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Full text of "The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society"




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THE 



JOURNAL ^ 



OF THE 



Bombay Natueal Histoet Society. 



EDITED BY 



W. S. MILLARD. N. B. KINNEAR, R. A. SPENCE. 



VOL. XXVI. 

Consisting of Five Parts and containing Seven Coloured 

Plates, Forty-six Lithographed Plates, Seven Diagrams, 

Ttvo Maps a7id Forty -nine Text-Figures^ 



Part J {Pages 1 to 318) 
„ II iPages 319 #0 704) 
„ III iPages 705 to 884) 
„ IV (,Pages 885 to 1055) 
„ V {Index, cfo.) 



Dates of Publication. 



•49 ••• •■• 



••• ••• ••• 



••• ••• «•• 



•t* ••• .t* 



. 20«A Z><;cr., 1918. 
. 20<A May, 1919. 
. lOth Oct,, 1919. 

ilst Jan., 1920. 

15#A Jan., 1921. 



J fl lu b It ^ : 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 

No. 1. 

• Page 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part XXV: 
{With a Plate of Catreus wallichi, the Cheer Pheasant). 
By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 1 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 
Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Part II. By R. C. Wroughton, F.z.s. 19 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. 
XVIII. Report on the House Rats of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. By Martin A. C. Hinton 59 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XXVI. {With Plate XXVI and Diagram of 
Cerberus rhynchops and Enhydris curtus.) By Lt.- 
Col. F. Wall, C.M.G., C.M.Z.S., f.l.s., i.m.s 89 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 

XXI. By T. R. Bell, I.F.S., CLE 98 

Indian Dragonflies. Part III. (With 12 Text-f<jures.) 

By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s 141 

Notes on the Birds of Ambala District, Punjab. Part 

II. By H. Whistler, M.B.O.U., F.z.s 172 

The CTPERA.CE.E OF THE BOxMBAY PRESIDENCY. Part II. 

By L. J. Sedgwick, f.l.s., i.c.s 192 

A Revision of the Indian Species of Botala and Amman- 

NiA. Part II. By E. Blatter, S.J., and Prof. F. Hallberg 210 
The Flora of the Indian Desert. ( Jodhpur and Jaisal- 

mer). Part I. (With 12 Plates.) By E. Blatter, s.j., 

and Prof. F. Hallberg -- 218 

The Birds of Prey of the Punjab. Part I. (With 2 

^yjrimis.) By C. H. Donald, f.z.s 247 

Panthers. By Brig.-General R. G. Burton 266 

The Mesopotamian Bulbul. By Capt. Claude B. Tice- 

hurst, r.a.m.c 279 

' '■^•':^» 52099 



ir CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 

Page 

Miscellaneous Notes:— »,•'; ". vl ■^ :'['.■- 

I. Notes on a Young Hog-Badger {Arctonyx, 

s^?.) in the Garo Hills. By V. A. Jackson. 281 
Further Notes on the Hog-Badger. By V. 

A. Jackson 281 

II. Porcupine's Mode of Attack. By Reginald 

H. Heath 282 

III. Method of Porcupine's Attack. By Lt.-Col. 

E. O'Brien ..., ,.... 28S 

IV. Method of Porcupine's Attack. By F. J. 

Mitchell 28S 

V. The Beatrix or Arabian Oryx (^Ori/x leucoryx 
■ in Central Arabia. (With a Plate.) By 

Lt.-Col. R. E. A. Hamilton 28a 

VI. Notes on a Takin Head from Assam. By J. 

P. Mills, i.c.s •.... 284 

VII. Panic in Elephants during an Earthquake. 

By V. A. Jackson, F.R.G.s ".. 285 

VIII. On White Elephants H. Macnaghten ... 285 

IX. The White-cheeked Bulbul (Molpastes leuco- 

(jenys.) By Brig. -General R. M. Betham. 286 
X. The Plumage of the Purple Honeysucker 
(^Arachnedhtra, asiatica.) By Capt. Claude 
B, Ticehurst, E.A.M.c 286' 

XI. Note on the Indian Long-billed. Vulture 

(Gt/iys indicus.) By W. H. Mathews, i.p. 287 

XII. The Common Hawk-Cuckoo (ffierococcyx 
varius) in the Punjab. By H, Whistler, 
r.z.s., Indian Police 287 

XIII The Breeding Habits of Mrs. Hume's Pheas- 

'"'"- aut. By Capt. R. Blafidy... •... 289 

XIV. Notes on Kali] Pheasants in the tJhiu Hills. 

'■■• By Capt. R. Blandy ..' 289 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



Page 

XV. OcciiiTence of the Lesser Florican or Likh 
(8. aurita), in the Mahableshwar Hills. By 
Kyrle Fellowes 289 

XVI. Abnormal Varieties of the Indian Redstart 
(i?. rufivenrits) and the Common House 
Crow (C. splendens.) By H. Whistler, 
F.z.s,, Indian Police 289 

XVII. The Coloin- of the Eye of the Female White- 
eyed Pochard (Nyroca africana). By Capt. 

Claude B. Ticehurst, R.A.M.c 290 

XVIII. Notes on the Habits of the Mallard (Anas 

hoscas). By Lt.-Col. E. J. D. Colvin ... 291 

XIX. An addition to the Game Birds of Burma. 
The Long-billed Hill Partridge (Rhizothera 
longirostris, Temn.) in Tenasserim. By 

Chas. M. Inglis, m.b.o.u 291 

XX. Natural History Notes from Fao. By W. 

D, Cumming 292 

XXI. How Trout were introduced into Kashmir. 

By F.J.Mitchell 295 

XXII. Notes on the Larva of Ohce'rocamjM alecto. 

By Capt. F. B. Scott, i.A 299 

XXIII. Life History of Anthercea roylei, the Oak 

Emperor Moth. By C. W. Allan 300 

XXIV. A Flight of Locusts (With a Plate). By E. 

C. B. Acworth 301 

XXV. Nesting Habits of Vespa dorylloides, Sauss. 

By C. F. C. Beeson, m.a., i.f.s 301 

XXVL Mimicry in Spiders. By F. Clayton 302 

XXVII. On the Breeding Habits of some Myriaiioda. 

ByC. McCann 303 

XXVIII. Note on a new undescribed Species of 
Cynodon (With a Plate.') By K. Ranga- 
chari and C. Tadulingam 304 



' wi " Contents of vol ume xx vi. 

■'■■'■' Page 

XXIX. A Variety of Batea frondosa. By Lt.-Col. 

C. E. Luard 305 

XXX. The Edible Date-Palm in Bombay. By 

Rev. E. Blatter, s.,T..... 306 

XXXI. Oleander poisoning Camels. By Capt. J. E. 

B. Hotson, i.A.R.o. .". 306 

XXXII. Notes from the Oriental Sporting Magazine. 
New Series, 1869 to 1879, By Lt.-Col. 

.. R. W. Burton, i.A. 309' 

• ' XXXIII. Nilgiri Trap for catching Wild Animals. 

By Capt. Philip Gosse, K. A. M.c 311 

' '"' XXXIV. Eleocharis congesta, Don., in the Bombay 

Presidency. By L. J. Sedgwick, i.c.s. ... 312 
Proceedings 313 — 318 

No. 2. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part 
XXVI. (^With a Plate of LopJioplwnts imjyejanus, the 
Impeyan Pheasant or Monal.) By E. C. Stuart 
Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 319 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 
Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Part III. By R. C. Wroughton, F.Z.S 338 

On Asiatic vStarlings. By Capt. C. B. Ticehurst, r.a.m.c. 380 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey No. XVIII 
(contd.) Report on the House Rats of India, Burma 
and Ceylon. By Martin A. C. Hinton 384 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XIX. 
A Synopsis of the Groups of True Mice found within 
the Indian Empire. By Oldfield Thomas, F.r.s 417 

A New Species of Nesokia from Mesopotamia. By Old- 
field Thomas, f.r.s 422: 

Supplementary Notes on Some Indian Birds. By B. B. 

Osmaston, c.i.e., i.f.s 424 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. ^ii- 

Pagk 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part 
XXVII. (With Plate XXVII and Diagram of 
Hyd/i'ophis spiralis and Hyd/rophis cyanocinctus. By 
Lt.-Col. F. Wall, C.M.G., C.M.Z.S,, F.L.S., I.M.S 430 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 

XXII. (With Plate H.) By T. R. Bell, c.i.e., i.f.s.. 438 

Indian Dragonflies. Part IV. (With 14 Text-figures). 

By Major F. C. Fraser, i.M.s : 488 

Sub-Species and the Field Naturalist. By B. C. Stuart 

Baker, f.l.S., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 518 

The Flora of the Indian Desert. (Jodhpur and Jaisal- 
mer). Part II. (With 13 Plates.) By E. Blatter, 
S.J., and Prof. F. Hallberg 525 

Notes on a Collection of Snakes made in the Nilgiri 
Hills and the adjacent Wynaad. (With Diagram 
and maps.) By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., c.m.z.s., 
f.l.S. , i.M.s 552 

Some Birds of Ludhiana District, Punjab. By H, 

Whistler, f.z.s., m.b.o.u 585 

Reduction of Euphorbia rothiana. By L. J. Sedgwick, 

F.L.S., i.c.s 599- 

A List of Birds found in the Simla Hills, 1908-1918. 

By A. E. Jones 601 

Some South Indian Coccids of Economic Importance. 
(With 4 Plates.) By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, b.a., 
F.E.S., F.z.s 621 

The Birds of Prey of the Punjab. Part II. '(With 

Plates I and II.) By C. H. Donald, f.z.s 629 

Progress of the Mammal Survey 656 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. The Tiger and the Train. By A. A. Dunbar 

Brander, i.f.s 658 

II. Arrow head imbedded in a Tiger's back. By 

. J. G. Ridland 658 



«ni 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



•Mr ^1 



Page 

III. Size of Tigers. By Lt.-Col. R. Light 659 

IV. Tigress {Felis iigris) attacking a Sloth Bear 

(Melursus tirsinus). By J. A. Duke 659 

V. Mongoose (Mungos mungo) killing a Hedge- 
hog. By Lt.-Col. E. O'Brien 660 

VI. Natural Death of a Fox {Vulpes hengalensis). 

By G. O. Allen, i.c.s 660 

VII. Spotted Deer {Axis axis) and Wild Dogs 

{Cuon duldmnensis). By J. A. Duke 661 

IX. Porcupine's method of shedding quills when 

attacked. By Lt.-Col. R. Light 666 

X. Record Female Nilgiri Tahr. (Hemitragus 

hylocrius). By Lt. A. P. Kinloch 666 

XI. Indian Grey Shrike {Lanius lahtora) attack- 

ing wounded Sandgrouse. By Lt.-Col. 

E. O'Brien 667 

XII. Occurrence of Indian Red-breasted Flycat- 
cher (Sipliia hyperythra) in the Deccan. 

ByA. J. Currie 667 

X\ll. Nesting habits of the Brown Rockchat 

{Gercomela fusca). By L. S. White 667 

XIV. A note on the large Brown Thrush (Zoothera 

monticola). By S. J.Martin 668 

XV. Nidification of the Smaller Streaked Spider- 
hunter {Arachnothera aurata). J. M. D. 

Mackenzie, i.f.s., m.b.o.u., f.z.s 669 

XVI. The Malabar Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros 
cwonatus) in Mirzapur, U. P. By G. O. 

Allen, I.C.S 671 

XVII. The Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) in Mirzapur, 

U. P. ByG. O.Allen 671 

XVIII. Extension of Range of the Bronze-winged 

Dove. By H. Dawson 672 

XIX. Habits of the Painted Sandgrouse (Pterocles 

fasciatus). By G. O. Allen, i.c.s 672 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



IX 



Page 

XX, Sandgroiise in Mesopotamia. By Lt.-Col. 

H. A. F. Magrath 672 

XXI. The Burmese Peafowl (Pavo mxdicus) in the 

Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal. By C. 

M. Inglis 673 

XXII. Nidification of Stone's Pheasant (Fhasianus 

elecjmis). A correction. By C. M. Inglis. 673 
XXlli. The Great Indian Bustard (JEupoHMis edwardsi) 

in Mirzapur District, U. P. By G. 0. 

Allen, i.c.s 673 

XXIV. Note on the occurrence of the Lesser Florican 

or Likh (Sypheotis aurita) in Bombay. 

By N. Marry at 674 

XXV. The Cotton Teal in Malabar. By A. M. 

Kinloch 674 

XXVI. Occurrence of the Common Sheldrake (Ta- 

doyna cornuta) and the Marbled Duck 

(^Marmaronetta angudirostris) in Kathiawar. 

By Lt.-Col. H. W. Berthon 674 

XXVII. Spot-billed Duck in Kashmir. By Maj. D. J. 

Oliver 675 

XXVIII. The Sheldrake {Tadorna cornuta) in Manipur 

State. By J. C. Higgin?, i.c.s 675 

XXIX. Further note on the Birds of Ambala District, 

Punjab. By A. E. Jones 675 

XXX. List of Birds observed in the Euphrates Valley. 

By Major General H. T. Brooking 677 

XXXI. Large Carp from Mesopotamia. By Major 

R. Bagnall 679 

XXXII. Large Carp from Mesopotamia. By Brig.- 

General H. Mackay, k.a 680 

XXXIII. The Habits of the Tree Frog {Rhacophorus 

maculahcs). By G. O. Allen, i c.s 681 

XXXIV. The Habits of BryopMs mycterizans. By 

A. M. Kinloch 681 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



Page 

XXXV. The Bite of the Large Spotted Viper (Lacliesis 
monticola). By A. Wright 681 

XXXVI. Remarks on Col. Wall's identification of 
Hijdroyhis cyanocindus. By Malcolm 
A. Smith, F.z.s 682 

XXX VII. Notes on Some Interesting Snakes recently 
presented to this Society. By S. H. 
Prater 683 

XXXVIII. The undescribed Female of an Indian Dra- 
gonfly (Hemicordulia asiatica). By Major 

F. C. Fraser, i.m.s 685 

XXXIX. Libellulines at St. Thomas' Mount, Madras. 

By H. R. Rishworth 685 

XL. A note on the function of the " Forceps " in 
Forfculidce. By Lt.-Col. F. Powell 

Connor, I.M.S 688 

XLI. Some Butterflies taken in Benares and 

Adjoining Districts. By G. 0. Allen, i.c.s. 689 

XLI I. Notes on the Emergence from the Cocoon in 
Lcmocamjndre . By Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, 

I.M.S 691 

XLIIL Tenacity of life of Parapolyhia orientalis. 

By G. O. Allen, i.c.s 693 

XLIV. Protective habits of the Larva of Trypano- 

pjliora semihyalioia. By G. 0. Allen, i.C.S. 693 
XLV. Note on the supposed effects of the bite of a 
Pentatomid Bug (fialys dentatus). By E. 
H. Hunt 694 

XLVI. A few Additions to the List of Mussoorie 
Plants, by James Marten, in Vol. XIX, 

p. 475. By G. O. Allen, I.c.s 695 

XLVII. On the Indentity of Blastospora huileri Syd. 

(With a Plate.) By S. L. Ajrekar, b.a.... 697 

Proceedings • 698 — 703 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. , ;xi 

Page 

No. 3. ; 

The Game Birds of Iis'dia, Bukma ajsd Ceylon. Part 
XXVli. (With a coloured [Plate of Tragopan). By 

E. C« Stuart Baker, F.z.s., F.K.S., m.b.o.u 705 

Scientific Results FfiOM THE Mammal Survey, >Jo. XVIII 
(contd.). Report on the House Rats of India, Burma 

and Ceylon. By Martin A. C. Hinton 716 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XX. 

By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.s 726 

A. — Notes on the Genus Cheliones. 

B. — Change of Coat in the Common Palm Squirrel — An 

Appeal. B}- R. C. Wroughton, f.z.s. 
C. — Two new forms oi the Funamlndus tristriatus (Gvoivgi). 

By R. C. Wroughton and Winifred M. Davison. 
D. — On the Genus Tadarida (Wrinkle-Lip Bats). By 
R. C. Wroughton, F.z.s. 

Indian Dragonflies. Part V. {With Text-ficjiLres). By 

Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s 734 

Some new Mammals from Mesopotamia. By Oldfield 

Thomas, f.r.s., f.z.s 745 

Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part XXIII. 

By T. R. Bell, c.i.e., i.f.s. 750 

Some Birds observed at Fagoo, near Simla. By H. 

Whistler, f.z.s., m.b.o.u 77(»' 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 
Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Part IV. By R. C. Wroughton, F.z.s 776 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XXVIII {With a coloured Plate XXVIII and 
Diagram). By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., c.m.z.s., f.z.s., 
I.M.S 803. 

The Flora of the Indian Desert, (Jodhpur and Jaisal- 
mer). Part III. {With G Plates.). By E. Blatter, 
S.J., and Prof. F. Hallberg 811 



xii CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 

Page 

A Tentative List of the Vertebkates of the Jalpaiguri 
District, Bengal. {With Plates). By Chas. M. Inglis, 
M.B.O.U., W. L. Travers, H. V. O'Donel and E. O. 
Shebbeare, i.F.s ., 819 

The Birds of Prev of the Punjab. Part III. (With 

Flaiel). By C. H. Donald, f.z.s 826 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

1. Note on the Malabar Slender Loris, (Loris 

hideklcerianiis). By N. B. Kinnear, C.M.z.s. 836 
, II. Tiger {Felis tigris) climbing Tree. By G. 

Monteath, b.a., i.c.s 837 

III. Wild Dogs (Ciion dul-liunensis) and Sambhur. 

By F. Ware 837 

IV. Distribution of the different races and species 

of Takin (Budorcas). By F. Kingdon-Ward. 838 

V. Notes on the Big Game and Dnck of Dhar 
State. By H. H. Udaji Pao Puar, K.c.s.i., 
K.B.E., Maharaja of Dhar 841 

VI. Variety of the Common House Crow (Corvus 

splendeyis) at Jhang, Punjab. By Hugh 
Whistler, F.z.s 843 

VII. Maternal instinct in the Pied Bush-Chat, 

(Pratincola caprafa). By S. M. Robinson. 843 
VIII. Nesting habits of the Brown Rockchat (Ger- 

comela fusca). By W. H. Mathews 843 

IX. An Albino Swallow. By W. H. Mathews... 844 

X. Abnormal variety of the Green Bee-Eater. 

(Merops viridis). By Hugh Whistler, F.z.s. 844 
XI. Some Birds of Prey of Mesopotamia. By C. 

H. Donald, f.z.s 845 

XII. Extension of Range of the Green Imperial 
Pigeon (Carpophaga wna mna) in Western 
India. By N. B. Kinnear, C.M.z.s 846 



COIS TENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



xiw 



Page 

XIII, Extracts from " A Monograph of the Phea- 
• • sants by William Beebe." By Chas. M. 

Inglis, M.B.o.u ■..:.: 847 

XIV. The Black-Breasted Kalij Pheasant (Gen- 

nceus horsjieldi horsfieldi) east of the Irra- 
waddy. By Chas. M. Inglis, m.b.o.u. ... 848 
XV. A note on the breeding of the Hill Patridge 
Arhoricola iorqueola near Simla. By Hugh 

Whistler, f.z.s • 849- 

XVI. Late stay of Common Snipe {Gallinago cceles- 

tis) in Central India. By Percy Hide ... 849 
XVII. Late stay of Pin-tail Snipe (Gallinago 

stenura) in Burma. By A. F. M. Slater. 850 
XVIII. Migration of Snipe in Burma. By E. T. 

Kenny 850' 

XIX. Feeding habits of the Little Egret (Herodias 

garzetta). By H. R. Meredith 852: 

XX. Further occui'rence of the Rose-coloured 
Starling (Pastor roseus) and the Flamingo 
(Phcenico2}terus roseus) in the Darbhanga 
District, Behar. By Chas. M. Inglis, 

M.B.o.u... 853 

XXI. Different Birds nesting in Compan}-. By 

W.Mathews 853 

XXII. Notes on some nests recently found in South 

Tenasserim. By Cyril Hopwood, m.b.o.u. 853' 
XXIII. Mesopotamian Bird Notes. By F. C. R. 

Jourdain 860 

XXIV. The Giant Tortoise living in Ceylon. (With 

a Plate). By N. B. Kinnear, c.m.z.s. ... 861 
XXV. The Rudimentary hind limb in an Embryo of 
Pi/thon moluriis. By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, 

i.M.s 862. 

XXVI. The Habits of the Green Whip-Snake (Bryo- 

■ iMs myderizans) . By J.. F. Cains, s.j. ... 862. 



XIV 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI. 



Page 
XXYII. Note on tlie snake Trirhinopholis nuchalis 

(Boulenger). By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, i.M.S. 863 
XXVIII. A Gravid Specimen of the Snake Cylind/ro- 
phis mamdatus (Linn.). By Lt.-Col. 

F. Wall, I.M.S 863 

XXIX. Reply to Dr. Malcolm Smith's remarks in 
the last Journal. By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, 

I.M.S 864 

XXX. Notes on some recent additions to our 
Society's Snake collection. By Lt.-Col. 

F. Wall, I.M.S 865 

XXXI. Occurrence of Stichopthalma godfreyi (Roths). 

By O. C. Ollenbach 867 

XXXII. Occurrence of Colotis vestalis and amata at 

Unao. By G. 0. Allen, i.c.s 868 

XXXIII. Early appearance of Pieris hrassicce (Linn.) 

in the Darbhanga District, Behar. By 
Chas. M. Inglis 869 

XXXIV. Notes on the habits of Butterflies (Zeuxidia 

onasoni and Xanthotcenuia husiris). By 0. 

C. Ollenbach 869 

XXXV. Naini Tal Butterfly Notes. By G. 0. Allen, 

I.c.s 870 

XXXVI. Life History Notes on Coorg Butterflies. 

By F. Hamilton, i.c.s 871 

XXXVII. The Hawk Moth {Deilephiia Uvornica). A 

correction. By Capt. F. B. Scott, i.a. ... 872 
XXXVIII. Harpador costalis, Stal, preying on Ceratina 
viridissima, D. T. By Chas. M. Inglis, 

M.B.o.u 872 

XXXIX. Notes on the Flying White Ants and Scor- 
pions that feed on them. By C. H. 

Dracott 873 

XL. Notes on some new and other Indian Dra- 

gonflies. By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s 874 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXTI. xv 

Page 
XLI. Ants attacking Bees. By A. G. H. Brei- 

thaupt 878 

XLII. Habits of Earth Worms. By G. O. Allen, 

i.c.s 879 

Review. A practical handbook of British Birds 880 

Proceedings 882 

No. 4. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part 

XXVIII. With a Coloured Plate, Trmjopan hlythi 

hlythi. By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u.... 885 
Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XVIII 

(concld.). Reports on the House Rats of India, Burma 

and Ceylon. By Martin A. C. Hinton 906 

Indian Dragonflies. Part VI. (With Text-Jig ares.) By 

Major F. C. Eraser, i.m.s 919 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XXI. 
A. — Some New Mammals from Baluchistan and North 

West India. By Oldfieid Thomas, f.r.s 933 

B. — Two new species of Galomi/fcus. By Oldfieid 

Thomas, f.r.s 938 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 

XXIV. By T. R. Bell, CLE., i.F.s 941 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 

Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 

Part V. By R, C. Wroughton, F.z.s 955 

The Flora of the Indian Desert (Jodhpur and Jaisalmer;. 

Part IV. By E. Blatter, s.j., and Prof. F. Hallberg. 968 
A Tentative List of Vertebrates of the Jalpaiguri 

District, Bengal. Part II. (With a Plate, Map and 

Test BlocJc). By Chas. M. Inglis, m.b.o.u., W. L. 

Travers, H. V. O'Donel and E. O. Shebbeare, i.F.s. ... 988 
The Birds of Prey of the Punjab. (With Text figures) 

Part IV. By C. H. Donald, F.z.s 1000 



xVi CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV I. 

Page 

Notes on Indian Butterflies. By Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S 1021 

Description of a New Snake of the Genus Contia, B. and 

G., FROM Persia. By G. A. Boulenger 1024 

Bombay Natural History Society's Mammal Survey of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. Report Nos. 30, Deccan 

(Poona District), and 31, Nilgiris 1025 

Progress of the Mammal Survey....' , 1036 

Obituary Notices : F. Hannyngton, i.c.s., E. W. Ellis, 

i.F.s 1037 

Miscellaneous Notes :— . 

I. Large Kashmir Stag Head (Cervus cashmi- 
rianus) {icith text-hlock'). By C. Gilbert 

Rogers ....1038 

II. Porcupine's method of attack. By C. R. S. 

Pitman 1039 

III. Porcupine's method of attack. By Ran- 

dolph C. Morris 1040 

IV. Caracal (Felis caracal) and Hunting Leopard 

(CynceUiriis juhatiis) in Mirzapur, U. P. 

By G. 0. Allen, i.c.s 1041 

V. "Field Rats in the Deccan in 1879. By J. 

Davidson 1042 

VI. Note on the eggs of Prinia inornata. The 

Indian Wren- Warbler. By F. Field 1043 

VII. Note on the Nightjar (^Capi'wfulgus cegypU- 

cus). By Major W. M. Logan Home 1043 

VIII. Strange behaviour of a wild bird. By 

Major J. E. M. Boyd 1043 

IX. The Blue-breasted Quail (Excalfactoria 
' cliinensis) at Mirzapur. By H. Whistler, 

■ F.Z.S., M.B.G.U. 1044 

X; Birds of different species nesting in Com- 
pany. By G. 0. Allen, I.C.S. .1044 



COXITXTS OF VOLUME XXVI. xvii 

Page 
XI. The Red 'I'urtle Dove {(Enopepelia t. tranque- 
harlca) in Unao, U. P. By G. O. Allen, 

1 .c.s 1 0-1:4 

Xll. Accidents to Vnltures. By G. O, Allen, i.C.S. 1045 

XIII. Howei'ing habit of the Spotted Owlet (Athene 

hrahma). By G. 0. Allen, i.cs 1045 

XIV. A 17 Scale Krait [Bun(/arus ca^rtdeus) from 

Banu-alore. By Lt.-Col. F. Wall, i.M.s.... 1046 
XV. Early occurrence of the Painted Lady 
{\\nie^t<a earihii, L.) in the Darl)hanga 

District, Behar. By Chas. M. Inglis 1046 

XVi. A cnrious method of feedino- noted in Danais 

Umaiace, ('ram. By T. V. Subrahmanian. 1047 
XV'IL . Not^s from the Oriental Sporting Magazine, 
June 1828 to June 1833. By Lt.-Col. R. 

W. Burton, I. A 1047 

XVIll, An Anomaly in Floral Biology. By S. P. 

Jivanna Rao, M.A 1049 

Accounts fok 1018 , , 1051 

Proceedings 1053 



xviii 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS, 



Accounts for 1918. 



Page 
.. 1051 



AcwORTH, E, C. B. ; A Flight of 
Locusts ( With a Plate) 

Ajrekar, B. a. : On the Iden- 
tity of Blastospora butleri 
Syd. ( With a Plate) . . 

Allan, C. W. ; Life History of 
the Anthercea roylei (Oak 
Emperor Moth) 

Allen, G. O., I.C.S, ; Natural 
Death of a Fox {Vulpes 
bengalensis) . , 

; Occur- 
rence of Colotis ce^talis and 
amata at Unao. 

: Naini 



Tal Butterfly Notes 

: The 

Malabar Pied Hornbill 
(Anthracoceros coronatus) in 
Mirzapur, U. P. 

: The 



301 



697 



30(» 



660 



868 



870 



Page 

Allen, G. O., LC.S : The 
Habits of the Tree Frog 
{Itacoj)horus maculatus) . . 681 

: Some 



Cuckoo (Cuculu-i canorus) in 
Mirzapur, U. P. ,. 

; Habits 



of the Painted Sandgrouse 
iPterocles fasciatus) 

; The 



671 



671 



672 



Great Indian Bustard {Eu- 
podotis edwai'dsi) in Mirzapur 
District, U. P. 

; Habits 



of Ethar Worms 



673 



879 



Butterflies taken in Benares 

and adjoining Districts . . 689' 



Tena- 



city of Life of ParapelyUa 
orientalis . . . . , . 693 

; Protec- 



tive Habits of the Larva of 
Trypanophora semihyalina . . 693 

; A few 



additions to the list of Mus- 
soorie Plants, By James 
Maktin in Vol. ilX, p. 475. 695- 

— — — ; Caracal 



{Felis caracal) and Hunting 
Leopard ( Cyncelurus jubatus) 
in Mirzapur, U. P. . . . . 1041 

: Birds 



of Diflferent Species Nesting 

in Company . . . . . . 1044 

; The Red 



Turtle-Dove {(Enopepelia t. 
tranquebarica) in Unao, U. P. 1044 

: Acci- 



dents to Vultures . . , , 1045 



; Hover- 



ing Habit of the Spotted 
Owlet {Athene brahma) , . 1045 



LIST OF CONTRIBITTORS. 



XIX 



Page 



Ayyak, T. v. Ramakrishna, 
B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S. ; Some 
South Indian Coccids of 
Economic Importance. ( With 
4 Flaies) 



Large 



Bagnall, Major R. 
Carp from Mesopotamia 

Baker, E. C. Stuabt, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U ; The Game 
Birds of India, Burma and 
Ceylon. Part XXV. ( With a 
Coloured Plate). The Cheer 
Pheasant, The Fire-Back, 
The Siam Fire-Back 



SuB-Species and the Field 
Naturalist 



Part XXVII. The Crimson- 
Horned Pheasant . . 



Part XXVIII. {With a 
Coloured Plate). The Grey- 
Bellied Horned Pheasant, 
the Western Tragopan, 
the Tibetan Tragopan, 
Temminck's Tragopan, Ca- 
bot's Tragopan 

Beeson, C. F. C, M.A., I.F.S.; 

Nesting Habits of Vespa 
dorylloides, Saus. 

Bell, T. R., I.F.S. ; The Com- 
mon Butterflies of the Plains 
of India. Part XXI 



621 



679 



Part XXVI ( With a Coloured 
Plate.) The Monal Pheasant, 
The Impeyan Pheasant or 
Monal, Sclater's Monal, 
Lophophorus Vhuysii . . 319 



518 



705 



Page. 



885 



301 



98 



Bell, T. R., CLE., I.F.S. : 
The Commom Butterflies of 
the Plains of India. Part 
XXII. ( With Plate H.) . . 

: Part 



XXIII 



Part 



XXIV 



Berthon, Lt.-Col. H. W. ; 
Occurrence of the Common 
Sheldrake (Tadoi-na cornuta) 
and the Marbled Duck 
( Mar ma ronetta angus trios tris) 
in Kathiawar 

Betham, Brig.-General R. M. ; 
The White-Cheeked Bulbul 
{Molpastes leucogenys) 

Blandy, Capt. R. ; The Breed- 
ing habits of Mrs. Hume's 
Pheasant 

; Notes on 

Kalij Pheasants in the Chin 
Hills 

Blatter, Rev. E., S.J. ; The 
Edible Date Palm in Bombay 

Blatter, E., S.J. and Hall- 
berg, Prof F. ; A Revision 
of the Indian Species of 
Rotala and Amviannia. 
Part II 



438 
75a 
941 



674 

286 

289 

289 
306 



210 



The Flora of the Indian 
Desert (Jodhpur and Jaisal- 
mer). Part I. {With 12 
Plates.) 218 

Part II. ( With 13 Plates.). 525 

5 
Part III. ( With 6 Plates).. 811 



Part IV 



.. 968 



sx 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Paue 



Bombay Natural Histoky 
Society's Mammal Survey 
OF India ; Summary of the 
Results. By K. C. Wrough- 
Tox. Part II 



19 



Summary of the Results. 
By R. C. Wroughtox, 
F.Z.S. Part 111 .. 



588 



Summary of the Results. By 

R. C. Wroughtox. Part IV. 776 



Summary of the Results. 
By R. C. Wroughtox. 
PartV .. .. .. '• »•■>•") 



Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey 
of India ; Scientific Results, 
No. XXI. By Oldfield 
Thomas, F.R.S 

boulexger, g. a., f.r.s., 
D.Sc. ; Description of a New 
Snake of the Genus Contia, 
B. & G., from Persia 

Boyd, Maj. J. E. M. ; Strange 
behaviour of a Wild Bird . . 



933 



Scientific Results, No. 
XVIII. By Maktix A. C. 

HlXTON 



Scientific Results, No. XIX. 
By Oldfield Thomas, 

1^ , It , o . • . • • • • 



.•■>9 



Scientific Results, No. 
XVIII. By Martin A. C. 
HiXTOX. Part 11 . . . . 384 



Braxder, 
I.F.S. ; 
Train . . 



A. A. Dunbar, 
The Tiger and the 



10i>4 



1(»43 



6o8 



Scientific Results, No. 
XVIII. By Martin A. C 
HixTON. Part III .. .. 716 



Scientific Results, No. 
XVIII. By Martin A. C. 
HixTON 906 



417 



Scientific Results No. XX. 
By Oldfield Thomas, 
f'r.S. .. 7-^6 



Breithaupt, a. G. H. ; Ants 
attacking Bees 

Brooking, Major-General H. 
T. ; List of Birds observed 
in the Euphrates Valley 

Burton, Brig. -General H. G.; 
Panthers 

Burton, Lt.-Col. R. W., 1,A ; 
Notes from the Oriental 
Sporting Magazine. New 
Series, 1 869 to 1879 

June 1828 to Jinie 1833 . . 

Caixs, J. F., S.J. ; The Habits 
of the Green Whip Snake 
{Dn/aphix mijcterizmis) 

Glaytox, F. ; Mimicry in 
Spiders 

CoLviif, Lt.-Col. E. J. D. ; 
Notes on the habits of the 
Mallard {Ana>^ boscas) 

Connor, Lt.-Col. .F. Powell., 
I.M.S. ; A Note on the 
function of the "Forceps" 
in Forficulidcc 



S78 



• u I 



■jm 



309 



104; 



862 



30: 



291 



688 



LIST OF CONTRIBUrOBS. 



XXX 



Pa UK 

CoNXOK, Lt.-Col. F. Powell, 
I.M.S. ; Notes on the Emer- 
gence from the Coccoon in 
Lasiocampidfe . . . . ti91 

Gumming, W. D. ; Natural 
History Notes from Fao . , l'9i^ 

CuRRiE, A, J, ; Occurreuoti of 
Indian lied-breastecl Fly 
catcher (Stpkia hyperythra) in 
the Deccan . . . , . . (i67 

Davison, J. ; Field Eats in the 

Deccan in 1879 .. .. 1042 

Dawson, H. ; Extension of 



Range of the Bronze-winged 
Dove 



671^ 



Donald, C. H., F.Z.S. ; The 
Birds of Prey of the Punjab. 
Part I. {With 2 Diayraim). i'47 

Part II. ( With Plates I ami 

li) 629 

Part III. ( With Plate I.) . . 826 

( With rext-Ji(,ures) Part IV. IdOO 

' j' 

Some Birds of Prej^ of Meso- 
potamia . . . . . . 84'") 

Davison, Winifred M. ; See 
Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey 
of India, 

Dracott, C. H. ; Notes on the 
Flying White Ant and Scor- 
pions that feed on them . . 873 

Duke, J. A. ; Tigress {Felis 
tiyris) attacking a Sloth 
Bear (^Melursus ursinw) . . (ioR 

Duke, J. A. ; Spotted Deer 
{A-ris axis) and the Wild 
Dogs ( C'uou dukhunensis) . . 661 



Pack 

Ellis, E. V., I.F.S., Hannyng- 
TON,- F., I.C.S. ; Obituary 
Notices 1037 

Evans, Lt.-Col. W. H., F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. : Notes on Indian 
Butterflies 1021" 

Field, F. (Keed) ; Note on 
the Eggs of Piinia inornate/. 
The Indian Wren-Warbler .. 1043 

Fraser, Maj. F. C, I.M.S. : 
Indian Dragonflies. Part 
III. (With 2:J Text- Fiffures). 141 

Part IV. (With IJ, Text- 
Figures) 488- 

PartV. {With Text-Jiyures). 734 

The Undescribed Female of 
an Indian Dragonfly {Hemi- 
cordnlia asiatica) . . . . 68o' 

Part A"I. ( With Text-fiyures) 919 

Notes on some new and 
other Indian Dragonflies . . 874 

Gosse, Capt. Philiv, E.A.M.C; 
Nilgiri Trap for catching 
Wild Animals . . . . 311 

Hamilton, Lt.-Col. It. E. A. ; 
The Beatrix or Arabian 
Oryx {Oryx leueory.r) in 
Central Arabia. {With a 
Plate) 283 

Hannyngton, F., I.C.S. : Life 
History Notes on Coorg 
Butterflies , . . . . . 871 

Hannyngton, F., I.C.S., Ellis, 
E. W., I.F.S. ; Obituary 
Notice . . . . . . 1037' 



-xxu 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Heath, Regijtald H. ; Porcu- 
pine's mode of attack 

Hide, Peecjy ; Late stay of 
Common Snipe {Gallinago 
calestis) in Central India . . 



28:i 



84P 



HiGGiNs, J. C, I.C.S.; The 
Sheldrake {Tadorna cornuta) 
in Manipur State . . . . 67o 

HiNXOU, Martin A. C. ; See 
Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey 
OF India. 

Home, Maj. W. M. Logan ; 
Note on the Nightjar (Capri- 
mulgus feyyptieus) . . , . 1043 

HoPwooD, Cyril, M.B.O.U. ; 
Notes on some Nests recent- 
ly found in South Tenas- 
serim , . 



HoTsoN, Capt. J. E. B., 
I.A.R.O. ; Oleander poison- 
ing Camels . . 

Hunt, E. A. : Note on the 
supposed effects of the bite 
of a Pentamomid Bug (Hali/s 
dentatus) 

Jackson, Mrs. V. A, ; Notes 
on a Young Hog Badger {^Arc- 
tony x sp.) in the Garo Hills. 

Further Notes on the Hog 
Badger 



803 



30H 



694 



i>81 



i>81 



Panic among Elephants 
during an Earthquake . . '2H') 

Inglis, Chas. M., M.B.O.U.; 
The Burmese Peafowl {Pam 
muticus) in the Chittagong 
Hill Tracts, Bengal . . 673 



Page 

Inglis, Chas. M., M.B.O.U. ; 

Nidification of Stone's Phea- 
sant {Phasianu< eleffan-f). A 
Correction . . . . 673 



Extracts from ''A Mono- 
graph of the Phesants by 
William Beebe" .. .. ><47 

• 
The Black-Breasted Kalij 
Pheasant {Genncens horsfieldi 
horsjieldi) east of the Irra- 
vaddy . . . . . . 848 

5 

Further occurrence of the 
Rose-coloured Starling {Pas- 
tor i-oseuft) and the Flamingo 
(Phocnicopterus rosetis) in the 
Darbhanga District, Behar . . 8.>3 

; 

Early appearance of Pieris 
brassiere (Linn.) in the Dar- 
bhanga District, Behar . . 860 

Harpactor coittalis, Stal., 
preying on Ceratina viridis- 
sima,'D.1 872 

Early occurrence of the 
Painted Lady ( Vanessa 
cardni L.) in the Darbhanga 
District, Behar . . . . 1046 



Travers, W. L., O'Donel, 
H. V. O. and Shebbeare, 
E. O., I.F.S. ; A Tentative 
List of the Vertebrates of 
the .Jalpaiguri District, 
Bengal. 



{With Plates) 



819 



Part 11. ( With a Plate, Map 

and Text-Block) . . . . 988 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



xxiu 



Page 

-Jones, A. E. ; A List of Birds 
found in the Simla Hills, 
1908-1918 601 

; Further Notes 

on the Birds of Amballa 
District, Punjab ., .. 67o 

JouRDAiN, F. C. R. ; Mesopo- 
tamian Bird Notes . . . . 860 

Kenny, E. T. ; Migration of 
Snipe in Burma . . . . 8o0 

KiNLOCH, Lt. A. P. : Record 
Female, Nilgiri Tahr (Hemi- 
tragus hylocriu^) . . . . 666 

KiNLOCH, A. M. ; The Cotton 
Teal in Malabar . . . . 674 

; The Habits 

of the Green Whip Snake 
{Dryojphis myctevizans) . . 681 

IKiNNEAK, N. B., C.M.Z.S.; 
Note on the Malabar Slender 
Loris {Loris lydekTcerianuii) . . 836 

Extension of Range of 
the Green Imperial Pigeon 
{Carpophaya cena renn) in 
Western India . . . . 846 



The Giant Tortoise living 

in Ceylon. (^With a Plate.). 861 

Kykle, Fellowes ; Occurrence 
of the Lesser Florican or 
Likh S. aurita in the Maha- 
bleahwar Hills . . . . 289 

Light, Lt.-Col. R. ; Size of 
Tigers 659 

■ ; Porcu- 



pine's method of shedding 
quills when attacked . . 666 

LuAKD, Lt.-Col. C. E. ; A \&- 
riety oi Buteafrond'jsa .. 305 



Page 

Mc^Cann, C. ; On the breeding 
habits of some Myriapoda . . 303 

Maokay, Brig.-General H., R. 
A. ; Large Carp from Meso- 
potamia . . . . . . 680 

Mackenzie, J. M. D., I.F.S., 
M.B.O.U.. F.Z.S. ; Nidifica- 
tion of the Smaller Streaked 
Spider-hunter {^Arachnothera 
aiirata) , . . . . . 669 

Macnaghten, H. ; On White 
Elephants . . . . . . 285 

Magrath, Lt.-Col. H. A. F. ; 

Sandgrouse in Mesopotamia. 672 

Marryat, N. ; Note on the 
occurrence of the Lesser 
Florican or Likh {Sypheotis 
aurita) in Bombay . . . . 674 

Martin, S. J. ; A Note on the 
large Brown Thrush (^Zoo- 
ihera monticola) . . . . 668 

Mathews, W. H., I. P. ; Note 
on the Indian Long-Billed 
Vulture {Gyps indicus) . . 287 

• Nest- 



ing habits of the Brown 
Rock-Chat (Cercomela fusca), 843 



; Albino 



Swallow 



; Diffe- 
rent Birds nesting in 
company 



844 



853 



Meredith, H. R. ; Feeding 
habits of the Little Egret 
[Herodias garzetta) . . . . 852 

Mills, J. P., I.C.S. ; Notes on 

a Takin Head from Assam. . 284 



XXIV 



LIST OF CONTSIBrTOHS. 



Page 

Mitchell, F, J. ; Method of 

Porcupine's attack . . . . 28.;j 

; How Trouts 

were introduced into Kasli- 

mir . . • • . . • • . . . . 29-1 

MoNTEATH, G., B.A,, l.C.S. ; 

Tiger (Felts tiyris) climbing 
tree . . . . . . . . 837 

MoKKis, Randolph C. ; Porcu- 
pine's method of attack . . 1040 

O'Brien, Lt.-Col. E, : Method 

of Porcupine's attack . . 283 

; Mon- 
goose {Munyos muvf/o) kill- 
ing a Hedgehog . . . . OtiO 



Pkoceedix*; 



Paue 

. . 31'3-318 
.. 698-703 

882" 

1003: 



; Indian 

Grey Shrike (Lanitnf /aJitora) 
attacking wounded Sand- 
Grouse 



6G7 



Ollenbach, O. C. : Occurrence 

of tStichopthcdma f/odfrciji, 
lioths . . . . . . 867 

: Notes on 



the habits of Butterflies 
[LeiLiidia onasoni) and {Xa/n- 
tliotcemiia busiris) . . . . 801) 

Olivek, Major D. G. ; Sjit it- 
Bill Duck in Kashmir . . 675 

Osmasxon, B. B., C.I.E., I.F.S. ; 
Supplementary. „ Notes on 
Some Indian Birds . . . . 424 

Pitman, C. R. S. ; Porcupine's 
method of attack . . . . 1039 

Prater, S. H. ; Notes on Some 
Interesting Snakes recently 
presented to this Society . . (is3 

Progress of the Mam3Ial 
Survey . . . . . . 6o0 

. 1036 



PrAR, H.H. UnA.Ti Rao., K.G.S.I.,. 
K.B.E., Maharaja of Dhar ; 
Notes on the Big Game and 
Duck of Dhar State . . 841 

Rao, S. p. Jivana, M.A. ; An 

Anomaly in Floral Biology . . 1049' 

Reports: Bombay Natural 
History Society's Mammal 
Survey of India, Burma 
AND Ceylon, No. 30, Deccan 
(Poona District), and 31 . 
Nilgiris 1025 • 

Review : A practical handbook 

of British Birds . . . . 880 

RiDLAND, J. G. ; Arrow head 

imbedded in a Tiger's back. 658- 

RisHwoRTii. H. IJ. : Libellu- 
lines at St. Thomas' Mount, 
Madras ' 685 

Robinson, S. M. ; Maternal 
instinct in the Pied Bush- 
Chat (Praf«'?2e6/a cff/jr«?ff) .. 843 

RoDGERS, C. Gilbert; Large 
Kashmir Stag Head {Cervu» 
cashmiriamis) {Witli tcrt- 
blocl-) 1038 

Scott, Capt. F. B., I.A, ; Notes 
on the Larva of C'ha'r(jcampa 
alecto 299- 



The Hawk Moth (Deilfphilia 
liwrnica). A correotion ,. 872:' 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



XXV- 



Page 

Sedgwick, L. J., I.C.S. ; 
Eleochai'u cunrje^ta, Don., in 
the Bombay Presidency , , oil' 



Reduction 
rothiana 



of JHuphorbitt 



The Cyperacea3 of the Bom- 
bay Presidency. Part II , , 

Slater, A. F. M. ; Late stay 
of Pill-tail Snipe {(jallinago 
.•iteiiura) in Burma . . 

Smith, Malcolm A., F.Z.S. ; 
Remarks on Col. Wall's 
identificatibn of Hi/drop/iis 
cijeaiocinctux . . . . 

SUBRAHMAXIAM. T. V. ; A 

curious method of feeding 
noted in Danaix limniace, 
Cram . . 

Tadi^lixgam, C, and Raxga- 
CHAEi, K. ; Note on a new 
undescribed species of C'y- 
nodon. (ll'itha J'late) 

Thomas, Oldfielj>, F.R.S.. 
F.Z.S. ; Scientitic Results 
from the Mammal Survey, 
No. XIX. A Synopsis of 
the Groups of True Mice 
found within the Indian 
Empire 

A New Species of yesokia 
from Mesopotamia . . 

Some iicnV Mammals from 
Mesopotamia . . . . 

See Bombay Natural His- 
tory Society's Mammal 
Survey of India. 
i 



591) 



li)i> 



SoO 



Page. 



682 



104; 



;504 



417 



422 



74r, 



TicEHURST, Capt. Claude B., 
R.A.M.C. ; The Mesopo- 
tamian Bulbul 



Notes on a Collecti<m of 
Snakes made in the Nilgiri 
Hills and the Adjacent 
Wynaad. ( With Diagrams 
and Maps.) Typhlops thurs- 
toni, Typhlops fletcheri, Mela- 
nophidium ici/nadense, Rhino-' 
phis sanguineus, Sihjbura breris 
and Rhabdops olivaceus) 



279« 



The Plumage of the Purple 
Hoiiej'^sucker (Arachnecthra 
asiatica) . . . . . . 286' 



The colour of the eye of the 
female White-Eyed Poehard 
{Ni/roca africana) . . . . 290 



On Asiatic Starlings . . 380 

Wall. Lt.-Col. F.. C.M.G., 
C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., I.M.S. ; 
A Popular Treatise on the 
Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XXVI. {With Plate 
XXVI and Diagram of 
Cerbei'us rhyncups and Enhy- 
dris curtiis . . . . . . 89' 



Part XXVII. {IVith Plate 
XXVII and Diagram of 
Hydrophis spiralis and Hydro- 
phis cyanocinctus.) . . . . 430' 



Part XXVIII. {IVith a 
coloured Plate XXVIII and 
Diagram ofEnhydrina valaka- 
dien and Hydrus platurus var. 
bicolor . . . . . . 803 



55i 



XXVl 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Pa-GE 



Wall, Lt.-Col. F., C.M.G., 
C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., I.M.S. ; 

The rudimentary hind limb 
in an Embryo of Python 
molurus 



862 



Note on the Snake Trirhino- 
j)holts nuchalis (Boulenger) . . 863 

A Gravid Specimen of the 
Snake Oylindvojihis maculatus 
(Linn.) 863 

Reply to Dr, Malcolm 
Smith's remarks in the last 
Journal . . . . . . 864 



Notes on some recent addi- 
tions to our Society's Snake 
collection . . . , , . 865 

A 17 Scale Krait {Bunf/arus 
ccei'uleus) from Bangalore . , 1046 

Ward, F. Kingdon ; Distribu- 
tion of the difl'erent races 
and species of Takin {Budor- 
cas) 838 

Ware, F. ; Wild Dogs {Cuon 
dukhimensis) and Sambhur . . 837 

White, L. S. ; Nesting habits 
of the Brown Rockchat 
(Cercomela fusca) .. .. 667 

Whistler, H., M.B.O.U., 
F.Z.S. ; Notes on the Birds 
of Ambala District, Punjab. 
I'artll 172 



Page 

Whistler, H., M.B.O.U., 
F.Z.S. ; The Common Hawk- 
Cuckoo (Hierococci/.v varius) 
in the Punjab . . . . 287 

_ ^— • 

Abnonnal varieties of the 
Indian Redstart (R. rufiven- 
tria) and the Common House 

- Crow (C. splendem) . . , . 289 



Some Birds of Ludhiana 
District, Punjab . . . . o8o 



Some Birds observed at 
Fagoo near Simla .. ., 770 

■ • 

Variety of the Common 
House Crow {Corvus sj)len- 
deiis) at Jhang, Punjab . . 843 

Abnormal variety of the 
Green Bee-eater {Merops 
viridis) . . . . . . 844 

A Note on the breeding of 
the Hill Partridge {Arbori- 
cola torqueola) near Simla . . 849 

The Blue-breasted Quail 
{Excalfactoria chinensis) at 
Mirzapur 1044 

Wright, A. ; The Bite of the 
Large Spotted Viper {La- 
chechis monticola) . . . . 681 

Wroughton, R. C, F.Z.S. ; 
See Bombay Natural His- 
tory Society's Mammal 
Survey of India. 



LIST OF PLATES. 




VCK 



No. 1. 

Page 
The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. The Cheer 

Pheasant {Cat reics wall ichii). . .. .. .. .. .. 1 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes, Plate. XXVI.— 

Figs. 1 — 4. The Dog-faced Water Snake {Cerberus rhynchops). 90 
o — 8. Shaw's Sea-snake {Enfn/dris curtus). 

The Flora of Indian Desert (Jodhpur and Jaisalraer). Part I. "With 

12 Plates- 
Plate I (A) — Wind erosion in sand-dune near Loharki, Jaisalmer 

State 218 

(B) — Wind erosion in lime-stone, 3 miles S. W. of Phalodi, 

Jodhpur State . . .. .. .. .. .. 218 

Plate II (A) — Sand-dune with scanty vegetation at Loharki, Jai- 
salmer State .. .. .. .. 219 

(B) — Part of sand-dune devoid of vegetation, showing 

ripples. In the background the plain near Loharki. 21 9 

Plate III (A) — Jodhpur City and neighbouring hills as seen from 

the Fort 222 

(B) — View of Jaisalmer Town and surrounding plain, 

taken at the Guest House . . . . . . . , 222 

Plata IV (A) — A typical gravel-plant : Seetxenia orientali^, Dene, in 

flower and fruit . . . . . . . . 223 

(B) — Another member of the gravel-vegetation : Corchorus 
antichorus, Ilaeuseh, forming dense mats lying flat 
on the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5 

Plate V (A) — Kailana Lake near Jodhptir. IJocky shore with 

Euphorbia vegetation . . . . . . . . . . 224 

(B) — Kailana Lake Dam exhibiting a varied vegetation 
owing to the percolation of water : CalotropU 
procera, Mrua tomentosa and numerous high grasses. 224 



xxviii LIST OF PLATES. 



Page 



Platfc \'I (A) — General view of country near Mandor (Jodhpur 
State), In the foreground a rocky plateau with 
Euphorbia nenifolia, L. In the sandy plain between 
the plateau and the lake : CroUdaria burhia, 
Leptadenia spaytiuni, Miiia xp. . . . . . . 225 

(B) — Plain near Jodhpur, showing small trees and scrub 
vegetation : Leptadenia apartium, Prositpix spicif/era, 
Acacia arabica, Mrua tomentom, etc, . . . . 22.'> 

Plate \'II (A) — Sandy plain 3 miles E, N. E, of Jaisalmer Town. 
In the foreground fruiting specimens of Citrulliix 
colocynt/tis, with shoots up to 50 ft. long . . . . 228 
(B) — A consocies of Indif/ofcra aryentea, Burm. On a 
sand-dune, o miles S. AV. of Phalodi (Jodhpur 
State) 228 

Plate VIII (A) — A depression in rocky country, 6 miles N, E, of 

Jaisalmer Town, with Prosopis spicif/era, Saluadora 

oleoides, Gymno^poria montana. In the foreground : 

Commiphora viulrid, Sarcostenuiia brevistiyma . . 229 

(B) — Shoot-habit of Commiphora mulnd on rocky slope of 

the above locality . . . . . . . . 229 

Plate IX (A) — A giant specimen of Cappari^ decidua at Bhikamkor 

(Jodhpur State) 230 

(B) — A characteristic community of plants at Bhikamkor : 
Gymnosporia montana, Pro>iopi-t ><piciyera, and ramb- 
ling on these : Calliyonum poliyonoides and Coccidus. 230 

Plate X (A) — Consocies of Eclipta erecta bordering a drying-up 

pool at Barmer (Jodhpur State) . . . . . . 231 

(B) — Families in the consocies of Eclipta erecta at Bar- 
mer, showing distinct zonation . . . . . . 231 

Plate XI (A)— The Bada Bag in the neighbourhood of Jaisalmer 

Town 234 

(B) — The tank belonging to the above Garden shaded by 

Acacia arabica . , . . . . . ■ • . 234 

Plate XII (A)— Gharsisar Lake outside Jaisalmer Town, The water 
level is abnormally high on account of the heavy 
rains of 1917. In the foreground : Capparis decidua, 
Prosopis spieiyera, Salmdora oleoides, Zizyjdms . . 235 
(B) — Amarsagar Lake near Jaisalmer Town, irrigating 
the garden of the same name. Chief trees : Aza- 
dirachta indica, Zizyphus jvjuha. Acacia arabica, 
Prosopis spieiyera, Albizzia . . . . ■ . , . 235 



LIST OF PL A TES. xxix 

Page 
The Beatrix or Arabian Oryx {On/.r heatri.t) in Central Arabia . . 283 

A Flight cf Locusts at Poona— 1903 301 

Note on a New Undescribed Species of Cynodon (Ci/nodon intfrniPiUus) 30o 

No. 2. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Coylon. The Monal Phea- 
sant {Lo})hophnru< refulf/en!<) ,. .. .. .. .. 319 

Monal Pheasants — 

Lnpkophorus. imppjamis, LophopfioruK scluteri, Lophophorus Vhuysii — 335 
Fig. 1 . Heads showing variation in crest. 
'2. Single feathers of crest. 
3. Tails and upper tail-coverts. 
A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part XXVII. 

With coloured Plate XXVII and Diagram . . . . 430 

i — 4. The Narrow-ringed Sea-snake {Hi/drophiA 

spiralis, var. brugnumsii). 
•> — 8. The Chittul (Ili/dropliis ci/anocinctus) . 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part XXII. With 

Plate H . . . . , . . . . . . _ ^ 43g 

Figs. o3, 53a — Tayuria cippus c? , $ 

54,54a — J'irachola isi/crafes <S , § 

55 — Lo.cara ((t)/mnii.< (j' 

^)Q,i>Qa — Curetis tht'tis (J , $ 

57, 57ff — ArJiopala centcturus, J , 2 • . . . . . 438 

The Flora of the Indian Desert, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. With 
Plates from XIII— XXV— 

Plate XIII (A)— Crest of a dune East of Loharki (Jaisalmer 

State). On top: Calliyomim polyyonoides. On 
the slope : lihipiehima armaria, JSrua psendo- 
tomentosd, Indit/ofera aryentea . . . . . . ~,-2,iq 

(B) — The same dune as above, seen from the plain. 
Part of the advancing wind-eroded crest is 
shown on Plate I. -A. . . . . . .50^ 

Plate XIV (A)— View of gravel plain from the top of dune iu 

Plate XIII showing bare patches. In the fore- 
ground, at foot of dune: ^^rua fomentosa, 
Crotalaria burkia . . . . . . . . .503 

(B) — Bare area in the above locality, colonized by 
Cleome papillvsa, Fayonia cretica, Bocrhaacin 
diffusa, ■ a.n([ Leptadenia sparti urn .. .. ry2S 



XXX LIST OF PLATES. 

Page 
Plate XV (A.) — Edge of sand-dune at Loharki, Jaiaalmer State, 

(the same as on Plate II) with a clump of 
Calotroms procera, Mrua tomentom, Leptadenia 
spartium and Panicum turyidum . . . . 530 

(B) — Elevated dune area at Loharki, with Crotalaria 
burhia, Leptadenia spartium, Mrua pseudo-tomen- 
tosa and Panicum turjiidum . . . . . . 530 

Plate XVI (A)^In the neighbourhood of Kailana (Jodhpur State). 

A clump of Leptadenia spartium and Mrua 
tomentosa . . . . . . ■ • • - • • 53l 

(B) — Near Kailana ; Leptadenia spartium supporting 

Launma chondrilloides . . . . . . . . 532 

Plate XVII (A) — Along the road from Jodhpur to Balsamand : 

Crotolaria burhia and Mrua tomentosa with 
isolated individuals of Calotropis procera ; in 
the back-ground Prosopis spicigera . . . . 534 

(B) — On the road between Jodhpur and Kailana : 
Crotalaria burhia, Mrua tomentosa and Lepta- 
denia spartium . . . . . . . . . . 534 

Plate XVIII (A) — Clump of Lijcium barbarum and Capjmris decidua 

in a sandy plain near Devikot (Jaisalmer State). 536 
(B) — Shoot-habit of Kaloxylon salicornicum. The plant 
protects the small mound on which it grows 
against erosion. Taken East of Sodakoer 
(Jaisalmer State) . . . . . . . . 536 

Plate XIX (A) — A rocky plain with little soil at Amarshgar near 

Jaisalmer. In the background Euphorbia 
neriifolia . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 

(B) — A family of Aristlda hirtiyluma on volcanic 

ground, West of Loharki (Jaisalmer State) . . 538 

Plate XX (A)— Dune vegetation at Osian (Jodhpur State) . . 540 

(B) — Another view from the above dune area . . 540 

Plate XXI (A) — Near Kailana Lake. A specimen of Euphorbia 

neriifolia, supporting Sarcostemma brevistigma. 542 

(B) — On the rocky plateau above Mandor near Jodh- 
pur. A clump of Euphorbia neriifolia, Cappa- 
ris decidua, and Convolvulus glomeratus, var. 
volulilis. The low vegetation consisting 
chiefly of Aristida . . . . . . • • 542 



LIST OF PLATES. xxxi- 

Page 
Plate XXII (A) — A sandy plain at Sodakoer village (Jaisalmer 

State). An association of ^rua tomentoga and 
Mrua pseudo-tojnentosa, with families of Cctp- 
paris decidua . . . . . < . . . . 544 

(B) — Cistanche tubulosa, parasitic on the roots of 

Capparis decidua in the above locality . . 544 

Plate XXIII (A) — An open forest of Zizyphus rotundifolia between 

Loharki and Sodakoer (Jaisalmer State). In 
. the foreground a bare gravel area and an 
isolated specimen of Prosopis spicigera . . 546 

(B) — Rocky river bank, two miles East of Sodakoer. 
with Schiveinfurthia hcerocarpa and Anticharis 
linearis . . . . . , . . . . . . 546 

Plate XXIV (A) — Sand dune north of Jaisalmer. On tho right a 

family of Cypenis arenarius, to the left ^rwx 
sp,, on the hill in the background Fagoma 
cretica . . . . . . . . . . , . 548 

(B) — Pond and marshy ground between Phalodi and 

Bap with various Cyperacecs . . . . . , 548 

Plate XXV (A) — Western slope of a sand-dune three miles south- 
west of Phalodi (Jodhpur State), with pure 
Calotropis procera association . . . . . , 550 

(B) Family of Cyperus arenarius covering the eastern 

slope of the above dune . . . . ,, 550 

Some South Indian Coccids of Economic Importance — 

Plate I. — Pulvinaria maxima. .. .. .. .. .. ., 624 

(A) — Scale infested branch of Nim. 

(B) — 1 2 adult. 2t. c? Puparium. 3. $ with ovisac. 

Plate II. — Phenacoecus insolitus. .. .. .. .. ,, 626 

(A) — Brinjal plant covered with ovisacs. 
(B) — A (S mealy bug with ovisac magnified. 
(C)— The larva. 

Plate III — Anovialococcus indicus (nov. sp.) . . . . . . . . 627" 

(A) — Babul branch infested with scales and visited 

by the black ant. 
(B) — Female and male puparia magnified, two views 

of the former are shown. 



^xxii LIST OF PLATES. 

Page 

Plate IV — Walkerinna cineari .. .. .. ,, ._ g28 

(A) — Adult scales on Portia stem XI. 

(B)— Adult ?. 

(C)— Adult 2 . 

(D) — Larva. 

(E) — Very young larva. 
The Birds ol Prey of the Punjab. (With 2 Plates)— 

Plate I. — Figs. 1 and 2 represent a bird flying directly overhead . . (3.32 
Plate II — Figs. 1, 2 and •>. All represent a bird flying directly over- 
head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BoO 

On the identity of Blaxtoapora butleri . . . . . . . . , . (;!>H 

No. 3. 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes — 

Plate XXVIII — 1 — ■'). The Jew's-nosed snake {Enhydrina ralakadien). S03 

G— 8. Linne's Seasnake (^Hydrus platurv'i). 
The Flora of the Indian Desert (Jodhpnr and Jaisalmer). With H 

Plates. XXVI- XXXI— 
Plate XXVI (A) — View of Phalodi (Jodhpur State), taken from 

the Rest House .. .. .. .. iSIl 

(B)— View of Banner (Jodhpur State) and neigh- 

' " bouring hills . . . . . . . . . . 811 

Plate XXVII (A) — A rocTcy valley above Mandor (Jodhpur State). 

On the terraced slope : Euphorbia neriifolia. 
In the foreground : a belt of JErtm iomontosa, 
below it Lepidar/atliis trinervu and Tar/onia 
cretica . . . . . . . . . . . . sli* 

(B) A field at Balarwa (Jodhpur State), invaded by 

Leucas aspcra . . . . . . , . . . 812 

Plate XXVIII (A) — Gravel vegetation near Balarwar (Jodhpur 

State). Satid-binding plants in the fore- 
ground ; in the background Cajiparix dccidua, 
Prosopis spicif/ent- .. .. .. .. 814 

(B) — Scrub at Bhikamkor (Jodhpur State). Cnppans 
decidna, fri/»mospona montana, Tjyeium harba- 
non, Zi~i/pfiu.s rotundifo/ia, Pruifopix spiclget'a, 
Calligonum puhifjonoidcif, Crufularia burhia, 
Tepkrosia purpurea, jEnm s^. .. .. .. 814 

I'late XXIX (A) — Chalris near Mandor (Jodhpur State). On the 

rocky ground : Euphorbia neriifolia , . .. .^16 

(B) — The Bada Bag dam near Jaisalmer. To the 

riirht : Acacia arabica .. .. .. 816 



'o' 



LIST OF PLATES. xxxiii 



Page i 



Plate XXX (A) — Dry gravelly river-bed 2 miles East of Sodakoer 

(Jaisalmer State). Shrubs in the foreground : 
Haloxylon salicornicum. Trees in the back- 
ground Rordia rothii surrounded by a belt of 
Calotropis procera . . . . . . . . 817 

(B) — Locality as above Haloxylon salicornicum, Cordia 

rothii and grasses . . . . . , . . 817 

Plate XXXI (A) — Hill near Marwar-Lohawat (Jodhpur State). To 

the left a low sand-dune with Calliyonum poly- 
yonoides, in the foreground Crotalaria burhia, 
Convolvulus sp., and various grasses . . . . 818 

(B) Typical Fort at Devikot (Jaisalmer State). 

Scanty ruderal vegetation . . . . . . 818 

A Tentative List of the Vertebrates of the Jalpaiguri District, Ben- 
gal. ( With a Plate). 
Plate I. — («) Tea with shade trees haunts of Franklinia yracilis and 

other Warblers 820 

(b) Torsa river, the haunt of Ardea insiynis, Meryanser 
castor, etc. ; the stones in the foreground affording 
shelter to the Wall Bat {Myotis muricola) . . , , 820 

The Birds of Prey of the Punjab , . . 825 

Plate I. — Fig. 1. — Represents a Buzzard flying directly overhead. 
2. — Represents a Kite flying directly overhead. 
3. — Represents a Black-winged Kite flying directly 
overhead. 
The Giant Tortoise {Testudo yiyantea) living in Hirumbard, Galle, 

Ceylon 861 

No. 4. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon — 

The Grey-bellied Horned Pheasant {Trayopan blythi) . . . . 88o 

A Tentative List of the Vertebrates of the Jalpaiguri District, Ben- 
gal. (With a Plate and Map of the Jalpaiguri District) . . . . 988 

Plate II — 1. — A stream rising in the hills, the jungle on the banks 
being the resort of Pavo cristatus, the Common Pea- 
fowl, Gallus ferruyineus, the Red Jungle-fowl, etc., 
and the sand and stones that of (Edicnemus scolopa.r 
the Stone-Curlew, and other waders . . . . . . 992 

2. — Near view of forest along the banks of a river. Haunts 
of Ketupa zeylonensis, the Brown Fish-Owl, Polioaetus 
huvfijli^, Hodgson's Fishing Eagle, etc. . . . . 992 



Page 

Acacia arabica, PI. 225, 234, 235, 816 
Acisoma panorpoides panorpoi- 

des, Wing neuration of, Fig. 492 
JSma pseudo-tomentosa, PI. . . 526, 

530, 544 

tomentosa, PI. . .224, 225, 528, 

.530, 532, 534, 554, 812 

sp. PI. .. 225,538,548,814 

Albizzia . . . . • ■ . . -.o-j 

Alcedo is2nda, Haunts of, Pig. 997 
Anomalococcus indicus, Gr. PI, 627 
Anticharis linearis, PI. . . 546 

Arabian Oryx, (Oryx leucoryx) 

PI 283 

Arhopala centaurus, 57, 57«, PI. 438 
Arrow head imbeded in the 



Tiger's Back, Fig. 



658 



Ardea in»i(jnis, Toorsa Ptiver, 
the haunts of, PI 820 

Aristida, PI 542 

Azadirachta indica . . . . 235 

BadaBag in the neighbourhood 
of Jaisalmer Town, PL . . 234 

Barmer, view of (Jodhpur 

State) 811 

Birds of Prey of the Punjab. 
Part II. ( With Flates I and 
II) .. .. . ..629 

Birds of Prey of the Punjab. 

Part III. {With Plate I) . . 826 

Black-winged Kite flying direct- 
ly overhead. Fig. 3 . . . . 826 

Blastospora hutleri, Syd. PL . . 696 
Bcerhaavia diffusa, PI. . . 528 

Brachythemis contaoninata, 
Wings showing neuration. 

Fig. 787 



Page 

Brachythemis farinosa, Male 

Sexual 
Organs 
of, Fig. 
{a) . . 490 

Female 

Sexual 
Organs 
of, Fig. 
(b) . . 490 
sobrina, Male Sex- 
ual Organs 
of. Fig. (a) 490 

— Female 

Sexual 
Organs of. 
Fig. (b) . . 490 
Wing neu- 



ration of, 
Fig. . . 491 

Bradinopyr/a yeminata. Wings 



showing neuration. Fig. 



514 



Butterflies, Common — of the 
plains of India. Part XXII, 

PI. H. 438 

Buzzard flying directly over- 
head. Fig. 1 826 

Calliyonum polyyonoides, PL 

814, 818, 230, 526 
Capparis decidua, PL . . 230, 236, 
536, 542, 544, 814 
Carp, Large from Mesopotamia, 

Fig 679-680 

Catreus tcallichii, PL . . . . 1 

Cerberus rhynchops, PL Fig. 1-4 90 
Cervus cashmirianus, Fig, . . 1038 
Cheer Pheasant, PL , . . . 1 

Chithul, The {Hydrophis cyano- 
cinctus) PI 436 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XXXV 



Page 

Cistanche tubulosa, PI. . . . . 544 

Citrullus colocynthus, PI, . . 228 

Cleome papillosa, Fl. .. .. 528 

Coccids. Some South Indian of 
Economic Importance (a) . . 621 

Cocculus, PI. . - . . . . 230 

Colotropis procera, PI. . . 224, 530 

534, 550, 817 
Cominiphora muhul, PI. . , 229 

Convolvulus glomeratus, var. 

volubilis, PI. . . 542 

sp. PI 818 

Corchorus antichorus, PI. . 223 

Cordia rothii, PI. . . . . 817 

Cratilla metallica, Wing neura- 
tion of, Fig 152 

Crocothemis semilia, Wings of, 
Fig . . 515 

Crotalaria burhia, PI. . . 225, 528, 

530, 534, 814, 818 
Curetis thetis, 56, 56a, PL . . 438 
Cynodon intevmedius, PI. . . 305 

Cyperacece, PI 538, 548 

Cyperus arenarius, PI. 538, 548, 550 

Diplacodes nebulosa, Forewing 

of. Fig. (A) . . 500 



trivialis. 



Forewing 



contrasting its 

neuration with that 
of "A" Fig. (B).. 500 

Hindwing of. 

Fig. (B) . . 500 

Male Sexual 

Organs of, 
Fig. 1. In 
profile 2. 
From the 
front . . 502 

Dog-faced Water Snake {Cerbe- 
rus rynchops) . . . . . . 90 



Page 

Dragonflies, Indian, Part III 

( With 12 
T e X t- 
Jigures) . . 141 

Part IV 

(14 Text- 
fiywei) . . 488 

Part V 

( With Text- 
figures) . . 734 

Part VI 



( With Text- 
figures) . . 919 

Dune Vegetation at Osian, PI. 540 
Eclipta erecta, PI. . . . . 231 

Embryo, Rudimentary hind- 
limb in an, of P. molurus . . 862 
Enhydtis curtus, PI. Fig. 5-8. 90 

valakadien, PI. 1 — 5. 803 

valalcadyn, Fig. 

(A— D.) . . . . 808 

Euphorbia neriifolia, PI. . . 225, 

542, 812, 816 

vegetation, PI. . . 224 

lagonia cretica, PI. . . . . 528, 

538, 548, 812 

Falcon, tooth and festoon. Fig. 1006 

Flora of the Indian Desert 
(Jodhpur and Jaisalmer), 
(PI. I— XII) 218 

Flora of the Indian Desert 
(Jodhpur and Jaisalmer), 
Part II {With 13 Plates, 
XIII— XXV) .. .. 525 

Flora of the Indian Desert 
(Jodhpur and Jaisalmer) 
Part III {With 6 Plates, 
XXVI— XXXI) .. ..811 

Forceps : A note on the func- 
tion in Forficulidce, Fig. . , 688 

Forficulidce : A note on the func- 
tion of "Forceps" .. .. 688 



XXXVI 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Port, Typical at Davikot (Jai- 
salmer State) . . . . 818 

Franklinia gracilis, Tea with 

shade trees haunts of, PI. . . 820 

Gallus ferrur/ineus, the jungle 
on the banks being the re- 
sort of, PI 992 

Oame Birds of India, Burma 
and Ceylon. Part XXV, 
Plate 1 

Game Birds of India, Burma 
and Ceylon. Part XXVI, 
Plate 320 

Game Birds of India, Burma 
and Ceylon. Part XXVIII, 
Plate 885 

Giant Tortoise at Hirumbard, 
Galle, PI 861 

Gymnosporia montana, PI. 229, 230 

814 

Saloxilon salicornicum, PI. . .536, 817 

Hydrophis spiralis. 1 — 4, PI. . . 430 

Pig. A, B, 

C and D . . . 436 

r)/anocinctus, Fig. A — 

E and F. . . 436 

5— 8, PI. 430 



Kydrus platurus, Fig. (A — C) . . 808 

var. hicolor, 

PI. 6—8 . . 803 
Impeyan Pheasant, PI. . . 335 

Indigopera aryentea, PL 228, 526 

Indothemis limbata, Wings 

showing neuration. Fig. . . 734 
Jaisalmer town and surround- 
ing plain B 222 

Jew's-nosed Snake, PI. 1—5. . 803 
Jodhpur City and neighbour- 



ing hills, A. . 



222 



Ketupa zeylonensis, Haunts of, 

PI. 992 



Kite, flying directly overhead 



Fig. 2 826 



Page 

LasiocampidcB, Note on emer- 
gence from the Cocoon, Fig. 692 
Lathrecista asiatica, Wings of, 

Fig. .. 146 
Male Sex- 
ual Organs 
of, Fig. 21. 148 

Female 

Sexual Or- 
gans o f, 

Fig. 22 . . 148 

Launcea chondrilloides, PI. . . 532 

Lepidayothis trinervis, PI. . , 812 

Leptadenia spartium, PI. . . 226, 
628, 530, 532, 634 

Leucas aspera, PL . . . . 812 
Libellula quadrimaculata, Wings 

of. Fig 149 

Linne's Snake, PL 6—8 . . 803 
Locusts, A flight at Poona, 

1903, PI 301 

Lophophorus impejanus, PI. . . 336 

sclateri, PI. . . 335 

rimysii, PI. . . 535 

refulyens, PL . . 320 

Loxura atymorus, 65, PL . . 438 
Lycium barbarum, PL . . 536, 814 

Lyriothemis acigastra, Male Sex- 
ual Organs of, Fig. 
(14) .. ..141 

cleis, Female Sexual 

Organs of, 
Fig. (15) . . 141 

Male Sexual 

Organs of. 
Fig. (16) . . 141 

. acigastra, Wings of , 

Fig. (17) . . 142 

cleis, Wings of. 

Fig. (18) . . 143 

Map, migration of Snipe in 
Burma 



851 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XXXVII 



Page 

Map of the Jalpaiguri District 988 
Map II, General scheme of 

mountain ranges . . . . 654 

Melanophidium ivynadense^ ■P'ig* 

(A., B.) 556 

Merganser castor, Toorsa River, 

the haunts of, PI 820 

Mesopotania, Large Carp, from. 

Fig 679-680 

Monal Pheasant, PI. . . 320 

Neurothemis intermedia, Wings 
contrasting the 
open and close 
reticulation of 
the neuration . 
Fig. (38) (a) . . 506 

fulvia, Wings con- 
trasting the 
open and close 
reticulation of 
the neuration. 
Fig. (6) . . 506 

, Sexual 

Organsof, 
Fig. (39).. .508 
{ii) of the 
male from 
the front, 
{h) of the 
male in 
profile, (c) 
of the 
female . . .508 
intermedia inter- 
media. Sexual 
Organs of («) of 
the male seen 
from the front, 
{b) of the male 
from the side, 
Fig. (40) . . 511 
(Edicnemus scolopax, the sand 
and stones being the resort 
of, PI. . . . . . . 992 



Page 

Onychothemis tonkinensis ceyla- 
nica, Male Sexual 
Organs of. Fig. (a) 742 
{b) claws of same 
contrasted with 
"C" which shows 
the claws of 
Lyyonyx ins, fur- 
nished with claw 
hooks. Fig. (46). 742 

■ — tonkinensis ceyla- 

nica, Wings show- 
ing neuration. 
Fig. (47) 

Orogomphus xanthoptera, sp. nov. 
Wings of, Fig. . . 

chrysostigma, Male 

Genital Organs 
of, Fig. (25) (a).. 

ransonnetti, Male 

Genital Organs 
of. Fig. {b) 

japonicum, Male 

Genital Organs 
of. Fig. (c) 

sabina, Male Geni- 
tal Organs of, 
Fig.{d).. 

auceps, Male Geni- 
tal Organs of, 
Fig. {e) .. 

t(sniolatum, Male 

Genital Organs 
of, Fig. (/) . . 

brunneum brunneum. 

Wings and Male 
Genital Organs 
of. Fig. (26) . . 159 

glaucum, Female 

Genital Organs 

of. Fig. (27) (a). 165 

triangulare. Female 

Genital Organs "' 
of. Fig. {b) . . 166 



743 

875 

154 
154 
154 
154 
154 
154 



- XXVIU 



INDEX TO ILLVSTRATJONIS. 



Page 

Oroffomphus pruinosum, Male 
Genital Organs 
of, Fig. (c) . . 165 

triangulare, Male 

Genital Organs 

of, Fig. {d) .. 165 

Orthetrum sabina, Wings of. 

Fig. (28) 167 

Oryx, Arabian or Beatrix, PI. 283 

Oryx beatrix, PI. . . • • 283 

Palpopleura, Wingneuration of. 

Fig 488 

Panicum turgidum, PI. . . 530 

Pavo cristatus, the jungle on 
the banks being the resort 
of, PI. 992 

Pelargopsis gurial, Haunts of, 
Fig... 997 

Phalodi (Jodhpur State\ view 
of, PI 811 

Pheasant, Grey-bellied Horn- 
ed, PI 885 

Pheasant, Monal, PI 320 

Phenacoccus insolitus, Gr. PI. . . 626 

Plotus melanog aster. Haunts of, 

Fig 997 

Polioaetus humilis, Haunts of, 
PI 992 

Potomarcha, Wings of, Fig. . . 144 

Prosopis spicigei-a, PI. . . 225, 229, 

230, 235, 534, 546, 814 
Pulvinaria maxima, Gr. PI. . . 624 
Rhabdops olivaceus, Fig. (A — C.) 564 
Rhinophis sanguineus, Fig. 556 

, Fig. 

(A— C). 564 
Rhodotliemis rufa, Wings show- 
ing neuration. Fig. . . . . 504 
Rhynchosia arenana, PI. . . 526 

River Toorsa, the haunts of A. 
insignis and M, castor, PI. 820 



Page 

Ryothemis variegata, Wings of 

6. Fig. 928 

varieaata. 

Wings of 
2- Fig. 931 
phyllis 2)hyllis, Sex- 
ual Organs of. Fig. 932 

Salmdora oleoides, PI. . . 229, 235 
Sand-dune with scanty vege- 
tation at Loharki, A. . . 219 

Sand-dune devoid of vegeta- 
tion, showing ripples, B. . . 219 

Sarcostemma brevistigma, PI. 229, 542 

Schtveinfurthia hcerocarpa, PI. 546 

Sclater's Monal Pheasant, PI. . 335 

Sea-snake, The Narrow-ringed, 
PI 430 

Seetzenia orientalis, PI. . . 2i:3 

Shaw's Sea-snake . . . . 90 

Silybura brevis. Fig. (A— E.) . . 558 

Stag, Large Kashmir, Fig. . . 1038 
Stichopthalma godfreyi, Roths, 

Fig 868 

Snakes, Common Indian 
{Plates XXVI, XXVII, 
XXVIII) . . . . 90, 430, 803 

Snakes, Common Indian, Dia- 
grams . . . . 96, 436, 808 

Snakes, Notes on a collection 
made in the Nilgiri Hills and 
the adjacent Wynaad (With 
Diagrams and Maps) . . 552 

Sympetrum, Wing neuration of, 

Fig 494 

decoloratum, Male 

Genital Organs 

of. Fig. (a) . . 496 

fonscolombei, Male 

Genital Organs, 
Fig. {b) .. 496 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



XXXIX 



Page 



Sympetrum hypomelas, Male Ge- 
nital Organs, Fig. 
(c) .. .. 

decoloratum, Female 

Genital Organs, 
Fig. {d) .. 

commatum, Male 

Genital Organs, 
Fig. (e) .. 

oriontale, Male Ge- 
nital Organs, Fig. 

(/) 
orientale, Female 

Genital Organs, 

Fig. {9) 
hypomelas, Female 

Genital Organs, 

Fig. (^) . . 
Tajuria cippus, 53, 53a, PI. 
Tephrosia purpurea, PI, 
Testudo gigantea, at Hirumbard, 

Galle, PI 

Tortoise, Giant at Hirumbard, 

GaUe, PI 

Tragopan blythi blyihi, PI. 

Trap Nilgiri for catching wild 
animals, Fig, 



496 



496 



496 



496 



496 



496 

438 
814 

861 

861 

885 

311 



Page 

Trithemis f estiva, Male Sexual 

Organs, Fig. {a) ..: 919 
palidinervis, Male Sex- 
ual Organs. Fig. 
ib) .. .. 919 

aurora, Male Sexual 

Organs, Fig, (c) .. 919 

aurora. Wings 

showing neu- 
ration, Fig . 921 

kirbyi, Male Sexual 

Organs, Fig. {d) . . 919 
Typhlops thurstoni, Fig, . . 556 

^etcheri, Fig. .. 556 

Vertebrates, A Tentative list of 
the Jalpaiguri District, Ben- 
gal, Part 11 {With a Plate, 
Map and Text-block) . . 988 

Virachola isocrates, 54, 54a. PI. 438 
Wind erosion in sand dune 

near Loharki (A) . . . . 218 

Wind erosion in lime-stone (B) 218 
Walkeriana cineria, Gr. . . 620 

Ziziphus rotundifolia, PL 814, 546 

jujuba . , . . 235 

, PI 235 

Zygonyx iris. Wings showing 
neuration, Fig. . . . . 740 



xl 



ERRATA. 

No. 1, Volume XXVI. 

Rage 80, plate XXVI, figures 5-6, jor '■E^ihydrina' read Enhydris. 
„ 294, line 21 from the bottom, for "the inacqueeni" 
read " than macqiteeni." 
No. 2, Volume XXVI. 



Page 






55 

55 

55 



55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 



380, line 13" from the top, for "Linnans" read 

"Linnaeus". 
,, footnote, 3 lines from bottom, for "geren" read 

"green." 

570, lines 8 and 9 from top of text, for " 94 " read " 91.' 

571, line 10 from top, /or " 242 " read " 252." 

583, under subcaudals of Dipsadomorj'hus cet/loiiensis, for 

" 94 to 111 " read " 91 to 110." 
583, under ventrals of Bipsadomorphus nuchalis, for 

" 248 to 266" read " 233 to 252." 
583, under subcau.dals of Dip>sadomorphus nuchalis, for 

"113 to 129" read "90 to 111." 
594, No. 1310, for '^risovies" read " risorins." 
609, No. 704, for ''Zoothere" read "Zoothera." 
659, Title of Note No. IV, for "Tigres" read ''Tigris." 

666, Title ot Miscellaneous Note No. X, for "Hylocirius" 

read "Hylocriits." 

667, Footnote to Note No. XII, for "SejyJiia" read 

''Siphia." 

668, Title of Note No. XIV, for "Zoothea" read "Zoo- 

thera." 

672, line 2 from the bottom, for "are not probably" 

read "are rare but probably." 

673, ,, 15, read Baghownie instead of Baghowinie. 
16, ,, Laheria ,, Lakeria. 
18, 
19, 
22, 
26, 
27, 

674, Title of Note No. XXIV, for " Syphootis " read 

" Sypheotis." 

675, line 1 from top, for "poeciloroiicha'^ read 

' 'poeciloryncha . ' ' 
,, No. 328, for ''longicandatus" read ^'longicaiulatas.'" 
677, lines 9, and 10 from the top, /or Wheater read 

Wheatear. 
684, line 5 from the top, for " Faviriientala" read 
^^ pavimentatay 





PJiasiayiux , 


, J-JOiXVOli-Oi. 

, Phasianus. 




two , 


, ten. 




7 


5. 




Baghownie 


, Baghowinie 




Laheria , 


, Lakeria. 



xli 



Page 684, line 7 from the top, for " Gaw Hills " vecul 

" Garo Hills." 
,, 11, /or "lops" read "lips." 
,, ,, ,,18 from the bottom, after the word "into" 

insert " two." 
„ ,, ,, 15 from the bottom, /or " breaking up into 3 

scale 3 " read " breaking up into 3 
scales." 
„ 688, Title of Note XL, for '' Forficdlidoi " read 

" Forficididce." 
. ,, 698, line 6 from the bottom, under locality, for 

" Nilambur, S. I." read " Nelliampatty 
Hills." 

No. 3, Volume XXVI . 

Page 731, line 13 from the bottom, instead of " 3 other 

specimens belonging to " read. " 3 
other specimens which belong." 
,, 732, „ 3 from the top, instead of " size larger, 

forearm 48 " read "size smaller, fore- 
arm 48 mm." 
17 from the bottom, at the end of the 
sentence add^ (The figures in brackets 
are those of JEgyptiaca). 
15, for Type: — Adult read T7//?e :— Adult 
Female. 
733, ,, 6, for %)e :— Adult read %je :— Adult 
Female. 
,, ,, ,, 4 from bottom, for Type : — Adult read 

Tijpe : — Adult Female. 
,, 848, ,, 10 from the bottom, for " Ormaston " read, 

" Osmaston." 
,, ,, ,, 35, /or "belbi" read '^heehei." 

Plate 1, at page 820, at bottom of page, /or " Mrotis" read 

^' Myotis'' and " murecola" should be 
*' muricola." 
Page 820, Plate I, Jor ''Mrotis rmiricela" read "Myotis 
muricoUi." 
„ 822, line 15, " Hanatapara " should rearZ "Hantapara." 
,, 823, „ 18, "XXV" should reafZ "XXIV." 
Page 823, line 30" 

„ 34 

A-i V " Bharnabari " should be omitted as 

,, ,5 ,J ■*■•■ f 



,, ,, 



5, ,5 



„ 824, „ 2 



,5 

6 



Hasimara includes Bharnabari. 



55 

)} JJ 



55 



55 



xlii 



Page 823, line 32, after " Jalpaiguri," insert district. 
,, ,, ,, 49, "said to be" should be omitted and 

instead of "at the first two localities " 
' everywhere ' should be read. 
„ „ ,, 52, the note on the Club-footed Bat should 

be in brackets. 
,, 824, ,, 11, " Harpicorplialus'^ should read ^^ Harpi- 

ocephalus.'^ 
5, „ ■ ,, 39, there should be a space between Mus 

and homourus. 
825, ,, 3, ^' maximas " should reat^ '^ maximus." 

„ 17, after " rhinoceros " "of this species" 
should be inserted. 

841, line 6 from the bottom, for "Beselaphus'' read 
" Boselaphus.''^ 

842, ,, 9 from top,/or "Q,uadricorus^' read ^'■quadricornis" 
„ ,, 20, from tojD, for "Dendiocpia" read- 

"Dendrocyna." 

844, „ 5, from top, for "Fits" read ''Bits." 
,, Note No. IX, line 3, from top, for "Ga^js" read 

''Gape." 

845, No. 3 for "Boated Eagle" read "Booted 'Eagle" 
858, ,, 1055, /or 'Bhi/tidocros' read "Fhytidocoros". 

861, line 16, for " 46'-5" read " 46-5 inches. 

862, Note No. XXVI, line 5, for " pitcator" read 
"piscator." 

,, 870, line 7 from the top, for "Mgcalesis'Wead "Mycalesis." 
In the Plate illustrating " Birds of Prej^ of the Punjab " 
published at page 326, Vol. XXVI, the bottom figure (Fig. 3), 
which depicts the underside of the Black-winged Kite (Elanus 
cmruleus) is incorrect — as the margins of the open wing are not 
all black. The underside of the primaries for less than half the 
length of the wings are the only black portions. 

No. 4, Volume XXVI . 

Page 997, in description of Plate for '' Stork-bellied Kingiislier" 
read StorJi-billed King fisher" . 

„ 1043, signature at the bottom of Miscellaneous Note 

No. VI, for " F. Reed " read " F. Field." 
,, 1045, line 9, the second "flocks" should read "cocks." 
„ 1051 line 2, for "from 5-10 A.M." read "in the 

morning" and omit foot-note reference to C. 

E. C. Fischer. 



5' 
55 



.<^^}P2 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 




Bombay Natural History Society. 



December 1918. Vol. XXVI. No. 1 

THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. 0. Stuiet Bakek, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Pakt XXV. 
With a Golowred Plate. 
(^Continued from page 546 of Volume XXV.) 

Genns—GATREUS. 

The Genus Catreus contains a single species very closely allied to 
the true Pheasants, but differing from them in having, a long full 
crest. 

The female differs from the male in plumage, but not to an}-- 
thing like the extent the true female Phasiaims contrasts with the 
male. 

The tail is vei'y long, and is carried like that of Phasianus, not 
compressed like that of iyop/mv'x and Gemueus. It is composed of 
18 feathers, the central pair very long and about five times as long- 
as the outermost. 

The wing is rounded, the fifth primary longest and first shorter 
than the tenth. The feet are strong and the tarsi armed with spurs, 
occasionallj^ represented by knobs in the female. 

The only species, G. wallichi, is confined to Indian limits. 

Catreus wallichi. 
The Cheer Pheasant. 

Phasianus wallichi, Hardw., Trans. L. S., xv., p. 166(1827) (Almorah) ; 
Button, J. A. S. F., xvii., pt. 2, p. 695 (1848); Blytb, Cat. Mus. A. S., 
p. 245 (1849) (N. W. Himalayas) ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 235 (Kumaon) ; 
Jerdon, B. of I., iii., p. 527 (1863) ; Tytler, Ibis, 1861, p. 235, ' (Simla) 



•2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Boavan, ibid, 1868, p. 380 (Simla) ; Stoliczka, J.A.S.F., xxxvii., pt. 2, 
p. 68 (1868) (Satlej Valley); Hume, Nests and Eggs, p. 524 (1873); 
Marsh., B. Nest in I., p. 59 (1879); Hume and Marsh., Game-B., i., p. 169 
(1878) : Scully, Str. Feath., viii., pp. 345, 366 ^1879) (Nepal) ; Marsh., 
Ibis, 1884, p. 423, (Chamba) ; Gates' ed., Hume's Nests and Eggs, iii., 
p. 412 (1890). 

Lophoshoros loallichi, Less., Man. d'Grni, ii., p. 179 (1825) ; Vigne. 
P.Z.S., 1841, p. 6. (Chamba). 

Phasianus stacei, Gould. Cent. Birds., p. 68 (1832) (Himalaya). 

Cati-pus wallichi, Adams, F.Z.S., 1858, p. -^99; Mitchell, ibid, 1858, 
p. 545; Gould. B. of Asia, vii., p. 18 (1865) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M., 
xxii., p. 317 (1893) ; Id., Man. Game-B., ii., p. 1 (1897) ; Blanf., Fauna B. 
I. Birds, iv., p. 82 (1898) ; Sharpe. Hand-L., i., p. 37 (1899) ; Gates, Cat. 
Eggs B. M., i., p. 56 (1901) ; Venour, Jour. B N. H. S., xvii., p. 812 (1907) 
(Dunga Gali, N. W. F. Province) . Ward, ibid, p. 944 (1907) (Jhelum 
Valley) ; Magrath, ibid, xix., p. 159 (1909) (Murree) ; Finn, Avi. Mag., i,, 
p. 129 (1910). 

Vernaculxr Names. — Kahh', Chihir (NepaV) ; Cheer (Kumaon, 
Qarhwal and further West); Bunchil, Boinchil, Herril (Hills, N. of 
Mussoori') ; Chummun, Chaman (^Ghamha, Kulii, etc.); Reear 
(Karnar, Drawa, Fir Pavjal, and Kaji Naqh, Rehar {Barcj, N. 
W. F.) 

Descripiion. — Adidt Male. — Top of the head and feathers of the 
crest blackish brov\-n, edged paler and with rather conspicuous grey 
tips ; back of the head and upper nape the same but with the grey 
edges almost concealing the dark centres ; line of feathers below 
the bare orbital space and ear-coverts hair-brown, almost black 
next the bill ; chin, throat and sides of the neck greyish white, 
very faintly centred with brown streaks, obsolete in some speci- 
mens ; lower nape and hind neck the same barred with black, 
scapulars and lesser wing-coverts barred o&hy grey and black, each 
feather with a narrow g^ey fringe and with the siibterminal black- 
bar glossed with green ; upper tail-coverts and tail pale buffy grey 
to almost pure grey at the tip, barred with wide mottled bars of 
black and dark cinereous grey ; outer tail feathers with the dark 
grey on the inner webs replaced to a great extent with deep 
chestnut. 

Primaries brown, the outermost edged and barred with pale buff 
on the outer webs and both mottled and barred with the same 
colour on the inner webs; secondaries the same, becoming more 
and more mottled in characters towards the innermost, which have 
one broad subterminal bar of black, a second bar less definite in 
shape and the rest of the feather irregularly mottled with black and 
buff; greater and median wing-coverts like the lesser, but with 
more of a buffy-ochre tinge, in some cases becoming here and 
there almost rufous. 

Below greyish-white, more or less tinged with rufous-buff pos- 
teriorly and on the flanks each feather barred with black, but with 
these bars concealed on the fore neck and upper breast, and very 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 3 

conspicuous on the lower breast and fianks ; the feathers of the 
breast also have faint brown shaft stripes ; centre of abdomen 
blackish, more or less mottled with rufous buff; vent and under 
tail-coverts rufous ; thigh-coverts dirty rufous buff. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Orbital skin crimson-scarlet or crimson, 
sometimes dotted with little pink, or pinkish-white pimples ; iris 
golden hazel or reddish hazel, sometimes, according to Hume, an 
orange-brown ; bill pale yellowish horny, more rarely pale brownish 
or bliiish horny ; legs plumbeous or greyish brown, occasionally 
with a fleshy ti]5t, especially on the hinder parts ; toes paler and 
more fleshy and soles paler still. 

Measurements. — The series of males of which J have been able to 
take measurements, some 40 in number do not show a very great 
range of variation. Including the 22 specimens in the British 
Museum, they measure : — 

Wing from 9-3" (235 mm.) to 10-6" (269-2 mm.), and averag- 
ing 9-9" (250-5 mm.); tail 15-3" (388-6 mm.) to 23-0" (584-2 
mm.), with an average of 19-0" (481-8 mm.) ; tarsus about 3" (76-2 
mm.); spur generally about -5" (12-5 mm.), rarely as such as 
75" (19-0 mm.); bill at front about 1-1" (27-9 mm.), and from 
gape about 1-3" (36 mm.) 

" Weight, 2 lbs. 10 ozs. to 3 lbs. 7 ozs." (Hume.) 

In a letter to me, Col. R, H. Rattray recorded the weight of one 
shot at Mussoorie as jnst on 4-lbs. 

Wilson (Mountaineer) mentions having obtained birds with tails 
of 28" (716 mm.), and this observer is invariably so correct that 
we must accept his statement, but such birds are no duubt quite 
exceptional. The crest runs up to 3-6" (91-4 mm.), and is 
usually about 3" (76-2 mm.) 

Adult Female. — Head similar to that of the male, but with buff or 
ochre-buff instead of grey edging and tips to the feathers ; hind 
neck and nape greyish- white with bold black centres ; mantle pale 
chestnut — varying a good deal in depth in different individuals — 
each feather with cream shaft streaks, greyish edges and bold black 
bars; lower back and rump ashy-brown, mottled with black and, to 
a much less extent with buff; tail and upper tail-coverts with 
alternate bands of mottled rufous and black and bolder black and 
buff; the longer tail-coverts with more black and less buff. 

Primaries brown, regularly barred with buff on the outer webs 
and with chestnut on the inner ; secondaries mottled blackish- 
brown, and chestnut-buff with four broad bars of creamy-buff' edged 
above and below with black ; greater and median coverts mottled 
black and chestnut-buff with broad tips of creamy-bufi. 

Below chin, throat and fore neck creamy-white ; breast black, the 
feath-rs with broad white edges and white central streaks ; re- 
mainder of lower surface pale chestnut each feather edged with 



4 JOUHNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXJ'l. 

creamy-buff; flanks anteriorly like the breast, gradually changing 
posteriorly until they are almost the same as the belly ; centre of 
abdomen buff; under tail-coverts pale rufous, mottled slightly 
with brown. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Similar to the same parts in the male, 
but the facial skin is a duller, dingier crimson, more a brick-red. 

Measurements.— ^ing, 8-6" (223-4 mm.) to 9-7" (245-6 mm.), 
average (28 birds) 9-15" (231-6 mm.); tail, 12-5" (317-5 mm.) 
to 18-6" (467-4 mm.), with an average of 15-0" (381-0 mm.) ; 
tarsus, 2-8" (71-6 mm.) to 3-1" (78-7 mm.), generally a little 
under 3" (about 75 mm.) ; bill at front about 1" (25*4 mm.) and 
from gape 1-2" (30-4 mm.). The spur is only a mere knot 
when present, as a rule there is none. The crest runs up to 2*7" 
(68-5 mm.), but is more often about 2" (50-8 mm.) 

" Weight, 2 lbs. to 2 lbs. 12 ozs.*' (Hume.) 

Distribution. — The West of Nepal, Kumaon, Garhwal, Tehri 
Garhwal, Simla States, Bussahir, Chamba and at least as far West 
as Dunga Galli in the Hazara District of the N.-W. Frontier 
Province. 

Ward says that it is not found in Kashmir proper, though it is 
found in Kishtwar and the Jhelum Valley. Major H. L. Haugh- 
ton, then of the 36th Sikhs, obtained specimens at Bvarnar and 
Drawa (Kashmir), and also at Pir Panjal and Kaji Nag. Nor can 
they be very rare there, for on one day he informs me he managed 
to shoot eight birds. 

It is possible that these pheasants inhabit Nepal a good deal 
further to the East than Hume thought to be the case. Before 
the traffic in bird skins was j)ractically stopped in Darjiling 
the Nepalese occasionally brought these skins into Darjiling for 
sale and less often birds alive, which they said had been trapped 
in the Valley of Nepal on the higher hills to the North. 1 have 
myself seen such skins, and one of my eggs was obtained with the 
skins of the parent bird from Nepalese in Darjiling. 

Scully, it must be remembered, found these birds very common 
in captivity in Khatmandu, and believed that the bird was by no 
means uncommon to the North of the Valley. No one yet has 
collected in Nepal off the beaten tracks, and even Hodgson was 
never, evidently, in a position to collect in the real interior of the 
country, whilst Residents since his time appear to have made no 
attempt to do so. 

Nidification. — This beautiful Pheasant breeds throughout the 
above area at elevations between 5,000 and 9.000 feet, occasionally 
lower than the former, and, equally occasionally, above the latter. 
The breeding season commences early in April and lasts through- 
out May and June. In the lower ranges most eggs will be taken 
in the end of April and early May, whilst in the higher altitudes 



THE GAME BIRD^ OF INDIA. 5 

none are likely to be taken before the end of May, and more in 
the early half of June. The latest date I have recorded is the 
3rd of July for incubated eggs. 

Owing to the fact that Europeans do all they can to prevent the 
eggs of this bird being taken, and, vs^herever they are sufficiently 
numerous to make it worth while, do their best to preserve these 
pheasants, there is very little on record about their nidification. 

In addition to this, the fact that they nearly always breed in 
the wildest and most precipitous hills makes their nests and eggs 
very hard to find, and consequently full clutches of Cheers' eggs 
are very rare in collections. The nests are very rough affairs, 
merely a collection of leaves and rubbish in some hollow, either 
natural, or scratched out by the birds themselves. It is placed in 
amongst bushes,bracken or grass at the foot of, or on the side of, 
some steep hill or cliff, and almost invariably in very broken 
gi-ound. Hume found his three nests at the foot of almost vertical 
cliffs, " broken into ledges and steps and studded with down-trail- 
ing bushes, tufts of grass and, growing here and there out of some 
larger cleft or wider ledge, a few stunted trees." This description 
appears to be very typical of the normal breeding and nesting 
haunts of the Cheer, and the few details I have been able to secure 
from sporting friends simply confirm what Hume has written. It 
is interesting to note that Hume took this bird's nest at Nagthiba 
as long ago as 1861, and that only three years ago, 1915, I 
received from a friend a pair of eggs taken from the same place. 

The cock birds are monogamous, a fact which has been long 
known, for Wilson recorded that " both male and female keep 
with the young brood, and seem very solicitous for their welfare." 
In 1916, Mr. A. Wimbush of the Forest Service, came on a very 
interesting instance of the cock Cheer's care for his family. He 
writes in epistola : — 

" This morning when out after Gural in the Jaunsar 
" division of the Dehra Dun District at an elevation of about 
" 8,000 feet, I came suddenly upon a pair of Cheer Pheasants 
" with a brood of chicks about one or two days old. 

" The parent birds which appeared to have been sitting 
"touching one another, as though each covering half the 
" chicks, waited until I was some ten or twelve yards away, 
" and then started a most lively demonstration. 

" The chicks ran in all direction, one coming straight 
" towards me, and the two old birds wdth tails spread, wings 
" arched and neck feathers ruffled ran backwards and forwards 
" in front of me, clucking just like an old hen does if a dog 
" interferes with her chicks. 

" The most interesting point was that the chief demonstrator 
"was the cock bird. Without the least sign of fear he 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

" approached to within about eight yards of me, assuming the 
"most threatening attitude. 

•' This continued for a moment or two, until all the chicks 

" had hidden in the grass, whereupon both old birds began to 

" walk away, calling all the time to the chicks." 

If the eggs are at all incubated, the hen birds sits very close, 

and may be nearly trodden or before she will rise. In such cases, 

she gets oft" her nest with a good deal of fluster and noise, but 

usually the birds sneak off" very stealthily. 

The number of eggs in a ifull clutch seems to be anything from 
eight to fourteen, most often ten or eleven. Hume found thirteen 
in one nest. Adams says thej lay from nine to twelve, and 
Wilson says nine to fourteen, and Whymper took clutches with 
from eight to eleven eggs in Garhwal. 

In appearance the eggs are just like small hens' eggs varying in 
colour from a pale creamy white to a pale stone or brown, sometimes 
with a faint chocolate or creamy tint in it. They are never of the 
rich, warm cafe-au-lait tint so often found in the f^ggs of the 
Jungle-Fowl and the Kalij Phesants, and, on the other hand, most 
eggs have the faintest tinge of olive-green in them, hardly dis- 
cernible unless placed against other eggs, 

Frequentlj" the eggs are spotted and speckled with brown, and, 
curiously, these spots seem to be nearly always at the small end. 
This is the case in four out of the only six eggs I have in my 
collection, in the majority of those in the British Museum and at 
Tring and again in Mr. S. L. "Whymper's collections. As a rule 
these spots and specks are scanty and poorly coloured, but 1 have 
one egg which is quite richly blotched with rich brown at the 
small end. 

In shape they are the same as hens' eggs, occasionally rather 
drawn out, but never a peg-top shape like those of the true 
Phasianus group. The texture is hard, close and strong with a 
fair gloss. 

Thirty eggs vary in length from 49-9 mm. to 57-1 mm., and in 
breadth from 36-5 mm. to 4.0-6 mm. The average is 53-3 mm. 
by 38-7 mm. 

General Hahits. — The Cheer may be found at any altitude 
between 4,000 feet in the cold weather, and 10,000 feet or more 
in the summer, but as a rule keep between about 6,000 feet and 
9,000 feet. They haunt the wildest of country, and though not 
found above the forest level they are not birds of heavy forest, but 
rather of the scanty forest and thick grass and undergrowth which 
grow on the more precipitous hills and cliff" sides. According to 
various authors and writers, they seem to go about in flocks of any 
thing from half a dozen to a dozen or more, probably only the 
family party of the last hatching. They do not keep very close 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 7 

together, but scatter over a considerable area, a habit of consider- 
able importance to the sportsman in pnrsnit of them, as he can 
pick them up one or two at a time instead of flushing the whole 
covey together. 

No account of this Pheasant can be considered complete with- 
out " Mountaineer's " most interesting notes, for no one since has 
written any account to compare with his. I therefore make no 
apology for quoting them in full, although so many have used them 
before me. 

" Though far from being rare, fewer perhaps are met with 
" than of any other kind unless it is particularly sought for, 
" always excepting the Jewar. The reason of this may be 
" that the general character of the ground where they resort 
" is not so inviting in appearance to the sportsman as other 
'' places ; besides, they are everywhere confined to particular 
•'localities, and are not, like the rest, scattered indiscrimiua- 
•'tely over almost every part of the regions thej'- inhabit. 
" Their haunts are on grassy hills with a scattered forest of 
" oak and small patches of underwood hills covered with the 
"common pine near the sites of deserted villages, old cow- 
" sheds, and the long grass amongst precipices and broken 
" ground. 

" They are seldom found on hills entirely destitute of trees 
•' or jungles, or in the opposite extreme of deep shady forest ; 
■' in the lower ranges they keep near the top of the hills or 
•' about the middle, and are seldom found in the valleys or 
" deep ravines. Further in the interior they are generally low 
•'down, often in the immediate vicinity of the villages, except 
•'in the breeding season, when each pair seeks a spot to per- 
•' form the business of incubation : they congregate in flocks 
" of from 5 or 6 to 10 or 15, and seldom more than two or 
' three lots inhabit the same hill. 

" They wander a good deal about the particular hill they are 
" located on, but not beyond certain boundaries, remaining 
'• about one spot for several days or w-eeks, and then shifting 
" to another, but never entirely abandoning the place, and 
" year after year they may, to a certainty, be found in some 
" quarter of it. 

" During the day, unless dark and cloudy, they keep con- 
" cealed in the grass and bushes, coming out morning and 
"evening to feed. When come upon suddenly while out, they 
" run off quickly in different directions, and conceal them- 
" selves in the nearest cover, and seldom, more than one or two 
" get on the wing. They run very fast, and if the ground is 
" open and no cover near, many will run two or three hundred 
" yards in prefei-ence to getting up. 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV L 

"After concealing themselves they lie very close, and are 
" flushed within a few yards. There is, perhaps, no bird of 
' its size M'hich is- so difficult to find after the flock have 

• been disturbed and thej- have concealed themselves ; where 
' the grass is very long, even if marked down, without a good 
' dog it is often impossible to flush them, and even with the 
' assistance of the best dogs not one-half will be found a 
' second time. A person may walk within a yard of one, and 
' it will not move. I have knocked them over with a stick, 
' and even taken them with the hand. In autumn the long 
' grass, so prevalent about many of the places they resort to, 
' enables them to hide almost anywhere ; but this is burnt by 
' the villagers at the end of winter, and they then seek refuge 

• in low jungle and brushwood, and with a dog are not so 
' difficult to find. 

" Both males and females often crow at daybreak and dusk, 
' and in cloudy weather sometimes during the day. The 
' crow is loud and singular, and, when there is nothing to 
' interrupt, the sound may be heard for at least a mile. It is 

• something like the words chir-a-jiir, chir-a-^nr, chir cliir, cJiirwa, 
' cJiirwa, but a good deal varied ; it is often begun before com- 
' plete daylight, and in spring, when the birds are numerous, 
' it invariably ushers in the day : in this respect it may rival 
' the domestic cock. When pairing and scattered about, 

• the crow is often kept up for nearl}^ half an hour, first 
' from one quarter, than another ; and now and then all 
' seem to join in a chorus. At other times it seldom lasts 
' more than five or ten minutes. 

" The Cheer Pheasant feeds chiefly on roots, for which it 
' digs holes in the ground, grubs, insects, seeds and berries, 
' and, if near cultivated fields, several kinds of grain form a 
' portion of its diet ; it does not eat grass or leaves like the 
' rest of our Pheasants. 

"It is easy to rear in confinement, and might, without 
■' difficulty, be naturalized in England, if it would stand the 
" long frosts and snows of severe winters, which I imagine is 
"rather doubtful. 

" This bird flies rather heavily, and seldom very far. Like 
" most others, it generally utters a few loud screeches on 
" getting up, and spreads out the beautifully barred feathers 
" of its long tail, both when flying and running. It does not 
" perch much on trees, but will occasionally fly up into one 
" close by, when put up by dogs. It roosts on the ground 
"generally, and when congregated together, the whole flock 
" huddle up in one spot. At times, however, they will roost 
"in trees and bushes," 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 9 

Two points in this excellent account require comment. First 
as regards their flight ; few sportsmen will agree with Wilson's 
description of it, and all my correspondents give the Cheer credit 
for being a most difficult bii'd to shoot, not only on account of its 
great speed in flight, but also because of its habit of hurling itself 
headlong down cliff" sides with almost closed wings, giving the 
snappiest of snap-shots, unless one is close to the level at which 
it intends to alight. Close to this point it gradually moderates its 
pace, somewhat opening its wings, spreading its tail and in the 
words of Hume — " sweeps off in graceful curves riglit or left, 
shortly dropping suddenly, almost as if shot, into some patch of 
low cover." 

The second point which atti*acts notice is the statement that 
these birds roost on the ground ; doubtless they do so some- 
times, but over most of their habitat I am told they roost 
either on stunted trees, high bushes or on the summit of high 
rocks. 

The description given by Mr. Wimbush of the demonstration 
made by a pair of pheasants in defence of their young shows that 
attitudes supposed to be awe-inspiring are indulged in hj Cheer. 
Finn corroborates this, and remarks : — 

"This species is not supposed to show off", but a vicious 

"male in the Calcutta Zoo used to show off* in the Common 

" Pheasant's attitude aslant with spread tail when trying to 

" attack, and as the show position so commonly seems to be 

" the fighting one too, I expect the species does thus display 

" when courting. This bird made a murmuring note when 

"approached, like the Kalij Pheasant." 

It is said to be an excellent bird for the table and one of my 

correspondents adds "It is the only game bird I have shot in 

India which in any way reminds me of the English Pheasant and 

the flesh, especially, if kept for a short time in the cold weather is 

much more like that of true Phasianiis than that of the Jungle 

fowl or Kali]'.'' 

Genus— LOPHURA. 

The Genus Lophura contains three species of Pheasants, which 
are rather closely allied to those of the genus Gennceus, but the tail 
is differently shaped, though compressed as in that group, and the 
naked portion of the face is prodxiced above the forehead and again 
below the cheeks into the fleshy pendant wattles. 

The wing is similar to that of the Kalij Pheasants, the first 
primary equal to the ninth or tenth, the fifth and sixth sub-equal 
and longest. In both Gennceus and Loi^lmra, the tail is composed 
of sixteen feathers, but in the former the central tail feathers are 



10 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RI8T, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

longest, whereas in the latter the third pair are a little longer than 
the two central pairs. 

The crest is composed of feathers with shafts bare at their bases 
and heavily plumed at the tips. In G. rufa four-jBfths of the shafts 
are bare, but in Q. diardi merely the bases. 

The feet and tarsi are stout and armed, in the male, with a well- 
developed spur. 

There are three species in the Genus as now restricted, two of 
which are found in the limits of the present work, the third 
Lophura ignita being obtained in the forest of Borneo. 

Key to Species. 

A. Mantle deep purplish blue. 

a. Upper breast black, glossed blue ; 

central tail feathers white L. rufa cf 

b. Upper breast dark grey, vermiculat- 

ed with white central tail 

feathers black L. diardi j 

B. Mantle chestnut. 

c. Wing-coverts chestnut, vermiculated 

with black ; outer tail feathers 

black L. rufa $ 

d. Wing-coverts black, with buff bro- 

ken bars ; outer tail feathers 

dark chestnut L. diardi $ 

LOPHURA RLiFA. 

The Fire-Bacli, 

Phasianus iynitus, Raffles (nee Shaw and Nodder) Trans. Linn. Soc, 
xiii., p. 320 (1822) (Sumatra) ; Daniell, F. Z. S., 1882, p. 24 ; Elliott, Ibis, 
1878, p. 412. 

Phadanus rufus, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc., xiii, p. 321 (1822) (Suma- 
tra) ; Gray in Griffiths ed. Cuv., iii, p. 28 (1829). 

Pliasianus castaneus, Gray in Griffiths ed. Cuv., iii., p. 28 (1829) (Penang). 

GaUus macartneys, Schinz (nee. Temm.) Nat. abild. Vog., p. 28, pi. 93 
(1833) (Sumatra). 

Euploeamus iynitus, Gray, 111. Ind. Zool., ii., pi. 39 (1834) ; Blyth, Cat. 
Mus. As. Soc, p. 243(1849) (Sumatra) ; Blyth and Wald.,Cat. Mamm. and 
Birds, Burma, p. 149 (1875) (Tennasserim River) ; Elliott, Ibis (1878) 
p. 124. 

Euploeamus vieillotti, Gray, List Gen. E. 2nd ed., p. 77 (1841) ; Gould, B. 
of Asia, vii., pi. 15 (1852) (Malacca) ; Hume, Str. Feath., ii., p. 481 (1874) 
(Tennasserim) ; id, ibid, iii., p. 324 (1875) (Tennasserim) ; Sclater, P.Z.S., 
(1875) p. 380; Hume, Str. Feath., v., p. 119. (1877) (Tennasserim) ; Hume 
and Marsh , Game-B. In., i.. p. 213 (1878); Hume and Dav., Str. Feath., 
p. 438 (Pakjan); Elliott, Ibis, 1878, p. 413; Kelham, Ibis, 1881, p. 532 
(Perak) ; Gates, B. of Burma, ii., p. 320 (1883) (L. Tennasserim). 

Euploeamus rufus, Hume, Str. Feath., v., p. 121 (1877). 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 11 

Euplocavms sumatranus, Dubois, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2), xlvii., p. 825 
(1879) (Sumatra). 

Lophum rufa, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B.M., xxii., p. 268 (1893) ; id, Man. 
Game-B., i., p. 244 (1895) ; Blanf., Fauna. B. T., iv., p. 87; Gates, Man. 
Game-B , i., p. 379 (1898) ; Sharpe Hand-L., B., i., p. 34 (1899); Gates, 
Cat. JEgg8,B.M., i., p. 52 (1901). 

Lophura vieillotti, Buttikofer Notes Ley. Mus., xvii., p. 181 (1895). 

Lophwa sumatrana, Buttikofer, Notes Ley. Mus., xvii., p. 177 (1895). 

Vernacular Names. — Kuock-wah (Siamese) ; Mooah-Mooah, 
(Malay). • 

Description. — Adult Male. — Plumage above including thick bushy 
crest, lesser wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts a deep rich metallic 
purple-violet ; lower back a fiery golden red, passing into a rich 
copper chestnut on the rump, the concealed bases of these feathers 
coloured like the upper back ; two pairs of central feathers white, 
inner webs of third pair white, outer webs of these and whole of 
remaining tail feathers black, more or less glossed with violet. Wing 
quills brown, darkest and almost black on the innermost second.'^ries; 
greater coverts black, glossed, more especially at the edges and tips, 
with a more decided green tint than that on the back, median 
coverts where visible the same glossy green. 

Below like the mantle, the sides of the lower breast and flanks 
with conspicuous white shaft-stripes faintly tinged with chestnut 
in 8ome specimens ; centre of abdomen black ; vent and thigh- 
coverts dingy blackish-brown ; imder tail-coverts black glossed with 
the same colour as that on the wing-coverts. 

Many birds, apparently fully adult, have a curious sprinkling of 
the finest specks of white arranged as a naiTOw irregular line on 
each feather of the metallic plumage of the back and with similar 
terminal lines, but of reddish instead of white, on the wing- 
quills. 

Birds from Sumatra, it should be noted, have the lines on the 
flanks chestnut instead of white, but with the material available it 
is impossible to say whether this is constant and would sufiice to 
give this form sub-specific rank. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Irides bright pale red ; facial skin pale 
smalt blue or bright smalt blue ; bill white or pale fleshy horn ; 
tarsus in front and toes bright vermilion red, back of tarsus pal.r 
with soles and claws reddish white ; spur fleshy pink or pale 
vermilion ; skin of throat showing through the scanty feathering- 
fleshy pink. (Davison). 

Measurements.— Wing, lO'O" (254-0 mm.)toll-7" (297'1 mm.), 
average of thirty birds li-3" (286-1 mm.); tail, 9-0" (228-6 mm.) 
to 12-8" (325-1 mm.), average, 11-3" (286-1 mm.); tarsus, 4-25" 
(107-9 mm.) to 4-8" (121-9 mm.), average 4-55" (115-5 mm.); 
spur, 1-25" (31-7 mm.) to 1-7" (43-2 mm.); crests, 1-5" 
(38-1 mm.) to 1-7" (43-2 mm.). 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXJ'I 

" Weight, 4-25 lbs. to 5 lbs." (Hume.) 

Hume gives the length of the bill from gape as 1*6" to 1'8" 
(40-6 to 45-7 mm.). 

.4 Young Male apparently moulting into adult plumage, has the 
upper tail-coverts blackish-brown, mottled with chestnut at the 
tips ; the white centi*al tail feathers have their basis and broad 
shaft-stripe brown ; the whole of the under surface is black with 
hai'dly a vestige of gloss and the. gloss on the upper parts is scanty 
and dull. • 

^1 Young Male in fii'st phimage is dull earthy brown above, much 
freckled with rufous, the head is darker and the incipient crest is 
tipped with chestnut; below the chin and throat are dull albescent; 
neck dark brown ; breast and flanks dark brown, each feather 
broadly edged with white ; centre of abdomen and vent dull white ; 
under tail-coverts brown ; thigh-coverts like the flanks. 

Adult Female. — Head, neck and upper back bright chestnut 
rufous ; lower back and remainder of upper plumage a more bufi* 
rufous, profusely covered with narrow irregular bars of black : the 
colours of the upper and lower back grade into one another, and 
the feathers of the former show more or less black stippling on 
their terminal halves ; tail and upper tail-coverts a still richer, 
deeper chestnut than the head, the outer tail feathers immaculate, 
the inner and upper tail covers narrowly barred with black. 

Wings like the back, but rather more chestnut in general tone. 

Below, chin and throat rufescent white, changing into pale chest- 
nut on the fore neck ; breast and lower neck bright chestnut, the 
feathers with broad white edges to the basal halves ; remainder of 
lower plumage black with broad white edges to each feather, and 
with the black more or less mixed with chestnut on the flanks ; 
centre of abdomen and vent mottled white ; under tail-coverts black 
and chestnut; thigh-coverts black and chestnut with white fringes. 

Individuals vary a great deal in the extent to which the chest- 
nut of the upper breast encroaches on the lower breast and flanks. 
In some the whole of the lower plumage has the black more or 
less mixed with chestnut, whilst in one or two specimens, on the 
other hand, the chestnut is almost entirely confined to the neck 
and extreme upper breast. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. — Iris bright pale red ; facial skin smalt 
blue ; bill, cere, gape and base of both upper and lower mandibles 
dark horny brown ; rest of bill horny white, greenish white, pale 
yellowish ; legs bright red or vermilion in front and on the toes, paler 
behind and on soles which are a pinkish white, claws hornywhite. 
(Davison.) 

Measurements.— Wing, 8-8" (223-5mm.) to 10-4" (264-lram.), 
average of thirty-four birds, 9-9" (251-2mm.) ; tail, 6-5" (165-1 
mm.) to 9-3" (236-2 mm.), average, 8-3" (210-8 mm.) ; tarsus, 



THE GAME BIRDS OF IM)IA. 13 

3-4" (86-3mm.) to4-r' (104-lmm.); crest about 1-5" (38- 1 mm.); 
bill at front about 1-3" (33-0 mm.) and from gape about 1-6" (40-6 
mm.). 

Hume gives the wing of the female as running up to 10-75" 
(275 mm.) 

« Weight, 3 to 3-5 lbs." (Hume.) 

The Young Female is duller above and the chestnut of the 
head is little, if any, brighter than the rest of the plumage. The 
mottlings are generally stronger and more plentiful and the 
scapulars have a few broad bars of black. Below the chestnut is 
but slight in extent, and is confined to the fore neck. 

Distribution. — South Western Siam, the Malay Peninsula and 
Sumatra. The female in the British Museum Collection marked 
" Borneo " is of course not from that island. 

This fine Pheasant only enters our limits in the South of 
Tennasserim about as far North as the latitude of Tennasserim 
Town, but is apparently very common further South. 

Nidification. — There is, as far as I can find, absolutely nothing 
on record about the nidification of this Pheasant in a wild state, and 
very little in caged state, although it is a common enough bird in 
captivity. Haime's collection contains a single egg laid by a bird 
under the latter conditions in Julj'', and the only eggs laid by wild 
birds that I know of are two in my own collection purchased from 
the Waterstradt Collection and taken in JNIalacca on 4th April. 

The egg obtained by Hume measures 2-25" by 1-68" (57-1 by 
39*6 mm.), the two in my own collection measure 51'0 by 39*3 mm. 
and 52*7 by 39-5 mm. In shape and texture they are similar 
to rather thin shelled domestic-fowls' eggs, and in colour they are 
a pale stone or buff". Hume calls his egg a delicate cafe-au-lait, 
but I should prefer to call this also a very pale dull buff. The 
surface in all these eggs is smooth, but with little gloss, and my 
two eggs are stained here and there from the rubbish upon which 
they were laid. 

The only notes obtainable about the wild-laid eggs were as 
follows :— - 

" Brought in by native collectors with the skin of the 
" adult bird ; said to have been placed in a nest composed of 
" dead leaves, grass and bamboo spates under some thick 
*' bushes in dense evergreen forest." — Malacca, 4/4/1899., low 

Beyond the fact that of the eggs known one was laid in July 
and two in .April ; it is impossible to say when the breeding season 
commences or ends. 

General Habits. — The Fire-Back appears to be a bird of the 
dense low country evergreen forest, not being found in the higher 
hills anywhere within its habitat. Over most of its range it is a 
comparatively common bird, and many are trapped and kept in 



U JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

confinement by the natives. Easy to tame and easy to feed, it 
thrives even when kept in a comparatively small enclosure, but it 
has not yet been induced to breed. 

Like the Kalij Pheasants, this bird is a haunter of thick jungle, 
generall}'^ evergreen, with dense undergrowth, less often bamboo or 
secondary growth in abandoned cultivation. 

It is nearly half a century since the much-quoted account of this 
bird's habits was written by Davison yet since then pi-actically not 
one scrap of information has been added to our knowledge or, at 
all events, recorded anywhere. Siam and the Malay Peninsula 
are now exceptionally well off for good scientific and field natura- 
lists, and il is to be hoped that before long they will supply the 
deficiency. 

Davison writes : — 

" These birds frequent the thick evergreen forests in small 
" parties of five or six ; usually there is only one male in the 
♦' party, the rest being females, but on one or two occasions 
" I have seen two males together ; sometimes the males are 
" found quite alone. I have never heard the males crow, nor 
" do 1 think that they ever do so ; when alarmed, both males 
" and females have a peculiar sharp note, exceedingly like 
" that of the large Black-Backed Squirrel (Sciiirus hicolor). 
" Tlie males also continually make a whirring sound with 
" their winffs, which can be very well imitated by twirling 
" rapidly between the hands a small stick, in a cleft of which 
" a piece of stiff cloth has been transversely placed, I have 
" often discovered the whereabouts of a flock by hearing this 
" noise. They never come into the open, but confine them- 
" selves to the forests, feeding on berries, tender leaves, and 
" insects and grubs of all kinds, and they are very fond of 
" scratching about after the manner of domestic poultry, and 
" dusting themselves. When disturbed, they run rapidly 
"away, not ui different directions, but all keeping much 
" together ; they rise at once before a dog, getting up vv^ith a 
" great flutter, but when once well on the wing, fly with a 
" strong and rapid flight ; they seldom alight again under a 
" couple of hundred yards, and usually on the ground, when 
*' they immediately start running. 

" I noticed on one occasion a very curious thing. I had 
"stalked an Argus, and while waiting to obtain a good 
"shot, I heard the pt^culiar note, a sort of chulun, chukun, 
" followed by the whirring noise made by the male Fire- Back, 
" and immediately after saw^ a fine male Fire-Back run into 
" the open space, and begin to chase the Argus round and 
" round its clearing. The Argus seemed loath to quit its own 
" domain, and yet not willing to fight, but at last, being 



THE GAME BIRI)^ OF INDIA. 16 

" hardpressed, it ran into the jungle. The Fire-Back did not 
" attempt to follow, but took up a position in the middle of 
" the clearing, and recommenced the whirring noise with his 
'• wings, evidently as a challenge, whereupon the Argus slowly 
" returned, but the moment it got within the cleared space, 
"the Fire-Back chai-ged it, and drove it back into the jungle, 
" and then, as before, took up his position in the middle of 
" the space and repeated the challenge, 'J'he Argus imme- 
" diately returned, but only to be again driven back, and this 
" continued at least a dozen times, and how much longer it 
" would have continued I cannot say, but a movement on my 
"part attracting the birds' attention, they caught sight of me, 
"and instantly before I could fire, disappeared into the jungle. 
" The Argus never made the slightest attempt to attack the 
" Fire-Back, but retreated at once on the slightest movement 
" of the latter towards it, nor did I see the Fire-Back strike 
'the Argus with either bill, wings, or spars." 

LOPHURA DIARDI. 

The Siam Fire-Bach. 

Euplocamus diardi, Bonap. Comp., Rend., xi., iii.. p. 415 (1856), ox. 
Temm., M. S. 

Dlanlv/alUia praelatus, Bonap., Comp. Rend., xi., iii., p. 415 (1856) ; 
Schl., Hand-L.d., Dierk, i., p. 379, Atlas Aves, pi. v., fig. 55 (1857) ; Gould, 
B. of A., vii., p. 21 (1860). 

Jjiardir/aUua fa%ciolatu>' , Blyth , J.A.S.B., xxvii., p. 280 (1858). 

Euplocamus pi aeldt us, Sclater, List. Bhas., p. 6, pi. 6 (1863) (Siam, Shan 
States) ; Schomb. Ibis, 1864, p. 259 (E. Lao Country) ; Sclater and Wolf, 
Zool. Sketches, (2) pi. 35, (1867); Elliott, Man. Bhas., ii., p. 24 (1872). 

lophura diardi, Ogilvis-Grant, Cat. B. M., xxii., p. 290 (1898); id, 
Hand-L., Game-B., i., p. 247 (1895) ; Gyldanstolpe, Kungl. Svensk, 
Hand-L. 50, No. 8, p. 67 (i913) ; id. Journ. N. H. Soc, Siam, i., Mo. 4 
p. 235 (North Siam). 

Vernacular Names. — Kai-pha (^Siamese)', Kai-fan — (Laos). 

Description. — Adult .1/aZp.— Crown from forehead to nape, fides of 
the head behind and over the ears, chin, throat and crest black ; the 
crest glossed with purple-blue ; the feathers of the chin, throat and 
foreneck, especially the latter, are very scanty, the fleshy red skin 
showing through ; back and upper breast very finel}'- vermiculated 
grey and black, the general effect being a rather dark grey; lower 
back like the back, but each feather with a broad terminal bar of 
gold, thi? bar of colour concealing the grey bases ; rump and iipper 
tail-coverts, with the exception of a few of the longest, rich metallic 
blue-black, each feather fringed with d^ep copper-crimson ; longest 
tail- coverts black with a copper sheen and edges of metallic green. 
Tail black completely glossed with greenish blue, more distinctly 
blue on the outer than the inner webs. 



16 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RISr. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Below black, glossed with deep blue, but with the brownish bases 
of the feathers showing through. Wings like the back, but the 
scapulars with a broad subtei*minal band of black followed by a 
narrow line of pure white ; lesser and median coverts with similar 
markings, but much less pronounced. 

Colours of the Soft Farts. — Iris red, brown, red-brown or hazel ; 
bill pale greenish horny ; facial skin bright scarlet-red ; legs and 
feet rich deep scarlet or crimson-red, toes and spurs dark horny- 
brown, the latter tipped paler, and sometimes wholly of a pale 
horny white colour. 

" Iris burnt sienna, light red to vermilion • bill pepper- 
" brown ; legs vermilion ". (E.G.Herbert). 

Measurements. — Wing, 230 to 256 mm., average eight birds, 
250 mm. ; tail, 345 to 386 mm.; tarsus about 100 mm. ; crest 70 
to 90 mm. ; bill from gape about 32 mm. and from front to tip 
about the same. 

Adult Female. — Crown, nape and sides of the head a dingy pale 
earth-brown, shading into pale rufous, white on chin, throat and 
fore neck ; back and sides of neck, back and scapulars chestnut red, 
with faint dusky margins to each feather, and a certain amount of 
black stippling in tiny irregular bars. Lower back, rump and 
upper tail-coverts vermiculated or mottled with pale rufous buff and 
black ; the bars broader and better-defined on the hack than 
elsewhere. Tail, two central pairs of feathers, the same wdth 
broad bars of black, boldly mottled with buff on their terminal 
halves, outer feathers a rich chestnut red. 

Below chestnut, the breast and fore neck like the mantle ; the 
lower breast, abdomen and flanks with bold edgings of white to 
each feather ; centre of the abdomen dull brown and white ; under 
tail-coverts unmarked chestnut, the bases mottled with brown. 

Visible portions of the wing like the tail, but with the buff bars 
and mottlings even more boldly defined ; primaries a lighter brown 
with narrow mottled bars of pale buff. 

Colmirs of Soft Parts. — Iris red or brown ; bare skin of face dull 
scarlet brick-colour, pale dull scarlet or dull scarlet ; bill horny 
brown, tip and gouys paler ; legs and feet a very rich deep red, 
scarlet red or crimson red ; soles paler and claws pale horny or 
horny-white. 

" Iris raw umber, burnt sienna, Venetian red or Naples yello\\- ; 
" bill above black, the lower mandible yellowish horny ; some- 
" times the upper mandible is more brown than black ; feet and 
" legs vermilion, but paler and duller than in the male." 

(E. G. Herbert.) 

Measurements. — Wing, 220 to 238 mm. average of eight birds 

228 mm. ; tail 220 to 260 mm. ; tarsus 75 to 85 mm. crest very 

short and of ordinary feathers, not distinguishable from the rest 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 17 

unless erected; bill from gape about 30 mm., the same as from the 
feathers of the forehead to the tip. 

The Voting Male is like the adult female, but is duller and 
more mottled with blackish above; the breast is more brown, and 
less chestnut, and has not got the well-defined white edgings to the 
feathers of the lower breast and flanks. The tail feathers are more 
barred with black and not quite so rich a chestnut. 

Colours of the Soft Paris. — Iris brown or dull blue-brown ; 
facial skin dull fleshy red ; bill pale yellowish horny ; feet and legs 
dull fleshy pink. 

In the Autumn in the first moult the young male appears to 
put on the complete plumage of the njale, i-etaining a few feathers 
here and there of the female, which aie, presumably, dropped duiing 
the ensuing winter, and replaced with adult feathers. 

Tliere is a young male in the British Museum collection in 
this stage with awing of 210 mm. and no crest. 

Distrihution. — Siam, Annam and Camljodia, and it lias also 
been reported from the Southern Shan Hills and the Eastern Lao 
Country. It possibly occurs a'so in the Eastern parts of Karennee 
from whence 1 have had it doubtfully repoited. 

Nidijication. — Nothing recorded. Eggs laid in captivity are 
said to be indistinguishable from those ot Lcphura rvfa. This 
bird has bred in the Zoological Society's gardens in London with 
Silver Pheasants during a period when hybiids were attracting 
much attention, to satisfy which very useless curiosity, a good deal 
of experimental work was done by people who forgot that environ 
ment alone could create stable sub-species such as now exist. 

General Habits. — There is absolutely nothing on record as to 
this bird's habits. It appears to haunt hcav}^ forest at low eleva- 
tions, where thei-e is a great deal of undergrowth and where the 
climate is so damp that most of this is evergreen. 

Sir H. Schomburgh's interesting notes on some captive birds 
which appeared in the Ibis (1(SG4) gives us some insight into its 
habits. 

He writes : — 

" The Kai-pha I speak about was quite tame, and ran about 

" in the verandah of my residence Although 

"the Kai-pha, in splendour of plumage cannot be compared 
"either with the Gold or the Silver Pheasant, still there is 
" something giaceful in its figure and stately in its walk 
" . . 1 allowed him to leave his coop and to walk about 
" in the house, where he picked up insects, apparently more 
" congenial to him than the everyday food of paddy (rice in 
" the husk). When he saw a spider or ant crawl up the walls 
" in the room, he would fl}'^ up Fcveral feet to catch it. He 
" was very partial to plantains and bananas, indeed to almost 

I 



18 'JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

; "any kind of fruit ; this predilection lie may have acquired in 

"his state of domestication. Both in his coop and when 

; " walking about in the verandah, he emitted frequently a 

" faint sound ; ^ut when disturbed or alarmed, the sound was 

" harsh ; and when flying up, it was with a whirring noise 

. " similar to that of our Partridges, but stronger. The female 

"thouoh so difi'erent in plumage, has the same manners as 

; "the male." 

Q?he\ are very commonly trapped by the Siamese and kept as, 
cao-ed "birds, being frequently brought into Bangkok and sold there 
for this purpose. Mr. E. G. Herbert kept some of these birds, 
and his interesting notes to me show that the j^oung males in the 
first autumn moult acquire practically the complete plumage of the 
adult male. He was successful in hatching out some eggs under 
hens, some of the young birds reaching maturity. Mr. Herbert's 
observations confirm those of Sir H. Schomburgh's. 

The traps used to catch the wild birds appear to be of two kinds. 
In one nooses are set round about a decoy in jungle haunted by 
these I'heasants, and in the other nooses are set in openings in low 
brush-wood fences in similar places ; the birds wander down the 
fences, and then in walking through them get caught. In fact, 
the trap is the same as already described as being in use amongst 
BO many of the Eastern wilder tribes. 

As might be expected, they are said to be good eating, though 
one of my correspondents refers to them as " very dry." 



(To he continued.') 



)■■ 



o.;.)-U-r 



19 

SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS FROM THE INDIAN 

MAMMAL SURVEY 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

(By R. C. WilOUGHTON.) 

Part II. 

{Continued from iiacje 598 of Volume XXV.) 

Order II. — Chiropteka — (continued.') 

Subfamily II. — MuKiNhNiE. 

Blanford's genua Harpiocephalus, together with the genus 
MuRiNA, and a third genus. Hakpiola, founded by Thomas (A. 
M. N. H. (8), xvi., p. 309, 1915) make up this Subfamily, and may 
be arranged in a ke}'^ as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the MuriniNjE. 

A. — Last upper molar normal. 

a. Canine normal ... ... ... I. MURINA. 

b. Canine not higher than the anterior 

premolar ... II. Harpiola. 

/?. — Last upper molar reduced to a remnant, 

often deciduous III. Harpiocephalus. 

Gen. I. — MuRiNA. 

Except that we accept the name 

,^„ . ,, , o 11 h:dimi, Peters, for the Indian i-e- 

No. 198. tuhinaris, bcully. , ,. ,.7 „, ^ ,, ^^^ 

I i^^ , ,. T^ 1 presentative ot levcxjaster, these 

No. 201. ciichtis \yoh^on ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ unchanged, but we 

No. 202. Zet^co^a^kr, M.-Ldw. ^^^^^.^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ the list two new 

species, viz., ruhex, Thomas, and 
aurata, Milne- Edwards, These five species may be arranged in a 
key as follows : — 

Kei/ to the species o/MuRiNA. 

^. — Size small, forearm, 27-35 mm. 

a. Size smaller, forearm 27-28 mm. ... 1. aurata, M.-Edw. 

b. Size larger, forearm 33-35 mm. . 

a\ Uppei- half ot outer margin of 

ear-con(;li c uicave... ... 2. tulnnaris, ScnWj. 

W. Upper half ot outer margin of 

ear-conch convex or straight. 



waras. 



2. M. tuhincLris, Scully. 



yO JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. ISOCIETF, Vol, XXVI 

a*. Colour above ferniginous... 3. cychtis, Dohson. 
6". Colour above browu ... 4. hnttoni, Peters. 

B. — Size large, forearm 41-42 mm. ... 5. rub&is, Thomas. 

Distribution : — 

1. M. aurata, Milne-Ed- Tt/pe localiti/ : — Thibet. 

Other loajblitiefi : — Sikkim (B. M.) ; 
Sikkim (M. S. I.). 

Type: — Pan's Museum. 

Tqpe hcalitij : — Gil git. 

Other localities : — "India" (Jerdon) ; 
Kashmir (B. M.) ; Daijiliug; Chin 
Hills (M. S. I.). 

Tiii)G :— Ind. Mus. Calc. 

Tijpe lociliti/: — Unknown. 

Other localities : — Sikkim ; Darjil- 
ing: Chin Hills (M. S. I.). 

Ti/pe:— Ind. MuB. Calc. No. 166.a. 

Ti/pe locality: — Masuri, (Hutton). 

Othei' lo'^alities : — Darjiliug(B. M.); 
Kumaon (M. S. I.) 

Type: — Unknown. 

Ti/pe hcalitij: — Pashok, Darjiling. 
(B.'N. H. S.— Baptista). 

Other localitiP'S ; — None. 

Type:—B. M. No. 16. 2. 25. 111. 



3. if. cyclotis, Dobson. 



4. M. huttoni, Peters. 



5. M. rw&sa;, Thomas. 



Gen. II. — Haupiola. 



No. 199. griseus, Pet. 

Distribution : — 
H. grisea, Peters. 



There is only one species know^n. 
The t3'pe is still the only specimen 
known. 

Type locality : — Jeripaui, Masuri. 
CHutton). 

Other localities : — None. 

Type :— B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 117. 



Gen. III. — Harpiocephalus. 



Blanford inserts a " y " in the name without authority. 

No. 200. harpyia, Temm. The Indian representative ofharpia. 

a Javan bat, is lasyurus, Hodgson. It 
is the only species. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 21 

Distribution : — 

H. lasyurns, Hodgson. Type locality : — Darjiling. (Hodg- 

son). 

Other localities : — Darjiling (B. M.) ; 
Bhutan Duars (M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 119. 

Subfamily III. — KEUivouLiNiE. 

There is only one genus. 

Gen. — Kerivoula. 

Blanford adopted the initial " " without authority. 

Temniinck's species, papulosa, is 
No. 21S. picta, Pall. fi'om Java and Sumati*a. Blanford 

No. 214. hardivickii, Horsf. mentions a specimen (Mamm. 

No. 215. papulosa, Term. p. 3 -LI) which was taken in Calcutta 

and which he refers to this species, 
but it has now been examined by Thomas, who separates it as a 
new species under the name lenis (J. B. N. H. S., xxiv., p. 417, 
1916) and that name must therefore take the place of pnpillosa for 
the Indian animal. Early in the Survey I described a new 
form from Mysore, under the name crypta (J. B. N. H. S., xxii., 
p. 14, 1913). These four lorms may be arranged in a key as 
follows : — 

Key to the species of Kerivoula. 

A. — Wing-membranes parti-colored orange 

and black ... ... ... ... 1. picta, Pall. 

B. — Wing-membranes of the same colour 
throughout. 

a. Size larger, forearm 41 mm. ... 2. lonis, Thos. 

b. Size smaller, forearm 35mm. or less. 
o'. Colour paler ; size greater, fore- 
arm 33-35 mm ; ear larger, more 

markedly emarginate ... ... 3. har dwicTcei, ^orsf. 

fc'. Colour darker ; size smaller, 
forearm 31* 5 mm; ear smaller, 

less emarginate ... ... ... 4. erypta, Wr. 

Distribution : — 

1. K. pieta, Pallas. Type locality : — Peninsula of India. 

OUiPT localities : — Ceylon (B. M.) ; 
Western Ghats, Dharwar (M.S.I.) 

Co-tiipes:—B.'M..Noa. 67. 4 12. 
342-343. 
Lectotype :—57 . 4. 12. 342. 



21' JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

2. K. lenis, Thomas, TyiJ? locality : — Calcutta. 

Ollipr localities : — None. 

'iVi^e:— B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 126. 

3. K. hardmclcei, Horsfield. Type localities: — Java. 

Ot/ittr localities'. — Java (B. M.) ; 
Daviiling (M. S. I.). 

2'//pe:— B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 181. 

4. K. eryjpta, Wroughton. Ti/ps hcality : — Shiraoga, Mysore. 

(B. N. H. S.— Shortridge). 
0' her localities: — None. 
Type :— B. M. No. 12. 8. 25.2, 

Subfamily IV. — Minioptekin^. 

There is only one genus represented. 

Gen. — MiNioPTERUS. 

The Indian representative of the 
No. 216. scJireihersi, Natt. 'Envope:\n ."chreihersi is fuliginosits, 

Hodgs., and Dobson has named 
a species, pusiUus, from the Nicobars. These two species may be 
distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Miniopterus. 

A. — Size larger, forearm more than 45 mm. ; 
hair not extending on to interfemo- 
ral membrane ... ... ... 1, fuliginoms, 

Hodgs. 

B. — Size smaller, forearm 40 mm.; hair ex- 
tending on to interfemoral membrane 
as far as the third caudal vertebra ... 2. pusillus, Dobs. 

Distribution : — 

1 . M. Juligiitosus, Hodgson. Ti/p-i locality : — Nepal (Hodgson) 

Other hcalities : — Western Ghats; 
Ceylon ; Kumaou ; Mt. Popa 
(iM. S. I.) 
Type : — Not traced. '■ 

2. M. pusillus, Dobson. Type locality: — Nicobars. (Sto- 

liczka). 

Other localities : — None. 

Type: — Ind. Mus. Oalc. No. 185. 
dd. 



SUMMARY OF TRE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 28 

Fam% VI. — EMBALLONURID.E. 

This Family contains three genera which occur within our 
limits; they may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Emballokurid^. 

A. — Upper incisors 2-2 ... ... ... I. Emballonura. 

B. — Upper incisors 1-1. 

a. Radio- metacarpal pouch present ... 11. Taphozous. 

6. No radio-metacarpal pouch present. III. Saccolaimus. 

Gen. I. — Emballonura. 

There is only one species within 
No. 217. semicaudatajVeale. our limits. This name belongs to 

a Polynesian species and cannot be 
used for the Indian animal. Miller established a species, penin- 
sularis, from Trong, but Thomas later showed (J. B. N. H. S., xxiii, 
p. 706, 1915) that it could not be separated from moniicola, 
Temm., and that name must therefore be used here. 

Distribution : — 

E. vnonticola, Temmiack. I^VPQ localiti/ : — Java. 

0Uie7- localities . — Java (B. M.) ; 
Tenasserim (M. S. I.) 

Ti/i^e : — Ley den Museum. (Type 
o{ Ijeninsidaris, Miller, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. No. 83575. (in al.)) 

Gen. II. — Taphozous. 

Thomas has made sub-species. 
No. 218. melanopogon , secatus and nudaster, for the Indian 

Temm. representatives of theohaldi and the 
No. 219. theohaldi, Dobs. Burmese form of kac/ihensis respec- 
No. 220. longimamts, tively (J. B. N. H. S. xxiv., p. 59, 

Hardw. 60, 1915) and has recognised the 
No. 221. Jcachhensis, Dohs. northern form as distinct from 

melanopogon, and identical with 
perforatus, Geoff., from Egypt. These seven forms may be arrang- 
ed in a key as follows : — 

Key to the species of Taphozous. 

C A. — No gular. sac in either sex. 
a. Abdomen hairy throughout. 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVl 



B.- 



a}. Size smaller, forearm 60-62*5 mm. 

a^. Colour darker ; a black beard in 

males ; forearm 62-5 mm. ... 

l)^. Colour paler ; no black beard in 
males; forearm 60"5 mm. 
W. Size larger, forearm 71-75 mm. 
a'. Fur extending on to inter- 
femoral memb'-ane ... 
If. Fur not extending on to inter- 
femoral membrane ... 
Lower abdomen naked. 
ft\ Fur normal and close 
&\ Fur exceedingly short and 
fine 
-A gular sac present in males, rudi- 
mentaiy in females ; interfemoral 
membrane hairy to the exsertion of 
tail ; forearm 60 mm. 



1. melavopogon, 

Temm. 

2. perforatus, Geoff- 



3. t. theohaldi, Dobs. 

4. t. secatus, Thos. 

5. Jc. kachhensis, Dob- 
son. 

6. Jc. nudaster, Thos. 

7. lovgimanus, Hardw. 



Distribution : — 

1. T. melanopogon, Tem- 
minck. 



2. T. p&rforatus, Geoffroj. 



3. T. theohaldi theohaldi, 
Dobs. 



4. T. theohaldi secatus, 
Thomas. 



Typs locality : — Java. 

CHher localitiss : — Khandesh ; Se- 
cunderabad, Dekhan ; Kennery 
Caves, Salsette ; South Konkan ; 
Western Ghats ; Malay Peninsula 
(B. M.) ; Khandesh; Berars ; Ni- 
raar ; Central JProvinces; Kanara ; 
Bellary ; Mt. Popa ; Tenasserim 
(M. S. I). 

7V/2W : — Leyden Museum. 

y'/fpe locality : — Egypt. 

Other localities : — Fgypt (B. M.), 
Cutch ; Kathiawar (M. S. I.) 

7V//>e : — Unknown. Perhaps in 
Paris Museum. 

'J't/^Je locality : — Tenasserim. 
(Theobald.) 

Other localilies : — None. 

Co-ti,pes : — Ind. Mas. Calc. Nos. 
187 a. & b. 

Tt/pe locality : — Asirgarh, Nimar 
(B. iS[. H. S.— Crump.) 

Other localities :-^Nimar (M.S.I.) 

Type:—\i. M. No. 12. 6. 28-5. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SUBVEY, 



25 



T. Icachhensis Jcachhen- 
sis, Dobson. 



6. T. kachhensis nudas- 
ier, Thomas. 



T. loncjimanus, Hard- 
wicke, 



TfilJe l.cality : — Kachh. (Stoli- 
czka). 

Other localities: — Sind ; Kutch; 
Palanpur; Kathiawar; Khandesh; 
Bellai V ; Mysore ; Beugal ; Sikkim 
(M. S' 1.) 
Tjjpe :—lnd. Miis.Calc. No. 189. i. 

Tqp'' loca'itt/ : Pagan, Burma. 
(B. N. H. !S.— Shortvidge). 

Other localities : — Pagan, Burma 
(M. S. I.) 

'lyi)e'.~-B. M. No. 14. 7. 19.46. 

7'//^>e Iccaliiy : — Calcutta. 

i}ther localities : — Mandvi, Surat 
Dist. ; Bombay ; Dharwar ; Calcutta j, 
Eaiigoon (B, M.) Palanpur; Cen- 
tral Provinces ; Western Ghats ; 
Kanara ; Bellary ; Mysore ; Bengal ; 
Cliiudwin ; Mt. Popa ; Tenasserim 
(M. S. I.) 

I'a'pe: — Unknown, (Type of 
hrevicaiidus, Blyth, Ind. Mua. Calc. 
No. 188.,;?. 147). 



Gen. III. — Saccolaimus. 



No. 222. saccolcemus, Temm. The only representative of the 

genus in India. 



Distribution : — 

S. mecolaimus, Temminck. 



Ti/}^^^ locality : — Java. 

Other hcdities : — Java; Kanara; 
(B. M.) Kanara; Ceylon; Bengal 
(AI. S. I.) 

Tij]je : — Ley den Museum. 



Family VII. — Rhinopomatid^. 
There is only one genus in the Family. 
Gen, — Rhinopoma. 



No. 223. miero]phyllum, 
Geofi. 



The Indian representative of this 
species is hardicicl-e^, Gray (J. B. 
N. H. S. xxi., p. 767, 1912.) In 
the collection from Cutch I named a species, Mnneari (1. c), and 



26 JO UENAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SO CIETY, Vol, XXVI. 

rhomas has named a subspecies, seianum, of tlie Arabian rnuscatel- 
/wn from Seistan (A. M. N. H. (8), xii., p. 88, 1913). These 
three forms may be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Ke^ to the spscies of Khinopoma. 

^.— Tail shorter than forearm ; skull with a 

transverse ridge, on each side, im- 
mediately above the nostrils ; forearm 

70mm. ... ... ... ... 1. JcinnearifWr. 

B, — Tail longer than forearm ; skull with a 

globular swelling, on each side, above 

the nostrils. 

a. Size larger, forearm 57-Gl mm. ... 2. hardwickei, 

Gray. 

6. Size smaller, forearm 52*omm. ... 3. to. seianum, 

Thos. 



Distribution : 
,1. E. Jcinneari, Wroughton. 



2. B. hafdwicTcei, Gray. 



S. B. muscatellum seianum, 
Thomas. 



Tifpe locality : — Bhuj, Cutch. (B. 
N. H. S.— Crump.) 

OtJier localities : — Kathiawar ; 
Nimar ; Bengal (M. S. I.) 

Tope:—B. M. No. 11. 12.11.1. 

Ti/p3 hcalitii : — " India." 

ether localities : — Nasirabad, Baj- 
putana ; Allahabad ; Khandesh; 
Dharwar (B. M.) Sind; Cutch; 
Palanpur; Kathiawar; Gwalior ; 
Central Provinces ; Dharwar ; Bel- 
lary; Bengal (M. S. I.) ' ., ;. 

7//^je:--B. M. No. I.e. 

Tyj)e hcalify : — Seistan. (Col. 
MacMahon, Seistan Boundary Com- 
mission). 

Other he dities : — None. 

2)ip3:—B. M. No. 6. 1. 2. 2. 



Family VIII. — MoLOSsm^. 



The name Tadarida has been substituted by Lyon (Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., xxvii, p. 215, 1914), as being an older 
name, for Nyctinomus. Besides this Thomas recognises two 
other genera as occurring in our region, and arranges the three 



, SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY, 27 

genera in a key (J. B. N. H. R., xxii, p, 91, 1913) as 
follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Molossid^e. 

A. — PremaxillaB separated ... ... ... I. Tadarida. 

B. — Premaxillse united. 

a. Basi-occipital pits well defined ; a 
prominent vertical projection on 
zygoma ... ... ... ... II. Otomops. 

h. Basi-occipital pits scarcely defined ; 

no projection on zj-goma ... III. Ch^REPHON. 

Gen. I. — Tadarida. 

No. 224. tragaius, Dobs. The only species. 

Distribution : — 

T. tragata, Dobson. Tiji^e hcalify : — Calcutta. 

Other localities: — Nasii'abad, Raj- 
putana (B. M.); Sind ; Cutch ; Pal- 
anpur ; Kathiawar; Dharwar ; My- 
sore (M. S. 1.). 

2'//pe : — Iiid. Mus. Calc. No. 196. a. 

Gen. II. — Otomops. 

The genus was established by Thomas for the species found by 
Mr. Prater at Castle Rock, Kanara. 

Distribution : — 

0. wroughtoni, Thomas. Ti/pe locality : — Talewadi, Kanara 

(B. N. H. S.— Prater). 

Other localities : — Kanara (B.M.). 
Type:—B. M. No. 12. 11. 24. 1. 

Gen. III. — Ch^rephon. 

No. 225. plioatus, B. Ham. The only species. 

Distribution ; — 

0. flicatus, Buchanan Tij-pe locality: — Peninsula of India. 

Hamilton. Other localities: — Java; Malay 

Peninsula; R^jputana (B. M.); 
Teuasserim (M. S. I.). 
!ir//2>e ; — Unknown. 



S JO VRNA L, B 0MB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SO CIETY, Vol. XX VI. 

Order III. — Tnsectivoka. 

The following is a key to the four families of this Order, viz. : — 
A. — Postorbital processes present ; orbital 

ring encircled by bone ... ... 1. TuPAiiD^. 

B. — Postorbital processes absent. 

a. Crowns of first and second upper molara 

with a central fifth cusp ; bullse imper- 
fect ... ... ... ... ... II. Erenaoeidjs. 

b. No central fifth cusp on first and second 

upper molars. 

a\ Zygomatic arches present; bulla9 

ossified ... ... ... ... III. TALPiDiB. 

&\ Noz3'gomatic arches ; bullaa 

imperfect... ... ... ... IV. SORICID^. 

Family I. — Tupaiid^. 

Lyon has recently dealt with this Family in an exhaustive 
monograph (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xiv., p. 1., 1913). He estab- 
lislies a separate genus for the Peninsular forms occurring 
wesb of the Hiver Ganges, and distinguishes the two genera as 
follows : — 

Ket) to the genera of the TupaiiDjE. 

A. — Lower lobe of ear presenting a surface 
greater than upper half of ear ; inner 
side of ear fairly well haired ; reticula- 
tions on naked area of nose coarser. ... I. Anathana. 

B. — Lower lobe of ear presenting a smaller 
surface than upper portion of ear; 
inner side of ear scantily haired ; reti- 
culations on naked area of nose fiuer. II. Tupaia. 

Gen. I.— Anathana. 



Lyon recognises three species 
No. 101. ellioti, Waterh. which he distinguishes aa fol- 

lows : — 

Key to the species of Anathana. 

A. — Tail coloured like back; general colour 

above reddish brown ; feet and hind 

legs buff or ochraceous ... ... 1. ellioti, Waterh. 

/?. — Tail coloured differently from the back. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 29 

a. Colour of body above reddish brown ; 

I'eet and hind legs grizzled buffy ... 2. 'pallida, Lyon, 

h. Colour of body above dull grizzled brown- 
ish ; feet and hind legs grizzled gre}-- 
ish ... ... ... ... ...3. wrmightonijljjon. 

Distribution : — 

1 . A. eUioti, Waterhouse. ^//?'^ locality : — Eastern Ghats, 

Madras (Elliot.) 

Other hcaUties :— "Madras"(Elliot). 
(B. M.) 

Type:—B. M. No. 50. 1. 21.5. 

2. A. pallida, Lyon. Type locality : — Manbhuni, Ben- 

gal (Beavau). 

Oilier localities : — Raipur, Central 
Provinces. (B. M.) 

Type:-B. M. No. 66.12.28.2. 

3. A. vrroughtoni, Lyon. Type locality : — Mandvi, Suiat. 

(Wi'oughton). 
Other localities : — Matheian, 
Bombay. (B. M.) 

2'//2Je:—B.M. No. 96.11.7.1. 

Gen. II. — TuPAiA. 



There appears to be no record of 
No. 102. ferrvginea, TiafT. true ferrvginea with the mammary 
No. 103. nioobarica, Zeleb. foimula of 2-2^8, within our limits. 

The Burmese form with three pair 
of mammas is undoubtedly /)t?Zai/(7ea, Wagner. Thomas later (A. 
M. N. H. (8), xiii, p. 2 1 3, 1914), siiggested that chinensis. And., 
could not be allowed specific rank, but should be treated as a sub- 
epecies of hel<ivgeri ; lor the Upper Burma Ibim of hdavgeri he 
provided the subspecific name of siccata. Still later, on receipt of 
the Pegu specimens collected by Mr. Mackenzie, Thomas further 
established a subspecific name tenaster for a southern form of 
belangeri, and a new species, clanssa, from Teuasserim. All these 
forms may be arrauged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the forms of Tltaia. 

A. — Colour above speckled throughout ; a 
more or less distinct shoulder stripe. 
a. Muzzle not elongated. 

a\ Colour of lower bncknot essentially 
different from thai of upper. 



30 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 



a'. Underside buffy ; shoulder stripes 
indistinct. 
a?. General colour more tinged 
with brigiit 3'ellow; no dark 
area at base of tail... ... 1. &. SeZangrm, Wagn. 

h^. General colour a greenish 
grey ; a dark area at base 
of tail ... ... ... 2. &. c/iinensis, And. 

h^. Underside white ; shoulder stri- 
pes white ... ... ... 3. &. siccata, Thos. 

b^. Lower back bright ferruginous as 

compared with upper ... ... 4. &, tenaster, Thos. 

b. Muzzle elongated ; colour as in b. 

tenader ... ... ... . 5. clarissa, Thos. 

B. — Colour of lower back uniformly black- 
ish ; no shoulder stripes ... ... 6. nicobarica, Zel. 



Distribution : — 

1. T. belanqeri belangeri, 
\V agner. 



2, T. belangeri cMnensis, 
Anderson. 



3. T. belangeri siccata, Tho- 
mas. 



4). T. belangeri tenaster, 
Thomas. 



5. T. Clarissa, Thomas. 



Tyj)e localitg : — Rangoon, Burma. 

Other localities: — Rangoon; 
Tenasserim (B. M.) ; Pegu (M. 
S. 1) 

If ,/pe :_Pari8 Mus. No. 1023. 

Type locality : — Ponsee, Kakh- 
yen Hills. 

OUier licaliiies: — Nepal; Sik- 
kim ; Kachar ; Manipur (B, M.); 
Sikkim ; Bhutan Duars (M. S. I.). 

Go-tijpps : — lud. Mus. Calc. Nos. 
204. a. & 6. 

Tgpe locality : — Z i b u g a u n g 
Lower Chiiidwin. (Capt Mears.) 

Olher hcalities :-r— Mt. Popa 
(B.M.); Chin Hills; Mt. Popa; 
Shan States (M. S. 1). 

T.//;P«:—B. M. No. 6.7.5.1. 

Ti/jie localitg : — Tagout, Great 
"^IVnasserim River. (B. N. H. S.; — 
Shortridge). 

Olhfr localities: — Banlaw; Tenas- 
serim Town ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 17.3.25.3. 

'J'l/po I cality : — Bankachou, S. 
Tenasserim. (B.N. H.S.—Sliortridge). 

Other localities : — Bankasun (B. 
M.) 



.' ^ SVMMABY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 31 

Banknchon ; Tenasserim Town; Tenas- 
serim (M. S. I.). 

y,/^,e :—B. M. No. 14.12.8.29. 
6. .Ti, nicobarica, Zelebor. Ti/j^e locaiily : — Great Nicobar. 

Other hcaWies : — None. 
, T 1/2)6 : — Unknown. Perhaps in 

Vienna MuseiTm. 

Family II. — ERiNACEiDiE. 

Blanford distinguishes the two Subfamilies as follows : — 

Keif to the Subfamilies oj the Erinaceid^. 

A. — Back and sides covered with spines ; 

tail very short ... ... ... Erinacetn^. 

B, — Fur without spines ; tail well developed . GYMNURiNiE. 

Subfamily I. — ERiNACEiNiE. 

Thomas has quite recently published (A. M. N. H. (9) I., 1918, 
p. 193), a study of the EuiNACKiNiG in which he has restricted 
Erinaceus to the Palasarctic Region from Spain to China, reviv- 
ing the genera Hemiechinus, Fitzinger, and Par^echinus, Troues- 
sart^ for our Indian specie 3. These two genera may be distin- 
guished as follows, viz:. — 

Key to the genera of the EuiNACEiNiE. 

A. — Spines of the crown coming down 

evenly on to the forehead ... ... I. Hemiechinus. 

B^ — -A parting, bare of spines, running up 
from the centre of the forehead to 
the crown ... ... ... ...II. PARiEcniNUS. 

Gen. I. — Hemiechinus. 

A third species of this Genus, 
No. 104. collaris, G. & H. viz. : — grai/i, Bennett, is not re- 
No. 105. megaloiis, Bly. cognisable ; it is possibly a young 

Specimen of collaris. 

Key to the species of HemiechiiNUS. 

il.— Head and body about 175 mm. long; 

longest spines about 20 mm. long ... 1. collaris, Q. & H. 
.B,— :Head and body neatly 300 mm. long; 

longest spines more than 25 mm. long. 2. meyaloiis, lB\y. 



33 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 



Distribution : — 

1. H. coUaris, Gray aud Tijpe locality : — Unknown. 



Hardwicke. 



H. megaloiis, Blyth. 



Other localities: — Siiid ; Mnltan; 
Eajpiitana (B. M.). Sind; Cutch ; 
Paiaupur (M.S. I.). 

Tt/ps: — Unknown. (Typa o^ spa- 
tanqus, Bennett — B. M. No. 55.12. 
24..'84.). 

Ti/pi locality: — Kandahar. (Hntton). 

Ol/ier localities : — Cabul ; Afgha- 
nistan ; Kandahar (B. M.). 

Co-type.-.— B. M. No. 79.11.21. 
515 and 516, andlnd. Mus. Calc. No. 
216. a. 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 79.11.21. 
515. 



Gen. II. — PARiECHINUF. 



No. 106. jerdoni. And. 
No. 107. pictus, Stol. 
No. 108. micropus, Bl. 



I published a paper on this gn)np 
in 1910 (J. B. N. H. S. xx., p. 80). 
I'or the reasons there given I 
arrived at the conclusion that 
jerdoni, And., must give way to 
blanfordi. And. As to micropus, Bl., whose allocation is rendered 
difficult by the extreme confusion in the wording of the paragraph 
in which it is founded, I took it to be based on llutton's Bhawalpur 
specimen, and I propose to continue this determination. The name 
would therefore take the place o? pidas, Stol., for the northern 
hedgehog, while nuiiventris, Horsf., replace 5 it for the southern 
one. This list, as now amended, may be arranged in a key as 
follows : — 

Key to the species oj Par^echinus. 



A. — Colour dark ; second premolar three 
rooted. 
a. Spines shorter, 20mm. 
h. Spines longer, 30mm. 

B. — Colour pale ; second premolar single 
rooted. 
a. Zygomatic arch complete ... 
h. Zygomatic arch incomplete, malar 
absent ... 



1. blanfordi, And. 

2. macracanthus, 

Blanf. 



3. micropus, Bl. 

4. nud'ventris, 

Horsf. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 33 

Distribution: — 

1. P.Uanfordi, Kn^ev&or\. Type locality. — Rohri, Sind. 

Other localities : — Sind (M. S. I.) 
Type :— B. M. No. 87.4.2.2. 

(Type of jerdoni, Anderson, B. M. 

No. 87.4.2.1.). 

2. P. macraca7ithus, Blan- Type locality •.— ■Mahuu, Karman, 

ford. S. E. Persia. 

Other localities : — Kandahar (B, M.). 
Co-types:— B. M. No. 74.11.21.25. 
andlnd. Mtis. Calc. No. 217. a. 

3. P. micropus, Blyth, Typ)e locality : — Bhawalpnr. (Htit- 

Other localities : — Rajpntana (B. 
M.). Sind ; Cntch ; Kathiawar ; Palan- 
pur (M. S. I.). 
; T7jpe:—B. M. No. 79.11.21.517. 

(skull only). 

4. P. nudiventris, Hors- Type locality : — " Madras " (Elliot). 
■ field. Other localities : — None. 

'i Type:—B. M. No. 79.11.21.467. 

Subfamily II. — Gymnurin^. 
The two included genera may be distinguished as follows : — 

i \ Key to the genera of the GYMNURiNiE. 

, A. — Larger, head and body more than 200 

[ ', mm., tail 225 mm. ... ... I. Gymnura. 

B. — Smaller, head and bod}^ 125 mm, tail 

. 40 mm. ... ... ... ... II. Hylomys. 

Gen. I. — Gymnura. 

The older name gymnvra, Half, 
No. 109. raffiesi, Horsf. must be revived for this animal. 

Lyon has separated the smaller north- 
ern form under the subspecific name minor, and it alone is found 
within our limits. 

" Distribution : — 

G. gymnura minor, Lyon. Tyjje locality : — Trong, 2000', S. 

W. Siam. (Dr. Abbott). 

Other localities : — Tenasserini (^M. 
S. I.) 

Tyjie :— U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
80783. 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Geu. II. — Hylomys. 

No. 110. suilla, Miill. & The generic name Hylomys has 
Schleg. been revived and generally adopted 

for the lesser Gymnura. 

Distribution : — 

H. suillus, Miiller & Schle- Tyi^e locality : — Burma. 

gel. Other localities: — Burma (B. M.). 

Type : — Leyden Museum. 

Family III. — Talpid^e. 

The two genera of this family may be distinguished as follows: — 

Key to the genera of the Talpid^e. 

A. — Upper premolars 4-4; tail cylindrical ... I. Talpa. 

B, — Upper premolars 3-3; tail club-shaped... II. Parascaptor. 

Gen. I. — Talpa. 



As Blanford points out, there is very grave doubt whether 

Talpa europtba, or as Hodgson 
No. 111. europ(ea, named it nincrura, ever really oc- 

No. 112. macrura, Hodgs. curred within our limits. For the 

present however I retain it. 
The two species of this genus may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the fp?cies of Talpa. 

A. — Tail cylindrical, long, 30 mm. or more. . 1. macrura, Hodgs. 
B. — Tail completely concealed by fur, shorfc, 

5 mm. or less ... ... ...2. mhrura, Hodgs. 

Distribution : — 

1 . T. macrura, Hodgson. Type locality : — Darjiling. (Hodg- 

son). 

Other localities : — None. 
Type:—h. M. No. 90.1.1.19. 

2. T. micrura, Hodgson. Type locality- — Darjiling. 

Other localities : — Lakhimpur, 
Assam; Myitkvina, Upper Burma (B. 
M.) ; Hikklni ; Darjiling (M. S. 1.). 
Typo:~n.M. No. 79.11.21.467. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



36 



Gen. II. — Parascaptor. 



No. 113. levcura, Bl3^th. 

Distribution : — 
P. leucurus, Blyth. 



The genus Parascaptor has been 
revived for this species. 



Ti/jJS locality : — Cherrapunji, Assam. 
Other localities: — Khasia Hills; Noa 
Dihuug (Godwin- Ansten) (B. M.). 
Type :— Ind. Mus. Calc. No. 227.d. 



Family IV. — Soricid^. 
The genera of this Family may be arranged in a key as follows 
Key to the family of the SoRiCiDiE. 



A. — Teeth tipped brown. 
a. Upper teeth 18 
6. Upper teeth 20 
B. — Teeth entirely white. 

a. Tail without fringe of white hairs, 
terrestrial. 
a'. Ear-conch and tail well developed. 
a'. 18 teeth in tipper jaw. 

d\ Tail nake-'l at the tip ; claws 
compressed, and much elong- 
ated ... 
6^ Tail haired to the tip ; claws 
normal 
b^. 16 teeth, in npper jaw ... 
6'. Ear-conch small ; tail very short; 
14 teeth in upper jaw 
b. . Tail with a fringe of white hairs. 
a' . Ear-couch well developed ... 

b' Ear-conch absent ... 

Gen. I. — SoRicuLUS. 



I. SORICULUS. 

II. Blarinella. 



III. Ferocdlus. 

IV. Pachyura. 
V. Crocidura. 

VI. Anouroso- 

REX. 

VII. Chimarro- 

gale. 
VIII. Nectogale. 



Hodgson gave a number of names in this genus, without any des- 
criptions. Some of these were later 
published by Horsfield, with short 
descriptions ; the responsibility for 
the names therefore rests with 
Horsfield. In this way he des- 
Blanford assumed leucops to be a 



No. 114. nigrescens. Gray. 
No. 115. cavdatu^, Hodgs. 
No. 116. macrurus, Hodgs. 



cribed cmidatus and leucops. 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

synonym of caudatus a,nd revived and described Hodgson's name 
macmrus, bnt ^ewcojw being the older must stand for the species. 
Thomas recently (J. B. N. H. S. xxii., p. 683, 1914,) described 
haileyi. These four species may be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Keij to the species of SoRiCULUS. 

A. — Second upper incisor smaller than 

third; tail short, about 40-45 mm. 1. nigrescens, Gray. 
B. — Second upper incisor longer than third. 

a. Tail short, about 60-05 mm. ... 2. cavdatus, Hodgs. 

h. Tail longer. 

a'. Tail about 85-90 mm. ... ... 3. leucoj^s, Horsf. 

//. Tail about 76 mm. ... ... 4. haileyi, Thos. 

Distribution : — 

1. 8. oiigrescens, GrEkj. '^'ilp'^ locality: — "Himalaya." 

Other localities : — Bhutan (B. M.). 
Kumaon ; Sikkim ; Darjiling (M.S.I.) 

Type:~B. M. No. 42.4.29.65. 
(Tvpe of sikimensis, Horsf., B. M. 
No\ 79.11.21.482.) 

2. (S. caudatus, Horsfield. Tiipe locality : — Nepal. (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Kumaon ; Sik- 
kim ; Darjiling (M. S. I.) 

Oo-f(/2>es :— B. M. Nos. 79.11.21. 
479 and 480. (Type of riracilicaiula, 
Anderson, Ind. Mus. Calc.No. 250. h.). 

Lectotype -.—B M. No. 79. 11. 21. 
479. 

3. 8. leucops, Horsfield. Type locality: — Nepal. (Hodgson). 

Other localities: — Nepal (B. M.). 
Sikkim (M. S. I.) 

Type:— B.M. No. 79.11.21.483. 
(Tj^pe of macrMnts, Blanf B. M. No. 
90.1.1.19.) 

4. 8. haileyi, Thomas. Type locality : — Tsu Eiver, 7,500', 

Mishmi Hills, Assam. (Bailey). 
Other localities : — None. 
Type:—B. M. No. 14.1.1.1. 

Gen. II. — Blarinella. 

Thomas established the genus to 
B, irardi) Thomas. receive a Chinese form, and later 

(A. M. N. H. (8), XV., p. 335., 1915), 
referred the present species to it. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



37 



Distribution : — 

B, tvardi, Thomas. 



Type locality : — Hpimau, 8000', 
Upper Burma. (0. Thomas — F. K. 
Ward). 

Othet- localities : — None. 

Type-.—^. M. No. 15.2.1.3. 

Gen. III. — Feroculus 



The genus was established b}'- Kelaart for the very aberrant form 
he had already'' nam^d /erocitZits (Soreuc). 

Blanford adopts Blyth's name, but as it was not given until a 

3"ear after the animal had been 
No. 119. macropus, Bl. called ferocuhis, by Kelaart, it must 

give place to that name. 

Distribution : — 

F. feroculus, KelaskTt. Tifpe locality: — Newera Eliya, 

Ceylon. (Kelaart). 

Other localities : — None. 
Type-.—B. M. No. 52.5.9.36. 
(Type of macropus. Blyth, the same 
specimen.). 

Gen. IV. — Pachyura. 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



117. 
118. 
120. 
121. 
122. 
123. 
124. 



No. 125. 



murina, L. 
caerulea, Kerr. 
hidiana, And. 
rubicunda, And. 
leucogenys, Dobs. 
davi, Dobs. 
hodijsoni, Jord. 
perrotteti, Duv. 



Gen. V. — Crocidura. 



No. 126. fuliginosa, Bl. 

No. 127. horsfieldi, Tomes. 

No. 128. famigata, De Fil. 

No. 129. aranea, L. 

These two genera form a most difficult group, and one that, though 
it has not been comprehensively worked, has had so many names 
sporadically assigned to it, that the difficult task of thoroughly 



38 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



working it out has been rendered still more arduous. Mr. Hinton 
had undertaken to work out our Survej^ material, but circumstances 
have been too strong for us and the work has not yet even been 
begun. For the present. I think, and Mr. Thomas agrees with me, 
that the group had better be left alone in this Summary. Blanford 
lists 22 species of which 4 are Crocidura, but double that number 
of names already exist for the Pachyura alone. 

Gen. VI. — Anourosorex. 



-vT 1 on • A J Thomas pointed out (J. B. N. H. S., 

No. 16V. assamensis. And. . r, ./^ -irviX .i . .i 

XXIV., p. 700, 19 lb), that there 

appears to be no difference between assamensis, And., and squamipes, 

M.-Edw. 

DiSTRIBDTlON : — 

A. squamipes, Milne- Ed- Ti/pelocality : — Moupin, Sze-chuen. 
wards. Other localities : — Sze-chuen (B. 

M.); Chin Hills (M. S. I.). 

Ti/pe : — Paris Museum. (Co-types 
of assamensis, Andei'son, Ind. Mus. 
Calc. Nos. 278. a to e.). 



Gen. VII. — Chimarrogale. 

No. 131. himalayica. Gray. 
Distribution : — 

G. himalayica. Gray. Type locality: — " Himalaya". 

Other localities: — Kashmir,- Sik- 
kim (B. M.) ; Sikkim ; Darjiling (M. 
S. I.) 

Type ;— B. M. No. 42.2.18.1. 

Gen. VIII. — Nectogale. 



- ^ -p, , This name was given to a Chinese 

• y • " • animal. Later de Winton suggested 

(P. Z. S. p. 573, 1899) the name sikhimensis for the Indian 
form. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 89 



Distribution : — 

N, sikhiniensis, de Wiuton. Type locality: — Lathong, 10,000', 

Sikkim. (Waddell). . 

Qther localities: — Thibet ; Sikkim, 
Thibet (B. M.); Sikkim (M. S. 1.) 

^Vi>e;—B. M. No. 96.1.1.9. 

Order IV. — Dermoptkra. 



Blanford uses the generic name GALtiOPiTHECUS, but Thomas, 
who dealt with the group names in this Order in 1908 (A. M. 
N. H. (8) I., p. 252), recognized two geneiic names, relegating 
Galeopithecus to the Philippine group, not represented in India, 
The other genus, Galeopterus, was taken by the Survey in 
Tenasserim. 

Gen. — Galeopterus. 

No. 133. volans^ L. This name was given by Linnasus to a 

Philippine ibrm and Thomas' \\WD,\e, 'peninsuloc 
must be used for our animal. 

Distribution :• — 

G. peninsula', Thomas. 2'//pe locality : — Samangko Pass, Malay 

Peninsula. (H, C. Robinson). 

Oilier localities : — Malay Peninsula 
(B. M.). Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 
Type:—B. M. No. 8.7.20.10. 

Order V.— Carnivora. 

The families cf the Carnivora may be arranged in a key as 
follows : — 

Key to the families of the Carnivora. 

A. — Bullge much dilated, rounded, and 
(except in Hv^NiDiE) divided into 
two chambers by a septum. 

a. Head short ; 3 or 4 teeth in upper 

molar series ; claws curved, sharp 

and retractile ; toes 5-4 ... ... I. Felid^ 

b. Head elongate. 

a'. Claws variable ; 5 or 6 teeth in 
molar series of each jaw; usually 

toes 5-5 ... ... ... II. ViVERRID-fi 



40 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



//. Claws blunt, not retractile; 5 
teeth in upper molar series, 4 in 
lower ; toes 4-4 
B. — Bullae much dilated, rounded but not 

divided 
C. — Bullae not rounded nor divided. 
a. True molars 1-1 in upper jaw, 2-2 
in lower ; no alisphenoid canal . . . 
I). True molars 2-2-in upper jaw; an 
alisphenoid canal present. 
a'. True molars 2-2 in lower iaw ... 
/''. True molars 3-3 in lower jaw ... 

Family I. — Felid^e. 



111. HYiENID^. 



IV. Canid^e. 



Y. MuSTELIDiE. 



VI. Procyonid/e. 

VII. IlRSIDiE. 



The two genera included in this Family may be distinguished 
as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Felid^. 

A. — Claws perfectly retractile ; inner cusp 

of upper sectorial well developed... I. Felis. 

B. — Claws imperfectly retractile ; inner 

cusp of upper sectorial rudimentary II. Acinonyx. 

Gen. I. — Felis. 



No. 28. leo; L. 

No. 29. tigris, L. 

No. 30. pardus, L. 

No. 31. uncia, Schreber. 

No. 32. nehulosa, Griffith. 

No. 33. marmorata, Martin. 

No. 34. temmincki, Vigors and 
Horsfield . 

No. 35. viverrina, Bennett. 

No. 36. bengalensis, Kerr. 

No. 37. ruhiginosa, I. Geof- 
frey. 

No. 38. manul, Pallas. 

No. 39. ornata, Gi'ay. 

No. 40. torquata, F. Cuvier. 

No. 41. chaus, Giildenstadt. 

No. 42. caracal, Giildenstadt. 

No. 43. lynx, L.. 



Numerous divisions have been 
proposed in • the first three 
species as established by Lin- 
naeus, but none have received 
general recognition. Blyth has 
established the name isahellina 
for the Indian form of the Lynx, 
and de Winton, who studied the 
group, has accepted Gray's name 
of afjinis for the Indian repre- 
sentative of choAis, on the ground 
of " its longer tail, bright fox- 
red ears, and lighter build", its 
narrower skull and slighter 
teeth, (A. M. N. H. (7). ii. 
p. 292, 1898). Blanford's key, 
modified to this extent, is as 
follows : — 



Key to the species of Felis. 

A. — Ears of moderate length, not tufted. 
a. Very large, total length over eight feet. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 41 

a'. Tawny throughout ; tail tufted at tip. 1. leo. L. 
In. Tvansversely stripedjtail not tufted.. 2. tigris, L. 
h. Smaller, total length less than 7*5 feet. 
a^ Spotted throughout. 

a\ Markings on body less than 2 in- 
ches in diameter. 
a\ Exceeding 5 feet from nose to 

tail-tip ... ... ... "d. pardus, L. 

h\ Less than 5 feet from nose to 
tail-tip. 
a\ Tail about one fourth the 
length of head and body 
too-ether ... ... ... 4. uiuernna, Benn. 

//. Tail about one third the 
length of head and body 
together. 
a\ No distinct longitudinal 
bands on crown ; ears 
pointed... ... ... 5. or?iaia, Gray. 

h\ Distinct longitudinal bands 

on crown ; ears rounded. 

a". Upper molar series 3 on 

each side ; tail 

unspotted... ... Q.ruhiginosa,(jieoS. 

If. Upper molar series 4 on 
each side ; tail spotted 
above ... . . . 7 . bengalensis, Kerr. 

If. Markings on body exceeding 2 inch- 
es in diameter, or becoming irregu- 
lar blotches. 
a\ Large ; pale grey or whitish with 

dai'k rings on body ... ... S.uncia, Schreb. 

h\ Brownish grey or tawny, with 
large irregular blotches or irre- 
gular black bands, 
ft*. Total length from nose to tail- 
tip over 5 feet in adults ... 9 . nehulosa, iiriff. 
b*. Total length under 5 feet ... 10. warmora /a,Mart. 
h^. Uniformly coloured, or with more or 
less indistinct transverse bands ; size 
moderate or small. 
a^. Size larger, total length 45 — 50 
inches ; colour chestnut above ; 
tail whitish below ... ...11. t&mminc/d, Vig. 

&H. 



42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETl, Vol. XXVI. 

6'. Size smaller, total length 30 — 35 

inches. • 

a*. Paler, silvery grey or buff; fur 

long, thick and soft ... . ..12. manul, VaX\. 

/>'. Darker, gvej or tawny. 

a*. Backs of ears coloured ochra- 

ceous... ... ... ...13. affinis, Gray. 

h*. Backs of ears colon red like the 

body .» ... ... ...14!. tor quata F. 

Cuv. 
B. — Ears long, pointed, with a tuft at the tip. 

a. Tail about one-fourth of total lenoth ...Ib.carafal, Giild. 
h. Tail less than one-fifth of total length . 1 6. isabeUina, Blyth. 



Distribution :- 
1. F. leo, L. 



2. F. tigris, L. 



8. F. pardus, L. 



4. F. viverrina, Bennett. 



5. Jf''. omata, Gray. 



6. F. rubiginosa, Geoffrey. 



Type locality : — Africa. 

Other localities : — Junagadh ; Ka- 
thiawar (B. M.). 

Type: — Unknown. (Type oi guzs- 
rateoisis, Smee, B. M. No. 55. 12. 
24. 432.) 

Type locality : — Asia. 

Other localities:-{Geneva\\y through- 
out Indian region). 

T//p)e : — Unknown. 

Type locality : — Eg3'pt. 

Other localities :-{Geneva\\j through- 
out Indian region). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Ti/jje locality : — Madras Presidency 
(Heath), 

Other localities: — Mii-pur, Sind ; 
Kandy, Ceylon ; Nepal (B. M.); Eas- 
tern Province, Ceylon (M. S. I.). 

Ty)je:—B. M. No. 55. 12. 22. 252. 

2^!/pff locality: — Rajputana (Boys). 

Other localities : — Thar and Parkar, 
Sind ; Sehore, Central India (B, M.) ; 
Sind; Cutch ; Eathiawar (M. S. I.). 

Ti/pe :— B. M. No. 48. 8. 14. 3. 

Tt/pe locality : — Pondiclieri, Madras. 

Other localities : — Nellore, Madras, 
(B. M.) ; Central Province, Ceylon 
(M. S. I.). 

Type : — Perhaps in Paris Museum. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



43 



7. F. bengaleiisis, Kerr. 



8. F. uncia, Sclireber. 



9. F. nebulosa, Griffith. 



10. F. marmorata, Martin. 



11. F. tewminchi, Vigors 
and Horsfield. 



12. F. manul, Pallas. 



13. F. affinis, Gray. 



Type locality : — " Bengal." 

Other localities • — S. Beluchistan 
Coorg ; Simla ; Piinjab ; Kumaon 
Nepal ; Lakhimpur, Assam ; Bengal 
Teuasserim ; Malay Peninsula (B. M.) 
Kumaon; Lsclinng, 8,800'; Chung- 
tang, 5,850' ; Darjiling 3,500' ; Sik- 
kim ; Chin Hills; E. Manipur; Upper 
Chindwin; Thayetmyo, Uuby Mines, 
(Maymyo, Upper Burma; Mergui; 
Tenasserim M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of ellioti, 
Gray, B. M No. 1^8. a. ; Type of 
wagati, Gray, B. M, No. 192. a. ; 
Type of tenass(rimensis, Gray, B. M. 
No. 44. 3. 25. 285). 

Ti/pe localiti/ : — Unknown. 

Other localities : — Ladak ; Thibet 
(B. M.). 

Ti/jye : — Unknown. 

Tjtpe locoUty : — Sumatra. 

Other localities : — Nepal ; Sikkim ; 
Bhamo, Upper Burma (B. M.) 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of mac- 
roceloides, Hodgson, B. M. No. 45. 1. 
8. 211.) 

TyjJe locality : — " Java or Sumatra." 

Other localities: — Nepal (B.M.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 55. 12. 29. 254 
(Type of charltoni, Gray, B. M. No. 
46. 3. 4. 6.) 

Tt/jK locality : — Sumatra. 

Other localities : — Nepal ; Sikkim ; 
Upper Chindwin ; Malav Peninsula 
(B. M.); N. Shan States (M. S. I). 

Type :— B. M. No. 55. 12. 24 
240." 

Typelocalitij : — Central Asia. 

Other localities: — Kandahar (Blan- 
ford) ; Ladak (Strachey) ; Thibet ; 
" Kirgit-en," India (B.M). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Type locality : — Gangutri, Kumaon. 

Other localities : — Seistan ; Eajpu- 
tana ; Sehore, Central India; United 
Provinces ; Poona, Bombay ; She- 



44 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

y&YOY Hills, Madras ; Colombo, Oey- 
lon ; Nepal ; Assam (B. M.); Upper 
Sind Frontier; Mt. Abu, Rajputana; 
Palanpur, Kathiawar ; Cutch ; Khan- 
desh ; Nimar ; Central Provinces ; 
Dharwar ; Kanara ; Coorg ; N. Pro- 
vince, Ceylon ; Kumaon ; Behar ; 
Orissa ; Midnapur, Bengal (T opo- 
type of kutas, Pearson) ; Bhutan 
Duars ; Chin Hills ; Lower Chind- 
win ; Mt. Popa, Upper Burma 
(M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 57. 6. 10. 40. 
(Lectotype of erythvotvs, Hodgs, B. 
M. No. 43. 1. 12'. 6.). 
1 4. F. torquata, F. Cuvier. Ti/pe locality : — Nepal. 

Other localities : — Rajputana ; Ku- 
maon (B. M.); Junagadh and Rajkot; 
Kathiawar (M. S. I.) 

Ty2Je :-^ Perhaps in Paris Museum. 

15. F. caracal, Giildenstadt. Tijpe locality : — Caspian Sea. 

Other localities : — Baluchistan; Sind 
(B. M.); Cutch (M. S. I.) 
Type : — Unknown. 

16. F. isabellina, Blyth. Type locality : — Thibet. 

Other localities '. — (jilgit ; Kashmir ; 
Thibet (B. M.) 

Go-types : — Ind. Mus. Calc. Nos. 
e. & /. of Sclater's Catalogue. 

Gen. II. — AciisoNYX. 

Hollister pointed out in 1911 (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxiv. 
p. 225). that Cynailurus, the name adopted for this genus by 
Blanford, was established by Wagler in 1830, whereas Brookes 
used (Anat. Zool. Mus., p. 16.), Acinonyx in 1828. 

Hollister further noted (1. c.^ that 
No. 44, juhatus, Schreber. this name belonged to the African 

form, and that the earliest name for 
the Indian " cheetah " is venaticus, Gray, (Griffith's Cuv. v., 
p. 166, 1827). 

Distribution : — 

A. venaticus, Gray. Type locaMti/ : — "India". The spe- 

cies was founded on a picture by 



SUMMABY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 45 

Hamilton Smith, which was probably 
based on an animal from Mysore. 

Other localities; — Except one mount- 
ed for exhibition, presented by the 
Zoological Society, the National Col- 
lection has no specimen of this 
animal, and none has been obtained 
by the Mammal Survey. 

Type ; — Unknown. 

Family II,— Viverrid^e. 

The two Subfamilies of Viverridj3 may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Key to the Subfamilies of Viverrid.e. 

^4. — Claws strongly curved, more or less 
retractile ; prescrotal glands usually 
present ... ... ... ... I. ViVERRiiViE. 

B. — Claws lengthened, exserted, not re- 
tractile; no prescrotal glands ... II. MuNGOTiNiE. 

Subfamily I. — Viverrin^. 

Gray's division of the genus Paradoxurus into two has now been 
generally accepted ; the name Arctogalidia has been substituted 
for Arctogale, this latter being preoccupied ; the genus Hemigalus, 
taken for the fii'st time within our limits, has to be added. Blan- 
ford's key of the Subfamily may be modified as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Viverrin^e. 

A. — Ears not tufted ; tail not prehensile. 
a. Tarsus and metatarsus hairy behind ; 
tail with dark and light rings. 
a'. Two upper true molars ; a black 
gorget. 
a^. An erectile black dorsal crest ... I. Viverra. 
h'. No crest ... ... ... II. Yiverricula. 

h\ One upper true molar ; no gorget... III. Prionodon. 
/'. Tarsus partly naked. 

UK Sole naked nearly to the heel; tail 
not rino-ed. 
a'. Teeth large ; a preanal or pre- 
scrotal glandular tract. 
a'. Bony palate not extending a 
quarter of an inch behind the 
last upper molars .. . ... IV. Paradoxurus. 



46 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETJ, Vol. XXVI. 



h\ Bony palate extending more 

than half an inch behind 

the last \ip])er molai'S 

fc^ Teeth small ; no naked preanal or 

prescrotal tract 

6'. Sole at most half naked, tail ringed . 

B. — Ears tufted ; tail prehensile ; tarsus 

naked behind 

Gen. I. — ViVEKRA. 



V. Pagdma. 

VI. Arctogalidia. 
VII. Hemigalus. 

VIII. Arctigtis. 



No. 45. zibetha, L. 

No. 46. civettina, Blyth. 

No. 47. megaapila, Blyth. 



Two names were recently given 
by myself (J. B. N. H. S. 
xxxiv, p. 64, 1915) to local forms 
of zibelha. Further material seems 
to show that one of these, 'pida, 
cannot be maintained; the other, prvttiiosa, has to be added to the 
marginal list. The four forms may be arranged in a key as follows: — 

Key to the forms of ViVERRA. 

_4. — No black stripe down the upper side of 
the tail. 

a. A general fulvous tinge, due to 

the buff tips of all the hairs ... 1. z. zibetha, L. 

h. General colour a clear grey, due to 

the white tips of all the hairs ... 2. pruinosa, Wrought. 
B. — A black line down upper side of tail. 

a. Large transverse dark marks on sides 3. civettina, Blyth. 

b. All spots, no transverse marks ... 4<. megaspila, Bljth. 



Distribution : — 

1. V. zibelha zibetha, 
Linnaeus. 



V. zibetha pruinosa, 
W rough ton. 



Ti/pe loGolity : — Bengal (Thomas, 
P'. Z. S., p. 187, 1911). 

Other localities: — Nepal (B. M.) ; 
Sikkim ; Darjiling ; Bhutan Duars ; 
Chin Hills; Lower Chindwin (M.S.I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Lectotype of 
melaimra, Hodgs. B. N. No. 43. 1. 12. 
25 ; type of civettoides, Hodgs. B. M. 
No. 43. 1. 12. 23). 
Type locality : — Tenasserim (B. N. 
H. S.— Sho'rtridge). 

Other localities : — Siam ; Malay Pe- 
ninsula (B. M.); Tenasserim; Shan 
States (li. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 14.12.8.106. 



SUMMARY OF TEE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



47 



3. V. civettina, Blyth. 



4. V. megasjjila, Blyth. 



Tyj)e locality : — South Malabar. 

Other localities : — None. 

Tijye-. — lndi. Mus. Calc. (6. of 
Sclater's Catalogue). 

Type locality : — Prome, Lower Bui-- 
ma. 

Other localities: — Chindwin ; Mt. 
Popa ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.) 

Type : — Lost. 

Gen. II. — ViVEKKICULA. 

No. 48. malaccensis, Gmel. Almost all authors have remarked 

on the vaiiability of this animal, but 
though several different races have 
been described I have entirely failed 
so far in finding one that seems valid. 



Distribution :- - 

F. malaccensis, Gmelin. 



Type locality : — " in ludiis ". 

Other localities : — Dagshai, Pun- 
jab ; Rajputana; Nepal; Assam; 
Central Provinces; Dharwar; N. Mal- 
abar; Madras; Ceylon; Upper Burma, 
Pegu ; Malay Peninsula (B.M.) ; 
Siud; Cutch ; Palanpur; Kathiawar; 
Satara ; Dharwar ; Coorg ; Kumaon ; 
Bengal ; (topotypes of bengalensis; 
Gray) ; Sikkim ; Bhutan Duars ; 
Chin Hills ; Chindwin ; Mt. Popa ; 
Tenasserim (M.S.L). 

Ty2)e :— Unknown. (B.M. No. 85. 
8.1.27. tyj)e of subspecies deserti, 
Bonh.). 



Gen. III. — PmoNODON. 



No. 49. pardicolor, Hodgs. 
No. 50. moculosus, Blanf. 



There seems no necessity for any 
change in these names. Blanford 
distinguishes the two species as 
follows : — 



Key to the species of Prionodon. 

A. — Smaller, head and body about 15 inches; 
back with longitudinal rows of large 



dark spots 



1 . pardicolor, Hodge. 



48 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



7?. — Larger, head and body ] 8 or 20 inches ; 

back with broad transverse bands ... 2. niacidosus, Blanf. 



Distribution : — 

1. P. 'pardicolor, Hodgson. 



2. P. maculosus, Blanford. 



Type locality : — Nepal (Hodg- 
son). 

Other localities : Sikkim (B.M. 
and M.S.I.). 

Co-types:— B. M. Nos. 43.1. 
12.10 and 11. 
Lectotyi^e :—B.M. No. 43.1.12.11. 

2^yp)& locality : — Bankachon, Te- 
nasserim. (Hvime — Davison). 

Other localities : — Malay Penin- 
sula (B.M.) 

Co-tupes.—B.M. Nos. 85. 8. 1. 28 
and 83.10.24.1. 

hectotype:—B. M. No. 85.8.1. 
28. 



Gen. IV. — Paradoxurus. 



No. 51. niger, Desm. 
No. 52. hermaphroditus. 



Blanford in his key of the genus 
places <irayi in a section, "B", by 
itself on account of the shape of 
the palate. Mainly for the same 
reason it is now generally recog- 
nised as belonging to a distinct 
genus, Paguma. 

Blanford, with the exception of 
aureus, Ceylon, and Jerr/ont, Malabar, 
both of which are well marked 
special forms, ranges all the Indian 
toddy-cats in these two species. 
I have recently reviewed the no- 
menclature of this genus (J.B.N. 
H.S. Vol. XXV, p. 48, 1917), and 
for reasons there recorded I decided 
that the Indian Toddy-cats formed 
three species represented by the 
names crossi, Gray, rdr/er, Desmar- 
est, and strictus, Horsfield ; while, 
the Burmese form not 
name, I 
lirmanicus. In 
the name of ravus to the form from 



having 



a 



suggested for it that of 
1914 Miller gave 



SUMMARY OF THE IXBIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 49 

Trong, which apparent!}- is found 
at any rate in S. Tenasserim. 
No. 53. aureus, F. Cuv. There seems no reason for any 

No. 54. jerdoni, Blanf. change in these two well marked 

species. The following may be 
substituted for Blanford"s key to 
the genus, viz. : — 

Key to the species of Paradoxurus. 

,1. — Pattern of dark markings on a pale 
ground. 
a. Back and sides not, or only obscurely, 

striped and spotted ... ... 1. crossi, (^ray. 

/'. Back and sides distinctly striped and 
spotted. 
11^. Smaller, hindfoot 75-80 mm., great- 
est length of skull 105-110 mm.; 
ground colour grey ... ... 2. 94i'/e/', Desmarest. 

/''. Larger, hindfoot 80-90 mm., great- 
est length of skull 115-120 ram. 
iC". Ground colour fulvous ... 3. .sfn'cf its, Horsfield. 

/''. Ground colour dull or buffy 
white, 
a^ Crown of head black ... 4. hirmanicus, 

Wrought. 
/>\ No black crown ... ... 5. rat;?ts, Miller. 

B. — Pattern a uniform colour. 

a. General colour dull rusty red ... G. aureus, F. Cuvier. 

h. General colom' dark brown ... ... 7. jerdoni, Blanf. 

Distribution : — 

1. P. crossi. Gray. Type locality : — Unknown, (me- 

nagerie specimen). 

Other localities : — Nepal; Dekhan 
(Sykes) ; Central India ; Rajpu- 
tana (B. M.) ; Rohilkund (M. S. I.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 78 a. (Type 
of hirsutus. Hodo-son B. M. No. 43. 
1,12.119. ; Type of niqrifrons, 
Gray, B. M. No. 42. 10. 5.' 2.) 

2. P. aiger, F. Cuv. Type locality : — Pondicheri. 

Other localities : — Madras (Jer- 
don) ; Ceylon (B. M.) Satara ; 
Dharwar ; Kanara ; Mysore ; Coovg 
(M. S. I.). 



60 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



3. P. strictus, Horsfield. 



4. P. birmanicus, Wrougli- 
ton. 



5. P. ravus, Miller. 



6. P. aureus, F. Cuvier. 



7. P. jerdoni, Blanford. 



Type : — Perhaps in Paris Mus. 
(Type of pallasi, Gray B, M. No. 
55. 12. 2 t. 230. ; Type of nictita- 
tans, Taylor, B. M. No. 92. 7. 
28. 1.). 

Type locality : — Nepal (Hodg- 
son). 

Other localities : — Assam (B. M.) ; 
Darjiling; Bhutan Duais (M. S. I.). 

Type: -B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 
546. (TjTpe of (juadriscrijjtus, Hors- 
field, B. M. No. 79.11.21.542; 
Type of vicinus, Schwartz, B. M, 
No. 79.11. 21. 2b3). 

Tyj)e locality : — Mingun, Upper 
Burma (B. n! H. S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — Tonghoo ; S. 
W. Siam (B. M.). ; Lower Chindwin 
Shan States ; Mt. Popa (M. S. I.). 

Type :- B. M. No. 14. 7. 19. 89. 

Type locality : — Trong, Lower 
Siam. (Abbott). 

Other localities : — Lower Pegu 
(B. M). ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.) 

Type:— v. S. Nat. Mus. No 
84429. 

Type locality : — Ceylon. 

Other localities : — Newera 
Ceylon (Kelaart) (B. M.) 
Gya, Ceylon (M. S. 1.). 

Ti/2-)e : — Perhaps in 
Museum. 

Tyjje locality : — Hills of Malabar. 

Other localities : — Travancore ; 
Anamalai Hills ; Nilgiri Hills 
(B. M.) ; Coorg (M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 88. 9. 26. 2. 



Eliya, 
Kala 

Paris 



Gen. V. — Paguma. 



As pointed out above, under Paradox urus, this genus contains 

the section " B" of Blanford's key 

No. 65. grayi, Benn. to that genus, i.e., the species 

grayi, Benn., of which nipalensis 
and lanigera are synonyms, and of which Schwartz has separated 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



61 



(A. M. N. H. (8) xii., p. 289, 1913), a western subspecies under 
the name wroughtoni. Besides this, however, a species leucomystax, 
Gray, inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and south waids, is now 
found to extend its range northwards, in a slightly modified form 
to which Miller has given (Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash., xix., p. 26, 
1906) the Bubspecific name robusta. A Chinese ibrm, from Yun- 
nan, viz. : — larvata, Temm., similarly extends within the border of 
northern Burma and to this form T have given (J. B. N. H. S. xix., 
p. 793, 1910), the subspecific name of intrudens. Finally Tytler 
has described a form from the Andamans (J. A. S. B. xxxiii., 
p. 188, 1864), under the name tytleri. These forms maybe arrang- 
ed in a key as follows : — 



Key to the forms of PaGUMA. 



1. tyileri, Tytl. 



2. leuc. robuata, Mill. 



A. — Hair, short (20-25 mm.) and harsh ... 
B. — Hair, long (35-40 mm.) and silky. 
a. Median pale face stripe not produced 
beyond the forehead backwards ... 
6, Median pale face stripe produced 
backwards on to crown. 
a\ Median, pale face stripe not 
produced backwards on to the 
nape. 

Paler ; head and neck not mark- 
edly darker than rest of body. 3. grayi grayi, Benn 
Darker ; head and neck marked 
iy darker than rest of body . . 



a 



Median pale face stripe produced 
backwards on to the nape ... 



4. grayi wroughtoni, 
Scliw. 

5. larv. intrudens, Wr. 



Distribution : — 

1 . P. tytleri, Tytler. 



2. P. leucomystax rohusta, 
Miller. 



Type locality : — Andamans. (Tyt- 
ler.) 

Other localities : — Rutland Island, 
Andamans (B. M.). 

Co-types: — Ind. Mus. Calc. Nos. 
I. tn. n. p. q. 

Type locality : — Trong, Lower 
Siam. (Abbot!,)'. 

Other localities : — Bankachon, 
Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 

Type:—\J. S. Nat. Mua. No. 
86796. 



0-2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



3. P. (jroAji grayi, Bennett. 



4. 



5. 



P. (jrayi ivroughtoni, 
Schwartz. 



P. larvata intradens, 
Wroughton. 



Type localiti/ : — " India." 

Other localities : — Nepal (B. M.) ; 
Kuniaon, 9,000' ; Dai>jiling 2,000' ; 
Chin Hills (M. S. I.) 

Tyfe-.—B. M. No. 55.12.24.232. 
(Type of lanigera, Hodgson, B. M. 
No. 43. 1. 12. 103; Type of mpa- 
lensis, Hodgson, B. M. No. 45. 1. 8. 
297). 

Type localiti/ : — ^Grharial, Punjab. 
(Dium). 

Other localities : — Simla, Punjab ; 
Kashmir (B. M.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 7. 11. 21. 11. 

l^/'pG locality : — Myitkyina, Up- 
per Burma. (Capt. A. W. Kem- 
mis.) 

Other localities : — Yunnan, China 
(B. M.) Northern Shan States 
(M. S. I.). 

Ti/pe :— B. M. No. 9.7.20.6. 



Gen. VI. — Arctogalidia. 



The name Arctogale was first used by Kaup in 1829 (Entw) 
Gesch. Nat. Syst. Ear. Thierwelt. ii, p. 30.) for a genus of 
MuSTELiD^, and Merriam substituted (Science, v., p. 302, 1897) 
for it the name of Arctogalidia in its present connexion. 



No. 56. Leucotis, Horsf. 
Distribution : — 



The only species. 



A. leucotis, Horsfield. 



Type locality : — Tenasserim. 

Other localities : — Lower Siam ; 
Malay Peninsula (B. M.); Tenas- 
serim Village (M. S. I.). 

Type:—B.U. No. 79.11.21.545. 



Gen. VII. — Hemigalus. 



Thomas has pointed out (J. B. N. H. S. xxiii., p. 612, 1915), that 
the animal usually known as Hemigale hardwickei, must in future 
be called Hemigalus derbianus, Graj^. Blanford does not mention 
the genus at all, for it had not, in his day, been found withni cur 
limits. The Survey having now obtained specimens from Tenasserim, 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 53 

only slightly differing from typical derbianus, Thomas has supplied 
the subspecific name (1. c. p. 613) incursor. 

Distribution : — 

//. derbianus incursor, ^'i/i^« locality : — Bankachon, S. 

Thomas. Tenasserim. (B. N. H. S.- -Short- 

ridge.) 

Other localities : — None. 
""nve-.—B. M. No. 14.12.8.115. 



Gen. VIII. — Arctictis. 

Thomas has named a new species 

No 57 binturona Eaff ^"'^^ ^- ^- ^^^^ ^^' ^' ^- ^- (^>>' 

xvii, p. 270, 1916), under the name 

(jairdyieri, which will very probably 
be found to extend into our limits. These two forms may be dis- 
tinguished as follows :- — 

Key to the sjjecies of Arctictis. 

A. — Size large, greatest length of skull, 153 

mm. ... ... ... ... ... 1, gairdneri^ Thos. 

B. — Size small, greatest length of skull, 136 

mm. ... ... ... ... ... 2. hiniurong. Raff. 

Distribution : — 

1. A. gairdneri, Thomas. ^V/'e locality: — Sai Yoke, S. W. 

Siam. (Gairdner.) 

Other localities : — S. W. Siam 
(B. M.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 15.12.1.26. 

2. A. binturong, Raffles. Type locality : — Sumatra. 

(Raffles.) 

Other localities : — Upper Burma 
(B. M.) Tenasserim (M. S. I.) 

Type : — Unknown. 

Subfamily II. — MuNGOTiNiG. 

Gen. — MuNGOS. 

The name used by Blanford, Herpestes, for thiis genus 
dates only from 1811, whereas Geoffroy and Cuvier used the 
name MuNGOS fifteen years earlier (Mag. Encycl. ii., p. 184, 
1795). 



54 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The form persicus, Gray, in- 
cluded in the synonymy of auro- 
No. 58. auropundatus, punctatus by Blanford^does not, bo 

Hodgs. far as I have been able" to discover, 

No. 59. birmanicus, Thos. occur within our limits, but pal- 

lipes is a well marked form of the 
Kandahar border. Miss Ryley des- 
cribed (J. B. N. H. S. xxii., p. 661,1914) another local race, under 
the name helvns, from Deesa, Gujerath. Quite recently I recorded 
that the type of nipalensis, Gray, had been found (J. B, N. H. S. 
XXV., p. 68, 1917). 

I gave a very full synonymy 

of this species, when it was first 

No. 60. mungo, Gmel. obtained by the Survey (J. B.N.H. 

S.xxi.,p. 401, 1912). One name 
only out of all those recorded, i.e., 
ferrugineiis, requires to be revived to represent the race of mungo 
from the extreme north of India. Miss Ryley added the name 
pallens (J. B. N. H. S. xxii., p. 660 1914) for the Gujerath 
form. Since then I have had occasion to provide two more Sub- 
specific names, mcerens and ellioti (for the Nimar and Dharwar forms 
respectively), and to make a new species, lanha, for the Ceylon form 
(J. B. N. H. S. xxiv., p. 50, 1915). 

These five species make up the 
remainder of Blanford's key. 
No. 61. smithi. Gray. The only change required in 

No. 62.fuscus, Waterh. any of them is pointed out by 

No. 6S. fulvescens, Kel. Miss Ryley in her Report on South 

No. 64. vitticollis, Benn, Ceylon (J. B. N, H. S. xxii., p. 706, 

No. 65. urva, Hodgs. 1914), where she substitutes jiavi- 

dens i'ov fulvescens, Kelaart having 
used the former name in 1850 
(J. R. A. S. Ceyl. ii., p. 323), though the reference was overlooked 
by Blanford. These maj'- be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the species of Mungos. 

A. — No neck-stripe. 
a. No black tail-tip. 

a\ Fur close and short, longer hairs 
of back with 4 or 5 rings of 
colour ; size, small. 
o'. Hindfoot, without claws, less 
than two inches long. 
a^ Pattern very coarse. 

a*. Dai'ker, dark brown ... 1 . auropunctatus 

Hodgs. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



66 



h\ Paler, buff. 

a'. Ground colour cream 

biiff ... 
}f. Ground colour white . . . 
6^ Pattern very fine ... 

Hindfoot, without claws, more 
than two inches long ... 



hairs of back 
than 5 rings; size. 



long 



a 



Fur longer 
with more 
larger. 

N aked sole extending to heel . 
a'. Pattern of grizzle, coarser. 



a 



h\ 



a 



Face, feet, and tail-tip 
coloured strongly ferru- 
ginous ... 

Face, feet, and tail-tip 
not or only slightly co- 
loured ferruginous. 

Face, feet, and tail 

noticeably but not 

strongly ferruginous. 

a^. Under fur buff... 



h\ 



Ferruginous 



ing 



Under fur white, 
colour- 
of face, feet and 
tail-tip almost or 
entirely absent. 

a\ Under fur grey- 
ish-white 



2. aur. helvus, Ryl. 

3. aiir. pallipes, Bl. 

4. nipcdensis, Gray. 

5. birmanicus, Thos. 



6. mungo ferrugi- 
neus, Bl. 



7. mungo mungo, 

Gmel. 

8. pallens, Ryl. 



9. mungo moerens, 
Wr. 

1 . mungo elliotiyWr . 

11. lanha, Wr. 



a 



h\ Under fur buff. 
6^ Pattern of grizzle very fine 
. Naked sole not extending to 
heel. 

Size large, tarsus and hind- 
foot about three inches ; 

colour dark brown grizzle... 12. fuscus, Waterh. 
Size smaller,tarsus and hind- 
foot less than 2-7 inches; 
colour dark brown or rufous. 
b. A black tail-tip 
B. — A neck-stripe. 

a. Neck-stripe black ; a black tail-tip. . . 
h. Neck-stripe white ; no black tail-tip.. 



b\ 



13. flavidens,^e\. 

14. smithi, Gray. 

15. vitticollis, Benn. 

16. wrva, Hodgs. 



56 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Distribution : — 



1. M. auTOjjmidafus. 
Hodgson. 



2. M, auropunctatus 
helims, Ryley. 



3. M. auropunctatus iml- 
lipes, Blyth. 



4. M. nipalensis, Gray. 



M. birmmiicas, 
Thomas. 



2[. inungo fermgine us 
Blanford. 



7. M. mungomimgo, 
Gmelin. 



Type localitij : — Nepal (Hodgson). 
Other localities -.—-Kashmir ; Orissa; 
Ktich Behar (B.M.) ; Bhutan Duars 
(M. S. 1.) 

CWi/pes:— B.M.No. 43.1.12.20. & 
22. 

Ledotype :— B. M. No. 43.1.12.20. 

Type locality : — Deesa, Guzerath 
(B. N. H. S.— Crump). 

Other localities : — Palanptir, Gvvalior 
State; Bengal CM. S. I.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 13.8.23.1. 

Type locality : — Kandahar. 

Other localities : — Seistan ; Sukknr 
and Larkana, Sind (B. M.) ; Khair- 
pur, Sind Frontier (M, S. I.) 

T'yp'e : — Unknown. 

Type locality : — " North India"'. 

Other localities : — Midnapnr, Ben- 
gal, (M. S. I.) 

Type:—B. M. No. 43.5.31.18. 

Ty])e locality : — Pegu (Gates). 

Other localities : — Manipur ; Cachar 
(B. M.) ; Peau (M. S. I.) 

%^e:— bTm. No. No. 81.12. 2.4. 
, Ty2Je locality : — Larkhana, Sind. 

Other localities : — Rohri, Sind ; 
Kohat, N. E. Provinces (B. M.) ; 
Khairpur State and Sukkur, Sind 
(M. S. I.). 

Type: — Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
No."? 

Type locality : — " Hab. in Ben- 
gala, Persia, aliisque Asias calli- 
dioribus plagis." 

Other localities : — Nepal (B. M.) ; 
Gwalior State ; Central Provinces ; 
Ramnagar, Kuniaon ; Jalpaiguri, 
Bengal; Bhutan Duars; Daltongunj, 
Behar (M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Co-types of 
nyula, Hodgs. B. M. Nos. 43.1.12.17. 
1*8.19. Lectotype B. M. No. 43.1.12. 
18. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



57 



8. M . mungo pollens , 
Ryley. 



9. M. muncjo mixrens, 



Wroughton. 



10. M. mungo eMioti, 
Wroughton. 



Type locality : — Palanpur, Guzerath 
(B. N. H. S.— Crump). 

Other localities : — Hazara ; Sambhar 
Rajputana; Jodhpur State (B. M.) 
Mt. Abu, Rajputana; Danta State 
Guzerath ; Cutch State ; Philibhit 
Rohilkund (M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 13.8.23.2. 

Type locality : — Ganoor, Nimar. 
(B.'n. H. S.— Crump). 

Other localities : — Cutch ; Juna- 
gadh State : Khandesh ; Berar ; Ho- 
shangabad ; Central Provinces (M . 
S. I.) 

Tt/pe-.—B. M. No. 12.6.28,14. 

Type locality : — Dharwar (B.N.H.S. 
— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — North Kanara ; 

"Madras" ( Jerdon) ; Trevandrum, 

Travancore (B. M.), Seringapatam 

South Mysore; South Coorg (M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 12 6.29.44. 

Ti/pe locality : — Cheddikulam, N. 
P., Ceylon (B. N. H. S.— Mayor). 

Other localities : — Ceylon (Colombo 
Museum) (B. M.) ; Tammanewa; 
Ceylon (M. S. I.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 15.3.1.54. 

Type locality : — " India." 

Other localities : — " Madras" (Jer- 
don) ; Trevandrum, Travancore (B. 
M.); South Coorg (M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 55.12.24. 
227." 
lo. M.Jiavidens, Kelaart. Type locality: — Central Ceylon. 

(Kelaart). 

Other localities : — Kandy (B. M.) ; 
Central Province, & Uva, Ceylon 
(M. S. L). 

Type : — Ind. Mus. Calc. No. a ? 

Type locality : — Unknown. 

Other localities : — Sambhar, Rajpu- 
tana ; Shevaroy Hills, Madras ; 
"Madras" (Jerdon); Kandy, Ceylon 
(B. M.) ; Mt. Abu, Rajputana ; 
Hoshangabad, Central Provinces ; 



11. M. lanha, Wrough 
ton. 



12. M. fusctis, Water- 
house. 



14. M. smithi, Gray 



68 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VL 

Satara ; Mankeni and Ranna, Ceylon 
(M. S. I.) 

Type-.—B. M. No. 38.12.13.1. 
(Co-types of jerdoni, Gray, B. M. Nos. 
46.11.6.21 and 46.11.9.5. Lectotype , 
B. M. No. 46.11.9.5.). 

15. M. vitticollis, Bennett. Tiii?e locality : — Travancore. 

Other localities : — Dharwar (Elliot) ; 
Nilgiri Hills, Ceylon (B. M.), Coorg 
(M. S. I.) 

Type:—B. M. No. 55.12.24.224. 

16. M. urva, Hodgson. T iijje locality : — Central and North 

Nepal. 

Other localities : — Sadya, Assam ; 
Upper Chindwin ; Tharawaddy and 
Rangoon, Burma (B. M.) ; Kanara ; 
Darjiling (M. S. 1.). 

Go-types:— B. M. Nos. 43..1. 12.31, 
32 and 33. 

Lectotype :— B. M. No. 43.1.12.33. 

Family III. — Hv^NiDiE. 

Gen. — Hy^na. 

Thomas pointed out in 1911 (P. 
No. QQ. striata, Zimm. Z. S. p. 134), that %oewa, L., must 

be substituted for striata. There is 
not only not enough material from India, but still more there is 
none to join up the Indian region with the type locality. 

Distribution : — • 

H. hyuf.na, Linnasus. ^^VP^ locality : — The Benna Mount- 

ains, Bunder Abbas, Persian Gulf. 

Other lo<-alities : — Khairpur, Sind ; 
Cutch ; Khandesh ; Niraar ; Central 
Provinces ; Kumaon ; Orissa (M.S.I.). 

Type : — Unknown. 



(To be continued.) 



69 

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY 

No. XVIII. 
Beport on the House Rats of India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

BY 

Martin A. C. Hinton. 

At the request of the Bombay Natural History Society, I under- 
took the comparison of the House Rats collected by the Mammal 
Survey with the Indian material in the British Museum. The 
work proved to be a complex and dithcvilt task, but I have now 
reached three chief conclusions, namely : — (1) That the common 
Indian House Rat, which in the various Survey Reports has been 
listed either as " Epimys rufescens'^ or else as " i\ rvfesc-ns, var. 
with white underparts," is indistinguishable specifically from 
Rattus * rattus, Linnaeus ; (2) that this species shows in India, 
Burma and Ceylon, a definite geographical variation, so that many 
races or subspecies have now to be recognized ; and (3) that the 
forms described as B. nitidus and R. vicerex, about the status of 
which there has been much controversy, are entitled to full 
specific rank, although they, too, are members of the B. rattus 
group. 

In this paper R. rattus, as represented in the Mammal Survey 
collections, is dealt with exhaustivelv ; and R. nitidus receives sufli- 
cient treatment to enable me to define a very interesting sub- 
species from the Chin Hills. With regard to R. vicerex, I must 
for the present content myself with publishing some skull measure- 
ments. 

In presenting my results to the Society I am fully conscious of 
the fact that there is still plenty of room for further woik upon 
these very difficult and somewhat unattractive animals. To obtain 
definite results one needs long series of careiul measurements, 
external and cranial, accompanied by careiul notes on the colour 
and mammae, from as many districts as possible. As a basis for 
further research I have given my original tables of skull measure- 
ments, with a description of the method of making them, at the 
end of this paper. If observers, dwelling in comparatively remote 



1 As pointed out by Hollister (P. Biol. Soc. Washington, XXIX, p. 126, 1916), 
Rattus (misprinted Ruttus), Fischer {Das National Mtisemn der Naturgeschichte zu 
Paris. Frankfurt au Main. 1803, Bd. II, p. 128), is a valid generic name and mu.st 
replace Epimys, Trouessart (1880). This is unfortunate but quite uoavoidablo. 
I would take this opportunity of expressing- my agreement v.ith Thomas's state- 
ment that Fischer took R. rattus as the type of his genus, and not " decumarms " 
(norvegicus) as asserted by Hollister. 



60 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

districts, could be induced to furnish us with corresponding data, 
each dealing with say 100 fully adult rats from his own district 
and carefully studied by himself, our knowledge of the geogra- 
phical variation and its systematic value would very quickly be 
placed upon a secure foundation. 

Key to Indian, Cinghalese, & Burmese members of the group 
based principally upon external characters) : — 

I. Tail bi-coloured ... ... ... Rattus vicerex,'Bou\\ote. 

II. Tail unicoloured. 

A. Fur very fine ; lacking all trace of 

bristles. Nasal length exceeding 

40 per cent, of the condylo-basal 

length of skull. 

a. Tail longer, about 108 per 

cent, of length of head and 

body. Fur long and thick ; 

underparts silvery or hoary. Rattus nitidiis nitidus, 

Hodgson. 
I>. Tail scarcely longer than head 
and body. Fur short and 
thin ; underparts not silvery, 

frequently with rusty tinge ... Rattus nitidus ohsoletus, 

Hinton. 

B. Fur coarser, usually with many 

bristles (though these vary in 
strength). Nasals usually less 
than 40 per cent, of the condylo- 
basal length of the skull. 
a. Ventral fvir white to bases ; 
lateral line of demarcation 
usually well defined. 
a' Mammae normally 3-3=12. 
a' Pectoral mammae not under- 
going reduction. 
a^ Tail relatively short, 
averaging less than ] 20 
per cent, of the head and 
body length. 

«* Dorsal colour dull 
greyish brown ; audital 

bullae very large ... R. rattus tatkonensis, 

Hinton. 
7/ Dorsal colour with an 
ochreous tinge; audital 
bullfB medium sized... R. rattus l-Jiyensis, 

Hinton. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 61 

/'' Tail relatively long, ave- 
raging more than 120 
per cent, of the head and 
body length. 
a* Fur of tinderparts long 
and soft. Dorsal co- 
lour cold o-rev or vel- 
low ... ... ... R. rattus ijav gut nanus, 

Hinton. 
// Ventral fur shorter 
and harsher. 
ft" Dorsal colour black, 

grizzled with tawny. Battus ■laacinillani, 

Hinton. 
h Dorsal colour rich 

dark olive brown ... 7?. rattus siJihimensis, 

Hinton. 
Ir Pectoral mamnige undergoino- 
reduction. Tail short, ave- 
raging about 108 per cent, 
of head and body length. 

Dorsal colour umber ... i?. rattus fikos, Hinton. 

// Mammae normally 2-3^10 
a'^ Fur full ; dorsal colour warm 
and bright. Tail length 
variable. 

a^ Dorsal colour olive brown. 

a* Size larger (H. & B. 

averaging 145; HF. 

32) ; tail shorter, about 

123 per cent, of head 

and body length ... Ii. rattus tistre,}iinton . 
h' Si^e smaller (H. & B. 
averaging 137 ; HF. 
31); tail longer, about 
131 per cent, of head 
and bodv lenoth ... 7?. rattus Jihotia, 

Hinton. 
/>^ Dorsal colour not olive 
brown. 

a* Backs bright clay or 
golden broAvn ; tail 
very long, more than 
150 per cent, of head 
and body length ... It. rattus sa.tarct', 

Hinton. 



63 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

V Backs inclining to 

rufous ; whitish bristles 

usually present. 

a^ Tail shorter, about 

122 per cent, of head 

and body length ... R. r. turoughtoni, 

Hinton. 
&' Tail longer, about 
132 per cent, of 
head and body 
length ... ... B. r. kandianus, 

Kelaart. 

V' Fur rather short, thin and 
harsh, but usually not spiny; 
dorsal colour cold and dull ; 
tall long, about 1 35 per 
cent, of head and body 
length. 

a^ J)orsal colour warmer, 
near cinnamon brown or 
tawu}'^ ... ... ... B. rattus arhoreus, 

Buch. — Ham. 
y Dorsal colour colder and 
greyish. 

a* Dorsal colour drab ; 
long black hairs tend- 
iusf to ':orin a mid- 
dorsal stripe... ... B. rattus na/rhadce, 

Hinton. 

6* Dorsal colour drab 

grey ; mid-dorsal line 

dt^cidedly darkened by 

black hairs ; white of 

belly duller B. rattus girensis, 

Hinton. 
b. Ventral fur slaty based; no 
sharp line of demarcation 
along flanks. 

a^ Fur long, dense, and soft; 
ventral fur white tipped ; 
tail short, le^s than 120 per 
cent, of head and body 
len^'th ... ... ... Rattus lelaarti, 

Wroughton. 
6' Fur thinner and harsher ; 
ventral fur not white tipped ; 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 63 

tail long, more than 120 
per cent, of head and body 
length. 

a^ Dorsal colour rufous ; 
hair of belly rough with 
rusty tinge ... ... R. rattus nifescens, 

Gray. 
R. raitus nemoralis, 
Blyth. 
h'. Dorsal colour rarely ru- 
fous ; bellies without 
rusty tinge. 
a\ Backs grey or brown ; 
belly light grey to 
dusky, rough or 

smooth R. rattus alexandrinus , 

Geoff. 
b\ Back black; belly 
bluish gi'cy, sleek 

haired R. rattus rattus, 

Linnaeus. 

1. Rattus rattus, Linnasus. 

A brief reference to the history of this species in Europe will 
greatly facilitate both the presentation and the understanding of 
the Indian facts. Mus rattus, Linneeus [Syst. JSat., 10th ed., 
1758, p. Q\), was described from Upsala, Sweden and based upon 
the well known Black Rat. At or a little before the date when 
Linnaeus wrote, this animal was the common house rat of Europe, 
but later it was almost completely replaced by the Brown Rat 
(^R. norvegicus, Berkenhout). T^-pical /?. rattus is characterized 
externally by its dusky coloration, its back being usually black 
and its underparts of a dark brownish grey or slate. In 1803, 
Geoffrey (Cat. Mamyn. Mas. Nat. cV Hist. Nat. Paris, p. 192) named 
his Mus alexandrinus from Alexandria, Egypt ; and in 1812, he 
gave a full description and figure (Descr. de lEgypte, Hist. Nat. 
II., p. 735 ; Atlas PI. V, fig. 1). From the latter account it is 
evident that Mus alexandrinus is a rat in which the back is buffy 
brown, this colour brightening gradually on the flanks to pass 
insensibly into the whitish or yellowish grey of the underparts. In 
1814, Rafinesque (Prec. des Decouv. et Trav. Somiologiques, p. 13) 
described his " MwscwZms frugivorus", from Sicily ; 'and in 1825, 
Savi (Nuovo Giorn. dei Letterati, Pisa, X, p. 74) re-described the 
same form from Pisa, Italy, under the name of Mus tedorum. This 
Sicilian and Italian rat is brown above as in ahxandrinus, but it 
possesses a softer coat, and the fur of its underparts is of a pure 



64 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

white or lemon yellow colour, separated on each side from the rich 
tint of the flanks by a sharp line of demarcation. 

In 1866, de I'lsle {Ann. 8c. Nat. (Zool.) IV, p. 173) described a 
series of breeding experiments which he had made with " Mus 
rattus" and " Mus alexandrinus" ; by the latter name Rafinesque's 
frugivorus and not Geoifroy's alexandrinus seems to have been im- 
plied. Among the progeny of the various crosses effected, were 
some peculiar rats which de I'lsle called " semi alexandrines^' ; judg- 
ing from the description these must have corresponded rather 
closely with Geoffrey's alexandrinus in outward appearance. De I'lsle 
demonstrated that rattus, fntgivoms, and alexandrinus are nothing 
but colour phases of one and the same species, viz., R. rattus, Lin- 
naeus. His experiments suggested that the wild-coloured frugivo- 
rus represents the primitive stock, properly belonging to warm 
temperate or sub-tropical regions ; and that the dusky coloration of 
typical rattus is simplj'- a change of hue brought about by the indoor 
life' forced upon the species by its successful endeavours to colonize 
colder lands. The species appears to have made its way to north- 
western Europe at about the time of the Crusaders ; and by the 16th 
century, at the latest, it had fullj'' assumed there its familiar dusky 
garb. Geoffroy's alexandrinus may be regarded as an intermediate 
stage, the belly having acquired within doors a darker colour, and 
having lost its sharp contrast with the flank tint, although dorsal 
darkening has not taken place to any considerable extent. In 
examining a large, cosmopolitan collection of rats, it is quite 
easy to find and arrange a series of individuals connecting 
frugivorus with alexand/rinus, and especially the latter form with 
typical rattus. 

Mendelians, as Bonhote (P.Z.8., 1910, p. 653 and 1912, p. 6), 
argue that these three forms of rattus have arisen as mutations. 
There is nothing inconsistent between this view and the history of 
typical rattus as outlined above. In any case the colour differentia- 
tion in the three races is susceptible of a physiological explanation. 
Recently the three European races have been treated as 
subspecies, the characters of which may be tabulated as follows : — 
A^ — Dorsal parts black. 

Ventral parts dusky ; the hairs on belly 

short and usually adpressed ... ... R. rattus rattus, Linn. 

B. — Dorsal parts brown. 

a. Ventral parts not usually conspicuous- 
ly lighter than flanks ; ventral hairs 
with slaty bases ; coat harsh and usiial- 
ly thin ... ... ... . . ii, rattus alexand/rinus, 

Geoff. 
h. Ventral parts light coloured, sharply 
contrasted with flanks ; ventral hairs 



^SCIENTJnC JiESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 65 

mostly pure white or lemon coloured 
to their bases ; coat soft and usually- 
thick.. . ... ... ... ... R. rattus frugivorus, 

Raf. 

Specimens intergrading in appearance between these subspecies 
usually come from colonies of mixed origin, e.g., those of ships or 
of large towns. Where opportunities ibr pure breeding occur, as 
on small islands, each of these subspecies breeds perfectly true to 
type. It is, of course, unfortunate that the typical form of the spe- 
cies, in a technical sense, is B. r. o'cUtus (which is little better than 
a domestic animal), and not the really wild form, M. r. frugivorus. 

Turning now to India, the rats listed in the Survey Reports as 
" rufesceyis " , or " r«yescews var.", afford us with problems of con- 
siderable complexity. In the first plav^e, although I am unable to 
find any character in the dentition, skull, or external parts, to 
distinguish any of them satisfactorily from R. rattus, the range of 
variation is enormous. Indian skulls with well worn teeth have 
the condylo-basal length ranging between 34 and 44 mm. The fur 
may be long, soft, dense and without spines; or it may be short, 
thin, and harsh, with numerous spiny bristles. 'YA\b dorsal colour 
varies between bright rufous, or warm olivaceous tints on the one 
hand, to dull tawny, or cold mixtures of black and grey on the 
other. The underparts may be pure white or pale lemon ; or they 
may be slat}', with or without a rusty tinge or bloom. The hands 
and feet may be white or yellowish above, with or without dusky 
markings ; or they may be wholly blackish brown in colour. The 
mammary formula may be 2-3 = 10 or 3-3=12. Every intermediate 
stage between the extremes indicated may be found in the collec- 
tions before me. Nevertheless, much of this variation has a 
definite geographical value ; and where long series are available 
from one locality or district, the rats are usually lound to conform 
closely to one or more definite local types. It is therefore possible 
to define a considerable number of local races or subspecies. 

The members of the rattus group seem to afford an exception to 
the rule, so general for wild mammals, that not more than one 
subspecies of a given species, or not more than one of two or more 
very closely allied species can inhabit a given locality. But these 
rats are capable of playing many parts in warin countries 5 thus we 
find them following a free life in fields and hedgerows, far from 
houses, or high up among the branches of trees in forests ; or they 
may lead a purely parasitic existence in human habitations or 
shelters. It is a poor sort of locality which refuses at least two 
" niches in nature " for rattus ; and the semi-domesticated stocks, at 
all events, of this species have frequent opportunities for prospect- 
ing and touring conferred upon them by railways, wheeled 
carriages, and shipping. 
9 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Like other murines, this species shows, within certain limits, an 
almost startling plasticity. Its structure responds readily to the 
demands of purely local requirements. If necessary colour or the 
quality of the coat are modified ; a change in diet induces modifi- 
cations in the development or the " set " of the muscles of 
mastication ; and these in turn mould the skull, or lead to the 
lengthening or shortening of the tooth-rows. 

Considerations such as those mentioned in the preceding 
paragraphs lead us to realize the hopelessness of attempting to 
disentangle the history of the rats in large towns or ports like 
Calcutta or Bomba3^ In such places the rat population is a 
motley horde, representing the progeny of truly native rats crossed 
with the descendants of old wanderers and with newcomers not 
only from the neighbouring hinterland but from all parts of the 
world. It is therefore only in the more remote parts of the 
country that we can reasonably expect some measure of success to 
crown such efforts. 

The material collected by the Mammal Survey is most extensive, 
and although gaps exist it is now possible to gain a broad idea 
of the chief facts relating to the distribution and variation of the 
present species in India. Save for the conclusion that 11. nitidus 
in entitled to full specific rank, the conclusions of this paper 
are little more than natural extensions of those reached by 
Thomas in 1S81, upon the basis of comparatively insignificant 
material. 

In North-Western India, Sind and the Punjab, the prevalent 
race seems to be identical with R. r. alexandrinus. Further east, 
from the Himalayan districts of Kumaon and Sikkim southwards 
to Travancore and Ceylon, and through Assam and Burma to 
bouth Tenasserim, the common rat is that called " var. rvfescens" 
by Thomas aiid Blanford. This is, however, split into a number 
of local races. The most striking and widespread variations are 
those to which attention has so frequently been drawn in the 
Reports, viz., a dark bellied variety and a variety with pure white 
underparts. Mr. Wroughton has already commented upon the re- 
markable distribution of these two types (Report No. 15, /. B. 
N.H. 8., Vol. XXIII, p. 295). 

At the higher collecting stations in Kumaon only white bellied 
specimens were found ; at some lower stations white and dark bellied 
rats w^'re present together in apparently equal numbers ; while at 
still lower elevations dark bellied rats alone occurred. Again in 
Sikkim and at Hasimara, Bhutan iJuai's, all are of the white bellied 
type, although a certain proportion have slaty bases to their ventral 
hairs. In Bengal and Orissa, and in the southern part of the penin- 
sula as at Travancore, as well as through Assam, Burma, and Tenas- 
serim, the ratss are uniformly of the white-bellied type. From South 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURrEY. 67 

Coorg northwards along the Western Ghats in Mysore ; in the 
Central Provinces and in Kathiawar, the white-bellied type is 
present but accompanied by rats of the dark bellied type. In 
Cutch, Palanpui', Gwalior, Nimar, Western Khandesh, Berars 
and Bellary, only dark bellied I'ats were collected. Similar facts 
were noted by Major Lloyd, and he tells us that of many thousands 
examined from the Punjab only some few from three villages 
in the Amritsar and Lahore districts were of the light bellied 
type (Rec. Ind. Mus. Ill, p. 20). 

Such distributional facts viewed in gross appear at first sight to 
afford the strongest possible evidence in support of the idea that 
white bellied and dark bellied types belong to distinct subspecies if 
not species. The initial object of my work, indeed, was to test such 
a belief. 

Mr. Wroughton has already brought before the Society 
(/. B. N. H. 8., Vol. XXIII, p. 474) the view that the white bellied 
forms of R. rattus in India and Burma represent the primitive wild 
form of the species ; and that the dark bellied types are parasites, the 
darkening of the underparts, no less than the darkening of the back, 
being the outward indication of domesticity or parasitism. In 
support of this view, one ma}^ point to the general similarity of the 
Indian white bellied forms to the wild race, E. r. frvgivorvs, of the 
Mediterranean region ; to their wide distribution, both in the mount- 
ains and in the plains, in India and Burma: and to the wild life 
which many of them lead in the jungles. Further en investigating 
these white bellied rats in detail, we find that they behave very 
much as do normal wild mammals as regards geographical variation 
and that it is therefore possible and comparatively eas}'^ to arrange 
them in geogTaphical races or subspecies. 

With regard to the dark bellied rats the case is different. They 
are largely resti'icted to districts possessing substantial houses ; they 
are more frequently caught within doors and far le-s frequently in the 
open. Close investigation of their structure leads to nothing but 
confusion ; the variation is largely individual or colonial, and scarcely 
at all geographical. In some districts, as in Kumaon, such rats 
seem to have little or no connection with the white bellied forms; 
in other places, they differ from their white bellied companions 
merely in colour and to a trifling extent in skull — the ornnial differen- 
ces being readily susceptible of a physiological explanation, as is 
shown below in discussing the rats of the Central Provinces and 
Kathiawar; finally, in still other districts, the difference is purely 
one of colour and even that sometimes breaks down. One concludes 
from this that the dark bellied rats are of diverse origin ; some seem 
to have been produced, in the localities where they are now found, 
from the local whit^ bellied race ; others have found their way to 
their present habitations from other more or less remote districts of 



CS JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

m 

the country, or even from abroad ; and lastly', many are doubtless to 
be regarded as the mixed descendants of both native and imported 
stocks. 

1, Rattus rattus tistce, subsp. n, 

1916. Ejnmys nt/escews, variety with white underparte, Wrough- 
ton, Report No. 23, Sikkim and Bengal Terai, /. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc, Vol. xxiv, p. 489 (in part). 

Type.— A female (B. M. No. 17-7-2-13 ; Original No. 398) 
collected at Pashok, Sikkim, by N. A. Baptista on 16th July 1915; 
pi'esentedto the National Collection by the Bombay Nat. His. Soc. 

Distribution. — Sikkim. 

Material examintd. —122 (60 d" j 62 $ ), from Pashok (3,500') ; 
14 r7 c? , 7 $ ), from Narbong (2,000') ; 7 (3 cJ , 4 $ ), from Rongli 
(2,700') ; 1 J from Gopaldhara (4,720') ; 3 (1 j , 2 $ ) from 
Batasia, Tonglu (6,000') ; 3 (1 c? , 2 5 ) from Gangtok (6,000') ; 
and 4 (Z ^,2 § ) from Sedonchen (6,500'). Total 154 (75 6 
79 $)._ 

Description. — The/ttr is soft and thick, without spines on the 
back ; and not particularly long on the underparts. In the typical 
series from l*ashok the backs are dark olive-brow ai and very uniform 
in colour. The ventral colouration is of two types ; in about a 
third of the specimens from the type locality the ventral hairs have 
slaty bases and light tips and in these specimens a suffusion of 
bnfi', recalling what is seen in many forms of Apodemus, is some- 
times presf^nt. forming a median thoracic stripe and occasionally 
even a pectoral collar, in many other specimens, however, the 
ventral hairs are white from their tips to their bases ; while in 
others pui-e white and slaty -based hairs occur together in variable 
proportions. The mammary formula of females appears to be con- 
stantly 2-3=^10. 

The following are the collector's measurements * of those speci- 
mens from Pashok whose skulls wei'e specially investigated ventral 
hairs : — 

145—168—31—21 slaty bases. 

161_194_32_22 slaty bases. 

160—183—33—23 slaty bases. 

] 58—180—32—23 intermediate. 

1 5 ()_1 80—3 1 —2 2 intermediate. 

153_180— 30— 22 pure white. 

155_19G_32— 21 do. type. 

135_169— 32— 21 slaty bases. 

14,()_ —32— 22 pure white. 

] 38— —31—2 1 slaty bases. 



No. 288 


, 3rd Jixly 


1915 


„ 325 


, Bth 


9? 


„ 625 


0" , 1 8th Aug. 


'J 


., 234 


2 , 27th June 


;■ J 


,, 243 


^ , 28th „ 


? ) 


., 335 


5 , 9th Julv 


)5 


., 393 


$,16th .. 


53 


., 414 


$,19th ., 


J9 


„ 482 


2, 27th „ 


5 ) 


„ 689 


2 , 3rd Sept. 


?5 



* Tnese dimensions are:— (0 Head and body. (2) Tail, without terminal 
hair. (3) Hiudfoot, without claws, {ij Ear from base. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 0!) 



Tlie followinc: are 



averages 



(absolute and percentages of the 

of both sexes 



?lage. 



head and body length) of specimens in adult pe 
and all from Pashok : — 

(1) Average of 31 (Head and body ranging between 122 and 
161) with slaty bases to the ventral hairs = 

143— 174— 32-1— 21 = 100— 122— 22-5— 14-7. 

(2) Averaee of 81 (Head and body ranging between 120 and 
171) comprising intermediate specimens as well as those wdth pure 
irhite ventral hairs = 

147_181_32-1— 21-3 = 100— 124— 21-8- 14-5. 

(3) Average of 50 lO-maramsed females (ventral coloration of 
both types) = 144— 177— 31-5- 20-9 = 100— 123— 21-9- 14-5. 

(4) Average of 40 white-bellied females (a few not included in 
the total of average 3, because their mammse could not be counted 
on the skins) = 145— 179— 31-4— 21 = 100— 123— 21-6- 14-5. 

In no female did the length of the head and body exceed 
161 mm. Larger individuals were not only always males, but were 
all of the pure white-bellied type ; I suspect that some of these 
really belong to B. r. sikJdmensis (described below), for without 
examining the skulls * it is sometimes difficult to discriminate 
between the males of that sub-species and those of the white-bellied 
phase of the present form. 

The following table shows the decreasing values of the average 
relative lengths of the tail, hind-feet and ears in B. r. tistce at suc- 
cessive stages of growth ; for systematic purposes it is instructive 
to compare it with the similar table given latter for the asso- 
ciated jB. r. siJcJcimensis : — 

Pashok. 



R . ?: tista;. 



Head and body 
mm. 



Sex. 



No. of 
specimens 



Average length in percentages 

of Head and Body, 
H. & B., Tail, Hind-foot, Ear. 



100 to 120 


c? & 2 


121 to 139 


6 


Do. 


2 


140 to 149 


6 


Do. 


2 


150 to 159 


6 


Uo. 


2 


160 


2 


161 


6 


160 to 171 


6 



14 
12 
21 
16 
18 
15 
15 

X 

2 
10 



100—127- 
100—129- 
100—120- 
100—125- 
100—125- 
100—129- 
100—119- 
100—111- 
100—118- 
100—121- 



-26-7 - 
-24-2 - 
-23-4 - 
-22-4 - 
-22-8 - 
21-3 - 
-20-9 - 
-20 - 
-20-25- 
-20-25- 



-17-1 

-15-5 

-15-1 

-14-9 

-14-4 

-14-1 

-14 

-13-1 

-14 

-14-8t 



* It was not possible to clean all the many skulls collected and often the 
search for the skull of some particularly fine skin revealed the annoyingf fact that 
that particclar skull had been smashed by the trap. 

T As noticed above these larpre rats are probably in part referable to 
U. r. sikkime7isis. 



70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The skull is small (average condylo-basal length between 37'7 
and 38-4 mm., i.e., about 2 mm, less than in European races of 
R. rattus or in R. r. sikkimensis), and therefore the cranial width 
appears relatively great, showing an increase equal to from 1 
to 1*7 per cent, of the condylo-basal length (see Table 11). 
Judging from dimensions 6 and 7, as well as from the relation of 
the latter to the cranial width, (dimension 3), the temporal muscles 
are no weaker than in R. r. aUxandrinus. Posteriorly, ep^en in old 
skulls, the temporal lines are at a level considerably below the ends 
of the iiiterparietal ; and thus the upper surface of each parietal 
articulates with the supraoccipital by a conspicuous tongue. The 
temporal wing of each parietal is small, its length being equal to 
less than half the distance between the lambdoidal crest and 
the antero-superior extremity of the squamosal. 

In relation to the condylo-basal length, the palatal length, mas- 
seteric plate and tooth-rows are distinctly longer, although the 
nasals, diastema and palatal foramina are about as in European 
rattas. The pterygoid region is short, for while the distance con- 
dyle to bulla is about as in R. r. frvgivorus, condyle to m. 3, in 
relation to the oondylo-basal length, is about 3 y shorter. The 
cheek-teeth are as in European ratlus. 

Local variation : — 

Narbong (2,000'). 

14 (7 c? , 7 2 ) collected by Mr. Crump; of these 2 are in the 
British Museum (Nos. 15, 9, 1, 152-153). The dimensions of the 
more important are : — 

6439 c? , 10 March 1915, 176—206—35—23, Weight 6 czs 
•152 6473c?, 14 „ „ l(jl_195— 34— 23 

6474 J, „ „ „ 165—180—32—22 

6479$, 15 „ ,. 154— 176— 33— 21, Weight 4 czs 

•153 6480$, „ ,, „ 156—179—31—24 „ 4 ,. 

6487$, „ „ „ 144—171—31—20 „ 3 „ 

Average of 14:— 156— 182— 32-2-21-7 

Do. per cent.of H&B:— 100— 117— 20-7-13-9 
10 mammae are apparent in each of 4 of the female skins. 
These rats have rather bright backs and are much like those 
from Rongli noticed below. In 5 (3 c? , 2 $ } the bellies are pure 
white, although in 4 of these some of the hairs on the chest have 
slaty bases. In the remainder the majority of the ventral hairs have 
slaty bases and in some a median stripe of buff* is developed on the 
thorax. The whole series is, however, very uniform really, for 
even the bellies, despife the differences just noted, appear remark- 
ably similar when viewed from a little distance. Skull as in 
typical series. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM TUB MAMMAL SURVEY. 71 

. Batasia, Tonglu (6,000'). 

3 (1 c^" , 2 $ ) collected by Mr. Crump (2 in British Museum 
Nos. 15, 9, 1, 150-151). Dimensions: — 

•150 6394 cJ, 25 Feb. 1915, ] 63— 188— 35— 22, Weight 5 ozs. 
6395$, „ „ ., 155—183—35—21 „ 5 „ 

•151 6411 $,27 „ „ 151—206—31—21 „ 4 „ 

Each female has 10 mammss. No. 6411 is quite like those from 
Pashok, but the other two have much brighter yellowis-h-brown 
backs, lined with black. In the two registered specimens, the ven- 
tral fur is long and soft; certain of the hairs are buft-tipped and form 
an indistinct median thoracic stripe and pectoral collar; most of 
these buff-tipped hairs have deep slaty bases, but the dark tint is 
almost completely hidden by the long light tips. Elsewhere all 
the ventral hairs, save the usual bright buff ones around the geni- 
talia, are white throughout. In No. 6395, the majority of the 
ventral hairs have a veiy pale greyish basal tinge. The feet are 
ashy grey, with a slight tinge of j^ellow in the male. The 
skulls are imperfect but agree apparently with those from 
Pashok. 

RONGLI (2,700'). 

7 (3 J 4 $ ) collected by Mr. Crump ; of these 4 are now in 
the British Museum and their dimensions are : — 

B. M. 15, 9, 1. 

■137 5847 c?, 24 Nov. 1914. 158— 183— 34— 21, Weight 4^ ozs. 

•139 5825 $,22 „ ,. 156—185—33—21 ,, 4^ „ 

•1415849 $,25 „ „ 153—170—31—21 „ 4| „ 

•142 5850$,,, „ „ '148—167—32—21 „ 4 „ 

Nos. '139 and "141 have each 10 mamma3. 

This series is interesting as showing that sometimes the differ- 
ences in ventral coloration, ah'eady alluded to, are apparently co- 
related with slight differences in the dorsal colour. Ihus Nos. 
5847 and 5825 have bellies of a pronounced Apodemus type, i.e., 
the ventral hairs have deep slaty bases and a heavy and rather 
generally distributed sufi'usion of buff; in these two the backs also 
are darker than in the following, Nos. 5849 and 585^^ have 
silvery bellies with the ventral hair bases of a distinctly lighter 
grey than in the first mentioned specimens ; their backs have more 
of the yellowish-brown tints seen in some of the specimens from 
Gangtok and Batasia. The feet, moreover, are inclined to be 
lighter in the lighter bellied type. Similar difierences are shown 
by the three unregistered specimens from this locality. Ilie skulls 
of -137 and "141 were measured (Table 1) and apparently agree 
with those from Pashok. 



72 JOtJRNAL, BdMBAY NATUnAL UlST. SOCIUTV, Vol. XXVI. 

SedoNchen (6,500'). 

4 (2 (J , 2 2 ), 3 being adult, collected by Mr. Crump. Dimen- 
sions : — 

5769 s , 14 Nov. 1914, 154—178—31—21, Weight 44 ozs. 

5748 2,10 „ „ 132—145—30—20 ,. 2|" „ 

5779 2,15 „ „ 140—152—29—19 
The first two have the backs yellowish-brown, lined with black ; 
their bellies are whitish, the ventral hairs having deep slaty bases 
and white tips ; their feet have dusky markings above and the tails 
are dark. No. 5779 has a darker belly and shows a trace of a buff 
stripe and collar. 

Gangtok (6,000'). 

3 (1 (^ , 2 2 ,) collected by Mr. Crump ; 2 in British Museum 
(Nos. 15. 9. 1. 143/144). Dimensions:— 

•143 5875 J , 3 Dec. 1914, 167—191—33—21, Weight Si ozs. 

•144 5871 2, 2 „ ., 150—179—31—20 

5876 2,3,, „ 140—165—32—22 Weight 3 ozs. 

No. "144 is dark above, while -143 is yellowish-brown as in 
the <s from Batasia. In the former (-144) a few hairs along the 
mid-throacic line have buff tips ; in the latter (-143) many on the 
thro at and chest are buff-tipped and form a complete collar and 
median stripe. All the ventral hairs have deep slaty bases and the 
feet are perhaps a shade darker than in the specimens from Batasia. 
The skull of -143 was measured (Table 1) and does not appear to 
differ from those from Pashok. 

GOPALDAHRA (4,720'). 

1 s (No. 24) collected by Mr. N. A. Baptista, on 2nd May 1915. 
differs from the other specimens from this locality, referred below 
to R. sikkiymnsis in having the bases of the ventral hairs deep slaty. 
It may perhaps be i-eferred to U. r. tistm. The dimensions of this 
specimen are: — 146 — 198 — 32 — 23. 

2. Rattus rattus hliotia, subsp. \\. 

Type:— A male (B. M. No. 17- 7- 2- 20; Original No. 1185), 
collected at Hazimara, Bhutan Douars, on 26th November 1915, 
by Mr. N. A. Baptista ; presented to the British Museum by the 
Bombay Natural History Society. 

Distribution : — Known onl}^ from the type locality. 

Material examiyiecl : — 124 {QQ s -, ^8 2) collected by Mr. N. A. 
Baptista between 22nd October 1915 and 13th January 1916. 

Description : — This is a soft-furred rat closely resembling H. r. 
tistce in general appearance. It differs, from the latter subspecies in 
its smaller size, the hindfoot and ear averaging in 111 adults, 31 
and 20-4 instead of 32 and 21-3, respectively; the tail also is 



SVIEI^'TIFIC RESULTS FROM TJilJ MAMMAL SURVEY 






relative!}' longer, averaging in tlie adnlts 131 per cent, of the head 
and body measurement instead of about 123 per cent. Mammarj- 
formula constantly 2-3=10. 

Taken as a whole the series shows brighter backs than those of 
typical B. r. fistce from Pashok, the general dorsal colour being a 
rufous tint near " Brussells brown"; many of the specimens are. 
however, as dark in hue as any from Pashok. As in 11. r. tistce the 
ventral coloration is of two types ; 62 (32 J , 30 5 ) have pure white 
bellies, the ventral hairs being white to their bases; in 18 (15 j , 
35) the bellies are white also, but slaty bases are developed by 
many of the hairs on the chest and throat, forming chest spots or 
stripes of large size ; in 6 (2 ^ , 4 $ ) pure white and slaty-based 
hairs are equal in number and distribution; lastly in 38 (17,5'. 
21 2 ) practically all the hairs have slaty bases and light tips, and 
in these specimens a median stripe-like suffusion of buif is some- 
times developed. The preponderance of pure-white bellied indivi- 
duals is therefore as well marked in this subspecies as in the typical 
series of i?. r. tistce from Pashok ; and it may be suggested that the 
two types of ventral coloration in both forms are "mutations'" 
obeying Mendel's law in inheritance. 

The following are the dimensions of the specimens whose skulls 
were specially investigated : — 

Ventral hairs : — 



1048 J. 3 Nov. 19 J 5 


, 131- 


190 33 22, 


Intermediate. 


1125 c?, 14 .. 


145- 


194 33 -21, 


Pure white. 


1140^. 17 .. 


147- 


184 34 21, 


Slaty bases. 


1185 d. 26 .. 


149- 


211 33 20 


Do. 


1208 d. 30 ., 


142- 


200—32 21, 


Piire white. 


1221c?. 3 Dec. ., 


143- 


184-30 21 


Do. 


1241$, 7 ., 


141- 


187 32- 21 


Do. 


980 2 . 22 Oct. ,. 


131- 


186 34 20, 


Intermediate. 


Average of 1 1 1 adults : 


137 


179 31 20.4 




,, per cent, of H. 


and B. 


100 131 22 


•6-14.9 


The followino- table shows the chano-es in the 




average prop 



tions correlated with growth or larger size and it may be compared 
with that given at p. 69 above : — 



Head and Body, 
mm. 




Average 96 of head & body form- 
ed by H. & B. Tail, Hind-foot, Ear. 



100 to 120 


19 


100- 


-133 -25.7- 


-17.1 


121 to 139 


60 


100- 


-132.5-23.4- 


-15.2 


140 to 149 


36 


100- 


-127.5-21.7- 


-14.3 


150 to 155 


7 


100- 


-123 -20.6- 


-14.2 



10 



74 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Voi, 2CKF1. 

The skull and teeth do not differ from those of R. r. Ustoe in 
Miy important respect. 

3. Battus rattus arboreus, Buchanan-Hamilton. 

1851. Mtts arboreus, Buchanan Hamilton in Horsfield, Gat. 
Mainm. Mus. E. India Co., London, 1851, p. 161 ; described from 
" Bengal," the type being unknown. 

1865. Mus Tufescens, Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. As. 8oc., Calcutta, 
p. 115 (in part); Jerdon (in part). 

1881. Mus alexandrinus, a. typical var., Thomas, P. Z. 8. 1881, 
p. 532 (in part). 

In a portion of his MS. (first published hj Horsfield. loc. eit. 
supra). Dr. Buchanan Hamilton described a rat said to live in the 
cocoanut trees and bambocs of Bengal. The upper parts are said 
to be " dark iron-grey, consisti.ig of black and tawny hairs, of 
which the former are the longest and most numerous. The lower 
parts and legs are white ; the naked parts of the nose and toes are 
pale flesh colour." The head and body lengths of a full-grown 
male and female are given as 7" and 8^", their tails as 7^" 
and 9" respectively. If we suppose these measurements to have 
been taken on stretched skins, then this description, eo far as it 
goes, will apply to many of the specimens obtained by the Mammal 
Survey in Bihar and Orissa. The Survey material indicates that 
the race inhabiting this part of Bengal is deserving of subspecific 
recognition, and I therefore propose to revive the name arborew 
and to use it for the subspecies in question. Mr. Thomas (P. Z. S., 
1881, p. bVZ) has pointed out long ago that aiboreus is based 
upon the description (and a drawiug) cited above and not upon 
the specimen mentioned by Horsfield which is a Brown Rat 
(B. norvegicus). Mr. Wroughton (/. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sac, Vol. 
XXI, p. 1190) has already stated that should a name be required 
for the " white bellied variety of rufescens' then " arboreus, 
Buchaman Hamilton, is available and most apposite," 

Distribution: — Probably throughout the greater part of Bengal to 
the south aT?d west of the Ganaes. 

Material examined : — In addition to some old material in the 
British Museum I have had at my disposal the following 72 speci- 
mens collected for the Mammal Survey by Mr. C. A. Crump: — 
17 (4 J 13$) from Daltonganj ; L (^) from Palamau ; 3 
( J ) from Barkagaon ; 1 ( 5 ) from Jagodih ; 4(2 j , 2 5 ) from 
Lohra ; 19 (7 c?,l2 $) from Gajhundi; 5 (3 c? , 2 $ ) from 
Singar ; 2 ( (j and $) from Nimiaghat ; 15(8 c? . 7 5 ) from 
Pareshnath Hill ; 1 ( $ ) from Sangajata, Chaibassa; and 4 (2 j , 2 
2 ) from Luia, Chaibassa. Specimens from this collection are regis- 
tered in the British Museum under the serial number 15- 4* 3.— 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY 



i-> 



Bescni'ption: — This is a relatively long-tailed race, with usually a 
short, thin, rather harsh, though not spiny coat. The general 
colour of the back is near " cinnamon brown " or tawny, greyer 
in young or quite unbleached specimens, yellower when older, much 
worn or bleached. The tmderparts are pure white or cream-colour- 
ed, the ventral hairs being light to their bases. The hairs around 
the genitalia are, however, often ochraceous. The feet are light, 
sometimes quite white, sometimes tawny above. The tail is a 
uniform light brown. 

The mammas were counted in 37 females; in 36 the formula was 
2-3=10, 1 had 11 mammte. 

In the 72 specimens in adult pelage from Bihar and Orissa, 
enumerated above the head and body length varies between 134 
and 174 mm. The Collector's measurements give the following 
averages and percentages : — 

Average of 72 adults from Bihar 

and Orissa:— 159— 215— 31-6— 23-2 

Average of Head & Body length : 100— 135— 19-9- 14-6 

The specimens from all localities mentioned conform closely to 
these averages. The following table shows the variation of propor- 
tions with growth and may be compared with those given above : — 



Head & Body. 
mm. 



No, of specimens. 



Average 7o of Hfsad & Body formed by 
H. & B., Tail, Hind-foot, Ear. 



112 

134 to 138 
142 to 149 
150 to 159 
160 to 169 
170 to 174 




100— 154— 25-9- 17-9 
100—135—22 —15-4 
100— 141— 21-2- 15-6 
100— 137-5-20'3— 14-9 
100— 136— 19-6— 14-5 
100— 127— 19-2- 14-5 



The skull is slightly smaller than in European races of rattus; 
(average condylo-basal length 39-5, instead of 40*5) ; the cranial 
and zygomatic widths are, therefore, relatively a little greater. Its 
chief peculiarities appear to be the outcome of more powerful 
temporal muscles and slightly larger cheek-teeth. Ti^.us the least 
posterior inter- temporal distance (dimension 7) is less, both in 
relation to the condylo-basal length and to the cranial width ; the 
temporal lines are in contact with the ends of the interparietal in 
adults, so that the parietals have no inter-temporal connection 
with the supraoccipital ; the temporal wing of each parietal is 
large, its length being fully equal to half the length of the squa- 
mosal. The palatal length, diastema, palatal foramina, masseteric 



76 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

plates and tooth-rows are all longer relatively ; the pter3-goid region 
appears to be shortened, for while the distance condyle to bidla 
remains as in European races that between condyle and ni. o is a 
little shorter. In several of these respects the skull of li. r. arho- 
reus approaches that of I?, r. silildmensis ; the bullsB are, however, 
obviously larger than in that species or its associate B. r. HHoe ; in 
the present form moreover the orifices of the canalis transversus of 
the basisphenoid are distinctly visible, instead of being concealed 
in a direct ventral view. 
Local vari%tiov'. — 

Daltonganj, Palamau (600'). 

The dimensions of the most important are : — 
•98 4661 s , 20 March 1914, 164—230—34—25 
•99 4715$, 24 „ „ 166— 256— 32— 24, Weight 5iozs. 
4759 2 . 29 ., ,. 168—243—34—25 „ 4f ozs. 
Average of 17 (H. & B.) 1 34-168— 155— 221— 31-3-23-4 
% „ ., 100— 142— 20-2-15-1 

All have rather short, thin and harsh coats, pure white bellies, 
yellowish-white feet and cold tinted tails and backs. No. 98 in full 
pelage has the back tawny and lined with black hairs ; 4733, a $ 
from the same locality and 4643, a j from Palamau itself (16th 
March; 158 — 212 — 32 — 25; weight 4| ozs.) are quite similar. 
The other specimens are darker, blacker or greyer above ; probably 
the pelage is fresher in them than in the three tawny individuals 
and the full dorsal coloration is not yet developed. 

Gajhundi, Hazaribagh (1,000'). 

The following are the dimensions of the most important speci- 
mens : — 

•94 4877 <s , 10 Mav 1914, 168—208—30—24, Weight 4^ ozs. 

•95 4886 c?, 11 „ „ 168-211—34 5^ .. 

•96 4888 5,11 ,, „ 166—233—32—24 Si „ 

•97 4898 5,13 „ „ 164—208—31—24 si „ 

Average of 19 (H. & B. 148-168) 159-211-3M-22^8 
% ,. „ 100— 133— 19-6-14-3 

Backs varying from tawny to dark greyish-brown and in this 
series the females appear to be generally darker than the males ; 
dorsal tints always cold ; bellies with hairs white throughout, often 
with a faint yellow tinge ; feet white. No. 94 has a bright ochra- 
ceous patch on the right side of the throat and a much smaller spot 
on the left side. 

Pareshnath Hill, Hazaribagh (4,300'). 

The dimensions of the most important are : — 

.88 5130 e? , 13 Jime 1914 166—235—33—24, Weight 5iozs. 

•89 5132 c?, 14 .. „ 173—215—32—25 6| „ 



SCIENTIFIC liESVLl'S FKOM Till-: MAMMAL SURFEY. 77 

■DO 510; c , 10 June lUi4. 109—228—31 — 25 5^ ozs. 

Average of 15 (H. & B. 138-173) 15G-211-31-4-22-8 
% .,, ., 100— 135— 20-1-14-6 

These agree very closel}^ Avitli those from the other localities ; the 
bellies in all are pure white, the feet light. No. 88 has a small 
yellow patch on the right side of the chest. 

SiNUAH, Gaya (UiUU'j. 

The dimensions of the three registered specimens are : — 

•91 4955 J, 23 May 1914, 174—240—34—25, Weight 6^ ozs. 

•92 4931 2,20 .,' .. 158—217—33—25 5^ ., 

•93 4939 2,21 „ ,, 170—203—33—25 5f .. 

Average of 5 (H. & B. 151-174) 161-215-33—23-8 
„ ' „ „ 100— 134— 20-5-14-8 

These and all the other specimens obtained by the Survey in 
Bihar and Orissa are really very much alike and call for no special 
comment. An old specimen (B. M. 66-12-28-6) collected by 
Mr. R. C. Beavan at Manbhum. Bengal, in January 1865, has 
longer and softer fur; its belJy is of a pure but creamy white 
colour ; its back is of a considerably brighter and warmer tint than 
are those of the specimens described above. 

IiemarJis : — li. r. arhoreus is a subspecies quite sharply difieren- 
tiated from its allies, living on the other side of the Ganges, in 
Sikkim, Northern Bengal and Bhutan Douars, by its colder and 
more pallid coloration, its pure white belly (the phase or ' muta- 
tion' showing slaty bases to the ventral hairs being, apparently, 
quite absent), its shorter and especially thinner pelage, and its 
relatively long tail. The skull, in the hands of a ]iatient observer, 
is also quite distinctive. 

4. liattas rattua lutrbadtv, subsp. n. 

1913. Epimys mjescens, var. with white underparts. Wrough- 
ton. Report No. 7, Central Provinces, ./. Bomhay Naf. 
Hist. Soc, Vol. XXII, p. 54. 

Type:— A female (B. M. 12-11^29-132 ; Original No. 774) col- 
lected at Sakot, Hoshangabad, on 11th January iyi2, by Mr. C. A . 
Crump ; pi'esented to the British Museum by the Bombay Natural 
History Society. 

Distnhution : — Central Provinces. 

Material examined: — Hoshangabad District — 1 ( $ ) from Sakot 
(1,200') ; 8 (6 J , 2 2 ) from Dhain (1,400'); 3 (2 d" , 1 ? ) from 
Bori (1,600'); 5 (3 c? , 2 $ ) from Rarighat (2,500'); 2 ( j rnd $ ) 
from vSonawanee, Balaghat (2,'jOO'). Chanda District. — 3 (1 c' , 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

2 2 ) from Chanda (500'); 5 (3 c? , 3 $ ) from Chickpalli (1,300'), 
Total 27 (16c?, H $)• ^11 these specimens were collected for the 
Mammal Survey by Mr. C. A. Crump ; those since presented to the 
British Museum are registered under the serial number 12-1 1*29. — 

Description : — In external appearance, size and proportions the 
present race is very similar to R. r. arhoreiis. The general dorsal 
colour is still colder, or greyer, on the average, than in the latter 
subspecies; and the long black hairs of the back show a more 
evident tendency, in narbadce, to form a mid-dorsal stripe of black. 
The belly is white or pale yellow, sharply contrasted with the 
flanks; usually the ventral hairs are light throughout, but in some 
specimens they have slaty bases — a feature not seen in any of those 
from Bihar and Orissa. The feet are light above and show in 
some individuals a yellowish tinge or obscure dusky markings. 
The mammar}'^ formula of females is normally 2-3=10; but in the 
type and two or three others it is 3-3=12; narbadce is apparently 
more variable in this respect than is arhoreus. 

The average dimensions of 26 adults (head and body ranging 
between 132 and 173) are: — 

154_209— 31-6— 23 = 100— 136— 20-5— 14-9 

The following table shows the variation in the proportions which 
accompanies the increasing length of the head and body : — 



Head and body. 


Number of 


mm. 


specimens. 


112 




1 


130-139 




2 


140 to 149 




6 


150 to 159 




11 


160 to 169 




6 


173 




1 



Averaofe 7o of Head & body formed 
by H. & B. Tail, Hind-foot, Ear. 



100—159 —26-8— 19-7 
100— 138-5— 23-3— 17-7 
100—139 _2l-5— 15-1 
100—135 — 20-25-14-9 
100—134-5-20 —14-4 
100—134 _l9-7— 14-5 



The skull is slightly smaller than in arhoreus (condylo-basa 
length averaging 38-4 instead of 39-5). The temporal muscles 
appear to be weaker (about as in li. r. frugivorus) ; for while the 
cranial width is relatively as great as in arhoreus, the intertemporal 
distances (dimensions 6 and 7) are relatively greater and the zygo- 
matic breadth is relatively less (see Table fl) ; the parietals usually 
articulate by tongues with the supraoccipital above the temporal 
lines. The palatal length is shorter relatively — a difference appa- 
rently due to a shortening of the rostral portion of the palate. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 79 

From the sknll of R. r. frugivoms it differs principally by its 
smaller size and shorter post-molar length — the latter chai-acter 
being due chiefly to a shortening of the pterygoid fossse. 

Local variation. — The following are the dimensions and notes on 
the coloration of the more important specimens from each of the 
dijBerent localities : — 

Sakot (1.200'). 

•132 774 $, 11 Jan. 1912, 164—221—31—26, Weight 4| 
OZ8., (Type) V^entral hairs white throughout but with a trace of a 
yellow tinge ; as regards the upper parts only the flanks and feet 
are lighter in colour than are the dark-bellied rats from this locality. 
The present specimen has 1 2 mammae. 

Dhain (1,400'). 

.128 879 c? , 5 Feb. 1912 153— 211— 31— 22, Weight 4^ ozs. 

.129 880 c?, 5 „ „ 161—220—32—23 „ 4^ „ 

.130 901 d, 11 „ „ 153_200— 33— 22 „ 4 „ 

•133 873 2,3 „ „ 147—197—32—21 „ 3^ „ 

Of these specimens No. 128 has less black on the back and 

lighter feet than has No. 127, a dark-bellied rat from the same 

locality ; the ventral hairs have deep slaty bases and a strong 

superficial wash of pale yellow. Nos. 129 and 130 are similar 

dorsally ; but the ventral hairs (except for a few with grey bases on 

the chest of 129) are white throughout and their feet are white. 

No. 133 is like No. 130 but greyer on the back. Among the 

unregistered specimens Nos. 800 and 871 have white bellies and the 

ventral hairs light throughout ; No. 881 has some hairs on chest 

with slaty bases and a well marked yellow wash. In some of the 

specimens the contrast between the dirty white or yellowish tinge 

of the belly and the grey flank colour is not very sharp. 

BoRi (1,000'). 

914 tj, 17 Feb. 1912, 134—180—30—22, Weight 2^- ozs. 
d, 27 „ ,. 182-188-32-25 „ 2| „ 
9 $, 21 „ „ 173—232-34—25 „ 5^ „ ^ 
The two young males have thick soft fur ; in No. 914 the belly is 
Apodemus-\ike, the \entral haii-s having deep slaty bases and white 
tips with a well marked pectoral stripe and collar of huff; in No. 
938, noted as having the testes fully developed, the ventral hairs 
are pure lemon colour to their bases. In the old female the fur is 
thick, but short and much harsher than in the young ; the back is 
yellowish-brown, brighter than in the young, and with much black 



^0 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIS'f. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

along the middle line ; the belly is a pure deep lemon to hair-bases ; 
the feet have a dusky stripe above ; and the mammary formula is 
2-3=10. 

Rarighat (2,500'). 
•131, 957 s , 4 March 1912, 163—210—33—23, Weight 4f ozs. 



•134, 959$, 4 „ „ 158—225—34—27 „ 4 



Specimens from this locality have longer, softer and thicker fnr 
than have those from Dhain. The bellies are white with an occa- 
sional superficial tinge of yellow along the middle line ; ventral 
hairs light to their bases ; tails slightly paler below than above. 
No. 134 has 10 mammge. 

SONAWANEE, BaLAOHAT (2,500'). 

•139, 1348 c? , 28 May 1912, 152—208—31—21, Weight 3| ozs. 

•140,1350 2,28 „ „ 158—217—31—24 „ 3^ „ 

These dorsall)^ are very similar to No. 115, a dark-bellied rat 

from the same locality, both have white bellies, bat in the male 

many of the hairs have slaty bases while in the female all are white 

to their bases. The female has 10 mammas. 

Chanda (500'). 

•137, 1471 2 , 19 June 1912, 161—212—33—23, Weight 5^ ozs. 
•138,1552 5,27 „ „ 155—220—31—23 „ 5 „ 
Both these specimens show 10 mammae and No. 137 contained I- 
embryos. These are dull-coloured grey rats, with pure white or 
pale yellow bellies (ventral hairs unicoloured) and light feet. A 
male in full pelage (H. & B. 155) has short thin and rather spiny 
fur, the back being yellowish-brown lined with black ; this is much 
like many of the specimens of arboreus. 

Chickpalli, Chanda (1,300'). 

•135,1403 6, 8 June 1912. 159— 200— 32— 23, Weight 4i ozs. 
•118, 1415 J, 10 ., ,. 14(^—220—33-22 „ 3| „ 
•136,1393$, 6 „ ,. 158—212—31—22 „ 4 „ 
The bellies are white or pale yellow ; in No. 118 many of tlie 
ventral hairs have dilute slaty bases but in the others they are 
light throughout. Both females from this locality have 10 mammas. 
Before offering some remarks upon the status of R. r. narhadce it 
is necessary to describe briefly the dark-bellied rats associated with 
it in the Central Provinces. The following is the list of the 
material, collected by Mr. C. A. Crump, before me : — 9 (4 (^ , 5 $ ) 
from Sakot ; 1 ( ? ) from Dhain ; 2 ( j ) from Bori ; 2 ( J ) from 
SohaL^ur, (1,000'); 1 ( c? ) from Rarighat; 9 (5 c^ , 4 $ ) from 
Honawanee, Balaghat; 4 (1 c? , 3 $ ) from Chanda ; and 5 (4 cJ , 
1 $ ) from Chickpalli. Total 33 (19 c? , 14 $ ). 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 81 

,The following are the dimensions of the principal specimens : — 

Sakot. 



•120 c?, 24 Jan. 1912, 133—175—30—22, Weights ozs. 

•121 c?,29 „ „ 139—181—31—21 „' 3 „ 

•125 2,22 „ „ 139—180—30—22 „ 3^ „ 

•126 2,24 „ „ i75_214_31-25 „ 5^ ,, 

Dhain. 

•127 9, 4 Feb. 1912, 147—203—31—21, Weight 3| ozs. 

BOKI. 

•122 J, 20 Fel). 1912, 163—224—35—24, Weight 4^ ozs. 
•123 J, 20 „ „ 166— 233— 35— 25 „ 4f ., 

SOHAGPUR. 

•124 J, 1 April 1912, 179— 223— 33— 24 , Weight 5^ ozs. 

Balaghat. 

•113 c? , 27 May 1912. 159-190—33—24, Weight 4| ozs. 
•114 J, 29 „ „ 
•115 $, 27 „ „ 
•116 $,29 „ „ 

Chanda. 
•119 ? , 21 June 1912, 150—210—32, Weight 4^: ozs. 

Chickpalli. 
•117 cj, 8 June 1912, 158—225—32—24, Weight 5 ozs. 

1, o- 



155 213 32 23 


'J 


4 


»5 


158 215 32 22 


) ) 


4 


; ? 


146 215 30 


)5 


4 


?) 



'4 



•118 J, 8 „ „ 14.6—220—33—22 

The averages of 33 (H. &B. 130 to 1 79) from all localities are :— 

148_202— 31— 22^6=100— 136^5— 21— 15-3. 
The averages of 15 (H. & B. 130 to 179) from Hoshangabad 
and Barighat : — 

147— 191— 31-2— 231=100— 130— 2b2— 15-7. 
The averages of 5 (H. & B. 136 to 158) from Chickpalli are : — 

145— 221— 31-2- 22-2=100— 152— 2r6— 15^3. 
The variation of proportions with increasing body length is 
shown below. The relative tail length exhibits much irregularity 
.when the 33 specimens are treated as a whole ; but this irregularity 
is> to some extent, diminished by keeping the rats from Hoshan- 
.gabad apart from those from Chanda. Although short-tailed rats 
appear to l)e more freqiient in the former district and long-tailed 
11 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVI. 

rats more frequent in the latter, both types occur together in each 
locality : — 



Head & 

Body in 

mm. 



No. of 
speci- 
mens. 



7oOf 

H. & B. 
formed 
by tail. 



Hoshangabad. 



Chanda. 



130 to 139 


11 


134-5 


8 


140 to 149 


9 


142-5 


2 


150 to 159 


8 


135 


1 


160 to 169 


3 


140 


2 


170 to 179 


2 


123 


2 



100-1 29-22-2-1 6-6 
100-130-20 -15 2 
100- -20-3-15-7 
100-139-21 -3-11-9 
100-123-18-1-13-8 



3 

7 
7 
1 



100-149-22-1-15-7 
100-146-21-2-15-2 
100-1 35- 20-4-14-7 
100-141-19-1-14'2 



On comparing this table with that given at p. 75 it will be seen 
that the white bellied R. r. narhadce, as regards tail length, appro- 
ximately represents the mean between the long-tailed and short- 
tailed, dark- bellied types just discussed. 

In the quality of the pelage and in the dorsal colour these dark- 
bellied rats are very similar to the typical white bellied B. r. 
narhadoi ; possibly the general tone of the backs is a little 
darker and greyer. The grey flank colour merges insensibly into 
the dusky tint of the belly. The ventral hairs are slaty through- 
out the greater part of their length, but their extreme tips are 
frequently yellowish and impart a very characteristic rusty tinge 
or bloom to the undersurface ; this rustiness and the roughness of 
the ventral siu'face is very different in appearance from the bluish, 
sleek belly of R. r. ratlus. Pale yellow or dirty white chest spots are 
not infrequently pi^esent. The feet are usually dusky brown above. 

As will be seen from Tables I and II the skull agrees veiy 
closely in size and proportions with that of typical narhadce ; and 
I am quite unable to distinguish them. 

Remarks : — I have had a good deal of difficulty in making up 
my mind as to the status ot the rats of the Central Provinces, but 
after considering the facts in connection with what is found else- 
where, e.g., in Kathiawar, it seems difficult to avoid the conclusion 
that in this district the dark bellied form is merely a parasitic 
development from the local white bellied race. With the acquisi- 
tion of parasitic habits the stock seems to have become richer in 
pigment, and the tail length has alternatively been either greatly 
increased or greatl}^ diminished. No change in the head muscles o^; 
skull has as yet been brought about. But the wild and the parasitic 
stocks are still mingled together in each locality; and doubtless 
each reacts on the other. Tn this probably lies the explanation 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY, 83 

of the fact that the degree of individual variation observable in 
narbadcB is far higher than that which we observed in arboreus. 

As regards the relation oi' narbadw with arhoreus, a companson 
of the typical white bellied series with those from Bihar and Orisaa 
shows clearly that, while in both races old animals have a bright 
yellow-brown dorsal coloration and younger rats a greyer or less 
yellow one, the race from the Central Pi-ovinces is, on the average, 
one with colder dorsal tints. These colder tints are coupled with 
a greater tendency of the long black hairs to arrange themselves 
in a mid-dorsal stripe. These differences seem to have a geogra- 
phical value. The smaller size and less modilied condition of the 
skull in na^boAicB, correlated as they appear to be with weaker 
temporal muscle-?, are still more striking characters — although, in 
part, they may be reti'ogressions. There seems thus to be ample 
justification for establishing R. r. na.rbadce as a subspecies distinct 
from arbor eus. 



±v' 



alius rattus girensis, subsp. n. 



1913. Epimys rufescens, var, with white uaderparts. Ryley, 
Report No. 10. Kathiawar, J. Bom. Nat. TFLH. Soc, XXI, p, 
481, 1913, Epimys rufescens. Ryley, he. cit. (in part). 

Type :— A female (B. M. No. 13-S-8-12.3 ; Origin.-d No. 1866), 
collected atSasan, Junagadh, on 6th November 1912, by l\Ir. C. 
A. Crump for the Mammal Survey ; presented to the National 
Collection by the Bombay Natural History Society. 

Distribution : — Southern Kathiawar ; abu7idant at the edge of 
the Gir Forest near Sasan, where it leads a natural outdoor life. 

Material Examined : — 26 (14 cJ , 12 $ ) from Sa^an (400') ; 1 
( c^ ) from Keshod (300') ; and 2 ( j and 5 ) from Talala (200'). 
Total 29 (16 (^ , 13 $ ) ; all collected for the Mammal Surrey by 
Mr. C. A. Crump. Those since presented to the British Museum 
are registered under the serial number lo-S'8. — 

Lescription : — In this form the fur is rather short and han^h, but 
usually not spiny. The g'^neral colour of the back is a cold drab, 
much like that of the duller coloured specimens of war/^ac/ce, darken- 
ed along the mid-dorsal line by a greater or less number of long 
black hairs : individuals, however, present the usual range of 
variation in dorsal colou" from mixtures of yellowish-brown and 
black to others in which the yellouish-brown is more or less com- 
pletely replaced by grey. The belly is of a pure but dull white 
and it is sharply contrasted alonir a perfectly resnlar line -with the 
dark grey flanks ; the ventral hnirs are usually white from the tips 
to the basis. The feet are usua'ly lio-ht above, their colour varying 
between a dirty white and a light yellowish-brown, with occasion- 
ally faint dusky mai'kings. 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



The following 
specimens : — 



are the dimensions of the more important 



Sas.an (400'). 
1862 s , 31 Oct. 1912, 159-209- 



■122 
•123. 1863 J. 
1934 d. 
•124. .1865 P, 
■125. 1866 P, 



32—21, Weight 4^ 



OZS. 



1 Nov. „ 154—177—32—23— 

8 „ „ 163—188—31—22— 

6 „ ., 142— 191— 30— 21 — 

6 ., „ 160—215—30—23 — 



5 
5 



The average of 29 in adnlt pelage (Head and body 119 to 165) :- 

145— 194— 31-1—20^9=100— 134— 21-4— 14-4 
The change in the proportions vi^ith growth is as follows : 



type 



Head and body, 
ram. 


No. of 
specimens. 


Average of head & body formed bv 
H. i& B. Tail, Hind-foot, Ear. ' 


119 to 120 
130 to 139 
140 to 149 
150 to 159 
160 to 165 


2 

5 

12 

6 

4 


100 140 23-8 15-5 
100 140 22-7 14-75 
100 136 22- 14-6 
100- 129 20-3 14-3 
100 129 19-4 13-7 



The tail is thus distinctly shorter in adults than it is in narhado' 
or arboreus (cf., tables at pp. 78 and 75 ). 

The mammae could be counted in 8 of the females ; in 6 
(including the type) the formula is 2-3-10; 2 have 11 mamma> 
each, an extra one being present on one side in the pectoral 



regfion. 



The skull is sinall (condylo-basal length averaging 37*1 instead 
of 38-4 as in narhadce), about 3 mm. shorter than in alexandriniis 
and the cranial width is relative!}'' a little greater than in the 
latter. Judging from the intertemporal distances (dimensions 6 
and 7, Table II) the temporal muscles are scarcely weaker rela- 
tively than in arboreus ; bu-t the parietals articulate, above the 
temporal lines, rather broadly with the supraoccipital and the 
zygomatic breadth is scarcely greater relatively than in narbadtv. 
As in the latter form the palate and diastema are relatively slightly 
shorter than in arboreus, but the palatal foramina are a little longer. 
In several respects the cranial proportions are intermediate between 
those of arboreus and the European races of rathis. 

Local Variation : — Little need be said on this score. The two 
from Talala (H. & B. 120 and 142) are very dark animals with 
dirty white bellies and dusky feet ; these were taken in a hut. 
l^'our others from Sasan were also caught in a hut and these simi- 
larly possess such a dingy appearance that Miss Ryley listed them 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 85 

as '-Epimys rufesce^is" ; they, however, clearly belong- to the white 
bellied race. The other specimens were trapped out of doors. In 
one only few of the chest hairs have slaty bases ; in a few there is 
a slight trace of a ventral suffusion of yellow. 

R. r. girensis appears to be confined to that part of Kathiawar 
which lies to the south of the Gir Hills. Although apparently not 
often found actually together, it is accompanied in this district by 
a dark bellied form. The latter is represented by 17 specimens 
among- the material before me. Of these 17, only 1 ($) was 
taken at Sasan ; and this was caught in the hut mentioned above 
in the company of white bellied specimens ; 7 (3 c? , 4 $ ) are 
from Keshod, where 4 of them were caught in a fig tree and 
whence only 1 white bellied rat was obtained. The remaining 9 
(3 s ,Q $ ) are from Junagadh (350' to 480') ; of these only 1 
was taken out of doors and no white bellied rats were found 
at this locality. All with the exception of the 5 mentioned 
appear to have been trapped by Mr. Crump in huts of other 
dwellings. 

Dark bellied specimens were obtained also from three localities 
in northern Kathiawar. Of these the following 20 are before 
me:— 16(8 c? , 8 $) from Raj kot (100'); (?) from Saturpur 
(20') ; and 3 (1 c? , 2 $ )' from Vankaneer (500'). None 
of these is marked by Mr. Crump as having been captured 
out of doors. 

As regards colour these northern and southern specimens are 
similar ; dorsally they are much like true girensis as above des- 
cribed, although the general tint of the back perhaps averages 
slightly darker. The flanks pass insensibty into the dark, rusty 
tinged belly. Several show white pectoral spots. The feet are 
usually dark brown above, but they are light coloured in a few of 
the specimens. The mammae were counted in 12 females ; 9 
have 1 as usual ; 1 has 1 1 and 2 have 1 2 ; the additions in each 
case are pectoral. 

The following- are the dimensions of the more important speci- 
mens : — 









Junagadh (350'). 








•121 


d, 


26 Sept. 


1912, 157 206 32 
Keshod (300'). 


-23 


Weig 


ht 4 ozs 


•116 


d, 


7 Oct. 


1912, 166 33 


-23 


J) 


4i 

^2 " 


•117 


$. 


7 „ 


„ 160 211 33 


-24 


?) 


5i „ 


•118 


$, 


7 „ 


„ 150 224 33 
Rajkot (100'). 


-23 


55 


4 „ 


•119 


6 , 


21 Dec. 


1912. 150 195 30 


-21 


J J 


H „ 


•120 


2, 


25 „ ■ 


„ 150 192 30 


-21 


«? 


3| „ 



86 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The changes in proportions transpiring with growth may be 
tabulated as follows : — 



Southern Kathiawar. 




Jlorthern Kathiawar. 


122 
130 to 139 
140 to 149 
150 to 159 
160 to 166 


2 
2 
9 
4 


100-1 39-22-5-14-4 
100-144-21-5--14-1 
100-136-20-7-14-5 
100-123-19-4-13-6 


1 
3 

8 
7 
1 


100-116-22-1-15-6 
100-135-22-1-15-1 
100-130-5-21-6-15-25 
100-125-5-19-9-13-9 
100- 19-4-15-6 



This table brings out two interesting facts. If firstly the figures 
given for the southern specimens be compared with those of the 
table at p. 82 it will be seen that the three largest stages are 
represented by rats with tails either much longer or much shorter 
relatively than those of equally grown individuals of the wild 
girensis from the same district. That is to say, we meet with an 
exactly similar departure from type in the dark bellied form of 
this district as we do in the Central Provinces. Secondly the 
northern dark bellied rats are distinguished irom both girensis and 
the southern dark bellied specimens in every stage of growth by 
their shorter tails. 

The skull is similar in both northern and southern dark bellied 
rats and as regards size it aerrees with that of girensis. But it 
presents characters which suggest that the dark bellied rat is the 
indoor animal, living on a setter diet and therefore developing a 
weaker set of jaw muscles than those of the outdoor, harder Jiving, 
white bellied girensis. Thus the intertemporal distances are 
increased (see Table II), both in relation to the condylo-basal 
length and to the cranial width ; this increase indicates a diminish- 
ed area of origin for the temporal muscles. The masseteric 
plate is correspondingly a little narrower. The anterior palatal 
foramina are as large as in girensis; while the palatal length is less 
and the post-molar length greater — each of these two last dimen- 
sions being relatively nearly as in Euiupean races. 

liemarks : — R. r. girensis is widely separated geographically 
from all the other white bellied races of India. Although in 
colour it closely lesembles narbadce it is quite satisfactorily distin- 
guished from the latter b}- its cranial peculiarities and shorter 
tail, and it undoubtedly deserves subspecific recognition. 

The dark bellied rats of Kathiawar are, in my opinion, plainly 
indoor developments from girensis. The southern stock is already 
quite clearly differentiated by its cranial characters and colour from 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM TEE MAMMAL SURVEY. 87 

its neighbour and parent ; the northern race more completely cut 
off from the wild parent, has moreover shortened its tail. This 
sharp differentiation between the wild parent and its parasitic 
offspring is in striking contrast with the relations between the 
corresponding forms of the Central Provinces ; but this contrast 
finds a ready explanation when one considers tbe restricted distri- 
bution of the parent and the well marked differences of station in 
Kathiawar on the one hand, and the universal distribution and 
complete confusion of stocks in the Central I'rovinces on the other. 

6. Raitus rattus satarcB, subsp. n. 

1913. E2nmys rufescens, variety with white underparts. 
Wroughton, Report No. 22, Koyna Valley. /. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
8oc., Vol. XXIV, p. 315. 

2^/pe:— A female (B. M. No. 15'7'S-56; Original No. 138) 
collected at Ghatmatha, Satara District, on 18th December 1914, 
by Mr. S. H. Prater for the Mammal Survey; presented to the 
British Museum by the Bombay Natural Historj- Society. 

Distribution : — Known at present only from the edge of the 
Western Ghats at the type locality altitude about 2,000'. 

Material examined: — 7 (1 d , 6 $ ) all collected for the Mammal 
Survey by Mr. S. H. Prater at the type locality ; the specimens 
presented to the British Museum are registered under the serial 
number 15-7-3. 

BescriiMon : — This is a soft and fully furred subspecies, its coat 
being distinctly longer and thicker than in arhorens, narbadce and 
girensis. In fresh pelage the general colovir of the back is a bright 
"clay" or golden brown, much darkened by long black hairs 
(Nos. 137, 138 and 141) ; in what is possibly a less developed 
phase, of the coloration the golden tint is duller and the black less 
intense (No. 140), and in an old specimen (No. 139) very few 
black hairs are present and the back is bleached to an almost uni- 
form light golden brown. The underparts are clothed throughout 
with thick, long and soft creamy white fur, the hairs being every- 
where light to their bases. The feet are yellowish brown. The 
tails, unicoloured and dusky, are remarkable for their very gieat 
length. The following are the dimensions : — 

•55,137 c?J8 Dec. 1914,141-243-32-24=100-172-22-7-17 

149-230-33-25=100-154-22-2-1 6-8 
146-233-32--25==100-160-21-9-17-l 
165-245-32-27=100-148-19-4-16-4 
151-230-31-25=100-152-20-5-16-5 
156-250-35-23=100-160-22-5-14-7 
121-182-30-23=100-150-24-8-19 
Average of 6 adults :— 151-238-32-5-24-8=100-158-21-6-16-4 



136 $, 18 


, 


•56, 138 $, 18 




•57, 139 2,19 




-58, 140 5,19 




141 ?, 19 




Juv. 142 2,19 





88 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The young specimen is, of course, much duller than are the 
adults ; it shows a moult patch on the head between the ears. 

The mammse were ascertained in 4 oi the females to be 2-3=10. 

The skull is about as large as in arhoreus (condylo-basal length 
averaging 39-7), but the zygomatic breadth is relatively small, about 
as in narhadce. The cranial and greatest intertemporal widths are 
very gi-eat, but the temporal lines ciirve inwards so much posterior- 
ly that the least intertemporal width behind is, relatively to the 
condylo-basal length, not much greater than in frugivorus and in 
relation to the cranial width is 2 % less than in the latter. The 
temporal lines are quite faintly marked and the supraorbital beads 
are very weakly developed. Tlie parietals articulate broadly with 
the supraoccipital above the temporal lines. The palatal length is 
2i% longer than in European races ; the diastema, anterior palatal 
foramina and tooth-roAvs all showing increased lengths. On the 
other hand both post-molar lengths (condyle to m. 3, condyle to 
bulla) are reduced, the pterygoid fossae in particular being short. 
The masseteric plate is also rather narrow. From these features it 
would appear that all the jaw muscles are weak. 

liemarJcs : — This is apparently a very sharply defined local race 
distinguished from all other Indian subspecies by its peculiar skull 
and relatively long tail. By its bright dorsal coloration it 
resembles the form occurring in the southern half of the peninsula 
and differs from the duller subspecies of Bengal and the Central 
Provinces. The dark bellied rats collected at Ghatmatha and^ in 
the Koyna Valley immediately below seem to have no connection 
with satonp and to have been derived from some other stock. 

(To be continued.') 



89 

A POPULAIl TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN 

SNAKES. 

Illustrated by Coloured Plates and Diagrams 

BY 

F. Wall, C.M.G., C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., Lieut.-Colonel. I.M.S. 

Part XXVI {(vith Plate XXVI and Diai/ram). 

(Continued from pac/e G35 of Volume XXV.) 

As now classified the large famih- Gokdrridce is divided into three 
" series " depending upon peculiarities in the dentition of the 
Maxillte. 

/Series A. Aglypha (Greek "a" without, and '-glupho" I carve) 
comprises those snakes that have no grooved (carved) nor canali- 
culate fangs. 

Series B. Oinsthoglypha (Greek " opisthe " behind, and 
"glupho") the representatives of which have grooved fang-like teeth 
at the back of the maxilla. 

Series C. Proteroglypha (Greek " proteros" in front, and 
'• glupho ") including those snakes with a pair of canaliculate or 
true fangs in the front of the maxilla. The first subject of this 
paper comes into " Series " B, and the second into " Series" C. 

" Series " B. OPISTHOGLYPHA. ' 

This "Series'' comprises three siib-families (1) Homalopsime, 
(2) Dipsadomorphiinae, and (3) Elachistodontinge. The first ot 
these contains our first subject. 

Sub-family IIOMALOPSINyE. 

This is again divided so as to represent ten genera, seven of 
which occur ^^■ithin Indian limits. 

Genus GEBBERU8. 

Three species are known, one Australian, one peculiar to the 
Philippines, and a third rhyncJiops which has a wide range of 
distribution in India and beyond. 

CERBERUS RHYNCHOPS (Schneider). 

The Dog-faced Water snake. 

History. — This was first brought to the notice of the scientific 
world by Russell who figured it twice, once in his First Volume 

12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

(Plate XVII) which appeared in 1796, and again in the Second 
Volume ( Plate XL ) issued in 1801. It was first christened by 
Schneider in 1799. Its synonymy differed with almost every 
writer until 1864 when Gunther fixed the proper designation under 
which it now rests. 

Nomenclature, (a) Scientific. — The generic title is Irom Greek 
"kerberos," the famous three-headed dog that guarded the entrance 
to Hades in Grecian mythology. The name appears to have been 
suggested by the forbidding aspect of the snake. The specific name 
is also from Greek (" rhunchos " snout, and " ops " face) 
probably in allusion to the peculiar under-hung condition of 
the lower jaw. 

(ft) English. — The dog- faced water snake seems to me appropriate, 
and is not only distinctive but accords with the scientific generic 
name. 

(c) Fernacular. — None known to me. 

General Characters. — The head is pear-shaped as seen from above 
expanding considerably towards the occiput. The snout is narrow, 
and in profile shows an unusually prominent lower jaw little if at 
all shoi'ter than the upper. This feature to a large extent gives 
the snake its forbidding expression. The nostrils are directed 
almost As much irpwards as laterally and are narrow slits convex 
forwards. They approach the condition seen in the sea-snakes. 
The eye is rather small, directed as much upwards as laterally, and 
the eyebrow is remarkably prominent. The iris is minutely 
speckled with gold and reveals a verticall}'- elliptical pupil. The 
neck is fairly evident. The body is stout, and rough from the 
strong keels on the costal scales. It is dull dorsallj^, glossy on the 
belly, including the last three costal rows. The tail is short, rather 
compressed at the base, and rapidly tapers to an obtuse point. It 
is about one-fifth the total leuoth of the snake. 

Dimensions. — Most specimens range between two and three 
feet, and anything over this is unusual. The longest of which 
I am aware is that reported by Stoliczka from Burma which was 
four feet, two inches. . 

Colouration. — The back is bluish grey when the snake is sub- 
merged, lightish grey when dry. It is crossed by numerous ill- 
defined but conspicuous darker bars involving one to two scales 
in the length of the snake, the intervals involving five to, seven 
scales. These bars grow less distinct posteriorly, and the fore- 
most are broken up into spots in some specimens. The dorsal 
colouration ceases abruptly about midcosta, and is replaced by buflf 
subcostally, and venerally. The belly is buff coarsely spotted or 
dappled with deep greenish black. The head is coloured above 
like the back, and the grey is sharply defined just above the 
snpralabials. ' The upper lip and chin are bufi. A conspicuous 



Journ.BoiTibay Nat.Hist . S oc . 



Plate XXVI 









p. Gerhardt del . 



J . Green , ChroxaD . 



THE COMMON 1 N D I AN SNAKES, (Wall.) 
1-4 . Cerb erus rhyncKops , iuirmLzss. 5 -8 . Enhydnna curtus .poiscnous . 

oLL nat.siax.. 



THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 91 

dark postocular streak is prolonged backwards to the side of the 

forebody. 

Identification. — The frontal which is partially, and the parietale 
which are wholly broken up, furnish an easy means of knowing 
the ijnake, but perhaps a more certain method is as follows : — A 
snake which when laid on its back, reveals well developed ventrals 
at least three times the breadth of the last costal row, and at the 
same time shows three or more rows of costals on each side of the 
ventrals will prove to bo a Homalopsid. Cerberus will be easily 
distinguished from its near Indian relations by possessing (1) two 
internasals, (2) 9 to 10 supralabials, and (3) 23 to 27 costal 
rows in midbod3^ 

Haunts and habits. — It is eminently an aquatic species usually in- 
habiting the brackish waters of tidal-rivers, crt eks, and ebtuaries. 
Ferguson and Cantor say that it frequents fresh water alto, and 
Cantor, Haly and Flower, all report it from the sea in clote prox- 
imity to our coasts. 1 became acquainted with it in Baima, and 
frequently observed it in the waters of the narrowest channels con- 
nected with the tidal-i'iver sybtem, as well as in the river itself. I 
frequently saw it svvimming in the ebb and Hood tides. It swims 
powerfully usually allowing itself to be carried with the stream, 
but it sometimes anchors itself to a convenient biimboo stake, 
anchor rope, or submerged branch by its tail, and from this pur- 
chase swings about in the current on the look-out for fish passing 
by. As the tide ran out many were observed lying along the 
branches of the trees, and bushes just above the water, and when 
hustled dropped off into the stream below. Numbers were left 
stranded on the mud flats left by the receding tide nud in the teak 
yards nearly every bole harboured beneath it, some of these snakes. 
I have seen it exhibit some intelligence in the following manner. 
Lying extended in the length of a nearly empt}' ditch, after a 
period of quietude, it flicks its tail round first on one side and then 
the other in such a way as to make an unwary fish recede from the 
rnovement towards its head, when coming within sight the fish 
falls an easy victim to the manoeuvre. Taken at a disadvantage 
on land it will occasionally exhibit great activity, and irj to escape. 
When prevented from so doing it protrudes the tongue, and hisses, 
and flattens itself on the ground. When held down by a stick it 
will sometimes strike, and bite viciously, and under such excitement 
emits a disagreeable odour not necessarily accompanied by a dis- 
charge* of the cloacal contents. When picked up it wreaths itself 
with some force around the hand. 

Its mode of progression is curious. The bodj'' is thrown for- 
ward in a carve in advance of th^ head, and the head subsequently 
advanced, the body being agaiti thrown forward before the snake 
quite extends itself. It gives the impression of moving sideways. 



92 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXII. 

Disposition. — In spite of its forbidding appearance this is a pecu- 
liarly inoffensive reptile. Blanford and other have remarked upon 
its quiet nature and I can support their observations. It does not 
usually take alarm when encountered, but will permit one to 
approach close enough to place a stick over it, and allow itself to 
be captured. In captivity it is a singularly uninteresting, lethar- 
gic creature allowing itself to be handled, and rarely betraying a 
malicious spirit. Drumming on the glass of the vivarium even 
when its nose is against the glass, usually evokes' little if any 
response. In a tank it is hardly more interesting. 

Food. — It feeds exclusively and voraciously on fishes. About 
Rangoon on the mud flats it frequently pursued a little fish com- 
monly called the walking perch from its mode of active progres- 
sion on the mud by means of fins that are used as legs. I once 
found a large fish eight inches in length inside a specimen measur- 
ing three feet, three inches. I have also known an eel taken. I 
frequently saw Cerberus wriggling at the end of a fisherman's hook 
bated with a fish, to the disgust of the angler. 

Breeding. — This like all the other Hom.ilopsids I know is vivi- 
parous in habit. The young are born in May, June and July, but 
it is quite likely further observations may extend the season already 
known. The period of gestation is now known, but from analogy 
is likely to exceed six months. I found eggs with no trace of an 
embryo iu a gravid female from Rangoon on the 21st February 
1900. 

It is fairly prolific, its brood amounting to nt least 26. Gunther 
records a brood of 8. M.j specimen above alluded to contained 
7 eggs, and three gravid females received from Moulmein captured 
between the 2Gth March and 4th April 1900, contained 14, 23 
and 26 eggs. These were all in about the same stage of develop- 
ment, the embryos within measuring about 2^ inches. 

Growth. — In spite of the meagre figures at my disposal these 
furnish a good deal of information. Gunther 's brood already 
referred to measured from 7 to 7i inches. I have had small 
specimens in Burma brought to me measuring 7f and 7^ inches 
in May and July respectively. I find the young double their 
length in the first year of life, and have about trebled it by the 
end of the second year. It would probably take another two 
years before specimens attained to three feet, and I have examples 
of such 3 feet 1 inch, and 3 feet 3 inches in June from Burma. 
Unfortunately, I have lost my detailed notes regarding the length 
of ray gravid females, so am unable to say when the species is 
sexually mature. 

Distribution. — It occurs all along out Indian Coasts from Sind 
and Mekran in the North-west to Tenasserim, and thi^ough the 
Malayan Region to the Philippines and Pelew Islands. 



THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 9.} 

It is quite common around India, Imt not nearly so common as 
in Burma where there must be literally thousands in every tidal- 
river. Haly reports it common in Ceylon, and Blyth says 
the same with reference to the Andamans. It occurs in the 
Nicobars, 

Lepidosis, Rostral. — In contact with 4 shields, the rostro-nasal, 
and rostro-labial sutures subequal ; sometimes a partial median 
suture is seen in the upper part of the shield. Internosals. — Two, 
sub-triangular ; their bases apposed in the median line ; the suture 
between them equal to rather greater than that between the 
praefrontal fellows, subequal to the intern aso-praefrontal suture. 
Proe.frontals. — Two, the suture between them subequal to the 
prsefronto-frontal ; in contact with nasal, loreal and pi'Kocular. 
Frontal. — In contact with 7 shields, frequently more or less dis- 
integrated posteriorly. Parietals — Disintegrated into many parts. 
Nasals. — In contact behind the rostral ; touching the first labial 
only. Loreal. — Present. Prceocular. — One. Postoculars. — One 
or two. Temporals. — Replaced by small scales. 

Suhoculars. — One to three. Sii/pralabials . — 9 or 10, none touch- 
ing the eye ; the last three or four divided into an upper and lower 
pai't. hifralabiaU. — Many small. 

Sublinguals. — One pair only present ; in contact with 3 or 4 
infralabials. Costals. — Tw^o headslengths behind the head 25 
(rarely 23) ; midbody 23 to 25 (rarely 27) ; two headslengths befoiv 
the anus 19 or 17. Where the rows are 25 they reduce to 23 and 
again to 21 by a fusion of the 4th and 5th, or 5th and Gth rows ; 
from 21 to 19 the 3rd and 4th rows fuse. Strongly keeled in all 
rows except the last for a variable extent posteriorly. 

FenZrafe.— Well- developed, 132 to 160. ^wa?.— Divided. 
Subcaudals. — Divided. 49 to 72. 

Dentition. — Maxillary. 15 to 10 teeth are followed by a short 
edentulous space, after which there is a pair of grooved pseudo 
langs little if at all larger than the preceding teeth. Palatine.— [K 
Pterygoid.— 22 to 25. Uandihular. — 20 to 23 ; the 3rd to about 
the 7th longest and subequal. 

Our plate. — Mr. Green and Mr. Gerhardt have xevy faithfully 
portraj'^ed a typical specimen. 

" Series" C. PPiOTEROGL YPHA . 

The " Series " is again divided into sub-families (1) Ilydroj^hiivn- 
including the marine forms with valvular nostrils, strongly com- 
pressed bodies (except Platurus) and compressed fin-like tails, and 
(2) ElapiwM which includes the terrestrial poisonous snakes with 
open nostrils, round or feebly compressed bodies, and a cylindrical 
;md tapering tail. 



94 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXI I. 

Sub-family HYDROPHIIN^^. ■ - 

This contains at least eleven genera, one of which Enhyd/ris 
includes the first sea-snake to be discussed in these papers. 

Genus UNHYDRFS. 

(Greek "En" in, and " hudor " water). !; 

Stejneger has thrown doubts on the validity of this name for the 
genus for which he substitutes Lapemis (Herpetology of Japan, 
1907, p. 435). I adhere to the generic title used by Boulonger as 
late as 1912 (Fauna of Malay Peninsula, Rept and Batrach., 
p. 192) which is the one with which all of us have grown familiar 
It contains onl}^ two species, viz., curtus, a very common snake, 
around our coasts, and liardwicki rare in Indian seas, but common 
further east in the Malayan Archipelago, 

ENHYDRIS CURTUS (Shaw). 
Shaw's Sea-snake. 

History. — Described by Shaw in 1802 from a young specimen 
labelled " India" (the type) now in the British Museum. 

Nmnendalure. (a) Scientific. — The generic name simply implies 
" water snake," and the specific is from the Latin " curtus " mean- 
ing short. 

(I)) Enrjlish. — I think it a fitting tribute to the work of Shaw, 
once the herpetologist, and custodian of the reptile collectiona in 
the British Museum, to associate his name with the species. 

(c) VervafAiVir. — None known to me. 

General Characters. — The species is remarkably stout, and short 
for a sea-snake. The head is massi\e, and the jaws strong, the body 
heavy, short, and strongly compressed, and the tail markedly com- 
pressed, and fin-like. 

Colmr. — The dorsum is olivaceous-green merging about mid costa 
to pale yellow. The back is beset with a series of dark greenish- 
brown or greenish-black rather ill-defined crossbars, about 45 to 55 
in number, and rather broader than the interspaces. The first of 
these passes across the back of the head. In the young these bars 
extend further ventrally, and often form complete b mds. 

Identification. — Very easil}^ recognised among all Indian sea- 
snakes on account of the disintegrate conditijn of the parietal 
shields. An alternative method concerns the breadth and number 
of the ventrals. These shields are so little enlarged in midbody 
and posteriorly that they hardly deserve the name of shields, but 
would be better considered as scales. Their number 130 to 219, 
with their feeble development will establish the genus. Curtus ia 
easily distinguished from hardwicki by the parietal shields being 



THE COMMOy INDIAN SNAKES. 95 

broken up into three parts (rarely more). Again in curtus with 
very few exceptions the suture from the nostril passes to the: second 
supralabial, whereas in hardvncki it passes to the first. : 

Habits. — It frequents our Indian Coasts in large numbers. In 
rough weather in common with other sea-snakes it appear^ to keep 
well out to sea, judging from the dearth of numbers brought in 
fix)m the fishing nets at this time. 1 have known a specimen taken 
on land close to a backwater one and-a-half miles from the sea. 
Out of 84 specimens collected in June and July this year which I 
sexed 21 were s ^"d 28 5 . The tubercles on the scales in females 
are feeble, but in males are stronger, and on the lowest costal 
rows in old adults actually spinose. The male when a4ult has 
also a distinct swelling at the base of the tail not seen in the 
female. 

Breeding. — The season for the birth of the young is probably 
from May to August. I had 12 gravid females from Madras 
between the 20th June and the l2th of July this year. The foetuses 
22 in number ranged between 8^ and 14 inches. Other specimens 
already born this year numbering y, measured from 13f to 17^ 
inches. From this one may infer that the 17^ inch specimen had 
been born probably in May if not before, and that the 8f , and 8^ 
inch specimens would not have been born till August, or possibly 
later. Seven of the nine young of the year measured from 13 to 15 
inches, and this taken with the fact that one foetus measured 14 
inches, makes it appear that the youug are about 13 to 14 inches 
long at biith. Tliey are contained in the usual transparent sacs 
seen in viviparous snakes, but these are relatively much larger than 
1 have observed in other species. Most of the sacs were 3 inches, 
some 4 and one even 4^ inches in lenglh. 

It is the least prolific of all the snakes I know except Hyd/rophis 
gracilis. — Four mothers contained but a single foetus, seven con- 
tained 2 only (one of these an infertile egg also), and one held 4 
embryos. These mothers varied in length from 27 to 32^ inches 
and it appears to me that the smallest length would have been 
attained at the end of the second year of life. If my inference 
is justified frcm the figures at my command, this species attains 
to sexual maturity a year earlier than other snakes whose habits 
I have studied. I find that at the end of the first year seven speci- 
mens had attained to a length of from 19 to 21 1 inches, and if a 
similar rate of growth is allowed for the second year, i.e., 6 to 8 
inches, the length of the smallest mother would easily be acquired 
by that time. 

Focd. — I^emains of fish in the stomachs of many show it depends 
upon this form of diet in common with other hydrophids. I was 
not able to procure any fish in a suitable state to make the identi- 
fication probable. 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIIST. SOCILTl, Vol. XXFI. 

Poison. — I know of no records in the human subject of a bite, 
but the venom has been experimented with in the laboratory hj 
Fraser and Elliot. 

Quality. — The poison from Madras specimens svibmitted to these 
experts was described as consisting of thin scales of a very pale 
yellow colour. 

Quantity. — Dr. Pinto who collected the poison found the average 
yield from eight fresh specimens represented -00275 grammes 
when dried. 

Toxins. — Fraser and Elliot found the effects of the poison on 
lower animals almost exactly that produced by cobra venom, except 
that the respiratory embarrassment in curtus poisoning was much 
more pronounced. The action is practically identical with that ot 
Enhydrina venom. As this is dealt with fully in the 28th and 
last paper of this series the reader is referred to that article for par- 
ticulars of the composition and action, of this poison, symptoms 
and treatment. Death is caused by a paralysis of the respirator}^ 
centre in the brain as in the toxaemias of other colubrine snakes. 

Lethal dose. — ^The minimal lethal dose for rats is '0006 grammes 
per kilogramme weight of the rodent. As the lethal dose of 
Enhyd/rina venom for rats was found to be -00009 grammes, the 
toxicity of this is about seven times greater than that of curtus. 

BistriJiution. — From the Persian Gulf to the Malayan Archipe- 
lago. I found it very common on the Malabar Coast about Canna- 
nore, where it is only second to Enhydrina valaJiodyn in its numerical 
strength. On the Coromandel Coast at Madras a collection of 192 
sea-snakes furnished me with 84 specimens as compared with GO 
Enhydrinas. 

Lepidosis, f Rostral. — Touches 4 shields, the portion visible above 
one-third or less than one-third the length of the suture between 
the nasals. Xasals. — Touch the 1st and 2nd supralabials ; the 
suture from the nostril passes to the 2nd (rarely 1st) supralabial. 

Pro'fontals. — Touch the 2nd supralabial. h'lontal. — Entire. 

Parietals. — Disintegrate, usually into three parts. Prceocular. — - 
One. Postocular. — One or two. Tomjwrals. — Scale-like, two or three 
superposed scales anteriorly. SupralaJnals. — 7 usually (sometimes 
8) ; the 3rd and 4th normally touch the eye (rarely the 4th only or 
the 3rd, 4th and 5th). Lifralahials. — 4; the 4th largest, and in 
contact Avith three or four scales behind. Marginals. — A complete 
row after the 2nd infralabial. Sublinguals. — Poorly developed. 
Often so small as hardlj^ to deserve the name ; lioth fellows separa- 
ted by scales. Gostals.- — Two headslengths behind the head 29 to 
30 ; midbody 30 to 45 ; two headslengths before the anus 31 to 32 ; 
tuberculate, juxtaposed everywhere; the lowest 3 or 4 rows enlarged 
and in old males often with spinose tubercles. Ventrals. — 1 5 1 to 21 9 ; 
entire anteriorly, divided posteriorly. Each part in old males with 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Diagram. 




Pa 



CERBERUS RHYNCHOPS 
(X li) 



ENHYDRIS CURT US 
(nat. size.) 



COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 



THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKE'S. 97 

spinose tubercles. Bentiiion. Maocilla. — Behind the paired fangs 
there are usually 4 (rarely 3) gi'ooved teeth. Palatine 5 to 6 ; a7i 
edentulous space behind that would accommodate about two more 
teeth. Pterygoid. — 18 to 22. Mandibular — 12 to 16. 
Oiir -plate is in every way excellent. 



{Explanation of figures for all.) 



F. 


Frontal. 


I. 


Internasals. 


L. 


Loreal. 


M. 


Mental. 


Ma. 


Marginal. 


N. 


Nasals. 


Pa. 


Parietals. 


Po. 


Postocular.s. 


Pr. 


PraBocular. 


Prf 


Praefrontals. 


B. 


Rostral. 


S. 


Supraocular. 


8u. 


Sublingual. 


T. 


Temporals. 


Arabic 


numerals Supralabials 


Roman 


Infralabials. 



(2'o be continued.') 



18 



98 

THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 

OF INDIA. 

(INCLUDING THOSE MET WITH IN THE HILL STATIONS 
OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY). 

BY 

T. R. Bell, i.i-.s. 

{Continued from -page 664 q/ Vol. XXV.) 

Part XXI. 

12. Genus — Jamides. 

Two very diflerent butterflies have been included in this genus of late. 
Formerly it consisted of a single species, bochus. The genus Lampides con- 
tained 9 species, one of which used to be called celianus ; this was changed 
into celeiio and transferred to the genus Jamides. So, at present, there is 
Jamiden bochus and Jannides celeno. The former is a medium-sized insect 
with, in the male, the most brilliant, deep, metallic blue upperside ; the 
latter somewhat larger, milky white above; the one rather quick in its 
motions, the other rather weak and flimsy ; bochus occurring throughout 
the whole of India, Ceylon, the Nicobars and Andamans ; away to, and 
including Australia, Burma ; celeno having much the same distribution 
except that it has not been met with in Australia or in the Nicobars, 
Neither species inhabits Siud and desert regions and the latter is 
found up to a height ot 5,00U', while the former afl'ects lower levels. They 
are both fairly plentiful, wherever they occur, in the way of specimens 
though, perhaps, celeno is the commoner of the two. The transformations 
of both are known and will be found fully described below ; the larvte and 
pupse are not very dissimdar and both are intermittently attended by ants 
of ditt'erent species. The habits of the two butterflies are somewhat diflerent 
as has already l>een mentioned ; both are occasionally to be ^een sucking 
up moisture in damp ])laces, neither is particularly fond of flowers. Finally, 
the larva of both species feed on the insides of pods of leguminous plants 
as a matter of preference ; they will also eat leaves. 

150. Jamides bochus — Male (PI. G., Pg. 41) — Upperside^ fore wing: 
'velvety jet-black ; base deep blue, beautifully metallic and shining, measured 
on the dorsum this colour occupies three-fourths of its length from base, 
its outer margin then curves upwards just past the apex of the cell, enters 
into the bases of interspaces 10, 11 and 12 and fills the whole of the cell. 
Hind wing: costal margin above subcostal vein and vein 7, and dorsal 
margin narrowly fuscous black, a medial, longitudinal, pale streak on the 
former; terminal margin narrowly edged with velvety black, inside 
which in interspaces 1 and 2 is a slender, transverse, whitish line, with an 
elongate, irregular, transverse, black spot above it in interspace 1 and a- 
more obscure, similar spot in interspace 2; traces of such spots also are 
present in some specimens in the anterior interspaces. Cilia of both fore 
and hind wings black ; filamentous tail at apex of vein 2 black, tipped 
with white. Underside: dark chocolate-l rown. Fore and hind wings: 
transversly crossed by the following very slender, white lines all more or 
less broken into short pieces. Fore ■ving : a short pair, one on each side 
of and parallel to the discocellulars, a pale streak sometimes along the diss 
cocellnlars themselves ; a single line in continuation of the outer of the 
discocellular lines, extends down to vein 1. ; an upper discal pair of line- 



THE COMMON BV TTERFLIEi^ OF THE VLAINS OF INDIA. im 

that forms a more or less cateuulated, short band extend from the costa 
to vein 3, the inner lines of the two continued to vein 1 ; two more obscure, 
subterminal, composed of inwardly-convex lunules and a single, straight, 
terminal line, the area enclosed between the subterminal lines and between 
the terminal line darker in the interspaces, giving the appearance of 
two obscure, subterminal lines of spots edged inwardly and outwardly by 
white lilies. Hind wing : crossed in the middle by nine very broken and 
irregular lines, by fewer above and below : tracing them from the costa 
downwards their middle short pieces are found to be shifted outwards and a 
few are short and not complete, the inner two are posteriorly bent abruptly 
upwards, the subterminal two are lunular and the terminal line nearly 
continuous ; posteriorly, between the subterminal pair of lines, in interspace? 
1, there is a small black spot inwardly edged with orange and in inter- 
space 2 a ni\ich larger, round, black spot : both black spots are touched with 
metallic blue scales. Antennae (the tip of stub and orange inside opalescent 
at base), head, thorax and abdomen bhxck ; beneath, the shaft of the antenn,-' 
banded with white : palpi, thorax and abdomen narrowly white Female. 
(Pi. G, fig. 41a) — Similar to the male generally but with the following difier- 
ences : — llpperside, fure wing: ground-colour fuscous opaque black, tlv\ 
velvety black, blue basal area more restricted and not so deep a blue nor 
at all metallic. Hind wing : the black costal and terminal margins very 
much broader, the blue on the basal area consequently much restricted and of 
the same shade as tlie blue on the fore wing ; terminal margin v\ith a suL- 
terminal, anteriorly obsolescent series of spots of a shade darker than 
that of the terminal black area on which they are superposed ; these spots 
posteriorly more or less distinctly encircled inwardly with slender lines < f 
blue and outwardly of white ; anteriorly these lines are almost obsolete. 
Cilia of both fore and hind wings and the filamen.ous short tail, as in tl.c 
male. Underside: similar to that of the male, but the ground-colour 
generally paler and d idler ; the transverse, white lines broader and more 
clearly defined. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen as in the male. Ko 
fringe of hairs to the inner margin of fore wing in either sex. Expanse : 
Male and female, 34-38 mm. 

Larva. — Normal. Head hidden under segment 2, small, round, shininL' 
yellow; mandibles dark ; segment 2 broadly semi-circular in outline rather 
Battened, the front margin with a small, shallow sinus in dorsal line, the 
dorsal depression 4-sided as usual and covered closely with n.innte. black 
tubercles ; segment 3 slightly higher than 2 and a good deal broader, 1 
again higher and a little broader than 3 ; segments 4-10 about equal 1i> 
each other in breadth and h^ight : 11-14 dorsally flattered. sJopiug gentlv 
to the rounded end. Surface of body dull ; a slight, central, ilor.sal depres 
sion on segments 3, 4 ; a lateral, somewhat accentuated, lengthened de- 
pression parallel to and behind front margin and another, similnr, centra', 
spiracular one in which, at the upper end. the spiracle is situated : one oF 
each to each segment 4-1 1 ; gland of segment 1 1 transverse, linear : organs 
of segment 1'2 circular-mouthed, protruding cylindrical, white tubes at will; 
some few simple, moderately long, erect, white hairs from marpin of anal 
segment: the surface densely clothed all over with minute conical, fine 
erect, black hair^s from tiny, star shaped bases mixei' with a few golde?! 
similar ones. Spiracles of ordinary shape and size. Colour: dirty, soiled 
rose, with a moderately broad, lateral, neutral-tint coJoun d line and 
a similar, dorsal, longitudinal line L : 11 mm. : B : 5 mm. ; H. -4 mm. 

Pupa. — Normal. Head with the frons perpendicular to the longitudinal 
axis of pupa, high, the vertex just visible from above beyond tl e froiit 
margin of segment 2 ; this seement with the free, front margin rounded, 
of ordinary length, the dorsal line very gently sloped towards thorax : 



100 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

thorax with its dorsal line steeper on the anterior portion than that of 
segment 2, humped in middle; a good deal broader than segment 2, rather 
pointed behind ; constriction behind it dorsally slight, laterally nothing ; 
pupa highest at apex of thorax though, perhaps, thicker at segment 7 owing 
to the ventral line not being quite straight ; abdomen circular in transverse 
section running to a blunt, rounded point at anal end which is slightly 
turned under. Surface shining, especially on thorax and wings, covered 
with minute hairs under the lens, these hairs slightly longer at fore and 
hinder extremities of the body. Spiracles of segment 2 longly oval, slight- 
ly raised, short, white ; the other spiracles broadly oval, small and inconspi- 
cuous, coloured like the body. Colour of pupa a rose-brown yeJlow on the 
abdomen, dirty translucent-looking yellow on wings, thorax and head ; 
spotted and blotched with black spots forming a dorsal and lateral, inter- 
rupted line along back and sides of the abdomen ; ventrum light. L : 9 
mm. ; B. 4 mm. ; H. 3*5 mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid single amongst the flowers when they 
a,re in bud ; the little larva on emerging from the egg, — it eats 
its way out through the side as do nearly all these lycasnine cater- 
jjillars — burrows into a bud and lives inside the flower, changing 
from one to another as it finds it necessary, eating the carpels and 
pistils. It eventually also pupates inside the flower or a flower-bud 
<ind, as often as not, falls to the ground with it, even before 
the change takes place. Sometimes it leaves the fallen flower and 
pupates on the ground under leaves, &c., or in a small crevice 
or hole. The attachment is by the tail and a body-band. 
Vhe larva is sometimes attended by ants. The food plant upon 
which the first specimens of the butterfly were bred was 
Butea frondosa, the Flame of the Forest or, in the vernacular, 
Pallas. The tree or shrub is well known from its masses of rose- 
vermillion blossoms, each over two inches in length, and its deep 
.;reen-black, velvety calyx. The flowers come out when the tree 
is leafless and it is one of the most striking objects that attracts 
1 he eye in the smaller, opener jungles of India — a sudden burst of 
flame in the dun landscape of the dry, hot, leafless months of 
I'ebruary and April. There are other plants also in the flowers of 
which the larvae may be found and they are all, as far as is known, 
of the same family as Bzitea : Leguminuseoe. Some of these are : 
Pongamia glabra or the Indian Beech, Grotalaria of diff'erent species, 
io which belong the Indian Hemp and so on. Thei'e is nothing 
particularly characteristic about the habits of the larva to difier- 
'■ntiate it from the most of the others belonging to the same sub- 
family except, perhaps, that it gent>rally feeds inside the flowers which 
it rarely leaves and pupates on the surface of the ground as often as 
not. The butterfly is a fairly strong flier and the male attracts 
notice by the glint of its deep metallic-blue upperside in the 
chequered sunlight under the trees that grow along the sides of 
tanks and water nallas wh ch constitute its favourite haunts in the 
<lryer parts of the country. As a matter of fact it does not occur 
in the very dry or desert tracts but, otherwise, is found all over 



THJE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 101 

India, Burma and Ceylon, The trees that form its foodplants — b^- 
the way Xylia dolahriformis, also leguminous, is also one — are of 
fairly high stature and, therefore, the butterfly is found flying at all 
heights ; but, none the less is it often to be caught close to the 
ground — but it is the males that are oftenest thus captured. The 
females seem to be somewhat scarcer, though by no means uncom- 
mon. The resting position is normal, with the wings closed over 
the back. The distribution of the speecies is : Peninsular India, 
except very dry or deserfc tracts; Ceylon; Assam; Burma; 
Tenasserim; the Andamans; extending in the Malayan Subregion 
to Australia. 

Figures 41 and 4'la of Plate G represent the male and female 
butterflies respectively. The colour is too dark and, on the under- 
sides, too pink ; the white lines on the undersides of the wings in 
the male are two indistinct, the costal margin of the hind wing on 
the upperside is too white. The blue colour on the upperside of 
the female wings is altogether wrong; it should be lighter and is 
not at all metallic. 

151. Jamides celeno, Cramer. — Wet-season brood. — Male (PI. G, fig. 42). 
Upperside : pale bluish-white, the discs of both wings bare of hairs, the inner 
margins fringed with long, white hair. The white markings of the underside 
show through by transparency. Fore wing: terminal margin narrowly edge 
with black that broadens slightly towards the apex of the wing ; the veins 
along the costa slightly black, the base of costa brown ; cilin dark-brown, the 
top halt slightly lighter, the extreme base often narrowly lighter still. Hind 
wing: uniform in colour except for an anteciliary, thin, jet-black line edged 
on the inner side somewhat obscurely by a white line within which and 
touching it is a row of black spots, the spot in interspace 2 often being the 
only well-defined one but, generally, two, much smaller, often geminate 
marks in interspace I (sometimes represented by a simple brown line) and a 
blacker, small mark in interspact^ la followed above by a short, brown line; 
cilia rather light-brown white at the bases in the interspaces. Sometimes 
the black edging to the termen (outer margin) of the fore wing is much 
reduced and the subterminal series of spots on the hind wing may be 
nearly absent. Underside: greyish-brown with the following markings 
across the fore wing, beginning from the outside on the terminal margin : 
the cilia light-brown, the basal half pure- white, with a darker line running 
through the middle : a narrow, dark-brown, anteciliary band or broad 
line ; inside this are the following white lines : two subterminal, parallel, 
from vein 7 to inner margin, quite parallel with the outer margin, inter- 
rupted narrowly at the veins, a little broader than the anteciliary, brown 
line and separated from each other by a distance d nible that breadth, the 
ends in interspaces 1 and 2 always widened, especially of the inner lines ; 
a similar line, at right angles to vein .5, from vein 9 to vein 3, often at 
the lower end, touching the inner of the subterminal pair, sometimes well 
separated from it ; generally very well-defined along its inner edge by 
darker shading than the groun(l-coloiir ; a postmedial (postdiscal) line, 
parallel to the preceding, from vein 10 to vein 1, well-defined outwardly 
by brown to vein 3 and inwardly beyond ; a pair of short lines, one on each 
side of tho discocelidiir nervules between the top and bottom limits of the 
cell, sometimes parallel to each other, sometimes not qxiite, sometimes 
parallel to the postmedial line, sometimes converging towards it, both 



102 JOURNAL, BOMB Ay NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

these short lines with dislocated, short coutinuations on the costa from 
which they are separated by an unmarked interspace ; the inner of the 
(lissocellular pair of lines sometimes continued to vein 1 as a straight 
line, sometimes converging towards the postdiscal line at the end or, very 
occasionally, actually meeting it on vein 1 ; often, also, not in continuation 
with the inner discocellular line but dislocated to half way between the 
two discocellulars. Below vein 1 the ground-colour is pure white. Hind 
iving : a large, generally well-defined, subterminal, jet-black spot in 
interspace 2, broadly crowned and laterally surrounded by orange and 
touched with metallic blue-green scales inside the edges ; a black dot 
similarly placed on each side of vein 1, the one in interspace 1 crowned by 
orange aud speckled with blue-green scales ; the following markings, 
beginning from the outer margin : — cilia light greyish-brown, the bases 
pure-white, the middles dusky ; the anteciliary, brown band or line and 
two subterminal white lines as on the fore wing but the inner of these lines 
very much more irregular, more lunulate and the space between it and 
the outer dark-brown in interspaces 3-5, the line itself ending at vein 6, 
the last section in interspace o dislocated inwards and the anal portions 
interrupted by the spots in interspaces 1 a, 1 and 2 ; an inner, subtermi- 
nal line starting from the margin at the extremity of vein 7, broken and 
moved outwards at vein 6, running thence, parallel to the outer sub- 
marginal line, interrupted by orange crowning of the anal spots and 
coalescing with the next interior line before the anal margin ; this 
interior line (call it the outer postmedial) is more or less straight from 
vein 7 on the costa to vein 4, then often more irregular, running as a white 
border along the tops of the orange crowns of the anal spots and turning 
up in interspace 1 (from the middle of it in a curve) to strike the hinder 
margin in interspace I b at an acute angle ; an inner, postmedial line from 
vein 7 straight to vein 4, slightly converging towards the outer postmedial, 
then dislocated inwards (sometimes as much as to form a prolongation of 
the outer discocellular line) and continued down to mix up with the lines 
beyond and turning up also to the inner margin ; a medial, short line out- 
side the discocellular (the outer one of the discocellular pair) ; an ante- 
medial line from vein 7 continued by the inner, discocellular line more or 
less regularly and straight, then often dislocated outwards at vein 3 (or at 
the median vein which forms the bottom of the cell) and continued in the 
shape of a ' 3 ' turned the wrong way into interspace 1 where it describes a 
bend out and back again to run up, parallel to the lines already 
described, to the inner margin ; in interspace 1 b there is a line parallel to 
it quite separate from anything else ; there are two subbasel lines, more or 
less regular, straight and parallel from vein 7 to vein 1 and at their ends 
separated from them by interspace 1 b, there are two short lines in inter- 
space 1 a which may converge on to the anal margin or be nearly parallel 
to each other, &c.; and, finally, a basal, white line which is often difficult to 
see. The net result of these lines is a pattern of short bands or pairs of 
lines, the outer 3 converging towards the anal angle and turning up toward 
the anal margin. A thread like tail of slightly over 3 mm. at the extremity 
of vein 2 black, tipped white. Antennse brownish black, banded thinly 
white, these bands interrupted narrowly above and below ; the club plain 
brownish-black ; palpi black above : white below with the extreme base 
black and the tip of the second joint black and white. Head with the 
frons black with a central, white line ; the eyes rimmed with white, hairy ; 
vertex with a dusky-black tuft. Thorax blackish covered with blue-white 
scales and hairs ; abdomen ditto, blue-scaled at base, yellowish at extre- 
mity ; below : head, thorax and abdomen pure white. Female. — (PI. G., 
iig. 42a). Upperside: ground-colour paler than in the male, often quite 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA 103 

white ; terminal, black edging to wing very much broader, broadest at 
apex, the inner edge diffuse. Hind wing differs from the male as follows : — 

costal margin above vein 6 dusky-black, a postdiscal, transverse series of 

dusky-black, connected lunules often more or less obsolescent ; followed 
by a series of black spots set in a background of the white ground-colours ; 
anteciliary line and cilia as in the male. Underside : similar to the male, 
often yellower or with a fulvous shade ; the markings precisely similar. 
Antennje, head, thorax and abdomen as in the male : the last joint of the 
palpi, however, twice as long : as long as the second joint — in the male it 
is only half as long. Expanse : 28 — 40 mm. 

Dry-season brood. — Male. Upperside: bluish-white, slightly more metallic 
and shining than in the wet-season specimens. Fore and hind wings : 
the markings of the underside show through by transparency ; both wings 
with slender, anteciliary, black threads, edged on the inner side, 
on the fore wing, by a series of small, black dots (often all coalesced 
into a narrow band) that posteriorly are more or less obsolete and, 
in the hind wing, by an ill-defined, white line. Underside: ground- 
colour variable, greyish-brown to ferruginous-brown. Fore wing : a broad, 
dark-brown band along the discocellulars ; a postmedial, similar band 
from costa to vein 3 ; below vein 3 a third band, similar in colour, 
to vein 1 or beyond, its borders starting, the inner in continua- 
tion with the inner border of the discocellular band or dislocated to- 
wards the outer border, the outer edge in continuation of the inner edge of 
the postmedial band or variously dislocated from it; this band below vein 
3 having the edges nearly parallel or variously converging, sometimes 
actually meeting in interspace la ; all three bands edged with white and 
forming together a rough Y-shaped figure ; these markings superposed on 
a slightly suilied-white area from the inner margin upwards, replacing the 
brown ground-colour in varying degree ; above the edges of the two bands, 
the arms of the Y, are continued to the costa as short, white lines placed 
often obliquely : terminal markings consist of a pair of transver&e, sub- 
lunular, subterminal, v^hite lines and a terminal, ill-defined white line, the 
spaces between these and a generally more or less obsolete anteciliary line 
darker than the ground-colour. Hind wing: crossed by the following 
transverse bands of a shade darker than the ground-colour and all edge 
more or less clearly with white lines, all irregular, broken and dislocated ; 
a basal and a medial band, the latter band posteriorly carved sharply up- 
wards and inwards toward the inner margin ; a discal, irregular band of 
black that bulges outwards in the middle ; terminal markings as on the fore 
wing but the terminal, white line more or less obsolete ; in interspaces la, 
1 and 2 are black spots inwardly crowned with orange, the spots in la and 
1 minute, that in 2 largest. Antennje black, shafts with white rings inter- 
rupted above and below ; head, thorax and abdomen pale-brown ; thorax 
and base of abdomen bluish-white. Female — Upperside : ground-colour paler 
and whiter than in the male, the marking on the vindersides of nome speci- 
mens more clearly apparent on the upperside by transparency than in the 
male. Fore wing : a very broad black, terminal margin, broadest at the 
apex and apical portion of costa of which it occupies about a third, 
posteriorly it narrows to the tornus. sometimes disappears just before the 
tornus. Hind wing : As in male but with a postdiscal, transverse, lunular 
line and a subterminal row of spots dusky-brown. Underside : much as in 
the male but the transverse, dark-brown bands somewhat straighter. 
Expanse : 33-40 mm. 

The above description of the dry-season brood is more or less the 
absolute transcription of Colonel Bingham's Lampides pura, Moore and 
accurately describes the cold-weather form (generally called the dry- 



104 JOURNAL, BCIMBAI NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

season) of Jamides celeno as it is found in the Kanara District of the Bombay 
I'residency where thousands of the insects have been bred. Colonel 
Bingham's wet and dry-season forms of celeno are all wet-season butterflies; 
that is, butterflies, the larvaj of which have had young-succulent flowers 
uud leaves to feed upon. 

^99- — Shaped-like a turban, the flat top slightly concave in the 
centre of which is a rather large cell about one-sixth of the whole breadth 
of the egg in diameter ; the whole of the top covered with minute, fine- 
walled cells which are more in the nature of reticulations than anything else 
because the walls are so low and thin ; the central large one covered with 
similar, but far more minute, reticulation-like cellules ; the sides with two and 
a half or three rows of much higher and coarser- walled, proper cells with a 
prominence, rather large, thick, flattened above and below, rectangular 
and round-topped, at the intersection of each wall, these prominences 
specially developed just before the top of the sides ; about 22 24 cells round 
the whole circumference. Surface shining, especially the bottoms of the 
cells. Colour very light greenish with the cell-walls and prominences pure 
white. B : 075 mm. ; H : 33 mm. 

Larva. — The shape is quite normal, of more or less equal height from 
segment 4 to 10, sometimes ever so slightly higihest at middle, also of 
more or less equal breadth from 5-10 but often seemingly very slightly 
broadest about segment 11 — the larva can vary shape somewhat ; segments 
13, 14 forming a broadly rounded extremity to body, sloping slightly from 
front to back and considerably flattened dorsally ; segment 13 not at all 
apparent except indeed it is represented by the part anterior to a short, 
dorsal curved, transverse dent ; segment 2 forming the front of body, for 
the head is always hidden under it, semi-circular in shape, constricted on 
the dorsoventral margin from just before the hinder margin somewhat, 
the absolute front inclined to be square, the whole segment transversely 
convex, ascending more or less in a straight line to hinde- margin, the 
actual front being shortly steep like the rest of the free margin, the dorsal 
depression situated towards the hinder margin from v hich it is separated 
by one-third the distance that separates it from tne front margin ; this 
depression occupying about half the length of tho segment, triangular in 
shape, equilateral, with the base along hinder margin and slightly convexly 
curved towards it, the surface bluish and somewhat convex and set with 
star-based, minute hairs hke the rest of the body but having no larger 
bristle at lateral angles ; segment 3 shorter than 2, suddenly higher than 
it all along the margin, dorsally flat for its whole length and breadth, 
sloping slightly down towards 4 ; segments 4, 5 about as long as 3 sloping 
up in the dorsal line towards 5, 6 respectively ; segment 6-10 all a trifle 
longer than 5 and coequal among themselves. Head completely retractile 
under 2, the neck, however, long enough though the head is never protruded 
further than the top of the clypeus at the most ; round in shape though 
somewhat broadest just below the vertex ;, surface shining smooth, bare; 
clypeus triangular, about two-thirds as long as head is high, the 
apex acute, not rounded ; colour of head very light watery yellow ; clypeus 
finely brown-bordered ; labrum red-brown with white base, transverse ; 
ligula large, transverse, broadly oval, the front margin shallowly emargi- 
nate, widely so too, also rerf-brown in colour; antennal joints and mandibles 
light like the head, the last dark-tipped and toothed; eyes disposed: 
five in a curve of which the 6th is the centre : the two uppermost larger, 
glassy-colourless, the rest black. Surface extremely finely shagreened- 
granulate under the lens, shining ; covered all over very densely in some 
specimens with minute, star-shaperl tubercles, some milky-white, others 
green, others brown, all more or less sessile but a few with very short 



THE COMMON BUTTERlLlEs OF THi: PLAINS OF INDIA. 105 

cylindrical stalks, each one bearing, issuing from its centre, a longly 
conical, curved, transparent glass-like shining, hair (or hollow structure ?) ; 
each star is separated by a distance of about 2-.'> X its own diameter from 
the next ; the conical hairs as long as 2-3 x the length of the star-base ; 
sometimes the stars are well developed, sometimes badly developed ; in 
some cases the hairs are shorter, also a few brown and straight ; the 
brown of the larval colour is always caused by the star-bases being brown ; 
there are some longer hairs rising also from starbases surmounted by short 
cylindrical tubercles, the hairs on the front margin of segment 2 the 
longest, 6 X as long as the transparent, glistening, curved hairs, more or 
less simple but sometimes with a minute bristle or two on their surfaces ; 
these longer hairs some longer, some shorter, extending to near the 
hinder margin of segment : there are 2 such long hairs on the 
dorsoventral margin of segment 3, and some round the margin of segment 
14: most of these long hairs are red-brown, a few I'ght; the gland of 
segment 11 large, transverse, mouth-shaped and curved slightly when 
opirned a bit — the inside is bluish-white when opened — and the organs 
of segment 12, situated diagonally below the spiraclf^s anc. behind them, 
have circular openings of 2 x the diameter of the spiracle and are general- 
ly green like the surface so that, when quiescent th^y are difficult to see ; 
when the cylindrical, protrusible body starts coming out it is pure, dull 
white and, when full out, has the rounded, somewhat dilated extremity 
clothed sparsely with minute, radiating bristles which bunch together when 
withdrawn ; the length of this cylinder is 4 x its own diameter and 2 x the 
diameter of tlie opening ; just behind the gland and for the length of the 
gland are some small, jjlassy-shining, circular, slightly convex tubercles; 
each segment 3-10 has a dorsal, central, small, shallowly funnel-shaped 
indent; there is also a long, lateral one on the same segments reaching 
from the dorsolateral region to the spiracle, the spiracle, in fact, being 
situated in the bottom of it; segment 12 nearly flat, altogether lower than 
segment 11 owing to the tumidity of the gland on that segment; segment 
13-14 occasionally with some 4-6 little pits on the dorsal suriace ; ventral 
surface: there is a distinct, impressed and continuous line all round the 
body separating the dorsal, visible, upper half of larva from the under 
parts ; the immediate lateral border below that line ventrally is like the 
dorsal surface : covered with the same star- tubercles and slso the same 
colour, also it is segmented like the rest (it forms a sort of pedestal or foot 
for the body so to speak) : where there are prologs this pedestal forms the 
real base of the prolog, there beirg a second piece in prolongation ; then 
comes the real leg (or what is called that) with the foot attached. Spiracles 
are quite circular, extremely slightly raised, with a very fine, thin, chitine- 
margin. the inside shallowly funnel-shaped ; dull milky-white with a bluish 
tint and pitted ; small ; on the segments 2-10 situated in the bottoms of 
depressions. Colour bright grass-green with a show of a dorsal, darker 
line with brown touches on it on segments 10, 11 and anteriorly, occasion- 
ally, on segment 5 ; there may be a light, subspiracular line which is, 
however, generally not present : the ventrum is naked, with a stray hair ; 
the legs are colourless ; the prologs with the feet also colourless and the 
row of booklets along the edge or lobes red, the lobes are separated by a 
little white, fan-shaped body, prominent and shining : the pseudonychium 
or empodium ? L : 12 mm. ; B : 4 mm. ; H : 3. 5 mm. 

When just out of the egg, the little larva is whitish and the head dark, 
and not retracted under segment 2 ; also there are subdorsal and dcyso- 
ventral rows of long hair. In the next stage appears a rose-coloured 
dorsal line as well as a lateral and submarginal one and a short diagonal 
dorsolateral line on each segment. These reddish lines or bands may 

U 



106 JOUUNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

subsist right through but, with tho growth, become dimmer with each 
change ; in the end they are as often as not quite obsolescent, or even 
wanting in the pure-green larvoe ; some larvte are much darker than others 
because of the clothing of tubercles being denser and more pigmented. 

Pupa. — The shape is quite normal ; rather stout, stoutest at the abdomi- 
nal segments 7/8; highest at thoracic apex; segment 6 ever so slightly convex 
longitudinally. Head hidden, all except the smallest portion of the vertex, 
under segment 2, the frons large and high in a plane at right angles to 
the longitudinal axis of the pupa, the mouth-parts and clypeus ventral, 
the autennse reaching the ends of wings and gradually broadened towards 
the tips, the legs reaching only half way to the ends ; segment 2 large, about 
one-third the length of thorax in the dorsal line, convex transversely 
straight in the dorsal line ascending to thorax at an angle of oS" to 
longitudinal axis, the front margin a more or less semi-circular curve from 
shoulder to shoulder with the central part : the dorsal region say, between 
the dorso.ateral lines more or less straight, perhaps a very little concave- 
emarginate, the actual dorsal line with a very small, triangular emargination; 
segment •"> or thorax humped-convex, somewhat ge.itly compressed 
just above the shoulder with the shoulder only slightly prominent 
and rounded, front slope rising in the same plane as that of 
segment 2 : 35° to a point (it is all rounded) about half way towards the 
hinder margin — perhaps a little less, the hinder slope gentle to the end of 
segment 4, the hinder margin triangularly rounded and apex produced 
into segment 4, meeting the wings in a broadly-rounded, rather deep 
angle of about 70° ; segment 4, rather largely visible laterally, about half 
segment 6 in length dorsally : segment 5 about half segment 6 in length — 
or half segment 2 — -rising gently to middle of segment 6 but not reaching 
the height of thoracic apex : segment 6-11 about coequal in length, the first 
someA'hat convex longitudinally as well as transversely; abdomen stout, 
stoutest at segment 7/8 which is the broadest part of the pupa ; the dorsal 
line of abdomen thence to end is a quarter-of-a-circle-curve ; end herais- 
pherically rounded, not as broad as segment 2 at extremity, the portion 
composed of sej;ment3 12-14 dorsally perpendicular to longitudinal axis of 
pupa ; segment 14 turned under somewhat, the suspensory hairs few and 
quite ventral. Surface very minutely rugosely reticulate all over, even in- 
cluding the wing-surfaces, the gland-scar on segment 11 evident; covered 
all over with very minute, erect, light hairs, very short even under the lens ; 
rather sparsely disposed, most numerous on the head, segment 2 and 
dorsum of thorax ami there also slightly branched. Spiracles of segment 
2 more or less Imear, slightly curved, situated along the curved hinder 
margin of segment 2, raised, shining, extremely light-yellow in colour 
and pitted coarsely — they are just like sausages cut in half longitudin- 
ally ; the rest of the spiracles are slightly raised, broad, whitish ovals and 
are rather small. The colour of the pupa is a light, soiled yellow with a 
rosey tint except on the wings and head ; speckled brown all over ; a 
cateniilated more or less dark-brown, dorsal band from end to end, some- 
what broadened out on segment 2 ; a more broken, supraspiracular, similarly 
coloured band widening out into black, triangular patches on the wing lino 
at segment." 4 and 5 and on shoulders. L: 10 mm.; B: 4.5 mm.; H: 
3*5 mm. 

HaJnts. — The egg is laid single on flowers, flower-stalks or in the 
axils of the very young leaves ; the little egg-larva, eating its wa}' 
out through the side, settles down in the axil of a rib or nerve of the 
young leaf with the midrib and is not easy to see it is so small ; 



PHE COMMON B UTTEHFLI ES OF THE PLAIN iS OF INDIA . 107 

also it wanders a good deal just at first ; in the case where the eggs 
are laid on flowers it generally feeds inside the flower. Later on, 
when larger, it lives on the undersides of the leaves, always feeding 
and living on the young ones except driven to eat tough foliage. 
Many larvae are often found on one tree. Pupation takes pla(3e for 
preference on or near the ground on the underside of a withered 
leaf, in a crevice of the soil, under a stone-ledge, &c. ; the chrysalis 
is attached rather weakly by the tail and fixed by a body-band and, 
when touched, gives vent to a quick succession of thin creaking 
noises which are quite audible if listened for. The ordinary food- 
plants are Pongamia (jlabra, the Iiidian Beech, a tree of wide ha- 
bitat; Abrus prpcatorius, t\\QVYdiY\x\g Eean or Gunji, a common 
climber of weak habit, occurring throughout the Bombay Presidency 
and producing pods that contain, when ripe, bright scarlet, round 
beans with one end black which are commonly used by the local 
o-oldsraiths for weighing gold— not that these seeds are in the least 
of equal size or weight. Other foodplants are Saraca indica, the 
Ashok ; Butta frovdosa, the Flame of the Forest; Beyvea toijuga ; 
and doubtless there are others. All the above are leguminous plants 
with the exception of the last which belongs to the Sufindaceo'. 
The butterfly is one of the commonest in India, existing everywhere 
except in the absolute deserts, from sea-level up to 5,000' : jungles, 
plains, hills, open country, heavy rainfall or light, it matters not. 
Outside India it is found in Ceylon, in the Andaman Islands, 
Assam, Burma, Siam, Malaj^ Peninsula, Java, Borneo and the Phi- 
lippines. It has a weak flight, always keeps near the ground, generallj^ 
near vegetation in the shape of hedges or bushes, does not bask or 
go to flowers much, flutters about the foodplants for quite long- 
periods at a stretch without resting and sits with its wings closed 
over its back; it is not particularly fond of sunlight and sunny 
places. The female is just as plentiful as the male and is just as 
often seen. They are both easy to catch with a net, and are cons- 
picuous objects when on the wing. 

The insect is depicted on coloured Plate G, figure 42 being the 
male and figure 42a the female. The figures are good representa- 
tions of the so-called wet-season brood except that the white lines 
showing through from the underside on the upper surface are too 
distinct although, in natxire, the\^ are always more or less \dsible. 
The undersides are. as usual, just a shade too pink. 

Genus — Catachrysops. 

There are three species of Catachrysops, all common insects where they 
occur; two of them, straho and enejus, very like each other on the unuersicle, 
the third pandava, quite different. All three are some shade of purple or 
blue on the upper surface, more or less uniform in the males but iu the 
females with a broad, black border and a lighter base and disc ; the tw<> 
first having the underside grey while the last has it brown. The two first 
have a very wide distribution and are trie butterflies of the Plains thougli 



108 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

they may both be found more sparingly, also, in any open ground in the 
jungles and hills, even when the open space is circumscribed and sur- 
rounded by high forest; they range from Australia through the Malay 
Archipelago to Burma and China, and are found in the Nicobars, the 
Andamans, Ceylon and throughout India ; cnejus, indeed, goes still 
further afield to the South Sea Islands. Pandaia is more restricted 
in its habitat, not being found further east than Java practically ; and 
is much more confined to the damp parts of its range. This last species 
has distinct dry-and wet-season forms, whereas the others have not. 
They are all three quick flies but pandava cannot compete with the other 
two in this respect — it does not affect flowers ma h either, whereas 
the others do ; all three suck moisture from damp places on the ground 
but, otherwise, panduoa is more addicted to sitting on bushes and trees. 
They bask with their wings slightly separated and rest with them 
closed over their back. The life-histories of the tree species are known 
and are described below. The larvae and pupae are all similar and the former 
are attended by ants ; those oi panda oa, perhaps, more assiduously than the 
others. The larvaj all feed upon leguminous plants and both they and the 
pupae are absolutely normal in shape. 

152. Catochpysops atrabo, Fabr. — Male (PI. G., fig, 44). — Upperdde-.^dXs 
violet with, in certain lights, a blue, slightly silvery sheen caused by a close 
clothing of long, approssed, white hairs all over the wings. Fore wing : 
a slender, anteciliary, dark line and a fringe of pale blue hairs along inner mar 
gin. Hind wing : interspace 1 with a short, transverse, subterminal brown bar 
or blackish spot edged inwardly faintly with white ; interspace 2 with a pro- 
minent, round, black spot edged very faintly on the inner side by a diffuse 
bluisli liumle and crowned often faintly with orange ; the dark, subterminal 
spots of the underside apparent through transparency; an anticiliary, slender, 
jet-black line more conspicuous than in the fore wing, in some specimens 
edged invvardly in the posterior intsrspaces with white ; this line is present in 
interspaces I and 2 in all specimens. Cilia of both fore and hind wings 
whita transversely traversed near the base by a brown line ; tail black, 
thread-like, tipped with white. Underside: pale dull' grey. Fore wing: 
a short, narrow, transverse band on the discocellulars ; a small, round, 
subcostal pot ia interspace 10, a transverse, discal band that extenlsfrom 
veins 1 to 7, the portion below vein 3 dislocated and shifted inwards; a 
transverse, subterminal, ill-defined band and a terniinal series of inwardly 
rounded spots, each of which snbapically fills an interspace, greyish-brown ; 
the discocellnlar and discal bands edged inwardly and outwardly by 
white lines, the subcostal spot encircled with white and tho subterminal 
band and termmal spots edged on their inner sides with the same colour ; 
lastly, a dark greyish-brown anteciliary line. Hind wing : a subbasal spot 
and a spot beyond it in interspace 7, a large, round, subterminal spot crowned 
with ochraceous in interspace 2, two geminate specks subterminally in in- 
terspace 1 and a terminal similar speck in interspace 1 a black ; the spots in 
interspace 7 encircled with white ; a lunular spot in middle of cell ; two 
elongate spots in transverse order below it ; a short transverse band on the 
discocellnlars and a very irregidar, transverse, broken, sinuous, discal band 
dark greyish-brown, edged inwardly and outwardly with white; beyond 
these is an inner subterminal series of greyish-brown lunules followed by an 
outer subterminal series of similarly coloured spots, the latter encircled 
with white, and a black anteciliary slender line. Antennfs. palpi, head, 
frons white and black, thorax and abdomen dark brown, a little purplish on 
the thorax ; the shafts of the antennsb ringed with white, the club tipped 
with orange ; beneath the palpi, thorax and abdomen white: (PI. <i., fig. 
44a.) ¥emdi\Q.— Upper side: fore wing: costa, apex and termen broadly 



THE COMMON JJi TTERFLIEIS OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 1U1> 

brownish-black, the latter edging aft are enclosing a postdiscal, subterminul 
blue lunule, and lines in interspaces 1, 2 and 3 ; rest of the wing whitish, with 
no hairs on the disc, flushed and overlaid especially at base with metallic 
blue. Hind wing: costa and termen broadly fuscous or brownish black, the 
rest of the wing whitish flushed with metallic blue as on the fore wing which, 
however, does not spread to the dorsal margin ; a discal. curved, medial series 
of fuscous spots ; a transverse, incomplete, postdiscal series of white, sagit- 
tate lunulas followed by a subterminal series of spots as follows, superposed 
on the brownish-black terminal border : two dark-brown geminate dots 
margined inwardly and outwardly with white ; a large, black spot crown- 
ed broadly with ochraceous inwardly and edged slenderly with white on the 
outer siile in interspace •', and anterior to that a transversely-linear, dark - 
brown spot encircled with white in each interspace. Cilia of fore wing 
brown, of hind wing white traversed by a transverse medial brown line. 
Underside : ground colour and markings as in the male. Antennae, head 
(frons white and brown), thorax and abdomen similar to those of the male 
Eyes in both sexes hairy. Expanse : Male and female. 27'38nim. 

Lavca. — Normal. Head hidden under segment 2, small, round, labrun\ 
white, dark fuscous-brown in colour ; segment 2 tumid round margin with a 
large, central, dorsal depression ; the whole body depressed-looking, the 
whole margin of body somewhat tumid-looking ; front of larva — front of 
segmont 2 that is — rather square ; segment 2 is, on the whole, trapeze- 
shaped, the longest side being the hinder margin ; the anal segments slopes 
gently to the somewhat broadly rounded extremity ; body thickest in middle. 
Surface dull, covered all over with little, brown, spine-like hairs which have 
got several, still smaller branch-spines at their bases, the apex above these 
branches being simple — these hairs and their branches very distinct on 
segments 2, 3 where they are somewhat more densely crowded than else- 
where ; a row of simple hairb round the margin of body. Spiracles oval, 
nearly round, flush, white. Colour of the larva green with a dorsal, brown 
line dilated on segments 4, 6 and on segments 10-14; a short, diagonal, 
whitish, subdorsal line on all segments and an indistinct, spiracular line or 
pair of lines besides ; the larvae may be plain apple-green, the anal end 
tipped black. li : ll'Smm. ; B : 4 mm. or a little more. 

Pupa. — Normal in shape ; like that of Nacaduba or Lampides besticus. 
Broadest about segment 5, highest at segment 8 ; narrowing gradually down 
to the front end which is truncated and somewhat narrow and to the 
posterior end which is rounded ; /lead hidden under segment 2 from above 
all but a small strip of the vertex which is not hidden because of a triangular 
sinus in the middle of the front margin ; the thorax is slightly humped and 
the hinder margin is somewhat sharply rounded in dorsal region ; 
shoulders evenly rounded. Surface minutely wrinkled and covered with 
minute, erect hairs or bristles hardlj^ visible except under a lens and then 
only when looked at sideways. Spiracles of segment 2 linear-oval, raised, 
whitish-yellow in colour ; the rest are nearly circular, raised, whitish. 
Colour creamy, marked sparsely with blackish specks, a dorsal and supra- 
spiracular row of black spots, one to each segment ; a black dorsal streak 
on segment 2 and a crooked black line on the dorsal margin of each wing 
about segment 4, o. L : 9mm. ; B : 8*5 mm. ; B at segments 2-2 mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid on the flowers, leaves or stalks and 
even on bits of rubbish close by the plant ; the larva generally lives 
on the flowers, pods or young parts which it eats. The pupation 
takes place on the surface of the ground or, practically, anywhere 
and the fixing is, as usual, by the tail and a body-string. Many 



110 JOURNAL, BOMBAV NATURAL HL'ST. ^^OCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

eggs are often laid on a single plant but few come to matui-ity as 
they ai'e mach pai-asitized by micro-ichneumons. There are probably 
many foodplants but one of the commonest is a thin twining, 
leguminous creeper called Gijlista scariosa which occurs everywhere 
in plenty, both in the open and in the jungles. Any leguminous 
plant would probably do as well for the butterfl}^ is very common 
throughout Peninsular India and it is very variable in the shade of 
lilue in the males. It is very strong on the wing and has the same 
liabits as G. cnejvs. Colonel Bingham gives the distribution of the 
species as " Peninsular India south of the outer ranges of the 
Himalayas ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma ; Tennasserim ; the Andamans ; 
Nicobars; extending through the Malayan subregion to Australia." 
It can always be distinguished from G. cnejus by its hairy eyes and 
the invariable presence of a little subcostal dot in interspace 10 
just inside discal band on the underside of the fore wing. 

The male and female are depicted on Plate G, figures 44 
and 44a. The upperside in the male is too blue ; the colour 
of the underside not light enough ; the spot on the costa between 
the discocellular short band and the discal band is not shown ; in 
the female the shades are better and the costal spot is correctly 
shown. 

153. Catochrysops cnejus, Fabr. — Male (PL G., fig 60) — Upperside : pale 
brownish-purple sutt'iised with a bluish shade, apparent only in certain 
lights and no appressed hairs on the disc ; a fringe of blue hairs along inner 
margni. Fore wing : a slender, black, anteciliary lino edged on the inner side 
narrowly with fuscous dark-brown, broader afc apex than at the tornal 
angle. Hind wing : a subterminal, black spot in interspace 1 and another 
similar spot in interspace 2, the two spots subequal in size, edged on the 
outer side by a white thread and on the inner side with ochraceous, more 
prominent in the spot in interspace 2 ; a slender, anteciliary black line 
with an inner, narrow margin of diffuse fuscous brown. Cilia of both fore 
and hind wings pale brown at base ; tail at apex of vein 2 of the hind 
wing black tipped with white Unden^ide : silver-grey, in some with a 
pale yelloAish, in others with a faint brown tint. Fore and hind wings : 
each with the following brown spots edged slenderly on either side with 
white : a transverse elongate spot on the discocellulars ; a transverse dis- 
cal series of six spots straight on the fore, bisinuate on the hind wing ; on 
the latter wing capped near the costa by a prominent, white-encircled, 
round, black seventh spot ; an inner and an outer subtermuial. transverse 
series of spots, of which the inner subterminal series on the hind wing is 
lunular, the outer rounded ; the white edging to both series being also lunu- 
Isr ; both wings have very slender, anteciliary, black lines, and the hind 
wing, ill addition, a transverse, curved, subbasal series of generally three, 
often four, white-encircled spots of which the spot nearest the costa is 
prominent and black, the others brown. Antennas, head (frons white), 
thorax and abdomen dark brown, paler on the last, the shafts of the 
antenn-e ringed with white, the thorax with a little purplish | ubescence ; 
beneath: the palpi, thorax, and abdomen white. — Female (PI. G., fig. .50a.). — 
Upp^rsidf : dark brown. Fore wing : a postero-medial somewhat trian- 
gular area from the base outwards for about two-thirds the length of the 
wing blue and a slender jet-black or brown, indistinct anteciliarv line. 



THE COMMOy BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. HI 

Hind wing : posteriorly from about the level of the middle of the cell 
slightly suffused with blue from base outwards for about two-thirds the 
length of the wing : a transverse, postdiscal, incomplete series of sagittate, 
white spots pointing inwards ; followed by subterminal, transverse series 
of round spots, the anterior three dark brown encircled with bluish white, 
the tornal two jet-black, subequal, larger than the others, edged inwardly 
with bright ochraceous, outwardly by very slender white lines ; finally, 
a jet-black, slender anteciliary line. Cilia of both fore and hind wings 
conspicuously white. Underside : ground-colour and markings as in the 
male, tornal two black spot touched outwardly with metallic bluish-green 
scaling. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of the male, 
the shafts of the antennro conspicuously ringed with white. Expanee : 
Male and female, 26-33 mm. 

E(/f/. — TuThnu-sfiaped, depressed in the middle of the top ; surface 
covered with a network of fine, raised lines, dividing it up into many four 
and tive-sided cells, very minute on top in centre, decreasing outwards and 
downwards ; the lines more or less diagonal with a prominent, coarse- 
topped excrescene or rising at each intersection, these risings hardly 
existing in the middle of the upper surface. Colour, light green, nearly 
white, the lines and risings pure white. B : 0*5 mm. 

Larva (PI. II., fig. '21) — Noratial. Segment 2 rather large, semi-circular, 
hiding the small, shining black, round head with the labrum white ; 
dorsal outline rising to segment 4, thence descending gently to the anal 
extremity ; increasing in width to segment 5, thence to segment 12 
ren.aining the same ; the anal segments flattened dorsally, the 14th 
ending somewhat broadly round-truncate. I'^itrface covered with minute, 
white star -topped, shortly-stemmed, thickened hairs (stars 5 and 6 
pointed) ; a few scattered, erect, white hairs ; a subdorsal, central, 
longer hair on each segment ; the dorsoventral margin fringed with 
sparse, line, erect, long hairs, segments well marked by constrictions : 
gland on segment 11 and organs on segment 12 small. Spiracles ovsl\, 
black. Colour apple-green, the anal end tipped with black ; or dark rose, 
with a subdorsal line on each segment yellow, running slightly diagonally 
back and up, the two more widely separated at front margin than at 
hinder margin, that is, the dorsum between them darker coloured than 
the rest ; a subspiracular, yellow band which is narrow on segments o-9, 
broad on segments 10-,14, sometimes also continued forwards to segment 2. 
The colour may be grey or nearly black but the yellow lines are always 
present. L : 12 ; B : 4 mm. 

Pupa (PI. II., fig. 21a). — Normal. Segment 2 more or less trapeze- 
shaped, rounded in front, thorax slightly humped, rather short, anal end 
rounded. Surface sparsely covered with minute, erect hairs, head with a 
few longer, porrect ones. Spiracles black, oval. Colour green ; dorsal, 
longitudinal line on segments 1, 2 and some faint lines on sid« s of head, 
black ; a dorsal, longitudinal, dark green line on thorax to anal end ; 
some black dots on the abdominal, dorsal line, a black spot near shoulder 
and another just below it on wing. Or colour light rose with a patch on 
segment 2 and thorax, a dark irregular, broad, dorsal, longitudinal line 
the hole length of pupa, widening out into a smudge on segment 10 
which is continued well down the sides ; a black spot on each shoulder 
and the junction of the wing with the body on segment o. L : 8 mm.; 
B : 4 mm. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid singly on the flowers and stalk of 
flowers, generally in the axils. The yoiing larva feeds upon the 



112 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL Rlf^T. SOOLETY, Vol. XXVI. 

young pai'ts ; sometimes on leaves too when the eggs happens to be 
laid on a young leaf — it is always a young one, nevei" old. There is 
nothing at all unusual in the behaviour of the larva and it is but 
sparingly attended by ants. The foodplant is Ouc/enia dalbergioides ; 
but also other species of Leciuminosece. Ougenia is a large tree locally 
in Kanara but, elsewhere, it is a medium sized one, called Tivas 
in Mahratti. It flowers profusely when leafless in the month ot 
March or April and is then a delicate rose-white mass of small, 
crowded, sweetly smelling bloesom. The butterfly is a strong flier, 
often rising high into the air and, possibl}^, going long distances at 
a time. It is fond of sunlight and greed}^ of the nectar of flowers 
for it seems to do little else but visit them in quest of food ; it may 
also, often, be seen sitting on damp places on the ground sucking 
up the moisture. It is found all over India, Burma and Ceylon, 
in the Andamans, Nicobars and all through the Malayan Subregion 
extending to Australia and the South Sea Islands. Ic varies a 
good deal in size, chiefly because of the variety of plants the larva 
feeds on because, in many cases, it has been noticed, there is not 
enough food in the way of young parts to satisfy its hunger and 
it has to starve more or less in the last stage of growth. Especially 
must this be the case where the plant chosen happens to be a small 
vetch, the young parts of which are sometimes very scanty at 
certain times of the year. On the whole, however, there is little 
variation in the general patterns of the underside of the wing 
although there may be some in the tone : the subcostal spot in 
interspace 10 on the underside of the fore wing is never present 
and this serves to distinguish the species from G. straba with 
which it could otherwise easily be confused. The insect has been 
bred upon Phaseohts trilohus hj Mr. de Niceville in Calcutta and 
on Cylista scariosa in Kanara in Bombay. 

The figures of the male and female 50 and 50a. on Plate G are 
not good as regard the colouring. The upperside of the male should 
be pale purple or violet. The blue on the uppersides of the 
female wings at the bases should be light and not dark ; the under- 
side should be light, a silvery-grey or, sometimes, with a slight 
pinkish or brownish shade. 

154. Catochrysops pandava, Horsfield. — Wet-season brood. — Male. Upper- 
side: laveuder-blue. Fore wing: costa narrowly, terminal margin more 
broadly fuscous brown, the latter with in addition an anteciliary, black line : 
cilia light brown transversely traversed close to, but not at, their bases by a 
dark brown line. Hind wing : costa narrowly fuscous brown : a subterminal 
series of black spots outwardly edged or not by a white line : the spot in 
interspace 2 the largest and inwardly crowned or not more or less broadly 
with ochraceous yellow ; an anteciliary, black line and the cilia as on the 
fore wing. Underside: greyish-brown. Fore and hind wings: the follow- 
ing transverse darker brown markings on each wing, the markings edged on 
the inner and outer sides with white lines — a short bar across the discocel- 
lulars, a discal catenulated band of six spots, the posterior two elongated 



.-^JTK CQMMOJy BUTTEBFUES OF THE PLAINS Ot INDIA. US 

spots of which on the fore wing are en echelon, while the band on the hiod 
wing is bisinuate and is capped anteriorly near the costa by a seventh 
round, black spot eccircled with white ; the above are followed by macu- 
lated inner and outer subterminal bands, which on the hind wing are curved 
and more or less interrupted on the tornal area by a comparatively 
large round black spot in interspace 2 and a smaller similar spot in inter- 
space 1, both spots inwardly crowned with ochraceous ; the Avhite edgings 
on the inner side to both subterminal bands on the hind wing are more or 
less lunular ; an anteciiiary, blackish line bordered intermittently with 
white ; cilia light brown. In addition on the same wing there is a sub-basal 
curved row of four white-encircled spots, of which the anterior two and 
the spot on the dorsum are black, the other dark brown. Antennas black, 
shafts ringed with white ; club tipped orange ; head f rons white and black, 
thorax and abdomen brown, the head and thorax clothed with bluish hairs ; 
beneath: palpi, thorax and abdomen whitish. Female. XJ 'pferdde : brown. 
Fore wing : shot with blue from base outwards for a little over half its length 
down its middle, this blue irroration not nearly extended to the costal 
margin ; a slender anteciiiary black line. Hind wing : blue like the fore wing 
but dark with a touch of blue iridescence near base ; terminal markings much 
as in the male but the subterminal spots larger and often those in in- 
terspaces 1 and 2 more prominently crowned with orange and not extended 
beyond interspace 6 ; in addition postdiscally there is a lightening of the 
shade of the ground-colour, between which paler area and the subterminal 
spots the ground-colour assumes the form of a postdiscal, short, transverse 
lunular band. Underside as in the male, the marking slightly larger and more 
clearly defined. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the male but 
slightly paler. 

Dry-season brood. — Male and female. Very similar to the same sexes of 
the wet-season brood, but can be recognized by the following differences : 
^ — Upperside : Male. Ground-colour slightly duller; subterminal spots on 
the hind wing less clearly defined. Female. The blue shot area extended 
outwards on the fore wing for three-fourths of its length from base, but, as 
in wet-season specimens not reaching the costal margin ; on the hind 
wing the blue suffusion covers the entire medial portion of the wing from 
the base to the subterminal row of spots, of which latter the spot in inter- 
ispace 2 is entirely without the inner ochraceous edging. Male and female. 
Underside: ground-colour darker than in specimens of the wet-season 
brood, the discocellular and discal transverse bands on both fore and hind 
wings broader, the terminal markings very ill-defined, the inner white 
edging to the inner of the two subterminal transverse bands broadened 
and very diffuse. On the hind wing the discocellular and discal bands 
coalesce and form an ill-defined, diffuse, medial cloud on the wing. Ex- 
panse : male and female, 24-32 mm. 

Larva. — Normal ; segment 2 on the whole more or less semi-circular 
in outline but with a small indentation on front margin in the dorsal line, 
giving the impression of a truncation ; the usual dorsal depression : 
segment 2 somewhat broader and higher than the preceding ; the breadth 
of body after that the same up to segment 12 after which it decreases 
again to the rounded anal extremity ; segments 13, 14 with the dorsal 
line sloping down at an angle of 30° to the longitudinal axis of body. 
The head small, round, shining, with a small, triangular clypeus ; black 
in colour with the antennas white, hidden under segment 2 : the colour 
may be yellow. Surface of the larva is dull and rough looking ; thert- 
is a central, dorsal depression to each segment which is mote or less in 
the nature of a wide pit ; the segment-mareins are well marked ; the 
whole dorsa of segments. 13, 14 are distantly pitted with pin-point pittings ; 

16 



1 14 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL mST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

the whole visible part of the body (dorsal half somites) are cover'ed 
thickly with minute, erect, black, pointed hairs which are only visible 
under the lens ; there is a fringe of comparativelv long, fine, white hairs 
along the dorsoventral margin on segments 2, 13, 14 and some similar 
ones along the sides of ventrum just below this line on the rest of the 
body : all • erect ; the gland on segment 11 is transverse, mouth-shaped, 
rather large, surrounded with black tubercles ; the organs on segment 12 
are rather small protruding at intervals a white, cylindrical column with a 
globular end covered with minute, short hairs. Spiracles circular, small 
white with thin raised edges. Colour of larva is either green or rose. 
One was green with a dorsal, lateral and subspiracular, broad line and in- 
distinct, diagonal, similar markings between the dorsal and lateral lines ; 
there is always a subspiracular, yellow line along the dorsoventral margin 
as well a dark, pulsating, dorsal line — even when there are no reddish 
markings ; ventrum and legs always green. L : 12 mm. ; B : 4*5 mm. 

Papa. — Normal. The head is bowed, the whole frons being nearly ventral ; 
segment 2 with the dorsal line rising at 45° to longitudinal axis of body ; 
a broad strip with waved hinder margin; the thorax with the anterior two- 
thirds of its dorsal line in the same plane as that of segment 2, then 
curving to become parallel to that axis at the hinder margin ; a slight dorsal 
constriction behind thorax ; the hinder margin of thorax comes to a rounded 
point in dorsal line running into segment 4, and the ends meet the wings in 
a rounded, deep angle of 45° ; the thorax convex in the dorsal line, the 
abdomen also ; the ventral line is straight ; the greatest breadth is at segment 
7 ; the anal segment is rounded at extremity and turned under. Spira- 
cles of segment 2 are small, flat, longly oval, light in colour; the others are 
round and rather convex, small, light yellow in colour. Surface of the 
pupa is quite smooth, except for some distant, extremely minute, erect 
hairs, somewhat shining, the gland scar rather large, the segments plainly 
marked. Colour is generally an olive-green with fuscous, irregular dorsal 
and lateral lines ; the veins on the lighter-coloured wings dark-brown. 
L : 8 mm. ; B : 4 mm. at segment 7 and 3 mm. at shoulders — from which it will 
be evident that the pupa thins somewhat rapidly forwards from the middle ; 
it is about the same height at the apex of the thorax that it is at the middle. 

Hahits. — The eggs are laid, always singly, on the young shoots 
and on the young leaves which are often red. The youiig larva 
eats its way out of the egg through the side and immediatelj^ pro- 
ceeds to eat : ab first the leaf-cuticle on the underside — where the 
egg is generally laid — and later on in more drastic fashion, as it 
grows bigger, from the edge in irregular little triangles and 
curves, the whole substance being consumed. Ants are always 
found with these caterpillars and, as far as noticed, ave generally of 
the genus Gremastogaster ; though others also attend. Mr. deNice- 
ville noted Monomorium speculare and Prenolepes lovgicornis, the 
former "a nastj vicious little insect, the latter a long legged, very 
active^ quick-moving species which is very greedy of sugar and ia 
common in bungalows. They are all species of small dimensions, 
especially Monomorium. Colonel Bingham says that the butterfly 
exists throughout Peninsular India south of the outer ranges of the 
Himalayas, but not in desert tracts and that it is some^vhat local. 
It probably will be found bo affect the better wooded parts of India 
only and especially the regions of fairly heavy rainfall, avoiding the 



THE CQMMQN. B UTTMRFLIES QF \TRE PLAINS OF INDIA. ; 1 1 5 

localities destitute of vegetation of Malayan character and very 
scanty water stipply. All along the Western Ghats in Bombay it is 
plentiful and is to be fbund all the year round in undiminiished 
numbers, wherdas the other two species, G. sir abb and G. C7iejus, ate 
a great deal more in evidence during the fair weather months tl^an 
in ; the monsoon season. G. 'pandava is not quite such a strong 
flier as these two and is slightly the smaller in size ; it is 
not particularly fond of undiluted sunshine and open spaces and is 
not met with at flowers as commonlj'^ as they are. Otherwise the 
habits are very much the same in all stages. The species is 
found also in Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma and the Malayan Subregion 
adjoining. The foodplants vary but are generally belonging to 
the Leguminosea\ Xylia dolahriformis, or Jamba as it is called 
locally in the Southern Mahratta Country, is the commonest in 
Bombay ; and curiously enough, it has been bred upon Cycas, a 
garden plant of quite a different family by Mr. de Miceville in 
Calculta and by the writer in Karwai% on the sea coast of Kanara, 
in Bombay. , 

14. Genus — Tarucus. 

This generic group has a wide distribution in the Old World, to which it 
is confined. There are three species occurring in British India, one being 
found from North Africa to Upper Burma ; another from Africa to China 
and the Malayan Subregion ; tlie third being confntd to India, from 
Sikhiin to the Nilgiris and Southern India generally. Tarucus venosus, 
Moore, is mentioned by Colonel Bingham as a fourth species confined to 
Northern India. He says : "I agree with the late Mr. de Niceville that 
breeding experiments will probably prove that this form belongs merely 
to the dark, wet season brood of ordinary theophrqstus." 

155. Tarucus theophrastus, Fabricus.— Male. (PI. G, fig. 51). Upperside: 
pale or deeper purple to violet with, in certain lights, a blue suffusion ; the 
markings of the underside slightly apparent through transpHrency, the 
wing-surface .bare of hairs on the discs ; a fringe of lougish, white 
ha'rs along inner margin. Fore wing: costal margin above vein 12 
blackish; iliscocellulars with a transverse elongate, often broad blackish 
spot ; a slender, anteciliary, black line. Hind wing : immaculate except 
for, an ant3ciliary black lim^ as on the fore wing. Vilia of both fore 
and hirtfl wings dull sullied to pure white with a bro«-r,ish -black band 
al'ng their bases. , JJnderdde -. white or yellowish with the following 
black markinojs : — Fore wing: an anteciliary line continued aloiig the 
costa but not Up to tha base: a streak b3low vein 12 from base passing 
obliquely to the costa ; a less obliquely-placed irregular streak across 
the cell with a spot below it in interspace 1 (or that streak continued into 
1 and even la) ; a curved interrupted band beyond, that consists of a spot 
in interspace 9 joined to a transverse bar across the discocellulars, and 
detached from it (or not) a spot in interspace 2 thut coa'esces with an- 
other in interspace 1 : following this are four upper discal spots two and 
two placed obliquely, the lower two often coalescent ; a transverse,, post- 
discal, more or less macular, curved band ; and a subtermiMal, transverse 
series of six round equal-si/t-d spots. Hind wing : an obliquely placed, 
basal streak and a spot below it on the inner margin ; a row of three 
spots across the cell and one at the inner margin at the end, the upper 



lltJ JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, VoL XXVI. 



o 



two spots much elongated ; a short bar on the discocellulara and an elonr 
ate, transverse, subcostal spot beyond and above it (sometimes divided 
into two) ; four discal spots, the upper two placed obliquely two and two 
(sometimes joined), the lower two transverse, closer in, coalescent : post- 
discal band, subterminal transverse series of spots and anteciliary line as 
on the fore wing ; the postdiscal band lunular, all or some of the spots of 
the subterminal series with shining bluish metallic scales. Cilia as on 
the upperside ; tail thread-like, black, tipped with white. Eyes smooth. 
Antennae, head (frons white and black), thorax black, abdomen black with 
white bands ; the palpi black ; the shafts of the antennee ringed with 
white, the club orange inside ; the thorax with bluish pubescence ; 
beneath : the palpi (with the third joint black), thorax and abdomen 
white. Female — (PI. G., fig. 51a) — Upperside : dark brown ; bases of the 
wings suffused with bluish scales, inner margin sparsely fringed white. 
Fore wing : the transverse, discocellular spot as in the male, but continued 
posteriorly by a black spot in interspace 2 coalescent with a similar spot in 
interspace 1 (in some specimens the latter two spots are only seen by 
transparency from the underside) : a medial area beyond apex of cell 
white, crossed by an upper discal, macular, short, black band that extends 
from vein 3 to vein 6 ; the ground-colour over the rest uniform ; on the 
costal margin there are some pale lines between veins 10, 11 and 12, and 
on the broad terminal margin of ground-colour an obscure, transverse, 
macular, white line. Hind wing : basal, cellular and discal markings of 
the underside more or less apparent through transparency ; a postdiscal 
and a subterminal, transverse series of white, somewhat quadrate spots, 
the two series converge and meet anteriorly in interspace 6, the outer of 
the two is margined by the series of black subterminal spots of the under 
side which show through more or less plainly. Cilia of both fore and 
hind wings and tail at apex of vein 2 of the hind wing aa in the male. 
Underside : similar to that of the male, the ground-colour slightly more 
yellowish, the markings more clearly defined. Antennoe, head, thorax 
and abdomen as in the male. Expanse : Male and female, 22-31 mm. 

L^gg. — In shape like a turban, circular, the breadth greater than the 
height, the top flat and even a little concave. The surface is finely sha- 
greened. covered with little coarse lumps very irregularly, these lumps 
longer somewhat than broad at the top, the top rounded ; each one con- 
nected with each surrounding one by a fine, raised ridge ; most of the 
cells (so to speak) left between the ridges are triangular, some, however, 
irregularly four or even five-sided ; there are about two rows of these 
prominences from base to the periphery, of the — top and about 25 
of them round that periphery — it is difficult to estimate ; on the top 
the lumps become rapidly lower and finally disappear towards the centre, 
the lines also joining them becoming finer ; in the absolute centre there 
is a moderately large more or less circular space showing merely the 
ground- surface of the egg : shining, shagreened. The cclour of the egg 
is a light sea-green ; all the prominences and ridges are enamel-white ; 
all the ridges run up the sides of the prominences to the white, rounded 
top. B : O. 6 mm. ; H : O. 25 mm. 

Larva. — The larva is like that of Cyaniris puspa : in that it is of the same 
shape and is covered with little flattened, short, white, stmi- transparent 
hairs, some of which, where particularly short, are star-topped ; there are 
two hairs on the centre of dorsum of each segment, one on each side of 
dorsal line, longer than the rest, cylindrical, curving towards each other 
and nearly meeting at the points, with a few similar shorter ones in front 
of them ; as also a fringe of equally long, similar hairs round margin of 
body. All these hairs are set with minute, appressed bairlets. The 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF TRE PLAINS OF INDIA. 117 

f/iape is onisciform, rounded at both ends (the head being hidden under 
segment 2), broader in front than behind, broadest at segment 4/5, flanged 
on margin, the Bpiracles being well above the flange ; each segment is 
slightly constricted at margin ; the anal segment is perfectly convex ; 
uot flattened in any way ; and the body is highest about segment 3/4 and 
descends in the dorsal line evenly thence to both ends. Segment 2 is 
semi-circular in shape and is higher at hinder margin than at front 
margin where, like the rest of the body margin, it lies closely applied to 
leaf surface ; segment 3 is somewhat suddenly higher than segment 2 
dorsally at the common margin of the two segments. The head, rarely 
visible, is roundish, smooth, shiny light green in colour ; with a large) 
triangular clypeus ; labrum and jaws red-brown, eyes nearly black ; 
antennal basal joint light green, second joint brownish. Surface of body 
dull with the usual transverse folds : one in centre of each segment and the 
segment margins ; the mouth-hke organ on segment 11 is transverse and 
large; the circular organs on segment 12 are present. The co/owr of the larva 
is green, rendered glaucous by the presence of all the little whitish 
flattened hairs; with a dorsal yellowish-white (sometimes centred with 
deep red and touched externally reddish) band as well as another sub- 
spiracularonmarginof body and some short, diagonal, hardly visible, whitish 
bands on each segment laterally ; the dorsal band spreading out on 
segment 2 into an obsolescent patch. Larvae have sometimes a rosy tinge 
along the dorsal line and margin of body. L : 11 mm. ; B : 4 mm. 

Pupa. — The pupa is of the ordinary shape of the genera Cyaniris, Poly- 
ommatus, Catochrysops : ovoid, flattened ventrally, very gently and widely 
constricted at segment 4/5, convex dorsally and humped at tlorax. It is 
rounded at the anal end where the last segments are turned under, the 
oremastral surface being ventral, rather large, oval with a ring of minute 
liooklets all round ; the head is bowed towards ventrum and is hidden 
under the hood-shaped second segment which is somewhat trapeze-shaped 
in outline, though the corners are rounded ; the thorax is large, evenly 
convex, highest about middle, produced forward in a gentle curve and 
backwards in a stronger curve more or less triangularly ; the angle formed 
by it, wings and segment 4 being deep, open and curved. The spiracles 
of segment 2 are indicated by a slight raising of the hinder margin of 
segment 2, forming a long, narrow, pinkish-yellow surface facing back- 
wards ; the other spiracles are small, nearly round, prominent, white. 
Surface of pupa is nearly smooth except for a patch of minute, erect, light 
hairs laterally on segment and somewhat shiny. Colour is green, very 
light on wings ; with a dark dorsal line marked with black, and a black 
supraspiracular spot to each segment 3 to 12 with another similar spot 
above it on segments 4 to 12 : at times may be nearly completely suft'used 
with black. L : 7 mm. ; B : 8 mm. 

Habits. — The larva lives generally on the underside of yonng 
leaves, eating the substance of the leaf, all but the upper cuticle, 
in lines ; is generally attended by ants (Cremastogasier) and goeB 
down to the ground to pupate though it sometimes changes in a 
curled up, dry leaf on the bush or tree, the ants still guarding it in 
this state. The pupa is, as usual, fixed by the tail and a bodyband. 
Several larvss are often found on one bush or tree and their 
presence is easily seen by the characteristic method of eating and,' 
generally, by the attendant ants. The thin upper cuticle left 
after the under substance of the leaf has been eaten, withers, 
shrivels and turns brown in a short time, when it shows very dis- 



iiy J6 URNAL, bomb a Y NA TZ/BALMST. society, tol. XXVI. 

tinctly against the green of the rest of the upperside. Ants are 
very greedy of the exudation from the gland of the caterpillars 
and, veiy generally, may be found clustering on their "backs in 
numbers. The species that have been particularly noticed in atten- 
dance are Camponoius compressiis, Fabr,, a large, black species, 
inore than half an inch in length ; and Cremastogaster of unde- 
termined species. It is more than probable there are also others. 
The butfcerfly is a low-flying insect of fairly rapid movements but 
it never flies far before settling again. It sits on the uppersides 
of leaves with its wings closed over, the back and is Constantly 
fubbing the two hind wings together; it walks about a good deal, 
also, amongst the flowers and on the leaves and does not seem to 
visit flowers much for food. It is found everywhere, in the hills 
and plains, in the jungles and open desert tracts in Northern and 
Western Africa, Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, N. W. Himalayas, 
the Punjab, Western, Central and Southern India, Ceylon. 
Assam, Upper Burma. It occurs thus in Sind where the annual 
rainfall is only 2 inches in some parts, and in North Kanara in 
Bombay where it reaches 300 inches locally. ' • . 

The pictures of the male and female, figures 51 and 51a pri Plate 
(j, are both too dark in the colour of the blue on the uppersides ; 
the male should be pale purple to violet, the female should have 
the blue at the base lighter blue. Both undersides are generally 
whitish though yellow is not uncommon. 

, 156. Tarucus plinius — This form closely resembles in both sexes on the 
Tipperside 7'. theojihrastw^, but the character and disposition of the mark- 
ings on the underside are completely different, but is less blue and browner 
on the upperside, the disc bare of hairs and the fringe of the inner margin is 
blye in both sexes. 

Male. (PI. 6., fig. 45). — Upperside : dark brownish-violet with, in certain 
lights, a rich blue suffusion, and the markings of the undersides (in both 
wings) showing through by transparency. Fore wing : no discocellular black 
spot, so conspicuous in T. theophvastun ; terminal margin with a narrow 
edging of fuscous black, widest at the apex, gradually decreasing to the 
toruus, followed by an inconspicuous, anteciliary, jet-black line Hind wing : 
costal margin slightly but broadly shaded with fuscous, which is continued 
as a slender, anteciliary, black line to the tornus. Underdde ; white. Fore 
wing: with the following brownish-black markings: — an irregular edging 
. along the costa to near the apex from which extends down\vards a subbasal 
band, broadened across the cell and below it ; an irregulai* band that ex- 
tends along the discocellulars and below them to interspace 1 wheife it ends 
ia a point ; an upper, discal, curved band of more even width, but dislocated 
b^low vein 4, the lower portion of it shifted inwards fofms a large, quadrate 
spot in interspace 3, below vein 3 the band is continued downwards by two 
small, inconspicuous spots, beyond this is a very shprt, acuttly-pointed, com- 
ma-shaped mark ; a very regular, evenly curved, complete, transverse lunular 
line, a transverse series of subterminal spots and ati; anteciliary, slender 
Ii|i'e.i Close to the base of the wing extended obliquely; upwards and out- 
wards from the dorsum is a triangplar marlj, the edging of white colour left 
n'eiar the base forms above the apex of this mark an a^ciite apgle ; between 
the' band that crosses the middle of the cell and the transversa, discocellular 



AM 



TME COMMON JBUTTJEJiFZJJBSOF THE PIAINS OF INDIA. 119 



band is a more or less slender, irregular, similarly-coloured line; and 
between the discocellular and upper discal bands another much shorter 
line that extends from the costa downwards but does not reach vtin 4, 
this is slightly clavate anteriorly and posteriorly. Hind wing : mottled 
with brownish-black that leaves only basal, snbbasal, medial and discal 
transverse lines or bands of the ground-colour; the medial and discal 
bands, which are highly irregular, enclose here and there small brownish 
markings, the bands themselves coalescing above a very irregularly shaped, 
brown mark that is placed on the posterior half of the middle of the wing ; 
terminal markings as on the fore wing but the subterminal spots larger, 
the apical one especially so, the tornal two spots jet-black and each 
j^ncircled by a glittering, slender ring of metallic, green scales. Cilia of 
b)th fore and hind wing, the antennsB, head (frons black) thorax 
and abdomen much as in T. theoph vastus, except that the abdominal white 
bands do not reach the dorsum. Eyes haired. Female. — (PI. G., fig. 45a). 
Upperside ; very closely resembles that of female T. theophrasivs, but the 
extent of white on the fore wing is greater so that there is a greater area of 
white to be seen between the brown markings superposed on it, these 
markings have the appearance of an irregularly termed V on a white 
background. Hind wing much as in T. thenphrastus. Uvderside : similar 
to that of its own male, but the brown bands less broken, more regular. 
Cilia, antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the male. Expanse : 
IVJale and female, 22-31 mm. 
^ Fgff. — Turban-shaped, slightly depressed on top in the middle, has 
aTjout 24 low, rounded ridges running from the centre on top in slightly 
curved lines diagonally to the base in both directions — that is to the right 
and to the left — so as to divide the surface up into many little diamonds ; 
at the intersections of these lines are small, raised knobs, one to each 
intersection, which are many times higher than the ridges ; the bottoms 
of the little diamond-cell — the surface of the egg — is extremely finely 
reticulated ; the cells on the top of the egg are very small, confused and 
undefined. The colour of the egg is nearly white throughout and only 
slightly shining. B : O. 5 mm. ;H ; O. 3 mm. 

Larva. — The larva is of the usual limaciform shape of the genera Nacaduba, 
Cyanins,&c. ; it is broadest about segment 5, each segment is constricted at 
margin, most so on dorsum where each segment is somewhat humped in 
consequence, the highest part of hump being near the anterior margin ; the 
greatest height is also about segment 6 ; the anal segment is somewhat 
broad (in larval transverse sense), the humping very slight from segment 
11 hind margin to anal margin, the anal portion somewhat suddenly narrow- 
er than segment 12 and broadly rounded at end, the dorsal portion being 
flattish, but the margins thick (no depression on dorsum however) ; seg- 
ment 2 is semi-circular in shape, with the dorsum raised including nearly 
the whole length of hinder margin but coming to a bluntly rounded portion 
at front margin ; the centre of this raised triangular part being slightly 
depressed ; the sides of larva are of course sloping from dorsum to larval 
margin; each segment has a depression from near dorsal line down centre 
to near each spiracle: rather slighc. The liead is small, the neck when 
"pi-dtlruded very long ; the colour of head is black, very shiny, labrum whitish, 
antennae brownish : clypeus large and triangular; shape round. The sur- 
jfaceoi the larva is dull, with the segmental margins constricted as stated 
above, a depression down centre of segments 3 to 11 ; the usual round 
(>periing8 with white cylindrical tubes protrusible on segment 12 ; the 
-fhonth-like, traupverse gland-slit on segment 11 ; the whole surface besides 
ooivered with minute, sessile etar-.topped hairs, white on the white portions, 
.black pn the brown. The f5;?iV«c/es are small, white, roundish, flush, The 



130 JO UU'NAL, BOMBAY NATUHAL M^f. SOOIET Y, YoL XXVl. 

ndknii-oi \a,xv& is gteen With a. red-brown dorsal batid from end tO' •end 
interrupted at front of segment 3 by a yellowish-white margin to that 
segment which ends aind curves back broadly along the dorsal band in • the 
dorao-lateral region ; segment 4 is also yellow in the dorso-lateral region ; 
segment 6 is red-brown in that region with a thin line of yellow sub-dorsal - 
ly aloing dorsal band ; each succeeding segment is whitish in that region 
(owing to the white tubercles), there being a diagonal, indistinct, whito 
stripe also in the lateral region ; there is a marginal, yellowish line niOrO or 
less boi?dered with red-brown above somewhat broadly but often interrup- 
tedly. The belly is flat and green. L: 10 mm. ; B: 3 mm. 

' Pupa. — The pupa is of the ordinary type of that of Castalius, &C. ; has 
the thorax; very little humped, so that the dorsal constriction behind it is 
little ; there is no lateral constriction ; the pupa is broadest aboiit 
segment 8 and also highest there; segment 5^ is broadish, quite straight 
as to front margin, curved back on sides towards thorax, with its dorsal 
line in the same plane as that of front of thorax ; the head or face is 
perpendicular to longitudinal axis of pupa ; the thoracic dorsal line ascends 
gently to centre and then gently descends to hinder margin of the 
segment, that margin being curved strongly towards segmsnt 4 with an 
inclination to being pointed on dorsal line ; the angle between it and wings 
is open and fairly deep, widely rounded ; the anal end is rounded, the 
segments 13 and 14 being turned under ; the dorsal line of abdomen 
rather convex. Surface of pupa shiny and coveted, with exception of 
wings, with minute, erect, yellowish hairs, fairly densely. Spiracles of 
segment 2 long, narrow ovals, yellowish ; others, small roundish, whitish. 
Colour light brown-pink speckled and blotched all over rather strongly 
as a rule, the markings having a tendency to run into a dorsal and lateral 
band. L: n9arly 8 mm. ; B. 3'5 mm. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid singly and, as a rule, on the floWer- 
heads when in bud ; more rarely in the fully expanded heads ; 
sometimes, even, on the flower-stalks. The larva, on emerging, 
eats into a bud ; later on, when more grown, it lives on the outside 
of a bud, eating the inside, for which purpose, presumably, it has 
been supplied with its long neck ; it never seems to eat leaves. The 
pupation takes place in a crevice in the bark of the tree ; rarely 
among the buds ; the attachment is by the tail and a bodj'- band 
as usual. Some of the larvae are plain green in colour, others are as 
the one above described ; others again have the red-brown greatly 
extended, covering nearly all the green colour, but never the yellow 
of the dorsa of segments 3, 4 and G-10, nor the subspiracular, yellow, 
band which is always present though it is, in the very red-brown 
specimens, often narrow and interrupted. The pupae are nearly 
quite plain when they belong to the plain green caterpillars. The 
larva is, seemingly, but rarely attended by ants. 

Numbers of the butterflies were bred in Karachi in August 1904 
when the Albizzia lebhelc was in full bloom. Males were flying 
about in numbers in the shade of these trees everywhere as also round 
the tops— looking for females of course — in the hottest of suns. 
They fly strongly and for a long time in much the same manner as 
Oatochrysops 'pandava or some of the Nacaduha species. They some- 
times light on the ground where there is little doubt many ^lipfef are 



TRE CaMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. .121 

to be found as the flowers fall in great numbers and, with them, 
hirvEe must come down too. When at rest on a leaf in the sun, thie 
wings are often kept partly separated though, in absolute repose, 
they ai-e joined over the back in the usual way. De Niceville 
says the insect '' is extremely pugnacious, fighting with others of its 
own species whenever it meets them, and ascending high into the 
air during the contest. It settles chieHy on bushes and trees, sel- 
dom on the ground." He further quotes Aitken as having bred it 
on Seshaniaaculeala\v\\\ch also belongs to Leguminosece ; and Green 
\\x i^&yXon on Plwvhago ca-pensis oi the. Flumhaginacem . Mr. Green 
remarks that he has never seen ants attending the larvae. They do 
occasionally attend them as, indeed, the presence of the gland and 
extensible organs on segments 11 and 12 would seem to indicate. 
Like many other lycsenid caterpillars, this one may require ants, and 
that may account for two such very dissimilar foodplants as Seshania 
(or Albizzia) and Plumbago. The insect has a wide range : West 
Africa, Aden, throughout India, Ceylon and Burma and into the 
Malayan Sub-region. In Bombay Presidency it does not occur in 
regions of very heavy rainfall and has never been met with in 
Kanara, on the Ghats or at sea-level. Mr. Aitken, however, above 
mentioned, bred it in the island of Bombay. 

The figures of the male and female, Plate G. 45 and 45a, are 
rather good ; the upperside of the male is perhaps somewhat dull. 

157. Tarucus ananda, de Niceville. — This has generally, so far, been 
placed in the genus Castalius, It is an undoubted Tai-ucus. 

Imago. — Male. Upper side; dark purple with a gloss in certain lights, with 
narrow, uniform, black, marginal borders to both wings ; the spots of the 
underside gf nerally showing through the wings which are bare of hairs on 
the disc and the fore wing has hardly any fringe on the inner margin. 
Underside : dull white, markings black. Fore wing ; with a band under 
vein 12 from the base to the costa before the middle ; a bar from the 
middle of the costa to the middle of the wing ; on its inner side there is 
another broad bar extending hindwards to vein 1, and it sometimes 
touches the second bar above, sometimes does not ; a postdiscal, macular 
band, with the spots sometimes joined together, sometimes more or less 
well separated. Hind wing : with the basal and subbasal, transverse 
bands, sometimes broken ; a short discocellular band ; a postmedial 
usually of three pieces ; both wings with subterminal and anteciliary, 
uniform rows of small spots, the one in interspace 2 often larger and 
touched with metallic blue-green scales outwardly. Antennae black, 
ringed with white ; eyes smooth ; head and body black above, white 
beneath ; club of antennae black ; frons black ; the palpi black above, 
white beneath where the fringe of the second joint is white mixed with 
black. 

Female like the male. Upperside with the ground colour dull, browner, 
and with a blue gloss at the bases of the wings and along the dorsal 
margin very much paler, often white on the disc ; the markings of the 
underside showing conspicuously through the wings. Underside : as in 
the male. 

Expanse of wings: cf • ? 25mm. .J 

16 



1122 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HI^T. I$0,CI^-FJ^, Vof, XXVI. 

Larva. — The shape is, on the whole, normal though the body is depressed, 
reminding the observer somewhat of the larva of Arhopalq. Segment 
2 somewhat thickened on the margins, rounded in outline, slightly fconvex ; 
each segment is quite distinct except segments 12-14 ; the anal end is 
rounded; each segment has a transverse, depressed > line in the middle 
parallel to front and hinder margins from spiracle to, spiracle so that it has 
the appearance of being a double segment. Head greenish-yellow and 
shining, with dark brown jaws and a jet-black eye-patch. The aut^face is 
covered with comparatively long ha.irs which are either thick -topped or 
pointed ; the margin of the body under the spiracular region is set with a 
dense fringe of long, white, slender hairs above whicli are some long 
tubercular, lilac-coloured hairs, one to each of the segments 4-10 ; on 
segment 3 there are two such, one above the other; on segment two there 
are 12 in a double row round the free margin ; each segment has 4 long, 
white, curved hairs more or less in the middle of the dorsum, 2 on each 
■side of the dorsal line and these are knobbed at th& extremity ; segment o 
has, besides, a few drooping hairs, long and white ; the whole surface of 
the body is covered, in addition, with thick-topped, white and dark 
tubercles ; segment 1 1 alone is naked owing to the presence of the large, 
red gland: on segment 12 are found the usual circular openings through 
which can be protruded a cylindrical, white body; the top of which is set 
with minute tubercles. The spiracles are small, roui;id and flush with the 
surface. The colour is grass-green with a golden glimmer, even when 
looked at with a considerable magnifying power. The following pattern 
dorsally : on segment 2, an hexagonal, black depression ; sepnent 3 
yellow-green bordered laterally by black; segments 4-6 black dorsally, 
segment 4 having a short, black hue running dowiji from the black ; 
segments 7, 8 yellow bordered by black laterally and with a short, 
diagonal, black line below on each side; segments 9, lO are similar to 7, 8 
but are red-brown instead of yellow ; the rest of the body dorsally black, 
suddenly narrowing on the anal segments — this marking is what makes 
the larva so like that of Arhopala centaurus. Thei-e markings make a 
broad, dorsal, parallel-sided band which reaches down toithe lateral region 
or line. L : 11 mm. B : 3 mm. 

Pupa. — Normal in shape. Segment 2 is straight in front with a slight 
notch in the dorsal line of front margin ; anal end rounded, highest at 
thorax, broadest at segments 7 and 8. Spiracles white,, small, round ; the 
openings on segment 2 indicated by linear, white, slightly raised ovals. 
Surface more or less shining, with a few hairs laterally on front margin of 
segment 2 and a few on sestment 4. Colour shining brpw;n-black, some- 
times with a greenish tinge; slightly reddish on the sides of the 
abdomen ; wing-cases mottled with green and yellowish* L : 6 mm. B : 2%'> 
ram. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid on plants infested by ants, generally 
of the genus Cremastogoster which' attend the larvse assidnously 
throughout their liees and the pupa afterwards. These ants build 
little byres or houses made of comminuted matter- — l^he same as 
they use to build their large, globular or ovoid iiest masses in the 
trees — in which they often tend these cows of theirs, for that is 
practically what these larvae are. The latter no doirbt take refuge 
in these places when they desire to chaftge their skins. ' Originally 
these cells are made indubitably to cover stationary "mealy-bugs," 
which are so dear to most species of ants, an 5. not for the lycaeijid ; 
the butterfly certainly seeks out the places where these ante are; and 



TME COMMON B UTTEEFLIES OF THE PLAINS. OF INDIA. 123 

lays her eggs there, knowing they will be well looked after. The 
full-grown caterpillars are led down to the earth or into a crevice 
in the bai-k of the ti*ee or into a hole by their protectors at the end 
when they are ready to pupate — at least it looks as if they were for 
they are always accompanied by mapy ants which climb all ovei- 
them, ride on them and show every sign of attachment to them. 
Even in the pupal stage they are still attended and befriended. 
The larva is sluggish and not easily alarmed. It eats the leaves 
both below and above, but more generally above, in broad 
lines and patches ; never, however, eating right throvigh so 
as to make a hole. Wherever there is one, there are generally 
dozens. The plants it has been found on are Loranihus (Mistletoe) 
of various species, (Loranfhacea') ■ Zkyphus of several species 
{Wiamnaceie) ;, and a few others. The pupation is normal, the 
attachment being hy the tail and a body-band. 

The butterHy is rather a weak flier and often rests on the up- 
persides of leaves with its wings widely separated, basking in the 
sun; when in absolute repose it closes them over the back as usual. 
It does not like excessive sunlight and is found only in the regions 
of heavy rainfall of Sikkim, Orissa and Southern India. It is 
plentiful in the jungles of the Western Ghats of Kanara in Bombay 
where it occurs, but it cannot exactly be called common even there. 
The larv£e and pupag are always much easier to find than the butter- 
fly which, probably, keeps to the thick jungle and higher parts of 
the trees, although it has never been seen flying with the strong- 
winged, basking species of butterflies on the tops of hills where, in 
parts of Kanaia, the piled masses of rock enable one to get on a 
level with the tree-tops. 

The habitat of the species is Sikkim, Orissa, Southern India in 
Peint in Nasik, Kanara and the Nilgiri and Anamalai Hills, 
Assam, Khasia Hills. 

15. Genus — Castalius. 

"This genua cat) not be separated from Tarucus by the venation or by 
structure and is, in fact, linked to it by coloration through Castaliu)- 
aiianda, de Niceville, a slightly aberrant form," says Colonel Bingham. 
It is better in the genus 'I'urucus and has now been placed there. The 
antennie are not quite the length of the fore wing, the club being long, 
gradual and slightly bhint at the apex ; palpi pointing nearly straight 
forward or shghtly up, densely clothed anteriorly with scales but not 
fringed ; third joint of the antennae long, needle-like and naked ; body 
comparatively weak ; eyes haired. The eyes are smooth in Taructis theo- 
phrastus and anatiiiashnt haired in T. jilinius. Thelarvse of all of these, both 
genera; are very similar and so are the pupre. The former are all covered 
with a dense clothing of thick-topped hairs which give the surface a shining, 
frosted' a^pearanfce — except anavda where the hairs are, some of them, 
terminated by a drop-shaped thickening, instead of with a star or flat- 
tened lend.' Castalius, as a genus, is sprea,d over Africa, India and the 
Malayan Sub-region. The transformations of the three spticie& described 



124 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

here are known and are given below. There are 6 or 7 species known 
from the Indian region. The foodplant of the larvae is always Zizyphus 
of the family Rhamnacece ; various species such as cBnoplia, ruyosa, jujuba ; 
each species' of butterfly seeming to art'ect one particular species. 

158. Castalius decidea, Hewitson. — Male. Upperside : dark brownish- 
black with a broad, median, oblique, white band across fore and hind 
wings, sometimes extended on the fore wing beyond vein 5 and produced 
outwards between veins 4 and 5 into a hook-like form, the top of this band 
looking rather like the head of a walrus. Fore wing : no appressed hairs 
on the disc and very little hair-fringe to the inner margin ; cilia chequered 
black and white. Hind wing : sometimes with a series of white, marginal 
lunules included in the black colour in interspaces lb, 1 and 2 where there 
is, then, also a black anteciliary line ; cj'/j'a as in fore wing. Underside: 
white or yellowish with the following black markings: — extreme base black 
produced outwards along vein 12 in a small club-shaped mark into base 
of cell and connected in interspace la by a broad, brown bar with a broad, 
curved band running through the top of the cell to the costa before the 
middle, generally narrowest below ; a broad, short band from costa after 
the middle, obliquely outwards down to and below vein 6 ; another 
short band, generally limited by vein 1 below up to vein 8 (sometimes 
beyond), postmedial ; a more or less quadrate patch, submarginal, between 
veins Sand 4 ; a marginal series of small, white spots or dots superposed on 
a terminal, black band expanding in a slight inward curve across apex. 
Hind wing : the extreme base of wing black continued by a conjoined, or 
not, spot in interspace 1 at extreme base, produced outwards and then up 
through base of cell to vein 8 ; a subbasal, black spot on hinder margin in 
interspace la ; a broad, black band from hinder margin, medial, in inter- 
spaces la, 1 and 2, widening out distally ; a large, postmedial spot in inter- 
space 3, a smaller one beyond in interspace 4 and series of three c(mjoined 
spots in interspaces 5, 6, 7, that in 7 much the larger and produced broadly 
and shortly inwards ; a subterminal series, one in each interspace, of 
black lunules joined at the ends to an anteciliarv fine, black line ; 
cilia of both fore and hind wings are really brown in their basal 
halves, whitish-grey above, chequered broadly black at the ends of the 
veins. Antennae black, finely banded white, the club tipped orange; palpi 
black above ; head black, the frons white, fringed on each side with black 
hairs ; the eyes rimmed with white and haired on their surfaces ; thorax 
and abdomen black above, the former with white hairs, the latter thinly 
banded with white. Below : palpi, head, thorax and abdomen white. The 
end joint of the palpi is slightly longer in the female than in the male. 
Expanse : 28-35 mm. 

The above is more or less the description of a wet-season butterfly. 
They, however, vary a good deal even in the wet season in the width of 
the oblique-white band on the upperside and the size of the black patches 
on the underside. Some specimens have the veins crossing the white band 
on the upperside of the fore wing black. 

In the height of the dry season the white of the upperside is much 
broader and occupies quite one-third of the fore wing and more than half 
of the hind wing, leaving, on the latter, only a very small, black base and a 
far narrower outer border with a sinus in the inner, medial part and a 
series of three, white, subterminal spots in interspaces lb, 1 and 2. 
Underside : Fore wing : a black lunule just inside apex, leaving the apex 
itself white ; an anteciliary black line with a submarginal series of lunules, 
their ends touching the anteciliary line— none of these terminal markings 
are present m the wet-season form ; the black patch on the middle of the 
outer margin, the upper, postdiscal patch from the costa and the lower. 



TBE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 126 

postdiBcal mark from the inner margin quite distinct and separated ; the 
last and the outer marginal one are often joined in the wet-eeason 
forms. Hind wing : the basal and discal spots are quite small and alto- 
gether separated, the middle spots sometimes even altogether v> anting. 

E</(/. — Shaped like a finger-bowl, the top concave, but only gently so ; the 
surface shining, covered with extremely fine, comparatively large 
reticulations or flat-bottomed ceJls with a little lump at each junction of 
the lines ; tl'.ese cells are most probably more or less irregularly hexagonal 
as usual ; they are largest about the widest part, i.e., the rim of the bowl 
or cup and become smaller towards the centre of the top where is situated 
the minute micropyle which is circular and smooth ; there aie only about 
2-3 rows of cells from rim to base ; the colour is a delicate light 
the net-work and lumps white. B : 0.6 mm. ; H : a good deal less. 

Larta. — Is of the normal shape but very depressed, highest in the 
middle though the dorsal longitudinal outline is only very gently convex : 
there ia a distinct flange f-eparating the dorsal aspect firm the ventral, 
this ventnim being nearly flat ; the flange can be slightly turned up ; the 
segments are well marked, being constricted laterally along the flange 
except in segments 12-14 which are, as is commonly the case, more or less 
one piece ; here this end piece is broadly rounded at extremity and flat 
dorsally ; the outline of the body seen from above is a lengthened ellipse as 
segment 2 is also rounded in front like the anal segment ; this segment 2 is 
not retractable under 3 and has the dorsal trapeze-shaped space hardly de- 
pressed at all. The head is hidden under segment 2, is round in shape, light, 
shining, very pale yellowish with black eyes, red-brown tips to the man- 
dibles ; a large, triangular clypeus. SjAracles small, nearly white, nearly 
round, all the same size ; that of serment 2 hidden between margins of 2 
and 3. Surface didl, covered rather closely with shining silver-white, 
broad, more or less triangular, pointed, minute hairs more or less all over ; 
amongst them some simple, feathered, longer, golden ones ; some one or 
two subdorsal, much longer, erect hairs and a subspiracular fringe all round 
the body of still longer, erect, golden-brown ones ; these last numerous, 
feathered also and about one-third as long as breadth of body, most dense 
at both ends of the larva: the gland near hinder margin of segment 11 
transverse, mouth-shaped, rather difficult to see because of the hairs ; the 
organs on segment 12 circular, about the size of the spiracles, whitish. 
Colour is light green — whitish looking ; with a broad, light-jellow- green 
dorsal hand flanked by a dorsolateral or nearly lateral transluce nt green, 
dark and narrower band, a spiracular light yellow-green band and the 
margin or flange below broadly translucent green ; ventn.m light green ; 
prologs whitish ; true legs shining whitish with dark tips. L : 16 mm. ; 
B : 6 mm. ; H : 3 mm. 

Fupa. — Shaped like that of the Catochn/fops group but rather stout and 
flattened somewhat ventrally. The htad is hidden, ventral : segment 2 
semi-circular in front contour, very slightly and broadly indented in 
dorsal line <m the front margin, convex transversely, the dorsal line at an 
angle of about 45® to the longitudinal axis ; the vertex of head is at 
right angles to that axis and only the frons is ventral as a matter of fact ; 
the thorax is somewhat narrow transversely, the front part of dorsal line 
starting at an angle of about 50° to longitudinal axis, this nngle gra- 
dually deoreasinor to the rounded apex about the middle of thorax 
whence it descends again to seoment 4 in a short slope of about £0° in 
the opposite direction ; the hinder margin of thorax is a parabolic curve 
meeting the wings in a large, rather deep, rounded angle of somewhere 
about 45° ; segment 4 is long laterally, short in dorpal line where it is 
about equal to the 6th segment in length ; from the 6th inclusive, the dor- 



126 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, VolXXVI. 

sal line of pupa again rises to segment 7 which is about the highest point; 
the lateral outline also increases from shoulders to middle of: pupa though 
there is no lateral constriction at all ; the dorsal constriction is broad and 
gradual. The spiracles of segment '2 are considerably raised, oval and 
light pinkish-yellow ; the others flush, lighter, small, oval, iiuiface of pupa 
more or less dull, covered all over with erect, nearly white (some tinged 
brownish especially at bases), long, slightly curved hairs ; these hairs 
seeTiingly with many joints each, about as long as one-third the breadth 
of pupa at middle (or a little less) and not very dense, most numerous at 
both ends of the body ; the ventrum naked ; the anal end is nearly 
hemisperically rounded and there are no conspicuous glands — or 12th 
segment organ-scars. Colour : translucent light yell6w ; abdomen 
suffused narrowly along the segment-margins with pinkish brown ; segments 
1-4 and wings spotted with brown-reddish, dorsal line on posterior half of 
thorax black as well as the lateral corners of segment 5 ; a dorsal, longi- 
tudinal pinkish-brown line from end to end. Sometimes the pupa is 
pinkish, the wings, thorax, head and segment 2 soiled whitish-yellow. 
L : 9 5 mm, ; B : 4"5 mm. ; H : 35 mm. 

Hahits. — The eggs are laid singly in the axils of the leaf-venation 
on the "underside. The little larva eats out of the egg irregularly 
uear the top, but does not eat the shell as a rule. It lies at first in 
the axils ot the veins of the young leaf where it is born and eats 
the epidermis ; later on eats through the substance but always feeds 
on 3'^oung leaves, never upon the old ones. It is never at any 
stage much attended by ants. When very small it lies amongst 
the fluff of the young leaf-surface which is very densely i softly 
woolly-hairy. When about to pupate the larva turns pinkish brown 
and the simple hairs — also some of the flattened ones.^turn dark 
golden brown ; it settles down very flattened, in some convenient 
curve of a young or old leaf, often along a midrib acd turns into the 
pupa, fixed in the usual manner by tlie tail and a bodj^-band tightly 
against the surface. The butterflies are most niTmerous at the 
times of young leaf from the month of July to the cold weather in 
south of the Bombay Presidency. The imago appears within 
aboiat a week after the pupation has taken place and, generally, 
eclosion takes place about 10 o'clock in the morning, later on very 
dull days. The newly emerged insect walks about, slowly for a bit 
before flying and, at first, only takes very short exercises in the 
air a few yards or so, settling again to repeat its walking 
bouts. As a rule it never makes long excursions and never flies 
high but always keeps to the lower regions of the air not far from 
the surface of the ground: although its foodplant is a high-climbing 
species often extending over fairly high trees. The butterfly is fond 
of settling on bare, more or less dead or dry twigs and is then a 
fairly conspicuous object, with its wings joined over its back, 
wliite with lai*ge black blotches. It is not, on the whole, fond of 
the sunlight arid might be called a species of heavj- jungle and 
shade, like its congener, Castalius elhion. It has a wet-season and 
dry-sea3on brood ; really it has broods one after anothu' through 



THB COMMON BTfTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 127 

most of tile yeai''. The \vet-season insects have the black border 
very broad and the white markings narrow • the dry-season specimens 
are characterise^ by a large extension of the white area. Some 
specimens have the underside with a decided yellowish tinge as in 
Taruciistheophrasius. The foodplant is Zizyphus rugosa, " Churn" 
or " Torn " iti the Vernabulai", an extensive scandent shrub, climb- 
ing over large trees at times in the dimp forest regions of the Western 
Ghats in Bombay, with clustei's of small greenish-white flowers and 
three-veined, roundish leaves, very thorny and a general nuisance to 
the wayfarer in the jungles ; the young leaves are brown in colour 
as a rule,, saw-e^ge and with the veins prominent underneath. The 
fruits are white when ripe and edible, having a somewhat insipid 
taste and a mealy consistency ; they are about the size of a marrow- 
fat pea biit are ovoid instead of round. 
■ . , '■■■'.' 

The distribution of the insect is given as Sikhim, Malda, Eohil- 

kuud ; Orissa; Western and Southern India: Bombay, Poona, 
Kanara, the Nilgids, Travancore ; Ge^'lon ; Assam ; Burma. 

The male and female are figured on Plate G, figures 47 and 47a. 
Both > are good except that the undersides are, not pure enough 
although specimens with a yellow shade are not uncommon. 

159. Castalius ethion, Doubleday and Hewitson. — Male. Upperstde: iore 
and hiud wipgs : no hairs on the discs and no fringe of hair on the inner 
margin of, fore wing, medially and obliquely crossed by a very broad, pure 
white band that is broadly edged on its inner and outer margins by dark 
tjhihing b ne and does not extend on the fore wing above vein (j, just above 
vein 3 it projects outwards for a short distance whence the inner margin 
of its dark blue edging is carried obliquely to vein 6; whence it runs 
dowa parallel to outec margin to inner margin ; the extreme bases of the 
wings black ; the costal margin of the fore and the terminal margins of 
both fore and, hind vvings broadly black : on both wings a light iridescent 
blue sufiusion from base outwards. (Jnderside: snow-white. Fore and hind 
wings: the following jet-black markings: — Fore wing: two broad more 
or leps parallel streaks from base e.s tended obliquely to the costa, 
the outer of the two tl^e broader and apically curved inwards and, on 
the costa, coalesqent with the inner streak ; costal margin very narrowly 
.edged with black ; postdiscal, outwardly oblique, short bar, el'ghtly 
claiyate pQSte|riorly. extends from the costa and vein 5; opposing this 
there is between the dorsum and vein 8 a similar but erect quadrate 
patch ; beyond these there is an inner and outer transverse, complete, 
subterrtiinal se'ries of spots followed' by an anteciliary slender black line; 
the spdtS of the, inner, subtierminal series quadrate large, of the outer 
linear, the" posterior two of the former very large ; lastly, asingla detached 
postdiscal spot in interspace 3 very close to the inner subterminal line of 
spots. "Hiud wing: a curved short basal band not extended to the costa, 
a spot touching it in the middle on the outer side (or a parallel bar) and 
ji discal, tran'sverse band twice widely interrupted (or continuous), the 
middle, portion shifted, outwards, the h^wer portion with a spot on its 
outer margin joined to it ; subterminal and terminal murkings as on the 
fore' wing. AntenftjB (ringed with white, club tipped orange), head 
(frons WhitiB, friliged black), palpi, thorax and abdomen black; beneath: 
the palpi^ thorax ^nd "abdomen with a mledian, longitudinal, white line. 



^28 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUliAL HIST. SOOJMTy, Voi. XXVI. 

Female, Upperside: similar to that of the male, but the median white trans- 
verse band across both wings broader, extended on the foro wing up to 
vein 7 (or not) and with no inner edging of blue or iridescent light blue 
irroration ; the black at the bases of the wings and on the margins not so 
intense in shade, more of a brownish-black. Underside t groun'J-colour 
and markings very similar, the basal two oblique bands on the fore wing 
generally farther from one another than in the male. A thread-like tail 
at end of vein 2 of hind wing, black tipped with white. Expanse : Male and 
female, 28-i}l mm. 

£!(/ff. — Turban-shaped. The surface is only slightly shining ; divided up 
into irregular, hexagonal cells by coarse walls which are lowest on top of the 
egg and nearly triangular, also smallest round the central micropyle ; the 
intersections of the walls each with a rounded, raised knob ; the bottoms of 
the cells flat and minutely pitted ; sides of the hexagonal cella often of 
different lengths, sometimes nearly O so that two knobs nearly coalecesce, 
or even 3 at times ; the rows of cells are diagonal and slightly curved, 
about 4 of them from the triangular cells of the top of the egg to the base 
— 7 or 8 small ones surround the micropyle. Colour : green nearly obscured 
by the whita knobs and ridges. B. O. 70m-m. 

Larva. — The shape is more or less normal though considerably depressed, the 
dorsal region quite even except that the segment-margins are quite distinct 
and except for the depression on dorsum of segment 2 ; this depression is 
somewhat indistinct and quite smooth at the boitom ; segment 2 is semicir- 
cular in shape ; the anal end is broadly rounded and not in the least flat- 
tened, its extreme margin perhaps slightly tumid. The head is hidden in 
repose under segment 2, green in colour, shining, rather small, the eye 
region jet-black, mandibles light red-brown tipped ; antetinsB, labrum 
whitish, ligula with a red-brown tinge. Spiracles hardly visible, being sunk 
in slight depressions, small, round and whitish in colour. /Surface of body 
is shagreened silvery-white all over because of a dense covering of 
short, thick, silvery-translucent hairs, generally appressed, sometimea 
erect, sometimes thickened in the middle, sometimes double, always 
extremely short ; these thickened hairs disposed all over the dorsal half- 
somites, most densely on segments 2 and 3 ; rather shorter and sparser 
on the green, dorsal line ; down each side of the green, dorsal line is a 
row of 4-6 long and slightly up-curved bristles or hairs mixed with 
an equal number of shorter ones on each segment ; all these bristles 
being light red-brown in colour ; also a submarginal (dorsoventral) row 
of light red-brown slightly longer, down-curved hairs, about 12 to each 
segment. Colour : light grass-green with a broad, dorsal, dark-green line 
from front margin of segment 3 to hinder margin of segment 12, flanked on 
each side by a still broader, light yellow band, below which the body m 
light grass-green. There is no sign of gland on segment 11 or organs on 
segment 12. L: 13 mm. B: 3 mm. 

Pupa. — Is normal in shape, like those of the other members of the genus 
Castalius. The head is high, that is the frons is vertical with part of the 
vertex of which a very small portion is visible above before the front 
margin of segment 2, this margin being more or less straight; the thorax 
is rounded and humped, nearly hemispherical as regards the dorsal 
portion of the somite ; the abdomen is also convex about segments 8, 9 where 
the body is fattest both in height and diameter ; there is a wide, though 
rather accentuated constriction at segments 4, 6 ; the anal end is somewhat 
^arrowed and rounded. Spiralcs of segment 2 are longly oval and white 
in colour ; the rest are small, inclined to be semicircular and are also 
white. The surface is clothed all over with short, erect, white hairs, 
longest at anal extremity and on segment 2. The colour is green touched 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 129 

with brown all along the borders of the wing ; there is a dorsal brown line 
and a spiracular one ; the segment-margins also brown. L : 10 mm. ; 
B : 3 mm. 

Hahits. — There is nothing much to say about the habits iu all 
stages for they are similar to those of other members of the genus. 
The eggs are laid singly on the leaves and nearly always on the 
undersides ; the young larva eats in a similar manner to that of 
G. rosimon, so does the full-grown one ; the pupation takes place 
on the underside of a leaf and the attachment is by the tail and a 
body -band ; sometimes, rarely, it is formed on the upper surface. 
The larva is not ever, as far as observed, attended by ants. The 
butterfly is always to be found close to the ground, flying about 
the places where the foodplant is growing on the borders of partial 
clearings in the big jungles. It is never found in absolutely open 
ground, neither does it like dense shade. It behaves much like 
G. decidea and is easy to catch if it were not for the thorny 
character of the foodplant which interferes with the manipulation 
of a net. The foodplant is exclusively Z. oenoiilia " a straggling- 
shrub or large climber with single, hooked or rarel}^ germinate 
spines, obliquely ovate or oblong-ovate leaves 1-2*5 in length, 
with copious, brown, silky hairs beneath ; few-flowered, axillary 
cymes of light greenish-yellow flowers and small, black, edible 
fruits." {Haines in The Forest Flora of Chota Nagpur.) The 
young plants are erect like a young tree and the leaves are quite 
glabrous and thin in texture and it is chiefly on these young plants 
that the eggs and larvae are easily to be found. Ziziji^hus oenoplia 
is a very large climber at times, is nearly evergreen and very 
common in regions of heavy and moderate rainfall. The eggs, 
larvse and pupje are much parasitized. The butterfly is con- 
fined to damp jungles where the rainfall is heavy, and will 
be found all along the ghats in Bombay. The male is a beautiful 
little insect easily recognised by the irridescent blue interior 
bordering to the black ends of the wings on the upperside. 
Its distribution is : the Western Ghats of Bombay as far south 
as Travancore ; Ceylon ; Andamans ; Assam ; Burma to JNIalay and 
Java. 

160. Castalius rosimon, Fabr. — Male. (PI. G., fig. 46) — Upperside: (bare of 
hairs on the disc) white. Fore wing : with hardly any fringe of hair on inner 
margin : costa, apex and termen edged with black, the edging much broader 
on apex and termen ; base outwards for a short distance more or less densely 
overlaid with metallic blue scales which cover and make indistinct a large 
basal, outwardly-clavate, black spot ; a transverse, black, oval spot on the 
discocellulars touching the black edging on the costa ; an oblique, irregular 
line of four quadrate black spots beyond, the upper spot coalescent with 
the black on the costal border, the next spot below shifted outwards out 
of line, touching, as does also the lowest spot, the terminal black edging ; 
posterior to this is a quadrate black spot in the apical half of interspace 2, 
and placed obliquely outwards from it coalescent with the terminal black 
border, another similar spot in interspace 1 . Hind wing : three basal, 

17 



130 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVI. 

black, somewhat coalescent spots overlaid with metallic blue scaling ; the 
costal margin above the subcostal vein and vein 7 black ; this colour 
filling also the base of interspace 6, where in some specimens it is divided 
into a basal portion with a spot beyond ; a postdiscal, curved, transverse, 
black band followed by a subterminal, transverse series of black spots, 
each spot edged inwardly and outwardly by very slender huiules of the 
white ground-colour ; on the inner side of the postdiscal band posteriorly 
is a broken line of four black, generally coalescent spots two and two, the 
two upper often touching the postdiscal band. Underside : white. Fore 
wing : a long obliqvie, black band under vein 12 from base outwards to 
the costa ; below and parallel to it an irregular, broad, black, somewhat 
conical mark ; following these are two outwardly oblique, medially-inter- 
rupted, black, macular bands ; the inner of the two extended from costa 
along the discocellulars, is then widely interrupted below its posterior 
portion that is formed of two elongate, coalescent spots and touches (or 
not) the inner, subterminal transverse line of elongate spots just above the 
tornus ; the outer, obliquely-placed line is subapical and medially broken, 
the middle portion consisting of a quadrate spot is shifted outwards ; 
finally, two parallel, subterminal, transverse series of black, elongate spots ; 
the inner spots broad, more or less rectangular, the outer series linear, the 
latter coalescent anteriorly with a slender anteciliary black line. Hind wing : 
a transverse, basal, black band, with an elongate black spot below it on 
the dorsum ; a transverse, subbasal line of four well separated black 
spots ; a transverse, oval, discocellular, black spot and, obliquely above it, 
three subcostal similar spots, the inner two coalescent ; postdiscal and 
terminal markings consist, the former of four black posterior spots two and 
two, each pair coalescent and placed en Echelon, the latter of a transverse 
double series of subterminal, black spots and an anteciliary, black line ; 
the upper portion of the postdiscal markings touches the inner subterminal 
line. Cilia of both fore and hind wings white alternated with black at the 
apices of the veins ; filamentous short tail to the hind wing black tipped 
with white. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, the shafts of 
the antennte ringed with white and club tijjped with orange, the head 
between the eyes (frons) and behind them white ; beneath : the palpi, 
thorax and abdomen white, the last barred broadly with white on the 
sides. Female : similar to the male but with the black markings on the 
upper and under sides broader. Expanse : Male and female, 28-34 
mm. 

Ufff/. — Hemispherical, white in colour, the surface finely reticulated with 
raised, thin lines forming cells, the intersections rising into high, round- 
topped cones with a minute depression on the top of each: 9 of these cones 
from top to bottom and 18 round the greatest circumference. B : O. 
75 mm. 

Larva. — Is of the usual shape, somewhat flattened, broadest about 
segment 4 with the dorsal line hardly convex from segment 4 to anal end : 
segment 2 more or less semicircular in outline and slightly constricted at 
hinder margin, the dorsal depression hexagonal and long with its greatest 
length on dorsal line, its bottom slightly convex, greyish-blue and sparsely 
covered with minute, dark, star-topped hairs ; second segment not at all 
hidden by segment 3, nor suddenly lower than it , the dorsal outline from 
front to hinder end is quite continuous and even except for the slight 
constrictions between the segments 2-12 ; segment 3 slightly broader than 
2 and segment 4 than 3 ; breadth of body gradually diminishing thence ti 
anal end which is broadly rounded ; segment 13 short, hardly distinguish- 
able from 12 or 14, the last with the 13th having the shape in outline of a 
quarter of a circle ; organs of segment 12 large, circular, the protrusi- 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLJES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 131 

ble cylinder or tube being white, with a thickened, subspherical extremity 
set with fine rather long hairs; the gland on segment 11 mouth-shaped, 
large, transverse, at hinder margin and, being the colour of the body, is not 
always very conspicuous ; segments 13, 14 sloping at 30" to the longitudinal 
axis, dorsally flattened. Head small and nearly white, round ; surface 
shining, the jaws brown with a black spot inside the eye-curve ; the clypeus 
is large and triangular. Spiracles small, round, white, flush ; those of 
segments 2, 12 larger, oval. Surface of body extremely minutely hairy and 
shagreened and has a frosted appearance besides because of the covering of 
larger though still minute, sparsely disposed, silvery-white, short, star- 
topped hairs which, on the anal segments, are mixed with some brown 
minute, simple ones ; there is a dorsoventral, single row of conspicuous, longer, 
light-coloured, slightly curved hairs all round the body, about 5 to each 
segment on each side, which rise from slightly more elongated star-topped 
hairs or tubercles — these hairs may be brown on segments 2 and 3 and all 
of them are about one-third or one-fourth as long as the body is broad ; 
on segments 2-9 there are 2-4 erect, curved, dark similar, though, perhaps, 
stouter hairs to each segment one behind the other, all subdorsal ; on the 
anal segments there are some few somewhat flattened, pointed, translucent 
hairs ; and on all segments there may be groups of star-topped, brown 
tubercles more minute than the sparsely disposed, larger ones. Colour 
grass-green with a lighter, yellowish, subdorsal line or thin band (the dorsal 
space betwen often filled in with yellow and suftused with deep rose-brown 
in places) on which are the subdorsal hairs — which hairs, by the way, rise 
from conical tubercles ; the broad dorsal band formed by the filling in 
with yellow is sometimes also bordered neatly Avith rose-brown in which 
case it contrasts strongly with the pure green of the whole of the rest 
of the larva. The tubercles of the subdorsal hairs are light yellowish in 
colour; ventrum darker green on sides. L: 11 mm.; B; 4 mm.; H: 2 
mm. 

Pupa. — Free marginal outline of segment 2 semi-circular, somewhat 
flattened in the middle ; head completely hidden from above, high ; the 
general shape of whole pupa normal, dorsal constriction behind thorax 
normal, the lateral constriction very slight : anal end rounded, segment 14 
turned under ; apex of thorax and segment 7 about the same height ; 
the hinder margin of the former a semi-circular curve meeting the wing- 
line in a deep, broadly rounded angle of about 4o . Spiracles of segment 2 
white, linear, slightly raised, the rest of the spiracles small, round, flush, 
white. Surface slightly shining, nearly smooth except for some slight, 
transverse, acicular lines and a covering, not in any way dense, of very 
minute, erect, pointed, simple hairs and star-topped ones mixed. Colour 
green, the wings lighter ; yellowish on abdomen with a darkish green, 
dorsal line and an indistinct, yellow, spiracular line ; a row of black, 
laterodorsal spots, one to each segment ; a large dorsal one on hinder 
margin of segment 2 ; a dorsal, central one on segment 4 : black, as well as 
the tips of shoulders and sprinkling of others more or less promiscuously. 
L : 7" 5 mm. ; B : 3" 5 mm . ; H : 3 mm. 

Habits : — The egg is laid, always one at a time, among the red 
hairs in the axils of leaf-stalks, thorns or on a stalk, also on the 
leaves ; the young egg-larva is very depressed in shape and white 
and feeds only upon the underside and substance beneath the upper 
cuticle of the young leaves ; when full-grown, but not before, 
they eat the whole thickness through from the edge. It rests in 
the ends of the eaten passages or ways or in the axils of the veins 



132 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

on the undersides of the leaves and is attended in a desultory way 
by ants of the genus Prenolepis. It is sluggish, moving but slowly 
and does not easily fall, except when full-grown, when disturbed ; 
then, of course, it is much more conspicuous and cannot hide in 
axils and similar places. The pupa is formed often on the under- 
side of a leaf and is firmly attached by the tail and a body-band. 
These larvae are very much parasitized b}^ small chalcid wasps which 
pass over into the pupa whence they emerge in due course. The eggs 
are also similarly treated by micro-ichneumons. Some larva3 also are 
attacked by fungus and rot in the end. The butterflj' has similar 
habits to Gastalius ethion, though it is far commoner than that 
species and inhabits drier localities. It is a good flier though not 
very strong ; quick enough on the wings though it does not as a 
rule go in for extensive flights ; it rests on the upper surfaces of 
leaves and basks in the sun with its wings half open : it is fond of 
the sun and prefers light to shade. When at rest for the night it 
keeps the wings closed over the back like most of its relations and 
may be caught on grass-culms, &c., on cold mornings with the 
fingers in that position in open places. The insect has a wide 
range, being found throughoiit India except in desert tracts ; 
Ceylon ; the Andamans and Nicobars ; Assam ; Burma ; and into 
the Malayan subregion as far east as the island of Timor. 

Figures 46 and 46a of Plate G are fairly good representa- 
tions but have the undersides too yellow ; they should be pure 
white. The blue on the upperside of the male is, perhaps, too 
dark. 

Note : — On examining- the covering- of the body of the larva under the mi- 
croscope, the star-topped hairs are seen to be tubercular, thick-stemmed, cylindri- 
cal, branched into triangular teeth at the top (the star), the stem sometimes short, 
sometimes non-existent ; from the centre of the star is extruded a transparent 
body shaped like a triangular paper bag -with one side open, sometimes like a 
spear-head ; these bodies can seemingly be -withdrawn inside the tubercle at will ; 
the stars are very numerous on the bioad, dorsal colour-band, nearly non-existent 
laterally on the body where they are reduced to low tubercles with small extruded 
bodies like the others ; the stars very thickly crowded occasionally on the dorsal 
band, the tubercles scattered on the sides ; the star-tubercles on the dorso-ventral 
margin longer-stemmed ; the long, simple hairs of the dorso-ventral fringe 
jointed-looking, occasionally minutely and siaarsely feathered, all from cylindrical 
tubercles which are often minutely and sparsely spined. 

16, Genus — Lampides. 

There is only one insect belonging to this genus, namely Lampides boeticus, 
the most widely spread of all the Lyccenidce except Everes argiades. It exists 
throughout the whole of the old world : Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia 
and the Hawaiian Islands. The eyes are hairy. Body slender, short. 
Palpi directed straight out in front in the female, directed upwards in the 
male, second joint overreaching the head by half its length, clothed with 
long, appressed scales ; third joint long, slender and naked; legs slender ; 
antennsB with a lengthened, grooved pointed club. The butterfly represent- 
ing the genus is known in England as the Long-tailed Blue but it is rare 
and difhcult to get there. The transformations are known and will be 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 133 

found below ; the larva and pupa are altogether normal ; the former feed- 
ing upon leguminous plants of various kinds. The butterfly is one of the 
commonest in India in the opener parts. 

\6\. Lampides boetlcus, Linn. — Male and female. The outer margins of 
wingswiththepartsbetween the veins outwardly convex. The basHS of wings 
on the undersides blackish and powdered with white scales. Male. (PI. 
G., fig. 48) — Upperside : violet-blue, the wings covered with white scale-like 
hairs over the ordinary scaling, which gives them a frosted appearance, 
only a very slight fringe of hairs to the inner margin of fore wing. 
Fore wing : costa very narrowly, termen evenly and more broadly brown. 
Hind wing : costa and apex broadly, termen very narrowly brown ; inter- 
spaces 1 and '2 with, each, a more or less rounded, subterminal, black spot, 
the latter, the larger and blacker, each surrounded by an obscure ring of 
whitish or bluish of a shade lighter than the ground-colour. Cilia of both 
fore and hind wings silvery-white, with a brown line along their bases that 
becomes medial before the tornal angle of the hind wing ; thread like tail 
black, tipped with white. Underside: pale greyish or brownish ochraceous. 
Fore wing : transversely crossed by the following more or less parallel, pale- 
brown fascine : — one pair across the middle of cell, another pair at the end 
of the cell, not extended above or below it, five beyond ; the first two of the 
latter group broken at veins 2 and 3, the lower portions shifted inwards 
out of line with the upper portions ; the next short, not extended below 
interspace 3 and narrowed to a point posteriorly ; the subterminal two 
complete, curved, the outer one the narrower and macular. None of the 
fascise extend quite up to the costa. Hind wing : transversely crossed 
before the terminal markings by eight or nine pale-brown fascije similar 
to those on the fore wing but more or less fused and broken and the inner 
ones posteriorly curved upwards ; these are followed by a comparatively 
broad band of the ground-colour ; and broad, inner, subterminal, pale-brown 
fascia and an outer series of similarly-coloured spots ; these markings 
posteriorly interrupted by a black spot in interspace 1 and another, 
larger, in interspace 2, the latter inwardly margined with ochraceous ; 
both spots with superposed metallic bluish-green scales. Antenna?, head 
(frons white fringed with black), thorax and abdomen brown ; the shafts of 
the antenme ringed with white, the long flattened clubs orange inside, 
the thorax with some bluish-white pubescence ; beneath : the second joint 
of palpi fringed black in front ; its thorax and abdomen white. Female. 
(PI. G., fig. 48a,)— Upperside : brown; in some specimens with; in 
others without, some iridescent bluish scaling at the bases of the wings 
which sometimes extends outwards towards the disc. Fore wing : ante- 
ciliary black lines, and in a few specimens traces of an inner subterminal 
series of bluish spots in the interspaces more obvious posteriorly than 
anteriorly. Hind wing: a postdiscal, transverse, pale macular, fascia, 
often absent and always more obvious anteriorly than posteriorly, followed 
by a subterminal series of white ringed spots, the posterior two of which 
are jet-black and always present, the anterior one crowned with orange ; 
the anterior spots brown, of a shade slightly darker than the ground-colour 
and not always present, though in most specimens fairly well indicated ; 
lastly, a prominent anteciliary black line. Cilia of both fore and hind 
wings white with a line of brown along their bases. Under side : as 
in the male. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen similar to those of 
the male but paler on the upperside. Expanse : Male and female, 34-38 
mm. 

Effff. — TuTh&n-sfiaped, flat on top and at bottom, depressed in the 
central third of the top ; surface shining, very minutely granulated 
covered with irregular 4-5- and 6-8ided cells with fine, thin, low 



134 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

walls, at the corners of each cell is a raised thick-topped excrescence or 
knob of varying height ; the diameter of these cells decreases on the flat- 
tened top from the circumference to the micropyle in the centre until, 
immediately around it, there is no sign of them. The colour is light green 
with the ridges and knobs white. 

Larva. — Woodlouse shaped and normal. The segments are well-marked ; 
the lateral outline is oblong from segment 3 to segment 10, the dorsal line 
is fairly convex, segment 2 low and flat with a large, central, 4-sided 
depression at each lateral corner of which is a minute, black tubercle ; the 
shape of segment 2 is semicircular ; the shape of the anal segments is 
sloping dorsally, where it is also flattened, the extremity narrowing and 
eventually curved or rounded ; segment 3 is suddenly somewhat higher 
than segment 4 ; segments 3 — 10, both included, have 5 indentations 
on the surface, one small, round and dorsal, the others — lateral, 
longitudinal and one above the other — somewhat changeable with the 
motions of the body ; there is no sign of gland or organs on segments 
11, 12. The spiracles are situated in the bottom of the lowest longitudinal 
depression, being very light brown in colour, small and round. The surface 
is covered with very minute, appressed hairs, sometimes shining, some- 
times a few brownish ones ; the dorsoventral margin with similar, erect 
hairs, longest round the anal margin. The liead is hidden under segment 
2 but has a long neck, the colour being shining yellow with a black-margin- 
ed clypeus and black eye-patch — sometimes it is said to be altogether 
black or ochraceous pale brown. The colour of the larva is either dull or 
bright green or rose with a double, dorsal, yellowish line and a subspira- 
cular, similar one ; it may be plain green with a darker dorsal and subspira- 
cular line or it may be tinted with rose and even have diagonal, lateral 
lines. L : 11 mm.; B : 4 mm. 

Pupa. — In shape exactly the same as that of Jamides hochus except that 
the anal end is more broadly rounded ; the abdomen is broader than 
the breadth at shoulders ; there is no constriction at segment 4 ; the 
thorax is rounded and slightly compressed ; segment 2 is square in shape 
seen from above, its front margin is gently curved, the head beneath it 
high. The sjnracles of segment 2 are small, oval, yellow. The surface is 
smooth, shining. The colour is dull or bright green, with a darker dorsal 
line, a double row of subdorsal, black specks and, some-times, a lateral 
double row also ; the colour may be greyish with more plentiful black 
dusting and marking. L : 8 mm. ; B : 3'2 mm. 

Hahits. — The egg is laid on the buds (and stalks) of flowers into 
which the little larva, ou emerging, immediately eats. It feeds upon 
the carpels and generally avoids coming out into the open ; when 
full-grown, however, it has to come out and then feeds upon the 
young pods, resting on their outer surfaces. When flowers are 
still on the tree, it prefers the enclosed, tender carpels and often 
falls to the earth with the blossoms; the pupation then taking- 
place in a crevice of the soil or on a clod of earth, &c. The pupa 
is attached rather loosely bj^ the tail and a body-band as usual. 
The butterfly is exceptionally strong on the wing and flies long- 
distances at a stretch, is fond of the sunlight and may be found in 
any open land (or, indeed elsewhere) seeking refreshment amongst 
the low herbage in grasslands and scrub jungles in the dry season 
in India. It often lights on the ground and is fond ot flowers ^nd 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OI INDIA. 135 

surface moisture. It has been bred on the flowers of Butea 
frondosa known as the Flame of the Forest ; on Crotalaria capensis, 
on the Common Pea, Meliloius and on other leguminous plants, 
devouring the seeds. This is the Long-tailed Blue of England 
where it is, however, rare. It is found throughout Southern 
Europe, Africa, almost throughout Asia except in the very North, 
right away to, and also in, Australia. 

The figures 48 of the male and 48a of the female on Plate G are 
both two dull and dark and too pink ; the male upperside in nature 
does not show the light streaks along the veins and subterminally 
on the fore wing ; the female has the blue lighter on the upperside 
and the white of both upper and undersides should be much less 
pure. 

With this genus ends, for the purpose of these papers, the sub- 
family of the Lycceninc^ characterized by normal legs, veins 5 and 
6 of fore wiug being distant at bases, vein 7 terminating at or 
before apex on costal margin (difterentiating it from Curetince. and 
Liphyrince, subfamilies which each contain only one genus, the 
former with two species, the latter with only one) and by having 
the outline of the wings quite entire with, at the outside, only 
a single, thi*ead-like tail at the extremity of vein 2 of the hind 
wing; this last character separating it off from the subfamily 
Theclince which all have a rounded lobe at anal angle as well as 
a tail, often also extra tails at veins 1 and 3. The subfamily 
Arhopalmce can at once be separated by having veins 5, 6 of the 
fore wing close together at their bases ; an easy matter to settle 
with an ordinary lens and a little benzine. 

17. Genus — Curetis. 

This is a single genus in the subfamily CuretitKS and consists of two species 
thetis and bulis recognised by Hewitson, deNiceville and Bingham though 
de Niceville enumerates no less than 7 varieties of the former species 
described by different authors and Bingham, 4 ; and 6 and 7 respectively 
of bulls. The butterflies are powerful fliers, quick and strong on the wing, 
are of large size varying from 1"6 to 2 inches in expanse, the males a rich 
coppery red on the upperside with a broad or tine black border, the 
females white or ochreous with black borders that, in certain cases, 
completely obliterate the discal, light patches ; the undersides of both are 
white, more or less pure and glossy in thetis, silvery- white or silvery- 
greyish in bulls with transverse markings and dots or specks of blackish ; 
the outline of the wings of thetis is even and constant, whereas, in the 
other species, the outline is extremely inconstant running to a falcate 
apex in the fore wing and production of the anal angle and outer margin 
in the hind wing. The distribution of the various forms gives no clue to 
their claim to be treated as distinct species. De Niceville says he knows 
no character by which the variable females of thetis can be paired with the 
more constant males. The larva is most abnormal both in shape and in 
the possession of permanently exerted tubes of considerable length to the 
organs on segment 12. The pupa is also exceptional being nearly semi- 



136 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



spherical in shape. The geographical range of the genus is confined to the 
Indo-Malayan Region. 

162. Curetis thetis, Drury. — Male (PI. H., fig. 56) — Upperside: no hairs 
on the disc ; dark cupreous red, glossy and shining. Fore wing : no fringe 
of hairs on the inner margin after base ; base irrorated with dusky scales ; 
costa edged with a narrow, inwardly jagged, jet-black band that broadens 
to the apex, thence continued along the termen, decreasing in width to 
the tornus ; opposite the apex the inner edge of the black is more or less 
acutely angulate. Hind wing : base and dorsum broadly but slightly 
irrorated with dusky scales ; costa narrowly, dorsal margin more broadly 
pale ; termen very narrowly and evenly margined with black. Underside : 
shining silvery-white. Fore and hind wings crossed transversely by discal 
and inner subterminal, somewhat lunular dark lines and a more or less 
obsolescent outer subterminal line of minute dark dots. These markings 
generally very indistinct but traceable ; in some specimens more clearly 
defined but never prominent. Antennse (club not flattened, it and shaft 
orange red inside), head, thorax and abdomen dusky black; in some 
specimens the head, the thorax laterally and the base of the abdomen 
brownish mouse-colour ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and the basal half of 
the abdomen medially silvery-white, (the palpi and legs often touched with 
copper-red,) the sides and apex of the abdomen dusky black. Female. — 
(PI. H., fig 56a). Upperside : fore wing ; dark brownish-black ; a large 
medial patch that extends from vein 1 to vein 4, enters the lower half 
of the cell and extends from base outwards for about two-thirds the 
length of the wing, white ; at the base of the wing this patch is shaded and 
obscured for a short distance by dusky grey or black. Hind wing : pale 
dusky black ; a darker, short, broad, brownish-black streak from base 
along the subcostal vein, that outwardly broadens into an irregularly 
round patch beyond which is a broad, short, upper discal, white band with 
ill-defined and somewhat diffuse margins. Cilia, fore and hind wings : 
light-brown or white. Underside : as in the male but the markings still 
more indistinct. Palpi much longer in the female than in tlie male, legs of 
both sexes thick, tarsi broadened at extremities. Expanse : Male and 
female, 41-45 mm. 

E(/ff. — The egg is more or less hemisperical in shape. The surface is 
moderately shining and covered with large, coarse-walled, deep cells 
though the walls are not actually very thick ; there are very slight thicken- 
ings at each wall-intersection though these are not always prominent. The 
largest cells are hexagonal, more or less regular and are situated about the 
middle of the perpendicular sides, the size decreasing very little upwards, 
until they get close to the deep, rather conspicuous, concave-bottomed, 
perpendicular-sided, central micropyle-cell which is about O'l mm. in 
diameter ; this micropyle is surrounded by seven irregular, badly-formed, 
small cells and this row again by 9 much larger ones (0'15 mm.), the next 
row being larger still ; there are 7 rows from top to bottom, not counting 
the very small ones round the micropyle and the lowest row of all are also 
rather small ; there are 16 cells round the broadest part ; each of these are 
about four wall-diameters in width ; the bottoms of all are finely 
chagreened. Colour is light green with the walls enamel-white. B : 1'15 
mm. ; H : 0"72 mm. B of smallest cell : 0*05 mm. 

Larva (PI. II., fig. 28). — Is quite abnormal in shape being longly 
oval seen from above, the anal end somewhat narrower than the 
fore-end generally except that, occasionally, the larva shrinks the 
portion about segment 9 into more or less of a waist ; the head is hidden 
.under segment 2 which is more or less a short parabola in outline (a 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA . 137 



quarter-sphere in shape) seen from above, with a largely tumid flange 
all round which is triangularly emarginate in the dorsal line, the slope 
of the dorsal line being at first nearly perpendicular to the longitudinal 
axis or plane of the ventrum, this ventrum being quite flat and applied to 
the surface upon which the larva rests ; this slope diverges little from the 
perpendicular throughout its length ; segment 3 is rather flat dorsally but 
very steep on the sides and passes evenly all round into segment 4 which 
is broader and higher all round with a transverse tumidity (or ridge) 
along the hinder margin^ this tumidity being largely notched or indented 
in the dorsal line ; segment o is similar to segment 4 but the tumidity 
along hinder margin, more widely notched and more pronounced, if lower 
than that of that segment — segment 4 is the highest part of the pupa and 
the tumidity (or ridge) does not extend so far down the sides of the 
larva on segment 4 as on segment 5 ; the anterior margin of segment 6 
is perpendicularly below the top of the tumidity of segment 5 ; the 
succeeding segments 7-11 are more or less normal, all telescoped into 
each other, the transverse section of the larva along that portion beicg 
semicircular ; segment 12 is slightly broader than segment 11 (very little, 
however, often not visibly) but is dorsally much higher owing to there 
being a pair of long, fleshy, stiS", cylindrical tubes or towers, standing out 
more or less perpendicularly from the surface, rising from shortly conicals 
broad bases, these towers as long as the larva is high at that place emit- 
ting, when the larva is teased, each from its top, a long brush of fine, pur- 
ple, white-tipped hairs or threads which is whirled round rapidly for a short 
time and then suddenly withdrawn; segments 13 and 14 behind are a more 
or less quarter-spherical piece though dorsally slightly flattened perhaps; the 
gland on segment 11 is not present but there is a transverse depression ; 
there is no dorsal depression on segment 2. On the whole the larva is 
broadest and highest at segment o from where the dorsal line descends in a 
gentle curve to rise again to segment 12 a little ; the lateral line is straight. 
The head is hidden under segment 2 and rarely protruded ; it is shining 
light yellow in colour with the eye curve and points of the mandibles black, 
the labrum light, the ligula brown, shallowly emarginate. The spiracles 
are of ordinary size, oval in shape and nearly white or brownish-white in 
colour. The surface of the larva is covered with a shagreening of minute, 
water-bubble-like ribbed blisters from each of which rises a minute, 
appressed, often flattened, hair ; a few, dispersed, longer, appressed, yellow 
hairs here and there on each segment and there are some much longer, 
simple, appressed hairs disposed along margin of segment 2 and hinder 
margin of segment 14 (though these hairs are still very short) ; in the place 
where the depression on segment 2 is situated in the majority of lycsenid 
larvae the surface is here also covered with minute, ribbed, hemispherical 
tubercles like the rest. The colozir of the body is dark-green or rose-green; 
the top of segment 3 is pale rose, bordered with white posteriorly along the 
hinder margin, the lateral border being more or less diagonally down from 
the dorsolateral region on each side, running backwards ; segment 4 similar, 
the white hinder margin continued down to the dorsoventral margin ; 
segment 5 is also rose-coloured on the back slope of the tumidity but is 
otherwise dark-green, paling backwards ; the rest of the segments similar ; 
all the segments are lighter on dorsum separated from the darker, lateral 
colouring by a short, still lighter — nearly white in some specimens — line or 
band which only reaches the lateral region except on segment 9 where it is 
very much broader and produced down to the spiracle and above it on to 
the next segment on each side ; there is a dorsal, interrupted line of dark- 
green sometimes : segment 2 is rose-coloured and there is a light subspira- 
cular band or line ; the towers are rose and dark-tipped and their surfaces 

18 



138 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

are slightly rough. L. : 17mm.; B: 5'omm.; H: o mm. ; L of towers: 
3iQm. 

Pupa. (PI. n., fig. 28a) — The shape of the pupa is also abnormal (PI. II., 
fig. 28a). It is semi-ellipsoid cut through the longitudinal axis, somewhat 
abnormally broadened behind and narrowed in front ; the head is altogether 
ventral ; the body is highest at the thorax and of the same height as far as 
the common margin of segments 6, 7 ; broadest at the common margin of 
segments 7, 8 ; the ventrum being absolutely one plane, quite flat and 
closely applied to the resting-surface ; there is no constriction behind 
thorax either laterally or dorsally ; the front margin of pupa is semi-circu- 
larly rounded ; the anal extremity is hoof-shaped and narrowed and there 
is slight lateral constriction just before it, the dorsal slope of the front of 
the pupa is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body as well as 
the edges of the pupa all round as far down as segment 10 ; the dorsal line 
of the anal segments are inclined to the resting surface at a considerable 
angle. The spiracles of segment 2 are linear and white ; the rest are 
narrowly oval and of ordinary size. The surface is minutely punctured, 
shining, covered with a sparse clothing of short, erect, white hairs on the 
front of the eyes ; a rugose, yellow, spade-shaped surface with its apex 
directed forwards on dorsum of the posterior slope of thorax. Colour green 
or rose with a subdorsal and lateral, obsolescent, darker band and the 
spade-shaped, large and conspicuous, yellow mark on dorsum of the hinder 
slope of thorax. L. 10mm. ; B : 7mm. ; H : omm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid on flowers or young leaves upon which 
the larva always feeds ; it rests, in its earlier stages, always on the 
undersides of leaves but, when full-grown, it is often found on the 
uppersides. It is never attended by ants. The eggs take three 
days to hatch. The little larva eats its way out through the top 
and sometimes eats the shell as a first meal ; it then eats the young 
leaf in holes and is, in its first stage, without any sign of the 
towers on segment 12 ; these appear in the second stage. It 
starts eating from the edge of the leaf from the third stage. It 
grows rapidly, taking only ten days from the time it comes out of 
the Qgg until it changes to a pupa ; the butterfly appears in about 
four days after pupation. The pupa is formed on the upperside 
of a leaf as a rule and is attached strongly by the tail and a tight 
body-band. It makes a quick, knocking noise when touched by 
moving up and down in a very small angle from the tail. The 
butterfly is a strong and powerful flier, the male being found 
basking on tree-tops and elsewhere on the uppersides of leaves in 
the sun, the wings slightly separated from each other ; it darts at 
any passing object and, pursuing it a short way, returns often to 
the same perch, or flies about backwards and forwards seemingly 
just for a little exercise before doing so. When at absolute rest 
it sits on the undersides of leaves with the wings closed and only 
the white undersides showing. The female is more often met with 
amongst the undergrowth near the ground but also flies high at 
times. She also basks for short periods like the male but lower 
down as a rule and is not often seen on hill-tops and high trees. 
They both like the sun but do not seem to come much to flowers ; 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 139 

they may be seen, however, sucking up moisture from damp places 
in the hot weather. The foodplants of the larva are Pongamia 
glabra, the Indian Beech ; Derris scandeois ; Xylia dolahriformis ; 
Abrus frecatorius ; and various other leguminous plants; also, 
according to de Niceville, Heynea trijuga of the Meliacece. The 
range of Curetis thetis is : the whole of India ; Ceylon ; the 
Andamans and Nicobars ; Assam ; Burma to Sumatra and 
Java. 

Plate H, figures 56 and 56a are good pictures of male and female 

Curetis tJietis. 

163. Curetis bulls, Doubleday and Hewitson. — Male. — Upperside: fore 
wing : velvety-black, an elongate, broad, medial, patch dark orange-red, 
that extends from base outwards for about three-fourths the length of the 
wing and tills the area from v6in 1 to the middle of the cell ; in some speci- 
mens diffusely spread below vein 1 near base, but there shaded with dusky 
black ; the outer margin of this red patch unevenly rounded. Hind wing : 
brownish-black, a large orange-red spot above vein 3 to near apex, in- 
wardly extended into the cell to near the base of the wing and posteriorly 
diffuse below vein 3, but in the cell thickly overlaid with dusky-black 
scaling and posteriorly shaded with long brown hairs that in certain lights 
take a golden tint; above the cell extended from the base of the wing to 
the inner margin of the orange spot is a prominent broad streak of a shade 
darker than the ground-colour ; abdominal fold pale pinkish-brown. Under- 
side: silvery -white with sparsely scattered minute black dots. Fore wing : a 
discal and inner subterminal series of sometimes very indistinct, somewhat 
lunular, black markings that form broken, anteriorly convergent bands, 
which are continued over the hind wing to the tornus ; beyond these, on 
both fore and hind wings, succeeds an outer, subterminal series of minute 
black dots, in most specimens very indistinct. Antennte, head, thorax and 
abdomen dark brown ; sides of the abdomen golden brown ; beneath : palpi 
(third joint only, the tip of second joint black), thorax and abdomen white. 
Female. Upperside : more or less as in the male, but the dark orange- 
red medial patches replaced by white and much larger. On the fore wing 
this white patch extends above the cell, the discocellulars closing which are 
prominently marked by a black tooth, and posteriorly it reaches the dorsal 
margin. On the hind wing the white patch is very large and in some speci- 
mens very diffuse. Both fore and hind wings are shaded at the base by 
dusky scales and in many specimens the markings of the underside are 
plainly visible by transparency ; the broad, black streak above the cell on 
the hind wing is present in some, absent in other specimens. Underside : 
ground-colour and markings as in the male, but much more prominent. 
Expanse : Male and female, 46-50 mm. 

Larva and pupa. — The species has been bred in Kanara in the year 1894 
on the flowers of Ouyeinia dalbergioides, Benth., known to commerce as 
Chittagong Wood, a moderate sized or large tree which bursts out into 
profuse pinkish-white blossom, before the appearance of the leaves, in the 
hot weather. The caterpillars and pupse did not difl'er much from those 
of Curstis thetis as far as memory serves, but it was before the days when 
the writer was much interested in the subject. The specimens of the 
butterflies are, however, still quite perfect and are the only ones that have 
ever been seen in Kanara. 

Habitat. — Himalayas from Kumaon to Bhutan ; Central India ; Pachmari; 
Southern India : the Wynaad, Kanara ; Assam ; Sylhet ; Upper Burma ; 
Maymyo, 3000'. 



140 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

This accounts for the subfamily Curetince, distinguished at once from 
Liphyrinoi (which does not concern us here) by the smaller size of the in- 
sects and the coloration ; from Arhopalince and Pontiince (which also does 
not concern us) by having veins 5, 6 of fore wing rather far apart at their 
bases besides by their general coloration and facies ; from LyccBnince and 
Theclin(B by vein 7 of fore wing terminating after the apex on the terminal 
or outer margin (in those two subfamilies it terminates at or before the apex 
on the costal margin). However, even without reference to veins, the two 
forms of Curetis once seen can never be confused with anything else as they 
have characteristic colouring both above and below. The larval stage is 
also thoroughly characteristic for there is no other lyccenid insect with a 
similar caterpillar recognizable at the first glance by the greatly prolonged 
cylinders to the organs of segment 12. The hemispherical pupa is also not 
to be mistaken. 

(To he contmued.) 



\>o»c>i^ 



141 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 

BY 

Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S. 

(With 12 Text-figures). 

( Continued from pacje Q27 of Volume XXV). 

Part III. 

Gemis — Lyriothemis. 





J'^ 





JS 



Fig. 14. — Male sexual organs of X. acigastra (x 12). 
„ 15. — Female sexual organs of i. c/m (x 12). 
„ 16. — Male sexual organs of i. cleis (x 12). 

Lyriothemis, Brauer (1868). 

Calothemis, Selys. 

Head large ; eyes moderately contiguous ; forehead narrow, somewhat 
rounded, prominent and in the male of one species, with a sharp anterior 
foreborder ; sutures moderately deep ; vesicle notched. 

Prothorax : posterior lobe small, arched, not projecting. 

Thorax robust. 

Legs robust, armature in the two sexes almost identical, that of the hind 
femorse, a row of gradually lengthening and moderately small spines ; 
tibial spines numerous, fine and moderately long. Claw-hooks ordinary. 
Abdomen short and depressed ; in the male somewhat dilated at the base 
and then gradually tapering to a point at the anal end ; in the female 
cylindrical and with the lateral borders nearly parallel. 

Sexual organs of the male : tentaculae large and markedly differentiated, 
the internal segment indented. Superior anal appendages small. 

Sexual organs of the female : border of 8th abdominal segment much or 
only slightly dilated according to species ; vulvar scale very small and 
made up of two opposing valves. 

Wings long and narrow or moderately narrow, hyaline or with but a 
poorly marked spot at the base ; reticulation close ; trigone of forewing in 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



line with that of the hind ; sectors of arc fused for a short distance in the 
forewing, for a somewhat longer distance in the hind ; arc usually lying 
between the 2nd and 3rd antenodal nervures or occasionally between the 
2nd and 3rd (this point very variable) ; 8th nervure in the hindwing 
springing from the anal angle of trigone ; antenodal nervures 9-18, the final 
complete ; base of trigone in the hindwing generally at the arc or it may 
be a little distal or proximal ; 1-5 cubital nervures in the forewing, 
2 or more in the hind ; supernumerary nervures to the Bridge very 
often present ( this point very variable } ; trigone in the forewing very 
broad, traversed ; sub-trigone in the forewing with 2-5 cells ( usually 
3) ; trigone in the hindwing traversed, seldom entire ; the distal side 
straight or bent ; 4th nervure slightly convex or with a distinct costal 
bay ; the end bent strongly or slightly basalwards at the termen : generally 

1 row of cells between 5 and 5 a\ discoidal field in forewing beginning with 

2 to 3 rows of cells and then gradually or markedly dilating towards the 
termen ; 8th nervure moderately or strongly curved : generally 2 rows of 
cells in the anal field of forewing, moderately developed in the hind ; loop 
markedly variable and presenting all grades of development from a small 
obtuse angle to a completely developed apical segment. 

Stigma medium. Membrane small. 

Key to Species. 
Wings relatively short and rounded. 

Antenodal nervures numbering 9-10. 

Distal side of trigone in hindwing moderately bent. 

Only 1 cubital nervure in the forewing. 

Arc usually between the 2nd and 3rd antenodal 

nervures and never distal to the 2nd. 
4th and 5th nervures bent very slightly at the termen. 
Apex of loop relatively short . . . . . . . . L. acigastra. 

Wings relatively long. 

Antenodal nervures 13-19. 

Distal side of trigone in forewing strongly bent. 

2 to 3 cubital nervures in forewing. 

Arc generally between the 2nd and 3rd antenodal 

nervures and never distal to the 2nd. 
4th and 5th nervures bent very strongly at the termen. 
Apical segment of the loop well-developed and a large 

outer angle present . . . . . . . . . . L. cleis. 



7. Lyriothemis acigastra, Brauer. 
Calothemis acir/astra, SeJys. 




Fig. 17. — Wings of L. aciffastra (x2). 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



143 



Expanse 52 mm. Length 30 mm. Stigma 2 mm. 

Head : labium bright yellow ; the middle lobe dark brown ; labrum and 
face bright yellow ; vesicle and forehead a glossy metallic blue. 

Prothorax black. 

Thorax black with bright yellow markings as follows : — A broad humeral 
stripe ending about half-way as traced upward, a tiny, inconspicuous spot 
in line with and above the latter, laterally a broad, somewhat sinuous 
stripe crossing the thoracic spiracle, separated from the humeral stripe 
by somewhat less than its own breadth, a second stripe posterior to the 
spiracle on the lower two-thirds of the side, a spot above it and the 
greater part of the metepimeren yellow. Underside of the thorax deep 
black, crossed by two small transverse, yellow stripes. Abdomen generally 
deep black ; segments 2 to 5 frosted thickly with white and so appearing 
blue. Deep black below, powdered with yellow ; a yellow spot on both 
sides of segment 1, the distal border of segment 2 striped narrowly with 
yellow ; the distal borders of segment 3 to 7 similar but the stripe rather 
broader. 

Legs black, with the inner sides of the anterior femorse yellow. 

Base of wings yellow, this colour becoming paler and more diffuse as 
traced towards the trigone. 

Secondary sexual organs of the male : tentaculse shaped like an oval leaf, 
outwardly black, yellow in front, behind and on the inner side ; the inner 
angle prolonged backward as small hooks ; lobe narrow and about two- 
thirds the height of tentacuhe. 

Neuration of the wings very variable. 

2-3, 2-3 1 

; Cubital nervures 
-3 



Type : — Arc 

2-3, 2- 



.).v) 



No supernumerary nervures 



1-0 



to Bridge 



Hypertrigones traversed 



0-0 



Female: unknown. 
Hab. Burma and Bengal. 

8. Lyriothemis cleis, Brauer. 




-Wings of L. cleis ( X 2). 



Fig. 18. 

■ Expanse 78 mm. Length 42 mm. Stigma 2 mm. 
Thorax dark brown or black marked with yellow. 
Abdomen partly or wholly red. 



144 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 



Wings : base always hyaline, the apex smoky or greyish brown, and in 
some species the whole wing smoky. The neuration more constant than 
in acigastra ; the discoid al field of forewing strongly dilated at the termen; 
arc situated at the 2nd antenodal nervure or beyond it, and occasionally 
as far distal as the third ; 8th nervure strongly convex ; 4th and 5th 
nervure strongly bent towards the termen. In the males, generally 
only 1 row of cells between 5 and 5a ; in the females a row of double cells. 

Size very variable and the wings often showing asymmetry. 

Genital organs of the male : the lamina lying very low, the tentaculse very 
large and prominent, shaped as an arched cone, with a somewhat sinuous 
surface, generally meeting at, or actually crossing each other in the middle 
line ; the lobe long and narrow, right-angled, a little dilated at the end and 
cut straight away below, coated with long, stiff hairs, and rather more than 
half the height of the tentaculfe. 

Female genital organs : lateral borders of the 8th abdominal segment 
not dilated ; the 8th ventral plate separated from the vulvar scale by a 
narrow margin ; the vulvar scale very small and bisected by a triangular 
notch nearly up to its base ; 9th ventral plate prominently keeled and not 
prolonged posteriorly. 

Hab. Burma. 

Ris mentions a male specimen in the British Museum from Col. Bing- 
ham, Burma, which he places provisionally as " cleis.'- Its body is frosted 
white ; there is only 1 cubital nervure to the forewing ; 3 cubital nervures 
in the hind ; the wings relatively narrower than in other specimens of 
cleis, but the discoidal field shaped as in this species ; bright yellow, basal 
rays to both wings ; a flattened hook on the inner border of the tentaculae. 
Abdomen 32 mm. 

Hab. Bhamo. 



Hindwing 38 mm. 



Stigma 2 mm. 



Genus — Potomarcha. 




Fig. 19.— Wings of Potomarcha (x2). 

Potomarcha, Karsch. 

Libellula, Rambur. 

Orthetrum, Kirby and Brauer. 

Head moderately large ; eyes broadly contiguous, for about as long an 
extent as the breadth of the occipital triangle : forehead flatly arched and 
without a distinct foreborder , suture moderately deep ; vesicle high, nar- 
row and notched. 



INDIAN DRAGON FLIES. 145 

Protborax lobe very small, spherical, slightly convex, not projecting. 
Thorax robust. 

Lews moderately short ; hind femorte with a few widely distant, gradu- 
ally lengthening spines ; tibial spines moderately numerous, short and 
slim ; claw-hooks ordinary . 
Genital organs, : (see species). 

Wino-s long and moderately narrow ; reticulation close ; trigone in the 
forewino- a little distal to the trigone in the hind ; sectors of the arc in 
forewino- short, in the hind moderately long ; site of arc a little variable, 
generally between the 2nd and 3rd antenodal nervures, often at the 2nd, 
rarely between the 1st and 2nd ; 8th nervure in the hindwing at the tri- 
gonal angle ; antenodal nervures llAtol6^ (in seven consecutive specimens 
examined, these numbered 11^, 12i, 13^, 11|, 15|, 1-1 and 14i.) ; base of 
trigone in the hindwing at the arc ; the outer side of the latter trigone 
concave ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings; no supernumerarj'- nervures to the 
Bridge ; trio-one in the forewing moderately narrow, at a little more than 
a right angle in relation to the hypertrigone ; all trigones traversed ; all 
hypertrigones entire ; 4th nervure with a strong double curve at its middle; 
the discoidal field with nearly parallel borders, but slightly dilated at the 
termen with 3 rows of cells ; 2 rows of cells between 5 and .5« ; anal field in 
forewino- with 2 to 3 rows of cells, in the hind, wide and with a well-deve- 
loped loop, the outer angle of which is nearly right-angled and extends 
about 2 cells breadth distal to the apex of the trigone. 

Stigma large and narrow. Membrane large white or greyish. 
9. Potamarcha obscura, Karsch. 
Liheltula ohscuva, Ifambur. 
Orthetrum obscura, Kirby. 
Libellula conf/ener, Rambur. 
Orthetrum cmifjener, Brauer. 
Potamarcha conrjener, Selys. 

Expanse 68 mm. Length 45 mm. 
Head : eyes brown above, laterally and beneath a slatey, opalescent blue ; 
occiput small, dark brown; vesicle dark brown; front, epistome and 
labrum a dirty, creamy white ; labium yellow. 

Protorax : black ; in the male heavily frosted with white and so appearing 
blue; in the female a dark brown, with a mid-dorsal, bright yellow stripe, 
bisected with a line black line. 

Thorax ; male black heavily frosted over with white and so appearing 
blue. The colouring varying greatly according to the age of specimens 
and also according to the season in which they are taken. Juvenile spe- 
cimens and wet season forms bear, to a greater or lesser extent, the yellow 
markings of the female described below. A complete series may be 
taken showing from an intense white frosting with no markings, up to 
others which have little or no white powdering and approach the females 
in the richness of their colouring. Female : a deep chestnut brown or 
black with no white frosting and marked with yellow or greenish-yellow as 
follows :^the mid-dorsal line on the prothorax continued on to the thorax 
as far as the tergum, the fine black line bisecting it as on the prothorax, 
laterally the whole of the side bright yellow, with three, oblique, narrow, 
black streaks traversing it, the anterior and posterior of which are bisected 
above to form two large, Y-shaped marks. 

Wings hyaline, the apices slightly tinted with brown, in the male ; 
the area between the node and the stigma is occasionally faintly smoky ; 
in the female, the area from base to stigma, anterior to the 3rd nervure is, 
especially in the wet season forms, more or less suflused with amber tinting. 
Abdomen: ventro-dorsally dilated at the base ; the sides parallel as far as 
the 8th segment from where it tapers to a point at the anal end, a little 

19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VL 

depressed at the 2nd to 7th segment, but the last four segments slightly 
dorso-ventrally dilated. The abdomen of the female is considerably 
bul.iier than that of the male which is comparatively slim. The border 
of the 8th segment in the female is very broadly dilated, the ex- 
panded margins hanging down and serving as claspers for the exuded eggs 
when ovipositing. Colour in the male exceedingly variable according to 
the same factors which affect the colouring of tlie thorax. A complete 
series may ba taken ranging from an uniform bluish frosting over blacK and 
with no markings, to specimens which closely approach the females in the 
richness of their colouring. Generally, however, the first three segments 
are frosted over, the colours beginning to show through the Irosting on the 
third segment. In the female the intersegmental nodes are broadly and 
ditfusely black ; a fine raid-dorsal black line runs from the 1st to the 8th 
segment, bordered outwardly by a pale greenish-yellow line. This latter 
is again bordered outwardly by black. The borders of the abdomen as 
far as the 8th segment broadly and richly coloured with golden yellow or 
ochreous. Beneath dark ochreous. Anal appendages long, as long as the 
9fch abdominal segment, cylindrical, narrow, sinuous, sloping ventralvvards 
at the ends, which are pointed. The interior tiearly as long as the superior 
and sloping up to meet the latter, dark brown or bltick ; those of the female 
widely remote, much shorter than those of the male and shorter than the 
'.•th abdominal segment, cylindrical, pointed, black. 

Sexual organs of the male: tentacula small, regular in shape; the 
lamina br^ad, flattened, the lower border projecting ssomewhat, furnished 
with numerous black spines. Outer tentacula extending widely posterior- 
wards, long and oval; the inner a small, stout, curving hook. The lobe 
small and a little arched. 

Sexual organs of the female ; border of the 8th abdominal segment 
strongly dilated ; a small, inconspicuous vulvar scale at the end of the 
8th ventral plate ; 9th ventral plate flattened and not distnictly carinated, 
ciliated. 

Hab. India generally, Burma, Ceylon, Straits, and Sylhet. 

This dragonfly has a common habit of perching on prominent pieces of 
twig or on the twigs of bare trees. Numbers may often be seen occupy- 
ing the branches of one tree, especially just before sun-down. The males 
may often be seen resting on the concrete sides of viali''s tanks in com- 
pounds. 

G enus — L ath k ecista . 




Fig. 20. — Wings of Lathrecista asiatica (x 2). 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 147 

Lathrecista, Kirby. 

Libellula, Fabric! us. 

Ortheti'um, Kirby. 

Libellula, Brauer. 

Agrionoptera, Selys. 

Head relatively large, globular; eyes broadly contiguous: forehead 
projecting ; auterior border in the male poorly marked, rounded in 
the female ; sutures flush; vesicle notched or bearing two small tubercles 
at its summit; a ruff formed of small tufts of short hairs lining the upper 
margin of the occipital cavity and overhanging and partially concealing the 
prothorax. 

Prothorax small; the lobe rounded, not projecting, naked. 

Thorax robust, coated with hair in front on the dorsum, naked at tht; 
sides. 

Legs ; hind femorjs of the male bearing about 16 short, broad, uniform 
spines; tibial spines long ; claw-hooks ordinary. Hind femoriB of the female 
with somewhat I'Miger spines and less numerous than in the male. Wing long 
and narrow ; reticulation close ; node in the forewing relatively near the 
base, a little proximal to the middle of the wing ; tiigone in the fore- 
wing in line with that of the hind ; sectors of arc in forewing rather shortly 
fused, in the hind a much longer fusion ; arc between the 2nd and 3rd 
antenodal nervures ; 8th nervure in the hindwing a(. the anal angle of the 
trigone; 18^ to 17-| antenodal nervun-s; trigone in tlie hindwing at the- 
arc or occasionally a little distal to it ; trigone in the forewing at more than 
a right angle in relation to the hypertrigone, traversed, that of the hind 
entire ; all hypertrigones entire ; sub-trigono of the forewing formed of 3 cells 
or more rarely of 4 ; only 1 cubital nervurf^ to all wings and no supplementary 
nervures to the Bridge ; 4th nervure distinctly double-curved ; 1 row of cells 
between 5 and ha, occasionally a few doubled cells ; 3 rows of cells in the 
discoidal field ; the latter only a Utile dilated at the termen ; 8th nervure 
^itly convex ; anal field in forewing with '2 rows of cells, in the hind modera- 
tely broad ; loop long, the apex very stunted, split cells at the outer 
angle oidy : the outer angle nearly equal to a right angle, extending 2 to 3 
cells beyond the apex of trigone. 

Stigma large. Membrane small. 

Abdomen : slim, keeled, triangular in cross section, parallel-sided or in the 
male, segments 3 to 5 a little constricted. 

Anal appendages cylindrical, a little bulbous near the extremities which 
are pointed and curving, black. The inferior appendage curving up to 
meet the superior The superior are rather longer than the 9tf abdominal 
segment. Those of the female very small, widely remote, cylindrical, black. 

Sexual organs : (6'ee under species). 

10. Lathrecista asiatica asiatica, R'>«. 

L'tthrecista pectoralis, Kirby, 

Li'ieliula asiatica, Fabricius. 

Orthetruiii asiatica, Kirby, 

Libellula pectoralis, Brauer. 

Ayi'lonojitera simulni'is, Selys. 

Lathrecista simularis, SelyF, 

Lathrecista terminalis, Ki.by, 

Lathrecista pectoralis, var. iuterposita, Fcirster, 



148 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVI. 





Fig. 21 



Fio- 



^)-) 



Fig. 21. — Male sexual organs of Lathrecista amttica (x 12). 
Fig. 22. — Female sexual organs of same (x 12). 
Expanse 72 mm. Length 45 mm. 

Head : eyes brown at the summit, a milky or opalescent blue laterally 
and beneath ; occiput black ; vesicle blackish brown ; labium, labrum, 
clypeus and lower part of epistome opaque white, the epistome above and 
narrowly at the sides glossy black brown. 

Prothorax : a violet brown. 

Thorax : a violet or purple brown frosted over with white. 

Legs black : the inner sides of the anterior femorte paler. 

Wings hyaline ; the extreme outer edge of the apices touched with brown. 

Stigma dark brown. Membrane brownish or brownish white. 

Abdomen polychroic ; the first 3 segments reddish brown and often 
frosted over with white which gives a bluish tinge to them, the remaining 
segments a bright carmine red with very narrow, black annuli at the 
intersegmental nodes. Some specimens have a greenish-yellow, narrow, 
mid-dorsal stripe on the first 3 segments. Other specimens instead of 
carmine rod, are a rich, dark olivaceous brown. 

Female: eyes violet brown or purple coloured above and greenish yellow 
at the sides, paliug considerably beneath ; mid-lobe of labium black, 
lateral lobes bright yellow ; vesicle metallic blue with a small white spot on 
either side of the mid-ocellus ; upper part of front a dark olivaceous tint 
with a metallic green sheen, the lower part pale greenish yellow narrowly 
bordered with black. 

Thorax : a mid-dorsal greenish-yellow stripe bisected by a narrow black 
line ; broad, purple-brown, humeral stripes with a metallic sheen ; laterally 
greenish-yellow with 3 very irregular, oblique, dark, metallic green stripes, 
the anterior of which is bifid in its upper part, the middle one crossing 
the spiracle ; the posterior also bifid in its upper part. All these markings 
liable to a certain amount of variation. Beneath, the posterior stripe is 
continuous with a black square, the centre of which is greenish-yellmv. 



INDIAN DRAG ON FLIES. 



149 



A row of greenish-yellow spots on the tergum, an anterior pair followed 
by 3 in line from, before back. 

Abdomen : a rich warm brown with a fine mid-dorsal, black line edged 
narrowly on either side by bright greenish-yellow, broadest on the Ist and 
'ind segments. This yellow again outwardly edged by a diffuse, black line. 
The lateral borders edged very narrowly with black, with, in the 1st 
and 2nd segments a greenish-yellow stripe. The final 3 segments almost 
entirely black. 

lu juvenile specimens of the male and in a brood appearing towards the 
end of the S.W. monsoon in Malabar and the Western Ghats, the mark- 
ings are almost the same in the two sexes. The thorax markings in the 
male are in old and dry season forms almost or entirely obsolete and all 
grades are met with from the latter up to specimens as richly marked 
and coloured as the females. 

Genital organs of the male ; lamina projecting and rather broadly, 
arched, furnished with stout vibrissse on its inner surface ; tentaculee 
large, the external segment projecting outwards over the lobe, the inner 
segment bearing a long chitinous hook ; lobe smaller than usual, not as tall 
as the tentacuhe, lined internally with stifl' vibrissse. 

(xenital organs of the female : specific in character ; vulvar scale small, 
lateral borders of the 8th abdominal segment not dilated, 9th ventral 
plate prolonged back beyond the anal end of the abdomen and ending in two 
curling laminee which are thickly beset with short, stiff bristles. This 
projecting organ is easily visible to the naked eye and sufficiently specific 
in character as to determine the species from any other. 

Hab. The moister areas of India generally, Bombay and Poona. 

A rather shy and retiring insect, usually keeping to the shelter of thick 
jungle and with habits somewhat similar to Potomarcha, often collecting in 
large numbers on the bare branches of trees. 1 have never seen it visiting 
water. 

Genus — Libeiltjla. 




Fig, 



23. — Wings of Libellula quadrimaculata (x2). 



Libellula, Rambur. 

Head moderately large ; eyes broadly contiguous ; forehead broad and 
projecting, but a little variable in the species, anterior border indistinct 
or moderately sharp ; suture deep ; vesicle a little notched or rounded. 

Prothorax lobe small, slightly arched, entire or with a small notch. 

Thorax very robust. 



160 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, VoL XXVI. 

Legs robust ; hind f eraorse with numerous moderately close-set, very 
short, and near the end, gradually lengthening spiuts with one or two 
longer spines at the extreme end ; f emorje 2 similar but the spines 
somewhat less numerous and larger ; tibial spines numerous, moderately 
slim and loug ; claw-hooks large ; in the female the armature almost 
identical. 

Abdomen variable in shape, generally robust and depressed. 

Sexual organs of the male : tentaculse small with a regular and reduced 
outer segment. 

Sexual organs of the female ; border of 8th abdominal segment variable, 
vulvar scale small and not projecting. 

Wings loug and narrow, in many species partly coloured. Reticulation 
close ; trigone in the fore.ving generally somewhat distal to the trigone in 
the hind, its relation to the hypertrigone a right angle or rather more ; 
sectors of arc in tho forewiug separated or if fused, the fusion very short, 
in the hiud a shorter fusion generally present ; between the 1st and 2nd 
antenodal nervures, occasionally at the 2nd or between the 2nd and 3rd ; 
8th nervure in the hindwiug from the anal angle of the trigone ; antenodal 
nervures 12-17, the last usually complete; trigone in the hindwiug long 
and narrow with a concave outer side, at the arc or a little distal or proxi- 
mal to it; 1 cubital nervure in the forewing, 1 to 2 in the hind; super- 
numerary nervures to the bridge as a rule present ; all trigones traversed, 
in the forewing generally several times; hypertrigones traversed or entire 
(this point very variable) ; sub-trigone m the forewing with b or more cells 
up to as many as 10 ; 4th nervure with a strong double curve, first a 
costalwards convexity and then a concavity, the end being slightly bent 
towards the termen ; at least 2 to 3 rows of cells between 4 and 6, fre- 
quently 2 rows of cells for a short distance ; 3 rows of cells between 5 and 
5a ; 8th nervure in the forewing short and strongly bent. The discoidal 
field at the termen very strongly dilated, beginning with 3 to 6 rows cells; 
7a well developed : 1 to 2 rows of cells between 7 and la ; loop large, ite 
outer angle a right angle or it may be obtuse and extending 2 to 3 cells 
beyond the outer angle of the trigone. 

Membrane large. Stigma variable, moderately small or very large. 

Key to Species. 

i. The whole body including the abdomen hairy. 

Abdomen in the male red or ochreous, not 

frosted with bine. 
A black spot in the middle of costa and often 

another difi'uso spot ' ear the stigma. 
A black marking at the base of the hindwing 

reticulated with yellow. 
Membrane white. . .. .. . . L, quadrimaovlata 

ii. The abdomen naked. 

Abdomen in the male dark brown, frosted 

over with blue. 
No black spots on the costa or near stigma. 
A rusty spot at the base of the hindwing. 
Membrane black . . . . . , . . . . L. fulva, 

11, Libellula quadrimaculata, Linn^. 

Leptetrum tftiadrimaculata, Kirby. 
Libellula quadripunctata, Fabricius. 
Libellula maculata,S.&mB . 



INDIAN DRAGON FLIES. 151 



Libellula ferruginata, Cirillo. 
Libellula ternaria, Say. 

Expanse, male 72 mm. Length, male 40 mm. 
female 66 mm. female 36 mm. 

Head : eyes dark bro>vn above, greenish laterally and beneath ; epistome 
elypens and labrum luteous with a black bordering to the latter and a brown 
streak along the ocular margin of the epistome. 

Prothorax : brownish red. 

Thorax: a dull red, covered with a fine yellow pile and bearing laterally 
two dark brown or black, converging stripes. 

Legs black. 

Wings hyaline. Antenodal nervures 1 6. A rich red, amber tinting at 
the base of wings, which colour in some specimens extends along the 
entire costal margin. In the middle of the costa, in the neighbourhood of 
the node a black spot varying greatly in size and intensity and often 
lying in a smoky area. In other specimens this spot may be absent. A 
large, triangular, blackish spot at the base of the hindwing, reticulated 
with yellow, extending from the cubitus in front, back to rather beyond 
the membrane, and outwards for a variable distance towards the trigone. 
The cubital, median and sub-costal spaces usually bright yellow. In a 
variety — " praenuhlia, Newman" — a brown fascia is present near the stigma, 
extending for a variable distance towards the termen. This species is 
usually larger than (jundrimacidafa and the abdomen is less pilose. In 
specimens from Kashmir, the nodal spot is small and the basal marking 
does not extend into the trigone. 

Stigma black or fuscous. 3'5 — 4 mm. 

Abdomen broad and tapering, hairy, dull red or ochreous, the segments 
from the distal end of the -^th, to the anal end of the abdomen, black. 
All segments from the 2nd to the 7th bear a yellow lunule at the sides. 

The abdomen of the female much broader than that of the male. 

Anal appenda-ges black. 

Hab. Kashmir 7000"— 8000". 

12. Libellula fulva, Miiller. 

Libellula conspurcata, Schneider. 
Libellula, var. pentica, Selys. 

Expanse 72 mm. Length 40 mm. 

Head : eyes brown above, paler beneath ; vesicle, front, epistome and 
labrum somewhat bluish, glossy, dark brown. 

Prothorax: dark brown. 

Thorax: dull olivaceous or red or nearly black and somewhat paler at 
the sides streated obscurely with brown. 

Legs black; the bases of the femorse fidvous; those of the female reddish 
at the base. 

Wings hyaline : antenodal nervures 12 ; the forewing with a rust 
coloured ray at the base ; the posterior with a similar coloured, triangular 
spot at the base. In some species the apices of the wings are smoky and 
others have the wings broadly suffused with yellow. In the forewing there 
is usually a black ray in the cubital space and in the hindwing, one in the 
eub-costal space. In some species there may be yellowish rays in the 
superior and inferior costal spaces extending nearly as far out as the 
stigma. 

Stigma black or dark brown. 2*5 — 3 ram. Membrane black or dusky. 

Abdomen: dark brown, with a darker brown or black, irregular, mid-dorsal 
stripe. The proximal and distal ends of the abdomen fuscous and the 
whole, especially in the males frosted with blue. In the female, yellowish 



152 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

brown with a well-defined, black line running from the 4th to the 10th 
segment, expanding at the distal border of each segment. 

Anal appendages black. 

Hab. Mesopotamia, Kashmir (?) and throughout Europe. 

Genus — Ckatilla. 




24 
Fig. 24. — Wing neuration of 



C. metallica ( X2). 



Cratilla, Kirby (1900), Id. Ann. May. Nat. Hist. 7, 5, p. 542 (1900). 
Forster, A^m. Mus. Hunfj. 

Head large ; eyes broadly contiguous ; forehead sloping strongly in front 
in the male ; more rounded in the female ; suture moderately deep ; vesicle 
rounded. 

Prothorax : lobe, rounded very small, not projecting. 

Thorax very robust. Legs robust : hind femorse with a few, thick, and 
gradually lengthening spines ; tibial spines fine, numerous ; claw-hooks 
ordinary. Armature of the legs of female scarcely different but somewhat 
finer and longer. 

Wings long and moderately narrow ; reticulation close ; node closer to 
the apex than to base in forewing ; trigone in the forewing a little external 
to the line of trigone in the hind ; sectors of the arc in forewing moderately 
fused, a longer fusion in the hind ; arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal 
nervures ; 8th nervure at the anal angle of the trigone in the hindwing ; 17 
to 22 antenodal nervures, the last complete ; base of trigone in the hind- 
wing at the arc or a little proximal to it ; the distal side of the trigone 
concave ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings ; supplementary nervures to the 
bridge generally present ; trigone in the forewing rather broad, its relation 
to the hypertrigone rather more than a right angle ; all trigones traversed ; 
all hypertrigones free ; sub-trigone in the forewing with 3 to 5 cells ; 4th 
nervure with a strong costal convexity in its middle, its end and that 
of the 6th bent strongly towards the termen ; 1 to 2 rows of cells between 5 
and 5a ; 3 rows of cells in the discoidal field which has nearly parallel sides 
but is slightly dilated at the termen ; a broad anal field in the hindwing 
with regular rows of cells ; loop narrow and long, extending 2 cells beyond 
the outer end of trigone. 

Stigma large ; membrane of medium size. 

The following specific characters, viz., the complete, final antenodal ner- 
vure, the barely dilated discoidal field, the supplementary nervures to the 
bridge and the position of the node will serve to identify this genus. 



INDIAN BRAGONFLIES. 153 

I 
I 

Key to Species. | 

i. Thorax : a deep, bronze black, its middle seg- 
ment, its underside and 3 lateral bands, 
yellow. ' 

Abdomen : black marked with yellow. 

Labrum : yellow. 

Wing apices hyaline. (Occasionally those of 
the female tipped with brown.) 

Antenodal nervures 18. 2 rows of cells be- 
tween 5 and 5a . . . . . . . . C. lineata. 

ii. Thorax metallic green. 

Abdomen : dark metallic green without yellow 

markings except on segments 1 to 4 in the '*<. 

female. Adult males with blue frosting on 
the first 4 segments. 

Labrum black. 

Wing apices in both sexes tipped with black. 

Antenodal nervures 20. 1 row of cells 

between 5 and 5ff . . . . . . . . C. metallica. 

13. Cratilla metallica, Kirby, Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (7) 6 p. 542 (1900). 

Ortliemis metallica, Brauer (1878). ' 

Pi-otorthemis metallica, Kirby. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lon., 12, p. 290 (1889). "• 

Id. Cat., p. 30 (1890). 

Protovthemis metallica, Selys, 

yiesoxenia metallica, Kirby, Cat. p. 180 (1890). 

Cratilla metallica, Ris. Cat. Coll. Selys. /«sc. 10, pp. 152-153 (1909). j 

Expanse 74 mm. Length 36 mm. 

Head large and globular ; eyes broadly contiguous, dark brown above, I 

paler below ; face and labrum black ; vesicle black. \ 

Prothorax black. ' 

Thorax : dark metallic green as far as the middle segment which is yellow. i 

Legs black. 

Wings hyaline ; the apices in both sexes, dark brown as far inwards as | 

the middle of the stigma ; supplementary nervures to the bridge always I 

present ; only 1 row of cells between 5 and 5a ; 18 to 22 antenodal ner- 
vures ; stigma large, 4 '5 mm. 

Abdomen: a dark metallic green, without marking, in the male, and the ' 

first 4 segments in adult forms, frosted with blue. In the female, border- j 

ing lines of yellow on segments 1 to 4. 1 

Anal appendages black. ' 

(irenital organs of the male : Lamina procumbent, broadly arched ; ten- 
taculse short, robust, procumbent, strongly curved hooks ; lobe relatively very 
large, broad and rounded. 

Genital organs of the female ; border of the 8th abdominal segment very 
broadly and foliately dilated ; vulvar scale inconspicuous, only a slight 
notch on the posterior border of the 8th ventral plate ; 9th ventral plate 
keeled, yellow, projecting slightly over the 10th segment. 

Hab. Burma and Tenasserim. 

14. Cratilla lineata, Ris. Cat. Coll. Selys. /«sc. 10, ^j. 153 (1909). 

Cratilla lineata, Forster, Ann. Mus. Hung. 1903, p. 537. 

Cratilla calverti, Id. {Malabar ?). 

Orthemis lineata, Brauer, Albarda and Selys. \ 

Agrionoptera lineata, Kirby, Cat. p. 31 (1890). 

20 ! 



154 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, VoL XXVL 

Nesoxenia lineata, Id. Cat. p. 180 (1890). 

Protorthe7nu lineata, Selys, Kruger and Martin. 
Expanse 78 mm. Length 42 mm 

Head large and globular ; eyes broadly contiguous, brown above, paler 
beneath ; vesicle and occiput brown ; labrum yeUow; frons uietallic green. 

Prothorax : bl^ck marked with yellow. 

Thorax : a dark, bronze black ; the middle segment broadly yellow, 3 
lateral bands and the underside, yellow. Legs black. 

Wings hyaline, the apices occasionally and in female only, a dark brown 
as far inwards as the middle of the stigma; 18 antenodai nervures; 2 
rows of cells between 5 and fla ; usually supplementary nervures to the 
bridge ; stigma moderately large, 3'5 to 4 mm. 

Abdomen black with a long yellow, median band which is bisected by a 
fine, black, mid-dorsal ridge. Lateral lunulets of the same colour to each 
segment. 

Anal appendages black. 

Genital orgaus of the male ; lamina small, procumbent, the end tumid 
outwardly; tentaculiie procumbent, of nearly even length ; the inner, a 
black, curved hook ; lobe broad and rounded. 

Genital organs of the female : very similar in shape to those of C. metal- 
lica. TliH carination of the 9th ventral plate somewhat sharper, bright 
yellow and ciliated. 

Hab. Forster gives Malabar as a district in which it occurs, but it is 
doubtful if the insect occurs there Java, New Guinea, Sumatra and 
Phillipines. "Toungoo, Burma, Beeson, 1918." 

Genus — Okthetkum. 








Fig. 26. — Male genital organs of — a. O. chrysoHigma, b. O. ransonnetti, 
c. O. japonicum, d. O. sabina ( x 10), e. O. anceps, f . O. tcsmo- 
latum. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 155 

Orthetrum, Newman (1833). 

Libelia, Brauer. 

Hydronyitiplia, Buchecker. 

Head moderately large ; eyes shortly or rather broadly contiguous; fore- 
head prominent, with a distinct foreborder, flattened, above and in front, 
the flattened zone very glossy, the borders rounded and the shape in both 
sexes nearly similar; sutures moderately flush; vesicle variable, either 
nearly rounded or somewhat notched above. 

Prothorax . lobe large, projecting, fringed with a rufi:' of long hairs, 
generally notched in tbe middle. 

Thorax robust. 

Legs moderately long, very robust. Hind femorse with a row of closely- 
set, numerous, moderately even, short spines and at the distal end, 2 or 3 
somewhat lunger ones ; mid-femorse with fewer, gradually lengthening 
spines ; armature of the feniorse of the female similar to that of the mid- 
femorjje of the male; tibial spines not numtrous, 8 to 12 in number, stout, 
distant, upright or somewhat sloping; claw-hooks close to base of claws, 
robust. 

Wings long, the hind moderately broader than the fore ; the trigone of 
the forewing in line with that of the hiud ; arc usually at the 2ud antenodal 
uervure or between the 2nd and 3rd or in one group, between the 1st and 
2nd ; sectors of the arc generally with a longer fusion in the hind than in 
the forewing ; 8th uervure generally from the anal anj^le of trigone 
(separated in chrysostiyma and more or less in sahina) ; 12 to 21 antenodal 
nervures (rarely more than 16 in Indian species); trigone in the hindwing 
at the arc ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings ; no supplementary nervures to 
the bridge ; trigone in the forewing high and narrow, its relation to the 
hypertrigone generally more than a right angle, its anal angle basally 
directed, traversed, in some species more than once ; trigone in the 
hindwing long and narrow; its outer side moderately to strongly 
concave, entire or traversed ; 4th nervure strongly undulating and 
the end bent strongly to the termen ; 1 to 3 rows of cells between 5 
and ^a ; 8th nervure in the forewing short and strongly convex ; the dis- 
coidal field wide, a little constricted near its middle but strongly dilated 
at the termen ; 3 to 4 rows of cells in the discoidal field ; loop well-deve- 
loped ; its outer angle equal to a right angle and 4 or more cells distal to 
the outer angle of the trigone, the apical segment longer than wide ; 3 to 
tj rows of cells in the anal field ot hindwing. 

Stigma medium-sized ; membrane large. 

Abdomen variably shaped, moderately to very strongly dilated at the 
base, then constricted or parallel-sided or fusiform or moderately broad 
and depressed and gradually tapering to the end. 

Sexual organs of 1 he male : the lamina depressed or projecting, coated 
with Btifl hairs or naked ; the tentaculte well-developed as a rule, the 
internal segment furnished with a variably sized hook ; the lobe project- 
ing or sloping, arched more or less and generally coated with stifl bristles. 

Sexual organs of the female : border of 8th abdominal segment dilated 
as a rule but in several species not so or only slightly so ; no distinct 
shape to the vulvar scale, generally notched and with a more or less 
swollen border to the 8th segment ; ventral plate without any specific or 
constant shape ; its styles distinct. 

The members of this genus present such remarkab e polymorphism and 
polychroism, not only in the species but also amongst the individuals of 
the species, that the task of forming any satisfactOj.y key is one of ex- 
treme difficulty. The key given below is not entirely satisfactory but if, 
where difficulty is met with, it be used in conjunction with the descriptions 



156 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



of the species, a fairly useful index for the determination of the species 
will be found. 

Key to Species. 

A. Arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal ner- 
vures or opposite the 2nd. 

a. Abdomen of adult male not frosted with 

blue. 8th nervure from anal angle of 
trigone, 
i. Abdomen broad, depressed and tapering. 

Base of wings hyaline . . 
ii. Abdomen relatively shorter and broader. 
Base of wings golden yellow . . 

b. Abdomen of adult male but thinly frosted 

with blue, long, narrow and cylindrical. 

8th nervure separated from the anal angle 

of trigone . . 

e. Abdomen of adult male densely frosted with 

blue. 

i. Usually 2 rows of cells between 5 and 5fl. 

a'. Abdomen broad and depressed. 12 to 

16 antenodal nervures . . 
b'. Abdomen narrow and tapering. 10 to 12 
antenodal nervvires. Smallest species 



O. cancellatum. 



O. japonicum. 



O. trinacria. 



O. brunneum. 



angle 



of the genus 
ii Only 1 row of cells between 5 and 5a. 
d' Abdomen broad and depressed. Lamina 
prominent, inclination to body-axis 45" 

to 60" . . 

b'. Abdomen narrow and parallel-sided. 
Lamina depressed, inclination to body- 
axis 30" 

B. Arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal ner- 
vures or occasionally opposite the 2nd. 

a. Abdomen densely frosted with blue. 

i 8th nervure widely separated from the 
anal angle of trigone in the hindwing. 
(Often only the first 3 segments of the 
abdomen frosted with blue) 
ii. 8th nervure arising from the anal 
of trigone in the hindwing. 
i'. Trigone in the hindwing traversed 
ii'. Trigone in the hindwing entire . . 

b. Abdomen not frosted with blue, 
i. Abdomen, dorso-ventrally, strongly 

at the anal end (segments 6-9). 
8th nervure separated from the anal angle 
of trigone in the hindwing 
ii. Abdomen not dorso-ventrally dilated at 
the anal end, broad and depressed. 
8th nervure arising from the anal angle 
of trigone in the hindwing. 
i'. Adult male with a yellow or red forehead 
a'. Male brilliant scarlet red. 

Wings relatively long and with a large 

basal spot in the hindwing. 
No tuft of bristles on the lamina . . 



O. Ucniolatum. 



O. anceps. 



O. ransonnetti. 



O. chrijsostigma. 

O. trimKjularc. 
O. fjlaucum. 



dilated 



0. sahina. 



O. testaeeum. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 157 

W. Male dull red or orange coloured. 

Wings relatively short. Basal spot in 

the hind smaller. 
A tuft of stout bristles on the lamina . . O. chnjsis. 
ii\ Adult male with a bluish-black or violet 
metallic forehead. 
Abdomen crimson, thinly overlaid with 
blue frosting which gives it a violet 
appearance O. pruinosum. 

15. Orthetrum cancellatum cancellatum, Dur. 

Lihellula cancellata, Linne. 
Libella cancellata. Brauer. 
Lihellula frumenti, Muller. 
Hydianympha helvetica, Buchecker. 
Expanse 68 mm. Length 40 mm. 
Head ; eyes bottle green above, paler at the sides and beneath ; vesicle 
olivaceous brown ; face and labrum cinereous ; labium pale yellow. 
Prothorax : brown. 

Thorax : olivaceous on the dorsum, paler or greenish yellow at the sides ; 
2 short, black, humeral stripes and a dark greenish, oblique stripe on the 
side, which, latter stripe is bordered anteriorly and posteriorly with black. 
Beueath frosted with blue. 

Legs black in the male but the femorse in the female reddish with a 
black line on the outer sides. 

Wings hyaline ; site of arc variable, usually between the 1st and l^nd 
autenodals, but sometimes at the 2nd or even slightly distal to it, this 
being more often the case in the hindwing ; 8th nervure arising from the 
anal angle of the trigone ; '2 rows of cells between 5 and ba. 

Stigma black 2 to 3 mm.; membrane greyish, occasionally nearly white 
or nearly black. 

Abdomen broad ; the dilatation of the 2nd segment and the constriction 
of the 3rd but poorly marked, somewhat depressed. The male ashy blue 
or yellowish, especially the basal segments, the borders of the latter, the 
distal end of the Hth and the whole of the remainder being black. The 
sutures on the basal segments, including the transverse ridge on the 3rd, 
finely outlined in black. The 3rd to the 6th segments each with a pair of 
black spots beneath. In the female, the borders black and an irregular, 
diffuse, dark, sub-dorsal line. 

Anal appendages black, the tips whitish. 

Genital organs of the male : lamina high and bold, the basal part, viewed 
from the side, inclined to the body-axis at 45" furnished with a moderately 
long, largish tuft of black bristles. The apex is deeply cleft into a slightly 
diverging fork, nearly pointed and turning out at an angle of 90". Tenta- 
culse not as high as the lamina ; the sides shallowly cupped, the internal 
segment blunt and the hook directed laterally and horizontally. The ex- 
ternal segment lower but prominent, flat and tumid. The lobe arched, and 
thickly coated with black bristles. 

Genital organs of the female: border of the 8th segment dilated, foliate, 
at the end of the 8th ventral plate, a narrow but deep fissure with no dis- 
tinct separation from the vulvar scale ; 9th ventral plate swollen. 
Hab. Kashmir ; throughout Europe and the south of England. 
16. Orthetrum japonicum internum, MacLachlan. 
Orthetrum intermcm, MacLachlan. 
Expanse 70 mm. Length 38 mm. 
Head olivaceous ; eyes brown above, paler, olivaceous laterally and 
beneath. 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 

Prothorax : olivaceous brown. 

Thorax : olivaceous brown with a broad, humeral, blackish stripe and a 
broad lateral stripe covering most of the space between the ppiracle and 
the metepimerou. 

Abdomen olivaceous brown with very broad, dark bordering stripes. The 
abdomea relatively shorter and broader than in cancellatmn. 

Wings hyaline ; a golden yellow spot at the base extending nearly as 
far as the Ist antenodal nervure and the cubital nervure in the forewing, 
and over and beyond these two points in the hind. Arc usually between 
the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures or sometimes at the 2nd. 8th nervure 
arising from the anal angle of the trigone in the hindwing ; 2 to 3 rows of 
cells between ^ and ha. 

Membrane black. Stigma bright yellow (3 mm.). 

Genital organs of the male : lamina high, mchned about f50° to the body- 
axis; basal segment furnished with a tuft of k>ng stiff bristles, end segment 
moderately narrow, blunt and divided into two small Inbes by an incision 
at its apex. TentaculfB of uniform height, inner segment foliate, outer 
only a small, blunt prominence. Lobe moderately hij.'h and a little arched. 

Genital organs of the female : border of 8th abdominal segment moder- 
ately large, foliateiy dilated, black. End of 8th ventral plate nearly 
quadrilateral; its borders tumid. Vulvar scale not distinct ; 9th ventral 
plate bluntly carinated. 

Hab. Khasia Hills, Kashmir, Kerseong and Thibet. 

17. Orthetrum trinacria, Kirby, Cat. ji. ?,7 (1890), 

MacLachlan, Ent. Month. Mag. (2) 8, p. 1.53 (1897). 

LibeUiila trinacria, Seiys. R°cne. Zool. (1841), p. 244. 

Lepthemis trinacria, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien. 18, p. 72 (1868). 

Lihella trinacria, Selys. 

Lihf'llida clnthrata, Rambur. Neur. p. 48 (1842). 

Lihellula Bremti, Id. 

E.xpanse 65-71 mm. Length 47-52 mm. 

Head comparatively small ; eyes just touching ; a deep indigo blue in the 
male; a pale opalnscent green in the female; much paler beneath ; occiput 
large, black, with, in the female, a narrow, bisecting, median, yellow line; 
occipital cavity yellow spotted with black, especially along the borders ; 
vesicle conical, deeply notched, black, tipped with yellow in the female : 
front highly glazed, translucent in the male with the sutures outlined in 
yellow ; pale yellowish green in the female with the base narrowly black ; 
epistome, labrum and labium translucent m the male ; pale opaque yellow 
in the female. 

Prothorax : lobe high, tumid along its free border which is furnished 
with a fringe of hairs, deeply notched. In the msde black, frosted with 
white or blue, in the female black with the front and sides of the lobe 
yeUow. 

Thorax robust, Male black, frosted with blue and usually with no 
markings unless juvenile when a broad mid-dorsal and a simdar humeral 
band may be seen showing through the frosting. Female pale yellowish 
green, the sides more or less thickly frosted with blue or white. In some 
specimens the sides and beneath are quite white. All biar black markings 
more or less obscure as follows: — a broad mid-dorsal fascia, a narrow hume- 
ral streak, incomplete above and below, laterally 3 oblique, narrow fascia? 
which are not always present. The sutures usually outlined in black. 

Legs black in the male; yellow in the female, thefemorae being streaked 
with black. The femorse bear a row of clo.-ply-set, small spines and a 
very long stout spine at the extreme distal ends. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



159 



Abdomen : Ist, 2nd cand 3rd segirents markedly dorso-ventrally dilated, 
the 2nd bearing a strong, angidated euiinence on the doreum, a slight con- 
striction at the 4th and then alniost parallel-sided to tie tud. Lorsiim 
finely keeled, it and lateral borders minutely serrated. Male black ; the 
first 3 segments frosted with white and the underneath coni^iletely white. 
Female smiilar in shape to the male but somewhat stouter, bhick marked 
with yeUow as follows : — the fir&t '6 segmei ts broadly at the sides, the 4th 
to the 7th with a sub-dorsal stripe and a proxin al sub-dort-al sj ot which 
are less marked and grow progressively smaller as traced towards the anal 
end ; 8th and 9th segments all black; the lUth witli a lateral, quadrate siot. 

Anal appendages long, narr<»w and cyliudiical, bJacl, ralhtr It uger than 
the 9th segment in the male, and as long as the ^th and lOth in the female. 

Genital organs of the male , lamina procumbent, stroi.gly arched and 
over-hanging ihe tentacula- ; teiitaculie a pair of stoi.t, curling hooks 
which first approximate in the middle line and then diverge outwards and 
backwards, black and highly glazed. Lobe of large size, higher than the 
tentaculaj. 

Genitals of female: borders of 8th segment not very prominent, foliate, 
broadly notched ; vulvar scale somewhat trumpet-shaped, keeled slightly 
and notched in the middle line. 

Wings long and narrow, reticulation close, hyaline in both sexes. The 
costa and the second series of antenodal nervures biight yellow. Arc 
usually between the 1st and :;i d antti.odal ntrxures ; 1ii}.oi,e in the fore- 
wing traversed, in the hind entire and at the arc ; hypertrigones entire ; 
antenodal nervures 10 ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings; subtrigone formed of 
8 cells ; 2 rows of discoidal cells ; occasionally the teld Le}.ins with one 
row of 3; I row of cells between 5 and ba, occasionally some doubled cells ; 
8th nervure in the hindwing separated from the trigonal anal angle; 
stigma pale yellow heavily bordered with black, o to 3*o mm.; membrane 
moderately large, grey with a w'hite basal border ; loop well-formed ; split 
cells at the outer angle only; apex short; basal part long and narrow, 

Hab. Mesopotamia. 

18. Orthetrum brunneum brunneumi Selys. 
LiMlula hrunnea, Fouscolombei. 
lAhella hrunnea, Brauer. 
Libella cceiulescens, Fonscolomboi. 





Fig, 26.— Wings and male genital organs of O. brvntuum brunneum. 
Expanse 68 mm. Length 48 mm. 



160 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Head ; eyes brown above, olivaceous at the sides and pale green below -. 
vesicle brown ; occiput olivaceous ; epistome and clypeus pale brown or 
greenish brown. 

Prothorax : frosted with blue in adult specimens. 

Thorax : frosted entirely with bright blue in adult specimens. Juvenile 
males and females with short, brownish, humeral bands and 2 lateral, 
ditfuse, whitish-yellow stripes. The humeral stripe bordered with dark 
brown ; the lateral bands extending from humeral region to spiracle and the 
posterior one covering the greater part of the metepimeron. The general 
ground colour a dirty brown or pale yellow. 

Legs brown. 

Wines : arc between the Ist and 2nd antenodal nervures : 2 rows of cells 
between 5 and 5a : 8th nervure in the hindwing at the anal angle of the 
trigone ; trigone in the hindwing often traversed ; antenodal nervures 
12-16 ; base of wing entirely hyaline, or short, safl'ronated rays in the 
hind. 

Stigma small, reddish-brown ; membrane white. 

Abdomen of the male, the base laterally slightly, dorso-ventrally 
but little more dilated. Broad and depressed and gradually tapering to 
the end. Frosted entirely with bright blue. In the female nearly cylin- 
drical, yellowish or greyish brown, with narrow dark borders. Brighter 
coloured beneath. 

Genital organs of male : lamina low, broad and flat, inclined to body- 
axis at about 30°, the end rounded and slightly notched. Tentacular 
uniformly high, the internal a blunt hook, directed somewhat to one side 
and backward. The external separated from it by a somewhat deep notch, 
a little depressed, cupped and oval in shape. Lobe moderately high and 
rather shallowly arched. The whole very small. 

Genital organs of the female : lateral border of the 8th abdominal 
segment fairly strongly dilated, its border spined and bordered with black. 
End of 8th ventral plate with a small shallow incision, small yellowish lobes 
projecting a little posteriorly ; 9th ventral plate tumid, flattened and 
furnished with strong, broad, lateral hooks. 

Hab. Quetta ; Kashmir, Assam. 

19- 0. tceniolatum, Kirby. 

LUndlida tceniolata, Schneider. 
Lihellula toeniolata, Brauer. 
Libellula anceps, Selys. 
Orthetfum brenisUjlum, Kirby. 
Ovthrtrum hyalinum, Kirby. 
Expanse 50-60 mm. Length 35-40 mm. 
Head ; eyes brown above, pale opalescent green at the sides and 
beneath ; occiput, and vesicle olivaceous ; epistome and clypeus pale 
olivaceous or pale yellow ; labrum yellow. 
Prothorax : frosted with blue, no markings. 

Thorax; in adult males, frosted with blue and the markings barely or 
not discernible ; in juvenile males, a broad, light brown fascia on the mid- 
dorsum bordered oubwardly by pale olivaceous, a broad, humeral, warm 
brown fascia bordered anteriorly and posteriori}' with black, laterally 2 
broad, brown fascia, bordered in front by a pale whitish green stripe, 
the hind fascia covering the whole of the metepimeron. 

Legs black, the femorte yellow at the bases. Frosted densely with blue 
which conceals most of the colouring. 

Wings : arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures or occasionally 
opposite the 2nd ; 2 rows of cells between the 5th and oa, even in the 
smallest specimens ; 8th nervure at the anal angle of the trigone or 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 161 

occasionally a shade separated from it ; 10-12 antenodal nervures ; 
hypertrigones entire ; trigone in forewing traversed, in the hind, 
entire. 

Stigma small, narrow, bright yellowish brown, bordered heavily with 
dark brown along the costal border, 2 5mm; costa and the second 
aeries of the antenedal nervures and the cubital nervure, yellow. Mem- 
brane white, grey at the free border ; bases of wings completely hyaline or 
there may be in the females, rays in the inferior costal and cubital 
spaces. 

Abdomen: very slightly dilated laterally at the base, moderately to 
strongly dorso-ventrally. Narrow and tapering near the anal end. 
Entirely frosted with bright blue but in juvenile males, with markings 
showing through ; a narrow black, mid-dorsal line and dark, lateral 
broader lines. 

Anal appendages black, frosted with blue. 

Genital organs of the male ; lamina broad, procumbent, inclined to 
body-axis '6(f, rounded, at the apex, slightly notched, the surface covered 
fairly densely with long line, grey hairs. Tentaculse small, nearly trian- 
gular, laterally cupped. The internal tentacula with a somewhat blunt 
hook, bent backwaids and outvards ; the external not noticeable, 
apparent only as a broad, transverse swelling at the side. Lobe broadly 
rounded. 

Female: markings as in the juvenile males but much better defined. 
The narrow whitish green stripes on the sides are very conspicuous and 
the brown fascie are well defined. 

The legs ochreous or paler yellow. 

Abdomen: very slightly dilated at the base, then cylindrical and more 
robust than iu the male. Yellowish brown in colour; the mid-dorsal ridge 
black with a tendency to beading; the borders especially of the hinder 
segments broadly dark brown. This latter often not present in the basal 
segments. 

Genital orgms of the female : border of Sth segment not dilated ; end of 
eth ventral plate nearly straight, not tumid. 

This species which is the smallest of the genus, shows like many of the 
others, great polychroism, although markedly onstant in its morphology 

Hab. Generally throughout Continental India ; Kashmir below 6,000'; 
Ndgiris below the same altitude ; Ceylon and Burma. 

20. Orthetrum anceps, Kirby. 

Liheliula anceps, Schneider and Brauer. 
LibcUa anceps, Schneider and Brauer. 
Libellula rambiuii, Selys and l^rauer. 
Orthetnim ranihurii^ Mac Lachlan. 
Expanse o8 mm. Length 40 mm. 

Head ; eyes olivaceous brown above, paler beneath ; vesicle brown ; face 
and labrum brownish or olivaceous. 

Prothorax : br:»vvn frosted with blue. 

Thorax : frosted completely with blue with some dark markings and 
ii. yellowish brown tint showing through ; this more evident in juvenile 
males. 

Abtlomen: frosted with blue. Much dilated dorso-ventrally but not at 
all laterally, depressed and near the end, tapering gradually. 

Female similar but no blue frosting ; the sides of the thorax yellowish 
brown with bhick rairkings. The abdomen yellowi-h brown, nearly cylin- 
drical. Iu old speciuiaiia occasionally a little blue frosting. 

21 



162 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HhST. ISOCIETI, Vol. XXVI. 

Wings; antenodal uervures 10-12; arc usually at the 2nd antenodal 
nervuro but not uncommonly between the 1st and 2nd ; generally only 
1 row of cells between 5 and 5a but occasionally a few doubled cells, espe- 
cially in the female ; ^^th nervure arising from the anal angle of tlie 
trigone. 

Membrane white. Htigma large, 3-4'5 mm. relatively broad, yellow to 
bright yellowish brown. Bases completely hyaline, in juvenile malts ; 
at times, a light yellow. 

Genital organs, male : lamina bold, the basal part inclined to the body- 
axis at 60°, the apex blunt, moderately narrowly but deeply notched aiul 
its extreme end almost perpendicular to the body-axis. The tentacuke 
uniformly high, the internal short and furnished laterally with a small 
hook, separated from external by a narrow fissure. The external deeply 
concave, its border curling somewhat, Lobe not as high as tentaculu;", 
arched. . 

, Genital organs of female : border of 8th segment a little dilated, only 
the outer border black ; end of 8th ventral plate very shallowly notched 
and somewhat prominent ; 9th ventral plate somewhat carinated, tumid 
and depressed. 

Hab. Europe, North Africa and Quetta. 

I have not seen specimens from Quetta but L have a number which 1 took 
at Suez. In these, there is but little blue frosting on the thorax, the 
abdomen however being a bright blue. Laterally the thorax has two broad. 
brown fascite separated by a bright, whitish yellow stripe. There is also a 
brown, humeral stripe bordered by dark brown anteriorly. The females 
(all juvenile specimens) have no blue frosting whatever. The humeral 
.stripe and the lateral fascires are well defined. The abdomen is ochreous, 
bordered with dark brown. 

The antenodal nervures number 11-13; there is only 1 row of cells 
between 5 and 5a but occasionally 2 or '■) double cells. The arc is always 
at the 2nd antenodal. 

21. Orthetrum ransonnetti, Kirby. 

Libellula ransonnetti, Brauer. 
lAhella ransonnetti, Brauer. 
Libellula gracilis, Selys. 
Orthetrum gracilis, Kirby. 

Expanse: Male 70 mm. Length, 50 mm. 
Female 72 mm. ,, 5Q mm. 

Head ; face and forehead light yellowish green ; the forehead flattened ; 
Ihe border somewhat rounded. Eyes bottle green above, paler beneath. 

Vesicle and occiput olivaceous or brownish. 

Prothorax : olivaceous. 

Thorax : frosted with blue. 

Legs dark, the bases and curved sides of femorte, a streak on the fiat 
sides of femorfB and a streak on the tibios, black. 

Wings ; arc between antenodal nervures 1 and 2 ; only 1 row of cells 
between 5 and 5n ; hypertrigones entire ; 8th nervure at the anal angle 
of the trigone or it may be a little separated ; membrane white ; bases en- 
tirely hyaline ; stigma very small, a reddish brown ; the costa and the 
nervures in the basal area of the wings, the antenodal nervures and those 
posterior to them, a bright yellow, especially in juvenile males and females. 
In the adult males the nervures usually dark. Antenodal nervures i> 
to 11. 

Abdomen : slightly from side to side and strongly, dorso-ventrally dilated 
and with a very prominent, angnlated keel on the proximal part of tlio 



JNDIdN nRAaONFLlKS. I(i3 

dorsum of the :3nd segmont. llemaiader of abdomen narrow, with the 
sides nearly parallel. Frosted with blue or often black with little or no 
frosting. 

Genital organs of the male : lamina not particularly large, the apical 
half nearly at a right angle to the basal part, broad, triangular and obtuse; 
tentaculie very small and nearly semi-circular as seen from the side, 
strongly cupped and without a distinct external segment ; the internal 
segment laterally deflected at a right angle. The lobe large, overlapped 
slightly by the tentaculse. 

Female rather brighter coloured . 

Head ; face, forehead and labruin very pale, almost white and diapha- 
nous, the labrum often yellowish. 

Thorax : front and laterally a bright yellowish brown, somewhat oliva- 
ceous. Darker at the sides, black beneath. 

Abdomen : the base somewhat dilated but less so than in the male ; 
more robust than in the male ; yellowish brown in colour ; 2 dark 
spots near the apical border of each segment, this border being edged 
narrowly with blackish brown ; beneath black with narrow, reddish, lateral 
spots. 

Genital organs of female : border of 8th segment not dilated ; border 
of 8th ventral plate shallowly arched at the end ; 9th ventral plate not 
prolonged at the end. 

There is a strong tendency to irregularities in the neuration of the 
wings of this species. 

Hab. Mesopotamia, Muscat, and Persia. 

22. Orthetrum chrysostigma luzonicum, Eis. 
Orthetrum chnjsostigina, Selys. 
Orthetrmn luzonica, Kirby. 
Orthetrum tricolor, Kirby. 
Libella luzonica, Brauer. 

Expanse 60 mm. Length 40 mm. 

Head ; eyes brown above, olivaceous at the sides, fading to greenish 
yellow beneath ; forehead usually with a well-defined, black basal line ; 
epistome, clypeus and labrum yellow or greenish yellow; labium yellow 
margined with black or else completely black ; vesicle blackish biown : 
occiput dark olivaceous. 

Prothorax : greenish yellow with a tine, median, black collar just in front 
of the lobe 

Thorax dark olivaceous green with a darker humeral or post-humeral 
fascia, bordered anteriorly with a dark chestnut brown, humeral stripe, 
and behind by a similar stripe which is however more irregular. Laterallj 
a light greenish yellow with 2 very obscure darker stripes. Beneath and 
occasionally the whole of thorax, in very advdt specimens, frosted with 
blue. The tergum a pale greenish yellow. In some specimens, the sides 
are much darker and the greenish yellow tint is almost hidden by black, 
which also spreads over the ventral surface. 

Legs ; anterior femorse yellow ; the ti bite yellow on the outer and black 
on the inner side ; the middle and hind legs black, striped with yellow on 
the outer sides of the femor;». 

"Wings hyaline ; 1 to 2 rows of cells between o and 5« ; 12 to 13 antenodal 
nervures ; 8th nervure well separated from the anal angle of the trigone in 
the hindwing ; arc at the 2nd antenodal in the forewing, between the Isb 
and 2nd in the hind. 

Membrane black ; stigma ochreous, heavily bordered with black, 3 to 
;')'5 mm. ; costa and antenodal nervures yellow. 



164 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVI. 

Abdomen : moderately dilated at the base, then cylindrical and parallel- 
sided to the anal end ; very variable in colouring, either all black and more 
or less frosted with blue or else the anterior segments a greenish yellow 
(usually the 1st to 3rd) ; the autures fir.ely mapped out in black, a diffuse, 
sub-dorsal, brown stripe. The rest of the abdomen obscurely greenish 
yellow and bordered on either side, broadly with black. 'Jhe whole of the 
segments, 4 to 10 usually frosted with blue through which the markings 
show morrt or less faintly. 

Genital organs of the male : lamina wide and procumbent, covered to a 
variable extent with long, coarse hairs, its sides laterally curling or 
thickened and the apex notched. Internal tentacula foliate and membran- 
ous, ending in a small, outwardly directed hook; external tentacula 
broadly triangular and capped on the outer surface ; the lobe not project- 
ing, sloping weU back, broad, shaUowly arched and coated with stiff, coarse 
hairs. 

Female : very similar to the male but rather brighter coloured. 
Haad : eyes are paler, the labrum and the face a brighter green. 
Thorax : always a light yellowish green laterally and with practically no 
markings. 

Abdomen : similar to the male but the black bordering narrower and con- 
sequently the greenish yellow more extensive. No blue frosting as in the 
male. Much stouter than in the male and cylindrical. 
Anal appendages small and black. 

Wings hyaline, often with a marked smokiness. With or without a basal 
marking, which, if present, extends in the forewing as far as the l&t 
antenodal nervure and the cubital nervure ; in the hindwing it extends as 
far as the 2nd antenodal, nearly as far as the trigone and into the border of 
the loop. 

Genital organs of female: S\h. abdominal segment markedly dilated; 
vulvar scale small, deeply notched and semi-bipartite ; 9th ventral plate 
tumid. 

Remarkable polymorphism and polychroism is found in this species and 
gives rise to much confusion in classification. The blue frosting of the 
male is extremely variable, some specimens being densely frosted whilst 
others have the merest trace. The thoracic markings vary widely, Kis 
describing specimens from the Nilgiris, gives the markings as very exten- 
sive, whilst in the specimens that I possess from the same locality, 
save for the humeral stripe, the markings are almost or entirely 
obsolete. 

The dark, basal line on the forehead seems to be constant, being present 
m specimens from Ceylon, Nilgiris, Burma and Malabar. Specimens from 
Deesa agree with my Nilgiri ones. The labium varies in its colouration 
considerably ; thus His f''e scribes a pair from Burma, where the labium of 
the male is completely black, and in the fen^ale, only the middle lobe 
similarly coloured. In Nilgiri specimens the labium is usually completely 
yellow. Burma specimens possess 1 row of cells between 5 and 5a, as do 
also those from Gilgit, whilst, others from the Nilgiris, Deesa, and Ceylon 
may have either 1 or 2 rows of cells. 

Hab. Throughout India except the desert tracts, Nilgiris, Ceylon 
and Burma. 

23. Orthetrum triangulare triangulare, Kirby. 

Lihella trinm/ularis, Selys. 
Lihella delesfrli, Kirby. 
Orthetrum dele-ferfi, Kirby. 
Orthetrum cai-naticum, Kirby. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



166 







27 

Fig, 27. — a. Female genital organs of O, (jlaucum. b. Female genital 
organs of O. tiicmcjulare. c. Male genital organs of O. 
piuinosum. d. Male genital organs of O, trianyulare, 

Male : 

Head ; eyes just meeting, brown above, olivaceous and paler at the 
sides and beneath ; vesicle prominent deeply notched, black ; face brown, 
labriim and labium greenish yellow ; suture deep. 

Frothorax ; dark brown, the lobe furnished with a very long ruff of hairs. 

Thorax : a deep chestnut brown, almost black, laterally a bright greenish 
yellow traversed by a broad brown stripe. The dark brown parts are den- 
sely pubescent ; the yellow parts naked. 

Legs robust, black ; hind femorse with a row of stout ; gradually length- 
ening spines; tlie mid-femor!B similar but the spines much less numerous. 

Claw-hooks robust, nearer base than apex. Tibial spines fairly numerous, 
long and robust. 

Wines broad and lone ; arc between the 2nd and 3rd antenodal nervures 
or at the 2nd ; sectors of arc short in the forewmg, longer in the hind; 
trigone in the lorewing traversed once or twice, its proximal side somewhat 
sinuous ; trigone in the hindwing traversed; its distal side concave ; hyper- 
trigone in the forewing traversed, in the hind entire ; 15 to 17 antenodal 
nervures ; the loop broad and long ; its mid-rib bent to nearly a right angle 
and with split cells both at the trigone and at the outer angle; discoidal 
field broadly dilated, with 3 rows of cells ; 8th nervnre at the anal angle of 
the trigone in the hindwing ; 2 rows of cells between 5 and 5«. 

Stigma dark brown, large. Membrane dark grey. At the base of the hind- 
wing a dark, opaque, blackjsh brown, triangular mark reaching in the superior 
costal space to the 1st antenodal nervnre, in the inferior costal space to the 
2nd, rather more than half-way over the sub-costal and cubital spaces and 
from thence sloping gradually to about the middle of the membrane. Just 
a suspicion of a brownish black mark in the forewing. 

Apices of wings faintly smoky. 

Abdomen, ventro-dorsally, dilated at the base, then markedly depressed 
as far as the 7th segment, from which point to the anal end it is strongly 
carinated. Markedly fusiform, the broadest part at the 4lh and nth seg- 
ments ; 1st and 2nd segments^ deep mahogany brown, the 1st segment being 
densely coated with h^ng hair, especially at the sides ; 3rd to 7th bright 
cobalt blue; the remaining segments black. 



]66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCLETY. Vol. XXVl. 

Anal appendages black, long, cylindrical and a little sinuous. 

Genital organs : lamina somewhat depressed, its end somewhat tapering, 
m front coated thinly with long, coarse, black bristles ; tentacul;© small, 
the internal, a hook, curving on itself and separated from the external by 
a shallow notch ; the external slightlj'^ overlapping the lobe, depressed and 
somewhat rounded. Lobe large, rounded. 

Female : rather more robust than the male. 

Head ; eyes olivaceous above, opalescent slaty blue laterally and below ; 
labrum and labium yellow ; face greenish yellow. 

Prothorax and thorax : a golden brown with a greenish tinge. A broad, 
brown, diffuse, humeral stripe. Laterally, similar to the male, the con- 
trast in the colour not being nearly so marked on account of the paler 
LiTOund colour. 

Abdomen: golden brown or yellowish, the first 8 segments with a marked 
•ireenish tinge. The mid-dorsal ridge darker and a bordering of diffuse, 
greenish lunules. Beneath yellowish, lateral spots on each segment. 

Female genital organs as shown ; the border of the 8th segment mark- 
edly dilated ; stout lateral spines on the border of 9th ventral plate. 

Wings : a bright, golden yellow spot on the basal area of the hindwing 
extending outwardly as far as the basal spot in the male, but not as far 
back as the middle of the membrane. 

Legs paler than in the male, femone a golden yellow at the base and 
on their inner surfaces. 

In females from the Nilgiris the mid-dorsal ridge and the sutures and 
intersegmental nodes are all finely mapped out in black. There ia a broad 
sub-dorsal brownish fasciaj extending tbe whole length of the abdomen 
and covering most of the area of the hinder segments. A greenish yellow 
stripe on the tergum is continued on to the first .*! segments of the 
abdomen. 

Hab. Burma, Sikkim, Khasia Hills. Murree, Kashmir •').<>()()', Nilgiris 
and Ceylon 6,500'. 

24. Orthetrum glaucum, Kirby. Cat. p. 39 (1890). 

Ld. Jour. JAnn. Soc. ZooL '2X, p. o5o (J 893). 
Karsch, Kruger and Martin. 
Orthetrum Nicevillei, Kirby, An. May. Nat. Hist. 14, 112 (1894). 

Laidlaw, Proc. ZooL Soc Lond. (1902) 1, p. 68. 
Libellula fflauca, Brduer (I860), Zool hot. Wien. 15, p. (1012). 
Libella glaur.a, Braner (1868), ZooL hot. Wien. IS, p. 732. 
Head ; adult male ; face black, the epistome somewhat paler or a bright 
brown ; forehead a deep black, it and the vesicle a dull, metallic blue by 
reflected light. In the juvenile male and the female, the face and fore- 
head a bright yellow. 

Prothorax, thorax and abdomen of the adult male : entirely frosted with 
a dark blue. Juvenile males and females olivaceous with broad, diffuse, 
humeral bands and laterally 2 bright, greenish yellow bands, one anterior 
and the other covering the front half of the metepimerou. 

Legs black in adult males, brown or yellowish in juvenile males and in 
females. 

Wings : trigone in the hindwing entire ; arc between the 2nd and 3rd 
antenodal nervures ; 2 rows of cells between 5 and ^m : 8th nervnre in the 
hindwing arising from the anal angle of the trigone. 
Membrane black. 

In the male, a golden brown, basal spot in the hindwing extending as 
far as the 1st antenodal ne'-vure, somewhat beyond the cubital nervure 
and about 2 cells beyond the end of the membrane. The reticulation is 
in this spot in adult forms frosted with blue. The costa narrowly yellow. 



INDIA y DRA a OS FLIES. 



167' 



Genital organs y£ the male : lamina very depressed in its basal half, 30". 
then turning abruptly outwards and at its extreme apex, curling forwards, 
Apex fairly acute. Internal tentacular furnished with a bold spur which 
i^ bent somewhat to one side at its apex, separated from the external ten- 
taculse by a moderately, deep, arched fissure. Lobe high and strongly 
iirched. 

Genital organs of the female : border of fctth segment, narrowly and 
foliately dilated, the dilatation black and strongly toothed ; end of 8th 
ventral plate notched slightly ; 9th ventral plate flatly arched. 

Anal appendages in both sexes black. 

Hab. Ceylon, Bengal, Burma, Tennasserim, Khasia Hills, and Nilgiris. 

Specimens from the Nilgiris vary widelj"- in the females. The measure- 
ments of the two sexes are as follows : — Male, expanse 80 mm. Length 
;">u mm. Female, expanse 72 to 78 mm. length 45 to 48 mm. The abdomen of 
the males is long, moderately narrow for its length, depressed and a bright, 
cobalt blue, the hinder half of the 8th and the whole of the 9th and 10th 
segments being black. The thorax in the female is a rich chocolate brown, 
variably overlaid with a blue frosting which more or less obscures the 
luarkings according to the age of the specimen. The dorsum is inclined 
t> be bronzed and is distinctly paler. There is a pale, whitish yellow stripe 
<m the tergum and 2 more or less bright, moderately narrow, whitish 
yellow Btripes on the sides which become obsolete as traced upwards. The 
nbdomen is stouter and shorter than that of the male, a dark olivaceous 
tint, the borders and sub-dorsum diffusely black. Beneath, on each seg- 
ment, are a pair of bright yellow lunules. The first 3 segments of the 
abdomen are often thinly frosted with blue. 

The wings are not uncommonly, faintly smoky, especially at the apices. 

Stigma brown, bordered with black. .3'5 mm. 

Hab. Nilgirie 5,000' to 6,000'. 

25. OrthetrunD sabina, Kirby. 
Libellula sabina Drury. 
Lepthemis sabina, Brauer. 
Libella sabina, Selys. 
Orthetrum sabinum, Ris. 
Liebellula gibba, Fabricius. 
Orthetrwm diviaum. Kifbv, 



Lihelltda leptura, Burmeister. 
Orthetrum leptura, Kirby. 
Orthetrum lepturum, Needham. 
Libellula ampullacea, Schneider 
Lntthemix divistn, Selys. 




Fij 



■2H. 



-Wings of Orthetrum sabirut (x2). 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

;" V- Expanse 70 mm. Length 50 mm. 

Head: occipnt olivaceous ; eyes a bottle green, paler beneath ; epistomo. 
clypeUjS and labrum, a greenish yellow, the upper part of former, blackish ; 
vesicle brown. , 

Probhorax; the anterior and middle lobes black with a fine bprderin^ 
of yellow anteriorly, the posterior lobe yellow. 

■ Thorax : greenish yellow with the following black markings :— a fane, 
mid-dorsal line, a narrow humeral line, 4 narrow lateral lines and an in- 
complete lino on the metepiraeron. The forepart of tergum and the 
attachments of the wings on either side of tergum powdered with' cobalt 
blue, this latter more evident in old specimens. Beneath greenish yellow, 
the sutures outlined in black. 

Legs ; outer surfaces yellow, inner black. , 

Wings hyaline, the costa and many nerVures at the base, principally the 
antenodal and cubital, yellow. At the base of the hindwjng a small b3,saJ 
marking extending along the membrane for about 2 cells width and in the- 
cubital space for not quite half-way to the cubital pervure. 12-13 
antenodal nervures ; arc between the 2nd and brd antenodal nervures 
soinetimes at the 2nd and rarely between the 1st and 2nd; 8th nervure 
widely separated from the anal angle of trigone in the hindwiug ; trigone 
and hypertrigone in the forewing traversed, in the hind, both entire. 

Stigma a bright yellowish brown, '&5 mm. ; membrane blac^, occasionally 
spotted with yellow. 

Abdomen : segments 1 to 3 laterally, slightly, ventro-dorsally^ greatly 
dila,ted ; the 3rd narrowing rapidly, the 4th, 5th and 6th slim and cylin- 
drical, the 7th, 8th and 9th strongly, veutro-dorsally dilated. , Segments 1 
to 3 yellowish-green with the sutures, including the transverse ridge on 
the 3rd, mapped out finely in black, the remaining segments black with 
long, oval spots of yellow on the borders of the 4th to 6th. In very adult 
specimens, there is often a thin, white frosting to the underside of the 
thorax and abdomen and entirely frosted specimens are not unknown, the 
variation in the colour and markings being extremely wide. 

Anal appendages : a pale green, almost white. >. 

Colouration of female : very similar to that of male. 

Genital organs of male : lamina prominent, inclination to the body axis 
45° ; the apical part more so, about a right angle, and somewhat tapered, 
furnished with 2 tufts of stout, yellowish bristles which diverge strongly 
from oae another. The internal tentacula with only a small hook, the 
external depressed, black, strongly concave and shell-like; the lobe longi- 
tudinally broad, shailowly arched and coated thickly with stout, coarse 
bristles. 

Genital organs of female : border of 8th segment, mo^terately foliately 
dilated, strongly spined. End of 8th ventral plate; flatly arched, notched, 
the borders of the notch turning outwards ; 9th ventral plate iu its basal 
half steeply carinated, in the apical half, swollen. 

Hab. All India, Ceylon and Straits ; Mesopotamia and Basra. 

26. Orthetrum testaceum testaceum, Ris. 

Ortliefrum teataceum, Kirby, 

Libdlula -testacen, Burmeister. ' : ' , ■: 

Eri/themis tentacea, Brauer. )%'■/- 

Libella tesiacea, Brauer. ' ,'.\-\ ■ 

Expanse 36 to ■^O mm. Length 66 to 74 itihii.' ' 
Head; forehead orange or reddish; face yellow; eyes opalescent 
slaty blue, paler beneath ; vesicle and occiput brownish, 
Prothorax : golden brown. 
Thorax : reddish brown ; no markings ; often a thin bluish frosting present 



,,j,^.^ ^ ...:.lNpiA]^yPBAGONFLlF.S. ; 169 

Abdomen elighly dorso-ventrally dilated at the base, moderately con- 
stricted at the 3rd segment, then moderately broad and depressed and 
tapering gradually to the end. Bright scariet red. 

Wings relatively long ; trigone ia the hiudwing traversed; arc between 
the 2nd and iJrd antenodalniervures ; 2 rows of cells betweien 5 and 5a; 
Sthliieryure arising from the anal angle of the trigone in the hindwing ; 
brown basal marking in the hiudwing extending as far as the 2nd antene- 
dal and the arc. 

Membrane black. Stigma reddish brown, 3 mm. 

Female : a golden brown, the sides of thorax and the abdomen with an 
olivaceous, or greenish tinge. '1 he sutures and mid-dorsal ridge finely out- 
lined in black. The borders of the abdomen and the end segments, as well 
as the dilatation of the 8th segment, didusely black. 

Genital organs of the male : lamina moderately depressed (SO*^), the 
terminal part turning out somewhat, the outer surface not markedly 
furnished with hairs and no special tufb of bristles. Tentaculse of uniform 
height, short and blunt ; the two segments separated by a fairly broad 
notch. Lobe much broadened in the length of the insect, scarcely arched. 

Genital organ of the female : border of the 8th segment foliately 
broadened ; em I of 8th ventral plate projecting in the middle line as^ a 
small/; obtu.^e angled vulvar scale with a snail, rcunded lole on either fcide 
of it. Border of 9th segment rounded and the 9th ventral plate tumid, 
not prolonged i 

Hab. India, N.-E. Burma and Sikkim. 

271 ' Orthetrum chrysis, Ris : Kruger. 

' '' ' hibelLa testaceu vAce clivysis, S'elys. 

Expanse 68 mm. Length 40 mm. 

Head ; eiyes brown above, paler at the sides and beneath ; vesicle and 
occipiit olivaceus or pale brown; forehead dark red or ochreous ; face 
and labrum pale ochreous or yellow. 

Pro thorax ; ochreous. 

Thorax : dark red or occasionally a dark, rich ochreous without any 
niartings. Abdomen dark red or rich orange yellow. 

Legs' yellow or pale brown. 

Wings relatively short ; the basal spot in hindwing smaller than in 
O. testqcea, extending oidy as far as the antenodal nervure, to the cubital 
nervqi-ie, and for about 2 to 3 cells beyond the end of membrane; trigone 
ia the hindwing traversed as a rule ; arc between the 2nd and 3rd 
antenodal nervures ; 2 rows of cells between 5 and 5a ; 8th nervure 
arisitig from the anal angle of the trigone in hindwing ; membrane black ; 
antenodal nervures 15. 

Stigma blackish brown (3 mm.). The basal spot in the hindwing a 
golden brown colour, 

Femalb : similar but a darker, ochreous nr olivaceous brown colour. 

Genital organs of the male ; lamina difl'ering very slightly from that of 
O. testacea, but the outer surface furnished with a tuft of marketlly sloping, 
stiff, black hairs ; the fissure separating the tentaculse rather deeper than 
in testacea ; lobe moderate, arched. 

Genital organs of the female : very similar to testacea. 

Hab" India generally and Ceylon. 

The distinctions between this insect and testacea are not very striking 
and' they may be but local varieties. The small size of the basal 
marking in the hindwing and the tuft of hairs on the lamina are 
the m6st' Striking points. Specimens taken in Poona are all a brillia,nt 
ochreous yellow and are usually taken away from water in company with 
parii'dla'. ' 

22 



170 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

28. Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum, Ris. 

Libellula neglecta, Rambur. 

Libella neglecta, Selys. 

Orthetrum neglecta, Kirby. Cat. p. 182 (189U). 

Morton, Trans, Ent. Soc, L(md. (1907), p. 305. ; 
Libellula petalura, Brauer. 
Libella petalur a, Brauer. 

Orthetrum petalura, Kirby, Cat. p. 39 (1890). 
Libellula pruinona, Brauer. 

Orthetrum p7-uinosum,Kichy , Proc. Zool. S<>c. Land. (1886), p. 327. 
Libella pruinosa clelia, Selys. 

Orthetrum pruinosum ceylanicum, Forster. 1903, p. 541. Ann. Mun. 
Hung. 

Male : Expanse 72 mm. Length 45 mm. 
Head ; eyes a deep, blackish blue above, slaty blue beneath ; occiput 
vesicle and face a dark brown ; upper part of epistome and forehead a dull 
metallic blue black. 

Prothorax : dark crimson overlaid with a thin blue frosting. 
Thorax a rich, dark crimson overlaid with blue frosting which gives it 
a rich violet tint, reminding one of the bloom on a damson. No markings. 
Legs black. 

Wings long and broad, hyaline, often a little smoky at the apices ; 
a dark amber-coloured patch in the basal area of the hindwing extending 
as far as the 1st antenodal nervure and slightly beyond the cubital 
uervure, over 1 or 2 cells of the loop and 2 to 3 cells beyond the end of tho 
membrane. 

Stigma dark brown, almost black, 3 mm. ; membrane grey or black. 
Trigone in the hindwing traversed ; 2 rows of cells between 5 and 5a ; 
antenodal nervures 14 to 15 ; loop well formed, split cells at the trigone 
and at the external angle ; 3 rows of cells in discoidal field. 

Abdomen markedly, dorso-ventrally dilated at the base, then moderately 
broad, parallel-sized and markedly depressed. A rich crimson without any 
markings and overlaid, especially the first 3 segments, with a thin bine 
frosting which gives it a violet appearance. 
Anal appendages: crimson, short, cylindrical. 

Genital organs ; lamina procumbent, only the apex turning out a little ; 
inclination to the body axis about 30°; the outer surface furnished with long, 
stiff black bristles. The inner segment of the tentaculse furnished with a 
backwardly and somewhat outwardly directed hook and separated from 
the external segment by a moderately deep, arched fissure. Lobe mode- 
rately procumbent, rounded and arched. 

Female : Expanse 65 mm. Length 43 mm. 
Head ; eyes warm brown above or occasionally a bottle green, slaty 
blue beneath ; occiput olivaceous brown : vesicle, clypeus and labrum 
olivaceous and glassy or diaphanous. 
Prothorax brown. 

Thorax varies considerably in its colouring. The ground colour may 
be a dull olivaceous brown with obsolete markings or it may be a golden, 
brown with a greenish tinge. A broad, humeral, brown fascia bordered in 
front and behind with black and the black border in front again bordered 
with pale whitish green ; laterally ohvaceous brown or pale greenish 
yellow with a median black streak. 

Legs olivaceous at the bases of f emoris, black beneath and at the distal 
ends of femorse and the tibiso. 

Wings hyaline ; the apices faintly smoky. No basal markings to hmd-. 
wings. Antenodal nervures 12. 



INDIAN DRAOONJ'I.II'JS. 171 

Abdojneu : usually au olivaceous brown with obscure yellow spots aloug the ' 
borders. Often there is a broad, mid-dorsal, black streak which expands 
itt the distal end of each segment and the marginal spots may be obscured 
by a black bordering or a diffuse brown. 

Anal appendages : short, cylindrical, brown. 

Genital organs : 8th abdominal segment with a narrow, foliate dilatation 
of its borders. 

Hab. India throughout, Oeylon and Burma. 

(To hf. (•nniinvc.d.) 



. X72' 
NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DISTT., PUNJAB 

BY ■ ' ' " 

H. Whistler, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 
Part II. 

(^Continued from page 681 0/ Volume XX V.) 

813. The Swallow — Hirundo rustica, L. 

This swallow was definitely identified on the folio-wing 
occasions : — 1 at Ambala on November 1st, 1 near Jagadri on 
November 3Uth, a party at Ambala on 10th December, 3 at 
Rupar on 21st March, and a party in Cantonments on 10th 
April. 

818*. The Wire-tailed Swallow — Hirundo smithii, Leach. 

" I have frequently heard from my late friend Dr. Scott that 
this swallow occurs in some abundance about Ambala in certain 
seasons, and breeds there" (Eeavan). 1 met with three only, at 
Chandishar on 10th November, and at Ambala on 21st and 
23rd November. It is doubtless a summer resident. 

823. Syke's Striated Swallow — Hirundo erythrojyyia, Sykes. 

Striated swallows were common and generally distributed 
during my stay in the district, and were probably for the most 
part if not entirely of this species. Ihe only specimen pre- 
served proved to bo Sykes Striated Swallow. A few must 
breed in the district as 1 saw one of their old nests under a 
culvert. 
826. The White Wagtail — Motacilla alba, L, 

This common winter visitor had already arrived when J 
reached the district on the 23rd of October and it continued 
abundant until my departure on 20th April. It was generally 
distributed except in the low hills about Kalka and Kasauli 
where I did not meet with it. 

Beavan has a long note on this species under the name of 
Motacilla luzionensis in which he gives the dates of its arrival 
as follows : — 

1863. Ambala. September 8. (Dr. Scott.) 

1864. Sunawar near Kasauli. September 8. (Dr. Scott.) 

1865. Ambala. September 30. "Abundant, have been in 

some days" (Dr. Scott.) 

1866. Ambala. "Sept. 11. Dr. Scott. 

He states also on the authority of Dr. Scott that it leaves 
Ambala about the end of April. 
829. The Masked Wagtail — Motacilla jiersonata, Gld. 

A common winter visitor but less numerous than the last 
species with which it freely consorts. It was observed in the 
same localities and for the same period. 

831. The Large Pied Wagtail — Motacilla maderaspatensis, Gm. 

One was seen at a masonry tank at Jagadri on 30th Novem- 
ber, and two more at a shrine near the river at Rupar on 18th 
December. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 173 

832. The Grey Wagtail — Motacilla melanope. Pall. 

Generally dispersed throughout the district and almost always 
solitary ; this Wagtail was observed on 20 dates between 23rd 
October and April 12th. 

Beavan says that Dr. Scott' observed the species. "In 186S 
in Ambala on September 3rd ; and in 1866, on 21st Sep- 
tember, upwards of 60 in a flock." Ihis last record if correct 
is most remarkable, but 1 fear that it more probably referred to 
some other form of Wagtail. 

833. The Grey-headed Wagtail — Motacilla borealis, Sundev. 
835. The Indian Blue-headed Wagtail — Motacilla heema, Sykes. 

' Both these races of Wagtail occur in the district, but in the 

absence of a safhcient number of specimens obtained, I was 
unable to work out their status. Yellow Wagtails of sorts were 
noted in December, February and March, and became most 
abundant on passage in April.* 

837.* The Yellow-headed Wagtail— iIfcr/«cj7/« citrcola, Pall. 

838, Hodgson's Yellow-headed Wagtail — Motacilla citreo'oides (Hodga.) 
YeUojW-headed Wagtails were observed commonly about the 
marshes of Chamkaur on 13th and I4th December, and a 
few were seen on other dates in the winter, with an increase 
on migration in April. Both forms were probably represented 
but I failed to secure a series to settle the point. 

840. The Tree Pipit— ^ra/A/Js triiialis (L.). 

Met with in small numbers from the beginning of November 
until the end of February: during March it seemed to become 
more numerous, and at the end of that month and during the 
first half of April there were certainly a number passing through 
on the spring migration. 

844*. The Brown Rock Pipit — Antlms similis (Jerd.). 

A large Pipit which was probably of this species was seen 
on the edge of the Ghaggar Nala at Chandighar on loth 
February. 

848*. The Tawny Pipit — Anthus campestris (L.). 

Observed in small numbers about the neighbourhood of Civil 
Lines from November to the middle of January. 

861. ft. The Central Asian Pipit — Anihus blakistor.i (Harlut.). 

This Pipit was found in great numbers about Mubariqpur 
from 5th to 7th November ; it was frequenting the coarse 
rushy grass on the banks of the Ghaggfir, and also the rice 
' ' fields and swampy ground of the marshes there. When I 

visited this same ground on ]9-20th February the nvmbers were 
gone, but there were a few Pipits about, which may have been of 
the same species. 

A number of Pipits met in similar situations at Chamkaur on 
13th and 14th December, and by the Sutlej at Eupar on 22nd 
March were attributed to this species, but no specimens were 
obtained. 

* Reavan has a short note on Motacilla viridis but not of sufficient value to 
merit any speculation as to its identity. The same name occurs la Dr. Scott'* 
catalogue. 



lyi JOUHNAL, BOMBAY NAT VliAL ULSl\ .SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

853, The Upland Pipit — Oi-eocorys sylvanus (Hodgs.). 

This curious Pipit was common on tho open hillside of the 
northerly face of Kasauli when I was there early in March. 
It was not shy and would allow a close approach before rising. 
The call or song is a curious sawing creaking sound of several 
notes, rather ventriloqual and difficult to locate, and is uttered 
both from the ground or a tree top. Although the specie^ 
appeared to be already paired the organs of two birds shot 
were not yet developed. 

859, The Eastern Calandra Lark — Melanocorypha bimactdata (Men.). 

An Editorial note to Captain Beavan's account of this species, 
which he had never met in the wild state, says :■ — " Lord 
Walden informs us that he has received many specimens of 
this species shot in the neighbourhood of Ambala." in Dr. 
Scott's list there is the note, " in thousands this year." 

I met with two flocks of Larks which I attributed to this 
species, namely between Bilaspur and Jagadri, on 30th Novem- 
ber, and near Ambala on 15th February, but no specimens wen- 
obtained. 

862. The Short-toed Lark — Calandrella brachydactyla (Loisl.). 

A winter visitor occurring in flocks and noted at Ambala, 
Morinda and Mubariqpur. As no specimens were collected it 
is impossible to be certain of the race represented. 

867. The Indus Sand-lark — Alaudula adamsi (Hume). 

Found in small numbers frequenting the bed of the (Uiagga.r 
river at Mubariqpur in November and February. 

869. The Singing BxxBh.- lark— Mira/ra caniillans, Jerd. 

One or two were observed between Bilaspur and Jagadri 
on 30th November. 

871. The Ked-wingedBnsh-lark — Mirafra eryihroptera, Jerd. 

"At Ambala, November 13th, 1866, I thot a specimen in a 
small enclosed garden. It alighted on the ground after buijij: 
lirst disturbed, and squatted under a low bush, trying, when 
wounded, to get refuge in a rat-hole" (Beavan). 

I shot a solitary male in a field of growing wheat at Ambala 
on 16th February and believe that 1 saw one or two of this 
species on 25th November near Bilaspur, 
874*. The Crested Ijsuk—Galerita cristata (L.). 

"Ambala, January 18(i6" (Beavan), 

Common and probably resident ; observed at Ambala, Mo- 
rinda, Chandighar, Mubariqpur, and Mani Majra, 

875*. Sykes' Crested hark— G a lerit a deva (Sykes). 

"Abundant at Ambala. I put up 3 or 4 of these birds out 
of low cultivation ; their flight is somewhat hovering, like that 
oi a. Mimfra". (Beavan.) 
879*. The Ashy-crowned Finch-laik — Pyrrhvlauda yrisea (Scop.). 

Observed, sometime in flocks of a dozen individuals, on 
various dates between 3rcl November and 25th March, at 
Ambala, Mubariqpur, Chandighar and Mani Majra. The bed 
of the Ghaggar river at the bases of the hills by Chandighar 
was a favourite locality. 

895*. The Purple Sunbird — Arnr.hnecthra asiatica (Lath.) 

The distribution of this ei.tcies in the Ambala District is 
interesting as illustrating how the district is divided in its 



J^OTI^S ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DJSTUICT, PUNJAB. \ir, 

affinities between tlift Punjab and the United Provinces. About 
Ambala itself the Purple Honeysucker is a most abundant 
summer resident, as in the case of the districts of the Punjab 
proper. It had already left when I arrived and returned about 
the Ist of March; its arrival was most marked as it became 
general and abundant in the space of a few days. On the other 
hand in the submontane area, such as Mubariqpur and Chan- 
dighar it was not uncommon throughout the winter, and 
far smaller numbers seemed to winter also about Morinda. 
Rupar and Bilaspur. 

Beavan in recording this bird from Ambala District describes 
the winter plumage — the Cinvyiis currvcaria of Sykes which is 
erroneously stated in the Fauna of British India, Vol. ii, p. 359. 
to be a mark of age. 

It breeds freely in the foothills between Kalka and Kasauli. 
its upper limit being roughly about the r>th milestone, lut 
I did not meet it there in December. 

921. The Thick-billed Flowerpecker — Piprisoma squalidum (Burt.). 

A male of this curious and often overlooked little bird w as 
shot by me at Mubariqpur on 20th February ; it appeared to be 
not uncommon in the mango groves of Morinda from the 18th to 
20th March, and I observed a single bird in the District Board 
garden at Ambala on 1st April. This last had settled to roost for 
the night on a twig of a Cirrhus-tree under a sort of pent-house 
roof formed by two of the large flat seed cases of the tree, which 
were hanging from another twig. 

969. The Brown-fronted Pied Woodpecker — Dcndrocopvs auriceps (Vig.) 
A pair were haunting the neighbourhood of the Dak bui- 
galow at Kasauli when I was there from 6th to 9th 
March. 

972. The Yellow-fronted Pied Woodpecker — Liopicvs mahrattensix 
(Lath.). 

This Woodpecker was met with in small numbers and I found 
two nests with eggs. The first one was obtained on 28th Marcli 
at Ambala and contained 3 slightly incubated eggs, the second 
was in a Kikur tree by the road past Eassi City and contained 
3 slightly incubated eggs on 31st March. 

986, The Golden-backed Wrodptcker. — BraclyjHfiniis avraniius (L.>. 
Abundant and generally distributed. 

1003. The Common Wryneck — 1 yv.r loKjviUa, Linn. 

Oidy two individuals v ere observed, one on the outf-kirts ct 
Cantonments on 1st January and the other at Chandighar on 
J.'^th February. The latter was skulking in the bushes en one 
of the low hills in such a curious manner that I thought it was 
going to allow itself to be caught by hand. 

1019. The Crimson-breasted Barbet — Xantholocma hcematocephala 
(P. L s. Muller). 

Abundant and resident ; although an odd bird might be heard 
calling a little during the winter, their " tonk-tonk " did not 
become a familiar sound until after the middle of February. 
Eggs were found as follows: — 19th March, c/3 fresh and c/2 
fresh ; 28th March, c/3 moderately incubated. On one occasion 
1 saw a Barbet excavating its nest-hole in a decayed bough ; it 
was holding on and ham.mering like a Woodpecker. 



176 JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIBTT, tdl.^Xl^l. 



1022, The Indian Roller — Coracias indica, L. ,,,/, 

Common and generally distributed. . , 

102G.* The Common Indian Bee-eater — Merops viridis, Linn. 

This common and generally distributed summer visitor was 
also noted in small numbers during the wmter, a few birds 
wintering here and there in favoured spots. The advance guard 
started to arrive in J^ebruary and by the middle of March the 
species seemed to have reached its full numbers. When at 
Kasauli in the second week of March I watched several 
flights working up from the valley up the hill past the Dak 
bungalow on ditlerent days and 1 presume that these were on 
migration. 

1033*. The Indian Pied Kingfisher — Ceryle laria, Striokl. ' 
Common and probably resident. ■ 

1035. .The Common Kingfisher — Alcedo ispida, Linn. 

Not uncommon in the submontane and well watered area 
about Chandighar and Mubariqpur during the winter : one was 
al-io seen at (Jhamkaur. 

Beavan writes : " I procured a single specimen in November 
1865 at Ambala, where, however, it is far from common." 

1044*. The White-breasted Kingfisher — Halcyon smi/nunais (L.) 
Common and probably resident. 

1053. The Indo-Burmese Pied Hornbill — Jnthracoceros albirostris 

(Shaw and Nodd). 

In my Father's game-book there is a note about * black and 

white Hornbiils ' found at Morni on ^8th November 1886. 

This can only refer to this species. which occurs in Dr. 

Scott's list under the locality' Siwaliks. 

1062. The Common Grey Hornbill — Lophoceros bimstris (Scop.) 

"At Amballa on 16th November 1866 1 procured a specimen." 
(Beavan.) 

Although not very common in Ambala itself this Hornbill 
was particularly abundant about Morinda, Kharali, Kharar, 
aiul in smaller numbers at Chandighar and Mubariqpur. It is 
doubtless a resident species. 

Specimens obtained at Ambala are mentioned by the Mar- 
shall (Stray Feathers, Vol. III., p 331;. 

1066. The European Hoopo3 — Upupa ppops, Linn. 

Detailed notes by Dr. David Scott, on the habits of Hoopoes 
at Ambala, wdl be found in the " Ibis ' for 18ti6, p. 2:^2, and 
1867, p. 135. These notes are referred to and amplified by 
Dr. Jerdon in the " Ibis " for 1872, p. 21. 1 found the Hoopoe 
common and generally distribntad throughout my stay in the 
district and took a nest with 3 eggs on April 4th. Owing to the 
war I have failed to have the skins collected critically exa- 
mined, so provisionally accept Dr. Scott's identification, al- 
though 1 believe that the species represented is more likely to 
be Upupa indica. 

1073. The Common Indian Swift — Ci/pselus nffini'f. Gray and Hardw. 
A few were seen in November, and after that with Ihe ex- 
ception of a single bird on December 2, none were seen unt'l 
Febiuiry : they were common from the middle of that mouth 
until my departure. Numerous at Kasauli in March, 



NOTHS ON THE ^IRDS OI AM BAZA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 177 

1082. The Himalayan Swiftlet— CoZZocatZta fusciphaga, Thumb. 

On 13th February I found a number of these Swifts flying low 
over the Ghaggar Nala at Chandighar just at the entrance to 
the hills. 

1091.* The Common Indian Nightjar — Capnmulgus asiaticus, Lath. 

On the nights of 25th and 26th March when in camp at 
Chandighar I heard the call of this Nightjar after dark, and I 
also heard it on the early morning of 26th March. The call 
imitates very exactly the sound made by a stone as it bimips 
rapidly over ice, when thrown along the surface. 

1109. The Common Hawk Cuckoo — Hierococcyx varius (Vahl.) 

I first heard this fine Cuckoo calling on 19th February, but 
did not hear it again until Ist March, after which date it 
seemed to become common and uttered freely both the " brain 
fever " note and the whirring ascending trill ; on some occasions 
it was heard after dark. It occurred at Morinda, Rupar, 
Kharar, and Chandighar, in addition to Ambala. 

1120. The Indian Koel — EudgnamiH honorata (Linn.) 

The first Koel of the summer was heard calling at Ambala on 
11th April; and after that I heard a few more before my de- 
parture on 20th April, but up to that date the majority had 
clearly not arrived. 

1129. The Sirkeer Cuckoo — Taccocua leschenaidti, Less. 

I shot a female of this curious Cuckoo in the garden of the 
rest-house at Kharar on 20th December. 

Beavan observes : " This species was apparently procured by 
the late Dr. Scott at Ambala, as it is included in the list of the 
birds sent thence by him to the Montrose Museum." * 

One was shot by my Father at Kalka on 25th January 1887. 

1130. The Common Coucal — Centropus sinensis (Steph.) 

Generally distributed in small numbers and doubtless'resident. 

1135. The Large Indian Paroquet — Palceornis nepalensis, Hodgs. 

With the exception of two individuals seen at Kharar on 24th 
March, I only observed this species at Chandighar ; there I 
saw one or two flocks on 13th February and some odd birds on 
26th and 27th March. Beavan states : " Noticed by the late 
Dr. Scott as abundant at Ambala in August 1867, but a merely 
temporary visitor at that Station, and apparently arriving 
there just after the young birds of the year are flown. Most 
specimens are then in bad plumage." 

1138. The Rose-ringed Paroquet — Palceornis torquatus (Bodd.) 

Beavan found this Paroquet to be " excessively abundant 
about gardens at Ambala in the cold weather, and in March I 
saw one or two pairs breeding there " — a .description with which 
no later observer will quarrel. It is of course resident, and I 
doubt whether it ever reaches as high as Kasauli. 

1139. The Western Blossom-headed Paroquet — Palceornis cyanocepha- 

lus (L.) 
Not uncommon and generally distributed. Attention is 
usually drawn to this Paroquet by its call which is uttered in 
flight and is easily distinguishable from that of the last two 



111 the printed catalog-ue the only Ibcality jziven in " Siwaliks. 



23 



nS JOURNAL, BOMBAY :^'ATUliAL H18T. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

species ; its smaller size and relatively longer tail tipped vpith 
yellow, and in the male the plum-coloured head, are also easily 
noticed in flight. It flies very rapidly and usually at a great 
height Odd birds may be found in flocks of P. torquatus, but 
where it is common separate flocks occur. 

1152. The Barn Owl — Stri.r /lammea, L, 

One or two pairs were observed to be living in the old and 
hollow trees of the ancient mango groves about the rest-house 
at Morinda when I was there on the 18th March. 

1157*. The Short-eared Owl. — Asio accipitrinus (^Pall.) 

1 did not meet with the Short-eared Owl, but Beavan states 
that he obtained a specimen at Ambala on 6th November 1866. 

1158. The Himalayan Wood-owl — Syrnium niricola (Hodgs.) 

"Captain G. F. L. Marshall shot one at Kasauli, at a height 
of only 5,000 feet above the sea, and this is the lowest level at 
which 1 have known it to occur. " (Hume's " My Scrapbook " 
p. 361.) 

1161*. The Mottled Wood-owl — ^yrnium ocellatuvi, Less. 

Occurs in the Scott catalogue with the 1< cality Ambala. 

1164. The Brown Fish-owl — Eetupa zrylonensis (Gm.). 

Beavan says : — " At Ambala, on 16th November 1866, I got 
a fine specimen in the late Dr. Sct)tt'8 compound or garden. 

It was seated in a tatnarisk tree Dr. Scott told me that 

some 7 or 8 of this species had frequented his garden at Ambala 
the previous year (1865.)" 

On 19th March I found two young Fish-owls, partly feathered 
but differing markedly in size, in a hollow a few inches deep in 
the trunk of an old mango tree at Morinda. in the garden where 
the Barn OaIs were found. The old birds were to be heard 
calling at nights. Two other large Owls believed to be of this 
species were seen at Bilaspur on 28th November and Lalru 
on I4th February. 

1168* The Rock-horned Owl — Bubo benc/rflensix (Frankl.). 

Mentioned in Dr. Scott's catalogue with the locality Ambala. 

1169* The Dusky-horned Owl — Buho coro^nandus (Lath.). 
Probably common and resident. 

1173. The Scops Owl- 'Sco/js^fw (Scop.) 

A small Owl heard calling "brewer-brewer" at Morinda on 
19th March was probably a Scops Owl. Hume mentions this 
species from Kasauli (' Scrap book, ' p. 390). 

1180. The Spotted Ovilet— Athene biama (Temm.) 

Btsavan's remark that it is a very abundant species at Ambala 
leaves for me only to add that it is resident. 

1189. The Osprey — Pandion halinetus (Linn.) 

On 2l8t March while collecting on the sandbanks of the Sutlej 
river just above the Canal heal works at Rupar I fired at 
a passing Tern ; whereupon an Osprey which had been fitting on 
the sand further along got up and flew back over my head. I 
shot it and found that 1 had secured a fine female. The 
stomach was empty. 

1190. The Cinereous Vulture — Vultur monachvi^, L. 

'* Appears regularly every cold weather at Ambala 

Colonel Tytler was lucky enough to secure a pair .... at Ambala 



NOTES ON THE DIUDS OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 179 

in the cold weather of 1865-1866 {See Jour. A. S. B. 1866, p. 74)" 
(Beavan.) f 

1 observed it on the following occasions : — On 10th November 
at Chandighar, 9th December near Sirhind, 16th December at 
Rupar, and ^Ist December neir Ambala. 

1191* The Black Vulture — Otoijypn calims (Scop.) 

Not uncommon; generally distributed and occurririg as high as 
Kasauli, and probably resident. The greatest number that I 
saw at one time was iive. 

1192* The Griffon Vulture— r?///jR fulvus (Gm.) 

"In the plain country about Ambala it is particularly abund- 
ant at certain seasons. One I shot in the cold weather ol 1866-66 
at Sirhind." (Beavan.) 

1 oberved a few Griffon Vultures (though without being 
certain as to the exact species) during the winter, including one 
at Kasauli on March 8th. J 

1195. The Himalayan Long-billed Vulture — Gypn tenuirostns, Hodgs, 

In the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. 

XXIV, p. 358, Mr. A. E. Jones gives a full description of 

a nest of this species taken by him at Ambala in January 

1915. 

1196* The Indian White-backed Vulture — Pseudogypa bengalensis (Gm.) 
This is the common and resident Vulture of the district, 
through which it occurs upto and including Kasauli. Numbers 
breed about Karali and Rupur in loose colonies in Decem- 
ber some nests still contained young in the second half of 
March. 

t Note. — Captain Beavan's reference to Colonel I'ytler's record is wrong ; 
the record is contained not in tlie '•Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal " but in the " Procee lings " of that Society. The year and page 
are correct. Tlie record is in the form of a letter, dated Ambala, 8rd 
March 1866; the following are the most important parts : — 
" My dear Grote, 

1 have this moment or rather an hour ago shot a splendid specimen of 

that rare and noble bird the Vultur monac/nis I have always 

found the bird a very rare species ; the first I ever saw wild were two m 

the Punjab in November 1842 I again fell in with a pair at Oorai 

near Cawnpore in December 1855 1 saw nothing more of them or 

anymore till in December 1865 at Umballah when I was driving to the 
City from Cantonmetit and my son Frank, who was sitting beside me, 
drew my attention to two large Vultures surrounded by smaller Vultures 
on the carcase of a horse. We immediately drove up to the place, and 

again I saw this rare bird. 1 here were three of them a few days 

afterwards I saw three more flying in compan}' with other Vultures 

This morning, the 8rd March 1866, 1 had just returned from shooting when 
I found a note waiting for me from Dr. Scott, Medical Storekeeper, saving 
he had just seen two of these birds feeding with other vultures on the 
carcase of a horse, and described the place so well that although 1 was 
very tired I started at once for the snot, and then 1 had the satisfaction 
of again seeing the three of these noble Vultures" [one of which he shot]. 

t The list of the Scott Collection at Montrose includes Oyps miicms from 
Ambala, Withoat examination of the specimens, I cannot tay what species is 
meant. 



180 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

1198*. The Egyptian Vulture — Neophi'on pei'cnopterus (L.). 

" Especially abundant at Ambala where it breeds in March." 
(Beavan.) 

I did not actually obtain any specimens of this common 
Vulture but am of opinion that it is this western form that 
occurs there and not the N. gingianus of Beavan's notes and the 
Scott Catalogue. 

1199, The Bearded Vulture — Gt/paetus barbatus (L.). 

Twice observed during my visit to Kasauli during the second 
week of March. 

Beavan says : "I have seen it after dead cattle, in company 
with other Vultures, a few miles from Kalka, close to the foot 
of the hills ; elevation perhaps 500 ft." 

1201*. The Imperial Eagle — Aquila heliaca, Sav. 

I saw an Eagle in lineated plumage at Chandighar on 13th 
February which was probably the young of this species. Beavan 
has a short note on Aquila imperialis : " I procured a fine specimen 
of this fine bird at Ambala on 30th November 1866 .... I believe 
that this species subsists about Ambala chiefly on Carrion," but it 
must be remembered that in his day the true Imperial Eagle 
and the Steppe Eagle had not been difl'erentiated. 

1203*. The Indian Tawny Eagle — Aquila vindhiana, Frankl. 

Referring to this species under the name of Aquila fulvescens 
Beavan writes : " Common in the neighbourhood of Ambala" and 
gives details of 4 specimens obtained in the month of November. 

I met with a fair number of these Eagles during the winter, 
but they appeared to be less common than in the northern 
Punjab and the sandy plains about Hissar. 

1207. Bonelli's Eagle — Hieraetus fa><ciatus (Vieill.) 

Beavan states that he believes specimens were sent from 
Ambala by the late Dr. Scott to Lord "W alden. 

1 shot at and wounded but unfortunately did not secure 
what I believe to have been a specimen of this Eagle on 25th 
March on the road between Kharar and Mani Majra ; as it 
went away wounded, it was violently attacked by a pair of 
Aquila vindhiana. A pair at Morni on 28th November 1886 
are mentioned in my Father's "Game book." 

1208. The Booted Eagle — Hieraetus pennatus (Gmel.) 

" I believe that this Eagle occurs at Ambala and that I myself 
have seen it on more than one occasion in flight." (Beavan.) 

1216. The Short-toed Eagle — Circa'etus gallicus (Gmel.). 

One Avas observed on 6th Ncvember in the bed of the 
Ghaggar river near Mubariqpur, and a second at Bilaspur on 

25th November. 

1217. The Crested Serpent Eagle — Spilornis cheela (Lath.). 

I saw one of these handsome Serpent Eagles on lOtli 
November, in the Ghaggar Naja, where it debouches from 
the low bills above Chandighar. 

1220*. The White-eyed Buzzard ^SiglQ—Butastur teesa (Frankl.). 

" Tolerably abundant about Ambala, in the station of which 
1 got my first specimen on 23rd October 1866, and afterwards 
procured several others" thus Beavan, who also mentions 
obtaining a male and female at Lallroo on 14th November. 

Met with in small numbers throughout the winter. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF AM BALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 18i 

1223 Pallas' Fishing Eagle — Haliaetns leucori/phus (Pall.). 

Observed on the Ghaggar at Mubariqpur on 19th February, 
and at Rupar on 20th March. I also found a pair nesting in 
a large Peepul tree at Rupar on the 18th December, and 
ascertained that the nest contained two eggs, one addled, and 
one hard-set. 

1228 The Brahminy Kite — Haliastur Indus (Bodd.). 

I saw what was perhaps an immature specimen of this kite 
about the Canal headworks at Rupar on 20th March. 

1229* The Common Pariah Kite — Milvus govinda, Sykes. 

Abundant and resident occurring as high as Kasauli. Pair- 
ing started in January and February and there were eggs in the 
majority of nests by the end of the latter month. Beavan 
merely states that the Kite is less common at Ambala than in 
Bengal. 

1232*. The Black-winged Kite — Elanus cceruleus (Desf.). 

Although Beavan says " They were particularly abundant in 
the jungles to the south of Ambala in November 1866, and 

might frequently be seen hovering like a Kestrel a freshly 

kiUed specimen at Babyn, near Ambala," I only observed a 
single example. This was near Jagadri on 30th November. 

1233*. The Pale Harrier — Circus macrurus (S. G. Gmel.), 

A few Harriers seen on different dates between 2nd Novem- 
ber and 25th March were attributed to this species, but no 
specimens were collected. 

1237. The Marsh Harrier — Circus ceruginosus (L.). 

A winter visitor in fair numbers ; it w as common in the 
Chamkaur marsh when I was there on 13th and 14th December, 
but was also generally distributed in the district. 

1239*. The Long-legged Buzzard— Buteo fero.v (S. G. Gmel.). 

" I killed a fine specimen of the female of this species at 
Ambala on November 5th, 1866". (Beavan.) 

A winter visitor ; a few were met with on various dates 
between 13th November and 4th March, almost all of the dark 
form. A live specimen was brought to me which I kept for 
about a week and then released ; it seemed fairly gentle an^l 
tame in disposition. 

1244. The Shikra— ^s^wr badius (Gmel.). 

Common, generally dispersed and resident. I saw what wa- 
either this or the next species up in Kasauli in the seconi 
week of March. 

1247. The Sparrow-hawk — Accipiter 7iisus (Linn.). 

A winter visitor in small numbers ; observed on a few occji- 
sions in November and December. I observed one soaring over 
a valley on the road ppto Kasauli on 5th March. 

1248. The Besra Sparrow-hawk — Accipiter virgatus (Reinw.). 

An old female obtained at Ambala is mentioned by Hume in 
his " Scrap book," p. 185. 

1249*. The Crested Honey Buzzard — Pernis cristatus (Cuv.). 

Observed on the following occasions : — 27th October, 16th 
November and 1 9th November, at Ambala ; 20th March near 
Karali ; and 25th March between Kharar and Mani Majra. 
The bird observed on 16th November, came up with one or two 



182 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

kites and so interfered with my trained Falcons that were 
being exercised to the lure that I had to shoot it ; when I 
picked the corpse up, honey was dripping from the month. The 
bird of I5:>th November was also attracted by my Falcons. 

1254. The Peregrine Falcon — Falco pereyHnus, Tunst. 

An immature Peregrine was observed in the neighbourhood 
of my house on 12th November and seen about frequently until 
3rd December when 1 shot it for my collection, as my Falconer 
was unable to net it. Unfortunately the (.rgans were most 
indistinct and 1 was unable to decide whether it was a very 
big male or a very small female. Until it was shot my Falconer 
had believed it to be a Shahin. 

Hume in his " Scrap book" at part I, p. 60, mentions an adult 
tiercel killed at Ambala. 

1257.* The Lugger Falcon — Falco jugger, Gray. 

Common and resident, and generalJy distributed. On 26th 
March near Mani Majra I found a female sitting in an old 
nest of Fseudogyps on a large gaunt Peepul tree. She was per- 
suaded to leave the nest with dift.culty, and on examiijation I 
found that it contained two yoiing in down and an addled egg. 
The young birds diflered in size and age. 

1258. The Saker Falcon — Falco cherrug. Gray. 

Hume in his " Scrap book " (p. 02) says: "It has been re- 
peatedly shot, as low down as A^mbala and even Delhi." 

1259. The Shanghar Falcon — Falco milvipes, Hodgs. 

In the "Ibis" for 1871, p. 240, there is the following note 
under the heading of Falco sacer : — " 1 cannot keep suspecting 
that another species of Falcon is often confounded with the 
true F. sacer. I tirst heard of this bird from Col. Delm^-Rad- 
cliffe, who wrote me that he had once seen a large Falcon like 
tl e Cherrug, but with the upptr plumage somewhat banded and 
Kestrel-like. The late Dr. Scott obtained a specimen (which 
was shot at Ambala) of a female Falcon which closely tallies 
with this notice ; and Lord Walden now possesses this speci- 
men, which I saw and took note of at Dr. Scott's." Its descrip- 
tion follows, and this note is referred to in the synonomy 
of Falco milcipes in the Fauna of B. I. Birds, Vol. iii, p. 421. 

1264.* The Red-headed Merlin — ALsalon chicquera (Daud.). 

"Ambala, November 5th, 1866 ; Shot the male out of a pair 
which were alternately stooping on the race course at a small 
lark Pipit." (Beavan.) 

Resident and not uncommon. One evening while shooting 
Snipe in a reed-bed at Cbamkaur I disturbed a Lusciniola mela- 
nopagon which was all but taken by a Jack Merlin which stoop- 
ed close past my head trom behind me. On another occasion 
near Rupar (on 18th December) I saw a clever but unsuccessful 
piece of teamwork by a pair of the.se Merlins. A number of 
Doves had taken refuge in a Kikur tree, and while one bird 
waited on above the tree ready to stoop the other tried hard 
to drive the Doves out to it ; but the Doves refused to leave 
their thorny refuge. 

1265.* The Kestrel — Tinvunculus alaudarius (Gmel.). 

A not uncommon winter visitor to the plains. I saw one at 
Kasauli on 9th March and three together there on lOth March 



NOTJSS ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 183 

one was 83en in the low hills above Kalka at the end of 
December. 

Beavan mention obtaining a specimen at Atnbala in Novem- 
bej, 18t56, 

1266. The Lesser Kestrel — Tinnunculus cenchris (Nanm.). 

Hume in his " Scrap book " part I, p 106, states " I have seen 
a specimen killed near Ambala " and this record is referred to 
in "Stray Feathers," Vol. iii, p. 384, 

1271. The Bengali Green Pigeon — Cvocopus phcenicopterus (Lath). 

" This species also occurs sometimes about Ambala, according 
to the late Dr. Scott." (Beavan.) 

1272. The Southern Green Pigeon — Crocopus chlovogaster (Blyth.) 

I observed flocks of this handsome Pigeon about an avenue of 
Peepul and Bhur trees at Morinda about the 10th December 
and the j5th March ; on the second occasion their numbers had 
perhaps diminished. A few were noted at Karali on 20tb 
March, and several about the District Board garden at Ambala 
towards the end of March and the beginning of April. 

1292. The Indian Blue Rock Pigeon — Columba intermedia, Strickl. 
Abundant and generally distributed. 

1295. The Eastern Stock Dove— Columlia eversmanni, Bonap. 

Beavan's note on this is as follows: — " I believe it was first 
discriminated at Ambala by my late valued friend Dr. Scott, 
who had previously resided for some time at Hansi, and told 
me that he had seen them at the latter station in the first 
instance, and then informed either Dr. Jerdon or Mr. Blyth 
of their nearly annual occurrence also at Ambala. Indeed, 
although dunug my stay there in 1866 none were to be seen 
some, 1 believe, had been killed there the year before, and Dr. 
Scott promised to look out again anxiously for their arrival and 
let me know. But unfortunately he succumbed to the climate." 
I saw a fiock at Ambala on loth November, and perhaps another 
party at Chandighar on ^6th March. 

1306. The Indian Turtle Dove — Turtur ferrayo (Eversm.) 

Only met with at Bilaspur, from iiSth to 29th November. 
There in the evenings 1 found some frequenting a line of tall 
Shisham trees planted along the sides of a Mango tope ; they 
were very shy and perched high up, and I had some difliculty 
in securing a couple of specimens. 

1307.* The Spotted Dove — Turtur suratensis (Gm.) 

" It is found throughout the country upto Ambala." (Beavan.) 
The status of this Dove in Ambala district is not quite clear 
but I found it common at Chandighar in November, February 
and at the end of March. It was common about Ambala in 
February and April and common at Bilaspur at the end of 
November. I shot one there on November 30th. 

1309. The Little Brown Dove — Turtur cambaiensis (Gm.) 

Beavan says: " lobserved it rarely at Ambala in 1866. I 
found it abundant throughout the winter." In December it was 
the only species of dove observed at Kalka. 

1310. The Indian Ring Dove — Turtur risonus (Linn.) 

Common but seemed to decrease in numbers during January, 
February and March, 



184 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. iSOCIETY, Vol. XliVI. 

, 1311.* The Red Turtle Dove — (Enopopelia tranquebarica (Herm.) 

''I have observed it.... at Ambala, where it is decidedly 
rare" (Beavan.) Although in the Northern and Central 
Punjab this dove appears to be a summer resident only I have 
found it in small numbers throughout the winter with the 
exception of January when I faiJed to note it. The numbers 
increased about the end of March and I first heard the court- 
ing note on the 29th of that month. 

1316* The Imperial Sandgrouse — Pterocles arenarius (Pall.) 

" Found in some numbers about Ambala about certain seasons. 
But when I was there (November 1886), they had not arrived". 
(Beavan.) 

Found to be common about Chamkaur from the 12th to the 
14th of December, where great numbers were observed coming 
to a drinking place in the marsh in the early morning and 
flocks were found about the fi,eds in the evening. 

1317. The Painted Sandgrouse — Pterocles fasciatus (Scop.) 

After dusk on 10th November, when I was passing down the 
Ghaggar Nala towards Chandighar, two birds settled at the edge 
of the water amongst the stones to drink. Not being able to see 
what they were, I shot one and found that 1 had secured a 
female Painted Sandgrouse. 

Beavan states : " The late Dr. Scott received a pair killed 
within 20 miles of Ambala from a native shikari, and writing 
under date August 2, 1867, says : — This is the first time I have 
heard of this species occurring in the neighbourhood of 
Ambala." 

In my Father's ''Gamebook" under 26th January 1887 
appear a couple of Painted Sandgrouse shot from a flock below 
Kalka. 

1321.* The Common Sandgrouse — Fteronlwus ccustus (Temm.) 

" Abundant about Ambala. ... In the cold weather 
. . . a male killed at Ambala on 16th November 1866." 
(Beavan.) 

Met with not uncommonly during the winter at Mubariqpur, 
Rupar, Chamkaur and Chandighar. Obtained by my Father 
near Kalka. 

1324.* The Common Peafowl — Favo cristatus, Linn. 

Common and resident throughout the district. They are very 
abundant in the low hill jungles about Chandighar and Kalka 
where they fly well and without hesitation, affording some shots 
worth taking. The local villages have no objection to their 
being killed and are said even to eat them themselves. 

1328. The Red Jungle Fowl — Gallusfen-v.gineus (L.) 

" Far from uncommon .... under the hills near Ambala 
in 1866, whence 1 procured a pair in the November of that year". 
(Beavan.) 

The Jungle Fowl was very numerous in the low hiUs to the 
N.-E. of Chandighar when I was there on 10th November and a 
few were met with close to Kalka on 28th December. 

I also heard of it as being very common about Morni, and 
indeed I believe it occurs all along the hills to their eastern limit 
in the district, but I had no opportunity of verifying the fact 
for myself. 



NOTi:S ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 185 

1336. The White-crested Kalij Pheasant — Genrueus albicristatus (Vig.) 
It appears from a note, dated 5th December 1886, in my 
Father's " Gamebook '' that he then met with a few of these phea- 
sants at Morni. I am not aware whether it still occurs there 
or not. 

1355.* The Common or Grey Quail — Coturni.v comimmis, Bonnaterre. 

" Near Ambala they afford very good sport with a dog." 
(Beavan.) 

1 observed 10 individuals in all on various dates during the 
winter ; it must however be abundant on passage as in other 
districts. 

1357. The Jungle Bash-quail — Perdicula asiatica (Lath.) 

On November 10th and February 13th when after Jungle Fowl 
in the low hiUs to the N.-E. of Chandighar I met with a few 
coveys of this cuiious little Quail and obtained some specimens. 
The coveys consisted of some 8 or 10 birds apiece and were 
found in thick cover towards the base of the hills along the 
edge of cultivation. 

Beavan notes that " it occurs in the jungles about Ambala''. 

1372. The Black Partridge — Francolinus vulgaris, Steph. 

Met with but not very abundantly at Mubariqpur, Bilaspnr 
and Chamkaur. Beavan merely mentions obtaining it at 
Ambala in 1865. 
1375.* The Grey Partridge — Francolmus pondicerianus (Gm.) 

Common and generaUj' distributed, occurring in some num- 
bers in the low hill jungles about Kalka and Chandighar on the 
same ground as Jungle Fowl. 

1383.* The Little Button-quail — Turnix dussumieri (Temm.) 

" The late Dr. !>cott, who sent specimens to the Montrose 
Natural History Society, records this species from Ambala ". 
(Beavan.) 
1388. The Water-Kail — Rallus aquaticus, Linn. 

On 14th December I secured a male at Chamkaur, one of a 
couple that were feeding at dusk on the edge of a flooded patch 
of sugarcane. The stomach contained small fresh watersnails 
complete in their shells. 

1401. The White-breasted Waterhen — Amaurornis phcenicny-us (Penn.) 

A blackish Ralline bird with a whitish face or neck seen at 
Mubariqpur on 20th February was probably of this species, 
with which I am otherwise unacquainted. 

1402. The Moorhen — Gallinula chloropus (L.) 

Only met with in the marshes near Mubariqpur were one was 
seen on 6th November and two more on 20th Febmary. 

1405. The Coot — Fulica atra, L, 

Beavan records a specimen at Ambala on November 3rd 
1866 . ..." I have seen this species in the tanks at 
Ambala iu the ' Phulbagh ' ". I met with a few near 
Mubariqpur on 6th November, and at Kharar on 24th March. 

1409. The Sarus Crane — Grus anUgone (L.) 

In spite of Bea van's statement that the Sarus Crane is " very 
common in some parts of India, more especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ambala " I only met with two pairs, one between 
Ambala and .Jagadri in November, the other at Chamkaur in 
December. 

24 



186 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

1418.* The Stone Curlew — CEdicnemm scolopax (S. G. Gmel.) 

On 19th March 1 found a solitary egg laid under a mango tre« 
in one «>f the topes at Morinda ; this find has been described at 
length elsewhere (c/. " Bird Notes " May 1916), My Falconer 
had reported seeing 4 birds in the same locality on December 
8th ; also early in April a call that I attributed to this 
species was heard about my bungalow in Ambala. 

1419. The Great Stone Plover — Esacus recur lirostris (Chv.) 

Several were observed on the sandbanks of the river SutJej 
above the Canal headworks at Rnpar on 20 — 21st March, and on 
the latter date 1 found a nest with 2 fresh eggs. 

1422.* The Indian Courser — Curi<orius coromandelicus (Gm.) 

" Of this species I procured a pair at Lallroo, near Ambala, on 

the 14th November 1866 the species is not uncommon 

in the cold weather at Ambala, frequenting chiefly ploughed 
land in small flocks." (Beavan.) 

4 Coursers seen on the short sandy turf of the Ghaggar Nala 
at Mubariqpur on 20th February were perhaps of this species. 

This species occurs in the list of the Scott Collection with the 
addition of the words " Ambala. Not very common." 

1423. The Cream-coloured Courser — Cursorius gallicus (Gm.). 

A party of \^ Coursers seen in a ploughed field near Bilaspur 
on 30th November appeared to be of this species. 
1427. The Small Indian Pratincole — Glareola lactea, Temm. 

A single specimen was observed hawking about the Ghaggar 
Nalla at Mubariqpur on 19th February ; on 24th March at 
Kharar I observed a small party flighting towards the river 
Sutlej at dusk. 
1429.* The Pheasant-tailed Jacana — Hydrophasianus chh-urgus (Scop.) 
Occurs in Dr. Scott's list. 

I48I.* The Red-wattled Lapwing — Sarcogrammus indicus (Bodd.) 

Common and generally distributed, but probably partly 
migratory as I met with a flock of about a dozen on the river 
at Rupar on 2l8t March, which were probably migrating birds. 

1433.® The Yellow-wattled Lapwing — Sarciophorus malabaricus (Bodd.) 
" Procured at Ambala, November 14, 1866." (Beavan.) 

143.5. The Indian Spurwing Plover — Hoplopterus ventralis (Wagl.) 

I had not previously met with this Plover in the Punjab until, 
when staying at Rupar on 20— 22nd March, I found it common on 
the sandbanks of the Sutlej above the Canal headworks. Those 
met with were not particularly shy and appeared to be breetiing 
although I could find no nests. However, one shot, had a large 
egg in the ovary. They were found in pairs skulking about at 
the water's edge on the sandbanks ; in appearance, save for the 
absence of wattles, they would be very like the last species, but 
their manner is very difl'erent. They skulk and run in a most 
oharacteristic and shame-faced manner, with the body rigid 
and parallel with the ground, and the head sunk into the 
shoulders as if there were no neck. 

1436. The Lapwing — Vanellics vidgaris, Bechst. 

This common winter visitor was met with at Mubariqpur, 
Chandighar, Chamkaur and Ambala, on various dates between 
6th November and 20th February. 



NOT£S ON THE £IRDi> OF AMBALA JJlHTlilCT, PUNJAB. 187 

1487* The Sociable Lapwing — Chetiusia gregaria (Pall.) 

" A specimen was killed by me at Lallroo near Ambala on 

the 14th November 1866 ; and this species is mentioned by 

the late Dr. Scott who sent specimeus from Ambala to the 

Montrose Museum." (Beavan.) 

I saw three at Mubariqpur on 6th November and a flock 

near Morinda oii 11th December. 

1438. The "White-tailed Lapwing — Chetiusia leucura (Licht.) 

" A specimen now in Col. Tytler's collection was procured by 
the late Dr. Scott at Babyn near Ambala in 1866." (Beavan.) 

Common in small parties about the marshes at Cbamkaur 
on 18th and 14th December. A flock of about a dozen wae 
seen in the Mubariqpur marshes on :^Oth February. 

1439, The Eastern Golden Plover — Charadrius fulivs, Gm. 

" It is occasionally, 1 hear, found near Ambala." (Beavan.) 

1446. The Kentish Plover — uEgiulitis aleaandrina (L.) 

Two were observed on 3rd November at Mubariqpur in th« 
Ghaggar Nala and a party of 4 were seen on a sandbank of 
the Sutlej river at Rupar on 20th March. 

1447"* The Little Ringed Plover — ALyialitis dnbia (Scop.) 

*' I shot a pair out of a small flock which were feeding along 

the edge of a small tank near the Native Infantry lines at 

Ambala in January 1866." (Beavan.) 

A few were observed mostly in pairs about the sandy and etone- 

strewn flats of the Ghaggar at Mubariqpur when I was there 

from 3rd to 7th November, and on Uith and l:'Oth February. 

Single individuals were seen at Rupar on the Sutlej on 16th 

December and Slst March. 

1451* The Black-winged Stilt — Himantupus candidus, Bonn. 

" Noted by the late Dr. Scott as having been procured by 
him at Ambala and specimens sent to the Natural History 
Society of Montrose." (Beavan.) 
One was seen by me at Karali on 20th March. 

1464. The Curlew — Numenius arquata (L.) 

I did not meet with this species myself but Mr. R. B. "White- 
head, I.C.S., Settlement Officer, informed me that he saw one 
below Chamkaur on 19lh January, and 4 more in the same 
locality on 21st January. 

1460*. The Common Sandpiper — Totanus hypoteucus (L.) 

A few only were observed, on various dates between 23rd 
October and 20th March. Beavan mentions a specimen 
killed at Ambala on 30th October 1866. 
1461®. The Wood Sandpiper — Totanus glareola (Gm.) 

A few were seen on migration at the Kharar tank on 24th 
March. 

1462. The Green Sandpiper — Totanus ochropus (L.) 

" I have shot it several times. . . .at Umballa, whence I have 
noted a specimen which was killed on 30th October 1866." 
(Beavan.) 

Found commonly throughout the winter and last seen on 9ti» 
April. 

1463. The Marsh Sandpiper. — Totanus stagnatilis, Bechst. 

I saw what I believe to have been one of these Sandpipers at 
the Kharar tank on 24th March. 



1S8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

1464. The Redshank — -Totanus calidris (L.) 

; A few were observed at Chamkaur on 13th December, from 

the train between Ambala and Ilajpura on 27th January and 
at Rupar on 20th March. 

I4t)6*. The Greenshank — Totanus glottis (L.) 

" Noted by the late Dr. Scott as having been procured by 
him at Ambala, and the specimens sent to the Natural History 
Society of Montrose.'' (Beavan.) 

A common winter visitor and probably the most abundant 
species of Sandpiper after the Green Sandpiper. It is usually 
met singly but on migration parties occur ; for instance I saw 
a flock of 9 on the river Ghaggar at Mubariqpur on November 
6th and a flock of 15 to 20 individuals on the Sutlej at Rupar 
on 21st March. 

1471 and 1474. Stints. — Tviaya minuta, Leisler and T. temmincki, 

Leisler. 
A few odd Stints were seen during the winter from December 
to 24th March ; but as I obtained no specimens I was unable to 
identify the species represented. 

1484*. The Common Snipe — Gallinago ccslestis (Fronzel.) 

The Common Snipe is of course a winter visitor and a passage 
migrant only to Ambala district and there are one or two 
jheels — notably at Mubariqpur and Chamkaur — where sport may 
be obtained. I did not see any later than 24th March when I 
flushed about a dozen from the weedy margins of the tank at 
Kharar. 

1487. The Jack Snipe — Gallinago gallinula (L.) 

Mauy were found in the Chamkaur jheel on 14th December ; 
and a few in the Mubariqpur marshes on 20th February. One 
was flushed at the Kharar tank on 24th March. 

1490. The Laughing Gull — Larus ridibundus, L. 

Six or seven Gulls were seen on the Sutlej river at Rupar on 
16th December and 'z more on 20th March ; two others were seen 
on the Ghaggar at Mubariqpur on 20th February. AU were 
probably of this species. 

1499. The Gull-billed Tern — Sterna anglica, Mont. 

On 20th February on the Ghaggar at Mubariqpur I saw a 
curious-looking Tern with a black bill ; it was perhaps a Gull- 
billed Tern in transition plumage. 

1603." The Indian River Tern — Sterna seena, Sykes. 

Common and resident ; it breeds in colonies in April on the 
sandbanks of the river Sutlej above the Canal headworks at 
Rupar. Recorded by Beavan without remark. 

1504. The Black-billed Tern — Sterna melanogaster, Temm. 

Common and probably resident, but less abundant on the 
whole than the last species. While I was at Mubariqpur early 
in November large flights used to pass down the Ghaggar at 
dusk, but this habit seem to have practically stopped when 
I was there again in February. 

1517. The Indian Skimmer — Rhynchops alhicoUis, Swains. 

Observed to be fairly common about the sandbanks of the 
river Sutlej above the Canal headworks at Rupar in the second 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 189 

half of March. It was doubtless intending to breed there with 
the colonies of Sterna seena. 
15:26. The Common Cormorant — Phalacrocomx carbo. (L.) 

With the exception of a single individual seen at the Kharar 
tank on 24th March, I only met with Cormorants at Rupar, when 
I visited that place in December and March. There they were 
numerous and were frequently observed fishing in the pools 
connected with the Canal Dam across the Sutlej. 

1528*. The Little Cormorant — Phalacrocora.r javanicus (Horsf.) 

Included in Dr. Scott's list. 
1542. The Black Ibis — Inocotis papilloms (Temm.) 

A flock of about a dozen Ibis was observed in the Ghaggar 
Nala at Chandighar on 13th February, and a similar flock in the 
marshes at Mubariqpur on 20th February. Single birds were 
seen at Morinda on 11th December, and near Ambala on 15th 
February. 

1545. The Spoonbill — Platalea leucorodia, Linn. 

A flock of large white birds seen in the distance on the sands 
of the Ghaggar at Mubariqpur on 20th February appeared to 
be composed of Spoonbills. 

1546. The White Stork — Ciconia alba, Bechst. 

Only observed at Morinda where I saw one on 9th December, 
and a party of six on 12th December. 

1548. The White-necked Stork — Dissura episcopus (Bodd.) 

Observed not uncommonly throughout the winter on various 
dates between 7th November and 26th March ; it seemed to be 
fairly generally distributed, but was most frequently observed 
about the stony bed of the Ghaggar river where it emerges 
from the low hills at Chandighar : here it was frequently 
gathered in flocks. 

1549. The Black-necked Stork — Xenorhynchus asiaticus (Lath.) 

On the evening of 3rd November at Mubariqpur I saw a flock 
of 50 to 60 Storks (which I attributed to this species) arrive 
flying high from an easterly direction, and after much circling 
proceed to settle in the bed of the Ghaggar ; only some half 
dozen individuals had touched the ground when without 
apparent reason the flock rose again to a great pitch and 
returned whence it had come ; on the evening of 6th November 
but about two miles from that place I saw a party of the same 
Storks flying in a westerly direction, as if going to roost. 

Some were seen from the train between Ambala and Jagadri 
on 24th November. Storks attributed to this species were seen 
on the hills at Rupar on 16th December and 20th March, at 
Kharar on 24th March and at Chandighar on 25th March. 

1554. The Eastern Purple Heron — Ardea vianillensis (Sharpe). 

This Heron was observed to be fairly numerous about the 
marshes and water-channels of Mubariqpur where I was there on 
6th November and 20th February ; a few were flushed from the 
reed-beds but the majority were found sitting on the tops of 
trees where the long necks gave them a very curious appearance. 
Elsewhere only two were seen, at Chamkauron 14th December. 

1555. The Common Heron — Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

" Occurs about Ambala, as I learned from the late Dr. Scott." 
(Beavan.) 



190 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 

Observed here and there throughout the winter, whether on 
the river or at the side of the smallest village pond. 

1559. The Large Egret — Herodias alba (L.) 

Two were seen at Chamkaur on I4th December. 

1562*. The Cattle Egret — Bubulcus coroniandus (Bodd ) 

A. number were observed about Chamkaur from 12 to 14th 
December. 

1565*. The Pond Heron — Ardeola grayi (Sykes). 

I do nob understand the distribution of this common bird in 
Ambala district. While noue were met about the marshes of 
Chamkaur on 14th December many were observed from the 
train near Lalru on 27th December and between Rajpura and 
Ambala on 26th January. After this the only ones observed 
wore as follows: — 24th March, 2 at Kharar ; 27th March, 1 at 
Chandighar ; 12th April, 1 at Ambala. 

1568'. The Night Heron — Nycticnrax gviseus (L.) 
Included in Dr. Scott's list. 

1574. The Bittern — Botaurus stellaris (L.). 

One was observed about some thick reed beds at Chamkaur 
on the 13th and 14th December, and two were flushed from 
reeds in the Mubariqpur marshes on 20th February. 

1679. The Grey-lag Goose — Anser ferus, Schaeff. 

" Tolerably common about Ambala in the cold weather, 
especially so in January 1866, when I tried to stalk some but 
sigually failed. 1 find that the late Dr Scott remarks of this 
species that on the 8rd and 4th March 1866, vast flocks were 
seeu passiug over Ambala, leaving for the colder lakes of Tibet. 
Ill the preceding year (1865), the rain which fell at the end of 
February and the beginning of Mar -h caused them to leave 
later in the annual migrations ; and he mentions that on the 
7th March he saw 2 flights of Geese, and on the 8th and 9th 
of the same month ' more ditto' ; while on the 14th March 1865, 
only a small flight were to be seen high in the air over the race- 
course. In 1864, he notices having seen wild Geese passing 
north on the 28th and 29th of February, and in 186-3 the dates 
were respectively February 27th and 28th of Geese leaving 
the plains." (Beavan.) 

1583. The Bar-headed Goose — Anser indicus (Lath.) 

" They occur in large numbers around Ambala and are cap- 
tured by the natives". (Beavan.) 

I saw a big gaggle of Geese, apparently of this species, about 
the Sutlej at Rupar on 20th and 22nd March. 

On 18th November and 21st February, I heard what appeared 
to be gaggles of Geese passing over my bungalow in Ambala 
after dark, and on the 5th March about 9 a.m. I saw what 
appeared to be some Geese flying southwards in the same place. 
It was of course impossible to say what species was represented. 

1586. The Pink-hoaded Duck — Rfiodonessa carifophijUaoea (Lath.) 

I have already recorded (Journal, B. N. H. S., xxiv., 699) a 
pair of these rare Ducks which I sa.v at Rupar on 2l8t March. 

158S. The Ruddy Sheldrake— Crt-'arca m^iVa (Pall.) 

Common in the marches of Chamkaur on I3th and 14th De- 
cember, and on the Sutlej above Rupar on 16th December and 



yOTi:^ OA THE BIRD^ OF AMBALA DISTRICT, PUNJAB. 191 

from the 20th to the 22nd of March. A single individual was 
observed flying over Civil Lines on Ist December. 

1692. The Mallard — Anas boschas, Linn. 

"Common about Ambala in the cold weather." ' (Beavan.) 
There appeared to be a few about the marshes of Chamkaur, 
and many on the river about l.'upar about the middle of Decem- 
ber. Some numbers were reported to be visiting the marshes of 
Mubariqpur early in February, but 1 only found three when I 
went after them on 20th February. 

Two appear in my Father's " Gamebook " as shot at Momi on 
5th December 1886. 

1695. The Gad wall — Chaulelasmus streperus (L ) 

One was shot by my Father at Morni on 2nd December 1886. 

1697.* The Common Teal — Nettimn crecca (L.) 
" Common about Ambala." (Beavan.) 

Met with in small numbers during the winter and last seen 
on 24th March. 

1599. The Wigeon — Mareca peneLpe (L.) 

" Common about Ambala." (Beavan.) 

1600. The Pintail— />o:^/a acuta (L.) 

"Abundant about Ambala." (Beavan.) 

I saw some on the river at Enpar on 21st March, and perhaps 
a party at Chamkaur on 13th December. 

1601. The Garganey — Querquedula ciicia (L:) 

A number were found in a weedy tank at Kharar en 24th 
March. 

1602.* The Shoveller— 'Sjl>rtf^/^« clypeata (L.) 

" Shot near Ambala in . January 1866, where it is also record- 
ed by the late Dr. Scott as having been sent by him to the 
Montrose Museum." (Beavan.) 

Some were observed on the river at Rupar on 2 1st March, and 
about a dozen in the tank at Kharar on 24th March. 

1605. The Vocha.x^—Nyroea ferina (L.) 

Some half dozen were found in the tank at Kharar on 24th 
March. 

1609. The Tufted Duck— Ni/roca fulir/itla (L.) 

Several were met with by my Father at Morni in November 
1886. 

1617. The Indian Little Grebe — Podicipea ollApennis (Sharpe.) 

Some were seen in the tank at Kharar on '24tli March. 



192 
THE CYPERACE^ OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 

BY 

L. J. Sedgwick, f.l.s., i.c.y. 

Part II. 

{JJontinued from page 700 of Volume XXV.) 

4. Courtoisia, ^e&s. 

See Clavis (Species 2, India, Africa, Madagascar.) 
!• C. Cyperoides, Nees. A medium-sized yellowish herb, with 
long leaves. Umbel usually compound. Bracts long, far over- 
topping the inflorescence. Bracteoles short. Spikelets in dense 
globose heads, | in. wide, ovoid, usually l-flowei"ed. Nut ^ in. 
long or longer, very narrowly fusiform ; acutely trigonous or almost 
winged, brown. 

In water holes in thy southern parts of the Presidency ; not uncommon 
in the Mallad tract of the Carnatic. (India N. E. and S. W. Trop. Africa, 
Madagascar). 

5. Fimbristylis, ' «/i^- 

Annuals or perennials. Root system various, but seldom if ever 
stoloniferous. Stems usually tufted. Leaves basal, v. rarely 
reduced. Inflorescence either a single spikelet, or a head of spike- 
lets, or of umbellately disposed solitary or clustered spikelets. 
Spikelets terete or polygonal, many-flowered, usually glabrous. 
Rhachilla persistent. Glumes deciduous 2-sexual except some- 
times the few ( empty) at the base or apex of the spikelet. Hypo- 
gynous bristles or scales 0. Stamens 1 — 3. Style either bifid in 
which case usually flattened, or trifid in which case usually filiform, 
often pubescent or villous, deciduous with the usually dilated base. 
Niit usually stipitate on a gynophore, biconvex in the forms with 
bifid, trigonous in the forms with the trifid styles. (Species about 
125 — all warm regions, but especially S. E. Asia andN. Australia.) 

Very closely allied to Scirpus and Eleocharis, but without hypogynous 
bristles. The various species do not show any great uniformity of in- 
florescence. I have followed Clarke's division of the genus, rather than 
including with vionostachya the specie complanata and jimcifoiinis, since 
the distichous lower glumes of those species are not very apparent, and 
their habit is with sub-genus tnchelostylts. I have placed the sub-genus 
ABILDGAARDIA at the head of the genus, since the distichous lowest 
glumes, so far as this feature is not due merely to insuflicient development 
of the rhachilla in its basal portion, would connect with the Cyperece. 

Section I. (ABILDGAARDIA) Loiver f/htmes of the spikelet distichous or 
sub-distichous. Style 'S-Jid. 

1- F. monOStachya, Hassl: 6-12 inches high. Leaves 
crowded at the base of the stem and shorter than it, filiform, wiry. 



THE CYPERACE^E OE THE BOMBAY PRESIDE^CY. 193 

Spikelets usually solitary, sometimes with a second above the first, 
4 — 2^^ — i in., compressed, ovate, acute, shining, white or v. 
pale straw-coloured, the two lowest glumes usually longer than the 
others, cvispidate, the lowest sometimes increased to a bract. 
Glumes loosely imbricate, distichous below, 2 — 3-stichous above, 
acute, cuspidate. Nut large pja-iform with a stalk-like base but 
not a true stipe, very obtuseh- trigonous, smoothly warted, pale. 

A sedge of rather dry grassy places ; throughout the Presidency. (Most 
warm countries). 

Section II. (ELEOCHAROIDES) Stem with one spikelet. Glumes not 
distichous. (Occasional examples with 2-o spikelets occur. See also 
F. schoenoides) . 

Key to the section : — 

1. Nut narrowly elongate, cylindric, curved . . 2. F. tetragona. 

2. Nut obovoid, biconvex, with 6-8 very deep 

transverse corrugations . . . . . . 3. F. acuminata. 

3. Nut elegantly obovoid with almost obcor- 

date apex, biconvex, minutely sub-tuber- 

culately dotted . . . . . . . . -i. F. 2>oli/trichoides. 

2. F. tetragona, R. Br. 6-24 inches. Leafless or nearly so. 

Spikelets not subtended by bracts, or rarely with the lowest glume 

slightly enlarged, obconic, densely many-flowered, ^ — ^ in., usually 

rather dark. Glumes elongate, obtuse, incurved round the nut. 

Nut as clavis, obscurely 9-ribbed and trabeculate. 

A gregarious sedge of marshes and pools. Common throughout the 
Presidency, except North Gujarat. (Indo-Malayan.) 

3. F. acuminata, Vahl. Tufted, 4-8 in. Leaves reduced to 
sheaths, the uppermost of which has sometimes a slight process. 
Stems slender with one lanceolate acute few-flowered spikelet. 
Glumes ovate subacute with a very strong midnerve. Nut as 
clavis, pale, margined. The nut is v. distinctive. 

Very rare. Yellapur, N. Kanara (Herb Talb.) (Indo-Malayan). 

4. F. polytrichoides, Vahl. Tufted 2-9 inches with slender 
stems and filiform leaves. Spikelets solitary, very rarely more, 
usually ebracteate, sometimes with a filiform erect bract ' like a 
continuation of the stem, ellipsoid, acute (in the Bombay example). 
Glumes many, secund, appressed, obtuse or sub-obtnse. Nut a? 
clavis. 

Rare. Sion, Bombay ; Karwar. (Indo-Malayan. A maritime species). 

Section III. (DICHELOSTYLIS)— S^aWef.v morr than one. Style bifid. 
Orary and fruit compressed, biconvex. 

Key to the Section : — 

A. Spikelets 1-3, rarely up to 5, large, ovate, pale, 

glistening 

B. Spikelets more than o in fully 

viduals. 
1. Spikelets in a capitate head 
'2. Spikelets umbelled . 



• * 


o. F. 


schrenoides 


grown indi- 






■ • t • • 


Ck F. 


aryentea. 



194 .JOL'liXAL, BOMBAY NATUItAI^ HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

id) Small tufted annuals. 

(i) Nut smooth . . . . . . . . 1 . F. ccstivalis. 

(ii) Nut ribbed and trabeculate .. S. /-'. cfichotoma. 

{/>) Taller. 

(i) Glumes obtuse with hyaline margins 
and tips ; nut dark, not ribbed 
or trabeculate . . . . . . 9. /'. spathacea. 

(ii) Glumes mucronulate, glabrous ; nut 

pale, ribbed and trabeculate . . 10. /•'. diphylla. 
(iii) Spikelets large, dark red-browia ; 
glumes usually pubescent in 
upper half, nut pale, smooth . . 11. /'. fervuginea. 

o. F. SChoenoideS, Yalil. Glabrous, 5-20 inches, tufted. 
With very slender stems and filiform wiry leaves. Inflorescence 
either a solitary spikelet, or 2-5, distantly arranged. Lowest 
glumes subbractiform or definitely developed into bracts. Spike- 
lets \y.\ ill., broadly ovoid, gloss}-, pale. Glumes loosely im- 
bricate almost hemispheric, obtuse, subapiculate. Nut smooth 
with a prominent white margin all round and a central boss on 
each side which appears somewhat darker, stipitate. 

A gregarious sedge of marshes and pools. Throughout the Presidency 
fairly common (Indo-Malayan). 

*>. F. argentea, Valil. 3-ti inches, densely tufted, leafy at the 
base. Spikelets \ in. in a dense capitate cluster, greyish. Glumes 
obtuse with a green keel. Nut very minute, smooth. 

A gregarious herb of the sloping margins of small tanks about high flood 
level. Not common North Gujarat, South Carnatic. Probably elsewhere 
also, but could never be more than local owing to its exclusive choice of 
habitat. (Indian). 

7. F. aestivalis, VaM. 2-8 inches, densely tufted, more or 
less puberulous. Umbel sub-compound, bracteate. Spikelets small, 
often elongate, grey-brown. Glumes acute. Nut quite smooth 
except under very strong magnification, pale. 

A gregarious herb of dried sand or mud. Throughout the Presidency, 
except perhaps North Gujarat, where it will probably be found sooner or 
later. (Indo-Malayan). Exactly resembles F. dichotoma, from which it can 
be distinguished only by the nut. 

8. F. dichotoma, Vahl. As the last species, but nut promi- 
nently ribbed and trabeculate. 

A gregarious herb of dried mud or sand. Throughout the Presidency, 
abundant. (Warm regions of the Old World). 

*'. F. Spathacea, ^o^^^>. Glaiicous with a woody rhizome and 
numerous hard spi'eading leaves. Stems 8-16 in. Umbel open oi- 
contracted. Spikelets middle-sized. Glumes very obtuse with 
scai'ious margins. Nut turbinate in outline, dark, smooth or slight- 
ly rough. 

A. solitary herb of salt flats either coastal or inland. (Warm regions of 
the Old World). 



Tin: cri'iniACE.K of THEIBOMBAY rUESlDENCy. 19r, 

10. F. diphylla, Vakl. Perennial, 6-24 inches. Leaves many, 
basal, shorter than the stem. Umbel variovis. Spikelets i-§ in., 
usually acute. Glumes glabrous, acute or subacute, usually apiculate, 
back obtusely keeled. Nut pale, many-ribbed and trabeculate. 

Throughout the Presidency, except North Gujarat, where it will probably 
be found, common in the South. (Most warm regions). 

A very variable plant and difficult to describe. The nut distinguishes it 
from all Bombay species of Section IJI C HEL08TYLIS except dichotoma 
from which it may be distinguished by the larger and more solitary habit 
and less keeled glumes. 

(6) Var annua (^p.), Uoemand Sch. Annual, very slender, w^ith 
few and smaller spikelets. 

Khandala and BombaJ^ 

(c) Var pleristriata, Cke.. 

A specimen from Khandala in Herb, Agr. College, much larger in all its 
parts and with about 20 ribs on the nuts seems referable here. 

11. F. ferruginea, VaM. Upto 2^ ft. Leaves few or 0. Umbel 
large, usually simple. Spikelets large, acute, red-brown. Glumes 
very broad with a prominent acute or sub-acute tip, and usually 
pubescent on the back in the upper half. Nut stipitate, subdisci- 
form, margined, smooth, usiially umbonate. 

A gregarious sedge of marshes and river-beds. Very abundant through- 
out the Presidency. (All warm regions). 

Section IV. TRICHELOSTYLTS. Spikelets more than one. Style tri-fid. 
Ovary and fruit tricjonous. 

Key to the section : — 

A. Spikelets in u capitate head, white . . . . 12. i-. diyitata. 

B. Spikelets not capitately arranged. 

(1) Small annuals. 

(a) Nut white, trabeculate . . . . . . 13. F. Woodrowii. 

(b) Nut white, yellow or grey, tuberculato . . 14. F. tenera, Var. 

o.vylepis. 

(2) Medium or tall. 

(a) Base of stem thick, rhizomatous, leaves 
short, pungent crowded, a denizen of 

grass-land 16. F.junciformis. 

(h) Not as (a). 

(i) Stem triquetrous above, glumes obtuse. 16. F. miliacea. 

(ii) Stem 4-5 angled above, glumes acute. . 17. F.quinquangularis. 

(iii) Stem flattened above, lowest bract 

broad, quite erect 18. F. complanata. 

12. F. digitata, Boeck. 4-6 inches. Spikelets in a capitate 
head, whitish, often upcurved. 

A slender short-lived sedge of grassy banks in the heavy rainfall tracts. 
Flowers June-August. On and below the ghats, common. Also according 
to Cooke found at Badami by Woodrow. But this is out of its natural 
habitats. (Endemic). 



196 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RI^T. ^SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

13. F. WoodrOWii, C'A-g. 2-5 inches, often tufted. Umbels sub- 
compound, but contracted. Spikelets small, acute, mucronate ; 
nut pale, faintly ribbed and trabeculate. 

On the ghats at Khandala and Igatpuri. (Pandemic). 

14. F. tenera F(fr. oxylepiS, OA^e. 4-8 inches. Spikelets as last 
species, but rather larger. Nut very round, trigonous, white to 
yellowish or very often grey, glistening as though varnished, pro- 
minently irregularly tuberculate. 

Throughout the Presidency, not uncommon (Indian). This must be the 
species described by Cooke under F. monticola, Steud. Apparently he 
knew it only from one specimen of Woodrow's. Since then much has been 
collected. 1 have examined a mass of material from places as far removed 
from one another as Ahmedabad, Khandesh, Kolaba, Igatpuri, Khandala 
and Badarai, especially a large number of gatherings by Fr. Blatter and 
Mr. Hallberg and have examined the nuts of all and find them as described. 
The Bombay specimens have all glabrous (glabrate, Clarke) glumes. On 
the other hand most of the specimens coUectf^d by Fr. Blatter and Mr. 
Hallberg in the Kajputana desert have softly puberulous glumes. This is 
F. tenem type, and would probably be found in the Thar and Parkar District 
of Sind. F. monticola is apparently a South Indian and especially South 
Indian mountain form of the same species. 

15. F. junciformis, Ktmth. Glabrous. Rhizome woody, creeping. 
Stems 4-12 inches long, stiff, arising from amidst or in front of 
the short, densely crowded, flat, spreading or recurved leaves, 
which have an obtusely triangular while apex. Umbel open or 
contracted, usually compound. Spikelets clustered, smallish, usually 
obtuse, dark or reddish brown. Styles and anthers v. conspicuous 
in time of flowering. Nut obovoid, apiculate, from white to light 
brown, smooth or sub-verrucose, apparently velate (i.e., outermost 
cells withering and peeling off"). 

A stift', wiry sedge of dry grasslands, forming one of the principal con- 
stituents of the surface vegetation on the most barren gravelly uplands in 
the South Carnatic, and thence spreading into forest clearings. Through- 
out the Presidency but apparently not very common except in the south. 
This may, however, be due to its short flowering season, i.e., the very early 
part of the rains. (India, Madagascar, Philippines). 

IC. F. miliaCGa, Vald. 6-30 inches high, stem triquetrous, 
often with very compressed base and subdistichous leaves. In- 
florescence a decompound umbel. Spikelets small, obtuse, usually 
sub-globose. Glumes obtuse or subacute. Nut white or yellow, 
tuberculate and microscopically transversely striolate. 

A gregarious sedge of damp places and rice-fields. Throughout the 
Presidency, v. common (all warm regions). 

17. F. quinquangularis, Vakl. Resembling the last species, 
but usually rather taller. Stem 4-5 angled. Spikelets longer 
and more acute. Glumes acute or sub-obtuse. Nut as the last. 

The very same habitats and distribution as the last species and very 
closely allied to it. 



THE CYPERACE^E OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 197 

18. F. COmplanata, Link. Resembling the last two species, 
but stem quite flattened below the inflorescence, and lowest brac;t 
broad, flat and erect, like a continuation of the stem. Spikelet^^ 
rather longer. Glumes very acute, keel long excurrent. Nut 
pale, minutely tubercled, sometimes on\y on the shoulders. 

In water holes in various parts of the Presidency. Apparently uncom- 
mon. (Warm regions of the Old World). 

(b) Var microcarya, Gke. " Stems slender, hardly flattened 
under the umbel. Spikelets more slender. Nut very small, 
velate." 

"Deccan, water holes at Hewra, Dalzell. Poona, Woodrow." Cooke. 
I have not seen these specimens. There are no existing sheets in the 
Presidency, but the available material of this species is very scanty. 

0. Stenophyllus, Eafin. 

(= BULBOSTYLIS, Kicnth.) 

Annuals. Stems very slender, tufted. Leaves flnely linear or 
quite capillary. All parts of the plant liable to be hairy or pube- 
rulous. Inflorescence capitate, or a simple or compound umbel, 
but then always with one sessile spikelet in the fork of each 
branch system. Bracts and bracteoles not prominent. Spikelets 
few — 15-flowered always small and narrow. Glumes always with 
a prominent green keel and yellow or brown side. Style 3-fid. 
Nut small, always triquetrous or trigonous, white or nearly white, 
ti-ansversely undulate (sometimes obscurely so) with a short stipe 
and a (usually dark) umbo left by the style. (Species about 70. 
All warm regions). 

This genus is very closely allied to Fimbristylis especially F. teneia and 
its varieties. According to C. B. Clarke it is also closely allied to Eleo- 
chai-is, but it would not appear so from the Bombay species of the two 
genera. They are all plants of sand or light soil, especially the first two. 
The three Bombay species are very closely allied to one another. 

Key to the genus :— 

1. Spikelets in a capitate head . . . . . 1. S. barbata. 

2. Spikelets in a contracted umbel or com- 

pound umbel, stem pubescent below the 

inflorescence ,. .. .. ..2. S. puberula. 

3. Spikelets in a lax umbel or compound 

umbel, stem glabrous below the inflores- 
cence . . . . . . . . 8. *S. capillaris 

Var. trifida. 

1. S. barbata, Uotth. (under Sdrpus). Bulbostylis barbata, 
Kunth. A small tufted herb, 2-8 inches high. 

The Bombay specimens show many conditions of glume, from simply 
acute to acuminate with a recurved, scaberulous mucro, equalling and 
even exceeding the glume. The Badami specimens especially with their 
few-flowered spikelets and squarrose mucros look like a separate species 
and this applies also to specimens collected by Fr. Blatter on Mt. Abu 



19S JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL IIHST. iSOCILTV, loL XXVI. 

and in South India. I suspect that there are two species mixed here, 
but for reason given in the introduction have left all the material here. 

On sand or light soil throughout the Presidency, especially abundant in 
sandy helds in North Gujarat and thence onwards into the desert. (India. 
Africa, Madagascar). 

2. Si piiberula, Foir. (under Scirjms). Bulhostylis puherula, 
Kunth. 10-12 inches high. Umbels sub-compound, ^-1 inch 
broad, corymbiform, containing 20 or more spikelets. 

V. rare, Karwar on the sandy shore, Mr. T. 11. D. Bell, 1917, (Africa, 
Malaya). 

3. S. capiliariS, WalUch (under Scripus in Eoxh. Fl. Ind . 
ed. Carey and WallicJi). Bulhostylis capillaris, Kunth. Vat- 
trifida (sp. Kunth). 6-20 inches high. Umbels lax with few 
capillary rays j-1 inch, themselves often branched, and often 
with a secondary umbel almost as big as the primary ximbel ; ulti- 
mate pedicels usually deflexed in fruit. 

Very occasional in the South of the Presidency. (All warm regions of 
the Old World). 

7. Eleocharis, /•'. Br. 

Glabrous, small or medium sized herbs. Leaves reduced to 
sheaths, but barren stems often present. Inflorescence a single 
erect terminal spikelet, ebracteate, but the lowest glume often 
sub-bractiform. Glumes spirally imbricate, never truly acute. 
Hypogynous bristles present, occasionally absent. Style branches 
2 or 3. Style always dilated at the base, the base usually con- 
stricted above the nut, but persistent. Nut obovoid, plano-convex 
in the species with bifid, trigonous in the species with trifid styles. 

Key to the Bombay species : — 
A. — Robust. <41umes concolorous. Spikelets § in. — 
\\ in. 
1. Stem terete, septate when dry .. .. I. L.plantaf/inea. 

i. Stem trigonous or triquetrous, not septate 
when dry, — 
(a) Spikelets acute, glumes sub-acute . . . . 2. E.Jii^tulosa. 

{b) Spikelets obtuse, glumes obtuse . . . . 'd. E. spiralis. 

B. — Small. Glumes with a green central band and 
scarious sides: — 
]. Spikelets I — 1 inch, with a creeping rhizome. 4. L. pahistris. 
2 Spikelets less than ^ inch — 

(a) Style bifid, nut biconvex — 

(i) Very slender, bristles white . . . . o. E. atropurjmrea. 

(ii) licss slender, stems stiff, bristles brown 6. E. capitata. 

(b) Style trifid, nut trigonous . . ..I.E. chaetaria. 

1. E. plantaginea, R. Br. Stoloniferous, creeping in the mud. 
Stems 1-3 ft. high (as clavis). Spikelets f-l:^ in., straw-coloured. 

A gregarious sedge filling and almost monopolizing the beds of small 
tanks in the extreme north of the Presidency. Also in the Mallad tract of 
the Carnatic. (Trojiics of the Old World). 



THE CYPERACEyl': OF THE HO M HAY /'RESIDENCY. 199 

^- E. fistulosa^ hinlc. Stoloniferous, I -oft. Jiigli (as clavis). 
Spikelets about 1 in., straw-coloured, acute, with far fewer glunirs 
than the next species. Glumes striate, subacute. Nut with nar- 
row horizontal outer cells in vertical series givinj^ the effect of faint 
strias and trabeculsB*. 

South of the Presidency. (Scattered through X. E. aii<l S. W. India and 
Burmah. Tropics generally). 

3. E. spiralis, /•'. Br. Stoloniferous, 1-2 ll . (as clavis). Spike- 
lets about I in., straw-coloured, elega)it cylindric, obtuse, Avitli 
innumerable quadrate obtuse olumes, their tips making spiral 
lines around the spikelet. Nut more or less as last species. 

A Konkan species. Bassein and Sion (Herb. St. X. Coll.) Salsette and 
Goa (ex Cooke). (Scattered throughout heavy rainfall tracts in low-lying 
parts of India). 

4. E. palUStriS, li. Br. llhizomatous, rooting from the nodes. 
Stems variable, medium to stoutish. Spikelets |-1 in., straw-col- 
oured or chestnut. Nut yellow or pale brown. Bristles brown. 

Sind. AVoodrow (ex Cooke). No specimens available in the Presidency 
now. (In India confined to tlie northern b(;lt. f)thcr\vi8e cosmopolitan 
except Australasia). 

5. E. atropurpurea, Kuntk. Tufted, 2-J in.. V. slender, stems 
almost filiform and flaccid. Spikelets v. small, Clarke says l_j^ 
but the ]3ombay specimens are all ^ in or less. Nut minute, very 
glossy, black. Bristles pure white or occasionally with a yellowish 
tinge especially at the base. 

A northern species, from Sind through Gujarat to Sion and Kalyan. No 
specimens from further south. (North India, Ceylon, tropics generally). 

6. E. capltata, R. Br. Tufted (specimens from Dhulia show 
a short slender rliizome), 2-8 in., stems less slender than the last 
species, stiff. Spikelets v. small, (Clarke says ^-^ in. but liie 
Bombay specimens are all about ^ in.) Nut slightly larger, than 
the last species, dark, glossy. Bristles red brown. 

Scattered throughout the Presidency, but mainly in the Deccan tract 
from Khandesh to Bagalkot. Apparently not uncommon in the Central 
Deccan. (Most warm countries). 

7. E. Chaetaria, Roem. & Sch. Stems in the Bombay example 
thread-like, copiously interlaced. Spikelets | in. Glumes expend- 
ing, leaving the top of the spikelet gaping. Nut trigonous, grey, 
with pointed shoulders and perforate outer cells, giving a dotted 
appearance. 

Extreme south of the Presidency only, Castle Kock and Londa. (Scat- 
tered throughout the tropics). 

• Note. — This species is supposed to have spikelets broader than the stem. 
Specimens from Bommig-atti, Dfiarwar Dist, (Herb. Sedgwick) have stems much 
broader than the spikelets. In other respects however these specimens seem to 
be indubitably referable to this sp. 



•200 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXJI. 



1. <S'. articulatus. 



2. S. mucronatus. 



8. Scirpus, Linn, 

Glabrous, leafy at base "or leaves reduced to sheaths. Stems 
terete or trigonous. Inflorescence either of one terminal spikelet 
or a lateral dense head, or of lateral or terminal open or contracted 
umbellate corj^mbs. Spikelets clustered or solitary, many-flowered. 
Hypogynous bristles normally present, sometimes flattened and 
plumose, often reduced, (sometimes absent or present at random 
in one individual). Stigmas and nut as in Fimbristylis . (Species 136. 
Cosmopolitan). 

Key to the genus : — 

A. Inflorescence normally a single lateral sessile head of sessile spikelets. 

Glumes not squarrose. 
1. Stems stout, septate when dry, head usually 

near the base of the stem, bristles 0. 

Nut triquetrous 
'2. Stems stout, septate when dry, head usually 

near the apex of the stem, bristles 

present, nut trigonous 

3. Stems medium, head usually near the apex 

of the stem, spikelets few terete, turgid, 
ovate, acute, glumes broad incurved, 
shortly aristate, bristles present. Nut 
plano-convex or biconvex .. .. 3. S. erectus. 

4. Stems rather slender, head usually above 

the middle of the stem, spikelets yellow- 
ish, flaccid, glumes 5-ranked, concave, 
inflated in the upper part. Bristles 0. 
Nut triquetrous 

5. Stems slender, head usually above the 

middle of the stem, often not compact, 
spikelets often pedicillate, whitish, firm, 
glumes not as 4, bristles 0. Nut trique- 
trous 

B. Inflorescence normally a lateral or terminal com- 

pound corymb. 

1 . Spikelets clustered, 2 or 3 together on the 

tips of the pedicels, golden yellow, flaccid. 

2. Spikelets solitary on the tips of the pedicels. 
(a) Spikelets elongate, acute, glumes bifid at 

the apex with an interposed arista, bris- 
tles retrorse-scabrid 

(6) Spikelets elongate, acute, glumes notched 
at the obtuse top with an interposed 
arista bristles plumose with multicellular 
hairs . . 

(c) Spikelets shortly almost globosely ovoid 
obtuse, very numerous in a supra-de- 
compound corymb ; bristles scabrid . . 9. 

{d) As (c) but with bristles plumose . . . . 10. 

C Inflorescence a compact terminal bracteate head of 

minute spikelets . . . . . . . . 11. "S. michelianus. 

D. Very slender, almost filiform. Inflorescence a 
sublateral head of few small spikelets with 
squarrosely aristate glumes . . ,, ..12. S. sr/uatrosus. 



4. S. (juinquefarius. 



5, S. supinus. 



6. <S'. corymbosus. 



7 . S. maritimus. 



8. S. litoralis. 



S, grossus. 
S. kysoor. 



THE CYPERACEA': OF THE BOMBAl PRESIDENCY. 201 

I 

1 . S. artiCUlatUS, Linn. Stems tufted, thicker than a lead 
pencil. Heads (see h) f in. Spikelets (see h)\ x 5. Nut finally 
black triquetrous transversely rugose (see h). 

Very common throughout the Presidency, in the margins of tanks. 
{ Africa, Philippines, Australia). 

(6) Thicker and taller. Heads up to H iu. Spikelets up to 

nearly 1 inch and thicker than type. Nut smooth, a little larger 

than type. 

Same distribution as the type in the Presidency. I doubt whether 
this is to be regarded as a variety or not. With the extra development 
of all parts of the plant, the outer cells of the nut presumably have to 
expand with the result that the corrugations are lost. 

2. S> mUCronatUS, Linn. Same size and habit as the last. 

Differences as clavis. 

Rare. Prantij, Ahd. Dist. (Herb. Sedgwick). Yellapur (Herb. Talbot). 
(Warm parts of the world except America). The plant is fairly common 
on the Nilgiris. 

3. S. erectUS, Voir. 18 in. high. Stems about ^ in. thiuk 
at most. Tufted; rest as clavis. 

Marshes and ricefields apparently only in N. Kanara. (Most warm 
regions). 

4. S. quinquefariUS, Ham. As clavis. Nut transversely 
wrinkled. Much smaller than !S. articulatns and can be distingui- 
shed from the next bj^ the flaccid spikelets with loose glumes. The 
colour of this species is golden yellow, of the next green and white. 

In ricefields. All parts of the Presidency, but pre-eminently a nor- 
thern plant, and therefore rare in the south, but common in Gujarat and 
northward into the desert. (Central Asia, Transvaal, North India). 

5. S. SUpinUS, Linn. As clavis. See also last sp. 

Throughout the Pre8ideIlCJ^ Not so common as the variety. (Almost 
cosmopolitan) . 

Var. uninodiS, Clarice. Inflorescence broken up into single 
or clustered spikelets on rays {\ — \ in.) of a quasi-umbel. 

Commoner than the last. 

Note. — This variety is of very doubtful validity. All intermediate 
stages occur. 

6. S. COrymbOSUS, ^/^C7/v^r'. Tall, 3 ft. Inflorescence compound, 
as clavis. Nut trigonous (rather obtusely so), black, nearly smooth, 
with a pyramidal apex. 

Clarke and Cooke both describe the species as devoid of bristles, but 
the available specimens all show that most nuts have three bristles of 
unequal size and various shape?. They approach the bristles of litoralis. In 
one or two cases the bristle has a lateral hyaline wing. 

Apparently scattered through the Presidency, but rather rare. (Scatter- 
ed throughout India, Madagascar). Available at Mt. Abu. 

26 



202 JOURNAL, liOMBAV NATUltAL ILI.ST. .S0CIJET1\ \'nl. XXVI. 

7. S. maritimus, Linn. Tall, o feet. Khizomt- creeping- 
bearing tubers. Spikelets dull pale brown or whitish, tt x 5^ in. 
Nut trigonous, pale, smooth. 

Throughout tho Presidency, common, especially do sand in riverbeds. 
(Cosmopolitan). 

Var. affinis, Clarke. Inllorescence a compact head of sessile 
spikelets larger and whiter than type. Nut smaller, style l)ifid. 

Throughout the Presidency, with the type. 

8. S. litoraliS, Schrad. Tall, 3 ft. Spikelet.-^ brown ^ x J- 
in.' Glumes more elegant than the last, very concave, so that in 
drying they- develop transverse plaits in the upper part. Nut 
piano convex. 

Scattered throughout the Presidency, but apparently not couunou. 
(Scattered throughout the Old World). 

9. S. groSSUS, Linn. A'ery tall up to iO ft Leaves very 
broad, up to 1^ in. thick and spongy, transversel}^ septate between 
the veins when dry. Spikelets innumerable, l inch. Nut trigo- 
nous. Bristles simply scabrous, (Clarke; " retrorsely scabrid," 
Cooke). 

Scattered throughout the Presidency. Apparently rare. (Indo-Malayan) 

10. S. kysoor, Roxb. As 9, but bristles plumose with multi- 
cellular hairs. Tubers of stolos edible. 

Scattered throughout the Presidency, mainly N. Konkan and Gujarat. 

Note. — Cooke has restored Roxburgh's species. I am unable to separate 
satisfactorily the available material, which quite possibly does not contain 
any sheets of the true S. r/rossus at all. <*>'. ki/soor is evidently far more 
common. 

11. S. michelianUS, Linn.. Exactly resemble.s the very com- 
mon Cyperus 'pycjinaeus, lloxb., in every particular except that the 
glumes are spirally imbricate. The two plants presumably repre- 
sent parallel lines of development in the two genera — low rosette 
plants of dried mud. 

Distribution in the Presidency uncertain. It is presumably often passed 
over. (Old World). 

12. S. SquarroSUS, Linn. 3-6 inches high, stems and leaves 
filiform. Spikelets ^ in. Glumes with hunched shoulders and a 
squarresely spreading aristate tip. Nut extremely minute. 

App. very rare. There are only one or two available specimens, two 
without locality and one from Kanara. (African, Indo-Malayan and E. 
Asian). 

I exclude S. Kyllingoides Boech given by Cooke on the authority of the 
words "Kanara. Young" in F.B.I. No available specimens either in 
Cooke's time or now. But there is no reason why the plant should not 
be found. 



THE CYrEliACl'LE OE THE BOMBAY rilElilDENCY. -HYA 

9. Eriophorum, Linn. 

Glabrous. Sten)8 leafy at the base, intiovescence various. 
Spikelets many-flowered. Glumes imbricate all round the rhn- 
chilla. Ilypogynous bristles G, divided to the base into innumer- 
able fine segments, which increase and lengthen, — heads thus 
ultimately comose.. Style slender, normally trilid. Nut sessile. 
trigonous, smooth, dark, with nan-ow apex. (Species 10, mainly 
Arctic or N. Temperate). 

1. E. COmOSUm, Wall. Robust. Umbel compound or supra- 
decompound, 2-8 in. long and wide. Bracts v. long up to 12 in. 
Spikelets -^- in., reddish brown. Glumes strongly keeled; mucro- 
nate. Anthers with a red crest. Nuts nearly \ in. long very 
narrowly linear-fusiform. Scales so much divided as to appear 
more like a pappus, the segments ultimately far exserted. 

In the Presidency apparently almost confined to Junnar. Also recorded 
once from Champaner ( perhaps Fort Pavagadh) in Oujarat, and from 
Sind. (North India and Burma to China). 

10, Fuirena, Rotth. 

Glabrous or pubescent. Leafy. Spikelets many-flowered in 
dense clusters, wdiich are sessile or pedunculate, terminal or axil- 
lary. Glumes imbricate all round the rhachilla, always strongly 
aristate and hairy in the upper half. Hypogynous processes 6. 
in two series ; 3 outer (sepals) bristle-like, small or ; 3 inner 
(petals) enclosing the nut, broad, often clawed, three-keeled, rarely 
0, Stigmas 3. Nut trigono^is, narrow or sub-stipitate below, 
apiculate or beaked above. 

Key to the Bombay species :— 

A. Petals 0, leaves glabrous . . . . . . \. E. irallicJiiana. 

B. Petals present, 

1 . Petals quadrate, clawed, 

(«) Glumes r. hairy, nerves concealed 

by the hairs . . . . . , '2. E. (flomerata. 

(/;) Glumes slightly hairy, nerves white, 

raised, conspicuous . . . . 3. JP. uncinata. 

2. Petals obovate sessile or nearly so . . . . A, F. umbellata. 

1. F. Wailichiana, Kunth. 1-2 ft. Leaves stiff, erect, narrow, 
with a strong midrib, glabrous. Nut dark when mature, keeled 
on the angles, cancellately striate. 

Deccan, from Khandesh to E. Belgaum. Should be found sooner or 
later in the drier parts of Gujarat. (India, the drier northern and central 
parts). 

2. F. glomerata, Lam. 4-18 in. Leaves not stiff", 3-5-nerved, 
hairy. Petals quadrate on a long or short claw, tricuspidate at the 
apex and semi-hastate at the base, brown. Nut usually pale, pro- 
minently triquetrous. 

Throughout the Presidency, especially in ricefields, locally common 
(African and Indo-Malayan.) 



204 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

3. F. uncinata, Kunth. 4-8 inches with spreading stifi hairs. 
Leaves haiiy, narrow. Spikelets densely chistered on v. short 
peduncles, ^-l inch, few-flowered. Glumes much less hairy than 
in the last sp., pubescent, with v. prominent hard white nerves, the 
midnerve usually squarrosely recurved. Rhachilla obsolete (i.e.. 
each gliime carrying away part of the rhachilla when spikelet dis- 
sected). Petals round-quadrate, veiy shortly clawed, nerves not 
prominent as in the last ; margins especially in the upper part softy 
and densely fringed with sulphur-coloured ciliolse. 

V. rare. Only in Kanara. (Herb. Kew and Herb. Talbot.) (India in 
one or two places). 

The specimen in the Talbot Herbarium is very different from F. glomerata . 
The prominent white raised nerves of the glumes are a noticeable feature. 

4. F. Umbellata, lioUh. 1-4 ft. vStem quadrangular. Leaves 
usually broad, stiti', strongly o — S^nerved. Clusters of spikelets 
bracteate, often subpaniculately compound. J^etals obovate-qua- 
drate, apiculate at the apex, narrowed at the base. Nut usually 
pale, prominently beaked, angles keeled. 

In marshes ; app. rare, except at Castlo Rock. (Most warm, not too 
dry, regions). 

11. Lipocarpha, Br. 

Glabrous. Leafy only at base. Spikelets many-flowered in a 
single head subtended by stiff always deflexed bracts. Scales 2, 
arranged anterior and posterior to the nut, clinging to the nut even 
when mature, and appear like a membranous outer covering. Nut 
small, plano-convex, smooth. 

1 . L. argentea, Br. vSpikelets whitish. Resembles a robust 
form of Kyllinga trice]ps. 

Marshes on the crest of the Southern Ghats. (Throughout India. 
Warm regions of Old World). 

2. L, Sphacelata, Kunth. Spikelets dark chocolate brown, 
smaller than the last. 

Occasional in marshes and rice-tields in the Karnatic Mallad tract. 
(Throughout India. Tropical Africa and America). 

12. Remirea, AnUet. 

One species only. 

1. R. maritima, Aubl. A glabrous maritime sedge with a 
long creeping rhizome. Branches erect, 2-6 inches, stiff, entirely 
cilotted with the sheaths of the leaves, the blades of which ai'e 
ascending, rigid, pungent, concave. Spikelets one-flowered, densely 
crowded on short spikes, which are sessile and aggregated into 
dense heads, supported hj bracts like the leaves. Nut narrow, 
obscurely trigonous, pointed, dark. 

Coast near Karwar (Herb. Talbot). (Tropical sea-coasts). 



THE CYPEEACi:^: OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 205 

13. Rhyncospora, Vakl. 

Habit various but often with stem leafy. Intioresceuce various. 
Spikelets with 3 or 4 shorter lower empty glumes, 1 or 2 middle 
longer, fertile, and 1 upper male (in the Bombay species), golden 
brown. Stigmas 2. Nut biconvex, crowned by the much enlarged 
conical style base. (Species 150, in the wariner or temperate re- 
gions of the world, especially America. English " Beakniit"). 

1. R. Wightiana, Steud. 6-1(5 inches. Leaves all basal. 
Spikelets numerous in a single crowded bracteate head. Bracts 
rigid, dilated and ciliate at the base. Bristles 6, golden, scabrid 
with erect teeth, twice or more than twice as long as the nut. Nut 
laterally flattened ^ in. or slightly less, black but rendered greyish 
by the numei'ous scabrid white papilla?, which point upwards. 

Exclusively confined to the heavy rainfall region both above and below 
ghats from Igatpuri and Bassein to Kanara, and very connnon on open 
grassy land in that region in the monsoon. (India, W. Peninsula, Cochin 
China). 

Note. — I exclude R. Wallichiana, Kuuth., which Cooke gives on the 
authority of Woodrow as occurring at Kalyan. I have examined a con- 
siderable material in the four Herbaria and iind all the specimens abso- 
lutely constant as above described. R. Wallichiana has a much shorter, 
turgidly biconvex, smooth nut, dorsally compressed (as Juncellus) and short 
or obsolete bristles. Owing to pressure in drying, the nuts in R. Wiyhtianu 
often become displaced and give a mistaken impression of being dorsally 
compressed. R. Wallichiana is an eastern species, of which apparently 
R. Wightiana is the western form. 

2. R. aurea, VcM. 2-3 ft. Leafy throughout with long leaves 
Spikelets numerous, clustered or spikately arranged on the branches 
of large, multiple, bracteate cor3'-mbs. Bristles 6 or fewer, shorter 
than the nut. Nut large up to ^ in., more than half of which is 
occupied by the stout channelled beak. 

Apparently only in streams and marshes on the crest of the Southern 
Ghats, but possibly more widely distributed. (India E. and S. "NVana 
regious of the world). 

14. Hypolytrum, Uich. 

Leafy upwards. Leaves flat 3-nerved. Inflorescence paniculate 
with rigid divaricate branches. Spikes many-flowered, resem- 
bling the spikelet of other GYPEBAGEOUS genera. Spikelets 
reduced to one obtuse glume within which is a reduced rhachilla 
bearing two basal stamens supported by scales and one terminal 
pistil. 

Stigmas two. Nut turgid. (Species about 30-40. Tropical 
regions). 

Note. — The limitation of the species appears to be difhcult and our 
species, as all the Indian species, is regarded by Clarke merely as a form 
of H. lalifolium, Rich. 



:^06 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST SOCIETY, \'„t. XXVI. 

1. H. Wightianum, -fc'oec/,'. 2-o feet, stout. Spikes (as above) 
up to \ inch. Glumes speckled. Nut ^ inch, ovoid, turgid, 
yellow to almost black, usually veined longitudinally, minutely 
speckled, beak usually paler. 

Exclusively confined to the Southern (ihtits by rivulets in dense forest. 
(Malabar region of India. Nicobars). 

15. Scieria, Ber,j. 

Leafy, leaves usually narrow, often cutting the hand with their 
scabrous margins. Inflorescence of axillary or panicled spikes. 
Spikes compact or lax. Spikelets usually unisexual, rarely 
bisexual. Flowers unisexual, supported by several glumes. Style 
trifid. Nut osseous, usually prominently exserted, globose or nearly 
so, usually either white and shining or covered with minute ferru- 
ginous pubescence, smooth or variously sculptured, usually supported 
on a gynophore, the apex of which is usuall}^ dilated into a 3-lobed 
saucer. (Species 150. Tropical and subtropical — not too dry— - 
countries). 

The available material for the Bombay species of this attractive but 
difficult genus is so scanty, that I cannot attempt more than a prodromufi 
at present. The plants of this genus are all hygrophytic and rather 
autumnal. They are extremely local and scattered, never gregarious, and 
often not very noticeable. Consequently they have apparently been much 
neglected. There seems little doubt that there are several Bombay species 
at present undescribed. I would bring to the attention of Collectors the 
desirability of preserving the nuts in separate packets on the sheets. The 
ripe nuts are easily deciduous. They fall away during the process of dry- 
ing and mounting and evei\ afterwards, and being globose and often very 
smooth they roll away and are lost. As the discrimination of species 
depends mainly on the mature nuts their absence renders it often impos- 
sible to allocate a sheet satisfactorily. 

A. — Spikes reduced to small axillary scarcely exserted clusters, nut minute, 
not exserted, longitudinally fluted. 

1. S. Caricina, Benth. A delicate little plant, 1-8 in. 
Leaves about 1 in., linear, acute, in the Bombay example. Nut- 
bearing glumes with a central acumen and lateral blunt teeth. 
Niit smaller than a pin's head, white, the longitudinal ridges 
brown, (in the Bombay example). 

App. v. rare. Yellapur (Herb. Talbot). Indo-Malayan region and China. 

B. — Spikes elongate. Nut far exserted. 
(1) Disc obsolete. Nut smooth. 

2. S. lithosperma, Siv. Rhizomatous. Stems 1^-3 ft. 
Very slender. Leaves long, v. narrow. Spikes v. lax with remote 
flowers. Nut smooth, white, glabrous. Tisc represented by a 
mere discoloration of the base of the nut. 

App. rare, and only in the heavy rainfall tracts. Talbot's specimen is 
No. 526 (not 562 as Cooke ex Clarke) (Indo-MaJayan in the wetter regions). 

(2) Disc annular. Nut smx)oth. 



riiE cvi'EiiACE.i-: 01' rni: liOMiLW rREsiDENcr. i>07 
3. S. annularis, Kmitli. 

Several feet high. Stem comprebsed, rather slender. Leaves 
very long, about J inch hroad, margins veiy scabrons. Spikes 
rather closely panicidately arranged on long axillary peduncles. 
Nut smooth, white, glabrous : Disc a small unlobed saucer. 
Apparently only in the Konkan. (Inrlia. irregularly scattered). 

(3) Disc •.Uohpil . Nutsmoot/i. 

A: S. hebecarpa, Nees. -l-o feet high. Stem rather slender 
weak. Leaves very long, flaccid, narrow, about ^ in., sheaths 
prominently winged. Panicle lax. Spikelets rather remote. Nut 
^ in., in young states often microscopically puberulous, mature 
smooth, white. Disc lobes thin, sometimes almost glumaceous, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, reaching to J- way up the nut and 
appressed to it. 

A forest plant, apparently not uncommon in the forests of Kanara ; also 
from Thana Dist. (Herb. Agr. Coll.) (Indo-Malayan). 

Note. — Here may also possibly be placed Talbot's Nos 1888 and 1907, 
which are more robust with leaves 1 in. broad and sheaths Avinged up to 
nearly ^r in. Unfortunately the specimens are both immature without nuts. 
Or this may be a separate species, Kanara forests. 

At this point may be placed a specimen No. 1025 (A) of Herb. Talbot 
from Yellapur. Slender, 4-9 in. Leaves i in. broad, exactly linear, flat, tip 
obtuse, hairy ; margins smooth. Spikes very short, few-flowered on 
axillary peduncles. Nut about ^^ in., white, smooth, or very obscurely sub- 
corrugose, glabrous, with pyramidal top, not apiculate. Disc 3-lobed, 
supporting the nut. Lobes thick, wrinkled. This is probably a new species. 
Ft is mixed with »S'. te^salata, Willd., and, if not new, would be a very 
mature condition of that plant, but the nut is smaller and diflerent in 
general outline. 

(4) I)hc 3-6 lobed. Sut cancellately sculptured . 

'5. S. tesseliata, Willd. Very slender, (up tt) 2i feet, Cooke. 
Availaiile specimens are mvich smaller). Leaves rather short, 
narrow, linear, acute or obtuse, hairy or glabrate, smooth or 
subscabrid on the margins. Sheaths winged or not. Spikes erect, 
axillary or terminal simple or sub-paniculate. Nuts 1-12 in., can- 
c^.ellately tessellate with square depression and puberulous with reddish 
hairs, at any rate when young, apiculate. Disc 3-lobed, lobes ovate, 
acute or subacute, pale, reaching only a little way up the basal part 
of the nut. 

Heavy rainfall regions, occasional (Indo-Malayan and E. Asia). 

<j S. biflora, fioa;?^ 

As the last ; but lobes of the disc narrowly triangular, acuminate 
or quite subulate, brown, reaching well up the side of the nut. 

Heavy rainfall regions, occasional. ^Scattered throughout the wet 
parts of India). 



208 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, V<,1. XXJ'L 

7. S. StOCksiana, Boeck. Stouter and more angular than the 
last two, 1-2 feet. Sheaths strongly winged. Spikes stouter, up 
to 1 inch or more. Nut ^ in., not deeply cancellate (seo 
however (h) ), but shallowly corrugose, always shining, white and 
o-labrous, not apiculate, but with a sub-umbonate apex. Disc lobes 
3, ovate, subacute, supporting the nut at the base, thick, with 
reflexed edges, and with an annular ridge below (the outer 
lobes of Cooke) which in very mature states is dark with a white 
edge. 

South of the Presidency fairly common. (Endemic). 

(b) Here may be placed a form from the red laterite plateau near Talod 
(Ahmedabad District) (Herb. Sedgwick) which differs from the southern 
type in the nut which is the same size, shape, colour and texture, but is 
differently sculptured, the cells between the corrugations being deeply 
perforated. The laterite upland at Talod is separated by long distances 
from any other laterite, and this may be an isolated local development, or 
may perhaps be regarded as a new species. 

8. S. elata, Thtv. A very tall plant up to 8 or 10 feet high 
with very scabrid stems, and long, very scabrid leaves, dangerous to 
handle. Panicle large, 1 ft. by 6 inches or even more. Nut ^ in., 
quite globose, shallowly tessellated, and puberulous on the ridges 
with red hairs (cancellas irregularly distributed, not in regular 
vertical lines as 5 and 6). Disc 3-lobed, supporting the nut. 

Crest of the ghats in the south of the Presidency, not uncommon. 
(Throughout moister India, Java, China). 

16. Carex, Lirm. 

Perennials, leafy at the base, or leafy upwards. Inflorescence 
either of a single spike or of paniculately arranged spikes, which 
may be unisexual or bisexual, in which case the males may be 
above and the females below or vice versa. Flowers unisexual, 
supported by a glume. Ovarv and nut enclosed in a bottle-shaped 
utricle, with a short or long (usually bihd) beak. (Species 500 
and more. Cosmopolitan, but mainly of cold or temperate climates. 
The Indian species are mainly mountain plants). 

1. C. Wlercarensis, Hoehst. 

A tall leafy sedge. Panicle large, compound. Spikes |-| in. 
with about G-10 laxly-arranged female flowers at the base and 
males at the top. Female glumes ferruginous brown, more or less 
aristate. Utricles slightly curved or quite straight, greenish, 
scaberulous, about 15-ribbed, Avith a beak about as long as the 
utricle. 

iVo^e.— Cooke regards the Bombay plants as belonging to the Var Major, 
Steud. 

Quite commop in forest on the ghats in the South of the Pesidency, and 
occasional as far North as Thana (S. W. India). 



THE CYPERACE.4£ OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 209 

-. C. SpeciOSa, Kunth. Leafy at the base only. Spikes soli- 
tary ^-1 in. long, whitish, on long slender peduncles. Glumes con- 
colorous, multi-striate. Utricle concave on the ventral, convex on 
the dorsal side, margins winged, ciliolate, multi-striate. 

Very rare. North Kanara (Herb. Talbot). 

Note. — I exclude C. condensata, Nees. Said to have been found at Maha- 
bleshwar by Dalzell and Gibson and in Sind (Baluchistan P) by Pin will. 
This is a North Indian mountain species. 



210 



A REVISION OP THE INDIAN SPECIES OF ROTALA 

AND AMMANNIA. 

BY 

E. Blatter, S.J., and Prof. F. Hallberg. 

Part II. 

(Gontinued from page 722 of Vol. XXV.) . 

Ammania, L. (sens, restr.) 

Annual glabrous herbs, growing in damp places. Stem and 
branches more or less 4-gonous. Leaves decussate, sometimes 
alternate, sessile, often dilate-cordate at the base, 1 -nerved. 

Dichasia Cl-)o-multiflovvered, sessile or pedunculate, axillary; 
l)racteoles small, membranous. Flowers typically 4-merous (ex- 
ceptionally 5-6-inerous, never heterostylous. Calyx campanulate 
or urceolate, aftei- flowering semiglobose or globose, herbaceous, 8- 
nerved ; appendages or shoit. Petals 0-4, fugaceous, obovate or 
rotund. Stamens 2-8, episepalous. Ovary sessile, incompletely 2-4 
(-5)-localar or 1-locular. Style or longer than the ovary. 

Capsule globose or ellipsoid, included or half-exsevted, very 
thinly membranous, breaking up irregularly in a transverse direc- 
tion. Seeds very nujierous, minute. 

There are about 20 species, distributed all over the world, chiefly 
ill the tropical regions. Some of them are well-defined, but most 
extremely variable and, therefore difficult to distinguish. The 
genus gives one the impression as if its representatives were in the 
actual process of evolution. 

Key to the Indian Species. 

A. Calyx 4-vvinged. Flowers and capsules very 

large . . . , . . . , - . . . 1, A. oetandra 

B. Calyx nob winged. 

I. Style distinct. Petals distinct : 

1. Cymes distinctly peduncled : 

a. Peduncles and pedicels stout, flowers 

and capsules large. A coarse plant. 2. A. auriculata 

h. Peduncles and pedicels filiform, flowers 
and capsules small. A slender and 
more delicate plant . . . . . . 3. A. viultijlora 

2. Cymes sessile or subsessile. Flowers and 

capsules large. A coarse plant . . 4. A. desertorum 

II. St^ le absent or nearly so. Petals absent 

or small. 
1. Cymes distinctly peduncled . . 5. A. senec/alensis 

'2. Cymes sessile or subsessile . . . . 6. A. baccifera 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF ROT ALA. 211 

Ammannia octandra, L. f. Suppl. (1781) 127 ; Roxb. Cor. PI. II (1798) 
18, t. 133; DC. Prodr. 111(1828)80; Wight and Am. Prodr. 304; 
Blume Mus. Bot. II 132; Dalz. and Gibs., Bombay Fl. (1861) 97 ; 
Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. (1877), pt. II, 86; Clarke in Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. II (1879) 571 ; Koehue in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1 (lh80) 250, 
inEngl.Pflanzenr.lv, 216(1903)50; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. II (1894) 225; 
Cooke Fl. Bomb. Pres. 1. (1903) 508 —A. coccinea Pres. Ench. I (1805) 
147, non Rottb.^ — Ammannella linearu Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I (1855) 619 
cum descript erron. — Biplostemon octandrum Miq. 1. c. 616. 
Stem 15-100 cm. long, erect, stifl', (the upper part 4-gonou8, the lower 
part subterete and often woody), very narrowly 4-winged,the wings 
minutely serrulate ; branches numerous, sharply quadrangular. 
Leaves 20-80 mm. long, 2*5-10 mm. broad, sessile, sometimes sub- 
acaminate, broadly linear or narrowly lanceolate. 
Dichasium 1-3-flowered ; peduncle scabrous, central pedicel 1*5-5 mm. 
long, lateral ones scarcely 1 mm. Calyx 3 5-6 mm. long, quadran- 
gular, the angles winged and minutely serrulate, the faces between 
the wings furnished with a distinct rib in the middle of each 
face ; mouth nearly truncate or with 4 very short teeth ; cornua 
short, horn-like, spreading. Petals 4, broadly obovate, upto 4 mm. 
long, irregularly crenulate, rose coloured, veined. Stamens 8, 
exserted, hlaments dark-red. Style nearly 3-times as long as the 
ovary. 
Capsule included in the calyx, globose-ellipsoid. 

Habitat : Madras Pres. : Ragapaliem, Godavari Dist., Feb. 1902 
(Barber No. 4259 !), Kambam, Madura Dist., in fields. May (Blatt. 
and Hall. No. 475 ! 3336 !). 
Distribution : India, Ceylon, Java. (Judging from material in the various 
Indian and European herbaria this seems to be a very rare species). 

>. Ammania auricvlatu, Willd. Hort. Berol. I (1806) t. 7 ; DC. Prodr. 
Ill (1828) 80 ; Koehne in Engl. Bot. Jalirb. 1 (1^80) 244 et IV (1883) 
389, in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV, -;16 (1903) 45.— A. raceinom Roth Catal. 
bot. 11(1806) 25.—^. arenaria H. B. and K. Nov. Gen. VI (1^S0) 
190 — A. sene(/alensisT)0. Prodr. Ill (1828) 77 sec. Guill. et Perr. {non 
Lam.) ; Clarke in Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. II (1879) 570 ; Collet Fl. Siml. 
(1902) 192 ; Duthie Fl. Upp. Gang. Plain 1 (1903) 350 ; Bamber in 
Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. XX (1911) 811 ; Hiern in Oliv. Fl. Trop 
Afr. II (1871) 477 (partivi).—A. avriculata Ledeb Fl. Ross. II (1844-46) 
125; A. Rich. Fl. Abyss. I {l^Al) 21S.—A. pmilla Sond, in Linn;ea 
XXIII (1848) 40.— .4. iVru/htii A. Gray in Smith. Cont. V (1853) 
55. — A. lom/ipes C.'Yfr\g\\t in Souvalle Fl. Cubana (1868) 53.—^. 
undulata C.A. Mey. in Ind. Hort. Petropol. IX (1842) 56. 
Stem up to 57 cm. long ; stem and tranches winged in the upper part. 
Leaves l'5-7 7 cm. long, 3-14 mm. broad, or the upper ones smaller, 
the two lowest sometimes cuneate, the rest auriculate, linear or 
sublanceolate, slightly acute. 
Dichasia 1-3-15 — flowered, slightly lax ; pedicel of the central flower 
3-17 mm. long. Calyx 15-2 mm. long, in fruit subglobose or almost 
semi-globose ; lobes 1/3 or J the length of the tube : cornua minute, 
at last evanescent, rarely almost as long as tho lobes. Petals 
violaceous, purple or white. Stamens 4-8, inserted 3/4 — almost ^ 
way down the tube, 1/3 or -| exserted beyond the lobes. Stylo up 
to twice as long as the ovary. 
Capsule 2-3*5 mm. in diameter, as long as the calyx-lobes or slightly 
longer. 



^12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

The plant varies slightly, especially with regard to the number of 
flowers in a cyme, the length of the cyme-branches and of the style.. 
The different forms pass insensibly one into the other. 

It is an interesting fact that almost identical specimens have been 
gathered in localities widely apart : China, India, Nubia, Transvaal, 
Texas. Mexico. The African specimens have a slightly smaller 
capsule and a comparatively longer style than the Indian ones. 

In India the species is confined to the driest and coldest regions, as 
will be seen from the localities given below. 

Habitat: Rajputana : Dilvara on Mt. Abu, October 1916 ( Blatt. and 
Hall. No. 3;:^37!), Uria on Mt. Abu. (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3338!), 
Usrot on Mt. Abu ( Blatt. and Hall. No. 3339 !), Mt. Abu, (Blatt. 
and Hall. No. 3340!). British Baluchistan: Khozdar, about 4100 
ft., September 1917 (Hotson No. 3348 !). Afghanistan : Kurum 
Valley (Aitchison !). Chitral : Near Drosh, 4-5000 ft. (Hamilton No. 
17881 !).—N. W. Frontier, September 1907 (Dean !).— British Tibet 
(Stoliczka!). — Kashmir: Baramula. 5000 ft., June 19U5 (Meebold 
No. 390 !). — Gangetic Plain : Banks of Gumpti near Indalpur 
(Duthie No. 4022!) — Punjab (Thomson !).^ — Bengal: Between Dingra 
Ghat and Purneah, in ricefields, October 1868 (Kurz !) — Central 
China: Prov. Hupeh (Henry No. 2754!), Hainan (Henry No. 83701). 
—Persia (Aucher-p:ioy No. 4508!). 

Africa: Ivordofan : Arash-Cool, Oct, 1839 (Kotschy No. 178!), Trans- 
vaal, May 1894 (Schlechter No. 4771 !). 

Distribution: Africa; Cape and Sudan-region, Nile delta: Asia: 
Trans-Caucasus, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India, China. 
Australia: Queensland. America: Louisiana, Texas, New-Mexico, 
Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Extratrop. Brazil. 

:3. Ammania multijtora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. I (1820) 447 ; DC. Prodr. Ill 
(1828) 79 ; W. & A. Prodr. 305 ; Wall. Cat. 2101 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient. 
II, 743; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. (1861) 97 ; Kurz. in Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Beng. pt. II (1877) 85; Koehne in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. I (1880) 
247 et IV (1883) 390, in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV, 216 (1903) 48; Duthie. 
Fl. Upp. Ganget. Plain. I (1903) 351 ; Cooke Fl. Bomb. Pres. 1 (1903) 
,509. — A. parvijlora DC. 1. c. 78. — A. forilmnda Gnill. et Perr. Fl. 
Seneg. l{\S?>Q-o3).— Sujfrenia<UchotomaM\r\. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1855) 
(516 — A. australasica F. Muell. in Trans. Phil. Soc. Victoria I (1855) 
41. — A. viadagascariensis Tul. in Ann. Sc. nat. ser. 4, VI (1856 ) 129. — 
A.japonica Miq. Prolus. (1866-67) 149. 

Stem up to 65 cm. high, erect, slightly 4-winged, branches numerous, 
sharply quadrangular. Leaves opposite, 4-25 mm. long, 0-75-3 mm. 
broad, the lower ones (or rarely all) attenuate at the base, the rest 
subauriculate, often persisting for a long time. 
Dichasia 1-3-7, or rarely 15-20-flowered, peduncled ; central pedicel 
2-6 mm. long ; bracteoles on the cyme-branches most minute, linear. 
Calyx campanulate, 1-1"5 mm. long, semiglobose in fruit, teeth 4, 
short, triangular. Petals small and caducous. Stamens 4, as long 
as the calyx-lobes, or slightly longer. Style about as long as the 
capsule. 
Capsule 15 mm. in diameter, half-surrounded by the calyx-tube, pro- 
truding from between the lobes. 
Habitat: S.India: Mysore, 1-3000 feet, October 1908 (Meebold No. 
10279 ! ) ; Coimbatore, KoUegal, 2,000 ft. (Fischer No. 659! ) ; Am- 
battur in Chingulpet Dist., February 1915 (Fyson!); Madras, 
March 1899 (Fyson!) ; Bombay Presidency : Sion on Bombay Island, 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAJ^ SPECIES OF ROT ALA. 21'^ 

November 1916 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3358 ! ) ; Bhandup in Salsette, 
near tank (Blatt. and Hall No. 3354 ! ) ; Andheri in Salsette, Decem- 
ber 1916 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3355 1 ) ; Bandra (Poona Herb.!); 
Bassein (Poona Herb!) ; Khandala, March 1917 ( Blatt. and Hall. 
No. 3356 !) ; Igdtpuri, January 1917 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3357- 
3372 ! ) ; Poona, common. Khandesh : Bor, along Tapti river 
(Blatt. and Hall No. 3373 !) ; Bhusawal, Tapti river, December 1916 
(Blatt. and Hall. No. 3374! 3375 1); Dharvvar Dist., dry ricefields, 
December 1916 (Sedgwick No. 22721). Mt. Abu: Dilwara, October 
1916 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3381 !) ; slopes of Mt. Abu, November 

1916 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3382 !), Abu Road, November 1916 (Blatt. 
and Hall. No. 3383!); Rajputana Desert: Kailana near Jodhpur, 
October 1917 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3384 !, 3385!) ; Balarwa ( Blatt. 
and Hall. No 3386 !) ; Devikot (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3387 ! 3388!) ; 
Vinjorai, November 1917 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3389 !) ; near Kotda 
(Blatt. and Hall. No. 3390!). N.-W. India: Banks of Gumpti near 
Indalpur, October 1885 (Duthie No. 4024 !) ; Punjab ( Thomson !), 
Afghanistan (Griffith No. 2316! 2315!). Central India: Indore 
(Calc. Herb.!), Saugor(Vicary!), Goona (King No, 216!), Gwalior 
(Maries No. 201!). Bengal: Lower Bengal (Wallich No. 2101!), 
between Piirnea and Caraghola Ghat, in fields, October 18H8(Kurz!), 
Howrah Dist (Kurz!), Singbhum, December 1900 (Haines No. 337!). 

We found a few specimens in Khandesh which we put under : Forma 
uniflora forma nov. Dwarf, stem simple, 25-30 mm. high, erect. 
Leaves shorter than the peduncles, sometimes ovate. Peduncles 
1-flowered, 5-6 mm. long, pedicels 0'5-l'5 mm. long. 

Habitat : Tapti river near Bhusaval December 1916 and January 

1917 (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3379 !, 3380 !). 

Distribution: Tropical Africa, Madagascar. Asia: Persia, Kurdistan 
Afghanistan. India, Aadamans to the Philippines and Japan. Aus- 
tralia: N. W. and S. Australia, Victoria, New S. Wales, Queensland. 

Am?nannia desertorum, spec. nov. — A course, rigid, more or less 
scabrous papillose plant. Stem up to 50 cm. high, much-branched, 
stout, subterete below, sharply quadrangular and narrowly winged 
above, as are also the branches. Leaves lanceolate, acute or subobtuse, 
up to 70 mm. long and 8 mm. broad, auricled at the base, feather- 
veined, midrib prominent below, margins reflexed. 

All the axils flower-bearing. Peduncles absent or very short, not 
reaching 1 mm. in length, stout, (1—) 3-(6)-flowered. Pedicels very 
uniform in length, 1-2 mm., stout. Bracteoles minute, stiff, subu- 
late. Calyx leathery, 8-nerved, in flower 2 mm. long, elongate- 
campanulate, in fruit up to 2'5 mm. long, campanulate-semiglobose. 
Teeth 4, small, broadly triangular, apiculate ; accessory teeth or 
folds very small or absent. Petals 4, small, reaching 1 mm., obovate- 
cuneate, purple, caducous. Stamens 8, inserted at about g of the 
tube from below, sub-included. Style about as long as the ovary, 
|-i as long as the capsule, rather stout. 
Capsules 3 mm. long, crowded together, the upper \ ox }; not covered 
by the calyx, reddish-brown transparent, shining. Seeds very 
namerous, irregularly semiglobose, yellowish brown, shining. 
This species has the habit of A. auriculata, but can easily be distingui- 
shed by its inflorescence. Generally the whole plant is covered 
with capsules. 
The plant is common in the Rajputana Desert S. of Jaisalmer. 
Vem. Name : Jalbhangra (Marwari). 



214 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Habitat: Jaisalmer : Devikot, November 1917 ( Blatt. and Hall. 
3341 I), near Devikot, November 1917 (Blatt. and Hall. 3342!, 
3313!), Viiijorai (lilatt. and Hall. 3344! ) ; Jodhpur: Kotda near 
Sen (Blatt. and Hall. 3345 ! ), near Badka on wet ground (Blatt. and 
Hall. 3346 ! 3347 ! ). 

5. Ammannia senegalensis, Lara. 111. I (1791) 312, n. 1553, t. 77, f. 2 ; 

Koehne in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. I (1880) 255, in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV. 

21b (1903) 52. 

Stem 8-35 cm. long, erect or ascending, rarely prostrate and rooting, 
8ub-4-gonous, Leaves 7-50 mm. long and i'5-13 mm. broad, oblong 
or oblauceolate or aublinear, mostly obtuse, the lower ones cuneate 
at the base, the upper ones rotund or subcordate, rarely all 
auriculate cordate. 

Dichasia 1-3-many-liowered, distinctly peduncled, the central pedicel 
reaching up to 10 mm. Calyx in flower 1-1-5 mm. long, in fruit 
semigl )bo3e, cornua minute or obsolete. Petals 4, small or absent. 
Stamens 4. Capsule l'5-2'5 mm. in diameter. 

Distribution : From Senegambia to S. Africa, East Africa, to Aby- 
ssinia and Lower Egypt, India. 

Key to the forms : 

. A. Dichasia lax, central pedicel 3-10 mm. long. 

1. Stem usually diffusely branched at the base. Forma a. 

2. Stem shortly branched above the middle. . Forma b. 
B. Dichasia dense ; central pedicel not more than 

4 mm long . . . . . . . . Forma c. 

Forma a. difus a, Koehne in Engl. Pttanzenr. IV, 216 (1903)52. — 
A. diffusa Willd.Enum.l (1809) 169; DC. Prodr. 111(1828)79.-^1 
filifornis DO. in Mem. Soc. Gen. Ill (1826) 95, Prodr. Ill, 77. 
Occurs in Senegambia and Lower Egypt, not in India. 
We have seen a specimen. It has very long straggling branches 

from the base, large thin leaves and few-flowered cymes ; peduncles 

of medium length, pedicels long. 

Forma b. salsuffinosa, Koehne 1. c. — A. sahwjinosa Guill. et Perr. Fl. 

Seaeg; I (1830-33) 302; Hiern ia Oliv. Fl. Trop. Africa II (1871) 477. 

Occurs in Senegambia from where we have examined a specimen. It 
is a weak suberect plant with very slender branches, meeting the 
stem at right angles. Cymes few-flowered, its branches filiform. 

Forma c. indica, forma noe. Erect or suberect, up to 20 cm., simple or 
sparingly branched near the base. Leaves up to 30 mm. long and 4 
mm. broad, subacute. Calyx 8-ribbed. Petals present, 1 ram. long, 
rotund-ovate. (In formalin the raucilage of the ovaries comes out in 
large masses and the formalin is stained bluish- purple). 
Habitat: Bombay Presidency : Khandala, November 1916 (Blatt. and 
Hall. No. 3349!, 3350!). Igatpuri (Blatt and Hall. No. 3351!), 
Poona (Blatt. and Hall. No. 3352 ! ). 
In the Poona specimen the stem is ascending, slender, simple. The 
calyx has a pinkish hue and 8 conspicuous green nerves. Capsule 
purple. The Igatpuri specimen is 8 cm. high, the stem is simple, the 
le^ives acute, hardly auricled. 
There is another specimen from Poona (Aug. 1895) in the Herbarium of 
the Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. on a sheet of Ammannia raultifiora. It is 
much more luxurious, 17 cm. high, slightly branched, branches 
slender, patent. Leaves up to 42 ram. long and 5 mm. broad, thin, 
acute, attenuate or auriculate at the base. 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF ROTALA. 2ir, 

A senegaleiisis Lam. has not been noted from India before. The A. aene- 
galensis mentioned by Clarke in the Flora of Brit. India is A. auriculata 
WiUd. 

0. Ammannia haccifera L. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 175 ; Burm. Fl. Ind. 

(1768) 38, t. 15, f. 3,4 ; DC. Frodr. Ill ( 1828) 78; Hiern m Oliv. Fi. 

Trop. Afr. II (1871) 478 (pro parte) ; Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 

II (1897) 569 ; Koehne in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 1 (1880) 258, IV (1883) 

391, in. Engl. Pflanzenr. iV, 216 (1903) 53; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 

(1861) 97; Kurz. in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. pt. 11 (187/) 85; Cooke 

Fl. Bomb. Pres. I (19U3j 509 .—A . indica Lam. 111. 1 (1791) 311 ; Poir. 

Supp. 1 (1810) 328 ; DO. 1, c. 77 (fortassis partim tantwn) ; Benth. Fl. 

Austral. Ill (1866) 297.—^. vesicatoria Roxb. Fl. Ind. I (1820) 427 ; 

DO. L c. 78. Cryptotheca apetala Bl. Bijdr. (1826) 1129; DO. 1. c. 

67. — A. dehilis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 46 {non kit.).— A. atte- 

nuata A. Rich Fl. Abyss. 1 (1847) 278. — Hapalocarpuni indicum Miq. et 

vedcatorium Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1855) 618. — A. cegyptiaca, Willd. 

Enum. Hort. Berol. I (1809) 167, t. 6 ; Delile Fl. D'Eg. (1813) 37, 

t. 15, f . 3 ; DC. I. c. 78.—^. salicifolia Hiern in Oliv. Fl . trop. Afr. 11 

(1871) 478, erd. syno. (wora Monti) ; Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. II 

(1879) 569; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. (1861) 97; Cooke Fl. Bomb. 

Pres. 1(1903)509. A. ylaucaVfaM. Cat. (1828) 2100; W. and A. 

Prodr. 305. A. densiflora Miq. in Herb. Hohenack. No. 770 (ex 

Clarke). 

We have united A. salicifolia as understood by Hiern and Clarke ( not 
of Monti) with A. baicifera L., not even retaining them as subspecies 
as was done before by Koehne. Clarke says: The only character by 
which ^. 6acci/e/-a can be distinguished from A. salicifolia are the 
attenuated leaves. We have examined hundreds of specimens and 
found that this distinction does not hold good. 

Glabrous, erect or subscandent, 8-65 cm. high, often branching, 
branches usually opposite. Leaves 7-70 mm. long, 1-16 mm. broad, 
lower leaves usually opposite, cauline ones opf osite or alternate, 
oblong or narrow-elliptic, narrowed at the base, or rounded, or 
subcordate, or siibauriculate, usually obtuse or subacute. 

Dichasia (1-) 3-multi-flowered (dense axillary clusters or loose, but very 
short cymes), sessile or subsessile. Flowers distinctly pedicelled, 
sessile or subsessile. Calyx 1-2 mm. long ; tube hemispheric, teeth 4, 
broad, triangular, acute, cornua minute or absent. Petals or 
minute ; stamens as long as the lobes or slightly shorter. 

Capsule depressed, globose, 1-2 mm., in diam., covered up to ^ or :| by 
the calyx tube, slightly or much longer than the teeth. 

Habitat : All over India, the most common species. 

Distribution. : Africa, S. and E. Asia, Australia, Europe (where it is 
probably introduced). 

Species excludendce. 

Ammannia lanoeolata Heyne and Ammannia cordata W. and A. belong to 

the genus Nesaea which may be distinguished from Ammanrda by the 

following points : — 

{a) The dissepiments of the ovary are quite complete and conse- 
quently, the placenta is continuous with the style. 

(6) The capsule opens by a .smn 11 operculum, the lower part reraaint- 
and opens subseptifragally or irregularly. 

(c) There are often 2-4 large bracteoles. 

In order to facilitate the correct naming of the three species here con- 
cerned we append their descriptions. 



L'16 JOURI^AL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISr. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

NesacslanceolataYLoehne \n Engl. Bot,. Jahrb. 111(1882) 325, in Engl. 

Pflanzenr. IV, 216 (1903) 226. — Avimannia lanceolata Heyne in Wall. 

Cat. 2106, 2106E; Clarke in Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 11 (1879) 57U. 

Trimen Fl. Ceyl. II (1894) 225. Amviannia salicifolia Thwait. Enum. 

PI. Zeyl. (1864.) 241 quoad var. a tantum (non Monti). Ammannia 

triflora Benth. Fl. Austral. Ill (1866) 297 {non Wall. Cat.) 

Annual ; stem 6-25 cm. high, quadrangular at the apex. Leaves 
oblong or narrowly lanceolate, glabrous or minutely puberuloue, 
sub-l-nerved paler beneath. 

Flowers sessile or subsessile ; bracteoles green or membranous with a 
green, nerve, lanceolate or almost oblong, as long the calyx or g 
shorter, some times minutely serrulate. Calyx 2.5-3 mm. long, cam- 
panuiate, lobes ^ the length of the tube or shorter ; the appendages 
slightly shorter or longer than the lobes. Subulate or triangular, 
glabrous, hispid, or with a few teeth. Petals or 4 (5) and about 
i the length of the calyx, rose. Ovary bilocular, style scarcely 
longer than the stigma. 

Capsule subglobose or globose. Seeds small. 

Clarke says the petals are larger than in any other species <>f ' Eu — 
Ammannia, which is certainly not correct. 

Habitat : North Kanara : Carwa, in the Casiiarina plantations, October 
1887 (Talbot No. 1575! ). Malwan seashore, November 1892 (Poona 
Herb. ! ). Nellore Distr. Tada, Feb. 1901 (Bourne 2523 !). Without 
locality. (Wall. No. 2106, 2106 E). Mysore and Carnatic (Thomson). 
Ceylon, rather common in the country (Trimen.) Distribution : 
India, Australia. 

Nosaea brevipes Koehne in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. HI (1882) 326,in Engl. 

Pflanzenr. IV, 216 (1903) 2-21:).— Ammannia cordata Wight in Wall. 

Cat. (1828) No. 6322 ; Wight et Arnott Prodr. I (1834) 304 ; Clarke 

in Hook. Fl, Brit. ind. II (1879) 570; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. II (1894) 

225. — Amviannia salicifolia var. /3. Twait. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 121 

{lion Monti). 

An annual herb, glabrous ; stem 9-37 cm. high, erect, or procumbent at 
the base and rooting, 4-gonous at the apex, simple or sparingly 
branched. Leaves 10-35 mm. long, 2.5-10 mm. broad, oblong or 
obovate, or very rarely lanceolate, acute or obtuse, whitish on the 
margin. 

Dichasia 1-3-flowered ; bracteoles about as long as the calyx ; 
calyx broadly campanulate, lobate in fruit, glabrous or minute- 
hirtellous ; lobes half as long as the tube. Petals 0-4, scarcely 1 
mm. long ; style not quite half the length of the ovary. 

Capsule subglobose, or globose, becoming red (contrary to Clarke's 
statement). 

Habitat: Chand District (Duthie No. 9484!); Ganjam (Gamble No. 
13838 !), Kurchiat swamp (Blatter 3393 li. India without precise 
locality (Wight No. QSV partim, \m\, Wallich No. 6322), Ceylon, 
dry country (Trimen). East Bengal : Noakhali (Clarke). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon. 

Nemea triflora Kunth in H., B. et K. Nov. Gen. et Spec. VI (1823) 191 
inadn. ; DO, Prodr. Ill (1828) 90 ; Wight Ic. I (1840) t. 259; Koehne 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. Ill (1882) 330, in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV, 216 (1903) 
230. — Lythrum triflorum L. f. Suppl. (1781) 249, e.vcl. loc. — Trotula 
trianthis Comra. in Herb. — Ammavnia triflora Wall. Cat. No. 6323 sec. 
Wight and Arn, {non R. Br. et Benth.) — Nesam capitellata Presl. in 
Tsis XXI (1828) 3. 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF ItOTALA. 217 



(^uite glabrous. Stem 15-70 cm. high, often rooting at the base, 
•4-angular. Leaves 10-35 mm. long, 5-13 mm broad, lanceolate or 
oblong or rarely ovate-oblong, acuminate or obtuse, obtuse at the 
base or rarely cordate, sub-l-nerved, with a cartilaginous margin. 

Diohasia 3-5-flowered, bracteoles of the central flower 2-5 mm. long, 
about as long as the calyx, lanceolate or linear-siibulate, subcym- 
biform, green, often membranous on the margin. Flower 4-5-, 
rarely 6-merous. Calyx 3 mm. long, at last semiglobose ; lobes ;l 
the length of the tube ; petals rose or lilac, slightly longer than the 
calyx ; stamens 8, 10, (12), the episepalous ones as long as the lobes, 
or longer by ^, the epipetalous ones shorter than the lobes ; ovary 
ellipsoid-globose, 3-4-locular, style at last twice as long as the 
ovary. 

Capsule globose. 

Habitat : Ceylon (Walker). Perhaps introduced. 

Distribution : Comoro Islands, Madagascar; Mauritius, Ceylon. 




28 



218 

THE FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT, 
(JODHPUR AND JAISALMER). 

BY 

E. Blatter, S.J. and Prof. F. Hallberg. 

The Indian Desert is perhaps the least known part of the plains 
of India. We have seen only two papers dealing with the vegeta- 
tion of W. Rajputana. One is by G. King, entitled : " Sketch 
of the Flora of Rajputana." It appeared in the Indian Forester 
IV (1879) 226-236. The other is an "Introductory Note to 
Jodhpur and Jaisalmer trees and plants." The author and pub- 
lisher are not mentioned and no date is given. We have been 
told that Miss Macadam is the author. If we compare the general 
arrangement of the pamphlet and the treatment of the subject with 
another paper written by Miss Macadam in 1890, viz., "A list of 
trees and plants of Mt. Abu," and published at Jodhpur, we think 
we are right in concluding that to Miss Macadam belongs also the 
authorship of the former booklet. It contains the vernacular 
and botanical names, together with short descriptive notes 
" of trees and plants found during the months of November, 
December, Jaauary and February in the neighbourhood of Jodhpur, 
also during a mai-ch from Ealotra to Jaisalmer and a halt there of 
ten days in December." About 140 species are enumerated. 
These are the only records of the vegetation of the Rajputana 
Desert. The vast deserts of N. Africa, Arabia, Central Asia, and 
even of the New World have attracted the attention of many 
Botanists, but the Indian Desert has been sadly neglected. 

In October and November 1917 we visited a considerable part 
of W. Rajputana, accompanied by Messrs. T. S. Sabnis, B.Sc, and 
D. B. Bulsara. We started from Jodhpur, went by train to 
Phalodi, from there on camel back to Bap, from Bap to Jaisal- 
mer, from Jaisalmer to Barmer, and from Barmer to Luni 
Junction. 

The results of our tour, botanical, geological and meteorological, 
are laid down in the following pages. Part i will contain a list of 
the plants with the description of new species, whilst Part II will 
deal with the ecological side of the flora. Most of the plates 
appearing in Part I will find their full explanation in Part II. 

We wish to use this opportunity to thank the Agent to the 
Governor-General and Lt.-Col. Kilkelly, I. M.S. (at that time Acting 
Resident of the W. Rajputana States), who took a keen interest in 
our work, and also the Durbars of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer for the 
generous help they gave us throughout our journey. 



Journ., Bombay Na.t. Hist. Soc. 



Plate I. 




A. — Wind erosion in sand-dune near Lotarki, Jaisalmer State. 




5' '^^\^y^ 



B.~Wind erosion in lime-stone, 3 miles ^.W. of Phalodi, Jodhpur State. 
The Flora of the Indian Desert. 



Jotirn., Bomloay Nat. Hist< SoCt 



Plate II. 




A.— Sand-dune with scanty vegetation at Loharki, Jaisalmer State. 




B. — Part of sand-dune devoid of vegetation, showing ripples. In the 
background the plain near Loharki. 



The Flora of the Indian Desert. 



! 



A 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. . 319 

PART I. 

Menispermace^. 
Cocculus DC. 

Cocmlus cebatha, DC. Syst. I (1818) 527. (-=C. Leceba, DC.) 

Vern. N. : Pilwan (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Kailana (No. 5615 !), Mandor (No. 5823 !), Balsamand 
(No. 5fc)14 !), common in rocky places, often growing in Euphorbia 
nenifolia bushes (Macadam). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 5616!). 

Distrib. : Central and S. Africa, Abyssinia, Kordofan, Eritrea, Nubia, 
Egypt, Senegambia, Cape Verd Islands, Afghanistan, India. 

Fl. : All the year round (Macadam). 

Cocculus villoms, DC. Syst. I (1818) 525. 
Vern. N.; Bajar bel (Macadam). 
Loc. : Jaisalmer State (Macadam). 
Distrib: Trop. Africa, India. 

Nymph^ace^. 

Nyviphaea L. 

NympJma lotus L. Sp. t*l. (1753) 511. 
Vern. N. : Be. 
Loc. : Between Seu and Badka in Jodhpur State (Nos. 5774 !, 5825 ! 

5826!). 
Distrib. : Africa, Hungary, India, Java, Philippines, 
Fl. in Nov. 
Note: In the same tank we found Limnanthemum parvifolium, Griseb., 

and Chain sp. 
Uses: Stem and root eaten as a vegetable. 

Papaveracea;. 
Argemone L. 

Argemone mexicana, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 508. 
Vern. N. : Sattyanasi (Macadam). 

Loc. : Very common about villages in Jodhpur State (Macadam). 
We have not seen the plant which otherwise is spread all over India. 
Distrib. : America. 

Uses : The yellow Juice is used in eye affection and the leaves are 
given to camels. The juice rubbed on the body releaves rheumatic 
pain. (Macadam). 

Papaver Tourn. 

Papaver somniferum, L. The Opium Poppy. 

"The poppy is cultivated to a small extent, chiefly in Sojat (Jodhpur 
State), but opium is not extracted. The seeds are used medicinally 
and the capsules are soaked in water which, after being strained, 
is taken as an intoxicant." (Erskine.) 

Crucifer^. 

Farsetia Desv. 

Farsetia jacquemontii, Hook. f. and Th. in Jonrn. Linn. Soc. V. (1861) 
148. 

Vern. N. : Kagpilang. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7307!), Mandor (Nos. 7309!, 5787!), 

Bhikamkor (No. 5776!), Osian (Nos. 7308 !, 5780 !), Balarwa (Nos. 

7310!, 5779!, 5784!), Phalodi (No. 5783!), Kotda near Seu, sand 



220 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MBST. ^SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

(No. 5789!), near JBadka (No. 5782!), Banner sand (No. 5778!). 
Jaisalnier : Vinjorai (No. 5788 !), Devikot (No. 5777 !), Loharki 
(No. 5786!) near Loharki, chietly o:i sand (No. 73111), Shihad 
(No. 5781 !), Phalodi to Bap, cultivated fields (No. 6835!). 

Distrib. : Rajputana, Sind, N. India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. 

Fi. and fr. in October and November. 

Farsetia onaeraiithaj.spec. nov. 

Sufirutex erectus, rigidus virgatus 75 cm. altus, totus (excepta coroUa) 
coopertus pilis adpressis medio-fixis. J\)lia integerrima, alterna, 
conferta in i!/3 inferioribus, late lanceolata, acuta, subconacea, usque 
ad 60 mm. longa et 15 mm. lata, basi attenuata, costa inferne 
prominente, subsessilia vel 5 mm. attingentia. 

Flores in racemis copiosis, laxis ; pedicelli fortissimi, ascendentes, 5 
mm. longi, gemmis cylindriacis. Calyx cylindriacus ; sepala 10-12 
mm. longa, 1-] ^ mm. lata, linearia, apice subobtusa, posterius necnon 
anterius minus lata, valde obscure marginata, basi persistentia in 
fructu, lateralia vero distincte scariose marginata, basi neque indu- 
rata nee persistentia. Petala purpurea vel alba, glabra, 14-19 mm. 
longa, spathulata, in parte latissima 4 mm. attingentia, apice 
rotunda. Stamina longiora 10 mm. longa, minora 6 mm. ; antherte 
3 mm. longce, fere eequales, lineares, basi subsagittatee. Pistillum 5 
mm. longum ; ovarium dense adpressse pilosum, stylo brevi forti. 

Siliqua 45 mm. longa, 5 mm. lata, compressissima, obscure stipitata, 
stylo forti 1 mm. longo munita ; stigma album, bilobum, incrassatum 
in fructu. Valvse plau;e indistincte l-costataj, dehiscentes a basi, 
septo scarioso margine viridi incrassato, conspicue et irregulariter 
venoso, costa media conspicua sinuata. Semina biseriata, com- 
pressa, late alata, madefacta mucilaginea ; nucleus brunneo-flavus, 
2 mm. diametro ; radiculus accumbens. 

Differs from the foregoing species by the much larger flowers, larger 
and differently shaped leaves. From F. hmniltonii it may be distin- 
guished by the biseriate seeds. The leaves, the size and shape of 
the petals and the size of the pod separate the new species from F. 
ceyyptiaca, Turr. 

A specimen was obtained with much shorter pods, but otherwise 
identical with the type. Sometimes the pod measures not more 
than 10 vara., and contains only two seeds. In this case the pod is 
ovate-acuminate in outline. 

Loc. : Barmer, on rocks. (Nos. 73051, 7306!, 5785 !) 

Fl. and fr. in November. 

The following plants are cultivated : — ■ 
Brassica cnmpestru, L. suhsp. napus. The rape or coleseed. 

Vern. N. : Sarson. 

Note : *' Sarson is a cold weather crop, grown on land either attached 

to wells or irrigated from canals, and in the former event it is sown 

with wheat. The ordinary outturn is about six cwt. per acre, and 

the seed yields an oil which is used for cooking purposes." (Erskine.) 

Brassica olevacea, L. var. botrytis. The cauliflower. 

Raphanus satiims, L. The radish. 

Capparidaoe^. 

Cleome L. 

Cleome papulosa, Steud. Nomen. ed. 2, I (1840) 382. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Kailana (Nos. 5702!, 57011), Mandor (No. 6707!) 
Bhikamkor (No. 5750!), near Badka (No. 67061), Banner (Njo. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT 221 

5699!). Jaisalmer: Loharki (No. 5709 !), Bap (Noa. 5703 !, 5705!), 
Sodakoer, dried-up river bed {No. 5704 I), Amarsagar (No. 5700 !), 
Jaisalmer, on rocks (No. 6708 I), Vinjorai, on rocks (No. 5751 !). 

Distrib. : Rajputana, Sind, Arabia, Abyssinia, Nubia, Kordofan. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Cleome brachycarpa, Vahl. ex DC. Prodr. I (1824) 240. 
Vern. N. : Nodi (Macadam), Navli. 
Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (Nos. 5713!, 5722!, 5719!), Mandor (No. 

5714!), Bhikamkor, common on sand dunes (No. 5718!, 5721 !), 

near Badka (No. 5717 !), Phalodi (No. 5712 !), Balarwa (No. 5710 !). 

Jaisalmer: Jaisalmer (No. 5720!), Bada Bag (No. 5711!), Vinjorai, 

sandy plain (No. 5716 I), near Bap (No. 5715 !). 
Distrib. : Punjab Plains, Sind, westward to Arabia, Abyssinia and N. 

Africa. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Uses : Used to cure worms in camels' noses (Macadam). 

Cleome brachycarpa var. ylauca var. noo. Folia 3-foliolata, infra et supra 
pallida glauca, glabra excepto margine glanduloso-pubescente, petiolus 
longior typo usque ad 13 mm. attingens. IJami glaucescentes foliis 
paiilisper pallidiores. Semina minuto-reticulata. 
Loc: N. of Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 5753 !). 
Fl. and fr. in November. 

Cleume viscosa L. Sp. PI. (1753) 672. 

Loc. : .Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 5726 !), Kailana (No. 5731 !), Bhi- 
kamkor (Nos. 5725 !, 5723 !), Balarwa (No. 5724 \J, Barmer, rocks 
(No. 5729!). Jaisalmer: Between Phalodi and Bap (No. 5727!), 
Amarsagar (No. 5728 !), Bada Bag (No. 5730 !). 

Distrib : Throughout the tropical regions of the world. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Gynandropsis DC. 

Gt/nandropsis pentaphylla, DC. Prodr. 1 (1824) 238. 

Vern. N. :Bagra (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 5698 !), very common at .Jodhpur where 
it comes up in great quantities along the roadsides and fields during 
the rains ^ Macadam), Balarwa, cultivated ground and gravel (No. 
5734!), Osian (No. 5735 ! ), Bhikamkor (No. 5737 ! , Seu (No. 5738 !), 
Barmer, on gravel (No. 5740 ! ). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 5732 ! ), 
Jaisalmer, wet ground (No. 5736 ! ), Bap (No. 5733 ! ), Vinjorai (No. 
5739!). 

Distrib. : A common weed in all tropical countries. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Uses : The seeds infused in boiling water are used as a cure for 
coughs, bruised they are applied as a poultice to sores that have 
maggots in them. The green leaves applied to the skin and tied 
down form a good blister (Macadam). The seeds are given to 
horses against stomach ache, the leaves are used against rheuma- 
tism in man, 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla var. nana var. nov. — Alta 11 cm. Folia glaberrima 
exceptis aliquibus glandulis stipitatis in margine. Petala 5 mm. lon^n^yVs 
Loc: Jaisalmer: Vinjorai (No. 5741 ! ). 
Fl. and fr. in November. 




222 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

Cadaba Forsk. 

Cadaba indica. Lam. Encycl. I (1783) 544. 

Vern. N. : Dabi (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Mandor, growing in Euphorbia bush (No. 5744!), 

in hedges and waste places about Jodhpur, not common (Macadam), 

Barmer (No. 574:3 ! , 5742 ! ). 
Distrib. : Ooncan, Deccan, Gujarat, Rajputana. 
Fl. in October and November. 
Note: — Seems to be a rare plant in Rajputana. 

Capparis L. 

Capparis decidua, Pax., in Engl. Prantl Nat. Pflanzenf. Ill, 2,231,— 

Sodada decidua Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. (1775) 81.^ Capparis aphylla, 

Roth. Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 238. Capparis sodada, B. Br., in Denh. 

Trav., 255. 

Vern. N. : Kair (in Jodhpur), Ban (in Jaisalmer), (Irlacactan:,. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Kailana (No. 5748 ! ), Balsamand (No. 5745|!.), 
Barmer (No. 5747 ! ). 

Jaisalmer : Vinjorai (No. 5746 ! ). 

Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Arabia, India. 

Fl. in October. 

Note: — Very common in sandy places, associated with the small Zizy- 
phus rotundifolia, Lam., Lcpiadtnia spariivm, and Aerua tomentona. 

Uses : Wood very strong and durable, used to make the pivots of the 
stone hand mills with which flour is ground, in sandy places it is 
used to make the foundation of well-walls, the first layer being 
formed with Kair, and the masonry built on the top of it. Branches 
used for fences. Fruit eaten, dried and pickled (Macadam). The 
wood is valuable because it is not attacked by white ants. 

Capparis spinosa, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 503. 
Loc. : Western Rajputana (King). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region, N. Africa, Asia, Australia. 

Capparis sp. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer : Amarsagar gardens, probably introduced. 

Cappatis yrandis, L. f . Suppl. (1761) 263. 
Vern. N. : Antera. 
Loc. : W. Rajputana (Duthie). 
Distrib. : India. 

Uses : An infusion of the bark and leaves is used internally for swell- 
ings and eruptions (Macadam). 

VlOLACE^. 

Viola L. 

Viola stocksii, Boi&s. Fl. Or. 1 (1867) 453. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Kotda near Sen, rocks (No. 6716!), Barmer, rocks 

(No. 6717 ! ). Jaisalmer on rocks (No. 6718 ! ). 
Distrib. : Gujarat, Rajputana, Sind, Baluchistan, Afghanistan. 
Fl. and fr. iu November. t ■'•■;-;] 

Note : —All the flowers are apetalous. The whole plant is generally 

puberulous, the leaf-margios often papillose. The stipules partly 

scaricns. 



Joiirn,, Bombay Nati Hist. Soc. 



Plate III. 



■ S^^ '^ ' * 




A. — Jodhpur City and neighbouring- hills as seen from the Fort. 




B. — View of Jaisalmer Town and surrounding plain, taken at the Guest House. 
The Flora of thk Indian Desert, 



Journ^, Bombay Nati Hist. Soci 



Plate IV. 




A. — A typical gravel-plant: Seetzenia orientalis, Dene, in flower and fruit. 




B. — Another member of the gTavel-vegetation : Corchorus nnticJiorus, 
Raeusch, forminor dense mats lying flat on the ground. 



Thk Flora of the Indian Deseet. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DEISERT. -j-js 

POLYGALACE^, 

Polyf/ala L. 

lolygala erioptera, DC. Prodr. 1 (182-il) 326. 
Vern. N. : Chota bhekaria. 
Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (Nos. 6883!, 6886!), Kailaua (Nos. 6897 ' 

6888 !), Mandor (No. 6892 !), Balsamand (Nos. 6893 !, 6894!) Osiau 
(Nos. 6885!, 6891 !), Phalodi (No. 6905!), Bhikamkor (No.'6906') 
Barmer rocks (Nos. 6884 !, n887 !, 6907 !, 6910!), near Badka (No! 
6911 !), Kotda, rocks (No. 6898!). Jaisalmer : Between Phalodi and 
Bap (No. 6902 !), 10 miles W. of Bap (No. 6890 !). Sodakoer (No. 
6899!), iSodakoer, river bed (Nos. 6900!, 6901!), Loharki (No! 
6903 !), Bada Bag ( No. 6904 ! ), Jaisalmer, rocky plateau ( No 

6889 !), Viujorai. rocks (Nos. 6896 !, 6895 !). 
Distrib. : Trop. Asia, Arabia, Africa. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Note :— Cooke (Fl. Bomb. Pres. I , 60) says the flowers of this species 
are yellow. Our specimens have pale rose-coloured flowers, with the 
tip of the keel- petal and the crest darker. There i.s little doubt 
that our specimens belong to the same species as Cooke's, and we 
have consequently placed them under F. enoptera, though provi- 
sionally. We add the following characters to Cooke's description. 

Wings often obovate, generally rounded at the tip, sometimes with a 
minute mucro, rarely subacate or distinctly acute ; colour pale 
green or pale greenish rose, midrib always strong, green. 

Seeds greyish or brownish, covered with long, white, greyish or 
brownish hairs, except at both ends. Strophiole galeate, with a 
dorsal ridge and two lateral flaps, the former mainly white, (^lis- 
tening, the latter generally yellow. In the angles on both sides of 
the ridge there is a brown line. At the top of the helmet on each 
of these lines there is generally a tuft of hairs, the whole structure 
otherwise being smooth and shining. At the opposite end of the 
seed there is a small tuft of very minute pure white hairs, visible 
only when the seed is held vertically, suice the long hairs coverino- 
the greater part of the seed project beyond the seed. ^ 



Foli/(/ala irrer/ularis, Boiss. Diagn. (1842) fasc. 1, p. 8. 




plateau (No. 6917 !), .Faisalmer, gravel (No. 6912!), Viniorai dunes 
(Nos. 6913!, 6915 !). Very common. 

Distrib. • India, Baluchistan, Arabia, Kordofan. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Note: — We add a few corrections and additions to Cooke's description 
(Fl. Bomb. Pres. I, 61). 

The outer sepals broadly oblong, rounded at the tip, minutely cili- 
olate. Sepals otherwise glabrous, scarious, pale greenish or rose, 
with conspicuous green or purplish veins. Wings oblique. 

Margin of capsule transversely nerved (not striate). Seeds, when 
ripe, nearly black, shining, very minutely punctate, hairy all over. 
Nearthehilum a tuft of rather long stiff hairs A ring of similar 
hairs round the truncate end. The intermediary region covered 
with very short stiff hairs. The apex is clothed with a dense 
c r.rpet of minute clavato transparent hairs. Hairs nearly white to 
brownish grey. It is the part of the seed near the hilum that is 



224 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

very acute. There are two small, spreading yellowish appendages 
near the hilum, united at the base, reaching 1/3 the length of 
the seed. 
Miss Macadam aud King mention P. abi/ssinica as occurring in W. Raj- 
putaha. As we have not found it anywhere we are afraid that 
there must have been some mistake in the identification of the 
plant. 

Oaryofhyilace^. 

Polijcarpcea Lam. 

I'olycarpcea corymbosa, Lam. Tab. Encycl. Meth. II (1800) 129. 

Vern. N. : Zutaniakhad. 

Loc. : Jodhpur; Jodhpur (No. 6868!), Mandor (No. 6872!), Bhikarn- 
kor (No. 6880 1), Osian (No. 6881 !), Balarwa, fields (No. 6882 !), 
Barmer, sand (Nos. 6879 !, 6878 !), Kotda, sand (No. 6874!), near 
Badka (No. 6870!). Jaisalmer : Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 6869!), 
Shihad, gravel (No. 6871!), Vinjorai, dunes (Nos. 6873 !, 6875!), 
Devikot (Nos. 6876!, 6877 !). 

Distrib. : In the tropics generally. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Saponaria L. 

Saponai-ia vaccaria, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 409. 

Loc. : W. Rajputana, a weed of cultivation (King). 
Distrib. : Temperate and subtropical countries. 

PORTULACACE^. 

Portulaca L. 

Pnrtulaca oleracea, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 445. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Mandor (No. 6730 !), Jodhpur (No. 6740 !). Jaisal- 
mer: Between Phalodi and Bap (No. 67311), Bap (No. 6741!), 
near Loharki (No. 6742 !), Amarsagar (No. 6743!), Bada Bag (No. 
6723!), Jaisalmer, wet ground (No. 6728!), Vinjorai (No. 6729 !), 
near Devikot (No. 6727 !). 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Portulaca quadrifida, L. Mantiss. (1767) 73. 
Vern. N. : Lunki. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Mandor (No. 6733 !), Balsamand (No. 6722 !\ Bhi- 

kamkor (No. 6734!), Osian (No. 6725!), Barmer, sand (No. 6735!). 

Barmer rocks (No. 6719 !), Kotda near Seu (No. 67201). Jaisalmer: 

N. of Jaisalmer (No. 6710 !), Amarsagar (No. 6726 !), Bada Bag 

(Nos. 6721!, 6724!). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa and Asia. 

Tamaricace.5;. 

Tatnarix L. 

Tamarix dioica, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 22. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 5887 !), in the salt-impregnated bed, 
of the Luni (King). 

Distrib. : India. 
Tamarix- orientalis, Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. (1775) 206. Tamaiix arUeulata, 

Vahl. Symb. II (1791) 48, t. 32. 

Vern. N. : Faras. 



Journ.; Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate V. 




A. — Kailana Lake near Jodhpur. Eocky shore -with Eupliorbia vegetation. 




- -• -«*^ »— j£Mf. 0^ 'jl'r^ ^- V . 





Jj. -K lilana Lake Dam exhibiting' a varied vegretation owing to the perco- 
lati jn of water : Calotrcins ]^rocera, Aeriia iomeniosa and numerous high grasses. 



The FjjOEa of the Indian Desert. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

* 



Plate VI. 




A. — General view of country near Mandor (Jodhpur Stated. Tn the fore- 
ground a rocky plateau with. Euphorbia neriifolia, L. In the sandy plain 
between the plateau and the lake : Crotalaria buihia, Lcptadcnia spartium, 
Aerua sp. 







B. — Plain near Jcdhpur, showing- small trees and scrub vf gelation : Lepta- 
de/iia spartium, Prosopis spicigera, Acacia arabica, Aertia tcmeniosa, etc. 



The Flora ok the Indian Desert. 



I 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 225 



Loc. : Jodhpur: Phalodi (Nos. 5885!, 5886!). Jaisalmer : Bap (No. 
5884 !). 

Distrib : Punjab, Sind, Afghanistan, Arabia, North, Central and 
South Africa. 
Tamtrii: gallicd, L. Spec. PI. (1753) 270. 

Vern. N. : Imli (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jaisalmer State (Macadam). Jodhpur: In the salt-impregnated 
bed of the Luni (King). 

Distrib. ; Mediterranean region, N. and trop, Africa, India, S. Asia. 

Uses : The seeds are roasted and eaten by the poor instead of the 
betel nut and are much liked by women. Boys gamble with them. 
Sherbet made from the fruit is very beneficial in cases of " Looh " 
(fever brought on from exposure to the hot wind). The shade of the 
tree is supposed to be injurious to health. A heated traveller 
restins beneath its shadow is said to suffer afterwards from fever 
or rheumatism, and popular superstition avers that the tree is 
always haunted by some ghost, whose purpose is to scare away the 
unwary (Macadam). 

ELATINACEiE. 

Bercjia L. 

Be.rgia ammannioides, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 34. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (Nos 57(14 !, 5762 !), 25 miles S. E. of Luni 

(No. 6773 !), Mandor (Nos. 5771 1, 5772 !). Jaisalmer : Vinjorai (No. 

5769!), Jaisalmer, wet ground (No. 5768!), N. of Jaisalmer (No. 

5763!), Amarsauar (No. 5766!), between Phalodi and Bap (No. 

5767 !), near lake between Phalodi and Bap (No. 5770 !), Devikot 

(No. 5765!). 
Distrib. : Konkan, Deccan, Sind, Abyssinia, Nubia, Senegambia, 

Australia. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Bergia odorata, Edgew. in Jouru. Asiat. Soc. Beng. VII (1838) 765. 
Vern. N. : Kakria, Karbuja, Rohwan (Macadam). 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Balarvva (No= 5754 !), Kailana (No. 5755 I), Phalodi 

near lake (No. 5761!). Jaisalmer: Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 

5760 !), Vinjorai, near lake (No. 5756 !), Devikot (No. 5757 !), 

between Phalodi and Bap, gravel (Nos. 5758!, 5697!), Loharki 

(Nos. 5696!, 5759!), common near cultivated places (Macadam). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Egypt, Persia, Sind, Gujarat. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Note : The petals are white, the style purple. 
Uses : Used for cleaning teeth and, in Jodhpur, applied to broken 

bones. The leaves rubbed down in water are used as a poultice for 

sores (Macadam). 
lievf/ia eesfivosa, W. & A. Prodr. 41. 
Loc. : Western Rajputana (King). 
Distrib. : Punjab, Rajputana. 

Malvace.*:. 

Sid a L. 

Sida spinosa, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 683. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 5638 !), Mandor (No. 5619 !), 26 miles 
N. E. of Luni (No. 5639 !), Kotda near Seu (No. 5622 !). Jaisalmer: 
Bada Bag (No. 5640 !), Loharki (No. 5623 !). 

29 



226 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL SLIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Distrib. : Trop. and sub-trop regions of both hemispheres. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Note : White, pale yellow and yellow flowers have been observed. 
Sida ffreivioides, iimW. Ferr. et A. Hich, Fl. Seneg. I (1830) 71. 

Vern. M. : Ball, Dabi {e.r Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 5029 !), Balarwa (No. 5687!), Phalodi 
(No. 5627 !), Bhikamkor (Nos. .'■;617 !, 56;^0 !, 5631 !), Kotda near Sen, 
on rocks (No. 2953!). Jaisalnier: Jaisalmer (No. 6635!), on rocky 
plateau (No. 6626!), Eada Bag (No. 6634 1), Amarsagar (Nob. 5620!, 
66:8!), L<.harki (Nos. 5625!, ■.6lH !), Vinjorai (No. 6632 I), Vinjorai, 
sandy ^.lain (No. 5624!), Vinjorai on rocks (No. 56361), from Jaisal- 
mer to Devdvot (No. 5633 !), Devikot (No. 6621 !). Common about 
gardens and cultivated places (Macadam). 

Distrib.: Punjab, Sind, Laluchistan, extending to Arabia and trop. 
Africa. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Note : According to Hooker the flowers are yellow, whilst Cooke says 
they are white. Wehave seen both, but yellow seems to be more 
common. 

Uses : The seeds ground and mi.ved with goor are used as a cure for 
lumbago (Macadam). 
Sida cordi/<din, L Sp. Fl. (1753) 684. 

Loc : Jodhpur: O.sian (No. 5(i4l !), Balarwa (No. 6G42 !^. 

Distrib. : Troi> and sub-trop. regions of both hemispheres, 

Fl and fr. in October and November. 

Uses: This plant, yielding an excellent fibre, might be grown with 
advantage in some parts of IJajiutaua. 

Almtilon Tournef. 

Jliiifiloni'iidicvm, Qw. Hort Brit. I (1827) 54. 
Vern. N. . Dabi, jhili, tara kauchi (Macadam). 
i,oc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur Fort (No. 5649!), Mandor (No. 5647!), 

common about gardens in Jodhpur State. Jaisalmer: Amarsagar 

(No-. 5648!, -650!). 
Distrib. : Hotter parts of India and throughout the tropics generally. 
Fl. and Ir. in October and Noveu'ber. 
Uses : From the stems a strong fibre is obtained. The seeds infused 

in hot water form a cooling drink. 
AIndilon iwHcum var. maior var. nov. — Folia multo largiora, 20 cm. longa, 

)7 cm. lata, petiolo 17 cm. h)ngo. 
Loc. : J lisalnier: Amarsagar, in luderatis (No. 5644 !). 
Fl. and f •. in November. 
Abutilvn astaticiAm, G. Don., Gen. Syst. I (1831) 503. 
Loc. : Jaisalmer : Amarsagar (No. 5657 !). 
Fl. and fr in November. 
Distrib.: T'ropics of both hemispheres. 
Uses : The stems yield a good tibre. 
Abutilon muficum., Svv. Hort. lirit. ed. 2 (1830) 65. 
Vern. N : fintari (Macadam). 
Loc : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 5661 !), Balsamand, not very common 

(Macadam). Kotda near Sen No 5(161 !) Jaisalmer: Near Bap 

(No. 5645!), (Jharsisar Tank near Jaisalmer (No. 5646 1), Amarsagar 

(No. 669l!)'. 
Distrib. : India, Afghanistan, Egypt, Trop. Africa. 
Fl and fr. in October and November. 
Abntiloii b dcvt/tlniii, A. Kich. Fl. Abyss. 1 (18-17) 68. 
Vern. N. : Rota vel. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 227 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Balarwa (No. 5663 !), between Seu and Bhadka (Nos. 

5664 !, 5665 !). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (.No. 5663). 
Distrib. : India, Arabia, trop. Africa. 
Uses : Flo .vers eaten by children. 
Ahutilon fruticosum, Guill. Perr. et- A. Rich. Fl. Seneg. 1 (1830) 70. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Kotda near Sen (No 5653 !), Barmer (No. 5666!). 
Jaisalmer : Bada P.ag (No. 5659 !), W. of Bap (No. 5643 !), Soda- 
koer in riverbed (No. 5658 !). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Arabia, India, Java. 
Abutilon fruticosum var. chrysocarpa var. nov. — Fructus cooperfcus pubes- 
centia stellari aiirea. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer : V^injorai, on rocks (No. 5660 !). 
Fl. and fr. in November. 
Abutilon cornutum, T. Cocke. Fl. Bomb. Pres. I (1903) 98. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 5654!), Mandor (No. 5662!), Bhikarnkor 

(No. 5655!). Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (No. 5656 I). 
Distrib. : Sind, Rajputana. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Favonia Cav. 

Pavonia amhica, Stcud. Nona. ed. 2, II (1841) 279. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Barmer (No. 5670 !), Osian (No. 6671 !), Kotda near 
fceu on rocks (No, 5684!). 

Distrib: Rajpntana, Sind, Abyssinia. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Pavonia arabica var. ylutinosa var. nov. — Planta tota cooperta densa 
pubescentia viscosa. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Barmer, on rocks (No. 5685 ! ) Kailana (Nos. 5JG0 ! 
5668!). Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 5667 !). 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Pavonia zei/la'nca.Cav. Diss. HI (1787) 134, t. 48, fig. 2. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Bhikamkor (No. 56S3 !), Barmer (No. 5672!). 

Distrib.: India, Ceylon, Manritius, Trop. Africa. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Pavonia odorat a, Willd. Sp. Pi. Ill (1800) 837. 

Vern. N.: Chinke nahl (Macadam ^ 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (Nos. 5687!, 5673 !). 

Distrib. : India. Ceylon, trop. Africa. 

Fl. and fr. in October. 

Hibiscus L. 

Hibiscus niicranfhuK, L. f. Suppl. (1781) 308. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Kailana (No. 5(195!), Kotda near Seu (No. 5682!). 
Jaisalmer : Jaisulmer on rocks (No. 5674 !), on rocky plateau (No. 
5680 !). Vinjorai on rocks (567 5 !). 
Distrib. : India, Oeylon, trop. Africa. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Htbiscux abeluuisc/nis. L. Sp. PI. (1755) 696. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Barmer, on rocks (No. 5681 !). Ja'salmer : Bada Bag 

(Nos. 5677!, 567(i !). 
Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World. 
Fl. and fr in November. 
Hibiscus escufevtus, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 696. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Balarwa (No. 5678!). Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (No, 

5679 !). 
Distrib. : Probably African, and naturalized in India. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 



228 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Hibiscus cannabinus, L. Syst. Nat. (1759) [1149]. 

Vem. N. : Ambari, 

Loc. : Jodhpur : On the edges of cotton fields (Erskine). 

Distrib. : Cultivated in most trop. countries. 

Uses: "The crop is cut in November or December, the yield being 
about six cwfc. of clean fibre to the acre. The plants are tied up in 
bundles, and in May or June, when ropes are required, are soaked 
in water ; when sufliciently moistened, the bark is stripped ofi' and 
the stems are used as fuel." (Erskine.) 

Gossypium L. 

Gossypium herbaceum, L. Spec. PI. (1753), 693, var. 
Vem. N. : Kapas. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Near Badka (No. 5693 !), Balarwa (No. 5688 !). 

Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (No. 5692 !), Jaisalmer (No. 5691 !) 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Gossypium arboreum, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 693. 
Loc. : Jaisalmer: Bap (No. 5d89 !). 
Fl. in October. 
Note : We have not been able to ascertain what species are under 

cultivation. Cotton is grown chiefly in Bali, Desuri, Bilara, Mallani, 

and Merta (aU in Jodhpur State). 

Sterculiace^. 

Melhania Forsk. 

Melhania denhami, R. Br. in Denh. and Clapp. Trav. (1826) App. 232. 
Loc: Kotda near Seu (No. 2952!), Barmer, rocks (Nos. 7293!, 

7291 ! ), Jaisalmer : Vinjorai, dunes (No. 7289 ! ), Loharki(Nos. 7288 !, 

7287!, 7290!, 7292!, 7294!). 
Distrib : Rajpntana, Sind, Baluchistan, Arabia, Trop. Africa. 
Fl. and fr. in November. 

Melhania tomentosa. Stocks, var. maior var. nov. Folia 10 cm. atting- 
entia, petiolus 22 mm. longus. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Barmer, rocks (Nos. 7286 ! , 7295 ! , 7296 ! ). 
Distrib. : Gujarat, Rajputana, Punjab, Sind. 
FL and fr. in November. 

Melhania magni/olia, spec. nov. 

FrutbX humilis. Caulis ramique tomentoso-canescentes. Folia ovato- 
oblonga vel ovato-lanceolata, apice obtusa vel subacuta, vel acuta, 
dense et molliter tomentosa, facie ventrali virescentia, dorsali albida, 
margine irregulariter crenato vel dentato-crenato, vel dentato, basi 
cordata 7-nervata, usque ad 11 cm. longa, 5 cm. lata. Petiolus 
tomentosus, colore faciei inferioris foliorum, 30 mm. attingens. 
Stipulae subulatte, tomentosse, 12 mm. longiB, cadnc09. 

Pedunculi axillares vel terminales, cinereo-tomentosi, 5 cm. attin- 
gentes, recti, 5-1-flori Pedicelli fortes, 13 mm. attingentes. Brac- 
teolae 3, persistentes, cordatse. late ovatse, acuminatse, dense 
cinereo-tomentosse facie dorsali et ventrali, sepalis subbreviores vel 
iis sequilongse, 20 mm. longae, 10 mm. latse. Calyx 5-partitus ; 
sepala lanceolata, cuspidata, dense tomentoso-villosa. Corolla 
anrantiaco-flava, sepalis tertio (^) longior, circa 24 mm. longa. 

Capsula subglobosa, 15 mm. diametro, dense tomentosa, calyce sub- 
brevior. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (Nos. 7285 !, 7279 ! ), Osian (No. 7280 I ). 



Journ. , Bombay Nat. Hist. 8oc. 



Plate VII. 



^.v'..:JIK 







A. — Sandy plain, H miles B.X.E. of Jaisalmer Town. In the foret;rounil 
fruiting specimens of Citrnlhts coloci/nthis, with shoots iip to .">0 ft. loni;-. 




^i(*lr:- 




m 









B. — A consocies of Indujofera argentea, Burm. on a >and-dune, 3 miles S.W. 
of Phalodi (Jodhpur, State). 



The Floka of thi-; Indian Desert. 



Journ., Bomba.y Na,t. Hist Soc. 



Plate VIII. 







r. ,. p^' 









■i^-i^im.-' 



A.~ A. depression in rocky country, 6 miles N.E. of Jaisalmer Town, with 
Prosopis spicigera, Salvadora olcoides. (hjmnosporia montana. In the fore- 
<j'round : Commiphora mukul. SrnTof^friiniia hrcinMiqmn. 



^.^;ffgrr- 



•-?• ^ 







t i 



'^^^:- . . 



B. — Shoot-habit of Commipliova iintkid on rocky slope of the above locality. 
Thio Flora of the Indian Deseet. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 229 

Melhania hamiltoniana, Wall. PI. As. Rar. I, t. 77. 
Loc. : W. Rajputana (Kiog). 
Distrib. : India. 

TlLIACB^, 

Greicia L, 

Greiviapopulifolia, YaM. Symb. I (1790) 33. 

Vern. N. : Gangi (Macadam gives the names Gangeran and Kankeran). 
Loc: Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 5899!)), Kailana (No. 5907!), 

Barmer, rocks (No. 6904 ! ). Jaisalmer : "Vinjorai, dunes (No. 5906 !), 

Devikot (No. 5904!), Jaisalmer (No. 5903!), Amarsagar (No. 

5902 ! ), Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 5900 ! ). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Arabia, S. Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, 

Sind, S. M. Country, Ceylon, Mauritius. 
Fr. in October and November. A few flowers have been noted during 

the same time. 
Uses : Fruit eaten. Walking sticks are made from the wood, and 

pencils for writing on the boards covered with sand, which are used 

in schools instead of slates (Macadam). 

Greioia salcifolia, Heyne ex Roth. Nov. PI. (1821) 239. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Kailana (No. 5908 !). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, India, 

Greioia villosa, Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. IV (1803) 205. 
Vern. N. : Lonkas. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Balsamand ( Nos. 5912!, 5895!), Kailana (No. 
5914 !), Barmer, rocks (Nos. 5891!, ;j9]3!), Kotda near Seu, on 
rocky ground ^No. 6911). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 5896 ! ). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, India. 
Uses : The fruit is eaten. 

Greioia abutilifolia, Vent, ex Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. IV (1804) 92. 
Vern. N.: Gangeti. 
Loc : Jodhpur : Near Badka (No, 5898 ! ), Barmer, rocks ( Nos. 5910 ! 

5897 ! ). Jaisalmer: Vinjorai, sand dunes (No. 5909 !). 
Distrib. : India, Java. 

Corchorus L. 

Corchorus olitorius, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 529. 
Loc. : Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 5888 !), Amarsagar (No. 5916 !). 
Distrib. : All tropical regions. 
Fr. in November. 

Corchorus trilocularis, L. Mant. (1767) 529. 

Vern. N. : Hardikeket, Karak, Kaglekitamaku (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Barmer (No. 5925!), Jaisalmer : Jaisalmer ( No. 
5949!), Amarsagar (No. 5924!), Devikot (No. 5945 !), Bap (6946!), 
Vinjorai, on rocks (5947! ), Vinjorai, on gravel (No. 59481). 

Distrib. : Trop Africa, Afghanistan, India. 

Fr. in November. 

Corchorus fasciculnris, Lam, Encycl. II (1786) 104. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Balarwa (Nos. 6890 ! , 5593 ! ). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag 

(No. 5889 ! ). 
Distrib. : Trop, Africa, India, Ceylon, Australia. 
Fr. in October and November, 



280 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

Corchorus antichorus, Raeusch, Nom. ed. 3 (1797) 158. 
Vern. N. : Hadeka khet. 
Loc. : Jaisalmer : Loharki (No. 5939 ! ), Sodakoer, in dried-up riverbed 

(No. 6941 ! ), Vinjorai, sandy plain (No. 5942 ! ), Jaisalmer, rocky 

plateau (No. 5943 ! ), near Bap (No. 5944!). Jodhpur . Jodhpur 

(No. 5937!), Balarwa (Nos. 5938!, 5994!), Barmer, gravel (No. 

5926!), Phalodi, on gravelly soil near town and lake, common 

(No. 5940 ! ), one .of the commonest plants of the sandy desert 

tracts. 
Distrib. : Cape Verd Islands, Trop. Africa, Arabia, Afghanistan, India. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Uses: The leaves are applied to wounds and a decoction of them is 

said to be efficacious in cases of skin eruption. (Macadam). 
Corchorus tridens, L. Mant. App. (1771) 566. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Barmer, sand (No. 5989!), Jodhpur (Nos. 6917 1, 

6919!), near Badka (No. 5893!), Osian (No. 5892 ! ), Bhikamkor, 

dunes ( iNo. 5930 !), Phalodi (No. 5933!), Kotda, near Seu (No. 

5934!), Manctor (No. 6936!). Jaisalmer : Near Loharki ( No. 

6920 ! ), Loharki (No. 5927 ! ), Shihad (No. 59-28 ! ), Amarsagar (No. 

5929 ! ), between Phalodi and Bap (No. 5931 ! ), Vinjorai (No. 

6935!). 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, India, Australia. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 
Corchorus acutangulus, Lam. Encycl. II (1786), 104. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 5894 ! ). Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 

6915!). 
Distrib.: Trop Africa, India, Ceylon, Australia, West Indies. 
Fr. in October and November. 

Linages. 
Linum L. 
Linum usitatissimum, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 277. — The Flax plant. 
Vern. N. : Alsi. 
Cultivated in a few places. (Erskine.) 

Zygophyllace^. 
Tribulus Tourn. 

Tnbulus terrestris, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 387. 

Vern. N. : Gokru, Kanti, Konti (Macadam). 

Loc: Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 7417!), Mandor (No. 7150!), Bhikam- 
kor (No. 7157 !), Phalodi (No. 7151 !), Barmer, on rocks and sand 
(Nos. 7146!, 7154 !). Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No 7148!), Amarsagar 
(Nos. 7153!, 7152!), Devikot (No. 7156 I), Vinjorai, (No. 7149!), 
Shihad (No. 7145 ! ), very common about gardens, road sides, etc 
(Macadam). 

Distrib. : All warm regions. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November ;fl. during and after the raina 
(Macadam). 

Uses : Used as a tonic (Macadam). 
Tribulus alatus, Del. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 111. (1812) 62. 

Vern. N. : Bakda (Macadam), 

Loc: Jaisalmer (No. 7132!), Loharki (No. 7122!), Devikot (No. 
7J31 !) Jodhpur : In cultivated places, not very common (Macadam). 

Distrib. : Rajpntana, Sind to Arabia and N. Africa. 

Fl. and fr. in November. 



Journ., Bombay Nat Hist. Soc. 



Plate IX. 




A. — A g-iant specimen of Capparis decidna at Bhikamkor (Jodhpur State). 




B.— A characteristic community of plants at Bhikamkor : Gi/iiinosjm-ia 
viontana, Prosopis spicigera, and rambling on these : CalUrjonnm poligonoidcs 
and Cocculus. 

The Flora of the Indian Desebt. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate X. 




A. — Coiisocies ut' Ecliptd crvvia liorderiiiL;' a ilryin^-up pool at Banner 
(Jodhpur State). 




B. — Families in the coiisocies of Ecliptu erecta at Banner, shouinu' distinct 
zonation. 



The Fr.oKA (if the Ixj)tan Desert. 



J 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 231 



Seetzenia Br. 

Seetzenia orientalis, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, III (1836) 281. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer . N. of Jaisalmer. gravel (No. 7144!), Jaisalmer, 

gravel (No. 7159!), Vinjorai, rocks (Nos. 714a!, 71bO !), near Devikot 

(No. 7158!) 
Distrib. : Kajputana, Sind, Arabia, N. and S. Africa. 
Fl. and fr. in November. 

Peganmn L. 

Peganum hannala, L. Sp. PI. (i 753) 444. 
Loc. : Near Palli, plentiful (King). 
Distrib. : India to Arabia, N. Africa, Mediterranean. 

Zygophyllum L. 

Zygophyllum simplex, L. Mantiss. I (I7t57) 68. 

Vern. N. : Lunvva (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Phalodi (Noa. 7124 !, 7130!), very common in the salt 
district about Pach Padra. Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (Nos. 7129!, 
7128!), Jaisalmer, rocks (No. 7126!), Bap, gravel (No. 7127!), 
Vinjorai, rocks (No 7125 !). 

Distrib. : Trop. Africa, W. Asia, Sind, Rajputana. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Fagonia L. 

Fagonia cretica, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 386. 

Vern. N. : Damasha (Macadam). 

Loc: Kailana (Nos. 7142!, 7137!, 71631, 7165!), Balsamand (No. 
7135 !), very comon in sandy patches amongst the rocks of Jodhpur 
(Macadam), Bhikamkor (No. 7168!), Phalodi, sand dunes and 
gravel (No. 7164!), Barmer (No. 7136!). Jaisalmer: Amarsagar 
(No. 7167 !), Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (.No. 7141!), Viniorai (Nos, 
7167!, 7139!), Bap (No. 7138 !), near Bap (No. 7161 !). Sluhad (No. 
7140!), Loharki (No. 7162!), near Loharki (No. 7166!), sandy 
tracts between Baiotra and faisalmer (Macadam). 

Distrib: Both shores of the Mediterranean, in S. extra-trop. Africa, 
warmer dry parts of Asia, Western N. and S. America. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Note : Fagonia cretica as taken above includes F. arahica, L. and jF. 
liruguieri, DO , which are kept separate by Edgeworth and Hooker 
in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1, 425. F. cretica is an extremely variable 
plant. The form and size of the leaves and stipules are very 
variable ; sometimes the leaves are nearly absent, and their place ia 
supplied by the long and hard spiny stipules ; in other cases the 
leaves are for the most part simple with inconspicuous stipules. 
There is also great difference in the amount of general pubescence ; 
it varies from nearly perfect smoothness to viscosity. 

Uses : The stems form a favourite tooth brush (Macadam). 

GekaniacejB. 

Monxonia L. 

Monsonta senegalensis, Guill. and Perr. Fl. Seneg. Tent. I (1830) 131. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Kailana, rocky hills (Nos. 7115!, 7114!, 7113!), 

Mandor (No. 7116!). Jaisalmer: Bada Bag, on hill (Nos. 7117!, 

71181). 
Distrib.: Rajputana, Sind, Baluchistan, Arabia, Senegambia. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 



232 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVl. 

Monsonia heliotropioides, Boiss. Fl. Or. I (1867), 897. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer : North of Jaisalmer, gravel (Nos. 7119 !, 7120 !). 
Distrib. : From Rajputana to Egypt. 
Fl. and fr. in November. 

Efodium L' Herit. 

Erodium cicutarium, L' Herit. ex. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 1, II (1789) 414. 
Loc. : Jaisalmer: North of Jaisalmer (No. 7121 !). 

Distrib. : Throughout Europe and temperate N. Asia, Baluchistan, 
Sind. 

Oxalis L. 

Oxalis corniculata, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 435, 
Vern. N.: Tipatti. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Common about cultivated places (Macadam). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 
Fl. during and after the rains. 

RuTACEiE. 

Citrus L. 

Citi-us aurantium, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 782. 
The Orange. Vern. N.: Narangi. 
Loc. : Grown in gardens near Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. 

Citrus medica, L. Sp. PI. (1753) 782, var. limetta. 
Vern. N. : Mitha nimbu. 
The Sweet Lime. 
Loc: Jaisalmer: Bada Bag, cultivated. 

SlMARUBACE.S:. 

Balanites Del. 

Balanites roxburghii. Planch, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, II (1854) 268. 

Vern. N. : Hingote (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 7111 !), not uncommon in the plains 
about Jodhpur, very common in some parts of God war, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of Sadri (Macadam), Osian (No. 7110 !). 

Distrib. ; Drier parts of India. 

Fl. in October. 

Uses : The outer rind of the fruit contains a brown greasy pulp with a 
disagreeable smell. The pulp is used in cough mixtures and to 
clean silk. The stone emptied and filled with gunpowder is used in 
fireworks (Macadam). 

BURSERICE^. 

Comraiyhora Jacq. 

Commiphora muknl, Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phari. IV (1883) 12. 

Vern. N.: Gugal. Ihe gum is often called Mukul. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Barmer(No. 5818!), Balsamand (No. 58161). Jaisal- 
mer: Bada Bag (No. 58"20 !), Jaisalmer (No. 6817!), Amarsagar 
(No. 581<) !), Vinjorai, on dunes (No. 5814!), in rocky dry places 
about Jaisalmer (Macadam). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Baluchistan, Sind, Rajputana. 

Fl. and fr. in October and November. 

Uses: A gum exudes from the stem in the cold season. It is col- 
lected by making incisions with a knife in the tree, and letting the 
refin fall on the ground. It exudes in large tears, soft and opaque, 
hardens, and turns brownish black very slowly. A single tree is 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 233 

said to yield from half to a whole seer. (Stocks). The gum is 
used medicinally. It also forms one of the ingredients of incense. 
It is used as a tooth brush and is said to strengthen the gums and 
to render loose teeth firmer (Macadam). 

Commiphora agallocha, Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phan IV, II {^Balsamodcn- 
dron roaburghii, Am.). 
Loc. : Rajputana (Brandis). 
Fl. in August and October. 

Boszoellia Roxb. 

Boswellia serrata, Roxb. ex Coleb. As. Res. IX (1807) 379, t. 6. 

Vern. N.: Salaran (Macadam). 

Loc. : W. Rajputana (Duthie). 

Distrib. : Throughout India. 

Uses : From wounds and cracks in the bark exudes an abundance of 
transparent fragrant gum-resin, ditfusing, when burnt, an agreeable 
smell. It is used medicinally and as an incense in India. In the 
bazaars it is sold under the name of Labanu, Kunaur, or Kundura. 
(Brandis.) The wood is used for making boxes. (Macadam.) 

Meliace^. 
Azadivachta A. Juss. 

Azadirachta indica, A. Juss. in Mem. Mus. Par. XIX (1830) 221. 

Vern. N. : Nim. 

Loc. : Planted in villages of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. 

Uses ; A decoction of the leaves is used for fever ; they are put 
amongst clothes to keep off moths, etc., and are largely used for 
camel fodder. The wood is used for building, furniture, etc. The 
fruit when ripe is sweet and eaten. lis shade is thought specially 
safe. Its leaves are applied for guinea worm sores. (Macadam). 

CeLASXKACEjE. 

Gymnosporia W. & A. 

th/mnosporia montnnn, Benth. Fl. Austral. I (1863) 400. 

Vern. N. : Kangkera (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 5792 !), Mandor (Nos. 5796 !, 6797 !), 
Bhikamkor (No. 5794 M, Osian (No. 5790!), Barmer, sand (No. 
6798 1), Barmer, on rocks (No. 5791 !). Jaisalmer: N. of Jaisalmer 
(No. 6796 !), Amarsagar (No, 5793). In rocky places about Jaisalmer 
(Macadam). 

Distrib. : Central Africa, Afghanistan, Pers. Baluchistan, India, 
Malaya, Australia. 

Fl. in October. 

Note : All the above specimens, with the exception of Nos. 5792 and 
5797 from Jodhpur and Mandor have got narrow leaves. The broad- 
leaved form seeins to have its western limit in Eastern Jodhpur. 

Uses : Rosary beads are made from the wood, and the leaves burnt and 
mixed with ghee, form an ointment used to heal sores, ( Macadam), 

RhAMNACEyE. 

Zizyphus Tourn. 

Zizyphus jujuba, Lam. Encycl. Ill (1789) 318. 

Vern. N.: Ber, Bor (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Bhikamkor (No. 6786 !), Generally near villages, culti- 
vated and self-sown, also in Jaisalmer State. (Macadam.) 

30 



334 JOURNAL BOMBAY NATURAL RLST. SOCLETT, Vol. XXVI. 

Distrib. : Africa, Afghanistan, Ceylon, India, China, Auctralia. 
Fl. in October. 

Fr. in the cold weather (Macadam). 

Uses : The fruit is eaten. The wood is used for building purposes 
railtvay sleepers, furniture, lacquered toys (Macadam). 

Zdzyphus trinervia, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 17 {non Poir). 
Loc. : Jaisalmer : Amarsagar (No. 5804 !). 
Distrib. : India. 
Fr. in November. 

Zizyphus rotundi folia, Lam. Encycl. Ill (1789), 319. 
Vern. N.: Ber, Bor, Bordi. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Osian (Nos. 5805!, 5801!), Phalodi (No. 68061), 

Mandor ( No. 5807 ! ), Jodhpur ( No. 6808 !), Balsamand ( No. 

57991). Jaisalmer: IShihad (No. 57091), Vinjorai, sandy plain (No. 

58 J 01), DevikotiNo. 58111), near Loharki (No. 5812!), Loharki (No. 

580- 1), very coinmou in dry sandy places, associated with Aertta 

toineato.'ia and Leptadenia spartium (Macadam). 
Distrib. : Persia, India. 
Fr. early in the cold weather (Macadam). 
Uses : The fruit is eaten. The leaves are used as fodder, called pala 

(Macadam). 

ZizypJius truncata, spec. nov. — Frutex ramis divaricatia, oastaneis, 
junioribus puberulis. Aculei geniiui, glabri, basi aliquantulurn tomentosi, 
10 mm attiugeutes, unus paull » brevior altero recto et retrocurvatus. 
Folia subdistiche alterna, petiolata, coriacea, orbiculata vel aliquantulurn 
longiora juaiiilata, 85 mui. attingentia, serrulata, basi subcordata, apioe 
truncata (parte truncata usque ad 10 mm. longa et irregnlariter dentata), 
glabra, excepta pubescentia in petiolo, margine necnon nervis uervidisque 
in facio int'eriore ; nervi basaies tres, prominentes, currentea ad apicem, 
costa meuia cum duobus aut tribus paribus nervorum secundariorum, 
cettri duo nervi nervis lateralibus muniti in parte exteriore. Petiolua 
usque ad 5 mm. longus. 

CyuioB breves, axiUaius, sessiles, tomentosse ; gemmae hemisphericse, 
tomentosi ; pedicelli subnuUi vel usque ad 4 mm. longi. Calyx 
5-lidus. lobis late triaiigularibus acutis patentibus, intus carinatis in 
parte superiore. Petala spathulata, apice rotundata. Discus 
10 lobitus, profande 10-sulcatus. Styli 2, counati, parte superiore 
divergentes. 
Fructum non vidimus. 
Aflinis est hiBC species Zizypho rofundifolics, sed difFert foliis (quoad 

forma n, magiiituduiem, nervaturam, glabreitatem), aculeis, diaoo. 
Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 5803!). 
Fl. in October. 

Zizyphus -ryl'pyra, Willd. Sp. PI. I (1797) 1104. 
Veru. N.: Gatbor (Macadam). 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Mandor (No. 5813!). 
Distrib. : India. 
Fl. in October. 
Uses : The wood is used for fnel. 

Vitis L, 

Vitia vmifera, L. The Vine. 
Found cultivated in the Bada Bag Garden near Jaisalmer (No. 6737!). 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



prate XI. 




A. — The Bada Bag: in the neighbourhood of Jaisalmer Tow ii. 




B.— The tank belonging to the above Garden shaded by Acacia arabica. 
The Floea of the Indian Desert. 



Journ.i Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate XII. 




A.- Gharsisar Lake outside Jaisalmtr Tow n. The water level is abnoimalh 
high on account of the heavy rains of li)l7. In the foreg'round : Cappa- 
ris decidua, Prosopis spicigera, Salvadcra olcoides, Zizyphus. 




E.— Amarsauar Lake near Jaisalmer Town, irrioatin.t;- the gfarden cf the 
same name. Chiei trees: Azadlrachta indica, ZizijpJius jujuba. Acacia ara- 
bica, Prosopis spicigera, Albizzia. 



The Flora op the Indian Deseet. 



I 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



286 



Sapindace^. 

Cardiospennum L. 

Cardiospermuvi halicacabum, L.Sp. PI. (1753) 366. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Kailana (No. 6749 !), near Badka (No. 6745 !), Kotda 

near Seu (No. 2454!), Barmer, rocks (No. 6746!). 
Distrib : Most warm countries. 
Fl. and fr. in October and November. 



ANACARDIACE.a;. 

Mangifera L. 

Mmgifera indica, L. Sp. PI. (17-" 3) 200. 

Loc : Jodhpur : Osian. Jaisalmer : Amarsagar (No. 6779 !). 

Rhus, L. 

Rhus vrysnren sis, Heyne ex Wight and Am. Prodr. (1834) 172. 
Loc. : W. Kajputana (Duthie). 
Distrib. : India. 

MORINGACE.^. 

Moringa Lam. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gsertn. Fruct. II (1791) 314. 
Loc: Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (No. 6117!). 

Distrib. : Forests of the Western Himalaya and Oudh, cultivated else- 
where in India and in various tropical countries. 

Moringa concanensis, Nimmo in Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 43. 
Vern. N. : Sirgura (Macadam). Horse-radish tree. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Banner, on rocks (Nos. 5883 !, 6«73!). 
Distrib. : Concan, Rajputana, Sind. 

Leguminos^. 

/. Rapilionacece. 

Heylandia DC. 

Heylandia latehrosa, DC. Mem. Leg. 201. 

Vern. N. : Gorakbulti. Sonda (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No .7168 1 ), Balarwa (No. 7169), Jaisalmer : 
Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 7174 ), JaisaLner, gravel (No. 71731) 
between Phalodi and Bap (No. 7170 ! ), Shihad (No. 7171 I ),Vinjorai 
(No. 7176!), Devikot (No. 71751), frequent in sandy places. 
Macadam). 

Distrib. : India, Ceylon. 

Fl and fr. in Oct. and Nov 

Crotalaria L. 

Crotalaria burhia, Hamilt. in Wall. Cat. (1828) 5386. 
Vern. N. : Sannia (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 6935 !, 6936!), Balsamand (No. 6926 !), 
Osian (No. 693 i I ), Bhikamkor (No. 6934 ! ), Barmer (No. 6931 ! ). 
.Taisaliiier: near Bap (No. 6929!), Sodakoer (No. 6927!), Sodakoor, 
riverbed (No. 6928!), Devikot (No. 6930 ! ), Vinjorai (No. 6932 1), 
common in sandy places in the plains (Macadam). 
Distrib. : N. W. India, (rujarat, Sind, Baluchistan, Afghanistan. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Crotalaria medicaginea Lam. Encycl. Meth. II (1786) 201. 







236 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Loc. : Kailana (No. 6940 !), Balsaraand (No. 6939 1), Balarwa (No. 
6941!). Jaisalmer : between Phalodi and Bap (No. 6938!), Bada 
Bag (No. 7220!). 
Distrib. : Afghanistan, Indo-Malaya, Australia. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Crotalaria retusa L. Spec. ?1. (1753) 715. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 6937 !). 
Distrib : Tropics of the Old World. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. 

Cyamopsis DC. 

Ct/amopsis psoralioides DC, Prodr, II (1825) 216. 

Vern. N. : Guar. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7018!), Balarwa (No. 67121), Osian (No. 
7008!), Phalodi (No. 7017 !), near Badka (No. 7011 !). Jaisalmer: 
Amarsagar (No. 7016 !), Jaisalmer, sand (No. 7009!, 7014 !), Shihad 
(No. 7015 !), near Devikot (No. 7013 !), Vinjorai (No. 7010 !). 

Distrib. : Afghanistan, cultivated in India. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Uses: Grown as a vegetable. The whole plant is a good fodder for 
cattle. 

Medicaffo L. 

Medicago laciniata All. Fl. Pedem. I (1785) 316. 
Loc. : North of Jaisalmer ( No. 7221 ! ). 

Distrib. : Punjab, Salt Range, Rajputana, Sind, Baluchistan, Egypt, 
Abyssinia. 

Indigofera L. 

Indigofera Unifolia Retz. Obs. Bot. fasc. 4 (1786) 29 et fasc. 6 (1791) t. 2 
Vern. N. : Bekar (Macadam). 
Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 70411,7040!), Mandor (No. 7042 1), 

Osian (No. 7039 1 ), Balarwa (No. 7C137 !, 70^5 ! ), Bhikamkor (No. 

7038 ! ), near Badka, sand (No. 7044 1 ). Jaisalmer : Vinjorai (No. 

7043 ! ), common about cultivated places (Macadam). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Afghanistan, India, Ceylon, N. Australia. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov, 
Uses: The seeds are ground and eaten by the very poor in times of 

famine (Macadam). 
Indigofera cordifolia Heyne ex Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 357. 

Loc : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7201 ! ), Kailana (No. 7181 ! ), Mandor 

(No. 7180!), Osian (No. 71951, 7193 1), Bhikamkor (No. 7190!), Phalodi 

(No. 7183!), Barmer, rocks ,No. 7179 !), Barmer (No. 7178 !, 7189 1), 

near Badka (No. 7185 1,7188!), Kotda near Seu, gravel (No. 

7198 1). One of the commonest plants. Jaisalmer: .laisalmer (No. 

71771, 7186 1), Jaisalmer. rocky plateau (No. 71«7!, 7196!;, Bada Bag 

(No. 7192 1), Amarsagar (No. 7199 H, Devikot (No. 7191 1), Vinjorai, 

dunes (No. 7184 !, 7200 !), Vinjorai, gravel (No. 71821), near Bap 

(No. 7194 !), Shihad (No. 7197 !). 
Distrib. : India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, N. Australia. 
Fl. and fr, in Oct. and Nov. 
Indigofera trigonelloides Jaub. & Spach I II. V (1857) 92,482. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 70791), Kailana (No. 70751), Bhikamkor 

(No. 7074 1), Phalodi (No. 7076 !). Jaisalmer : Loharki (No. 7078 I), 

Jaisalmer, gravel (No. 7077 1). 
Distrib: Punjab, Rajputana, Sind, Afghanistan, Arabia, Abyssinia. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 237 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Note : Seeds often more numerous than mentioned by Cooke and 
Hooker f,, up to 6 in a pod. 

Indigofera enueaphylla L. Mantiss. II (1771) 571. 

Log. : Jodhpur : Mandor (No. 7080 !), Balarwa (No. 7081 !). 
Distrib : Indo-Malaya, N. Australia. 
Fl. and fr in Oct. 

Indigofera pauci folia Del. Fl. d'Egypte (1812) 251. 

Vern. N. : Goila, Jhil. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 70701,7069!), Kailana (No. 7062!), 
Mandor (No. 7064!), Balsamand (No. 7066!), very abundant in 
Godwar (Macadam), in the plains about Jodhpur, but not very 
common. Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 7067 !), Jaisalmer, sand (No. 
706,3 I). 

Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Arabia, Baluchistan, Indo-Malaya. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Note : The leaves are very often 1 foliolate. 

Uses: Eaten by animals, used for tooth brushes. 

Indigofera argentea Burm. Fl. Ind. (1768) 171. {Non L.). 
Vern. N. : Nil. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Osian (No. 7028 !, 7030 !), Phalodi (No. 7026 !), near 
Badka (No. 7025!) Barmer, sand (No. 7027 !, 7033 I). Jaisalmer : 
Loharki (No. 7024 !), Loharki, sand dunes (No. 7034 I), near Loharki, 
sand, especially dunes (No. 7029 !), Devikot, sand (No. 7222 1), 
Vinjorai (No. 7032!). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Egypt, Arabia, Sind, Rajputana. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

In specimen No. 7222 the pods generally contain 1-2 seeds and the pod 
itself is tornlose ; but as there is a pod of the ordinary argentea type 
on the same plant our specimen must be considered as a form of that 
species. The racemes are unusually short, 1-4 flowered, the rhachis 
is stout, about as long as the leaf, which is much smaller than usual 
and 3-5 foliolate. 

Uses : Used for dyeing (Macadam). 

Indigofera hotter Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 137. 

Loc: Jodhpur (No. 7073!). 

Distrib. : India, Arabia, Egypt, Abyssinia. 

Fr. in Oct. 

Indigofera tinctoria L. Sp. PI. (1753) 751. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur Fort (No. 7071!), 25 miles S. E. of Luni 

(No. 7072!). 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Indigofera anabaptista Steud. Nom. ed. 2 (1840) 805. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 7054!), Mandor (No. 7051 !), Bhikamkor 
(No. 7046 !, 7056 !), Phalodi (No 7055 !), Kotda near Sen, gravel 
(No. 7053!). near Badka (No. 7059!). Jaisalmer: between Phalodi 
and Bap (No. 7050 !), Shihad (No. 7058 !, 7057 !), Bada Bag near 
Jaisalmer (^No. 7060 !), Amarsagar (No. 7049 !), Vinjorai, rocks (No. 
7052 !). 

Distrib. : Rajputana, Punjab. Sind, Afghanistan, Arabia. — Cooke calls 
it a very rare plant in India. It is certainly very common in 
Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. 



238 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VI. 

Psoralea L. 

Vsoralea odorata spec. nov. 

Herba pereunis ramosissima odoratissima quando sicca (sicut Antho- 
xauthum odoratam), circa 60 cm. alta et amplias, ramis ascendontibus 
formaiitibus angulum acutum cum caule. Caiilis ramique teretes, 
striati, adpresse hirsuti, verucosi. Folia pinnatim 3-foliolata. 
Petiokis 2 cm. attingens, argento-cancescens, parce verucosiis. Sti- 
pulye triangulares acutae, basi lata, aliquantulum falcatte, circa 3 
ram long*, argento-canescentes, fortiber ner^^abse, par stipularum 
decurrens et formanstres lineas elevatas in interuodio, lineis latera- 
libas repente curvatis. Folioli oblanceolati, apice rotundi vel 
subacuti vel apiculati,nervissuperneprofnnde dopress|i3, prominentibus 
inferne, valde adpresse hirsuti, speciatim inferne ; foliolus terminalis 
maximus, 22 mm. longus, 6 mm. latus, laterales vero 12 mm. longi 
et 5 mm. lati, omnes glandulo puncbatis inferne, interdum parce 
superne, margine irregulariter siuuati, b isi acuti. Petioluli circa ^ 
mm. longi. 

Flores fauciculati, rarius solitarii in spicas axillares 10 cm. longas con 
ferti. Khacliis verucosa. Pjdicelli 1 mm. attmgenbes. valde hirsuti. 
Bractse minutfe, ovato-acutae, parce hirsubae. Calyx 3 mm. longus, 
dense argenbo-hirsutus externe, lobi triangulares, ovati, acubi, brevi- 
oreii tubo, intimus maximus, sed superiores attingentes altius. Co- 
rolla alijuanbulum exserba, vexillum labe obovatum, emargitiatum, 
margine sinuabum. album, alse oblique oblongae, lobo magno rotundo 
munibse circa medium marginis posberioris, albae, apice caerulescentes 
cotiserenbes cum pebalis carinte. Pebala carinae coh«rentia, ali- 
quantulum lobata in parte posteriore, alba, apice caerulescentia. 
Sbaman vexillarj b:i5i connatum cum caeberis. Ovarium stipitatum, 
glabratum. Stylus tiliformis, compressns, iucurvus : stigma parvum. 

Legumen (imnaburum) dense hirsutum, stylo psrsisbenbe munitum. 
Semina (iminatura) coiiipressa, reniformia, brunnea. 

Loc. : .Jodhpur : Banner, sand (No. 7005 !), near Kotda (No. 7003 !), 
Jaisalmer : Devikot (No. 7004 !), near Bap (No. 7002 !). 

Fl. and fr. in Nov. 

Note : Tiiis species differs from P. plicata Del. by the colour of the 
corolla, by the longer petioles, hairiness of the stem and branches, 
and the shape of the stipules. 

Tephrosia Pers. 

Tephrosia tenuis Wall. Cat. (1828) 5970. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Jorlhpur (No. 6961 !), Osian (No. 6962 !), Balarwa (No. 

6963 !), Kotda near Sen. rocks (No. 6964 !). 
Distrib : India, Laccadives. 
Fl, in Oct., fr. i i Oct. and Nov. 

Tephrosia purpurea Pers. Syn. PI. II (1807) 329. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 6983!, 6978!), Bhikamkor (No. 69791), 
Osian (No. 6980 !), Phalodi (No. 6981!). Jaisalmer : Vinjorai (^No. 
6982 !). 
Distrib. : Tropics generally. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Tephrosia incana Grab, in Wall. Cat. 5644 ; Wight, and Arn. Prodt. 212 ; 
Wight Ic. 371, Grab. Cat. ^1 .—Galena incam Roxb. Fl. . Ind. Ill, 
SSi).— Tephrosia Ehrenbeiyiana Schvveinf. PI, Athiop. 18. — /'. villosa 
Pers. var. incnna Bak. in Hook. f. Fl. Brit Ind. il, 113 ; Cooke, Fl. 
Bomb. Pres. 1 (1903) 32S. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 289 

var. honzontalis vat: nov. Diftert a typo sequentibus : Folioli 7-9, obovati 
cuneati, minus Jati, profunde emHrgiiiati, mucronulati. ' Stipulaj 
Bubulataa, loiigiores. Flores generatim 4-tascicuhiti in rhachide 
gracillima angnlcsa flexnosa terminali vel lateifili usque 10 cm. Jontra. 
Fasciculus infimus generatim in axilla folii subtendentis P< dictlTus 
floris usque ad 4 mm , fructus ad o mm attingens. Legumen hori- 
zontale, 4 cm. attingens, delicatule albo pube^cens, st} lo inteor« 
glabro munitum. "^ 

Log. : Jodhpur : Jodhpur (No. 6977!). Jaisalmer : Viniorai sandv 
plain (No. 6976). '' ' ^ 

Distrib. of type : Trop. Africa, Mauritius, India. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

NoTK : Tephrnsia incana Grab, has been made a variety of T. villosa 
Pers. by Baker. Roxburgh's descri|ition of the plant and Wight's 
ill 'stration make it difficult to understand how those two species 
should ever have been united. 

Tc'iihrosia multi flora spec. vov. 
Herba perennis, ramosa a basi ; rami erecti vel ascenr'et.tes, 50 cm 
attingentes, graciles, dense piloso-j>ubescentes. Folia imparipin- 
nata, 8 cm. attingentia, generatim, 7-, rarius 5-foli<.lata Stipula.' 
reflexaj, siibulat;e, a-nervatjB. 6 mm. attingentes. Petiolus 3 cm. 
lougus ; rhachis sulcata, hirsuta ; petiolulus uscpie ad 1 mm. 
attingens. dense hirsutus. Folioli elliptici oblonj.i. Urn^ii alis 3 mm 
longns, 9 mm. latus. laterales minores, apice obtusi. rtti si ^^l minu- 
tim apiculati. basi rotundati vel cuneati, facie ventrali glabri, doirsali 
argento-canescentes. 

Flores fasciulati, axillares, 1-6 fcrmantes fascmli m. Pedicelli 
2 3 mm. longi. Calyx 2imm. longus, dense hirsuti s : lobi setacei 
tubo plus minusve sequilongi. Corolla exstrta. rulra ; vexilluni 
hirsutum in dorso, c ter^j rorollse partes glabra^. Cvnrii m hir- 
sutum ; stylus compressus, giaber. Lei;umen lineare. aliqiiantulum 
turgidum. 3 cm. longnm, valde curvatum, euspide brevi triangular 
munitum, dense pilosum, intus continuum. Stmina 6-8. pallida. 

Near Roxburgh's T. pevicqihyHa which Baker in Fcok. f. H. Brit 
Ind. II. 112. puts under 7". senficcsa Pers. T. pevfoj /j/Z/a Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. Ill, 384, should be retained as a distinct species. 7. s nticom 
has a glabrous pod according to DC. Prodr. 11, 2/14. Baker says 
it is persistently thinly canescent, while the rod of 1 ..xburgh's 
plant is villous. Cooke's T. s<nlic<sa (in Fl. Bomb. Pres. 1, 326) as 
far as is apparent from his descrij tion, sei ms to be 7' ] !nlJphvha 
Roxb. ' 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Kotda near Sen (No. 6975 !), Jaisalmer : Shihad (No 
6974 I ). ^ ■ 

Tephroda petrom spec. m-v. {^T. spinosa Baker in Fl. Brit. Ind. II. 

112 purtitn, non ]^eTS,). 

Suflrutex vel frutex humilis, profuse ramosus a basi et altius, rami 
terminales gracillimi, argerifo-canescentt s, angulo^i. I olia 4^ cm. 
longa Stipulse 5-6 mm. longjB. subulatae, cost a mtdia consp'icua 
argento-canescentes, generatim reEexa^, rigida-, i-ed non nia^ns 
quani in aliis geueris hujus specielus : rhachis hirsuta . pctioJuli vfx. 
1 mm. attingentes, hirsuti. Folioli generatim 5. interc un 3 vel 7 
nunqnam 9, terminalis g< neratim maxinuis, 27 n m 1« igus, 9 mm.' 
latiis omnes obovati, apice mtuudnti, niucroi ati nitrcne'l mm 
longo, facie superiore glaberrin)a, facie vero interi<.re, u argine et 
mucrone dense argento-canescentibus. 



240 JUVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Flores axillarea solitarii, raro gemini ; pedicelli florum circa 2^ mm., 
fructus vero 5 mm. loiigi. Calyx 3 mm. longus, non ampliatus in 
fructu ; lobi siibiilati, tubo aequilongi ; pedicellus et caJyx hirsutis- 
simi. Corolla larga, valde exserta, conspicua, rubra purpurascens. 
Vexillum hirsutum in dorso. Stamina diadelpha. Ovarium dense 
hirsutum. Stylus glaber. Stigma largum, penicillatum. 

Legumen •■■>-5 cm. longum, lineare, attenuatum basim versus, valde 
curvatum, cuspidatum, argento-canescens. Semma numerantia 
usque ad 8, diiplo latiora quam longa, subcylindrica, aliquantulum 
compresaa, colore olivse, variegatoe. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 6966 !), Jodhpur (No. 6965 I), Kotda 
near Sen (No. 6972 !), Barmer, rocks No, 6973 !). Jaisalraer : Vin- 
jorai (No. 6971 !), Jaisalmer, rocky plateau (No. 69701), N. of Jai- 
salmer vNo. 6969 !), Bada Bag (No. 6968 !). 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Vern. N. : Bishoni. 

Uses : The leaves boiled in water and eaten are considered to be good 
against syphilis. 

Note : Baker in Hook. f. Brit. Ind. II, 112 has evidently united speci- 
mens identical with or at least very similar to o.irs with T. spinosa 
Pers. We consider Roxburgh's description of T. sjnnosa (under 
Galeya spinosa Willd. in Fl. Ind. Ill, 383) to be the correct one. 
Iq the same way we include Wight's description and plate (Ic. 372) 
under 7'. spinosa, as hs says himself that he has copied them from 
Roxburgh's drawing. Baker's description differs in several points 
from Roxburgh's and can therefore not be considered as that of T. 
spinosa Pers. Baker's material comes from the Western Peninsula, 
whilst Roxburgh's plant is a native " of dry barren land on the 
coast of Coromandel." We may add that we have never foand T. 
spinosa in the Western Peninsula. 

Sesbania Scop. 

Seshania aculeata Poir. Encycl, VII (1806) 128. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7023!), Balarwa (No. 7019 1). Jaisal- 
mer: Amarsagar (No. 7024 !), Vinjorai (No. 7022!), Devikot (No. 
7021 !), between Phalodi and Bap (No. 7020 !). 

Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World. 

Fl. in Oct., fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Alysicarpus Neck. 

Alysicarpus monilifer DC. var. venom, var. nov. — Legumen conspione re- 
ticulato-venosum, saape uno semine. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 7225 !, 7226 !). 

Distrib. of type : India, Nubia, Abyssinia. 

Fl. and fr. in Nov. 
Alysicarpus hamosns Edgew. in Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XXI (1853) 171. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer : Bap (No. 7227 !). 

Distrib. : India. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
A/i/sicarpus myin'dis DC Prodr. II (1825) 353, 

Loc: Jodhpur: Balsamand (No, 7228 !). Jaisalraer: Jaisalmer, sand 
(No. 7229 !, 7230, 7231 !). 

Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World. 

Fl. in Oct., fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Ali/sicarpus rvyosus DC. Prodr. II (1825) 353. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : 25 miles S E. of Luni (No, 7232 !). Jaisalmer : between 
Phalodi and Bap in field (No, 7233 !). 



ILOEA OF TEE INDIAN DESERT. 241 

Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World, Cape, West Indies. 

Fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Ahjsicarpus rugosus var. styracifolius Baker in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India II 
159. 

Loc. : Jodhjmr: Balsamand (No. 7234!). 

Distrib. : India. 

Fr. in Oct. 
Alysicavpus tetrac/onolobus Edgew. in Jour. As. Soc. Beng. XXI (1853) 
169. 

Loc: Jodhpur : Erinpura Road (No. 7235!) 

Distrib. : India. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. 

Butea Roxb. 

Butea frondosa Konig ex Roxb. As. Res, III (1792) 469. 
Loc. : Jodhpur State (Adams). 
Distrib. : India, Ceylon. 

Alhagi Tourn. 

Alhagi camHorum Fisch. Ind. Hort. Gorenk. ed. 2 (1812) 72. 
"Vern. N. : .lawasa (Macadam). 
Loc. : Jodhpur and Jaisalmer States (Macadam). 
Distrib. : India. Bahichistan, Arabia, Egypt. 
Uses : Valued as fodder, as the leaves come out in the hot weather 

when there are few green things to be had. Much used for tatties 

(Macadam^. 

Canavalia Adams. 

Canaralia ensiformis DC. Prodr. II (1825) 404. 
Loc: Jaisalmer.- Amarsagar (No. 7001 !), probably cultivated. 
Fl. in Oct. and Nov. 
Note : Our specimen is a slender form with few-flowered racemes. 

Phaseolus L. 

PhaseoluH tvilobus Ait. Hort. Kew III, 30. 

Vern. N. : Jungli math. 

Loc : Jodhpur : Bhikamkor (No. 6984 !). near Badka (No. 6988 1), Kotda 
(No. 6990 !), Barmer (No. 6992!). Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 6986!), 
Vinjorai (No. 6987 !), Vinjorai, sandy plain (No. 6989 !), Jaisalmer 
(No. 6991 !). 

Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Indo-Malaya, Afghanistan. 

Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 

Uses : Eaten by cattle. 

PJuiseolus acnnitifolius Jacq. in Obs. Bot. Ill (1768) 2, t. 52. 
Vern. N. : Moth. 

Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 6997!), Mandor, (No. 6998!), Osiau 
(No. 6996 !), cultivated throughout Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. This 
species and Phaseolus viunc/o are grown on light soil, sometimes 
alone but usually with bajra (Pennisetwn typhoideum) or jowar 
(Soiyhum vulgare). 
Distrib. : Native of India, generally cultivated. 

Phaseolus radiatus L Sp. PI. (1753) 725. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Mandor (No. 6994 !), Osian (No. 6993 !). Jaisalmer : 

between Phalodi and Bap (No, 6995!). 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. 

31 



242 JOTTUNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, rol. XXVI. 

Pkuseotus Tnungo L. var. Roxburghii Prain in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. LXVI 
(1898) 423. 
Vern, N. : Mung. 
Log. : Cultivated in Jodhpur State (Erskine) and Jaisalmer. 

Vigna Savi. 

Vigna sp. 
Loc. : Jodhpnr : Osian (No. 7000 !). 

Dolichos L. 

Dolichos bijiorus L. Spec. PI. (1753) 727. Horse ^ram. 
Vern. N. : Khulat. 

Loc. : Cultivated in Jodhpur State (Erskine). 
Distrib. : Tropics of the Ohl World. 

Cicer L. 

Cicei' arietinum L. Gram, Chickpea. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : termination of Luni river when dry ; in the following 
parganas : Parbatsar, Bali, Sojat (Adams). 

Native country uncertain, widely cultivated throughout India. 
Note : Gram is a '' cold weather crop, ffrown usually alone, but sometimes 
mixed with barley ; it is found mostly in Bilara, Merta, Sojat and Pali, 
and requires a lig^ht loamy soil, but is neither irrij?ated nor weeded. The 
land is ploughed four times before the seed is sown in October, and is then 
harrowed once ; if rain falls in December and January, a fine crop is 
almost a certainty, but there is always danger of damage by fe-ost, and 
lightning- is supposed to be injurious if the pulse be in blossom. When 
the seedlings begin to branch and before flowers are produced, the leading- 
shoots are sometimes nipped ofE to make the plants bushier and more 
productive, and the cuttings are usnd as a vegetable called pansi. Gram 
ripens from February to April, is reaped with a blunt sickle, and is gene- 
rally uprooted ; the out-turn averages only 8| cwt. of pulse per acre, the 
grain being split and used as dal and the fine chafl" making an excellent 
fodder" (Erskine! 

Rhynchosia Lour. 

Rhinchosia minima DC var. laxiflora Baker in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
' II, 223. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Mandor (No. 6953!), Kailana (No. 69591,6958!, 

69571,6951), Barmer, rocks (No. 6950!), Kotda near Sen (No. 

69511), 25 miles N.E. of Luni (No. 6954!). Jaisalmer: Amarsagar 

(No. 6956!, 6955 !), Vinjorai rocks (No. 6952 !). 
Distrib. of type : Tropics generally. Of variety : Deccan, S. M. 

Country, Rajputana, Siud. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Note : The plants do not agree with Cooke's statement that R. minima 

has black seeds ; the ground colour is a pale olive green, mottled 

with grey and black to a varied extent. The pod is very often 

only 1 seeded, when it is about 8 mm. long and 5 mm. broad. The 

2-seeded pods are 20 by 5 mm. 

RItgnchosia rhnmhifolia spec. nov. 

Herba gracilis volubilis, circa 75 cm. longa, minutim cinerascens- 
pubescens. Caiilis subteres. Folia membranacea, pinnatim 3-folio- 
lata, 7 cm. attingentia, petiolo angulari, 4 cm. longo, petiolnlis 1 mm. 
excedentibus. Foliolus terminalis rhomboideus, latior quam longus, 
.30 mm. longus, 37 mm. latus, angulo apicali circa 120 gradus mensur- 
ante, angulo basali largiore, apice rotundus, basi rotundus vel inter- 



^ 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 243 

dum aliquantulum subcordatus, angiilis lateralibus obtusis. Folioli 
laterales multo minores, valde variabiles quoad magnitudinem, sub- 
orbiculati, valde obliqui, margine superiore semicirculari, inferiore 
magis rhomboideo, nervis inferne prominentibus, conspicuis, albis, 
omnibus foliolis minutim apiculatis, pallida virescentibus, maturis in 
utraque facie pubescentibus. 

Floras in racemis axillaribus. Racemi circiter aadem longitudine ac 
foliorum, paucos habentes floras, laxi, pedicellis 2 mm. longis. cur- 
vatis. Calyx dense hirsutus ; lobi 5, duo superiores breviores, in- 
fimus duplo longior et tube longior. Patala unguicuiata, dimidio 
longior calyce, vexillum hirsutum in dorso, pallida flavum, akv 
minus flavse ; stamina diadelpha ; stylus gracilis, curvatus, dense 
hirsutus. Ovula 2. 

Legumen falcatum, attenuatum basim versus, 18 mm. longum, G mm. 
latum, seminibus 2, vel 10 mm. longum, 6 mm. latum, semicirculare, 
semine unico, comprassum, cuspida munitum 1^ mm. longo, valviw 
minutim tomantoso-pubescantibus. Semina flava, cicatrice nigra 
1 mm. longa prope hilum. Hilum obtectum membrana quse est ex- 
tensio funiculi seminis, minima varo strophiolus. 

Note : The same tiny hardened drops have been observed on the 
lower surface of the leaves and on the pod which we have noted 
under it!, arenaria, with the difi'erenca however that they are colour- 
lass instead of yellow. 

Loc. : .Taisalmer : Amarsagar (No. 6849 ! , 6948 !), Jaisalmar, rocky 
plateau (No. 6947 !). ' 

Fl. and fr. in Nov. 

lihi/nchosia arenaria spec. nor. (Pertinet ad Eurhynchosias.) 

Frutex humilis, prostratus vel suberactus, ramis dense foliosis usque 
ad 60 cm. attingentibus, primariis procumbentibus, secundariis 
arectis circa 30 cm. longis ; tota planta dense cinareo-tomentoso- 
pubascens. Folia conf erta, pinnatim trifoliata, 3 cm. longa, foliol< ■ 
terminal! late obcordato, basi cunaato, lo mm. longo et lato, lateral! 
vero minore, obliquo suborbiculato, omnibus denique mucronatis, 
integerrimis, pallidioribvis inferne quam superne, margine reflaxo, 
nervis tribus subbasalibiis. Petiolus 15 mm. attingens, interdum faro 
absens, patiolulus 1 mm. attingens. 

Flores pauci, flavi, in racemis axillaribus gemini, raro solitarii, 
pedunculo 4 mm. longo, pedicellis 3 mm. longis. Calycis lobi tube 
paullo longiores, subsequalibus, subulatis. Patala unguicuiata. 
pauUo exserta, vexillum snborbicidatum, 6 mm. longum, aliquan- 
tulum emarginatum, in dorso dense hispidum ; stamina diadelpha ; 
ovarium dense pubescens, 2-ovulatum. 

Legumen 25 mm. longum, 9 mm. latum, compressum, margina 
incrassato, falcatum, attenuatum versus basim, dense persistentei 
tomentosum, cuspide 1^ mm. longo. Semina 2, (vel 1 in legumi- 
nibus brevioribus) orbiculata, paullo compressa, brunnea, flavescentia 
circa hilum, glabra, seminum funiculo in membranam tenuem hiluir. 
obtegentera expanso, sad non vare strophiolato. 

Note : Embedded in the tomantum of the under surface of the leavet; 
there are innumerable minute golden yellow, strongly refractive 
hardened drops of some resinous substance which must have exuded 
from the epidermis. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Barmer (No. 6943 !), on rocks. Loharki (No. 6942! 

6994 !, 6945 !), seems to be a rare plant. 
Fl. and fr. in Nov. 



244 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, V»L XXVI. 

Dalhergia L. f. 

Dalbergia sishoo Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 53. 
Loc. : Jodhpur (No. 7236 !). 
Distrib. : Said to be wild in Gujarat. 
Fr. in Oct. 

Poncfamia Vent. 

Fongamia glabra Vent. Jard. Malm. (1803) 28. 
Loc: Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 7237!). 
Distrib. : Throughout Trop. Asia and the Seychelles. 

//. Caesalpiniaceae. 

Parkinsonia Plum. 

Parkinsonia aculeata L, Sp. PI. (1753) 375. 

Loc. : Jodhpur (No. 7238 !). Jaisalmer, near lake (No. 7239 I). 
Distrib. : Trop. America. Naturalized in many parts of India. 
Fl. in Nov. 

Poinciana L. 

Poinciana elata L. Cent. PI. TI (1756) 16. 
Vern. N. : Sanesra (Macadam). 

Loc. : Jaisalmer, near town (No. 7243 !, 7241 !). Frequent in the 
plains of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer (Macadam). Planted. 

Cassia L. 

Cassia ohomta Collad. Hist. Cass. p. 92, t. XV, A (Cassia obtusa Koxb.) 
Vern. N. : Goral. 
Loc. : Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7242!), Balarwa (No. 7243 !). Jaisalmer: 

Sodakoe dunes No. 7244!), 15 miles E. of Jaisalmer (No. 7245!). 

Jaisalmer (Macadam). Devikot (Macadam). 
Distrib. : W, India, Sind, Arabia Palestine, Egypt, Nubia, Eritrea. 

Abyssinia, Kordofan-Sennaar, Somaliland, Senegambia, Angola. 

Hereroland. 
Fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Cassia auiiculnta L. Sp. PI. (1753) 379. 
Vern. N. : Anwal, Awal — Tanner's Cassia. 
Loc. : W. Rajputana (King). 
Distrib. : India Ceylon. 
Cassia Kleirdi W. & A. Prodr. (1834) 293. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 7247 !). 
Distrib. : India, Ceylon, Java. 
Fr. in Oct. 

Tamarindus L . 

Tamarindus indica L. Sp. PI. (1753) 34. 
Loc. : Jodhpur, Fort (No. 7243 !). Jaisalmer : Amarsagar (No. 

7244!). 
Distrib. : Tropics generally, probably indigenous in Africa. 
Fl. in Oct., fr. in Nov. 

Bauhinia L. 

BauJiinia sp. 
Loc. Jaisalmer : Bada Bag (No. 7246 I), Amarsagar (No. 7245 !) 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 245 

III. Mimosecp. 
Prosopis L. 

I'rosopis sipicigera L. Mant. (1767) 68. 

Vern. N : Kejra. 

Loc. : Jodhpur : Balarwa (No. 7253!). Jaisalmer : Bap (No. 7249!), 
Loharki (No. 72471), W. of Loharki (No. 7255 !), N. of Jaisalmer 
(No. 7251 !), Amarsagar (No. 7248 !, 7250 !, 7252 !), Vinjorai, sandy 
plain (No. 7254 !). 

Distrib. : India, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Persia. 

Fl. in Nov. 

NoiE : This is a very variable plant. In its young state the stipules 
areofter larger than the leaflets (nearly 1 cm. long), ovate acuminate 
or oblong acute, very oblique, slightly cordate, especially if the plant 
grows in the neighbourhood of water. As it grows older the sti- 
pules become smaller and caducous, and at last vanish altogether. 
The cultivated tree has much larger leaves than the wild one. The 
latter is always strongly armed, and more so in dry soil, whilst the 
cultivated plant is finally almost or quite unarmed. 

Uses: The pods are eaten as a vegetable aud valued as a fodder. In 
severe famines its bark is eaten. The wood is used for building 
purposes, wells, etc., but it is not very good. The tree is held 
sacred by the Bishnois (Macadam). 

Dischrostachys DC. 

Dichrostachys dnerea W. & A. Prodr. (1834) 271. 
Vem. N. : Kolai. 
Loc. : W. Rajputana (King). 
Distrib. : Indo-Malaya, N. Australia. 

Mimosa L. 

Mimos2L hamata Willd. Sp. PI. IV (1805) 10.'i3. 

Loc; Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 7263 !), Balsamand (No. 7260 I), Osian 

(No. 7257 ! ), near Badka (No. 7258 !). Jaisalmer : Amarsagar 

(No. 7256 !, 4803 !), Vinjorai (No. 7262 !,7261 !), Devikot (No. 7259 !). 
Distrib. : India. 
FL and fr in Oct. and Nov. 
Uses: Half a tola of the seeds pounded and boiled in buflPalo milk is 

taken as a tonic against weakness, but must not be taken in excess. 
Mimosa ruhicaulis Lam. Encycl. Meth. I (1783) 120. 
Vern. N. : Hajeru, Janjani, Jijania. 
Loc. : Rocky places about Jodhpur and Jaisalmer (Macadam). — We 

have not seen this species, and it is possible that Miss Macadam 

has mistaken M. hamata for M. rubicaulis. 
Distrib. : India, Afghanistan. 

Acacia Willd. 

Acacia arabica Willd. Sp. PI. IV (1805) 1085. 

Vern. N. : Babul, Bambul, Bawal. 

Loc: Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 7264 1), Jaisalmer: Bada Bag (No. 
72661,7265!). 

Distrib. : Natal, Trop. Africa, Egypt, Arabia, India, Ceylon. 

Fl. in Oct., fr. in Nov. 

Uses : The wood is used for building purposes, for tooth brushes, 
charms, etc. The pods are gathered and given as fodder to goats. 
The bruised leaves are applied to sore eyes in children. A gum 
exudes from the stem in the cold weather which is considered un- 
wholesome as food, but is used medicinally (Macadam). Adams 



LUC JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

mentions the following preparation against asthma : Gum of Afncia 
araii'cffi and honey, one tola each, juice of Calotropis procera une 
quarter of a tola, and fine " Pili earth" ; to be taken thrice a day as 
pills. 

Acacia Senegal Willd. Sp. PI. IV (1805) 1077. 
Vern. N. : Kumat (Macadam). 
Loc. : Jodhpur: Kailana (No. 7272!), Osian (No. 7270!, 7268!), 

Barmer, rocks (No. 7267 !). Jaisalmer : N. of Jaisahner (No. 7^71 \), 

Vinjorai (No. 7269 !). Common everywhere, one of the chief jungle 

forming trees. 
Distrib. : Trop. Africa, Arabia, Baluchistan, India. 
Fl. and fr. in Oct. and Nov. 
Note : The leaves in our specimens are much longer than given by 

Baker and Cooke, but agree with the illustration given by Brandis. 

The lateral spines vary, and the pod is broader than usual. < 

Uses : A gum which exudes from the stem in the cold weather is 

eaten and sold. It is the commercial gum-arabic. The seeds are 

valued for food (Macadam). 

Acacia catechu Willd. Sp. PL IV (1805) 1079. var. sundra Prain. in 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. LXVI (1898) 508-510. 
Vern. N. : Khair. 
Loc. : Jodhpur (ex Adams). 
Distrib. : India. 

Acacia jaquemonti Benth. in Hook. Lon. Journ. Bot. 1 (1842) 499. 
Vern. N. ; Bhu bavali, Bawal, Babul, Bambul. 
Loc: Found at Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, less common than A. andirca 

(Macadam). 
Distrib.: Gujarat, Rajputana, Punjab, Sind. 

Uses : The wood when burned gives out an intense heat and is there- 
fore employed by gold and silver smiths. 

Acacia leucophloea Willd. Sp. PI. IV (1805) 1083. 

Loc. : Jaisalmer State (Erskine). W. Rajputana (King). 
Distrib. : India. 

Albizzia Durazz. 

Albizzia lebbek Benth. in Hook. Lon. Journ. Bot. Ill (1844) 87. 
Vern. N. : Siris. 
Loc: Jodhpur: Jodhpur (No. 7273!). Jaisalmer: Amarsagar (No. 

7274!). 
Distrib. : Trop. and Sub-trop. Asia and Africa. 

Uses : The wood is perishable and not much used. The bark is mixed 
in hot water with Coimniphora viukul. and given to sick camels. 
(Macadam). , 

Leuccena Benth. 

Leuccena glauca Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. IV (1842) 416. 
Loc. : Jodhpur : Balsamand (No. 7276 !). 
Distrib. : Probably indigenous in Trop. America. 
Fl. in Oct. 

Pithecolobium Mart. 

Fithecolobium dulce Benth. in Hook. Lon. Journ. Bot. Ill (1844) 199. 
Loc : Jodhpur, cultivated in the sands, grows rapidly when watered 

during the hot weather (Adams). 
Distrib. : A native of Mexico. 

{To be continued.) 



247 
THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 

BY 

C. H. Donald, f.z.s. 

Part 1. 

In the last Volume of the Journal (Vol. XXV, p. 231) appeared 
a paper on the Raptores (Birds of Prey) of the Punjab, in which I 
divided up the various species into 8 types, to simplify identifi- 
cation. While adhering to the nomenclature and the numbering 
in the Fauna of British India, Vol. Ill, I changed the sequence 
to suit my types. The paper has been very kindly received by 
many of our members and has evidently met with a certain measure 
of success, as I have been asked by several, to go into further detail 
and describe each individual species on the lines of my original 
paper. In that paper I pointed out that there was nothing, or 
very little original matter, so far as keys and descriptions were 
concerned, and the same remark may here be reiterated. 1 have 
taken most of the descriptions and keys from the Fauna of British 
India and from Hume's " Scrap Book of Rough Notes," as also 
measurements. In some cases I have inserted them word for word, 
and in others just enough has been taken to suit my purpose. 

It is not in any way implied that the keys and descriptions here 
given are an absolutely sure guide, in every case. Individuals may 
Occasionally be found which cannot be placed in their proper 
species from these papers, but they will be abnormal specimens, and 
in, perhaps, 9o per centum of cases the keys and descriptions 
will suffice to place any Bird of Prey which occurs in the Punjab. 

The various changes in plumage which the Raptores undergo, 
from time to time, makes it practically impossible to describe each 
and every phase, and specimens might easily be found which even 
defeat the descriptions given in the two above mentioned works, 
good as they are. So far as colouration is concerned the descriptions 
here given will be found considerably wanting in detail, as my 
endeavour has been to merely give a fair idea of what the bird looks 
like in general, and depend for identification almost entirely on 
other characteristics which do not undergo changes. 

Out of 82 species of the Raptores to be found in India, Burma 
and Ceylon, at least 56 are to be found in the Punjab, either as 
residents or winter migrants, and it is more than possible that 
others again, hitherto unrecorded, may occasionally find their way 
into the Province. That some species have considerably increased 
their range since Hume's " Rough Notes" made their appearance, is 
very probable, for instance, the Large Spotted Eagle (Agmla 
maculata), while the record of others is possibly due to error, and 



248 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

controversies have not been uncommon, between ornithologists, as 
regards the occurrence of certain species in particiilar localities. 
Hume, for instance, is very sceptical regarding the occurrence of 
the Golden Eagle (^A. chryscetus) near Kotgarh, in the Simla 
District, and m fact considers the species sufficiently rare not 
to deserve a place in the Fauna of India at all, whereas Stoliczka 
considered the Golden Eagle hj no means rare in the vicinity of 
Kotgarh, and my personal experience has been that it is to be 
found practically throughout the Himalayas, in suitable localities, 
from Kashmir to Garhwal and probably a good deal further east 
still. 

A good deal of valuable data has been lost to science through 
sportsmen and ornithologists not being able to recognise the various 
species they have met with, on the wing. It is not always 
possible to shoot every specimen met with, for identification, and 
nor is it desirable, but it is possible to recognise a very large 
percentage of the Birds of Prey on the wing, with a little practice, 
and the art once acquired enhances considerably the study of, and 
the interest in, the various species met with. 

An attempt has been made in these papers to describe the 
appearance of each species on the wing, but the task is rather too 
ambitious and the shortcomings only too obvious. 

I trust, however, that the descriptions give some idea of the 
writer's meaning, and will be found helpful to those who feel 
disposed to identify birds by their flight and appearance, in the 
air. 

Types A, B & C. 
This chapter deals with the Types A, B, C of the Birds of Prey of the 
Punjab. These three types comprise between them the Osprey, the Lam- 
mergeyer, the Vultures and the Scavenger Vultures, in all some seven genera 
and eleven species and all birds of from medium to very large size. Of 
these again, Types A and C. comprise but one species each, the remainder 
all going to Type B. 

Neither the Osprey nor the Lammergeyer can possibly be mistaken for 
any other bird of prey. The curious reversible toe, in a foot in which all 
the claws are all more or less the same size and no aftershaft to contour 
feathers are two characteristics which, in themselves, place the Osprey apart 
from all other diurnal birds of prey. I say diurnal, because the Osprey 
shares both the above characteristics with the nocturnal birds of prey or 
Owls, but as it cannot possibly be mistaken for an owl, we need not go 
into the differences between them. The Osprey also has very long wings, 
the tips in the closed wing being equal to or even exceeding the tip of 
the tail. 

The Lammergeyer, on the other hand, can at once be difl'erentiated by 
his beard. An unmistakable beard of stiff black bristles depending from 
the chin is the distinguishing mark of this species. 

The Vultures th >ugh unmistakable as such are not so easy to differentiate 
from each other, but, on the whole, the characteristics of each species are 
sufficiently well defined to make their identification fairly simple, from a 
careful study of the keys. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 249 

Two of the Vultures here included are doubtful inhabitants of the 
Punjab, but as it is quite possible that stragglers occasionally do occur, 
within the boundaries of the Province I shall give them a passing notice. 

All tne True Vultures are birds of large size with a head devoid of 
feathers and covered only with down or entirely naked. 

The Cinereous Vulture is the only one which has fur-like feathers on the 
head and sides, which, at a short distance, give the bird an appearance of a 
feathered head, but on closer investigation it will be found that they are 
not true feathers and, moreover, grow in patches and the whole head and 
neck are by no means covered. Since all other Raptores have their head 
and neck fully covered, any bird with head or neck bare, or even partially 
covered, can be straightway classed as a Vulture or Scavenger Vulture and 
searched for in Type B. 

From the keys given it will be found very simple to place any bird in its 
proper Type and that done, in most cases, the species will not be found 
to be any more difficult, with a very few exceptions. As I have already 
said the Osprey and the Lammergeyer are absolutely unmistakable, so for 
an example let us take some bird in Type B. We know it belongs to Type 
B because it has a head and neck either covered with down, bare, or 
covered with fur-like feathers in patches, thus always leaving some part of 
the head or neck bereft of feathers. We look at the key to the species 
under Type B and find there are 9 to choose from in 5 genera. Nostril 
round and head and neck covered with blackish fur-like feathers, and 
tarsi covered with dense silky down on their upper portion ; tail of 12 
feathers, and the bird must be Vultur monachus. If it has wattles depending 
from either side of the neck, it must be Otogyps calvus. 

A tail of 14 feathers and it can be consigned to the genus Gy2)e, which 
also has a narrow vertical slit for a nostril. Two species of this genus are 
very large birds, and if the wing measures over 27" you know it must be 
either Gyps fulvus or G. hhnalayensis. If so, the 3rd primary being the 
longer and narrow shaft stripes on lower plumage will point to it being 
"fulvus" and the 4th primary longest and the shaft stripes broad, will 
determine your bird as G. himalayensis . If the wing is under 26" the 
specimen will belong to one of the other two species, and to find out 
which, see whether it has any hairs on the crown of the head or whether 
it is absolutely naked. A vertical narrow slit for a nostril, but a tail of 
12 feathers points to the Genus Pseudogyps and the species P. bengalensis. 

The Scavenger Vultures are infinitely smaller being 9" or 10" less in 
length than the smallest of true Vultures. 

The difficulty in identifying one from the other of these two species, in 
certain phases of plumage must always be considerable, as the colour of the 
beak and the extra one inch or so in length is no criterion, when dealing 
with immature birds. It is a doubtful point whether each deserves 
specific rank, they are so closely allied to each other. N. percnopterus is 
our Punjab bird, and though N. ginginianus might easily be found in the 
southern portion of the Province, adjoining Delhi, above that it will usually 
be the former that is met with. 

Key to the Types. 

Chapter 1. 

Type. Size. Characteristics. 

A. Medium.' a. Head and neck feathered ; b. tarsi naked ; 

(The Osprey). c. outer toe fully reversible ; d. no aftershaft to 

contour feathers; e. tip of primaries in closed 
wing reaching to end of tail or exceeding it. 

32 



■250 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



Type. 



Size. 



Characteristics. 



B. Very large to 
medium. (The 
Vultures). 

C. Very large (The 
Lammergeyer) . 



a. Head and neck naked or covered with 
down or partially covered with fur-like feathers 
and down ; b. tarsi naked or upper portion cover- 
ed with silky down. 

a. Head and neck fully covered with fea- 
thers ; b. tarsi feathered to the toes ; f . beard 
of black bristles depending from the chin. 



Key to Species in Types A, B & C. 

Type A. Pandion halicetus, The Osprey. The same as for Type above. 

,, B. Vultur monachus. Head and neck partially covered with 

The Cinereous black fur- like feathers ; tarsi covered with 

Vulture. dense silky down in front and at sides on 

upper portion , Nostril round : tail of 12' 

feathers. 



B. Otogyps calvus. 
The Black Vul- 
ture. 



Head and neck bare, fleshy wattles 
depending from either side of the neck. 
Nostril oval ; tail of 12 feathers. 



B. Gypsfulvus, '\ ^ ^ 
The Griflon | W) I 

05 I 



B. 



Vulture. 

Gyps hima- 

layensis, 
The Hima- 
layan 
Griffon. 



B. 



Gyps indi- 
cus, The In- 
dian Long- 
billed vui- y^ 

ture . 



GO . 



o 

4^ 



CO 



B. Gyi)s tenui- 
rbstris. The 
Himalayan 
Long-billed 
Vulture. 

B. Pseudogyps 
hengalensis, 
The Indian 

• White-back- 
ed Vulture. 



o 
> 



o 

u 

a 



DO 

o 



Larger, wing 27" and over ; .3rd. primary 
longest ; lower plumage with narrow shaft 
stripes. Tail of 14 feathers. 

Wing over 27" ; 4th. primary longest ; lower 
plumage with broad shaft stripes. Tail of 14 
feathers. 



Smaller, wing 25^" ; crown of head 
scattered hairs. Tail of 14 feathers. 



with 



Wing 25|" ; crown of head naked. Tail of 
14 feathers. 



Tail of 1 2 feathers ; wing under 25". 



B. Neophron gingini- 
anus, The Smaller 
White Scavenger 
Vulture. 



Bill yellow in adults ; length about 24 
Nostril a narrow horizontal slit. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



251 



26" ; Nostril a narrow horizontal slit. 



Characteristics same as for Type above. 



Type B. Neophron percnop- 
terus. The Large 
White Scavenger 
Vulture. 
„ C. Gypcetuif barbatus, 
The Lammergeyer 
or Bearded Vul- 
ture. 

Family PANDIONIDi*]. 
Type A. 



Bill dark horny at all ages ; length about 



No. 1189. 



Genus Pandion (contains a single species). 
Pandion halifstus, The Osprey. 



Charactenstics. Size medium ; head feathered ; tarsi naked ; tip of 

feathers in closed wing exceed end of tail, outer toe 
reversible ; no after-shaft to contour feathers. The 
two last named characteristics are in themselves 
sufhcient to place the Osprey and dift'erentiate him 
from every other diurnal Bird of Prey. 

Colouration. Generally deep brown and white. Head, neck 

and the under-parts (except the upper portion of 
the breast), white. Conspicuous brown shaft stripes 
appear in each feather in the middle of the crown 
and on the nape, and sometimes on the sides. A 
broad dark brown band extends from the eye down 
the side of the neck. The whole of the back and 
tops of the wings a glossy brown, as also the tail, the 
latter with bars of paler brown above and white 
below. These tail bars become fainter with age 
and are said to disappear in very old birds. The 
upper breast is brown, the feathers having dark 
shaft-stripes and very pale or white edges. The 
under-part of the wing is brown with an admixture 
of white or fulvoas. 

Legs and feet pale greenish or yellowish ; claws 
black ; irides bright yellow ; Bill black : cere, gape, 
and eyelids dull greenish blue (Blanford). 

Length 20" to 22" ; wing 20" ; tail 9" ; tarsus 
2"2"; bill from gape 16" ; expanse about 5 ft. 

Distribution. Throughout India in suitable localities. 

The Osprey though by no means common, is still pretty frequently met 
with along the banks of any of the Punjab Rivers and larger streams. 

On backwaters and jheels they might be found circling some 50 feet or so 
above the surface of the water, or sitting on a stump or on an overhanging 
branch of some convenient tree, with eyes intently fixed on the water below. 
The usual mode of hunting, of the Osprey, is to fly up and down with slow 
deliberate beats and every now and again stop and hover. If a fish hap- 
pens to be fairly close to the surface he will diop with closed wings, head 
foremost into the water, and like a King-fisher, go right under. If nothing 
is to be seen, he will move on to repeat the process elsewhere. Almost 
invariably when rising from the water, after his dive, he will be seen to 
almost stop in mid air, for a fraction of a second and a spasmodic quiver 
will be seen to pass over his body from head to tail, to shake off the 
water, before he continues his flight. 



252 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



The Osprey is seldom found soaring like the other Fish Eagles, except 
for short periods, evidently for the purpose of rising high enough to look 
over the surrounding couutry for a fresh pool or stream. He is a cold 
weather visitor to India, though some appear to remain and build in the 
Himalayas. 

The nest of this bird is said to be a structure of twigs from the thick- 
ness of a man's linger to that of his v/rist, and lined with the softer kinds 
of sea-weed and some 15 feet in circumference. 

Mr. Hume records a nest which he saw in Kumaon, but gives no descrip- 
tion of it, and Mr. Thompson says he believes its nest is to be found on 
the Ganges above Hurdwar. Also vide B. N. H. Soc, Volumes XIV, p. 
556 and XXI, p. 268. 

I have seen the bird in July on the Beas River, in the Kangra District, 
but have never come across a nest. 

Blanford describes the egg as white, much spotted and blotched with 
dull red, and measuring about 2 4" by \1". They are said to be more 
oval in form than any of the Falconidse and almost invariably three are 
laid, though four have been found in a nest. 

Family VULTURTD^. 
Type B. 

Genus Vultur, 
No. 1190. Vultur monachus, The Cinereous Vulture. 



Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Distribution. 
Habits. 



Size very large. Top of head, lores and cheeks 
covered with black fur-like feathers and down. 
Nostril round ; tail of 12 feathers ; no wattles de- 
pending from side of neck. 

Rich chocolate brown throughout, sometimes with 
a ruddy gloss. Under-parts frequently very much 
darker than the back. This bird varies from a rich 
brown to almost black, depending on age, the young 
birds being the paler. Wing quills black. 

Bill blackish brown, darker on upper mandible 
and tip of lower, paler at sides of upper mandible 
and base of lower, Cere, gape and the extreme 
base of lower mandible a pale mauve, sometimes 
tinged with pink, tlie bare portion of the tarsus and 
the feet are creamy or dull white. Irides brown. 
Naked skin of neck livid flesh colour. The upper 
portion of the tarsus is covered with a dense silky 
fur in front and on the sides, almost, but not quite 
meeting behind. 

Length 42" to 45"; wing 30"; tail 17"; tarsus 
5"; expanse 96" to 118". 

Throughout the Punjab. 

This fine vulture, though met with all over the 
Punjab, is nowhere very common. It is easily re- 
cognised on the wing by its great size and uniform 
deep brown colour. The flight is typically vulturine, 
the wings being held on the same plane as the body 
with no tendency to turn upwards, except at the 
extreme tips. 

If seen rising from the ground it will be found to 
have a very slow deliberate beat. More often found 
alone or in pairs than in the company of other 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE RUyjAB. 253 

vultures, though it frequently consorts with them 
in the vicinity of a butchery or round a carcase. 
Ml". Hume says it is one of the commonest vultures 
in the Hissar District and he has seen as many as 
•20 of them with a few of the plains representatives. 
He considers this species, in the cold weather 
in the northern portion of the Punjab, to be very 
nearly as common as the Indian White-backed 
Vulture. Very occasionally this species might pre- 
ponderate over a carcase, but. as a general rule, I do 
not think it can be considered a common bird. 

Though this bird undoubtedly does breed in the 
Punjab there is no authentic record of a nest 
having been found. Hutton mentions having seen 
an uncompleted nest in the Doon, with a bird sit- 
ting on the branches alongside. A month later the 
nest was again visited and found completed, but 
there was nothing in it and no sign even of the 
birds, and other similar nests in the immediate 
vicinity were also deserted, due, he thinks, to the 
fact that the grass below the trees had been recent- 
ly fired. Major T. E. Marshall, R.E., records the 
finding of nests and eggs near Quetta, as also Co.. 
Delme-Radcliffe, B. N. H. Society's Journal, Volu- 
mes XV, p. 351, XXI, p. 264 and XXII, p. 394. 

This species is said to build on very high trees or 
on cliffs, in Europe, during February and March, a 
huge nest of sticks, and lays a single egg. rarely 
two, richly marked with dark-red and measuring 
3-7 X 2-6. 

Family VULTURID^E. 
Type B. 

Genus Otor/ijps. 

No. 1191. Otogyps calvus, The Black or Pondicherry Vulture. 

Charactenstics. Size very large. Head bare except for scattered 

hairs on nape, sides and throat. Nostril oval ; tail 
of 12 feathers; Jies/it/ unities depending from the 
sides of neck. 

(iV. />'. — The head in the young bird is covered 
with down.) 

CoUuration. Generally glossy black ; brownish on scapulars, 

lower back and rump. Crop patch dark-brown 
almost surrounded by white down. Thighs white 
and downy. 

The young bird is a deep brown, with whitish 
under tail coverts and the feathers of the under- 
parts with paler edges. The crown of the head is 
eovered with white down. 

Bill dark-brown ; cere, skin of head and neck 
deep yellowish red, a conspicuous naked patch on 
each side of the «rop and a large naked oval area in 
front of each thigh, the same (Blanford). Mr. Hume 
says that the bare portions of the neck, legs and 



254 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

couspicuous thigh patches always become more 
vivid towards the breeding season, and are brighter 
in the male than in the female, at this season. 

Legs dull red ; irides red-brown. 

Length 30 to 33"; tail 10-6"; wing 23 ; tarsus 4-5"; 
expanse 80 to 88." 

iJistrilmtioti. Throughout the Punjab, not common. 

Habits. This bird, often called the King Vulture or the 

" Turkey Buzzard," the latter erroneously, is un- 
mistakable either on the ground or almost at any 
height up in the air. The red wattles and fleshy 
appearance of the whole head, combined with his 
very dark colouring, are in themselves sufficient to 
set him apart from any other vultures among whom 
he may be found. In the air, the white thigh 
patches are distinguishable at a great height. In 
flight, too, he is very different, to all the other vul- 
tures and when soaring carries his wings more like 
a Golden Eagle than a vulture, i.e., held well above 
the plane of his body. From below he looks uni- 
formly black except for the crop and thigh patches, 
and in some, there is a thin white line running along 
the centre of the wings, from the body almost to the 
base of the primaries. 

The Black Vulture is only " King " of the carcase 
when none of the previous species or Griffons hap- 
pen to be about. He drives all other species from 
the banquet but is himself driven off by the two 
above mentioned. 

They build on trees, a huge platform of sticks, 
lined in the centre with leaves and often rags. 

Mr. Hume describes a nest which he demolished, 
which weighed over 8 maunds (6 hundredweight), 
which had three distinct layers and had been used 
many times. Unlike some of the other species, 
they do not nest in companies but are more solitary 
in their nesting arrangements, two pairs very 
seldom nesting on the same tree. 

It is not uncommon to see them mating in the air. 
Of this Mr. Hume says : " I rather suspect that 
these birds pair in the air. Just before the breed- 
ing season, a pair may be seen to tower, a'ld, then, 
one apparently getting on the back of the other, 
both come with plunges and flappings of the wings, 
nearly to the ground, when separating they sai) 
away, very slowly, towards some large tree where 
they both rest." The sight is by no means uncom- 
mon, but I cannot say I have ever seen the one 
getting on to the back of the other. It has always 
appeared to me that as they tower, their claws 
interlock and they descend, as Mr. Hume says, 
" with plunges and flappings of the wings "' towards 
the ground, with their claws still interlocked. This 
proceeding is somewhat different to that adopted 
by the Himalayan Griffon, in particular, though 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 255 

the present species may also be seen indulging 
in it. This is for a pair to sail so very close to 
each other that at the time it would almost seeni 
as though one was sitting on the back of the 
other. 

Both have their pinions full spread and no move- 
ment whatever is visible in either wing or tail 
while they are one above the other. 

A pair might often be seen proceeding for quite a 
long distance, one directly above the other, occa- 
sionally separating for a few seconds and then 
coming together again, but I do not think they 
actually touch each other. 

The Black Vulture is said to lay sometimes two 
eggs, but this is not Mr. Hume's experience, who 
has never found more than one in a nest, out of 
numbers that he has examined. The egg is pure 
white, with a very faint greenish tinge sometimes, 
but very rarely, streaked or spotted, and measures 
3-34 by 2-6. 

Family VULTURID^. 

Type B. 
Genus Gyjys (contains 4 species). 

No. 1192. Gyp>! fulvus, The Griffon Vulture. 

Tail of 14 feathers. 
Characteristics. Size large ; 3rd, primary longest ; lower plumage 

with narrow shaft stripes. 

Colouration. The head is covered, top and sides, with yellowish 

white hair- like feathers, very dense on the top of 
the head, chin and throat, and thickly intermixed 
with down, entirely covering the dark skin, and 
passing into white down on the neck, and covering 
it entirely, except about one-fifth or so of the basal 
portion of the back and sides. The feathers of the 
ruff are whitish, with reddish brown edges, and are 
elongated and running to a point. The whole plu- 
mage of this bird is an admixture of brown to fawn, 
with a light pinkish tinge, or rufous brown, with 
narrow shaft stripes of a paler colour than the rest 
of the feather. The upper wing coverts and ter- 
tiaries are a darker brown, as also the crop patch. 
The underparts throughout are a pinkish brown 
with narrow shaft stripes, white or whitish. 

Younger birds, says Blanford, are deeper colour- 
ed and " are distinguished by having the feathers 
of the back, scapulars, and coverts pointed and the 
ruff feathers dark and elongate. The bufl'-coloured 
birds appear to be either young, or old in worn and 
faded plumage." Hume, on the other hand, says, 
"the younger birds are sandier and paler than 
above described '' (the adult) " but the older they 
grow, the more richly rufous they become." 



266 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 



Distribution. 
Habits. 



Measuremetits. 



No. 1193. 



" Bill horny brown or dusky yellowish, paler on the 
culmen in adults, greenish horny in younger birds ; 
cere black ; iris brownish yellow ; legs and feet dirty 
yellow to greenish grey." (Blanford.) 
Throughout the Punjab plains and lower hills. 

Similar to other vultures. Builds in cliffs in the 
hills, in colonit'S and on high trees in the plains, 
between February and March. The nest is loosely 
constructed of sticks, and there is one pure white 
egg. Very occasionally it is spotted and measures 
3-65 by •2-7. 

This and the next species, though impossible to 
separate from one another on the wing, are very 
easy to differentiate from any of the other vultures, 
by the amount of white in the plumage. 

In the air, the whole bird appears to be a dirty 
white with the exception of a black edge to the 
wing quills and a black tail. The amount of black 
and white on the wings is very nearly evenly divid- 
ed, the white being somewhat in excess. 

The flight is very similar to Y. monachus, but the 
wings do not appear to be so broad in proportion 
to size. 

This species as already stated is very similar to 
the next, and for a long time the two were con- 
sidered one and the same bird. Mr. Hume, I think, 
was the first to point out the differences and con- 
sider them worthy of conferrins specific rank. The 
chief points of difference are: — G. fnlvus has a 
somewhat shorter and stouter bill ; is smaller in 
size ; has more down on the head, face, and neck, 
and is more rufescent generally, than the paler 
Himalayan variety. In habits, too, there is a marked 
difference between them, G. fidvus building in trees 
whereas G. hi ma l^i yen sis invariably builds in cliffs. 

Again, in G. fulvus the 3rd, primary is the longest, 
whereas in G. himalayensis it is the 4th, which is the 
longest. 

Length 41 to 47" ; wing 26 to 29"; tail 13"; tarsus 
4-.5", and expanse 94 to 106". 

Family VULTURID^. 
Type B. 
Genus Gyps. 
Gyps himalayensis, The Himalayan Griffon. 



Charactenstics. 
Colouration. 



Size very large ; 4th, primary longest ; lower plu- 
mao'e with broad shaft stripes. 

The head, cheeks, throat and chin covered with 
whitish hair-like feathers and white down on the 
neck. The basal portion of the back and sides 
of neck bare, and tufts of down in front of the 
neck. The ruff at the back of the base of the neck 
composed of lanceolate feathers about 3" long, pale 
brown with whitish centres The whole of the back 
plumage varies from light brown to white on the 



,, .'.,, f ' I ' lower back. The scapulars and greater wing cov- 

"" '. i' I ' erts dark browi) with pale tips. Quills and tail dark 

brow;], alaioet black. Crop brown, the short feathers 

, .,.,,. I . ; , being pale edged,. Under-parts, pale brown or buff 

with broad whitish shaft stripes. Upper and under 

tail coverts buff, somewhat lighter below than abo»'e. 

I^ill pale ho;-ny green, dusky at tip; cere ) ale 

' brown; irides brownish yellow ; legs and feet dingy 

' ' ' greenish, grey pi: vvhite, 

MeasuremenU . Length about 48"; tail 16"; wing 20"; tarsus 4*6" ; 

expanse 10(1 to 110". , ■•,;;; -.'tvi" ' 

" Young birds are dark brown above and below, 
with strongly marked whitish shaft stripes on all 
body feathers and wing coverts, the shaft ttripes 
being very broad on tjie ruff and the lower parts; 
wing apd tail feathers nearly black." (Elanford.) 

Bistrihtition . Throughout the Hinialayas. 

Habits, etc. This fine bird is common everywhere m the hills 

from the foot hills at about 2,000 ft. to the borders 
of Thibet up to almost any altitude. . It breeds on 
almost inaccessible clifl's, usually half a dozen or 
more jiairs sharing the same cliff, tlioiigh' 1 have 
seen solitary nests as well. Its nest is the usual 
platform of sticks and it is not; above ma'kiiig'' use of 
an old eagle's nest. The egg is sometimes plain 
greyish white, but' more often blotched or streaked 
with red-brown and measures 8-76 by 2"75. 

The breeding season is from December to March, 

■ but they commence soaring in pairs qiiite early in 

'.; .i ' ■ the autumn, and might often be seen sailing one 

immediately above the! other, almost touching, and 

look as ' though one is sitting on the back of the 

other, with wings stretched. 

) When passing directly Overhead, only one bird 

is visible, so evenly and close to each other do 

they fly- 1 have never seen this species tower and 

descend with clawp interlaced, like the; BJaek Vulture 

or tbe Laramergeyer is wont to do. 

, In flight it closely nesembles the last species, the 

, adults being al>Aays easily identified by the amount 

of white. The young bird, however, is a deep 

brown throiigbout and looks very hke, V, monacZ/vs, 

' ' except that the white round the crop patch and the 

striped feath6ri*ig ori the under-parts, give it a less 

•J ■• uniform Colouring than in the latter and' the wings 

too appeat to.be less broad. ■ ' 

Family VULTURID^, 



■) ' ) 



Type B. 
' ft 



Genus, G>/pif, 



Ko.. 11,94. . O^yg indtcus, The Indian Long-billed Vulture, ,, •, ,. j,.. , 

GaUurqtivn . ^ Size large. Pcad and pape sprinkled. Tyjtl^.fi^prt 

'"'' 1 ' ■ ' ' whity briSvyn hfii.r-Ii?';e fe.ntliers, which lower down 

'''■'•' ''' ■ ' ^ l;hetic'6lf,giyes place W irregular tufts of light dovvD. 



33 



268 JOURNAL, BOMMAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



Characteristics. 



Measurements. 



A distinct ruff of soft white feathers. Back and 
upper parts varying from light to dark brown, all 
feathers more or less edged lighter. The under- 
parts pale brown, almost whitish, with broad pale 
shaft stripes. In the young, head and neck are more 
thickly clad, and the young resembles the Himalayan 
Griftbn, but is, of course, considerably smaller. 

Size large. Nostril a vertical narrow slit ; tail of 
14 feathers ; wing under 25" ; crown of head with 
scattered hairs. 



Length about 38"; tail 11"; wing 23"; tarsus 
3-75"; mid-toe without claw 3-9" ; bill from gape 2'8". 
(Blanford.) 

Bill and cere pale greenish, yellow horny on cul- 

men ; irides brown; bare skin of head and face 

dusky, ashy leaden ; legs and feet the same ; claws 

creamy horny. (Blanford.) 

Blanford gives the range of this bpeuies as " throughout the greater 

part of the Peninsula of India, south of the Indo-Gangetic plain not in 

Sind nor in Ceylon." 

The Long-billed Vulture is said to breed from December to February in 
colonies on precipitous clifls, laying a single egg, greenish white generally 
unspotted, sometimes spotted or blotched with reddish brown, measuring 
about 3-61 by 272. (Blanford.) 

Family VULTURID^. 



No. 1195. 



Type B. 

Genus Gyps. 
Gyps tenuirostris, The Himalayan Long-billed Vulture. 



Characteristics 
Colouration. 



Measurements. 



Distribution. 



Very similar to the last species except that in 
this species the head is bare absolutely. The 
general colouration of the plumage being darker, 
the legs and feet somewhat longer, the bill more 
slender, the nostril apparently less elongate and 
broader, and the colours of the soft parts different. 
(Blanford.) 

Length 38^"; tail 10^"; wing 24"; tarsus 4"; 
middle toe without claw 4-3" ; bill from gape 2'85". 

Bill brownish dusky horny, the culmen yellowish 
horny ; cere horny black ; irides deep brown ; claws 
dusky or horny black. (Hume.) 

*' Throughout the lower Himalayas and near their 
base as far west as Kashmir," 

Said to breed on trees in January and February and lays a single egg 
nearly pure white and measuring 3'5 by 2*73. 

Family VULTURIDiE. 

Type B. 

Genus Pseudoyyps. 

No. 1196. Fseudogyps benyaknsis, The Indian "White-backed Vulture, 

Characteristics, Nostril a narrow vertical slit ; tail of 12 feathers. 

Colouration, The whole head and about two-thirds of theupper 

portion of the neck dusky plumbeous with incon- 
spicuous brownish hairs sparsely scattered about^ 



1 HE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



250 



Measurements. 



Distribution. 



Habits, etc. 



but thicker and longer on the occiput. The upper 
half of the back of neck densely covered with soft 
white feathers, followed by a conspicuous ruft' of 
short pure white down. 

The upper parts, including tail, varying from 
black to brownish black, except the secondaries 
which are a deep brownish grey, and the lower back 
and rump which are pure white. Underneath, the 
breast and abdomen are deep brownish black, the 
feathers with pale narrow shaft stripes. The flanks, 
lower wing coverts, except near the edge of the 
wing, axillaries and thigh coverts white. Crop 
patch black, bordered on each side by white 
down. 

In the young bird there is much more down about, 
the head and neck, white above and brownish and 
thinner below. *' Kuff of whitish lanceolate feathers 
with brown edges ; plumage generally dark brown, 
primaries and tail feathers blackish ; wing coverts 
with narrow, breast and abdomen with broad, whit- 
ish shaft stript'S ; no white on back, flanks or wing 
lining ; a white down border to the brown crop 
patch.-' (Blanford.) 

" Bill dark plumbeous, except the upper part of 
the upper mandible, which in adults is greyish white ; 
cere horny black, polished ; irides browi ; naked skin 
of head and neck dusky plumbeous ; legs and feet 
nearly black." 

Length about 35" ; tail 10" ; wing 23" ; tarsus 
375 ; mid-toe without claw 3"5 ; bill from gape 2-75 
(Blanford.) 

Blanford records this species as the commonest 
vulture throughout India and Burma, but not found 
in Ceylon, nor above moderate elevations in the 
Himalayas, and rarer in the Punjab and Sind and 
in the desert parts of Eajputana. Hume, however, 
considers it plentiful in the major portion of the 
Punjab, but afi"ecting particular localities for breed- 
ing. 

Anybody who has been along most of the older 
canal banks, lined with " seeshum " or other large 
trees, must have been struck with the numbers of 
enormous nests to be seen among the branches, and 
during the winter months, with one of these vul- 
tures sitting on a branch alongside, and perhaps a 
hideous head, covered with down, looking out from 
inside the nest. 

During the breeding season this is an excessively 
noisy bird and the " roarings " one hears would do 
credit to a zoo. 

Hume tells of a female returning to a nest, whence 
he had taken the epg and shot the male, and tear- 
ing it to pieces and making a "wonderful snorting 
and hissing all the while." 



61 JOURNAL, BOMBAY liATURAL mST. SOOmTT, Vol. XXVU 



i ) 



Vultur monachus. 



Otoffups calvus. 



It is possible that the distribution of this species 
in the Punjab has extended considerably since the 
fannaof Brit ah India was written. Flourishing vil- 
lages having come into existence, canal colouies, 
where erstwhile was nothing but a sandy waste, 
ensures a plentiful supply of food, and trees on 
which they can build. 

The flight of this bird is very similar to the other 
vultures. When flying low and to or from a place 
the wings are held slightly back, though not so much 
as in "Otogyps. " When soaring, however, this 
tendency is not .'*o noticeable. It can easily bo dis- 
tinguished from the other four Punjab species, first 
by its smaller size and in the adult, by the amount 
of white on its rump. 

As this is the last species of the true vultures to 
be dealt with, it may be as well to gUe a rough 
description of the 5 species to be found in the Pun- 
jab, and what they look like on the wing, taking of 
course normal adult birds. 

"Very large ; wings held in a line with the body 
and apparently very broad ; colouring more or less 
uniform throughotit and varying from deep brown 
in some specimens, to almost jet bla-jk in others. 

Large; wings held well above the back ; colour 
jet black with a narrow whitish line running down 
the centre of each wing (not always very conspi- 
cuous) ; white thigh and crop patches very conspi- 
cuous ; if at close range, naked livid skin might also 
be seen near the white patches. 

Very large; wings held in a line with the body, 
colour throughout very pale dirty white, except the 
margins of the open wings and the tail which are 
black. The front half or the bird thus appears pale 
coloured and the back half black. 

Very similar to the above, and the two are not 
easily distinguishable from each other. This spe- 
cies is a little lighter and cleaner looking on the 
pale under parts. This species is hardly likely to 
be found on the plains, whereas the former (fulvus) 
does not ascend the hills to any great height.' 

Smaller than all except O. co/ws: wings maybe 

held slightly backward or level with the body: the 

body (lark, wing lining and sides of lody white or 

> ' li;iht coloured ahd margins of the extended wing 

blackish. ' ' , 

It a view of the back is obtained, a prominent 

white patch will be seen on the lower portion of the 

: back, the rest of the upper parts appearing almost 

black. ■ ' . 

The White-backed Vidture breeds in treefe from about October till March. 

They usually bmld in colonies, either PevePal' nests rn a tU)<Ae tree, or on 

adjoining ti-eesall along a canal "bank. A iiiicle egg is laid, generally dull 

■white but somefcHnes marked with reddish brown and measuring on an 

average 3-2b by 2 42. (Blauford.) 



Gyps fulvus 



G. himalayensis. 



Pseudoff;;ps ' 
benyalensia. 



■n.y^ 



TH,E mtiJ>S OJP PREY OF THE PUNJAB^ 



26,1 



No. 1197,, 
No. 1198: 



. .:.,-•. Family VULTURID^. 
' ', Ty^e B. 

' I ■■.;■'! ■■ Genxm Neopkion, ; ' 

Neophrpn ginginianvs, The Smaller White Scavenger Vulture. 
]!\/eop/iron peiciiopierus, The Large White Scavenger Vultur^ 
or The Egyptian Vulture. 



Charcfcterutica, Nostril a narrow horizontal slit ; bill slender, and 

lengthened. 

(^olowation^ , The fully adult plumage is almost white through- 

' out, except for the primaries and the w inglet which 

' are black ; the former ate grey outside and brown 

inside towards the base ; secondaries whity brown 

^ or grey on the outer web outside, blackish brown 

' ' elsewhere; tertiaries pale brown thntughout. A 

brownish or greyish tinge oh the scapulars and 

wing coverts and sometimes elsewhere, is a sign of 

maturity. The neck hackles are often stained 

rusty. (Blanford.) 

" Young birds are at first blackish brown, the 
scattered down on the head and throat black, then 
pale tips appear on some of the neck hackles and 
breast-feathers and on the smaller wing-coverts, 
1 giving a speckled appearance ; the backj^breaet, and 
greater wing-coverts are mottled with whitish 
blotches. The change to the adult plumage' is 
gradual." (Blanford.) 
No. 1197. Bill in adults horny yellow, in young birds dark; 

cere and sides of head and throat yellow; Tegs 

' dirty yellow; claws pale horny. In young birds 

the naked parts of head and throat grey; legs and 

feet cinereous. 

No. 1198. Bill dusky, never yellow ; cere is reddish yellow, 

. darker than the cheeks, and the claws blackish 

horny. 

No. 1197. Length about 24"; tail 9-5; wing 18-25; tarsus ij-l; 

mid-toe without claw 2 5. 
No. 1198; '' Length about 26" ; tail 10" ; wing 19" ; tarsus 3-3 ; 

' mid-toe without claw 2 6. (Blanford.) 

Habit9, «:(c.\ With regard to the two species here given I have 

quoted from the Fauna of British India almost word 

';"■■' r:" ( ' for word, and by placing the numbers in front of 

^ the description of the beak, legs, etc., have shown 

at a glance how very small the difference between 

the two species is. The latter is generally the 

I more robust bird of the two, and the very small 

,J difference in actual measurement of the mid-toe 

without claw, does not convey what this really 

means in the foot of the two birds, that of A'. 

:; V. • , perenopterus being comparatively a good . deal 

"' ' larger than the difference in the decimals of an 

- . r inch represents. . ,., 

A common feature, of every town and village }n India, the Scavenger 

Vviltnre U, next %o. the Kite, the most familiar bird in the country. 



^32 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. S00I:BTY, Vol. XXYL 

In flight it resembles the Lammergeyer pretty closely, except in point 
of size. Long narrow wings and a wedge-shaped tail proclaim the 
Neophron from afar. In its adult plumage, it is still more unmistakable, 
being practically wholly white with a jet black margin to the wings. 
The young birds may vary from almost a dirty black throughout to 
various degrees of black and white, frequently in patches^ depending 
6n age. 

On the wing, the colouring of the under surface is not unlike an adult 
Grifl'on, but whereas the black wing margin is interrupted by a white tail 
in Neophron, it is continuous in the Grifl'on, the under surface of the tail 
being black in the latter. 

With a light and graceful flight this is a very different bird in the air 
to the same on the ground, where Mr, Dewar, I think, likens him unto a 
recruit learning to march. 

The Neophron breeds from February to May either in cliffs, trees or 
old ruins and lays usually two eggs, much spotted and blotched with 
brownish red and measuring 2'6 by 1"98. 

Family FALCONID^^:. 

Subfamily GYP^TIN^O. 
Type C. 

Genus Gypestus. 

No. 1199. Gypcstus barbatus, The Bearded Vulture or Lammergeyer. 

CTiaracteristicfi . Head feathered ; tarsi feathered to the toes ; & 

beard of rough bristles depending from the chin ; 
size very large. 

Colouration i In adults, the whole head, neck, and the whole of 

the under-parts white, washed with varying degrees 
of yellow or gold. 

The lores black, and the cere entirely covered by 
the black rictal bristles, and the beard black. 

The upper portion of the back and the smaller 
wing coverts black with narrow white shaft stripes. 

The rest of the upper plumage is a light grey, the 
edges of the feathers much darker in some birds and 
the dark edges disappearing with age, the shaft 
stripe being whitish. The whole of the back and 
vmder lining of the wing has a silvery grey appear- 
ance, with darker stripes or lines. 

The young birds of the year have the whole head 
and neck black and the rest of the body a deep 
brown, with some white on the back and often at 
the base of the tail. More ; white appears aa they 
advance with age and a 2-year old bird frequently 
appears altogether parti-coloured, retaining many 
' ■ of its young plumage feathers. 



MeasufeweHis. 



Mabits, etc.. 



Length 44 to 49'' ; tail 22" ; wing 32" ; tarsus 4" 
expanse about 9 feet. ' 

The Lammergeyer builds in cliffs in the Hima- 
layas, from November to March ancl lays* usually 2 
'6ggs, soirtetitaes wittiout toatkirigs, brit' asiially 



i.n-'i'C'dJi r 



.i)lt *'! 



THE BIIIBS OF PREY OF THE £UMJAii, . 2G:J 



heavily blotched with reddish markings, and mca- 
Buring about 3-24 by 2-66. 

This is a magnificent looking bird and of ap- 
parently great size, but its fine colouring and huge 
tri-coloured eye account for its noble looks, and its 
long pointed wings and wedge-shaped tail make it 
look much bigger than it really is. 

Its weight when compared with the Himalayan 
Griifon, for instance, accounts for the smallness 
of its egg, when compared with that bird's, and 
in spite of its expanse, the Lammergeyer only 
weighs about 12 pounds to the vulture's 18 to 
20 lbs. 

The stories that have been written and told of 
this bird's depredations among flocks and herds, 
would fill an average-sized book, and one can but 
wonder how they originated. If they were all told 
of the Imperial eagle one could understand it, as 
he so closely resembles the Golden Eagle, that the 
misdeeds of the latter might easily be put down to 
the former, but in the case of the Bearded Vulture 
there is no such resemblance to anything, unless it 
be his still more ignoble cousin the Scavenger Vul- 
ture. The fact remains that the Lammergeyer has 
been blamed for carrying ofl" lambs and accredited 
with killing ibex and ghooral. One glance at his 
miserably weak talons precludes any such possi- 
bility, and all such stories about him must be put 
down as myths and traveller's tales without any 
atom of truth. 

Mr. Hume tells how the Lammergeyer has passed 
over fowls and pigeons placed as a bait for eagles 
without taking the least notice of them, and 1 can 
recall more than one similar instance. 

Bones are to a Lammergeyer what chocolate is 
to a school boy and if it is intended to catch him. 
the best bait is a collection of bones placed in a circle 
of nooses. 

Bones 2 to 3 inches long and as thick aa a man's 
finger simply disappear down his capacious throat, 
without causing the least bit of inconvenience. One 
I kept in captivity, used to be regaled with the lege 
of fowls and pheasants, tibia and tarsus complete, 
together with the toes and claws. The whole leg 
would promptly begin to disappear until just the toes 
peeped out of the corners of his beak. The old Lam- 
mergeyer would then take a breather, and then sud- 
denly draw in his neck, giving it a twist at the same 
time. There would be a slight " crick " as though 
his neck ha^ .been broken, and the next instant 
the toes would disappeai; from view and the bird 
would be prepared for another leg. Whether 
. this twist and contraction of the muscles of the 
neclf ; broke the bones inside I cannot say, but it 
,ertf^i nly, ^ppea^r^d ,tp dp BO, and the fact remain 



264 JO UMNAL, BOMjRA T NA TURAL m^T) SOGIJETT, Vol. XXVI 

■ ■ X that ttie bone invariably went down the more 

easily. 
'In his wild state the Lammergeyer is gifted with 
the patience pf Job and is prepared to spend an en- 
tire morning in the breaking of a refactory bone 
that is too big to swallow* i 1 watched one on the 
Braribal Pass into Kashmir, for well over an hour 
trying to JDreak his bone. When I arrived on the 
Pass he was there, and how, long he had been at it 
previous to my coming, 1 don't kuow, but 1 had 
breakfast not far from whe,re he was performing, and 
when 1 left, which was a good hour from the time 1 
arrived, he was still trying to break his bone. The 
"modus operandi " is as follows : — 

Having secured his bone the bird flies up to a con- 
siderable height above a boulder strewn uallah or 
plain, and then drops his bone. If he is fortunate 
the bono strikes a boulder and breaks, and he fol- 
lows leisurely down and swallows the pieces, but in 
the above instance, he either had a particularly 
tough bone or it never struck a hard enough stone 
at the right angle. 

In the autumn, and in fact from about the begin- 
ning of September to the beginning of November, it 
is a lovely sight to watch a pair of these fine birds 
mating. One will be seen dropping from the hea- 
vens with closed wings till within a few feet of 
another, on a lower plane. No. 2 turns over on its 
; ^ back to receive the onslaught and No. 1, with a 

slight openiug of the wings and tail, appears to just 
miss the other, and immediately rises almost verti- 
cally up again. Again he attacks, and if he has 
judged his angle correctly, No. 2 begins a succession 
of zigzags, dropping fast, with semi-closed wings, but 
not fast enough to get away from No. I. As the latter 
again approaches to within a few feet. No. 2 changes 
its tactics and opening its wings to their full, 
begins rising with tremendous beats of wings, clo- 
sely followed by No. 1. Up the two go for a short 
distance, the pursuer within a few inches of the 
pursued, when seemingly, having reached the limit 
'^ of its endurance, stops flapping and again drops, 

then Bails away. They will' then perhaps circle for 
a short time, rising steadily higher and higher, 
and once more repeat the process. Sometimes the 
game ends in their claws interlocking and the pair 
coming down in a succession of Catherine wheels, 
' ' almost to the ground, when they suddenly part 

■' cohipany and forthwith begin to mount up again, or 

they mi^^ht simply go on and on, ever rising, 
until they go clean out of sight over some distant 
'-' ' range. ' ^ 

• ■■■ The flight of the LamtiieTgeyer is unmistakable. 

T rs ; ' The long pointed wihgs, narrow in comparison to 

'■''■■ ' ■ their length' and the lorig' wedge-shaped tail, are 

--^ aufficibnt to procl&lrii his identity at any height. 



?-» 


c. 


tr ^« 


li 


,'' 


.'> 


.TO 




'jr:l 



THE BIRDS OF PREl OF THE PUNJAB. 266 

Tlie wings, like a vulture's, are held in a line with 
the body. When quartering a hillside he will be 
frequently found to fly with his wings half closed, 
and they will then appear very narrow and long, the 
end of the long primary feathers reaching to almost, 
or quite, to the end of the tail, the points frequently 
lower than the level of the body. 

T have never seen a Lammergeyer actually feed- 
ing on a carcase with vultures, though he is never 
far away from it while they feed 

After the vultures leave, he attacks it bt 
before they arrive in any numbers, he gets, a few 
tit-bits. 



) 



(To he continued.) 



> «v 



34 



' : Panthers. 

^ BY 

Brigadier-General R. G. Burton. 
I. Species and Varieties. 

It is carious that the idea that there is in India more than one species 
of panther is still prevalent, even in quarters where more enlightenment 
might be expected. An experienced sportsman only a few years ago pro- 
d\iced an interesting book of reminiscences in which he maintained that 
there were not merely two but three species of panther, and these 
inhabiting the same districts. He even went so far as to give the name of 
"pantheret" to the smallest of these supposed species. Certainly the 
value of his opinions was discounted when it was found that the reasons he 
gave for these distinctions had been mainly taken from an obsolete work on 
natural history, but the fact is of importance as showing how even experi- 
enced observers may be led astray. These animals range the length and 
breadth of Africa and Asia, from the Atlantic to the China Seas. 1 
have seen at Nijni Novgorod skins from the Caucasus and from the 
farthest confines of Siberia. It is only to be expected that with such a vast 
variety of climate and general environment there ehould be a considerable 
variation in minor characteristics. Perhaps the tendency to sej;)arate the 
panther into two species has been accentuated by confusion of BOmenclature, 
Felis pardus being called panther in some parts of the country and leopard in 
Others. The latter name is more properly applied to the hunting leopard. 

The older naturalists founded their reasons for a separation of species on 
differences in size, in texture of fur, and in the shape of the skull. They 
were even supposed to differ in character, the smaller animal being considered 
the fiercer. There was said to be a large species characterised by an 
elongated skull, having a pronounced occipital ridge and a smooth coat. 
The smaller so-called species was supposed to have a round skull, no 
occipital ridge, and a rough and less brightly-coloured coat. To these 
alleged differences Sterndale added that Temminck had noted a variation 
in the number of caudal vertebrae, and the author above referred to adopt- 
ed this as a "fact" the larger so-called species being said to have 2.2 
vertebrae and the smaller 28. I have found a mature and medium-sized 
panther to have 24 vertebrse in the tail, and other sportsmen have noted 
a similar number, whilst I counted 26 in another. One with 2.S caudal 
vertebra) is recorded from Canara. This difference is, therefore, appa- 
rently non-existent, and was probably based on the examination of a very 
limited number of specimens. Naturalists are prone to separate species on 
insufficient evidence. Thus the late Dr. Lydekker gave sub-specific status to 
the Baluchistan gazelle on the evidence of a female head having annulated 
horns, and the dark portions of the face being dark brown instead of 
rufous ; the male was said to differ from the ordinary Indian chikara in 
having the horns more curved backwards and slightly more lyrate when 
viewed from the front. Now it is quite possible that the Baluchistan 
gazelle may be a local race, but the alleged differences are of no value in 
determining this. The female chikara in the Deccan has frequently dis- 
tinctly annulated horns, and the dark portions of the face vary in colour 
with age. As for the form of the horns, these will be found to vary even in 
specimens in a single herd in any part of India, some being more lyrate 
and some more curved back than others. 

To return to the panther. Size is no criterion. We might separate the 
tiger into different species for the same reasons. The distinctions adduced 
as regards form of skull and texture of fur are merely indications of age 



.iV.>v7 PAh'THERS. 267 

and sometimes, in the case of fur, of environment, and are not peculiar to 
the panther. In older animals one naturally finds more pigmentation, 
resulting in a brighter-coloured coat. In cold climates thicker and longer 
fur and an under pelage may be expected. In open country colour is 
naturally lighter than in dense forest where darker animals are found. 
The tendency appears to be for coloration to approximate to the environ- 
ment, as in the desert-born which assimilate to the colour of the soil. 
While this is an outcome of evolution, its rapid effects may be seen in the 
case of fish. You will find blue trout in the glacial streams of Norway, 
and pull black ones from the gloomy depths of rocky pools. There is a 
species of spider in the South of France which adapts itself to the colour 
of the flower it frequents, and will change colour in a few days when trans- 
ferred from one flower to another of diflerent hue. 

2. Coloration. 

Panthers from diS"erent localities vary considerably in coloration, which 
in certainly remarkably protective, both by day and in the dusk or at 
night. I had great difliculty in distinguishing one that I had shot which 
was lying dead under some bushes where it blended with the chequered 
sunshine and the shadow of the leaves ; and when looking for and expect- 
ing to see a panther, I have been on the point of firing at such a chequered 
patch of sunlight and shadow. At night a panther will flit from shade to 
shade like some evanescent phantom, even in bright moonlight, and it 
blends like a shadow with the dusk. 

A remarkable skin from the Deccan was described in the Field of thi- 
18th January 1908 in the following terms: — "Although the black mark- 
ings present some approximation in pattern and mode of arrangement to 
the jaguar type, the head and back are ornamented by an altogether 
peculiar kind of meshed network of broad buft' lines, the first mesh which 
occupies the head being much larger than all the others." This may be a 
hybrid between a tiger and a panther, although the note on the subject 
states that the markings present no approximation to the tiger type, and 
that tigers are seldom found in the district. The latter reason rather 
favours the hybrid theory, mating being more likely to occur where the 
tiger has perhaps wandered far from the haunts of his own species. Such 
a hybrid is recorded in a book by Mr. Hicks of the Forest Department, 
but the skin was destroyed and is not described. It is not stated in 
what district of the Deccan the skin described in the Fidd was 
obtained. Among panthers which I killed in a district of the Deccan 
a few years ago was one which slightly approximated to the jaguar type 
in having a central spot in each rosette on the back. I shot some twenty 
panthers in that district but this was the only one so marked. The 
hybrid theory in the instance recorded in the Field seems most probable. 
There have been authentic cases of lions and panthers inter-breeding in 
captivity, and the tiger seems more proximate to the panther. The skin of 
a hybrid between a lion and panther, born at Kolhapur, is figured in 
Volume XXII of the Journal. 

3. Melanism. 

It is generally accepted that the black panther is not a separate speciets 
but a lusus natures, a view supported by the fact that litters have frequent- 
ly been observed containing both black and fulvous cubs. It is, however, 
curious that melanism in the panther does not occur in Africa, although 
the specieis appears to be the same as the Indian one. Black jaguars are 
found in South America. Moreover, melanism has been proved to be 
hereditary, but this is only to be expected of this as of many other trans- 
mitted characteristics. In the Journal Vol. XVI, Colonel Ferris records 



263 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XKVL 

the case of a pair of black panthers from North China at Kolhaptir which 
twicd bred in captivity and eacH time produced black cubs. A male bred 
with a fulvous female; the resulting cub had larger, blacker, and moro 
glossy spots than usual, and the peacock spots altogether larger and more 
deJiaed. Colonel Ferris thought this pair belonged to a distinct species. 
They were uniform black, but in the sunlight a faint trace of spots was 
visible on the sides, and lower doA'n on the belly the spots were more 
apparent and the hair was of a deep brown. The spots were not, hovsrever, 
"live Hiiger tipped or circular broken rosettes but entirely black blotches 
without annulation. The tongue was brilliant pink, and the palate of the 
male pink, but of that on tht- female there were two small black spots. Un- 
der the tongue both were blackish ; the gums above and below the front teeth 
and in which they were set were black". He mentions the case of a black 
panther shot in Canara having a black tongue ; this is an interesting point 
calling for further evidence. One shot by Colonel Grantham had a pink 
tongue. The so-called black panther appears to be generally more dark 
brown than black, and in the sunlight the rosettes stand out plainly. 

Black panthers, as one would expect, appear to be more frequently met 
within the dense forests of the south, west and north than in other parts 
of India. They are perhaps more common in the Malay States, where the 
forests are dense and the climate is moist. I never heard of or saw one 
in the Deccan, but one was seen in Sironcha, and 1 heard of one being shot 
in the Central Provinces. In the Nilgiris and Mysore they appear to be 
less rare. In a very entertaining book. Colonel Welsh's Militaiij Remineh- 
cences, published in 1830, it is siated that both black panthers and black 
tigers were found in the forests of Travancore. The black tigers may be 
doubted, but Major Capper believes that he saw one in the Cardamom 
Hills in that State in 1895 ; and Mr. Hauxwell saw and wounded one, 
to the best of his belief, in the Bhamo District in Burma in 1913. Dr. Blan- 
ford mentions one shot near Chittagong many years ago. This is the black 
tiger of which a full account was given by Mr. C. T. Buckland in the Field. 
The account was reproduced in Volume IV of this Journal. Mr. Buckland saw 
the dead tiger, which was killed by a poisoned arrow two miles from Chitta- 
gong in March 1846. The skin, which was unfortunately too decomposed 
for preservation, was black or very dark brown, the stripes showing a dark- 
er black in the sunlight. The dead tiger was also seen by Captains Swat- 
man and Hore In the "Observer" of January 11th, 1811, it is recorded 
that "a large black tiger, the only one ever seen alive in Europe, intend- 
ed as a present from the King of Java to Bonaparte, taken in the Gude 
Vrow on the passage to France, is now to be seen at Kendrick's collection 
of Rare Foreign Beasts and Birds, No. 40, opposite St. James's Church, 
Piccadilly." But this was more probably a panther, and the case for black 
tigers, except the Chittagong specimen, is " not proven." In Java black 
panthers are said to be not uncommon, and one writer has suggested that 
their colour is due to natural selection for the purpose of facilitating their 
pursuit of the black gibbons on which they prey. Surely this is the theory 
of protective coloration run wild. 

In a book entitled " The view of Hindustan," by Thomas Pennant, 1798, 
it is recorded that a black panther, taJ'en in the Sunderbunds, was pre- 
sented to the Menagerie in the Tower of London by Warren H stings; 
Also that "a leopard of a dirty white colour, spotted with grey, takpn ne&j 
Agra," was presented to Jehangir. , . 

Bates, in his " Naturalist on the Amazons," makes frequent mentions of 
black jaguars in, the forests of Brazil. 

On the other hand albinism appears to be commoner in the larger feline; 
f have never he^rd of a white panther. Dr. Lydekker mentions s^v era 



I 



v, ■' PANTRERS. 269 

white tigers in his book on the Game Animals of India, and figures the 

skin of one. A white tiger, killed in the Bilaspur District of the Central 

Provinces, is described in Volume XXiV of this Journal, It was cream 
coloured with stripes of chocolate brown. 

4. Breeding Habits. 

Not much appears to be definitely recorded regarding the breeding 
seasons of the great felidse. A panther killed in March bad thr'^e unborn 
cubs. 1 kept a cub some time that was probably born in December, and 1 
saw a cub jn February that was five or six months old. There is apparent- 
ly no regular breeding season. In the Field of 4th April 1908 the period 
of gestation is said to be three months, meaning presumably twelve wteks j 
that of the tiger and jaguar is put at three and a half months. Like other 
cats, jianther cubs are born blind. They appear to be generally two or 
three in number. 

5. Dimensions. 

It has been said that panthers vary greatly in size. I have not my 
diaries h<re so cannot give the dimensions of many which were carefully 
measured. In the Journal No. XXI, page 1(J63, i gave the measurements 
of ten shot in the Buldana District of Berar in 191:.\ 'Jhese \aiied in 
lengtli from a little over seven feet to five feet eight inches, but some were 
immature. Three old males had a head and body length of 4 feet 6 in- 
ches, 4 feet 3 inches, and 4 feet '2 inches respectively. Their tails were 2 
feet 9 inches in the case of two, and 2 feet 6 inches in length in the case 
of the other. Three old females were two of them '6 feet 8 inches, and one 
an inch less in length of head and body. The variation in size is therefore 
negligible in these cases, and, to the best of my recollection, in other ani- 
mals of the species which 1 have shot. 1 think these were of average size 
and it seems probable that mature animals do not vary as greatly in this 
respect as has been frequently represented. Mostlength records of tigers 
and panthers are so inaccurate as to be eutirt-lv untrustworlhy. 1ho.>-eI 
have given were measured between uprights placed at the nose and at the 
root of the tail. If all measurements were taken this way we should pro- 
bably' hear little more of ten-foot tigers and eight-foot panthers. I have 
never seen one or the other Measurements taken round the curves of 
the body are quite valueless. In Volume XX of the Journal the measure- 
ment of a panther shot by a villager in Tthri State is given as nine feet 
three inches. That is the length of an average male tiger, and it may be 
placed in the same category as the eleven and twelve-foot tigers which we 
have heard of hut never seen. The great cats are very p\mmetiically 
built, and if eleven foot tigers and nine-foot panthers aie chalked out on 
a wall in their proper pr<portioii8 it will be seen that tht-y are more like 
monsters of the prime of the sjibre-toothed species than the rt al anin als of 
our p osaic age. A large series of skulls may be seen in the Society's 
Museum, and these perhaps givo a fuir criterion of size. I have no record 
of weights, but m Volume XXVI two males are recorded as wtighiug 114 
and 115 pounds, which is probably a fair average. But no doubt much 
heavier animals are found. 

6, Habits. 

The habits of these animals are certainly very interesting. Their con- 
duct, is frequently characterised by estrettie boldness and otrtiue tin>idity. 
Though so bold that they have been known to enter a tent and even a 
house, they will seldom take their prey in the presence of n.aii when they 
are aware ihatthey can be seen Thus a herd of goats watched: by a 
small herd bo^ >vill probably be unniolested, but stiaj-gltrswill be fitized. 



■J70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATORAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

A.t hill stations dogs are not infrequently taken when out with their 
owners, but I do not recollect hearing of the dog being seized actually in 
its owner's presence. The thief is generally invisible on such occasions. 
I see in the Journal many notes under the heading " Boldness of pan- 
thers". These generally refer to instances of these animals returning to 
a kill after being fired at once or even oftener. I recollect one returning 
to the carcase of a nilgai three times, and being fired at each time. 
I think the authors of these notes are too ready to ascribe almost human 
powers of reasoning to the panther. It is not likely that the animal is 
aware that a projectile has been propelled at it, and that it will connect 
the report of the rifle with an attempt on its life. A friend of mine shot 
in quick succession three panthers that came to feed on the carcase of a 
donkey they had killed. Panthers commonly reside in the near vicinity 
of villages, and become used to the presence of human beings, but even 
where they are not molested they are seldom seen, although they may be 
heard prowling in the neighbourhood in the darkness, I recollect one com- 
ing to drink at a well in the compound of a forest bungalow where I was 
staying. My bed was placed outside as it was hot weather and the panther 
must have passed close to me although 1 did not see it. A bear came in 
the same night, and I ran after it bare-footed, but did not get a shot. 

1 cannot agree with that fiue sportsman and naturalist and brave 
soldier, the late F. C Selous, who says in his African Nature Notes and 
Reminiscences " nothing is more certain than that all carnivorous animals 
hunt almost entirely by scent". African conditions may have led to the 
greater development of the powers of scent in the carnivora. My experience 
is that tigers and panthers hunt almost entirely by sight, and perhaps 
partly depend on hearing. This has been proved time and again by 
these beasts of prey passing close to bufr'aloes or goats, tied up as bait, 
without seeing them, owing to the bait having made neither sound 
nor movement. I have known many occasions when a tiger has 
passed close to an animal thus tied up, and has killed another a few 
hundred yards farther on. For this reason, that they hunt by sight 
and not by scent, one ties up the bait on or near a path or watercourse or 
near a pool of water, so that the prowling tiger may come upon it during 
his nightly wanderings. 

One may go further and say that the popular notion that these animals 
have powerful olfactory nerves is a common fallacy. This has been fre- 
quently proved by sportsmen sitting in concealed shelters on the ground 
when a panther will prowl round in close proximity, perhaps only four or 
five feet ofi", without detecting the prpsence of a human being. In the 
case of panthers having the habit of prowling round human habitations this 
may not appear conclusive, as it may be thought that they have acquired a 
character of indifference to the smell of man. But the same thing has 
been observed in forest-dwellers which prey, not on stray goats and dogs, but 
on the feral denizens of the jungle. 

But the powers of vision of these animals are apparently not very good. 
They at once detect movement, but fail to distinguish a motionless 
object. Whiskers appear to help. I saw a pauther, driven out below me in 
noisy beat, using his whiskers very freely ; they were set and bristling and 
moving backwards and forwards. These animals, like tigers, seldom look 
up, but I have known one, driven out in a beat, attack a man in a tree. 

The panther is not as impatient of thirst as the tiger and may be found 
at a distance from water, but the tiger seldom strays far from stream or 
pool. The tiger is fond of lying in water during hot weather, I recollect 
one coming along in the beat dripping from the midday bath. My shikaris 
averred that, this animal, which was undoubtedly unusually addicted to 



'-\ - ■ ;■■'■• ■ ■ • •' FANTHERS. ' ' ' , . _ 271 

this habit, always lay in water in the heat of the day with nothing but thie 
tip of his tail showing above the surf5,ce ! I have never known a panther 
take to water, and they seem to like wetting their fur as little as the 
domestic cat. Is it that the tiger is an immigrant into the tropics from 
northern climes, and is accordingly impatient of the heat ? 

Panthers are comparatively seldom met with by chance, and have to be 
sought for. I shot one one morning by the side of a forest road where it 
was sitting up on its haunches like a dog about eighty yards off. A lucky 
shot hit it in the side of the head. I put up another when out partridge 
shooting and killed it with a charge of No. 1 shot at very close range. 
Those are the only two 1 have met by chance although I have spent months 
in country infested by them. They are timid and retiring, and no doubt 
conceal themselves on the approach of a human being. An unwounded 
panther is not generally a dangerous animal. I have known one kill & 
woman who came suddenly upon it when she was cutting grass ; this 
panther, which I shot, was not a man-eater; another one seized a man who 
was lying asleep in the open, wrapped up in a black blanket. It perhaps 
mistook him for a goat, and it dropped him as soon as he cried out. A re- 
markable instance of a panther charging a sportsman is given in Volume 
IX, page 96, of the Journal, where Mr. Millett relates that he was walking 
in the jungle when the animal suddenly rushed at him from a distance, but 
swerved aside, just brushing his leg, on being struck on the back with the 
gun. Probably the panther mistook him at first for lawful game. I have 
myself nearly trodden on a panther. I was going down a hill covered 
with sparse jungle when I smelt the animal, and, looking down, saw it lying 
under a bush at my feet. It rose and walked over the slope into denser 
thicket where I had thought it to be at first and out of which I then drove 
and killed it. My chief attendant considered that I had had a very narrow 
tiscape, and after our arrival in camp performed a mysterious ceremony, 
passing a live fowl several times over my head to exorcise the spirit of the 
beast. When much harried an unwounded panther will, however, turn 
and rend its pursuers. Some Brinjaras in my service marked down one 
of these animals under a bush on a hillside. I had already driven this 
animal out twice in a neighbouring ravine and had fired at and missed it. 
I now walked up to the place expecting to get an easy shot, but the beast 
ran down the hill, only giving me a glimpse of its tale over the top. I was 
accompanied by a number of beaters and followers. We gave chase, the 
panther flying down the road like a scalded cat, with the crowd in full cry 
after it. It was now getting on for dusk, and the animal took refuge in a 
thickly wooded nullah. I quickly organised a beat, but instead of coming 
towards my post, the panther turned on the beaters some twenty yards 
from me, and seized a fifteen-year old boy by the back of the head and 
neck. A sepoy with the beaters fired a shot. I could not fire owing to the 
•crowd, and the panther dropped his victim and dashed back into the 
jungle. By the time 1 had picked up the boy and attended to him it was 
too dark to find the panther, although its position was indicated by a flock 
of crows cawing in a tree above. This boy was not very severely hurt, the 
panther fortunately having seized him " lengthways," and its teeth slipped 
on the skull, the lower canines penetrating the neck to some depth. His 
head was screwed to one side, but 1 gradually got it straight in the course 
of a few days, and he was soon well on the road to recovery. > 

7. Pantheks and their peey. 

The panther appears almost invariably to seize its prey by the throat, 
-and follows the same rule in attacking human beings. But people mauled 
in this manner are generally seized by the arm or shoulder, which are .bo 



272 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

doubt presented to , the animal in the effort to protect one's self. A 
wounded panther which seizod me got hold of my fore-arra, raised to cover 
my throat. When its weight bore me to the ground, it seized and bit 
deeply into the thigh placing one paw on the calf of the. leg ^hich the 
claws penetrated. Nearly aU the men I have seen mauled have been 
seized by the arm or shoulder. Those attacked by man-eatera are taken 
unawares and come under a different category, and are usually seized by 
the throat ; but I recollect the case of a woman being dragged by the 
leg out ot the verandah of a house where she was sleeping. 

How does the panther attack and kill its prey ? We read everywhere of 
the great caniivora "springing" on their prey. From a position above the 
quarry it is probable that a spring will complete the stalk. But in -my 
experience these animals run rapidly on to and rush up and seize tho 
victim. The panther above referred to that attacked me came rapidly 
ventre-a-terre uttering low growls : there was no " spring,'' and I have 
never seen such action ; but the attacks I ha-'O seen have generally been 
by wounded and angry animals. A panther took a goat within ten yards 
of a tree in wh cM I was watching for him. A wooded nullah was close by. 
From this the panther rushed in broad daylight and seized the goat by 
the throat at the same time clasping its forequarters with paws : I fired on 
the instant hoping to save the goafs life and the panther dropped dead beside 
its victim Tho ^oat was nob borne to the ground and the neck was not dis- 
located, but the fatal fang holes were in the throat, from which the life- 
blood was welling. As regards prey, few animals came amiss to the 
panther. Of wild animals he kills many pig, nilgai, and deer; hares and 
peafowl are caught ; in a district where 1 have found more panthers than 
elsewhere, the Inclian antelope was a common prey, the does falling victims 
more often than black bucks. Of domesticated animals, calves, donkeys, 
ponies, dogs and goats are common victims. Having killed its prey tb» 
panther drags it away a-id devours it at leisure under a tree or bnsh. or 
fiomntimes conpeals it in the fork of a tree. Unlike the tiger, which begins 
eating the haunches, tho panther begins at the pelvis as a rule and works 
up to the chest. I have, however, known a panther begin eating at the 
haunch of a buffalo calf, of which the tail was also bitten off. Tho kill may 
not infreijuei:tly be found covered with dead leaves to conceal it from 
vultures, whichhunt by sight, or placed in the fork of a tree for the same 
purpose.' I have seen the remains of a barking deer thus deposited in 
the fork of a tree some eight feet from the ground. In the Field of the 
24th February 1906, it is recor.led that a full-grown chital stag was found 
eight feet up in a tree where it had been placed by a panther ; and a noto 
in the Journal No. XVIII, page 19o. relates how a half-grown boar was 
found similarly placed at a height of twenty feet from the ground. The 
body of a Brinjara boy killed by a panther was found five feet up. in the 
for'K of a mohwa tree; the skull, stripped of flesh, lay in; an adjacent 
nullah. In fact, panthers are good tree-climbers, but their habits ara 
apparently nnt as arboreal as those of the jaguar. 1 shot one which was 
said by the local inhabitants to prey oil the langnr monkeys which lived 
about, a neighbouring temple and the surrounding trees. They said 
that it used to chase the monkevs in the evenin-.'. I saw these same 
Ian Mir.s playinsi leapfrog exactly like a pack of schoolbovs; perhaps in 
celebration of the death of their enemy! In Vohi ne XY, page .JIG 
of the Journal. Major Mosse gives an interesting account of a paother 
taking to a tree when driven out of long' grass, but not for pi rposes 
iOf . concealment. ?ts the tr^O; f^V ■ destitute of leaves, I found the 
remains of a monkey in thtf Rtoma<ph>of a panther, and a , spojrKsTrian tells 
,*)f a monkey so killed in Volume JiVJ^ iia,ge,7.54. ^ A.native,.t^ld him that 



PANTHERS. 273 

he sa\y the monkey caught ; the panther held on to the branches with one 
forepaw and drew his prey up with the other. A Brinjara told me of a 
much simpler way the panther has of catching monkeys. On moonlight 
nights he walks under the trees where the monkeys are roosting on the 
branches above. He selects his monkey among the shadows cast on the 
ground beneath, and pounces upon it, whereupon the unhappy sleeper falls 
into the jaws of the prowler below, who thus snatches at the shadow and 
grasps the substance ! It has been said that monkeys will swear only at 
tigers and panthers, I have known them use very bad language at a bear. 

8. Panthers and Wild Dogs. 

Panthers have been known to take men out of trees, and they take to 
trees when hunted by wild dogs. In Volume V, page 191, Mr. Wright, 
late of the Berar Police, relates how he found two panthers in a salai tree, 
one above the other, with a large pack of ten or twelve jungle dogs moving 
about below. The upper panther was resting upon a branch, and the lower 
one holding on perpendicularly. "The difficulty was to approach. It was 
arranged that C should go above and have a shot while I went below. After 
a bit the lower panther made a jump, pursued by the pack in my direction 
on the bank, but he broke up a ravine. Just then Cshot the other panther 
dead, but he stuck in a lower fork when he fell. Some of the pack imme- 
diately came back and could be seen standing on their hind legs and lick- 
ing the blood as it steamed from the beast out of reach. The panther shot 
was a fine male about seven feet in length." Some twenty years ago one 
of my buffaloes, tied up for tigers, was killed by a panther. When visiting 
the kill I found an old wild dog and a pup on it. My men afterwards said 
they saw the panther going off over the hills with a pack of wild dogs in 
full cry after it. 

9. Panthers and Porcupines. 

The great carnivora have few enemies besides man. Panthers have 
been known to be killed by crocodiles ; a light between a panther and a 
hyena is described on page 519, Volume XIX of the Journal ; in this, the 
panther was the aggressor but not the victor, though neither of the com- 
batants appears to have been damaged. In another fight between two of 
the same animals the panther was killed by a hyena whose cave it had 
entered when slightly wounded. In both these instances the combatants 
were females. Panthers and tigers both frequently prey on porcupines, 
and very often have quills sticking in their paws or other parts of the body. 
I once shot a tiger which must have rolled over a porcupine for there were 
quills in the back of his neck, which my shikaris would have it were dis- 
charged by the porcupine like arrows from a bow ! The late Major llodon 
found a freshly dead panther in a Mysore forest in 1895 with a number 
of porcupine quills sticking in various parts. One paw was in its mouth, 
and a number of quills sticking in the throat had apparently caused the 
animal's death. At a short distance behind the panther he found a 
large number of quills and a good deal of blood. An instance cf a por- 
cupine attacking a dead panther is given in Volume XXIV, page 187 of 
the Journal, Over five dozen quills were picked out of the panther. The 
writer of the note remarks on the deliberate way in which the porcupine 
had walked round the panther and filled him with quills both before and 
behind. Porcupines are no doubt aggressive animals. A goat I tied out 
for a panther in a deep nullah was killed by a porcupine, several quills 
having pierced the heart. 

I have read of panthers and tigers being attacked and even killed by 
wild boars. But on page 237, Volume XXI of the Journal, Mr. Fitz- 
Gibbon records that while a panther was eating a goat a big wild boar came 

35 



21 A^ JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

aud stood within a yard or two of it, but the panther did not even stop 
eating and neither animal molested the other. Buffaloes are supposed to be 
deadly enemies of the great felidte and ready to attack them at once, but 
they have been known to graze close to a kill on which a panther was feed- 
ing, without taking any notice of it. I tried to recover a wounded panther 
with the aid of a herd of buffaloes on one occasion. The buffaloes passed 
through the jungle without taking any notice of the panther which I found 
dead close to where the herd had passed. Fanthers, like tigers, will fight 
to the death on occasion and the victor will devour the vanquished. Seve- 
ral such instances are on record in the Journal. I have never heard of 
an encounter betAveen a tiger and a panther but have twice driven a tiger 
and a panther out of the same cover, where they appeared to be resting in 
amitj^ 

10. Man-eateks. 

I have always found a strange fascination in the history of man- 
eaters. It would make a good subject for a book. The account of the 
infamous man-eater of Seoni given by Sterndale in his Natural History, 
and Sanderson's graphic description of the man-eating tigress he disposed 
of, cannot fail to arouse interest. The annual returns of the number of 
people killed by wild animals prove that, although these monsters that 
prey on human beings may not be as common as they were, they still 
infest many districts in India. An account of the destruction of the man- 
eating panther which killed the Brinjara boy whose bodj^ was found in the 
fork of a tree, is given in an early number of the Journal. The child was 
taken in the dead of night when sleeping beside his mother. The animal, 
which had already killed two human beings, was beaten out and shot by 
Mr. Davies, Deputy Commissioner of Basim, who mentions that the 
panther was in milk and had cubs which were not found. He. also 
remarks that the animal was in good condition and had a good coat. 
Indeed, I have never seen it suggested that man-eating panthers are 
mangy, a condition popularly ascribed to the tiger, but not borne out by 
evidence. The only man-eating tiger I have seen, which I shot twenty- 
one years ago, had a tine, brightly-coloured skin. 

Panthers perhaps take more readily to man-eating than tigers. Their 
habits bring them into closer and more frequent contact with human habit- 
ations ; careless mothers leave their children where they may fall a prey to 
the prowler of the night and in wandering round villages it is probable 
that a panther, even though not a confirmed man-eater, will always be 
ready to carry oft' a child if no one is watching. I had to do with a child- 
stealing panther, soon after the destruction of the one above referred to. 
This beast had taken up its abode in open country where the only cover 
to be found was that aftbrded by the fastnesses of a winding river, with 
deep and innumerable fissures in its banks, now in the month of May 
nearly dried up by the heat of the summer sun and the scorching winds 
that swept across the plain. 

The panther used to prowl round the villages at night and pick up .some- 
times, from the side of their sleeping parents, the children who slept for 
the sake of the cool night air on the thresholds of the huts. Then it took 
to attacking adult people in broad daylight. Curiously enough, these 
people could give no clear account of the monster that assailed them. 
Some averred that it was black and tailless, a common superstition of the 
were-wolf kind, prevalent also in Eastern Eiu'ope, connecting the man- 
killing wild animal with the form of a human monster. 1 thought it 
probable from the accounts given that this animal was a wolf, but when 
I encamped at one of the villages, and lay out at night in the shadow of 



I 



PAST HERS. - 275 

a hut^ a small panther approached in the moonlight to stalk me or the 
o-oats that were tied np as bait near the head of the bed. I fired and 
wounded the beast, and it was killed by the inhabitants of a neighbouring 
village a few days later. 

It is a curious circumstance that when I was in Russia two years after 
this a very similar series of events happened, of which I gave an account 
in the Field at the time. There a mj^sterious animal appeared and 
committed depredations, attacking people in broad daylight. The attacks 
continued over a considerable period, and detachments of Cossacks were 
sent after the animal but it was never brought to bag. Similar stories of 
a were-woK were rife among the superstitious peasantry. The animal 
may have been a panther escaped from captivity, or a wolf, or possibly a 
lynx. I was unable to visit the district. There are no panthers in Russia 
north of the Caucasus, but I have seen tracks of lynxes in the snow in 
White Russia. These animals do not. however, molest human beings. 
The only such case T have ever heard of is recorded on page 548, Volume 
VII of the Journal, Avhere Captain Drake-Brockman relates that in the 
Mirzapore District three coolies were going along together in single file 
through the jungle on their way to camp at night. When passing through 
some high grass, an animal sprang upon the last coolie from behind and 
fastened itself upon his shoulders. He happened to be walking along at 
the time with a blanket over his head, and had the presence of mind to turn 
up the edges and envelop the animal in its folds. The animal fell to the 
ground, and was smothered with blankets and brought into camp, where 
it was fovind to be a Red Lynx. The European lynx is larger than the 
caracal, and the Russian man-eater may have been one of these animals. 

Unarmed natives frequently exhibit remarkable courage in dealing with 
wild beasts. I read somewhere of a small herd-boy driving a tiger off his 
cattle dealing the animal a resounding blow on the back with his staff. In 
a village on the Pein Gunga I was shown the skin of a panther which the 
inhabitants had assailed with fragments of rock and killed a short time 
before. In 1894, as recorded by Captain P. Z. Cox in the Journal, a 
panther was seen to take shelter in a small stack in the open near a village 
in Kathiawar. A number of Wagher tribesmen turned out armed with 
sticks and surrounded the stack. After a time the beast broke cover and. 
seizing a Wagher, bore him to the ground. The others at once attacked 
the panther with sticks and made it release its hold before serious damage 
was done. It then turned on another Wagher who stood his ground 
and closed with the panther, seizing it round the body. The two fell to 
the ground together. The panther then made for the village, followed by 
the crowd, when one of the men seized it by the tail, and held on until 
one of his comrades came up with an axe. and killed it by a blow which 
spilt open its skull. 

In his " Highlands of Central India," Forsyth gives an account of a 
man-eating panther which devastated the Seoni District and killed nearly 
a hundred persons before he was shot by a shikari. He never ate the 
bodies but merely lapped the blood from the throat. His plan was either 
to steal into a house at night, and strangle some sleeper on his bed, or to 
climb into the high platforms from which the watchers guard their fields 
from deer, und drag oiit his victim. When driven off from an intended 
victim at one end of a village, he would hurry round to the other side and 
secure another iu the confusion, A few moments completed his deadly 
work. Forsyth found a curious myth had afterwards grown round the 
history of his panther, A man and his wife were travelling to their home 
from a pilgrimage to Benares, when they met a panther on the road. The 
woman was terrified, but the man said : " Fear not, I possess a charm by 



276 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

which I can transform myself into any shape. I will now become a 
panther, and remove this obstacle from the road, and on my return you 
must place this powder in my mouth, when T will recover my proper shape." 
He then swallowed his own portion of the powder and, assuming the 
likeness of the panther, persuaded him to leave the path. Returning 
to the woman, he opened his mouth to receive the transposing charm ; 
but she, territied by his dreadful appearance and open jaws, dropped it in 
the mire and it was lost. Then, in despair, he killed the author of his 
misfortune, and ever afterwards revenged himself on the race whose form 
he could never resume. This story approximates very closely to the stories 
of were-wolves prevalent in Eastern Europe. 

Of the same nature is the common superstition that the spirit of its 
first victim accompanies the man-eater to warn it of impending danger, which 
I have found firmly credited by jungle folk. There is the story of the 
shikari who sat up over the remains of a man killed by one of these 
monsters. When the man-eater approached to resume the feast, the arm 
of the corpse was raised in warning to point to the tree in which the 
watcher was sitting. The monster looked up and seeing the shikari, at 'nee 
went away. The man got down from the tree, fastened down the warning 
hand with a peg, and resumed his vigil in another tree. Again the man- 
eater approached, but the other hand of the victim pointed out the danger, 
and he fled once more. No sooner had he gone than the shikari again 
descended, pegged down the other hand, and climbed another tree. When 
the man-eater came back there was nothing to warn him of danger ; he 
came up to the kill, and was at once shot by the watcher in the tree. 

In 1901 another infamous man-eater appeared in the Seoni District of 
the Central Provinces, and killed more than twenty people in rapid succes- 
sion within fifteen miles of one village. This beast was in the habit of 
entering houses and dragging out its victims. In one instance it took a 
person from a house in which two children slept undisturbed. It was shot 
on the corpse of one of its victims, as depicted in a photograph in Volume 
XIV of the Journal. 

On one occasion in a village near my camp when I was out tiger-shooting 
a sad tragedy had occurred a few days before my arrival. A panther had 
entered a hut at night and dragged a Gond woman out by the leg. The 
beast, on being driven off, had rushed into another hut and, seizing an 
eight-year old boy by the throat, carried him off and devoured him. I 
sought in vain for any sign or track of this panther. The shikaris said that 
it was no use looking for the animal as it had left owing to the incanta- 
tions of the Gonds, to whom my superstitious followers ascribed wonderful 
power over the great felidce. They said that when a tiger or panther had 
been doing much damage to the flocks, or to the people in the case of 
man-eaters, the Gonds sacrifice a bullock to the Tiger-god, and perform 
various rites and ceremonies to invoke his aid. On the night of the per- 
formance of these rites, the god of the Gonds, represented by a White 
Tiger, stalks about in the vicinity of the village and drives oft' the beast 
that has been offending. In this the shikaris, orthodox Hindus, not 
animists like the Gonds, firmly believed, declaring that the tracks of the 
White Tiger could be traced on the surrounding jungle paths on the 
morning after the performance of these ceremonies. 

In Volume IX of the Journal, Mr. Inverarity gives an account of a man- 
eating panther which killed many people in the Nizam's Dominions in 1894. 
Among the victims was a boy taken from a cot on which he was lying beside 
a man in the open space in front of a hut. I recollect an instance of a 
child being taken from between a woman and a dog, over which the 
panther must have stepped. 



PANTHERS. 'IT! 

Why do animals take to man-eating P The mangy tiger theory refers to 
old and decrepit animals, or those which have been wounded, and find man 
an easy prey. This would no doubt account for some cases. Or a herdsman 
may be killed by accident or in his endeavovir to drive a beast of prey from 
his charge, and a taste for blood so acquired. I recollect a Brinjara being 
so killed by a tiger which I afterwards shot, but the beast did not become a 
man-eater, and did not eat any portion of his victim. A commoner theory 
is perhaps that of the tigress finding man an easy prey for feeding her 
young and so perhaps bringing up a race of man-eaters. This is plausible 
and appears to account for some instances, and for the generally-accepted 
idea that man-eaters are more commonly females ; but this idea, judging 
from the instances recorded, appears to be unfounded. It has been stated 
that man-eaters are more numerous during or after famines, when they 
might acquire the taste through scarcity of normal prey, or from feeding 
on the corpses of people who have perished of want. 

11. Methods of Hunting. 

Now as regards the method of hunting panthers. In many parts of the 
country, the only way of bringing these animals to bag is to sit up over a 
bait such as a live goat or a kill, or over a pool of water frequented by 
them. There is not much sport in this, but it has to be adopted in default. 
It certainly has the advantage of giving the keeper of the vigil excellent 
opportunities of observing the habits of the beast, which, in fact, so far as 
the approach to and the seizing of the prey are concerned cannot be so 
well observed in any other way. I have myself little experience of this 
method. You may sit either in a tree or in a kind of zariba, or in a hole 
in the ground, covered by a charpoy concealed suitably to the surroundings. 
On a dark night the latter is the best plan, so that the animal can be 
seen against the sky-line. I have seldom tried this "sittnig-up," and only 
twice with success. In some districts on dark nights also a lantern may 
be placed so as to throw a light on the bait. This would be sufficient in all 
probability to scare a tiger, but a panther is used to wandering about in 
the vicinity of village lights. When nobler game is to be had one does 
not trouble about panthers, but they afford very good sport at times, and 
there is quite suflicient danger in hunting them to class tliem as very 
dangerous game. 

In many places they may be driven out with a line of beaters, and it is 
not necessary, as it usually is in the case of tigers, to tie up bait and obtain 
a kill before finding the game. In country where these animals are fairly 
numerous and were the terrain is suitable, one can generally decide where 
they are likely to be found, and carefully arranged beats through likely 
covers will be successful. It is, however, curious how reluctant the natives 
sometimes are to give any information. I met a man one morning carrying 
a dead goat which, he said when questioned, had died, in the night, and had 
not been killed by atiy animal. The tell-tale fang-holes in the throat told 
a different story. The man was vvith some difficulty induced to show the 
place where he had found the goat, and it then transpired that he had seen 
a panther at the kill. Within an hour I had beaten out and shot the animal. 
In the same district I heard of a panther having killed a pony in a village, 
but the villagers would only say that the pony had died, and evidently had 
a superstitious dread of even mentioning the name of panther. I observed 
that there were no dogs in or about the village, an unusual circumstance. 
A search in the vicinity revealed the lair of the panther close to the village, 
but tracks showed that the beast had made off across country on my ap- 
proach. I followed in the direction indicated by the tracks, and shot the 
panther on the hillside about two miles off. Not far from the same place 
a few days later I asked a ploughman at work in a field whether he knew 



278 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY XATUBAL HIST. SOt'IETY,\ Vol. XXVI. 

auythiug of a panther which 1 had reason to believe inhabited a neighbour- 
ing ridge. He professed ignorance until I pointed out the fresh tracks of 
the animal within ten feet of his plough. 

However, when the people get to know one they are communicative 
enough, and they are pleasant and helpful. Alter some weeks one becomes 
known to the countryside, and information is gladly given and assistance 
offered. For the kind of sport I have indicated tha months of February 
and March and perhaps half April are the best. Towards the end of April 
the jungle begins to grow more dense, trees put out their leaves, and the 
beats are more difficult to arrange. In March and April the cover is 
sparse, and I would recommend the sportsman to keep a special look-out 
for the evergreen lokandi bushes ; he will not tind a panther in every bush, 
but if there is one of these animals about it will probably be in the grateful 
shade of the lohandi. 

There are less common methods of killing panthers in some parts of the 
country, as in Mysore where the animal is enclosed with nets and speared 
when it tries to break out. In Colonel Welsh's Military Reminiscences is a 
very interesting account of the spearing of panthers and tigers on the 
Bangalore race-course, where they were released from cages, and speared 
from horseback by Colonel Gillespie and others in the early part of the 
last century. This was a form of sport at one time indulged in the 
Hyderabad Contingent, the caged panthers being caught in a trap baited 
with a goat. A famous sportsman, Colonel Nightingale, died from the 
rupture of a blood-vessel when in the act of spearing a panther on the 
Bolarum plain sixty years ago. I have only once taken part in one of these 
hunts ; the panther showed no fight, but crouched in a depression of the 
ground and was speared without difHculty. These animals have not 
infrequently been put r.p and speared by pigstickers. 







-279 



THE MESOPOTAMIxVN BULBUL. 
By 

Clauu B, Ticehurst, Capt., r.a.m.c. 

On November 20th, 1917, whilst ou a short visit to Basra, I found a 
White-eared Bulbul very common, in fact, as in Sind, it is one of the com- 
monest and most familiar birds. Thinking it was the same as the Indian 
species I only secured one example. On returning to Karachi I was 
surprised to find on comparison that the Basra bird was distinctly difl'erent. 
On returning to Basra again this year in March I secured seven more 
specimens all similar to my original one. So far as 1 can find out, this 
Basra Bulbul has never been described or named and I therefore propose 
to name it. 

Pycnonotus leucotis mesopotamia. Subsp. nov. 

Diagnosis. Resembles 'Pifcnonotim leucutis k-ucotis but is rather larger, 
with a longer wing and tail, larger and stouter bill and has dark grey 
instead of whitish grey underparts (breast, belly and flanks) and a yelloio 
fleshy orbicular margin to the eyelid instead of black. 

Measurements. — (S wing. 90-9o, av. 91-6, tail, 90-93, (once 96). av. 

91-9 mm. 
2 wing. 87-89, av. 87-7o, tail 8o-89, av. 87-2. 
Total length from tip of bill to tip of tail : S 191-198, 5 185-195. 

Type locality, Basra, Lower Mesopotamia. 

Type specimen No. 149. Basra in coll. O.B. Ticehurst. Nov. 20, 1917. 

The type locality of Pycnonotus'^ leucotis= Ixos leucotis of Gould 
(P. Z. S. 18u6) is given as " In India orientali," Hitherto no races of this 
species have been described, but as mesopotamia is obviously a racial 
form and a very marked one it seems desirable to fix a restricted type 
locality for typical leucotis. This at present I am unable to do, not having 
access to Gould's paper. 

Distn/mtioH. — Lower Mesopotamia, Persia (Shustar in the west and Maud 
in the extreme east of Persian Baluchistan (26° 7'N 62°3'E). 

How far west this race occurs I do not at present know, but the bound- 
ary of Persian and British Baluchistan is probably somewhere near its 
eastern limit. I have seen typical leucotis from Bhani, 132 miles S.S.W. 
of Kelat in British Baluchistan which is not unexpected, as Bhani is not 
more than 100 miles from the Sind boundary. One specimen from Char- 
harbar in the Gulf of Oman is puzzling, sexed a female it has a wing of 
88mm which corresponds well with mesopotamia but it is paler underneath 
than any of the latter I have ever seen ; the colour of the eyelid could 
not in the dried skin be ascertained. 

Hume who, during his trip to Muscat in 1872, w^ent ashore collecting 
at Korebut, Pasni and Gwader remarked that the White-eared Bubul 
was common along the Mekran coast as far as Gwader. One cannot say 
without exaiuining his specimens which race his Mekran birds belong to, 
but it seems likely that they were leucotis or surely he would have 
remarked upon the yellow eye lid and darker plumage. He gives measure- 
ments of one bird " measured at random" as, total length 8" (=203 mm.), 

This must have been 
given it does not 



tail from vent 3-5 "(=89 ram.), wing 3-7" (= 94 mm.) 
a truly giant leucotis, but since no locality for it is 

help (it may have even come from India) which only shows one cannot be 
too careful in points of accuracy. Suffice it to say I have seen no Indian 
leucotis as large as this. Oates in the "' Fauna" gives — total length 7*5" 
(=190 mm.), tail 3-4" (=86-5 mm.), wing 8-5" (=89 mm.), which I should 



280 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

say was fully large for the average, which I make to be about 185 for males 
and 174 for females, with wings about 85 and 81 and tails 82 and 78 
respectively. The largest male leucotis (wing 88 tail 85) just overlaps the 
smallest female of Mesopotamia. The bill in the latter species sex for sex 
is noticeably larger on comparison, slightly higher, stouter and longer, and 
measures from the edge of the feathers 14-15-omm. as against 13-14-5 in 
leucotis, the smaller measurements being those of females. 

The habits and notes of the Mesopotamian bird did not .strike me as 
being different from those of our Indian bird. 



* Molpastes was a ^enus instituted by Hume in 1873 (S.F. i. 378) for the Red- 
vented Bulbuls without jyivingr the distinctive g'eneric characters. Hume himself 
put leucotis in the g-enus Otocovtpsa (Cabanis 1851). Gates in the "Fauna" places 
leucotis in the grenus molpastes, but it seems to me that the disting-uishinp: charac- 
ters of this genus are too trivial to separate it from the genus Pycnonotus of Boie 
tex Kuhl M. S.) 1826 which is the oldest name. 



( 



281 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

No. I.— NOTES ON A YOUNG HOG-BADGER AltCrONYX SP. 

IN THE GARO HILLS. 

Wak-Sel-(Garo). Caught by the Garos near Tiira. 

He was about 15 days old when brought to me ; his little tushes were just 
beginning to come through. Had been fed on rice and rice water by the 
Garos. He was in very good condition. He clutches the bowl like a 
bear, but eats like the pig, with much noise and dirtily. Otherwise his 
habits are quite clean ; he has no smell at all. The fur is a mixture of 
hair and bristles grey tipped with white, pure white on his ears and 
round his throat, black legs and stomach. A white tail about 2 inches long 
now. 12" from tip of nose to tail. 4" high. His habits up-to-date are not 
nocturnal, as he sleeps from 6 to 6 without moving. He sleeps curled up 
like a hedge hog. In the day time he sleeps with his head between his 
paws (more like a bear). Most affectionate and cannot bear to be left 
alone. "When startled, he comes towards one growling with his nose in the 
air (he might try and jump up to rip one). Does not see very well. In 
a wire cage he tries to dig himself out, or failing that climbs up like 
a bear. He roots about, but so far I have not discovered anything 
that he has eaten. Bringing him up on sweet pudding which he loves, gave 
him a small mutton bone (rawmeat) without any meat on it which he was 
very keen on. His back teeth are coming through. He has numerous 
calls, but so far no grunts. When pleased he makes a plaintive little 
sound, but when he is angry, his calls are discordant. His sense of smell 
is very good. Colour black and white (no rufous colouring at all). 



V. A. JACKSON. 



TuRA, Garo Hills, Assam, June 1918. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE HOG-BADGER. 

I have had the Hog-badger about 3 months now. It has grown longer 
and rather a silvery white, only black hair showing on its head and legs. 
He stands about 6" at the shoulder, but is quite 18" long. 

He is very tame, in fact I cannot induce him to leave the house though 
he is always fed outside. He behaves very much like a puppy dog. 
Worrying sHppers, rugs, hangings, etc., and also stands up by the chair at 
meal times like a dog. 

We had occasion to go to Tura Top, Similes, with an ascent of 3,100 feet. 
We rode up and I took the boy who usually feeds the badger with me 
carrying a small basket for ferns. The little fellow walked all the way up 
except about half a mile when ho was so tired that I had to have him., 
carried. He also walked all the way down after the boy. He ate 2 large 
tins of long earthworms daily and a little bread and milk and puddmg. 
He found several earths and dug out these long earth works (18" long) and 
their eggs, ate the contents of the eggs, but not the leathery shells, he also 
ate some small centipedes and their young— but no roots, fruit or vegetables 
His sense of smell is remarkable. He is very powerful for his size and 
very playful— leaping into the air in extraordinary attitudes and pretending 
to attack one. He can dig himself out of any wire cage with heavy 
boulders round. He lies on his back and prises them up. He is frightened 
of snakes, but of nothing else. When a dog comes near him his hair rises 

36 



282 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

up and he arches his back and makes a peculiar sneezing noise. In this 
way he puts uie in mind of my crab eating Mongoose who did the same 
thing. 

V. A. JACKSON. 

TuRA, Garo Hills, Assam, I2th August 1918. 

[Since we received the above notes we have heard frem Mrs. Jaok.3on that the 
hoff-bad<i"er is now at large in the jungle. — Eds. 



No. II.— PORCUPINE'S MODE OF ATTACK. 

With reference to the Miscellaneous Note on ]>age 491 of the Society's 
.Journal, Volume XXV, No. 3, " A hght between a dog and a porcupine," 
the following may be of interest to your readers : — 

In 1907, I was, stationed at Fatehgarh in the United Provinces and 
driving home one evening from the Club with my wife we saw in the 
waning light our dog " Peggy " a bull-terrier, then about two years old, rush 
after a porcupine that crossed the road in front of us. The porcupine ran 
for some distance with the dog in full chase over the maidan when the 
former suddenly stopped and ran backwards into the dog who gave a yelp 
and commenced rolling on the ground. I at once jumped out of the trap 
and got hold of her pulling out a quantity of quills from the head and chest, 
all of which I kept and took back to the bungalow. One quill we noticed 
was the butt end and this circumstance together with the uneasiness of the 
dog for the next few days convinced my wife that she still had a quill in 
her somewhere. There being uo Veterinary Officer in Fatehgarh my wife 
wrote to the young Surgeon attached to the 2/lOth Gurkhas then quartered 
in the Cantonment, asking him to have a look at the dog. , After a long 
examination he at last located the quill and the next day the dog went up 
with the small dogboy to the Hospital, and our friend pulled out a half 
quill of 4^" long which I have now before me as I write. The butt end 
measures 3f' so that together they make a whole quill of 7^ inches long. 
This gives a guide to the diameter which is -} inch. The dog, an extremely 
intelligent beast, seemed to know that the probing was being done for her 
good, and never moved a muscle the whole time, but licked the Doctor's 
hand when it was all over. The quill wasremoved from the flesh over the 
right shoulder blade, and had been broken oft' about f of an inch from the 
surface of the skin. ■■\ 

I may add that I once shot a big male Panther <in the Sendra-Ghat some 
thirty miles from Ajmere and found on skinning him that his two fore feet 
were full of porcupine quills, pieces from 1 inch to 2^ inches long being em- 
bedded in the pads, and some even up the fore arm. The poor beast must 
have suftered agonies, but I think that it is often so difficult for a Panther 
and for a Tiger to obtain a meal, that they go for the first animal they 
come across which may be with dire results to themselves. 

A peculiarity of the Porcupine is that his quills drop out a short time 
after they have been damaged even in the slightest manner. I presume 
that the time taken for dropping out depends on the damage done. The 
quill is then replaced by a new one which probably forces the old one out. 
I have on many occasions picked up these quills and on examining them 
invariably found the flaw, mostly made I should imagine by projecting 
rocks, for Hystri.c cristata is a " cave dweller" although he makes an earth 
when not in a rocky country. 

The natives have the. idea that he has the power of throwing quills like 
darts at his enemies, and probably it is got from finding these old quills lying 
about. 

Chipstead, Surrey, June 1918. REGINALD H. HEATH. 



I 



Journ.) Bombay Nati Hist. Soc. 





THE ARABIAN ORYX ( ORYX BEATRIX). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 283 

|No. Til.— METHOD OF POKCLFINES ATTACK.^ 

In tne [last Journal of the Society, p. [491, Vol. X~XV, Mr. IJ. D. 
Macleod asks for information regarding a porcupine's oflensive. Lt.- 
Colonel F. H. Jackson of the Bombay Political Department, who retired in 
1898, told me that his dogs once rounded a porcupine in the jungle. 
When he came near, the porcupine whipped round and ran backwards at 
him forcing several quills into his leg. He said the porcupine's action was 
extraordinanly quick and he thought that on account of the celerity of 
its movemtnts in this form of attack, Indians had got the idea, which is 
prevalent, that a porcupine can shoot its quills at an enemy. Colonel 
Jackson had good cause to remember the occasion. He extracted all the 
quills he could see in his leg and thought there was nothing left, but a 
short time afterwards and at intervals for the next six months he would 
suddenly go lame with intense pain for which he c<Aild not account until 
one day he felt something hard under the skin. He called a doctor who 
took out a piece of quill which had been in his leg for six months. 

E. O. BRIEN, Lt.-Colonel. 
PorbAndar, 21.'!^ A2)ril 1918. 

|No. IV.— METHOD OF PORCUPINES ATTACK. 

With reference to Miscellaneous Note No. 1 on page 491 of Vol. XXV., 
it may explain to Mr. Macleod what happened, if 1 tell him of an in- 
cident which occurred when a party of us were out pigsticking down 
the Diamond Harbour Road from Calcutta in 1875. A porcupine was driven 
out of a patch of grass and made across the open. I rode after it and when 
almost within spearing distance it suddenly stopped and ran backuard at 
the horse with all its spines erect. Of course this was no defence against a 
spear, but a dog rushing on would have suffered very badly. My first 
spear did not kill the porcupine as I was rather taken by surprise and he 
repeated the manoeuvre, though wounded, when I caught him up again. 
The second epear killed him. 

F. J. MITCHELL. 

Srinagak, loth May 1918. 



No. v.— THE BEATRIX OR ARABIAN ORYX {ORYX LEUCORYX) 

IN CENTRAL ARABIA. 

(With a Plate.) 

These two female Oryx beatn.i were given to me at Riyadh in December 
1917, by the Ameer of Central Arabia, Abdul Aziz Bin Sand, and are 
intended to be presented to His Majesty the King, when an opportunity 
occurs. 

They had been kept as pets in the Palace Gardens at Riyadh for over 6 
months and were fairly tame, but it was not an easy matter to bring them 
to the Coast at Koweit which is some four or five hundred miles from Bin 
Baud's capital. The hrst day out from Riyadh we tried leading them 
separately among the Qock of sheep which the Ameer had presented to us. 
I and a servant rode behind them, but the w-hole day thej'^ made attempts 
to break away and the boys who held the ropes w ere thoroughly tired out. 
Next day, hawever, we hit upon an expedient which proved absolutely 
successful. They were tied together with a long rope knotted in the 
centre which one boy held over his shoulder while another walked 
close behind shooing them on when necessary. They grew daily more 
amenable to this method until in about a week's time they stalked along at 



284 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

the head of the sheep. At eight they were picketed together near my tent. 
At dusk they used to begin to dig a pit in the earth or sand about a foot 
deep and therein settled themselves for the night. This is probably their 
natural and instinctive habit. They would be invisible at even a short 
distance, their horns being indistinguishable from branches of dried desert 
bushes. Both are females. The smaller is called Nural and the larger 
Al Maghrura. They are particularly fond of lucerne and dates though 
Bhoosa hay should be the staple fodder. They come, I understand from 
the Great Nefudh south-west of Nejd and are now somewhat rare as it is 
not difficult to stalk them among the sand dunes. They are said never to 
drink in the wild state, but these two are accustomed to a drink every 
day or two. One curious superstition the Arabs hold about them is that 
eating their flesh will expel a bullet which has lodged in a man's body even 
if it has been embedded for years. The Arabic name is Wothaihi or Wild 
Ox. They are possibly the reem oi the scriptures. People have wondered 
whether these Oryx were originally brought over from Africa by man but 
any one who knows the E. African Oryx will perceive greater difl"erences 
than are likely to have been evolved within the known historic periods. As 
for their habitat I expect they roam the whole Nefudh or sand deserts of 
Arabia. Sir Percy Cox informed me that he had come across their tracks 
in the country behind Muscat. 

R. E. A. HAMILTON, Lt.-Col. 
Bombay, June 1918. 



No. VI.— NOTE ON A TAKIN HEAD FROM ASSAM. 

Last month, while engaged in some operations in the hills between this 
district and Burma, 1 found the horns and frontal bones of a Takin in a 
Kuki village. The inhabitants having evacuated the village before our 
arrival, I was unable to obtain any first-hand information as to where the 
animal was killed. The village was situated East of the Tuzu Ruei about 
longitude 94° 60' and between latitude 1>5° 50' and 25° 30'. 

For the following reasons I think it is virtually certain that the animal 
was killed somewhere not far from where the head was found : (1) The 
condition of the particles of flesh adhering to the bones indicated that the 
animal had been killed this cold weather. (2) Political conditions make it 
impossible that the horns could have been brought by traders either direct- 
ly or indirectly from the Mishmi country or any country where Takin are 
known to exist, and in any case a pair of Takin horns is not an article of 
trade. (3) A Kuki who knew the country on seeing the horns said that 
such an animal, though very rare, did exist on the high mountains between 
there and Burma, meaning the system running roughly S. W. from Sara- 
ma tti. (4) A Lhota Naga who was with me at the time said they were the 
horns of an animal called ' michi, ' which no Lhota at present alive had 
ever seen, but which tradition said lived on very high mountains. He 
gave me the traditional description of the animal, which tallied exactly 
with that of the Takin. The Lhotas can only have known of this animal 
by having met with it on their migrations. In this respect the evidence 
is strongly against them having come from anywhere N. or N -E. of Sara- 
matti. On the whole the evidence appears to me strongly to indicate that 
this head was not brought from any known haunt of the Takin, but indi- 
cates a new habitat of the animal. Perhaps some readers from the Assam 
frontier of Burma could produce further evidence on the matter ? 

J. P. MILLS, I.C.S. 

MOKOKCHUNG, NaGA HiLLS, 

25M May 1918. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 285 

No. VII,— PANIC IN ELEPHANTS DURING AN EARTHQUAKE. 

A severe shock of earthquake took place at 4-15, and lasted 3 minutes 
on the 9th July. The Government elephants were feeding in front of the 
Court-house at Tura. A very large mukna, a large female and a butcha 
tusker. As soon as the first and most severe shock took place, the elephants 
ran up the hiU, towards the D. C.'s house, which is on a ridge overlooking 
a very deep valley. The distance from the Court-house to the gate of the 
D. C.'s house is about 500 yards. The large mukna was first, reached the 
gate and tore it from its hinges and came straight up the road with the 
small elephant holding on to his tail. The mahout had no control over him, 
and the other two elephants had no one on their backs. (My husband and 
I were standing outside watching the plaster coming down in the bungalow 
and the stone walls in the garden giving way). As soon as the elephant 
broke the gate, the Garos advised us to go in, as the "hatis " would pass us, 
and might attack us in their friglit. Just as we got into the verandah, 
the big mukna reached the front of the house. He never stopped but rushed 
along breaking down the 2nd gate — still with the butcha holding his tail. 
The female stopped in front of the porch, and proceeded to knock large lumps 
of turf from my lawn^ making queer noises and striking her trunk, also 
trembling violently. The mahout clung to the trunk and quieted her down 
gradually. The other animals rushed up a very steep hill into the jungle 
and were only turned back by men with spears and sticks. If the little bati 
had not clung to the tail, the ' mate ' on the back would have been thrown 
off, as the mukna is a most surly animal. Their instinct was to run up a 
hill into the jungle, and not along the big flat cart road. As I mentioned, 
the D.C.'s house is on a ridge with two roads leading to it. One, with 
the gate is more or less a carriage road, the other skirts the garden 
below and is used as a public road, the elephants always use this 
lower road on their way to grass and water, it runs along the side 
of the hill, and it received part of the stone wall from the garden, or 
large boulders, shaken down by the shock. The "hatis" seemed to 
realize that it might have given way and kept on the top of the hill, 
breaking down the gates guarding the top road, in preference to going on 
the open khud road. 

The Garos say, butchas always catch the tails of larger elephants, when 
in a panic. These hills are full of elephants, they do much damage and 
Garos are more frightened of them than tigers or bears. 

TuRA, IQth July 1918. V. A. JACKSON, f.k.g.s. 

No. VIII.— ON WHITE ELEPHANTS. 

ConBiderable interest was shown in Bombay at the statement in a 
recent Burmese letter of the Times of India that a white calf had been 
born to one of the Bombay-Bnrmah Elephants and it may be of interest to 
your readers to lecord what actually happened. 

A female calf born on 6th March 1918 aroused a good deal of 
excitement by its unusually light colour and in view of the importance 
attached by the Burmese to the birth of a genuine SINPYUDAW it was 
thought advisable to submit the claims of the calf to a jury of prominent 
Biirmans on the 7th April. 

The points of a SINPYUDAW appear to be as follows : — 

1. Twenty Toes. 

2. Pearl eyes. 

S. Tail"Tah Gah Paik." 

4. Red mouth. 

5. Light coloured and smooth skin. 



286 JOUli.VAL, no\rB AY NATURAL HIS r. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The calf though possessing a rather light skin at birth and pearl eyes 
failed to fultil these conditions, having only eighteen toes and a tail that 
was not up to the requirements. It was therefore at once pronounced to 
be not a genuine SINPYUDAW. 

The colour has since grown perceptibly darker and on reaching maturity 
is not likely to differ in any way from the ordinary. 

The fact that the " whiteness " of an elephant depends as much on the 
possession of certain points as on its colour may be of interest to your 
readers, a» most people appear to believe in the existence of a milk white 

animal. 

While on the subject of elephants it may be worth correcting a misprint 
in our Journal, XXV., p. 475, where there is a reference to a " fine onmuath 
(tuskless male)." The Burmese words are— 
HINE=tuskless male. 
TAI= single tusked male. 
I have no doubt that the writer originally wrote HINE which was altered 
to ' fine ' through a misapprehension. I have seen a similar mistake before. 

Bombay, May 1918. H. MACNAGHTEN. 

No. IX.— THE WHITE-CHEEKED BULBUL {MOLPASTES 

LEUCOGENYS). 

I found a pair of these birds nesting, and when I thought the nest was 
complete, I visited it on several occasions, to get the eggs. I was not 
however successful and came to the conclusion that the bird had deserted. 
Quite ten days later or possibly more, I had another look and to my 
surprise found two eggs. This was on a Tuesday, I left them till Friday, 
when there were three. 1 tonk the clutch. On proceeding to blow them, 
I found the first difficult and in the end it burst, just as bad eggs are apt to 
do. On examining it the yolk was intact and right down at the small end, 
more or less adhering to the shell. I put the other two eggs into water to 
test them. To my surprise, instead of sinking as fresh eggs do they 
floated ! ! I blew them all right and the yolks showed absolutely no signs 
of incubation, but they gave me the impression that they were "muzzy," 
like eggs become which have been kept sometime. I have had many years 
experience in birds' nesting, but I have never before come across fresh 
eggs, as these must have been, floating. A fresh egg, even though 
unimpregnated sinks. 

As the nest in this instance remained untenanted for so long a period, 
can it be possible that the Bulbul laid new eggs elsewhere, without sitting, 
and then carried them to it ? 

R. M. BETHAM, Brig .-General. 

Flag Staff House, Lansdowne, U. P. 
15th June 1918. 



No. X.— THE PLUMAGE OF THE PURPLE HONEYSUCKER 
(ARACHNECTHRA ASIATIC A). 

In Vol. XVII, No. 2, p. 540, I have come across a query by Mr. D. Dewar 
on the plumage of the male Purple Honeysucker [Arachnecthra asiaticn). 

He apparently was surprised to find that Jerdon in his " Birds of India." 
Vol. i, p. 370 (correctly) described the winter plumage and calls in Oates 
in the " Fauna " to bear him witness that the purple plumage of the 
breeding season is never lost when once assumed. He is however somewhat 



MLSCELLANEOUS NOTES. L>87 

unsettled in his mind on the subject by Mr. F. Finn (Birds of Calcutta. 
p. 63) who sided with Jerdon's view and finally asks members of the 
Society for further information. As no one has apparently done so, I may 
as well give my experiences which will, I think, settle the question. Here 
in Karachi this species is very abiuidant in winter and from October on- 
wards I never saw a single bird in metallic dress until January 26th when 
I saw one (out of dozens) apparently in full plumage, and on the 27th I 
shot one (and later saw many others) in change moulting body, wings 
and tail and thus assuming the metallic plumage. 1 have moreover seen 
specimens of the moulting from the metallic dress to the yellow breasted 
winter plumage. I have not yet seen a large enough series of winter 
birds to say for certain, but it is not unlikely that the adult male in 
winter can be difi'erentiated from the young male by the more glossy 
wings and tail. 

CLAUD B. TICEHURST, Capt., r.a.m.(\ 

Kabachi, Jul!/ 14^^', 1918. 



No. XI.— NOTE ON THE INDIAN LONG-BILLED VULTURE 

{GYPS IN Die US). 

Since according to Blanford this bird breeds in colonies on precipitous 
cliffs, the following note may be of interest : — 

On February 4th while out in camp I came across an enormous pipal 
tree which had five large nests in it, which I presumed to belong to 
Pseudogyps benf/alensis. However, on closed examination, I noticed Gypn 
indicus sitting on one of the nests, its thin lead-coloured neck being 
easily distinguished. On my climbing the tree, the birds sat closelj'. 
enabling me to discover that no less than three of the nests belonged to 
G. indicus, the other two being occupied by P. benyalensis. One nest of 
the former contained a fresh egg, pure white and measuring 3'55x2-75 
inches. The other four nests had well-grown young ones. Gyps indicus 
showed much more anxiety to return to their nests than P. benyalenais. 
and several times came and settled only a few yards from me when I was 
inspecting the nests, which appeared to differ in no way from those of 
P. henyulensis . This is the first time I have seen G. indicus in the 
Lucknow district. In Muttra and Agra districts the bird is quita 
common and comprises about a quarter of the assembly at a carcase. I 
did not find it breeding there, although it is certain it must do so. 

U. S. Club, Lucknow, W. H. MATHEWS, i.p. 

mh Mm/ I9I8. 



No. XII.— THE COMMON HAWK-CUCKOO {HIEROCOCCYX 
VARIUS) IN THE PUNJAB. 

It is stated in the Fauna of British India, Birds, Vol. III., p. 214, that 
the Coaimon Hawk-Cuckoo or true Brain-Fever Bird Hierococcyx varius 
(Vahl.) is not found in the Punjab. I have already shewn elsewhere that 
this statement must be modified as the species is (in some years at any 
rate) a common summer visitor to the district of Ambala, and in smaller 
numbers to the neighbouring district of Ludhiana. I have now to record 
a further extension of its range to Lahore where I heard one calling in a 
garden in Egerton Road on 21st April, and again in the Lawrence Gardens 
on April 24th. On both occasions the " brain-fever " call was heard. 

HUGH WHISTLER, f.z.s., 

•Jhang, -lOt/i May 1<»18. Indian Pohce. 



288 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

No. XIII.— THE BREEDING HABITS OF MRS. HUME'S 

PHEASANT, 

I have been reading through Vol. XXV, No. 3, and I am sending you as 
few particulars which you may find interesting. 

While I was in the Chin Hills, I shot quite a number of Mrs. Hume's 
Pheasant and I skinned two very fine cock birds which I intended sending 
you, but as you know, I was very suddenly ordered on service, and the 
skins are still at my bungalow at Dehra Dun. 

1. The Durwan of the Dak Bungalow at Tiddim found a nest and a 
clutch of 6 eggs of Mrs. Hume's and Mr. Wickham (of the P. W. D., Burma) 
was then staying at Tiddim. He took half the clutch and gave me the other 
three eggs. The eggs were found at the foot of a tree of a dwarf oak cover- 
ed spur and the nest was hidden in a small bush (about 1' high) of under- 
growth. The nest was a simple excavation of the ground lined with oak 
leaves. We did not see the birds but the Durwan did. I think the clutch 
was taken on the 25th March 1916, but I have not my diary with me, 
though Mr. Wickham would know. The nest was situated on well drained 
ground on the top of a spur. 

I had a sitting hen and placed the three eggs under her. As far as I 
remember, they took 26 days to hatch, but I only got one chick as the hen 
crushed the others. The young bird was as wild as anything imaginable. 
When I went into the hen house to see if any eggs had hatched, this chick 
jumped out of the nest, on to the ground and ran at a great pace and hid 
behind a stone as it could not escape. I then placed . a very thin meshed 
basket over the hen and her chick on my lawn as the chick did all it could 
to escape into the jungle and its foster mother could do nothing with 
it. There was no doubt from its markings on the wings and body that 
it was a Mrs. Hume chick. It would only drink dew on the grass 
in the early mornings. Whenever it saw a human being it used to 
run and hide under a tuft of grass or underneath its foster mother 
and I had the greatest difiiculty with it when 1 let it out. On one 
occasion, it bolted 100 yards towards the jungle at a terrific pace 
and it took all my servants over an hour to find it. Its pace was pheno- 
menal and it could hide very easily under the smallest tuft of grass. The 
foster mother could not understand her fractious offspring and got very 
fed up with it as it would not stay with her. On the 17th day after 
hatching, I was putting the little beast back into its cage where the mother 
was,, after it had escaped through the meshes and had been found 200 
yards from my bungalow when I had given the little beast up as lost. The 
mother pecked her offspring on the head and killed it. I was very sorry, 
as I had high hopes of rearing it after keeping it so long. I used to feed it 
on boiled rice and little pieces of cooked meat which the Chins said I must 
give it. Mr. Wickham was able to blow his eggs successfully as they were 
quite fresh. There was a fine flock of about 12 birds always living in the 
open forest and stunted jungle about 500 yards east of the Gurkha Basti 
1:^ miles from Tiddim and below the Tiddim-Fort White Road. 1 had 
several good mornings here with my dogs, as each year there were 4 wood- 
cock living close by and also a good many bamboo partridge. But the only 
place, at which I found Mrs. Hume at all numerous was on the grassy 
slopes of the hill 2 miles N; and opposite to the Dak Bungalow at Fort 
White. I used to go hereafter Barking Deer and Gural and shot quite a 
number of Mrs. Hume and flushed fairly large numbers at times. I used 
to see them running away through the grass and they are at once recognis- 
ed by the clucking sound they make as they run away, which is their 
alarm crv. 



MISCELLANEOUS _NOTES. 289 

I always found them either in sturted jungle on or grassy slopes with a 
few oakes, pines or rhododendrons scattered about. 

Occasionally I have seen them in very heavy jungle where one gets 
Tragopan (scarlet breasted) but open jungle or grassy slopes were more or 
less near by. The height at which I met them was generally between 5,000 
to 7,000 feet. 

I have seen others below the road East of where No. 4 Stockade used to 
be (4,000 ft.). This appears to be the place where Finn shot his specimen. 

R. BLANDY, Captain. 
Head-quarters 7th Infy. Brigade, M. E. F. 
Mesopotamia, 25^ March 1918. 



No. XIV.— NOTE ON KALIJ PHEASANTS IN THE CHIN HILLS. 

Hound No. 3 Stockade Bungalow there is a lot of stunted jungle in which 
there are quite a large number of Kalij pheasants, I shot and skinned a 
large number of these pheasants but I hardly ever shot 2 alike here. They 
were all hybrids between Williams and Horsfields pheasants. I shot 
pure horsfieldi up in the hills and pure wiLliamsi pheasants on the Western 
slopes in the Valley of the Manipur It. and also at Kalewa and Yazajee. I 
never shot a pure William's pheasant on the Eastern Slopes of the Chin 
Hills and they were all horsfieldi or hybrids ; so it appears that Williams 
pheasants keeps to very definite localities and is probably, I believe, only 
found in the valley of the Manipur R. at present, as far as the Chin Hills 
is concerned. 

Hkad-quarters, 7th Infy, Brigade, R, BLANDY, Capx, 

M, E, F, 

2oth March 1918, 



No, XV,— OCCURRENCE OF THE LESSER FLORICAN OR LIKH 
S. AURITA IN THE MAHABLESHWAR HILLS. 

The Florican I wrote to you about was shot on the hills in the month of 
April 1915. The actual locality was wooded plateau 6^ miles froin 
Mahableshwar, about half a mile through small jungle to the south of the 
Mahableshwar-Panchgani Road, There was a pool of water on the 
plateau. We walked about for sometime looking for its mate but with 
no success. Mr. J. W. Fellowes, Mrs. Fellowes and Mr. J. T. Tanner, 
were all there and could verify this statement, if necessary. 

KYRLE FELLOWES. 
Mahableshwar, 10th May 1918. 



No. XVI.— ABNORMAL VAIilETIES OF THE INDIAN RED- 
START (It RUF1VENTRI8) AND THE COMMON HOUSE 
CROW (C. SPLENDENS). 

An account of these abnormal varieties of common birds may be of 
interest to place on record — 

(I). The Indian Redstart — Ruticilla rufn-entris. 

Female, shot near Mochiwala^ District Jhang, Punjab, on 14th March 
1918. 

37 



"290 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

This bird differs from a normal female only as regards the wings and 

tail. 

In the tail one of the central pair of feathers (the other is missing), 
which is greatly abraded and worn, is brownish grey on the inner web 
instead of blackish brown. 

The wings differ in that the greater coverts are uniform greyish brown 
with paler edges, while the primaries, secondaries and tertiaries are 
dirty greyish white, slightly darker on the outer webs ; all these feathers 
have the basal halves of their shafts dark brown. 

(2). The Common House Crow — Corvus splendens. 

During June and July 3917 at Ludhiana, Punjab, I noted a Crow about, 
always frequenting the same locality, with a large white patch in the 
centre of each wing ; both wings were alike, and the white patch waa 
apparently formed by the basal halves of the later primaries and earlier 
secondaries. 

All other parts of the bird were apparently normal. 

(3). The Common House Crow — Corvus splendens. 

Female, shot at Jhang-Maghiana, Punjab, on 5th May 1918. 

The description of this bird is as follows : 

Nasal tufts, forehead and anterior half of the crown, cheeks, chin, and 
throat, {i.e., the usual mask) dull chocolate brown. 

Hind neck, mantle and breast rich creamy white, tinged with brown on 
the earcoverts and sides of the head, and shading into the creamy brown of 
the abdomen ; thighs and lower tail coverts slightly darker than the abdo- 
men. Scapulars, lower back and rump dull chocolate brown with occasional 
darker feathers, which are new feathers. 

The wings with their coverts are clear creamy brown, edged with white 
irregularly in a greater or less degree on all feathers, giving the extended 
wing a somewhat patchy appearance. There is most white on the second- 
aries and greater wing coverts and least on the innermost lesser coverts. 
The wing when closed has in general a rich creamy whitish brown appear- 
ance. Both wings agree in their markings. 

The tail is a clear creamy brown with broad white edges, the outer webs 
of the central pair being entirely white. The outermost feather on the 
right side is a darker brown than the others with no white edge. Although 
not freshly moulted it appears to be more recent in growth than the others. 

Iris dark brown ; bill and legs dusky brown. Ovary minute. The traces 
of moult on the upper parts as described above shew a tendency in the 
plumage to moult out darker, unless the difference is due to excessive 
fading of the old plumage. 

This bird was observed for some months during which period it kept 
very closely to the same locality ; in the same locality there was a second 
specimen of similar appearance, and both probably were hatched in the 
same nest. The other crows with which they were consorting showed no 
objection to their abnormal colour. 

HUGH WHISTLER, f.z.s., 

Indian Police. 
Jhang, 20th May 1918. 



No. XVII.— THE COLOUR OF THE EYE OF THE FEMALE WHITE- 
EYED POCHARD NYROCA AFRICA NA. 

I have lately had need to look up some of the old " Journals " and in 
Vol. XVI, 2, frontispiece, I notice a plate of the White-eyed Pochard from 
Mr. Stuart-Baker's series of " Indian Ducks and their Allies " and here the 
female is represented as having the irides 7/Ai7f as in the male. Surely 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 291 

this is not correct ? I have examined a fair number of females and have 
invariably found the irides to be brown, as late as April at all events. The 
" Fauna" is silent on the subject and I have no other works by me now. 
Perhaps other members will record their experiences ? 

CLAUD B. TICEHURST, Capt., r.a.m.c. 
Karachi, Jultj Wth, 1918. 



No. XVIII.— NOTE ON THE HABITS OF THE MALLARD 

ANAS BOSCHAS. 

During all February and the first week in March 1918, I observed last 
flocks of Mallard, settling close in shore on the sea. The birds came every 
day morning and evening going away in an easterly direction during the 
middle of the day. During this time there had been very little rain and 
this may have led to an insufficiency of feeding in the few jhils round here. 
The sea here is very shallow for a long distance out, which may account 
for the duck settling, but I have never observed this habit before, and I 
should be interested to hear if it is a common occurrence. 

Though work was going on, loading and unloading ships close to the 
point where the birds settled, this did not seem to disturb them. They 
were however very wary and it was not possible to get near them with a 
gun, and I never succeeded in shooting them. Through a glass it was quite 
possible to distinguish fully the plumage of the birds and they were fre- 
quently to be seen disporting themselves on the sands much like the 
ordinary farmyard duck. 

Bandar Abpas, 17th March 1918. E. J. D. COLVIN, Lt.-Col. 



No. XIX.— AN ADDITION TO THE GAME BIRDS OF BURMA. 
THE LONG-BILLED HILL PARTRIDGE {RHIZOTHEEA 
LONGIROSTRIS, Temm.) IN TENASSERIM. 

The addition of this fine partridge to our avifauna is due to the energy 
of Mr. J. C. Hopwood of the Imperial Forest Service. He most kindly 
sent me the skin of a female which neither he nor Mr. Mackenzie of the 
same service conkl identify. I was unable to do so either and forwarded the 
skin to Dr. Annandale, Director of the Zoological Survey. He wrote that they 
had not got it in the Indian Museum and advised me to send it to Mr. H. C. 
Robinson, Director of Museums, Federated Malay States, as it probably 
was a Malayan species. I did this and Mr. Robinson kindly identified it 
and sent me the following interesting note : " The Partridge sent is a 
specimen (female) of Rhizothera longirostris (Temm.), the Long-billed Hill 
Partridge. It does not appear to have been recorded from the Indian 
Empire, but is common over the whole of the Malay Peninsula in suitable 
localities and also in Borneo and Sumatra in slightly modified forms. 

In the Malay Peninsula it is an inhabitant of heavy jungle, usually dry 
jungle in which there is much bamboo up to about 4,000 feet. It is very 
terrestrial and partially crepuscular in its habitats. Its note is a loud 
clear whistle often heard at night." 

Mr. Hopwood sent me the following note along with the skin : — 

"The bird was shot by my assistant about 16 miles inland from Bokpyin 
in bamboo jungle, about half way between Mergui and Victoria Point. 
From the rudimentary spur it is probably a female. The birds are reported 
to be rare." On the label is the following information : — 

"Locality: about 120 miles south of Mergui in bamboo forest. 



292 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 

Date 7th March 1918, shot by Mr. W. R. French and skin given to 
J. C. Hopwood. 

Bill black, legs flesh colour, claws horny." 

The catalogue of the Game Birds in the collection of the British Museum 
gives the following : 

Rhizotheka. 

Rhizothera {Gva.y).—" List. Gen. B, 2nd ed., p. 79 (1841), Type. 

id. Gen. B. iii, p. ijOS (1846) . . . . R. longirostris. 

Tail with 12 feathers, rather more than half the length of the wing. 

1st primary equal to the 10th, 0th slightly the longest. Tarsi longer than 
middle toe and claw, and provided in both sexes with a pair of short 
stout spurs. Claws, moderate and slightly curved. 

Range. — Southern part of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo." 

There are only two known species, the other Hose's Long-billed Francolin 
{Rhizothera dulitensis, Ogilvie-Grant) having been got at Mount Dulit in 
Borneo. 

Ogilvie-Grant in his Hand-book to the Game Birds, Vol. I., gives the 
following concise description of the bird : — 

" Adult male. — Top of the head rich brown ; general colour above chest- 
nut, blotched with black, shading into grey, mixed with buff on the lower 
back and upper tail coverts ; sides of head and throat reddish chestnut; 
neck, chest, and upper mantle grey ; rest of underparts rufous buff. Total 
length 14-6 inches ; wing 7'7 ; tail 3-5 ; tarsus 2*2. 

Adult female. — Differs from the males in having the neck and chest 
rufous-chestmit, and the lower back and upper tail coverts viosthj buff. 
Slightly smaller than the male." 

Finn in his Game Birds of India and Asia says : 

" This peculiar Partridge, which ranges from the south of the Malay 
Peninsula to Borneo, is at once recognisable by its large bill, which is big 
enough for a peacock, though the bird is of the ordinary partridge size 
about fourteen inches long." 

Great credit is due to Mr. Hopwood for adding this species, as 
Davison with a good staff had collected in Tennasserim for over four years. 
Bingham and others also collected there without discovering it and gan.e 
birds however rare they may be, are not as a rule absolutely passed over. 

I hope Mr. Hopwood will be able to get further specimens and give us 
more information about this interesting bird. 

CHAS. M. INGLIS, m.b.o.u 

Baghownie Fty., 

Darbhang Dist., .Sl.sf August 1918. 



No. XX.— NATURAL HISTORY NOTES FROM FAO 

BY 

W. D. GUMMING. 

(Corrections to the List of Birds from Fao published in the "Ibis," 

188d and 1891.) 

The Persian Hooded Crow — Corms caprllanns. In the winter, birds 
are often seen with the white parts strongly tinged with grey, this 
might be seasonal or a sign of birds of the year. 

The Grey-backed Warbler — JEdonfamiliaris. Plentiful, breeding every- 
where on both sides of river. This is a beautiful whistler during 
the breeding season. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 293 



Upclier's Warbler — Hi/polais languida. Plentiful, breeding everywhere 
on both sides of river. The note against Scotocerca inquieta, the 
Streaked Scrub- Warbler refers rightly to this bird. 

The Streaked Scrub-Warbler — Scotocerca inquieta. This bird is not to be 
found at Fao, as might be expected, the situation is unsuited to its 
habits. This was an unfortunate error, which crept into my notes 
by mistake. 

Finsch's Grey Shrike — Lanius fallax. I believe this was wrongly 
identified and was corrected later to L. assimilis ? by Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe. 

The Common Starling — Sturnus vulgaris. Starlings are to be seen in 
flights in the neighbourhood of Fao during the winter months November 
to February, some years more plentiful than at others. All that I shot 
were identified as S. vulgaris, but might turn out to be »S'. vulgaris 
caucasicus. 

Rose-coloured Starling — Pastor rosetis. Only noticed in brown plumage. 

Oimiming's Red-rumped Wheatear — S. cummingi. I believe I identified 
this as S. chrysopygia, but Dr. Bowdler Sharpe found it to be a new- 
species and named it after me. 

This is the only specmien obtained by me, whether the red-tailed chats 
seen, occasionally in the neighbourhood of Fao belong to this or to 
S. chrysopygia I cannot say. 
Dr. Bowdler Sharpe asked me to collect chats for him and I sent 
him several skins of different species and it was from among these 
he identified the present bird. He unfortunately forgot to send me 
a description of the bird or an illustration of it, and my note given 
against this does not rightly apply to it. 

Syrian Blackbird — Turdus merula syriacus. This was the only one seen 
or secured by me. 

Spanish Sparrow — Passer hispaniolensis. To be found at Fao— not very 
plentifully — associating with the Common Sparrow P. domesticus in 
winter and early spring. 

Red-headed Bunting — Emberiza luteola. The only bird seen or secured 
by me. 

Lesser Short- toed Lark — Calandrella viinor. The two mentioned were 
identified by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. See notes in the Ibis, 189i. 

The Short- toed Lark — Calandrella brachydactyla. Also identified by Dr. 
Bowdler Sharpe. See Ibis, 1891. 

The Pale-brown Swift — Cypselus murinus. Identified by Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe as Cyprellus pallidus (Ibis, January 1891). Only one nest 
found containing eggs and taken by my collector. 

Indian Roller — Coracias garrula. This is not infrequently seen above 
Fao on both sides of river, and breeds in holes in the date palms, or 
other trees. One yoving one was brought to me from Dora, about l-") 
miles above Fao, which I reared" on young frogs and small fish, with a 
little raw meat occasionally, it fully matured and became quite 
tame flying about the station and coming regularly for its meals. 

Common Indian Bee-eater — Merops viridis. Only once seen at Fao, after 
a severe storm, no specimens secured. 

Barn Owl — Stri.v flammea. These birds bred in the loft in the old tele- 
graph wooden buildings. Fairly plentiful during spring and summer 
in suitable localities. 

Little Brown Dove — 5. cambayemis. This is the only specimen secured 
during a severe storm ; shot by my collector. This seems a good deal 
out of the way to come across this bird, and I have often wondered 
whether it might not have been a caged bird got loose. 



294 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST- SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The Seesee — Ammoperdi.v bonhami. Not to be found in Fao or neighbour- 
hood. The country is unsuited for it. 

Wood Pigeon — Palumbus paiumbus. One year a large flight of these birds 
visited Fao, and many built nests in the date groves, but I never heard 
of any young being found. They left very suddenly. 
Collared Pratincole — Glareola pratincola. Breeding in neighbourhood of 

Fao. 
Lapwing — Vanellus cristatus. To be obtained at Fao some years. 
White-tailed Lapwing — Chettusia leucura. To be found at Fao occasionally. 

1 have shot specimens. 
Kentish Plover — yl£. alexandrina. Besides this species I have found others 

breeding, but was not able to make sure of their identity. 
Whiskered Tern — Hydrochelidon hybrida . Shot at Fao. See notes in Ibis, 

January 1891. 
Little Tern — Sterna minuta. I obtained a series of small Terns, inter- 
mediate between minuta and saundersii which 1 personally handed to 
Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. 
Imperial or Black-bellied Sand-Grouse— Pterocles arenarius. Eggs of this 
species have been obtained from the interior of Persia and Arabia and 
brought to Fao. 
Large Pin-tailed Sand-Grouse — Pteroclurut< alchata. These are brought 
alive from Persia, I have had several brought from neighbourhood of 
Bandermashoor, where they are reported to breed. 
The Common Sand-Grouse — P. e.nistus. At times Grouse are seen and 
heard flying over Fao, which with the aid of binoculars I thought might 
be this bird but never obtained a specimen. 
Macqueen's Bustard or Houbara — Houbara macqueeni. These are to be 
had on both sides of the river during winter. The eggs I received 
were sent to me by the Sheikh of Koweit the late Sheikh Jerrah. 
Mr. McDonall, British Consul at Mahomerah, wrote to me on one 
occasion as follows .• " An Arab friend of mine tells me that 
Houbara breed iu the Ram Hurmuz district, he says when he lived 
in Fellahieh he on several occasions had Obara chicks brought in. 
He also says a much larger bird of that kind is rarely seen in that 
neighbourhood. Could this be the Great Bustard." 
I once shot a smaller Bustard, in Bushire, the macqueeni, it came into 
the compound of the house I was living in. Again on a second 
occasion I shot a similar bird ofl" the mouth of Shat-el-Arab, while the 
steamer I was on was aground on the Fao bank. The bird kept 
flying round the steamer, during a heavy rain storm, when the land 
was obscured. 
In the first instance I made a specimen of the bird and sent it to my 
brother Mr. John Gumming in Karachi, and I believe he sent it to 
England, but that it got lost in transit. 
In the second instance the pot claimed the victim ! So that I have 
never been able to confirm my identification, and I have never heard 
of any others being secured about these localities. 
This much is certain that both birds were a good deal smaller than 
macqtieeni. 
Stone-Curlew — QLdinnemus scolopax. Not uncommon on both sides of river 

in the desert tracts at back of date-palms. 
White Ibis — Ibis melanoacephala. Plentiful at Fao during winter. 
White Stork — Ciconia alba. Does not breed at Fao, the eggs were obtain- 
ed from Baghdad. 
Little Bittern — Ardetta minuta. I obtained two young nestlings on one 
occasion from the Persian side of the river. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 295 



Mammalia, 



I once obtained a long-eared bat covered as far as 1 can recollect now 
with hoary white hairs, which I sent to the British Museum and which 
was considered interesting, unfortunately 1 have misplaced the letter 
from the British Museum giving the identification. It may be in the 
Quetta Museum. 

Reptilia and Batrachia. 

Trionyx euphraticus and Clenimys caspica. Not uncommon in the river off 
Fao. 

Uromastrix microlepis. I think there is some mistake in stating this 
Lizard is to be obtained at Fao. They usually inhabit sandy tracts 
while the soil of Fao is loamy and subject to inundations. 

Varanus griseus. Not uncommon about Fao. 

Rana esculenta. The edible frog. Plentiful at Fao. 

Hyla arhorea. Plentiful at Fao. 

AV. D. GUMMING. 
Karachi, March 1918. 



No. XXI.— HOW TROUT WERE INTRODUCED INTO KASHMIR. 

When I left Kashmir in May 1890, 1 was retiring from India where 
fishing had not been of special interest to me, but in the years that fol- 
lowed many of my happiest days were spent among keen fly fishers in 
" Bonnie Scotland " whose lochs and streams are full of the " spotted 
beauties," so that when fate sent me back nine years later (May 1899) my first 
thought for holidays was of fishing. Work tied me to Srinagar and 1 was told 
the nearest stream where sport could be had was the Arrah river which then 
flowed through the reservoir at Harwan. The stream and surroundings 1 
found to be ideal but the fish were spawning at the time when one expected 
to find them most sporting and were very disappointing in appearance. 
I felt that if they could be replaced by the beauties I had loved at home, 
here was indeed a trvie angler's paradise. 

To think in those days was to act and the merry month of May in which 
1 arrived was not out before my brother William (now Lt.-Col. Mitchell, 
V.D.) in conjunction with Col. Ward, Col. Unwin and Capt. Allan had 
promised £50 towards the scheme which my experience in Scotland had 
taught me was feasible. Early in June, Capt. Goodenough, a fellow passenger 
on my journey out, introduced me to Major (now Colonel) Godfrey, First 
Assistant Resident, who told me that the Duke of Bedford who had been 
presented by the Durbar with some Kashmir stags was anxious to do some- 
thing in return and had oft'ered to send out trout ova if some one could be 
found to carry on the work necessary to establish the fish in Kashmir. 
We soon fixed up preliminaries as I wanted nothing better than to do that 
work and thence forward much of my spare time was taken up with inves- 
tigations and a certain amount of fishing, chiefly with the Mulberry as a bait* 
Khont Cheroo (Schizothorax esocinus), Chuah {S.intermedius), Khont (('renins 
sintiatus), Anyur {Exostomastoliczikne) and even the little Tilgrun (loach-Mwa- 
chilus marmorata) qM take this bait in Kashmir, but quite 9 out of every 10 fish 
caught at Harwan were Oreinus in these days. They were very plentiful 
and I can remember one day, sitting with Capt. Allan — he at the head and 
I at the tail of one pool — taking out over 100 in \\ hours of an average 
Av eight of about half a pound. It was here that I gave my faithful hench- 
man Sodahma Pundit, his first lesson in stripping fish and fertilizing the 
ova. He was openly incredulous of the result when I told him to put them 



296 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Tol. XX J I. 

(the Oreinus fertilized ova) into a hatching box and it was evidently with 
a new respect that he came some days later to tell me they had all hatched 
out. Insect life had to be studied in the smaller streamlets and thouf^h 
some doubtful assets were noted among the fauna such as numerous toads, 
small leeches, great water beetles and their larvte, a most favourably 
report was ready long before the first ova had to be shipped. With this 
Major Godfrey wrote home suggesting that shipment should be made so that 
the arrival of the consignment might synchronize with the disappearance of 
snow from the llawalpindi-SrinagarRoad in the spring of 1900, but no special 
directions were given as to packing and shipping the ova as it was supposed 
that the Duke of Bedford, or his agent would be in touch with experts in 
England who had already made similar shipments. This hypothesis 
however proved wrong and shipment was made by a steamer with no cool 
room, with the result that the ova perished. Later in the year 1900 Major 
Godfrey went home on furlough and explained matters, arranging later 
with His Grace's Agent for a very early shipment of ova from Howietown 
(the well known trout found in Scotland) to be shipped by a P. & O. Mail 
Steamer which would reach Bombay in December in time to be forwarded 
to Srinagar before snow closed the road. This it did, ultimately arriving at 
my house in Christmas week in charge of Mr. J. Sidgreaves Macdonell who 
had gone to Bombay to meet the mail steamer. I would like here to record 
my thanks to the late Capt. Kitchen of the 5th Gurkhas for a diary account 
of an importation of trout ova made three years previous to this by him for 
his Regimental Club at Abbottabad. This account contained a useful hint 
regarding the packing case in which the ova was brought from Bombay. 
Since then we have found we can work safely with cases considerably less 
bulky but at that time 1 felt that no risks could be taken. Capt. Kitchen, 
who hatched out his ova in the swimming bath at Abbottabad was, when 
he sent me his diary, under the impression that his effort had failed en- 
tirely, but he afterwards discovered, and wrote me that some of the fish 
released in the Kalapani had survived and bred there. A subsequent 
attempt was made by the late Col. Kemhall of the same regiment to 
re-stock this stream and to stock another river in the same district vpith ova 
from Kashmir. Possibly some of the trout from these importations still 
survive. One of my men, sent down two years ago: at the instance of 
the Deputy Commissioner to make enquiries, reported that he actually saw 
one and were it not that every Gurkha Sipahi is a poacher at heart and 
that it seems impossible to control this tendency, I have no doubt than good 
trout fishing might be established in this district. But to return to our sub- 
ject, Mr. Macdonell arrived late in the evening and we were busy till nearly 
midnight washing and transferring the ova to the hatching boxes which 
were ready in the verandah with pipe water laid on. About 6,000 appeared 
to be in good condition, a very fair proportion considering that they had 
travelled from England without any expert in charge, but we found many of 
these failed to hatch out and the mortality in the alevin and early fry stage 
was very distressing. The pipe water supply was a fertile source of trouble 
and had there been more than a thin wooden partition between the head of 
ray bed and the hatching box, the fate which overtook an ova hatching 
exhibit (put up by me for the Punjab Exhibition at Lahore in 1911) during a 
failure of the Municipal Water Supply, might have brought an untimely 
end to my efforts. As it was the stoppage of the flow at night on several 
occasions woke me up and men were soon at work carrying water till the 
pipe supply again came in. In due course the fry stage was reached. 
Some of the little fishes were then transferred to a fry pond excavated in 
the compound, where they were hand fed and the remainder to a length of 
the Gupkar irrigation canal above Harvvan, netted at both ends to prevent 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 297 

their escape, where they had to rely on the resources of nature for their 
sustenance. A wonderful little lot of yearlings finally came out of the fry 
pond. Much reduced in numbers thanks to water troubles but incredibly 
grown thanks to Sodhama's care in feeding them. One lish measured as 
much as lOJ" long (a record for a yearling of its age) when transferred in 
October to the Panchgaon ponds and sizes varied do i\n to something 
under 4". The yearlings from the canal on the other hand varied very 
little from a uniform length of 5". By arrangement with the Durbar 
through Colonel (afterwards Sir Harold) Deane who was then Resident in 
Kashmir, the new stock ponds were made inside the area soon to be in- 
cluded in the Dachigam Rukh and some of the yearlings were released 
four to five miles up the Arrah river near Dachigam. 

When subscriptions were first raised to import ova we had been given to 
understand that the Arrah river and possibly other suitable waters woxild 
with the approval of the Durbar be leased on favourable terms to the fish- 
ing Club of which the first subscribers formed the nucleus — Colonel Deane, 
however, considered that H. H. The Maharaja would be wrong to alienate 
State waters in this way and suggested instead that the State should find 
money to carry on the project up to at least the equivalent of what had already 
been subscribed privately: financial control to be exercised by the then 
newly formed Game Preservation Department and I to carry on the trout 
culture experiments as long as I cared to do so. Nothing however was 
done till Mr. Dane (afterwards Sir Louis) succeeded Sir Harold Deane at 
the Residency and the stream of Club subscriptions having dried up, funds 
in hand were exhausted. Then on my representing the urgency of the 
case, a visit to Panchgam was arranged and with a fly rod I lent him for 
the purpose, Mr. Dane dropped the first artificial fly on the stock pond 
there. A rush of the unsophisticated little beauties followed and one of 
them was on the bank in a twinkling. A day or two later Rs. 2,000 were 
placed to my credit with the Punjab Banking Company and " business as 
usual " followed till the great flood of 1903 swept over the land on the 24tli 
of July and the spot on which the trout had been landed was three feet 
Tinder it's waters. The trout enjoyed the flood thoroughly and when it was 
over the subsiding water found them settled in the holes and pools they 
had found most to their taste. Not one remained in the ponds. Thu 
spawning season was at hand, the redds (a common term for the gravelly 
shallow in which trout and salmon spawn) had been thoroughly cleaned 
by the flood and the trout had located themselves so as to have easy access 
to them. I suggested that they should not be disturbed as the opportunity 
was favourable for them to show what they could do in the way of reproduc- 
ing their species under natural conditions and with this the new Resident Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Elliot) Colvin agreed. At the suggestion of the Durbar the 
new ponds were made at Harwan outside the Rukh and another consign- 
ment of ova from England was arranged for to stock them. 

The policy of leaving the trout undisturbed in the stream was amply jus- 
tified when the snow water had run o9' in the summer of 1904. Little trout- 
lots were found in the streams below the reservoir when the water was cut oft' 
and subsequent investigation above the reservoir showed thfeir presence in 
nearlyevery pool below Panchgam in more or less numbers. Earlier in the 
year the new ponds at Harwan were begun and w'ere made of a much more 
permanent character than those destroyed by the flood. Three were 
considered sufficient for the first year — two being required for the fresh 
importation and one for some 200 small trout which had remained in a 
spring fed pond at Panchgam when all the bigger fish hatched from an 
importation of ova in 1902, which had not been very successful, had been 
transferred to the larger ponds only to be lost in the flood. When these 

38 



298 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol, XXVI, 

were transferred to their new quarters in July 1904 the largest probably 
did not exceed 6 oz. certainly not 8 oz. in weight, but with more room and 
more food they at once began to grow amazingly. So much so that when 
Lord Minto visited Kashmir in October 1906 a trout of 12^ lbs. in weight 
was supplied from this lot as a special delicacy for his entertainment. 
This fish had increased its size quite 25 times in 27 months, 

Upto to 1905 very little public interest was taken in the work though an 
occasional sportsman visitor who had heard of it drove out to see the new 
ponds at Harwan. Few believed that any great success was likely to be 
achieved. In the summer of that year the new Resident Col. Pears and 
his wife came out on 27th June to see what was doing and lunched with 
me in the Rukh. The stream was still fairly big with snow water, but 
after lunch I caught 8 or 9 nice little trout with fly above the old ponds at 
Panchgam and i also saw a very heavy ti^h jump in the old " Temple " pool 
there. A few days later Mrs. Pears told me with great amusement how 
when she had been relating their experiences on their return to Srinagar 
one gentleman had remarked " Oh ! Mitchell just catches the same trout 
over and over again to make you think there are a lot of them." 

I told one of my brothers of the big fish I had seen and as he was most 
anxious to have a try for it I asked him and three or four others to come 
out and spend the day with me on the 9th of July. I was delayed showing 
the others the ponds at Harwan and my brother went straight up to the 
pool where I had told him I had seen the big trout. When I got there it 
was gasping its last having fallen a victim to the lure of a fly spoon — 
a perfect cock fish of 5f lbs. We had him cooked at once for lunch and his 
fame went out into the land. Fishing began from that day and many big 
fish up to 9 lbs. in weight were killed the following summer when I was in 
England — nearly all on spinning tackle. 

With the 1904 consignment of ova a small quantity of rainbow ova 
was shipped, but, being much more delicate than thefatio ova, none hatched 
out and no further attempt was made to introduce the rainbow trout into 
Kashmir till 1912 when we succeeded in hatching out nearly 1,000 alevins 
from a consignment of ova presented by the Bristol Water Works from 
their head works at Blagdon and shipped by my old Calcutta chum Mr. 
(now Col.) W. W. Petrie by the P, & O, mail steamer. These dwindled 
down to a very small number before they reproduced their kind, but a fair 
stock has now been established at Harwan and with a better understanding 
of special complaints to which this species is liable, I hope to see them 
giving fine sport before long in waters which are rather too w^arm for the 
brown trout. 

In February 1905 the first ova was collected from trout in Kashmir. 
There were only a few ready to spawn and my men had had 
no experience in handling them, so I arranged an artificial spawning 
bed with a wire net trap for the ova and I left the trout to select their 
own season. About 2,000 ova were collected in the net and of these only 
some 900 proved fertile and hatched out. Unfortunately a Himalayan 
Water Shrew got into the box one night and ate all but one of the little 
alevins. Having done this he found he could not get out again and next 
morning he was floating on the water drowned. The following season we 
began stripping the trout and fertilizing the ova and in 1908 a proper 
hatchery was built from which eyed ova up to a maximum of 1,000,000 
have been issued yearly since that time. These have been distributed to 
fry ponds and spring streams all over Kashmir including Gilgit and have 
been hatched out chiefly in Pahari boxes well described in Mr. Howell's 
article on " The making of a Himalayan Trout Stream." Ova have been 



MLSCELLAXEOUS NOTES. 299 

also sent to Abbottabad, Kangra, Kulu, Simla, Naini Tal and Shillong 
(ABsam) as well as to a number of Native States all in charge of men 
trained at Harwan, who have conveyed the consignments safely to their 
destination, generally with a loss of less than 1 per cent, in transit. 
Perhaps the most difhcult journey to negotiate successfully was to Gilgit 
on which 200 miles of road crossing passes of 12,000' and 15,000' had to be 
traversed in December. The first effort was a failure, the ova having been 
frozen, but the second succeeded and I understand that officers of the 
Agency now have fair trout fishing in at least one stream. For this Col. 

A. B. Dew and Col. Macpherson have to be thanked. The former having 
commenced and the latter carried out I believe chiefly on their own expense 
most of the hatchery work in Gilgit with the help of a man from Harwan. 
In the Valley of .Kashmir most of the more accessible streams suitable for 
trout fishing are now fairly stocked and some of the more distant waters 
have been taken in hand. The high lakes which by many were considered 
unsuitable owing to their being frozen over, in some years as late as the 
end of June, have given one conspicuous success. Unfortunately there is 
a question of sanctity about the lakes so far stocked and permission to 
issue fishing licences has not been granted by the Durbar. Other lakes 
have, however, been taken in hand with good prospects of success. 

Before closing this account I should mention that in 1908 an attempt was 
made to introduce the great Danube Salmon (S. hucho) into Kashmir. Ova 
was arranged for through a well known Continental pisciculturist and was 
shipped via London to Calcutta at considerable trouble and expense. The 
consignment arrived in Calcutta on 9th April (nearly the hottest season of 
the year there) 1 met and took it up to Kashmir where the little fish hatched 
out and appeared quite healthy, but none grew to over half a pound in the 
first two or three years. An enquiry kindly made on our behalf by Mr. R. 

B. Marston of the " Fishing Gazette"' resulted in some correspondence 
being published in that paper in which the firm who sold us the ova admitted 
that they had been unable to obtain guaranteed ova from the Government 
hatchery and had sent us some from a private hatchery which might have 
been a late lot of Salmon {S. salar) ova. The scales of the little fish indicat- 
ed that this was the case. After three or four years respectively the cocks and 
hens of this batch reached the reproducing stage and were experimentally 
cross bred with »S'. fario, but the resulting fish did not grow well. Cross 
breeding was carried on to the third generation with no signs of a "mule " 
tendency, but the fish were not satisfactory and were finally ell released. 
Some of the original fish ultimately reached a size of over a pound in weight 
and had the spotty look of a bull trout, but after the early stages, none of 
them seemed to feed well except on live water insects and flies. 

F. J. MITCHELL. 
Srinagab, Kashmir, 1918. 



No. XXII.— NOTES ON THE LARVA OF CH.EROCAMPA 

ALEC TO. 

I found eggs and larvse of this moth at Rae Bareli, U. P., at the end of 
October and in November 1917. The food plants were the cultivated vine, 
and a small plant growing near marshy ground, with a flower shaped like a 
clove. 

The eggs were spherical and bright green in colour, about the same size as 
the eggs of Daphnis neni. They were laid singly, usually on the upper side 
of a leaf. 



300 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The larva when first hatched was Hght yellow, with a long thin black horn. 
After the first change of skin ocelli began to appear on the sides. 

At the second change of skin the larva assumed either a green or a brown 
colour. 

In the green from the head and body were green, with a darker dorsal 
line. On each side there was a series of seven ocelli on the fourth to the 
tenth body segments, either reddish or blue, ringed with black, and a yellow 
sub-dorsal line commencing at the second segment and running through the 
ocelli to the horn. Horn long and thin, reddish at the base with a black tip. 
Legs pink, prolegs and claspers green. 

After the third change of skin the co'lc;.r became yellowish-green, dotted 
with darker green. The third and fourth body segments became swollen, 
and the ocelli on the fourth segment larger than the others. Ocelli reddish, 
ringed first with yellow and then dark green. Horn same as before. 

After the fourth change of skin, which is the last before turning to a pupa, 
the head and the first three segments were apple green, the other segments 
yellow in the dorsal area, green underneath, dotted and striped with darker 
green. Legs and spiracles red, horn purple, strong and pointed and curved 
sharply downwards. Ocelli green ringed with yellow and black. 

When full grown the larva was three and a half inches long. The brown 
form was coloured as follows : — Head and body brown, body dotted with 
brown from the fifth segment to the horn. First pair of ocelli black ringed 
with yellow and black. Seven oblique stripes brown. Spiracles blue, 
horn purple, legs red, prolegs and claspers brown. 

The pupa was a dirty brown colour, with black spiracles and dark lines 
and dots. In front of the head, and joined to it, was a circular flattened 
sheath, containing the proboscis. 

The pupse were formed at the beginning of November 1917, and the 
moths hatched on the 1st of March 1918. 

The green and brown forms both occurred together on the smaller food 
plant, which had both green and brown leaves. All found on the vine 



A large proportion of those reared from the egg assumed the brown 
form, either at the second or a later change of skin. 

F. B. SCOTT, Captain, I.A. 
Hyderabad, Bind, 
V2th May 1918. 



No. XXIII.— LIFE HISTORY OF THE ANTHER.^ A ROYLEI 

(OAK EMPEROR) MOTH. 

On the morning of the 1st September 1917 1 found a male and a female of 
the moth. The male had just separated from the female. I pinned the 
male and put the female in a box and she commenced to lay her eggs 
immediately. The first eggs hatched on the 11th September, and the first 
caterpillars moulted as under : — 

Ist moult commenced on the 18th September and completed I9th Sept. 



2nd do. 


25th do. 


do. 


26th do. 


:3rd do. 


Ist October 


do. 


3rd Oct 


4th do. 


9th do. 


do. 


nth do. 


•Ith do. 


I7th do. 


do. 


19th do. 


()th do. 


23rd do. 


do. 


24th do. 


7th do. 


28th do. 


do. 


30th do. 


8th and last moult 


2nd November 


do. 


3rd Nov. 



/^ 



/ 



u 
o 
en 



rl 

z 
> 

E 



a 

■ 

c 

3 

e 
■9 



■%-»v. 








J. g:^:^ 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 301 

The first caterpillars began to spin their cocoons on the 9th of November 
1917. The first batch of moths from these cocoons hatched on the night of 
the 9th March 1918, These were four males. On the 13th some females 
hatched and were set out on the night of the 14th. Males were caught on 
them, and the females started to lay on the 15th. The caterpillars from these 
began to hatch on the 25th March 1918. The first caterpillars from this 
batch spun their cocoons on the 20th June 1918. The second batch of 
moths from these turned on the 29th July 1918, and some females were set 
out the same night and males taken. The moths laid on the 30th July 1918, 
and the eggs hatched on the 9th August 1918. According to the time the 
first batch took to spin their cocoons, i.e., two months. This batch should 
begin to spin on the 7th October 1918. From this it will be seen that 
there are three batches of cocoons in the year. The caterpillars are easy 
to breed in captivity and copulate freely if kept loose in a room. In the 
first batch raised, I had 150 eggs, out of which I got 142 cocoons. The 
caterpillars were fed on oak leaves [Quercus seiniserrata). Till the second 
mould had been taken, the caterpillars were kept in a cardboard box with a 
tight fitting lid. After this they were put on to branches of the oak which 
were stood up in a bottle with water in it. And this again was stood up 
in a zinc bath tub to prevent any caterpillars falling oft', getting away and 
being lost. 

The caterpillars are hardy and are easy to breed, and the silk appears 
to be of good quality, and ought to be of commercial value if grown on a 
large scale, but nobody in Burma seems to have the enterprise to do it. 

lam sending you under separate cover males and females of the Antherrea 
roylei, also some empty cocoons of the same. Also a skin of the Wood 
snipe, G. nemoricula, which was shot up here last March. 

C. W, ALLAN, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests, 

Mandalay Division. 
Maymyo, Burma, 
lUh August 1918. 



No. XXIV.— A FLIGHT OF LOCUSTS. 

( With a Plate.) 

The accompanying photograph was taken by Lt.-Col. P. H. Rogers, 
K.O.Y.L.I., in 1903, and represents the locusts crossing the compound of the 
Club of Western India, Poona. If a magnifying glass is used the shape <»f 
some of the locusts in the photograph can be plainly seen. 

E. C. B. AC WORTH. 
Bombay, IWi December 1917. 



No. XXV.— NESTING HABITS OF VESPA DORYLLOIDES, Sauss. 

Specimens of a Wasp Vespa doi-ylloides, Sauss., and a dynastinid beetle 
Blabephoiua pinguis,¥?Livu\., were recently sent me by Mr. A. J. S. Butter- 
wick, Extra Assistant Conservator of Forests, Instructor, Burma Forest 
School, with the following account of the conditions under which they were 
taken : — 

" On the 22nd of last month (March 1918), 1 had occasion to burn out the 
nest of a kind of yellow wasp (probably a species of Vesj)a), which had been 



302 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX f I. 

giving my men and myself a lot of trouble as they had frequently attacked 
us in the dark, and as their stings were extremely painful and long lived. 
The Burmans call them padus. The nest was located inside the hollow .of a 
teak tree near our camp (Pyinmana Forest Division, Burma). To show me 
that they did not attack at a distance by day, a Burman shoved his head (this 
was at 11 a.m.) right into the hollow to look for the nest and he was not touch- 
ed. After the nest was well burnt and smoked, it was taken out and shown to 
me. There were altogether 6 circular tiers one over the other. Each tier 
was about 1^" thick and was separated from the adjacent ones by spaces 
about i" broad. The tiers were however joined at their centres to each 
other by 2 or 3 thin pillars of the same papery material as the whole nest 
was made of. When looking into these spaces to my great surprise I found 
inside them a large number of (apparently) the common three-homed rhino- 
ceros beetle. I could not make out exactly what these beetles were there 
for, as most of them had died from the eftects of the fire. The Burmans 
call them " Padu min'' (King of padus) and allege that they are always 
found in these wasps' nests and that they devour the grubs and young pupae. 
I am not sure whether what they say is correct, or whether the mother 
wasps sting and paralyse these beetles and bring them to their nests for 
food for their young ones.'' 

The above is of interest as the nest of Vaspa dorylloides does not 
appear to have been described before. Du Buysson, who monographed 
the genus in 1904, says (Ann. Soc. Ent. France., LXXIII, pp. 617-618) 
on the authority of a correspondent in Sumatra, that " this wasp 
exhibits crepuscular habits, flying by evening at nightfall. It comes 
to light during meals, and makes off with what food stuff it can seize. 
During the day it appears to be distressed by the direct light of the sun 
and flies as if deprived of sight colliding with anything before it. The 
natives have given it a name which means '' blind ". It is very irritable 
and its sting is fairly painful. It lives in old and very thick forests in which 
it makes its nest in the soil." 

It seems most probable that the beetles were accidentally associated with 
the wasps, that they were sheltering in the hollow tree and were driven by 
the smoke into the interspaces of the wasps' nest, I should be very glad to 
hear of any other explanation or similar occurrence. 



C. F. C. BEESON, m.a., i.f.s., 

Forest Zoologist. 



Dehra Dun, ISth June 1918. 



XXVI.— MIMICRY IN SPIDERS. 

In a chick-house at Muzaft'arpur a few days ago I saw a distinct attempt 
of a spider at imitating a Hymenocallis Lily. The threads of the web were 
to be seen with difficulty against the background and in the centre a cross 
of two or three inch arms had been made to show up white by means of 
many cross threads. Towards the centre the white changed to a misty grey 
colour into which the head of the spider toned exactly. The spider itself 
stood in the centre with its legs doubled together up the arms of the cross, 
the colour of the legs being sepia and cinnamon in bars. The body of about 
half an inch long was for the front two-fifths of a creamy yeUow crossed by 
two very fine black stripes and the remainder was a very dark brown, almost 
black, with fine yellow spots and was divided into two nearly equal parts by 
a broad cross band of cream colour shading to gamboge. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 308 

Altogether the imitation was most successful, so much so that I thought it 
as well to see if the spider also emitted any scent like that of a lily, but he 
(or she) appeared to have omitted that detail. 

F. CLAYTON. 

Kanchi, 1st July 1918. 



No. XXVII.— ON THE BREEDING HABIIS OF SOME MYRIAFODA. 

Very little seems to be known about the breeding habits of the Myriapoda. 
The two more important orders of Myriapoda are : The Chilopoda and the 
Chilognatha. 

The former are well represented in India by the family Scolopendridae, 
a group of common centipedes. With regard to the breeding habits of 
these, opinions differ considerably. Sinclair, in the Cambridge Natural 
History, Vol. V, p. 39, says : " The Scolopendrido' are said to bring forth 
their young alive, but I think the evidence for this is unsatisfactory. What 
have been taken for the young Scolopendridce are perhaps the large sperma- 
tophores of the male, which are not unlike a larval Myriapod in size and 
shape. 1 have never been able to observe the process of breeding in this 
family. I have had the spermatophores sent me from Gibraltar as "eggs", 
but a little examination soon showed me their real character." To what 
genus those spermatophores belong. Sinclair does not tell us. The informa- 
tion given by Sedgwick in Vol. Ill, p. 600 of his Student's Text-book of 
Zoology goes a little further. He says : " It has been stated that some of 
the Scolopendridce are viviparous. However this may be, the majority of 
the Chilupods appear to be oviparous. Lithobius lays its eggs singly and 
rolls them in the earth. The European species of Scolopendra lay (in June 
and July) from 15 to 33 eggs (about 3 mm. in length) in the earth (3 to 8 
cm. deep) and roll themselves round them, protecting them from contact 
with the earth and keeping them moist by a fluid secretion until they are 
hatched, which takes place after some weeks. GeopMlus also has been 
observed to take care of its eggs in a similar manner. " Hayek (in Zoologie, 
Vol. II, p. 172) is more general in his statement. According to this autho- 
rity no union takes place between the two sexes. The male spreads a few 
threads on the ground and attaches its spermatophores to the network. The 
female walks over the threads and receives the spermatophores into the vagina. 
Verhoeff is more definite. He distinguishes two classes of Chilopoda : 
The females of one lay their eggs singly and cannot, therefore, take 
care of the eggs and the young ones. To this class belong, v.g , the 
Scutigeridce. The females of the other class lays a number of eggs into a 
hole and surrounds or covers them with her body. Here belong the 
Geo^philidee and Scolopendridce. 

It is apparent from these statements that our knowledge of the breeding 
habits of the Chilopoda is very meagre, and sometimes contradictory. It 
seems that almost every species has to be observed before we can draw 
general conclusions, 

I have repeatedly had occasion of observing one of the common centi- 
pedes, Scolopendra morsitana, L., at Khandala as well as in Bombay. The 
full-grown Centipede is about 10 cm. long, with a metallic lustre on its 
back, the undersurface being yellow. At Khandala I have seen eggs in 
the months of May and June. The eggs numbered from 20 to 30. They 
are elliptic, soft, surrounded by a thin tough skin, and of a cream colour. 
They were loosely stuck together by some glutious substance and 
could easily be separated from each other. The mother Centipede takes 
care of her eggs by winding herself round them and keeping the eggs 



304 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

together with her legs and keeping them away from the soil. After some 
period the eggs are hatched and the young ones emerge quite soft and 
white, about 1 cm. long. The mother nurses also the young ones in the 
same manner for some time. When they are big enough they have to look 
out for themselves. 1 have observed the young ones in July in the persis- 
tent leaf-sheath of a Palm. 

As to the other order of Myriopoda, viz., the Ckilot/natka or Millipedes, a 
little more seems to be known with regard to the breeding habits, though 
even here some writers have been generalizing too much. Sedgwick v. g. 
says that "the eggs are laid shortly after copulation, in masses in damp 
earth, under stones, etc. Sometimes a kind of nest is made, and in some spe- 
cies the mother keeps watch over the eggs." Hayek makes the same state- 
ment. Sinclair who succeeded in bringing some specimens of Polydesmun 
alive from Madeira to England, and in getting them to breed, observes that 
'•their way of laying eggs and making a nest resembles that of Julus, which 
is known to lay 60 to 100 eggs at a time in a small nest in the ground. I 
have been able to observe a species of Polf/des)nus in Bombay, in the month 
<tf October. When removing a i^lant with the soil from a flower pot I 
noticed on one of the pieces of a broken flower pot (which the malis use to 
put inside in the bottom) a dome-like structure made of earth and about 
1 cm. in diameter. On opening it I found a young Poli/defonus curled up in 
the cavity of the dome. It was about 1 cm. long, quite soft and completely 
white. On examining the other broken pieces of the flower pot I found 
.") or 6 more of those domes, each one containing one young Polydesmus. 
From this it is evident thai at least one Indian species of Polydesmus does 
not lay its eggs in masses, but singly, enclosing each in a mud dome. 
What the young Millipedes are feeding on during the first time of their de- 
velopment I cannot say. But it seems that the young larva eats its own 
moult, as, in some cases, I have seen only half a moult left in the cavity. 
Of course this self-devouring process cannot increase the size of the larva, 
and I wish to add that I have not seen them actually eating the moult. 

C. McCANN. 
St. Xavier's College BiOLoaiCAL Laboratory, 
Bombay, April 1918. 



No. XXVIII.— note ON A NEW UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF 
CYNODON BY K. RANGACHARI AND C. TADULINGAM. 

{With a Plate). 

Specimens of this grass collected in the Godavari District were left 
unidentified for want of sufticient material. We obtained last year sufficient 
material by growing plants from a specimen collected on the Nilgiris near 
Kallar. This is named Cynodon intermedius, as it resembles in certain 
respects Cynodon dactylon on the one hand and Cynodon harhen on the 
other. 

Cynodon intermedius, sp. no v. 

This grass is a widely creeping perennial. 

The stems are slender, glabrous, creeping superficially and rooting at the 
nodes, but never rhizomiferous, leafy with slender erect or goniculately 
ascending flowering branches, and varying in length from 12 to 18 inches ; 
nodes are slightly swollen, glabrous, green or purplish. 

The leaf-sheath is smooth, glabrous, slightly compressed, sparsely bearded 
at the mouth, shorter than the internode, except the one enclosing the 
peduncle which is usually long ; the ligule is a shortly ciliated rim. 



\ 
^ 



Journ,, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



CYNODON INTEBMEDIUS, sp. nov 



MISCELLAISEOUS NOTES, 305 

The leaf-blade is linear, flat, finely acuminate, scaberaloiis above the 
margins, smooth below except in some portions of the mid rib, ^ to 7 inches 
in length and ^q to \ inch in breadth. 

The inflorescence consists of four to eight long, thin, slender, slightly 
drooping, digitately arranged spikes, 2 to 4 inches long on a long smooth 
peduncle ; the rachis is tumid and pubescent at its base, slender, somewhat 
compressed and scaberulous. The spikelets are rather small, narrow, 
greenish or purplish, ^^ inch long or less ; the rachilla is slender, produced 
to about half the length of the spikelet behind the palea. 

There are three glumes. The first and the second glumes are lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, one-nerved, keel obscurely scabrid, very unequal, the 
first glume being always shorter than the second glume. 1 he third glume 
ia obliquely ovate-oblong, chartaceous, longer than the second glume, obtuse 
or subacute, and three-nerved ; the margins and keel with close set 
clavellate hairs pointed at the apex ; palea is chartaceous, 2-keeled, 
keels obscurely scaberulous and without hairs. There are three stamens 
with somewhat small purple anthers. Ovary with purple stigmas and two 
small lodicules. Grain is oblong reddish bro^vn, with a faint dorsal groove. 

The species is closely allied to the cosmopolitan species Cynvdon dactylon, 
Pers., and to another new species Cynodon barter?, Eang. & Tad., des- 
cribed in the journal of the Bombay Nat. Hist. Society, Vol. 24, Part IV, 
page 846, and it is therefore named Cynodon .ntermedius. This grass 
diflers from Cynodon dactylon, 1*0X3. (1) in not having underground stems 
and having only stems creeping and rooiing along the surface of the ground, 
(2) in having less rigid leaves, (ii) by havinsr longer, slenderer, somewhat 
drooping spikes and narrower spikelets, (4) by having the first two glumes 
always unequal, the 2nd being longer, (5) by having clavellate pointed 
hairs on the margins and keels of the third glume and 6 by having smaller 
anthers. Compared with Cynodon hai-heri, this plant is more extensively 
creeping with longer slender branches and the leaves are usually very 
much longer and the third glume is longer than the second. 

Distribution. — So far, this was collected at Gokavaram in Godavari 
District (No. 8269), in Chingleput (No. 11488), Tinnevelly District (Nos. 
13129 and 13259) and at Kallar on the Nilgiris (No. 13988). 

Explanation of Plate. 

Fig. I. Full plant. 
„ 11. Spikelets and parts of a spikelet. 

1. front view of a portion of spike ; 2. back view of a portion of a 
spikelet; 3. spikelet; 4. first glume, 5. second glume ; 6. -third glume; 
7. palea ; 8. lodicules, stamens and ovary ; 9. hairs on the third glume ; 
10. grain. 

K. RANGACHARl. 

Govt. Lecturing Botanist. 
CoiMBATORE, Ath April 1918. 



No. XXIX.— A VARIETY OF BUTE A FRO N I) OS A. 

In March 1918, while inspecting villages in the Manpur pargana (British 
area) in the Central Fndia Agency, I came suddenly on most tilorious sight. 
A single tree of golden yellow Buteafrondosa. The tree is about 30 feet 
high and was at that time a mass of blossom. The flower differs in no way 
from the ordinary variety except in colour. The Forest Rangfr. who was 
with me. said that in the Central Provinces, to which service he belongs, he 
had seen a yellowish white variety, but nothing like this. The colour in this 

S9 



306 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

case is similar to that of a Sua- flower. A variety which would appear to be 
similar to that found in the Central Provinces is referred to in Vol. VI of 
the Journal, page 107. Neither the Flora of British India, Brandis, 
Gamble or Talbot refer to any such variety or this. I have secured its 
seed, some of which I sent to Mr. Millard, and it will be interesting to see 
if it flowers true. 

C. E. LUARD, Lt.-Col., 
Manpur, C. I., Political Agent in the Southern States 

June ISth, I9I8. of Central India. 



No. XXX.— THE EDIBLE DATE-PALM IN BOMBAVT. 

On the 11th July Mr. Millard sent me the fruits of the Date-Palm 
{Phcenix dactylifera), growing in the Bombay University Gardens. The 
malee informed him that the tree. fruited every year and that the fruits 
fall off before they are mature. 

The fruits are green or yellowish green and about 1 inch long. The 
complete absence of a seed shows that they have apparently not been 
fertilized. There is a small empty cavity in the flesh which imitates in its 
shape (but not in its size) the stone or seed of the fruit. 

The usual process after fertilization is this : Out of the three free simple 
ovaries of the flower onL- one ripens into a berry, the pericarp becoming the 
pulp which contains a " stone " or seed. The latter is a solid mass of horny 
perisperm with the embryo embedded in a small cavity a little beneath the 
surface, its place being indicated by a papilla on the surface. 

In the fruit under examination the pericarp alone has developed, the rest 
being abortive ; each fruit is supported at its base by the complete perianth 
thus showing that onl^^ one of the 3 ovaries has developed into a (seedless) 
fruit, whilst the others have disappeared. 

Of these facts one is old, and one seems to be new. It is well known that, 
in case there is no pollination, all three of the ovaries will develop, but will 
be seedless and the fruit will be inferior. In our case, however, only one 
ovary in each flower has developed, a behaviour quite different from what 
lias been observed up to now (at least to my knowledge). Is it nob possible 
that the stimulus for the formation of the fruit was given by pollen of the 
Wild Date Palm {I'/ioenix sylvestris), but tliat the stimulus was not suflicient 
to produce a seed ? It would be easy to ascertain this point during the 
flowering season of the Palm. 

E. BLATTER, s.j. 
Botanical Labokatouy, 
St. Xaviek's Coli-ege, 
Bombay, IZth July 1918. 



No. XXXI.— OLEANDER POISONING CAMELS. 

Does anybody know why Oleander is such a deadly poison to camels r 
The theory here is that the leaves choke the camel, and that dried leaves 
are more fatal than green ones. Is it known what the poison is, and what 
antidote, if any, there is ? A man in the Telegraph Department told me 
to-day that he had saved the life of one of his riding camels by giving it 
within \ hour of its eating the oleander leaves, 2 bottles of tea, 3 bottles of 
strong solution of permanganate of potash, and two bottles pf gbee P 
Apparently no symptoms of poisoning were seen. 



« MmCELLANE0U8 NOTES. 307 

Of course the purely local systems of treatment for all camels' diseases are 
(1) branding, preferably as far away from the seat of the disease as possible, 
e.g., heal for a toothache and (2) ghi, kerosine oil and sweet oil in varying 
proportions internally or externally. But 1 have never met any one yet 
who really knew anything about camels, 

J. E. B. HOTSON, Capt , i.a.k.o. 
Panjgue, via NusHKi, 
March 1918. 

[The Revd. E. Blatter, S. J., commenting on the above query writes : 

Before speaking of the poisonous qualities of the plant mentioned by 
Capt. Hotson, 1 wish to make a remark on a systematic point regarding 
two species of Nerium. 

Nerium odorum, Soland., has been found up to now in Afghanistan, Balu- 
chistan (Persian as well as British) up to 6,000 feet, in the outer N. W. 
Himalaya up to 5,500 feet, in Central India and China. It has a predelec- 
tion for rocky stream beds or ravines and river beds which are dry in 
winter. It is generally grown in Indian gardens with single and double 
white or pink flowers. Neiium oleander, L., however, is a common shrub in 
the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, Syria and Kurdistan. Kirtikar 
wrote in Vol. XI, p. 254 of this Journal : " it must now be considered 
that the Nerium odorum . . . is no other than the Nerium oleander of the 
Mediterranean coast, barring developmental differences due to climatic 
influences. Linnaeus is after aU right in considering that they were 
identical plants. However much the corolla may vary in the two plants, 
we have the high and unquestionable authority of Brandis that the fact 
of a mere climatic variation of the corolla does not afford distinctive 
characters of a reliable kind. Special parts luay vary, but yet their variation 
need not go to multiply varieties which may reasonably be classed under one 
and the same species." 

It seems to me that, if we want to settle this point, we have to compare 
wild-growing specimens of the two species. It is no use taking plants which 
have been under cultivation for a long period. Capt. Hotson has sent us 
specimens of what we consider to be Nerium odorum from various parts of 
Persian and British Baluchistan as well as from Makran. In most cases we 
are sure that they have not been introduced or cultivated in those localities. 
They differ from Nerium oleander in the following points : — The plant is less 
robust ; the leaves are commonly narrow and more distant ; the branches 
are angled ; the calyx lobes are erect (in wild specimens of Nerium oleander 
they are spreading); the appendages of the corona are cleft into numerous 
fdiform segments, or are trifid, the lateral segments being linear, the 
central one short-triangular (whilst in Neiium odorum the segments 
of the appendages are short, irregular, and not linear or filiform ; the 
appendages of the anthers are protruding ( not protruding in N. oleander) ; 
the fruit is 6-9 inches long (in N. oleander 3-6 inches), the flowers are frag- 
rant (in N. oleander inodorous). I am inclined to think that all these 
differences taken together justify our retaining N. odorum as a distinct 
species. 

Now to the poisonous qualities of the shrub. Here we need not make 
any distinction between the two species, as experience has shown that both 
exhibit the same toxic properties. Pliny is the first to mention the Olean- 
der. He writes : " The rhododendron (our Oleander) has not even found 
a name in Latin. They call it rhododaphne or 7ierium. It is strange that its 
leaves should be poisonous to aU quadrupeds, but to man an antidote 
against snake-bite, if they are taken in wine together with rue. Also 
cattle and goats are said to die if they drink of the water in which the 



308 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

leaves have been soaked." (Plin. Nat. Hist., XXIII, 11, 90 (Edit. Teub.) ). 
Dioscorides, a contemporary of Pliny gives even a description of the plant 
and adds : " A well-known bush which has longer and thicker leaves than 
the ahnond tree. It grows in gardens, on coast lands, and beside rivers ; 
its blossoms and leaves have a bad eflect on dogs, asses, mules, and most 
quadrupeds ; but taken with wine, they are wholesome for men against the 
bite of animals, especially if mixed with rue ; but when the smaller 
animals, like goats and sheep, drink of this, they die." Palladius says that 
mice can be destroyed by stopping up their holes and passages with Oleander 
leaves. Considering that the Uomans received the name of the bush from 
Greece, it is difficult to understand that not one Greek w riter mentions the 
plant. 

To the Hindus the poisonous qualities of Oleander have been known for a 
long time. " It is proverbial among females of the hills," says Dymock, •' to 
bid each other go and eat the root of the Kaner. Ainslie also refers to its 
tise by Hindu women, when tormented by jealousy, and Broughton says that 
it is well-known and extensively used in the Eombay Presidency as a 
poison, the juice from the red variety being considered the strongest and 
most fatal." Ealfour mentions that the camels eat leaves and usually die 
in consequence of it. 

Chemical analysis has shown that the leaves of the Oleander contain two 
substances which are chemically dift'erent and free of nitrogen, riz., Olean- 
drin and neriin (*). Both are non-crystallisable gJucosides, almost 
insoluble in water. Oleandrin forms amorphous masses which are soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and chlorofo'm, but only slightly so in water. Neriin may 
prove to be identical with digitalein, but in the meantime it goes under its 
specific name. Schmiedeberg, who examined leaves of the African plant, 
was able to separate a third product, which he called neriantin. Regarding 
its chemical and physiological properties it is similar to digitalin. 

Both, oleandrin as well as neriin, are heart poisons and their effects 
fairly agree with those produced by digitalin (the poison obtained from the 
foxglove, Dit/italis purpurea). Ihe pulse frequently diminishes in the first 
stage, while the pressure of the blood rises ; then the blood pressure as well 
as the pulse frequency become abnormally low, and finally the pressure 
remains low, whilst the pulse beats above the normal frequency When the 
pulse becomes very low, it is natural that a feeling of constriction and 
uneasiness in the chest comes on (called choking in Capt. Hotson's letter). 
But the aspect of oleander-poisoning is not always so uniform and the 
symptoms may be altogether peculiar in certain cases. Interesting 
instances have been described in the Transactions of Med. and Phys. Soc. 
of Bombay. 1857, 1858 and 1859. 

The antidotes, too, are the same as those applied against digitalin poi- 
soning. Wynter Blyth recommends the following : 

"Empty the stomach by the tube or pump, or administer a subcutaneous 
dose (4 drops' of apomorphine, or give a tablespoonful of mustard in water, 
or sulphate of zinc. 

" Follow up with strong tea, or half a drachm of tannin, or gaUic acid in 
aqueous solution. 

"A very small dose of aconitine nitrate in solution (say 1/200 of 
a grain may be injected subcutaneously and the eflect watched ; if 
in a little time it seems to be good, repeat the dose. On no account 
let the patient rise from the recumbent posture, or he may faint to death. 

" Stimulants in small doses may be given frequently by the mouth, or, if 
there is vomiting, by the bowel." 

0) A. Wynter Blyth, Poisons- London, 1895. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 309" 

It is not easy to see the use of permanganate of potash and ghi, which 
were recommended to Captain Hotson. If a good efl'ect followed the 
administration of the medicine mentioned, it must be ascribed to the tea 
on account of the tannic acid it contains. — E. B.] 



No, XXXII.— NOTES FROM THE ORIENTAL SPORTING MAGAZINE, 

NEW SERIES, 1869 to 1879. 

Bears : The late Colonel Nightingale sptared many bears in the Hydera- 
bad country, mostly, if not entirely, off Arab horses. 

At pages 82 to 85 of Vol. XI a contributor relates the spearing of a 
number of bears, and some hyenas, in the Nirmal jungles (Hyderabad, 
Deccan) and relates the amusing sequence to a visit of a man-eating tiger 
to his camp. The local " Cutwal " or Jemadar of Police suggested the 
artful dodge of dressing up a sheep in garb of a man ! The device was 
tried and did not answer, and indeed appeared, as well it might, to keep 
the tiger away from the camp. 

At page 164: the exciting sport of spearing bears by moonlight is graphi- 
cally told. 

liliinoceros : A sportsman, " T. A. D.," relates in Vol. IX, 1876, p. 557, 
et seq., his sport in shooting Rhinoceros, in the Bhutan Dovars, off an 
elephant. No wonder that these unfortunate animals have woefully decreas- 
ed in numbers ! Such sportsmen were not entirely to blame as witness the 
following : *• W " writes at p. 638. " The shooting in the Dovars will not 
last much longer. I was credibly informed that the '' Pahlvvaris or shikaris 
had killed no less than 200 Rhinoceros." 

Here is "T. A. D.'s" account of his own doings. "The sun had set for 
some time, and I was obliged to give in : but I had bagged five rhinos in 
in that one day, and had wounded at least five times five more, a good 
many of which must have died. . . . My hands were blistered and bleed- 
ing with loading and I had broken two ramrods. I must have fired at least 
a hundred shots that day." The rifle used was a 12 bore and the locality 
East of the River Torsak near Patla Khowah in the Bhutan Dovars, 

Wolves : There are recorded several instances of the riding down and 
spearing of wolves, and also of black brick. An instance of wolves hunting 
by concerted plan is also related. 

The Wild Ass : At p. 276 of Vol. VI, 1873, is an account of the hunting 
of wild donkeys in the Runn of Cutch. Some 30 to 50 horsemen took part 
in the drive which resulted in one young ass being run down and captured 
in 3 hours and 5 minutes (6-25 to 9-30 a.m.) the distance covered being 
estimated at 40 miles. 

Various incidents x In Vol. IV (p. 328) a contributor writes that near 
Dehra Dun, a panther was killed by a Ghoorka recruit who threw a stone at 
it and fractured its skull. The man came on the beast as it was drinking 
at a pool in a nala. 

It is nob uncommon in the Lower Himalayas for panthers to be killed by 
the hillmen with their axes, but the doing in of a panther by a hand thrown 
stone must be a very unique performance. 

At p. 83 of Vol. XII is a note of an elephant having been bitten by a 
mad dog, and dying of hydrophobia. 

The spearing of a nilghae off Arab horses in Kathiawar is related : not a 
difficult feat in suitable ground. 

The " Pheo " call : In the same volume a contributor writes that the 
" Pheo " call is uttered by a jackal and that this cry indicates that some 
wild beast of the feline tribe is afoot. This is also the writer's experiency, 
though it is not infallible, as on one occasion the cry was clearly caused be 
the presence of a hyjena. 



310 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI, 



Crocodiles : One wonders whether the eyes of the contributor of the 
following note did not deceive him. He relates that he saw young 
alligators {sic) entering their mothers' mouth and going into her stomach 
and coming out again I (Vol. II, p. 1621). 

Buffalo : At p. 1873, Vol. VI, is a record of a cow buffalo kiUed in Assam, 
norns 1 3' 6" on the outer curve and 6' b" tip to tip. 

Doe chinkara : A doe chinkara with 9" horns is recorded. This must be 
nearly a " record." The writer has heard of an 11" head having been 
lately obtained in Sind, but has not yet been able to procure 
verification of this. 

At nage 1 of Vol. IV of 1871 is an interesting sketch of head of a doe 
antelope with horns. The animal was shot near Ahmednagar. 

Red Ants : The following assertion deserves a paragraph all to itself : 
" Castor oil smeared round the tree trunk and boughs above and below the 
sitter in a tree will keep oS" the red ant." If this be so, it is worth knowing ! 
M^ny a sportsman has been speedily dislodged by the vicious red ant with 
its vitriolic bite. On one occasion the writer lost a shot at a panther solely 
owing to the attentions of red ants. 

Snipe shooting : A Subaltern in the Arrakan Battalion won a wager that 
he would bag 100 couple of snipe in six hours. He won his bet, shooting 
126 couple between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. using two muzzle loaders. His 
performance was verified by the chaplain, and a very fine performance too, 

So7ne curiosities in Natural History : The greediness and voracity of 
eels is weU-known, but the eel of 2'-4" choked by attempting to swallow 
a brother eel of 2'-9" must have had a most unusual twist to his appetite. 

Frank Buckland relates a fight between a scorpion and a mouse in which 
the latter was victorious. Combats of a similar kind — Scorpion versus 
" Jerrymundlam " — a species of spider with jaws in four segments used to 
afford much after dinner amusement at a small military station a good many 
years ago. The arena was the surface of table cloth covered by an inverted 
finger bowl. Victory went either way according to the agility of the comba- 
tants. The point of attack, as in case of the mouse, was the junction of 
poison bag to the body, but, contrary to the experience of the mouse, the sting 
of the scorpion used to be very speedily fatal to the spider. 

Birds : At p. 81 of Vol. VI, 1873, is a vwry useful list by A. Manson of 
the birds of Orissa. The English and Ooria names are given. 

A list of the Orissa Mammals is at page 4-'58 of Vol. V, 1872. 

Some carefully ascertained weights of Floriken are given : 
Four Cocks .. 18i 18^ 16| 16^ ounces. 

Four hens .. 23i 22i 21 IS" ounces. 

Mahseer Fishing : Several contributors give short accounts of the excellent 
Mahseer fishing to be had in Assam. No doubt similar sport can be had at 
the present day. 

nth to 15th February . . 42 fish av. 20^ lbs. 

19th to 26th December . . 28 „ 3 to 40" lbs. 

21st Oct. to 22nd Nov. (1875) 34 „ av. 31^ lbs. 

Among these were several over 60 lbs. and one of estimated weight of 80 lbs. 
Length of this fish is given as 5'-3" with a girth of 3'-6". Calculated by the 
usaal formula the weight was 148 lbs. 

Some Shikar I The bag made by a party of guns in the Terai in 1870. 7th 
to 23rd April is worth recording. 

18 tigers. 
27 buffaloes. 
135 deer. 
42 pigs, &c., 240 head in all. '\ 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



311 



Old Magazines : Reference is made to some old sporting magazines, tiz. : 

Stocqueler's Bengal Sporting Magazine, 

Hume's India Sporting Review, 1847, 

Bombay Sporting Magazine, 
and it would be of interest to collate from these, and also from the Old Series 
of the Oriental Sporting Magazine (circulated 182-1). The writer hopes to be 
able to do this at some future time. 



R. W. BURTON, Lt.-Col., 

Indian Army. 



Bombay, 12th April 1918. 



No. XXXIII.— NILGIRI TRAP FOR CATCHING WILD ANIMALS. 

The man in the photograph with the trap is an Irula, one of the jungle 
tribes found on the lower slopes of the Hills in S. India. This particular 
one comes from below Kil Kotagiri in the Nilgiris. He made these trai)s 




himself of bamboo : the size shown is for small game : such as hares and 
jungle-fowl. They can be made large enough, I am told, for animals as 
big as a tiger : at least the fall trap is used for them. Curiously enough 
this tribe has no weapons for hunting : such as bows and arrows nor 
slings. 



PHILIP GOSSE, Capt., k.a.m.c. 



PooNA, 27th July 1918. 



312 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVL 

No. XX.XIY.—ELEOCHARIS CONGESTA, DON., IN THE BOMBAY 

PRESIDENCY. 

On the 6th October 1918 while working the marshes below Devarayi 
Station on the M. S. M. Railway, I came across the above sedge. This is 
new to tha Presidency and was not included in my account of the Bombay 
Cyperaoecfi, the second instalment of which (including the genus Eleooharis) 
is included in this Numbar. This sedge is common on the Nilgiri HiUs. 
Its occurrence, as well as the occurrence of Kyllimja melanospenna, Nees, 
(vide p. 700 of the last Number), shows that the marshes in the forest re- 
gions of Norrh Kanara and South Belgaum are suited to the sedges of the 
higher Southern Mountains, and further species may be expected in the 
future. In the clavis to Eleocharis this species follows E, chcetaria, and its 
description is as foUows : — 

" Tufted, 4-8 inches, stems striate. Uppermost sheath truncate with 
a email subulate projection from just below the top. Spikelet one, inclined, 
usually proliferous and viviparous, about \ inch, ovate, acute, dark. Bristles 
dirty white or pale brown, as long as, or longer than the nut. Style 3-fid ; 
base very large. 

Rare. Marshes on the crest of the Southern Ghats." 

Another of the rarer Bombay sedges which I found in the same marsh is 
Fimbristylis acuminata, Vahl. 

L. J. SEDGWICK. 
DHA.BWAR, October 1918. 



313 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF TBE MEETING HELD ON 16th APRIL 1918. 

A meeting of members and their friends of the Bombay Natural History 
Society took place on Tuesday, the 16th AprU 1918, Mr. John Wallace 
presiding. 

The election of the following 23 new members since the last meeting was 
announced : — Mr. Amir A. Ali, Mahboobnagar, Nizam's Dominions ; Mr, E. 
0. Thatcher, Sahuspur P. O,, Dehra Dun District; Mrs. G. A. Wathen, 
Amritsar ; Mr. C. Norman, Rangoon ; Mr. Duncan Cameron, Khaur, Pindi- 
gheb ; Capt. S. T Sheppard, Bombay; Mr, A. J. H. Tietkens, Darjeeling; 
Mr. J. Fernandes, Pachmari ; Mr. C. H. Langmore, Lopchu, Bengal; Dr. M. 
V. Mehta, M R C.P., L.M. & S., Bombay; Mr. L. G. Khare, B.A. (Cantab.), 
Bombay; Capt. E. A. H. Mackenzie, Jask; Mr. A. E. Donaldson, Rangoon; 
Mr. C. H. Q. McConnell, Ceylon ; Mr. James Erskine, Ceylon ; 2nd Lt. G. H. 
E. Hopkins, Bangalore ; Mr. D. P. Frenchman, B.A., B.Sc, Bombay ; Lt. J. 
Stuart Harrison, Secunderabad ; Lt. Donald Lowndes, Wellington ; Mr. B. 
W. Drury, Chanda, C.P.; Mr. D. F.Sanders, Hyderabad, Deccan ; Mr. J. 
W. K. FeUowes, Satara ; and Dr. A, J, Kohiyar, Bombay. 

The following contributions to the Museum were received since the last 
meeting : — 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


1 Persian Gazelle (alive) (6ro-"l 






zel a sp.) 1 




' 


2 Persian Gazelle skulls. . )■ 


Shustar, Persia . . 


Major F. M. BaUey, 


1 Sind Ibex {Capara hircus) \ 




CLE. 


41 Birds' skins . . . . ) 






2 Porcupines {Hi/stiix sp.) 1 






1 Hare {Lepus sp.) 

2 Gazelles (Gazella ep.) skulls ]■ 






Mesopotamia. 


Capt. C. R. Pitman. 


and masks. | 






62 Birds' skins . . . . J 






1 Large Indian Civet {V.'\ 






zibc'tha). \ 






1 Spotted Tiger Civet (P. ' 

purdicolor). j 

2 Sikkim Water Shrews {N. \ 


Sikkim 


Mr. C. H. Dracott. 






sikkimensis). J 






16 Bats 


Assam 


„ C Primrose. 


3 Pigmy Shrews {Pachyura 1 






peroteti). \ 


Basrah 


Sir Percy Cox. 


2 Snakes . . . . . . 1 






1 Flying Squirrel {Petaurisfa sp.) 


Garhwal 


Mr. A. E. Osmaston. 


1 Small Flying Squirrel {H. be- 


Sandoway 


„ F. C. Purkis. 


lone). 






1 Bengfd Porcupine {H. benga- 


Chittagong 


„ F. BoxweU. 


tens/a) skeleton. 






1 Indian Wild Dog (C. dukhu- 


Chittore . . 


„ C.E. C.Fischer. 


nensis). 







4« 



314 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol, XXVI. 



Contribution. Locality. 


Donor, 


1 Small Indian Civet ( V. malac- 


Nilgiris 


Mr. J. Harding Paa- 


censis). 




coe. 


1 European Bustard (0. tarda). . 


Qizil Robat, Meso- 


Lt.-Genl. Sir R. 




potamia. 


Egerton. 


31 Birds'] skins 


Mesopotamia 


Lt. R. E. Cheesman. 


1 Close-barred Sandgrouse (P. 


Muscat . . 


Capt. C. W. Sand- 


lichtensteini) . 




ers. 


1 Barn Owl {S. Jtammea) . . ~] 






1 Arabian Viper (J?, coloratus) ^- 


Do 


Do. 


Scorpions, Insects, etc. . . J 






1 Rook {Cor ms fruffilfif/us) .. \ 
1 Water-Rail (li. aquaticus) . . J 


Mesopotamia 


Capt. R. Hobkirk. 


2 Great Indian Bustards (i'. ed- 


Dwarka , . 


Mr. W. D. Cumming. 


wardsi). 






10 Snakes and a few Scorpions . . 


Muscat . . 


Maj. C Gharpurey. 


12 Snakes 


Siam 


Dr. Malcolm Smith. 


1 Hardwicke's Tortoise {T. hard- 


Wano 


Capt. W. B. Cotton, 


wickei) (alive). 







Minor contributions : — Mr. H. A. Fyzee, Mrs. Deakin, Dr. Row, T. W. 
Forster, J. A. Duke, and A. M. Kinloch. , 



OF THE MEETING HELD ON 30th JULY 1918. 



An ' At Home ' of members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place on Tuesday, the 30th July 1918. 

The election of the following 36 members since the last meeting was 
announced : — Mr. H. W, Joynson, Nakon Lampang ; Dr. S. R. Machave, 
L.C.P. & S., Bombay ; Mr. R. W. Scaldwell, Hassan ; Kumari Shri Ba- 
kuverba of Gondal ; Major J. E. Hughes, Bombay ; Mr. F. G, A, Macaulay, 
Madras; Col. W. J, Beyts, R. A.M. C, Bombay ; Mr. Philip Watson, Ran- 
goon ; Capt. D. MacLachlan, I.A.R.O., Panjgur ; Mr. H. Dawson, Chitoor ; 
The Principal, Muir Central College, Allahabad ; Mr. CM. Wise, Bombay ; 
Capt. D. H. Coats, R.A.M.C, Karachi ; Mr. L. S. White, Cawnpore ; The 
Junagadh Durbar, Junagadh ; Mr. B. H. Hayes, Meiktila ; Lt. A. D. 
McDonough, Cawnpore; Mr. H. Donaldson, Bombay; Capt. B- R- ^• 
Dodds, l.A,, Bombay ; Capt. N. L. Angelo, Mesopotamia ; The Principal. 
Dow Hill, Training CoUege, Kurseong ; Mr. T. A. Martin, Penang ; Capt. 
Kumar Amar Singh, Delhi ; Mr, T. B. Hawkins, Bombay ; Mr. D, E. 
Gomme, I.A.R.O., Calcutta; Lt. P. S. Humm, Dagshai ; Capt. R. 
Hobkirk, Mesopotamia ; Major 0. C. Crosthwaite, l.A., Bannu ; Major A. 
Marshall, d!S,0., Quetta ; Col. G. C. OgUvie, R.E., Quetta ; Mr. Lai Ram 
Pratap Singh, B.A., LL.B., Dehra Dun ; Miss B. Wooldridge, Bombay ; 
Mr. B. A. Femandes, Bandra ; Mr. G. Wrangham-Hardy, Darjeelipg ; 
Capt. G. H. deC. Martin, Mesopotamia ; and Miss Mabel £L Dibell, 
Madras. 






PROCEEDINGS. 



316 



The following contributions to the Museum were received since the last 
meeting : — 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


319 Mammals ^ 






62 Birds' skins . . . . ( 


Mekran . . 


Capt. J. E. B. Hot- 


Snakes and Botanical Speci- 




son. 


mens. 






1 Serow skin and skull . , 






6 Indian and Burmese Wild 






Dogs (C. dukhunensis and 


Simia, Upper Bur- 


Mr. P. M. R. Leo- 


futdans). 


ma. 


nard. 


5 Five-striped squirrels (C. 






quinquestiiatus). 






2 Golden Cats {!'. temmincki) J 






1 Jungle Cat {F. ckaus) . . ) 






2 Hares (Lepus sp.) . . > 


Mesopotamia 


Mr. F. Ludlow. 


3 Birds ) 






2 Leopard Cats {F.bengalen^is) 






1 Cat Bear {A.}ulyens).. 






1 Tibetan Fox ( V. ferulatus) 
1 Flying Squirrel {Trogop- r 






Tibet 


Mr. Rose Mayor. 


terus sp.). 






1 Marmot {Arctomys hima- 






layanua). J 






1 Lynx {F. Lynx) skuU.. 1 






6 Eggs of Coromant (P. carbo) )■ 


Sikkim 


Mr. C. H. Dracott. 


17 Butterflies .. .. J 






1 Blackbuck {A. cerdcapra) $ "^ 






with horns. I 
1 Chinkara {J. bencetti) pale j 


Jaipur 


Capt. Amar Singh. 


var. J 
1 HyjBna {H. striata) . . \ 


Nushki 


Capt. J. G. Drum- 


1 Fox (FziZ/ies sp.) .. J 




mond. 


Four horned Antelope {T. 


Bhopal 


Major J. W. Wat- 


quadricovnis) mask. 




son, I. M.S. 


1 Sambhar {C. affinis) mal- 


Bundi 


Mr. E. H. Water- 


formed skull. 




field. 


1 Himalayan Civet (P. yra?/«)-1 
1 „ Flying Squirrel. \ 






Garhwal . . 


Mr. A. E. Osmaston. 


(Petaunsia sp.) J 






1 Jungle Cat {F. chaus) 


Mesopotamia 


Genl. H. Mackay. 


1 Tmpala {Aepyceros melampus) 


Athi, B. E. Africa. 


Lt.-Col. C. F. Dobbs. 


skull. 


■**jj 




1 Syrian Hedgehog {E. calli- 


Mesopotamia 


Capt. W. M. Logan 


ffoni). 




Home. 


1 Hedgehog (C. micropterus) . . 


Deesa 


Capt. J. Kane. 


8 Mammals "i . ... -i 
2 Birds 1 ^^ «P^"*- 1 










1 Flamingo (P. rosetis). . y 


Karachi . . 


Capt. C. B. Tice- 


2 Fishes | 




hurst, R.A.M.C. , 


2 Lizards . . . . J 







316 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


2 Bats \ 

2 Snakes . . . . / 










1 Skink '- 


Mesopotamia 


Lt.-Col. F. P. Con- 


A few Scorpions, Centipedes, 1 




nor, I. M.S. 


Crabs and Insects, 






101 Birds' skins 


Various . . 


Mr. C. M. Inglis. 


M „ „ 


Mesopotamia 


Sir P. Z. Cox. 


22 „ „ 


» 


Capt, E. Robinson. 


22 „ „ 


»» ■ • 


„ C. R. Pitman. 


12 Birds ^ 






1 Flying Squirrel {Petaurista )■ Garhwal . . . . 


Col. A. Hooton, 


albi venter). J 




l.M.S. 


3 Birds' skins . . 


Mesopotamia 


Col. Grafton Young. 


12 „ „ .. 


Andheri & Khim.. 


Mr. S. H. Prater. 


1 Mute Swan C. olor . . 


Kurna 


Capt. A T. Wilson. 


1 Stiff-tailed Duck {E. Zewcoce Mesopotamia 


„ R. Hobkirk. 


phala). 






1 Indian Hobby {F. severus) . . 


Lebong . . 


Mr. E. A. Wernicke. 


31 Birds' eggs 

21 .., „ 


Sikkim . . 1 
Mesopotamia J 


Capt. Aldworth. 


4 Birds' eggs . . . . "i 
2 Snakes . . . . J 


i> 


Major W. H. Lane. 


14 Birds' eggs 


Naga Hills 


Mr. J. P. Mills. 


1 Fish 1 






4 Snakes . . . . )■ 


Mesopotamia 


Capt. Mackenzie. 


6 Lizards . . . . J 






5 Snakes . . . . "i 






3 Scorpions . . . . y 


Shiraz 


Lt.-Col. Condon. 


5 Large Water Cockroaches J 






1 Snake (^Psammophis condo- 


Champaran 


Mr. P. Broucke. 


narus). 






1 Sea Snake {H. ornata) 


Jask" 


Major K. G. Ghar- 
purey, l.M.S. 


220 Butterflies 


Sikkim 


Major L. F. Bodkin. 


30 „ 


Mussoorie 


Mr. G. 0. AUen, 
I.C.S. 


2 Boxes of Insects 


Mesopotamia 


Lt. Harrison. 


9 Butterflies and Botanical Mt. Juplo and] 


Lt. F. Kingdon 


Specimens . . 


Mesopotamia. 


Ward. 


Botanical Specimens 


»> • • 


Corpl. H.Whitehead. 



Minor contributions from ; — Mr. Kyrle Fellowes, Major Watney, Mrs. 
Deakin, Mr. D. F. Lobo, Mr. Hannyngton, Mr. Mitchell, Major Shaw, and 
Mr. Bailey-de- Castro, 



OF THE MEETING HELD ON 24TH SEPTEMBER 1918. 

A meeting of members and their friends took place on Tuesday, the 24th 
September 1918, Lt.-Col, H. J. Walton, I.M,S., C.M.Z.S., presiding. 

The election of the following 27 members since the last meeting was 
announced :— Capt. F. B. Blackie, Mesopotamia ; Major A. F. M. Slater, 



PROCEEDINGS. 



317 



I.A., Fort Shabkadr ; Major J. P. Bowen, R.E., Bombay ; Major P. B. 
Bramley, I.Ali., Mesopotamia ; Mr. H. B. Tilden, F.C.S. (London), Bom- 
bay ; Capt. B. A. Kudkin, Mesopotamia; Mr. A. M. Feron, B.Sc, 
A.M.I.C.E., F.C.S. , Tavoy ; Major-General A. Skeen, Simla ; Mr. J. F. R. 
D'Almeida, B.A., B.Sc. (Honorary), Bandra ; Mr. G. H. Davey, AUeppey ; 
Lt. H. J. Tebbutt, Bombay ; Mr, T. S. Sabnis, B.A., B.Sc, Bombay ; 
Major S. Percy, R.A., Mesopotamia ; Lt. H. N. Irwin, M. C, Kurseong ; 
Mr, U. F. Ruttledge, Ambala ; Mr, A. W. Woodcock, Bombay ; Lt, G. P. 
Lidiard James, Calcutta ; Mr T, D. Wood, Calcutta ; Mr. G. H. L. Mac- 
kenzie, Calcutta ; Mr. J. E. A. den Doop, Medan, Sumatra ; Lt. W. L. 
Stampe, Egypt ; Mrs. F. E. Jackson, Tura ; Dr. Ahlquist, Tura ; Capt. 
J. A. Robinson, Bombay ; Mr. F. G. Kennedy, Bombay ; Mr, G. P. Duck- 
worth, Poona ; and Mr. A. M. Clarke, Bombay. 

The following contribution to the Museum were received since the last 
meeting : — 



Contribution. 


Locality, 


Donor. 


South Indian Palm Civet {P.j'er- 


Nilgiris , . 


Mr. A. K. Weld 


don,'). 




Downing. 


1 Southern Tree Mouse ( V. dume- 


Ceylon 


Mr. J. W. B. Good- 


ticola). 




fellow. 


6 Small Mammals Skins and 


„ 


Colombo Museum. 


SkuUs. 






1 Burmese Wild Dog (C. rutt-' 






lanx) . 






1 Chinese Ant Eater (M. crassi- 






caudata). ^ 


Simia, U. Burma. . 


Mr. P, M. R. Leo- 


6 Five-striped Squirrels (C 




nard. 


quinquestiiatus), and a few 






Hemiptera. 






2 Black- shafted Ternlets {Sterna'] 






saundersi). \ 






2 Flamingoes (P. roseus) . . )■ 


Karachi , . 


Capt. C. B. Tice- 


2 CoUared Pratincoles {Gla- j 




hurst, R.A,M,C. 


reola j)ratincolu) J 






1 Wood Snipe ((?. nemoricola) \ 
4 Silk Moths {A. royeli) . . j 


Mandaiay 


Mr. C. W. AUan. 


1 Black Partridge {F.francolinus) \ 






1 Eastern Weaver Bird {Pl.\ 


Jalpaiguri 


Mr. C. M. Inglis. 


philUpensis). ) 






2 Birds 


Mesopotamia 


Capt. Hobkirk, 


n „ 


Bhyander 


Lt. H. J. Tebbutt. 


5 „ 


jj 


Lt. A. P. Kinloch. 


Several Birds' eggs 


Euphrates M a r - 


Mr. C. R. Watkins, 




shes. 


LCS. 


7 Snakes . . 


Tura, Garo Hills.. 


Mrs. Jackson, 


1 Desert Racer {Z, rhodoraehis) . . 


Bushire . . 


Major H. R, Wat- 


7 Lizards . . . , . . "j 




son. 


4 Scorpions . . . . > 


Muscat 


Major K, G. Ghar- 


A few Insects . . . . j 




purey, I. M.S. 



318 JOURNAL, BOMBAI NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


1 Indian Monitor (F. benijalensis) .. 
1 Cobra {N. trlpudians) alive 
1 Brown Tree Snake {D. trigojiata) 
1 Diamond-backed Racer {Z. 

diadema). 
1 Snake {Z. rhodorachis) . . \ 
1 Giant Cricket . . , . y 
1 Spider {Gateodes sp.) 

1 Large Eel (Murcena sp.) . . 


Chanda . . 
Bombay . . 
Trevandrum 
Attock 

Mesopotamia 
Suez 

Bombay Harbour.. 


Civil Surgeon. 
Lt. A. P. Kinloch. 
Capt. E. W. Antram. 
Attock Oil Coy. 

Major E. Arthur. 

Mr. H. R. Rish- 

worth. 
Mr. W. S. Hoseason. 



Minor contributions : — Messrs. Lidiard James, P. M. R. Leonard, G. M. 
Wise and W. S. Millard. 



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JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

May 1919. Vol. XXVI. No. 2. 

THE GAME BIKDS OF INDIA, BUKMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. C. Stuart Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Part XXVI. 
With a Coloured Plate. 
{Continued fro7n page 18 of Volume XXVI.) 

Genus— LOPHOPHORUS. 

The genus LopJiophorus contains but three species as it is now 
generally accepted that the bird hitherto known as the Bronze-backed 
Monal is merely a freak variety of the common form. 

The three known species differ very widely from one another and 
each might well be placed in a genus by itself. 

LophopJiorus impejanus has a crest of long feathers spatulate at the 
end and with the shafts w'ebless over five-sixths of their length. The 
tail consists of 18 feathers, well graduated and with the ends termi- 
nating in points as shewn in the wood-cut. The upper tail coverts 
are short, very stifi and end in points as do the tail feathers, 

LopJiophorus sclateri has the crest composed of short curly feathers 
in a dense mass over the anterior crown ; the naked part of the face 
is more extended, and the tail is composed of 20 tail feathers and is 
much less graduated, whilst the tips are square, not pointed. The 
upper tail coverts are soft, full and long and either square or gently 
rounded at the tips. If placed in a separate genus this bird would 
be knowTL as Clmlcophasis, Elliott. 

Lophophorus Vhuysii has the crest composed of ordinary feathers, 

long, narrow and slightly lanceolate. The tail appears to be composed 

of 22 feathers and the upper tail coverts are very long, coming to 

within an inch and a half of the tip of the tail feathers. In character 

1 



J520 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATVRAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

these feathers are intermediate between those of L. impejanus and 
L. sclateri, metallic and not so full or soft as in the latter but rounded, 
not brought to a point, and less stiff than in the former. 

As at present constituted, including all three birds, the genus is 
distinguished by the magnificent metallic plumage of the males. The 
bill is long, greatly curved and with the rnaxilla much overlapping the 
mandible. The tarsi and feet are very powerful and heavy, the former 
feathered above and with a strong though short spur. The face is 
more or less naked and highly coloured ; the wings much rounded, 
the first quill the shortest and the fifth and sixth sub-equal and 
longest. The tail is decidedly shorter than the wing and only slightly 
romided. 

The birds of this genus range over an area commencing in the West 
in South -Eastern Afghanistan and extending to the extreme East of 
Assam and the Mishmi and Abor Hills and North and East as far as 
the Koko Nor. 

Key to Species. 

A. Most of the upper plumage metallic. 

a. Crest composed of feathers with 

naked shafts and spatulate ends. 

Tail rufous tipped darker L. impejanus s 

h. Crest composed of short curly 

feathers. Tail black at the base, 

then chestnut with a wide 

terminal band white L. sclateri s 

c. Crest of long, slightly anceolate 

feathers. Tail metallic green 

with some white spots L. Vliuysii s 

B. Upper plumage a mixture of buff, brown 
and rufous buff, never metallic. 

d. Lower back buff barred with black. . L. impejanus $ 

e. Lower back and rump pale earthy 

white with narrow bars of brown. L. sclateri 5 
/. Lower back white L. llimjsii $ 

LOPHOPHORUS IMPEJANUS. 

The Impeyan Pheasant or Monal. 

Impeyan Pheasant, Lath, Gen. Syn. Suppl. i., p. 208, pi. 114 (1787) (Hindoos- 
tan). 

Phasianus impejanus. Lath, Ind, Orn. ii., p. G32 (1790) (India). 

Phasianus curviroslris, Shaw, Mus. Lever, p. 101, pi. (1792) (India). 

LopJiopJiorus refulgens, Temm,Pig. et Gall, ii., p. 355 (1813) (Hindoostan); id. 
iii, p. 673 (1815) (India); Stephen in Shaw's Gen, Zool. xi., p. 249, pi. 15 (1819) 
(Hindoostan); Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. xxii., p. 278 (1893) ; id., Handb. 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 321 

Game Birds i, p. 231(1895) ; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds iv., p. 96 (1898) ; 
Rothschild, Ibis (1899); p. 441; id., Bull. B. O. C. viii. p. 42 (1899) x. p. 79 (1900); 
Fulton, J. Bomb. N, H. Soc. xvi, p. 61 (1904) (Lower Chitral) ; Walton, Ibia 

(1906) p. 247 (Chumbi Valley, S. Tibet) ; Ward, J. Bom. N. H. Soc. xvii., p. 944 

(1907) (Cashmere) ; Magrath, J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xviii, p. 298 (1908) (Than- 
diani,HazaraDist.); Whitehead, Ibis (1909) p. 268 (Safed Koh, 9,000 feet), 
Finn, Avicult. Mag. (3) 1, p. 130 (1909) ; Magrath, J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xix., 
p. 156 (1909) (Murree) ; Perreau, J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xix., p. 920 (1910) 
(Chitral); Whitehead, J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xx., p. 968 (1911) (Safed Koh); Bailey, 
J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xxi, pp. 178, 182 (1911) (Chumbi Valley). 

Impeyanus refulgens, Lesson Trate d'Orn. p. 488, pi. 85 (1831). 

Loplwphorus impeyanus, Gould, Cent. B. Himal., pis. 60, 61 (1832); Vigne, 
P. Z. S., (1841), p. 6 (Cashmere and Himalayah); Hutton, J. As. Soc. Beng. xvii., 
pt. 2, p. 695 (1848); Blyth, Cat. Mus. Asiat. Soc, p. 246 (1849) ; Gould, B. Asia 
vii,p.53(1850);Adams,P.Z.S. (1859) p. 185 (Cashmere) ;Irby, Ibis (1861) p. 
235(Kumaon) ; Jerdon, B. Ind. iii,p. 51 (1863) ; Tytler, Ibis (1868) pp. 191, 194, 
203 (Simla to Mussooree);Pelxehi, Ibis (1868) p. 320 (Koteghur) ; Beavan, Ibis 
(1868) p. 379 (Simla, add Sikkim) ; Elliot, Monog. Phasian. i, pi. 18 (1872); 
Pelzehi, Ibis (1873) p. 120 ; Hume, Nest and Eggs, Ind. B., p. 520 (1873); Brook's 
Str. Feath. iii., pp. 227, 256 (1875) (Mussooree and Gangootri Hills) ; Wilson, 
Str. Feath. iv., p. 227 (1876) (Derallee) ; MarshaU, Birds Nests Ind. B., p. 59 
(1877); Hume and Marshall, Game B. Ind. 1, p. 125, pi. (1878); Scully, Str. 
Feath. viii., pp. 342, 368 (1879) (Nepal) ; Marshall, Str. Feath. ix., p. 203 (1880) 
(Kurram, Afghanistan) ; Wardlaw-Ramsay, Ibis (1880), p. 70 (Safed Koh) ; Gates 
ed. Hume's Nests and Eggs iii., p. 407 (1890) ; Ogilvie- Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. 
xxii., p. 280 (1893): id. Hand. Game B. 1, p. 237 (1893) : Gates, Man. Game B. 
Ind. i, p. 262 (1898) : Blanf. Faun. Brit. Ind. Birds iv., p. 97 (1898) ; Davidson, 
Ibis (1898) p. 38 (Cashmere) ; Rothschild, Ibis (1899) p. 441 ; Rodon, J. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. xii, p. 573 (1899) ; Gates, Cat. Eggs Brit. Mus. i, p. 52 (1901) ; Seth- 
Smith, Avicult. Mag. vii, p. 160 (1909) ; St. Quintin Avicult, .Mag. (3) iii, p. 150 
(1911) ; Beebe, Pheasants, vol. i, p. 112 (1819). 

LopJiophorus chambanus, Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421, pi. x. (Birnota Forest, 
Chamba); Gates, Man. Game. B. Ind. i, p. 267 (1898). 

LopJiophorus impeyanus mantoni, Oustalet, Bull, Soc. Zool. France xvii, p. 19 
(1893) ; Ggilvie-Grant, Handb. Game B. i, p. 236 (1893) ; Rothschild, Ibis, 
(1899) p. 441; id.. Bull. B. G. C. viii. p. 42 (1899), x. p. 79 (ISOO). 

LophopJiorus impeyanus obsciirus. Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Zool. France xviii, p. 
19 (1893) ; Ggilvie-Grant, Handb. Game B. i, p. 236 (1893) ; Rothschild, Ibis, 
(1899) ; p. 441 ; id., Bull. B. O. C. viii, p. 42 (1899). 

LapJiophorus ipejanus, Rothschild, Bull. B. O. C. xxxvii, pp. 49, 51 (1917). 
Vernacular Names. — ^Lorst c? , Ham $ ; Nil-mohr, Jiingli-molir 
(Kashmere) ; Nilgur {Chamber) ; Munal, Nil, j , Karari, $ , (Kulu) ; 
Munal, Gliar-munal, EateaKawan, Eatnal, Ratkap {N. W. Himala- 
yas) ; Datiya {Ku7naon and Garhwal) ; Dafia {Nepal) ; Fo-dong 
{Lepcha) ; (^iiam-dong {Bhotea, Sikkim) ; Chadang {Tibetan, Clmmbi 
Valley). 

Description — Adult Male. — Head and long crest of spatulate feathers 
brilliant metallic green ; a patch of deep metallic purple behind the 
ear coverts ; the lores and a streak behind the eye nearly bare ; sides 
of neck and nape fiery copper-bronze changing gradually into bronze- 
green on the upper back ; interscapulars, scapulars and wing coverts 
next the back, innermost secondaries and rump pmple, not quite so 
lustrous as the upper back and with the innermost secondaries tipped 



322 JO URNAL, B 0MB A Y NAT URA L HIST. SO CIETY, Vol. XX VI. 

metallic blue-green ; shoulder of wing and coverts furthest frora the 
back much the same colour as the head. Primaries deep brown ; 
outer secondaries brown slightly glossed with green on the edge of the 
outer w^ebs. Lower back white, sometimes pure, sometimes with fine 
black shaft stripes ; rump and shorter tail coverts purple more or 
less glossed with blue-green ; longest tail coverts metallic green like 
the wing. 

Tail cinnamon, darker at tip. 

Under parts brownish-black or dull black, varying considerably in 
depth and glossed with metallic green on the breast and flanks ; imder 
tail coverts metallic green with dark bases. 

The extent of metallic colouring on the lower parts varies greatly 
and in birds in plumage at all worn is practically non-existant whilst 
in some freshly moulted birds it is well developed. 

A few specimens have the feathers of the rump edged with copper ; 
the extent of the white on the back varies considerably, and in the 
specimens first described was absent altogether. 

Variations in tone, tint and depth of colouring are common and 
aberrant colouration by no means rare as was shewn by Lord Eoths- 
child in his wonderful picture exhibited at the British Ornithologists' 
Club on May 9th, 1917. In the series of skins then shewn with this 
picture included the most extraordinary aberrations, one bird having 
a black tail, another the breast and low^er parts wholly metallic, a third 
with the interscapulum blue instead of pmple and so on. tSemi-albino 
and melanistic varieties are not rare and specimens of these are to be 
found in the British Museum collection as well as in the Tring 
Museum. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. ^ — ^Irides hazel-browTi or dark brown ; 
orbital skin and cheeks bright, smalt blue to brilliant ultramarine 
blue, or according to Hume, turquoise blue ; bill horny-brown, the 
culmen, tip and commissure paler yellowish -horny, in some specimens 
nearly the whole bill being of this colour ; lower mandible pale yellow- 
ish-horny or horny-grey,; legs yellowish or pale brownish-green, 
sometimes darker brownish and rarely yellowish-leaden colour ; toes 
darker and claws dark-horny brown. 

Measurements. — Omitting two very small birds wdth a wing of only 
9' 7" (246 -3 nun.), these birds are remarkably level in size as is shewn 
by the following measurements, w^hich are those of a very large series. 
Wing from 11-4" (289-5 mm.) to 12-4" (319-9 mm.), average 50 birds 
11-7" (297-1 mm.), tail from 8-4" (215 mm.) to 9-25" (235 mm.) ; tarsus 
about 3" (76-2 mm.); crest about 3" (76-2 mm.), sometimes up to 3-5" 
(88-9 mm.) ; bill at front about 2-05" (52 mm.) and from gape about 
2-2" (55 mm.). 

"Weight, about 5 lbs." (F. M. Bailey). 
Adidt Female.— Yesbthei'S of head, with short crest of lanceolate 
feathers black with broad central stiipes and narrow edges of rufous 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 323 

buff; feathers of nape the same but with broader more spatulate 
striae ; back and mantle black, each feather with two buff streaks and 
narrow buff' edges, a feather here and there shewing white instead of 
buff markings, this giving a curiously mottled appearance ; feathers 
of lower back buff with crescent ic bars of black ; tail coverts the same 
but the black increasing in extent so as to finally occupy most of the 
surface ; longest tail coverts whitish at the tips; tail Jioldly barred 
black and rufous and tipped white. 

Visible portion of the wing covert and inner secondaries like the 
back but the feathers more mottled and less regularly marked with 
black ; prunaries and outer secondaries dark brown, the former some- 
tim,es mottled with rufous buff on the outer web, the latter more or less 
barred with the same. 

Below chin, throat and foreneck white ; remainder of lower parts 
brown, the feathers of the breast and flanks regularly marked with buff 
lines following the contour of the feathers ; abdomen and lower breast 
the same but with the bars much more broken and irregular and some- 
times obsolete, their place being taken by indefinite pale central 
streaks ; shafts white ; lower tail coverts white barred with rufous 
and black in varying degree. 

The range of tints on the lower surface is considerable, some birds 
appearing almost black on these parts, others, quite a rufescent buff. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. — Similar to those in the male but duller ; 
the bill is paler, the dark portion being confined to the base and 
nostrils. 

Measurements. — ^Ving 10-2" (259 mm.) to 11 "S" (287 mm.) ; average 
10-7" (271-7 mm.) : tail from 7" (177-2 mm.) to 8-05" (205-0 mm.) ; 
tarsus about 2-8" (68-5 mm.) ; crest 1-3" (33-0 mm.) ; bill at front 
about 2" (50-8 mm.), and from gape about 2-1" (53-3 mm.). 

"Weight, 4-lbs. 11-ozs." (F. M. Bailey.) 

TJie young male is like the female but has the throat much mottled 
with black ; the upper parts generally have more black and less rufous 
and therefore appear darker as a whole, and the under parts are much 
more boldly mottled and barred wdth black and rufous with broad 
white central marks breaking up the latter. 

The Chick in its first jjlumage is like the female but has the plumage 
above marked with conspicuously broad central streaks of white ; 
below the throat and fore neck are dull fulvous white and the abdomen 
and flanks buff feebly barred and blotched with dark bro-^Mi. 

Chicks in Down have the crown rufescent chestnut with a central 
Ime of black ; nape brown, feebly mottled with paler ; back chestnut 
brown -with broad lateral streaks of buff ; wing and tail quills pale 
cinnamon buff with blackish pencillmgs and broad pale central streaks 
to the inner secondaries ; below dirty fulvous buff. 

In the series in the British Museum although many birds are in a 
moulting stage there is nothing to support Mr. "Wilson's theory of a 



324 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

colour change in tlie plumage taking place without a moult from the 
pied brown and buff to a metallic green or purple, indeed every moult- 
ing bird confirms the belief that this change is one entirely caused by 
actual moult. 

Distribution. — Afghanistan, Chitral, and the Western Himalayas 
through Kashmir, Garhwal, Nepal, Sikkim, Native Sikkim, Bhutan 
of the Chambi Valley and South Tibet. 

How far West this bird penetrates into Afghanistan is not yet known, 
but it does not seem to be found near Kabul, though it is very common 
in the Safed Koh Eange and thence North-East through Kafirstan 
and Chitral. Its extreme Eastern limits appear to be Central Bhutan 
and, when living in Kamroop, a district of Assam South of Bhutan, 
I could never hear of its being fomid anywhere to the East of Dewan- 
giri, though the Bhuteas knew the birds and sometimes obtained the 
skins from further West. 

Nidijicatioii. — ^The Moonal breeds during May and June ; a few birds 
may begin to lay in the last week of April in the lower hills and, on 
the other hand, in the higher ranges eggs may be found as late as July. 
The earliest date I have recorded is the 1st of May 1910, and the latest 
is 26th June 1909, clutches of 5 and 4 eggs respectively taken by Mr. 
S. L. Whymper in Tehri Garhwal. It should be noted, however, that 
Whitehead found young birds fairly strong on the wing " on the 27th 
June " so that the eggs must sometimes be laid early in April. 

They breed as low down as 8,000 feet and rarely even lower than 
this as there is a very old record of a nest having been found below 
Simla at about 7,500 feet ; most birds, however, breed above rather 
than under 10,000 feet and they may be found up to 14,000 and 
15,000 feet during the breeding season. 

They invariably lay their eggs in forest but it is not imperative 
that this should be of the densest. Mr. Whymper, who has taken 
many nests of this Pheasant in Garhwal, informs me that — 

" The majority of nests, if one may use such a term, are to be 
"found in forest consisting of big trees but not with very thick 
" undergrowth, indeed I have more than once taken them in 
"places where the growth was so light one could walk in 
" comfort except for the fact that the ground was much broken. 
" The nest is a mere scratching in the earth, generally hollowed 
" out by the bird itself, under the shelter of a big bush, the 
" bole of some large forest tree or, perhaps, a rock. As far as 
" I have seen there is no attempt made to form a nest in this 
"hollow. Where the trees are deciduous and many leaves 
"have fallen these naturally collect in any hollow and thus 
"form a bed for the eggs, but in evergreen forest, such as forms 
"the usual habitat of the Moonal, the hollow is often quite 
" unlined except for a few casual leaves and a few odd feathers 
"fallen from the bird itself. I have never taken more than 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 325 

*' five eggs in a clutcli but have known birds to incubate on 
"three or four only, and clutches of four or five eggs are about 
"equally coramon. 

" The hen bird sits very close and when disturbed from the 
* ' nest generally sneaks quietly away on foot. I have not noticed 
" males in the vicinity of the nest and cannot say whether 
"betakes any interest in the young when hatched," 
" Mountaineer " — (Mr. F. Wilson) gives a description of the breeding 
habits which agrees very closely with the above and expresses his 
doubt as to the occurrence of clutches of eggs of eight or nine as 
alleged by some sportsmen and others. Major Cock, not always very 
accurate in oological details, mentions clutches of the Moonal as 
varying from five to eight, w^hilst Hutton found clutches of three and 
four only. Beebe found a hen sitting on two eggs considerably 
advanced in incubation and says that sets of two eggs are by no means 
unknown. He also speaks of eight eggs in a set as perfectly authenti- 
cated, but does not quote his authority. 

In captivity all game birds nearly will lay a very much greater 
number of eggs than they do in a wild state. Thus I have known an 
Impeyan lay sixteen eggs, a Crossoptilon lay thirty-two, and so on, 
consequently the number of eggs laid by a bird in confinement is no 
criterion of the number of eggs we might expect in a state of nature. 
The only exception appears to be the Polyplectron which invariably 
lays only two when caged, though she may rarely lay four or five in 
her own forest home. 

At the present day I know of no place where Moonal are so numerous 
that, as described by Hume "several nests may be found within a 
circle of a hundred yards as if the females were, even at this season (as 
they are at all others), more or less gregarious." In certain parts of 
Garhwal, Kashmir and Chitral they are still common, but one would 
have to work hard and cover much ground to find more than two or 
three nests in a day. 

The eggs, as noted by Hume remind one much of Turkeys' eggs, 
though normally they are more richly and much more profusely 
marked. 

In ground colour they vary from a very pale dirty buffy white to a 
rather warm cafe-au-lait, never of at all a rich hue. The markings 
consist of specks, spots and freckles of reddish-brown distributed thickly 
all over the surface of the egg, but often in a denser ring round the centre 
of it. Some eggs have a few blotches in addition to the spots and 
freckles, though these are seldom of any size, and in a few the blotches 
are more numerous and bigger and the freckles more sparse, so that 
the eggs have a handsome boldly marked appearance. One clutch 
of four in the collection of Mr. Whymper is a very handsome one, the 
ground colour a pale bright buff, whilst the blotches are particularly 
large and richly coloured, the speckles being practically absent. 



326 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

The majority of eggs are rather long in shape and fairly compressed 
at the smaller end, a few are very long and narrow and here and there 
is one but little compressed. I have seen no egg which could be des- 
cribed as a broad oval. 

The surface is fine and close, but there is very little or no gloss, and 
the shell, for the size of the egg, is not very strong. 

The average size of 52 eggs is 64 ' 7 X 44 ' 3 mm., whilst of those which 
have passed through my hands the longest and broadest measure 
respectively 69" 8 x 44' 8 mm., and 62 • 6 x 48" 8 mm. The shortest and 
most narrow are 59 '6 + 45 '3 mm., and 61 '0 x 41 '6 mm. Beebe records 
the narrowest egg as 43 mm. only. 

The period of incubation varies from 26 to 29 days, but is 
generally 27. 

Wilson ("Momitaineer") says that the cock bird takes no interest in 
the hen, eggs or yomig once the pairing season is over and the eggs 
laid, and this want of marital and paternal affection seems to be con- 
firmed by modern observers. Before, however, the breeding season 
is in full swing the male becomes most assiduous in his attentions to 
his prospective bride, and his courting displays have frequently been 
described. Major Rodon gives an excellent description of the nuptial 
dance and his remarks thereon are worth careful attention. 

" W^ien shooting in the Himalayas this April I noticed early 
" one morning, while sitting behind a tree, a pair of Moonal 
" Pheasants feedmg a short distance from me, on a flat terrace 
" on the open hillside. They were so close that I was able to see 
"their every movement distinctly. After bemg busily engaged 
" some time in their usual digging operations, the hen bird 
" stopped work and uttered her call note severaltimes, upon which 
"the cock, wiio was at the time some little distance away, ran 
" up to her with his wiiigs raised high above the back, tail spread 
"and neck and body feathers distended. He then moved 
" quickly to and fro for a few seconds in front of the hen, who 
" stood quietly looking on at his performance ; he then abruptly 
"closed his wings and tail, turned about and ran back to his 
"feeding ground while the hen went on with her brealdast. As 
" the early morning sun was shining on the birds, the sudden 
" appearance of the cock in the above performance was most 
"splendid to look upon, the beautiful metallic hues of the wings 
" and throat, with the pure white of the back and the chestnut 
" coloured tail, spread like a fan behind, shone out most gorge- 
" ously. I believe in all courting displays among birds of fine- 
" coloured plumage, the hen takes a most passive part, and does 
" not in any way call the performance up ; but the male birds 
"themselves of their own accord go through the ceremony of 
"shewing off their fine feathers in front of their lady loves. But 
"in this case the lady, by her calls, appear to have directly 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 327 

"invited or encouraged the dis2)Iay as the lover was digging out 
"his breakfast until he heard the call sounded." 
General habits. — The Moonal is essentially a bird of high elevations, 
ascendmg and descending the moimtains practically with the snow 
line though throughout the winter months many birds, more especially 
the males, remain where the snow lies more or less thickly. They are 
not found, however, above forest or thick bush jungle, such as rhodo- 
dendron, though for feeding purposes they may be met with in the 
mornmgs and evenings wandering about the grassy slopes considerably 
higher up than these limits. They live, however, in the forests and 
directly they are disturbed seek their cover. 

Koughly speaking in summer they are generally to be obtained 
between 10,000 and 14,000 feet, provided the country is suitable, but 
they wander up considerably higher than this, and have also been 
recorded from much lower. At one t ime they were really very common 
allroimd Mussooiie and the adjoming hills at an elevation of about 9,000 
feet, and as already noted, were found breeding below Simla, down 
to a height of some 7,500 feet. 

In wmter they descend to 6,000 and even 5,000 feet and Perreau 
foimd them common at the latter height in Chitral. Hume also 
remarks that diu'iug particularly bad weather they are sometimes 
driven down as low as 4,500 feet at which elevation his people occasion- 
ally killed them. 

With constant persecution the birds have of late years moved 
further and further away from civilization and although in some parts 
from Kashmir and Garhwal to Sikkim they are still common ; they 
have left many of their old haunts and "wiiere in " Mountaineer's " 
day they were obtained in hundreds, the occurrence of odd speci- 
mens and pairs is all that can now be hoped for. 

In a letter to me Mr. H. Stevens tells me that they are still very 
common in many parts of native Sikkim, but they are much more 
rare now all round Darjiling itself though they are still to be found if 
one knows where to look — ^at no great distance from that charmmg 
Hill Station. Mr. S. L. AMiymper found them common in many of 
the higher, well- wooded valleys of Garhwal, and they are equally so 
in some of the less frecjuented parts of Kashmir. In this State also 
under the fostering care of Col. Ward and the Maharajah they 
undoubtedly have become more numerous of late years. 

Mr. C. H. Donald in some notes kindly sent me from Simla writes 
thus of Moonal at the present day : — 

" The Moonal is still found in the Chor, throughout the Jubal 
"and Taroche States in suitable localities. In the Bushahi 
"State— on the right bank of the Sutlej River,— they are fairly 
" numerous throughout the portion known as the Pundrabis Range, 
" i.e., from the Kulu-Bushahr border almost up to the Rogi on the 
" Hindustan-Tibet Road, but get scarce towards Rogi on the 



328 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

left bank fromKilba to Baghi, they are most common in the 
centre of the State and are not often met with on the upper 
reaches of the Sutlej watershed. There are always a few in 
'the environments of Narkandah and Baghi and get more 
numerous as you get further East up to about 100 miles from 
Simla and then get more scarce again and appear to die out 
'entirely in the rainless portion of Kanaur. 
" Between 8,000 feet and 12,000 feet altitude is where they are 
usually f omid, throughout the Kulu and Kangra Hills, including 
the Mandi and Suket States into Chamba and Kashmir. 
"Practically from Garhwal to Kashmir in the Punjab, the 
Moonal is still fairly common and in spite of the numbers that 
' are annually trapped in the hawking-nets their numbers do not 
appear to have fallen to any appreciable extent. They may 
have left the environments of big stations but are numerous 
enough further afield." 
I am afraid that there is no doubt that in the case of this bird the 
plumage trade has been to a very great extent the cause of its rapid 
decrease. ^Vhere the trade is properly organized and the female, 
young and eggs efficiently protected, the plumage of the males may be 
exported in great numbers without any harm being done. Thus 
Wilson year after year exported the skins of 1,000 to 1,500 males 
without there being any decrease in the forests where he worked, but 
it must be remembered in these he never allowed the killmg of hens 
and throughout the breeding season all interference with the birds 
was entirely tabooed. The modern dealer does not, however, work 
on these lines. He knows nothing and cares less about the natural 
history of the bird, the skins pass through many hands before they 
reach the dealer on the London market, and the native, who in the 
first place supplies them, only collects with a view to immediate profit 
and without thought to the future ; consequently he collects largely 
in the early part of the breeding season, kills as many females — often 
sitting — ^for food as he does males for their plumage, and so harasses 
the birds that they cannot hatch off their eggs when laid. It is true 
that most birds which are trapped are trapped in the winter, but the 
nooses catch hens, cocks and immature birds alike and none 
are spared. 

The traps used are similar to those which have already been des- 
cribed as used by various hill people for other game birds, the 
favourite being the setting of nooses in openings in small artificial 
fences in ground the birds frequent for feeding. 

During the winter they seem to be more or less gregarious, two or 
three hens with their respective forces combining to make one flock. 
Sometimes an adult cock may take up his quarters with them, but 
as a rule three or four old males consort together durmg the non- 
breeding season. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 329 

Wilson describes this plieasant as being tame for a game-bird, and 
notes that where it is most common it is most confiding and, vice- 
versa, Where most rare there it is most wild and difficult of approach ; 
nor is this because where most common it is least hunted and inter- 
fered with for such is far from being the case. 

As a sole object for sport the Moonal can in our day hardly suffice 

to satisfy sportsmen unless they are of that kind who are content with 

a long day's tramp over the most beautiful country with but a 

moderate bag at the end of it, varied by days which are almost blank. 

To such the never-ending interest of the grand and wild scenery and 

magnificent mountains and forests loved by these noble birds in 

itself suffices, and if in the course of one's climbs two or three of them 

fall to the gun, well, so much the added joy to the day's outing. 

Even now, however, if the would-be sportsman will wander far enough 

away from civilization, cultivation and the beaten track, he may yet 

get bags of a dozen or even more birds in a single day's shoot. Where 

they are fairly common they do not ap^Jear to be hard to obtain and 

they have not the same notorious reputation for running instead of 

flying as is the case with so many of our Indian Game-Birds. They 

rise fairly well when disturbed and generally fly some distance before 

again alighting ; sometimes, however, when flushed they take to the 

trees and in such cases allow the sportsman to get quite near enough 

for a shot before they again take to wing. As might be expected of 

so big a bird they rise with considerable fluster in addition to which 

they utter at the same time loud shrill whistles repeated whilst on 

the wing until they are in full flight. 

Bailey found them very common in the Chambi Valley up to the 
tree limit, there somewhere about 14,000 feet elevation. He 
■writes : — 

■' They have a habit of whistling in the early morning, and at 
"this time it is easy to walk through the thick forest towards 
"the sound and shoot them sitting. I found that the following 
" was the best way to get sporting shots ; two guns would walk 
" quietly along the road and two men would go quietly through 
"the forest alone, these men whistled if they saw any Moonal 
" and then put them up when they would sail down-hill over 
"our heads." 
As regards their diet, there has been but little added to Wilson's 
notes as quoted by Hume to the following effect : — 

" In autumn the Moonal feeds chiefly on a grub or maggot 
"which it finds under the decayed leaves ; at other times on 
"roots, leaves and young shoots of various shrubs and grasses, 
"acorns, and other seeds and berries. In winter it often feeds 
"in the wheat and barley fields ; but does not touch the grain ; 
■ roots and maggots seems to be its sole inducement for digging 
amongst it. At all times and in all seasons, it is very assiduous 



"r( 



330 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

" in the opgration of digging and continues at it for hours 
"together. In the higher forests, large open plots occur quite 
" free from trees and underwood, and early in the morning, or 
"towards evening, these maybe seen dotted over with Moonals, 
"all busily engaged at their favourite occupation." 
Beebe thus describes a view he obtained of these gorgeous pheasants 
feeding in one of these open glades : — 

" In the high forests of Garhwal and Kashmir I have watched 
"these pheasants at their communal feeding places and fomid 
"every movement full of interest. At about 10,000 feet, in the 
"still quiet of najd-day, I once came across a level shelf of long 
" grass shut in by low spruces and deodars. The little glade was 
some dozen yards across, and part of it appeared to have been 
recently ploughed. Closer inspection shewed abimdant recent 
"sign and some stray Impeyan feathers. The birds had evi- 
" dently been working here for some time and I prepared a blind 
" a little distance away in a tree, from which I could see almost 
" all the glade. The following morning a heavy downpour held 
"steadily until daylight, but the succeedmg night was clear, 
" and before early dawn, lighted only by the faint greenish glow 
"from Halley's comet, I made my way from camp along the 
" summit of the ridge to my station. Here I shivered and shook 
" with cold for an hour or more until the first few sprmldings of 
"naorning songs had gro"WTi into a well-filled chorus, with an 
"accompaniment of the two-phrased, reiterated song of a tiny 
" green warbler. A Koklass called far down the valley, and ten 
"minutes later my first Impeyan appeared, stepping quietly 
" out from the low trees and going at once to the edge of the 
" glade, where he appeared to be pickmg at the long blades of 
"grass. 

"For fifteen minutes nothing more happened, and then, for 
"the space of an hour, Impeyans began to appear singly or in 
"pairs and once three together. Three other times I had been 
"grieviously disappointed while in hiding, and now it seemed as 
" if I was to succeed in my concealment. Fourteen birds, every 
"one a cock in full adult plumage, were now in sight. Most of 
"the birds went at once to the diggmgs, and, steppmg down into 
"the hollows, began industriously to pick the earth away with 
" strong, sweepmg fiicks of their great shovel mandibles. Some 
" of the birds were in holes a foot deep, and when working, only 
"their brilliant backs were in view. They seldom, worked more 
"than three or four seconds without raising their heads and 
" giving a swift glance around and especially upward into the 
"sky, and I imagine that the source of most of their troubles 
" lies in soaring eagles. There was no fighting but now and 
"then an undignified scramble for some tuber or other edible 



it 



TEH GAME BIRDS OF IlSDIA. 351 

" morsel. One or two birds spent mucli of the time walking 
"slowly about on the outskirts of the glade, but there was no 
" systematic watch or sentinal duty, such as is well-kno^\ii 
" among some species of birds. They were remarkably silent, 
" only now and then a subdued gutteral chuckle or a protesting 
"whistle as one was crowded. Instead of scattering promis- 
" cuously over the whole of the glade, they were concentrated 
" along the edges of the dug-over area, this bemg due probably 
'to a zone of more abundant food. WTien a large tuft of 
grass or bamboo was encountered the birds dug around it 
" and under it until it was left supported by its bare roots, 
" or in one case until it actually toppled over. The sight of 
"more than a dozen Impeyans thus engaged was most 
" remarkable, and when the sun rose upon them the colour effect 
" was indescribable, fourteen heaving masses of blue, green, 
" violet and purple, and now and then a flash of white, set among 
"the green of the turf and the black of the newly disturbed loan. 
" It was surprising how seldom one caught a glimpse of the white 
"lower back. Only when some unusually violent effort made 
"the bird extend a wing to keep its balance, did the white gleam 
"forth." 
The flesh of the Impeyan is fairly good eating though, naturally, 
old birds are tough and stringy and if one is forced to turn so grand 
a bird into a meal he should select a young one for the purpose. 

LOPHOPHOEUS SCLATERI. 

Sdater's Mooned. 

Lophopliorus sdaleri, Jerdon, Ibis, (1870), p. 147 (Mishmi Hills) ; Sclater, P. Z. 
S. (1870), p. 162, pi. xiv. ; Elliot, Mong. Phas. i., pi. 20 (1872) ; Hume, Str. Feath. 
ii., p. 488 (1874) (E. Assam) ; Hume and Marshall, Game B. Ind. i., p. 13, pi. 
(1878) (Sadyia) ; Godw. , Aust. P. Z. S. (1879), p. 681, pi. i. (Sadyia) ; Hume, Str. 
Feath. ix., pp. 198, 203 (1880) (Mishmi); id. xi., p. 301 (1888) (Mishmi); 
Ogilvie-Grant, Cat Birds B. M.xxii., p. 282 (1893) ; Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. iii., 
p. 12 (1893) (Mishmi); Ogilvie-Grant, Handb. Game B. i., p. 240(1895) ; Gates, 
Man. Game Birds Lad. i, p. 269 (1898) ; F. M. Bailey, Jour. B. N. H. S. xxiv, 
p. 76 (1915) ; Rothschild, Bull. B. 0. C. xxxvii, p. 50 (1917); Beebe, Pheas- 
ants, vol. i, p. 153(1819). 

Vernacular Names. — Dong [Tibetan, Po Ba dialect) Pui-di. {Bhute 
tratta, mislmii). 

Description — Adult Male. — ^Atuft of feathers below the nostril and 
narrow lines of feathers from the upper corner to the cro^^^^ black ; 
crest of short, curly feathers metallic blue-green ; ear coverts and 
narrow line behind the crest black with blue-green reflections ; sides 
and back of neck copper with bronze-green reflections ; whole 
mantle and upper back deep purple blue-green, mostly purple on 
the shoulders and blue-green elsewhere ; lower back, rumi) and 
upper tail coverts white with a few black shaft stripes and, in one 



332 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

specimen, metallic white spots at the tips. Tail mottled Hack, 
rufous and white on the basal half, then rich chestnut rufous and 
finally a terminal white band. 

Lesser and median wing coverts bronze-green shot with copper ; 
greater coverts and inner secondaries deep metallic blue-green ; 
primaries and outer secondaries velvety blue-black. 

Below from chin to under-tail coverts deep velvety black. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — "Iris dark brown ; bill dirty white ; legs 
pale greenish ; bare orbital space, blue ". (F. M. Bailey.) 

" Bill yellowish -hoiny; forehead, lores and sides of the head bright 
blue, nearly naked ; legs and feet yellowish-brown." (Ogilvie- 
Grant.) 

" There is a large bare space all round the eye, which in the fresh 
bird, is bright blue, dotted with tiny tufts of black hair like feathers ; 
the irides are brown ; the legs and feet brown or yellowish-brown ; 
the bill yellowish-horny." (Jerdon, vide Hume.) 

Measurements. — "Total length 26"; wing 11'8; tail 8" 2; tarsus 
3-1". (Ogilvie-Grant). 

"Weight, 61 lbs." (F. M. Bailey). The weight of a fine cock 
weighed by Mr. J. Needham and myself in Sadiya was just over 
6|- lbs. Three males in the British Museum collection measure as 
follows: — ^wing 292 mm. (a poor specimen in heavy moult) to 325 mm; 
tail (of two) 194 and 206 mm.; tarsus 78 to 82 mm. The longest of 
the thick curly feathers of the crest if pulled out straight measure 
an inch or over. Bill at front about 50* 4mm., and from gape 
about 55 '8 mm. The short blunt spur measures from 12 to 
18 mm. 

Adult Female. — ^Upper part of head and whole neck rich vandyke- 
brown with a buif v-shaped mark on each feather ; lores mottled 
white, fulvous and brown, the first colour predominating ; sides of 
the head like the crown but paler ; back, scapulars with some of the 
wing coverts next them, and innermost secondaries rich chocolate- 
brown with bufi central streaks widening into ill-defined rufescent- 
bulf bars on each feather ; lower back, rump and upper tail coverts 
pale earthy white, more rufous near the back, more white on the 
longest tail coverts, irregularly barred with narrow wavy lines of 
brown ; on the longest tail feathers the bars are bolder and almost 
black ; tail black broadly tipped with white and with six or seven 
narrow bars of white ; central tail feathers also mottled with rufous 
in the terminal half and all with a more or less mottled edge of bufi 
and brown. Primaries umber-brown, outer secondaries the same but 
A^ith the outer webs mottled on the margins like the tail ; remainder 
of visible wing black with numerous bars of rich chestnut rufous and 
very fine buff shaft streaks. 

Below, chin and throat white ; remainder of lower plumage dull 
brown densely covered with tiny wavy bars of dull ochre. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 333 

Colours of Soft Parts. — ^Irides bro'wai ; bill pale yellow-green, or 
horny-green, legs (not seen until the bird had been dead over 24 
hours) dull pale greenish-lead colour. 

Measurements. —Wing 279' 4 mm., tail 192 ' 8 mm.; tarsus 71 * 1 mm.; 
bill at front about 48 mm., and from gape about 50 '0 mm. There is 
a short crest about 18 mm. in length. 

Distribution. — ^As far as we know at present Sclater's Moonal is a 
bird of very restricted habitat. It is found only m the Hills North 
of the Assam Valley from the extreme Eastern Dafla Hills to the East 
of the Abor and Mishmi Hills. How far North it extends we do not 
know, but it is undoubtedly found in Tibet North of the Hills men- 
tioned as it was known to the Tibetants met \^ith by some of the 
survey parties which were working N.-E. of the Dafla Hills after the 
Abor Expedition of 1 901 . On the other hand it is not likely to extend 
very far North-East as at Batong to Ta-chien-lu, over which country 
several persons have worked, it was never met with and at the latter 
place the next bird L. Vhuysii was recorded as common. On the 
other hand Oates' prophecy that it would be found sooner or later 
in some of the Northern Burmese Hills has been fulfilled as Beebe met 
with it in North- Western Yunnan close to the Burmese 
Frontier. 

General Habits. — ^There is at present nothing on record about these 
fine pheasants beyond the fact that they are supposed to haunt the 
higher wooded hills of Eastern Assam. Durmg the five years I lived 
in Dibrugarh and Sadiya I made the closest inquiries after it as Col. 
Chatterton and I hoped to combine the pleasure of shootmg the 
Takia and Lophophorus sclateri in one trip. The natives assured 
us that this was quite possible and pointed out to us certain peaks 
and ranges about 9,000 feet high to which both bird and mammal 
resorted in winter, the nearest of which ranges being within 24 hours 
work of the Plains and our furthest military out-post. At this time, 
however, the frontier was in a very disturbed state and our trip fell 
through. Later on after I had left the district Col. Chatterton was 
sent up with a military expedition and did actually come across both 
Takin and Sclaters Moonal quite close to one another. The latter 
were in very dense forest at an elevation of about 10,000 feet, the 
undergrowth being very thick except where broken up by rocks. 
Where the birds were the trees were princij)ally oak and rhododen- 
dron, but there were also stretches of the most magnificent pine trees 
and here and there open spaces on the steep mountaui-sides covered 
with short, thick grass and bracken or moss and lichen covered 
slabs of grey rock. 

At the time Col. Chatteiton came across them several birds were 
together, apparently young and two or three old hens but no cock 
bird. They were very shy and though they allowed a comparatively 
close approach they kept out of sight and shot so that except for a 



334 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

few brief glimpses they escaped observation ajnd none were brought 
to bag. 

Unfortunately the expedition, a very small one, were in rather a 
tight corner and it was impossible to follow up the birds to any 
distance from camp, but the sentries on duty in the one special spot 
reported that the birds returned there with the greatest regularity 
morning and evening, and could be heard scratching about and 
feeding in the undergrowth like a flock of barn-door fowls. 

The Abors say that they are birds of the highest elevations, being 
foimd all the year through close to the snows or actually beyond the 
snow-line. Certainly the few birds brought in whilst I was in Assam 
all came from some distance within the hill ranges and it was only 
in the severest winters they came down to 7 or 8,000 feet. Normally, 
if what we were told was true, they very seldom come below 9,000 
feet and in summer frequent the ranges at 12,000 to 15,000 feet. 

The Mishmis say that they are " fool-birds " and very easy to 
trap, and that they are very good to eat. 

Beebe, one of the few white men who have seen this pheasant, 
describes his meeting with it in the following words: — ■ 

" I had hardly crept five yards from the place of my ugly 
adventure when two feathers caught my eye and straight way 
I forgot my fears. They were from the plumage of no silver 
pheasant, but brilliant, irridescent, changeable green and purple. 
I was at a loss to know from what gallinaceous bird they had 
come. A little way further I found another. Later while 
worming my way through a barking deer's tunnel at the root 
of a perfect tangle of bamboo, I heard the subdued chuckles 
and the rustling of leaves ahead. A few feet brought me to a 
deeply worn but steep sambhur trail, along which I made my 
way on hands and knees, without making a sound. 
" The rustling of leaves, md the spray of earthen pellets 
falling down, came more dxstinctly to my ears, and at last I 
rested for many minutes with my face buried in a clump of 
blue, sweet-scented pea-flowers. 

" Inch by inch I then edged myself upward, digging with 
fingers and toes into every deepened hoof-rut. A shower of 
earth fell upon me and with joy I saw that a clump of soft- 
leaved mint-like plants lay before me. I did not have to 
increase my numerous wounds by a slow penetration of either 
nettles or briers. 

" The revelation came sooner than I expected. Noiselessly 
plucking away leaves and stems one by one to form a low 
tunnel I pushed slowly and cautiously ahead. 
Then the forms of one or two birds appeared, and with a 
screen of leaves still intervening I watched what was probably 
the first wild Sclater's Impeyan ever seen by a white man. 



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THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 335 

" An inch nearer, another leaf cleared away and I saw there 
*' was but one bird. 

■'It was a splendid male, digging vigorously and almost con - 
"tinuously with its beak, working round in a circle so that I 
" saw it turn its breast, sidss and back. I watched it for five 
'• minutes, when it turned, without apparent cause, but not from 
*" fright, and disappeared into the low marshy tangle behind. 

■' As quietly as I could lift my arm and pull up my gun from 
■' where it was dragging behind me, I fired at the still moving 
"' ^tems, and listened for some hint of the efiect. Not a sound 
" came forth. 

" I clambered up to where the bird had stood, rushed into the 
'■ underbrush and almost stepped upon the pheasant as it lay 
"six feet from the opening. As I leaned down, trembling with 
" excitement, two living bombs burst from the ground a few 
" feet away, — a pair of hens or young males — and in a fraction 
"of a second were out of sight." 
Unfortunately Beebe, in spite of his long description of many 
pages, does not say at what height he found these pheasants, but as 
he mentions the fact that he continuously passed through wild 
bananas during his hunt for them it must have been at a compara- 
tively low level, and his whole account of the country would shew 
it to be of a nature consistent only with tropical humid forests under 
rather than over 5,000 feet. 

Capt. F. M. Bailey met with this pheasant on the upper Dibang 
Valley. He -^Tites : — 

" Common in the upper Dibang Valley and on both sides of 
the Yong Yap-La. Cocks weighed 5 lbs. in May. It is very 
noisy in the evenings. These birds when chased by a dog refused 
to fly until nearly caught when they would fly into a tree and 
' remain there Avhile the dog barked below. Our dog actually 
caught one. They were mostly found in small flocks of two or 
three individuals. Po Me Monal Pheasants are found, though 
no specimens were collected. It appears that both L. sdateri 
and another similar bird with a crest of long feathers are found 
together. This is probably L. lliuysii but possibly L. 
refulgens and is called Tse by the Pobas. Monal Pheasants 
were also seen on the Se La and other places near Tawang, 
but no specimens collected." 

LOPHOPHORUS L'HUYSII. 

Lopliophorus Vhuysii, Verreaiix and St. Hiliare, Bull. Soc. Acclim. (2) iii, 
p. 223, pi. ; (1866) (Moupin); id., iv., p. 706 (1867); Sclater, P. Z. S., (1868), p. i., 
pi. i. ; id. Ibis, (1870), p. 297 (Tatsienlu) ; Grey, Handl. Birdsii.,p. 261 (1870) ; 
Swinhoe, P. Z. S.; (1871), p. 399; David, Xouv. Arch. Mus. de Paris, vii., (1871) 
p. ii; Elliot, Mong. Phas. i, pi. 19 (1872); Gould, B. Asia vii, p. 54 (1873); 

3 



336 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VI. 

Sclater, Ibis; (1874), p. 169 ; David and Oustalet, Ois. Chine, p. 40, pi. 110 (1877) 
(Moupin, and W. Szechuen); Sclater, P. Z. S., (1891), p. 212 (Szechuen) ; 
Seebohm, Ibis, (1891), p. 379; Pratt, "To the Snows of Tibet " (1892), p. 
202 ; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. xxii., p. 281 (1893) ; id. Handb. Game B. 
l,p. 238 (1895); Rothschild, Bull. B. O. C. xxxvii, pp. 49-51 (1917); Beebe, 
Pheasants, vol. i, p. 148 (1819). 

Vernacular Names. — -Pae-moii-ky, Ho-than-ki, Hwa-than-chi (^Chi- 
nese) ; Koo alooiig (Tibetan). 

Description — Adult Male. — ^Forehead and a narrow line riinnins; 
down to each nostril and ending in a thick tuft at the angle of the lores 
velvety black ; cro\\ai and sides of the head metallic green with. 
crimson-bronze reflections in some lights ; crest fiery purpte-bronze 
with blue reflections on the shortest feathers ; back and sides of the 
neck, and extreme upper back rich glistenhig copper with bronze- 
green reflections on some of the outer feathers ; remainder of upper 
back and scapulars with the innermost visible secondaries purple 
mixed with blue-green ; lower back and uppermost feathers of the 
rump white, the latter with terminal central striae of metallic blue : 
remainder of rump metallic green-blue with termmal white edges to 
a portion of both webs, forming long shaped spots or semi-bars ; tail 
coverts and visible portions of tail feathers the same but imspotted ; 
concealed portions of tail feathers blackish with a few wiiite spots on 
either web of all but the outermost pair. 

Visible portion of the wing green-blue with purple reflections and 
the shoulder and lesser wing coverts next it shot with golden-bronze;, 
primaries and concealed portions of secondaries dark brown. 

Below black, many feathers especially on the upper breast, sides 
of the neck and upper flanks with irridescent green edges. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — "Bill horn-colour; naked skin round the 
eye blue ; legs and feet lead-colour ". (Ogilvie-Grant.) 

Measurements. — The measurements of three specimens in the 
British Museum collection are as follows ; — 

Wiiig 328 to 334 mm.; tail 263 to 283 mm.; tarsus 82 to 91 mm.; 
bill at front about 55 mm., and from gape about 58 mm.; crest 
about 65 mm. 

Adult Female.— Very similar to the female of impejanus from 
which, however, it can be easily distinguished by its having the w^hole 
of the low^er back and rump w^hite. The shorter upper tail coverts 
are mottled brown and w^hite, the longer browii barred with buff and 
a few faint white frecklings. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — ^Similar to those in the male. 

Measurements.— Wiwg IT 1" (282 mm.); tail 9' 7" (245 mm.); tarsus 
3" (76- 2 mm.); bill at front 2-05" (52 mm); and from gape 2-2" 
(55 mm.) 

Distribution. — The North-Western ranges of Sze-chuen extending 
East and North into Tibet through Ta-chien-lu uito the Koko-Nor. 
Although pure David believed it to occur m Yunnan and Queichow, 



THE GAME BIRDS 01 INDIA. 337 

notliiiig has as yet been ascertained to corroborate this belief, reason- 
able though it appears to be. 
Nidification. —Nothing recorded . 

General Habits.— 'Pere David's excellent account of this grand 

pheasant's habits is still the only one in existence. He \ATites : — ■ 

"This nxagnificent Lophophorus inhabits the highest ranges 

" of Moupin, the Eastern Kokonoor and the Western frontiers 

" of Setchuan. It goes about in small parties in the open grass 

" lands above the region of the forests, but returns to the trees 

"to roost and sleep. Its constant food consists of vegetable 

"substances and principally of succulent roots which he digs 

" out very cleverly with his powerful and broad edged bill ; 

"as he searches especially for those of a yellow Fritillaria 

"called Prte-?7?ow, the people of the country have given him 

" the name of Pae mou-hj. In this comitry they also call it 

" Ho-tlian-ky (the fowl of burning charcoal) the male adult, 

" splendid in his metallic plumage. It is a very foolish bird 

" whose flight is very powerful. His cry to which he gives 

" vent in the very early morning and when it is about to 

"ram, consists of three or four piercing and well-divided 

■"notes." 

From some information which I have received, Lophojjhorus 

'Vhuysii should also be found in Yunnan and Kowytcheon ; it is 

certain, in any case, that one meets with it in a great portion of 

Eastern Tibet, but it is rare everywhere, and it will not be long 

before it disappears altogether. The Chmese constantly hunt this 

superb fowl and use every means to collect it as the flesh is very 

delicate. The specimens which I have sent to the Natural History 

Museum, South Kensington, were killed at an elevation of 4,500 

metres. 



{To be continued.) 



338 

SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS FROM THE INDIAN 

MAMMAL SURVEY 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

(By R. C. Wkoughton.) 

Part III. 

(^Continued from page 58 of Volume XXVI.) 
Family IV. — Canid^. 

Blanford arranges the three genera of the Canid^ in a key as 
follows ; — 

Key to the genera of the Canid^e. 

A. — A frontal sinns present ; postorbital pro- 
cess smooth and convex above ; tail, 
including hair at the end, less than 
half the length of the head and body. 
a. Seven teeth in lower molar series ... I. Canis. 
h. Six teeth in lower molar series ... II. CuON. 

B. — No frontal sinns ; postorbital process 
concave above ; tail more than half 
the length of the head and body ... III. Vulpes. 

Gen. I. — Ca?^is. 

No. 67. lupus, L, There seems no doubt that 

No. 68. ixdlipe?, Sykes. Hodgson's name of laniger for the 

Thibetan wolf is better than lupms. 

I dealt with this name, and its 

derivation, in 1912 (J. b! N. H. S. 

xxi, p. 837). The absence of any 

No. 69. aureus, L. representative of true aureus makes 

it impossible to deal with this 
question authoritatively. However, as all the probabilities are in 
favour of such a course, and no inconvenience is likely to ensue, I 
decided to treat the Indian jackal under Hodgson's name indiais. 
More recently, when examiniiag our Indian material in detail, I 
was confirmed in the adoption of this course, and led to establish a 
subspecies hola, for the Dekhan jackal, and two species, 7iaria and 
lanka, for the South Indian and Ceylon forms respectively. (J. B. 
N. H. S. xxiv, p. 649, 1916). 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 339 

Key to the species of Canis. 

A. — Size large, head and body 3 ft. long or 
more. 
a. Larger, head and body about 3 ft. 6 

inches long; much wooll}- underfur. . 1. laniyer, Hodgs. 
h. Smaller, head and body about 3 ft. 

long; little or no wooll}' underfur ... 2. pallij'es, Sykes. 
B. — Head and body 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 inches long. 

a. General pattern variegated, i. e., a pale 

ground colour irregularly splashed 
with black. 
a\ Darker, ground colour " ochraceous 

buff," limbs " tawny " ... ... o. indie us indicus, 

Hodgs. 
h\ Paler, ground colour " buff " or 
even "cream buff,*' limbs "och- 
raceous buft' " ' ... ... . . . 4 . indicus kola, Wr . 

b. General pattern grizzled, i. e., ground 

colour black, ticked with white. 
a\ Larger, head and body 765 mm, 
hind foot, 161 mm; third upper 
premolar with a supplementary 
median-internal rooted lobe ... 5. lanha, Wr. 
?*\ Smaller, head and body 670 mm., 
hindfoot, 140 mm. ; no supple- 
mentary lobe on third upper pre- 
molar ... 6. noA'ia, Wr. 

Distribution : — 

1. G. laniger, Hodgson. Ti/pe localitij : — Probably Thibet. 

Other localities :— Thibet (B. M.). 
Type : — Missing. (Type of C. niger, 
Scl.,' Ind. Mus. Calc. No. ? ). 

2. C. pallipes, Sykes. Type locality : — " Dukhun." 

Other localities : — Karachi, Sind ; 
Rajputana (B. M.) ; Cutch ; Kathia- 
war ; Hazaribagh (M. S. I.) 

T//j)e:— B. M.No. 42. 8. 6. 2. 
3. C. indicus indicus, Hodg- Ty2)e locality : — Nepal. (Hodgson), 
son. Other localities : — M u s s o o r i e 

(B. M.) ; Kumaon ; Bengal ; Orissa ; 
Sikkim ; Bhutan Duars ; Chin Hills ; 
Chindwin ; Shan States ; Mt. Popa 
(M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 43. 1.12. 29. 



340 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXYL 

4. G. indmis Icola, Wrongh- Type locality : — Palanpur, Guze- 
ton. ratli (B. N. 11.' S.— Crump). 

Otlier localities : — Rajputana ; Se- 
hore, Central India ; Hoshangabad, 
Central Provinces ; Deklian (Sykes) 
(B. M.) ; Ciitch ; Kathiawar ; Khan- 
desh ; Niniar ; Central Provinces ; 
Gwalior ; Sind (M. S. I.) 

Tyj,e:—B. M. No. 16. 4. 16. 12. 
•5. C. lanlia, Wroughton. Type localitij : — IMankeni, Eastern 

Province, Ceylon. 

Other localities :— "Ceylon " (B. M.); 
Asugam Bay, E. P., Cej^lon (M. 
S. I.) 

T,jpe:—B. M. No. 16. 4. 16. 21. 
6. C. naria, Wroughton. 2)u>e locality : — Coorg. (B. N. H. 

S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — Konkan ; North 
Kanara ; North Malabar (B. M.) ; 
Koyna Valley ; Dharwar ; Mj^sore ; 
(M. S. I.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 16. 4. 16. 31. . 

Gen. II. — CuoN. 

There seems to be no change 
No. 70. chiJvhunensis, Sykes. needed in the names in this genus. 
No. 71. rutilans, Miill. Blanford distinguishes the two 

species as follows : — 

Key to the species of CuON. 

^4. — Larger and stouter ; hair long, with 

woolly underfur ; ferruginous red 

to tawny ; hindfoot over 175 mm. 1. (luhhunensis, Sykes. 
B. — Smaller and slighter ; hair short, no 

underfur ; bright ferruginous ; 

hindfoot, 150 mm. ... ... 2. rutilans, Miiller. 

Distribution : — 

1. C duliliunensis, Sykes. Tiji»e localitij : — " Dukhun.*' 

Other localities: — Kashmir; Raj- 
putana ; Kanara; Madras (Jerdon); 
Nilgiri Hills ; Sikkim ; Darjiling 
(B. M.) ; Berars ; Nimar; Central 
Provinces; Kumaon; Coorg (M. S. I.). 
Type :— B. M. No. 79. 11. 21. 634. 
(Type of primcvvus, Hodgs. B. ]M. 
No. 43. 1. 12.28). 



No. 


72. 


bengalensis, Shaw. 


No. 


73. 


cana, Blanf. 


No. 


74. 


leucopus, Blj'th. 


No. 


75. 


alopex, L. 


No. 


70. 


ferrilatus, Hodgs. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 341 

2. C. rutilans, Miiller. Ti/pe localiti/: — "Bengal." 

Other localities : — S. W. Siam ; 
Malay Peninsula (B. M.) ; Mt. Popa 
(M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Gen. III. — VuLPES. 

Except for the substitution of 
the name uiontana, Pearson, for 
alopex, L., a European species, 
(J. B. N. H. S. xxiii, p. 2S1, 
1914), there seems no reason 
at present to make any change 
in Blanford's nam^s. His 
key is as follows ; — 

Keij to tlie species of Vulpes. 

A. — Tip of tail black ; ears grey outside. 
a. Larger, skull length about 150 mm. ; 

rufous grey ... .. ... 1. bengalensis, Shaw. 

h. Smaller, skull length about 90 mm. ; 

ashy grey ... ... ... ... 2. cana, Blanf. 

B. — Tip of tail white. 

a. Ears black or dull brown outside. 

a\ Small, hind foot 100-120 mm. ... 3. leucopus, Blj^th. 

/'". Large, hindfoot 150 mm. ... 4. montana, Pears. 

6. Ears pale rufoiis outside ; size small . b. ferrilatus, Hodgs. 

Distribution : — 

1. V. bengalensis, Shaw. Type localitij \ — "Bengal." 

Other localities : — Khairpur and 
Thar and Parkar, Sind ; Sambhar, 
Rajputana ; Delhi ; Sehore, Central 
Lidia(B.M.); Sind Frontier; Cutch; 
Kathiawar ; Palanpur State ; Khan- 
desh ; Central Provinces ; Dharwar ; 
Kumaon; Bengal ; Sikkim (M. S. I.). 

Tijpe : — Unknown. (Type of chrij' 
surtis, Gray, B. M. No. 87. 6. 10. 48 
Type of Jcokree, Sykes, B. M. No. 42- 
8. 6. 3 ; Type of indicus, Hodgs., B. M.» 
No. 43.1. '12.110) 



342 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



2. V. ccma, Blanford. Ti/^e localiti/ : — Gwadar, Balu- 

chistan, 

Other localities : — Kandahar; Bajaor, 
N. W. Frontier (Whitehead) (B. M.). 
Not obtained by Survey. 

T7,j>e :— B. M. No. 78. 4.23.1. 

3. V. le^icojivs, Blvth. Ti/jie localiti/: — "Desert of Western 

India." 

Other localities : — Sind ; Punjab ; 
Jodhpur, Kajputana (B. M.) ; Sukkur. 
Sind; Bhuj/Cutch (M. S. I.). 

Tjjiie: — Ind. Mus, Calc. No. ni. 
(Type of imsilhis, Blj^th. Ind. Mus. 
Cak-. No. L ; T} pe of persicus, Blanford^ 
Ind. Mus. Calc. No. v.; Tvpe of griffithi, 
Blyth, Ind. Mus. Calc. No. ir.). 

4. V. montana, Pearson. T;/i>e localit;/ : — "Himalaya." 

Other localities : — Gilgit ; Simla.. 
Punjab ; MiTSSOorie. 

Ti/j>e :— Ind. Mus. Calc. No. d'. 
(Type of himalaicus, Ogilby, B. INL 
No. 55. 12. 24. 237). 

5. V. jerrilaius, Hodgson. Ti/pe localiti/ : — Lhassa, Thibet. 

Other localities : — Nepal ; Karo La. 
Thibet, 16.600'; Eastern Central 
Thibet (B. M.). 

Type:—B. "SI. No. 45. 1. 8. 214. 



Family Y. — Mustelid^. 

There are three Subfamilies which may be arranged in a ke^" as 
follows ; — 



Key to the Suhfamilies of the JMustelid.*:. 

A. — Claws short, compressed, acute, curved, 
semiretractile ; toes partiallj' nebbed ; 
upper posterior molar of moderate size, 
transversely elongate... 

B. — Claws blunt, not compressed, not retrac- 
tile. 
a. Foot elongate ; toes not webbed ; upper 

posterior molar, variable 
h. Foot short, rounded; toes webbed; up- 
per posterior molar large and quadrate III. Lutkin^. 



I. MuSTELIJs'^. 



II. MELINiE. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 343 

Subfamil}^ I. — Musteline. 

The four genera in this Subfamily may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Keif to the genera of tlie MusTELiNiE. 

A. — Premolars on each side, 4 above and below. I. Martes. 
B. — Premolars on each side, 3 above and below, 
a. Limbs and abdomen darker than back ' 

«'. Colour above fulvous ... ... II. PuTORlUS. 

/''. Colour above blotched white and 

dark brown III. Vormela. 

li. Lower siirf ace not darker than upper... IV. Mustela. 

Gen. I. — Martes. 

This genus, as now understood, corresponds to the JMustela of 

Blanford. Bonhote has separated 
No. 77. jiavigula, Bodd. the Burmese form under the sub- 

No. 7S.foina, Erxl. specific name peninsidaris (A. M. 

N. H. (7) p. 346, 1901), and at the 
same time recognised the Madras form givatMnsi, Horsf. as a dis- 
tinct species. Hodgson gave the name toiffwus to the Indian 
representative of the European foina. These four forms may be 
arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the species of jNIartes. 

A. — Tail, without hair, three-fourths the 
length of head and bodj'. 
a. Soles of feet hair}-. 

a\ Shoulders light coloured. ... I. f.flavigula, Bodd. 

h\ Shoulders dark brown ... ... 2.gwatkinsi,ii.0Ysi'. 

Ii. Soles of feet naked ... ... ... S.f. peninsularis. 

Bonh. 
5. — Tail, without hair, half the length of the 

head and body ... ... ... 4. toufceus, Hodg^^ 

Distribution : — 

1 . M. flavigula flavigula, Type locality : — Nepal , Assam, &c. 
Boddaert. 

Other localities: — Hazara ; Kashmir ; 
Kishtwar ; Kumaon ; Nepal ; Sadya, 
Assam (B. M.); Kumaon ; Sikkim ; 
Bhutan Duars ; Chin Hills ; Chindwin 
(M. S. L). 

Type : — Unknown. 



,344 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY Vol XXVI. 



2. M. gwatJcinsi, Horsfield. Type locality :— "Madras"' (?Dhar- 

war). (Elliot). 

Other localities ;— Coorg (M. S. I.). 
Type:—B. M. No. 79. 11. 21.G21. 

3. M.flavigulajieninsularis, Type locality :—Ba,nkamn, Tenas- 



Bonhote. 



4. M. toufoeus, Hodgson. 



serini. (Hume-Davison). 

Other localities ;— Tenasserim ; Ma- 
lay Peninsula (B. M.) ; Tenasserim ; 
(M. S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 85. 8. 1. 66. 

Type locality ;— Lhassa and Siling, 
Thibet. (Hodgson). 

Other localities :— Thibet, North of 
Sikkim (jMandelli) ; Ladauk ( Stra- 
chey); Hazara (Whitehead) (B. M.). 

Co-types .— B. M. Nos. 45. 1 . 8. 2G0 
261 &'2G2. 

Lectotype ;— B. M. No. 45. 1. 8. 262. 

Gen. II.— PuTORius. 



No. 79. larvatMs, Hodgs. 

]3lSTRIBUTI0N : — 

P. larvatus, Hodgson. 



It is somewhat doubtful whether 
this species ever crosses into our area 
from Thibet. 

Type locality .-—Pliiin of Central 
ThilW. (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — None. 

Type:—B. M. No. 58. 6. 24. 116. 
Skull No. 79. 11. 21. 203. (This is 
also the type of thihetanus, Horsf.). 

Gen. III. — VoRMELA. 

This name, though established many years ago, was definitely 
accepted by Miller in 1912. (Cat. Mamm. W. Europe, p. 428). 

No. 80. sarmaticus, Tall. Miller, in 1910, accepted peregusna 

as an earlier name for this species (U. 
S. Nat. jNIus. xxxviii, p. 385), the 
only one in the genus. 

Distribution : — 

F. peregusna, Giildenstadt. Type locality .-—Banks of the River 

Don, Southern Jlussia. 

Other localities: — Seistan ; Kandahar 
(Hutton) (B.j\I.). 
Type : — ^Unknown. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 345 

Gen. IV. — MuSTELA. 

The representative of the European 
No. 81. erminea, L. stoat, erminea, is the species named 

No. 82. subhemachalana, whiteheadi by myself (J. B. N. H. S. 
Hodgs. xviii, p. 882, 1908), and similarly 

No. 83. canigula, Hodgs. that of alpinus is longstaffi, described 
No. 84. alpinus, Gebl. also by myself (J. B. N. H. 8. xx, p. 
No. 85. Jcathiah, Hodgs. 931, 1911). The other species noted 
No. 80. strigidorsa, Hodgs. remain as used by Blanford. To meet 

these changes Blanford's key may 
be modified as follows : — 

Key to the species of Mustela. 
A. — Tail-tip dusky or black. 

a. Lower parts, white ... ... ... 1. whiteheadi, Wr, 

b. Lower parts, brown ... ... ... '2. subhemachalana, 

Hodgs. 
B. — Tail-tip not darker. 

a. A pale median dorsal stripe... ... 3. strigidorsa, (Tray. 

b. No dorsal stripe. 

a\ Nose white ... ... ... 4. canigida, Hodgs. 

6". Nose the same coIoxtv as forehead. 
a^ Size larger. 

a\ Colour above " clay colour " 

below buff ... ... ... 5 . temon, Hodgs. 

h\ Colour above " ecru drab ", 

below white ... ... 6. longstalJi, Wr. 

6^ Size smaller; colour dark brown. 7. kathiah, Hodgs. 

Distribution : — 

1. M. whiteheadi, Wrough- Type locality^- — Kagan, Hazara. 

ton. (Whitehead). 

Other localities : — None. 
Typej—B. M. No. 8. 10. 3. 1. 

2. M. subhemachalana, 'Rodg- Type locality .-—Nepal. (Hodgson). 

son. Other localities : — Sikkim ; Mogok, 

Upper Burma, 4,400' ; (B. M.)Sikkim 
(M. S. I.). 

Tyjje:—B. M. No. 43. 1. 12. 12. 
(Type of humeralis, Blyth, Ind. Mus. 
Calc. stuffed. No. c. (Darjiling); Type 
of horsfieldi, Gray, B. M. No. 42. 4."^29. 
57. (Bhotan) ). 

3. M. s'rigidorsa, Gray. Type locality : — Sikkim. 

Other localities : — Nepal (B. M.). 
Chin Hills. (M. S. I.). 

Typc—B. M. No. 53. 8. 16. 15. 



346 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIErY, Vol. XX VL 

4. M. mm^fw/a, Hodgson. Type locality : — Lhassa, Thibet. 

Other localities : — Dharamsala, Pun- 
iab ; Kashmir (B. M.) 

Type:~B. M. No. 45. 1. 8. 253. 
(Tvpe of hodgsoni, Gray, B. M. No. 
4f. 934.). 

5. M. temon, Hodgson. Type locality .-—Nepal (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Kumaon ; Lachen, 
Sikkim (B. M.) 

Co-types :~B. M. Nos. 58.G.24.115 
and 79.11.21.447. 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 58.6.24.115. 

6. M. longstaffi, Wroughton. Type locality : — Teza, Upper Sutlej 

VciWey 14,000' (LongstafF). 

Other localities : — Ladak (White- 
head) (B. M.). 

Tijpe :—B.M. No. 10.12.2.1. 

7. M. kathiah, Hodgson. Type locality .-—Nepal (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Mussoorie ; 8ik- 
kini, Bhutan (B. M.), Kumaon; Dar- 
jiling (M. S. I.). 

Type .-- B. M. No. 43.1.12.14. 

Subfamilj^ II. — Melin^e. 
Blanford distinguishes the three genera as follows : — 
Key to the genera of the Melin^e. 

^.^Upper molar broader than long, not 
larger than upper sectorial. 

a. An external e*ar ; colour paler below 

than above I. Helictis. 

b. No external ear ; colour pale above, 

black below II. Mellivoka. 

B. — Upper molar longer than broad, and 

larger than upper sectorial ... HI. Arctonyx. 

Gen. I. — Helictis. 

There is very little material avail- 
No. 87. orientalis, Horsf. able for examination and it seems 
No. 88. personata, Geoff. almost doubtful to me whether these 

two forms are not one species. In 
any case nipalensis, Hodgs. must take the place of orientalis, Horsf. 
which is a Javan species. With this change, I think it will be 
most convenient to retain for the present Blanford's arrangement, 
which is as follows : — 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 347 

Key to the species of Helictis. 

A. — Colour brown or yellowish brown, not 

grey ... ... ... ... 1. ni palensis, ^odgs. 

B. — Colour brownish grey. ... ... 2. per sonata, G^o^. 

Distribution ; — 

1. H. nipalensis, Hodgson. Type locality: — Nepal. (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Dilkoosha, Cach- 
ar (B. M.) 

Type .•— B. M. No. 42. 1. 12. 27. 

2. H. personata, CeofFroy. Type locality : — Pegu. 

Other localities: — Manipur; Nan, 
Siam (B. M.) ; Mt. Popa (M. S. I.). 
Type : — Probably in Paris Museum. 

Gen. II. — Mellivora. 

No. 89, indica, Kerr. The only species in the genus. 

Distribution : — 

M. indica, Kerr. ^yp^ locality : — " India." 

Other localities : — Rajputana ; Cen- 
tral Provinces (B. M.). Cutch ; Ha- 
/aribagh (M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of Ursi- 
iaxus inauritus, Hodgson, B. M. No. 
45. 1. 8. 251.) 

Gen. III. — Arctonyx. 

I have been able to find no 

record of the rediscovery of taxoides 

No. 90. collaris, F. Cuv. since it was named by Blyth. 

No. 91. taxoides, Bl. Thomas has named a species <Z^ctotor, 

(A. M. N. H., 8 v., p. 424, 1910) 

from S. W. Siam, just over the 

border from Tenasserim, which will almost certainly be found later 

within our limits, like so many other forms from Trong. These 

three forms may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Arctonyx. 
A. — Size large, greatest length of skull 

166 mm. ... ... ... ... 1. dictator, Thos. 

B. — Size small, greatest length of skull 

135 mm., or less. 

a. Larger, greatest length of skull lo5 

mm. ... ... ... ,,, 2. collaris, F. Cuv. 

b. Smaller, greatest length of skull less 

than 125 mm. ... ... ... 3. taxoides, Bl 



348 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 



DlSTKlBUTION : — 

1. A. dictator, Thomas. Type locality, — Trong, S.W. Siam. 

(H. C. Robinson). 

Other localities : — None. 
Tyi^e:—^. M. No. 10. 4. 17. 1. 

2. A. collaris,^ . (jUYiev. Typelocality: — Bhutan D u a r s . 

(Diard). 

Other localities : — Nepal ; Locka\\', 

Karennee (B. M.) Chin Hills (M. S. I.), 

Type : — Perhaps in Paris Museum. 

Tyjje locality : — Assam. (McClel- 
land). 

Other localities : — None. 

Type: — Ind. Mus. Calc. No. a. 



3. A. taxoides, Blj-th. 



Subfamily III. — Luteins. 
The two genera may be distinguished as follows 

Key to the genera of the LuTRiNiE. 
A. — Claws distinct, and well developed in 



all toes 
B. — Claws small and rudimentary 



I. LUTRA. 
II. AONYX. 



Gen. I. — LuTRA. 



No. 92. vulgaris, Erxl. 

No. 93. ellioti, And. 

No. 94. aurohrunnea, Hodgs. 



Blanfordin an appendix(Mamm. 
p. GOl) modified, in consequence 
of a paper by Thomas (P. Z. S., 
p. 190, 1889), his earlier arrange- 
ment of the Otters. He omitted 
entirely aurohrunnea, as being 
S3'nonymous with vulgaris, and 
while retaining this latter name, he accepted macrodns, Clraj', 
as being an older name, as a substitute for ellioti. But consider- 
able changes, in even this revised arrangement, are necessar3^ The 
name lutra, L. is older than vulgaris and must be used for it. After 
careful examination of all the Museiim material, Mr. Thomas agrees 
with me that the specimen which must be taken as the type of 
tarayensis is the same species as macrodus, (other specimens show 
that monticola, of which the actual type skin is lost, is also the same 
species). As the older name therefore tarayensis must take the 
place of macrodus, for the Smooth Indian Otter. These changes 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



349 



necessitate an alteration in Blanford's key of the genus, which 
may be made as follows : — 

Key to the s'pecies of Lutra. 

A. — Upper margin of naked nose angulate 
in middle ; skull and teeth marked- 
ly smaller ... ... ... ... 1. lutra, L. 

B. — Upper margin of naked nose straight ; 

skull and teeth markedly larger ... 2. torayoms, Hodg^ 

Distribution : — 

1. Z. /it/m, Linnfeus. Type locality: — Upsala, Sweden. 

Other localities : — Kashmir ; Nepal ;. 
" Madras "" ( Elliot ) ; Travancore ;. 
Ceylon (B. M.) Kumaon ; Sikkim ; 
Coorg; Ceylon (M. S. I). 

Type : — Unknown. 

2. Z. torayewsis, Hodgson. Type locality: — Terai, Nepal 

(Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Sind ; Rajputana ; 
Benares (B. M.) ; Sind ; Central Pro- 
vinces ; Cliin Hills ; Chindwin ; Saga- 
ing, Upper Burma (M. S, I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 43.1.12.101. 
(Type of monticola, Hodgs. ( skull 
only) B. M. No. 214. f. ; Co-types of 
macrodus, Cray, B. M. Nos. 46. 6. 13. 
3 1 . and 40.11,9.11.; Type of ellioti. 
And. Ind. Mus. Calc. No. m.) 

. Gen. II. — AoNYX. 

The name cinerea, Hlig., is older 

,-r ^.. , , T- r than lejdoniix (J.B.N.H.S. XXII. p. 
No. 9d. lepionyx,-^ov^L ^^3 j^^^.^-^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^j^^^,^^.^^.^ ^^^ 

its place. It is the only species in the genus. 



Distribution : — 



A. cinerea, Illiger, 



Type locality : — Batavia, Java. 

Other localities : — Nepal ; Bhutan ; 
Sadyia, Assam ; Madras (B.]\[.) ; Ku- 
maon ; Chindwin; Coorg (INI.S.I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of indi- 
gitata, Hodgson, B.M. No. 45.1.8. 
3G9.). 



350 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI. 

Family VI. — ^Procyonid^. 
There is only one genus in our fauna. 

Gen. — AiLURUS. 
No. 96. fulgens, F, Cuv. The only species. 

Distribution : — 

A. fulgens, F, Cuvier. Type locality :—" Indes orientales." 

Other localities .-—Nepal (B.]\[). Sik- 
kim (M.S.I). 

Type: — Perhaps in Paris Museum. 
(Co-types of oc/imce?i5, Hodgson, B.M. 
Nos. 43.1.12. 34 & 35. Lectotype 
43.1.12.35.) 

Family VII. — Ursid^,. 
The three included genera may be distinguished as follows :- 

Key to the genera of the IJRSiDiE. 

A. Upper incisors six. 

a. Larger, length over 5 feet ... I. Ursus. 

b. Smaller, length under 4 feet 6 

inches ... ... ... ... II. Helarctos. 

B. Upper incisors four ... ... ... III. Melursus. 

Gen. I. — Ursus. 

Blanford includes malayanus in the genus Ursus, but that 

species is now generally recognised 
No. 97. arctus, L. as belonging to a distinct genus 

^^0.98. torquatus,Wagn. Helarctos. The name arctus, L. 

applies to the north European bear ; 
for its Indian representative isabellinus, Horsf., should be used. 
The two species included in the genus may be distinguished by 
their colour as follows ; — 

Key to the species of Ursus. 

A. Colour brown ... ... ... ... 1 . isabellinus, Horsf. 

B. Colour black .. . ... ... ... '2,. torquatus,y^Q>gn. 

Distribution : — 

1. TJ . isabellinus, Horsfield. Tijpe locality: — Nepal (Hodgson). 

Other localities: — Gilgit; Kashmir 
(B.M.). 

Type : — Not traced. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



351 



2. v. torquatus, Wagner. 



Type locality : — Hills of Nepal. 

Other localities : — Kashmir ; Nepal ; 
Sikkim (B.M) ; Chin Hills (M.S.I). 

Type: — ^ Unknown. (Type oi prui- 
nosits, Blyth; Incl. Mus. Calc. No. r.) 



Gen. II. — Helarctos. 



This name was established by Hors- 
field in 1825 (Zool. Journ. II. p. 
221), as a svibgenus of Uksus, but 
is now generally accepted as a full 



No. 99. malayanus, RafF. 

Distribution : — 

H. malayanus, Raffles. 



genus. 



The only species. 



Type locality '.—Sumatva. (Raffles). 
Other localities : — Malay Peninsula 
(B.M.). Chindwin;