 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. (341 

spots and a narrow ring. The eyelids are covered with very mi- 
nute polygonal, tubercular scales. Each tarsus with a double row 
of scales, the inner one of small, polygonal, tubercular ; the outer 
one of rhombic, flat, with the angles overlapping, so as to give the 
free margin a toothed appearance. The tympanum is large cir- 
cular. The skin of the throat is very lax, forming a compressed 
pouch, the anterior margin of which is slightly toothed, owing to the 
series of scales overlapping each other But there is during life no 
trace of any "crossfold behind, extending up the front of the shoul- 
ders." The scales of the neck and back are very minute, rhombic, or 
sub-rectangular, smooth, increasing in size and becoming imbricate on 
the sides, abdomen, limbs and throat. On the neck is a high arched, 
toothed crest, composed of 26 large ensiform scales, the 13 anterior 
gradually increasing in length, the rest decreasing. The base of the 
crest is supported by two parallel, slightly arched, series of rectangular 
scales, much larger than those of the rest of the body, but those 
of the upper series double the size of those of the inferior. The 
dorsal crest commences at a short interval a little behind the shoul- 
ders. In shape and component parts it resembles the former, but is 
double the extent, consisting of 45 scales, all of which however are 
inferior in height to those of the cervical crest, which, as well as the 
somewhat lower, sloping level, renders the dorsal crest less conspi- 
cuous than the former. The skin is somewhat lax on the sides of the 
body, leaving the ribs visible. The tail is very much compressed, 
attenuated, elongated. Its sides are covered with rather large, smooth 
imbricate, rhombic scales. The anterior third of the upper margin is 
toothed, composed of a single row of large, gradually decreasing, 
sharply keeled scales. The other two thirds are covered by two rows 
of keeled scales, thus giving the posterior part of the tail a bidentated 
appearance. The lower surface of the tail is covered by two series 
of large, gradually decreasing, imbricate, keeled scales, giving it a 
bidentated appearance. The limbs are slender ; the anterior little more 
than half the length of the posterior, and the toes very short. The 
posterior 4th toe is excessively long. The palms and soles are covered 
with minute, pointed, rough scales ; the toes above and beneath with 
sharply keeled, imbricate, rhombic scales. The claws are large, tren- 
chant, curved. 

4 o 2 

G42 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Colours. The ground-colour of the head, neck, throat, gular pouch, 
and the chest is impure gamboge, the scales edged with brown. The 
eyelids dark brown, the tarsi buff. A dark blue triangular streak 
proceeds from the anterior angle of the orbit to the nostril ; another is 
placed parallel with the upper labial scales, which as well as the lower 
are of a pale blue, as also the tympanum. From the labial scales and 
tympanum on each side across the throat, the pouch, and the sides of 
the neck, proceed 7 oblique, undulating, dark blue bands. The tympa- 
num is enclosed by two oblique broad, purple-brown bands, which join 
each other under an angle at the anterior extremity of the cervical crest, 
where a third broad, longitudinal purple-brown band commences, pro- 
ceeding over the side of the neck, then expanding, covers the back and 
the upper half of the sides of the body, where its lower margin describes 
two large curves. The lower part of the sides are of a deep lilac, changing 
on the abdomen to bluish white. On the sides of the body and on the 
abdomen appear several oblique series of lozenge-shaped spots : a few 
on the brown portion of the sides of a deep Indian red, the rest bright 
gamboge. The cervical and dorsal crests are mulberry-brown ; the 
former with the upper half of each of the first 13 scales light green ; 
the latter with the upper half of the first 1 scales pale yellow. The 
scales at the base of the crests partake of the general colour, but many 
of them have a pale yellow spot. The tail is above and beneath with 
alternate broad rings of impure white, the scales edged with brown, and 
purple-brown, changing to black on the posterior half. The legs, feet and 
toes are dark purple-brown with indistinct transversal yellowish bands. 


Length of the head, foot 2 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4f 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 4 

Entire length, 1 foot 10^ inch. 
Length of the cervical crest,. . 1-g- inch ; height of 13th scale, Of inch. 
Ditto ditto dorsal crest, 3 inch ; ditto ditto 15th scale, 0|- 

Length of humerus, 1 inch ; of femur, 1 J inch. 

Ditto ditto fore arm, 1^ of tibia, 2 

Ditto ditto hand and 4th toe, 1 of foot and 4th toe,. 21 

Entire length, 31 inch. inch. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula mid Islands. 013 

The only individual examined, was captured on a botanical excur- 
sion by Sir William Norris on the Pinang Hills, on the bank of 
a mountain stream, at an elevation of about 2,000 feet. It appeared 
slow in its movements, of general sluggish habits, showed no power of 
changing colours, and in confinement itirefused insects, vegetable food, 
as well as water. After having been preserved in rectified spirits of 
wine for upwards of three years, the specimen has retained the original 
brown and white colours and the Indian red spot ; but the yellow, light- 
green and light-blue have changed to whitish, and the dark blue marks 
to blackish. Although the colours in this state do not agree with those 
given by Mr. Gray, apparently though not stated, taken from a pre- 
served specimen, the peculiar distribution of the markings correspond, 
and induce me to believe in the identity of the animals. 

Gen. Draco, Linne, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 
Head triangular, obtuse in front, slightly depressed, covered with 
small scales of unequal diameter. Three or four incisors and 2 canines 
in the upper jaw. Tongue spongy, thick, rounded, entire.* Tympa- 
num hidden ©SSTin some, visible in others. In the centre of the throat 
an elongated vertical pouch ; on each side a smaller horizontal. In 
general a small cervical crest, f Trunk depressed, with a lateral mem- 
brane, supported by the spurious ribs. No femoral pores. Tail very 
long, thin, angular, slightly depressed at the root. 

A. — Tympanum visible, metallic iridescent. 

Draco volans, Linne. 

Syn. — Draco volans, apud Gmel., Latr., Gray. 
Draco praepos, Linne, apud Gmelin. 
Draco major, Laurenti. 
Draco minor, Laurenti. 
Le Dragon, Daubenton, Lacepede, Bonnat. 
Flying Draco, Shaw. 

Draco viridis, Daudin, apud Men*., Kuhl, Wolf, Wagler. 
Draco fuscus, Daudin, apud Merr., Kuhl. 
Draco bourouniensis, Lesson ? 
Draco daudinii, Dumeril and Bibron. 
" Chichak terbang" or " Kubin" of the Malays. 

* In the following species the tongue is minutely, yet distinctly notched, 

IKr* i. e. Dracunculus- Wiegmann. 

$ The female of Draco fimbriates, Kuhl, (i. e. Draco abbreviates, Gray,) D. volans and 
D. maculates differs from the male in having no cervical crest, and in having a smaller, 
less elongated gular pouch. 

644 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Scales of the back rhomboidal, imbricate, indistinctly keeled ; of the 
throat granular, of equal size ; the adult male with a small cervical crest ; 
tongue minutely notched in front ; gular pouch of the male very long, 
narrow, nearly double the length of the head ; of the female shorter, 
broad triangular. 

Adult male and female. Head metallic brown or green, with a black 
spot between the eyes. Back and inner half of the wing-membrane 
varied with metallic, iridescent dark brown and rose-colour, in some 
disposed in alternate transversal bands, with numerous black spots and 
short irregular waved or zigzag lines. Limbs and tail in some with rose 
coloured transversal bands. Sides of the neck and lips also rose coloured 
with black spots. Cheeks and eyelids silvery-white or sky-blue, the latter 
with short radiating black lines. Throat and gular pouch bright yellow, 
the former dotted with black ; lateral pouches yellow or silvery rose, 
dotted with black. Outer half of the wing membrane black with in- 
distinct transversal bands, composed of large, sometimes confluent, 
spots of silvery rose or whitish colour ; the margins appearing as 
minutely fringed with silver. Beneath either whitish yellow or pale 
sky blue with metallic lustre ; the membrane largely, the abdomen in 
some minutely spotted with black or brown. Iris hazel, with a golden 
narrow ring. Young of the same more vivid colours, with a series of 
double black spots along the spine of the back, and some scattered on 
the sides. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 

Philippine Islands, Borneo, Java. 

The transcendent beauty of the individually varying colours, baffles 
description. Such as are current of this and other species, appear to 
have been taken from preserved specimens. As the lizard lies in shade 
along the trunk of a tree, its colours at a distance appear like a mix- 
ture of brown and grey, and render it scarcely distinguishable from the 
bark. Thus it remains with no signs of life except the restless eyes, 
watching passing insects, which, suddenly expanding the wings, it seizes 
with a sometimes considerable, unerring leap. It is but on close in- 
spection, exposed to the light or in the sun that the matchless brilli- 
ancy of its colours appears. But the lizard itself appears to possess no 
power of changing them. This species is numerous on trees, in valleys 
and hills. The female, apparently less numerous than the male, car- 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 645 

ries 3 to 4 eggs of an oval cylindrical shape, f of an inch in length, 
and of a yellowish white colour. — Of a number examined none ex- 
ceeded the following dimensions : 

Lenth of the head, 0£ mch - 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2f 

Ditto ditto tail, 4f 

7f inches. 

B._ Tympanum hidden by scales. (Dracunculus, Wiegmann.) 
Draco maculatus, (Gray.) 
Syn. — Dracunculus maculatus, Gray.* 
Habit. — Pinang. 


Form. This species closely resembles Draco lineatus, Daudin, (Dra- 
cunculus lineatus, Wiegmann,) from which it differs in the following 
particulars. The adult male carries a very elongated, pointed gular 
pouch, double the length of the head, and a slightly elevated cervical 
crest, consisting of 6 to 8 pointed tubercular scales, and continued 
along the anterior half of the back in the shape of a ridge composed 
of a raised fold of the skin. The female has neither cervical crest nor 
dorsal ridge, and her gular pouch is much reduced, its length being 
about one half of the length of the head. Both sexes have the follow- 
ing characters in common. From each side of the neck commences a 
series of spinous scales, sometimes close together on one side, distant 
on the other, which, increasing in size and becoming more distant, 
continue along the side of the body, where they deviate outwards, 
marking the origin of the wings, and again converge towards the 
root of the tail, where they terminate. The scales of the back are 
generally smooth, consisting of smaller polygonal, mixed with some 
larger rhombic, indistinctly keeled, imbricate scales. In some indivi- 
duals the latter are disposed so as to form a series on each side of the 
dorsal spine. The supraorbital margin has from 3 to 4 large pointed 
tubercles, of which but the one situated at the posterior angle appears 

* "Grey, black-spotted; wing's blackspotted ; throat grey; poucli of the male 
elongate ; scales of the back rather unequal, rhombic, keeled ; of the sides rather 
smaller ; sides with a series of large keeled scales ; ears rather sunk, with unequal flat 
scales ; tail slender, with a central keel above, and 5 more small ones on the sides, base 
dilated, with 5 nearly equi-distant equal keels above." {Catalogue of the Specimens of 
Lizards, &c. p. 236.) 

646 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

lo be constant. The scales of the neck and throat are small granular, 
from which those covering the tympanum differ by being larger, flattened 
and polygonal, The tubercles of the throat and neck, and many of the 
scales of the back, wing-membranes, and the limbs, have each a minute 
rounded cavity at the point, discernible by a lens. The pouches, chest 
and abdomen are covered with rhombic, imbricate, keeled scales with- 
out apical cavities. Each jaw has 16 labial scales. The tail is long, 
very broad at the base, particularly in the male, suddenly tapering, 
rounded above, and covered with strongly keeled, imbricate, rhombic 
scales. The first large ones of the lowest series of the root form a 
more or less conspicuous toothed crest. The lower surface is flattened, 
with scales like the upper. The apex of the tongue is notched. 


Incis. -L, Canin. hll, Molar, l JLl*>. 
2 1— l' 15.15 

Colours. This species bears so close a resemblance to Draco volans, 
that it is scarcely possible to point out any difference. The upper 
parts of the body are metallic greenish brown, varied with golden rose- 
colour or isabella, indistinctly dotted and lined with black. The wings 
are golden isabella with transversal black bands, formed by series of 
black rounded spots, either separate or confluent on the inner half, but 
blending into one another on the outer-half. In some individuals 
numerous undulating golden rose-coloured or buff lines longitudinally 
intersect the bands. The margins are finely fringed with silver. The 
limbs and tail are indistinctly ringed with black or brown. A black 
spot on the vertex, between the eyes, appears to be constant also in 
this species. The gular pouch and the throat are bright yellow, the 
latter in some dotted with pale brown. The chest and abdomen whitish 
yellow in some, bluish white in others. The under surface of the wings 
is of the latter colour, in some with single large rounded black spots 
near the margins, independent of the upper markings, which may be 
distinguished through the hemitransparent membrane. 

Of this species but four, of which 2 males were received from Sir Wm. 
Norris. They were all from the Hills of Pinang ;* none exceeded the 
following dimension : 

* The Museum of the Asiatic Society possesses two females, obtained by the late Dr, 
Spry in the Tenasserim Provinces. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. (14? 

Length of the head, 0f inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 

Ditto ditto tail, 5| 

8£ inches. 
The intestinal canal of a female measured : 

Small Intestines, 3 inches. 

Large „ Of 

Ccecum „ , Of 

The capacious stomach contained remains of insects, particularly of 
the gigantic black ant, inhabiting the Malayan hill forests. The first 
portion of Duodenum is much widened till within a quarter of an inch 
from Pylorus, where Ductus coledochus enters. Ccecum is of a short 
crescent shape, much widened as well as the large intestine. In the 
abdominal cavity appeared 5 eggs, of an oval form, yellowish white 
colour, each half an inch in length. 

Gen. Leiolepis, Cuvier, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 
Head sub-pyramidal quadrangular with minute, polygonal, tubercular 
scales. Tympanic membrane a little sunk. Tongue scaly on the 
anterior, papillary on the posterior half, apex bifid. Chest with a 
transversal fold in front. Two canines in each jaw. Trunk sub-cylin- 
drical with granular scales above ; beneath with larger, smooth, imbri- 
cate, rectangular scales. Femoral pores. Tail conical, very long ; 
the root broad and depressed, the rest excessively slender. 

To these characters it will be necessary to add : Skin of the sides of 
the trunk excessively lax, capable of being expanded into a large wing- 
like membrane by means of the six anterior, very long, spurious ribs. 

Leiolepis bellii, (Gray.) 

Syn. — Uromastix bellii, Gray. 

Uromastix belliana, 111. Ind. Zool.* 

Leiolepis guttatus, Cuvier, apudjg^ and g^ 

Cynosaums punctatus, Schlegel. 
Leiolepis bellii, Gray : Catal. 

* In the supposition that this incorrectly drawn and coloured figure has been taken 
from the living 1 animal, M. M. Dumeril and Bibron have been led to publish an erroneous 
description and figure. The last description of this species of Mr. Gray appears to be 
founded on the same authority. It runs thus : " Olive with black edged white spots and 
a black edged white streak on each side, beneath whitish." Catal, &c. p. 263. 

4 P 

648 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Ground-colour, above blackish-grey ; the back and sides with 7 parallel 
lines of pale sulphur colour, edged with black , the 2nd from below, the 
4th and 6th composed of more or less confluent spots, the other 3 of 
distant round spots. The expanded membrane black with 7 or 8 broad 
distant, transversal bars of a brilliant orange. The tail above with 
numerous small pale yellow spots. The forelegs with orange coloured 
rounded spots, some of which tipped with azure ; the hindlegs minutely 
spotted with yellow. The throat pale azure ; abdomen pale orange» 
marbled with broad bluish black veins ; the tail beneath pale yellowish 
white. The lower eyelid is pure white ; pupil circular, iris hazel with 
a narrow golden ring. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Finang. 



The head is covered with small elongated polygonal keeled scales ; 
the upper jaw with 26, the lower with 18 to 20. The mental shield 
is elongated, polygonal ; the upper part of the sides is joined to the 
first lower labial scale ; the centre part is on each side in contact with 
the first of series of 13 to 15 elongated polygonal scales, which follow 
the tract of the labial, between which there is a narrow intervening 
space covered with smooth polygonal scales, larger than those of the 
rest of the throat. The back and wing-membranes are covered with 
minute granular scales ; the abdomen with larger smooth rhombic scales. 
Those of the tail, above and beneath are verticillated, rectangular, 
subimbricate, and strongly keeled. The tongue is thick, fungous, not 
scaly as incorrectly represented, with the tip much flattened, free and 
slightly extensile, divided in two laterally compressed sharp points. — 
The molar teeth are tricuspidate, increasing in size, the anterior being 
the smallest. In the adult they are much worn and incrustated with 
brown tartar, like the teeth of Semnopitheci and Ruminantia. 

Incis. — — , Canin. ~^— } Molar. ' . 

The nails are long, slightly arched, of a pale yellowish horn-colour. 

The wing-membrane in a state of repose appears like a longitudinal 
loose fold, extending along each side from the axilla to the inguinal re- 
gion. Expanded the external margin becomes arched, the trunk and the 
membranes forming a greatly flattened oval disk, (strongly contrasting 

1347.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 649 

with the bulky appearance of the parts in a state of repose,) resembling 
the hood of Naja. The transversal diameter of the disk across 
axilla and the inguinal region is \\ inch ; across the centre 2f 
inches. Like the mechanism of the Genus Draco, the membranes 
are expanded by means of the very long six anterior pairs of spurious 
ribs, which the lizard has the power of moving forward under a right 
angle with the vertebral column. The six posterior ones are excessively 
short, and though equally moveable, do not appear materially to assist 
in expanding the membranes. The latter are used as a parachute in 
leaping from branch to branch, after which they immediately resume 
their state of repose. Sudden fear, or anger will also cause a momentary 
expansion. The femoral pores are situated on a series of rather large 
rhombic scales on each thigh. In a number of twelve adult individuals, 
the pores varied from 13 to 19 on each thigh. In the specimens in 
the Paris Museum, described by M. M. Dumeril and Bibron, there are 
from 20 to 24 on each thigh. 

This species appears to be numerous, but local. Twelve were at one 
time obtained from a spice plantation in province Wellesley, some of 
which were in the act of changing the integuments. They were very 
active and swift, more so than their rather heavy make would induce to 
believe, and they would bite and scratch when handled, although among 
themselves in a spacious cage, they appeared peaceable, and patiently 
submitted to being trodden, or run over by a neighbour, about ascending 
the perch. The Malay, who brought the lizards, asserted they were frugi- 
vorous, and might be fed with soft fruit and boiled rice, which was 
perfectly true. In one immediately examined, the stomach and intes- 
tines contained rounded seeds of various kinds from the smallest size 
to that of a large pea, and vegetable fibres.* 

The rest refused insects and different kinds of fruit, but during the se- 
veral months' confinement each would daily eat a little boiled rice, and oc- 
casionally take water. Of these none exceeded the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. \\ inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4f 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 

Entire length, 1 foot 5finch. 
' The latter, however, as well as sand and fragments of stones, also occur in carnivo- 
rous and insectivorous lizards, as well as serpents, which swallow these substance- to 
stimulate digestion. 

4 p 2 

6*50 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Length of the intestinal canal : 

Small intestines, 5-| inch. 

Large ditto 3 

Ccecum, Of 

The stomach is of a lengthened pyriform shape, one inch in length ; 
Duodenum, narrow, receives Ductus coleductus at f inch distance from 
Pylorus. — Ccecum is very short, nearly circular. The large intestine 
is sacculated, terminating in a short simple rectum. 

There seems to be reason to believe that Leiolepis revesii,* Gray, 
inhabiting " China" and Arracan, is also found on the Malayan 

FAM. SCINCIDiE, Gray, (LEPIDOSAURES, Dumeril and Bibron.) 

Sub. Fam. Saurophthalmin^i, Cocteau. 

Gen. Gongylus, Wagler, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 

Nostrils lateral, pierced either through the nasal, or between the 
nasal and rostral shield ; tongue notched, squamous ; teeth conical, 
often slightly compressed, and as it were wedge-shaped, simple ; palate 
toothed or not, with a posterior notch or a longitudinal groove ; auricu- 

* Syn. Uromastix revesii, Gray.—" Olive with a series of bright red spots on each 
side." (Griffith: Animal Kingdom, IX. p. 62.) Such was the only account of this 
species at the time of the publication of Erpttologie Gtnerale, where it is not intro- 
duced. Mr. Gray's latest description runs thus : " Olive with longitudinal series of pale 
whitish spots ; when alive blackish, with orange spots on the back, and a series of bright 
red spots on the sides. — China." (Catalogue, &c. p. 263.) 

The Museum of the Asiatic Society possesses an adult male and a young specimen, 
sent from Arracan by Capt. Phayre. The form resembles in every particular that of 
Leiolepis guttatus, from which the present species principally differs by its colours, larger, 
heavier make and size. Each jaw is covered by 20 scales. From the mental scale pro- 
ceeds a series of 10 larger scales on each side below the labial. On the throat appear 2 
or 3 strong transversal folds, of which the anterior commences from the posterior margin 
of the tympanum, The tail is covered with keeled verticillate scales as in L. gutta- 
tus, but not with " rings of smooth scales" as Mr. Gray's generic character states. 

4 1—1 10.10 

Dentition.— Incis. , Canin. • , Molar. , Femoral pores 20. 

1—1 1-1 10.10 

Length of the head, feet 1| inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 6£ 

Ditto ditto tail, , 1 o 

Entire length, 1 7§ inch, 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. G51 

lar apertures ; four feet, each with 5 unequal, slightly compressed, not 
dentilated, nailed toes; sides rounded; tail conical or slightly com- 
pressed, pointed. 

Sub-Gen. Eumeces, Wiegmann. 

Nostrils pierced through the nasal shield, near the posterior margin ; 
2 supernasal shields ; palate not toothed, with a rather shallow triangular 
notch behind ; scales smooth. 

Eumeces punctatus, (Linne,) Var. 

Syn. — Lacerta punctata, Linne. 
Stellio punctatus, Laurenti. 
La Double raie, Daub., apud Lacep, Bonnat. 

[" Donnd. 
Lacerta interpunctata, Gmelin, apud < Shaw. 

L Latreille. 
Scincus bilineatus, Daudin. 
Scincus punctatus, Schneider, apud Merrem. 
Seps scinco'ides, Cuv. apud Griffith, A. K. 
Lygosoma punctata, Gray, apud Griff. A. K. 
Riopa punctata, Gray. 
Tiliqua cuvierii, Cocteau. 
Tiliqua duvaucellii, Cocteau. 

Eumeces punctatus, Wiegmann, apud Dum. and Bibr. 
Riopa hardwickii, Gray : Catal, (Young.) 

Trunk individually varying in length j limbs very small, giving the 
lizard a blindworm-like appearance ; tail very thick at the root, fusi- 
form, tapering to a very sharp point, its length varying from one to 
two-thirds of the entire length of the animal. On the anterior margin 
of the ear a small tubercle. Above metallic chestnut, or greenish 
bronce, in some with 6 more or less distinct, dotted, black lines along 
the back, or with the two rows of scales nearest each side of a lighter 
shade than the ground colour, thus forming two lighter longitudinal 
bands. From the nostril to the middle of the side of the tail a black 
or brown band, with numerous small white spots on the sides. Limbs 
outside dotted with white. Beneath sulphur-coloured, in some the 
throat and tail minutely dotted with black. Iris dark brown, with 
a narrow, circular, golden ring. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore. 
Malabar and Coromandel Coast, Bengal. 

652 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

The Variety described above, is numerous in the Malayan countries, 
both on hills and in valleys. Of several the largest individual was of 
the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2\ 

Ditto ditto tail, 1-J 

Entire length, 4§ inches. 

Sub. Gen. Euprepis, Wagler. 
Nostrils pierced through the posterior part of the nasal shield ; two 
super-nasals ; palate with a more or less deep triangular incision ; 
pterygoid teeth ; scales keeled. 

Euprepis rufescens, (Shaw.) 

Syn. — Lacerta maritima maxima, &c. Seba II, Tab. 105, Fig 3. 
Lacerta rufescens, Shaw, III, P. 1, P. 285. 

Scincus rufescens, Merrem, apud { GrlyTn Griffith, A. K. 

Scincus multifasciatus, Kulil. 

Mabouya multifasciata, Fitzinger. 

Euprepis multifasciatus, Wagler. 

Tiliqua fufescens, Gray. 

Eumeces rufescens, Wiegmann. 

Tiliqua carinata, Gray. 

Tiliqua affinis, Gray, (Young.) 

Euprepes sebae, Dumeril et Bibron. 

Body strong ; limbs proportionate ; tail rounded, slightly com- 
pressed, little exceeding half the entire length. Scales of the back and 
sides : in the young with 5 to 7 keels ; in the adult the dorsal scales 
with 3 to 5 keels, the rest smooth. The anterior margin of the ear with 
3 or 4 minute lobules. Lower eyelid with a series of 4 or 5 larger, square 
scales. Pterygoid teeth minute, few, hid in the palatal membrane, form- 
ing a short line on each side of the triangular incision of the palate. 

Habit. — Sandwich-Islands, Philippines, Timor, Celebes, Borneo, Java, 
Coromandel, Bengal. 

Var. D., Dumeril and Bibron. 
Above. Ground colour shining bronce with 5 to 7 zigzag, or dotted 
black lines, in some continued on the tail ; sides with many of the scales 
black, with a square white spot in the middle, in some arranged so as 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 653 

to produce numerous, distant, transversal bands. The margins of some 
or all the shields of the head black. Beneath sulphur-coloured. Iris 
black with a golden circular ring. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore. 
Var. E., Dumeril and Bibron. 
Above uniformly shining bronze ; sides in some sprinkled with blood 
red ; rest like the preceding. 

Habit. — Same lacalities. 

Var. F., Dumeril and Bibron. 
Above uniformly shining bronze ; the anterior half of the sides with 
a broad blood-red stripe, which in specimens preserved in spirits of 
wine changes to whitish, or disappears ; the posterior part of the sides 
of the body and the anterior of the tail in some with square sky-blue 
spots in the middle of some of the scales ; rest like the preceding. 

Habit. — Same localities. 

These three varieties are exceedingly numerous in the hills and val- 
leys of the Malayan countries. They may be seen basking in the sun, 
in bamboo hedges, or on trees, and they fearlessly enter houses in 
pursuit of insects, in which they display great agility. The female 
deposits 6 to 12 yellow white, oval, cylindrical eggs, half an inch 
in length. Nearly all have on the lower two-thirds of the tail a series 
of large scuta. In one individual observed the last two-thirds of the 
back of the tail was covered with a single series of very broad scales, of 
which each of the anterior had 15 to 16 keels. In another the tail 
had been lost near the root, and reproduced by a pyramidal, soft, naked 
process, f inch long, with circular folds like those of the body of 
Ichthyophis. — Var. F. appears to exceed the others in size : the largest 
was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, I 3f 

Ditto ditto tail, 4f 

Entire length : 8-f inch . 

Euprepis ernestii, Dumeril and Bibron. 

Syn. — Scineus ernestii, Boie, MSS. 

Psamraite de Van Ernest, Coctean. 
Dasia olivacea, Gray : Catal. 

654 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [July, 

Form like E. rnfescens. Triangular incision of the palate very small, 
with a few minute pterygoid teeth on each side. Ears obliquely oval, 
small, appearing more so being half covered by two of the temporal 
scales ; no lobules on the anterior margin. Scales of the back with 
minute, longitudinally waved lines, and from 3 to 8 indistinct keels. 
The outer half of the toes and the nails sharply compressed. A series 
of scuta beneath the tail. 

Very young. Head light green bronze, shields edged with black and 
a black line, edged with silver, from the muzzle to the ear. Back, 
sides, root of the tail and outside of the limbs shining black with 
numerous transversal, waved, silvery lines. Feet and toes rose, or 
flesh-coloured. Tail brilliant scarlet.* Throat, abdomen and inside 
of the limbs silvery white. 

Adult, Ground colour greyish-brown bronze. Frontal and supra- 
orbital shields black edged ; fronto-parietals, inter-parietals and parietals 
black, each with a whitish elongated mark, united, forming a symmetrical 
figure. From the nostril to the eye a black streak. Neck and body 
with a number (12 to 14,) of distant, transversal, waved bands, com- 
posed of black scales, each with a rectangular white spot in the middle. 
Outside of limbs with 4 or 5 similar bands. In some a buff coloured 
lateral band on the posterior part of the back, and the anterior half of 
the side of the tail. Beneath iridescent light bluish-green; scales with 
whitish edges. Iris black with a golden narrow circle. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 

In habits this species resembles Euprepis rufescens, but appears to 
be far less numerous. In a female were found eleven eggs, in shape, 
size and colours resembling those of E. rufescens. The young, above 
described, was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 

Ditto ditto tail, If 

Entire length : 3| inch. 

* The very young of Eumeces lessonii, Dum. and Bibr. (Scincus cyanurus, Lesson,) 
is distinguished by a similar distribution of colours. 

1847.] Malayan Peni?isula and Islands. 655 

Of the two adult individuals the large measured : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3f 

Ditto ditto tail, 44 

Entire length : 8f inches. 

Sub-Gen. Lygosoma, Gray, apud Bum. and Bibr. 

Nostrils pierced through the nasal shield ; no supranasals ; palate 
toothless, with a small triangular incision, situated far back; scales 

Lygosoma chalcides, (Linne.) 

Syn. — Scincus pedibus brevissimis, &c. Gronov. P. II, No. 43. 
Lacerta chalcides, Linne. 
Angvis quadrupes, Linne, apud Hermann. 
Le Chalcide, Daubenton. 
Der Vierfuss, Midler. 
Lezard vert a ecailles lisses, Vosmaer. 


J Gmelin. 
Lacerta serpens, Bloch, apud <J Leske. 


Angvis quadrupede, Lacepede. 
Chalcida serpens, Meyer. 
Lacerta serpens, Donnd, apud Shaw. 
Scincus brachypus, Schneid. apud Merrem. 
Chalcides serpens, Latreille. 
Seps pentadactylus, Daudin. 

Seps (Angvis quadrupes, Lin.) Cuv., apud Griffith, A. K. 
Mabouya serpens, Fitzinger ? 

Lygosoma serpens, Gray, apud | Q ri § tll " A K 

Lygosoma aurata, Gray, apud Griffith, A. K. 
Tiliqua de Vosmaer, Cocteau. 
Lygosoma brachypoda, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Podophis chalcides, Gray : Catal. 

Blindworm-like ; limbs excessively small ; tail strong, conical, about 
two-fifth of the entire length. A single large lozenge-shaped fronto- 
parietal shield. Ear minute, circular. Lower eyelid scaly, with a few 
larger scales. Preanal scales larger than the rest. 

Ground colour : iridescent lighter or darker copper, or bronze, in some 
with indistinct dark brown zigzag lines, produced by the scales being 
laterally edged or dotted with that colour. Beneath pale or whitish 
yellow. The tail in some minutely dotted with brown. Iris black with 

4 Q 

656 On the Temples and Ruins of Oomya [July ? 

a minute golden ring. The supraorbital scales being somewhat trans- 
parent, the black colour of the eye gives them a blackish appearance. 
Habit. — Pinang. 

Singapore, Java. 
But two individuals were observed on the Great Hill of Pinang, one 
by Sir W. Norris, the other by myself. The latter made its appearance 
through a hole in the soft, moist mould beneath a group of Polycopo- 
dium horsfiehlii. Above ground its movements were very quick, ser- 
pent-like, apparently little assisted by the tiny limbs, The head of 
the larger measured f inch, the trunk 2| inches in length. One 
had but 4 toes on the anterior feet. In both the tail was reproduced, 
which is also the case in a third, from Singapore, preserved in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Societv. 

On the Temples and Ruins of Oomga, by Capt. M. Kittoe, 6th N. I. 

As occasional notices of the nooks and corners of Hindoostan may 
prove interesting to many readers of the Journal (notices that it must 
be in the power of many of the Civil and Military servants of Govern- 
ment and others to furnish and at little cost), I venture to set the 
example by offering the following description of a locality once famous 
in the province of Behar, called Oomga, situated within a mile of the 
dawk Bungalow of Mudunpoor, and fourteen west of Sheerghatti, a 
visit to which will ever repay the lover of the antique and picturesque 
for his pains. 

The object which first strikes the traveller is the lofty conical tower 
of a Temple perched on the westernmost and lower spur of a cluster of 
hills to the south of the Benares road, the rock composing which is a 
very coarse grained (porphyritic ?) granite affording materials for this 
and all the other Temples (said to be 52 in number) of however small 

The height of the great Temple from the rock to the crest may be 
about 60 feet, the extreme length from east to west is 68ft. 6in. and 
the breadth 53. 

/z v/s>S8 Qf*o o/vr q /\ 



ick-AsritKL.rK Press.Qlci 

184/.] On the Temples and Ruins of Oomga. $57 

As this structure is perfect I prepared the annexed ground plan 
with an elevation of the eastern entrance and of two of the pillars, 
brackets, &c. These will give a better idea than I could convey in 
writing ; the north and south balconies or porches being both alike, 
I have given the ground plan of the lower of one, and of the upper 
story of the other ; the date of this edifice is found in a Sanscrit in- 
scription I shall treat of further on. 

The exterior shape is that common to most buildings of the kind 
erected between the 12th and 15th centuries of the Christian era, of 
which so many fine specimens are to be found in the province of Cut- 
tack : the materials being very hard and coarse-grained would not have 
admitted of minute ornament, consequently such is confined to bold 
mouldings and recesses producing the usual and pleasing effect. The 
interior is nearly as devoid of ornament as the exterior. 

The Temple being dedicated to Jugnath (as "Narrain") has no idols, 
but a Singhasun or throne on the west wall (facing the east), on which 
the wooden blocks representing the triad of Sri Jeo, Bulbudra and 
Seubudra were formerly placed, but is now occupied by fragments of 
other figures — there are also two of Ganesh in the ante room or Subha. 

The pillar or Garura-stamba which formerly supported Garadu, still 
stands on the space in front of the entrance, and is about 14 ft. high, a 
single block of granite. 

The four large columns in the Subha are likewise single shafts 1 
feet each, or capitals and bases included, 16ft. 8in.*2^ in thickness ; their 
shape will be observed is that common in Hindu architecture, viz. 1st 
portion square, 2nd octagon, third 1 6-sided, and fourth circular, the 
capital being likewise circular and surmounted by four armed brackets 
or corbets. 

A remarkable feature in this Temple (to which its preservation from 
the destructive hand of Mahomedan fanatics may be attributed) is 
its bearing cufic inscriptions over the entrance doorway, as well as 
those of the two small chambers, also on the eight sides of each pillar 
and on the architraves, the latter consist simply of the word " Allah." 
The former appear to be extracts from the Koran, but having been 
chiselled off it is nearly impossible to make them out. This piece of 
mischievous folly, I regret to record, is attributed to a European officer, 
at whose suggestion the late Rajah Gunsam Sing of Deo caused it to 

4 a 2 

658 On the Temples and Ruins of Oomga. [Julv, 

be done, and the words " Ramjee," " Sri Ram," " Sri Ganesh," " Sri 
Jugnath," " Bulbudrajee," &c. &c. have been scratched in common 
Nagree to supply their place, as his European friend suggested that 
it was not right to allow Mahomedan badges to remain in a Hindu 
Temple : however, his having at the same time recommended substantial 
repairs which were executed, may be considered as some slight set-off to 
such outrageous folly. 

The next object worthy of notice is a large slab of chlorite contain- 
ing the long inscription before mentioned, recording the building of 
the Temples, and other great works which surround it. This I regret 
to state is said to have been taken from its proper site by another 
indiscreet officer with the intention of carrying it away ; it has been 
lying out of doors trodden under foot and used as a whetstone till 
very much injured ; I have had it set upright within the Temple, where 
I hope it will be preserved. I offered two years ago to have it properly 
fixed, but the young Raja of Deo, like all his kindred, made excuses 
owing to some absurd suspicion of my intentions, a suspicion which 
pervades all alike, and is the greatest bar to finding such valuable re- 
cords of byegone times and events. The Raja informs me that a fine 
slab was taken from the Deo Temple by some gentleman (name un- 
known) many years ago to Benares. I have had one verse given me 
that the Brahmins know by heart, only that they have added several 
zeros to increase the date ; this may give a clue to what has become of 
it. Shame upon such mischievous spoliation ! 

The view from either balcony of the Temple is very extensive and 
beautiful ; two prettier landscapes could not be seen in any country — 
from the south the visitor looks down on the site of the deserted and 
ruined town of Oomga, with its magnificent tank and high square 
mound surrounded by a (now) dry ditch, once the Noor or palace of 
Byrub Indra, the founder, and subsequently of the Oomga Chiefs, the 
last of whom, Purbeel Singh, was attacked by the emperor (name un- 
known), his town and palace sacked and laid in ruins, and himself taken 
to Aurungabad, a town 14 miles further west, and there blown from 
the muzzle of a gun. 

The Tank is now much choked with mud, and in the hot weather 
dries up, it is about 300 yards long by 200 wide, has a sluice in the 
centre of the northern face which empties into an extensive " Ahur" or 

184/.] On the Temples and Ruins of Oomga. 659 

reservoir covering many acres of ground, the banks of which as well 
as those of the Tank, formed part of the town enclosure and defences : 
on the east side in the centre and opposite the palace, is a fine Ghat or 
flight of stone steps — there is also an elegant pillar in the centre 
of the tank, about 20 feet high, a single block of granite, the capital 
not included. The Tank " Ahur," and city waits (mud), had, till three 
years back, fine bamboo hedges which are now no more, for strange 
to say, the whole blossomed and bore seed like rice, after the ripening of 
which the plantation died, though it is said to have existed for several 
centuries — it was expected that fresh shoots would spring up, but such 
has not been the case. 

About five hundred yards further west is another fine Tank, 200ft. 
square, and it is much to be regretted that these as well as many other 
fine reservoirs in the district are allowed to fill up without an attempt 
to clear them, a labour which would be amply repaid in a few years. 
This remark is more particularly applicable to many of the noble 
Tanks in the north-west provinces built by the emperors of Dehli, and 
their ministers. Surely a little encouragement on the part of Government 
and of the Civil functionaries in districts, wealthy individuals might be 
induced to bestow a portion of their hoardings on undertakings which 
would perpetuate their names ; it would cost far less to repair such tanks 
than to dig and construct others of a fraction of their dimensions, and be 
of greater service — though I believe that there exists a prejudice against 
repairing the works of others — the result of false pride, but no doubt 
were encouragement given a sounder feeling would arise. 

The fort of Oomga has been very injudiciously placed, for although 
the hills which command it were impracticable for artillery, still wall 
pieces and small arms would be used against it with deadly effect. 

The hills are, as I have before said, covered with small temples, chief- 
ly to Mahadeva and Ganesh ; the natural hollows at the top have been 
converted into reservoirs, beside one of which is an idol called Oomge- 
swuree, to which goats and buffaloes are sacrificed ; a fair is also held 
once a year. 

Although we learn from the flowery Sanscrit verses that Bhyrub Indra 
built temples, dug tanks and wells, &c. I am convinced that the spot 
has been dedicated to the worship of Mahadeva and his emblem, the 
Lingam, for centuries previous to the advent of that chief, for some of 

66*0 On the Temples and Ruins of Oomga. [July, 

the Linga are very ancient and have been covered in with brickwork. 
Bhyrub Indra appears to have had great power in this province, and to 
have expended much wealth in building Temples. There is one at 
Deota Surya (the sun), and another to the same deity at Kooch near 
Takuree, 14 miles north-west of Gya, mention of which is made by 
Buchanan, whose notice the present inscription as well as the locality 
appears to have escaped. It is surprising that an indefatigable inquirer 
should have learnt or said so little of a person whose name and exploits 
are so well known in the district. Nevertheless the name is not to be 
found in any of the lists of dynasties published by Prinsep; hence we 
may infer that he was some powerful usurper in the early part of the 
15th century during the reign of the Puthan emperor Mohummed Shah 
the Sumbat date given in 1495, A. D. 1439, in the light half of the 
month of Vaisakh, which seems from the many inscriptions I have 
collected to have been a favorite period of the year for dedications of 
the kind. 

Since writing the foregoing I have been favoured, through the kind- 
ness of a gentleman of known acquirements, Seyed Azmud Deen Hossein, 
Deputy Collector of Behar, with the following translation of two lines of 
the Cufic inscriptions, which I had almost despaired of being ever decy- 
phered : they clearly allude to the event handed down by the tradition I 
have alluded to ; a victory is recorded, but by whom still remains doubt- 
ful. The longer inscription over the great doorway most probably con- 
tained both the name of the conqueror and the date of conquest; we can 

only then lament the more the act of folly which has deprived us of 

.. * . * .. . i ■ < 

the information ; the next sentence «-*•*/* j%f»*. *** 4U| ^xj^aj only 

differs in the word <xij*J instead of j^\ the literal meaning of which 
Azmud Deen gives as " By the help of God Victory is gained," though 
perhaps some might construe it thus " By the help of God Victory is 
nigh at hand." 

I send also a rudely executed inscription from the walls of the Sooruj 
Mundir at Deo, which my draftsman tells me is executed in plaister ; the 
date is Sumbut 1605 ; the Temple is said to be very -perfect ; I only 
regret I have no leizure to prepare a drawing, which would be useful. 
I suspect that the great inscription, plundered as before stated, must 
have been dedicated to some deity other than " Surya" or the Sun as 

1847.] On the Gamboge of the Tenasserim Provinces. 661 

the door faces the west instead of the east ; it may have been a 
Budha Temple. In the verse of the inscription given by the Brahmins 
Budda as the son of Iln is mentioned. Divesting the figures given of the 
string of zeros, we have the dates 1293 Sumbut, or A. D. 1239, by the 
original inscription, and A. D. 1548 orS. 1605, in that now sent, which 
for the first gives a difference of 202 years earlier than the Oomga 
Temple, consequently it could not have been built by Bhyrub Indra as 

On the Gamboge of the Tenasserim Provinces, by the 
Rev.Y. Mason, A. M. 

In conversation with a distinguished medical officer, and member of 
the Asiatic Society, I found that he was not at all aware that the 
Tenasserim Provinces produce Gamboge. It has therefore occurred to 
me that a brief notice of the Gamboge of these provinces might not 
be unacceptable to the readers of the Journal, and would contribute 
its influence to draw attention to a most interesting portion of the 
British Provinces in the east ; one that is exceeded by few in the rich- 
ness and variety of its natural productions. 

Three works in my possession describe Gamboge each as the product 
of a different tree ; a fourth represents all to be wrong, and a fifth 
suggests a different plant, still. One refers it to Cambogia gutta, a 
plant which, as described by Linneus, has probably no existence. He 
described a Ceylon plant, and it is now quite evident, says Dr. Wight, 
" that the character of the flower and ovary is taken from one specimen, 
and that of the fruit from a different one, owing to the imperfection of 
his specimens, and his not being aware that the lobes of the stigma 
afford a sure indication of the number of cells of the fruit." 

Another refers it to Garcinia cambogia, but Dr. Wight says that the 
exudation of this tree is " wholly incapable of forming an emulsion 
with the wet finger," a statement which the writer knows to be correct. 
The tree is very common in the Tenasserim Provinces, but the bright 
yellow exudation it produces is certainly not Gamboge. 

A third refers it to Stalagmitis cambogioides, but Dr. Wight remarks 
"The juice of this tree differs so very widely in its qualities from good 
Gamboge, that it can never be expected to prove valuable as a pigment." 

662 On the Gamboge of the Tenasserim Provinces. [July, 

Dr. Graham lias described a Ceylon tree under the name of Hebra- 
dendron cambogioides, which is said to produce good Gamboge ; but no 
Gamboge has ever been exported into the English market from Ceylon. 
Thus it would appear, to use the language of Dr. Wight, that "the 
tree, or trees, which produce the Gamboge of commerce is not yet 

Dr. Heifer who was employed by government as a scientific naturalist 
in these Provinces, at an expense of thirteen hundred rupees per month, 
reported " the Gamboge of this country dissolves very little with water, 
and consequently does not yield that yellow emulsion as the common 
guttifera. It will never serve as a color, but promises to give a very 
beautiful varnish." This statement was controverted by a writer in 
our local periodical at the time, who said he had obtained " fine Gamboge 
of the very best description" from our jungles ; in which he was no 
doubt correct, but he erred when he added that it came from the 
" true Stalaymitis cambogioides. ,y A very small amount of botany 
would have served to preserve him from falling into this error ; for 
that plant has a quinary arrangement of its flowers, while the arrange- 
ment of the flowers in those that produce Gamboge in these Provinces 
is quaternary. 

The hills that bound the valley of the Tavoy river, on both sides, 
from their bases to their summits, abound with a tree which produces 
a fine Gamboge. It is Roxburgh's Garcinia pictoria, which he knew 
produced Gamboge, but which he said was liable to fade. As soon as 
I satisfied myself of the identity of the trees by an examination of the 
inflorescence of our plant compared with Roxburgh's description, I 
colored a piece of paper, one band with this Gamboge, and another with 
the Gamboge of commerce ; and subsequently exposed both to the 
weather equally for more than twelve months, but without being able to 
discover that one faded any more than the other. South of the lati- 
tude of the mouth of Tavoy river, and throughout the Province of 
Mergui, there is found on the low plains at the foot of the hills, and 
on the banks of the rivers, almost down to tide waters, another species 
of Garcinia that also produces good Gamboge. I have no doubt but it is 
the tree from which Dr. Griffiths furnished Dr. Wight with specimens, 
and which the latter says, " I refer doubtfully to Wallich's G. ellip- 
tical We will call it then G. elliptica, a species which Dr. Wight has 

1847.] On the Gamboge of the Tenasserim Provinces. 663 

on his list of " species imperfectly known." The foliation and female 
flowers are however, very well described, and to complete the descrip- 
tion, I may add the male flowers are pedunculated, but the peduncles 
are shut, and they might be characterized as sub-sessile. The anthers, 
like those of the female flowers, are sessile, depressed or flattened 
above, and dehisce circularly. The ripe fruit is globose, and not furrow- 
ed. As I send along with this paper specimens of both the male and 
female flowers, any of your botanists will be able to correct me at a 
glance, if I be in error. 

Neither Wallich, Wight, nor Griffiths appear to have been at all 
aware that this species produces Gamboge. Dr. Wight, in a recent 
number of his Neilgherry plants says, " Two species of the genus Gar- 
cinia are known to produce Gamboge, most of the others yield a yel- 
low juice, but not Gamboge, as it will not mix with water." The spe- 
cies which he has described as producing Gamboge, and to which I 
suppose he refers, are G. Gutta or H. Cambogioides, (Graham,) and 
G. Pictoria, (Roxburgh.) That others may be enabled to judge of the 
character of the Gamboge produced by this tree, I have the pleasure to 
send specimens of its exudation. In its appearance to the eye, and 
in its properties as a pigment, I have failed to discover the slightest 
difference between it and the Gamboge of commerce. It serves equally 
well to color drawings, the Burmese priests often use it to color their 
garments and the Karens to dye their thread. It is also used by the 
native doctors in medicine, but I think not extensively. Dr. Lindley, 
in his new work the " Vegetable Kingdom" says: — " The best Gam- 
boge comes in the form of pipes from Siam, and this is conjectured to 
be the produce of Garcinia Cochinchinensis." As G. elliptica is spread 
all over the Province of Mergui, is it not probable that it extends into 
Siam, and that the Siamese Gamboge is the produce, a part at least, of 
this tree ? 

There are several other species of Garcinia indigenous to the Pro- 
vinces, but I know of no others producing any thing resembling Gam- 
boge, except G. Cambogia ; the exhudation of which, though it will not 
dissolve in water, dissolves in spirits of turpentine and forms a very 
beautiful yellow varnish for tin and other metalic surfaces. 

1 R 

(30-1 On a Sculpture from the site of Bucephalia. [July, 

On a Sculpture from the Site of the Indo-Greek city of Bucephalia ; 
by Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commissioner,' fyc. 

Herewith I have the pleasure to enclose you a drawing of a sculptured 
red freestone, dug from the Site of the Indo-Greek city of Bucepha- 
lia on the Hydaspes, by, I believe, General Ventura, and now lying in 
front of the castle of the present city of Jelum. It is one of many 
relics disinterred from time to time, in searching for bricks, all those 
used in Jelum being thus derived. The tracery is evidently Greek ; 
for there is no such design to the best of my belief in Hindoo sculpture, 
and it seems to have been the lintel of a temple to Ceres or to Bacchus. 
Many Indo-Greek coins are found in the same spot, and it is here that 
the Empire seems to have found its eastern limit. The sculpture is in 
good preservation owing to having been buried so many hundred years. 
Its style is as decidedly Grecian, as its outline, being altogether deeper 
and more massive than that of the Hindoos, although I am not sure 
that it has any advantage in delicacy or grace. The square panels 
upon the pilaster, seem to me Hindoo ; but both the lozenge and the 
ellipse are Greek or Egyptian, as is the Thyrsus, if I rightly designate as 
such the two undefaced figures of the beading. I do not know whe- 
ther the maize represented in this sculpture was known to the Greeks 
previous to the conquest of Alexander ; but it seems probable that 
Osiris, whose conquest of the Punjaub appears almost as well authenti- 
cated as that of Alexander, must have brought it with him from India, 
if indeed he did not first introduce it there. It seems to me that I 
have met with it in sculpture brought from Greece. Other portions of 
the same temple are said to have been removed by General Ventura, I 
shall not omit any opportunity of observing them, should I return to 
Lahore, where they are supposed to be. This fragment is very massive, 
being about six feet in length and 20 inches thick. If you consider 
it worth removal, which I should doubt, it could be conveyed by water 
free of expense to Ferozpoor or Loodiana. 

My professional duties have so little leisure for transcribing sketches 
that I have found it impossible to complete this until now. Mean- 
while, on a visit to Aknoor, a town on the right bank of the Chenaub, 
where it debouches from the mountains, I was attracted by the novelty 

184/.] On a Sculpture from the site of Bucephalia. 665 

of a temple to Kam Deo or Cupid. The building, a recent obelisk, 
had fallen in, and the supposed statue of the deity had been removed 
into a modern Seebwala or Temple of Seeb close by, this temple 
being a facsimile of the most modern of the Mohammadan Tombs. 

The figure is about 2 feet high, carved upon a dark stone (lime appa- 
rently) and in good preservation. — A sketch is enclosed. I was imme- 
diately struck with the outline of the club, as precisely similar to the 
club of the Grecian Hercules and entirely different from the mace of 
Hunnoomaun or the club of Hurr, the Indian Hercules. Its figure is 
graceful and the knots represent exactly in three touches of the 
chisel the stumps of branches roughly lopped away. All the rest of 
the figure appears to me rather Egyptian than Hindoo. The thick 
under lip, the teeth developed, the heavy ringlets falling upon either 
shoulder, the precision with which the perspective is preserved, and the 
minute development of every joint and member, so that even the fin^ 
ger nails are correctly chiselled. Unfortunately the head is broken away 
above the mouth ; but from the impression left upon the stone it must 
have been unusually high. It appears to me to be a figure of Osiris in 
the joint capacity of Bacchus and Hercules. But, whatever it be, it 
is the indubitable original of the figures of Hunnoomaun, so common 
in upper India ; that is, the peculiar bend of the body in this statue 
has been copied in the rude representations of the Monkey-God. The 
only drapery is the Hindoo dhotie, well and deeply cut. The most per- 
plexing circumstance is the presence of the Junnoo or sacred thread worn 
by Brahmuns and Rajpootres. This is beautifully chiselled, but I was 
not aware that it was in use amongst the Egyptians. If not, it may have 
been added when their descendants had become naturalised in India. 
You are aware that there is a city upon the Indus bearing the name of 
Bacchus Lyah, and that Alexander met with the descendants of his 
followers upon that river. Although the club is so decided a fac- 
simile of that of the Grecian Hercules, there is nothing else in the 
figure breathing of the Grecian chisel. The muscles are not developed. 
The hero has not been elevated by art into the character of a demi-god, 
but remains a clumsy mortal, and appears to be an imitation of the 
original, carried to a minuteness which distinguished the Egyptians, 
but which I have never observed in Hindoo sculpture. The left arm 
had been broken away so that I am uncertain whether the second left 

4 r 2 

tf • 

666 Additional Observations on the Damask Blade. [July, 

arm belongs to this figure, or to another which has been grouped with 
it. The latter opinion seems more probable, as there is no articulation 
for a second arm upon the left shoulder, and no symptom of a second 
arm on the right. The second left hand presents a bunch of grapes or 
a custard-apple. The leaf accompanying is more like that of the latter 
fruit. It will be remembered that the custard-apple is to this day 
called Sceta-phul, (Seeta's fruit,) because she fed upon it whilst wan- 
dering in the woods. It is a native of the Dukhun. This second 
hand is beautifully sculptured. The foreshortening is perfect. This 
circumstance seems to strengthen the analogy between the Raam of 
India and the Raam of Egypt. Unfortunately the statue is still an 
object of worship, so that I could not make free with it. There is 
an ancient site close to Aknoor from which are dug the bricks of the 
present city. But all my endeavors to procure coins or relics were 
fruitless, and I doubt whether this image could have been found in 
its ruins, as the Indo-Greek empire seems to have been bounded east- 
ward by the Jelum, and it is not probable that the Egyptians spread 
themselves farther eastward. On either side the mouth of the figure 
are horizontal lines apparently representing thin tufts of hair, as in 
some Chinese figures. 

Additional Observations on the Damask Blade of Gooj rat ; by the same. 

A few observations suggest themselves in addition to the account I 
had lately the pleasure to send you, of the fabric of the Goojratie Da- 
mask. It appears to me upon second thoughts that the figure of the 
mass of cast steel may be selected by design, though probably hit upon 
originally by accident. For if we follow the arrangement of the nee- 
dles of crystallization from the mass into the blade, we shall perceive 
that the edge of the latter is a serrated spine of these needles, radiat- 
ing from the elongated ellipse into which the centre has been drawn. 
And as the power of swords, knives, razors, &c, to sever soft sub- 
stances, depends upon the serration of their edge, we have here the 
finest and most perfect natural saw that can be imagined, justifying the 
half marvellous records of feats performed with Damascus blades. 

184/.] On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore. 667 

This property being inherent in the structure of the crystallization is 
not liable to be effaced by accident or use. The acuteness of the wedge 
may be blunted, but the teeth of the saw cannot be destroyed. 

That this arrangement of the crystals is not disturbed by the action 
of the hammer, we learn from the water of the blade and from the 
seam remaining inclosed in the back. 

It follows that however perfect the edge of the natural damask maybe, 
it must always be especially liable to cross fracture at that point where 
the radiation of the crystals is perpendicular to the edge of the blade. 
And accordingly Asiatics use such sabres with extreme caution, not 
ordinarily striking with them but drawing the edge lightly and swiftly 
over any unguarded part : a touch sufficing to disable ; or severing 
their adversary's reins ; a practice which renders necessary the use of 
chains upon the bridle to the distance of 18 inches from the bit. 

The natural damask therefore seems ill-adapted to the purposes of 
war as practised by European nations, but seems especially suited to 
the fabric of razors, penknives and surgical instruments, in which 
keenness of edge is of the first consequence and elasticity of none. 

The art of giving elasticity to the cast steel or natural damask is a 
secret known only to the discoverer, Col. Anosoff of Engineers, Master 
of the Fabric of Arms at Zlataoost. The knives, &c, warranted to be of 
cast steel, and professing considerable elasticity, which are common 
enough in England, are made of blistered steel, which bears that appel- 
lation amongst us, but is not bona fide cast steel, having never been in a 
state of fusion. 

On the* Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, including Notices of 
Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, fyc. — by J. R. Logan, Esq. 

(Concluded from page 557.) 

Extract from a letter to Professor Ansted, Vice-Secretary of the 

Geological Society of London, dated Malacca, 4th February, 1847. 

"Subsequently to the date of the above paper, finding that but a 
slow and unsatisfactory progress could be made by land, I availed 

On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

myself of the natural vertical sections afforded by the shores of Singa- 
pore, and the smaller Islands, into which the southern extremity of the 
Peninsular range is broken, and was thus soon in possession of a body 
of facts which gave a certainty and consistency to the above veiws. I 
minutely examined the Islands of Pulo Brani, Blakan Mati, Sikukur, 
and Sikijang on the one side, and Pulo l/bin, Pulo Tikong, Bcesar, Pulo 
Tikong Kcchil, Sejalrat Bcesar and Kcchil, &c. on the other side. I 
also explored the neighbouring coasts of the Peninsula, and the banks 
of the Johore river. The result was that I found the foregoing hypo- 
thesis, so far as it had been developed, to be substantially an expres- 
sion of the facts. It had however given too much prominence to some 
modes of the volcanic or semi-volcanic action, and too little to others. 
Thus, although there has been a certain degree of eruption in some 
cases where the gases in forcing their way to the surface have excited 
an unusual mechanical force, their action has, in general, been limited 
to a partial reduction and metamorphosis of the rock in the zones or 
dykes through which they have passed up [or in those larger tracts 
beneath which the surface of the plutonic sea has risen to such high 
subterraneous levels that the whole superincumbent matter has been 
saturated by its exhalations. I have also noticed several facts which 
appear to require us to believe that some portions at least of Singapore, 
were under water at the time when the gaseous action first reached the 
surface. The vast abundance of hydrated peroxide of iron and the 
mode in which ancient ferruginated breccias and conglomerates some- 
times occur, would be most simply explained by this hypothesis. The 
circumstances adverted to in the paper on this subject must be borne 
in mind. In some places a considerable quantity of matter derived 
from the hills has been deposited in the intervening valleys, probably 
at or soon after the time of elevation, and been subsequently covered 
up by modern sea mud on which mangroves have rooted and spread.] 

The most difficult branch of the enquiry has been the relation 
between the volcanic action to which the sedimentary rocks have been 
subjected, and the crystalline rocks which are associated with them. 
But, disregarding this for the present, and considering the volcanic 
action apart from any hypothesis of its origin or its relations, and 
reasoning from its visible effects, we may lay down this position abso- 
lutely, that the whole region in question (and a much wider one, as it 

184/.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, ty-c. GOO 

will be found, extending to the lower ranges of the Himalayas, a large 
part of Australia, a part of Africa, &c.) has been exposed to a well 
marked and peculiar, perhaps a unique,* igneous action. It has 
varied in its intensity and mode of operation, hut everywhere certain 
prevailing characters demonstrate its unity. These are both chemical 
and mechanical, the first depending principally on the never failing 
presence of iron, and the latter evinced by the extraordinary uniformity 
in the shapes, ramifications and even sizes of the ranges in which the 
rocks affected have heen raised. Whatever be the nature of the origi- 
nal sedimentary strata, this mighty agent has impressed them with the 
same marks, and the more powerful its grasp has been the more have 
their native peculiarities been confounded. But between the effects of 
this intensest force and that so weak that we barely detect its touch, 
the degrees are almost infinite. Still the only way in which I can 
render this slight immethodical sketch at all intelligible, will be to note 

* This I had been very slow to believe, because although there may be places where a 
fossil fauna or flora altogether peculiar is found, it is scarcely conceivable that any pluto- 
nic action should have an entirely local character, or that one repeated over so many 
parts of an extensive region in Asia, should not hitherto have been observed by Geologists 
in Europe or America. I have however, read nearly every English work on Geology with- 
out meeting a description of any considerable development of rocks in those quarters of 
the globe resembling our laterites, and have consequently been obliged to work out their 
true theory with little help from books, and by dint of patient and minute observation. 
A few months ago I was led to think that English writers were too much occupied in 
establishing their own opinions to present a full view of those of continental Geologists, 
and that the latter were leaving- them behind in the science of rocks of injection, reduction 
and eruption. It appeared necessary therefore to gather their views from their own expla- 
nations of them. In the first work which I ordered, and which I received two days ago 
by the Overland mail, I found an allusion to a district in Europe, which has been describ- 
ed by an eminent French Geologist, and which, if I may judge from the few lines in 
which it is referred to, must be in many respects analogous to the lateritic tracts of the 
Malay Peninsula, and consequently of India, &c. also. In a few months I hope to have 
the means of ascertaining whether this is the fact, and also whether in the writings of 
other continental Geologists any similar tracts are noticed. A few days ago Mr. Balestier, 
put into my hands a letter which he had received from one of the gentlemen attached to 
the recent French Embassy to China, a pupil of the celebrated chemist Dumas, in which 
he explains the views of himself and another member of the embassy on the Geology of 
Singapore. His theory of the origin of the laterite had occurred to me when I hist began 
to suspect its real nature. As my observations extended and became more minute, I 
found that such a theory only explained a small part of the phenomena, and that which I 
have now held for about 2 years, gradually-developed itself, growing clearer and simpler 
in proportion as it embraced wider ranges of facts.— J. R. L. 16th March, 1847. 

6*70 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

a few of the better marked disguises which the rocks assume under this 
potent influence. I say disguises, because the geology of the Malay 
Peninsula almost wholly resolves itself into the identification of the 
original rock under its multiplex transformations. Without a key to this, 
derived from a minute examination and comparison of the modes of 
alteration, the whole is a dark riddle, or our geology becomes a conge- 
ries of bewildered gropings and sheer mistakes. 

The first or lowest degree of alteration, let us say in a clay, is the 
formation of isolated blotches of a reddish colour in the rock, but 
unaccompanied by any other apparent change. 

2d. A slight comparative hardness in the blotches. 
3rd. In addition a grittiness, — they may now be termed nodules 
or concretions, and we may include in this catalogue all degrees from 
an incipient grittiness to a hard compact character, which gives the 
nodule the appearance of an imbedded pebble ; [the nodules are some- 
times hard and compact without being gritty or quartzose, and they 
are gritty in their nascent state where the rock is originally arenaceous 
in any degree.] 

4th. The nodules bulge out at different points, and the preceding 
three degrees may be repeated in nodules of this shape. 

5th. The arms or branches unite so that the rock is pervaded by a 
complete congeries or ramification of red, rounded, but irregularly 
shaped, branches. The form of these branches varies very much, but 
is generally uniform for a considerable space. Very frequently it is as 
if ginger roots were continued in all directions. At other times the 
spaces between the ramifications are narrow sinuous perforations or 
isolated vesicles or deep straight tubes or chambers in tubes. This struc- 
ture is sometimes the result of an allied or predisposing structure in 
the rock affected, and at other times, it appears to be wholly superin- 
duced by the altering agency. In this last form the red portion is 
found of various degrees of hardness, but not so soft as the first 
degree. In general it possesses a medium degree of hardness so as to 
be cut with an axe.* 

6th. In this class we may include the products all degrees of heat 
that has been suddenly applied in sufficient force to produce calcina- 
tion, and this distinguishes it from all the preceding, in which the 
* It hardens on free exposure to the atmosphere and is used in building*. 

1847.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, §c. 6/1 

rock has been merely impregnated with hot ferruginous gases or vapours 
— where the calcination has not been great the original structure of 
the rock is better preserved than in the merely impregnated rock, 
because, in the latter, the indurating action of the iron, the different 
degrees of its oxidation when it comes within the influence of water 
and air, and the washing out of the softer portions in the hollows, 
often give it an amygdaloidal or vesicular structure totally different 
from that of the original rock — a slight roasting on the other hand 
preserves the latter and saves it from meteoric destruction. The limit 
of this preserving power is soon reached, and every higher degree of 
heat and larger infusion of iron exerts in each rock, a corresponding 
destructive or altering power, and approaches nearer that point where 
the original differences in the rocks cease to be distinguishable. The 
extreme limits of this class appear to be where the rock is merely 
scorched on the surface, preserving its original character beneath, and 
where it is thoroughly reduced to a cinder. This class of rocks very 
frequently presents mamillated and botryoidal surfaces. It occurs 
in dykes, and on the sides of fissures through which hot blasts appear 
to have rushed. It also occurs in an outer layer or thick crust over 
rocks of the 5 th class, in which case it would appear that the different 
effects produced by the same gas arose from the upper crust being 
exposed to the air and consequently burnt. In the same way the 
calcination to some depth on the sides of fissures may have arisen in 
certain cases, not from the gas that rushed through them being hotter 
than that in the body of the rock (though this was most likely the fact 
in general) but from the presence of air producing combustion. Be- 
tween dykes of this last class rocks altered in the above 5th degree are 
common — but dykes of the 5th degree also occur. The difference in 
every case will depend on the relative intensity of the heat and degree 
of ferrugination of the gas, and the fact whether there was air to support 
combustion or not. 

The preceding remarks are applicable chiefly to rocks either compos- 
ed of clay or in which there is a basis of clay. But a very small pro- 
portion of clay suffices for the exhibition of the above modes of action. 
When the rock is wholly arenaceous, nodules are not formed. The 
rock is reduced to a dry incoherent or friable mass where the action 
has been slight. Where it has been greater, a net work of cracks 

4 s 

C/2 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

pervades the rooks, and the seams have either a thin plate of blackish 
ferruginous crust included between them, or their sides have a similar 
thin coating which is often covered with an exceedingly minute mamil- 
lation. In some cases the matter between the seams or ferruginous 
walls, has been dissipated, and the rock appears as a black honeycomb. 
In all instances of high calcination the sandstone is greatly indurated. 
It is sometimes converted into a crystalline rock. 

Friable shales, again, are sometimes changed into a dry powdery 
matter resembling volcanic ash. 

Where the bodies of the strata are not altered their planes of junc- 
tion are sometimes slightly indurated and mamillated. The gas in 
every case has taken the readiest channels to the surface, — and where 
fissures have not assisted its emission, it has forced itself through the 
planes of least cohesion, such as the junction planes of different beds, 
cleavage planes, &c. It thus often exposes the internal structure of the 
rock where it would otherwise appear compact. The composition of 
the rock has often had a great influence in determining the channel of 
emission, so that its action sometimes is chiefly confined to one or more 
strata, the adjoining beds appearing to be little if at all affected. 

Quartz frequently accompanies the ferruginous change, but rarely to 
a considerable extent. 

The above are the most common modes of alteration, but there are 
others approaching nearer to true metamorphism. Clay is converted 
into a porcellainous or jaspideous substance, — sandstone into a hard 
siliceous flinty substance. Conglomerates and breccias have frequently a 
base of this nature.* 

The mechanical force accompanying the evolution of the hot ferrugin- 
ous gases or vapours has been great, but it has been exerted within 
narrow limits. Thus the strata are often vertical, and generally rise at 
high angles, but the dip varies much, and even in adjacent hills of the 
same connected range is sometimes reversed. Yet they are never 
raised more than a few hundred feet above the common basal level, and 
the majority of the almost innumerable hillocks which compose the 
ranges of Singapore, are probably rather under than above 100 feet. 

* I have since found on the eastern coast ofPulo Krimun Kichi (the Little Carimon) 
great masses of clays and conglomerates transformed into a perfect crystalline chert as 
hard as flint.— J. R. L. 

184/.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, fyc. 673 

At the southern extremity of the western St. John's (Pulo Sikijang) 
two adjoining hills have been formed by strata being bent into a 
convex shape — rising only a few feet above the level of the beach. 
There is a remarkable approach to uniformity in the strike of all 
the strata and in the direction of the hill ranges. Speaking ge- 
nerally, it may be said to approximate to N.W. — S. E. The hills 
have commonly mamillary surfaces. The ranges may be said to 
consist of distinct hills bulging out and united at their sides. The 
central hills are generally the more bulky. Lateral hills ramify on 
each side to a short distance. The whole connected system is disposed 
in a symmetrical ramose manner, indicating a wonderful uniformity in 
the mode of operation of the dynamical forces which produced them. 
The investigation of the forms of these hills, and of the laws of the 
mechanical forces of which they are the result, assumes a high interest 
and importance when we find that these forms are not confined to 
Singapore, but are repeated in low hill ranges over large portions of 
the Peninsula, Sumatra, Southern India, Northern India, Northern 
Australia, &c, and accompanied, as I believe, by volcanic phenomena 
of exactly the same nature as those which I have described. I do not 
say that the phenomena are identical at all points. In Singapore itself 
they vary almost infinitely. But they are always analogous, frequently 
the same, and, to my mind, are undoubtedly the product of one well, 
marked species of volcanic* action. 

I should not omit to notice the frequent occurrence, in those ranges 
which have been most burnt, of mounds or monticules of scoreous 
blocks, sometimes on the summits, and sometimes bulging out from 
the sides of hills. The ridges and angles of hills appear frequently 
to present scoreous blocks. 

The valleys between the long hill ranges are, in Singapore, perfectly 
flat, so that they display the outlines of the bases of the ranges almost 
as well as if they still remained what they were at no very remote 

* In reference to the igneous changes which the rocks have undergone, I use the 
words volcanic and plutonic indiscriminately, because a minute examination of some of 
the best marked developments of crystalline rocks (graduating from basaltic to granitic 
types) at the extremity of the Peninsula, has led me to think that though the distinction is 
useful and appropriate in some regions, the theory which it expresses is not sound as a ge- 
neral one— at least as expounded by many Geologists. 

4 s 2 

674 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July 

period, long narrow inlets of the sea. This circumstance also is not 
confined to Singapore. 

I will now briefly notice the nature of the sedimentary rocks which 
have been more or less altered and elevated in the modes I have men- 
tioned. If you think it worth while, you can, I dare say, procure a 
copy of Mr. Thomson's Chart of Singapore straits from the Admiralty 
for reference. It would scarcely be advisable at present to attempt to 
make a geological map. The southern portion of the Island (including 
the town, the adjacent district to the N. W ; the ranges between the 
road from the town to Biikit Tfmah, the central and highest hill, and 
the sea to the S. W.), and the Islands of Blakan Mati, Pulo Brani, 
St. Johns, &c, are compossd of shales, clays, sandstones and conglo- 
merates, the shales predominating. It is impossible to refer these 
rocks to any place in your European systems, as no organic remains 
have yet been discovered, and the only rocks with which they are 
associated are hypogene. In their general appearance and mineralogical 
characters they agree with the aluminous and arenaceous beds of the 
new red sandstone. Between the parallel of strike passing through 
the town and the steep Tulloh Blangan range, there is an area about a 
mile in breadth, stretching from the sea inland over the Tanjong Pagar 
and Tanghir districts, and of course in a direction approaching to N. 
W., and in the opposite direction, including Pulo Brani and the eastern 
portion of Blakan Mati, composed in great measure of shale strata, 
although a few of sandstone also occur. The prevailing colours of 
the shale beds are dull violet, liver brown and chocolate. Beds of 
the most lively variegated colours sometimes occur motled, striped, 
damasked, &c , the colours are white, yellow, orange, red, violet, purple, 
green, bluish and blackish, in addition to the dull violet and chocolate. 
To the N. E. of this tract sandstone is more frequently interstratified. 
To the S. "W. sandstones, grits, and coarse conglomerates prevail ; and 
these are continued, interstratified however with some shales, from the 
range along the coast of Tulloh Blangan through the western portion 
of Blakan Mati, and through Sikukur and Sikijang (St. Johns), in a 
S. Westerly zone. I have not yet pursued this zone further across 
the strait, but the Island of Sambo, on the other side, is a continuation 
of the same parallel of elevation, and may consist of the same rocks. 
To the N. E. of the town, a large alluvial plain sweeps into the coun- 

1847.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, fyc. 675 

try. The hills around it are principally arenaceous. The arenaceous 
band however on the N. W. of the plain merely skirts it. Beyond 
this band (and succeeding the sandstone ranges to the N. E. of the 
shale tract first noticed) a broad zone of clayey hills, of which the 
boundaries are irregular, but which may be from 3 to 4 miles in breadth, 
stretches through the heart of the Island to Bvikit Timah, and thence 
across to the Salat Tambroli or old strait of Singapore behind the 
Island. The tract to the S. W. of this, stretching from the parallel 
of the S. W. boundary of the shale band to the S. W. point of the 
Island (Tanjong Gul), is composed principally of sandstone and shale, 
but granitic bases and ranges also occur. The great clay tract I believe 
to consist in large measure of decomposed hypogene rocks, — sienitic 
and granitic chiefly, (it has only however been partially examined or 
laid open). Blocks of these rocks are seen at the surface in some of 
the hills, and the sections made by roads so exactly resemble decom- 
posed crystalline rocks that I have no doubt that the whole of the clay 
hills are at bottom hypogene rocks. Their structure and composition 
I believe to be very variable. This tract is continued over a consider- 
able part of the rest of the Island to the N. E., but a large tract of 
sandstone (accompanied by a very little shale) stretches into it. The 
coast boundary of this tract is a line of about 4 miles, extending along 
the south eastern shore of the Island from Siglap to beyond Tanah 
Mera Besar (the Bed cliffs). It insulates the granitic N. E. projecting 
portion of the Island at Changy, embraces the northern coast from the 
inner extremity of this promontory to the inner extremity of that of 
Piingal, and then proceeds inland. The line of its junction on the N. 
W. with the granitic tract that surrounds it I have not yet ascertained, 
but it is probably irregular. On the S. W. it connects itself with the 
arenaceous band surrounding the plain previously mentioned, and, 
indeed, forms the larger portion of the boundary of the plain. It 
then stretches inland for some distance, having the S. E. projection of 
the great granite tract interposed between it and the arenaceous and 
shaley bands, first above noticed. P. Ubin is entirely hypogene, varying 
from granitic to compact types. Hornblende is largely developed. 
The structure of the rocks is highly curious and interesting. I have 
given much attention to this Island, and in the beginning of September 
last sent a full account of it, and of the geological views to which it 

6/6 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

seemed (o lead, to the Bataviaash Genootschap van Kunsten en Weten- 
schappen, in whose Transactions, the President writes me, it will appear- 
In this paper I had been led to some views with which I find Mr. 
Darwin had been occupied, and which are developed in the chapter on 
plutonic and metamorphic rocks in his geological observations on South 
America, of which, though bearing the same date as my paper, I did 
not receive a copy till about a fortnight ago. The germ of his ideas 
is however contained in his Volcanic Islands, which I have referred to 
in my paper. As I have also considered the subject from some other, 
and, as I believe, new points of view, I shall send you a copy of the 
paper in English, the Batavian Transactions being in Dutch.* The 
coast of the mainland behind P. U'bin consists of rocks some of which 
would be called plutonic and others volcanic like those of Pulo U'bin, 
but the whole are undoubtedly of the same contemporaneous origin. 
At Runto, in the estuary of the Johore River, sandstone, similar to that 
of the Singapore Red cliffs, and, like it, remarkable for being nearly 
horizontal, is exposed. Further up the River the rocks exposed are 
of a decomposed felspathic character, and exactly resemble some of 
those of the hypogene tract of Singapore. At one place a hard 
ferruginous crust about 9 inches thick overlaid a decomposed felspathic 
rock. Pulo Tikong, Besar and Kechil, consist chiefly of sandstones 
and in part of shales, often greatly altered by volcanic action. On the 
coast to the S. E. near Johore Hill, or at Tanjong Pingrang, are found, 
within a small compass, soft shale or clay, — clay indurated so as to 
resemble, or become, chert, — conglomerate highly indurated and parti- 
ally transformed, — quartz rock, — and traces of blackish brown slags, — 
indicating various degrees, and even some difference in the mode of 
the volcanic action. 

The connection between the crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the 
district is susceptible of two explanations. We may either consider 

* In a general descriptive sketch of some portion of the Straits of Malacca which I 
sent to the Geographical Society some time ago, I mentioned the singular grooved rocks 
at the Chinese Quarries on P. U'bin, and hazarded some conjectures respecting- their 
origin— when I wrote that paper I had made only one flying visit to the Quarries and 
was under the impression that the deep channels were confined to this locality. My 
first geological visit subsequently at once undeceived me. In the paper forwarded to the 
Batavian Society, I have shewn how these channels have resulted from the original 
structure of the rock under ordinary decomposing and eroding influences. 

1847. j including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, §-c. 677 

the former in their fluid or viscous state as having been the immediate 
agents of the volcanic and mechanical forces to which the latter have 
been subjected, or we may consider the former as the product of the 
first plutonic action beneath this region ; the latter as sedimentary rocks 
subsequently accumulated [over them] during a period of quiescence, 
and their fracture, upheaval, and alteration as the effects of a new 
excitement to activity in the plutonic sea below, in which the old 
plutonic crust, with its sedimentary covering, was broken and upheaved, 
and ferruginous or ferro-siliceous gases copiously emitted through the 
lines of fracture. On either supposition the ferruginous character of 
the emissions would be accounted for, because the upper granites, 
&c. contain much iron in their hornblende, and whether the mass below 
the granite crust, had remained in its fluid state during the deposit of 
the sedimentary rocks, or had been wholly solidified and subsequently 
melted down anew, the gases given off from it, when vents were formed, 
would probably preserve the same character as those given off from its 
original surface before any granitic crust had been formed. I cannot 
stop now to explain how the prevailing plutonic theories, as applied to 
the phenomena of the district, seemed, at the time when the paper 
first mentioned was written, to require the adoption of the opinion that 
the granites, &c. were in existence when the volcanic action took place. 
Even under the influence of these theories I considered the point as 
very doubtful, and, although it involved consequences irreconcileable 
with these theories, I ventured to hazard the conjecture that the upper 
hypogene rocks had been the immediate agents of the changes. The 
examination of Pulo l/bin shook my faith in these theories as expounded 
by some of their principal advocates, and the conjecture assumed a 
high degree of probability. Latterly I had all but embraced it, but 
still suspended its complete adoption in the hope that I would discover 
some phenomenon amounting to ocular proof of its truth. 

I have only another point to advert to before I come to Malacca. 
If you have taken any interest in Indian Geology, you arc doubtless 
acquainted with the rock called laterite which prevails so largely in 
southern India, and is also found in Bengal, &c, and which, to this day, 
remains the most fertile subject of discord amongst Indian Geologists, 
although the general opinion appears of late to have settled down in 
favor of its being a sedimentary deposit. In the paper first alluded to in 

078 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

this letter I made the following remarks with reference to laterite : — 
" Many of the clayey hills here [in Singapore] appear to me to be de- 
composed sienite, sometimes unaltered by supervening volcanic action, 
but generally partaking in the metamorphism which the matter of most 
of the elevated land has suffered from that cause." 

May I venture to suggest that the hypothesis which is developed in 
this paper for Singapore, might, if applied to the laterite of India, 
perhaps explain its origin, and, in doing so, to a certain extent also 
reconcile the conflicting opinions that have been maintained regarding 
it. All that I have read of the great laterite formations of the south of 
India, and which extend to the heart of Bengal, where they are describ- 
ed by Dr. Buchanan Hamilton, leads to the conclusion that they are 
not purely volcanic, sedimentary, or decomposed matter, but what I 
have termed semi-volcanic. The same formation is found at Malacca, 
and analogous deposits occur at Singapore, and both are inseparably 
associated, and evidently contemporaneous, with altered rocks of the 
kind previously noticed. If we conceive an area with trap, granite, 
sandstone, shale, &c. exposed at the surface, (in the atmosphere or in 
the sea,) and partly decomposed or disintegrated, to be subjected to a 
peculiar species of minor volcanic action like that which is described in 
this paper* (the distinctive phenomenon, probably, of one and the same 
geological epoch), the results would be, that with the occasional excep- 
tion of matter ejected from nq great depth, and some dykes and veins, 
the previous soft surface rocks would be merely altered and metamor- 
phosed by heat and impregnated with iron, derived perhaps from the 
basaltic and other ferriferous rocks through which the discharged steam, 
gases and water had passed in their ascent. Whether the action took 
place under or above the sea would be determined by the presence or 
absence of the ordinary marks of oceanic denudation. When clays 
strongly ferruginous and soft from saturation with water, are dried, the 
iron previously held in solution by the water is deposited between the 
particles and cements them into a hard compact rock. Hence the 

* Whether the upper plutonic rocks were the direct sources of the igneous action, or 
were themselves, together with the sedimentary rocks acted on by a lower plutonic sea, 
does not affect my explanation of the formation of laterites ; for whether I adopt the one 
or the other view of the source of the injections and impregnations which produced the 
laterites, or remain in doubt on the subject, the fact, deduced from the actual examination 
of these rocks, that they have been so produced, is not at all rendered doubtful. 

1847.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, fycr. { 6/9 

induration of laterite clays on exposure to the atmosphere." My 
opinion therefore was that though proper laterite was nothing more than 
one of the forms of alteration produced hy plutonic ferruginous gases, — 
that which, in the arbitrary scale formerly given, I have called the 5th 
degree, — and that any rock in which a sufficient quantity of clay was 
present, whether it were purely sedimentary or a decomposed crystal- 
line or compact rock, or whatever its origin or character in other re- 
spects was, — would, on being exposed to certain degrees of impregnation 
by such gases, and under the conditions before adverted to, become 
laterised. This opinion was abundantly confirmed by later observa. 
tions, but these also proved that iron alone was capable of producing 
rocks of a lateritic form. The result therefore was that although pro- 
per laterite is produced in the mode which I have mentioned, yet that 
mode is not essential to the formation of a lateritic structure. The 
only essential thing is the diffusion of iron in ramifications throughout 
a clayey rock. Get the iron so diffused, and it is of little consequence 
by what door it was introduced. The only distinctive quality of proper 
laterite is that it has not merely got the iron, but has been, in various 
degrees, baked in the process of impregnation, and close examination 
can always discover traces of this. On the other hand, iron may be 
introduced by aqueous saturation, and if the soft rocks so saturated have 
planes of inferior cohesion, as many rocks have, the iron will there 
accumulate. If the iron solution pervade a homogeneous clayey rock 
as water does a sponge the segregating or concretionary quality of iron 
so diffused may gradually draw it into connected nodules or ramifica- 
tions ; and indeed it is probable that in all cases of volcanic gaseous 
impregnation of the compact parts of rocks the ferruginous matter 
remained for a time diffused throughout the rock, and that this segre- 
gating tendency subsequently superinduced its contraction into ramifi- 
cations and blotches. Where the gaseous impregnation was weak, it 
would speedily draw into isolated blotches,— where stronger into isolat- 
ed concretions, — where strongest, and the heat not too great, into 
ramifications. Again the iron may be laid up in the heart of a crystal- 
line rock solidified from a plutonic fluid holding iron, and the essential 
condition for the production of the laterite structure may be found in 
decomposed hornblendic, or even black micaceous granites that have 
not been subjected to any supervening volcanic action, The oxidation 

4 T 

680 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

of iron solutions in clays on exposure to the air, and the combustion of 
rocks by heated ferruginous gas are chemically related, and the product 
of these two processes, geologically so widely sundered, is sometimes 
difficultly distinguishable by the eye. Ancient conglomeritic and brec- 
ciated laterites and ferruginous rocks, appear to have been formed in 
many localities at, or soon after, the period of the ferruginous emissions 
by fragments or pebbles settling down in a sandy or clayey base saturat- 
ed with ferruginous water. Similar conglomerates, breccias and sand- 
stones are at present forming along the coasts where the hills or banks 
above contain much iron ; but all these are very obviously distinguish- 
able from the original plutonically laterised sedimentary rocks. 

When I visited Malacca about two years ago I had paid very little 
attention to these subjects and had not formed the preceding views. 
When an opportunity occurred at the beginning of last month of 
revisiting the place, I eagerly seized the occasion of testing these views 
in a new locality, and one which had been described by Geologists, such 
as Captain Newbold, and Dr. Ward, familiar with the much vexed 
laterites of southern India. Captain Newbold, in his work on the Straits 
describes the Malacca hills " as being generally of granite with the 
exception of a few near the sea coast, which are of laterite overlying the 
granite. Specimens of hornblende rock have been brought to me, he 
continues, from a hill a little south of Malacca — the islets on the coasts 
are of granite of various kinds, with white, red and green felspar. In 
all, the felspar appears to be predominant, and mica deficient." Dr. 
Ward says of the Malacca leterite — " In all its properties it agrees exact- 
ly with the rock common on the Malabar coast and described by Dr. 
Buchanan under the name of laterite. 5 ' I was now therefore, for the 
first time, in a position to bring my theory to the strongest test, for I had 
not seen any specimen of Indian laterite, and could only compare some 
of the apparently analogous Singapore rocks with it from descriptions. 
Captain Newbold, in one of the latest of his numerous papers on the 
Geology of Southern India, describes very minutely the often mention- 
ed laterite of Beder and makes some remarks on the long debated ques- 
tion of origin. He combats the idea that it is a contemporaneous 
rock associating with trap, or a product like trap of igneous fusion. He 
also casts doubt on the theory, advocated by several Geologists, of the 
laterite being " nothing more than the result of the recent disintegra- 

1847.] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay 'Peninsula, fyc. 681 

tion of the granitic and trappean rocks in situ," and, without giving a 
decided opinion, says " the heds of lignite discovered by General Cullan 
and myself in the laterite of Malabar and Travancore and the deposits 
of petrified wood in the Red Hills of Pondichery, in a rock which, 
though differing in structure, I consider as identical in age with the 
laterite, and other facts too long for enumeration here, points rather to 
its detrital origin like sandstone"* {Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, Vol. XIII. p. 995, 1844.) Mr. Darwin, I may mention in 
passing, seems to lean to a similar opinion with respect to analogous 
rocks noticed by him. " The origin of these superficial beds," he says, 
" though sufficiently obscure, seems to be due to alluvial action on 
detritus abounding with iron." (Volcanic Islands, p. 143). 

The first lateritic locality which I visited on my arrival here was the 
Island of Pulo U'poe, from which much laterite has been removed for 
building purposes, and where it continues to be cut. The first fragment 
which I knocked off the rock at once satisfied me that my theory was 
correct. It was a rock totally different in its original character from 
any which I have found at the southern extremity of the Peninsula, 
but which, by the same agency that altered the ordinary sedimentary 
rocks there, had been transformed from a common argillo-micaceous 
schist into a rock undistinguishable, save on minute inspection, and, 
where the alteration has been great, absolutely undistinguishable from 
some of the altered sedimentary shales and clays of Singapore. Upon 
careful examination I found, as I expected, in the sections afforded by 
the coast of this little islet, the original unaltered micaceous rock with 
great bands or dykes and overlying masses, exhibiting abundant varieties 
of transformation from a rock slightly discoloured by the ferruginous 
action through several lateritic types, to the calcined slaggy form in 
which the original composition and structure are wholly obliterated. 
I cannot enter into further particulars. My subsequent examination 
of about fifty miles of the coast from Pulo Arang Arang (P. x\rram) 
southward, and of a portion of the interior of Malacca, has proved 
that the whole of this region has been originally composed in a great 
measure of the same argillo-micaceous schist. I shall hereafter give 

* I have read all Captain Newbold's papers with the attention which they deserve, and 
I think every fact which he notices in his notes on laterite tracts is reconcileable with 
the theory which 1 maintain, 

4 t 2 

682 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore, [July, 

its numcralogical characters, for I have not time nor means at present 
to ascertain them carefully. It is soft and glistering like silk, and 
leaves a powder on the fingers which exactly resemhles in appearance 
the fine glistering powdery down from a butterfly's wing. In some 
cases it is less dry and more argillaceous. With the exception of Cape 
Rachado* it has almost everywhere been more or less penetrated in 
bands (and broad spaces occasionally) by ferruginous gas which has 
transformed it into one or other of the forms before described or some 
intermediate forms. Dykes and veins of pure quartz and of quartz 
with numerous fissures filled with an iron crust are frequent in some 
localities, while in others they are wanting. Wherever these dykes 
and veins occur the foliation of the schist is much contorted. In some 
localities the surface is covered with black shining mamillated scoreous 
blocks passing down into a lateritic mass, in which the schist is often 
not greatly altered but is penetrated by ramifying dykes and veins of 
a ferruginous, quartzose, or quartzo-ferruginous character. Isolated 
pseudo-crystals and isolated plates of quartz occur in the schist in 
some places, and, on the other hand, patches of the schist are found 
in the hearts of large pieces of quartz. But it would require other 
20 pages to give even an outline of the varied and irregular manner 
in which the rock has been altered. If we did not every where come 
upon portions of the original rock unaltered, or find traces of it in 
the altered tracts, it would be almost impossible to believe that all the 
varieties of the latter have had a common origin. I must briefly allude 
to Cape Rachado. This is a bolder and. higher range than any found 
elsewhere along the coast and projects far into the Straits. It is the only 
locality which I have yet seen where the quartzose has predominated over 
the ferruginous action of the plutonic gases. The rock every where ex- 
hibits unequivocal evidence of its having been originally the same argillo- 
micaceous schist which prevails over the rest of the region. In some 
places the cliffs are almost wholly quartzose, — in others the rock is a con- 
geries of quartz veins and foliae, — in others the seams between the 
quartz folise have a coating of the original mica, — in others the original 
mica predominates and the quartz is more sparingly scattered through it. 
Broad dykes of compact quartz, of quartz mixed with a ferruginous 
crust, of numerous parallel veins with quartz crystals springing from 
* Where the plutonic action has been of a silicifying more than a fen-u^inating" nature. 

lS-l/\] including Notices of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, §c. 6*83 

their sides and the interstices filled with a black ferruginous substance 
sometimes dull and sometimes shining (apparently hydrated oxide of 
iron) and of quartz holding a similar substance in seams also occur. 
One of the largest and boldest cliffs has been converted into a compact 
siliceous rock pervaded by numerous quartzose and ferruginous dykes 
and veins. In some places a complete net-work of fissures ramifies 
through the rock, and it is evident that quartzo-ferruginous gas or 
vapour has been injected through these fissures and the large veins 
and dykes, and metamorphosed the rock. 

At the Water Islands south of Malacca, and at Tanjong Panchur 
and Budewa to the north, I carefully examined some large developments 
of granitic rocks. In the former I found some dykes composed of 
quartz felspar and a ferruginous substance similar to that already 
noticed. In decomposed felspar and also in solid quartz in those dykes 
I found much both of decomposed and of undecomposed iron pyrites. 
Although these dykes seem to countenance the idea that the plutonic 
agency which has so greatly affected the superior rocks was exerted 
after the formation of the upper granite, I have from all my observa- 
tions come to a different conclusion. I cannot now state its grounds, 
and I do not positively bind myself to an opinion to which perhaps I 
cannot demonstrate beyond doubt to be correct, but the result of my 
constant consideration of the subject in all its relations, and with 
reference to every new locality that I have explored, is as follows : — ■ 
The whole region has been subjected to plutonic reduction. The 
plutonic fluid by its pressure has caused fractures in N. W. S. E. lines, 
and it has swollen up in ramifying bands having that general direction. 
Its pressure and heat have varied at different portions of its surface. 
In some places the heat has been so intense as to reduce all the super- 
incumbent rock up to the very surface into its own substance, and it 
lias swollen up into mountains in the interior and hills in the exterior 
lateritic tracts of the Peninsula. 5 " 

* This is opposed to prevalent theory, and it may be asked whether in that case it 
would not have flowed over? But I have found it impossible to apply the prevalent 
plutonic theory, — I mean that of a necessarily Tartarean origin of granite, &c.,— to the 
granites of the south of the Peninsula, considered even perse, and I would ask in return 
whether there is any proof or probability that granite prior to solidification ever exists 
in the upper crust of the globe in any other form than as a viscid cohesive mass. Lei 
Fig. 1, PI, XXII. be the surface of a plutonic bubble swelling up and reducing 

68 1 On the Local and Relative Geology of Singapore. [July, 

The transformed and partially transformed sedimentary hill ranges 
rest, I conceive, upon granitic bubbles* where the plutonic action has 
been loss intense. The fissures and cracks formed by the pressure of 
these bubbles have been the channels, the gases given off from their 
surface the immediate agents, of all the alterations. The tracts where 
only granite now appears swelling above the surface had previously 
passed through the same stages. In other words laterite is one of the 
earliest stages in the reduction of the upper rocks superincumbent on 
a plutonic sea into the substance of which that sea is composed. 
Where the heat has been least intense, the upper rocks have merely 
been raised, — where greater, lateritic, scoreous, and other partially 
altered, hill ranges, have been produced. A higher degree of plutonic 
action has produced quartzo-ferruginous ranges like that of Cape 
Rachado. The highest degree has transformed or reduced the whole 
into granite and allied crystalline rocks, from the mode in which the 
granites, &c. come to the surface at Singapore, we see that the whole 
region there has been broken up by the plutonic sea below. I can 
proceed no further however at present, and must close this rough 
draught of my ideas. 

the superincumbent rock as well as upraising and fracturing 1 it. A great fissure would 
probably be produced when it reached a certain nearness to the surface. As it slowly 
pressed up it would appear as in (fig. 2), but as it became exposed to the atmosphere, it 
would have an increased tendency to solidify at the surface, and as it rose above the 
level of ad, (fig. 3), it might already have a semi-solid shell sufficient to prevent the 
already thickening mass within from swelling out laterally over the surfaces ab, cd; 
but suppose it was sufficiently viscid to do so, the consequence would be that the spaces 
oo (fig. 4), would be exposed to an intense heat on two sides and be reduced in a more 
or less crystalline form to a portion of the bubble. I believe that granitic bub- 
bles always swell up with exceeding slowness, and that the centre of the bub- 
ble (if its base be of great size) may remain for centuries, or even longer, in a 
viscid state, while a thick solid crust of granite has formed on the sides and summit, and 
that the central part will still exert as slow upward and outward pressure as it solidifies, 
and may itself be subject to a long continued elevatory pressure from the sea below- 
Ln other words the summits of granitic mountains and minor masses may go on rising 
above the base, after the latter with the whole surface has solidified, and when the base 
has no further upraisd movement save what it may possess in common with the plutonic 
sea below. Great dislocations in the upper crust must necessarily result, but does not 
every plutonic mountain range bear witness to such dislocations 1 I must refer to my 
paper on Pulo U'bin for the facts on which these veins are based. 

• I do not mean that each base or hill range has a corresponding protuberance on the 
surface of the plutonic base, but that the whole system of hills and hillocks has been 
produced by unequahtiea in that surface and by the directions which the principal and 
divergent lines of fracture have taken. 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 685 

On Various Genera of the Ruminants, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 


That there are more false facts than false theories in science is the 
profound remark of an eminent philosopher, and a remark which it is 
peculiarly incumbent on the real student of Nature needfully to hear 
in mind in relation to Mammals, because genuine wild specimens exhi- 
biting the mature and characteristic marks of their species are to be 
had but rarely and accidentally (owing to the progress of cultivation in 
all but utterly savage lands) ; whence has resulted almost necessarily a 
host of descriptions which, being drawn from very imperfect materials, 
are inadequate to fix the species, and a host of generalizations which, 
being deduced from such descriptions, are, of course, imperfect as 
generic designations. 

Such imperfect descriptions of species, and consequent defective (by 
omission and error) designations of them when thrown into classes or 
groups, are to be found in works of the highest authority ; and, though 
the causes of these short comings are obvious and not wholly matter* 
of reproach to our eminent guides in Zoology, yet is it very desirable 
now and then to caution the ordinary observer against them, lest im- 
plicit reliance upon high authority should cause his attention to slumber 
or somnambulize when it is of the utmost importance that that atten- 
tion should be wide awake and directed towards all the points to be 
observed ; for, the phcenomena being as scattered as they are numer- 
ous, and capable of being adequately noted only at the time and place 
of their rare and lucky occurrence, it is the one thing needful to the 
sound progress of the science whose business is with such phcenomena 
(the structures and the habits of wild animals) that alert observers 
should exist every where, in order that the rare occasions of observation 
be not lost. 

* Not so in so far a3 the phoenomena are casual, rare, and eminently dependant on 
time and place and lucky accident for means of adequate observation — but really so in so 
far as these persons have taken no measures whatever to enable those whose positions are 
favourable to the observation of such phoenomena to make the right use of their unique 
opportunities. This is the opprobrium of Zoological Societies, and a most grave one it 
is, though one from which many of the most eminent writers on Zoology are free, as 
having nothing to do with Societies. 

On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

I am fully of Cuvier's opinion that we are now 100 years too soon 
for the possihlc tracing of the filum areadneum of Nature, and conse- 
quently that the dry skin and inference system of the closet — which 
ambitiously seeks to work out an impossible problem by means the 
most inadequate and unfit, instead of supplying guidance to the only 
persons who are in a position to complete the necessary preliminary 
observations of the phoenomena thus prematurely sought to be genera- 
ted — is a mistake and a grievous one. But, though I hold that all 
present attempts at a general Systema Naturae are folly, and that the 
true business of the master of Library and Museum in the present 
infantine state of the science is, to quicken and guide the observing 
powers of the field naturalist and to thus multiply infinitely the 
chances of effective observation of phoenomena which are necessarily 
as scattered in the place, as uncertain in the time of their occurrence, 
yet have I no intention to underrate the value of subordinate Zoologi- 
cal aggregations or classings of animals into minor groups or genera, 
in the light of helps to memory and guides to observation.* On the 
contrary, I am most fully aware of the importance of all such classifi- 
cations in this light, and especially with reference to the material end 
of quickening and directing ordinary observation ; and what I regret 
is that no pains are bestowed in the proper quarter to draw up and 
disseminate any such directions, Let such a ' how to observe' be 
framed for each country where observation is still needful ; let it exhi- 
bit side by side the popular and scientific names of the chief groups of 
animals in such country ; and let each group have appended to it a 
distinct enumeration of the actual or supposed essential characters of 
such group, in other words, of the points that ought to be observed in 
regard to each group, whether for verification or augmentation ; and 
in ten years Zoology will make more real progress than under the con- 
tinuance of the present sj^stem it can do in a century ! 

The characters of the several groups of animals proper to any given 

country are now only to be had peicemeal in numerous costly works 

wherein hardly any one has time or means to seek them ; and they 

exist there, moreover, overlaid with a deal of the leather and prunella 

■ I i umbersome useless lore. Let the characters of groups be brought 

Such guide will always tend more and more towards the natural ^ysteni, and the 
• :ll till be those which least conflict with it. 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 687 

together in a cheap form, and stript of their buckram, and numberless 
men of sense and education will be found ready to apply them to their 
only true use in the examination of such wild animals as chance may 
throw into their way, though such men may be slow, as heretofore, 
to toil blindly for the convenience of others who ought to, but do not, 
seek to give interest and effect to their independant researches. Such a 
guide to ordinary observation is the one thing needful in order to 
interest men of sense in the matter. Let the means and ends, the 
structure and the habit, the organ and its use, be thus juxtaposed, and 
intelligent curiosity will soon be generally turned towards this wonder- 
ful system of adaptations, emanating from omniscience. Nor does it 
materially signify that all the indications of a genus or group of ani- 
mals be accurate. Only let all of them be set down, some in the shape 
of queries, and observation under favourable circumstances, that is of 
the fresh and perfect animal, not of its mere skin, will soon determine 
the fitness or reality of all such negative or positive marks of a group 
of animals as are supposed to belong to it. Structures and manners 
are the two heads under which the directions I advert to should fall. 
Let the ' what to observe' upon each of these two points be separately 
set down and applied to the several distinct lots or assortments of ani- 
mals proper to the country, and there will be forthwith a general and 
unlooked for effort to fill up the Zoological desiderata ! I pretend not 
in the present paper fully to exemplify my own precepts as above 
given ; nor have I the appliances requisite to the performance of the 
entire work suggested. That work must emanate from the public 
Museum and Library, and ought long since to have emanated from 
them, as their appropriate and best (infinitely best) fruit and repay- 
ment of the general contribution. For, where the phcenomena to be 
ascertained are those of rare and secluded animals, where the real 
objects of study are vital organs and their uses, let me ask any man of 
sense if there be any limit to the superiority of a system which should 
qualify the only persons in situations to note such phcenomena over the 
system which practically leaves such a work wholly to half a dozen men 
shut up in cities, though they are obliged to perform it by means so 
inadequate as skins, eked out now and then by bones ? This is a ques- 
tion well worthy of the consideration of Zoological Societies. My 
present purpose is to add my mite in the way of popularizing and 

4 u 

688 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July s 

completing the indication of genera among the Deer, Antelopes, Goats 
and Sheep, grounding upon II . Smith and W. Ogilby, whose researches 
into the essential structure of these groups of animals may be seen 
in the Regne Animal, English edition of Griffith, Vols, IV. and V. 
and in the Zoological Journal for December 1836, and Penny Magazine, 
article Antelope : to which add Mr. Gray on the Musk family, Zoolo- 
gical Journal for June 1836. Refering, then, the critical reader to the 
characters of groups as furnished by these writings, I proceed to 
exhibit the following amended and additional indications, as the results 
of several years' observation of nature, and as what I believe will, even 
if occasionally found inaccurate, tend to quicken and guide the obser- 
vation of my brethren of the services who are scattered over those 
wildernesses of this - vast land wherein only (or in the vicinity of 
which) its wild animals can be looked for, or adequately examined, (for 
they will not keep or carry), and who may be disposed to use their 
unique opportunities for the advancement of a knowledge of God's 
works, the meanest of which is a miracle of contrivance. We pause 
over a Watt's steam-engine, how much more should we pause over 
self-acting machines which support life and wed matter and spirit ! 


Mrigadi. Haranadi.* 

Hoofs cloven. Posteal plane of scull forming an obtuse angle with 
frontal plane. Horns solid, falling annually, proper to males only, 
(save Rein Deer) inserted, superiorly and proximately, below the 
frontal crest. Front teeth in the lower jaw 8. None above ; Canines 
normal and constant, found in both sexes, or in the males only. 
Molars £ , Mufle normal and constant (save only in Rein Deer and 
Elk). Teats 4, normally and constantly. Eye-pits constant. Groin 
pits vaguely defined or wanting. Feet-pits usually present, in all 4 
feet, or only in the hind. 

1. Genus Cervus. Stags. 
Mriga. Haran. 

Horns in males only, much branched, 2 basal, one central, and 
several terminal, snags. 

* The Sanscrit postfix adi, meaning et caitera, is the probable etymon, and certain 
equivalent of the Latin idoe and ince. 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. G89 

Mufle* large, covering the front of upper lip. 

Eye-pits moderate and moderately mobile. S-shaped. 

Feet-pits large in all 4 ? feet. 

Groin-pits none. 

Calcic gland and tuft posterior and external. 

Teats four. 

Canines in males only. 

Types, Cervus elaphus of Europe. 2, Cervus affinis of Saul forest or 
Mul Barah Sinha, and 3, Giana or Cervus wallichii of Tibet. These 
animals are further characterised by a very short tail, a large disc or 
pale space round the tail, and no proper mane. The Indian ones are 
confined to vast primitive forests on the plain. I have no notes of 
their intestines, or breeding. 

2. Genus Ru cervus. 
Baraiya or Barah Sinha. 

Horns in males only, with one basal snag and no central one, but 
their summits many-branched as in the true Stags or Elaphus. 

Mufle large, covering front of upper lip. 

Eye-pits moderate, mobile moderately. 

Feet-pits ? 

Groin-pits none. 

Calcic gland and tuft ? 

Teats four. 

Canines in males only. 

Type, Cervus elaphoides vel du vaucelli. 

This is the Baraiya or Barah Sinha. It inhabits reedy marshes and 
islands of great rivers along the whole Eastern and Northern skirt of 
Bengal and Hindosthan. Never enters the mountains or forests. 
Herds enormous in the Islands of the Brahmaputra. These animals 
are further distinguished, like the true stags, by the absence of the 
heavy mane of the Rusas, and by a short tail which however has no 
true caudal disc and is longer than in the Stags proper ? 

3. Genus Procervus. 
Gonr or Gower and Ghos. 

Horns in males only, small, smooth, greatly divergent, and much 
bent in the beam, like Bos, and furnished with only one ? snag which 
is basal and forward. Another subterminal ? 

* See N. B. at end for explanation of all these organs. 

4 u 2 

GyO On Various genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

Eye -pits medial, vertical. 

Feet-pits none. 

Groin-pits none. 

No calcic tuft nor gland ? 

Teats lour. 

Tushes in males only ? 

Type Cervus dimorphe. The Gonr or Ghos. 

Habitat Saul forest. 

Further subordinate marks of this genus are — 
Tail short. No caudal disc. A mane. 

The Gowers are not gregarious. They are confined to the Saul 

forest so far as appears. With their rutting season and gestation I am 

unacquainted. Intestines 56 feet. Small 29, great 27. Ccecum 19 

inches by 4. Diameter of small gut f inch. Liver 3-lobed and a lobu- 

lus. Lungs 4-lobed. Gall-bladder. 

4. Genus Rtjsa. 

Samber, Jarai (vulgo Jerrow). 

Horns in males only, trifurcate : 1 basal and 1 subterminal snag. 

No central one. 

Mufle large, covering the front of upper lip. 

Eye-pits very large and completely reversile. 

Feet-pits large in all 4 feet. 

Groin-pits none. 

Calcic gland and tuft, posterior and external. 

Teats four. 

Canines in both sexes. 

Type, Hippelaphus or the Samber, and Aristolelis or the Jarai : 
both continental species of India. 

Also, in the Islands, Equinus, Peronii, Etam, and Mariannus : but 
they want testing, all of them. 

Habitat, all the great forests of India and of its islands, and to a 
certain extent, the mountains above them, where the other large Deer 
are never seen. 

These animals are not gregarious : they have a long bluff tail like 
that of a docked horse ; no disc round it ; but a heavy mane over the 
whole neck. 

One anomalous species thence called Heterocerus has no upper snag- 
to its horns.* The Rusas rut in spring and then drop their horns. 

* Another large Deer of the Indo-chinese ranges of Hills is Panolia Eedii, the Cer- 
vu- Frontalis of Mr. McClelland. Not found West of the JBrahmaputra, 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 691 

Their females gestate 8 months and produce young in winter, occa- 
sionally so early as the end of October, and one at a birth. In con- 
finement the horns are usually dropt in April and take six months 
for their perfect replacement. The horns are not complete in form till 
the 4th year nor in size till the 8th year. Small gut 52 feet. Large 
31. Ccecum 15 inches by 4 J. 

5. Genus Axis. 

Chittal. Chittra-chittri. 

Horns in males only, with one basal and one subterminal snag, as in 
Rusa, but the beam more bent and the horns paler and smoother, and 
closer grained in structure, 

Mufle large, covering front of upper lip. 

Eye-pits large, very mobile. 

Feet-pits large, in hind feet only. 

Groin gland large ; sinus vague. 

Calcic gland and tuft, posteal and external. 

Teats four. 

Canines in males only. 

Types, 1, Axis major vel maculata vel nudipalpebra, or common 
spotted Deer or Chittal. 2, Axis ; medius or lesser spotted Deer or 
Jhow Laghuna. 3, Axis porcinus vel niger, or Hog Deer, or Para, 
or Khar Laghuna, or Sugoria. 

Habitat, general over the plains of India, whence the progress of 
cultivation has long since driven the larger Deer or Barah Sinhas and 
Rusas and Gowers (recte Gonr). These animals have a smooth, gener- 
ally spotted, coat, no mane, and a long tail reaching to the hock and 
ending in a point. It is singular that H. Smith should question their 
having eye-pits and canine teeth. 

The Spotted Deer are gregarious, the herds being often very large : 
the Hog Deer are less so, dwelling more in families. Their breeding 
season is May, June : their rutting season, December, January. They 
gestate 6 months. Intestines of lesser spotted species 65^ feet, where- 
of the small are 40 and the great 2o\. Ccecum 9£ inches by 3^, and 
5 inches of gut below it, of same calibre ; rest equal and narrow. 
Intestines of Hog Deer 41^ feet, whereof the lesser are 24^ and the 
larger 1 6f . Ccecum 8^ inches by 2f . They rut and breed like the 
spotted species. 

692 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

6. Genus Stylocerus or Stilthorn or Muntjac. 

Daria-Mriga. Ratwa, Kaker. 

Horns in males only, small, raised on high hairy pedicles, and hav- 
ing only one snag which is basal. 

Females with bristley tufts ending in knobs instead of horns. 
Eye-pits very large and extremely mobile. 

Facial creases, large, mobile, glandular, placed along inner side of 
horn pedicles towards their very forward salient bases. 

Feet-pits large, in hind feet only. 

No groin-pits. 

Mammae four. 

Canines in males only? large, trenchant, and exserted, as 

in the Musks. 
No calcic gland nor tuft. 

Types 1 sp. Vaginalis or the Kijang of Indian Islands. 
2 sp. Ratwa or the Kaker of Indian Continent. 

Habitat, general in Indian mountains and in forests at their bases. 
Never elsewhere. Seldom seen above 7000 feet in the Sub-Himalayas. 

The Muntjacs are not gregarious though 6 or 8 are occasionally found 
together. They prefer the dells to the tops, and the close to the open 
cover. Copse or brushwood of the Chinese bambu is a favourite retreat. 
They bark all the year but particularly in winter when the males are 
wanton. January, February is the common rutting, and June, July the 
common breeding season : the gestation being of 6 months ; but they 
breed occasionally at any season though only once a year, and have one 
or two young at a birth. 

The male's horns fall in May and are perfect again in August. Intes- 
tines : male 61 feet; whereof the small are 44 and large 17 feet. 
Ccecum 15 inches by 2^, and 9 inches of gut below it of same size. 
Rest, \ to f inch wide. Intestines ; female, 49 feet ; whereof small 
34 feet and great 15. Ccecum 12 inches by 2, 12 inches of gut below 
it of like diameter. 


Kasturadi. Mushkddi.* 
Feet cloven : no horns : front teeth 8 below, none above. Molar 

* See note in p. 688. 

1847-] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 693 

teeth £:£. Canines large. Cranium Cervine with the two planes gra- 
dually blended. 

7. Genus Moschus. Kastura, Muskhi-Haran. 
Mufle large, as in Deer. 

No eye-pits. 

No feet-pits. 

Large caudal gland with lateral pores. 

No inguinal pits. 

Calcic tuft and gland external and posteal. 

Large preputial gland and sac secreting the substance called 

musk, proper to males only. 
Teats four. 

False hoofs very large, acute, and touching the ground. 
Canines in both sexes : of males, large and exserted ; of 

females, small. 

Types, 1, Moschiferus. 2, Chrysogaster. 3, Leucogaster. 

Inhabit the great snowy mountain barriers of high Asia from the 
Himalaya to the Altai, and from the Beluttag to the Peling and 
Gajar. The Musks are confined to the snowy region amid the glassy 
precipices of which they leap with a power and security far more than 
Caprine, though owing to the unequal length of their legs they can 
descend slopes only with difficulty and falling are caught. They cannot 
climb at all, as Goats do, and are solitary. They rut in winter and 
produce young in summer (May- June), gestating 160 days. In 6 
weeks the young can shift for themselves and the mother drives them 
off. They can procreate ere they are a year old, and live 10 to 15 
years. One usually is produced at a birth in the cavities of the rocks. 
Intestines 33 to 36 feet, whereof the small are 23 to 24, and the great 
10 to 12 feet. Ccecum simple, 8 to 9 inches by 1 ; mean diameter of 
gut 1 inch. Gall bladder* constant. (See Journal, Nos. 87 and 118, 
and Gleanings, No. 34.) 

8. Genus Meminna. Pisora, Pise. 
Mufle large. 

No eye-pits. 

No feet-pits. 

No groin-pits. 

Calcic gland nude and external. 

* Prof. Owen doubts this. I have tested it a dozen of times since Di\ Campbell 
and I made the first examination in Nepaul. 

694 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

No preputial bag. 

Four teats. 

False hoofs, ordinary, small. 

Canines not exserted, and confined to males ? 

Type, Meminna Indica. Pisora and Pisai. 

Inhabits the forests of India in all parts, near to, but without the 

various ranges of Hills. 


Lesser hollow-horned Ruminants or Flocks. 

Hoofs cloven. Occipital 'plane of scull forming a small or large 

angle with frontal plane. Horns hollow, sheathed, persistent, with 

thin and dense, or thick and porous cores. Mufle small, for the most 

part, or wanting. Front teeth 8 below. None above. Canines present 

or absent. Molars £ or J- . Teats 4 or 2. Eye, feet, and groin, pits, 

present or absent. 


Antelope kind. 

Occipital plane of scull forming an obtuse angle with the frontal 
plane. Core of the horns thin, consisting of dense bone often with a 
clear sinus at the base within. Horns seated on the superior surface, 
below the crest of the frontals, and apart at bases. Canines frequent. 
Mufle present or absent. Teats normally 4 or 2. Feet-pits in all 4 
feet or only in the hind ones. 

Eye-pits present or absent. Groin-pits present or absent. 

N. B. These animals have also occasionally maxillary, intermaxil- 
lary and post-orbital sinuses, the number and high development of these 
organs being one decided characteristic of the Family. 

9. Genus Tetracerus. 

Chousinha. Chouka. 

Horns in males only, four in number. Two inter-orbital ; and two 

behind eyes, but below crest of forehead. 

Mufle large, as in Deer. 

Eye-pits medial, linear, longitudinal." 

Feet-pits in hind limbs only, or none. 

No inguinal pits. 

No calcic tuft or gland. 

Teats four? two? 

Canines in the males. 

184/.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 695 

Types, 1, Chikara. 2, Quadricornis. 3, Subquadricornutus. 4, lodes. 
5, Paccerois. (See Calcutta Journal Natural History for May, 1847.) 

Inhabit the forests of India generally. Avoid mountains and open 
plains. Not gregarious. Rutting season, summer. Breeding season, 
winter. Gestate 6 months, most young born in January, February. 
They are very shy, and when hunted lie close or go off far ahead, 
bounding like the common antelope, and hence one of their names, from 
Chouk, a leap. 

10. Genus Antelope. 
Antelopes Proper. 

Horns in males only. 

No mufle. 

Eye-pits, medial, very mobile, linear, vertically oblique. 

Feet-pits large in all 4 ? feet. 

Inguinal pits large and clearly denned. 

Calcic tufts ? 

Mammae two. 

Type, Cervicapra. Black Antelope. Barant and Sasin. Very gre- 
garious on the open dry plains of India generally. I have no notes of 
their intestines or of the breeding. 

11. Genus Gazella. 

Horns in both sexes. 

No mufle. 

Eye-pits distinct, mobile. 

Feet-pits very large in all 4 extremities. 

Inguinal pits large and distinct. 

Calcic tufts ? 

Mammae two. 

Type Dorcas. Foreign to India. 

12. GenUS TRAGOPS. (r payoff et w\p ) 

Chikara, Kalsipi. 
Horns in both sexes. 
No mufle. 
No eye-pits. • 
Feet-pits large in all 4 feet. 
Inguinal pits distinct. 
Calcic tufts posteal. 
Mammae two. 

Type, Antelope bennetti vel christii, found generally amid ravines of 

dry plains of India, and called Chikara and Kalsipi by natives ; Ravine 

Deer by Europeans. Not gregarious. 

4 x 

696 On Various Genera i of the Ruminants. [July, 

These animals have the lyrate horns common to both sexes, the knee 
tufts, lines along the flanks and ovine hairy nose of the Gazelles : but 
they are wholly void of eye-pits. The dark lustre of their large* eyes 
is as striking as in the 2 last groups. Gazelles differ from Antelopes 
in that their horns are lyrate, and that the females also carry them. 
The Tragops differ from both by the total absence of sub-orbital sinuses, 
or eye -pits. 

13. Genus Pantholops. 

Molar teeth f . 

Horns in males only. 

No mufle. 

No eye-pits. 

Feet-pits large in all 4 feet. 

Inguinal sacs, purse-like, large, pendent. 

Calcic tufts ? 

Mammse, two. 

Large intermaxillary sacs like double nostrils. 

Type, Antelope hodgsonii, Abel. The Chiru. 

Habitat open plains of Tibet. Gregarious, rutting season, winter. 
Breeding season, the summer. Gestate 6 months. One young at a 
birth. They are very pugnacious and jealous, and in their contests 
often break off their long horns one of them. Hence the rumour of 
Unicorns in Tibet. (See Gleanings and Journal Asiatic Society, Nos. 2 
and 27.) 

34. Genus Procapra, 
Goa and Ragoa. 
Horns in males only. 
No mufle. 
No eye-pits. 

Feet-pits small in all 4 feet, 
Post cornual sinus, large. 
No inguinal pores. 
Calcic tufts posteah 
Mammae two. 

Type P. picticaudata. Goa of Tibet, 

• This is one of the marks by which the Antelopine family may be distinguished from 
the small pale-eyed Goats or Caprine family, 

1847-] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 697 

Inhabits ravines on the open plains of Tibet in small herds or fami- 
lies. See Journal Asiatic Society, No. 1/3. 

15. Genus Kemas. 

Horns in both sexes. 

Mufle medial. 

No eye-pits. 

Feet-pits medial in all 4 feet. 

No groin-pits. 

Calcic tufts ? 

Mammae four. 

Type, Antelope Goral. The Goral. Habitat the Sub-Himalayas as 
far towards the snows as the great forests extend, to which exclusively 
these animals adhere. Dwell in families 4 — 6 together. Breed amid 
crags and rocky recesses. Young mostly born in May, June : gestate 
6 months. Rutting season January, February. Produce one young at 
a birth. 

16. Genus Nemorhcedus. 
Vel Capricornis.* 
Thar or Saraw. 
Horns in both sexes. 
Mufle medial. • 

Eye-pits round and furnished with a very large gland. 

Feet-pits extremely large in all 4 feet. 

Groin pits none. 

Calcic tufts none, nor gland. 

Mammae four. 

Type, Antelope thar. The Thar or Saraw. 

Habitat the Sub-Himalayas as far north as the great forests extend. 

Also, Antelope Sumatrensis of the Islands of India. 

The Gorals and Thars have the round black and ringed horns of 
Antelopes, which otherwise they little resemble, being stout clambering 
mountain animals, but not, as supposed, affined to the Bovines. The 
Gorals differ from the Thars by wanting the very glandulous eye-pits 
of the latter, and both are sundered from the Hemitrages by their large 

* Sumatrensis is Col. Smith's type, and Mr. Ogilby says this is identical in structure 
with the Thar, Mr. O.'s. type of Capricornis. If so, Col. Smith's generic name will 
have the priority ; if not, it will be the type of Nemorhedus and the Thar of Capricornis. 
Col. Smith's several species of Nemorhedus are as heterogeneous as Mr. Ogilby'sof 

4 x 2 

698 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

feet-pits, Antelopine horns, and absence of Caprine odour. The Thars 
are not gregarious at all. They rush with fearful precipitancy down 
the steep mountains they inhabit. Rutting season, February, March. 
Young (one) born in September, October. Gestate 8 months. Small 
gut 65 feet. Great 32 feet. Ccecum 15 inches long by 3 wide, and 
simple. Gall-bladder constant. (See Journal No. 45 for Sept. 1835.) 

Goats and sheep. 

Occipital plane of scull forming an acute angle with frontal plane. 
Cores of horns thick, porous and cellular. Horns seated superiorly on 
the crest of the forehead and by their union covering the top of the 
head. Canines wanting, Teats normally but two, rarely 4. Mufle 
abnormal and almost invariably absent. Feet-pits in all four feet or 
only in the fore-feet, or none. Eye and groin pits present or absent. 

17. Genus Hemitragus, 
Jharal vel Tehr. 
A small mufleo 
No eye-pits. 
No feet-pits. 
No inguinal pores. 
Calcic tufts ? 
Four teats. 

Strong caprine odour in males. 

Types. 1, Capra Jemlaica. 2, Capra Jharal vel Quadrimammis. 
3, Capra Waryatu, whose female is Hylocrius. Habitat the loftiest 
mountains of India : the Sub-Himalayas near the snows and the highest 
part of the Nilgiris. A very remarkable type tending to connect the 
keeled, compressed, hollow-horned and odorous Goats with the Deer 
family which want these marks, but possess the mufle and 4 teats of 
the Hemitrages, marks which the true Goats (and Sheep) are void of. 

The Jharal' s retreats are among the most inaccessible bare crags of 
the Hemachal, close to the perpetual snows, beyond the forests. They 
feed in the open glades below such crags, at early morning and evening, 
retiring in the day to their awful fastnesses. They are gregarious and 
the flocks often amount to 40 or 50 animals, but generally do not ex- 
ceed 20 or 30. If alarmed when feeding they go off at speed with a noise 
like thunder, but anon halt to gaze on the intruder, whose shot sends 

184/.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 699 

them off again under the guidance of an old male whom they all follow 
blindly. The rutting season is the winter. The females gestate 6 
months and produce usually but one young, in the months of June, 
July. The habitat and manners of the wild sheep are very similar to 
those of the Jharals, only the latter are still more dauntless and skilful 
climbers. If they can but touch a rough edge or crevice now and then, 
they will run up nearly perpendicular precipices of many feet eleva- 
tion ; and they will stand on a bit of rock not larger than one's palm, 
looking confidently down over sheer space, with not a shrub to break 
the awful absence of rest for the foot. In February 1842, a male Jharal 
in possession of the Court of Nepaul had intercourse with a female 
Axis, which in July produced a young hybrid of mixed appearance, but 
more like the mother than the father, and which lived and grew up a fine 
animal. I saw it last in October 1843. I note the circumstance as a 
strong corroboration of that affinity of the Hemitrages to the Deer 
(not Bovines, as Mr. Ogilby supposed) which is indicated by the 4 
teats and moist muzzle of the former, notwithstanding that the Hemi- 
trages in all other parts of their structure, as well as in their rank 
odour and in their manners are such perfect goats. From the true 
goats however they differ, besides the grand points noted, by the total 
absence of beard and of feet pores. Nor could I ever get any progeny 
from the goats by the Jharal,* though my male of the latter species 
had commerce with Goats of several breeds, repeatedly, during the 6 
years he lived with me, quite tame and going abroad with the sheep 
and goats. Small intestines 53 feet. Large, 25=78 feet. Ccecum 1 
foot long and 2^ inches wide. Small gut f inch in diameter ; great 
gut 2J. Ccecum simple, that is, not banded nor sacked. 

18. Genus Capra. 
Bakra Goats. 
Horns in both sexes. 
No mufle. 

Feet-pits in the forefeet only or none. 
No inguinal pores. 
Mammse two. 
Odour intense in males. 
Calcic tufts none. 

* They copulated freely and I was told would breed. Hence the erroneous statement 
in the Journal for Sept. 1835, disproved by experiments. 

700 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

Type, Capra cegagrus. Habitat Persia. Foreign to India, and not 
therefore subject to my examination : but the several tame races of 
Tibet and the sub-Himalayas (Chandra, Chyapu, Sinai) and also the 
common Goats of the plains (Dugu and Jamnaparia) are all typical. 
These animals are further distinguished by horns inserted very ob- 
liquely, not angular, compressed, and presenting a sharp keeled edge to 
the front, whereby they may be distinguished at once from all kinds of 
sheep and also from the Ibexes. They have likewise invariably a true 
beard common to both sexes, as have also the Ibexes ; but the sheep 
never : and, lastly the Goats have callosities on the chest and knees or 
knees only. Eminently bold, saucy and scandent. Gregarious. Rut 
in winter. Procreate in summer. Gestate under 5 months ? Produce 
3, 2, or 1 young at a birth. (See paper on tame Goats and Sheep of 
these regions, Sp. Mag. for June, 1847.) 

19. Genus Ibex. 
Skin. Kin. 
Horns in both sexes. 
No muflle. 

No eye-pits ? 
Feet-pits none ? 
No inguinal pores ? 
Mammae two. 
Odour in Males ? 
Calcic tufts ? 

Types. Europea. Caucasica. Jaela. Sakin. Sibirica. 

Habitat the loftiest mountains of Europe, Asia and Africa. Found 
in the Himalaya close to the snows. These animals, with the general 
manners, the odour and the beards of Goats, are distinguished invaria- 
bly by angular horns presenting a distinct surface, instead of a mere 
edge, to the front, thereby differing from the Goats proper and approxi- 
mating to the Sheep. The front of the horns is likewise remarkably 
nodose, and the horns are of great size and sickle-like curve. Their 
structural peculiarities want testing and will doubtless show deviation 
from the type of GSgagrus. Rut in autumn. Breed in spring. 
Gestate 5£ months. Produce 2 or 1 kids. Gregarious, bold, and 

20. Genus Ovis. 
Bhera. Sheep. 

184 7- J On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 701 

Horns in both sexes. 

No mufle. 

Eye-pits large but immobile. 

Feet-pits small but present in all four extremities. 
Inguinal glands distinct. Pores vaguely denned. 

Calcic tufts and glands none. 

Mammse two. 

No odour in males. 

Types, Ovis Ammon or the Argali of Siberia, and Ovis Ammonoides 
or the Argali of Tibet. 

Habitat the snowy barriers of high Asia, Ammon being confined to 
the remoter, and Ammonoides to the nearer ranges. These animals 
are further distinguished as a group by angular, compressed, heavily 
wrinkled horns turned almost into a perfect circle, and their flat points 
directed forwards and outwards ; by very short disced tails ; and by 
the absence of beard. The wild Sheep proper, or Nyens of the 
Tibetans, never mix with the Nahoors. They are far more hardy, 
active and independant than any tame breeds of their kind, as may 
well be supposed from their terrific abode amid the snowy peaks of 
Hemachal. They are gregarious, feed in the glens, seek refuge on the 
tops, and leap and run with Deer-like power, though as climbers inferior 
to the Hemitrages, and as leapers to the Musks. They are often 
snowed up for days without perishing, unless their breathing holes 
should betray them to man, a more terrible foe, than the direst incle- 
mency of the seasons ! They rut in winter, breed in early summer and 
gestate it is said, 6 months, probably not above 160 days. The Nyens 
or Ban Bheras (that is, wild sheep) seldom or never cross the Hema- 
chal, the Indian side of which range is the special habitat of the 
Nahoors, while to the North and West beyond Tibet, our animals 
are replaced by other species ; so that Tibet may be considered as 
the special habitat of one species and the plateaux North of Tibet 
as far as the Altai, as that of the other species, above cited as types 
of the true ovine form ; and it may here be added that the six sorts of 
tame sheep of Tibet and the Sub-Himalayas, all, without exception, 
exhibit the essential characters of that form. 

'02 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

21. Genus Pseudois.* 

Horns in both sexes. 
No mufle. 
No eye-pits. 

Feet-pits small in all four feet. 
Inguinal glands distinct. Pores vague. 
Calcic tufts none. 
Mammee two. 
No odour in males. 

Types, Ovis Nahoor and Ovis Barhel. 

Habitat the Himalayas. 

These animals are contradistinguished, besides the want of eye-pits, 
by rounded uncompressed smooth horns directed upwards and back- 
wards with great divergency, and their round points again bent inwards ; 
by short deer-like tails, but longer than in the last and undisced ; and, 
lastly, by the absence of any thing like mane or beard. The Na- 
hoors rut in winter, breed in summer and gestate 5^ months. Their 
manners, so far as known, resemble those of the Nyens : but the two 
never commingle nor approach each other, nor will the males, how 
long and completely soever they be tamed have sexual commerce with 
domestic sheep. Great gut 24 feet. Small gut 50 feet. Ccecum 17 
inches, by 2|- wide. Large gut near it, of same diameter. Liver 2 
lobed, each subdivided and a labulus. Ribs 13 pairs. 

22. Genus Caprovis. 

Horns in the males only. 
No mufle. 

Eye-pits small but distinct. 
No interdigital pits. 
Inguinal gland ? pore ? 
No calcic tuft ? 
Mammse two. 
No caprine odour, f 

Further distinguished by horns bent into a half circle over the back, 

* i//ev8os et tits, see Journal, No. 173. 

t This is the only form not verified by myself that I have meddled with, and I am 
indebted to the Prince of Canino for its characters. 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 703 

heavily wrinkled, angular and compressed, by deer-like tails, no beard 
nor mane nor caudal disc. 

Type, Ovis Musimon. The Moufflon. Habitat Corsica, Sardinia. 

N. B. The ' Mufle' is the naked moist skin round the end of the 
upper lip and nostrils, seen in perfection in the Ox. The ' eye-pits' 
are slits or punctures on the cheek, just below the eye. They are 
round or linear and elongate : and, if the latter, are curved or straight 
and can be turned almost inside out, or are partially or wholly immobile. 
The * feet-pits' are punctures in front of the pastern, in the cleft be- 
tween the two bones. The ' groin-pits' are fissures in the groin more 
or less definite in outline, and furnished with glands which secret a 
fragrant viscid substance very like the secretion of the other sinuses. 

The ' calcic glands' are placed on the stifle, inside and outside, or 
only the one, and are often naked and tumid externally. There is a 
whorl or callous nude spot in many quadrupeds at its side. 

The ' tail gland' of the Musks is very large and covers the whole 
tail nearly, and has a linear longitudinal pore on each side, and an 
abundant secretion. 

The * preputial gland' of the Musks is analogous to that of the 
civets and screwtails (Paradoxurus, vulgo Malwa.) It is placed on the 
prepuce, the penis opening in the midst of it. This organ is clearly 
subservient to sexual purposes, and so probably are several of the 
others, though the eye-pits have been variously referred to the facili- 
tation of breathing and of smelling. The supposed end of the inter- 
digital gland and pore or feet-pits, viz., the lubrication of the foot and 
preservation of the hoof in hot sandy deserts, is clearly erroneous, 
since the Thar has these organs of enormous size in all 4 extremities, 
though it be the tenant of moist cool mountain forests. It is proba- 
ble that the secretion from the foot pores enables these animals to 
find one another in those wildernesses of vast forest trees and dense 
undergrowth which constitute their range. 

The shape of the orifice and of the gland, and the nature of the 
secretion from the latter, as well as the periodical augmentation thereof, 
should be closely attended to — and that generally, or with reference to 
all these pits or sinuses. The distinctive form of the upper outline of 
the scull, and character of the core of the horns, in the Antelopidae or 
Antelope kind, and in the Capridse or Goat and Sheep kind, and again 

4 Y 

704 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

in the Deer kind and Ox kind, the subjoined sketches (See Plate) will 
best make me understood ; and I would suggest particular attention to this 
point as a key, as well to the mutual affinities, as to the differential cha- 
racters of all these groups. The Antelopes are thus clearly separated from 
the Goats and Sheep, and distributed into two groups of their own, one 
that of the more typical genera which class with the Flocks ; the 
other, that of the abnormal genera, which range with the Herds. — 
I meddle not with the last named group or Bovine Antelopes (Busdor- 
cidse) : but in regard to all the others, inclusive of the Musks whose 
Cervine affinities are thus made palpable, I beg of you to examine well 
the sketches and to note the signal and abrupt fall of the posteal plane 
of the sculls in the Caprine and Bovine Families, and its gentle slope in 
the Cervine and Antelopine Families. The Antelopine scull depicted 
is that of the Thar, and you may thus satisfy yourself at once that this 
type (as well as Kemas which agrees* with Nemorhcedus in this import- 
ant point) is an Antelopine, not Bovine type. In like manner — that is 
by attending to the form of the scull and the consequent position of the 
cmdyles — you may obtain demonstration of the Caprine affinities of 
Hemetragus ; and, in fact, the whole genera of these perplexing families 
may thus be set in order. 

I now proceed to the Bovines or Ox kind. 


Bovidse or Herds. Gaudrisha. 

Hoofs cloven. Occipital plane of scull forming a large angle with 
frontal plane. Horns hollow, persistent, sheathed, with a thick cel- 
lular core springing laterally from the apex of the forehead. f Mufle 
large. Front teeth, above none. Below 8. Canines none ? Molars 
•£. Teats 4. Dewlap present or wanting. 

* The agreement is not close, so that Goral is osculant towards the Capridae. The 
characters of both were printed by me (Journal, Sept. 1835) a year and quarter before 
Mr. Ogilby, (Dec. 1836, Zool. Jour.) 

t These marks of the family may be supposed exclusive to the subfamily : but I ap- 
prehend not, and that they will serve usefully to sunder the antelopes allied to Bos and 
those not so allied, or Antelopidse and Busdorcinae. 







1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 705 

Bovin^e or Ox KIND. 

Occipital plane of the scull forming a large angle with the frontal 
plane. Core of the horns massive and very porous or cellular. Horns 
in both sexes, inserted laterally on the apex of the frontal crest. 
Canines none. Mufle very large. Teats invariably 4. Dewlap, in most, 
normally. No eye-pits. No feet-pits. No groin-pits. 

1. Genus Bos. Oxen. 

Cranium moderate, compressed, proportional, or without excess in 
the cerebral or facial region. Frontals shorter than the face, flat, 
and not broader than long. 

Occipital plane of the scull square, never arched along the ridge line, 
nor indented by the temporal pits, smaller than the frontal plane and 
forming an acute angle therewith. 

Condyles of great foramen and of lower jaw, elevated greatly, and 
the jaw much curved. 

Horns attached to the highest line of the forehead, rounded, curved 
up or down or forward ascendantly. 

Orbits not salient. 

Thirteen pair of ribs. 

No true dorsal ridge, but sometimes a fleshy hump. 

Mufle very large and square. 

Dewlap great. 

Type. Bos domesticus. Gau. 

2. Genus Gaveus. 
Gavi or Gabi. 

Cranium large, having the ample flat forehead as long as the face 
and broader than long, but not ridged nor curved along its crest. 

Occipital plane equal to the frontal plane and moderately indented 
subcentrally by the temporal fosses, square and forming an acute angle 
with the frontal plane. 

Condyles of great foramen and of lower jaw low, and the jaw little 

Orbits not salient. 

4 t 2 

706 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

Horns attached to highest line of forehead, more or less depressed, 
and angular, and directed upwards and outwards with little curvature. 

A true dorsal ridge but confined to the withers. 

Mnfle moderate. 

Dewlap moderate. 

Thirteen pairs of ribs. 

Type. Bos frontalis vel Gayceus vel Sylhetanus. 

The Gavi or Gabi. Habitat trans-Brahmaputram, the forests under 
the ranges extending from Assam to the sea. The Senbar vel Phain 
may probably be a second species, and Bos Sondaicus or the Benteng, a 
3rd, and the insular species : but these want testing. The first is more 
than half redeemed from the wild state, like the Yak of Tibet. The 
others are entirely wild. I possess no memoranda of the soft anatomy 
or intestines, nor of the breeding season and gestation. 

3. Genus Bibos. 

Gaur, or Gauri Gau. 

Cranium large, massive, with the frontal and cerebral portions pre- 
ponderant over the facial. 

Frontals as long as the face, broader than long, concave and sur- 
mounted by a salient arched crest. 

Occipital plane spheroidal, very large, larger than the frontal plane, 
deeply indented centrally by the temporal pits, and forming an acute 
angle with the frontal plane. 

Orbits salient. 

Condyles of great foramen and of lower jaw low, and the latter 

Horns attached below crest of forehead, sub-depressed, sub-angular, 
and curving ascendantly. 

Thirteen pairs of ribs. 

Dorsal ridge co-extensive with the ribs, and of great elevation. 

Mufle small. 

Dewlap small. 

Type. Bos Gaurus vel ? Cavifrons. The Gaur or Gauri Gau. Caesar's 
wild Bull of Europe and Aristotle's of Persia, are two other species of 

1847.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 707 

Bibos or of Gaveus, which could we test them might be respectively 
called Classicus vel Csesaris et Aristotelis. The Gaurs inhabit the 
primitive forests of India generally, under the great ranges of moun- 
tains, such as the sub-Himalayas, the Vindhias, the Sathpuras, the 
Ghats, Eastern and Western, and their links with the Vindhias, and 
with the Nilgiris. Beyond the Brahmaputra Bibos is replaced by the 
last type, of which there would seem to be two species in the Indo- 
Chinese countries, one of them extending to Ceylon, if the Lanka wild 
Ox be not rather a Bibos ; I suspect there will prove to be at least two 
species of Bibos, as of Rusa, inhabitants of India between the Cape 
(Comorin) and the sub -Himalayas, or B. Gaurus and B. Cavifrons. 

For the skeletion of the Gaur, I may refer the reader to the Asia- 
tic Society's Journal, No. 114, and No. 69. Of the intestines I pos- 
sess no memorandum. The period of gestation was in Nepaul always 
stated to me to exceed that of the common Ox : but Mr. Elliot will 
not allow this. The Gours rut in winter and procreate in autumn, 
producing usually but one young at a birth. The herds are ordinari- 
ly rather numerous, 20, 30, 40, and sometines even double these num- 
bers, being found together, but in the breeding season, not above 10 
or 15 cows with a single mature vigorous bull, who jealously expels 
every young and old male from his Haram. The sub-Himalayan 
species entirely avoids the open Tarai on the one hand, and the hills 
on the other, adhering to the most solitary parts of the Saul forest, 
close to and between the salient spurs of the hills where the periodi- 
cal firing of the undergrowth of the forest never reaches. In the 
Deccan these animals are said to penetrate into the hills in the hot 
weather — very partially, I fancy, or else they must then lack cover on 
the plain, for they are not a mountain race at all. They feed early and 
late in the more open glades of the forest, posting sentinels the while 
and manifesting in their whole demeanour a degree of shyness unparal- 
leled among the Bovines. They never venture, even in the rains, when 
there is abundance of most rank vegetation to cover their approaches, 
into the open Tarai to depredate on the crops, as the wild Buffaloes 
constantly do ; nor do they ever associate, or have sexual commerce, 
with the tame cattle, though immense numbers of the latter every 
spring are driven into their retreats to feed, and remain there in a half 
wild- condition for three or four months, when the wild Buffaloes fre- 

708 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. [July, 

quently have sexual intercourse with the tame ones of their kind, of 
which likewise vast numbers are depastured there. Old males of the 
Gaur are often found solitarily wandering the forests they frequent, 
especially in winter : but these have probably been recently expelled 
the herds by their more vigorous juniors, and re-unite themselves with 
some herd after the season of love and contention has passed. It is 
exceedingly difficult to rear the Gauri Gau in confinement. Nor did 
I ever know a successful experiment, though the attempt has been, 
for 50 years past, constantly made by the Court of Nepal, which finds 
no difficulty in rearing wild Buffaloes and causing them to breed in 
confinement with the domestic species, which is thus greatly improved 
in size and other qualities. I have remarked on the excessive shyness 
of the Gaurs ; and it follows that, when approached, they will retreat 
so long as they can : but if compelled to stand and defend themselves, 
they do so with a courage and determination not to be surpassed. 
Their beef is unequalled for flavour and tenderness : but to the abori- 
gines only it is illicit food, and not to all tribes of them ; nor are any of 
them allowed to kill the Gaur in Hindu kingdoms. The Gaur stands 
from 6 to 6% feet high at the shoulder, and is either of a ruddy brown, 
alias tan, or of a black colour, the forehead and limbs below the mid 
flexures being pale, and the forehead and knees tufted. Capt. Tickell, 
a good observer, believes that there are two species of Bibos in the 
Chota Nagpoor territories alone I Doubtless close investigation will 
reveal many new species in the Bovinee. 

4. Genus Bison. 

Yak. Chouri Gau. 

Cranium moderate, depressed, with the facial portion exceeding the 
frontal and cerebral parts. 

Frontals broader than long, convex and forming on obtuse angle with 
the occipital plane. 

Occipital plane smaller than the frontal plane, trigonal or semi-circu- 
lar, and ridged by the parietes. 

Orbits salient. 

Condyles of great foramen and of lower jaw low, and the jaw straight. 
Horns attached below the curved or pent intercornual ridge, rounded 
and curving out of the horizontal line. 

184/.] On Various Genera of the Ruminants. 709 

Ribs 14 or 15 pairs. 

A true dorsal ridge, confined to the withers. 

Mufle small. 

Dewlap none. 

Types. Americanus et Poephagus. 

The latter is the Yak or Chouri Gau. 

It inhabits all the loftiest plateaux of High Asia between the Altai 
and the Himalaya, the Belut Tag and the Peling mountains, and is 
found wild as well as tame. It cannot live on this side the Himalayas 
beyond the immediate vicinity of the snows, where the tribes of the 
Cachar or Juxta-nivean region of the sub -Himalayas rear large herds 
and cross-breed with the common Ox. The Yak ruts in winter and 
produces young in autumn, after the usual period of Bovine gestation. 
Small intestines 107 feet. Large 33\ feet. Ccecum 2\ feet. Width of 
small gut 1^ inches ; of great, 2 inches ; of ccecum 4 inches. Ccecum 
simple, that is, not sacced nor banded. 

5. Genus Btjbaltjs. 

Bhainsa. Arna. 

Cranium large, elongate, compressed, exhibiting great excess in the 
facial over the frontal and cerebral portions. 

Frontals short, narrow, convex, forming an obtuse angle with the 
occipital plane. 

Occipital plane larger than the frontal, spheroidal, moderately in- 

Condyles of the foramen and lower jaw low, and the jaw little curved. 

Horns attached to highest line of frontals, depressed, angular, and 


Thirteen pairs of ribs. 
No true dorsal ridge nor hump. 
Mufle very large and square. 
Dewlap medial. 

Types. Bubalus Buffelus, or the Bhainsa, and Bubalus Arna or the 

Habitat of the tame, universal ; of the wild, also every where where 
adequate cover and swamp exist. The haunts of the Arna or wild 

* Bornouensis and Brachycerus are to my mind no Buffaloes, and their united horns 
form a character at variance not only with the genus but the family. Hence I denomi- 
nate them from this feature Syncerus (aw et Kepos). They are foreign to India, the laud 
of the true Buffaloes. 

710 On Various Genera of the Ruminants. I^vly^ 

Buffaloe are the margins rather than the interior of primeval forests. 
They never ascend the mountains, and adhere, like Rhinoceroses, to the 
most swampy sites of the districts they frequent. There is no animal 
upon which ages of domestication have made so small an impression as 
upon the Buffaloe, the tame species heing still most clearly referrible to 
the wild ones at present frequenting all the great swampy jungles of 
India. But in those wildernesses as in the cow-houses, a marked dis- 
tinction may be observed between the long-horned and curve-horned 
Buffaloes, or the Macrocerus and Speirocerus of my Catalogue — which 
whether they be separate species or merely varieties, I shall not venture 
to decide, but I incline to regard them as species. The length of the 
horns of Macrocerus is sometimes truly enormous, or 6^- feet each. 

There is such a pair in the British Museum, and another pair I saw 
in Tirhut. The Arna ruts in autumn and the females produce one or 
two young in summer after a gestation of 10 months. The herds are 
usually numerous and sometimes exceedingly so, though at the season 
of love the most lusty males lead off and appropriate several females 
with which they form small herds for the time. I have no memoran- 
dum of the intestines of the Arna. This noble species is, in the Saul 
forest and Tarai, a truly stupendous animal, as tall as the Gaur and 
longer considerably, and of such power and vigour as by his charge 
frequently to prostrate a well-sized elephant ! The wild animals are 
fully a third larger than the largest tame breed, and measure from 
snout to vent 10^ feet, and six to six and half feet high at the shoul- 
der. The wild Buffaloe is remarkable for the uniform shortness of its 
tail, which extends not lower than the hock ; for the tufts which cover 
his forehead and knees ; and, lastly, for the great size of his horns and 
the uniform high condition of the animal, so unlike the leanness and 
angularity of the domestic buffaloe' s figure, even at its best. 

I have now disposed of all the Bovines proper of India, and might 
next proceed to the Bovine Antelopes or Busdorcinae which form an- 
other sub-family of the Bovidae. But those animals, with one excep- 
tion, and that a doubtful one — viz. Portax picta or the Nilgau— -are 
wholly foreign to India, and the Nilgau itself rarely found on the left 
bank of the Ganges, how common soever across that river all the way 
to the Deccan and Carnatic. Wherefore, having no personal knowledge 
of the group, I leave it untouched. It will be seen above that my 

184 7-] Notice on the Ferruginous Spherules. 711 

principle of generic classification is organic. I assume that every 
organic variation is a sign of genus ; that nothing but organic variation 
is a sign of genus ; that we are too ignorant at present of the real 
nature and use of most organs to decide on their relative value and to 
reject some because they seem comparatively uninfluential on the 
habits and economy of the animal endowed with them ; that the organ 
is always the datum ; its use always the desideratum, and that all or- 
gans ought to be prominently set forth until their structures, uses and 
relative importance be decided on ; that all three sorts of teeth are 
organs, and all therefore are properly introduced to mark genera and 
even higher groups ; that there is not that entire uniformity of denti- 
tion among the Ruminants which has been so long asserted ; and, 
lastly, that the special form of the horns in the Cirvidse, though not 
strictly an organic mark, may yet be wisely used at present to help the 
indication of genera^ because it is a very palpable sign, and one besides 
usually harmonising with, and indicative of other and organic modifica- 
tions yet partially or wholly understood.* 

Notice on the Ferruginous Spherules imbedded in Sandstone from Lul- 

lutpore, in Bundelcund, by Dr. G. G. Spilsbury.— By H. Pid- 

dington, Curator Museum Economic Geology. 

We have received from Dr. Spilsbury an additional supply of the cu- 
rious little Ferruginous Spherules described in my report of September 
1846, from their resemblance in miniature to the spherical volcanic 
Bombs figured by Mr. Darwin as being possibly volcanic grape-shot, and 
since that time I have observed that some being sent to the Agricultural 
Society, Dr. McClelland thought they might be fossil fruits. I have 
seen these and find them externally the same as ours, and I have there- 
fore submitted ours to a farther examination, of which the result is — 

That they are infusible before the blowpipe ; that they are not mag- 
netic, but when exposed to the reducing flame of the blowpipe they 
become so. That when dissected by long immersion in muriatic acid 
they leave nothing but a residuum of coarse white granular silex and 

* Mr. Hodgson's correction of an oversight in the description of Genus Axis, page 
691, reached us after the sheet had been printed off. For " canines in males only," read 
" canines in both sexes."— Ens. 

4 z 

712 Notice on the Ferruginous Spherules. [July, 

a finer one in a gray impalpable powder, which being examined before 
the blowpipe is silica with oxide of Iron. 

There is no trace of any thing like organic arrangement, such as cells, 
&c. which are rarely completely obliterated in fossil fruits, how com- 
plete soever the mineralisation of the substance of the fruit may be. 

The strongest proof however to my mind that they are not fossil fruits, 
but originally ferruginous spherules, whether formed by volcanic action 
(or by that which produces the pisolitic iron ores ?) arises from the 
matrix in some of the specimens being almost wholly destitute of iron ! 
and the spherule having evidently given iron to it, round its place, in 
which when detached it leaves a coating of peroxide of iron which 
stains the sandstone. Now if the spherule had been originally a fruit, 
it must have obtained its iron from the sandstone itself or from filtra- 
tion through it, which would have stained it, for we know of no colour- 
less solution of iron like those of silex and lime, which may pass through 
a rock and be deposited in bodies for which they have an affinity 
without leaving coloured traces of their passage. 

One which I fractured contained a nucleus, excentrically situated, of 
coarse sand, as if it had been inclosed in a globule of molten iron. 

This spherule weighed 33 grains and gave by muriatic acid approxi- 
matively as follows : 

Of coarse silica, 16 grs. 

Fine impalpable powder of silica with some iron,. . 4 
Oxide of Iron, 13 


I am therefore still inclined to think these spherules inorganic, and 
that they have been suddenly deposited in their present position as 
ferruginous globules, but by what agency we cannot say. The amount 
of sand in them would almost entitle them to be called ferruginous 

Mr. Darwin, in his recent work on South America, p. 123, describes 
some ferruginous volcanic concretions, which are however fusible, as 
from two inches to two feet in diameter ; their insides consisting of a 
fine scarcely adherent volcanic sand or of an argillaceous tuff. He 
quotes also D'Aubuisson (to whose work I have not the opportunity 
of referring) as adverting to the tendency of iron to form hollow concre- 

1847-] -ZVb tice of th e Deo Mown ees. 713 

tions or shells containing incoherent matter. Our spherulites are evi- 
dently yet a problem for resolution, and it is only by attention to the 
mineralogical conditions of it that we can hope to see its geological 
bearings properly estimated. 

Notice of the Deo Monnees* or sacred beads of Assam, by the same. 

Major Jenkins sends me in a letter a string of six of these singular 
objects, of which he says : — 

" I shall be obliged if you can tell me what these beads are, and if 
you know where any similar are to be had, and whether they are artifi- 
cial or natural? I suppose the latter are jaspers V 

" You may have seen such and blue and white beads made into neck- 
laces by the Faqueers, the blue and these are in very great demand with 
all our hill tribes, and could I obtain a few strings of sizes they would be 
very useful to give as occasional presents to chiefs whom we may seek 
to attach to our government. Why these beads are considered so valu- 
able amongst these tribes I only account for by supposing they are very 
scarce, could they not be easily imitated V 

And Captain Smith writing to him says : — 

" I send yon some of the Deo Monnees so prized by the Singphos 
and without a string of them, a wife is not to be had. I send small 
ones, as I should have to pay 5 lis. for a large sized one ; those similar 
in grain to the Ash wood and irregularly bored are most prized, they 
should be of both the colors I send ; they are valued most because 
they are supposed to be the real Deo Monnee, and are said to be found 
ready bored. Those that are particularly smooth outside, and regular- 
ly bored are not so valued, as they are thought to be the work of man's 
hands, whereas the others are by the gods themselves.'* 

These singular objects of veneration (the small-sized ones as sent to 
us) are small flat circular disks, about from one to 1^- eighth of an inch 
thick and from one to two eighths in diameter, with holes in the middle 
or towards it. The colors are from a dirty greenish yellow to a bright 
sealing wax red ; some are yellowish and marbled with the red colour in 
veins like Jaspers, but the red ones are not marbled with yellow. These 
* Deo Momiee, Jewel of the gods. 

4 z 2 

714 Notice of the Deo Monnees. [July, 

disks appear at first sight like sections of the jasperized stems of 
gramineous plants, or small pithy wood, and at the edges some of them 
(the yellow more than the red) appear marked with strioe exactly like 
part of a small petrified twig. When polished however no traces of 
vessels can be discerned on the transverse section of either the green or 
red ones by a magnifier. 

Selecting one which was a fair medium between the yellow and the 
red, I submitted it to the following tests. Premising however that its 
entire weight was not more than 1-2- grain. 


It is excessively brittle, the fracture may be called splintery — con- 
choidal, as well as one can distinguish in such minute specimens, and 
i<*is the most splintery substance I am acquainted with, the slightest 
touches of the pestle making it fly as if from an explosion, so that it must 
be powdered in a covered or a steel mortar. The fractured surface is 
that of a red enamel or bright sealing wax. The powder resembles 
brick-dust. The hardness is 5-6, or between Apatite and Adularia. 
It scratches Fluor readily, and does not yield to the knife. 

It does not adhere to the tongue or show any effervescence with 
acids. Its smell, if any thing with such small specimens, is metallic 
when breathed upon. It is not magnetic. 

Before the blowpipe in the forceps and on charcoal it fuses immedi- 
ately to a dark steel- coloured brilliant globule, which below is marbled 
with broad greyish and dirty white veins. This globule is not magne- 
tic and internally has the red fracture of the fresh Deo Monnee. 

With borax on Platina wire it fuses entirely to a bright emerald 
green glass while hot, which becomes of a pale blue on cooling. 

With the addition of metallic tin this bead gives a brownish red 
enamel. The colouring matter of the Deo Monnee therefore is princi- 
pally protoxide, and perhaps the suboxide of copper, and, as will be 
subsequently seen some iron. 

Via Humidd. 

The powder is not soluble in Muriatic, Sulphuric or Nitric acids. 
The Sulphuric acid gives it a dull brick or brown-red colour which 
becomes brighter after several clays, the other two acids brighten the 
powder almost to an orange, though quite colourless. 

1847.] Notice of the Deo Monnees. 715 

Boiled in Nitro-Hydrochloric acid a part appeared to dissolve and 
the vapour had a remarkably disagreeable smell. 

The filtered solution gave traces of Iron, and faintly but distinctly of 
Copper, though not so strong as one would expect from the blowpipe 
test. The red powder remaining on the filter fused readily with caus- 
tic soda in a silver capsule, and whe'n cold was a dirty greenish mass, the 
whole of which was soluble in Muriatic acid and the solution gave 
also traces of Iron and Copper. 

It was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in pure water, when it 
left untouched a buff- coloured powder, which by the blowpipe was 
found to be silica tinged with Iron, the solution gave as before traces of 
Iron; but was too dilute to show the Copper. I suppose indeed that much 
of the Copper may have been volatilised, and it is possible that the 
substance may contain Arsenic. 

The above I publish merely as a guide for future investigations when 
more of the substance can be obtained, such preliminary notes being 
always of great utility to the working chemist. In reply to Major 
Jenkins I should say — 

That the fusibility and low degree of hardness of the one bead we 
have experimented upon, while it puts it out of the classes of Jaspers 
and Pitchstones (of which further we know of none containing copper?) 
would incline as to believe that it is an enamel, in which the oxides of 
copper are frequently used as the red colouring matters ; and it is not 
difficult to suppose that the Singphos obtain these, fabricated to imitate 
Jaspers of these colours, through tribes in intercourse with the Chinese 
ofYunan. The talent of the Chinese in enamel work of all kinds we 
well know, and no doubt the beads might be imitated by any person 
who understood enamelling. 

The only natural mineral beads I can find in the bazar are red and 
white cornelians. Some of blue glass have, I observe, strice on the 
unground facets so that the circumstance of our Deo Monnees having 
them does not count as an evidence of their being natural productions. 




June, 1847. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
Wednesday evening, the 2d of June. 

Capt, ¥m. Munro, in the Chair. 

The minutes of proceedings of the last meeting were read and adopt- 
ed, and the accounts and vouchers for May laid on the table as usual. 

The following gentlemen having been duly proposed and seconded at 
the May meeting, were b allotted for and duly elected : — 

R. O'Dowda, Esq. 
Lieut. Thuillier, B. A. 
J. B. Elliott, Esq. C. S. 
H. W. Elliott, Esq. C. S. 
Capt. Thos. Brodie, 5th N. I. 
Lieut. Ed. Tuite Dalton, 9th N. I. 
C. B, Skinner, Esq. 
F. E. Hall, Esq. 
J. Johnstone, Esq. 

Mr. E. Currie of the Civil Service was named as a candidate for elec- 
tion, proposed by Mr. E. C. Samuells, seconded by Mr. Bushby. 

Read letters — 

From Major Sturt, Secretary to Government of India, Military 
Department, forwarding copy of a pamphlet by Professor Ansted, enti- 
tled, " Facts and suggestions concerning the Economic Geology of 

From Mr. Secretary Young, forwarding the annexed correspondence 
regarding the discovery of Cannel coal at Junk Ceylon. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 7\7 

(No. 461.) 
From the Under Secretary to the Government of Bengal, 
To the Secretary to the Asiatic Society, 
Steam. Dated, Fort William, the 19th May, 1847. 

Letter from the Governor of P. W Sir —I am directedto transmit for 

Island, Singapore and Malacca, No. 31 ... „ . „ _ 

of 27th February, 1847. tiie information of the Society a copy 

Ditto Mint Master of Calcutta No. 456, f t h e Correspondence noted in the 

dated 30th ultimo, 1 Enclosure. . x 

Ditto to Governor of P. VV. Island Sin- margin regarding a specimen of Coal 

gapore and Malacca, No. 469, dated 19th discovered in Junk Ceylon< 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

A. R. Young, 

Under-Secretary to the Government of Bengal. 

(No. 31.) 
From the Governor of P. W. Island, Singapore and Malacca, 
To C. Beadon, Esq., Under-Secretary to the Goverment of Bengal, Fort 
William. Dated, Singapore, 27th February, 1847. 

Sir,— My letter under date the 26th July 1845, No. 124, will have made 
the Hon'ble the Deputy Governor of Bengal acquainted with my belief 
that Coal was to be found in the vicinity of Penang, and although I failed at 
that time, in discovering the mineral, yet I did not relax my inquiries, and 
I am now enabled to report very satisfactorily on the subject. 

On the recent return of the Hon'ble East India Company's Steamer 
Hooghly from the Northern end of the Straits, after conveying the Hon'ble 
Recorder, and Court Establishment to Penang, Captain Congalton brought 
me a specimen of Coal which had been deposited by some person at the 
Harbour Master's Office ; search had been made for the party without avail, 
and I apprehended that I should be again baffled, when I was favored with a 
letter, regarding the said Coal, by the Resident Councillor at Penang, a copy 
of which I beg to enclose. 

The Hon'ble the Deputy Governor will observe that the Coal now dis- 
covered, (a specimen of which I beg to forward for the purpose of being 
tested,) is found on the Southern Coast of the Island of Junk Ceylon, which 
is not far from the River Gurbie, on the Malayan Peninsula, where my for- 
mer search was made, and if we may judge from the seam noticed by Kong 
Kiyon, who brought in the Coal, there must be a large quantity available. 

I do not think that Kong Kiyon is competent to enter into the engage- 
ment proposed by the Resident Councillor at Penang, or that we should be 
justified in making any agreement with him to supply the mineral from the 
territory of our Ally, the King of Siam, without previously ascertaining 

718 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

how far he may be cognizant of such a proceeding ; neither would the price 
demanded, viz. 7 dollars per ton, justify me in laying in any quantity whilst 
that of ascertained good quality can be purchased for 6 dollars per ton. 

I have however ventured to authorize Mr. Garling, to commission from 
Kong Kiyon two or three coyans of the Coal, and on delivery, to present 
him with 25 dollars from Government in addition to the price of the Coal, 
for having made the discovery known to the authorities, and with a view of 
inducing others to come forward with any information likely to develope the 
resources of these settlements, and the adjacent native states, which I trust 
will meet with the approval of the Hon'ble the Deputy Governor of Bengal. 

The Junks from China and Cochin China are now daily making their ap- 
pearance, and I am averse to withdrawing the Steamer from the vicinity of 
Point Romania for any lengthened period, or I would have -furnished a more 
full Report on the subject of this Coal, but I hope to proceed on my an- 
nual tour early in May, or as soon as it shall be ascertained, by the change 
of the monsoon, that the whole of the Junks of the season have arrived, 
when I shall send the Hooghly to Junk Ceylon, and do myself the honor of 
reporting the result. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 
(Signed) W. J. Butterworth, 

Singapore, 27th February, 1847. 

(No. 161 of 1847.) 
From the Resident Councillor Prince of Wales Island. 
To the Hon'ble the Governor, fyc. Sfc. fyc. 
Sir, — Captain Congalton, in command of the Hon'ble Company's Steamer 
Hooghly, will have shown to you a muster of Coal brought to Penang just 
about the time the Steamer reached this port. He procured the muster from 
Mr. Gottlieb, the Harbour Master, but no particulars could be obtained, as the 
man who brought the sample could not be found. Mr. Gottlieb having at last 
succeeded in tracing the man, sent him to my office, and I have now the 
honor of giving you the result of my inquiries. The man's name is Kong 
Kiyon, a Siamese by community, but born in Penang. By his statement, 
the Sample was found on the river bank mingled with the mud, close upon 
the jungle, and about 2 or 3 hundred feet from the mouth of the river, on 
the Southern Coast of the Island of Junk Ceylon. There are rocks on the 
coast — Kong Kiyon went there to collect Ratans — any persons may there 
go into the jungles and collect what they please ; sometime since he brought 
a piece of this mineral to Penang, but it was considered as useless. Having 
been spoken to on the subject, immediately he came upon this Coal as stated, 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society . 719 

he set to cooking his rice with it, and finding it answer the purpose well, he 
ventured to bring away about 4 or 5 coyans of it. The boat has now gone 
away and he has now left but one small piece, which he promised to bring to 
my office. 

He discovered a stratum ab out 3 feet in thickness close under the surface, 
but of its length and breadth he knows nothing. Why the people do not 
use it for culinary purposes he knows not, but supposes that they may know 
nothing about it. There are no inhabitants in the vicinity of the Coal, and 
he entertains no difficulty in bringing away any quantity. 

Kong Kiyon told Mr. Gottlieb that he would engage to bring the Coal at 
the rate of &\2 per coyang of 45 Peculs. He has thought better of it. 
He tells me that, after consulting his comrades, he would not engage under 
*8150 for an 8 coyang boat load, being upwards of 50 per cent, beyond his 
offer to Mr. Gottlieb. But Kong Kiyon says, that for ^150 per load of an 
8 coyang boat, he will enter into a bond with securities to supply the mine- 
ral always, provided a small advance of cash be made to him, as he has no 
funds of his own. 

Mr. Gottlieb brought one piece burnt. It had the appearance and smell 
of a common cinder, only it was very light in weight. Captain Congalton 
spoke well of it after trial. 

I shall await your instructions in this matter. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) S. Garling, 

Resident Councillor. 

P. W. Island, the 13th February, 1847. 

\5th. — P. S. The specimen of Coal not having yet come to hand, I shall 
no longer detain this letter. 

(Signed) S. Garling, 

k Resident Councillor. 

(True Copy) 
(Signed) W. J. Butterworth, 

(No. 290.) 
Copy of this letter and of its enclosure, together with the specimen of 
Coal otherwise received, forwarded to the Mint Master of Calcutta, for the 
purpose therein mentioned. 

By order of the Hon'ble the Deputy Governor of Bengal. 

(Signed) C. Beadon, 
Under Secretary to the Governor of Bengal. 
Fort William, 1th April, 1847. 

5 A 

720 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

(No. 456 of 1846-47.) 

From Lieut. -Col. W. N. Forbes, Mint Master. 

To C. Beadon, Esq. Under Secretary to the Goverment of Bengal. 

Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 290, 
elated the 7th April 1847, forwarding a copy of a letter and enclosures from 
the Governor of P. W. Island, Singapore and Malacca, together with the 
specimen of Coal which accompanied them, and in reply to state that, as the 
specimen supplied was insufficient for experiments conducted in the Steam 
Engine, or other mint furnaces, I requested Dr. W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 
Chemical Examiner to Goverment to examine it in detail, and I have now the 
pleasure of transmitting in original his very satisfactory report on its assay 
and analysis. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. N. Forbes, 

Mint Master. 
Calcutta Mint, the 20th April, 1847. 

(No. 26.) 

From Dr. W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Chemical Examiner to Government r 
To Lieut.-Col. W. N. Forbes, Mint Master. 

Dated, Chemical Examiner's Office, Fort William, 30th April, 1847. 

Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 14th inst. requesting me to furnish a 
report on a specimen of Coal received from e the Government of Bengal, I have 
the honor to send you the accompanying memorandum of the results of its 
analysis, which shows that this Coal is by far the most valuable hitherto 
found in this or adjacent countries. 

2. The coal is identical with the " Cannel" or " Wigan" kind. It is free 
from sulphur, cokes well and yields such an abundance of gaseous inflam- 
mable matter as to be of the utmost value for generating steam or manufac- 
turing gas. The proportion of ash is moreover very small. The discovery 
of this kind of coal promises moreover to prove of additional importance in 
as much as it is generally found to accompany deposits of the richest and 
best ordinary coking coal. 

3. The documents sent with your letter are herewith returned. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 

Chemical Examiner. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


Memorandum of composition of specimen of Coal from Junk Ce}don, 
compared with that of English Cannel Coal. 


Specific gra- 

In 100 Parts. 

Volatile mat- 



Junk Ceylon Coal, 

English Cannel Coal, 

1. 25 
1. 27t 




(Signed) W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 

Chemical Examiner. 
Calcutta, 30th April, 1847. 

* Dr. Thomson. — Brande's Manual, pp. 9, 83. 

f Berthier — Traite des Essais, Vol. 1, pp. 328, 336 and 339. 

(No. 469.) 
From the Under Secretary to the Government of Bengal, 

To the Governor of Prince of Wales' Island, Singapore and Malacca, 
Dated Fort William, the 19th May, 1847. 
Sir, — I am directed to transmit for your information copy of a letter from 
the Mint Master of Calcutta, No. 456, dated the 30th ultimo, with the Chemi- 
cal Examiner's Report which accompanied it, on the specimen of Coal receiv- 
ed with your letter No. 31, dated the 27th February last. 

2. You will observe that the quantity forwarded by you was not sufficient 
for such experiments as are conducted in the Steam Engine and Mint Fur- 
naces, and you are therefore requested to procure a larger supply of the same 
description of Coal. It is very desirable too that the locality in which it is 
found should be more accurately ascertained and described, and the Deputy 
Governor feels assured that you will use every effort to obtain the fullest 
particulars on this point as well as every other connected with this important 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) A. R. Young, 
Under-Secretary to the Government of Bengal. 
Fort William, the 19th May, 1847. 

(True Copies.) 

A. R. Young, 

Under-Secretary to the Government of Bengal. 

From Captain James Abbott, giving further details on the manufac- 
ture of the Damasqued sword blades of Goojrat. 

5 a 2 

722 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society , [June, 

From Mr. Hodgson, forwarding a paper on the crestless Porcupine, 
with plates. 

From the Rev. Mr. Mason ditto on the Gamboge tree of Tenasserim. 

From Dr. Cantor ditto on the Reptiles of the Malayan peninsula 
and Islands. 

From Mr. Piddington, presenting a chart of the hurricanes in the 
bay of Bengal. 

From the Officiating Deputy Surveyor General, presenting the Meteo- 
rological Register for May. 

From Mr. Hodgson, presenting a paper on various genera of the 
Ruminants, with plates. 

From the Librarian, submitting the MS. of a popular catalogue of 
the curiosities in the Society's Museum, (referred to the Committee of 

From Mr. Blyth, applying for a supply of spirits of Wine for the 

The purchase of 6 gallons monthly was sanctioned accordingly. 

A memorandum was submitted from the Oriental Section, recommend- 
ing the publication of Mr. Hodgson's Essays on the Bodo, Dhimal and 
Koch dialects of the sub-Himalayan aborigines, to be published as a 
separate work, at the expense of the Oriental Fund. 

Resolved that this proposition be referred to the Committee of Papers, 
it being doubtful whether the Oriental Fund can be employed for any 
but classical or ancient works. 

On the proposition of the Secretaries, on the part of the Committee 
of Papers, a copy of Victor Jacquemont's Travels in India was directed 
to be purchased for the Library. 

The following list was submitted by the Librarian : — 

Books received for the Meeting of Wednesday, the 2d June, 1847. 
The Chenchwars, a wild tribe inhabiting the forests of the Eastern 
Ghauts, by Captain Newbold. — By the Author. 

The Gospel of St. Matthew, translated and printed in the Lepcha 
language, by the Rev. William Start, Missionary at Darjeeling. — By the 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 723 

Summary of the Geology of Southern India, by Captain Newbold. — By 
the Author. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, Vol. IV. No. 
5 — 7. — By the Society. 

Account of a Visit to the Bitter Lakes, Isthmus of Suez, by the bed of the 
ancient Canal of Nechos, the " Khalej al kudim" /♦JO.a/l A-*. of the Arabs, 
in June 1842, by Captain Newbold. — By the Author. 

Description of the .Wild Ass and Wolf of Tibet, with illustrations, by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. — By the Author. 

Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of Mammalia and birds of Nepal 
and Thibet, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. to the British Museum. Two 
copies. — By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society, No. 62 to 66. — By the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, part XIII. 1845. — By 
the Society. 

Le Moniteur des Indes Orientales et Occidentals, No. II. — By the 

Meteorological Register kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for 
the month of April, 1847. — 'By the Officiating Deputy Surveyor 

Ditto ditto kept at Kyook Phyoo during April, 1847. — By the Super- 
intendent of Marine. 

Address of the most noble the Marquis of Northampton, read at the 
anniversary meeting of the Royal Society, on November 30, 1846. — By the 
Royal Society. 

The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. XVI. 
part II. — By the Society. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the year 
1846. — By the Society. 

Account of an Excursion in search of Ancient Inscriptions and other 
Relics in India, by a field officer of the Engineer corps. — By the Author. 


Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, Vol. V. 
part IV. 

The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, No. 200. 
The Curators of the Museums presented their usual monthly Reports. 

724 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [June, 

Report of the Curator Museum of Economic Geology for May, 1847. 

I have been employed examining various matters in the departments 
under my charge during the past month, but some are not completed 
and others not worth reporting upon. 

Geology and Mineralogy. 

Dr. Spilsbury has sent us an additional supply of specimens of the 
ferruginous spherules described in my report of Sept. 184G, as possibly 
volcanic. I have put into a separate notice for the Journal the result 
of my examination of one of them, which appears to me to demonstrate 
that they have not been derived from organic bodies. 

Col. Ouseley has sent us a further and an abundant supply of the 
remarkable fibrous limestone with impure chalk (for chalk it certainly 
is if we use the name without reference to the organic contents of the 
purer European chalks) described in my last, and both in a mineral and 
a geological point of view, it is highly interesting ; the layer of matrix 
is in some specimens fully half an inch thick ! 
Economic Geology. 

Major Jenkins has sent us from Assam a curious kind of beads held 
in much veneration by the Singphos. I have put it into the form of a 
short paper for the Journal, the examination I was able to make of 
the minute specimen we could afford to take, being about 1^ grain in 
weight, so as to preserve for the Museum these singular specimens for 
comparison. When we can obtain others a more complete analysis 
may be made and the question settled of whether they are artificial or 
natural productions. Dr. Spilsbury has sent us (Report of March, 
1847) another, and this time a handsome specimen of the Copper Ore 
of Sahgurh* which is really a very fine and promising one, being a pure 
green and steel-grey oxide, probably a silico-carbonate of Copper dis- 
persed in spots and masses through a quartz matrix with very little 
iron and apparently no sulphur in combination. It is to be regretted 
that such a promising ore is not wrought, but the expense of carriage 
from such a spot would be a heavy charge even on the manufactured 

He sends also a bar of iron from Tendookhairie which, his note says 
" cannot be wrought for the copper," but the obstacle is not copper, 

* From Sowrage, Sahgurh Raja's present capital, 9 miles north of Dhumonee, and 32 
miles south of Tehree. 



















































1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 725 

which by the way would be volatilised in the heat required to smelt 
iron, but the sulphuret of iron which it contains, and the only chance of 
producing passable iron from the ore would be (perhaps) careful roast- 
ing of it ; an expense which it would not support ; I say, perhaps, not 
having seen the ore, for pounding and washing might with some earthy 
iron ores answer and leave the pyrites behind. And from some of the 
more compact and metallic kinds roasting would not separate the sul- 
phur. Col. Ouseley has forwarded us a brick and a fragment from 
the Ramgurh temple of Sirgoojahbut I have no farther notice of it than 
the name. 

Zoological Department. — Mr. Blyth's Report. 
The following are the donations which I have now the pleasure to acknow- 
ledge : — 

1. From G. T. Lushington, Esq. of Almorah. A fine male of the Tibetan 
(slightly aberrant) Gazelle recently described by Mr. Hodgson by the name 
Antilope {Procapra) picticaudata, in XV, 334. I have had it mounted, and 
now exhibit it together with its female, presented on a former occasion by 
Dr. Campbell. On looking over the large collection of original drawings of 
animals, and of tracings of such, which I brought from England, I have 
been gratified to find a tracing of Pallas's figure of his Ant. gutturosa j 
from which I now feel satisfied that it is a distinct species from the Gazella 
picticaudata, however close the affinity in various respects : but I must be 
permitted to retain my expressed opinion that, until now, I could not have 
felt justified in considering them as distinct. N. B. The same bare places on 
the site of the sub-orbital sinuses are visible in the male specimen as in the 
female ; as if a rudiment of such an organ had existed in the recent subject. 

2. From Major Jenkins, Pol. Agent at Gowhatti — The skeleton of a 
Leopard, and skins of the 'Bhaloo-soor and of Sciurus bicolor j also the 
imperfect skin of a Pangolin. 

3. From Capt. Rollo, 50th Madras N. I. — Specimens of the Schizodac- 
tylus monstrosus, and of its larva, preserved in spirit, from Vizagapatam. 

4. From Major Ouseley, of Chota Nagpur — A skin and two perfect 
skeletons of male Gaours [Bos gaurus). 

5. From Mr. Warden, of the Pilot service — A fine specimen of a Shark, 
being a second and new species of the genus Stegostoma, hitherto only repre- 
sented by the 'Zebra Shark' of authors, No. XVIII of Russell's ' Fishes of the 
Coromandel coast.' It may be described as — 

St. carinatum, nobis, (PI. XXV, fig. 1). Structure typical. Remarkable for a 
series of ridges studded with enlarged scales (vide fig. 1, a), the most prominent 
of which commences abruptly on the vertex towards the occiput, and is conti- 

726 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

nued over the spine and along the upper margin of the first dorsal fin, upon 
which it gradually diminishes till it disappears at the extremity of the fin ; a 
similar ridge commences gradually behind the first dorsal, and in like manner 
ascends and gradually disappears towards the tip of the second dorsal fin : a 
strongly marked lateral ridge commences gradually, near and a little posterior 
to the abrupt commencement of the medial dorsal ridge, diverging from that 
slightly till it reaches as far as the posterior base of the first dorsal fin, then 
continuing parallel to the back, and expanding at the tail so as to merge and 
disappear among the scales of that organ, which are similarly enlarged : a se- 
cond and less prominent lateral ridge appears about half-way down the side, 
scarcely traceable for some distance above and posterior to the pectoral fins ; 
this continues parallel to the upper lateral ridge, and in like manner becomes 
diffused over and disappears upon the tail : lastly, another ridge appears a little 
behind the pectorals and is continued along the anterior margin of the ventrals; 
another again is continued along the anal fin; and there is a lateral ventral ridge, 
commencing gradually from near the posterior base of each ventral fin. All 
the scales are conspicuously carinated. The general colour is brown, spotted 
all over on the upper surface with moderately large but unequally-sized black 
spots, placed nearly in rows both longitudinally and transversely : these spots 
are smaller on the head, and disappear anteriorly to the eyes, being also 
comparatively indistinct on the two dorsal and the anal fins : the lower parts 
are spotless throughout. The spots and the ridges are exhibited in the 
accompanying plate, and also a portion of the upper lateral ridge (fig. 1, a), 
parallel to the commencement of the anterior dorsal fin, natural size, and 
the same magnified (b). Length of the specimen nearly 4 feet. The second 
figure in the plate represents an Australian species of true Scyllium, the Squa- 
lus ocellatus of Gmelin. 

6. From our Librarian, Baboo Rajendralal Mittra, — The fresh laid egg of 
a Cassoway (Cassuarius emeu.) 

7. From E. Lindstedt, Esq. — Some fine fresh specimens of sundry Snakes. 

8. By R. W. G. Frith, Esq., I have been kindly permitted to select 
such specimens as were required for the museum of an extensive collection of 
mammalia and birds, chiefly procured in the vicinity of Malacca. The only 
species quite new to the museum are two birds — an Accipiter, which seems 
to be undescribed, and Brachyurus cceruleus, (Raffles, v. Pitta gigas, Tern.), 
— and one fish — Osphronemus olfax, Cuv. and Val., Hist. Poiss. VII, 282 : 
but various other highly interesting specimens have also been selected, tend- 
ing to complete our series of Hylobates lar, Presbytis obscurus and Pr. albo- 
cinereus, (Desm.), Galeopithecus Temminckii, Paradoxurus leucomystax (apud 
Cantor),* Lutra(Aonyx) barang, and Rhizomys sumatrensis, among mammalia : 

* I differ from Dr. C. in considering this species to be P. leucomystax of Gray, from 
recollection of the original specimen in the Zoological Society's Garden, upon which 
the name was founded. 

1847-] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 727 

and in the class of birds — Picus (Campephilus) validus, mas, Batrachostomus 
auritus, jun., Eupetes macrocercus, Tem., and various others of commoner 
occurrence, among which may be mentioned the common Indian Corvus 
culminatus, which, though abundant at Penang, I had never before seen from 
so far south as Malacca, but in previous collections from that locality only 
the C. macrorhj?ichos, Vieillot, a very distinct species of black Crow. Upon 
the whole, this collection has added some valuable specimens to the Museum. 

The Hawk can be satisfactorily identified with neither of the two described 
species inhabiting the Malay countries, viz. Accipiter soloensis, (Horsf., v. 
cuculoides, Tern.), and Ace. virgatus, (Tern.), to which Mr. G. R. Gray refers 
the Ace. besra, Elliot, of India.* I shall designate it 

Ace. nisoides. Presumed female in mature plumage differing only from that 
of Ace. nisus (common to Europe and India), in its much inferior size, being 
smaller than the male of Ace. nisus ; and in having the throat streakless 
white, excepting a narrow median dark line ; the usual lateral lines occur, 
but not conspicuously, bordering the ear-coverts beneath, which are observ- 
able in various other species of Hawks, Eagle-Hawks, &c. Length of wing 
7i inches, of tail 5J ; tarse If inch ; middle toe and claw 1| in. 

June 2d, 1847. E. Blyth. 

The usual display of stuffed animals that had been set up during the past 
month was exhibited ; and after commenting briefly on these, Mr. Blyth 
proceeded to call attention to the rich collection of Quadrumana now in the 
Museum, amounting to above 100 specimens, either set up on wire, or to be 
thus mounted as soon as the Society's taxidermists could be employed on 
them. This series of Quadrumana was, for the occasion, ranged round the 
meeting room, and the Curator proposed to exhibit, in like manner, the series 
of other orders of mammalia and birds at future meetings of the Society ; 
remarking that, from the greatly over-crowded state of the glass-cases, 
visitors to the Museum could at present but very inadequately appreciate the 
wealth of the Society's collections in these two classes more particularly, a 
considerable proportion of the specimens being, of necessity, concealed from 
view when piled one upon another in the glazed cabinets. 

The following additional Report refers to the Society's present collection 
of Quadrumana. 

* Mr. Jerdon, in opposing this identification, regards my Ace. nisoides as the true Ace. 
virgatus ; and certainly the besra does not accord with the descriptions of virgatus. The 
adult female besra is exceedingly like that of Astur trivirgatus in its colouring and mark- 
'ngs ; but the male is much more slaty above, and has much more rufous on the under- 
pays, than I have seen in adult males of A. trivirgatus. I am far from being satisfied 
that Ace. besra and Ace. virgatus are identical. 

5 B 

728 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [June, 

Supplementary Report of the Curator of the Zoological Department. 

I beg to present the following memorandum on the species of Quadrumana 
at present in the Society's Museum. 

The species of Primates, Lin., divide into what may be termed the Cheiro- 
poda and Cheiroptera, the former of which comprehends the subjects of this 
Report. The group first subdivides into what may be designated the An- 
thropida and the Lemnria. 

The Anthropida falls into two primary divisions, respectively peculiar to 
the Old World and to the New World. These are the Catarhini and Platy- 
rhini of M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire. The former, among other characteristic 
distinctions, have constantly but two false molars on each side of both jaws : 
the latter have, as invariably, three. 

The Catarhini next fall in to three well marked sub-groups. — 1. That com- 
prising the Human genus and the three genera of Apes, which have sundry 
anatomical peculiarities in common. — 2. That composed of the Baboons and 
ordinary Monkeys of the Old World, with a simple stomach, and which are 
furnished with cheek-pouches. — 3. That consisting of those numerous 
long-tailed Monkeys of the Old World which have a sacculated stomach, and 
no cheek-pouches. 

The general appellation of Quadrumana applies to all of the Cheiropoda 
excepting Man. Our collection contains the following specimens, commencing 
with the Apes. 

Troglodytes niger, Geoffroy. Of the Chimpanzee, we have a stuffed young 
male, standing 22§ inches high, forwarded by Mr. A. Bartlett, of London.* 

Pithecus, Geoffroy. The Orang-utans. Five stuffed specimens, besides 
skeletons, of all ages, from very young to fu" ,vn. Firstly, we have the 
mounted skin (deprived of one hand and one foot, which are preserved in 
spirit in the museum of the Linnasan Society of London), of the celebrated 
large adult (but not old) male procured in Sumatra by Capt. Cornfoot, who 
presented it to the Society, and which is described by Dr. Clark Abel in the 
15th Volume of the ' Asiatic Researches,' and further noticed by myself in 
Vol. X, p. 837, of the Society's Journal. Secondly, the mounted skin and 
skeleton of a female (of the race termed P. morio by Prof. Owen), which 
lived 12 years in Calcutta in the possession of J. Apcar, Esq., who presented 
it when dead to the Society, and was informed that the animal was six months 
old at the time it fell into his possession. In this specimen the dentition had 

* The supposed Troglodytes niger of Capt. Begbie's ' Observations of the Natural 
History of the Malayan Peninsula,' reprinted by Mr. H. E. Strickland in Aim. Mag. 
N. H. 1846, p. 395, refers to Hylobates lar : Capt. B.'s Pithecus lar being 1 , apparently, 
H. agilis. 

1847-] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 729 

just been completed, or rather the third or last true molars were cutting the 
gums at the epoch of the animal's death.* Our three other specimens are 
young of different ages. 

Of the genus Hylobates, or Gibbon, we have a particularly fine series of 
specimens, though, with one exception only, they are referrible to but two 

The exception is the fine pale female of H. lenciscus, F. Cuv. described in 
XIII, 465, which I procured with some other Javanese specimens at auction. 

Of the Hoolock (H. hoolocJc, Harlan), we have seven fine mounted speci- 
mens, exemplifying the variation to which this species (in common with other 
Gibbons) is subject; besides a very pale living adult female with dark cheeks, 
throat, and chest, and white frontal band as usual, presented by Capt. Tickell : 
all the others are mounted from fresh specimens, received chiefly from the 
Barrackpore menagerie ; but another pale adult female was presented alive 
by Mr. Heatly. Of the considerable number of individuals which I have now 
examined of this species, the males have been, almost without exception, deep 
black, with the white frontal band more or less developed, both as regards 
extent and the purity of the white : in general, but not always, this band is 
divided in the middle ; and rarely it is of a dark grey colour, not contrasting 
very strikingly with the black. Females seem never to be of a deep black, 
but vary from brownish-black to whitish-brown, devoid however in the latter 
instance of the fulvous tinge which is observable in pale specimens of H. lar. 
In general, they are paler on the crown, back, and outside of limbs, darker in 
front, and much darker on the cheeks and chin. They are of every inter- 
mediate shade to the extremes mentioned ; and do not appear to alter in 

* This valuable specimen ai id at the Museum at a most unfortunate time, when I 
was just recovering- from a severe illness, and was passing my convalescence at tha 
house of a friend at some distance, unable to attend office. Upon hearing of its present- 
ation, however, I lost no time in repairing to the Society's rooms, but reached them too 
late for any useful purpose, beyond that of superintending the setting up of the skin 
When the animal was alive, I often saw her ; and she appeared to be always mild and 
good-tempered. The adult female Orang-utan which Sr. Del' Casse exhibited some 
month's ago in Calcutta, was a much larger and more powerful beast, and had quite a 
different expression of countenance. She was also, on the whole, good-tempered, but 
uncertain and dangerous to handle, which prevented my taking her dimensions. I consi- 
der her to be of the race termed Mias Rambi by Mr. Brooke. A remarkable trait of 
this individual was her decided sense of pudor : however she might lie or roll about, 
she never failed to use one foot for purposes of concealment, holding therein a small 
piece of board generally, or in default of this a wisp of straw, or whatever she could 
seize on for the purpose. The general colour of Sr. Del'Casse's animal was very dark, 
with much blackish hair pendent on the sides of the face, and the whole face was dark, 
excepting the eyelids. 

5 b 2 

730 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

colour through life. The H. choromandus of Mr. Ogilby is founded on a 
Hoolock of intermediate hue, in the collection of the Zoological Society. I 
may add that we have three skeletons of Hoolocks of different ages, one only 
being as yet mounted. 

Of H. lar, the common Gibbon of the Tenasserim provinces and Malayan 
peninsula, (replaced in Arracan, Sylhet, and Assam, by H. hoolock,) we have 
as many as twelve specimens of all ages and colouring ; for seven of which, 
from Malacca, we are indebted to Mr. Frith and Mr. E. Linstedt.* The whole 
of these, and eleven other Malacca specimens lately received by Mr. Frith, 
are more or less dark, varying from deep brown to brownish-black, with the 
back generally paler (more or less so), and sometimes variegated with whitish 
patches : occasionally the rump is whitish in dark individuals : and the hands 
and feet are ful vous-white, rarely much suffused with brown. The white 
ring surrounding the face varies a good deal in development ; in one of our spe- 
cimens being almost obsolete, except on the chin : and some again have much 
more white on the chin and throat than others. The only pale specimen of 
this Gibbon which we possess from Malacca, is a very young male that was 
presented alive by Mr. M'Clelland :f but in the Tenasserim provinces, the 
pale variety seems greatly to predominate (if not to the exclusion of the dark 
varieties, at least in some localities). The Rev. J. Barbe presented us with 
adults of both sexes, together with the new-born young, and one a little 
older, from Ye ; all being of a fulvous-white colour, palest in the old 
male ; and another Tenasserim adult female, received from the Barrackpore 
menagerie, is of the same light hue. It is remarkable that while Mr. Barbe's 
smallest Tenasserim specimen, about the size of a Marmozet, is densely clad 
with long hair throughout, one of the same size (but still younger) from Ma- 
lacca, has the belly and inside of the thighs entirely nude of hair, the throat, 
breast, inside of arms, and outside of thighs, very scantily clad, and the pelage 
of the head and back is very much shorter and less dense than in the other ; 
a greater difference than so slight a disparity of age seems sufficient to ac- 
count for : indeed, our young pale specimen from Malacca, though consi- 
derably older than either, is much less densely clad than the infantile 
Tenasserim specimen. 

Of the Monkeys with a simple stomach, and cheek-pouches, the largest and 
most highly typical are the African Baboons. We have only a young speci- 
men of 

* Mr. Frith has since favored us with another skin of a mature female, remarkable for 
having a small supplementary nipple half an inch below the ordinary left nipple. 

t This was brought to Calcutta by Capt. Charleton, who had also pale adults from 
Malacca, and informed me that the pale race (which he considered distinct) kept in 
separate flocks from the dark race. Dr. Cantor has also pale Malayan specimens. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society '. 731 

Cynocephalus porcarius, (Boddaert.) The common Cape Baboon, procur- 
ed dead from a dealer. 

The most nearly allied Asiatic species constitute the division Papio apud 
Ogilby, which name is however assigned by Mr. Gray to the African Mandrill 
and Drill. Acknowledging the group as Mr. Ogilby established it, it seems 
that Inuus, Geoffrey (applied by that naturalist to the Magot of Barbary), has 
the best claim to be retained as its appellation. Two minor groups are com- 
prised, viz. the Silenus of Mr. Gray, from which surely cannot be separated 
I. arctoides, I. nemestrinus, and I. niger j while I. rhesus is more allied to I. 
sylvanus* The Society's present specimens are as follow : — 

I. silenus, (L.) Very fine examples of the male and female ; the former pur- 
chased (dead), the latter received from Barrackpore. Also a fine mounted 
skeleton of an adult male. This species of Monkey is stated by all authors 
to be indigenous to Ceylon ; but I have the authority of Dr. R. Templeton of 
Colombo for stating that it does not inhabit that island, though tame speci- 
mens are often taken there. In Travancore and Cochin, it occurs abundantly 
in a state of nature. 

I. arctoides (?, Is. Geoff.) : described, with a mark of doubt, as I. nemestri- 
nus in XIII, 473. Adult male, and a young specimen, from Arracan ; present- 
ed by Capt. Phayre. 

I. nemestrinus, (L.) Nearly full grown male, purchased (dead) ; adult female, 
presented by Mr. E. Linstedt ; and the Society possesses the skeleton of an 
adult male, and also a living male. Common in the Malayan peninsula, Su- 
matra, &c. 

I. rhesus, (Lin.) : Pithex oinops, Hodgson. Specimens of large adult male, 
and of female with young at the breast, procured in the Soonderbuns ; also a 
younger adult male ; and a huge and monstrously obese male, of which the 
carcass was picked up in the public street and brought to the Museum. Com- 
mon in the Bengal Soonderbuns, Assam, &c. 

The name Macacus should apply typically to the Macaque of Buffon, and 
various allied'species which are scarcely (if at all) separable from the Manga- 
beys of Africa, to which M. carbonarius especially approximates, with its dark 
face and pale eyelids. 

M. cynomolgus, (Lin.) Adult male, purchased alive : female, from Malacca, 
presented by Mr. Frith ; ditto, from Ye, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe ; 
young, from the Nicobar Islands, presented by Capt. Lewis; ditto, from 
Timor, presented by Mr. W. Benson. Common in the Malay countries. 

* Of the whole of the species here mentioned (excepting 1 arctoides), I am familiar with 
the living adults. 

732 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

M. carbonarius, F. Cuv. Living adult male, purchased : young, presented 
by Capt. Abbott. Common in Arracan, and quite distinct from the preceding 

M. radiatus, Desm. Living adult male ; and stuffed specimen of a nearly 
full grown female, purchased (dead). Common in the peninsula of India, and 
replaced in Ceylon by the allied M. sinicus. 

Of the African genus Cercopithecus, we have only C. sabceus, (Lin.), v. C. 
chrysurus, nobis, XIII, 477. A large old specimen j and a younger one, from 
the Cape de Verd Islands, purchased alive. 

We now proceed to the division of long-tailed Monkeys, with a sacculated 
stomach, and devoid of cheek-pouches, comprising the Asiatic genus Presbytis 
(vel Semnopithecus), and the nearly allied African genus Colobus. Of the 
latter we possess no example ; but of the former a tolerably rich series. 

Pr. entellus, (F. Cuv.). Adult male and female, and two young of different 
ages ; procured in the neighbourhood. We have also skeletons of adults of both 
sexes, not yet set up. This, the true Entellus Monkey, or common Hoonuman 
of Bengal, I have never yet seen wild on the eastern side of the river Hoogly, 
and its absence has often been remarked on the Cossimbazar island (formed 
by the two chief confluents of the Hoogly and the main stream of the Ganges) ; 
while it abounds almost everywhere on the western or right bank of the 
Hoogly and up the Ganges, extending its range to Central India, and to 
Cuttack. I am assured also of its occurrence in Assam ; but have never seen 
a specimen from that province. This animal is of a pale sullied straw-colour, 
more or less tinged with a peculiar chocolat-au-lait brown on the back and 
limbs ; having constantly black hands and feet, and no trace of crest on the 
vertex. It is one of the commonest of Bengal animals, and I have never ob- 
served it to vary, so as to approximate in any degree to the following species. 

Pr. priamus, Elliot, XIII, 470. The common Hoonuman of the Coro- 
mandel coast and of Ceylon, and which Mr. Jerdon informs me abounds, 
together with Pr. hypoleucos, in the vicinity of Tellichery on the Malabar 
coast of the peninsula of India. A nearly full grown female, presented by 
Walter Elliot, Esq. In this species, the pale chocolat-au-lait tint spreads 
over the whole back and outside of the limbs, to a much greater extent than 
is ever seen on Pr. entellus ; appearing also upon the crown, which exhibits 
likewise a compressed high vertical crest, resembling that of several of the 
Malayan species ; and the hands and feet are whitish, i. e. clad above with 
whitish hairs. The hairs of the pelage of this and of the two following 
species are straight, and not sinuous as in Pr. entellus. 

* I have been keeping both alive for these two or three years past, adult males ; aiud 
have seen and had several other live specimens of M. carbonarius. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 7 S3 

Of Pr. anchises, Elliot, XIII, 470, I can only exhibit a skin sent on loan 
by that gentleman. This is the common species of the elevated table-land 
of the peninsula of India; and is remarkable for the great length of its hair 
generally, that upon its toes imparting the appearance of a Spaniel's paw. 

Pr. hypoleucos, nobis, X, 839, XII, 170, XIII, 470 : Semnopithecus Dussu- 
mieri, Schinz : S. Johnii, var., Martin. An adult male, from Travancore* 
presented by Dr. W. Coles of Madras. This species abounds along the range 
of the Malabar ghats. Vide PL XXVI, fig. 1. 

Pr. albocinereus, (Desm). Adult male, nearly full grown female, and small 
young ; presented by It. W. G. Frith, Esq. : mature female, presented by E. 
Lindstedt, Esq. All from Malacca. In the preceding members of this genus, 
constituting with others a subgroup peculiar to India proper, the hair of the 
crown radiates from a centre, a little behind the brows : in the present 
Malayan species, there are two such centres, placed laterally near together ; 
and the hair of the occiput is somewhat lengthened and directed upwards, 
terminating at the vertical crest which it aids to produce. Colour dusky grey- 
brown above, more or less dark, with black hands and feet, and white under- 
pays and inside of limbs, as also great part of the haunch and thigh exter- 
nally : crown generally blackish, with admixture of white in the two radiating 
centres ; and the upward-directed occipital hair is concolorous with the back, 
or somewhat paler. Tail generally blackish except towards its base. The 
small young resemble the adults, except in having a well-defined pale greyish 
band on each side, separating the dusky hue of the back from the white of 
the under-parts, and terminating in the white haunch. In this species, the 
eye-lids appear to form the only white portion of the face, the skin of the 
lips being dark. 

Pr. Phayrei, nobis : referred to Pr. obscurus in XIII, 466, where described. 
Skin of an adult, presented by Capt. Phayre : two specimens of the young, 
presented alive by Capt. Abbot. Common in Arracan. This much resembles 
the preceding species in its colouring, but differs from it in many particulars. 
There are no radiating centres on the crown ; but a much longer and less 
dense, thin and compressed, vertical crest : the occipital hair is not length- 
ened, and is directed downwards: the white of the under-parts scarcely 
extends upon the inside of the limbs, and spreads much less on the sides, 
which are dark like the back ; and the haunches and thighs are uniformly 
coloured with the back : the whiskers also are dark, and very long, concealing 
the ears in front ; whereas in Pr. albocinereus the ears are wholly visible : 
J istly, the tail is generally more or less albescent to near its tip ; and the 
1. >s are conspicuously white, and well furnished with white moustachial hairs 
above, and similar hairs below. Vide PI. XXVI, fig. 3. 

734 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

Pr. Barbel (1), nobis, n. s. ?. Adult male and female, from the Tenasserini 
province of Ye ; presented by the Rev. J. Barbe. Intermediate to the 
preceding species and to Pr. obscurus j but seemingly, distinct from both. 
There is no vertical crest, as in the former ; nor is the occipital hair length- 
ened and conspicuously much paler, as invariably in the latter species : but 
the shoulders and outside of the arm are silvered in both specimens ; and 
the under-parts resemble those of Pr. obscurus. The tail is very slightly 
paler than the body ; whereas in twelve adults of Pr. obscurus (lying together 
before me, at the time of drawing up this description), the tail is in every one 
much paler than the body. The size of the full grown animal is also consi- 
derably inferior to that of Pr. obscurus, and perhaps a little exceeds that of 
Pr. Phayrei. In the female specimen, there is a white space at the interior 
base of the thigh, more developed on one side than on the other. The 
pale markings of the face resemble those of Pr. obscurus. If a variety of 
either, however, (which I suspect it is not,) it should rather be referred 
to Pr. Phayrei. 

Pr. obscurus, (Reid.) Adult male and female, newly born young, and one 
a little older ; presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq : half grown male, and new- 
ly born young ; presented by E. Lindstedt, Esq. All from Malacca. Of the 
three very small specimens, the youngest is entirely of a bright light fulvous 
hue, without any admixture of dark hairs : the second has a general slight 
admixture of dark hairs, which predominate on the forehead, vertex, and 
occiput, while the sincipita continue bright fulvous ; the arms and hands, 
knees, shins, and feet, are as dark as in the adult : the third, but very little 
larger, is coloured as in the mature animal, except that the terminal three- 
fourths of its tail continue rufous ; and some admixture of the same remains 
on the sincipita, throat, flanks, and exterior of thighs. In the half-grown 
specimen, an extremely faint vestige of this rufous is still traceable upon the 
tail only. 

Pr. Johnii, (Fischer :) Semnopithecus cucullatus, Is. Geoffroy. Adult male, 
received dead from Barrackpore : and a female, from the Nilgherries, with 
very long hair on the head ; presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq. 

Pr. cephalopterus, (Zimmerman, with numerous synonymes.) Full grown 
female, purchased alive : adult male, of a brown variety (not in very good 
order), from Ceylon ; presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq. 

* No trace, at least, is visible on either of the two dry specimens : but the taxidermist 
lad who prepared them asserts, very positively, that they had a thin raised crest upon the 
vertex, when fresh : and also that a young- one was obtained alive, when the female was 
shot, of a pale rufous colour when of the size of the Society's two young- specimens of Ph. 
Phayrei, which do not differ in colour from the adult animal 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 735 

Pr. pileatus, nobis, XII, 1/4, XIII, 467. Adult male and female, from 
the interior of the Chittagong hills ; presented by the Rev. J. Barbe : another 
adult male, from the Tipperah hills ; presented by F. Skipwith, Esq. ; and a 
female, from the Barrackpore menagerie. The males of this species seem 
always to be of a deep rust-colour on the cheeks, lower-parts, and more or 
less on the outer side of the legs j while in the females this rust-colour is 
dilute and weak. PL XXVI, fig. 2. 

Pr. maurus, (Lin.) Adult male, purchased dead. Inhabits Java. 

Of the great series of South American Monkeys, constituting the Platy- 
rhini of M. Geoffroj^, we have only two specimens at present : — 

Calliihrix sciureus, (Lin.) : and 

Jacchns vulgaris, Geoffroy ; Simla jacchus, Lin. Both inhabitants of 
Brazil , and presented by Mr. Bartlett. 

Of the Lemuria, or Strepsirhini of M. Geoffroy, comprising the two families 
Lemuridcc and Galeopithecidce, the following species of Lemuridce. 

Lemur mococo, Lin. (Old collection). Inhabits Madagascar. 

Nycticebus tardigradus, (Lin., apud Raffles.) Three marked varieties, and 
a fourth which is perhaps distinct. — 1. Javanese variety, N. jav aniens, Geoff. 
Specimen from Java, presented by the Batavian Society. Colour fulvescent. 
Two strongly marked and defined dark bands, ascending from around the 
eyes, meet at the occiput, where another equally defined band crosses them 
from ear to ear : the united occipital band is continued along the back, and 
becomes gradually evanescent towards the short tail. — 2. Malacca variety. 
Equally fulvescent with the last ; but the white, ascending from between the 
eyes, in general much diminished in quantity : around the eyes dark ; but no 
defined bands ascending therefrom, the summit of the head being of a uniform 
diffused rust-colour, in which the markings of the preceding variety may 
sometimes be faintly traced : the occipital and dorsal stripe sometimes well 
developed, not unfrequently indistinct. Three specimens ; two presented by 
the Rev. F. J. Lindstedt, one having the dorsal band well defined, the other 
indistinct ; the third, with indistinct facial markings as in the preceding variety, 
presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq.— 3. Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan 
variety. In general much paler than the others, occasionally almost white : 
the ears and around the eyes dark, but rarely a trace of the frontal and sinci- 
pital bands ; the glabellar streak, between the eyes, white and distinct ; the 
frontal region uniformly albescent : specimen from Goal para, presented by 
Dr. Thorburn : another, from Arracan, presented by Capt. Phavre : and a 
female and young from Tipperah, presented alive by F. Skipwith, Esq. This 
female is prepared as a skeleton. — 4. Very deep-coloured variety (?), with 
remarkably short limbs; locality unknown. From the Society's old collection. 

5 c 

736 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [June, 

Loris gracilis, Geoffroy. Two specimens, presented by W. Elliot, Esq. ; 
also a skeleton. Inhabits the Coromandel coast and Ceylon. A third mounted 
specimen was received from the Calcutta Medical College, stuffed : its locality 
being unknown. It is probably a distinct species ; the ears are much larger 
and broader than usual, though apparently somewhat stretched ; and the 
limbs are much less elongated. The skull of this specimen and that of Nyc- 
ticebus tardigradus var. 4, have been taken out, and are now in the Museum ; 
the specimens also have been re-stuffed, and their limb-bones examined : both 
were fully mature animals, the skulls presenting no peculiar distinctive cha- 
racters ; but the fore-arm of Loris gracilis var. (?) measures but 2f inch, 
instead of fully 3 inches. 

Of Galeopithecidce, we have — 

Galeopithecus Temminckii, Waterhouse. Four Malacca specimens, of differ- 
ent ages, presented by C. Huffnagle, Esq., R. W. G. Frith, Esq., and the Rev. 
F. J. Lindstedt. 

Such is our present collection of Quadrumana : and I think I am entitled 
to add, that only the following specimens existed at the time of my taking 
charge of the Society's Museum. — 1. The Orang-utan skin presented by Capt. 
Cornfoot, since mounted on wire. 2 and 3. Half grown specimens of Hylo- 
bates hoolock and H. lar, since replaced by better ones. 4. Presbytis entellus, 
half-grown, and since replaced. 5. Cercopithecus sabceus, since re-stuffed, and 
the skull taken out and cleaned. 6. Lemur mococo. 7. Nycticebus tardigra- 
dus, var. 4. Also the skeleton of an adult female small Orang-utan (imperfect), 
presented by Mr. Frith ; skull of large male do ; and skeleton of the Semno- 
pithecus maurus apud Heifer, which is probably Presbytis Barbei. With a 
larger establishment, I should by this time have had a much more extensive 
collection of mounted skeletons. 

The following are our chief Asiatic desiderata in this order, confining our 
attention to India and the countries adjacent. 

From India proper, we require good series of all the different Monkeys that 
have been confounded under Presbytis entellus. Such are — Pr. schistaceus 
of the Himalaya, Pr. anchiscs, Pr. priamus, and Pr. hypoleucos. In fact, 
specimens of Hoonumans or Lungoors from any distant part of the country are 
extremely acceptable, as illustrating the precise distribution of the several 
species, and perhaps adding to their number. 

We also require the Inuus assamensis, and I. pelops (the hill representative 
of I. rhesus), and the Macacus sinicus from Ceylon. 

From Arracan, fine adults of Presbytis Phayrei j and from the Tenasserim 
provinces a living specimen of Pr. Barbei. Also good specimens, and living 
(if possible), of Inuus arctoides. From the Malayan peninsula and islands, 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 737 

additional species of Hylobates and Presbytis, as especially H. agilis, Pr. cm- 
tatus, and Pr. femoralis, obtained in the peninsula by Dr. Cantor. Also 
the genus Tarsius: and, of course, any novelties that may yet be discovered in 
these countries : the Tenasserim provinces, more especially, having hitherto 
been very inadequately explored. 

E. Blyth. 

For all contributions and donations as above detailed, the thanks of 
the Society were directed to be conveyed in the usual manner. 

Erratum. — We are requested to state that the designation of M. E. 
Gibelin, recently elected a member of the Asiatic Society, is Procureitr 
General, not Procureur du Boi, which is an inferior office. — Eds. 






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AUGUST, 1847. 

Notes on the Antiquities of the Districts within the Bhopal Agency, 
fyc. bxj Capt, J. D. Cunningham, Engineers, Political Agent, 

I send you two packages of inscriptions, copied during a tour of the 
districts within the Bhopal Agency, which I have just completed, I 
trust that they may reach you in safety, and that the few I have set 
apart from the rest may be deemed worthy of publication. 

The existence of a " Tope" near Bhilsa was known to myself as to 
others through the medium of the Asiatic Society's Journal, but as I 
had not the book by me at the time, I was not prepared to find so 
interesting and valuable a monument as I conceive this Tope to present. 
The whole country moreover, on either side of the upper Betwah and 
North and South of Bhilsa, is full of antiquities, and I am glad that 
I have had an opportunity of bringing some of these relics to your 

In describing the localities, or the buildings, or the monuments, 
which have furnished the several inscriptions, I may indulge in some 
speculation, and it is therefore but candid, although it is hardly neces- 
sary, to remind you of my want of scholarship and indeed of any 
deficiencies in every way, excepting, perhaps, in a proper degree of 
interest in the history of the country and of the creeds which its inha- 
bitants have professed. My lucubrations however will not take long to 
read, and they may be suggestive to others. 

No. VIII. New Series. 5 d 

; io Notes on the Antiquities of BhopaL [Aug, 

Bkojpoor. — I will first refer to Bhojpoor as the most southerly, or 
as being higher up the river Betwah than the other places. Raja Bhoj, 
of the Towar or " Puar" tribe, whose date or identity is doubtful, is 
however believed to have represented both the race and the power of 
Yicramaditya, and in this part of Malwa he is generally considered to 
have flourished in the fifth century of our era. The legend related by 
Sir John Malcolm (Central India, I. 25) is also in every one's mouth, 
viz : that in order to mark his gratitude or his love, or to expiate the 
sacrifice voluntarily made by his mother of her own life in giving him 
birth, he was always bent upon accomplishing some good work, and 
that the brahmins prescribed the erection of an embankment which 
should arrest nine rivers and ninety-nine rivulets, probably with the 
view of providing irrigation for a tract of country lower down the river. 
A place was chosen close to where two of the main branches of the 
infant Betwah unite in order to pass through a narrow gorge about 18 
miles to the south-east of BhopaL The gorge in question was dam- 
med across, as was likewise a hollow to the westward of the outlet. A 
large lake, or Thai, was thus formed, which inclosed a low range of hil- 
locks, still distinguished as " the Island" by the name of its present 
village " Deep" (Dwipa) . The lake would appear io have been sixteen or 
seventeen miles in length and about seven or eight miles in breadth, 
but after all the care and labour which had been expended, it was found 
that one stream was still wanting to complete the full number, and 
Bhopal, the Minister of the King, suggested the embankment of a ravine 
at the spot on which the city called after him now stands. By this 
means a considerable rivulet which rises south-west of Bhopal, was 
made to run south-easterly into the Betwah or into the newly formed 
lake, instead of north-easterly into the river at Bhilsa, as until that 
time it had done. It is to this day apparent that the rivulet in ques- 
tion has been forced from its original channel, and it forms now the 
real Betwah. The lake continued to exist until the erection of Malwa 
into a kingdom by the Affghan Ghorees in the 14th and 15th centuries, 
when it is related that Sooltan Hoshung lamented the loss of so much 
good land, and ordered the embankment across the Betwah to be 
destroyed. According to the common belief 360 villages now fill the 
bed of the lake of Raja Bhoj, and it is certain that the tract in question 
is one of the most fertile in Bhopal, 

184?.] Notes on the Antiquities of B hoped. 741 

The remains of the embankment across the Betwah, show that it 
may have been about a hundred feet in height and perhaps three hun- 
dred yards in length at the top. The dam across the hollow is scarcely 
a mile in length, so that the place selected was in every way well 
adapted for the object in view. The artificial part of this dam may be 
about 30 feet high where most lofty, and it forms a roadway from fifty 
to sixty feet in width. The embankment at Bhopal still serves its ori- 
ginal purpose. All three have been formed of a mass of rocks and 
earth heaped together, and faced with blocks of stone from 3 to 6 feet 
long by 2 or 3 feet wide and 1|- to 2| feet thick, laid so as to form a 
considerable angle and to present a sloping surface on either side. The 
work looks gigantic, and although the sandstone blocks were procurable 
on the spot, the prodigality of labour bestowed, shows rather the material 
power of the prince than the scientific poverty of his engineers. To the 
careless observer the whole work may appear to be one of the many 
idle acts of which despotism has been guilty, and yet I imagine that 
among the ancients of Asia as of Europe, more simplicity of mind and 
singleness of object prevailed than among the moderns of either conti- 
nent. I doubt not that Raja Bhoj's labourers and mechanics sympathized 
with the motives of their prince, and readily presented themselves to 
execute a work, which may have conveyed some religious merit even to 
them, and which it is more than likely the Raja commenced with his 
own hands while he exhorted the workmen to persevere by personal 
attentions and occasional donations. 

Malcolm had heard that Raja Bhoj built a city on the banks of his 
lake, but it does not appear that he designed more than the erection of 
a temple, which was begun, but has never been completed. The temple 
stands on the hill at the southern end of the dam across the Betwah ; 
it is surrounded by the houses of a small village called Bhoj poor, but 
the only other remains, are some rude shrines dedicated to modern 
divinities, a plain Jain temple containing a figure of Parisnath, about 
20 feet high, and the remains of the foundations of slight walls showing 
the square outline of a building never completed or nearly obliterated. 

The temple of Raja Bhoj is dedicated to Shiv or Mahadeo. Its base 
forms a square of about 62 feet, and it may be nearly as many feet in 
height. The external walls are about 10 feet thick, and the unfinished 
dome of elaborate workmanship, is supported by four pillars, probably 

5 d 2 

742 Notes on the Antiquities of lihopal. [Aug. 

40 feet high. The entrance is on the western side, and you ascend to 
the door lintel and then descend into the temple. The passages be- 
tween the massive pillars and the external walls are necessarily narrow, 
and the pillars themselves are inelegant in their proportions. The 
space between them is wholly occupied with the " Lingam," which, with 
its pedestal, forms a gigantic object nearly 25 feet high, and is an 
existing illustration of a passage in Wilson's Hindoo Theatre, to the 
effect, if my memory serves me right, that the "Saivas" had a god so 
big they were obliged first to build him and then his containing temple. 

The Lingam with its sustaining altar or pedestal, has an elegant and 
imposing appearance. The Lingam proper is a cylinder, with a slight- 
ly rounded top, of 7 feet and 2 inches in height by 5 feet 3 inches 
in diameter. It rests upon a single block 19£ feet square by 3^ feet in 
thickness, the upper surface having a channel parallel to the four edges, 
to carry off the water of oblations. The " die" or body of the pedestal 
or altar is about seven feet square in section, but the accompanying 
elevation, drawn partly from memory, will give you a truer idea of the 
whole work than any description, although it cannot be quite accurate 
in details, and the proportions are certainly not so perfect in the draw- 
ing as I conceive them to be in the original. The pedestals of many 
Lingams are indeed almost faultless in their proportions and in the 
beauty of their ornaments, and at Bhojpoor greatness of dimension is 
added to perfection of form. 

The temple was never completed, and partially hewn stones, or 
blocks rough as they were quarried, are still lying on the summit of 
the sandstone hill within three hundred yards of the building. One of 
these blocks is the half wrought " Kullus" or keystone of the dome, 
which measures eleven feet square by five feet in thickness. A ramp 
of earth and rubbish abutting against the eastern side of the temple 
still remains, to show the simple and efficient, if not very ingenious 
means, used for raising heavy blocks to the summits of buildings. 

No formal inscription has been found, and as the temple was never 
finished it is probable that none was ever recorded. The inscription in 
five lines, now sent, is cut on the jamb of the doorway, and is probably 
the work of some pilgrim. The characters, although rudely executed 
and somewhat different in form from those now in use, are still legible, 
but the language is not understood by any Pundit in this quarter. You 

1847.] Notes on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 74,3 

will observe that two dates occur in the inscription, the first " 159" and 
the second " 136," and as in bad or hasty writing, an Indian " seven 1 ' 
resembles a " one," I mention particularly that in reading the original 
this similarity has been held in view. The two inscriptions on the step 
and lintel of the doorway do not seem to be deserving of any notice. 

On the pedestal of the Lingam are cut in well formed letters, the 
Sanscrit words " achinted deoj" signifying " the sign of the Incompre- 
hensible,"* of which a transcript will be found among the inscriptions. 
It seems to me that this short sentence should teach us much, and I 
have long thought that " Saivism" may yet be found to have once been, 
if it is not now, purer and more simple faith than is commonly sup- 
posed. I would discard a Phallic correspondence and all recondite 
regenerative meanings, as showing subsequent constructions rather that 
original design or import. f The peasantry of the wilder parts of India, 
still use a smooth pebble, or rounded blocks as the mark of the Divini- 
ty, or rather as a point of direction to their senses, and they will draw 
a trench round it on its sustaining altar of stone or tempered earth, to 
let their oblations of water run freely away, without even considering 
that they had formed or were worshipping the symbols of reproductive 
energy. " Ling" in its primitive acceptation means merely, a sign, a 
mark, and so little do the mass of worshippers know of what we con- 
sider its philosophic import, and so dull are their minds or so gross has 
their idolatry become, that in these days the plain pillar must often be 
shrouded in a case representing a human countenance, to convince them 
more certainly of the existence or place of the God. When the Brah- 
mins quitted the Ganges, such of the tribes of Southern India as were 
not wholly barbarous, probably professed one form or other of Buddhism, 
with its ceremonies, and its images, and its indistinct apprehensions of 
a Divinity, and the new conquerors, may we call them Unitarians or 

* These words have been separately read by another person as achuteddeoj or "the 
mark of the everlasting God." There is little difference in the writing and none in the 
meaning so far as regards the argument in the text. 

[The inscription on the Lingam is ^f^^T^ST, Aclibitya dicaja ; and on the right 

jamb of the door, ^j ^TfTSR^rnaft^ Wfff?T " Salutation t0 the son of Madhab." 

t Did an Athenian Magistrate or a Roman Matron, think of " phalloi" as emblems of 
fecundity or of reproduction, when the one allowed them to be borne through the streets 
during Dionysian festivals, or when the other tied them round the necks of her children 
as charms against evil ? 

I i Notes on the Antiquities of Bhopal. [Aug. 

only Monotheists ? perhaps endeavoured to purify the faith of the 
learned by insisting on the existence of a God, and to sublime or exalt 
the superstition of the multitude by substituting a simple sign or mark 
for the representations of men and beasts, or by teaching the mere 
" Fetichists," that their plain black stone or block of wood, should 
lead them to think of the invisible ruler of the universe. I would thus 
regard " Vedantism" as the philosophical, and " Saivism" as the poli- 
tical or social, the theologic or theogonic, aspect of the genius of Brah- 
minism. The worship of Kalee, or "Saktism" in general, similarly 
marks the superstitious phase of the old Hindoo mind, for the rude 
still every where propitiate the dread Goddess of famine, pestilence, 
and death, while I would regard the Vaishnuvee sect as representing 
the compromise of Brahmanism with Buddhism of the unity of God 
with the multiplicity of his powers and the variety of his aspects. This 
view admits of a civilization of the Southern and Western Coasts of 
India, and of the existence of a consanguineous race from the Ghats to 
the Himalayas, before the rise of the Brahmins, who with their warlike 
Kshutrees may have originally emigrated from Central Asia, but who 
during a long sojourn on the banks of the Ganges, had a form and 
direction given to their latent energies which made them the Greeks of 
the East, the Achseans of the wide spread Pelasgians of India, and 
which also rendered their civilization eminently national and character- 
istic. Buddhism may have been imported or adopted from Egypt and 
Babylon, but Vedantism is the native product of the mind of the 
dwellers on the Ganges with some intermixture of Mithraic traditions. 

Raeesen. — Raeesen is a double-walled fort standing on a hill nearly 
isolated, and situated between Bhojpoor and Bhilsa. It was formerly 
the possession of a Tooer Rajpoot family of some local repute. Baber 
proposed marching against it, Akber made it the head-quarters of a 
" Sircar" or Zillah, but Aurungzeb afterwards removed the establish- 
ments to Bhilsa. Neither the Hindoo nor the Mahometan buildings 
arc of great extent or merit, neither does the inscription appear to 
establish any thing of moment, although the date 1582 Sumbut serves 
to show the degree to which power had there been recovered by the 
Hindoos of Malwa. 

Bhilsa. — Bhilsa is situated about half a mile from the right bank of 
(he Betwah or Behtervvantee River. Its ancient name is stated to have 

184 /. J Notes on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 745 

been Bhudrawat, and it is related that the Pandoos gave battle to the 
then Raja, in order that they might obtain the white horse with the 
black ear to enable them to perform the " Uswoomed" sacrifice and to 
challenge the supremacy of India. The horse was stabled upon the 
precipitous rock of " Lohanghee" to the eastward of the town, and 
the Lord of Bhilsa had to yield it to his conquerors. On the opposite 
bank of the Betwah is still to be seen the site of a town known as 
Beisnuggur, and there is still a tribe in this part of India called the 
Beis or Beius, which claims to be Rajpoot. The present walls of Bhil- 
sa are said to have been built by a Bheel Chief, and the name may 
possibly show it to have been the seat of a tribe, which has been push- 
ed further to the westward within the historical period. 

Bhilsa itself contains one edifice only of any note, viz : a mosque of 
rude workmanship built on the site of a " Beeja (Vijaya) Mundur" 
destroyed by Aurungzeb. From the fragments or portions of this tem- 
ple which are still visible it would appear to have been a very elaborate 
work. The mosque is only curious, as a building, from its two mina- 
rets which are each formed by clustering together four pillars of irre- 
gular bases so as to form upon the whole two sides of a square in plan. 
The minarets are nearly destroyed, and the building suffered somewhat 
during the Mahratta wars from the ill directed fire of Ameer Khan's 
cannon. The inscription which accompanies this, is to be seen on a 
stone built into the wall of a narrow passage.* 

The " Topes" near Bhilsa. — The " Topes" and other Buddhist re- 
mains at Satcheh. Kanehkhera about 4j miles to the south-west of 
Bhilsa, are however the monuments which give to that place its chief 
antiquarian interest. To these may be added the " Topes" at Peepleea, 
Bijolee, six or seven miles south-east from the two and the Vaishnu- 
vee sculptures at Oodehghir about a mile and a half west of Bhilsa and 
nearly double that distance north of the Satcheh " Topes" 

The two Topes at Satcheh were visited in 1819 by Captain Fell, 
[see Journ. As. Soc. for 1834, p. 488, &c], when they were in better 
preservation than they are now, for an opinion confidently expressed by 
that officer, that they contained chambers or were not solid, led to two 
attempts to excavate them on the part of amateurs or antiquaries. 

* The words of the Inscription are read, but the language is not understood, by the 
Pundits here ; some terms or words seem to be pure Sanscrit, 

7 if> Notes on the Antiquities of JBhopal. [Aug. 

Instead however of driving small galleries at nearly the level of the 
ground into the interior, the explorers began digging pits as it were 
into the buildings, from the top or at about half way down the side, 
and as the stones used in the construction of the hemispheres were not 
cemented with lime, a third of one monument and a fifth portion of the 
other have been destroyed. Falling rubbish has upset or buried stone 
colonnades and the searches for coins or inner chambers do not appear 
ever to have reached the bottom of either Tope. 

The two Topes in question are commonly known as the " Sass-bkow 
ka hitlut" or as the "wife's and good mother's dung stacks/' from 
their supposed resemblance to heaps of dried cowdung cakes. The 
word "Tope" is wholly unknown in this part of India, although it is 
the representative of a Sanscrit original. 

The Buddhist monuments at Satcheh are built on three platforms or 
stages, and stretch east and west across a low range of hills. The 
highest portion of the highest platform, the edge indeed of a precipice, 
is occupied by a temple containing an image, and flanked on either side 
by rows of chambers. This uppermost stage seems moreover, for the 
most part to have been covered with buildings or cells used by the 
members of the religious establishment at the place. The centre near- 
ly of the middle platform is occupied by the larger Tope at a distance 
of about 140 yards from the temple or shrine already mentioned. The 
smaller Tope is at a somewhat greater distance from the larger Tope, 
and occupies the third or lower stage which however has never been 
completed or properly cleared. 

On the upper and middle stages there are several small temples or 
shrines, some of which still contain images of Buddha mostly of the 
kind which represent him as seated on the lotus-adorned throne. Some 
figures have a light drapery which does not conceal the shape, and in 
some the halo which usually invests the head is carved to resemble the 
expanded hoods of snakes. The shrines themselves are all flat-roofed, 
and not of the ordinary " Chaitya" or " Degopa" type with which the 
labours of Mr. Hodgson have rendered us familiar. On the central 
stage also are remains of what seem to have been small Topes, and in- 
deed in one instance a regularly built circular wall is painly discernible. 
The larger Tope has a circular base 1 20 feet in diameter, according 
to a rough measurement. The basement is 14 feet high and it slopes 


v ^ -. v „ 



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yercic*Z Stc?-i on. ; 2? h,C Iff. J<rJoe^. 

7* Joe- F-- vu-re Secoirm-cL, L#t~?U- 
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cr c o l'~?=3 — fcTh 

fl 5> 


4i" i-j 

1847.] Notice on the Antiquities of BhopaL 747 


one foot in that height. A berm or pathway of six feet is then left 
all round and form this basement springs the " Tope" itself with a 
diameter of 106 feet or thereabouts. Its height is 28 feet, or including 
the basement 42 feet ; the hemisphere is not perfect if indeed any such 
geometrical figure was, ever intended, and the top forms a circular flat of 
34 feet in diameter. The Tope is encircled by a stone colonnade, or 
rather railing or balustrade 10 feet high, at a distance also of 10 feet 
from the basement while at opposite sides, corresponding with the 
cardinal points, are four entrances into the passage formed round the 
monument by the railing in question. Within the passage, and oppo- 
site the entrances are images of Buddha with their backs to the base- 
ment. The image at the southern entrance is erect, i. e. it has been 
cut in an erect position ; and opposite the southern entrance also are 
ramps or slopes leading up to the berm or pathway. The Tope was 
originally surmounted by a kind of cupola, or at least by a circular 
railing of stone supporting one large central ornament or " Kullus," 
but the exact description of the upper work cannot now be ascertained. 
It further seems certain from fallen remains that the pathway sur- 
mounting the basement had a balustrade of stone on its outer edge 
about two feet high. The Tope was apparently built solid, a thick 
column or shaft of brickwork being first raised, to serve probably as a 
foundation for the upper cupola, and then encompassed with stone work, 
the outer blocks having their faces dressed, although they were not 
jointed with lime. The whole building was then cased in mortar to a 
thickness of about four inches. 

The smaller Tope corresponds in plan with the larger, but its lower 
base is only about 48 feet in diameter and its upper about 37 feet. 
The ramp also leading to the pathway above the basement is opposite 
the eastern entrance instead of the southern, and the lofty gateways in 
the encompassing stone railing which distinguish the larger Tope are 
wanting in the smaller. The accompanying plan and section of the 
larger Tope will however sufficiently illustrate the characteristics of 
both buildings. 

Adjoining the northern and southern entrances stood two columns 
of stone, and perhaps more. One of these is about 2^ feet in diamete r 
at the base, and the other about 3 feet, with a shaft of a single block 
33 feet in length. At the southern entrance there would indeed appear to 

718 Notice on the A.itiqwties of Bhopdl. [Aug. 

have been a second column close to the first, as the segmental fragment 
of one still protrudes two feet out of the ground. Adjoining the east- 
ern entrance there is likewise a small pillar now standing with a base 
one foot in diameter and a shaft 13 feet long, and it seems probable 
that many similarly detached pillars formerly adorned the building. 
The capital of the southern column is formed of four lions, but a fallen 
capital on the northern side is of a kind which seems to have once 
been so much in use as to have formed the characteristic of a style. 
It consists of a bell-shaped stone, fluted, and surmounted by an 
" abacus" so thick as to be almost cubical. The style of the capital 
will however be best understood from the accompanying drawing. On 
neither of the capitals do there appear any marks as if they had sus- 
tained images of men or representations of the sun. They may 
nevertheless have done so, as the cup-shaped top formed by the lions' 
heads in one instance, and the broad basis furnished by the square 
" abacus" in the other, would leave a heavy stone figure in little need 
of support from tenons. On a pillar still existing in the same tract of 
country and on the representations of others, men or animals or a 
circle, i. e. the sun, surmount the capitals. 

In an architectural and perhaps in an antiquarian point of view the 
most remarkable portions of the monuments are the stone railings or 
inclosures, and the pillared gateways with triple architraves. The rail- 
ling consists of stone uprights or columns, 2 feet by 1 foot 9 inches in 
base and 8 feet 8 inches in height, and only an inch or so more than two 
feet apart. A plain architrave, as wide or thick as the uprights, two feet 
four inches deep, and slightly rounded at top surmounts the columns. 
Between the columns again are three cross pieces likewise of stone, 
two feet one inch or so in length, besides the supporting ends or tenons, 
two feet four inches in depth, and 9 inches thick, but their section is 
elliptical or doubly sigmental, that is the perpendicular axis is 2 feet 4 
inches and the vertical 9 inches. Between each bar or cross-piece 
there is a space of four inches only, so that the inclosure is almost in 
effect a dead wall. The railing however must have been felt to be 
characteristic or symbolical, and it occurs frequently as an ornament 
among the sculptured reliefs. The abacus also of the capital of the 
column at the northern entrance has been carved so as to represent 
this species of inclosure. 

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184/.] Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 749 

The entrance gateways are formed of two pillars without bases, seven 
feet apart, two feet three inches square in section, and including the 
capitals, eighteen feet four inches in height. On the capitals rest an 
architrave nearly two feet square in section, and which projects about 
four feet three inches beyond the pillars on each side. The architrave 
rises slightly in the centre, and the ends are also somewhat turned up, 
and carved so as to represent volutes or scrolls. Over the capitals, the 
architraves somewhat thicken, so as to support continuations of the 
columns. A second architrave thus lies parallel to the first at a distance 
of about three feet. It is not quite so long or projecting as the lowest, 
and a third architrave is still shorter than the second. On the ends of 
the architraves are seated lions, and between the architraves are figures 
standing, or seated on elephants, or camels, or horses. The pillars, so 
to speak, terminate in tripods supporting globes, which again sustain a 
kind of crescent encircling an ornament. Upon the centre of the 
topmost architrave rests a large crescent, if indeed the circle was not 
originally complete. The crescent is five feet high, which gives a total 
height to the gateway of 33 feet 6 inches. The capitals of the 
columns are formed in one instance of lions, in another of human 
dwarfs, and in two instances, I think, of elephants. From the astra- 
gals, or from the necks of the capitals, stretch female figures to the 
ends of the architraves. The columns, except where they abut against 
the stone inclosure, are elaborately ornamented with flowers, or human 
or animal figures in relief, or with representations of trees and temples, 
of religious ceremonies, and occasionally of the practice of mechanic 
arts. A detached gateway, which probably formed an entrance into 
the cleared area or platform, is similar in style and ornament, but not 
so large in size. 

These gateways are not displeasing to the taste, although the super- 
structure, seems too heavy for the baseless columns. The bas-reliefs, 
which give the human figure a height of six or seven inches, show some 
fancy in design and some skill in execution. They surpass the ordina- 
ry productions of the present day, without being equal in accuracy of 
proportion or excellence of workmanship to what may be seen in some 
brahminical temples, or to the works at Ellora or Adjunta as given to us 
in drawings. — Their value however consists in what they make known 
about a former people, and while it would be idle to attempt to describe 

5 e 2 

750 Notice on the Antiquities of BhopaL [Aug. 

the subjects treated of in the many compartments, I may make a few 
observations on matters of some interest which they help to illustrate. 

There are several representations of " Topes," mostly with one terrace, 
such as that actually existing — but one at least shows two terraces. 
Each "Tope" is surmounted by a circle of stone pillars, on which 
again rests a succession of architraves projecting one beyond the other 
so as to give a greater breadth at top than at bottom, From this 
highest platform again rises usually one " Chutree" or umbrella, but 
sometimes three are seen to spring from it. The stone inclosures 
round the basement, correspond exactly with that still existing — and 
the terraces with balustrades show that they could be reached, and 
indeed that they were formed for purposes of circumambulation. The 
crowning stone inclosure could also probably be reached by some tem- 
porary means of ascent — for there is no sign of any winding pathway 
round the building, either in the existing " Topes" or in the represen- 
tations given in the reliefs. Nevertheless I think the Tope of Mani- 
kyala in the Punjab has such a spiral ascent. 

With regard to religious ceremonies or opinions, the reliefs give re- 
presentations of the adoration or consecration of Topes — of the adora- 
tion of trees and of the devotion paid to the sun. — Men and animals, 
wild beasts and tame, come separately, or crowded together to offer up 
prayers at a " Tope" — or to bow to a tree growing out of a square or 
circular vessel or urn, or to adore the sun, resting the edge of its disc 
on the capital of a column. There are likewise images of Buddhas 
seated, male, and in one or more instances female, to whom perhaps 
some are offering worship. There is moreover a representation of a 
boat with a raised prow terminating in a lion's head, and a raised stern 
ending in a fish's tail, which contains an oblong seat or altar with a 
conopy. Two men stand by the side of the altar, one with a "Chowree" 
and the other with a " Chatta" or umbrella. If the altar is, simply a 
seat, it is not at least represented as being occupied. In every direction 
the hooded snake — or at least the hood alone is to be seen veiling or 
sheltering or protecting the worshippers of the tree and the sun and 
the temple. Winged human figures are also to be seen as if hovering 
round a temple to guard it — and monkey-men, and monsters with 
human bodies and the heads of beasts, are occasionally seen side by 
side with ordinary mortals. Lastly, a square based pyramidal " Tope'' 

1847.] Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 751 

with a regular inclosure of pillars has four doorways with pointed 
arches, out of which are issuing flames. Nowhere did I notice a figure 
invested with the thread of the brahminical faith. 

With regard to race these sculptures show that the dominant people 
was in dress and in many usages such as we may consider the old 
Hindoos, whether Brahminists or Buddhists, to have been. Another 
class however is also shown wearing a short tunic and a kind of cap, and 
who for the most seem to be engaged in menial offices or mechanic arts. 

Among the animals represented, the elephant, the camel, the horse, 
the ox and the lion, are the most conspicuous. Birds and fishes and 
snakes are likewise shown. Among the birds, the peacock is prominent. 
Of the monsters represented are dragons, winged lions with beaks, 
horned and cloven-footed elephants ; elephants terminating in fishes, 
centaurs mounted, and human bodies sustaining the heads of dogs 
or asses. The human portions of the centaurs seem female. Most 
of these fanciful or mythological animals are to be seen on the 
inclosure of the smaller "Tope," every pillar having three basses or 
circular spaces ornamented with reliefs of men or beasts or trees, &c. — It 
is to be observed that a Tiger nowhere appears, and that lions with 
bushy manes are frequently depicted. Sometimes they may be seen 
carrying away horned cattle smaller than themselves. Elephants, camels 
and horses are all used for riding, while chariots may be seen drawn 
by horses and containing an armed man with ensigns borne before him. 
Bullocks are likewise represented drawing cars. 

The condition of life, or the degree of civilization of the people, may 
be further judged of by the representation of buildings with arched 
cloisters or colonnades, and with terraces and balustrades, or with 
balconies containing several people seated. The recurrence of water in 
waves with boats and with fish gambolling about would almost point 
to a maritime people, or to artists to whom the sea was familiar. 

The inscriptions* which are now forwarded are all cut here and there 
upon one part or other of the stone inclosure, excepting one, which is 
fragmental only, and which is visible upon the remains of a column at 
the southern entrance. None may be contemporary so far as we have 
any fair reasons for concluding, except probably two and p)ossibly a 

* Most of these have been published in the sixth volume of the Journal ; such as are 
new will be given hereafter.— Eds. 

7o2 Notice on the Antiquities of Rhopal. [Aug, 

third. The two in question are cut on the representations of " Topes" 
sculptured on the southern entrance which has fallen, but which when 
standing had the representations in question out of the reach of pil- 
grims and visitors, The third inscription occupies a band between two 
compartments on one of the pillars of the eastern gateway, and could 
not readily be reached. The two longest inscriptions are cut on the 
stone parallels or cross-bars of the inclosure, and could be removed for 
transmission to Calcutta without injury to the monument, except such 
as would arise from their absence. 

The temple close to the eastern entrance to which Captain Fell 
alludes [Journal As. Soc. of Bengal. Ill, 493] is now wholly in ruins, 
and I did not notice the Sanscrit inscription giving the date of 20 Sum- 
but. I regret that Captain Fell's paper was not before me at the time, 
otherwise the search I should certainly have made might have recovered 
so valuable a record. I may here observe that Captain Fell's measure- 
ments of the circumference and height of the monument should be 
more accurate than mine, as it is now somewhat ruinous. I am sorry 
however that our measurements of some details do not agree better 
than they appear to do. 

The Topes at Peepleea-Bijolee do not appear to have been before 
brought to notice. Three of the most conspicuous stand on the sloping 
top or back of a low hill, and seven or eight or more, nearly in a line, 
occupy a lower stage on the same hill. Between two of the upper 
Topes there is a square platform of earth and rubbish 18 or 20 feet 
high, — supported by walls of masonry, and ascended by means of a 
ruinous flight of steps, on which stand the remains of a small temple 
containing a statue of Boodha surrounded by numerous emblematical 
figures, and among them, two of men wearing the thread of the twice- 
born Hindoo classes. The largest of the Topes in question does not 
appear to exceed 60 feet in diameter. All have a plinth or basement, 
from which springs the Hemisphere, and all have ramps by which the 
berm or pathway formed by the plinth may be reached. They appear 
to have stood within square courts, but there are no remains of circular 
inclosures of stone with the ornamented entrances which make the 
Satcheh Tope so remarkable. All of these Topes are more or less 
ruinous, and there are several heaps of loose stones which once proba- 
bly formed small Topes. No inscriptions were any where observed. 

184 7. J Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 753 

It seems now to be certain that " Topes" are temples rather than 
tombs, and every thing I have observed of their structure, or which can 
be gathered from the representations given of them, corroborates this 
view of their use or purpose. They may nevertheless have occasionally 
been raised over the dead, — or some, like the gigantic one still existing 
at Unrodhpoora in Ceylon, may have contained such small and strag- 
gling chambers for the reception of funeral urns as are traceable in the 
pyramids of Egypt for the deposit of mummies. Their primary con- 
nection was however with the worship of the Divinity as then practised 
— and a consideration of their structure, and a comparison of the usages 
of the Jains, all show that a " Tope" was intended to represent Mount 
Meru, — the central mount of the world, the native seat, or point of 
divergence of the Caucasian races with its four shadow-giving trees,* 
and four divergent riversf which watered the earth. The Jain temples 
still contain models of towers, square or round, standing in inclosures, 
and diminishing by successive stories with balconies. These towers 
the " Juttees" or Jain priests declare to be symbolical of Meru, round 
which pilgrims should solemnly walk with their right hands to the 
mount. Circumambulation is still "a ceremony of the Hindoos, more 
particularly during the Deewalee, or festival of light, at the temple on 
the fabled hill of Goverdhun near Muthra : — further, the holy hill of 
Gungree, the source, as is believed, of the Indus, the Sutlej, the Gogra 
[or Ganges] and the Burrampooter, is still, as I often heard when in 
Tibet, encircled by Lamaic pilgrims ; the construction of the Topes 
admits of or provides for worshippers moving round and round them : — ; 
the Jains now perambulate within the square areas of their temples and 
draw Parisnath on certain occasions on his elephant or car through the 
inclosing cloisters, that is round the square court, and lastly the 
Buddhists of Tibet similarly pass round and round the oblong struc- 
tures of stone which are found near every village. 

The worship of the tree which occurs so frequently among these 
sculptures has left its traces in the regard still paid by Jains and 
Hindoos to the Burr and Peepul trees, or especially to the Burr, the 
Peepul and the Awnla when growing together. To this devotion may 
also be referred the circumstance that no Hindoo will ever cut down or 

* Jamun, Kuddamb, Burr, Peepul. 
t Seeta, Bhudra, Chuksoo, Aliknunda, 

754 Notice on the Antiquities of BhopaL [Aug. 

injure the tree of his birth or life, that is the tree dedicated to the day 
on which he was born, and which trees are made 27 in number, to cor- 
respond with the mansions of the Moon. 

The worship of the Peepul and the superstitious regard paid to the 
tree of birth, lead the mind back to the Biblical injunctions about the 
tree in the midst of the garden, and the vessel containing the altar as 
represented in the sculptures, is almost a counterpart of the ark or 
sacred boat of Egyptian processions, and which has served to illustrate 
the ark of the Jewish covenant, except that waving punkahs and chow- 
rees, the marks of dignity and respect, take the place of the oversha- 
dowing wings of angels or cherubim. 

The actual worship of the serpent is not apparent among these 
reliefs, but their hoods every where protect worshippers, and snakes 
themselves sometimes seem the companions of devotees. Nevertheless 
on the smaller Tope there is a representation of a bird destroying a 
serpent. The subject however of the serpent-guarded race will be 
noticed in describing the next series of remains at Oodehghir. 

The marked devotion paid to the sun deserves notice mainly in con- 
nection with a snake-protected people, and with the worship of the 
tree and of the sacred mount. An unfinished inscription in a ruinous 
temple at Oodehpoor is solely in praise of the sun, as will be again 
noticed, and it may be well to bear in mind the existence of the " Saurya" 
sect among Hindoos, of the " Horn" offerings, and of the import of 
the brahminical " Gayatri." 

In considering the structure of these Topes with their one or more 
terraces, and with entrances which images guard or sanctify, and in 
reflecting on the fact of their disuse for many ages among the Jain 
representatives of the Buddhists, one is almost led to the conclusion 
that as brahminism prevailed, the terraced mount gradually became 
changed into the <f Gopura" and " Vimana" — the storied entrance and 
solid pyramidal temple of the superstitions of the south of India. A 
Pagoda still comprizes entrances, and courts, and shrines, as well as a 
principal place of worship, and such was very much the plan of the 
ancient Buddhist edifices under consideration, while the succession of 
doors which lead to nothing, or abut against a solid wall, seems but an 
improved copy of what a Tope must have presented with a succession 
of stories, and with entrances admitting merely to narrow passages. 

1847.] Notice on the Antiquities ofBhopaL 755 

One can indeed almost trace the elongation of the terraced Tope or 
"Degopa" into the storied temples of the Buddhist Chinese, and into 
the great Minar or tower at Delhi, which is surrounded with Buddhist 
remains. The huildings of the Nepalese show the transition or inter- 
mediate state in the one instance, and the present Jain models of Meru 
or of a Tope, well represent the Qootub Minar with its succession 
of balconies. The traceable change of the flat Basilica of declining 
Rome into the lofty Cathedrals of the middle ages seems to illustrate 
this speculation. 

The impression left on the mind after an examination of these sculp- 
tures is, that while they are eminently Indian in their characteristics* 
there is nevertheless something Persian or Babylonian, and also some- 
thing Egyptian about them. The Persian seems the stronger of two 
complementary elements, and the impression at the same time is, that 
the people of Mesopotamia influenced those of India mainly by sea, 
and not by land routes and communications, or through commerce and 
emigration rather than by conquest, but that the snake-protected Bud- 
dhists did so by military expeditions also is more than probable. 

Oodehghir. — To the west of the Betwah river, and a mile and a half 
or two miles from Bhilsa, there is a low range of hills named Oodehghir, 
in the soft sandstone of which many small caves or niches have been 
hollowed. The largest is dedicated to Shiv, and is 17 or 18 feet square, 
with 4 pillars, all cut out of the solid rock. This temple contains a 
Sanscrit inscription of little interest except that it gives a date, viz : 1093 
Sumbut. There are also many figures sculptured outside the entrances, 
but most of these represent single divinities or heroes, and the interest 
of the series centres in two groups, one showing Vishnu as the Varaha 
avatar, or with a human body and the head of a boar, and the other 
showing Vishnu slumbering on the vertical folds of the serpent, 

The Boar manifestation is 8 or 9 feet high, and is almost detached 
from the rock out of which it is carved. The god supports with his 
tusk a small female figure, which seems to cling to this natural weapon 
of the divinity. In front of Vishnu, there is a larger sized female 
figure, kneeling, and with uplifted hands imploring him as if to spare, 
perhaps the virgin in his power. This figure has the expanded hood of 
a snake over her head. Behind her there is another figure, also kneel- 
ing, but much mutilated. On the solid wall of live rock there are 

5 F 

756 Notice on the Antiquities of B hop til, [Aug. 

sculptured above, before, aud belaud Vishuu, numerous small figures 
in successive rows and as if forming processions. Nearly all of these 
have the short tunic and cap noticed among a few of the figures of the 
Tope gateways. Some of the people represented are playing on musi- 
cal instruments, and hence the country people call the monuments by 
the name of " Mama Banjeeka Burdt" or " the uncle and nieces mar- 
riage procession." 

The figure of Vishnu reclining on the serpent is about six feet long 
and is likewise in bold relief. The head of the reptile with its many- 
eyed hood, curves over the head of the God as if to protect or shadow 
it. The several Hindoo Divinities are represented by their symbols, of 
a bird, &c. as spectators of Vishnu's greatness. 

The inscription sent is apparently incomplete ; it is to be seen upon 
the rock near the Boar-god. 

These sculptures seem typical of the triumph of Vishnn over the 
Serpent, of Brahminism over Buddhism, and it is to be regretted the 
date cannot be ascertained, for the 1,093 Vicramaditya already quoted 
may have been inscribed by some pilgrim. 

Of the Jain hill three miles N. W. of Oodehghir, and of the un- 
finished figure of a horse south-east from the Satcheh Tope, which 
are mentioned by Dr. Yeld or Captain Fell, [Journal As. Soc. III. 
489] I did not learn, but as I knew not that such had been noticed, I 
could only inquire generally for monuments and remains.- 

Ghearispoor or Gheiaspoor. — Ghearispoor, or Gheiaspoor, is on the 
road between Bhilsa and Saugor, two marches east of the former place. 
The Hindoos connect the name with the importance they attach to the 
1 lth day of their half months, and the Mahometans regard one Gheias 
as its founder. It is certainly a place of some antiquity, and among its 
remains the Buddhist temple deserves notice. The site of the temple is 
nearly at the top of a sandstone hill, and it is built on a platform 
gained from the hill by making the step side a complete precipice. A 
small square " adytum" with pillars before it supporting a dome, is in- 
closed in a rectangular building about 50 feet long by 30 feet wide, 
which has one entrance with a portico in front of, or outside, the four 
pillared dome. The external walls are not finished, for the live rock 
prevents the completion of half a side and a portion of the back or end. 
The " adytum" is surmounted by a pyramid or spire, resting partly on 

1847.] Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 757 

the external walls, and as in front of it there is the dome, the temple re- 
sembles the ordinary Indian type, except that it is more rectangular and 
less " crucial" in plan, and that it has one entrance only instead of the 
three common to many other temples of the same dimensions. 

There are several images of Buddha in this temple, and among the 
sculptures may be noticed a figure resting on a cornucopia, and a 
" Merman," or a human head and shoulders, &c. with a fishy extremi- 
ty. The merman's head is shaded by a serpent's hood. Birds eating 
clustering fruits are also carved with some spirit. 

There are no inscriptions on this building except such as pilgrims or 
visitors may have cut; one of these is dated 1551 Sumbut (1494 A. D.) 
one period of the re-assertion of Hindoo independence, but the temple 
serves to show the Buddhist love for hilly spots ; and this ornate edifice 
is situated much as the comparatively rude "Tope" in the Khyber 
Pass has been placed, or like that of Belur and others near Rawul 

Oodehpoor. — The decayed town of Oodehpoor is situated to the 
eastward of the Betwah river, and to the eastward likewise of the 
road leading from Bhilsa to Seronj. It stands at the foot of an iso- 
lated standstone hill, and is said to take its name from Oodehajeet, a 
lineal descendant of Vicramaditya and of Bhoj, who acquired a great 
name in Malwa about the middle of the 11th century of our era, and 
whose rights are declared to be still inherent in a Powar Thakoor, the 
Zemindar of the Pergunneh. 

The temple of Mahadeo at Oodehpoor, is still a work of great beauty, 
although it has been much injured by the Mahometans. Its ground, 
plan forms a Greek, or nearly equal-armed cross, with the outline every 
where broken by regular projections, and with the corners filled in, 
much as we are told Sir Christopher Wren wished to do when he built 
Saint Paul's. It is about 70 feet long by about 60 wide; the walls are 
thick,— three arms of the cross contain entrances with external porticos, 
while the fourth, opposite the main entrance, forms the " adytum" or 
recess in which is placed the Lingam or mark of Siva. The interior 
forms an irregular or broken rectangle, which again includes right pillars 
forming an unequal-sided Octagon. Over the Adytum or Lingam 
rises the usual storied or clustered pyramid, while a dome with side 
vaults rests upon the other three arms of the cross and upon the eight 

5 F 

758 Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal, [Aug. 

pillars. The temple is built of red sandstone without lime, or at least 
without any readily perceivable in the joints, for the blocks are very nice- 
ly fitted. Every stone is an ornament in itself, a human or animal figure, 
or a flower, or a portion of a fillet or ovolo, — but the individual beauty 
has at the same time been rendered subordinate to the general effect. 

The Lingam with its shapely pedestal is about eight feet high, but 
the plain cylinder has been capped with a brazen head, to make the 
presence of the god more clear to the apprehensions of the rude and 
the superstitious. Under the dome and facing the Lingam, is placed 
the cumbrous recumbent Bull dedicated to the divinity. 

On a stone of the passage of the main entrance there is a long San- 
skrit inscription, but the door opens back upon it, and as the passage 
is not well lighted otherwise, the partial closing of the entrance makes 
it so dark as to render the writing difficult to decipher. Many of the 
letters have also been imperfectly cut or are now defaced, and the 
transcript which is sent may not accurately represent the original. It is 
such however as three or four men tolerably well versed in Sanscrit were 
able to make of it, and it cannot be far wrong in any essential point.* 

As it has been read to me, the inscription states that Biboodh, 
Gokul Deo, and Gheata (or Soojan, who built many temples to Shio) 
were succeeded in the dominion of Malwa by Oodehajeet, who died in 
1116 Sumbut (1059). After Oodehajeet the power of the Yuvvuns 
or Mahometans prevailed for 446 years, at the end of which time 
Chanddeo became powerful and was termed the Lord of Magadha, and 
whose son, Lohugraee, collected stones for a temple in 1562 Sumbut, 
(1505 A. D.) The inscription concludes with the remark that what 
had been understood had been written, and it is hence probable that it 
is not a contemporary record, but the work of some pilgrim, and that 
the temple may in reality have been built by Oodehajeet about the middle 
of the 11th century of our era. The rise of Chanddeo is synchronous 
with the dominion of Singram Singh of Chittor, the Rana Sanka of 
Baber, and is another corroboration of the declension of the Mahometan 
power which took place under the Khizzers and Lodis of Delhi. 

The Toghluks in their career of conquest, visited and defaced this 
elaborate temple of idols, and built within its precincts a simple 
mosque to the God of Mahomet. The mosque is still standing, and 
* This inscription has been given with translation, in Vol. IX. p. 545.— Eds. 

1847.] Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal, 759 

its gates or entrances, now represented by two solitary jambs with broad 
lintels, are within a dozen yards of the back of the temple itself. 
There are Arabic inscriptions over these gates, to the effect that the 
mosque was built in the year of the Hijree 739 (1338-39 A. D.) and 
in the reign of Abool Moojahid Mahomed Ibn Toghluk Shah. Ano- 
ther mosque, one of some pretensions, was afterwards erected in the 
vicinity of the temple. It was finished in 1041 Hijree (1631-32), as 
the inscription says, "at Oodehpoor on the borders of Gondwana." 

The temple at Oodehpoor is perhaps as elegant a specimen of old 
Hindoo architecture as is now to be found to the north of the Ner- 
budda, always excepting the Qootub Minar at Delhi. It yields indeed 
in size to the temple built at Bindrabun by Man Singh of Jeypoor, 
which was defaced by Aurungzeb, but it surpasses it in the proportions 
of its design and in the elaborateness of its details. It is a monu- 
ment moreover of the varying fortunes of brahminism. It was most 
likely erected when the " twice-born" had fairly triumphed over the 
Buddhists. Within three hundred years it was despoiled by the Maho- 
metans. In two hundred years more the victories of Rana Sanka 
allowed votaries once again to flock to it, but the rise of the Moghuls 
soon consigned it a second time to the neglect of the rich. The Mo- 
ghuls fell, and a dynasty of brahmins from the south mastered the 
country, and showed at once their gratitude and the grossness of their 
apprehensions, by capping the simple black stone of Muhadeo with an 
idolatrous brazen head. This last bequest to the temple is dated in 
1841 sumbut (1784 A. D.), and in two generations from that time the 
new masters from the west, while admiring the beauties of the fabric 
can trace the corruption which beset brahminism in the hour of its 
success. Fetichism had been sublimed into a symbolic yet philosophic 
Deism, but in the eleventh century priestcraft fully appreciated the ad- 
vantage of mystery, the blackstone is no longer conspicuous in the open 
air or in the centre of a lofty edifice, it is concealed in an " adytum," a 
" holy of holies," and the trembling devotee reaches it through a gloomy 
passage, and can at last only see it by the partial and flickering light of 
an oil-fed taper. 

Oodehpoor has its fane attributed to Jains or Buddhists, as well as 
its temples, certainly Brahmin and Moslem. The Beeja [or Vijaya] 
mundur is two-storied and about 40 feet long by 20 or 22 feet wide, 

760 Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopah [Aug. 

exclusive of an entrance porch. It is of somewhat rude or plain work- 
manship. Its ground plan shows three chambers with a cloister or 
veranda before them. The upper story has been converted into a 
dwelling house, the lower is untenanted, but I could not, amidst the 
rubbish which encumbers it, see any image. On either side of the en- 
trance, tablets have been inserted in the wall for inscriptions, but one 
inscription only has been begun and two-thirds of what was designed 
is still unwritten. The language is Sanscrit, but the letters, which are 
beautifully cut, are Pracrit or Mugadha, or such as are still read by the 
Jain priests. The subject is the sun and the glories of that great 
luminary, but no date or name helps to fix the era of its erection or the 
faith of its builders, and it is perhaps tradition, rather than certain 
knowledge or probable criticism, which makes the several " Beeja mun- 
durs" of this part of India to be Jain temples. In structure however 
this one at Oodehpoor closely resembles the low-roofed Buddhist tem- 
ples or shrines still visible around the Tope at Satcheh. 

Ehrin. — Ehrin, in the Saugor territory, is now a village on the left 
bank of the Beena, near its junction with the Betwah, about 25 miles 
N. E. from Serong — but it appears once to have been a town of some 
local repute — small copper coins can still be found after each successive 
annual denudation of the mounds which mark its site, and several 
adjoining monuments of stone, the remains perhaps of an extensive 
integral series, make the place well known for many miles around. 
Some of the coins accompany this letter, but nothing perhaps can be 
made of them.* 

The most remarkable of the monumental remains is Vishnu mani- 
fest as the Boar. The animal stands about 10 feet high with his snout 
in the air, and it is in length perhaps 12 feet. The body is carved all 
over with successive rows of small figures having the short tunic and 
high cap or head dress remarked at Oodehghir and Satcheh. A band, 
ornamented with human figures seated, encircles the neck of the ani- 
mal. The tongue projects and supports a human figure erect on its 
tip. A young female, here, as at Oodehghir, hangs by the arm by the 
right tusk, while the breast is occupied with an inscription, of which a 
copy has been made as accurately as its mutilated state and the short- 

* Small, square and much worn copper coins, with the bodhi tree, the swastica, and 
other Buddhist emblems.— Eds. 

1847-] Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. 761 

ness of time would allow.* The Boar itself is ill-shaped, but the human 
figures show more skill in design. 

To one side of this " Owtar" stands a four-armed Divinity, 12 or 14 
feet high. His habiliments are Indian, that is, his loins are girt. He 
has a high cap or head-dress, while round his neck and reaching to his 
feet there is a thick ornamental cord resembling a modern " Boa," with 
its ends joined. The vestibule of a small cupola which once probably 
covered this statue is still standing. On these entrance columns are 
seen figures who wear the Juneeao or thread of the noble Indian races, 
in addition to the ornamental cord above described. Other devices 
consist of twisted snakes, suspended bells — of figures of elephants, 
fishes, frogs — of women naked, recumbent, and giving suck to children, 
and of seated Buddhas. There are also many faces of Satyrs, filling 
bosses or compartments. 

Behind a small pillared temple there still stands a figure with the 
face perhaps of a lion — but with a human body and with human limbs. 
The above three figures form one row or series, with however, other 
undescribed remains between them or beyond them. In front of them 
there are three figures of couching lions, and in front of these again, 
are two columns or rather one pillar and a fragment, and a small 
temple half buried in the soil. The column has a broad base ; for 
about 15 feet the shaft is square, and for about 10 feet more it is 
round. The bell capital, described at Satcheh, occupies perhaps two 
feet, a second capital, so to speak, adds three feet more to the height, 

and forms a pedestal for a small double fronted four armed statue. On 

this column there is likewise an inscription which has been copied as 

well as time and decay would allow. 

Among the many figures carved on fallen pillars, the use of the 

Juneeao may be observed, and the whole of the remains are attributed 

to one Raja Behrat. 

At Putaree, in the same quarter of the country, I heard of a stone 

representation of an animal of some kind, or of a stone which was in 

someway remarkable, but I had not an opportunity of visiting it. 
The monuments at Ehrin are perhaps antecedent to those at Oodeh- 

* This inscription has been published with a translation, in Vol. VII. p. 632 of the 
Journal.— Eds. 

762 Notice on the Antiquities of Bhopal. [Aug. 

ghir, and although they mark the prevalence of Brahminism, they look 
like adaptations from Buddhism. 

Soondursee. — There are other remains of value or interest in this 
vicinity, which I may hereafter have an opportunity of visiting, and the 
three inscriptions noted helow may deserve to be recorded. The first 
is on a small temple to Shiv at Soondursee (or Sindersee) on the Kalee 
Sindh river, about 25 miles to the south of Sarungpoor. It gives a 
date 1220 Sumbut, and states that the temple was built by Baba Bul- 
wunt Dukhunee. The temples at Soondursee are rude, and the usual 
marked spire is replaced by a plain pyramid of an attitude not exceed- 
ing the side of its base. This rudeness may be provincial only, for 
although art doubtlessly declined in upper India about that period, a 
temple to Mahadev at Nimawar on the northern bank of the Ner- 
budda, about 50 miles below Hosungabad, and which gives a date 1253 
Sumbut, shows some taste and skill. It is however much inferior in 
both points to the temple at Oodehpoor. 

Sehore. — At Sehore, 20 miles west of Bhopal, a traditional * Beeja- 
mundur" now forms a somewhat rude mosque, giving a date of 732 
Hijree (1331-32) which like the Musjid at Oodehpoor, marks the period 
of Toghluk's sway. 

Postscript. — I have referred to the " Maru" of the Jeins as illus- 
trating the belief of the old Buddhists, and as expressing an idea com- 
mon to all the ancient Indians, and not merely peculiar to the brahmins 
and borrowed from them by a recent sect. The Jewel-footed Parishnath of 
the Jeins, may also perhaps throw some light on the well known formula 
of the modern Buddhists of Tibet, which has been variously interpreted 
by European scholars, — Mr. Hodgson's little volume on the literature and 
religion of the Buddhists, p. 171, &c. may be referred to, and it will be 
seen that M. Klaproth gives two translations, while M. Csomadekoros, 
Sir Wm. Macnaghten, and Mr. Hodgson himself give each one. All 
of these versions turn upon " Padm" as meaning Lotus, and M. 
Csomadekoros, states that such is the interpretation put upon it by the 
Lamas themselves. Padm however means foot as well as Lotus, and 
the Jeins still worship " Manx Padom" or him of the Jewel-foot, while 
the idea of feet so enriched or adorned is common to the whole Indian 
world as implying Divinity, although perhaps, like the silver-footed 

184 7.] On the Tibetan Badyer. 763 

Thetis of the Greeks, the image may have been poetical only in the first 
instance. The accompanying transcripts satisfy the Sanscrit scholars 
of this quarter, and they seem accurately to represent the two originals, 
the " Ranja" and Tibetan copies respectively. It will be observed that 
the Tibetan makes the Godhead or the Divine essence or emanation to 
be feminine, if the rendering now given is admitted to be correct. 

The last word of the formula may apparently be regarded as a 
" Beej " (vija) mystic root or germ equally with the first, and the 
meaning will thus become "The Lord, the Jewel-footed, the preserver." 
This translation does not affect the characteristic of Mr. Hodgson's 
i( Padma Pani " or present Lotus-handed Regent " Dhyani Bodhisatwa," 
bat it interferes with the functions of the " Oon," gone bye, he of the 
Jewel-beating hand, Jewel-footed seems to be the more ancient notion 
of the two, and it will be curious should the Nepalese Buddhists appear 
to have founded a distinction between themselves and other worshippers 
of representatives, by removing the essence or symbol of Divinity from 
one limb to another. 

On the Tibetan Badger, Taxidia Leucurus, N. S. } with Plates, By 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 



Arcto galida. II. Smith. Genus meles. 

Subgenus Taxidia. 

Species new. T. Leucurus, Mihh 

Tumpha of the Tibetans. 

Habitat. The plains of Tibet. 
There is not yet, I believe, any record of the Badger as an inhabitant 
of the east. The occurrence, however, in the sub-Himalayas of the 
allied forms of Helictis, Urva and Ursitaxus, has led me for some time 
past to expect such a discovery in the Himalaya or Tibet, and my anti- 
cipations have just been fulfilled by the receipt of a very fine specimen 
of the Badger from the neighbourhood of Lassa. The spoils obtained 
by me are those of a female of mature or advanced age, as is proved by 
the obliteration of the cranial sutures and by the flaccid enlargement 
of the teats. The animal was killed in the preceding autumn when in 
full fur, and, as the skin is well prepared without distortion, and as i( 

5 G 

764 On the Tibetan Badger. [Aug, 

is provided with perfect head and limbs, these spoils afford excellent 
materials for description, exclusive of the soft viscera and their long 
case, which are wanting. 

The Badger of Tibet, called Tumpha by the inhabitants, falls under 
the North American instead of the European section of the Genus. In 
other words, it is a Taxidia not a Meles, of systematists, having only 
four molar teeth on each side of either jaw, whereas the European type 
has five molars above and six below, on either side. 

The Tibetan Tumpha is a smaller animal than the Badger of Europe 
or than the Carkajou of America. It is contra-distinguished from 
both these animals by a considerably longer tail, and also by a locomo- 
tive structure not plantigrade, but only subplantigrade, or, in plainer 
terms, by having a third of the sole of the hind feet thickly covered with 
hair instead of the whole being nude to the heel. From the Carkajou 
of America the Tumpha of Tibet differs by the very inferior size of the 
claws of the posterior extremities,* a point in which the Tumpha agrees 
with the European Badger, as it also does so remarkably in colours that 
there is some difficulty, without having both animals before one, in 
noting their difference in this respect. On the other hand, the dis- 
agreement of the Tumpha with the American Badger in point of colour 
is as striking as is its craniological conformity with that animal and 
deviation from the Badger of Europe. The last named animal is from 
2\ to 2f feet long from snout to vent, and the tail, inclusive of the 
hair, is from 6 to 7 inches more. The head to the nape, is 6^ to 7 
inches, and the mid fore claw 1£ inches. I have no equally accurate 
details to refer to for the Carkajou, but it is, I believe, about the size 
of the European Badger, or somewhat less ; and II. Smith says it has 
a shorter head but stands rather higher on the legs. These references 
to the Badgers of Europe and America, will I hope, enable the reader 
better to appreciate the following description of the Badger of Asia, 
now first noticed as a tenant of this quarter of the globe. 

The Tumpha or Tibetan Badger is in total length 37 inches, where- 
of the tail, with the hair, is 10 inches, and without it, 7- The head is 
:)\ inches, the palm and nails 3|, the planta or rest of the hind foot, 

7 II. Smith, describing the Carkajou from life, expressly says thai "a// the extremities 
irmed with long - powerful claws," or I should have supposed the forefeet only are so 
armed, as in the Badger and Tumpha. See Note, Lib. XL 211. 







1847.] On the Tibetan Badger. 

from heel to end of the nails, 4, the longest claw or nail, \\, the ear 
1}, the longest hair of the body, .4}. The aspect is entirely that of a 
)one:-tailed Backer, with somewhat smaller head and longer finer fur 
than usual. The small head is conico-depressed with remote ears and 
eyes, and sharp elongated face. The muzzle or nude extremity of the 
nose is clearly defined, rounded, prolonged beyond the teeth, and has 
an abrupt oblique termination in front. The oval nostrils are opened 
entirely to the front, their lateral prolongation being merely linear and 
very much curved. The lips are thin and almost void of moustaches ; 
and there is a still fainter indication of the tufts proper to the cheeks, 
chin, and eyebrows. The small pig-like eyes are situated midway 
between the ears and tip of the snout. The ears are oval, well deve- 
loped and tending to a point. The helix is unfissured and the interior 
of the ears void of membranous processes, but hid with hair which 
amply covers these organs inside and out and ends in a full diffused, 
yet somewhat pointed, tuft. The neck and body are rather elongated 
yet full, and appear even heavy from the copiousness, length and free 
set of the double pelage. The limbs are low, stout and suited only to 
slow action on the ground, with the heel very slightly raised, but 
admirably fitted for digging ; pentadactylous before and behind : the 
hands larger and stonger than the feet, and furnished with huge fosso- 
rial claws more than doubly larger than those of the hind extremities. 
The palm is entirely nude to the wrist, save only a small central tuft of 
wool-like hair, and the inferior surface of the digits is likewise quite 
nude. The palm is not a full soft mass nearly enveloping the digits 
and hardly distinguishable into balls or pads, as in the Bears and 
Bear-badgers (Ursitax), but is hard, spare of flesh, and distinctly 
divided into pads which take in only the bases of the four fingers ; form 
a crescented series of irregular shape and diminishing in size from the 
outside to the inside of the foot. The 5th digit or thumb has no basal 
pad, it being short and small. The corpal pad is void, large and placed 
on the exterior side of the palm at its base. The fingers, of medial 
length and stout, are united as far forward as the posteal edge of 
the terminal pads by a strong membrane not susceptible of much 
expansion. Their pads form a curvate regular series to the front, 
like the basal tier abovenoticed, the two central fingers being nearly 
equal and the two laterals also, interse. . Tbe small feeble thumb 

5 g 2 

760 On the Tibetan Badger. [Aug. 

is so much withdrawn from the front that the anteal edge of its terminal 
pad barely touches the posteal edge of the same pad in the index. The 
termino-digital balls or pads are very large, suited to keep the great 
claws from the ground and thus to enable the animal to walk without that 
inversion of the claws, to which the Ant-eater and Pangolin are reduced. 
Of the planta or sole of the hind feet one-third, reckoning from the 
heel to the end of the toes, is thickly covered with woolly hair : the 
rest is nude. There is no metatarsal pad to answer to the metacarpal 
one ; but otherwise what has been said of the palm will suffice to ex- 
plain the structure of the planta, inclusive of its digits. The claws of 
the four feet are typically fossorial, diggers in perfection, being large 
strong, moderately curved, compressed, with round backs and sharp 
edges below, except near the points where they are widened and scoop- 
ed. The claws of the hind feet, as already noted, are very much small- 
er, and more nearly equal in size in all the 5 digits. 

The tail with the hair exceeds \ of the length of the animal, and is 
equal to a \ without the hair. Like the body it is pretty uniformly 
dressed in long hair extending much beyond the true tail, which is gra- 
dually attenuated from a thickish base. The pelage, or fur, is of two 
sorts, hair and wool, both rather fine, both ample, and both of free 
set, that is, laxly applied to the skin. The head is dressed in short 
close hair only. The hair of the limbs is rather looser and longer, and 
has a very little wool at its base : it is harsh and thick but not elongat- 
ed as on the body. On the belly the hair is about as long as on the 
limbs, but scanter much in quantity, and rather woolly. On the body 
hair is above 4 inches long, and the wool above 2 inches. On the tail 
there is no wool, and the hair is an inch shorter than it is on the back. 
The hair is fine, elastic, strong, straight, and somewhat flattened 
towards the points, but not undulated. The wool is wavy, as usual, and 
about half the length of the hair. The anal pouch is very noticeably 
large and has pretty evidently the form of that organ peculiar to the 
badger,* though its particulars cannot be safely described from any 
but a fresh subject. The teats are six, remote and ventral, or 2 ingui- 
nal and 4 ventral. The papillae of the tongue are pointed and even 
corneous, but minute enough to make it feel smooth. The scull is 5 
inches long, 2 high and 2f wide between the zygomoe. It is very 
* English Regne Animal, II. 271 et 30. 


1847.] On the Tibetan Badger. 707 

massive and weighty, and describes a gentle unifrom curve from end to 
end of the culmen : facial portion very small : frontal and cerebral very 
ample : orbits incomplete posteally : a single very large foramen before 
them : parietes tumid : longitudinal and transverse cristse moderate : 
lower jaw very strong, and so completely locked in the cylindric hinge 
manner, as to be with difficulty separated. Many of these are general cha- 
racters of the scull in the Badgers proper (Meles), and are also found, 
for the most part, in Ursitaxus, Urva and Melictis. But the teeth are 
more strictly characteristic. They are in number f. \:\. ±:± .=32, 
as in the Ursitax ; but, whereas in the Bearbadgers the upper tubercu- 
lar tooth is disposed transversely and is inferior in size to the carnas- 
sier, in the more strictly Melean form of Taxidia, the tubercular is 
ranged in line with the other molars, and is so large as to equal in size 
not merely the carnassier, but it and the two false molars before it. 
The first molar of the Tibetan badger is small with a single acutely 
conic process ; the next is larger but of the same form. These two are 
false molars. The third is the carnassier. It is of trigonal shape, 
and as much larger than the greater false molar as it is less than the 
tubercular. Its exterior side is trechant, obtusely conoid (in profile) 
and compressed : the other two sides include a flattened oblique 
grinding surface or internal heel. The fourth and last tooth of the 
upper jaw is the great tubercular. It is of a squarish shape, but longer 
than broad, and has its crown marked by 3 longitudinal ridges with 
two furrows between them. Of these ridges the exterior one only is 
slightly trenchant and has a saddle-like dip in its centre. The two 
other ridges are nearly or quite rounded. The posterior margin has 
an oblique flat slope, purely triturant, upon which the little flat tuber- 
cular of the lower jaw grinds with its whole surface. In the lower jaw 
the two first molars bear much the same character as those above, but 
are rather larger and have tiny heel-like processes before and behind 
the central cone. These teeth are also slightly compressed. The 
third or carnassial tooth is long and narrow, equal in size to all the 
three others of the jaw, and exhibits a central dip or groove receiving 
the central ridge of the tubercular of the upper jaw, while its two sides, 
which are brokenly ridged, fall into the two grooves of the same tooth 
and its anterior part, consisting of three irregular cones, acts trenchant- 
ly against the cutting part of the upper carnassier, or grinds against 

On the Tibet a it Badger. [Aug, 

its heel. The laniary teeth are void of any peculiarity, so far as can 
be judged, for they are injured. Of the incisors the of upper jaw the 
two extreme laterals are longer than the rest and pointed. The others 
have obliquely flattened crowns upon which the incisors of the lower jaw 
work in a quasi-triturant manner. The incisors of the lower jaw are 
crushed between the two laniaries, there being scarcely room for them 
in the interval, though the two intermediates are inserted more back- 
ward than the rest, seemingly in order to find room. The Badger is 
alledged to be a dull animal, defective in all the organs of sense. But 
in the scull now before me of the Badger of Tibet, as compared with that 
of several allied genera, I perceive no evidence of deficiency, the 
cavities for the reception of the auditory visual and olfactory apparatus 
being sufficiently developed, and the brain-pan being unusually capaci- 
ous ; so that one may suspect that if the Badger were to exert his for- 
midable means of offence with greater alacrity he would command more 
respect from his human critics. Whatever I have been able to gather 
as to the habits of the Tumpha, makes them accord with those 
of the English Badger, and is in harmony with the indications of 
the scull. The Tumpha dwells in the more secluded spots of inhabited 
districts, makes a comfortable, spacious and well arranged subterranean 
abode, dwells there in peace with his mate, who has an annual brood of 
2 to 4 young, molests not his neighbour, defends himself, if compelled 
to it, with unconquerable resolution,* and feeds on roots, nuts, insects, 
and reptiles, but chiefly the former two, or vegetables not animals, a point 
of information confirmed by the prevalent triturant character of the 
teeth. It only now remains to describe the colours of the Tumpha 
The head above and laterally is of a yellowsh white, and this colour 
descends so low on the sides of the head as to take in the edge of the 
lower jaw to its tip. This pale hue of the head is divided lengthwise 
by a black brown line that runs from the moustache through the eye to 
the ear, hoth inclusive ; but neither the dark nor pale colour extends 
backward over the neck, both being lost, though without abrupt transi- 
tion, behind the ears. The ears inside and out are basally black, and 
terminally white. The neck and body above and laterally are of a 
yellowish pepper and salt hue, paling as you descend the flanks. The 
tail is void almost wholly of the darker ingredient of the mixture, being 
■ I he captors of mine, were obliged to knock off" his eye-teeth, he bit so perscvering-ly. 

1817.] On the Tibetan Badger. 769 

scarcely shaded grey near the body ; and elsewhere, pure yellowish white, 
which colour likewise spreads round the anal and genital organs. 
With that trivial exception the whole of the inferior surface, from chin 
to vent both exclusive, as well as the entire limbs, are black, of a 
more or less sooty tinge. The nude skin, wherever visible, is dark 
brown, or black as on the belly, where the scanty pelage allows it to be 
partially seen. The iris is clear brown, and the nails sordid horn colour. 
The mystaceal and other bristles, blackish : the tongue and palate, pale. 

The prevalent grey cast of the colour upon the upper parts of the 
animal results from the distribution of tints upon the longer or hairy 
piles and upon the shorter or wooly ones, which likewise are distinctly 
visible owing to the loose set of the former. The wool, then, wholly, 
and the basal two -thirds of the hair also, is yellowish white: the ter- 
minal third of the hair black, tipt more or less largely with yellowish 
white ; and thus is produced the pepper and salt hue above spoken of, 
which becomes paler on the flanks than on the back, because the dor- 
sal hairs are more largely and generally furnished with the large black 
ring than are those of the siues. 

Whoever may compare this description of the colour of the Tibetan 
Badger with those of the English animal furnished by its describers,* 
will at once perceive how almost absolutely identical the tints and their 
distribution are in the two animals. I cannot confidently point out a 
single disparity except that the tail is more entirely white in the Tum- 
pha : and this is a very interesting circumstance as evidencing the 
intimate affinity of the two sections of the Genus, or Meles and Taxi- 
dia. From the English Badger or type of restricted Meles, however, 
our animal may be at once discriminated without referring to sculls, by 
its inferior size, greater length of tail, and partially clad planta or foot- 
sole. Of the American Badger or Taxidia, two are spoken of, viz. the 
Carkajou and the Tlacoyotl : but of these the former alone, I believe, 
yet finds a place in scientific works, and it is distinguished from its 
Asiatic analogue, the Tumpha, by the following external marks, none 
of which belong to our animal : belly and throat white : dark vertical 
bar down the cheek : two more longitudinal ones running from the 
muzzle to the mid-back, where they meet, enclosing all the way a white 
space : tip of the tail black. 

* See Note, Libr, VII. 148, and English Regne Animal II. 271 . 

t / 

i) On the Tibetan Badger. [Aug. 

Such being the marks of the only other known species of Taxidia, 
I here can be no doubt our species is new ; and I fancy that Zoologists 
will hail with surprise and pleasure the discovery of an emphatically 
occidental type in the remote east. Very beautiful illustrations of our 
animal, from the pencil of my Newar artist, accompany this paper ; and, 
as the Trimpha belongs to a group of animals dubiously suspended, as 
it were, between the Digiti grades and Planti grades, occasioning infinite 
debate, I add to the other illustrations of my paper a comparative series 
of views of the feet of such of these forms as belong to Himalayan 
Zoology, and are mostly recent discoveries. These are Ursitaxus, 
Helictis, Urva, Herpestes and Paradoxurus and Ailurus ; to which I 
add of course Taxidia,* and Helarctos and Viverricula, as illustrative 
extremes, merely of the other and medial forms. 

Dimensions of the Tibetan Badger. 

Total length from snout to end of tail tuft, 3 1 

Snout to vent, 2 3 

Head to occiput, straight, 5 ^ 

Snout to foreangle of eye, 2 \ 

Thence to base af ear, 2 | 

Tail and hair, 10 

Tail only, 7 

Girth behind shoulder, 1 6 

Palma and nails, longest, 3 ^ 

Planta and nails, from os calcis, 4 

Planta only, or nude rest of foot, 2 \ 

Longest forenail, 1 \ 

Length of hair on body, 4 \ 

Length of wool, 2 

Length of ear, less tuft, 1 \ 

Length of ear and tuft, 2 

* I have not met with Mydaus or Arctonyx or Arctictis in these regions, and I fancy 
that Duvancel's authority for the last in Bhutan Vel Deva Dharma, is erroneously quoted 
like mine. The alleged identity of Ursitaxus and Mellivora is yet open to doubt : nor 
is it by any means certain that the species tenanting the plains of Hindosthan, the Biju is 
the same as the highland animal or Bharsia. Some of the above details of Taxidia will, I 
fear, prove tedious reading. But the type is rare and he who has it not before him can 
judge its characters, especially those of the scull, solely by means of such minute description, 






1847«] On a new Species of Porcupine. 


Length of intermax to occipital crest, 5 

Width of, hetween zygomse, 2 f-j- 

Width, greatest, between parietes, 2 

Ileigth, greatest, 2 

Length of upper jaw, to end of teeth, 2 

Lower jaw ditto ditto :.. 2 

Greatest width between upper molars, 1 y 

The same, lower molars, 1 -A- 

On a new Species of Porcupine.- — By the same. 




Genus Hystrix. 

Species new, H. alophus (alpha privitiva et Jockos a crest.) 

Crestless Porcupine. 

Anchotia Sahi vulgo. 

Habitat Sub-Himalayas. 
It has often been surmised that there are two species of Porcupine m 
India, but I am not aware that any one has yet discriminated the second 
and rare species from the common one, or Leucurits. My hunters have 
just brought me a fine old male of the second species above adverted 
to, and I propose now to give a description of it, for it is very evidently 
distinguishable from the common species both of Europe (cristata) 
and of India (Leucurus) by its inferior size, by the total absence of 
crest on its head or neck or shoulders, by its longer tail,* by the white 
collar of the neck being evanescent, and lastly, by the inferior size and 
smaller quantity of the spines or quills. 

The crestless Porcupine of the sub-Himalayas measures 22 to 24 
inches from snout to vent, and stands about 8 inches high. Its weight 

* European species 3 feet long- and tail but 4 inches.— Cuv. III. p. 205) : Leucurus 
still larger? Its tail all white and its crest reaching- to base of tail.— ( Zool. Jour. July, 
1831, p. 103. 

772 On a new Species of Porcupine. [Aug, 

is from 16 to 201bs, Girth behind the shoulders 18 inches. Head to 
the occiput 5f inches. Tail only 4 inches, Tail and hollow quills, 
5 Jr. Ear to the fore base 1^, to crown, 1. Elbow to wrist 3§. Palma 
and nails 2f. True knee to os calcis 3f . Plarrta and nails 3f . The 
structure is typical^ or precisely similar in all its details to that of 
Leucurus, which species howeTer is much larger, being 28 to 30 inches* 
long from snout to vent and 20 to 22 inches in girth behind the 
shoulder, and weighing 30ifes and upwards. The long bluff nose 7 
small pig eyes, andromorphous ears, short purely plantigrade limbs, 
(furnished with 4 toes and a rudiment anteally, and 5 perfect toes pos- 
teally) and thick heavy body, give to the erestless porcupine all the im- 
gainliness of aspect proper to his congeners, while the absence of the 
fine sweeping crest with which they are adorned, adds to the uncomely 
physiognomy another peculiar feature of dulness in this species. The 
head, neck, fore half of the body, and entire belly and limbs, are covered 
with spinous bristles which have a pretty uniform length of from 2 to 3 
inches, but are shortest and feeblest on the head and limbs. The 
hinder part of the body, or croup and tail, only, are armed with true 
quills of which the longest thick ones are about 7 inches, and the 
longest thin ones, about 12 inches. The tail is conico-depressed, thick 
and but one- sixth of the animal's length. Its longest thick quills are 
3 to 4 inches ; and its longest thin ones, 5 to 6 inches. The rattle at 
the end of the tail consists of 35 to 40 hollow cylinders of about an 
inch in length, some of which are closed and some open at the distant 
end. The skin of the body is pure white. The iris brown. The 
nudish lips and nude soles of feet, fleshy brown. The spinous bristles 
black, save on the head, where they are less deep-hued, passing to- 
brown. The white collar is very narrow and vague. The quills white 
with but one subcentral black ring ; those of the inferior surface (only) of 
the tail, being all white, and the like marginally round the anal and 
genital organs : the nails brown horn. Every part of the body is 
covered with the appropriate vestment save the mere anal and genital 

" It Col. Sykes be right as to the size of Leucurus, the common sub-Himalayan 
species, called nepalensis by me is certainly distinct and nearer to eristatus. It has the 
upper surface of the tail black laterally and white centrally, forming- three conspicuous 
hues of colour on the upper surface. The tubes are all white and so is all the under 

1847.] On a new Species of Porcupine. 773 

organs, which are nude. The amis is large and tumid, being almost 
entirely surrounded, just within the sphincter, by two rope-like glands, 
whose extremities nearly meet on the mesial line above and below. 
The secretion of these glands is puss-like but void of odour good or 
bad, and is carried off by several palpable pores placed in close apposi- 
tion with the glands and of which 4 larger and 6 smaller ones may be 
plainly traced round the margin of the anus. The penis is sheathed as 
in the dogs, but is directed backwards, pointing ordinarily to the anus, 
and is furnished with a cylindric bone \\ inch long. The testes are 
internal. The teats are 8 and are costal, or placed upon the ribs or 
flanks. The very large incisors are nut-brown. The molars, which are 
4 on each side, above and below, have perfectly flat crowns, hardly 
raised above the level of the gums, and whose surface is transversely 
marked by a triple fold of enamel, like three or four bits of thread 
with the ends brought together and the sides approximated curvewise, 
pretty much as in the Beaver, according to Cuvier's* delineation. The 
intestines are 30| feet long. The Coecum, about 11 to 12 inches 
long and 2f wide, is placed 6 feet from the anal end of the gut, and 
is sacced and banded, as well as 27 inches of the intestinal canal below 
it. This cceciform part of the gut has the same width as the ccecum 
itself. The small gut has an average width of f inch, and the great 
gut of 1^- or double. 

The hemispherical stomach has the upper orifice opening centrally, 
and the lower, terminally, and with a well defined neck. The greater 
arch of the stomach is 18 inches, the lesser (between the orifices) 1 
to 2 inches, exclusive of the neck just spoken of. The stomach is 
membranous.- — Porcupines are very numerous and very mischievous in 
the sub-Himalayas where they depredate greatly among the potatoe and 
other tuberous or edible rooted crops. They are most numerous in the 
central region, but are common to all three regions. They breed in 
spring and usually produce two young about the time the crops begin 
to ripen. They are monogamous, the pair dwelling together in burrows 
of their own formation. Their flesh is delicious, like pork, but much 
more delicate-flavoured, and they are easily tamed so as to breed in 
confinement, All tribes and classes, even high caste Hindoos eat them, 

• Regne Animal, Vol. III. p. 96. 

5 H 2 

74 On a new Species of Porcupine, [Aug. 

and it is deemed lucky to keep one or two alive in stables, where they 
are encouraged to breed. Royal stables are seldom without at least 
one of them. The Parbattiahs call them Dumsi ; the crested one, 
chotia Dumsi ; the uncrested, anchotia* Dumsi. The Lepchas and 
Limbus of Sikim do not distinguish the two species, but call both 
Sathung and 0' — e, in their respective languages. The subject of the 
above description is the uncrested species, and I have only to add that 
its manners, like its structure, are closely assimilated to those of the 
white tail or Leucurus ; but that it is much rarer than the latter. 

The following are the dimensions of a fine old male of our present 
animal, which I have denominated Alophus to mark the absence of that 
conspicuous crest which distinguishes the common species both of this 
country and of Europe. 

Snout to vent, 1 11 \ 

True tail, 4 

Tail and tubes, 5 | 

Tail and long quills, 8 \ 

Head to occiput, 5 

Snout to eye, 2 

Eye to ear, 1 1 

Ear from lobe, l £ 

Ear from crown, 1 

Mean height, 8 

Girth of chest, 1 6 

Elbow to wrist, 3 f 

Palma and nails, 2 f 

True knee to os calcis, 3 £ 

Planta and nails, , . 3 f- 

Longest quill, ,, 1 

Weight, 16p>s. 

* Anchotia exactly —Alophus, and Chotia— Cristatus, 

1847.] Notes on the Ornithology of Cauda ha r. 

Rough Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar and its neighbourhood. 
By Capt. Thos. IIutton. 

[With some Additional Information on the Birds of Afghanistan, — 
By E. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society, fyc. $c] 

1. Falco [peregrinus, L, Young male].* 

2. F. [subbuteo, Lin.] These birds are found around Candahar, 
but did not seem to be common. 

3. F. resalon, Lin. The Merlin occurs also at Candahar. 

4. F. tinnunculus, (L.) The Kestrel. (The "yellow iris" was so 
recorded on the wrapper of the male specimen when it came from 
Afghanistan, but whether upon my own authority, or that of some 
friend, I do not remember). 

5. Circus cyaneus, (L.) The Common Harrier. This is rather a 
common species at Candahar, and frequents the marshy tracts below 
the city to the south, where, during the winter, Snipe and water-fowl 
are abundant. I saw them also at Girishk. 

6. C. ceruginosus, (L.) Also common at Candahar, especially near 
a small swamp to the south of the city, and along the banks of canals 
in the cultivated tracts ; — one or more might usually be seen sitting on 
a stone or clod of earth, watching and peering round them, and taking 
occasionally a leisure sweep above the marsh plants and crops. 

7. Accipiter nisus, (L.) Common at Candahar. 

8. Nisastur badius, (Lath.) Not uncommon. 

9. Aquila bifasciata (?), Gray. A single specimen of what I be- 
lieve to be this species was captured at Girishk in the month of Decem- 
ber. Unfortunately, I took but a scanty memorandum at the time, and 
did not obtain a second specimen. " Plumage dark brown, two cinereous 
bands on the wings ; feathers lanceolate on head and neck ; cere yellow, 
as also feet ; claws and bill black. 

10. Milvus ater, (Lin.) The common Indian Kite or Cheel was seen 
throughout the summer in abundance, became scarce about November, 
and disappeared as winter set in. They returned early in spring, and 

* The " Churk" Falcon, killed near Gliuzni by Mr. Vigne (' Personal Narrative of a 
visit to Afghanistan/ &c, p. 136), is not the Churgh or ' Cherrug' (F. lanarius,v.F. 
cherrug, Gray), but apparently a young Peregrine.— E. B. 

776 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

the young were once brought to me in the end of May, scarcely fledged ; 
tliis is curious, as at Neemuch the Cheel breeds in December and 

11. Gypaetos [barbatus ? 6?.] himachalanus, nobis. This bird is 
identical with that which is so common throughout the Himalaya 
mountains, and possesses the dark pectoral band observable in the latter, 
and which (from its not being mentioned as characteristic of the Euro- 
pean species) has led me to entertain doubts of its being the true G. 
barbatus. — They were common throughout the whole of Afghanistan, 
and were first seen soaring over the rocks of the Bolan Pass ; they were 
again met with around Candahar, and at Girishk on the Iielmund. — 
I never saw a single mature individual either in the Himalaya or in 
Afghanistan without the pectoral band, as you tell me is the case with 
Burnes's figure of an Afghan specimen. 

12. \_Gyps bengalensis, (Shaw) :] Vultur leuconotus, Gray, in Hard- 
wicke's ' Illustrations.' This bird was not uncommon around Candahar 
during the summer months, but departed as the winter approached. 
I saw it also at Girishk on the Helmund. 

13. Neophron percnopterus, (L.) Common also during the summer, 
but departed in autumn.* 

14. [Bubo bengalensis, (Franklin).] Not uncommon among the 
rocks near Candahar ; the yearling specimen sent was brought to me 
when only covered with down, and was fed with raw meat, and kept in 
a box till I left Candahar, when I killed and skinned it, but before it 
had attained its full plumage. 

15. Otus vulgaris, Fleming. Common at Candahar. 

16. O. brachyotus, (L). This and the last were common among 
the ruins of the old city of Candahar, about three miles from the 
modern town ; it was ruined by Nadir Shah. 

17. Ephialtes [lettia?, Hodgson]. This did not appear to be 
plentiful, as I only saw one specimen ; it was identical with one com- 
mon at Neemuch and Bareilly, but whether it be so with the European 
scops I cannot say, as my specimen is lost. 

18. Athene bactrianus, mihi, n. s. 1 [ Strix persica (?) Nouv. Diet. 

* The three last mentioned species were seen on the 1st of March, two stages south of 
Candahar. The Gypaetos made the Vultures quit their prey. 

184?.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candakar. 777 

'VHist. Nat., VII, 26.* Length about 9 inches ; of wing 6} inches, and 
tail 3£ inches : tarse 1^- inch. Plumage of the upper-parts somewhat ru- 
fescent clay-brown, with large round white spots on the feathers, more 
or less concealed, and wholly so on those of the middle of the back : 
coronal feathers with medial whitish streaks : face white ; some of the 
radiating feathers on the sides of the beak terminating in black vibrissse : 
chin, throat, lower tail-coverts, and the tibial and tarsal plumes, white, 
also the fore-part of the under-surface of the wing : a longitudinal 
broad streak on each feather of the breast and abdomen : on the hind- 
neck, the white so predominates upon the feathers as to give the 
appearance of a half-collar : the great wing-feathers have broad in- 
complete pale bands, disposed alternately on their two webs ; and the 
middle tail-feathers have a double row of semi-alternating pale spots, 
passing into dull bands on the outer tail-feathers : beak (in the dry 
specimen) whitish ; and claws pale horn-colour]. Common among the 
rocks and ruins of old Candahar. 

19. Upupa epops, Lin. The common Hoopoe. * Hoodhood' of 
India. — This bird was scarce and only a summer visitor. I saw it, 
however, in the valley of Pisheen on the 6th March, when returning to 
this country. 

20. Coracias garrula, Lin. This bird is very common during the 
summer months, but departs by the end of autumn: it arrives at 
Candahar in the middle of April. [Burnes obtained it in the Moultan], 
Persian—" Subz Kullag ;" Pushtoo—" Sheen Tootee." 

21. Atcedo ispida, Lin. Found on the banks of rivers all the year 

22. Merops apiaster, Lin. European Bee-eater. These birds 
appeared at Candahar in the beginning of April, and left in the begin- 
ning of autumn. 

23. M. persica, Lin. These came in with the last. [Two speci- 
mens in the Society's collection were obtained by Sir A, Barnes at 

24. Cuculus canorus, Lin. My specimens were shot at Quetta in 
April. The variety, C. hepaticus, was also obtained there in the same 

* The work cited is not accessible here ; but I have some impre&sion that the species 
referred to is a small Athene (v. Noctua)-E. B, 

778 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

25. Cypselus apus, (L.) Common Swift. As in England, this bird 
is later in appearing than the Swallow, and departs before it. It is 
common during the summer, coursing and screaming as they chase 
each other rapidly through the air. They were first seen on the 20th 
February [!]. 

26. Corvus corax ( ? ), L. The Raven. Very common in Afghanistan, 
especially during the winter. I have marked it doubtful, because I have 
no specimen to refer to, but all its measurements, &c, agreed with 
Fleming's description ; " Kargh." 

27. C '. frugilegns, L. The Rook. Found in large flocks during 
winter in Candahar, searching for food in the ploughed lands. The 
base of the bill is denuded as in the European bird. — They arrive in 
February, which is there the coldest month, and depart in March. 

28. Fregilus graculus, (L.) The Chough. This is abundant 
during the winter months, arriving in November from the hills to the 
northward, and departing again about March. At Girishk on the 
Helmund they sometimes appear in hundreds about sunset, coming 
from the hills when the heats of day are passed, and settling among 
the swampy beds along the river, where they procure abundance of 
mollusca. Called 'Tsagh.' 

29. Pica caudata, (L.) European Magpie. Is found all the year 
round from Quettah to Girishk, and is very common. — They breed in 
March, and the young are fledged by the end of April. The nest is 
like that of the European bird ; and all the manners of the Afghan 
Magpie are precisely the same ; they may be seen at all seasons. [The 
admeasurements of an Afghanistan Magpie are given in XV, 26. Capt. 
Hutton's specimen is larger, the wing of it measuring 8j inches, and the 
tail 1 foot ; but, on comparing it with several European specimens, 
there can be no doubt of the spechical identity.*] 

* The wing- of Capt. Hutton's specimen is thus as long as that of my P. media, XIII, 
393 ; but the latter species is distinct, and seems to be identical with Mr. Gould's subse- 
quently named P. sericea, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 2, from Chusan. I was positively 
assured that P. media was shot in the Chilian Andes ; but as some Macao birds were 
purchased with the S. American collection which yielded P. media, I strongly suspect 
that these were not, in all instances (vide note to p. 471, ante), kept so distinct as was 
asserted, but that two or three of them had become mixed up with the S.American 
specimens. If I am right in this conjecture, there are now before me three well mark- 
ed species of Asiatic Magpies,— viz. P. bottanensis, Ad Delessert, (v. megaloptera, nobis,) 
/'. media, nobis, (v. sericea, Gould,) and the European P. caudata, (L.)., from Afghan- 

184/.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 779 

30. Sturnus indicus, Hodgson [vulgaris, Lin.] Arrives in the 
winter months only, and departs in spring. 

31. St. unicolor, Marmora. These were far more numerous than 
St. indicus, and inclined to keep separate from them ; the flocks being 
sometimes without a single spotted bird among them. Of five speci- 
mens in my possession, all are like those I send for inspection, but in 
life the bill is brown, not yellow. St. indicus remains only during the 
coldest months and departs as spring approaches ; whereas the present 
species builds in the spring at Candahar, laying 7 or 8 blue eggs, and 
the young are fledged about the first week in May.* 

32. Pastor roseus, (L.) ' Goolabi Mynah' of India. These birds 
arrive at Candahar in immense flocks in the spring, but disappear with 
the mulberries which they devour greedily. Their stay is very short. 
[The same is remarked by Vigne, who, from observation, states it to 
visit Persia, Afghanistan, and parts of India, in the mulberry season.] 

33. Passer indicuSy Jardine, and Selby, [p. 470, ante]. Common in 
Afghanistan, and does not differ from the Indian Sparrow. 

34. P. [hispaniolensis, (Tem.) !] Is found all the year through, 
and builds both in houses and trees. I formerly mistook this for the 
Tree Sparrow, P. montanus, (L.) [The occurrence of this N. African 
Sparrow, and of Sturnus unicolor (another common species of Barbary), 
in Afghanistan, is exceedingly remarkable : but I am as satisfied of the 
correctness of these identifications as can be, without actual comparison 
with African specimens.] 

35. Gymnoris [petronius, (L.)] Arrives at Candahar in the latter 
end of April, and departs in autumn ; it was far from common there, 
though probably among the gardens on the Helmund they were more 
plentiful. It frequents trees [like G.Jlavicollis of India]. 

36. [Carpodacus crassirostris, n. s. (p. 476, ante).] Found at 
Quetta in spring. 

37. Carduelis caniceps, Vigors. Common at Quetta and Candahar 
in winter and spring. 

38. [Loxia curvirostra, (L.) Of this I have seen a living speci- 
men, besides skins, from Afghanistan.] 

39. Emberiza [icterica, Eversh.] This bird arrives at Candahar in 

* Vide Mr. Drummond's Notice of this species in Barbary. — Ann. Mag. N. H,. 
XVI, 104. -E. B. 

5 i 

780 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

the beginning of April, and departs in autumn. It is likewise seen in 
considerable flocks at Neemuch during summer. 

40. [E. Buchanani, nobis, XIII, 957.] Found at Candahar in summer. 

41. [Melanocorypha torquata, n. s. (p. 476, ante).] This bird is 
a winter visitor, and is said to come from Bokhara : the Afghans keep 
them in cages. 

42. [Alauda arvensis, (?), L. A bad figure among the 'Burnes 
drawings' seems to refer to this species, as occurring in Afghanistan. 
Mr. Hodgson sent it from Nepal, by the name A. dulcivox.'] 

43. [Calandrella brachy dactyl a, (Tern.)] Found in flocks at Can- 
dahar in winter. 

44. Certhilauda chendoola, (Franklin ;) referred by Mr. G. R. 
Gray to Alauda cristata, Lin. Very common during winter in Afgha- 
nistan and Scinde : it is likewise abundant in all the north-western pro- 
vinces of India. 

45. Motacilla alba [vera], Lin. Found during the spring months. 

46. M. boarula, Lin. Not uncommon at Candahar during the 
autumn, winter, and spring months ; but departs when the great heats 
of summer set in. 

47. Budytes citreola, (Pallas.) Winter and spring. 

48. B. melanocephala, Savi. In spring also. 

49. Myiophonus Temminc/di, Vigors. Shot in December near Can- 
dahar, and identical with the Himalayan bird. 

50. Merula vulgaris, Ray. The Blackbird. I saw one specimen 
only of this bird, which was a female, agreeing in every respect with 
the description of the European species. It was captured in the fruit- 
gardens on the Argandab river, near Candahar, in December. [I also 
have seen a female Blackbird from Afghanistan, which I considered to 
be M. vulgaris.'] 

51. Turdus atrogularis, Tern. Dadur, Quetta, Candahar. 

52. Pratincola caprata, (L.) Found all the year. 

53. Ruticilla tithys, (L.). This is a common bird, and found all 
the year through. [Non vidi.~\ 

54. Cyanecula suecica, (L.) Is a summer visitor at Candahar. 
(No red spot on the blue throat !) 

55. [Calamoherpe agricola, Jerdon. Obtained by Sir A. Burnes 
at Cabool.] 

1847.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 781 

56. Lanius excubitor, Lin. Is very common around Candahar. 
This, and not L. lahtora, is the bird I formerly mentioned as seizing 
the Mustela sarmatica by the nose (vide XIV, 348, on Afghan mam- 
malia). It is chiefly seen in winter. 

57. Lanius erythronotus [affinis]. Is also common at Candahar. 
[Two specimens forwarded by Capt. Hutton resemble L. erythronotus, 
Vigors, in size, but L. canieeps, nobis (XV, 302), in colouring.*] 

58. Hirundo rustica, Lin. Chimney-Swallow. Was first seen on the 
wing at Candahar on the 8th February, 1840, and 5th February, 1841. 
—They are abundant throughout the summer months, and build in the 
open rooms, in temples, &e. They retire in October. The advent and 
departure both depend upon the mildness of the seasons, so that they are 
sometimes later, sometimes earlier, than above stated. It is identical with 
the English Swallow. I have seen them on the wing when the thermo- 
meter stood no higher than 36°. — On the 8th February, 1840, when I 
saw the first Swallow of that year, there had been hard frost and ice 
during the night , but the morning was fine and sunshiny. On the 
16th of that month, the thermometer stood at 38°, and on the 17th 
again at 36° ; yet Swallows were twittering and on the wing, coursing 
after insects, which are abundant at that season. This fact however 
would seem to argue that migration does not take place with these 
birds so much from a dread of encountering cold, as because their 
natural food begins to fail them in the autumnal season. But where 
do they migrate to, for we have them at Candahar precisely at the same 
seasons as in England ? Do they travel to the Eastern Isles, or to the 
regions of Southern Africa, or where ?f I have seen another species at 
Mussoorie also on the wing on the 20th February, 1842, when frost and 
ice were on the ground, though the morning was fine and sunshiny. 

59. H. riparia, (?) Lin. A small grey Swallow was seen near 
Quetta in March ; I observed several on the wing, near the western 
entrance of the Bolan Pass, — greyish-brown above, white beneath ; tail 
squared. Apparently less than H. urbica. [Specimens of H. riparia 
(vera) are sent by Captain Hutton from the banks of the Sntlej.] 

* L. caniceps occurs abundantly in the same localities as L. nigriceps, Franklin, and 
without intermingling, so-far as I have seen, and the latter occurs together with L. ery- 
thronotus in the sub- Himalayan region ; but Lord A. Hay procured a specimen at 
Benares (XV, 303), which is just intermediate to L. erythronotus and L. nigriceps.— E.B. 

t I have never seen H. rustica (vera) from the Oriental Archipelago.— E. B. 

5 i 5 

782 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar, [Aug. 

60. Sitta — ? Of this I never obtained a specimen, although they 
were exceedingly common among the rocks behind the old ruined 
city of Candahar ; they frequented rocks, however, and not trees, and I 
venture to term it a Nuthatch on account of the similitude in plumage, 
size, shape, and motions • — the bill appeared to be short, strong, 
pointed and black ; the upper parts light slaty grey-blue, with a 
black stripe through the eye from the forehead or base of bill ; under 
parts buff or ferruginous white. With the exception of appearing 
larger, it is very like a Nuthatch we have seen at Mussooree. [Tem- 
minck, if I remember rightly, gives a S. saxatilis, from Eastern Europe.] 

61. Tichodroma muraria, (L.) This beautiful little bird was very 
common on the rocks near Candahar, and in other parts of Afghanis- 
tan. It is identical with the European and Himalayan birds. 

62. Malacocercus [Huttoni, n. s. (p. 476, ante.)] Common. 

63. Columba intermedia, Strickland. Common blue Pigeon. Abun- 
dant ; breeding in wells and ruins. 

64. Turtur risorius, (L.) Common during the summer. 

65. T. suratensis, (Lath.) Common during the summer. 

66. Phasianus colchicus, L. This specimen was sent to me from 
Herat, by Lieut. North of the Bombay Engineers : it is said to be not 
uncommon in the neighbourhood of that city. [Unfortunately, it is 
not a typical example of its race ; having much white upon its wings 
(which have been clipped short), and a considerable proportion of the 
rest of its plumage resembles that of an old or barren English hen 
Pheasant, that had thrown out the masculine plumage, as is not unfre- 
quently the case : the more perfectly formed feathers proper to the 
male sex resemble those of an English cock Pheasant ; and the rich 
bronze-rufous of the rump and upper tail-coverts is wholly unmixed 
with green. The size is that of an English hen bird ; but the spurs on 
the tarsi resemble those of a young cock.] 

67. Tetraogallus [caucasicus, (Pallas), apud G. R. Gray : T. himala- 
yanus, G. R. Gray; T]. Nigellii, J. E. Gray. These fine birds are 
common in the Huzarrah mountains and other high ranges ; — they are 
called Kowk-i-durra, or Partridge of the ghats or passes. Sometimes 
they are sold in the markets of Cabool. I possessed four living 
birds at Candahar, which were kept with wings cut in a large court- 
yard, and lived well for many months. I gave them to a friend, Capt. 

1847.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 7H3 

M'Lean of the 67th Regt. N. I., who wished to take them home to 
the highlands of Scotland, but he unfortunately died on his way back 
to India, and I know not what became of the birds. They are com- 
mon on the snowy passes of the Himalaya and in Tartary, rising in 
coveys of 10 to 20, and usually having a sentry perched high on some 
neighbouring rock, to give warning of danger by his loud and musical 
whistle. They are difficult birds to shoot. I found them usually in 
patches of the [so called] Tartaric furze. 

68. Perdix? [Bonhami (?), Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1843, p. 70. 
The Seesee Partridge : figured in the ' Bengal Sporting Magazine' for 
October, 1843.] Frequents rocky situations, and is abundant. The 
first were seen in the Bolan Pass. [Capt. Hutton has sent no specimen 
of this bird ; but I suspect it to be the species described by Mr. Fra- 
ser, late of the Zoological Society, and which was procured at Teheran. 
I took the following description of the Afghan Seesee from some fine 
specimens prepared by Capt. Duncan of the 43d Regt. N. I ., who brought 
the bird alive from Afghanistan, and kept one up to the time of his 
departure for England in the beginning of 1845. The figure in the 
' Bengal Sporting Magazine' was taken from his living specimen. 

" This seems a remarkable species, connecting true Perdix and Per- 
dicula with Caccabis, and I think Lerwa, or the Himalayan Snow 
Partridge (L. nivicola, Hodgson) : it does not, however, well range in 
either, though it is probable that other species will be eventually found 
with similar characters.* The tarse of the male are devoid of tuber- 
cles in place of spurs. 

" Length about 10 inches ; of wing 5in., and tail 2£in. ; bill fin., and 
tarse 1 Jin., the middle toe and claw l^in. Colour of male, isabella-brown 
above, with little trace of markings, though each feather of the back 
when raised is seen to have several pale dusky cross-rays ; on the 
rump, these become obsolete or very nearly so, except along the shaft 
of each feather, where they assume the appearance of a series of small 
linear blackish spots : upper tail-coverts and medial tail-feathers 
minutely but obscurely mottled, the three or four outer tail-feathers 

* It should be remarked that I had no opportunity of actually comparing- the Seesee 
with other species. It has probably an affinity with the Tetrao kakerlik of Gmelin ; and 
Mr. Fraser writes, of his P. Bonhami,—" This species is nearly allied to P.Hayi, Temm. 
p. c, but is readily distinguished from that bird by the black stripes about the head 
of the male." Mr. Fraser neglected to give the admeasurements of his P. Bonhami. 

?84 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

uniform light chesnut-brown, a little mottled at tip, and each suc- 
cessively more so to the middle ones. Crown ashy, the feathers brown- 
ish at tip ; and cheeks and throat purer ashy, becoming albescent 
towards the chin : ear-coverts silky-whitish, pure white anteriorly 
towards the eyes, as are also the lores ; and above the lores, eyes, and 
ear-coverts, is a -black streak meeting its opposite across the forehead : 
the sides of the neck are mottled ; the breast uniform isabella-brown, 
having a shade of lake, the feathers margined with faint russet ; and 
those of the flanks may be described as whitish tinged with lake, the 
larger passing into black along each lateral border, and the smaller 
edged inwardly with chesnut-brown, and some of them with black at 
their extreme margin : under tail-coverts pale chesnut : primaries light 
dusky within, their outer web isabelline, with dusky bars and pencil- 
lings. Bill and feet pale red. 

" The female is much more mottled both above and below, and is 
devoid of the grey on the crown and throat, of the black supercilium, 
and of the characteristic markings of the flanks : but there is a pale 
streak from the eye along the side of the occiput. Upper parts light 
dusky, rayed with isabelline, the darker portion of the rump feathers 
blackish along their shafts ; the coronal feathers are similarly rayed, 
but present a mottled appearance at their surface ; and the tertiaries 
are prettily variegated, presenting a series of isabelline spots along 
their middle : entire under-parts minutely mottled, paler on the throat 
and belly, and presenting on the flanks indications of the white central 
portion of the corresponding feathers of the male. A young chick, 
with pale sandy-coloured down on the head, back, and under parts, 
has the scapularies and wing-feathers minutely mottled sandy, with 
triangular pale spots on the scapularies and tertiaries, and conspicuous 
dark bars on the outer webs of the primaries. " 

This bird inhabits " rocky places covered here and there with brush- 
wood, and feeds much on wild thyme. They are found in coveys, and 
when sprung, rise with a startling noise like our Bush Quails" (Perdi- 
cula ruhiginosa and P. cambayensis.) " Sportsmen reckon them easy 
to kill, and it is said that they are delicious eating. The name Seesee 
expresses their call ;"* which last statement militates against the sup- 

* Bengal Sporting Magazine. 

184/.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 785 

position of the identity of this bird with the Kakerlik, which is also 
named from its cry. 

69. [Caccabis~] chukar, (Vigors). Very common among the hills. 

70. [Francolinus vulgaris, Stephens, pale (individual?) variety.] 
This was brought to me as a true Black Partridge (Fr. vulgaris), but 
it is evidently distinct, and is probably the Perdix pallida, Gray, of 
Hardwicke's ' Illustrations.' The Black Partridge is called " Taroo" by 
the Afghans ; but as I never saw a specimen killed during a two years' 
residence in the country, I am inclined to think that the bird so called 
is the one here alluded to. [Perdix pallida, Gray, is evidently a pale 
variety of Francolinus pictus, (Jardine and Selby,) or P. Hepburnii, 
Gray, as that systematist places it, viz. " P. Hepburnii, var. pallida." 
Capt. Hutton's bird I consider to be an analogous (and probably indi- 
vidual) pale variety of the female Fr. vulgaris. 

71. Coturnix communis, Bomaterre. Quails arrive about the end 
of March, and in summer when the crops are ripening are very numer- 
ous. They are then snared in nets by the aid of a decoy whistle, and 
are kept singly in cages for fighting, of which sport (?) the Afghans are 
extremly fond, every urchin being seen with a Quail in his hand during 
that season. The rage for gambling is so great among the people, that 
instances have been known of a husband pawning his wife to pay his 
gambling debts, and if not punctually redeemed she becomes the pro- 
perty of the holder, and is either kept or sold as he pleases ! 

72. [Pterocles arenarius, (Pallas.) Khyrgut, or Syah-reem ; also 
called Tuturuk in Pushtoo, expressive of the bird's cry ; and Bovra 
kurra, or " black breast." Burnes figures both sexes, from Cabool : 
and the Society possess an Afghanistan specimen.] 

73. Pt. exustus, Tern. Common throughout the southern parts of 
Afghanistan. I have seen their nests on the bare ground in August, 
and the young ready to fly by the end of September. They occur also 
in Scinde, and in the Bhawulpore (or Daoodpootra) country. " Sas- 

73, a. Struthio camelus, L. Ostrich. This bird is said by the Af- 
ghans to inhabit the great southern desert which skirts Afghanistan 
and runs onward into Persia. I suspect, however, the story has 
arisen from the circumstance of its eggs being brought round via 

7$6 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

Scinde from Bombay : these are hung up in tombs and mosques. 
None of my informants had ever seen the bird. Called " Shootur- 
moorgh," i. e. "Camel-fowl." 

74. [Houbara Macqueenii, (? Gray.)] These handsome birds are 
common on the bare stony plains of Afghanistan, and sometimes oc- 
cur in small packs of five or six together. They fly heavily, and for 
short distances, soon alighting and running. They remain all the 
year. [The " Dugdaoor," or Afghan Bustard. According to Burnes, 
" one foot nine inches high, and forty-two inches from tip to tip." It 
essentially resembles H. Macqueenii, Gray, of the outskirts of the 
Scindian and other deserts of western India, except in the particular of 
possessing a remarkable crest ; falling under the subdivision Houbara of 
the Prince of Canino, which is distinguished by the splendid ornamen- 
tal tufts that adorn the sides of the neck in both sexes, by the short- 
ness of the legs, &c. The only other known species is the Otis hou- 
bara, auct., of Spain and Barbary, now ranging as H. undulata, (Gm.) 

A superb male, kindly lent to me some time ago, by Capt. Duncan, 
measured about 30in. in length, of which the tail measured lOin. ; wing 
15-|-in. ; bill to forehead l|in., and to gape 2|in. ; tarse 3fin. Head 
beautifully crested, a series of lengthened slender feathers rising along 
the central line of the forehead and crown, and continued to the occi- 
put ; the foremost of them shorter than those immediately following, 
which latter to above the region of the eyes measured 3in. and up- 
wards in length, and were remarkably firm in texture towards their 
base, and moderately so near the tips, while those behind them to 
the occiput, where they gradually diminish, are of much softer and 
hair-like texture, with disunited webs : these latter are wholly pure 
white ; and the former are white, with the terminal fourth black and 
soft, the foremost of all having their extreme tips mottled buff, like the 
shorter and ordinary feathers directly above the base of the bill. The 
sides of the neck have also handsome ornamental tufts, divided like 
the crest into two series : abroad band of silky black feathers (from 1| 
to 2 inches long) commences below the ear-coverts, and extends for 
some distance down each side of the neck, and behind the lower half of 
this is thrown out the first or upper series of beautiful neck plumes, 
which are Gin. long, and have the basal two-thirds white, with scanty 
hair-like disunited webs, and their terminal portion expanded and spa- 

1847.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 787 

tulate, of a glossy black colour, with connected webs ; the second and 
larger series being still longer and wholly white, the feathers soft and 
dense, straight, or rather a little curved inward, and very fine and flexi- 
ble. Upper-parts pale buff, albescent upon the wing- coverts, and a 
little so elsewhere ; somewhat deeper about the middle of the back, 
and much deeper on the tail and its upper coverts, which nearly re- 
semble in colour the upper-parts of O. tarda : all being delicately and 
minutely pencilled with black, and having a subterminal mottled black 
band, and one or more similar additional bands, (according to the size 
of the feather), which in general are concealed by the feathers which 
successively impend ; the upper tail-coverts have narrower and less mot- 
tled black cross-bars, more or less ashy, and placed distantly apart ; 
and the spread tail is beautifully marked with a series of ash-coloured 
bands, appearing from contrast bluish, all but its middle feathers being 
broadly tipped with cream-white. The lateral portions of the crown 
are minutely mottled buff and black ; the cheeks are white, with black 
shafts and tips to the feathers ; throat white ; upper part of front of 
neck slightly ashy ; and the lower portion of the neck, with the breast, 
are of an uniform delicate pale bluish ash-colour : rest of the lower 
parts white, as is likewise the under surface of the wings, but the lower 
tail-coverts are a little barred. The primaries are white at base, and 
black for the terminal half or more, extending further upon the outer 
web ; and from the termination of the black to that of the emarginated 
portion of the wing, there is a slight tinge of buff: the shorter prima- 
ries and secondaries are tipped with white, together with the great 
range of wing-coverts ; the remainder of which, as also the winglet, are 
black. Upon the small coverts of the wings, which are coloured uni- 
formly with the back, but paler, a large black spot occurs, in place of 
the subterminal band of the dorsal feathers, but for the most part re- 
mains concealed when the plumage is adjusted : and the bars of the 
interscapularies have likewise a confusedly macular appearance. The 
bill is horn-coloured ; and the legs appear to have been yellowish- 

Of the Indian H. Macqueenii, an indifferent figure occurs in Hard- 
wicke's illustrations;' and it is also represented as the "Hurriana 
Floriken" in the * Bengal Sporting Magazine' for September, 1833, 
where the only description is given of it that I have seen. " Hurria- 

5 K 

78S Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

na," observes the writer, "has also its Floriken, in addition to the 
Bustard [Eupodotis Edwardii, (Gray,) v. nigriceps, (Vigors),] there 
numerous ; but it is a very different bird from the Floriken of Bengal 
[St/pheotides bengalensis, (Gm.), v. himalayanus, (Vigors) ; — the Flo- 
riken of Southern India being the S. auritus, (Latham), or Leek of 
Bengal.]*** The sexes are alike, and some specimens differ a little 
from each other in their plumage. The drawing represents a male, 
which weighed 3^fl3., was 25|ins. in length, and 4ft. broad." This 
account being by a well known sportsman and accurate observer, the 
statement respecting the similarity of the sexes is entitled to all credit, 
as likewise that regarding the sex of the specimen figured by him : 
otherwise, so nearly does this Indian bird resemble that above described 
from Afghanistan, except (so far as hitherto appears) chiefly in being 
devoid of the crest, and in having the upper two-thirds of its orna- 
mental neck plumes wholly black, that I incline to regard them as 
identical, presuming the crest to be merely a seasonal adornment, and 
that some variation in the colour of the nuchal tufts might occur in 
different individuals. 

The only Indian specimen that I have seen was a beautiful female, 
procured at Hansi in the month of December, and obligingly forwarded 
for my inspection by Capt. Boys (of the 6th Cavalry). This measure- 
ed, when fresh, " 25in. in length, 4ft. in extent of wings, and weighed 
3ft). 6oz. ;" length of closed wing 14in., of tail 9in., tarse 3^-in., and bill 
to gape 2|in. " Irides bright yellow : bill blackish-horny, with greyish 
black nostrils, the base of the lower mandible whitish : and legs gr.een- 
ish-yellow." This specimen agreed tolerably well with Hardwicke's 
figure, except that the mottled black patches on the upper parts are 
much smaller and more numerous, and scarcely appear at all upon 
the wings, which should have been coloured paler ; the pencilling in 
front of the neck is much more delicate ; and the tail is banded with 
light ash-colour (appearing blue), slightly bordered with black. Com- 
paring it with the foregoing description taken of the Afghanistan spe- 
cimen, I noted that the minute description of the upper-parts, wings, 
and tail, there given applies equally to the present bird ; but " though 
the coronal feathers are all, in the mass, considerably lengthened, there 
is no indication whatever of the greatly developed, and abruptly rising, 
medial crest of the other, the plumes composing which are singularly 

181/.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 789 

firm and wiry towards their base. The lower third of the lateral neck- 
tufts are white, and of similar texture in both ; but the front of the 
neck, below the dull white throat, of the Hansi specimen is uniform 
pale buff, minutely freckled with black, and at its base are some 
lengthened plumes of a pale ash-colour impending the breast. Unfor- 
tunately, I had not the opportunity of comparing the two together, 
nor either of them with an Afghanistan specimen which is now like- 
wise forwarded on loan by Capt. Hutton : but this third specimen 
appears to be intermediate to the other two, agreeing more with the 
description of the Hansi bird, but having a slight crest, or apparently 
the remains of a crest in process of being shed, confined to the fore- 
head only ; and there are but few traces of white upon the black or 
upper tuft of lateral neck plumes. I am, accordingly, more than ever 
inclined to regard the crest as a distinctive characteristic of the breed- 
ing season only, when it would probably be more developed in the 
male sex than in the female. 

According to the writer in the ' Sporting Magazine,' the Hurriana 
Floriken " frequents the same country as the Bustard [Eu. Edwardit], 
or dry sandy plains where there is a little grass, and it is also found in 
wheat and grain fields. The native name for it is Tilaor. Its flesh 
is exceedingly tender, and is so covered with fat, that the skins are 
with difficulty dried and preserved." Capt. Boys, during the many 
years that he had collected in the Upper Provinces, never obtained 
more than the one specimen noticed ; but in Scinde it is tolerably 

7b. [Lobivanellus] goensis, (Gm.) Near Quetta. 

76. [L. (?) leacarus, (Licht.) Procured by Burnes at Cabul. 
Termed "Chizee."] 

77. Vanellus cri&tatus, Meyer. [Termed " Alutye" or " Meck/i- 
cao" at Cabul.] 

78. [Iliatiada philippensis, (Gm.) ; Charadrias minor, Meyer. 
Procured at Cabul by Burnes ; and designated " Tillah Chusmuck."] 

79. [Hcematopus ostralegus,!*. " Teitah-wuck" of Cabul. Also pro- 
cured by Sir A. Burnes."] 

80. [Philomachus pugnax, (L.)] Common all the year. 

81. [Tringa subarquata, (Gm.) A nameless figure, from Cabul, 
among the ' Burnes drawings,' appears to refer to this species ; but it 

5 k 2 

7P0 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

is one of the most faulty of the series. It seems, however, to be a 
common bird throughout Asia.] 

82. Tringa [minuta, Leisler]. Shot at Candahar. [Obtained also 
by Burnes at Cabul.] 

83. T. [Temminckii, Leisler. Also obtained by Burnes at Cabul.] 

84. [Limosa cegocephala, (L.)] Common all the year.* 

85. [Tot anus calidris, (L.) Cabul.] 

86. T* [stagnatilis, Bechstein : T. Lathami, Gray j Limosa Hors- 
fieldii, Sykes.] Common all the year. 

87. T. [glareola, (Lin.)] Common all the year. 

88. [Numenius arquata, (L.) Cabul.] 

89. Scolopax rusticola, Lin. The Woodcock is very common at 
Quetta and Candahar, arriving in November and departing in May : 
they probably only retire during the summer to the more northern 
districts, in order to avoid the hot wind and great heats of the southern 
tracts at that season. A female measured, over all, 16in. ; and weigh- 
ed 13oz. [I have obtained two fine specimens of the Woodcock in the 
immediate vicinity of Calcutta, and have beard of one or two others hav- 
ing been shot, though at long intervals.] 

90. \_Gallinago scolopacinus, Bonap. :] Scolopax gallinago, Lin. 
Common Snipe. Abundant from Quetta to Girishk; at Candahar they 
gradually disappeared (or became scarce) to the beginning of April. 

91. [G.~\ gallinula, (L.) Jack Snipe. As common as the last. 

92. Rhynchea bengalensis, (Gm.) Also occurs at Candahar. 

93. [Falcinellus igneus, (Gm.); Tantalus falcinellus, Lin. "Boo- 
zuk" of Cabul (Burnes).] 

94. [Ciconia nigra, Belon. Procured by Burnes at Cabul.] 

95. [Platalea leucorodia, Lin. Also procured at Cabul by 
Sir A. Burnes.] 

96. [Ardea cinerea, Lin. Ditto ditto.] 

97. [Herodias alba, (L.)] Found all the year on the banks of 
the rivers. 

98. [//. garzetta, (Lin.) Procured by Sir A. Burnes at Cabul, 
and with the last called Ookar.'] 

* N. B. This and Totunus stagnatilis were sent with the same number, and remark 
attaehed to that number.— E. B. 

184/.] Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. 791 

99. [Ardeola minuta, (L.)] Found at Candahar in winter, along 
the banks of water courses. 

100. Botanrus stellaris, (L.) Found along the banks of the 
larger rivers, as the Argandab and Helmund. 

101. Nycticorax griseus, (Lin.) Found in the winter on the 
banks of the larger rivers. 

102. [Gi*us lencogeranos, Pallas. "Syakbal" of Cabul, where 
procured by Sir A. Burnes.]* 

103. \Antht 'opoides virgo, (Lin.) Figured by Burnes as the 
« Shuck Duruck" of Cabul.] 

104. [Ortygometra pratensis, (L.) British Corn Crake. A com- 
mon summer visitor in Afghanistan, from which country specimens 
were brought by Capt. Duncan.] 

105. [Porzana maruetta, (Brisson). " Teerturuk" of Cabul, where 
procured by Burnes.] Shot at Candahar. 

106. [P. pygmcea, (Naum.) : Gallinula Baillonii, Yieillot. Also 
procured at Cabul by Sir A. Burnes.] Shot at Candahar. 

107. [Gallinula chloropus, L.] Shot at Candabar in winter. 
[" Kushkul" of Cabul, a name also applied to the next species.] 

108. Fulica atra, Lin. The Coot was very common among the 
reeds and marsh plants in the ditch surrounding the old ruined city 
of Candahar, and in marshy places generally. It was most frequent 
in winter and spring. 

109. [Anser cinereus, Meyer.] A winter visitor only at Candahar. 

110. Casarca rutila, (Pallas.) The Brahminee Duck is found at 
Candahar only during the winter. [" Soorkheb" of Cabul.] 

111. Tadorna vulpanser, Fleming. This beautiful bird is only a 
winter visitor. (The plate in the ' Naturalist's Library' gives it a high 
knob at the base of the bill, but in my specimen this is not ap- 
parent, nor is it mentioned in the letter-press of the above work).f 
[" Mekaz," " Alikaz," and " Shah Moorghabee," of Cabul.] 

112. Anas hoschas, Lin. Mallard. Common in winter. ["Subz- 
zurdan" of Cabul.] 

* The " Sarrus" (Gr. antigone) was seen on the Indus, but I did not meet with it in 

t The base of an old Shieldrake's bill is a little raised, but not to the extent represented 
in the figure cited ; in the dry specimen, this bulge sinks to a concavity.— E. B. 

792 Notes on the Ornithology of Candahar. [Aug. 

113. A. acuta, Lin, The Pintail Duck is also common during 
the winter months. [" Seik-doom" of Cabul.] 

114. A. penelope, Lin. The Widgeon. A winter visitant at Can- 
dahar, as indeed are all these Ducks, disappearing gradually to the end 
of April. 

115. A. crecca, Lin. The Teal is very common. ['« Chooraka" 
or "Jooruka" of Cabul.] 

116. [A. querquerdula, L. The Gargany. " Seeteh-doom" of Cabul, 
where procured with all the other Ducks mentioned, by Sir A. Burnes.] 

117. [A. stepera, Lin. The Gadwall. " Syah-doom" of Cabul.] 

118. Spatula clypeata, (Lin.) The Shoveller. Very common 
during the winter months. [The male is thrice figured by Sir A. 
Burnes, as the " Kachack-nol" and also the " Aleeput," of Cabul.] 

119. [Fidigula rufina, (Pallas). Red-crested Pochard. "Nool- 
gool" of Cabul.] 

120. [F. ferina, (L.) Dun Pochard. Male and female figured by 
Sir A. Burnes as the " Soorksir," and both sexes also as the "Gho- 
tye," of Cabul, which latter name is likewise applied to the Smew.] 

121. [F. nyroca, (Guldenstadt.) White-eyed Pochard. Common 
during the winter. 

122. F. cristata, (L.) Common. [" Sonah," and "Uhluk" (?), 
of Cabul.] 

123. Clangula [glaucion, (L.) The Golden-eye. Common in winter. 

124. [Mergellus] albellus, (L.) I saw only one specimen at Can- 
dahar, but heard that it was common in winter near Ghuzni. [" Gho- 
tye," and " Chota Khoruk," of Cabul ; from which may be inferred 
that the large Mergansers are probably termed " Khoruk." 

125. [Larus fuscus, L. : L.Jlavipes, Meyer. The adult and young 
are figured by Burnes from Cabul.] 

126. Xema ridibundus, (L.) Shot at Candahar, flying over a 
jheel south of the town. 

[Two figures occur among the ' Burnes drawings' of a species of 
Xema Gull (apparently), labelled " Bad-khor," said to be " shot at 
Cabul in the middle of February : a bird of passage." They are, how- 
ever, so unscientifically drawn, that I can hardly venture upon a de- 
scription of them. The length is mentioned to have been 1 /in., and 
alar expanse 3ft. Adult, white, with an ashy mantle, and deep roseate 

184/.] Notes on the Ornithology of Cauda har. 793 

tinge on the breast ; no dark spot behind the ear-coverts (as in the 
Xema group in winter colouring) : the primaries are represented as 
black, with white terminal margins : bill and feet deep rose-red ; and 
irides crimson, — the bill evidently represented much too slender. Young 
generally similar, but less pure in its colours ; and the middle of the 
wing longitudinally, brownish, with pale edgings to the feathers ; tail, 
also, of the young bird, dark at the end.] 

12/. Podiceps [philippensis and Colymbus minor, Gmelin]. This 
bird is common in the marshes and water pools south of Candahar, 
during the winter. 

128. Pelicanus onocrotalus, Lin." The Pelican. Length of a spe- 
cimen in my possession, 5ft. O^in. ; breadth 8ft. llin. Bill 1ft. 2in. 
long, and 2^in. in breadth : tibia 4^in., feathered to within 1-Jin. of the 
tibial joint ; length of middle toe 5|in.* Iris brown-red or dark 
blood-colour. Skin of the face pale flesh-colour. Longitudinal centre 
or ridge of upper mandible, dull blue ; the tip or nail, hooked, and of a 
blood-colour ; margins red and yellowish : sides of under mandible 
dull blue. Pouch dull yellow ; legs and feet flesh-coloured or pinkish. 
Plumage white, with a strong pink or roseate tinge on the head and 
neck ; fore-part of breast dirty white : quills cinereous-black ; head 

These birds arrive in the beginning of March, in large flocks on 
their way to the eastward. The specimen from which the above de- 
scription was taken, was shot in a pool of water at Candahar ; it was 
alone, and from its emaciated state appeared to have alighted from 
fatigue. The Afghans, who are great lovers of the marvellous, declare 
that when a flock of these birds alight on a piece of water they entrust 
their safety during the night to a few sentries, who hover near them on 
the wing, wheeling around the water and keeping watch until near the 
dawn, when being overcome by fatigue they descend and join their 
sleeping companions, and from the irksomeness of their long watch are 
soon wrapped in a profound sleep. This is the time when the wary 
fowlers approach with their nets, and bearing long sticks ; they then 
attack the panic-stricken sleepers and succeed in knocking numbers on 
the head before they are well aware of the danger which besets them. 

* Both the Indian Pelicans, P. onocratalus and P. philippensis, which are equally 
common in Lower Bengal, are subject to much variation of size. — E. B. 

7<N Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

Several were brought in to Candahar, which had been found sitting on 
the rocks far from any water, and from their offering no resistance to 
their captors, they had evidently alighted from fatigue, and would pro- 
bably have perished in a few hours. "When approached, if unable to 
escape, they open wide the beak and strike at the intruder, making a 
loud snapping noise as they strike the mandibles together. I had two 
of these birds alive in a small tank, and have often seen them catch 
and swallow whole a fish of seven and eight inches in length. It is 
first caught within the pouch, and then thrown up into the air and 
caught again so as to bring the head foremost into the pouch and thus 
swallowed ; the fins of the fish in this case are prevented from offering 
any impediment to its passage down the throat. They often dip the 
beak into the water as they sail along, and suffer the pouch to become 
filled with water ; they then close it, and press the pouch against the 
breast, by which means the water is gradually expelled at the edges 
of the closed mandibles, and the water insects, small fish or other prey, 
are retained and swallowed. 

It is not to be supposed that these are nearly all the birds of the 
Southern parts of Afghanistan ; but my arduous duties in the Pay and 
Commissariat Department of Shah Soojah's force prevented my doing 
more than is above recorded, and you must overlook many omissions as 
well as scantiness of information, when I assure you that I was general- 
ly at the desk from sun-rise to sun-set ! 

A Description of the Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers in 
the Kwnaon Himalaya. — By Lieut. R. Strachey, Bengal Engineers. 

The existence of Glaciers* in the Himalayas, being apparently still 
considered a matter of doubt by the Natural Philosophers of Europe, 
I have thought that some account of two most decided Glaciers, which 
I have just visited (May 1847) in these mountains, in about Lat. 30° 
20', may not be uninteresting. 

* For the benefit of those persons, who now read of a Glacier for the first time, I 
have in an appendix given a short account of their chief peculiarities, which I should 
recommend them to look at first. 

184/.] Glaciers of the 'Pindar and Kuphinee Rivers. 795 

As there is probably nothing specially worthy of note in these indivi- 
dual Glaciers, I wish to explain, that my object being to show that 
these phenomena exist in the Himalaya, under forms apparently iden- 
tical with those observed in the Alps, it has been necessary that I 
should enter into details, which under other circumstances wonld have 
been superfluous. As these are the first Glaciers that I have ever seen, 
it is right to add, that I am only acquainted with those of the Alps, 
through the medium of Professor Forbes' s accounts, and that as I lay 
no claim to originality, I have not scrupled to adopt freely the ideas, 
and perhaps expressions, of a person so infinitely better acquainted with 
these phenomena than I can be. To guard against mistakes I would 
also mention, that these Glaciers were selected for examination only on 
account of their accessibility, and that consequently no inferences should 
be drawn from them, of the general extent of Glaciers in the Himalaya. 

The Pindur rivei (vide accompanying map,) is the most easterly tribu- 
tary of the Bhagiruttee, or that stream of the Ganges that issues into 
the plains of India at Hurdwar. It rises from the south side of one of 
the great snowy ranges of the Himalaya, which contains the cluster 
of Peaks, (No. 10 to 15 of the Indian Atlas, sheet No. 66,) of which 
Nunda Devee* is the centre. At the head of the Pindur is one of the 
Glaciers I am about to describe ; the other gives rise to the Kuphinee, 
the first considerable affluent of the Pindur. 

The Pindur and Kuphinee, rising on opposite sides of the Peak called 
Nunda Kot, unite about 7 miles south of it. A small tolerably level 
space between them close to their confluence, is called Diwalee. The 
lower end of the Glacier of the Pindur is about 8 miles, and that of 
the Glacier of the Kuphinee about 6 miles above this place. 

* The heights of these peaks are as follows : 
No. 10 15805 English feet. 












Vide Asiatic Researches, 
Vol. XIII. p. 306. 


No. 14, which I call " Nunda Deuce," is the " Jowahir" of the Maps. " Jowahir" or 
more correctly " J war" or " Joohar," is the name of a district ( Purgunnah) which con- 
sists of the upper part of the valley of the Goree River. Nunda Deveeis on the boundary 
of this district, and has been erroneously named after it in many maps, the word " Joohar" 
being never applied to designate this particular peak, though the portion of the range in 
which it is, has undoubtedly been called the mountains of Joohar. 

5 L 

596 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

The valley of the Pindur, at the termination of the Glacier, is about 
a mile across between the precipitous mountains that bound it. From 
the foot of the rocks on either side, its bottom slopes inwards with a 
moderate inclination, leaving in the middle a hollow about 300 yards 
wide and 250 feet deep, with very steep banks, at the bottom of which 
flows the river. This comparatively level space, between the central 
hollow in which the river runs and the precipitous sides of the valley, 
its surface running nearly parallel with the present bed of the river, 
but from 200 to 300 feet above it, can be distinctly seen for a mile or 
more below the end of the Glacier. The plateau itself, as well as the 
steep banks between it and the bed of the river, are considerably cut 
up by water courses running across them from the sides of the valley, 
but every where they have an almost perfectly rounded outline. 

The whole of the bottom of the valley is covered with grass, or those 
species of plants that grow in these elevated regions, excepting where 
beds of snow, rocks, or the debris of the mountains interrupt the vege- 

The Glacier (Fig. 2,) occupies about § of the whole breadth of the 
head of this valley, leaving between itself and the cliffs on the east, an 
open grassy slope, which extends along the foot of the moraine for 
upwards of a mile and a half above the source of the river, and which 
seems to be a continuation of the plateau I before mentioned. 

The first appearance is remarkable ; it seems to be a vast rounded 
mass of rocks and ground, utterly devoid of any sign of vegetation, 
standing up out of a grassy valley. From the foot of its nearer ex- 
tremity the river, even here unfordable, rushes in a turbid torrent out 
of a sort of cave, the top of which when I saw it was but a few feet 
above the surface of the water. The end immediately over the source 
of the river is very steep and of a dull black color. It is considerably 
fissured ; the rents appearing to arise from the lower parts tearing 
themselves from the upper by their own weight. On a closer examin- 
ation, this abrupt end proves to be a surface of ice, covered with sand 
and gravel, and curiously striped by the channel made by the water 
that runs down it as it melts. Behind this the glacier rises less steeply, 
like a bare gravel hill to its full height, which is probably about 500 
feet above the water of the river, when it leaves the cave ; in some 
places however are seen great fissures both vertical and horizontal, the 

1847.] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. 797 

latter evidently made by the separation of regularly stratified layers. 
The last thing that might be expected of such a dismal-colored and 
monotonously rounded hill, is that it should be composed within of the 
purest ice. 

The cliffs that form the immediate bounds of the valley where the 
Glacier lies, are of no great height ; but the mountains of which they 
are the foot, rise many thousand feet above them, though with much 
monotony of appearance. Many grassy slopes are still seen consider- 
ably above the Glacier ; but bare rock and snow much predominate, 
and are soon left in sole possession of these inhospitable regions. Two 
peaks* which rise, one to the N. East and the other to the N. West of 
the valley, probably to a height of 20,000 feet above the sea, are fine 
objects in themselves, and the frozen snow on their summits shines 
gloriously in the sun : but they are not sufficient to prevent the 
general impression from the scene being one of disagreeable monotony, 
and of desolation complete indeed, but without sublimity. 

The Glacier is formed by the meeting of two ice streams, from 
gorges, one coming from the north-west and the other nearly from 
the east, which meet about 2 miles above the source of the river. 

The feeder from the north-west is larger than that from the east, 
and its surface is at a considerably higher level, for some hundred 
yards below their first junction. — It descends with a great inclination, 
entirely filling the gorge down which it comes, in what Professor 
Forbes aptly terms a cascade of ice. It assumes the general appear- 
ance of a confused mass of irregular steps, which are again broken up 
transversely into peaks of every shape. The west side of this cascade 
continues nearly in its original direction, after having passed the point 
A, (see the sketch) below which the Glacier bends sharply to the S. 
W., and in this way completely crosses the Glacier. The steps iu 
which it falls however also gradually change their direction, so as to 

* The peak ou the N. West is the most easterly of the three smaller peaks, which are 
seen from Almorah below Nunda Devee. That on the N. East, is the point at the 
end of the range that descends from Nundakot to the North, and appears on its left from 
Almorah. Between these peaks is the pass called after Mr. Trail, over which he went 
into Joohar, or the valley of the Goree. It is perhaps rather gratuitous to call this passage 
a pass, as no one has gone over it since, and certainly never will go unless from curiosity. 
To the right of the N. E. peak is another depression in the range, over which, I was 
told Mr. Trail attempted to go but failed. 

5 l 2 

798 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

remain nearly perpendicular to the general current of ice. The transi- 
tion to the regular level ice is very sudden, and begins much higher up 
on the west, than on the east side ; the sudden change of direction in 
the Glacier round the point, A, evidently producing much the same 
sort of effect in breaking the current of ice and giving it a smooth 
surface, as would have been observed under similar circumstances in 
running water. Near the foot of this ice fall, (beyond which I did not 
ascend the Glacier,) the steps were observed to be in the form given in 
Fig. 5, having their tops considerably overhanging. A small tribu- 
tary, also descending in cliffs of ice, joins the main Glacier from a 
ravine on its east side not far above the point A. Beyond it I was 
unable to see owing to the sudden bend in the glacier's direc- 

The feeder from the east is formed by the union of two smaller 
Glaciers, one coming down from the N. E. the other from the S. E. ; 
the latter is the larger of the two, and descends in ice cliffs to some 
little distance below the rocky point which intercepted my view of its 
upper parts. The N. E. tributary is not so steep, its surface as far as 
I could see being continuous, excepting immediately at its union with 
the other, where it seems to be a good deal broken up. I did not go 
on to any of these Glaciers, and describe them as they appeared from 
the upper parts of the united Glacier. 

Another small tributary Glacier also falls into the main one from the 
N. W., a short distance below the point A. Its inclination is very 
great, but it perfectly maintains its continuity of structure to the 

The lateral moraine of the west side of the northern branch of the 
glacier is first seen as it turns the point A, where it shows itself as a 
black band along the edge of the ice, which in other parts of the fall 
is quite white. The moraine is small between the points A and the 
tributary glacier below it ; but from this it very rapidly increases, 
and in its lower parts is a chaos of desolation such as I never saw be- 
fore. This great addition to the size of the moraine is owing to the 
quantity of debris brought down by the small glacier, over the lower 
parts of which stones were constantly rolling on to the upper end of 
the moraine during the whole time we were near it. "We were thus 
here enabled to see the actual formation of a moraine. The ice below 

1847.] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers, 799 

the junction of this tributary with the main glacier being much broken 
up by crevasses ; rocks and gravel from the moraines on the two sides 
of the tributary are scattered over the space between them, and the 
moraines at first sight appear to lose their distinct form ; but although 
there is no clear ice between the moraine that originates on the east 
of the tributary, and the west side of the glacier, the identity of that 
moraine is sufficiently marked by its color, and by the regular rise 
above the general surface of the glacier, of its top, which remains 
tolerably even for some way down, being beyond the limit of the dis- 
turbance caused by the crevasses along the edge of the glacier ; about 
half way down to the lower end of the glacier however, the full action 
of these crevasses reaches the whole of the moraine, and it is scattered 
or lost sight of in the general confusion of surface. 

An epoch of peculiar destructiveness to the mountains passed by the 
glacier is marked in one part of this moraine, by an accumulation of 
huge masses of rock from 20 to 30 feet square, and as much as 15 feet 
high, and the stones found on it, are generally larger than those on 
any of the other moraines ; the true west lateral moraine below the 
tributary glacier is not very large, nor is its top much elevated above 
the bottom of the valley, excepting quite at its end. This is probably 
owing to the level of the valley on this side being higher, (vide fig. 3,) 
rather than to the top of the glacier being lower. The bottom of the 
valley slopes from the cliffs at its sides, inwards. On the east, the 
edge of the glacier is at some distance from the cliff and the bottom of 
the valley has dipped considerably where it meets. The foot of the 
moraine, the summit of which on that side, is high above the valley. 
On the west side the glacier edge is close to the cliff ; the bottom of 
the valley will therefore be higher. I did not notice any difference of 
level in the two sides of the valley. 

The lateral moraine of the S. E. side of the glacier is very large. 
Its top rises, on an average, probably 250 feet above the bottom of 
the valley. Along its foot runs a stream gradually increasing in size, 
that collects the drainage of the open part of the valley, and of the 
outer slopes of the moraine. The lower part of this slope is a mass of 
loose stones and earthy gravel, which rolls down from above, as the 
face of the ice, which is visible in the upper 50 or 60 feet of the slope, 
melts and recedes ; this process is seen constantly going on. On the 

800 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers . [Aug. 

inner side, the top of the moraine is 30 or 40 feet ahove the level of 
the clear ice of the glacier. 

The upper part of this moraine comes down nearly straight from the 
point B. The north branch glacier being, as was before noticed, 
considerably higher than the eastern, the moraine slopes down from the 
level of the former to that of the latter, forming a deep angular depres- 
sion under the point B, (when it meets the foot of the north moraine 
of the east glacier ;) that gradually diminishes in depth up to the top of 
this glacier, which is here entirely covered with debris, the moraines 
of its two sides being scattered all over it, for some distance above its 
union with the north or main branch. The appearance produced by 
this is that the northern branch runs over the eastern, or that the latter 
runs into the side of the former and is absorbed by it. 

The eastern tributary brings down with it moraines which require 
no particular remark, beyond that already made, viz. that they spread 
over the whole of its breadth at its extremity. 

Besides these lateral moraines, is a medial one, which, similar to 
several described by Professor Forbes, is first seen as a dirty stripe 
among the white ice cliffs of the fall at the head of the north 
glacier. As it comes down the level ice it gradually begins to as- 
sume the decided appearance of a moraine, and increasing by degrees 
at last becomes very large. It continues in a well defined form for 
some short distance beyond where the western moraine is dispersed ; 
but there it also is scattered over the ice, and the two become blended 
together and ultimately extend to meet the debris which is similarly 
dispersed by the eastern moraine from the opposite side of the glacier. 

The whole of the moraines in the middle of the length of the 
glacier, where it is most regular, are very considerably raised above 
the general surface of the ice, which in some parts is, I should think, 
as much as 100 feet below the tops of the western and medial 
moraines. It is not to be supposed that this great elevation is caused 
to any considerable extent by the mere mass of rocks and rubbish 
collected in the moraine ; it results from the ice below the mass being 
protected by it from external melting influences, which constantly 
depress the level of the clear ice beyond the moraine. On the very tops 
of the moraines pure ice was often seen hardly covered by the stones. 

The protection given to the ice by the great lateral moraines, raises 

1847.] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kwphinee Rivers. 80! 

the sides of the glacier so much that a very considerable hollow is 
caused in its middle, which is a striking feature in the first appearance 
of its lower extremity. 

The ice of which the glacier is composed agrees most exactly in 
its nature with the Alpine Glacier ice as described by Professor 
Forbes. It is perfectly pure and clear, but where seen in considerable 
masses stripes of a darker and lighter bluish green are distinctly 
visible. It is composed of bands of ice containing small air bubbles, 
alternating with others quite free from them. In many places the 
surface presents a striated appearance, arising from the different degrees 
of compactness of these differently colored bands, and their conse- 
quently different rates of melting. 

The direction of these colored veins as seen in crevasses, or in the 
striated surfaces of the ice, follow laws exactly similar to those observed 
in the Alps. The dip was most distinctly inwards, i. e. towards the 
longitudinal axis, and upwards, i. e. towards the origin of the glacier, 
in every part; the stratification being more perpendicular near the 
head, and more nearly horizontal in the lower parts. The direction 
of the strata in plan, was also very clearly marked in many parts of 
the ice, and was plainly in carves, having their branches nearly parallel 
to the sides of the glacier, and their apices directed downwards ; the 
curvature in the centre not being at all sudden. I no where could 
perceive " dirt bands." 

The crevasses (perhaps owing to my visit having been made some- 
what early in the summer) were much less numerous and terrific than 
I had expected. Although considerable detours were at times neces- 
sary in crossing them, I remember no place that I thought dangerous 
or difficult to pass. They are developed across the direction of the 
glacier's length along both of its sides, commencing from the small 
tributary on the west side, and from the union of the eastern glacier 
on the other ; — and continuing almost to the end, those on the west 
being, I think the largest. They are generally wider towards the edges 
of the glacier, closing up as they approach the centre. They are nearly 
vertical, and are directed from the sides upwards, or towards the head 
of the glacier, those on the west bearing nearly E. and W., those on 
the east bearing nearly N. and S., thus forming angles of about 45° 
with the axis of the glacier. 

$02 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

Many pools of water (the Baignoirs of the Alps) were seen on the 
surface of the ice ; some of the largest were said by our guides, who are 
in the habit of visiting the glacier, to be found in the same place every 
year. The clear surface of the ice everywhere assumes a more or less 
undulating form, from the action of the water that drains from it as 
it melts ; and the small streams, into which the drainage collects 
end, as in the glacier of the Alps, by falling into some of the crevasses. 
The remains of the last winter's snow was hardly perceptible on any 
part of the glacier. 

The occurrence of stones standing upon bases of ice (Glacier Tables) 
above the general surface of the glacier, is common, but all that I saw 
were small. I also observed what appeared to be imperfect glacier 
cones, or the remains of them, but these also were small. 

The ice of the glacier coming into direct contact with the cliff 
below the point A, I was enabled to examine the effect produced upon 
the rocks ; I found it covered with grooves or scratches, sloping in 
about the same direction as the surface of the ice at the spot. These 
grooves extend to 20 or 30 feet above the present level of the glacier. 
I also observed, that almost everywhere a space was left between the 
rock and ice, the latter appearing to shrink from contact with the 
former. This was of course the effect of the heat of the rock melting 
the ice. I regret that an attempt that I made to measure the actual 
motion of this glacier proved ineffectual, owing to circumstances which 
it is not necessary to detail. 

The valley of the Kuphinee, for a mile or two below the end of the 
glacier, has much the same general character as that of the Pindur, 
but is more rugged and desolate in appearace. A fine peak of pure snow 
(probably Nunda Kot, or No. 15) is seen from below the glacier, but is 
lost sight of behind an intermediate point, on a nearer approach. 

The direction of the glacier (fig. 4) is almost due N. and South, and 
the whole breadth of the valley, in its upper part, about f mile, is occu- 
pied by it. It commences about 2 miles above the river source, in*a very 
precipitous fall of ice. We went up about 200 feet of the lower part of 
this, much beyond which it would probably have been impossible to 
ascend owing to the excessive steepness alone. A cliff of ice about 60 
feet or 70 feet high rose immediately above the point which we reached. 
The ice was perfect, with the ribbon structure quite visible ; the bands 

184/.] Glaciers of the Pindar and Kuphinee Rivers. 803 

were very highly inclined, and I think farther apart than in the lower 
parts of the glacier. The direction of the structural lines was in no 
degree parallel to the sides of the glacier, but much more nearly per- 
pendicular to them. The precise contrary of this was observed by Pro- 
fessor Forbes under apparently similar circumstances, in the glacier 
du Talefre in the Alps. 

From the foot of the fall, the surface of the glacier was on the whole 
very even, though its slope downwards was very considerable. It still 
had remaining on its upper half a good deal of unmelted snow, which 
was disagreeable to walk over, as it was seldom strong enough to make 
us indifferent to what was under it. 

The main glacier is joined by two small tributaries on the east, and 
by one on the west ; all are highly inclined and bring down consider- 
able quantities of debris. The moraines are altogether confined to the 
sides of the glacier, though many small stones are scattered over every 
part of the ice. Here, as in the glacier of the Pindur, the protection 
given by the moraines to the ice on the sides raises them greatly, and 
leaves a deep hollow in the middle of the glacier at its end. The 
crevasses here also are most strongly marked near the sides, and are 
inclined at an angle of about 45° from the longitudinal axis, down- 
wards. The structure of the ice is in all respects precisely as was seen 
in the Pindur Glacier. I am unable to offer any decided opinion as 
to whether these glaciers have ever varied considerably from their 
present limits. During the very short period of my visit to these 
regions, I saw no direct evidence of it. The shepherds who take 
their flocks to the pastures in the valleys near the glaciers during the 
summer months, (for there are no fixed habitations within 14 or 15 
miles of them,) have no idea of any motion in the glacier, but say that 
they suppose the ends of them to be gradually receding. Their state- 
ments are however of a very vague nature, and as far as I could judge, 
are founded on their views of what ought to be rather than of what real- 
ly is. Some very decided change in the state of things is however cer- 
tainly indicated by the long plateaus, which I before mentioned, run- 
ning for a mile or two below the present terminations of both glaciers, 
nearly parallel to the rivers, but several hundred feet above them. I 
consider it to be impossible, that these level banks above the rivers 
have been caused by deposits from the ravines in the sides of the 

804 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug, 

valleys, for such deposits would have had very irregular surfaces ; and 
indeed their present effect in destroying the regularity of the plateaus 
is every where visible. Had the same appearance been noticed in any- 
other part of the river's course, it would at once have been attributed to 
the action of the water at some former period ; and it would have been 
supposed, that the bed had afterwards been excavated to its present 
depth. If this was the case, the glaciers while the plateau was form- 
ing, must either have terminated considerably higher up the valleys, 
or have stood altogether at a much higher level ; in either of these 
ways the water could have been delivered at a level sufficiently high to 
form the plateau. But it may admit of doubt, whether the quantity 
of water in the rivers, as they are at present, is sufficient to account 
for such an extent of level deposit, or for such a depth of erosion of 
their beds ; for at this great elevation they are not subject to those 
violent floods that occur lower down ; for nearly half the year too they 
must be almost inert. 

The only other way that occurs to me of accounting for the appear- 
ance, is that it has been occasioned by an extension of the glacier, and 
that the level top of the plateau shows the limit to which the tops of 
the moraines reached, as the glacier gradually receded. From the very- 
cursory nature of my examination of the matter however I am unable to 
do more than point out the fact, and what possibly may have caused it. 

There is another circumstance relating to these rivers which is also 
worthy of notice, namely, that in the upper 2 or 3 miles of their course 
their fall is considerably less than in the 2 or 3 miles immediately suc- 
ceeding those. Thus in the Kuphinee, the average fall in the first 3 
miles is about 400 feet, in the next 4 miles about 650 feet per mile ; 
but as the average is only about 160 feet for the next 8 miles, it is 
highly probable that the fall in the 4th and 5th miles will be consi- 
derably greater than in the 6th and 7th. I therefore infer that it is 
quite possible that the fall in the 4th and 5th miles may be as much 
as 800 feet per mile, or even more ; which the appearance of the rivers 
would fully justify. 

Smaller extensions of the glacier of the Pindur were visible in many 
places. They were marked by mounds of a rounded form, covered 
with grass, projecting from the modern moraines in a curved direction 
concave to the glacier. I did not remark them at the Kuphinee. . 





^■f&H'ar^. of zee -cliffs c<Jr 


jj sicw o&ac. 



Snoiv &&d— ZorLf i?- vi d. i '.- n -col 

>i o£,v fy£& ■ 

rr» n j t/crs & 

<fcc Z~l ■ 

.j rrr, a pin <i-ry 

scsIu;kS of A- C*l**l«i 

184 7-] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. 805 

I would here observe, that in this climate, where we are subject to 
periodical rains, persons should be cautious in concluding that piles of 
rocks in long lines are moraines, even though their edges are in no way 
water-worn. On both of these rivers I saw many instances of such 
heaps of rocks, which might very easily have been thought moraines ; 
and though from their immense extent, and the great size of the blocks 
they contain it is not easy to believe that they have been formed by 
the action of water, more particularly as the rocks have perfectly sharp 
edges and as there is often no appearance of water ever having been 
near them ; yet they have certainly been brought down by torrents and 
may be easily traced up to ravines in the mountains. 

The term snow-bed having been hitherto applied by travellers in 
these mountains, (with one exceptionf) both to true glaciers, and to 
mere beds of unaltered snow. I will shortly explain what is meant by 
it when used in the latter, which is the correct sense. In many parts 
of the higher valleys, real beds of snow lie far below the limit of perpe- 
tual snow for the greater part of the year, and some would probably be 
permanent at very low elevations were they not destroyed by the rain 
during the rainy season. These snow beds are formed by avalanches, 
as is sufficiently proved by their form and position. Figs. 6, 7 and 8, 
represents one on the Kuphinee river, which occurs at an elevation of 
about 10,800 feet. 

It came down from a ravine, and entirely covered the river which flow- 
ed under its whole length. The snow extended but little beyond the up- 
per side of the ravine, but was prolonged far down the river on the lower 
side. Its surface was marked by curved hills, as is shown in the sketch. 
This is evidently precisely the form that would be assumed by snow 
falling down the ravine into the river. The slope of the river bed 
being great, the avalanche would naturally continue its course down it, 
after having filled the channel immediately in front of the ravine. The 
fall of an avalanche in the upper part of this valley gave me an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the motion of loose snow in large masses ; it was very 
similar to that of a fluid body, the snow appeared rather to flow than 
to fall. So here, the snow descending through the raviue, gradually 
filled the river channel ; the main supply moving with the greatest 

* I allude to Major Madden, who has given a short account of the glacier of the Pin- 
dur in a late number (176) of this Journal. 

5 m 2 

806 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug, 

velocity down the middle, but sending off, all along it as it went on, 
particles to the sides. Its head would therefore advance in a convex 
curve, as the central particles moving directly forward, would always 
keep in advance of those that spread out to the sides. The end of the 
snow bed thus takes the curved form shown in the figure, and a suc- 
cession of smaller avalanches, would mark its surface with numerous 
curves of the same sort. 

In the last two miles of the approach to the Kuphinee glacier, we 
crossed two snow-beds, both of which were upwards of ^ of a mile wide, 
and extended from the ravines in which they originated, right across 
the valley from side to side, entirely covering up the river. 

The surface of many of the snow-beds has a sort of rippled appear- 
ance, caused by the protection given by grass and leaves blown upon 
the snow to the parts immediately under them. The snow itself is 
generally firm, and receives but a slight impression from the foot of 
a man walking over it. 

I have estimated the heights of these glaciers from observations of 
the boiling point of water as follows ; the results will certainly be 
within 500 feet of the truth. 

Ft. above the sea. 
Lowest point of the glacier of the Pindurand source of the river 1 1,300 
Surface of the glacier at the commencement of smooth ice.. . 12,000 
Lowest point of the glacier of the Kuphinee and source of 

the river 12,000 

Surface of the glacier at the commencement of smooth ice .. . 13,500 
Diwalee, union of the Pindur and Kuphinee 8,200 

The limit of perpetual snow here being about 15,000 feet above the 
sea, in the one case the glacier comes down 3/00, and in the other 
3000 feet below it. At the Kuphinee glacier, a mass of Rhododendron 
companulatum, a shrub 6 or 8 feet high, was growing within 30 yards 
of the ice. There were no shrubs of any size at the Pindur glacier, 
but grass and flowers were at both places flourishing considerably 
above the level of the ice. 

Having now concluded the record of my own observations on the 
two glaciers seen by myself, I will add two extracts from the Journals 
of travellers in these mountains, which most clearly prove the existence 
of two other glaciers, both of great size, one at the source of the Bha- 

TVxx yiiv 

North of Aim or all. Showing" 

£&e/ tStHJ^ricJis cfiheiFiJitdu ' • 

184/.] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. 807 

giruttee or Ganges, the other at that of the Goree, which is one of the 
main feeders of the Kalee or Gogra. The first extract is from a journal, 
by Capt. Hodgson, of a visit to the source of the Ganges, in the year 
1817. (Asiatic Researches, No. XIV. Qu. pp. 117—128. Capt. 
Hodgson thus describes the first appearance of the glacier from which 
the rivers rises. 

"The Bhagiruttee or Ganges issues from under a very low arch 
at the foot of the grand snow-bed," — " over the debouche the mass 
of snow is perfectly perpendicular, and from the bed of the stream 
to the summit we estimate the thickness at little less than 300 feet 
of solid frozen snow, probably the accumulation of ages ; — it is in 
layers of some feet thick, each seemingly the remains of a fall of a 
separate year. The height of the arch of snow is only sufficient to let 
the stream flow under it." 

He ascends the glacier — " This vast collection of snow is about 1| 
miles in width, filling up the whole space between the feet of the peaks 
to the right and left ; we can see its surface forward to the extent of 
4 or 5 miles or more" — " general acclivity 7°, but we pass small hol- 
lows in the snow caused by its irregular subsiding ; a very dangerous 
place, the snow stuck full of rubbish and rocks imbedded in it. Many 
rents in the snow appear to have been recently made, their sides shrink- 
ing and falling in." " Ponds of water form in the bottom of these." 

" It was remarked above, that the snow of the great bed was stuck, 
as it were, with rock and rubbish, in such a manner, as that the stones 
and large pieces of rock are supported in the snow and sink as it sinks ; 
as they are at such a distance from the peaks as to preclude the idea 
that they could have rolled down to their present places, except their 
sharp points had been covered, it appears most likely" that they 
came down like snow balls with avalanches. "It is not easy to account 
for the deep rents which intersect this snow-bed, without supposing it 
to be full of hollow places." The source of the Ganges is stated by 
Capt. Hodgson to be 12,914 feet above the sea. 

The next is an extract from a journal of Lieut. Weller, printed as a 
note to a journal of Capt. Manson's, Journal Asiatic Society, No. 132. 

" I went to see the source of the Goree river, about a mile N. W. 
from Milum. The river comes out in a small but impetuous stream, 
at the foot of apparently a mass of dirt and gravel some 300 feet high, 

808 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

shaped like a half moon. This is in reality a mass of dark-colored ice 
(bottle-green color), extending westward to a great distance, and covered 
with stones and fragments of rock, which in fact form a succession of 
small hills. I went along this scene of desolation for a long space, but 
could not nearly reach the end. Here and there where circular and 
irregularly shaped craters (as it were) from 50 to 500 feet in diameter 
at top, and some of them 150 feet deep. The ice was frequently visible 
on the sides, and at the bottom was a dirty sea-green-colored pool of 
water, apparently very deep. The bases of the hills on either side, 
and frequently far up their faces, are one succession of landslips ; but 
from their distance, I do not believe it possible that the debris in the 
centre of the snow-bed valley, can have fallen there from the side hills." 
Lieut. Weller also says of the same glacier in his journal published in 
the Journal Asiatic Society, No. 134: — " The mass of desolation, as 
described at the source of the Goree, continues thus far up — that is 
about 4 miles, and how much farther no one will or can tell me. The 
fissures hereabouts are narrow, instead of being crater-like, and the 
ice when visible is more nearly the color of snow. On the opposite 
(south) side, huge accumulations of ice and gravel are to be seen in the 
openings between the hills ; — once on either side, I had a view of the 
old ice high upon the hills ; its light sea-green color, with strongly 
defined and fantastical lines of shape (castles, stairs, &c.) formed a 
very pleasing and grand appearance." This glacier is known to be 
6 or 7 miles long ; its lower extremity is at 11,600 feet above the sea. 

In the published journals of travellers in the Himalaya, that I have 
seen, I have not met with any other accounts of glaciers sufficiently 
distinct to be worth quoting, though we not unfrequently come across 
a snow-bed that seems suspicious. I am however fully satisfied of the 
actual existence of many other glaciers, both from the verbal accounts 
of Mr. Batten, who has been a resident in Kumaon for many years, of 
my brother, Mr. H. Strachey, who visited several of the passes into 
Tibet last year, and of the Bhotias (the natives of the valleys im- 
mediately below the snowy ranges), and from having myself had distant 
views of several. 

From these sources I am able to affirm positively, the existence of 
glaciers at the heads of the following rivers ; — viz., the Vishnoogunga 
(near Budrinath) ; the Kylgunga, the Koourgurh, the Soondurdoonga, 

184/. j Glaciers of the Pindar and Kuphinee Hirers. 809 

all rising from the southern side of Tresool and Nunda Devee ; the 
llamgunga (that which falls into the Surjoo, not the great river of the 
same name) ; the Piltee, an affluent of the Goree ; and the Gonka 
which rises near the Oonta-doora or Joohar pass into Tibet. 

I therefore conclude, that in the Himalaya, as in the Alps, almost 
every valley that descends from the ranges covered with perpetual 
snow, has at its head a true glacier ; and in spite of M. Elie de Beau- 
mont's ingenious fact, that the seasons here " have no considerable 
variations of temperature," and that " the thaw and frost do not sepa- 
rately penetrate far enough to convert the snow into ice ;" I am of 
opinion, that the very great intensity of all atmospheric influences, 
including variations of temperature, should render these mountains one 
of the most favorable fields for the investigation of glacial phenomena. 


A short account of the principal Phenomena of Glaciers, abstracted 
from chapters 2, 8 and 21 of Professor Forbes' Travels through the 
Alps of Savoy, §'c. 

Perpetual Snow. — The atmosphere becoming colder as we ascend in 
it, the tops of mountains that are more than a certain height above the 
level of the sea, are always covered with snow ; — this height is greatest 
at the equator, where it is about 16,000 feet, and gradually diminishes 
towards the poles, where the natural covering of the earth is ice and 

Snow Line. — The snow line is an imaginary line passing through 
those places, at which the snow which falls in one complete revolution 
of the seasons, is just melted in that time, and no more. 

Glaciers. — The common form of a glacier is a mass of ice, that ex- 
tends from the region of perpetual snow, into the lower valleys, which 
are clothed with vegetation ; and that sometimes even reaches to the 
borders of cultivation. The snow line on the glacier, is somewhat 
lower than on neighboring parts of the mountains ; but below it, the 
snow is melted and disappears from the surface of the ice, as regularly 
and entirely, as from that of the country into which the glacier de- 

810 Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. [Aug. 

Motion. — The existence of the glacier in such comparatively warm 
situations, can only be accounted for by supposing, that its daily waste 
is supplied by its daily descent, and that its terminal face which ap- 
pears unmoveable is in fact perpetually changing. Therefore when the 
total waste exceeds the total motion the glacier appears to recede up 
the valley ; when the converse happens, the end of the glacier advances; 
when the two are exactly the same it remains in the same position. 

Rivers rising from Glaciers. — The waste of the glacier from the 
action of the sun and rain, gives rise to a stream of turbid water, which 
issues from the extremity of the ice, out of a cave. 

General form of glaciers. — Glaciers vary in their dimensions, up to 
3 miles in width and 12 in length. The lower portion is usually very 
steep ; the middle has only a moderate slope ; the upper again is more 
inclined. The sides when exposed are also very steep. The surface 
is more or less undulating, the irregularities in a great measure arising 
from the action of the water, that collects from the surface drainage, 
and forms streams of considerable size. 

Crevasses. — The ice is considerably broken up, by fissures or rents, 
called crevasses ; these are usually vertical in their direction, and of 
widths varying from a few inches to many feet, sometimes extending 
almost from side to side of the glacier. 

Moraines. — The rocks and debris, that fall upon the ice from the 
cliffs that usually bound the glacier, instead of accumulating where 
they fall, as they would do if the ice were stationary, are carried down 
as it advances, and form continued lines along the sides of the glacier. 
Their stony borders are called moraines. 

Lateral Moraines. — Those moraines that are formed on the sides of 
the glacier, as just described, are called lateral moraines. 

Medial Moraines. — When two glaciers from different sources meet, 
the inner moraines of the two unite, and continue to move on together 
down the compound glacier, which but for this mark would at a short 
distance below the point of union be undistinguishable from a simple 
one. Such a moraine, having clear ice on both sides of it is said to be 
a medial moraine. 

Elevation of Moraines. — From the protection given to the ice below 
by the rocks of the moraine, it appears to rise gradually above the 
general surface of the glacier, which on the other hand is constantly 

1847.] Glaciers of the Pindur and Kuphinee Rivers. 811 

being depressed by the action of sun and rain, while the protected parts 
of the ice remains unmelted. The moraine is not a mound of debris, 
as it appears at first sight, but an icy ridge, covered with rocks, some- 
times with a breadth of some hundreds of feet, and raised from 50 to 
80 feet above the general level of the ice. 

Glacier Tables. — Single blocks of stone lying on the ice, appear from 
the same cause to raise themselves above the surrounding surface, upon 
pedestals of ice ; — these are called glacier tables. 

Glacier Cones. — An accumulation of sand which sometimes forms in 
holes in the ice, in like manner protects the surface beneath it, and by 
a curious inversion of its shape forms a pyramid or glacier cone, some- 
times 20 or 30 feet high and 80 or 100 feet in circumference. 

Baignoirs. — An operation strangely converse of this takes place, 
when a small cavity forms in the ice, and becomes filled with water, 
but with no considerable quantity of debritus. Water just freezing is 
lighter than water at a temperature somewhat higher ; the water at 
32° therefore floats on the surface of the other. When therefore the 
surface of the water in the pool becomes heated by the sun's rays a 
little above 32°, it immediately sinks, and by communicating its extra 
heat to the bottom of the cavity, melts and deepens it, and being cool- 
ed, is ready to rise again to the surface in its turn. 

Structure of ice. — The ice of which a glacier is composed, consists 
of bands or laminae of blue compact ice, alternating with others of a 
lighter color, not less perfect but filled with countless air bubbles. This 
peculiar structure gives to a glacier all its extreme brittleness. The dif- 
ference of hardness of the strata, causes the surface of the glacier in 
many parts to appear striated with fine lines, and when groups of 
harder bands occur, there are projecting ridges with grooves between 
them, much resembling ruts in a muddy road. 

Direction of structural planes. — The direction of the bands or veins 
is explained in fig. 9, which shows an imaginary section of a glacier. 
The strata of ice lie like a succession of shells one within the other. 

Cause of veined structure. — The origin of the veined structure, seems 
not be altogether satisfactorily explained ; but the direction of the 
veins, and the form of the structural surfaces, is well accounted for by 
Professor Forbes, as the effect of the different velocities of the different 
parts of the ice, which as in running water is greatest in the centre 

5 N 

812 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

and at the surface where the friction is least, and vice versa. To 
enter more fully on this matter is beyond my proposed object. 

Neve. — That part of the glacier above the line of perpetual snow, is 
called the neve. It is composed of granular snow alternating with 
bands of ice and has the appearance of being regularly stratified in beds 
parallel to its surface. The passage of neve into true glacier ice, is 
also a point not satisfactorily explained. 

Zur Litteratur tind Geschichte des Weda. Drei Abhandlungen von 
Rudolph Roth, Doctor der Philosophie. Stuttgart, 1846. {On the 
Literature and History of the Veda. Three Treatises, by Rudolph 
Roth, Ph. Dr., Stuttgart, 1846.) 

(Translated by J. Mum. Esq. C. S.) 
This little book, containing as it evidently does the results of pro- 
found and accurate research, is a valuable addition to our knowledge 
of the structure and contents of the several Vedas, and of the interpre- 
tative literature to which these ancient books gave rise. Some account 
of the brochure will, it appears to me, be acceptable to the Society, 
at the time when it has just undertaken the publication of the 
whole text of the Vedic hymns. Dr. Roth's book consists of three 
treatises ; the first entitled " The Hymn Collections," extends, with 
excursuses and remarks, from pp. 1 to 52. The second is headed 
"The oldest Vedic Grammar, or the Pratisakhya Sutras, pp. 53 — 86, 
The third (pp. 87 — 144) bears the title " Historical matter in the 
Rig Veda ; Vasishtha's contest with Viswamitra." The contents of the 
first treatise will be fully learnt from the following translation of it 
entire, with one of the notes, which I hope may be considered admis- 
sible into the pages of the Society's Journal. The second treatise 
enters into detail in regard to the Pratisakhya Sutras, of which some 
account has previously been given in the first. The third quotes and 
translates some hymns from the Rig Veda, which contain traces of a 
conflict between the rival priestly houses of Vasishtha and Viswamitra, 
and record the names and wars of a number of petty tribes who at that 
early period occupied the Punjab. The whole of Dr. Roth's book, 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 813 

which extends to 144 pp. only, is well worth translating, and 1 trust 
this may be undertaken under the Society's auspices. It should prove 
interesting not only to the general student of Indian antiquity, but still 
more so to that enquiring class of Hindu youth, who, with as yet but 
imperfect appliances, and under incompetent guides, have been direct- 
ing their attention, though but uncritically, to the earlier doctrines of 
their religion. 

Dr. Roth appears to have spent some time at Paris, London and 
Oxford in the examination and study of the MSS. connected with 
his researches. The short treatises under review are only, it is to be 
hoped, the first fruits of his studies. In his dedication to Professor 
Wilson, and in his first treatise, he alludes to his intention to publish 
the Nirukta. He appears to have a further work in view, but speaks 
doubtingly of the prospects of its completion, in these words : " The 
labour, however, which I propose to myself as the compensating fruit 
of these exertions, an Archseology and Mythology of the Veda, is, for 
the present, rather a wish than a possibility." 

Dr. Roth himself however is not the only new labourer whom we 
have to welcome to this field of exertion. In a note at p. 22, he men- 
tions his friend Dr. C. Rieu of Geneva, as having under preparation an 
edition of the Aitareya Brahmana. In p. 25 he mentions Dr. Trithen 
in London as engaged in the same studies. At page 4 allusion is made 
to an edition of the Sanhita of the Samaveda, promised by Dr. Theodore 
Benfey, who has already published an article on India in Ersch and 
Gruber's German Cyclopaedia, which is referred to with indications 
of approbation by M. Burnouf, in his introduction a l'histoire du 
Buddhisme Indian, passim. Allusion is made by Dr. Roth at the close 
of his first lecture to the edition of the Rigveda which Professor Wilson 
has in preparation. It does not appear, however, when this important 
work is to be looked for. 

I. — The Hymn Collections. 

Delivered at the meeting of Orientalists at Darmstadt, at the sitting 
of 2d October, 1845. 

You have permitted me, Gentlemen, to speak on a branch of In- 
dian literature which, if any can, asserts a claim to general interest, 
and the cultivation of which demands the union of various powers, but 

5 n 2 

814 On the Historij and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

which will at the same time yield the richest spoils, — the literature 
of the Veda. You will allow me, in order to make room in some mea- 
sure for this extensive subject, to regard as known all which has hither- 
to been written or published on the Veda. Of this there is so little, 
and that little has been so much the subject of remark, that it is suffi- 
ciently known in all Oriental circles. 

It has been the peculiar fate of the Veda that being at first veiled or 
magnified into the extravagant by Brahmanical mystification and osten- 
tation, — the eifects of which have not yet disappeared, — it presented 
a terrifying complication of writings, with which no one trusted himself 
to meddle. When H. T. Colebrooke had at length brought light into 
the darkness, still the importance of these books in part escaped him ; 
and Frederick Rosen, who formed a right estimate of it, and was the 
man to render the discovery fruitful, was only permitted to rear him- 
self a beautiful monument, to make a commencement, which makes us 
the more severely miss the continuation, in proportion to the certainty 
that the latter would, through the writer's growing experience, have 
gained a perfect form. No other was willing to tread in his footsteps ; 
and so Rosen's book, and Colebrooke' s, in its way, excellent treatise, 
are still the only mines for our knowledge of the Veda. I can scarcely 
mention what has been done by the Missionary Stevenson for the Sama 
Veda: for his edition of the text is less correct than any tolerable MS., 
and his translation is utterly useless. 

Let me be permitted here to supply to Colebrooke' s treatise those 
complements, which I have had the opportunity of drawing from an 
inspection of the MS. sources in Paris, London, and Oxford, — com- 
plements which will refer to the relation of the first Veda to the re- 
maining collections of hymns, and to its Indian compilation, and which, 
— so far as our researches must be based upon indigenous preparator 
ry labours also, — could be communicated in no more fitting quarter 
than in a learned circle which has set itself for its task the investiga- 
tion of the East. For according to my conviction no more essential 
service could be rendered to the history of the ancient east, perhaps to 
the whole of ancient history, than to make known and exactly investi- 
gate the Vedic writings. 

The well-known definition of the difference between Mantra and 
Brahmana, — which is found in all possible writings explanatory of the 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 815 

Veda, and is amply handled in the Mimansa, and according to which 
the Mantra is commonly metrical and an invocation, while the Brah- 
mana is mostly prose, and consists of practical religious precepts, — 
this definition denotes also the fundamental division of the Vedic books. 
They sever themselves into collections of hymns, and liturgical works. 
That the former, not only in their origin but also in their collection, 
are more ancient than the latter, so long as no proofs appear to the 
contrary (and I have been able to find none) we may, I believe, regard 
as settled. 

But among the five Vedic books which are called Sanhita, there are 
only four hymn-collections. The fifth, the Taittiriya Sanhita, which 
is regarded as a principal part of the Yujur Veda, is a liturgical book, 
which may occupy the same place in respect of this Veda, as the Aiti- 
reya Brahmana fills for the Rig Veda. (It is also called Taittireya 

Among these four collections of hymns that of the Rik has the most 
considerable compass ; and may amount in all to near eleven thousand 
verses. The Atharva hymns are nearly as numerous. The Vaja- 
saneya Sanhita, (of the Yajur Veda) may amount to half the extent of 
the Atharva, and the Sama Sanhita to half the Vajasaneya. Hence 
would result for the four collections united the number of about 30,000 

Colebrooke has remarked here and there in his treatises that whole 
hymns, strophes, or single verses of one Veda are again found in 
another, or in all the rest, without however giving any more exact 
determination of the matter. But it appears to me important to be 
able to estimate the total extent of the old poems which have come 
down to us in the Vedas, and their distribution in the single collec- 
tions, for from this point the first step must be taken towards a deter- 
mination of the reciprocal relation of the different Vedas. The infor- 
mation I can supply on this point is as follows : — 

The Sanhita of the Sama Veda is, according to the testimony of the 
Indian commentators, (e. g. of Sayana, in the introduction to his expla- 
nation of the Rik,) completely contained in the first Veda (the Rik), i. e. 
the single verses of the Sama, are repeated in the connexion of the 
hymns of the Rik. Some very rare exceptions of verses, however, 
occur, which the Rik does not contain. The references to particulars 

816 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

will be fully given in Dr. T. H. Benfey's edition of this Sanhita, for 
which we are now looking. 

The Vajasaneya Sanhita of the Yajush, on the contrary, embraces a 
number of sections which are peculiar to it. From an inspection of 
several parts of this book, for which however I had but slender assist- 
ance from commentaries or similar works, it appears to me that perhaps 
the half of the whole recurs in the Bik. The other half consists in 
great part of sacrificial formulas, e. g. the Swaha repeated hundreds of 
times, and perhaps only a fourth of the whole consists of fragments of 
songs or invocations in prose, peculiar to this collection. 

It is more difficult for me to give similar specifications in regard to 
the Atharva, for as we generally see it treated in a step-mother-like 
fashion so has it also found no commentator, and the only assistance 
which I have been able to obtain is a carelessly-made copy of the 
Anukramani of this Veda, which pays much more attention to the 
metres of the single verses, than to other points of information. Ex- 
cepting the names of gods, I find only Atharva, and Bhrigu Angiras 
named as Rishis, or composers of hymns, though not only strophes but 
whole hymns of from 30 to 40 verses, which in the Rik have their 
author specified, are received into the Atharva. It is however easy to 
perceive that this Veda contains far more pieces peculiar to itself, than 
the Vajasaneye, and that what is common to it, with the Rik Sanhita is 
limited to perhaps a third part of its extent. 

The important question which must connect itself with this determi- 
nation of the external relation of the four collections of hymns, is this : 
has each of the Sanhitas an independent origin of its own ? are they 
in part borrowed from each other ? or finally, is one of them, — and it 
could be no other than the Rik, — to be regarded as the source of 
the rest ? A sufficient answer to these questions will of course be 
only then possible, when we shall have in detail before us not only the 
contents of each Veda, but also the variations in the several texts, 
which in many cases, are very material. A general representation may 
however even now be derived from the difference in the arrangement 
which is followed in these collections, and I may therefore be permitted 
to enter further into this point. 

In reference to the use of the Rig Veda, we must not allow ourselves 
to be deceived by the arrangement of the MSS. as they now lie before 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 81/ 

us without exception. The division which they present is notoriously 
a mere external, uniform separation into eight parts (Ashtaka), next 
of these into eight sub-divisions (Adhyaya, lectures,) and lastly into 
sections (Varga) of five verses each. We might from this believe that 
we had before us an unarranged aggregate of songs, distributed in this 
manner only on account of an external point of coherence. But along 
with this division there exists an entirely different one, as we now know 
it principally from Sayana's commentary. This arrangement has for 
its largest section the Mandala, (circle, book,) within that the Anuvaka, 
(chapter,) with a number of hymns, (sukta,) which again are parted 
into their distichs (rich.) 

This division into ten Mandalas is beyond all doubt the original one, 
fixed by the collector of these hymns as it has come down to us. 
Hymns which were ascribed by tradition to the same author or the 
same family, or hymns which belong to the like sacrificial ceremony, 
as the Soma-hymns of the 9th Mandala, are here united in one section, 
without regard to their outward extent. 

The first mentioned division (into Ashtakas) on the contrary appears 
to have its ground in the need of sections of uniform size for the use 
of the Veda in the schools. In the 15th section of the Pratisakhya 
Sutras ascribed to Saunaka, there is found a collection of rules for the 
reading of the Veda in teaching, which appear to have reference to 
this point. The teacher recited two or three distichs, according to the 
length or shortness of the aggregates of verses (hymns), which were 
repeated by the scholars in order. One such portion is called prasna 
(question,) and sixty or more of these, says the Sutra, i. e. about one 
hundred and fifty verses, compose an Adhyaya, a lesson of the Veda, 
which is at the same time the quantity actually read in the school. 

Besides that it would be absurd, where a real division of the matter 
exists, to regard one which is merely formal as the original one, we 
have the proof for the greater antiquity of the Mandala-division in the 
modes of speech employed by the oldest interpreter of the Veda. The 
Nirukta names the Rig Veda in several places, and always with the 
designation Dasatayya, the ten parts. The same mode of designation 
is found in the Pratisakhya Sutras, which are older than the Nirukta, 
in the commentary on the latter, and in a number of other books. 
The Anukramanika of the Rik also has this division, although in the 

818 On the History and Literature of the Veda, [Aug. 

MSS. it is externally separated into Ashtakas. Hence it results that 
it would be unnatural to make any other division than that into ten 
Mandalas the basis of a future edition of this Sanhita,* For in what- 
ever way criticism may decide in detail on the historical value of the 
tradition touching the authors of the Vedic hymns, still this tradition 
has been held authoritative by the collector and by the oldest interpre- 
ters of the Veda, and it may moreover be proved from the affinity of 
the representations and of the language that, in the present recension 
of the Veda, those sets of hymns are mostly arranged together, which 
must have had a common origin, and possibly may have been previously 
united in particular collections. 

In the Mandala itself again there exists an arrangement. It may in 
most cases he shown why the hymns are given in this determined 
sequence. That a regard to their ritual import had its effect, is evi- 
dent, but it was allied with the main principle of each division, viz. to 
place together what was homogeneous. Hymns addressed to Agni 
follow each other, and generally occupy the first place in the several 
books, then the hymns to Indra, and so on. This however is not 
carried so far, as that we can assume the collection to have been made 
for liturgical ends. The Rig Veda even contains hymns and parts of 
hymns, which the commentator, though very scrupulous in this matter, 
cannot assign to any religious observance. I rather believe than one 
can with full reason call the Rik the historical Veda. And its collection 
is a wonderful work, which attests the scientific perception of this peo- 
ple in an age which, — as I shall be able to show further on, reaches far 
above the age of the collection of the Homeric songs. There are united 
here more than a thousand of those sacred songs, with which the 
forefathers dwelling on the banks of the five streams supplicated 
prosperity for themselves and their flocks, greeted the rising dawn, 
sang the fight of the lightning- wielding god with the gloomy power, 
and celebrated the help of the celestials who had delivered them in 
their battles. And these songs are collected, not, perhaps, because 
the religious worship had occasion for them in this manner, but the 
whole treasure of this ancient poetry was to be here preserved uncur- 

* Rosen has indeed, on external considerations, published the first Ashtaka ; the entire 
first Mandala would have been too extensive for him, for it contains 190 hymns, and 
reaches nearly to the end of the second Ashtaka. 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 819 

tailed and well arranged. We should moreover deceive ourselves were 
we to believe that the Veda contains exclusively religious songs ; a 
number of pieces have found their way into it, which have no reference 
to the worship of the gods. 

In the tenth Mandala, e. g. in which a dice-player laments deeply 
his ruinous propensity, which against his best resolutions, seduces him 
again continually into new sin. Another piece in the seventh Mandala, 
ascribed to Vasishtha (of which Colebrooke has already given a passing 
notice) describes in a sportive way the revival of the frogs at the 
beginning of the rainy season, and compares their quacking with the 
singing of Brahma at a sacrifice. A very frequent form of hymn 
(of which examples are wanting in the part of the Rik already made 
public) is the dialogistic, — conversations of the gods among themselves, 
or of a god with a Rishi. In the fourth Mandala, e. g. Vamadeva 
speaks with Indra, and mocks him, " What can Indra forbid me ? no 
one regards him either of the living, or of those who shall be born." 
As to these and similar pieces the interpreters are at a loss how to 
assign the Rishi and the Devata, (i. e. the inspired author and the god 
invoked ;) but in the song of the gamester (abovementioned) they 
have preferred making the dice the deity (devata) rather than give up 
these unbending terms. But the less these remnants of ancient poetry 
are suited to the established frames of liturgical forms, the more worthy 
they undoubtedly are of our observation ; and a representation of the 
most ancient circumstances of the people, and the character of this 
literature may in many respects be more easily acquired from these 
hymus, than from those constructed in more regular form. Yet I will 
not assert that these pieces belong to the oldest of all ; on the contrary, 
the most of them bear plain traces of a later origin. 

The Sanhita of the Rig Veda thus claims to give the hymns com- 
plete, just as the Rishi has spoken, — or according to the expression of 
the interpreter, — has seen them. Not so the collections of the Sama, 
and the Vajasaneya Yajush. Both give single verses or single strophes, 
which do not at all necessarily stand in any internal connexion with 
each other, but only receive such connexion through the ritual which 
they accompany. In the Sama I believe I have remarked besides, 
that not only the metre, which in virtue of its connexion with melody 
began very early to play an important part in sacrificial rites, but even 

5 o 

#20 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

the accidental occurrence of the same or like-sounding words has fre- 
quently had an influence on the sequence of single verses. That the 
first principle of arrangement in both these Vedas is a liturgical one, 
needs no confirmation, and the most important thing which can be 
performed for either consists in the indication of this more or less loose 
connexion of the text with the ceremonial. An explanation of this 
principle, however, such as we demand, must necessarily go back to 
the connexion of the passages, i. e. to the'Rik. Thus both (the Sama 
and the Yajush) properly call for illustration in those points only where 
they depart from the first Veda. 

For even were we to take up again the enquiry abovementioned 
into the relation between these three collections in respect of their 
origin, — for even were we to assume that the Sama and Yajush, or 
one of them, had been compiled earlier than the Rik Sanhita, still we 
shall not be able to deny that the hymns contained in the latter (the 
Rik) are the same from which those pieces (i. e. those contained in 
the Sama and Yajush) were taken ; we shall not be able to invert the 
relation so far as to hold the hymns of the Rik for mere deckings-out, 
amplifications of the ritual fragments. For the latter, as we find them 
in both of those collections, have no independent significance, they are 
taken away from a connexion, and in the former the shell would be of 
more importance than the kernel. 

The assumption of a priority in the collection of the liturgical Vedas 
would however have in it nothing at all improbable. It is rather the 
natural course that the immediate want is first satisfied, before one 
arrives at the derivative one. These fragments were collected, as they 
were in use in religious worship, — remnants of complete songs, which 
had acquired importance for religious services before other portions of 
those hymns, — these, (I say) were collected because they were wanted 
for the regulation of the ritual, which in the sequel was to grow up 
into so huge a system. It was only in the second place that the 
collection of the complete hymns on which the ritual was based, was 
arrived at ; and since those parts of hymns which the Sama and 
Yajush contain were already guarded from alterations by writing and 
by their liturgical importance ; whilst the undivided song existing as 
yet perhaps only in recollection, or scattered here and there, and as 
not immediately pertaining to sacred offices, was also less scrupulously 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 821 

preserved, — it would be easily explicable if both those Sanhitas con- 
tained variations of the text, which as regards the passages concerned 
are older than the text of the Rik. We may even go further and 
grant that as the compilation of the Rik already in a certain sense 
rests upon a scientific want, so science also after the manner of ancient 
and modern times wished to do too much, that men had allowed them- 
selves improvements and sought to restore uniformity, and that thus 
we had before us in the Rik a conscious retouching. Certain traces 
testify at least to external fusions ; and although I cannot believe that 
the compiler of the Rik would have allowed himself to make essential 
and extensive alterations, yet I could not venture to pronounce against 
the assumption of a retouching, before we have before us the bulk of the 
textual variations of the Sama, at least, which are far more important 
than those of the Vajasaneye (Yajush). The above mentioned edition 
of that Veda will give the amplest information on this point. 

As regards the Atharva, the question above proposed appears to be 
more easily decided. This collection contains, not single unconnected 
verses, but complete hymns, and has a real arrangement, (i. e. one 
depending on things, not merely formal.) In this respect it is like the 
Rik, and can really be called a complement of the first Veda, a com- 
plement meant to embrace the hymnologic productions of its time, 
when the mantra was already no longer an expression of immediate 
religious feeling, but had become a formula of incantation. This Veda 
therefore contains especially sentences intended to guard against de- 
structive operations of the divine powers, against sickness and noxious 
animals, imprecations on enemies, invocations of healing herbs, and for 
all manner of occurrences in ordinary life, for protection in travelling, 
luck in play, and such like things. In the pieces which are common 
to it (the Atharva) with the Rik, it allows itself a great number of 
transpositions and alterations, which besides in most cases appear to be 
arbitrary. The language in those sections which are peculiar to it, 
approaches the flowing expression of later times, but has withal the 
grammatical forms of the older songs. Between it and the Rik there 
exists, further the peculiar relation, that the latter also towards the 
conclusion (in the last Animika of the tenth Mandala) contains a con- 
siderable number of sections which bear completely the character of 
the Atharva-hyums, and arc also actually found repeated in this Veda. 

5 o 2 

822 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug, 

Besides these general tokens of a later origin of this Veda, we find 
yet further a number of particular marks among which I here adduce 
one. The hymns of the Rik variously celebrate the deliverances, which 
Indra, the Aswins, and other gods had vouchsafed to the forefathers. 
All the names of the persons so delivered, however, lie beyond the 
time of the author himself, and one seldom meets with the name of a 
Vedic Rishi. But in the fourth book of the Atharva there is found 
e. g. a hymn which invokes Mitra and Varuna to preserve the suppliant, 
as they had preserved — not Dadhyach, Rebha, Pedu, and others, but 
Jamadagni, Vasishtha, Medhatithi, Purumilha, &c, all names of men 
whom tradition makes to be authors of the hymns of the Rig- 

It thus appears, from all that has been said, to admit of no doubt 
that the Atharva has not only been later collected than the Rik, but 
has also a later origin, and in both together we have before us the 
mass of the hymns of two periods. To understand these in their whole 
compass, must clearly be the first thing which we can do in this pro- 
vince ; and a recension of both these Vedas should therefore precede 
the investigation of the liturgical system, from which only, again, the 
Sama and Vajasaneye can receive light. It is impossible to master 
perfectly the practical religious writings, the Brahmanas, and what is 
connected with them without a knowledge of the text of the hymns, 
round which the whole ritual ranges itself; while, on the other hand, 
we cannot hope to be esssentially advanced in the historical understand- 
ing of the ancient poems by means of a liturature which has for that 
text only a stiffened sense, determined by the ritual. What we shall 
take from this literature is the explanation of single liturgical repre- 
sentations which are found already in the hymns. The whole system 
of worship is however in itself a very important object of investigation, 
and well worth the labour which its explanation will cost. The number 
of writings pertaining to this subject is extraordinary. All the Brah- 
manas, a great number of Upanishads, and the numerous Srauta and 
Grihya Sutras lie within the circle of these investigations. 

In order now to give an account of how the Veda has come down to 
us, and of what has been done for the Rig Veda in particular by indi- 
genous grammar and interpretation, I must speak of a class of writings, 
which to my knowledge have not yet formed the subject of discourse 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 823 

in Indian literature, but which deserve in a high degree to be introduced 
into view, — the Pratisakhya Sutras. 

I have found out three writings under this title. That of greatest 
extent and importance is ascribed to Saunaka, and consists of eighteen 
patalas. A second book bears the name of Katyayana (the same 
without doubt who is named as the author of the Anukramani to the 
Rik and to the Vajasaneye Sanhita,) and numbers eight adhyayas. 
Finally, a third Pratisakhya is as yet without a (discoverable) author. 
The beginning of the text, as well as the commentary, which without 
doubt would have given some notice of the author, or the school, is 
wanting in the only MS. of this work which I have found at Oxford. 
I have but lately learnt that there are several writings of this name in 
the Berlin collection, and have as yet been able to procure no informa- 
tion respecting them. I conclude however from the statement of the 
extent of the Berlin MS. that none of them can be the Pratisakhya 
ascribed to Saunaka, the most important among the three. If the 
remark made on two Nos., viz. that they consist of three chapters, be 
correct, we shall find here yet a fourth Pratisakhya. 

I must thus in my account confine myself to what I have been able 
to learn from the explanatory works as yet at my command, which, for 
the second and third of these books, are very imperfect. These wait- 
ings contain rules on the elementary part of general, but particularly 
Vedic Grammar, on the accent, on Sandhi, on the permutation of 
sounds, (e. g. the nati, change of dentals into cerebrals,) on the length- 
ening of the vowels in the Veda, (pluti) on pronunciation, on the 
various pathas of the Veda, &c. The first Pratisakhya contains besides 
a section on metre, which is far more valuable for the Veda, than the 
utterly unimportant book Chhandas, included in the Vedanga. 

That the common denomination of these writings, Pratisakhya- 
Sutrani, cannot be the original one, results from the signification of the 
word ; "grammatical aphorisms, current in single Sakhas or schools." 
In a commentary on Gobhilas Srauta-Stitras, one of them is designated 
as Madhyandina-Sakhiya Pratisakhya, i. e. as a collection of those 
aphorisms which the well known Vedic schoool of Madhyandina follow- 
ed. But I conclude from a passage in the first book of the Nirukta, 
as well as from the introduction and the subscriptions to the chapters 
of the first Pratisakhya, that these books were at an earlier period 

824 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

called Piirshada, 1. e. "what is received from, or belongs to, the assem- 
bly," and to this appellation would be joined the particular designation 
of the school, thus Madhyandina-parshada, &c. The same passage of 
the Nirukta also shows that these books are older than Yaska, and 
that they were known by him as manuals of the different schools of 
grammarians (Karana.) In order to arrive at an approximative deter- 
mination of time, let us now assume, — according to the current and 
tolerably well established view, — the year 350 B. C. as the date of 
Panini, let us further set Yaska only 50 years earlier, and we then have 
the end of the 5th century B. C. as the age of the latter. Since now 
Yaska is acquainted with the Pratisakhyas, these must have been 
already composed and recognized as an authority in the 5th century 
B. C. These books, themselves, again, recognize a great number of 
still older grammarians (in all about thirty names) and even schools. 
These must therefore be assigned to the beginning of the 5th or end 
of the 6th century B. C. 

In order to extend my demonstrations from this point, I must men- 
tion the various modes of writing the Vedas, the Pathas. Of these, 
according to the representation of the Pratisakhya, there are three, the 
Sanhita-patha, the Pada-patha, and the Krama-patha. Sanhita-patha 
means the natural mode of writing, with observation of the rules of 
Sandhi. The Pada-patha which separates single words, and compara- 
tively speaking parts of words (elements of a compound word,) is 
sufficiently known by means of Rosen's edition. The Krama-patha, 
of which we have as yet no printed specimen, is twofold, the letter 
krama, and the word krama (varna-krama, and pada-krama) ; the 
former always doubles the first consonant of a group of consonants 
(most MSS. of the Vajasaneyi are written in this way) : the word 
krama takes two words of the sentence together, and always repeats the 
second of them with a following one. In this Patha itself again a 
number of changes may take place, which I here pass over. 

We know further the inventors of these modes of writing. Sakalya 
is named by Yaska as the author of the Pada-patha, (at least for the 
llig Veda) and other accounts which we have of him in the Pratisakhya 
and even in Panini, do not contradict this statement. This gramma- 
rian and his school appear to have had a great influence generally on 
the conformation of the Veda, at least of the Rik. The orthography of 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 825 

the MSS., as it has come down to us, and as it is fixed in the Prati- 
sakhya, even to the minutest particulars, is principally that of that 
teacher, and the Anukramani of the Rik ascribed to Katyayana, calls 
the Sanhita, of which it is the index, i. e. the Rik Sanhita such as we 
now have it, Sakalaka Rig Vedamnaya, i. e. the redaction of the Rig 
Veda which has come down to us from Sakalya's school. Further 
researches may without doubt add more materials on this subject, and 
place yet more fully in the light the remarkable circumstance of the 
various redactions of the Veda in remote antiquity. Only we must, 
in this matter, beware of giving too much credence to the statements 
of the Puranas, which give us accounts of all possible Sakhas (schools 
or divisions) of this and that Veda. The numerous citations in older 
writings, even in the books which pertain to the liturgy of the Veda, 
will instruct us far more surely on these points. 

In regard to the third mode of writing the Veda, the Krama-patha, 
we know at least by a statement in the first Pratisakhya, that the 
word krama, in its simplest form, derives its origin from Panchala, the 
son of Babhru, (whom I have found named in no other place.) 

It is easily seen that these different ways of writing the Veda, can 
have no other foundation than the securest possible preservation of the 
text, in a certain degree they also already aim at its explanation. The 
last named krama is nothing else than the introduction of the pada- 
patha into the Sanhita-patha itself ; each word appears first in its pada- 
form, and then in its connexion with the whole sentence. 

But it will now be conceded that measures, thus carefully sought 
out, for the fixation of a text could not have been hit upon by its 
author, or even by a compiler, but must belong to a period for which 
this text was already something completely fixed, to which it was an 
object of study, and indeed the most careful, yea, minute study, and 
had even become a subject of controversy in the schools, (all of which 
can be established from the Pratisakhya,) — in a word, to a period 
which was no longer certain of the sense of the Veda, and had to guard 
it, at least externally, by exact regulation of reading and writing, against 
the alterations of misunderstandins;. 


Supposing that we have found above that the teachers who arc 
named in the Pratisakhya as compilers of the Veda, Sakalya and others, 
must at least fall at the beginning of the 5th or the close of the 6th 

S26 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug, 

century before our era, then we may conclude from the nature of that 
which they have done for the Veda, that several generations must have 
elapsed between the collection of those texts and them, and that conse- 
quently this collection cannot fall later than the 7th century. By what 
probable interval, again, the origin of these songs may have been 
separated from their collection, is a question which we shall never be 
able to answer with certainly, but to the solution of which we mav 
approach tolerably near by means of the share which the compiler has 
had in producing the present form of the Veda, while this share itself 
will be on the one hand disclosed to us by the internal marks of the 
text itself, and on the other by a comparison of the Sama and the Va- 

How closely all these questions touching the Veda are connected 
with the history of the Grammar so remarkable for its high antiquity, 
appears from what has been said above. The Veda was the first object 
on which it exercised itself; and thus there lie in it united in their germ 
those sciences which at a later period diverged from each other, viz. the 
explanation of the Veda, and general grammar, of which for us the 
oldest representatives (who stand equally high in Indian literature) are 
Yaska and Panini. 

To the former the Naighantuka, and Nirukta, the sources of all later 
exegesis are ascribed. That both these are immediately connected 
admits of no doubt, but I believe that the Naighantuka is older than 
the Nirukta : the proofs of which I must reserve for another place. 
Thus Yaska, if the Nirukta belongs to him, could not be also the 
author of the Naighantuka. The last named little writing is in its 
first part a Vedic vocabulary, in the second, a collection of the more 
difficult or unusual words, taken from the text of the Veda, and ranged 
together without any alteration or explanation. The third part is a 
collection of the whole of the names of the gods according to their three 
domains (sthana) earth, air and heaven. The Nirukta itself is nothing 
else than an explanation of the Naighantuka (hence, too, its name) to 
the citations of which it adds the passages of the texts, and comments 
on them. 

People have been hitherto inclined to attribute a very high antiquity 
to the Nirukta. That it belongs to the oldest part of Indian literature 
that we possess excepting the Vedic writings, is not to be doubted ; it 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 827 

shows however, by its contents that it belongs to an already far advanced 
period of grammar and interpretation. That however it is older than 
Panini, we may conclude from the less developed state, particularly of 
the technical part of grammatical science in the Nirukta. For along 
with a certain richness of grammatical expressions, it still wants the 
greater part of those peculiar technical terms, of which it is not credible 
that they were wholly Panini' s own creation. Yaska is entirely ignorant 
of algebraical symbols such as Panini has. That the latter makes no 
mention of Yaska, though he had in many places an opportunity of doing 
so, can no longer strike us now that we know so large a number of 
decidedly older grammarians of whom he makes no mention ; and 
would at most show that in Panini's time this book did not yet enjoy 
that general circulation and esteem, to which it latterly attained. The 
introduction to the Nirukta, very remarkable in many respects, which 
contains the sketch of a grammatical and exegetical system, makes us 
acquainted with the views of Yaska and his predecessors, and it is in 
this way possible for us to institute a complete comparison between 
these older grammarians and Panini. For this I believe I mav be 
permitted to refer to the edition and explanation of the Nirukta, which 
I think of sending to the press without delay. Let me only be allowed 
to examine somewhat more closely one section of that introduction, 
which is calculated to throw light on the age of the Veda, and of its 

Yaska mentions the opinion of the Grammarian Kautsa that the 
songs of the Veda are inaccessible to grammatical and logical interpre- 
tations ; for their sense, says Kautsa, is fixed by the Brahmanas and by 
the use of the hymns in the ritual, and thus forbid a free explanation. 
The hymns, says he further, even contain what is absurd and impossible ; 
they contradict themselves, when e. g. they say " There is but one 
Rudra and no second ;" and again " numberless are the thousands of 
Rudras on the earth ;" finally they contain, Kautsa thinks, passages 
completely unintelligible. To the last reproach Yaska replies, it is not 
the fault of the beam, if the blind man does not see it, but of the man ; 
and tries to refute or explain the rest in detail. That the sense of the 
hymns is determined by their ritual signification, as the latter is taught 
m the Brahmanas is (he thinks) by no means a fault, since these books 
give the correct meaning. Yaska (as is further clear from a number 

o p 

828 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

of other passages of the Nirukta) and before him Kautsa, had thus 
already before them the whole system of the ritual, and the exactly 
regulated application of the Vedic texts in religious services ; they were 
acquainted with a number of the fundamental works of the Kalpa, of 
the Brahmanas ; and the rationalistic Kautsa could count the Veda 
senseless and the Brahmanas as false representations. A conclusion 
may hence be drawn as to the length of time* which must lie between 
this grammarian and the Brahmanas ; and as to what further period 
again must intervene between these liturgical writings and the Veda, 
which they explain allegorically and mystically, and recognize as already 
collected and arranged in the way in which it has come down to us ; 
of which, e. g. the Aitareya Brahmana gives the most numerous 
proofs, f 

By means of Buddhism we have, from quite a different side, a proof, 
which chimes in with the above, for the antiquity of the scientific treat- 
ment of the Veda, and the extended development of the ritual ; and I 
mention this only to show how that which we discover through the 
serial sequence of the Vedic writings, is confirmed through what is as 
yet the most certain historical channel. Sakyamuni comes as the pro- 
claimer of a new religious truth, by which the limits of the way of 
salvation, the mass of the brahmanical institutions are torn down. His 
doctrine is a refuge even for Brahmans, who were unable to encounter 
the difficulties of their own complicated system 4 If Buddhism could 
have such an importance in the 6th or 5th century B. C, then must 
that entire edifice of worship and ceremonies, which is based on the 
practical part of the Veda, the Brahmanas, have been long before erected. 

* This appears to be the place to which Note 6, which has been translated below 
refers. The figure of reference, however is not in the text. 

+ Let me be allowed to remark here by the way on the Aitareya Brahmana, that this 
book, which is the highest degree remarkable not only for its liturgical contents, but also, 
for a mass of historical notices and legends, and on which we have a most excellent 
commentary of Sayana, is being prepared for publication by my friend Dr. C. Rieu. 
It is certainly one of the oldest writings of this kind, and its explanation will form the 
basis of our knowledge of the ritual. 

% E. Burnouf, Introduction a l'histoire du Bouddhisme, p. 196. II est avere pour 
nous, que la doctrine du Cakja etail devenue probablement assez vite une sorte de devo- 
tion aisee, qui recrutait parmi ceux, qu'effrayaient les difficultes de la science brahmani- 
que. En meme temps que le Bouddhisme attirait a lui les Brahmans ignorants, il 
accueillait avec un empresscment egal les pauvres des toutes conditions, etc. 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 829 

These books themselves are the oldest commentaries of the Veda, and 
bear witness to the existence of a grammatical science, which therefore 
must have preceded Buddhism also. 

Near and immediately after the Brahmanas, there may, yet further, 
have existed a proper and independent interpretation of the Veda, but 
this has been without doubt confined to the more difficult and import- 
ant passages ; and the Naighantuka may have been a collection of 
such sections, as used especially to be explained in the schools. Con- 
tinuous commentaries probably did not then exist ; and that of Ma- 
dhava and Sayana, composed in the middle of the 14th century of our 
era is indeed the first and only complete gloss of the Rig Veda. From 
the long series of centuries which lie between Yaska and Sayana but 
few remnants of an interpretative literature connected with the first 
Veda have remained to us, or at least have as yet been discovered. 
Sankara and the Vedantic school had turned chiefly to the Upanishads. 
Nevertheless a scholar of Sankara, Anandatirtha, has composed a gloss 
on one part of the Rig Veda, at least an explanation of which by Jaya- 
tirtha, embracing the 2nd and 3rd Adhyayas of the 1st Ashtaka is 
to be found in the library of the East India House in London. The 
mode of explanation is essentially the same as we have in Sayana, only 
we can frequently reproach it with a still more violent treatment of 
the text. Sayana himself, who is not always scrupulous in stating his 
sources, besides the Niruktatika of Durga, a fundamental book which 
has been preserved to us, cites also Bhattabkashara Misra, and Bhara- 
taswami as interpreters of the Veda. Of the former I have seen at 
least a commentary on a section of the Yajur Veda, on which he appears 
to have given a complete comment. Sayana' s citations do not by any 
means necessarily show that he has given any explanation of the Rik. 

Finally, Sayana' s commentary itself, which is already in some measure 
known by Rosen's extracts will always remain our principal source for 
the interpretation of the Veda, as well as a mine for the history of the 
literature generally. It belongs, it is true, to a period in which Vedic 
studies were but artificially revived, and to the range of whose view 
that ancient literature lay so far off that we cannot conceive it to have 
been distinctly understood ; — it is entirely dependent on what is more 
ancient, and especially makes the most extensive use of the Nirukta 
and Naighantuka, but still it gives without doubt all which the iiulige- 

5 p 2 

830 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

nous literature of its time could furnish. As its completeness has had 
for us the unfortunate consequence of throwing into oblivion older 
writings of a similar purport, so have we also in it the most essential 
results of this earlier literature, and we could certainly desire nothing 
more important for the furtherance of Vedic studies than a complete 
knowledge of the Sanhita of the Rig Veda and its copious commentator. 
It affords me peculiar pleasure to be able to conclude with the 
announcement that such a work is being prepared in England. For it 
science will be indebted to Professor Wilson, the man whose industry 
has already opened the way in so many provinces of this literature, 
and who is daily rendering to these studies, the most essential services 
by the unsurpassable liberality with which he first has afforded access 
to the richest Indian library. Under his guidance it will become 
possible for younger powers, among whom, along with Dr. Trithen in 
London and Dr. Rieu of Geneva, I may reckon myself, to make ac- 
cessible to study these extensive materials for the explanation of the 


1. The Mandalas. — In the introduction to the Anukramanika of the 
Rigveda, chap. 2, it is written : atha rishaya : satarchina adye 
mandale, antye ksudrasukta, madhyameshu madhyama : (MS. 132, E. 
I. H.) that is, the authors of the hymns of the first Mandala are called 
authors of a hundred verses, those of the last, poets of the great and 
little hymn, and the authors of the intermediate Mandalas, the mediate. 
This explains Shaclgurusishya (No. 1823, E. I. H.) the commentator of 
this book, as follows : Adyamandalastha rishaya : satarchina iti sanjnita i 
(risa shatan chatarchan), To which the following verse belongs: 
dadarsadau Madhuchanda dwy-adhikan yad richan satan, 
tat-sahacharyad anye 'pi vijneyas tu satarchina. 

" Because Madhuchandas at the commencement (of the Rigveda) 
has composed 102 verses, (hymns 1 — 10) the others also who are placed 
along with him (in this Mandala) are called authors of a hundred verses." 
The name, however, appears to be owing to the circumstance, that the 
greater number of the Rishis, enumerated in the first book, are authors 
of about a hundred double-verses, for instance Suna : Kepha of 97, 
Kanwa of 96, Praskanwa of 82, Paruchepa of 100 double- verses. 

The name of the Rishis of the last or 10th Mandala is thus explained : 

18-1/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 831 

nasadasit-piirwan mahasuktan, paran kshudra-suktan, (tat.) sukta- 
darsitwad antye dasame mandale sthita rishaya : kshudrasuktamaha- 
sukta-namana : that is " What is antecedent to nasad asit, is called the 
great hymn (the collection of great hymns) what succeeds it, the little 
hymn." The hymn, as here alluded to, commences at the 1 1th Anuvaka 
of the 10th book. The hymns of the 10 first chapters are also called the 
great undoubtedly, but in distinction from the 63 very short hymns of 
the 11th and 12th chapters, which hymns moreover bear a peculiar 

The Rishis are all enumerated in the Grihyasutras of Aswalayana, 
book 3, ch. 4, (MS. 129, E. I. H.) on the occasion of the special 
kind of honour due to them in connexion with the perusal, as pre- 
scribed, of the sacred books (Swadhyaya). I quote here the whole 
passage; for although it probably does not originally belong- to these 
Sutras, yet it is important for our knowledge of the extent of the 
Vedic literature, and also of that which is held of the same authority, 
and it shows in a striking manner, how many works of this period are 
entirely unknown to us ! — " Atha rishaya : satarchino, madhyama Grit- 
samado, Yiswamitro, Vamadevo trir, Bharadwajo, Vasishta : Pragatha 
pavamanya: Ksudrasukta IVlahasukta iti, Prachinaviti Sumantu-Jaimini- 
Vaisampayana, Paila-sutra-bhashya, bharata-mahabharata-dhanna- 
charya Jananti-Barhavi, Garjya-Gautama-Sakalya, Babhravya, Man- 
d av y ai — Mandukeya, Gargi, Vachaknavi, Vadava, Pratitheyi, Sulabha, 
Maitreyi, Kaholan, Kaushitakan, Maha Kaushitakan, Paijyan, Maha- 
paijnan,* Sujajnan, Sankhyayanam, Aitareyan, Mahaitareyan, Sakalan, 
Bashkalan, Sujatavaktram, Audavahim, Mahandavahim, Saujamim, 
Saunakam, Aswalayanam, ye chanye acharyas, te sarve tripyantw iti. 

The divisions of the single Mandalas are as follow : 

1 . Mand. the Mandala of the Satarchina Rishis, containing in 24 
Anuvakas 191 Suktas (hymns) by Rishis of different families, includes 
Asht I. to II. adhyaya 5, varga 16. 

2. Mandala, the Mandala of Gritsamada. Ast. II. 5, 17 to 8, 12. 
4 iVnuvakas, 42 suktas (an. 1 sukt 4 — 7, are ascribed to Somahuti, the 
son of Bhrigu. Anuv. 3, 5 — 7, to Kurma, the son of Gritsamada, or to 
the latter himself.) 

* MS. 986 has the same reading-; but MS. 1839, E. .1. H. grive the eorrcet one. 
Painjyan, Mahapainjyam. 

832 On the History aud Literature of the Veda. [Aug, 

3. Maud. Viswamitra. Asht. II. 8, 13 to III. 4, 11—5 Anuv. 62 
sukt. (anuv. 5, sukt. 1 — 3 — are ascribed to Prajdpati, the son of Viswa- 
mitra, or of Vak (goddess of speech.) 

4. Mand. Vamadeva. Asht. III. 4, 12 to 5, 11.— 5 Anuv. 57 

5. Mand. Atri and Rishi of his tribe. Asht. III. 8, 12 to IV. 4, 
34 — 6 Anuv. 79 sukt. 

6. Mand. Bharadwaja. Asht. IV. 4, 39 to V. 1, 21—6 Anuv. 75 

7. Mand. Vasishtha. Asht. V. 1, 23 to 7, 9—6 Anuv. 104 
sukt. (Kumara, son of Agni or Vasishtha, is the author of anuv. 6 
sukt. 12 to 13). 

8. Mand. Asht. V. 7, 10 to VI. 7, 15— 10 anuv. 101 sukt. This 
was before mentioned under the name of Pragathas, according to the 
commentators a hymn, of which the uneven verses are bhrati, the even 
verses sato-brhati, that is to say, a hymn composed of verses of four 
lines, and of which the first line contains two padas of 8 syllables each, 
while the second, third and fourth lines are composed of a pada of 12, 
and another pada of 8 syllables. As this Mandala commences with a 
Pragatha of the kind, which is ascribed to. Pragatha, the son of Kanwa, 
and moreover contains some other hymns of the same Rishi, the name 
is probably a quibble on the two meanings of the word. The greater 
number of the Rishis belong to the family of Kanwa. 

9. Mand. Asht. VI. 7, 15, to VII. 5, 28— 7 anuv. 114 sukt. The 
Pavamanyas (probably richas) or according to the commentary of the 
Anukramanika pavamanan saumyan mandalam, hymns of purification. 
— The hymns of this book, for the greater part ascribed to the Agira- 
sides, refer without exception to the extracting and purification of the 
juice of the Soma-plant. 

10. Mand. Asht. VII. 5, 29 to the end. The Kshudrasuktas and 
Malmsuktas, 12 anuv. and 192 suktas. 

The name of the 9th Mandala, is found in Yaskas Nir, X. 2, tasya 
pavamanishn nidarsanayoda harishyama ; i| "to prove this we shall take 
an example from the pavamanyas ;" he then gives the quotation from 
the 9th Mandala. 

There is in this Veda something quite peculiar which is in connexion 
with the division above mentioned, and which to a certain degree may 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 833 

be considered to bear evidence to its (of the division's) authority, viz. 
the frequent introductions of more or less long episodes between 
the Anuvakas or Mandalas. We are justified in marking these epi- 
sodes, which generally are without accents, as additions, by the 
circumstance, that they are not found in the Anukramanika and Pada- 
patha. Nor are they in the division made according to Ashtakas ; 
that is to say, although occurring in the MSS. following this division, 
they are not taken heed of in the enumeration of Vargas and Adhya- 
yas, which is made according to a certain numerical arrangement, 
Agreeably to these authorities Sayana also omits them. That these 
additions, however, are not a new creation of the copyists, is evident 
from the fact, that the Nirukta already knows some of them, and in 
the very same places, where they now occur in our copies of the 
Veda. — I quote the more examples such as these, as this kind of critical 
examination of the text is undoubtedly the only one which we can make 
use of, with reference to the Veda ; for in the whole Sanhita of the 
Rigveda I have not met with a single passage, which, when compared 
with other MSS. or such books as the Nirukta, the Aitareya 
Brahmana, the Sutras of Aswalayana, which are full of quotations 
from the Veda, offer one single difference — a certainty of the text which 
is to be attributed to the early examination and authentication of 
the Veda. All variations, it appears, must be looked for previously to 
the recording of the hymns by writing and to the treatment of the 
same in the schools. All these differences are now limited only to the 
various readings of the text in the several collections of hymns. 

The two most careful copies of the Sanhitas which I examined, viz. 
Nos. 199 and 200 of the Devanagari MSS. in the Royal Library at 
Paris, and Nos. 129—132 of the E. J. II. (Cod. Colebr.) give between 
the third and fourth chapters of the 9th book (132 with the special 
title of Sukta) 20 verses, addressed to the Pavamanyas (the hymns of 
the Soma-purification) themselves, and for this reason they must be 
considered of later origin. This section is wanting in the Anukra- 
manika and in the text of Padas, although Yaska quotes the third Rig 
(Nir. V. 6.) 

At the close of the second Mandala (ascribed to Gritsamada) the 
two MSS. alluded to, give five verses (without accents in either, while 
the preceding and subsequent portions have accents) which bear a like- 

834 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

ncss to some of the Atharva hymns, and are evidently added to the two 
preceding hymns on account of the identity of the suhject. They are 
neither in the Padapatha and Anakramanika nor with Sayana. I quote 
them here to furnish an example of this later formal kind of poetry. 
1 . — bhadran vada dakshinato, bhadram uttarato vada I 

bhadran purastan no vada, bhadran paschat kapingalail 
2. — bhadran vada putrair bhadran vada griheshu eha | 

bhadran asmakan vada bhadran no abhayan vadan 
3. — bhadran adhastan no vada bhadram uparishtan no vadai 

bhadran bhadran na avada bhadran na : sarvato vada 1 1 
4. — asapatnan purastan na: sivan dakshinatas kridhi | 

abhayan satatan paschad bhadram uttarato grihe 1 1 
5. — yauvanani mahayasi jigyusham iva dundubhi : I 

sakuntaka pradakshinan satapatrabhi no vada l 
Yaska cites the first Rig of this Siikta (Nir. IX. 5), and expresslv 
ascribes it to Gritsamada ; he has, however, the various reading Kapin- 
jala. We observe, that what has been said about the absemet of various 
readings, does by no means apply to these additions ; to which the 
following quotation bears a further evidence.* Mand. VII. anuv. 6. 
at the conclusion of the hymn above alluded to, which is addressed to 
the frogs, we find a verse not enumerated in the Anukramanika, and 
also omitted in the Padapatha and in Sayana, which differs even in 
metre from the hymn to which it is added. In most of the MSS. it 
runs thus : 

upaplavada, manduki, varsham avada taduri I 

madhye hradasya plavaswa vigrihya satura : pada :f 
I have compared for this passage seven MSS., viz. those of Paris, 
Nos. 131, 2135, 1691, and No. 2379, of the E. I. II, and two MSS. from 
Oxford (without numbers.) With the exception of No. 2379, E. J. H., 
all of them give this verse. No. 1,621, E. I. II., and one of the Oxford 
MSS. mark it as Parisishtam (omitted) which is the common way 
of introducing an interpolation. It is ascribed by Yaska to Vasishta, 
and closely follows the first Rig of that hymn, to which it is also 
added in the Nirukta. The three MSS. of the Nirukta, compared 

* This passage, however, is only met with at the end of a Sukla, not of a Anuvaka. 
t Others read : upaplavata, upapravada, manduka, plavasya, paras. The more exact 
examination of this passage shall be made by me in the Nirutka. 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 835 

by me, offer the same variations. Now the identical verse occurs in a 
passage of the Atharvana Sanhita (IV. 15,14) in the same manner 
closely following the Rig, which is the commencement of Mand. VI. 
0", 14. (according to the Atharva, MSS. Nos. 1,137 and 682, E. J. 
H., as above, save upapravada.) It has therefore almost the appear- 
ance, as if Yaska had at the same time referred to either Veda, to the 
Atharva for the similarity of the connexion, and to the Rig for men- 
tioning Vasishta as author, and it is very probable, that the verse has 
found its way into the Rig, and into that very hymn in consequence of 
having been mixed up with fragments of the same (hymn) in the Athar- 
vana Sanhita. That in general a great number of such interpolations 
owes its origin to the Atharva, has been always my opinion, which we 
shall have the means of proving, after we know this Veda more exactly, 
although the examination of the same, in want of all Indian aids, 
requires an editor extensively read in Vedic literature.* 

Of a very different kind are additions, which occur only in one or 
the other of the MSS., and generally present all the colours of 
later poetry. Thus gives the Paris MS. a long hymn, addressed 
to Sri. The same MS. and No. 131, E. J. H., present at the end 
of Anuv. 3 of the 7th book an interpolation, bearing evidence to the 
worship of serpents. f 

An edition of the Riksanhita cannot of course reject such of these 
passages as are found in agreement with each other in the greater 
number of MSS., because they are undoubtedly interesting to us, 
and, as has been proved before, must have been introduced in a com- 
paratively remote period. On the other hand, the additions that occur 
only in one or the other MS. and are stamped with the decisive 
character of a later time, should at least not be taken into the text. 
The result which we arrive at relative to the history of the Vedic texts, 
from such scattered remarks as we have made, is perfectly consonant to 
the conclusion we derive from the Pratisakhya Sutras. It is evident, 

* To be complete, I give another example. The Bvihati, quoted in the Nirukta IX. 
29, a ratri parthivan etc. is interpolated at the end of Riksanh, M. X. 10, 15 (and does 
not even occur in No. 132 E. J. H.) 

t I found the same passage also in a Paris MS. of the title of Mantra Sanhita, 
chiefly giving parrallel passages from the Rig. (Erl. 94, 6) but am unfortunately 
unable to state, whether it follows the same hymn, to which it succeeds in the Rig, as I 
was at that time not aware, of the presence of this section in the Rig. 

5 a 

836 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug, 

that these texts at an ancient time were already perfectly authenticated, 
arranged and divided. None dared to alter them ; additions were ven- 
tured at only between the divisions. The Anukramanika, perhaps from 
time immemorial, protected the original text from coalescing with the 
additions of a later period. Although I am not as yet able to prove 
that Yaska knew this index to the Veda, yet I have not found any 
evidence to the contrary, and I do not hesitate to consider it more 
ancient than the Nirukta. 

It has been before incidentally mentioned, that the Ashtaka division 
goes along with the Anukramanika. As far as I know, they differ in 
a single instance only, — viz. the fourth Adhyaya of the 6th Ashtaka, 
as it now is found in the MSS., gives 54 Vargas, although it should 
according to the rule have only 30 to 35. Here then must be some- 
thing superfluous, which does not originally belong to the Ashtaka 
division. Which part is superadded, we may perceive for instance 
from Sayana's commentary, which agreeably to the other division, 
closes the 6th Anuvaka with the 15th Varga, and commences the 7th 
with the 32 (of the MSS., according to him the 14th.) The Vargas 14 
to 31 (of the MSS.) do therefore not originally belong to the Ash- 
taka division. The Anukramanika, on the other hand, enumerates 
them and gives also the names of their authors. They accordingly 
appear to have been included in the Mandala-division. To explain 
this deviation, it might be either supposed, that the enumeration 
of these 18 Vargas in the Anukramanika is spurious, which would 
be supported by the omission of the whole passage in the com- 
mentary of Shadgurusishya to the Anukramanika (according to two 
MSS. 1832 or 2396, E. J. H.) or it might be supposed, that at a 
later period these 18 Vargas were considered an independent section, 
consonant to itself, which might be separated from the collection of 
the hymns of the Rig. To this view refers the circumstance, that 
this passage, for instance in MS. 131, E. J. H., has the separate 
title Valakhilyam, (and it concludes with Valakhylyan samaptam) and 
the statement of Sayana in his commentary to the Aitareya Brahmana 
VI. 28 (where also, c. 24, a fabulous derivation of the word is given) 
Valakhilyakhyair munibhir drishta " abhi praityadike 'shtake sthita 
richo Valakhilyabhidha : I ta eva valakhilyakhye granthe samamnata : I 
ta: sarva Maitravaruna : sanset" (MS. 1836 E. J. C") 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 837 

" The verses, composed by the sages Valakhilya, which occur in the 
8 hymns commencing with abhi pra, are called Valakhilya. They are 
recorded in the book, called Valakhilyam. To recite all such hymns 
is the duty of the Maitravaruna" (a certain priest.) 

By this statement of Sayana some clue may perhaps be given, how 
the Rik-Sanhita can include some greater or lesser portions, which, hav- 
ing an independent existence and being already arranged in a certain 
succession, may among certain tribes have had an authority at the per- 
formance of some peculiar sacrificial ceremonies. Even the passage of 
the Aitareya Brahmana just mentioned notices a peculiar application of 
the Valakhilya in the sacrifice. 

2. The reading of the Veda in the School. 

I now give an extract from the 15th Patala of the first Pratisakhya 
(according to Dev. 203 Royal Libr. at Paris and 28 of the E. J. H.) 
This chapter treats on the Parayana, or reading of the Veda, and we 
learn from it, how the mode of recital, prescribed in the same, is exactly 
the same oral proceeding, which is performed in writing within the 
Pathas or modes of writing we shall further on more closely discuss. 

When the teacher has seated himself towards the East, the North and 
North-East, and has received the salutation from this disciples, he replies 
to them by an Om of 3 to 6 Matras, and then commences to recite the 
Veda. Two or more words having been recited by him, they are 
repeated by the disciple, sitting to his right, and afterwards by the 
others in succession. A Prasna thus completed is also repeated by all 
of them. Lastly the passage of the text is to be repeated in such a 
manner, that, as in the Padapatha, certain compounds are separated, 
and accompanied with the particles cha, gha, hi, va, and under certain 
conditions with iti, just as is the case with prepositions. 

A prasna, it is said, is a tricha (three verses) in the metre pankti a 
tricha or dwricha (two verses) in longer metres two and two verses. If 
a Siikta (hymn) is limited to one verse (of which the only instance is 
Asht. I. h. 99) it forms a Prasna. 

Ye (viz. prasna :) shashtir adhyaye upadhika va. u Of such ques- 
tions (or small sections) the lesson contains 60 or more." (vide supr.) 

3. The following fragments, which are moreover remarkable for 
the geographical names they contain, may be given as examples of 

5 Q 2 

838 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Afj0. 

the curious personifications, by which in the Atharv6da, animals, plants 
and even diseases are invoked. The passage is taken from K. V. 22, 
(according to the Paris MS. and No. 682 E. J. H.) 
Agnis takmanam apabadhatam ita : somo, grava, varuna : putadaksha : l 
vedir, barhi : samidha : sosuclmna apa dweshasy amuya bhavantu u 1 
ayan yo visvvan haritan krinoshy I uchchochayann agnir ivabhidunwan ) 
adha hi, takmann, araso hi bhiiya I adha jnann adharan va parehi || 2 

Oko asya Mujavanta, oko asya Mahavrisha : I 
Yavaj jatas, takmans, tavan asi Vahlikeshu nyochara : 5* 
takman, Mujavato, gacha, Vahlikan va parastanin I 
Sudram icha prabharoyan, tan takman, viva dhanuhi I 7 
Mahavrishan, Mujavato bandhv addhi paretya ! ** 
praitani takmane brumo anya-kshetrani va ima || 8 
Takman bhratra balasena swasra kasikaya saha l 
Pamna bhratrivyena saha gachamum aranan janan |l 12 
Gandharibhyo, Mujavabhyo, 'njebhyo, Magadhebhya : | 
praishyan janam iva sevadhim takmanan paridadmasi || 14 

1 . Agni, drive away from here Takman (may drive him away) Soma, 
the (sacrificial) stone, Varuna of pure strength, the fire-place, the 
sacred straw, the burning wood. Be away from here envious men. 

2. Thou who maketh yellow the whole body, who giveth pain like 
fire when burning upwards, thou, O Takman, nevertheless, lose thy 
power, pass by, moving downwards or from underneath. 

3. His house are the Mujavat, his house the Mahavrisha ; when- 
ever thou art born, O Takman, thou goest to the Vahlika. 

7. Goto the Mujavat, Takman, or to the distant Vahlika, desire 
the Siidra for nourishment. These, Takman, somewhat shake. 

8. Devour the Mahavrishas, the Mujavats, passing over from us ; 
we leave these or other foreign countries to Takman. 

12. Takman, with thy brother Balasa (dejection) with thy sister 
Kasika (cough) with thy brother's son Paman (itching) go to that 
foreign people. 

13. We give Takman as a messenger, as a treasure, to the Gan- 
dharis, the Mujavats, to the Angas and Magadhas. 

* I am unable to correct tlic g-nykaras after two MSS. No. 6B2 E, J. II. reads Vah- 
hkesha grvyokara : I the meaning, however, is evident. 

I847.J On the History and Literature of the Veda. 839 

It is evident, that under Takman some disease must be understood, 
but which, the passage does not define. K. V. 4 is invoked the medicinal 
herb Kushta, which grows on the Himavat, and is repeatedly called 
takmanasana (destroyer of Takman) ; according to Wilson kushta is 
the plant Costus speciosus. The variety in writing must undoubt- 
edly be ascribed to the MS., and as kushtha means also leprosis, 
and the plant probably has the name from its power to heal that dis- 
ease, takman, no doubt, signifies a similar cutaneous disease, to which 
the 2 rig alludes. 

To 5. I meet again with the Mujavats in the Vajasaneyasauhita 
III. 61 etat te Rudravasan tena paro Mujavata 'tihi I avatata-dhanwa 
pina kavasa : Krittivasa ahinsan na: sivo 'tihi 1 1 (according to No. 
2391, E. J. H.) " This is your travelling fare, Rudra ; with this pro- 
ceed further far to the Mujavats. With bow unbent ; the staff in 
hand, clothed with skins, without harming us, may he graciously pro- 
ceed on." Mahidhara explains the Mujavatas, as follows : Mujavan 
nama kachit parvato Rudrasya vamasthanam l ... mujavata : parva- 
tan pa : pabhagavarti (para : parabhagavarti) san, atikramya gacha : 
" Mujavat is the name of a mountain, the favourite abode of Rudra, &c. 
therefore proceed beyond the Mujavat mountains. " Durga, the com- 
mentator of the Nirukta (ap. I. C.) simply explains the word by 
parvatat, and consequently takes it as the ablative. According to Ni- 
rukta IX. 8, Mujavan is the same with parvata, and we find in Rik. 
X. 3, 5, 1, somasyeva maujavatasya bhaksha; as the enjoyment of the 
mountain-born Soma. The Mujavats are therefore mountaineers, and 
as they in V. 7, are mentioned in connexion with the Vahlikas, and V. 
14, in connexion with the Gandharis, we have to consider them 
mountainous tribes to the N. W. The Mahavrichas (magni libatores or 
validi progenitores) according to V. 5 and 8 must be assigned to the 
same countries. All agree, that the Vahlikas are a Bactrian nation. 
(Lassen, Zeitschrift II. p. 53 etc. Wilson, Vishnu P. p. 191.) 

Prabharvyan (681, E. J. H. reads, however, Prapharvyan) from 
bharvati, according to Naigh. II. 7, attikarma, consonantly to the 
Nirukta IX. 23, where we meet with the proper name of Subharva 
That we have under the name of Sudra not to think of the later caste, 
but of a nation of this name, appears to me beyond doubt, until the 
castes can be traced in the Vedic hymns. I am not aware of any such 

840 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

passage. (The Xndra or the Squdra of the cuneiform inscriptions of 
Persepolis cannot well be here expected) ; with Lassen we must consider 
them the 2i/8p<fo°» (or 'o^SpaKai) who appear to the N. W. of the Indus. 
See also Wilson's Vish. P. p. 195. 

12. The meaning of arana as foreign, distant, is authorized by the 
passages in the Rik. X. 5, 3, 16. Sa no ama so arane nipatu, she may 
protect us when near, she may protect us, when distant (in foreign parts, 
in and out of the house. Durga's Commentary on Nirukta. xi. 46.) Nir. 
III. 2. parishadyan hy aranasya rekno nityasya raya : pataya ; syama ; 
" for we must avoid foreign property, may we be lords of perpetual pro- 
perty" (Durga on Nir. III. 2, where there is the question of possess- 
ing children,arana-parakulajata. Sayana ad. I. without any reason anrina.) 

14. Lassen has at several places with full certainty assigned to 
the Gandharas the eastern Kabulistan as their original abode. From 
Vedic works I can only add, that the wool-clad sheep of the same 
were famous, according to Rig. I. 18, 6, 7. romasa Gandharinam 
ivavika, haired (woolly), like a sheep of the Gandharas. In the 
Aitareya Brahmana VII. 34, there appears Najnajit, the Gandhara, 
among those who have learnt from Parvata and Narada the knowledge 
of a certain ritual. From the nation of the Gandharas extending into 
the Punjaub it can be explained, that one of their princes appears 
among such as are under the protection of the Brahmanical worship, 
while the nation in the passage of the Atharva alluded to is counted 
among the foreign and distant nations. 

As the Anga, also in the poetry of a later period frequently referred 
to, must be supposed to have had their abodes on the Ganges about 
Bhagalpur, and the Magadhas in South Behar, we have in v. 14 two 
and two nations for the two frontiers in N. W. and S. E., consequently 
at the time of the composition of this hymn, the country of the Brah- 
manical worship appears to have been comprehended by these two ex- 
tremes, and the country beyond the river Sona (Sone) to have been 
considered not Indian . 

Sevadhi has not yet obtained in ancient Sanscrit the meaning 
of a treasure of Kuvera. Nir. II. 4, it is identified with nidhi, com- 
pare Rik. Asht. VI, 4, 19 sevadhipa. 

As an example of another kind of incantation the following verses 
may be considered. Ath Sanh, III. 2. 

1847.] On the History and Literature of the Veda, 841 

Mnnchami twa havisha jivanaya kam Ajnata jakshmad uta raja 

jakshmat l 
Grahir jagraha yady etad enam tasya Indragni pramumuktam enam |l 1 
Yadi kshitayur, yadi va pareto, yadi mrityor antikam nita eva i 
Tarn aharami nirriter upasthad asparsam enam sata saradaya 1 1 2 

1 . With this havish (sacrificial butter) I liberate thee for thy life, 
from the concealed consumption or from the pulmonal consumption ; 
when the attacker has attacked him, then liberate him from the same, 
Indra and Agni. 

2. If his life be consumed, or if he went already, or if he has been 
led near to death, then I will bring him back from the brink of death 
uninfested to a life of a 100 years. 

4. Atharvana Sanhita, K. IV. 29. (M. 682. E. J. H.) 
Manwe va Mitra-Varunav ritavridhau sachetasau druhvano jau nudethe | 
Pra satyavanam avatho bhareshu tan no munchatam anhasa : II 1 
Sachetasau druhvano jau nudethe pra Satiavanam avatho bhareshu | 
yav gachatho nrichakshasau babhru na sutan tau no ... . 1 1 2 
yau Angirasam avatho I jau Vasishthan tau no ... . II 3 
yau Syavashwam avatho, Vadhryaswan, Mitra-Varuna, Purumilham, 

Atrim I 
yau Vimadam avatha : Suptavadhrim tau no ... . n 4 
yau Bharadvajam avatho, yau Gavishthiran, Viswamitran, Varuna 

Mitra, Kutsan I 
yau Kakshivantam avatha : prota kanwan tau no ... . 1 1 5 
yau Medhatithim avatho, yau Trisokan, Mitra-Varunav, Usanam 

Kavyan yau I 
yau Gotamam avatha ; prota Mudgalan tau no ... . 1 1 6 
yayo ratha : satyavartma 'rjunasmir mithuya charantam abhiyati 

hrishayan l 
Stanmi Mitra- Varunau nathito johavimi tau no munchatam anhasa ll 7 

1 . My mind is directed to you, Mitra and Varuna, you that increase 
what is right, you of benevolent mind that repel all that is hostile, that 
protected Satyavan in his fights. Do liberate us from peril. 

2. You benevolent who repel the enemies, who protected Satiavan 
in his fights, who approach (for assistance) you guides of men, as the 
horses of Indra to the libation. — Do liberate, etc. 

842 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

3. AVho protected Angirasa, and Agasti, Mitra and Varuna, Jama- 
dagni and Atri, who protected Kasyapa and Vasihtha. Do liberate, etc. 

4. Who protected Syavashwa, Vadhryaswa, Mitra and Varuna, 
Purumilha, Atri, who protected Vimada, Saptavadhri. Do liberate, etc. 

5. Who protected Bharadvaja, Gavishthira, Viswamitra, Varuna, 
Mitra, Kutsa, who protected Kakshivat and Kanwa. Do liberate, etc. 

6. Who protected Medhatithi, Trisoka, Mitra, Varuna, Usana, 
the son of Kaviya, Gotama, Mudgala. Do, etc. 

7. The Chariot of whom running on the right road, with tight 
rein, overjoyed passes the racing. 

I praise you, Mitra and Varuna, I invoke you praying. 

I here give the proof, that the greater number of the persons, men- 
tioned in the hymn, are Vedic Rishis. 

Jamadagni is (according to the Anukramanika and other sources) 
author of VIII. 10, 8. IX. 3, 2, 3, 6. 3, 7, 6. IX, 7, 4, 6. X 10, 11, 
12, 16. 22. — Atri, author of several hymns in the 5th book, Kasyapa 
for I, 15, 6. VIII. 4, 9. IX. 3, 4. 3, 7, 2. 5, 6. 5. 7. 7, 4, 2. IX. 7, 
10. The whole 7th book and several parts of the 9th are ascribed to 
Vasishta. Syaswa (from Atris' family) V. 4, 8 to 5, 5. 5, 10. 6, 
9, and 10. VIII. 5, 5 to 8. IX. 2. 8. Purumilha (with Ajamitha, both 
sons of Suhotra) IV. 4, 1 1 and 12. VIII. 2, 8. Saptavadhri (from Atris' 
family) V, 6, 6. To Bharadwaja the greater number of the hymns 
of the 6th book is attributed, to Viswamitra the third book, Gavish- 
thira (with Buddhu) V. 1. 1. Kutsa 1, If;, 1 to 5. 15, 8 to 16, 10. 
IX, 6, 1, 45 to 58. Kakshivat 1, 17, 1 to 18, 6. IX, 4, 7. Kanwa, 
1, 1 to 8. IX, 5, 9. Medhatithi, 1, 4, 1 to 5, 4, and several hymns 
of the 8th book. Trisoka (from Kanwar family) VIII, 6, 3, 3. 
Usanas IX, 1, 4. 5, 2 to 4. Gotama I an. 13 to 14, and some parts 
of the 9th book Mudgala, son of Bhrirnyaswus, is named as the author 
of X, 9, 3. 

5. There is in the Library of the East India House and among 
Professor Wilson's books deposited in the Bodleyan Library at Oxford, 
a very extensive collection of these liturgical Sutras, of which the 
greater number has not found a commentator. Those that I saw are 
the Sutras of Aswalayana, Apastamba, Draghayana, Katyayana, Lat- 
vayana, Sankhyayana, Gobhila and Bouddhayana. Aswalayana' s 
Sutras, with which I am best acquainted, appear, to judge only from 

181/.] On the History and Literature of the Veda. 845 

the great number of copies, to have been most extensively known. The 
first section of the same, the Srautasutra, consists of two parts of 6 
adhyaya each, the second part, the Grihyasiitra, is divided into four 
adhyaya. We have a commentary to this by Narayana, of which the 
East India House possesses at least the division for the first 6 sections 
of the Srauta, and for the Grihyasiitras. Aswalayana's Sutras also refer 
to more ancient works, for instance to the Aitareya Brahmana, from 
which at several places pretty extensive extracts are given (even with- 
out mentioning the source) further to the Kausitaka and to ancient 
teachers, for instance Kautsa, Gautama, Ganagari, Taulvali, Sadyayana, 
Saunaka, etc. 

6. In a similar way we shall be able on the other side to arrive at 
a determination of the mutual relation of the Vedic and Epic writings 
in respect of age and origin. 

I confess that I have not yet been able to convince myself that the 
Mahabharata even in respect of its fundamental component parts reached 
back into the Anti-Buddhist period. I have the same doubt in regard 
to the Ramayana. Before the founding of Buddhism, and contempora- 
neously with it, must be placed the era of Vedic authorship, in which 
— so to express myself, — the practical consequences were drawn from 
that treasure of the oldest theology, which is laid up in the hymns. 
This is the liturgical period to which the books belong which under the 
names of Brahmana and the like have come down to us. The priests 
fashioned the worship (Cultus) and the worship fashioned the priests. 
At that time the proper Veda, i. e. the hymns, were not indeed histori- 
cally comprehended, but yet exactly known ; people tried to understand 
them by the help of grammars and exegesis. One portion of the latter 
is the construction of legends (itihasa, akhyana,) from the text of the 
hymns, and it must be confessed of these relations, that with the 
exception of those turns which have a liturgical aim, the most of them 
are confined within the limits of historical possibility, so far as this 
point can naturally come into question with the Indian. 

But in both the Epic poems quite another aspect of things begins. 
The Veda is only imperfectly known ; the ritual no longer struggles 
after development, it is complete ; the Vedic legends have entirely 
detached themselves from their root ; and quite a different worship has 
taken the place of the religion of Agni, Indra, Mitra and Varuna. The 

6' R 

844 On the History and Literature of the Veda. [Aug. 

last named fact specifically should most of all have demonstrative force. 
There runs through the whole of the Indian religious-life an historical 
sunderance,* from the time of the Ramayana down to the present day. 
The worship is Vedic, and indeed exclusively Vedic, while the religious 
view is turned to quite different forms. This second structure, the 
religion of Vishnu and Brahma, begins with the Epopees, and is 
thenceforth the only one which has retained vitality, but it has not had 
the strength to break down the walls of the Vedic institution, and. form 
itself into a ritual in its room. Similar appearances, though less abrupt, 
will be shown by a scrupulous historical investigation in all the more 
important religious systems ; the Grecian mysteries, e. g. will be seen 
to have their root in no other relation than that of the original and old, 
to the transformed and new ; that in Egypt such new formations, and 
the simultaneous existence of various systems have occurred, is still 
less doubtful ; and religious history might propose to itself for its 
theme, sunderance and separation far more than combination. Finally, 
there rules in the Puranas — I am not afraid to say it, — a complete 
misunderstanding of Vedic antiquity, and all that is connected there- 
with, a fundamental ignorance of the Vedic writings, on the origin and 
division of which so much is fabled. And for the explanation of that 
foretime they (the Puranas) will be useful far less immediately, than 
mediately, on this account that we accidentally meet again in the later 
tales, with results found elsewhere and independent of them, and arc 
able gradually to form a standard to try the historical value of these 

Research into the historical relation of the Veda and the Epopees 
must keep these circumstances in view. The following appears to me 
to be a practicable mode of determining more nearly the interval of 
time which lies between the two. It is well known that the Anukra- 
manika very frequently gives short legends, solely with the object of 
illustrating the origin of the hymns. This happens more amply, and 
with the same view, in the Vrihaddevata ascribed to Saunaka, a book 
composed in metre, of which I have been unable to discover any copy in 
England, but which in all probability will yet be found in India. The 
commentator of the Anukramanika to the Rik, Shadgurusishya, knows 
this writing and cites it frequently, and Sayana often gives longer 
* Zwiespalt ; splitting into twain. 

184/.] On the History and Literature of the Vedo. 845 

extracts from it in his commentary. More valuable still than these 
notices are indisputably those representations of the old tales, which 
we find in the Brahmanas. The Aitareya Brahmana gives a consider- 
able number of them, and among these most amply the history of 
Sunahsepha (VII. 13 to 18).* Not less rich is the Taittirfya Sanhita, 
and to judge by citations, — the Kaushtaka, Tandya, and other writings 
of this kind. 

After this would come the task of following the progressive formation 
or even declension of the legends from their origin onward through all 
these branches and transformations, to determine from what source they 
have flowed into the Epopees, or — if no written source could be assumed 
for them — at what stage of development, the tale stood, when it passed 
into these poems. From the richness and variety of these narrations 
and the great number of writings which lie open to us for comparison, 
it should be possible to • arrive at an approximative result. The chro- 
nological sequence of the preceding writings, of the discovery of which 
we certainly may not doubt, would then transmit to us downward from 
above the relative date for the origin of the epic books. 

7. As a proof, that the authors of the Brahmana were acquainted 
with grammar as a science, may be considered the greater number of 
the derivations of words, belonging equally to etymology and grammar, 
by which those writings are corroborating their doctrines. 

It may here suffice to quote one passage, in which a technical term of 
grammar is met with. It is taken from the Aitareya Brahmana, VII. 30. 

Athasyaisha swa bhaksho, nyagrodhasyavarodhans cha phalani 
ehaudumbarany, aswatthani, plakshany abhishunuyat. tani bhakshay6t, 
so ashya swo bhaksho. yato va adhideva yajneneshtwa swargan lokam 
ayans tatraitans chamasan nyubjans, te nyagrodha abhavan, nyubjau 
itihapy enan etarhy achakshate Kurukshetre teha prathamajan nyagro- 
dhanan, tebhyo hanya 'dhijatas. te yan nyancho 'rohans, tasmaii 
(nyan rohati nyagroha) nyagroho vai nama. tan nyagrohan santan 
nyagrodhan ity achakshate parokshena, paroksha-priya iva hi deva, : l 

* This remarkable leg-end bears, in the representation in the Brahmana, a peculiar 
stamp of antiquity. As the same tale is treated diffusely in the Ramayana, is doubtless 
also related in the Mahabharata, is found in the Puranas, and is also mentioned else- 
where, e. g\ in Manu, it mig-ht supply a fit example to exhibit the mode in which leg-ends 
are developed. 

;> r 2 

846 On the History and Literature of the Fade. [Aug, 

" The food proper for the Kishatriya, is the following. Let, him extract 
out the produce of what is growing downward from the Nyagrodha, 
(i. e. of the stems which rise from the branches of the Banyan tree,) 
fixed in the ground, and the fruits of the Udumbara (Ficus racemosa) 
of the Aswattha (Ficus Indica,) of the Plaksha (Ficus infectoria). All 
such let him eat ; it is his proper food ; for when the supreme gods 
after the performance of the sacrifice went to heaven, they upset their 
sacrificial vessels. Hence arose the Nyagrodha-trees. For this reason 
those trees are called upset (bent) in Kurukshetra (where the sacrifice 
took place) these were the primitive stems of the Nyagrodha, from 
these others were produced, which were called nyagrodha (growing down- 
wards) because they were bent downward. The nyagrodha is called 
nyagrodha after the mysterious (etymology) for the gods like mystery.' * 

The last remark is repeated in the following chapter of the Brah- 
mana, and frequently at other places. What is meant by the mys- 
terious formation of a word, the parakslia formation, I will illustrate 
by a passage of the commentary to the Nirukta (ad. I. 1.) Durga 
says : trividha hi sabda-vyavastha, prathyaksha-vrittaya : paroksha 
vrittaya : atiparoksha-vrittayascha. tatroktakriya : pratyaksha-vritta- 
ya : antalina-kriya : paroksha- vrittaya : atiparoksha-vrittishu sabdeshu 
nirvachanabhyapayas, tasmat paroksha-vrittitam apadya pratyakshavri 
tina sabdena nirvaktavyas. The example which was the occasion of 
Durga' s remark, is the word nighantu, nighantavas, where he says, atipa- 
roksha-vritti, nigantavas is parokshavritti, and nigamayitaras is pratya- 
ksha-vritti. One sees without difficulty, that the word paroksha in 
the meaning it has in the Brahmana, necessarily refers to the existence 
of that grammatical terminology which is explained by Durga. 

8. Devaraja in the commentary to the Naighantuka (pro. 1134, 
E. I II. pol. I.) mentions the following names of persons to whom 
commentaries of the Vedas (veda bhashyani) are ascribed : Skanda- 
swami (who after the same authority wrote a gloss to the Nirukta) 
Bhavaswami, Guhadeva, Srinivasa, Madhavadeva Uvatta (otherwise 
Uvata, of whom Colebrooke, Ess. I. 99, compare also p. 54, note, pos- 
sessed fragments and who made commentaries to two Pratisakhva 
sutras, of which afterwards) Bhatta Bhaskara Misra, Bharataswami. 

18-17.] Note to accompany Chart of the Bay of Bengal. 847 

Note to accompany a Chart of the Bay of Bengal, with the average 
courses of its Hurricanes from a. d. 1800 to 1846. — By Henry 


This Chart is the third of a series now printing for a new work on 
Storms, which it is hoped will be for the Mariner in all parts of the 
world, what the " Horn Book of Storms" is for the Eastern Seas, from 
the Cape to China, and I have thought this chart of sufficient general 
scientific interest to offer copies of it to the Editors of the Journal. 

It may be regarded both in a meteorological and a nautical point of 
view, and further as a contribution to general science, for to advert first 
to this last named view, it will not be thought trifling that we are now 
enabled to say by the researches of Mr. Redfield and Col. Reid for the 
Atlantic Ocean for 66 years (1/80 to 1846) those of Col. Reid, 
Mr. Thorn and my own for the Southern Indian Ocean for 35 years 
(1809 to 1846), my researches for the Bay of Bengal for 46 years, 1800 
to 1846, and in the China Sea for 66 years, 1780 to 1846, and my 
researches over all the other portions of the globe wherever I could 
obtain documents, as the Pacific Ocean, coasts of Australia, &c. no con- 
tradiction to the great laws which Redfield and Reid have announced 
has been discovered, and this though every apparent anomaly has been 
subjected to the closest scrutiny ! The researches too have been carried 
out to an extent which few are aware of, as both to the various sources 
referred to and their number. Hence we may look upon this Chart as 
part of the results of a series of registries of independent experiments 
recorded without the least concurrence on the part of the registrars,* 
and this evidence of the clearest and highest order to the truth of a 
great physical law. 

And this relates to the rotation of Storms, What we have now to 
pursue for separate seas and oceans, and what is in this chart accDm- 
plished is, the slow and gradual mapping of their various tracks as 
completely as it has been done in the West Irdies and for the coasts of 
North America by Redfield and Reid, and for the Bay of Bengal and 

* The experiment, i. e. the storm, is made for us, but the seaman varies it by the differ- 
ent manoeuvres he executes to get through it. On shore we sit still m bur houses and 

r nothing - more. 

848 Note to accompany Chart of the Bay of Bengal. [Aug. 

China Sea by myself; for without a knowledge of the average tracks 
the problem of the management of a vessel becomes much more intri- 
cate for the seaman ; since it is upon the track of the Storm (as upon 
that of a pirate or enemy) that his manoeuvres must depend, and this 
he must know or know how to calculate. Hence the importance of this 
chart in a nautical point of view. 

There is one more relation in which I venture to present it, and that 
is the following. If we produce by the eye or a ruler the various tracks 
of the Storms backwards to the Eastward on the same line we shall 
find them all tending as it were, to some focus of volcanic action now 
in activity. Beginning from the South, the first set appear to come from 
some of the numerous Sumatran Volcanoes or of the Volcanic islands 
which fringe its coasts. The next set, and these are the most remark- 
able, will mostly be found to arise about Barren Island, which is a Vol- 
cano always in activity, and to run towards points between the West and 
N. N. W., while a third, the Dacca and Kyook Phyoo hurricanes seem 
traceable from the volcanic centres of Cheduba (or Chittagong.) 

It is difficult to say that these coincidences are not more than acci- 
dental, but I shall best explain my general views on the subject by the 
following, copied from my forth-coming work, p. 19, par. 33 : — 

" Other suggestions have been thrown out and instances adduced by differ- 
ent writers as to the possibility of volcanoes, and even fires, originating vio- 
lent circular motions of the atmosphere, and that volcanic eruptions are often 
accompanied by violent storms and heavy falls of rain, there is no doubt. I 
liave myself pointed out, though my published Researches have hitherto been 
confined like those of Redfield and Reid to the effects, as the sure eventual 
index to- guide us backward to the causes of Storms, that in the China Sea 
and Bay of Bengal* there is much to countenance the idea that Storms in 
some parts of the world may originate at great volcanic centres, and I am 
inclined to believe also that their tracks are partly over the great internal 
chasms of our globe, by which perhaps the volcanic centres and bands com- 
municate with each other. If we produce at both ends the line of the track 
of the great Cuba hurricane of 1844, we shall find that it extends from the 
great and highly active volcano of Cosseguina on the Pacific shore of central 
America to Hecla in Iceland ! and in 1821 the breaking out of the great volcano 
of Eyafjeld Yokul in Iceland, which had been quiet since 1612, was followed 
all over Europe by dreadful storms of wind, hail and rain. In Iceland the 

* Sixth Memoir, Storms of the China Sea, Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XT. p. 717. 

1847.] Note to accompany Chart of the Bay of Bengal. 84 9 

Barometer fell from the day before the eruption till the twenty-sixth day 
after.* Mr. Espy quotes several other cases, and Humboldt for South Ame- 
rica, to show that nothing is better established than the fact of the connec- 
tion of volcanoes with rains and storms. Purdy (Atlantic Memoir) also alludes 
to the supposed focus of sub-marine volcanic action on the Equator, in that 
sea, as the spot to which the southern extremes of the West Indian hurricane 
tracks would tend, if continued. If I advert to these speculations it is with 
the hope of drawing the attention of intelligent mariners to them." 

* Espy, p. 67, 68, not correctly printed. 

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For July, 1847. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on Wed- 
nesday evening, the 7th July, 1847. 

Sir J. P. Grant, Vice-President, in the chair. 

The minutes of proceedings of the last meeting were read and 
adopted, and the accounts and vouchers for June laid on the table. 

E. Currie, Esq., C. S. duly proposed and seconded at the June meet,, 
ing, was ballotted for and elected a member. 

The following gentlemen were named as candidates for election at 
next meeting : — 

Capt. J. B. Cunningham, proposed by J. W. Laidlay, Esq., second- 
ed by Col. Forbes. 

J. Beckwith, Esq., proposed by W. P. Grant, Esq., seconded by Sir 
J. P. Grant and Col. Forbes. 

William Greenivay, Esq., Assay Master, Agra, proposed by Col. 
Forbes, seconded by Dr. W. B. O'Shaughnessy. 

Read letters from — 

The Secretary to the Military Board, forwarding a communication 
from the Agricultural and Horticultural Society on the timber trees of 
Bengal, (referred to Capt. Munro, who is entrusted with the preparation 
of a Report on this subject on behalf of the Society.) 

From Mr. Muir, forwarding his translation from the German of Dr. 
Rudolph Roth's preliminary Essay on the literature and history of the 

From Mr. James Corcoran, submitting a specimen of his Urdu His- 
tory of the Chinese Empire, and requesting the Society's patronage of 
the work. (Referred to the Committee of Papers.) 

From the Royal Academy of Munich, presenting several works and 
requesting others in exchange. (Referred to Librarian for Report.) 

5 s 

852 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society . [July, 

From Capt. J. D. Cunningham, giving a detailed description of 
his antiquarian researches during a tour of the districts within the Agency. 

From Mr. Wattenbach, of Bombay, tendering his resignation as a 
member of the Asiatic Society, in consequence of his having joined that 
of Bombay. 

From M. T. Fournier, of Caehar, requesting the aid of the Society 
in the promotion of his researches in natural history, and tendering 
apparently on sale a " green Serpent," for which he understood the So- 
ciety had offered " une belie recompense" — (Referred to the Committee 
of Papers.) 

From Mr. Ward, presenting a very curious specimen of the growth 
of Confervse in vinegar. 

From Mr. Laidlay, submitting an Essay by Dr. Cantor on the serpents 
of the Malayan Peninsula. 

The Committee of Papers submitted for the decision of the Society,, 

1 . — A proposition from the Senior Secretary, that he be allowed to 
vacate the Secretaryship to the Meteorological Section, and that Capt. 
Thuillier, the Officiating Deputy Surveyor General, be appointed in his 
stead. This proposal was unanimously supported by the Committee on 
the grounds advanced by the Senior Secretary — the active exertions 
Capt. Thuillier has made to enable the Society to resume the publi- 
cation of a Meteorological Register, which is kept with the best instru- 
ments in India and by experienced observers, in the Surveyor General's 
office. Capt. Thuillier' s consent had been given to the nomination. 
(Unanimously approved.) 

2.— The probationary period of six months for which the Librarian, 
Rajendra Lai Mittra had been employed having expired, and his duties 
having been discharged to the entire satisfaction of the Committee, they 
recommend his being permanently appointed Librarian to the Society. 
(Unanimously adopted.) 

3. — The Committee communicated correspondence and accounts re- 
garding the outlay on the " Cantor Drawings." 

The questions placed before the Society by Circular to the resident 
members, (subsequent to the last meeting,) regarding Sir Alexander 
Burnes' Drawings and Mr. Blyth's claim for Rs, 3,200, were brought 
up and discussed. 

1847-] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 853 


The Vice-Presidents and Committee of Papers of the Asiatic Society 
deem it their duty to circulate for the information of the resident 
members the annexed documents regarding the printing of coloured 
lithographs of the drawings of the " Zoology of the Indus" made under 
the directions of the late Sir Alexander Burnes and Dr. Lord, and 
placed at the disposal of the Society by the Supreme Government of 
India, in 1838. 

The original drawings were 146, of which up to October 1846 there 
had been lithographed and coloured 51 — lithographed but not coloured 
13 — for which there had been paid or remained due Co.'s Rs. 5,797 
10 6, for copying, paper, colouring, and printing. — The Committee 
of Papers with reference to the state of the Society's finances when 
this account was laid before them, considered it their duty to discontinue 
any further outlay on the proposed publication, and their recommenda- 
tion to this effect was unanimously approved of at the January and 
February meetings of 1847. 

The question remained open for consideration how the plates already 
completed were to be disposed of. No description of the plates was 
available, the original MS. by Dr. Lord, entrusted to Mr. Blyth in 
1842, having been lost by that officer, who had undertaken to supply its 
place by adequate letter-press by himself. In consideration of this 
promise and to accelerate it's performance, with reference also to his 
zealous exertions in increasing the Society's collections, the Society (as 
stated by Messrs. Torrens, Heatly and Frith) at the general meeting 
of May 1844, undertook to make an addition from that date of 100 Rs. 
per mensem to Mr. Blyth' s salary, payable with all arrears, on the 
completion of the MS. Of this resolution there is no official record, 
but on the evidence of the gentlemen above named it was renewed and 
officially recorded at the general meeting of November, 1846. — The 
meeting further resolved that the addition to Mr. Blyth's salary could 
uot have effect beyond the 31st of December, 1846, by which time Mr. 
Blyth would have a claim on the Society of Rs. 3,200, payable on the 
completion of the promised letter-press. 

On the 20th of May, 1847,the Secretaries received Mr. Blyth' s letter- 

5 s 2 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


press notes on the 64 plates, and these notes with the plates were 
immediately suhmitted to the " Zoological Section," appointed in Feb- 
ruary 1847, and composed of Capt. William Munro, J. W. Grant, 
Esq., R. W. G. Frith, Esq., and J. W. Laidlay, Esq. These gentle- 
men were requested to advise the Committee as to the mode of 
publication of the plates and MS. and as to the amount of remunera- 
tion due to Mr. Blyth. 

The Zoological Section have formally reported their opinion, that the 
plates are " unworthy of publication under the auspices of the Society, 
being in many instances so rudely executed that it is scarcely possible 
to identify the animals they profess to represent, while in most others, 
whether regarded as works of science or of art, they fall far below that 
standard to which the Society's patronage should be extended •" regard- 
ing the amount of remuneration to Mr. Blyth, the " Zoological Section" 
observe that " while they regret that the funds of the Society should 
be expended so uselessly, they are unanimously of opinion that what- 
ever the Society has promised should be fulfilled." 

Fully adopting these views the Committee of Papers deem it neces- 
sary by republication of all the requisite documents, to enable the mem- 
bers of the Society to decide, 1st, as to the publication or suppression of 
the plates, and 2dly, as to the actual nature of the promise made to My. 
Blyth, the conditions under which that promise was accepted by Mr. 
Blyth —and the manner in which these conditions have been fulfilled 
on his part. 

The Committee are of opinion that the plates should not be published, 
but that members desiring to be supplied with a set may have them on 
paying the cost of binding. While the Committee would not oppose 
the payment of Mr. Blyth' s claim if made exclusively on the grounds 
of his general services to the Society during the period in question, 
they cannot on the other hand advise that a sum of 3,200 Rs. should 
be paid for the scanty and unsatisfactory MS. placed at their disposal 
after a period of four years from the time when Mr. Blyth was first 
instructed to edit Dr. Lord's manuscript. The questions above stated 
will be submitted to the decision of the resident members of the Society 
at the regular monthly meeting to be held on the 7th of July. 

W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 

Asiatic Society ,1 5th June, 1847. Sen, Secretary. 

184/.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 853 


Committee of Papers, Asiatic Society, 25th May, 184/. 

The Senior Secretary begs leave to circulate a letter from the curator, Mr. 
Blyth, forwarding brief MS. notes on the " Burnes" drawings already litho- 
graphed, about one half of the series in the Society's possession. 

The Society are pledged to pay Mr. Blyth the sum of 3,200 Rs. on his 
completion of letter-press for the drawings. The Senior Secretary, with 
reference to this obligation, proposes that Mr. B.'s MS. be referred to the 
Section of Zoology and Natural History, for their advice as to the mode of 
publication and the amount of payment to be awarded to Mr. Blyth. 

To W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. 

Senior Secretary of the Asiatic Society. 

Sir, — I have the pleasure to forward you a series of the lithographs that 
have been executed of the late Sir Alexander Burnes' drawings of animals, 
with the letter-press to accompany their publication. It has not been possi- 
ble to determine, in every instance, with certainty the precise species to which 
they refer, but I have spared no pains nor labour to arrive at the results 
embodied in my MS. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Very obediently your's, 
E. Blyth. 
As. So. Museum, May 20, 1847- 

To Dr. W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 

Senior Secretary Asiatic Society, 

Sir, — I have the honor to inform you that the " Burnes" Litho- 
graphs with Mr. Blyth' s annotations, have been circulated to the 
members of the Section of Natural History for their opinion regarding 
the propriety of publishing the same, and the amount of remuneration 
due to Mr. Blyth. 

2. You will see from the accompanying minutes that the Section 
has bestowed much attention upon the first of these points ; and the 
members are unanimously of opinion that the drawings are unworthy 
of publication under the auspices of the Society, being in many instances 
so rudely executed that it is scarcely possible to identify the animals 
they profess to represent, while in most others, whether regarded as 

856 Proceedings of the Astatic Society. [July, 

works of science or of art, they fall far below that standard to which 
the Society's patronage should be extended. 

3. As to the other question, — the amount of remuneration due to 
Mr. Blyth,— while they regret that the funds of the Society should be 
expended so uselessly, the members of the Section are equally unani- 
mous in their opinion, that whatever the Society has promised should 
be fulfilled. I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 
bth June, 1847. J. W. Laidlay. 

To Capt. Munro, J. W. Grant, Esq. R. W. G. Frith, Esq. 

Members of the Zoological Section, Asiatic Society. 

Gentlemen, — In compliance with the instructions of the Committee of 
Papers, I beg to circulate the accompanying portfolio of the " Burnes" Litho- 
graphs, and to solicit your opinions as to the mode of publication and the 
amount of remuneration due to Mr. Blyth for his annotations. 

2. As to the former point, although these drawings are for the most part 
of very insignificant value for the purposes of science, and therefore not likely 
to extend the reputation of the Asiatic Society ; yet if in your opinion publi- 
cation be desirable, the cost of the letter-press, in addition to the very heavy 
expense already incurred for the drawings, would be very trifling, and even 
in the present embarrassed state of the Society's finances need not form any 
obstacle to the fulfilment of your wishes in that respect. 

3. Regarding the second point ; Mr. Blyth's remuneration was fixed by the 
Society at Co.'s Rs. 3,200, and it appears to me beyond our province to 
interfere in any way with its amount ; although it rests with the Committee 
to determine whether the work required has been done or not. 

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, 
Your obedient Servant, 
Calcutta, 25th May, 1847. J- W. Laidlay, Secretary. 

I have carefully examin ed the accompanying portfolio of drawings and the 
MS. notes which are attached to each — I trust the Society will not in any 
way authorize the publication of these very bad and useless drawings, which 
can only entail ridicule on any scientific body giving them a place in their 
transactions. For instance, Plate 22 represents a Lark sitting in a tree. Plate 
19 represents a Kingfisher with four toes in front of the foot instead of one 
behind and three very unequal ones in front. 

With most of the Mammalia I am personally well acquainted and can con- 
fidently say that not one figure is even a fair representation of the animal 

IS J/.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 857 

intended, raid nothing can be more ridiculous than the drawings of the 
Hyena, the white Weazle, the little Alactaja or Jerboa ? so common about 
Ferozepore, and the Hogdeer. In the long legs and upturned spur it is difficult 
to recognise the superb Minal ; and the graceful Coolon so common on the banks 
of the Ganges is most unjustly represented by a comparative short-legged 
bird in plate 28. Similar remarks might be applied to most of the drawings. 

With regard to the remuneration to Mr. Blyth for his notes, I am not aware 
on what terms it was promised, but am of opinion that we should keep most 
faithfully all promises. 

All that seems to have been done consists in guessing at the names of a 
number of animals, intended to be represented, in a series of bad drawings, 
with scarcely any original information regarding these animals. The little that 
has been done has been but slovenly executed, considering a large and dis- 
tinct remuneration is expected. I will however particularize. 

The name of Plate II. Fig. 3, can at best be but a guess, for the description 
of the animal does not at all agree with the account of its color, &c. as given 
in the 10th Volume of the Annals and Mag. Nat. History. — Plate IV. Fig. 2, 
has no trouble taken with it although it is supposed to be a new species. 

Mr. B. wishes to make a new species from Plates VI. and VII. without 
assigning any reasons for doing so, except that Sciuroptecis fimbriatus, Gray, 
does not exceed lfft. in length, whereas this squirrel is stated to be 2ft. 
long. In a very recent work by Schinz on Mammalia, S. fimbriatus, under 
the name of Pteromys fimbriatus, is stated to be 1 ft. and 1 1 in. in length, 
leaving thus 1 inch difference, perhaps accidental in measuring, to cause the 
creation of a new species. 

Plates VIII. and IX. are labelled with the same native names, as male and 
female, and no reason is given for assigning different names to the two. The 
Sikeen of the Himalayas is a very different looking animal from the one 
represented in Plate VIII. Mr. B., in his notes lays great stress on the 
presence of a beard, without stating that several other species closely allied 
have a beard as Capra CEgagrus, Himalayana, Falconeri, and the Neilgherry 
Ibex. In a letter from Mr. Blyth read at a meeting of the Zoological 
Society on 10th August, 1841 he speaks of the Neilgherry Ibex " as having 
a considerable beard and thus differing from the Himalayan Ibex." Schinz 
mentions the male of Capra Himalayana, Blyth, as being called Sikeen and 
the female Damnah. He also mentions C. Falconeri as being the Narkhor 
of Vigne and Lord. Some of these discrepancies might have been explained 
away, if Mr. B. had zealously undertaken an essay on the animals of Aff- 
ghanistan and neighbouring countries. 

There are also several other indications of haste and carelessness ; thus 

858 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July> 

Graelin not Pallas is the authority for Capra OEgagrus. Grus was not 
a genus, nor Ardea cinerea, a species of Linnaeus. 

Dr. M'Clelland has already in the 2d volume of the Calcutta Journal 
of Natural History described several Affghan fishes from the late Dr. Griffith's 
collection, and to Dr. M'C. apparently Mr. Blyth is indebted for the short 
notes attached to this portion of the drawings. 

The names of the snakes have been guessed at in a most hap-hazard way. 
Thus PI. XLI. fig, 1, though bad enough to favour any guess is not an Achro- 
chordus, but most probably Boa Johnii. (Russell, Plate 16) called by Schlegel 
Portrya Eryx. What possible reason can there be for supposing Plate XLII. 
fig. 2, to be the young of the one just referred to ? Neither Plates XLIII. 
nor XLIV. fig. 4 are Dipsas, which is a genus of tree snakes only with large 
eyes and long, oval, or vertically contracted pupils. Plate XLVII. is most 
likely Coluber anastomosatus, Daudin. 

With reference to a remark stated to have been made by Dr. Cantor ap- 
proving of these lithographs, I am informed by that gentleman that the only 
two he had seen at the time he made the remark (1842) were two fishes, Plates 
XLYIII. and XLIX. which he thinks are good drawings. 

William Munro. 

Fort William, May 28th, 1847. 

I agree with Capt. Munro that these drawings are not worth publishing ; 
the greater part of them are so bad that we might be pretty certain they never 
could be like the animals they are intended to represent, even if we had not 
the testimony of Captain Munro to the fact. As to the remuneration to be 
given for describing them, whatever has been promised must of course be 
fulfilled, but it is very annoying to see the funds of the Society expended so 

31s* May, 184/. J. W. Grant. 

I certainly cannot recommend the publication of such trash as these 
Burnes' drawings are. I believe there is little if any thing new amongst them, 
and if there be, it is almost impossible to identify their affinities, so wretch- 
edly bad and incorrect are the figures. The fish are bad also, with fins and 
forms not belonging to them, and no attention paid to the number of rays in 
them. Consequently the difficulty Mr. Blyth has experienced in attempting 
to identify them has been very great, and I am sure much more could not have 
been done by him or any one else. Regarding the remuneration to Mr. 
Blyth, I am a witness to the fact of its having been promised to him, and 1 
cannot for a moment understand how there can be the slightest question 
about its being granted to him. He is certainly entitled to it fully. 

R. W. G. Frith. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society* 859 

Statement of Disbursements on account of Sir A. Burnes' Drawings* 

Jan. 3d. 1842, No. L— Paid Mr. J. Bennett for Lithograph- 
ing" Sir A. Burnes' drawings, 250 

Feb. 14th, No. 9.— Mrs. Ballin for publishing Sir A. Burnes' 
drawings 500 

March.— Messrs. Kushton and Co. for paper on account of Sir 
A. Burnes' drawings, 48 6 6 

April 2d, No. 23.— Messrs. W. Rushton and Co. 
for 3 Reams of best Royal Paper, 84 

April 15th, No. 31 —Ditto for 6 Reams of Plate 

paper at 28 per Ream, „.... 168 

Less 8 per Cent, for 3 months, 3 5 9 

164 10 3 

April 22d, No. 34.— Mr. Ballin on account of 
Sir A. Burnes' drawings being balance of Ac- 
count, 132 10 

April 25th, Nos. 37, 38.— Mr. J. Bennett on 

Account of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, 100 

481 4 3 

June 29th, No. 58.— Mrs. Ballin as advance on account of 
Sir A. Burnes' drawings, 1000 

July 12th, No. 67.— Ditto ditto ditto ditto 500 

Aug. 3d, No. 77.— Messrs. W. Rushton and Co. 
for 6 Reams of drawing paper, 168 

Aug. 23d, No. 84.— Mr. J. Bennett on account 

of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, 100 


Oct. 1st, No. 92.— Ditto on account of Lithographing Sir 

A. Burnes' drawings, «. 100 

Dec. 1st, No. 113.— Ditto on account of Sir A. Burnes' 

drawings, 100 

Dec. 5th, No. 129.— Messrs. W. Rushton and Co. for 6 Reams 

ofPlatepaper, 168 

April 27th, No. 39— Do. for \ Ream of fine fool- 
scap, 4 

\ Do. of Letter paper, 4 
1 Dozen blacklead Pencils, 3 


Dec. 19th, No. 123.— Mrs. Ballin for 500 Receipts including 
paper, 12 8 

3,438 2 9 
Deduct amount of the last two bills being not on account of 

Burnes' drawings, , ,,,,... 22 8 

3415 10 9 

5 T 

860 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Jan. 11th, 1843, No. 131.— Mr. J. Bennett on account of 

Burnes' drawing's, 100 

April 18th, No. 166— Messrs. W. Rushton and Co. for 2 

Reams 3 Quires and 6 sheets of Plate paper, 60 8 9 

No. 170.— Mr. J. Bennett on account of Sir A. Burnes' draw- 
ings, 100 

April 23d, No. 173.— Bissonath Banerjee for 1 Ream of draw- - 

ing paper on account of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, 25 

May 5th, No. 176.— Ditto for 2 Reams of drawing paper for 

Sir A. Burnes' drawings, * 45 

June 23d, No. 196— Ditto for 1 Ream of ditto ditto ditto 22 8 

No. 196£.— Ditto for 2 Reams of ditto ditto ditto 50 

July, No. 202— Ditto for 1 Ream of ditto ditto ditto 22 8 

425 8 9 
Deduct Discount on Bill No. 173 erroneously charged, 2 8 


Feb. 6th, 1844, No. 337.— Paid Mr. J. Bennett amount being 
the balance on account of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, ........ 18 

Dec. 17th, 1845, No. 687.— Paid Mrs. Ballin amount being 
balance on account of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, ............ 68 4 

Jan. 29th, 1846, No. 707— Paid Mrs. Ballin for Lithographing 
and Colouring as per Bill, 261 6 

July 21st, No. 815— Ditto for Printing and Colouring as per 
Bill, 261 6 

Sept. 12th, No. 838.— * Ditto for ditto 348 

Jan. 18th, 1847, No. 8.— Paid* Mrs. Ballin for Printing and 
Colouring as per Bill, 519 11 


423 9 


68 4 

870 12 

519 11 

Co.'s Rupees,.. 
May, 19th.-Paid* Mrs. Ballin for Printing and Colouring 

as per Bill, 

5,315 6 6 
482 4 

Co.'s Rupees, 
Calcutta, Asiatic Society, the 20th March, 1847. 

5797 10 6 

* All these payments have been made for work ordered and in progress previous to the 
resolution of the Committee to discontinue all expenditure on this account.-S E c RE - 
tary's Note. 

1817.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 861 

The above circular and reports having been read, and the subject 
commented upon in detail by Sir J. P. Grant, Col. Forbes, Mr. W. 
P. Grant, Mr. Welby Jackson, Mr. Blyth, Capt. Munro, and Dr. W. 
B. O'Shaughnessy, it was unanimously decided : — 

1. — That the plates be not published, but that copies be supplied to 
any member applying for them. 

2. — That Mr. Blyth' s claim be paid in full in consideration of his 
general services to the Society during the period concerned, and with- 
out reference to his MS. for the Burnes' drawings. 

3. — That the Senior Secretary be authorized to sell off Company's 
Paper to pay Mr. Blyth' s demand. 

The Committe of Papers having received a communication from Mr. 
Piddington, with a postscript by Mr. Torrens, regarding the expenses 
incurred by the lithographing of the Chusan Zoological drawings by 
Dr. Cantor, the Senior Secretary was proceeding, by direction of the 
Committee, to read Mr. Piddington' s letter when that gentleman 
objected to its being brought forward. The subjoined Report by the 
Committee was then read : — 

The Committee of Papers beg leave to submit to the Society a communica- 
tion from Mr. Piddington, dated the 19th June, from which, they have been 
for the first time led to infer that a portion of the outlay on account of the 
" Cantor drawings," viz. Co.'s Rs. 2,300, might have been in advances for 
future work, and not solely for the 12 plates finished by Mr. Bennett, up to 
July 1846. 

After repeated applications to Mr. Bennett, the Committee have at length 
ascertained that Mr. Bennett undertook to execute coloured plates of the 
whole of Dr. Cantor's drawings for the sum of Rupees 4,174. All expenses 

The original drawings form a portfolio (bound) of 88 pages of sketches, 
which could be conveniently lithographed in 61 4to. plates. 

Of the 88 pages, 13, containing the subjects for 12 plates, were delivered to 
Mr. Bennett and lithographed and coloured by him, being one-fifth of the 
number of plates he agreed to complete for Rs. 4,174. 

Advances were made to Mr. Bennett (see account) during the progress of 
these 12 plates, to the amount of Rs. 2,300 ; of these advances 1,700 Rs. were 
paid on the order of Mr. Piddington, countersigned by Mr. Torrens, between 
the 0th June 1844, and 23rd December 1845, and Rs. 600, on the order of 
Mr. Torrens alone from 20th April 1816, to 26th October 1816. Total 
Rs. 2,300. 

5 t 2 

862 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

Mr. Bennett's actual charge for the 12 plates completed during that time 
is Rs. 785. No more of the original drawings having been delivered to Mr. 
Bennett, he is accordingly indebted to the Society, on this account, to the 
amount of Rs. 1,515. 

In answer to an application on the part of the Committee of Papers, Mr. 
Bennett has consented to proceed with the " Cantor drawings" or other draw- 
ings, not involving greater labour or expense, so as to adjust the balance 
now against him in the Society's accounts. The Committee accordingly pro- 
pose to issue the plates now in hand with early numbers of the Journal, as 
may be found convenient, as letter press must accompany them, and to pro- 
ceed with others to the extent of the sum specified as advanced by the 
Society on this account. 

(By order of the Committee,) 

W. B. O'Shaughnessy. 

Asiatic Society, 5th July, 1847. 

The report having been read it was unanimously agreed to authorize 
the Secretaries to take the best means in their power to secure work 
being done by Mr. Bennett in illustrations of the Journal to the extent 
of the advance he had received. 

Mr. Piddington brought to the notice of the meeting that the tomb 
of Sir Wm. Jones is in a dilapidated state, and submitted an esti- 
mate by Messrs. Weaver and Co. for the repairs thereof, amounting to 
Rs. 386 10. Resolved that the estimate be referred to Col. Forbes 
for examination and report and that the expense of the repairs be 
defrayed by a subscription among the members of the Society. 

Books received for the Meeting of the 7 th June, 1847. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Nos. 4 
and 5. — By the Academy. 

A cheap, simple, and concise method of obtaining early warning of any 
approach to Spontaneous Combustion or Ignition by Accident, on board of 
Steamers, Coal or other Ships, and of instantly conveying water nearly to the 
spot ; with some chemical notes and practical deductions for the use of sailors, 
by II. Piddington, Esq. — By the Author. 

Le Moniteur des Indes Orientales et Occidentales, No. 12. — By the 

On the Relation of Islam to the Gospel, translated from the German of 
Dr. J. A. Mochler, by the Rev. J. P. Menge. (2 copies.)— By J, Muir, Esq. 

184/.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 863 

Meteorological Register kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
for the month of June, 1847. — From the Surveyor General's Office. 

The Oriental Christian Spectator, Nos. 3 to 6. — By the Editor. 

The Calcutta Christian Observer, for June and July, 1847. — By the 

Journal Asiatique, No. 40. 
The Athenamm, 13 Nos. for 1847. 
The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, No. 84. 
The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, No. 201, 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Nos. 125 and 126. 
The Edinburgh Review, No. 172. 

Journal des Savans, for January, February and March, 1847. 
The Calcutta Review, No. 14. 
The North British Review, No. 12. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour the Curators' Reports were not 
received.* The thanks of the Society were voted as usual to the donors 
of books and papers, and of contributions to the Museum. 
Report of Curator, Zoological Department. 

The following are the donations to which I have, upon this occasion, to 
call the attention of the Society. 

1. From W. C. Thorburn, Esq. of Goalpara, I have received a collection 
birds, reptiles, fishes, and Crustacea, which has added a few species to the 
Museum, as the Emys dhonghoka, Gray and Hardwicke, and some small fishes 
described by Buchanan Hamilton. 

2. Mr. J. Weaver has favored us with a small collection of sundries, chiefly 
from the Sandheads ; comprising a small fish allied to Equula (which I have 
not yet identified), two human foetuses, some sea Snakes, &c. 

3. Mr. J. Reeve has sent a small Crocodile, 5£ feet long, of the species 
Crocodilus palustris, Lesson. 

4. E. B. Ryan, Esq. A stuffed specimen of a Leopard. 

5. J. C. Pepe, Esq. of Gurruckpore. A Boar skull, from the Nepal Terai, 
of the species or variety having a broad occiput, noticed in XV, 135. 

6. Mr. E. Lindstedt. A Porcupine (Hystrix), of the common small spe- 
cies inhabiting the Sunderbuns. 

7. Mr. Nathan Buckley. A specimen of a Limulus, or ' King Crab/ one 
of two species common at the mouth of the river. The present one is dis- 
tinguished (among other characters) by having a cylindrical tail : and one 
sex only of the other corresponds to the definition of Tachypleus, Leach. 

8. Mr. C. J. Madge. A living Bat, of the species Megaderma lyra. This 
Bat, which is the M. carnatica of Mr. Elliot, seems to be very generally 
diffused throughout India, being replaced in the Malay countries by M. 

* Mr. Blyth's MS. of his report received subsequenty to the meeting is now 

86 1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July. 

spasma (also in the Museum), and further east by the newly described M. 
philippinensis, Waterhouse, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 69 ; while in Africa it is repre- 
sented by the M. fronts. 

9. Capt. Phayre, of Moulmein. A young living specimen of a Binturong 
— Arctictis binturong, (Raffles,) v. Ictides ater, Valenciennes. This little 
animal is very tame and playful, having most of the actions of a kitten, 
combined with a few Ursine traits ; it also mews very like a young kitten 
when impatient of being left alone ; and if gratified by being noticed, it purrs, 
like the Felidce and many Viverridce (as the Paradoxuri). The prehensile 
power of the tail is very great, and exists throughout that organ ; by the 
extremity alone it will readily support its weight. By means of the limbs, 
also, it has great power of clinging, so as not to be easily dislodged when it 
has grasped a person by the leg, as it is rather fond of doing when suffered 
to run loose : indeed, though it bites only in play, its deciduary canines are 
so sharp that its fondness for grasping one's limbs is rather troublesome. 
Although its eyes, with the pupil contracted to the narrowest line during the 
day, indicate the naturally nocturnal habitude of the species, this animal is 
lively and always ready to play and frisk with any one, at all times of 
the day : the iris is of a light hazel colour. Mr. McClelland had a larger 
Binturong some time ago, from Assam, which was allowed its liberty, 
and passed its time chiefly upon a tree near his house ; from which, instead 
of descending the trunk when it wanted to come down, it would sometimes 
drop from a height of several feet, as is the habit of the Coatimondis (Nasua) 
of S. America, which, with the Binturong, belong to the group of true Planti- 
grada. Indeed, I think the Racoons (Procyon) have the same habit, another 
genus pertaining to the same division. 

10. From the Rev. J. Mason, of Mergui. Specimens of Calotes versi- 
color, and of Hemidactylus Coctcei, from the neighbourhood of Moulmein, 
and therefore valuable from the locality, — both reptiles being common in 
Calcutta. Also an imperfect skin of Pomatorhinus olivaceus, nobis, p. 451 
ante ; differing from the specimen previously described in having the crown 
of a more dusky olive than the back, though not slaty as in P. schisticeps. 

11. From Capt. Thos. Hutton, of Mussoorie. A few bird-skins, among 
which is one species new to the Museum, viz. Certhia himalayana, Vigors, 
v. asiatica, Swainson ; " common in the Deyra Doon." This is quite distinct 
from C. nipalensis, Hodgson, and from my C. discolor, inhabiting Sikim ; 
making three Himalayan species of typical Certhia. The C. spilonota, 
Franklin, has been at length obtained by Mr. Hodgson from Behar, and is 
described as a new generic form, by the name Salpornis, by Mr. G. R. 
Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H. (May) 1847, p. 352 ; and with it Mr. Gray describes, 
as a new genus and species, a Caulodromus Gracei, which is my Rimator 
malacoptilus, p. 155 ante (February 1847), founded on the identical specimen, 
which was lent me for the purpose of being described by Mr. Grace, and 
so labelled by me when I returned it. 

12. C.J. Bonnevie, Esq. of Rungpore. The limb-bones of a large Tiger. 
July 7th, 184/. E. Blyth. 

The following Supplementary Report refers to the Society's present collec- 
tion of Sciuridce, which was exhibited at the Meeting. 

Supplementary Report by the Curator, Zoological Department. 

The fine series of animals which I have now the pleasure to exhibit, illus- 
trative of the great Squirrel family — Sciuridce, comprises representatives of 
its three principal subordinate groups of Flying Squirrels, Ordinary Squirrels, 
and Marmots. 

184/.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 861 

Of the first, we possess 23 (select) mounted specimens, pertaining to the 
divisions Pteromys, Cuv., as at present restricted, and Sciuropterus, F. Cuvier. 

The species of restricted Pteromys are by no means satisfactorily determin- 
ed ; and I can only contribute a little towards their elucidation. The Socie- 
ty's specimens are as follow : — 

1. Pt. petaurista, (Pallas): Taguan of Buffon, from Malabar; Pt. oral, 
Tickell, Calc. Journ. N. H. II, 401 : Pt. philippensis, Gray, apud Elliot, 
Madr. Journ. No. XXV, 217. This is the only large Flying Squirrel of the 
peninsula of India, and probably of Ceylon ;* that of the Moluccas and Phi- 
lippine Islands can hardly be the same. In all the specimens I have seen 
(excepting a pale variety to be noticed afterwards), the terminal two-thirds or 
three-fourths of the tail were black or blackish, with rarely a little white at 
the extreme tip. Upper-parts dusky maronne-black, grizzled with whitish 
tips to the fur, terminating in inconspicuous black points : membrane and 
limbs above, much brighter and more rufous maronne : feet, muzzle, and 
around the eyes, black : and the under-parts are dingy brownish-grey. An 
individual variety, procured in Travancore by Lord Arthur Hay, is much 
paler than usual, being of a light maronne-brown above with yellowish-white 
tips ; the long hair behind the ears is pale rufous, instead of being dark ; 
the fore and hind feet only are, in part, blackish, especially the former ; the 
muzzle and around the eyes are dark brown ; and the tail has its terminal 
three-fifths uniform rufous-brown, a little darker at the tip, while its base is 
paler with minutely mingled whitish hairs : under-parts with scanty annulat- 
ed hairs, of a predominant pale colour ; and two white streaks extend longi- 
tudinally along the rows of mammse. Of this Indian species, I have retain- 
ed for the Museum a very fine specimen, from Travancore, presented by 
Lord Arthur Hay ; and an example of the young, brought alive to Midnapore 
probably from the Cuttack jungles, and presented (dead) by Mr. P. Homfrey. 

2. Pt. petaurista (?), var. cineraceus, nobis. The common large species 
of Arracan and the Tenasserim provinces, and the only large kind I have seen 
from that range of territory. Very like the preceding, but the whitish tips to 
the fur more predominating, imparting a hoary-grey appearance to the whole 
upper surface, and continued along the tail, the extreme tip only of which is 
blackish ; under-parts pure white, or nearly so, in different specimens ; and 
the rest of the colouring much as in the preceding variety (?) In both, the 
white tips to the fur predominate in the newly put forth pelage, and disap- 
pear to a great extent as the fur becomes old and worn. In the young of 
the Arracan race, the black extreme points of the fur are much developed. 
We have two adults, and a small young specimen, from Arracan, presented 
by Capt. Phayre ; and another adult, in worn pelage, and unusually rufescent 
with darker tail than ordinary, from Tenasserim, presented by the Rev. J. 

A third dark race, or species, of a bay-brown-colour above, variegated with 
white splashes, was procured at Malacca by Capt. Charleton, and has been 
described as Pt. punctatus by Mr. Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1846, p. 211.f 
It is perhaps identical with Pt. elegans of Dr. S. Muller, from Java. 

3. Pteromys albiventer, Gray, Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. : placed as a syno- 
nyme of the Malayan Pt. nitidus by Dr. Cantor, J. A S. XV, 252 ; six speei- 

* A notice of the habits of the Pteromys of that island is given in Major Forbes 's 
" Journal of a Residence of 11 years in Ceylon." 

Felis Charltoni, Gray, described on the same occasion, is merely an occasional varie- 
ty of F. bengalensis. Major Jenkins favored the Society with a living- specimen of this 
variety from Assam, and with two live specimens of the ordinary marking', all of which 
are now set up in the Museum. We have also an intermediate variety, which removes 
all doubt of the speciheal identity. 

SG6 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

mens, however, assigned to Nepal, are enumerated in Mr. Gray's Catalogue of 
the mammalia in the British Museum. A very fine example, procured (or the skin 
purchased) at Simla by Capt. Thomas, 39th Regt. 13. N. I, and by him pre- 
sented to the Society. This is perhaps an excessively stretched skin of Pt. mag- 
nificus ; but, in new pelage, the white tips to the fur are very little developed, 
and there is no pale colour upon the shoulders, nor on the sides and membrane 
above : under-parts throughout rufescent-white. Tail tipped with black as in 
Pt. magnificus, which is not represented in Hardwicke's figure of Pt. albiven- 
ter, though the tail of the latter is so short that it looks as if it had been mu- 
tilated of its black tip, as was doubtless the case with the original.* 

4. Pt. magnificus, (Hodgson,) J. A. S. V, 231. Specimen from Nepal, 
purchased of a Bhootea. Inhabits also the hill ranges of Assam, from whence 
Major Jenkins has favoured the Society with (imperfect) skins, entirely 
resembling those from the Himalaya proper. 

5. Pt. nobilis, (Gray,) Ann. Mag. N. H. 1842, p. 263 : Sciuropterus chry- 
sotrix, Hodgson, J. A. S. XIII, 67. Very fine specimen, with the pale 
dorsal streak complete, presented by Willis Earle, Esq. ; another, with dorsal 
streak between the shoulders only, and merely a slight trace over the croup, 
presented by Dr. Campbell ; both from Darjeeling : a third, without a trace 
of dorsal streak, purchased of a Bhootea. Neither of these has any whitish 
tips to the fur, as in Pt. magnificus j but, in all other respects, the last 
especially approximates Pt. magnificus so very closely, that I cannot but 
doubt its distinctness as a species. 

6. Pt. nitidus, Cuvier. Adult and young, from Malacca, presented by 
the Rev. F. J. Lindstedt. Hab. also Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, apud 

The remaining species, with shorter and distichous tail, appertain to the 
division Sciuropterus, F. Cuv. ; and all of them are well defined as species. 

7. Sciurojoterus caniceps, Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H, X, 262 : Pteromys senex, 
Hodgson, J. A. S. XIII, 68. Two specimens from Darjeeling : one present- 
ed by the lady of W. H. Oakes, Esq. C. S. ; the other procured by exchange. 

8. Sc.fimbriatus, Gray, M. N. H. n. s., Vol. I, p. 84. Two specimens : 
one from Simla, presented by L. C. Stewart, Esq., now of H. M. 29th Regt. ; 
the other in the Museum when I took charge of it. Inhabits the N. W. 
Himalaya. The colour of the upper-parts of this species resembles that of 
an English wild Rabbit. 

N. B. A species seemingly allied to Sc. fimbriatus, but one-fourth larger, 
was figured by Sir A. Burnes as the Moosh i baldar of the mountain dis- 
tricts of Nijrow, and identified by him as the "Flying Fox" of the transla- 
tion of Baber's memoirs (p. 145). A length of 2ft. is assigned to it ; where- 
as I doubt (from examination of several specimens) if Sc. fimbriatus would 
ever exceed 19in, at the most. The colour of the upper-parts is represented 
as pale fulvescent ashy-brown, darker on the limbs ; tail broad and bushy, 
and tipped with blackish : under-parts dull white, with a ferruginous margin 
to the membrane underneath. If verified, it might rank as Sc. Baberi, nobis. 

9. Sc. alboniger, Hodgson, J. A. S. V, 231 : Sc. Turnbullii, Gray, P. Z. 
S. 1837, p. 68 ; M. N. H. n. s. I, 68. Inhabits Nepal, Sikim, Bootan ; 
common at Darjeling. Three specimens, presented by C. S. Bonnevie, Esq., 
Mrs. Saxon, and J. Shave, Esq. 

10. Sc. villosus, nobis, n. s. .- referred to Sc. sagitta in Mr. Walker's 
Catalogue of Assamese mammalia, Calc. Journ. N. H. Ill, 266. Two speci- 

* The Pt. melanotis, Gray, M. N. H., n. s. I, 584, and originally assigned to Nepal, is 
referred to Java in Mr. Gray's subsequent catalogue of the British Museum collection 
of mammalia, and there identified with Pt. Diardii, Tern., and with the Pt. nitidus apud 
Gray of Hardwicke's ' Illustrations.' 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 867 

mens, presented by Mr. F. Bonynge, who procured tliem during his stay in 
Upper Assam ; and as the same gentleman gave one to Mr. Walker at the 
time of that naturalist's visit to his station in 1842, there can be no doubt of 
the identity of the species with that referred to sagitla by Mr. Walker. This 
animal presents a still nearer approach than does the last to the Malayan Sc. 
Horsfieldii, Waterhouse, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 87 (vel Pteromys aurantiacus, 
Wagner) ; but the tuft of long fine hair surrounding the ears readily distinguishes 
it,* also the smaller and clad ears, the brushes of hair impending the claws more 
especially of the hind-feet, and the last are much more densely covered-with 
hair : the fur of the upper-parts is besides less fine, and more grizzled ; and 
the blackish (or it might be termed black) base of the fur is more apparent 
on that of the lateral membrane ; in Sc. Horsfieldii the fur is not blackish 
at base, but of a dusky-grey colour. Of the same size and form as Sc. 
Horsfieldii and -Sc. alboniger, the present species is further distinguished from 
the latter by the bright ferruginous colour, with some pale tips intermingled, 
of its general upper surface ; by its strongly rufescent tail, pale towards the 
base, and the deep ferruginous tinge of the fur of the under surface of its 
lateral membranes, whieh also more or less imbues the entire under surface of 
the body. Length (of a large specimen) 16 inches, of which the tail measures 
half ; of the ear posteriorly f inch ; and tarse to end of claws 1^ inch. Mr. 
Bonynge favored me with an interesting notice of the crepuscular habits of 
this little animal, in common with the rest of its tribe ; and which recalled 
to mind Catesby's account of the little Flymg Squirrel of the United States 
(Sc. volucella), by the remarks that — " in the dusk of the evening, when 
making their downward" (i. e. gradually descending) " leap, they look more 
like falling leaves than anything else." He adds — " They are very difficult 
to be got, though plentiful enough. Whenever the Singphos can catch and 
kill them, they do so." 

(Sc. fuscocapillus, Jerdon. This is an undeseribed species, from S. India, 
a notice of which may be introduced here. Length 7a inch., of tail (vertebrae) 
6 inch., the hair reaching f- inch further : fore-foot proportionally large, 
measuring with claws li inch : hind-feet wanting in the only specimen 
examined. Ears small, and almost wholly naked, of an ovate form, and 
measuring h, inch long posteriorly. Tail very bushy, and but indistinctly 
distichous. Moustaches long and black. Fur rather long (the hairs measur- 
ing fully f inch on the back), porrect, of extremely fine texture, the indi- 
vidual piles sinuous, and those of the upper-parts fuscous to near the tips, 
which arc of a rufescent-fulvous hue, or dark brownish-isabelline, forming 
the surface colour ; on the croup the fur is shorter and more dense, somewhat 
as in Sc. genibarbis, (Horsf.) ; and upon the head it is much shorter, and the 
basal dusky hue predominates over the greyish-brown tips : above the volar 
membrane also the blackish hue is chiefly apparent. Under-parts rufous- 
white, extending to the cheeks and under-lip ; the lateral fur margining the 
membrane rufo-fulvous. The hairs of the tail measure 1 inch and upwards, 
for its basal half or more, becoming gradually rather shorter towards the tip ; 
their colour pale at base, then darker, producing an ensemble nearly of the 
colour of the back ; but underneath, the tail is fuscous or blackish-brown, 
and the extreme tip is whitish. 

11. Sc. spadiceus, nobis, n. s. pi. XXXVI, fig. 1. A diminutive species from 
Arracan, about 5 inch, in length, minus the tail, which measures 4| inch. ; tarse 
to end of claws 1^ inch. Upper surface bright ferruginous-bay in old speci- 
mens, with the membranes, limbs, and tail, dusky, and the basal fourth of the 
latter pale rufous underneath : under-parts dull white, with fur of a somewhat 

* In Sc. genibarbis, Uorsfield, tlic tuft below the ear is more marked and circum- 

J u 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

woolly texture : that of the upper-parts dusky exeept at tip. Three speci- 
mens, presented by Capt. Phayre. 

Zoologists who profess the opinion that nearly allied races of animals, 
respectively inhabiting different localities, and presenting constant differences 
of colouring and other trivial distinctive characters, should be set down as 
permanent local varieties of the same rather than as distinct allied species, — 
leaving it quite optional, however, which should be considered a species and 
which a variety, — and who, with M. M. Temminck and Schlegel, thus regard 
the Indian Sciurus purpureas as a permanent local variety of Sc. bicolor, or 
rather both as races of the same Sc. maximus, might well incline to reduce 
the whole series of restricted Pteromydes to the rank of varieties only of a 
single widely distributed species, however true they may be and are to their 
distinctions of colouring, and although two such marked races as Pt. niti- 
dus and Pt. punctatus inhabit together in the Malayan peninsula — both oc- 
curring in the vicinity of Malacca. But be this as it may, such various 
permanent races require discrimination : and the analogy of the Sciuropteri 
inhabiting the same countries, which are well distinguished apart by good 
specifical characters, and are even more numerous than the Pteromydes, would 
point to the conclusion that the latter are alike distinct and independent of 
each other, at least in the generality of cases, however closely they may re- 
semble ; and that theories on the geographical range of particular species, 
founded on the alleged specifical identity of what can only be presumed to 
be varieties of the same, rest upon a very insecure and disputable founda- 
tion. I add a summary of the distribution of the Indian Flying Squirrels, 
with those of the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, as far southward as 
the Straits of Malacca. — Those of Ceylon remain to be identified. In the 
Indian peninsula generally, from the jungles of central India to Travancore, 
there have only been observed the Pteromys petmrista, and Sciuropterus 
fuscocapillus lately discovered (I believe in the Nilgherries). In the Hima- 
laya, Pteromys albiventer, Pt. magnificus, and Pt. nobilis, would seem to appear 
successively, as we proceed from the N. W. to the S. E. ; and Sc. Baberi (?), 
Sc.fimbriatus, Sc. alboniger, and Sc. caniceps, present apparently a similar 
succession, — the two latter alone certainly occurring together, in Sikim. In 
the Assam ranges, Pt. magnificus re-appears, which would argue its existence 
in the intervening country ; and, indeed, it remains to ascertain whether Pt. 
albiventer and Pt. nobilis are really different from Pt. magnificus. Sc. villosus 
has been observed hitherto only in Assam. One or two species are found in 
Sylhet that I have not yet seen. In Arracan, there appear to be only the 
Pt. petaurista (?), var. cineraceus, which extends southward to the Tenasserim 
provinces, and the diminutive Sc. spadiceus. Lastly, the Malayan peninsula 
yields Pt. nitidus and Pt. punctatus, and Sc. Horsfieldii and Sc. genibarbis. 
From the great eastern archipelago the Society does not possess a single 

Of the ordinary Squirrels (Sciurus), we may commence with a group of 
large species, or (more or less ?) permanent races, peculiar to S. E. Asia and 
its islands ; the whole of which are but local varieties of a single species, in 
the opinion of some zoologists. 

1 . Sc. purpureas, Zimmerman : Sc. maximus (in part), Schreber ; Sc. 
bombayensis, Baddaert ; Sc. indicus, Erxleben ; Sc. Elphinstonii, Sykes. 
These synonymes, copied from Mr. Gray, and to which may be added Sc. 
malabaricus, Schinz, I believe to be correctly assigned to the common great 
Squirrel peculiar to the peninsula of India. So far as I have seen, it varies 
chiefly in the development of the black on the shoulders and fore-limbs, 
and that of the croup and thighs, which last is very commonly wanting, the 
former rarelv more than reduced ; the tail also has more or less black or 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 869 

maronne-red above, with usually (if not always) a pale tip ; the under-parts 
are more or less deep-coloured ; and the relative proportion of the colours of 
the head is subject to variation, its dark portion being generally maronne 
when little developed, blackish when more extended : the line proceeding 
downward from the front of the ear is of very constant (if not invari- 
able) occurrence; and may be presumed to exist in the black variety 
mentioned by Mr. Elliot (Madras Journ. X, 217), distinguishing it from the 
black race so common in the countries eastward of the Bay of Bengal. The 
great development of the fur upon the ear seems always to characterize this 
Indian race or species, and in a less degree the Himalayan and Assamese 
specimens of our No. 3 ; while in Arracan, Tenasserim, and Malayan speci- 
mens of the latter, and in the Cinghalese and Javan races, the ears are clad 
with very short hairs, as in the generality of Indian and Malayan Sciuri* 
I have retained three specimens for the Museum of Sc. purpureus, all set up 
while fresh by the Society's taxidermists. 

2. Sc. macrourus, Forster (nee Say) : also White-legged Squirrel, Pennant, 
' Quadrupeds,' II, 407 ; and Sc. ceylonensis, Boddaert. PL XXXVI, fig. 2. 
Mr. Gray refers this name to a Javanese race or species ; and certainly Dr. 
Horsfield's figure assigned by him to Sc. bicolor, in the ' Zoological Researches 
in Java,' approximates the Ceylon animal considerably. In general, it has 
been placed as a synonyme of the preceding species ; but the race has at 
least as good a claim to rank separately, as have either of the two next. 
The ears are clad with short hair, instead of being densely tufted : and the 
colouring is remarkably different. The Ceylon specimen figured (presented 
by Dr. R. Templeton, of Colombo,) measures about 2ft. long, of which the 
tail is half, its hair reaching l|in. further. Colour of the upper^parts dull 
maronne-black, much grizzled with whitish tips on the sides, croup, and 
haunches, and slightly o* the back and shoulders ; the croup having numer- 
ous buffy-white hairs intermixed : basal three-fifths of the tail black, with 
long white tips to the hairs, and a white median line underneath (or behind) ; 
the rest or terminal portion brown with less conspicuously developed white 
tips, except at the end, where these gradually disappear : cheeks, under-parts, 
and limbs, almost pure white, with a slight fulvescent tinge ; but there is an 
abruptly defined blackish patch on the upper portion of the fore-limbs 
externally, passing upward to the shoulder, a corresponding grizzled patch 
on the hind-limbs continuous with the colouring of the croup and haunches, 
and the toes of all the feet are blackish : there is also a blackish patch on the 
crown of the head, and a few blackish hairs on the white cheeks ; a dull 
whitish occipital band behind the ears ; and the short fur upon the outside 
of the ears is whitish, excepting a slight black pencil anteriorly. — The only 
other specimen I have seen was procured in Travancore, and sent to me on 
loan by Walter Elliot, Esq. ; and I took of it a minute description, which I 
here subjoin.t 

* Upon the whole, the variation I have observed in different individuals of this race, 
from distantly separated localities, is, after all, but trifling, and does not appear to be 
influenced by locality. 

t Length about 21 inches, of which the tail measured 9 inches, or with its hair 10 inches. 
Fur of the upper-parts coarse and rigid at tip, a little waved, or not lying even and 
smooth ; the basal two-thirds fine and soft, of an umbre-brown colour, as is also the first 
portion of the thicker extremity ; the tips being of a pale straw-colour, imparting a 
grizzled appearance : crown of the head, and base of the anterior limbs, darker ; rest 
of the head, with the occiput, throat, breast, and the four limbs, pale isabella-brown, 
or dirty straw-colour, the hair along each side of the belly conspicuously longer (as 
likewise in the Ceylon specimen) ; that of the under-parts, and beneath the fore-limbs, 
short and much frizzled, and tinged with ferruginous : the toes of all the feet are black- 
sh-brown above : tail coloured like the back at base, the brown colour predominating 

5 V 2 

870 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Julv, 

A. Sc. bicolor, Spamnan, apiul Horsfield, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 151 j 
also apud Schinz, and Cantor, J. A. S. XV, 2-16 : Sc. affinis, Raffles (the pale 
variety, which is also Sc. aureiventris, Is. Geoffroy) ; Sc. giganteus, McClel- 
land, described in P. Z. S. loc. cit. ; Sc. macrouroides, Hodgson, enumerated 
(not described) as new in J. A. S. X, 915 (1841). That Sparrman's brief 
Latin diagnosis applies very well to the present race or species is undeniable j 
but as it was founded on a Javanese specimen, and there would appear to be 
some doubt whether the race under consideration inhabits Java, Mr. Gray 
refers the name bicolor to another and well known Javanese race, placing it 
as a synonyme of Sc. javensis, Schreber ; while for the animal here treated 
of, he adopts the name macrouroides, Hodgson, which yields precedence to 
rjiganteus of McClelland, as applied to the same dark variety of the race. 
Regarding, however, (with Dr. Cantor,) the pale variety common in the Malayan 
peninsula as, without doubt, specifically the same as the ordinary dark 
variety, the rejection of the name bicolor for this race would render it neces- 
sary to adopt the name affinis, Raffles, for the normally coloured or dark 
variety as well as for the pale variety, and notwithstanding that Raffles alludes 
to the former by the name Sc. maximus, under which Schreber comprehends 
what are here provisionally regarded as different species of these great 
Squirrels. But it remains to ascertain, upon sufficient authority, whether it 
be true that the present race does not inhabit Java. Schinz, who describes 
it correctly, gives Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Ceylon, as habitats — the last 
named locality doubtless following from his mal-identifi cation of Sc. macrou- 
rus of Ceylon with the race under review. In the Malayan peninsula it 
abounds (and there alone it would seem that the pale variety occurs) ; also, 
proceeding northward, in Tenasserim, Arracan, Sylhet, Munneepore, and 
Assam, as well as in the S. E. Himalaya, as especially about Darjeeling. In 
specimens from all this range of territory, the dark variety exhibits no 
variation worth mentioning, (certainly no local variation,) except that the ears 
of Himalayan and Assamese specimens are pretty densely tufted (though less 
so than in Sc. purpureas), while this is not the case with those from Arracan, 
Tenasserim, and the Malayan peninsula. In adults, the upper-parts seem to 
be always deep black in the new pelage, becoming bleached and oftentimes 
very rusty as the fur gets old, especially upon the back towards the croup ; 
and this faded fur may be commonly seen to be succeeded by deep black fur 
in specimens that were changing their coat. The young would seem to be 
always thus rusty above, and when small are very pale about the croup. The 
under-parts are more or less deep-coloured in different individuals. A black 
band on the cheek, descending backward from before the eye, is of very 
regular occurrence ; and above this, the yellowish-white colour is more or 
less continued forward ; the sides of the upper lip are sometimes black, some- 
times white, or with black and white hairs intermixed. The following speci- 
mens have been retained for the Museum. One from Darjeeling, presented 
by the late Mr. Webb of that place ; one from Arracan (with some pale 
hairs intermixed along the tail), presented alive by Capt. J. R. Abbott; one 
from Amherst (remarkably fine), presented by E. O'Ryley, Esq. ; another, 
from Mergui, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe ; and one from Malacca, by the 
Rev. F. J. Lindstedt. Also two specimens of the pale variety, from Malacca, 
presented by Mr. Frith and Mr. E. Lindstedt. 

4. Sc. javensis, Schreber, var. — Mr. Gray, in his catalogue of the mam- 
malia in the British Museum, still admits three Javanese races of these large 
Squirrels, as distinct : adopting the name hypoleucos, Horsfield, for one of 

about the middle, and whitish at the end.— This description does not exactly tally with 
the Ceylon specimen ; but the species is the same, beyond all question, and the general 
similarity of the two specimens is considerable. 

1847-] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 8M 

them, and macrourus, Forster, for another : but the latter, as we have seen, 
must be reserved for the Cinghalese race ; and the former was subsequently 
considered by Dr. Horsfield as " a mere variety of Sc. Leschenaultii," (i. e. 
javensis). A single specimen in the Society's collection, presented by the 
Batavian Society, is of a uniform fuscous-brown above and along the upper 
surface of the tail ; the sides rather paler and obscurely grizzled with a lighter 
hue ; the anterior part of the head whitish, passing off gradually in whitish 
tips on the crown : shoulders more distinctly grizzled ; and the entire under- 
pays and limbs externally sullied white, inclusive of the anterior portion of 
the outside of the thigh ; ears pale and rusty, as are also the cheeks and sides 
of the neck : and the tail underneath is whitish throughout its length, 
bordered externally (i. e. the hairs tipped) with the hue of the upper-parts : 
whiskers long and black. The structure is absolutely as in the preceding- 

5. Sc. Rafflesii, Vigors : Sc. Prevostii, Desm., apud Schinz : Sc. rufogu- 
laris et rafoniger, Gray, apud Cantor (who expresses his suspicion that Sc. 
redemitus, Van der Boon, will prove to be another variety of the same). 
Two Malacca specimens; one presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq., the other 
procured by exchange : and a remarkable variety, according to Dr. Cantor, 
(nearly allied to that termed rufoniger by Mr. Gray,) with no white anterior 
to the shoulder, which is replaced by black mingled with rufous on the face, 
and by rufous on the neck and humerus : there is also a broad lateral band 
of greyish-white tips to the fur above the ordinary white lateral band ; the ' 
fur of the haunches is tipped with albescent-brown ; and the tail is clad with 
broadly white-tipped hairs, except at its extreme tip and base above. Dr. 
C. has a variety, from the Malayan peninsula, in some degree intermediate to 
this and to the ordinarily coloured Malayan individuals. The specimen here 
described is doubtless from the Archipelago, having been presented by the 
Batavian Society : Schinz states it to inhabit Borneo and Malacca. 

The following four races (and seemingly others) have the same claim to be 
considered local varieties of a single species, as have the various great Squir- 
rels exemplified by Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 : but each would seem to be always 
true to its particular colouring (in its own proper habitat) ; and it is difficult 
to conceive that local causes should exercise so much influence in modifying 
the coloration, or that variable species should continue so very true to their 
colouring over a great extent of country as is the case with the several races 
under consideration. 

6. Sc. hippurus, Is. Geoff. : Sc. rufogaster, and probably Sc. castaneoven- 
tris, Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1842, p. 263. From the Malayan peninsula. 
Body above, from occiput to base of tail, fulvous-brown picked with black, 
continued a little way on the tail ; rest of the tail black : head, sides of neck, 
and limbs externally, grizzled dark ashy, contrasting strongly with the fulvous 
hue of the back : under-parts, and inside of limbs, deep rufo-ferruginous, 
and generally an admixture of the same upon the ears. Two specimens : one 
presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq. ; the other procured by exchange. 

7. Sc. rufiventer ( ?), Geoftroy :* Sc. erythrog aster, nobis, J. A. S. XI, 
970 ; Sc. hypopyrrhus ( ?), Wagler, Schinz (No. 34). From northern Assam 
and Munneepore. Throughout dusky-ash above, picked with fulvous, nearly 
as upon the head and limbs of the preceding race : below deep rufo-ferru- 
ginous, as in the latter : hairs of the tail annulated black and fulvous, with 
long black tips occupying more and more of each hair to the end, where 
they become wholly black, and the terminal two-thirds of the tail appear to 

* This was supposed to be N. American : but the species inhabiting- N. America are 
now tolerably well known, especially since Dr. Bachman's researches ; and none cone- 
ponding- with the description of Sc, rufiventer has been there discovered. " 

8/2 Proceedings of (he Asiatic Society. [July, 

be thus almost wholly black externally. Specimen from Munneepore, pre- 
sented by Capt. C. S. Guthrie.* 

8. Sc. erythrceus, Pallas. From Lower Assam and Cherra Poonjee. Re- 
sembles the last, but is more fulvescent, and the sides of the neck and out- 
side of the limbs tend to be a little more ashy than the rest, but not con- 
trasting strongly (as in the Malayan race) : terminal three-fourths of the 
tail of the same deep rufous as the under-parts, with a pale and sometimes 
whitish extreme tip. Ears also red. Two specimens from Cherra Poonjee, 
presented by F. Skipwith, Esq. ; and two small young, from Assam, present- 
ed in spirit by Major Jenkins, and since stuffed ; these latter have much black 
towards the base of the tail, especially underneath. 

.9. Sc. Keraudrenii, Lesson, Cent. Zool. pi. I. ; Sc. ferrugineus, Cuv. 
(M. S. ?), apud Schinz. From Arracan and Pegu. Entirely of a deep rufo- 
ferruginous colour, rather darker above than below, the fur of the upper-parts 
somewhat glistening : toes of all the feet blackish, as in the three preceding ; 
and the extreme tip of the tail yellowish-white. Two specimens from Arra- 
can, presented by Capt. Phayre.f 

10. Sc. vittatus, Raffles : Sc. bivittatus, Desmarest.J This retains the 
rufous belly of the preceding species, but the colour is weaker ; there is also 
a rufous tip to the tail : the size is smaller, and a new feature of colouring 
presents itself in the two contiguous lateral stripes, the upper white and the 
lower black, which separate the grizzled colouring of the back from the 
rufous of the belly. It abounds in the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, &c. ; 
and numerous specimens have been presented to the Society, of which three 
are retained for the Museum. 

11. Sc. nigrovittatus, Horsfield : Sc. griseoventer, Is. Geoffroy. This 
differs chiefly from the last in having the under-parts albescent greyish in- 
stead of rufous, and there is no rufous at the tip of the tail, but a little at 
its base underneath ; terminal half of the tail obscurely ringed : the upper 
lateral stripe is tinged with fulvous ; and there is a rufous tinge on the 
cheeks. Specimen from Malacca, presented by C. Huffnagle, Esq. Hab. also 

12. Sc. atrodorsalis ( ?), Gray, Ann. Mag. N. II. 1842, p. 263 : PI. XXXVII, 
fig. 2. Size of Sc. vittatus, with an exceedingly fine bushy tail. Upper-parts 
golden-fulvous grizzled with black ; the former predominating, especially 
upon the head : a broad longitudinal deep black patch on the back and croup, 
commencing behind the shoulders, and becoming evanescent posteriorly : 
breast and under-parts light rufescent, deepening towards the tail, the hairs 
of which are black with long pale ferruginous (or rufous-isabelline) tips : 

* Very close to this must be Sc. pygerythrus, Is. Geoff, (in the Zoology of Belanger's 
Voyage), " from the forests of Syriam in Pegu." Colour brown picked with fulvous 
above, below bright rufous, extending up the base of the median line of tail, which latter 
is coloured like the back and indistinctly annulated. — Specimen a, assigned to Sc. ery- 
thrceus in Mr. Gray's catalogue of the mammalia in the British Museum, seems referribie 
to this. 

t Specimen b, from Bhotan, assigned by Mr. Gray to Sc. erythrceus (Brit. Mus. 
Catal.J, is described to have the " tail-end black, top of the head bright rufous ; throat 
grey, grizzled; belly duller red." His specimen c has the " tail-e/tcZ, bright red:" 
India only being given as the locality. The bright rufous top of the head shows a gra- 
dation towards Sc. Keraudrenii. 

X Prof. Schinz refers this to the subsequently described Sc.flavimanus, Is. Geoff, (in 
the Zoology of M. Belanger's Voyage) : the latter is stated by M. Is. Geoffroy to be 
very closely allied to Sc vittatus, but to be distinguished by having the upper surface 
of the feet, front and outside of the fore-arm, and above the muzzle, fulvous: tail 
not tipped with rufous, but annulated to its extremity ; and there is no white line 
along the flanks. Hab. Ceylon or Cochin China,— in all probability the latter, rather 
than the former, locality. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 873 

whiskers long and white. Specimen presented by the Rev. J. Barbe, from 
the Tenasserim province of Ye.* 

13. Sc. chrysonotus, nobis, n. s. (PI. XXXVII, fig. 1) : a dull-coloured 
specimen described in J. A. S. X, 920. Size of Sc. Rafflesii, or measuring 
about 20in. long, of which the tail is half, its hair reaching 2in. or 2^in. further. 
General colour grizzled fulvous above, the limbs and tail grizzled ashy (from 
each hair being annulated with black and pale fulvescent), with an abruptly 
defined black tip to the latter : under-parts and inside of limbs pale grizzled 
ashy : in bright specimens, the nape, shoulders, and upper-part of the back, 
are vivid light ferruginous or golden-fulvous, sometimes continued to the 
tail, more generally shading off gradually towards the rump, and in some 
but slightly developed even upon the nape and shoulders : whiskers long 
and black ; and slight albescent pencils to the ears, more or less developed. 
Common in the Tenasserim provinces. Five picked specimens, presented by 
the Rev. J. Barbe, and E. O'Ryley, Esq., of Amherst. 

14. Sc. lokroides ( ?), Hodgson, J. A. S. V, 232 : Sc. assamensis, Mc- 
Clelland, apud Gray, who regards this as different from Sc. lokroides of Nepal ; 
but Mr. Hodgson's description of the latter fully applies.f From examination 
of a very considerable number of specimens, collected at Darjeeling, different 
parts of Assam, Cherra Poonjee, Tipperah, and Arracan, I can perceive no 
diversity whatever, in those from different localities, unless it may be, perhaps, 
on the average, that the Himalayan specimens are somewhat more rufescent 
underneath ; but every gradation is even here observable. Mr. Gray, however, 
extends the range of Sc. assamensis to Darjeeling ; and I have seen no specimens 
from Nepal proper. It is nearly allied to the preceding species, but is smaller, 
with rarely a trace of the black tip to the tail, and the nape and shoulders are 
uniformly coloured with the rest of the upper-parts : the whole being more 
or less rufescent in different specimens, in a slight degree only ; and some- 
times when most so, the under-parts are most albescent, or scarcely sullied. In 
some the tail is very rufescent underneath, on the median line nearly through- 
out its length. I retain for the Museum two Darjeeling specimens, presented 
by Mrs. Saxon and C. S. Bonnevie, Esq. ; two from Assam, presented by Major 
Jenkins andW. C. Thorburn, Esq.; one (half grown), from Cherra Poonjee, 
presented by F. Skipwith, Esq. ; and three from Arracan, presented by Capt. 
Phayre and Capt. Abbott. 

14, a. In the collection of a native gentleman (who has obligingly favored me 
with the loan of the animal, for comparison with the various allied species), is a 
living specimen of a Squirrel, (pi. XXXVII, fig. 3,) habitat unknown, which 
differs from Sc. lokroides (? v. assamensis) in having the under-parts and inside 
of limbs deep ferruginous as in the next, except the throat and breast, passing 
along the median line of the belly, which parts are of a deep grizzled ash-colour 
without a tinge of rufous, and much of the same hue as the crown and exterior 
of the limbs and feet : the body and tail having a fulvescent tinge, but less 
strong than is usual in Sc. lokroides ; and the tail being slightly black-tipped, 
but with pale ends to the hairs. The rufous of the under-parts does not 
extend underneath the tail. It this be considered distinct and new, it may 
bear the name Sc. griseopectus, nobis. 

15. Sc. lokriah (?), Hodgson, J. A. S.V, 232: Sc. subflaviventris, Mc- 

* Sc. atrodorsalis, Gray, is assigned to Bhotan.— " Gray ; middle of the back blackish, 
slightly grizzled; cheeks and whiskers yellowish; ears, chest, belly, and under side of 
limbs, dull rufous : tail blackish— hair with abroad black central band." Not impro- 
bably a dull specimen of that above described, with the locality erroneous. 

t Mr. Gray refers Sc griseoventer, Is. Geoff. (Zoology of Belanger's Voyage), from 
Java, to Sc. assamensis, instead of to Sc. nigrovittatus, Horsfield, with which it agrees 

874 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

Clelland, apud Gray, who considers it distinct from Sc. lokriah of Nepal ; 
though again the original description of the latter fully applies. Nearly 
allied to the last, but more rufescent, and deeper ferruginous below ; the 
tail more or less deeply ferruginous underneath or behind, where bordered 
on each side with black subterminal and pale extreme tips. Two specimens 
from Darjeeling, presented by Mrs. Oakes and the late Mr. Webb ; one from 
Cherra Poonjee, presented by the late Dr. Griffith ; and a small specimen 
from Arracan, and a bad skin of another, presented by Capt. Phayre, — both 
of these having the under-parts considerably paler than is usual in Darjeeling 
specimens, though occasionally the latter are equally pale. In Arracan this 
species inhabits a higher elevation than "No. 14. 

16. Sc. tenuis, Horsfield : Sc. annulatus, Desmoulins ; Sc. modestus, S. 
Muller.* Nearly allied to the last, but smaller, and the under-parts dingy 
rufescent-whitish. Inhabits Java and Borneo. Specimen presented by the 
Batavian Society. 

We now come to the group of small striped Squirrels, of which three 
sub-groups may be distinguished. The first of these has a median white 
line along the back. 

17. Sc. palmarum, Lin.: c. penicillatus, Leach, Zool. Misc., I, tab. 1. 
Mr. Gray refers the following species to this latter ; but I am satisfied that 
he is incorrect in doing so : no mention is made by Dr. Leach of the rufous 
underneath the tail, which is so prominent a characteristic of Sc. tristriatus j 
the sides are said to be " pale yellowish," which applies to palmarum and 
not to tristrialus j and Dr. Leach's specimen was taken from a nest formed 
in a library at Madras, which (so far as I have seen of the habits of the two 
species) decides at once in favour of palmarum : I doubt much whether Sc. 
tristriatus ever enters buildings ; whereas I have observed Sc. palmarum to 
abound in the town of Madras. The discrimination of the two species is 
undoubtedly due to the late accomplished Curator of the Zoological Society's 
Museum (now employed at the British Museum), and I have pleasure, there- 
fore, in restoring to him the nomination of Sc. tristriatus, the more especial- 
ly as Leach's figure of his (so called) penicillatus is execrable, and the cha- 
racter upon which it is separated from Sc. palmarum most unsatisfactory. 
Of these two nearly allied species, Sc. palmarum only is found on the allu- 
vium of Lower Bengal, where, as also in the plains of Upper India, it is the 
only representative of this vast genus. The specimens I have had set up 
were obtained on the Society's premises. 

18. Sc. tristriatus, Waterhouse, Mag. N. H. 1837, p. 496 ; Proc. Zool, 
Soc. 1839, p. 118. Two specimens set up, of many procured by myself in 
the Midnapore jungles; and a third, from Ceylon, presented by Dr. R. 
Templeton, of Colombo. It is remarkable that the voice of this little animal 
is most particularly unlike that of the preceding species ; though, in both of 
them, the notes are pretty sure to be mistaken for the chirruping of birds, 
by persons unacquainted with the sound ;f the voice of Sc. tristriatus first 
attracted my attention in the jungle, and I watched for it some time in the 
supposition that it was a bird I had not met with before. Sc. palmarum was 
found about equally common in the same situations : but I think the tendency 
of this is to approach human habitations, and of Sc. tristriatus to avoid 
them. The size and proportions of recent examples of these two species 
(examined together) are absolutely the same; but the diversity of voice, and 

* Sc. philippinemis, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 117, would also seem to come very 

t This chirruping voice would help to ally these small striped Squirrels to the equally 
striped Tamias subgroup, as exemplified by the Chipping Squirrel of N. America, T. 

1847.] 'Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 875 

that of habit as shown by one only of them extending its range to the Gange- 
tic delta, superadded to the slight though constant differences of colouring 
(alike in Sc. tristriatus from the jungles N. W. of Midnapore to Ceylon), 
indicate the extreme caution necessary ere we conclude other allied races to 
be merely varieties of the same, from their general similarity of size and 
colouring. — N. B. The Palm Squirrel of Pennant's ' Quadrupeds' (II, 415), 
from Ceylon, with "an obscure pale yellow stripe on the middle of the back," 
&c, may perhaps prove to be a third allied species of this subgroup, and 
there may be others yet undiscriminated. 

Other species have a black medial dorsal line, as the two next which are 
closely allied, and have conspicuous small white-tipped pencil-tufts to the 

19. Sc. McClcllandii, Horsfield, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 152 : Sc. Pembertonii, 
nobis, J. A. S. XI, 887. Inhabits Sikim, Bootan, and the hill ranges of 
Upper Assam. Two specimens from Darjeeling ; presented by the late Mr. 
Webb and Mrs. Oakes. This diminutive species has a deep black median 
dorsal streak, and two much less conspicuous brown lateral streaks, divided 
from the former by dull pale streaks of the same breadth with the last, and 
beyond the lateral dark streak is one of an albescent-buff colour : tail 
margined behind nearly as in Sc. lokriah, or rufous subterminated with black, 
and tipped with brownish-buff. 

20. Sc. Barbel, nobis, n. s. (PI. XXXVI, fig. 3). Resembles the last in size 
and structure, but is much more vividly coloured. There are five distinct 
black bands, three of equal length and breadth, the outermost less developed ; 
alternating with four rusty-whitish bands, of which the two outer are rather 
brighter than the two inner, and are continued forward to the moustaches, 
passing beneath the eye : under-parts and inside of limbs bright pale ferru- 
ginous : the tail margined behind as in the preceding species, or rufous, each 
hair subterminated with black, but tipped with white. Three specimens, from 
the Tenasserim province of Ye, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe. 

The next would seem to form an analogous little subgroup with Sc. in- 
signis, Horsf., of Sumatra and Java. 

21. Sc. sublineatus, Waterhouse, P. Z. S. 1838, p. 19: Sc. Delesserti, 
Guerin, Mag. Zool. 1842, and Zoologie du Voyage de 31. Ad. Delessert, where 
figured. Inhabits the Nilgherries. Specimen presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq. 
This minute Squirrel has remarkably dense close fur (as described of Sc. 
insignis), of a dark grizzled olive-colour, tinged with tawney, and having 
three pale lines alternating with four dark ones on the back and croup ; the 
outer dark lines narrower and somewhat less dark than the others. It has 
thus the median line pale, as in Sc. palmarum and Sc. tristriatus j whereas 
Sc. insignis is described to have the median line dark (but this, I suspect, needs 
confirmation) : under-parts dull tawney : the tail grizzled dusky and ferru- 

22. Sc. vulgaris, Lin. Specimens in summer and winter pelage, presented 
by Mr. Bartlett and by the Cornish Institution. Inhabits Europe and 
Northern Asia. 

23. Sc. hudsonius, Pallas. N. America. Presented by Mr. Bartlett. 
Finally, of the Marmots, we possess — 

Arctomys bobac, Schreber : Mus arctomys, Pallas : Arct. himalayanus and 
A. tibetanus, Hodgson, J. A. S. X, 777, and XII, 409. Adult and young 
(not in good condition), the former presented by Capt. Huddleston, who 
brought it from Almorah ; the latter procured near Darjeeling by the late 
Mr. Webb : and a living young one, now more than half grown, presented 
by G. A. Bushby, Esq., as noticed in p. 385 ante. This little animal con- 
tinues in perfect health and vigour, and has only now (in the middle of July) 

5 x 

$76 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July. 

just put forth its shorter summer pelage. It does not appear to be in the 
least degree distressed by the temperature of Lower Bengal, but is, in gene- 
ral, merely kept away from direct sunshine during the heat of the day : and 
(as always with this genus) it is perfectly fearless and tame, but without 
distinguishing individuals. It makes a loud chattering cachinnation not 
unfrequently. At first, when turned loose, this Marmot used generally to 
collect as much grass as he could carry, and take it to the place where he 
was kept ; but I have not observed him to do this of late, though he pro- 
bably again will by and bye. 

I will now consider the range of distribution of our Indian true Sciuri, 
and those inhabiting the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, as far south- 
ward as the Straits of Malacca. 

As with the Flying Squirrels, the group of true Sciuri is not much deve- 
loped in India proper. Thus, in the peninsula and Ceylon, only five species 
are known, all pertaining to subgroups peculiar to this part of the world, — 
viz. that of the gigantic Squirrels (the races or species of which are brought 
together by some Zoologists as varieties only of Sc. maximus, Schreber), and 
that of the diminutive so called Palm Squirrels.* Of the latter, Sc. palma- 
rum would seem to be diffused generally over the plains, where it is the only 
species met with ; as in the Gangetic delta, beyond which it does not pass 
eastward (that I have been able to learn), nor into Assam, while to the north 
it ranges to the foot of the hill country, and in a N. W. direction till checked 
by the great deserts.f Southward, it is said to inhabit Ceylon, and to abound 
on the table-land of the Deccan : while in more undulating ground it is 
found together with the next species. Sc. tristriatus takes the place of Sc. 
palmarum in more hilly districts, to a moderate elevation ; abounding along 
the ranges of ghats on either coast of the peninsula, also in Ceylon, and 
extending northward to the borders of the Gangetic delta, and thence west- 
ward into centtal India : it probably also occurs on the Rajmahl and Mon- 
ghyr hills in Bengal, if not also in the sub-Himalayan sal forest ; but 
further observations are required to trace satisfactorily its geographic 
range, as it has been very generally confounded with Sc. palmarum. 
The little Sc. trilineatus is exclusively a hill species, confined to a more 
elevated range of country; having been hitherto observed only in the 
Nilgherries : but a representative of it (if not the identical species) might 
be looked for in Ceylon, if not also in the Mahabuleishwar. Of the two great 
Squirrels, Sc. purpureus seems to be generally diffused, or nearly so, through- 
out the hill jungles of the peninsula ; except perhaps in the extreme south 
and in Ceylon, where Sc. macrourus inhabits and probably replaces it. The 
Sc. dschinschicus, Gm. (v. ginginianus, Shaw), founded on VEcureil de Gingi 
of Sonnerat, and probably the same with Sc. albovittaius, Desmarest, — a 
species apparently allied to Sc. plantani of Sumatra and Java, — is greatly in 
need of confirmation as an inhabitant of India. 

Passing now to the Himalaya, I have no information respecting the species 
(if any) inhabiting the N. W., or Alpine Punjab, or even to the westward 
of Nepal ; but to the S. E. (as in eastern Nepal, Sikim, Bootan), there is 
the large black Squirrel, Sc. bicolor apud nos, which spreads thence to the 
hill ranges of Assam, and those of Munneepore, Sylhet, Arracan, Tenasserim, 

' I cannot say that I have absolutely never seen Sc. palmarum upon a palm ; but it 
assuredly does not resort much to the Pahnacecc. These diminutive striped Squirrels 
come very much on the ground, as their affinities with the Ground Squirrels (Tamius) 
would intimate . and are about equally terrestrial and arboreal : they arc continually 
seen, with feathery tail upraised, running- about and crossing one's path on the ground ; 
bul immediately retreat to a tre« upon alarm. 

t S.XV, 168. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Sec, at least as far as the Straits of Malacca : also, in Nepal, the allied S.c. 
lokriah and Sc. lokroides, of the size of Sc. vulgaris ; which a little further 
east (as in Sikiin) would be represented, according to Mr. Gray, respectively 
by Sc. subflaviventris and Sc. assamensis of McClelland — though the latter 
certainly accord with the descriptions of Sc. lokriah and Sc. lokroides, and 
I cannot but very strongly suspect them to be the same. Both these Sikim 
species continue their range to the Assamese mountains, and with them a 
diminutive striped Squirrel — Sc. McClellandii, which probably inhabits a 
greater elevation.* 

In Bootan, besides the last four, there should be, according to Mr. Gray, 
Sc. erythrceus (vai\, with " top of the head bright rufous"), Sc. caniceps,f and 
Sc. atrodorsalis ; but it is not improbable that the localities of the two latter 
are given erroneous!} 7 , — the last seeming to be my Tenasserim species (No. 12), 
referred to the same with a mark of doubt. 

Upon the hill ranges of Assam, the same species occur as in Bootan — at 
least the four that range thence from Sikim : while Sc. rufiventer (1 with 
black tail) abounds to the northward, and in the hills surrounding the valley 
of Munneepore ; the very doubtfully distinct Sc. erythrceus (with rufous tail) 
representing it southward, and about Cherra Poonjee (north of Sylhet). 

In Sylhet, Tipperah, and Arracan, Sc. lokroides ( ? v. assamensis) conti- 
nues very abundant ; and probably also Sc. lokriah ( ? v. subflaviventris) at 
a greater elevation, as certainly in Arracan : and in the last named province 
the entirely red Sc. Keraudrenii abundantly replaces Sc. erythrceus of Lower 
Assam and Cherra Poonjee, and has the same claim with Sc. rufiventer ( ?) 
to be considered a mere variety of Sc. erythrceus. In Pegu, there is again 
the Sc. pygerythrus, Is. Geoff"., additional to Keraudrenii (though probably 
not in the same localities), which also would seem to exhibit but another 
variation of the same specific ( ?) type. Sc. bicolor, Sc. Keraudrenii, Sc. 
lokriah ( ?), and Sc. lokroides ( ?), are the only true Squirrels which I know 
to inhabit Arracan. 

Proceeding further south, in the Tenasserim provinces we only recognise 
the large Sc. bicolor, among the preceding species : and there is a diminu- 
tive striped Squirrel, Sc. Barbel, w r hich is nearly allied to Sc. McClellandii of 
Sikim, Bootan, and N. Assam. The only others I know are Sc. chrysonotus, 
which seems to be very common, and may be said to represent Sc. lokroides 
( ?) of Arracan, &c, — and Sc. atrodorsalis ( ?), of which I have seen only a 
single specimen : but I doubt not that others inhabit the provinces ; and we 
might specially look for a representative of the erythrceus type — perhaps Sc. 
pyyerythrus, Is. Geoffroy. 

In the Malayan peninsula, there appears again to be a complete change 
in the Sciuridce, excepting only the great Sc. bicolor, which continues iden- 
tically the same ; though exhibiting here a remarkable pale variety, in addi- 
tion to the ordinary dark race. The erythrceus group, however, finds its 
representative in Sc. hippurus : and another group with conspicuous stripes 
on the flanks, very characteristic of the Malay countries, is exemplified by 
Sc. vittatus and Sc. nigrooittatus. The beautiful Sc. Raffiesii is common 
southward : and there is also the very curious Tupaia-like Sc. laticaudatus 
(vide XV, 251). Dr. Cantor adds Sc. tenuis, Horsfield, which I have seen 
only from Java ; and it is very probable that Sc. insignis of Sumatra and 
.lava inhabits the mountains : -Sc. plantani should be likewise sought for. 
The habitat " India," attached by Mr. Gray to this last named species, as 

' Sc. lokriah, Sc. lokroides, and Sc. McClellandii, are erroneously assigned by Pfof. 
Sciiinz to Bengal. 

t " Pale grey, grizzled : back yellowish ; beneath, paler grey : tail long,, grey, black- 
varied, ringed j hair with three broad black bands." Ann. Mag. N. //. 1842, p. 263. 

;> x 2 

8/8 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July. 

also to Sc. Raffiesii and Sc. rufoniyer (Rafflesii, var. ?), may be safely 
regarded as certainly erroneous. 

The Soeiety's present collection of Sciurida comprises 88 specimens, of 
35 (provisionally assumed) species, for the most part — with very few excep- 
tions — select and in excellent condition. Of these, 23 belong to the sub- 
group of Flying Squirrels, 3 (inclusive of the living Marmot) to that of 
Marmots, and the remainder to the very extensive genus Sciui'us,. In the 
" Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the Asiatic Society," pub- 
lished in J. A. S. X, 660 et seq. (August, 1841), not a single specimen is 
enumerated ; but there were 6 in the Museum when I took charge of it, in 
the following month, of which one only {Sciuropterus jimbriatus) now 
remains, the rest {Sciuropterus alboniyer, Sciurus purpureus, Sc. vittatus, 
Sc. lokriah ?, and Sc. McClellandii,) having since been replaced by better 

Our present desiderata, among the Flying Squirrels, are those of Ceylon, 
Sciuropterus fuscocapillus of S. India, Sc. Horsfieldii, Sc. genibarbis, and 
Pteromys punctatus, of the Malayan peninsula, with the species generally of 
the Archipelago, and series of the large Pteromydes of the Himalaya — parti- 
cularly of its N. W. ranges — that might aid in determining the specific 
types. Of the true Sciuri, a series of Sc. macrourus of Travancore and 
Ceylon, illustrative of the variation to which this race is subject ; and the 
small striped species generally of S. India and Ceylon, including even the 
common Sc. palmarum. Should such a species as Sc. dschinschicus or 
albovittatus occur, (dull-greyish or fulvescent, with a white or yellowish- 
white stripe on each side, and the size a little exceeding that of an English 
Squirrel,) specimens would be particularly acceptable ; and fine specimens 
are desirable of all the small or middle-sized species inhabiting Arracan and 
the Tenasserim provinces ; and the species generally of the Archipelago, 
with the curious Sc. laticaudatus of the Malayan peninsula, Indeed, of those 
we already have, more specimens of Sc. niyrovittatus of the last named 
locality, and of Sc. trilineatus of the Nilgherries. Also Sc, lokriah and Sc. 
lokroides from Nepal proper : any Himalayan species found to the westward 
of Nepal ; and the species before referred to, as stated by Mr. Gray to inhabit 
Bootan. Of the Himalayan and Tibetan Marmots, good specimens are 
extremely acceptable : and of all the Flying Squirrels, without exception, 
good specimens are generally acceptable for transmission to the Hon'ble 
Company's Museum in London, and to various other scientific Institutions. 
Addendum to first Report. 

In p. 864 ante, I took occasion to point out that my Rimator malacoptilus, 
p. 155 ante (February), had been redescribed by Mr. G. R. Gray from the 
same specimen as Caulodromus Gracei, in the An. May. N. H. for May of the 
present year : it now again appears, as a new genus and species, by the name 
Merva Jerdonii, Hodgson, in the ' Calcutta Journal of Natural History' for 
April, but published in the middle of August : the paper, however, bearing 
date of December 1846. But the latter is of no recognised importance; and 
my description of this bird had indeed been awaiting an opportunity for 
publication since 1845, when Mr. Grace was in Calcutta. I certainly did my 
utmost to prevent any doubles emplois with Mr. Grace's specimens ; having 
sat up till late at night in labelling his whole collection, as that gentleman 
will remember : and as he well knew that I had pointed out the Rimator as 
new, and with his permission, named and took a description of it for publica- 
tion, Mr. Gray's synonyme might at least have been spared. Whether my 
published description of this curious little bird is sufficiently perspicuous and 
intelligible, must be left for others to judge : but it is greatly to be regretted 
that these synonymes should thus unnecessarily accumulate. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 879 

A question of priority of publication fairly arises, when a Journal falls 
into arrear, so that its No. for a particular month is not actually published 
for several months afterwards. Thus, in No. 29 of the Cal.Journ. N. H., 
dated April, but published in August, there are papers bearing the author's 
date of May ! Which, therefore, in doubles emplois cases is to be considered 
the date of publication of a particular name ? Surely not April, for an article 
written in May ! The obviously correct mode is to have the actual date of 
publication printed on each No. of a periodical, as is now done on the cover 
of the Society's Journal : though as the latter is generally thrown away 
when the volumes are bound up, a more permanent place of record is desir- 

In Archibuteo criptogenys, Hodgson, published in the same No. of the Cal. 
Journ. N. H., I think I recognise my A. hemiptilopus, J. A. S. XV, p. 1. 
Butaquila strophiata, H., is, I very strongly suspect, the Hieraetus pennatus 
(v. Spizaetus milvoides of Jerdon), which is not rare in Lower Bengal during 
the cold season. With reference to the remarks on the other Indian Buz- 
zards, it may further be mentioned that besides Buteo rufinus (v. canescens, 
v. longipes), — which is common in Lower Bengal above the tideway of the 
rivers, — Mr. Jerdon has described a B. rufiventer in the supplement to his 
catalogue of the birds of peninsular India, Madr. Journ. XIII, 165 ; and that 
my B.pygmaus (nee nanus), J. A. S. XIV, 177, has hitherto been observed 
only on the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. 

Felis Ogilbii, Hodgson, (ibid. p. 44,) would appear to be the same small 
Cat which Mr. Gray has named F. Charltoni (from a Darjeeling specimen), 
as noticed in note to p. 865 ante, and which I consider to be a mere variety of 
F. bengalensis (v. nipalensis, &c. &c.) — F. macrocelis (v. macroceloides), per- 
fectly identical with the Sikim animal, inhabits the mountains of Arracan, as 
shown by a skin in the Society's Museum : and as several Malayan animals 
extend their range to Arracan, and as there is considerable diversity in the 
ground colouring and general appearance of two Sikim specimens of this 
Cat in the Society's collection, I doubt exceedingly whether any sufficient di- 
versity has been observed between the Sikim, Tibet, and Arracan speci- 
mens of it, on the one hand, and the Sumatran specimens on the other, to 
warrant their being assumed to be distinct, however remarkable and unusual 
this geographic range. 

Lastly, respecting the alleged five species of four-horned Antelope, also 
noticed in the same No. of the C. J. N. H., it appears to me that they may 
be safely again reduced to two, viz. Tefraceros quadricornis, v. chickera, 
and T. sub quadricornis, Elliot. T. iodes, H., as described, applies exactly 
to the Bengal animal, in every particular ; and among the fine series of 
specimens in the Society's Museum, there is one of a young male (that I 
had alive) with the fore and hind horns of the same relative size as in Hard- 
wicke's figure (Lin. Tr. XIV, tab. 15), but the position of the horns in that 
figure is erroneous, as shown by reference to the attached description, and I 
was informed that the skeleton in the Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, London, was that of the identical individual figured by Gen. 
Hard wicke, the horns in this being placed as usual in the Bengal animal. 
When at Midnapore, last cold season, I saw together, in the possession of 
O. W. Malet, Esq., a pair of the common T. quadricornis, and a pair of what 
I considered to be Mr. Elliot's T. sub quadricornis j both (as I understood) 
from the jungles at no great distance from that station, where I myself 
obtained a fawn of the former species : and this adds to the probabili- 
ty of both species being likewise found in the sub-Ilimalayan sal forest : 
indeed, they both also occur in Southern India, for Mr. Elliot some time ago 
sent me for recognition a skin of T. quadricornis procured in the Wynaad. 

S80 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [July, 

As for the affinities of these little Antelopes, they are nearly allied to the 
Tragelaphi, Ham. Smith, of Africa (or the Boschbok, Utub or Harnessed 
Antelope, and their congeners) ; and the former bear exactly the same rela- 
tion to the Nilghai of India, which the latter do to the Koodoos (Strepsi- 
cerosj of Africa. The ringed markings of the feet occur throughout the whole 
series, more or less distinctly : and the posterior horns of Tetraceros resem- 
ble those of Portax, or the Nilghai ; and, as in the latter, frequently recline 
backward in captive-reared individuals, instead of taking the normal curve 
upward. The females of all are hornless : and I even doubt if there be any 
good generic character to distinguish the females of Tetraceros from those of 
Tragelaphus j though the latter are somewhat heavier and more Hog Deer 
like in form, especially the Boschbok of the Cape. Both groups are mona- 
gamous ; and they closely resemble in habits, manners, and gait. 

Aug. 10, 1847.* E. Blyth. 

Note. — In p. 7/9 ante, I referred the Fringilla petronia, Lin., to Mr. 
Hodgson's genus Gymnoris : but I find that the latter is synonymous with 
Petronia, (Ray) Bonap. ; and the species is designated P. rapes tris by the 
Prince of Canino. Gmelin, however, had previously designated it Fringilla 
stulta, as shown by Mr. H. E. Strickland ; and the latter name will accord- 
ingly stand as the specific appellation. The group differs from the closely 
allied genus Passer in having a non-bulging, perfectly conical, bill, more or 
less thick ; also in coloration, which in both sexes approaches that of the 
females of Passer, with constantly a yellow spot in front of the neck, weaker 
in the females : and, I much suspect, in their exclusively arboreal habits ; 
whereas all the true Sparrows resort (more or less) to buildings. — The species 
known to me are 1, P. stulta, (Gm.) — 2, P. superciliaris, A. Hay, nobis, 
XIV, 553 — and 3, P.flavicollis, (Franklin.) The second is nearly allied to 
the first, but with the more slender bill of the third. 

With respect to Passer hispaniolensis and Sturnus unicolor, two species 
common to Afghanistan and N. Africa (p. 779 ante), it is remarkable that 
both likewise inhabit Sardinia. This island has long been known as a loca- 
lity for the latter species ; and Bonelli states that the former is the only 
Sparrow found in Sardinia. According to Capt. Widdrington, neither P. hispa- 
niolensis nor P. cisalpivius inhabits Spain. The former was, I believe, named 
from a caged specimen obtained at Gibraltar. 

To the synonymes of Pteromys+albiventer, p. 865 ante, add Pt. inornatus, 
Is. Geoff., figured in Jacquemont's Atlas. — E. B. 

Report of the Curator Museum of Economic Geology for the months of June 

and July, 1847. 

Economic Geology. — We have to report for these months several useful 
additions to our Museum which are — 

12 large specimens of Marble from Mr. Weaver, &nd 10 smaller ones 
from Messrs. Currie and Co. 

Also a specimen of marble from the new Christian Church at Alexandria. 

Dr. Dodd of the H. C. Mint has favoured us with 20 specimens, some of 
which are rare, others will fill up blanks in our Mineralogical Series, and 
some, though duplicates, are much finer specimens than we possess. We 
shall I trust be able on our side to add to Dr. Dodd's collections in exchange 
for some of these. 

Our active contributor Captain Sherwill, of the Dinapore Survey, sent down 
to me some specimens for identification, which I examined and replied to him. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 881 

Geology and Mineralogy. — I have looked over and chemically examined 
some of the specimens presented by Captain Kittoe in April. " Many axe 
common, but a few are worth notice. 

1. A very good specimen of Asparagus-green Tourmaline, with small 
crystals of red Tourmaline amongst it; the green a new mineral for India, 
as far as I recollect. We have pale apple-green, white and blue tour- 
malines, from America, and the Alps, in our collection ; but none of this 
colour, which is rarer than many other sorts. The red ones, though minute, 
are perfect Rubellites. 

Our specimen is evidently from a vein and weathered, so that probably 
larger crystals may be found there. 

Before the blowpipe it becomes by long heating opaque and slaggy on the 
edges, though still preserving its green colour, so that it has the appearance 
of a small lump of copper slag or Uranium ore under the magnifier. 

The hardness is 6.7, and the specific gravity 3.3. 

2. A remarkable apple-green quartz rock with bands of rose-coloured fels- 
par and transparent quartz running through it. This is, both mineralogically 
and geologically curious ; for, as will be seen afterwards, it is the rare case of 
pure silicate of iron so often met with in sand, and disseminated in other rocks 
and minerals, forming nearly a rock by itself. 

Another specimen of the same kind is mixed with grey and white quartz 
and minute crystals of Iron pyrites. This specimen was carefully examined, 
as the pyrites might be auriferous, but nothing but Iron with slight traces of 
arsenic was detected. The pure green rock also, when pulverized, yielded 
nothing but iron and silica, both via humida and by the blowpipe, to which it 
gave with borax the usual green glass. 

3. A specimen, sent, I presume, as the Plumbago mentioned with a note 
of interrogation at p. 492, is not Plumbago, but a rolled specimen of magne- 
tic Iron ore, mixed with silvery mica and quartz ; forming together a remarka- 
ble light grey diallage-looking rock with a strong pearly lustre in certain 
lights. It is highly magnetic but infusible before the blowpipe, which only 
renders it slightly slaggy at the edges. It dissolves largely in Hydrochloric 
acid but gives only Iron to re-agents. We have a specimen which approaches 
to this from the iron mines of Ajmeer, but it is certainly not common, and if 
a definite compound, should form at least a separate variety, for the purer sorts 
might be termed Diallage iron-ore. 

4. A fine specimen of flesh-coloured ft^spar, of which we had but a very 
small piece in our collection. 

5. — A good specimen of granular and fibrous Tremolite. 

We have no localities I regret to say, for these minerals. I will write to Cap- 
tain Kittoe to learn if he can recollect the place where he collected them. 

Captain Sherwill, of the Dinapore Survey, as already mentioned, has sent a 
few specimens for examination : amongst them are a remarkable variety of 
massive Asbestos, much resembling lithomagc in appearance, but of which 
the fibrous structure when crushed and its behaviour before the blowpipe 
place it in the asbestos family : specimens of the same altered by heat have 
also been sent. 


t- 1 








. On the Charj, or Otis Bengalensis. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 


Sub-family Otin^e. 

Genus Eupodotis. 

Species bengalensis vel deliciosa vel himalayana, 

Charj and Dabar of Hindusthan and Bengal. 

Greater Florican of British Sportsmen. 

Habitat. The Tarai. 
Of all Indian game birds the most striking to the eye and the most 
grateful to the palate is the Charj or Dabar. Latham introduced it 
to the scientific world above half a century back ; and yet so little had 
been added in the interim to his crude knowledge of its real character 
and habits that Mr. Vigors could recently suppose it an inhabitant, or 
at least visitant of the sub-Himalayas ;* nor am I aware that any one 
has to this hour undertaken to give intelligible body and shape to the 
mere scientific shadow of a species delineated by Latham. As the 
Charj is found more abundantly in the Tarai than elsewhere, and as I 
happen to possess a tolerably accurate knowledge of its structure and 
habits, (the latter very difficultly procurable,) I purpose to present to 
the Society in the following paper the substance of my information 
respecting this most elegant and high-flavoured bird, which our own 
sportsmen with the gun, and native chiefs and Princes with the Baz,f 

* Gould's Century, where is a very bad figure, 
t Astur palumbarious faem, Goshawk.— Male is Jurra, 
No. IX. New Series. 5 y 

884 On the Charj, or Otis Bengalensis. [Sept. 

pursue with an energy proportionate to the value of a prize not to be 
exceeded for the table, especially in March, when it is in highest con- 

Habitat and Range. — The Charj appears to be confined to the Ben- 
gal Presidency, and to a part only of it, for I find no notice of this species 
in the Catalogues of Jerdon, of Sykes, or of Franklin, and in fact even in 
the Gangetic provinces the Charj is nearly limited to the left bank of the 
Ganges, and there to the districts adjacent to the sub-Himalayas, though 
I believe it is also found in the somewhat similar districts intervening 
between south Behar and Nagpur and Midnapur. " Tarai" is an 
Indian term equivalent to Pays Bas, Landes, Marches, and Marshes, 
of European tongues ; and the Tarai par excellence is applied to a 
low lying, moist and rarely redeemed tract of level waste extending, 
outside the Saul forest, along the base of the sub-Himalayas from the 
debouche of the Ganges to the Brahmaputra. This tract, of great 
extent and peculiar features, is the favourite and almost exclusive 
habitat of the Charj, which avoids the mountains entirely, and almost, 
if not quite, as entirely, the arid and cultivated plains of the Doab, and 
of the provinces west of the Jumna, the latter of which are still less 
suited than the Doab to the Charj' s habits, which prompt it to dwell 
upon plains indeed and exclusively, but never upon nude or cultivated 
plains. Shelter of nature's furnishing is indispensable to it, and it 
solely inhabits wide spreading plains sufficiently elevated to be free from 
inundation and sufficiently moist to yield a pretty copious crop of 
grasses, but grasses not so thick nor so high as to impede the move- 
ments or vision of a well-sized bird that is ever afoot and always 
sharply on the look out. Such extensive, well-clad, yet uncultivated 
plains are however to be found only on the left bank of the Ganges, 
and accordingly I believe that to that bank the Charj is nearly confin- 
ed, and to the Tarai portion thereof. 

Manners. — The Charj is neither polygamous nor monogamous, nor 
migratory nor solitary. These birds dwell permanently and always 
breed in the districts they frequent, and they dwell also socially, but 
with a rigorous separation of the sexes, such as I fancy no other species 
could furnish a parallel to. Four to eight are always found in the same 
vicinity though seldom very close together, and the males are invari- 
ably and entirely apart from the females, after they have grown up. 

18J7.] On the Charj, or Otis Bengalensis. 885 

Even in the season of love the intercourse of the sexes among adults 
is quite transitory, and is conducted without any of that jealousy and 
pugnacity which so eminently distinguish most birds at that period. 
In the season of love the troops of males and females come into the 
same neighbourhood, but without mixing, A male that is amorously 
disposed steps forth and by a variety of very singular proceedings, 
quite analogous to human singing and dancing, he recommends himself 
to the neighbouring bevy of females. He rises perpendicularly in the 
air, humming in a deep peculiar tone, and flapping his wings. He lets 
himself sink after he has risen some 15 or 20 yards; and again he 
rises and again falls in the same manner, and with the same strange 
utterance, and thus perhaps 5 or 6 times, when one of the females 
steps forward, and with her he commences a courtship in the manner 
of a Turkey-cock, by trailing his wings and raising and spreading his 
tail, humming all the time as before. When thus, with what I must 
call song and dance, the rites of Hymen have been duly performed, the 
male retires to his company, and the female to her's ; nor is there any 
appearance (I have, at some cost,* had the birds watched most closely) 
of further or more enduring intimacy between the sexes than that just 
recorded, nor any evidence that the male ever lends his aid to the 
female in the tasks of incubation and of rearing the young. The pro- 
creative instinct having been satisfied, the female retires into deep grass 
cover and there, at the root of a thick tuft of grass, with very little sem- 
blance of a nest, she deposits two eggs, never more nor less, unless the 
first be destroyed. If the eggs be handled in her absence, she is sure to 
discover it and to destroy them herself. The eggs are of the size and 
shape of an ordinary domestic fowl's, but one sensibly larger and more 
richly coloured than the other. This larger and more highly tinted 
egg is that of the male young, the smaller and less richly hued egg, 
that of the female progeny. The female sits on her eggs about a 
month, and the young can follow her very soon after they chip the egg. 
In a month they are able to fly ; and they remain with the mother for 
nearly a year, or till the procreative impulse again is felt by her, when 
she drives off the long since fully grown young. Two females com- 
monly breed near each other, whether for company or mutual aid and 
help ; and thus the coveys, so to speak, though they arc not literal ly 
* Unhappily I lost a valuable man by malaria. 

5 y 2 

886 On the Charj, or Otis Bengahnsis. [Sept. 

such, are usually found to consist of 4 to 6 birds. The Charj breeds 
but once a year in June, July. That is, the eggs are then laid, and 
the young hatched in July, August. The moults are two annually, 
one vernal from March till May, and the other autumnal, which is less 
complete and more speedily got over between August and October. The 
young males up to the beginning of March entirely resemble the 
females ; but the moult then commencing gradually assimilates them 
to the adults, which never lose, as the lesser species or Likh* is alleged 
to do after the courting season, the striking black and white garb that 
in both species is proper to the male sex, and permanently so to the 
larger species from and after its 1st year of age. The young males of 
a year have the hackles and crest less developed than those graceful 
ornaments afterwards become, though otherwise after their moult there 
is little difference to be seen in them from the aspect of maturity. 
There is therefore properly speaking no nuptial dress in this species, 
though the hackles and crest in their most entire fulness of dimensions 
may be in part regarded as such. The Charj is a shy and wary bird, 
entirely avoiding fully peopled and fully cultivated districts, but not 
averse from the neighbourhood of a few scattered squatters whose 
patches of cultivation, particularly of the mustard plants (Rai, Tori, 
and Sarsun) are acceptable to the Charj as multiplying his chances of 
appropriate food. This exquisitely flavoured bird is a rather promis- 
cuous feeder, small lizards, young snakes, insects of most sorts, but 
above all, locusts, and after them, grasshoppers and beetles, the sprouts 
and seeds and succulent runners of various grasses, berries, stony 
fruits, aromatic lactiferous leaves, and stems of various small plants, 
with mustard tops and other dainties, all contributing to its nourish- 
ment. The largest portion of its usual food is vegetals : but, when 
insects abound and especially locusts, they are almost exclusively eaten. 
Cerealia are eschewed : but plenty of hard seeded grasses and such 
like are taken, and a goodly portion of gravel to digest them. The 
Charj is seldom found in thick cover. When he is, he lies close, so 
that you may flush him at your foot ; but in his ordinary haunts 

* Otis Auritus : fsem. fulvus : long- confounded with the Charj and cited erroneously 
by that name even by Mr. Jerdon. Not half the size of the Charj, common in the 
western, rare in the eastern, Tarai, and visits the valley of Nepal in May, June, when the 
moult is just on. 

1847.] On the Charj, or Otis Bengalensis. 887 

amid the scattered tufts of more open grassplats he can be neared 
with difficulty only, and No. 5 and a good heavy gun are required to 
bring him down at 40 to 60 yards' distance. His flight is strong, 
with a frequent, rapid, even, motion of the wings, and, if he be at all 
alarmed, it is seldom suspended under 2 to 300 yards, whilst not 
unfrequently it is continued so as to carry the bird wholly out of sight 
and pursuit. When flying the neck is extended before the body and 
the legs tucked up under it, whereas the whole family of the Herons 
fly with neck retracted over the back, and legs stretched out behind ; 
differences the rationale of which can as little be conjectured as the 
gyrations of the Dog ere he lays himself down to repose. The walk 
of the Charj, like that of the Heron, is firm and stately, easy and 
graceful : he can move a foot with much speed, and is habitually a 
great pedestrian, seldom using his powerful wings except to escape 
from danger, or to go to and from his feeding ground, at morn and. 
eve, or to change it when he has exhausted a beat. This species is 
silent and tranquil, and seldom utters a sound, but if startled, its note 
is a shrill metallic clink, chik-chik, and the more ordinary note is the 
same but softer and somewhat plaintive. The amorous ditty of the 
male has already been mentioned. The female is silent on those 

Aspect , form, and size. — The Charj or Dabar is a largish and very 
graceful bird, measuring 2 to 2} feet from tip of bill to tip of tail, and 
3^ to 4 feet in expanse of wings, and weighing 3 to 4 ibs. Bill to gape 
2\ inch, to brow \\. Wing 14 inches. Tail 7. Tarse 6 to 6^. Central 
toe and nail 2\. The bill is short and rasorial, or rather crane-like, 
(Anthopoides.) The eye, large and soft. The head depressed, and 
adorned, in the males, with a full pendant crest. The neck, long and 
thin, but in the males set off with a beautiful series of hackles or slender 
composed plumes depending from the whole front of the neck. The 
body is plump. The wings ample and firm. The tail, short, broad 
and rounded ; and the legs, long and suited to much walking. I will 
now give some more minute details which the incurious can pass over. 
Bill to gape, equal to head, considerably depressed towards the base, 
and at the base twice as broad as high. Maxilla more than half ex- 
cided by a large membranous and plumed fosse in which the elliptic 
nares are situated. Towards the tip the maxilla is rounded, full and 

SS8 On the Charj t or Otis Bengalensis. [Sept. 

hard, with its tip inclined and notched. Mandibula straight and entire. 
Gape ample, soft, smooth. Frontal plumes produced far over the bill. 
Crest full, dishevelled, pendant, 4 inches long. Hackles narrow, 
composed, 3 inches long, extending from the gullet to the breast. 
Wings ample, nearly equal to the tail, about one inch less ; its end, 
firm, not bowed, 3rd or 4th quill longest; 1st and 2nd but slightly 
gradated. Primes somewhat acuminated in the males, but less so than 
in the Likh, and emarginated sharply high up on both webs. Tertials 
broad, soft, not discomposed, but exceeding the primes in length. 
Tail 16 plumes, moderately and evenly rounded, with upper coverts 
nearly equalling the plumes. Legs elevate, strong, reticulate through- 
out. Tibia half nude and about equal to the tarse. Toes short, stout, 
scutellate, full soled, united by a small basal membrane. Central toe 
much the largest. Laterals slightly unequal. Nails obtuse, strong, 
solid, pent or convex above, flat below. 

Colours. — Male. Head, neck, and body below, glossy black. Back, 
scapulars, tertials next them, and tail-coverts richly marbled, cuneated 
and zigzaged with jet black upon a rich buff ground. Alars white. 
Their tips, shafts and external margins (in 3 quills) black ; caudals 
black with white tips and more or less of buff mottling. Legs sordid 
stramineous with a bluish tinge. Bill dusky plumbeous above. Blue 
grey below. Carneous towards the gape. Eye pale hazel. 

Female, Of a rich buff or pale pure fulvous where the male is 
black. Her alars black, vermiculated more or less with buff. Her 
neck yet more minutely zigzaged crosswise with brown and her entire 
upper vest and tail, superbly cuneated, barred and zigzaged with a 
glorious game mixture of black and fulvous. On the cap the same 
hues, disposed lengthwise. Sexes of equal size. 

Eggs. — The eggs, about the size of those of a bantam, two inches 
long by 1^ broad, are of a sordid stramineous hue, very minutely dotted 
and more largely blotched and clouded with black, somewhat as in 
Lobivanellus goensis, or the Indian Lapwing. 

Osteology — Sternum. — The entire form and substance of the breast 
bones indicate great powers of flight. The sternum is 4 inches long, 
2\ high and 1^ wide. Culmcnally it describes a high convex curve 
with the edge of its keel, which is itself (the keel) no less than 1 \ inch 
deep. Postcally (he sternum terminate^ gradually and has its walls or 


18-17.] The Slaty blue Megadenne. 839 

sides disappearing in rear with a slope exhibiting two rather deep 
notches on either side. The furcula is strong, moderately bowed out- 
wards, but very round at its junction with the keel, and curved highly 
in the culmenal direction so as to fall in with the high convex sweep 
of the sternal keel. The furcula is not anchylosed with the head of 
the sternum as in the largest migratory Storks and Cranes. The clavi- 
cles are very strong and have very powerful and large crura. (See 

Soft anatomy. — The intestinal canal is little more than one length 
of the bird from tip of bill to tip of tail ; about 1^ of the skeleton ; 
28 to 30 inches in length, and of large diameter. Ccecum 7 to 8 inches 
long, dilating globosely towards the blind end, and situated 5 to 6 
inches from anal extremity of intestines. Stomach 8% inches by 2, 
along greater and lesser arches, a sub-gizzard. Outer coat of consider- 
able, unequal thickness, but much below the true gizzard type in mus- 
cular mass, and the muscle pale and flaccid. Inner coat leathery and 
striated. Shape of stomach more or less ovoid ; its upper oriface 
central ; its lower, terminal. Towards the latter a curved constriction 
dividing a small glandulous, from the general triturant portion of the 
organ. No trace of gular sac. Tongue medial, simple ; its tip sub- 
bifid. — This bird is congeneric with the Likh (Auritus) which Mr. 
Gray separates from Otis and places in Lesson's Genus Sypheotides, 
hodie Eupodotis. I had named the form, Oticulus. 

The Slaty blue Meg aderme. Megaderma schistacea, N. S. — By B. II. 
Hodgson, Esq. 

(PhyllostominvE of Gray.) 
Genus Megaderma? 
Megaderma schistacea, mihi. 
Habitat, Northern Bengal towards the Tarai. 
It is very seldom that the observer of Nature has an opportunity at 
once and adequately to describe a species in its habits and mature form, 

890 The Slaty blue Magaderme. [Sept. 

and when the opportunity occurs it should never be neglected, since a 
great deal of most unprofitable labour in the gradual rectification of 
those inadequate descriptions which are the inevitable consequence of 
the ordinarily limited means of observation, is thus prevented. Chance 
lately threw such an opportunity in my way in regard to a species of 
the Bat kind ; and, though the 80 genera and innumerable species of 
the Vespertilionidoe, might well alarm an unprovided field Naturalist 
like myself, I trust I shall be able to see my way through a fitting 
description without the spectacles of Library and Museum. 

Arriving recently at the staging Bungalow of Siligori, on the verge 
of the Sikim Tarai, I found that hospitium scarcely habitable owing to 
the stench of Bats, and was told that orders had already been issued 
for the ejection of these unwelcome tenants by the removal of the false 
roof, between which and the external pent roof the creatures had domi- 
ciled themselves, so securely and in such numbers that summary 
measures of ejectment had become indispensable. I waited to see and 
profit by these measures, and so soon as the false or flat canvas roof 
was partially removed, I beheld innumerable (2 to 300) Bats clinging 
in the usual inverted manner to the pent roof. Presently they were 
most of them on the wing. Many escaped by passing between the 
wall and eves, their usual way of egress prior to this disturbance. And 
these fled, freely through the mid-day sun, to the proximate out houses. 
Many more were struck down by my people whilst attempting to pass 
out by the doors ; and thus, in half an hour, I became possessed of 
some 50 to 60 specimens, when the slaughter was suspended by my 
orders : my specimens and observations then and for 10 previous days 
having left me nothing further to learn, and the wanton destruction of 
the poor creatures being shocking to me, how amusing soever to the 
group of natives, who moreover declared that the Superintendent had 
commanded the whole to be destroyed. My ample spoils were procured 
towards the close of February under the circumstances just stated, and 
the examination of them, coupled with the observations of the prece- 
ding ten days of my residence at the Bungalow, put me in possession Of 
the following numerous and decisive particulars as to the habits of the 
animal, to wit, that this species of Megaderme is extremely gregarious, 
and dwells in the dark parts of houses and out-houses, not concealed 
in crannies or holes, but openly suspended from any convenient rest ; 




1847.] The Slaty blue Magaderme. 891 

that the species does not hibernate (nor I fancy does any Indian Bat, 
even in the lofty and cold sub -Himalayas, under at least 5000 feet of 
elevation) ; that it is entirely nocturnal, though capable of a vigorous 
flight even at noon of a sunny day ; that it is exclusively insectivorous, 
and has no such cannibal propensities as are stated to belong to one of 
its congeners, nor consequently are its haunts entirely avoided by the 
smaller species of true Bat (Vespertilio proper) though the numerous- 
ness of its own race leaves not much room for the intrusion of strangers ; 
that the males and females dwell together promiscuously even when the 
females are gravid and nearly parturient, and therefore probably always ; 
that the young are seemingly driven away so soon as they can shift for 
themselves, all those taken by me having been well grown ; that the 
females bring forth in spring and perhaps also in autumn, the latter 
point resting on information, the former on the fact that all my females 
were, on the 26th February found variously, but far, advanced in their 
pregnancy ; that the males are more numerous than the females in a 
high proportion, or from \ to \ more ; that the females bring forth only 
a single young one at a time, not one instance of double gestation 
occurring among my numerous specimens ; and, lastly, that no other 
species dwells mixedly with this Megaderme, though a species of true 
Bat of diminutive size was found tenanting the same house, and the two 
were observed to issue forth at night from their respective and distinct 
domiciles simultaneously, and so as constantly to cross each other in 
their flight, a flight sustained by both with equal power, yet without any 
aggression of the larger on the smaller kind. 

Having said so much of the manners of our animal I proceed to its 
form and structure, merely premising that I think it is a true Mega- 
derme, although its phalangial system is apparently irreconcileable with 
Cuvier's general or Geoffroy's particular definitions in that respect,* 
for it has two bony phalanges to the thumb, two also to the index, and 
three to each of the remaining fingers. In other respects it is a com- 
plete Megaderme and a striking examplar of a Genus of Bats, which, 
though diifused throughout the plains of India, is absolutely unknown 
in the mountains, at least on the sub-Himalayas. The Megadermes 

* See Regne animal, Vol. II, pp. 7 and 10, Vol. V. p. 74, Nat. Libr. Vol. XII. I, p. 
123, and Vol. VII. p. 74. So far as my observation of the Family of Bats goes the phalan- 
gial system of our specimen is unique, and, should it prove so, the type might be deno- 
minated Eucheira. 

5 /. 

892 The Slaty blue Magaderme. [Sept, 

appear to be fbuncL all over the plains of India and its islands, extending 
thence to Africa ; and wherever found they are as numerous in indivi- 
duals as scant in species, only three distinct kinds being yet recorded, 
notwithstanding the immense geographic diffusion of the Genus. The 
subject of the present paper is however, I believe, a novelty, and to the 
careful description of it I now proceed. 

The Slaty Megaderme of the Tarai is 3^ inches long from snout to 
vent, the head, to the occiput, 1^, the ear to the lobe, 1^, the caudal 
membrane (for there is no tail) 1^, the arm 1^, the forearm 2|-, the 
longest finger 5, the thigh If, the leg If, the planta and nails, f, the 
expanse 18, and the weight 2 oz. Sex makes no difference in size or 
aspect, and immaturity, after the growth is well advanced, little or none. 
The colour of the fur is, for the most part, a clear deep slaty blue 
above and sordid buff below, of the membranes deep brown, and of the 
eye, very dark. Females resemble males. Juniors have the slaty hue 
less pure or smared with brown. The moderate-sized and depressed 
head ends bluffly to the front, where the simple and adpressed lips are 
covered with downy piles and short divergent hairs, except in front of 
the lower lip which is nude and faintly grooved. Two moderately 
large and roundish plates are laid flat on the nose, one above and the 
other below the ovoid nares, which lie hid completely between them, 
The upper plate becomes at the base of the bridge of the nose some- 
what narrowed, and then is continued into an erect free process, more 
or less concave, and divided longitudinally by a central ridge ; the 
shape of the process being elliptic. The eyes, which have a backward 
and laterally remote position, are small, but still larger considerably 
than in the Bats proper or in the Rhinolphes, though less so than in 
the Pteropines. The immense nude and rounded ears have their bases 
low down and forward, so as nearly to pass under the eye, where there 
is a vague antitragal development, and immediately above it, but quite 
distinct, rises the inner ear consisting of an acute spire, and a small 
rounded process, in line with it, which latter is sometimes notched on 
its round edge. The true ears are united over the forehead above half 
way to their tips and of course can therefore have very little mobility. 
Nor do the ears exhibit any of that exquisite sensibility for which the 
ears of the Rhinolphes are so remarkable. The body is muscular and 
strong with a large sternal keel or crest, and is covered abundantly with 

1847.] The Slaty blue Magaderme. 893 

silky hair of one kind that is laxly applied to the skin, and more or 
less wavy in some specimens, smooth in others. The flying apparatus, 
or alar and caudal membranes, are very ample, the latter being extend- 
ed to the heel or tarse, and so as, when expanded, to run straight across 
from heel to heel. The alar membrane commences at the centre of the 
forearm's length, takes in the first joint of the thumb, makes a large 
angle so as to envelope the long mid-finger, and then passes pretty 
evenly to the heel. There is no trace of tail, nor any caudal vertebrae. 
The thumb has two equal bony joints, whereof the first is enveloped in 
membrane and the second free and nailed as usual. The index has one 
entire joint and a second rudimental, which however is half an inch long 
nearly, and all the other digits have three complete bony phalanges 
each. There are two pectoral and two enguinal teats, whereof the latter 
are the larger and bear more appearance of having been sucked. The 
penis is pendant : the tests internal : the womb simple ; there is no 
frontal sinus : stomach purely membranous and globose, with proximate 
orifaces : intestines from 11 to 14 inches, of pretty equal calibre, 
and having a grain-like ccecum, •§- inch long, at 1 to 1^ inches from the 
anal end of the gut : great arch of stomach 3 to 3y ; lesser \ to j : 
Lungs 2-lobed : Liver 2-lobed, each subdivided, and a lobulus : Gall- 
bladder grain-like (size and shape of a grain of finest rice) and freely 
suspended in the cleft of the largest lobe of the liver. Contents of 
stomachs, insect remains solely : of uteri, single young, much advanced 
in growth, with all the organs formed and the mouth open, but quite 
nude. The scull, the walls of which are as thin as paper, is much 
curved culmenally and very ample in dimensions in all the regions of the 
brain : the crests, longitudinal and transverse, small but traceable : the 
frontals flat, short and laterally bounded by sharp ridges : the nasals,* 
wanting : orbits large and very incomplete : auditory cavities double i 
lower jaw straight with very low condyles. Teeth £ : |:| |:f . No 
trace of incisors in the upper jaw, nor of any bone or cartilage to sup- 

* The deficient bones are apparently not merely the intermaxillars but the nasals, of 
Avhich there is no trace, and the cavity in front of the scull is consequently very large. 
However in all the 7 specimens now before me the cranial sutures are well nigh or 
wholly obliterated. Quere? Are not the nasal bones wanting in all the typically istio- 
phorous Bats ? for, if not, how could the complex and delicate external apparatus of the 
nose have the requisite freedom of communication with the nervous and circulating sys- 
tems, there being no special orifaces observable in the malars or frontals. In fact, the 
ant-orbitar formamina are very small in these Bat8, and J have noticed no others. 

5 z 2 

894 On a New Species of Plecolus. [Sept. 

port them ; lower incisors pressed between the canines and denticulate 
on their crowns : laniaries large, curved, angular, with spiculate pro- 
cesses before and behind at their base : molars purely insectivorous, 
their crowns bristling with spikes and filling the entire space from the 
laniaries to the posteal edge of both jaws. Tongue moderately exten- 
sile and simple. 

The following are the dimensions in detail of a fine mature speci- 
men : — 

Expanse of wings > 1 6 

Snout to vent 3 f 


Caudal membrane 1 ^ 

Head to occiput, 1 \ 

Length of ears 1 £ 

Width of ears -J- 

Brachium 1 f 

Cubitus 2 T \ 

Long finger 5 

Femur 1 § 

Tibia 1 | 

Planta and nails f 

Weight 2 oz. 

On a New Sjiecies of Plecotus ; by the same, 

I have just obtained, for the first time, a sample of the genus Pleco- 
tus, and one very nearly allied to the common English type so admir- 
ably described by McGillivray in the VII. Vol. of the Nat. Lib. p. 
85 — 90. My specimen was taken in the central region of the moun- 
tains, in a dwelling house, where it was attracted at night by the lights, 
and after a chase of above half an hour's duration, during which the 
extraordinary volant powers of this Bat several times caused its 

1847.] On a Neiv Species of Plecotus. 895 

pursuers to despair of success in taking it. It flew unweariedly, turned 
with the rapidity of a butterfly, and alighted and rose again as readily 
as that active insect. It is a male and mature. 

Plecotus homochrous, milii. Snout to vent 1 finches. Head f . 
Tail If. Expanse 10. Weight less \ oz. Ears from anteal base 1£. 
From posteal If. Arm |f . Forearm 1 T V Mid finger 2|. Femur 
f . Tibia -f . Planta and nails T 5 ^, Colour, uniform obscure brown. 
Fur, silky and short, internally black, externally brunescent above, 
flavescent below, but obscurely in both cases. Membranes dusky 
brown. Iris saturate brown. Head depressed. Nose medial, depres- 
sed, with a central groove in both skin and scull. Nares, angulo-elliptic, 
large, supernal, with a swollen margin. Lips simple. Eye prominent, 
large for a true Bat, and nearer ear than snout. Forehead not raised. 
Ears enormous, 2 \ of head, elliptic, nude, trans versally striolate. 
Anteal edge of helix, half reflected, flat, smooth, and ending below in 
a sacculus and salient knob. Inner ear narrow, pointed, erect, with a 
small basal process for tragus, answering which is a small internal 
antitragus. Ears remote, low down, touching with proximate edges 
over the forehead, but not united there. Tongue simple and not 
extensile. Teeth 2 ^ 2 \:\. £ :f . Wings ample, the membrane commen- 
cing from shoulder almost, and taking in the wrists, first phalanx of 
thumb, and the metatarse as well as tarse, and enveloping all the long 
tail. Thumb 3 jointed. Index 1. Mid-digit 4. Annular and small 
each 3. Tail 7 jointed, long and pointed, the mere tip free. No 
teats traceable on chest or groin. Intestines 5y inches, thin coated 
and fragile, wider above, gradually narrowing. No ccecum. Stomach 
membranous, hemispheroidal, with terminal orifaces. If by T \ inches 
along greater and lesser arches. 

Habitat. — Central region of sub-Himalayas. 

Remark. — Nearly allied to Auritus, but differs therefrom by dis- 
united ears, fewer molars, a flat inner ear, shorter fur, and nude ears, 
besides its more uniform colour. The joints of the digits also differ, 
showing how little dependance can be placed upon this mark which 
yet Cuvier, Geoffroy and II. Smith make the corner-stone of their 
general classification of the Family ! 

I subjoin a synopsis of the several species thus far ascertained 

896 On a New Species of Phcotus. [Sept. 


Pteropus. 1. edtoardsii v. medius. 
Cvanopterus. 1. marginatus. 

Habitat, Terai. Passengers in Hills. 


Khinolophus. X.perniger. 2. macrotis. 3. tragatus. 
Hipposideros. 1. armiger. 2. subbadius. 

Habitat, Central Hills. 
Megaderma. 1. schistacea. 

Habitat, Tarai. 

Vespertilio. l.muricola. 2. pallidiventris. 
Kerivoula . 1 . formosa . 
Scotophilus . 1 . fidiginosus . 
Noctilinia. 1. labiata. 2. lasyura.* 
Plecotus. 1. homochrous. 

Habitat, Central Hills. 

Total — 15 species. 

* N. B. This is an undescribed species with the general structure of labiata, 
but distinguished remarkably by having the entire legs and caudal membrane clad 
in the fur of the body, which is thick and woolly. Colour bright rusty above, sooty 
below ; the hairs tipt hoary. Digits rusty. Membranes blackish. Snout to rump 
2 1 inch. Head if . Ears \±. Tail If. Expanse 13 inchs. Arm 1|. Forearm 
If. Long finger 3£. Head depressed. Eyes and ears remote. Eyes small. Ears 
moderate rounded. Inner ears spire-shaped. Nostrils lateral-salient. Cheeks 
tumid. Thumb with 3 joints. Index with 2. Mid with 4 and a cartilaginous appen- 
dix. Annular and small digits each with 3. Tail ample, 7 jointed, and nearly square. 
Teeth all remarkably blunt. Penis with a corneous tip ending in two horn-like 
crura. Helix posteally with a sacculate reduplication, but no prolongation towards 
the gape as in labiata. Intestines 1\ inches. No coecum. Stomach hemisphe- 
roidal with terminal orifaces. 

1847.] Catalogue of Reptiles, fye. 897 


Inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 

Collected or observed by Theodore Cantor, Esq., 31. 1)., Bengal 
Medical Service. 

(Continued from No. CLXXX.) 




Gen. Pilidion, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Head covered with shields, cylindrical, very short, as if truncated, 
convex above, declivous in front ; muzzle rounded ; rostral shield like 
a large rounded cap covering the head and muzzle ; an anterior frontal, 
a frontal, a pair of supra-orbital-, ocular-, nasal-, and fronto-nasal shields ; 
neither parietals, inter-parietals, nor prse-orbitals ; nostrils hemispheri- 
cal, under the muzzle, between the nasal-and fronto-nasal shields ; eyes 
excessively small, hidden by the ocular shields. 

Pilidion lineatum, (Boie.) 

Syn. — Acontias lineatus, Reinwardt, MS. 
Typhlops lineatus, H. Boie. 
Typhlina, Wagler. 

Typhlops lineatus, Gray in Griffith, A. K. 
Typhlops lineatus, Schlegel. 
Pilidion lineatum, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Typhlinalis lineatum, Gray : Catal. 

Ground-colour pale gamboge or orange, uniform on the head, the 
apical third of the tail, and the abdomen ; interrupted on the back and 
sides by 12 longitudinal, serrated brown lines, produced by a minute 
triangular spot on each side of the scales. 

Habit. — Pinang Hills. 

Java, Sumatra, Singapore. 
A single individual, captured by Sir William Norris, differs from the 
description given by M. M. Dumeril and Bibron in the comparatively 

8!) 8 

Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting tin 


greater dimensions of the tail. It is strongly arched ; its length 
equals twice the breadth of the head ; it is covered with 16 trans- 
versal series of scales, and it is considerably thicker than the rest 
of the uniformly cylindrical body. The anterior frontal shield is 
very broad, larger than the frontal. It was of the following dimen- 
sions : — 

Length of the head, feet Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 

Ditto ditto tail, 


1 ft. 



Circumference of the trunk § inch ; of the tail 

Gen. Typhlops, Schneider. 

Head covered with shields, depressed ; muzzle rounded, covered above 
and beneath by the rostral shield ; an anterior frontal, a frontal, a pair 
of supra-orbital s, one or two pairs of parietals and inter-parietals ; a 
pair of nasals, fronto -nasals, prse-orbitals and oculars ; nostrils lateral, 
hemispherical, opening in the suture between the nasal and fronto- 
nasal ; eyes lateral, more or less distinct ; pupil round. 

Typhlops nigro-albus, Dumeril and Bibron. 
Syn . — Argyrophis bicolor, Gray : Catal. 

Shining black above ; on the head some transversal and radiating 
whitish yellow lines ; scales of the back edged with white ; beneath 
whitish yellow. 

Habit. — Pinang Hills, Singapore. 

This species is closely allied to T. diardi, Schlegel,* an inhabitant 
of Assam and the Khassia Hills. Of two individuals observed, the 
larger was of the following dimensions. 

Length of the head, feet 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 

Ditto ditto tail, 





01 inch. 

Circumference of the trunk j inch, of the tail 1| inch. 
* Syn. — r. diardii, apud Dum. and Bibr. — Argyrophis liorsfieldii, Gray : Catal. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 899 

Typhlops braminus, (Uaudin.) 

Syn. — L'Orvet lombric, Lacepede. 

Anguis. Rondoo Talooloo Pam. Russell, I. PI. 43, 
Punctulated Slow-Worm, Shaw. 
Evyx braminus, Daudin. 
Typhlops rondoo talooloo, Cuvier. 
Tortrix russelii, Merrem. 

f Cuvier. 
Typhlops braminus, apud-j Fitzinger. 

L Gray in Griffith, A. K. 
Typhlops russellii, Schlegel. 

Typhlops braminus, Cuvier, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 
Argyrophis bramicus, Gray : Catal. 

Shining copper-coloured, or brown of various shades above, paler 
beneath. Some individuals of a uniformly bluish white. All the 
scales with a dark brown spot at the anterior part. The shields of the 
head have a whitish line close to their margins. In the young the 
latter is crenulated, and the sides of the head, lips, throat, the anal 
region, and the point of the tail are yellowish or whitish, and the body 
is semitransparent. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 

Canton -Province, Philippines, Guam (Marian Isles,) Java, 
Tenasserim, Bengal, Assam, Coromandel, Ceylon, Malabar. 
In the Malayan countries this species is numerous in hills and 

valleys. The eyes are black, the pupil round, which is also the case in 

T. nigro-albus. The largest of a great number examined was of the 

following dimensions : — 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 7| 

Ditto ditto tail, 0^ 

7f inch, 
Circumference of the neck 4 inch ; of the tail I inch. 

The preceding species of this family are all of similar habits. They 
mostly live under ground, but appear occasionally in shady places, 
particularly after showers of rain, in Bengal, in the rainy season. They 
are very agile, and appear to make use of the horny point of the tail 
as a propeller. When taken, they frequently press it against the hand 
in their attempts to escape. Reposing on the ground Typhlops bra* 

G A 

5)00 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

minus may easily be mistaken for an earthworm, until its serpentine 
movements, the darting of the white furcated tongue, while the head 
and neck are raised, make it known. In confinement they refuse food 
and water. In all dissected, the stomach contained some earth ; in a 
few, remains of insects, (myriapoda, ants.) A young female had a 
string of six cylindrical soft eggs, of a yellowish white colour, each 
about f of an inch in length, ^ in diameter. 

FAM. BOID.E, Bonaparte, 

Gen. Cylindrophis, Wagler. 
Scales smooth, imbricate, hexagonal ; those of the abdomen broader 
than the rest ; nostrils subvertical, opening in the lower part of the 
anterior frontal shield ; neither nasals, frenals, nor prse-orbitals ; a single 
post-orbital ; frontals large, reaching the minute eye, and the large 2nd and 
3rd labials ; supra-orbitals, occipitals and vertical distinct ; tail very short. 

Cylindrophis rufus, (Laurenti.) 

Anguis striatus, Gmelin. 

Anguis scytale, Linne, apud Russell, II. PI. 27- 
Shilay Pamboo, Russell, II. PI. 28 (young.) 
Anguis corallina, Shaw. 
Eryx rufa, Daudin. 


Tortrix rufa, Merrem, apiuH ^,[^', 

I Filippi. 
Scytale scheuchzeri, Merrem. 
Ilysia rufa, Lichtenstein, apud Fitzinger. 
Cylindrophis resplendens, Wagler. 
Cylindrophis rufa, Gray, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 

Iridescent blackish brown above, beneath with alternate black and 
yellowish white transversal bands or interrupted bars. Iris black, 
pupil vertically contracted by the light ; tongue whitish. Central 
series of abdominal scales 206 ; subcaudal 6. 

Habit. — Singapore. 

Java, Tranquebar, Bengal. (?) 
A single individual, turned up with the earth in a garden at Singa- 
pore belonging to Dr. Montgomcrie, differs from the description 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 901 

given by M. M. Dumeril and Bibron in the following particulars. The 
head is uniformly black, without the two scarlet frontal spots ; the 
apex of the tail whitish ; the posterior part of the body is more robust 
than the anterior ; the length of the head forms more than -J-g- of the 
entire length of the animal ; there are six pairs of labial shields on 
each jaw, and the scales of the trunk are disposed in 20 longitudinal 
series. It unites characters assigned by M. M. Dumeril and Bibron 
as distinguishing Cylindrophis rufus from C. melanotus, Wagler, and 
it would therefore appear that Dr. Schlegel is justified in considering 
the latter from Celebes (Tortrix melanota, Boie, MS.) as a variety of 
riff a. In the present individual there is no external appearance of the 
very rudimentary anal hooks. It was slow in its movements, attempted 
to escape, but not to bite. 

Length of the head, feet Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 6f 

Ditto ditto tail, Of- 

1 ft. 7\ inch. 

Gen. Xenopeltis, Reinwardt. 

Head rather narrower than the trunk, depressed, obsoletely angular ; 
eyes small, round ; nostrils large, apical ; frenal shield very large ; 
prse-orbital none ;* post-orbitals three ;f interparietal very large, 
equalling the vertical ; trunk thick, short with imbricate smooth hex- 
agonal scales, disposed in longitudinal series, increasing in size towards 
the narrow abdominal scuta ; tail thick, short, awl-shaped, beneath 
with scutella. 

Xenopeltis unicolor, Reinwardt. 

Syn. — Xenopeltis concolor, Reinwardt. 

Xenopeltis leucocephala, Reinwardt (young.) 
Guerin : Iconog. PI. 21, Fig. 3. 
Tortrix xenopeltis, Schlegel. 

Adult. — Blackish or reddish brown above with strong metallic blue 
purple, and green lustre ; lips and throat buff ; the lowest lateral series 

* The single prae-orbital is very large, the frenal small, sub-rectangular ; the nostrils 
open between the latter and the nasal shield. 

t Three individuals examined, presented two post-orbitals. 

G a 2 

902 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

of scales, scuta and scutella pale reddish brown with broad whitish 
margins. Iris black ; pupil lanceolate with the apex downwards, ver- 
tically contracted by the light ; tongue buff. 

Young. — Head yellowish white with a brown spot on the crown 
and labial shields ; the scales of the sides edged with white, producing 
longitudinal zig-zag lines ; the two lowest series of scales and scuta 
yellowish white ; scutella of the same colour with a brown transversal 

Scuta 175 to 179, Scutella 26 to 27. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 
Celebes, Java, Sumatra. 
Of three young individuals, one was found by Sir William Norris 
on the Great Hill at Pinang, a second by Dr. Montgomerie at Singa- 
pore, and a third was obtained in Province Wellesley, where also a 
single adult male was killed. As this serpent in general appearance bears 
a strong resemblance to Lycodon aulicus, (Linne) (Syn. L. hebe, apud 
Schlegel), so it also does in its fierce habits, and mode of attack. The 
scales are smooth, rhombic-hexagonal, disposed in 15 longitudinal series. 
Labial shields -§•"-§■. The stomach of a young individual examined, con- 
tained the remains of a rat. The adult attains to a much larger size 
than supposed : a male was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, feet. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 2f 

Ditto ditto tail, 4 

3 ft. 7| inch. 

Circumfernce of the neck 2f , of the trunk 4f, of the root of the 

tail 2 inch. 


Gen. Python, Daudin. 

Entire shields under the abdomen and tail, the latter cylindrical, 

sometimes with scutella ; anus with scales and a hook on each side. 

Python reticulatus, (Schneider.) 

Syn.— Seba I, Tab. 62, Fig. 2 ; II. Tab. 79, Fig. 1. and Tab. 80. Fig. 1. 
Ular sawa, Wurmb. 
La jaune et bleue Lacepede. 
L'oularsawa, Bonnaterre. 
Boa reticulata, Schneider, apud Daudin, 
Boa rhombeata, Schneider. (?) 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 903 

Boa amethystina, Schneider. 
Boa constrictor, Var e, Latreille. 
Boa phrygia ; Shaw. 
Coluber javanicus, Shaw. 
Boa constrictor, Var 5, Daudin. 
Python amethystinus, Daudin. 
Python des isles de la Sonde. 

r F. Boie. 
Python schneiderii, Merrem, apud < Guerin. 

I Schlegel. 
Coluber javanensis, Fleming. 

r Fitzinger. 
Python javanicus,* Kuhl, apiuH Gray in Griffith, A. K 

L Eichwald. 
Constrictor (P. schneideri, Khul) Wagler. 
Python reticulatus, Gray, apud Dumeril and Bibron. 
" Ular sawa" of the Malays. 

Ground-colour above light yellowish-brown, chestnut or olive-green, 
assuming a greyish hue on the sides, all the colours strongly iri- 
descent, particularly reflecting metallic blue, or green. The head 
is divided from the muzzle to the nape of the neck by a black line, 
continued along the back to the point of the tail and describing a 
series of large lozenges, sometimes linked to each other by a small black 
ring, sometimes broken up into large irregular patches. A black ob- 
lique line proceeds from behind the eye towards the angle of the mouth, 
continuing on the sides as a series of more or less regular lozenges, 
which are joined to the lateral angles of those of the back by a large 
black triangular spot with a white arched mark in the centre. The 
scales nearest the black margins of the lozenges are of a lighter colour 
than the rest, sometimes whitish. Between and within the lateral 
lozenges appear numerous black spots, or interrupted lines. The lips 
(the lower in some present a black line), and abdominal scuta are 
gamboge, or pale yellow, as well as the lowest two or three series of 
scales, but the latter with irregular black spots. The caudal scutella, 
and scuta, when present, are yellow, marbled with black. The iris is 
silvery flesh-coloured or yellowish-brown, sometimes with a black bar ; 
the pupil vertically contracted by the light. The tongue is black 
above, bluish white beneath. In the young the colours are brighter 
than in the adult. 

Scuta 297 to 330 ; Scutella 82 to 102. 

r Vi/tho javanicus, figured and described in Abel's Narrative, &c, is Python molurus, 


904 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Chusan ?* Amboina, Java, Banka, Sumatra, Bengal ? Egg 1 " 

The two fossets of the rostral shield are pyriform with the apex 
diverging, and those of the nearest 3 or 4 upper labials are of similar 
shape. The inferior fossets are square, occupying the lower margin of 
the shield, varying from 7 to 9 on each side. The foremost of these 
is situated on the shield corresponding to that of the upper jaw, which 
borders the orbit. 

This species is very numerous in the Malayan hills and valleys, feed- 
ing upon quadrupeds and birds. It often takes up its abode in out- 
houses, preying at night, and is thus useful in destroying vermin, 
although plunder is occasionally committed in poultry yards. Dr. 
Montgomerie has seen in George Town, Pinang, a young one which 
the inhabitants suffered to retain unmolested possession of the rice 
stores in order to secure them against the ravages of rats. Indivi- 
duals of 16 ft. in length are of no rare occurrence. In 1844 one was 
killed at the foot of Pinang, which a gentleman informed me measured 
more than 30ft. During the expedition to China in 1840 one was 
shot from the poop of one of H. M. Transports, then riding in Singa- 
pore roads, between 3 and 4 miles from the shore. It was about 9ft. 
long, and had the upper part of the head infested with Ixodes ophio- 
philus, Miiller. The Chinese attribute great medicinal qualities to 
the heart and the gall-bladder, and use the skin to cover the bodies 
of some of their musical instruments. Python molurus, (Linne,) Pedda 
Poda y Russell, I. PI. 22, 23, 24, and Bora, PI. 39, is said also to 
occur, but rarely, in the Malayan Peninsula, but I never had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing it. * 

* Skins are of frequent occurrence at Chusan, and the natives assert that the serpent 
is found there and on the neighbouring continent. Serpents from 14 to 16 feet in length, 
" Rock-snakes," were observed by several officers during our occupation of the island. 

Kf^M. M. Dumeril and Bibron state that this species has been sent from Bengal by 
M. A. Duvaucel. The natives are not acquainted with it, and the specimens in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society are from Pinang. The living animal is occasionally 
brought from the Straits of Malacca to Calcutta, and such is probably the history of the 
specimen sent from Bengal byM. Duvancel. Python molurus, (Linne,) (Pedda Poda 
and Bora of Russell,) is very numerous in Bengal. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 905 

Gen. Acrochordus, apad Schlegel. 
{Acrochordus, Hornstedt, 1787. — Chersydrus, Cuvier, 1817.) 
Acrochordus, Hornstedt. Nostrils vertical, eyes encircled by a ring 
of minute scales ; trunk compressed, attenuated towards both extremi- 
ties ; tail tapering, compressed ; all the scales small, trifid, strongly 

Acrochordus javanicus, Hornstedt. 

Syn. — Acrochordus javanicus, apud Shaw. 

Acrochordus javensis, Lacep. apud Cuvier. 

Acrochordus javanicus, apud Schlegel. 

" U'lar karong, or sapi, or lembu" of the Malays.* 

Young. Above dull greyish-brown ; sides and lower parts pale yellow, 
or dirty ochre ; back with 3 longitudinal, undulating, frequently inter-' 
rupted black bands ; sides and abdomen with rows of rounded spots, 
marbled and dotted with black. 

Adult, Of similar, but less distinct colours. Iris brown, pupil 
elliptic, vertically contracted by the light ; tongue whitish. 
Habit. — Pinang, Singapore. 
A female captured on the Great Hill at Pinang, at a distance from 
water, was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4 7 

Ditto ditto tail, 9 

5ft. 5-f inch. 

Greatest circumference one foot. 

Notwithstanding the sharply compressed abdomen, the serpent mov- 
ed without difficulty, but sluggishly on the ground, and preferred 
quiet. When touched she attempted to bite, but the pupil being con- 
tracted by the glare, she missed her aim. Shortly after being brought, 
while the rest of the body remained motionless, the posterior ribs were 
observed moving, and the serpent successively, in the course of about 
25 minutes, brought forth twenty-seven young ones. Each birth was 

* U'lar signifies a serpent, kdrong a sac ; sdpi and lembu a cow or ox. These explo- 
sive vernacular names refer to the loose skin, and the bulk of the animal. 

906 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

followed by some sanguinolent serum. With two exceptions the foetus 
appeared with the head foremost. They were very active, hit fiercely, 
and their teeth were fully developed. Shortly after hirth the integu- 
ments came off in large pieces, which is also the case with the foetus of 
several species of Homalqpsis. The present ones were placed in water, 
which however appeared to distress them, as they all attempted to 
escape on dry ground. Nearly all were of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 If 

Ditto ditto tail, 3 

lft. 5 inch. 

The Malays of Pinang assert that this species is of very rare occur- 
rence. During a residence of 20 years at Singapore, Dr. Montgomerie 
observed it but in a solitary instance. The physiognomy of this 
species bears a striking resemblance to that of a thorough-bred Bull- 
dog, which in a somewhat less degree also may be said of the follow- 

Sub-Gen. Chersydrus* Cuvier. Head and body uniformly covered 
small scales. 

Acrochordus granulatus, (Schneider.) 

Syn. — Hydras granulatus, Schneider. 
Angvis granulatus, Schneider. 
Acrochordus fasciatus, Shaw. 
Acrochordus dubius, Shaw. 
Pelamis granulatus, Daudin. 
Chersydrus (A. fasciatus, Shaw), Cuvier. 
Acrochordus fasciatus, apud Raffles. 
Chersydrus granulatus, Merrem, apud Wagler. 
Acrochordus fasciatus, apud Schlegel. 
" U'lar limpa," f^° or " U'lar laut" of the Malays. 

Young. Blackish-brown or liver-coloured ; the head with a few" 
scattered yellowish-white spots, the rest of the body with numerous 
rings of the latter colour, some interrupted on the back, others on the 

* This Sub-Gen. was founded upon the erroneous supposition that Acrochordus fascia,' 
ins, Shaw, possessed venomous organs. 
fc5^ Limpa, i. e. liver, liver-coloured. 

1 847. j Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 907 

Adult. The dark colours fade to a dull greyish black, uniform on 
the back, and the sides and abdomen present alternate dark and whitish 
vertical bands. Iris black, pupil vertically contracted ; tongue whitish. 

Habit. — Rivers and sea-coast of the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 
Bay of Manilla, New-Guinea, Timor, Java, Sumatra, Coro- 
man del. 

This species appears not to exceed about 3ft. in length. The body is 
less bulky and the skin less loose than in A. javanicus. But the form 
is more compressed, particularly the sword, or oar-like tail, and like 
that of the pelagic venomous serpent, appears exclusively calculated 
to aquatic habits. The scales also resemble those of the latter, and are 
generally smaller than in A. javanicus. Those of the back, the largest, 
are. rounded rhombic, each with a minute tubercle in the centre. The 
skin in the interstices is finely wrinkled. On the abdomen the scales 
are mucronate, with a sharp, reclining central point. In both species 
the medial line is raised by 2 or 3 quincunx rows of scales with their 
points overlapping each other. The orbit is surrounded by a ring 
of scales a little larger than the rest. The nostrils, pierced high up 
on the muzzle, are almost vertical, slightly more so than they are in 
A. javanicus. In both they are tubular, larger in the present species, 
sinuous, and provided with a deeply seated membranous fold, which 
can hermetically close the passage. The mouth is secured in a similar 
manner by a central arched notch and two lateral protuberances, which 
correspond to a protuberance and two lateral cavities in the lower jaw. 
This contrivance also occurs in Hydrus, and to a certain extent in 
Homalopsis. With the exception of the dentition and the absence of 
venomous organs, in anatomical details both species of Acrochordus 
closely resemble B.ydrus. As observed by M. Schlegel, the most 
striking feature is the great development of the lung, which occupies 
nearly three-fourths of the extent of the abdominal cavity. A some- 
what similar arrangement also occurs in Homalopsis. All the maxillary 
teeth (inter-maxillary none) are strong, pointed, inwardly reclining and 
disposed in double or treble rows. The 3 anterior teeth are the short- 
est : the upper jaw has on each side upwards of 20 teeth, the lower 3 
or 4 less. The palatal teeth number 12 on each side, the pterygoid 9, 
and are shorter than the rest. Acrochordus granulatus is of no rare 

C B 

908 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sep?. 

occurrence in the sea of the Malayan coasts, although, according to 
Raffles, it is rarely seen on the coasts of Sumatra. At Pinang they 
are found among the fishes, taken in the stakes some 3 or 4 miles 
distant from the coast. M. Schlegel is mistaken in stating that this 
species never inhabits the sea,* and in censuring M. Eschscholtz for 
his stating that the fishermen often take it in the Bay of Manilla. A 
female of the following dimensions had six eggs :• — 

Length of the head, feet Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 7f 

Ditto ditto tail, 3f 

2 ft. 1 If inch. 
Greatest circumference, 4 inches. 

The egg is cylindrical, soft, coriaceous, whitish, about I-J inch in 
length. In each egg was coiled up a living young one of the following 
dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 9 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 


10 j inch. 
Greatest circumference, 1 inch. In food and general habits this 
species resembles the pelagic, venomous, serpents ; in its element, it is 
active, but on dry, blinded by the daylight, it is sluggish and of uncer- 
tain movements. 

FAM. COLUBRIDiE, Bonaparte. 


Gen. Calamaria, II. Boie. 

Body diminutive, elongated, obtuse at both extremities, throughout 

of equal diameter, cylindrical ; eyes very small with round pupil ; 

frontals one pair, laterally extending to the labials ; frenals none ; 

nostrils lateral, opening in a small shield between the frontal, rostral 

and anterior labial ; one prae-orbital, one post-orbital, four mental shields; 

dorsal scales rhombic, polished, smooth ; tail very short. 

Calamaria ltjmbricoidea, Schlegel, Var. 

Syn. — Calamaria lumbricoidea, Boie, MS. 

Calamaria virgulata, Boie, MS. (Young.) 
* Essai, &c. p. 492. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 309 

Strongly iridescent, brownish-black, lighter on the head, scales with 
whitish edges ; cheeks, lips and throat citrine ; the lowest row of scales 
and abdominal surface yellowish white ; sub-caudal scutella faintly 
marked with brown ; eyes and tongue black . 

Scuta 169; Scutella 26. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore. 
Celebes, Java. 
This variety differs in nothing but colours from the species describ- 
ed by M. Schlegel. Of three individuals observed, two were taken by 
Sir W. Norris and W, T. Lewis, Esq. in the hills of Pinang, the third 
by Dr. Montgomerie at Singapore. The largest was of the following 
•dimensions : 

Length of the head, 3-f inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 If 

Ditto ditto tail, If 

1 ft. If inch. 

Circumference f- inch. 

The livery bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Calamaria alba 
(Linne), (C. brachyorrhos, Schlegel,) from which it however differs in 
the absence of the anterior frontal shields, and in having 13 instead 
of 17 longitudinal series of scales. 

Calamaria linnei, II. Boie, Var. Schlegel. 

Syn. — Calamaria reticulata, Boie, MS. ? 

Changulia albiventer, Gray : 111. Ind. Zool. PI. — Fig. 6 — 9.* 
Calamaria linnei, Var Schlegel. 

Adult. Head brown, minutely dotted with black, lips and cheeks 
pale gamboge ; trunk reddish brown, on each side with two vermillion 
longitudinal bands with black serrated edges ; beneath carmine with 
a black serrated line on each side ; subcaudal scutella with a central 
black, zig-zag line ; all the colours strongly iridescent ; eyes black, 
tongue vermilion. 

Young. Like the adult, but with a broad black nuchal band, edged 

* Referred by M. Schlegel to C. lumbricoideu, but the characteristic distribution of 
the colours is that of the present Var. The figure however is not good, and not colour- 
ed from life. 

6 b 2 

910 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

with white, a vermilion band at the root of the tail, and in some a 
similar near the point. 
Scnta 166, Scutella 17. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

The present variety corresponds in all particulars to the description 
of C. linnei by M. Schlegel, who however does not mention that the 
two or three anterior teeth on each side of the lower jaw are longer 
than the rest. Of six individuals from the hills of Pinang the largest 
individual measured 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 10£ 

Ditto ditto tail, Of 

1 1 inch. 
Circumference of the neck f , of the trunk f inch. 

Calamaria longiceps. n. s. (See plate, Fig. 1.) 

Strongly iridescent soot-coloured, a shade lighter beneath ; the scuta 
and scutella edged with whitish. Eyes and tongue black. 
Scuta 131, Scutella 26. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

The head is elongated, narrow, conical, the muzzle rounded, project- 
ing over the lower jaw. The anterior frontals are much smaller than 
the frontals, which on the sides occupy the place of the absent frenal 
shield, and thus reach the second upper labial ; the nasal is very 
small, rectangular, perforated by the rather large nostril near the 
lower anterior angle. The eye is comparatively large, between an 
obliquely placed rectangular prse-orbital, and a similar post-orbital 
shield ; the supra-orbitals are narrow, rectangular ; the vertical mode- 
rate, pentagonal, arched and somewhat narrowed at the anterior mar- 
gin. The occipitals, the largest, are elongated, bordered below by the 
large fifth upper labial, and behind by a single pair of post-occipitals. 
Each jaw has 5 pairs of labials. Of the 2 pairs of mentals, the ante- 
rior is the longer, and is enclosed by the rostral and 3 anterior labials, 
the posterior pair, by the fourth labial. The teeth are minute, sharp, 
reclining, all of equal size. The trunk is cylindrical, narrowed towards 


T.BUtk Muu<s Zuk'Trt/i CcU 

D^. Cantor d,l 

184 7. J Malayan Peninsula mid Islands. 911 

both extremities, covered with 15 longitudinal series of smooth, rhom- 
bic, imbricate scales. The abdomen is arched, the short tail tapering 
to a blunt point. This species approaches to Calamaria alba (Linne), 
(C. brachyorrhos, Schlegel), but differs by its elongated shape of the 
shields of the head, and its larger eyes. A single individual, captured 
by W. T. Lewis, Esq., on the Great Hill of Pinang, was of the follow- 
ing dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 5 

Ditto ditto tail, Of 

Q\ inch. 
Circumference of the trunk T \, of the neck f, at the root of the 
tail f inch. 

Calamaria sagittaria. 

Syn. — Calamaria sagittaria, Cantor : Spicil. 

Head yellow or white, marbled with black, forming a streak above 
the citrine lips ; neck white with a black arrow-shaped mark ; back 
partly ash, partly rust-coloured, with a medial series of distant minute 
black spots ; sides bluish-black or grey, with a narrow black line 
above ; beneath citrine, the throat marbled with black, and with a 
minute black spot near the lateral angle of each scutum. Iris golden, 
tongue carmine. 

Scuta 216 to 227 ; Scutella 57 to 70. 

Habit. — Ma lay an Peninsula . 
Bengal, Assam. 

But for the diminutive size, and the reduced shields of the head and 
throat, this species might be taken for a Coronella. The head is but 
little distinct, depressed, ovate, covered by the normal number of 
shields. The anterior frontals are very small, pentagonal ; the frenal 
short rectangular. The nostrils are rather large, piercing the middle 
of the nasal. The eyes are large, prominent with one prse-orbital, two 
post-orbitals ; the upper jaw, but slighly longer than the lovver, has on 
each side 6 labials, the lower 7, enclosing two pairs of small mentals. 
The temples are covered by three shields. The trunk, with 17 longi- 
tudinal series of smooth, rhomboidal imbricate scales, is slightly thick- 

012 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept, 

er towards the middle than at the extremities ; the back throughout 
depressed, forming an angle with the sides, and the abdomen is flat, 
which makes a vertical section of the body square. The tail is very 
slender, tapering to a sharp point, and exceeds one-fifth of the entire 
length. The teeth are very minute, of equal size. A single specimen 
from the Malayan Peninsula was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 9f 

Ditto ditto tail, 2 J- 

1 If inch. 

Circumference of the trunk : f , of the neck and root of the tail f in. 

In Bengal this species is of no uncommon occurrence, particularly 
during the rainy season, when the water compels the serpents to leave 
the shady recesses which most of them occupy to avoid the heat of 
the day. The present species appears to be closely allied to the 
African C. arctiventris, Schlegel. 

Of the preceding four species, the three first appear at Pinang 
exclusively to inhabit the hills, but the variety of C. lumbricoidea 
occurs at Singapore in valleys. They are nowhere to be met in num- 
bers. They are of gentle peaceable habits, never attempting to bite, 
and scarcely to escape. They are sluggish, move but slowly, and to 
a short distance, even when compelled by danger, and soon resume 
the motionless position which they appear to affect. The remarkable 
abstinence of most of their congeners, they possess but in a very 
limited degree. In captivity they refuse food, and soon expire ; be- 
sides, they are so delicate, that slight pressure in examining them, is 
sufficient to kill them. Their bodies are very smooth, and brilliantly 
reflect rain-bow-colours, which continue in preserved specimens, long 
after the gay livery has faded. They feed upon slugs, earth-worms, 
and insects. The stomach of a C. sagittaria contained remains of an 
lulus and some sand. In general appearance, and habits these species 
of Calamaria strongly resemble the Malayan Flaps (vide infra.) 

Gen. Coronella, Laurenti. 
Head above covered with large plates, of which one between the eyes 

1847. J Mai ay ah Peninsula and Islands. 913 

sides of the head and occiput with imbricate scales ; trunk narrowed 
near the head, thicker towards the middle ; tail conical, elongated, 
tapering to a sharp point. 


Syn.— Patza Tutta, Russell I. PL 29 ? 
Coluber pictus, Daudin ? 
Coluber plinii, Merrem ? 
Coronella baliodeira, Boie MS. 

Above lighter or darker olive brown, yellowish on the head, the 
scales minutely dotted with dark brown ; the anterior part of the trunk 
with a number of distant transversal ocellated lines, composed of single 
transversal series of white scales, edged with black, labial shields 
yellow edged with black ; beneath pearl coloured or yellowish white ; 
iris golden, lower half blackish ; tongue black. 

Scuta 122 to 132 ; Scutella 65 to 72. 

Habit. — Pinang. 
Of two individuals from the hills of Pinang, the larger was of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 8-f 

Ditto ditto tail, 3f 

lft. 1 inch. 

Circumference of the neck f , of the trunk -J, of the root of the 
tail f inch. 

Both agree with the description of M. Schlegel, except in having 
two small prse-orbitals instead of one. Russell's No. 29, from Casem- 
cottah, which according to M. Schlegel is Coluber pic t us, Daudin, C. 
plinii, Merrem, is probably intended to represent the present species. 
It is of fierce habits. 

Gen. Xenodon, //. Boie. 

Head scarcely distinct, muzzle obtuse, nostrils rounded, between 3 
shields ; eyes encircled behind only by 3 shields ; trunk short robust ; 
tail rather, short slowly tapering ; 4 very large mentals, the last upper 
maxillary tooth the longest. 

914 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Xenodon purpurascens, Schlegel, 
Syn. — Coronella albocincta, Cantor, (Var.) 

Above olive brown with black spots, and numerous pale red trans- 
versal zig-zag bands, each with a submarginal black line. The first 
occupies the space between the eyes, continuing obliquely backward 
over the cheeks and lips ; the second, arrow-shaped, diverging over 
the neck ; labial shields yellow with brown margins. Beneath strongly 
iridescent pale carmine ; every other scutum entirely or partially 
black near the lateral angles. Iris circular, golden, lower half dotted 
with black ; tongue black. 

Scuta 179 to 183 ; Scutella 36 to 65. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Java, Tenasserim, (Var) Chirra-Punji, Assam, Darjeling, 

Midnapore (Bengal.) 
A solitary individual observed on the summit of the Great Hill of 
Pinang, defended itself vigorously. The dimensions were : 

Length of the head, ft. 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 8| 

Ditto ditto tail, 3 5 s 

2 ft. 1 inch. 

Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk 2, of the root of the 
tail \\ inch. It differs from the description of M. Schlegel in having 
2 1 longitudinal series of scales instead of 1 9, and on the right side 3 

prse-orbitals. Labials on each side — . The Variety described as Coro- 
nella albocincta inhabits Assam, Chirra Punji, Darjeling, and Midna- 
pore (Bengal.) It differs from those of the southern localities in having 
the head not distinct from he trunk, and its shields are shorter. The 
eyes are smaller, and, owing to the much swollen cheeks, appear sunk, 
which with the remarkably shelving profile, contribute to render the 
physiognomy singularly scowling. The largest specimen in the Museum 
of the Asiatic Society measures in length 2 feet 5f inch., of which the 
head f, the trunk 2 feet If, and the tail 3 inch. In all, the livery is 
individually varying, but the arrow-shaped mark, double in some, ap- 



to be constant. Labials on each side - 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula ami Islands. 915 

Gen. Lycodon, //. Boie. 

Head not very distinct, oblong, depressed ; supra-orbital shield trian- 
gular, narrowed in front ; proe-orbital one ; post-orbitals two ; frenal 
one ; eyes sunk, far removed from the muzzle ; pupil vertical ; trunk 
elongated, somewhat compressed with smooth, rhomboidal, imbricate 
scales ; tail short, tapering : anterior maxillary teeth longer than the 

Lycodon aulicus, (Linne.) 

Lyn. — Coluber aulicus, Linne (not apud Daudin.) 
Russell* I, PI. 16, Gajoo Tutta. 
Coluber striatus, Shaw ? 
Coluber malignus, Daudin. 

Lycodon hebe, Boie, apud Wagler, Schlegel {excl. Synon. Col. hebe, 

Lighter or darker chestnut with numerous white transversal bands, 
(in some spotted with black,) on the sides forming a forked network, 
composed of brown scales edged with white ; on each side of the hind- 
head a white triangular spot (confluent in some,) with brown spots ; 
lips similarly coloured ; beneath pearl-coloured ; eyes black ; tongue 

Scuta 208 to 25/ ; scutella 57 to 91. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Bengal, Coromandel. 

Var. A. 

Syn. — Lycodon hebe, Var, Schlegel. 

With a number of large square white spots, with black edges and 
central spots. 

Habit. — Pin a ng . 

Var. B. 

Syn.— Russell II, PI. 37- 

Lycodon capucinus, Boie. 

Lycodon hebe, Var. javan. Schlegel. 

Lycodon atropurpureus, Cantor. 

* Russell I, PI. 26, Karetta, upon which is founded Coluber galathea, Duudiu, 
appears to represent the present species, or one of its Varieties. 

6 C 

916 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Chesnut or deep purple marbled with white veins, edged with black, 
with or without a white collar. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Tenasserim Provinces, Java. 

Var. C. 

Lyn. — Lycodon hebe, Var. timorensis, Schlegel. 

Chestnut, with a white collar, and indistinct traces of white network, 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Pulo Samao, Timor. 

Var. D, 

Syn — Russel II, PI. 39. 

Lydocon subfuscus, Cantor. 

Uniformly light brown above, the lips white, edged with brown. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 

This species occurs in the Malayan countries both in the hills and 
valleys, but it is apparently not so numerous as it is in Bengal. It is of 
fierce habits and defends itself vigorously, In one examined the sto- 
mach contained a young Euprepis rufescens, (Shaw) . 

The largest individual observed, Var. B. t was of the following 
dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 8-j- 

Ditto ditto tail, 4| 

2 ft. If inch. 

Circumference of the neck 1 inch, of the trunk If, of the root of the 
tail -J inch. 

Ophites. — Wagler differing from Lycodon in the absence of the 
prse-orbital shield ; frenal elongated ; eyes small, scales rhombic with 
truncated points ; some of the posterior dorsal scales keeled. 

Lycodon platurinus, (Shaw,) 

Syn.— Seba Thes. I, 83, 3. 
Russel, II, PI. 41. 
Coluber platurinus, Shaw. 
Coluber platyrhinus, Merrem. 
Lycodon subcinctus, H. Boie. 
Ophites, Wagler. 
Lycodon subcinctus, apud Schlegel. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 917 

Shining blackish brown with steel blue reflections, and a varying 
number of broad, distant bands, the lips, throat and a collar all white, 
spotted with black ; beneath pale blackish brown, the anterior part of 
the abdomen, the sharp lateral angle and the broad posterior margins 
of the scuta and scutella whitish. Eyes black ; tongue flesh-coloured. 

Scutta 221, Scutella 74. 

Habit, — Pinang. 

Java, Bengal.* 
On both sides of each jaw the anterior 4 or 5 teeth increase in size 
and are longer than the rest. The fifth upper maxillary tooth is re- 
moved from the preceding, which in addition to the general shape of 
the head and the lax integuments, imparts to this serpent a striking 
resemblance to the venomous genus Bungarus. In fierceness it resem- 
bles the preceding species. The only individual observed was captur- 
ed near the summit of the Great Hill of Pinang, where it had seized a 
large Euprepis rufescens, (Shaw). It was of the following dimensions. 

Length of the head, ft. 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 8f 

Ditto ditto tail, 7f 

3ft. 5 inch. 
Circumference of the neck If, of the trunk 2-f inch. 


Shining bluish black above, with a few minute white spots, not 
affecting the ground colour ; the throat, lips, and a band, bordering the 
sides of the head from the muzzle to the hind head, buff coloured, 
finely marbled with black ; beneath strongly iridescent, pale bluish 
black, the scuta with whitish edges ; the body encircled by a number 
(11,) of broad distant buff rings, above with indentated margins. Eyes 
black, pupil elliptical ; tongue whitish. 

Scuta 228 ; Scutella 72. 

* According to M. Schlegei, who observes that a specimen has been forwarded from 
Bengal by JYI. Duvaucel. No specimen exists in the Museum ol the Asiatic Society, 
nor are the natives acquainted with the species. 

(5 c 2 

918 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

The head is elongated, ovate depressed, broader than the neck, the 
muzzle rounded, slightly projecting ; the anterior frontals are orbicular 
pentagonal, much smaller than the frontals, which are bent over the 
sides, substituting the absent frenal, so as to meet the second upper 
labial ; the nasal is small, rectangular, obliquely wedged in between the 
rostral, the two pairs of frontals, and the anterior upper labial ; the 
nostril large, piercing the middle of the shield ; the vertical is elong- 
ated pentagonal, broader in front, so as to render the posterior 
part of the moderate supraeorbitals broader than the anterior ; the 
occipitals are the largest, elongated, on each side surrounded by 3 
scales, somewhat longer than the rest covering the temples, and behind 
by two small post-occipitals. The eyes are proportionally large and 
prominent, surrounded by one prseorbital and two smaller post-orbitals, 
the lower of which touches the narrow projecting fifth upper labial, 
which with the fourth, borders the lower part of the orbit ; the jaws arc 
covered by 8 pairs of upper, 9 of lower labials. The gape is moderate ; 
the particulars of the dentition noted in L. platurinus, exist in the 
present species. The two anterior of the three pairs of small elongated 
mental shields are bordered by the six anterior pairs of labials ; behind 
by a number of small scales. The trunk is slender, decreasing towards 
both extremities, with 17 longitudinal series of smooth, rhomboidal, 
slightly imbricate scales. The back is depressed, forming an angle with 
the compressed somewhat bulging sides. The latter are joined to the 
flat narrow abdomen under a right angle on the sides of the scuta, so 
that the vertical section of the body is quadangular. A single indivi- 
dual found by Sir Win. Norris on the Great Hill of Pinang, was of 
the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ....,, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 9| 

Ditto ditto tail, 2f 

1 ft. Of inch. 

Circumference of the neck f , of the trunk f , of the root of the tail 
I inch. 

In fierceness the present species resembles its congeners, but unlike 
them, it raises vertically the anterior part of the body, and bites after 

184 7. J Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 919 

a few oscillating movements from side to side. Lycodon platurinus, 
and aulicus, like many other harmless, — and some venomous serpents, 
the pupils of which are vertically closed by the light, prepare to attack 
horizontally coiled on the ground, with the head bent close to the body, 
and drawn as far backwards as possible, when, suddenly uncoiling the 
anterior part of the body, they dart obliquely upwards, but as they 
are blinded, not always in the direction apparently aimed at, and they 
frequently miss the aim. 

Gen. Coluber, Linne 
Abdomen with scuta ; scutella under the tail. 

Coluber fasciolatus, Shaw. 

Syn. — Russel I. PI. 21 Nooni Paragoodoo. 

Coluber hebe, Daudin (Synon. apud Boie, Wagler, Schlegel). 
" Cineritious grey with an obscure cast of reddish brown, particu- 
larly about the head and neck. The back variegated by black and 
white, or black and yellowish, narrow bands ; and on the sides are two 
or three rows of short, separate oblique lines, formed by the yellow or 
white edges of the lateral scales ; but in general these bands are not 
visible on the tail. The scuta (192) and scutella (62) are of a dusky 
pearl-colour." {Russell I. Pg. 26.) 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Coromandel Coast. 
A young individual, killed in Province Wellesley corresponds to the 
description of Russell, copied by Shaw and Daudin. It has two small 
post-orbitals, one elongated prse-orbital, one minute irregularly hexago- 
nal frenal, and on each side 8 upper, 9 lower labial shields. The 
trunk is covered by 21 longitudinal series of smooth imbricate scales, 
which are rhombic on the sides, rhomboidal above, all with rounded 
points. The teeth are of uniform size, and as Russell correctly des- 
cribes them, very small, reflex, sharp, numerous. The dentition, 
therefore, sufficiently indicates that the species cannot be placed in the 
Gen. Lycodon, to which it has been referred by M. M. H. Boie, 
Wagler and Schlegel. The young one is of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk , 8£ 

Ditto ditto tail, 2£ 

10| inch. 

920 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sett 

Greatest circumference of the trunk, f inch. 

Scuta 201 ; Scutella 73. 

Coluber radiatus, Schlegel. 

Syn.— Russell II. PL 42. 

Coluber quadrifasciatus, Cantor, (Var.) 

Head and back light yellowish bay, paler on the sides ; the hind 
head with a transversal black line, branching off along the exterior 
margins of the occipitals ; a black oblique streak behind the eyes, and 
another beneath them dividing both jaws. On each side of the back a 
broad longitudinal black band, relieved at intervals by a short net- 
work, produced by 3 or 4 scales of each series being edged with pale 
brown, and the skin between them white. The bands, in some com- 
mencing at a distance from the head, are continued or interrupted, 
terminating on the posterior part of the back. Below them is on each 
side a parallel black line ; lips, throat and lower surface yellow. Iris 
bright gamboge with a concentric black ring. Tongue bluish black. 

Young. Above of clearer colours ; beneath pearl-coloured, 

Scuta 222 to 248 ; Scutella 82 to 94. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Cochin China, Tenasserim, Assam. 
This species is numerous in marshes, and paddy-fields, and often 
becomes a tenant of out-houses, where during the day it remains con- 
cealed, till nightfall favours its pursuit after rats. It is however 
equally diurnal, preying upon smaller birds, lizards and frogs. Assam 
produces a local variety distinguished by 1 8 instead of 1 7 longitudinal 
series of scales, of which the 3 upper ones are all lineated, whereas 
normally such is the case on those of the posterior part of the body. 
It makes a vigorous defence, and in darting at an enemy is capable of 
raising nearly the anterior two thirds of the body from the ground. In 
a female were found 23 whitish, soft, cylindrical eggs, of which the 
largest measured 1 \ inch, in length. The largest individual observed 
was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4 3-f 

Ditto ditto tail, lOf 

5 ft. 3 1 inch. 
Greatest circumference, 34 inch. 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula ami Islands. 021 

Habits and general appearance link the present species to Col. 
dhumnades, Cantor,* and Col. mucosus, Linne {Col. blumenbachii, 
Merrem,) but the latter as well as its variety with uniformly smooth 
scales {Col. dhumna, Cantor : Spicil.) utter when irritated a peculiar 
diminuendo sound, not unlike that produced by a gently struck tuning- 

Coluber korros, Reinwardt. 
Syn. — Coluber korros, Reinwardt, apud Wagler, Schlegel. 

Brownish green above, the scales of the posterior part of the trunk 
and of the tail with black points and edges, producing a regular net- 
work ; beneath yellowish white or pearl-coloured ; the lateral part of 
the scuta light bluish-grey. Iris bright yellow with a bluish grey or 
blackish concentric ring, tongue black. 

Young. — Above with some indistinct transversal bands, produced by 
two lateral white spots on some of the scales ; the posterior part of 
the trunk with dark longitudinal lines. 

Scuta 162 to 190 ; Scutella 79 to 136. 
Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 
Java, Sumatra, Arracan, Tenasserim. 
It is numerous in the Malayan vallies. The largest individual 
measured : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 6f 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 4f 

3 ft. 11| inch. 
Greatest circumference of the trunk 3 inches. 

Its habits are similar to those of the last mentioned species, from 
which it is easily distinguished by its 1 5 longitudinal series of smooth 
rhomboidal scales with rounded points. 

Coluber hexahonotus, N. S. 
Head and back dark brown, changing to pale brownish buff on the 
sides ; trunk with numerous, close, transversal black bands, each with 

* Chusan.— It is covered by 14 to 16 long it. series of rhomboidal scales, of which 
those of the two uppermost scries commence at a short distance from the hea<l, exhibiting 
the central raised line. 

922 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

a few white spots on the lower parts, becoming indistinct towards the 
posterior extremity of the trunk, from whence the colour is uniformly 
dark brown ; labial shields yellow, edged with black ; beneath yellowish 
white, scutella edged with brown. Iris gamboge with a black concen- 
tric ring ; pupil round, tongue black ; central series of dorsal scales 

Scuta 191 ; Scutella 148. 

Habit. — Vinang. 

The head is distinct, elongated, with the muzzle broad, truncated, 
covered above with the normal number of shields, in form resembling 
those of Col. korros. The eyes are large, prominent, with two pree- 
orbitals, of which the superior is the larger, the inferior is wedged in 
between the 3rd, 4th and 5th upper labials. In addition to two post- 
orbitals, there is an elongated crescent-shaped infra-orbital, resting on 
the 6th and 7th upper labials. The latter are 8 on each side, of which 
the 5th, broad hexagonal, borders the orbit ; the following are elongated, 
gradually increasing in size. The lower labials, 9 on each side, lie on 
the chin in contact with two pairs of elongated shields. The nostrils 
are rather large, orbicular, opening near the margin of the anterior 
frontals. The frenal is small, obliquely situated between the surround- 
ing shields. The temples are covered by two pairs of elongated shields. 
The gape is wide, the teeth minute, of equal length. The trunk is 
slender, much compressed with 1 7 longitudinal series of smooth, rhom- 
bic, sub-imbricate scales, of which the central series is hexagonal. The 
abdomen narrow, arched. The tail is very slender elongated, tapering 
to a sharp point. 

A solitary individual, discovered by Sir William Norris on the Great 
Hill of Pinang, was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, 0-| inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 10 

Ditto ditto tail, 4f 

1 ft. 3| inch. 

Circumference of the neck f , of the trunk 1 inch., of the root of the 
tail -f. In fierceness it resembled the preceding species. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 923 

Gen. Dipsas, Lanrenti. 
Head large, broad, depressed, cordate, covered with shields ; neck 
narrow, trunk much narrower than the head, compressed, very long, 
beneath covered with scuta ; tail cylindrical, imbricate. 

Dipsas dendrophila, Reinwardt. 

Syn. — Scheuchzer, 662, Fig. 11. (Col. variabilis, apud Merrem.) 
Dipsas dendrophila, apud Wagler. 

Dipsas dendrophila, Wagler, apud Horsfield : Life of Raffles. 
Dipsas dendrophila, apud Schlegel. 

Head, back and sides intense black with steel-blue, lilac, and green 
reflections ; beneath pale black, iridescent ; body and tail with numer- 
ous bright yellow transversal bands, widened below, sometimes joined 
on the back or abdomen, occasionally reduced to irregular spots ; 
throat and lips bright yellow, labials with black edges. Pupil ellipti- 
cal, vertical ; iris and tongue black. 

Scuta 218 to 225, Scutella 100 to 112. 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 
Java, Celebes. 

It inhabits the Malayan hills and valleys, but apparently in no 
great numbers. The largest individual measured : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 3| 

Ditto ditto tail, I 

4 ft. 5f inch. 
Greatest circumference of the trunk, 4 inch. 

Dipsas multimaculata, Schlegel. 

Syn. — Scheuchzer, 657, Fig. 2. 
Russell, II. PI. 23. 
Dipsas multimaculata, Schlegel 

Ground-colour, above light greenish grey, minutely spotted ami 
marbled with brown ; on the head an angular, backwards diverging 
black mark with whitish edges ; a black oblique line from behind the 
eyes to the hind head, where it joins a lozenge-shaped black spot with 
whitish edges ; along the back and tail a series of large, irregularly 
oval, black spots with whitish edges, arranged in close quincunx series 

6 D 

924 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

the sides with numerous, similarly coloured, oblique or arched, often 
interrupted, bands ; labials greenish white, black-edged ; beneath green- 
ish white, tinged with rose-colour, minutely spotted with brown, and 
with a double or treble lateral series of irregular black spots. Iris 
pale greenish golden, minutely dotted with black ; pupil elliptical, 
vertical ; tongue whitish. 

Scuta 202 to 235, Scutella 80 to 106. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Celebes, Java, Tenasserim, Bengal. 
On the hills of Pinang this species appears to be more numerous 
than the former. The largest individual measured : 

Length of the head, ft. 0-f inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 10f 

Ditto ditto tail, 5-1 

2 ft. 4^ inch. 

Greatest circumference, If inch, 

The central hexagonal scales are elongated, narrow on the anterior 
part of the trunk, which is covered by 19 longitudinal series of smooth, 
lanceolate, imbricate scales ; from thence commence 1 7 series of broad- 
er scales. 

Dipsas cynodon, Cuvier, 
Syn. — Dipsas cynodon, apud Boie, Guerin, Schlegel. 

Young. Ground-colour yellowish brown, head with a dark black- 
edged arrow-shaped mark, and a black oblique streak from the eye to 
the nape of the neck ; labials pearl-coloured, edged with black ; back 
with numerous black transversal marks, shaped like two letters Y 
placed horizontally towards each other or in quincunx, becoming in- 
distinct towards the tail. Beneath pearl-coloured with a black spot 
near the lateral part of the scuta ; scutella edged and minutely dotted 
with brown. 

Scuta 225, Scutella 92. 

Adult. Head and back uniformly greyish brown tinged with lilac, 
with a number of distant large, transversal, purple, bands (the scales 
edged with black), lozenge-shaped with triangular lateral appendages, 
becoming indistinct towards the tail, which is alternately brownish buff 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 925 

and purple with black-edged scales. Beneath pale yellow, scutella 
minutely dotted and edged with brown. Iris pale golden, minutely 
dotted with purple ; pupil elliptical vertical ; tongue whitish. 

Scuta 275, Scutella 158. 
Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Tenasserim. 
A young one was captured on the Great Hill of Pinang by W. T. 
Lewis, Esq. An adult, killed in Province Wellesley, was of the follow- 
ing dimensions. 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4 Of 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 4 

5 ft. 5-} inch. 

Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk, 2f inch. 

The young had 21, the adult 23 longitudinal series of smooth, 
lanceolate, imbricate scales. The long maxillary and palatal teeth are 
disproportionally less developed in the young than in the adult. 

Dipsas boa, (H. Boie.) (See Plate, Fig 3.) 

Syn. — Amblycephalus boa, H. Boie : Isis. 
Dipsas boa, apud Schlegel. 

Ground colour above : rose-coloured washed with brown, varying in 
intensity and shade from light bay to umber, prevailing so as to make 
the ground colour appear as minute spots, and with numerous irregular 
black spots, confluent on the head ; cheeks and lips carnation, with a 
vertical black streak from the middle of the orbit. Beneath carnation, 
dotted with umber, sometimes assuming the shape of large irregular 
spots. Iris : silvery rose-coloured, lower half dotted with black, pupil 
elliptical, vertically contracted by the light ; tongue whitish. 

Scuta abdominalia 164, Scuta subcaudalia 112; or 170-f-109. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

The head is depressed, elongated, corneal, with the muzzle truncated ; 
the rostral shield is very large, vertically placed ; the cheeks com- 
pressed, but the lips very tumid below the eyes. Of the nine crown 
shields the occipitals are distinguished by their reduced size, and 

O D 2 

926 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

frequent sub-division in 2 linear inter-occipitals, bordered by two large 
polygonal post-oceipitals, enclosing a smaller third, linear. Behind 
the latter appears on each side a small hard tubercle, covered like the 
rest of the hind head with minute polygonal scales. Each temple is 
protected by 5 to 6 large shields, and as many smaller resting upon 
the labials. The nasal is large, pyramidal with the rounded nostril in 
the centre, and the apex wedged in between the 3 frenals, placed 
obliquely or vertically one above the other. The eye is large, promi- 
nent, encircled by the supra-orbital and 7 smaller shields, so that none 
of the upper labials reach the orbit. The lips are arched, and outwardly 
appear to reach to the hind head, but the commissure, or the angle of 
the mouth is situated immediately below the eye, which greatly reduces 
the opening of the mouth. Of the 9 pairs of upper labials the anterior 
6 are narrow, but very deep and bulging ; the posterior 3 are broader, 
elongated; the inferior labials, 11 pairs, are as well as the rostral, 
greatly reduced by the 3 pairs of very large mentals. The front view 
of the head grotesquely resembles that of a mastiff. All the teeth are 
strong, but the front tooth on each side of the lower jaw is longer than 
the rest ; the palatal rows are very close together, and converging. 
The trunk is much compressed, covered by 13 longitudinal series of 
scales, of which the dorsal row is composed of very large hexagonal 
ones, each with a strong keel ; the rest are smooth, rhombic, imbricate. 
The abdomen is very narrow, and the sides of the scuta are bent 
upwards. The tail is elongated, slender, tapering, and much less 
compressed than the trunk. Of two individuals from the hills of 
Pinang, the larger, a male, was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 11 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 1| 

2 ft. 11! inch. 

Circumference of the neck 1 inch, of the trunk If, of the root of the 
tail ! inch. In a female were observed 4 cylindrical, whitish eggs, 
each f inch in length. The stomach contained a few remains of 

This species is closely allied to Dipsas carinata, Schlegel, {Ambly- 
wphalus, Kuhl ; Pareas, Wagler,) in which also the dorsal series of 

1847. | Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 027 

scales are keeled. M. Schlegel's short description and figure (PI. XI, 
29, 30) appear to have been taken from an immature specimen. 

The preceding four species are very fierce, their mode of attack is 
that of Lycodon aulicus. Kuhl has observed vibrating movements in 
the tail of Dipsas multimaculata, which however are also exhibited by 
Dipsas trigonata (Schneider), (Col. catenularies, Daudin,) — D. cy- 
nodon, Cuvier, and among the venomous serpents, by Vipera i*usselli y 
(Shaw) and several Asiatic species of Trigonocepthalus, when they are 
irritated and preparing to bite. 

Gen. Herpetodryas, H. Boie. 

Head trigonal, very long, depressed, smooth, rather sharp ; trunk 

and tail very elongated ; scales, particularly those of the tail, large ; 

those of the back partially carinate ; in other respects resembling 


Herpetodryas oxycephalic, (Reinwardt.) 

Syn. — Coluber oxycephalus, Reinwardt. 
Gonyosoma viride, Wagler. 
Herpetodryas oxycephalus, apud Schlegel. 

Head above shining dark-green with a blackish straight line from 
the nostrils to the angle of the mouth ; lips and throat pale yellowish 
green ; trunk sea-green changing to light yellowish green on the lower 
part of the sides, all the scales with black edges ; the anterior half of 
the tail, separated from the trunk by a transversal orange band, ochre, 
gradually changing to greyish brown on the posterior half, all the 
scales edged with black. Abdominal scuta light yellowish green with 
pale yellow edges ; subcaudal scutella grey with black margins. Eyes 
moderate, little prominent ; iris pale sea-green with a narrow pale yellow 
inner ring and a transversal black band ; pupil circular, black. Tongue 
ultramarine, divided in the middle by a black longitudinal line. The 
exposed part of the larynx black. 

Scuta 268, Scutella 149. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

Java, Celebes. 
The shields of the head are elongated, most so the linear frenal. 
The teeth are numerous ; in each row the anterior six or eight are 

928 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

longer than the rest, which gradually decrease. The scales of the 
trunk, in 25 longitudinal series, are rhombic with rounded points, 
imbricate, and all smooth except those covering the spinous processes, 
which are faintly lineated. 

Of two individuals from the hills of Pinang, the larger, taken by Sir 
William Norris, was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 4 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 1 

4 ft. 6f inch. 
Circumference of the neck 2, of the trunk 3, of the root of the tail 
If inch. The ferocious habits of this serpent have been accurately 
described by M. Reinwardt. It has in a remarkable degree the power 
of laterally compressing the neck and the anterior part of the 
body, when the greyish blue skin becomes visible between the 
separated scales. In such state of excitement it raises nearly the 
anterior third vertically from the ground, continues fixed during 
several seconds with vibrating tongue, and bites. It then throws itself 
down, to rise to a renewed attack. A similar mode of attack cha- 
racterises the following species, viz : Dryinus nasutus, (Lacepede,) 
(Russell, I. PI. 12 and 13,), — D. prasinus, (Reinwardt.) (Dryiophis 
prasina apud Schlegel,) Leptophis pictus (Gmelin), and Leptophis 

Gen. Dryinus,* Merrem, 1820. 
Upper jaw much longer than the lower ; muzzle attenuated, more or 
less acute at the apex, which in some species is mucronate and move- 

Dryinus prasinus, (Reinwardt.) 
Syn.— Seba, II, Tab. LIII, Fig. 4. 

Coluber nasutus,f Shaw, apud Russell, II, PI. 24. 
Dryinus nasutus, Bell, (not Merrem, 1820.) 

* In II. Boie's Genera, published in his, 1827, Dryophis, (Dahlman,) is substituted 
for this genus. Wagler in 1830 separated some species under the denomination of Tra- 
gops, and M. Schlegel in his " Essaif has exclusively retained Dryiophis, although 
Prof. Thos. Bell already in 1825 had published his article on Leptophina (comprising 
Dryinus, Merrem, and Leploph is, Bell.) 

t The specific name was previously applied by Lacepede in 1790 to the other Asiatic 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 1)2!) 

Dryophis prasinus, Reinwardt. 

Tragops, Wagler. 

Dryinus nasutus, Bell, apud Horsfield : Life of Raffles. 

Passer ita, Gray. 

Dryiphis prasina, apud Schlegel. 

" Ular daun" of the Malays. 

Leek-green above, with some irregular white and black oblique lines, 
paler on the cheeks and upper lips ; tail cinnamon ; under lips and 
throat white, scuta and scutella light green or mother-of-pearl, on each 
side with a white or pale yellow longitudinal line, below which in some 
a second, green, line. Pupil black, elongated- pyriform, with the apex 
turned forwards, horizontally contracted by the light. Iris pale bur- 
nished golden, bright on the pupillary margin, the upper half of which 
forms a little behind its middle a small pointed lobe. Tongue bluish 

Scuta 186 to 228, Scutella 140 to 203. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Celebes, Java, Cochin-China, Siam, Burmah, Tenasserim, 
Arracan, Bengal, Assam. 

Var. A. 
Syn. — Dryiophis xantliozonius, Kuhl ? 

Head less elongated and the rostral shield unusually small ; upper 
lips in some white ; besides the yellow and green lateral line, a central 
green ; scuta and scutella in some with brown edges. 

Habit. — Same localities. 

Var. B. 

Head above light brownish grey, tinged with sky-blue and rose- 
colour cheeks and lips pale rose ; trunk light brownish ash, changing 
to pale rust colour on the tail ; whitish grey on the sides ; beneath 
buff, with a white longitudinal line on each side. Iris burnished 
silver, tongue white. 

Habit. — Pinang Hills. 

Var. C. 

Upper parts saffron yellow, paler on the sides ; beneath sulphur- 
coloured, with a lateral white line. Pupil deep burnished golden ; 
tongue white. 
Habit. — Pinang Hills. 

This species is exceedingly numerous in the Malayan forests, both 

;)30 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

in the hills and valleys, preying upon small birds, arborial lizards, 
frogs, and in early age upon insects. It may readily be distinguished 
from Dryinus nasntus, (Lacep.) (Merrem, not Bell j — Russell, I. PI. 
12, 13) by two, sometimes 3 frenals on each side. The trunk is 
covered by 15 longitudinal series of smooth rhomboidal scales with 
rounded points, imbricate so as to appear linear ; those of the tail are 
all broad rhombic. The anterior upper maxillary teeth gradually in- 
crease towards the sixth, which is the longest, and enclosed in a point- 
ed fold of gingiva. The following teeth, commencing at a short 
interval, are short, but the last is very long with a furrow on the con- 
vex edge. The inferior maxillary teeth also increase in length towards 
the sixth, the longest, and are protected by a broad triangular scab- 
bard, containing several additional loose teeth ; the rest are uniformly 
small, commencing at a short interval from the sixth. The palatal 
are uniformly very short. The largest individual of a great number 
measured : 

Length of the head, ft. 2 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 4 3 

Ditto ditto tail, 2 6f 

7 ft. 0^ inch. 

Circumference of the neck 1J, of the trunk 2-f, of the root of the 
tail 1 inch. 

The Varieties, of which B. and C. were from the hills of Pinang, are 
not numerous, and of a comparatively small size. The very young- 
ones are as gentle as those of a more advanced age are ferocious. 
Their power of expanding the anterior part of the body and their 
mode of attack, have been noted under Herpetodryas oxycephalus. 

Gen. Leptophis, Bell, 1825. 

Rostrum obtuse, and the upper jaw projects but very slightly beyond 

the lower. 

Leptophis pictus, (Gmelin.) 

Syn. — Coluber pictus, Gmelin. 
Coluber decorus, Shaw. 
Russell, II. PL 26, Cumberi muken. 
Bungarus filum, Oppel. 

Dipsas schokari, Kuhl, (not Forskal.) 
Dendrophis chairecacos, II. Boie. 
Dendrophis, Wagler. 
Dendrophis picta, Schlegel. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 931 

Head and body above bronze with strong golden reflections ; skin 
beween the scales of the anterior part of the body alternately ultrama- 
rine and black. Lips, throat, the two lowest lateral rows of scales, 
and the abdominal surface silvery mother-of-pearl. From the muzzle 
to the root of the tail a black line, bordering above the silvery sides, 
which below are circumscribed by a second black line, commencing a 
little behind the head. Iris bright golden with a transversal black 
line ; pupil black, circular ; tongue scarlet. 

Scuta 167 to 187, Scutella 109 to 149. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Manilla, New Ireland, Waigiou, Amboina, New Guinea, Pulo 
Samao, Java, Sumatra, Cochin-China, Tenasserim, Bur- 
mah, Bengal, Assam, Coromandel. 
Var. A.* 

Syn. — Coluber filiformis, Linne, (young.) 

Fil, Double Raie, Lacepede, (young.) 
Russell, II. PL 25, Mancas, Rooka, Maniar. 
Coluber bilineatus, Shaw. 
Leptophis mancas, Bell. 
Dendrophis maniar, Boie. 
Ahcetula bellii, Gray. 111. Ind. Zool. 
Dendrophis lateralis, Gray : 111. Ind. Zool. 
Chrysopelea boii, Smith. 
Dendrophis picta, Var. Schlegel. 
Dendrophis boii, apud Cantor. 

Above dull brownish black, with a light brown dorsal line ; the two 
lowest series of scales pale greenish white, forming a lateral band, 
bordered above by a black line, commencing from the muzzle, more or 
less distinct, in some irregularly broken up on the anterior part of the 
body. A second faint black line below. Iris golden, in some dotted 
with black ; tongue black. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Bengal, Assam, Ceylon. 

The species occurs numerously in the Malayan hills and valleys, but 
the contrary appears to be the case with the plain Variety, which in 
Bengal is equally common. The following must be added to the de- 
scription of M. Schlegel. The frenal shield is small, rectangular ; 

* The Variety, Col. iwltjchroits, Reinwardt, appears to inhabit neither the Malayan 
Peninsula nor Bengal. 

G E 

932 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

superior labials 9, inferior 10 or 11; one prce-orbital, two, in some 
three small post-orbitals. The trunk is covered by 15 longitudinal 
series of smooth, imbricate scales ; the central dorsal series is wedge- 
shaped, in some almost hexagonal, the next six are linear, hut the 
lowest, as well as all the scales of the tail, are broad rhombic with 
rounded points. In a female were found seven coriaceous, whitish 
eggs of an elongated cylindrical shape, each If inch in length. In 
habits and mode of attack this species resembles Dryinus prasinus, 
but it is not exclusively arborial. Probably no instance affords a more 
striking difference in colours, between species and variety than the 
present : the former with dazzling brilliant livery ; the latter in its 
plain, dull colours. Both attain to similar size : the largest male 
examined was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 1^ inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 6 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 1 

3 ft. S\ inch. 
Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk, 2, of the root of the 
tail, 1 inch. This serpent appears to possess uncommonly acute 
hearing, and turns its head in the direction of the sound. 

Leptophis caudalineatus, N. S. 

Syn. — Ahajtula caudolineata, Gray : Illust, Ind. Zool. 
Dendrophis ornata, Var, Schlegel. 

Head, trunk, and tail above light brownish bronze, the scales with 
black edges , on the posterior half of the trunk four parallel black 
lines, terminating at the root of the tail, from whence commences a 
single central black line ; sides metallic mother-of-pearl, from a short 
distance behind the head bordered by two parallel black lines of which 
the lower, the broader, covers the lower half of the last series of scales 
and the lateral part of the scuta ; both the lines continue to the apex 
of the tail. Lips, throat and abdominal surface pale metallic citrine ; 
the tail beneath with a black central line. Iris golden, dotted with 
brown ; pupil round ; tongue bluish white, the forked part black. 

Young. Upper parts of the body Indian red, with metallic reflec- 

Scuta 183 to 188, Scutella 105 to 110. 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands . 933 

Habit. — Pinang, Singapore. 

The head large, less depressed than in the preceding species, the 
muzzle broad, blunt ; cheeks tumid ; all the shields of the crown are 
short and broad, except the vertical which is laterally arched, and very 
narrow behind. There is a single elongated post-occipital, and the rest 
of the hind head is covered with broad hexagonal shields. Each temple 
is covered by two pairs of large shields, in front of which a pair of very 
minute ones, bordering upon the equally small post-orbitals. The eye 
is large, prominent ; the pra -orbital and the linear frenal proportionally 
small ; the nostrils large, opening in the middle of the nasal ; the 
rostral broad, slightly arched beneath. The labials, 9 on each side of 
both jaws, resemble those of the preceding species. The mouth is 
large ; the maxillary teeth strong, distant. In the lower jaw the 
anterior ones gradually increase in length till the fourth, which appears 
like a canine, the rest as well as the palatal teeth are all smaller, of 
uniform length. The chin is covered by the second pair of labials and 
two pairs of mentals, of which the posterior pair is elongated. The 
trunk is strong, less compressed than in the preceding species, with 
13 series of smooth imbricate scales, of which the two lowest series 
are large rhombic with rounded points, the next four elongated rhom- 
boidal (linear), and the odd central dorsal rhomboidal, not larger than 
the rest. The tail is covered with broad hexagonal, not imbricate, 
scales. The abdomen is narrow, flattened ; the centre part of the scuta 
with strongly arched margins ; the sides turned upwards and forming 
a continued sharp lateral ridge. The tail is slender, tapering ; its ver- 
tical section nearly square. 

Of this species but two individuals were observed : a young one at 
Singapore, an adult on the Great Hill of Pinang. The latter measured : 

Length of the head, ft. 1 J- incl 

Ditto ditto trunk, 3 5-f 

Ditto ditto tail, 1 2 

4 ft. 9 inch. 

Circumference of the neck, 2, of the trunk 3-f, of the root of the 
tail, 1^ inch. 

In its mixed arborial and terrestrial habits and in fierceness it re- 


934 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sett, 

sembles L. pictus, but its power of compressing and expanding the 
forepart of the body is somewhat limited. 

This species appears somewhat to approach to Leptophis formosus, 
(Dendrophis formosa, Schlegel,) but besides other distinguishing cha- 
racters, it differs from that, and all other Asiatic species in having but 
13 series of scales. The indifferent figure of Ahcetula caudolineata 
in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, which appears to be all which has 
been published concerning this species, has led M. Schlegel to suppose 
it was intended to represent a Variety of Leptophis pictus, although the 
black outline of the head is correct. 

Leptophis ornatus, (Shaw.) 

Syn. — Seheuchzer, T. 606. 

Seba, I. T. 94, Fig. 7 .—11. T. /, Fig. 1 ; T. 61, Fig. 2. 

Russell, II. PL 2, Kalla Jin. 

Coluber ornatus, Shaw. 

Coluber ibiboboca, Daudin. 

Coluber ornatus, Merrem, apud Horstield : Life of Raffles. 

Chrysopelea paradisi, H. Boie. 

Dendrophis ornata, Schlegel. 

Habit. — Bengal, Ceylon. 


Syn. — Ular Chindi, Raffles. 

Dendrophis chrysochloros, Reinwardt, (young.) 

Head above intense velvety black, with three or four distant trans- 
versal bands, and numerous irregular spots of gamboge or sulphur 
colour ; all the scales with an oval gamboge spot ; from the hind head 
to the point of the tail a number of large rounded vermilion spots ; 
lips, throat and abdominal surface greenish-gamboge, scuta and scutel- 
la with black margins. Iris and tongue black. 

Scuta 198 to 236. Scutella 113 to 147. 

Young. Head, trunk and tail above greenish olive, with a series of 
transversal black bands in pairs ; the intervals between the bands ver- 
milion ; the sides with numerous distant, irregular, small black spots ; 
lateral part of the scuta and scutella white, the ridge and the anterior 
margin black ; the centre part pale greenish yellow ; scutella partially 
edged with black, and with a central light blue line. Tongue vermi- 
lion, the forked part black. 
Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Tenasserim, Arracan. 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 935 

The Variety, in which the black colour prevails, appears to be con- 
fined to the more southern countries, while that with yellow ground 
colour preponderating, the one described and figured by Russell, oc- 
curs in Bengal. The latter has the tongue alternately vermilion and 
black. Individuals without the frenal shield are not uncommon, and 
such was the one described by H. Boie as a distinct species (Chrysope- 
lea paradisi.) It inhabits the Malayan hills and valleys, but is there 
apparently less numerous than in Bengal. The largest male observed 
was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 7-f 

Ditto ditto tail, llf 

3 ft. 8f inch. 

Circumference of. the neck, If, of the trunk, If, of the root of the 
tail, f inch. 

The trunk is covered by 1 7 longitudinal series of smooth, imbricate 
rhomboidal scales, with rounded points. It is but seldom seen in trees ; 
it is more frequently found on the ground in the grass, watching for its 
prey : lizards (Geckonidce*} and frogs. The female has 6 to 8 white, 
elongated cylindrical eggs, about If inch in length. It differs from the 
other species in its being deprived of the power of compressing, and 
expanding the anterior part of the body, and in its gentleness. The 
young ones never attempt to bite, the adult but seldom, and without 
raising vertically the anterior part of the body. In the latter the four 
anterior teeth of the lower jaw are a little longer than the rest, which 
are uniformly small. 

Gen. Tropidonotus, Kuhl. 

Head oblong ovate, rather indistinct, depressed ; nostrils between 
the sutures of two shields ; eyes moderate, with circular pupil, scales 
of the back lanceolate ovate, keeled, imbricate ; trunk elongated, cylin- 
drical, tail moderately long, tapering. 

* Vide Ptychozoon homalocephalum, supra. 

936 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Tropidonotus umbratus, (Daudin,) Var. 
Syn. — Tropidonotus trianguligerus, Schlegel. 

Above shining brownish, or yellowish green olive ; lips gamboge 
with a black oblique line between the sixth and seventh labials, a se- 
cond from the orbit to the angle of the mouth ; a third from the under 
lip to the upper part of the neck ; trunk and tail with numerous 
black spots, in some very minute, irregular, in others larger, approach- 
ing to quincunx order ; the sides with numbers of large square or 
triangular scarlet spots, separated from each other by broader or nar- 
rower black vertical bands. Scuta and Scutella gamboge with black 
margins, the latter with a black central line. Iris black with a narrow 
golden circle ; tongue black. 

Scuta 121 to 130, Scutella 76 to 84. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 
Java, Bengal. 

The vertical and supra-orbital shields are of an elongated narrow form ; 
the anterior frontals triangular, longer than broad ; the nostrils small, 
placed high on the sides, the frenal is elongated pentagonal, with the 
largest margin touching the prse-orbital. Of the three post-orbitals the 
lowest is the longest, wedged in between the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
upper labials, of which the fifth is the only one which reaches the 
orbit ; the eye is moderate, prominent ; the upper labials are 9, the 
lower 1 1 on each side. The mouth is very large, the teeth small, 
crowded, except the two last of the upper jaw, which are longer than 
the rest. The trunk is slightly compressed, covered by 19 longitudinal 
series of scales, of which the two lowest are broad rhombic, the rest 
elongated rhomboidal with rounded points, those of the back lineated. 
The abdomen is broad arched. This Variety differs in nothing but 
colours from Tropidonotus umbratus* (Daudin), and to judge by the 
description of M. Schlegel, it appears to be identical with T. triangu- 
ligerus. In the Malayan valleys the Variety is very numerous ; in 
Bengal it is less so, but there the species abounds in and near fresh 
water, where it preys upon fishes and frogs. The Variety attains to a 

* Syn. Russell, II. PI. 3. Dooblee, young'.— PI. 5. Dora, adult.— Col. umbratus, 
Daudin. — Col. dora, Daud. — Col. brunneus, Herrman. — Col. atratus, Herrm. — Col. 
lugubris, Menem,— Tropidonotus umbratus, Schlegel. — Tropidonotus dora, apud Cantor. 

1847- J Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 937 

size similar to that of the species, both of which are equally fierce. 

The largest individual was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, ... 1 9f 

Ditto ditto tail, 9f 

2' ft. 8| inch. 
Circumference of the neck, 2, of the trunk, 2f, of the root of the 
tail, If inch. 

Tropidonotus stolatus, (Linne.) 

Syn.— Seba, II, Tab. 9, Fig. 1, 2. 
Coluber stolatus, Linne. 
Le Chavque, Daubenton, Lacepede. 
Russell,* I, PI. 10, 11, 19. 
La vipere chayque, Latreille. 
Coluber stolatus, Lin., apud Shaw, Daudin. 
Coluber tseniolatus, Daudin. 
Natrix stolatus, Merrem. 
Tropidonotus stolatus, Gray, Schlegel. 

Head shining brownish olive with several black spots in the sutures 
of the shields : lips gamboge with several black oblique streaks ; head 
and trunk brownish olive with numerous distant black transversal 
bands, becoming indistinct towards the tail, and intersected by two 
parallel bands of a pale ochre or buff, the scales of which on the anterior 
part of the body edged with black. Beneath gamboge or mother-of- 
pearl ; in some the scuta with a small lateral black spot, or edged 
with black. Iris black with a narrow golden ring ; tongue black. 

Scuta 1.43 to 156, Scutella 69 to 79. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Philippines, Tenasserim, Bengal, Assam, Nipal, Coromandel, 

Ceylon, Bombay. 
This species, so exceedingly numerous in Bengal, is but rarely seen 
in the Malayan valleys. It is of very gentle habits, and feeds upon 
young frogs and toads. The largest male observed was of the following 
dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 0| inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 4f 

Ditto ditto tail, 51 

1 ft. 10? incl 

938 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the. [Sept. 

Circumference of the neck, £, of the trunk, If, of the root of the 
tail, | inch. 

The female has 6 small cylindrical white eggs, each about half an 
inch in length. 

Tropidonotus schistosus, (Daudin.) 

Syn.— Russell II. PI. 4. Chittee. 
Coluber schistosus, Daudin. 
Tropidonotus schistosus, Schlegel. 
Tropidonotus moestus, Cantor. 

Above blackish olive, some with an indistinct blackish line from be- 
hind the eye along the side ; the lips, the two lowest series of scales on 
each side, and the abdominal surface whitish yellow. Iris black with 
a narrow golden ring ; tongue small, flesh coloured. 

Scuta 138, Scutella 11. 


Syn. — Tropidonotus surgens, Cantor. 

Above bright greenish olive, with a black serrated lateral line. 
Scuta 148, Scutella 23. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Philippines, Tenassarim, Bengal, Madagascar. 
The shields of the head are short ; there is but a single anterior 
frontal, of a triangular shape, truncated in front ; the frontals are small 
pentagonal; the nasals nearly equal to the latter; the small semicircu- 
lar nostrils almost vertical and appearing linear as they are provided 
with a valvule as in liomalopsis ; from the lower part of the nostril a 
minute arched groove descends to the inferior margin of the shield ; 
the frenal is small ; the prae-orbital in length nearly equals the three 
postorbitals. The scdes of the trunk are disposed in 17 longitudinal 
series, of which the two lowest on each side are hexagonal, each scale 
with a minute round protuberance near the apex ; the scales of the 
next two series present a raised line terminating in a protuberance, 
but the remaining scales are elongated rhomboidal with truncated, 
slightly notched points, keeled, imbricate. These marks become in- 
distinct when the integuments are about to be changed, which proba- 
bly caused them to escape the notice of Russell. This species is 
not numerous in Bengal, and apparently less so on the Malayan Penin- 
sula. The largest individual measured, 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 939 

Length of the head, ft. 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 Of 

Ditto ditto tail, 2f 

2 ft. 4 inch. 

Circumference of the neck : If, of the trunk : 2f, of the tail If in. 

The length of the tail is very variable : in some it is contained 3^-, in 
other 6 times in the entire length. This species is very fierce, and 
prepares to attack by raising the head 3 or 4 inches vertically from the 
ground, and it has the power of flattening and laterally expanding the 
skin of the anterior part of the body, like Naja, but in a much slighter 
degree. It bites uttering a faint hissing sound. Frogs and fishes 
form its food. 

Tropidonotus cerasogaster. 

Syn. — Psammophis cerasogaster, Cantor. 

Above yellowish brown with pale golden reflections ; lighter on the 
sides, the scales of which in some partially edged with yellow ; cheeks, 
lips, throat and abdominal surface cherry-coloured, with a bright yel- 
low lateral line from the muzzle to the point of the tail. Iris and 
tongue cherry-coloured. 

Scuta 144 to 149, Scutella 60 to 69. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 
Bengal, Assam. 

The head is elongated, depressed ; sides angular, compressed ; muz- 
zle truncated ; rostral broad, hexagonal, nearly vertical, arched below ; 
the anterior frontals the smallest, next to them the frontals ; the rest 
of the crown-shields are narrow, elongated ; each occipital bordered by 
two pairs of elongated temporals, below which three smaller. Nasals 
rectangular, placed at a right angle with the anterior frontals ; nostrils 
moderate, lateral ; the frenal smaller than the nasal ; prse-orbital longer 
than either ; the eye moderate, prominent. Besides three post-orbitals, 
there is a minute infra-orbital wedged in between the fifth and sixth 
upper labials, of which but a small portion of the sixth touches the 
orbit below. The lips are straight, turned up near their commissure, 
covered with 8 or 9 pair of upper, 10 lower shields. The mouth is 
large ; the teeth small, crowded, of equal length -The trunk is cylindri- 
cal, compressed, covered with 19 longitudinal series of imbricate, elon- 

6 F 

940 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

gated rhomboidal scales with rounded, slightly notched points, . keeled 
except the two lowest series on each side, which are larger than the 
rest, rhombic, smooth. The abdomen is broad, arched ; the tail robust 
at the root, cylindrical, tapering to a sharp point. A solitary indivi- 
dual from Province Wellesley was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 0-g- inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, ] 51 

Ditto ditto tail, 6| 

2 ft. 0| inch. 

Circumference of the neck, -J-, of the trunk, If, of the root of the 
tail, I inch. 

In Bengal this species is not numerous. It is very fierce, attacks in 
a vertical attitude, but without expanding the anterior part of the body. 
Its food is that of the preceding. The elongated angular head makes 
this species resemble a Psammophis. 

Tropidonotus junceus, N. S. 

Head above shining light brown, lips and throat gamboge ; from the 
angle of the mouth an oblique gamboge band, both joining under a 
sharp angle on the neck ; trunk and tail dull greyish olive, with a 
series of distant rounded whitish spots on each side ; each scutum and 
scutellum with a small black spot on the sides, which as well as their 
anterior margins are minutely dotted with brown. Iris black with a 
golden ring ; tongue small, greyish. 

Scuta 157, Scutella 88. 

Habit. — Pinang. 

The head is elongated ovate, with the sides angular, compressed ; 
the muzzle truncated; the rostral shield moderate, square, deeply 
arched beneath, vertically fixed ; the anterior frontals small, tetrago- 
nal ; the frontals larger, angularly bent over the side, where they border 
the small square frenal ; the other crown shields are rather small, the 
occipitals on each side bordered by small elongated shields, like the 
rest of the temples ; the eyes large, prominent ; prse-orbital one ; post- 
orbitals three ; nasal rectangular ; nostrils lateral, large, rounded ; 
tipper labials 9, of which the fourth, fifth and sixth border the orbit ; 
lower labials 1 1 ; mentals two pairs, elongated. The lips are slightly 
arched, the mouth wide ; the teeth small, crowded ; the last upper 

184/.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 941 

maxillary tooth longer than the rest. The trunk is very slender, cylin- 
drical, with the centre of the back raised, forming a sharp ridge, the 
sides bulging near the abdomen, which is arched. The scales are im- 
bricate, very elongated rhomboidal with the apex notched, except 
the two lowest series on each side, which are broad rhombic ; they are 
all sharply keeled, and disposed on the anterior part of the trunk in 
19, on the middle part in 17 longitudinal series. The tail elongated, 
cylindrical, very slender, tapering to a fine point. A single individual 
observed on the Great Hill of Pinang by W. T. Lewis, Esq. was of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 7 

Ditto ditto tail, 7f 

2 ft. 3| inch. 

Circumference of the neck, -J, of the trunk, 1|, of the root of the 
tail, -J- inch. 

Like most of the Asiatic species of this genus, the present is of fierce 
habits. It twice unprovokedly bit a wood cutter who happened to 
pass it. The bite, of course, was productive of no consequences except 
a slight momentary pain. The very slender make and the elongated 
tail are characters which approach this species to the arborial Colu- 

Gen. Homalopsis, apud Schleget. 

(Erpeto?i,li&cepede, 1803. — Rhinopirus, Merrem, 1820. — Pseuderyx, 
Fitzinger, 1826. — Homalopsis, Kuhl, 1827. — Cerberus, Cuvier, 1829. — 
Hypsirhina, "Wagler, 1830. — Hydrops, Wagler, 1830. — Helicops, Wag- 
ler, 1830. — Potamophis, Cantor, 1836.) 

Homalopsis, Kuhl. Nostrils opening vertically in the centre of the 
small nasals, with a valvule ; crown shields small ; dorsal scales imbri- 
cate, keeled ; chin with many small shields, throat scaly ; labials nar- 
row ; abdomen with scuta ; tail short, tapering to a sharp point ; be- 
neath with scutella. 

Homalopsis rhinchops, (Schneider.) 

Syn.— Seba, II. T. 15. F. 3. 

Hydrus rhinchops, Schneider. 
Russell, I. PI. 17. Karoo Bokadam. 
Russell, II. PI. 40, (young.) 
Boa moluroides, Schneider. 

6 F 

942 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Elaps boseformis, Schneider. 
Enhydrus rhynchops, Latreille. 
Hydrus cinereus, Shaw. 
Hurria schneideriana, Daudin. 
Coluber schneiderianus, Daudin. 
Coluber cerberus, Daudin. 
Python rhynchops, Merrem. 
Python elapiformis, Merrem. 
Python molurus, Merrem. 
Coluber obtusatus, Reinwardt. 
Cerberus (Homalopsis obtusatus), Cuvier. 
Homalopsis schneiderii, Schlegel. 
Cerberus einereus, Cantor. 

Young. Ash-coloured above, the head with black irregular spots 
and a short black line behind the eyes ; trunk and tail with numerous 
distant black transversal bands ; lips and throat white, dotted with 
black ; the three or four lowest series of lateral scales white ; beneath 
white with a black undulating band, frequently interrupted. 

Adult. — Ash, lead- coloured or blackish grey with the black marks 
indistinct or invisible. Iris black ; pupil elliptical, vertically contracted 
by the light ; tongue very small, pale greyish. 

Scuta 143 to 156, Scutella 49 to 72. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

New Guinea, Amboina, Timor, Sarapua, Java, Sumatra, 

Tenasserim, Bengal, Coromandel. 
The shields of the upper part of the head, which appear to be of a 
constant form, are the nasals, the frontals, which enclose the small 
pair of triangular anterior frontals, (sometimes soldered together,) and 
the supra-orbitals. The rest are broken up in small, irregular, smooth 
pieces, differing in outline in each individual. The small eye, placed 
in a partly vertical, partly lateral position, is surrounded by a pree-orbital 
a post-orbital and two or three infra-orbitals. The frenal is comparatively, 
large, irregularly tetragonal. The anterior seven upper labials are 
narrow, very high ; the posterior five or six each divided in two. A 
similar arrangement is observed in the inferior 13 or 14 of which the 
posterior 6 or 7 are very small. On the chin there is a pair of elongated 
shields immediately behind the 2 pair of labials. The posterior upper 
maxillary tooth is longer than the rest, and furrowed. The three 
anterior teeth in the lower jaw are longer than the rest. The trunk 
is covered with imbricate, finely lineated and keeled scales, of a rhom- 

1847-] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. !)43 

boidal form with rounded points, disposed on the anterior part in 25, 
on the posterior part in 17, longitudinal series. The tail is robust, 
tapering, and prehensile. In the Malayan countries this species occurs 
in numbers in rivers, estuaries, and occasionally along the sea coasts. 
It feeds upon fishes. Single individuals measuring between 3 and 4 
feet in length, are of very rare occurrence. Of a great number the 
largest was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. If inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 2 3 

Ditto ditto tail, 7 

2 ft. 1 If inch. 
Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk, 3f, of the root of the 
tail, If inch. It is of peaceful habits ; the female brings forth 8 living 
young, each of which measures from 7 to 1\ inches in length. 

Uqmalopsis buccata, (Linne.) 

Syn. — Scheuchzer, PL 660, Fig. 1, (young.) 

Seba, II. Tab. 12. F. 1 ;— T. 13, F. 1 ;— T. 21, F. 3, (young.) 

Coluber buccatus, Linne, 

Coluber monilis, Linne. 

Coluber subalbidus, Boddaert, apud Gmelin. 

Le Demicollier, Lacepede. 

Vipernkopfige Natter, Merrem. 

Coluber buccatus, apud Shaw. 

Russell, II, Pi. 33, (young.) 

Coluber viperinus, Shaw. 

Coluber buccatus, Daudin. 

Coluber horridus, Daudin. 

Echidna semifasciata, Merrem. 

Homalopsis buccata, Schlegel. 

Young. Ground colour, white or buff, becoming brownish on the 
crown shields, hindhead and lips ; on the muzzle an angular mark, 
with the apex between the frontals, Van Dyke brown or chestnut ; an 
oblique streak proceeds from the eye over the cheek,joiningabroad cer- 
vical band, which, sending a narrow straight line to the occipitals, gives 
the upper part of the head a heart-shaped outline ; the back and tail with 
numerous broad transversal brown bands, between which the ground 
colour appears in the shape of white, often interrupted, narrower bands, 
and of a white spot in the centre and on each side of the brown bands. 
The latter reach but as far as the lowest four or five series of scales on 
the sides, which as well as the throat and abdomen are white ; on each 

\)AA Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

.side of every third or fourth scutum a brown spot ; scutella black, or 
white, closely spotted with black. 

Adult. The livery of the young indistinct : the ground colour of 
the upper parts pale greyish brown or olive ; the bands of a darker 
shade of the same colour, edged with black ; sides and beneath impure 
buff, the brown marks pale. Pupil black, elliptical, vertically closed 
by the light ; tongue small whitish. 

Scuta 155 to 167, Scutella 73 to 89. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

From the small, nearly vertically opening nostrils, proceeds a furrow 
downwards to the lower margin of the nasal. The anterior frontal is 
either entire and of a large rhombic shape, or consisting of two triangu- 
lar shields ; the frenal is elongated, rectangular, the small eye is situated 
more laterally than in the preceding species, and surrounded by two 
post-orbitals, one prse-orbital, and two infra-orbitals. The seven anterior 
upper labials are very high, the posterior five are double ; of sixteen 
or seventeen lower labials, the nine anterior are the highest. The last 
tooth in the upper jaw is furrowed, and as well as the 3 or 4 anterior 
palatal and inferior maxillary teeth, longer than the rest. The folds 
of gingiva enveloping the teeth are very ample, and contain in addition 
to the fixed, numerous, 5 to 6 deep, accessory teeth. The chin is 
covered by four pairs of elongated scales, decreasing in length from the 
centre towards the labials. The scales of the trunk are rhombic, 
imbricate, slightly keeled and finely lineated, disposed on the anterior 
part in 39, on the posterior in 25 longitudinal series. The tail is 
robust, tapering and somewhat prehensile. The largest individual ob- 
served was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 1| inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 11 

Ditto ditto tail, 7 

2 ft. 7| inch. 

Circumference of the neck, 2, of the trunk, 3f, of the root of the 
tail, If inch. 

In the valleys of Pinang and on the opposite continent, this 
species is numerous in streamlets, tanks and in the irrigated fields, 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 045 

where it feeds on fishes. The young ones are very gentle, and 
the old but seldom bite. In their movements they are sluggish, and 
on dry land, very awkward. The female brings forth six or eight living- 
young at the time, each between 7 and 8 inches in length. 

Hypsirhina, Wagler. Resembling Homalopsis in the form and 
situation of the nostrils, the integuments and general appearance of the 
head, trunk, and tail ; but the dorsal scales are smooth, and the labials 
are square, equal ; (frenal, one.) 

Homalopsis sieboldi, Schelgel. 
Syn.— Seba, II, Tab. 46, Fig. 2? 

Young. Ground colour, white, which on the upper part of the head 
appears in the shape of two lines diverging from the muzzle over the 
eyes to the sides of the head. From each side of the vertical shield a 
line diverging towards the hind head, where it branches in two, send- 
ing a portion transversely to the throat, and another to the upper part 
of the neck joining under an angle that of the opposite side. On the 
trunk and tail the ground colour shows itself as numerous narrow, 
transversal bands, which on the centre are frequently interrupted and 
placed in quincunx series ; on the sides the bands are bipartite. The 
intervals between the ground colour are chestnut with dark brown 
edges. The lips and the abdominal surface white with numerous pale 
brown irregular spots. Iris greyish with a transversal black bar; 
pupil elliptical, tongue white.* 

Scuta 155, Scutella 48. 

Habit. — Malayan Peninsula. 
The description is taken from a solitary young individual, which 
was killed in Province Wellesley. It measured, 

* Adult.— A preserved specimen in the Museum of the Asiatic Society differs from 
the young in having- the head above of a uniform colour, while the rest of the peculiar 
design is retained. The ground colour is yellowish white ; the brown of the young is faded 
to a dull lead grey.— Scuta 156, Scutella 55.— Dimensions : head 0| inch : trunk 1 ft. 8f 
inch ; tail 3| inch = 2 ft. 1 inch. -Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk, 2| , of the 
root of the tail, If inch. The locality from whence this specimen was obtained, is no) 
known : Bengal is given by M. Schlcgel. 

9 16 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Length of the head, Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 5-J 

Ditto ditto tail, If 

8 inches. 

Circumference of the neck, -§-, of the trunk, J-, of the root of the tail, 
f inch. 

In livery and in general appearance this species resembles H. buccata, 

from which it differs in the following particulars. Both the upper and 

the lower rostral shield are very small ; the anterior frontals are much 

broader than long, each like a small transversely placed^cone, surrounded 

by the nasal, (with a slit towards the lower margin,) the tetragonal frenal, 

and behind, by the frontal. The vertical in extent nearly equals each 

of the short occipitals. The eye is rather large, prominent, surrounded 

by a single elongated, arched prse-orbital and two post-orbitals, of which 

the inferior is the larger, bordering the fifth and sixth upper labials. 

Of the latter there are eight on each side : the fourth borders the eye 

below, the two posterior are broken up in small pieces. Of the 11 or 

12 pairs of lower labials, the 4 nearest the angle of the mouth are the 

smallest. The chin is covered by three pairs of oval shields, of which 

the anterior is the largest, and by some minute scales. The mouth is 

small ; the teeth minute, uniform, except the last upper maxillary tooth, 

which is the longest with a furrow on the convex margin. The back 

is slightly angular in the centre, much depressed ; the sides bulging ; 

the abdomen narrow. The anterior part of the trunk is covered with 

29, the posterior with 19 series of small smooth, imbricate scales, all 

rhombic with rounded points. The tail is tapering and compressed. 

Homalopsis enhydris, (Schneider.) 

Syn.— Russell, I. PI. 30. Mutta Pam, Ally Pam. 
Hydrus enhydris, Schneider. 
Enhydris coerulea, Latreille. 
Hydrus atrocceruleus, Shaw. 
Coluber pythonissa, Daudin. 
Homalopsis aer,* Boie. 
Hypsirhina, Wagler. 
Potamophis lushingtonii, Cantor, 
Homalopsis aer, Schlegel. 
Homalopsis olivaceus, Cantor. 

* This specific name is singularly ill chosen, as the denomination " ular oyer," 
(water-serpent,) is applied by the Malays to all fresh water serpents. The word 
" ayer" applied to a single species is as eligible as would be " aqua," " eau"or " wasser," 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 947 

Iridescent dark greenish-or brownish-olive above ; the scales edged 
with black ; in some two parallel light greyish lines from between the 
eyes to the tip of the tail ; the lower half of the sides pale greenish or 
brownish-grey; lips and throat white, edged and dotted with black. 
Abdominal surface white or burl, with a greenish or brownish line on 
each side, and a black central line dividing the scuta and scutella. 
Iris greyish or pale olive ; pupil circular ; tongue whitish. 

Young : with lighter and more strongly iridescent colours than the 

Scuta 1 18 to 167 ; Scutella 53 to 71. 
Habit. — Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Java, Tenasserim, Bengal, Coromandel. 

The head is small, ovate, scarcely distinct ; the nostrils are hemi- 
spherical, with a slit towards the external margin of the shield ; the 
single anterior frontal is small, rhomboidal, much broader than long ; 
the eye is rather large, prominent, lateral and surrounded by two 
rather broad post-orbitals, one or two narrow pree-orbitals, and beneath 
by the fourth upper labial ; the frenal is small, rhombic. The external 
margins of the occipitals are bordered by three elongated shields, and 
each temple by five similar. The eight upper labials are larger than 
the ten lower. The chin is covered by two central pairs of elongated 
shields, between which and the labials is, on each side, a single very 
elongated shield. The mouth is small, the teeth minute, numerous 
and equal, except the last tooth of the upper jaw, which is longer than 
the rest and furrowed. The trunk is very robust, broadly depressed ; 
the sides obliquely compressed, and the abdomen very narrow, flatten- 
ed. The scales are broad rhomboidal with rounded points, slightly 
imbricate, and disposed on the anterior part in 25, in the middle in 
21, and near the tail in 19 longitudinal series. The tail is very slen- 
der, somewhat compressed, tapering and prehensile. The largest indi- 
vidual was of the following dimensions : — 

Length of the head, ft. 1 inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 5| 

Ditto ditto tail, 5| 

2 ft. 
Circumference of the neck, 1|, of the trunk, 2f, of the root of the 
tail, { inch. 

6 G 

048 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

Numbers of this species may be seen in rivers, as well as in irrigated 
fields and estuaries, preying upon fishes, which however it refuses in a 
state of captivity. It is of timid and peaceful habits. A large female, 
after having been confined upwards of six months in a glass vessel 
filled with water, brought forth eleven young ones in the manner noted 
above under Acrochordus javanicus. During the process she lay motion- 
less on the bottom of the vessel, the anterior part of the abdomen was 
retracted towards the vertebral column, while the muscles of the pos- 
terior part were in activity. Shortly after the parturition she expired 
under a few spasmodic movements, and also two of the young ones 
died in the course of about two hours, after having, like the rest, shed 
the integuments. In length they varied from 6 inches to 6J-. The 
living nine presented a singular appearance : they remained a little way 
below the surface of the water coiling themselves round the body of 
an adult male, which was also kept in the vessel, occasionally lifting 
the heads above the surface to breathe, at the same time resisting the 
efforts of the senior to free himself. Fishes and aquatic insects were 
refused, in consequence of which the young ones expired from inanition 
in the course of less than two months. 


Syn. — Hypsirhina, Wagler. 

Hypsirhina hardwickii, Gray : Illust. Ind. Zool. 
Homalopsis plumbea, Schlegel. 

Iridescent dark brownish-or greyish-olive above, uniformly or with 
small irregular black spots ; the two or three lowest series of scales 
yellowish, each scale spotted or edged with brown ; lips and throat 
yellow ; scuta and scutella yellowish white, the former in some partial- 
ly edged with black, the latter with a black central zig-zag line ; iris 
grey ; pupil elliptical, vertically contracted by the light ; tongue whit- 

Scuta 125 to 126 ; Scutella 36 to 44. 

Habit. >-—Pinang. 
The head is broad, ovate, depressed ; the muzzle blunt, the nostrils 
small triangular, with a slit towards the lower^margin of the nasal ; the 
single anterior frontal broad triangular ; the rest of the crown shields 
are of normal form. The eye is small, placed in a half lateral half 

1847.] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 949 

vertical position, enclosed by two post-orbitals, one elongated prse-orbi- 
tal, and beneath by the fourth upper labial ; the frenal is very small, 
tetragonal ; the upper labials eight, rather high ; lower labials ten ; 
on both jaws the shields increase in size towards the angle of the 
mouth. The chin is covered with two pairs of elongated shields and a 
few gulars. The mouth is small ; the posterior upper maxillary tooth 
longer than the rest, furrowed, and the anterior lower maxillary teeth 
also exceed the following. In addition to the fixed teeth there are 
several accessory series. The trunk is nearly cylindrical, slightly 
depressed, covered with small rhombic scales, smooth, and not imbri- 
cate, disposed on the anterior part in 1 9, on the posterior part in 1 7 
longitudinal series. The tail is short, conic, tapering and slightly 
prehensile. Two individuals, taken at different times in rivulets in the 
valley of Pinang, in habits resembled H. rhinchops. The larger was 
of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 1| inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 5 

Ditto ditto tail, , 2f 

1 ft. 8| inch. 
Circumference of the neck, If, of the trunk, 2f, of the root of the 
tail, 1^- inch. 

Homalopsis leucobalia, Schlegel, Var. (See Plate XL. Fig. 5.) 

Young. — Above light brownish olive, or greenish grey with single 
irregular distant brown spots ; lips and throat whitish yellow ; the 
lowest three or four lateral series of scales, and the abdominal surface 
greenish white or pearl-coloured. 

Adult. — Uniformly blackish olive above, otherwise like the young. 
Iris dark brown ; pupil elliptical, vertically contracted by the light. 
Tongue whitish. 

Scuta 130 to 148 ; Scutella 26 to 37. 

Habit. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

The head is very broad, depressed, and the muzzle blunt ; the ros- 
tral broad, hexagonal, very slightly arched beneath ; the superior 
margin borders the single small elongated anterior frontal, which is of 
a narrow hexagonal form, broader behind, where it is wedged in between 
the twojn-oad frontals. The nasals arc rather large; nostrils small 

G g 2 

950 Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the [Sept. 

crescent-shaped ; the vertical very broad, short, hexagonal \ occipitals 
large, elongated with a pair of very broad shields on each side, below 
which the temples are covered by three smaller shields. The eye is 
very small, in a half vertical position, with two post-orbitals, one prse- 
orbital, which extends to the large oval nasal ; frenal none, or, when 
present, excessively minute. Of the five large upper labials, the ante- 
rior is the smallest and borders the nasal ; the second the prse-orbital, 
the third the orbit, and the lower post-orbital, the fourth and fifth the 
temporals. The lower rostral is very small, triangular. The seven or 
eight inferior labials are much smaller than the upper. The two pairs 
of mentals are very short. The mouth is small ; the teeth are very 
strong, short and of nearly equal size, except the furrowed last upper 
maxillary tooth and the anterior teeth of the lower jaw, which are 
longer than the rest. The trunk is robust, back slightly raised in the 
centre, the sides sloping, their lower half compressed, the abdomen 
broad, arched. The scales are smooth, rhombic with rounded points, 
slightly imbricate ; those of the sides have the points bent inwards 
and firmly adhering to the skin, so as to appear hexagonal. On the 
anterior part of the trunk they are disposed in 27, on the posterior in 
25 longitudinal series. The tail is short, robust, tapering and some- 
what prehensile. In the male the sides are compressed, very high in 
the middle, and the lower surface is flattened, very broad, more so than 
is the posterior part of the abdomen. In the female it is shorter, the 
sides less high, and the lower surface less broad. The largest male of 
a considerable number was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. 0-j- inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, . . . ; 1 lOf 

Ditto ditto tail, 2| 

2 ft. 1| inch. 

Circumference of the neck, 1-J-, of the trunk, 2f, of the root of the 
tail, If injeh. With the exception of its colours, the present offers 
no difference from //. leucobalia, from the rivers of Timor. At Pinang 
it is numerous not only in fresh water and estuaries, but in the sea at 
some distance from the shore, where it sometimes occurs in fishing 
nets. It is of sluggish, not fierce habits, and feeds upon fishes and 
Crustacea, aquatic and pelagic. In a young female the oviduct enclosed 

134 7-] Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 951 

4 white cylindrical eggs, which when they were observed contained 
but yolk j each measured about an inch in length. 

Homalopsis hydrina, N. S. (See Plate, Fig, 4.) 

Adult. — Ash-coloured above with a few scattered black spots on the 
neck ; the back and tail with numerous transversal black bands ; the 
lips, sides and abdomen uniformly pearl-coloured. Iris ashy; pupil 
elliptical, vertically contracted by the light ; tongue small, whitish. 

Scuta 161 ; Scutella34. 

Young. — Resembling the adult, but the ash-colour of a much lighter 

Scuta 153; Scuteila 35. 

Habit. — Sea off Pinang, and the Malayan Peninsula. 

The head is moderately distinct, elongated, depressed, oval with 
rounded, blunt muzzle ; the rostral shield moderate, hexagonal ; its 
lower margin with a central minute tubercle, on each side of which 
a triangular impression. The upper margin of the minute triangular 
lower rostral presents a central cavity, and two lateral elevations fitting 
into the margin of the upper rostral. A similar contrivance in the 
pelagic serpents enables them hermetically to close the mouth. As in 
H. leucobalia, the single small anterior frontal is elongated hexagonal, 
broader behind, and enclosed by the rostral, the nasals, and the fron- 
tals. Although the nasals are placed laterally, the small arched linear 
nostrils open vertically, and send a slit to the posterior margin of the 
shield ; the frontals are hexagonal, smaller than the latter ; the vertical 
is the longest of the crown-shields, very narrow, hexagonal, pointed 
at both extremities, but broader behind ; the supra-orbitals are small, 
narrow ; the occipitals are broken up in minor shields : viz. two post- 
occipitals, in size equal to the occipitals, and a minute conical inter- 
occipital, enclosed by the four shields, with the broader extremity 
wedged in between the occipitals. Each temple is covered with two 
pairs of large shields, of which the lower borders the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh upper labials. The eye is very minute, prominent, almost 
vertically placed, surrounded by two post-orbitals, of which the lower 
is broad pentagonal, meeting beneath the elongated single oblique proe- 
orbital. Thus none of the upper labials border the orbit. The frenal 
is moderate, pentagonal. Of the seven upper labials the anterior three 

952 Catalogue of Reptiles, §e. [Sebt. 

pairs are much smaller than the rest, which suddenly become very- 
large and deep, so as to make the margin of the lip very bulging in a 
downward direction. The lower ten or eleven labials are smaller than 
the upper, except the sixth, which is the largest. The chin with two 
pairs of shields of which the anterior is very elongated ; the throat 
with numerous minute scales. The mouth is small, the dentition 
resembles that of Ilomalopsis leucobalia, Far. The trunk would be 
orbicular, but for the narrow flattened abdomen, the scuta of which 
are angulated, forming on each side a sharp ridge. The scales are very 
small, smooth, on the neck disposed in 33, successively in 37, but 
near the root of the tail in 29 longitudinal series. Those of the back are 
rhomboid al with rounded points ; those of the sides lanceolate with the 
point bent inwards, so as to appear truncated, each scale leaving a 
small square interval, in which appears the naked skin. The tail is 
short, much compressed, tapering and slightly prehensile. In the 
male the sides are very high, and the lower surface very broad, as 
noted under II. leucobalia, Far. On the broadest part there are as 
many as 21 longitudinal series of scales. In the female this organ is 
shorter, the sides less high, and the abdomen less broad. 

Of three individuals observed, two were captured in fishing stakes 
placed in the sea off the shores of Keddah, a third was washed on 
shore by the waves on the coast adjoining my house at Pinang. The 
largest male was of the following dimensions : 

Length of the head, ft. Of inch. 

Ditto ditto trunk, 1 4f 

Ditto ditto tail, 2f 

1 ft, 7f inch. 

Circumference of the neck, -f, of the trunk, If, of the root of the tail, 
-|, of the middle of the tail, 1 ; two eighths from the apex, f inch. 

It moved actively and without difficulty on the sand, and did not 
offer to bite. In one examined the stomach contained remains of two 
small pelagic fishes. In general appearance and colours the present 
is more closely allied to the pelagic serpents than any other known 
species. Whether it exclusively inhabits the sea, or, like Ilomalopsis 
rhinchops, enhydrus, and leucobalia, as an occasional visitor, must be 
a matter of future investigation. 

(To be concluded in our next.) 

1847.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 953 

Notes on Places in the Province of Behar, supposed to be those 
described by Chy-Fa-Bian, the Chinese Buddhist Priest, who made 
a pilgrimage to India, at the close of the fourth century A. D. ; by 
Captain M. Kittoe, 6th Regiment, N. I. 

In my former notes on the Viharas of Magadha or Behar, I express- 
ed my desire to examine Rajagriha, Burgaon, Behar and Pawapuri. 
I have lately been enabled to pay a hnrried visit to several of these 
places, which I was induced to do more particularly, after perusal of 
extracts from Remusat's translation of the Travels of Chy-Fa-IIian, 
[made at the close of the fourth century of the Christian era] oblig- 
ingly furnished by our co-Secretary, Mr. J. W. Laidlay : these extracts 
are here given for ready reference. 

Had I had full leisure and the season been more favourable, I should, 
no doubt, have been able to have made a better harvest of information 
than I have by such a hurried trip, with a burning sun and oppressive 
heat, which forbade much roaming about the rocks and jungles ; in- 
deed, as it is, I suffered severely. 

It would have been better could I have taken Patna, (Pa-lian-fou, 
Pataliputra) as my starting point, and from thence have followed in 
the very tract of Fa-Hian to " the little hill of the isolated rock," but 
unable to do this, I sent a trust-worthy servant to Behar and have 
perused Buchanan's notice of the same place and its curiosities ; also to 
another spot held sacred by the Jains called Pawapuri lying between 
that and Girryek. The remainder of the route I have traced myself. 

" Chap. XXVII. Departing from thence (Pataliputra, Pa-lian-fou) 
towards the south-east nine yeou yans bring you to " the little hill of 
the isolated rock." Now assuming the yeou yan to be the ^rT*7*r " yoyun" 
or " jojun" of the Sanscrit, which is equal to four 5ffT¥j; or kos, our 
pilgrim will have travelled thirty-six miles in a south-easterly direction, 
as near as can be that of Behar ; no intermediate spot is mentioned, 
nor can I hear of any which could have attracted his particular 
attention; he describes the place (Behar ?) as the "little hill of the 
isolated rock." " On the top of this rock is a stone building, facing 
towards the south : Foe being seated there, the king of heaven, 
Chy (Indra), made the celestial musicians Pant eke play on the khin,* 

* A kind of lyre. 

95 1 On the route of Fa-Man through Behar . [Sept, 

in honor of him. The king of heaven Chy questioned Foe regard- 
ing the forty-two things, drawing every one of them with his finger upon 
the stone : the traces of these drawings remain there still. In this place 
there is also a Seng-Jeia-lan, (monastery.)" 

Now, first of all, as to the " isolated rock" and the " monastery," 
these two remarkable objects are surely not to be mistaken ! As to the 
first, there is a bare rock near the site of the fort of Behar, on which 
is placed a durgah or shrine of a Muhammadan saint, as well as traces 
of other buildings ; there is no tradition concerning its being held sacred 
by Hindus or Jains, that I could learn, though Behar itself is venerated 
by the latter : however, the very fact of a " Sheheed's durgah" or 
shrine of a Muhammadan martyr would strengthen my belief, that some 
sanctity was attached to the site at the time of the fall of the Moslem 
there enshrined, such being invariably the case in all parts of India. 
I, therefore, presume, that this is the " little hill of the isolated rock," 
and the " Seng-kia-lan" or monastery was the great Vihara from which 
Behar takes its name, the site of it being now occupied by the ruins 
of Sher Shah's fort. 

Buchanan (see Montgomery Martin's compilation) vol. I. p. 92, 
adds, that there is also a large conical mound called a punzawa (brick- 
kiln) a name given as we shall see to other mounds of the same kind 
which were undoubtedly Dehgopes or Chaityas : I would refer my 
readers for more ample details to the above named work : other hills 
are also named. 

I have taken much pains to ascertain, whether Behar anciently bore 
any other name than simply Vihar, but have been unsuccessful, though 
I am inclined to think it must have, so greatly have the names of places 
changed, and so many cities have been razed to the ground, that the 
locality must ever be a difficult point to decide, nothing indeed except 
such circumstantial records, as our Chinese traveller affords, could help 
us out of the difficulty ; in this light, for one, then, are his travels 
valuable, and tracing his track may not be a profitless undertaking. 

We must now leave Behar and proceed to the South West. 

" Thence proceeding to the S. W. for one yeou yanyou come to the 
hamlet of Na-lo. This is the place where Che-U-foc (Sariputra) 
was born, and here he entered nirvana. They have here built a tower, 
which still exists." 

v^V J* »" /*. * 

Pro?.* 7.7* ,„^.f«. r ..uuv.-A! 

<^»*-»-w fry />*./& 

1847»] On the route of Fa-Man through Behar. {).).'> 

It is somewhat difficult to follow the track here and to fix Na-lo, 
for in a south-westerly direction, taking a wide range of that quarter of 
the compass, we have several places sites of Jain and Budhist relics ; 
first of all, farthest east is " Pawapuri" held sacred up to this time bv 
the Jains, being the spot where Mahivira Swami died : his "churun" 
or feet marks are placed in the centre of a large tank on an island 
which is approached by an embankment and bridge, this and other 
expensive works, would seem from an inscription, (of which I annex a 
copy) to have been executed about 500 years ago, by rich merchants of 
the Sarawne east : there are no remains here which would indicate the 
previous existence of a tower or chaitya, though from Mahavira dying 
at this place, I should be inclined to think, that it must have been one 
of sanctity belonging to the Buddhists and Jains, which latter are, I 
believe, merely a heretical oifset. The distance from Behar is three 
coss, which is less than one yojun. 

The next place, further to the west of south is the village of Girryek, 
and the hill of that name on the top of which is an ancient tower 
called Jarasindh-ka-bytuki, and attributed to that monarch. There are 
many ruins of gigantic works here, among which is a causeway leading 
from the Panchanne rivulet up the hill to the tower, a description of 
which may be found in Buchanan, vol. I. p. 79, and in the Journal 
A. S. vol. VIII. p. 353 — there is also the site of a large town on the 
eastern side of the river close to the modern village of Girryek. I am 
scarcely inclined to suppose this place to be Na-lo, on account of its 
being so close to the " Gridhra-kuta" and Buddha's cave, together with 
other remarkable features of the place which would have hardly been 
overlooked, and it seems strange that the pilgrim should have gone so 
far out of his way (on to Rajagriha) to return to the "Gridhra-kuta" 
caves ; the direction of Rajagriha, however, is westerly, and so far 
answers to oifr traveller's bearings. 

Another spot, six miles in a more westerly direction, is that called 
"Burgaon," where there are several high tumuli, also many fine 
sculptures, numerous large tanks and wells, the ruins are most exten- 
sive ; the ancient name of this town was Kundilpur, and is mentioned 
in the Bhagavut, and in the Jain books, it is nearly due north of Raja- 
griha, about 7 miles. I can again hardly think that such a place could 
have escaped the notice of so observant a person as Fa-IIian. In the 

6 h 

956 On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. [Sept. 

history of Sakya, I find the name " Nulita," a spot near Rajagriha where 
he expounded some of his doctrines, hut here again I am at a loss as no 
such name now exists, and all knowledge of Budhist history as far as 
regards the people of Magadha, has long since been lost to them. 

There is a place called Juydeespur about two miles from Bargaon, 
where there are the remains of a large tumulus, and a very fine image 
of Buddha ; this spot takes us even further out of the proper direction, as 
regards Rajagriha, which is nearly due north and south, distant however 
about 7 miles. 

With this list of noted spots before us, it is difficult to decide which 
is the one called Na-lo,* if the term " tower" were only applied in one 
sense, we should fix upon Girryek, but it is evident that it applies to the 
tumuli or chaityas, and there must have been more than one at this place 
in Fa-Hian's time, though certainly it is a very remarkable object, being 
seen for many miles, its direction from Behar as well as with Rajagriha 
is correct, the distance is a little less, being between 6 and 7 miles, 
upon the whole, however, I am inclined to fix Na-lo here. We shall 
now proceed to Rajagriha, " the new town of the Royal residence.' 5 
" One yojun west of Na-lo, brings you to " the new toivn of the Royal 
residence." This town was constructed by the king A-tche-chi : it has 
two monasteries ; on leaving it at the western gate, at three hundred 
paces you come to a tower, lofty, grand, majestic, and beautiful, which 
A-tche-chi erected when he obtained some of the relics of Foe." 

I here commence my own route to trace that of Fa-Hian ; it was 
circuitous owing to the low land beneath the hills, which you have to 
your left hand about a mile distant, the whole way up to the modern 
village and site of ancient Rajagriha. An immense embankment called 
" Assurein" still exists, as well as extensive mounds of bricks and rub- 
bish ; sufficient remains of the citadel to show its form, a parallelogram 


* In the Pali Buddhistical Annals Sakya is stated to have halted at Ndlunda, one 
yojana distant from Rajagaha, when en route from the latter place to Pataligamo 
(Pataliputra). In the Na lo of our Chinese author, there is little doubt that we have 
the transcription of Ndlanda ; the original word being, as is not unusual in such cases, 
lopped of a syllable or two. This identification is further confirmed by the circumstance 
of Sakya Muni holding in this place a discourse with his disciple Sariputra ( Che li foe), 
whom he may be supposed to have fallen in with at his native village upon the occasion 
of this journey. Na lo is called by Hiuan Thsang, a subsequent Chinese visitor, Kia lo 
pi va kia. The last two syllables are no doubt the transcription of nagara.— Eds. 

1847.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behnr. 957 ■ 

with numerous bastions ; but these latter appear to have been the work 
of later times, indeed a story is told that Shershah whilst erecting these 
works, was ridiculed by a milkmaid, who showed him that the adjacent 
hills completely commanded it, (which they do with artillery). He then 
abandoned it. 

About the distance westward described by Fa-Hian, there exists a 
tumulus called the " awa," or Punzawa, which is no doubt the " tower," 
(chaitya) where Buddha s relics were placed by A-tehe-chi ; Buchanan 
vol. I. pp. 88, 89, describes this remarkable mound which want of 
leisure prevented me closely inspecting. This is, no doubt, the chaitya 
erected over Sakya's relics, built by Ajata-suttu, when he obtained them 
from Kama Rupa. See history of Sakya's death, vol. XIX. Asiatic 
Researches. Here then we find one instance of the accuracy of our 
traveller ; let us follow him into " the valley of the five hills." 

" Chap. XXVIII. On leaving the town on the south side, at the 
distance of four "li" you come to a valley which leads to the "five 
hills :" these five hills form a girdle, like the walls of a town : this 
is the ancient town of the king "Ping-Cha" (the old Rajgriha). 
From the east to the west is six " li," and from the north to the 
south seven or eight; this is the place where " Che-li-foe" and 
" Mou lian" first met O pi (^f^fiffT Asvajit). At the north-east 
angle of the town the ancients erected a chapel in the garden, where 
An-pho~16 invited Foe and twelve hundred of his disciples to do them 
honor ; this chapel still exists. The town is entirely deserted and 

From Rajgriha, it is about a mile to the entrance of the valley 
where the hot springs flow, and where a fair is held every third year, 
having an intercalary month, it lasts during the whole of such month 
at whatsoever season it may fall ; the fair was full during my visit. In 
May various virtues are ascribed to these springs ; barren women resort 
to them from far and near. Several neat temples have been built within 
the last century. There are some springs under the eastern hill of 
the pass venerated by the Muhammadans, who in olden times, built a 
durgah which is much frequented. 

The appearance of this valley and hills. is very striking, every peak 
has a name, and a small Jain temple crowning it, this sect holding 
the whole neighbourhood sacred, which is very remarkable. 

(i n 2 

958 On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. [Sept. 

There are two old works in existence, describing this curious tract of 
country, called the Rajgriha Muhatma : one belongs to the Hindus, 
the other to the Jains, which I am told, to be widely different. I 
hope to be able to procure a good copy of each and to compare them. 
I have had occasion to observe, that the Jains hold most of the places, 
supposed to be of Buddhist origin, sacred, to wit, the caves of Kundgiri 
in Cuttuck, Girinar in Kutch, &c. &c. 

It is fully two miles or " four li" to the site of the old town which 
is now called " Hansu Taur," this must have been a very large place 
when in its glory, and (as described) is skirted by hills, five of which 
are more conspicuous than the rest, and are called respectively Rutna 
Girri, Bipla Girri, Baibhar Girri, Sona Girri, and Udhaya Girri, refer- 
ence to the annexed sketch map will better explain the situation of 
all I shall have to describe. To proceed, first of all, as to the " chapel" 
in the northern hill, on the left or west side of the pass is a chamber 
called Sone Bhundar of precisely the same shape as those of Barabur. 
There are sockets to admit of timber roofing on the exterior of the 
cave, and there have been buildings extending to some distance in 
front : it would be interesting to clear the rubbish here. There 
are several short inscriptions and some of the shell-shape, one has 
some resemblance to Chinese, (vide plate) there are no Pali let- 
ters, but the cave has been sadly ill used by a zemindar, who 
tried to blow it up with powder many years ago, hoping to find hidden 
treasure, and a large piece of rock has been broken away at the very 
spot where we should have expected to find the inscription, — the rock 
is soft and easily injured, there are some rude outlines of Budhas cut 
on it : there is a handsome Jain (miniature) temple, much mutilated, 
which is also remarkable, for each of the four figures has a vahun or 
cognizance, the same as those of the Gyani Buddhas, on similar temples 
or stones of undoubted Buddha origin, unfortunately there is no inscrip- 
tion to help us, (see plate) — this cave is venerated by both Hindus and 
Jains. Whether it be the temple Fa-Hian alludes to, it is hard to say, 
for there are remains in the north-east corner likewise. 

To the south of this cave near the centre of the town ? is a high 
tumulus, the site of a Dagope or Chaitya, on which is a small Jain 
temple, it is called by the Hindus Munniarkoop, and by the Jains Niz- 
mile-koop, each have their fables connected with it. From this elevated 

J 3 :. 42. 


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R A J A CR.IHv<\ MILLS \£ tz-.V, 

1847-] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 959 

spot, a good view is to be had of the valley and of the pass and plains 
beyond, looking over Rajgriha nearly due north : to the east the valley 
grows narrower for a mile or so, and thence two valleys branch off, one 
leading under the Gidhona peak, so named from the vultures, which 
perch and build their nests there, the other to Tupobun where there 
are other hot wells ; this place is also held sacred and a fair is held at the 
vernal equinox. Before reaching the bifurcation of the valley is a spot 
called the " Panch-pandub" and " Rungbhoomi" from the different asce- 
tics take a colored earth with which they besmear their bodies. Turning 
to the east, the valley extends for six or seven miles, gradually narrow- 
ing to the " Guddehdwar" pass, which opens into the plains at the 
easternmost end of the cluster, of which more hereafter. 

To the north-east is the hill called " Rutna Girri," up the acclivity 
of this runs a wall of loose stones in a zigzag shape, from the base of 
which and of the hill is seen an immense embankment called " Nek- 
pay," extending across the widest part of the valley (above one mile) 
north and south, and from its southern end again a much more massive 
wall is continued to the summit of the high hill called "Udhaya 
Girri," along the top of which the same is continued for a great dis- 
tance, both east and west, whether these walls, which are not high, 
were intended as fortifications or fences, as said by some, to enclose a 
Shikargah or preserve, it would be difficult to decide, indeed there are 
so many curious remains, that one is completely at a loss, — the people 
ascribe all to enchantment and to demons. 

A second high embankment stretches from the " Nekpay" almost 
at right angles, till it reaches the Sona Girri hill, the lowest and eastern 
spur of which projects to about the middle of the valley. 

Leaving the tumulus and proceeding southward to this cross bank 
or wall and passing through the same, the road winds at the foot of the 
Sona Girri close to a low ledge of laterite forming a terrace as even as if 
cut by masons ; this place is called " Bheem Sen's Ukhara," or wrestling 
place. The many indentations and cavities, peculiar to such formations, 
are supposed by the ignorant, to be marks left by the wrestlers. Continu- 
ing to the southward towards Udhaya Girri, the road is formed by the 
bare rock in which occur many short inscriptions in the shell pattern, 
and other curious forms but much worn and some overgrown with 
moss and rubbish. I deem these to be great curiosities, and think that 

960 On the route of Fa-Man through Behar. [Sept. 

if a clearance were made more (and perfect ones) would be discovered. 
I copied one or two which are represented (see plate). About a quar- ' 
ter of a mile further, is a tumulus overgrown with jungle and near 
to it remains of some extensive enclosure and buildings. This tumulus 
may be one of the " towers" alluded to by Fa-IIian ; at this spot the 
road has wound to the south-west, and the valley forms a large amphi- 
theatre ; continuing for half a mile in a more southerly direction, you 
arrive at a narrow rocky gorge and bed of a Nulla called " Ban Gunga," 
which empties itself into the plains just beyond, at the foot of the 
Udhaya Girri hill ; the great wall at this place is very thick and extends 
for a considerable distance to the south ; this spot is held sacred by the 
Hindoos who say that Bheem drove his " ban" or dart into the rock 
upon which water rose from " patal," [the depth of the earth ;] this is 
one of the spots visited during the triennial fair. 

Having now described the valley, &c. we must return to Fa-Hian's 
narrative — he says : — 

" Chap. XXIX. Entering the valley and going beyond the 
mountains fifteen li S. E. you come to the peak of " Khi-tche." At the 
distance of three li, from the summit of this mountain there is a cave 
facing the south. Foe sat there in meditation. At thirty paces to the 
N. E. there is a stone grotto ; " A nan" (Ananda) sat there meditating. 
The demon of the Heaven, " Phi siun" (ft"$3*r), changed into a vulture, 
stopped before the cave and terrified A nan. Foe by his supernatural 
power opened the rock, seized A nan by the arm with his hand, 
and stayed his fear ; the traces of the bird and the hole where Foe 
put forth his hand exist to this day. It is thus that the hill came to 
be named " the hill of the cave of the vulture." Before the hill is the 
throne of the four Buddhas. All the Arhans had also there every one 
his cave, where they sat to meditate. The number of these caves is 
several hundreds." 

With reference to the foregoing, and the notes by M. Remusat and 
others, I first of all made every possible enquiry to little purpose, 
except that two caves existed about seven miles distant at the eastern 
gorge of the valley called the " Guddeh-dwar" or ass's gate before 
alluded to, I therefore determined to examine it : having no horse and 
it being impracticable for my palkec, I took guides and proceeded on 
foot at four p. m. and after two hours' good walking I reached the 




t/f c t* oc A" 

i c _ * 

VK-. ««lf « LiiU 4 

184/.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 961 

" Guddeh-dwar," a narrow passage between scarped rocks which had 
in former times been enclosed by an immense wall of loose nibble ; 
this gorge opens out into the plain with high, barren, rocky hills, on 
either side, forming the easternmost of the Rajgriha cluster and range : 
the one to the left or north being that on which Jarasindha's tower 
stands with other ruins already described under the head of Girryeck. 
The distance travelled will have been close upon " fifteen li" or 
about seven and a half miles as stated by our pilgrim : passing through 
the gorge and about half way up the steep face of the north hill under 
Girryeck, two caverns appear facing the south, and over one is a curious 
cleft in the rock which would seem to answer Fa-Hian's description, 
except his distances, up to, and between the caves, nor are there other 
caves or grottos, nor the throne of the previous Buddhas. However, it is 
possible that these caves have a northern entrance ; for the largest 
which is alone accessible, has a passage apparently cut through the 
hill, which I was unable to penetrate, not only owing to fatigue and 
blistered feet, but it would be requisite to be provided with chloride 
of lime, torches and other precautions to enable a party to explore it. 
I think it would be found to open out opposite the highest peak south 
of Jarasindha's tower ; this peak is surmounted by either a terrace or the 
remains of a Dagope, which may be the very " throne" alluded to by 
Fa-Hian, as its distance from the path below would answer that given : 
I think then we may fairly decide that these caves are the identical 
ones described by him, there are small cavities here and there which 
may have been used by anchorites but not several hundreds. By " stone 
grottos," may be meant small habitations made of stones piled together ; 
indeed I think it more than probable, that the whole of these hills were 
inhabited by " rishis" or devotees, the name " Tupobun" itself implies 
it, being a corruption of "Tupissia" and " Vana" or forest of devotion. 

There are some more hot springs beneath the southern side of these 
easternmost hills, and about five miles further south in the plains is a 
spot (a tank) still visited and held sacred by the Jains. 

As to the name " Gridhra-kuta" the present one of " Guddeh 
dwar" may be a corruption of " Gridha dwara :" vultures swarm alike 
on all the ragged peaks and particularly on these. 

Chap. XXXI. " Thence proceeding to the west four yeou yarn you 
come to Kia-ye. This town also is completely deserted." 

962 On the route of Fa -hi an through Behar. [Sept, 

Now if we take the distance of four yojuns to Kia-ye (Gaya) 
modern Gaya would answer, but if we are guided by the direction, it 
is too much to the southward of west, if on the other hand we be 
guided by the bearing and less by the distance, we should decide that 
by "Kia-ye" was meant the ancient Gaya now known as " Ram Gya," 
which is on the west or right bank of the Phulgo and a mile to the 
north of the Barabur hills. There is a tradition that all ceremonies were 
formerly performed here ; a fair is held in the month of April, at which 
still, the lower casts perform the " Pind" or ceremony of offering the 
funeral cake. Hoolasgunge, which is further east, consequently nearer 
the distance given (of four yojuns) is by some supposed to have been 
ancient Gaya, (see Buchanan, Vol. I. p. 100.) It is strange that Fa-Hian 
mentions neither the Phulgo (or Mohana) nor its branch stream which, 
had he gone to Ram-Gya, he must have crossed ; it is also remarkable 
that he does not allude to the Barabur caves or hills, places which 
must have been of note even in his time, however, it is possible that 
they were in possession of heretics or of Hindus, for from the later 
inscriptions we learn that Sardula Varma, Annund Varma, &c. appro- 
priated the caves and set up brahmanical images, the same reason may 
be assigned, for no mention being made of Kundilpur or Burgaon, but 
let us now turn to the south. 

" Going to the south twenty li, you come to where the Phou-sa 
spent six years in mortifications ; the place is woody. Thence 
going three li to the west you come to where Foe descended into 
the water to bathe ; the gods held branches of trees over him 
when coming out of the pool (or tank). Two li further to the 
north, you come to the place where the young women of secluded fami- 
lies offered Foe rice and milk : thence to the north two li more, to where 
Foe' sat on a stone, turned to the east, under a great tree ; the tree 
and the stone exist to this day. The stone is six feet long and six broad. 
In the kingdom of the middle (Magadha) the temperature is so equa- 
ble that trees last several thousand years, even ten thousand." 

We now come to the most perplexing part of our pilgrim's narrative, 
for not only do his bearings but his distances puzzle us, the indiscri- 
minate use of li and yojun is one cause.* Now if Iloolasgunje or 

• With regard to the length of the yojuna, we must not expect to find extreme preci- 
sion in the narrative of Fa-hian. That traveller no douht set down his distances from 

1847.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 963 

Ram-Gya be Kia-ye and a « li" be equal to as much as half a mile, we 
should have ten miles south, which would only bring us within six miles 
of the Vishnupad, four of the Ramsila hill, and twelve of Budh Gya 
which the others believe to be the holy locality (see Vol. XIX.. Asiatic 
Researches, p. 187.) It is there mentioned in a note, that there are 
seven places held sacred called the " Satta Stana," three of which 
only answer to the description given by Fa-Hian, viz. the two trees and 
the tank where Buddha was protected from the rain by a dragon : 
(Seshnag ?) the Vakeels, however, name four, as the only spots now 
visible : the distances of all are given except of the hill and Bukrowr 
" (Bagaroo Goun)," this hill is no doubt the same under which is the 
lake called Moratal. 

Fa-Hian leaves you in doubt as to whether by " pool" (where Buddha 
performed his ablutions) was meant a pool in the river, or a tank or 
lake ; the Burmese seem to believe in the latter, though in the Tibetan 
books the " Nirajuna" (Lillajun) is distinctly mentioned ; but to return 
to the narrative. 

" Thence going to the north-east half a yeou yan, you come to a stone 
grotto ; Phou sa entering it and facing the west, sat with his legs 
crossed, and thought within himself "in order that I should accomplish 
the law, I must have a divine testimonial." Immediately his shadow 
depicted itself upon the wall ; it was three feet high ; the weather 
was clear and brilliant ; heaven and earth were both moved, and all 
the gods in that space exclaimed, it is not in this place that all the Foes 
past and to come should accomplish the law." 

Now, before proceeding farther, I must remark, that if Buddha Gaya 
is the spot meant by Fa-Hian, we must give up all idea of his having gone 
west from Rajgriha and assume that his route was continued from the 
Ban Gunga or from Buddha's cave (the Guddeh-clwar) directly west to 
some deserted place opposite modern Gaya, and then have turned south 

popular estimation, and the yojana will therefore vary in different localities precisely as 
we find the Kros to do at the present day. From the comparison of the actual distances 
of well identified places in the north-western Provinces with those given by Fa-hian, 
Capt. A. Cunningham (Jour. Roy. As. Soc. Vol. VII. p. 243) determines the length of 
the ancient yojana to be a fraction more than 7 English miles. This will be found rather 
too much when applied to Fa-hian 's distances in Magadha. Mr. Tumour (Mahawanso, 
p. 30 of the glossary) makes the yojana equal to sixteen E. miles ; a valuation manifestly 
excessive. — Eds. 

6 i 

964 On the route of Fa -hi an through, Behar. [Sept. 

along the right bank of the Phulgo (the Lillajun is here so called) 
to Bukrowr and Buddha Gaya, which is directly opposite across the 
Lillajun, and here again he makes no mention of that great river (it is 
next to impossible (now that no tradition even is left) to trace each 
particular spot, it would seem certain however, that one tree was at 
Bukrowr and the other at Bodh Gaya, which tree is now called the 
Sutjug Peepul, the first I assume to be " Ni-kiu-liu" " the tree of all 
the Buddhas." The second, Pei-to " there have been Chaityas at both 
places, and no doubt long before Fa-Hian's time, there was, as I have 
mentioned in my " Notes on the sculptures of Budh Gaya,'! more than 
one very ancient Dagope, and I believe the trees to have had enclosures 
as represented in those sculptures, also in the caves of Kundgirri in 
Cuttack and in other Buddhist sculptures. The hill beneath which is 
Moratal lake, lies about two miles or less north of Bukrowr : there are 
spots on this hill still venerated by the Hindoos, and as it runs north 
and south, consequently faces west, and as the distance answers tolera- 
bly well, I should be inclined to consider it to be that alluded to, on 
which " Buddha sat facing the west." 

Bukrowr is due east of Buddha Gaya, having only the wide bed of the 
river between them, the large tumulus and remains of a Dagope may 
be three furlongs or even half a mile due east of the great Budh Mun- 
dir and Peepul tree. About a furlong east by south of the tumulus is 
a tank held sacred by both Buddhist and Hindus, it is not far from the 
banks of the Mohana, on the narrow tongue of land which extends up 
from the junction of the two rivers, where both take the common name 
of Phulgo. 

There are several large tanks at Budh Gaya and the mounds of 
brick, clay and pottery extend over a very great surface, the great 
Dagopes must have stood very close to the tree : and were excavations 
carried on, it is possible many more curious sculptures would come to 
light, — but to continue. 

" To the south-west a little more than half a yeou yan is the Pei-to 
tree where all the Foes past, and to come, should accomplish the 
law. Having said this, they sang to him and showed him the way, 
retiring. The Phou sa rose, and when he was thirty paces from the 
tree, a god gave him the grass of happy omen ; the Phou sa took it 
and advanced fifteen paces further. Five hundred blue birds ap- 

1847.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 965 

proached, flew thrice round him and then flew away ; The Phou sa 
advanced to the tree Pei-to, held out the grass of happy omen towards 
the east, and sat down. Then the king of the demons sent three 
lovely damsels, who came from the north, to tempt him, and himself 
also came with the same purpose. The Phou sa struck the ground 
with his toes ; the crew of the demons recoiled and were dispersed, and 
the girls were transformed into old women : for six years he sub- 
jected himself to the greatest mortifications. In all these places 
men of later times have erected towers and carved images which exist 
to this day." 

I was at first inclined to think that Gaya-proper, was the site of some 
of Buddha's exploits, and that the Vishunpad was the very place where 
Buddha left the impression of his foot ; that the tree called Achaih But 
^lT7?gr^3^ where the " Pind" offerings are now made was the tree allud- 
ed to in this chapter, but the distance from the Ram-Gaya hill is too 
short, though the direction would be correct, however as both better 
answer for Budh Gaya, we may again consider it more probable that 
the latter is the proper spot. The chapter continues thus : — 

" In the place where Foe having accomplished the law, rested seven 
days to contemplate the tree, and obtained the joy of extreme celestial 
beatitude ; in the place in which he passed seven days under the tree 
Pei-to ; in that where the gods, having created the edifice of seven 
precious mansions served Foe seven days ; in that where the blind 
dragon with brilliant scales surrounded Foe for seven days ; in that 
where Foe, being seated under a tree " Ni-kiu-liu," upon a square 
stone and turned to the east, the god Brahma came and prayed 
to him ; in that where the four kings of the gods offered him a 
dish ; in that where the chief of five hundred merchants presented 
him with parched rice and honey ; in that in which he convert" 
ed Kia-se and his brothers, master and disciples to the number of a 
thousand ; in all these places have towers been erected." 

With reference to the different places here enumerated, it seems clear 
that they must all have been close at hand, indeed several of them are 
no doubt, those described in a more fabulous and extravagant manner 
by the Burmese as the ' Satta-Stana,' for instance ' the square stone 
under the tree' is converted seemingly into the ' Golden Throne.' The 
* Edifice of the seven mansions,' into the golden mansion, the spot 

6 i 2 

9C6 On the route of Fa-Man through Behar. [Sept. 

where the damsels offered milk and rice, perhaps tempted him ; the 
dragon with brilliant scales is, no doubt, the snake Sehsa, which protected 
Buddha from the rain with its hood. The " Pei-to tree" is, no doubt, 
" Buddha's holy tree," and the place " where goats used to graze" is 
probably Bukrowr. I must now again repeat that there is an ample extent 
of ruins to warrant the supposition, that there must have been numerous 
buildings around the holy tree, indeed the fact of three distinct and very 
ancient sets of carvings and fragments of Dagopes of the earliest forms, 
would strengthen our belief in the former existence of numerous edifices, 
such as described by Fa-Iiian. 

We now come to a further enumeration of places, where buildings 
had been erected by the Buddhists in early times. 

" In all these places they have also erected towers. 1st, In the 
place where Foe obtained the Law, there are three Seng-kia-lan 
(Viharas) ; in each is an establishment for the priests, the number of 
whom is there very great. The people supply them with abundance, so 
that they lack nothing. They keep precepts rigidly ; they observe the 
greatest gravity in all their deportment ; in rising up, in sitting down, 
and in going abroad." This would seem to be at Buddh Gaya ; but it is 
doubtful, whether the remaining places enumerated, as follows, were so. 

" The four great towers which have been erected in commemoration 
of the holy things done by Foe, during his sojourn in this world, 
have been conserved to the present moment (A. D. 408) since the time 
of his ' Nirvana' (death.) These four great towers are — first, where 
he was born — second, where he obtained the law — third, where he 
turned the wheel of the law; and fourth, where he entered Nirvana" 

Now it would seem, that this does not, as I have before hinted, allude 
to Dagopes or Chaityas at Buddh Gaya exclusively, for in the first place 
Sakya, i. e. Buddha was born at Kapilavastu somewhere, it is believed, 
in the Oude territory. As to the second, most probably Budh Gaya was 
the place ; by the third I should have little doubt but that Varanasi 
or Benares was meant, for all the Buddhist historians record this event of 
the prophet's life to have taken place there, i. e. his " turning the wheel 
of the law;"* the present tower of Sarnath erected evidently since Fa- 

* ' Turning the wheel of the law' is a metaphorical or mystic expression, equivalent 
when applied to a Buddha, to l commencing- his ministration.' Benares was no doubt the 

1817.] On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. 967 

Hian's time, cannot for this reason be that alluded to, but there have 
been other towers, of which nothing but the bare traces now remain. 
By the fourth tower, (upon equally if not stronger grounds) must have 
been meant that at Koosha Vihara in Assam, indeed we know that it 
was there that Sakya obtained " Nirvana" (died). This happened beneath 
two Sal trees ; we are further told that a Dagope or Chaitya was erected 
there over his ashes, and which were subsequently distributed over the 
country, and for which armies were even brought into the field. See 
life of Sakya, Vol. XIX. Researches, p. 317. I do not think the text 
warrants our supposing that four great towers were erected in comme- 
moration of the four principal events of Budha's life at Gay a. 

We must now turn to Chapter XXXIII, in which we learn further 
of the vicinity of Budh Gaya. 

" From the Pei-to" tree you proceed three li, to a hill called the 
cock's foot (^t^^^) " Kookootpada," it is here that the great Kya Che 
(Maha Kasyapa) pierced the mountain for the purpose of entering it, 
and suffered none else to enter the same way. At a considerable 
distance from this is a lateral hole, in which is the entire body of Kya 

scene of this event in Sakya's life, as the following couplet from the Lalita vistdra will 
testify : 

" I will go to Benares ; having arrived at the city of Kashi, I will turn the wheel of 
the law, which is revolving among mankind." (J. A. S. vol. VI. p. 572.) 

The tower to commemorate Sakya's apotheosis was unquestionably, on the banks of 
the Gunduk, in the neighbourhood of Bettiah ; and not in Assam as Tibetan writers 
allege. Fa-hian names the place Kiu i na ki£, and Hiuan thsang, Kiu chi na kie lo, 
an obvious transcription of ^f^TJTx: Kusinagara. Mr. Liston in J. A. S. vol. VI. 
p. 477, describes some Buddhist remains at a village named Russia, in Gorakpore, 
consisting of a pyramidal mound of bricks and other objects which seem well worthy of 
further investigation. These have reference, according to popular tradition, to Mata 
Koonr, which Mr. Prinsep took to be a corruption of Kumdra, the god of war,—' the 
defunct Kumara.' Professor Wilson, however, thinks that Mata Kuanr, the 
' dead prince,' applies to Sakya Sinha. The only difficulty in regard to this latter 
ascription is, that the term prince is never applied by Buddhists to Sakya, after his 
adoption of ascetic life. It is to be hoped that further enquiry will clear up this 
point. The subject of antiquities is by no means exhausted in the neighbourhood of the 
Gunduk— the Hi lian of Fa-hian, (f%"5T^jp hiranya, gold,) the Hiranna-wattiya of the 
Pali annals, and without doubt the Erranoboas of the Greeks.— Eds. 

968 On the route of Fa-hian through Behar. [Sept. 

Che. The earth outside the hole is that over which Kya Che washed 
his hands : when the people of the country are troubled with head- 
ache, they rub themselves with this earth and the pain goes.'' 

As the Pei-to is the starting point, and no particular direction men- 
tioned, I assume that the cluster of hills at the southern extremity of Gaya 
proper, called Burrumjooeen are those alluded to, although the distance 
of three " li" is too short by half or more. The old town of Gaya in which 
is the Vishnupad, stands on a rock, a spur of the larger hills, under 
which the Hindoos believe, that the demon Gaya Asura is confined by 
the weight of Vishnu's foot. 

By Kya Che the translators from the Chinse text conjecture, that 
Maha Kasyapa is meant,* but I am inclined to think, that it is this said 
Gaya Asur of the Hindoo legends. The absurd story of all the divini- 
ties failing to subdue the monster till Vishnu put him down with his foot, 
appears to me to be an allegory expressive of the final triumph of the 
Vishnuvites over the Buddhists, Vedantis, Saivas and other sects. The 
first and last named must have predominated here from the numerous 
lingas and yonis of every age and form, as well as fragments of Budhist 
carvings. This subject is worthy of consideration, we have the com- 
mon legend as above quoted, we have also Fa-Hian's testimony. As to 
what existed fourteen hundred and fifty years ago, he seems to speak 
of Kya Che as a law-giver of his own sect (Budhist), and does not 
lead us to suppose Gaya to have been in other hands than those of 
Buddhists. — " Kya Che" seems more to resemble the word " Keechuc" 
or demon than any other. I should be inclined to think that allusion 
is to a story having a common origin with both sects — Brahminists 
and Buddhists, who in all probability, only differed (in early times) in 
points of doctrine and sacrificial practice. Orthodox Hindoos only 
acknowledge a very small space at Gaya to be sacred for them, which is 
alluded to in the Purans and in the Mahabharut — this information ob- 
tained from a learned Pandit, from the outskirts of Calcutta, who told 
me, that not more than two or three of the forty-five spots, at which 
most pilgrims offer the funeral cake, i. e. perform the " pind," are pro- 
per, the rest belonging to the Buddhists and Jains ; for instance, the hill 
called Burrum Jooeen, before described, is properly Bruhm Jain. The 
very one, we may suppose, FaHian to be describing, on the top is a 
* There is no doubt upon this point.— Eds. 

1847-] On the route of Fa-Man through Behar. 969 

modern temple, near to it are two masses of rock, between which some 
pilgrims and others force themselves, believing that none but true born 
can accomplish the feat, in other words, those who fail are considered 

With regard to the custom mentioned of people using the earth 
where " Kya Che" washed his hands, as a remedy for head-ache, &c. 
the practice still exists at the banks of a tank under the hill called 
Rookhmooni and close to the Akhayah But tree, where the final " pind" 
ceremony is performed — but to return to Fa-Hian. 

" In this hill also to the west, is the abode of the Arhans ; the clergy 
of Reason, (a sect) come from all kingdoms of those parts to worship Kya 
Che ; those who come with their minds embarrassed, see during the 
night time, the Arhans coming to discourse with them, and to solve their 
difficulties, which having done they disappear again forthwith : the forest 
which covers this hill is very thick ; it abounds with lions, tigers, and 
wolves, so that one cannot travel there but with fear." 

With regard to there having been habitations on the hill, to the west- 
ward, there are ample traces both to the west and to the north and 
east, that they were covered with jungle even as late as when we took 
the country, and swarmed with wild animals of prey are facts well 
known, though there is scarce a stump of a shrub to be seen now nor 
on any of the hills within twenty miles, owing to the great demand for 
fuel ; there are still leopards, wolves and hyenas, and occasionally a 
tiger has been seen ; but the lion is an animal unknown in these regions, 
except by name as a cognizance of the gods. 

It will have been remarked that Fa-Hian talks of a peculiar sect as 
possessing the hill. I have already mentioned, that it is supposed to 
have been a place of Jain worship, may not then the Jains have been 
in existence at that period as distinct from the Budhists ? at any rate 
the fact of different sects existing in the fourth century of our era, is 
hereby established. I have now concluded the pilgrim's journal as far as 
it relates to the Buddhist localities of zillahs Behar and Patna. I have 
tried to follow him as closely as possible, and I trust I have done so 
successfully. I could have wished to have been able to examine 
several spots around Gay a, particularly the Mo rah Tal hills, but this 
could not be effected. With the other places I am familiar enough, 
though I could still, no doubt, glean much more instructive matter if 1 

970 On the route of Fa -hi an through Behar. [Sept. 

had the opportunity ; but nothing short of excavating the mounds or 
tumuli (an expensive operation) would with any probability of success 
lead to satisfactory results. 

I must once more remark on the silence of Fa-Hian regarding the 
places which we might suppose to have belonged to sects, perhaps 
anti-Buddhist, he must have travelled past, such us Kundilpoor 
(Burgoun) Barabur and its ancient caves — which, in Sakya's time, must 
have been used by his followers, the inscriptions themselves point to 
their having been excavated for Buddhist ascetics at a very early period. 


From the foregoing we draw several useful inferences as regards this 
country, at the close of the fourth century for instance, that a belief ex- 
isted of four previous Buddhas, a point I believe to have been disputed ; 
secondly, that several of the great events of Sakya's life, both probable 
and improbable, were believed in at that early period of our era ; thirdly, 
that up to the same time Buddhism was flourishing and its votaries 
unmolested ; fourthly, that holy places now claimed by the Hindoos and 
Jains, were in those days considered as sacred to Buddhism. These are 
the leading points, no doubt that a careful examination of the whole 
narrative would lead to a clearer view than has hitherto been had of the 
state of India at the commencement of the Christian era. We must 
however, be constantly at a loss in tracing places from the curious 
orthography of the Chinese lauguage, — the same remark is applicable to 
the Tibetan and Burmese volumes, and this is a sad obstacle. I 
would fain hope, that some of our brethren in China may interest them- 
selves in the search for works in that language concerning India, and 
in preparing fair translations, which can alone be done by persons on 
the spot ; and it is further to be hoped, that those who form the forth- 
coming mission to Tibet, will not lose the opportunity of searching 
for ancient Sanscrit works in the monasteries of that country, works 
known to exist and which had Mr. Csoma Korosi been spared to us, we 
should ere this have possessed in original or by copy ; but this is a 
digression which my readers must pardon, and I herewith take leave of 
the subject. 

1 847- J Account of the Town and Pa/arc of Feerosabad. 971 

Some Account of the Town and Palace ofFeerozabad, in the vicinity of 
Dehli, with Introductory Remarks on the sites of other Towns. By 
Henry Cope, Secretary Archaeological Society of Dehli, and 
Henry Lewis, Deputy Commissary of Ordnance and Member of 
the Society.* 

In no country of the world, or at least in no country with whose 
history we are sufficiently acquainted to pronounce authoritatively, are 
there so many monuments of the inordinate vanity of a race of foreign 
conquerors as in India ;j and in no part of this vast empire has that 
vanity been more pre-eminently displayed than in the immediate vici- 
nity of the modern town of Shahjehanabad, the last, and probably, the 
greatest specimen of the vain-glorious spirit of its founder, certainly 
that to which has been secured a more lengthened existence than was 
enjoyed by any of the towns and citadels that went before. These were 
at times the capitals of nearly all India, at others merely the chief 
cities of a territory smaller than many zumeendarees of the present 
day, yet all are spoken of by the host of historians who have written 
about them, as the glory and pride of the land ; the centre of civiliza- 
tion, and in turn the scenes of the most mighty revolutions which 
have befallen the mightiest empire in the world. At one time we 
have the Prince in power, or the founder of a new dynasty, seeking 
the highest available hill (as in the case of Prithu Raj's palace and 
Toglukabad) whereon to erect his castle, if not his town, as the site 
best suited for defence ; at another selecting the plains at the foot of 
those hills, (as Jehanpunnah, and old Dehli,) or the banks of the 
River Jumna, (as an Kelokheree, Mobarikabad and Feerozabad,) on 
which to locate himself on account may be of their superior advantages 
in regard to the vast amount of supplies required for such an im- 
mense population ; but almost every one of them was actuated by the 
same all-predominant feeling of pride, all seemed anxious to hand their 
names down to posterity as the founders of new cities, while some 

* Read before the Archaeological Society of Dehli, at their meeting of the 9th August, 
and communicated by that Society. 

t The British are specially excluded from this remark, were they to leave India at t lie 
present moment, they would leave every little behind them of an architectural character 
thai would stand the ravages of thirty years. — H. C. — H, L. 

6 K 

9/2 Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. [Sept. 

were swayed by some momentary whim engendered by local circum- 
stances, of which few records are in existence. 

In some of these towns and forts were displayed all the architectural 
beauties that time, which unlimited resources, and the particular taste of 
each sovereign allowed of his indulging in ; and the most expensive mate- 
rials were brought from a great distance at a vast cost, to give them 
the most gorgeous appearance ; while other structures were raised in the 
most massive, but at the same time, rude style, the result probably of 
the pressing necessities of the times, especially the frequent and dis- 
tant wars in which most of the sovereigns of Dehli were continually 
engaged, and which left them little time for the cultivation of the arts 
of peace. In these were used the coarse materials on the spot, and the 
monuments of the glory of former kings were frequently destroyed to 
save the trouble of quarrying new stone. For in this manner alone 
can we account for the comparatively few remnants we find at the pre- 
sent day of the massive battlements that must have surrounded several 
at least of the towns of Delhi in succession, or of the huge piles of 
buildings that must have been reared within their walls.* 

There are nevertheless numerous historical proofs, supported, not- 
withstanding the extensive devastation to be traced in many directions, 
by local evidence of the most convincing character, that the several 
towns, built from time to time, in the neighbourhood of the present 
Delhi, cannot have been less than thirteen, while tradition, which may, 
on investigation, turn out partially correct, adds some three or four more 
to the number. Of the extreme desirableness, in an archaeological point 
of view of fixing the locality of these several towns and forts, and of 
the value attaching, in a historical point, to researches, which shall 
identify these localities, with the names that occur in the records of the 
times, there can, it is presumed, be very little doubt. The historians of 
the Indo-Mahometan middle ages have placed many of those names on 
record. They have, in several instances, described the relative positions 

* Seree, Jehanpunnah and Old Dehli, must, at the time of the invasion of' I'aimoor, 
have occupied a space at least seven miles in length, by some three or four in breadth. 
The three towns had thirty gates opening to the country or into one another. We hope 
some day to give an accurate outline of these cities. It is not to be wondered that Saiud 
Moobarik found it necessary to build another town soon after Taimoor's invasion ; he 
must have left Old Dehli almost a heap of ruins.— H. C— II. L. 

184/.] Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 973 

of the various capitals of the Indian empire, that have nourished, under 
the several names imposed upon them by the caprice or vanity of their 
founders, and a short review of these records may not be out of place in 
this paper, introductory, as it is hoped it may prove, to further research- 
es on this interesting subject. All allusion to traditional evidence is omit- 
ted. We find it recorded that Kootub-ood-deen Eibuk the first perma- 
nent Mahomedan conqueror, and his almost immediate successor, Shums- 
ood-deen Altumsh or Altumish, both inhabited the fort which the first 
of them wrested from Rajah Peethowra or Peerthee Raj (from 1191- 
1236) ; we find that Gheias-ood-deen Bulbun (1266-1286) erected ano- 
ther fort and built another town " in which were magnificent build- 
ings ;" amongst them the celebrated " Ruby" or " Red Palace;" this 
town will prove, in all probability, to have been the one so long 
designated in after ages, and when new cities had sprung up, as " Old 
Dehli," and the site of this place may perhaps be traced through the 
existence at this day of the village of Gheiaspoor, near Hoomaioon's 
tomb and the Deenpunnah fort. We find that Kaikobad, his grand- 
son, (1286-88) fitted up a Palace at Kelokheree (Gunglookheree, 
according to the Ayeen Akhberee) the site of which is clearly indicated 
by a remark in that work to the effect that Hoomaioon's tomb was 
within its limits, and this indication is confirmed by the existence of a 
place of that name, a little beyond Gheiaspoor. The palace built by 
Kaikobad was then so close to the river that his body was thrown out 
of one of the windows into the stream.* We find that his successor, 
Julal-ood-deen Feroz (1288-95), having no confidence in the loyalty of 
the people of Dehli (the Delhi of Gheias-ood-deen Bulbun ?) continued 
to reside at Kelokheree ; this he strengthened with fortifications, and 
beautified with five gardens, and terraced walks by the side of the 
river. It is said that the owners followed their king's example, and 
built houses around his palace, so that Kelokheree became known as the 
new city (of Delhi), and that Julal-ood-deen having been induced, by 
the conduct of the neighbouring citizens his subjects, to place greater 
confidence in them, went on an appointed day to " old Dehli," where he 

* The Jumna has taken a considerable turn eastward since then. There is pretty 
conclusive evidence that, at onetime, the main stream flowed by Feerozabad, Deen- 
punnah, Kelokheree and Mobarikabad, forming- doubtless, on account of the huge bund 
inland or westward, a very fine and attractive sheet of water.— H. C. — H. L. 

6 K 2 

'7 i Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozahad. [Sept 

ascended the throne in the Palace ; refusing at the same time to take 
possession of the " Ruby Palace," on the ground that it was the private 
property of the family of Gheias-ood-deen Bulbun. He returned to 
Kelokheree in the evening of the same day, so that " old Dehli," and 
Kelokheree must have been very near each other, another presumptive 
proof in favor of Gheiaspoor of the present day being " old Dehli."* 
We find that on the murder of Jellal-ood-deen at Manikpoor, by his 
nephew, the famous Allah-ood-deen Ghilzaie, the widow of the former 
proclaimed her young son king, and, accompanying him from Kelokheree 
to Dehli, that is from the then new, to the old city, seated him on the 
throne in the " Green Palace," so that there were at that time no less 
than three royal Residences in the same town : — one the Palace (in 
which Jellal-ood-deen ascended the throne, and which may have been 
the "White Palace" mentioned in the reign of Moez-ood-deen Barram), 
the " Ruby Palace," so often alluded to, and the "Green Palace." 
Allah-ood-deen, on the flight of his young cousin, entered Dehli in 
triumph, and ascended the throne in the " Ruby Palace," 
(1296-1316.) We find it mentioned in the Ayeen Akhberee, though 
the fact is singularly enough not even alluded to in Ferishta, that 
this Allah-ood-deen built the town and fort of " Secree," and the 
site of this place is most clearly fixed by the record in a subsequent 
part of Ferishta, that the tomb of Kootub-ood-deen Bukhteear Kakee 
(the saint to whom pilgrimages are still made at the Kootub village, 
so well known for its splendid Kootubmeenar) was situate in the fort 
of Secree. Another collateral proof of this location is that the tomb 
of Allah-ood-deen is still in partial existence near the Meenar. It is 
recorded of Allah-ood-deen, that Palaces, Mosques, Universities, Baths, 
Mausolea, forts and all kinds of public and private buildings sprang up, 
during his reign, as if by magic. After Secree follow Toglukabad 
(1322) Mahomedabad, (1325-1351,) Adilabad, and Feerozahad (1354) 
all pretty well known and of which last, more hereafter. Ten years after 
the death of the founder of Feerozahad occurred the invasion of Taimoor 
(1398)of which we have ample records in that king's own institutes and 
in the work of Shereefood-deen, Alee-Yazdu who singularly enough, 
gives details regarding the then state of Dehli, which are not to be found 

* The " old Delhi" here and elsewhere alluded to, must not be confounded with the 
town now so called, which will prove to have been founded by Sher Shah. — II. Q. — H. L. 

184/.] Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 97 >) 

in any other work, and the details which he gives respecting Secree, 
Jehanpunnah, the Houz-khan, and old Dehli will be most valuable in 
hereafter identifying the ground on which these several places were 
situate. After this we leave Mubareekabad, built by the second Saiud, 
in 1436, on the banks of the Jumna, the site of which must have been 
most likely, either below Kelokheree, or above Ferozabad. We find that 
Hoomaioon, built (1533) according to Abul Fazl, (but repaired would 
probably be the more correct expression, as this will probably be found 
to have been the fort of " old Dehli" or " Gheiaspoor") the fort of In- 
draput, which he called " Deenpunnah," that on his expulsion by Sher 
Shah (Abul Fazl calls bim merely Sher Khan, looking upon him in the 
light of an usurper,) that sovereign destroyed Secree, the town and fort 
built by Allah-ood-deen, and laid the foundations of another town 
(1542-1545) ; this the author of the Ayeen Akhberee tells us, was for 
the most part in ruins in his time, and will probably turn out to be the 
town, of which the two extreme gates (N. and S. nearly) are still in ex- 
istence one (the Kabulee) near the Dehli gate of Shahjehanabad, and the 
other a very splendid edifice (the Muthra gate) near the western wall of 
Deenpunnah. The fact of this town having so soon gone to decay may 
be easily accounted for by the fact of Akhber having transferred the seat 
of Government to Agra ; while the absence, at Agra and elsewhere, dur* 
ing some twenty years, of Sekunder Lodie, and his short-lived successors, 
immediately before Baber's arrival in India, may have rendered it im- 
perative on Hoomaioon, to provide a suitable place of residence on his 
coming to the throne.* 

It has been observed above, and will be gathered from the details which 
follow, that much is to be gleaned from some of the historical records 
of the time, and no doubt more accurate information will be obtained, 
by a careful examination of the many authors, who are as yet but little 
known, at our disposal ; but in consequence of some of the writers of 
these records being personally unacquainted with the places they named, 
while the original works of others have had the serious misfortune of 
falling into the hands of copyists, on whom alone we have now to de- 
pend, and who themselves rarely knew any thing of the neighbourhood 

* The utility of this sketch was suggested by the perusal of an admirable letter from 
Mr. H. M. Elliot, Secretary to Government to the Secretary Archaeological Society, in 
which mnny of these point are touched upon. 

976 Account of the Town and Palace of ' Feerosabad. [Sept. 

of Delili. Considerable confusion has thus naturally arisen, and it has 
become a matter of great difficulty to identify many names and places, 
which nothing but a careful local investigation can overcome. Translators 
again,* frequently affording the only means of obtaining information, 
have contributed considerably to increase the existing confusion, by 
attributing little or no importance to the accurate details in their 
original ; they probably looked on these details as of mere local interest, 
and consequently slurred them over carelessly, or omitted them altoge- 
ther in a very culpable manner, while the wretched orthography, adopted 
by some of those who have been otherwise more careful, has so entirely 
obscured the original and proper nomenclature, as to render it almost a 
matter of impossibility to recognize, in the translations, names of places 
and persons which, would be familiar under the original, very different, 
and perfectly, intelligible garb. 

We find even Bishop Heber, generally a better informed traveller, 
and more careful investigator, than many of those who preceded him, 
and than more who came after him, writing as follows of some of the 
remains he saw, and how grievously he was misinformed on this parti- 
cular point will be seen by all ; that he was so in several other in- 
stances, will be shown hereafter. 

By means, however, of local researches of the nature previously allud- 
ed to, continued perseveringly, and with an unity of purp'ose that will, 
it is to be hoped, characterize the proceedings of our Society, we shall be 
enabled, in time, to prepare, from the materials in progress, a respect- 
able f( Hand Book of Dehli," in which the traveller will be furnished 
with more authentic accounts, than now exist, or at least are generally 
accessible, of the various buildings and ruins about Dehli, and which it 
may be desirable for him to examine if more than a mere sight-seer, 
so as to understand something at least of the former state of this coun- 
try, and not have to wander through the mazy mass of ancient remains 
in almost utter ignorance of the date of their erections, the object with 
which they were built, the name of the founder, and the date and 
occasion of their destruction or decay, gazing upon them, in fact, with 
the undefined feelings of a child looking down into a dark passage, 
totally ignorant of its extent. 

" In our way, one mass of ruins, larger than the rest, was pointed out 
* Col. Briggs is u brilliant exception. 

184/.] Account of the Toim and Palace of FeeroSabad. 977 

to us as the* old Patau Palace. It has been a large and solid fortress, 
in a plain and unornamented style of architecture, and would have been 
picturesque, had it been in a country, where trees grow, and ivy was 
green,f but is here only ugly and melancholy. It is chiefly remarka- 
ble for a high black pillar of cast metal, called Feeroz Shah's walking 
stick. This was originally a Hindoo work, the emblem, I apprehend, 
of Siva, which stood in a temple on the same spot, and concerning 
which there was a tradition, like that attached to the coronation stone 
of the Scots, that while it stood the children of Brama were to rule 
Irdraput.J On the conquest of the country by the Mussulmans, the 
vanity of the prediction was shown, and Feeroz, enclosed it within the 
Court of his palace as a trophy of the victory of Islam, over idolatry. 
It is covered with inscriptions, mostly Persian and Arabic, but that 
which is evidently the original, and probably contains the prophecy, is 
in a character now obsolete, and unknown, though apparently akin to 
the Nagaree." 

Were the works of other travellers, before and after Heber, carefully 
examined, it is probable, we might find as great, if not greater, misre- 
presentations, and what is worse they indicated considerable amount of 
ignorance on the part of those living on the spot, who " pointed out" 
the ruins, and must have told the Bishop, what he has related above, 
for a personal inspection would have proved to him at least that the 
pillar was not an iron one, and that there were no Persian or Arabic 
characters upon it. It is particularly to be noted that such works as 
that of Bishop Heber are likely, on account of the apparent charac- 
ter for research they have obtained, to perpetuate the mistakes they 
make, as compilers of gazetteers and works on geography, mainly de- 
pend on books of travels for the information they condense. Hamil- 
ton, in his article " Dehli," has clearly taken much from Heber, though 
his source of information is not acknowledged. 

Circumstances, which it it unnecessary to explain, have precluded 
the following out the more desirable plan of commencing a series of 

* The italics are ours. — II. C. — H. L. 

t Had Bishop Heber seen the splendid ruins at the Kootub during the rainy season he 
would never have made this remark.— H. C— H. L. 

% The tradition attaching- to the iron pillar at the Kootub, altered and misapplied.— 
H. C. and H. L. 

978 Account of the To ton and Palace of Feerosabad. [Sept. 

investigations, for fixing the exact or proximate sites of the successive 
towns and forts around Dehli, with the precision that has become now- 
more than ever desirable, because the ruins are rapidly passing away, 
and may soon not leave a vestige behind of that most important period, 
where historical light begins to illumine the dimness of tradition, and 
we are, therefore, compelled to defer the examination of the more anci- 
ent, and as it happens, more distant remains around us, and to enter, 
in the first instance, on an investigation of those which, being nearer at 
hand, have been more easily accessible, since the formation of Arch- 
aeological Society of Dehli, to whom these researches more especially 

We have already enumerated, in a previous paper (vide Journal of 
the Asiatic Society, vol. XVI. page 577, June No. for 1847,) the 
great works that a long and, comparatively, peaceful reign enabled 
Feeroz Togluk (or Kootloog as the name ought properly to be written) 
to erect as monuments of his power, of his munificence, and above all, 
of his great public spirit. Amongst them are mentioned two hundred 
towns and twenty palaces ; a number showing pretty clearly that, al- 
though the general spirit of vanity that seems to have actuated many 
of his predecessors, and some of his successors, was not altogether 
dormant in this monarch, the desire of doing good to his people pre- 
dominated greatly over that of securing to himself handsome dwellings 
and posthumous fame. He preferred affording security to his subjects 
within the walls of the towns he built for them himself, or which the 
prevalence of peace enabled others to build under his auspices, to grati- 
fying his love of display in edifices appropriated to his own particular 
use ; and he thereby justified, in a peculiar manner, that celebrated 
record of his deeds inscribed by himself on the great Musjeed of Dehli, 
possibly the one which Taimoor, is said to have admired so much as 
to have induced him to carry away all the masons of Dehli, to erect a 
similar one at Samarkand on his return to his own capital.* 

* The exact locality of this Musjeed is a most desirable point of investigation. It is 
said that when Taimoor invaded India (1398) the musjeed at the Kootub was nearly, 
if not quite, perfect. If so it must have been the great musjeed, and by far the most 
magnificent edifice in the place : but it was not built by Feeroz whose architecture was 
very inferior, and it is much more likely he would select one of his own construction, 
on which to inscribe the record of his undoubted greatness as a liberal, munificent and 
mild ruler. How interesting too would be, a detailed life of this monarch, for which there 

184/.] Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 979 

Of these two hundred towns many of which, in all probability, still 
exist in various parts of the country, under the several denominations 
of Feerozabad, Feerozpoor, Feerozghur (and possibly Feerozshuhur or 
Feerozshah, the name of which is immortalized by the contest on the 
memorable 31st of December, 1845), probably the largest, and certainly 
the one deserving the greatest consideration, from the Archaeologist, is 
the town of Feerozabad, of which some remains are still in existence 
close outside the Dehli and Toorkman gates of the modern city : and 
of the reputed twenty Palaces are first, the celebrated one of which the 
vast ruins are still visible on the banks of the former stream of the 
Jumna, immediately south of the extreme point of the present town- 
wall, and commonly known by the name of Feeroz Shah-ka-Kotlah ; 
and secondly, the Palace of Jehannamah, of which there are few rem- 
nants, one of them, however, most prominent, in existence on the hill 
N. W. of the town of Dehli, on the site of which Mr. W. Fraser, the 
murdered Agent and Commissioner, built a house that now belongs to 

are ample materials, with illustrations of the almost inumerable works of utility he con- 
structed not only in and around Dehli, but in every part of his extensive dominions. 
In the vicinity of Dehli alone there are said to be, and close investigation would probably 
add to the number, 25 bunds, some of them in a state of excellent preservation, which 
owe their existence to this benefactor of his people, and which must have made the culti- 
vation of the land independent of well irrigation, and have removed all fear as to the 
cold weather crops.— H. C. and H. L. 

Since the above was written we have been favoured with the following interesting note 
from Major E. M. Loftie, a distinguished orientalist, and member of our Society. 

" It may, perhaps, be as well to mention, with reference to the supposition, regarding 
the great musjid, on which Firuz Shah inscribed a copy of his auto-biography and insti- 
tutes, that the mosque in question was that budt by him in Firuzabad— as will be found 
stated by Briggs, vol. 1. p. 462, who says, ' He caused his regulation, to be carved on the 
musjid of 'Feerozabad.' The original of Firishta is very clear on this point, his words 
being ' burgoombuz i alee kidur musjidi jamiu i Feerozabad bum nihadu, o moo-sum- 
mun ust' ' on the lofty dome (or tower) which he had constructed in the great mosque 
of Firuzabad and which is an octagon. 5 Nizamuddin Ahmad, the author of the Taba- 
katAkbari, also confirms this. He says, in almost the same words, -' bur goombuz, 
alee ki din musjid i Feerozabad bina nihadee o moosummun ust,' « on the lofty dome 
(or tower) which he had constructed in the mosque of Firuzabad, and which is an octa- 
gon.' From this tower or dome having had eight faces— and the work having been 
divided into eight books (which latter fact both Firishta and the Tabakat mention) we 
may with considerable probability, conclude that one boyk was inscribed on each face.— 
What a pity so truly interesting a budding should have been destroyed! Are there no 
hopes of our being able to obtain a fragment even of these inscriptions .'" 

G L 

980 Account of the Town and Pat ace of Feerozabad. [Sept. 

Maharaja Hindoo Rao. Towards identifying these two localities, (to 
the first of which, however, we must confine our present observations, 
leaving the account of the Jehannamah Palace for a future occasion,) as 
here laid down,* with the names they bear in contemporary and more 
recent histories, we have the following evidence. 

In the first place it is stated in the Zuffernama of Alee Yezd, an almost 
contemporary author, whom we have had the good fortune to consult 
in the original, that Feerozabad was situate opposite the embouchure 
of the canal brought by Feeroz from the Kalee Nuddee into the Jum- 
na, and that embouchure corresponds exactly with that of the present 
Doab Canal which is, as near as possible, opposite the present ruins. 
In the second place it is stated, that Feerozabad was distant three miles 
from Dehli, and three miles from Jehannamah, which, allowing that the 
site beyond Gheiaspoor was old Dehli, and that we have correctly 
identified the site of Jehannamah, corresponds as near as can be, allow- 
ing an oriental latitude for distances, with the present position. In the 
third place we have it recorded that Feeroz Shah brought a branch of his 
canal to Feerozabad, and there is at the present day a branch, choked 
up, leading from the main stream into the centre of the site we have 
fixed upon ; and lastly, were any further evidence required, and perhaps 
the most convincing proof of all, is the fact that the name of Feeroza- 
bad is still in existence, and applied to the spot on which the Kotla, 
&c. are situate. There is no actual village, and the Zumeendars of the 
lands that bear that name, live in the town of Dehli, but they pay rent 
under that name, and this circumstance most satisfactorily completes 
the chain of local evidence. The name is erroneously laid down in the 
district map of the Sudder Board of Revenue, as Feerozpoor. Let us 
now proceed to a short historical sketch of the place. 

It is rather singular that the only mention made of the town in 
Ferishta's history of the life of Feeroz Togluk, (we are in hopes, how- 
ever, of being able to secure more authentic materials in the history of 
Zeea-ood-deen Bunu, and the Shums-seeraj-Ufeef Feerozshahee, pro- 
mised us, and which may be available in our description of the locali- 

* With all due deference the high authority, under which the Revenue map of the 
district of Dehli made its appearance, that of Mr. H. M. Elliot, then Secretary to the 
Board of Revenue, we think that the position of Jehannamah is erroneously indicated 
in that map, where it is placed, viz -.—half a mile or more to the right of the canal, or 
nearly on the spot occupied by the new Edgah. — H. C. and II. L. 

IS47.] Account of the Town and Fed ace of Feerozabad. 981 

ties) is that it was built in the year of the Hijra 755, corresponding 
with the year of our Lord 1354, or in the 3d year of that sovereign's 
reign, and that it adjoined (comparatively speaking) the city of Dehli, 
(the old city, the Gheiaspoor above indicated ?) It is probable that 
up to that time, he occupied one of the Palaces in Dehli-proper, or at 
least during the periods of his residence at the capital, as it is stated 
that on the 2d of Rujub, A. H. 752, he entered Dehli, and there as- 
cended the throne, and that his second son Mahomed, who ultimately 
succeeded him, was born in that town. This solitary allusion to Fee- 
rozabad, and the precise date of its foundation therein given, are, how- 
ever, of material consequence.- We have in the Kalan Musjeed, the 
date of the completion of which has been accurately verified,* an ex- 
cellent specimen of the architecture of those days, a fact of great im- 
portance, as the style of almost every monarch, who had sufficient time 
to devote to the building of towns or palaces or tombs, is marked in 
the most striking manner. The materials, the plaster both within the 
walls and on the outside, the conformation of the domes, the slope of 
the entrance into the chief apartment, the battlements around the same, 
the stair cases, the brackets, the eaves, and above all, the massiveness 

* Vide Asiatic Journal, as above quoted. We have, since the publication of that 
description of the Kalan Musjeed, been favoured with the following- memorandum re- 
garding- the translation of the inscription from that distinguished Orientalist, Mr. H. M. 
Elliot, in the correctness of which we entirely concur, after a careful examination of the 
original : — 

'* Allow me to point out an error into which, I think, you have fallen in your transla- 
tion of the inscription on the Kalan Musjeed. If on further consideration you and Lieut. 
Lewis concur with me, you should keep a record of it, as it will be useful, perhaps, on 
reading other monuments of that period ; you have translated " Mugbool ool Mukhateb" 
' exalted with the title.' Now this conjunction of the two words is not good Arabic, and I 
look upon it that Mugbool is part of Jonah Shah's name :— ' Junah Shah Mugbool, entitled 
Khan Jehan.' The name was very common at that period, and his father's name also 
is given by some authors as Mulik Mugbool, and by others as Mulik Kubool. Ferishta, 
in one part, calls the father Mugbil. At all events there seems enough to show that the 
son's name was Mukbool, and should be so read in the inscription. Junah Shah was no 
doubt the name given by the obsequious father, in compliment to Mahomed Togluk, 
whose name was Jonah Shah, after whom Jonpoor was so named by his nephew Feeroz? 
We may add, as a ' contribution' to the biography of Khan Jehan the elder, that he is 
mentioned in Ferishta as the son of Rookun-ood-deen, of Thanesur ; but whether the 
word Thanesuree means that he and his family were of Thanesur, or that he possessed 
that place in Jagheer only we cannot say. He is certainly spoken of as one of the most 
disreputable fellows of the time.— H. C— II. L. 

6 l 2 

982 Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. [Sept. 

and general character, correspond so entirely, allowing for the differ- 
ence of the edifices, one a Palace the other a Mosque, that there can be 
no mistake in ascribing both edifices to the same era, besides which 
the several buildings that elsewhere mark the site of Feerozabad, 
and which will be mentioned hereafter, all bear evident signs of 
having been erected about the same period as the Kalan Musjeed. 
Although Feerozabad is not again expressly mentioned by the his- 
torian we have quoted during the life of its founder, it is reasonable 
to suppose, it continued a place of importance during his life and 
perhaps his place of ordinary residence. On the death of Feeroz in 
A. H. 790, (A. D. 1388,) Geias-ood-deen Togluk, his grandson (by 
the favorite and eldest, but deceased, son Jutteh Khan) is particularly 
stated to have ascended the throne in the Palace of Feerozabad, a fact 
which would go far to establish the correctness of the inference, that 
his own and of course favorite town was the usual residence of Feeroz. 
Gheias-ood-deen was succeeded by a cousin named Aboo-Bukr. This 
prince was, after a short reign of one year and six months, made pri- 
soner, and superseded by his uncle Nusseer-ood-deen, who first took 
possession of the Palace of Juhannamah, Aboo Bukr being " in the 
opposite quarter of the city called Feerozabad" (which supposing him 
to have been in the Palace of that town would be a correct expression 
with regard to the relative position of the royal residences of Juhanna- 
ma and the Kotla, as Feerozabad appears to have stretched in a N. W. 
direction towards the former. On the 18th of April 1389, (2d Jumah- 
ool-awul 789 A. H.) a battle took place in the very streets of Feeroza- 
bad, in which 50,000 men were engaged under Nusseer-ood-deen, a 
fact that speaks convincingly as to the great extent of ground it must 
have covered. It may also lead to the inference, that the town was 
very imperfectly protected by outer walls ; if they had been of any 
great strength or size, some trace of them would surely be visible, but 
there is not one stone upon the other, west of the Palace, that could be 
pronounced the debris of a wall likely to have been the town-wall 
of Feerozabad. Nusseer-ood-deen was defeated with the assistance 
of Bahadur Kadeer, a Mewatee chief, who seems to have held the 
scales in which several sovereigns were weighed, and found wanting if 
he did not side with them. He came to the aid of Aboo Bukr, with 
a strong re inforcement. On the following day, the king in possession, 

1847.] Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 983 

marched out of Feerozabad, and drove Nusseer-ood-deen with great 
slaughter, quite out of Dehli. Another engagement soon after took 
place in Dehli, but which part it is difficult to ascertain from the 
context. After this engagement, Aboo Bukr, hearing of treason in 
his household, fled to his Mewatee friend, leaving Nusseer-ood-deen, 
to take quiet possession of " Dehli and its Palace." He shortly after 
pursued the ex-King into Meerut, there took him prisoner, and con- 
fined him in Meerut. It is added that he died there some years after, 
but we may safely infer, that he obtained a conditional degree of liberty, 
as tradition ascribes to him, the excavation which divides Meerut, at 
the present day, into the black and white town. That he died a man 
of some consideration is evident from his tomb still standing in a state 
of considerable preservation west of, and close to, the jail at Meerut, 
Nusseer-ood-deen himself seems, subsequently, to have resided chiefly 
in the town and fort of Mahomedabad, built by his father's predeces- 
sor (his grand uncle) Mahomed Togluk, and died there. 

The son of Nusseer-ood-deen reigned only 45 days, and the nobles 
who had, by tbis time, become all-powerful, raised the younger son of 
Nusseer-ood-deen to the throne. His name was Mahmood Togluk, 
and in the accounts of his disastrous reign, we find more frequent men- 
tion of Feerozabad than at any previous period, and we may infer that 
it was again in his time, a place of almost as great importance as 
Dehli itself. The head of a faction, formed at the very commencement 
of the reign of Mahmood, named Saadut Khan, having defeated the 
king's party headed by Mookurreeb Khan (Vakeel-oos-Sultanut, and 
Ameer-ool-omra) outside of Dehli, would have besieged him in that 
place, but the rains having set in, he was unable to keep the field, 
struck his tents, and marched into Feerozabad. He called in a grand 
son of Feeroz Togluk, named Noosrut Khan, with the view of setting 
him up against Mahmood, but some household troops, who had hitherto 
sided with Saadut Khan, seized this Prince, placed him on an elephant, 
and having advanced against Saadut Khan, expelled him from the city 
of Feerozabad. 

" The misfortunes of the state," says Ferishta,* " daily increased. The 

owners of Feerozabad, and some of the provinces, espoused the cause 

of Noosrut Shah. Those of Dehli, and other places, supported the 

title of Mahmood Togluk. The government fell into anarchy; civil 

* Brigg's Translation. 

!)84 Account of lite Town and Palace of Feerozabad, [Sept. 

war raged every where ; and a scene was exhibited unheard of before, 
of two kings in arms against each other, residing in the same capital . 
Tartar Khan, the son of Guffur Khan of Guzerat, and Fuz-oolia 
Bulkhee, entitled Kootloogh Khan, joined the prince Noosrut at Fee- 
rozabad. Mookurrib Khan and other chiefs espoused the cause of 
Mahmood Togluk, (in Dehli it is presumed,) while Bahadur Naheer, 
and Mulloo Yekbal Khan, with a strong body of troops occupied the 
fort of Secree, and remained neuter, but were prepared to join either 
party according to circumstances. Affairs remained in this state for 
three years with astonishing equality ; for if one monarch's party had, 
at any time, the superiority, the balance was soon restored by the 
neutral chiefs." Here again we have inferential proof, that although 
not so large as Dehli, and perhaps not so strongly fortified, Feerozabad, 
or at least its palace, must have been a place of strength and import- 
ance to be able to hold out so long against Mahmood Togluk and his 

Shortly after the above extract we find the following in Ferishta : 
" In Dehli, Mulloo Yekbal Khan, having disagreed with Mookurrib 
Khan, abandoned the cause of Mahmood Togluk, (in Dehli) and 
sent a message to Noosrut Shah (in Feerozabad) offering to join 
his party. This proposal was readily accepted ; the parties met and 
went to the palace of Secree" (so that Bahadur Naheer, the Mewatee, 
must either have heen previously expelled, or have joined this party, 
which is more probable) ' ' where they swore mutual friendship on the 
Koran at the tomb of Khwaja Kootab-ood-deen Bukhteear Kakee." 
(The mention of this fact is most important as it is almost the only 
allusion, in Ferishta at least, on which to ground a certain inference as 
to the exact position of Secree.) '-A quarrel now took place between 
Mahmood Togluk and Mookurrib Khan ; and about three days after, 
another rupture occurred between Mulloo Yekbal Khan, and Noosrut 
Shah, when the former, regardless of his oath, formed a conspiracy to 
seize the latter. Noosrut Shah informed of the plot, thought it advisa- 
ble to quit the palace of Secree, and Mulloo Yekbal Khan, intercepting 
his followers in his retreat, took all his elephants, treasure and bag- 
gage ; while the unfortunate Prince, being in no condition to keep the 
field, fled to his vizier, Tartar Khan, at Paneeput. Mulloo Yekbal 
Khan, having obtained possession of Feerozabad, increased his power, 
and strove to expel the king Mahmood, and his partisan Mookurrib 

184 7- J Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 985 

Khan, from the "old city." At length, by the mediation of some 
nobles, peace was concluded between the parties ; but Mulloo Yekbal 
Khan, perfidious as he was, and regardless of the sacred oaths of the 
treaty, attacked Mookurrib Khan in his own house, and slew him. He 
also seized Mahmood Togluk and deprived him of all but the name of 

The next mention we have of Feerozabad, is on the occasion of the 
invasion of Taimoor, which occurred very shortly after the events de- 
tailed above. On the 13th January 1398, (5th of Jummadi-ool-awal 
A. H. 801,*) this scourge of the human race, after putting to death so 
large a number of prisoners on the plain beyond (east of) Louse, as 
must have deluged the land with blood, forced the river without opposi- 
tion, and encamped " on the plain of Feerozabad." This plain was, in 
all probability, either the land now occupied by Jaisinghpoora, and 
further south, towards the tomb of Munsoor x\lee Khan (Sufdur 
Jung) or the spot now occupied by modern Dehli. While Dehli be- 
came the prey of the ferocious army which he commanded, Feerozabad 
seems to have escaped the fury of those madmen, for we learn that on 
Taimoor finally quitting Dehli after revelling for 15 days in blood, and 
rapine, he marched three miles to Feerozabad (an important fact for 
hereafter fixing, with tolerable exactitude the position of " Dehli or 
old Dehli," and which supports our previous inference, that the Dehli 
of those times was just beyond Indraput) and having encamped there, 
offered up his prayers in the large mosque, which is said by the histo- 
rian to have been on the banks of the Jumna ; but for this assertion, 
we might suppose, it was the Kalan Musjeed which was alluded to. 

Ten years after Taimoor' s invasion we find Mahmood Togluk, still 
nominal king, defending himself in Feerozabad successfully against his 
ultimate successor Saiud Khizr Khan, in consequence of the enemy 
suffering from a scarcity of forage and grain. 

Three years after Khizr Khan returned to the assault, on which occa- 
sion Mahmood shut himself up in the old citadel of Secree, while 
Yekteear Khan, who commanded in Feerozabad, seeing the desperate 
condition of the king's affairs, joined Khizr Khan, and admitted him 
into the fort (Feerozabad), notwithstanding which Mahmood made a 

* There appears an error of 17 days in the abbreviated translation of the ZurTurnama, 
by P. dela Croix, but we cannot speak with certainly without a more close investiga- 
tion. Should this prove to be the case as we suspect it will, or the 13th January 1398, 
a* above, we should read 27th December 1397. -II. C.— II. L. 

986 Account of the Town and Palace of Feerozabad. 

successful defence of Secree. He died the following year near Kaithul, 
(Feb. 1412.) An Afghan chief, of the name of Dowlut Khan Lodee, 
reigned after him nominally for one year and three months, when 
Khizr Khan, finally succeeded in obtaining possession of the throne,* 
and in establishing a new dynasty. From this time (1416) or 62 
years after it was founded, it is most likely that Feerozabad began to 
decline. The building of Mobarikabad in 1435, showed that it was no 
longer thought a suitable residence for kings of another race, and while 
the construction, in 1533, by Humaioon of anew fort, and the founda- 
tion by Shere Shah, almost immediately after, of a new and distinct 
town, part of which must have been built on a portion of the site 
of Feerozabad, showed that as a town of any consequence it had almost 
entirely disappeared, the materials being, as usual, in all probability, 
carried away to construct more recent edifices. This is the more likely, 
as Sekunder Lodee had, for some years before his death, made Agra 
his principal place of residence. 

From the foregoing outline of its history, and from the tolerably 
accurate indications we have of its locality, taking also the style 
of the remains of the palace, and other buildings into consideration, 
and bearing in mind that we have the date of the Kalan Musjeedf to 
bear out what we have advanced, we consider that there can be no 
hesitation in laying it down as a fact, that the ruins of the Kotla, as 
they now stand, are the remains of the palace built by Feeroz Togluk, 
and that the city of Feerozabad, also built by him, extended a consi- 
derable distance to the south-west, but mostly to the north-west of 
the palace, where there are still numerous debris of old buildings, be- 
sides several tombs and mosques, more or less perfect, all bearing the 
most distinct marks of that period ; the Kalan Musjeed being one of 
them. We shall endeavour, in our next paper, to trace even more 
exactly the limits of Feerozabad, and to give a short account of the 
several buildings alluded to, accompanied, if possible, by plans and 
sketches of the most remarkable of those edifices, with a general plan 
of the whole supposed site and neighbourhood. 

* Khizr Khan though sovereign de facto, never openly assumed the title of King, but 
was contented to rule as the representative of Shahrookh, the son and successor of Tai- 
moor, on whose name the Kliootbawas read. — II. C. — H. L. 

t It seems likely that this Musjeed was erected by Khan Jehan,Wuzeer with the object 
(if securing the good will of the people of the capital on his contemplated usurpation of 
the throne of his master, then verging rapidly to a state of mental imbecility. — H. C 
-H. L. 




For August, 184/. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Asiatic Society was held, on the 
evening of Wednesday, the 4th of August. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the previous meeting having been read, and the 
accounts and vouchers presented — the following gentlemen were balloted 
for and duly elected members of the Society. 

J. Beckwith, Esq., Calcutta, Wm. Greenway, Esq., Assay Master, 
Agra, and Capt. J. D. Cunningham, Bhopal. 

The names of the following gentlemen were submitted, as candidates, 
for election at the September meeting. 

Dr. Lamb, Surgeon General, proposed by Lieut. Staples, seconded by 
J. W. Laidlay, Esq. 

Gilson R. French, Esq., proposed by Mr. Laidlay, seconded by Dr. 

Wm. McDougal, Esq., proposed by Mr. Laidlay, seconded by Dr. 

Read letters from the Secretary to the Military Board, forwarding 
copies of the Water-guage Register Report for 1845 and 1846, for the 
Ganges and Jumna rivers. 

From H. M. Elliot, Esq., Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign Department, announcing that a British mission was about to 
proceed to Thibet and inviting the suggestions of the Society regarding 
all matters of scientific or literary interest the Society might desire to 
have investigated by the Commissioners. 

A communication on this subject, from the Council of the Society, 
will be found in the sequel of the evening's proceedings. 

6 M 

988 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug. 

From the Rev. Dr. Hoeberlin, forwarding 100 copies of his revised 
edition of his Sanscrit Anthology, regarding which a favorable report 
was presented at the same time from the Secretary in the Oriental 

Referred to Oriental Section for advice as to distribution of the 

From Capt. ¥m. Munro, communicating his report drawn up at the 
instance and on the part of the Society, on the timber trees of Bengal. 

Referred to the Committee of Papers, and the marked thanks of 
the meeting presented to Capt. Munro, for his valuable co-operation. 

From the Rev. Mr. Wenger, presenting his " Introduction to the 
Bengali language" and requesting to be favored with a copy of Wester- 
gaard's "Radices Linguae Sanscritse." Copy voted with the thanks 
of the Society. 

From Lieut. R. Strachey, Almorah, dated 9th July, forwarding an 
account of the Glaciers of the snowy range about 7 marches from 
Almorah — and offering to present to the Society a small collection of 
minerals brought by his brother from Thibet. 

Lieut. Strachey 's paper has been published in the Journal for August, 
and his offer of the specimens accepted with thanks. 

From Capt. J. D. Cunningham, giving a narrative of his antiquarian 
researches in the Bhopal district. 

From B. H. Hodgson, Esq., of Darjeeling, presenting papers with 
plates on the Cat-toed sub-plantigrades of the Himalayas, and on a 
new species of Plecotus. 

From Dr. McGowan, Ningpo, dated Sept. 1846, presenting a curious 
work, entitled a Chinese Vocabulary and Dialogues, &c. — by P, Strene- 
nassa Pillay, Chusan, 1846. 

Ningpo , Sept. 1,1846. 

To the Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Dear Sir, — I have the pleasure of forwarding, at the request of the author' 
the accompanying volume entitled "A Manual for Youth and Students, 
or Chinese Vocabulary and Dialogues, containing an easy Introduction to 
the Chinese Language, Ningpo Dialect. Compiled and translated into Eng- 
lish by P. Strenenassa Pillay — Chusan, 1846." 

The book is a philological curiosity and interesting to the friends of 
oriental literature, as the product of an Indian mind. During his residence 

1847.] Proceedings of th e Asia tic Society . 989 

at Chusan as "Head Conicopolly" to H. M. Commissariat from 1842 to 
1846, he succeeded in mastering the colloquial dialect, and at his own ex- 
pense published his Vocabulary, for the benefit of future students. 

As the author was unable to read Chinese, and his knowledge of English 
being far from perfect, the volume abounds in errors. Nevertheless he 
deserves praise and encouragement for the literary zeal, which prompted him 
to execute the work. Each square is denoted to the definition of an English 
word. The first column from the left attempts to give the English sound in 
Chinese characters. The second is the English, next comes the Chinese 
definition, and lastly the sound of the Chinese in Tamil and Teloogoo charac- 
ters. The book, therefore, is designed for the use of English, Chinese and 
Indian Students. It may be observed, however, that this attempt, like all 
others that have been made to imitate English sounds by Chinese characters, 
is a failure. For example — for " White hair" we have " We lih hai 9 rh" 
" Spring, Se puh ling," Lose, lo ho sze, Present, pa lih tsun teh, Slumber— 
se lung pa 'rh" 

Commending S. Pillay to those who would foster native talent. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Very truly, your's 

D. J. McGowan. 

From Capt. Scott, Secretary Military Board, presenting a parcel of 
cotton cloth impregnated with oil, which had undergone spontaneous 

A full account of several experiments made on this very important 
subject, will appear in an early number of the Journal. 

From Capt. Jas. Abbott, Huzaree, forwarding mineralogical speci- 
mens and describing the geological features of the district he is now 

From Capt. Alexander Cunningham regarding the Serica of the 
Periplus. Pending a more detailed memoir on this subject, we may 
mention that Capt. Cunningham differs from Dr. Taylor in his identifica- 
tion of Serica with Assam, and considers two points sufficient to prove 
that Serica was the country about Yarkand, Khoten, and Beshbalik at 
the foot of the Altai. Capt. Cunningham observes, " The first of these 
is, that the road leading to Serica lay over the Komeclan mountains, at 
the Source of the Oxus. This name still existed in a. d. 640, when 
Hwan Thsang visited India, for he mentions Kiumi-tho on the northern 
bank of the Oxus, along with Pho-mi-h, or Pamer, and Po~Iu-lo, or 

6 m 2 

990 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [A.UG. 

Bolor. The second point is that the Essedones {magna gens, as 
Ptolemy calls them) derive their name from the gallic word esseda, a 
chariot, or wagon. Now the people of the country around Beshbalik 
were called by the Chinese Kiotshang, or wagoners, from Kiotshe, a 
high-wheeled wagon (quaere the origin of coach ?) These people call 
themselves Ouigours, who are the Ovtyovpoi of the time of the emperor 
Justin, and the lOayovpoi or Hrayovpi of Ptolemy ; which two read- 
ings we may safely change to Oviyovpoi, the Ouigours, who, — as their 
Chinese appellation of Kiotshang, wagoners, intimates — were the same 
as the Essedones. The Sera metropolis must have been Beshbalik, the 
capital of the Ouigours. The Psitaras river of Pliny must be simply 
the Su-tarini or the river Tarini, that is the united streams of the 
Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten rivers. As an illustration of this view 
I will only cite the position (to the Southward) of AAiSArA (read 
AMSArA) which must be Alsaug, or Lassa. The Dabasse, and the 
Damasse mountains must have some connexion possibly with the 
Larmas, but more probably with the name of Lassa itself — and the 
river Daona must be the Dihong, a proof that so far back as the time 
of Ptolemy the river (Sdn-pn) which flowed past Lassa was the head 
of the Brahmaputra, or Dihong." 

On the part of the Council of the Society, the Senior Secretary stated 
that on receipt of Mr. Elliott's letter, announcing the departure of a 
British mission to Thibet, the Council immediately issued instructions 
to their Curators and Librarian, and invited the several sections to 
co-operate with them, in preparing lists of scientific desiderata, which 
the mission might be enabled to supply. They also appointed Messrs. 
Hodgson, Campbell and Waugh, all resident at Darjeeling, a corre- 
sponding sub-Committee of the Society for this special object. 

The Council have much pleasure in stating, that so promptly did the 
sections and officers of the Society comply with their requisition, that 
on the tenth day from the receipt of Mr. Elliott's letter, copious docu- 
ments containing many valuable suggestions were forwarded to the 
mission, with a set of Bitter and Mahlman's maps. Mr. Frith, a 
member of the Council, having volunteered to accompany the mission 
as Naturalist, at his own expense, the Council forwarded his offer, with 
their cordial support, to the Hon'ble the Deputy Governor, who was 
pleased to declare his readiness to accept it, but expressed much doubt 
whether Mr. Frith could then overtake the mission. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 991 

A favorable report was received from Mr. Welby Jackson, on the MS 
Catalogue of Cariosities in the Museum, prepared by the Librarian. 

Reports were received from the Curators, in the Geological and 
Zoological Departments, and the following list of Books received during 
the previous month was submitted by the Librarian. 

Books received for the Meeting of the 4th August, 1847. 


Le Moniteur des Indes Orientales et Occidentales, Vol. II. part I. — By 
the Editors. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 10. — By the 

The Oriental Christian Spectator for July, 1847. — By the Editor. 

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. XVII. part 2. — By the 

Meteorological Register, kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta,, 
for the Month of July, 1847. — By the Officiating Deputy Surveyor 

The Oriental Baptist, Nos. 6 — 8. — By the Editor. 

Upadeshaka, (a Bengali periodical.) Nos. 6 — 8. — By the Editor. 


The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, No. 202. 
The Athenaeum, Nos. 1021-2. 


The Edinburgh Review, Nos. 168-9. 

The North British Review, No. XIII. 

Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. Le Bon Cuvier, et M. A. Valen 
ciennes, Tome dix-neuvieme. 

Voyage Dans L'Inde, par Victor Jacquemont, pendant les Annees 1828 a 
1832, in 4 vols. 4to. 

As the meeting was about to separate Major Marshall handed in 
the following notice of a motion which he signified his intention to 
bring forward at the September meeting. 

992 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug. 

Notice of Motion for next meeting of Asiatic Society. 
Each Section, Committee and sub-Committee of the Society shall be 
authorized to elect its own Secretary. 

G. Marshall. 
August 4th, 1847. 

The above notice having been duly recorded, and thanks voted for 
all donations to the Library and Museum, the meeting adjourned to 
Wednesday the 1st of September. 

Report of Curator, Zoological Department. 

The only donations I have to acknowledge on the occasion of the present 
meeting, are as follow : — 

1. From H. Alexander, Esq. C. S. A very fine and perfect skin of the 
Ursus isabellinus, Horsfield, v. syriacus, Hemprich and Ehrenberg. Of 
several skins received, at various times, of this chiefly trans-Himalayan Bear, 
the present specimen is the first that could be properly mounted as a stuffed 

2* From R. W. G. Frith, Esq. A full grown specimen of the s Tokke' 
Lizard of the Tenasserim provinces, Platydactylus gecko, (Lin.) 

3. From E. Lindstedt, Esq. A large specimen of Dipsas trigonatus, Schnei- 
der, procured in the neighbourhood. 

E. Blyth. 

August 4th, 1847. 

Supplementary Report. 

The group selected for exhibition this evening is that of the BucerotidfS, 
or Hornbills, with certain genera allied to them : and I have the pleasure to 
call attention to a particularly fine series of these remarkable birds. The 
following are the species now mounted in the Society's Museum ; which I 
shall endeavour, as far as appears practicable, to arrange into minor groups. 

Firstly, a conspicuous series presents itself of species, amongst which the 
casque attains its maximum of development ; being in particular well 
elevated posteriorly, where it rises abruptly from the forehead, and generally 
protrudes backward over it (instead of rising and gradually sloping forward 
from the middle of the forehead, as in various other species). The sexes 


resemble each other, black and white — save in one remarkable exception — 
being the only colours of the plumage : and the medial portion of the throat 
(more or loss broad) is well clad with feathers. 

At the head of this series range two remarkable species, both for size and 
for the peculiar form of the casque, which is altogether different in the two : 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 993 

but they resemble, and differ from all the rest, in having' a white tail crossed 
by a black band, occupying its subterminal fourth or fifth ; and the first species 
alone has a white wing-band, and the white of its occiput and neck is strongly 
tinged with fulvous. 

1. B. cavatus, Shaw, Vieillot : B. homrai, Hodgson, As. Res. XVIII, pt. 
II, 169 et seq., with coloured figure and views of the casque at different ages : 
probably B. bicornis, Lin., in which case its range of distribution would 
extend to the Philippines. Adult male and female, and skeleton of a female, 
from Arracan ; presented by Capt. Phayre : and large head of an Assamese 
specimen, that was presented by Dr. McCosh. This great species inhabits 
the more extensive hill forests of all India, but would seem to be considerably 
more numerous, and also much easier to procure, along the whole eastern 
coast of the Bay of Bengal, from the Straits of Malacca northward to Sylhet 
and Assam. The female is rather smaller than the male, and (as also in B. 
rhinoceros and B. pica) may be readily distinguished by having the hindmost 
portion of the casque pale, instead of black. 

2. B. rhinoceros, Lin. : and the young, probably B. niger, Shaw (nee 
Vieillot), jB. sylvestris, Vieillot, and B. diadematus, Drapiez. Very fine adult 
male, and young ; presented by the Rev. F. T. Lindstedt : and adult female, 
presented by the Rev. J. Boaz : all from Malacca. Inhabits the Malayan 
peninsula and archipelago. The sexual differences are pointed out in XIV, 188. 

Next may be introduced the species before referred to, as constituting an 
exception to the general coloration of the others of this group. Its upper 
parts are of a dusky greyish-brown, rather than black ; the head,, neck, and 
thighs are deep ferruginous ; the lower-parts and facial mask (as in B. cavatus) 
are alone black ; and the tail is fulvous-white, as are often the exterior wing- 
feathers, to a greater or less extent (even on the two wings of the same bird) : 
but the casque is broad and flat posteriorly, protruding far backward over 
the forehead ; and the nearest affinity appears to be with B. cavatus, of which 
some authors have even considered it the young. 

3. B. hydrocorax, Lin. : B. bicornis, var., Shaw ; B. cristatus, Vieillot ; 
JB. platyrhynchus, Pearson, X, 652. Specimen described in XII, 988. This, 
with the specimen of B. panayensis, was presented with the Macao collection 
by R. Inglis, Esq., as noticed in V, 249 : both species inhabit the Moluccas. 

The next three are very closely allied. Colour black, with white abdomen 
and wing-tips, and all or part of the four outer tail-feathers on each side : 
the casque high, simple, well projected backward over the forehead, compressed 
and pointed to the front, where it advances at a more or less acute angle with 
the ridge of the upper mandible. 

4. B. pica, Scopoli : B. malabaricus, var. B, Latham ; B. monoceros, and 
probably B. violaceous, Shaw; Bcegma Dmnase, White, As, Res. IV, 119 : 

994 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug. 

described in XII, 993 et seq. Casque large, much compressed, with a 
great black mark occupying the larger portion of its ridge and sides in adults, 
but never descending upon the upper mandible : the three outer tail-feathers 
white, and the fourth either partially or completely so. Inhabits the Indian 
peninsula generally, even to Cuttack. Adult male and female, from Chye- 
bassa ; presented by Capt. Tickell : another adult male, from Goomsoor ; 
presented by Capt. McPherson : and another old female, with nearly 
half of the upper mandible broken away, but the casque uninjured ; from 
Cuttack, presented by Dr. Gurney Turner of Midnapore. The last was shot 
with its upper mandible thus broken, and the edges of the fracture worn 
away, as it now appears in the stuffed specimen. 

5. B. ulbirostris, Shaw, Vieillot : B. malabaricus, Latham ; B, leucogaster, 
nobis, X, 922 (the young) : described in XII, 995. Differs from the last 
in its inferior size ; in having only the terminal portion of all but its middle 
tail-feathers white ; and in the casque being much wider (as if inflated), 
with the black mark greatly reduced, occupying the tip only of its ridge, but 
invariably extending downward upon the upper mandible. In the female, 
this black mark is less defined, often occupies as much as half of the ridge of 
the casque, and extends even to occupy the tip of the upper mandible ; while 
the cutting edges of both mandibles are also black. This species inhabits 
Bengal, Nepal, the sub-Himalayan region further west, also Assam, Sylhet, 
Arracan, and the Tenasserim provinces ; but not Southern India, whence the 
name first bestowed by Latham is inadmissible. I observed it to be tolerably 
common in the jungles of the Midnapore district. Six specimens retained : 
two from Bengal ; two from Arracan, presented by Capts. Phayre and Abbott ; 
and two from Tenasserim, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe ; also a head with 
unusually large bill and casque, which may perhaps, however, belong to the 
following species. 

6. B. intermedins, nobis : J3. violaceus of Wagler, apud Lord Arthur Hay, 
Madr. Joum. XIII, 148 : probably B. malabaricus of Sumatra, apud Raffles : 
vide p. 10 ante. Resembles the last, but with the wholly white outer tail- 
feathers of B. pica. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula, where very common 
about the latitude of Penang, and in Prince of Wales' Island ; but I have 
never seen it in collections made at Malacca. A young specimen, presented 
(with a Penang collection) by Dr. A. Campbell of Darjeeling. 

The next is nearly allied to the two last, but has no white on the belly and 
tips of the wings, but only on the terminal third of its four outer tail-feathers 
on each side : the presumed male, however, has a white superciliary coronal 
circle, which is represented by obscure silvery-greyish in the other sex. Bill 
and casque wholly yellowish-white, except at the extreme base of the mandi- 
bles and on the hindmost portion of the casque, where the colour is black. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 995 

7. B. malayanus, Raffles : B. bicolor, Eyton ; B. Ellioti, A. Hay, who 
describes the young as that of the next species, Madr. Journ. XIII, 152 : 
probably B. albirostris of Java, apud Horsfield :* females (?) described in 
XII, 995. Common in the Malayan peninsula. Two females (?), from 
Malacca ; presented by the Rev. F. J. Lindstedt : another, presented by J. 
Middleton, Esq. 

In the following series of species, the casque is often wanting altogether, 
or merely indicated ; and when present is generally very low, and slopes 
forward with a gradual curve from the middle of the forehead, where its 
hindmost portion is (more or less completely) concealed by the plumage. The 
two next alone (of all the species before mej exhibit some tendency in the 
casque to protrude a little backward, in old and fine specimens only ; but even 
then the bulge is hidden by the feathers of the forehead. 

8. B. nigrirostris, nobis : adults described as those of the preceding 
species by Lord Arthur Hay, Madr. Journ. XIII, 151. Plumage exactly as in 
B. malayanus, except that the outer tail-feathers are not so deeply white-tipped 
(viz. 2\ in., instead of 3| to 4 in.) ; and the size also is inferior, the wing barely 
exceeding 11 in., instead of being from 12 to 13 in. : the young further differ 
in having the white tips to the outer tail-feathers spotted over with black. 
The bill and casque are black in adults, in the young white : and the form of 
the casque refers this species to the present series of Hornbills ; it being low, 
thinly compressed towards the front, and abruptly truncate anteriorly ; with a 
longitudinal ridge on each side in old birds, occasioning a broad shallow 
groove above and another below it. As the beak of Raines's malayanus, 
when " surmounted hy& moderate-sized crest, which sloped gradually in front 
to the curvature of the bill," is described as " yellowish-white," I conclude 
that his specimen was a young male of the preceding species, rather than of 
the present one, which I suspect would show much black on the bill when the 
casque was so far developed. Both species inhabit the Malayan peninsula : 
and at present we have only a specimen of the young of B. nigrirostris, 
from Malacca j presented by R. W. G. Frith, Esq. 

9. B. birostris, Scopoli : B. ginginianus, Shaw : Putteal Dunnase, White,. 
As. Res. IV, 121. Size small: colour grey, with a white abdomen and 
ill-defined whitish supercilium ; the tail-feathers having a black subterminal 
band, and white tips, the latter less developed on the middle pair ; great 
alars also blackish, with white tips. Throat well clad with feathers. Casque 
low and compressed, following the curve of the bill, with the extremity of 
its ridge prolonged acutely forward in old birds. Inhabits India generally, 
but I have never seen it from the countries eastward (not even from Assam). 
In the Midnapore jungles, I observed it constantly in pairs ; instead of m 

* The name albiroslris, indeed, applies much better to this species. 

6 N 

996 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug* 

small flocks like B. albirostris, and I believe the members generally of the 
section with which we commenced. Whether others of the present series 
live also in pairs is worthy of observation. We have specimens of male, 
female, and young, from Chyebassa ; presented by Capt. Tickell. 

The next has no casque, but merely a sharp edge to the upper mandible, 
which is broad at base with an obtuse angle on each side. In XIII, 394, 
I remarked its affinity for the African B. limbatus and B. flavirostris of 
Ruppell; but have not now the opportunity of consulting that author's 

10. B. gingalensis, Shaw : B. bengalensis, Gray. Size small : colour dusky- 
grey, paler and tinged with rufous below, especially on the under tail-coverts : 
a slight whitish supercilium : wing-feathers narrowly edged with pale fulvous : 
the primaries and all but the middle tail-feathers white-tipped. Bill amber- 
yellow. Throat feathered along the median line only. Inhabits Malabar 
and Ceylon. Specimen from Ceylon, presented by Lord Arthur Hay. 

The next has a low keel-shaped ridge, sloping off to the front ; but is 
nevertheless somewhat allied to the last. Its throat is naked, or in the 
young merely shows two single rows of ill developed feathers along the 

11. B. carinatus, nobis, XV, 187- Size moderate, or that of B. pica. 
Colour green-glossed black, with the basal two-thirds of the tail drab- 
coloured, the wing-feathers slightly margined paler : head fully crested. Bill 
black, in the one sex, which seems always to have the abdominal region pale ; 
in the other, yellowish-white, with black along the summit of the casque 
nearly to the end, and also occupying the basal <wo-thirds of the lower 
mandible, and the tomise of the upper one. A young specimen is quite 
similar to the adults in plumage, but has no trace of casque, and the bill is 
nigrescent with a whitish ridge and tip. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula ; 
and the pair set up were procured at Malacca, and presented by the Rev. F. 
J. Lindstedt : another pair, presented by Mr. E. Lindstedt, is preserved for 
the Hon'ble Company's museum ; and I have seen several others. 

That which next follows has but a low slight casque, continued (as usual) 
along the basal two-thirds of the upper mandible, and then sloping off to 
the front ; but is very remarkable for the great development of the feathers 
that impend the nostrils, which have stiff hair-like disunited webs, and reach 
forward beyond the truncated extremity of the casque; the frontal feathers 
being also moderately long and erect, and the whole, with the lengthened 
occipital plumes, forming a showy ornament. 

12. B. comatus, Raffles : B. lugubris, Begbie, vide Ann. Mag. N. H. 1846 
p. 405 : adult male described by Lord Arthur Hay, Madr. Journ. XIII, 149 
In this species, the males have the finely plumed head, neck, breast, abdomen 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 997 

tail, and wing-tips, pure white ; the remainder black, a little tinged with 
brown upon the back : whereas the females have the neck, breast, and 
abdomen, also black. Raffles described the young male only, with " back, 
wings and tail, of a dark brown ; the belly of the same colour, mixed with 
white ; and the wing and tail-feathers all tipped with white at their points." 
The Society's female has a small black patch on its outermost tail-feather. 
Size rather large, intermediate to B. pica and B. rhinoceros, with proportion- 
ally long and broad cuneated tail. Colour of the beak and casque dusky, 
the former laterally whitish towards its base. Throat moderately well 
feathered. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra. Adult male and 
female, from Malacca; presented by Mr. E. Lindstedt. 

13. B. exarhcetus, Reinwardt. Size small ; the tail but little graduated : 
throat but partially feathered. Colour wholly black, glossed on the upper- 
parts with green : the bill and casque pale, with three deep longitudinal 
channels or furrows. Inhabits the Moluccas. Specimen presented by the 
Batavian Society. 

14. B. panayensis, Scopoli. This is an anomalous-looking little species ; 
and the Society's only specimen accords with Sonnerat's figure, assigned by 
him as that of the female bird, whereas, from analogy, I think it is more 
likely to represent the male ; but it differs from that figure in having the 
throat as well as the cheeks black, (as in B. cavatus and B. hydrocorax,) and 
in the tail being black at the base as well as tip, with a fulvous- white cross band 
occupying its subterminal fourth. Au reste, the crown, neck, and under-parts 
are fulvescent-white, and the upper-parts brown-black, with slight pale 
margins to the primaries. Casque simple, smooth, compressed and truncate 
to the front : the upper mandible transversely indented, and marked alter- 
nately with black and yellow ; the lower with similar furrows, placed much 
more obliquely. In the other sex, according to Sonnerat, the head and neck 
are black. Inhabits the Moluccas. Specimen from the former Macao 
Museum, presented by R. Inglis, Esq. 

In B. comatus, if not also in B. panayensis, a marked dissimilarity of the 
sexes is observable ; and the same prevails in the three species next in order, 
which are nearly allied together. These have the throat naked and disten- 
sible ; with the skin of a bright colour. The first alone has no trace of casque, 
beyond a slight bulging at the base of its upper mandible. 

15. B. nipalensis, Hodgson : vide XII, 989. Size very large. The female 
wholly black, except the tips of the wings and tail, which are white : whereas 
the male has the head, neck, and under-parts, deep ferruginous, passing to 
maronne on the abdomen and thighs. Young coloured like the adults. 
Upper mandible with numerous broad transverse channels, each coloured 
black along its posterior half or more. This great species inhabits the S. E. 

6 n 2 

998 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug. 

Himalaya, also the hill ranges of Assam, and of Munneepore. I have retained 
an adult male and female, from Munneepore, presented by Capt. Guthrie : 
and a young male, presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

The two next, with certain other species, as B. cassidix of Celebes and the 
Moluccas, and B. ruficollis of New Guinea, are very closely allied together. 
They have a peculiar wreathed or plaited casque, flat or a little bulged in some, 
more inflated in others : and the females are wholly black with a white tail ; 
the males having the head and neck either uniform rufous (as in B. ruficollis), 
or the occiput and nape, with median line of the crown, are deep maronne, 
the sides of the head and front of the neck being yellowish-white. 

16. B. pusaran, Raffles: B. ruficollis apud nos, XII, 176: described in 
XII, 990. Size of B. rhinoceros j with the base of both mandibles trans- 
versely ridged in adults : in the full grown young, these lateral ridges of the 
beak do not appear till after three or four corrugations are exhibited on 
the casque, prior to which the bill much resembles that of B. nipalensis of 
corresponding age, except that the bulge in place of the casque is more 
decided.* Inhabits Sylhet, Arracan, the Tenasserim provinces, the Malayan 
peninsula, and Sumatra. We have two adult males, from Arracan ; presented 
by Capt. Phayre : adult female, and young male, from Malacca, presented 
by E. Lindstedt, Esq. : and an adult male, with unusually flat casque (de- 
scribed in XII, 991) ; presented by J. Middleton, Esq. 

17- B. plicatus, Latham, Shaw (nee Drapiez, which is B. ruficapillus, 
Vieillot) : B. obscurus, Gmelin ; B. subruficollis, nobis, XII, 177 : described 
in XII, 990. Resembles the last, but is smaller, with never any lateral ridges 
to the mandibles : the gular skin is said to be blue, instead of yellow as in 
the other. I have only seen it from Arracan and the Tenasserim provinces, 
in which latter territory it would seem to be very common. We have a male 
from Arracan, presented by Capt. Phayre ; a Tenasserim male, procured by 
the late Dr. Heifer ; and a Tenasserim female, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe. 

The last upon the list is the most remarkable of all the oriental Hornbills : 
having a short bill, but little curved, surmounted by a moderately high 
casque, tolerably broad, and abruptly truncate in front, where it presents a 
very considerable thickness of massive bone ; the throat, neck, and interscapu- 
lar region are quite naked ; and the middle tail-feathers are greatly elongated, 
being twice as long as the rest. 

18. B. galeatus, Lin. : vide XII, 997. Size of B. rhinoceros j and colour 
brownish-black, with white belly, wing-tips, and shoulders of wings internally ; 
tail of a buff or drab-white, each feather having a subterminal black band ; 
the crested occiput black, with ferruginous on the sides of the head : beak 
* For notices of the mode of growth and successive replacement of these wreaths 
and ridges, vide XII, 990, 992. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 999 

and casque coral-red, the front of the casque and terminal half of the mandi- 
bles yellowish. Young browner, with a tinge of rufous on the breast : the 
bill and incipient casque wholly pale yellow. Inhabits the Malayan peninsula 
and archipelago. Adult and young (now in very bad order) ; presented by 
J. Middleton, Esq. These specimens, with the very large B. cavatus pre- 
sented by D. McCosh, a Rhinoceros Hornbill since replaced, and to a less 
extent our B. hydrocorax, were much injured by exposure to the dust and 
attacks of insects, prior to my taking charge of the museum. Our other 
specimens of this genus are, without exception, in excellent order. 

Genus Irrisor, Lesson, vide XIV, 188. 

I. erythrorhynchos j Upupa erythrorhynchos, Latham. From S. Africa, 
Specimen presented by Lord A. Hay. 

Genus Upupa. Lin. (as restricted). 

1. U. epops, Lin. European Hoopoe. Common in Northern India, Ben- 
gal, Arracan, &c. ; and occurs rarely in the Nilgherries. Two specimens, from 
the neighbourhood : another pair (very rufescent), from the Tenasserim 
provinces ; presented by the Rev. J. Barbe : vide XV, 11.* 

2. U. senegalensis (?), Swainson : U. minor apud Jerdon : vide XIV, 189. 
Common in the peninsula of India. Two specimens, from Goomsoor ; 
presented by Capt. Malcolmson. 

3. U. minor, Shaw. From S. Africa, Specimen presented by Lord A. 

Of the great genus Buceros, we accordingly now possess 44 mounted 
specimens, pertaining to 18 species. In the Catalogue published in the 
Journal for 1841, p. 652, only 3 specimens are enumerated, viz. jB. hydro- 
corax and B. panayensis, from the dispersed Macao museum, and the B, 
cavatus presented by Dr. McCosh : but the following Malayan specimens, 
presented by J. Middleton, Esq. (late of the Hindu College), were also in the 
museum when I took charge of the Society's collections, in September of 
that year, — B. rhinoceros, B. bicolor, B. pusaran, and adult and young of B. 
galeatus. We had thus not a single Indian specimen of this genus, unless 
the Assamese example of B. cavatus be so regarded : and all the large speci- 
mens, except B. pusaran and B. bicolor, were considerably injured by 
exposure on top of the glass-cases in the (then) bird-room. At present we 
cannot boast a single African species, and are poor in those inhabiting the 
more distant countries of the Eastern Archipelago. 

The species of Hornbill inhabiting the peninsula of India, are only four 
in number ; and I doubt much whether any additional species occurs in 
Ceylon. Three of these — B. pica, B. birostris, and B. gingalensis,—ave con- 

* I have seen no Hoopoes from the Malayan peninsula ; nor is this genus mentioned 
in the Sumatran and Javanese r-atnlogues of Sir Stamford Raffles and Dr. Ilorsfield. 

1000 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aug. 

fined in their distribution to India proper, the second only extending its 
range to Bengal ; while the third has not elsewhere been observed than in 
Malabar and Ceylon. The great B. cavatus is alone common to both sides 
of the Bay of Bengal ; continuing its range southward to Sumatra (where 
noticed by Raffles), if not further. Along the sub-Himalayan region, 
in Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Sylhet, Arracan, and the Tenasserim provinces, 
B. pica is replaced by B. albirostris : and in the S. E. Himalaya, the range 
of the great B. nipalensis commences, and extends eastward at least to 
Munneepore. There, most probably, and certainly in the vicinity of Cherra 
Poonjee, B pusaran occurs, and ranges southward through all the intervening 
countries to the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra ; and in Arracan and 
Tenasserim there is also the B. plicatus. The only species I have seen from 
the last named territories are B. cavatus, B. albirostris, B. pusaran, and B. 
jjlicatus. In the Malayan peninsula the species are particularly numerous : 
besides B. cavatus and B. pusaran, there are the remarkable B. galeatus, 
the otherwise remarkable B. rhinoceros, and B. intermedins, B. bicolor, B. 
malayanus, B. carinatus, and B. comatus, — all in the Society's museum ; 
and also, it would seem, the B. corrugatus, Tern. (v. rugosus, Begbie, 
described in Ann. Mag. N. H. 1846, p. 404.*) With the last named I am 
unacquainted ; nor have I much information respecting the distribution of 
these birds in the islands. 

The most anomalous species of this great genus known to me, are the 
long-legged B. abyssinicus (or Abba Gumba of Bruce), upon which M. Lesson 
founds his ill-constructed hybrid name Bucorvus, and the Malayan B. 
galeatus. The only further dismemberments noticed in the second edition 
of Mr. G. R. Gray's ' List of the Genera of Birds,' are Toccus, Lesson, founded 
on B. erythrorhynchos, Brisson, and Euryceros, Lesson, founded on a species 
named Prevostii by that naturalist. A good group is however formed by the 
species with well developed casque, the hindmost portion of which rises 
high above the coronal feathers ; as typified by B. cavatus, B. rhinoceros, 
B. hydrocorax, and B. pica. Another good group consists of those with 
wreathed casque, naked throat, and dissimilar plumage in the sexes ; as 
typified by B. cassidix and B. ruficollis : B. nipalensis ranging here as an 
aberrant species. And the rest, while according throughout in having the 

* " This species is 2\ ft. long. Body, wings, and tail, black, with the exception of the 
cheeks, shoulders, and throat, which are dirty white, mixed with cinereous. One-third of 
the tail from the tip smoky-white ; helmet and pouch-like protuberance under the throat 
crimson, the former furrowed with three deep indentations. Upper mandible yellowish- 
brown, inclining to white at the tip : the basal half of the lower mandible ochraceous 
and transversely caniculate ; remainder of the mandible dirty white." — Begbie. 

1847.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1001 

casque, when present, low and compressed, with its hindmost portion rising 
gradually from the forehead and more or less concealed by the feathers, differ 
so variously in other respects that no two before me can be specially ap- 
proximated together. Still, an examination of the remaining species of the 
genus might elucidate their mutual affinities. 

For the above reason, with the view of tracing those affinities, our desi- 
derata comprise all species not included in the foregoing list. Of those of 
India, we have not the young of B. cavatus, nor of B. pica j nor the young 
female of B. nipalensis : and more specimens of B. gingalensis would be 
acceptable. And of the species inhabiting the Malayan peninsula, we 
want B. corrugatus j the young of B. comatus and of B. bicolor j and good 
series of B. intermedins and B. nigrirostris, with males of B. malayanus : also, 
especially, good specimens of B. galeatus j and any species procured in the 

E. Blyth. 

Addendum to Report on the Sciuridce, p. 864 et seq., ante. In a letter 
just received from Mr. Jerdon, now stationed at Tellicherry, on the Malabar 
coast, that gentleman remarks — " With regard to the Squirrels, we have, of 
course, the large one (purpureus), sometimes all red, sometimes with a consi- 
derable mixture of black ; but never nearly all black, and never with tuftless 
ears. We have also tristriatus to the exclusion ofpalmarum, throughout the 
whole Malabar coast from Cape Comorin, only extending to the forests at 
the edge of the ghats above. Throughout all the Carnatic, Mysore, Hydra- 
bad, &c. only palmarum. I suspect the tristriatus is never found far from 
forest country. The trilineatus occurs, I find, in some of the forests of the 
ghats as well as in the Nilgherries.' , 

E. B. 

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OCTOBER, 1847- 

On the tame Sheep and Goats of the sub -Himalayas and of Tibet. 
By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Zoologists, seeking to deduce the essential characters of species and 
genera, very properly give an unlimited preference to wild over domes- 
ticated animals, as exemplars of their several kinds. But in an cecono- 
mical point of view, the world at large as properly feels a higher interest 
in the tame species, and particularly in those herds and flocks, which 
contribute so largely to the food and clothing of mankind. England 
stands pre-eminent in Europe for the attention paid, not only to the 
breeding, but to the describing, of her domesticated animals, being 
fully aware that accurate book lore is always apt to be subservient in 
various unexpected ways to practical utility. It is, therefore, somewhat 
surprising, that the widely diffused colonists of England, have not imi- 
tated the excellent example of their compatriots at home, and that the 
herds and flocks by which Britons are surrounded in the colonies of 
the empire, yet remain almost wholly undescribed. 

I trust that this reproach to the colonial residents may ere long be 
wiped away, and that some of the many enlightened and able men, 
scattered over the Indian continent, from the snows to Cape Comorin, 
will be induced to favour the public with descriptions of the numerous 
breeds of large and small horned cattle, that are to be found in the vari- 
ous provinces of this vast country. 

I purpose, on the present occasion, to describe the several breeds of 
tame Sheep and Goats, proper to my own vicinity ; and hereafter to give 

No. X. New Series. G o 

1004 On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. [Oct. 

a similar account of the large horned cattle or Bovines, that is, the 
tame Oxen, Buffaloes and Bisons, reared between the Tarai or skirt of 
the plains of India, and the trans-Himalayan plains of Tibet. 

I shall begin with the sheep, and, in order to mark more distinctly 
the essential characters of each of the two groups to be now reviewed, 
I shall commence, in regard to each, by setting down those characters 
in the usual manner of Zoologists. 

The tame sheep of the world at large have been supposed to retain 
so few of the original marks of their race, that it has been thought diffi- 
cult or impossible to point out their wild progenitors. Perhaps a good 
deal of this difficulty has arisen from the heretofore imperfect examina- 
tion of the wild races, and from the manner in which the distinctive 
characters of the whole of them have been lumped together to constitute 
a single Genus Ovis. In a paper recently presented to the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, I have distributed the wild sheep known to me into 
three genera. And to that paper I beg to refer the curious reader, 
merely observing on the present occasion, that the sheep proper, typed 
by the wild Argalis of Siberia and of Tibet, exhibit the whole of the 
following characters, which are likewise common to all the several 
breeds of domesticated sheep now to be described, with the single and 
but very partial exception of ' horned females,' some of the following 
tame breeds having females, sometimes void of horns. 

Genus Ovis. 


Horns in both sexes. 

No mufle. 

Eye pits large, but immoveable. 

Feet pits small in all the four feet. 

Inguinal glands large, with a copious secretion, but 
vaguely defined pit or vent. 

Calcic glands or tufts, none.* 

Teats two. 

No odour in the males. 
These animals have, for further and subordinate marks, massive an- 
gular compressed and heavily wrinkled horns, inserted proximately on 
the top of the head, and turned sideways almost into a perfect circle, 
* For these organs sec Journal Asiatic Society, above referred to. 

184/.] On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1005 

and their flat points again more or less reverted outwards and backwards, 
sometimes so much as to describe a second circular curve, whereby the 
twist becomes spirate : also, short deer-like tails ; and, lastly, no beard 
nor mane. Requesting the reader to keep these general designatory 
marks of all true sheep in mind, I now proceed to exhibit in the par- 
ticular portrait of each tame breed, the special modifications to which 
these primitive marks are subjected by domestication, as well as the 
other and more popular traits of each breed. 

1. Ovis hunia. — The Hunia of western, and Haluk of eastern, 
Tibet. This tall and graceful animal is the blackfaced or polycerate 
sheep of Thibet, the especial breed of that country, and one which is 
well known to European visitors of the western Himalayas, as the com- 
mon beast of burden for the transit of the snowy region, being singu- 
larly docile and sure-footed. The Hunia is a large species, measuring 
4 to 4^ feet in length from the snout to the vent, and 2\ to 2 J feet in 
height. Head to occiput (straight) 11 to 11^ inches. Tail only, 4-£ 
to 5| inches. Tail and wool, 6|- to 1\ inches. Ears 4^ to 5^ inches. 
Girth behind the shoulder 3 feet to 3^ feet. Maximum length of the 
horns along the curve 18 to 20 inches, and maximum girth at their base 
6 to 7 inches. "Both sexes have usually horns, and the males are almost 
never devoid of them, the females, rarely. The horns of the Hunia are 
distinguished for attenuation and consequent separation at their bases. 
But these characters are only relative, like those of the comparative 
smoothness of the horns, and their higher compression as contrasted 
with the horns of the wild race, as well as of some of the tame ones 
that will follow. For the rest, the horns of the Hunia exhibit with suffici- 
ent distinctness the characters both of form and curvative proper to the 
wild type, being triangular, compressed, transversely wrinkled, and 
curving circularly to the sides so as to describe two -thirds of a perfect 
sphere, when their smooth flat points are again reverted outwards and 
sometimes backwards, and so much so as to describe a second nearly 
perfect circle. I have not noticed this tendency to the spiral or cork- 
screw twist in the wild race. It is only very imperfect in the tame, and 
such as it is, is the product of advanced age, very probably equally 
characterising the wild race in old age. The moderate-sized head of 
the Hunia has great depth, moderate width, and considerable attenua- 
tion to the fine oblique muzzle, which shows not the least sign of nudi- 

G o 2 

1006 On the fame Sheep, §-c. of Tibet. [Oct- 

ty or moistness, and has the narrow nostrils curving laterally upwards, 
The chaffron, or bridge of the nose, is moderately arched or bombed, 
but more so than in the wild race ; and the forehead is less flat and less 
broad than in the Argalis, being slightly arched both lengthwise and 
across. The longish narrow and pointed ears differ from those of the 
wild race, only by being partially or wholly pendent, whereas in the wild 
race they are erect or horizontal and much more mobile, acting effici- 
ently like moveable funnels to catch every sound, a security denied to 
the several tame races, which, looking to man for their protection, seem 
to lose the mobility of the ear, as a consequence of disuse or less fre- 
quent and active use of the organ. The eyes, of good size and suffici- 
ent prominency of orbit, are seated near to the base of the horns and 
remote from the muzzle ; and beneath them is the eye pit, strongly 
marked both in the skin and scull, and carrying off a specific secretion, 
though both the gland and its vent or pore are apt to escape observa- 
tion, owing to the woolly coverture of the creeks prevailing throughout 
the eye pits, even in their interior. The neck is rather thin and short. 
The body moderately full and somewhat elongated. The limbs rather 
long and fine, hardly less so than in the wild race, and not remarkably 
rigid or perpendicular, except perhaps by comparison with those deer- 
like races. The hoofs compressed and high. The false hoofs small 
and obtuse. The feet pits are common to all four feet, and small only 
by comparison with those of Deer and Antelopes, large in comparison 
with those of Goats,* and provided with a distinct gland, yielding a 
specific secretion which is viscid and aqueous when fresh, candid when 
dry, and nearly void of odour. Not so the secretion of the groin 
glands-organs, which in the Hunia are conspicuous, and yield a greasy 
fetid subaqueous matter, which passes off constantly by a vaguely de- 
fined pore, quite similar to that of the axine deer, but less definite in 
form than in the true Antelopes ; of which the Indian Black, or Sasin, 
offers an excellent and familiar exemplar. 

The possession of these organs has been denied to the sheep by most 
writers. Wherefore I have been more particular in describing them ; 
and may add, that they belong to the two wild and six tame races of 
these regions without exception ; and may, therefore, be considered 
emphatically normal. Sheep are pre-eminently Alpine animals, and it 
* See accompanying sketches. 

1847.] On the tame Sheep, $-c. of Tibet. 1007 

is, therefore, not surprising that the tame and wild breeds of the Hima- 
layas, mountains which constitute so unrivalled a part of the " dome of 
the world," should be pre-eminently characteristic ; nor that the same 
regions should, in the wild Nahoors and Barhels, exhibit samples of 
abnormal sheep ; and such I take to be these last named Himalayan 
species, and likewise the wild sheep of Europe or the Moufflons ; whilst 
the Argalis, both of Asia and of America, constitute the true type of 
the Ovine family.* 

The tail of the Hiinia is invariably short, though less remarkably so 
than in the Argalis, yet still retaining the same essentially deer-like 
character. It is cvlindrico-conic and two-thirds nude below, differing; 
little or not at all from the same organ in the several other tame races 
of these regions, where long-tailed sheep are never seen till you reach 
the open plains of India ; and, as upon those plains not only are all 
the sheep long tailed, but Dumbas or montrous tailed sheep are com- 
mon, whilst the latter also are totally unknown in the hills, it is a 
legitimate inference, that this caudal augmentation in most of its phases 
is an instance of degeneracy in these pre-eminently Alpine animals, 
and that, therefore, 'tis vain to look in the wild state for any prototype 
of at least the more egregious of the macropygean breeds, how great 
soever be the historical antiquity of the Dumbas. f 

Having now described the Himia from the tip of his nose to the end 
of his tail, I may conclude with his ceconomic qualities, first resuming 
that this fine breed is characterised by extreme docility, by superior 
size, gracefulness of form, slender horns, of which there are frequently 
four, and rarely, even five, a polycerate tendency displayed by no other 
tame breed of these regions ; and, lastly, by the almost invariable mark 
of a black face. The general colour is almost as invariably white. I 
never saw a wholly black sheep of this breed. Nor I think one with 
perfectly white face and legs. Both the latter parts are characteristi- 
cally and almost invariably dark, black or brown, and there are patches 
of the same hue, occasionally, on the neck or hips : but rarely. 

This genuinely Tibetan race cannot endure the rank pasture or high 

* See paper above referred to in Journal Asiatic Society. 

t The range of civil, as compared witli physical, history, is as 5000 years to periods, the 
imagination can hardly cope with, though fossil Zoolog'y gives demonstration ol their 
reality and successive character. 

1008 On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. [Oct. 

temperature, or both, of the sub-Himalayas south of the Cachar ; the 
Cachar being the juxta-nivean region of these hills, where vegetation 
and temperature are European and quasi Arctic. But the Hunia does 
very well in the Cachar, and may with care be bred, or at least fattened, 
in the central region at heights not under 7 to 8000 feet, where the 
maximum temperature in the shade is about 70°. It is a hardy animal, 
feeding freely and fattening kindly. Its mutton and its fleece are both 
excellent in quality and very abundant in quantity, so that I should sup- 
pose the animal well worthy of the attention of sheep-rearers in cold 
climates. The wool is of the kind called long staple, and is valued by 
the export at 8 pence per pound.* The Tibetans who dress entirely in 
woollen, are clothed almost solely from the fleece of the Hunia, an ex- 
cellent material but unskilfully wrought by them into cloth, blankets, 
and felts, as well as knitted into long stocking boots. 

2. Ovis silingia. — The Siling sheep or Pelrik of eastern Tibet and 
of Siling. Eastern Tibet is the Kham of the natives of that vast 
plateau and is a part of it less elevated, less rugged and less cold than 
the central, and yet more so than the western, portion. Towards Assam, 
in the valley of the Sanpu, rice is grown in Kham or eastern Tibet, a 
fact decisive of the high temperature of Kham, as compared with 
Utsang and Nari, or central and western Tibet. Indeed the plateau of 
Tibet descends rapidly all the way along the course of the Sanpu or 
Brahmaputra from its source to its gorge or exit from the Himalaya. -j~ 
But still Kham must be described as a country of very moderate heat 
as well as of great dryness. North and east of Kham, on the verge of 
China, and separated from the Chinese provinces of Sifan and Shensi by 
the Peling mountains is Siling or Tangut, a colder and loftier region 
like Nari, and comprising the upper course of the Hoangho, as Nari 
that of the upper Bramhaputra. Siling is a country of great but vague 
celebrity, the Singapur of the trade of high Asia, the cradle of the 
Chinese and Mantchurian families of mankind, and possibly of the 

* See Journal of the Agricultural Society, Vol. V. Part IV. p. 205. I shall be happy 
to facilitate the procuring- of the animal or its wool for an experimental Essay. 

t Tibet is the vale of the Indus and Sanpu, the watershed being- near the holy lakes, 
where the elevation is nigh 15,000 feet. At. its gorge the Indus is not under 10,000. The 
Sanpu towards its source in Nari is above 15,000 : towards its vent in Kham under 7000 : 
in its mid-course throug-h Utsang, a mean nearer (he latter. 


1847.] On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1009 

Tibetan family also, and identical, I believe, with the Serica regio* of 
the classics ; and, last not least, the natal soil of a fine breed of sheep 
which spreading thence westerly through Kham (following probably 
and indicating the migrations in one route of the Scythic stock of the 
human race) is now common in Tibet as far as Lassa and DigarcM, 
whence the cis-Himalayans have imported a few samples, but rather as 
curiosities than for ceconomic uses. The Silingia or sheep of Siling is 
nearly as common as the Hiinia in Kham, but less so in Utsang and 
nearly or quite unknown in Nari, where the Hiinia most abounds. The 
Silingia is a delicate breed, both in structure and constitution, compared 
with the Hiinia, and though it will live and procreate in the Cachar, 
or northern region of the sub -Himalayas, it is rare there, and unknown 
south of it. In Nepal I procured my specimens from the Court, which 
imported them from Lassa : in Sikim from the Barmukh Raja, who 
procured them from Kham, all parties extolling highly the unrivalled 
fineness of the fleece, from which the people of Siling and the Chinese 
located there, manufacture the Tus and Malidah, or the finest woollens 
known to these regions, save such as are the product of European looms. 
This wool has been examined by competent authority, and is declared 
to be of shorter staple than that of the Hiinia, but suitable for combing, 
and worth in the market about the same price as the Hiinia fleece or 
eight pence per pound, f Of the merits of the mutton, I cannot speak 
from experience. But the Tibetans and Sikimites laud the flesh as 
highly as they do the fleece. The animal which yields both is some- 
what smaller as well as slighter make than the Hiinia, but bears 
otherwise much resemblance to it and is possessed, like it, of all the 
essential characters of the genus, which characters, having been once 
explained fully, need not be repeated. Length from snout to vent 3£ 
to 3f feet. Height 2 to 2} feet. Head to occiput (straight) 9| to 10 
inches. Ears 4 to 4^. Tail only A\ to 5. Tail and wool, 6. Girth 
behind shoulder 2\ to 2\ feet. Horns by the curve \\ feet. Their 

* I have read with pleasure and profit Mr. Taylor's dissertation on the country of the 
Seres. But I still retain decidedly my former opinion, that the Serica or Sinica regio is 
Siling- vel SiningvelSering, inclusive of Kham, a country of great productiveness, greater 
trade (transit) and ancient and high celebrity, open to China by the Iloangho, to India 
by (lie Sanpu, and to western Asia and Europe by all the plateau of high Asia. 

t See Journal \- Society loco citato. 

1010 On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. [Oct. 

basal girth G£ to 7\ inches. The Silingia is a breed of medium size 
and delicate form, with head and horns and general aspect much assi- 
milated to the Hiinia. Head moderate-sized with nose considerably 
but not excessively arched, and somewhat slender, trigonal, compressed 
and wrinkled horns, curving circularly to the sides, but less tensely 
than in the Hiinia, and the flat smooth points reverted backwards and 
upwards. In this breed there is even less departure from the primitive 
type as seen in the Argalis than there is in the Hiinia ; but the more 
lengthened ears are pendant entirely as in the latter, and the deer-like 
tail likewise is somewhat longer than in the wild type, being similar to 
that of the Hiinia. The eye, feet, and groin pits, are all forthcoming 
and as conspicuously ns in the Argalis or in the Hiinia. The colour is 
usually white but sometimes tinged with fawn, especially upon the face 
and limbs ; and black is perhaps less rare as a colour in this breed 
than in the last. The females of the Silingia are - commonly horned, 
though hornless females are often met with. Great intestines 17 feet, 
small 55=72. Ccecum 9 inches long by 3 wide. Width of small 
gut f inch. Of large f . The tame sheep of Tibet (the Hiinia and 
Silingia) rut in winter and produce young in summer, the females 
gestating 5^ months. They breed but once a year and produce ordina- 
rily one young at a birth, but frequently two. Their periods of 
puberty and of longevity have nothing peculiar or different from what 
is well known of other breeds in other realms. 

3. Ovis Barudl. — The Barwal. This is a cis-Himalayan breed and the 
ordinary sheep of the Cachar or northern region of the sub-Himalayas* 
where immense flocks are reared by the Guriing tribe, in all the tracts 
between Jiimla and Kirant. The breed extends, as I know, from 
Kumaoon to Sikim, and, as I conjecture, still further beyond these 
western and eastern limits. The Barwal is especially the breed of the 
northern region of the cis-Iiimalayas ; and though its strength of 
constitution enables it to live pretty well in the central region, yet it is 
seldom bred there, and never in the southern region of the Hills, nor 
in the plains of India, the heat of which it probably could not endure. 
The Barwal is the " hero of a hundred fights," his high courage, vigor- 
ous frame, superior size aud enormous horns covering and shielding 
his entire forehead, rendering him more than a match for any foreign 
* Jjhotc purganalis of Traill apud Trans. Asiatic Society. 

1817.] On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1011 

or indigenous breed of sheep, and a terror even to the bulls. The 
Barwal in measures of extent, that is, in length and height, is inferior 
to the Hunia, but superior to that breed in massiveness of entire struc- 
ture and in weight, and upon the whole, equal in size. Length from 
snout to vent 3| to 4 feet. Height 2f to 2f feet. Head, to jut of occi- 
put, 11 inches of straight measure, 14 by the curve. Ears 2 to 3 inches. 
Tail only 7 inches. Tail and wool, 8 inches. Girth behind the shoulder 
3 } to 3£ feet. Length of horns, along the curve, 2\ feet. Their basal 
girth 13 to 14 inches. 

The Barwal is singularly remarkable for his massive horns, huge 
Roman nose and small truncated ears. But this breed, like all the 
others, possesses without exception all the characteristic marks of 
the genus, as above defined, and none others denied to that genus, 
whilst the extraordinary massiveness of its horns, though a devia- 
tion from the other tame races, is a normal approximation to the wild 
type, leaving the high curve of the nasals or chaff ron as the only 
anomaly of the Barwal breed in comparison with its wild prototype, 
and an anomaly of which the other tame races exhibit marked, though 
not equal, degrees. The head is large, with a small golden brown 
eye, a horizontal tiny and truncate ear, pressed down in the old males, 
by the horn, and seeming as if the end were cut off, a Boman nose such 
as the Iron Duke might envy, narrow oblique nostrils, showing some 
faint symptoms of the nude muzzle in the manner of the wild Argalis 
of Tibet, a short thick neck, a compact deep barrel, rather elevated 
strong, and perpendicular limbs supported on high short hoofs, and 
having largish and salient conical false hoofs, behind them, and lastly 
a short deer-like tail, cylindrico conic, almost entirely nude below, and 
reaching to about the middle of the buttock. 

Both sexes have horns, not a tythe of the females being void of them, 
and the males scarcely ever without them. The horns are inserted 
without obliquity, and in contact on the crest of the frontals or top of 
the head which they entirely cover, and they are directed to the sides 
with a more or less tense and perfect circular curve, which is sometimes 
in old age repeated on a smaller scale ; but ordinarily the spherical 
twist is single and leaves the flattened smooth tips of the horns directed 
outwards and forwards. The form of the horns is trigonal and com- 
pressed, as in the other tame and in the wild breeds ; and as in the 

6 r 

1012 On the tame Sheep, S>c. of Tibet. [Oct. 

latter especially, presents a broad surface to the front. There is less 
compression in the Barwal than even in the wild sheep, so that some- 
times, but not usually, the breadth is in excess of the depth at the 
bases of the horns. The frontal aspect of the horns in the Barwal is, 
however, always ample, if not quite equal to the lateral aspects, and the 
three faces, though, in general, flat, have more or less of curvature 
which is usually convexed, but sometimes rather concaved on the inner 
lateral aspect : and the cross furrows or wrinkles of the Barwal' s horns 
are as decided and heavy as in its wild prototype. The flesh and fleece 
are both very abundant but coarse, well suited to the wants of the lusty, 
rude and unshackled population of the Cachar, but not adapted probably 
for foreign exportation or exotic rearing. By far the largest number 
of the Rahris or coarse blankets and serges, manufactured in the sub- 
Himalayas, and extensively exported therefrom for native use, in the 
plains of India, are made from the wool of the Barwal, which, likewise, 
entirely and exclusively clothes the tribes who rear it, and make the 
rearing of it their chief and almost sole occupation. The Giirungs 
especially are a truly shepherd, though not a nomadic, race, and they, 
it is principally, who breed the Barwal, feeding their immense flocks 
nearer the snows in the hot weather, and further off the snows in the 
cold weather, but never quitting their own proper habitat as well as 
that of their flocks, and which is the northern division of the sub- 
Himalayas. Coarse as is the wool of the Barwal, it is very superior to 
that of the sheep of the Indian plains, and being of the long stapled 
kind, the animal might possibly prove a valuable addition to our Euro- 
pean stores, either for the wool or for the flesh market, the Barwal 
being of a hardy constitution, averse only from excessive heat, and 
feeding and fattening most kindly. The colour of this breed is almost 
invariably white : but reddish or tan legs and face are sometimes found, 
and it may even be said ' Rara Ovis in terris, nigroque simillima,' of 
this as of the other breeds. 

The seasons of rutting and breeding are winter and summer respec- 
tively : the gestation is of 5|- months, and but once a year, pampering and 
high feeding alone ever causing two broods in the year, or deviation from 
the customary times of female amativeness and of delivery, though the 
male be toujours pret et beaucoup suffisant pour une troupe des dames.* 

* This extreme sexual energy is sustained by proportionate organic development. I 
do not see how we are to reconcile it with the " fitness of things," unless many more 
females than males are produced, 

1847.] On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1013 

The feet, groin and eye pits are all conspicuous in the Bar wal. In- 
testines 121 feet ; whereof the small are 94, and the great 27 feet. 
Coecum 12^ inches long, and 3|- wide. Several inches of the gut below 
it, nearly as wide. Rest 2\ to 2 inches in diameter down to anal end. 
Liver with two principal and five total divisions besides the lobulus and 
the large gall-bladder loosely attached to the largest lobe in a very 
partial cleft and at its lower edge. 

4. Oms Cdgia. — The Cago or Cagya. This is the especial breed of 
the central region of the sub- Himalayas, so far as that region can be 
said to have a breed, for, in sooth, its very rank pasture and high tem- 
perature together are very inimical to Ovine animals. There are few 
sheep in the central hilly region, and none in the lower, till you reach 
the open plain, and there is found a widely diffused breed, quite different 
in its superficial characters from any of the hill ones. What sheep 
are reared in the central region of the hills are of the Cagia breed, but 
rather by householders than by shepherds, and rather for their flesh 
than for their wool. The Cagia is a complete Barwal in miniature : 
yet, like as the two breeds are, each has its own region, nor does the 
great difference of size ever vary or disappear. Nor are there wanting 
other differential marks such as the full sized pointed and pendant ears 
of the Cagia and its shorter stapled and finer wool. 

Length from snout to vent 3 to 3^ feet. Height 2 to 2} feet. Head 
to occiput by the curve, 13 inches, straight 10 to 11 inches. Tail onty, 
6^ to 7 inches. Tail and wool, 7\ to 8 inches. Ear \\ to 4£ inches. 
Girth behind the shoulder 2\ to 2f feet. 

The Cagia is a small, stout and compact breed, possessed of great 
strength and soundness of constitution, impatient only of heat, and that 
much less so than the preceding breeds, eminently docile and tractable, 
affording mutton of unequalled quality, and wool not to be despised, yet 
to be praised with more qualification than the meat. Men of rank in 
Nepaul, who eat mutton, always prefer that of the Cagia, which is cer- 
tainly superior both for tenderness and flavour to the mutton of any 
other breed of sheep in these regions. The wool is of short staple but 
considerable fineness, though inferior much to that of Silingia, some- 
what to that of the Hunia, but superior to the wool of the Barwal in 
fineness, though not equal to it in length of fibre. The people of the 
central region of the sub-Himalayas, to which region the Cagia sheep 

6 p 2 

1014 On the tame Sheep, $>c. of Tibet. [Oct. 

is confined, dress almost entirely in cottons, and consequently do not 
much heed the fleece of their sheep. But the Newars of Nepal-proper, 
where the Cagia most abounds, manufacture its wool into several stuffs, 
often mixed with cotton. 

These manufactures, however, are sheerly domestic, and of little con- 
sideration, the products being poor and coarse, though owing more to 
unskilful manufacture than to the inferiority of the raw material, none 
of the mountain tribes east of Cashmir, possessing any portion of that 
high proficiency in the art of weaving, which has for ages given such 
celebrity to the looms of Cashmir, as of Delhi, of Benares, of Dacca 
and to Guzerat. 

The Cagia sheep is a handsome breed, but the head is too large, the 
chaffron too prominent, and the legs too short for perfect beauty. The 
head is large, and massive : the eye small and pale : the ears longish 
pointed, narrow and pendant ; the body full and deep ; the legs short 
and rigidly perpendicular but fine ; the tail short and deer-like, as in 
all the other breeds ; the nose only less romanised than in the Barwal ; 
and the massive horns only inferior in thickness to that breed. In the 
Cagia the horns are trigonal, very moderately compressed, heavily 
wrinkled, and curved circularly to the sides with a tense flexure, the 
flat smooth points being usually directed outwards and upwards, but 
in old age sometimes recurved into a second spheroid, the points still 
having the same direction as in case of the single spiration. Thus the 
Cagia is nearly as well armed for battle as the Barwal : but he is less 
used in that way by the rich and idle, owing to his inferior size and 
courage. The beautiful lambs are the constant pets of the ladies, this 
breed being of all the most docile, and made almost a domestic animal 
by the Newars of Nepal-proper. The Cagia is confined to the central 
region of the hills and extends longitudinally, or west and east, from 
the Naraini to the Dudh Cosi. The colour is very generally white. 
Some few are black or ochreous yellow, and the young are apt to be of 
the last hue, turning white as they grow up. The males are almost 
invariably horned, and the females frequently, even generally, so ; but 
hornless females are not uncommon. Polycerate varieties seem unknown 
to the Cagia as to the Barwal breed, but are common in the Hunia, 
heard of in the Silingia breed. And here I may observe, that I have 
described the whole of the sheep, and shall do the goats, from mature 

1847.] On the. tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1015 

and perfect males, and have found nothing to remark peculiar to the 
females beyond the occasional absence of horns, a circumstance invari- 
ably noticed in regard to the females ; though I may add, once for all, 
that the females all exhibit the usual inferiority of size, and that their 
chaffron is always straight, how much soever it be bombed in the males, 
another indication, by the way, that the Roman nose is an adventitious, 
not essential, character of the genus, Not so the eye and feet and 
groin pits, which are organic and essential marks, and as such are uni- 
versal, the Cagia not less than the others, tame and wild, male and 
female, exhibiting them all conspicuously. In the same light must be 
regarded the two teats, though this be a structural peculiarity of wider 
prevalence and less invariability, serving to assemble into one group 
(Capridse) the sheep of all sorts and the goats with many of the Ante- 
lopes, yet disappearing in the Hemitrages in the Thars, Gorals, Chou- 
singhas and others of the proper Antelopine family ;* and, what is very 
remarkable, not absolutely constant even among the true and proper 
sheep ; for I have more than once met with Cagias possessed of 4 teats. 

This, however, is a point that must be referred to the category of 
"questions pour un ami" like the occasional 5 molars of the sheep; 
and the general reader may rest secure that sheep-proper have 6 molars 
aud 2 teats. 

The Cagia sheep ruts in spring and breeds in autumn, most of the 
young being born at the close of the rains, but without absolute con- 
stancy, for the domestic and artificial life of the Cagia leads to its often 
breeding irregularly throughout the year, and sometimes even twice in 
one year. One or two young are produced at a birth, and ordinarily in 
autumn, instances of two parturitions in one year being most rare. I 
have no memorandum of the intestines. The periods of maturity, 
decline and death, show nothing calling for note. Having now des- 
patched the several races of tame sheep of the mountains and of Tibet. 
I might next describe with equal particularity the Tarai sheep, which 
seems to be identical with that found all over Gangetic provinces, and 
is characterised by medial size, black colour, a very coarse but true 
fleece, frequent absence of horns in one or both sexes, a nose romanised 
amply, very large drooping ears, and a long thick tail frequently pass- 
ing into the monstrous Dmnba " bussel." But the extent to which 
* See paper on the Ruminants, Journal Asiatic Society, above referred to. 

101G On the tame Sheep, fye. of Tibet. [Oct. 

my remarks, on the mountain races, have insensibly spread, warns me to 
return to the hills, and take up, without delay, the other branch of my 
subject, or the Alpine Goats. I shall therefore merely observe further 
of the long-tailed sheep of the Gangetic provinces or Ovis Puchia,* the 
Piichia of the natives, that its essential structure conforms entirely to 
the definition of the genus above given, whilst its deviations in subor- 
dinate points, (carefully noted above) from the wild and tame sheep of 
the mountains, distinctly prove the ultimate effects of domestication 
upon these animals to be, to augment exceedingly the size of the tail, 
in length and thickness, one or both, to increase the size and destroy 
the mobility of the ear, and to diminish the volume of the naturally 
massive horns until they gradually disappear in one or both sexes ; the 
Romanising of the nose, out of all proportion to the " modesty of na- 
ture," as seen in the wild state, being a further and hardly less uniform 
consequence of domestication, though not one which, like the others, 
seems to augment most under privation of the primitive mountainous 
abode of these animals, as well as of their liberty and of their conse- 
quent power, freely to indulge all their natural propensities. The gene- 
ral Zoology and Regne Animale,f Anotice Dumbas (Ovis steatopyga) 
in Tibet ; but I am well assured, there are none in any part of " high 
Asia," or between the Altai and Himalaya, the Belut Tag and Peling. 
Genus Capra. 


Horns in both sexes. 

No mufle, 

No eye pits. 

Feet pits in the forefeet only, or none. 

No inguinal pores nor glands. 

No calcic tuft nor gland. 

Mammae two. 

Odour intense in males. 

A true beard in both sexes, or in the males only. 
These animals are further distinguished by horns, directed rather 
upwards and backwards than circling sideways to the front, as in the 

* Puchia equivalent exactly to caudatus, from Pucch, a tail. 

t Vol. II. p. 390 and IV. p. 330. The Cabul Dumba is polycerate. That of the plains 
ol India differs not from the ordinary sheep, save in the fat tail. 

1847.] On the tame Sheep, fyc. of Tibet. 1017 

sheep-proper, by the obliquity of their insertion on the top of the head, 
their less volume, greater compression, less angularity, and, above all, 
bv the keeled character of their sharp anteal edge. The tail of the 
goats is shorter and natter than in the sheep ; their chest or knees 
frequently bare and callous ; and their hairy pelage apt to be of great 
and unequal lengths. 

It must be remembered that the so-called wild goats of the Hima- 
laya (Jharal or Tehr) are not goats at all ; for they have four teats, 
a moist muzzle, and no interdigital pores or feet pits. Having premised 
this caution and solicited attention to the above essential and subordi- 
nate characters of the goats, I proceed to describe the several tame 
species of Tibet and of the sub-Himalayas. 

1 . Capra Changra. — The Changra. This is the common domestic goat 
of Tibet, a breed of moderate size, distinguished by the uniform abun- 
dance of its long flowing straight hair, which descends below the knees, 
and hocks, and covers pretty uniformly the whole animal. Even the legs 
are abundantly provided with hair, though, of course, it is shorter 
there than on the body, whilst the head, with its ample forelock and 
beard, worthy of the Shah of the Persia, shows the same tendency to 
copious development of pelage in this animal, which has likewise a 
spare sub-fleece of exceedingly fine wool. Length from snout to 
vent about 4 feet. Mean height 2 feet. Head to occiput, by the 
curve, 11 to 12 inches, straight 9 to 10 inches. Ears 5 to 6 inches. 
Tail only, \\ to 4f . Tail and hair, 9 to 10 inches. Girth behind 
the shoulder, 2\ to 2J feet. Horns along the curve, 1^ to \\ feet. 
Basal girth of horns, 6 to 7 inches. The Changra has all the indepen- 
dence of physiognomy and boldness of carriage ; but not, perhaps, all 
the hardihood of the constitution, which BiuTon has attributed to the 
whole race of goats. He is wanton, capricious, restless, impatient 
of strict restraint, and of docility far inferior to that of the sheep, 
though better able to endure change of climate, his gay roving eye 
bespeaking his mercurial temperament, and any attempt to handle 
him demonstrating his impatience of all but lax control. Ordinarily 
he is tractable enough ; but he will not submit, like his countryman 
the Hunia, to carry burdens ; and he may be bred and herded with 
facility ; but he requires a large range and liberty to please himself 
whilst grazing. 

1018 On the tame Sheep, fye. of Tibet. [Oct. 

In the dry cold plains of Tibet, which are every where varied by 
hills and broken ground, the Changra nourishes exceedingly, and also 
in the northren region of the cis-Himalayan mountains. He will not 
only live but breed in the central region of the sub-Himalayas ; and 
with extreme care may be kept alive, but not bred, in the southern 
region of the hills, and even in the plains. But he merely exists in 
the two last named locations, and even in the central region of the 
mountains, he loses the fine silky sub -fleece, retaining the external 
hairy pelage only, and that much shorn of its "fair proportions." 
A Kirghis breed allied to the Changra, has been conveyed safely to 
Europe, and bred there succesfully in the alpine parts of southern 
France ; and, as both this and the Changra are closely allied to the 
celebrated shaul goat, I have no doubt that either their exquisite 
sub-fleece or their abundant outer coat could be turned to good account, 
if not immediately yet after crossing the breed with some nearer 
appropriate stock such as the Angola or Whidah. The natives of 
Tibet manufacture ropes, caps, and coarse overalls out of the long 
hair, and a fine woollen cloth called Tus, out of the sub-fleece, mixed 
occasionally with the wool of the Silingia sheep. The flesh of the 
Changra, especially of the kids, is excellent, and is much eaten by 
the Tibetans and cis-Himalayans, even the Hindus of the central region, 
importing large numbers for food and sacrifices, especially at the 
Dasahara, or great autumnal festival. But upon the whole, the 
Tibetans prefer the mutton of their sheep to that of their goats ; and 
the former are consequently much more abundant in Tibet