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Full text of "The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society"

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THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Bombay Natural History Society. 



EDITED BY 

JVC. PHIPSOW, G.XKE.3E.S., 

AND 



VOL. XVI. 



Consisting of Five Parts and containing Eight Coloured Plates, 
Thirty-one Lithographs, Eleven Photographs and Eighty-seven Blocks, 



Dates of Publication, 

Part I (Page* 1 to 191) ... ... ... ... M . nth Dec, 1904. 

„ II(Pages 192 fo 898) *•• « 15£7t J.^., 1905. 

„ III {Pages 399 £o 531)... ... ... 5th Aug., 1905. 

„ IV (Pages 532 £o 763) ... ... ••• ... ... ... ... •>. 2n<2 2Vou., 1905; 

„ V {Index, (fee.) «. w •*• ••• ... ••• «•• m Slrf ^aa., 1906» 



J$ m ft a g : 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVI. 



PAGE. 



The Birds of Travancore, By H. S. Ferguson, f.l.s. With 

Notes on their Nidification. By T. F. Bourdillon, f.l.s. 

Part III 1 

New Species of Indian Hymenoptera. By Major C. G. Nurse, 

113th Infantry, Indian Army 19 

Sexual Colour- Dimorphism in Birds. By D. Dewar, i.c.s.... 27 

Note on Sexual Dimorphism. By L. C. H. Young, b.a 37 

Note on Sexual Dimorphism. By Capt. W. G. Liston, i.m.s., 

m.d., f.r.s.e... ,«,.'. 39 

Notes on the Birds of Chitral. By Capt. H. T. Fulton, d.s.o. 44 
Water- Yielding Plants found in the Thana Forests. By G. 

M. Ryan, i.f.s., f.l.s 65 

The Birds of the Madhubani Sub-division of the Dar- 

bhanga District, Tirhut, with Notes on Species noticed 

elsewhere in the District. By C. M. Inglis, Part VIII... 70 
The Butterflies of Ceylon. By Major N. Manders, r.a.m.c, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S 76 

Description of Sixty-eight New Shells from the Persian 
Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged 
by Mr. F. W.Townsend, of the Indo-European Telegraph 
Service. By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., f.l.s., f.z.s., and 
Robert Standen, Assistant Keeper, Manchester Museum, ' 
Part I. (Plates A, B) 86 

List of Indian Birds' Eggs in the Bombay Natural History 
Society's Collection on 1st September 1904 99 

On Some New Species of Silver-Pheasants obtained in Burma, 
by Capt. W. G. Nisbett, Lieut. It. Clifford, and others. 
By Eugene W. Oates ]12 

Insect Life in India and How to Study it, belng a Simple 
Account of the more important Families of Insects, 
with Examples of the Damage they do to Crops, Tea, 
Coffee and Indigo Concerns, Fruit and Forest Trees in 
India. By E. P. Stebbing, f.l.s., f.z.s., f.f^s 115 

The Moths of India. (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 
in " The Fauna of British India"), Series III, Part II. By 
Sir G. F. Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s. (With Plate D) ... 132 

5L 



vi CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Miscellaneous Notes— 

1. — Some Notes on Birds taken at Coonoor, Nilgiris, in May 

1904. ByD. Dewar 153 

2. — The Occurrence of the Black-capped King-fisher 

(Halcyon pileata) in North Lakhimpur, Upper Assam. 

By H.Stevens 154 

3, — The Yellow-bellied Fly-catcher (Chelidorhynx hypoxan- 

ihum). By H. Stevens 155 

4. — The Occurrence of the Red-breasted Goose (Branta 

ruficallis) in India. By E. 0. Stuart-Baker, f.z.s. 155 
5.— The Occurrence of the Masked Fin-Foot (Heliopais 

personata) in Lakhimpur. By E.C. Stuart-Baker, F.z.s. 1 56 

6.— The Enemies of Butterflies. By E. H. Aitken 156 

7. — The Recent Plague of Locusts in Bombay. By E. H. 

Aitken 157 

8. — The Himalayan Nutcracker (Nucifraga hemispila). By 

William Capper. Col., D. M. E. in India 158 

9. — The Himalayan Nutcracker (Nucifraga hemispila). By 

Chas. M. Inglis 158 

10. — The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra). By G. H, Evans, 

f.l.s., Major 159 

11. — The Great White-Bellied Heron (Ardea insignis). By 

G. H. Evans, f.l.s., Major 160 

12. — The Asiatic Two-Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros suma- 

trensis). By G. H. Evans, F.L.S., Major 160 

13. — Late Stay of Snipe. By G. H. Evans, f.l.s., Major... 161 

14.— The Ancestry of the Horse. By L. C. H. Young 162 

15. — Birds observed in the Nilgiris and Wynaad. By A. 

M. Primrose 163 

16. — Cassia occidentalis. By B. H. Barlow-Poole, f.l.s. ... 166 
17. — Notes on the Nesting of some Birds in the Upper 

Chindwin District, Burma. By H. H. Harrington, 

Captain », 166 

18. — Notes on Burmese Reptiles. By G. H. Evans, f.l.s., 

Major 169 

19. — The Nidification of the little Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta 

cyanoptera ) in Upper Burma. By G. H. Evans, 

f.l.s., Major 171 



CONTENTS. vii 

PAGE. 

Miscellaneous Notes — contd. 

20. — Vegetation in Sind. By H. M. Birdwood, c.s.i., m.a., 

LL.D 172 

21.— The Russell's Viper. By L. L. Fenton, Lt.-Col., I.A. 173 

22.— A Cobra Feeding on Eggs. By C. P. George 174 

23.— Bee-Culture in India. By C. G. Nurse, Major, 113th 

Infantry 175 

24 — Assam Birds. By A. M. Primrose 176 

25. — Breeding Seasons of Big Game. By E. Comber, f.z.s. 176 
26. — Albinism in a Shrike. By G. C. Dudgeon, f.e.s .. 179 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on the 16th June, 18th 

August, 29th September and 24th November 1904 180 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 
in "The Fauna of British India"), Series III, Part III. 
By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 193 

Desckiption of Sixty-eight New Shells from the Persian 
Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged 
by Mr. F. W. Townsend, of the Indo-European Telegraph 
Service, 1901-1 903. By James Cosmo Melvill, m.a., 
f.l.s., F.z.s., and Robert Standen, Assistant Keeper, Manches- 
ter Museum. Part II. (Plates C, D.) 217 

Descriptions of Two New Snakes from Upper Burma. By 

G. A. Boulenger, f.r.s., v.p.z.s. ( With a Plate) 235 

Some new Mosquitoes from Ceylon. By F. V. Theobald, m.a., 

communicated by E. Ernest Green, f.l.s.( With Plates A andB.) 237 

Description of a New Snake from Burma (Oligodon M.cDou- 
galli). By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., cm.zs 251 

Plague, Rats and Fleas. By Capt. W. G. Liston, i.m.s. 

{With Plates A and B.) 253 

A Catalogue of the Heterocera of Sikhim and Bhutan. By 
G. C. Dudgeon, f.e.s., with Notes by H. J. Elwes, f.r.s., 
&c, and additions by Sir G. F. Hampson, Bart., b.a., f.e.s., 
&c. PartXVIl 275 

Notes on Snakes collected in Cannanore from 5th November 
1903 to 5th August 1904. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 292 

On Fishes from the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and 
Karachi, collected by Mr. F. W. Townsend. By C. Tate 
Regan, b.a. {With 3 Plates.) 318 



viii CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

The Fauna and Flora of our Metallic Monet. By E. Blatter, 

s.j 334 

Supplementary Notes on the Coccidje of Ceylon. Part III. 
By E. Ernest Green, f.e.s., Entomologist to the Govern- 
ment of Ceylon. (With Plates H—K.) 340 

Notes on Small Mammals in Kashmir and adjacent Districts. 

By Colonel A. E. Ward 35S 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. — Melanism in Black Buck. By J. Manners Smith, 

Major. [With a Photograph) 351 

2. — A Rare Indian Game-Bird, the Mountain Quail (Ophry- 

sia superciliosa, Gray). By E. Comber, f.z.s 361 

3. — Simotes splendidus. By Geo. H, Evans, a.v.d., f.l.s., 

Major 362 

4. — Note on the Digestion of Eggs by Cobras and Daboias. 

By W. B. Bannerman, m.d., Lt.-Col., i.m.s 363 

5. — Do Wild Animals ever die of Intestinal Obstruction ? 

By W. B. Bannerman, m.d., Lt.-Col., i.m.s 363 

6. — Kiug-Crows and Mynas as Mess-Mates. By D. Dewar, 

i.c.s 364 

7. — Occurrence of the Scaup Duck (Nyroca marila) in Oudh. 

By F. Wall, Capt., i.m.s., cm.z.s 367 

8. — Luminous Plants 367 

9.— An Egg-eating Cobra. By E. Brook Fox 369 

10. — Locusts. By Cecil E. C. Fischer, i.f.s 369 

11.— The Habits of the Leaf Butterfly. By E. Ernest Green. 370 
12. — Breeding Seasons of Big Game in India. By A. H. A. 

Simcox, i.c.s 370 

13.— Notes on the " Houbara." By Reginald H. Heath 372 

14. — Occurrence of the Black-capped King- fisher ( Halcyon 

pileata) in Waltair. By P. Roscoe Allen 373 

15. — The Breeding of Russell's Viper ( Vipera russellii). By 

F. Wall, Capt., i.m.s,, cm.z.s 374 

16. — The Crocodile ; its Food, and Muscular Vitality. By 

A. H. A. Simcox, i.c.s 375 

17. — The Urial of the Punjab and Ladak. By R. L 376 

18.— Abnormal Sambar Head. By J. D. Invorarity. (With 

a Plate.) 378 



CONTENTS. is 

PAGE. 

Miscellaneous Notes — contd. 

19. — The Goosander (Merganser castor). By A. M. Primrose... 378 
20. — Trout, and other Fish and Fishing in Ceylon. By R. A. 

G. Festing 37i> 

21.— Big Game. By R. G. Burton, Major, 94th Russell's 

Infantry 384 

22. — Double-headed Snakes. By F. Wall, Capt., i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 386 
23. — Winter Plumage of the Male Bengal Florican (Sypheotis 

bengalensisj. By F. Wall, Capt., i.m.s., c.m.z.s 388 

24. — Note3 on some Bangalore Snakes. By F. Wall, Capt., 

i.m.s., o.m.z.s 389 

25. — Egg-eating Cobras. By F. Wall.. Capt., i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 395 
Proceedings of the Meetings held on the 22nd December 

1904 and 9th February 1905 396 

Description of New Species of Moths from India and Burma. 

By G. C. Dudgeon, f.e.s , 399 

The Common Striped Palm Squirrel. By R. C. Wrought 

ton, f.z.s. ( With a Plate.) 406 

Rough Notes on Six Common Hill Orchids. By Major M. B. 

Roberts, l/39th Garhwal Rifles. {With 3 Plates.) 414 

Birds nesting in the Murree Hills and Gullies. Part I. 

By Lieut.-Col. R. H. Rattray. {With Plates A and B.) 421 

The Orchids of the Bombay Presidency. Part I. By G. A. 

Gammie, f.l.s 429 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 
in "The Fauna of British India "). Series III, Part HI. 

By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 434 

The Economic Uses of Shells. By E. Comber, f.z.s 462 

Further Notes on the Flora of Northern Ganjam. By 

Cecil E. C. Fischer, i.f.s 473 

A List of the Birds found in and about Madras. By D. 

Dewar, i.c.s 484 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. — Tigers hamstringing their prey before killing. By C. 
W. Allan, b.f.s., Divisional Forest Officer, Pegu 

Division , 499 

2.— Nesting of the Hoopoe. By Arundel Begbie, Major 

(Indian Army) , ,. 501 



x CONTENTS. 

PAGE, 

Miscellaneous Notes — contd. 

3. — Food of predaceous Flies. By F. Gleadow, i.P.s. 501 

4. — Occurrence of White's Thrush (Oreocincla varia) in 

Assam. By William Moore 502 

5. — Hereditary melanism. By W. B. Ferris, Lieut.-Col. ... 502 
6. — Curious ferocity of the Indian Tree-pie (Dendrocitta 

rufa). By Arundel Begbie, Major 502 

7. — Breeding Seasons of Big Game — (1) The Nilgai or 
Blue-Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). By C. W. M. 
Hudson, i.c.S. (2) The Persian Gazelle (Gazella 
subgutturosd). By J. W. Nicol Cumming, Supdt., 

Seistan Arbitration Mission • 503 

8. — Strange mortality amongst Termites in Tea-Bushes. By 

E. Ernest Green 503 

9— Size of Snakes. By L. C. H. Young 504 

10. — A congregation of Harriers. By C. H. Donald 504 

11. — Size and breeding of Snakes. By John Hagenbeck ... 505 

12. — Tiger versus Bear. By G. K. Wasey 506 

13.— Plucky Pee- wits. By J. Manners-Smith, Major, v.c.,c.i.e. 507 
14. — Notes on the occurrence of Bonellis Eagle [Hieraetus 
fasciatns) in Cutch and on some Falcons and Hawks 
observed at the old Fort at Bhuj. By A. Delme 

Radcliffe, 105th L. Infy 507 

15. — Occurrence of the Black-capped Kingfisher (Halcyon 
2?ileata) in the Godavari Delta. (A Correction.) By 

P. Roscoe Allen , 511 

16. — On the occurrence of the Lady Amherst's Pheasant in 

Burma. By E. Comber, f.z.s 512 

17. — Catastrophe amongst the young of the Indian Cliff- 
Swallows (Hirundo fluvkola). By Arundel Begbie, 

Major, Adjt., Cawnpore Vol. Rifles *. 512 

18. — Nest of the Brown-backed Indian Robin (Thamndbia 
cambaiensis). By Arundel Begbie, Major, Adjt., 

Cawnpore Vol. Rifles « 513 

19.— A bold Tiger. By H. Tyler, i.c.S 513 

20. — Arrow heads in a Bison. By H. Tyler, i.c.S 513 

21.— Bird's nesting near Mhow, C. I. By Martin Young, 

m.b.o.u., 1st York, and Lane. Regt ,... . 514 



CONTENTS. xi 

PAGE. 

Miscellaneous Notes— concld. 

22. — A Snake's nest. By Arundel Begbie, Major 516 

23. — The Himalayan Nutcracker (Nucifraga hemispila). By 

C. H. Donald 516 

24. — Eagles as barometers. By 0. H. Donald 517 

25. — First record of the nidification of the Indian Hobby 

(Falco sevp.rns). By K. C. Macdonald (d.s.p.) 518 

26. — A Woodpecker's dilemma. By G. H. Evans, Major, 

F.L.S 518 

27. — Food of Python molurus. By G. H. Evans, Major, f.l.s. 519 
28. — Breeding of the Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) in 

Burma. By G. H. Evans, Major, f.l.s 519 

29.— Fireflies. By W. S. Millard 520 

30. — Curious accident to a Dragonfly. By W. S. Millard ... 521 
Correspondence — 

Shooting in the Bombay Presidency 521 

Proceedings of tbe Meetings held on 16th March 1905 and 6th 

July 1905 525 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part I. 
By Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., CM.z.S. (With Plate T and Diagrams 

I, Hand III) 533 

Notes on Rhinoceroses in Burma, R. sondaicus and suma- 

trensis. By Vety. Major G. H. Evans, f.l.s 555 

The Orchids of the Bombay Presidency. Part II. By G. A. 

Gammie, F.L.s. ( With Plate I) 562 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part I. By 

L. C. H. Young, b.a., f.z.s., f.r.s. {With Plate I)... 570 

Descriptions of Indian Micro- Lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick, 

B.A., F.R.S., f.z.s 580 

A Visit to Narcondam. By B. B. Osmaston, i.f.s 620 

The Culicid Fauna of the Aden Hinterland, their Haunts 
and Habits. By W. S. Patton, m.b. (Edin.), Lt., i.m.s. 

{With Plates A, B, C, and D and a Map) 623 

On the Distribution of the Varieties of Cobra (Naia 
tripudians) in India. By Lt.-Col. W. B. Bannerman, m.d., 
b.sc, i.m.s., Director, Plague Research Laboratory, and 
Aesistant Surgeon J. P. Pocha, in charge of the Venom 
Department, P. R. Laboratory. {With 2 Maps) 63S 

2 



xii CONTENTS. 

PAGE, 

The Mangrove of the Bombay Presidency, and its Biology. 

By E, BJatter, s.j. (With Plates A and /?.).. ^44. 

Birds nesting in the Murree Hills and Gullies. Part II. By 

Lieut.- Col. R. H- Rattray. {With Plates C, D and E.) 657 

Insect Life in India and how to study it, being a simple 

account of the more important families of insects with 

examples of the damage they do to crops, tea, coffee 

and indigo concerns, fruit and forest trees in india. 

Part IV. By E. P. Stebbing, f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s 664 

Birds of Seistan, being a list of the Birds shot or seen in 

Seistan by Members of the Seistan Arbitration Mission, 

1903-05. By J. W. Nicol Cumming, Superintendent, 

Seistan Arbitration Commission 686 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 

in " The Fauna of British India"). Series III., Part 

III. By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 700 

Further Notes on the Butterflies of the Lucknow District. 

By G. W. V. de Rhe-Fhilipe 720 

An Appeal for Lizards. By F. Gleadow, i.f.s , 723 

A New Mouse-hare of the Genus Ochotona , 727 

Descriptions op three new species of birds obtained during 

the recent Expedition to Lhassa. By Henry E. Dresser, 

m.b.o.u., f.z.s 728 

On Dolphins from Travancore. By R. Lydekker 730 

On a remarkable new Squirrel from Burma. By OMfield 

Thomas 737 

Miscellaneous Notes. — 

1. — The Indian Chevrotain or Mouse-Deer (Tragidus 
meminna). {With a Photograph and Map.) By E. 
Brook Fox 739 

2. — Interesting Birds from the Shan States. By E. Comber, 
f.z.s., Hony. Secy., Ornithological Section, Bo. Nat. 
Hist. Socy 739 

3. — The Nesting of some Birds in Burma which have not 
been recorded before. By H. H. Harington, 
Captain 740 

4.— Albinism in the Black Buck. ( With an 'Illustration.) 

By C. J. Robertson Milne, Major, i.m.s 742 



CONTENTS. siii 

l 1 AGE. 
MISCELLANEOUS Nc-TBS — Contd. 

5. — A white Kakar or Muntjac {Cervulus muntjac'). ( With an 

Illustration.) By J. Manners Smith, Major 742 

6. — Wild Boar without testes. By H. E. Medlioott, Lieut., 

r.f.a., Hony. Secy., Ahmed;ib:id Tent Club 743 

7. — Note on the breeding of the Krait (Bungarus cceruleus). 

By W. B. Bannerman, Lt.-Col., i.m.s 743 

3.— Additional Notes on the Birds of Chitral. By H. T. 

Fulton, Capt 743 

9. — Note on a curiously malformed head of Himalayan Ibex 
(Capra sibirica). ( With an Illustration.') By St. 

George Gore, Col., r.e , 744 

10. — A possible case of hybrid breeding of Shrikes. By 

ArundelBegbie, Major, 16th Rajputs 745 

11. — The Egg-laying of Eudynamis honorata (The Indian 

Koel). By Arundel Begbie, Major, 16th Rajputs... 746 
12. — Breeding Seasons of Big Game. The Brown Bear 
(Ursus arctus). I'y D. B. Thomson, Major, I. A. 

(Retired) 746 

13. — Food of predaceous Flies. By K. E. K angle, Capt., 

96th Berar Infantry 747 

14.— Notes on Birds' nesting round Quetta. By R. M. Betham, 

Major, 101st Grenadiers 747 

15.-_Wild Dogs hunting. By J. Manners Smith, Major 751 

16. — Food of the " Muskrat " or the Grey Shrew (Crocidura 

ccerulea). By W. B. Bannerman, Lieut.-Col., i.m.s. 751 
1 7 —Double-headed Snakes. By F. Wall, C.M.z.s., Capt., 

i.m.s 752 

18. — Accident to the young of the Indian Cliff-Swallow 
(Hirundo fluricola). By Martin Young, m.b.o.u., 1st 

York, and Lane. Regt 753 

19, — Lady Amherst's Pheasant in Burma— A Correction. By 

E. Comber, f.z.s 753 

20.— Shooting Notes from the Central Provinces. By F. W. 

Caton Jones, Lieut.-Col., R.A.M.C 754 

21. — Notes from Nepal. By J. Manners Smith, Major ... 755 
22. — Tigers hamstringing their prey before killing. By L. L. 

Fenton, Lieut.-Col. 756 



xiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Miscellaneous Notes — concld. 

23.— Curious end of a Dragonfly. By L. L. Fenton, 

Lieut.-Col 756 

24.— Tigers hamstringing their prey before killing. By S. B. 

Bates, f.z.s., &c 7 ^7 

25.— A Congregation of Brahminy Kites (Ealiastur Indus). 

By K. Foulkes (Madras Survey) "57 

26.— The Food of Kingfishers. By S. B. Bates, f.z.s., &c. 758 
27.— Food of Snakes in captivity. By W. S. Millard, Hony. 

Secy., Bo. Nat. Hist. Socy 758 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on 31st August and 5th 

October 1905 759 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



VOI-TJJVIE 



PAGE 

Aitken, E. H. ; The Enemies of 
Butterflies 156 

; The Recent Plague 

of Locusts in Bombay 157 

Allan, C. W., I.F.S. (Divisional 
Forest Officer, Pegu) ; Tigers 
hamstringing their prey before 
killing ... .-. 499 

Allen, P. Roscoe ; Occurrence of 
the Black-capped Kingfisher 
(Halcyon pileata) in Waltair ... 873 

; Occurrence of the 

Black-capped Kingfisher in the 
Godavari Delta (a correction) ... 511 

Bannerman, Lt.-Col. W. B., M.D., 
I. M.S. ; Note on the digestion of 
eggs by Cobras and Daboias ... 363 

; Do wild animals ever 

die of intestinal obstruction .. 3CS 

■ ; Note on the Breeding 

of the Krait (Bungarus cceruleus) 743 

; Food of the Muskrat 



or the Grey Shrew (JJrocidura cce- 
rulea) 751 

and Assistant Surgeon 



J. P. Pocha ; On the Distribution 
of the varieties Of the Cobra in 
India ... ... ... ... ... 638 

Barlow-Poole, B. H., I. F. S. ; 
Cassia occidentals 166 

Bates, S. B., F, Z. S., etc. ; Tigers 
hamstringing their prey before 
killing 757 

; The Food of 

kingfishers 758 

Begbie Arundel, Major; Nesting 
of the Hoopoe 501 

— j ; Curious fero- 
city of the Indian treepie (Dendro- 
citta rufa") 502 

; Catastr ophe 

amongst the Young of the Indian 
Cliff-Swallows (Hirundo fluvicola) 512 

■ ■ ; Nest of the 



Brown-backed Indian robin (Tham- 
nobia cambaiensis) 513 



PAGE 

Begbie Arundel ; A Snake's Nest. 516 
; A possible case 

of hybrid breeding by Shrikes ... 745 
; The egglaying 

of Eudynamis honorata (The 

IndiaD Koel) 746 

Betham, Major R. M. ; Notes on 

Bird's nesting round Quetta ... 747 
Birdwood, H. M., C.S.I. , M.A., 

L.L.D.; Vegetation in Sind ... 172 

Blatter, E., S.J. ; The Fauna and 

Flora of our Metallic Money ... 334 
; The Mangrove of 

the Bombay Presidency and its 

Biology 644 

Boulengeb, G. A., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S.; 

Description of two new snakes 

from Upper Burma (with a Plate) 235 
Burton, Major R. G. ; Big Game ... 384 

Cappeb, Col. William (D.M.E. in 
Indit*) ; The Himalayan Nut- 
cracker (Nucifraga htmispila") ... 158 

Comber, E., F.Z.S. ; Breeding Sea- 
sons of Big Game 176 

; A rare Indian 

Gamcbird, the Mountain Quail 
(Ophrisia superciliosa, Gray") ... 361 

; The Economic 

uses of Shells 462 

; On the Occur- 



rence of the Lady Amherst's 
Pheasant in Burma 512 

; Interesting Birds 

from the Shan States „ 739 

; Lady Amherst's 



Pheasant in Burma (a correction) 753 
Ccmming, J. W. Nicol (Supt., 
Seistan Arbitration Mission) ; 
Breeding Seasons of Big Game. 
The Persian Gazelle QGazella 

Subgutterosa") 503 

. ; Birds of Seistan, 

being a list of the Biids shot or 
seen in Seistan by the Members of 
the Seistan Arbitration Mission, 
1903-5 686 



XVl 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGE 

Dewar, D., I.C.S. ; Sexual Colour- 
Dimorphism id Birds 27 

■■ ; Some Notes on 

Birds taken at Coonoor, Nilgiria, 
in May 1904 153 

; King-Crows and 

Mynas as Mess-mates 364 

; A List of the 



Birds found in and about Madras 484 
Donald, C. H. ; A Congregation of 
Harriers «, 504 

■ ■ ; The HimalayanNut- 

cracker (_A T ucifraga hemispila) ... 516 
; Eagles as Barome- 

IciS •■• •*# ••> ■*• ••• Oil 

Dressler, Henry E., M.B.O.U., 
F.Z.S. ; Descriptions of three new 
species of Birds obtained during 
the Recent Expedition to Lhassa.. 728 

Dudgeon, G. C, F.E.S.; Albinism 
in a Shrike 179 

. ; A cata- 
logue of the Heterocera of Sik- 
khiin and Bhutan. Part XVII ... 275 

. . ; Description 

of new species of Moths from 
India and Burma 399 



Evans, Major G. H.,A.V.D., F.L.S. ; 
The Black Stork QCioo/iia Niger) 159 

; The Great White- 
bellied Heron {A rdea insignis') ... 160 
; The Asiatic two- 



horned Rhinoceros {Rhinoceros 

gumatrensh) 160 

; Late stay of Snipe ... 116 

;G H., A.V.D., F.Z.S. ; 

Notes on Burmese Reptiles ... 169 
; The Nidification of 



the Little Blue Winged Pitta 
{Pitta Cyanoptera) in Upper 
Burma 171 

; Simotes Splendidus. 362 

; A Woodpecker's Di- 
lemma ... 518 

; Food of Python 

Molurtcs ... 519 

■ ; Breeding of the 



Banded Kv&it^Bungarus faseiatuf) 
in Burma 519 



PASB 

Evans, Major G. H., A.V.D., F.Z.S.; 
Notes on Rhinoceroses in Burma 
(.ft. Sondaious and R. Sumat remit). 555- 



Fenton, Lt.-Col. L. L., I.A. ; The 
Russell's Viper 

— — ; Tigers hamstringing 

their prey before killing 

* ; Curious end of a 



173 
766 

755 



Dragonfly 

Ferguson, H.8., F.L.S. ; The Birds 

Of Travancore with Notes on their 

Nidification, by T. F. Bourdillon, 

F.L.S., Part III „ i 

Ferris, Lt.-Col. W. B. ; Hereditary 

Melanism 502 

Festing, R. A. G. ; Trout and other 

Fish and Fishing in Cejlon ... 379 
Fischer, Cecil E.C.,I.F.S.; Locusts 369 
; Further Notes 

on the Flora of Northern Ganjam 473 
Foulkes, K. ; A Congregatiou of 

Brahminy Kites (Ilaliastur inclus) 757 
Fox, E. Brook ; An Egg-eating 

Cobra „ ... 369 

; The Indian Chevro- 

tain or Mouse-Deer (Traytilus 

meminna) with a Photograph and 

Map 739 

Fulton, Capt. H. T., D.S.O.; Notes 

on the Birds of Chitral 44 

; Additional Notes 

on the Birds of Chitral 743 

GAMMIE, G. A., F.L.S.; The Orchids 
cf the Bombay Presidency, Part I. 429 

; The Orchids 

of the Bombay Presidency, Part 
II, with Plate 1 562 

George, C. P.; A Cobra feeding on 
eggs 174 

Gleadow, F., I.F.S. ; Food of Pre- 
daceoua Flies 501 

; An Appeal for Li- 
zards... ... ... ... ••• 723 

Gore, Col. St. George, R.E. ; Note 
on a curiously malformed head 
of the Himalayan Ibex (Capra 
sibirica~) (with an illustration) ... 744 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



XVI; 



PAGE 

Green, E. E., F.E.S., Entomologist 
to the Government of Ceylon ; 
Supplementary Note? on the 
Coceides of Ceylon, Part III. 
(With Plates H— K) 340 

■; The Habits 

of the Leaf Butterfly 370 

■ ■; Strange Mor- 
tality amongst Termites in Tea- 
bushes ... ... 5C3 

Hagenbeck, John; Size and Breed- 
ing of Snakes 605 

Hampson, Sir G. F., Bart., F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. ; The Moths of India (Sup- 
plementary Paper to the Volumes 
in " The Fauna of British India "), 
Series III., Part II. (with Plate D) 132 

; Series III. 

Part III, 193,434,700 

Harrington, Capt. H.H. ; Notes 
on the nesting of some birds in the 
Upper Chindwin District, Burma. 166 

; The Nesting of 

some birds in Burma which have 
not b°en recorded before ... ... 740 

Heath, Reginald H. ; Notes on the 
Houbara • 372 

Hudson, C. W. M., I.C.S. ; Breeding 
Season of Big Game ; The Nilgai 
or Blue- Bull (Baselaphus tragoca- 
melns') 503 

Inglis, CM. ; The Birds of the 
Madhubani Sub-division of the 
Darbhanga District, Tirhut, with 
Notes en Species noticed elsewhere 
in »he District. Part VIII ... 70 

; The Himalayan 

Nutcracker {Nucifraga Ifemispila') 158 

Inverarity, J. D. ; Abnormal 
Sambar Head 378 

Jones, Lt.-Col. F. W. Caton, 
R.A.M.C. ; Shooting Notes from 
the Central Provinces 754 

Liston, Capt. W. G , I.M.S., M.D., 
F.R.S.E. ; Note on Sexual Dimor- 
phism 39 



PAGE 

Liston, Capt. , Plague, Rats and 
Fleas (With Plates A. & B.) ... 253 

Lydekker, R. ; On DolphinB from 
Travancore 730 

R. L. ; The Urial of the Punjab and 
Ladak 376 

Macdonald, K. C. (D.S.P.) ; First 
Record < f the Nidification of the 
Indian Hobby QFalco severus) ... 518 

M ANDERS, Major N., R.A.M.C, 
FZ.S, F.E.S. ; The Butterflies of 

Ceylon 76 

i Medlicott, Lieut. H. E., R.F.A. ; 

J Wild Boar without Testes 743 

■ Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S,and Robkrt Stan- 
Df.N ; Description of sixty-eight 
new shells from the Persian Gulf, 
Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian 
Sea dredg d bj Mr. F. W. Town- 
send, of the Indo-European Tele- 
graph Service. Part I, Plates A.— B. 86 

; Part II, Plates C --D. ... 217 

Meyrick, E., B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., 
etc., Descriptions of Indian Micro- 
Lepidoptera 580 

MlLLARP, \V. S. ; Fireflies 520 

; Curious Accident 

to a Dragonfly 521 

. ; Food of Snake-5 in 

Captivity ... .. 758 

Milne, Major J. C Robertson, 
I. M.S. ; Albinism in the Black 
Buck (wi'th an Illustration) ... 742 

Moore, William ; Occurrence of 
White's Thrush in Assam (J)rco- 
cincla varia) ... 502 

N angle, K. E., Capt.; Food of Pre- 
daceous Flies 747 

Nurse, C G., Major, F.E.S.; New 
Species of Indian Hymenoptera... 19 

— — ; Bee Culture in India 175 

Oates, Eugene W.; On some new 
Species of Silver Pheasants obtain- 
ed in Burma, by Capt. W. G. Nis- 
bett and Lieut. R. Clifford and 
others ... ... ... ... 112 

Osmaston, B. B., I.F.S. ; A Visit to 
Narcondam 620 



XVlll 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGE 
Patton, Lieut. W. S. f M.B., I.M.S.; 
The Culieid Fauna of the Aden 
Hinterland,their haunts and habits, 
with Plates A,B,C & D aud a Map 623 
Pogha, J. P. (Asstt. Surgeon, Parel 
Laboratory), and Lt.-Col. W. B. 
Bannerman, I. M. S. ; On the 
Distribution of the Varieties of 
the Cobra QNaia tripndians) ... 638 
Primrose, A M. ; Birds observed in 

the Nilgiris and Wynaad 163 

. — ; Assam Birds ... 176 

. ; The Goosander 

{Merganser castor} 378 

Radcliffe, A. Dklme ; Notes on the 
occurrence of Bonnelli's Eagle 
{Hieraetus fasciatus) in Cutch.aud 
on some Falcons and Hawks ob- 
served on the ohi fort at Bhuj ... 507 

Rattray, Lt.-Col. R. H. ; Birds* 
nesting in the Murree Hills and 
Gullies. Part I. (with Plates A & B) 421 

_ Part II. (with Plates C, 

D & VA ) ••• ••• ••■ ••• o^' 

Regan, C. Tate, B.A. ; On Fishes 
from the Persian Gulf, the Sea of 
Oman and Karachi, collected by 
Mr. F. W. Townsend (with 3 
Plates) ... ••• ••• ••• 318 

Rhe-Philippe, G. W. V. de ;Further 
Notes on the Butterflies of the 
Lucknow District 720 

Robert?, Major M. B. ; Rough Notes 
on Six. Common Hill Orchids ... 414 

RYAN, G. M., I.F.S., F.L.S. ; Water- 
yielding plants found in the Thana 
Forests ••• ••• 65 

SlMCOX, A. H. A., I.C.S. ; Breeding 
Seasons of Big Game in India ... 370 

; The Cro- 
codile ; its Food and Muscular 
Vitality ... ... ••• ••• 375 

Smith, Major J. Manners ; Melan- 
ism in Black Buck (With a Photo- 
graph) ••. ••• ••• 361 

; Plucky Peewits 507 

■ ; A White Kakar or Muntjac 

CCervulus Muntjac} (with an illus- 
tration) ... ... ••« ••• "*2 

. . ■ ; Wild Dogs Hunting ... 751 



PAGE 

Smith ; Notes from Nepal 755 

Standen, Robert, and J. Cosmo 
Melvill ; Description of Mxty- 
eight new shells from the Persian 
Gulf, Gulf of Oman and North ' 
Arabian Sea, dredged by Mr. F. W. 
Townsend of the Indo-European 
Telegraph Service, Parts I. aud II. 
(with Plates A, B, C, & D) ... 86, 217 

Stebbing, E.P.,K\L.S.,F.Z.S., F.E.S.; 
Insect Life in India and How to 
Study It, being a simple account 
of the more important families of 
Insects, with Examples of the 
Damage they do to Crops, Tea, 
Coffee and Indigo concerns, Fruit 
and Forest Trees in India ... 115, 664 

Stkvens, H. ; The Occurrence of 
the Black-capped Kingfisher 
{Halcyon pileatu) in North La- 
khimpur, Upper Assam ... ... 154 

; The Yellow-bellied 

Flycatcher (Chelidorhynx hy- 
poxanthum') ... ... ... ... 155 

Stuart-Baker, E. C, F.Z.S. ; 
The Occurrence of the Masked 
Fin-foot (Heliopais personuta') in 
Lakhimpur ... 156 

— — — ; The Occurrence 

of the Red-breast d GooseQBranta 
rufic(dlis') in India 155 

Theobald, F.V., M.A. ; Some New 
Mosquitoes from Ceylon ccmmu- 
nicated by E. E. Green, F.E.S. 
(With Plates A & B) £37 

Thomas, Oldpield ; On a Remark- 
able New Squirrel from Burma... 737 

Thomson, Major D. B. ; Breeding 
Seasons of Big Game. The Brown 
Beer QUr*us arctut) 746 

Tyler, H., I.C.S. ; Arrow heads in a 
Bison ... ••• ••• ••• 513 

; A Bold Tiger 513 

Wall, Capt. F., I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. ; 
Desciiptu n of a New Snake from 
Bnrma. Oligodon McDoutjalli ... 251 

; Notes on Snakes col- 
lected in Cannanore from 5th 
Nov. 11)03 to oth Aug. 1904 ... 292 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



xix 



PAGE 

WALL,Capt. ; Occurrence of the 
Scaup Duck {Nyro>-a merila) in 
Oudh 367 

; The Breeding of 



Russell's Viper {Vipera russtllW). 374 
; Double -headed 

Snakes 386, 752 

; Winter Plumage of the 



male Bengal Florican (Sypheotig 

bengalensis} ... ... 3S8 

; Notes on some Bangalore 

Snakes ... 389 

; Egg-eating Cobras. 31*5 

; A Popular Treatise on the 



Common Indian Snakes Part I. (with 
Plate I, & Diagrams I, II & III). 533 
Ward, Colonel A. E. ; Notes on Small 
Mammals in Kashmir and Adjacent 
Districts 358 



PAGE 

Wasey, G. K. ; Tiger vs. Bear... 506 
Wroughton, B.C., F.Z.S.;The Com- 
mon Striped Palm Squirrel (With a 
Plate) 406 



YoctnG, L.O.H., B.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; 
Note on Sexual Dimorphism ... 
- ; The Ancestry of 



the Horse 



; Size of Snakes 
-;The Common But- 



372 

162 
504 



teiflies of the Plains of India, 

Part 1 (With Plate I.; 570 

YonNG, Martin, M.B.O.U. ; Birds Nest- 
ing near Mhow, C.-T 514 

■ ' ; Accident to the 

young of the Indian Cliff-Swallow 
QHirundo fiucicola') 753 



LIST OF PLATES. 

VOI-TJIVIJSS 3 



86 



To fac« 
page 

The Wigeon (Mareca penelope?) ~ 1 

New Shells from the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and North Arabian Sea, 

dredged by Mr. F. W. Townsend, of the Indo-European Telegraph Service, 

1901-3. Plate A. 

„ n „ „ Plate B. 

Indian Moths, Plate D ... , 152. 

The White-eyed Pochard (JNyroca africana ) .. ... ... 193 

New Shells from the Persian Gulf,. Gulf of Oman and North Arabian Sea,, 
dredged by Mr. F. W. Townsend of the Indo-European Telegraph Service, 

J JUJ. - o* XiJALO ly» ••• ••• *• • ••• ■•• ••« ••• #.« 9## 1j 1 o 

„ „ „ « „ Plate D. 226 

New Snakes from Burma « 236. 

New Mosquitoes from. Ceylon. Plate A 242 

,i ), » » ,j ■** ••• ••• ••• ••• ... ... 246 

Male Fleas „ A ■> 

3 ( *** ••* •*• •** ••• •*• 2iia 

New Fishes collected by MjvF. W. Townsend. Plate A ■» 

» » >» »>. i» ™ f •** •*• 

» » » »i »> ° 



332 



356 



Ceylon Coccidse, Plate H 1 

» » » I ( 

>» » » J I 

» » » K ' 

Melanism in Black Buck ... ••• ... ... ... ... •.. ... 361 

Abnormal head of Samber ... ••• ... ••• ... ... ... ... 378 

The Shoveller (JSpatula elypeata) 399 

Palm Squirrel, Buffon— Histoire Naturelle, 1763 408 

Ccelogyne cristata I Hate A ... 4U 

Ccelogyne oo\raeea ' 

Dendrobium amcenum 1 «, . t> i ie 

> r late a ... ••• ••• ••• ••» •>. ... tio 

JEri des mul tiflo ru m ' 

JEriAes odovatum) -m .„ o ji-io 

> xiaie \j ... ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• *ic> 

Phaius albut > 

Nest of the Himalayan Streaked Laughing- Thrush (Trocha-^ 

lopterum Mneatum.') t Plate A... 424 

Nest of the Himalayan Tree-creeper (fierthia himalayana,') J 



xxii LIST OF PLATES. 

T&facv 

page 

Nests of the K Short-Billed Minivet " (Perierocoiug bremrostris.) Plate B ... 426 

The Nukhta or Comb Duck (jSarcidiomit melanonota) 533 

„, m c , I Lachegis qramineus (Poisonous-.) 1 r,, , , __, 

Two Tree-Snakes. ... < ? v ' > Plate I. ... ... 53b 

' Dryophis mycttrizann (harmless.) > 

Laclmgii gra-mineus (The Common Green Pit-Viper) Diagram 1 538 

Dryophis mycterizans. (The Common Green Whip-Snake.) Diagram II. ... ) rA . 
>» j, „ , r Diagram III. ... ' 

Dtndrolium c hi oroj?s, Lin A\. Plate I. 568 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India, Plate A, 576 

Map of the Aden Hinterland 624 

Diagrams of Anuphtles arabiensis n. sp. and Dthaii n. sp. Plate A 626 

Diagrams of Anopheles tibani n. sp., Plate B C2& 

Diagrams of Anopheles jehafi n. sp, and Azriki n. sp. Plate C ... .„ ... 630 
Diagrams of Culex arabiensis n. sp., Stegomyta sttgens, Wiedemann and 

Culieib acarid. Plate D 634 

Distribution of varieties of Cobras in India Map A 

si » i) ... ... ... Map B 

Mangrove of the Bombay Presidency, Plate A 646 

i, 5j » Plate B 654 

Nest of the " Grey-headed Ouzel " in a bank (Merula eastanea.') | 
Nest of the same under the end of a fallen tree. Plate C. ...I 

Eggs of the Jungle Nightjar (Ca primulgus indicus) Plate D 660 

Nest of the "Koklas" or Pukras-Pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha') \ 

Nest of the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticula') r 

The Indian Chevrotain or Mouse Deer QTragulus meminna') 739> 

Key map of the Indian Region snowing the probable distribution of the 

"Mouse Deer" (Tragulus meminna) „ 739 

Albinism in Black Buck and Muntjac UZ 



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642 



658 



Plate E ... 662- 



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JOURNAL 

OF THE 

B O Is/L B ^Y 

lateral Sfetorg Jtotetj* 



(3W 



Vol. XVI. BOMBAY. No. i. 

THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 

By H. S. Ffrgusson, F.L.S. 

WITH NOTES ON THEIR NIDIFICATION. 

By T. F. Bourdillon, F.L.S. 

Part III. 

( Continued from page 673, Vol. XV.) 

Order COLUMBjE. 

Family CoLUMBiDiE. 

Sub-family Treronince. 

(234) Osmotreron affinis. — The Grey-fronted Green Pigeon, 

Blanford, No. 1274 ; Jerdon, No. 775. 
This pigeon is common in forest both in the low country and on the 
hills at low elevations. In the hot months it ascends them up to 3,000 
feet. " I once obtained the nest of the Malabar Green Pigeon at an 
elevation of 2,400 feet above sea level. I noticed the bird building or I 
should never have discovered the nest, which was placed in a bushy tree 
at a height of 40 feet from the ground. It contained only one egg. 
The nest was a mere platform of loose sticks six inches in diameter. 
This was in February. The size of the egg, which was, of course, pure 
white and glossless, was M0 X "85.— T. P. B." 

(235) Osmotreron bicincta. — The Orange-breasted Green Pigeon. 

Blanford, No. 1278 ; Jerdon, No. 774. 
This is by no means so common as the last, but may be met with in 
the low country in forest not far from the coast. 



2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Sub -family ( ■arpopJiagince. 

(236) Carpopiiaga .enea. — The Given Imperial Pigeon. 

Blanford, No. 1284 : Jordan, No. 780. 

This fine pigeon is only found in forest in the low country. I 

have never met with it away from the coast, nor have I seen it about 

the hills* 

(237) Ducula cuprea. — Jerdon's Imperial Pigeon. 
Blanford, No. 1288 ; Jerdon, 'No. 781 (partim.) 
Unlike the last, this bird is only found in the hills, where it is common 
in heavy forest at all elevations. " It has two broods in the year, but only 
lays one egg at a time. These two breeding seasons are in April and 
again in November. I have seen a bird building in the latter month, 
and have had the young bird brought to me in January. The nest is a 
loose structure of twigs without any lining, and exactly resembling 
an English Wood Pigeon's. I was so fortunate as to find a nest at 
an elevation of 4,000 feet above sea level and twenty feet from the 
ground, placed in a mass of tangled iml (Beesha travancorica). The 
bird was sitting and returned to look at the nest, so we had a full view 
of her. Besides this I have had an egg sent me which had been taken 
at an equally high elevation. The egg is white and rather glossy ; it is 
small for the size of the bird, being only 1'38 X 1'0—T. F. B." 

Sub-family Phahince. 
(238) Chalcophaps indica. — The Bronze-winged Dove. 
Blanford, No. 1291 ; Jerdon, No. 798. 
This beautiful dove is common on the hills at all elevations during 
the dry weather ; at other times they confine themselves to the lower 
slopes. Mr. Bourdillon writes : — " I found a nest with two eggs in a 
bush about eight feet from the ground at Shaliakarai : the eggs were pale 
?afe-au-lait, and glossy, and measured 1* X *81." 

Sub-family Columbinae. 

(239) Columba intermedia. — The Indian Blue Bock-Pigeon. 

Blanford, No. 1292; Jerdon, No. 788. 

Common in the low country, frequenting paddy fields. During the 

dry months they ascend the hills up to 2,500 feet elevation in South 

Travancore, feeding during the day and returning in the evening to 

their roosting places in the low country. There is a large colony on 

a rock that rises out of the sea at Capo Comorin. 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 3 

(240) Alsocomus elphinstonii. — The Nilgiri Wood-Pigeon. 
Blanford, No. 1299 ; Jerdon, JS T o. 786. 
This is a common bird at Ihe summits of the hills in South Travancore 
and at Pirmerd, and also on the High Range. 

(241) Turtur suratensis. — The Spotted Dove. 
Blanford, No. 1307; Jerdon, No. 795. 
Abundant at the foot of the hills throughout the range. During the 
dry weather it ascends the hills, and I have shot it on the Cardamom 
hills and the High Range. " It breeds abundantly in the plains and 
along the foot of the hills. They have two or three broods in the 
year — between April and September. The nest is very slight and is 
usually placed from about eight to twelve feet from the ground. — 

T. F. Br 

(212) Turtur cambayensis. — The Little Brown Dove. 

Blanford, No. 1309 ; Jerdon, No. 794. 

This little dove is by no means common, and is only to be found in 

the dry region of the extreme south, not far from Cape Comorin. 

(243) Turtur risorius. — The Indian Ring-Dove. 

Blanford, No. 1310 ; Jerdon, No. 796. 

Like the last, this is rare and only to be met with in the same 

locality. 

Order GALLING. 

Sub-order Alectropodess. 

Family Phasianidce. 

(244) Pavo cristatus. — The Common Peafowl. 

Blanford, No. 1324 ; Jerdon, No. 803. 

This well known bird was at one time common at the foot of the hills 

in South Travancore, but is no longer. It is also found on the hills 

about Pirmerd. 

(245) Gallus sonnerati. — The Grey Jungle-fowl. 

Blanford, No. 1330 ; Jerdon, No. 813. 

Found at all elevations from the foot to the summit of the hills. 

During the cold weather the cocks may be heard crowing, especially in 

the early morning and towards sunset. They breed in February and 

March in South Travancore. Mr. F. W. Bourdillon found a nest, a 

mere depression in the ground, containing three eggs in March. I 

found one, also in March, containing seven eggs which were placed in a 



4 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

dead stump of a tree about three feet frcm the ground. Mr. T. F. 
Bourdillon found a nest at Pirmerd on August 20. 

(246) Galloperdix spadicea. — The Red Spur-fowl. 
Blanford, No. 1349 ; Jerdon, No. 814. 
This spur-fowl is common throughout the low country wherever 
there is forest. It does not ascend the hills, but frequents the foot of 
them. Breeds in. April. 

(247) Excalfactoria chinensis. — The Blue-breasted Quail. 
Blanford, No. 1354; Jerdon, No. 831. 
This pretty little quail is said " not to have been observed on the 
Malabar Coast, south of Bombay." It is, however, to be met with in 
the grass lands at Pirmerd. Stone coloured eggs, densely spotted with 
minute spots of brown and black, were brought to Mr. Bourdillon in 
June at Malayattur in North Travancore. They measured '93 X '75, 
and are, I believe, the eggs of this bird. 

(248) Coturnix communis. — The Common or Grey Quail. 
Blanford, No. 1355 ; Jerdon, No. 829. 
The Museum contains no specimens of this quail, but I am informed 
that it is not uncommon' on the grass lands at Pirmerd, where it is known 
as " the drummer" from the purring sound it makes. 

(249) Perdicula asiatica. — The Jungle Bush-Quail. 
Blanford, No. 1357 ; Jerdon, No. 826. 
Numbers of these birds are brought round alive from the eastern side 
to Trevandrum for sale; they are not taken in Travancore but in the dry 
district of Tinnevelly. They may be found, however, about Cape 
Comorin, but so far as I am aware nowhere else in Travancore. 
(250) Microperdix erythrorhyncus, — The Painted Bush-Quail. 
Blanford, No. 1359 ; Jerdon, No. 828. 
I have only found this quail on the Cardamom hills and the High 
Range ; at the latter place and at Pirmerd it is the commonest species 
by far. Mr. T. F. Bourdillon took the eggs at Pirmerd in December. 
(251) Francolintjs pondicerianus. — The Grey Partridge. 
Blanford, No. 1375 ; Jerdon, No. 822. 
This, as I have already pointed out, is one of the birds that are found 
alike in Northern Ceylon and in South Travancore, being fairly cemmon 
in and about the neighbourhood of Cape Comorin, but not found else- 
where. 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 5 

Order HEMIPODII. 

Family Turnicid^:. 

(252) Turnix pugnax. — The Bustard Quail. 

Blanford, No. 1382 ; Jerdon, No. 832. 

Not uncommon in scrub jungle in the low country. 

(253) Turnix tanki. — The Indian Button Quail. 
Blanford, No. 1384 ; Jerdon, No. 834. 
I have not met with this quail myself and there are no specimens in 
the Museum, but it appears to have been recorded from Travancore, so 1 

include it in my list. 

Order GRALLjE. 

Sub-order Fulicarle. 
Family Rail idee. 
(254) Hypot^enidia striata.— The Blue-breasted Banded Rail. 

Blanford, No. 1389 ; Jerdon, No. 913. 
These birds may be found scattered about in marshy thickets near 
the coast. From the contents of the stomach, beetles appear to be 
their chief food. 

(255) Porzana pusilla. — The Eastern Bailloris Crake. 
Blanford, No. 1393 ; Jerdon, No. 910. 
This is apparently a rare bird in Travancore. A single specimen 
was brought to me alive in December. It had evidently bred here as 
there was a young one with it. 

(256) Rallina superciliaris. — The Banded Crake. 

Blanford, No. 1395 ; Jerdon, No. 912. 

As recorded by Mr. F. W. Bourdillon a single specimen of this 

crake was procured by me in 1875 in some paddy fields near the foot 

of the hills in South Travancore at about 400 feet elevation. I have not 

met with it since. 

(257) Amaurornis fuscus. — The Ruddy Crake. 
Blanford, No. 1398 ; Jerdon, No. 911. 
This bird has only been recorded from Mysore and the Wynaad 
in Peninsular India, but it is fairly common in Travancore. The 
Museum contains six specimens — one purchased from an Anjengo 
collector without locality, two from an old collection, both labelled 
Travaneore, and three taken at Kuttyani near Trevandrum in 
April. 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(258) Amaurornis pbcenicurus.— The White -breasted Waterhen. 

Blanford, No. 1401 ; Jerdon, No. 907. 
Found throughout the low country round the edges of paddy fields. 
Breeds in April. 

(259) Gallinula chloropus. — The Moorhen. 
Blanford, No. 1402 ; Jerdon, No. 905. 

The Moorhen is by no means common in Travancore ; the Museum 
possesses only a single specimen. 

(260) Gallicrbx cinerea. — The Water-Cock. 
Blanford, No. 1403 ; Jerdon, No. 904. 

Not uncommon in and about rice cultivation in the low country. 
(261). Porphyrio poiiocephalus. — The Purple Moorhen. 
Blanford, No. 1404 ; Jerdon, No. 902. 
Common in all the larger lakes wherever there are reeds and rushes. 
Breeds in July and August. 

Sub-order Otides. 

Family Otidhlce. 

(262) Sypheotis aurita. — The Lesser Florican or Likh. 

Blanford, No. 1416 ; Jerdon, No. 839. 

A very occasional visitor to Travancore ; the only record I have of 

its occurrence is in 1876, when one was shot in some rushes in 

Trevandrum. 

Order LIMICOLjE. 

Family (Edicnemidj^. 

(263) (Edicnemus scoiopax. — The Stone Curlew. 

Blanford, No. 1418 ; Jerdon, No. 859. 

1 have on more than one occasion seen and shot this bird when 

snipe shooting at Valey, four miles from Trevandrum, where the soil 

is sandy and the place is clothed with shrubs and cocoanut trees. They 

were sometimes in small parties of three or four ; at others, solitary. It 

breeds here in August. 

Family Glareolid,e. 

Sub-family Cursoriince. 

(264) Cursorius coromandelicus. — The Indian Courser. 

Blanford, No. 1422 ; Jerdon, No. 840. 

My collector shot two of these birds eight miles south of Qnilon on 

some sandy plains in June 1902. Four more were subsequently 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 7 

obtained twelve miles .south of Quilon. Among them was a young 
bird in quite immature plumage, so that I believe they must breed here. 
I have not found this bird in any other locality, and do not think it is 
likely to be seen further north. 

Sub-family Glareolince. 
(265) Glareola laciea. — The Small Indian Pratincole or Swallow- 
Plover. 
Stanford, No. 1427 ; Jerdon, No. 843. 
I have only received this bird from North Travancore, where flocks, 
consisting of a dozen or more individuals, were met with by my 
collectors at Velyani, near Alwaye, frequenting open flats on either 
side of the Alwaye river up to Malayaltur. Their food was mostly 
beetles and mosquitoes. They were found hunting for insects well after 
sunset. 

(266) Metopidius indicus. — The Bronze-winged Jacana. 

Blanford, No. 1428 ; Jerdon, No. 900. 
This bird may be met with throughout the country in suitable loca- 
lities, that is, where there are lakes or tanks well covered with weeds and 
water-lilies. 

(267) Hydrophasianus CHIRUBGUS.— The Pheasant-tailed 

Jacana. 

Blanford, No. 1429 ; Jerdon, No. 901. 

Flocks of these very handsome Jacanas are common in the tanks in 

South Travancore, especially about Nagercoil, where they may be seen 

running over the woed-covered water, keeping, however, well away from 

Family CHARADRIIM. 

Sub-family Charadriince. 
(268) Sarcogrammus indicus. — The Red-wattled Lapwing. 
Blanford, No. 1431 ; Jerdon, No. 855. 
Common in the low country all over Travancore, going about in twos 
and threes or in small flocks, and generally found in the neighbourhood of 
water. It breeds in March. 

(269) Sarciophorus malabaricus.— -The Yellow-wattled Lapwing. 
Blanford, No. 1433 ; Jerdon, No. 856. 

Common like the last, but frequents open ground away from water. 
Its plaintive cry may be heard long after dark has set in. 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(270) Chettusia gregaria — The Sociable Lapwing. 

Blanford, No. 1437 ; Jerdon, No. 852. 

This bird is said to visit North- West India in winter as far south 
as Ratnagiri. In January 1900, when out snipe-shooting, I shot 
two of these lapwings out of a flock of five that were feeding in 
some paddy fields in Trevandrum. I have not met with any since. 
No doubt, the failure of the rains in 1899 in the North and the 
consequent famine had driven these stragglers so far south of their 
usual haunts to a land where famine is unknown and the rains 

never fail. 

(271) Charadrius fulvus. — The Eastern Golden Plover. 

Blanford, No. 1439 ; Jerdon, No. 845. 
Flocks of these plovers may be met with commonly in North and 
Central Travancore about Cherayankie, Parur and Vycome in winter 
frequenting swampy flats and in paddy fields. 

(272) iEGiALrris geoffroyi. — The Large Sand-Plover. 
Blanford, No. 1442 ; Jerdon, No. 846. 
A rare winter visitor to the coast. A single specimen was shot tit 
Neendakaray, near Quilon. 

(273) iEGiALiTis mongolica. — The Lesser Sand-Plover. 
Blanford, No. 1443 ; Jerdon, No. 847. 

A winter visitor to the coasts, but sometimes found inland. Curiously 
enough, one specimen was obtained on the High Range at 6,000 
feat elevation. It is often seen in company with the Little Ringed 
Plover. 

(274) jEgialitis alexandrina. — The Kentish Plover. 
Blanford, No. 1446 ; Jerdon, No. 848. 

This plover was found to be fairly numerous at Neendakaray in 
January. 

(275) jEgialitis dubia. — The Little Ringed Plover. 
Blanford, No. 1447 ; Jerdon, No. 849. 

I do not think this bird is a resident, but it comes very early to the 
coast. I have seen stragglers at Cape Comorin early in August, and flocks 
of them may be seen as late as April. They are abundant in the dry rice 
fields after harvest and about the shores of tanks and beds of streams 
in the low country. 



TB\E BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 9 

Sub-family Hwmatopodinoe. 
(276) Bjematopus ostralegus. — The Sea-pie or Oystercatcher. 

Blanford, No. 1450; Jerdon, No. 862. 
The oystercatcher is- a more or less rare winter visitor to the coast. It 
is generally found in small flocks of half a dozen or so, feeding on crust- 
aceans mostly. 

Sub-family Totan'moe. 
(277) Numenius arquata. — The Curlew. 
Blanford, No. 1454 ; Jerdon, No. 877. 
Like the last only found in the coast in winter, but n pt in any great 
numbers. 

(278) Numenius phzeopus. — The Whimbrel. 
Blanford, No. 1455 ; Jerdon, No. 878. 
May be found in suitable places along the coast in fair numbers from 
October to April. I have usually found it solitary. 

(279) Totanus hypoleucus. — The Common Sandpiper. 
Blanford, No. 1460 ; Jerdon, No. 893. 
One of the most widely spread of birds. It is common in the paddy 
fields everywhere from September to May, usually in pairs or in small 
parties of four or five ; on the margins of tanks or on the seashore 
its clear piping note may be heard. 

(280) Totanus glareola. — The Wood Sandpiper. 
Blanford, No. 1461 ; Jerdon, No. 891. 
This is by far the commonest of the sandpipers, and may be found in 
abundance in the wet paddy fields from August to May either solitary 
or in flocks. 

(281) Totanus ochropus. — The Green Sandpiper. 

Blanford, No. 1462 ; Jerdon, No. 892. 

Not nearly so common as the last. It may generally be found in the 

winter months solitary about the borders of tanks or the beds of rivers. 

On one occasion I shot one in a swamp on the High Range at an 

elevation of 6,000 feet in January. 

(282) Totanus stagnatilis. — The Marsh Sandpiper or Little 

Greenshank. 
Blanford, No. 1463 ; Jerdon, No. 895. 
My collectors met with flocks of these birds on the seashore at Manaho- 
dam Bar and at North Parur. They were in company with T. glottis. 
2 



10 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(283) Totanus calidris. — The Redshank. 
Blanford, No. 1464 ; Jerdon, No. 897. 

A single specimen was shot by my collectors at Neendakaray in 
January 1903. 

(284) Totanus glottis. — The Greenshank. 
Blanford, No. 1466 ; Jerdon, No. 894. 

Like the others a winter visitor. I have not met with it in the 
South, but my collectors saw flocks of them on the sides of the rivers 
and in marshes in North Travancore, and obtained specimens at Yet- 
tamanne, Shertally, and Vycome. 

(285) Tringa minuta — The Little Stint. 
Blanford, No. 1471 ; Jerdon, No. 884. 

A fairly common visitor to the coast of North Travancore in winter, 
but not found inland. It often associates with Tringa subarquata. It 
forms larger flocks, as a rule, than the other stints. 
(286) Tringa subarquata. — The Curlew Stint or Pigmy Curlew. 

Blanford, No. 1477 ; Jerdon, No. 882. 
This fine stint is found from October to April on the coast of North 
Travancore, especially about Manakodam Bar. When it associates 
with Tringa minuta, only a few individuals are found, but it forms flocks 
of from eight to twelve when alone. 

(287) Tringa platyrhyncha. — The Broad-billed Stint. 
Blanford, No. 1479 ; Jerdon, No. 886. 
A single specimen of this stint was shot by my collectors at Mana- 
kodam Bar in January 1903. 

Sub-family Scolopacinoe. 

(288) Scolopax rusticula. — The Woodcock. 

Blanford, No. 1482 ; Jerdon, No. 867. 

Occasional specimens of this bird may be met with in grass land 

bordered by forest in South Travancore at elevations of about 4,000 

feet in the winter. On the High Range in similar localities before the 

forest was cut down for coffee and tea cultivation, it used to be fairly 

common at this period. 

(289) Gallinago nemoricola. — The Wood-snipe. 
Blanford, No. 1483 ; Jerdon, No. 868. 
A solitary bird, of which the Museum possesses only one specimen shot 
od the High Range. 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 11 

(290) Gallinago ccelestis. — The Common Snipe, Full or 

Fantail Snipe. 

Blanford, No. 1484 ; Jerdon, No. 871. 

About one-quarter or sometimes a third of the whole bag in a day's 

snipe shooting here will be found to consist of these birds. Further 

North I am told that they form even a higher proportion. They 

arrive later than the pintail, and leave earlier. 

(291) Gallinago stenura. — The Pintail Snipe. 
Blanford, No. 1485 ; Jerdon, No. 870. 
A few stragglers arrive early in September, and again a few belated indi- 
viduals may be found at the end of April. Between these dates varying 
numbers may be met with. They are fond of harbouring in the low scrub 
jungle surrounding the rice fields both before and after the crops are cut. 
(292) Gallinago gallinula. — The Jack Snipe. 
Blanford, No. 1487 ; Jerdon, No. 872. 
A few specimens of this little snipe used generally to be found solitary 
from year to year in certain damp rushy ground in Trevandrum ; since 
this has been taken into cultivation, I have not met with any more. 
(293) Rostratula capensis. — The Painted Snipe. 
Blanford, No. 1488. 
This beautiful bird is fairly common throughout the low country 
wherever there are rushy marshes. When shooting, I have also often 
flushed it from paddy fields. It breeds here, and I have had eggs brought 
to me in December and young birds in February. 

Order GAV1M. 
Family Larid^e. 
Sub-family Larince. 
(294) Larus icthyaetus.— The Great Black-headed Gull. 
Blanford, No. 1489 ; Jerdon, No. 979. 
In January 1903 the Museum collectors shot five specimens of this 
fine gull at Kayankolam Bar. They do not appear to reach the coast 
much earlier than this, as in December of the same year there were no 
birds to be seen at this place. 

(295) Larus ridibundus. — The Laughing Gull. 
Blanford, No. 1490 ; Jerdon, No. 981. 
This bird was found to be fairly common at the same locality as the 
last at the same period. 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(296) Larus brunneicephalus. — The Brown-headed Gull. 
Blanford, No. 1491 ; Jerdon, No. 980. 
In December 1901 I found numbers of these gulls surrounding some 
fishermen who were drawing their nets in a shallow lake close to the sea 
near Cape Comorin. They moved quite fearlessly around them, but 
when I sent a man to wade in, they would not let him approach ; but I 
secured one subsequently on the sandy banks. 

(297) Larus affinis. — The Dark-backed Herring Gull. 

Blanford, No. 1494 ; Jerdon, No. 978. 
A single specimen was obtained by the Museum collectors at Kayan- 
kolam in January 1903. 

Sub-family Sterninm. 

(298) Hydrochelidon hybrida.— The Whiskered Tern. 

Blanford, No, 1496 ; Jerdon, No. 984. 
This marsh tern is abundant in North Travancore, frequenting the 
coast, the backwaters and paddy fields in the winter months. 

(299) Hydroprogne caspia. — The Caspian Tern. 
Blanford, No. 1498 ; Jerdon, No. 982. 
This fine tern was found in fair numbers at Kayankolam Bar in 
January 1903. It is not so gregarious as the last, being generally seen 
in pairs. 

(300) Sterna anglioa. — Gull-billed Tern. 
Blanford, No. 1499 ; Jerdon, No. 983. 

Fairly common in winter about the back waters of North Travancore 
and also frequenting the coast at Manakolam Bar. 

(301) Sterna media. — The Smaller Crested Tern. 
Blandford, No. 1501 ; Jerdon, No. 990. 

This is the commonest and most abundant of the terns, and may be 
found frequenting the back waters and coast from Quilon northwards. 
It is fond of sitting on the wooden posts that mark the channel through 
the lakes. 

(302) Sterna bergii. — The Large Crested Tern. 

Blandford, No. 1502 ; Jerdon, No. 989. 

Numbers of this fine tern were found at Kayankolam Bar and further 
North in January and December 1903, 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 13 

(303) Sterna fluviatilis. — The Common Tern. 
Blandford, No. 1506 ; Jerdon, No. 986. 
An occasional winter visitor to the coast of South Tra van core. I have 
noil met with it at all in the North. The few specimens taken have been 
immature. 

(304) Sterna saundersi. — The Black-shafted Ternlet. 
Blandford, No. 1511 ; Jerdon, No. 988. 
A single specimen was shot in North Travancore on the coast in 

January 1903. 

Order STEGANOPODES. 
Family Pelecani^. 
(305) Pelecanus philippensis. — The Spotted-hilled Pelican. 
Blandford, No. 1523 ; Jerdon, No. 1004. 
I have not secured a specimen of this bird, but it occurs in South 
Travancore, and I once saw three flying over the parade ground in 
Trevandrum. 

Family FREGATIM. 
(306) Fregata ariel. — The Small Frigate-bird. 
Blandford, No. 1525. 
A young bird of this species was taken at Perumathoray about ton 
miles from Trevandrum, ami was brought to me alive. 
Family PHALACROCORACID^. 
Sub-family Phalaerocoracince. 
(307) Phalacrocorax javanicus. — The Little Cormorant. 
Blandford, No. 1528 ; Jerdon, No. 1007. 
The Museum does not contain any specimen?, of this bird, but I have 
seen it in the tanks and lakes in and about Nagercoil in South Tra- 
vancore. 

Sub-family PlotlnOc. 

(308) Plottts melanogaster. — The Indian Darter or Snake-bird. 

Blanford, No. 1529 ; Jerdon, No. 1008. 

This bird is common on all the larger fresh water lakes throughout 

Travancore. It is abundant on the lake formed by the Pergar dam at 

3,000 feet elevation on the hills, and equally common on the Sasthancotta 

lake in the low country. It breeds here in September as in North 

India and not in February as in Madras and Ceylon. " I once found a 

colony of these birds nesting above the Athirapuzha fall in the Kodasheri 



14 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

river in September. They had taken possession of an island in midstream, 
where they had built their untidy nests on small trees about 20 feet 
high, and there were fresh and hard-set eggs in them in all stages of 
incubation, while half-fledged birds scrambled about the branches or 
flopped into the water at our approach. The nests were about one foot 
in diameter and roughly built of twigs. The eggs are white and covered 
with a chalky coat and measure 2 inches by 1£. Some of the eggs 
are rather larger at one end than the other, while others are truly 
fusiform with pointed ends. — T. F. B." 

Order TUBINARES. 
Family Procellariid^e. 
(309) Puffinus persicus. — The Persian Shearwater. 
Blanford, No. 1539. 
A single specimen was taken at Valey, four miles from Trevandrum, 
and was brought to me alive. 

Order HERODIONES. 
Sub-order Platale^e. 
Family Ibidce. 
(310) Ibis melanocephala. — The White Ibis. 
Blanford, No. 1541 ; Jerdon, No. 941. 
I am doubtful whether this bird is a resident here. I have only seen 
it in the cold weather at Sastancotta. They feed by day in the paddy 
fields, and are difficult to approach ; but they generally roost in trees on 
the banks of the lake, and specimens can be obtained by waiting for 
them in the evening. 

Sub-order Ciconi^e. 
Family Ciconiidce. 
(211) Dissura episcopus. — The White-necked Stork. 
Blanford, No. 1548 ; Jerdon, No. 920. 
The Museum only contains one skin of this bird, obtained on the 
banks of the river at Palode. Another specimen was brought in alive 
taken on the banks of one of the tanks about Nagercoil. 

(312) Leptoptilus javanicus. — The Smaller Adjutant. 

Blanford, No. 1551 ; Jerdon, No. 916. 

This bird is by no means common, but may be found about the tanks 

in South Travancore. Live specimens have been brought in to the 

gardens from time to time. One of these lived for several years in 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 15 

captivity. It was very pugnacious, and with one blow of its beak split 
open the head of another bird newly introduced into its run as a com- 
panion. On one occasion a jackal found its way into the run, and in 
the morning was found dead with its skull pierced by the beak of the bird. 
(313) Anastomus oscitans. — The Open-bill. 
Blanford, No. 1553 ; Jerdon, No. 940. 
This stork is very common, and large flocks may be met with on the 
marshy borders of all the larger tanks and fresh water lakes. I have 
seen numbers of them perching at sunset on the same trees with flocks 
of Plotus melanogaster. I have not taken the eggs, but I conclude 
that the breeding season must be in June, as all those I saw in January 
were in the grey plumage. Natives say that they will feed on dead 
bodies, but I have not seen this myself. 

Sub-order Ardb^e. 

Family Ardeidce. 

(314) Ardea manillensis. — The Eastern Purple Heron. 

Blanford, No. 1554 ; Jerdon, No. 924. 

Mr. F. W. Bourdillon records this heron as "abundant at the Vel- 

larney Lake, " seven miles from Trevandrum. This used to be a 

favourite resort for all kinds of water birds, but since the reeds, with 

which it was more or less covered have been removed, only a few 

whistling teal and some snake birds persist. No herons are to be seen 

there now. I have seen and shot the Purple Heron at Sastamcotta. 

It is a solitary bird and very shy, never to be seen in the open except on 

the wing, but always in sheltered bays where there are reeds or thickets 

of pandamus. It breeds in July and August. 

(315) Ardea cinerea. — The Common Heron. 
Blanford, No. 1555 ; Jerdon, No. 923. 

The common heron frequents the backwaters along the coast 
throughout Travancore, but is not found in the interior. One has lived 
in captivity in the public gardens over seventeen years. 

(316) Herodias alba. — The Large Egret. 
Blanford, No. 1559 ; Jerdon, No. 925. 

The large egret is by no means common in Travancore, and it is only 
lately that the Museum has secured a specimen. It is a wary bird and 
impossible to approach when feeding in the paddy fields at most 
times solitary. At Sastamcotta they roost in company on the trees 



16 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

round the lake, and can be secured by waiting for them after sunset. 
They appear to be the last to seek repose, as they come in long after the 
ibises and snake birds have gone to rest. 

(317) Herodias intermedia.— The Smaller Egret. 
Blanford, No. 1560 ; Jerdon, No. 926. 
This bird is fairly common about the edges of the backwaters mid 
lakes from Quilon northwards. It is not nearly so abundant in the 
South. Unlike the large egret, it is usually to be seen in companies 
of at least three or four and often more. It is not easy to get at, as it 
is decidedly shy. 

(318) Herodias garzetta. — The Little Egret. 
Blanford; No. 1561 ; Jerdon, JS r o. 927. 
The little egret is not uncommon about the back waters along tho 
coast, going about solitary or in pairs. 

(319) Bubulcus coromandus. — The Cattle Egret. 
Blanford, No. 1562 ; Jerdon, No. 929. 

This is by far the commonest of the white egrets, and may be found in 
numbers in all paddy fields throughout Travancore along the backwaters 
and in cultivated land. It assumes the breeding plumage about April. 

(320) Lepterodius asha. — The Indian Keef-Heron. 

Blanford, No. 1563 ; Jerdon, No. 928. 
A single specimen was obtained by the Museum collectors at Ayren- 
tenga, on the coast near Kayankolum. It was perched on a cocoanut 
palm. 

(321) Ardeola grayi. — The Pond Heron. 
Blanford, No. 1565 ; Jerdon, No. 930. 
One of the commonest and most familiar of birds throughout the 
whole country. 

(322) Butorides javanica. — The Little Green Heron. 
Blanford, No. 1567 ; Jerdon, No. 931. 
Mr. F. W. Bourdillon says that this " is a winter visitor. It, is very 
silent and solitary. During the months of November to March it is 
to be found among the rocks of the larger streams up to about 2,000 feet 
elavation, and always in dense jungle." It is common in the low 
country from November to April, but I have not met with it at any other 
time of the year. This seems to agree with the habit of the bird as 
recorded by Colonel Legge in Ceylon, who says of it : " Throughout the 



THE BIRDS OF TRAVANCORE. 17 

year it is to be met with near Kotte and similar places on the west 
coast ; but, as a rule, it is not often seen after April in that part of the 
island." 

(323) Nycticorax griseus. — The Night Heron. 
Blanford, No. 1568 ; Jerdon, No. 937. 
I have not come across this bird myself, but the Museum possesses 
two skins, and the collectors found it fairly common at Perambiilum, in 
North Travancore, and at other places round the Vembenad lake. 
The inhabitants, however, refused to allow them to shoot any 
specimens. 

(324) Gorsachius melanolophds. — The Malay Bittern. 
Blanford, No. 1569. 
Mr. F. W. Bourdillon obtained a specimen of this fine bittern on the 
hills at about 2,500 feet elevation in 1878. Since then I have received 
two specimens taken alive. One of these is now living in the Public 
Gardens. No doubt, they were captured on the shore shortly after 
their arrival on the coast, for these birds are jungle haunters. 
(325) Ardetta sinensis. — The Yellow Bittern. 
Blanford, No. 1571 ; Jerdon, No. 934. 
1 have not shot this bird myself, but the Museum collectors 
brought back several specimens from North Travancore, where it was 
found solitary on the banks of the back waters about Cottayam and 
Vycome. 

(326) Ardetta cinnamomea. — The Chestnut Bittern. 

Blanford, No. 1572 ; Jerdon, No. 933. 

This little bittern is common throughout Travancore on all the lakes 

and backwaters. It is fond of taking up its stand in the canals cut 

through the ground laid out for the cultivation of young cocoanut 

palms. 

(327) Dupetor plavicollis. — The Black Bittern. 
Blanford, No. 1573 ; Jerdon, No. 932. 
The black bittern is not uncommon along the backwaters. It parti- 
cularly frequents the canals whose banks are densely clothed with trees 
and bushes, especially where there is a thick growth of screw pines. I 
have never seen it away from such localities. It remains under cover 
during the day, but may be flushed by the too near approach of a passing 
boat. At dusk it comes out to search for food. 
3 



18 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVl. 

Order ANSERES. 

Family Anatid^:. 

Sub-family Anatince. 

(328) Dbndrocycna javanica. — The Whistling Teal. 
Blanford, No. 1589; Jerdon, No. 952. 

The whistling teal is common on all weedy tanks and lakes through- 
out Travancore. On one such piece of fresh water, near Sastamcotta, I 
saw hundreds in April 1902 ; but in December 1903, in the same place, 
not a single one was to be found. It is, perhaps, commoner in the North 
than the South. 

(329) Nettopus coromandelianus. — The Cotton Teal. 
Blanford, No. 1591 ; Jerdon, No. 951. 

This pretty little teal is, I think, only a winter visitor, and is never 
abundant at any time. 

(330) Nettium crecca. — The Common Teal. 
Blanford, No. 1597 ; Jerdon, No. 964. 
A single specimen of this bird was shot in South Travancore. 

(331) Querquedula CIRCIA. — The Garganey or Blue-winged Teal . 

Blanford, No. 1601 ; Jerdon, No. 965. 
Large flocks may be met with on the backwaters in North Travancore 
in winter. 

(332) Podicipes albipennis. — The Indian Little Grebe or Dabchiek . 
A permanent resident and not uncommon; breeds in August. 

Blanford, No. 1617. 



19 

NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN HYMENOPTERA. 
By Major C. G. Nurse, 113th Infantry, Indian Army. 
{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 18th August 1904.) 

In addition to species now described for the first time, I have, as usual, 
given the names of several others obtained by me which are new to India, 
so as to render the list of those that are known to have occurred within 
Indian limits as complete as possible. I sent a number of Chrysididce 
to M. du Buysson, and he informs me that the following three species 
described by me as new, belong to species already described. As his 
knowledge of this family is probably unrivalled, and he has opportunities 
for comparing specimens with types and others which are denied to a field 
entomologist like myself, I defer to his opinion, and suppress my species — 

Notozus kashmirensis (Nurse) = N. violascens (Mocs.). 

Ellampus timidus {Nurse) — E. hypocktta (Buyss.). 

Chrysis thalia (Nurse) = C. acceptabilis (Rad.). 
As regards the genus Notozus, I cannot agree with Col. Bingham in 
uniting it with Ellampus. The two genera seem to me to be distinct, 
though allied. M. du Buysson keeps them distinct, as does Dr. W. H. 
Ashmead in his classification in the Canadian Entomologist, and Col. 
Bingham has shown no reason for uniting them. 

HOLOPYGA GLORIOSA (Fabr.) VAR VIRIDIS (GW.). 

Five specimens from Quetta. 

Hedychridium amatum, n. sp. 

9 Front sharply angled below vertex, and with very thick, snow white 
pubescence, hiding the sculpturing; head, pronotum and abdomen closely, 
remainder of thorax more coarsely punctured ; head as wide as pronotum, 
abdomen about the length of thorax, and with a median longitudinal 
carina on second segment. Shining green, with a cupreous effulgence on 
second abdominal segment ; antennae and tarsi rufo-testaceous ; wings 
clear hyaline, tegulse deep blue. The whole insect is covered with a 
short, sparse, greyish pubescence, and the last few joints of the antennas 
with a thin, silvery pile, the latter only visible with a microscope. 

Long. 4-5 mm. 

Habitat : Deesa. 

Nearest to H. minutum, but may be distinguished by the cupreous 
effulgence being confined to the second abdominal segment, and by the 
carina on the same segment, 



20 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

Hedychridium rotundum, n. sp. 

9 Head and thorax closely and coarsely, abdomen closely and very 
finely punctured, the third segment somewhat less finely than the second; 
front above the base of antennae somewhat convex, head slightly wider 
than pronotum, abdomen much wider than thorax, very rounded pos- 
teriorly, shorter than the thorax and median segment united. Head 
and thorax blue-green, dark-blue on the front and at the different 
divisions of the thorax ; abdomen shining metallic green, without any 
cupreous effulgence ; antennae and tarsi rufo-testaceous ; wings hyaline, 
tegulae reddish brown ; a very little sparse greyish pubescence on the 
cheeks and abdomen. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Habitat : Deesa. 

Nearest to H. amatum above, but may be at once distinguished from 
it by the very finely punctured abdomen. 

Hedychrum lama (Buyss.). 

This species is not uncommon at Quetta. 

Hedychrum monoghroum (Buyss.). 

One specimen from Quetta. 

Chrysis pulohella (Spin.). 

One specimen from Quetta. 

Chrysis sara, n. sp. 

$ Slenderly built ; facial cavity quadrate, pubescent, margined by a 
slight carina ; head and thorax closely but not deeply punctured, the 
punctures largest in the centre above ; abdomen more finely punctured 
than head and thorax, apical portion of third segment with a pellucid or 
chitinous margin, which is bi-emarginate or tridentate, all the teeth blunt, 
the middle one projecting furthest. Dark-blue, with greenish reflections ; 
antennae, except the first two joints, rufo-piceous; all the tarsi pale rufo- 
testaceous; pubescence short, greyish, sparse ; wings hyaline, the ner- 
vures pale. 

Long. 3-5 mm. 

Habitat : — Quetta ; a single specimen. 

This species, having a pellucid margin to the third abdominal segment, 
would belong to Klug's genus Spintharis, but I follow du Buysson in 
considering that this difference is not of sufficient importance to warrant 
the separation of Spintharis from Chrysis. 



NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN HYMENOPTER'A. 21 

Chrysis deposita, n. sp. 

9 Facial hollow not very concave, terminated above by a slight 
carina ; head and thorax finely and somewhat closely punctured, 
abdomen, especially the second and third segments, more finely and 
closely punctured than the head and thorax ; pronotum transverse anteri- 
orly, with a slight median impression, its sides very slightly concave ; 
second abdominal segment with a trace of a median longitudinal carina, 
third segment with its apical margin bluntly rounded, without teeth, and 
with an anteapical series of eight or ten distinct, rather large, fovese. 
Bright green ; the central quadrate portion of the mesonotum and the 
lateral angles of the median segment dark-blue ; second and third 
abdominal segments with coppery effulgence ; antennte and tarsi piceous ; 
wings hyaline, nervures rufo-piceous to piceous. 

Long. 7 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; a single specimen. 

Nearest to C. pelopcecida from Jerusalem. 

Chrysis chlorochrisa (Mocs.). 

In the Entomologist, Vol. XXXVI, p. 40, I described under the 
name of C. hogget what appeared to me to be a new species of Chrysis. 
I sent specimens to Lt.-Col. Bingham and M. du Buysson. The former, 
in Vol. II, Hymenoptera, of the Fauna of India series, united C. hoggei 
with C. perfecta (Cam.) from Barrackpore. M. du Buysson identified 
the 9 as C. subccerulea (Rad.) and the $ as C. chlorochrisa (Mocs.). In 
his volume on the Chrysididse of " Species des Hymenopteres d' 
Europe," p. 500, M. du Buysson observes that the $ described by 
Radoszkowsky, as C. subccerulea is C. chlorochrisa (Mocs.). Accepting 
this identification of the $, and taking into consideration that both 
Radoszkowsky and I united these as the same species quite independently, 
it appears to me that the name of chlorochrisa should stand for both 
sexes, and that both C. subccerulea (Rad.) and C. hoggei (Nurse) must be 
sunk as synonyms. Whether C. perfecta (Cam.; is another species or 
only a variety I cannot express an opinion, not having seen a specimen. 
I may mention that I have about a dozen specimens of each sex, all 
obtained at Quetta, and I have no doubt whatever that they are one 
species. I should not venture to differ from such a high authority as M. 
du Buysson without having considerable material at my disposal. 



•22 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Chrysis dentipes (Bad.). 

Two specimens from Quetta. 

Chrysis psittacina (Buyss.) 

A single specimen from Quetta. 

Chrysis urana, n. sp. 

9 Head and pronotum somewhat irregularly but closely, remainder 
of thorax more coarsely punctured, abdomen closely and finely punc- 
tured ; head somewhat wider than pronotum, the latter with its anterior 
margin strongly rounded, and with a median longitudinal depression ; 
first abdominal segment with three deep impressions at base, second 
segment with a trace of a longitudinal carina, third segment with an 
anteapical series of fovea which are large and conspicuous in the middle, 
obscure laterally ; the segment quadridentate, the teeth long and acute, 
about equidistant, the central pair projecting much beyond the lateral 
ones. Dark-blue, with greenish reflections, antenna and tarsi piceous ; 
wings hyaline, nervures rufo-testaceous to piceous. 

Long, 6-5 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; two specimens. 

Nearest to C. grohmanni (Dahlb.). 

Chrysis reparata, n. sp. 

$ Head as wide as pronotum, transverse, viewed from the front 
slightly longer than broad ; the space between the base of the mandibles 
and the lower margin of the eyes very large, the base of the antenna 
being distinctly below the level of the lower margin of the eyes ; clypeus 
raised in the centre, its anterior margin slightly emarginate ; antenna 
filiform, the second joint of the flagellum the longest, nearly twice the 
length of the next joint ; clypeus and front finely and shallowly punc- 
tured, the size of the punctures increasing towards the vertex, where 
they become close, deeper and almost granular ; thorax coarsely punc- 
tured, the punctures being finer at the base of the mesonotum than else- 
where on the thorax ; abdomen longer than head and thorax united, very 
broad, closely punctured, the punctures being smaller than those on the 
thorax, those on the first abdominal segment only slightly so ; second and 
third segments with a very distinct longitudinal carina ; five teeth on the 
third segment as follows ; the middle tooth short, obtuse, the two outer 
pairs acute but not very long ; the anteapical series of fovea distinct. 
Dark-blue, the clypeus and front in some specimens light green ; second 



NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN BYMENOPTERA. 23 

abdominal segmont with a lateral spot light green ; scape, first two 
joints of flagellum, and legs, except the tarsi, bluish green ; remainder 
of flagellum, and the tarsi piceous ; the anterior portion of the mesono- 
tum black; facial hollow with rather long, thick, silvery pubescence, 
antennse and all the tarsi with thick short pile ; fore wing with the base 
hyaline, the apical half very slightly infuscated, hindwing hyaline ; 
nervures piceous, tegulse purple. 

Long. 11 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; three specimens. 

EUCHRCEUS PURPURATUS LFabl\). 

Fairly common at Peshin and Quetta ; the wings of those that I 
obtained are hyaline, not infuscated as is usual in this species. 

EucHRozoiDES, n. gen. 

Differs from Euchrceus in having the mesopleurae produced into a 
conspicuous tubercle, the sides of which are carinate ; the radial cell is 
broader and more open at apex than in Euchrceus, and the teeth on the 
apical abdominal segment are longer and more regular than in that 
genus ; there is, moreover, scarcely a trace of pubescence in either sex. 
This genus is closely allied to Euchrceus, but the very conspicuous 
tubercle on the mesopleurae is, I consider, sufficient to separate them. 

In the shape of the radial cell it approaches Spinolia, and its position 
would seem to be between these two genera. 

EUCHRCEOIDES OBLATUS, n. sp. 

9 Facial hollow closely and finely punctured, vertex very closely, 
but more coarsely punctured, granular; thorax more coarsely punctured 
than vertex, especially on scutellum and postscutellum ; first and second 
abdominal segments, especially on the disc above, more sparsely and 
shallowly, third segment closely and finely punctured ; head slightly 
broader than pronotum, no transverse carina above the facial hollow, 
but a slight longitudinal carina in front of anterior ocellus ; third joint of 
antennae slightly longer than the fourth ; pronotum with the sides 
slightly converging anteriorly, and with a median impression at 
base; mesopleurae with a very large tubercle, the sides of which 
are carinate ; abdomen about as long as head and thorax united, 
third segment longer and less bluntly pointed than in the genus 
Ewhrcvus, almost semicircular, with fourteen teeth, the latter very 
regular ; a subapical row of about eighteen small foveae. Metallic 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

coppery green, the elypeus and abdomen more distinctly coppery golden ; 
antennae very dark red, the first two joints metallic purple ; anterior 
femora metallic green, anterior tibiae and intermediate and posterior 
femora and tibiae metallic purple ; anterior tarsi dark testaceous, inter- 
mediate and posterior tarsi piceous ; ventral abdominal segments 
metallic purple ; almost entirely devoid of pubescence or pile ; wings 
hyaline, nervures blackish, tegulae of the same colour as thorax. 

$ Similar, the abdomen proportionately broader, the third segment 
shorter and more obtuse at apex, the teeth longer but not quite so 
regular ; a slight carina above facial hollow, and the portions of the 
front on each side of the carina which runs towards the anterior ocellus 
flattened and depressed, the punctures on this portion running into 
longitudinal striae ; the elypeus and the whole of the front below the 
anterior ocellus deep-blue, changing into purple in some lights ; second 
joint of antennae metallic green. 

Long, 8 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; a single specimen of each sex. 
Parnopes vakillbsi (Bwjss.). 

One specimen from Quetta. 

Mutilla vesta, n. sp. {Dudgeon MS.) 
Eyes wide apart, small and round ; head and thorax coarsely 
punctured, abdomen longitudinally striate ; head slightly wider than 
thorax, rounded and without a carina ; thorax sub-hexagonal, being 
extended laterally into a sharp tubercle, dorsally convex ; abdomen with 
the first segment constricted, and with a sharp ventral carina. Head, 
antennae, legs, and abdomen black ; thorax brick red ; head and thorax 
sparsely clothed with coarse black hairs, abdomen with black pubescence, 
a broad band of golden pubescence on the apical margin of the first, and 
a narrower one on the apical margin of the second segment ; son e 
golden pubescence on the sides of the third and fourth segments ; tibiae 
and tarsi with silvery pubescence. 

Long. 29 mm. 

Habitat : Baijnath, Kangra Valley, 3,000 feet. 

Position in Bingham's key — A. f. a. Much larger than any of the 
others in this group, and differs in having the first abdominal segment 
constricted, with a broad gold band on its apical margin, and also in the 
eyes being small and wide apart. 



NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN BYMENOPTERA. 25 

ASTATA LUCINDA, n. sp. 

Front and mesonotum minutely and shallowly punctured, scutel- 
lum and postscutellum almost impunctate, median segment minutely 
rugose, abdomen smooth and sinning ; clypeus very concave at base, its 
anterior margin emarginate ; antennae long, filiform, the second joint of 
flagellum longer than the third ; front above the base of antenna raised, 
with a median notch ; an impressed longitudinal line on scutellum ; 
abdomen small, shorter and narrower than the thorax, pygidium smooth. 
Black ; a large irregular spot on the front below the ocelli, a spot below 
the bases of the wings, and two oval spots on each of the first two 
abdominal segments, yellow, the spots on first segment frequently coa- 
lescing ; tibiae and tarsi of anterior legs red ; pubescence white, very fine 
and silky, but somewhat sparse ; wings clear hyaline and iridescent, a 
fuscescent patch on the radial and second and third cubital cells ; radial 
cell short, broadly truncate at apex ; second cubital cell almost triangular > 
third cubital cell about half as wide above as below ; tegulae yellow ; 
nervures of forewing for the most part brownish testaceous, except for 
a short distance from the tegulae, where they are very pale yellowish ; 
those of hind wing very pale. 

Long. 6-8 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; six specimens. 
Nearest to A. quadri punctata (Rad.); but may beat once distinguished 
by the antennae being entirely black. 

Ammophila bolanica (Nurse). 

When I described this species in Journal Bombay Natural History 
Society, Volume XV, p. 8, I had not obtained a male. I subsequently 
caught both sexes in coitu, and found that the $ differs to a consider- 
able extent from the 9 , so I give its full description. 

$ Head and thorax apparently finely punctured, but with the 
sculpturing almost hidden by the pubescence ; median segment very 
minutely striate, the striae at base being outwardly divergent, becoming 
almost transverse towards the apex of the segment ; abdomen impunct- 
ate, pruinose ; clypeus very long, its anterior margin produced and 
slightly emarginate or notched ; scutellum slightly notched : median 
segment rather long, gradually sloping and narrowed towards apex; 
petiole slightly longer than the next abdominal segment. Black; 
clypeus and front with rather long silvery pile, intermixed with long 
i 



26 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY , Vol. XVI. 

black hairs ; thorax with blackish pubescence; abdomen with segments 
2 — 4 above covered with short but conspicuous silvery pile ; wings 
hyaline, with the apical margin of forewing infuscated as far as the 
neuration. 

Long. 12-15 mm. 

ElJMENES MONTANA, 11. sp. 

$ Clypeus smooth, front punctured, the punctures increasing in 
size towards the vertex, where they are close and deep ; thorax, median 
segment, and petiole closely but shallowly punctured, almost granular ; 
remaining abdominal segments impunctate ; clypeus produced, its 
apex transverse ; mesonotum with two impressed parallel longitudinal 
lines on it's apical half ; scutellum with a slight median longitudinal carina 
at base ; median segment almost vertical, with a broad groove ; petiole 
shorter than thorax, narrow at base, widening towards the centre, where 
it is three times as wide as at base ; second abdominal segment as long as 
or longer than the petiole. Red ; the clypeus and the portion of front 
immediately above it yellowish ; apical four joints of antennse, vertex, 
and some marks on mesonotum blackish ; second abdominal segment 
narrowly black at base, then red, then with a broad black band, it's apex 
narrowly yellow ; the visible part of the remaining abdominal segments 
yellow ; ventral abdominal segments similarly coloured, except that 
the second segment has no yellow band at apex : almost entirely without 
pubescence ; wings flavo-hyaline, with infuscated patches at apex of* 
forewing, nervures rufo-testaceous, darker towards apex, tegulce red. 

Long, (to end of second abdominal segment). 17 mm. 

Habitat : Quetta ; two specimens. 

This species is in colour very similar to E. petiolata (Fabr.), but the 
petiole in that species is about twice as long as in the present and is 
differently shaped. The present species is nearest to E. arbmtorvm 
(Penzer) as regards the shape of petiole, but differs in colouring. 

Halictus orpheus, nom. nov. 

In Vol. LXX, Part II, of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, p. 148, 
1 described a species of Halictus under the name of H. te&taceus. I 
find that this name had already been given to a North American species, 
and I, therefore, propose to rename my species H. orpheus. In a genus 
like Halictus, which occurs almost all over the world, it is very difficult 
to be certain that a name has not been used before. 



27 

SEXUAL COLOUR-DIMORPHISM IN BIRDS. 

By D. DEWAR, i.c.s. 
{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 
18th August 1904.) 

Probably more than half the species of birds display sexually dimor- 
phic plumage. This colour dimorphism varies from an almost imper- 
ceptible difference, as in many woodpeckers and some parakeets, to a 
divergence so great that the male and female were originally supposed 
to belong to different species. As an extreme case of sexual dimor- 
phism, the Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) may be 
cited. 

We are still almost completely in the dark as regards the causes of 
this sexual differentiation, and we are likely to remain so until more 
light has been shed on the causes which determine the origin of 
variations. 

It is needless to say that Darwin attributed such dimorphism to 
sexual selection. His theory is that in the great majority of species, 
there is competition among the males for females, and that the latter 
are therefore able to, and actually do, exercise a selection. They are 
able to pick and choose their mates, and they select the most brilliant 
of their suitors. Thus have arisen the beautiful plumage and all the 
accessory plumes of cock birds. 

These decorations have in many cases not been transmitted to 
females, because natural selection tends to obliterate all conspicuous 
colours, and in the case of females there is no opposing force, in th 
shape of sexual selection, at work. It is, however, mere waste of time to 
enunciate Darvin's theory of sexual colouration, since my listeners are, 
one and all, doubtless better acquainted than I am with the writings of 
the most illustrious of naturalists. Wallace declines to accept Darwin's 
theory, and it seems to me that we have no option but to do likewise. 

There is insufficient evidence (1) of feminine selection, and (2) that 
females select the most beautiful males. 

In those cases in which females have been known to choose their 
mates, their selection has been very capricious. 

Darwin, with characteristic fairness, quotes much evidence which 
goes to show that the female, when she does select, chooses, not the 
most beautiful, but " the most vigorous, defiant and mettlesome male," 



28 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Darwin quotes Mr. Tegetmeier as saying " that a gamecock, though 
disfigured by being dubbed, and with his hackles trimmed, would be 
accepted as readily as a male retaining all his natural ornaments." 

There is some direct and, it seems to me, very conclusive, evidence 
which tends to disprove the Darwinian theory of sexual selection. 

Take the case of the paradise flycatcher. It will be remembered 
that the male of this species does not attain his full plumage until after 
the moult of the fourth autumn. Nevertheless the male certainly finds 
a mate in his second and third years. In the face of this foot, it seems 
impossible to ascribe his subsequent white plumage to selection by the 
female. 

Considering the great significance of the changes in the plumage of 
the male paradise flycatcher, it is surprising that the bird has not 
attracted a greater amount of attention. The life-history of the male 
birds of paradise appears to exhibit a similar phenomenon. 

The life-history of these birds was not known when Darwin set forth 
his theory of sexual colouration. It was, however, a matter of common 
knowledge that the immature plumaged males of some species did breed. 
On this subject Darwin writes : " The fact of birds breeding in their 
immature plumage seems opposed to the belief that sexual selection has 
played as important a part, as I believe it has, in giving ornamental 
colours, plumes, &c, to the males, and by means of equal transmission, 
to the females of many species. The objection would be a valid one, if 
the younger and less ornamental males were as successful in winning 
females and propagating their kind, as the older and more beautiful 
males. But we have no reason to suppose that this is the case." Now, 
I submit that considering the comparative paucity of the white plumaged 
paradise flycatcher males, there is every reason to believe that in this 
species the young males are very successful in finding mates. 

Wallace's theory is that the brilliant plumage and all the accessory 
ornamentation of male birds are the expression of surplus energy ; that 
in most instances these characters have not been transmitted to the 
female, because it is important that she should be inconspicuous when 
sitting on the nest. The origin of the ornamental appendages of birds, 
writes Wallace, is to be found " in a surplus of vital energy, leading to 
abnormal growths in those parts of the integument where muscular 
and nervous energy are greatest. The continuous development of these 



SEXUAL COLOUR-DIMORPHISM IN BIRDS. 29 

appendages will result from the ordinary action of natural selection in 
preserving the most healthy and vigorous individuals, and the still fur- 
ther selective agency of the sexual struggle in giving to the very strong- 
est and most energetic the parentage of the next generation In 

many groups in which this superabundant energy is at a maximum, 
the development of dermal appendages and brilliant colours has gone 
on increasing till it has resulted in a great diversity between the sexes, 
and in most of these cases there is evidence to show that natural selection 
has caused the female to retain the primitive and more sober colours of 
the group for the purposes of protection." 

Wallace is able to adduce much evidence in favour of this theory, 
and his writings on the subject doubtless form a most valuable contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of sexual dimorphism ; but it is, I venture to 
say, absurd to pretend that the theory offers a complete explanation of 
the phenomena in question. 

In the first place, it fails to explain why some species are sexually 
dimorphic as regards plumage, while some are not. 

Were all birds which nest in holes or construct covered nests sexual- 
ly monomorphic as regards plumage, and were all those which build 
open nests, and of which only one sex performs the work of incubation, 
sexually dimorphic, then, Wallace's theory would explain every- 
thing. The need of protection of the sitting bird would of course 
account for its duller plumage. 

Unfortunately for Wallace, many birds which nest in holes are sexu- 
ally dimorphic, while many which nest in the open, and of which only 
one sex performs the duties of incubation, are sexually monomorphic. 
Further, there are some sexually dimorphic species, which build open 
nests, and of which both the male and female birds sit alternatively on 
the eggs. Darwin mentions the case of Pyranga (estiva, one of the 
most splendid birds in the United States, where the male is vermillion, 
and the female light greenish brown. As Darwin remarks, " if 
brilliant colours had been extremely dangerous to birds whilst sitting 
on their open nests, the males in these cases would have suffered 
greatly." 

Again, the sexual dimorphism of many species is so slight, that I do 
not think that it can possibly be accounted for by the greater need of 
the female for protection, 



30 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. [XVI. 

Take, for example, the case of the common sparrow, or better still 
siuce the nest is built in more open places, the rufous-backed sparrow 
(Passer pyrrhonotus). Is it possible that the slight amount of sexual 
differentiation exhibited by the species can render the female so much 
less conspicuous when sitting on the nest as to render the dimorphism 
necessary ? 

If we answer this question in the affirmative, how is it that female 
orioles, ioras, and minivets have been allowed to become so conspicuous ? 
If it be alleged that these birds build very carefully concealed nests, 
and the female can therefore afford to wear showy plumage, I would 
refer to the bulbuls. Both the white-cheeked and red- whiskered forms 
build open nests in the most exposed situations, such as a raspberry 
bush, or croton plant — yet the two sexes are alike and far more con- 
spicuous when sitting on the nest than any cock sparrow would be. 

Speaking of such slight sexual differentiation as that exhibited by 
sparrows, Darwin says " such differences in colour must be accounted 
for on the principle of some of the variations in the males having been 
from the first limited in their transmission to the same sex ; as it can 
hardly. be maintained that these differences when very slight, serve as 
a protection to the female." If I have learned anything from studying 
nature, it is that minute differences of colour are of very small import- 
ance to a species. 

If every slight variation in the shade of its plumage appreciably 
affected the chances of a bird in the struggle for existence, there 
would be none of that diversity of colour exhibited by individuals 
of the same species. 

As conspicuous examples of species of which the individuals of the 
same sex vary greatly in colour, I may cite the common bee-eater 
( Merops viridis)- and the Madras white-headed babbler ( Crater opus 
griseus). 

Then, again, many species which have similar habits and live in 
identical environments, exhibit very great diversity of plumage. 

Wallace writes : " Mr. Darwin has taught us that natural selection 
cannot produce absolute, but only relative, perfection, and, as protective 
colour is only one out of many means by which the female birds are able 
to provide for the safety of their young, those which are best endowed 
in other respects will have been allowed to acquire more colour 
than those with whom the struggle is more severe," 



SEXUAL COLOUR-DIMORPHISM IN BIRDS. 31 

With the first part of the above passage I am in entire accord, but 
I must most emphatically disagree with the last portion, if it mean that 
all birds tend to acquire bright plumage but only those which are 
best endowed for the fight for existence have been allowed to 
acquire it. 

I do not believe that, when we see a dull hen-bird, we can assert that 
owing to the great severity of the struggle for existence, the bird has 
not been permitted to acquire bright feathers. It seems to me that 
some birds tend to vary in the direction of bright plumage while others 
do not. 

The mynas are a very successful race of birds, and I do not think 
that it is in accordance with facts to say that the reason they are not so 
brightly clothed as kingfishers are, is that they would have perished in 
the struggle for existence had they been thus gorgeously arrayed. 
Nor do I think we are justified in saying that the mynas have not 
sufficient surplus energy for the formation of bright colours or accessory 
plumes. 

Mynas, rather, are not brilliant birds as regards plumage, because they 
have not chanced to vary in the direction of bright feathers. When I 
use the words " chanced to vary ", it must not be thought that I 
allege that variation is due to chance. I use the expression merely 
because the laws which govern variation have yet to be discovered. 

As further proof of the comparative insignificance of colour I may 
cite the conspicuous crows and drongos, which build open nests, but 
which, nevertheless, flourish like the green bay tree. 

It seems to me that in nature an ounce of good solid pugnacity is 
worth many pounds of protective colouration so far as the struggle for 
existence is concerned. 

I do not believe that it is possible to find any one grand cause 
accounting for all sexual dimorphism. I think it more probable that 
there are a vast number of factors, working in different degrees on the 
various species, which have brought about these complex phenomena. 
Some of these factors have come to light, while others have yet to be 
discovered. 

The direct action of the sexual organs on external appearance is, I 
believe, an important factor, and one to which sufficient attention has 
not been paid. 



32 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

That the generative organs do affect the external appearance of an 
animal, is fully proved from the results of castration of various animals. 
Take the case of the distorted horns of castrated deer. 

Again, many birds when kept in confinement refuse to breed and it 
not infrequently happens that such birds do not attain the full brilliancy 
of their plumage. " The male and female of the splendid scarlet ibis " 
writes Darwin, " are alike, whilst the young are brown ; and the scarlet 
colour, though common to both sexes, is apparently a sexual colour, 
for it is not well developed with birds under confinement, in the same 
manner as often happens in the case of brilliantly coloured male birds." 
I am of opinion that many of the differences in the plumage of the 
sexes are in some way correlated with the sexual organs. 

As an example of what we may call correlative sexual colouration 
i may quote the fact that the inside of the mouth of the male hornbill 
(Buceros bicornis) is black, while that of the female is flesh-coloured. 
Darwin himself admitted that sexual selection could not account for the 
inside of the male hornbill's mouth being black, nor can we suppose 
that this blackness is due to superabundant vitality exhibited by the 
male. 

Again, the knob on the base of the bill of the Chinese goose (Anser 
cygnoides) is larger in the male than in the female. As another example 
of correlative sexual dimorphism, I may mention the difference in the 
shape of the neck of the mare and the horse. Anyone with a little 
experience, if made to mount a horse blindfold, can tell when once on 
its back, from the shape of the neck, to which sex the animal belongs. 

Then, again, there is the case of the condor, cited by Darwin. The 
iris of this bird is at first dark-brown, but changes at maturity into 
yellowish-brown in the male, and into bright red in the female. 

As a rule the development of the sexual organs tends to produce, or 
at any rate to be concomitant with, increased brilliancy of plumage. 
There are, however, exceptions. Thus Darwin states of certain 
young woodpeckers, they " have the whole upper part of the head 
tino-od with red, which afterwards either decreases into a mere circular 
red line in the adults of both sexes, or quite disappears in the adult 
females. " This disappearance of a bright colour can only be explained 
on the Darwinian hypotheses, on the assumption that the tastes of the 
female are quiet, and that she has persistently selected the male who 



SEXUAL COLOUR-DIMORPHISM IN BIRDS. 33 

had but little colour on his head. In order to account for the colour 
of some species, Darwin has to suppose that the taste of the female has 
undergone a somewhat violent change. This of course is a gratuitous 
hypothesis totally unsupported by any evidence. 

Sometimes females acquire at a late period of life " certain characters 
proper to the male. " Darwin himself admits that this phenomenon 
cannot be explained by any kind of sexual selection. He gives exam- 
ples, on pages 178-180 of Vol. II of the Descent of Man. He asserts 
that " the laws of inheritance can alone account for such phenomena. " 
This is but another way of saying that we cannot explain the 
phenomena in question. 

As is well known to everybody, some birds assume a nuptial garb at 
the breeding season. This I would attribute, not to the action of 
sexual selection, but to the direct effect of the organs of generation 
upon the general system. 

In this connection the nuptial plumage of the heron tribe is most 
interesting. It is unnecessary to remind you, that in many of these 
birds, such as cattle egrets and paddy-birds, both sexes assume nuptial 
plumage. 

Darwin thus expresses himself upon this subject — 

" Some members of the heron family offer a still more curious case 
of novelty in colouring, having apparently been appreciated for the 
sake of novelty. 

The young of the Ardea asha are white, the adults being slate- 
coloured ; and not only the young, but the adults of the allied Buphus 
coromandus in their winter plumage are white, this colour changing 
into a rich golden buff during the breeding season. It is incredible that 
the young of these two species, as well as of some other members of the 
same family, should have been specially rendered pure white and thus 
made conspicuous to their enemies ; or that the adults of one of these 
two species should have been specially rendered white during the winter 
in a country which is never covered with snow. On the other hand, we 
have reason to believe that whiteness has been gained by many birds as 
a sexual ornament. We may therefore conclude that an early progeni- 
tor of the Ardea asha and the Buphus acquired a white plumage for 
nuptial purposes, and transmitted this colour to their young ; so that 
the young and the old became white like certain existing egrets ; the 



34 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

whiteness having afterwards been retained by the young whilst ex- 
changed by the adults for more strongly pronounced tints. But if we 
could look still further backwards in time to the still earlier progenitors 
of these two species, we should probably see the adults dark-coloured. 
I infer that this would be the case, from the analogy of many other 
birds, which are dark whilst young, and when adult are white ; and 
more especially from the adult of the Ardea gularis, the colours of 
which are the reverse of those of A. asha, for the young are dark- 
coloured and the adults white, the young having retained a former 
state of plumage. It appears therefore that the progenitors in their 
adult condition of the Ardea asha, the Buphus and of some allies have 
undergone, during a long line of descent, the following changes of 
colour : — firstly a dark shade ; secondly pure white, and thirdly, owing 
to another change of fashion ( if I may so express myself }, their 
present slaty, reddish, or golden-buff tints. These successive changes are 
intelligible only on the principle of novelty having been admired by the 
birds for the sake of novelty." 

This is very magnificent but it partakes of the nature of a piece of 
special pleading rather than of science. If the nuptial plumage of 
herons can be explained only on the principle of novelty having been 
admired by the birds, then it is impossible to account for it. 

It seems to me that the sexual dimorphism of the plumage of certain 
cuckoos can be explained only on the theory that the organs of gen- 
eration affect the external anatomy of the bird in some unknown and 
not understood way. 

These birds do not incubate their own eggs, hence there would 
seem to be no reason, so far as natural selection is concerned, why 
the female should not be arrayed in the same kind of plumage as the 
male. 

Darwin would doubtless say that there is a reason, viz., that the male 
must tend on account of the tastes of the females to secure brioht 
plumage, even though it handicap them in the struggle for existence, 
whereas the females are under no such necessity. 

Unfortunately for the Darwinian theory the sexual dimorphism 
displayed by some species of cuckoo is very slight. It would, I sub- 
mit, be absurd to believe that these slight sexual differences are due to 
the preference of the females for showy males. 



SEXUAL COLOUR-DIMORPHISM IN BIRDS. 35 

In some cuckoos, then, it would seem that sexual dimorphism is due, 
neither to sexual selection, nor to excess of vitality on the part of the 
males, but is rather correlated in some unknown way with the gen- 
erative organs. 

The sexual dimorphism of the koel is possibly to be explained in a 
different manner. It will be remembered that these birds victimise 
crows. Crows seem to be aware that the koel is an enemy, for they 
never lose an opportunity of attacking the male bird. But, unless my 
memory serves me false, I have never seen a crow chase a female koel. 
Is it a fact that it is only the male koel which is detested by the crows ? 
Do these latter fail to recognise the female as one of the same species ? 
If so, the sexual dimorphism in this case is easy to account for. It is 
important that the male should be conspicuous in order to attract the 
attention of the crows and lure them away, while the female cuckoo 
deposits her egg. Young koels, when first they acquire feathers are 
black, presumably in order that their foster parents may mistake them 
for young crows. Later they assume the mottled plumage of the 
adult female, presumably in order that the crows shall not recognise 
them as their arch-enemy, hence the wonderful immunity from attack 
which young koels seem to enjoy. 

In the case of cuckoos which victimise small, helpless birds such 
dimorphism is unnecessary for the welfare of the species, and so must, 
I think, be attributed to the influence of the sexual organs. 

This brings me to a point which I would venture to emphasise, 
viz., that not one but many causes have operated to cause external 
sexual dimorphism. The sexual dimorphism of one species is to be 
accounted for in one way, and that of another in an altogether different 
manner. 

It is probable that that form of sexual selection whereby the most 
pugnacious and mettlesome males secure the most wives has contributed 
largely to the sexual dimorphism of polygamous species, in which the 
dimorphism is often so very marked. But the fact that the paradise 
flycatcher is monogamous shows that it is possible to ascribe too much 
importance to this factor. 

Then, again, it is tolerably certain that in the case of birds sitting on 
open nests, natural selection has tended to keep the general hue of 
female birds dull and inconspicuous, 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

But there is, I think, a tendency to overrate the action of natural 
selection in this respect. 

While considering the question of sexual colouring it is important to 
remember that the struggle for existence waxes exceedingly fierce 
among the young of a species. The mortality among young birds even 
after they are fully fledged, is enormous. When a bird has attained 
the age of sexual maturity, the odds are in favour of its surviving long 
enough to give birth to a family. Now, in most species, the male does 
not acquire his full plumage until he is ready to breed. This is 
precisely what we should expect if these colours and appendages are 
in some way or other connected with the sexual organs. 

The mere fact that they appear so late allows them to be developed 
to a greater extent than they could possibly be were the young born 
like the adult. 

I am aware of the unsatisfactory nature of this paper in that its 
tendencies are mainly destructive. Throughout it I have tried to 
destroy, but have made no attempt to create. I can offer no hypothesis 
in place of those which I seek to disprove. To say that sexual dimorphism 
in a bird's plumage is in many cases due to some occult action of the 
sexual organs, is, I am aware, no explanation. If we accept the view 
herein enunciated we have to admit that in some species the sexual 
organs exercise little or no effect on the external plumage, while in 
others the effect is very great indeed. Again, in some the effect is but 
slight, while in a few cases the effect is considerable, but of short dura- 
tion. Why this should be, we do not know. But, if I am able to give 
no explanation of the phenomena under consideration, the theories of 
Wallace and Darwin display the same defects. The former makes no 
attempt to discuss isolated phenomena ; it is merely a rough generalisa- 
tion. The theory of Darwin deals with details, but in a most unsatis- 
factory manner. Let me, for example, quote Darwin's explanation of 
the fact that the young of the scarlet ibis are brown while both the 
adults are red. It is as follows : " When the adults are brightly coloured, 
we may conclude that such colours have been acquired through sexual 
selection by the nearly mature males ; but that the transmis- 
sion, though limited to the same age, has not been limited to the same 
sex. " When we ask why the one limitation and not the other, the 
theory of sexual selection remains silent. 



37 

NOTE ON SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. 
By L. C. H. Young, B.A. 

In criticising Mr. Dewar's paper, I would like to say in the first place that 
he gives a much wider significance to the term than is generally accepted. The 
difference in the necks of a mare and a horse would not ordinarily be described 
by the term, any more than the average difference in breadth of shoulders in 
man and woman. By sexual dimorphism is generally understood the presence 
in one sex of some abnormal character which, if man did not know to the 
contrary, might lead him to suppose they were different species. The point 
may be easily illustrated by the two best known species of Felis. In the tiger 
there is no sexual dimorphism, although the sexes are abundantly distinct in 
average measurements ; the mane of the male lion is. however, a clear instance 
of the phenomena under discussion. 

Sexual dimorphism is one of the largest and most difficult questions in the 
whole of Biology, and it is as impossible to deal with it properly in one paper 
as in ten minutes criticism. Moreover, it is found in all but the lowest orders 
of creation, and although I would not suggest that the same laws necessarily 
govern it in all, it only tends to confuse us to try and deal with it in one 
class to the exclusion of others. 

An enormous amount of literature has been written on the subject, and in so 
far as Mr. Dewar is criticising Darwin's theory of sexual selection, he is 
whipping a dead horse ; for no one, I think, accepts this one of Darwin's theories 
at present except in a limited number of cases as a working hypothesis for want 
of a better. But we must not make the mistake of regarding Wallace's theory 
as contradictory to it. One regards the question from a physical and the other 
from a metaphysical point of view. 

Granted that abnormal growths, colours, etc., take place during the breeding 
seasons they are more likely than not to show themselves at these centres of 
muscular and nervous energy which are nearest the seats of excessive vitality, 
i.e., the head, lungs, and caudal regions. But this does not answer the question 
why. 

Of the much that has been written in answer to this question " why " only two 
theories are important — one is Darwin's that they are acquired because they 
are beautiful, while the other side maintain that they are of the nature of a 
hereditary diseased growth or hypertrophy resulting in almost every case from 
some habit, generally that of fighting, characteristic of the males during the 
breeding season. This of course begs the whole question whether characters 
acquired during lifetime can be transmitted to descendants, but there is no 
time to discuss that now, or even the theory itself, in any detail. £uff.'ce it to 
say that, if the hypotheses are granted, it is quite wonderful how the theory fits 
in with the known facts, and especially in cases where the dimorphism takes 
a peculiar direction it has generally been found that the creature has some 
peculiar method of fighting, etc., affecting the hypertrophied region. Stags' 
horns of course give a conspicuous example of the theory, while cock's combs 



38 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

and hollow-horned ruminants are instances where the character has been partial- 
ly transmitted to the other sex also. 

Pressed to extremes, however, the theory becomes ridiculous, as when it is 
sought to explain the hairy chins of men by the supposition that, in primal 
savagery, men were in the habit of biting each other's chins when fighting. 

It is no criticism of either this or Darwin's theory to ask why it does not 
exist in all animals, because both theories presuppose an excess of males over 
females or polygamous habits which amount to the same thing ; as a matter of 
fact among almost all vertebrates where sexual dimorphism occurs, this is 
known to be the case. 

Mr. Dewar cites the case of kingfishers and mynas, and asks why, according to 
Darwin, mynas should not be the more brilliant of the two. But he presupposes 
that brilliant colours are more difficult to acquire than sombre ones, which 
in the present state of our knowedge — or ignorance — is not justifiable. 
The colours of the myna's English cousin — the starling — would, one might 
suppose, be extremely difficult to acquire, although the general result is quite 
sombre. 

There are many isolated cases of dimorphism for which special explanations 
can be offered as in the case of the New Zealand bird, the two sexes of which 
invariably feed together — one having a beak suited for boring holes in rotten 
trees, and the other for scooping out the grubs. 

But I would maintain that the majority of cases among vertebrates at least 
must be explained by the relative incidence in particular cases of a number of 
laws or tendencies of which I think the following are the four chiefest : — 

(1) The natural tendency of like to produce like. 

(2) The natural tendency of the sexes to be unlike. 

Not sufficient emphasis is laid on this point. The whole course of Natural 
History — by which I mean the history of the growth of creation from the mos-t 
primitive forms to the highest — is almost as much a history of the specialisation 
of the functions of the sexes as of specific structures. 

Without going into detail one need only refer to those organisms of which 
there is only one sex, to the next series where the two sexes are partially 
developed, but where parthenogenesis is still the rule and on to the higher forms 
in which the sexes gradually become more permanent and parthenogenesis rarer. 

(3) The natural tendency of every creature to protect itself from its 
enemies, either by acquiring weapons of offence or defence or by superficial 
protective colours or structure. 

(4) The natural tendency of the males of all species whererivalry exists 
among that sex to disregard (3) in a greater or less degree during the breeding 
season, when characteristic modifications, the result of pugnacity or sexual 
admiration or other cause have a chance to come into play. 

I think the action of these four tendencies on the blood, etc., of the males, 
excited by the procreative instincts, will account in a genera] manner for the 
facts. 



NOTE ON SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. 39 

The latter part of Mr. Dewar's paper does not call for much comment as 
regards the main theory under discussion. I would merely remark as regards the 
assumption of a white garb by certain birds during the breeding season, that 
white is not a pigment* but the absence of it and the concentration of the vital 
energies in another direction is just as likely to cause an absence of pigment a 
excessive vitality in other species might produce abnormal pigment. 

L. C. H. YOUNG. 



NOTE ON SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. 
By Captain W.G. Liston, I.M.S., M.D., F.R.S.E. 

I listened with much pleasure to Mr. Dewar's paper on sexual dimorphism 
and cannot refrain from making a few remarks thereon, especially in view 
of Mr. Young's criticism of the paper. 

I feel constrained to believe that were Darwin still alive he would no longer 
attribute sexual dimorphism to sexual selection. Already before his death 
he saw that he had not paid enough attention to the part played by use 
and disuse, environment, etc., in modifying the order of Nature. 

Mr. Dewar seems to me to be on the right track when he insists on the 
importance of the organs of generation as a factor in the development of sexual 
dimorphism. Indeed, I think, we must take a broader view than either Darwin 
or Wallace did, and consider sexual dimorphism as a phenomenon based on the 
fundamental idea of sex. 

When we contemplate the universe as a whole, we are made aware of 
the action of two opposing principles. Newton established the law of 
motion that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The 
naturalist well knows that plants break up the carbon dioxide gas given 
out by animals, appropriating to themselves the carbon and letting free 
the oxygen, which can again be used by the animals. Here the plants 
break down what the animals have built up. Again, plants build up from 
simple inorganic elements, complex protoplasmic molecules which furnish food 
for herbivora, and after assimilation by them are given back by excretion 
as simple inorganic bodies which in their turn serve as food for the plants. In 
this instance animals break down bodies which the plants have built up. 
In the chemical and physical world the great law of the conservation of 
energy teaches us that while there may apparently be a breaking down there is 
at the same time a building up. The familiar example of the burning 
candle will call to mind what I mean. Indeed, wherever we look there 
is a breaking down and building up process going on — there is katabolism 
associated with anabolism. 

I believe that it was Thomson and Geddes who first pointed out that the 
essential difference in the sexes depends on the fact that the male element has 
always katabolic tendencies, while the female element has essential anabolic 

* Iu writing out my notes for the Journal I, of course, accept the Chairman's correction 
that where I used the word " colour " here I meant " pigment. " 



40 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



proclivities. They expressed the contrast in the sexes as an antithesis between 
a relative anabolic and a relative katabolic preponderance in the protoplasmic 
life of the creature. They directed attention to the large size and more 
sluggish nature of the ovum and the smaller size and more active nature of 
the sperm; these are essentially anabolic and katabolic features. For the 
fertilisation of a single ovum a single sperm cell is only necessary ; but in the 
process many sperm cells (often thousands ) are involved, all, save the single 
necessary one, are dissipated, broken up, and lost. The katabolic tendency in 
the male element is very marked in this inslance. Males essentially dissipate 
energy, females conserve it. Now we all know how important a relation exists 
between the generative or sexual and the vegetative cells. Stimulation of the 
former reflects itself in the latter. It is undoubtedly this katabolic stimulation 
of the veg3tative cells, communicated through the male generati\e cells during 
the rutting season in certain animals, which makes the males so fierce, energetic, 
and destructive. The katabolic stimulus communicated to the vegetative cells, 
through the male generative cells may be dissipated in various forms of energy — 
e. g., excessive growth, excessive bodily and nervous activity, and, as I hope to 
show, excessive brilliancy of colour. 

This katabolic stimulus of the male generative cells on the vegetative cells is 
the fundamental cause of sexual dimorphism. 

This idea of sexual dimorphism enables us to understand why castration is 
followed by cessation of growth of horns and other structures characteristic of 
the male, and how animals with the characteristic male features little developed 
are essentially more feminine in their nature. 

When we come to consider colour dimorphism I think the Chairman has 
drawn attention to an important fact which has to be kept in mind. He drew 
Mr. Young's attention to the fact that white was a colour — indeed a combination 
of all colours — and black is no colour. Yet the white colour of a 
feather is essentially due to the absence of pigment, while a black feather 
contains much pigment. A knowledge of the chemical constitution of the 
animal pigments, I believe, will not help us much to solve the question of 
colour differences in birds. The solution of the colour problem is more likely 
to be found in a more intimate knowledge of the physical laws affecting colour 
than in a knowledge of the chemical constitution of the coloured bodies. Let me 
instance a single chemical substance which shows a distinct colour dimorphism. 
The red iodide of mercury, when heated, is volatilised and may be condensed 
on a glass plate as a yellow crystalline crust consisting of rhombic plates. When 
this is rubbed or even scratched, an immediate change takes place, the rhombic 
plates becoming broken up into octohedra while the colour at the same time 
alters from a yellow to a brilliant scarlet. Here the chemical constitution 
remains the same but the colour has altered on account of physical laws. 

The brilliant colours of male birds, especially that beautiful play of colours 
often seen on their heads and necks, is probably due to microscopically minute 
ridges and grooves on the feathers which reflect and retract the light and so 



NOTE ON SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. 41 

cause the rainbow-like show of colours. These ridges and grooves are an 
exaggerated growth, the result of the stimulus conveyed to the vegetative cell 
from the male generative cells. The excessive brilliance of colour of male 
birds is essentially due to their sexual katabolic tendencies, that feature of all 
male animals which results in the dissipation of energy. Fortunately, other 
hws come into play which prevent the waste of energy ; in this instance, the 
energy is conserved in the formation of those wonderful microscopic ridges and 
grooves which give brilliancy to the feathers of male birds. I will not attempt 
to explain why the energy should be conserved in this particular manner, but 
I feel that it has been done for some useful purpose which will best be 
understood by those who have made a special study of birds ; perhaps, 
however, it is only another example of that beauty in design which we see in all 
nature. 

In conclusion, may I hazard an explanation of the unusual frequency of ■white 
feathers in male birds? You are aware that in a frog there are pigment cells in 
the skin which are capable of contracting and relaxing. At rest they are 
relaxed and the frog assumes a dark colour. During stimulation they are 
contracted and the frog assumes a light colour. Now this power over pigment 
cells in the skin is exemplified to a greater or less extent in all animals. May 
it not be possible that the katabolic stimulus of the male generative cells, in the 
case of the birds, has led to a contraction of the pigment cells. This contrac- 
tion maintained for long periods would end, through the operation of the law 
of disuse, in first the atrophy and later the complete disappearance of pigment, 
a white colour would thus be produced. 

Coming now to consider Mr. Young's remarks on Mr. Dewar's paper I cannot 
agree with him that Mr. Dewar has given a wider significance to the term 
sexual dimorphism than is generally understood. Mr. Young's definition is very 
inexact and eminently non-scientific. In the term sexual dimorphism must be 
comprised all those differences which constantly distinguish the males from the 
females in any one species. The subject, Mr. Young rightly remarks, is a 
difficult one to discuss in a single paper chiefly because of its extensive appli- 
cation to the whole of the animal and vegetable kingdom, even I maintain to 
the lowest forms of life. Such a widely spread difference must essentially rest 
on a great fundamental law operating in all cases. In this respect my opinion 
differs entirely from Mr. Young. Moreover, I believe, it may be advantageous 
to study this law in the single specialised class of birds, especially if the study 
is made from an intimate knowledge, a specialist's knowledge, of the class ; a 
knowledge not obtained from museums and books alone but from a study of the 
birds in Nature. Such a special study prevents the tendency to arrive at gene- 
ralisations which, if founded on incomplete knowledge of details, are sure to 
mislead. 

I fail to understand Mr. Young's remark that " granted that abnormal growths, 
colours, etc., take place during the breeding season they are more likely than not 
to show themselves at those centres of muscular and nervous energy which are 
6 



42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI 

nearest to the seats of excessive vitality, i.e., the head, lungs, and caudal regions. 
But this does not answer the question why." 

I was not aware that the head and lungs and tail were endowed with excessive 
vitality. As I have already remarked, the katabolic stimulus of the male 
generative cells on the vegetative cells is the fundamental cause of sexual 
dimorphism. The energy which results from this stimulus may reveal itself in 
excessive bodily or nervous activity or in brilliancy of colour. But while in 
this way energy is set free it is never wasted, it is conserved, and I believe 
always conserved to some useful purpose. To every action there is an equal 
and opposite reaction. The reaction checks waste and diverts the energy into 
useful channels. Hence it comes about that in opposition to the katabolic 
tendencies of the male, other subsidiary laws are called into play, e. g., the law 
which maintains that useless structures and organs disappear and atrophy while 
useful structures and functions are developed. But even this law is limited by 
other laws which check too great specialism. The brain of man for example 
is a most useful organ, and it would be theoretically advantageous to develop it 
to a maximum extent, but other factors prevent this specialising. Without a 
well-developed body the brain becomes useless. Mens sana in corpore sano 
is eminently true. A tool without the hand to work it is no good. One law 
reacts against another law so that extremes are prevented. It would be quite 
impossible for me at present to consider the many laws that are thus called into 
play. I cannot believe that the four tendencies as Mr. Young has called them, 
suffice to explain the facts. The fundamental reason for sexual dimorphism 
lies in the fact that the male has katabolic tendencies while the female has 
anabolic proclivities, and these tendencies are prevented from developing into 
extremes by the operation of many other laws, the laws so called into play 
differ in individual instances; a knowledge of these laws will answer Mr. Young's 
question why ? The answer will not be the same in every case, and it can only 
be made by a special study of individual groups, such as Mr. Dewar has at 
present attempted in the case of birds. 

Wm. GLEN LISTON, M.D., F.R.S.E,, Captain, I.M.S. 



REPLY TO CAPTAIN LISTON. 
By L. C. H. Young. 

I cannot avoid making some reply to Captain Liston because he seems to 
have misunderstood in some respects the drift of my remarks. 

In the first place as to the definition of " sexual dimorphism," I did r.ot 
intend to make any definition but merely to explain in an untechnical manner 
that discussions on sexual dimorphism were generally confined to the explanation 
of what naturalists term " secondary sexual characters, "and these are certainly 
the only ones which Darwin and Wallace discuss. 

If we include in it those differences which must exist in every species as being 
essential to the sexual relation we are getting outside the subject discussed in 
Mr, Dewar's paper altogether. 



NOTE ON SEXUAL DIMORPHISM, 43 

He criticises my expression " Excessive vitality, " and no doubt I expressed 
very loosely and in part inaccurately what I meant in an endeavour to be 
intelligible to a mixed and untechnical audience. 

I intended merely to state Wallace's theory that the catabolic stimulus will 
act most at the centres of muscular and nervous energy named during the 
period of salacity. 

Captain Liston has given us very lucidly the physiological explanation of this 
and here we are in entire agreement. 

But in my remarks I expressly took for granted this theory as the cause 
" how " these characters came into existence, but stated that it did not answer 
the question " why," i. e., why these growths, colours, etc., take the form they 
do in particular cases. 

It is this " why " that Darwin sought to answer by sexual selection. 

Captain Liston cannot explain the " why " except as another example of that 
beauty in design which we see in all nature. That it is an example of the 
beauty we find in all God's handiwork I quite agree, but this does not answer 
our question. 

Captain Liston says he is in entire disagreement with me, when I said that 
many individual cases would require special explanation and cited the case of 
the Huia in New Zealand, but he is evidently still thinking of the "how" 
while I was speaking of the " why." 

With regard to his remarks on colour we are in substantial agreement, and I 
need occupy your time no further. 



44 

NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 
{October 1901 to October 1902.) 
By Capt. H. T. Fulton, d.s.o. 
(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 16th June 1904.) 

The notes from which this article is compiled, were collected during 
the " garrison " year, 15th October 1901 to 15th October 1902. 

Information gathered during so short a period cannot be considered 
in any way to be full. I have been unable to find any previous note 
on the subject, with the exception of an article published by Captain 
MacMahon, C.S.I., C.I.E., F.Z.S. (" Notes on the Fauna of Chitral ") 
printed in the Journal. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXX, Part II, 
No. I of 1901. 

This list will, therefore, I trust, be found useful to others who may 
wish to take up the subject during their stay in the district. 

The bird-life of Chitral is most interesting on account of its variety, 
which is due not only to the varied topographical character of the 
country, but also to its position. 

I give a description of the country which is only intended to convey a 
roujjh idea of its character. 

Chitral is a long narrow triangular strip of country, and is the basin of 
the bead waters of the river variously known as the Mastuj, Chitral and 
Kunar. The country is bounded on the north-west by Wakhan, on 
the west by Kafiristan, on the south-east by Dir and on north-east 
by Yasin. The river rises in the north-east and flows in a south-south- 
westerly direction, passing out of the country at its south-western 
boundary and flowing on through Afghanistan, joins the Kabul River. 

There are several large streams flowing into the river, of which the 
Arkari meets it a few miles above Chitral and is the most important, 
and the Turikho and Shishikho are also to be noted. 

The valleys are narrow and the mountain sides steep. 

The elevation of the country above sea-level varies from 25,500 feet 
at Tirach Mir to about 3,600 feet where the river passes out of the 
valley. The lowest pass into the country is about 10,000 feet. 

Roughly a line drawn east and west through the village of Chitral 
divides the country into the wooded (south) and treeless (north) portions. 
The wooded portion is mostly clothed with fine deodars up to an elevation 
of about 13,000 feet, the poorer ground being covered with holly. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 45 

The treeless portion is bare, with the exception of patches of birch and 
a small stunted willow and fruit-trees in the orchards. 

Parts of the treeless portion are quite destitute of anything except 
small herbs, more especially that portion which is for a great time of 
the year under snow. These parts, however, are covered with a most 
luxuriant herbage immediately the snow melts, and form the summer 
grazing grounds on which finches, larks, pipits and buntings abound. 

The valley i3 one of several parallel routes of the great migratory 
highway and is the cause of there being — 

(1) Large numbers of certain species present for longer or shorter 

periods during certain seasons. 

(2) Stragglers found throughout the year, probably the sick and 

the lame left on the roadside. 

The country is also visited by certain species that either leave the 
north to winter in warmer quarters or vice versa. 

During my short stay in the country I was only able to cover a 
small portion of the district. These notes are confined entirely to the 
birds found in those parts visited, which were roughly — 

(1) The valleys on the right bank below Chitral. 

(2) The Shishi Koh and the valleys on the left bank below Drosh. 
(o) The main valley as far as Shost. 

(4) The Turikho Valley. 

(5) The range between the main valley and the Turikho. 
With two exceptions all the birds are identified from skins. 

I have to thank Mr. E. Comber for kindly checking the identification 
of the birds I sent him, and also for sending to the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington, some 80 species which I was unable to 
identify or which we were doubtful of. 

I have also to thank Dr. Sharpe and the authorities at the South Kensing- 
ton Museum for their courtesy in enabling me to identify the above birds. 
The numbers and nomenclatures are in accordance with Oates' and 
Blanford's Birds of British India. 

ORDER I.— PASSERES. 
• Family Corvidce. 
(4) Corvus biacrorhynchus. — The Jungle-Crow. 
This species is common all the year at the lower ranges (4,500 feet) 
and ascends the valleys to 11,000 feet in summer. It is very common 



40 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI 

round Drosh Fort all the year. I saw it at Madaglasht and in all 
the lower valleys, but not up the river above Chitral. 

(9) Corvus monedula. — The Jackdaw. 

A pair of these were obtained at Drosh — a male in February and a 
female in May. Another pair were seen in June ; no other birds were 
noted. Possibly there are more further south in the wooded valleys 
and in Kafiristan. 

(10) Pica rustica. — The Magpie. 

Very common on cultivated land in the upper valleys of Chitral. 
In December I saw one in Aiyon village (4,500 feet), and in June and 
July at Khot (10,000 feet), Madaglasht (14,000 feet), Dizg (8,000 feet). 
(24) Garrulus lanceolatus. — The Black-throated Jay. 

Very common all the year throughout the wooded valleys of Lowei 
Chitral from 5,000 feet to 10,000 feet. 

(28) Nucifraga multipunctata. — The Larger-spotted Nutcracker. 

I obtained only one specimen (female) in the Pattison Valley, 7,000 feet, 
and no others were seen. This bird is probably common in Kafiristan. 
(30) Pyrrhocorax alpinus. — The Yellow-billed Chough. 

Very common. In winter they come down as low as 5,000 feet, and 
in summer their highest elevation is 16,000 feet. I noticed none below 
Drosh and none north of the head of the Turikho Valley-Shost Line, and 
none on the east side of the valley, nor in Yasin. 

The feet are red (Blanford) usually, but in two specimens, both female, 
the feet were almost as black as the feathers. 

(31) Parus atriceps. — The Indian Gray Tit. 

These birds are very common in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral 
and also in the orchards of the upper valleys as far north as Sanoghar. 
In summer they are found at elevations of 12,000 feet. I noted two 
nests, both in holes in walnut trees ; one at Maroi, 25th June and one 
at Reshan, 26th June. In both cases the young were well fledged. 

They were very common in the Bimboret Valley in March and April. 
(37) iEGiTHALiscus leucogenys. — The White-cheeked Tit. 

Present throughout the year in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral. 
They are very numerous and were found on the same date at 6,000 and 
12,000 feet. (April.) 

(44) Lophophanes melanolophus. — The Crested Black Tit. 

Very common from 5,000 to 12,000 foot in the wooded valleys. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 47 

(47) Lophophanrs rufinitchalis. — The Simla Black Tit. 
Very common from 5,000 feei upwards to 12,000 font in the cedar 
forests. 

(N. S.) Cyanistes tianschanicus. 
This is an entirely new species recorded within Indian limits, which, 
I think, may well be called the Chinese Blue-tit. 

I obtained only five specimens, but there were any number of birds 
about. 

The only locality in which they were observed was on the river bed 
at Shost, 10,000 feet, in July, where there were numbers in the dense 
scrub of stunted willow, juniper and birch. 

They are very like the European Parus coeruleus, but without the 
blue head and nape, and the yellow of the under parts is less bright in 
the full-grown birds and brighter in the young. 

Dr. Sharpe has promised to send me a description of this species 
which will be published in a later number. 

Family Crateropodidce. 
(91) Teochalopterum simile. — The Western Variegated 

Laughing-Thrush. 
Very common in the lower wooded valleys up to 6,000 feet through- 
out the year. 

This is one of the birds the Chitralis " hawk, " and they require quick 
hawks to catch them before they get into cover. 

(99) Trochalopterum lineatum. — The Himalayan-Streaked 

Laughing-Thrush. 
Even more common than Simile and usually found in the same 
localities but at higher elevations. 

(187) Myiophoneus temmincki. — The Himalayan Whistling- Thrush. 
Common in pairs throughout Lower Chitral. In winter at 5,000 feet 
and in summer up to 11,000 feet. 

(269) Hypsipetes psaroides. — The Himalayan Black Bulbul. 
A summer visitor, arriving in the beginning of April. Common in 
the lower valleys. 

(284) Molpastes leucogenys. — The White- cheeked Bulbul. 
A visitor during the summer, arriving in March and leaving in October. 
Very common at elevations up to 7,000 feet, in the wooded valleys. 
(In October this was the commonest bird in the Dir Valley.) 



48 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Family Sittidce. 
(320) Sitta kashmirensis.— Brook's Nuthatch. 
Very common in the deodar forests on the dividing ranges between 
Dir and Chitral, and Chitral and Kafiristan, at elevations up tc 
11,000 feet. It is found as low as 6,000 feet in the winter. At that 
season they are most common on the walnut trees. 

(323) Sitta lbuoopsis.— The White-cheeked Nuthatch. 
This nuthatch is very common in the deodar forests at elevations of 
7,000 feet in winter to 12,000 feet in summer. 

Family Dicruridce. 
(327) Dicrurus ater. — The Black Drongo. 
A summer visitor, arriving in the middle of April. Common in the 
lower valleys at low ranges, 5,500 feet being the highest altitude up to 
which any were observed. None were seen above Chitral. 

Family Certhiidce. 
(341) Certhia himalayana. — The Himalayan Tree-Creeper. 
A single specimen $ was obtained in August at 8,000 feet. 
(348) Tichodroma muraria. — The Wall-creeper. 
Common between October and April at 4,000 to 6,000 feet. They 
do not appear to breed in Chitral, as I saw none from April to Sep- 
tember in any of the valleys, nor on the ridges up to 17,000 feet. 
Neither did I see any in Yasin in July. 

(A few were seen in the Dir Valley in October.) 

Family Sylviidce. 

(401) Sylvia althcea. — Hume's Lesser White-throated Warbler. 
Three specimens were obtained in May at elevations of 5,000 to 
7,000 feet. 

(418) Phylloscopus humii. — Hume's Willow- Warbler. 
Only two specimens were obtained — a male in April at 10,000 feet, 
and female in September at 6,000 feet. 

Family Laniidce. 
(473) Lanius vittatus. — The Bay-backed Shrike. 
Very common. A summer visitor, arriving in the beginning of May, 
ant] leaving towards the end of September. It frequents the lower 
valleys up to 6,000 feet. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 49 

(476) Lanius brythronotus. — The Rufus-backed Shrike. 
Also a common summer visitor, arriving in the middle of April and 
leaving in September, ascending in June to elevations of 7,000 feet. 
(477) Lanius tephronotus. — The Grey-backed Shrike. 
I obtained only one specimen (female) at Drosh, 5,000 feet, on 8th 
April, and it is probable that my identification of the specimen was 
incorrect. It may however have been a stray bird in a flight of either 
of the other species Lanius vittatus or erythronotus. 

(495) Pericrocotus brevirostris. — The Short-billed Minivet. 
A summer visitor, arriving in the middle of April. It is common at 
elevations of 7,000 to 10,000 feet in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral- 
They are certainly migratory, perhaps only locally, as I saw none in 
the valley even as low as 4,000 feet between October and April. 

Family Oriolidce. 
(518) Oriolus kundoo. — The Indian Oriole. 
Very common. A summer visitor, arriving in large numbers during 
the beginning of May and leaving in August and September. 

The beautiful flute notes of this bird can be heard during the summer 
in every village orchard in the Shishi Koh and in the Chitral Valley as 
far as Sanoghar (8,000 feet). 

Family Sturnidce. 
(532) Sturnus menzbieri. — The Common Indian Starling. 
Common. A winter visitor. I was surprised to find none present even 
on the high grazing grounds at 15,000 feet during summer. It evidently 
migrates north, leaving in April and returning in October and November. 
(542) Agropsar sturninus. — The Daurian Myna. 
Only one specimen $ was obtained out of a flock of some 17 birds. 
I got the specimen on 16th July at 11,000 feet at the head of the 
Turikho Valley. The previous known distribution within Indian limits 
is Burmah, so that its presence so far west is very interesting. 

(544) Temenuchus pagodartjm. — The Black-headed Myna. 
Very numerous in summer. This species arrives during the end of 
April and beginning of May. None were seen above Chitral. Breeds 
at elevations of 5,000 and 6,000 feet. 

(549) Acridotheres tristis. — The Common Myna. 
Common at lower elevations throughout the year, and up to 8,000 feet 
in summer. I saw none in the upper valley above Chitral. 
7 



50 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(558) Hemichelidon sibirica. — The Sooty Flycatcher. 
Only a single specimen, a male, was obtained at Drosh on 7th May. 

Family Muscicapidve. 
(561) Siphia parva. — The European Red-breasted Flycatcher. 
Common in the orchards of Lower Chitral during the winter and as 
late as the middle of April. It is quite possible that it is resident. 
(589) Alseonax ruficaudus. — The Rufus-tailed Flycatcher. 
Two specimens only were obtained, both males, at 4,000 and 7,000 
feet in April. 

(598) Terpsiphone paradisi. — The Indian Paradise Flycatcher. 
A summer visitor, arriving in the beginning of May and leaving in 
August. Not numerous, and only ascending the valley as far as Drosh. 
None noted above 5,000 feet. 

Family Turdidce. 
(610) Pratincola maura. — The Indian Bush-Chat. 
A resident. I obtained specimens among the scrub on the banks of 
the streams at 6,000 feet in the Bimboret nallah in February. I did 
not see them again till September, when large numbers arrived at 
Drosh, evidently migrating south. I believe they breed in the country. 
(620) Saxicola opistholeuca. — Strickland's Chat. 
The commonest bird in the higher valleys in summer up to elevations 
of 10,000 feet and in the lower valleys in winter. There were numerous 
young birds as low as 6,000 feet in June and July. 

(619) Saxicola capistrata. — The White-headed Chat. 
I obtained specimens at elevations of 7,000 to 11,000 during May, 
June and July. In May I found a nest at 7,500 at the foot of a small 
shrub. 

(630) Henicurus maculatus. — The Western Spotted Forktail. 
Not numerous. Present in winter at 4,500 to 6,000 feet in the wooded 
side valleys of Lower Chitral. I saw none in the summer, but they are 
probably present. I found them in the Pattison and Bimboret nallahs. 
(638) Chimarrhornis leucocephalus. — The White-capped Redstart. 
I obtained only 5 specimens — two males near Shost, 11,000 feet, in 
July, and one male and two females at Baradam, 8,000 feet, in August. 
(637) Miorocichla scouleri. — The Little Forktail. 
Very common during the winter at elevations of 4,000 feet, among 
the scrub at the bottom of the valley between Drosh and Chitral. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 51 

In April they seemed to suddenly disappear, and no more specimens 
were obtained till August, when I got them at Baradam (8,000 feet). 
I cannot say I saw any of them plunging into the water as stated by 
Oates ; in fact, most of the birds I saw seemed to stick more to the 
scrub, and seldom were near the water like Henicurus maculatus. 
(644.) Ruticilla rufiventris. — The Indian Redstart. 
Very commun at the head of the Turikho Valley above Ruah, between 
elevations of 10,000 and 14,000 feet, in July. 

(645) Ruticilla erythrogaster. — Guldenstadt's Redstart. 
Common in winter along the rivers and streams as low as 4,000 feet 
(Drosh). They migrate to higher ranges towards the end of March, and 
by the first week in April none are to be found around Drosh. 

I obtained one specimen (female) during the summer (25th July) on 
the Shajinali Pass, 14,000 feet. 

(646) Rhyacornis fuliginosus. — The Plumbeous Redstart. 
Common in the lower valleys in Chitral from 4,000 to 7,000 feet, in 
winter, and breeding in June as low as 4,000 feet (Drosh). I saw none 
above Chitral, nor did I see any above 7,000 feet, in summer. 
(647) Cyanecula suecica. — The Indian Blue-throat. 
Passes through on its way south during the latter end of September 
and beginning of October. The northern migration is probably in 
April, but I observed no specimens at that time. 
The birds were obtained at Drosh, 4,000 feet. 

(657) Adeldra (leruleicephala. — The Blue-headed Robin. 
Present throughout the year in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral at 
elevations of 6,000 to 9,000 feet, according to season. 

(677) Merula atrigularis. — The Black-throated Ouzel. 
A single specimen, a male, was obtained at 11,000 feet on 27th April. 

(678) Merula unicolor. — Tickell's Ouzel. 
Fairly common between 6,000 and 9,000 feet in April and May and 
probably all the summer, in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral. 
(691) Petrophila oinclorhyncha. — The Blue-headed Rock-Thrush. 
I only obtained one specimen at 7,000 feet on 5th May. 

(693) Petrophila cyanus. — The Western Blue Rock-Thrush. 
Present throughout the summer at elevations of 5,000 feet to 10,000 
feet. First noted in May at 8,000 feet, July 10,000, and September 
5,000 feet. Not common. 



52 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(694) Monticola saxatilis. — The Rock-Thrush. 
Two specimens, both females, were obtained in September and October 
at 7,000 feet. The former with an egg. 

(695) Tuedus viscivorus. — The Missel-Thrush. 
Common in the valleys of Lower Chitral. In winter it descends to 
6,000 feet and in summer is to be found up to 13,000 feet. 

A nest with 4 eggs was found at 12,000 feet on the 26th of April, and 
the tree, nest, and bird were covered with snow. 

(709) Cinclus asiaticus.— The Brown Dipper. 
Not uncommon in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral, throughout the 
year at 4,000 to 10,000 feet and upwards. 

Family Ploceidce. 
(734) Uroloncha malabarica. — The White-throated Munia. 
A summer visitor, arriving about the middle of May and only found 
up to 4,000 feet in the valley. 

Although it is stated that this sub-family is not migratory (Fauna of 
British India, Birds, Vol. II, page 181), this species certainly migrates 
perhaps only locally. There were none in the valley during winter and 
until the end of April, when large numbers arrived on the cultivated 
ground below Drosh. 

Family Fringillidce. 
(740) Coccothraustes humii. — Hume's Haw-Finch. 
I only obtained two specimens of this species, both during the second 
week of May at Drosh. I am uncertain whether it breeds in the country, 
but am inclined to believe it does. 

(754) Propasser thura. — The White-browed Rose-Finch. 
Only one specimen, a male, was obtained of t his species in Pattison 
nallah at 9,000 feet (30th April). 

(755) Propasser pulcherrimus. — The Beautiful Rose-Finch. 
This species arrives about the middle of April. All the specimens I 
obtained during April, and I saw none in the summer, and am not certain 
whether they breed in the country. They are very common during their 
stay and frequent the cedar forests at elevations from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 
(761) Carpodacus erythrinus. — The Common Rose-Finch. 
Common during July on the grazing grounds at the head of the 
Turikho Valley at elevations from 10,000 to 15,000 feet, where it prob- 
ably breeds, and in winter at 5,000 feet around Drosh. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 53 

(762) Carpodacus severtzovi. — Severtzoff's Rose-Finch. 

Only one specimen, a male, was obtained at Gharaghar, 13,000 feet, 
on ] 0th July. There were a good many about, but as I was pressed for 
time, I was unable to obtain more. They were on open grassy ground 
with large rocks scattered about, just below snow line. 

(764) Erythrospiza mongolica. — The Mongolian Desert-Finch. 

I obtained only a pair at the head of the Turikho Valley at 10,000 feet 
on 9th July. They probably breed in the country. 
(764a) Rhodopechis sanguinea. 

This species has not previously been recorded within Indian limits. 
I only saw two birds at Ruah in the Turikho Valley at 10,000 feet, and 
unfortunately was only able to obtain one specimen. It is a very fine 
large finch. 

I do not think there can be any doubt that it visits the Indian 
region, by which I mean any part of the country south of the Hindu 
Kush. The birds were feeding on open grass land with scattered 
boulders. 

(767) Carduelis caniceps. — The Himalayan Gold-Finch. 

Very common in summer, but not resident in winter. Arrives in 
April in large numbers, and breeds in the country. It feeds on the seeds 
of thistles, etc., and is found chiefly on the higher grazing grounds up 
to elevations of 13,000 feet. 

I watched a pair building in the Rah-Roshan Valley at 12,000 feet 
(20th July). The nest was placed in the fork of a small birch about 
4 feet from the ground, and although incompleted was similar to that of 
the European Gold-Finch (C. elegans). 

(768) Callacanthis btjrtoni. — The Red-browed Finch. 

A summer visitor. All the specimens I obtained were shot in the 
deodar forests at 8,000 to 9,000 feet, during August. 

(770) Acanthis brevirostris. — The Eastern Twite. 

Fairly common on the high grazing grounds at elevations of 10,000 
to 14,000 feet in July and August. I obtained a nest at 13,000 
feet. 

It was built in a wormwood plant at a height of some 6 inches off" the 
ground. The nest was well made and constructed of the dried flower 
stems of a small yellow flowered vetch, lined with the seed-down of 
a stunted willow. 



54 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TORAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

The eggs were 6 in number, averaging "75" X "5", of pale greenish 
colour, with a few small scattered spots, blotches and lines of reddish 
brown, more numerous at the thicker end. 

I tried to catch the hen with a butterfly net, and as I did not succeed, 
I left the nest till nest morning when I took the bird, nest and eggs. 
(771) Metoponia pusilla. — The Gold-fronted Finch. 

Present throughout the year, but not numerous in the winter. Large 
numbers pass through Drosh in April. 

I found a pair nesting in July at 12,000 feet at the head of the Turikho 
Valley, where they were fairly common among the birch and stunted 
willow. 

(776) Passer domesticus. — The House-Sparrow. 

Not present during winter. They arrive from the plains about the 
beginning of April, breed in the country, and leave early in October. 

They nest in the trees. In the Upper Chitral valley the nests were 
very common in holes in the cliffs. 

Noted as far up the valley as Sanoghar (7,800 feet). 

(778) Passer hispaniolensis. — The Spanish Sparrow. 

Passes through the country, not a resident in winter, and none 
observed in summer. Numerous in the middle of April, arriving later 
than the first arrivals of P. domesticus, and returning in October on 
their way to the plains. 

(779) Passer montanus. — The Tree-Sparrow. 

Present in large numbers throughout the year. They nest mostly in 
buildings from April to August at elevations of 4,000 to 7,000 feet. 
It will be seen that P. montanus and domesticus thus appear to change 
their breeding places. This is probably due to the former being in 
possession of the best nesting sites when the latter appear. 

(780) Passer ctnnamomeus. — The Cinnamon Tree-Sparrow. 

Fairly common throughout the year at elevations of 6,000 to 8,000 
feet in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral. 

In April I saw flocks of 50 and 60 birds in the Bimboret Valley. 
In May I saw an unfinished nest in the Pattison Valley at 8,000 feet, 
and another in June in a willow tree in the Shishi Koh at 7,000 feet. 

This pretty little sparrow is evidently a good mimic. I heard one in 
the Bimboret Valley imitating the song of the Indian Grey Tit (Parus 
atriceps) to perfection. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CH1TRAL. hb 

(787) Fringillauda sordida. — Stoliczka's Mountain-Finch. 
This finch is very common in summer on the grazing grounds at 
elevations of 10,000 to 14,000 feet. I was surprised to see them in large 
flocks in July, with apparently no young birds with them. As I saw 
them in April and May at elevations of 6,000 feet they must nest during 
the end of May, and early part of June. 

(788) Fringillauda brandti.— Brandt's Mountain-Finch. 
Numerous in Bangol at elevations from 13,000 feet and upwards in 
July. I saw them nowhere else. 

(793) Embbriza stbwarti. — The White-capped Bunting. 
Very common in the valleys of Lower Chitral at elevaiions of 5,000 
to 12,000 feet according to season. 

(794) Embbriza stracheyi. — The Eastern Meadow-Bunting. 
Very common at elevations of 4,000 to 14,000 feet throughout 
the country according to season. I saw numerous young birds just 
out of the nest in June and July, some at 9,000 and others at 
14,000 feet. 

(801) Emberiza rutila. — The Chestnut Bunting. 
I only obtained a male in April in the Golan Valley at 7,000 
feet. 

Family Hirundinidce. 
(805) Chblidon kashmiriensis. — The Kashmir Martin. 
Common from April to October and evidently breeding in the 
country. 

(808) Cotile rip aria. — The Sand-Martin. 
Common from April to October. 

(810) Ptyonoprogne rupestris. — The Crag-Martin. 
Appearing about the middle of April and remaining till October. 
Found at all elevations up to 13,000 feet. 

(824) Hirundo rufula. — The European Striated Swallow. 
Although I only obtained two specimens of this species, I believe it to 
be as common as the other species noted above. Both specimens (male 
and female) were obtained in April at 6,000 feet. 

Family Motacillidce. 
(826) Motagilla alba.— The White Wagtail. 
Present throughout the year at elevations from 4,000 to 10,000 feet 
according to season. 



56 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(829) Motacilla personata. — The Masked Wagtail. 
Present throughout the year at elevations of 6,000 to 12,000 feet 
according to season. I obtained two fully fledged young at Ghazin 
(10,000 feet) on 27th July. 

(832) Motacilla melanope. — The Grey Wagtail. 
I only secured one specimen, male, at the end of March at 6,000 feet 
(Bimboret). 

(835) Motacilla beema. — The Indian Blue-headed Wagtail. 
Only one specimen (male) was secured of this species at Drosh on 
19th April. They were however very numerous at the time, and were 
evidently passing through the country. 

(838) Motacilla citreoloides. — Hodgson's Yellow-headed Wagtail. 
I only saw a pair of this species, of which I obtained the male above 
Ruah (10,000 feet) on 9th July. 

I have no doubt that it was then breeding. 

(840) Anthus trivialis. — The Tree-Pipit. 
There are, I believe, a few stragglers of this species present through- 
out the year at elevations of 5,000 to 12,000 feet according to 
season. 

Family Alaudidce. 
(855) Otocorys penicillata. — Gould's Horned Lark. 
Present during the summer (July) at the head of the Turikho Valley 
at elevations of 13,000 feet and upwards. Probably present at lower 
ranges of the valleys of Upper Chitral during winter. 
(859) Melanocorypha bimaculata. — The Eastern Calandra Lark. 
This lark is very plentiful during the end of February and beginning 
of March on its northward migration. I saw a Chitrali shooting large 
numbers of them at Drosh, bagging as many as a dozen at a shot. I did 
not note their return. 

(860) Alauda arvensis. — The Sky-Lark. 
Fairly numerous throughout the year at elevations of 5,000 to 
11,000 feet according to season. I obtained fully fledged young birds 
at 11,000 feet at the end of June. 

(862) Calandrella braohydactyla. — The Short-toed Lark. 
Large numbers of this species passed through Drosh during the first 
week of October on their winter migration to the south. I did not note 
their northward migration. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHlTRAL. 57 

(864) Calandkella tibetana. — Brook's Short-toed Lark. 
Only two specimens — a male and female — were obtained, both at 
Sangoghar (8,000 feet), in May. 

ORDER II.— EURYKEMI. 
ORDER III.— PICI. 
Family Picidce. 
(946) Gecinus squamatus. — The West-Himalayan Scaly-bellied 

Green Woodpecker. 
Common throughout the year in all the wooded valleys of Lower 
Chitral at elevations of 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 

(961) Dendrocopus himalayensis. — The Western Himalayan 

Pied Woodpecker. 
Common in the wooded portion of Lower Chitral at elevations ot 
5,000 to 11,000 feet. They are very common in winter in the village 
orchards. I noticed a pair building in a dead deodar at the end of 
April at 11,000 feet. 

(969) Dendrocopus auriceps. — The Brown-fronted Pied 

Woodpecker. 
Fairly common in the wooded portion of Lower Chitral at elevations 
of 4,000 to 10,000 feet. 

(1003) Iynx torquilla. — The Common Wryneck. 
I only obtained one specimen which was " hawked " at Resham 
(6,500 feet) on 19th May. 

ORDER IV.— ZYGODACTYLI. 
ORDER V.— ANISODACTYLI. 
Sub-Order Coracice. Family Coraciadoe. 
(1024) Cora oias garrula. — The European Roller. 
Passed through on its migration to the north in the beginning of May, 
remaining in the country for a week or so. Not noted on its return 
to the south. Possibly stragglers occasionally breed in the country. 
Sub-Order Meropes. Family Meropklm. 
(1029) Merops apiaster. — The European Bee-eater. 
Arrives at the end of May. The majority pass through on their 
northward migration, and a few remain in the wooded valleys 
of Lower Chitral at elevations uf 4,000 to 8,000 feet where they 
evidently breed. Probably returns to the south in October, but none 
were noted. 
8 



58 JOURNAL, BOMB A ¥ NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Sub-Order Upupce. Family Upupidce. 
(1066) Upupa epops. — The European Hoopoe. 
Not a winter resident. Arrives at the end of March from the south. 
I noted a pair at the head of the Turikho Valley in July at 14,000 feet. 
They are fairly numerous at lower ranges. Breeds in the country. 
ORDER VI.— MACROCHIRES. 
Sub-Order Cypseli. Family CypselidcB. 
(1068) Cypselus melba. — The Alpine Swift. 
Common in summer at elevations of 5,000 to 16,000 feet. Arrives at 
the beginning of April and leaves in September. Breeds in the 
country. 

(1069) Cypselus apus. — The European Swift. 
Arrives in the beginning of April and leaves in September. Very 
common at elevations of 5,000 to 8,000 feet, and less common up to 

14,000 feet. 

ORDER VII.— TROGONES. 

ORDER VIII.— COCCYGES. 

Family Cuculidai. 

(1104) Cuculus canorus. — The Cuckoo. 

Arrives during the end of March, and is fairly common in summer 

at low elevations. I also saw and heard them in the birch jungle at the 

head of the Turikho in July at 12,000 feet. 

ORDER IX.— PSITTACI. 

Family Psittacidce. 

(1141) PalvEornis schisticbps. — The Slaty-headed Paroquet. 

A summer visitor. The earliest noted arrivals were a flight of some 

30 birds on 25th March flying strongly up the valley at a high 

elevation. They flew straight into a snow-storm, and evidently disliking 

the temperature wheeled about and flew down the valley at a good pace. 

I saw none above 7,000 feet. 

ORDER X.-STRIGES. 

Family Asionidae. 

(1159) Syrnium biddulphi. — Scully's Wood-Owl. 

This owl frequents the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral an J is not very 

common. Its single hoot can be heard frequently at elevations up to 

8,000 feet. As I obtained an egg from a female on 23rd March, it would 

appear that it breeds during March and April. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 59 

(1167) Bubo ignavus. — The Great-horned Owl. 
I only obtained two specimens, both at Drosh (4,500 feet). One 
(a female) was caught in a starving condition in December. 
(1173) Scops giu.— The Scops Owl. 
Common in summer in the valleys of Upper Chitral and probably in 
Lower Chitral, although not noted. 

ORDER XI.— ACCIPITRES. 
Family Vulturidce. 
(1198) Neophron percnopterus. — The Egyptian Vulture, or 
Large White Scavenger Vulture. 
As I did not skin any of this genus I am not certain whether this 
species or N. ginginianvs is seen in the country during summer. 
Possibly both species will be found to visit the lower country. Not 
present during winter. They appear in March and remain till Sep- 
tember, seldom mounting to any altitude above 7,000 feet. 

Two nested in a small cave in the face of a cliff overhanging the 
river, and the female was sitting at the end of March. They are not 
very common. 

Family Falconidce. 
(1199) Gypaetus barbatus. — The Bearded Vulture, or 

Lammergeyer. 
Present throughout the year. Common around Drosh. During 
summer they ascend to high elevations. During winter they are 
found at lower ranges and can usually be seen about the Fort feeding 
on offal, etc. 

(1208) Hieraetus pennatus. — The Booted Eagle. 
I only obtained one specimen (male) of this species, on 11th May, 
at Drosh, 4,500 feet. 

(1230) Milvus melanotis. — The Larger Indian Kite. 
Only one specimen (male) obtained, 16th April, at 6,000 feet. 
(1232) Elanus o^ruleus. — The Black-winged Kite. 
Not present in winter. Arrives in April and is common in summer 
in the wooded valleys of Lower Chitral, and about cultivation. 
(1233) Circus macrurus. — The Pale Harrier. 
A single specimen $ obtained at Drosh, 4,500 feet, in April. 

(1247) Accipiter nisus. — The Sparrow- Hawk. 
A single specimen $ obtained in May at 8,000 feet. 



60 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(1260) Faloo subbutbo.— The Hobby. 
Only one specimen, a female, was obtained at Reshan (6,000 feet) 
in May. 

(1265) Tinnunculus alaudakius. — The Kestrel. 
Very common throughout the year at elevations of 4,000 feet and 
upwards according to season. While resting on a pass overlooking the 
Wakhan country, at an elevation of 18,000 feet, a pair of these birds 
crossed over from the Chitral side (July). They are very common round 
Drosh. In winter they are not in the least shy, allowing one to 
approach quite close to them and then only rising to alight a few yards 
further off. In summer they may be frequently seen hovering over the 
crops. They commence nesting in April. 

ORDER XII.— COLUMBiE. 
Family Columbidce. 
(1292) Columba intermedia. — The Indian Blue. Rock-Pigeon. 
Common throughout the year in the valley of the Chitral river up to 
Shost (10,000 feet) and in some of the side valleys. 

(1296) Columba leuconota. — The White-bellied Pigeon. 
The " Snow Pigeon" is not uncommon in summer at elevations 
of 11,000 to 14,000 feet at the head of the Shishi Koh and Turikho. 

In the latter valley, although I was unable to find a nest, I believe 
the birds were nesting. (July.) (Also noted in Yasin. July). 
(1305) Turtur perrago.- The Indian Turtle-Dove. 
A common visitor to the valleys of Lower Chitral. Arrives during 
the second or third week in April, and leaves in August and September. 
I noted what I believe to be birds of this species at the head of the 
Turikho Valley in July in the birch jungle at 11,000 feet. 

(1307) Turtur suratensis.— The Spotted Dove. 
Common in summer in the valleys of Lower Chitral at elevations of 
4,000 to 8,000 feet. Not a winter resident. Arrives in April. Depar- 
ture not noted. 

(1309) Turtur cambayensis. — The Little Brown Dove. 
Only one specimen, a male, was obtained on 18th April at Drosh. 
It is probably common. 

(1310) Turtur risorius. — The Indian Ring-Dove. 
Common in cultivated districts, arriving in April from lower country. 
It is not present in winter. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF CH1TRAL. SI 

ORDER XIII.— PTEROCLETES. 
ORDER XIV.— GALLING. 

Sub-order. — Alectropodes. 

Family Phasianidai. 

(1334) Pucrasia macrolopha ( Var. castanea). — The Koklas or 

Pukras Pheasant. 
This fine pheasant is common on some of the heavily timbered moun- 
tain sides of Lower Chitral, viz., Pattison, Asreth, and the valley behind 
Drosh Fort. 

It is generally found above 7,000 feet, but ranges lower in winter. 
Specimens are very difficult to obtain owing to the dense nature of the 
ground they keep to. There are probably large numbers of them in Dir 
and Kafiristan. At the head of the Pattison valley their harsh cry can be 
continually heard in spring. It is also to be heard in the Asreth Valley. 
It is the call of the male that has led to the belief that the jungle fowl 
( Gallusferrugineus) is to be found in the country. I made a special point 
of trying, if possible, to find the jungle fowl and have no doubt that none 
exist. All the camps at which the cry of the jungle fowl is said to have 
been heard, are far above the limit of elevation to which they are known 
to extend. It can be easily understood that the cry kok, kok, kok, kokras, 
or the plain kokras has been mistaken for that of the jungle fowl when 
heard at any distance. When however the call is once heard near at 
hand it cannot be possibly confounded with that of G.ferrugineus. 
(1342) Lophophorus rbfulgens. — The Monal. 
This beautiful pheasant is common on the wooded ridges of Lower 
Chitral. In winter they are found at elevations up to 10,000 feet and 
in summer still higher. 

(1355) Coturnix communis. — The Common or Grey Quail. 
Passes through the country during the end of April and beginning of 
May in small numbers. 

A certain number stay in the country and possibly breed. They may, 
however, be only stragglers who have been unable to continue their 
migration. 

I saw a pair at the head of the Turikho Valley in July at 14,000 feet. 

(1370) Caccabis chucar. — The Chukor. 
Very common throughout the year all over the country, ranging in 
summer up to 12,000 feet and perhaps higher, and in winter 4,000 feet. 



62 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

I noted a hen with chicks in the Turikho Valley at 12,000 feet on 
12th July and another at 6,000 feet on 27th July. 

(1378) Tbtraogallus himalayensis.— The Himalayan 

Snow-Cock. 
Present throughout the year at elevations of 6,000 feet and upwards. 
The Snow-Cock is found at ranges as low as 6,000 feet near Drosh in 
March and April. They migrate to higher altitudes towards the middle 
of April, and are during summer to be found on the open country at 
16,000 feet and perhaps higher. 

They are shy and difficult to get, as they gradually make towards 
almost inaccessible points, and consequently when shot fall hundreds of 
feet, so that when picked up they are usually badly mangled. I saw 
two clutches of young birds between 15,000 and 16,000 feet on the edge 
of the snow line on 20th July. (Turikho.) 

OEDER XV.— HEMIPODII. 

ORDER XVI.— GRALLiE. 

Family Rallidce. 

(1405) Fulica atra.— The Coot. 

Only one specimen obtained at Drosh (4,000 feet) 20th March. 

ORDER XVII.— LIMICOL^l. 

Family Charadriidce. 

(1436) Vanbllus vulgaris. — The Lapwing or Peewit. 

A winter visitor, not numerous, but fairly common on the flat culti- 
vated land along the river. Remains till late in May and some probably 
breed in the country. 

(1437) Chettusia gregaria. — The Sociable Lapwing. 
Fairly common in the main valley during winter. Generally in 

small flocks of 4 or 5, 

I also obtained specimens at the head of the Bimboret Valley on the 
swampy ground at 6,000 feet during April. 

They were at Drosh at the end of May and probably breed in the 
country. 

(1460) Totanus hypoleucus.— The Common 

Sandpiper. 

Only one specimen, a male, was obtained at Chitral on 30th May. 

(1461) Totands glareola. — The Wood 

Sandpiper. 

One specimen, a male, was shot at Drosh on 8th May, 



NOTES ON TBE BIRDS OF CHITRAL. 63 

(1462) Totanus ochropus. — The Green Sandpiper. 
Common in Lower Chitral along the river bank in March and April 
and beginning of May. I am certain they breed in the country 
although I obtained no eggs. 

I found numbers of them at the head of the Turikho Valley at 
elevations of 9,000 to 14,000 feet in July. 

(1471) Tringa minuta.— The Little Stint. 
Common in April and May along the river bed, evidently on their 
northward migration. 

(1480) Phalaropus hypbrboreus. — The Red-necked Phalarope. 
Only one specimen, a male, was obtained at Drosh on 14th September. 

(1482) Scolopax rusticula. — The Woodcock. 
Not numerous. Present throughout the year in the wooded valleys 
of Lower Chitral (5,000 feet). 

Specimens were obtained in Utzun in January and May, Bimboret 
(6,000 and 7,000 feet) April, and Shishi Koh (7,000 feet), June. 
Evidently breeds in the country. 

(1484) Gallinago c^lestis. — The Common Snipe. 
Only a few noted at Drosh the third week in April on their north- 
ward migration. 

(1486) Gallinago solitaria. — The Himalayan 
Solitary Snipe. 
Not common. One specimen was obtained in December at the 
mouth of the Shishi Koh (4,000 feet), two in the Bimboret Valley at 
7,000 feet (March), a few others were also seen there. 
In May I saw a pair in the Pattison Valley at 6,000 feet. 
ORDER XVIII.-GAVI^]. 
Family Laridce. 
(1490) Larus ridibundus .— The Laughing Gull. 
Only one specimen, a female, was obtained at Drosh on 9th March. 
ORDER XIX.— STEGANOPODES. 
ORDER XX.— TUBINARES. 
ORDER XXI.— HERODIONES. 
Sub-order Ardece. Family Ardekice. 
(1555) Ardba cinerea.— The Common Heron. 
A female was obtained on the 9th March at Drosh (4,000 feet) and 
several passed through at the end of March, flying north. I saw a pair 



64 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV 1. 

at the junction of the Turikho with the Chitral River (7,000 feet) at the 
end of June. 

(In October I saw a pair on the Panjkora River below Robat DirJ 

ORDER XXII.-PH(ENICOPTERI. 

ORDER XXIII.— ANSERES. 

Family Anatidce. 

Sub-family Anserince. 

(1583) Anser indicus. — The Barred-headed Goose. 

Although I did not see any specimens of this species in Chitral it is 

probable that it occurs. 

This species breeds on the Shandur Lake which is just over the Chitral 
border, and I saw several tamed birds that had been taken as nestlings 
the previous year. 

Sub-family Anatince. 

(1592) Anas boscas. — The Mallard. 

It passes through on its northward migration, beginning early in 

March and continuing till the end of the month, and on its return 

passage, beginning about the second week of September. This species 

does not winter in the country. 

(1597) Nettium crecca. — The Common Teal. 
Passes through to the north during March and first week in April 
in large numbers, and returns south about the beginning of October. 
A certain number winter in the country. 

(1599) Mareca penelope. — The Wigeon. 
Passes north during March and first week in April, returning south 
in October. 

Does not appear to be very numerous, nor does it winter in the 
country. 

(1G00) Dafila acuta. — The Pintail. 
Does not winter. Passes north towards the end of February and 
March. The return south was not noted. 

(1602) Spatula cltpeata. — The Shoveller. 
Passes north during March and the first week in April. The return 
migration was not noted. 

ORDER XXIV.— PYGOPODES. 



65 

WATER-YIELDING PLANTS FOUND IN THE 

THANA FORESTS. 

By G. M. Ryan, i.f.s. f.l.s. 

{Head before the Bombay Natural History Society on 29th Sept. 1904.) 

Calycopteris floribunda, commonly known as Ukshi in Thana, is one 
of the most interesting (if not the most interesting) scandent shrubs of the 
Thana District. In alluding to it as such, however, it is necessary to 
explain that this is not its habit of growth in all parts of India. In the 
''Flora of British India" it is described as "a diffuse dense 

shrub not at all scandent," but Sir Dietrich Brandis, in his 

" Flora of N.-W. Central India," and Mr. Gamble, in his " Manual of 
Indian Timbers," both refer to it as possessing a climbing habit. 

In the Thana District it may be seen both as a diffuse shrub and 
formidable scandent one. When standing isolated in waste areas it 
seems to acquire the former habit in consequence of being lopped annu- 
ally for fuel and tahal,* and when growing in the forest amidst large-tree 
growth it assumes a scandent form. Attention cannot help but being 
directed towards this interesting member of the vegetable world, espe- 
cially at the commencement of the hot weather when in flower, for it 
then forms a most attractive plant. As a climber its pretty pale 
golden flowers bedeck the illuminated heights of a tree covering it, 
as it were, with glory, and as a shrub its pale golden inflorescence 
is even still more abundant and handsome. It has often been a 
surprise under the circumstances why Calycopteris floribunda has not 
been more utilized as an ornamental plant in gardens in Western 
India. Its climbing habit probably has been a barrier to its in- 
troduction, but this can easily be checked by yearly attention. A 
very fine specimen of the shrub exists in the hanging gardens on the 
Gibbs Road, Malabar Hill. Bombay, and Mr. W. S. Millard, one of the 
Honorary Secretaries of the Natural History Society, who is superin- 
tending the horticultural improvements at Malabar Point, states that 
specimens of this scandent shrub may be seen in Government House 
grounds there. The Ukshi, when a scandent shrub, ascends the bole of 
a tree in a characteristic manner, climbing from left to right. Having 
established itself in the forest in some spot not far from a tree it extends 

* Tahal is the term used in the Thana District for the branchwood and leaves which are 
cut to provide wood-ash manure for the rice nursery beds. 
9 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

its leading shoot till it reaches the branch of an adjacent one. It pro- 
ceeds to embrace the bole at first in several loose coils and then to 
stretch its leader out as if in search of a further exterior support, failing 
to find which it returns to the original bole and forms three or four 
constricting coils round it, continuing to adopt the left-to-right habit. 

Releasing its grasp again it succeeds by a series of wide curves or 
swoops to reach the illuminated heights of the crown. Here it commences 
to form a net-work of branches, spreading across the crown, and perhaps 
overhanging it, until at length some of the branches are suspended in 
graceful festoons. A tree thus invaded naturally is unable to expand and 
eventually dies ; but the climber itself does not stop its course. Hav- 
ing, perhaps, reached the ground, especially where the tree invaded is a 
small one, its growth is further stimulated by its lower branches rooting 
in the soil and forming new individuals. It also possesses the faculty 
of reproducing itself by root-suckers, so that when once it has entered a 
forest and if the leaf canopy has not completely formed, it spreads in all 
directions by this means and also by means of its stoloniferous branches. 

In some instances after having reached the illuminated heights of a 
tree it is stimulated also to throw out another arm from its base, and this 
latter instead of attaching itself to the bole of the host and climbing up 
it, embraces one of its own scandent shoots that have grown old with the 
tree and been stripped of its foliage and coils tightly round it, restrict- 
ing its circumferential growth at the parts in contact with the coils, 
forming strands like those of a cable. Such a scandent form is 
common in the canopied forests of the Bassein Range where the Ukshi. 
both as a climber and a shrub, may be seen to advantage. 

In these interesting forests, which are at the base of the Tungar plateau 
in Bassein, the Ukshi stems here reaqh a girth of 1 to 2| feet. Where 
the latter have grown old with the trees and where the older portions 
have been stripped of their foliage they resemble ropes loosely stretched 
between the ground and tree summits and between tree and tree, formino- 
swings in some places and rope-ladders, as it were, for the monkeys.* 

The branches of the Ukshi being annually lopped around villa oes 
between January and April for tahal as already explained it is not often 
seen in flower in such localities. The smaller twigs are utilized for 
native tooth brushes. The most interesting characteristic: of the plant is 

* Vide Earner's " Natural History of Plants." 



WATER-YIELDING PLANTS FOUND IN THE THAN A FORESTS. 67 

its faculty of storing in its climbing stems, and especially those which 
have grown old with the trees, a liquid resembling water which 
is commonly drunk by the wild tribes to allay thirst when water is not 
available. Such liquid is found in the stems at almost all periods of 
the dry season, but in greater abundance during the hot weather. 
It is obtained only from the stems of the scandent shrub. To obtain it 
a piece of the stem five feet long is entirely removed from the stem and 
held up vertically, a vessel being placed beneath into which the water, 
as we may call it, dribbles as freely as from a tap. As much as a quart 
has been drawn from four pieces of the following dimensions in this 
manner : — 

Length. Girth. 

2'-8" 1' 

2'-7" 10" 

2'-3" 1' 

2'-2" 10" 

In order to procure the water it is necessary that the operation of 
removing the required piece from the bole should be quickly performed, 
i.e., the sections above and below should be made as rapidly as possible ; 
otherwise most of the water rises in the stem and fails to exude. If a 
section is made at one end only, or if an incision merely is made in the 
wood, little or no exudation of the water takes place. On being drawn 
it resembles clear spring water in appearance and is not at all unpleasant 
to drink. After exposure for a few hours, however, it turns a pale amber 
colour. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. W. L. Harvey, I.C.S., C.I.E., Muni- 
cipal Commissioner, Bombay, the following interesting report of the 
analysis of the sample of the water has been made by the Municipal 
analyst, and Mr. Harvey, in forwarding the report, adds — " The Health 
Officer is of opinion that it is not injurious to health if used for drinking 
purposes " — 

Total solids 0-07 percent.* 

Mineral matter ... ... ... ... ••• 0*02 „ 

Organic and volatile matter ... ... ... 0*05 „ 

Total acids (in terms of c.c.N/ 10 alkali required). 6'8 „ 

Volatile acids ( do. do. ) 5'1 „ 

Fixed acids ( do. do. ) 1*7 ,, 



68 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

" The organic matter was found to consist of a tanin and traces of 
albuminoids and gummy matter, while alcohol, starchy and saccharine 
matter was tested for with negative results. The free acid in the sample 
consists of acetic and other acids. The mineral matter in the sample 
consists of chlorides, sulphates, lime, ferric oxide and sodium oxide 
together with traces of nitrates and potassium." 

The water in a plant like Calycopteris floribimdci, possessing such 
interesting economic value, is doubtless on occasions put to successful 
use by the wild tribes, especially the Kolis and Kathodis who of late 
years have been committing dacoities in the Thana District. Capturing 
the dacoits has always been a difficult task, but it was thought this task 
would be facilitated during the hot weather when most of the pools, &c, 
had dried up in the forests. The police accordingly, in expectation of 
apprehending their prey, have kept a watch over the different pools in 
the jungles, but without much, if any, result. May not the water provi- 
ded by the Ukshi have been the charm which enabled the dacoits to keep 
the police at arm's length ? Under the facilities provided by the plant for 
quenching thirst the dacoits would be able to be independent of all pools 
and springs, and could wander at will through the forests. This sugges- 
tion is thrown out to some of our experienced, not to say smart, police 
officers whose attention is invited to the interesting economic use to 
which it is possible to apply the Ukshi, presuming such use has not been 
heard of before. 

The climber is found in some of the numerous canon-like ravines 
which exists along the western projection of the ghats, an area 
which for a long time has been the favourite haunts of the dacoits, and it 
is also a noticeable plant in the forests surrounding the well-known 
Tungar plateau as already stated. Its sylvicultural requirements are 
moderate amount of illumination and a humid and relatively cool atmos- 
phere with a freely drained laterite soil, so that it flourishes best in the 
hilly forest along the Konkan Sea Coast and in the moist ravines more 
inland in the localities already alluded to. 

Another climber known as Nandvel ( Vitis adnata, Wall.) is exceed- 
ingly common in the forests almost all over Thana District, which also 
yields a harmless beverage which is utilized similarly to quench thirst 
when water is not available in forests, but it produces slight throat 
irritation after swallowing, which renders it less popular than the water 



WATER-YIELDING PLANTS FOUND IN THE THAN A FORESTS. 69 

from Calycopieris. It is often found where the latter does not exist 
however, and under such circumstances it is frequently resorted to 
instead for drinking purposes.* 

Forest guards have told me that they have been under the necessity 
of resorting to the water from Nandvel when working in some out- 
of-the-way forests or on the summit of a hill slope when marking- 
coupes, and it was in this way that my attention was first attracted to 
the interesting quality possessed by Nandvel and which ultimately led 
to my ascertaining the same uses in the Ukshi. 

At page 7, Volume XXII, of the ' : Indian Forester" Viiis latifoliaf 
is reported, I see, to yield also a beverage which the Dehra Dun students 
sometimes indulge in when in the forests. A few other trees, etc., in the 
Thana forests are found which yield liquids resembling water from either 
the roots or their stems and which are turned to various economic, 
medicinal and other uses, and a description of these it is proposed to 
leave for another occasion when an opportunity offers. 

• When marching through the forests along the Waitarna River in Mokhada with 
Mr. Clyton, I.C.S., it was observed how frequently the Nandvel had been out. 

f Vitix lafifoUa is also found in the Thana forests, and it probably also yields water 
similar to Vitis adnata. Both are known as Nandvel. 



70 

THE BIRDS OF THE MADHUBANI SUB-DIVISION OF THE DAR- 

BHANGA DISTRICT, TIRHUT, WITH NOTES ON SPECIES 

NOTICED ELSEWHERE IN THE DISTRICT. 

By C. M. Inglis. 

Part VIII. 

{Continued from page 343 of Vol. XV .) 

Addenda et Corrigenda. 
(4) Parus atriceps. — The Indian Grey Tit. 
I mentioned that this species arrived about the third week of September, but 
in 1901 I obtained one on the 17th July, near Baghownie. 

(11) Otocompsa emeria. — The Bengal Red-whiskered Bulbul. 
This species is a rare bird near Baghownie. I have only seen one or two 
specimens. 

(327) Acrocephalus stentoreds. — The Indian Great Reed-Warbler. 
Oates, No. 363 ; Hume, No. 515, 
On the 19th November 1902 I obtained a female of this species near 
Baghownie. 

(328) Ch^etornis locostelloides.— The Bristled Grass-Warbler. 
Oates, No. 392 ; Hume, No. 441. 
On the 17th June 1902 several specimens were procured in the Ramowlie 
grass which lies between Hatauri and Anarh. 

(329) Phylloscopus tytleri. — Tytler's Willow-Warbler. 
Oates, No. 406 ; Hume, No. 500 bis. 
A Willow-Warbler was brought to me on the 8th October 1901 by a boy 
who shot it with a pellet bow. I take it to be this species. 

(32) Tephrodornis pondicerianus. — The Common Wood-Shrike. 
A nest containing three fresh eggs, along with one of the parent birds, was 
brought to me on the 12th March 1904. It was found in a mango grove near 
Baghownie. 

(40) Oriolus kundoo. — The Indian Oriole. 
In 1901 this species arrived at Baghownie on the 10th March, ten days earlier 
than the date I gave when writing about this species. 

(45) Temenuchus pagodardm. — The Black-headed Myna. 

I have taken the eggs of this species in June. I also got a single young one, 

fully fledged, from a hole in a kheir tree on the 18th of that month, so the 

eggs must have been laid some time in May. Towards the end of April a pair 

was seen making nesting arrangements, but up to date of writing, the 6th May, 

they have not laid. 

(46) Acridotheres tristis. — The Common Myna. 
A bird was seen a few miles from Baghownie, which had a pure white tail. 
The remainder was in ordinary plumage. 

(49) Sturnopastor contra. — The Pied Myna. 
A nearly pure albino of this species was brought me by a mir-shikar on the 
30th August 1903. I append a description of the same. 



THE BIRDS OF THE MADHUBANI SOB-DIVISION. 71 

Whole plumage pure white, with the following exceptions : — Remiges pure 
black, except the first or fifth primaries on one wing and the fifth on the other 
wing, the first on that wing being black. First secondary also white. One or 
two of the median coverts also black ; some black feathers near the nares and 
a few on the crown also — black patch on the side of the breast near the bend of 
the wing ; one or two greyish feathers on the breast and abdomen. Rump mixed 
black and white. Rectrices black except the outermost feather, which is white. 
(53) Cyornis rubeculoides.— The Blue-throated Flycatcher. 
A fine male was procured near Baghownie on the 26th November 1902. 

(56) Terpsiphone paradisi. — The Indian Paradise Flycatcher. 
Adult males sometimes have the feathers of the tail next the central one 
lengthened, as has been noticed in the case of S. affinis by Mr. E. C. Stuart 
Baker. 

(61 : Pratincola leucura. — The White-tailed Bush Chat. 
A pair of birds of this species was shot on the 21st March 1904 at Benoa 
where a small party were seen in a large grass. 

(62) P. insignis. — Hodgson's Bush Chat. 
Males of this species were obtained at Baghownie in October 1902. 
(330) Thamnobia cambaiensis — The Brown-backed Indian Robin. 
Oates, No. 661; Hume, No. 480. 
In December 1900 one of my men fired at a bird, which, I think, must have 
belonged to this species, and as it had white on the coverts, it was a male. 
(68) Cittocincla macrura. — The Shama. 
One was fired at and missed on the 28th August 1901. A female shot near 
Baghownie on the 9th October of the same year, and which was dissected by 
myself, was in male plumage with the mouth yellow. 

(80) Spor^eginthus amandava— The Indian Red Munia. 

From observations taken from specimens in captivity, males do moult into 
a winter plumage. This year I intend keeping notes on the subject. 

(81) Carpodacus erythrinus. — The Common Rose-finch. 

A flock of about twenty were seen near Baghownie flying on the 14th March 
1904 in some jungle, out of which three were shot. 

(331) Emberiza fucata. — The Grey-headed Bunting. 

Oates, No. 790 ; Hume, No. 719. 

A male of this species was got near Baghownie on the 25th March 1904. The 

testes were greatly enlarged. Oates says he has never seen a specimen of this 

Bunting from the plains proper, but evidently Jerdon was correct when he said 

it was found sparingly there in places. 

(332) Melophus melanicterus. — The Crested Bunting. 
Oates, No. 803 ; Hume, No. 724. 
A small party was found at the same place and on the same date as the 
Rose-finches. They kept to the trees and would not come to the ground. I 
wanted my mir-shikar to snare some, but he was unable to do so, so several 
specimens were shot. 



72 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(333) Anthus striolatus.— Blyth's Pipit. 
Gates, No. 846 ; Hume, No. 601. 
Several specimens were obtained near Baghownie, and a nest with four eggs 
was'taken there on the 16th April 1904. They appear to keep more to the 
shade of trees, such as the kheir. &c. 

C104) Alauda gulgula— The Indian Sky-lark. 
A nest with two eggs was taken on the 28th April 1904 near Baghownie, and 
several others were found, but without eggs. 

(334) Pitta bracuyura.— The Indian Pitta. 
Oates, No. 933 ; Hume, No. 
A single male of this species was got in a mango grove, near Baghownie, on the 
13th May 1904. It had just alighted on the ground from one of the mango trees 
and was by itself. None of the native fowlers round here recognize the bird, so 
it must be very rare. This is the only one I have ever seen, and it is not a species 
that is likely to be overlooked. A female got on the 21st of the same month. 
(130) Halcyon pileata.— The Black-capped Kingfisher. 
Several more specimens have been procured since writing about this species. 
Though undoubtedly rare, it is not so scarce as I thought it was. Native 
name Allah tanlci. All white varieties or albinos of birds are called Ablak 
by the native fowlers here, so they evidently take it to be only a variety of 
H. smymensis. 

(335) Anthracoceros albirostris — The Indo-Burmese Hornbill. 
Blanford, No. 1053 ; Hume, No. 142. 
A hornbill came to a tree quite close to the bungalow. One of my servants 
saw it there, and said it had been there all the morning. I went to have a look 
at it, but could only see the breast and abdomen, which were pure white, as the 
bird was hidden by a clump of parasite (Loranthus sp.) My servant saw the 
bird, and said the head and the neck was a mixture of black and white, the upper 
breast was black and the abdomen white. The bill, he said, was yellowish. I 
did not disturb the bird, as I expected my man in with my gun at any moment 
and thought I might get a shot at it. It flew away, however, before he arrived. 
I showed the man who saw the bird a skin of A. albirostris, and he said it was 
like it, except the head and neck, which were banded with black and white. 
I cannot identify the bird unless it was this species. 

(336) Cagomantis merulinus.— The Rufous-bellied Cuckoo. 
Blanford, No. 1113 ; Hume, No. 209. 
An adult male of this species was shot near Baghownie on the 7th November 
1903. 

(148) Pal/EORNIS CYANOCEPHALDS. — The Western Blossom-headed Paroquet. 
A nest with two eggs was taken from a hole in a sisso tree at Jainagar on 
the 20th March 1904. This is the first 1 have seen. 

(150) Strix Candida. — The Grass-Owl. 
I have seen several of this species in some small grasses near Hatauri, and 
some also frequent the large Ramowlie grass. 



THE BIRDS OF THE MADHUBANI SUB-DIVISION. 73 

(154) Scops giu. — The Scops Owl. 
Another specimen, a female, was got near Baghownie on the 20th November 
1902, 

(155) S. bakkamcena. — The Collared Scops Owl. 
A nest containing four slightly incubated eggs was found in a hole in a 
peepul tree not far from Baghownie. 

(157) Ninox scutulata. — The Brown Hawk-Owl. 
One or two more specimens have been obtained near Baghownie since 
writing about this species. 

(180) Accipiter nisus. — The Sparrow-Hawk. 
I obtained a specimen at Baghownie on the 28th November 1902. 
(337) Turtur orientalis. — The Rufous Turtle Dove. 
Blanford, No. 1304 ; Hume, No. 793. 
A solitary specimen was shot by me in my compound at Baghownie on the 
27th August 1903. It was undoubtedly this species as I compared it with my 
Cachar specimens. 

(193) Turtur ferrago. — The Indian Turtle Dove. 
I have also taken the eggs of this species in July as well as during the 
months previously mentioned. 

(199) Coturnix coromandelica. — The Rain Quail. 
The first and only specimen of this*species obtained by me was got on the 5th 
May 1904. It was a male and was near Baghownie along with some Grey and 
Button Quail. 

(338) Francolinus gularis. — The Swamp Partridge. 
Blanford, No. 1376 ; Hume, No. 823. 
A pair were brought me on the 19th March 1904 by a mir-shikar, who says 
he snared them in a large grass in the E. of this subdivision. He also 
mentioned that he had got the eg<*s, but ate them. He has promised to get 
me more birds and, if possible, the eggs. Mr. Edgell wrote me that he had 
shot this species in the Monghyr District. My pair are kept in an aviary 
along with a male Black Partridge and a lot of other birds. They never appear 
to quarrel with any of the other species ; in fact, they used to be bullied by an 
Australian Crested Dove (Ocyphaps lophotes). They are rather quiet birds, 
only occasionally uttering a loud qua, qua, qua, which ascends in tone. I 
have heard no other note. They are very shy, keeping hid most of the day. 
The hen is not as shy as the cock. 

(217) Anthropoides virgo. — The Demoiselle Crane. 
A flock came to the Kamla, near Jainagar, about the end of April, out of 
which one was secured. 

(218) Sypheotis bengalensis. — The Bengal Florican. 
I have at last succeeded in getting a specimen of a Florican. It was 
brought here on the 28th of August. It was snared somewhere in the District 
and was alive when brought, but I believe in a very emaciated condition, the 
sides of the head are buff and the greater portion of the back is mottled. 
10 



74 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(339) Vanellus vulgaris.— The Lapwing. 
Blanford, No. 1436 ; Hume, No. 851. 
A single bird was snaredat the Maiser chaur on the 8th August 1903, but 
was too much damaged for preservation. This is the only one that has ever 
been got here. 

(340) Chettusia geegaru. — The Sociable Lapwing. 
Blanford, No. 1437 ; Hume, No. 852. 
A few were got at the Maiser chaur on New Year's Day, 1903, and again a 
few more on the 1st February of the same year. 

(236) Numenius pha;opus. — The Whimbrel. 
A second specimen, a male, was got at the Maiser chaur on the 12th Sep- 
tember 1903. 

(215) Pavoxcella pugnax. — The Ruff and Reeve. 
On the 15th February 1904 a male Ruff was. shot near Raghownie with a 
white head and neck, except one or two dark feathers on the crown. Mr. 
Finn wrote an article on this form, to which he gives the sub-specific name of 
Pavoncella pugnax leueoprora, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Rengal, 
Vol. LXXI, Part II, No. 1 of 1902. 

(341) Tringa subarquata.— The Curlew Stint. 
Blanford, No. 1477 ; Hume, No. 882. 
A single male specimen, changing from summer to winter plumage, was 
snared on the Maiser chaur and brought to me on the 8th August 1903. 

(254) Larus ichthyaetus. — The Great Rlack-headed Gull. 
Another specimen of this fine gull was got on the Renoa chaur on the 3rd 
March 1904. It was a male, in breeding plumage. 

(268) Phalacrocorax carbo. — The Large Cormorant. 
A fine bird in breeding plumage was got on the Renoa chaur on the 21st 
March 1904. 

(277) Ciconia nigra.— The Rlack Stork. 
At last I have succeeded in obtaining a specimen of this stork. A fine male 
was snared on the Roopuspur chaur on the 9th January 1904. I append the 
dimensions and colours of the soft parts of this specimen. Length 42" ; wing 
21" ; tail 9'5" ; tarsus 8" ; bill at front 7*6" ; bill at gapeS" ; expanse 75'8". Rill, 
orbital skin and legs vermilion ; former tinged with brown except at tip and 
base and front of tarsus brownish ; iris light brown. The native name I gave 
was correct. 

(281) Leptoptilus javanicus. — The Lesser Adjutant. 
Another specimen, a male, was got near Raghownie on the 15th September 
1903. 

(287) Herouias intermedia.— The Smaller Egret, 
Two males, in full breeding plumage, have been obtained since my note on 
this species. One was got at Fureckeer in the Monghyr District on the 22nd April 
1903, and the other at the Hurrietta chaur in this district on the 25th May of 
the same year. 



TEE BIRDS OF THE MADHUBANI SUB-DIVISION. 75 

(300) Sarcidiornis melanonotus. — The Nukta. 

A couple more specimens of this duck have been got, both females. One 
was secured on the Maiser chaur on the 8th January 1903, and the other on 
the Benoa chaur on the 12th March 1904. 

(301) Khodonessa caryophyllacea. — The Pink-headed Duck. 

Another pink-headed Duck was brought on the 25th June of this year. It 
was snared on the Benoa chaur, where the first specimen came from. This 
one seems very healthy and is at present in my water aviary in the com- 
pany of a pair of Mandarins (Mx galericulata), a wild Duck (^4. boscas), two 
Spot-Bills {A. pcecilorhyncha) , a Shoveller (£. clyjieafa), a blue-winged Teal 
(Q. circia), a pair of Nicobar Pigeons (C. nicobarica), and an Australian Crested 
Dove (0. lophotes). They all seem to get along together well enough. 

(307) Anas boscas. — The Mallard. 

I have received another specimen from this district. It is a male, and was 
brought to me by a native fowler. At present I have got it alive. 
(308) A. pcecilorhyncha.— The Spotted-billed Duck. 

I believe this species breeds near Muktapur Factory in this district. This 
cold season, 1903-04, has been one of the worst for migratory wild fowl. 
Nothing decent has been seen or brought me, with the exception of the above- 
mentioned Mallard. Two of these ducks were brought here at the same time 
and from the same place as the above-mentioned pink-headed duck. One of 
them is at present alive in my tealery, and the other died. A third one was 
brought on the loth July from the same place ; this one is also alive. There 
were, I believe, about half a dozen of these birds in the chaur, but with bird 
lime the mir shikar only managed to snare one. 



76 

THE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON, 

By 

Major N. Manders, r.a.m.c, f.z.s., f.e.s. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 
24th November 1904.) 

The Island of Ceylon has now been so thoroughly ransacked for 
butterflies that assuredly very few species remain to be discovered, pro- 
bably not more than half a dozen at the outside. Some general conclu- 
sions regarding their origin and distribution may now be ventured on 
and an analysis of the various species may be of some interest. 

Before doing so it may be as well to recall the chief geographical 
features and climate of the Island, as it is on these two factors that the 
variation of butterflies, to my mind, chiefly depend. Cape Comorin, at 
the extreme end of the Indian Peninsula, almost reaches the 6th degree 
North latitude and is opposite Puttalam in Ceylon, a small village not 
more than eighty miles north of Colombo. The effect of this position 
is that nearly two -thirds of the Island is sheltered, as it were, by the 
Indian Peninsula, and this causes a remarkable contrast in the sheltered 
and unsheltered portions of the Island. It will be noticed, further, that 
the Hill districts of Ceylon are confined to the south-west portion of the 
Island, so that the whole of the northern and eastern part is either shel- 
tered by the mountains of India or those of Ceylon, and this causes a 
very marked difference of climate in different parts of the Island. The 
South-West monsoon passing up the East Coast of Africa is deflected off 
the Island of Socotra across the Arabian Sea and divides into two cur. 
rents, one of which strikes the Western Ghauts and the other the south- 
west portion of Ceylon. That current which strikes the Indian Pen- 
insula loses its moisture in the Western Ghauts and Anamallai and 
Travancore Hills and reaches Ceylon north of Puttalam as a com- 
paratively dry wind, and certainly a distinctly dry wind by the time 
it reaches Trincomalee on the east of the Island. 

On the other hand, the mountains of the south-west portion of Ceylon 
receive the full benefit of the South- West monsoon in the Hills and 
comes to the South-East portion of the Island as a dry wind in a similar 
manner as in the north. 

It will be noticed, therefore, that in the greater part of the Island 
the South- West monsoon is a dry wind. On the other hand, the North- 
East monsoon travelling over the Bay of Bengal reaches the northern 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON 77 

and eastern part of the Island loaded with moisture, and a tremendous 
downpour, almost continuous, is the result. The mountains also 
receive a yery fair amount, and even Colombo on the western sea 
board is treated to heavy afternoon and evening thunderstorms. 

The climate of the Island, speaking generally, runs thus : From the 
end of January to the end of May it is dry all over the Island and 
there is very little wind ; at the end of May to the end of September 
the South-West monsoon brings heavy rain to the Ceylon Hills, but a 
dry wind to the rest of the Island ; at the end of October the North- East 
monsoon brings heavy rain all over the Island, but more particularly 
to the northern and eastern parts. 

The Hills begin to rise about thirty miles from the western coast 
and sink again into the low country at a very considerable distance 
from the eastern and northern sea boards. As it is, that portion of 
the country devoted to tea and cocoa cultivation, and therefore more 
inhabited by Europeans, and as it possesses, near by, the most important 
harbour of Colombo and being, withal, the most beautiful and conse- 
quently the most visited district in Ceylon, it has obtained a notoriety 
certainly most deserving, but at the same time of undue prominence, 
taking into consideration its small area compared with the rest of the 
Island. 

There is no doubt that the usually received ideas regarding Ceylon 
are, if taken as a whole, erroneous, for of the large number of globe- 
trotters and others who visit Ceylon annually not one in a thousand 
visits the low country, but confine their peregrinations chiefly to 
Kandy and Nuwara Eliya in the Hill district. 

The physical configuration of this portion of the Island and that of the 
Western Ghauts being so similar, and the climate also being almost 
identical, together with, in all probability, a land connection in far off 
times, probably accounts for the remarkable similarity of the butterflies 
found in these regions. 

They form a very natural group which extends to the North Kanara 
district in India and thence gradually thins out and disappears a little 
to the north of Bombay. It also extends to the Nilgiris, which are 
an off-shoot of the Western Ghauts, but which have in addition some 
species such as Colias Nilgiriensis of palaearctic affinities. The similarity 
of the butterflies of the rest of the Island with those of the Deccan and 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



plains of the Madras Presidency is likewise to be accounted for by like 
conditions of physical characteristics, climate and propinquity. 

Two hundred and thirty species of butterflies have been recorded 
from Ceylon. Of these 163 are mostly common and widely distributed 
insects, such as Pyrameis cardui and require no further mention, as the 
Ceylon insects do not vary from those found elsewhere. The following- 
three species are confined to Ceylon, but show affinity to Malayan or 
Chinese species : — 

Danais exprompta. 

Euploea corus=elisa. 

Elymnias singhala. 
Fifteen species are confined to Ceylon : — 



1. 

9 

-J . 

3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 



Danais taprobana. 
Lethe dynsate. 
Lethe daretis. 
Euthalia vasanta. 
Lampides coruscans. 
Lampides lacteata. 
Cyaniris lanka. 



9. Aphnaeus minima. 

10. Hantana infernus. 

11. Sarangesa albicilia. 

12. Baracus vittatus. 

13. Suastus minuta. 

14. Halpe egena. 

15. Halpe decorata. 



8. Aphnaeus greeni. 

The following 47 species form the Indo- Ceylon group, those in italics 

are found in South India and Ceylon and nowhere else ; the others 

are confined to Ceylon and are probably local races of South Indian 

insects : — 

18. Cethosia nietneri. 

19. Cynthia asela. 

20. Cirrhochroa lanka. 

21. Kallima philarchus. 

22. s Atella ceylonica. 

23. Ergolis taprobana. 

24. Libythea rama. 

25. Libythea lepitoides. 

26. Abisai'a prunosa. 

27. Cyaniris singalensis. 

28. Arrhopala pirama. 

29. Hypolycima nilgirica. 

30. Horaga cingalensis. 

31. Lomura arcuata. 

32. Ch eritra jaffra. 

33. Rapala lankama. 

34. Rapala lasulina. 



1. 


Hestia jasonia. 


2. 


Danais ceylanica. 


3. 


Euploea asela. 


4. 


Euploea sinhala. 


5. 


Euploea montana. 


fi. 


Mycalesis rama. 


7. 


Mycalesis subdita. 


8. 


Mycalesis patnia. 


9. 


Elymnias fraterna. 


10. 


Discophora lepida. 


11. 


Charaxes psaphon. 


12. 


Parthenos cyaneus. 


13. 


Euthalia evelina. 


14. 


Limenitis callidosa. 


15. 


Neptis sinuata. 


16. 


Cupha placida. 


17. 


Rohana camiba. 



35. 


Prioneris sita. 


36. 


Ixias cingalensis. 


37. 


Teracolus tripuncta. 


38. 


T. eucharis. 


39. 


Appias taprobana. 


40. 


Hebomoia australis. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON. 79 

41. Huphina remba. 

42. Nepheronia ceylunica. 

43. Troides darius. 

44. Papilio jophon. 

45. Papilio mooreanus. 

46. Uiades parinda. 
47. Parata butleri. 

With regard to those species which show relationship to Malayan 
or Chinese species, it appears to me possible that all may have been 
introduced indirectly by man's agency, for the following considerations, 
which if sound, show that the butterfly fauna of Ceylon has no real 
connection with the Malay peninsula or countries adjoining thereto. 

Elymnias ( Dyctis) Singhala is undoubtedy a local race of E. lutes- 
cens, a variable Malayan species, and was, until a few years ago, almost 
entirely confined to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Peradenia near 
Kandy, and even now is confined to the immediate neighbourhood. 
The larva feeds on various species of Palmacece and it appears to me 
possible, if not probable, that the Malayan species was introduced into 
the Island with some species of Palm from Singapore or its neigh- 
bourhood. If this should have been the case it gives us some guidance 
as to the length of time it has taken to produce a local race of 
Elymnias. 

The Peradenia Gardens were started about the year 1820. E. Sin- 
ghala was described in 1874, so we may say, that it has taken less than 
46 years to produce this new distinct species. 

The other species Danais exprompta and Euploea corus have much 
in common ; the distribution of both is identical, and both are capable 
of surviving very rough usage ; they are entirely confined to the 
coast and twenty miles or so inland, that is to say, the foothills extend- 
ing from Galle in the south to about ten miles beyond Colombo on 
the north. The food plant of D. exprompta is unknown, but that of 
E. corus is a common jungle tree. 

D. exprompta is one of the numerous local races of D. simik's, a 
Chinese species, which is called D. vulgaris in Burma, D. persimilis 
in Siam, and so on. Euploea corus is probably most nearly allied to 
E. castelnaui, a Malayan species. Neither D. exprompta nor E. corus 
have any relation to the Indian species of the Danaince. Galle was, 
until some thirty years ago, the first port in the Island, Colombo at 
that time being in a very inferior position^ but, with the completion of 



80 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

the breakwater at Colombo, Galle very rapidly fell from its high 
estate and is now almost deserted. Taking into consideration the 
tenacity of life exhibited by the Danaince, it does not appear to me 
altogether improbable that the progenitors of these two species were 
accidentally introduced into the Island at Galle, and have survived in a 
restricted area and have there developed local races. 

I may mention that immediately to the south of Galle the dry 
portion of the Island commences and is of quite a different character to 
the country north of it. In the neighbourhood of Galle these two 
species are fairly abundant, but they become scarcer as one approaches 
Colombo, and possibly extended cultivation may have something to do 
with this. The larva of E. corns is not infrequently brought in by 
natives for sale, as it is very conspicuous and easily collected. It is 
remarkable what a large proportion suffer from the attacks of parasitic 
flies in spite of the warning colouration. 

With regard to the fifteen species confined to Ceylon and hitherto 
recognised as distinct, it is quite possible that further knowledge of the 
South Indian butterflies will prove that even this small number will be 
still further reduced. Euthalia vasanta may be only a pronounced local 
race of E. garuda which is somewhat scarce in Ceylon, and the local 
race in this instance would appear to be gradually supplanting the 
parent form. Aphnceus greeni is known by a single specimen only 
and may not be distinct. It was captured by Mr. E. E. Green in an 
open space in jungle on the summit of the Great Western Range at an 
elevation of 5,000 feet, a locality very difficult of access and not visited 
by an entomologist either before or since Mr. Green's visit. Aphnceus 
minima was described by Butler from a Ceylon specimen, and the 
type is now in the South Kensington Museum. I have a similar 
specimen which I look at Trincomalee in company with a crowd of 
the common A. vukanus, and I have no doubt that it is merely a 
sport or occasional aberration of that species though it looks fairly 
distinct. 

Lampides coruscans and L. lacteata are also to my mind doubtfully 
distinct : they may be forms of L. elpis. 

Danais laprobana is a very distinct and handsome species unlike 
any other of the genus known to me. It is entirely confined to 
the Hills and rarely descends below 4,000 feet. Above this it is 



TEE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON. 81 

abundant, particularly i about Nnwara Eliya, 6,200 feet, and the Hor- 
ton Plains, 7,000 feet. 

Lethe daretis is also very distinct and is likewise confined to the 
higher elevations, rarely descending below 4,000 feet. Above this it is 
common in bamboo jungle nearly all the year round. The female flies 
low among the bushes and along jungle paths. The males are rarer, or 
at any rate are less frequently met with, and have the habit on sunny 
mornings of flying rapidly round tops of forest trees far out of reach 
like our Apatura iris. 

Cyaniris lanka is another insect seldom met with below 4,000 feet. 
The males are abundant nearly all the year round, sucking up moisture 
from damp sand. The female is much less frequently seen, and u&ually 
occurs in the light jungle and often among the tea bushes. 

The Hesperiadce in the above list, with the exception of JSaiar.gtsa 
albictlia which is of general distribution, are confined to the Hill dis- 
tricts and adjoining low country. They are mostly rare, but probably 
only require looking for. Halpe decorata is particularly rare and has 
only been taken, so far as I know, in one locality, Avisawella, about 
twenty miles from Colombo, and this locality has, I believe, now been 
destroyed. 

Lethe dynsate is in some respects the most interesting butterfly in 
Ceylon. Though described by Hewitson so long ago as 1863 it still 
remains one of the rarest of Ceylon butterflies. It is not confined to 
the Hill district, and though exceedingly rare and local has been found 
within twenty miles of Colombo on the coast as well as at Nuwara Eliya 
at an elevation of 6,200 feet. Structurally it is of special interest, as it is 
the sole representative of the Sub-genus Hanipha moore, characterised 
chiefly by the sex mark of the male being confined to the fore- 
wing, thus forming a connecting link between those species of Lethe 
which have a sex mark on both wings and those with none on 
either wing. The species may yet be found in Southern India, and I 
can give no reasonable explanation of its occurrence in Ceylon to the 
exclusion of other countries. Its nearest allies, Liethe gulnihal, latiaris, 
&c, occur in North-East India, Tenasserim and Malaya, but not, so far 
as I know, in Peninsular India. 

The species of the Indo-Ceylon group as a whole show a distinct 
tendency to depth of colouring and marking when compared with the 
11 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI 

allied Indian species from the Himalayas or even Sikhim. The follow- 
ing genera will serve as examples : — 

7. Cyaniris. 

8. Loxura. 

9. Appias. 

10. Nepheronia. 

11. Troides. 

Again, without exception, all the local races of Ceylon butterflies, 
though belonging to the above group, are darker in colouration than 
their allied Indian relatives ; as instances I may give — 



1. 


Danais. 


2. 


Charaxes. 


3. 


Parthenos. 


4. 


Cethosia. 


5. 


Cirrhochvoa. 


6. 


Ergolis. 



1. Hestia jasonia. 

2. Euploea (in partj. 

3. Mycalesis patnia. 

4. Elymnias fraterna. 



5. Charaxes psaphon. 

6. Limenitis calidosa. 

7. Cethosia nietneri. 

8. Cirhochoroa lanka. 



To account for this is by no means easy, and I doubt whether an 
entirely satisfactory explanation is at present forthcoming. One point 
seems clear, and that is that all the species are influenced by some 
agent, having a continuous and universal action on them. Knowing as 
we do that changes of temperature, rainfall and the like have a marked 
influence on certain species, causing the so-called " wet " and " dry " 
season forms, it seems reasonable to assume that climate is a marked 
factor in causing this intensity of colouring in the Indo-Ceylon group, 
and if this is the case it seems to me a logical conclusion that climate has 
had a great deal more to do with the colouration of butterflies generally 
than some entomologists are ready to allow. So far as our knowledge 
goes at present it is impossible to say at any rate among tropical 
butterflies exactly how much heat or moisture is necessary to produce 
a " wet " or " dry " form, but undoubtedly there is a good deal of 
evidence to show that heat and moisture tend to produce certain 
colours and intensify, or reduce, the colouring of a species according 
to its geographical and climatal conditions. 

Deep blue or purple in a tropical butterfly is almost invariably 
indicative of a habitat of deep jungle amidst sombre surroundings with 
a elimate of heavy rainfall and a high temperature throughout the year, 
as for instance, Thaumantis diores. The deep blue of Kallima limborgii 
has doubtless been produced by the above conditions. 

It may be assumed that the various species or local races of the 
orange-banded Himalayan and Burmese Kallima are derived primarily 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON. 83 

from one species which we knew as K. inachus. It extends over 
hundreds of miles of country from Tenasserim in the east to the Murree 
Hills in the west. The climate of this extensive area is naturally 
extremely diversified and the colouration of the butterfly ranges from 
an Oxford blue in the east to an almost Cambridge blue in the west. 
The former colour is produced by continuous heat and heavy continuous 
rainfall. In Sikhim and Nepal, the heat and rainfall are not continuous 
throughout the year, the late winter and spring months being dry and 
somewhat cold in the localities frequented by Kallima, though both 
heat and rainfall in the lower vnlleys are very great in the summer 
months ; such a climate produces typical K. inachus. In the Western 
Himalayas there is bright sunshine, and though the heat is considerable 
it is nothing like that of Sikhim, and both it and the rainfall are far less 
than further east. This climate produces K. kuegelii. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Mussoorie in the Dehra-Dun both the dark and light- 
blue forms occur, from which I infer that the climate is not sufficiently 
pronounced either way to produce a permanent form, but permits both 
to flourish. A somewhat similar pale form of K. limborgii occurs, 
together with the type in the Shan States where the climate is more 
temperate and the rainfall less than in Tenasserim where limborgii 
only is found. The climate of the Indo-Ceylon region is in many 
respects similar to Lower Burma, there being rain during the greater 
portion of the year and continuous tropical heat, which two factors 
together have probably caused that intensity of colouring which dis- 
tinguishes the butterflies of this tract of country. Similar causes have 
in all probability produced the still greater amount of colouring which 
distinguishes the local races of Ceylon butterflies from their neigbhours 
across the Gulf of Manaar. But to ascertain with any hope of success 
the exact amount of extra rain and heat* necessary to develop these 
forms seems at present hopeless. 

Some assistance may be derived from the study of the seasonal 
changes to which many Ceylon butterflies are subject. In some parts 
of the world, as in South Africa or the plains of Panjab, the same 
climate exists for several weeks or months over several thousand 
square miles of country, and an insect captured in Peshawar in June, 
would not necessarily vary from one captured in Mooltan in the same 

• If the local race of Elymnias lutescens has been produced in less than 50 years, the 
time required might not be so great as is generally presumed. 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY , Vol. XV I. 

month. In Ceylon it is quite different ; though I have given above 
the characteristics of the climate generally it is to be remembered that 
it is an insular one, and secondary variations are considerable and 
dependent on very many topical causes. For instance, the rainfall 
at Colombo is about 75", 120" being the heaviest ever recorded ; 
whereas at Labugama, only 26 miles off, the rainfall, due no doubt to 
proximity to the Hills, is no less than 150" or over ; and many other 
instances throughout the country could be adduced. A comparison of 
the butterflies from the above two localities would not be likely to 
show any differences, as the places being so approximate the inter- 
mixture of individuals would be too great. 

A comparison of the rainfall of the Ceylon Hill district and that 
of Travancore is exceedingly difficult to make with any degree of 
accuracy, and I have insufficient data to work on. 

*Mr. H. S. Ferguson has given in his paper on the Birds of Travan- 
core certain meteorological data, which I have compared with Ceylon 
statistics. It appears that the rainfall in the Ashambu Hills, which 
extend from Cape Comorin to 40 miles north with an average altitude 
of 4,100 feet, have an average rainfall of from 80 to 100 inches ; 
whereas in Ceylon the average rainfall at a similar altitude is 100 inches 
and over, and at an approximate altitude of 1,500 feet an average of 
over 200 inches. 

So far as I can gather from statistics available, it seems clear that the 
average rainfall in Ceylon is distinctly higher than in corresponds o- 
districts in Travancore. I have no means of ascertaining whether there 
is any marked difference in the temperature, but I should say Ceylon 
undoubtedly is the warmer. It lies further south, and being insular the 
climate is more equable ; the extensive forest area of Travancore would 
cause increased evaporation with a lowering of the temperature after 
heavy rain. I may add that the rainfall of Trevandrum, 50 miles from 
Cape Comorin, is 65 inches, and that of Colombo, about the same dis- 
tance south of the Cape, over 75 inches. 

The above considerations, though by no means conclusive, tend to the 
hypothesis that the heavier rainfall and intenser heat of Ceylon have 
been the most important agents in producing the depth of colouring 
which distinguishes the local races of Ceylon butterflies. This naturally 

The Birds of Travancore, by H. S. Ferguson, Jn1.,B<>m.Nat. Hia.'Soc Vol. 15, page 249 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF CEYLON. 85 

leads up to the question of so-called " wet " and " dry " seasonal forms 
and the causes thereof. 

There is no doubt that with the curious exception of certain species 
of Pierince the " wet " season form is invariably darker than the " dry." 
Specimens of many species which do not produce marked seasonal forms 
if caught in the rains show a depth of colouring which is absent in 
" dry " weather (Le., Cynthia). 



86 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS FROM THE 

PERSIAN GULF, GULF OF OMAN, AND NORTH ARABIAN 

SEA, DREDGED BY MR. F. W. TOWNSEND, OF THE 

INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH SERVICE, 

1901—1903. 

By James Cosmo Melvill, m.a., f.l.s., f.z.s., and Robert Standen, 

Assistant Keepek, Manchester Museum. 

Part I. Plates A, B. 

{Reproduced from the Annals and Magazine of Natural History Ser. 7, Vol. Xll.) 

Two years ago we published a Catalogue * of the Mollusca of the Persian 
Gulf, &c. (Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, and Scaphopoda only), mainly collected 
by Mr. Townsend in 1893—1900, and enumerating 935 species. In the interim 
further large consignments have been frequently forwarded by the same ener- 
getic collector from many different stations and depths, including especially the 
results of one particularly profitable dredging on 7th April, 1903, in the Gulf 
of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., at 156 fathoms, which, it is no exag- 
geration to say, positively teems with novelties. All this has naturally delayed 
publication of the second portion — to contain the Pelecypoda — of the above- 
mentioned Catalogue. 

At the present opportunity we offer descriptions of many Gastropoda, 
mostly of small size, though a few— e. g., Murex, Marjoricz, Trichotropis pul- 
cherrima, and the highly sculptured and unique Pleurotoma navarchus — are 
more conspicuous. The Scotef ar e enumerated elsewhere. 

Amongst the " minutiora" we would call especial attention to the two new- 
species referred to Homolaxis, the H. comu-Ammonis, especially, being entirely 
evolute from the apical whorl and exactly like a microscopic " ram's-horn." 
Cyclostrema euchilopteron, prominulwn, and Emarginala undulata are very 
wonderful in their sculpture. A Fluxina, the first recorded from the Old 
World, and the curious Rissoina reyistomoides are both noteworthy. So is a 
new species of Metula (M. daphnelloides) and many Pleurotomida3, this family 
ever having the pre-eminence in abyssal waters. The Kleinella sympiesta, also 
near akin to K. cancellaris and sulcata of Adams, belongs to a genus which has 
not before been known to exist in the Arabian Sea or Persian Gulf. 

To Mr. Edgar Smith, I.S.O., and Mr. E. R. Sykes we must express our best 
thanks for assistance, likewise to Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and Mr. W. Neville Sturt. 
of the India Office. 

EMARGINULA UNDULATA, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 1.) 

E. testa parva, delicata, albida, oblonga, apice multum recurvo, margiuem 
posticum fere superirnpendente ; radiis costalibus ad 40, majoribus cum 
minoribus saepius alternantibus, posticis crassis, firmis, cseteris delicatis, un- 
dulato-crenatis, undique transversim elegantissime et arete concentrice liratis, 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. l'JOl, vol. ii. pp. 327—460. 
t Joura. of Conch, s., pp. 340 sqq. 



Journ. Bomb) ay Nat.. Hist. Soc 



Plate A. 




J- Gx»e en. del .et litK 



Mi litem Br os imp. 



NEW SHELLS from the Persian Gulf, 

Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged by 

Mr. F. W. Townsend, of the Indo-European 

Telegraph Service, 1901-3. 



Jour n. B omb ayNa,t . Hist . S o c . 



Plate B. 




J Gr-een del etHtK. 



MmtevriBros .imp. 



NEW SHELLS from the Persian Gulf, 

Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged by 

Mr. F. W. Townsend, of the Indo-European 

Telegraph Service, 1901-3. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 87 

liris undulatis, continuis ; fissura angusta (in longitudine 2£ mm.) ; cicatrice 

fissuralivel septo conspicuo, circa 30-loculato, loculis crasse foraminatis, 

apertura oblonga, intus alba, margine crenulato. 
Long. 5-50, alt. 2-50, lat. 3*75 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

A particularly delicate species, with wavy crenulate rays, crossed by very 
characteristic, concentric, close-meshed lirse, continuously covering the rays 
and whole surface. 

EMARGINULA CAMILLA, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 2.) 

E. testa ovato-oblonga, depresso-conica, delicata, alba, apice supra medium 
recurvo, superficie omnino pulchre radiata vel costulata ; costulis ad 45, ltevi- 
bus, nitidis, gemmato-nodulosis, majoribus cum minoribus ssepe alternantibus, 
liris undique spiraliter conjunctis ;, interstitiis quadratulis, profunde forami- 
natis ; fissura antica angusta (in longitudine ad 2 mm.), septo inconspicuo ; 
apertura ovato-oblonga, intus alba, margine multicrenato. 

Long. 6*50, lat. 4*50, alt. 3 mm. 

Hab, Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

Of the same character superficially as E. Candida, Ad., from Japan, elongata, 

Costa, &c, but differing from all in greater delicacy and fineness of sculpture. 

• CYCLOSTREMA HENJAMENSE, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 3.) 

C. testa parva, depresso-discoidali, delicata, albida, profunde sed anguste 
umbilicata ; anfractibus 5, quorum duo apicales heves, mamillati, vitrei, 
cseteris apud suturas paullum excavatis, ultimo spiraliter septem-carinali, cari- 
nis duabus ad peripheriam quam maxime conspicuis, undique longitudinaliter 
arctissime et oblique costulatis, costulis supra coronulatis et gemmatis, regione 
umbilicari circa marginem carinata, deinde costulis longitudinalibus perspec- 
tive delabentibus ; apertura subrotnnda, intus alba ; peristomate crassiusculo 
continuo. 
Alt. 3, diam. 6 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Henjam Island, 10 fathoms, amongst coarse sand and 
broken shells. 

A little species, which appears on the borderland between Cyclostrema and 
Liotia, the mouth-characters being Cyclostremoid- It is a particularly attrac- 
tive species, the se-ven keels on the last whorl being closely longitudinally inter- 
sected by oblique riblets, these being gemmulate at the points of junction. 

CYCLOSTREMA SUPREMUM, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 4.) 

C. testa minuta, planato-discoidali, alba, nitidula, profunde umbilicata ; an- 
fractibus 5, apud suturas excavatis, quorum duo apicales multum canaliculati, 
laevissimi, vitrei, caeteris depressiusculis, penultimo uni ultimo tricarinato, 
undique arctissime oblique costulato ; costulis laevibus, interstitiis spiraliter 
tenuistriatis, costularmn numero ultimum apud anfractum circa 28, infra 



88 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

peripheriara et circa regionem umbilicarem laeviore, costulis ad basim fere 

evanidis ; apertura oblique ovali, intus alba, labro paullum incraesato. 
Alt. 150, diam. 4 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, near Fao. Likewise off Bunder Abbas, 5 fathoms, mud 
bottom. 

A most exquisite species, beautifully cancellate and sculptured, though more 
or less smooth below the periphery and around the narrow but deep umbilicus. 
The whorls are all channelled at the sutures, this with a lens being very distinct 
at the apex. 

The nearest ally is, perhaps, C. eburneum, Nevill (Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xliv. 
part 2, p. 101, pi. viii. figs. 21,22), which is, however, alarger shell, with coarser 
sculpture proportionately. 

CYCLOSTREMA ANNELLARIUM*, sp, n. (PI. A. fig. 5.) 

C. testa parva, discoidali, profunde umbilicata, supra plana, alba, solidula ; 
anfractibus tribus, quorum ultimus magnopere aliis exsuperans, rotundatus, 
undique costi3 longitudinalibus circularibus, numero ad quinque et viginti, 
praeditus, interstitiis pulchre striatis ; apertura rotundata, labro continuo, 
crassiusculo. 
Alt. 1, diam. 2mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 2-4° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Exceedingly small, but well marked, being deeply umbilicate, flattened above, 
three-whorled, the last whorl large, provided with about twenty-four rounded 
longitudinal ribs. We know no species exactly comparable, C. conicum, Boog 
Watson, being, perhaps, the nearest, from Pernambuco (' Challenger ' Ex- 
pedition).; but this, as its name implies, is conical in form. The interstices 
between the ribs are, as in C. conicum, beautifully spirally striate. 

CYCLOSTREMA PROMINULUM, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 6.) 

C. testa depresso-discoidali, delicata, alba, minutissima, profunde umbilicata ; 
anfractibus quatuor, quorum duo apicales perlaeves, subvitrei, caeteris duobus 
spiraliter undique multiliratis ; liris laevibus, simul ac interstitiis, ultimo 
permagno, ad peripheriam acuticarinato ; carina prorainente, deinde ad 
basim lateribus obliquis, basi tumidula ; apertura rotunda, labro tenui. 

Alt. 1, diam. 2 mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A very minute species, deeply umbilicate, white, with the surface uniformly 

multilirate, the lira at the periphery being metamorphosed into a strong, very 

prominent, and acute keel. 

CYCLOSTREMA EUCHILOPTERON f, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 7.) 

C. testa parva, profunde umbilicata, albo-lactea, subpellucida, tenui, nitidi- 
uscula, discoidali ; anfractibus quatuor, apicali vitreo, laevi, omnibus, prajter 

* Anncllus, a smallerine. 
•j-su, x £,Xof » "fipov, from the winged process iu connexion with the lip. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 89 

ultimum, depressis, undique concentrice tenuiliratis, ultimo recto, tribus 
carinis acutissimis prsedito, prominulis, quorum superiore carina extia labrum 
projecta porrectionem trialatam prsebente ; apertura rotunda, labro extus 
tricarinato, intus simplici. 
Alt. 2, diam. 3'50 mm. 
Hab, Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A wonderful little form, which seems from the description to come nearest 
to C. Yerreauxii, Fisch., from California. It is a discoidally depressed, deeply 
umbilicate species, the last whorl furnished with three very prominently ridged 
keels, acutely projecting, and terminating in a triangularly winged extension 
of the upper part of the outer lip. Several examples, but by no means so 
abundant as ft quadricarinatum, M. & S., which was in thousands at the above 
locality. 

LIOTIA ROMALEA*, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 8.) 

L. testa ovato-rotunda, parva, solida, anguste umbilicata ; anfractibus 5, ad 
suturas excavatis, quorum duo apicales lasves, margaritacei, cseteris, antepe- 
nultimouni-,penultimo bi-, ultimo tricarinato, undique longitudinaliter arete 
costatis, costis crassis, interstitiis striis longitudinalibus arete prseditis, basim 
versus, circa umbilicum, costis magnopere tumescentibus, spatio interstitiali 
spiraliter profunde fenestrato ; umbilico profundo, perspective ; apertura 
rotunda, intus albescente ; peristomate albo, multum incrassato, obscure 
quinquangulari, continuo. 

Alt. 5, diam. 5 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, 10 fathoms ; Maskat, 10-15 fathoms; 

also Gulf of Oman, lat. 23° 30' N., long. 57° 10' E„ at 10 fathoms. 

Several examples of a typical Liotia, coarser and smaller than L, echinacantha, 

but beautifully sculptured and with conspicuously thickened peristome, which 

is seen with the aid of a lens to be very obscurely five-angled. 

LIOTIA ECHINACANTHA, sp. n. (PI. A. fig, 9.) 

L. testa globosa, anguste sed profunde umbilicata, pallide straminea, robusta 
anfractibus quatuor, quorum apicalis depressus, planatus, ceteris pul- 
cherrime et arctissime sculpturatis, antepenultimo duobus, penultimo tribus, 
ultimo sex squamarum ordinibus prsedito, squamis echinatis, spinarum instar, 
cavis, anfractu ultimo (et penultimo) ordine superiore, squamis incurvis, 
magis conspicuis, arctissime accincto, infra peripheriam, circa umbilicum, 
tribus ordinibus multe minoribus ; apertura rotunda, intus margaritacea ; 
peristomate crassiusculo, umbilico corneo, multispirali. 

Alt. 6, diam. 7'50. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 10-15 fathoms. 
A very beautiful little shell, not very near any of the genus with which we 

are acquainted. The scaly spines are characteristic, being fluted, hollow, and 

* pix)fji.i'Kios ) robust. 
12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

profusely covering the surface, thrice-ranked on the penultimate, six-ranked 
on the last whorl ; but three, however, of them are conspicuous, more parti- 
cularly the one in both whorls just below the sutures. Around the umbilicus 
the three rows are not so highly developed. The operculum is horny and 
multispiral. 

ENIDA PERSICA, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 10.) 

E. testa parva, depresso-conica, solidula, profunde sed anguste umbilicata, 
albo-straminea,hic illic, praacipue apud peripheriam, spiraliter pallide rubro 
vel brunneo maculata ; anfractibus 6, apud suturas gradatulis, quorum duo 
apicales vitrei, canaliculati, Iseves, cseteris, prsecipue ultimo, spiraliter liratis, 
simul ac infra, juxta suturas, forti carina prseditis (ultimo anfractu apud 
peripheriam bicarinato), longitudinaliter obliquissime sed obscure costulatis, 
co3tulis apud ultiraum saspius fere evanidis, ad juncturas lirarum prsecipue 
supra, gemmulatis, infra peripheriam usque ad umbilicum spiraliter 
pulcberrime tenuiliratis ; lira majore interdum cum minore alternante, 
undique minute gemmulatis ; apertura subquadrata, labro paullum incrassa- 
to, regione umbilicari excavata. 
Alt. 3, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 53° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Allied to the type of the genus E.japonica, Ad., but differing in both size 
and form. It is not so large or handsome as the recently described E. Toim- 
sendi, Sowb., from a neighbouring locality. The sculpture is elaborate for so 
small a shell ; the lirse and carinas on the last whorl number together six above 
the periphery, while below it there are ten, all being more or less granulate ; 
the base is flattened, umbilical region somewhat excavate, mouth squarrose ; 
the painting is pale red blotching, of a trigonal shape round the last two whorls, 
and most conspicuous at the periphery. Many examples occurred at the very 
prolific dredging-station mentioned above. 

EUCHELUS TOWNSENDIANUS, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 11.) 

E. testa oblongo-conica, staminea, solidula ; anfractibus 7, quorum tres pallide 
straminei, apicales minute orenulati, subhyalini, casteris spiraliter fortiter 
costatis ; anfractu penultimo, simul ac antepenultimo, costis quatuor, 
ultimo novem (quorum quinque supra, usque ad peripheriam) undique 
gemmulatis, interstitiis favulosis, quadratis ; apertura ovato-rotunda, labro 
regulariter brunneo-zonulato, intus multiplicato, margine columellari 
sinuoso-crenulato. 
Alt. 11, diam. 6'50 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf ; Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms ; also at lat. 24° 58' 
N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

An Euchelus of somewhat familiar aspect, but not precisely comparable with 
any species either in our National Collection or mentioned in existing mono- 
graphs. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 91 

SOLARIELLA ZACALLES*, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 12.) 

S. testa depresso-conica, profunde et late umbilicata, pernitida, laevi, solida, 
leete, rufo-brunnea, flammis fulgetrinis maculisque spiralibus hie illic 
depicta ; anfractibus 6, quorum apicales If crystallini, lasves, ca3teris ventri- 
cosulis, supra, juxta suturas, regulariter spiraliter gemmatis, dein con- 
centrice tenuiliratis, interstitis perleevibus, ultimo infra peripheriam nitido 
lsevissimo, intus umbilicum pulchre multilirato, liris arete gemmato-crenu- 
latis, circa umbilicum ipsum radiatim breviter multisulculoso ; apertura 
obliqua, subrotunda, intus margaritacea, labro tenui, columella simplici, 
nequaquam reflexa. 
Alt. 4, diam. 9 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf ; Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 10—45 fathoms ;also in lat. 24° 
55' N., long. 57 u 59' E„ 37 fathoms, sand and mud, and lat. 24° 58' N., long. 
56 c 54' E„ 156 fathoms. 

We at first considered this species (and so inserted it in our Catalogue f) as 
identical with Minolta gilvosplendens, Melv., from the Philippines % ; but, 
though extremely similar, there exist some very salient points of distinction. 
The latter is far more conical and the body-whorl obscurely bicarinate at the 
periphery, the umbilical sculpture in both being identical, this sculpture being, 
in fact, the chief point of difference between the species under discussion and 
Solariella radiata, Phil., from the Agulhas Bank, which is perfectly smooth and 
simple as regards its umbilical region. 

The species of Solariella and Minolta are in great confusion, and monographs 
of these two genera are much wanted. The Rev. Dr. Gwatkin is devoting 
much time to the anatomy of the various forms, and finds many vital differen- 
ces in the radula of some whose shells are nearly allied. We trust he may be 
induced some day to publish the results of his researches. 

CALLIOSTOMA THRINCOMA& sp. n. (PI. fig. A. 13.) 

C. testa conico-pyramidali, imperforata, solida, sculpturata, pallide strami- 
nea, spiraliter fusco-maculata, vel unicolore ; anfractibus octo, apicali 
vitreo, globulari, cseteris stramineis, ad suturas impressis, tegulatis, spira- 
liter undique pulcherrime granoso-liratis, supra, juxta suturas, carina pro- 
minula decoratis, ultimo anfractu ad peripheriam bicarinato ; apertura 
quadrata, margine columellari triangulatim incrassato. 

Alt. 11, diam. 9 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf ; Gulf of Oman, near Masket, lat. 23° 30' N., long. 57° 

50' E., 88 fathoms. 

Near C. similare. Reeve. A highly chased and sculptured species, though of 

small dimensions, and conspicuously keeled around every whorl just above the 

suture, the last whorl at the periphery being bicarinate. 

* ^aicaXXns, extremely beautiful. 

f Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, vol. ii., p. 349. 

J Journ. of Couch, vi., p. 407, pi. ii., fig. 8 (1801). O/n'-yxw.aa, a battlement. 



92 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI . 

LEPTOTHYRA RUBENS, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 14.) 
L. testa globosa, parva, imperforata, solida, nitidula, infra ltevissima, pallide, 
strarainea, flammis castaneis decorata ; anfractibus 4-5, quorum If apicales 
apice ipso vitreo-albo, mamillato, ceteris gradatulis (ultimo rotundiore), 
undique infra medium lasvibus, nitidis, supra arete spiraliter sulculosis, 
ultimo ad peripheriam pallide spiraliter zonato, infra ad basim pulchre 
rubente ; apertura rotunda, labro vix incrassato, nisi marginem apud colu- 
mellarem albo-callosum, nitidum. 

Alt. 4, diam. 4'50 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24 Q 58' N., long 56° 54' E„ 156 fathoms. 

A highly coloured little shell, which occurred somewhat plentifully at the 
above locality. The many specimens we have seen agree in sculpture and 
coloration almost uniformly. Near L, lata, Montr. 

TR1CH0TR0PIS PULCHERRIMA > sp. n. (Pi. A. fig. 15.) 

T. testa tenui, supra pergracili, attenuato-f usiformi, alba vel straminea, och- 
racea epidermide contecta ; anfractibus octo, quorum duo apicales hyalini 
laaves, cseteris multum apud suturas impressis, spiraliter acute bicarinatis, 
ultimo quadricarinato, epidermide quasi-costulas longitudinales setulosas 
arete prsebente ; apertura late ovata, in typico specimine aurantia, in 
minore alba, labro effuso, tenui, columella fere recta. 

Alt. 24, diam. 12 mm. (sp. maj.). 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, on telegraph-cable, lat. 27° 12' N., long. 51° 50' E., 
25 fathoms. 

We have already* described another species of this usually Arctic genus from 
the Gulf of Oman, viz. T. Toionsendi — a much smaller form. The present is 
far handsomer, being conspicuous for its graceful, rapidly attenuate whorls, 
much impressed suturally, the upper whorls twice, the lowest four times cari- 
nate. Two examples so far only obtained, the perfect larger example orange- 
mouthed, the smaller white. A third species, as yet undescribed, has lately 
been found to occur in small quantity in the dredging at 156 fathoms in the 
Gulf of Oman. 

SOLARIUM (TORINIA) CERDALEUM^, sp. n. (PI. A. fig. 16.) 

S. testa anguste umbilicata, solida, pulchre sculpturata, depresso-conica, fusco- 
straminea ; anfractibus 5, quorum 1 J apicales pallide rufi, nitidissimi, hyalini, 
caeteris quatuor ordinibus gemmarum spiralium, interstitiis minute unistriaiis, 
prseditis, quorum inferi regulariter hie illic brunneo-maculatis, in penultimo et 
ultimo anfractu ordine summo, juxta suturas, magno, gemmulato, ultimo ad 
peripheriam tribus carinis conspicuis brunneo-maculatis, simul ac infra, apud 
basim, septem ordinibus spiralibus decorato, duo circa umbilicum gemmulas 

* Proc. Zool. Ooc. 1901, vol. ii. p. 360. 
f xs/iSaXsor, advantageous. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 93 

inaximas crenelliferas prsebentes, interatitiis spiraliter unistriatis ; apertura 
obscure quadrata, intus suboehracea, nigro-brunneo zonata, labro angulato, 
tenui, marginem ad columellarem nitido, albo, incrassato, spiraliter tomato. 

Alt. 5, diam. 8\50 mm. 
Hah. Persian Gulf, Fao, on telegraph-cable, November 1902. 
Of the same alliance as S. dormosum, Hinds, ci/Undraceum, Mighels, &c, but 

differing in the several characters as above given. 

SOLARIUM ABYSSORUM, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 1.) 

S. testa parva perdepressa, acutissime carinata, profunde umbilicata, tenui, 
albescente ; anfractibus quatuor, quorum apicales 1^ tumidi, perleeves, hyalini 
cseteris apud suturas anguste canaliculatis, supra, juxta suturas simul ac infra, 
spiraliter liratis, interstitiis utrinqu arete gemmulatis, deinde superficie media 
nitida, irregnlariter longitudinaliter oblique striata, ultimo anfractu circa 
peripheriam acuticarinato, carina utrinque plano-marginata, infra, basim 
versus, spiraliter unilirato, dein superficie intermedia longitudinaliter rudi- 
crenata, circa umbilicum ipsum dnobus gemmularum ordinibus instructa, 
umbilico pulchre scalari ; apertura trigonali, labro tenui, umbilicum nequa- 
quam obtegente. 
Alt. 3, diam. 6 mm. (spec. maj.). 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A great many examples, but no live specimens occurred, and but few in per- 
fect condition. Allied to S. oxytropn, A. Ad., in form, but not in sculpture. 

FLUXINA DALLIANA, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 2.) 

F. testa perminuta, albo-hyalina, immaculata, depresso-discoidali, umbilicata; 
anfractibus 4, quorum apicalis globosus, mamillatus, submimersus, cseteris ad 
suturas canaliculatis, ventricosulis, hevissimis, ultimo ad peripheriam acuticari- 
nato, carina marginata, sub lente elegantissime et minutissime crenellifera, basi 
convexiuscula, circa regionem umbilicarem paullum excavata, umbilico angusto, 
set prof undo, scalari, margine acuto, simplici ; apertura subquadrata, columella 
recta, supra umbilicum triangulatim reflexa. 
Alt. 75, diam, 1*50 mm. (sp. min.). 
„ 1, „ 2 „ (sp.maj.). 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., at 156 fathoms. 
One of the most minute of recent shells ; it agrees, however, in many parti- 
culars with Fluxina discula, DalP, dredged in the ' Blake ' Expedition off 
Dominica, W. I., at 982 fathoms. This, however, is nearly five times as 
large as our species, which was very rare in the above station. 

We venture to dedicate this very interesting addition to the Oriental fauna 
to Dr. W. H. Dall, of Washington, who has done perhaps more than any other 
author to elucidate the benthal Molluscan fauna, and is the founder of the 
genus Fluxina. 



Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, vol. xviii. p. 273 (1889). 



94 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol, XVI. 

HOMALAXIS CORNU-AMMONIS, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 4.) 
H. testa minuta, alba, omnino evoluta, delicata, depressulo-discoidali ; anfrac- 
tibus quatuor, quorum duo apicales connexi, vitrei, globosi, duobus ultimis 
hexagonis, utrinque tri-carinatis, squamosis, carinis sex minute et formosissime 
echinulatis, undique longitudinaliter tenuiliratis, liris arctis, inconspicuis ; 
aperture sex-angulata, intus alba, labro tenui. 
Alt. 2, diam. 5 mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 15G fathoms. 
A very extraordinary, though minute, species, the chief peculiarities con- 
sisting in the completely evolute hexagonal whorls, the keels being most 
beautifully echinulate, the spaces also between the carinas are longitudinally 
Urate. In form it is discoidally depressed, with two glassy globular apical 
whorls. We cannot exactly follow the reasons which prompt Dr. Fischer 
(Man. de Conch, p. 714) to propose a subgenus Pseudomalaxis for H. zancha 
Phil., and consider all the true Homalaxis, Desh., tertiary fossils. In our 
opinion both the species now described belong to the typical genus, and it 
would be impossible to disassociate H. pernambucensis (Wats.), described as a 
Bifrontia, from them. In the latter the last whorl is partly evolute. 

The Rev. R. Boog Watson (Report 'Challenger ' Exped. xv. p. 137) would 
allow the barbarous term Omalaxis, Desh., 1832 s (afterwards altered to Ho- 
malaxis), to lapse, it being derived from two languages, and institute Bifrontia, 
also of Deshayes, 1833. But we fear that very many terms used in Zoology, 
and accepted, are likewise of hybrid origin, and Homalaxis must therefore 
stand, in spite of its disadvantageous origin. 

HOMALAXIS ROTULA-CATHARINEA sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 3.) 
H. testa minuta, depresso-discoidali, alba, delicata, semievoluta ; anfractibus 
quatuor, rectis, utrinque bicarinatis, apicali immerso, simplici, antepenultimo 
leevi, parum nitente, penultimo, simul ac ultimo, pulcherrime sculpturatis, 
evolutis, utrinque bicarinatis, carinis— prsecipue externis— apud margines mi- 
nute echinato-crenulatis ; apertura quadrata, labro tenui, margine columellari 
paullulum reflexo. 
Alt. 1, diam. 3 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A most exquisite shell, in many points resembling H. zanclea, Phil., but 
more delicate in every detail. H. disjuncta, Lam., a tertiary fossil from Grignon, 
is very much larger indeed, but comes in the same category as our species, 
which occurred frequently at the above locality. It bears, in miniature, an 
almost exact resemblance to a catherine-wheel, hence the specific name. 

CERITHIUM VERECUNDUMf, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 5.) 

C. testa parva, solidiuscula, eleganter fusiformi, attenuata, pallide straminea ; 

anfractibus decern, quorum apicales duo fusci, non hyalini, cseteris apud 

* Deshayes, Encyclop. Method, vol. iii. p. 659, 
t Verecundus, modest. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 95 

suturas multum impressis, tumidulis, tribus liris spiralibus, ultimo quatuor 
omnino accinctis, longitudinaliter costulis obliquis decoratis, ad juncturas 
C03tularum lirarumquo gemmuliferis, gernmulislEevibus, nitidis, anfractibus hie 
illic variciferis ; apertura oblonga, labro paullum incrassato, apud basim 
prolongate*, columella fere recta. 
Long. 4*20, lat. 1 mm. (sp. maj.) 

Hah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A fairly abundant little species, which may be distinguished by its pale 
straw-colour, irregular varices, channelled sutures, and gemmuled lirae. The 
most frequent form, however, is smaller than that selected for the type, the 
apex and general shape being the same, while the whorls are less ventricose, 
and there is rarely to be seen any trace of varices. This small form may 
possibly be a separate, very nearly allied species ; if so, the line of demarcation 
is almost too slight to permit of verbal differentiation. 

SCISSURELLA (ETHERIA,sp.n. (PI. B. fig. 6.) 

S. testa parva, heliciformi, angulatim ovata, obtecte umbilicata, supra 
depresso-conica, undique alba, delicatissima, eleganter sculpturata ; anfracti- 
bus 4, quorum apicalis parvus, mamillatus, cseteris infra, juxta suturas, bica- 
rinatis, undique longitudinater oblique tenuiliratis, et spiraliter obscure 
striatis, sub lente ad juncturas pulchre et minutissime gemmulatis, ultimo ad 
peripheriam bicarinato, inter carinas ad labrum sinu perlongo, angusto ; 
apertura subrotunda, intus alba, labro ad sinum paullum effuso, margine 
columellari supra umbilicum angustum extenso. 
Alt. 1*28, diam. 2 mm. 
Hah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long . 56° 54' E., 1 56 fathoms. 
One of two species of Scissurella extracted sparingly from shell-sand gathered 
at the above rich locality, in company with what we are inclined to consider 
S. aedonia, Watson (cf. ' Challenger ' Report, xv. p. 114, pi. viii fig. 3, a, b). 

The species before us is exceedingly beautiful and delicate, the surface finely 
sculptured, with the anal slit narrow and a millimetre in length. There is some 
affinity to S. aedonia, Watson, from Pernambuco, but our species is far more 
depressedly conical and the outer lip more prolonged at the base. 

FOSSARUS (COUTHOUYIA) UNICARINALIS, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 7.) 

F. testa minuta, anguste umbilicata, oblonga, nivea, pulcherrime sculpturata, 
anfractibus quinque, quorum duo lasves, vitrei, globosi, apicales, caeteris 
turritis, undique longitudinaliter tenuiliratis, simul ac spiraliter delicatissime 
striatis, anfractu penultimo cum ultimo infra, juxta suturas, conspicue unicari- 
nato ; carina etiam conspicua circa umbilicum, usque ad basim peristomatis 
in quo immergitur, succingenda ; apertura ovata, peristomate nitido, candido 
incrassato, planato, margine columellari quoque incrassato. 

Long. 3, lat. 2mm. 

Hah. Arabian Sea, off Bombay, lat. 18° 48' N., long. 71° 45' E„ 40 fathoms. 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XVl. 

An excessively small pure white Couthouyia, but of most distinctive character, 
the sculpture being remarkably ornate and fine. The last two whorls are 
sharply keeled, and on the body-whorl another keeled projection surrounding 
the narrow umbilicus merges at the base with the white, thickened, and 
flattened peristome. Aperture ovate, columellar margin thickened. 

ADEORBIS AXIOTIMUS* sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 8.) 

A. testa paullum depressa, prof uncle urabilicata, alba, delicata, subpellucida 
anfractibus 4, quorum apicalis fere immersus, minutus, huic proximus anfrac- 
tu? magnopere inflatus, nitidulus, ultimo castero^multum exsuperante,undique 
cum penultimo, tenuissime longitudinaliter striato ; apertura magna, ovato- 
rotunda, labro tenui, simplici, continuo. 

Alt. 75 diam. 2 mm. 

Hah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

Very delicate and aubtransparent ; the apical whorl is almost immersed and 

depressed owing to the tumidity of the next, which is shining and almost 

smooth, the last whorls being beautifully and finely striate. 

ERA10 RECONDITA,} sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 9.) 

E. testa parva, nitida, alba, Isevissima, tenui ; anfractibus 5|, apicali obtuso 
mamillato, cseteris laavibus, immaculatis, ultimo magnopere exsuperante ; 
apertura angusta, labro supra paullum effuso, nitido, albo, incrassato, intus 
minute denticulato. 
Long. 5, lat. 3mm. (sp. maj.). 
Hob. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24" 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

Var. (vel sp.?) HAPLOCHILA, nov. (PI. B. fig. 10.) 
E. testa ut supra, sed labro intus simplici, piano, nequaquam denticulato. 

Hah. Gulf of Oman, cum prsecedente. 

Although this var. is not denticulate in the inner side of the lip, we cannot 
disassociate the two forms of this interesting Erato. It is evidently benthal in 
its habit, and the discovery of more specimens may furnish links to bind these 
two forms yet closer together. 

EULIMA DECAGYRA, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 11.) 
E. testa minutissima, Candida, polita, fusiformi, superne multum attenuata ; 
anfractibus 10, apicali obtuso, diaphano, pernitido, ceteris applanatis, politis, 
ultimo basim versus ovato, solidiusculo ; apertura parva, ovata, labro paullum 
incrassato ; columella declivi, apud basim angulatim incrassata, nitida. 
Long. 2'75, lat. 1mm. 
Hah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A shining, white, polished species, noteworthy for its gradually attenuate 
spire, ovate thickened base, and aperture proportionately small. We do not 

* aij-joTJ/CAos, worthy of honour, 
t Reconditus, hidden 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 97 

know any Eiilima exactly comparable nor, we may add, so minute. We are 
indebted to Mr. Sykesfor having extricated two examples from a mass of 
shell-sand. 

R1SS0INA ISOSCELES-, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 12.) 

R. testa eleganter attenuato-fusiformi, cinereo-alba, solidula ; anfractibus 9, 
quorum 3 apicales hyalini, bulboso-globulares, cseteris longitudinaliter arete cos- 
tulatis, apud supernos magis f ortibus, paucioribus, undique sub lente spiraliter 
tenuissime striatis, infra peripheriam ultimi anfractus angulatam evanidis ; 
apertura ovata, labro effuso, basim versus paullum producto, incrassato 
columella obliqua. 
Long. 5*25, lat. 2 mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
An attenuate graceful species of the typical section of the genus, angled 
below the periphery, nine-whorled, the three globularly bulbous apical whorls 
being distinctive, the longitudinal ribs on the fourth and fifth whorls being 
fewer and more pronounced than on the lower — indeed they become obsolete 
below the periphery of the body~whorl. With a lens the delicate spiral stria- 
tion is discernible. Mouth triangularly ovate, outer lip produced at the base. 

RISSOINA (ZEBINA) REGISTOMOIDES, sp. n. (PL B. fig. 13) 

R. testa perminima, globulari, solidula, Isevissima, nitida ; anfractibus 5 
quorum apicalis obtusus, vitreus, cseteris apud suturas subimpressis, ventri- 
cosulis, ultimo paullum effuso, obliquato ; apertura ovato rotunda, labro 
incrassato, albo, nitente. 
Long. 2'25, lat. 1*50, mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 21° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
"Very minute, but extremely interesting. We are indebted to Mr. E. R. 
Sykes for its discovery, while sorting shell-sand received from the above most 
rich dredging. It is much smaller and more globose than any Zebina yet 
described ; the peristome is wonderfully incrassate for so small a shell and 
quite simple, never dentate, thus being unlike any of the numerous varieties 
of R. tridentata, Mich., = Eidima curta, Sowb. The facies is eulimoid, but it 
possesses the apex of Rissoina, and we are satisfied as to its location here. The 
trivial name is suggested by its form, when magnified, though more globular, 
somewhat resembling terrestrial Reg i stoma fuscum, Gray. 

EUL1MELLA CARMAN1CA, sp. n. (PI. B. fig. 14.) 

E. testa minuta, fusiformi, albo-lactea, lasvissima, polita, tenui ; anfractibus 
8-10, quorum apicales heterostrophi, hyalini, lactei, cseteris fere rectis, apud 
suturas leniter canaliculars, supernis paullum gradatis, ultimo recto, pro- 
longate ; apertura quadratorotunda, labro recto ; collumella obliqua, simplici. 

Long. 4, lat. 1*20 mm. 

* }ao<jKi\r.s t from the basal shouldered angles. 
13 



98 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI . 

Hob. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58° N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

A pure white, polished, fusiform species, very slightly attenuate ; upper 
whorls gradate, all slightly channelled suturally, more or less straight. Mouth 
somewhat square, outer lip porrect, squarely produced at the base. Columella 
oblique, simple. Several specimens occurred. Not so elegant as E. kaisensis, 
Melv., the only other of the genus yet recorded from this region. " Carmania," 
from whence the specific name is taken, is the ancient name of that portion of 
Persia impinging on the northern shores of the Gulf of Oman. 

(To be continued?) 



99 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS 

in the Bombay Natural History Society's Collection 

on 1st September 1904. 



o » 


No. in 










P., Brit. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


6fl 

. bo 


1-^ *-* 


India. 






£ w 






Order 1— Passeres. 










Family— CORVID.E. 










Sub-family- -Corvine. 






1 


1 


Corvus corax ... 


The Raven ... ... ... ... 


4 


2 


4 


„ macvorhynchus 


The Jungle-Crow 


2 


3 


7 


., splendens 


The Indian House-Crow 


4 


4 


8 


,, insolens ... 


The Burmese House-Crow 


4 


5 


10 


Pica rastica 


The Magpie ... 


5 


6 


12 


Urocissa occipitalis ... ... 


The Red-billed Blue Magpie 


2 


7 


14 


Cissa chinensis ... ... 


The Green Magpie 


3 


8 


16 


Bendrocitta rufa ... 


The Indian Tree-pie 


4 


9 


18 


„ himalayensis 


The. Himalayan Tree-pie 


6 


10 


19 


„ frontalis 
Sub-family Paring. 


The Black-browed Tree-pie ... 


2 


11 


31 


Parus atriccps 


The Indian Grey Tit 


4 


12 


34 


,, monticola 


The Green-backed Tit 


3 


13 


35 


JEgitlialiscus erythroccplialus ... 


The Hed-headed Tit 


1 


14 


61 


Scceorhgnchus gularis 

Family— CRATEROPODID.ffl. 
Sub-family Ceateropodin^e 


The Hoary-headed Crow-Tit 


3 


15 


62 


Dryonastes rufi.collis ... ... 


The Rufous-necked Laughing- 
Thrush 


3 


16 


69 


Gavmlax leualopltu* 


The Himalayan White-crested Laugh- 
ing-Thrush 


2 


17 


72 


„ pcctoralis 


The Black-gorgeted Laughing- 
Thrush 


5 


18 


73 


„ moniliger 


The Necklaced Laughing-Thrush ... 


6 


19 


74 


„ gularis ... 


McClelland's Laughing-Thrush 


4 


20 


80 


Ianthocincla rufhgularis,,, ... 


The Rufous-chinned Laughing- 
Thrush 


1 


21 


84 


Trochalopterum chrysopterum ... 


The Eastern Yellow-winged Laugh- 
ing-Thrush 


3 


22 


87 


., pJiceniceum ... 


The Crimson-winged Laughing- 
Thrush 


1 


23 


91 


,, simile 


The Western Variegated Laughing- 
Thrush 


2 


24 


93 


,j cachinnans ... 


The Nilgiri Laughing-Thrush 


2 


25 


98 


„ virgatum 


The Manipur Streaked Laughing- 
Thrush ., 


1 


26 


103 


Stactocichla merulina 


The Spotted-breasted Laughing- 
Thrush 


3 


27 


105 


Argya caudata 


The Common Babbler 


4 


28 


106 


„ gularis ... ... ... 


The White-throated Babbler 


4 


29 


J 07 


,, malcolmi ... 


The Large Crey Babbler 


4 


30 


110 


Crateropus canorus ... 


The Jungle Babbler _ 


O 


81 


116 


Pomatorhinus schist iccps 


The Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler .. 


O 


32 


1-21 


,, dbscwrus 


Hume's Scimitar Babbler 


t> 


33 


122 


„ ferruginosus „ 


The Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler... 


1 



100 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 





No. in 




CD 


og, 


F., Brit. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


uu 


&CJ2 


India. 




*- 






Sub-family— Timeliin^e. 






34 


134 


Timelia pileata 


The Red-capped Babbler 


1 


35 


135 


Dumetia hyperythra ... ... 


The Rufous- bellied Babbler 


2 


36 


139 


Pyctorhis sineiisis ... ... 


The Yellow-eyed Babtfer 


4 


37 


142 


Pellorneum mandellii ... 


Mandelli's Spotted Babbler ... ... 


4 


38 


144 


„ ruficeps 


The Spotted Babbler 


2 


39 


148 


,, ignotum ... ... 


The Assam Babbler ... ... ... 


4 


40 


151 


Drymocataphus tickelli ... ... 


TickelFs Babbler 


2 


41 


163 


Alcippe ncpalensis ... ... 


The Nepal Babbler 


5 


42 


164 


„ phceocephala ... ... 


The Nilgiri Babbler 


3 


43 


165 


,, phayrii 


The Burmese Babbler 


4 


44 


169 


Stachyrhis nigriceps 


The Black-throated Babbler 


2 


45 


170 


„ chryscea 


The Golden-headed Babbler 


3 


46 


172 


Stachyrhidopsis ruficeps... 
Sub-family Brachyptertgin;e. 


The Red-headed Babbler 


3 


47 


187 


Myiophoneus temmincki ... ... 


The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush... 


4 


48 


189 


,. horsfieldi 


The Malabar Whistling-Thrush ... 


3 


49 


191 


Larvivora brunnea ... 


The Indian Blue Chat 


2 


50 


194 


Brachypteryx rufiventris 


The Rufou-bellied Short-wing 


2 


51 


198 


Drymochares ncpalensis 


The Nepal Short-wing 


8 


52 


199 


Hodgsonius phamicuroides 


Hodgson's Short-wing 


2 


53 


201 


Tesia cyaniventris 

Sub-family— Sibiin^e. 


The Slaty-bellied Short-wing 


2 


54 


211 


Actinodura egertoni 


The Rufous Barwinor 


4 


55 


225 


Yuhina nigrimentum 


The B)ack-chinned Yuhina 


2 


56 


226 


Zosterops palpebrosa ... 


The Indian White-eye 


6 


57 


228 


„ simplex 


Swinhoe's White-eye 


3 


58 


232 


Ixulus fla vicollis 
Sub-family— L I otrichin^e. 


The Yellow-naped Ixulus 


3 


59 


243 


AEffithina tiphia 


The Common Iora 


3 


60 


245 


„ nigrilutea ... ... 


Marshall's Iora 


2 


61 


252 


Chloropsis jerdoni ... 


Jerdon's Chloropsis ... 


1 


62 


257 


Meslu argentauris ... ... 


The Silver-eared Mtsia , 


5 


63 


201 


Psaroglossa spiloptera 


The Spotted-wing 


2 


64 


262 


Hypocolius ampelinus 
Sub-family — BrachypodiNjE. 


The Grey Hypocolius 


4 


65 


263 


Crhuger flaveolus 


The White-throated Bulbul 


2 


66 


269 


Hypsipctes psaroides 


The Himalayan Black Bulbul 


1 


67 


272 


Hemlxus Jlavala 


The Brown-eared Bulbul 


4 


68 


278 


Molpastes hcemorrhoiis ... ... 


The Madras Red-vented Bulbul 


4 


69 


279 


„ burmanicus 


The Burmese Red- vented Bulbul .. 


3 


70 


282 


„ bengalensis ... ... 


The Bengal Red-vented Bulbul 


3 


71 


284 


„ hucogenys 


The White-cheeked Bulbul 


8 


72 


288 


Olocompsa emeria ... ... 


The Bengal Red-whiskered Bulbul.. 


2 


73 


289 


,, fuscicaudata ... .., 


The Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul 


3 


74 


290 


,, Jtaviventrw ... ., 


The Black-crested Yellow Bulbul .. 


2 


75 


305 


Pycnonotus luteolus ... ... 


The White-browed Bulbul 


3 


76 


306 


,, blanfordi 
Family— Dicru rid^e 


Blanford's Bulbul 


3 


77 


327 


Die rums liter ..« 


The Black Drongo 


4 


78 


328 


,, longicaudatus ... 


The Indian Ashy Drongo 


. 1 


7!) 


«JOO 


,, cineruceus ... 


The Grey Drongo 


. 4 


so 


334 


Ckaptia cenea 


The Bronzed Drongo 


(i 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS 1 EGGS. 



101 



&, 



fcco 



No. in 

F., Brit. 

India. 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



° m 

60 
. 60 
O rvj 



81 

82 



84 
85 



86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 

95 
96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 



103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 



113 



114 



115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 



335 
339 
340 



347 

357 



363 
374 
381 
382 
383 
384 
394 
399 
402 

424 

434 

448 
458 
463 
464 
465 
466 



469 
473 
474 
475 
47i> 
479 
488 
500 
501 
510 



512 



518 



529 
538 
539 
544 
549 
551 
552 
553 



Chibia hottentotta 
Bhringa remifer ... 

Disscrmirus paradiseus ... 

Family— Certhiid.e. 

Salpomis spilonota 
Pnoepyga pusilla 

Family— Sylviid.e. 

Acrocephalm stentoreus ... 

Orthotonus sutorius 

Cisticola cursitans ... 

FranUinia gracilis 
,, rufescens 

„ buchanani ... 

Hypotais rama 

Sylvia jerdoui 

„ affinis 

Acanthopneuste magnirostris 
Cryptolopha xanthoschista 

Ho rornis fortipcs 

Suya crinigera 

Prin ia flaviventris 

ii socialis 

,, sylvatica ... 

„ inornata ... ... 

Family — Laniid^:. 

Sub-family— Laniin^k . 

Lanius lahtora 

„ tittatus ... ... 

j, collurioidis 

„ nigriceps ... 

,, erythronotus 

j, isabeUinus ... 

Tcphrodornis pondicerianiis 
Pericrocotus peregrinus 

„ erythropygius 

Graucalus macii ... 

Sub-family— Artamin^:. 

Artamus Juscus 

Family— Obiolid^:. 

Oriolus hundoo 

Family— ST urni D^E. 

Sturnus humii ... ... 

Sturnia malabarica 
„ nemoricola 
Temenuchus pagodarum, M 
Acridothercs tristis ... 

„ ginginianus.,, 

jEthiopsar Juscus 
„ grandis 



... 
... 



... 
... 



The Hair-crested Drongo 

The Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo 

The Larger Racket-tailed Drongo 



The Spotted-Grey Creeper 
The Brown Wren 



The Indian Great Reed-Warbler ... 

The Indian Tailor-Bird 

The Rufous Fantail- Warbler 
Franklin's Wren-Warbler ... 

Beavan's Wren-Warbler , 

The Kufous-fronted Wren-Warbler 

Sykes' Tree-Warbler 

The Eastern Orphean Warbler 

The Indian Lesser White- throated 

Warbler 

The Large-billed Willow- Warbler 
Hodgson's Grey-headed Flycatcher- 
Warbler 

The Strong-footed Bash- Warbler 
Th* Rro*n Hill- Warbler ... 
The Yellow-bellied Wren-Warb'.er. 
The Ashy Wren- Warbler _ 
The Jungle Wren-Warbler ... 
The Indian Wren-Warbler ... 



The Indian Grey Shrike 
The Bay-backed Shrike 
The Burmese Shrike ... 
The Black-headed Shrike ... 
The Rufous- backed Shrike ... 
The Pale-brown Shrike ... 

The Common Wood-Shrike ... 
The Small Minivet 
The White-bellied Minivet ... 
The Large Cuckoo-Shrike ... 



2 

6 

2 



6 
8 
6 
8 
6 
3 
3 
2 

1 

1 

3 
3 
1 

4 
4 
6 
5 



The Ashy Swallow Shrike ... 



The Indian Oriole 



••• ••• 



The Himalayan Starling 
The <irey-b>aded Myna 
The White-winged Myna 
The Black-headed Myna 
The Common Myna ... 
The Bank Myna 
The Jungle Myna 
The Siamese Myna 



7 
4 
3 
12 
4 
3 
3 
2 

1 



102 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



Km 



No. in 

P., Brit. 

India. 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



bo 
. 60 

O rvi 



123 

124 



125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 

138 

139 

140 



141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 



147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 



155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 



555 
556 



568 
575 
576 
579 
581 
588 
590 
591 
592 
595 
598 
599 
601 

604 

605 

607 



608 
609 
615 
618 
628 
629 



631 
632 
633 
644 
659 
661 
662 
663 



667 
671 
673 
676 
678 
683 
685 
686 
691 
693 
695 
699 
705 



Sturnopastor contra ... 
„ superciliaris 

Family— Muscicapid^;. 

Cyornis superciliaris 
jj rubeculoides 
,, tickdli ... ... 

Stoparola melanops 

„ albicaudata ... 

Alseonax latirostris 

„ muttui ... 

Ochromda nigrirufa 

Culicicapa ceylonensis ... 

Niltava macgrifforice 

Terpsi/phone paradisi 

„ affinis ... 

Hypothymis azurea 

Rhipidura albifrontata ... 
„ albicolUs ... 

,) pectoralls 



Family — TtrRDlD.33. 
Sub-family— Saxicolin^e. 

Pratincola caprata 

„ atrata 

Oreicola ferrea 

Saxicola picata , , 

,, chrysopygia 
Cercomela fusca ... 

Sub-family— Ruticillin^e. 

Henicurus guttatus 

„ schistaceus ... 
,, immaculatus ... 

Ruticilla rufiventris ... ., 

Notodela leucura ... .. 

Thamnobia cambaiensis 

„ fulicata 

Copsychus saularis ... 

Sub-family— Turdhsle. 






Merida simillima 
nigripileus 
castanea ... 
boulboul ... 
unicolor ... 
Geocichla wardi ... 
,, cyananotus 
,, citrina ... 
Petroph ila einclorkyne. 

„ cyanus 
Turdus viscivorus 
Oreocincla nilgiriensis 
Zoothera marginata 



ha. 



The Pied Myna 

The Burmese Pied Myna 



The White-browed Blue Flycatcher. 

The Blue-throated Flycatcher 

Tickell's Blue Flycatcher 

The "Verditer Flycatcher ... 

The Nilgiri Blue Flycatcher 

The Brown Flycatcher 

Layard's Flycatcher ... 

The Black and Orange Flycatcher... 

The Grey-headed Flycatcher 

The Small Niltava 

The Indian Paradise Flycatcher 

The Burmese Paradise Flycatcher ... 

The Indian Black-naped Fly- 
cutciiyr ••• ... ••• ••• 

The White-browed Fantail Fly- 
catcher 

The White-throated Fantail Fly- 
catcher 

The White-spotted Fantail Fly- 
( mi '.' 1 1 or ••• ••■ ••• i 



The Common Pied Bush-Chat 
The Southern Pied Bush-Chat 
The Dark-grey Bush-Chat ... 

The Pied Chat 

The Red-tailed Chat 

The Brown Rock-Chat 



The Eastern Spotted Forktail 
The Slaty-backed Forktail ... 
The Black-backed Forktail ... 
The Indian Redstart 
The White-tailed Blue Robin 
The Brown-backed Indian Robin 
The Black-backed Indian Robin 
The Magpie-Robin 



The Nilgiri Black-Bird 

The Black-capped Black-Bird 

The Grey-headed Ouzel 

The Grey-winged Ouzel 

Tickell's" Ouzel 

The Pied Ground-Thrush 

The White-throated Ground-Thrush 
The Orange-headed Ground-Thrush 
The Blue-headed Rock-Thrush ... 
The Western Blue Rock-Thrush ... 

The Missel-Thrush 

The Nilgiri Thrush 

The Lesser Brown Thrush 



3 
5 
3 
3 

4 

4 

1 
o 

2 

2 
7 



3 

4 

o 
O 

6 

9 



3 
5 
o 

1 

4 
3 

4 
3 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS. 



103 



o g ! No. in 
.§ F., Brit. 

&% India - 



Scientific Name. 



177 



178 
179 
180 
181 
182 



183 



740 



775 
776 
779 
780 
781 



803 



184 


809 


185 


811 


186 


813 


187 


814 


188 


818 


189 


819 


190 


823 


191 


830 


192 


831 


193 


836 


194 


847 


195 


853 


196 


871 


197 


873 


198 


874 


199 


875 


200 


877 


201 


879 



English Name. 



o. 



168 


720 


169 


721 


170 


722 


171 


723 


172 


726 


173 


727 


174 


734 


175 


735 


176 


738 



Family— Ploceid^s. 

Sub-family— Plocein^e. 

Ploceus baya ... 

,, megarhynchus ... 
„ bengalensis ... 
„ manyar 

Sub-family — Viduin.e. 

Munia atricapilla 

Uroloncha acuticxuda ... 
malabarica 
punctulala ... 

Sporaginthus ama ndava.,. 



» 



Family— Fringillid^e. 

Sub-famil.v— Coccothr Aus- 
tins. 

Coccothraustes liumii 

Sub-family— FringilliN/E. 

Gymnorhis flavicollis 

Passer domesticus... ... , 

montanus ... 

cinnamomeus ... 

tktveolus ... ... , 



» 



The Baya 

The Eastern Baya 

The Black-throated Weaver-Bird 
The Striata d Weaver-Bird ... 



The Chestnut-bellied Munia... 

Hodgson's Munia 

The vVhite-throatel Munia ... 

The Spotted Munia 

The ludian Red Munia ... 



Sub-family — Emberizin^;. 

Mdophus melanicierus ... 

Family- Hi rundinid^;. 

Cotile sinensis 

Ptyonop rogue concolor ... 
Hirundo rustiea 

„ gutturalis 

„ smithii ... 
Hirundo Jiuvicola 

„ erythropygia ... 

Family— Motacillid^e. 

Motacilla hodgsoni ... 

,, maderaspatensis 
„ feldeggi 

Anthus ru/ulus 

Oreocorys sylvanus ... 

Family — Alandid^e. 

Mirafra erythroptera ... 

,, microptera ... 

Galerita cristata ... 

,, deva 

Ammomanes phcenicura ... 
Pyrrhidauda grisea ... 



Hume's Hawfinch 



The Yellow- throated Sparrow 

The House- Sparrow 

The Tree -Sparrow 

The Cinnamon Tree-Sparrow 
The Pegu House-Sparrow ... 



The Crested Buntin < 



The Indian Sand-Martin 
The Dusky Crag -Martin 

The Swallow 

The Eastern Swallow 
The Wire-tailed Swallow 
The Indian Cliff-Swallow 
Sykes' Striated Swallow 



Hodgson's Pied Wagtail 
The Large Pied Wagtail 
The Black -headed Wagtail 
The Indian Pipit 
The Upland Pipit 



The Red-winged Bush -Lark 
The Burmese Bush -Lark 

The Crested Lark 

Sykes' Crested Lark ... 

The Rufous-tailed Finch-Lark 

The Ashy-cmwne.l Finch-Lark 



• •• 





... 


3 


... 


2 


., 


3 




2 



2 
1 
9 
2 

6 



7 
4 
3 



2 

6 

2 

6 

10 

2 



104 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



o 
Km 


No. in 
F., Brit. 
India. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


U-l 

00 
fcD 






Family — Nectariniid.*:. 










Sub-family— Nectakin-iin^. 






202 
203 
204 


895 
900 
901 


Arachnechthra asiatica ... ... 

„ minima ... 

„ zeylonica 

Sub-family — & rachnotherinje. 


The Purple Snn-Bird 

The Small Sun-Bird 

The Purple-ruraped Sun-Bird 


3 
4 
2 


205 


906 


Arachnothera magna 

Family — Dic^ElDiE. 


The Larger-Streaked Spider-hunter... 


2 


20(5 


921 


Piprisoma squalidum 

Family— Pittilve. 


The Thick-billed Flower-pecker 


G 


207 
208 


927 
933 


Pitta nepalensis 

„ brachyura 

Order II— Euryl.emi. 

Family — EttryL^emid^e. 


The Blue-naped Pitta ... 

The Indian Pitta 


3 
2 


209 
210 
211 


942 
943 
944 


Serilophus lunatus 

„ rubripygius ... 
Psarisomas dalhousice 

Order III— PiOl. 

Family— PiCID^e. 

Sub-family — Pioin^e. 


Gould's Broadbill 

Hodgson's Broadbill 

The Long-tailed Broadbill 


4 
4 
4 


212 

213 

214 

215 

21G 


950 
951 

972 

98G 
902 


Gecinus occipitalis ... ... 

,, cklorolophus 

Liopicus malirattensis 

Braehyptcrnus aurantws 
Crysocolaptcs gutticristatus 

Sub-family— PicuMNiNiE. 


The Black-naped Green Woodpecker. 

The Small Himalayan Yellow-nap ed 
Woodpecker 

The Yellow-fronted Pied Wood- 
pecker 

The Golden-backed Woodpecker ... 

Tickell's Golden-backed Woodpecker. 


6 

4 

2 
3 
1 


217 


1001 


Piciunnus innominatus ... aH 
Order IV— Zygodactyly. 
Family— Capitonid^e. 


The Speckled Piculet 


1 


218 
219 
220 
221 
222 


1007 
1008 
1012 
1017 
1019 


Megalama virens 

Thereiceryx zelonicus 

C'yantps asiatica ... ... ... 

„ J'ranMini... ... 

Xantholcema hwmatocephala ... 

Order V— Anisodactyli. 
Sub-order— Coraci^e. 
Family— CoRACiADyE, 


The Great Chinese Barbet 

The Common Indian Green Barbet... 

The Blue-throated Barbet 

The Golden-throated Barbet 

The Crimson-breasted Barbet or 
Coppersmith 


1 

5 
3 
2 

3 


223 
224 
225 


1022 
1023 
1024 


Coracias indica ... 

j, affiants ... ... 

„ garrula ... ... 


The Indian Roller 

The Burmese Holler 

The European Iioller 


5 
1 

1 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS. 



105 





No. in • 

F., Brit. 

India. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


No. of 
I Eggs. 






Sub-order— Meropes. 










Family — Meropid^e. 






226 

227 
228 


1026 
1027 
1029 


Merops viridis 

„ philippinus 

„ aplaster 

S ub-order — H a lc y ones. 

Family — Alcedinid^e. 


The Common Indian Bee-eater 

The Blue-tailed Bee-eater 

The European Bee-eater 


3 

1 
4 


229 
230 
231 


1033 
1035 
1044 


Ceryle varia 

Alcedo ispida 

Halcyon smyrnensis ... 

Sub-order— BuCEROTeS. 
Family— Bucerotid^e. 


The Indian Pied Kingfisher 

The Common Kingfisher 

The White-breasted Kingfisher 


6 
5 

2 


232 
233 


1062 
1065 


Lophoccros birnstris ... ... 

Rhhioplax vig'd ... 

Sub-order— Qpttp^e. 

Family — Upupi d^e. 


The Common Crey Hornbill 

The Helmeted H ornbill 


2 
I 


234 


1066 


Upupa epops 

Order VI— Macrochires. 

Sub-order — CypSEli. 

Family— Cypselid^e. 

Sub-family— Cypselin^E. 


The European Hoopoe 


4 


235 
236 
237 


1073 
1075 
1076 


Cypselus affinis 

Tachornis batassiensis .. ... 
j, infwmatus ... m 

Sub-family— CH^TURiN^:. 


The Common Indian Swift 

The Palm-Swift 

The Eastern Palm-Swift 


8 
3 
4 


238 


1081 


Collocalia fuciphaga 

Sub-order— CaPrim ulgi. 
Family— Caprimtjlgid^:. 


The Indian Edible-nest Swiftlet 


2 


239 
240 
241 


1090 
1091 
1093 


Caprimulgus monticola ... 
„ asiaticus ... 
„ macrurus 

Sub-order — Podargi. 

Family — Podargid^e. 


Franklin's Nightjar ... ~. 
The Common Indian Nightjar 
Horsfeld's Nightjar 


2 
4 
2 


242 


1097 


BatracJiostomus hodffsoni ••• 

Order VII— Trogones. 

Family— TroGONID.e. 


Hodgson's Frogmouth ... ... 


1 


2<J3 


1101 


Harpactcs crytkrocephalus ... 


The Red-headed. Trogon 


o 



14 



106 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV I 



O <1> 
"CO 



No. in 

F., Bnt. 

India. 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



■* ha 
a M 



244 
245 



246 
247 
248 
249 

250 



251 
252 

253 



254 
255 
256 

257 
258 



259 

260 

261 
262 
263 
264 
265 



266 



267 
268 
269 



1104 
1118 



1120 
1123 

1129 
1130 

1133 



1138 
1139 

1141 



1164 
1168 
1169 
1180 
1184 



1190 
1191 

1192 
1194 
1196 
1197 
1198 



1199 



1200 
1203 
1207 



Order VIII— Coccyges. 

Family— CuculiDjE. 

Sub-family— Cuculin^e. 

Cwculus canorus ... 

Coccystes jacobinus ... 

Sub-family— PhceniCOPHAIN.k. 

Eudynamis honorata 
Rhopodytcs tristis 
Taccocua leschenaidti ... 
Centropus sinensis 

„ bengalensis ... 

Order IX— P^ITTACI. 

Family - PsiTTAClDiE. 

Palceornis torquatus 

,, cyanocephalus 

„ schisticeps ... , 

Order X— Striges. 

Family— Asi oni dm. 

Sub-family— BUBONIN.&. 

Ketupa zeylonensis ... 

Bubo bengalensis 

„ coromandus ... 

Athene brama 
Glaucidium radiatum 

Order XI — Accipitres. 

Family — Vclturid^e. 

Vultur monnchus ... 
Otoggps erdvus 

Gyps/ulvus 

,, indicia 

Pscudogyps bengalensis ... 

Neophron ginginianus ... 

„ percnopterus ... 

Family— Falconid^:. 

Sub-family— Gyp^tin^e. 

Gypaetus barbatus 

Sub-family— Falconing. 

Aquila chrysaetus ... 

,, vindhiana ... 

Eieraetus fasciatus 



The Cuckoo 

The Pied Crested Cuckoo 



The Indian Koel 

The Large Green-billed Malkoha ... 

The Sirkeer Cuckoo 

The Common Coucal or Crow-Phea 

SilJlt' «*■ ... . .. •■• •• 

The Lesser Coucal , 



The Rose-ringed Paroquet 

The Western Blossom-headed Paro 
qUet ... ... -.. ... •• 

The Slaty-headed Paroquet 



The Brown Fish-Owl ... 
The Kock Horned Owl 
The Dusky Horned Owl 
The Spotted Owlet ... 
The Jungle Owlet 



The Cinereous Vulture 

The Black Vulture or Pondicherry 

Vulture 

The Griffon Vulture 

The Indian Long-billed Vulture 
The Indian White-backed Vulture 
The Smaller White Scavenger Vulture 
The Egyptian Vulture or Large White 

Scavenger Vulture 



The Bearded Vulture or Lammer- 
geyer 



The Golden Eagle 

The Indian Tawny Eagle 

Bonelli's Eagle 



1 
•1 



2 
3 
1 

4 
1 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS. 



107 



& 



GQ 



No. in 

F., Brit. 

India. 



270 
271 

272 
273 
274 

275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
231 
282 
283 
2«4 
285 



286 
287 
288 
2«9 
290 



291 



292 
293 
294 
295 



29G 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



o w 

to 
->• bo 



297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 



1216 
1220 
1223 
1224 
1226 

1228 
1229 
1231 
1232 
1239 
1241 
1247 
1257 
1260 
1264 
1265 



1273 
1278 
1281 
1282 
1283 



1291 



1292 
1309 
1310 
1312 



1321 



1324 
1325 
1328 
1330 
1336 
1339 
1342 
1349 
1351 
1352 



... 
••• 



Circaetus gallicus ... 
Butastur teesa .. 
Haliaetus leucoryphus 

,, leuc.ogaster 
PoUoaetus ichthyaetm 

Haliastur Indus ... 
Milvus govhula ... 
,, migrans ... 
Elanus cceruleus ... 
Buteofcrox ... 

Astur badius ... ... .. 

Accipiter nisus ... 

Falcojugger 

,, subbuteo ... ... .. 

jEsalon chicquera 

Tinnunculus alaudarius ... 

Order XII— Columb^e. 

Family— COLtTMBiDiffi. 

Sub-family— Treronin^e. 

Osmotreron phayrei ... 

>} bicincta 

Treron nepalensis ... ' . 

Sphenocercus apicicauda... 
„ sphenurus ... 

Sub-family— Phabin^e. 

Chalcophaps indica 

Sub-family— Columbine. 

Columba intermedia ... 

Turtur cambayensis .,, ■ 

,, risorius ... 

Macropygia tusalia ... 

Order XIII— PteroCleteS. 

Family— PteroClhxe. 
Pteroclurus exustus ... . 

Order XIV— Galling. 
Sub-order — Alectoropodes. 

Family— Phasianidje. 

Pavo cristatus 

„ muticus 

Gallus ferrugineus 

„ sonnerati 

Gennceus albicristatus 

,, horsfieldi 
Lophophorus refulgens ... . 
Galloperdix spadicea ... , 

„ bicalcarata ... 

Bambusicola fytchii 



The Short-toed Eagle 

The White-eyed Buzzard-Eagle 

Pallas's Fishing-Eagle 

The White-bellied Sea-Eagle 

The Large Grey-headed Fishing- 
Eagle 

The lirahminy Kite 

The Common Pariah Kite 

The Black Kite 

The Black -winged Kite 

The Long-legged Buzzard 

The Shikra 

The Sparrow-Hawk 

The Laggar Falcon 

The Hobby 

The Turumti or Red-headed Merlin... 
The Kestrel 



1 
2 

2 

1 

2 

2 

o 

4 
4 
2 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 
7 



The Ashy-headed Green Pigeon 
The Orange-breasted Green Pigeon... 
The Thick-billed Green Pigeon 
The Pin -tailed Green Pigeon 
The Kokla Green Pigeon 



The Bronze-winged Dove 



The Indian Blue Rock-Pigeon 
The Little Brown Dove 
The Indian Ring-Dove 
The Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove... 



The Common Sand-grouse 



The Common Peafowl ... 

The Burmese or Javan Peafowl .. 

The Red Jungle-fowl 

The Grey Jungle-fowl 

The White-crested Kalij Pheasant .. 
The Black-breasted Kalij Pheasant. 

The Monal 

The Red Spur-fowl 

The Ceylon Spur-fowl 

The Western Bamboo-Partridge 



3 

3 
4 

1 



1 
1 
4 
1 
6 
1 
1 
5 
2 
3 



108 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 






<m 



No. in 
P., Brit. 

India. 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 






321 
322 
323 

324 
325 
326 
327 

328 



329 



330 
331 
332 



333 
334 



307 


1356 


308 


1363 


309 


1364 


310 


1365 


311 


1370 


312 


1371 


313 


1372 


314 


1373 


315 


1374 


316 


1375 


317 


1377 


318 


1378 


319 


1381 


320 


1382 



1389 
1395 
1398 
1400 
1401 
1402 
1404 
1405 



1409 



1413 
1414 
1416 



1418 
1419 



Coturnix coromandelica ... 

Arboricvla rufigularis 
j, intermedia 

,, atrigularis 

C'accabis ehucar ... 

Ammoperdix bonhami ... 

Francol'mus vulgaris ... 

„ pictus 

„ chinensis ... 

,, pondicerianus 
Perdix hodffsoniae ... 

Tetracgallus himalayensis 



Sub-order — PERISTEROPODES. 

Family— MegapOdiiDjE. 

Megapodius nicobariensis 

Order XV — Hemipodii. 

Family— Tttrnicid^E. 

Turnix pugnax 

Order XVI— Grali^E. 
Sob-order— FulICARi^:. 
Family— Rallid^e. 



The Black-breasted or Rain Quail ... 

Blyth's Hill-Partridge 

The Arrakan Hill-Partridge 

The White-cheeked Bill-Partridge... 

The Chukor 

The Seesee , 

The Black Partridge or Common 

Francolin 
The Painted Partridge 
The Eastern or Chinese Francolin 

The Grey Partridge 

The Tibetan Partridge ... 

The Himalayan Snow-Cock ... 



... 
... 
... 



Hypotanidia striata 
Rail inn superciliaris 
Amauromis fuscus 

„ ahool 

„ phamicurus . 

Gallinula ch/orcpus 
Porphyria polio cephalus, 
Fulica atra ... , 



Sub-order— Grues. 
Family— Grtjid^e. 
Grus antigone ... ... 

Sub-order— Otides. 
Family— Otidid^e. 

Otis tetrax 

Fupodotis edwardsi 
SypJieqfis aurita 

Order XVII— Limicol^e. 

Family— CEDiCNEMiDiE. 

(Edicnemus scolopax 
Esacus recurvirostris ... 



The Nicobiir Megapode 



The Bustard-Quail 



The Blue-breasted Banded Rail 

The Banded Crake 

The Ruddy Crake 

The Brown Crake 

The White-breasted Water-Hen 

The Moorhen 

The Purple Moorhen 

The Coot 



The Sarus 



The Little Bustard 

The Great Indian Bustard ... 
The Lesser Florican or Likh... 



The Stone-Curlew 
The Great Stone-Plover 



5 
2 
3 
2 
10 
4 

1 
1 
4 

2 
6 
2 



6 
5 
1 
3 

6 

7 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS. 



109 



J. Of 1 

ecies. 


No. in 
P., Brit. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


CM 

. bo 




India. 












Family— Dromadtd^e. 






335 


1421 


Dromas ardeola ... ... ... 

Family— Glareolid-S:. 
Sub-family— CurSokiin^e. 


The Crab-Plover t 


t*i 


336 


1422 


Cursorius coromandelicus 
Sub-family— Glareoun^e. 


The Indian Courser 


2 


337 


1427 


Glareola lactea 

Family— PARRID.E 


The Small Indian Pratincole or 
Swallow-Plover ,. 


6 


338 
339 


1428 
1429 


Metopidius indicus 

Hydrojihasianus chirurgus ... 

Family— Charadriid^e. 

Sub-Family— CHARADRHNiE. 


The Bronze-winged Jacana 
The Pheasanttailed Jacana 


5 
6 


340 
311 

342 
343 
344 
345 


1431 
1433 
1435 
1443 
1446 
1447 


Sarcogrammus Indicus 

Sarciophorus malabaricus 
Hoplojiterutt ventralis 
JEgialitis mongolica ... 

,, alexandrina ... ... 

„ dubia 

Sub-famih — H^matopodin^e. 


The Red-wattled Lapwing 

The Yellow-wattled Lapwing ... 
The Indian Spur-winged Plover 

The Lesser Sand-Plover 

The Kentish Plover 

The Little Ringed Plover 


5 
3 
4 
4 
2 
2 


346 


1451 


ffimantopus candidus ... ... 

Sub-family — Totanin-e. 


The Rlack-winged Stilt 


1 


347 
348 
349 
350 


1460 
1468 
1476 
1478 


Totanus hypoleucus 

Pavoncella pugnax 

Ti'inga crassirostris ... 
„ alpina ... ... 

Sub-family— Scolopacin.e. 


The Common Sandpiper . . 

The RnfE and Reeve 

The Eastern Knot 

The Dunlin 


1 
1 
1 

2 


351 


1483 


Eostratula capensis 

Order XVIII— Gavi,e. 

Family— Larid^e. 
Sub-family — Larin.e. 


The Painted £nipe 


3 


352 


1492 


Larus henvprichi 

Sub-family— Sternin^!. 


The Sooty Gull 


3 


353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 


1496 
1498 
1501 
1502 
1503 
1504 
1505 


Hydrochelidon hybrida 

Rydroprogne caspia ... ... 

Sterna media 

„ bergii 

jj seena ... ... .. 

,, melanogaster 

„ albigena , 


The Whiskered Tern 

The Caspian Tern 

The Smaller Crested Tern 

The Larger Crested Tern 

The Indian River-Tern 
The Black-bellied Tern 
The White-cheeked Tern ... 


8 
3 

a 

2 
4 
4 
3 



110 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



© *; 
,'5 



No. in 

F., Brit. 

India. 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



60 



360 
361 
362 
363 



365 
366 
367 



368 



369 



370 



371 
37-2 
373 
374 



375 

376 
377 
378 
379 
380 
381 
382 
383 
384 
385 



1508 
1510 
1511 
1513 



1517 



1520 
1527 
1528 



1529 



1541 



1545 



1548 
1549 
1552 
1553 



1554 
1555 
1559 
1560 
1561 
1562 
1563 
1565 
1568 
1570 
1572 



Sterna dougalli ... ... .. 

„ minuta ... ... .. 

„ saundersi ... 

,, ancestheta 

Sub-f amil) — RynohopiN.«. 

Bhynchojps albicollis 

Order XIX— Steganopodes. 

Famly — Phalacrocoracim:. 

Sub-family— Pbalacrocora- 
cin^b. 

Phalacrocorax carbo 

„ fuscicolUs .. 

„ javanicus 

Sub-family— Plotin^e. 

Plotus melanog aster ... 

Order XXI— Herodiones. 
Sub-order- Platale^e. 
Family — Ibidid^e. 
Ibis melanocephala ... .. 

Family— Plataleid^e. 
Platalea leucorodia 

Sub-order— Ciconle. 

Family— Ciconiid.e. 

Dissura episcopus 

XenorAynchus asiaticus ... .. 
Pseudotantalus leucocetphalus .. 
Anastomus oscitans 

Sub-order — ARDE^a. 

Family - Ardeid.e. 



Ardea manillensis 
„ cinerea ... 

Berodias alba ... 
„ intermedia 
., garzetta 

Bubulcu* coroma ndus 

L&pterodius asha ... 

Ardeola grayi 

Nycticorax ffriseus 

Arietta minuta 
„ cinnamomea 



... 
... 



The Roseate Tern ... 
The Little Tern 
The Black-shafted Ternlet 
The Pauayan Tern „. 



The Large Cormorant 
The Indian Shag 
The Little Cormorant 



The Indian Darter or Snake-bird ... 



The White Ibis 



The Spoonbill .. 



The White-necked Stork 
The Black-necked Stork 
The Painted Stork ... 
The Open-bill 



The Eastern Purple Hoi on 

The Common Heron ... 

The Large Egret 

The Smaller Egret 

The Little Egret ... 

The Tattle E^ret 

The Indian Reef-Heron 

The Pond Heron 

The Night Heron 

The Little Bittern 

The Chestnut Bittern 



29 
6 
5 
4 



The Tndian Skimmer or Scissors-bill. 8 



4 

2 
4 



1 

1 
4 
3 



A 
3 
3 
3 

1 
2 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 



LIST OF INDIAN BIRDS' EGGS. 



Ill 



No. of 
Species. 


No. in 

F., Brit. 

India. 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


bo 






Order XXII— PhceniCOPTiiri. 










Family — Phcenicopterid^e. 






386 


1575 


Phcenicopterus roscus 

Order XXIII— An seres. 

Famil} — Anatid^:. 
Sub-family— Anatin^E. 


The Common Flamingo 


4 


387 
388 
389 
390 
391 
39-2 
393 


1584 
1589 
1590 
1592 
1593 
1606 
1614 


Sarcidiornis melanonotus ... 
Dcndrocycna javanica ... ... 

,, J'ulva 

Anas boscas 

„ pmcilorhyncha 

Nyroca ferruginea 

Merganser senator ... ... 

Order XXIY— Pygopodes. 
Family— Podicipedid^e. 


The Comb Duck or Nukta ... 

The Whistling Teal 

The Large Whistling Teal 

Ihe Mallard 

The Spotted-billed Duck 

The White-eyed Duck 

The Red-breasted Merganser 


2 

6 
•> 

2 

6 
4 


394 
395 


1615 
1617 


Podicipes cristatus 

„ albipennis 


The Great Crested Grebe 

The Indian Little Grebe or Dabchick. 


1 
4 



112 

ON SOME NEW SPECIES OF SILVER-PHEASANTS OBTAINED IN 
BURMA, BY CAPTAIN W. C. NISBETT, LIEUT. R. 
CLIFFORD AND OTHERS. 

By Eugene W. Oates. 

Amongst the pheasants that I have received from Burma during the last two 
years there are three well-marked new species of Silver-Pheasants. The first 
two that I shall describe belong to an entirely new section of these birds, 
in which the males combine a black wing with a barred tail, and the females 
have the middle tail-feathers with the two webs of different colours. The third 
species is of remarkable interest, as it has now been rediscovered after an 
interval of eighty years. The bird was, however, never described nor named, 
and it was only known from a coloured drawing. 

Genii'ius obscurus, sp„ n. 

In the adult male the head, crest, and the whole lower plumage are glossy 
blue-black. The hind-neck, mantle, back, and all the upper wing-coverts are 
bluish black, sparingly speckled with pale buff. The rump-feathers and upper 
tail-coverts are bluish black, broadly margined with white and very sparingly 
dotted with pale buff on one or both webs. The primaries are brown ; the se- 
condaries black, with a few buff specks on the margin of the outer web of each 
feather. The outermost tail-feather is black ; the middle pair black with 
narrow, broken, diagonal white bars on the whole of both webs, except the 
terminal quarter of the outer web, the margin of the basal half of the inner 
web being plain white. The remaining tail-feathers are of an intermediate 
character, the second from the outside being black with a few specks of white 
at the base of the outer web and the feather next the middle pair being black 
with a few diagonal white lines on the basal three-fourths of the outer web. 

In another male, which is probably a year younger than the specimen 
described above, the specks or dots on the upper plumage, wing-coverts, and 
secondaries are more numerous and form narrow, zigzag, broken lines. The 
markings on the tail-feathers are less numerous and the middle tail-feathers 
have the inner web entirely black. 

Length of wing 9*25 inches, of tail 1P5 inches. The legs are of a brown 
colour. 

The female resembles the female of G. Horsfieldi in all respects, except in 
the coloration of the tail. The general colour of the plumage is reddish brown, 
the feathers edged paler and vermiculated in an indistinct manner with black ; 
those of the breast and belly marked with cream-coloured shaft-streaks. The 
quills of the wing are brown, mottled with fulvous on the outer webs. The 
outermost tail-feather is entirely black ; the next six are also black, the 
second from the outside having a few white specks at the base of the outer 
web, the specks increasing in number on each successive feather and gradually 
combining into narrow wavy bars, the seventh feather being cross-barred all 
over, except at the tip. The two middle feathers are of a rich dark chestnut 
on the outer web and of a pale chestnut on the inner, both webs being longitu- 



ON SOME NEW SPECIES OF SILVER-PHEASANTS. 113 

dinally marked with wavy black bars, those on the outer web being much 
broader than those on the inner. Length of wing 8*5 inches, of tail 9 - 5 inches. 
The legs are of a brown colour . 

Both sexes of this pheasant were sent to me by Captain W. G. Nisbett from 
the Katha District of Upper Burma. 

Gennoius Cliffordi, sp. n. 
In this species the male is unique in being streaked with white on the mantle 
and the female is remarkable in having black spots on some of the feathers 
of the wing. 

In a very old male the head, crest, and the whole of the lower plumage are 
glossy blue-black. The hind-neck and mantle are black, each feather with a 
narrow streak, which is white mottled with black, and about an inch in length. 
The upper back is plain black. The lower back and rump are black, 
each feather with a white margin and one or two broken white vermiculations 
just, above the margin. The primaries are dark brown ; the secondaries black, 
with a few white specks on the margins of the outer webs of the outermost 
feathers. The upper wing-coverts are black, a few of the lesser coverts with 
white shaft-streaks ; the inner median and greater coverts with a very narrow 
but conspicuous white margin. The middle tail-feathers are diagonally marked 
with equal bands of black and white, the margin of the inner web being plain 
white. The next feather is black, everywhere banded narrowly with white. 
The next is blaek, sparingly marked with broken bars of white. The next, 
again, is black with a little white at the base only. The four outer feathers are 
plain black. The upper tail-coverts are black, covered with broken white 
bands more or less parallel to the margin. 

Length of wing 10 inches, of tail nearly 16 inches. The legs are brown. 

A young male, with the spurs half-grown, has the plumage of the same cha- 
racter as the bird just described, differing in some details. The streaks on the 
mantle are large and triangular, extending in some cases to nearly the whole of 
the feather, and the white much broken up. The upper wing-coverts are speck- 
led with white, and the white margin to the inner median and greater coverts 
is indistinct. T'\e visible portions of the rump-feathers are black with a broader 
white margin, but lacking the broken white vermiculations above the margin. 
On the other hand, there is much white speckling on the concealed portions 
of the feathers. The middle tail-feathers, which have only a very slight curl 
outwards, are black, very sparingly banded with white. The next three are 
still more sparingly marked and the outer four are entirely black. 

Length of wing 9'5 inches, of tail nearly 10 inches. The legs are of a 
brownish flesh-colour. 

The female has the upper plumage and wing-coverts of a russet-brown, 
colour, each feather vermiculated with black, the shaft and the margin much 
paler, some of the inner median and greater coverts with a black patch or large 
spot near the tip of one or both webs. The primaries are brown ; the second- 
aries brown, vermiculated with black and mottled with rufous, the innermost 



114 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

with a black patch near the tip of the outer webs. The middle tail-feathers are 
dull chestnut on the inner web, vermiculated with black ; and black on the 
outer web, vermiculated with chestnut on the margin. The other tail-feathers 
are all black. The lower plumage is black, the margins of the feathers pale 
brown. Each feather of the breast and belly has a very broad, pointed 
ochraceous streak, occupying quite half of the feather and in some cases 
three-quarters, and mottled with black. The feathers of the sidfjs of the body 
and flanks have bright ochraceous shaft-streaks. 

Length of wing 9 inches, of tail 8-5 inches. The legs are pale brown. 

Specimens of this pheasant have been sent to me by Lieut. R. Clifford, of 
the 22nd Punjabis, and I have much pleasure in associating lis name with 
the species. It occurs in the Myitkyina District, east of the Irrawaddy 
river. 

Genncms assimilis, sp. n. 

In the year 1826 Crawfurd went on a mission to the Court of Ava, and in the 
course of his travels met with a pheasant, of which a coloured drawing was 
made. So far as I can ascertain, nothing was known of this drawing till Gould 
reproduced it in the background of his plate of Diar dig alius prcelalus in his 
" Birds of Asia." I have often looked at this drawing of Gould's and wonder.' 
ed why the artist should have depicted the female of Genixvus rufipes, the 
Ruby Mines Pheasant, with flesh-coloured legs. The mystery was cleared up 
when I received from the Ruby Mines a bird which corresponded precisely with 
Gould's figure. On writing to one of my correspondents, I learn that there is 
in the Ruby Mines District a pheasant with pale legs, very similar in other 
respects with the red-legged species, and equally well known. I hope, there- 
fore, soon to acquire the male. 

The female of the present species has the whole upper plumage and the 
upper wing-coverts of a uniform umber-brown, the shafts and the margins 
of the feathers somewhat paler ; the crest a darker brown, vermiculated with 
black ; the upper tail-coverts also thickly vermiculated with dark brown. 
The primaries are dark brown, mottled with fulvous on the outer webs ; the 
secondaries are umber-brown, vermiculated with black. The tail-feathers 
are diagonally barred and vermiculated with a combination of umber-brown, 
fulvous, black, and very pale buff, inner webs being darker and more coarsely 
marked than the outer. The whole lower plumage is dark blackish brown 
each feather with two broad, zigzag, Y-shaped marks of an ochraceous colour, 
the outer being close to the edge of the feather, the inner much smaller and 
frequently forming only an irregular and coarse streak on and about the shaft. 
Length of wing nearly 10 inches ; of tail 10 inches. The legs are flesh-coloured. 

The main points of difierence between the female of this species and those of 
G. rufipes, of which I have a large series, are the flesh-coloured legs, and the 
absence of black vermiculations on the upper plumage and upper wing-coverts. 

{The above was published hi the AtweJs and Magazine of Natural History. 
Vol. LXXXI1, October 1904.) 



115 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT, 

BEING 

A SIMPLE ACCOUNT OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FAMILIES OF INSECTS 

WITH EXAMPLES OF THE DAMAGE THEY DO TO CROPS, 

TEA, COFFEE AND INDIGO CONCERNS, FRUIT 

AND FOREST TREES IN INDIA, 

BY 

E. P. STEBBING, f.l.s., f.z.s., f.b.s. 

Continued from Volume 15, page 386. 

Chapter V. 



Order IV — Hymenoptera. 

In the adult Insect four membranous wings are present ; they have no 
scales upon them, are usually transparent and never very large, the hinder 
pair being smaller than the front ones ; the cells formed by the ner- 
vures in the wing are irregular in size and form, and never very numerous 
(less than twenty on the front, than fifteen on the hind wing). Mandi- 
bles are present and are conspicuous even when the other parts of the 
mouth, as is often the 
case, form a proboscis 
or sucking tube. The 
females are furnished at 
the extremity of the body 
with either a saw, a 
sting, or an ovipositor ; 
these parts may be either 
kept withdrawn, when 
not actually in use, 
within the body or may 
be permanently pro- 
truded. Metamorphosis 
is complete, both a grub 
and pupal stage being- 
present. In the pupal 
stage the parts of the FlG _ 3Si _ s> i arva . j >pupa) . c> i mag0 f a species of 
perfect Insect are seen Bombus. 

nearly free, each covered with a very delicate skin. Fig. 33 shows 
the larva, pupa and imago of a bee (Bombus). 




116 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 




The Order Hymenoptera includes the wood-wasps, saw-flies and gall 
flies, the numerous tribes of the ichneumon flies and 
chalcid flies, and the ants, bees, and wasps. It is a large 
Order, in which a very large number of species remain 
to be discovered and described, and this is especially the 
case in India. 

In the adult Insect the head is short and broad and 
deeply constricted off from the prothorax and never sunk 
into it ; sometimes it is attached to this latter by a stalk- 
like process. The mandibles are powerful biting organs, 
and the proboscis is at times of some length, it being used 
for sucking up sweet liquids into the mouth (fig. 33, c) 
The prothorax is but feebly developed, the dorsal portion 

being separated from the ventral half, the former being 
Fig. 34.— Divided , , , i , , , 

trochanter of firmly fused to the mesothorax, whilst the lower portion 

an Ichneumon: (with the first pair 
«, coxa ; &, di- of j ^ j s mova blo. 

vided- trochan- , _ n 

, „. Meso- and meta- 
fcerj; cy, femur 

(after Sharp), thorax are usually 
immovably united, but in the saw- 
flies and wood-wasps they are 
freely movable. The legs have 
large cox.se, and the trochanter is 
often divided into two joints (in the 
Tenthredinidce, Uroceridce, Cyni- 
pidce and Tchneumonida) as seen 
in fig. 34 which shows the divided 
trochanter of an ichneumon ; the 
tarsus is five-jointed, the first joint 

being longer than the following fig. 35.— Wings of Xylocopa. A, the pair of 

wings separated ; as, the position 
of the hooks. B, the same wings 
when united by the hooks. C, 
portions of the two wings : a, 
the series of hooks ; b, marginal 
hairs ; <?, portion of edge of 
front wing, of which the other 
part has been broken away in 
order to show the hoots. 




one. The upper and lower wings 
are connected by a row of small 
hooks, attached to the upper edge 
of the lower wing, which catch 
on to the stout- curved edge of 
the front wing, the two wings 
on one side thus acting as one 
piece. Fig. 35 shows the wings of a carpenter-bee (Xylocopa} and 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 117 

the way in which they are connected together. In all but the 
Tenthredinidce and Siricidm there is a deep constriction between 
what appears to be the thorax and the body (cf. figs. 87 c and 49). 
The abdomen is thus said to be stalked.* 

The eggs when being laid pass through the hollow stabbing or 
boring apparatus at the end of the body of the female, in many cases 
a prick or cut being made in .an animal or plant with this instrument 
for the reception of the egg. This apparatus may also serve as a sting 
(e.g., in the wasp). 

The grubs are usually white in colour and blind (see fig. 38, a) ; only 
in the Tenthredinidce and the Siricidce do they resemble the caterpillars 
of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) (cf. fig. 39). The larvae often 
form cocoons to pupate in. 

One of the most remarkable facts connected with this Order is the 
prevalence of parthenogenesis (or the production of young by the female 
without the concurrence of the male) in a considerable number of widely 
separated species. In some members of the Order it. is believed that the 
reproduction is entirely parthenogenetic. In the gall-making Cynipidce, 
parthenogenesis is frequently accompanied by alternation of generations, 
a generation consisting of two sexes being followed by another consist- 
ing entirely of females, which in its turn gives rise to a bi-sexual 
generation. 

The Order is divided into two very distinct Sub-orders dependant 
upon the manner in which the abdomen is joined on to the thorax, 

viz. : — 

I. — Hymenoptera Sessiliventres. — Insects with the abdomen broad at 
the base, its first segment not completely joined to the thorax. 
II. — Hymenoptera Petiolata. — The abdomen connected with what 
appears to be the thorax by the slender joint forming a marked 
constriction between the apparent thorax and the abdomen. 
I. — Hymenoptera Sessiliventres. 
The abdomen is not stalked but is nearly continuous in outline with 
the thorax (see fig. 37, e). Trochanters are divided into two portions. 
The saws or boring apparatus at the end of the body of the female are con- 
cealed or only just visible. The larva has three pairs of thoracic legs and 

* This constriction really occurs in the first abdominal segment and not in the thorax. 
This first abdominal segment is firmly fixed to the thorax, and the constriction occurs 
between it and the second segment of the body. 



118 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



often numerous abdominal ones (see fig. 39). The food is vegetable, some 
species feeding in galls on plants, others in the interior of twigs, whilst 
others again bore into and live in the hard wood of trees and shrubs. The 
majority, however, live upon the leaves of plants. Those which live in 
wood resemble coleopterous larva? in appearance, whilst the species 
living and feeding upon leaves resemble the leaf-eating lepidopterous 
caterpillars (see figs. 37a, and 39). 



Fam. I. Cephidse— Stem Saw-Flies. 

Slender Insects with a weak integument and slender antennae. The 
female bears a saw at the end of her body. The larvee live in the stems 
of plants or in the tender shoots of trees and shrubs. 

Little is known about these Insects in India. One. however, — an 
undescribed species — has been found boring into the bases of the young 
new needles of the deodar ( Cedrus deodara) in the spring. The needles 
of this tree develop on the branches in small rosettes (fig. 36, c). If 
these small spine-like leaves be examined when attacked by this minute 
insect, they will be seen to have swollen up at their bases in such a 
manner that the needles coalesce at the bottom as seen in e. A closer 
examination shows that the swelling is convex on the outside, 
concave on the inner one (fig. 36, d), and in this small concave 
elliptical- depression a tiny orange yellow grub will be found. This 




Ik;, ;?<; — Cephus :' sp. a larva ; b imago ; '•, Deodar branch showiug effects of larval 
attacks ; d, attacked needles with bases swollen up. a, and J, mucb en- 
larged (N.-W. Himalayas), 
is the larva of this small cephid and is shown in fig. 36o. The irritation 
set up by its feeding operations causes the swelling at the base of the 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 119 



needle ; from four to six weeks are spent in the larval stage. The 
pupal stage is a short one, and about the middle of June or beginning 
of July the tiny brilliant metallic blue flies shown in fig. 36, b, issue. The 
length of this insect is *th of an inch onlv. The attacked rosettes 
turn yellow and die, and occasionally a considerable amount of defoliation 
is accomplished in this manner on young deodar saplings in the North- 
West Himalayas. 

We have yet much to learn about the members and life histories of 
this family. 

Fam. II. Siricidae or Urooeridse— Wood- Wasps. 

Large Insects of bright conspicuous colours ; the female is provided 
with an elongate cylindrical boring instrument at the extremity of the 
body. Antennae are filiform and elongate ; the abdomen has eight 
dorsal plates, and the tibia of the front leg is provided with a spur ; the 
anal lobe of the posterior wing is large. The larvse live in wood, in 

wh'ch they gnaw long winding 




passages ; they are blind yel- 
lowish-white grubs, with three 
pairs of short thoracic legs 
but have no abdominal legs. 
The pupa (see fig. 37, d) is 
naked — that is, it is not en- 
closed in any cocoon. 

Until recently our Indian 
Stridden were little known. 
The life-history of a magnifi- 
cent species of Sirex, Sirex 
imperialism not unlike the well- 
known and oft-quoted Sirex 
gig as of Europe, has been re- 
cently partially worked out by 
the writer and will be de- 
scribed shortly here.* 
-Stre.v impertam a, larva ; a, pupa, 9 : . 

c t imago, $. (N -W. Himalayas.) Sirex imperialis is a large 
handsome insect, the general colouring of the male being a deep metallic 

* For a fuller account sec { Departmental Notes on Insects that affert forestry'' , 
No. 2, p. 151, and plate VII. 




Ftq. 37. 



120 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



blue, green, and rich chestnut, the wings having a coppery sheen on 
them. The female is a deep metallic gieen on its upper surface. The 
grub is stout, thick, canary yellow in colour and about 1^ inches in 
length. The pupa is unenclosed in any cocoon, being pale yellow in 
colour. (See fig. 37, a, d, c.) 

The female lays her eggs in the wood of dead spruce (Picea morinda, 
Link.) in the North-West Himalayas, drilling holes into the tree by means 
of the auger and drilling apparatus at the end of her body. The larvae 
on hatching out bore winding galleries in the wood (see fig. 38), these 
galleries having no apparent definite direction. The grubs evidently 

spend more than a year thus boring in 
wood, larvae of various sizes being obtain- 
able at any time. The tunnels made are 
tightly packed with the wood sawdust pass- 
ed through the body of the boring larvae. 
When full fed the grubs change to pupae at 
the end of their tunnels with no special 
preparation, and the pupa is thus found 
lying naked at the end of the boring, occu- 
pying the only free space unblocked with 
wood refuse in the gallery. The larvae 
pupate about June, and fully developed 
adults emerge in July. When ready to 
leave the tree the mature sirex bores its 
way out by a circular boring, an eighth of 
an inch in diameter, drilled in the wood by 
means of its powerful mandibles, and it in- 
variably chooses the shortest route to the 
outside, the gallery having, however, usual- 
ly a slight upward direction.* July is 
given as the month during which the Insect 
Fig, 38.— Block of Spruce wood nas Deen observed to issue at elevations of 
showing galleries between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. in the North- 
made by larvae of -rxr , -rj- i Ti. • i 

. . 7 . West Jriimalavas. It is, however, an un- 
birex wipertalts. " 

(N.-W. Himalayas.) doubted fact that on occasions the Insect 

• Vide a note on the habits of the larvre and adults of Sirex and Thalessa by 
the Author in Nature of August 21st, 1902. 




INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 



121 



issues during other months from wood which has been transported to 
other elevations, the time passed in the larval and pupal stages being 
considerably lessened in hotter temperatures. 

This sirex is capable of doing the most serious injury to timber, as 
the winding galleries of the larva and the exit holes of the mature 
Insect riddle the wood and make it useless for anything save fire- 
wood. Fig. 38 shows a piece of wood from a large spruce tree 
containing numerous galleries made by the larvse. Further study of 
the habits of this Insect may show that it attacks other coniferous trees. 

Two other as yet und escribed species of this genus have also been 
recently found boring into spruce in a manner very similar to that 
pertainable to the sirex. 



Fam. III. Tenthredinidse— Saw-Flies. 

This is an important family, but little is known about its members in 
India and practically nothing about their habits. The 
perfect insects have at times a superficial resemblance to 
a large blue bottle fly, but can be distinguished by 
having the four wings instead of two ; there are no 
spurs on the front tibise of the legs. The larvse are 
very like caterpillars (cf. fig. 39), having three pairs 
of thoracic legs and six to eight pairs of abdominal 
ones ; in this they differ from lepidopterous caterpillars, 
which never have more than five pairs of abdominal 
legs. Saw-fly larvse feed exposed on the leaves of 
plants in the same way as caterpillars, or they may live 
in galls, etc. The eggs are laid in the bark of the 
twigs of the food plant and may result in large wounds 
on these latter. 

I have said that the life-histories of these Insects have 
been very little studied in India, but one or two crop- 
Fig. 39.— Saw-fly feeding forms being known. Within the last two years, 
larva feeding however, three species, as yet undetermined, have 
UP °dl rN w ^ een f° uu d feeding upon coniferous trees in the North- 
Himalayas.) West Himalayan forests. Of these one infests the 
deodar, a second the spruce, and the third the silver fir. Observations 
made on their habits show that they all feed upon the spring crop of 

16 




122 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

needles of these trees, pupating some time in July. The larva? are bright- 
green in colour and about an inch or a little over in length. When 
feeding they take up a very characteristic position, which greatly aids in 




* d 

Fig, 40. — Dehra rose leaf Saw-fly, a, larva on a rose leaf; b, cccoon attached to 
stem ; c, pupa ; d, imago ; e, leaf with empty cocoons from which 
flies have issued. (Dehra Dun.) 
their recognition, for they coil the lower end of the body round the leaf 
upon which they are feeding. When full grown they change to pups 
within small light-brown elliptical cocoons, the covering of which is 
of parchment-like consistency, which they attach to a needle. In the 
case of the silver fir saw-fly the larva pupates at the beginning of July, 
the mature fly issuing about the middle of the month. These conif- 
erous saw-flies require careful study, as it is probable that they will 
play a not unimportant role in the forests as their management be- 
comes more intense. 

Almost every year a plague of green saw-flies make their appearance 
in the autumn on rose bushes in Dehra Dun gardens and entirely 
strip many bushes of their leaves. This year (1904) it was possible 
to obtain the flies in thousands from the innumerable larvse upon 
the rose trees. The caterpillars spend about two weeks in this stage 
and 4 — 6 days as pupse. The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon attached 
to the leaf. The flies on issuing apparently pair and lay eggs almost 
immediately. Fig. 40 shows the larva, cocoon, pupa and fly of 
this pest. 

II.— Hymenoptera Petiolata. 

The hind body is connected with the thorax by means of a deep 
constriction, so that there appears to bo a stalk between it and the 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 123 

thorax. This stalk may be long or short, but is always present. This 
sub-order is divided into three series — 

1. Parasitica or Terebrantia, including the families Cynipidce, 

Chalcididce, Ichneumonidce, and Braconidce. 

2. Tubulifera — comprising the Chrysididce. 

3. Aculeata — including the families Apidce, Diploptera, 

Fossoria and Formicidce. 

Series 1. — Parasitica or Terebrantia. 
The trochanters (the second joint of the leg) are of two pieces (cf. 
fig. 34), and the female is furnished with an ovipositor at the extremity 
of her body. 

Fam. IV. Oynipidse— Gall-flies. 

Small, frequently minute, Insects, usually black or pitchy in colour, 
in which the abdomen is short and compressed, with an ovipositor 
arising from the ventral surface. The mesonotum is often very convex 
and has behind a prominent scutellum which projects so as to overhang 
the metanotum and the median segment which are perpendicular. 
The sculpture of these parts is often deep and very remarkable. The 
wings have only a few cells in them aud have no stigma (a black patch) 
on the anterior margins of the upper wings. The antennse are of 
importance in identifying a cynipid. They are straight, simple, and 
are composed of a few (12 — 15) joints. The larvse live either in galls, 
on plants or parasitically in the bodies of other insects, either singly or 
several together. The female bores into the living portions of plants 
(stems, leaves, buds) by means of the spine at the end of the abdomen, 
and deposits an egg in the hole 
thus made ; later on, the plant 
tissue swells up in different 
ways owing to the irritation 
set up by the larva feeding 
upon the tissues. The different 
forms of gall thus arising are 
characteristic of different spe- 
cies of insect. In many species 
a regular alternation of a par- Fig. 41.— A gall-fly. 

thenogenetic and a true sexual generation exists, the two generations 
being dissimilar and causing galls of very different appearance. 




124 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



Little is known about the life-histories of gall-flies in India, and the 
study of this interesting family greatly needs some energetic workers. 
Fig. 41 shows a gall-fly imago. 

Fam. V. Proctotrypidae. 

Small Insects with only a few or at times no nervures in the wings : 
the prothorax is closely adherent to the mesothorax, reaching backwards 
at the sides to the points where the wings are attached. There is often 
a black spot (stigma) on the front wing which distinguishes them from 
Cynipidse. The abdomen is pointed, and the pointed apex is often 
deflexed downwards ; the ovipositor is not coiled but is retractile, and 
when extended is tubular in form and apparently a continuation of the 
tip of the body. This tubular ovipositor forms the chief distinguishing 
feature of the family from other parasitic Hymenoptera. 

The larvae, as far as our present knowledge of these Insects goes, live a 
completely parasiiic life 

in the bodies or eggs of s ^^-!?7 s ^iis=UJL-i= 
other insects or of spi- 
ders, one or several 
being present in a single 
egg or insect's body. 




Fig. 42.— Pupation of Proctotrypes sp. in body of a 
beetle larva (after Sharp). 
They usually pupate in the position in which they have fed, enclosed each 



one in a more or less distinct cocoon. 




Fig 43. 



-Platygaster oryzce which is 
parasitic on the rice-fly pest. 
Antenna, enlarged, is shown 
to right. (Bengal.) 

Little is known about this family in India. Fig. 43 shows the 
minute Proctotrypid known as Platygaster oryzce, Cameron, which is 



In fig. 42 Dr. Sharp* has shown a 
remarkable case of this pupation ; 
"a larva of some beetle has had a 
number of eggs laid in it by 
a species of Proctotrypes. The 
grubs hatching out from the eggs 
have fed upon the beetle larva 
and then pupated ; the pupae are 
shown projecting from the body 
of the host, a pair of the parasites 
issuing from each segmental 
division in a remarkably symme- 
trical manner." 



In the Cambridge Natural History, Insects, Part I (Vol. V). 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 125 

parasitic on the rice-fly pest {Cecidomyia oryzce, W. Mason) which 
causes considerable damage in the rice fields. This latter pest will 
be considered under the Order Diptera. The Proctotrypid probably 
lays its eggs in the Cecidomyid larvte and the grubs on hatching 
out feed upon the former. The parasite was bred out from the 
rice pest by Mr. Wood Mason when Superintendent of the Indiau 
Museum. Fig. 43 shows the parasitic fly much enlarged, and to 
the right the enlarged antenna to show its structure. It will not 
improbably be found that this family is of the greatest economic use to 
the agriculturist in India in keeping down the members of many 
of the more minute pests attacking crops. As such its study, whilst 
affording a rich field for new discoveries, will well repay him who 
takes it up. 



Fam. VI. Chalcididse— Chalcid-Flies. 

The prothorax is capable of some movement, its angles do not 
extend backwards to meet insertion of wings. The antennae are 
elbowed, consisting of from seven to thirteen joints. The wings have 
no system of cells in them ; there is a single well-marked nervure 
running from the base near the front margin (costa), afterwards it 
passes to the costa and gives off a very short vein more or less thicken- 
ed at its termination. The insects are frequently of brilliant colours 
and remarkable form. 

The species known number over 4,000, and of these 3,000 are 
European. There is little reason to believe that the family is not 
equally well represented in the tropics, the insects, owing to their minute 
size, not having yet been worked at or collected. Observations have 
already shown the writer that the family appears to be very well 
represented in India, where it probably, economically, does a vast 
amount of good. 

The larvae may live in galls, feeding on the larvae of the makers of 
the galls ; others attack caterpillars, others pupse only ; some flourish 
at the expense of bees or other Hymenoptera or of Coccidse and 
Aphidse (Hemiptera), and some deposit their eggs in the egg-cases 
of Blattidse (cockroaches), whilst others prey upon parasitic and useful 
Tachnid flies. A little is known about some thirty or forty Indian 
species. 



126 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI- 




Fig. 44. — Cotesia flavipes, which is parasitic upon 
the well-known destructive sugarcane 
borer Chilo simplex. (Bengal.) Antenna 
enlarged on the right. 



Cotesia flavipes, shown in fig. 44, is a tiny fly which lays its eggs in 

the caterpillars of the 
destructive sugarcane, 
borer Chilo simplex (a 
moth which will be treat- 
ed of later) and serves to 
keep the numbers of this 
destructive pest in check, 
since the chalcid grubs feed 
upon and kill off the 
caterpillars. In a similar 
manner Chalcis euplcea 

shown in fig. 45, very effectively keeps down the numbers of some very 

important tea and sal tree defoliating 

caterpillars (Lymantria and Dasychira) in 

the Bengal Duars and Assam. At times 

these caterpillars get the upper band and 

swarm in incredible numbers, clearing 

every leaf from the bashes and trees. 

This leads after a few weeks to a similar in- 
crease in the numbers of the chalcid, which 

finally succeeds in bringing down to due 

J i Fig. 45 

proportions the numbers of the moth cater- 
pillars. The family Coccidae or scale Insects 
(Order Hemiptera) contains many serious 
pasts both to crops and planters. Observation has shown that many 

of these are parasitised by 
■"%», iljp /^ ^-~°~\ chalcid fiios. The eggs are 

laid as usual by the female 
chalcid in the body of the 
scale Insect, and the grubs on 
hatching out feed upon and 
destroy the scale. Amongst 

chalcids which are known 
Fig. 4f5. — Aphelinus tliece, which is narasitic upon 

the tea scale bug. True size of insect is t0 be of use in this wa y ma Y 

Blightly less than -5 millim. (India.) be mentioned Aphelinus thece 

(shown in fig. 4G) parasitic on the tea scale bug (Chionaspis thece), 

Cirrhospilus coccivorus, Encyrtus nietneri, E. paradisicus, Scutellista 




Chalets tuplcea parasitic 
upon tea and sal leaf 
defoliating caterpil- 
lars. (Bengal Duars.') 





INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 127 



cyanea, Marietta leopardina, Cephaleta purpureiventris, C. brunneiven- 
tris and C. fusciventris parasitic on the brown bug (Lecanium cojfece) 
of coffee and Encyrtus nietneri and Chartocerus musctformis parasitic on 
the white bug (Pseudococcus adonidum) of coffee. This list of parasitic 
chalcids shows that the family, although the individuals are so minute, con- 
tain species of extreme importance to man, and agriculturists and planters 
would do well to remember that minute flies hovering about during 
severe infestations of defoliating caterpillars or serious scale insect 
attacks are probably there as friends and not enemies. Another 
chalcid is parasitic upon the so-called cheroot-weevil (Lasioderma 
testaceum), and cigar merchants in India should learn to distinguish 
between this miuute friend when flying about in the godown 

and the beetle 

which is the real 

author of the 

damage. The 

chalcid is of 

course beneficial.* 

As yet undeter- X3 

„ .-„.,., . . mined species of 

:TG. 47.— Chalcid parasitic ,, n \, , Fig. 48.— Perllampus sp., parasitic 

upon useful tachnid 
flies (Bengal Duars)f ., 
parasitic upon the larvse of Polygraphs, Pityogenes and Scolytus bark- 
boring beetles in blue pine and deodar trees in the North-West 
Himalayas. 

Mention has been made of the fact that some chalcids prey upon useful 
parasitic Insects such as the great family of Tachnid two-winged flies 
(Order Diptera). A species of Perilampus, Perilampus sp. (fig. 48) is 
thought to be parasitic in this way upon one or both of the flies Trycolyga 
bombycis and Masicera dasychirce which are parasitic upon the caterpillars 
of the moth of a species of DasycJiira. The larvee of this latter Insect 
commit serious defoliation in tea gardens and in sal forests in the 
Bengal Duars and in Assam. This is an instance of a chalcid which 
is a foe and not a friend to man, since its grubs live in and feed upon 
the larva of a beneficial Insect. 





oa the cheroot- tn9 famil y « ave 
weevil). Calcutta.) been found 



"Vide Circular on Agri. Econ. Ent. No. 12, the Cheroot- Weevil. Issued by Trustees, 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1903. 



128 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Fam. VII. Iclmeumonidae— Ichneumon Flies. 

The Ichneumons are Insects with a long slender body and many-jointed 
antennae. The wings have a well -developed series of nervures and 
cells in them ; the space on the front wing separating the second pos- 
terior cell from the cubital cells is divided into two cells by a transverse 
veinlet. The abdomen is attached to the lower or posterior part of the 
median segment. The female has usually a long protruding ovipositor. 
(See fig. 49.) These Insects are parasitic in their larval stages. 
The egg is deposited by the mother in or on or near the body of the 
grub. The larva on hatching out is a little white legless maggot which 
feeds upon the fatty tissues of its host, the latter eventually dying of 
exhaustion, although it may have sufficient strength to turn into 
a pupa first. When full fed the ichneumon grub spins itself up 
into a cocoon. This it may do inside the now dying or dead host 
larva, or it may attach the cocoon to the outside of the skin, 
or it may lie free outside the latter. It often happens that two 
or more eggs are laid upon the caterpillar by the ichneumon fly 
and then several cocoons are obtained from the dead caterpillar 
or from the pupa into which it has changed. Owing to the peculiar 
methods of existence of its members it will be obvious that this 
family performs a very important service to man by keeping down 
defoliating larvae and stem and wood-boring pests and, in fact, Insect 
pests of all kinds. At the same time it is also injurious to some 
extent owing to the fact that it also lays its eggs and kills off 
useful predaceous and parasitic Insects. From the little we already 
know of the life histories of some of our Indian Ichneumonidse it 
has become evident that the family is of the very first economic 
importance in this country, and its study, therefore, for this reason 
alone, is strongly advocated. 

The members of the genera Rhyssa and Thalessa are among the most 
remarkable of the ichneumon flies. These Insects have ovipositors of 
two to four inches in length (fig. 49) and are parasitic upon species 
of the family Siricidse which, as above described, live in solid wood. 
The following is a note on a portion of the life history* of a new 
and undescribed species of Rhyssa, Rhyssa sp. f which is parasitic 

* Vide foot-note on p. 119. 
f Col. C. T. Bingham hopes to shortly describe this species for me. 



I IS SECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 



129 




upon Sire® imperialis already mentioned as infesting spruce in the 

North- West Himalayas. The adult Insect appears on the wing about 

the beginning of June. The female is a 

fairly large handsome fly, black in colour 

with yellow spots upon the thorax and a 

pink spot on either side of each segment of 

the body. It is one inch in length with 

an ovipositor of one and a half inches 

(fig. 49). Dead mature Insects have been 

found in some numbers in spruce riddled 

by Sirex imperialis, the tunnels in which 

the ichneumons were found communicating 

with the Sirex ones in such a manner 

as to leave no doubt that the former Fig. 49.— Rhyssa sp. parasitic 

was parasitic upon the latter. The larval "? on . e ar,a3 , ° 

1 L Sirex imp er la Li s 

and pupal stages of the ichneumons have (N\-W. Himalayas) \» 

not yet been found. There can bo little doubt that this parasite 
is of the greatest service in keeping down the numbers of the 
borer. It appears to itself suffer when the wood-wasp larva has 
gone very deep into the wood, as the ichneumon fly on becoming 
mature has then apparently not sufficient strength to boro its way 
out of the tree and dies in the wood after having gone a certain 
distance.* 

Pimola punctator, Linn., is an ichneumon common in parts of 

Bengal and Assam. It 
is a well-known para- 
site of the silk-worm 
moth Anthercea roylei, 
Moore, and has also 
been reared in the 
Indian museum from 

several species of Sa- 
FiG. 50.— Pimpla imnc'atov, 2 and 9, parasitic upon .., en r 

. . a . '.?. ,_ *' 1 . . T . . turnndce,a family of 

species of Saturnnda . (Reared in Indian 

museum, Calcutta.) \. moths whose cater- 

pillars are serious defoliators. The male and female are shown in fig. 50. 
The wheat and rice weevil is parasitised by the tiny coppery-green 

* For a fuller account, vide Departmental Notes on IusectS'that affect Forestry 
No. 2, p. 155, and plate VII, Fig. 2. 
17 




130 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



ichneumon fly shown in fig. 51. The fly lays its eggs on or in 

the grubs of the weevil as they lie feeding 

inside the grain. The ichneumon grub, on 

hatching out, feeds upon the weevil grub, 

but in such a manner as not to kill it until 

both have reached their full size. The weevil 

grub then dies, the fly grub changes to a 

pupa, from which issues the small copper- Fig. si.—Petromalus oryzm 

coloured ichneumon fly. This latter pairs, 

and the female then flies about over grain 

heaps searching for a grain containing a 

weevil grub in which, when found, she lays an egg. 




parasitic upon the 
wheat and rice 
weevil (Calcutta) 
X 6. 



Fam. VIII. — Braconidae— Bracon-flies. 

These Insects are very similar to the ichneumons. The antennae 

■consist of many, nearly always more 

than 15, joints, and the wings have 

a moderate number of cells in them. 

They can be distinguished from the 

ichneumons by the fact that the 

hind body has a much less degree 

of mobility of its segments, and the 

upper wings differ, the series of cells 

running across the wing being only 

three in the ichneumonides whereas they are Fig. 52.— Diagram of wing of 

four in the bra- 
conides, and a 
centre cell be- 
hind 2 and 3 is 
divided trans- 
versely into two 
in the former, 
but is undivided 





Fig. 53, — A Braconid fly. 



in the latter 
( fig. 52 ). If 
these d i s t i n- 



Ichneumon (A) 
and of Braconid 
(B). 1, 2, 3, 4 
series of cells ex- 
tending across 
the wing; a, 6, 
divided cell of 
the Ichneumon 
wing correspond- 
ing with, a, tbe 
undivided cell of 
the Braconid 
wing. (After 
Sharp.) 



guishing characters are remembered, the two families can always b. 



INSECT LIFE IN INDIA AND HOW TO STUDY IT. 



131 



distinguished from one another. Fig. 53 shows a braconid fly. The 
habits of this family are similar to the last, it being believed that its mem- 
bers are nearly all parasites. Usually they attack the larvae, but they 
are bred in great numbers from pup 33 and occasionally from imagoes 
of other Insects. The family requires careful study in India where 
its members are undoubtedly of the greatest service to man both in 
the field, plantation and forest. The writer has recently bred out Bracon 
flies from two Scolytid barkboring pests — Scolytus major and S. minor 
(Order Coleoptera) — which infest deodar trees- in the North W -est 
Himalayas. The flies lay their eggs in or on the scolytus grubs and the 
Bracon larvae feed upon the latter. 




132 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 

SUPPLEMENTARY PAPER TO THE VOLUMES IN 

" THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA." 

SERIES III. PART II. 

By Sir G. F. Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s. 

(With Plate D.) 

(Continued from page 653, Vol. XV.) 

Genus Sfhingn^opiopsis. 
Sphingoncepiopsis, Wllgrn. GEfv. Vet. Ak. Furh. XV. p. 138. Type. 

(1858) nanum. 

176. Sphingon^piopsis pumilio. 

LopJmra pumilio , Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I. p. 311 
(1875). 
„ pusilla, Bull. P. Z. S., 1875, p. 244. 
„ minima, Butl., P. Z. S., 1876, p. 310, pi. 22, £. 4. 
Habitat. — Assam ; Khasis ; Penang ; Malacca. 

Genus Eurypteryx. 
Eurypteryx, Feld. Reis. Nov. p. 5 (1874). non descr. ; Boisd. Type. 

Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I. p. 46 (1875) molucca. 

151. Eurypteryx bhaga. 

Darapsa bhaga, Moore, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 794. 

Habitat.— Sikhim ; Bhutan; Assam; Nias. 

Subsp. obtruneata, Roths. Nov. Zool. LX.,Suppl., p. 595 (1903). 

Habitat. — Celebes. 

Genus Rhodosoma. 

Type. 

Rhodosoma, Butl. Trans. Zool. Soc, IX. p. 534 (1877) triopus. 

208. Rhodosoma triopus. 

Macroglossa triopus, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent., p. 14, pi., 6, f. 4 

(1848). 
Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 

Genus Macroglossum. 

Type. 

Macroglosssum, Scop. Intr. Hist. Nat., p. 414 (1777) stellatarum. 

Psithyros, Hiibn. Verz., p. 131 (1827) stellatarum. 

Rhamphoschisma, Wllgrn. GEfv. Vet. Ak. Furh. XV. p. 139 

(1858) trochilus. 

Bombylia, Hiibn. Tent. Ined , stellatarum. 

A. Hindwing on underside with the base white or yellow- 
ish-white bombylans. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 133 

B. Hindwing on underside with the base reddish or yellow 
or with yellow patch on inner area. 

a. Hindwing with the costa dilated into an antemedial 

lobe aqnila. 

b. Hindwing with the costa normal. 

a\ Forewing with band from middle of costa totornus. hemichroma. 
b 1 . Forewing without band from middle of costa to 
tornus. 
a 2 . Head and thorax with two broad grey stripes 

on the olive-black ground colour mitchelli. 

b . Head and thorax without two broad grey stripes. 
a 3 . Forewing the basal area black or greenish black 
sharply defined by the straight antemedial 
band. 

a 4 . Abdomen brown below faro. 

b* . Abdomen tawny below passalus. 

b 3 . Forewing with the basal area much paler than 
the antemedial band. 
a 4 . Hindwing with very narrow tawny brown 

border stellatarum. 

J 4 . Hindwing with more or less broad tawny or 
black border or almost entirely black. 
a 5 . Hindwing tawny without yellow band or 
with a yellow band defined on outer 
side towards costa. 
a 6 . Hindwing tawny. 

a 1 ' Forewing with the antemedial band 

filled in with black regulus. 

b 1 . Forewing with the antemedial band 

not filled in with black gyrans. 

b 6 . Hindwing with tawny yellow band. 
a 1 . Forewing with sharply defined grey 
medial costa area ; antemedial 

band very oblique particohr. 

b~. Forewing without grey medial costal 
area. 
a 8 . Abdomen with the lateral yellow 
patches separate. 
a 9 . Forewing with the brown post- 
medial spot very prominent... assimilis, 
b 9 . Forewing with the brown post- 
medial spot not prominent ... belis. 
b*. Abdomen with the yellow lateral 

patches confluent affietitia. 



134 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. Z VI. 

b s . Hindwing with sharply defined brownish 
black terminal band often dilated at 
middle, or with the yellow band ob- 
solescent. 
a 6 . Forewing on upperside with the post- 
medial lines not prominent, no grey 
subapical patch on costa or streak on 
vein 6, or brown subapical spot, or 
brown dorsal spots on abdomen. 
a 1 . Abdomen blackish brown ventrally. sylvia. 
b~ . Abdomen greyish yellow or tawny 

ventrally ..... corytlms. 

b n . Forewing or abdomen with all or some 
of these markings dintinct. 
a 1 . Forewing with apicaJ patch on costa ; 
vein 6 not grey before the black 

subapical spot ,. .. .. saga. 

b' . Forewing without grey subapical 
patch, or vein 6 streaked with 
grey before the black subapical 
spot. 
a*. Forewing with the antemedial band filled in with black 

on outer half ; underside of wings blackish brown semifasciata. 
b a . Forewing with the antemedial band not filled in with 
black on outer half ; postmedial lines distinct ; un- 
derside of wings tawny insyida pcecilum. 

c*. Forewing with the antemedial band not filled in with 
black or entirely black. 
a 9 . Forewing with the antemedial band and post- 
medial lines more or less confluent glauco[dera. 

b'\ Forewing with the antemedial band and post- 
medial lines separated by a greyish area. 
a io . Forewing with vein 6 streaked with grey ; 

hindwing with the yellow band not incurved... prometheus. 
6 ;o . Forewing without grey streak on vein 6 or 
hindwing with the yellow band incurved. 
a 11 . Forewing with grey streak on vein 6 ; palpus 

dirty cinnamon grey variegatum. 

b 1 -. Forewing without grey streak on vein 6 
or palpus greyish white. 
a 12 . Forewing with the antemedial band filled 
in with black, its outer edge straight ; 
medial area grey, band-like ; 2nd post- 
medial line dilated below vein 6 ; palpus 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. ?,5 

greyish white ; abdomen olive brown 

above fringilla. 

b 1 -. Forewing as in heliophila, but the 1st post- 
medial line as strong as 2nd line divergens. 

c 1 -, Forewing with the antemedial band not 
filled in with black. 
a vi . Forewing and abdomen on underside 
bright tawny, or the latter black with tawny 

spots. 
a 14 . Size small.; $ with the harpe not divided, insipida.- 
b 14 . Size small ; $ with the harpe divided ... troglodytus. 
c 1+ . Size large ; medial area of forewing wide. 

$ with the harpe divided pyrrhosticta. 

b. :A Forewing and abdomen on underside 

less tawny and more cinnamon sitiene. 

183. Macroglossum stellatarum. 

Sphinx stellatarum, Linn, Syst. Nat., X. p. 803 (1758). 

,, flavida, Retz., Gen Ins., p. 33 (1783). 
Macroglossa nigra, Cosm., Le Nat., XIV., p. 280 (1892). 

Habitat. — Europe ; N. Africa ; W. & C. Asia ; Japan ; China ; Sind ; 
Punjab ; Cochin China. 
191. Macroglossum bombylans. 
Macroglossa bombylans, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I, p. 334 (1875). 

walkeri, Butl., P. Z. S., 1876, p. 4. 
Habitat. — Japan ; China ; Punjab ; Sikkim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 
179. Macroglossum regulus. 
Macroglossa regulus, Boisd,, Spec. Gen. Lep, Het., I., p. 335 (1875). 

„ fervens, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 4, pi. 1, f. 3. 

Habitat. — Bombay ; Canara ; Nilgiris , Ceylon. 

181. Macroglossum gyrans. 
Macroglossa gyrans, Wlk., VIII., 91 (1856). 

zena, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het. I. p. 337 (1875). 
bombus, Mab., Ann., Soc. Ent. Fr. 1880, p. 347. 
„ burmanica, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 58, pi. 5, f. 3 (1894). 

Habitat.— Punjab ; Bombay ; Madras ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Borneo ; 
Java ; Flores ; Sumba ; Letti ; Kisser 

182. Macroglossum affictitia. 

Macroglossa affictitia, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 240, pi. 36, f. 7. 

vialis, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 240, pi. 36, f. 5. 
Habitat. — Madras ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon. 
182a. Macroglossum particolor, 

Macroglossum particolor, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 636, pi. iv, f. 13 
1 903). 
Habitat. — Mahe ; Madras. 



136 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI 

184. Macroglossum belis. 

Sphinx belis., Linn, Syst. Nat., X., p. 493 (1758). 

Macroglossa pyrrhula, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. flet., I., p. 338 (1875). 

„ opts, Boisd., Spec, Gen , Lep. Het. I., p. 345 (1875). 

Habitat. — Loo Choo Is.; China ; Punjab ; Sikhim ; Buutan ; Assam ; 
Madras ; Ceylon ; Tonkin. 
195' Macroglossum assimilis. 

Macroglossum assimilis, Swains., Zool. Illust., pi. 64 (1821). 
Macroglossa gilia, Herr., Schaff. Ausser. Eur. Schmett, f. 107 (1854). 
„ bengalensis, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I. p. 341 (1875). 

„ taxicolor, Moore, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 387. 

hdia, Hmpns., 111. Het. B. M., IX., p. 58, pi. 157, f 15 (1893). 
Habitat.— Madras ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Java. 
195a. Macroglossum pyrrhosticta. 
Macroglossa pyrrhosticta, Butl. P. Z, S., 1875, p. 242, pi. 38, f. 8. 

catapyrrha, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 243, pi. 36, f. 6. 
Habitat. — Japan ; Loo Choo Is. ; China ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Annam ; 
Tonkin ; Philippines ; Lombok. 
195&. Macroglossum troglodytus. 

Macroglossa troglodytus, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I, p, 344 (1875), 
Habitat. — China ; N. and S. India ; Ceylon ; Java. 
194. Macroglossum insipida. 
Macroglossa insipida, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 242. 

„ limata, Swinh., Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon, I., p. 4, pi. 1, f. 1 (1892). 

Habitat. — X. and S. India ; Ceylon ; Andamans ; Penang ; Borneo ; Java. 
&ub$p. papttanum, Roths., Xov. Zool, IX., Suppl., p. 642, pi. iii., f. 9 (1903). 
Habitat. — Ferguson I. ; d'Entrecasteaux Is.; Sudest ; St. Aignan ; 
Queensland, 
Subsp. pcecilum, Roths., Nov Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 643, pi. iii., f. 17 (1903). 
Habitat. — Loo Choo Is. 
189. Macroglossum sitiene. 
Macroglossa sitiene, Wlk., VIII,. 92 (1856). 

„ sinica, Boisd., Spec. Gen Lep Het., I., p. 340 (1875). 
„ nigrifasciata, Butl.,:P. Z. S., 1875, p. 24, pi. 37, f. 3. 
„ orientalis, Butl., Trans. Zool. Soc, IX., p. 528 (1877). 
Habitat.— Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Philippines. 
189a. Macroglossum fringilla. 
Macroglossa fringilla, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 352 (1875). 

„ heliophila, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het, I., p. 354, pi. II, f. 2 (1875) 

hanita, Swinh., Cat. Het, Mus. Oxon., I., p. 5, pi. 1, f. 2 (1892) 
„ loochooana, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 67 (1894), 

Habitat. — Loo Choo Is. ; Honkong ; Formosa ; Tonkin ; Nilgiris ; Borneo ; 
Philippines ; Java. 
196. Macroglossum divergens. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 137 

Hacroglossa diver gens, Wlk., VIII., 94 (1856). 
Habitat. — Ceylon . 

196«. MACROGLOSSUM PROMETHEUS. 

Macroglossum ar citatum, Moore. Lep. E. I. C, p. 262 (1857), non descr. 
Macroglossa prometheus, Boisd., Spec. G6n. Lep. Het., I., p. 355 (1875). 
Habitat. — Ceylon; Penang ; Malacca ; Borneo ; Philippines ; Nias ; 

Java. 
Subsp. inusitata, Swinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon., I., p. 6 (1802). 
Macroglossa iuconspicua, Roths., Nov. Zool., I,, p. 68 (1894). 
Habitat. — New Guinea: Robsell. J.; St. Aignan ;Fkrglsson ami Tkobriand 

Is ; Queensland. 
196&. Macroglossum variegatum. 

Macroglossum variegatum, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl.. p, 653 (1903). 
Habitat. — Sikkim ; Assam ; Sumatra ; Borneo. 
184a. Macroglossum saga. 

Macroglossa saga, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag., XIV., p. 206 (1878). 
„ Mushiueims, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 66 (1894). 
,, glaucoplaga, Hmpsiu J. Bomb. N. H. Soc, XIII., p. 40, pi. B, 
f. 13 (1900). 
Habitat. — Japan ; Sikhim. 
190. Macroglossum glaucopteka. 

Macroglossa glaucoptera, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 241, pi. 36, f. 9. 
obscuripex, Butl., P. Z. S., 1876, p. 309, pi. 22, f. 5. 
„ lepscha, Butl., Trans. Zool. Soc, IX., p. 635 (1877). 

fuscata, Huwe, Bed. Ent. Zeit., XL., p. 358, pi. 3, f. 5 (1895). 
Habitat. — Bengal, Calcutta ; Ceylon ; Penang ; Malacca ; Java. 
187. Macroglossum semifasciata. 

Macroglossa semifasciata, Hmpsn., Moths. Ind., I., p. 115 (1892). 
Habitat. — Burma ; Labuan, Borneo ; Java. 
201. Macroglossum aquila. 
}[itcroglossa aquila, Boisd., Spec. Gen Lep Hut., I., p. 340 (1875). 

interrupta, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 242, pi. 37, f. 2. 
Habitat. — SikHiM ; Assam ; Cochin China; Malacca ; Borneo ; Philippines. 
186«. Macroglossum sylvia. 
Macroglossa sglria, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I. p. 350 (1875). 

„ obscura, Butl. P. Z. S., 1875, p. 5, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Habitat. — Formosa ; Assam ; Ceylon ; Perak; Java ; Celep.es. 
186. Macroglossum corythus. 
Macroglossa corythus, Wlk., VIII., 92 (1856). 

proxima, Butl. P. Z. S., 1875. p. 4, pi. 1, f. 1 (1875). 
Habitat. — S. India ; Ceylon. 

Subsp. 1, platyxanihum, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 660, pi. iv, 
f. 1(1903). 

Habitat. — Loo Choo Is. 

18 



138 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Subsp. 2, luteata, Butl., P. Z. 8., 1875, p. 241, pi. 37, f. 5. 
Habitat. — China ; Formosa ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Bukma ; Tonkin ; 
Penang ; Perak ; Andamans ; Borneo ; Philippines ; Java ; Flores ; 
Sdmba ; Celebes. 
Subsp. Z,pylene, Feld., Sitz. Ber. Ak. Wiss. Wien., XLIII., p. 29 (1861). 
Macroglossa phlegeton, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 346 (1875). 

„ motacilla, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 347 (1875). 

,, cyniris, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het, I., p. 350 (1875). 

„ approximans, Lucas, The Queenslander, XXXIX., p. 834 (1891). 

labrosa, Swinh., Cat. Het. Mns. Oxon., I., p. 5 (1892). 

„ moluccensis, Roths. Nov. Zool, I., p. 67 (1894). 

Habitat. — Moluccas ; New Guinea and adjacent Islands ; Queensland. 
Subsp. 4, xanthurus, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 662 (1903). 
Habitat. — Tenimber Is. 

Subsp. h,fuloicaudata, Butl., A., M. N. H. (5), X. p. 155 (1882). 
Habitat. — Bismarek Archipelago ; Solomon Is. 
Subsp. Q,fuscicauda, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 663 (1903). 
Habitat. — Loyalty Is. 
200. Macroglossum hemichroma. 

Macroglossa hemichroma, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 243, pi. 37, f. 1. 
Habitat. — Assam ; Borneo ; Philippines ; Java. 

198. Macroglossum passalus. 

Sphinx passalus, Drury, Illustr. Ex. Ins., II., p. 52, pi. 29, f. 2 (1773). 

„ pandora, Fabr. Ent. Syst III., p. 380 (1793). 
Macroglossa sturnus, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 349 (1875). 
Habitat. — Loo Choo Is. ; China ; Formosa ; Cochin China. 
Subsp. rectifascia, Feld. Reis. Nov., pi. 75, f. 7 (1874). 
Habitat.— S. India ; Ceylon. 

199. Macroglossum faro. 

Sphinx faro, Cram., Pap. Exot., III., p. 165, pi. 385, f. c. (1780). 

Habitat.— -Loo Choo Is ; S. India ; Penang ; Perak ; Borneo ; Java. 

197. Macroglossum mitchelli. 

Macroglossa mitchelli, Men. Enum. Corp. Anim. Petr. Lep., p. 95 (1857). 

Habitat. — Java. 

Subsp. imperator, Butl., P. Z. S.,Cl875, p. 243, pi. 37, f. 4. 

Habitat.— Assam ; S. India ; Ceylon. 

Genus Rhopalofsyche. Type. 

Rhopalopsyclie, Butl. P. Z. S., 1875, p. 239 nycteris. 

177. RlIOPALOPSYCHE NYCTERIS. 

Macroglossa nycteris, Ko\\., Hiigel's Kashmir, IV., 2, p. 458, pi. 19, f. 5 (1844). 

volucris, Wlk., VIII., 94 (1856). 
Habitat. — Loo Choo Is. ; W. China ; Ppnjab ; Kashmir ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; 
Assam, 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 139 

178. Rhopalopsyche bifasciata. 

Jihopalopsyche bifasciata, Butl., P. Z. B., 1875, p. 239, pi. 3G, f. 4. 

Habitat.— B. India ; Ceylon. 

Subfamily Peegesin^e. 

A. Proboscis with the base exposed ; palpi with the 2nd joint not contiguous. 

a. Palpus with the 2nd joint distinctly narrower than 

the 1st, more or less tapering apically , Cechenena. 

b. Palpus with the 2nd joint not narrower than the 1st. Ilhagastis. 

B. Proboscis with the base not exposed ; palpi with the 

2nd joint contiguous. 
a. Palpus with the scaling at apex of 1st joint dense 
and regular on innerside. 
a 1 . Palpus with apical tuft of scales on innerside 
of 2nd joint directed downwards and inwards. 
a 2 . Palpus with the scaling of 1st joint on outerside 

longest just below the apical cavity Rhyncholaba. 

b 1 . Palpus with the scaling of 1st joint on outerside 

longest at base « Theretra, 

b 1 . Palpus without apical tuft of scales on inner 

side of 2nd joint Hippotion. 

b. Palpus with the scaling at apex of 1st joint not 
dense, and irregular on innerside. 

a 1 . Palpus rough with long scattered hairs Pergesa. 

b 1 . Palpus without or with very few long scattered 

hairs Celerio. 

Genus Celerio. Type. 

Celerio, Oken, Lehrb., Naturg. III., I, p. 761 (1815) gallii. 

Phryxus, Hiibn., Verz., p. 137 (1827). lineata. 

A. Pulvillus present. 

a. Forewing with the veins traversing the brown 

band pale, the pale band sharply defined lineata. 

b. Forewing with the veins not pale. 

a. Forewing with the costal area on upper- 

side brown and clearly defined gallii. 

b. Forewing with the costal area pale with 

a large patch beyond apex of cell, a 
prominent broad basal band niccea, 

B. Pulvillus vestigial, represented by a very small process or flap. 
a. Forewing with the costal area on upperside 

brown and sharply defined, the veins on brown 
postmedial band not pale, terminal band 
slightly paler than postmedial band ; under- 
side not rosy red sygophylli. 



140 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

b. Forewing if the costal area is all brown with the 
veins on postmedial band pale, or the ter- 
minal band pale, or underside rosy red euphorbia. 

154. Celerio euphorbia. 

Sphinx euphorbias, Linn, Syst. Nat., X., p. 492 (1758). 

„ esulce, Hiifn., Berl. Mag. IL, p. 180 (1774). 
Deilephila par alias, Xickerl , Bohm. Tag., p. 22, f. 2 (1837). 

„ Itelioscopice, Sely-Longch. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., I., p. 40 (1867) 
, grentzenbergi, Staud. Ent. Nachr., XI,, p. 10 (1885). 
lafitolei, Thierry, Mieg. Le Nat., XL, p. 181 (1889). 

, rnbrescens, Garbowski,Sitz. Ber. Ak. Wiss Wien., p. 917 (1892). 

defecta, Calb. Iris, II, p. 88 (1899). 

„ nigrescent, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl, p. 720 (1903). 
redricta, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 720 (1903). 
Habitat. — Europe to S. England and S. Sweden ; Caucasus. 
Subsp. 1, dahli, Geyer. Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Schmett. Sphing., pi. 36, f. 161-4 
(1827). 

Habitat. — Corsica ; Sardinia. 

Subsp. 2, tithymali, Boisd. Icon. Hist. Lep. II. p. 30, pi. 51, f. 1 (1834). 

Habitat. — Canaries. 

Subsp. 3, mauretanica, Staud, Cat. Lep., II. , p. 36 (1871). 

Deilephila deserticola, Bartel., Ruhl. Grosschemett, II, p. 79 (1899). 

Habitat. — Morocco ; Algiers. 

Subsp. 4, conspicua, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 720 (1903). 

Habitat. — Asia Minor ; Syria. 

Subsp. 5, siehei, Fung. Berl. Ent. Zeit, XL VII, p. 235, pi. 3 (1903). 

Habitat. ClLIClA. 

Subsp. i'». centralasiai, Staud, Stett. Ent. Zeit,, XLVIII, p. 64 (1887), 

Habitat. — Transcaspia ; Afghanistan. 

Subsp. 7, robertsii, Butl. P. Z. S., 1880, p. 411, pi. 39, ff. 9-10. 

Deilephila peptides, Christ. Ent. Nacher., XX, p. 333 (1899). 

Habitat. — Transcaspia ; Afghanistan. 

Subsp. 8, nervosa, Roths. Nov. Zool., IX. Suppl., p. 721 (1903). 

Habitat. — Punjab ; Simla. 

Subsp. 9, costata, Norden. Bull. Mosc, XXIV., 2, p. 444, pi. xi ff. 3-4 (1851). 

Habitat. — Tuansp.aikalia. 

155. Celerio gallii. 

Sphinx gallii, Rott., Naturg, vi , .1(17 (1775). 

Deilephila phileuphorbia, Mutz, Wiegm. Arch. Naturg., VIII., pi. 171, pi. 8 
(1840). 

Habitat Europe ; W. & C. Asia ; Japan ; Kashmir. 
Subsp. intermedia, Kirby, Faun, Bor. Am. IV, p. 302 (1834). 
Deilephila chamcenerii, Harris, Sillim.. Journ. Sc„ Art. xxxyi.. p. 305 (1839). 
., canadensis, Guen. Am. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1868, p. 7. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 141 

Habitat. — Canada ; U. S. A. to Colorado and Georgia. 

155a. Celerio nicea. 

Sphinx niccsa, Prunner. Lep Pedem., p. 8(5 (1798). 

cyparissice, Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Schmett. Sphing. f. 115 (1827). 
Habitat. — S. Europe ; Caucasia ; Transoaspia, 
Subsp, 1, castissima, Austant, Le. Nat., V, p. 360 (188:5). 
Deilephila carnea, Austant, Le. Nat., XL, p. 232 (1889). 
Habitat — Morocco ; Algiers. 
Subsp. 2, lathyrus, Wlk,, VIII., 172 (1856). 
Habitat. — Punjab ; Kumaon. 
1556. Celerio zygophylli. 

Sphinx zygophylli, Ochs. Schmett., II., p. 220 (1808). 
Habitat. — S. Russia ; W. & C. Asia ; Persia ; Afghanistan. 
153. Celerio lineata. 
Sphinx lineata, Fabr. Syst. Ent., p. 541 (1775). 

„ daucus, Cram. Pap. Exot., II., p. 41, pi. 125, f, D (1777). 
Habitat. — Canada to Argentina. 
Subsp. livornica, Esp. Schmett., II., p. 88 (1779). 
Sphinx Jeoechlini, Fuessly, Arch. I., p. 1, pi. 4 fP. 1-4 (1781). 
Habitat. — S. Europe ; N. Africa ; Natal ; W. & C. Asta ; Persia ; Afghan- 
istan ; China ; Punjab ; Bengal, Calcutta. 

Genus Pergesa. 

Type. 

Per r/esa, Wlk., VIII., 149 (1856) porcellus. 

Cinogon, But!., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1881, p. 1 asJeoldensis. 

A. Hindwing with the terminial area bright rosy red ... elpenor. 

B. Hindwing with the terminal area suffused with cinna- 

mon . rivularis. 

119. Pergesa elpenor. 

Sphinx elpenor, Linn. Syst. Nat., X., p. 491 (1758). 

„ porcus, Retz. Gen. Ins., p. 34 (1783). 
Elpenor viHs, Oken, Lehrb. Naturg. LTl.-L, p. 760 (1815). 
Deilephila standfussi, Bartel, Riihl. Gross Schm. II., p. 122 (1900). 
Metopsilus elpenorellus, Staud. Cat. Lep. pal., p. 104 (19(H). 
Habitat. — Europe ; W. & C. Asia ; Amurland. 
Subsp. 1, lewisi, But!., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 247. 
Habitat. — Japan ; China. 
Subsp. 2, macromrroj. Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 7. 
Habitat.— Ass a.m. 
119a. Pergesa rivularis. 
Chcerocampa rivularis, Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 280 (1875). 

fraterna, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 247. 
Habitat. — Chitral ; Punjab ; Sikhim ; Sind. 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Genus Hippotion. 

Type. 

Hippotion, Hiibn., Verz., p. 134(1827) , celerio. 

Isoples, Hiibn., Verz. ; p. 134 (1827) .. eson. 

A. Hindwing not red velox. 

B. Hindwing red or ferruginous, at least on basal area. 

a. Hindwing with black postmedial band celerio. 

b. Hindwing without black postmedial band. 

a'. Hindwing with the base black echeclus. 

b ' . Hindwing with the base red. 

a-. Palpi with prominent white lateral line near 

eye raffled. 

b 2 . Palpi without prominent white lateral line 

near eye boerhavite. 

127. Hippotion velox. 

Sphinx velox, Fabr., Ent. Syst. III., I., p. 378 (1793). 

vigil, Guer. Deless, Voy. Ind., II., p. 80, pi. 25, f. 1 (1843). 
Panacra lignaria, Wlk., VIII., 156 (185G). 

Sphinx phamyx, Herr. Schaff. Ausser. Eur. Schmett., f. 478 (1856). 
Chcerocanipa swvrihm, Moore, P. Z. S., 1862, p. 362. 

yorleii, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 248 (1875). 
Panacra rosea, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 79, pi. 6, f. 14 (1894). 
lifuensis, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 79 (1894). 
griseola, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 80 (1894). 
„ pseudovigil, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 80 (1894). 
Habitat.— N. & S.India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Andamans ; Nicobars ; Penang ; 
Java ; Christmas I. ; Lombok ; Sumba ; Tenimber Is. ; Amboina ; Buru ; New 
Guinea ; d'Entrecasteaux Is. ; Louisiades ; Queensland ; Lifu ; Fiji. 
123. Hippotion celerio. 
Sphinx celerio, Linn. Syst. Nat., X., p. 491 (1758). 

„ tisiphona, Linn. Syst. Nat., X., p. 492 (1758). 
Phalcena inquilmus, Harris, Esp. Engl. Ins., p. 93, pi. 28, Lep. f. 1 (1781). 
Hippotion ocis, Hiibn. Verz., p. 135 (1827). 

Deilephila albolineata, Montr. Am. Soc. Linn. Lyon (2), XI. p. 250 (1864). 
Habitat. — Old World except far north and New Zealand. 
121. Hippotion echeclus. 
Olicerocampa echeclus, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 233 (1875). 

„ elegans, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 8, pi. 2, f. 1. 

Habitat. — Assam ; Madras, Madura ; Burma, Bassein : Sumatra ; Philip- 
pines ; Java ; Lombok ; Celebes ; Sumba. 
122a. Hippotion rafflesi. 
Clmrocarrqm rafflesi, Butl. Trans. Zool. Soc, IX., p. 556 (1877). 

vinacea, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B. M., IX., p. 57, pi. 1 57, f . 2 and pi. 175 
f . 2, 2 a (1893). 






THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 143 

Habitat. — N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Sumatra ; Java ; Celebes. 

122. HlPPOTION BOERHAVLffi. 

Sphinx boerJiavice, Fabr. Syst. Enfc., p. 542 (1775). 

vampyrus, Fabr. Mant. Ins. II., p. 98 (1787). 
„ octopunctata, Gmel. Syst. Nat., I., 5, p. 2386 (1790). 
Cheer ocampa rosetla, Swinh. Cat. Het. IV! us. Oxon., p. 16 (1892). 
Habitat. — N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Malacca ; Penang ; Bunguran ; 
Natuna Is. ; Sumatra ; Borneo ; Java ; Lombok ; Sumba ; Celebes ; 
Kisser ; Larat ; Key Is. ; New Guinea ; Trobriand Is. ; Louisiades ; 
Woodlark ; N. Pommern ; N. Lanenberg ; N. Hanover ; Solomons ; 
Queensland. 

Genus Theretra. 

Type. 

Theretra, Hiibn., Verz., p. 135 (1827) nessus. 

Oreus, Hiibn., Verz., p. 136 (1827) gnoma. 

Gnathostypsis, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Ak. Forh., XV., p. 137 (1858) capensis. 

Hathia, Moore, Lep. CeyJ. II., p. 19 (1882) latreilei. 

A. Hindwing red. 

a. Hindwing with the base black. 

a 1 . Thorax with dorsal grey stripe ; abdomen without 

lateral basal black patches mffusa. 

&'. Thorax without dorsal grey stripe; abdomen with 

lateral basal black patches alecto. 

b. Hindwing with the base red pallicosta, 

B. Hindwing not red or with narrow, ill-defined reddish 

tawny band. 
a. Abdomen with dorsal lines or tawny or ochreous sub- 
dorsal stripes arising from segment 3 and no pro- 
minent lateral basal black patches. 
a\ Palpus with the cavity large and sharply defined, nessus. 
b'. Palpus with the cavity more or less concealed or 
made irregular by rough scaling. 
a- . Forewing with broad grey subterminal band ... griseomarginata 
b~. Forewing without broad grey subterminal band. 
a 3 . Forewing with the stigma situated on an ill- 
defined dark patch, postmedial band curved 
or indistinct except at inner margin where 
with the antemedial band it forms a square 

patch, or the wing nearly all brown insignis. 

b° . Forewing with the stigma isolated, followed 
by a straight oblique dark band, formed 
of two or three distinct lines. 
a 4 . Abdomen with the pale dorsal line simple, 

white pinasirina. 



1 44 JO URN A L , BOMB A Y NA TURAL HIS TOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

b\ Abdomen with the pale dorsal line more or 
less prominently formed of two lines. 
a\ Forewing with the dark postmedial band 
formed by lines l-2'3, the last heavier 

than line 2 oldmlandice. 

b\ Forewing with the dark postmedial band 
formed by lines 1*2, line 3 separate 
and not so heavy as line 2, especially to- 
wards inner margin lycetus. 

b. Abdomen without dorsal lines, or with black lateral 
basal patch and without yellowish subdorsal stripe. 
«'. Palpus with the cavity at end of 1st joint partially 
concealed by rough scaling. 
a' 2 . Abdomen above olive chestnut, below ferrugin- 
ous or red „ , cutanea. 

b- . Abdomen above drab, below butf or vinaceous 

buff , latreillei. 

b l . Palpus with the cavity at end of 1st joint sharply 
defined. 
a- . Forewing with series of dark points on the line 

arising from apex « bukduvali . 

I)'-. Forewing without series of dark points on the 
line arising from apex, or the line incurved to 
costa ; abdomen without dorsal lines. 
a' 1 . Forewing with the apical line joining a post- 
medial line with which it forms a single line 

from apex to inner margin clothe. 

!>'■'>. Forewing with the apical line, if present, sepa- 
rate from the postmedial line which is in- 
curved towards costa gnoma. 

157. Theketra nessus. 

Sphinx nessus, Drury., Illustr. Ex. Ins., II., p. 46, pi. 76, f. 1 (1773). 

„ equestris, Fabr., Ent. Syst. hi., I., p. 365 (1793). 
Charocampa rubimndus, Schaufuss, Nung. Otiosus I., p. 18 (1870). 
Habitat.— Japan ; Punjab ; Sikhim ; Bhutan : Assam ; Bombay ; Madras ; 
Ceylon ; Burma ; Malacca ; Sumatra ; Nias ; Borneo ; Java ; Lombok ; Alor; 
Tenimber ; Amboina ; New Guinea ; Louisiades ; d'Entrecasteaux Is. ; Tro- 
briand Is. ; Queensland ; Lieu. 
141a. Theretra boisduvali. 

Sphinx boisduvali, Bugn., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1839, p. 115. 
Chorocampa punctivcnata, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 248. 

Habitat —Turkey ; Asia Minor; Sikiiim ; Assam; btMA'iRA; Borneo; 
Java ; Lombok. 
141. Theretra clotuo. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 145 

Sphinx clotho, Drury, Illustr. Ex. Ins., II., p. 48, pi. 28, f. 1 (1773). 

Deilephila ojrene, Westwd., Catt. Or. Ent., p. 13, pi. 6, f. 1 (1848). 

Chcerocampa bistrigata, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 249. 

„ aspersata, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1877, p. 241. 

Habitat. — N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Andamans ; Malacca ; Sumatra ; Borneo ; 
Philippines ; Java ; Lombok ; Sumba ; Dili ; Timor ; Celebes. 

Subsp. celata, Butl., P. Z. S., 1877, p. 472. 

Chcerocompa luteotincta, Lucas, Queenslander, XXXIX., p. 894 (1891). 

„ cloacina, Miskin, Pr. Roy. Soc. Queensl., VIII., p. 16 (1891). 

Theretra lifuensis, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 78 (1894). 

Habitat. — New Guinea ; Fergusson I.; Trobriand Is.; St. Aignan ; Bougu ; 
Solomons ; Queensland ; Lieu ; Amboina ; Ceram ; Tenimber ; Key Is. 

141&. Theretra gnoma. 

Sphinx gnoma, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 526 (1775). 

„ butus, Cram., Pap. Exot , II., p. 88, pi. 152, f. A. (1777). 

Chairocampa gonograpta, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 249. 

Habitat. — S. India ; Ceylon. 

140. Theretra latreillei. 

Sphinx latreillei, MacLeay, King's Surv. Austr., II., p. 464 (1827). 

Chasrocampa comminuens, Wlk., xxxi, 31 (1864). 

deserta, Butl., Trans. Zool. Soc, IX., p. 638 (1877;. 
walducki, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1877, p. 398, pi. 9, f. 2. 
„ amara, Swinh., Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon., p. 17, pi. 1, f. 9 (1892). 

Habitat. — Amboina; Ceram,; Bourn ; Obi; Key Is. ; Aru ; New Guinea; 
Queensland ; W. Australia ; Bismarck Arch. ; Solomons. 

Subsp. lucasi, Wlk., VIII, 141 (1856). 

Deilephila spilota, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C, p. 277 (L57). 

Cheer ocampa procne, Clemens, Journ. Ac Nat, Sci. Philad., IV, p. 151 (1859). 
tenebrosa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., II., p. 20, pi. 86, f. 2'2« (1882). 

Habitat. — N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Malacca ; Andamans ; Sumatra ; Njas ; 
Borneo ; Philippines ; Lombok ; Sumba ; Celebes ; Dammer I. 

120. Theretra alecto. 

Sphinx alecto, Linn., Syst. Nat., X., p. 492 (1758). 

Habitat. — Formosa ; N. & S. India ; Borneo ; Njas ; Java ; Sumba wa ; 
Sumba ; Celebes ; Larat ; Tenimber ; Key Is. 

Subsp. cretica, Boisd., Ann. Soc Linn., Paris, 1827, p. 118, pi. 6, f. 5. 

Theretra freyeri, Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., I., p. 650 (1892). 

Habitat.— Asia Minor ; Syria ; Persia ; Transcaucasia ; W. Turkistan. 

121a. Theretra suffusa. 

Chcerocampa suffusa, Wlk., VIII., 146 (1856). 

hector, Boisd., Spec Gen. Lep. Het., I., p. 230 (1875). 

Habitat.— China ; N. India ; Penang ; Perak ; Singapore ; Sumatra ; Bor- 
neo ; Java. 

124. Theretra lycetus. 
19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Sphinx lycetus, Cram., Pap. Exot. I., p. 96, pi. 61, £. D (1775). 
Chcerocampa rosina, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 248, pi. 37, f. 6. 

„ prunosa, Butl., P. Z. S„ 1875, p. 622. 

Habitat.— Punjab ; Sikhim ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Penang ; Java. 

125. THERETRA OLDENLANDI.E. 

Sphinx oldenlandice, Fabr. Syst. Ent., p. 542 (1775). 
„ drancus, Cram., Pap. Exot., II., p. 56, pi. 132, f. F (1777). 
„ argentata, Haw., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1842, p. 334, non descr. 

Xylophanes'.gortysjKubn., Samml. Exot. Schmett., Zutr., III., p. 28, ff. 513'14 
(1827). 

Chcerocampa sordida, Wlk., VIII., 148 (1856).. 

puellaris, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 623. 
Deilephila proxima, Austant, Le Nat., 1892, p. 69. 

Habitat.— Japan ; China ; Formosa ; N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Penang ; 
Sumatra ; Borneo ; Philippines ; Java ; Sumba ; Celebes ; Amboina ; Key 
I. ; New Guinea. 

Subsp. formata, Wlk., VIII., 148(1856). 

Habitat.— Queensland ; W. Australia ; N. S. Wales. 

126. Theretra pinastrina. 

Sphinx pinastrina, Martyn, Psyche, pi. 29, f. 81, and pi. 30, f. 85 (1797). 

Chcerocampa silhetensis, Wlk., VIII., 143 (1856). 

bisecta, Moore, Lep. E. I C, p. 278, pi. 11, f. 5'5a (1857). 

Habitat.— Japan ; Formosa; N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Penang ; Suma- 
tra ; Borneo ; Java. 

Subsp. intersecta, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 623. 

Habitat.— Philippines ; Celebes ; Sumba ; Amboina ; New Guinea ; Bismarck 
Arch ; Solomons ; Queensland. 

128. Theretra insignis. 

Panacra insignis, Butl., A. M. N. H. (5), X., p. 432 (1882). 

Habitat. — Andamans. 

Subsp. kuehni, Roths., Nov. Zool., VII., p. 274, pi. 5, f. 2 (1900). 

Habitat. — Java; Dammer I.; Tenimber. 

130a. Theretra griseomarginata. 

Chcerocompa griseomarginata, Hmpsn., J. Bomb. N.H. Soc, XL, p. 281, pi. A., 
f. 12 (1898.) 

Habitat.— Sikhim. 

144. Theretra pallicosta. 
Chcerocampa palUcosta, Wlk., VIII., 145 (1856). 

Habitat —Hongkong ; Assam ; Canara ; Ceylon ; Burma. 

138. Theretra castanea. 

Pergesa castanea, Moore, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 566. 

Chcerocampa hyporhoda, Hmpsn., J. Bomb. N. H. Soc., XIII., p. 39, pi. B. 
f. 12 (1900). 
Habitat. — Canara. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 147 

Genus Rhyncholaba. 

Type. 

Rhyncholaba, Roths., Nov. Zool, IX., Suppl. p. 789 (1903) acteus. 

158. Rhyncholaba acteus. 

Sphinx acteus, Cram., Pap. Exot., III., p. 93, pi. 248, f. A (1779). 

Panacra butleri, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 80 (1894), 

Habitat.— N. & S. India ; Ceylon ; Penang ; Borneo ; Nias ; Java ; Lombok ; 

SUMBAWA ; SUMBA ; BOURN. 

Genus Rhagastis. 

Type. 
Rhagastis, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX„ Suppl., p. 791 (1903) velata. 

A, Hindwing on underside with prominent black stigma albomarginalus. 

B. Hindwing on underside without black stigma. 

a. Palpus with the 2nd joint much constricted at base, acuta. 

b. Palpus with the 2nd joint not constricted at base. 
a 1 . Thorax dorsally suffused with red ; underside 

of body and wings rosy red gloriosa. 

b l . Thorax not dorsally suffused with red. 
a' 2 . Forewing with single series of prominent 

white subterminal lunules lunata. 

b-. Forewing with two series of white spots, or 
broad diffused band or no white subter- 
minal markings. 
a 3 . Forewing with series of white subtermi- 
nal spots preceded by a straight white 
line from apex to vein 4, then a lunulate 
line to vein 1 ; underside of body and 

wings ochreous olivacea. 

b 3 . Forewing without these markings. 
a*. Wings on underside densely irrorated 
with brown ; terminal band of fore- 
wing not conjoined to brown basal 
area ; no white subterminal scaling 
on forewing above ; abdomen with 

lateral yellow stripe velata. 

5 4 . Wings on underside less densely 

irrorated with brown ; forewing with 

the terminal band conjoined to basal 

brown area between veins 5 and 4. 

a 5 . Forewing on underside with the 

costal half of cell of the reddish 

colour of disk ; abdomen without 

yellowish lateral stripe ; forewing 

with the costal edge pale creamy... confusa. 



148 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

b"\ Forewing on underside with the cell 
wholly brown ; abdomen ventrally 
yellowish white ; forewing on 
underside with the stripe connect- 
ing the basal and terminal areas 
heavy aurifera. 

137. Rhagastis velata. 

Pergesa velata, Wlk., XXXV., 1853 (1866). 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 

137a. Rhagastis acuta. 

Zonilia acuta, Wlk., VIII., 195 (1856). 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Penang. 

1375. Rhagastis aurifera. 

Pergesa aurifera, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 7. 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 

137c. Rhagastis confusa. 

Theretra albomarginata, Hmpsn., J. Bomb. N. H. Soc., XIII, p. 39, pi. B, f. 
(1900) nee Roths. 
Rhagastis confusa, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX, Suppl., p. 795, pi. 14, f. 12 (1903). 
Habitat. — Sikhim ; Assam. 
137(Z. Rhagastis lunata. 

Chcsrocampa lunata, Roths., Nov. Zool., VII., p. 274 (1900). 
Habitat. — Assam ; Khasis. 

Subsp. sikhimensis, Roths. Nov. Zool., IX, Suppl. p. 797 (1903). 
Habitat.— Sikhim. 
136. Rhagastis olivacea. 
Pergesa olivacea, Moore, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 566. 
Habitat. — Punjab ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 
135. Rhagastis gloriosa. 
Pergesa gloriosa, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 246. 
Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam. 
135a. Rhagastis albomarginatus. 

Metopsilus albomarginatus, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 78 (1894). 
Habitat. — Sikhim ; Assam. 

Subsp. everetti, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 799 (1903). 
Habitat. — Sumatra ; Borneo. 

Genus Cechenina. 

Type. 

Cechenina, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 799 (1903) helops. 

A. Forewing on upperside with five to seven almost 
straight lines on terminal half ; abdomen dorsally 
striped. 
a. Mesonotum without pale medial band ; forewing 

with seven lines e , ti minor. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 149 

b. Mesonotum with pale medial band ; f orewing with 

eight lines lineosa. 

B. Forewing on upperside without straight lines on 
terminal half ; abdomen not dorsally striped. 

a. Forewing with broad subbasal umber brown band 

or patch , helops. 

b. Forewing without subbasal umber brown band. 
a 1 . Forewing with the basal area, also the thorax, 

dark green , mirabilis. 

bj. Forewing with the basal area clay colour with 

a black spot cegrota. 

142. Cechenina mirabilis. 

Chcerocampa mirabilis, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 248. 

Habitat. — Punjab. 

142a. Cechenina .egrota. 

Chcerocampa cegrota, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 246. 

Theretra catori, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 75 (1894). 

Daphnis chimcera, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p. 86, pi. 6, f. 16 (1894). 

Habitat. — Assam ; Perak ; Borneo ; Java. 

139. Cechenina helops. 

Philampelus helops, Wlk., VIII., 180 (1856). 

„ orientalis, Feld., Reis. Nov., pi. 77, f. 1 (1874). 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Assam ; Malacca ; Sumatra ; Borneo ; Java. 
Subsp. ^api/awa, Roths., Nov. Zool., IX., Suppl., p. 802 (1903). 
Habitat. — New Guinea ; Neu Pommern. 
143a. Cechenina minor. 
Chcerocampa minor, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 249. 
Theretra striata, Roths., Nov. Zool., I., p.76 (1894). 
Habitat. — Japan ; Formosa ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Siam. 

143. Cechenina lineosa. 
Chcerocampa lineosa, Wlk., VIII., 144 (1856). 

major, Butl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 249. 

Habitat. — Punjab ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam ; Malacca ; Sumatra ; Borneo. 

NOTODONTID^E. 

237a. Pydna endoph^a, n. sp. (PI. D. f. 1). 

£. Ochreous : head and thorax tinged with brown; palpi dark brown at 
sides. Forewing with the inner margin narrowly red-brown ; the wing sparsely 
irrorated with rufous ; two rather obscure antemedial series of rufous points 
angled on median nervure ; a point below costa above angle of cell ; two obscure 
postmedial series met at vein 4 by an oblique series from apex, then oblique to 
the antemedial series on inner margin ; a subterminal and a terminal series. 
Hindwing rather yellower. 

Habitat. — Kanara, Karwar (Davidson). Exp. 38 mill. Type in B. M. 

2386. Pydna frugalis, Leech, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1898, p. 302. 



150 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

ft. Brownish grey ; palpi and frons dark brown ; abdomen tinged with red- 
dish brown. Forewing irrorated with a few dark scales and tinged with reddish 
brown, especially on inner and terminal areas ; two black points near base ; 
antemedial black points on costa and below cell ; an indistinct postmedial 
crenulate curved line with black points on the veins and a fuscous mark on it 
beyond lower angle of cell joined by an oblique streak from apex ; a terminal 
series of black points. Hindwing strongly tinged with fuscous brown. 

$ . More rufous. 

Habitat. — W. China, Pu-tsu-fang, Moupin ; N.-W. Himalayas, Kangra 
Valley 4500' (Dudgeon). 

Exp. $ 42, 9 48 mill. 

241. Pydna sikkima, insert (syn.) Pydna essa, Swinh. A. M. N. H. (6), 
XVII., p. 360. 

262a. Stauropus mioides, n. sp. 

$. Head and thorax grey-white tinged with green ; branches of antennae 
red-brown ; palpi black at sides ; abdomen whitish, dorsally fuscous, except at 
extremity. Forewing whitish tinged with green, especially towards base and 
thickly irrorated with dark-brown ; a small dark spot below origin of vein 2 and 
another at lower angle of cell placed on a fine indistinct line excurved from 
below costa to vein 5, then bent inwards to lower angle of cell ; a subtermind 
series of dark-brown spots, those below costa and above vein 5 displaced in- 
wards ; a series of oblique dark strios on termen. Hindwing dark reddish 
brown ; the costal area whitish tinged with green and irrorated with dark brown 
and with diffused dark postmedial and subterminal bars ; inner margin and cilia 
white ; the underside white. 

Habitat. — Assam ; Khasis, Exp. 46 mill. Type in B. M. 

280. DlCRANURA HIMALAYANA. 

Larva pale green ; the dorsal area whitish ; the 3rd somite produced to a 
Somewhat pointed hump ; a subdorsal white line angled upwards below the 
hump ; stigmata ringed with black ; anal somite produced to two long flagellate 
tails, whitish granulated with black, the terminal halves crimson. Food planx 
willow (G. C. Dudgeon). 

307. Spatalia argentifera £=309 S. coskdis 9 . Specimens of both sexes 
bred (T. R. Bell). 

317a. ICHTHYURA TRANSECTA. 

Larva. Grey-brown with a broad dorsal dirty white line interrupted by a 
dark brown patch at 4th somite which is slightly humped ; lateral and sub- 
lateral series of yellow-brown tubercles ; a pale line above the lateral series of 
tubercles ; 4th somite with two pale red tubercles on a red patch in the centre 
of the brown one and with two white patches on each side of it ; a similar 
red patch with tubercles on 11th somite. Head dark brown clothed with 
whitish hair similar to that arising from the tubercles. 

Food plant salix babylonica. 

Pupa red in a slight cocoon formed of the leaves. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 151 

Syntomid^e. 

403Z>. Oekyx pleurasticta, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), VIII., p. 165 (1901) 
(pi. D. f. 2). 

£. Purple-black ; back of head orange ; pectus with lateral orange spots ; 
tarsi with the 1st joint white ; abdomen with dorsal orange patch on 1st 
segment and band on 5th, the intermediate segments with lateral spots. Fore- 
wing with hyaline spot below the cell near base ; a wedge-shaped patch in end 
of cell and another below base of vein 2 ; a round spot above base of vein 2 and 
more elongate spots above veins 3 - 4 and 6. Hindwing with hyaline patch below 
middle of cell and round spot above vein 2. 

Habitat. Kanara, Siddapah (Davidson), Exp. 24 mill. 

451a. Syntomis madurensis, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), VIII., p. 166 (1901) 
(pi. D. f. 27). 

<£. Antennae with long branches ; black-brown ; frons and patagia with 
orange patches ; hind tibia with orange streak ; tarsi with the 1st joint orange ; 
abdomen with orange bands on 1st and 5th segments and small spots on ter- 
minal segment. Forewing with quadrate hyaline spots below base and in end of 
cell ; an oblique spot below vein 2 ; spots above veins 3 and 4 and a smaller spot 
above 6. Hindwing with orange medial band from cell to inner margin. 

Habitat. — Madura, Ammanaya-nahramir (Campbell). Exp. 22 mill. 

455. Eressa confinis, insert (syn.) Eressa catoria, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7) 6, 
p. 305. 



(To be continued.') 



152 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI 





MOTHS OF INDIA (HAMPSON). 




Description of Plate D. 


1. 


Pydna endophce. 


2. 


Ceryx pleurasticta. 


•> 
o. 


Clelea refulgens. 


4. 


Euproctis fulvinigra. 


5. 


Cossus rufidorsia. 


6. 


Striglina ignepicta. 


7. 


Cania plumbifusa. 


8. 


Aroa campbelli. 


9. 


Lenodora hyalomelce na. 


10. 


Euprroctis laniata. $ 


11. 


„ laniata. $ 


12. 


„ xantlwsticta. $ 


13. 


„ xanthosticta. v 


14. 


Odonesi is fossa. 


15. 


Ratanla furvivestita. 


16. 


Nola brachystria. 


17. 


Marumbanympha. 


lb. 


Ovipennis binghami. 


19. 


Asura obliquilinea. 


20. 


Hypsa donatana. 


21. 


Macrobrochis fiavicincta. 


22, 


Lymantria moesta. 


23. 


Dosychira cerebosa. 


24. 


„ magnolia. 


25. 


Leueoma pellucida. 


26. 


Euproctis virgo. 


27. 


Syntomis madurensis. 


28. 


Euproctis ■mirabilis. 


29. 


„ macrostigma. 


30. 


Paracossus furcata. 


31. 


Idonauton nigribasis. 


32. 


Euproctis dana. 


33. 


Pantana ochrota $ 


34. 


„ ochrota £ 



Sir. G.F.HAMPSON, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate D. 




Horace Knight ad nat lith. 



West, Newman chromo. 



INDIAN MOTHS. 



15H 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



No. I.— SOME NOTES ON BIRDS TAKEN AT COONOOR, 
NILGIRIS, IN MAY 1904. 
Pomatorhinus horsfteldi. — The Southern Scimitar Babbler. 
This bird is very common about Coonoor. It usually occurs in small flocks 
from three to eight in number. Although very partial to thick damp under- 
growth these birds do not hesitate to enter gardens. I have seen them in 
wayside bushes and on a comparatively open hill-side on which there was a con- 
tinuous chain of bushes and small trees. The birds keep well to cover. They 
are very skilled climbers, making their way with great facility through thick 
bushes and trees, progressing in much the same way that Crow-Pheasants do. 

They are equally clever iu running up and down tree trunks, being almost as 
nimble as nuthatches. 

This Scimitar Babbler feeds on insects which it picks off leaves, off the 
ground, or from the trunks of trees. It uses its long bill as a probe, by means 
of which it drags out insects which lurk in the crevices of the bark of trees. 
On one occasion I saw one of these birds devouring something large which it 
held with its foot as a crow does, and took pecks at it. I was unable to make 
out the nature of the object but the bird took half a dozen bites at it before it 
was disposed of. 

The bird has several notes, A common one is a loud Ko-ko-ko-e-e-e. 

Sometimes one bird calls Ko-ko-ko and another answers Ko-ee. When the 
birds are feeding in company, they keep up a continuous chatter, which is not 
unpleasing to the ear. When alarmed this bird gives vent to a harsh cry very 
characteristic of the babbler tribe. 

Its habits are so similar to those of the Nilgiri Laughing Thrush (Trochal- 
opterum cachinnans), also very common about Coonoor, that it is difficult to 
determine which of the varied notes heard belong to each species. 

Zosterops palpebrosa. — The Indian White-eye is very common in this part of 
the Nilgiris, being, in fact, almost as numerous as the Hill-Bulbul (Otocompsa 
fuscicaudata). I found several nests belonging to this species. 

Most of them contained only two eggs. So far as I could determine, the eggs 
take twelve or thirteen days to hatch out. 

Sitta frontalis. — The Velvet-fronted Blue Nuthatch is very numerous in the 
Coonoor forests. 

I saw many Tailor birds (Orlhotomm sutorius) some of which were in breeding 
plumage, Coonoor is about 6,000 feet above the sea-level. This bird therefore 
ascends higher than 4,000 feet, the limit given by Oates. 

Cyornis tickelli. — Tickell's Blue Flycatcher is fairly abundant at Coonoor. 
It is a noisy bird, continually uttering a characteristic note. This consists of a 
couple of sharp chicks, followed by a little tune of about six notes, not unlike 
that of the White-browed Fan-tail Flycatcher but harsher and not so loud. 

Stoparola albicaudata. — The Nilgiri Blue Flycatcher is numerous, not infre- 
quently coming into gardens. Does this species feed on fruit as well as insects ? 
20 



154 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Unless I am mistaken in the species, I have on several occasions seen both old 
and young birds eating fruit. I saw young birds on May 18th and 21st. The 
whole plumage, except the wings and tail, was brown, spotted with yellow. 

Ochromela nigrirufa. — The Black and Orange Flycatcher is not uncommon 
about Coonoor. Jerdon's description of its habits is good, except that the 
eminent naturalist says "it is a very silent bird." The bird is anything but 
silent. It continually gives forth a cheeping note, one which might emanate 
from an insect. The bird always seems to take a low perch about two feet 
from the ground. 

I saw a young bird on May lftth and another on May 21st. I saw the latter 
receive an insect from the mother. 

The young birds are coloured as follows : The whole head, neck, breast, 
and (I think) the back is yellow, heavily spotted or mottled with dark-brown. 
The tail, which is very short and broad, is bright-yellow. 

The abdomen and under-tail coverts are very pale-yellow. The note of the 
young bird closely resembles that of the adult. 

Culicicapa ceylonensis. — The Grey-headed Flycatcher. 

Its habits are rather phlegmatic for a Flycatcher. I have watched one in the 
early morning, sitting for five or ten minutes on end on a branch, looking very 
sleek and comfortable ; but it was "taking in" everything, the head being in 
constant motion. The bird will then suddenly become very active for a few 
minutes, making a number of little sallies into the air, as is the wont of fly- 
catchers. It does not by any means always return to the perch it left, although 
it usually comes back to the same tree or bush. It has a feeble twittering note. 
It is not a shy bird, and will often allow one to approach within six feet of 
where it is perched, and when disturbed flies only a few yards. It is fairly 
common in the woods about Coonoor. 

Rhipidura albifrontata. — The White-browed Fantail Flycatcher is very 
numerous about Coonoor. I came upon a nest placed in the fork of the lowest 
branch of a tree about ten feet from the ground. The nest was as described 
in Oates, in it were three eggs, also as described by him. These hatched out on 
May 19th. It is perhaps worthy of mention that, so far from these eggs being 
protectively coloured, I could easily distinguish them for a distance of 15 feet. 

Aiihiopsar fuscus is the common myna in this part of the world. One bird 
had a nest containing young, situated in the broken-off branch of an old tree. 
The young birds must have hatched out about May 5th. 

D. DEWAR. 
Madras, May 1904. 



No. II.— THE OCCURRENCE OF THE BLACK-CAPPED KING- 
FISHER (HALCYON PILEATA) IN NORTH LAKHIMPUR, 

UPPER ASSAM. 

On the 7th April Halcyon pileata made its appearance in this quarter, fre- 
quenting a jan which leaves the River Dejoo at the base of the Duphla hills and 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 155 

after flowing a tortuous course through open cleared ground joins the Runga- 
nuddie. I had some slight doubt as to my first observations being correct owing 
to a drizzling rain and bad light at the time ; but I had ample opportunities 
of noting its black head, white collar and dark blue colouring of the back com- 
pared with H. smyrnetisis before the day closed. Whilst not very wary yet it 
gave one the impreasion that I was fresh to its surroundings and this dispelled 
any hopes I had that the bird was breeding in the vicinity, although some clumps 
of bamboos overlooking stagnant water afforded it a safe retreat, from the open 
steep clay banks of the jan where H. smyrnensis had located itself. As it 
has not made its appearance since that date, I am inclined to think it was 
performing a local migratory movement, possibly from a higher altitude during 
a period of very wet weather. 

H. STEVENS. 
North Lakhimpur, Upper Assam, May 1904. 



No. III.— THE YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER 
(CHELIDORHYNX HYPOXANTHUM.) 

The distribution of Chelidorhynx hypoxanthum in all probability extends 
across the plains in the Dibrugarh district during the cold season, as at that time 
it is fairly plentiful here. Contrary to Blanford's observations as to this species 
occurring in small flocks, on the dozen or so opportunities afforded me of observ- 
ing this flycatcher, although once I noted three within a distance of 100 yards, 
each bird was acting independently and on the other occasions singles have 
invariably been the order. In habits it is truly Rhipidurean in the manner of 
darting out in quest of food and returning to the same perch; favourite localities 
frequented are forest-lined streams, brushwood and fallen trees in forest 
clearings and it very often haunts these quarters in company with Culicicajja 
ceylonensis. Measurements of specimens in the flesh. Length 4", bill from 
gape "3 which differ from Oates somewhat, 4*7 and '4 respectively. 

H. STEVENS. 
Rungagora, Upper Assam, January 1904. 



No. IV.— THE OCCURRENCE OF THE RED-BREASTED GOOSE 
{BE ANT A RUFICOLLIS) IN INDIA. 

In early April of this year I was asked by Mr. M, S. Mondy whether there 
were any geese found in India with red necks, and on my replying "no " he 
said that he had seen four such on the banks of the Brahmapootra in company 
with a large flock of the Common Grey Goose. He then gave me a minute 
description of these geese, from which I had not the slightest hesitation in 
identifying them as Branta ruficollis, the Red-Breasted Goose. 

Mr. Mondy had no idea what he was describing and had seen no such geese 
before. These four had, however, differed so conspicuously from the others 
that he took a very careful note of their appearance although, unfortunately 
he was unable to obtain a specimen. 



156 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

In the Bengal Sporting Magazine for 1836, VII., p. 247, it is said that four 
birds of this species were seen and one shot near Nagpnr, but the article 
referred to is anonymous and of little value. 

E. C. STUART-BAKER. F.Z.S. 

Dibrugarh, Assam, July 1904. 



No. V.— THE OCCURRENCE OF THE MASKED FIN-FOOT 
{HELIOPA1S PERSONATA) IN LAKHIMPUR. 

On the 14th June I had sent to me a very fine $ specimen of the Masked 
Fin-foot which was obtained by Dr. Gregerson in a forest bheel or swamp on 
the borders of this district. This bird which was breeding possessed a tiny 
fronted shield and a yellow horn or fronted wattle about £" long and which 
appeared to be erect during the bird's life. In colour it was a brilliant chrome 
yellow like the beak. I have never seen this wattle referred to and it appears 
to have been unnoticed up to now so that we may presume it to be seasonal. 

On the 10th June, I believe in the same bheel, Dr.T. More obtained a fine 
female. The soft colours of this bird are far brighter than hitherto described, 
probably also due to the bird being in breeding condition. 

E. C. STUART-BAKER, F.Z.S. 

Dibrugarh, Assam, July 1904. 



No. VI— THE ENEMIES OF BUTTERFLIES. 

I have been interested in the letters which have appeared in the Journal 
lately on the subject of enemies of butterflies. The subject is of some impor- 
tance in connection with the various forms of " protection " which are found 
among them. A great many writers seem to assume that the principal enemies 
against which butterflies have to guard themselves are birds, but I believe this 
is an utter mistake. In fact, I believe that butterflies can afford to disregard 
birds altogether. This is certainly not because birds do not like them as food, 
but because every bird soon finds out that they are not worth the trouble of 
catching. The peculiar zigzag flight of a butterfly makes it very difficult for 
even a king-crow, or a bee-eater, to capture one on the wing, and when it thinks 
it has succeeded, it gets a mouthful of wings and misses the body. I remember 
only two instances which have come under my own observation. In one case a 
bee-eater caught a Danais, but dropped it as soon as it had tasted it, and the 
Banah flew away little the worse. In the other case the butterfly, Euthalia 
garuda, had been slightly crippled by some accident, which a king-crow detected 
at once, but it had some trouble to catch it. The flight of a moth is straight 
and offers little difficulty, accordingly a moth can scarcely show itself by daylight 
without being pursued. Dragonflies can cope with butterflies, however, and con- 
stantly feed on the smaller kinds, especially the Lycaen/dce, which they may be 
seen hawking over grass. I once saw a large dragonfly feeding on a Catopailia 
catilla, but in the case of a butterfly of that size it must be very difficult for 
even a dragonfly to get hold of the body in the midst of so much wing. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 157 

The real enemies of butterflies are, I believe, lizards and frogs and. no doubt, 
tree snakes. Therefore all protective colours and forms found among them 
are intended to conceal them when at rest. When a butterfly is found with a 
large piece torn out of both hind wings, as we so often find them, it has had a 
narrow escape from a lizard. KalUma, when at rest on the trunk of a tree, 
always turns its head downwards, though this somewhat spoils its resemblance 
to a leaf. I believe the reason is that the danger is greatest of a lizard ascend- 
ing the tree. Chameleons are very fond of butterflies, epecially Pierince. 

E. H. AITKEN. 

Kurrachee, 30</i June 19.04. 



No. VII— THE RECENT PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS IN BOMBAY. 

With reference to the letter published in the last number of the Journal by 
Mr. A. B. Mosse, in which he states that, while Acridium succinctum was ravag- 
ing the country round Bombay, Acridium peregrinum was invading Mahi 
Kantha, Kaira and Ahmedabad, perhaps the results of my observations of 
these two species may be of some interest. A. succinctum (if there is no doubt 
about the correctness of the name) has long been a familiar insect to me as the 
big grasshopper of the Deccan. Even on the coast it is common, and some- 
times very common, on hilly ground where there is long grass. But whenever 
there has been a visitation of locusts and I have been able to secure specimens, 
the species has been A. peregrinum. During the great plague of 1883, when 
Matheran and, I think, Mahabuleshwar too were reduced to desolation, many 
stragglers fell into Bombay and they were A. peregrinum. I have often met 
with them at other times, once as far south as Rutnagherry. But all I have 
seen have been manifestly visitors. Their breeding grounds are in the north. 
In Sind they are " endemic," breeding in the sandhills of Thar and Parkar and 
overspreading the province several times a year. On occasions, perhaps when 
for some reason they have been more prolific than usual, they set out on those 
great migrations which have given them such a terrible reputation since the 
days of Moses : for I believe there is no doubt that this is the species mentioned 
in the book of Exodus. Their powers of flight are marvellous. Especially 
when they first arrive they sail about with such ease and grace that I have 
mistaken them for huge dragonflies. I do not believe that A. succinctum can 
be compared with them in this respect, and I have always till lately refused to 
recognise it as a " locust " in the popular sense. But evidently it also, when 
times are hard, breaks out and overflows its proper limits. Unfortunately 
there appear to be no reliable records of the extent to which it may spread. 
It should surely be possible even now to ascertain exactly how far the present 
swarm has extended. 

There is another curious fact to which attention should be directed. I have 
obtained, through the kindness of friends, two lots of specimens of this swarm 
and they are all of a rich red colour. From the accounts in the newspapers 
I gather that this has been their tint everywhere. Now the colour of A. 



158 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

succinctum, wherever I have met with it living quietly at home, is a yellow, or 
yellowish green. Only the underwings have a rosy tinge. I have lately dis- 
covered, however, that A. peregrinum is subject to a similar change of colour. 
When a swarm arrives, its uniform is red ; but when it has passed away, the 
stragglers that remain soon acquire a pale yellow tint. Some become grey. 
Is the red colour of both species a symptom of the migratory fever, or the result 
of a long journey in the sun ? 

E. H. AITKEN. 
Kurrachee, 30 th June 1904. 



No. VIII.— THE HIMALAYAN NUTCRACKER (NUCIFRAGA 

HEM1SPILA). 

Regarding the round holes made in walnuts, concerning which there has 
been much discussion in the Journal, may I venture to disagree with those who 
assign the cause to the action of a woodpecker. 

During last season I had a house in Simla, and there was near it and over- 
shadowing an outside " bachelor quarter," a large walnut tree in very full 
bearing. Every morning on the path below the tree and on the roof of the 
quarter were any number of walnuts with a neat circular hole driven com- 
pletely through about the size of a two or four anna bit. The hole was 
evidently bored from outside of one side and the nut turned round to enable 
similar action to be taken with the other half. 

I used to have the bored nuts carefully swept up daily and the tree watched. 
Never, did we see a nut fall during the day, nor did a woodpecker visit the 
tree but at dusk regularly flying squirrels came to the tree, and I am decidedly 
of opinion that they and not birds are the "culprits." Birds do not feed in this 
manner at night — the squirrels I refer to do. 

Besides, look at the front upper teeth of this squirrel — they are long and 
hooked, and if I may say so, almost hinged to the jaw and are just the instru- 
ments to produce the noted result. 

The squirrel, too, holds nuts in his paws when at work. How is the wood- 
pecker going to manage ? 

WILLIAM CAPPER, Colonel, 

D. M. E. in India. 

Simla, 17th July 1904. 



No. IX.— THE HIMALAYAN NUTCRACKER (NUCIFRAGA 

HEMISP1LA). 
When my copy of the Journal arrived I had the pleasure of seeing Mr. W. P. 
Masson and we read with interest Lt.-General Osborn's note on this bird and its 
walnut-eating propensities. I asked Mr. Masson to see if he had any notes on the 
subject, and he kindly sent me the following : — 

" Anent that article in the Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, regard- 
ing the nutcracker (Nucifraga hemisirila) breaking the shell of the walnut to get 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 159 

at the contents, it is entirely wrong as regards our bird in Sikhim. Our Sikhim 
birds are never found at a lower elevation than 9,500 ft. high, whereas the wild 
walnut is only found between 6 and 8,000 ft.; probably the walnuts in Kulu grow 
at a higher elevation and have a much thinner shell than those got in Sikhim. 
The shell of the walnut in Sikhim is intensely hard and takes a strong blow with 
a heavy hammer to break one and what is there in it after breaking — just 
a thin streak of hard woody flesh. No nutcracker or woodpecker could 
ever bore into one of these wild walnuts ; if they attempted to do so their 
bills would probably break long before any impression was made. I have 
seen nutcrackers tearing the moss off a rhododendron shrub to get at the 
insects and larva? which congregate underneath. I have also seen them 
on the high ranges in September feeding on a sort of red raspberry which 
ripens there." I suggest the following : — If these holes are not made by a 
rodent, which is most probable, as suggested by Mr. Osmaston they might 
perhaps be formed by a grub which had got into the walnut before the shell 
hardened and which had either worked its way through or else eaten the inner 
coating of the shell and thus made it thinner. As nutcrackers sometimes and 
woodpeckers always feed on insects, they might probably be noticed probing 
these holes or breaking the thin shells in search of the larva? which they 
contained. I spoke to some forest officers about this and they thought it 
quite possible. 

CHAS. M. INGLIS. 
DarJEELING, 22nd July 1904. 



No. X — THE BLACK STORK ? {CICONIA NIGRA ?) 
On the 29th November 1903, we observed a flock of some 30 birds, un- 
doubtedly storks, fishing in the shallows off a sand bank. They were very 
wary, and unfortunately, owing to a number of boats and people being about at 
the far end of the sand bank, it would have been unsafe to use a high velocity 
rifle, and they would not permit any one to get close enough to use a scatter 
gun. 

Owing to their fishing and playing about, and while some slept and others 
sunned themselves, we were able by the aid of a very good telescope and 
binoculars to make out a good deal about them. The notes I made on a slip of 
paper are as follows : — 

Body, dark blackish glossed with bronze. Upper breast bronze green, lower 
breast, abdomen, flanks, and under tail, white. Beak, legs and around eyes, 
crimson. From this it occurred to me that they could hardly be any other 
than a flock of black storks (Ciconia nigra). They were the only ones 
seen on the trip down from Myitkyina and I have never met with these 
birds on any previous trip or for the matter of that anywhere else in the 
province. 

G. H. EVANS, F.L.S., Major. 
Rangoon, Wth July 1904. 



160 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL, HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



No. XI.— THE GREAT WHITE-BELLIED HERON 
TARDEA INSIGNIS.) 
On the 29th November 1903, 1 was at Hsenbo, a station above the first defile 
on the Upper Irrawaddy. I saw a very large heron, unknown to me, sitting 

on a half stranded snag at the end of a bank, and I asked Col. S 

who was with me to try and shoot the bird with his -303. He missed the first 
shot ; the second, however, dropped the heron which proved to be a splendid 
bird. Measurements and description were taken at once. 

Length of bird from tip of beak to claw ... 5-4" 

Do. bill from eye to tip 8*2o" 

Do. tibia 9" 

Do. tarsus (including claw) ... 7 # 25" 

Spread of wing ... ... ... 40" 

From tip to tip ... ... 84" 

Length of wing bone ... .... 24' 

Head. — Naked around eyes especially in front of and under eye skin greenish 
yellow colour. 

Distinct crest or heron plume. 
Throat. — White for 2" under jaw. 

Neck. — Grey or slatey with some long feathers towards base. 
In these feathers the midrib was altogether white, while the barbs for more 
than half way were bluish ; remaining feathers white. 

Body, i.e., breast and abdomen — White, except for a few heron-like feathers 
on upper breast which were tinged grey. The outside of thighs were slatey 
blue. The under tail coverts, axillaries, etc., were quite white. 

The wings and upper tail coverts slatey blue in colour. Mantle darkish 
slate. Colour of beak, legs, and feet blue black. 

G. H. EVANS, F.L.S., Majok. 
Rangoon, Wth July 1904. 



No. XII— THE ASIATIC TWO-HORNED RHINOCEROS 

(RHINOCEROS SU3IATRENSIS.) 

The following measurements of an adult female of this species were kindly 
taken for me by a friend who shot the animal : — 

Length from muzzle to root of tail ... ... ... ... 7'_«)" 



Girth behind shoulder 
Girth of foreavm 
Length of tail ... 
Height at shoulder 
Basal length of skull ■ 
Zygomatic breadth 
Horn anterior ... 
Horn posterior ... 



6'-6" 
2'-0" 
l'-8" 

4'-li" 
l'-10£" 
O'-ll" 
4f" 
1" 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 161 

The skin, as regards distribution of hair, resembled that of an adult buffalo, 
and in its thickest part measured f". The contents of the stomach consisted 
of wild mangoes and other fruit, leaves and twigs of a tree not recognized, and 
also twigs and leaves of a species of bamboo known locally as " Kayen-wa." 

This cow had evidently quite recently dropped a calf, as she was in full milk. 
No calf was with her, though search was made near by, nor were any foot- 
marks of a calf discovered. Tt is highly probable that the calf was killed by a 
tiger a few days after birth, move especially as the old cow was found to be 
severely bitten on one hind leg. The udder had two fairly large teats, each of 
which showed eleven largish openings. 

2,ather more than half a pint of milk was drawn off. It was thin watery of 
a bluish tint, had a very pronounced saline taste, but no markedly distinct 
odour. When discovered she was lying in a rocky pool. On being hit she rolled 
over on her side, but immediately recovered herself and charged, closely fol- 
lowed by a second rhino (bull), who had been up to this time unobserved, as he 
was behind some rocks. Fortunately a very lucky shot, at about six paces, 
killed the wounded animal, and as she fell her consort at once turned tail. 
When charging the wounded one gave peculiar grunts and kept her jaws open 
as though with every intention of biting. The people about the hills state that 
rhinos do bite. 

G. H. EVANS, F.L.S., Major. 

Kangoon, 10th July 1904. 



No. XIII.— LATE STAY OF SNIPE. 

In No. IV of Volume XV I read some notes on the above subject. I am 
inclined to the opinion expressed by Mr, Aitken, viz., that there are places 
where seclusion and good fare tempt a few birds to defer their migration. 

In Lower Burma the snipe season may be said to be September and October, 
i.e., we find the first snipe in about the middle of August and they are very 
scarce towards the end of October. Nevertheless, some snipe, after migrating 
temporarily somewhere or other, .return to certain grounds in Lower Burma 
where good bag$ may be made in January and February, and I have on one 
or two occasions shot 10 to 15 couple early in March. ■ 

A large number of birds come to these particular grounds in some seasons, 
at others not so many. They evidently come more or less all together, as the 
number does not increase and a successful weekly visit means so many birds les? 
for the next shoot. I have frequently seen a few (perhaps two or three couple 
of birds) on the edge of the Myitkyo swamp as late as the middle of April. 

In Upper Burma they may also be found very late on certain grounds ; for 
instance, last year in Kyaukse district there were any number of snipe on a 
ground where some fields were being irrigated from a tank. Unfortunately 
no snipe cartridges were at hand, so they were not molested, but with straight 
shooting a bag of twenty couple might have been made. This was on the 
lGth, 17th and 18th April. In this district there are certain very late grounds, 
21 



162 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

that is, if visited in January a bag of 10 to 12 couple is as much as one can 
make by hard tramping and moderately straight shooting, whereas late in 
February or first week in March 50 couple or more may, with straight shooting, 
be got. The latest date I have recorded shooting a snipe is in the Myittha 
valley on the 12th May 1890, when I obtained 5 having seen perhaps a dozen — 
much higher up than where Captain Lane found them. 

It would be interesting to know whether the snipe were fan or pintails, I 
am inclined to the opinion that the very late birds here are nearly always the 
latter. I observe Oates, in his Manual of the Game Birds of India, notes in 
Volume II, page 457, that they may very occasionally be met with in June. 
I have little doubt that in Burma certainly a few may be met with as late 
as this, and I would go as far as to say that I think there may be a few snipe 
who spend the year here in different suitable localities. 

I fancy the Upper Ohindwin district is the most likely district in which 
to find snipe staying very late. 

These late snipe are, in my opinion, from a gastronomic point, not very good, 
being rather muddy and dry to the taste. 

G. H. EVANS, F L.S., Majok. 

Rangoon, 1627t July 1904. 



No. XIV —THE ANCESTRY OF THE HORSE. 

With reference to the interesting letter, signed R. L., extracted from the 
Field, on the above subject, which appeared in this Journal, page 70o, Vol. XV., 
I have been in some doubt as to what are his conclusions on the evidence 
produced. 

At the time that Equus sivalensis flourished, we must suppose that the Sivaliks 
were not connected by land with Kattiawar and Peninsular India, or ever had 
been, while the present home of Equus prejeivalki was probably under the sea. 
The existing genus Equus is characteristic of (though, of course, not confined to) 
the desert sub-region of the Palearctic region, i.e., the comparatively narrow long 
strip of land reaching from Morocco to the frontier of Manchuria. Now, apart 
from its shape, it is, from the geologically recent origin of this land, hardly 
credible that a genus so isolated and therefore ancient as Equus could have orig- 
inated there. 

We must, therefore, suppose that the surviving species retreated therefrom 
one or other of the surrounding regions before the advance of man and other 
enemies, being so constituted that they could longest maintain their independ- 
ence and existence in open steppe-like country. 

The question is from which of the surrounding regions did they retreat. The 
historical evidence collected by Victor Helm in the " Wanderings of Plants and 
Animals" goes to show very strongly that the horse was not a European animal , 
and I think, if we remember, that at the time the Sivalik deposits were forming, 
the Thibetan plateau was probably a comparatively low-lying upland ; we shall 
find this latter region the most likely original home of the horse. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 163 

I am not sufficiently an anatomist to know whether sivalensls can be regarded 
as a direct ancestor or only a collateral of the existing Mongolian horse ; but I 
would say in passing that the rudimentary presence of face glands in Asiatic horses 
as compared with their entire absence in the more highly domesticated horses of 
Europe (by domesticated, I mean more highly modified by the breeder's science), 
is no evidence whatever that they are descended from distinct wild species. 

As to the Kattiawar ponies, it is now generally admitted that the Gujars were 
one of those tribes of " Scythians " who invaded India between the death of 
Asoka and Mahmud of Ghazni, and there is little doubt that the Kathis were of 
similar origin and brought their Mongolian ponies with them, the breed of 
which they have jealously preserved ever since. 

L. C. H. YOUNG. 
Bombay, August 1904. 



No. XV.— BIRDS OBSERVED IN THE NILGIRIS AND WYNAAD. 
Having now had the opportunity of overhauling a part of my collection of 
skins, I send thesa rough and unscientific notes (in the order in which 
I have gone through my specimens) on a few birds observed in the Nilgiris and 
Wynaad during a stay of 18 months in those parts. Some few of them and 
their eggs I was able fortunately to collect. Should these notes prove of any 
interest to members I shall be glad to continue them, but as they are likely to 
be very imperfect I should be glad of any aid that could be given me by any 
momber who takes an interest in the birds of those districts. I start with Striges 
and Accipitres, having but just looked over these. 

Order— STRIGES. 
Ketupa zeylonensis. — The Brown Fish Owl. 
Blanford, No. 1164. 
This was common on the Nilgiris and even more so in the Wynaad. 
Huhua nepalensis. — The Forest Eagle Owl. 
Blanford, No. 1170. 
I twice came across this fine owl in the "Wynaad. I do not know if the 
cry of this bird be that of the " Devil bird, " but my next-door neighbour, a 
Ceylon planter, called my attention one night to a most eerie cry (or series of 
yells) which he said was made by the Devil bird, and having seen a pair of 
these owls near the garden a day previously I concluded it might be their 
call (?) 

Scops bakkam^ena.— The Collared Scops Owl. 
Blanford, No. 1178. 
The species of Scops that I came across in the Nilgiris and Wynaad I con- 
clude was this ; it was very common in the latter district, but I did not unfortu- 
nately collect it. 

Athene brama. — The Spotted Owlet. 
Blanford, No. 1180. 
I fear I overlooked this very common bird. 



1(54 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Glaucidium radiatum. — The Jungle Owlet. 
Blanford, No. 1184. 
I have seen this bird as high as 5,000 feet elevation in a shola near the 
Terramia Tea Estate, but I do not think it is common. 

Order— ACOIPITRES. 
Family — Vulturidce. 
Otogyps calvus. — 'The Black Vulture. 
Blanford, No. 1191. 
Not uncommon in either district ; it breeds, I think, chiefly on precipices in this 
part of India. I saw a nest on some rocks near the Craigmore toll gate, 
Ooty. 

Gyps indicus. — The Indian Long-billed Vulture. 
Blanford, No. 1194. 
This bird perhaps occurs, but I did not observe it. 

Pseudogyps bengalensis. — The Indian White-backed Vulture. 

Blandford, No. 1196. 
This is, I think, the most common vulture, though these birds prefer to 
patronize the plains rather than the hills, and are nowhere really plentiful at 
the higher elevations. 

Neophron ginginianus. — The White Scavenger Vulture. 

Blanford, No. 1197. 

This is a very common bird round Badaga and other villages. Nilgiris 

Kotagiri has a large colony round the filthy " Kota " village, in the centre of 

that pretty little station, though where they bred I;was unable to discover. 

It is not quite so common in S. Wynaad. 

Family — Falconidm. 
Sub-Family — Falconince. 

Hieraetus pennatus. — The Booted Eagle. 
Blanford, No. 1208. 
I believe both this and H.fasciatus are not uncommon on the Nilgiris, but my 
stay there was too limited for me to speak with certainty : perhaps, however, 
some member will kindly correct me if I be wrong. I have heard sportsmen 
speak of both. 

Lophotriorchis kieneri —The Rufous-bellied Hawk-eagle, 
Blanford, No. 1209. 
I have a specimen of what I believe to be this bird shot in the Wynaad. 
Ictinaetus mala yensis.— The Black Eagle. 
Blanford, No. 1210. 
This very handsome eagle is a fairly common bird on the Nilgiris. I was told 
it bred on precipices (the Gunjara precipices) somewhere near Kil Kotagiri in 
company with many other hawks. For this, as for all the larger hawks and 
eagles, I believe the Nilgiri Game Association offers a reward, as they are said to 
be most destructive to small game. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 165 

Spizaetus cirrhatus.— The Crested Hawk Eagle. 
Blanford, No. 1211. 
Observed in both districts. 

Spilornis chef.la. — The Crested Serpent Eagle. 
Blanford, No. 1217. 
I cannot recollect having seen this bird on the Nilgiris. I probably over- 
looked it ; it was, however, not uncommon in the heavy forests of the S. 
Wynaad. 

Haliastur indus. — The Brahminy Kite. 
Blanford, No. 1228. 
This is not very abundant on " the hills " : still it is far from uncommon. 
Milvus govinda — The Common Pariah Kite. 
Blanford, No. 1229. 
Common round stations, — not so much so on the tea and coffee estates out 
in the district. 

Elanus c.eruleus — The Black-winged Kite. 
Blanford, No. 1232. 
I saw a pair of these birds hawking, at Poda Padi, at the foot of the S. 
Wynaad hills. I do not know if it occurs at the higher elevations. 
Circus macrurus — The Pale Harrier. 
Blanford, No, 1233. 
I saw a few of these birds near the Terramia Tea Estate during the cold 
weather, but I think Harriers generally are rather uncommon at the higher 
(5,000 ft. to 5,600 ft.) elevations. 

Circus melanoleucus — The Pied Harrier. 
Blanford, No. 1236. 
Same remarks apply as to C. macrurus : if anything it may be met with a 
little more frequently, or perhaps its more boldly marked plumage catches the 
eye quicker (?) 

Circus ^eruginosus — The Marsh Harrier. 
Blanford, No. 1237. 
I saw an old bird of this species at the edge of a small swamp near the 
Terramia garden. 

Astur badius. — The Shikra. 
Blanford, No. 1244. 
Very common in both the Wynaad and Nilgiris. 

Lophospizias trivirgatus. — The Crested Goshawk. 
Blanford, No. 1246. 
I saw a few specimens of this bird in the Wynaad. I do not think it can be 
common. 

Accipter nisus — The Sparrow Hawk. 
Blanford, No. 1247. 
I did not personally observe it, but think it may likely occur in the Nilgiris 
and possibly breed ? 



166 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Peenis cristate— The Crested Honey Buzzard. 
Blanford, No. 1249. 
I collected two specimens of this bird and saw a few others. 
Falco severus.— The Indian Hobby. 
Blanford, No. 1261. 
I neither saw nor shot this bird in the Nilgiris myself, but was told it bred in 
that seeming paradise for eagles and hawks, the Gunjarra precipices. 
Tinnunculus alaudaeius. — The Kestrel. 
Blanford, No. 1265. 
The Kestrel was, I think, the commonest hawk on the Nilgiris and bred freely 
on mostly inaccessible rocks. I, however, was fortunate enough to obtain a nest 
containing 4 eggs in March 1903. 

Tanaehat P. O., A. M. PRIMROSE. 

Assam, July 1904. 



No. XVI.— CASSIA OCCIDENTALS. 

With reference to Mr. Fischer's remark in the last issue on Cassia occidentalis, 
I have also found in this district that the plant has only six perfect stamens. 

The remark in Hooker about the petals must be a clerical error since it is the 
sepals which are lilac and conspicuously veined. 

As regards the stamens, there appears to be a considerable variety. Roxburgh, 
II, 343, gives only eight stamens, of which only four would appear to be fertile. 

"The Flora of Bombay" (Cooke) and " Bengal Plants " (Prain) both, 
however, agree with Hooker. 

Anantapue, Madeas Presidency, B. H. BARLOW-POOLE, I.F.S. 

1st August 1904. 



No. XVII.— NOTES ON THE NESTING OF SOME BIRDS IN THE 
UPPER CHINDWIN DISTRICT, BURMA. 

No. 553.— THE SIAMESE MYNA i.E. GRANDIS) AND No. 554.— THE COLLARED MfNA 

(M. ALBICINCTUSy 



The distribution of these two mynas in Burma seems to be very well defined, 
both being common in the Shan States, again appearing in the Bhamo District, 
and from there across into the Myitkyina and Upper Chindwin Districts. 
They are essentially birds of a damp climate, preferring fairly open country 
with large expanses of " Kine " or Elephant grass. In the Upper Chindwin, 
M. grandis appears as low down as Mingin, and gets commoner the higher one 
goes up the river ; whilst sE. albicinctus does not appear until about 40 
miles above Kindat, from there it is quite as plentiful as Al. grandis. 

Both seem to prefer nesting in colonies of their own species or along with 
other mynas of different kinds ; and any old tree, and especially if it be a 
Ficus of sorts, will have all the available holes filled up with nests of these two 
mynas. This peculiarity of birds nesting together was very marked in a tree 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 167 

at Kindat, in which the following birds were found nesting in the month of 
May : the Siamese myna, coirmon house-myna, white-winged myna, common 
pied-myna, red turtle-dove, Burmese red-vented bul-bul and king-crow ; and 
a month before from the same tree a friend of mine took eggs of the " Blue- 
Jay " and Palaomis rosa ; another tree at Thamanthi was inhabited by the 
Siamese, collared and grey-headed mynas and one nest of the lineated barbet. 
The holes taken up by the first three all seemed to have been made by barbets 
or wood-peckers ; one huge decayed branch which was unsafe to climb was full 
of mynas' nests, the birds going in and out like pigeons from a dovecote. 

The strangest nesting site of JE. grandis and albieinctus was finding their nests 
in holes along the banks of the river. The Chindwin above Kindat flows through 
fairly level country and has steep sandy banks forming ideal nesting places for 
sand-martins and the blue-tailed bee-eater which were nesting in thousands. 
While going up the river by launch we were surprised to see mynas in numbers 
flying in and out of holes in one bank. On getting out our glasses we found them 
to be of the above two kinds. This was in the latter half of May and was 
rather late, as the majority had hatched out or had hard-set eggs. A fortnight 
or so earlier one could have got eggs by the hat-full, as they were nesting in 
colonies after the manner of bee-eaters. Whether the holes were originally 
made by other birds and then enlarged by the mynas or dug out entirely 
by them would be hard to say, as in many cases the mynas were nesting in the 
same colony as the bee-eaters, but others I think must have been made solely 
by the mynas, as they ran from only one foot to two or three feet in depth. Both 
kinds of mynas were found nesting together, but generally managed to keep 
apart. All the nests were of the usual myna type— made of grass, rags, 
feathers, etc. The extraordinary thing about the nests was, however, that every 
nest we pulled out had pieces of snake skin, we must have examined some 
dozen nests or more and found it the rule without exception, so that it was not 
the weird fancy of a few birds, but the fashion or protective instinct of all. 

The eggs are of the regular myna blue colour, the Siamese mynas as a rule 
laying rather long pointed eggs, and the Collared mynas slightly smaller and 
rounder ones, JE. grandis laying in clutches of three to four, rarely two, and 
JE. albieinctus generally four and very rarely five. 

We also found Jb. grandis nesting in the roofs of houses and in Hpongi- 
choungs. 

No. 1503.— THE RIVER TERN (& SEEN A) ; No. 1425.— THE LARGE SWALLOW. PLOVER 
(<?. ORIENTALIS); No. 1427.— THE SMALL SWALLOW-PLOVER «?. LACTEA). 



On the 30th May I went out to try and get a good supply of Siamese and 
Collared mynas' eggs, so dropped down river by country boat. Shortly after 
starting I saw a lot of Terns and Swallow- Plovers hovering over a sand-bank, 
and thinking that they might still be breeding I landed and extended my three 
men, and sure enough we found many nests of S. seena and G. lactea ; but 
the disappointing thing was that the birds seemed quite satisfied with one or two 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV L 

eggs, and not laying up to the authorised scale of three and four. Nearly all the 
eggs were hard-set, a large number of young birds were also about. I was for- 
tunate finding four nests of the Large Swallow-Plover (G. orientalis). These again 
were quite content with one and two eggs, as two of the nests contained two in- 
cubated eggs each and the other two one each, also incubated. This last bird's 
eggs were very difficult to find, as they were laid on grassy mounds on the sand 
bank, whilst the Terns and Lesser Swallow-Plovers laid out on the bare sand. It 
was very interesting watching the strange antics the two kinds of swallow-plovers 
went through to entice one away from their eggs or young, while the Terns 
kept shrieking and swooping at our heads. We only took a few eggs of the 
first two kinds, but might as well have taken the lot, as two days after the river 
rose considerably, submerging all the sand-banks. It seems as if these birds go 
on nesting as long as they possibly can, as a friend of mine kindly got me eggs 
of <S, seena and G. lactea in March last from sand-banks in the Upper 
Chindwin. 

No. 22.—THE HOODED RACKED-TAILED MAGPIE [C. CUCULLATA) : BubmesE 

NAME— NA-PA-JU. 

This handsome little Magpie is well distributed over the dry zone of Upper 
Burma, being found in the Yamethin and Meiktila Districts and across into 
the Lower Chindwin and as far, up as Mingin in the Upper Chindwin. 

It seems to be very partial to what is known in Burma as " Themin jungle," 
a fairly open thorny scrub-jungle. 

I was unfortunately laid up by an accident in April last and was unable to go 
out after the nests of this magpie. It was very aggravating, as I had marked 
down a tract of jungle where it seemed very fairly common. However, the 
Deputy Commissioner kindly came to my help promising to try and get some 
eggs brought in, so I gave him a skin of " Na-pa-ju," asking him to order nests 
to be brought in complete with branches and eggs. The necessary instructions 
were given, and resulted in two nests, with branches complete and some eggs, 
being brought in early last May. Both nests were exactly similar in make 
and description and were built in a thorny tree, and would, I imagine, be rather 
difficult to find, as they were very flimsilj, but neatly, put together, light being 
seen through in all directions. The nests consist of two distinct parts, first a 
neat saucer 'Shaped structure of " wait-a-bit " thorns, very like the miniature 
inverted dome or upper covering to the nest of the Common Magpie (P. 
rusticci), inside this was placed a small well-made nest of grass stems and 
creepers, the thorns coming up well over the aides of the nest, the whole 
idea of nest giving one the impression that the bird feared enemies from below 
and not from above. The dimensions of nests were — outer diameter of thorny 
structure about six to seven inches and about five inches deep, of nest proper 
diameter about three inches by one and a half inches deep. 

Eggs measure about '95 X '1 , and are coloured very like ZJ, frontalis, a grey- 
stone ground colour with olive spots, some having a distinct zone. There can be 
no doubt as to the identity of the eggs, as C. cucullata is the only bird in the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 1G9 

dry zone whose eggs remain unidentified. I have shewn both nests and eggs to 
K. 0. Macdonald, describing locality and date, so I hope he will be fortunate 
enough next year to get a good series of egg^, as the bird is fairly common in 
certain tracts. 

Monowa, Burma, H. H. HARRINGTON, Captain. 

9th August 1904. 



No. XVIII.— NOTES ON BURMESE REPTILES. 
Dryophis mycterizans. 

In a paper on Burmese Snakes. Vol. XIII, page 615, Captain Wall and 1 
mentioned a specimen containing three apparently mature young. I killed a 
female on 4th May containing five young, without trace of an egg envelope. 

Dryophis prasinus. 

A specimen killed in jungle by a Burman, 5th June, contained nine (9) eggs. 

This snake in the adult stage is described in Boulenger's Reptilia : — 
' Fauna British India' — Reptilia and Batrachia, as ferocious, while Dryophis 
mycterizans is said to be a very gentle snake. My experience is that both 
are gentle enough when left alone, but when irritated Dryophis mycterizans 
often loses his temper badly, and with open jaws strikes violently, raising the 
fore part of the body well off the ground in order to do so, while I have 
rarely found prasinus at all vicious, even when subjected to considerable 
irritation. 

Lycodon fasciatus. 
In Volume XIII, page 372, Captain Wall and I described two specimens of 
this apparently rare snake. I have been fortunate in obtaining a third from a 
friend who killed it at Maymyo, 3,000'. 
Length 2'-7" 
Tail 6£" 

Anterior chin shields equal to posterior. 
Ventrals 203. 
Subcaudals 86. 
Colour as already described ; there are 28 reddish yellow bands on body and 
14 on the tail. 

SlMOTES ALBOCINCTUS. 

This is the first specimen I have received or seen in Burma. It was killed 
on the 6th April 1902 at Sadon, Kachin Hills, 4,500'. 
Length 2'-10". 
Tail 6". 

The internasal suture almost equals the prefrontal. 
Loreal shield united with the praefrontal. 
Ventrals 202. 
Subcaudals 58. 

There are in all 23 light, black-edged bands involving two scales, the 
intervals eight scales. 
22 



170 JOURNAL, BOHBAt NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI' 

DlPSADOMORPHUS CYANEA. 

This snake I consider is a very rare one in Burma, On the 1st instant I 
was fortunate in receiving a very fine female ; she was killed in a garden at 
Kokine some three miles from town. 

Rostral just visible from above. 

Loreal depth slightly less than length. 

Temporals 2 + 4 R, 2 + 3 L. 

Ventrals 247. 

Subcaudals 124. 

Length 4'-9" ; tail, which was whip-like, 14". 
Colour above, a uniform dark, grass green ; under jaws bluish white 
turning to slight yellow at fifth ventral, after which the colour was 
more pronounced. The specimen was rather mutilated about the 
body. I found on opening up a wound into the abdominal cavity two 
eggs uninjured, two damaged. There may have been others which were 
destroyed. 

The eggs measured 1*25" x '62". There was no trace of an embryo ; 
the contents consisted of a thick creamy material of a pale yellow 
colour. 

The food, etc., of Chrysopelea ornata. 
In Boulenger's Reptilia and Batrachia, page 372, it is stated that "it feeds 
almost exclusively on Geckos." I believe that Geckos do constitute a main 
feature in their bill of fare. It is clear, however, that they are not averse to 
an occasional change. On the 8th July 1900 Captain Wall and I received a 
specimen which contained a bat, Taphozons longimanus. Two specimens since 
sent to me each contained a bat, unfortunately too far digested for easy 
recognition. It is notable that these two specimens were killed about houses, 
that is on creepers over the trellis work of porches, where there is little 
doubt they found bats an easy prey. Another specimen I caught while it 
was lying on a bamboo contained a flying lizard, which I made out to be 
Draco tazniopterus. 

With regard to the breeding of this snake. In a paper on Burmese Snakes, 
Vol. XIII, page 614, Captain Wall and I mentioned a specimen with two 
enlarged ovarian follicles received on 27th May 1900 ; again in same paper a 
specimen received on 26th June 1900 containing 9 eggs (5 in one ovary, 4 in the 
other). 

Since this, specimens have been received by me ; one female on 3rd June 
1904 containing 11 eggs (7 in one ovary, 4 in the other) : a brood of young 
(6) found by a Mali on 14th June which measured from 4|" to 6": in August 
two young specimens, from size perhaps 6 weeks old. One measured 13^", 
tail 2|"; the other 14", tail 3|". In Vol. XIII, page 345, Captain Wall 
and I described the colour of a young specimen which differs from that of 
the adult, and I have observed that all the young specimens are as we then 
described. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 171 

Naia sputatrix. 
One specimen, Southern Shan States — 

Scales across hood ... .., ... ... ... 21 

Scales midbody ... ... .. -. ... 17 

Ventrals ... ... ... ... ... ... 170 

Subcaudals 27, first 6 single. 

Length ... ... ... ... ... ••• 56" 

Tail (docked) 6" 

Colour a uniform deepish black with no marks: of any description on hood or 
body. One fairly dark ventral band below the neck. 

Ophisaurus gracilis. 
I have on several occasions received specimens of this curious lizard, accom- 
panied by letters of enquiry as to the nature of the peculiar ' snake ' sent. In 
Boulenger's work, page 159, Rangoon is mentioned as a habitat. Though my 
residence here extends over a number of years, I have never seen nor heard of 
a specimen captured here. This might of course easily happen, but that a 
great variety of snakes, insects, etc., find their way to my bungalow. I am 
quite certain of one thing, however, and that is it is an extremely rare reptile 
here. The specimens received and those taken by myself were all at places 
of considerable elevation, i.e., from 2,500' to 5,000'. If I remember rightly, 
Mr. Hampton informed me it is by no means rare about Mogok in the Ruby 
Mines district. 

It may be interesting to note that on the 7th August 1903 a friend living at 
Maymyo 3,000', while engaged in digging out stumps from his garden came 
across two of these lizards at the root of a stump some 15" to 18" underground, 
and while effecting their capture discovered eight eggs. The lizards and eggs 
were sent to me. The latter were of a dirty whitish brown colour tinged 
with red. Measurements varied a trifle, but they were about *8" x '48" and 
contained embryos measuring 2^" in length. 

The specimens were just as described in Boulenger's Reptilia : 'Fauna 
British India' — Reptilia and Batrachia. 

G. H. EVANS.. F.L.S., Major. 
Rangoon, 10th August 1904. 



No. XIX— THE NIDIFICATION OF THE LITTLE BLUE WINGED 
PITTA (PITTA CYANOPTERA) IN UPPER BURMA. 

On the 26th July 1904, while walking home along a path through light 
jungle, I flushed a Pitta close to the path (about 1^ yards). I soon detected a 
nest, so retired and took cover near by. After considerable waiting the bird 
returned, and I was able to recognise it. The nest was situated on a mound 
and only slightly hidden by some blades of long grass. The opening faced the 
path, which I fancy was one only occasionally used by odd persons visiting 
jungle. What struck me was the enormous size of the nest for a bird so 
small ; it consisted of old bamboo and other twigs and a few leaves loosely 



172 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

laid about. The interior was neatly lined with fibre, and the entrance hole 
was just above the ground. There were five eggs, quite fresh. I ran a tape 
lightly over the rough structure, which measured 17" across and 11" from the 
upper part of entrance to back of nest. The entrance measured 3" x 4". 

I took three eggs : they measured as follows : — 
1" x 0-85". . -95" x S". 1" x 0-H5" 

Colour as described in Vol. II, page 28:3, of Hume's ' Nests and Eggs,' 2nd 
edition, Oates. 

G. H. EVANS, F.L.S., Major. 
Eangoon, 10th August 1904. 



No. XX.— VEGETATION IN SIND. 

( Extract from an address entitled " The Province of Sind," by H. M. Bird- 
wood, C.S.I., M.A., LL.D., late President of the Bombay Natural History 

Society, read before the Society of Arts, London, on 23rd April 1903.) 
Within the area watered by the canals all vegetation is luxuriant. Where the 
soil is deep and rich, as it is in most of the alluvial tracts, the cereal crops 
develop a growth unknown on used-up lands elsewhere. At Jacobabad, a body 
of spearmen, riding through a field of "Jowari," the great Indian millet 
(Sorghum vulgare), have been known to effectually screen themselves, horses, 
spears, and all, in the lofty shelter of the cornstalks. In the forest reserves 
near the Fuleli at Miani, the " Babul, " or gum Arabic tree (Acacia arabica), 
and the " Kandi " (Prosopis spicigera), the two commonest forest trees of Sind, 
attain a height and girth beyond anything seen in Guzerat.the garden of India, 
or the Deccan, where the Babul is very much "At Home." In the Collector's 
garden at Larkhana there is a splendid Ailanthus excelsa, excelling in size and 
vigour of stem, branches, and its great pinnate leaves, any of the fine trees 
in the grove so well known to travellers at one of the villages on the road from 
Wattar to Mahableshwar. The "Tali," or Blackwood (D alb gia lati folia), also 
thrives in Upper Sind, but not so luxuriantly as in the neighbourhood of Agra. 
At Shikarpur, the magnificent avenue of " Sirras " trees (Albizzia lebbek)— an 
entirely modern growth of British times— gives a most grateful shelter from 
the hot son of March or April ; nor can I soon forget the plantation of Chinese 
Tallow-trees (Sapium sebiferum) near the little English cemetery at Sehwan, 
below the massive mud fort on the Indus, which, some say, was built by 
Alexander, and some, by Shem, the son of Noah — with what authority, in either 
case, no one can perhaps say. I have grown these shapely trees, which, in 
general contour and size, are comparable to the Birch, on the red soil of 
Malabar Hill in Bombay and on the sandy soil of the University Garden on the 
Esplanade, and successfully ; but they have never displayed there the rich 
sunset-tints, purple and crimson and gold, with which they glorify the 
landscape in the crisp, chilly evenings of the late autumn in Sind. 
Nor will any Sindhi be slow to pay his tribute to the pervading grace 
of the endless self-sown tamarisk thickets of every landscape in Sind of which 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 173 

any stream or pool of water forms a part. In his carefully prepared 
" List of Trees, Shrubs, &c," of the Jerruck division, Mr. G. K. Betham includes 
three species of tamarisk, one of which, the " Asri" (Tamarix articulata) is a 
tree of fair size. In some parts of Sind the tamarisk jungle gives cover to vast 
numbers of wild pig. 

Beyond the reach of the silt-laden waters the dry and hardened ground is 
almost bare, and in such places the physical contrast is most striking between 
the landscapes of Sind and the hilly tracts of some other parts of the Bombay 
Presidency. My recollection of particular plants is not recent, but I have re- 
freshed my memory from a paper I wrote only a few years after I had left 
Sind, and I then noted that where there was any vegetation at all the charac- 
teristic plants, in places beyond the influence of the river and the canals, 
were those of the desert — the " Kirar " or leafless Caper (Capparis aphylla) — 
essentially a lonely plant, but beautiful, with its countless brick-red flowers, — 
the " Pilu " (Salvadora persica) with fleshy leaves, and strings of translucent, 
rounded, glutinous fruit, shining like pearls — and the Parkinsonia aculeata, with 
clear, yellow, crumpled flowers, freckled with brown, and spiny branchlets, 
which once suggested to a great Italian painter his idea of " the Crown of 
Thorns. " Then there is an undergrowth of Camel-thorn ( Alhagi camel orum), 
which, near Kandahar and Herat, yields manna " at flowering time, after the 
spring rains," and is an agreeable food for camels and useful for 
door-tatties in the hot weather ;* and of various plants of the Goose- 
foot tribe (Chenopodiacece), one of which, the Sueda maritima, yields, 
according to Mr. Betham, " an impure carbonate of soda, used in soap- 
making, calico-dyeing and washing," and is also a favourite food of the camel. 
And there is that curious plant, the " Panirio " (Wiihama coagulans) , of the 
potato tribe, whose juice curdles milk into " panir " or cheese. In these arid 
tracts, with such strange herbage, the traveller misses the fresh, bright tints 
which enliven the forests of the Konkan and the western Ghats in the early 
spring of March or in the second spring of the early weeks of June. The 
prevailing tones are sad, secondary, bluish-greens, and the same faint colours 
repeat themselves everywhere on uncultivated lands, and are only rarely relieved 
by the deep, glossy greens of the Salvadora. There is nothing like it in the 
rest of the Presidency, except in the districts nearest Sind. It is to the Flora 
of Africa that the indigenous vegetation of Sind is most closely allied. 



No. XXI.— THE RUSSELL'S VIPER. 

On the 14th February last, whilst encamped in the Dantra district of the 
Mahi Kantha, I killed a Daboia (Vipera russellii) of such an unusually large 
size that perhaps it may be considered worthy of record in our Journal. 

One of my servants, on rising from his midday sleep, noticed the quite fresh 
trail of a large snake so near to the spot where he had been lying that it must 
almost have touched him. On drawing the notice of my butler to the trail 

* Dr. Dietrich Brandis' " Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, " p. 145. 



174 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

which could not be mistaken in the deep soil, the latter followed it across the 
field to an old Umra tree, near my tent, where he discovered the snake lying, 
coiled up, amongst the roots. On hearing him call out " Samp " I rushed out 
with a gun and killed the reptile. On drawing it out and measuring it, it 
turned out to be a Daboia no less than 5'-4|" in length. 

I have killed a good many of these snakes at different times, but this one was 
by far the largest I have ever come across. 

On examining the mango tree under which my man had been sleeping I dis- 
covered a hole in it at the very base of the trunk, for which the snake had 
evidently been making when its path was blocked, for a few days later the 
same man saw another snake — probably the mate — peeping out of the same 
hole. Unfortunately I arrived too late to despatch it, too. 

In the Dantra district the Daboia is known as the " Kh?:d chitra " — " Khad " 
being the G-uzerati for grass and " chitra " may stand (?) for " cheetah, " the 
ordinary term (with " dipdo " — " the spotted one ") in these parts for the pan- 
ther, but of this I am not quite sure. In the Konkani districts of Savant Vidi, 
where a large number of deaths are annually put down to the bite of this 
snake, it is known as the " Gharias." I find the same name is applied here in 
Kashmir to a snake which the natives tell me is very venomous. This cannot, 
I think, also be the Daboia of India, but so far I have not seen a specimen 
although the snake is said to be fairly common. 

L. L. FENTON, Lieut.-Colonel, I.A. 

Kashmir, September 1904. 

The specimen above recorded by Colonel Fenton was undoubtedly a very 
large one, but in this Journal, Vol. VIII (page 565), Mr. F. G-. Brook-Fox 
stated that he had killed two which measured 5'-6" each. The largest 
specimen in our collection was obtained by Mr. J. C. Anderson, at Hurda, C. P. 
and measured 5'-2". 

According to the standard authority, Fauna of British India Reptiles, by G. A 
Boulenger, the Daboia (Vipera russellii) is found in Kashmir up to 6,000 feet. 

EDITOR. 



No. XXII— A COBRA FEEDING ON EGGS. 

A cobra attacked, at 10 a.m. the other day, the nest of a Guinea-fowl sitting 
in my compound, and as none of the servants would kill it my wife sent for me. 
I arrived about 40 minutes afterwards, and found the cobra coiled up within 24 
inches of the nest and the Guinea-fowl still sitting. I shot the cobra and press- 
ed two eggs out of the dead body, one of these eggs hatching. The curious 
thing was that the Guinea-fowl wasstil! sitting on her nest within a couple 
of feet of the cobra after it had taken two eggs and that one of the eggs 
should have hatched after having been inside the snake for from 30 to 40 
minutes. 

C. P. GEORGE, 

Secundekabad, \Wi September 1904. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 175 

No. XXIII.— BEE-CULTURE IN INDIA. 

With reference to Mr. Phipson's remarks, at the last meeting of the Society, 
on the subject of Bee culture in India, the following notes may be of interest. 
There are in India, so far as is known, only three species of the true honey- 
bee (Apis), viz., A. dorsata, A. indica, and A. florea. A number of other 
forms have been described, but these all appear to be varieties of the 
above three species. A. indica is closely allied to A. mellijica, the European 
honey-bee, and only differs slightly in colour and size, being smaller and 
darker. 

A. dorsata is a large and very fierce species, frequently dangerous in the 
jungle when irritated, and I am not aware that attempts have ever been made 
to domesticate it. Mr. David Hooper, in a recent number of the "Agricultural 
Ledger," gives the following reasons against any attempt to cultivate this 
species as a hive bee : — 

" (1) The bee builds naturally in the open. 

" (2) It builds normally only one comb, so that the honey cannot be 
removed without removing the brood also. 

" (3) Although the comb is very large, it is not so great in cubic capacity as 
the combs built by A. mellijica, which is readily cultivated, and the habits of 
which are well understood. 

'• (4) It is only found in a tropical climate." 

The first three seem to me to be valid reasons enough ; the last is not 
strictly correct, as A. dorsata is common at Simla, where the winter is very 
severe, and probably also in other parts of the Himalayas. 

A. indica is more or less domesticated and cultivated in Assam, most 
districts of the Himalayas, the Kuram Valley, and Kashmir. Its habits are 
similar to those of the European A. mellijica. Experiments have been made, 
probably with this species, in some of the Bombay hill stations, but, according 
to Mr. Hooper, with no very signal success. 

A. Jlorea is a small species ; the comb is usually built on a small tree or bush 
(at Deesa I nearly always saw them in thorny bushes) ; this species is common 
throughout India, but would scarcely repay domestication, and the reasons 
against its cultivation would appear to be the same as those against that of A. 
dorsata. 

I scarcely understand Mr. Phipson's remark about " non-migratory " 
species ; I have never heard that any species of bee are migratory. The Apis 
nigrocinctus mentioned by him is A. indica under another name. 

Besides the above, several species of Melipona (Trigona) produce honey 
ani wax in commercial quantities, but as the species of this genus are very 
small, no attempt has, I believe, been made to domesticate them. They are 
stingless, or, at any rate, have no appreciable sting. 

Apiculture is a profitable business if carried out on a sufficiently large scale 
by one who really understands it. A few years ago I came across a man 
whose brother was engaged in it exclusively in one of the Australian colonies 



176 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

and who was doing very well. He told me the number of hives kept by his 
brother, and the quantities of honey and wax exported by him, and they 
appeared to be enormous, so he must have been working on a very large 
scale. I gathered that the Australian Government gave some sort of bounty 
on the amount exported. 

I have an idea that an attempt was made some time ago to introduce A. 
mellifica into the Nilgiris, but I do not know with what success. 1 see no 
reason why bee-keeping should not succeed in India, and I should think that 
there are possibilities in front of it. The greater part of the wax exported 
from India is at present obtained from wild bees. 

C. G. NURSE, Major, 
Bombay, October 1901. 113th Infantry. 



Bombay, 2Uh October 1904. 

No. XXIV.— ASSAM BIRDS. 
I should be glad to know if Gecinus striolatus, the Lesser Indian Green Wood- 
pecker, is at all a common bird in Assam. It seems to be here as my collector 
has already brought in two males, this, after my having shown him specimens 
of the bird from S. India, he declares it is very common, he also tells me, on 
having seen specimens of Megalcena marshallorum The Great Indian Barbet 
and Cyarops franklini , that both birds are procurable here in February, but I 
very much doubt this. I may mention that both the Black Partridge and the 
Bengal Floriken are common birds here. I am told that a former manager used 
not unfrequently to shoot as many as four and six of the latter in a morning 
and this without much trouble. 

A. M. PRIMROSE. 
Mornai Tea Estate, Tamarhat P. 0., 
Gauripor, Assam, 
October 1904. 

No. XXV.— BREEDING SEASONS OF BIG GAME. 
If I remember rightly—for I am writing under circumstances that 
prevent my refreshing my memory — I alluded on one occasion in the Society's 
Journal to the limited field for original observations by naturalists amongst the 
larger, compared with the smaller, mammals, in view of the fact that the former 
attracted so much more attention both by their size and by the fact that many 
of them were closely studied by sportsmen. Although this is perfectly true 
from a comparative point of view, there is a great deal that we have yet to 
barn regarding the habits and life-history of big game, more especially in 
connection with their breeding seasons. I therefore take the opportunity of 
directing the attention of our members to the following important note that 
appeared over the well-known initials " R. L." in the Field of 3rd Septem- 
ber 1904. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 177 

" In the course of his Presidential Address to the zoological section at the 
recent Cambridge meeting of the British Association, Mr. Bateaon took occasion 
to emphasize the supreme importance of a thorough investigation of all the 
phenomena connected with the breeding of animals as affording the chief clue 
which is likely to explain the complex problems of heredity and evolution. He 
compared, indeed, the breeding-pen in its importance to zoology to the test-tube 
in chemistry, and remarked that every variation from type is due to a patho- 
logical peculiarity. Although these remarks referred in the main to the case 
of domesticated animals, or of wild animals kept in captivity, it is manifest that, 
from the standpoint of the evolutionist, it is of scarcely less importance that we 
should possess accurate and trustworthy information with regard to the varia- 
tion produced in the breeding seasons of wild animals by climate, station, and 
environment generally. For it is quite evident that if a species breeds in one 
district at a certain time of the year, and some months earlier or later in a 
second district, we have, ipso facto, a pronounced element in favour of variation 
in its offspring, and thus a valid cause for the eventual production of a new 
variety or species. As a well-known investigator of this subject has recently 
pointed out to me, our knowledge of the breeding seasons of big game in general 
is in an exceedingly unsatisfactory and crude condition ; so imperfect, indeed, 
as to be practically useless for the purposes of exact study. Take, for instance, 
such well-known works as Blanford's Mammals of India and the Great and 
Small Game of Africa, published by Rowland Ward, and edited by Mr. Bryden, 
and the unsatisfactory state of our information on this subject will be at once 
apparent. Jn the former work, for instance, we find the oft-repeated statement 
that the breeding time of a particular species is " about " such and such a month ; 
while in the case of such a well-known animal as the Himalayan serow we find 
the statement that whereas, according to Hodgson, a single young one is born 
in September or October, Adams gives the spring as the time when the fawns 
come into the world. Such statements (though no fault, be it observed, on the 
part of the author of the invaluable works in question) are, of course, abso- 
lutely useless for any generalisations with regard to the breeding seasons of 
groups of animals. Take, again, the case of the sambar deer, in which, as stated 
in Mr. Blanford's volume, doubt still prevails with regard to the dates of the 
breeding season and of the shedding of the antlers, both of which are evidently 
correlated. In peninsular India, for instance, the stags are said to rut in 
October and November, but in the Himalayas not till the spring, whereas the 
antlers are reported to be usually dropped in March in the one area and in 
April in the other. Obviously there is something wrong in this. In addition 
there is the well ascertained fact that some stags do not shed their antlers at 
the usual time, while some are stated to retain them for more than one season. 
The probability would seem to be that in the plains the sambar has two breed- 
ing seasons, and that stags born at one season shed their antlers and breed at 
a different time of year from those which are produced at the opposite season. 
All this requires, however, to be ascertained by careful and accurate observa- 
23 



178 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

tion on animals in the wild state, for those kept in a state of captivity cannot 
be relied upon to afford trustworthy data on such a matter. 

" As regards the large game of Africa, our information with regard to their 
seasons of breeding is much more defective than is the case with those of India; 
and in the work on African big game already cited, which, be it noted, has been 
written almost entirely by sportsmen practically acquainted with the animals they 
describe in their native haunts, it is really surpsising how very little definite 
information^ supplied on the subject in question. In the case of some species 
nothing at all is said, while in that of well-known forms with a wide geographi- 
cal range, such as the kudu, the date of the breeding season is given in one or, 
perhaps, two districts. Such information is practically valueless in the case of 
an antelope whose range extends from Cape Colony in the south to Somaliland 
on the east and to Angola on the west coast ; and what we want to know are 
the dates of the breeding season in these widely-sundered areas as well as in 
the intervening districts. As to the period of gestation in the big game animals 
of Africa, little or nothing seems to have been recorded. Sportsmen are unlikely 
to be able to supply the information required with regard to the latter subject, 
which will probably have to be obtained from animals kept in captivity. They 
have, however, unique opportunities for acquiring trustworthy data with regard 
to the breeding seasons of the various species that may come under their notice, 
and when the interest and importance attaching to information of this nature 
become generally known, I have strong hopes that British sportsmen will not 
be behindhand in endeavouring to supply what is vanted in this matter. The 
columns of the Field will, I feel sure, be always open to letters containing 
definite and exact information on this subject, while it is probable that lists of 
the dates of the breeding seasons of a number of species would be accepted for 
publication by the editors of some of our zoological journals. 

" For further information with regard to the periods of gestation of the larger 
herbivorous mammals we must look, at all events in the main, to the officials of 
zoological gardens and menageries, and, above all, to the owners of private 
collections in parks both in this country and in Africa, where the animals live 
under conditions more like those of their native homes than is the case in 
ordinary menageries. " 

This so ably points out the directions in which our investigations should 
be pursued and the weak points in our knowledge of the life-history of big 
game that I feel there is little that I need add to the appeal. Many of our 
members have almost unique opportunities of gathering the information 
required, and I would emphasize the point that it is only by the accumulation 
of authentic notes from all parts of the country that reliable conclusions can 
be arrived at. As the protection of game has lately engaged the attention of 
the Government of India with a view to legislation appointing close seasons, 
further information regarding breeding seasons will afford useful data for the 
effective carrying out of this object, which every sportsman must have at heart. 

There is often a certain reluctance amongst many of those who can collect 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 179 

and supply the information to take the trouble to put their observations into 
proper shape for publication, but I would urge all those who may be deterred 
by this or other reasons to let us have any " definite and exact information on 
this subject, " however rough it may appear, for even if it is not in the form of 
a note for publication by itself, it will, however meagre, so long as it is definite 
and exact, help towards the accumulation of records from which most valuable 
information can be deducted when all are tabulated and compared. 

E. COMBER, FZ.S. 
Burbington, Somerset, 12th September 1904. 



No. XXVI.— ALBINISM IN A SHRIKE. 

A few days ago Mr. P. F. Campbell, Assistant Manager in the Holta Tea Com- 
pany, Kangra Valley, told me he had seen a pure white Shrike on the plantation 
which he had left a man to mark while he returned for his gun.. He then went 
after it and shot it. The bird, which I skinned and preserved, is pure white, 
with the exception of a faint irroration of grey on the outer webs of the 
posterior primary wing feathers and of the two outer tail feathers on the right 
side, also both webs of the secondary and tertiary wing feathers, the latter 
being tipped with very faint rufous. The irides were dark brown and the bill 
and legs flesh colour. The rictal bristles, of which there are 7 on one side and 
6 on the other, are strongly developed and white. The following are measure- 
ments taken from the skin: — Length 9*2", tail 4'5"; wing 3'5"; tarsus 1*1" ; 
bill from gape '9". 

Owing to there being no markings by which to distinguish this specimen, I 
have concluded that it is an albinism of Lanius tephronotus, a common bird here — 
in fact the only Shrike which I have seen within a couple of miles radius. It 
is evidently a young bird, as many of the feathers of the back and rump are 
not completely developed. The preserved skin is in the possession of Mr. 
Campbell, who, I have no doubt, would send it to the Society for examination 
if requested to do so, 

G. C. DUDGEON, F.E.S. 

Palampur, Punjab, 20th September 1904. 



180 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON THURSDAY, THE 16th JUNE 1904. 

A meeting of the members took place at the Society's Rooms, on Thursday, 
16th June 1904, Mr. James MacDonald presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The election of the following new members since the last meeting was 
duly announced : — 

Mr. 0. E. Allen, I.P.S. (Tharrawaddy, Lower Burma) ; Mr. F. Walter 
(Rangoon) ; Lieut. H. S. Eliot, R.A. (Quetta) ; Mr. C. F. Grant, I.C.S. (Ran- 
goon) ; Mr. W. H. B, Salmon (Bolarum) ; Mr. J. R. Huggins (Koraput) ; 
Mr. R. EI. Ellis, I.C.S. (Chittor, N. Arcot) ; Mr. H. Fearon (Ooconada) ; Lieut. 
R. J. B. Yates (Jubbulpore) ; Lieut. G. H. E. Twemlow (Wellington) ; Capt. 
E. E. Beddek (Cannanore) ; Capt. G Clarke (Cannanore) ; Mr. N. A. Worlledge 
(Cannanore) ; Dr. G. F. Goldsmith (Lashio, N. Shan States) ; Mr. W. A Knyvett 
(Gaya, Bengal) ; Major F. W. G. Wadeson (Fort Sandeman) ; Dr. E. H. Hunt 
(Secunderabad) ; Mr. F. A. Moller (Darjeeling) ; Mr. G. A. Miller (Darjeeling) ; 
Major C. H. Hale, R.A.M.C. (Rangoon) ; Capt. H. N. Baker (Singapore) ; 
Mr. E. Hicks (Tezpur, Assam) ; Major F. de B.Young (Poona) ; The Secretary, 
American Museum of Natural History (New York) and Mrs. A. C. Hearsey 
(Ranikhet). 

The Honorary Secretary drew the attention of those present to the fact that 
out of the above 25 new members none were residents of Bombay and very 
few belonged to the Presidency. It constituted good evidence that the Journal 
of the Society was being read and appreciated in distant parts of the country. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Faune Entomologique de L'Afrique tropicale. 

Descriptions of new species of Aculeate and Parasitic Hymenoptera from 
Northern India, by P. Cameron. From the Author. 

Descriptions of new Genera and species of Hymenoptera from India, by P. 
Cameron. From the Author. 

Description of a new species of " quartinia" from Deesa, India, etc., by P. 
Cameron. From the Author. 

Description of a new species of " Athalia " {Tenthredimdai) from India, by 
P. Cameron. From the Author. 

Memoires de la Societe Zologique de France. Tome XV. 

Blood Immunity and Blood Relationship, by Dr. G. H.F. Nuttall, F.R.S. 
From the Author. 

The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1903. In exchange. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



181 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 
Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions to the Society's Collections : — 



Contribution. 


Description. 


Contributor. 


1 Malabar Whistling Thrush 
(alive). 




Mr. R. C. H. Barnard. 
Mr. D. A. MacMillan. 




Mr. P. Gerhardt. 




Mr. E. L Barton. 


1 White-tailed Bush Chat... 




Mr. S. L. Whymper. 
Br. H. Coltart. 


Drymoeataphut assamensis.. 
Schceniparus rufigularis ... 


2 Red-throated Tit-Babblers. 

1 Close-barred Sand Grouse.. 
1 Himalayan Viper (alive). 
A quantity of Marine shells 

from Aden. 
1 Skin of the large Brown 

Flying-Squirrel. 


Do. 

Do. 
Major H. A. F. Magrath. 
Mr. C. Vernon Purkis. 
Mrs. Cabral. 

Major A. F. Pinhey, CLE. 

Major C. Hudson, I.M.8 


Aneistrodon Mmalayanus ... 


Some land shells, &c. from 




Mr. James Marten. 


Assam. 
Boar's Tusks, ?|in. 


...... • ' 


Mr W. Kirkpatrick. 
Mr. W. Sparke. 
Do. 








Mr. A. T. Whittle. 


A collection of 187 Birds' 1 




Capt. G. A. Ferreau. 






1 Cinereous Vulture (alive). 
A collection of Birds 1 Eggs 

from Quetta. 
4 Rats from Kashmir 


Major T. E. Marshall, R.A. 
Do. 

Col. A. E. Ward. 


89 Eggs of 33 Species of 
Birds. 


1 Red-crested Pochard .... 




Mr. It. H. Heath, C.E. 






Do. 


2 Black-bellied Sandgrouse.. 




Do. 




Do. 




Do. 


1 Snake and Eugs (showing 
that this Viper is ovi- 
parous). 


Mr. G. A. Miller. 




Mr T.J. Tomkin. 


G Eggs of Common Fla- 
mingo from the Runn of 
Cutch. 




H. H. the Rao Saheb of 




Cutch. 
Mr. P. Fischer. 


1 Slow Loris and young ... 




Capt. W H. Lane. 



PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then read and discussed : — 

1. Plants introduced into the Victoria Gardens, Bombay, since 1896, by C.D. 
Mahaluxmivala ; 2. The Wild Plantain, by G. M. Ryan, I.F.S. ; 3. Notes on 
the Flora of Northern Ganjam, by Cecil E. C. Fischer, I.F.S. ; 4. The Birds of 
Chitral, by Capt. H. T. Fulton, D.S.O. ; 5. Natural Checks on Over-increase, 
by Major A. Newnham ; 6 Fly-fishing in the Bombay Presidency (Megalops 
cyprinoides, a fly-taker), by W. A. Wallinger ; 7. Melanism amongst Panthers, 



182 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



by T. A. Hauxwell, I.F.S.; 8. The Indian Edible-nest Swiftlets (Collocalia 
fuciphaga) in the Pulney Hills, by R. Foulkes ; 9. Some notes on Butterflies 
and Moths, by L. C. H, Young, B.A. ; 10. Two notorious Insect Pests, by R. S. 
Hole, I.F.S. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON 18th AUGUST 1904. 
A meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms, on Thursday, 
18th August 1904, Bev. F. Dreckmann, S.J., presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The election of the following new members since the last meeting was duly 
announced : — 

Capt. A. E. Hamerton, R.A.M.C. (Ferozepore) ; Dr. A. F. G. Kerr 
(Chiengmai, Siam) ; Mr. W. T. Page, F.Z.S. (London) ; Mr. W. N. Edwards 
(Majulieghur, Sootea P. 0., Darrang, Assam) ; Mr. J. D. Stuart (Minbu, 
Burma) ; Mr. E. Steiner (Bombay) ; Mr. M. G. Sykes, I.C.S. (Cuddalore, 
Madras Presidency) ; Mr. G. A. D. Stuart (Nellore) ; Mr. H. Calder (Rangoon) ; 
Mr. Felix L. Dames (Berlin, Germany); H.H. the Rajah of Dhar (Dhar, C.I. ) ; 
Mr. T. Moore (Russellkonda, Ganjam District) ; Major J. W. L. Elgee (Banga- 
lore) ; Mr. C. Lucas (Bombay) ; Mr. Norman A. Macleod (Jaffirbund, Lalla 
P. 0.) ; Capt. J. H. Dickson (Quetta) ; Lieut. A. G. Lyell (Lansdowne) ; Lieut. 
H. W. Long, R.A.M.C. (Jullundur) ; Mr. S. A. Wood, I.F.S. (Loilem, S. Shan 
States) ; The Professor of Zoology, Madras Christian College (Madras) ; Mr. F. 
W. Chanter, C.E. (Bombay) ; Major L. P. Chapman, R.E. (Bombay) ; Mr. 
Cassamali Jairajbhoy Peerbhoy (Bombay) ; Mr. C. H. Stowell (Grant Road, 
Bombay) ; Mr. W. W. Bulkley (Jeypore) ; Mr. G. Marjoribanks, I.F.S. 
(Belgaum), Col. F. W. Trevor, R.A.M.C. (Bombay) ; Mr. A. S. Lawrie (Russell- 
konda, Ganjam District) ; Mr. M. Crampton (Russellkonda, Ganjam District) > 
and Mr. R. C. C. Carr, I.C S. (Caittoor, N. Arcot District). 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions to the Society's collections : — 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



A collection of named moths 
from Darjeeling. 

1 Indian Sloth Bear (alive) 

2 Tiger Cubs (alive.) 



A collection of Fresh Water 

Fishes from Lucknow. 
1 Changeable 



Hawk-Eagle. 



1 BonellPs Eagle 

A collection of Spiders 

from Ganjam 
1 Scaly Ant-eater (alive) .. 
Eggs of the Upland Pipit... 



Melursus ursinus. 
Felis tigris 



Spizcetus limncetug 
Hiercetus fasciatus 



Mante pcntadactyla 
Oreocorys sylvanus., 



Mr. G. A. Miller. 

Mr. H. P. Le Mesurier. 
Major F. W. C. Jones, 

K.A.M.C. 
Major A. T. Newnham, 

F.Z.S. 
Mr, H. H. Clutterbuch, 

I.F.S. 

Do. 
Mr. C. E. C. Fischer, I.F.S. 

Mr. J. Black. 
Mr. F. Field. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



183 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contribution. 



A Clutch of Eggs of the 
White-crested Kalij Phea- 
sant. 

1 Bnake 

4. Cobras (alive) > 

17 Phoorsas (alive) 

1 Ground Snake 

1 Snake 

4 Mouse-Hares sp.n 

Some Lepidoptera from 

Quetta .District. 
3 Chukor Partridges from 

Arabia (alive). 
14 Growing Cocos de Mer 

nuts from Seychelles. 
1 Malav Bittern 



Gennceus albicristatus 



Gongylophis conicus 
Naia tripudiaus ..... 



Echis earinata 

Eryx johnii ... 

Tropidonotus plumbicolor . 
Ochotona icardi sp. n 



Cacabis chucar 

Lodoicea Sechellarum 

Gorxachiua melanolophu-s 



Mr. F. Field. 



Capt. J. S. Oxley, I.M.S. 
Col. W. B. Banneiman, 
I.M.S. 

Do. 
Major H. D. Merewether. 
Mr. D. A. MacMillan. 
Col. A. E. Ward. 
Mr. Neville Eliot, R.A. 

Major F. V. Whittal. 

Monsr. R. Dupont. 

Mr. J. B. Russell. 



Minor Contributions.— Mr. F. Napier, Capt. G. M. Morris, Mr. J. W. Watson, 
and Mr. Bapu W. Telang. 

The following contribution to the library has been made :— The Manual of 
Plague, by Major W. E. Jennings, M.D., I.M.S. By the Author. 

PROPOSED PUBLIC MUSEUM. 

The correspondence between the Proposed Museum Committee and the 
Bombay Natural History Society was placed before the meeting, and the 
following extract shows the opinion of the committee on the subject :— 

" We are strongly of opinion that the Government of Bombay should possess 
a Scientific Museum in this city, and that a trained staff should be engaged 
from Europe with the object of carrying on research in every branch of 
Natural History, commencing with those which have a conspicuous economic 
value, but we think it would be worse than a mistake to undertake the 
formation of such an institution unless ample funds for endowment as well as 
for building are provided. 

" A museum as a mere exhibition of natural history specimens is, in our 
opinion, of very little value, but as the head-quarters of a scientific staff, engaged 
in research, and containing working collections from which knowledge may be 
obtained, it then becomes an institution of enormous value to the State. For 
instance, it is obvious that, as a Maritime people, we ought before this to have 
done something to improve the coast fisheries of India, but nothing practical can 
be done in this direction until we possess a more complete knowledge of the 
marine fauna. At present we know nothing of the migration of sea fishes 
or the periods and places at which they breed, and such knowledge can 
only be obtained by means of systematic collections made by trained natur- 
alists. 

" To possess such a museum, therefore, it is necessary to consider what will 
be the working expenses of the scientific staff as well as the proba ble cost of a 
building to contain collections and laboratories. 



184 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

" The Government of Bombay state in the resolution that they can see their 
way to 2% lakhs towards the erection of a museum, but they do not say that 
they are prepared to meet the heavy recurrent expenditure which would be 
necessary to provide for the requirements of a scientific museum staff. To 
ascertain what these expenses would amount to we can only refer you to the 
report of the Calcutta Museum for 1902, in which the working expenses 
considerably exceeded half a lakh per annum, irrespective of the gazetted 
salaries. 

" The erection of a building that would be suitable for a museum, as well as 
a public library (see Government Resolution) on a conspicuous site in Bombay 
would cost, we should think, three or four times the amount mentioned in the 
resolution. 

" The Bombay Natural History Society, which consists of about 900 
members throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon, possesses very valuable collec- 
tions gathered from the whole of the Oriental region, but they are essentially 
working collections and are not suitable for public exhibition, the object of the 
Society being in the direction of research rather than display, as is shown by 
the character of its publications. 

" We note that it is intended to restrict the collections in the proposed 
museum to the area of the Bombay Presidency, but if it is the intention of the 
Government to undertake scientific research in all branches of local natural 
history, this Society will be in a position to render material assistance, and will, 
we need hardly say, be willing to do so." 

A PRINCELY OFFER. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that His Highness the Rao Saheb of Cutch 
had offered to subscribe Rs. 1,000 a year, for three years, to this Society, if 
it could see its way to engage an expert from Europe to make a marine zoological 
survey of the Bombay Coast, including the Gulf of Cambay and the Runn of 
Cutch. The cost of such an undertaking would, it was thought, amount to 
about Rs. 92,000, or, say, Rs. 7,500 a year, for a period of three years, and the 
task was consequently beyond the powers of this Society unless generous support 
such as that offered by H. H. the Rao of Cutch, were forthcoming from 
others. The Committee of the Society had already addressed letters pointing 
out the advantages of such a survey to all the States which possess a sea 
frontier on the Kathiawar and Konkan Coasts. 

GOVERNMENT GRANT, 

The Honorary Secretary stated that the Government of Bombay had made 
a grant of Rs. 2,500 to the Society for the present year, and that they had 
been good enough to promise to continue the grant (provided funds were 
available) so long as the Society continued to publish the results of its investiga- 
tions and researches on subjects of public utility. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the Government of Bombay for its 
assistance. 



PROCEEDINGS. 185 

COLOURED PLATES. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that orders for the following Coloured Plates, 
for the Society's Journal, had been placed in the hands of their London Chromo 
Lithographers :— 8 Plates of Ducks; 1 Plate of Moths ; 4 Plates of Snakes ; 
4 Plates of Orchids ; and 3 Plates of Cuckoo's Eggs— total 20 Plates. 

The cost of these Coloured Plates would be about Rs. 350 each (or Rs. 7,000 
in all), so that it was most important that the Society should obtain as many 
new members as possible in order to provide the funds for these useful 
illustrations. 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then read and discussed : — 1. Sexual Colour- 
dimorphism in Birds, by D. Dewar, I.C.S. ; 2. The Ancestry of the Horse 
by L. C. H. Young, B.A. ; 3. New Species of Indian Hymenoptera, by Major 
C. G. Nurse, F.E.S. ; 4. The Enemies of Butterflies, by E. H. Aitken ; 5. The 
Himalayan Nutcracker, by Col. W. Capper, D.M.E. in India ; 6. The 
Asiatic Two-horned Rhinoceros, by Major G. H. Evans, A.V.D., F.L.S. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON THURSDAY, THE 29th SEPTEMBER 

1904. 

A meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms, on Thursday, 
the 29th September 1904, Mr. L. C. H. Young presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The election of the following new members since the last meeting was duly 
announced : — 

Mrs. M, Deakin (Bombay) ; Captain V. G. Drake-Brockman, I.M.S. 
(Bharatpur) ; Mr. F. H. Abbott, Secretary, Agri-Horticultural Society of 
India (Calcutta) ; Lieutenant J. C. McKenna (Myitkyina, Upper Burma) ; 
Lieutenant H. D. S. Keighley (Myitkyina, Upper Burma) ; Mr. C. C. Reid, 
I.C.S. (Calcutta) ; Mr. G. H. Belcham (Ratnagiri) ; Lieutenant J. L. Tweedie 
(Lucknow) ; Mr. A. L. Godden (Silchar, Cachar) ; Mr. H. R. Hume, D.S.P 
(Kaira) ; Mr. R. A. Wilson, I.C.S, (Nagpur, C. P.) ; Captain H. K. Colston 
(Mhow, C. I.) ; Lieutenant A. 0. Cameron (JMhow, C. I.) ; Mr. F. G. Arnould 
(Kawant, Rajputana) ; Mr. Mahomedbhoy Currimbhoy Ebrahim (Bombay) ; 
Mr. J. O'B. Donaghey (Bangalore) ; Mr. C. C. Boyd, I.C.S. (Karwar) ; 
Mr. George Service (Bombay) ; Lieutenant F. H. Humphrys (Lahore) ; and 
Mr. R. K. Dadachanji (Bombay). 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

Mr, H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions to the Society's collection : — 

Contribution. Description. Contributor. 



A collection of Moths and Mr. G. C. Dudgeon, F.E.S. 

Butterflies from the 
Hi malayas. 

24 



186; JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVL 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



A Lizard from Baluchistan 

2 Cobras (alive) 

1 Snake 

1 Snake (alive") 

1 Monitor (alive) 

1 Bat , 

2 Terapins 

Some Insects and Spiders 

Butterflies 

1 Snake (alive) 

1 Snake 



Agama isolep is 

Naia tripvdians 

Simotes albocinctus 

Zamenisfasciolatus 

Varanus Bengalensia ...... 

Cynopterus marginatus 

Platystermm megacephalum 
(from Si am) 



From Quetta 

Python molnrus 

Oligodon 3fcDougaW 



■?p.n. 



Col. R. H. Light. 

Col. W. Bannerman, T.M.S. 

Do. 

Do. 
Dr. V. L. Mankar. 
Mr. C G. Fee. 
Mr. H. D. G. Garrett. 

Mr. C. B. C. Fischer, I.F.S. 
Mr. Neville Eliot, R.A. 
Mr. D. J. Tata. 
Mr. E. McDougall. 



Minor contribution from Mrs. Payne. 

Contributions to the Library : — Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Calcutta, Vol. X, Part I, in exchange. 

Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Parts XVI to XXV, from the 
Trustees, 

BEE CULTURE. 

Mr. H. M. Phipson stated that he had lately been trying to interest the 
Agricultural Department on the subject of bee culture in the hope that they 
might see their way to carry out properly conducted experiments on the 
domestication of the two species of Indian bees which are not migratory (Apis 
nigrocinctus and Apis dorsata), and also possibly to introduce the European 
hive bee (Apis mellifica). Seeing how largely honey is used by the people of 
this country for the preservation of fruit and for sweetmeats, it is surprising 
that bee culture has not been further developed. Dr. Thedore Cooke made 
some interesting experiments several years ago, in Poona, with Apis indica, but 
as this species of bee is known to be migratory the experiments led to dis- 
appointment, as on the approach of the hot season the swarms fled to the hills 
along with the Government officials. Had the experiments been made with 
the rock bee (Apis dorsata), which is twice the size of the other, the results 
might have been very different. 

Mr. L. C. H. Young, the Honorary Secretary of the Insect Section, read 
some extracts from the latest work on the subject of Indian Hymenoptera, by 
Col. C. T. Bingham, and suggested that members of the Society living in the 
Punjab, Kolhapur, and other places, where experiments had been made, should 
be asked to communicate with the Society on the subject. 

FLEAS. 
The Honorary Secretary stated that Capt. W. G. Liston, I.M.S., had kindly 
offered to read another paper before this Society, at the November meeting, on 
the subject of fleas and the part they play in the propagation of plague. Capt. 
Liston, it will be remembered, read a paper on this subject on the 15th March 
1903, but he has since devoted much time to it and an account of his recent 
investigations will be of the greatest interest. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



187 



PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Water-yielding Plants found in the Thana Forest, by G. M. Ryan, I.F.S. ; 
?,. Cassia occidentalis, by B. H. Barlow-Poole, I.F.S. ; 3. Birds observed in the 
Nilgiris and Wynaad, by A. M. Primrose ; 4 Notes on the Nesting of some Birds 
in the Upper Chindwin District, Burma, by Capt. H. H. Harrington ; 5. Notes on 
Burmese Reptiles, by Major G. H. Evans, A.V.D., F.L.S ; 6. Notes on the 
Hornbills of the Pegu District, by C. W. Allan, I.F.S ; 7. The Russell's Viper 
by Lt.-Col. L. L. Fenton ; 8. A Cobra Feeding on Eggs, by C. P. George, all 
of which will appear in full in the Society's Journal. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON THURSDAY, THE 24th 

NOVEMBER 1904. 
A meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms on 24th Novem- 
ber 1904, Colonel W. B. Bannerman, I.M.S., presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 
The election of the following new members, since the 1st meeting, was duly 
announced : — Mr. Julian North (Calcutta) ; Mr J. May (Parlakimedi, Ganjam 
District) ; Mr. A. Panton (Bombay) ; Mr. Purshotumdas Visram Maoji (Bom- 
bay) ; Rev. Joao Rebello (Margao, Goa) ; Captain C. B. Harrison, I.M.S. 
(Madura) ; Mr. T. D. Hamilton, I.F.S. (Rangoon) ; Mr. J. Harding Pas.coe 
(Kolla Kombi, Nilgiri Hills) ; Mr. Gordon Dalgliesh (London) ; Mr. W. R. Le 
Grand Jacob, I.F.S. (Darjeeling) ; Mr. C. W. Dunn, I.C.S. (Rangoon) ; Lieu- 
tenant J. A. Pottinger (Rangoon) ; Captain W. D. A. Keys, I.M.S. (Bombay) ; 
Mr. G. F. Curran (Mysore); and Mr. C. G. de C. Ireland, I.C.S. (Dehra 
Dun). 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 
Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions to the Society's collection : — 



Contribution. 


Description. 


Contributor. 


1 Snake (alive) 


Lycodon travancoricus ... 


Col. W B. Bannerman, 
I.M.S. 


1 Snake Calive) 


Lycodon aulicus 


Do. 


A collection of Orthop- 




Mr. S. Lightfoot. 


terous Insects, 






1 Snake (ilive) 


Eryxjohnii 


Mr. R. C. Farrel, I.F.S. 


1 Snake 


Dipsis multimaculata 


Mr. S. Lightfoot. 


A collection of Mantidse, 




Do. 


Grasshoppers, &c. 






1 Snake (alive) 


Helicops schistosus 


Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S. 


1 Snake 


CallopMs trimaculatus ... 


Capt. J. Oxley, I.M.S. 


3 Lizards from Pegu 


Liolepis belliana ... 


Mr. C. W. Allan, I.F.S. 


2 Flying Lizards from 


Draco blanfordii 


Do. 


Pegu. 






A number of Cage Birds 




Mr. G. De Saone. 


(alive). 







188 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



4 Species of Snakes 



A number of Beetles 
1 Malay Bittern ... 
1 Snake ... ... • 

1 Snake (alive) 

1 Crimson-breasted Barbet 

or Coppersmith. 
1 Indian Pied Kingfisher 
1 Franklin's Nightjar 
1 Pied Crested Cuckoo 
1 Rose-ringed Paroquet , 
1 Painted S:md -grouse , 
1 Large or BUck-bellied 

Sand-grouse. 
1 Large Pin-taied Sand 

grouse. 

3 Common Kand-grouBe .. 

1 Grey Partridge 

1 Red Shank 

4 Wood-snipes 

1 Western Bamboo Par- 
tridge. 

A collection of Mantidse 

1, Snake 

1 Saake (alive) 

1 Snake 

1 Saake 

1 Snake " Dhaman " 

2 Hawk Bill Turtles from 
Port Blair (alive). 

31 Eggs of Roseate Tern 

3 Snakes 

1 Black-tailed Godwit 

1 Snake (alive) 

2 Snakes 

1 Snake 



Lycodon aulieus, v ar . 

Lycodon travancoricus. 
Bungarus candidus 
Polyedontophis subpuncta- 

tus. 
Buprestidce sp m 
Gorsachius melanolophus ... 
Bungarus canitidus 
Zamenis mucositis ... ... 

Xantholcena hcemstucephala. 

Ceryle varia. 
Capriiuulgus monticola 
Cocr.ystes Jacob inus 
Palceornis torquatus 
Pterocles fasciatus 
Pterocles arenarius 

Pteroclurus alchata 

Pteroclurus exustus 
Francolinus pondicerianus. 
Tot anus calidris 
Gallinago nemoricola 
Bambusicola fytchii 



Psammophis leithii 

Dipsas forsteni 

Simotes amensis ... ... 

Oligodon sp... ... ... I 

Zamenis mucosus 

Chelone inbricata 

Sterna doug alii 

lycodon aulieus, dark va- 
riety. 

Limosa cegocephala 

Tpimeresurus monticola ... 

Psammodynastes pulveru- 
lentus. 

Poly odontophus eollaris ... 



Capt. P. Wall, I.M.S. 

Do. 

Do. 



Mr. F. G.Arnold. 
Mr. R. G Foster. 
Mr. C. H. Donald. 

Do. 
Maj. C. G. Nurse. F.E.S. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Mr. S. Lightfoot. 
Do. 

Do. 
Mr. T. Ruttonji. 
Col. Bannerman, I.M.S. 
Mr. C. H. Donald. 

Do. 
Mrs. Inglis. 
Mr. C. Gilbert Rogers, 

I.F.S. 
Mr. W. F. Jardine. 
Col. W, B. Bannerman, 
I.M.S. 

Mr. H. S. Symons. 
Mr. A Wright. 
Mr. J. Donaghey. 

Do. 



PLAGUE, EATS, AND FLEAS. 
Captain Liston defined plague as a rat disease which was not unfrequently 
under favouring circumstances communicated to man. The disease, there- 
fore, among men might almost be said to be accidental and certainly avoida- 
ble if there were a distance between rats and men. He said that the idea 
that rats played the most important part in the spread of plague was no new 
one, it was recognised by the ancients as well as by more recent authorities 
who had practical experience of the disease If it was a rat's disease then it 
was likely that the disease had its own distinct laws of origination and con- 
tinuance among these animals. It was precisely this study of the disease in 
rats that had been neglected. Before any progress could be made we wanted 
to know more about the life and habits of rats. He then proceeded to dis- 



PROCEEDINGS. 189 

cuss a few of the habits of rats that had an important bearing on the spread 
of plague. He considered, first, the species of domestic rats. There were two 
very distinct species : Mus decumanus, the common rat found in Europe ; it 
was a burrowing rodent and lived in drains and cellars. Mus rattus was the 
common rat of Bombay and the Bast generally ; it lived in the roofs of houses 
and even trees ; it was a truly domestic rat. Plague might rage as an epizootic 
among rats of the species of Mus decumanus and man would have little 
chance of infection, but an epizootic of this disease among rat of the species 
Mus rattus was very liable to be communicated to man. The species 
of rat affected with plague had an important bearing on the spread of 
the disease in man, not from any inherent difference in the susceptibility 
to the disease in the particular species, but because of the habits of 
the species. The disappearance of plague from Europe was coincident 
with the invasion of that Continent by the brown rat and the displacement of 
the black rat by that species. While the habits of the black rat played an 
important part in the spread of plague, the habits of men encouraged or dis- 
couraged the prevalence of this species of rat. In Europe the brown rat dis- 
placed the black rat as pucca buildings became erected, as drainage systems 
were developed, as stables were separated from dwelling-houses, as shops, 
warehouses and granaries were no longer used as human habitation. As stone 
and wooden floors displaced mud and rush-covered ground, as beds became 
used in place of heaps of straw, so the black rat was driven from his haunts 
and the brown rat had it all his own way. man and rats were separated from 
one another and plague ceased to trouble, for man played an important part 
in spreading the diseases among rats. Rats like men were gregarious in their 
habits, they had their maharwaras and buniapuras, some rats lived on the 
refuse of the people and others installed themselves in the granaries of the rich. 
There was little communication between these communities in the same 
village or town, and there could be still less communication between the rats 
of one town and those of another except through human agency. Ships, rail- 
ways, and roads, the means of conveyance of merchandise, were also the means 
of communication between rats of one town and those of another ; the rats as 
" stowaways" were conveyed with human merchandise. As this was a chance 
means of communication, the larger the means of transport the chances were 
greater : hence ships transferred rats in this way more frequently than 
railway trains. Seaport towns, therefore, were specially liable to be infected 
by this method, viz., from rat to rat through merchandise conveyed by man. 
Another habit of rats that had an important bearing on the spread of plague 
was their habit of migrating as a community when scared by an unusual mortal- 
ity among them In this habit they resembled man. Plague could under 
these circumstances be spread from one rat community to another rat com- 
munity in the same town where fresh focus of infection might be set up. 
This habit also increised the chances of infected rats being conveyed by 
merchandise. Again, the breeding season of rats played an important part 



190 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

in the spread of plague, because the number of susceptible individuals was 
increased ; and (2) the number of fleas (the transmitters of infection) were 
also greatly multiplied. If plague was a rat disease, how was it communicated 
to man ? He then passed on to consider how the flea acted as a transmitter of 
infection. He classed plague together with certain epizootic diseases which 
were communicable to man, viz., anthrax, glanders, and hydrophobia. He 
considered the means by which these diseases were transmitted, and said that 
plague differed from them all. The microbe of this disease produced no spore 
or seed like the anthrax bacillus, it multiplied by fission as a plant might be 
multiplied by cuttings. There were two sorts of cuttings : resistant, 
which could be kept out of their natural soil for a long time, and non-resistant, 
which had to be placed shortly after removal from the parent plant into 
suitable soil. The germ that caused glanders belonged to the former class ; the 
plague germ and the virus of hydrophobia to the latter class. But in the cases 
of hydrophobia there was direct transf errence of the poison from the rabid 
dog to man by a bite. This did not usually occur in plague. There was a 
third method of reproducing plants, viz., by using a gooty. It was by this 
method that plague was propagated in men and animals. The flea acts as the 
gooty. The plague germ found in the flea's stomach a daily supply of the 
very food it required, viz., animal blood ; it was not acted on by the digestive 
juices of the flea, and here it was securely protected from light, dessication, 
and contaminating bacteria, which acted on the plague germ as weeds do on a 
delicate plant. The flea, however, being animate acted both as gooty andraali, 
and transferred the plague germ by its bite to suitable soil, the animal body. 
He then considered the various species of fleas, and some of their habits. He 
pointed out that flea-ridden animals often had their own characteristic flea. 
The rat flea was seldom found on man ; how, then, could plague be conveyed 
from rat to man or from man to rat by means of fleas ? He detailed how the 
question had been solved. It depended on the migration of rats in the pre- 
sence of an unusual mortality among them. They left their fleas behind and 
these latter in sheer hunger attacked men and other animals. He recorded 
experimental proof of this fact in the case of a certain epidemic among 
guineapigs and in the case of an outbreak of plague in a chawl in Bombay. 
While normally rat fleas were never found on guineapigs, in the above case they 
swarmed on them. 18 aloue were taken on one sick guineapig. Man seldom 
harbours the rat flea ; he had found one rat flea in 246 fleas caught on man 
under normal conditions. In the case of the chawl above recorded, of 30 fleas 
caught on man no less than 14 were rat fleas. He then briefly referred to 
experimental methods of plague infection in animals, and stated that one or 
two germs were able to kill an animal when introduced under the skin by a 
needle, while millions of germs were necessary by any other method. Which, 
then, was likely to be the most common method of infection ? Granted that 
infection generally occurred through the skin, he showed that there wa3 a 
mass of evidence against the introduction of the bacillus through accidental 



PROCEEDINGS. 191 

cuts and abrasions, and everything pointed to the virus being introduced by 
such an insect as the flea. He also explained the seasonal and endemic pre- 
valence of plague in terms of the habits of rats and fleas. He pointed out that 
infection in neighbouring towns and villages was chiefly conveyed by man to 
rats by means of rat fleas carried on clothing. He concluded by pointing to 
many facts in connection with the epidemiology of plague which could be ex- 
plained in no other way than that the flea was the transmitter of infection — 
such facts as the notorious infectivity of houses particularly at night, and the 
efficiency of oil and tobacco as preventives against plague. He would have liked 
to consider preventive measures against plague, but time did not permit. He 
said, however, that to his mind since it was impossible to place a distance 
between rats and man except by years of sanitary improvement and education, 
the only method that held out any hope of salvation now and until sanitary 
reforms were carried out, was to acquire immunity to plague by inoculation. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that Captain Listen's paper would be pub- 
lished in full in the Society's Journal. 

OTHER PAPERS. 

The following papers were also read and discussed : — " Bee Culture in India," 
by Major C. G. Nurse. " Description of a new Snake," " Oligodon McDougallt, 
by Captain F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. "The Butterflies of Ceylon." by 
Major N. Manders, R.A.M.C., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

PALMS GROWING IN BOMBAY. 

Mr. H. M. Phipson exhibited photographs of 21 different species of palm 
trees growing in Bombay under natural conditions. 

COBRAS DIGESTING WHOLE EGGS. 

Colonel W. B. Bannerman, I.M.S., stated that with reference to Mr. C. P. 
George's paper on this subject, read at the last meeting of the Society, 
he had, as then promised, made several experiments with the live cobras in his 
possession at the Government Laboratory at Parel, which showed that a hen's 
egg, with the shell intact, if pushed carefully down into the snake's stomach, 
became entirely dissolved in the course of 48 hours. 

VANILLA FRUITING IN BOMBAY. 

Mr. C. D. Mahaluxmiwala exhibited a bunch of vanilla pods grown in the 
Victoria Gardens, and explained the process of artificial fertilization which it 
was necessary to resort to hi this country in the absence of the proper insect. 




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JOURNAL 

OF THE 

B O T& B^ Y 

Natural §p8tor£ ji0ri% 

Vol. xvi. BOMBAY. No. 2. 

THE MOTES OF INDIA. 

SUPPLEMENTARY PAPER TO THE VOLUMES IN 

"THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA." 

SERIES III. PART III. 

By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s. 

(Continued from pag e 151 of this Volume.") 

ZyG-ENIDvE. 

501c. Clelea refulgens. n. sp. ( PI. D, f. 3). 

$ . Black ; head, thorax and abdomen suffused with golden green, antennae 
with violet-blue. Forewing with the basal half suffused with golden-green with 
copper reflections ; a golden-green discoidal spot and postmedial band excurve 
from costa to vein 4, then oblique and not reaching inner margin ; a brilliant 
blue-green terminal line. Hindwing with the base brilliant metallic blue ex- 
tending as a streak below cell to beyond middle and on inner area nearly to 
tornus. Underside of forewing with metallic blue streaks on costa and below 
cell to middle ; hindwing with the base metallic blue extending on costal area 
to beyond middle and continued as a fine line to apex and on termen, in cell to 
middle and on area below the cell to termen, a discoidal spot. 

Habitat.— Manipur, Mao 6000' (Doherty). Exp. 28 mill. Type— -in B. M. 

532. Pidorus geminus, insert (syn.) Pidorus leno s Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7) 6a, 
p. 305. 

p. 269. Under Cyclosia insert (syn.) Pintia, p. 258. 

545. Pintia ferrea is the $ of 577. Cyclosia papilionaris and 575 C. nigres- 
cens and 576 C.parvula are varieties. 

547. Pintia latipennis is the $ of 578. Cyclosia australinda, many speci- 
mens of both sexes bred (T. R. Bell). 

Psychid^;. 

625a. Acanthopsyche (Dasaratlia) canarensis. n. sp. 

£. Uniform cupreous brown. Forewing with veins 4-5 stalked; 7 from 
cell. Hindwing with vein 5 from middle of discocellulars. 



194 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Habitat. — Kanaka, Karwar (Davidson). Exp. 24 mill. Type — in B. M. 

6'dSu. Psyche (Heylaertsia) laniata. n. sp. 

ft. Head, thorax and abdomen black-brown clothed with long hair ; anten- 
nae with long branches to near extremity ; wings rather thickly clothed with 
long black-brown hair-like scales. Forewing with vein 3 from before angle 
of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 from well below upper angle ; 7 # 8 shortly 
stalked; 9 - 10 on a long stalk; 11 from cell. Hindwing with vein 3 from 
before angle of cell ; 4*5 stalked ; 6 absent. 

Larva case covered with fragments of leaves, straw, etc. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Matale (Pole). Exp. 14 mill. Type—m B. M. 

Cossid^:. 

651c. Cossus cashmirensis is a distinct species from acronyctoides ; the 
antennae are bipectinate with the branches long at base, whilst in the latter they 
are nnipectinate with the branches short at base, then increase in length before 
middle ; the former also is a larger, broader-winged insect with the markings 
darker. 

Section III. Antennae of male thickened and laminate, but not pectinate. 

6516. Cossus FUSCIBASIS. 

651&. Cossus rufidorsia, n.sp. (PI. D, f. 5). 

ft. Head, thorax and abdomen grey-brown with a rufous tinge. Forewing 
grey-brown thickly striated with dark-brown ; the inner area tinged with 
rufous ; an indistinct dark line from costa beyond middle to inner margin near 
tornus and with another indistinct line just beyond it ; an obscure irregular 
subterrninal line furcate in places. Hindwing fuscous brown. 

Habitat. — Sikhim (Dudgeon). Exp. 36 mill. Type — in B. M. 

Genus Paracossus, nov. 
Palpi upturned slender not quite reaching vertex of head ; antennae of male 
bipectinate with short branches diminishing regularly to apex ; tibiae with the 
spur short, hind tibise with two pairs. Forewing with vein 3 from before angle 
of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 from below or from upper angle ; 7. 8. 9. 10 
stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4 from angle of cell, 5 from 
above angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 8 free. 

Section I. Forewing with vein 6 from angle of cell. 
656&. Paracossus parva, n. sp, 

£ . Pale grey-brown ; abdomen darker dorsally. Forewing with fine dark 

striae ; the inner area tinged with reddish 
brown; a fine black medial line slightly bent 
outwards at median nervure below which 
it is excurved ; an oblique line from costa 
to upper angle of cell, then following the 
discocellulars and with a slight fork on 
outer side, bent inwards on median nervure 
and angled outwards on vein 2, then 
incurved ; a postmedial line incurved from costa to vein 4 where it is angled 




THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 195 

outwards, then incurved and sinuous and connected by an oblique streak at vein 
4 with the irregularly waved subterminal line which is indistinctly forked in 
places. Hindwing semihyaline fuscous brown with the veins darker. 

Habitat.-^- Ceylon, Matele (Pole). Exp. 28 mill. Type— in B. M. 

Section II. Forewing with vein 6 from well below angle of cell. 

656c. Paracossus, furcata. n. sp. (PI. D, f. 30). 

9 . Brownish-grey. Forewing with dark striae, an indistinct oblique brown 
antemedial line bifurcating and enclosing an eliptical spot at middle ; a medial 
line bent obliquely outwards from median nervure to submedian fold where it 
is connected by a streak with the postmedial line which is strongly incurved 
below vein 4 where it is connected by an oblique spur with the irregularly 
waved subterminal line which is obscurely furcate in places. Hindwing pale 
fuscous brown. 

Habitat.— Pegu, Magane. Exp. 34 mill. Type— in B. M. 

Drepanid^;. 

712a. Drepana fulvicosta, Dudgeon, J. Bomb. Soc, XII, p. 652 (1899). 

Almost pure white; frons brown; antennse, tibiae and tarsi tinged with fulvous ; 
wings irrorated with silvery scales. Forewing with the costal edge pale fulvous ; 
a very indistinct oblique waved medial line from cell to inner margin and similar 
postmedial and subterminal lines. Hindwing with indistinct waved postmedial 
and two subterminal lines. 

Habitat. — Punjab, Manpuri; Bhutan. Exp. 34*38 mill. 

741. Problepsidis albilinea, Warr. Nov. Zool., VI., p. 4. 

£. Antennae strongly laminate ; forewing with vein 11 from the cell. 

Brownish-ochreous irrorated with black ; palpi, frons and fore tibiae and tarsi 
in front black ; abdomen dorsally suffused with black. Forewing with two 
highly waved, curved, indistinct fuscous antemedial lines ; a similar medial line ; 
two very obliquely placed black discoidal points ; a postmedial highly waved line 
oblique from vein 4 to inner margin before middle ; a similar outer postmedial 
line with interrupted white strigas on its oblique portion ; a subterminal dentate 
line with black points on it ; cilia chequered with black. Hindwing with two 
nearly straight antemedial lines ; the medial area yellow with a black dis- 
Ooidal point ; a dentate line just beyond middle followed by two indistinct 
waved lines, then a nearly straight postmedial line ; a subterminal line of small 
dentate marks • a fine terminal line. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. 42 mill. 

744a. Deroca hidda, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), 6, p. 306. 

Differs from hyalina in its small size ; the vertex of head white. Forewing 
with the antemedial and medial lines angled inwards in submedian interspace. 

Habitat, — Assam, Jaintia Hills. Exp. 32 mill. 

746a. Phalacra multilineata, rename P. acutipennis, Swinh. A. M. N. H. 
(7), XI., p. 502 (1903). 

747. Phalacra excisa, insert (syn.) P. multilineata, Warr., Nov. Zool., 
IV., p. 16. 



196 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

THYRIDID.E. 

764a. Striglina ignepicta. n. sp. (PI. D, f. 6). 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen olive-brown; palpi and antennae marked 
with white ; pectus white ; legs banded with white ; abdomen with subdorsal 
fiery red spots on last three segments and a slight white dorsal line on terminal 
segment, the ventral surface banded with white. Forewing dark olive-brown 
with darker striae ; a maculate patch of fiery red below costa beyond middle 
with some white points above it on costa ; an ochreous spot in end of cell with 
a round hyaline spot below it ; cilia white at tips. Hindwing dark olive- 
brown with slight fiery red suffusion between vein 5 and tornus towards which 
it develops into more distinct spots ; cilia white at tips. Underside strongly 
striated with white ; forewing with the yellow in end of cell extending round 
the hyaline spot and with some silvery suffusion before and beyond it. 

Habitat— Bombay ; Castle Rock (Davidson). Exp. 14 mill. Type— in B. M. 

811. Dysodia ignita, insert (syn.) Dysodia bipuncta and D. levis, Warr., Nov. 
Zool., VII., p. 100. 

Limacodid^:. 

822c. Macroplectra ceylonica. n. sp. 

g. Yellow-brown irrorated with fuscous. Forewing with ill-defined ante- 
medial black line from cell to inner margin ; a very ill-defined postmedial line 
from vein 8 to 3. Hindwing black-brown, the cilia yellow-brown. 

Habitat.— €eylon, Matale (J. Pole). Exp. 16 mill. Type— in B. M. 

822c?. Macroplectra inconspicua, n. sp. 

£. Antennae greatly thickened and flattened. 

Ochreous ; head, thorax and forewing to the obscure, very oblique postmedial 
line, suffused with rufous. 

Habitat. — Bombay, Castle Rock (Davidson). Exp. 12 mill. Type— in B. M. 

852a. CONTHEYLA ROTUNDA, n. sp. 

Grey-brown. Forewing with slight dark irroration ; a series of black points 
from costa beyond middle, excurved to vein 6, then becoming subterminal; hind- 
wing slightly darker ; cilia of both wings yellowish at base. 

Habitat.—!*. Kanara, Karwar (T. R. Bell). Exp. $ 16, $ 20 mill. Type- 
in B. M. 

Cocoon covered with white secretion leaving points and patches of red-brown. 

This species resembles the genus Spatulijimbria except in length of palpi. 

874a. Idonauton nigribasis, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 31). 

$. Antennas much thickened and rather flattened with a large tuft of scales 
between their bases ; cilia of both wings very long and spatulate at extremities. 

Head and thorax black-brown, the vertex of former rufous ; abdomen 
rufous tinged with fuscous. Forewing rufous ; the basal area black-brown 
with nearly straight outer edge ; cilia dark-brown and grey at tips. Hindwing 
fuscous brown ; cilia dark brown and grey at tips. 

Habitat.—N. Kanara, Karwar (T. R. Bell). Exp. 16 mill. Type— in B. M. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 197 

884a. Cania notodonta, insert 891a. Narosa uniformis, Swinh., which has 
priority. 

885a. Cania plumbifusa, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 7). 

g. Antennae bipectinate to apex. Head, thorax and abdomen ochreous 
tinged with brown ; palpi, frons and forelegs fuscous. Forewing ochreous 
suffused with leaden silvery especially on costal area ; an ill-defined waved 
rufous line on discocellulars, then retracted to origin of vein 2, then to before 
middle ; subterminal line blackish, bent outwards below costa ; then punctiform 
to vein 5, then obsolete and represented by some black scales above tornus. 
Hindwing ochreous, the cilia dark at tips, at apex and towards tornus. The 
underside with the costal half of forewing suffused with black ; a blackish 
discoidal spot. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. 20 mill. Type — in B. M. 

894. Belippa ferruginea is a distinct species ; B. laleana is the 9 of 896 
B. Apicata and it, as also the $ of B. lohor, is indistinguishable 
from the same sex of B. ferruginea, whilst the males are quite 
distinct. 

Lasiocampid^;. 

901. Taragama dorsalis. 

Larva. l - 85". Reddish-brown with long buff-colored hairs hanging down from 
head and sides, erected when the larva moves or is disturbed ; head covered 
with hairs ; the 2nd and 3rd somites with a sort of hood covering a band of 
deep umber-brown ; each somite with a prominent dorsal red tubercle with 
short black hairs and a smaller red tubercle behind it ; the l'Zth. somite with 
two very prominent black tubercles with black hairs -, a lateral series of buff- 
colored tubercles from which the long hairs arise. 

Food plant various Acaccias. (W. H. Campbell.) 

938a. Lenodora crenata, Hmpsn. 

#. Head, thorax and abdomen pale ochreous brown ; anal tuft rufous. 
Forewing red-brown, an ochreous white streak on subcostal nervure from base 
to just beyond upper angle of cell ; a dull ochreous band beyond the cell 
between veins 8 and 2, diffused on inner side, its outer edge very oblique 
and crenulate. Hindwing pale red-brown, the costal area and cilia rather 
darker. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Horton Plains G-7000'. Exp. 42 mill. 

940&. Lenodora tiyalomel^na, n. sp. (pi. D, f. 9). 

<£. Head, thorax and abdomen mauve-grey ; palpi and sides of face, pectus, 
legs, and ventral surface of abdomen pale yellowish. Forewing fuscous black ; 
the co3tal edge pale yellowish ; an oblique semihyaline white band from 
below apex to above inner margin near base where it is met by pale hair at 
base ; some white hairy scales on termen and in cilia. Hindwing hyaline ; the 
veins, costal area and termen fuscous black ; cilia white at tips. 

Habitat.-- Madras, Palni Hills, 7000'. (Campbell.) Exp. 38 mill. Type— 
inB. M. 



198 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV I. 

942a. Odonestis fossa, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (6) xrx., p. 410. (PI. D, f. 14.) 

<£. Dark red-brown. Forewing with indistinct antemedial line angled 
outwards below costa ; a small dark-edged white discoidal spot ; a straight 
oblique dark-brown line from apex to inner margin before middle ; an indistinct 
oblique strongly dentate subterminal line. Hindwing with traces of a slightly 
incurved line from apex to tornus. 

9 . Yellower brown ; forewing with the oblique line very slightly curved 
towards inner margin. 

Habitat. — Assam, Jaintia Hills. Exp. <£ 52, $ 66 mill. 

LyMANTRIADjE. 

971. Aroa pyrhochroma, insert Orgyia melaxantha, Wlk., xxxiii., 324 
(1865) which has precedence ; the type must have come from India, not 
Cape Colony. 

975a. Aroa campbelli, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 8 ). 

$. Head and thorax olive-brown ; abdomen grey mixed with fuscous, 
Forewing pale olive thickly suffused and irrorated with fuscous brown ; some 
diffused white on basal inner area ; a pale olive medial striga from costa ; an 
oblique white band irrorated with brown from costa beyond middle to middle of 
inner margin towards which it expands widely, slightly incurved to costa and 
with its outer edge indented at vein 5. Hindwing pure white with terminal 
olive fuscous band, moderately wide at apex, narrowing to a point at tornus. 

Habitat.— Madras, Palni Hills, 6000'. (Campbell.) Exp. 26 mill. Type— 
inB. M. 

982. L&lia exclamationis, insert (syn.) Lcalia adalia, Swinh. A. M. N. H, 
(7), vi, p. 305. A large form from the Jaintia Hills. Exp. $ 42, $ 50 mill. 

976. LuELIA SUFFUSA. 

Larva. Black clothed with rather long whitish hairs and with tufts of long 
spatulate black hairs on each side of 1st somite and in middle of 11th somite ; 
four brown dorsal pencils of hair on 4th-7th somites ; round whitish dorsal 
tubercles on 9th and 10th somites ; a broad subdorsal yellow line and lateral 
yellow striations obscured by the hairs ; a sublateral yellow line. Head and 
legs pale brown or black. Food plant — grasses.. 

Pupa in a rather loose pale buff or brownish cocoon. (Dudgeon.) 

983. L^ELIA TESTACEA. 

Larva. Dark buff with a paler dorsal stripe with dark medial line ; neck 
canary-yellow ; each somite with prominent tuft of brown hairs ; very thick 
tufts of umber-brown hairs on somites 4, 5, 6 and 7 ; head glabrous, brown. 

989a. Pantana ocHROTA ; n. sp. (PI. D, ff. 33-34). 

<£. Head and thorax fulvous yellow, the branches of antenna? blackish \ 
abdomen dark fulvous brown. Forewing fulvous yellow, the costal half 
suffused by red-brown, at termen extending to vein 2 ; a yellowish discoidal 
lunule. Hindwing with the costal half fuscous brown, the inner half fulvous, 

$. Uniform ochreous, the abdomen more orange. 

Habitat.— Travancore, Pirmad (K. S. Imray). Exp. $ 38, $ 52 mill. 



THE MOTES OF INDIA. 1#> 

993. Thiacidas postica. 

Larva. 1'3". Head red with white V-mark ; body pale yellow-green with 
broad white dorsal stripe edged by faint black crenulate lines ; a lateral series 
of black spots ; six red tubercles on each somite from which arise long grey 
hairs. Food plant — Zizyphus jujuba. (W. H. Campbell.) 

1004a. Dasychiracerebosa, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc, 1903, p. 483 (PI. D^ 
£.23). 

Head, thorax and abdomen brown mixed with grey ; antennae of male with 
the branches rufous. Forewing grey, thickly irrorated with brown ; an in- 
distinct curved sub-basal line from costa to submedian fold ; a double waved 
antemedial line ; discoidal lunule defined by brown ; postmedial line minutely 
dentate, slightly angled outwards below costa and at vein 4, then incurved ; an 
indistinct diffused waved subterminal line. Hindwing pale brownish ; the 
underside greyish thickly irrorated with brown, a discoidal spot and diffused 
postmedial line. 

Habitat.— Punjab, Simla. Exp. $ 44, 9 50 mill. 

10146. Dasychira magnalia, Swinh. A. M. N. H. (7), xxii, p. 198 (1903) 
(PI. D, f. 24). 

$ Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown mixed with grey. Forewing dull 
reddish-brown suffused with fuscous and slightly irrorated with grey ; an ill- 
defined rufous patch below base of cell irrorated with large dark scales ; an 
erect waved black antemedial line ; an ill-defined lunulate ochreous discoidal 
patch with its centre defined by black, a dentate postmedial line angled 
outwards at veins 7 and 4, then strongly incurved ; an ill-defined pale rufous 
subterminal line angled outwards at vein 7, inwards at discal and submedian 
folds and excurved at middle. Hindwing reddish fuscous brown ; the underside 
with discoidal spot, postmedial line angled outwards at discal fold and indistinct 
diffused subterminal line. 

$ Rather uniformly darker, the lines of forewing less distinct. 

Habitat.— Assam, Khasis. Exp. 42 mill. 

1030a. Lymanteia mcesta, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1903, p. 484 (PI. D, f. 22). 

$. Head and thorax grey mixed with brown ; abdomen brownish grey. 
Forewing brownish grey, thickly irrorated with fuscous ; an indistinct antemedial 
line angled outwards below costa ; an oblique black streak on lower disco- 
cellular with a diffused oblique fuscous striga above it on costa ; an indistinct 
dentate subterminal line slightly angled outwards at veins 7 and 4, then incurved. 
Hindwing pale brownish. 

$ Wings rather greyer. 

Habitat.— Punjab, Kasauli, Kangra Valley. Exp. $ 38, £ 44 mill. 

1031. Lymantria obsoleta, insert Bombyx serva, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 3, i, p. 474 
(1793) which has precedence. 

1049. Gazalina chrysolopha insert, (syn.) Gazalina intermixta, Swinh. 
A. M. N. H. (7) 6, p. 306. 

1057a. Euproctis yirgo, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc, 1903, p. 393 (PI. D, f. 2G). 



200 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

ft Pure white ; tibiae tinged with fuscous ; anal tuft orange ; underside of 
forewing with the costal area suffused with fuscous. 

Habitat. — Burma, Rangoon, Thayetmyo, Katha, Mandalay. Exp. 24 mill. 
1063. Euproctis inconcisa del. Artaxa dispersa. 
1065a. Euproctis macrostigma, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 29). 

ft. White ; antennae and thorax tinged with orange. Forewing with the 
costa tinged with orange ; the wing irrorated with large orange scales below 
costa to beyond middle, from cell to inner margin from before middle, ex- 
tending up to vein 5 beyond the cell and to termen between veins 5 and 3 ; a 
large round black spot in end of cell and two subapical spots, the upper small* 
Hindwing slightly tinged with yellow. 

Habitat.— Ceylon Kandy (Pole). Exp. 18 mill. Type— in B. M. 
1071a. Euproctis laniata, n. sp. (PI. D, ff. 10-11). 

ft. Head dull ochreous ; palpi blackish at base; antennae brown; thorax 
ochreous mixed with black; abdomen black with some ochreous hair at base, 
the anal tuft orange at tip ; pectus, legs and ventral surface of abdomen 
ochreous. Forewing black, the basal area irrorated with large ochreous scales ;• 
the costa orange ; ante- and post- medial ochreous lines formed by large erect 
scales and angled in discal fold ; cilia orange. Hindwing black, the cilia 
orange. 

9 Head, thorax and forewing clothed with very long rough white woolly 
hair ; the black areas replaced by brown ; the costa of forewing, the lines and 
cilia of both wings yellowish white. 

Habitat.— Madras, Palni Hills, Kodaikanal, 7500' (Campbell). Exp. ft 36 r 
$ 32 mill. Type— in B. M. 

^1072a. Euproctis dana, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc, 1903, p. 408 (PI. D, f. 32).. 
ft. Fulvous orange. Forewing with fine pale very slightly waved medial 
line and almost straight postmedial line. Hindwing fulvous brown, the cilia 
orange. Underside of both wings suffused with fuscous brown except the 
margins and cilia. 
Habitat.— Kashmir, Dana. Exp. 22 mill. 
1074c. Euproctis fulvinigra, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 4). 

ft. Head and thorax orange fulvous ; legs whitish ; abdomen fuscous black 
with the anal tuft mostly fulvous. Forewing orange fulvous with slight darker 
irroration ; the costa pale ; pale ante- and post- medial lines, the former angled on 
median nervure, the latter excurved at median nervules. Hindwing fuscous 
black, the cilia whitish ; the underside irrorated with whitish, the costal area 
white. 

$ . Abdomen fulvous tinged with fuscous, the anal tuft fulvous ; hindwing 
with the termen and cilia yellow. 

Habitat.— Sikiiim (Pilcher) ; Khasis. Exp, 26 mill. 

1077. Euproctis guttata, insert Bombyx flava, Fabr. Syst. Ent., p. 57a 
(1775) which has precedence. 
1093a. Euproctis xantiiosticta, n. sp. (PI. D, ff. 12-13). 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 201 

ft Yellowish white ; thorax mixed with rufous, Forewing suffused with 
rufous and with traces of some six waved and diffused lines ; two orang< 
below costa towards apex and a small spot above vein 3. Ilindwing yellow. 

9 White. Forewing with a few fulvou3 scales below origin of vein 2 ; two 
fulvous spots below costa towards apex, a point below vein G and a spot 
above vein 3. 

Habitat. — Bombay, Karwar, Kudra (Davidson). Exp. ft 28, 9 34 mill. 

1102a. Euproctis bidentata , insert Artaxa dispersa, Moore. Lcp. Atk. 
p. 50, pi. ii., f. 6, which has precedence. 
11026. Euproctis mirabilis, Swinh. Trans. Ent.Soc. 1903,?pl. 415 (Pi. D, f.28). 

ft Yellow ; palpi blackish above. Forewing, except costal area, overlaid with 
large brown scales and from before middle to the subterminal line with a num- 
ber of still larger raised blackish scales, leaving an ill-defined medial yellow line 
excurved and forming a patch at median nervure ; the subterminal line repre- 
sented by a series of silvery spots emitting short streaks below veins 7 and 4 ; 
the inner margin with large silvery scales and very long spatulate brown hairs 
from before middle to tornus ; terminal area with the vein streaked with orange. 

9 Forewing with the brown scaling and silvery spots carried outwards as 
broad fasciae to termen below veins 7 and 4 ; abdomen brownish. 

Habitat. — Andamans, Exp. ft 26, 9 32 mill. 

1114a. Leucoma pellucida, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc.1903, p. 381 (PI. D,f. 25.) 

White ; frons and outer side of palpi pale orange ; femora and tibiae tinged 
with orange ; mid tarsi of male with black streak on 1st joint above ; wings 
nearly hyaline, the costal edge of forewing and tips of cilia of both wings 
orange ; forewing with oblique black streak on lower discoccllular. 

Habitat.— Assam. Khasis. Exp. ft 46, 9 56 mill. 

1124. Dendrophleps semiiiyalina, 9 like the ft in structure, and appearance 
except that the wings are wholly white without any hyaline. 

Habitat — Sikhim ; Andamans. 

The 9 described, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1895, p. 14, and Moths Ind., IV., 
p. 491, belong to Caviria ochripes, Moore. 

Ratardid/e, 

1130a. E.ATARDA FURVIVESTITA, n. Sp. (PI. D, f. 15). 

9 Head, thorax and abdomen fulvous. Forewing dark-brown with a slight 
reddish tinge ; the veins streaked with greyish ; traces of numerous greyish striat- 
ed lines. Hindwing rather paler brown with a reddish tinge ; the veins greyish 

Habitat.— Assam, Khasis. Exp. 52 mill. Type — in B. M. 

HYPSID/E. 

1140a. Hypsa donatana, Swinh. A. M. N. H. (7) XI , p. 504 (1903) (PI. D, f. 
20s.) 

ft Head, thorax and abdomen orange ; palpi with the extremity of 1st and 
2nd and the 3rd joints black ; antenna; black except 1st joint in front ; tegula: 
patagia pro- and mcta- thorax with black patches ; legs white streaked with 
2 



202 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Mack ; abdomen with dorsal bands and sublatcral series of black spots, Forewing 
grey-brown, the veins streaked with white ; a basal orange patch with a black 
spot at base of costa, two subbasal spots and four on its outer edge, the one 
in cell small, elongate and displaced outwards ; a very large white patch ex- 
tending from the orange patch to beyond middle and from discal fold to 
vein 1, beyond the cell extending up to vein 7, its outer edge oblique and 
dentate, at vein 2 extending to near termen. Hindwing white with postmedial 
black spot in discal fold and subterminal spots below vein 2 and at tornus ; 
a terminal maculate band interrupted by the white veins and narrowing from 
apex to tornus. The underside with elongate spot in cell of forewing and 
rounded spot at upper angle ; hindwing with the costal area black, spots in 
cell and on discocellulars and a postmedial spot above vein 7. 

Habitat. — Tennasserim, Donat Hills. Exp. 60 mill. 

1308a. Mackobkochis flavicincta, n. sp. (PI. D, f. 21). 

£ Head, thorax and abdomen black-brown ; palpi orange except 3rd joint j 
neck with broad orange ring ; abdomen with orange-yellow bands except 
dorsally on 1st two segments, the bands broader on ventral surface, 
Forewing black-brown ; a pale yellow fascia in base of cell, then bent down- 
wards and in submedian fold extending to beyond middle ; a fascia on inner 
margin to beyond middle ; an eliptical spot in middle of cell ; a reniform 
discoidal spot with its lower edge slightly angled inwards on median nervure ; a 
small postmedial spot below costa and a band between veins 5 and 1, tapering 
above and constricted in submedian fold. Hindwing pale yellow ; some- 
brown hair at base of inner margin ; a black-brown terminal band extending on 
costa to near middle, its inner edge bent outwards at vein 5, then sinuous to. 
tornus ; the underside with dark costal fascia and subterminal spot below costa. 

Habitat. — Cachak, Exp. 56 mill. Type — in B. M. 

Family Arctiad;e. 
Sub-family Arctian;e. 
Key to the Genera. 
A. Forewing with veins 7-8-9-10 stalked. 
a. Proboscis more or less aborted. 

a 1 . Hind tibia; with the medial spurs absent. 

a 2 . Fore tibia? with curved apical claw Amsacta. 

b 2 . Fore tibia; without apical claw. 

a :i . Head and thorax clothed with rough wool- 
ly hair „ Manas. 

b*. Head and thorax smoothly scaled Creatonotus; 

l*. Hind tibia? with the medial spurs present. 

a" 2 . Fore tibia? with curved apical claw Estigmene. 

b 2 . Fore tibia; without apical claw.... 

e 3 . Thorax clothed with rough woolly hair. 

a 4 . Eyes small Phragmatolhs, 

J 4 . Eyes large » Diacrisia. 



THE MOTnS OF INDIA, 203 

b 4 . Thorax smoothly scaled Pericallia. 

b. Proboscis fully developed Nicica. 

B. Fore wing with vein 9 from 10 or 9 and 10 anastomose 
ing with 8 to form the areole. 

a. Proboscis aborted, minute. 

a 1 . Forewing with veins 9*30 anastomosing with 

8 to form the areole , Euarctia, 

b 1 . Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 

8 to form the areole Arctia. 

b. Proboscis fully developed. 

a 1 . Palpi upturned the 3rd joint porreGt. 

a z . Forewing with vein 3 from close to angle of 

cell ; hindwing with vein 8 from middle of cell. Axiopana. 
b 2 . Forewing with vein 3 from long before angle 
of cell ; hindwing with vein 8 from near end 

of cell Migoplastis. 

b l . Palpi with the 3rd joint upturned. 

a 2 . Forewing with the areole long and narrow Rhodogastria. 

b 2 . Forewing with the areole shorter and broad. 

a 3 . Hind tibia; with the spurs long , liaroa. 

b 3 . Hind tibia? with the spurs short Utctheisa. 

c l . Palpi porrect « Sccusio, 

e. Forewing with veins 7*8 and 9*10 stalked Parapladis. 

Genus nic^ea. 

1243. NlOEA LONGIPENNIS. 

Genus Pueagmatobia. 

Type, 

Phragmatobia, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. II., p. 7 (1828) fuliginosa. 

Chelis, Ramb. Cat. Lep. And. II. p. 25G (18G6) maculosa. 

Neoarctia, Neum. and Dyar. Ent. News. Philad, IV., p. 141 (1 893). beam. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect, reaching as far as or to just beyond 
frontal tuft and clothed with long hair ; eyes very small ; head, thorax and 
abdomen clothed with rough woolly hair, the head retracted ; tibia? with the 
spurs short. Forewing with vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 4*5 from angle, 
or 5 from above angle ; 6 from upper angle or stalked with 7 ; 7*8 - 9*10 stalked ; 
11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4 from angle of cell ; 5 from above 
angle ; G'7 from upper angle or stalked ; 8 from middle of cell. 

In the typical section the antennae of male are ciliated. 

Sect. II. (Chelis) Antenna) of male bipectinate with moderate branches. 

A. Forewing with the subterminal line angled in- 

wards at vein 4 1208. postflavida, 

B. Forewing with the subterminal line not angled 

inwards at vein 4 1205. parvuia. 



204 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



.Genus MiENAS. 

Type. 

Manas, Hiibn Vcrz., p. 167 (1827) vocula. 

Lemyra, Wlk., VII, 1690 (1856) externa. 

Borseba, Wlk., XXXI, 318 (1864) surcjens. 

Savara, Wlk., XXXI, 320 (1864) nee. Wlk., 1862 ,. t simplex. 

Buocea, Wlk., XXXV, 1983 (1866) simplex. 

Palustra, Bar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) III, p. 300 (1873) laboulbeni. 

Eutmnia, Wllgrn. (Efv. Svensk. Akad. Forh., XXXII (1), p. 

132 (1876) nee. Thorns. Col. 1857 scapulosa. 

Probosci aborted, minute ; palpi porrect, not reaching beyond the frons ; 
head, thorax, and abdomen clothed with rough woolly hair ; antenna; of male 
bipectinate with long branches, of female with short branches ; tibiae clothed 
with rough hair, the spurs short, hind tibia) with the medial spurs absent ; 
abdomen of female with thick flocculent anal tuft. Forewing with vein 3 
from towards angle of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 7-8-9*10 
stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with vein :3 from before angle of cell ; 
5 from first above angle ; 6-7 from upper angle ; 8 from middle of cell. 

cs^-^V, s^^^===^ ^ ^' Forewing pale 
P^fe^V^V ^__ z-r y^ i^sN, brownish ochre- 
^jpli^lu ^|— ===^ JF \P^ ous 1240. simplex. 

%s&' vf v\\vy OP I B. Forewing brown 

^a^ ' or blackish 1241. fumipennis. 

Mcvnas simplex $ \ 

Genus Diacrisia. 

Type. 

Diacrisia, Hiibn., Verz.,p„ 169 (1827) sannio. 

Rhyparia, Hiibn., Verz., p. 183 (1827) purpurea. 

Cycnia, Hiibn., Vcrz., p. 184 (1827) sordida. 

Cycnia, Hiibn., Zntr., 1, p. 7 (1827) non descr tenera. 

Euthemania, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. II, p. 68 (1828) ... sannio. • 

Spilosoma, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. II, p. 74 (1828) lubricipeda. 

Diaphora, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. II, p. 77 (1828) mendica. 

Arctinia, Eichw. Zool. Spec. II, p. 195 (1831) caisarea. 

Lacydes, Wlk., Ill, 683 (1855) spectabilis. 

Alpluca, Wlk., Ill, 683 (1855) fukohirta. 

Alpenus, Wlk., Ill, 686 (1855) maculosa. 

Aha, Wlk., Ill, 699 (1855) lineata. 

Andala, Wlk., Ill, 774 (1855) unifascia. 

Tsia, Wlk., VII, 1698 (1856) intricata. 

Sanura, Wllgrn. (Efv. K. Akad. Forh., XV, p. 214 (1858) ... lineata. 

Thyrgorina, Wlk., XXXI, 317 (1867) indica. 

Ilhma, Wlk., XXXI, 319 (1864) , lutescens. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 205 

Pyrrharctia, Pack. Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad, III, p. 120 (1804). Isabella. 

Echlida, Wlk., XXXII, 386 (1865) indica. 

Icambosida, Wlk., XXXII, 400 (18G5) nigrifrom. 

Acymba, Rarab. Cat. Lup. And., II, p. 235 (1869) spectabilis. 

Eyralpenus, Butl. Cist. Ent., II, p. 35 (1875) testacca. 

Spilarctia, Butl. Cist. Ent., II, p. 39(1875) lutea. 

Leucaloa, Butl. Cist. Ent., II, p. 44 (1875) .. eugraphica. 

Epatolmis, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc., 1877, p. 348 cmarea. 

Rhyparioides, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4), XX, p. 395 (1877) nebulosa. 

Thanatarctia, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4), XX, p. 395 fl 877) infernalis. 

Gonerda, Moore P. Z. Z., 1879, p. 395 peromata. 

Challa, Moore P. Z. S., 1879, p. 398 , bimaculata. 

Carbisa, Moore Lep. Alk., p. 41 (1879) venosa. 

Hyarias, Swinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon. 1, p. 184 (1892) niceta. 

Elpis, Dyar. Ent. News. IV, p. 36 (1893) , nubra. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect, hardly or just reaching beyond the 
f rons ; head and thorax clothed with rough hair ; antenna; of male bipectinate ; 
tibiae fringed with hair. Forewing with vein 3 from near angle of cell ; 5 from 
or from above angle ; 6 from or from below upper angle ; 7'8*9'10 stalked ; 11 
from cell. Hindwing with vein 3 from near angle of cell ; 5 from or from 
above angle ; 67 from upper angle or shortly stalked ; 8 from near middle of 
cell. 

A. Forewing with the ground color pure white. 

a. Wings sparsely clothed with hairy scales. 

a'. Tegula3 orange 1189. nigrifrons. 

b l . Teguloa not orange. 

a 2 . Abdomen crimson above 1199. rhodophiia. 

b-. Abdomen not crimson above. 
d\ Forewing with black point in upper 
angle of cell. 
a 4 . Forewing with antemedial series of 
spots angled on median nervure, 

and oblique series from apex 1188. multivittata. 

b\ Forewing with curved antemedial 

and subterminal series of spots ...1187. indica. 
b 3 . Forewing without black point in upper 

angle of cell 1200. melanosoma. 

b. Wings thickly and smoothly scaled. 

a\ Forewing with the markings consisting of 
more or less developed black points. 

a 2 . Abdomen crimson above 1185. crythrosona. 

b 2 . Abdomen orange above 1160. lubricipeda. 

b\ Forewing with maculate bands 1190. unifascia. 



206 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

B. Forewing yellowish white, buff, yellow, or orange, 
sometimes tinged with crimson. 
a. Hind wing with the ground color whitish or buff. 
a ' . Abdomen orange above. 
a 2 . Forewing whitish to buff. 
a s . Wings not suffused with fuscous. 
a 4 . Forewing with antemedial black or 
fuscous spot or point on costa. 
a s . Forewing without short sub- 
terminal streaks on each side of 
median nervules. 

a 6 . Patagia with black points 1161. subfascia. 

b°. Patagia without black points. 

a 7 . Femora crimson above obliqua ab. todaraQ 

b\ Femora orange above 1163. punctata $. 

b s . Forewing with short subterminal 
streaks on each side of median 

nervules 11G6. mona. 

b\ Forewing without antemedial black 
spot or point on costa. 
a". Forewing with incomplete series of 
points from apex. 

a 6 . Palpi crimson at base obliqua ab. dalbergce. 

b°. Palpi yellow at base punctata $>. 

c n . Palpi dark at base casirjneta ab. 

i 5 . Forewing with oblique maculate 
band from apex to middle of 

inner margin 1192. obliquivitia, 

c 5 . Forewing with curved subterminal 
series of spots from costa before 

apex 1194. flavens. 

b*. Wings almost entirely suffused with fus- 
cous black 1193. venosa. 

b"-. Forewing orange 1171. Jiavalis. 

b\ Abdomen crimson above. 
a' 1 . Forewing orange tinged with crimson. 
a 3 . Forewing with the veins not scarlet ...1184. rubitincta. 

b\ Forewing with the veins scarlet 1177. crythripldeps. 

b'. Forewing buff or yellowish white. 

a 3 . Forewing with black fascia on base of 

costa 1181. comma. 

b\ Forewing without black fascia on base of 
costa. 



TEE MOTHS OF INDIA. 207 

a 4 . Forewing yellowish white. 

a 5 . Patagia without black stripes 1105. stigmata. 

b 5 . Patagia with black stripes .1218. leopardina. 

ft 4 . Forewing buff. 

a 6 . Palpi crimson at base 1172. obliqua. 

b s . Palpi dark at base 1179. casignela. 

b. Hindwing orange or yellow. 

a 1 . Forewing with series of black spots. 

a 2 . Forewing yellowish white 1159. mult? guttata, 

b 2 . Forewing buff , 11G7. gopara. 

b 1 . Forewing with black point in upper angle of 
cell. 
a 2 . Forewing with some postmedial points... metaxantha. 

b 2 . Forewing without postmedial points 1169. bimaculata. 

c. Hindwing crimson or strongly tinged with crim- 

son. 
a 1 . Hindwing with postmedial black band. 
a 2 . Forewing with black stripe below me- 
dian nervure 1203a. bretaudiaui. 

b 2 . Forewing without black stripe below 

median nervure ,...1203. peromata. 

b 1 . Hindwing without postmedial black band. 
a 2 . Forewing without medial series of spots 
or maculate band. 
a 8 . Forewing with dentate black subter- 

minal line 1164. dentilinea. 

b s . Forewing without dentate black sub- 
terminal line obliqua ab. confusa. 

b 2 . Forewing with two medial series of 

spots 1195. biseriata. 

c 2 . Forewing with medial maculate band 

forking towards costa ....1198. eximia. 

C. Forewing brown buff to red-brown. 
a. Antennae black. 

a 1 . Hindwing crimson or strongly tinged with 
crimson. 
a 2 . Forewing with antemedial black point 

on costa obliqua ab. lodar a $ 

ft 2 . Forewing without antemedial black point 
on costa. 
a 3 . Forewing with postmedial maculate 
black line. 
a*. Antennae with the shaft black 

above .......1173. Montana. 



208 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

b*. Antennae with the shaft white 

above 1175a. albicornis. 

b 3 . Forewing with postmedial series of 

well separated spots castanea 9 . 

6 l . Hindwing buff. 
a~ . Forewing with ante and postmedial scar- 
let lines with series of black points on 

them , 1176. rubilinea. 

b 2 . Forewing without scarlet lines. 
a 3 . Forewing with the veins not streaked 

with black 1196. sordidescens. 

b s . Forewing with the veins streaked with 

black 1217. tigrina. 

c 1 . Hindwing black-brown 1175. castanea ft. 

b. Antennae whitish 1174. strigulata. 

D. Forewing grey, grey-brown or blackish. 

a. Forewing without series of white spots. 

a 1 . Abdomen brown 1186. fuscipennis. 

b 1 . Abdomen crimson above — 1 197. sikkimensis. 

b. Forewing with series of white spots. 

a 1 . Hindwing with the ground-color white 1213. fulvohirta. 

b 1 . Hindwing with the ground-color pale 

yellow 1227. impleta. 

1160. Diacrisia lubricipeda, Linn. Syst. Nat., I., p. 505 (1758). 

Bombyx lubricipeda alba, Hufn. Berl. Mag., II., p. 412 (1766). 

Phalcena lepus, lietz. Gen. Spec. Ins., p. 37 (1783). 

Bombyx menthrasti, Esp. Schmett., III., p. 334, pi. 66, If. 6—10 (1786). lliibn 
Enr. Schmett., II., ff. 152-153. Godt. Lep. Fr , IV., p. 362, pi. 37, If. 5-6. Stcph . 
111. Brit. Ent. Haust., II., p. 75, pi. 16, f. 3. 

Bombyx mendica, Rossi. Faun. Etrur., II., p. 174 (1790). 

Phalcena erminea, Marsh. Trans. Linn., Soc, I., p. 78, pi. 1, f. 1 (1491). 

Chelonia luxerii, Godt. Lep. Fr., IV., p. 360, pi. 37, f. 4 (1822). 

Spilosoma sangaica, Wlk., XXXI, 294 (1864). Butl. 111. Het. B. M., III., p. 5, 
pi. 42, f. 5. 

nabitat.— Europe ; America ; W. Siberia, Altai ; E. Siberia, Amur ; 
Japan ; Corea ; China ; Pdnjab, Murree. Exp. 34-46 mill. 

1163. Diacrisia punctata, insert (syn.) 1168 Spilosoma ummera. 

1192. Diacrisia obliquivitta, insert (syn.) 1170 Spilosoma jucundum. 

1171. Diacrisia flavalis, insert (syn.) Spilosoma lativitta, Moore P. Z. S, 
1865, p. 809. 

1165. Diacrisia stigmata, insert (syn.) 1182 Spilosoma lactcatum. 
1218. Diacrisia leopaudina, insert (syn.) Ardices liturala, Wlk. Char. Lep. 
Het., p. 12 (1869). 

1172. Diacrisia omjqua, Wlk., III., 679 (1855) $ ncc. ?. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 209 

Spilosoma todara, Moore P. Z. &., 1872, p. 574. 

Spilarctia nydia, Bull. Cist. Ent., II., p. 41 (1875), id. 111. Het. B. M., V., 
p. 32, pi. 85, f. 12. 
tone, Butl. Cist. Ent., II., p. 41 (1875), id. 111. Het. B. M., III., p. G, 
pi. 42, f. 6. 
„ confusa, Butl. Cist. Ent., II., p. 42 (1875), id. 111. Het. B. M., V., 
p. 33, pi. 85, f. 13. 
mollicula, Butl. A.M.N.H., (4), XX., p. 395 (1877), id. 111. Het. B.M., 
III., p. 6, pi. 42, f. 7. 
Spilosoma mandarina, Moore A.M.N.H., (4), XX., p. 88 (1877). 

howqua, Moore, A.M.N.H., (4) XX., p. 88 (1877). 
Spilactia howra, Moore Lep. Atk., p. 40 (1879). 

dalbergice, Moore P. Z. S. (1888), p. 394. Butl. 111. Het. B. M., 
VII., p. 28, pi. 122, f. 2. 
Spilarctia bi/ascia, Hmpsn. HI. Het. B. M., VIII., p. 55, pi. 140, f. 21 (1891). 
Spilosama bisecta, Leech Trans. Ent. Soc., 1899, p. 148. 
Differs from D. casigtieta in having the palpi crimson at base. 

Ab. 1 dalbergice. Abdomen of female orange-yellow Kangra. 

Ab. 2 confusa. Hindwing above wholly, and sometimes the 

forewing above, tinged with crimson Bombay, Travan- 

core, Burma. 
Ab. 3 bifascia. Forewing with the series of spots more 
complete ; underside with black fascia in and 

below cell and two postmedial bands Nilgiris. 

Ab. 4 todara. Head, thorax and forewing of male strong- 
ly tinged with red-brown, the hindwing with 
crimson. Female : abdomen orange above ; wings 
whitish ochreous with the black markings 

reduced Nilgiris. 

Habitat.— J af an ; Core a ; China ; India ; Burma. Exp. $ 42—58, 9 
50— 06 mill. 

1179. Diacrisia casigneta del. confusa, howqua, nydia, howra. 
Ab. 1 abdomen orange-yellow above. 

Habitat.— W. China ; N.-W. Himalayas ; Tibet ; Sikhim ; Exp. £ 46, 9 
52—62 mill. 

1167a. Diacrisia metaxantha, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., III., p. 293, 
pi, XLV., f. 14. 

9 . Head and thorax ochreous white ; head tinged with yellow ; palpi black, 
yellow below ; antenna? black ; tegulae and patagia with black points ; fore coxa) 
with black spots; legs striped with black above ; abdomen orange above with 
dorsal black spots on three medial segments. Forewing ochreous white with 
black point in upper angle of cell ; postmedial black points above veins 6 and 4 
and on one side below vein 3 ; two subapical points and two points on teimen 



210 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL IlISTOttY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

above middle. Hindwing orange with slight black point in end of cell and posi- 
medial point below costa. Underside of forewing suffused with orange to> 
beyond the cell, except on costal area ; hindwing with the apical area whitish. 
• Habitat. — Burma, Myingyan. Exp. 50 mill. 

1169. Diacrisia bimaculata insert (syn.) 1191 Thyrgorina discalis. 

1173. Diacrisia Montana insert (syn.) 1178 Spilosoma brunneum. 

1196. Diacrisia sordidescens, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., III., p. 304 T 
pi. XLVI., f, 2 (1901) = Spilosoma sordida, Moore, nee. Hiibn. 

1174. Diacrisia strigatula, insert (syn.) Chehnia cervhia Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. 
Mon., IV, p. 162 (1864). 

Genus Amsacta. Type. 

Amsacta, W\k., IV., 804 (1855) « marginalis. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect to just beyond the frons and fringed 

below with long hair ; 

frons usually clothed 

1\N lf\\ li^v\ with rough hair ; fore 







"ZW/fl&k isr^SirN V*^ P jfc ^ )fc w ^bise w ith more or less 

£**■ \ t / developed curved claw 

on inner side and short, 
Amsacta lineola $\ c I aw on ou t e r ; hind ti- 

biae with one pair of spurs. Forewing with vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 
4-5 from angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 7-8-9-10 stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing, 
with veins 3-4 from angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 6*7 from upper 
angle or shortly stalked ; 8 from middle of cell. 
Sect. I. Antennas of male bipectinate. 

A. Forewing with well-defined crimson fascia on 

costa 1237. insolata. 

B. Forewing with the crimson costal fascia very 

slight or absent lineola. 

1239. Creatonatus emittens insert Amsacta lineola, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 3, 1, p. 465 
(1793), which has precedence, and Spilosoma strigata, Wlk. Char. Lip. Het., 
p. 10 (1869). 

[Sect. II. Antennas of male serrate. 

A. Tcgulse edged with scarlet or abnormally with orange. 

a. Hindwing with the termen yellow 1234. flavimargo. 

h. Hindwing with the termen not yellow 1233. collaris. 

B. Tegulaa not edged with scarlet or orange. 

a. Forewing with the ground-color white 1232. moorei. 

b. Forewing with the ground-color pale brown... 1238. albistriga. 
1238. Amsacta albistriga. 

Laxva 1'3". Head prominent, glabrous red ; body pale red-brown irrorated 
with very small black spots ; dorsal and lateral series of white spots in the 
sutures between the somites, each somite with a yellowish red band with two 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 211 

small dorsal and eight lateral tubercles of paler red on each with tufts of reddish 
hair arising from them ; legs red, claspers pale red. Food-plants almost 
anything. (W. H. Campbell.) 

Genus Creatonotus. Type. 

Creatonotus, Hiibn. Verz., p. 169 (1827) gangis. 

Amphissa, Wlk., III., 084(1855) transiens. 

Phissama, Moore Lep. E. I. C, p. 362 (1859) transiens. 

A. Abdomen crimson above -. gaugis. 

B. Abdomen orange above * 1242. transiens. 

1231. Creatonotus interruptus, insert Phalana gangis, Linn. Amcen. Acad. 

VI., p. 410 (1764), which has precedence. 

Genus Estigmene. Type. 

Estigmene, Hiibn. Verz., p. 184 (1827) acraa. 

Phaos, Wlk., III., 627 (1855) interjixa. 

Leucarctia, Pack. Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad., III., p. 124 (1864) acraa. 

Epilacydes, Butl. Cist. Ent . II., p. 27 (1875) ...., simidans. 

Nyaca, Moore Lep. Atk., p. 43 (1879) ..„ florescens. 

Nayaca, Moore Lep. Atk., p. 43 (1879)... imbuta. 

Rajendra, Moore Lep. Atk., p. 43 (1879) biguttata. 

Sect. I. {Estigmene). Antennas of male bipectinate with moderate branches. 

A. Abdomun dorsally crimson. 

a. Hindwing with the ground-color yellow ...1215. imbuta. 

b. Hindwing with the ground-color white 1214. florescens. 

B. Abdomen dorsally orange 1210. quadriramosa. . 

Sect. II. {Rajendra) Antennas of male serrate. 

A. Forewing with the ground-color blackish. 

a. Forewing with maculate white patches ......... ceyhnensis. 

b. Forewing with white fascia. 

a 1 . Forewing with the white fascia bent below 
end of cell, then running to apex. 
a' 1 . Forewing with the upper edge of the fascia 
slightly excised beyond lower angle of 

cell „ irregularis. 

h" 1 . Forewing with the upper edge of the 

fascia not excised beyond the cell perrotteti. 

&'. Forewing with the fascia regularly curved 

to apex 1219. vittata. 

c. Forewing black with hardly a trace of fascia.. .1221. nigricans, 

B. Forewing with the ground-color white. 

a. Forewing mostly suffused with black 1236. negrita, 

b. Forewing not suffused with black 1235. laclinea. 

1220a. Estigmene ceylonensis, Hmpsn, Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. hi,, p. 347, 

pi. xlvii, f. 9 (1901). 



212 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

<j>. Head and thorax dark-brown ; palpi crimson at base; vertex of head 

white with brown spots ; teguloc 

white with brown spots and 

^M^ ^fT"" ^^^ j^ slightly edged with crimson ; 




§^MWi ^=^==^ §^ patagia with the lower half 

white with brown spots on 



■»>?, 



shoulders ; femora whitish to- 
Eatigmene vittata $ \. wards base, crimson above ; 

abdomen crimson above with dorsal, lateral, and sublateral series of brown 
spots, the ventral surface white with brown bands on terminal segments. Fore- 
wing dark-brown, with irregular white marks at base and small pink marks on 
inner margin, the basal marks conjoined to two irregular white antemedial 
conjoined spots extending from middle of cell to vein 1 ; two conjoined, curved, 
postmedial bands from lower end of cell to vein 1, with a small spot below 
them on inner margin and another above their outer extremity ; points below 
middle of costa and on discocellulars ; two postmedial points from costa and 
three obliquely placed from just before apex ; a curved series of six spots 
on terminial area between veins 6 and 1, and some points on termen. Hindwing 
crimson ; the costal area brown to beyond middle, with white point at middle 
and conjoined to spots at middle and end of cell ; a subterminal bar from 
costa to vein 5 ; a spot on vein 2, and a terminal spot on vein 1. 
Habitat— Ceylon, Hambantota. Exp. 32 mill. 

12206. Estigmene irregularis, Moore Lep. Ceyl., II., p. 72, pi. 107, f . 2 (1882). 
$ Head and thorax black-brown ; basal joint of antennae pink ; pinkish 
white fasciae meeting on vertex of head, thence diverging on tegulse and patagia, 
which last have black spots ; femora crimson above ; abdomen crimson above 
with dorsal series of short black bands, the ventral surface black. Forewing black 
with white fascia from base below the cell, its lower edge excised at middle, at 
vein 2 bent upwards to apex, its edges waved and emitting a small tooth at 
lower angle of cell. Hindwing pale crimson, the costal area black ; a black 
discoidal spot ; a subterminal band from costa to vein 5, a spot on vein 2 and 
a terminal spot on vein 1. 

Habitat— Ceylon. Exp. 32-36 mill. 

1220. Alphcm biguttata, insert Estigmene perrotteti, Guer. Icon. R. Amin. 
Ins. p. 514 (1844), which has precedence and del. Rajendra irregularis and 
Spilosoma lativitta. 

1235. Estigmene lactinea, insert (syn.) Rhodogastria frederici, Kirby, Cat. 
Het., p. 223 (1892). 

Genus Pericallia. 

Type. 

Pericallia, Hiibn. Vera., p. 182 (1827) matronula. 

Pleretes, Led. Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. I]., p. 77 (1853)... matronula. 

Alop», Wlk. III. 619 (1855) ricini. 

Anas, Wlk. III. 658(1855) , galactina. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 213 

Satara. Wlk. XXXI. 320 (1864) distinguenda. 

Arctioneura, Feld. Reis. Nov., p. 2 (1874), non descr ccquata. 

Meringocera, Feld. Reis. Nov., p. 6 (1874) distinguenda. 

Tatargina, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1877, p. 366 picta. 

Pangora, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 42 (1879) distorta. 

Melanareas, Butl. 111. Het. B. M. t VII, p. 29 (1899) imperialis. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect to just or well beyond the frons ; 
head and thorax smoothly scaled ; tibiae with the spurs short. Forewing with 
vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 5 from above angle, or abnormally 4-5 
shortly stalked ; 6 from upper angle ; 7. 8. 9. 10 stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6'7 from upper angle ; 8 from 
middle of cell. 

Sect. I. (Alope.) Antennae of male bipectinate with moderate branches, of 
female serrate. 

A. Hindwing crimson or yellow 1206. ricina. 

B. Hindwing pale brownish 1207. transversa. 

Sect. II. {Areas.) Antennae of male bipectinate with 

very short branches. 
A. Abdomen dorsally crimson or tinged with scarlet. 

a. Forewing with the ground-color scarlet 1278. i>icla. 

b. Forewing with the ground-color not scarlet. 
a x . Hindwing crimson. 

a 2 . Forewing with double oblique series of spots or 
maculate band from lower angle of cell to 

inner margin 1224. sipahi. 

ft 2 . Forewing with irregular white fascia from base 
to beyond the cell. 
o s . Forewing with the fascia continued obliquely 

to termen below apex 1223. pannosa. 

ft 2 . Forewing with the fascia joined by a band 

from costa before apex 1222. dentata. 

i T . Hindwing yellow, often partly suffused with 
crimson. 
a 2 . Forewing with white fascia in cell and subme- 

dian interspace 1229. imperialis. 

& 2 . Forewing with white spots in cell and submedial 

interspace 1228. galactina. 

c 2 . Forewing with narrow oblique medial fuscous 

band 1183. melanopsis. 

B. Abdomen orange above. 

a. Forewing with postmedial white band arising from 

costa well before apex 1226. tripartita. 

b. Forewing with oblique band from apex 1225. obliyuifascia, 

1228. Pekicalia galactina, insert Areas cana. Druce. 



214 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

A. M. N. H. (7) iii., p. 234 (1899), a form from Sumatra with the hindwing 
wholly suffused with scarlet. 
Sect. Ill, (JEthalidd) Antenna? of male ciliated. 

A. Vertex of thorax with dark stripes. 

a. Forewing with, usually complete, postmedial white 

band 1209. erosa. 

b. Forewing with irregular postmedial, usually conjoin- 

ed, white patches on costal and inner areas 1212. matherana. 

B. Vertex of thorax with dark spots 1210. distorla. 

1212. Pericallia matherana insert 1211 F 'angora rubelliana which is 

the local race of it from Canara, Nilgiris, and Travancore with the yellow 
replaced by scarlet. 

Genus Euarctia. 

Type. 
Cardnopyga, Feld., Reis. Nov. p. 2 (1874), non. descr. Hmpsn. 

Moths Ind., III., p. 492 (1896) lichenigera. 

Euarctia, Staud. Stett. Ent. Zeit XLVIII., p. 79 (1887) proserpina. 

1254. Euarctia lichenigera. 

Genus Arctia. 
Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect to just beyond the frons ; antenna: 
of male bipectinate with moderate branches, of female serrate ; head, thorax 
and base of abdomen dorsally clothed with woolly hair ; tibia? with the spurs 
short. Forewing broad, vein 3 from near angle of cell ; 5 from just above 
angle ; 6 from just below upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to 
form the areole ; 11 free. Hindwing with vein 3 from near angle of cell ; 5 
from just above angle ; 6*7 from upper angle ; 8 from middle of cell. 

A. Antennae with the shaft white above caia. 

B. Antennae with the shaft black above except sometimes 

at extremity..... ...... , tibetica. 

1202. Arctia caia, Linn., Syst. Nat. 1, p. 500 (1758) Hiibn. 
Eur. Schmett II. ff. 130-131. 

Phalcma erinacea, Retz. Gen. Spec. Ins., p. 36 ( 1783). 

Arctia caja var wiskotti, Staud. Hor. Ent. Ross xiv., p. 333 (1878). 
„ orientalis, Moore, A. M. N. H. (5), I., p. 230 (1878). 

Habitat. — Europe ; Armenia ; N.-W. Himalayas ; Khasis. 

Subsp. 1 americana Harr. Rep. Ins. Mass, p. 246 (1841). 

Tegulae with a broad white band in front. 

Habitat. — W. Siberia, Altai ; E, Siberia, Amur ; Japan ; Alaska ; Canada, 
Br. Columbia ; U. S. A., N. E. States. 

Subsp. 2 Utahensis, H. Edw. Ent. Am. II., p. 166 (1887). 

Head and teguhe crimson, the latter with a broad white band in front ; 
abdomen scarlet ; hindwing yellow. 

Habitat. — U. S. A., Utah, Colorado. 

1204. Arctia, tibetica insert (syn ) 1201 A. mttadra. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 215 

The type is a female with the white markings of forewings reduced to a few 
points ; hindwing with the subterminal spots conjoined into a band connected 
with the base by streaks on costa and veins 2 and 1 ; some spots on apical 
half of termen. A variety has the hindwing yellow. 

A. intercalaris is a distinct species. 

1205. Arctia Parvula is from Cape Coloney, the locality Himalayas is 
erroneous. 

Genus Baroa. 

Type. 

Baroa, Moore, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 28 pmctivaga. 

1307a. Baroa vatala. 

Genus Utetheisa. 

1280. Utetheisa elata, F&br=venusta Hiibn., is from Madagascar, Mauritius 
and Johanna. I ; the localities Sikhim and Sumatra.for the species are erroneous. 

Utetheisa cruentata, Butl., is from Mauritius, and the locality Sikhim for 
the species is erroneous. 

Sect. I. Antenna? of male bipectinate with very short branches. 

1279a. Utetheisa antennata Swinh. A. M. N. H. (6) xn., p. 215 (1893). 

$ Head and thorax yellowish white ; palpi at tips, antenna?, spots on 
vertex of head, tegulse, patagia, pro-,meso-and metathorax black ; legs striped 
with black ; abdomen white, the anal tuft tinged with ochreous. Forewing 
yellowish white ; a subbasal black spot on costa, followed by crimson spots 
on costa and above vein 1 ; an antemedial series of five black spots, angled 
below the cell, followed by crimson spots on costa and above vein 1 ; a 
curved medial series of black spots conjoined from costa to below cell, followed 
by crimson spots on costa, at origin of vein 2 and above vein 1 ; the postmedial 
black line strongly bent outwards in cell to discocellulars and below the cell 
broken up into spots, with a crimson spot beyond it at origin of vein 3, and 
black spots above veins 2, 4 and 6, followed by two curved series of irregular 
marks conjoined into blotches ; three black streaks below costa towards apex ; 
a crimson subapical spot and a series of black spots on termen and cilia. 
Hindwing white with terminal black band rather broad at apex, emitting a 
short streak above vein 5 and narrowing to a point at tornus. 

Habitat.— Nicobars. Exp. 36 mill. 

Sect. II. Antenna? of male ciliated or minutely serrate. 
1279. Utetheisa pulchella. 

Genus Secusio. 
1272. Secusio strigata. 

Genus Axiop(ena. 
1255. Axiopcenamaura. 

Genus Rhodogastria. 

Type. 

Rhodogastria, Hiibn. Verz ; p. 172 (1827) , aslreaa. 

1250. Rhodogastria astreas. 



216 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



Genus Miqoplastis. 
Sect. I. (Dondera) Hindwing of male with the termen strongly excised 

between vein 4 and tornus ; 
antennae with the branches 
moderate. 

1260. Miqoplastis alba. 

Sect. II. (Migoplastis), 
Hindwing of male with the 
termen not excised ; antennas 
with the branches long. 

1258. Miqoplastis coe- 
recta. 




Migoplastii correcta $ 



Genus Pabaplastis. 

Type. 

Paraplastis, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. III., p. 507 (1901)... hampscni. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint reaching vertex of 
head, the 3rd somewhat porrect ; frons with a slight tuft of hair ; antennae 
bipectinate with moderate blanches in both sexes ; tibiae with the spurs short. 
Forewing with vein 5 from well before angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 
6 from upper angle ; 7*8 and 9*10 stalked; 11 from cell. Hindwing with vein 
3 from well before angle of cell ; 5 from well above angle ; 6*7 stalked ; 
8 from middle of cell ; male with the termen strongly excised towards tornus, 
the inner margin folded over below ; the terminal area between veins 6 and 1 
on upper side clothed with rough scales. 

1259. Pabaplastis hampsoni. 

1230. Abeas arginalis belongs to the genus Callimoepha. Eypsidce. 

1244. Leucopabdus tigeina belongs to the Noclvidce. 

1245. Camptoloma binotata belongs to the Noctvidce. 

The genus Sebastia, Kirby Cat. Lep. Het., p. 383 (1892) = Moorea Hmpsn. 
Moths Ind. II., p. 32 (1894), belongs to the Eypsidce. 
The genera Calpenia and Callimorpha belong to the Ilypsidw, 



217 

DESCRIPTION OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS FROM THE 

PERSIAN GULF, GULF OF OMAN, AND NORTH ARABIAN SEA, 

DREDGED BY MR. F. W. TOWNSEND, OF THE 

INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH SERVICE, 

1901—1903. 
By James Cosmo Melvill, m.a., f.l.s., f.z.s., and Robert Standen, 
Assistant Keeper, Manchester Museum. 
Part II. Plates C, D. 
{Reproduced from the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 7, Vol. XII.) 
Continued from page 98 of this Volume. 
SYRNOLA MUSSANDAMICA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 1.) 
S. testa parva, Candida, nitida, polita, semipellucida ; anfractibua duodecim, 
quorum duo apicales heterostrophi, bulbosi, cseteris apud suturas haud pro- 
funde canaliculatis, nitidis, politis, ultimo longitudine penultimum et ante- 
penultimum anfractum exsequante ; apei'tura ovata, labro haud eft'uso, tenui ; 
columella obscure uniplicata. 
Long. 5*50, lat. P50 mm. (sp. min.) ; long. 7, lat. 2 mm. (sp. maj.). 
Hah. Gulf of Oman, Mussandam, 47 fathoms. 

A shining, white, polished shell, somewhat excavate at the sutures, twelve- 
whorled, of which the five lowest are much the same girth. The apical whorls 
are heterostrophe, in common with all of the Pyramidellidae. There is no 
Syrnola very near this in the North-Indian fauna ; indeed, it seems to impinge 

closely on Eulimetta. 

MORMULA PERSARUM, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 2,) 

M. testa pergracili, attenuato-fusiformi, ochraceo-brunnea, tenui ; anfractibus 
12, quorum apicalis heterostrophus, kevis, albovitreus, cseteris ventricosulis, 
apud suturas impressis, arete longitudinaliter costatis ; costis obtusis, crassis 
interstitiis spiraliter liratis, liris supra ssepe evanidis, obscure undique infra- 
suturas ad medium univel bi-albizonatis, ultimo anfractu infra peripheriam 
ad basim planato, simpliciter spiralilirato, anfractibus interdum varicosis ; 
apertura rotundo-ovata, labro tenui, dorsaliter varicoso, albo-stramineo 
vel brunneo ; columella alba, recta. 

Long. 12'50, lat. (ad aperturam) 3-50 mm. 

Ilab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

Allied to M. Macandrece, A. Ad., but with more regular whorls and ribs, the 

varices being fewer and less pronounced. The colour also is more uniform, 

being of a warm fuscous chestnut, and the outer lip not denticled within. 

A remarkably elegant shell. 

ACT^OPYRAMIS LMTITIA °, sp. n. (PL C. fig. 3.) 

A, testa parva, oblongo-fusiformi, alba, nitidiuscula, solida ; anfractibus 5 — 6 
quorum apicalis heterostrophus, laevis, vitreus, cseteris apud suturas gradatulis 
pulcherrime cancellatis et decussatis, costis ad juncturas sulcorum spiralium 
nitidis, gemmulatis ; apertura ovata, labro paullulum incrassato ; columella 

fortiter uniplicata. 

* Lcetttia, delight, gladness. 



218 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Long. 3, lat. 1 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Mussandam, 47 fathoms. 

Of the same character as A. granulata, A. Ad., from the Philippines, but 
only half the size (3 as against 6 mm.). 

There appears to be a close connexion between certain of this genus and 
some included at present in Miralda, A. Ad. It is often hard to draw any 
precise lines of demarcation between these genera. 

ACTjEPYRAMIS BREVICULA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 4.) 

A. testa minutissima, abbreviata, alba, compressiuseula, solida ; anfractibus 

quatuor, quorum apicalis heterostrophus, vitreus, laevis, cseteris suturis 

gradatulis, longitudinaliter crassicostulatis, spiraliter undique rudiliratis ; 

apertura ovata, apud basim paullum incrassata ; columella uniplicata. 
Long. l - 75, lat. 1 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib I., 15 fathoms. 

Very minute, but characterized by its compressed abbreviate form and rude 
ssulpture, the whorls all gradately angled at the upper part. The figure 
hardly shows the ribs sufficiently prominently, and there is no decussation or 
granulation to speak of. 

PYRGULINA MANORS (Melv.). (PI. C. fig. 5.) 

Turbonilla (Pyrgostelis) manorce, Melv. Mem. Manch. Soc. vol. xliii. (1898.) 
no. 4, p. 23, pi. i., fig. 22. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

We have caused this species to be again figured on a highly magnified scale, 
the result being to decide us that it should be considered a Pyrgulina, allied to 
Edgarii, Melv., and interstriata, Souv., in spite of the apparent absence of 
the columellar plait. The original specimens came from off Manora Point, 
Karachi, where they were plentifully dredged at a slight depth by Mr. 
Townsend. 

SCALA (CONSTANTIA) INTERTEXTA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 6.) 
M testa gracili, fusiformi, albida, delicata ; anfractibus 10, quorum apicales 
tres parvi, vitrei, laeves, cylindrici, caeteris ad suturas multum impressis 
pulcherrime regulariter decussatis, ad juncturas lirarum spiralium cum costulis 
fimbriolatis, ultimo anfractupaullum prolongato ; apertura obliquiovata 
labro effuso ; columella paullum incrassata, simpliei. 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7, Vol. xii. 
Long. 7, lat. 1*75 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Rarely has a small mollusk caused such perplexity as in the present instance. 
Two examples alone have occurred, but both have the apex perfect, this being 
non-heterostrophe, though in most other particulars the form and texture re- 
call such pyramidelloid genera as Mormida, Pyrgulina or Mumiola, especially 
one species of the latter genus — M, spirata, A. Ad. — which also occurs in the 
same seas. 



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NEW SHELLS from the Persian Gulf. 

Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged by 

Mr F. W. Townsend, of the Indo-European 

Telegraph Service, 1901-3 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 219 

Mr. Edgar Smith considers Cnoba egregia, A. Ad. (which should be removed 
from that genus), the nearest approach to our shell, and suggests that it might, 
at all events provisionally, be located in Aclis. In lip-characters it assimilates 
this genus, while resembling in the decussating sculpture a Oirsotrema, e.g., 
dentiscalpium, Wats. But perhaps the subgenus Censtantia of Scala is best 
fitted for its reception, for it seems comparable with C. Standeni, Melv. °, also 
from the Gulf of Oman, in more than one point. 

NASSA {ALECTRYON) H1MER0ESSA f, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 7.) 
N. testa minuta, ovata, albo-vitrea, delicata, apud basim et ssepe ad suturas 
pallide stramineo-suffusa, vel zonata ; anfractibus 6 — 7, quorum 3| apicales 
lseves, vitrei, spiraliter unicarinati, cseteris apud suturas gradatulis, longitu- 
dinaliter arete lsevicostatis, interstitiia undique tenuiliratis ; apertura fere 
rotunda, intus alba, labro incrassato, intus spiraliter striato ; columella 
paullum excavata, canali brevissimo. 
Long. 5, lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, at several dredging-statiens in lat. 23° to 25° N., 
long. 57° to 59° E. 

Depth ranging from 7 — 156 fathoms. 

We at first confounded this species with N. babylonica, Watson, and most 
probably the latter does not occur in the Persian Gulf region. The present 
species is locally very abundant, and the fine smooth ribs, small size, subpellucid 
substance, and less graduate whorls will serve to distinguish it. 

TRITON1DEA SOWERBYANA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 8.) 
T. testa ovato-f usiformi, solidula, epidermide setulosa tenuiter contecta, albida, 
infra, juxta suturas et infra medium anfractus ultimi castaneo-zonata ; 
anfractibus 8 — 9, quorum apicales 3£ pellucidi, Isevissimi, cseteris ventricosis, 
multum apud suturas impressis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis crassis, nume- 
rosis (ultimo anfractu apud 10), omnino spiraliter arctissime liratia ; apertura 
rotundo-ovata, alba, labro arcuato, crassiusculo, intus albo, multicrenulato ; 
columella recta, operculo corneo, tenui, nucleo apicali, canali bievi, paullum 
recurvo. 
Long. 31, lat. 18 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman and Mekran Goast, especially between Gwadur and Jask, 
from 25 — 30 fathoms, " usually occurring with Murex malabaricus " (F. W. T.). 
Also lat. 25° 20' N., long. 58° 50' E., at 90 fathoms, in company with 
Latirus pagodceformis, Melv., June 1903. 

This beautiful species was first pointed out to us as distinct by Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby. It is near the old Buccinum ligneum, Reeve, = Tritonidea cecillei, 
Phil. It differs in being of stouter build, with the whorls not so scalate. 
There is likewise an affinity with T. erythrostotna, Reeve, but the lip is never 
coloured in the slightest degree. 

• Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, sec 7, vol. iv, pp. 92, 93, pi i., tig. 11. 
■j- i/A.!fntis f pleasing. 



220 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

METULA DAPBNELLOIDES, sp. n. (PI. G. fig. 9.) 
M. testa eleganter fusiformi, albida, delicata, mitrali ; anfractibus 9, quorum 
4'i apicales albo-vitrei, lseves, spiraliter circumcarinati, supernis una.inferis 
duabus carinis prseditis, ceteris apud suturas gradatulis, undique longitudi- 
naliter pulcherrime et arete costatis (ultimi anfractus ad 46), costis rectis, 
hevissimis, nitentibus, interstitiis spiraliter liratis, infra, juxta suturas, plica 
spirali conspicua ssepe pradita, superficie hie il lie obscure stramineo maculata 
et depicta, ultimo anfractu (11 mm. in longitudine) gracili, paullum producto ; 
apertura anguste oblonga, intus alba, nitida, labro paullulum effuso, crassius- 
culo, intus multidenticulato ; columella incrassata, pernitida, simplici, basi lata, 
Long. 17, lat. 5'50 mm. 

Hob, Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Two species of the genus occurred together, the above being mitriform, 
elegantly spindle-shaped, and white ; the other is the Buccinum metula, 
Hinds, = Metula Muihii, Adams and Reeve, which should properly, we 
consider, be known by the duplicated name of Metula metula (Hinds). This last 
is larger, with coarser ribs and spiral liration, and does not possess the obscure 
straw maculations of the M. daphnelloides. 

The apical whorls are well worth examination. Four or five in number, out 
of a total of nine in all, they are glassy vitreous white, the extreme apex 
mamillate, small, the next whorl with one keel, the others twice spirally 
carinate, the remainder of the whorls being closely longitudinally ribbed ; ribs 
smooth and shining, white, the interstices closely spirally lirate. The mouth 
and lip of the new form resemble those of Metula hindsii, but are finer and 
the inner labral denticulations more numerous. 

MUREX (OCINEBRA) MARJORIsE, sp. n, (PI. C. fig. 10.) 
M. testa sol'da, ovato oblonga, albo-cinerea ; anfractibus sex, undique costatis, 
costis percrassis, varicosis, sex-fimbriato-squamatis, numero anfractum apud 
ultimum quinque, ad medium anguliferis, spiraliter squamato-liratis, liris 
rudibus, crassis ; apertura rotundo-ovata, labro extus pulcherrime multi- 
fimbriato, albo vel stramineo, crasso, intus nitido, 9 — lC-crenulato, canali 
brevirostrato, fere clauso. 
Long. 25, lat. 13"50 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, 15 fathoms. 

An exceedingly elaborately frilled species, the fimbria} being thick and 
squamate, with fluted processes. In form this shell recalls M. coceineus, A. Ad. • 
the outer lip is either white or straw-coloured, the canal is shortly rostrate, 
almost closed. M. cyclostoma, Sowb., is a near ally ; we have Erythraean 
specimens of this, but the form is much more rotund and the fimbriations in 
no way so elaborate. 

PER1STERNIA CORALLINA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 11.) 
P. testa solida, parva, ovato-fusif ormi, cinereo-albescente ; anfractibus 6, apicali 
lsevi, simplici, ceteris longitudinaliter crassicostatis, costis paucis, in ultimo 
apud 7, undique spiraliter rudiliralis ; apertura anguste ovata, pallide 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 221 

punicea vel carnea, labro intus denticulato, margine columellari paullum 
reflexo ; columella quadriplicata, canali brevi, recurvo. 
Alt. 13, lat. 9 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, near Maskat, 10 fathoms. 
A somewhat solid, small, but well-grown Peristemia unlike any species 
known to us, being superficially similar to a Coralliophila ; indeed, as suggested 
by the specific name, we should imagine it would be found ultimately inhabiting 
corals. The surface is chalky-ash, longitudinally rudely ribbed, crossed by 
equally coarse spirals ; mouth pale pink, ovate, outer lip thickened, seven- 
denticled within, columella four-plaited. 

MITRA {COSTELLARIA) DIACONALIS*, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 12.) 
M. testa fusiformi, solidula, albo-straminea, apicem versus attenuata ; anfrac- 
tibus 12, quorum apicalestres fusco-hyalini, perlseves, casteris apud suturas 
paullum gradatis, arete longitudinaliter costatis, costis lasvissimis, albis, 
nitidis, interstitiis spiraliter sulculosis, nitentibus, undique hie illic stramineo 
vel ochraceo, prascipue juxta suturas et apud peripheriam maculatis et infra, 
depictis ; apertura anguste oblonga, intus striata, ochracea, labro tenuir 
paullum effuso ; columella quadriplicata. 
Long. 13, lat. 4-25 mm. 

Hah. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, at 15 fathoms, among coral-sand. 
A Costellaria allied to M. scitula, Ad. } which, however, possesses the whorls 
more scalate and with darker maculations and shading ; it is, moreover, a 
smaller species. To M. impressa, Reeve, known to us only by a figure, there 
is a resemblance : this shell, however, is of a uniform dark hue, and the ribs 
seem more incrassate. The number of longitudinal costse in our species on the 
body-whorl is from 26 to 28. 

MARGINELLA {GLABELLA) ALCHYMISTA\, sp. n. 
(PI. C. fig. 13.) 
M. testa parva, fusiformi, nitidissima, subdiaphana, delicata ; anfractibus 
quinque, lasvissimis, apud suturas paullum impressis ; apertura oblonga, labro 
nitido, incrassato, intus supra conspicue unidentato, superficie omni dorsalite 
laevi ; columella quadriplicata. 

Var. A. CHRYSALCHYMA, nov. 
Testa aureo-straminea, dorsaliter, cum labro, omnino rufo-suffusa, vel spiraliter 

bizonata. 
Long. 5, lat. 2'50 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 10 — 15 fathoms. 
Var. B. LEUCALCHYMA, nov. 
Testa major, omnino Candida, immaculata ; labrum candidum, nitens. 
Long. 6, lat. 3 (sp. maj.). 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 10 — 15 fathoms; also at 156 
fathoms, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., and at 205 fathoms, lat. 24° 5' N., 
long. 57° 55' E. 

* Diaconus, a deacon. 

t Alchymista, an alchemist. 



222 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

A very pretty, shining Glabella, its spire more elongate than fusiformis, Hinds, 
with which it has been hitherto confounded, and as which it is inserted in our 
Catalogue-. It is comparable with 31. alia, Wats. ("Challenger" Expedition), 
from Cape York, N. E. Australia. 

If slightly local, it is very abundant where it occurs. The colour in the var. 
a is a subdiaphanous golden brown or straw, and there is a very conspicuous 
suffusion just behind the outer lip of deep rufous brown, bifurcating over the 
labrum itself. The commoner form is var. b, larger as a rule, and pure milky- 
white throughout, very smooth and somewhat shining. In one or two exam- 
ples an intermediate form seems to occur, the last whorl being here white, 
obscurely bizoned with two chestnut lines, or, indeed, occasionally trizoned. In 
fact, it is a variable species. 

TEREBRA HELICHRYSUM\, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 14.) 
T. testa gracillima, multum attenuata, aciculata, nitente ; anfractibus 22, quorum 
3.| apicales lseves, vitrei, cseteris paullnm apud suturas gradatis, laste stramineis> 
supra, juxta suturas, zona calosa spiraliter prseditis, hie illic regulariter allio 
et rufo maculatis, deinde, inter costas breves, longitudinales, obtusas, nitidas, 
prof unde interstitialiter foraminatis et sulcatis, costis anfractus ultimi ad 
basim evanidis ; apertura ovata, parva, labro tenui, canali brevi. 
Long. 24, lat. 5 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Mussandam, 47 fathoms. 

A most elegant species, the tumid callous zone just below the sutures delicate- 
ly variegated spirally with white and pale rufous, then obtusely ribbed, the 
interstices, especially the upper row, being deeply pitted. 

PLEUROTOMA (GEMMULA) NAVARCHUSt, sp. n. 

(PI. B. fig. 15.) 

P. testa eleganfcer fusiformi, solida, paullum nitente, pallide cinereobrunnea ; 
anfractibus tredecim, quorum duo apicales nitidi,hyalini,perlaeves, cseteris npud 
suturas impressis, ventricosulis, infra suturas spiraliter pulcherrime et arete 
nodoso-cingulatis, nodulis hie illic ruf o-maculatis, deinde fortiter uniliratis, 
simul ac infra, juxta suturas, bisulcatis, superficie intermedia lata, nitida 
longitudinaliter, obliquissime costulata, ultimo anfractu cseteros exsequante, 
infra cingulum liramque spiralem usque ad peripheriam lsevi, deinde anguste 
aulculoso, infra usque ad basim sulculis tornatis, latioribus, liris intermediis 
regulariter rufo maculatis ; apertura oblonga, intus planata, labro tenui, sinu- 
lato, haud prof undo ; columella fere recta, canali subprolongato. 

Long. 64, lat. 18, apertura cum canali 28 mm. longa. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, lat. 25° 19' N., long. 58° 10' E., 140 

fathoms. 

One specimen only dredged, at the locality just given, of a superbly tornate 

and sculptured Pleuroioma, near P. carinata, Gray, Kieneri, Eoumet, or 

* Proc. Zool, Soc. 1901, vol. ii., p. 425. 

f 'i\!xpvaov, an everlasting, from the bright rufous spottingt 

J vauapx"?, an admiral. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 223 

congener, Smith, being remarkable for ita regular beaded spiral zone just below 
the sutures of each whorl, above which are two spiral clearly-cut grooves, 
the middle of the upper whorls being most beautifully obliquely costulate, the 
costas terminated above by a double sulcus surrounding a narrow spiral lira. 
The last whorl, equalling the others in size, is almost entirely grooved and 
spirally lirate, the lirse below being rufous-spotted. Outer lip thin, perhaps 
not quite fully developed, sinus well marked, but not deep ; columella some- 
what straight ; canal broad and rather prolonged. 

The discovery of this mollusk, the finest Gastropod yet discovered by Mr. 
Townsend, if we except Conus chjptospira, M. & S., adds another magnificent 
Pleurotomid to the many fine species of this family obtained in contiguous 
waters, during the "Investigator" Expedition chiefly (such forms as P. symbiotes, 
Wood-Mason & Alcock, P. congener, Smith, and P. subcorpulenta, fcmith ° 
occurring to one's recollection at once), and gives another proof of its wonder- 
ful development in Indian seas. 

DRILLIA DIVES, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 15.) 

D. testa gracili, fusiformi, delicata, albo-cinerea ; anfractibus decern, quorum 
tres apicales brunnei, omnino hyalini, lgevissimi, cseteris apud suturasimpressis, 
ventricosulis, longitudinaliter obliquicostatis, costis anfractum apud ultimum 
circa undecim, undique spiraliter striatis, supra, juxta suturas, zona spirali 
rufa decorata, ultimo anfractu simili modo bizonato, ad basim producto albo, 
nitido ; apertura oblonga, labro paullum incrassato, sinu lato, haud prof undo, 
canali brevi. 

Long. 17, lat. 5 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 
Allied to D. chjdonia, M. & S. (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, vol. ii, p. 437, pi. xxiii, 

fig. 24), but the whorls are not angled, the colouration is quite different, and the 

spiral ribbing is coarser in D. dives. 

DRILLIA PHILOTIMA t, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 16.) 
D. testa attenuata, fusiformi, solidula, albo-cinerea, aspera ; anfractibus 11, 
quorum duo apicales vitrei, f usci, cseteris ventricosulis, regulariter obliquicos- 
tatis, costis anfractus ad superos paucis, crassioribus, in ultimo et penultimo 
numerosis, ad quindecim, et angustioribus, brunneo tinctis, suffusis, et maculatis, 
transversim nodiliratis, ultimo anfractu dorsaliter juxta labrum varicoso, 
brunneo suffuso et zonato ; apertura oblonga, angusta, intus alba, labro 
paullum effuso, sinu distincto, profundo, canali lato, brevi ; columella recta. 
Long. 30, lat. 8 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, off Bahrein Islands, 30 — 50 fathoms. 
Only one example secured of a distinct and handsome Drlllia, the nearest 
approximation to which is to be found in D. latifasciata, Sowb., from Japan, 
considered by some authors as synonymous with D. japonica, Lischke. There 
is no beading at the sutures, however, and the form is more graceful. 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, ser. 6, vol. xiv, pp. 160, 161, pi. iii, figs, 4—80. 
j- piXoTj/a,*}?, honoured. 



224 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

DRILLIA CONTINUA, sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 17.) 
D. testa attenuata, fusiformi, lsevissima, alba, nitida ; anfractibus 10^, quorum 
1£ apicales subvitrei, nitidi, complanati, cseteris longitudinaliter paucicosta- 
tis, costis exacte inter se continuis, lsevibus, albis, infra medium delicate 
uniangulatis, anfractu ultimo apud basim paullum pyriformi, numero costarnm 
ad octo ; apertura subobliqua, oblonga, intus alba, labro haud multum incras- 
sato, sinu lato, sed non profundo. 
Long. 10, lat. 3*75 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Mussandam, 47 fathoms. 

Akin to D. opalus, Reeve, and conspicuous for its exactly continuous longi- 
tudinal ribs, those of whorl succeeding whorl descending in a perfectly straight 
line to the base. These whorls are slightly once-angled beyond the centre. 
The whole surface is white, with a slight ochreous tinge, and smooth. 

DRILLIA GRANATELLA, sp. n. (PI. 0. fig. 18.) 
D. testa parva, Isete punicea, solida, nitida, fusiformi ; anfractibus 6, duobus 
apicalibus perlsevibus, puniceis, hie illic albo suffusis, cseteris crassicostatis, 
costis paucis, laivibus, nitidis, numero ultimum apud anfractum circa 7, 
superficie omnino laevissima, dosaliter juxta labrum gibberula ; apertura 
breviter ovata, labro tenui, albo-suffuso, sinu lato, canali brevissimo. 
Long. 5, lat. 1*50 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

This little species, though so small, is, in our opinion, a Drillia rather than 
Mangilia, being nearly allied to the beautiful series of Drillia — viz., dwjecta, 
Smith, per&ica, Smith, and resplendens, Melv. — peculiar to the same region. 
It is a remarkably smooth and shining shell, and the pomegranate-pink colour 
(like the fruit of Punica granatum, L.) seems characteristic and quite peculiar. 

DRILLIA LITHORIA* sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 20.) 
D. testa parva, fusiformi, pallide rufa, solidula ; anfractibus 8, quorum 2 
apicales leaves, vitrei, cseteris magnopere supra medium anfractum tumescen- 
tibus et spiraliter Doduliferis, nodulis paucis, gemmatis, dein, anfractus apud 
supernos, tornatis, ultimo anfractu basim versus spiraliter paucilirato, liris 
pulchre et minute gemmatis ; apertura quadrato-ovata, labro tenui, sinu lato, 
haud profundo, canali brevi. 
Long. 8, lat. 2"50 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf, Bahrein Islands, 6 fathoms, coral-sand. 
A small highly-coloured species, with conspicuous, spiral, swollen, nodulous 
an»le just above the centre of the whorls. We cannot connect it nearly with 
any other species. 

DRILLIA AUDAX, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 1.) 

D. testa oblongo-fusiformi, solida, parva, albo-straminea ; anfractibus septem, 

quorum tribus nitidissimis, hyalinis, lasvibus, apicalibus, cseteris trinis, antepe- 

nultimo quaternis, ultimo circa viginti spiralium lirarum ordinibus accinctis, 

ad anfractus supernos gemmulatis, supra suturas, etiam, lira spirali fortiori 

* >.lQo! } in sense of a precious stone. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 225 

decorato, omnibus his liris stramineo-ochraceis ; apertura ovato-oblonga, sinu 

distincto, lato, canali brevissimo, Iato, margine columellari excavato. 
Long. 9-25, lat. 2-50 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

A little species of bold contour, and very distinct in both sculpture and 
painting of the spiral straw-coloured lira; surrounding the whorls, wbich are 
not costulate. One spiral lira, acute and prominent, is especially noticeable at 
the base of each whorl, just above the sutures. 

A good many examples occurred in the dredging, as above, in shell-sand. 
MANGILIA COMIDELEUCA *, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 5.) 
M. testa parva, angulari, fusiformi, omnino albida, solida ; anfractibus 9, 

quorum duo apicales lreves, globulares, vitrei, cscteris ad medium angulatis 

longitudinaliter paucicostatis, spiraliter undique rudiliratis, interstitiis albis 

labro dorsaliter multum incrassato, angulari ; apertura sinuoso-oblonga, sinu 

perlato, margine columellari tristriato, canali lato, brevi. 
Long. 8, lat. 3 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Mussandam, 47 fathoms. 

Most resembling M. spurca, Hinds, found abundantly in the same region, but 
differing in colour (the new form being entirely white), in size (8 as against 14 
or 15 mm.), and in greater angularity of whorl. The somewhat sinuous or 
trigonous aperture and very thickened peristome are the same in both species. 
Only one or two examples have yet occurred. 

CLATHURELLA OPSIMATHESJ sp. n. (PI. C. fig. 19.) 

C. testa oblongo-f usiformi, solidula, nitida, cinerea, albo et fusco zonata ; an- 
fractibus 10, quorum 3 apicales, cseteris circa suturas Isevibus. planatis, alitor 
undique longitudinaliter crassicostatis, costis paucis (numero ultimum apud 
anfractum 10), spiraliter pulchre superne 3-, ultimo 10-liratis (ad periphe- 
riam albizonato), liris albo-cinereis, conspicuis, supra costas angulosis ; aper- 
tura oblonga, labro incrassato, echinulato, fusco et albo depicto, sinu lato, 
haud prof undo ; columella recta, canali lato, brevi. 

Long. 1650, lat. 6 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, 15 fathoms. 

Hitherto confounded with C. (Glypliostoma) ritgosa, Migh., a quite different 

species. It is a prettily sculptured and painted shell, with conspicuous beading 

and spiral well-cut liree. 

CLATHURELLA SYKESII, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 4.) 

C. testa parva, perangusta, attenuato-fusiformi, albo-cinerea ; anfractibus 8 — 9, 
quorum apicales duo lreves, cseteris ad suturas permultum impressis, angulosis 
ventricosis, longitudinaliter acuticostulatis, costis paucis, numero ultimum 
apud anfractum circa 9, undique spiraliter liratis, liris rudibus (in pcnultimo 
et ultimo circa G), prominulis ; apertura ovata, labro tcnui, sinu conspicuo 
profundo, canali longo. 

* xo/aiSti, altogether ; Xsuxos, white. 
t o-^i/naQny, ] U te in being discerned. 



226 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol, XVI. 

Long. 7, lat. 2 ram. 

Hob. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

We are indebted to Mr. Ernest R. Sykea for calling our attention to this curi- 
ous little species, so like a Fusus in miniature. It is one of the narrowest 
ClathurelloB in proportion to its length yet discovered, and is wonderfully 
symmetrical throughout. All the examples, of which there are several, 
are dead, and perhaps in life there may be colouration of some kind. It is 
common at the above station, in company with another nearly allied Clutlmrella 
that we hope to describe shortly. 

CLATUURELLA QUISQUILIA*, ep. n. (PI. D. fig. 7.) 

C. testa attenuata, fusiformi, angusta, solidula, omnino albida ; anfractibus 
9 — 10, quorum duo apicales bulbosi, keves, vitrei, cceteris paucicostatis, costis 
crassis, numero ultimum apud anfractum 5, spiraliter undique liris rudibus 
succinctis ; apertura ovato-trigona, labro incrassato, sinu lato sed non pro- 
f undo ; columella fere recta, canali brevi. 

Long. 7, lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Mussandam, 47 fathoms ; also Gulf of Oman, lat. 
24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E„ 156 fathoms. 

Attenuate and narrow, thickly longitudinally ribbed, and encircled through- 
out with markedly coarse lirations. It did not occur at all plentifully at the 
above station, only three or four examples having as yet been seen. 
DAPIINELLA (PLEUROTOMELLA) NEREIDUM^, sp. n. (PI. D.fig. 2.) 

D. testa ovato-oblonga, subpellucida, delicata, albo-lactea ; anfractibus 8—9, 
quorum 2^ vel 3 apicales pallide rufi, tcnuissime decussati, cceteris ad medium, 
angulatis, ad suturas paullum impressis, arete canccllatis, interstitiis quadra- 
tulis, costis lirisque transversis crystallinis, ultimo anfractu supra medium 
angulari, costis dorsaliter juxta labrum saope evanidis ; apertura anguste 
ovata, intus alba, labro tenui. 

Long. 7, lat. 3 mm. 

Hub. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E„ 156 fathoms. 

A crystalline form of unusual beauty. In form this assimilates P, filifera 

Dall,but the apical whorls are not smooth, but decussate. 

DAPIINELLA {PLEUROTOMELLA) AMPIIITRITES%, sp. n. 

(PI. D. fig. 3.) 

D. testa ovato-cylindrica, delicata, subhyaliua, albo-lactea ; anfractibus 7 — 8, 
quorum 2§- apicales albi, sub lente pulchrc decussati, ceteris longitudinaliter 
lirato-costulatis, spiraliter liris crassioribus succinctis, ad juncturascostularuin 
cum liris gemmulatis, nitidis, infra medium anfractus antepcnultimi ct penul- 
timi duabus spiralibus liris magis conspicuis, carinifcris, simul ac in ultimo 
ad pcripheriam ; apertura ovato-oblonga, intus hyalina, alba, labro tenui, 
canali brevi, paullum recurvo. 

* Quisguilice, trilley, 

"|" Nereidum, of the sea-nymphs. 

X AmphUrite, a sca-goddes-s, Wife of Neptune. 



Joiirn. Bombay Nat .Hist .Soc 



Plate D. 






4-. 






10. 





9. 




11 






]+. 





17 



16 






18 



19 



20 



J.Green del. eL iitK 



?.liy,i 



kj'H 'jrns jrm 



NEW SHELLS from the Persian Gulf, 

Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea, dredged by 

Mr, F. W Townsend, of the Indo-European 

Telegraph Service, 1901-3. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 227 

Long. 8, lat. 3 mm. 

Hub. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

The two species D. amphitrites and D. wreidum occur together, but we 
think it correct to separate them, though undoubtedly they are nearly allied. 
The present species is the less angular, rather larger, and of a more roundly 
cylindrical form. 

DAPHNELLA THYGATRICA » sp. n. (PI. D. fig. G.) 
D. testa parva, fusiformi, tornata, albo-straminea,longitudinalliter pallide rufo- 
tincta ; anfractibus 7, quorum fcrea apicales apice ipso lam mamilato, duobus 

pulchre sub lente decussatis, ceeteris spiraliter ad medium, ultimo ad periphe- 

riam duplo-carinatis, lirisque kevibus, fortiter succinctis, ultimo anfractu ad 

medium, inter carinas, recto ; apertura oblonga, labro tenui, sinu obscuro, 

margine columellari incrassato, albo, nitido, canali lato, paullum producto. 
Long. 7, lat. 2'50 mm. 

Hob. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 15G fathoms. 

A small Drillia in miniature, looked at superficially, but the decussate apical 
whorls are Daphnelloid. It occurred somewhat commonly at the above station. 

DAPHNELLA THIA f , sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 8.) 
D. testa delicatissima, subpellucida, attenuato-fusiformi, albida, nitida ; 

anfractibus octo, quorum 3£ apicales ochro-tincti, pulchre deeui-sati, ceteris 

tumidulis, liris arctis longitudinalibus spiralibusque decussatis, liris interdum 

pallidule stramineo-tinctis nitidulis ; apertura oblonga, labro tenui sinu lato 

baud profundo, canali brevi, lato, paullum producto. 
Long. D^Ojlat. 3 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, 15 fathoms ; Gulf of Oman, lat. 
24° 58' N.,long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 

Most delicate and beautifully closely encircled with decussating lira;, a faint, 
straw-coloured or golden tinge being sometimes observable on them. Tho 
specimens from the first locality mentioned are not so tumid on the body- 
whorl ; we cannot, however, separate them, even varietally, from the typical 
form from the Gulf of Oman. This differs from D. boholensis, Reeve, not 
only in the fine decussations, but in the canal being more prolonged and 
greater tumidity of whorls. 

DAPHNELLA BUCCINULUM%, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 9.) 
D. testa ovato-rotunda, bucciniformi, delicata, alba, interdum pallide ochraceo- 

suffusa ; anfractibus 7, quorum 3 apicales rufi vel straminei, tenuissime 

decussati, cseteris arete et delicate obliqui cancellatis, ad suturas impressis,. 

tumidis, inflatis, ultimo anfractu pyriformi ; apertura oblonga, labro tenui, 

sinu indistincto, margine columellari excavatulo. 
Long. 7, lat. 3*75 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N„ long. 54° 56' E., 156 fathoms. 

* 9u7aTT,p, a daughter. 

f QfTof, divinely beautiful, 

% Buecmulum, dim. of JJuccinuni, from the resemblance. 



228 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

An inflated Buccinoid species, very delicate and beautifully cancellate 
throughout, which occurred not uncommonly at the above station in company 
■with so many other, mostly minute, but hitherto unknown, mollusks. 

DAPHNELLA EPICHARTA*, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 10.) 
1). testa minuta, subpellucida, tenui, oblongo-fusiformi, nitida, alba vel obscure 
stramineo-diffusa ; anfractibus 6, quorum apicales 3 delicatissime sub lente 
decussati, ceeteris paullum ventricosis, fere leevibus, sed irregulariter spiraliter 
tenuissime liratis, ultimo anfractu interdum apud medium laivi ; apertura 
angusta oblonga, labro fere recto, incrassato, albo, nitide, intus simplici ; 
calumella recta, canali brevi, sinu perobscuro. 
Long, 5, lat. 1*75 mm. 
Hah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
A minute but puzzling form. The sinus and other Pleurotomid characters 
are so slightly expressed that it might at first sight be considered an JEsopus, 
or even an Olivella. The delicate decussation of the apical whorls shows the 
true relationship. It is somewhat frequent at the above station. Some ex- 
amples are almost smooth, the apical lirse being more or less obsolete. 

DAPHNELLA HEDYA f, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 11.) 
D. testa fusiformi, pallide castaneo-brunnea, apicem versus, simul ac ad basim 
delicate puniceo-tincta ; anfractibus novem, quorum 3£ subhyalini, castanee- 
punicei, minutissime decussati, tribus his proximis variciferis, tribus ultimis 
rotundatis, tumidulis, undique arctissime et pulchre clecussatis, ad juncturas, 
gemmuliferis, gemmulis microscopicis, nitidis, supra, infra suturas, spiraliter 
castaneo-maculatis, ultimo anfractu dorsaliter obscure bizonato ; apertura 
oblonga, labro crassiusculo, intus lam, sinu haud profundo, canali paullulum 
ad basim reflexo, puniceo tincto. 
Long. 14, lat. 5 mm. 
Hah. Persian Gulf, Sheikh Shuaib Island, 15 fathoms. 

Though at first sight this little species seems to present a familiar appearance, 
it is really distinct from any specie3 hitherto recognized. Compare it with 
D. patula, Rve., for instance : the chestnut markings are more or less similar, 
but the whole texture of the shell is distinct, the minute gemmulifcrous 
decussation, the elegant rounded whorls, the smallish oblong aperture present- 
ing notable points of difference. 

DAPHNELLA EUPHROSYNE, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 12.) 
D. testa attenuata, gracili, albida, tenui ; anfractibus decern, quorum quatuor 
apicales castaneo-suffusi, minutissime decussati, caiteris ventricosulis, un- 
dique spiraliter arete liratis, liris gemmuliferis, nitidis, inoequalibus, numero 
ultimum apud anfractum tres et viginti ; apertura anguste oblonga, labro 
tenui, sinu haud profundo, canali apud basim producto, lato. 
Long. 15, lat. 4 mm. 
II ah. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 15G fathoms. 



* t i, iy, r, t T0 ' ; -> pleasing, 
-j- nSus, sweet. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-E1GIIT NEW SHELLS. 229 

Doubtless allied to D. boJwlensis, Reeve, but possessing two more -whorls, 
while it is more graceful and attenuate throughout ; peristome not so effuse, 
canal more prolonged, and spiral liration more distinct and regular. Again, it 
differs in its beaded liration from any form of D. axis, Reeve, which it resem- 
bles in form, and which also occurs in the same seas. Were it not for the 
absence of columellar plication, it would more than resemble a Mitra of the 
subgenus Concilia. The peculiar beauty well merits for it the specific name 
proposed, of one of the three Graces. 

CYTHARA ELEGANTISSIMA, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 13.) 
C. testa pergracili, fusiformi, albida ; anfractibus 6, quorum 2£ apicales obtusi 
plani, minute sculpti, cseteris supra medium tenuiter angulosis, dein rectis, 
undique longitudinaliter rudiliratis, liris inconspicuis, spiraliter liris crassi- 
oribus succinctis (in ultimo circa 14) ; apertura anguste oblonga, intus alb labro 
sinu lato, haud prof undo, incrassato ; columella fere recta, basi prolongata. 
Long. 8, lat. 2*50 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. Also lat. 
25° 30' N., long. 57° 30' E., 88 fathoms, mud. 

A very elegant form, as implied by the specific name, with markedly obtuse 
apex, probably not quite full-grown. The coarse longitudinal lira), crossed by 
more distinct, but equally rough, spirals, are characteristic. Very rare. Since 
description, another example has been procured, with perfect thickened lip, 
sinus broad and shallow. 

CANCELLARIA (TRIGONOSTOMA) LUSCINIA*, sp. n. 
(PI. D. figs. 14, 15.) 
C. testa parva, attenuato-fusiformi, tenui, albida, vol pallid e olivaceostraminea ; 
anfractibus septern, quorum tres apicales tumidi, vitrei, perlarves, ceeteris 
longitudinaliter irregulariter sed arete costatis, ad suturas excavatis, costis 
crassiusculis, undique transversirn tenuiliratis, liris tenuibus superficiem totam 
circumambicntibus ; apertura oblongo-ovata, margine columellari triplicato. 
Long. 11, lat. 4 mm. (sp. maj.). 

Hab. Arabian Sea, lat. 18° 58' N., long. 71° 45' E., 40 fathoms. 
This is the little species alluded to by us in our former paper as having been 
dredged near Bombay, as above, in April 1901. It is allied to C. macrospira, 
Ad. and Rve., but much smaller in every detail. The shell is attcnuatcly spindle- 
shaped, thin, cither translucent white or pale straw-olive, seven-whorled, the 
three uppermost whorls being glassy, globular, and swollen, the remaining three 
or four closely but irregularly ribbed, somewhat excavate, as are nearly all the 
section Trigono stoma of Cancellaria, suturally. The transverse lira) surmount 
the ribs and are not interrupted. The columella is thrice-plaited. 

KLEINELLA SYMPIESIA^, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 1G.) 
K. testa perforata rotundato-ovata, alba, obesa, compressa ; anfractibus 5, 
quorum 1^ apicales vitrei, perlasves, cseteris apud suturas gradatulis, ventrico- 

* Luscinia, a nightingale. 
■\ tu/aWshtoj, compressed. 



2: > .0 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

sis, undique delicate decussatis, interstitiis quadratulis ; apertura ovato-lunari,. 
labro paullum incrassato, margine minute crenuluto, supra late excavato. 
Loug. 5, lat. 3"50 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Only two species, of which the best known is K. cancellaris, A. Ad., from 
Corca and Japan, have hitherto been described of this genus, and to these we 
venture now to add a third. Undoubtedly, they have a close family affinity to 
each other : the K. sympiesta may be known by its particularly obese and com- 
pressed form and tumid body-whorl ; the umbilicus i9 deep and the outer lip 
minutely crenulate on the margin. 

Judging alone from conchological grounds, the animal being absolutely un- 
known, we should assign to this genus a place near Ackeon, Montft., and not, 
as suggested by some authors, consider it one of an outlying group of the Pyra- 
midellidoe. Indeed, were it not for the total absence of the columellar plicae, 
we should regard it as a member of the genus just mentioned (Actaon). 

CYLICHNA (MNESTIA) BIZONA, A. Adams. (Pi. D. fig. 17.) 
Bulla (Cylichna) iizoua, A. Ad. in Sowerby, Thes. Conch, pt. 11, vol. ii.,. 

p. 595, pi. cxxv.,fig. 148. 
Hub. Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

A large local form (alt. 7, diam. 3 mm.), which we figure, as contrasting with 
the Chinese examples in the Cumingian collection and with others. It is a 
species of wide distribution, being reported from China, Singapore, Fiji, and 
Torres Straits. 

CYLICHNA JECORALIS, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 18.) 
C. testa oblongo-cylindrica, delicata, apud basim paullum effusa, apice imper- 
forate, plicato, subhyalina, superficie lasvi, nitida, antice posticeque spiraliter 
striata, pallide livido-olivacea ; apertura pyriformi, supra angusta, intus 
cinerea, labro paullum eft'uso, tenui ; columella obscurissime plicata. 
Alt. 11, diam. 5 mm. 
Hab. Persian Gulf , Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

Without a knowledge of the anatomy of these small species of Tectibranchs, 
it is often mere guesswork assigning them to generic positions. This species, 
however, seems best located in Cylichna, in our opinion. It is a delicate^ 
moderate-sized species, of a peculiar hepatic tint, this suggesting the proposed 
specific name. 

RETUSA OMANENSIS, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 19.) 
R. testa parva, cylindrica, albo-lactca, subhyalina, tenui, supra, truncatulo 
apice fere immerso ; anfractibus 3, supra excavatulis, marginibus apud 
suturas acutis. prominulis, superficie omni spiraliter sub lente delicatissime 
striata ; apertura postice latiore, oblonga, antice angusta, labro recto, ad 
basim rotundata ; columella obscure uniplicata, margine paullum incrassato. 
Alt. 4, diam. 175 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 15G fathoms. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 231 

A most delicate and minute species, of the same character as Utriculus com- 
planatus, Watson, from Papua (" Challenger " Hep. xv., p. G50, pi. xlviii, fig. 9) ? 
but that species is longitudinally striate. We follow Pilsbry (Man. Conch, xv, 
p. 203) in the nomenclature, and would refer to his reasons for the substitution 
of Eetusa, Brown, 1827, for the more familiar Utriculus, Brown (in parte), 
1844, non Schumacher, 1817. 

ATYS FLAVOVIRENS, sp. n. (PI. D. fig. 20.) 
A. testa ovata, in medio tumida, utrinque producta, tenuissima, subdiaphana, 

pallide flavo-virente, apud medium laevi, nitida, antice, simul ac postice, 

spiraliter paucistriata, apice plicato, labro tenui, paulluin eft'uso ; apertura 

anguste lunari ; columella uniplicata, 
Alt. 7, diam. 3 mm. (sp. maj.). 

Hah. Gulf of Oman, Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

Allied to A. tortuosa, A. Ad., from the Philippines and Torres Straits ; the 
shell is smaller, and more green than yellow-tinged. Mouth narrower, the 
anterior as well as the posterior striae being fewer and less pronounced. Many 

examples. 

MATHILDA CARYSTIA* , sp. n. 

31. testa gracili, fusiformi, eleganter attenuata, brunnea, brunneonigra, vel, im- 
primis, castanea ; anfractibus 12—13, quorum apicalis heterostrophus, pervi- 
treus globularis, cceteris apud suturas impressis, binis pracipuis Iambus 
carinis prgeditis, sexvel septem ultimis ter minoribus asperis, omnibus acutis, 
prominulis, interstitiis quadratulis, ultimo anfractu 9-carinato, quorum tres 
circa peripheriam maxime conspicui ; apertura fere rotunda, labro tenui, 
crenulato ; columella alba, crassiuscula, recta, nitida. 
Long. 12, lat. 3 mm. 
Hob. Persian Gulf , Koweit, 10 fathoms, mud and sand. 

A very select species, having the vitreous heterostrophe apex so character- 
istic of the genus ; turritelloid in shape, elegantly attenuate, the upper whorls 
with two principle carinas and three lesser keels, the lowest whorl nine-keeled, 
of which three, at the periphery, are the most important. The quadrated 
spaces at the interstices, and liraa extending longitudinally over the lower 
carina), have a beautiful effect as regards the sculpture. The colour is either 
pale chestnut, dark chestnut, brown, or blackish. The two other species from 
the same region, M. gracillima and zmitampirf (of which the latter has since 
occurred in the Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 5G° 54' E., 156 fathoms), 
differ in size, colour (both being white), and, in the case of M. gracillima, in 
squareness of aperture. A general family likeness, however, pervades all the 
members of this exquisite genus. This new species, and also the next, will be 
figured subsequently. 

SOLARIUM (TORINIA) ADMIRANDUM, sp. n. 
S. testa parva, depresso-discoidali, late perspective umbilicata, alba, delicata ; 
anfractibus quatuor, quorum apicalis profunde submersus, huic proximus 
* xipvov xapiWiov, from the chestnut colour. 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, vol. ii, pp. 379, 380, pi. xxii, figs. 18, 19. 



232 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

vitreus, tumescens, laavis, ceteris depressis, pulcherrimc sculpturatis, juxta 
suturas spiraliter carinatis, dein tribus liris minoribus, cum carina fortissima 
spirali exterius succincta, inter quam et peripheriam lira minore interposita, 
peripheria quam maxime acuta, pulcbre et minute echinulata, ultimo subtus 
ad basim imprimis sulco forti, dein duabus vel tribus carinis spiralibus con- 
spicuis praxlito, carina supra umbilicum, sicut peripheriali, pulchrc sculp- 
turata et echinulata, umbilico ipso simili modo echinulis, minoribus decorato ; 
apertura rotunda, peristomate tenui, carina peripheriali ad medium conspicua. 
Alt. P20, diam. 3 mm. 
Ilab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 58' N., long. 56° 54' E., 156 fathoms. 
Among very numerous examples of S. homalaxis. Melv., which appears fre- 
quent from Bombay northwards, three specimens occurred of a far more select 
form, which is now described. Its sculpture is most elaborate, the very acutely 
keeled periphery, bordered (as is the inner basal keel) surrounding the umbilicus 
with short mucronate crenulations, is most distinctive. The two species of 
Homalaxis found in the same dredging, and described earlier in this paper, are 
of a similar texture and bizarre sculpture, especially as regards the aforesaid 
carinal ornamentation. 

With regard to the Mollusca treated of in this paper, it will be well to 
state that four types are in the collection of Mr. E. 11. Sykes, viz., Rissoina 
regktomoides, Eulima 10-gyra, Fluxina Dalliana, and Clathurella SyJcesii. All 
the rest, with co-types of the last two just mentioned, will be placed in the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate A. 

Fig. 1. Emarginula undulata. 

Fig. 2. Camilla. 

Fig. 3. Cyclostrema Jienjamense. 

Fig. 4. supremum. 

Fig. 5. anneUarium, 

Fig. 6. promiuulum. 

Fig. 7. ■ ■ euchilopteron. 

Fig. 8. Liotia romalea. 

Fig. 9. echinacaulha. 

Fig. 10. Enida persica. 

Fig. 11. Euchelus Tonmsendiauus. 

Fig. 12. Solariella zacalles. 

Fig. 13. Calliostoma tlirincoma. 

Fig. 14. Leptothyra rubens. 

Fig. 15. Trichotropis pulcherrima. 

Fig. 16. Solarium \Torinia~) ccnlaleum. 

Plate B. 

Fig. 1. Solarium abyssorum. 
Fig. 2. Fluxina Dalliana. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SIXTY-EIGHT NEW SHELLS. 



233 



Fig, 3. Homalaxis rotula-catharinea. 

Fig. 4. ■ cornu-Ammonis. 

Fig. 5. Cerithium rerecundum. 

Fig. 6. Scissurella cetheria. 

Fig. 7. Fossarus {Coathouyia) unicarinalis. 

Fig. 8. Adeorbis axiotimus. 

Fig. 9. Erato recondita. 

Fig. 10. , Var. haplochila. 

Fig. 11. Eulima decagyra. 
Fig. 12. Rissohia isosceles. 

Fig. 13. {Ztbind) registomoides. 

Fig. 14. Eulimella carmanica. 

Fig. 15. Pleurotoma (Gemmula) navarchus. 

Plate C. 

Fig. 1. Syrnola mussand arnica. 
Fig. 2. Mor mida per sarum. 
Fig. 3. Actaopyramis latitia. 

Fig. 4. brevicula. 

Fig. 5. Pyrgulina manora', Melv., var. 

Fig. 6. Scala (Constantia) intertexta. 

Fig. 7. Nassa (Alectryon) himeroessa. 

Fig. 8. Tritonidea Soiverbyana. 

Fig. 9. 3/etula daphnelloides. 

Fig. 10. Murex ( Ocinebra) 3Iarjorice. 

Fig. 11. Peristernia corallina. 

Fig. 12. Mitra (Costellaria) diaconalis. 

Fig. 13. Marginalia (Gla.bella) alchymista. 

Fig. 14. Terebra helichrysum. 

Fig. 15. Drillia dives. 

Fig. 16. philotima. 

Fig. 17. continua. 

Fig. 18. granatella. 

Fig. 19. Clathurella opsimailies. 
Fig. 20. Drillia lithoria. 

Plate D. 

Mr/. 1. Drillia audax. 

Fig. 2. Daphnella nere'idum. 

Fig. 3. Amphitrites. 

Fig. 4. Clathurella Sykesii. 

Fig. 5. Mangilia comideleuca. 

Fig, 6. Daphnella thygatrica. 

Fig. 7. Clathurella quisquilia. 

Fig. 8. Daphnella thia. 




234 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XVI. 

Fig. 9. Daphnella buccinulwn. 

Fig. 10. epicharta. 

Fig. 11. hedya. 

Fig. 12. — — Ewplirosyne. 

Fig. 13. Cythara elegantissima. 

Figs. 14, 15. Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) luscinia. 

Fig. 16. Kleinella sympiesta. 

Fig. 17. Cylichna (Mnestia) hizona, A. Ad., var. 

Fig. 18. - — jecoralis. 

Fig. 19. Retusa omanensis. 

Fig. 20. Atysfiavovirens. 



2: J ,5 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SNAKES FROM 

UPPER BURMA. 

(With a Plate.) 

By G. A. Boulenger, f.r.s., v.p.z.s. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on March 1905.) 
A small series of Reptiles collected in the neighbourhood of Mogok, 
Upper Burma, by my friend Mr. Herbert Hampton, and presented by 
him to the British Museum, contains besides examples of little known 
species, such as Acanthosaura kakhienensis, Anders. [Caloes fece, 
Blgr.), Dinodon septentrionalis, Gthr., and Amblycephalus andersonii y 
Blgr., two snakes which are evidently new to Science, and of which J 
have much pleasure in sending descriptions to the Bombay Natural 
History Society. 

OUGODON HERBERTI. (PI. fig. 1). 

Nasal undivided ; portion of rostral seen from above nearly or quite 
as long as its distance from the frontal ; no internasals, the rostral 
wedged in between the nasals and in contact with the prefrontals ; fron- 
tal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals ; no loreal, the prefrontal in contact with the second labial ; ono 
pre and one postocular ; temporals 1+2 ; six upper labials, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; three or four lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. Scales in 13 
rows. Ventrals 189-190 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 37-40. Dark grey 
above, with four, dark brown longitudinal bands, the median pair sepe- 
rated by a yellowish brown vertebral stripe, which, anteriorly, may be 
broken up into elongate, hexagonal, black-edged spots ; an oblique 
yellowish streak on each side of the nape, coverging towards its fellow 
on the occiput ; head dark brown, with two yellow spots on the sides, 
one in front of the eye, the other behind ; orange-red below, almost 
every other ventral shield with a black square spot at the outer end. 

Total length 560 millimetres ; tail 80. 

Two specimens, male (v. 190 ; c. 40), and female (v. 189 ; c. 37). 

This very well characterized, species differs from all those with which 
I am acquainted in having only 13 rows of scales, a character asciibed 
to the insufficiently described O, dorsale, Berthokl, in which the anal 
is single. O. brevicauda, Gthr., is the only other species known to 
lack the internasal shields. 



236 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Amblycephalus hamptoni. 
(PI. fig. 2). 

Rostral a little broader than deep ; internasals three-fifths the length 
of the prefrontals, which enter the eye ; frontal slightly longer than 
broad, longer than its distance from the end of the snout, two-thirds 
the length of the parietals ; supraocular about half the width of the 
frontal ; loreal nearly twice as deep as long ; two prseoculars and one 
postocular, the latter produced to below the eye, which is thus excluded 
from the labials by a narrow rim ; temporals short, 1 + 2 ; seven or eight 
upper labials, last longest ; three pairs of large chin-shields. Scales in 
15 rows, dorsals feebly keeled. Ventrals 202 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 
96. Body strongly compressed. Pale brown above, with numerous 
blackish bars interrupted on the middle of the back ; two black longitu- 
dinal streaks on the back of the head and nape ; sides of head and lower 
parts yellow ; a few black dots on the belly and under the tail. 

Total length 555 millimetres ; tail 150. 

A single male specimen. 

This species appears to be most nearly related to the imperfectly 
describe^ A. modestits, Theob., from Pegu. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

Fig. 1. OUgodon herberti, upper, lower, and side views of head 
and anterior part of body, and enlarged upper and side views of head. 

Fig. 2. Amblycephalus hamptoni, upper view of head and 
anterior part of body, and enlarged upper, lower, and side views of 
head. 



Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc. 







fcr 



Kr 




.Green dei.etli'tti 




Mmtern Bros .imp .London. 



NEW SNAKES FROM BURMA. 



1 OK^odon herberti. 



2 . Amblycepnalus hampt om 



237 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 



BY 

F. V. Theobald, M,A., 
Communicated by E. Ernest Green, F. E. S. 

(With Plates A & B.) 

A small colleotion of mosquitoes taken by Mr. E. E. Green in Ceylon 
included four new genera and eight new species which are described 
here. Besides these, a single 9 of Donitz's Anopheles deceptor ; 9 '& 
of Myzorhynchus barbirostris, Van der Wulp ; 9 's of Giles Stegomyia 
pseudotceniata, also 9 Tceniorhynchis ager, Giles ; Culex tigripes, Grand- 
pre ; Mansonia annulifera, Theobald— all new to the Island. 

The Anopheles deceplor shows, on examination of the scales, to belong 
to Meigen's genus Anopheles as recently restricted by me. 

Some $ and 9 Myzomyia ross u, Giles, were very pale varieties. No 
other species in the collection had any peculiarities. 

Two of the new genera Lophoceraomyia and Rachionotomya are of 
particular interest on account of their peculiar structure, the latter 
having a large scutellar spine, the former a strange modification of the 
verticillate hairs which appear to form definite organs ; what purpose 
they serve is at present unknown. 

Genus MEGARHINUS, Rob. Desvoidy. 
Essai sur les tribu des Culicides, Mem. Soc. d Hist, de Paris, TIT, p. 412 

(1827). 

Megahhinus minimus, nov. pp. (fig. 1). 

Thorax shiny black with metallic bronzy scales, some blue and greeii 
scales at the base of the wings ; pleurae silvery white ; prothoracic 
lobes blue. Head bronzy brown with metallic green and blue border 
around the eyes. Palpi long, acuminate and thin, deep violet ; pro- 
boscis deep violet. Abdomen metallic violet and purple with creamy 
lateral spots, the apical segment coppery red ; basal lobes of genitalia 
deep brown. Legs brown with violet reflections, creamy at the base 
of the femora and below the femora. 

$ Head black with deep bronzy brown flat scales behind and over 
most of the surface with sometimes metallic reflections and with 
metallic green and blue scales around the eyes. Two black onsetse 
project forwards between the eyes and one on each side of the median 
pair. Antennje brown, the basal joint large and globular, black with 



238 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

a grey sheen at the sides. Clypeus black ; proboscis metallic violet. 
Palpi long, thin, metallic violet, acuminate ; composed of four segments, 
the acuminate apical one slightly longer than the penultimate segment, 
the penultimate and the preceding one nearly equal (fig* 1 b) ; on the 
penultimate segment are a few short black spines* 

Thorax shiny black clothed with metallic brassy flat scales of two sizes, 
mostly spindle-shaped, with a patch of pale blue ones at the base of the 
wings and a few rather short black spines ; just behind the root of the 
wings are some large flat apple-green scales. Prothoracic lobes clothed 
with flat mauve and pale blue scales ; scutellum black with small flat 
brassy, green and coppery scales on the large mid lobe, dusky over on 
the lateral lobes ; border-bristles brown ; metanotum dark-brown ; 
pleura? yellowish-brown with dense flat snowy white scales. Abdomen 
expanding apically, metallic deep blue and violet basally and extending 
to the last few apical segments which are more brilliant, their bases 
with green and blue scales, their apical portions with violet and coppery 
red, the apical segment and to some extent the basal lobes of the 
genitalia with fiery red and coppery scales ; no caudal tuft (fig. 1 c), but 
the two last segments have short, dense, black lateral bristles ; on the 
first segment is a large creamy lateral patch, there are also more or 
less prominent basal creamy lateral patches to the other segments ; 
venter creamy yellow, except for the black apex. 

Legs uniformly black with metallic violet scales ; fore ungues un- 
equal, the larger uniserrated, of the hind legs also unequal, and apparent- 
ly simple, three of the hind small, much curved, equal and simple. 

Wings (fig. la) small, scales brown, those at the base showing violet 
reflections; the first sub-marginal cell so minute that it is scarcely 
perceptible to the naked eye ; second posterior cell fairly large and broad 
about half the length of its stem ; the third long vein carried well past 
the cross-veins as a scaled vein ; supernumerary cross- vein about three 
times its own length nearer the apex of the wing than the mid, mid 
cross-vein small, joining the posterior cross-vein which is about five 
times the length of the mid. Halteres dull ochreous. 

Length of body 6 mm ; of palpi 4 mm. 

Habitat : Yatiyantota, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : March, (1902). 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 239 

Observations. — Described from a single perfect £. Whether it will 
oome in Megarhinus or Toxorhynchites it is not possible to say, but I 
fancy it is a true Megarhinus. Its small size will at once separate it 
from all known members of the two genera. It is also peculiar in 
having spines or bristles in the place of a caudal fan and in the very 
minute first fork-cell. The abdomen shows all manner of metallic and 
color reflections. 

Genus STEGOMYIA, Theobald. 
Mono. Cidlcid L, p. 283 (1901.) 
Stegomyia annulirostris, nov. sp. 

Head creamy grey ; proboscis black with a median white area. 
Thorax brown with creamy white scales scattered over it, most dense in 
front ; pleurae brown with white puncta. Abdomen deep brown, the 
third, fourth and fifth segments with basal median triangular white 
spots, apical segments yellow-scaled, lateral white median spots to all 
the segments. Legs with very narrow pale basal bands to some of the 
tore and mid tarsi, broader ones on the hind pair ; knee spots snowy 
white, also base of hind femora. 

$ Head covered with flat silky creamy grey scales which have a 
rusty brown hue at the sides when seen in some lights. Proboscis 
black with a clear median white band. Palpi short, black-sealed, the 
apex apparently truncated. Antennae brown, basal segment testaceous. 

Thorax black clothed with rather long, thick silky white and creamy 
narrow curved scales, most densely in front and rather broader scales 
in front of the scutellum ; golden-brown bristles project over the 
roots of the wings ; scutellum covered with small flat white scales 
and with golden-brown border bristles ; metanotum reddish-brown ; 
pleurae brown with patches of white scales. Abdomen deep blackish- 
brown, the third, fourth and fifth segments with a basal white median 
spot, somewhat triangular on the fourth and fifth segments, the apical 
segments with yellowish and creamy scales, except the extreme apex 
which is black, no markings dorsally on the first and second segment, 
each segment with lateral median white spots ; border-bristles small 
pale golden. 

Legs brown with some basal white bands : on the fore legs there is a 
narrow band at the base of the metatarsus and first two tarsi ; the base 
of the femora paler than the remainder ; in the mid legs traces of 
similar pale bands and a white prominent knee spot, on the venter 



240 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

the whole foot is shiny creamy white ; in the hind legs the greater 
part of the femora are white, the apex only dark and the white basal 
bands on the metatarsi and first three tarsi broader than on the 
other feet ; fore and mid ungues equal, uniserrated, the hind equal 
and simple. 

Wings with brown scales, fork-cells short, upper border darker than 
the rest of the wing ; first sub-marginal longer and slightly narrower 
than the second posterior cell, its stem nearly as long as the cell, stem 
of the second posterior cell as long as the cell ; posterior cross- vein 
some distance from the mid cross-vein. Lateral vein scales rather long. 
Halteres with pale stem and fuscous knot. 

Length 4 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : January, (1902). 

Observations. — Described from a single 9 . 

It differs from all known Stegomyias in having a banded proboscis 
and in thoracic ornamentation. The mid tarsi look all dull white in some 
lights ; this is due, I fancy, to the neutral surface of the segments being 
pale-scaled. The thorax is slightly rubbed, but is evidently entirely 
covered with the pale scales which now and again present the same 
rusty hue as that seen in the head scales. 

Stegomyia mediopunctata, nov. sp. 

Head with a snowy- white median area, black at the sides and with 
a few white lateral scales ; proboscis black, unhanded ; palpi black with 
white apex. Thorax deep brown, the front with a broad area of large 
white scattered narrow-curved scales, the remainder with pale dull 
brown scales ; scutellum white-scaled in middle, brown laterally ; 
abdomen black, segments with basal median white spots. Legs deep 
brown, the fore and mid metatarsi and first tarsals with small white apical 
bands, the hind with broad white basal bands to the metatarsi and first 
tarsal, second tarsal all black, third nearly all white except for a minute 
black apex, fourth black. 

9 Head clothed with large flat scales, those on the middle snowy- 
white, on each side black with a few white ones on the extreme sides, 
a few black bristles project forwards ; clypeus black ; proboscis black ; 
palpi black scaled with snowy-white apical scales ; antenna? deep brown, 
basal segment black with a crown of snowy-white scales. Thorax deep 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 241 

brown covered with rather large irregular narrow-curved scales, those 
in the middle in front being white, those behind and at the sides pale 
dull brown ; scutellum prominently trilobed, the median lobe with large 
flat white scales, the lateral lobes with large flat, dull brown scales and 
with brown border-bristles ; pleurae brown with patches of white scales. 

Fore legs brown, a narrow pale band at the base of the metatarsus 
and first tarsal, the mid legs the same, only there is a distinct snowy- 
white knee spot ; hind legs with the base and venter of femora white, 
the base of the metatarsi and first tarsal segment white, the second tarsal 
all black, the third all white but for a small black apex, last tarsal small 
all black. 

Wings with typical brown Stegomyian scales ; first sub-marginal 
cell longer and slightly narrower than the second posterior cell, 
its base slightly nearer the base of the wing, its stem about half the 
length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior nearly as long as the 
cell ; posterior cross-vein about twica its own length distant from the 
mid. Halteres with fuscous knob. 

Length 3 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : November (1901). 

Observations. — Described from a single female in excellent condition. 
The curious leg banding will at once separate it from all known 
Stegomyias. 

Genus TRICHORHYNCHUS, nov. gen. 

Head clothed with small flat scales in front forming a broadish area, 
similar ones at the sides, narrow-curved ones over most of the median 
area and many narrow upright forked ones ; antennae with long seg- 
ments, verticillate hairs scanty, the internodes densely hairy ; palpi of $ 
rather prominent, apical segment long, slightly swollen. Thorax with 
narrow-curved SGales,also the scutellum. Abdomen and legs normal. 
Wings with dense scales on the veins of the apical area, those on the first 
long vein and the branches of the second dense, intermediate in form 
between Culex and Tamiorhynchus, those on the upper branch of the 
fourth shorter and broader than the rest. 

This genus is very marked and comes between the Stegomyian group 
and the true Culex. It can at once be told by the cephalic scale 
structure, and the densely hairy antennae are also very characteristic. 



242 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Trichokhynchus fttscus, nov. sp. (fig. 2). 

Head brown with a greyish border around the eyes and at the sides 
composed of small flat scales. Palpi, proboscis and antennae deep 
brown ; thorax tawny to testaceous brown • pleurae pale ferruginous. 
Abdomen ferruginous to dusky brown, brighter brown beneath. Legs 
deep brown, paler basally; unhanded. Wings rather short, fork-cells 
short. 

9 Head (figs. 2, a. & e.) with small flat grey scales forming a broad 
border around the eyes and with similar flat scales at the sides, in the 
middle small dull golden narrow curved scales and fine black upright 
forked scales behind. Palpi (fig. 2, g.) short, brown, testaceous beneath ; 
proboscis brown, the testaceous hue present as in the palpi ; clypeus 
(fig. 2, h.) pale yellowish brown ; antennte ( fig. 2, d.) brown, basal 
segment pale yellowish-brown, very pilose between the verticels. 
Thorax bright ferruginous clothed with narrow-curved mouse-colored 
and dull golden scales and with numerous bristles of a more or less dull 
hue ; scutellum (fig. 2, c.) bright testaceous with small narrow-curved 
scales as on the thorax ; seven border-bristles to the mid lobe, meta- 
notum bright chestnut-brown ; pleurae pale ferruginous with frosty 
sheen in some lights and a few pale bristles. 

£l Abdomen dusky brown, ferruginous brown in some, lights covered 
with dusky brown scales and with rather short pale border-bristles ; 
venter brighter brown. 

Legs deep brown, coxae and venter of femora paler ; ungues equal 
and simple. 

Wings rather short, the scales dense on the apical area, especially on 
the branches of the fork cells and on the first long vein, these scales 
broader than in Culex, approaching Taeniorhynchus form ; fork-cells 
rather small, the first sub-marginal longer and very slightly narrower 
than the second posterior, its stem more than half the length of the cell, 
its base a little nearer the apex of the wing ; stem of the second posterior 
as long as the cell ; scales on the upper branch of the fourth vein rather 
broader than elsewhere. Posterior cross-vein nearly twice its own 
length distant from the mid ; mid and supernumerary meet at an angle. 
Halteres pale, with faintly fuscous knob. 

Length 5 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
Time of capture : December (1901). 



Jouroai Bombay Nat. H'st. Soc Vol. XV! 



Plate A 





FIG. 2 




FIG 3 



CORTE7 A CO* LITH. BOM0AY. 



NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 243 

Observations. — Described from a single 9 in perfect condition. It is 
an obscure species, resembling a Culex, unless examined under the two- 
third power when its generic characters are at once seen both in regard 
to cephalic and wing scale structure. 

Genus PSEUDOGRABHAMIA, nov. gen. 

Head clothed with narrow- curved, upright forked and flat lateral 
scales. Mesothorax with narrow-curved scales ; scutellum with small flat 
scales only on the lateral lobes, small flat ones on the mid lobe, except 
along the posterior border where there are narrow-curved scales ; 
metanotum nude. Wings with rather broad cone-shaped scales 
especially on the basal half of the veins, thin lateral ones on the apical 
halves and rather broader ones on the stems of the fork-cells ; fork-cells 
short. Male palpi with the two apical segments rather swollen, also the 
apex of the antipenultimate ; the apical segment bluntly acuminate, 
both end segments with hair-tufts and also hairs on the apex of the 
antipenultimate segment. 

This genus looks very much like grabhamia, but can at once be told 
by the scutellum having small flat scales, not all narrow curved ones 
as in that genus. 

PSEUDOGRABHAMIA MACULATA, nov. Sp. 

Thorax reddish -brown with two rather indistinct small pale spots; 
pleurse with silvery puncta. Abdomen with basal white bands. Legs 
with mottled scales and basal white bands. Wings short with small 
fork-cells, scales mottled. Antennae of $ flaxen ; palpi brown with 
three narrow pale bands ; apical joint acuminate. 

$ Head brown with scattered greyish-white, rather broad narrow- 
curved scales, very small narrow-curved golden ones around the eyes and 
numerous black upright forked scales. Antennae deep brown, the basal 
globular segment black to brown, the base of the second segment bright 
testaceous. Clypeus black ; proboscis with deep brown, black and 
scattered white scales. Palpi short, with deep brown scales, except at 
the apex where they are white. Thorax deep brown with very small 
reddish golden-brown narrow curved scales nearly all directed posterior- 
ly ; ornamented with four round silvery grey spots on the mesonotum, 
similar colored ones just in front near the head and another spot 
on the front of the root of the wings and scattered grey scales in front 
of the scutellum ; pleurae brown with grey puncta ; scutellum with 
small flat white scales only on the lateral lobes, small flat white ones 



244 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

on most of the median lobe with a few narrow-curved pale golden ones 
on its apical edge, with bright brown border bristles. Abdomen deep, 
blackish-brown with basal white bands and with short pale golden 
border-bristles. 

Legs deep brown, the femora and tibise and metatarsi with scattered 
pale scales, the knees white, metatarsi and first three tarsi of the fore 
and mid legs with basal pale yellow to almost white bands, last tarsal 
segment all deep brown ; in the hind legs all the segments have basal 
white bands ; ungues of the fore and mid legs equal and uniserrated, 
of the hind equal and simple. Wings short with the fork-cells short, 
the scales mottled brown and creamy grey ; scales on the basal areas 
of the veins and the median paired ones cone-shaped and broad, the 
lateral ones on the apical halves linear and very narrow, except on the 
branches of the first fork-cell where they are broader ; on the stems 
of the fork-cells they are much broader and cone-shaped ; some of 
the scales are asymmetrical ; first sub-marginal cell longer and slightly 
narrower than the second posterior cell, its base slightly nearer the 
apex of the wing, its stem about the same length as the cell ; stem 
of the second posterior slightly longer than the cell ; posterior cross- 
vein not quite its own length distant from the mid cross- vein. 

Length 3'8 to 4 mm. 

£ Antennae banded brown and grey, plume hairs bright flaxen. 
Proboscis not mottled as in the 9 . Palpi long ; the two apical seg- 
ments and the apex of the penultimate slightly swollen ; the apical 
segment about the same length but narrower than the penultimate, 
the remainder of the palps looking like one long segment, the jointing 
being invisible owing to the scales ; color deep brown ; creamy white 
scales form an apparent band at the base of the two apical segments 
and there is another very narrow pale band half way down the remain- 
der of the palps ; the two apical segments have blackish plume-hairs 
and also both sides of the apex of the anti-penultimate segment. Legs 
as in the 9 ; fore and mid ungues unequal, both uniserrated ; the 
hind ones simple (? equal). Wings much as in 9 . 

Length 4*3 mm. 

Habitat : Galgamuwa, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : August (1902). 

Observations. — Described from two perfect 9 ' s and one $ . The 
species is very marked, but unless examined microscopically might 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 245 

asily be placed in Grabhamia, from which it is separated by the small 
flat scutellar scales. 

Genus LOPHOCERAOMYIA, nov. gen. 

Head clothed with narrow-curved scales and numerous upright 
forked ones. Palpi short in the $ ; in the $ longer than the proboscis or 
only half its length. Proboscis swollen apically. Antenna normal in the 
$ , verticillate and pilose ; in the $ plumose, some of the verticillate 
whorls modified into variously formed organs, apparently formed out of 
modified verticillate hairs. Thorax; clothed with narrow curved scales, 
also the scutellum. Abdomen and legs normal. Scales on the veins 
on the apical area of the wings dense, the lateral vein scales broader 
than in Culex, those on the first long vein short and rather broad, upper 
costal border spiny, no lateral vein scales on the basal areas. 

This genus can be easily told on the $ by the curious antennal 
organs and in both sexes by the wing scales from Culex which it ap- 
proaches in general appearance. I am also describing two new species 
in this genus from New Guinea and India in the catalogue of Culicid 



Be 



in the National Museum, Budapest. 

LOPHOCERAOMYIA UNIFORMIS, nov. Sp. (figs. 3, 4). 

Head brown with a grey border around the eyes ; proboscis deep 
broad slightly swollen apically ; palpi deep brown. Thorax tawny brown 
pale at the sides ; pleura grey, green or pale brown. Abdomen deep 
chocolate brown, unhanded ; venter dull ochreous. Legs long deep 
brown, except for pale coxa and venter of femora. Wings transparent ; 
fork-cells small ; male palpi brown, acuminate, longer than the 
proboscis. 

$ Head brown, clothed with narrow-curved grey scales and numerous 
upright black forked ones behind, becoming fewer and browner near the 
front, thus covering most of the grey-scaled head and giving it a brown 
appearance except around the eyes where the grey scales only exist ; 
clypeus testaceous ; proboscis black, swollen apically, about two-thirds 
the length of the whole body, labellce testaceous ; palpi thin and rather 
long, about one-fifth the length of the proboscis, black scaled ; antennae 
brown with narrow pale bands and black verticillate hairs. 

Thorax shiny brown, clothed with narrow-curved tawny brown scales 
which become much smaller and almost black just before the scutellum 
bristles long and black, scales at the sides somewhat paler in certain 
lights ; scutellum pale brown with small narrow-curved dark scales * 



246 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

metanotum pale brown ; pleura pale grey, dull white or pale green, 
almost nude. Prothoracic lobes small, nude, pale brown. 

Abdomen deep rich chocolate brown to dull brown ; no banding or 
lateral spots ; border-bristles pale ; venter dull ochreous. 

Legs deep brown, rather long, the coxse and bases of femora grey ; 
ungues all equal and simple. Wings with the branches of the first 
sub-marginal cell and the stem with rather long scales, those on the 
first long vein typical, also the spiny upper costal border ; other lateral 
vein-scales may appear linear, but when flattened are much broader 
than in a true Culex ; fork-cells short, the first sub-marginal considerably 
longer and narrower than the second posterior ; its base nearer the base 
of the wing, its stem about half the length of the cell ; stem of the 
second posterior as long or longer than the cell ; mid cross-vein longer 
than the supernumerary, both united, posterior cross-vein longer than 
the mid nearly three times its own length distant from it ; fringe dark 
and dense. 

Halteres with pale stem and fuscous knob. 

Length 3*5 to 4 mm. 

$ Palpi (fig. 4) long thin, longer than the proboscis by the last and 
nearly half the penultimate segments, with a few spines or hairs only 
on the two apical segments, the two segments nearly equal, black, 
remainder of palpi dull yellowish-brown. Fore ungues unequal, uniser- 
rated ; hind equal and simple ; mid ? 

Antennal organs as figured (fig. 3 a, b.). Wings with short fork- 
cells, the first sub-marginal considerably longer and narrower than the 
second posterior ; its base a little nearer the base of the wing, its stem 
about two-thirds the length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior 
slightly longer than the cell ; posterior cross-vein longer than the mid, 
sloping backwards and about two-and-a-half times its own length 
distant from it ; with the exception of the apical portions of the veins 
there are no lateral vein scales, only a narrow single row of median 
ones. Halteres pale with fuscous knob. 

Length 4 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

lime of capture : May (1902.) 

Observations. — Described from two <£'s and several 9 's. It generally 
resembles L K fraudator, Theobald and L. fragilis, Theobald, but the 
$ can at once be told by the different palpi and antennal organs. 



Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. XVI. 



Plate B. 




FIG. 4- 




FIG.S 



a/. 





FIG. 6 



&. 



NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 



SOME NEW MOSQUITOES FROM CEYLON. 247 

Genus WYEOMYIA, Theobald. 
Mono. Culicid II, p. 267 (1901), and III, p. 310 (1903). 

WVEOMYIA GREBNII, n. Sp. (fig. 5). 

Thorax brown with bronzy scales ; pleurae silvery white. Abdomen 
black with two pure white basal bands on the apical portion and with 
prominent basal silvery white lateral patches, triangular in form. 
Proboscis rather short, black ; legs black, unhanded. 

9 Head entirely clothed with large flat brown and violet scales, a few 
grey ones at the sides ; proboscis not much more than half the length 
of the whole body, deep blackish brown ; palpi dark-scaled with some 
creamy scales apically. 

Thorax shiny black with large flat metallic bronzy, dull green and 
mauve scales ; scutellum with similar flat scales of various dull metallic 
tints ; metanotum brown with short black chaetae ; pleurae testaceous 
with silvery grey spots. 

Abdomen black, the fifth, sixth and seventh segments with basal white 
bands, the sides of all the segments with basal triangular white spots, 
most prominent on the basal segments; the abdomen is compressed 
basally, depressed apically. 

Legs blackish ; venter of femora pale unhanded, rather thick ; ungues 
small, equal and simple. Wings with brown scales, the lateral vein- 
scales linear, rather dense, first sub-marginal cell longer and narrower 
than the second posterior cell, its stem about two-thirds the length of the 
cell, stem of the second posterior as long as the cell ; posterior cross- vein 
nearly twice its own length distant from the mid. 

Length 4 mm. 

$ Head clothed with flat dusky scales ; antennae (fig. 5) brown, the 
lower third with the long verticillate hairs, upper two-thirds with dense 
short hairs only, except for one group of three or four long ones towards 
the middle of the short-haired area ; palpi small, black-scaled ; 
proboscis rather longer than in the 9 , black. 

Thorax clothed as in the 9 ; prothoracic lobes white-scaled. 

Abdomen black with rich violet reflections and with basal lateral white 
triangular spots ; apical segment expanded, basal lobes of genitalia very 
large, scaly and hairy. Legs brown unhanded. 

Length 4 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : January and February (1902). 



248 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Observations. — Described from a perfect $ and 9 . It is the only 
member of this group yet found in Ceylon. The general appearance at 
once separates it from all allied forms, except Phoniomyia longirostris, 
but the proboscis is shorter and not longer than the body as in that genus. 

The metanotal chsetfe are difficult to see, and the strange $ antennse 
are rather contorted, so only a diagramatic figure is given. 
RACHIONOTOMYIA, nov. gen. 

Head clothed with flat scales only ; palpi moderate sized in 9 ; 
proboscis long, as long as the whole body ; antennse of 9 densely pilose, 
hairs rather long. Palpi moderate clavate. Thorax clothed with 
spindle-shaped scales • scutellum drawn out into a large thick back- 
wardly projecting spine hiding to a large extent the metanotum, on the 
basal area of the scutellum flat scales which also occur on the base of the 
wings, the spine with scales also, some flat, some on ventral surface 
forked. Abdomen normal, but the scales large and rather loosely 
applied, giving a faint rugged appearance. Wings with rather short 
fork-cells, median scales on the branches of the second long vein thick 
and dense, also on first long vein, lateral vein scales scanty, linear but 
broader than in Culex ; upper costal border spiny. Legs normal. Male 
unknown. 

This genus is very marked owing to the strange scutellar process. It 
is the only genus in which I have seen any marked structural peculia- 
rity in the scutellum, all other genera having the scutellum simple 
(Anophelinze and Corethrinse) or trilobed (Culcinte, &c). 

RACHIONOTOMYIA CEYLONENSIS, nOV. Sp. (fig. 6). 

Head brown with dull violet reflections and a grey border around 
the eyes ; palpi, proboscis and antennae dark brown ; proboscis as 
long as the body. Thorax brown to testaceous brown, pleurse bright 
clear brown with some silvery white scales ; scutellar spine brown. 
Abdomen deep brown above, ochreous below, neither banded nor 
spotted. Legs deep brown, pale testaceous at their bases. Wings 
with brown scales. 

9 Head clothed with large flat scales, brown in some lights, dull 
violet in others, around the eyes a border of dull white or grey scales ; 
two black bristles project forwards between the eyes and traces of 
others at the sides ; proboscis deep brown, as long as the whole body, 
curved upwards ; palpi deep brown ; small, but prominent clavate ; 



SOME NE W MOSQ UITOES FR OM CEYLON. 249 

antennas deep brown with grey pubescence, and black verticillate 
hairs ; the globular basal segment with a grey sheen. 

Thorax varying from deep brown to bright testaceous brown covered 
with irregularly placed rather large flat spindle shaped scales of a 
brown or bronzy hue, in front an.d on the prothoracic lobes small 
rounded flat grey scales, over the roots of the wings some larger 
flat scales, pale brown, grey or dull creamy colored, those at the 
sides also larger and flatter ; a few short brown curved bristles in front 
of the base of the wing and a row of long ones over the base curved 
backwards ; scutellum (fig. 6, a, b,) deep brown, sending out a large thick 
tapering blunt process backwards, covered with flat scales of dull grey 
hues, the scales on the process smaller than on the base, the process has 
also small thin forked scales below and is pale apically ; metanotum 
chestnut brown; pleura? bright brown with flat white scales. Abdomen 
covered with large flat brown scales above showing dull violet reflec- 
tions ; ventrally dull ochreous, apparently no border bristles and the 
large scales rather loosely applied to the surface ; apex with a few 
bristles and some small fine black scales. 

Legs rather long and thin, deep brown with dull violet and bronzy 
reflections in some lights, coxae bright brown with some white scales ; 
femora with dull white scales beneath. 

Wings with the fork-cells small, the front sub-marginal longer and 
narrower than the second posterior, its base about level with the base 
of the second posterior cell, its stem very nearly as long as the cell, 
stem of the second posterior also nearly as long as the cell ; posterior 
cross-vein a little more than its own length distant from the mid, the 
mid and supernumerary meeting at an angle ; scales on the branches of 
the second long vein and on the apex of the first rather broad, flat 
and dense, on the remainder of the first rather spinose, on the other 
veins the lateral scales are linear but thicker than in Culex, median 
vein-scales single ; upper costal border spinose^ 

Halteres with small yellow scales on the stem, dusky on the knob. 

Length 4 mm. 

Habitat : Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Time of capture : October, (1901). 

Observations. — Described from a single perfect specimen, except 
for the ungues. It is a very obscure -looking insect except for the 
strange scutellar process. 



250 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate A. 

Fig. 1. Megarhinus minimus, n. sp. 

a. wing of male. 

b. palp. 

c. anal segments. 

Fig. 2. Teichorhynchus tfuscus, n. sp. 

a. head. 

b. prothoracic lobe. 

c. scutellum. 

d. antenna. 

e. head (side view). 
/. frontal hairs. 

g. palp. 
h. clypeus. 

Fig. 3. LOPHOCERAOMYIA UNIFORMIS, n. sp. 

Antenna of male. 

a. enlarged verticillate hairs. 

b. scapal knob. 

Plate B. 

Fig. 4. LOPHOCERAOMYIA UNIFORMTS. 

Palpi and proboscis of male. 
Fig. 5. Wyeomyia greenii, n. sp. 

Antenna of male. 
Fig. 6. Ehachionotomyia ceylonensis, n. sp. 

a. scutellum. 

b. scutellar process. 

c. metanotum. 

d. palp. 



251 




DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNAKE FROM BURMA. 

Oligodon McDougalli. 

By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., cm z.s. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 24th November 1904.) 
This specimen was obtained at Sandarang, Burma, by Mr. E, 
McDougall, after whom I have ventured to call it. 
The description is as follows. Male ? 
Length — 13| inches ; tail 1| inches. 

Rostral in contact with 6 shields, of which the sutures with the inter- 
nasals and nasals are subequal, and larger than the 1st labials. Portion 
visible above greater than distance to frontal. Intemasals a pair ; the 

suture between them sub- 
equal to that between the prse- 
frontal pair, about one-third 
the internaso-prsefrontal su- 
ture. Prcefrontals a pair ; 
the suture between them 
about one-third the prsefron- 
to-frontal suture. In contact 
with internasal, nasal, 2nd 
labial, praeocular, supraocular, 
and frontal. Frontal in con- 
tact with 6 shields ; the sup- 
raocular suture rather larger 
than the rest, which are sub- 
equal ; length much greater 
than distance to end of snout, 
equal to parietals, about one- 
third greater than supra- 
oculars ; breadth about three 
times each supraocular at a 
point opposite the centres of 
the eyes. Nasals undivided ; 
in contact with the 1st and 
2nd labials ; nostril lying in 
the middle of the upper half of 
the shield. Praoculars one ; 

, C x not extending on to crown. 

Oligodon McDovgalli. Bp. nov. (x 5.) uuu BAW 8 





252 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Eye moderate; pupil round. Postoculars one. Temporals one anterior 
in contact with two labials, the suture with the 6th about twice 5th. 
Labials 7; the 3rd and 4th touching the eye; last two largest, subequal. 
Anterior sublinguals larger than posterior ; in contact with 4 infralabials. 
Posterior sublinguals in contact with one another, and with 4th 
infralabial. Pentagonal is the 4th and much the largest shield of 
the series ; in contact with two scales behind ; broader than posterior 
sublinguals. The first infralabial suture is about half that between the 
anterior sublinguals. Scales two heads lengths behind head 13 ; midbody 
13 ; two heads lengths in front of vent 13. All rows subequal, even last 
not enlarged. Apical pits and keels absent everywhere. Supracau- 
dals in even rows ; midtail 6, end in twos (2 rows), fusion at the steps 
from the eights downwards effected by the blending of the two rows 
lying uppermost on each side. Ventrals 200 ; evenly rounded ; the 
ultimate row of scales barely visible on either side. Anal divided. 
Subcaudals 39; in pairs. Colour dusky-black laterally, with a rufous 
brown, vertebral stripe from nape to tip of tail involving the vertebral 
and half the adjacent row ; this stripe is edged by a series of linear black 
spots, most evident anteriorly. A linear black line on the confines of 
the 2nd and 3rd rows above the ventrals, interrupted anteriorly, and 
ending at vent. A supra-anal black bar and another subterminal, 
caudal, black bar. Head blackish. Kostral rufous-yellow, blotched black 
below. Labials mottled black and rufous-yellow. A rufous collar in- 
complete vertebrally. Chin, and throat rufous-yellow, mottled black in 
the sutures. Belly black, mottled fawn. Beneath tail black laterally, 
crimson centrally, the colour of a ripe yew-berry, and reminding one 
of the tail of Simotes cruentatus. The head is of the same calibre as the 
body, the neck very little evident, and the body wonderfully protracted 
and of even girth throughout. 



253 

PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 

By Capt. W. G. Liston, i.m.s. 

(With Plates A. & B.) 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society 

on 2ith November 1904.) 

You may, perhaps, think that the choice of such a title for a paper to 
be read before a Natural History Society is somewhat out of place, and 
would have been more suitable for a medical gathering. Perhaps you 
are right, but I feel sure that the subject has a proper place under the 
circumstances. We are daily becoming more aware of the important 
part played in the spread of disease by the numerous animals and 
insects which surround us, and, as you will learn in the course of my 
remarks, plague is a disease which is pre-eminently dependent on such 
surroundings. A knowledge of Natural History is becoming a more 
important, I may say an all-important, branch of the medical pro- 
fession. Quite apart, however, from such facts, plague is in the midst 
of us, carrying on its deadly ravages, and adding daily to its already 
uncountable death roll hundreds who, through ignorance of its mode 
of spread, fall victims to the scourge. Any ray of light shed into the 
darkness which surrounds the aetiology of this disease should not be 
confined to the medical world, but be cast upon the people that they 
may, perhaps, be enabled thereby to grope their way through the dark- 
ness to a place of safety. 

You will appreciate the relation between Natural History and 
plague when I define the latter as a rat-disease. Not unfrequently, 
under favouring circumstances, it is communicable to man. The disease 
among men, therefore, might almost be said to be accidental, and cer- 
tainly avoidable if there were a distance between rats and men. The 
communication of the disease to man is conditional on the propinquity or 
distance of rats and men from one another, and is dependent partly on 
the habits of the former and partly on the modes of living of the latter. 

The ideas embodied in the above definition are not new. That 
plague is essentially a rat-disease was known to the ancients. 
We find the disease attributed to these animals by the priests 
and diviners of the Philistines, who instructed the people in these 
words — "Make images of your emerods and images of your mice that 
mar the land." They were to do so as a trespass offering to the God 
of Israel. (*) In the Bagavathi Purana the people are advised at th© 



254 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

moment rats fall from the roof above, jump about, and die to leave their 
homes with their friends and relations, and to live in the plain. ( 2 ) In 
Knmaun, where the disease has been known for long, the experience of 
the inhabitants has taught them that when rats die it is time to quit 
their homes for the jungle to save themselves from plague. It is stated 
in a report of the outbreak of 1834-35 that " the appearance of the 
disease in a village had been observed to be preceded by a mortality 
among the rats of the village." ( 3 ) Coming to more recent times, 
Hankin, in reviewing the various circumstances that produced plague 
in Bombay, inferred that the incidence of Plague in localities and houses 
was in relation to their accessibilty to rats rather than to filth, over- 
crowding, &c. ( 4 ) Simond also came to a similar conclusion from his 
experience of the disease. ( 5 ) 

Dr. Ashburton Thompson, from his experience of the outbreak of 
plague in Sydney in 1900, formed the opinion that plague-rats consti- 
tuted the sole source from which the infection was communicated to 
man. ( 6 ) Dr. G. J. Blackmore, formerly Chief Plague Medical Officer, 
Port Elizabeth, very clearly and conclusively proved that the epidemic 
in that town was altogether spread by rats. He writes : " To sum up 
shortly, in places where infected rats were found, plague cases followed ; 
and in places where there were no infected rats, only four cases of 
plague occurred, and in these cases the source of infection could not be 
traced at all. In no case was there direct evidence of man-to-man 
infection, and in most cases the possibility of it was definitely exclud- 
ed." (J) I need not quote further in this connection. It is absolutely 
certain that rats are the most important factor in the spread of plague. 
If plague is a disease of rats, then it is likely that the disease may have 
its own distinct laws of origination and continuance among these 
animals, man becoming affected chiefly when the disease is most pre- 
valent among rats. It is precisely this study of plague among rats 
that has been neglected. Before any progress in this connection can 
be made, it is necessary to know something about the life and habits 
of rats. 

What do we really know about rats ? Very little. Now this is one 
reason why I am reading this paper before you to-day. You are all 
naturalists and, no doubt, keen observers. May I ask you to direct 
your attention to rats ? Any notes upon the habits of these animals 
will be thankfully received by me. 



PLAGUE, EATS AND FLEAS. 255 

Let me here discuss some of the important facts connected with the 
habits of rats, which have a bearing on the development and spread 
of plague, so far as they are known to me. In the first place, as you 
are aware, there are various genera and species of rats. I have tried 
to classify (more or less casually, I must admit) the Indian town or, 
village rats ; but I have completely failed. There appear at first sight 
to be many species. I visited the British Museum when at home, and 
saw Mr. Oldfield Thomas on this subject ; and he assured me that any 
rat I sent from Bombay would be likely to be either a Mus rattus or 
Mus decumanus. I was discussing this matter the other day with a 
member of this Society, Mr. Aitken, and he suggested that it might 
be as easy to classify pie-dogs as the rats in Bombay. I am inclined 
to agree with him. There is apparently one fact evident that Mr. 
Oldfield Thomas is quite right in distinguishing only two very distinct 
species of domestic rat — Mus decumanus and Mas rattus. 

Mus decumanus, the brown rat or Norway rat, is a large rat 
which in European countries has gradually displaced the smaller 
black rat, Mus rattus. This brown rat is much more a burrowing 
rodent than the black rat, and likes to live in drains and cellars ; while 
the black rat prefers the roofs of houses and even trees to live in. The 
black rat, then, is, in a truer sense, a domestic rat ; and it is the common 
domestic rat of India. This fact is an extremely important one from 
the point of view of plague. The immunity of European countries in 
the present day can, to a large extent, be attributed to the ousting 
of the black rat by the brown rat. The changes in the habits of man 
in European countries within the last two or three centuries, the 
development of drainage systems, the separation of workshops from 
dwelling-houses, the isolation of granaries and stables from human 
habitations, has led to the extermination of the black rat or at least to its 
separation from man. The opportunities for the infection of man with 
plague from rats have thereby been lessened, and, consequently, in 
Europe the development of plague in rats runs almost independently of 
the development of the disease in man. No more striking instance of 
this can be given than the experience of Glasgow. ( 8 ) Plague first 
broke out among the people of this city in the autumn of 1900; thirty- 
six attacks, with sixteen deaths, was the result of this epidemic. The 
origin of the disease could not be traced. All the cases were more or 
less associated with one another, and arose chiefly from three houses in 



256 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

"which "wakes" were held over the bodies of individuals who had died of 
plague in the houses. At the time of this epidemic no rats were found 
affected with plague. There is good reason to believe, however, that al- 
though not found, yet the epizotic actually existed ; for, after an interval 
of a year, a second outbreak occurred, this time among individuals 
associated with a rag store. Rats affected with plague were found here, 
and continued to be found affected with the disease in various parts 
of the city at irregular intervals, for a period of two years. The only 
epidemic plague associated with this epizotic plague was that which 
occurred in some five individuals who worked in the rag store, and in 
other five individuals who worked or lived in the cellars of the Central 
Hotel. Plague-infected rats were found in the basement of certain tea 
rooms in Gordon Street. A rat warren was discovered, which, when 
the burrows were broken up, gave a bag of 67 rats which had either 
been killed or found dead. Of these 67 rats no less than 40 had plague. 
Rats affected with the disease were found in other places, and con- 
tinued to be found, as I have remarked, for nearly two years ; but 
no plague occurred in men. It is evident we were here dealing with 
epizotic plague among rats of the species Mus decumanus. You note 
the diseased animals were found in cellars and burrows — places 
where rats of the species Mus decumanus are generally found — places 
where they were more or less isolated from man. Had the epizotic 
occurred among rats of the species Mus rattus, which inhabit houses, 
a very different tale would have been told. It is interesting to note 
the oradual disappearance of plague from Europe about the end of the 
17th century — a time which was coincident with the invasion of the 
brown rat and the displacement of the black rat by that species. The 
species of rat affected by the disease has an important bearing on the 
spread of plague in man, not from any inherent difference in suscepti- 
bility to the disease in the particular species of rat, but because of 
the habits of the species. Another important difference will be noticed 
when I come to describe the fleas infesting these species of rats. 

Now while there is the striking difference in the habits of the 
two species of rats, we have equally striking differences in the habits 
of the people inhabiting Europe and the East. I have referred to the 
fact, that, perhaps, the invasion of Europe by the brown rat may have 
been aided by the change in the habits of the people. As pucca 
buildings began to be erected, as drainage system developed, ^as stables 



|U^J2_ OJi^Uwp. ,<£Co© 



o^Ca^wP 



PLAGUE, EATS AND FLEAS. 259 

proportionate to the severity of the destruction. Tims, if a trap is set, 
say, in one room which is frequented by rats, they will probably quit that 
room for a neighbouring room. But if a wholesale destruction is produced , 
as by placing poison in several places in a house, the rats will quit the 
house completely. Just so is it with plague. If conditions are such 
as are unfavourable to the rapid spread of the disease, the infected rats 
may linger on in a particular house, not being so thoroughly scared by 
the moderate mortality as to quit the house ; infection may thus smoulder 
on in a particular house till the conditions become favourable to the 
extensive spread of the disease. I shall now consider what these fav- 
ourable conditions are. They are associated with the breeding season 
of rats, and are due to the increase in the number of susceptible in- 
dividuals and the multiplication of fleas, the carriers of infection. 

The season at which the greatest number of young rats are present 
has a twofold influence on the spread of plague. In the first place, the 
arrival of young members among the community increase the number of 
individuals susceptible to the disease. 

In the second place, the breeding season is, as a rule, the period of 
increase of the fleas which are peculiar to the rat. You must be 
familiar with the fact that kittens and puppies are especially covered 
with fleas. If you wish to get a particular flea which has a certain 
bird for its host, your best chance of obtaining that species of flea is to 
find the bird's nest. So precisely is it with the rats. Rat fleas are 
most numerous at the time when young rats are most numerous. I 
fancy I hear somebody say : " Oh ! rats breed all the year round ; they 
have no seasonal breeding time." This is true and it is not true. Rats 
do often breed all the year round ; but I am equally certain that there 
is a season when more young rats are found than at any other season , 
and this season in Bombay is precisely the plague season. This is a 
very difficult matter to prove, and I should be very much obliged if 
any member could devise a practical method by which it could be 
proved. My inference has been made from observing the number of 
young rats brought to the Laboratory at certain seasons, and by 
noting the number of pregnant females which come for post-mortem 
examination. I am sorry, however, that I have no figures to offer 
wherewith to support my observation. 

An epizootic of plague among a rat community is very often associated 
with a sudden and extensive spread of the disease ; in proportion as 



260 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

there are more susceptible individuals present in that community, so the 
disease spreads more rapidly and extensively. A large number of the 
rats die from the disease ; the rats become scared and migrate. The 
conditions in such a migrated rat community now are (1) there are a 
number of individuals which have recovered from the disease, and are 
therefore immune. (2) There is a greatly reduced number of indivi- 
duals susceptible to the disease, because of the large number of deaths 
among the susceptible. (3) There are a few individuals which still har- 
bour the disease and which have escaped with the others. (4) There is 
a greatly reduced number of fleas among the community, the infected 
fleas having for the most part been left behind. These are conditions 
where the chances of infection are greatly reduced, — where it is possible 
for one case to follow another only in slow succession, — where the panic 
of the rats, by the reduction of the mortality, has been quelled. Time 
passes ; the disease smoulders ; gradually the rats return to their tld 
haunts, where above all other places they find food and shelter. The 
favourable breeding season comes round again, the number of sus- 
ceptible individuals rapidly increases, and the number of fleas pari passu 
is multiplied. Conditions are re-established for a fresh and extensive 
outburst of the disease. Numbers of rats die from the disease. Again 
the rats migrate, and plague attacks man. It is thus that I would 
explain the seasonal endemicity of plague. 

In the above remarks I have endeavoured to show the importance 
attaching to the particular species of rat inhabiting any place which 
may be subjected to plague infection. The black rat, Mus rattvs, the 
common domestic rat of India, of which there are probably very many 
varieties, has habits such as bring it into intimate contact with man. 
I have tried to show that the prevalence of this rat is in great part due 
ito the habits of men in the places where it is found, — that it is possible 
by abolishing certain habits and customs to give the ascendency to quite 
a different species of rat, which is not so domestic as the Indian rat. In 
short, plague is likely to spread among men in proportion as Mus rattus 
is more common, and Mus decumanus less prevalent; in proportion* 
too, as men's habits are less or more civilised. I have drawn atten- 
tion to the gregarious habits of rats, which would speedily end an epi- 
zootic of plague among them were it not for their habit of " migration," 
which causes infection of fresh communities in the same town or village 
by direct intercourse ; and in distant towns, through human agency, 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 257 

were separated from dwelling-houses, as shops, warehouses, and 
granaries were no longer used as human habitations, as stone and 
wooden floors displaced mud and rush-covered ground, as beds became 
used in place of heaps of straw, so the black rat was driven from its 
haunts and the brown rat had it all his own way. Man and rats were 
separated from one another, and plague ceased to trouble ;. for, as will 
be shown later, man plays an important part in spreading the disease 
among rats. 

An observant correspondent, the Rev. J. H. Lord, who is much 
interested in the origin and spread of plague, very briefly puts it as 

follows : — 

" What a timid and scared animal a rat is at home, living away in 
sewers or- barns or hay stacks, as a rule only occasionally venturing 
among men. But here, in India, on the contrary, it is a confiding, 
almost domestic, animal, encouraged to impudence by the very aversion 
of Hindus to the destruction of animal life, while, on the other hand, 
modes of human life out here cause masses of people to live huddled 
together- in what are almost barns and warehouses, in closest contact 
with rats ; and throughout the East it is more or less so, and I would 
even suggest that the plague has been able to catch on at various places 
more or less according as conditions are similar or dissimilar to what I 
have described, e.g., at Alexandria, the Cape, Lisbon, Glasgow, (fee- 
also, when the plague in the Great Plague of London did catch on 
there, was it not perhaps because people were living a good deal in the 
insanitary way, then, as to overcrowding and contact with rats, &c, 
that they do in the East now ? " 

So much for the difference between the two species of rats, the habits 
of each species, and the habits of man, which bring men and rats more 
or less in contact with one another. 

Rats, like men, are gregarious creatures ; they have their communities 
in each town or village — communities which have little or no intercourse 
with one another. They have their maharwaras and buniapuras ; some 
live upon the refuse of the people, others install themselves in the gran- 
aries of the rich; little communication, as I have said, takes places 
between these communities, but still less communication can there be 
between the rats of one town and those of another, except through 
human agency. Our high seaways, railways, and cart roads, all of 
them channels for the conveyance of merchandise, act also as a means of 

9 



258 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

communication between the rats of one town with those of another ; 
stray individuals are carried along with merchandise ; stowaways, as they 
might be called, are taken from one town to another. This is only a 
chance means of communication between rats of one place and those of 
another ; and the chances are, of course, greater where the means of 
conveyance is larger. Ships transport rats, therefore, in this way much 
more frequently than railway trains, and railway trains more frequently 
than carts. 

Another habit of rats must here be considered, a habit too in which 
they resemble uneducated men. On the occurrence of any unusual 
mortality, from any cause, among a community of rats, they quit the 
place where the mortality has occurred ; — they migrate as a community. 
In this way infection is often communicated from one community of rats 
in a village or town to another in the same village or town. Here a 
fresh focus of infection may in consequence be set up. Occasionally 
some individuals of such a migrating community may seek refuge in a 
ship or railway train or cart, and may carry this infection through 
human agency to another town. This is one important way in which 
plague may be spread from one place to another by human agency. Sea- 
port towns, as will be understood from what has been said above, are 
most frequently infected in this way. I would instance Sydney, Port 
Elizabeth, Durban, Lisbon, Glasgow, etc. 

But there is another means of communicating the disease by means 
of human agency from rats of one town to those of another town, which 
will be discussed later when the part played by fleas in the spread of the 
disease is considered. I mention this fact here because it becomes 
possible only in connection with the migrating tendency of rats. I need 
hardly discuss at length this migrating instinct (shall I call it 7) 
which impels rats to shun places which are associated with their death or 
destruction. Who has not set a trap for rats and found, that after two 
or three have been taken, the rats will not look near the trap again ? 
Who has not noticed, that if a good dog or cat is introduced upon rat- 
infected premises, after a few of the animals have been destroyed the 
others disappear ? Who has not noticed, that poison placed for rats will 
cause the disappearance of far larger numbers of them than are actually 
destroyed by the poison? This habit of migration, due to fear of destruc- 
tion, is a very important habit of rats in the spread of plague. I should 
like, however, to emphasize the fact that the extent of the migration is 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 263 

and other adverse circumstances in uncongenial surroundings. While 
other non-spore-bearing bacteria readily perish when removed from 
their natural soil. The more resistant germs which do not produce 
spores have a protective wall which shields their internal contents. 

The Bacillus mallei is a fairly resistant non-spore bearing germ. We 
should expect, therefore, glanders to he a disease which might be 
capable of transference from diseased animals, by various agents, to 
healthy animals ; but the period of the vitality of the bacillus outside 
the bcdy of an animal would be short, compared with the period of 
vitality of the spore-bearing anthrax bacillus. And this is precisely 
what we do find. Thus, we have such cases recorded as that of a 
woman who developed glanders three days after washing the clothes of 
a man who had died of the disease, or a case of a person who acquired 
the disease by heing struck by the fist of a man who owned a glandered 
horse. Generally, however, the infection is more direct from the sick 
horse to man. 

When we come to hydrophobia, we find that in order to produce the 
disease, infection must always he obtained direct from the diseased 
animal to the healthy, — generally by its bite. The germ is incapable 
of existing for any time outside the animal body. 

Now, the plague germ does not bear spores ; hence it cannot remain 
alive for a long period exposed to air and light and other adverse 
agencies, in the way the anthrax bacillus does. Nor yet has the plague 
germ any resistant cell-wall. Plague is certainly not conveyed to man 
by direct inoculation as hydrophobia is. How, then, can we explain the 
infection of man from the rat ? 

A little further thought on the methods of reproducing plants adopted 
by the mali will enable us perhaps to solve the problem. Has he any 
other method of making cuttings? Of course, there is the method of 
making a gooty. He selects a certain part of the plant, and ties around 
it some moss and earth which he keeps constantly moist. Many plants 
which could only be propagated by means of cuttings with difficulty 
can thus easily be reproduced. Have we anything analogous to the 
gooty in the case of plague? I believe the flea is the gooty. The 
plague germs which abundantly circulate in the blood in the final stage 
of the disease are taken up along with the blood by the flea. I show 
you a specimen under the microscope which is a section through the 
stomach of a flea. This flea was fed on a plague-sick rat, and allowed 



264 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

to digest its meal for 48 hours. The result is, that almost all the blood 
has been digested and absorbed, and the plague germs remain unaffect- 
ed, — in fact, they appear to have multiplied, because they are far more 
numerous, than they could have been when ingested with the blood, 
and their appearance would indicate multiplication to one who is 
acquainted with bacilli which have been stained under such circum- 
stances. 

In the flea's stomach we find the plague germ in surroundings which 
will daily supply it with the -very pabulum it desires — animal blood. 
The germ is not destroyed by the digestive juices of the flea. It is 
protected from light and dessication and the presence of contaminating 
bacteria, (weeds in other words,) — conditions which would have put an 
end to its existence if it had remained exposed on earth. We have all 
the conditions which are fulfilled by the gooty in the case of the plant. 
The gardener after a certain time cuts off the new plant below the gooty, 
and transfers it to its natural soil. So, too, the germ within the flea 
has now to be transferred to more suitable soil, the animal body ; and 
this is accomplished by the bite of the flea itself. The flea, being animate, 
fulfils the double function of gooty and mali. 

And now, to understand the last part of my subject, it is necessary to 
say a few words about fleas. It would be possible to write pages on 
the subject. My difficulty is to tell you enough in a short space, to 
fully explain the relation between fleas and the plague. I hope, there- 
fore, you will bear with me if I detain you a few jmoments longer. 
There are four species of fleas met with in this country commonly 
associated with men and rats. Specimens of these are displayed under 
the microscopes. I can only now mention them by name, and detail 
a few of the habits of these species. 

The most common flea and the one most universally distributed is the 
cat flea, Pulex felis, sometimes also called Pulex serratkeps. This flea 
is, for the most part, found on cats and dogs ; but it is frequently taken 
on man too. I have also found it on rats, monkeys, sheep, deer, goats f 
guinea-pigs, the hedge-hog, and the horse. It is a rather small flea, 
but variable in size ; and is of a dark colour. It is frequently found in 
light airy places, and it is not so nocturnal in its habits as the other 
fleas. Then, there is the human flea, Pulex irritans. It is a large 
fairly light-coloured flea, found almost exclusively in human habitations, 
and in only those of them which are dark and more or less dirty. I 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 261 

chiefly by ships or rail conveying merchandise. I have suggested that 
infection of rats in neighbouring towns and villages is affected by means 
of fleas carried by men. Finally, the breeding season of rats plays an 
important part in the spread of plague in man. Plague, which is 
essentially a rat disease, attacks men only when it is excessively pre- 
valent among rats. The disease lingers on in these animals during the 
off-plague season, and bursts out afresh among the rats when the 
number of susceptible rats is increased by births ; and when the fleas, 
the carriers and transmitters of the infection, are more plentiful. 

If plague, then, is essentially a disease of rats, are there any other 
diseases which are peculiar to animals, and which are occasionally 
communicated to man ? Does a study of these diseases furnish us with 
any evidence which may explain by analogy how plague is, or is not, or 
cannot be communicated to man ? How is plague communicated from 
rats to men ? 

The following are epizootic diseases which are occasionally communi- 
cated to man, and I would class plague along with them ; namely, 
Anthrax, Glanders and Hydrophobia. 

Anthrax is a disease of cattle which is caused by a spore-bearing 
bacillus. It gives rise to at least two forms of disease in man and in 
this respect resembles plague ; namely, a disease called Malignant Pus- 
tule which is produced by the inoculation of the bacillus under the skin ; 
and " Wool Sorter's " disease, which is produced by the inhalation of 
the bacillus, into the lung, as occurs in primary plague pneumonia. 

Glanders is a disease of the horse which is due to a bacillus, the 
Bacillus mallei. The disease is generally found in man among farriers, 
grooms, nakers and others who are associated with horses. In man the 
disease is very fatal. 

You are all familiar with hydrophobia, which is a disease of dogs, and 
which is occasionally communicated to man, and is in him a fatal 
disease. 

Let me here digress by giving a popular exposition of the bacterio- 
logy of these diseases. Germs or bacteria are divided into two classes, 
the pathogenic, or disease-producing, germs ; and the non-pathogenic 
germs, which are abundantly found, in nature, in the earth and air all 
around. Now bacteria are fungi, which, as you are aware, are a class of 
plants or vegetable organisms. In plant life, therefore, we find many laws 
which are equally applicable to bacteria. Now, just as you know that 



262 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

some plants grow in earth and others in water, so we find some bacteria 
capable of growing in earth, and others capable of growing in the animal 
body ; these latter are the pathogenic or disease-producing germs. Just 
as you would not expect a " water lilly" to grow on dry earth, so you 
cannot expect the pathogenic bacteria to find a suitable soil in the earth ; 
or earth organisms a suitable soil in the animal body. I know of no 
pathogenic organisms which have been proved to be capable of develop- 
ment in earth ; and the plague bacillus is no exception to this rule. 
You are familiar with the fact that plaDts can be reproduced either by 
seeds or by cuttings. Bacteria multiply in the same way. Some bacteria 
produce spores, which are practically seeds ; and others reproduce 
themselves by a simple process of cleavage, — a portion is given off from 
the parent bacterium, which is capable of reproducing itself, as a cut- 
ting does. Now a seed can be kept for a long time in surroundings 
which are unsuitable for its development, but when introduced into 
suitable soil it buds forth and blossoms. It is precisely so with spore- 
bearino - bacilli, they are capable of withstanding long periods of dessi- 
cation, etc., and ultimately when introduced into suitable surroundings 
they develop and multiply. Anthrax is a pathogenic, spore-bearing, 
bacillus. By that I mean that its soil is the animal body, and it is able 
on account of its spores or seeds to lie dormant in surroundings which 
are unsuitable for its development — such surroundings as are found in 
earth, on hides, and wool. Hence we find that anthrax in the cattle in 
India can give rise, months afterwards, to anthrax in man in England. 
The disease germs in the form of spores are transferred on the hides 
and in the wool of the animals which have died of anthrax in India to 
England, where among the workers in hides and wool the anthrax 
spores, which have lain dormant during the voyage, may find suitable 
soil when introduced into a cut or abrasion on the hand or other part of 
a hide-worker or wool-sorter, producing anthrax in the unfortunate 

man. 

A^ain, we know that cuttings from some plants, for example the 
rose, can be left exposed to air and light for some time, while cuttings 
from other plants must be directly inserted into suitable soil after 
removal from the parent plant. The resistance depends on the texture 
of the plant, whether it has a hard protective covering, or only a thin 
cuticle. Precisely so is it with bacteria ; some bacteria, which repro- 
duce themselves only by fission (cuttings), can resist light and dessication 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 285 

come now to rat fleas. The common flea found on Mils rattus is Pulex 
theopis. It is therefore the common rat flea of India. It is a small 
light-coloured flea, which is particularily sensitive to light, loving 
the dark ; and it is, therefore, more or less nocturnal in habit. It is sel- 
dom found apart from the rat in this country* and lives chiefly in the 
haunts of the black rat, among grain bags and in the roofs of houses, 
etc. At first sight it is very like the human flea. The flea commonly 
found on Mus decumanus is called Ceratophyllus fasciatus. In so far as 
Mus decumanus is rare in this country, this ilea is also seldom found in 
India ; but it is the common flea found on the rat in Europe. 

These fleas can be distinguished from one another in both sexes by 
noting if there is a comb of bristles behind the head. Pulex felis and 
Ceratophyllus fasciatus have both got combs in this situation. Pulex 
felis has in addition a set of teeth-like bristles surrounding its mouth ; 
Ceratophyllus fasciatus has not got these bristles. Pulex irritans and 
Pulex cheopis have no comb of bristles behind their head. They are 
readily distinguished by the length of the anti-pygideal bristles, which 
are short in the human flea and long in the rat flea. The claws of the 
human flea, too, are very large and scythe-like; while the rat flea has 
more elegant scycle-shaped prehensile organs. The males of all four 
species are at once distinguished by the characteristic shape of the 
claspers. 

Now you will notice that most of these fleas have a particular host. 
The cat flea, however, is more or less an exception to this rule, for it is 
often found on other hosts than cat or dog. If this is the case, how is it 
possible to explain the infection of man from the rat, when, under ordin- 
ary circumstances, the human flea is only found on man, and the rat 
flea on the rat ? This fact, more than any other, I think, has prevented 
men from accepting the flea theory of the spread of plague, for not a 
few instances have now been reported in which plague has been directly 
communicated from the diseased rat to the healthy rat by means of flea& 
But, it is objected, how can men become infected if the rat flea is never 
found on man ? I have had the good fortune to discover an explanation 
of how the rat flea can communicate the disease to man, although nor- 
mally the rat flea, Pulex cheopis, is scarcely ever found on man. 

In March 1903 some guinea-pigs, which had died in the Victoria 
Gardens, were sent to me for examination. I found that they had died 
of plague. I immediately visited the gardens to see if I could find any 

10 



266 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

fleas on the guinea-pigs ; to my surprise they were covered with fleas. 
An examination of these fleas showed that they were rat fleas, Pulex che- 
opis. The following history of the disease was given to me by the 
Superintendent. A few days before the guinea-pigs became ill, dead 
rats had been found near their cage. The guinea-pigs had then sickened, 
and two keepers who had charge of them took plague and were seut to 
hospital. One or two of the guinea-pigs had died before the dead 
animals were sent to me for examination. When I saw the guinea-pigs 
in the gardens many were sick, but some appeared healthy. It was. 
interesting to note that the sickly were those most infested with fleas. 
From one sick guinea-pig no less than eighteen fleas were removed. 
This is an important fact to note, in that, thereby the number of in- 
fected fleas will be greatly increased. An examination of a large 
number of guinea-pigs kept in our Laboratory stock showed that these 
animals seldom harbour fleas, the only flea found on them under normal 
conditions is a very occasional Pulex fells. This unusual infection of 
the guinea-pig by Pulex cheopis remained for some time a mystery; 
but an explanation was gradually forthcoming. Here, no doubt, in- 
fected rat fleas had communicated the disease to the guinea-pigs ; but 
why were rat fleas found on guinea-pigs ? The problem was solved in 
the following way. A friend who lived in two semi-detached bungalows 
kept a cat. One of the bungalows was used as a nursery for the chil- 
dren, and the nursery was the favourite haunt of the cat. When the 
hot weather came on, the children were sent to the hills, the nursery 
was shut up, and the cat had to find other quarters. About a month 
later my friend had to re-open and enter the nursery to get some things 
for the children. No sooner had he entered than he was bitten by a 
flea, and then by another and another, and to his surprise he found 
many fleas on his legs. He caught these fleas and brought them to me, 
and when I examined them I found them to be cat fleas. Now as Ions 
as the cat lived in the nursery, fleas never troubled the inmates, but 
when the cat had been excluded the cat fleas swarmed on to man. 
Starvation apparently had driven them to man. 

Another opportunity presented itself in the case of a stable. This 
stable had been shut up for some weeks, but had formerly been inhabited 
by a dog as well as a horse. When the door of the stable was opened, 
fleas literally swarmed out on to the man who opened it, almost as a 
hive of bees might do when disturbed. One had only to approach the 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 267 

stable door, and immediately one's trousers were covered with fleas. 
These fleas were Pulex felis, which we saw was the common dog flea. 
Here, again, driven by hunger, in the absence of the dog, man was 
attacked. Herein lies, too, the explanation of the swarms of fleas one 
reads and hears of in dak bungalows in India. Somebody has been 
there before with dogs. The dogs left with their master, but left their 
fleas behind. The bungalow was shut up for a time, another sahib 
entered, this time without a dog. He is immediately attacked by the 
fleas. 

Finally the proof was completed by the following experience for 
which I am indebted to the Revd. J. H. Lord. On April 20th last 
year he sent me some fleas which had been caught on man in a house 
which was infected with plague under the following circumstances. 
About the 6th or 7th of April, rats began to die in large numbers in the 
chawl in which this house was situated. Suddenly the deaths amongst 
rats ceased and on April 11th the people became troubled with fleas. 
The fleas were so numerous that they had to quit their rooms and sleep 
out in the verandah. While living in the verandah on April 17th one 
of the inhabitants of the particular room in which the fleas were taken, 
became infected with plague. Another case occurred on the same day 
in a room adjoining. This room was separated from the aforementioned 
room only by a partition 6^ feet high. On the same day the information 
about this chawl came to Mr. Lord. He succeeded in getting the 
people who inhabited the room where the above case occurred to collect 
some of the fleas which they said troubled them, and he sent the collec- 
tion to me on April 20th. An examination of this collection was most 
instructive. Now I must tell you that on previous occasions, of 246 
fleas which were caught on man under normal conditions I had only 
found one rat flea, Pulex cheopis. But of the collection of 30 fleas 
caught on man under the circumstances above recorded no less than 14 
of these were rat fleas. Nothing could be more striking. 

Now what is the explanation of such unusual invasion of the guinea- 
pig and man by rat fleas ? You note, that in both cases, a few days 
before, rats had been noticed dead in considerable numbers ; then no 
more rats were found dead, and plague broke out in the guinea-pigs 
and men. Taking this in conjunction with the facts above recorded 
regarding the starved fleas, I think the explanation is that, either the 
rats had been almost completely exterminated by the plague, or what is 



268 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

more probable on the occurrence of a large number of deaths, they had 
migrated. In consequence the fleas which they left behind them in 
their nests and haunts had to seek food somewhere else, and under these 
circumstances had attacked the guinea-pigs and men. Herein I think 
we have the explanation of the common phenomenon (1) plague 
amoug rats with many deaths, (2) a lull, (3) then plague among men. 
Since these cases occurred I have been on the look out for fresh 
opportunities, but you will readily understand that information of this 
s^rt is difficult to be obtained by one individual. Will you help me to 
examine such cases ? When you hear of any unusual number of deaths 
among rats from plague, please let me know at once ; and if we are 
unable to persuade the people to catch the fleas on their persons, I 
propose to use guinea-pigs to trap the fleas by placing these animals in 
the probably infected rooms and then we shall be able to see whether 
rat fleas are straying about, for they will take to the guinea-pigs and 
can easily be captured on these animals. 

If rats can communicate the disease to man it is equally certain that 
man can carry the disease to rats. I have already explained how the 
disease can be communicated to distant towns and villages from in- 
fected rats in one place, to those in the other place by human agency. 
But there are other well-recognised cases where infection has been 
carried from one village to a neighbouring village by man, where the 
possibility of the direct transference of infected rats from the one place 
to the other is absolutely excluded. The record of such cases is almost 
legion. I take 2 cases of 12 recorded in the excellent report on Plague 
and Inoculation Operations in the Amritsar District in 1903 by Captain 
S. Browning Smith, I. M.S. 

Kadgil (the name of the village). tl Here the disease Was brought 
from Tharu, by Buta, a weaver, in November 1902. He died after 
three days' illness, and three other deaths occurred in this house within 
five days ; rats died in this house, and were allowed to remain, and the 
house was locked up ; plague did not spread at the time, and no other 
case occurred for two months, when dead rats were noticed in some 
sweepers' houses that adjoined Buta's house ; seven days after dead 
rats were seen, the disease appeared among the sweepers." 

" Phailloke. The disease was brought from Chala, Lahore District, 
hj Chet Singh, who returned to Phailloke on the 25th March 1903. 
•Rats began to die on the 29th March 1903. Chet Singh fell ill on 



PLAGUE, HATS AND PLEAS. ■ 269 

the 2nd April, and died on the 8th April. Three other cases occurred 
in the same house. " 

Captain Browning Smith remarks : " The above is a case where it 
seems that infection was brought in the clothes of the man ; rats were 
infected from this, and the man himself was infected from the rats. " 
The cases speak for themselves. The explanation I offer is that a man 
living in an infected village takes fright when he finds cases of plague 
occurring among others in his own house. The infection of this 
household was clearly brought about in the way I have described 
above ; rats died, the remaining ones migrated, the hungry infected fleas 
they left behind attacked man ; man became infected — some of these 
fleas having got among the clothes of the fugitive man, he has carried 
them to the village to which he has fled. The fleas may have in 
the meantime attacked him and if so he died of the disease shortly 
after his arrival ; but possibly the fleas may have failed to get through 
his clothes, the man then remains unaffected. When transferred to 
the new village in this manner, the floas find themselves in fresh rat- 
infested premises, and are not long in scenting out their natural host 
the rat. They infect the rats, the disease spreads among the rats 
rapidly, they die ; the rest take fright and migrate; man becomes 
infected. 

But why press this flea theory, you will say, when we know 
perfectly well that the excreta from infected animals is capable of 
infecting fresh animals. This is a gratuitous assumption. Have 
you tried it? I have. Healthy rats can live in the same cage with 
infected rats without acquiring the disease, if only fleas are 
excluded. I told you of such experiments when I read a paper 
before you in March last year. Since then other persons have 
independently confirmed my observations, particularly Dr. Klein. 9 I have 
here been able to prove that although susceptible animals do take plague 
through the alimentary canal if fed on large quantities of grossly conta- 
minated food, yet they can eat food which has been contaminated by a 
relatively small quantity of plague without harm. Moreover, what is 
more important, they are not infected with the insufficiently large 
quantity of plague which is contained in the various excreta of plague- 
infected man or animals. I have fed rats on such excreta, and kept 
them in contact in a small cage with clothing which had been soiled by 
dying plague patients, and they have not suffered from the disease. 



270 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVL 

But when even one or two germs are introduced by a needle under 
the skin, death almost always results. Thus, a guinea-pig has died 
of plague after receiving one quarter of a c.c. (about 4 drops) of 
a ten millionfold dilution of a 48-hours' broth culture of plague. 
In this quantity I was able to show there were not more than one 
or two germs. If only one or two germs are necessary to infect 
an animal by injection under the skin, while millions are necessary 
by any other channel, which is more likely to be the common method of 
infection ? 

Simond < 10 ) long ago showed that phlyctenules (blisters occasionally 
found in cases of plague, and which reveal the point of inoculation of 
the bacillus) often occur in parts little liable to abrasion (such abrasions 
might permit the plague germs to enter the blood), but which are fre- 
quently attacked by fleas. If cuts and abrasions were the chief source 
of infection, phlyctenules would be commonly found on the soles of the 
feet of those who go about bare-footed, but this is not the case. Phlyc- 
tenules in this situation are extremely rare, while they are most common 
just in the situations which are most subject to be attacked by fleas. 
Again, the boot- wearing people of Australia suffered as frequently from 
buboes in the groin as the bare-footed natives of Bombay ; — 73 percent, 
in the one case, 67 in the other ( - 11 \ If the bacillus lived in the soil, 
it would have been reasonable to expect a larger number of groin 
buboes in the bare-footed natives than in the booted Australians. 
Moreover, the common sources of infection with plague are dark, dirty, 
overcrowded, vermin-infested houses ; also clothing and grain. It is 
just on these surroundings that fleas may be found. We know, 
too, that houses and clothing can be indirectly infective through the 
medium of a healthy uninfected individual. The healthy individual 
carries with him something, presumably infected fleas, to another indi- 
vidual who sickens with the disease. 

The seasonal prevalence of plague can to my mind be most easily 
accounted for by the greater prevalence at some given time of some 
intermediary host of the plague bacillus after the same manner as the 
prevalence of malaria is associated with the prevalence, at certain definite 
seasons, of certain species of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. On 
several occasions fleas have been noted to be specially abundant prior to 
or during the course of an epidemic of plague. I will only mention 
2 instances. Thus, for example, Dr. Tid swell's attention was directed 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 27t 

early in the epidemic of plague in Sydney in 1900 to the unusual 
prevalence of fleas in the infected quarters. He writes : " At the time 
the rats were dying in large number upon the whaif , to which attention 
was called above ; the fleas there were so numerous that the labourers 
tied string round the bottom of their trousers to protect themselves 
against the onslaughts of the vermin" ( l2) . Again, in connection with 
the rat epidemic of plague at Cardiff in February 1901, I quote from 
the Local Government Board Keport for 1902 : " Fleas in considerable 
numbers were observed on the white flour sacks in the warehouse 
mentioned " <' 3) . I have on more than one occasion been told that before 
an outbreak of plague occurred, fleas were noticed to be very prevalent ; 
the only wonder is, as Tidswell (l4) has expressed it, that such a fact 
should have been noticed at all, for the social status and domestic habits 
of most people among whom plague occurs is not such as to invest 
a little incident of this sort with remarkable novelty. Finally, there 
are many facts to my mind which cannot be explained on any other 
hypothesis ; I will only mention a few of them here. 

Mr. Nigel Paton, who is in charge of a large oil store in Bombay, 
wrote to me after reading my paper published in the Medical and Phy- 
sical Society's Transactions last year, ( 15 > that he had been at a loss to 
explain why every year during the plague epidemic he lost several hands 
employed by him in the office connected with the store, while, since 
the plague has broken out in Bombay, he did not remember a single death 
from plague having occurred among the hands he employed in the store 
itself, although the hands employed in both departments lived in much 
the same manner, and in the same infected surroundings. Unfortu- 
nately he could not support the statement by statistics, but he said 
it was a well-known fact in the office, and had annually been commented 
on. His explanation of the fact now is this, that the men in the oil store 
itself were constantly handling oil, to such an extent indeed, that their 
bodies were covered with it ; and he presumed that probably the smell 
of the oil, or some other cause connected with the oil, prevented the 
infected fleas biting the oil workers, and so they escaped the disease. 
Now Mr. Paton's experience is by no means unique. In 1797 it was 
observed by Mr. Baldwin, the British Consul in Egypt, that among the 
millions of inhabitants who died of plague in that country in the space 
of four years, not a single oilman or dealer in oil had suffered < l6 >. 
Sir J. McGregor remembered that all the men employed in applying 



272 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

oil to the camels' feet during the Egyptian campaign escaped the plague 
(l7 >. Mr. Jackson states that the coolies employed in the oil stores 
of Tunis smear themselves with oil, and are rarely affected with plague 
when it rages in that city ( 18 ). It is also stated by Luigi of Pavia 
that during the 27 years he was attendant at the pest house in Smyrna, 
he found friction with oil more efficacious than any other medicine both 
as a prophylactic and as a means of cure (1S) . In the plague 
epidemic in India in 1815 and 1819 Mr. White, talking of the common 
practice in many parts of India — friction to the body with oil, says 
" This (practice) has, upon very good authority and extensive experience, 
been supposed a complete preventive, as well as a powerful agent in 
the cure of plague " ( 20 ). Mr. McAdam says : " Another remark 
which the natives make, and which I think is likely to be just, as. 
they are not apt to take notice of anything that is not extremely 
obvious, is, that those engaged in the expression of oil are not liable to 
infection " < 2X >. Can the relative immunity of Calcutta and Madras 
compared with Bombay and the Punjab be due to the habit of 
daily anointing the body with oil in the former two presidencies ? I 
was very much struck by this habit in Sambalpur, where recently 
I was Civil Surgeon ; the people in this district follow partly the habits 
of the people of Calcutta and partly those of Madras. I was informed 
that the Jubbulpore Municipality placed it on record during a very 
severe epidemic two years ago that tobacconists who lived in their 
shops were peculiarly exempt from the disease. 

It is notorious how frequently visits at night to plague-infected houses 
have been followed by fatal results while the same houses could be 
entered with impunity by day. In this connection the following 
quotation from the report of Dr. Watson on the Mahamari (plague) 
of Kumaon is of interest ( 22 > : " The experience of Dr. Eenny, Dr. 
Pearson, Dr. Francis and others has proved that a medical officer can 
without danger feel the pulse of a plague patient and give him medicine, 
and also that medical officers can without danger examine by dissection 
the body of a man who has died of plague. That is to say, he can 
do these things by day, with the sun shining and the air tolerably warm. 
I do not believe he could do any of them with impunity after night- 
fall. " Take these facts in conjunction with the observations I have- 
made that Pulex cheopis shuns the light, and the facts which I com- 
municated to you in the paper which I read before you last year. I 



Jourr>ai Bombay Nat Hist. Soc Vol, XV< 



Plate A 





P. Chropis 



P. Ikritans 



^~ 





P. Felis 



C. Fasciatus 



CORTEJ ,( CO. HTM. BOUBAV 



MALE FLEAS. 



D. A. TURKHUO M. 8. DEi . 



Journal Bombay Nat Hist. Soc Vol. XVI 



Plate B 





P. Cheopis 



P. Ikritans 





P. Fklis 



C. Fasciatus 



CORTEZ <t CO. UTH. BOMBAY. 



FEMALE FLEAS. 



L: A. F'JRKHUO M 8. "f 



PLAGUE, RATS AND FLEAS. 273 

then told you that I had noticed that on certain days I whs able to get 
many ileus from the rats sent to the Laboratory, while on other days 
none were obtained. As many as 53 rats on one day were examined 
and not a single flea was obtained, while on another day 13 rats yielded 
22 fleas. In seeking for an explanation for this I noticed that when 
the rats were brought to the Laboratory in a dark iron cage, fleas were 
plentifully found on the rats, while when they were brought in an open 
wire caire no fleas were found on them. I also noticed that if the rats 
were kept in open cages in a light place, all the fleas that were placed 
on them disappeared. 

It would be possible thus to greatly enlarge upon this subject ; but 
already I have occupied you far beyond the usual time devoted to a 
paper. I had sketched out in my plan of this paper a heading which 
was to deal with the lessons to be learned from the facts placed before 
you. I cannot, however, do so to-day ; perhaps some other opportunity 
may present itself. I will only say that it is obvious that any changes 
which will free Bombay or India of plague can only be introduced 
gradually, as the people become more educated and civilised, and learn 
that rats are the most important factor in the spread of the disease. If 
we cannot speedily place a distance between ourselves and rats, we 
can at least protect ourselves from the danger of their propinquity by 
acquiring immunity to plague by inoculation. This is to my mind the 
only measure that offers any hope in combating the disease in the near 
future. 

LIST OF REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. 

cl > I. Samuel VI. 5. 

« Quoted in " The Plague Inspector, " uy Lieut.-Ool. W. G. 

King, p. 157. 

< 3) Appendix XXV, Indian Plague Commission's Report, Vol. II, 

p. 335. 

< 4 > llankin, Atmales d l'Institut Pasteur, 1898. 

< 5) Simond, Annales d l'Institut Pastour, 1898. 

(6 > Report on the Second Outbreak of Plague in Sydney, 1902, p. 2. 

* 7 > Blackmore " Rats & Plague, " Lancet, 11th October 1902. 

^ 8 > Local Government Board Reports, 1901-1902, p. '621. 

< 9 > Local Government Board Reports, 1902-1903. 

^ lu > Annales d l'Institut Pasteur, October 1898. 
11 



274 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

(11 > J. A. Thompson, Journal of Hygiene, April 1901, p. 166. 

< 12 > F. Tidswell, Journal of Sanitary Institute, Vol. XXI, Pt. IV, 

p. 569. 
( l3 > Local Government Board Report on Plague, by Bruce Low, 

1902, p. 31. 
<"> F. Tidswell, Journal of Sanitary Institute, Vol. XXI, Pt. IV, 

p. 569. 
<- 15 ) Liston, Transactions of Bombay Medical & Physical Society, 

February 1903. 
< 16 ) Duncan's Annals, 1797. 
O 7 ) Medical Sketches, 1804. 

< 18) On the Commerce of the Mediterranean, p. 46. 
< 19 ) Quoted in Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine, Article "Plague.'* 
C 2 °) Transactions of Bombay Medical & Physical Society, Vol. I. 
( 21 > Transactions of Bombay Medical & Physical Society, Vol. I. 
(22) Appendix XXV, Indian Plague Commission's Report. Vol. II, 

p. 364. 



275 

A CATALOGUE OF THE IIETEROCERA OF SIKHIM 

AND BHUTAN. 

By G. C. Dudgeon, f.e.s., 

With Notes by H. J. Elwes, f.r.s., &c. 

and 
Additions by Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., b.a., f.e.s., &o. 

Part XVII. 

(Continued from page 613 of Vol. XV.) 

Family NOCTUIDjE— contd. 

Sub-family CUCULLTANjE. 

Genus Cugullia, Sohrank. 

1807. C. albescens, Moore. 

Sikhim. I have this only from the Punjab, but it is probable that it 
occurs all along the Himalayas at suitable elevations. (A single speci- 
men from Mollor identified by Sir Geo. Hampson. — H.J.E.) 

1808. C. nigrifascia, Hmpsn. 

Sikhim. Mr. Elwes took a single specimen of this at light at Darjeel- 
ing in August. 

1810. C. brevipennis, Hmpsn. 

Sikhim. I have not seen this. (I do not know the authority for 
the Sikhim specimen recorded by Sir Geo. Hampson, my only example 
is from the Nagas.— H.J.E.) (Darjeeling, Moore Coll. in B. M.— • 
G. F. II) 

1812. C. pullata, Moore. 

Sikhim. I have seen only this from Kulu in the Punjab. (I took 
one of this fine large Cucullia on Tonglo in July and suppose it to be a 
high-level species. — H.J.E.) 

1806a. C. poliorhiza, Hmpsn. 

Yatung. I have a single specimen of this from Mr. Lister obtained 
at the frontier station. Although it is in bad condition it is easily re- 
cognised by comparison with Sir Geo. Hampson's figure in the Bo. 
Nat. Soc, Vol. XIII. 

Genus Polia, Ochs. 

(Out of all the species placed in this genus in Moths of India and 
recorded from Sikhim it appears from Sir Geo. Hampson's new 
classification the following Nos. belong to the genus Crymodes in the 



27S JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

s\ih-him\y AC ftOXYC TIN ^ :— I78C, 1787, 1788,1790, 1791, 1792 r 
3796 ; while 1794 is said to be a Cucullian of uncertain genus and 
1793 and 1797 are not in the B.M. collection and are therefore at 
present uncertain. I am leaving only the last three in this genus.) 

1794. P. griseimfa, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 10,000 ft. No specimens. (1 have four specimens, one of 
which I took on Tonglo, the others at or near Darjeeling. — II.J.E.) 

1793. P. microsttcta, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I do not know this. (The unique type of this came from 
Moller. I do not know where it was taken, but I suspect it is not 
rightly placed here. — II.J.E.) 

1797. P. sinuata, Moore. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. (Another of the rarities which I took on that 
wonderfully successful expedition along the Nepal frontier during the 
height of the rainy season in 1886. — II.J.E.) 

Genus Sydiva, Moore. 
1765. S. nigrosgrisea, Moore. 
Sikhim. This species which I have not seen would appear to come 
into this sub-family and should therefore be separated from Ancara 
m which it is placed in Moths of India and which latter genus belongs 
to the next sub-family. (I took one on Tonglo in July and have 
others from Atkinson and Moller, the latter dated 30th May 1888. — 
II.J.E.) 

Genus Elwesia, Hmpsn. 
1597. E. diplostigma, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. I believe this species has been obtained at high 
elevation, but I have not seen it. (The type female I took on Tonglo. 
I have one male from Knyvett's collection. — II.J.E.) 

Genus Bombycia, Steph. 
1710. B. rubida, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. I do not know this. (The unique type was 
taken by me on Tonglo at light in July and is in rather worn condition. 
—II.J.E.) 

1799. B. grisea, Moore. 
Sir Geo. Hampson removes this from Folia to this genus. 
Sikhim, 15,000 feet. (Of this T have never seen a specimen except 
iu Atkinson's collection.— H.J.E.) 



HETEBOCERA OF SIKHIM AND BTIUTAN. 277 

Genus Epunda, Guen. 

1740. E. lagenifera, Moore. 

Siklum. This insect was placed with the next in the genus Euplexia 

in Moths of India, hut belongs to this sub-family. (1 have five from 

Sikhim and one from Manipur which I believe to be this species. — 

Il.J.E.) 

1751. E. pardaria, Moore. 
Sikhim. Placed in Euplexia in Moths of India, but should be 
removed to this sub-family. 

Sub-family ACRONYCTINjE. 

Genus Crymodes, Guen. 

1786. C. herchatra, Swinh. 

Sikhim, 7,000 feet ; Bhutan, 6,400 feet. I have only taken this in 

at light. (This pretty little Noctuid was common on the Nepal frontier 

from 10,000 to 12,000 feet in July.— Il.J.E.) 

1787. C, sikkimensis, Moore. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. (I took two on Tonglo and have another from 
the Tibet frontier or Chumbi valley. — H.J.E.) 

1788. C. canosparsa, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 12,000 feet. (This is a common species on the Nepal frontier 
from Tonglo up to Jongri at 13,000 feet or upwards. — Il.J.E.) 

1790. C.endroma, Swinh. 
Sikhim and Bhutan. Occurs but rarely at high elevations in Bhutan 
in September. (Also common on the Nepal frontier, but I did not take 
it as high up as the last. — Il.J.E.) 

1791. C. dentata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet ; Bhutan, 7,000 feet. I have five specimens 
brought in by my collectors taken in July. (Rather like, but I think 
quite distinct from the last species and found along the Nepal frontier 
from Tonglo to Sundukpho. — Il.J.E.) 

1703. C. castanea, Moore. 
Sikhim, 7,000 feet. Taken by Col. Pilcher probably at Darjeelmg 
from whom I obtained a specimen. (I have only one specimen of this 
fine and distinct species from the interior of Sikhim. I do not think it 
occurs at Darjeeling, but if so must be rare. — Il.J.E.) 

1796. C. juncture/,, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 7,000 feet. (Of this distinct species I have only two from 
Moller's collection. The elevation given is doubtful. — I1..EE.) 



278 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Genus Sesamia, Guen. 
1798a. S. fumea, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. The type of this was taken by me at Pankabaree, 
1 have not seen another. This species, which was originally placed in 
the genus Polia, Sir Goo. Hampson now refers to Sesamia, Guen. 

Genus Sphetta, Wlk. 
1585. S. apkalis, Wlk. 
Sikhim, 3,000 feet. I have taken this at Vah on the Tukvar spur 
and bred others from larva? taken at the same elevation. The dates on 
my specimens are May, June and August. The expanse of my specimens 
is greater than that recorded in Moths of India, being 47 millim. $ 
and 53-59 millim. $ . 

Genus Amphipyra, Ochs. 
1655. A. monolitha, Guen. 
Sikhim. I have this from the Kangra Valley, but never saw a speci- 
men from Sikhim or Bhutan. (Not in B. M. from Sikhim — G.F.H.) 
(I doubt its occurrence in Sikhim — H. J. E.) 

1658. A. cupreipennis, Moore. 
Sikhim. This also I have not seen (Sikhim in B. M. — G.F.H.) 

Genus Euplexia, Steph. 
1711. E. nuhllata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. Taken by Moller at 6,000 feet. I have no specimens. (Twa- 
in my collection without exact locality. — II. J. E.) 

1712. E. indislans, Guen. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-4,000 feet. I cannot separate this from 
the next when trying to identify females. The only feature which is 
<lifferent in the male is the ferruginous suffusion present in indistans, but 
I have a specimen of niveiplaga with the white patch on the reniform 
which is distinctly reddish on the underside. My specimens were taken 
in April, May, July and September. (Either species may have the 
white patch on reniform. — G.F.H.) 

1713. E. niveiplaga, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, up to 5,000 feet. All the forms of this are ap- 
parently equally common. I have taken it in May, June, August, Sep- 
tember, October and November. 

1715. E. fidvistigma, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-6,000 feet. I also think that this species and 
the next will eventually lie found to be one. The darker suffusion of 



HETEROCERA OF SIKH IM AND BHUTAN. 270 

the innor half of the forewing in sodalis is the only distinguishing mark I 
can see in some of the redder forms of the latter species. My specimens 
are all marked May. (I have two specimens from Sikhim and one from 
the Khasias which agree with the type of Hadena constellata, Moore 
placed by Hampson as a synonym of this. — H. J. E.) 

1717. E. sodalis, Butl. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 3,000 feet up. A very common insect occurring 
in May and June. 

1717a. E. oxydata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 7,000 feet. I do not know this. (Sikhim, Pilcher in B. M. 
— G. F.H.) 

1795a. E. pyroxantha, Hmpsn. 

Yatung. This will probably be found on this side of the passes also. 
Sir Geo. Hampson thinks that the position of the insect is better in this 
genus. It was originally described as a Polia. 

1721. E. conducta. Wlk. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 feet. This is a common species oc- 
curring in May, June, August and September. The form galaxia, Butl., 
is rarer and I have only taken it at 4,500 feet in Sikhim and in the 
Kangra Valley. Apart from the difference in the ground colour of this 
latter form from typical conducta the reniform which is formed of dis- 
tinct white spots in a cluster is much further from the postmedial line. 
It seems to me to be distinct, but my series is not long enough to 
determine. 

1722. E. albhnaculata, Moore. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 2,000-5,000 feet. Not uncommon in May, 
June, August and September, attracted to light. (I took it at Darjeel- 
ing at light. — H.J.E.) 

1723. E. leucospila, Wlk. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-7,000 feet. This species has apparently a 
greater range in elevation than the last, but I have not taken it so 
frequently. (I took this at Darjeeling and have it also from Manipur. 
— H.J.E.) 

1724. E. albirena, Moore. 

Sikhim. I have only one specimen with no elevation recorded. 
(Four specimens from Moller's collection, of which one is dated 21st 
October 1888, probably from low elevation. — H.J.E.) 



280 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

1725. E. subcurva, Wlk. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. This is a rare species in Sikhim ; my only 
specimen was taken by me at light at Punkabaree in April. 

1737. E. metallka, Wlk. 
Sikhim. I have not seen this species. (Sikhim, Atkinson, Mailer in 
B. M. — G.F.II.) (I have four specimens of this fine species from 
Atkinson's and Moller's collections. — II.J.E.) 

1728. E. discisignata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,400-6,700 feet. I look a specimen in Septem- 
ber at Rissoom and another in the same month at Pasheteng. (A 
common species at Darjeeling at light and varies a good deal. 1 also 
have it from the Naga Hills. — II.J.E.) 

1780. E. chalybeata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan. I have one specimen of this taken by my 
collectors in Bhutan, but with no record of elevation or date. ( 1 took 
this at light on Tonglo and have it also from Moller's collection. 
— II.J.E.) 

1732. E. melanospila, Koll. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-7,000 feet. A very common species 
especially at about 5,000 feet. My specimens are dated May and 
September. 

1733. E. aurigera, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 2,500-10,000 feet. A common insect attracted 
to light at many different elevations. I have specimens taken by 
myself at Tukvar, Badamtam, Fagoo, and Darjeeling in March and 
June and have received specimens through my collectors from Yatung 
and the Sikhim frontier. 

1734. E. albinota, Moore. 

Sikhim, 9,000 feet. I have only one specimen taken in the interior 
in July. [Also taken by me at light on Tonglo in July. — II.J.E.) 
1734b. E. chlorogrammata, limpsn. 

Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I took one specimen which is now in the 
British Museum collection as the type at Punkabaree. 

1735. E. aurovirid/s, Moore. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 feet.— I have only taken this in 
August and September attracted to light. It is apparently not very 
common, (The form albidisca, Moore which Hampson treats as a 



HETEROCERA OF SIKUIM AND BHUTAN. 2»t 

synonym, seems to me distinct. I have three from Sikhim and one from 
the Khasi $ which agree with each other. — H. J. E.) 

1736. E. literata, Moore. 
Sikhim. I do not know this. (Sikhim, type Moore coll., and Pitcher 
in B. M.^-G. F. II.) (I have two of this pretty species, one of which 
I took at light at Darjeeling in July. — H. J. EJ) 

1737. E. calamistrata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 3,000-5,500 ft. Occurs but not commonly in 
September and October. (I took it also at Darjeeling. — II. J. E.) 

1738. E. aurantiaca,, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 8,000 feet. I have not seen this. (I have four specimens 
which came from Mailer's collection. — II. J. E.) 

1739. E. stellifera, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,700 feet. An insect which I take to be this 
species I took at Pasheteng in September. 

1741. E. plumbeola, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I do not know this species. I have six specimens from 
Holler's collection, some dated June. A very distinct species. — 11. «/. E.) 

1742. E. gemmifera, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan. I have a specimen taken in Bhutan in May. 
(Not a rare species in some parts of Sikhim, but I never took it myself. 
—H.J.E.) 

1743. E. alboviltata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 3,000-7,000 feet. A common insect attracted to 
light in June, September, October and November. (This agrees with 
a specimen in Dick's collection from N. Japan. The var. siuuala, Moore 
has much narrower silver bands. — H. J. E.) 

1744. E. distorta, Moore. 
Sikhim. I have not seen this. (Sikhim, Pitcher in B. M. — G. F. II.) 
(I have only one perfect specimen of this very beautiful species from 
Knyvett's collection taken 14th May 1889. — ZT. J. E.) 

1747. E. indica, Moore. 
Sikhim. (This cannot easily be identified, but I have one which 
I took at Darjeeling which I believe to be this. — H.J.E.) 

1749. E. pidcherrima, Moore. 
Sikhim. I have only taken this in the Kangra Valley and have 
specimens from Kulu. It must be rare in Sikhim. (I have several 

specimens, of which I took two at light on Tonglo. — ILJ.E.) 
n 



282 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

1750. E. atrovirens, Moore. 
Sikhim, 7,000 feet. Two specimens taken at light in July. (Not 
are at light at Darjeeling. — H. J. E.) 

1752. E. venoscij Moore. 
Sikhim. 1 have not taken this. (Sikhim, Russell in B. M. — G. F. H.) 

1753. E. confluensj Moore. 

Sikhim. Another insect unknown to me. (Both of the above are 
unknown to me and must be rare in Sikhim. — H. J. E.) 

1754. E. mucronata, Moore. 

Sikhim. (I have three from Moller's and one from Atkinson's collec- 
tion. — H. J. E.) 

1755. E. t'camba, Swinh. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 7,000-10,000 feet. This seems to be not un- 
common in July at high elevation, but I have never taken it myself. I 
have only five examples taken by my collectors. (Quite a common 
species on Tonglo in July and occurs at Darjeeling also. — H. J. E.) 

1756. E. costa/is, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,400 feet. I took two specimens at Kissoom 
in September. (Two from Sikhim in my collection and two from the 
Khasias. — II. J. E.) 

1756a. E. niveifascia, Wlk. (Plate III, Fig. 27.) 
Sikhim. My only specimen was taken by me at light at Punka- 
baree and is now in the British Museum collection. 

1869. E. ochreipuncta, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. This is unknown to me. It was included in the genus 
Caradrina until now. There is a specimen from Col. Pilcher's col- 
lection in the B. M. (The type from Moller's collection agrees with the 
Khasia specimen. — H, J. E.) 

1757. E. viridinigra, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I have only one specimen with no record of elevation or 
date upon it. 

1758. E. cyanolinea, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. I do not know this. ( A high elevation species 
which I took at Tonglo occurs also up to 12,000 feet. — //. J. E.) 
1758a. E. come rvulo ides, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. Described from specimens in Col. Pilcher's collection. I 
do not know it. 

1760. E. partita, Moore. 
Sikhim, 10,000 feet. {Pitcher in B. M.— G. F. H.) 



HETEROCERA OF SIKHIM AND BHUTAN. 28?, 

1761. E. lageniformis, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. (I have four from Holler's and one from Atkinson's collec- 
tion.—//. J. E.) 

1762. E. heterocampa, Moore. 
Sikhim. I do not know any of these last three. (A distinct species 
which I took on Tonglo at light in July, and which occurs along the 
Nepal frontier up to 12,000 feet.—/?. J. E.) 

Genus Ancara, Wlk. 
1767. A. rubra, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, Yatung. I have one specimen from the latter locality with 
no date. (I have one from Sandukpho, about 12,000 feet, and another 
from Moller's collection. — II. J, E.) 

1768, A. thalpophilokles, Wlk. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I have taken this at light in May, June and 
July at Punkabaree. 

1770. A. glaucoclilora, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I do not know this. (I have one from Moller's collection 
(the type) and three from the Khasias which agree with it. — //. J. E.) 

Genus Magusa, Wlk. 
1771. M. tenebrosa, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feat. I have six specimens taken by 
me at light at Fagoo and Punkabaree which shew great variation in the 
markings of the forewings. One specimen has a central longitudinal 
fascia with white patches below it. I have specimens from the Kanora 
Valley also taken in July and September at 4,500 feet. My Sikhim and 
Bhutan examples were all taken in July and August. 

Genus Eurois, Hiibn. 
1772. E.retrahens, Wlk. 
Sikhim. I have not taken this, (I have taken this at Shillono- in 
the Khasia hills, but never saw a specimen from Sikhim and doubt its 
occurrence there. — H. J. E.) 

1774. E. decorata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,000-7,000 feet. I have two examples taken by 
my collectors in July and September. (One of the commonest species 
at light on Tonglo and extends along the Nepal frontier to 12-13,000 
feet.—//. </. E.) 

1775. E. separata, Moore. 
Sikhim. I have no specimens of this. (I took two on Tonglo and 
got another from the same frontier — II. J. E.) 



284 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

1776. E, simulate*, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,000-7,000 feet. I have a specimen from 
Lingtu taken in September. — (I have three Moller's collection. — 
//. J. E.) 

1835. — E. monilis, Moore. 
Sikhim. This insect was originally placed under the genus Amyna. 
in Moths of India. I have not seen a specimen. (I also have not 
seen it. — H. J, E.) 

1780. E. leucosticta, Moore. 

Sikhim, 10,000 feet. I do not know this. I have nothing that I 
can identify certainly with this. — H. J. E.) 

1780a. E. chalcochlora, Hmpsn. (Plate II, Fig. 9.) 

1781. E. fiavipicta, .Hmpsn. 

Sikhim. Another insect I have not received. (I have only the 
type specimen from Moller's collection. It is probably a high-level 
species. — H. J. E,) 

1782. E. fortissima, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 2,000-7,000 feet. All my specimens were 
taken by me at light in September. The male has a curved tuft of 
long scales each side of the last segment of the abdomen. (I have 
only two specimens from Atkinson's collection.- — H. J. E.), 

1783. E. cuprima, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan. I have specimens taken in May and August 
at about 5,000 feet elevation. It was originally named clialybeata, 
Wlk. in Moths of India. (I believe that I have two species under this; 
name which were taken on Tonglo at light, but I cannot identify them 
certainly. — H. J. E.) 

1783a. E. clialybeata, Wlk. 
Sikhim. I do not know this. 

Genus Dipterygia, Steph. 
1800. D. noeturna, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-4,000 feet. This is a very common insect, 
especially at the lower elevations. I have taken it throughout the 
rains at light at Tukvar, Badamtam, Punkabaree and Fagoo. 

1802. D. sikhima, Moore. 
Sikhim. My only, specimen is now in the British Museum collec- 
tion. (I have specimen from Moller's collection dated 2nd June. — 
//. J. E.) 



HETEROCERA OF SIKHIM AND BHUTAN. 285 

Genus Acronycta, Ochs. 
1813. A. ancedina, Butl. 
Sikhim, 6,800 feet. I have only one example taken at the electric 
lamps in Darjeeling in June. 

1816. A. sinens, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. I have four specimens, three 
of which I took at Punkabaree in July, August and October and the 
other at Fagoo in August. The male differs from the female in 
having the forewing slightly more prolonged and the hindwing reduced 
in area, vein 4 being more nearly approximated to 6 and forming a 
slight fold between them. (I have one only from Moller's collection. 

—H. J. E.) 

1819. A. denticulata, Moore. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I took one female at Punkabaree in July. This 
sex differs from the male in the hindwing being completely suffused 
with brown. My specimen otherwise exactly corresponds with Butler's 
figure in 111. Het. vii, pi. 125, fig. 8. 

1822. A.fasciata, Moore. 

Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I took one example at light at Punkabaree in 
July. My specimen is a female and corresponds fairly well with 
Butler's figure of " Hyboma divisa, Moore" in 111. Het. vii, pi. 125, 
fig. 7. 

1823. A. obliqua, Moore. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. This is the commonest species 
of the genus which I have taken within these limits. My specimens as 
present in my collection were taken by me at light at Punkabaree and 
Fagoo in May, June, July and August. The dark fascia on the fore- 
wing from the middle of the costa through the reniform to the centre of 
the inner margin distinguish it from any other Acronycta I have seen. 

Genus Toxocampa, Guen. 

1826. T. dorsigera, Wlk. 

Sikhim. (I have a specimen from a high elevation on the Nepal 
frontier which I cannot distinguish from those from the Khasias and 
Burmah. — //. J. E.) 

Genus Conservula, Grote. 

1827. C. indica, Moore. 

Sikhim. I have only taken this twice in Sikhim. My specimens 
are unfortunately without date or elevation. I took a specimen also in 



286 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BISTORT SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

the Kangra Valley, Punjab, in September at 4,500 feet. (I have speci- 
mens from Moller's and Knywett's collections, but never took it 
myself.— H. J. JE,) 

Genus Prodenia, Guen, 
1829. P. littoralis, Boisd. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, up to 6,000 feet. A common insect attracted 
to light from June to September. 

1829a. P. synstictis, Hmpsn. (Plate II, Fig. 23.) 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I took one specimen at Punkaharee in August 
1897. 

Genus Spodoptera, Guen. 
1831. S. mauritia, Boisd. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, up to 5,500 feet. A very common and some- 
what variable insect of which I have specimens taken in March and 
from May to November. 

Genus Amyna, Guen. 

1833. A. selenampha, Guen. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 3,000 feet up. A variable insect occurring in 

large numbers in some localities particularly attracted to fruit. I have 

taken it in June, July and August. One form has a large white spot 

below the reniform on the fore wing. 

1833a. A, apicalis, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 feet. Not uncommon in June, 
October and November. Occurs in the Kangra Valley also. 

1834. A. octo, Guen. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. Very common with at least 

three fairly well marked forms, some of which may prove to be distinct. 

One red form with a sub-apical grey spot on the forewing has the 

forewing somewhat truncated ; this is probably the form renalis, Moore. 

Genus Berresa, Wlk. 
1837. B. turpis, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. I have six specimens in my 
collection taken by me at light in July, September and November at 
Faooo and Punkabaree. 

Genus Callopistria, Hiibn. 
1838a. C. variegata, Swinh. (Plate III, Fig. 25.) 
Bhutan, 3,500 feet. I took three specimens of this at light at Fagoo. 
in August and September. 



TIETEEOCERA OF SIEHIM AND BHUTAN. 287 

1839. C. strigilineata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I have not seen this. (Two from Moller's collection and 
tme taken by myself near Darjeeling agree together, but differ in 
being larger, paler and with the apical markings on the forewing some- 
what different from two Khasia specimens so named by Sir Geo. 

Hampson. — H. J.E.) 

18395. C. harmonica, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I took one specimen of the type at Punkabaree 
at light. It curiously resembles a well-marked specimen of Caradrina 

transversa, Moore. 

1842. C. repleta, Wlk. 

Sikhim, 1,800-3,000 feet. I took this fairly commonly at Punka- 
baree in May, July, August, September, October and November. 

1843. C. rivularis, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. Very common in June, 
August, September, October, and November at light at Fagoo and 
Punkabaree. I have two specimens also from the Kangra Valley 
taken in August at 4 5 500 feet. 

1846. C. placodoides, Guen. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. Common at light in June, 
July and August. 

1848. C. indica, Butl. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. I have six specimens taken 
by me at light in June, July and August at Punkabaree and Fagoo 
and six more taken in June and July at 4,500 feet in June and July 
in the Kangra Valley. 

1849. C. recurvata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-5,500 feet. I have seven specimens of 
this taken at light in June, July, August and September at Tukvar, 
Fasoo and Punkabaree. 

Genus Elusa, Wlk. 
1850. E. bipars, Moore. 
Bhutan, 2,500 feet. Occurs commonly at Fagoo in July and October. 
It is distinguishable from E. antennata, Moore, by the outer third of 
forewing being pale reddish brown. 

1851. E. cyathicomis, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. Common at Punkabaree and 
Fagoo. Some specimens have the reniform spot pure white. My spe- 
cimen I took at light from June to September. 



28S JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

1852. E. antennata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan ; 1,800-3,000 feet. Common at light from 
May to September. 

Genus Caradrina, Ochs. 
1854. C. cognata, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 foot. I have taken this at Badain- 
tam, Fagoo and Punkabaree chiefly in June and July. It is not very 
common. 

1855. C. exigua, Hiibn. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I have only two specimens of this insect which 
I took at light at Punkabaree in March. 

1856. C. kadenii, Freyer. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-5,000 feet. I have five specimens of this 
species taken at light. They were obtained in January, March, June 
and October. There are generally four conspicuous black specks on the 
costa, and the reniform and postmedial line are generally defined with 
ochreous red. 

1857a. C. terminata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 feet. A very common insect, espe- 
cially at Punkabaree. It is somewhat like C. kadenii, Freyer, but the 
forewing is always shorter, there are never more than two black specks 
on the costa, and the area beyond the posi medial line is generally suf- 
fused with cupreous fuscous. I have seventeen specimens in my collec- 
tion taken by me at light in January, March, May, June, July, Septem- 
ber and October. 

1 858a. C. atrescens, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. This species, of which I obtained a number at 
Punkabaree, is very distinct from anything else I know in the genus. 
The large quadrate black patch on the costa at the middle and the black 
patches on the postmedial area combined with the buff-white ground 
colour give it the appearance of an Acronycta. Sir Geo. Hampson 
thinks this may be referable to the genus Euplexia. 

1860. C. delecta, Moore. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. This is not uncommon in 

the winter and spring months at low elevations. I have ten specimens 

in my collection bearing dates February, March, April, October and 

November. The orbicular and reniform spots on the forewing are 



HETEROCERA OF SIKEIM AND BHUTAN. 289 

represented by black subquadrate patches divided up by fine pale lines, 
the former into 5 and the latter into 9 parts. 

18(J7. C. transversa, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. This is another well-marked 
species which I have taken commonly at light at Punkabaree and 
Fagoo from May to September. 

1872. C. picta, Swinh. 
Sikhim. I have not seen this. (I have four specimens from Moller's 
Collection which agree with one from the Khasias. It seems to me that 
the species included in Caradrina differ so widely in fascies that they can 
hardly be kept under one genus. — H. J. E.) 

1874. C. pectinata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. Occurs rather rarely at Punkabaree in July, 
September and October. I have also a specimen of a female from the 
Kangra Valley (Punjab) identified by Su* George Hampson. The male 
has the antennpe pectinated. 

1875. C. reclusa } Wlk. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I have only two specimens of this rare species. 
The forewing somewhat resembles that of C. Ihieosa, Moore, but is 
suffused with ochreous on the basal half, and the collar and abdomen 
are black. 

187G. C. externa, Wlk, 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 6,700 feet. I have only one specimen that I 
took at Pasheteng in October. (A single specimen from Atkinson's 
collection. — H. J. E.) 

1877. C. lineosa, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. I have fourteen specimens 
of this, one of which was wrongly identified by Sir Geo. Hampson as 
Radinacra placida, Moore which is placed as a synonym off C. quadri- 
punctata, Fabr. The reniform is generally composed of a round white 
speck with a smaller one above it, but there is sometimes a third one 
below as well. In the specimen referred to as identified as Radinacra 
jdacida the specks are suffused with reddish. 

1879. C. divisaj Moore. 
Sikhim. Sir Geo. Hampson says that this is not from Sikhim in 
B. M. (I have two from Kynvett's and two from Moller's collection 
which agree with the type of divisa, — //. J. E.) 
13 



290 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

1882. C. cervina, Moore. 
Sikhim. I have not taken either of these last two. (I have not seen 
this.— H. J. E.) 

1883. C. castaneipars, Moore. 
Sikhim, 6,400 feet. I have only taken this on two occasions. A spe- 
cimen in my collection is marked " Rissoom September." 

1887. C. fasciata, Moore. 
Sikhim, 6,700 feet. I have two specimens which I took in September 
and October. (Common at light at Darjeeling. I am not sure that I 
have not two species under this name. — H. J. E.) 

1889. C. indistincta, Moore. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-3,000 feet. A very common insect at 
Punkabaree, but taken only in the cold weather. My specimens are 
dated January, March, September, November and December. The 
forewing of this species is much broader than that of other species of the 
genus, the third joint of the palpus is long, and the collar somewhat 
peaked. The reniform spot is dark and indistinct, reticulated with lines 
of the ground colour. The postmedial line sometimes has a series of 
black streaks between the veins on both sides of it. 

Genus Tathorhynchus, Hmpsn. 
1890. T. vinctalis, Wlk. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 feet. Occurs, but not commonly, 
in June and July attracted to light. 

Genus Auchmis, Hiibn. 

1941. A. intermedia, Brem. 
Bhutan, 6,400 feet. I only took this once at Rissoom, but have 
specimens from Simla and from the Kangra Valley. (I have only 
one from Sikhim, where it must be rare. — H. J. E.) 

Genus Nonagria, Ochs. 
1943. N. inf evens, Wlk. 
Sikhim, 1,800 feet. This is rare in this locality. I took two specimens 
at light at Punkabaree in June and October. ( I have only seen one 
from Sikhim taken in August. — H, J. E.) 

1945. N. robust a, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. I do not know this. ( I have four of this fine species from 
Moller's and one from Knyvett's collection. I believe it to be a high- 
level species. — II. J. E.) 



HETEROCERA OF SIKHIM AND BHUTAN. 291 

1946. N. submarg mails, Hmpsn. 
Bhutan, 2,500 feet. I have one specimen taken at light in May. 

Genus Leogyma, Guen. 

1958. L. tibialis, Wlk. 

Sikhim and Bhutan, up to 5,000 feet. A common insect attracted 
to light in May, June and August. 

1959. L. judicata, Wlk. 

Sikhim, 1,800 feet. I have only one specimen of this. My specimen 
is without the black costal marks, but has postmedial curved and snb- 
marginal straight lines of indistinct fuscous scales. The hindwing has 
three minute black specks on the subapical margin. 

1960. L. biplaaa, Wlk. 

Sikhim. I do not know this. (I took a single perfect specimen of 
this beautiful and distinct little species at sight at Darjeeling on 20th 
June 1886.— #. J. E.) 

1960a. L. pilcheri, Hmpsn. (Plate II, Fig. 2.) 
Sikhim. The type of this was procured by Colonel Pilcher at Dar- 
jeeling. 

1961. L. maculata, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim. ( I have a specimen taken by Dudgeon which agrees with 
the type. — II. J. E.) 

Genus Apsarasa, Moore. 
1962. A. radians, Westw. 
Sikhim and Bhutan, 4/5,000 feet. This is a rare species, of which I 
have only taken three specimens. It occurs in May and June. 

Genus Cosmia, Ochs. 
1873. C. ocftreimargo, Hmpsn. 
Sikhim, (Pilcher) in British Museum collection. This was originally 
placed in Caradrina. Cosmia is in Acontiinoe in Moths of India, but is 
removed to here doubtfully by me. (I took the type of this at Dar- 
jeeling at light in August and have two others from Sikhim. — B. J. E.) 



292 

NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE 

FROM 5th NOVEMBER 1903 TO 5th AUGUST 1904. 

By Capt. F. WALL, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 16th March 1905.) 

Family Typhlopid.<e. 
Typhlops Acutus. 
This snake is called by the Malabaris " Kooroodan pamboo," " blind- 
snake," which name is also applied to the Cgecilian Uroeotyphlus 
oxyurus. A single adult specimen was brought to me alive on the 
2nd December. It wriggled vigorously in my grasp, but made no 
attempt to bite me. 

Family BOIDJ]. 
Sub-family BoiNiP. 
Eryx conicus. 
An extremely common snake, called by the natives " Mandalee." 
This name is also given by them to Russell's viper, from which they 
are apparently unable to distinguish it. They are extremely afraid of 
it, and many have been the entreaties I have received not to handle 
it. I have had many in captivity, but it is an uninteresting, sluggish 
reptile, and does not thrive well, usually refusing food. It will some- 
times snap at an offending object, but as often takes little or no notice 
of it, and will even refuse to retract its nose from the glass of its cage 
when drummed against. Its courage and strength are exemplified 
by its power of overcoming full-grown squirrels (Sciurus palmarum). 
On two occasions I had captor and victim brought in to me, and one of 
those snakes only measured 1 foot 4^ inches ! I have often wondered 
what tactics it can adopt to effect the capture of these very active and 
comparatively large creatures. These are not the only instances known 
to me in which squirrels have fallen a prey to this snake. One specimen 
had swallowed a large frog (Rana tiyrina). Another of 9J inches had 
oaten some small mammal, too digested to identify. It kills its victims 
bv crushing, and I have always found them dead before the snake has 
begun swallowing. It has a habit, like many other snakes, of crouching 
or pressing itself to the ground when molested, and this is most noticeable 
in the hinder part of the body. Its movements are slow, and it cannot 
be got to hasten ; on the contrary, if worried, sulks, and remains coiled 
nod stationary. I obtained oG specimens. The sex is not recorded in 18, 
and of the remainder 9 were males and 9 females ; 15 were obtained in 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 293 

the driest and hottest months, viz., March and April. In the wet months 
th3y were correspondingly scarce, May, June, and July producing only 
5 specimens. My largest specimen was 2 feet 4f inches, and the 
smallest, which, I believe, was a hatchling, was 8J inches. The navel 
involved 5 ventral shields, and 43 intervened between it and the anal. 
A pregnant female, 1 foot 8f inches, contained 6 eggs with no trace of 
embryo on the 7th December 1903. 

It is quite common to find some of the sub-caudals divided. The 
first infralabials sometimes fail to meet behind the symphysial. 

Family COLUBRID^. 

Sub-family Coi/UBRIN^:. 

Lycodon aulicus. 

Called by the natives " Choorrta." Of the 50 specimens collected 
the sex is not noted in 7, and of the 43 remaining 25 were females 
and 18 males. The females have longer bodies than the males and, it 
seems, rather shorter tails. 

Ventrals £ 192—203. Sub-caudals 55—70. 
„ $ 177—186. „ 63—73. 

Only 3 specimens exceeded 2 feet in length. 

It was fairly abundant throughout the year, but perhaps more so 
during the dry weather. 

I found a gecko ingested on two occasions and a mouse once. 

It will be observed that I have recorded in the following table a very 
fair sequence of events from the reported coition of a pair in Novem- 
ber to the appearance of hatchlings in May and June. The smallest 
mother was 1 foot 6^ inches long. The eggs, from 3 — 10 in number, 
were unusually elongate, being often more than twice as long as broad 
and the largest measured If inches in length. I foiled to hatch any 
of these out in spite of many endeavours. Hatchlings measured from 
7^ — 7f inches, or about one-third the length of a large adult. The 
navel involved 3 — 4 ventrals, and 20—23 ventrals were interposed 
between it and the anal. 39 of the 50 specimens belonged to 
Boulenger's varieties D and E* ( the L. capucinus and the L. 
unicolor of Boie.), neither of which, however, I think, can claim to be 
regarded as distinct forms, as I found every gradation between 
them. In fact, two hatchlings obtained on consecutive days from 
the same small heap of tiles, and which, I think, may reasonably be 

* Cat. Snakes, Brit. Mus., Vol., I, pp, 353-4. 



294 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

considered as members of the same brood, were a good deal dissimilar. 
The one typical of variety D had 20 conspicuous saffron bars on the 
body, and an occipital bar ; the other, almost typical of variety E, 
had a few barely perceptible indications of bars on the forebody, and no 
occipital bar. The colour in all these was lightish brown, of vari- 
able shades, like tea and milk, or an unvarnished new cedar pencil, and 
in almost every specimen the bars were distinctly yellow and not white. 
The yellow, however, speedily became white in spirit. The bars which 
numbered as many as 24 on the body involved 1 — 2 scales vertebrally, 
and the intervals longest anteriorly 6 — 10 scales. Seven specimens I re- 
ferred with some doubt to Boulenger's variety A. This very handsome 
form constitutes a very distinct variety, and resembled the young krait 
so closely that I was most careful to assure myself of its identity before 
handling it. These specimens were so remarkably similar as to leave 
the impression that they must breed true inter se. The colour 
was chocolate or dark purplish-black, and there were from 11 — 19 well- 
defined white bars on the body, involving 2 scales vertebrally, the 
intervals longest anteriorly involving 12 — 19 scales. Usually some of 
the anterior labials were mottled brown, otherwise these shields were 
uniformly white. 

Many — in fact, most — of my specimens were caught at night by 
warders at the jail during their rounds, illustrating what is already 
well known of its nocturnal habit. Many have been caught in 
the near vicinity of, if not actually in, habitations. I found them 
agile creatures, displaying sometimes much spirit. I was frequently 
bitten by them in attempting capture or handling those in 
captivity. Many specimens, however, when grasped gently — an art in 
which I am little pruficient — displayed little or no vice, and suffered 
themselves to be handled with impunity. The bite is trifling : it cannot 
be said to cause pain, though one is sensible of the impress of their 
teeth on the skin, and sometimes even a minute speck of blood may be 
discirned at the spot. On one occasion one vibrated its tail vigor- 
ously under excitement. I have known it more than once fix itself into 
rigid coils, so that I could toss it like a bit of knotted cane into the air, 
without it loosening its folds. Its climbing powers are very remarkable 
and little inferior to some of the tree-snakes. I have seen it many 
times clamber with the ease of a lizard up the perpendicular faces of 
its box, and retain its grasp while stationary in a wonderful manner. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



295 



OS 

p 











43 












no 




h 


H 
CO 


□ 


^] 




CD 


t3 


> 


J 


H 






03 







ij 












o 




-+j 




_$ 




a? " 








ci 3 


















03 

a 




4 


h 



Remarks. 



21-11-03. 



23-11-03. 



25-11-03. 



28-11-03. 



10-1-04. 
15-1-04. 
20-1-04. 



4-2-04. 
8-2-04. 



8-2-04. 
12-2-04. 



17-2-04. 

18-2-04. 
27-2-04. 

27-2-04. 



E 


$ 


I'll!" 


H" 


A 


$ 


V 5" 


H" 


A 


9 


2' 2£" 


A in 

*4 


A 


9 


2' 3|" 


4|" 


D 
E 
D 


9 
9 
9 


1' W 

v'H" 


2|" 

••• 


E 


$ 


V hi" 


91H 
D 2 


D 


9 


... 


• •■ 


d'e* 


9 


l'"8i" 


91// 
°2 


A 


9 


• * • 


*•• 


D 


* 


1'7" 


3f" 


... 


9 


»•• 


... 


D 


9 


i' sr 


91(1 
°8 



181 



184 



200 



66 



62 



203 



177 



58 



70 



177 



196 



197 



68 



64 



63 



186 



196 



65 



59 



No 



Yes 



No 



Yes 



Anterior chin shields in 
contact with 4 infra- 
labials. Reported 
" in copula " 

Blackish-purple with 
13 very distinct 
white bars — incom- 
plete white collar. 

One temporal right side. 
10 ovarian follicles 
impregn.a ted. 13 
white bars on 
body, on dark pur- 
plish-black ground. 

Purplish-brown with 
18 white bars body 
very distinct. 

3 postoculars. 






Right 
side 

No 



Yes 



Yes 



Extracted 

Bungarus 
contained 

(l§"x§"). 
Temporal 

with 7th 

right side. 
Labials 10 

3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th 

touching eye 

right side. 



from a 

candidus, 

4 eggs 

confluent 
labial on 

with the 



on 



3 right postoculars; 
anterior chins touch 

4 infralabials ; 4th 
and 5th subcaudals 
entire. Contained 

5 eggsCl^-ljV). 
10 labials, the 3rd, 

4th, and 5th, touch- 
ing the eye. Con- 
tained 5 eggs (li"x 
7 n\ 
16 )• 

Anterior chins touch 4 
infralabials. 

Died 17th March '04. 
Contained 5 eggs 

(tI"-H"). 

Contained 4 eggs U 



9_// 
6 



* Implies intermediate between D and E. 



296 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 



















.a 





■ 1 




>> 




^3 




to 


GO 

*2 




03 -^ 


Remarks. 


CS 


C3 


M 


60 

n 

0> 


S3 


c3 

2 

CD 


93 



CS 


60 




P 


> 


te 


J 


El 


> 


00 


< 


s 




2-3-04. 


DE J 


9 


1/ Hill 
1 • 8 


3i" 


• •• 


... 


2 


Left 
side 


3 impregnated ovarian 
follicles. 


4-3-04. 


DE* 


8 


• •• 


• • a 


• • • 


... 


1 


Yes 




5-3-04. 


E 


$ 


V 8|" 


4J." 

*8 


... 


... 


2 


Jj 




7-3-04. 


D 




... 


• •• 


.. • 


... 


2 






11-3-04. 


D 


"$ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


Yes 


3 postoculars on right 
side. 


11-3-04. 


DE- 


9 


•>•■ 




• •• 




2 


» 


Right anterior chin 
shield touches 4 
labials, 5 impregnat- 
ed ovarian follicles. 


12-3-04. 


D E * 


$ 


1' 8|" 


91// 
°8 


• •• 


... 


2 


No 


7th labial confluent 
with temporal. 


17-3-04. 


D 


9 


■ •• 




■ • • 


• Of 


2 


Yes 


Laid 3 eggs 22nd March 
1904 and a 4th on 
28th March 1904. 


17-3-04. 


E 


9 


• • ■ 


... 


• • • 


• • 1 


2 


» 


Died 20th April 1904, 
and contained 4 
eggs. 


21-3-04. 


D 


$ 


*•• 


... 


• •• 




2 


No 




24-3-04. 


D 


S 


V R£" 


Q7// 

°8 


... 




1 


Yes 




24-3-04. 


D 


$ 


1' 10|" 


43// 
^*8 


... 




2 


J> 




12-4-04. 


D 




• •• 




... 




2 


j j 




14-4-04. 


D 


9 


• •• 


... 


.. 




2 


jj 




9-5-04. 


A 


9 


i' iii" 


q 1// 


203 


55 


2 


J? 


Dark plumjam color 
with 16 white bars 
on body. 


12-5-04. 


E 


$ 


1' 8J M 


4*" 


... 


... 


2 


>> 




13-5-04. 


DE 5 


9 


1'9" 


3|" 


. . . 


... 


2 


>• 




1 6-5-04. 


D 




71// 
'8 


If" 




■ •* 


2 


•J 


Navel involves 4 ven- 
trals, and 23 intervene 
between it and anal 
shield. 


18-5-04. 


E 


9 


1' 10|" 


*&" 


... 


... 


2 


No 


Contained 4 eggs. 


18-5-04. 


D 


$ 


V 3£" 


3" 


• •« 


... 


2 


Left 
side 


Contained a lizard 
(Hemidactylus). 


19-5-04. 


D E o 


$ 


I' 10i" 


41" 


• •• 


... 


2 


No 




27-5-04. 


A 


9 


1' 4|" 


01// 

^8 


197 


62 


2 


Yes 


19 white bars on body. 
8 labials, 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on 
left side. 


6-6-04. 


DE* 


$ 


1' 9|" 


4i" 


180 


65 





No 


Temporal confluent 
with 7th labial on 
left side. 


7-6-04. 


D E • 


$ 


1' 6" 


3|" 


181 


73 


2 


V 


Two loreals, the ante- 
rior touching the 
internasal, parietals 
divided transversely. 



• Implies intermediate betw oen D and E. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



297 








































6 




















+3 , 

as 
















OB 




m 43 














.. 


rf 




h a 

C3 O 


REMARK3. 


. 


>> 




• 




c! 


P 








G> 


« 




43 

60 


j 


V3 





^ 


M) 




43 


H 


.■ 


a 


ifn 


C 


.a 


cS 


SB .2 




« 


a 


M 


a) 


CS 


09 


cs 


O 






Q 


> 


a 


i4 


H 


> 


m 


< 


& 




7-6-04. 


D 


9 


1'2" 


24/' 


192 


62 


2 


Yes 


Contained a lizard 
(Hemidactylus fren- 
atus). 


10-6-04. 


DE* 


9 


i' Hi" 


Q7// 

°'8 


196 


64 


2 


No 


Contained 6 eggs 
(about f "). 


10-6-04. 


DE* 


t»« 


73// 
'4 


U" 


195 


61 


2 


» 


Navel involves 4 vent- 
rals, 23 between it, 
and anal. 


11-6-04. 


D 




7 Ml 
'4 


U" 






2 


Right 
side. 


Navel involves 3 vent- 
rals, 20 between it 
and anal, contained 
a young lizard 
(Hemidactylus fren- 
atus). 


13-6-04. 


D 


9 


1' 9£" 


4|" 


197 


64 


2 


No 




22-6-04. 


• •• 


9 


... 


... 


• •• 


• •• 


• a? 


... 


Pregnant. Esc a p e d 
from captivity. 


27-6-04. 


A 


$ 


2' If" 


ASH 

-8 


186 


63 


2 


Yes 


Chocolate with 11 
white bars. 


18-7-04. 


D 


9 


1' 91" 


91" 

°8 


194 


70 


2 


rt 




19-7-04. 


D 


<£ 


1' 5*" 


31" 


178 


66 


1 


No 




23-7-04. 


D 




1' 11 f 


4" 


198 


6G 


2 


» 


Two loreals on left 
side, the anterior in 
contact with the 
internasal. 


3-8-04. 


• •• 


... 


... 


••• 


• •• 


... 


• •• 


... 


Contained a mouse. 



Lycodon travancoricus. 

One specimen only came into my hands. It was a live female 
measuring 1 foot 5f inches, tail 3^ inches, and it allowed me to handle 
it with impunity. In color ft was dark purplish-brown, the dorsal 
bars and flank reticulations so common among members of this genus 
were straw coloured. After two days' immersion inspirit the yellow 
had become white. Ventrals 177. Subcaudals 65, all paired. 

POLYODONTOPHIS SuBPUNCTATUS. 

I obtained one small specimen, I think a female, 8| inches long, of 
which the tail accounted for 2 inches. Ventrals 102. Subcaudals 67. 
The navel involved 3 shields and 28 intervened between it, and the anal 
Temporal single, and in contact with the 7th only of the labial 
series. A cuneate scale is wedged, between the 7th and 8th labials 
which, if included as a labial, would make these shields number 10. 



* Implies intermediate between D and E. 



14 



298 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Oligodon suhgriseus. 
Natives called this " Choorta," but they confuse it, I think, with 
Lycodon aulicus which is universally called by this name. I got 4 
specimens, one live adult was an active, and restless little creature, 
wriggling constantly from my grasp, but offering no malice. The one 
caught on the 14th March was evidently a hatchling. It measured 
4i|", about « quarter the length of a good sized adult. All belonged 
to var A. (Boulenger)'*. The nasals are peculiar, and appear to me to 
be divided into 3 parts by a Y-shaped suture, the arms of which are 
wide, and the nostril is slit-like and occupies the anterior arm. 







.a 




ad 


BO 

"3 
■a 






Kemabks. 


© 
09 

Q 


K? 

CD 

CO 


OD 


'3 


+3 

a 


O 

■Q 

co 






25-11-03. 


rt 


1' 2|" 


93'' 

^8 


172 


46 


2 


17 bars body, 5 tail. 


12- 3 04. 


$ 


1' 6|" 


3±" 


160 


47 


2 




14- 3-04. 




f-'4J|" 


3'/ 

s 


184 


41 





17 bars bodv, 5 tail. 


10- 7-04. 


... 


0'6&" 




168 


... 


... 


Tail incomplete, 15 bars body. 



Zamem's mucosus. 

This is called " Chayra" by the natives. Of the 56 specimens, the 
sex was unrecorded in 19. Of the remainder, 19 were males, and 18 
females. 

It would appear from the accompanying table that it was most 
abundant in the cool weather, but this conclusion must be made with 
reserve, as I discouraged the capture of this species. I think it is pro- 
bably equally in evidence all the year round. 

Frogs, and especially Rana tigrina, seemed to form their staple diet. 

The only two pregnant specimens were obtained in August and 
November, the eggs numbering 13 and 11, respectively. Though I 
have always failed to make one menace me in the open, even when at 
bay, 2 specimens I had in captivity showed themselves extremely vicious 
hurling themselves repeatedly against the glass of their cages in their 
endeavours to strike at me. Both, too, during these outbursts of anger 
gave vent to a peculiar noise. I have never heard any other snake 
produce, resembling that scolding sound made by cats when brought 
to bay. CoinciJent with this remarkable sound, and probably in 
some way concerned in its production the neck, and upper body 



* Cat., Snakes, Brit. Mus., Vol. II, pp. 243-4. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED JN CA.NNANORE. 



299 



for some inches were markedly compressed, and the throat pouched. 
If the snake was attentively observed at this time it was 
noticed that the altered ventral contour with its bulging down- 
wards, corresponded to an equal bulging upwards of the dorsal aspect, 
which could only have been achieved through an arching of the spine. 
This snake is active, and has always appeared to me very swift in its 
movements, and I was much surprised therefore on June Gth when I 
gave chase to one in full flight measuring 5 feet 9^ inches and caught 
it up, and killed it. I paced the ground traversed by both, and found 
I had run 38 yards whilst the snake covered 18. I frequently en- 
countered it in the paddy fields, and have met as many as 7 in one 
day. When it took to the water, it kept its head above water, and 
could rarely be induced to immerse it. 

The male appears to grow to a greater length than the female 
and this is especially interesting with reference to a remark of Dar- 
win's, who says* he is informed by Dr. Giintherthat in snakes the males 
are always smaller than the females. Of the 14 specimens measuring 6 
feet and over in which the sex is recorded, 11 were males, and 3 females 
and the longest male measured 7 feet 6£ inches against the 6 feet 6 
inches of the longest female. 

Reference to the following table shows that the scales are subject to 
much variation : — 

















Scales. 






% 




^c 
















09 




.a" 
•3 a 


Remarks. 












te 


J?* 




e > 












w 


15 


S 3 


w 


a> «- 








f3 




? 





£j& 


o 


5° 




P 


m" 

CO 


to 

s 


'ct 


49 

a 


a 


■=2 


.0 


S3 O 




5-11-03. 


9 


6' 0i" 


V 10" 


200 


13G 


17 


16 


12 


Subocular absent. 


7-11-03. 




• •• 


• •• 


... 


... 


17 


16 


14 


9 labials, the 5th and 
6th touching the eye. 


9-11-03. 


••• 


5' 5i" 


... 


... 


■ •■ 


17 


17 


14 


3 postoculars on right 
side. 


10-11-03 


• •• 


6' 6£": 


1' 1 0|" 


• • • 




17 


16 


14 


1 loreals. 


11-11-03. 


*»% 


i' nr 


0' fU" 


• • ■ 


129 


17 


17 


12 




12-11-03. 


$ 


6' 2" 


l' 10" 


... 


• • ■ 


17 


16 


14 




12-11-03. 


i 


5' 11£" 


I' Hi" 


• 4 t 


... 


17 


17 


12 


Subocular absent. 3 
postoculars on right 
side. 


13-11-03. 


9 


5'0" 


l' 5£" 


• * i 




17 


17 


14 


7 labials, the 3rd and 
4r,h touching the 
eye on left side. 



* « Descent of Man," p. 538. 



300 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



O 













Scales. 






la 
















co S3 












00 TJ 




ja <u 














^> > 










TO 




a o 




g 




to 


C3 
TI 

P 


a 


>> 
o 




CD 


to 

a 




a 
> 


.a 

3 
03 


si 

9* 




d 



Remarks. 



14-11-03 
14-11-03 
14-] 1-03. 
14-11-03 

16-11-03. 
18-11-03 

16-11-03 

20-11-03. 



22-11-03. 
23-11-03! 
29-11-03. 

2-12-03. 



5-12-03. 
6-1-2-03. 



9-12-0 D .. 
18-12-03. 
20-12-03. 

21-12-03. 

21-12-03. 
28-12-02 

30-12-03. 



31-12-03. 
25-1-04. 



7-2-04 
10-2-04. 
11-2-04. 
19-2-04 

7-3-04, 
11-3-04. 
18-d-04. 



9 
$ 

9 
9 

9 
9 



$ 
9 



$ 

« •* 

9 



$ 

9 



6'0" 
6'1|" 



5' 2\" 
6' 6" 



5' H" 



4' 9£" 



V 84" 

l' H" 



V 6i" 

1' 1U"1 



i' H" 



1' 74" 
V 44/' 



6' llfl'lli" 



7 / 31, 



6' 8i" 



5' 54-" 



I'll" 

1' 10" 
l"-7P 



5' 8|" 1' 7" 



5' 6|" 1' 7^" 



2' 3-f" 0' 6F1 ••• 
7' 64/'2' Of, ... 



17 
17 

17 



17 
17 

17 

17 



17 
17 

17 



17 



17 
17 
17 



17 



17 
17 



17 
17 
17 

17 



17 
16 
16 



17 
16 

18 

17 



16 
16 

16 



16 



16 
16 
16 



17 



17 
16 



16 

17-16 

17 

14 



14 
14 
14 



14 
13 
14 

12 



12 
14 

*12 



14 



14 
12 
14 



14 



12 
14 



13 
14 
12 
12 



2 loreals. 

Contained 

eggs. 



} postoculars. 



11 large 



Subocular absent on 
left side. 

3 postoculars. Contain- 
ed a large frog 
(Rana tigrina). 



Subocular absent. 
Contained a largo 
frog {Rana tigrina'). 

Tail incomplete. 
Contained a large 
frog {Rana tigrina). 



Contained two frogs 
{Rana tigrina'). 



Contained a f vog(Rana 
tigrina), a lizard 
{Calotes versicolor), 
and a toad ( Bufo 
mela?iostictus). 

Ant. chins touch 4 
infralabials. Con- 
tained a frog ( Rana 
tigrina), caudal ex- 
tremity swallowed 
first. 



2 loreals. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



301 















Scales. 






to • 




■r a 
















.a -3 




J3 i> 














DO 


a a. 




a o 


Remake*. 






•43 

1-1 




CD 




2 3 


■a 

o 


■5 a 

03 O 

.a t-i 




•*J 


M 


a 


.~ 


B 


M 


,o 


■a 


a 




03 

c 


0> 

CO 


3 


a] 


l> 


d 

t/3 


C4 


§ 


cV - 




23-3-04. 






*•• 










amm 




30-3-04. 


9 


3' "bj" 


0' 9|" 


• • • 


• • • 


17 


17 


14 




9-4-04. 


• • * 


2' 6" 


• • • 


... 


* • • 


• • • 


... 


... 




25-4-04. 


$ 


6' 10i" 


1' 11" 


• •• 


• • • 


17 


17 


14 


9 labials, the 5th and 
6th touching the 
eye. 


3-5-04. 


$ 


■ ■• 


• •• 


■ • • 


• •• 


17 


16 


14 


3 postoculars left side. 


7-5-04. 




• • • 


• •• 


■ •■ 


• •• 


17 


16 


12 


2 loreals right side. 


1 6-5-0-1. 


"$ 


6' 6f 


i' n" 


-•* 


■ •• 


17 


14 


12 




17-5-04. 


9 


3' If 


0' lOf" 


• •• 






••* 


• •• 


Ate a snake (Trojndc- 
notus stolatus) caged 
with it, 30th May 
1904. 


21-5-04. 


$ 


• • • 


• •• 


• •• 


• • • 


17 


16 


14 




22-5-04. 




6' 10" 


i' H" 


9^ 


• ■ • 


... 


• •• 


• •• 




30-5-04. 


$ 


5' 8£" 


r 8±" 


202 


137 


17 


17 


14 




6-6-04. 


9 


5' 9f 


1' 7" 


200 


• • • 


17 


16 


12 


Tail incomplete. 


6-6-04. 


$ 


6' 6" 


• •• 


■■■ 


... 


17 


16 


12 


7th labial confluent 
with a posterior 
temporal. 


22-6-04. 


$ 


4' 4" 


1' 3|" 


• •• 


*•* 


• • • 


... 


• • • 


Killed in act of swal- 
lowing a frog. 


24-6-04. 


$ 


7' 0£' 


1' llf 


196 


128 


• • • 


■ • • 


• •• 


4 loreals on left side. 
Contained a large 
rat. 


29-6-04. 


$ 


3' 1" 


0' 11" 


192 


132 


17 


16 


14 


4th labial subdivided 
to form a second 
subocular. 


11-7-04. 


$ 


3' Hi" 


i' 2' 


195 


131 


17 


17 


13 


Ant. chins touch 4 
labials on right 
side. 


1-8-04. 


9 


5' 9i" 


1' 7|" 


197 


127 


17 


17 


14 


Labials 9 with the 5th 
and 6th touching the 
eye on left side. 
Contained 13 eggs 
measuring f4" — §a" 

Y ~ II R // 
A 20 " SO • 



Dendrophis jrictus. 
The " Villoonee " pronounced more like " Billoonee " of the Mala- 
baris, from, I am told, " Villoo," a bow, and " Ooni," to thrust into. 
They have some legend about this snake fixing its tail in the ground, 
and poising on this extremity with its body in the shape of a bow. 
6 specimens came into my hands, 5 males and 1 female. The only one 



302 JOURNAI, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

I had alive never attempted to bite me though it struggled vigorously 
in my grasp. The labials in all were 9 with the 5th and 6th touching 
the eye. 







A 




00 


00 
C3 

p 




Remarks. 




© 
Q 


CO 


to 

a 


'3 

E-< 




a 








17-11-03 


9 


3' H" 


V 05" 168 


115 








27-11-03 


$ 


2' 4£" 


0' 8f 176 


1!8 


Ant. Chins 


touch 4 labials on right 


23- 3-04 


A 


3' or 


0'lir ( 168 


117 


side. 






26- 4-04 


$ 


3' 0£" 


O'llfj ... 


... 








13- 5-04 


# 


3' 0|" 


O'll "I ... 


... 








27- 6-04 


$ 


2' 1\" 


0' 9|"170 


115 









The scales two headlengths behind the head number 15 in all, midbody 
15 in all, two headlengths in front of the vent are 9 in 5 male speci- 
mens, 11 in the female. 

Tropidonotus stolatus. 

This snake is called " Therlian " by the natives. 

Of the 50 specimens collected 17 were females, and 20 males. The 
sex was not recorded in the other 13. 

It was far more abundant in the rains, 39 of the specimens being 
obtained in June and July, whereas in the dry season, it is hardly to 
be found at all, only 2 specimens were brought me during the four 
months January to April. 

The only two occasions on which I found anything in the stomach 
frogs had been eaten, and in captivity they ate frogs readily. 

Coition was accomplished in the early rains (May and June), and 
the eggs from 5 to 10 in number were deposited in July and August, 
hatching as late as November. A hatchling measured 6J inches, or 
about one quarter the length of a large adult. Specimens I caught, 
and had in captivity allowed themselves to be freely handled, and 
rarely attempted to bite. Some when flushed evinced alarm by erect- 
ing themselves, and flattening the forebody. 

All specimens were adorned with blotches or spots of pale blue, or 
vermilion in the anterior part of the body. Of the 50 specimens 16 
were adorned with red, 31 with blue and in 3 this is not recorded. 
Of the 16 red, 6 were males, 7 females, and 3 unrecorded. Of the 
31 blue, 14 were males, 10 females, and 7 not recorded. With refer- 
ence to the coloration of snakes Darwin* quotes Dr. Giinther as having 

•* Descent of Man," p. 538. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



303- 



informed him that he could almost always distinguish the male from 
the female by his more strongly pronounced tints. In this connection 
the following excerpt from my notebook of June 10th is especially 
interesting : — A jail warder on the evening of the 9th June encountered 
and caught 5 specimens of this species in close proximity. The next 
morning I examined the spot, and ascertained that though no two were 
actually found together, they were all flushed within 20 to 30 yards of 
ono another, on a piece of ground bare except for a few strips of grass 
on the bunds of a dried up paddy field. One proved to be a female 
heavily pregnant with 6 nearly matured eggs, the rest were adult males, 
I supposed attracted to her in ignorance of her maternal expectations. 
The female was very brilliantly blotched vermilion on the foreback, and 
spotted on the belly with the same colour, her throat was bright orange. 
One male was identical in colouring, another differed by lacking the 
spots of vermilion on the belly, whilst the other two were unadorned with 
vermilion. It seems clear, therefore, that in this species the brilliant 
adornment is not of sexual import, since it is not the prerogative of 
either sex. A glance too at the accompanying table shows that it is not 
of seasonal significance. There seems to be little difference in the length 
of the sexes, or in the relative lengths of the bodies, and tails, but the 
females have rather fewer subcaudals (62-68) than the males (67-80). 





43 




J3 
43 




to 

03 


13 


BEMABKS. 


<0 
4-> 


•H 


M 


to 

a 


-• 


43 


.a 




SS 


OS 


(a 


a 


'3 


CD 







o 


K~ 


ro 


kJ 


H 


> 


w 




16-11-03. 


Red. 


9 


1' Id}" 


J 8 


... 


... 


Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on the left 
side. 


21-11-03. 


Blue. 




H" 


... 


• •• 


••• 


A hatchling ? 


2-12-03. 


Blue. 




... 


• • • 


... 


• •• 




6-12-03. 


Red. 




• • • 


• • • 


• a • 


• • • 




11-12-03. 


Blue. 




9 i" 


n" 




• •• 




18-12-03 


Blue. 




• • • 


•• • 


... 


*•• 




29-12-03. 


Blue. 




.. • 


... 


«•• 


* . • 


Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on right 
side. 


7-1-04. 


Blue. 


9 


1' 8f" 


ki// 

J 4 


138 


68 


2 postoculars right side. Tem- 
poral confluent with parietal. 
Ant. Chins touch 4 labials. 


19-4-04. 


Blue. 


$ 


• •• 




... 


... 




22-5-04. 


Red. 


? 


i'H" 


4. A// 


... 


■ at 


Ant, Chins touch 4 labials. 
Contained a frog. 6 ovarian 
follicles impregnated. 


24-5-04. 


Blue. 


$ 


•* • 


... 


• •• 


• • • 


Reported found coupled. 



304 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



Q 



to 

a 










BO 














rf 


o3 






03 


3 






t- 


03 








o 








.Q 




1 

1 > 


3 





Re marks. 



4-6-04. 

9-')-04. 
10-6-04. 
10-6-04. 
10-6-04. 
10-6-04. 
10-6-04. 
14-6-04. 
16-6-04. 
18-6-04. 



19-0-04. 

21-6-04. 
21-6-04. 
21-6-04. 



21-6-04. 



Bine. 

Blue. 

Bed. 

Bed. 

Bed. 

Blue. 

Blue. 

Blue. 

Blue. 

Blue. 



Blue. 

Bed. 

Blue. 

Blue. 



Blue. 



22-6-04. 
23-6-04. 


Bed. 
Bed. 


27-6-04. 


Bed. 


29-6-04. 


Bed. 


4-7-04. 
5-7-04. 
5-7-04. 


Blue. 
Blue. 
Bed. 


5-7-04. 
6-7-04. 
8-7-04. 
9-7-04. 


Blue. 
Bed. 
Blue. 
Blue. 


9-7-04. 
10-7-04. 


Blue. 
Bed. 



9 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
9 

$ 



$ 
9 
9 



9 
$ 



9 



9 
$ 

J 






1'9" 
1'9" 



7i» 

H" 



9.1" 
*2 



V 6" 



1'3|" 
1'5|" 

i'sr 



Vli 



V 71" 



1'3§" 



l'9i" 



l'5f" 
1'7 * 



1'7|" 
1'5£" 
1'6 " 

i' H" 



V 7|" 
1' 5|" 



5" 



o±" 



4i" 

A3'l 
A. I" 



5" 



41" 

*4 



43// 

*8 



*8 



4f" 

4|" 



4 s// 

H" 

4£" 
43// 

*4 



4F 



140 
143 
140 
138 
138 
142 

140 



139 
138 

144 

143 
138 

142 



68 
75 

67 
67 
72 



75 



65 



62 



56 
62 







142 


74 


139 


67 


138 


67 


139 


78 


143 


72 


139 


74 


142 


71 


137 


71 



Contained 6nearly mature eggs. 
Tail incomplete. 
Tail incomplete. 



4 postoculars on right side. 

Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on left side. 
Ant. Chins touch 4 labials. 4 
specimens brought, 3 escaped. 

Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye. 

6 ovarian follicles impregnated. 

Labials 7, the 3rd and 4 touch- 
ing the eye on left side. 4 
postoculars. 8 ovarian folli- 
cles impregnated. 

Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye. Laid 5 
eggs 29th July 1904 (U"— 

±-8" V _?_" "\ 

20 •* 20 25 J' 

10 ovarian follicles impregnat- 
ed. 

Tail incomplete. Labia's 7, 
the 3rd and 4th touching the 
eye. 

Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on left side. 
Ant. Chins touch 4 labials 
on left side. 



Labials 8 with the 4th and 5th 
touching the eye. Ant. Chins 
touch 6 infralabials on right 
side. Contained 7 eggs. 

Contained 5 eggs. 



Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye on the left 
side. 

Tail incomplete. Labials 8, 
the 4th and 5th touching the 
eye on left side. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



305 



a 































0) 




60 




00 
J* 


a 






M 
03 


a 


•^2 


=3 


fit 







t3 


> 


a 





RBMAKKS. 



10-7-04. 
15-7-04. 

15-7-04. 
18-7-04. 

21-7-04. 
28-7-04. 
30-7-04. 
30-7-04. 



Red. 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


• • * 


... 


Blue. 


$ 


1'5 " 


4|" 


142 


80 


Blue. 


9 


• • • 




••• 


... 


Blue. 


$ 


r 6|" 


4f" 


140 


76 


Red. 


9 


1'7|" 


A3II 
*4 


141 


G6 


Blue. 


$ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Blue. 


9 


... 


... 


■ • • 


... 


Blue. 


9 


... 


... 


■•• 


... 



Labials 7, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye. Ant. Chins 
touch 4 labials. 



Contained a frog eaten caudal 
extremity first. 

Contained 8 eggs, 7th and 8th 
labials confluent on left side. 



Pregnant, died in my absence. 

Pregnant, discharged eggs later 
when absent from home on 
leave. 



The scales in all were alike. Two heads lengths behind the head 19 ; 
niidbody 19 ; two heads lengths in front of the vent 17. 

Tropidonotus piscator. 

"Neer Kolee" is what the natives call small specimens. This means 
" Water fowl " and I notice Oates * mentions this name as applied to at 
least three ducks in Southern India, the ruddy Sheldrake, the Comb 
duck, and the Spotbill. Large specimens are called " Neer Mandallee," 
the latter term apparently being equivalent to " snake ". 

Of the 39 specimens, 10 had the sex unrecorded, and of the rest 8 
were males and 21 females making it appear that females are more 
numerous. Both my largest specimens were females. Males had 
longer tails. 

Like the last it is most in evidence during and after the rains. 

Three specimens had eaten frogs, and on more than one occasion one 
was brought wriggling on a hook which had been baited with a frog by 
native urchins. It will be noticed from the following table that eggs 
were deposited in January, and a hatchling appeared in March. 

The scales in all were the same, vh., 2 heads lengths behind the head 
19; midbody 19; 2 heads lengths before the vent 17. 



• The Game Birds of India, Part II., pp. 92, 103, 150. 



IS 



306 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 













CD 


REMARKS. 


a 




60 




+3 


a 




43 


k 


a 


.7!. 


a 


& 




■fl 

a 










r J) 




6-11-03. 


$ 


1' 6|" 


y 


133 


• • • 


Tail incomplete. Contained a small frog. 


9-11-03. 


... 


••• 


-.. 


... 


••■ 


Two specimens. 


10-11-03. 






*• • 






Three specimens. 


11-11-03. 


$ 


2'*4" 


8|" 




• •• 




11-11-03. 


? 


•«• 


• •• 


... 


•■■ 


Bright olive green dorsally, bright crim- 
son in the flanks. 


11-11-03. 


9 


3' 2£" 


9£" 


r • • 


••• 


Contained a large frog {Rana tigrina). 


12-11-03. 


S 




... 




m 


Another specimen sex undetermined. 


12-11-03' 




... 


■ •• 


• ■• 


••• 




12-11-03. 


9 


»•• 


• • • 


• • • 


... 


Olive brown with very large black spots. 


13-11-03. 


9 


«•• 


• •• 


• • ■ 


• •• 




14-11-03. 


9 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 




17-11-03. 


9 


2' 10" 


8f 


■ •■ 


• » • 




18-11-03. 


9 


2' 4£" 


7£" 


... 


#B« 




20-11-03. 


9 


2' 6" 


8" 


... 


• • • 


Dull brown, chequered buff, and blackish. 


24-11-03. 


9 


... 


■ •• 


"•* 


• •• 




25-11-03 


$ 


3'1" 


11" 


• •• 


• •• 




25-11-03. 


$ 


2' 8^" 


10" 


• • • 


• • • 




28-11-03. 


9 




• • • 


• •• 


-• • 


Another specimen. Sex undetermined. 


6-12-03. 






• • • 


• •• 


*•• 




4- 1-04. 


9 


2''7|" 


8|" 


... 


• •• 


Contained 20 nearly mature eggs. 


10- 1-04. 


9 


3' 1\" 


10|" 


• ** 


... 


Deposited 57 eggs, 14th Jan. 1904 in her 
tin of. water. 


23- 3-04. 


• •• 




*•• 


■ • ■ 


:•• 


A hatchling. 4 praefroutals. 


29- 3-04. 


»•• 


... 


• • • 


■ •■ 


• •• 




14- 6-04. 


9 


... 


••• 


... 


• •• 


Sloughed, 19th June 1904 and again 13th 
July 1904. 


15- 6-04. 


9 


1' 2|" 


°4 


142 


75 




20- 6-04. 


9 


1' 0" 


9 1// 
°8 


136 


74 


5th labial transversely divided on right 
side. 


24- 6-04. 


$ ? 2' 3|" 


1\" 


140 


73 


I failed to discover any trace of ovaries 














in spite of a long, and careful search. 


28- 6-04. 


$ 


■ . • 


... 


• •• 


... 




2- 7-04. 


9 


1' 5" 


U" 


145 


79 




7- 7-04. 


9 


i' iy> 


... 


... 


... 


Tail incomplete. 


13- 7-04. 


9 


2' 5£" 


• • 


141 


• •• 


Tail incomplete. 9 labials, the 4th only 
touching the eye on left side. 


21- 7-04. 


9 


1' 4^" 


41" 


142 


75 




31- 7-04. 


$ 


1' 3£" 


4±" 


130 


81 




2- 8-04. 


9 


«y 7 l // 
O <g 


9"? 


141 




Tail incomplete. Left praefrontal di- 
vided into two. Contained a very 
large frog {Rana tigrina). 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 307 

Sub-family HOMALOPSIM. 
Cerberus rhynchops. 

I obtained 2 female specimens. Of one I noted that it struggled 
violently in my grasp^ wreathing itself round my wrist, and exhibiting 
considerable strength. Of the other the length was 3 feet 3 inches, 
tail 6^ inches, ventrals 148, sub-caudals 50 but the tail was not com- 
plete. The anterior chins were in contact with 4 infralabials. Scales, 2 
heads lengths behind the head 25 ; midbody 25 ; 2 heads lengths before 
the vent 19. It contained a large fish 8 inches in length. Under 
provocation it hissed loudly, and protruded a whitish tongue in a lazy 
way. Its mode of progression was very peculiar, and very similar 
to that recently noted by Flower* in relation to an African viper 
( Cerastes Vipera). During progression it always threw a coil sideways 
in advance of the head, up to which the head subsequently moved, 
and before the body was extended, the coil was again thrust forward. 
It gave the impression that it was moving sideways. As I have noticed 
before this snake depressed its hinder body when alarmed. 

Gerardia prevostiana. 

My only specimen was obtained on 8th November 1903. It was 
lying sunning itself in a shallow pool of water, and made no move- 
ment when I walked over it snipe shooting. My wife following in my 
steps discovered it. 

Length 19f inches, tail 2^ inches, Ventrals 151, SubcaudaJs 31, 
Scales 2 heads lengths behind head 17 ; midbody 17 ; 2 heads lengths 
in front of vent 15. Like all the other Homalopsids occurring in 
Indian limits except Hypsirhina plumbed and Fordonia leucobalia, the 
nasal shields touch one supralabial only, viz., the first. The temporal 
touches one labial only, viz., the 6th. 

Sub-family DIPSADOMORPHIM. 

DlPSADOMORPHUS TRIGONATA. 

This snake coiled itself before striking exactlyas I have reported in 
an earlier volume of this Journal, of the D. Multimaculata. A con- 
siderable length of the body was raised off the ground and thrown into 
figure of 8 loops, with the head poised centrally. It struck out viciously 
under provocation. In captivity I noticed, it rested on branches coiled, 
as if on the ground, unlike all the other tree snakes with which I am 

*" The Field, " 18th June 1904. 



308 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

familiar and which lie extended along or across the branches in graceful 
curves distributing their weight on many points. 































as 




• 






id 




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03 


p 




■43 










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43 




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REMABKS. 



11-11-03, 

28-11-03 
16-3-04. 
29-4-04. 
12-5-04. 
23-5-04. 
1-8-04. 



• •• 


2' 1|" 


4|" 


218 


83 


... 


• •• 


• • • 


• •• 


• •• 


$ 


... 


... 


• •• 


*•• 


... 


... 


• •• 


... 


... 


9 


1' H|" 


4.JL" 
*4 


... 


... 


9 


2' 6A" 


Kill 
J 2 


230 


76 


9 


2' 2|" 


4f" 


230 


78 



Labials 9, the 4th, 5th and 6th touching 
the eye on the right side. 



Contained a lizard {Calotes versicolor). 

Contained a lizard {Calotes versicolor"). 

Labials 8, the 4th and 5th only touching 
the eye. 



The scales were the same in all specimens, and also in 2 sloughs I 
found on hushes, 2 heads lengths from head 21 ; midbody 21 ; 2 
heads lengths before vent 15. 

Dryophis mycterizans. 

The " pachola " of the Malabaris. 1 obtained 49 specimens, the sex 
was not recorded in 28, and of the rest 15 were females and 6 males. 
The accompanying table makes it appear oommonest in November* 
but this is not the case as far as I am aware. I had to discourage 
the natives from bringing it in, it proved so plentiful. I believe it 
will be found equally in evidence all the year round. 

The females appear to grow much larger, my largest male was 4 
feet, 4f inches, and I obtained 7 females of greater length, the largest 
being 6 feet and £ inch. The males had longer tails. The ventrals in 
the two sexes were about the same, but the subcaudals were much more 
numerous in the males (166 — 170) than in the females (137 — 149). 

Lizards proved the favoured article of diet. 

My one pregnant specimen contained immature eggs late in July. 
Two specimens I judged to be hatchlings* were received late in 
November. 



• Ferguson " B. N. H. S. Jl. " Vol.2, p. 6, "records the birth of ycang measuring 
'' abaut seventeen inches." 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



309 



Q 



x 
8 



60 

a 






o 



REilARES. 



22 specimens in November of which I record the following : — 



12-11-03. 
12-11-03. 
14-11-03. 

17-11-03 
20-11-03. 

21-11-03. 
22-11-03. 

23-11-03. 
25-11-03. 

1-12-03. 

5-12-03. 
10-12 03. 
16-12-03. 
20-12-03 
20-12-03. 

28- 1-04. 

29- 1-04. 
29- 1-04. 



21- 4-04. 
27- 4-04. 
29- 4-04 



27- 5-04. 
18- 6-04 



21- 6-04. 

1 1- 7-04. 

29- 7-04. 

30- 7-04. 



9 
$ 



9 
9 

9 



9 
9 



9 

9 



I 



$ 
9 



3' 3£" 
3' 6£" 
5' W 

5' li" 
4' 4f 

• •• 

1'5" 
1' 6|" 
3' U" 

• •• 

4'"oV 



3' 8f 



5' 0£" 
4' 9i" 



5' 33" 
1' 8" 
6' Of 



4' 4.]" 
2' 8" 



2' 6^" 



1' 4" J179 
1' 3*" 176 

1' 11^" 176 



r 9r 



1' 9f 



7'i" 
1'3" 



169 
170 



171 



174 
144 
140 

118? 



Temporals 2. 
Temporals 2 on left side. 



Suboculars 2. 



1' 6" 



1' 9 j" 
1' 8f" 



1' llf" 



2' 11" 



l'lOi" ... 
1' 01" 177 



170 



145 



10|" 



2' 9 A" 1' 1£" 



4' 10" 1' 9f" 



2' H" 



lOf" 



171 

169 
175 

174 



166 
147 

167 
149 

137 



ventral divid- 



Tail incomplete. 

Tail incomplete. Last 

ed. Temporals 2. 
3rd and 4th labials confluent. 
Labials 8, the 4th and 5th touching the 

eye, no subocular, 1 postocular. 
I believe a hatchling. 
Do. 



Labials 9, the 6th only touching the 
eye. 

Last ventral divided. 

Contained a lizard (Caloles versicolor). 
1 specimen in February, 2 specimens 
in March, 5 specimens in April. 



Last ventral divided. Labials 7, the 
4th only touching the eye on the right 
side. 

5 specimens in May. 

Last ventral divided. Labials 9, the 6th 
only touching the eye on the right 
side. 

Anterior chins touch 4 infralabials only. 
Navel involves 4 ventrals and 9 
tervene between it and the anal. 



in- 



Anterior chins tonch 4 infralabials only. 
2 suboculars. Contained a gecko. 

Labials 9, the 6th only touching the eye 
on the left side. Captured in act of 
swallowing a loriquet {Loriculus ver- 
nalis). Contained 7 eggs, the largest 
\%' with no trace of embryo. 



The scales 
the head 15 ; 



show some variation posteriorly. 2 heads lengths behind 
midbody 15 ; 2 beads lengths in front of vent 11 or 9. 



31 U JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



Sub-family HYDROPHIIKE. 
Hydrus platurus. 
One female specimen of Boulenger's variety E.* Length 2 feet 
6| inches ; tail 3| inches. Ventrals about 339. There were 3 prae- 
oculars on the right side ; and 2 on the left. Labials 10 with the 5th 
only touching the eye. The scales 2 heads lengths behind the 
head 52 ; midbody 58 ; 2 heads lengths in front of vent 51. The 
2nd supralabial did not touch the praefrontal on either side. There 
was a loreal on the left side. There were two small cuneate scales 
between the frontal, and parietal shields. 

DlSTIRA GILLESPLE. 

This rare snake has been already reported, and described by me in 
the Bombay Natural History Journal, Vol. XV., pp. 723 — 6. 

Enhydris curtus. 

Evidently quite a common snake on this coast. The anal shield 
was divided into 4, except where noted otherwise. The praefrontals 
touched the 2nd labial in all specimens. 

I obtained 11 specimens, of which I have tabulated the following : — 



CS 

O 






9-2-04. 
11-2-04 

11-2-04 

16-2-04. 
16-2-04. 

23-2-04, 



11-4-04 
7-5-04 

5-6-04, 



$ 



l' H" 



i' &l" 



V 7f 

2' 9£" 
1' H" 

2' 5" 



2' 9 J" 



2' 9f" 



OS 

a 
u 

a 

> 




SCALES. 




2 heads length 
behind the 
head. 


.a 


2 heads length 
in front of 
vent. 



Remarks. 



24" 
If 

2|" 

A 4 



n" 



H" 



3" 



165 


31-30 


37 


33 


194 


34 


40 


38 


164 


30 


37 


31 


159 


30 


36 


32 


163 


31 


37 


31 


15 1 


31 


35 


33 




30 


36 


31-32 


... 


30 


36 


34 


183 


36 


43 


39 



8 supralabials, the 3rd and 
4th touching the eye. 

Labials 8, the 3rd, 4th 
and 5th touching the 
eye on right side. 

Said to have been " in co- 
pula " with last. 

Prefrontals touch 2nd and 
3rd labials. Anal 6-fid. 

Labials 6, the 3rd and 4th 
touching the eye. No 
spinose ventral tuber- 
cles. 

Labials 5 on right side. 
Anal 6-fid, 

Labials 7, the 4th only 
touching the eye. Ta- 
ken on land close to a 
backwater 1* miles 
from the sea. 



• Oat. Snakes, Brit. Mus., Vol. Ill, p. 268. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 311 

Enhy&rina Valakadyen. 

Of the 29 specimens collected, the sex is not recorded in 16. Of the 
remainder there were 5 males and 8 females. Three of the latter were 
mothers, with young in an advanced state of development, and in the 
aaorregate these contained 19 foetus, of which 7 were males and 12 
females, so that the latter appear to predominate. 

It appeared to be equally common near the shores throughout the 
whole year. I could have obtained them in bucketfuls at any time, 
but had to discourage the fishermen from bringing them in on account 
©f expense in rewards. 

The few specimens that had fed contained fish only, and it was a 
matter of daily occurrence for sepoys and others fishing off the rocks 
to pull up their lines with one of these snakes wriggling on the hook. 
I had 4 pregnant females, on dates indicating that the young 4 — 9 in 
number are discharged about January and February. The young were 
suspended in a pellucid, viscid, fluid, resembling castor oil in colour, 
and consistency, overlying a mass of yolk, and encapsuled in flaccid, 
capacious, and completely transparent thin -walled chambers, bearing no 
resemblance to the eggs of any other snakes I have seen. The embryos 
were coiled spirally, and occupied that region of the chambers nearest 
to the vertebral column, and those of the most advanced brood measured 
from 10| — 11 inches. These lived for some minutes after liberation 
from their enveloping membranes, during which the pulsations of the 
heart were very obvious. Placed in spirit the males extruded their 
genitals in the act of dying. 

It is evidently of a peaceful disposition. I never excited one to 
strike at or bite any offending object, and none of the many soldiers 
and others who habitually bathed in the sea, where they were very 
plentiful, were ever bitten. 

It is extremely tenacious of life, and is most difficult to kill. 
I kept some specimens alive for ten days, and many left their 
ghurrahs of water and wandered for days about the flower-pots 
in a sunken verandah. It was able to make some progression 
on land in a heavy laboured way. My largest specimen was 4 
feet, 7 inches. The smallest pregnant female measured 3 feet 2 
inches. The females had a much deeper conformation of body than the 
males. The male claspers were bifid on each side as in vipers, they 
were villose, and had a median raphe posteriorly which divided and 



312 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVL 

passed up each limb. The extremities of these organs were not 

surmounted by tentacles, and were therefore unlike what obtains in 

most snakes. 

My notes on this species are too imperfect to quote in extenso, 

but the following abnormalities are worth mention. The prefrontals 

were not in contact with the 2nd labial in 7 specimens, including 4 

specimens of a brood of 4. The 4th labial did not touch the eye in 

7 specimens, including 3 of a brood of 6. The prseoculars were 2 

in 2 specimens of a brood of 4. The 1st and 2nd labials were confluent 

in 3 specimens of a brood of 9. The postoculars were 2 in 2 female 

specimens and in 7 males. It is curious that in the brood of 9 all 

the males had 2 postoculars, and all the females only 1. In the 

brood of 6 the same was observed. The frequency of the same 

abnormality in the same brood suggests its inheritance from one or other 

parent. 

Sub-family ELAPINAE. 

Bungarus candidus. 

Called " valla pamboo " in this locality. " Valla " I am told means 

" bangle. " Males were much more numerous than females. The 

colour of the hatchling was unlike the adult?, the white arches being 

exceptionally distinct. There were 30 distinct linear arches on the 

body arranged in pairs, and 9 on the tail. Anterior to these were 3 

broad white bars involving 2 scales vertebrally, and evidently occasioned 

by a confluence of a pair of the arches which subsequently occurred 

as discrete lines. The intervals between the most anterior bars involved 

12-13 scales vertebrally. They gradually shortened to implicate 6-8 

scales in the back part of the body between each pair. An ill-defined, 

but very distinct, white oblique streak occupied the temporal region. 

I kept two alive for a few days ; both I believe must have been 

injured. They frequently used to nibble one another in a playful 

way, opening their jaws and shifting their grasp along each other's 

bodies as though selecting a suitable spot in which to bury their fangs. 

I could not through the glass of their cage discover any wounds as a 

result, but the younger died the day after my witnessing this somewhat 

dubious playfulness on the part of the larger snake. Their lengths 

were 2 feet 10 inches and 1 foot 7^ inches. 

In all the specimens the scales were alike, viz., 2 heads lengths behind 

the head 15 ; midbody 15 ; 2 heads lengths in front of the vent 15. 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



313 



The supracaudals in all were in odd numbers, a very unusual charac- 
ter in snakes, but occurring with few exceptions where the subcaudals 
arc entire. The enlarged and hexagonal character of tho vertebral 
row was retained, though somewhat modified, in the whole length of the 
tail as I have remarked in previous notes. All specimens belonged to 
var. C. ( Boulenger* ) cceruleus. 





















DD 














. 




00* 


a 
•a 




■SJ 




oS 


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at 




cc 


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► J 


en 



REMARKS. 



13-11-03, 
17-11-03 
£6-11-03 

20- 1-04. 

17- 3-04. 
23- 0-04. 



9 


2'10" 


97/< 

°8 


217 


39 


8 


1'7J" 


OS" 

^8 


216 


41 


8 


3'7" 


5" 


212 


42 


? 


2'7f 


3f 


208 


38 


$ 


3'3" 


4f" 


213 


43 


$ 


ior 


If 


209 


40 



Contained a snake {Lyrodon milieus)' 
1 foot 6| inches long. Recorded 
B. N. H. S. J., Vol. XV, p. 706. 



I believe a hatchling ; navel involved 
3 ventrals, and 20 more intervened 
between it and the anal shield. 



Naia tripudians. 

Called by the natives here " Moorookan " and " Sairpoom." From 
the annexed list the disparity of the sexes will be seen to be vastly in 
favour of tho male. 

All specimens were of variety A- a of Boulenger,f and almost exactly 
alike in colour, viz., variegated with wheat colour, and pale dun, dis- 
tributed with a slight tendency to form transverse bars, especially in tho 
posterior part of tho body and tail. These colours were disposed 
upon tho skin and hardly at all on the scales. The head was olive- 
brown, with some or most of the sutures on the crown black. The 
hood from before backwards was whitish, merging through cinnamon 
or rusty red to intense black, which latter was abruptly defined poste- 
riorly. A well-defined, white, black-margined, spectacle-mark centrally 
and a black crescent and spot laterally. These very elegant hues and 
marks, confined almost entirely to the skin, showed the snake to great 

* Cad. Snakes, Brit. Mas., Vol. in, p. 369. 
t Cat. Snakes, Brit. Mus., Vol. Ill, p. 381. 
16 



314 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 



advantage when the hood was erect. There were from 2 to 3> 
blackish-plumbeous ventral bands anteriorly. The eye was very black, 
the pupil in some specimens scarcely visible, and in others indicated 
only by a small arc of the iris being golden. 

The only female was pregnant on 12th February with 16 large, but 
immature, eggs. 















Scales. 


p 

Kemarks. 






DO 'O 

fi ri 
^ o 




£5 
fit* 




n 

D 


M 


A 

60 
□ 

s 

►4 


"5 


03 

a 

> 


CO 


,£•0 
«.S 

..2 


>> 

■a 
o 

1 


aj O 

£ c 

TD o 

o s- 






10-12-03. 


$ 


5' 3" 


H" 






27-28 


23 


15 


Tail incomplete. 




12- 2-04. 


V 


• •• 


• •• 




• •• 


27 


24 


15 


Contained lGeggs(l' 


X 


22- 2-04. 


$ 








• •• 


26-27 


25 


15 


3 > 




18- 3-04. 


$ 


4'"5" 


8?' 


»•« 


• •« 


27-28 


23 


15 






19- 3-04. 


$ 


4' 11" 


9f" 


■ • ■ 


* ■ • 


27 


22 


15 






21- 3-04. 


$ 


3' 1\" 


7" 


■ • • 


• • > 


27 


23 


15 


Contained a frog. 




9- 4-04. 




■ ■• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


. • * 


• • • 


• • • 






19- 4-04. 


"$ 


... 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


•2G-27 


23 


15 






3- 5-04. 




• •• 


• •• 


• • J 


• •• 


• « • 


... 


• #• 






17- 5-04. 


$ 


»• • 


• •■ 


• •• 


... 


28 


22 


15 






20- 7-04. 


$ 


3' 7" 


64" 


188 


56 
1 


31 


23 


17 







Family VIPERIM. 

Sub-family ViPERlNiE. 

Vipera russellii. 

This is called locally " Mand&llee," and as I have remarked under 
Eryx conictis in this paper, these two snakes are confused by the natives, 
and both treated with equal dread. 

The following table indicates a considerable preponderance of males 
(10) over females (1). 

It appeared to be breeding in the cool weather, and the young were 
born in May and June. The smallest hatchling was 9-| inches at birth, 
or about one-seventh the length of a very large adult. In a state of 
nature, rats proved the favoured article of diet, and my note of May 
17th shows that the young subsist on mammals like their parents. The 
navel involved 4 to 5 ventrals, and from 13-15 separated it from the 
anal shield. 

The smallest I kept alive for a day or two, in a biscuit-box. It was 
very alort, resented interference of any sort, and struck most viciously at 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 315 



the mice given it, both of which it killed but did not eat. Its hiss was 
louder than that of an adult dhaman. When grasped, it moved its fangs 
actively after the manner of vipers in general. 

All the four young were encountered in close proximity (300 — 400 
yards) to the Jail Superintendent's house, one actually on one of the 
pot plants in the verandah. Probably these were members of the samo 
brood. 















Scales. 






05 




n 
















S3 




S3 














013 








REMARKS. 










m 


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S o 












oo 




30 — 


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1-12-03. 


8 


3' 7" 


7f" 


164 


55 


27 


31 


21 




7-12-03. 


8 


3' 3" 


6f 


••• 


• • • 


27 


29-30 


23 




14-12-03. 




• •• 


• •■ 


••• 


• •• 


• • • 


• • • 


>•• 




1 5-1 2-03. 


"i 


3' 9^" 


6|" 


•• • 


• • • 


27 


29 


21 




28-12-03. 


8 


4' 24/' 


7T» 

1 8 


165 


53 


27 


29 


21 


Said to have been con- 
joined with another 
which escaped. 


9- 1-04. 


$ 


... 


•«• 


170 


55 


27 


31 


21 


Contained a large rat. 


17- 2-04. 


* 


2' 11" 


u 8 






27 


29 


21 


Contained a large rat. 


17- 3-04. 


^ 


2' 7£" 


K I » 


• •• 


• •• 


25 


29 


23-21 




27- 4-04. 


■*• 


•■■ 


• •• 


• •• 


* • • 


.. 


• • • 


•9a 




15- 5-04. 


••• 


9? 


13" 

l 8 


• • • 


>•• 


• mm 


*•■ 


• •• 




17- 5-04. 




10i" 


H" 


• •• 




■ •• 


... 


• •• 


Contained a mouse. 
Found on a pot plant 
in verandah. 


1- 6-04. 


9 


m" 


H" 


• •• 


• •• 


pa* 


... 


»•• 


Navel involves 5 ven- 
trals, and 1 3 intervene 
between it and anal 
shield. 


3- 6-04. 


8 


ii*" 


i|" 


169 


55 


• *« 




• •• 


Navel involves 4 ven- 
trals, and 15 inter- 
vene between it and 
anal shield. Last 2 
subcaudals entire. 


21- 7-04. 


8 


2'lOf" 


5|" 


170 


57 


27 


31 


22-21 


Contained a rat. 


30- 7-04. 


8 


1 ' Al'i 

* *8 


2£" 


168 


56 


27 


29 


21 


14 vcntrals between 
navel and vent. 



This paper would not bo complete without some observations on the 
weather. 



316 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

In December 1903 there were thunder showers from the 1st to the 
4th instant. 

In January 1904 drizzling rain on the 2nd instant. 

In February no rain. 

In March heavy rain on the 18th, and a shower on the 20th. 

In April, showers on the 1st, 9th, 21st, 24th to 26th, and 29th to 
30th. 

In May heavy rain ( the commencement of the " barra barsat ") on 
the 11th continuing throughout the month with a rainfall of 12-65. 

June heavy rain throughout the month registering 55'38 inches. 

July heavy rain throughout the month, with a break between the 
25th and 30th. Rainfall amounted to 39*36 inches. 

In all, 377 specimens were collected including 21 species. 

With the exception of a few rarities the sex was ascertained by 
actual dissection, so that the pregnant specimens recorded were without 
doubt the only ones in this state. I think tabulated notes such as 1 have 
appended with most of the above species would, if carefully kept, throw 
a good deal more light upon these creatures than might appear at first 
sight. Many deductions of an entirely unexpected character may be 
drawn from some such system, but a much larger number of statistics 
are necessary to establish correct information, and I appeal to those 
interested in the subject to contribute what they can in this manner. 
As an illustration of the unexpected I will give another extract from 
my note book, selecting Bungarus fasciatus for my purpose. 

It will bo seen from the following table that most of the specimens 
were obtained in the month of July, and I must mention they all wore 
caught about the Jail at Insein near Rangoon, except one in Rangoon 
itself. If their measurements be carefully studied, it will be seen that 
they fall into groups according to their lengths : thus 4 specimens 
ranged between 1 foot 5f inches and 1 foot 9 inches ; 2 specimens 
between 2 feet 4| inches and 2 feet 7 inches ; 3 specimens between 3 
feet 7 inches and 3 feet 11 inches, and 1 specimen was 4 feet 5f inches. 
It certainly appears to me that these must represent the offspring of 
successive years, in which caso ono may deduce that the rate of growth 
for this species is proximately one foot a year. Now the length of a 
hatchling and the length of a pregnant specimen would allow one to 
judge the age at which they acquire maturity. It is to be regretted 



NOTES ON SNAKES COLLECTED IN CANNANORE. 



317 



that the sexes in this very interesting series were not investigated, and 
I frequently have to deplore similar gaps in past notes which are badly 
needed to confirm or refute conclusions drawn : — 

Bungarus fasciatus. 





















m 






















M 


S3 

00 

S3 
0> 


C3 


CD 


■a 



as 

.0 


CO 


J 


EH 


k 


GO 



Remarks. 



?-7-99 
?-7-99 
P-7-99 

3-7-99 

8-7-99 

8-7-99 

8-7-99 

10-7-99 

15-7-99 

31-8-99 

31-8-99 

?-9-99 

?-9-99 

14-8-00 

24-6-00 



l'7i" 
1' 7i" 

2' 7" 
3' 8" 
3' 7" 
1' 9" 



1' 5f" 



3' 11" 
2' 4£" 
1' 10" 
2' 1 " 



4' 5 1" 



3' 11" 
5' 9" 



1 3// 
*4 



11" 

1 8 



9 1// 
^8" 

4" 



9 7// 
°8 



91" 

^8 



13// 
x 4 



4" 



91" 

"8 



93// 

"8 



Al" 

*8 



4|" 

55" 



216 
215 
215 
216 
214 
210 
208 
221 
216 
218 
217 
216 



Anterior chins touch 4 infralabials. 



32 Postoculars confluent with supraoculars. 

33 

32 

33 

32 

34 



30 
35 
31 
32 
34 



Anterior chins touch 4 infralabials. 
Anterior chins touch 4 infralabials. 



Anterior chins touch 4 infralabials. 



318 

ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF, THE SEA OF 
OMAN, AND KARACHI, COLLECTED BY 
Mr. F. W. TOWNSEND. 

(With 3 Plates.) 

By C. Tate Regan, B.A. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 16th March 1905. J 

Mr. F. W. Townsond, who has, within the lust tew years, presented 
to the British Museum several collections of fishes from the Persian 
Gulf, the Mokran Coast and Karachi, and also some specimens dredged, 
at considerable depths in the Sea of Oman, has again collected a large 
series at these localities and also at Muscat. 

This contains examples of 18 species which are described below as 
new to science. I have added complete lists of the Fishes of the 
Persian Gulf and the deep-sea forms from the Sea of Oman which 
have been received from Mr. Townsend. In the case of those from 
Muscat, I have given only those species which do not appear in 
Steindachner's recent list (Denkschr. Ak. Wien., lsxi, 1902, p. 123), 
whilst a list of those from the Mekran Coast is being published in 
the Imperial Baluchistan Gazetteer. 

Willoy (Zool. Results, vi, p. 719, 1902) has noted the vertical position 
of Amphisile when swimming, and gives a figure representing it with the 
head upwards. One may feel inclined to suspect the correctness of this 
figure in view of the following interesting observation of Mr. Townsend 
on specimens of A. strigata (Gthr.) : — " Some of them were sufficiently 
alive when dredged to swim in a tub of water, the position they took 
up being head down, and they swam about in a vertical position using 
the three fins near the tail to propel themselves, the middle fin seeming 
to have the most business to do." 

Mr. Townsend writes that Mr. and Mrs. Whitby Smith have taken 
great interest in his collecting, and I have named two new species, 
Percis Smithii and Callionymus margaretce, in their honour. 
1. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 
Hemirhamphus sindensis. 

Depth of body about If times its breadth and 9^ times in the length 
(without caudal) ; length of head 2;^ times. Diameter of eye I3- times 
in the postorbital part of head and nearly equal to the interorbital 
width. Length of lower jaw in front of the termination of the upper 
jaw a little longer than the rest of head ; upper jaw as long as broad ; 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 319 

prseorbital a little deeper than long. Dorsal 14 ; anal 15 ; both scaly 

and commencing nearly opposite each other ; pectoral as long as 
distance from posterior margin of operculum to anterior edge of pupil ; 
origin of ventrals equidistant from anterior edge of praeoperculum and 
base of caudal ; caudal forked. Scales deciduous, 50-55 in a longi- 
tudinal series. A silvery stripe on the side becoming broader 
posteriorly. 

Length, to base of caudal, 188 mm. 

A single specimen from Karachi. 

APOGON HOLOTjENIA. 

Depth of body nearly oqual to length of head, 2f times in the length 
(without caudal). Snout § as long as eye, the diameter of which is 2| 
times in the length of head, interorbital width about 5 times. Lower 
jaw slightly projecting ; maxillary extending to below posterior edge of 
pupil. Outer edge of prseopercle, suborbital ring and supraclavicle 
finely serrated. Dorsal VII, I 9. Anal II 8. Second dorsal spine 
?-4 the length of third, which is stronger and slightly longer than the 
fourth and equal to \ the length of head ; second anal spine -3- the length 
of head ; soft dorsal and anal with outer edges emarginate ; pectoral 
extending slightly beyond, ventral nearly to origin of anal ; caudal 
notched, with rounded lobes. 25-26 scales in a longitudinal series. 
Caudal peduncle I2 times as long as deep. Head and body with longi- 
tudinal black stripes ; a median one from between the eyes nearly to 
origin of spinous dorsal ; on each side one from the snout, running- 
above the eye and the lateral line to the caudal peduncle ; a second from 
the upper part of eye running below the lateral line to below the soft 
dorsal ; a third from tip of snout through the eye and along the middle 
of the side to the extremity of the caudal ; a fourth from tip of lower 
jaw through the base of pectoral to the caudal peduncle; faint traces of 
a dusky stripe at the base of both soft dorsal and anal. 

Length, to base of caudal, 44 mm. 

Three specimens from Muscat, 15-30 fathoms. 

This is the species figured by Day* as A. endekatcenia (Blkr.) and which 
Bleekor considered to be identical with A. fasciatus (White). Several 
species have been confounded under this latter name, which differ from 
each other not only in form and proportions, but also constantly in the 

* Fish. Iudia, pi. XVI, fig. 7 ( 1 fig. 4 also). 



320 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

arrangement of the stripes on the body. The British Museum possesses 
examples of the true A.faseiatus from New South Wales and also from 
Dr. Bleeker's collection. This is the species figured by Bleeker f. In 
it the middle lateral stripe forms a large blotch on the base of the cau- 
dal fin, the upper lateral stripe is strongly curved above and quite 
distinct from the lateral line, and the stripe between them is short, extend- 
ing only from the eye to the edge of the operculum. 

Apogon halinensis (Blkr.) has been figured by GuntherJ ; the middlo 
stripe extends to the end of the middle caudal rays, the upper lateral 
stripe is nearly straight, and there is no stripe between these two. 

Apogon novemfasciatus (C. V.) has also been figured by Giinther § ; 
it is very similar in coloration to A. balinensis, but the stripes are 
broader, and end at the base of the caudal. 

Apogon mblanot^nia (PI. Ill, fig. 4). 

Depth of body 2§-3 times in the length (without caudal) ; length of 
head 2f times. Snout § as long as the eye, the diameter of which is 
2 |-3 times in the length of head, interorbital width 4^ times. Lower 
jaw shorter than the upper ; maxillary extending to below posterior edge 
of pupil. Outer edge of prseoperculum and suprascapula serrated. Dorsal 
VII, I 9, Anal II 8. Dorsal spines stout, the second \ as long as 
the third, which is a little longer than the fourth and more than \ 
the length of head ; second and spine § the length of head ; outer 
odgos of soft dorsal and anal straight or slightly emarginate ; pectoral 
and ventral extending to origin of anal ; caudal notched, with rounded 
lobes 23-25 scales in a longitudinal series. Caudal peduncle l^-lf 
times as long as deep. Body with longitudinal blackish' stripes which 
are, anteriorly, broader than the spaces between them ; a median 
one from between the eyes to the spinous dorsal, dividing to run on each 
side below the bases of the dorsal fins and reuniting on the upper part of 
the caudal peduncle ; the second, slightly curved, from above the eye to 
the upper part of the root of the caudal ; the third from the upper part of 
the eye to below the second dorsal ; the fourth from the eye along the 
middlo of the side, ending in a spot at the base of the caudal ; the fifth 
from the snout through the lower part of the eye and the base of the 
pectoral to the lower part of the root of the caudal ; the sixth from the 

t Atlas Ichtfrjrol., VITT, pi. 48, fig. 4. 
% Fiscbe Siidsee, pi. XX, fig. B. 
§ l.C. fig. A. 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 321 

lower jaw to the anal ; a blackish stripe on the basal part of both soft 
dorsal and anal fins. 

Length, to base of caudal. 73 mm. 

Nine specimens, from Charbar, Mekran Coast, from Karachi, from 
the Nicobars (Day Coll.) and from Zanzibar (Playfair Coll.) This species 
is closely allied to A. fasciatus (White) and A. endekatcenia. (Blkr.), 
differing from both in the arrangement of the stripes, the wider 
interorbital space and the included lower jaw. 

Apogon spilurtjs (PI. Ill, fig. 5). 
Depth of body about 2f times in the length (without caudal), length 
of head 2|-2| times. Snout shorter than eye, the diameter of which 
is 2f times in the length of head and greater than the interorbital width. 
Maxillary extending to below posterior edge of pupil ; lower jaw scarcely 
projecting. Outer edge of prseoperculum serrated ; other bones of the 
head entire. Dorsal VII, I 9. Anal II 8. Dorsal spines rather slen- 
der, the second about half as long us the third, which is somewhat 
stronger but not longer than the fourth ; longest dorsal spine about 
| the length of head ; second anal spine 5-5 the length of head ; soft 
dorsal and anal with their outer edges emarginate ; pectoral extending 
a little beyond, ventral nearly to origin of anal ; caudal notched, with 
rounded lobes. 26 scales in a longitudinal series. Caudal peduncle 
lg-H times as long as deep. A blackish longitudinal stripe from the 
snout through the eye to the edge of the prseoperculum ; a blackish 
spot on each side at the base of the caudal, usually above the lateral 
line and sometimes confluent dorsally with its fellow ; a blackish stripe 
along the base of the anal. 

Length, to base of caudal, 50 mm. 
Five specimens from Karachi. 

This species bears a considerable resemblance to the Japanese 
A. notatus, which is at once distinguished by the strongly projecting 
lower jaw. 

Apogonichthys nudus (PI. Ill, fig. 6). 
Depth of body about 3§ times in the length (without caudal), length 
of head nearly 3 times. Snout shorter than the diameter of eye, which 
is ^ the length of head and greater than the interorbital width. Cleft 
of mouth very oblique, the maxillary extending to below the anterior 
\ of eye, the lower jaw projecting. None of the hones of the head 
serrated ; praeoperculum with posterior edge slightly emarginate and 

17 



322 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

angle rounded. Dorsal VI, I 9. Anal II 11. Dorsal spines feeble, 
the second or the second and third the highest ; soft dorsal and anal 
with slightly cmarginate outer edges ; pectoral extending beyond origin 
of anal, ventrals to the vent ; caudal notched, scales deciduous. Caudal 
peduncle twice as long as deep. A blackish line along the middle of 
the side from the operculum to below the end of the soft dorsal ; fins 
immaculate. 

Length, to base of caudal, -11 mm. 

Nine specimens from Karachi. 

Very closely allied to A. gracilis (Blkr.), which has II 12-13 anal 
rays, the first dorsal spine the highest, and the dark lateral stripe ex- 
tending from the snout to the caudal. 

ClRRHITIOHTHYS CALLIURUS (PI. II, fig. 3). 

Depth of body about 2| times in the length (without caudal), length 
of head 3^-3^ times. Snout as long as the eye, the diameter of which 
is of times in the length of head, and a little greater than the inter- 
orbital width. Maxillary extending to below anterior \ of eye ; prseorbital 
entire, its depth § the diameter of eye ; praoperculum strongly serrated ; 
supraclavicle serrated. Dorsal X 12, the fifth or sixth spine the longest, 
more than \ the length of head ; the first soft ray produced, reaching 
the caudal when laid back. Anal III 6, the second spine the longest, 
as long as longest soft rays and nearly g the length of head. Pectoral 
with 7 simple rays, extending a little beyond origin of anal ; ventral 
extending to origin of anal ; caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. 
11-13 scales in a longitudinal series ; 4-4| between first dorsal spine 
and lateral line ; vertical fins covered with scales in their basal halves. 
Brownish, marbled with darker, the soft dorsal and anal and the caudal 
peduncle almost blackish ; caudal fin pale yellowish, sharply separated 
from the dark colour of the caudal peduncle, with a pink tinge at the 
base, a dark posterior margin and a few dark spots. 

Length, to base of caudal, 85 mm. 

Two specimens from Muscat, 15-30 fathom^. 

Platycbphalus nigripinnis (PI. I, fig. 2). 

Depth of body 6 times in the length (without caudal), length of head 
3 times. Snout scarcely longer than the eye, the diameter of which is 
4| times in the length- of head, interorbital width 1\ times, breadth of 
head 1? times. Maxillary extending to below anterior ^of eye. Upper 
surface of head flatfish, with ridges not or very feebly seriated and not 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 323 

distinctly spinate. Praeoperculum with 3 spines, the upper 1£ times in 
tho distance from its base to the eye. Dorsal IX, 12, the third spine 
slightly longer than tho second or fourth and nearly | tho length of 
head ; soft dorsal highest anteriorly, the second ray as long as tho longest 
spine. Anal 12. Pectoral extending ^ the distance from its base to 
origin of anal, ventral a little beyond origin of anal. Caudal truncate. 
80 scales in a longitudinal series ; only the anterior 10-12 scales of the 
lateral line distinctly spinate. 5 or 6 indistinct dark blotches or bars 
on the side of the body ; fins blackish, the anal pale at the base and 
with a narrow light edge. 

Length, to base of caudal, 105 mm. 

A single specimen from Muscat, I 5-30 fathoms. 

Platycephalus townsendi (PI. I, fig. 1). 
Depth of body 7 times in the length (without caudal), length of head 
3 times. Snout 1^-li times as long as eye, the diameter of which is 4^ 
times in the length of head, interorbital width D-10 times, breadth of 
head If times. Maxillary extending to below anterior \ of eye ; upper 
surface of head with weakly serrated ridges bearing very indistinct spines. 
Prseoperculum with 3 spines, the upper 1% times in the distance from 
its base to the eye. Dorsal IX, 12, the third spine nearly \ the length 
of head ; soft dorsal highest anteriorly, the second ray as long as tho 
longest spine. Anal 12. Pectoral extending \ the distance from its 
base to origin of anal, ventral a little beyond origin of anal. Caudal 
truncate. 53-56 scales in a longitudinal series ; only the anterior 16-20 
scales of the lateral line distinctly spinate. Brownish : some darker 
spots or bars on the cheek ; base of the operculum blackish ; the naked 
area above the pectoral and covered by the opercular flap is white, with 
black vermiculations. Spinous dorsal blackish, the spines spotted ; soft 
dorsal with about 5 longitudinal series of spots on the rays : caudal and 
ventral blackish, with obscure spots, anal pale or dusky ; pectoral barred 
with spots. 

Length, to base of caudal, 157 mm. 
Two specimens : Karachi ; Muscat. 

Platycephalus maculipinna (PI. I, fig. 3). 

Depth of body 7^-8 times in the length (without caudal), length of 

head 3-3^ times. Snout l\-l\ times as long as the eye, the diameter 

of which is 4^-5^ times in the length of head, interorbital width 8 times, 

breadth of head 1§-1§ times. Maxillary extending to below anterior £ 



324 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

of eye. Upper surface of head with ridges bearing some short spines 
at intervals, but not serrated, except the supraorbital ridge, which has 3 
or 4 teeth. Praeoperculum with a strong spine at the angle, as long us 
its distance from the orbit ; below it a short spinous projection and some- 
times another weaker one below that. Dorsal IX, 12 ; the third or 
fourth spine the highest, nearly \ the length of head ; soft dorsal highest 
anteriorly, the first ray as long as the longest spine. Anal 13. Pecto- 
ral extending \ the distance from its base to origin of anal, ventral to 
origin of anal. Caudal truncate. 100-104 scales in a longitudinal 
series ; lateral line spinate for its whole extent. Spinous dorsal with a 
large black blotch between the sixth and eighth spines ; soft dorsal with 
small dark spots on the membrane in front of each ray ; caudal blackish, 
with a pale lower edge ; anal pale, immaculate ; pectoral with small dark 
spots ; ventral blackish, with a narrow white edge. 

Length, to base of caudal, 190 mm. 

Three specimens from Muscat, 15-30 fathoms. 

Lbpidotrigla omanensis (PI. II, fig. 2). 

Depth of body 3^-3? times in the length (without caudal^, length 
of head 2§ times. Snout a little longer than eye, the diameter of which 
is 3^-3f times in the length of head and equal to the depth of the 
prseorbital. Inter orbital width 5 times in the length of head. Maxil- 
lary extending to vertical from anterior margin of eye or a little 
beyond. Snout with a pair of short strongly divergent pointed pro- 
cesses, with entire or minutely denticulated edges ; interorbital space 
strongly concave, and with a well-marked transverse groove behind it. 
Dorsal VIII, 14 ; the second and third spines the longest, less than 
\ the length of head. Anal 14. Pectoral extending to above 5th 
ray of anal, ventral to origin of anal. Caudal slightly emarginate. 
Scales feebly ciliated, those of the lateral line unarmed ; 53-57 scales in a 
longitudinal series, 2^ series above the lateral line ; 21-23 spiny plates 
along each side of the bases of the dorsal fins. Inner surface of pectoral 
black, without white spots but with a white margin which is broadest 
below ; spinous dorsal blackish posteriorly ; other fins immaculate. 
Length, to base of caudal, 88 mm. 

Three specimens from the Sea of Oman at a depth of 180 fathoms. 
In the allied L. spiloptera (Gthr.) the outer edges of the prceorbital 
spines are parallel instead of divergent as in this species, whilst the 
number of fin-rays is different. 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF, 325 

Percis Smithii. 
Depth of body G times in the length (without caudal), length of head 
4 times. Snout shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 3-3£ times 
in the length of head and nearly 3 times the interorbital width. 
Maxillary extending to below anterior edge of pupil. Prseoperculum 
denticulated ; suboperculum finely serrated. Dorsul V, 22 ; the fourth 
spine the longest, more than § the length of head and more than 
twice as long as the fifth. Anal 19. Caudal slightly emarginate. 
Pectoral as long as the distance from anterior edge of eye to extremity 
of opercular spine. Ventrals extending to the vent. 60 scales in a 
longitudinal series. Brownish (in spirit) with traces of darker 
blotcues or bars on the side ; spinous dorsal pale ; soft dorsal with 
two rows of white spots ; caudal with undulating alternate light and 
dark cross-bars and with a pair of dark spots near the base ; pectoral 
pale, with a dark axillary blotch ; ventral pale, with the innermost 
ray blackish ; anal pale, immaculate. 
Length, to base of caudal, 113 mm. 
Two specimens from Muscat, 15-30 fathoms. 

Callionymus persictjs (PI. Ill, fig. 1). 
Depth of body 6f-7f times in the length (without caudal), length 
of head 3£-3g times ; breadth of head 4-4^ times. Diameter of eye 
3-3| times in the length of head; eyes contiguous; gill-openino 
small, superior ; prseopercular spine straight, with serrated inner edop 
and a forwardly directed spinous process at its base. Lateral line single. 
Dorsal IV, 9 ; the anterior fin, in the male, elevated, and with the rays 
produced as filaments, in the female lower and with the rays not 
produced ; rays of the second dorsal equal, the last reaching the base of 
caudal when laid back. Anal 8, the posterior rays the longest. Vent- 
rals extending to pectorals beyond origin of anal. Caudal, in the male, 
elongate, as long as the fish, in the female about ^ as long. Body with 
4 or 5 irregular dark cross-bands and with dark mottlings and lioht 
spots. Males with a V-shaped or heart-shaped blackish blotch on the 
throat, on each side of which alternate light and dark longitudinal 
stripes separated by narrow white lines extend back from the apex of 
the lower jaw over the gill membranes on to the ventral fin. 
Anterior dorsal dark, with undulating oblique white lines and with a 
small black spot at the upper margin just behind the second ray ; second 



326 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

dorsal with 3 or 4 rows of oblong dark spots ; anal with a blackish band 
on its outer halt', which is continued on the lower part of the caudal ; 
caudal with several vertical series of oblong dark spots. 

Length, to base of caudal, 56 mm. 

Twelve specimens from the Persian Gulf, from the Mekran Coast 
and from Muscat. 

Callionymus Maugaket^ (PI. Ill, fig. 3). 

Depth of body 8 times in the length (without caudal), length of head 
3-3^ times, breadth of head 4 times. Diameter of eye 2| times in the 
length of head ; eyes contiguous; gill — opening small, superior; prteoper- 
cular spine straight, with serrated inner edge and a forwardly directed 
spinous process at its base. Lateral line single. Dorsal IV, 9 ; the 
anterior fin, in the male, with the first ray produced into a filament ; 
second dorsal with the rays equal, the last reaching the base of caudal 
when laid back. Anal 8, the posterior rays the longest. Ventral ex- 
tending beyond origin of anal. Caudal, in the male, elongate, as long 
as the fish. Body with dark spots and markings ; a blackish oblong 
or triangular patch on the throat (in the male) ; anterior dorsal blackish, 
with white bars anteriorly and white spots posteriorly ; second dorsal 
with 3 or 4 rows of oblong dark spots ; anal with a blackish marginal 
band, which is continued on the lower part of the caudal ; caudal with 
vortical series of oblong dark spots. 

Length, to base of caudal, 47 mm. 

Two specimens (males) from Muscat, 15-30 fathoms. 

Very similar to C. persicus, but with a larger eye and without the 
elevated anterior dorsal and the striped throat of the males of that species. 
Callionymus muscatensis (PI. Ill, fig. 2). 

Depth of body 7 times in the length (without caudal), length of bead 
(to gill — opening) 3| times. Eyes contiguous, their diameter ^ the 
length of head ; gill — opening in front of the upper edge of the base of 
pectoral ; prseopercular spine straight, with both outer and inner 
edges denticulated, the inner edge with 5 teeth, the outer with 3 or 4, 
the anterior of which is directed forwards. Dorsal IV, 8 ; the anterior 
fin elevated and its rays produced in the male ; caudal, in the male, 
elongate, nearly § the length of the fish. Anal 8, the last ray elongate in 
the male. Greyish, with darker markings; caudal with dark cross-bars or 
series of spots; anal with a dark margin; dorsal fins, in the male, black- 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 327 

isli; in the female, anterior dorsal with a large oblong black spot between 
third and fourth rays ; second dorsal with series of spots on the rays. 

Length, to base of caudal, 35 mm. 

Two specimens from Muscat, 15-30 fathoms. 

This species approaches the genus Vulsus in the structure of the 
prseopercular spine. 

Blbnnius persicus (PL II, fig. 1). 

Depth of body nearly equal to length of head and 5-5f times in the 
length (without caudal). Diameter of eye about £ the length of head 
and twice the interorbital width. Snout uearly vertical ; cleft of mouth 
extending to below posterior margin of eye. No canine teeth. A pair 
of well-developed simple tentacles inserted close together on the occiput 
and a pair of smaller simple tentacles at the anterior nostrils ; no supra- 
orbital tentacles ; no occipital crest. Dorsal XII, 20 ; the spinous 
portion composed of flexible spines, the longest § the length of head, 
the twelfth much shorter, about \ the length of the longest ray, which 
is | the length of head ; a notch between the two dorsals ; last dorsal 
ray connected by a membrane to the procurrent rays of caudal. Anal 23. 
Caudal truncate rounded. Pectoral slightly longer than head, extending 
to origin of anal. Sides of body with 6 obscure dark blotches or bars 
and anteriorly with 4-6 vertical whitish stripes which extend across 
the abdomen below, posteriorly with small white spots ; spinous dorsal 
with 3 dark bars, running obliquely forwards and upwards, confluent at 
the margin and below continuous with those of the body ; second dorsal 
dusky, with oblique white stripes running backwards and upwards and 
breaking up into spots near the margin ; caudal dusky, barred with 
white spots ; anal with blackish marginal and light intramarginal bands. 

Length, to base of caudal, 72 mm. 

Three specimens from the Persian Gulf, 10-20 fathoms. 
Salarias anomalus (PL II, fig. 4). 

Depth of body nearly equal to length of head and 4|-5 times in 
the length (without caudal). Diameter of eye nearly \ the length 
of head and twice the interorbital width. Forehead projecting beyond 
the snout ; cleft of mouth extending to below posterior margin of 
eye. No canine teeth. Anterior nostrils with a pair of well-developed 
simple tentacles, which arise almost at the orbital margin in front of 
the middle of the eye ; no supraorbital or occipital tentacles, no occipital 
crest. Dorsal XII, 19-20, the spinous portion composed of flexible 



328 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

spines, elevated, the longest spines in some examples ( ? females) 
less than the depth of body, in others ( ? males) produced, more than 
the depth of body ; second dorsal low, the last ray attached by a 
membrane to the caudal peduncle anterior to the procurrent caudal rays. 
Anal 23-24. Caudal rounded, but with the outer rays produced, giving 
a trilobed appearance. Pectoral shorter than the head, not extending 
to origin of anal. Brownish ; fins pale ; margin of anal and middle rays 
of caudal blackish. 

Length, to base of caudal, 60 mm. 

Several specimens from the Persian Gulf and the Mekran Coast. 
Petroscirtes mekranensis. 

Depth of body equal to length of head, 5^ times in the length 
(without caudal). Snout not projecting beyond the mouth, which 
extends to below the middle of eye. Diameter of eye \ the length of 
head and greater than the interorbital width. Canine teeth strong, 
specially in the lower jaw. A well-developed triangular crest extend- 
ing from between the eyes nearly to origin of dorsal ( ? in males only) - 
no tentacles. Dorsal 32, highest posteriorly. Anal 23. Caudal 
rounded. Pectoral •!, ventral § the length of head. 6 pairs of dark 
vertical bars on sides of body, and posteriorly small white spots also ; 
head with similar bars which are, however, irregular and somewhat 
oblique ; occipital crest with dark vermiculations ; dorsal anteriorly 
with dark median and marginal longitudinal lines ; anal and pectoral 
with dark lower margin. 

Length, to base of caudal, 4K mm. 

A single specimen from Jask, Mekran Coast. 

Petroscirtes townsendi (PI. Ill, fig. 7). 

Depth of body about 5J times in the length (without caudal), length 
of head 4§ times. Snout projecting beyond the mouth, which is 
transverse inferior, below anterior part of eye. Diameter of eye ^ the 
length of head and equal to the interorbital width. No canines in the 
upper jaw, those of the lower jaw strong. Head without crest or 
tentacles. Dorsal 34, with the rays gradually decreasing in length in 
the latter half of the fin. Anal 22. Caudal emarginate. Pectoral f , 
ventral x the length of head. Brownish, fins pale ; anterior part of 
dorsal with a prominent black marginal stripe. 

Leneth, to base of caudal, 31 mm. 

A single specimen from Jask, Mekran Coast. 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 329 

2. LIST OF DEEP-SEA FISHES FROM THE SEA OF OMAN. 

1. Uroconger Upturns, Richards ... ... (140-205 filths.) 

2. Scopelus pyrsobolus, Ale. ... . . (225 faths.) 

3. Harpodon squamosus, Ale ... ... (170-243 faths.) 

4. Champsodon vora.v, Gthr. ... ... ( -140 „ ) 

5. Physicultus argyropastus, Ale. ... (107-205 ,, ) 

6. Epinephelus praeopercularis, Blgr. ... ( -175 „ ) 

7. ,, undulosus, Q. G.... ... ( -170 ,, ) 

8. Synagrops philippinensis, Gthr. ... (170 faths.) 

9. Parascolopsis tovmsendi, Blgr. ... (140-225 faths.) 

10. Gobius cometes, Ale. ... ... ... (180 faths.) 

11. Laeops macrophthalmus, Ale. ... ... (180 ,., ) 

12. Cynoglossus carpenteri, Ale. ... ... (170-243 faths.) 

13. Solea umbratilis, Ale. ... ... ... (98 faths.) 

14. Tetraroge guentheri, Blgr. ... ... (142 „ ) 

15. Minous inermis, Ale. ... ... ... ( -180 faths.) 

16. * T/'igla arabica, Blgr. ... ... ( -180 ,, ) 

17. Lepidotrigla omanensis, Rgn.... ... (180 faths.) 

18. Callionymus carebares, Ale. ... ... (98-180 faths.) 

19. Neobyihites steaticus, Ale. ... ... (175 faths.) 

3. LIST OF FISHES OF THE PERSIAN GULF. 

1. Amphisile strigata, Gthr. 

2. \Psenes indicus, Day. 

3. Epinephelus tauvina, Forsk. 

4. „ argus, Bl. Schn. 

5. „ fuscoguttatus, Forsk. 
(). ,, chlorostigma, C. V. 

7. ,, merra, Bl. 

8. Anthias townsendi, Blgr. 

* Trigla hemistieta (non Schlegel) Day, Fishes of India, Snppl. p. 791 (1888), and 
Alcock. Gat. Ind. Deep-sea Fishes, p. 67 (1899). 

f Psenes indicus is only doubtfully distinct from the Atlantic Ps, regulvt (Poey). 
The latter has been figured by Goode k Bean (Oceanic Ichthyology, fig. 229) under 
the name Ps. maeulatus (non Lutken). According to this figure the scales are more 
numerous iu a vertical series than in Ps. indicus (compare Day's figure) bnt other 
differences are not evident, 

18 



330 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

9. Anthias hypselosoma, Blkr. 

10. Apogon quadrifasciatus, Val. 

11. ,, bifasciatus, Riipp. 

12. ,, nigripinnis, C. V. 

13. Mesoprion annularis, C. V. 

14. „ erythropterus, Bl. 

15. Pagrus spinifer, Forsk. 

16. Lethrinus striatus, Stdr. 

17. Scolopsis ghanam, Forsk. 

18. Pristipoma strident, Forsk. 

19. Diagramma pietum, Thunb. 

20. Pseudochromis persicus, Blgr. 

21. ,, nigrovittatus, Blgr. 

22. Heniochus mac role pidotus, L. 

23. Drepano punctata, L. 

24. Teuthis nebulosa, Q. G. 

25. Pomacentrus jerdoni, Day. 

26. ,, obtusirostris, Gtbr. 

27. Glyphidodon sindensis. Day. 

28. „ eoelestinus, 0. V. 

29. Platyglossus hyrtelii, Blkr. 

30. „ roseus, Day. 

31. ,, dussumieri, C. V. 

32. Pseudoscarus jantochir, Blkr. 

33. Scorpaena cirrhosa, Thunb. 

34. Pterois russellii, Benn. 

35. Scomber mierolepidotus, Riipp. 

36. Gob ins albopunctatus, C. V. 

37. „ ophthalmotcenia, Blkr. 

38. „ towuseudi, Blgr. 

39. „ hoplopomus, C. V. 

40. Eleotris diadematus, Riipp. 

41. Psettodes erumei, Bl. Schn. 

42. Pseudorhombus arsius, Ham. Buch. 

43. Synaptura zebra, Bl. 

44. Percis nebulosa, Q. G. 

45. Callionymus persicus, Rgn. 

46. Blennius persicus, Rgn. 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 331 

47. Salarias sindensis, Day. 

•18. „ dussumieri, C. V. 

49. „ fasciatus, Bl. 

50. ,, opercular is, Murr. 

51. „ anomalus, Rgn. 

52. Petroscirtes barbatus, Ptrs. 

53. Batrachus grunniens, L. 

54. Antennarrius nummifer, Guv. 

55. Monacanthus oblongus, Schleg. 

56. „ tomeutosus, L. 

57. Ostracion cyanurus, Bupp. 

4. FISHES FROM MUSCAT. 

The following arc not included in Steindachner's List of Fishes Ironi 
thj East Coast of Arabia : — 

1. Trygon walga, Miill & Henle. 

2. Mxirtvna pseudothyrsoidea, Blkr. 

3. Pegasus nutans, L. 

4. Amphisile strigata, Gthr. 

5. Epinephelus merra, Bl. 

6. Cirrhitichthys calliurus, Rgn. 

7. Apogon thurstoni, Day. 

8. „ holotcenia, Rgn. 

9. Genyoroge bengalensis, Bl. 

10. Upeneus indicus, Shaw. 

11. Equula rivulata, Schleg. 

12 Platyglossus bimacidatus, Riipp. 

13. Duymceria Jiagell'ifera, 0. V. 

14. Scorpoena cirrhosa, Thnnb. 

15. „ rosea, Day. 

16. Minous inermis, Ale. 
1 7. Apistus alatus, C. V. 

18. Prosopodasys leucog aster, Richards. 

19. Platycephalus subfasciatus, Gthr. 

20. „ nigripinnis, Rgn. 

21. „ toivusendi, Rgn. 

22. „ macidipinna, Rgn. 

23. Lepidotrigla bispinosa, -Stdr. 



332 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

21. Gobias andamanensis, Day. 

25. Percis pulchella, Schleg. 

26. „ smithii, Rgn. 

27. Trichonotus setigerus, Bl. Schn. 

28. Callionymus filamentosus, C. V. 
21). ,, persicus, Rgn. 

oO. „ margaretoc, Rgn. 

31. ,, muscatensis, Rgn. 

o2. Bleunius semifasciatus, Riipp. 

oo. Rhomboidichthys pa?itherinus, Riipp. 

o4. „ grandisquamis, Schleg. 

35. ,, poecilurus, Blkr. 

5. FISHES FROM THE MEKRAN COAST 
AND KARACHI. 

A list of the Fishes collected by Mr. Townsend on the Mekran Coast 
is being published in the Imperial Baluchistan Gazetteer. In this, 
Apogon fasciatus (White ), Equula nuchalis (Schleg.), and Callionymus 
longicaudatus (Schleg.) should be replaced by Apogon melanotoania 
(Ltgn.), Equula daura (Cuv.), and Callionymus persicus (Rgn.) respec- 
tively, and the following species should be added : — . 
Opisthognatlms nigromarginatus, Riipp. 
Platyglossus dussumieri, C. V. 
Minous monodactylus, Bl. Schn. 
Gobius ornatus, Riipp. 
Eleotris diadematus, Riipp. 
Salarias anomalus, Rgn. 
Petroscirtes punctatus, C. V. 
„ mekrauensis, Rgn. 

„ townseudi, Rgn. 

Karachi falls within the province treated of in Day's " Fishes of India," 
and the additions, except in the case of the new species described above, 
are unimportant. 



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-"■ Apogcn 5. A. spilurus . 6.ApogorvicTn.t}Yys raidus . 

7. Petrosairtes townsendi . 



ON FISHES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 333 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 





Plate A. 


Fig. 1. 


Platycephalic townsendi. 


» 2. 


„ nigripinnis. 


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,, maoulipinna. 



Plate B. 

Fig. 1. Blennius persicus. 
„ 2. Lepidotrigla omanensis. 
3. Cirrhitiehthys oalliurus. 



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„ 4. Salarias anomalu.s. 



Plate 0. 

Fig. 1. Callionymns persicus, $ ; la 

„ 2. ,, musoatensis. 

„ 3. ,, margaretse. 

„ 4. Apogon melanoteeniu. 

„ 5. ,, spilurus. 

„ 6. Apogonichthys nudiis. 

„ ?• Petroscirtes townsendi. 



i * 



334 

THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF OUR METALLIC MONEY. 

By E. Blatter, S.J. 
(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 16th March 1905). 
Some time ago, I was asked by a friend to examine some specimens 
of our current coins with a special view to plague bacilli. Fulfilling hi s 
wish I subjected a good number of pieces to careful examination. I 
detected a great variety of things belonging both to the animal and 
vegetable kingdom, as well as to the inorganic world. Though I did 
not succeed in satisfying my friend with these results, as I did not 
observe a single specimen of that plague-engendering organism, I 
nevertheless might interest some of the readers of this journal by a short 
determination of the plants and animals belonging to the flora and fauna 
of our metallic money. 

I need not say that in this examination I made use of the common 
ways of sterilisation, of culture media, and the different methods of 
staining which are necessary for the exact study of the micro-organisms. 

I began with scratching a small particle from the surface of a coin. 
Examining it in sterilized water with a low magnifying power I could 
not distinguish anything but a brown, dark, untransparent, shapeless 
mass, and some cylindrical bodies protruding on the surface of that 
conglomerate. I crumbled the object, and now the single pieces had 
changed colour entirely, looking yellowish and showing a granular 
structure. Using a power of 525 I could easily detect the nature of 
those elongated bodies. In this and the following cases small portions 
of hair were observed, and amongst these especially the roots were of 
frequent occurrence. This is quite natural, as the root of each hair is 
lodged in the follicle which descends into the subcutaneous fat, and is 
thus surrounded by a more sticky substance than the shaft. Sometimes 
intimately connected with the hair follicles, sebaceous glands were 
observed. As the hairs taken from the different parts of the body all 
show certain characteristic peculiarities, it was not difficult to trace 
the origin of the various particles. In this way I detected hairs which 
are found on the head, on the arm, in the arm-pit, in the nose, on the 
eye-brow. With a higher power I could even distinguish single 
cortical scales which cover the long fibrillated cells of the hair. A 
power of 1,000 disclosed the presence of parasitic fungi and of a mite, 
called iJeinodex folliculorum ho minis, which seems to choose the hair 



THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF OUR METALLIC MONEY. 335 

follicles and sebaceous glands of man as a favourite haunt. Of silk, 
cotton, and wool, I saw threads of sometimes considerable length. 

This was all I could detect without further preparations. For a 
better examination of the rest I dissolved some scrapings in ti watch- 
glass of lukewarm sterilized water. After two hours the apparently 
homogeneous substance was divided into a layer of fine sediment on the 
bottom of the vessel, into free-moving particles, and a greyish layer on 
the surface of the water. When I repeated this experiment and always 
examined one portion after the other, the microscope showed the 
following details. Floating on the surface there were bodies of chiefly 
vegetable origin : stellate hairs of a plant belonging to the order of 
SolanaceEe, glandular hairs of one of the Labiatse, sporangia without 
spores of a fern belonging to the Polypodiacese, small particles of wood 
of a dicotyledoneous stem, a tangential-longitudinal section of the stem 
of a grass, macerated to such an extent as to be wholly transparent. 

The greatest portion of the surface material consisted of exceedingly 
small particles of mostly organic origin, which were obviously in a 
state of decomposition and did not give, therefore, any possibility of 
identification. 

When I examined drop after drop, many of them disclosed micro- 
scopical organisms of various colour, shape, and size. A strong 
magnifying power showed globular cells, mostly isolated, but some- 
times united into small groups. The bright green contents of the cells, 
the presence of chromatophores, the small starch grains in the chroma- 
tophores, which were visible in an iodine solution, of the size of 2 — 6 <", 
and finally the comparison with the organism which I suspected to 
be the same and which I had found on the outer surface of a flower-pot, 
made it sure that the object in question was Pleurococwis vulgaris, 
Menegh. In the same way I found another alga, a species of 
Nitzschia Hassal, which belongs to the diatoms. The chromatophores 
were completely reduced, wherefore it was one of the diatoms which 
assume a saprophytic mode of life. Its size was 50 — 60 ^ in length. 
In another case the field of view showed small globular and elliptic 
cells, 6 fj. in length. Within a delicate membrane several small 
vacuoles, sometimes a large one, could be recognized. A culture in 
Pasteur's fluid enabled me to observe multiplication by budding. From 
the circumstance that gemmation is peculiar to the saccharomycetes and 
from other microscopical characters obtained by hardening and staining 



336 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV J. 

1 came to the conclusion that the plant was Saccharomyces ellipseoideus, 
Rees, or wine yeast. Another species of the same genus, Saccharo- 
myces mycoderma, Rees. exhibited elliptical and cylindrical cells of 
5 — 7 p, in length. It is the plant which forms a thin membrane on the 
surface of already fermented liquids without causing fermentation itself, 
v.g. in half-empty bottles of wine. 

May I be allowed now to enumerate in a shorter way what else the 
microscope revealed to the observing eye. 

Of the organisms belonging to the Schizomycetes or Bacteria, the 
following were examined : — 

Micrococcus ure^e, Oohn. — Diameter of cells 1*1 — 2 ^ ; 2 — 8 in- 
dividuals were united into chains. It is the cause of fermentation of 
the urine, splitting up urea into ammonium carbonate. 

Micrococcus crepusculum, Cohn. — Cells short, oval. Diameter 

2 v. It is found in various infusions. In company with Micrococcus 
crepusculum I found Bacterium termo, Ehrl. Length 1 — 3 ^ Twice 
or three times as long as broad, cylindric or elliptic, usually in pairs. 
It is the ferment of putrefaction of liquids. 

Vibrio rugula, Mull. — Length 6 — 17 ^. Is found in ponds, rain- 
water, and also in faeces. 

Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf. — Pinkish or violet. Found on 
fresh and salt water in places where vegetable and animal bodies putrefy. 
They give the water the blood-red colour. 

Clostrydium butyricum, Prazm. — In the presence of this bacterium 
butyric acid is formed from various carbohydrates. The rod-like cells 
measure in length 2 — 2'5 ^, in breadth 1 ^. 

Bacterium aceti, Zopf, the acetic acid bacteria which oxidise 
alcohol to acetic acid. 

Staphylococcus Pyogenes. — It is a spherical coccus 0*9 ^ in 
diameter, found irregularly in masses or clusters. It is one of the 
bacteria which cause suppuration. I was not able to identify the exact 
variety. 

Bacillus tuberculosis, Koch. — The tubercle bacillus varies very 
much in size. I found some of 2'6 — 3*4 ^ in length, and others 
of 4 v. 

Didymiium SchRad. — As I found it only as plasmodium and with- 
out sporongia and spores, I could not make sure of the specific charac- 
ters. Of the Zygomycetes there were only two species. 



THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF OUR METALLIC MONEY. 337 

Mugor stolonifer, Eh i'h. It forms white growths on various 
substances, especially on putrefying vegetable bodies. 

Gh/Etocladium, Fres. It is a parasite on Mucor stolanifer, Ehrh., 
found on animal excreta. The fungus showed sexual spores (Conidia). 

There was only one of the Haplomycetes, a species of Tonda Pers. 
Identification was impossible, as I observed only spores without myce- 
liums. The torulas' form dust-like coats on various bodies, usually on 
dead and sometimes on still living bodies. 

The animal kingdom offered only few representatives. 
Amoeba tbrrigola Grbbf. — Diameter of the whole body 350 — 400 /*, 
I found it dead in the state of encystation. 

There were some 2 or 3 species of infusorians, but for want of a 
sufficient number of specimens, determination was impossible. 

Of rarer occurrence were red blood corpuscles, fat cells of adipose 
tissue, small portions of the epidermis of human skin, pus cells and even 
eggs of insects. 

Very frequent were starch-grains of different plants : 

Starch-grains of potato.— By them the light is reflected to differing 
degrees. Their hilum is not the geometrical centre, but lies nearer to 
one end. Length 60 — 100 /*. 

Starch-grains of wheat ; they are circular, their lamination regular, 
their diameter 35 — 40 /* . 

Starch-grains of rice ; they are very small, polyhedral ; compound 
grains of great beauty are met with. Diameter 6 — 7 ^ . 

Starch-grains of West Indian arrowroot. The lamination is less clear, 
but more Uniform than in potato starch. A cleft in the form of a V 
characterises the starch of arrowroot. 

Also white and black pepper was found. The only difference between 
the two kinds of pepper is, that in the white there are no particles of 
the exocarp and no parenchyma of the seed-vessel. 

Cinnamon-powder, which was observed, is distinguished by the fol- 
lowing elements. Thin spindle-like bnst fibres, circa 50 ^ in length ; 
thick-walled cells of the bast parenchyma, containing starch, slerenchyma 
with or without starch, oil-glands, crystals of calGium-oxalate from the 
cells of the medullary rays. 

The greatest part of all the m itter detected on money, and found, 
as the. chief constitutent part of the sedimentary layer, was diist» 
&iz. microscopic and ultramicroscopic bodies of inorganic origin. Of 
19 



338 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI, 

only a small number of minerals the crystallographic characters 
could be recognized by means of the polarising miscroscope and by 
the application of re-agents, v. g. of silica, calcium carbonate, etc. 

Besides the bacteria above enumerated I could trace the presence of 
some two or three others. But as they were only few in number, and 
fresh and good food supply did not induce them to multiply, a definite 
identification was, of course, beyond the bounds of possibility. 

That there may not arise any misapprehension in the reader's mind, 
I must not omit saying that not all of the above mentioned forms of 
organisms Were found on each and every coin, but that, on the con- 
trary, there was amongst the examined pieces a pretty good number 
which did not exhibit the actual presence of life at all. 

If we bear in mind, where nearly all of those micro-organisms usually 
or, to use a more correct expression, exclusively occur, we cannot help 
confessing, that they are associated with the presence of decaying mat- 
ter. And again if we consider, through what hands and pockets a coin 
may travel in the course of one single day, We shall not have the least 
difficulty in understanding how the fauna and flora of our money came 
into existence. 

When I had already finished this paper my attention was drawn upon 
two letters addressed to the Editor of the Times of India. On the 10th 
February 1905 the Baroda correspondent, Dr. R. V. Dhurandhar, writes 
the following lines : — 

" Will not the Government of India think twice before extinguishing 
copper coins and substituting bronze and nickel ones in their place, in 
the face of modern research in that direction ? The Health Board of 
New York some time back undertook an investigation to ascertain how 
far gold, silver, copper, and paper currencies assist in the transmission 
of disease germs from place to place, and they found on miscroscopio 
examination that, while other currencies swarmed with germs, none 
were found on copper coins." 

Further on he adds: " Bronze though coppery, contains tin, and 
sometimes lead and zinc, and, therefore, is not as good a germicide as 
pure copper." 

The second letter (llth February 1905), written by Mr. S. G. 
D'Souza, contains these remarks: " In common with Mr. Dhurandhar 
I quite agree that copper, far from transmitting disease germs, is a most 
potent agent of prevention of the same. — In those days when cholera 



THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF OUR METALLIC MONEY. 339 

regularly made its dreadful ravages in Bombay every third year, the 
coppersmiths were to a man immune from it. I, therefore, think the 
substitution of bronze and nickel coins for copper ones undesirable." 

These two letters afford me the welcome opportunity of expressing 
my full agreement with the views advanced in them. hun, Ihi r, 

however, says, that " while other currencies swarmed with germs none 
were found on copper coins." If I, as regards our metallic money, 
said the same, the statement would surely not agree with the facts, as 
the above mentioned organisms were seen not only on silver-coins but 
also on copper-currencies. The only difference was that the plants and 
animals detected on copper were devoid of life, while those on silver- 
coins, in most cases, were animated. And so we may say with 
Dr. Dhurandhar, that copper is an excellent germicide. 




;540 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCIDyE OF CEYLON- 

By E. Ernest Green, f. e. b., 
Entomologist to the Government of Ceylon. 
Part III. 

{With Plates H—K.) 

Since the earlier appearance of my " Supplementary Notes " in this 
Journal (Vol. XIII, Nos. 1 and 2), a fresh mass of material has been 
accumulate 1, necessitating a further series descriptive of new species of 
Dispidince from Ceylon. Nor can it be supposed that the supply is yet 
exhausted, although the original number of species recorded in my 
monograph has now been more than doubled. Large areas of the Island 
still remain unexplored (as regards CoecidcB) and new species are 
frequently discovered even in the best worked localities, as may be seen 
from the frequency with which the name " Peradeniya '* appears in the 
following pages. 

Genus ASPIDIOTUS. 
Aspidiotus longispinus, Morgan. (PI. H, fig. 1.) 
Aspidiotus longispina, Morg., Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV., p.. 352. 
Morganella longispinus, Ckll., Bull. 6, Dep. Agric. (1897). 
H'emiberlesia longispinus, Leon., Riv. Pat. Veg„, vi. (1897). 
Morganella maskelli, Ckll., Bull. 6, Dep. Agric, p. 22 (1897). 
$ Puparium black, circular, moderately convex, dense and usually 
more or less obscured by fragments of bark. Diameter 1*10 mm. 
$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult § subcircular, the pygidium only slightly projecting beyond 
the general curve. Colour whitish ; the chitinous parts stained a deep 
brown. Pygidium (fig. 1) with two rather narrow prominent conver- 
gent median lobes almost or quite contiguous. Margin on each side 
fringed with numerous narrow elongate squames, some of them deeply 
fimbriate, others obscurely so. Spines deep black, stout, long and whip- 
like, projecting far beyond the squames. No circumgenital glands. In 
all my examples the terminal half of the pygidium is densely chitinous 
and deep coloured, obscuring all pores and other characters. Diameter 
0*50 to 1 mm. 

Adult $ unknown. 

Habitat. — In Ceylon, beneath loose bark on stems of the " Jak" tree 
( Artocarpus integrifolia). The scales are frequently embedded in th» 
loose tissues of the cortex. (Peradeniya.) 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCID.E OF CEYLON. 341 

Aspidiotus cuculus, ii. sp. (PI. H, figs. 2, 3.) 

9 Puparium very irregular in form, due to the fact that it has to 
accommodate itself to the cavity which it inhabits. This cavity is of a 
conical shape and may contain as many as five of the insects, the puparia 
being then crowded and pressed together, elongated in the direction of 
the duct of the gall. Colour dull brown, usually comprising portions of 
the pellicle and derm of the former occupant. It is difficult to isolate a 
single individual for purposes of measurement, but the united mass has a 
length of about 2 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult 9 (fig. 2) white or pale yellow. Long pyriform, Pygidium 
terminating in two stout obscurely emarginate lobes ; the margin for a 
short distance beyond them thickened and irregular (fig. 8). Two 
groups of about six long stout spiniform squames on each side of lobes, 
divided by a small marginal prominence. A larger conical point imme- 
diately beyond the outer group. Anal orifice small. Dorsal pores very 
minute and inconspicuous. No circumgenital or parastigmatic glands. 
Length 1 to 1*25 mm. Breadth 9*75 to 9*85 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

Habitat. — Female insects occupying the galls of another Coccicf 
( Amorphococcus mesuce), after that insect has died, whether on account 
of the intrusion or from natural causes, I have as yet been unable to 
determine. 

Aspidiotus (Chrysomfhalus) pedronis, n. sp. (PI. H, fig 4.) 
Puparium clear brownish straw-colour ; pellicles paler, circular, 
flatfish. Diameter 2*50 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult 9 broadly pyriform. Pygidium (fig. 4) with six prominent 
floriate lobes approximately equal in size. Interlobular squames nar- 
row, deeply fimbriate, of same length as lobes. Three broad aciculate 
serrate squames beyond the outer lobe on each side. Circumgenital 
glands in five groups ; median group with 1 or 2 pores ; upper laterals 5 
to 6 ; lower laterals about 6. Dorsal pores oval, moderately large and 
conspicuous, communicating with long trumpet-shaped ducts. Length 
1*59 mm. 

Adult $ not known. 

Habitat. — On leaves of undetermined tree. Pedrotalagalla, at an 
elevation of about 8,000 feet. April. 



342 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Differs from A. dictyospermi in having the lobes of more equal size 
and in the much smaller and more ill-defined paraphyses. 

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) malleolus, n. sp. (PI. H, figs. 5, 6.) 

9 Puparium opaque snowy white ; dense, broad and flat ; irregu- 
larly deltoid. Pellicles pale straw-colour, usually marginal. Long 
diameter 4'50 to 5*50 mm. 

$ Puparium similar but very much smaller. Length 2'25 mm. 

Adult 9 (fig. 5) rather densely chitinous, elongate ; cephalotho- 
racic segment broadest, with a deep constriction behind ; mesothoracic 
segment narrowest ; segments well-defined, but margins not produced, 
Pygidium (fig. 6) with eight rather small but stout rounded lobes, their 
outer edges obscurely emarginate. Squames rather small but pro- 
jecting beyond the lobes, not conspicuously fimbriate. Six large con- 
spicuous clavate paraphyses and many smaller ones. Circumgenital 
glands numerous, in two curved groups. Median dorsal area of 
pygidium conspicuously reticulate (as in A. trilobitiformis and its allies). 
Length 1'75 to 2'25 mm. 

Habitat. — On under surface of leaves of Mimusops hexandra. Ele- 
phant pass, N. P. March. 

The specific name has been suggested by the hammer-like form of 
adult female. 

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) cistuloides. n. sp. (PI. 1, figs. 7, 8). 

9 Puparium (fig. 7) dull blackish-brown ; broadly oval, somewhat 
pointed behind ; the ventral scale dense and strongly developed, the 
hinder portion steeply up-tilted and projecting beyond the margin 
of the dorsal scale. Dorsal scale rather strongly convex ; subconical ; 
the pellicles placed on the summit, nearer the anterior extremity. 
Larval pellicle only exposed, reddish. Length 1*35 mm. Breadth 
about 1 mm. 

$ Puparium of same colour, but flattened, smaller and more elongate. 
Length 1*25 mm. Greatest breadth 0*75 mm. 

Adult 9 turbinate ; a deep constriction separating the pro- and meso- 
thorax and a less-marked constriction behind the meta-thorax. Derm 
rather densely chitinous. Margin of pygidium (fig. 8) strongly cristate. 
There are six lobes, with difficulty distinguishable from the other 
marginal prominences. Median pair bluntly conical, with slightly 
emarginate sides. Second and third pairs sharply conical, each with a 
denticle on outer margin. Second pair smallest ; third pair largest. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCIDyE OF CEYLON. 343 

Beyond the third lobe the margin is broken into strongly serrate 
prominences. Squames and spines small and inconspicuous. Four 
moderately developed elongate paraphyses on each side, and numerous 
smaller ones between them. Anal orifice small, elongate, distant from 
margin about three times its own length. Circumgenital glands con- 
sisting of a single small group (of from 2 to 4 orifices) on each 
side, and two or three isolated orifices between them forming a broken 
median group. Dorsal pores minute and inconspicuous. Length 1 to 
1*10 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

Habitat. — Occurring sparsely on leaves of Cinnamomam. Pera- 
deniya. January. 

The peculiar form of the female puparium gives it the appearance 
of a small capsule resting on the leaf. In this particular it closely 
resembles a species from Java, on Piper nigrum (to be described later 
under the name of A. capsulatus.) 
Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) quadriclavatus, n. sp. (PI. I, fig. 9.) 
$ Puparium flat, subcircular, very dark chocolate-brown. Larval 
pellicle exposed, prominent, of same colour as the secretionary area. 
Nymphal pellicle completely concealed. Diameter 3 mm. 

$ Puparium similar in colour and texture to that of $ , but 
smaller and oblong. Length 2 mm. Breadth about 1 mm. 

Adult $ dull pale purplish. Pygidium (fig. 9) with eight stout 
bluntly pointed lobes, their sides slightly emarginate : the seoond pair 
somewhat smaller than the others and situated close to the median 
lobes. Margin beyond the lobes thickened and cristate. There are 
four very large and conspicuous clubbed paraphyses and two smaller 
and simple — exterior to the others. ISquaines small and obscure. 
Dorsal pores small and inconspicuous. Circumgenital glands presum- 
ably in five groups, but forming together an almost continuous arch, 
difficult to separate into its component parts, narrowest in the middle and 
thickening at the extremities. Orifices numerous — 75 to 100. Anal 
aperture minute. Greater diameter (longitudinal) 1*25 to 1*75 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

Habitat, — On upper surface of leaves of Murraya. exotica. Pera- 
deniya. July. 

Both $ and 9 puparia are very firmly attached to the leaf. It is 
difficult to remove them entire. 



344 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV I. 

The puparia are scarcely distinguishable from those of A. rossi, but 
the exceptionally large paraphyses and the disposition of the circum- 
genital glands distinguish it from that or any other species of 
Chrysomphalus, 
Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) taprobanus, n. sp. (PI. I, fig. 10). 

9 Puparium pale, transparent, straw-colour : pellicles slightly darker, 
Flatfish ; irregularly oval. Ventral scale thin and delicate, adhering 
to under surface of dorsal scale in such a manner as to leave a central 
channel. Greatest diameter 2 to 2 - 25 mm. 

$ Puparium smaller and paler : more elongate. Length 1*50 mm. 
Adult 9 yellow. Pyriform. Pygidium (fig. 10) with six promin- 
ent rounded floriate lobes of equal size. Squames broad and deeply 
fimbriate : the outermost three aciculate. Paraphyses small and incon- 
spicuous, one at inner side of base of each lobe. No circumgenital glands. 
Pygidial characters very similar to those of A. aurantii, but ultra- lobular; 
squames not bifid. Length 1 to 1*25 mm. Breadth about 0*75 mm. 
Adult $ not observed. 

Habitat. — On leaves of Phyllanthus myrtifolius : usually on upper 
surface. Peradeniya. May. 

The species differs from aurantii in the simple form of the ultra-lobular 
squames. The derm is more delicate and never becomes densely chiti- 
nous : nor are the pygidium and abdominal parts withdrawn into the 
body as in aurantii. 

Aspidiotus (Targionia) PByllanthi, n. sp. (PI. I, fig. 11). 
9 Puparium dull black, with a raised whitish disc on larval 
pellicle : moderately convex : more or less concealed beneath the corky 
outer bark. Diameter 1 to 1'25 mm. 

$ Puparium grayish, (a whitish bloom overlying the blackish se- 
cret ionary area). Pellicle very dark shining brown, with a raised 
whitish circle in centre. Length 1 mm. 

Adult 9 circular : the pygidium only slightly projecting, demarked 
from abdomen by a curved series of irregular thickened chitinous 
patches. No parastigmatic or circumgenital glands. Pygidium (fig. 11) 
with eight well-defined stout emarginate lobes, each with a conspicuous 
elongate paraphysis at its base. No pectinate squames. Dorsal pores 
small, circular. Diameter 0*60 to 0'70 mm. 

Adult $ brownish orange: nolal plates and scutellum paler: apo- 
dema castaneous. Form bread, depressed. Head small ■ ocelli black : 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCID^ OF CEYLON. 345 

rudimentary eyes colourless, inconspicuous. Terminal joint of antenna 
with one knobbed hair at apex and two at side. Foot with four 
knobbed hairs. Wings • ample, hyaline, slightly iridescent. Genital 
sheath very long and narrow, as long as or longer than abdomen : 
sharply pointed. Total length 0*75 mm. 

Habitat. — On Phyllanthus myrtifolius. Peradeniya. February. 
Female insects on steins and twigs, more or less concealed beneath the 
outer layers of the bark. Male insects on both surfaces of the leaves. 

The pygidial characters approach those of A. tenebricosus, Comstock, 
but differ in the form, number and arrangement of the paraphyses and 
in the absence of pectinate squames. 

Aspidiotus (Cryptophyllaspis) occultus, var. klongatus, n. var. 

(PI. I, figs. 12,13). 

Aspidiotus occultus, Green, Gocc. Ceylon, pt. 1, p. 56. 

Cryptophyllaspis occultus, Ckll., Check List, Suppl., p. 396. 

$ Puparium consisting principally of a delicate film lining the cavity 
of the gall, the pellicles forming an operculum at its base. 

The gall itself (fig. 12) is irregularly cylindrical, constricted towards 
the base, the ends often studaed with irregular tubercles. Length of 
gall about 2 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed; but probably occupying shallow 
depressions on the surface of the leaf as in the type. 

Adult $ elongate oval, abruptly constricted towards the base of the 
pygidium. Pygidium (fig. 13) with 6 prominent lobes. Median pair 
large and deeply coloured : others smaller and pointed. Squames ex- 
tending beyond the lobes : stout, deeply fimbriate and furcate. Anal 
aperture elongate, narrow. No circumgenital glands. Length 1 mm. 
Greatest breadth 0*50 mm. 

Adult £ not known. 

The galls are massed on the under surface of leaves of Grewia sp.; 
the aperture opening on to the upper surface. Heneratgoda. Feb. 

Differs from type in its elongate form and greater size : in the 
cylindrical (instead of globular) form of the gall : and in the position 
of the galls on under (instead of upper) surface of the leaf. 

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) dictyospermi, Morg. 

Ceylon examples are all of the variety pinnulifera (Mask.). 

In addition to other food-plants mentioned, it occurs on Optmtia 
cochinellifera. (Peradeniya. February.) The puparia on this plant 
are almost white. 

20 



346 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Aspidiotus trilobitifoemis, Green. 

Occurs also on Ixora coccinia. (Peradeniya. February.) 
Odonaspis penicillata. n. s.p. (Pi. I, figs. 14 to 16,) 

9 Puparium (fig. 14) very pale fulvous: pellicles orange, usually 
concealed beneath the whitish secretion, situate at anterior extremity. 
Very firm and compact, the ventral scale as dense as the dorsal ; tho 
two scales so firmly adherent that it is difficult to extract the insect 
uninjured. Elongate: broadest immediately behind the pellicles: tapering 
posteriorly : flattened beneath : strongly convex in front, depressed 
towards hinder extremity. Length 1*50 to 2 mm. Greatest breadth 
1 to 1*10 mm. 

$ Puparium (fig. 15) similar ; but smaller, narrower and paler. 
Length 1 mm. 

Adult 9 clear pale purplish : oval. Pygidium (fig. 16) bluntly 
pointed : somewhat resembling that of O. inusitatus, but with a 
strongly cristate margin, three of the points on each side being larger 
and more prominent (possibly representing lobes). There is a 
moderately broad and deep excision at the extremity from which 
springs a dense brush of tapering hairs, the tips meeting in a point 
like a small paint-brush. No circumgenital glands. Numerous minute 
circular pores in the denser chitinous area. Six stout and moderately 
long paraphyses. Anal aperture near base of pygidium. Length 
0*75 to 1*10 mm. 

Adult $ very pale purplish pink : ocelli black. Legs, notal plates 
and genital sheath stained with reddish-yellow. Body rather slender : 
not depressed as in typical Aspidiotus. Abdomen without lateral 
flanges. Wings long and rather narrow. Genital sheath long and 
slender. Antenna 10-jointed : terminal joint with one knobbed hair 
at apex and two at side. First pair of feet with 4 digitules : second and 
third pairs with two only (1 on claw and 2 on tarsus). Total length 
1 mm., of which the genital sheath occupies nearly one-third. 

Puparia crowded on stems of a large Bamboo (Gigantochloa aspera), 
half embedded amongst the tomentose hairs around the nodes : attached 
by anterior extremity only. Peradeniya. May. 

Allied to 0. inusitatus, but easily distinguished by the termina 
pencil of hairs and more cristate margin of pygidium. 

(Note. It is probable that my Chionaspis simplex (Cocc. Ceyt. 
Part II, p. 160, PI. LVII) is more nearly allied to this group, in spite 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCGIBJE OF CEYLON. 347 

of its elono-ate form. The pygidial characters agree more with those 
of the genus Odonaspis than with Chionaspis.) 

AONIDIA EOHINATA, n. sp. (PI. J, figS. 17 to 19.) 

9 Puparium (fig. 17) dull reddish-brown (yellowish when immature), 
roughened with innumerable slender curved spines which are firmly 
attached to the nymphal pellicle and persist after treatment with caustic- 
potash. Circular ; strongly convex. Larval pellicle deciduous, — pushed 
off durino' orowth of nymphal pellicle. Diameter 0*35 mm. 

$ Puparium pale-yellowish. Oblong oval : secretionary area flattish : 
pellicle strongly convex, situate at anterior extremity. Length 0*75 mm. 

Adult 9 (fi>. 18) subcircular. Rostral apparatus very large and 
conspicuous. No parastigmatic glands. Pygidium (fig. 19) with six 
excurved thorn-like processes (? lobes). Diameter about O'SO mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On Hemicyclia sepiaria. Anaradhapura. February. 

The insects are thickly clustered on the under-surface of the leaves 
and are surrounded by a whitish bloom such as is noticeable around 
some species of Fiorinia and many Aleurodidce. 

Aonidia pusilla n. sp. ( PI. J, figs. 20, 21 %). 

9 Puparium (fig. 20) oval ; yellow ; obscured — in very fresh ex- 
amples —by a thin covering of whitish secretion which, in older examples, 
persists only as a marginal fringe, leaving the yellow nymphal pellicle 
exposed. Larval pellicle deciduous. Nymphal pellicle with median area 
stronoly convex and globose : cephalic area flattened and anteriorly pro- 
duced : pygidial area similarly produced backwards and apparently articu- 
lated with the body of the scale to form a hinged operculum beneath which 
the young larvae escape : margin of pygidium with ten narrow prominent 
lobes, and broad semilunar pores between them. Total length 0*50 mm. 

$ Puparium oval ; somewhat larger, but much less convex : pellicle 
pale-yellow, occupying anterior two-thirds of puparium : secretionary 
area whitish, translucent. Length 0*65 mm. 

Adult 9 broadly oval : pygidial area very slightly prominent. No 
parastigmatic or circumgenital glands. Margin of pygidium (fig. 21) 
with two small conical lobes, one on each side of a median clavate 
prominence which projects beyond them : margin immediately outside 
the lobes also projecting in three or four small rounded prominences. 
Some scattered circular pores. Anal orifice large and conspicuous. 
Length about 0*30 mm. 



348 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On upper surface of leaves of Carissa spinarum. Elephant Pass, 
Northern Province. March. 

In the characters of the female puparium, this species approaches 

Aonidia bullata. 

Aonidia crbnulata, Green. 

Taken also at Elephant Pass, N. P., on Memecylon. In these example 
the number of floriate processes is not constant, sometimes amounting to 
a total of 30. A few delicate filiform ducts open on the margin. In 
one example a single conical lobe appears asymmetrically on one side. 

Aonidia planchonioides, Green. 

Adult $ pale yellow: apodema reddish. Body flattish and broad, — 
especially at point of attachment of wings. 

Aonidia spatulata, Green. (PI. J, fig. 22.) 

Adult $ very pale violaceous : notal plates pale ochreous. Form 
broad, depressed. Gense very prominent, lobulate. Foot with 4 
digitules. Terminal joint of antenna (fig. 22) with knobbed hair at 
apex and a similar one on the side. Wings broadly rounded. 

Aonidia mesuji, Green. (PI. J, fig. 23.) 

Adult $ (fig. 23) almost circular in outline. Lateral margin of 
abdomen dilated. Colour creamy white : thoracic plates outlined with 
brownish-purple. Antennae violaceous. Legs pale fulvous. 

Gymnaspis spinomarginata, n. sp. (PI. J, figs. 24, 25.) 

9 Puparium bright yellow ; smooth and polished ; minute ; circular 
very strongly convex (more than hemispherical) : consisting of the 
inflated nymphal pellicle with or without an inconspicuous secretionary 
extension. Larval pellicle deciduous. Diameter about 0*30 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult 9 (fig. 24) yellow : oval : strongly convex : divisions of 
segments very indistinct : margin closely set with tuberculate tubular 
spines connected with filiform ducts. Mouth-parts very large. Pygi- 
dium (fig. 25) with four narrow prominent lobes, each with a sharp 
tooth-like prominence on outer and inner edges. Compound spiniform 
squames (?) between and beyond the lobes. A submarginal series of 
broad semilunar pores — as in Parlatoria. No circumgenital or para- 
stigmatic glands. Length about 0'25 mm. 
Adult $ not known. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE OOCGIDM OF CEYLON. 349 

A minute and obscure species, occurring in small groups on under- 
surface of leaves of Mesua ferrea. Peradeniya. February. 

Placed provisionally in the genus Syngenaspis : but possibly requiring 
a new genus for its reception. The general characters of the pygidium 
are suggestive of Parlatoria from which it differs in the absence 
of circumgenital glands. The remarkable marginal of tubular 
spines appear to be homologous with those found in some species of 
Fiorinia. 

Parlatoria proteus, Curtis. (PI. J, fig. 26.) 

Aspidiotus proteus, Curtis. Gard. Chron., p. 676, (1843). 

Diaspis parlatoris, Targ. Studii sul Cocc, p. 14, (1867). 

Parlatoria proteus, Sign. Ann.Soc. Ent. Fr., (4), ix, p. 450, (1869). 
(Sign. Essai sur les Cochen., p. 132.) 

9 Puparium broadly oval: flattish. Brownish-ochreous : opaque 
or semidiaphanous. Pellicles overlapping ; situated at anterior extre- 
mity; occupying about half the expanse of the puparium. Length 
1*50 mm. 

$ Puparium narrow, elongate. Pellicle yellow, with broad blackish 
or greenish median fascia. Secretionary area pale ochreous. Length 
1 mm. 

Adult $ pale pinkish-purple. Broadly oval before gestation : shrink- 
ing after oviposition, until the breadth often exceeds the length. 
Pygidium broadly rounded : margin (fig. 26) with six prominent, 
conical, slightly floriate lobes. Squames broad and deeply fimbriate, 
extending along margin of abdominal segments. Broad conspicuous 
lunate pores in the interspaces between the lobes and at close intervals 
along the margin beyond. Circumgenital glands in four groups with 
few orifices— 5 to 7 in each group, upper group usually with the larger 
number. Length 0*50 to 0*75 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On upper surface of leaves of an orchid ( Cymbidium bicolor). Kand v. 
December. Also on both surfaces of a cultivated orchid at Watagoda. 
Examples on the undersurface (which in this plant is the more exposed) 
have the puparium darker and more opaque, whilst those on the other 
surface are semi-transparent and paler. 

The species is almost universally distributed, being recorded from 
nearly every part of the world. In temperate regions it is found only 
upon plants under glass. 



350 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Parlatoria pbrgandii, Comst., var. mytilaspiformis, Green. 
Parlatoria pergandii, Comstock, Rep. U. S. Dep. Ag. 1880, p. 327. 
Parlatoria mytilaspiformis, Green, Coco. Ceyl., pt. ii, p. 164. 
I now agree with Dr. Leonardi that this insect is merely an extremely 
elongate form of pergandii — a species which differs from P. proteus 
principally in the possession of a small sharply conical fourth lobe on each 
side of the pygidium, separated from the third lobe by three fimbriate 
squaraes. This fourth lobe is replaced — in proteus — by a fimbriate process. 
In var. mytilaspiformis, the fourth lobe is minute and inconspicuous. 
In typical pergandii it is somewhat larger. 
Parlatoria pergandii, var. phyllanthi, n. var. (PI. J, fig. 27). 
Differs from type in the coloration of the 9 puparium (fig. 27), 
the secretionary area of which is pale transparent ochreous, and the 
pellicles bright castaneous or brownish orange, each with a broad black 
median fascia. Length 1*50 mm. 

$ Puparium with the fascia on pellicle greenish. Length 1 mm. 
Adult $ broadly oval. Pygidium as in type : fourth lobe small, 
about one-quarter the size of the other lobes. Length O60 mm. 
Adult $ not observed. 

On leaves of Phyllanthus myrtifolius. Peradeniya. May. 
Parlatoria (Websteriella) atalantle, n. sp. (PI. J, fig. 28). 
$ Puparium pale yellow : occupied almost completely by the large 
nymphal pellicle, with a very narrow fringe of whitish secretion. Flat- 
fish : oval, the larval pellicle slightly projecting in front. Posterior 
parts depressed, with an indistinct median carina. Length 1 mm. 
Breadth 0*75 mm. 

$ Puparium pale yellow, pellicle straw-coloured : narrow elongate, 
with parallel sides and rounded extremities. Posterior half depressed, 
with indistinct median carina. Length 0*80 mm. 

Adult 9 pale yellow. No parastigmatic glands. Pygidium (fig. 
28) with six broad irregularly serrate lobes. Squames elongate, 
narrow, with extremities very obscurely fimbriate : two in each 
interspace between the lobes, and two or three beyond. A few 
similar squames on margin of last abdominal segment. Semi-lunar 
pores small, rather inconspicuous, three on each side. Near the base of 
pygidium, on each side, is a small rounded prominence homologous 
with the rudimentary fourth lobe occurring in some other species of 
Parlatoria. Anal aperture central. Circumgenital glands in four small 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE G0G01DJE OF CEYLON. 351 

groups: upper laterals usually with 6, lower laterals with 4 orifices. 
Length O50 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On undersurface of leaves of Atalantia zeylanica. Haragama. July. 

Allied to P. aonidiformis : but differs in the more oval form of 
puparium and in its paler colour. The lobes of pygidium are much 
broader and less prominent. 

FlORINIA BIDBNS, 11. Sp. (PI. J, fig'S. 29,30). 

9 Puparium (fig. 29) consisting almost solely of the pellicles, 
with little or no marginal secretion. Elongate, narrowly fusiform, 
highly convex. Lateral margins of nymphal pellicle deeply and 
irregularly crenulate : posterior extremity constricted at base of 
pygidium which is slightly upturned. Pygidium of nymphal pellicle 
with two prominent divergent lanceolate lobes and a series of large 
lunate marginal pores. The larval pellicle covers fully half the 
puparium. Length 0*72 mm. 

$ Puparium snowy white, elongate, narrow : not carinate ; consid- 
erably longer and much more conspicuous than that of the female. 
Length 1 mm. 

Adult 9 elongate, narrow. Rostral apparatus large and conspi- 
cuous. Antennte close together : interaiitennal tubercle very small. 
Pygidium (fig. 30) with two parallel prominent lobes of the shape 
of incisor teeth. Two very long spiniform squames between the lobes, 
and two exterior to each lobe. Circumgenital glands with few 
orifices, in a more or less continuous arch. Length about 0'40 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On undersurface of leaves of undetermined tree. Anaradhapura. 
February. 

Chionaspis subcorticalis, n. sp. (PI. K, fig. 31). 

9 Puparium white, or grey, or brownish from intermixture of 
particles of bark beneath which it rests. Surface rough, granular 
or powdery. Pellicles pale yellow, the nymphal one concealed 
beneath a layer of whitish secretion. Form usually irregular and 
contorted; dilated posteriorly : moderately convex. Length 2 to 
2*50 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult 9 very pale yellowish or creamy white. Oblong : broadest 
across abdominal area: margins of abdominal segments moderately 



352 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

produced. Spiracles without parastigmatic glands. Pygidium (fig. 31) 
with the median lobes large, prominent and very conspicuous, rounded 
or-bluntly conical, broader than long, minutely serrate. Second lobes 
duplex, small, conical, inconspicuous. Third lobes obsolete or represent- 
ed by serrate marginal prominences. Squames spiniform, increasing in 
size towards base of pygidium ; none on first space, one on second, one 
on third, two on fourth, and four on basal space. Oval dorsal pores 
very large and conspicuous, the innermost series represented only by 
one or two marginal pores. Circumgenital glands in five groups, with 
numerous orifices : median group 10 to 12 ; upper laterals 25 to 26 ; 
lower laterals 20 to 27. Anal aperture close to median group of glands. 
Length 1 to 1*50 mm. Breadth 0*50 to 0'90 mm. 

Eggs bright pale orange. 

Beneath loose bark on stems of " Jak " (Artocarpus integrifolia) and 
other trees. Peradeniya ; Matale. 

Near Clu polygoni: but differing in the larger median lobes, in the 
obsolescent third pair of lobes, and in the greater number of dorsal 
pores. 

Chionaspis strobilanthi, n. sp. (PI. K, fig. 32.) 

9 Puparium snowy white, or with a faint creamy tinge. Dense and 
opaque. Surface with a few irregular raised lines, as in Ch. varicosa. 
Ventral scale well developed. Pellicles very pale yellow. Form 
oblong, strongly dilated posteriorly. Length 3 mm. Breadth 1*50 
to 2 mm. 

$ Puparium white; obscurely tricarinate. Densely covered with 
curling silky filaments. Length 1*50 mm. 

Adult 9 bright yellow. Of normal form : abdominal segments 
soarcely produced. Margin of thorax and abdomen with many con- 
spicuous oval pores. Antenna consisting of a prominent truncate 
tubercle, with several short hairs at extremity and a stout long curved 
hair from the side. Parastigmatic glands at orifices of- anterior spiracles 
only. Pygidium (fig. 32) with conspicuous median incision ; the sides 
of the cleft occupied by the median lobes which are large, united at the 
base, widely divergent, the free edge minutely serrate. Second lobes 
minute, duplex, inconspicuous. Third lobes represented only by small 
marginal prominences. Squames moderately stout, increasing in size 
towards base of pygidium. Oval dorsal pores large and conspicuous, in 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCID^E OF CEYLON. 353 

linear series. Circumgenital glands in five groups, with moderately 
numerous orifices. Length 1 to 1*25 mm. Breadth 0*60 mm. 

Adult $ not known. 

Eggs numerous , bright yellow. 

On Strobilanthus, sp. Haputale. February. 

Allied to Ch. megaloba, from which it differs in the considerably 
larger size, in the narrower mesal lobes, and in the presence of conspi- 
cuous oval pores on the margins of the thorax. 

Chionaspis coronifera, n. sp. (PL K, figs. 33, 34.) 

9 puparium white, sometimes tinged with ochreous : pellicles 

reddish. Strongly convex, the sides sloping up and forming a median 

longitudinal rounded ridge, — the form probably accentuated by the 

situation of the puparium on the extreme margin of the leaf. Length 

2 mm. 

$ puparium white : distinctly tricarinate : pellicle pale yellow. 
Length 1*50 mm. 

Adult 9 after gestation reddish : densely chitinous, with exception 
of penultimate segment. Thoracic area strongly convex, the posterior 
dorsal area overhanging the abdomen. Early adult not densely chiti- 
nous, and of a paler colour. Rudimentary antennas (fig. 33) of remark- 
able form: each consisting of a chitinous ring bearing from four to six 
stout spines and a central longish curved stout bristle. Behind each 
antenna is an oval translucent space. Other similar translucent spaces 
are scattered over the cephalo-thoracic area. Margins of abdominal 
and post-thoracic segments with numerous oval pores (obscured in the 
more densely chitinous examples). Pygidium (fig. 34) with large 
conspicuous oval dorsal pores, in more or less definite series. No 
circumgenital glands. Marginal squames spiniform, stout. Lobes 
bluntly lanceolate, small, pale and very inconspicuous : set back on the 
ventral surface and scarcely projecting beyond the margin. Median 
pair simple : second pair duplex : third pair apparently simple. In the 
denser examples, the dorsal area of the pygidium has some large clear 
oval spaces (distinct from the dorsal pores). Length 0"75 to 1-50 mm. 

Adult $ not observed. 

On leaves of undetermined tree. Galgammuwa, N. W. P. August. 

The female puparia are attached to the extreme margins of the 
leaves. Male puparia grouped on under surface. 
21 



354 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Chionaspis cinnamomi, n. sp. (PI. K, figs. 35,36.) 

9 puparium reddish oclireous, usually with a broad median longitu- 
dinal brownish fascia. Form elongate, narrow : secretionary area only 
slightly dilated : flatfish, with a more or less distinct median longitudinal 
ridge. Length 2 to 2'75 mm. Breadth about 0*75 mm. 
• $ puparium not observed. 

Adult 9 (fig. 35) elongate, narrow; the unusual form being due to 
extension of the thoracic parts which occupy nearly three-quarters of the 
entire length. The second pair of spiracles are situated at the extreme 
hinder border of the meta -thorax. Pygidium (fig. 36) pointed. Median 
lobes prominent, contiguous, the inner edge longest, the free edge 
minutely serrate and sloping evenly to the margin. Other lobes obsolete. 
On each side, immediately exterior to the medium pair of lobes, is an 
elongate clavate chitinous paraphysis. Margin of pygidium irregularly 
indented. Squames spiniform, stout. Spines rather long. Some 
conspicuous oval pores on margin, but none on the discal area. No 
circumgenital glands. Three or four minute circular pores on each side 
of anal orifice which is approximately central. Length 1 to 1'50 mm. 
Breadth about 0*30 mm. 

On upper surface of leaves of Cinnamomum, Pundaluoya. 

In the absence of the male scale, the generic position of this species 
is somewhat uncertain. The form of the median lobes suggests affinities 
with the Hemichionaspis group. 

Chionaspis the^e, Mask., var. ceylonica, n. var. 

Maskell's original figures and description of the adult female are 
not sufficiently minute for accurate determination. But a study of 
specimens collected by Dr. (now Sir George) Watt, near Kurseong, 
India, agree more closely with Maskell's type, in the form of the 
puparium (which is broadly dilated behind) — than with the Ceylon form 
(which is very narrow and elongate). The Indian examples also show 
a distinct second lateral lobe which is entirely wanting in examples 
from Ceylon. I must therefore consider the latter a well-marked 
variety for which I now propose the name ceylonica. 

Leucaspis cockerelli, (de Charmoy). (PI. K, figs. 37 to 40.) 
Fiorinia cockerelli, de Charm., Proc. Soc. Amic. Scien., 

p. 33, (1899). 
9 puparium (fig. 37) elongate, very narrow, almost linear, tapering 
to a point at each extremity. Moderately convex, with a well-defined 



supplementary notes on the coccid^e of ceylon. 355 

sharp median ridge. Puparium almost completely occupied by the 
large nymphal pellicle which is of a dark reddish- brown colour, 
Secretionary area thin and diaphanous, except along the median ridge_. 
where it is thickened and forms a white crest. There is a narrow 
secretionary extension in front of the larval pellicle, and an abruptly 
narrowed extension at the posterior extremity of the puparium. 
Ventral scale very thin and delicate : easily ruptured. Larval pellicle 
long and narrow. Total length of puparium 2*50 mm. Length of 
larval pellicle 0*75 mm. : nymphal pellicle 1*60 to 1*75 mm. Greatest 
breadth of puparium 0*50 mm. 

$ Puparium not observed. 

Adult $ (fig. 38) elongate narrow : broadest across abdominal area. 
Pale violaceous, tinged with red. There is an almost complete series 
of coarsely serrate processes — marginal on the pygidium, but carried 
inwards along the ventral surface of the body, gradually increasing 
its distance from the actual margin and closely embracing the rostrum. 
Rudimentary antennae close to rostrum. A small stout thorn-like spine 
in front of and exterior to each antenna. Posterior margin of pygidium 
(fig. 39) with four narrow prominent sharply pointed lobes, each 
with a more or less conspicuous smaller point on its lateral edges.. 
Squames long, narrowed at base, dilated and deeply fimbriate at 
extremity : two in each interspace and three exterior to the lobes, 
beyond which are the serrate processes described above. Dorsal pores 
minute and inconspicuous. Circumgenital glands in nine groups, four 
supplementary groups being anterior to the normal five — (see fig. 38). 
Length 0"75 mm. 

Margin of nymphal pellicle (fig. 40) with four tricuspid lobes and 
broad deeply fimbriate squames. A series of broad lunate marginal 
pores. 

Eggs violaceous. 

On Dracaena cantleyi and Pritckardia grandis, in the plant-houses,. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. On the Pritchardia, the scales — 
though numerous — are very inconspicuous, being ranged along the 
prominent ridges of the leaf, near the base, where they resemble small 
adpressed scaly hairs. 

Originally described from Mauritius, under the name of Fiorinia 
coekerelli, de Channoy. The marginal fringe and supplementary gland 



356 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

groups are characters that suggest its more proper inclusion in the 
genus Leucaspis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES H to K. 

Plate H. 

Fig. 1 Aspidiotus longispinus ; pygidium of adult female. 

„ 2 ,. cuculus ; adult female, ventral view. 

„ 3 „ „ ; pygidium of adult female. 

,, 4 „ pedronis ; pygidium of adult female. 

„ 5 „ maleollus ; adult female, ventral view. 

„ 6 „ „ ; pygidium of adult female. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 7 Aspidiotus cistuloides ; puparimn of female. 

„ 8 „ ,, ; pygidium of adult female. 

„ 9 ,, quadriclavatus ; pygidium of adult female. 

„ 10 „ taprobamts ; pygidium of adult female. 

„ 11 „ phyllanthi ; pygidium of adult female. 

,, 12 „ occultus v. dongatus ; galls of female. 

„ 13 ,, „ ; pygidium of adult female. 

,, 14 Odonaspis penicillata ; puparium of female. 

„ 15 ,, ,, ; male puparium. 

„ 16 „ ,, ; pygidium of adult female. 

Plate J. 

Fig. 17 Aonidia echinata; puparium of female. 

18 „ ,, ; adult female, ventral view. 

19 ,, „ ; pygidium of adult female. 

20 „ pusilla ; puparium of female. 

21 ,, „ ; pygidium of adult female, 

22 „ spatulata ; terminal joint of male antenna. 

23 ,, mesuae ; adult male, dorsal view. 

24 Gymnaspis spinomarginata ; adult female, ventral view, 

25 „ „ /margin of pygidium. 

26 Parlatoria proteus ; margin of female pygidium. 
,, 27 „ per gandii \. phyllanthi ) puparium of female, 
„ 28 ,, atalantice; pygidium of adult female. 
,, 29 Fiorinia bidens; female puparium, ventrolateral view. 
,, 3Q ,, „ ; pygidium of adult female. 



if 






Journal, Bombay Natural History Society 



Plate H 






o ° 



. 19 / 







E. E. Green del. 



Ceylon Coccid^e 



Journal, Bombay Natural History Society 



Plate I 



(DO 

O «>0 



8 




E. E. Green del. 



Ceylon Coccid^e 



Journal, Bombay Natural History Society 
17 > .... 18 



Plate 




E. E. Green del. 



Ceylon Coccid/E 



Journal, Bombay Natural History Society 



Plate K 



<8ggp 
O 




E. E. Green del. 



Ceylon Coccid^e 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON THE COCCIDJE OF CEYLON. 357 



Fi 



(Ow 



Plate K. 

Chionaspis subcortical is; pygidium of adult female. 
strobilanthi ; pygidium of adult female. 
coronifera ; antenna of adult female. 
» 5 pygidium of adult female. 
cinnamomi ; adult female, ventral view. 
» '> pygidium of adult female. 

37 Leucaspis cockerelli; puparium of female. 

38 „ „ ; adult female, ventral view. 

39 „ „ ; pygidium of adult female. 

40 „ „ ; pygidium of nymphal pellicle. 

ng to reduction during photo-process, it is impossible to give 



g. 31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
35 



?> 



j> 



» 



the exact amount of amplification of the several figures). 



358 

NOTES ON SMALL MAMMALS IN KASHMIR AND 
ADJACENT DISTRICTS. 

By Colonel A. E. Ward. 

(Redd before the Bombay Natural History Society an 16th March 1905.) 

I am asked to contribute a short paper " showing what has been 
done and what remains to be done in research after the small 
mammals of Kashmir." I scarcely know what to write, for very little 
has been accomplished ; a few definite results have been attained, but a 
good deal of the nomenclature is provisional, and it is hoped that our 
knowledge may shortly be supplemented. 

The drawback to rushing into print at this stage is that much may 
have to be unsaid. To clearly point out how backward our collections 
are I take the lib ?rty of quoting a letter sent to me by Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas last September ; in it he writes : — "I doubt if you realize that 
we have no specimens except yours of the commonest Kashmir 
species, or indeed of India generally (except from Wroughton) and, 
therefore, we have none with the data measurements, &c, that now-a- 
days make the chief value of specimens, &c." 

It is not very difficult to collect animals that live above around, 
but burrowing mammals are hard to deal with, hence progress is very 
slow. 

We have practically settled that Mus vicerex is the common rat of 
Kashmir. It belongs to the rufescens group, and is described by 
Mr. Bonhote — "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," Ser. 7, 
Vol. XI, May 1903. 

Mus mettada has been identified and was caught in Eastern 
Kashmir at elevations varying from 7,000' to 8,000', and other speci- 
mens are now under consideration ; this rat is described in the " Fauna 
of India." I was much surprised to find the Metad at high elevations. 

Mus decumanus. All the Kashmir specimens which we had provi- 
sionally marked as such, turn out to be vicerex, but the brown rat is 
to bo found in Poonch and in many other parts. Nesocia hardwickei 
(the short-tailed mole rat) is fairly common in the outside ranges and 
has been procured in Poonch. 

Mice are at present engaging attention. The common mouse which 
swarms in the rice fields in autumn, and also lives in the villages, has 
been provisionally admitted as bactrianus (the Persian Field-mouse). 



NOTES ON SMALL MAMMALS IN KASHMIR. 350 

Mus arianus (the Persian Long-tailed Field-mouse) has Dp to 
date been only found at considerable elevations, where it burrows in 
the grassy slopes, and is partial to places where sheep have been 
folded in the summer. This little rodent is very hard to trap, and 
seems to be found in small colonies only. 

Mus sublimis (the Upland Mouse) may possibly be the common 
mouse of Ladak, but whether the mice which have been collected in 
Western Tibet, and the extreme northern parts of Ladak belong to 
this species I cannot say, and as usual I shall hereafter look to 
Mr. Bonhote for his kind aid. 

I fully expect to find other mice, probably Mus l&ggada, naturally 
some form of Miisculus, and most likely new species ; what is wanted 
-is a general collection of these animals from all the remoter districts : 
these should be labelled with accurate data and measurements. 

I scarcely like to touch on the Voles. Up to date I have only been 
able to send you Microtus brachelix and M. stracheyi. I have speci- 
mens provisionally labelled fertilis. Mr. Bonhote tells me brachelix 
s.n& fertilis are closely allied. We look to do a good deal amongst the 
Voles but many specimens are required, and America is ahead of us in 
possessing them. I can only promise that you shall have what I can 
send from time to time as soon as the British Museum has autho- 
ritatively named them. I have a letter from Mr. Thomas in which he 
most kindy offers to help in this respect. 

Next in interest come the Mouse hares. The Bombay Natural 
History Society have specimens of a new species ; those 1 first sent 
were provisionally labelled as Royles vole (Lagomys roylei) but have now 
been named wardi. The papers thereon are not yet through the press. 
Mr, Bonhote has sent me a list of mouse hares, and amongst these we 
have found L. curzonice at Hanle, Ladak, at an elevation of about 
13,500', and ladacensis (provisionally named) in Western Tibet, and also 
in the Changchenmo Valley. 

To turn to the list which is purely tentative, we may look for 
erythrotus and rutilas described as closely allied. L. ladacensis and 
ozotona which may be bracketted together for the present ; Uoslowi 
from Southern Tibet ; curzonice and its ally melanostomus from Tibet ; 
hodgsoni from Ladak ; and auritus which may be the same as griseus 
(Bonhote) ; whilst macrotis and auritus (Blanford) are said to bo 
identical. 



360 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

I am afraid there is little to be gained at present by the perusal of 
the above, what we want is many specimens, my only object in 
dwelling on the mouse hares is the hope that some one will help to 
remove the difficulties under which we work. 

Turning now to the Tnsecttvora — Crocldura murina is very plentiful. 
I have captured this musk shrew in the jungles and in houses ; with 
the exception of these species the only other specimens I have are 
Chlmarrogale himalayica, the Himalayan Water Shrew. This is a bold 
little creature and has twice been secured owing to its having attacked 
small fish which were being landed. Years ago I found the Tibetan 
"Water Shrew but unfortunately lost the specimen whilst on my return 
journey. 

Mr. Thomas is asking for a large series of Marmots. I am afraid 
we cannot do much from the N.-W. Himalayas. The Tibet Marmot 
(Arctomys lumalayanus) I have sent to the British Museum, and it will 
be easy enough to collect any number of the Red Marmot (.4. caudatus). 

The other small mammals, which are of interest, are hares, and 
squirrels. Bats are, I believe, very much required, but they are 
perplexing, and all that I can do is to try and collect those that come 
in my way ; these I am sending to the British Museum from time to 
time and any duplicates I hope to secure for Bombay. 



361 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



No. I— MELANISM IN BLACK BUCK. 

( With a Photograph.) 

I am Sending you herewith a photograph of a Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra) 
shot here by Sahibzada Nasrullah Khan, the eldest son and heir of Her High- 
ness the Begum of Bhopal. As you will see, it is dark-coloured throughout, 
without the usual white belly and legs. 

The Sahibzada has shot many hundred bucks, but has never seen a similar 
specimen before. 

It is, I suppose, an instance of melanism. 

J. MANNERS SMITH, Major. 
Bhopal, C. I., 6th September, 1904. 



No. II.— A RARE INDIAN GAME-BIRD, THE MOUNTAIN 
QUAIL (OPHRYSIA SUPERC1LI0SA, Gray;. 

Judging by the enormous number of sportsmen in India who indulge in 
small game shooting, it is very extraordinary that one of our recognised game- 
birds should have been entirely lost sight of for thirty years or so. I refer to 
Ophrysia superciliosa ('Gray), the so-called Mountain Quail. Whether it should 
rightly be described as a quail, a partridge or a pheasant still remains to be 
proved, but so far as is known its proper place is somewhere between or near 
the Blood Pheasants (Ithagenes) and the Spur-fowls (Galloper dix). It was first 
described in 1846 from a specimen in the great Knowsley Menagerie, which 
was believed to have come from India. Subsequently a few specimens were 
obtained close to Mussooree between 1885 and 1868 during the cold weather, 
but since then only one single specimen has been shot, in 1876, near Naini Tal. 
Whether it is a resident or a winter visitor from some cold climate is uncer- 
tain, and except that it is reported to have been found in small coveys of six or 
ten which skulked in grass jungle and brushwood, nothing much is known of 
its habits and nothing whatever of its life history. 

It is with a view to encouraging any of our members, who may have the 
opportunity, to keep a look-out for this rare bird, that I call attention to its 
existence, of which few probably are awai'e. I am sure that many of our 
enthusiastic ornithologists would be proud to have their names coupled with 
it as its re-discoverer ! Under the circumstances perhaps I may add a few 
words briefly describing its general appearance. In size it is about halfway 
between a quail and a partridge — say 10 inches in length — with a 3-inch tail 
and a 3|-inch wing. The plumage is long and soft, the general colour of the 
male being olive-brown with black and white about the head and throat, and 
of the female cinnamon-brown with greyish pink about the head and neck. 
The bill and legs are red. 

If by any chance any reader of this note should be lucky enough to come 
across the bird it is to be hoped that he will be able to find some means of 
22 



362 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

preserving the body in spirits or formalin as well as the dried skin, in order 
that its anatomical characters may be investigated. 

E. COMBER, F.Z.S. 
Bombay, 22nd October, 1904. 

No. Ill— SIMOTES SPLENDIDUS. 
In Volume XIII, page 537, " Miscellaneous Notes," is published a note by 
Captain Wall and myself " On the occurrence of S. splendidus in Burma or a pro- 
bable new species." The specimen was a peculiar one, in that there were four 
prefrontals as well as internasals, and we were inclined to consider it an abnor- 
mal splendidus or a new species. I have now no doubt as to its being the former. 
I have since seen two specimens of this snake, evidently rare, as the descrip- 
tion in Boulenger's work " Reptilia and Batrachia " is from the single speci- 
men at that time known. It certainly is a very rare reptile here. 

All three specimens are from Upper Burma, viz., Sagaing, Ruby Mines and 
Yamethin districts. In the two specimens above referred to — one young, the 
other an adult — the internasals are four in number, and the arrangement is as 
before described, i.e., the median pair small and projecting back to the pre- 
frontals. The prefrontals are in each specimen two. 
In the young specimen the — 

Ventrals are .,.. 174. 

Subcaudals ... 35-37? 

Scales ... 21. 

Length ... ll£" 

Tail ... If" 

As regards colouring, it agrees with that given by Boulenger except that the 
indentation in the spots before and behind are not as pronounced in the young 
as in the adult, and I cannot discern the faintest trace of a yellowish median 
line. There are 17 spots on the body and 3 on the tail. 

On the 23rd October while returning to camp along a ridge, perhaps a 1,000 ft. 
elevation, I noticed, lying at full length and motionless on my path, a Simotes 
which I thought from the previous specimens must be a splendidus. It had 
recently sloughed and was indeed most beautifully marked. It made no 
attempt to move, though there was long grass a foot distant, until I struck it, 
when it dilated its neck in the manner some specimens of T. stolatus or T. 
jriscator do when irritated, and hissed quite audibly, so much so that my tracker 
remarked it was like a Mwe-bwe (Russell's Viper), but not so loud. When I 
placed the stick close to its head, it struck. On arrival in camp the Burmans 
declared it was a very young python, no doubt owing to the beautiful marking. 

Ventrals ... 175. 

Subcaudals ... 43. 

Scales ... 21. 

Length ... 28f* 

Tad ... 4" 

There are 16 spots on the body and 4 on the tail. 

Geo. H. EVANS, A.V.D., F.L.S., Majok. 
Rangoon, November, 1904. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 363 

No. IV —NOTE ON THE DIGESTION OF EGGS BY 
COBRAS AND DABOIAS. 

With reference to Mr. C. P. George's Note printed on page 174 of this 
volume, and in accordance with a suggestion made by Mr. Phipson at the last 
meeting of our Society, I have made the following experiments with the live 
snakes at my disposal at the Government Laboratory, Parel, with a view of 
ascertaining how long snakes take to digest a hen's egg if swallowed with the 
shell intact. 

Our first attempt was a failure, in so far as the egg broke in the cobra's 
gullet while being pushed down. 

No trace of the egg or its shell could be found next day on palpating the 
snake's body. The animal passed a motion 16 days afterwards, in which a few 
pieces of egg shell were observed. 

The second cobra was successfully fed with an entire egg, by using long 
forceps to open the gape, and by oiling the shell freely. "When examined on the 
following day, a bulging was noticed about f down the body, which proved to 
be the egg. On feeling this lump a distinct crackling was felt, pointing to the 
commencing disintegration of the egg. Twenty-four hours later all trace of 
the egg had disappeared. 

A third cobra was similarly fed with a like result. 

It thus appears that the cobra requires 48 hours to digest a whole fowl's egg. 

In the case of the Russell's viper it was found impossible to introduce even a 
bazaar egg, so we had to content ourselves with pigeon's eggs. 

The result was the same as in the case of the cobra, viz., the egg could be felt 
after 24 hours as a softish lump which crepitated distinctly under the fingers, 
and it had disappeared entirely in 48 hours. 

W. B. BANNERMAN, M.D., Lt.-Col., I.M.S. 
Plague Research Laboratory, Parel. 
Bombay, November, 1904. 



No. V.— DO WILD ANIMALS EVER DIE OF INTESTINAL 

OBSTRUCTION. 

In the course of numerous post-mortem examinations on animals from the 
Victoria Gardens, Bombay, two cases of death from obstruction caused by the 
presence of foreign bodies have come under the notice of the officers of this 
laboratory. It strikes one as incongruous that such misceilanous feeders as the 
bear and Cassowary should thus die, yet the following prove3 that, in captivity 
at least, such is the fact. 

CASE I. — In September 1903, a common Indian Black Bear died of some 
intestinal trouble in the Victoria Gardens, Bombay. 

It was sent here for examination, and the cause of death was found to be 
peritonitis due to perforation of the small intestine caused by the impaction of 
a mango stone. 



364 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVL 

CASE II. — In- October 1904, a dead Cassowary was received from the same 
gardens. 

The bird was reported to have been ill for some time with " liver complaint." 

An examination revealed the presence of a small green cocoanut in the 
gizzard, which completely filled it. 

This organ was acutely inflamed, and the first portion of the gut below the 
gizzard was also inflamed, and showed many points of haemorrhage. 

Now it is reasonable to suppose tbat che Cassowary being a desert bird may 
not have known what a green cocoanut was and sampled it out of curiosity, but 
one would think a bear would be familiar with mangoes and have learned to 
avoid such fruit if found to disagree. 

Can any one throw light on this point, viz., do wild animals die in the jungle 
from such mishaps as the above ? 

W. B. BANNERMAN, M.D., Lt.-Col., I.M.S. 
Plague Research Laboratory, Parel. 
Bombay, 22nd November, 1904. 



No. VI.— KING-CROWS AND MYNAS AS MESS-MATES. 

Some time ago I noticed that a king-crow (Dicrunis ater) was frequently to 
be seen squatting motionless on the ground in the midst of a little gathering 
of mynas {Acrldotheres tristis). At the time I paid but little attention to the 
matter ; but further observation showed that the presence of the king-crow 
was a very common phenomenon. Consequently I formed the habit of watch- 
ing for flocks of mynas feeding on the ground and then looking to see whether 
a drongo was in attendance. To my astonishment I found that he is more 
often present than absent. I may safely say that in Madras a number of 
mynas feeding without a king-crow in attendance is at the piesent season the 
exception rather than the rule. If the birds are feeding on an open maidan, the 
king-crow stands on the ground ; if, however, there are trees, posts or other per- 
ches handy, the drongo settles on them rather than on the grass. I believe that 
this is a case of commensalism. The king-crow keeps near the mynas for the same 
reason that they attend cattle, that is to say, in order to profit by the commo- 
tion the moving beast or bird causes among the insects that live on the surface. 

A king-crow may often be seen squatting on the ground at a distance from 
any other birds ; when this is so the drongo usually hops about and picks 
insect food from off the ground. In the presence of mynas he behaves very 
differently ; he sits motionless, but keeping a sharp look-out, and now and 
again takes a little flight after some tiny insect which I believe has been put 
up by a moving myna. The king-crow and the mynas share the insects be- 
tween them : the latter take chiefly those which keep to the ground, while 
his royal highness makes short work of any which take to their wings when 
disturbed. I am convinced that this is a genuine instance of commensalism and 
not merely chance company. Firstly, the presence of the single king-crow 
among a company of mynas is too frequent to be a mere chance association, and 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 365 

secondly the drongo moves with the party of mynas. If the grass be at all 
luii" 1 . it is difficult to distinguish between the mynas and their companion, for 
the tail of the latter is hidden and from a little distance the colour of both 
species looks the same. The king-crow, however, does not walk about as the 
mynas do ; he is the one stationary member of the little company. Hence he is 
soon left behind : but before his beaters have moved far, he flies after them 
and alights in the midst of them. On one occasion, I watched, for over 
half an hour, a flock of eleven mynas and the attendant drongo. The latter 
kept near the grasshopper-hunters the whole time, sometimes in the midst of 
them, sometimes a little way behind, while occasionally he would fly ahead in 
the direction in which the little flock was moving. In the course of my watch- 
ing, the birds on two occasions took fright at something and each time flew 
away to some distance. As soon as the mynas again settled down to feed, the 
king-crow joined them. On one of the occasions the latter gave the alarm and 
flew off, hurriedly followed by the mynas ; on the other the mynas took the 
lead, followed by the drongo. It is rare to see more than one king-crow with a 
company of mynas. The reason of this is, I believe, that the king-crow likes to 
be " cock of the walk." Having attached himself to one party of mynas he 
looks upon their hunting-ground as his special preserve for the time being, and 
resents the intrusion of others of his species. 

If a second king-crow comes up, a fight ensues, and the stronger bird allows 
the weaker no peace, constantly giving chase until the latter departs. The king- 
crow does not appear to attach himself permanently to one flock of mynas. 
On a large piece of ground I have seen four separate flocks of mynas each with 
a king-crow in attendance, and the drongos sometimes change flocks just as 
one's fox-terriers, when half way through their meal, change plates ; each 
seems to covet his neighbour's possessions, and the exchange appears to give 
satisfaction to both parties. 

Knowing what a little tyrant the king-crow is, I always look carefully to see 
whether he commits robbery on the mynas. Only upon one occasion have I 
found him guilty of this offence, and the circumstance is, I think, sufficiently 
remarkable to be recorded. 

I was watching some mynas feeding on the grass in the Botanical Gardens, 
Madras, when suddenly a king-crow, which I had not observed, swooped down 
upon one of the birds, planted his claws in its back and pecked most viciously 
at its head. While punishing the myna the king-crow uttered his harsh note 
of anger. The myna too made a great outcry, and wriggled away, but the 
king-crow again attacked it from overhead. The scuffle was so violent, and 
the movements of the birds so rapid, that it was difficult to see exactly what 
happened. After the contest had lasted from forty seconds to a minute the 
king-crow flew off, carrying in his beak what I at first took to be a myna's 
feather. Fortunately the drongo settled in a tree a few yards from me. 
I immediately turned my glasses on to him and then saw that what he had in 
his beak was a wriggling worm. This had been the bone of contention. The 



366 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

king-crow had evidently, before I noticed him, been watching the myna and, 
seeing it unearth the worm, the little robber fell upon it with beak and claw. 
However, he seemed to find the worm more difficult to swallow than to capture. 
The worm could not have been less than two inches in length and the drongo 
had hold of it by one end. His efforts to dispose of his wriggling victim were 
amusing to watch. Presently the worm wriggled itself free and fell. The 
king-crow swore vigorously and dropped after it, but he had net to descend far, 
because the luckless worm caught in the petiole of a leaf. The drongo again 
secured it, took it to a broad branch, and after grappling with it for about a 
minute swallowed it whole. 

Highway robbery of this description is, I think, not common. In most cases 
the mynas appear to be on excellent terms with their black neighbour : they 
strut about quite close to him, and behave as though they were unaware of 
his presence. I have never seen them make any attempt to mob him. Except 
upon the occasion just mentioned I have not seen the drongo attack the myna. 
Such attacks cannot be very frequent, for so courageous a bird as the myna 
would never tolerate the presence of the king-crow if he frequently committed 
larceny. 

I believe that the arrangement is merely one of commensalism. The king- 
crow benefits, hence bis presence. He as a rule does not harm or impede the 
mynas, for he takes the insects they do not trouble to chase, and, indeed, he 
is sometimes useful as a sentry, so they tolerate his presence. 

King-crows very frequently use cattle as perches. No sight is commoner 
in India than that of a king-crow perched on the back of a cow, sufficiently far 
forward to avoid the swish of the tail. Until recently I was under the im- 
pression that the drongo utilised the quadruped merely because its back formed 
a convenient point of vantage whence he could obtain a good view of the 
surrounding country. I am now inclined to think that the king-crow derives 
the additional advantage of having the ground beaten for him by the moving 
cow. The myna uses cattle as beaters ; why then should not the drongo do 
likewise ? 

I must confess that until recently I had not noticed this commensalism 
between the king-crow and the mynas, and since I have noticed it I have not 
been outside Madras, so cannot say whether a similar relationship exists else- 
where. I am inclined to think it does, and has uot been noticed, because mynas 
being such very common birds naturalists are apt to pay but scant attention 
to their doings. Moreover, seen from a distance a king-crow sitting on the 
grass is easily mistaken for a myna. Again, the present season in Madras has 
been an exceptionally dry one ; it is therefore possible that the king-crow is 
more dependent than usual on the insects which frequent the ground. 

I shall be interested to know whether other members of the Bombay 
Natural History Society have noticed this case of commensalism. 

D. DEWAR, I.C.S. 

Madras, December, 1904. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



367 



No. VII.— OCCURRENCE OF THE SCAUP DUCK (NYROCA 

M ARIL A) IN OUDH. 

On Sunday 11th December last our bag contained among others a scaup 
duck [Nyroca marila) which flying solitary fell to Captain K. L. W. Mackenzie's 
gun. It was much damaged as a specimen, but I have sent the skin to the 
British Museum. Oates in his book " The Game Birds of India, " Vol. II, pp. 
337 et seq., mentions this duck as a rare winter visitor, and nearly all the few 
records he mentions of its occurrence in India are from places considerably 
north of this. I may mention that one specimen of the marbled duck 
(Marmaronetta angustirostris) was obtained by Major H. A.Cooper the same day. 

O O £* & & O & 

Bince writing the above I have met the Revd. J. Gompertz, Senior Chaplain 
of Fyzabad, an experienced and enthusiastic sportsman who has kept detailed 
notes of his bags for some years. He tells me he has several times shot the scaup 
duck in Oudh and elsewhere, proving that Oates' remark (The Game Birds of 
India, Part II, p. 338) as to its being probably a commoner duck than records 
lead us to suppose, is correct. My informant has very kindly allowed me to 
make the following extracts from his note book relative to shooting this duck : — 



Date. 



Number. 



Locality. 



19th January 1897 
23th January 1897 
9th November 1898 
30th November 1898 
21st December 1898 
28th December 1898 
loth November 1899 
29th November 1899 
14th January 1903 
1st December 1903 
7th December 1904 



Parbattia, Gonda District, Oudh. 

Ditto. 
Kadir Talao, Roorkee District. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 
Raniarpur, Oudh. 
Quaila, Wr. Akbarpur, Oudh. 
Barabanki District, Oudh. 



F. WALL, Captain, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 
Fyzabad, lith January, 1905. 

[The Scaup has been recorded as far south as Bombay, shot by Mr. J. D. 

Inverarity, vide this Journal, Vol. II, page 97. — Editors.] 



No. VIII.— LUMINOUS PLANTS. 

There are many things in nature of which the average person is ignorant. 
It would perhaps surprise him to be told that several species of fungi are 
luminous. Some years ago Mr. G. A. Gammie, now Professor of Botany in 
the Poona College of Science, contributed to our columns an interesting article 
on " Luminous fungi." Since then we have seldom come across any reference 
to luminous plants. Close observers, for instance, have noticed that our com- 
mon Tuberose lily {Polyanthes tuberosa), the "Gool-i-shubbo " of the natives, 
gives off sparks on a hot evening. We have noticed these sparkling emanations 



3C8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

from a bunch of tuberoses on a dark hot night, and they have seemed to us to 
partake of the nature of electric sparks. Of course, the light may have been 
phosphorescent, but it is not improbable that, under the influences of heat and 
electricity, combined with moisture, several tropical plants might exhibit a bril- 
liant light. A writer in the Journal of Horticulture recalls an incident of some 
sixty years ago when there was exhibited before the Royal Asiatic Society the 
roots of a singular plant, presumably a species of Orchis, which grew amidst the 
jungle below the Madura Hills, in India. It was phosphorescent, and even if 
dried could be made to shine with the brightness of a glow worm when the 
surface had a wet cloth applied for a short time. The editor of the Gardeners 
Chronicle found that a small piece of this root retained its power of lighting up 
a good while, only the light got feebler. The Brahmins, it was said, knew its 
peculiarity but all the plants did not possess this luminosity at their roots. They 
imagined the light of it drove away demons. Amongst the Himalayan hills the 
natives describe slopes and valleys that are lighted up on damp nights by some 
species of grass, as they think, possibly it is by crawling luminous insects. 

The same writer tells us that what is commonly known as " touchwood,' r 
and, on account of its rapidly kindling property, is used for lighting fires, is 
apt to be luminous. Schoolboys for generations have been in the habit of 
carrying pieces of such wood into their dormitories to produce a sudden illumi- 
nation at night. The wood of the Willow is specially notable for its readi- 
ness to take fire. In the Northfleet Marshes, near Gravesend, the writer saw 
numerous old Willows that had been almost stripped of bark, with the surface 
of the wood blackened as if burnt. It would seem the wood was scorched by 
a spark from some pipe, or by the fierce rays of the sun, but did not burn 
away. Perhaps, since its luminosity can sometimes be developed by friction, 
touchwood may retain heat, though we usually ascribe its brilliancy to phos- 
phorescence. What is singular also, the sap of some trees in exotic regions 
appears luminous, as it flows from a wound. One shrub, indeed, has been 
named Euphorbia pliosphorea from this fact, and there are other instances. 
We have it on the authority of the late Professor Henslow that the European 
Dittany, Dictamnus fraxinella, evolves some inflammable gas in the evening, 
and, should the air be still, if a light is brought near, the plant will be envelop- 
ed in a transient flash, but receives no injury. Before his time the daughter 
of Linnaeus had stated that a plant of D. alius, which she approached with a 
candle, became surrounded by a light blue flame. Dr. Hahn suggested the 
Dittany might produce hydrogen or evolve an ethereal oil from the flowers ; he 
made many experiments amongst species of Dictamnus unsuccessfully, but at 
last found a rather faded plant, from which, when he held a match, came a 
reddish crackling flame, having an incenselike smell. Then he ascertained this 
can only happen during the limited period of the flower's fading, and also that 
there are glands containing an aromatic oil. A Himalayan species of the genus 
has the reputation of making a brilliant display after dark, even when nob 
approached by a light. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 369 

The writer we have quoted records also that electricity is said occasionally 

to have a peculiar effect upon the garden Tuberose (Polyanthes tuberosa). A 

plant of this has, he says, been observed, on a sultry evening after thunder 

to send out an abundance of small sparks, coming chiefly from such flowers 

as were fading. In 1843 Mr. Dowden described to the British Association a 

luminous appearance witnessed one August evening on the double variety of 

the common Marigold. This was seen by four persons. During the twilight 

a golden flame appeared to play from petal to petal of some of the heads, 

making a sort of corona round the discs. This emanation grew less vivid as 

the light decreased, then vanished. Most of the scientists considered this was 

a case of visual deception, but several years after Dr. Lankester established 

it as a fact, if one very exceptional. He noticed such a flame in the same species 

and also in the Hairy Red Poppy, the flashes of light occurring at the end 

of a hot dry day. Another gentleman stated that on a June evening about nine 

he saw flashes of light pass along three scarlet Verbenas growing a foot apart in 

his garden. He called the attention of his gardener and several other persons to 

the spot, and the sight lasted quite a quarter of an hour. There was a smoky 

appearance in the air after the flashes, which reminded one of the summer 

lightning in miniature. Subsequently the same phenomenon was noticed 

amongst some red Pelargoniums, and it was repeated many times during July 

and August, when the weather was sultry and electric. Friends are requested 

to watch their Chrysanthemums at dusk, since that flower is reported to be 

now and then luminous, presumably the white and yellow varieties. Other 

luminous plants are the White Lily, the Nasturtium, the Sunflower, the Evening 

Primroses and some wall mosses. 

(Indian Planting and Gardening, 17lh December 1904.) 

No. IX— AN EGG-EATING COBRA. 

With reference to Mr. C. P. George's note on Cobras feeding on eggs, page 174 
(No. XXII) of this Volume, I enclose a photograph taken by me a short time 
since of a large-sized cobra killed on a Guinea-fowl's nest; the nest contained 15 
eggs and the cobra had swallowed six. 

After killing the cobra the six eggs were pressed out and set, three of them 
eventually hatching out. *The photograph distinctly shows the distention of 
the snake. 

Bankipur, 1st January, 1905. E. BROOK FOX. 



No. X.— LOCUSTS. 
The Colouring of Acridium peregrinum. 
With regard to Mr. Aitken's note on the above subject on page 157 of Vol. 
XVI., No. 1 of the Journal, it may be of interest to note that a swarm of Locusts 
which visited this place in June (12th) 1901 consisted of specimens of both 
colours (red and yellow) in very nearly equal proportions, the red predominating 
slightly. 

* The photograph referred to Las been placed in the Society's album.— Editors. 
23 



370 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

I sent 5 specimens (3 red and 2 yellow) to Mr. E. P. Stebbing, F. E. S., who 
confirmed the identification, so there is no error as to the species. 

CECIL E. C. FISCHER, I.F.S. 
Chatrapur, Ganjam District, 
January bth, 1905. 



No. XI— THE HABITS OF THE LEAF BUTTERFLY. 

The Resting Position of Kallima. 

In Mr. Aitken's note on " The Enemies of Butterflies " (Journal, Bombay 
Natural History Society, Vol. XVI, No. 1, p. 157) is the following passage : — 
" Kallima, when at rest on the trunk of a tree, always turns its head down- 
wards, though this somewhat spoils its resemblance to a leaf." The author 
goes on to suggest that this position is assumed for the purpose of facing an 
enemy that may be ascending the trunk. He adds that the principal enemies 
would be lizards. 

I cannot help thinking that Mr. Aitken is mistaken — both in his estimate of 
the resemblance and in his explanation of the position adopted by this butterfly. 

I maintain that the inverted position of the butterfly by no means detracts 
from its resemblance to a leaf. The colouration and pattern of the underside 
of Kallima is such as to very closely simulate a dead leaf. Dead leaves do not 
naturally retain an erect position: nor do leaves— living or dead' — commonly 
grow direct from the trunk of a tree. But it is no unusual thing to see a with- 
ered leaf arrested in its fall and accidentally attached to a tree-trunk by the 
strands of some spider's web. It is just such a semi-detached leaf that Kallima 
resembles when resting in its customary position. To add to the deceptive 
appearance, the butterfly sways itself slowly from side to side, just as a 
detached leaf would be moved by a current of air. 

As for the idea that a lizard would necessarily approach its prey from below, 
it seems to me that a tree-haunting lizard is just as likely to attack from above 
or from one side. The direction will depend entirely upon the relative position 
of the lizard and the butterfly at the time. Lizards of the genus Calotes (sys- 
tematic butterfly-eaters) generally affect the extremity of a spray or end of a 
branch. When they do take up a position on the trunk of a tree, it is usually an 
inverted position, like that of the Kallima itself. A Gecko, seeing a large insect 
pitch on the trunk, would probably gain the level from the opposite side of the 
tree, then stalk its prey round the corner. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 

Peradeniya, 

Ceylon, IQth January, 1905. 



No. XII— BREEDING SEASONS OF BIG GAME IN INDIA. 

Having read with interest Mr. Comber's note No. XXV in the last issue of 
the Journal, I beg to bring to your notice a few facta which have come to 
my notice during the Christmas holidays and to make the suggestion that if a 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 371 

large number of members who shoot would record their observations in the 
jungle, materials would probably be forthcoming for an inductive chain of 
reasoning on the subject of the breeding seasons of game. 

I was shooting with three friends in a jungle in East Khandesh which 
abounds in Sambar and Chital. About the 20th of November, as I did not 
know the jungle, and dislike to ask friends to shoot in a country where I do 
not know my way about, I rode over and made the acquaintance of the local 
shikaris. They proposed a beat. We had one drive, and I killed a Chital with 
fair horns, to which were still adhering some sheds of velvet, but these, however, 
were easily peeled off. I saw other stags, but none in velvet. The beaters 
picked up a young Chital fawn only a few days old, which could not run, and 
I have it as a pet. 

On December 24th our camps assembled, and we shot almost daily till 
January 3rd. Only two Chital were bagged. One had horns quite clean of 
velvet and the other was almost entirely in velvet. It was peeling only off 
one brow antler, and the ends of the tines were still soft. I raised my rifle 
once to shoot at a large stag which came quite close to me, and dropped it 
again on seeing that he had young horns only half grown. In another beat 
two stags went by with only one horn each, the others not being broken, but 
clean gone. One fawn only born a few days, and unable to run, was picked up, 
shown to me and released, and another was observed in a thicket where its dam 
had left it. Other fawns of various sizes were seen. Four Sambar were shot, 
all with clean horns and no signs of velvet, and many other stags were seen, but 
none had velvet so far as could be observed. Such fawns as were seen were all 
well grown and I should say about 6 or 8 months old. There were signs, how- 
ever, on the trees that the Sambar had been scraping their horng not long ago, 
which would seem to indicate that they have not long got rid of the velvet. 

The net results of observation of some hundreds of Chital and Sambar in the 
same jungle would seem to be these : — 

November 20. — One Chital stag shot just finishing the shedding of velvet, 
One Chital fawn picked up, only a few days old. 

December 24 — January 3. — One Chital stag shot in velvet, which he was 
beginning to shed. One Chital stag observed with horns sprouting. Two 
Chital stags observed, each of which had shed one horn. 

One Chital stag and many seen, with horns clean of velvet. Two newly born 
Chital fawns observed. Many Chital fawns in various stages of growth observed. 
Four Sambar stags shot, none having any velvet on their horns. Several 
Sambar fawns observed, all of some months' growth. Signs on trees observed 
of recent scraping of their horns by Sambar. 

The above are simply the facts as I observed them. If some scores of 
similar sets of observations were collected, I fancy that from the date of the 
stag's horns and the size of the fawns, the breeding season might be calculated 
with fair accuracy. 

Bhusaval, dth January, 1905. A. H. A. SIMCOX, i.c.s. 



372 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

No. XIII.— NOTES ON THE " HOUBARA " 

{OTIS MACQUEENI). 
The Houbara, "Tilur " of the Punjabi, has been extraordinarily plentiful this 
cold season in the Sirsa District, as many as 12 having been shot in one day by 
two guns and a total bag of 49 made by one gnn between the 20th of November 
1904 and the 15th of January 1905. One of the largest birds I have handled 
weighed 4 lbs. 2§- ounces uncleaned, and I took the following measurements with 

a steel tape: — 

Xjengun »•• ••• ••• ... ... ••• ... ••• -"' — 

Wing ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16" 

_L arsus ... ... ... ... ..t ... ... ... o oo 

x ail ... ... ■-. ... ... ••• ... ... «? ■"£) 

Bill from gape ' 2'25" 

Length of foot 2'20" 

This Houbara (a fine male) was shot on the 11th of January 1905 and 

looked like a young Ostrich stalking along, except for his tell-tale ruff ! This 

ruff is an exceptionally fine one. The longest feather? measured 6'40 long. 

The feathers forming the crest on the top of the bead tape 3*10 and the 

whole plumage is in magnificent condition. I find that about this part of the 

Punjab the " Houbara " affects sanely hammocks intersected with crops cf 

" rye " or mustard, and should you find such a place, and the day be still and 

not too cold and windy, you may have the luck to see 8 to 11 birds stalking 

majestically along. I find also that generally after the third flight the birds 

will allow you (provided you are riding or stalking behind a camel) to get 

amongst them, as they then get accustomed to your camel and try to escape 

notice by " squatting. " This is the time to test the powers of your own 

eye-sight and the observing power of your camel-driver, for a " Houbara, " 

squatting on sand with his head laid out flat, is indistinguishable at a 

distance of 10 yards. It is then you will give vent to an " anathema " on 

all the " Otis " tribe (for should you turn away thinking that you must have 

been mistaken and no bird had alighted, marked you ever so carefully the 

spot as you thought) you may perchance get too near an old hen bird that has 

been there all the time and with a flap, up she will get and flap away, but 

covered by the body of your camel until too late to fire. The "Houbara" is 

not a swift flyer and is not a difficult bird to bit or bring down. The colouring of 

their wing covers and backs very closely resembles the sand on which they delight 

to live, and when " squatting," should the ground be absolutely level, the eye will 

pass over the bird in mistake for a clod of sand or some debris blown together. 

To get on anything like shooting terms with the " Houbara " it is advisable 

to circle round on your camel, when they will on a still day let you get quite 

close and you may shoot 5 or 6 as they get up one after the other. I. put 

forward the theory that on a windy day their feathers are liable to get 

blown up and so cause them to be detected, and this makes them impatient 

and impossible to approach. They feed generally in the morning and evening 

on seeds and insects, and there is a small weed that covers the open sandwastes 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 373 

in this part of the Punjab that they are very fond of. It has a small flower 
like a " forget-me-not." In cloudy and windy weather they feed during the 
middle of the day, but they are then very wild, and it is next to impossible to 
shoot them. Colonel Reginald Heber-Percy, of " Badminton " Library fame, 
who paid Sirsa a short visit at Christmas time in order to try for record 
Black-Buck and Chinkara heads, told me he found many " Houbara " south 
of this place and practically lived on tbem all the while he and his wife 
were in camp. I may add that although they were not fortunate enough to bag 
any record heads, Miss Heber-Percy shot a good Chink just under record 
dimensions. Mrs. Heber-Percy while in Kashmir during the summer of 1904 
shot 2 record Thar 14£ and 13£ respectively, and these were officially measured 
for the Kashmir Record book. The Colonel and his wife left Calcutta on the 
15th for Burma, as he wishes to obtain a good example of the Thamin, Cervus 
eldii, for the joint collection of his brother (Major Algernon Heber-Percy) 
and his own at Hodwet Hall in the old country. 

A few birds began to arrive at the end of September, but they did not become 
plentiful till December 1st, when reports from many villagers came in of the 
quantities seen. The cold snap immediately following Christmas time again 
seems to have scattered the birds, which have since become scarce. Imperial 
Sand-grouse have not been at all plentiful this year, but a great number of birds 
travelled south and over Sirsa on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd of January. I hear 
since that the Imperial has been shot here near Ajmere, in Rajputana. The 
Houbara leave us about the 15th of March for Afghanistan and Tibet. 
Blanford tells us that " a few stragglers may remain and breed in the 
Bikanir Desert." I, however, have never seen or heard of one during the hot 
months, though several times I have had Jcubher brought in of the Great 
Indian Bustard, Eupodotus Edwardsi, and a fine bird weighing lGf lbs. was 
brought to me killed about 12 miles out. 

Sirsa, 20th January, 1905. REGINALD H. HEATH. 

No. XIV— OCCURRENCE OF THE BLACK-CAPPED KINGFISHER, 
HALCYON PILE AT A, IN WALTAIR. 

On the 15th of this month, whilst camped on the Naidupatem creek, a 
tributary of the Upputern river, I obtained a specimen of Halcyon pileaia, the 
Black-capped Kingfisher. The Upputern river flows from the Kolem lake to 
the sea between the deltas of the Godavery and Kistna, and the latitude of 
Naidupatem is approximately 16°N, and the longitude approximately 81°67'E. 
The bird was sitting on the stump of a dead tree near the creek opposite to 
the village. 

The next day I saw another specimen of the same Kingfisher near the 
Lutchmepuram lock on the Upputern river. I send you by post the specimen 
I shot at Naidupatem. This, it would appear, is the first occasion on which 
this beautiful Kingfisher has been reported from this locality. 

Waltair, P. ROSCOE ALLEN. 

Camp Chelupett, \Wi January, 1 905. 



374 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVT. 



No. XV —THE BREEDING OF RUSSELL'S VIPER 
(VIPER A RUSSELLII). 

Among a number of snakes which have recently died in the Plague 
Research Laboratory at Parel, and which Lieutenant-Colonel Bannerman, 
I.M.S., has been kind enough to send me, was a gravid Russell's viper whose 
pregnancy was remarkable for the paucity of the brood and the season of 
its occurrence. It contained a solitary foetus. Now of all the snakes I know, 
excepting Tropidonotus piscator, this viper is the most prolific, as may be readily 
understood from the breeding notes I have collected from various sources, and 
herewith append in tabular form : — 





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MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



375 



The Assistant Surgeon at Pare] Laboratary, who has favoured me with 
some notes on events of a domestic nature which have occurred in that 
Institution, says this snake produces from 20 to 40 at a birth, and always 
about the month of May. The embryo derived from the specimen which 
has evoked these remarks, measured 9£ inches, and so would probably have 
been boru in the month of November. Keference to Mr. Cholmondeley's note 
shows that the length of those hatchlings that came under his notice varied 
from 9-10 inches, and it will be noticed that several of the young recorded by 
others were deposited in the months of May and June. I collected two 
specimens at Cannanore last year in the month of May, measuring 9§ and \Q\ 
inches, respectively. 

The Parel foetus, which was developed from the left ovary, occupied a thin 
transparent, membranous chamber, 2^ inches in length, which when opened 
allowed a little clear, oily, fluid to escape, but retained a small quantity of 
transparent jelly-like material which had to be picked off. It was folded into 
four. The 154th and 155th ventrals were perforate, and the 156th and 157th 
furrowed, and 17 others intervened before the anal shield. Its sex could not 
be discovered. 

I was much struck with the length of the maternal ovaries, the right of which 
measured 6£ inches. I counted 89 follicles in this ovary, and found they varied 
from 25 — 3 o mcn m length. Th« following comparison between the mother 
and foetus is interesting, especially with reference to the scales. It is also 
noteworthy that in the mother the vertebra,! spots were not outlined whitish, 
w.hilst in the foetus they were. 





Length. 


Ventrals. 


Sub- 
caudals. 


Scales. 






2 heads 

lengths 

behind the 

head. 


Mid 
body. 


2 heads 

lengths 

in front of 

vent. 


Vertebral 
spots in 
xosary. 


Mother 
Foetus 


4' 9" 
9£" 


174 
173 


48 
50 


27 
28 


31 

29 


23 

24 


24 
24 



Fyzabad, 21st January, 1905. 



F. WALL, Captain, I. M. S., c.M.z.s. 



No. XVI.— THE CROCODILE ; ITS FOOD AND MUSCULAR 

VITALITY. 

I shot a crocodile 11 feet 3 inches long in the Tapti yesterday about 11 a.m. 
On cutting it open in the afternoon we found that the stomach contained 
several goat's hoofs, about 21bs. of pebbles of various sizes, and a lot of the 
fleshy stalks of white lilies (Crinums) which grow on the banks. Is it not 
rather peculiar that first of all every bit of the goat or goats should have 
disappeared except the shells of the hoofs, and secondly that the crocodile 



376 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

should have included lily stalks and pebbles in its diet ? Another thing I 
noticed was that though I smashed the base of the skull with a '577 magnum 
bullet, and killed the creature outright about 11 a.m., yet the whole body was 
jumping and quivering about 3 p.m. when we had got the skin off and cut oft* 
the head. It was thrown out in a field, but the muscles continued jumping 
till sunset quite enough to move the legs perceptibly— so much so that the 
vultures which hovered about continually dared not touch the carcass yester- 
day. Is this not extraordinary vitality ? 

A. H. A. SIMCOX, i.c.s. 
In Camp, Bhusaval. 

23rd January, 1905. 



No. XVII— THE URIAL OF THE PUNJAB AND LADAK. 

Sportsmen, I have been informed, find considerable difficulty in distinguish- 
ing between the various local forms of the Asiatic wild sheep known in the 
Punjab as the urial, in Astor as the urin, and in Ladak as the sha or shapo, 
and scientifically as Oris vignei ; and there is little wonder in this, seeing that 
even naturalists (chiefly from the want of a sufficient series of specimens) are 
far from being in accord on these points. 

The urial, or sha, is closely allied to Ovis gmelini, the wild sheep of Armenia 
and North-Eastern Persia, of which the so called 0. ophion of the Troodoo 
Mountains of Cyprus is nothing more than a local race. In both these two 
species the colour of the coat tends more or less markedly to rufous chestnut, 
the rams have a large ruff of long hair on the throat, and the ewes develope 
small horns. The urial, or shapo, is distinguished by the colour tending very 
generally to fawn, but more especially by the forward curvature of the horns, 
which sweep along the sides of the face, and show more or less pronounced 
angles bordering the flattened front surface. The old rams do not show the light 
saddle mark which is so conspicuous in the Armenian wild sheep. So far as I 
can at present determine, four local forms or races of urial may be recognised, 
their distinctness from one another being based partly on actual physical 
differences and partly on geographical distributions. From this it will be infer- 
red that it will not be possible in all cases to refer a given specimen to its 
respective race without knowing its place of origin. This, however, is a difficulty 
to which we are gradually becoming accustomed as the refinements of system- 
atic zoology increase. 

Firstly, we have the typical urin (Ovis vignei typical) of Astor, from which, 
the shapo of Ladak appears to be inseparable. This Ladak urial, as it 
may be convenien'ly called, is a comparatively large form, in which the coat is 
fawn-coloured rather than foxy rufous. As a rule, the horns of the old rams 
turn markedly inwards at their tips, and have their front angles moderately 
prominent. Secondly, there is the Baluchi urial (0. vignei llanfordi), in which 
the horns tend to turn outwards at the tips, forming a more open spiral, and 
have the front angles prominent and occasionally showing a banded structure. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 37? 

This race (at first regarded as a distinct species) was described by Mr. A. 
O. Hume in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1877, on the 
evidence of the skull of a ram from the Kelat district of BaluchistaD, in 
which the tips of the horns curve outwards, so as to form a very open spiral. 
So open, indeed, is the spiral that a portion of the inner surface (which in 
other urial is completely concealed) is visible in a front view. In a skull from 
Kelat, in the British Museum, the spiral is, however, much less open, and 
there is no marked outward divergence of the tips, still it must evidently 
belong to the same race. Moreover, the presumption is that the urial from 
the rest of Baluchistan and Afghanistan, and, in fact, from the Trans- 
Indus districts in general, likewise belong to 0. v. blanfordi, as the Indus must 
almost certainly form an impossible barrier to these sheep. In confirmation 
of this view, it may be mentioned that the horns of a very fine male urial 
obtained by Dr. Aitchison, when on the Delimitation Commission in Afghan- 
istan, show a tendency to form an open spiral, and have very prominent 
front angles. In another head in the British Museum, from the hills north 
of Peshawar, the front angles are more prominent than in any urial I have 
ever seen, and are also raised into a number of knobs, but there is no 
decided tendency to an out-turning of the tips, although the spiral is rather 
open. It is practically certain that the specimen is racially distinct from the 
true urial of the Cis-Indus districts. On the other hand, an urial head figured 
on page 383 of the third edition of Rowland Ward's Horn Measurements, 
shows a decided outward turn of the tips of the horns, and, in fact, appears 
to be very similar in this and other respects to the type of 0. blanfordi. The 
specimen, which is the property of Major H. F. Taylor, is stated to be from 
" the Punjab, " and there is accordingly nothing to prevent its having come 
from the Trans-Indus districts. If the owner could confirm this in the columns 
of the " Field" he would strengthen the evidence in favour of the distinctness 
of 0. v. blanfordi. 

As regards the third race of the species, namely, the true urial (0. v. cycloceros) 
of the Salt Range and other hills of the Cis-Indus districts of the Punjab, this 
appears to be a smaller and redder animal than either of the preceding, with 
the horns forming a very close spiral, and showing no tendency to turn out at 
the tips, while their front angles are not prominent, and the anterior one is 
often more or less rounded off. 

Finally, we have the Kopet-Dagh urial (0. v. arkal), from the range dividing 
Persia and Turkestan, in which, as exemplified by a fine skull presented by Mr. 
St. George Littledale to the British Museum, the front surface of the horns 
is very broad and nearly flat, with but few transverse wrinkles, and very 
prominent front angles. 

Any additional information, and more especially photographs, which would 
help to solve the urial question, would be acceptable. 

R. L. 

(The above appeared in the " Field, " 2ith December 1904.) 
24 



378 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

No. XVIII.— ABNORMAL SAM BAR HEAD. 

{With a plate.) 

The stag whose head is shown in the accompanying sketch was shot in the 
Hoshangabad district, Central Provinces, near the Tawa River by A. G. 
Hendley, Major, Indian Medical Service, in the month of December 1900. 
The stag was a very large light-coloured stag, incisor teeth much worn and 
chipped, an indication of age. He was in good condition, was in company of 
several hinds, and had no injury to any of his organs. It will be seen that the 
horns have no brow antlers. The left horn divides into three spikes. The 
right horn also divides into three spikes, one being much smaller than the other 
two. At one time there had been a 4th spike to this horn near the shortest 
spike, but it had broken off, leaving a rough triangular mark at the point of 
fracture. The five longest spikes from burr to point varied in length from 
21 inches to 29 inches, the shortest 11 inches. Width between tips 29 inches, 
girth of beam below division — right horn 10 inches, left horn 11 inches. 

J. D. INVERARITY. 

Bombay, January, 1905. 

No. XIX.— THE GOOSANDER {MERGANSER CASTOR). 

I am sending the following notes on the Goosander (A/, castor) which, not 
being a very common duck, may be of some interest to readers of the Journal. 

On the 19th instant, my collector brought me in 3 fine males of the Goosan- 
der, in most perfect plumage, which he told me he had shot on the Gadadhar 
river some five or six miles from this garden ; that, moreover, they were 
numerous and far from shy : so determining to find out the truth, I went 
myself on the 22nd and personally can fully confirm the correctness of the 
man's statement. 

The Gadadhar is a fine stream rising, I believe, somewhere in the higher 
Bhutan Hills. At the point nearest this it is fairly swift, flowing over small 
rocks, pebbles, and sand, and now in the cold weather the water it contains is 
beautifully clear and icy cold. Wherever there are shallows it forms into small 
rapids ; these the Goosander especially seems to frequent, though it may also 
be seen in the broader parts as well. The banks are sandy and more or less 
thinly wooded, but the chief jungle is grass, null and efcra. 

The birds are found in parties of 5 to 20, the males keeping as a rule quite 
apart from the females, and except when much disturbed by firing do not get 
mixed up with them. 

The drake is most conspicuous, his handsome black and white plumage show- 
ing up at a distance ; he swims high, and early in the day may be seen actively 
diving through and about the rapids, occasionally standing up in the water 
stretching his neck and flapping his wings. 

The female owing to its smaller size and the general slaty colour of its 
plumage seems to sit much lower on the water and is also shyer than the male 
though I may remark neither bird will readily allow one to get within 



Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc Vol. XVI 




CORTE/ A CO. IITH. BOMBAY. 



ABNORMAL HEAD OF SAMBER 

Shot bu Ma.or A. G. HENDLEY, I. M. S. Dec. 1900. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 371 

gunshot from the bank. One female shot contained about 8 or 10 email 
fish 2" to 3" in length. Both birds on this part of the river are really far 
from shy, but this is not surprising, being practically in Cooch Behar where I am 
told game is preserved and every other native does not carry a gun. Even the 
Buddy Sheldrake, that cutest of birds, will here allow a fairly near approach 
in a native boat if one only talks, and does not pretend to be more than the 
ordinary boat load of people that they are so accustomed to see passing up 
and down the river all day and every day. The same holds good with regard 
to the Goosander, which will allow one to get within 25 or 30 yards, and even 
then may be seen with head or bills resting on their backs or preening them- 
selves (this during the heat of the day) ; a nearer approach sets tbem swimming 
as a rule up stream ; any peculiar silence in the boat or an attempt to stop 
or turn directly towards them, puts them at once on the wing. Skittering 
along the water for some little distance and then flying low over it, 6 or 8 
feet, perhaps less, they will, if not fired at, alight again at the next rapid or 
broken water. Their flight is, to me, strong and noisy, the whistling of their 
wings being distinctly heard as they approach the boat. They will not, I 
notice, pass directly over a boat, but pass to either side at a distance of about 
20 or 25 yards, merely rising a very little. 

Cripples swim down stream, the current seeming too strong for badly winged 
birds to make much headway against ; when hard pressed their diving is rapid 
and constant, varied by rapid rushes along the surface, they go under at the 
proverbial " flash," and it is surprising the time they keep down and, helped 
by the current, the distance they travel. 

I have not been brave enough to try the flesh, but my Sonthal servants 
and a Christian Baboo, however, have ; the former say that the Cormorant is 
preferable, the latter that he succeeded in making the 2nd bird I gave quite 
nice — " no fishy ' — by cooking it with lime (chunam) and many other strange 
and wonderful ingredients. 

The name amongst the Bengalies on the Gadadhar for this duck is " Pattee 
hans." I do not know if they apply this to any other species besides, but 
give it for what it is worth, as few vernacular names for this bird seem to 
be known. 

All the specimens I have got are fully adult birds in perfect plumage. 

A. M. PRIMROSE. 
Mornai Tea Estate, Tamarhak P.O. 

Gaukipur, Assam, 

25th January, 1905. 



No. XX— TROUT AND OTHER FISH AND FISHING IN CEYLON. 

In the Fishing Gazette of November 5, 1 suggested that it would be very inter- 
esting to know how our friends in Ceylon were getting on with their trout 
stocking and preserving efforts. In reply to this Mr. R. A. G. Festing, one of 
the members of the Ceylon Fishing Club, very kindly sends me the following 



380 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

particulars. I see from the rules that the good standard of llin. is fixed as 
the limit below which trout must not be retained — R. B. M. 

Dear Sir, — In your editorial notes in the Fishing Gazette of Nov. 5 you 
ask for information about trout breeding in Ceylon. The following lines may 
be of some interest to readers of your paper. 

The first experiments in trout breeding were made in 1880 by the late Mr. 
H. L. Hubbard. In 1882 a few fish were turned into the stream at Nuwara 
Eliya, and ova have been more or less regularly imported since 1886. When 
the Ceylon Fishing Club was started I do not know. At first the ova of brown 
trout and Loch Levens only were imported ; but in 1889 the ova of rainbow 
trout were introduced. The experiment proved successful, the rainbows 
taking kindly to the Ceylon streams, and they are now far more popular than 
the brown trout on account of their superior sporting and edible qualities. 

The fish imported have thrived well, and now run to a large size. I do not 
know what the record size is, but Mr. Plate's big rainbow trout mentioned in 
your paper about a year ago (I could not find the reference) is probably one of 
the biggest. Fish up to 31b. are fairly common. The average of takable fish 
is a little over a pound — at least, that is my experience, but more expert 
anglers may have a much better average. 

Spasmodic attempts have been made in the past to breed fish artificially from 
the imported stock ; but the difficulty has been to find males in milt when the 
females are ripe. No attempt, I bolieve, to breed fish artificially has so far been 
a success. A few years ago the trout started breeding naturally. Whether 
these naturally bred fish are pure rainbows or hybrids I do not know. But 
with the fish now breeding naturally there should be no difficulty in stocking 
all the likely up-country streams, and it is possible that the Ceylon Fishing 
Club may in a few years be in a position to supply India with ova or fry. 
With this end in view the club has lately been considering the question of 
getting out an expert from home to build hatcheries and instruct them how to 
breed trout. 

As to the streams— they are all fine trout streams with plenty of natural 
food and plenty of good running water. There is no danger of the carp 
fouling the water as suggested by you. The carp keep to the lakes and 
lower portions of the Nuwara Eliya streams. They do not wander far from 
the slack water. 

The Horton Plains stream, which is the finest bit of stocked water here, is 
an ideal trout stream, combining all the best qualities of English trout streams, 
except a regular rise of fly. At its head it is a very small stream with deep 
holes and good " elbows " thickly fringed with rhododendron bushes. One has 
to throw a fly very accurately to drop it into these pools. There are good 
gravelly shallows in the tributary- streams which should make excellent 
spawning beds. As the stream increases in volume there are deep rocky pools, 
big enough to hold salmon, long stretches of slack deep water, enticing stickles 
and some fine waterfalls— in fact, every sort of water to tempt the trout. And 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 381 

in addition to this, the stream flows through glorious country. No description 
that I can write would ever do justice to it. To give a rough general idea- 
imagine Exmoor from six to seven thousand feet above sea level with "patana" 
grass instead of heather. I wish I had some photographs to send you, but all 
mine are stuck in my book. 

The two small streams at Nuwara Eliya flow into lakes, the outlets from 
which are practically blocked against fish attempting to descend. The Horton 
Plains and Ambawella streams end, so far as trout fishing is concerned, 
abruptly as huge waterfalls, down which no fish is likely to descend voluntarily. 
This, I ihink, accounts for the fact that rainbow trout have been so success- 
ful in these streams. They cannot escape, as they have done from so many 
English waters in which they have been tried. 

In the streams fly only is allowed, a No. 6 hook, Redditch scale, being the 
largest size permissible. A No. 6 hook is a large one, and permits small salmon 
flies being used. This may seem like " poaching " to some people, and perhaps 
the size might with advantage be reduced. But it must be remembered that 
the fish are not free risers. There is too much bottom food and not enough 
surface food. And in the big pools a small fly passes unnoticed a long way 
above the fishes' heads. For brown trout I have found a good sized March 
Brown do as well as anything. The rainbows undoubtedly prefer something 
brighter, and few flies are better than a very small Silver Doctor ; and though 
other fishermen may prefer other flies, I would always take these two with me, 
whatever the condition of the water. In the lakes artificial spinning bait is 
allowed, but the weeds are a nuisance, and I have not often attempted spinning, 
and have only once succeeded in landing a fish on a Devon minnow in Lake 
Gregory. 

As to rods, everyone naturally suits his own fancy ; but a small rod is, in my 
opinion, essential for the small streams. I have an 8£ft„ 3foz., cane rod, by 
Foster, which is an ideal weapon. It will throw a very accurate fly, and I 
have landed fish of about 2|lb. on it. A larger rod is wanted for the bigger 
waters where a long cast is necessary. 

The chief enemies with which the fish have to contend are otters, kingfishers, 
big cannibal trout, and poachers. Of otters I have seen any number while 
fishing. It is contended by some that the otter really does no harm, that he 
captures only the big sluggish cannibal, who well deserves his fate. This 
may or may not be true, but otters do undoubtedly disturb the water, even if 
they do not catch the smaller and livelier fish. I have seen rising trout most 
effectually " put down" by an otter swimming through the pool, and nothing 
would persuade them to rise for the rest of the day. In waters such as these 
where the fish are not free risers, anything that discourages them from rising, 
should be eliminated. 

In concluding these notes on Ceylon trout, I wish to remark that my 
experience of them is very small compared with that of those favoured beings 
who live near the streams. A week or ten days' holiday snatched once and 



3»2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

again from a reluctant Government, and a three months' sojourn at Nuwara 
Eliya, is all the time that I have had to become acquainted with these fish. 
Perhaps others, much better qualified than myself to write about the subject, 
may send you an account of Ceylon trout. In which case this screed need 
never appear in print. But in case none of your subscribers from this island 
comes forward to answer your appeal, these notes are offered for what they 
are worth. 

But besides trout, which are restricted to a certain altitude in the hill 
country, there is good fishing to be had in the low country of Ceylon, in 
river, lagoon, sea and tank ; and it may not be out of place to offer a few 
remarks on some of the fish that the writer has caught. 

Very little is known from an angler's point of view, about lagoon and tank 
fishing in Ceylon. There are a few enthusiasts to be met occasionally who 
will speak of great captures ; but we badly want a second Thomas, not only 
to show us how to catch the fish, but to tell us what fish there are worth 
catching. Until I came to this district, about two years ago, I was quite 
unaware of the splendid opportunities for sport with rod and line in the low 
country, and I believe many other keen anglers here are similarly ignorant. 
I therefore offer these remarks with less diffidence than they otherwise deserve, 
only hoping that brother anglers may eome forward and contribute their 
quota of experience to the pages of the Fishing Gazette. 

The most common of low country fish is the Singhalese " lula" — the Indian 
" murral." The Tamils call him " viral." His classical name is Ophio- 
cephalus striatus. He is to be found in nearly all tanks and rivers that do 
not run dry ; but he will live a long time without water apparently. A tank 
near here was completely dry for a month or six weeks last year. When the 
rain came and the fields were being irrigated, I was shooting snipe, and picked 
up several fair-sized lula in the padi field below the tank. They had evidently 
been washed through the sluice of the tank ; but where they came from is 
a mystery, for the tank in question is not fed by any river. They must have 
been lying up under the grass and mud along the edge of the tank " bund. " 

Thomas, in his " Rod in India " (2nd edition), treats the lula, or murral, 
with scant ceremony. He regards him as a poor sort of pike to be eaptured 
with frogs and similar bait. But the lula is really a gentleman to be regarded 
with respect, for he rises to the fly freely and is a good table fish in spite of 
his bones — two supreme qualities. He does not fight very hard — about as 
well as a chub perhaps — but he often leaps clear of the water as soon as he 
feels the hook. A clear, calm day with water low is the best time for taking 
him with a fly. He is just the opposite of the trout in this respect. I have 
seldom caught them when there has been any wind or when the water was 
high. He will take a dry fly — if you are a dry fly purist — but the best ones 
I have caught have been taken with a large Red Palmer fished wet. There 
is a small red Dragon Fly on which the lula feeds in the evenings, and then 
the Red Palmer or Foster's " Caterpillar " will do great execution. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 383 

The lula is said to run to 3ft. in length. The largest I ever saw was about 
51b. or 61b., which was taken by a native in a wicker-basket trap. The 
natives here also catch good ones with a live bait and float on a hand-line. Or 
when the water is low they " drive " them into nets staked across a narrow 
opening in tank or river. The largest I have caught with a fly was just 31b. 
I got three fish one evening weighing 8jlb. Doubtless larger ones might be 
caught with a frog, but who would use bait so long as fish were to be canght 
with the fly ? Strong tackle is necessary, as one drops one's fly into a hole 
between the weeds, and if Mr. Lula takes it, it is a case of " Pull devil, pull 
baker " — to haul him safe into a more open spot. 

There are many other tank fish, but I have not caught any that rose so 
freely to fly or was such good eating as the lula ; and these notes are already 
becoming too long. I will just mention a species of carp which I have caught 
with fly in tanks here up to nearly |lb. I think this fish is the Olive Carp, or 
Barbus clirysopoma. He corresponds as nearly as possible with Thomas' 
picture and description of this fish. 

Of lagoon fish in this district the most common is the " koduva " (Tamil). 
His classical name is Lates calcarifer. A right handsome fish he is with 
his deep shoulder, prominent back fin, sheeny body and brilliant eye. But 
he is not so good as he looks. I have heard his flesh described as a mixture 
of cotton-wool, mud, and needles — not exactly a " table " fish ! but the 
natives dry him and eat him. He runs to a huge size — how large I am afraid 
to say. I have seen him caught with a live bait on hand-lines well over 301b., 
and I have caught them myself with spoon and spinning bait over 201b., and 
hooked one monster that — but that is another story. 

He cannot be said to be lively in his play. He is a sulky, dogged brute, 
but very strong. He takes out line slowly but surely, and woe-betide your 
tackle if you try to stop a big one too quickly ! I hooked a good one once on a 
brand-new line that was absolutely sound. He "towed" away about 100 
yards, when I thought he had gone far enough and put the pressure on. The 
fish thought differently, and we parted company, the running line breaking, 
I tested the line when I got home and found it would stand a dead strain of 
14glb. This will give you some notion of their power. 

The koduva takes the bait very quietly. Often you feel nothing at all, and 
find your line being slowly taken out as you try to reel in. In my experience, 
the only way is to let the fish go and follow him as best you can — in a boat 
if one is available. Disaster has always been the result of my trying to check 
them. How far they will go with their slow " towing " pull I don't know. A 
writer in Thomas' book mentions having followed a huge one for 400 yards, 
but I doubt if this was all in one stretch without any occasional pause. 

Many ara the stories the writer could tell of brave fights with this and other 
lagoon monsters — how, for example, an enthusiastic brother angler hooked a 
" big 'un " at dusk which kept him busy all night, and how, in the small hours 
of the morning, the haggard, weary-eyed angler was still holding on to his 



384 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

giant fish and was shouting for the gaff as the fish at last showed signs of 
yielding. I draw a veil over the closing scene. The fish turned out to be a 
young crocodile ! 

Another fine lagoon fish is the " kalai." I have not been able to identify him. 
I thought at first he was the same as the Bamin or Paumben salmon, but on 
referring to Thomas I find he is not. He does not run so large as the koduva ; 
but he is a far finer fighter. Weight for weight he will play as well as a salmon. 
He is to be caught in the same way as a koduva, with live bait, natural 
spinning bait or spoon. But the strongest tackle and hooks are necessary. 

Lastly, I would mention the " seer. " He is properly a sea fish, but comes 
into creeks and estuaries occasionally. He will take a fly or spoon, is excellent 
eating, and fights to the last ounce of his strength. But my experience of rod 
fishing for these fish is very small. I have only caught two or three on a fly in 
Galle Harbour. 

I have caught several other kinds of fish, and there are probably many others 
unknown to me which are well worth catching, but these remarks will show, I 
hope, that good fishing is to be got in the low country of Ceylon, and I would 
advise any keen angler about to visit the country to bring a fly and spinning 
rod and suitable tackle. 

I have given no details as to the class of rods, lines and tackles most suitable 
to this low country for fear of trespassing on your patience, which I fear I 
have overtaxed already, but if anyone requires any particulars I shall be very 
glad to give him any information I can through the Fishing Gazette. 

R. A. G-. Festing. 
(The above appeared in the " Fishing Gazette" 1th January 1905.) 



No. XXI— BIG GAME. 
ON THE BREEDING SEASONS AND OTHER MATTERS. 

In the last issue of this Journal some notes regarding the breeding season of 
tnamirals, with particular reference to big game, were published. It is com- 
plained with much truth that our knowledge on this point is very limited, 
while the complaint is also made of the vagueness of such information as exists 
regarding the subject under review. We are told that in Blanford's Mamviah 
of India the statement is of ten repeated that "the breeding time of a parti- 
cular species is ' about ' such and such a month. " Is it possible, however, to 
be more explicit V My own experience indicates that the breeding season of 
many animals is so variable, or is spread over so considerable a period, that 
more exact statements are likely to be erroneous. Can any one say that the 
tiger, for instance, has a breeding season that can be confined within the limits 
of one month ? I think not, for cubs of the same age may be found at 
different periods of the year. My own experience of these animals has unfor- 
tunately been confined to the months of March, April, and May. But I have 
found them during those months to have cubs varying between a few days 
(on April 11th), three or four months (on 7th May), and six months of age 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 385 



(in March). I recollect instances of young cubs, two or three weeks old, 
being caught in May, in July, and in December. 

I have seldom found tigers in pairs, but, as already mentioned, my expe- 
rience has been confined to the hot weather. In one case I found tracks of a 
tiger, day after day for some time, with which were a tigress and a large cub — 
perhaps nearly a year old. The tiger, a large one, was going lame on one hind 
leg, which made a track like that of a plantigrade animal. Tracking these 
animals, I kicked open a dry dropping, and found it full of tiger's hair whilst 
it also contained a good-sized tiger-claw. Presumably another of the species 
had fallen a victim to the big tiger, which had been injured in the hind leg 
in the encounter. I have heard of several similar instances of cannibalistic 
propensities on the part of the great felines. 

Out of forty tigers which I brought to bag, there were only five pairs, 
whilst in one other case two out of a family of three were shot. The 
remaining twenty-eight were single animals. Perhaps they reside more in 
pairs at other seasons of the year. In two instances the pairs were young 
animals of perhaps three years of age, and in one case a very old pair with 
faded coats and worn canines were said, by the inhabitants of the hamlet near 
which they were killed, to have lived together for many years. 

It is generally said that there are more females than males of this species. 
In my experience the males preponderate, and out of forty only fourteen were 
tigresses. None of these had unborn cubs in them. 

As with tigers, so in the case of panthers I have comparatively seldom found 
pairs, and have shot more males than females. I have had in my possession on 
two occasions young cubs born in the month of December ; another cub, shot 
in March, was probably born in December also. 

The last panther I saw— which, by the way, nearly killed me— was found to 
contain four unborn cubs which would probably have been produced in about 
a fortnight. This was in the middle of March. 

Bears also appear to have young at uncertain periods. In April 1889 a 
brown bear cub {Ursus isabeUinus):about 3 weeks old was caught, and another 
about the same age which I found in the Tilail Valley of Kashmir on the 26th 
May. On the 30th May I came upon an old bear with two well-grown cubs, 
which I judged to be about six months old. But could they have been born 
during hibernation ? On 4th June, 1890, 1 shot a black bear (Ursus labiatus) in 
the Satpuras with a cub three or four weeks old. On 25th April, 1894, I killed 
a black bear with two cubs which could not have been less than six months of 
age. In February, 1897, we caught two cubs a few weeks old, still riding pick- 
aback on the mother, and next day we saw two more about six months old. 

It is frequently stated that tigers invariably commence eating their prey 
at the haunch, and panthers at the stomach. Certainly I have never known 
tigers begin at any other portion of the body, but panthers not infrequently 
commence at the haunch also. The last panther I encountered had bitten 
the tail off a large buffalo that he had killed, and had eaten a portion of the 

25 



386 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

hind quarters. Occasionally one comes across strange happenings with regard 
to animals tied up. On one occasion a goat tied up for a panther was killed 
by a porcupine, perhaps by accidental collision. A friend of mine found one 
of his buffaloes gored to death by a bison, the ground all round being trampled 
by the enraged wild beast. 

Since writing these notes I have received the Journal for June, 1904, where 
I find several interesting questions discussed concerning big game. There is 
nothing new in Colonel Stewart's note regarding the original home of the tiger. 
I think it is generally accepted that the tiger i3 an immigrant into India from 
northern regions. The animal's impatience of the heat of the sun in southern 
latitudes, and habit of lying immersed in water in the heat of the day — the 
only feline addicted to this — point to a northern origin. At the same time it 
may be doubted if the southerly immigration of the tiger has taken place as 
recently as Colonel Stewart appears to indicate. Tigers abound in Java and 
Sumatra, and must have presumably got there before those islands became 
separated from the mainland. This may have been within recent geological 
but not historical times. Another contributor writes on "Tiger versus Bear, " 
and asks if there are other instances on record of encounters between these 
animals, of which he cites an example. I do not think such combats are un- 
common, and a tiger should have little difficulty in disposing of the small Malay 
bear, when he is able to kill and devour the much more formidable black bear 
of the Indian plains. Sanderson, in his " Thirteen years among the wild leasts of 
India,'''' tells us of a tiger which was in the habit of preying on the hapless bruin 
in preference to other game. In the Melghat Forest, North Berar, in 1890, 
the skin of a bear was brought to me, quite fresh, with many holes in it in- 
flicted by a tiger. The villagers said there had been a prolonged combat 
between the two animals, and the bear managed to get away, but so badly 
wounded that it was easily disposed of by the inhabitants who had been at- 
tracted to the spot by the roarings and howlings of the combatants. In 1896 I 
found on the top of a hill near Fort Mahor, Hyderabad, the remains of two 
bears which had been killed and devoured by a pair of tigers. Tigers will 
resort to strange diet when hard put to it, and the hairy pelt of a bear must be 
difficult to digest. I have found the remains of crabs and once of a large 
python eaten by a tiger, and one frequently finds porcupine quills embedded 
in the paws. One large tiger I shot had several suppurating sores on the 
back of the neck from which porcupine quills were extracted. This looked as 
if he had been rolling on his victim, although my shikaris would have it 
that the porcupine had shot the quills at his enemy, like arrows from a bow ! 

R. Q. BURTON, Major, 
Poona, February $th, 1905. 94th Russell's Infantry. 



No. XXII.— DOUBLE-HEADED SNAKES. 
No doubt everyone in India is familiar with the so-called double-headed 
snakes which many jugglers include among their stock in trade. The snakes 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 387 

exhibited as such by this fraternity are usually the earth snakes, creatures 
remarkable among their kind for the bluntness of their tails, a condition 
which lends itself peculiarly well to the artifices of these people, who mutilate 
or otherwise modify them so as to make them resemble the head. The snake 
usually selected for this purpose, both on account of its abundance and size, is 
John's Earth Snake {Eryx jolinii). 

It is perhaps not so well-known that genuine double-headed snakes do occur 
occasionally as freaks, but in these instances both heads are always attached 
to the anterior extremity of the body constituting what is technically called 
anterior dichotomy. 

Dichotomy (Greek dicha in two parts, temno I cut) arises from a cleavage 
of one or other pole of the developing embryo, and may occur anteriorly or 
posteriorly. It may be partial when the reduplicated heads, sterns, or bodies 
remain more or less attached to one another, or complete when two separate 
organisms are derived, so that this phenomenon accounts for one method by 
which twins are produced. There are abundant examples of monstrosities in 
man and the lower animals formed by this process to be found in various 
museums, and it is therefore not surprising that the same abnormality occurs 
occasionally in snakes. 

I have just had an opportunity of examining a young specimen of the 
common Lycodon aulicus exhibiting this anomaly, which I found on the 
shelves of the Fyzabad Museum. This specimen has the head and neck 
reduplicated, and a reference to my notebook shows that all the records of 
this peculiarity I have been able to collect from various sources, are examples 
of anterior dichotomy. I have never heard of an example of posterior dicho- 
tomy in snakes, though the condition doubtless occurs, and has been observed 
in frogs and other reptiles. This Fyzabad specimen, which measures a shade 
over 5| inches, is evidently a hatchling. The dual nature of the head and neck 
is very evident to sight and touch for f of an inch. The reduplicated parts 
are placed side by side, and are connected by a web except for ^ of an inch 
where the snouts are quite free. The web commences opposite the 8th supra- 
labial shields, and is placed rather nearer the ventral aspect, so that the chins are 
approximated. At the point where the two necks blend, is a pronounced 
rounded dorsal prominence. The size and sodden condition of the specimen 
render the detail of the scale characters somewhat difficult to determine with 
accuracy ; however, I have made the following observations : — The prseocular 
touches the frontal shield on the right side of the left head only. The rows of 
scales anterior to the dorsal prominence, i.e., over the cleft part of the body, are 
variable, but number about 27 ; behind this they are the normal 17. There are 
189 ventrals, those beneath the bifurcated parts are not double, but extend 
completely across both trunks. The navel implicates the 167th and 168th 
shields so that 21 intervene between it and the anal shield, which is divided. 
The subcaudals are 62. In other respects the scales and shields are normal. 

The following from my notebook may add to the interest of this note. 



388 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

Buckland in his " Curiosities of Natural History " (p. 177) says there are 
two specimens of snakes with two heads on one body in the Royal College of 
Surgeons' Museum, London, and one of these he identified as Coluber nalrix 
(now Tropidonotus natrix), the common grass snake found in England. 

In the Journal of the Linnean Society for 1868 is mentioned a sea-snake, 
Hydropliis sublcevis (now H. cyanocinctus) caught near Madras, with two heads. 

Nicholson in his book "Indian Snakes" (p. 22) mentions a young two-headed 
Tropidonotus quincunciatus (now T. piscator) in the Madras Museum, and says 
" this monstrosity is apparently rather common amongst the sea-snakes" and 
further remarks : " they do not, however, appear to survive their birth long, the 
specimens to be found in museums being of small size." That these freaks are 
as common as Nicholson remarks, I am inclined to doubt, and Mr. Phipson in 
a letter to me, dated 2nd February 1905, says : " I have been collecting snakes 
in this country for the last 26 years, and have examined thousands of sea- 
snakes in the fishermen's nets here, but I have never seen an instance of this 
form of teratology." The specimen I have described in this note is the only 
one of many hundreds of snakes I have examined in the fresh state and in 
museums which was so distinguished. 

In " The Field''' for 31st October, 1903, a Mr. Fulton writes as follows :— 
" Some time ago when in Australia I was one day helping the men on a sheep 
station to collect wood previous to the shearing season. In cutting up some old 
timber we came across an old snake with several young ones. One of these had 
two perfect heads on, so I secured it, and brought it home." 

S. S. Flower in the P. Z. S., 1899, p. 677, mentions a water snake, Homalopsis 
buccata, in the Siamese Museum, with " two heads, side by side, each about 
equally perfectly developed." 

In the Madras Times for 13th January, 1897, a specimen of a two-headed 
snake is mentioned in the possession of a Mr. E. C. Fischer, of New York City, 
then in Madras. It was identified as an American hog-nosed snake Heterodon 
simus and was about a foot long, and over four months old. 

The following remarks were made : — " The snake lives in a glass box, and 
feeds with both heads simultaneously on milk, raw meat, and blood. Mr. Fischer 
finds it best to feed both heads at once, for strange to say, they appear to be 
jealous of each other, and sometimes fight ; at other times they play with one 
another. The animal seems to know Mr. Fischer, for it comes to the side of 
its box, and welcomes him by protruding its tongues in sign of joy. A photo- 
graph of the snake was recently given in the Scientific American. 

Fyzabad, 1st February, 1905. F. WALL, Captain, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

No. XXIII.— WINTER PLUMAGE OF THE MALE BENGAL 
FLORICAN (SYPHEOTIS BENGALENSIS). 

There appears to be some doubt about the male winter plumage of the Bengal 
Florican, since some of our best ornithologists are at variance on this point. 

The most recent work I have access to is Oates' " Game Birds of India." In 
part I, p. 418, this author describes the male in winter plumage, and the female 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 389 

at all seasons as similar, entirely ignoring the observations of earlier writers 
many of whom show that some males at least are attired in a modified nuptial 
garb. Blanford, in " The Fauna of British India"— Birds., Vol. IV, p. 200, begins : 
" Coloration. Female (and, according to some, male in winter plumage)", 
evidently holding an opinion different from that expressed by Oates, He 
then describes the male in breeding plumage, and remarks later : " The 
black plumage of the male is acquired by a moult, and is retained partly or 
wholly by some birds in the winter ; but in others, probably younger, it 
appears to be replaced by the ordinary garb of the female" and quotes Blyth 
as having witnessed this latter change in birds kept in confinement. Hume and 
Marshall in " The Game Birds of India, Burmah and Ceylon, " Vol. 1, pp. 24 
and 25, say : " Young males, up to the beginning of March, entirely resemble 
the females, but the moult then commencing gradually assimilates them to the 
adults, which never lose, . . . the striking black and white garb that 

. . . is proper to the male sex." Later on this remark appears to me 
to be contradicted by the following : — " Two young but full grown, or nearly 
full grown, males before me, shot in January, have the black bodies and white 
wings of the adult, but the heads and necks are like those of the females." 

I have just had an opportunity of examining a pair of these birds shot in 
the Kheri District, Oudh, on January 31st, 1905. The female needs no 
remarks, but the male, very dissimilar in its livery, nearly agrees with the two 
males just quoted from Hume and Marshall. I made the following obser- 
vations. $ Length 27£", wing 13^", tarsus 5f." 

Plumage, except the wing and under parts, as in the female. The 1st quill 
is blackish brown with whitish fulvous mottling in bars on the inner web. 
The 2nd quill deep black at tip and on the outer web, pure white on inner 
web. 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th quills pure white tipped black. The 7th and 8th 
quills blackish-brown beautifully marbled in whitish bars. The 9th and 10th 
quills pure white with black tips. All shafts black throughout. 

The secondaries are pure white except the basal f — fth of the shafts which are 
black, and the inner webs which are progressively increasingly black from with- 
out inwards from their bases, the whole web being black in the innermost three. 

The upper coverts are white mottled fulvous, the 7th and 8th greater coverts 
coloured like the corresponding quills. The lower plumage, including that 
on the thighs, is black up to the lower part of the breast, except the greater 
primary coverts which are pure white basally. The measurements of the 
female are — Length 29£", wing 14", tarsus 6". 

F. WALL, C.M.Z.S., 

Fyzabad, February 5th, 1905. Captain, I.M.S. 

No. XXIV.— NOTES ON SOME BANGALORE SNAKES. 

A two months' holiday in Bangalore during August and September, 1904, fur- 
nished me with the following notes on some species common in that locality : — 

Tropidonotus piscator. — The Canarese name for this species is neer havu 
which equals " water-snake. " I witnessed one instance of the extreme 



390 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



ferocity of this notably fierce snake. Two sampwallahs had a specimen, 
among others, which they displayed for my benefit. This specimen fasten- 
ed itself on to the great toe of one man who was sitting tailor-fashion, and 
it was only by prizing open the creature's mouth with considerable force that 
it could be made to release its hold, and almost at once it fastened itself again 
on to the man's leg. requiring a repetition of the same violent measures. Blood 
oozed fairly freely from both wounds. 

Tropidonotus stolatus. — A small one measuring 1\" was brought to me on 
the 29th of September. 

Macrophthodon plumbicolor. — The " kassaru hdvu " or " green snake " of the 
Canarese. 

This is evidently a very common snake about Bangalore, though Nicholson 
does not mention it as such in his list on page 175 of " Indian Snakes." It ia as 
timid and gentle as the next species, allowing itself to be freely handled at all 
times. Like the next species, too, it flattens itself under excitement. One I 
had in captivity for some months fed voraciously on frogs. The eggs evidently 
hatch about August and September as will be seen from the following list. The 
two specimens mentioned under the date 29th of October were found together 
and were, therefore, probably just hatched from the same clutch of eggs. 



















Scales 






















GO 




CO 




















•a . 




rf 














m 




D3 


bug 

- CD 




43 


REMAliliS. 










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K*l 


<u a 

«— • p. 


















3 


w a 


r-3 


go at 








a 




03 


c« 




o 


W-E 


o 






o 

03 


CD 


a 

CD 


'cS 


43 




o 
o 


o 

ffi 




.a 






D 


cc 


J 


Eh 


> 


£/2 


►3 


£ 


OJ 


*p. 


w 




Aug. 
























29th 


? 


6" 


111 

8 


153 


43 





2 


23 


25 


19 


2 postoculars on loft 
side. 15 ventrals 
between navel and 
anal shield. 


U 


? 


6|" 


1.1// 


157 


37 


1(B) 


o 

mi 


23 


23 


17 


18 ventrals between na- 
vel and anal shields. 
Last 3 sub cau dais 
entire. 


Sep. 2. 


9 


51" 


311 

4 


• • • 


■ • • 


• • • 


.. . 


.. . 


• ■• 




Mutilated. 


9th 


9 


61" 


i mi 

16 


156 


42 





2 


23 


25 


19 


16 ventrals between 
navel and anal. Died 
16th February 1905. 
12 follicles enlarged. 


10th 


9 


2'Qh" 


5111/ 
°T6 


153 


41 


1 





21 


23 


16 


y X i" — 4 Postoculars 
on right side. 


16th 


... 


Adult 


.. • 


152 


.? 





2 


23 


23 


17 


A slough found emerg- 
ing from hole in 
bathroom. 


? 


... 


... 


it- 


149 


42 


1 


2 


25 


25 


19 


Hatchling with no date 
in private collection. 


? 


9 


... 


... 


153 


34 





2 


23 


25 


17 


An adult in Bangalore 
Museum. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 391 

The posterior sublinguals touch 3 infralabials 4th, 5th and 6th, or 5th, 6th and 
7th. The 6th or 7th of the inf ralabial series constitutes the pentagonal which 
is broader than the posterior sublinguals, and in contact with 3 scales 
posteriorly. Keels in both sexes are present in all rows of scales, to the tip 
of the tail, excepting the ultimate row for a variable extent in the forepart 

of the body. 

Helicops schistosus.— This is evidently a very common snake in this locality, 
as every simpwallah had some, and could procure them in numbers to 
order. The rule that the females in snakes are larger than the males, is 
certainly exemplified in this species. It is of a very inoffensive disposition, 
never attempting to bite, though some of my specimens had ample provo- 
cation. At one spot in the Hotel garden the grass beneath some trees 
was long, and all my specimens when liberated invariably made for this 
patch about 10 to 15 yards distant. No matter how often they were 
brought back into the open, they repeated their endeavours, and though 
frustrated, never tried to bite me when effecting their recapture. They 
would glide under or over such obstacles as a handkerchief placed and 
flourished in their way, or through or over my feet, in preference to 
taking a more circuitous direction to avoid them. In motion they slightly 
erect the head, and move briskly and fast. When alarmed they erect the 
head, and flatten the body down to the vent, to a very remarkable degree, 
far more so than any other snake I know. This flattening is more evident 
in the females, and I witnessed it most often when they were disturbed 
in opening their box. At liberty they behave similarly, but they strive to 
escape so hurriedly that one has not the same opportunity of observing this 
peculiarity. The eye is rotated more actively, and to a degree I have never 
witnessed in other species, and to this it owes its very appropriate generic 
name Helicops ( Gk. HeliIcos=vo\\ing, ops eye). Though so common the 
sampioallalis had no vernacular name for it. They all told me it frequented 
the bamboos in the Lai Bagh, and many of the specimens were caught on the 
bamboo vegetation some feet from the ground. They denied its frequenting 
water, which surprised me, for the high-placed, slit-like nostrils proclaim 
its aquatic tastes. 

Three specimens were brought to me on the 27th August — 2 males and 1 
female ; all were captured lying on the same bamboo stem about 10 feet from 
the ground. Two of these were observed to be " in copula" at about 5 p.m. 
on the 26th, and a futile attempt at capture made, which was not pressed, 
the men fearing that the pair might disengage, and jeopardise their chance 
of obtaining my reward of five rupees. Another and a successful attempt 
was made on the morning of the 27th, and strange to say the snakes were 
produced from a cloth at about 11 a.m. still united. I carefully investigated 
the conjunction on several occasions, being favoured by the docile nature 
of the species, and their lengthy union, which lasted, without intermission 
(so far as I am aware), until some time after 12-30 p.m. on the 28th idem. 



392 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XVI. 

Subsequent to this no repetition of the act was witnessed. During the time 
I had them under observation (25^ hours) the left clasper of the male, and this 
only was engaged with the right orifice of the female, and this leads one to 
speculate whether, as certainly appears physically possible, two males may 
sometimes serve one female or vice versa. If disturbed, beyond the flattening 
of the body already referred to and the spasmodic protrusions of the tongue, 
no alarm was displayed, and no malice offered. Both parties were equally 
undemonstrative rarely evincing any movement, and then only altering their 
position somewhat ; they did not lie coiled in one another's embraces, nor 
wreath their tails round one another as I have heard related of other snakes 
under similar conditions. The ventral apposition was so limited that nobody 
looking at them would have suspected their sexual relationship. The male 
was killed on the 2nd September, but the female survived until the 23rd of 
January 1905. Upon investigation 11 follicles in one ovary and 7 in the other 
were slightly larger (i inch long), and more opaque and yellow than the rest. 
During the whole of her incarceration she refused all food, and the 
impaired vitality consequent upon this, augmented by the colder climate of 
Fyzabad, probably occasioned the arrest of normal developments, and it will 
be observed that in the female specimen of the last species, which had been 
in captivity since the 10th of September and died on the 16th February, 
follicles were evidently impregnated, but their development similarly interfered 
with. No male snake had been in company with this specimen within the 
above dates. 

The following scale characteristics have escaped notice, or not met with the 
attention they deserve. The lower temporal shield touches 3 supralabials, viz., 
the 6th, 7th and 8th. The posterior sublinguals touch three infralabiale, viz., 
the 5th, 6th and 7th, as in most of the genus Tropidonotus. The 7th of the 
infralabial series is the pentagonal and is broader than the posterior sublinguals, 
and in contact with 3 scales behind, as in most Tropidonoti. The scales ante- 
riorly number 19, midbody 19 or 17, and posteriorly 17. The step where the 
reduction takes place occurs very near the middle of the body, sometimes 
before, but more often after this point. The reduction is effected by the 
absorption of the 4th row above the ventrals into the row above or below. I 
paid careful attention to the keels in the sexes, and could discover no accen- 
tuation of this condition in the male sex, confirming similar observations in 
many other species. The keels are absent in from 2 — 4 rows anteriorly (two 
heads-lengths behind the head), 2 rows in mid-body, and from 0-2 rows in 
the posterior body (2 heads-lengths in front of the vent), and cease in the 
median rows where the supracaudals number four. The red line running along 
the confines of the 5th and 6th rows above the ventrals (where the scales are 19) 
and the 4th and 5th rows (where the scales are 17) is much more conspicuous 
in the males. 

The tongue is dull blue black. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



393 



The penis is studded with tentacles from base to tip. 















Scales. 
















□q 


















£1 




A 














to 




43 

00 . 














9 . 


















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x 


IS 




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a 

43 


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a 


Cl 





REMARKS, 



Aug. 














26th 


9 


2' 


am 

°2 


7 1// 
' a 


149 


69 


27th 


9 


2' 


H" 


H" 


148 


64 


27th 


$ 


1' 


di" 


6j" 


144 


80 


27th 


$ 


1' 


lif" 


7" 


142 


77V 


28th 


s 


1' 


j 2 


^4 


147 


64 


28th 


* 


1' 


^2 


AMI 
^4 


144 


81 


28th 


£ 


1' 


3f 


9 


144 


y 


Sept. 














4th 


9 


2' 


3 s" 


F.1II 


148 


6b 


4th 


a 


1' 


5 i" 


5" 


140 


80 


4th 


9 


1' 


or 


5" 


148 


67 


4th 


a 


1' 


3" 


°8 


146 


82 


4th 


a 


1' 


9f" 


6i" 


139 


78 


4th 


<? 


1' 


11" 


6f" 


143 


79 



19 



19 

19 
19 
19 
19 
19 

19 



19 

19 

19 
1" 



19 



19 

19 
19-17 
19-17 

19 

19 

17 



19-17 

19 
19 

19 
19 



17 



17 

17 
17 
17 
17 
17 

17 



17 

17 
17 

17 
17 



2 postoculars on right side 
Died in captivity 14th 
January 1905. 

Died in captivity 23rd Jan- 
uary 1905, 

Tail incomplete. 



Tail incomplete. 

Labials 8, the 4th touching 
the eye on left side occa- 
sioned by confluence of 
normal 4th and 5th. 5th 
infralabial subdivided 
both sides. 

Internasal partially divided 
behind mesially. 

Internasal partially divided 
behind mesially. 



Zamenis mucosus.—A samp wallah on the 20th August brought one freshly 
caught, and about 5$ feet in length. This when liberated attacked his 
mongoose with great courage and determination, and inflicted a bite. When 
separated it compressed its neck, and uttered that peculiar scolding sound 
I have referred to in other notes in this Journal upon this snake. Another 
specimen was sent to me dead, and measured 7 feet 4| inches. It was a male. 
I measured the slough of one in the Bangalore museum which had just been 
presented, and found it taped 9 feet 1£ inches, the tail being 2 feet 7£ inches. 
Though I have heard of larger specimens this is much the largest measurement 
of this species I. have personally become acquainted with , and this allowing for 
considerable reduction for the stretching the slough undergoes. A native 
official in the museum told me this snake is eaten by the Tigala caste of Tamils, 
and he called a man of this caste employed in the garden. From him I elicited 
the following information. He told me the snake is called by them " Jair 
26 



394 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV L 



potoo" which I am informed is Canarese '' jair " centipede, and " potoo '' 
animal. (Rice in his work on Mysore, Vol. 1, p. 188, gives " kere" as aCanarese 
name for this species.) It is much esteemed by them as food, and is reputed 
of excellent benefit in the wasting of certain diseases. These people having 
skined and cleaned it, cut off about 4 inches from the head and about 
the same length in front of the vent. The rest is cut up into pieces, and 
cooked, the flesh resembling chicken in colour and taste. 

The same man told me water snakes, cobras, and other poisonous snakes were 
disdained by his caste, and that none of the organs —bile, fat or other parts — 
entered into their dietary, or medicines. 

Coluber helena. — A nice little specimen was brought to me alive on the 6th 
September which I killed on the 9th. Length 2' 2|", tail 6|". Ventrals 231, sub 
caudals 94. It was an active restless little creature, and when teased showed 
fight, by erecting and throwing its anterior body into broad sigmoid curves 
which it straightened in the act of striking. It struck out repeatedly, and in 
an upward direction much like Zamenis mucosus. Prior to striking when 
poised ready for action, the neck was markedly compressed, and at the same 
time the throat pouched and vertebral region correspondingly arched, exactly 
as in Zamenis mucosus. The skin between the scales was brought well into 
view, and was pinkish blue coloured, giving the reptile a Very strikingly hand- 
some appearance. 

Dryophis mycterizans. — Called by the Canarese " Hassru Muligay." It 
appears to be common, as all the sampwallahs had one or more on show. When 
poising preparatory to striking, the neck is much compressed, and at the 
same time the throat pouched, but there is no bowing of the vertebral region 
as in the last two snakes. 















SCALfcS. 






ca 


















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REMAKES. 












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7th 


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Contained a frog (Rana 
tigrina). 


23rd 


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176 


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P. WALL, C.M.Z.S., 

Captain, I.M.S, 



vz.vbAi). llth February, 1905 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 395 

No. XXV.— EGG-EATING COBRAS. 
The interesting note of Mr. C. P. George's in the last Journal (page 174) 
with reference to the hatching of a guinea-fowl's egg after its recovery from 
a cobra's stomach, remarkable though it is, has an almost exact parallel which 
Miss Hopley in her work on snakes relates (page GO). She mentions a cobra 
being killed from which a hen's egg was extracted, marked, and placed under a 
guinea-fowl which in due course hatched out. 

F. WALL, C.M.Z.S., 
Captain, I.M.S. 
Fyzabad, 17th February, 1905. 



39G 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON 22nd DECEMBER 1904. 

A meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms on 22nd 
December 1904, Major C. G. Nurse presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The election of the following new members since last meeting was duly 
announced : — 

Life member : Meherban Piraji Rao Bapu Saheb Ghote, Chief of Kagal, 
senior (Kagal, S.M.C.). Members : Mr. A. D. S. Arbuthnot, R.E. (Bombay) ; 
Mr. L. Bagshawe (Bombay); Captain R. H. Griffith, R.F.A. (Kirkee) ; 
Mr. E. Wilson (Dehra Dun) ; Rev. P. G, Tibbs (Deolali) ; Mr. W. H. Ruddle 
(Secunderabad) : Mr. R. W. D. Ashe, I.C.S. (Nellore, Madras Presidency) ; 
Mr. E. Pakenham-Walsh (I.C.S.), (Penukonda, Anantapur District). 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions to the Society's collection : — 



Contribution. 



Description. 



Contributor. 



1 Gadwall 



1 Hobby 

1 Common Indian Nightjar 
(alive) 

1 Large Pin-tailed Saud- 



grouse 

1 Green-Shank 

1 Horsefields Nightjar ... 

] Barn-Owl (alive) 

1 Indian Koel (alive) 

Some pearls and pearl shells 
from Coast of Cutch.... 

1 Snake 

1 Snake 

3 Snakes 



Chaulelasmus streperus 

Faloo subbuteo 

Caprlmulgus asiaticu* 
> Ptcroclurus alchata . 
Totanus glottis 

Caprim ulguft macrurvs 
Strix flammed 
Eudynamis honorata 



Psammophw leithii ... 
Lycodon striatus ... 
Typlilops bramirms ... 



Mr. A. Dunbar-Braader 

I.F.S. 
Mr. J. D. Inverarity. 

Mr. J. P. Chrystal. 

H. K. the Maharaja of 
Bikanir. 
H. H. the Maharaja of 

Bikanir. 
Mr. R. G. Foster. 
Rev. J. George, S.J. 
Rev. J. George, S.J. 
H. H. the Rao Paheb of 

Cutch. 
Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S. 
Capt. P. Wall, I.M.S. 
Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

These included 300 Zoological Records from 1896-97 and 1899 to 1902, from 
the Trustees of the British Museum. 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were then read and discussed : — " Shell-fish and 
their shapes, " by E. Comber, F.Z.S, " Description of two new Snakes from 
Upper Burma," by G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. " Do wild animals ever 
die of intestinal obstruction ?" by Col. W. B. Bannerman, I.M.S. "Melanism 
in Black-Buck," by Major J. Manners Smith. "On fishes, from the Persian 
Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and Karachi, " collected by Mr. F, W. Townseud. by 
C. Tate Regan, B.A r 



PROCEEDINGS. 



397 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING HELD ON THE 9th FEBRUARY 1905. 

A meeting of the members took place at the Society's rooms on the 9th 
February 1905, Mr. J. D. Inverarity presiding. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The election of the following new members since last meeting was duly 
announced : — 

Mr. R. 0. Thompson (Bangkok, Siam) ; Mr. Hugh S. Gladstone (England) ; 
Mr. H. C. Aberholser (Washington) ; Mr. R. D. Bell, I.C.S., (Poona) ; H. H. 
the Sahebzada Nawab Mohammed Nasrulla Khan (Bhopal) ; Lieut. H. R. 
Watson (Secunderabad) ; Mr. E. S. Rindley, C.E., (Raipur) ; Mr. K. B. 
Williamson (Jubbulpore) ; Mr. S. W. Coxon (Damoh, C. P.) ; Major W. G. R. 
Cordue, R.E. (Bombay) ; Capt. L. Hulke (Ajmere) ; Mr. Hans Blascheck 
(Bombay) ; Mr. C. E. L. Gilbert (Dhulia). 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 
Mr. H. M. Phipson, the Honorary Secretary, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions since the last meeting : — 



Contribution. 


Description. 


Contributor. 


A collection of butterflies 




Mr. 


T. R D. Bell, I.F S 


from N. Kanara. 








Sarekliornis melanonotm .. 


Mr. 


W. F. L. Tottenham, 






I.F.S. 




Francul/nus vulgaris 
Miorotus irachelex 


Mr 


R H Heath C E 




Onl 


. A. E. Ward. 




Microtus stracheyi 




Do. 




Macropteryas eoronnta 


Mr. 


D. G. Hatchell. 




Pellor neum ruficeps 


Mr. 


R. B. Woosnam. 




Aleippc phaocr-phala 




Do. 


1 Southern Red-whiskered 


Otooompsa juxHcandata ... 




Do. 


Bulbul. 








1 Greenish Willow Warbler . 


A oanthopneuste viridanus 




Do. 




Tnpaia elUoti 




Do. 




Croc/dura ccerulea 




Do. 


3 Jungle Striped Squirrels... 


Sciurus tristriatus 




Do. 


1 White-tailed Eat 


Mux Manfordi 

Mus platythrix 

Mux Sp 




Do. 


2 Brown Spiny Mice 


Do. 






Do. 


1 Hammer-headed Oyster ... 


Avicula vulgaris 


Mr. 


E. R. Jardine. 




Zamenix fasciolatus 
Halcyon pileata 


Pol 


W. Bannerman,I.M S. 
P. R. Allen. 


1 Black-capped Kingfisher... 


Mr. 






Mr. 

Mr. 


M. Mackenzie 




Ardetta cinnamomea 
Chettitlia leucwra ... 


S. Armstrong. 
Do. 




1 Screech-Owl 


Strix flammea 


Mr, 


C. H. Donald. 




Circus macruvux ... 




Do. 




Pitta braehyura .,. 
Gavialis gangeticus 


h. ; 


Do.. 


Skin of Fish-eatingCrocodile 
from Sind. 


5. Lord Lamington. 


Herpestes urva 


Mr. 


H. Slade. 




Aretomys himalayanvs 
Strix flammed 


Col 

Mr. 


A. E. Ward 




Naranji Dwarkadas. 



398 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XVI : 

PAPERS READ. 

The following papers were read and discussed :■— 1. Shells : (&) Their uses 
to Man, by E. Comber, F.Z.S. 2. King-Crows and Mynas as messmates, by 

D. Dewar, I.C.S. 3. Occurrence of the Scaup Duck (Ni/roca marila) in 
Oudh. by Captain F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 4. Egg-eating Cobras, by 

E. Brook-Fox. 5. Locusts. The Colouring of Acridium peregrinum, by 
Cecil E. C. Fischer, I.F.S. 6. The Habits of the Leaf Butterfly (Kallima), by 
E. Ernest Green, F.E.S. 7. The Breeding Seasons of Big Game in India, by 
A. H. A. Simcox, I.C.S. 8. Notes on the Houbara, by R. H. Heath, C.E. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following interesting exhibits were placed before the meeting by 
Mr. Comber, demonstrating some of the uses to which shells can be put : — 

A number of dessert dishes, salt-cellars, spoons and ornaments, made from 
shells, lent by Messrs. Bhicajee and Co., Bombay. 

Conch or Chank shell {Turbindla rapa) with brass mouth-piece, used in 
Hindu temples as a trumpet. 

Giant Clams (Tridacna gi'jas) used as fonts in churches in France. 

Cowries, used by Parsee Hat-makers for polishing cloth. 

Cowries, used as money in India. 

Bangles cut out of the Chank shell (Turbinetta rapa). 

An assortment of buttons, studs, paper knives, spoons, penholders, sleeve- 
links and knife handles. 

3 Decorative panels of carved Mother-o'-pearl shell, lent by Messrs. Hinode, 
and Co., Bombay. 

3 Cameos and 1 pearl scarf pin, lent by Messrs. Marcks and Co., Bombay. 

1 Revolver with Mother-o'-pearl handle, from Messrs. Hollis and Co., 
Bombay. 

Seed pearls presented by H. H. the Rao Saheb of Cutch. 

The shells used in India for making building lime. 

The shells of edible species used in India as food. 




i 

o 

M 



^ 



Hi $ 

uj EH 

tf) 3 



UJ i, 

I- 



c5 




JOURNAL 

OP THE 

BOMBAY 



ml Itstarj! jlflririir. 



Vol. XVI. BOMBAY. No- 3- 

DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIES OF MOTHS 
FROM INDIA AND BURMA. 

By G. C. Dudgeon, f.b.s. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History, Society on 6th July 1905 ) 

ZYGMIDjE. 

CHALCOSIIN^. 

SOKITIA VIBIDIBASALIS, n. sp. 

$. Head, thorax, first three abdominal segments dorsally and 
whole of hindwing, which latter is unmarked, fuscous brown ; terminal 
segments of abdomen dorsally and laterally light blue ; breast, under- 
surface of abdomen and first joint of palpus buff-white; collar crimson. 
Forewing rather narrow, dark brown with an almost straight, pale 
primrose, oblique postmedial band from the costa at the end of the 
cell to the posterior angle, this band is about 2£ millimetres in width 
throughout and farther from the base than that of nigribasalis, 
Hmpsn. ; all veins and interspaces on the basal two-thirds of the wing- 
nearly as far as the pale band suffused with green ; veins from just 
before the pale band and beyond it defined with blue-green, within 
these limits there is no suffusion in the interspaces. Underside fus- 
cous brown without the green suffusion ; the postmedial band broader 
with a curved subapical light-blue band beyond it ; hindwing with the 
whole of the cell, a streak on each side of vein lc. and a submarginal 
series of four lunules light -blue. 



400 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

This species differs from nigribasalis in the green suffusion on the 
hasal two-thirds of the forewing, the position of the pale hand on the 
same wing, and the ahsence of any markings on the hindwing. The 
white undersurface of the abdomen and the blue lnnnles on the under- 
surface of the hindwing are also distinctive marks. 

Habitat. — Daunat Range, Tenasserim (Hauxwell). Exp. 36 mill. 
Type — In coll., Dudgeon. 

ACANTHOPSYCHE (METJSA) THEIVORA, 11. sp. 

Characteristics. — Fore tibia with a spine : veins lb. and lc. of the 
forewing anastomosing. Out of four examples in the Indian Museum 
collection two have a veinlet from beyond the juncture of veins la and 
lb. towards the inner margin and two are without a trace of this veinlet : 
veinlets in the cells of both wings with long forks : a bar between 
veins 7 and 8 of the hindwing. 

$. Head, thorax, abdomen and both wings uniform fuscous. 
Larval case composed of fragments and whole leaves attached to a 
rather soft case. The food plant is said to be tea. 

Habitat. — Sikhim. Exp. 30-33 mill. Type — Tn the Indian Museum 
collection. 

This species has been identified in the Indian Museum collection , 

one specimen said to be by Sir Geo. Hampson, 
as Amatissa consorta, Tempi., but this is a pal- 
pable error as both in form and neuration it is 
widely distinct from that species. The neura- 
tion best corresponds to lhat of the subgenus 
Metisa of Acanthapsyche, but it will be seen 
from the above description that it is not quite 
normal. Both wings have vein 6 present and 

Acanthopsyche (Metisa) thei- ° 

vom. Dudgeon. 4 and 5 from a point. 

The absence or presence of a single veinlet from lb. towards the 
inner margin in the forewing appears to be a character of not even 
specific value. 

Owing to the wrong identification of most of the insects of this 
family in the Indian Museum collection, considerable confusion has 
been caused in publications referring to them as agricultural pests. 
Names seem to have been attached to specimens utterly regardless of 
whether they were even genericaUy correct. Incredible as it may 
seem, one describer has given a name' to an insect of which only the 




DESCRIPTION OF MOTHS FROM INDIA AND BURMA. 401 

larval case was known, the moth not having been procured. To give 
a new name to a lepidopterous insect upon such data is equivalent to 
the description of a new botanical species from the possession of a piece 
of the root only. 

PSYCHID.E. 
Mahasena destructor, n. sp. 
Characteristics.— F 'ore tibia with a spine : veins lb. and lc. of the 
forewine anastomosing without veinlets to the inner margin: cell of both 
wings rather long : (brewing with all veins present, 4 and 5 and 8 and 9 
on long stalks, 6 reaching the margin close to termination of 5, veinlet 
in the cell with very short fork or none : hind wing with 4 and 5 stalked, 
vein 8 anastomosing with 7 twice, before and after the cell forming a 
triangular areole and reaching the margin separated again. This latter 
peculiarity I have not seen in any other species of the genus. 

$. Head and thorax covered with long greyish hair, sides of 

the latter defined with dark brown. Forewing 
greyish brown with a slight cupreous tinge, 
nervules defined with black, the basal two-thirds 
of the interspace between 3 and 4 with an elongate 
hyaline spot, a marginal triangular buff- white 
spot between veins 6 and 7 and smaller buff 
marks on the margin between veins 4 and 5 

Mahasena destructor, Dud- 
geon, and 7 and 8, these latter sometimes wanting. 

Hindwing uniform cupreous brown with the veins slightly defined with 

darker. 

Larval case formed of twigs of the tea plant placed longitudinally. 

Habitat.— Sikhim and Bhutan, 1,000-4,000 ft. Exp. 20-23 mill. 

Type — In coll., Dudgeon. There are also six specimens of this 
species in the Indian Museum, three of which are marked as tea pests 
from Chittae-one - received from Mr. Wood -Mason. 

This insect is the most destructive tea Psychid in the Darjeeling and 
Terai districts and has long been confounded with Clania erameri, with 
which it is superficially somewhat similar. It can be immediately dis- 
tinguished by the forewing wanting red markings and by the position 
of the elongate pale marginal or submarginal spot, a conspicuous one 
filling the whole fork between veins 4 and 5 in C. crameri, whereas 
M. destructor has the largest conspicuous pale spot between V9ins 3 and 
4 and has only a marginal speck between veins 4 and 5. 




402 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

NOCTUIDiE. 
ACRONYCTIN^. 

NONAGRIA UNIFORMIS, 11. sp. 

Neuration. — Vein 6 of the forewing from the angle of the cell. 

Section I, veins3 and 4 of the hindwing from the cell. 
D„ Antennae of the male fasciculate. 

$ aud 9 • Forewing uniform brownish ochreous sprinkled with 
a few fuscous scales chiefly in the cell and on the inner and outer 
margins, forming minute spots sometimes, one below the median ner- 
vure before the origin of vein 2, one below vein 2 half-way to the outer 
margin and two below vein 6, one of which is just beyond the discocel- 
lulars and the other half-way to the outer margin ; the outer margin 
defined with an internervular row of dark specks ; cilia long and 
intermixed with fuscous. Hindwing pure white unmarked irridescent 
near the base and below the costa. Sides of palpi and inside of tibia? 
of forelegs of the male dark brown. Female with the antennae simple 
and the palpi and forelegs unmarked. 

Habitat. — Burogah, Bengal; Surat, Bombay. The larva is reported 
as destructive to sugarcane. Exp. $ 29 mill.; 9 30-37 mill. 

Types sent to British Museum. 

This species differs from any other described Indian species of 
Nonagria in that the antennae of the male are fasciculate combined with 
veins 3 and 4 of the hindwing being from the cell. The collection of 
dark scales forming specks on the forewing are placed similarly to those 
found in Nonagria infer ens, Wlk. 

Described from four specimens sent me by Mr. Maxwell -Lefroy and 
received by him from Mr. Mackenzie, and from others collected by the 
former gentleman in the Bombay Presidency. There are several 
examples also in the Indian Museum collection. 

ERASTRIAKffi. 

Erastria niveiguttata, Dudgeon ; Jour. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 
XIII, p. 85, plate II, fig. 4.; Dudgeon in Hmpsn., Jour. Bo. Nat. 
Hist. Soc, Vol. XIV, p. 205. 

Sikhim, 1,800 ft. Type in B. M. coll. 

ACONTIANJ1. 
Pterognia irrorata, n. sp. 

Section II. B. Forewing with the cilia crenulate, outer margin more 
•mgled. Male with antennae fasciculate, female minutely ciliate. 



DESCRIPTION OF MOTHS FROM INDIA AND BURMA. 403 

$ t Forewing ochreous, suffused with pearly white and striated with 
ferruginous, the striations coalescing on the discocellulars and below 
the end of the cell also beyond the postmedial line towards the pos- 
terior angle. The thorax and forewing clothed with large flattened 
scales. Forewing with a pale subbasal line ; an antemedial whitish 
line oblique to just below the origin of vein 2 whence it is waved to 
the centre of the inner margin, this line as well as the basal portion of 
vein 2 is defined outwardly with dark brown ; a black patch at each 
angle of the cell ; a sinuous postmedial whitish line defined outwardly 
with ferruginous ; a submarginal series of dark patches of scales below 
veins 2, 3, 4 and 5. Cilia long and ferruginous, extending along the 
inner as well as the outer margin. Abdomen and hindwing pale, the 
outer area of the latter broadly fuscous. Retinaculum bar-shaped. 

9. Differs from the male in being less ferruginous, the brown 
striations being of a warmer tint. There is also a large gold lunate 
spot on the discocellulars generally with a small gold spot attached at 
its centre outwardly and a dark spot at its lower extremity. The 
antemedial line is continued in its obliquity to the margin, meeting 
the latter just before the origin of the postmedial line ; there is no dark 
definition of vein 2. The antennae are minutely ciliate towards the 
ends. Underside of both sexes with an oval buff discocellular spot 
and broad marginal buff band on both vxings, the ground colour being 
fuscous. 

Habitat.— Sikhim 1,800 ft. Bhutan 2,500 ft. Exp. Male 40-43 
mill. Female 44-48 mill. 

The male is somewhat similar to P, striatum, Moore, from the 
description, but is much larger and has the antennse fasciculate. The 
"female is somewhat like P. episcopalis, Swinh., but has crenulated 
cilia to the forewings and the metallic spot gold and smaller. 

Described from four males and five females in my collection. 

Sarrothropesle. 

Barasa costalis, Dudgeon in Hmpsn. Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 1895, 
p. 305 ; Dudgeon Jour. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XIII, p. 268, 
pi. Ill, fig. 29. Sikhim ; Bhutan, 1,800-2,500 ft. Type in coll. Dudgn. 

FOCILMSLE. 

Zethes macaviata, Dudgeon in Hmpsn. Jour. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, 
Vol. XIV, p. 216. Sikhim, 1,800 ft. Type in B. M. coll. 
This species superficially resembles a Macaria in markings. 



404 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

EPIPLEMIM. 

DlRADES UNICAUDA, HmpSn. 

I have recently reared a number of both sexes of this species from 
larvae found feeding upon the young leaves and buds of Gardenia. 
The male is exactly similar in shape and markings to Hampson's 
figure of JD trades binotata, Hinpsn., but cannot be identical with it, as 
D. binotata is placed as synonymous with D. theclata, Moore, in Moths 
of India, Vol. Ill, and this latter species is figured as having veins 2, 5, 
6, and 7 developed in the hindwing of the male, which is not the ease 
in my specimens. The females eared by me have all the veins of the 
hindwing developed, and correspond fairly well with Hampson's figure 
of Erosia unicauda in 111. Hot. VIII, tig. 21, which is undoubtedly a 
female though recorded as a male. Were it not for the neuration of 
D. theclata being distinctly shewn as more or less normally formed in 
Moths of India and the sexual patch shewing it to be a male, I should have 
said that the insect called D. theclata was the female of D. unicauda, 
jiS the description of the former corresponds fairly well with the latter. 

The accompanying sketch shews the neuration of the hindwings of 
both sexes of D. unicauda bred by me. 



Fold containing pale - 

flocculent scales. 



The larva is brownish grey covered over with shiny black tubercles 
with yellowish suffusion round their bases each bearing a few short 
hairs. The cocoon is formed of particles of mould or dry leaves wtbbed 
together below or on the surface of the ground. My specimens were 
in the pupa state for ten days and emerged in August and September. 

The female insect has the forewing identically similar to the male, 
but it is more violaceous. The hindwing is violaceous grey with the 
media] line angled on vein 4, and the postmedial area with a somewhat 
shining reddish subcostal patch. The tails are well developed at the 
extremities of veins 4 and 7 and less so at vein 6. Vein 5 is very weak 
but traceable nearly to the base, the discoce41ular veins are wanting. 
(Vein 5 at first sight appears very distinct owing to its being in the 
line of the wing fold, but it is scarcely recognisable in a transparency.) 





DESCRIPTION OF MOTHS FROM INDIA AND BURMA. 405 

PYRALIDiE CRAMBIN^ 

Chilo aukicilia, n. sp. 

Antennae of the male flattened by coalescing lamellae separated dis- 
tinctly. 

g. Brownish ochreous, irrorated with fuscous ; a raised dark- 
metallic spot in the cell, another at the origin of veins 4 and 5, one 
above and one below vein 2 ; a few golden scales in and beyond the 
cell ; a postmedial row of black dots incurved towards the costa with 
golden scales upon them ; a marginal row of black dots ; cilia golden. 
Hindwing brownish white, cilia slightly silvery. 

9 . Differs from the male in being larger and in having the ground 
colour pale ochreous with the metallic spots smaller. Antenna simple. 

Habitat. — Burogah, Bengal ; Sikhim and Bhutan. Exp. Male 
18 mill., female 25-27 mill. 

Type sent to British Museum. 

Described from one male received from Mr. Maxwell- Lefroy sent 
him by Mr. Mackenzie and from five females in my own collection, one 
of which had been marked " Platytes argentisparsalis, Hmpsn. " by 
Sir Geo. Hampson. Mr. Mackenzie has found this insect doing damage 
to sugarcane in company with Chilo simplex, and both species have 
been reared by him. 

ANEKASTIINiE. 

POLYOCHA SACCHAEBLLA, n. Sp. 

Section II, B. Differs from Sect. II, Hmpsn. in Moths of India, 
Vol. IV, in vein 10 of the fore wing not being stalked with 8 and 9. 
Antennee of the male with a large tuft of bicoloured scales in the sinus 
at the base of the shaft and uniseriate rather shurt branches. Palpi 
obliquely upturned in the male, rostriform in the female. 

$. Head, thorax, abdomen and forewing uniform pale ochreous 
brown more or less suffused with fuscous in and beyond the cell. Hind- 
wino- white. 

9 . Differs from male in wanting the fuscous suffusion except 
slightly at the apex of the forewing. 

Habitat : — Burogah, Bengal. E.rp. 32-34 mill.. 

Types sent to British Museum. 

Several specimens of this spncies were sent me by Mr. Max well- Lefroy 
reared by Mr. Mackenzie. It is said to be destructive to sugarcane in 
Behar. 



406 

"THE" COMMON STRIPED PALM SQUIRREL. 

By R. C. Wroughton, f.z.s. 

(With a Plate.) 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 6th July 1905.) 

Blanford in his " Mammals" describes the common striped palm 
squirrel under the name of Sciurus palmarum, L. 

Since the " Mammals" was published, however, Mr. Thomas, in the 
P. Z. S. (1897, p. 925), referring to a paper published by Dr. Forsyth 
Major, on the subdivisions of the Sciuridai (P. Z. S., 1893, p. 179), 
wrote : — " This general arrangement being founded on such a careful 
and highly competent examination of the skulls and teeth, it was 

evident that systematic workers would have to consider how 

best they could utilise Dr. Major's invaluable contribution to the 
subje t 1 would now venture to suggest that all thr sub- 
genera (with the exception of Atlantoxerus) in Dr. Major's scheme 
should be recognised, for ordinary systematic purposes, as full genera, 
especially as all of them have long been considered as perfectly natural 
groups and have been arranged as such in the revisions of Trouessart 
and other authors."' Again in the "Ann : and Mag :" (1898, Ser. 7, Vol. 
II, p. 249), Mr. Thomas wrote : — '' For the information of workers in 
the East, to whom all the literature may not be accessible, it may be 
noted that by the recent splitting up of Sciurus into several genera 

the Indian squirrels — taking Blanford's 'Mammals' as a 

standard — S. bicolor, indicus, macrurus belong to Batufa ; the species 
(except rufigenis and lohriah) from ferrugineus to atridorsalis and also 
maclellandi to Sciurus ; and S. rufigenis, lokriah, palmarum. tristriatus, 
layardi, sublineatus, and berdmorei to Funambulus." 

Hence in the Table on p. 370 of the " Mammals " if lohriah and rufi- 
genis h& put under C and maclellandi under B. we shall have — 

A = Gen. Batufa. 

B = Gen. Sciurus. 

C = Gen. Funambulus. 
As a first step then our common striped palm squirrel becomes 
Funambulus palmarum. But, since I obtained, in 1898, two striped 
squirrels, within \ mile of each other, on the north bank of the Tap'ti 
River, about 40 miles from Surat, 1 have felt convinced that more 
than one form was lumped under the specific name palmarum. Lately 



" THE" COMMON STRIPED PALM SQUIRREL. 407 

I have had an opportunity of examining the skins and skulls in the 
National Collection at South Kensington. Though the material avail- 
able for study is unfortunately still very limited, there is enough to show 
very clearly that there are at least two quite distinct forms : — 

A. With three pale dorsal stripes and a bund of short, bright 

rufous hairs along the underside of the midrib of the tail. 

B. With an additional pale stripe on each side, sometimes indis- 

tinct but always discernible, and having no rufous band of 
short hairs under the tail. 

My difficulty has been to decide which of these forms is the 
palmarum of Linne and to settle the question 1 have gone rather 
thoroughly into the literature. 

Olusins, in 1606, described an animal under the name of Mustela 
ajrkana. His description is confessedly based on a picture and some 
notes, furnished to him by a friend, Jacobus PLiteau (of Rouen?) 
He wrote of it "in utraque mandibula binis longioribus dentibus in 
anteriore rictus parte proeditus : comedens, clumbus insidebat, anterioii- 
bus pedibus cibum tenens et versans," which rather indicates a squirrel. 
He added : "' Cauda quidem attollens, minime tamen supra caput retror- 
quans sed in latum nonnunquam valde explicans, pavonis caudce pcene 
instar." Any one who has watched the palm squirrel will recognise 
this as a fair description of him, by a man who was mentally com- 
paring him with the European squirrel. All this Clusius must have 
got from his friend's notes, but when he adds " pedes in qulnque digitos 

erant divisi, quaternos antrorsum spectantes quintum autem 

brevem, retrorsum spectantem " he certainly was describing from his 
picture. 

There followed notices of this M. africana by — 
Eusebius Nierembergius in 1635. 
J. Jonston in 1657. 
J. Ray in 1693. 
but all these were merely paraphrases of, or extracts from, the original 
account by Clusius. 

In 1762 Brisson published his u Regnum Animale, " from which I 
quote in full : — 

" Sciurus palmarum ; Mus palmarum (Vulgo.) 

Sciurus colons ex rufo et nigro mixti tceniis in dorso flavicantibus — • 
L'Scureuil Palmiste, 
2 



408 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV x 

liaj. Syn. quad., p. 216. 

Clus. Exot. p. 112. 

Johnst. Quadr., p. 105. 

Eus. Nieremb. Fig., p. 172. 

Pili corporis ex rufo et nigro variegantur : pili caudoe supra ex nigro 
et flavicante, infra vero sunt ex flavo rufe, cum duabus tceniis longi- 
tudinalibus in utroque latere liigris, altera toenia etiam longitudinali 
albicante utrinque teiminatis : tres sunt, insuper in dorso, secundum 
ipsius longitudinem, tcenioe flavicantes, in utroque scilicet latere una, 
alter in medio dorso. 

Habitat — Asia, Africa, et America.." 
There is a mark against this species which, as explained in his preface, 
means a species " quam propriis oculis examinare mihi fiat concessum." 

There are three points in this description to which I would call 
attention, viz. : — 

1. For the first time 6 pale dorsal stripes are mentioned. 

2. The rufous band along the midrib of the tail below is distinctly 
mentioned. 

3. No mention is made of the three-toed fore-feet. 

In 1766 was published the XII edition of Linne's " Systema 
Naturae " (S. palmarum is not mentioned in the X edition). The notice 
of this species (Lib. 1, p. 86) is as follows : — 

Sciurus palmarum. 

S. subgriseus, striis tribus flavicantibus, caudaque albo nigroque 
lineata. 

Sciurus coloris ex rufo et niffro mixti, lineis in dorso flavicantibus. 
Briss : Quad : p. 1 56. 

Mustela africana. Clus : Exot : p. 112. Raj : Quad : p. 216. 

Habitat — America, Asia, Africa. 

Cauda disticha erecta non abumbrans Pedes 4-5. Auricula? rotunda?." 

In the absence of any specific indication in his own description the 
fact that Linne quotes Brisson as his authority establishes the form with 
3 pale dorsal stripes and a rufous band under the tail as the typical 
palmarum, L. 

The puzzling point is where did Linne get his character " Pedes 
4-5 " ? for none of his authorities mention it. The only place he could 
have found it was Vol. X of Buffon's ' Histoire Naturelle ' which was 
published in 1763. J extract from it a description of" Le Palmiste." 



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" THE " COMMON STRIPED PALM SQUIRREL. 409 

" La Palmiste qui a servi de sujet pour cette description n' etait pas 

adulte II y avait cinq doigts aux pieds de derriere et seule- 

ment quatre a ceux de devant La couleur du poil de la 

queue etait melee de gris et de brun noiratre qui semblait former des 
anneaux forts etroits, chaque poil avait du noir pres dela racine, du gris 
audessus du noir et enfin du noir a la pointe. 

Jai observe un autre palmiste qui etait empaille et qui m'a paru de 

meme espece que le precedent Les poils de la queue 

formaient un panache, chaque poil etait de couleur rousseatre a son 
origine, il avait ensuite du noir, du rousseatre, du noir et enfin 
1'estremite etait blanche." 

I have seen no specimen in which the hairs of the tail were tipped 
with black. But whatever the immature specimen may have been the 
other was almost certainly the same form as the one described by Brisson 
and possibly the same specimen. Moreover Buffon's plate shows, as 
clearly as is possible in an uncolour picture, the rufous band of short 
appressed hairs on the undersurface of the midrib of the tail. ( Vide 
plate which is carefully copied from Buffon's picture, omitting only 
th;i background, and for which my acknowledgments are due to Miss 
Edwards.) 

Neither Brisson nor Buffon gives an exact locality for the specimen 
on which he bases his description. But it would probably be the 
E. coast of Madras ; at any rate in the absence of any more exactly 
indicated locality I think we may accept the three striped form of 
Madras as the typical form of Funambulus palmarum, L. and I 
propose to make a new species for the five striped form under the name 
of Funambulus pennant//. 

FUNAMBULUS PALMARUM, L. 

Sciurus penicillatus, Leach, Zool : Misc : Vol. 1., p. 6, 1814. 

Funambulus indicus, Lesson, 111 : de Zool : PI. XLIIJ, 1832. 
The individual hairs on the upper surface of the body, including the 
fac3, vertex (which however is often strongly tinged, with red). 
Shoulders and flanks are particoloured, or broadly ringed, with black 
and dirty white or pale buff, the general result is a very finely speckled 
appearance varying from red-brown to grey-brown according as the 
pide portions of the hairs approach more or less to buff. On the back 
there is a ' saddle -mark ' area always darker than the general body 
colour and usually much redder or browner. This variation in colour 



410 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI.. 

however seems to be purely individual for in the tine series of specimens 
from Trivandrum there is a specimen in which this saddle-mark differs 
from the body colour in little more than shade and even that only 
slightly while in another it approaches black as in F. trisriatus. Waterh. 
and there are all intermediate grades. Down the centre of this saddle- 
mark, from the nape to the base of the tail is a pale coloured streak, 
which corresponds in colour with the paler portions of the body hairs, 
just inside the lateral edges of the saddlo-mark are two similar streaks, 
parallel to the central one; the exact distance inside the edge of the 
saddle-mark varies in different individuals. The lower surface of the 
body from the chin to the vent and including the inside of the legs is 
dirty white to pale buff ; where the upper and lower colours meet 
along the sides there is often an area on which the pale belly colour is 
strongly tinged with brick red. Lesson's plate of F. milieus represents 
an exceptionally pale animal and shows the pale colour extending 
from under the chin upwards over the cheeks to the eye:;, Leach's plate 
of penicillatus does not; both forms are present among the Madras, &c, 
specimens. The rump and lower surface of the tail are coloured a 
bright cinnamon brown, the hairs on this red band of the tail are short 
like those of the body while the rest of the tail hairs are long (1 inch or 
more), and annulated, commencing with buff at the root, then black, 
white, black and well marked white tips. Looked at from above the tail 
appears to be obscurely, transversely barred black and white ; while 
from below there is seen a central rufous band bordered with black 
which again is bordered with white. 

Length of head and body about 150 mm. ; tail about the same. 

Habitat. —Madras. 

F. tristriatus, Waterhouse, is apparently the forest form of j>almarum 
and the latter is probably the former adapted to civilisation, though 
having been named earlier it is senior ' systematically ' to tristriatus. 
F. tristriatus is much the darker of the two, the palest specimen I ha\e 
seen being darker than the darkest palmarum; the rufous vertex of the 
head which is without exception in tristriatus is often absent in pal- 
marum ; and the obscurely barred appearance of the tail of palmarum 
is wanting in tristriatus, owing to the greater length of the white tips 
of the hairs. Waterhouse gave no locality for the type of his tristria- 
tus except ' S. India ' but there are specimens in the National Collection 
from Madras (? Presidency) and Travancore. I have tabulated the 



THE " COMMON STRIPED PALM SQUIRREL. 



411 



skull measurements of these as well as of the corresponding forms of 
palmarum and of the specimen from Guzerath referred to at the com- 
mencement of this paper. I have taken the measurements of the type 
tristriatus from its skull but I find they agree almost exactly with those 
given (in inches and lines) by Waterhouse in his paper in P. Z. S;, 
1889, p. 118. 





F. tristriatus. 


F. 


palmarum. 




Z 
a, 

H 


Average 
Madras 
specimens. 


... 8 g 


Average 
IV adras 
specimens. 


Average 
Travan core 
specimens. 


Guzerath 
specimen. 


Greatest length of skull 


40-75 


40-25 


44 


37'5 


40-5 


40 


Zygomatic breadth ... 


24 


24 


25 


21 


23 


23-5 


Interorbital breadth... 


13*25 


13 


13-5 


11 


11-5 


11-5 


Length of nasals 


1 2-5 


13 


14 


12 


12 


12 


L. of upper tooth row 


9 


8-5 


9 


7-5 


8 


8 


Palate from henselion 


19 


1925 


20'5 


17 


18 


18 



The way in which the increased skull measurements of Travancore 
tristriatus, over the type, are repeated in palmarum is significant, and I 
think justifies the separation of the Travancore form as a geographical 
race or sub-species. 

F. palmarum, L. comorinus sub. sp. n. 

Differs from typhnis by its much soberer grey colouration and by its 
larger skull measurements as given above. 

Habitat. — Travancore. 

Type. $ B. M. 95. 10. 9. 19. Obtained by Mr. H. Ferguson at 
Trevandrum, 23rd January 1895. Many specimens. 

FuN^MBULUS PENNANTII. Sp. 11. 

Palm squirrel. Pennant, Hist. Quad. Ed. Ill, p. 149, 1793. 

Habitat. — Mandvi Taluka of Surat District. 

Type : $ B. M. 98. 4 2. 25. original number 45, obtained by myself, 
27th February 1898. Length as in palmarum. 

The body colouring is very much as in palmarum, comorimis but 
along the outside edg? of the 'saddle mark,' on each side there is a 
supplementary pale stripe. This stripe being bounded on the outer 



412 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 



side by the general body colour, and that tou at a point where it is 
commencing to pale down to the meeting line with the belly colour, 
seems often faint but is always discernible. There is no band of 
short, rufous hairs along the midrib under the tail as there is in 
palmarum. All the tail hairs are long, and ringed black and white 
as in the upper tail hairs of palmarum. 

Pennant gives no locality for the specimen he describes ; he says 
however " Governor Loten did me the favour of informing; me that it 
lived much in the coco trees and was very fond of ' sury ' or palm 
wine, which is procured from this tree, from which it obtained the 
name of ' suricatsje ' or the little cat of the ' sury.' " I have failed to 
identify the ' Governor Loten' mentioned in this extract, but ' Hobson 
Jobson ' gives ' sury ', or ' soure ' as a name used for toddy by 
Tavernier (1663) and de la Boullaye le Gouz (1650). The latter cer- 
tainly wrote from Surat so I think we may accept Guzerath as the 
home of Pennants' Palm Squirrel. I have, therefore, taken the specimen 
obtained by me in the Mandvi Taluka of the Surat District as the type 
of a new species which I have named after the eminent English 
Zoologist Pennant who first described it. 

The following table gives the skull measurements of the type d 
pennantii as compared with the Guzerath specimen of palmarum which 
I obtained at the same time and with a form from Rawalpindi : — 





Guzerath 
palmonnn. 


Typical 
pennantii. 


Rawalpindi 




pennantii. 


Greatest length of skull 


40 


39 


38 


Zygomatic breadth 


23-5 


22 


22 


Interorbital breadth ... 


11-5 


11 


10-5 


Length of nasals 


12 


1 1 -5 


12 


Length of upper tooth row ... 


8 


7 


7 


Palate from henselion 


18 


16 


Hi 



Funambulus pennantii argentescens, sub. sp. n. 

The pattern of the colouration is identical with that of typical 
pennantii ; it is much paler however and almost all rufous tint has dis- 
appeared, the general body colour is a pale French grey and the stripes 



" THE" COMMON STRIPED PALM SQUIRREL. 418 

and belly bright white. The skull measurements given above indicate 
a narrower face and somewhat longer muzzle and the animal generally 
is somewhat smaller. 

Type : 9 (B. M. 5. 4. 2. 3.) Original number 13 ; obtained by Major 
Birrell, R.A.M.C., at Rawalpindi, 10th December 1900. Five speci- 
mens (3 immature) presented to the Museum. 

There are other specimens in the collection which seem to show that 
there are other local races deserving separation, but no localities are given. 

It would almost seem that palmarum is a South, and pennantii a 
North Indian form, but there is not sufficient material available to 
theorise profitably ; all that I can at present say is that they occur to- 
gether on the West Coast at about 21° N. Lat. and even so much ' with- 
out prejudice'. We know that in S. India where tristriatus occurs as the 
Forest form, palmarum is found about human dwellings and cultivations, 
where pennantii is the ' civilised' form, what is the Forest form? This 
and the interesting question of geographical variation in the two species 
must wait till more localised specimens are available. May I appeal to 
members for specimens ? There is no difficulty in obtaining specimens 
anywhere or at any time of the year ; printed instructions for ' mak- 
ing ' specimens may, I believe, be obtained from our Hon. Sec. (if not 
I shall be happy to furnish them to any one who will write to me) and 
— experto crede — there is very little difficulty in ' making ' the speci- 
mens — anv smart native servant can be taught to do it satisfactorily, 
provided the measurements are personally verified. Any specimens will 
be gratefully received by the Director of the Natural History Museum. 
(Cromwell Rd., London, S.W.). 

It remains only for me to record my obligation to Mr. 0. Thomas of 
the N. H. Museum for the advice, sympathy and encouragement he 
has given and always been ready to give me, and I wish also to ac- 
knowledge the kindness of Mr. Gerrit S. Miller of the United States 
National Museum, Washington, U.S.A., who, though he himself had 
only a limited time for work at South Kensington, repeatedly spared 
some of it to help a beginner. 



414 

ROUGH NOTES ON SIX COMMON HILL ORCHIDS. 
By Major M. B. Roberts, 
1/39th Garhwal Rifles. 
With 3 Plates. 
{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 6th July 1905.) 

I have written the following rough notes on orchids (though abso- 
lutely ignorant of the science of botany, I regret to say) partly on ac- 
count of seeing an appeal to members to send in contributions to the 
Journal and partly in the hope that some member well versed in the 
subject may give us the benefit of his knowledge and experience in an 
article or series of articles on orchids. 

Of all the beautiful and interesting flowering plants, orchids form, 
perhaps, one of the most interesting orders. And what, it may be 
asked, causes so much interest to be taken in this particular order of 
plants? The answer to this question is necessarily a long one ; but, 
to put it as concisely as possible, the great attraction that orchids have 
for one lies in : — (1) The enormous size of the order and its wide 
distribution all over the world, except in the coldest regions ; (2) the 
great beauty and delicious scent of the flowers of many kinds on the one 
hand and the weird forms (often amounting to the mimicry of insects 
and, it may be added, to the mimicry of evil smells — a Bulbophyllum 
from Borneo imitates the smell of a dead animal) of some on the other ; 
(3) the marvellous ways in which many genera propagate themselves or 
can be artificially propagated and the even more wonderful means that 
Nature has devised for their fertilisation by insect agency ; and (4) the 
peculiar and widely differing habits that various genera exhibit both in 
their modes of growth and of flowering. There are many other items 
which one could add to this list, but the above will suffice. 

But, unfortunately, there are several obstacles in the way of the 
amateur who wishes to learn even a little of this large subject, chief 
among which is the difficulty of obtaining any moderately priced and not 
too scientifically written books on orchids. There are, of course, many 
splendid scientific works on the subject which are comprehensible to the 
botanist ; but these are not only very unintelligible to the ordinary 
mortal, and are beyond the reach of most of us financially, but such 
works can only be found in large libraries which do not exi*t where 
many of us are stationed. 



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ROUGH NOTES ON SIX COMMON HILL ORCHIDS. 415 

What the amateur in India requires is a simply written, well illustrat- 
ed book describing the best flowered varieties of orchids and giving 
instructions how to grow them, water them, and allow them to rest ; the 
latter being one of the most important points in growing orchids success- 
fully. 

Many of the finest orchids in existence come from Burma and Assam, 
whilst India and Ceylon can boast of a great number of beautiful kinds. 
So if only some one could be found to write a book on the lines above 
suggested for the orchids of these countries, it would be a great boon to 
us amateurs. I have seen large quantities of a lovely orchid ruthlessly 
wasted out of sheer ignorance of the habits and requirements of the plant. 
In the particular case referred to, these orchids were obtained from a 
deeply shaded ravine, and, on arrival, they were put on the top of a dry 
masonry wall in the blazing sun with the idea that they would flourish 
there. Needless to say, they never flowered, and were soon scorched up 
to nothing. If these same plants had been wired on to a large shady 
tree, they would not only have flowered w T ell, but, by now, would have 
nearly covered the tree, and, for six weeks every year, would have been 
a sight worth going far to see. 

In the following notes on a few common local orchids it should be 
noticed that they have special reference to orchids found in the Central 
Himalayas between Naini Tal on the East and Mussoorie on the West, 
for it seems quite probable that similar orchids obtained from Darjeeling 
or Assam might be found at totally different altitudes, whilst their seasons 
of growth, flowering, and rest would doubtless be much affected by the 
differing climates of these localities. 

1. Coelogyne cristata. (Plate A.) — A beautiful epiphyte, growing 
mostly on oak trees or on well shaded rocks from 5,000 to 6,00U feet above 
sea level. Season of rest, October to February (inclusive). Season of 
flowering, March and April. Season of growth, immediately after 
flowering till September. This is a handsome evergreen plant, composed 
of a strong ground-stem, from below which the wiry roots grow, while 
from the top at intervals the semi-transparent green pseud obulbs are 
thrown out, one every year. These pseud obulbs are about two inches 
long, and in all orchids possessing them they form the natural reservoirs 
from which the plant keeps up its strength during the season of rest ; at 
the end of the growing season they have become very fully inflated as it 
were, whilst by the end of the season of rest they are much shrivelled, 
3 



416 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XVI. 

though still containing moisture. From the top of each bulb grow two 
lance-shaped leaves which last for three or four years. The flower stalk 
begins to show in February from below the last-formed pseudobulb. 
The normal number of flowers in the wild plant is five, though six are 
occasionally found. They measure about three inches across, are pure 
milk-white with beautifully waved, petals and sepals, and have a yellow 
stain on the lip and its crests. 

It is a pity to cut these lovely flowers, for they soon fade : if required 
for table decoration, it is better to include the stem with two or three 
pseudobulbs and roots complete, for the latter can easily be hidden in 
moss, and under these conditions the flower will remain perfect for three 
or four weeks with a little ordinary care ; and when it shows signs of 
fading, the plant can be wired on to the bark of a shady tree, with the 
certainty that it will grow and. thrive and flower again next year. 

Nest to growing these orchids on shady trees or rocks, the most 
effective way is to plant them in a large shallow wooden tub which is 
easily made out of the bottom of a cask. This tub must be well drained 
with large holes cut in the bottom, and it should be raised, off the ground 
to prevent any chance of the drainage holes becoming filled up with soil. 
It should be filled with lumps of charcoal of all sizes, pieces ofbroken pots 
or brick, bits of fibrous wood, a few dead leaves, and a little sand the 
mixture should quite fill the tub and be higher in the centre. Then the 
plants (having had all useless old stems, pseudobulbs, and roots cut off) are 
laid on, and their roots covered over with moss, the whole being secured 
with copper wire. Such tubs should be looked to every year, for these 
orchids grow fast, and overcrowding only leads to much deterioration. 

Water should be given very sparingly when the plants show signs of 
flowering, and in increasing and finally large quantities during the season 
of growth, at the end of which it should be gradually diminished and then 
entirely stopped. On no account should water be given to any orchid 
(except in very small quantities) during the season of rest, for by doing 
so either the plant will be forced into fresh growth at an unnatural season, 
or, should the flowering season be near, it will be found that this causes 
the newly formed flower buds to shrivel up and drop off — to " damp off ' 
as it is technically termed. The only exception that should be made to 
this rule is in the case of a weakly plant which it is necessary to force 
into strong growth, but in this case no flowers can be looked for until 
the following year. 



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ROUGH NOTES ON SIX COMMON HILL ORCHIDS. 417 

2. Ccelogyne ochracea. (Plate A.) — An epiphyte which particu- 
larly affects oak and rhododendron trees, the latter for choice, and 
one that grows within a very restricted area of elevation at about 
5,500 feet. The whole plant is smaller and more compact than the 
last species, its pseudobulbs and leaves are much yellower in colour, 
and the flowers are smaller and are produced on upright stems instead 
of on drooping ones. The flowers are very sweet scented at times, 
the scent resembling that of a carnation. When the flowering is over 
the bottom of the flower stem itself developes into the new pseudobulb 
with its two lance-shaped leaves, so that in an old plant the flower- 
stalk bearing one or more seed vessels is seen to be growing out of the 
top of the pseudobulb instead of from below as is the case with 
Ccelogyne cristata. The flowers are creamy-white, with yellow and 
ochre markings on the lip. 

Season of rest, October to April. Flowering season, throughout 
May. Season of growth , June to September. 

3, Dendrobium amoenum. (Plate B.) — On trees of all sorts, 
batween 4,500 and 5,500 feet elevation. The pseudobulbs of this 
orchid (as of most, if not all, Dendrobiums) are the jointed reed-like 
stems of the plant itself, which grow to about two feet in length. 
About April the joints of last year's stems (particularly all the upper 
ones) will be seen to be swelling, and gradually these swellings will 
dsvelop into buds, two or three at each joint; and, if the plant be a fine 
specimen, the splendid show of flowers makes up for the want of leaves, 
for, unfortunately, this Dendrobium is not evergreen, but drops its leaves 
annually. Whilst flowering, or just after, the new growth will be 
observed pushing its way from the base of the flowering stem, and as it 
grows it throws out small lance-shaped leaves from the joints. The 
flowers, which measure about two inches across, are white with magenta 
tips to the petals, sepals and lip, whilst the latter is marked with yellow 
inside as well. The flowers have a delicious scent of violets. I have 
never observed this orchid flowering from stems more than one year 
old, whereas many Dendrobiums go on flowering from old stems for 
years. 

Season of rest, October to April. Flowering season, during May. 
Season of growth, June to September. 

Many Dendrobiums are easily propagated by cutting off an old stem 
and laying it in moss kept thoroughly damp, thus inducing young plants 



418 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XV J. 

to be thrown out at some of the joints. When these are sufficiently 
grown, the old stem is cut away immediately above and below each, and 
the young plants caD then be grown in a pot or on a block of wood 
with a little moss, or be wired on to a tree ; but Dendrobium amoinum 
is very shy of this sort of treatment, though it will occasionally develop 
young plants. 

4. Auricles multiflorum (also known as A. affine.) (Plate B.) — A 
compactly growing little plant, living entirely on trees at from o,000 to 
4,50u feet elevation. The general appearance of the plant is a bunch of 
spotted, brownish, leathery leaves, much curved, channelled, and unevenly 
dented at the top. From this bunch of leaves the flower stalks hang- 
surrounded by their cylindrical masses of densely packed pretty little 
rose-coloured flowers. . The iErides have no pseudobulbs on which 
to depend for nourishment during their season of rest, so one imagines 
that the fleshy leaves and numerous roots have to answer the purpose. 
But, curiously enough, these orchids are usually found in dry situations, 
so it seems probable that a somewhat dry treatment would best suit 
them. 

5. jErides odoratum. (Plate C.) — An epiphyte found between 3,000 
and 4,500 feet on trees only. Unlike the last species which has numer- 
ous, but flat, roots that burrow deep into the moss on the large branches 
of trees, this orchid is provided with very long, round elastic roots 
which fasten themselves firmly here and there to the smaller branches 
on which no moss grows. It is, therefore, much more one's precon- 
ceived idea of what an iErides or " Air Plant "