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Full text of "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society"

THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Bombay Natural History Society. 

EDITED BY 
?. A. SPENCE, M.L.A., F.Z.S., B. C. ELLISON, C.IVI.Z.S., S. H. PRATER, C.M.Z.S. 






VOL. XXVII. ^^^.'fjmuij^r'^ 

Consisting of Five Parts and containing Five Coloured 

Plates, Thirty-six Black and White Plates, Fifty-seven 

Diagrams. Five Maps and Sixty seven Text-Figures, 



Dates of Puhlication. 

Part I CPageg 1 to 192^ 1st July 1920. 

„ II CPages WS to in:) 20t?i Dec. ,1920. 

„ III QPages iie to 650-) 31st 3far., 1921. 

„ IV CPages 651 to 973) nst July 1921. 



^ m b a IT : 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS. 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Bombay Natueal Histoey SociEiYe 



EDITED BY 



W. S. MILLARD, and R. A. SPENCE 



i)i SEP 7 1927 i2t 




-vojL,, szsz^vii: isro. 1. 



Ddte of PiMicatioiv, 1st July 1920. 



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PRISIED AT THE TIMES PRESS, BOMBAY. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Page 

The Game Birds of India, Bukma and Ceylon. Part 
XXIX. By E. 0. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., 
M.B.O.u. (With a coloured Plate of Galloferdix bical- 
carata, The Ceylon Spur-Fowl.) 1 

Scientific Results fkom the Mammal Survey, No. 

XXII. By Oldfield Thomas, f.r.S 25 

A. — A new Bat of the genus Wiinoiooma from S. E. 
Persia. 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 

XXV. By T. E. Bell, c.i.e., i.f.s. (retired) 26 

The Past and Present distribution of the Lion in South 

Eastern Asia, By N. B. Kinnear, c.m.z.s 33 

The Flora of the Indian Desert. (Jodhpur and 
Jaisalmer.) Part V. By Rev. E. Blatter, S.J., and 
Prof. F. Hallberg 40 

Indian DRAGONFLrES. Part VII. (With text figures.) By 

Major F. C. Eraser, i.m.s 48 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 
Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Part VI. By R. C. Wroughton, F.Z.S 57 

Notes on Indian Butterflii^. By Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S., R.E. ' 86 

Further Notes on Birds about Simla. By Hugh Whistler, 

F.z.s. , M.B.O.u '' g4 

The Power of Scent in Wild Animals. By E. C. Stuart 

ilfcaker, f.z.s., f.l.S., m.b.o.u \ ]^22 

Some South Indian Batrachians. (With two plates.) By 

C. R. Narayan Rao, m.a ^IQ 

The^^irds of Prey of the Punjab. Part V. By C. H 

Donald, f.z.s " ' -.gg 

T»0TES on THE NiDIFICATION OF CERTAIN BiRDS IN LaDAK 

By F. Ludlow , ' ^.. 

Some New Indian Dragonflies. By Major F. C. Eraser, 

I.M.S..... ^ 

147 

A Tentative List OF THE Vertebrates of' the Jalpaiguri 
District, Bengal. Part III. By Chas. M Indis 
F.z.s,, M.B.O.u., W. L. Travers, H. V. O'Donel' 
M.B.O.u., and E. 0. Shebbeare, i.f.s. ' jg^ 



^t^k 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 



Bombay Natural History Society. 



July, 1920. 



Vol. XXVII. 



No. 1. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 



BY 



E. C. Stuart Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U 




■^ SEP 7 1927 <^ 



Part XXIX. 

With a Coloured Plate. 

(Continued from jmcje 906 of Vohime XXV T::^!^!:^,^ ^^^ 

Genus— GALLOPERDIX. ^ 

Gallopkrdix spadicea spadicea. 

The Red Spur-Fojci. 

The genus Gallojjerdix contains a group of small game-birds 
entirely confined to India and Ceylon. In general appearance 
they are half-way between the Jungle-Fowl and the Partridges; 
they have the general carriage of small hens, but their tails, though 
much longer than those of the Partridges, are carried in the same 
manner, and not erect as in the true Jungle-Fowl. 

The moult of the tail feathers is not as yet known, so for the pre- 
sent I propose to retain these birds amongst the Perdicincb or 
Partridges, though in many ways they show a close affinity to the 
Phasianince. 

The wing is short and rounded, the first primary the shortest, 
and the fifth or sixth longest or equal. The tail consists of fourteen 
feathers, slightly graduated, and about two-thirds, or rather more, 
the length of the wing. The tarsus is long and stoutly built, and 
has twot three, and rarely even four spurs, the numbers on the two 
legs often being unequal. Even the female usually has a spur on 
either leg, and often two on one or both of them. 

There is no wattle or comb as in the Jungle-fowl, but there ^ is 
a naked space round the eye of a dull brick-red colour, which 
becomes markedly brighter in the breeding season. 



-O 



^/ 



2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATVRAL SIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII 

There are three known species of this genus, and it is further 
necessary to sub-divide one of them, G. spadicea, into three races 
which are easily distinguished from one another and of which each 
occupies a well-defined ai*ea. 

I adopt Blanford's key as it stands, as no better can be made. 

Key to Species. 

A. Two or three spurs on each tarsus. 

a. Breast chiefly chestnut or rufous ...G. spadicea c? 

h. Breast buff" with black spots ... ...G. lunulata ,^ 

G. Breast chiefly white ... ... ...G. hicalcarata (^ 

B. Rarely more than one spur on one leg 

and two on the other. 

d. Breast chestnut with black tips to feathers G. spadicea 5 

e. Breast ochreous brown ... ... ...G. lunulata ^ 

f. Breast chestnut without black tips to 

feathers ... ... ... ...G. hicalcarata $ 

Galloperdix spadicea. 

Key to Sub-Species. 

A. General colour chestnut, crown brown ...G. s. spadicea (^ 

B. General colour very bright chestnut, crown 

blackish ... ... ... ... ...G.s.stewarti,^ 

G. General colour greyish chestnut paler every- 
where ... ... ... ... ..,G. s. caurina (^ 

JD. Above grey with only faint rufous tinge ...G. s. spadicea 5 
i?. Above rufescent grey and darker generally.G^. s. stewarti 5 
F. Very pale with no rufous tinge ... ...G.s. caurina 5 

The Red Spur-Fowl was originally described from Madagascar 
into which island it had apparently been introduced from India. 
Gray (111. Ind. Orn. II., pi. 42) describes the bird as being the 
" Kohee-tree of the Mahrattas ". His Pohjflectron northice is des- 
cribed from a female, but no locality is given, and, finally, Blyth's 
Galloperdix spadiceus is described as coming from Central and South 
India. We may therefore fix the type locality as Ootacamund in 
the Nilghiri Hills of South Central India. 

Galloperdix spadicea spadicea. 
The Red Spur-Fowl. 

La Perdix rouge de Madagascar, — Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. Orient, ii., p. 169 
(1782). 

Brown African Partridge, — Lath, Gen. Syn. pt. ii., p. 759 (1788) (Ma- 
dagascar.) 

Tetrao spadiceus, — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1, pt. ii., p. 759 (1788) (Madagascar) 

Perdix spadicea, — Bonnat. Tabl. Encycl. Meth. 1, p. 208 (1791) (Madagas- 
car ) ; Temm., Pig. et Gall, iii., p. 315, 719 (1815) (Madagascar), Less.; 
Traite 'd' Orn., p. 504 (1831) (Senegal) ; Gray, in Griffith's ed. Cuv. iii., 
p. 47 (1829) (Madagascar). 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 3 

Francolinus spadiceus, — Gray, TIL Ind. Orn. ii., pi. 42, fig. 2 (1834). 
Polyplectron northice, - Gray, III. Ind. Orn. ii., pi. 43, fig. 1 (1834) (female). 
Ithaginis northice, — Gray, List of Birds pt. iii.. Gall. p. 32 (1844). 
Ithaginis madagascariensU, — Gray, (nee. Tetrao madagarensis, Scop.) List 
of B. pt. iii., Gall. p. 32 (1844); id. Gen. B. iii. p. 504 (1846). 

Galloperdix spadiceus, — Mc. Master, J. A. S. B. xl., pt. 2, p. 215 (1845) ; 
Blyth, Cat. Mus. As Soc, p. 241 (1849) (C. and S. India) ; Gould, Birds 
Asia, vi., pi. 68 (1854) ; Jerdon, Birds of India, iii., p. 541 (1863) : Hume, 
Nests and Eggs, Ind. B., p. 532 (1873): Fairb., Str. Feath. v., p. 409 (1877) 
(Palani Hills) ; Ball., Str. Feath. v., p. 418 (1877) (Mahanadi and Godaveri 
Rivers) ; Marshall, Birds' Nests Ind., p. 59 (1877) ; Hume & Marshall 
Game B. Ind. 1, p. 247, pi. (1878) ; Davidson and Wendon, Str., 
Feath. vii., p. 87 (1878) (Deccan) ; Ball, Str. Feath. vii., p. 225 
(1878) (Ganges to Godaveri) ; Vidal, Str. Feath. ix., p. 76 (1880) (S. 
Konkan); Butler, Str. Feath. ix., p. 422 (1880) (Deccan and S. Mahratta 
Country) ; Davidson, Str. Feath. x., p. 316 (1882) (W. Khandeish) ; 
Davison, Str. Feath, x., p. 410 (1883) (Nilghiris, Wynaad and Mysore) ; 
Swinhoe and Barnes, Ibis, 1885, p. 131 (Central India) ; Taylor, Str. Feath, 
X., p. 1164 (Manzurabar, Mysore) p. 531 (1887) (Orissa) ; Terry, Str. Feath. 
X., p. 479 (1887) (Palani Hills) ; Barnes, Birds Bombay, p. 305 (1885) ; Gates, 
ed. Hume's Nests and eggs iii., p. 423 (1890) ; Davidson, J. B. N. H. Soc. 
vi., p. 340 (1891) (Kanara) ; Sharpe, J. ibid, ix., p. 487 (1895) ; (Coonoor) ; 
Davidson, ibid, xii , p. 63 (1898) (Kanara) ; Dewar, ibid, xvi., p. 495 (1905) 
(Madras). 

Hepburnia spadicea, — Hartl., Orn. Beits. Madag. p. 68 (1861) (Madagascar). 
Ithaginis spadiceus, — Gray, List. Gall. Brit. Mus., p. 47 (1867). 
Galloperdix spadicea, — Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 157 (Oudh, Gorakhpur) ; Elwes, 
Ibis, 1870, p. 528 (Cardamum Hills) ; Blanford, Journ. A. S. Bengal xxxviii., 
pt. ii., p. 189 ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. xxii., p. 261 (1893) ; id., 
Man. Game B. 1, p. 206 (1895); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind. iv., p. 106 
(1898) ; Gates, Mon. Game Birds Ind. 1, p. 215 (1898). 

Hepburnia spadiceus,— Ball, Str. Feath. ii., p. 426 (1874) (Chota Nagpur), 
iii., p. 294 (1875). 

Galloperdix spadicea, — Gates, Cat. Birds Eggs Brit. Mus. 1, p. 49, pi. iv., 
fig. 4 (1901) (Egg). 

VERNACULAR NAMES.— Ghota. Jungli Murghi {Hin. Cent. Provinces, 
4-c.) ; Chakotri, Kokatri {Mahr. Syhadri Range) ; Kustoor (Mahr. Deccan) ; 
Sarawa-Koli (Tamil) ; Yerra-Kodi, Jita-Kodi (Tel.) 

Bescriiotion — Adult Male. — C!rown and nape dark broMm shading 
into pale brown on the hind neck and into sandy brown or bufF 
on the forehead. Upper back, scapulars and inter-scapulars rufous 
chestnut, each feather margined with pale greyish-brown ; lower 
back, rump and upper tail-coverts chestnut, finely vermiculated 
with broken bars of black ; visible portions of tail the same, but 
the inner webs blackish on all but the central pair of rectrices and 
almost entirely black on the outermost. 

Median and greater wing-coverts like the lower back, and lesser 
wing-coverts like the upper back ; quills dark brown, the outer 
secondaries with chestnut buff mottling on the outer webs, and 
inner secondaries like the lower back ; under aspect of wing lighter 
brown. 

Below, chin whitish-brown, grading into silvery brown on the 
cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the throat ; breast, flanks and 



4 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

abdomen above vent chestnut, each feather margined with pale 
chestnut buff; thighs, vent and posterior flanks dull brown ; under 
tail-coverts brown, or chestnut brown, vermiculated with black. 

The sparse feathers on the naked part round the eye are dark 
brown, but hardly show except in a fine line under the lower 
eyelid. 

Individuals, both of typical specimens of spadicea and of its tM'O 
races, have a few of the feathers of the breast with grey centres, 
which, as Ogilvie-Grant has pointed out, appear to be indicative 
neither of age, locality nor season. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Iris yellow, yellowish brown or dull 
hazel brown ; naked skin round the eye brick-red, dull and often 
somewhat livid in the non-breeding season, but brighter and redder 
in the breeding season ; bill horny-brown, reddish at the base and 
paler on the lower mandible ; legs generally reddish brick, often 
reddish-brown, sometimes almost reddish-yellow or, ver}^ rarely, 
with a faint greenish tinge ; spurs dull horny brown. 

Measureirvents. — Wing from 145 to 166 mm., average 32 speci- 
mens, 156-1 mm.; tail from 123 to 147 mm., ayerage 137*5 mm.; 
tarsus from 48 to 52 mm.; bill from front about 20 mm., from 
gape rather over 25 mm. 

Adult Female. — Forehead sandy brown, changing to brown and 
blackisli-brown on crown and nape; neck dark brown. Back, sca- 
pulars and wing-coverts grey or sandy, rarely with a faint rufous 
tinge, each feather with two bold bars of black ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts the same, but with less black and, generalljr, a more 
rufous tinge ; tail blackish, the central feathers with mottled bars 
Qf buff or rufous, decreasing in extent until they only form a 
mottled edging to the outermost. 

Chin and throat almost white, changing to dirty pale brown on 
foreneck ; breast and flanks rather pale chestnut rufous, each fea- 
ther with a terminal band of black, lessening in extent towards the 
vent ; the posterior flanks often mottled with black in addition to 
the bars ; vent and under tail-covert dull brown, the latter mottled 
with black and rufous or sandy. 

The extent of the black on the lower parts varies considerably, in 
some the extreme upper breast and anterior flanks being very heavily 
barred. Wing-coverts and innermost secondaries like the back ; 
primaries and outer secondaries amber brown. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in the male, but the bare skin round 
the eye is cKTiler and less clear a red, and the legs never become so 
red as they do in some breeding males and often are more brown 
or even greenish-brown. 

2Ieasitrements. — Wing from 134 to 163 mm., average of 24 speci- 
mens 150*1 mm.; tail from 118 to 146 mm., average 129*1 
mm.* tarsus 45 to 49 mm. ; bill from front about 20 mm., and 



THE .GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, 5 

from gape about 24 mm. Nearly all females have some sio-us of 
spurs, many have a well developed spur on one or both legs, and a 
few have two spurs on one leg and one on the other, and occasion- 
ally have two on both legs. 

The Youwj Male is like the female, but is more richly and deeply 
coloured, with more black in proportion to the buff and rufous. 

The Yoicng Male in first xjlwrtiage is like the female, but more 
dark and rich in general tint, and the tail is deep chestnut with 
definite bars of black. 

Distribution. — The Red Spur-Fowl is found over a verj^ wide 
area, although it is rather scattered in its distribution. It is found 
in the Terai below the Central Himalayas in Western Nepal to 
Goruckpur ; it is common in practicall}^ all the well-wooded hill 
ranges throughout Central India from Saugor to Rajmahal and Nya 
Dumkah, though it appears to have now practically disappeared from 
the latter district. South of this it is found in suitable localities in 
Central India, Orissa and Madras wherever there are broken hills 
well covered with forests or bamboo jungle. Birds from Mysore 
and North-East Coimbatore are of the typical race, and this extends 
at least as far South-East as the Palni Hills, latitude 10*^. 

In South-East Bengal it is undoubtedly becoming more rare. In 
1883 when stationed in the Santhal Parganas it formed a not very 
rare item in our miscellaneous bags, but I hear that now it is never 
seen ; in Madras, however, where it is to some extent preserved, it 
appears to be steadily increasing in numbers, and it is very 
common on all the Hill Ranges from the foot hills to 4,000 feet 
or more. 

It extends into the Bombay Presidency South of Rajputana and 
the Mahableshwar birds referred to by Blanford are far nearer true 
spadicea than to caiirina. 

On the Malabar Coast North of Travancore specimens appear to 
assume a somewhat richer colour, and three specimens procured 
there by Chapman and now in the British Museum series are about 
half-way in depth of colouring between sjiaclicea and stetvarti, but 
have not the bright tint of the latter bird, so for the present I retain 
them under the typical name. 

Nidification. — The breeding season of the Red Spur-Fowl varies 
very greatly in different portions of its habitat, and even in single 
areas is somewhat erratic. In the South and Central portion of its 
habitat its eggs may be taken any time from February to June, 
March being, perhaps the month in which most are found. It has 
generally been credited with having a second brood in September 
to November, but I can trace no grounds for this, and such an 
occurrence must be quite exceptional. 

It breeds from the foot hills at all heights up to 5,000 feet, and 
sometimes in the Southern Hill Ranges up to 6,000 feet or more. 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol, XXVIl, 

Most birds, however, will be found breeding in these hills between 
2,000 and 4,000 feet. They make no real nest, but lay their eggs 
in some small hollow, either scratched out by themselves or a natu- 
ral one, not infrequently they are laid on the flat ground, and are 
only kept together by the fallen leaves and rubbish under and 
around them. The majority of nests will be found in fau'ly thick 
scrub jungle, forest or bamboo jungle, and the latter, especially 
where there is plentiful undergrowth, is a favourite breeding haunt 
over much of its area. It does not appear necessary for the jungle 
to be very extensive, and in Chota Nagpore it was sometimes found 
breeding in quite small patches of Scd and scrub surrounded with 
small fields of cultivation. 

The number of eggs laid is 2 to 5, and undoubtedly the normal 
full clutch is 3. I have never seen more than 4 myself, one taken 
by Mr. Vidal and one taken by Mr. J. Davidson in Kanara. The 
latter, who took very many nests of this Spur-Fowl in Kanara and 
Nasik, never found more than 4 in a clutch, and that number only 
two or three times in some 50 or 60 clutches. On the other hand 
two eggs only are often found incubated. 

The stories of the large number of eggs laid seem to be founded 
only on native reports; Miss Cockburn, who made many of her 
notes on such authority, says that they lay from 6 to 10 eggs, but 
she writes of the Nilgiris where everyone else has found only 2, 3, 
or rarely 4 eggs in a clutch except Davison, who says he has rarely 
found more than 5. Hume t/iinlcs it lays from 4 to 7 eggs, but 
apparently he too writes on rumours chiefl};-, though it must be 
noted that Darling records one nest of 7 eggs and two of 5. 

The eggs are miniature fowls eggs, on the whole rather narrower 
in proportion to their length, and perhaps slightly more pointed. 
The shell is very stout, and the texture fine and close, and the sur- 
face smooth and often with a slight gloss. 

Hume gives the average of 25 eggs as 46-6 x 34-0 mm. 36 mea- 
sured by myself have averaged much smaller, i. e., 38'9 x 29-2 mm., 
whilst the average of Hume's eggs now in the British Museum is 
42-8 X 31-8 mm. The largest egg both in length and breadth I 
have been able to measure is 46-9x36-3 mm., and the smallest in 
both length and breadth is 37-7 x 28-1 mm. 

It is probable that these birds pair for life ; the cock is certainly 

monogamous and keeps close to the hen whilst she is sitting and 

helps her to rear and look after the chicks when hatched. The 

hen is a very close sitter, and Hume writes that he has twice known 

.one to be caught by natives on the nests. 

General Habits. — The Eed Spur-Fowl is found from practically 
the level of the Sea up to 5,000 feet, wandering above this up to 
6,000 feet, and even 7,500 feet, but it does not appear to be found 
anywhere in the true plains ; it is essential that there should be 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, 7 

ample cover and that it should be in broken hilly country. As 
regards the kind of cover it frequents, this does not really seem 
to matter much. It is sometimes found in tJiick evergreen forest, 
but more often in thick scrub, in bamboo jungle and the dense 
undergrowth of Sal and other deciduous forest. At other times it 
may haunt well wooded nuUas and ravines of scattered patches of 
Jungle in more or less open or cultivated ground. 

It is not a gregarious bird, and when found in small parties up 
to some half dozen or so, these consist only of the two old birds 
with their last brood, and before the breeding season commences 
the latter disperse to take up their own domestic responsibilities. 

I have never heard of the Spur-Fowl being especially made 
the object of a day's sport ; the few one gets are nearly always part 
of a mixed bag made when one is shooting game driven by 
a line of beaters. Under these circumstances one never seems 
to get many, even where they are most common, for they 
ai'e such confirmed runners and skulkers that they are most 
difficult to flush, and prefer to race across from one patch of 
Jungle to another rather than trust to their wings. They are 
splendid runners, and dodge Irom one bush to another at such 
a pace that it is really just as sporting to treat them like 
rabbits on the ground rather than wait ibr the chance of their 
flying when they offer a very easy shot. If forced to fly 
they get up with a great fluster and flapping of wings, btit 
their speed is by no means commensurate with the noise, 
consisting of a few flaps and beats, then a sail of a few 
yards, another few beats, and a headlong dive into cover. 
When rising, they always utter a chuckling noise which reminds 
one much of an old barnj'^ard hen which has been frightened, 
but they cannot emit nearly such heart-rending cries as the latter 
bird. The crow of the cocks in the breeding season is much 
the same kind of call, and the conversational notes of a 
separated family are merely subdued and modified versions of 
the same. 

In the mornings and evenings they frequently come out into 
the open to feed, especially where small patches of cultivation 
intersect their forests and jungles. In the Hazaribagh and Ranchi 
districts we often found them quite in the open feeding on the 
fallen berries of the Ber bushes scattered about on the broken hill 
sides and more than once we turned them out of millet and ripe 
rice in the very early mornings in the cold weather. 

They feed on both an insect and vegetable diet, and as Hume 
records " their food consists chiefly of grain and seeds of all kinds, 
and small jungle fruit, the berries of the dwarf Zizphus ( Jher 
bery), the figs of the Peepul and its congeners, but I have often 
found the remains of bugs, beetles, and other insects in then- 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

crops mixed with these." I have also found their crops full of a 
millet (Bajra) and of paddy. 

They are very good eating and are better and more gamj^ than 
most of our Indian partridges. No finer way of cooking them can 
be found than rolling them up in a ball of clay and roasting them 
in the ashes of a good strong fire. They should be rolled up, fea- 
thers, entrails and all, and then when the burnt clay is broken open 
the feathers and skin will come away with the clay, and a most 
juicy morsel remain to be eaten. 

Galloperdix spadicea stewarti. 

Stewart's Red Spur-Fowl. 

Galloperdix spadiceus. — Blyth, Oat. Mus. As. Soc, p. 241 (1849) (part) ; Da- 
vison, Str. Feath. x., p 410 (1883) (part) ; Bourdillon, J. B. N.H. Soc. xvi., 
p. 4. (1904) (Travancore). 

Galloperdix spadicea. — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M. sxii. p. 261 (1893) 
(part) ; id, Man. Game-B. i., p. 206 (1895) (part) ; Blanford, Avi. Brit. 
In. iv., p. 106 (1898) (part): Gates, Man. Game-d. In. i., p. 215 (1898) 
(part) . 

Gallopardic spadicea steivarti. — Stuart Baker, Bull. B. O. C. xL, p. 18 
(1919). (Aneichardi Travancore). 

VERNACULAR NAMES.— Senavoo Koli(7awu7, Travancore). 
lescription — Adult Male. — Similar to G. s. spadicea, but very much 
more richly coloured ; the crown is practically black, and the whole 
of the upper parts are a bright chestnut rufous, the pale borders to 
the feathers being absent or obsolete, the vermiculations on the 
lower back entirely absent and on rump and upper tail-coverts al- 
most so. Below the colour is equally intensified and rich, and the 
chestnut colour extends right back behind the vent and on to the 
posterior flanks. 

The type male has some grey spots on the breast, but this is 
probably only an individual characteristic, as two males obtained by 
Surgeon-Major Fry at Trevandrum have no such spots. It should, 
however, be noted that whereas these spots in typical spadicea are 
more or less circular in this bird the}^ are heartshaped, and they 
are also bordered with black, a feature oi\\j seen, and that very 
faintly, in one other specimen of true spadicea from Ootaca- 
mund. 

Colours of Soft Parts as in G. s. spadicea. 

Measurements.— Wing, 145 to 161 mm., average 10 specimens, 
154-5 mm.; tail, 123 mm. to 140 mm., average 129*6 mm.; tarsus, 
about 50 mm. 

Adult Female. — Difiers from the adult female of spadicea in the 
same way as the male differs from the male of that bird. The 
colour generally is very rich and very strongly suffused with 
rufous both above and below, and altogether it is a brighter, 
much handsomer bird than is the typical form. 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 9 

The extent of the black markings varies to the same degree as 
in that bird, but they are generall}^ bolder, and in one bird the 
smaller vermiculations are entirely'' wanting on the upper surface, 
the black being restricted to bold bars. 
Colours of Soft Parts as in G. s. simdicea. 

Measurements. — Wing, 148-150 mm. (4 specimens); tail, 
125-129 mm.; tarsus, about 48 mm.; spurs, from one on each leg 
to two on each leg, up to 15 mm. long. 

The Young Male differs from the young male of tj^pical sijadicea 
in being niTich more richly coloured. The upper parts are rufous 
with the black bars reduced to stria3, whilst the breast and lower 
parts are bright chestnut brick -red with the black markings 
showing merely as black shaft lines on the extreme upper breast 
and foreneck, and as obsolete bars elsewhere. 

Distribution.- — Travaiicore only, between the foot hills and 3,500 
feet. 

Nidiiication. — The Travancore Spur-Fowl breeds during Febru- 
ary and March, and it is during these two months only that Mr. 
Stewart obtained all his eggs. The nest-hole is always scraped 
in dense cover, and most often in some almost impenetrable cane 
brake in evergreen forest. Less often it is placed under a bush 
or a mass of creepers, and it may also occasionally be found in 
thick bamboo jungle. Like G. spaiicea it makes no nest, the 
only materials used being the fallen leaves and rubbish accumu- 
lated on the ground. 

The eggs number 2 or 3 only, and whilst Mr. Stewart has 
never seen or heard of more than 3, he has often taken 2 well 
incubated. 

The eggs are, of course, quite inseparable from those of G. s. 
simdicea. 

The average of 24 eggs is almost exactly 40 x 30 mm. The 
largest I have measured in length and breadth was 41*7 x 31 -1 
mm., and the smallest in length and breadth were 39-1 x 30-2 
mm. and 40*7 x 28-3 mm. respectively. 

The cock is monogamous, and Mr. Stewart thinks they pro- 
babl}^ pair for life, and as with the common Red Spur-Fowl, the 
cock bird proves an excellent father and husband. 

They seem to breed only in the area of heaviest rainfall, to 
which fact is due their brilliant and dark colouration. The 
average rainfall is about 150 inches or more annually, an amount 
greatly in excess of that falling over the greater part of the range 
of the tyjaical bird. 

General Habits. — This Spur-Fowl is very common in Travancore 

on the Shinkotta Hills between 1,000 and 3,000 feet, being more 

common at elevations half-way between these two extremes, and 

sometimes being found still lower than 1,000 feet. They are 

2 



10 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL SIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVll. 

essentially birds of thick cover, and will never be found on the 
open bare lands so common in parts of Travancore, nor indeed 
will they often be found in scrub or thick grass, though they 
frequent the dense patches of Lantana bush in the mornings and 
evenings, greedily eating the berries and the white ants- -or 
termites — which are as plentiful as the berries. 

Their home is in the depths of evergreen Jungle, and less often 
in heavy bamboo jungle, and here, as one wanders gun in hand, 
they may often be heard rustling about amongst the fallen leaves, 
a habit which has bestowed upon them the Tamil name of Saravoo 
Koli or Dry-leaves Fowl. 

Less often than they are heard they may be seen scuttling across 
some more open glade or forest path, and a hasty snap shot obtains 
a dinner worthy of an epicure. If put up by dogs, they invariably 
take to trees, and if so treed it is then easy to pot them as they 
sit. They are poor flyers, though like many others who are poor 
performers, they are very noisy, making a great fluster in rising, 
and a loud whirr as they fly. 

Mr. J . Stewart, to whom I owe the foregoing notes, says that 
he has never attempt- d to make a bag of Spur-Fowl, but has 
several times got 4 or 5 in a morning's or evening's walk. They 
were most often met with when one was after big game, and in 
conseqi^ence escaped without being fired at. 

When disturbed, the}^ utter a chattering cry, and after a pair 
or a family have been put up and separated, they continue to call to 
one another until all have been reunited. 

The cocks are not noisy birds, but crow, ifone can call their chuck- 
ling cry a crow, regulai-ly in the mornings and evenings during the 
breeding season. One would have expected birds so well armed 
with weapons of ojEfence to be exceptionally combative, but I can 
find no support for such an idea, and Mr. Stewart informs me that 
he has never come across them fighting or obtained any evidence, 
native or otherwise, to make him think they are at all pugilistic by 
nature. 

They are difiicult birds to rear, and Mr. Stewart never succeeded 
in bringing them up. His most successful attempt was with some 
birds which grew half-way to maturity, and then all died after 
their first meal of paddy, a food substituted too suddenly for their 
previous diet of white ants. 

They have, however, been reared in the Trevandrum Zoological 
Gardens, where they lived in amity with some Grey Jungle-Fowl. 

They feed on a mixed diet of insects, fruit and grain, and in the 
mornings and evenings are very fond of scratching about and feeding 
in the intensely thick secondary growth which so soon covers the 
deserted cofiee clearings. They do not, however, ever haunt the 
more open coffee which is being cultivated. 



TSE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 11 

Galloperdtx spadicea caurina. 
The Aravalli Spur-Fowl. 

Galloperdix spadicea var caurina, — Blanford, Avi. Brit. In. iv., p. 107 
(1898). 

Francolinus spadiceus, — Gray, 111. Ind. Orn. ii., pi. 42, fig. 2 (1834) (part). 

Polyplectron northicp,—Gvaj, 111. Ind. Orn. ii., pi. 43, fig. 1 (1834) (part). 

Ithaginis northiai, — Gray, List of B., pt. iii., Gall. p. 32 (1844) (part). 

Galloperdix spadiceus,— Bljth., Cat. Mus. As. Soc, p. 241 (1849) (part); 
Butler, Str. Feath iv., p. 5 (1876) (Aboo and N. Guzerat) ; Fairbank, ibid, 
iv., pp. 251, 262 (1876) (Khandala, Mahableswar and Ghat Range); 
Butler, ibid, v., p. 222 (1877) (Aboo); Hume and Marsh, Game-B. i., p. 
247 (1878); Butler, Cat. B. of Sind, p. 54 (1879) (Aboo). 

Galloperdix .spf/rficm,—Ogilvie- Grant, Cat. B. B. M. xxii., p. 261 (part), 
(1893) ; id, Man. Game-B. i., p. 206 (1895) (part) ; Blanford, Avi. Brit. In. 
iv., p. 106 (1898) (part) ; Gates, Man. Game-B, In. i., p. 215 (1898) (part). 

Description — Adult Male. — Differs from the adult male of spadicea 
in being everywhere much paler; on the upper parts the chestnut 
centres of the feathers are paler, and the grey margins wider; 
below the tint is much paler over the whole surface. 

Colours of Soft Parts.—" Legs and feet coral red; bill dusky 
reddish; irides light brown" (G. King). 

Meastirements. — Wing, 153 to 173 mm., average 8 specimens, 
159-7 mm.; tail, 116 to 13G mm., average 123 mm.; tarsus, 49 to 41 
mm. ; bill from front about 21 mm. and from gape about 26 mm. 

" Weight 8^ to 10 ozs. " (G. King). 

Adult Female. — Very much paler both above and below than 
the female of G. s. spadicea; the black bars and markings are 
almost absent, being confined to narrow broken streaks on either 
side of the shaft and to dull mottlings on the inner secondaries. 
Below the chestnut is much paler, and the feathers are edged with 
paler grey, whilst the black markings are greatly reduced in 
amount. On the whole the differences between the females of this 
race and Q. s. spadAcea is even more marked than it is in the males. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — " Legs and feet orange red to coral red; 
bill dusky red, irides dull yellow." (G. King). 

Measurements. — Wing, 154-171 mm. (3 specimens); tail, 120 to 
130 mm.; bill from front about 21 mm. and from gape about 2o 
mm. ; tarsus, 49 to 51 mm. 

" Weight, 8 ozs. " (G. King). 

Bistrihution. — The Aravalli Hills and Udaipur only. The 
birds from the Bombay Presidency South of these hills are at once 
strikingly darker and more chestnut than the Mt. Abu birds, and 
are nearer to the typical form, although somewhat paler and more 
grey than specimens from the Nilghiris and hill ranges of South 
India. These cannot, however, be given a name, as it is quite 
impossible to define any area for any special degree of depth of 
colouring. 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Nidification. — I can find nothing beyond what is recorded in 
Hume's Nests and Eggs. 

From Aboo Dr. King writes to me : — 

" This species is common at Aboo in the valleys, 
" ranging as high as 4,000 feet, but is most plentiful from 
" about 1,500 to 3,000 feet above the sea. It prefers 
" dense jungle about nullahs, and where there is a thick 
" undergrowth and especially where there is much bamboo. 
" I never took the nest myself, but its eggs were 
" brought to me in the early part of May, and my shikaris 
" and the Bheels emploj^ed said that the nests were flat and 
" shallow, composed of diVj bamboo leaves placed under, or 
" even in the middle of, clumps of bamboo, in the deeper 
"valleys." 
Col. Butler also wrote : — 

" The Red Spur-Fowl is common all along the 

" Aravallis. It is usually found singly or in pairs, and 

"breeds like the last species during the hot weather, but 

" I have often seen the chicks with the old birds after they 

" have been hatched in May and June." 

I have not seen enough of these eggs to say whether they vary 

in size from those of the other races, but otherwise they are, of 

course, quite indistinguishable. 

A pair in the British Museum measure 46"2x32-6mm., and 
44' 7 X 31 "5 mm. and a clutch of 3 in my own collection taken 
by Mr. Vidal measure 35-8 x 27-0 mm., 35*6 x 26-8 mm. 
and 36*5 x 26*4 mm. These are almost certainly abnormally 
small. 

General Habits. — Like those of G. s. spadicea, but the Aravalli 
Spur-Fowl is less of a dense forest and thick jungle haunter than 
is that bird, and may be foiind more often in comparatively open 
forests and thin iungle. 

It inhabits a country of comparatively small rain-fall, and 
less luxuriant vegetation hence its pale colouration. It is very 
common throughout the Aravalli Hills and the lower hills in 
Udaipur. 

Col. Butler says that it is " common all along the Aravallis. It 
is usually found singly or in pairs and breeds during the hot 
weather. " 

GaLLOPERDIX LUNULATA. 

The Painted Spur-Fowl. 

Curria Partridge, — ^Lath., Gen. Hist, viii., p. 270 (1823) (India). 

Perdix lunulata, — Valenc. & Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxviii., p. 446 (1825) 
(Bengal) ; Gray in Griffiths, ed. Cuv. iii., p. 48 (1829) (Bengal) ; Lesson, 
Traite, d'Orn, p. 504 (1831). 



THE GAME B1RD!S OF INDIA. 13 

Perdi.v hardwickii, — Gray in Griffiths" ed. Cuv. lii., p. 48 (1829) • Id 
iii., Ind. Zool. 1, pi. 52 (1830-32). 

Francolinus nivosus, — Delessert, Mag. de Zool. Ois., pi. 18 (Text) (1840) • 
Id. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 100 (Bengal). ' 

Francolinus hardwickii, — Delessert, Voy. dans V Inde, p. 26, pi. 10 (1843) 
(Pondicherry). 

Ithaginis lunulatus, — Gray, List of Birds, pt. iii., Gall. p. 32 (1844). 

Galloperdi.v lunulosa, — Blyth, Cat. Mus. As. Soc, p. 241 (1849) (Rajmahl.); 
Gould, B. Asia vi., pi. 69 (1854) ; Sclater & Wolf, Zool. Sket. 2, pi. 41 
(1861) ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 382 (Maunbhum) ; Blanford, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. xxxviii., pt. 2, p. 189 (1869) (Nagpur). 

Galloperdiv lunulosus, — Jerdon, B. India iii., p. 543 (1863) ; Marshall, B. 
Nest Ind., p. 59 (1877) ; Hume & Marshall, Game B. Ind., 1 pi. (1878). 

Galloperdix lunulatus. — Hume, Nests and Eggs, Ind. B., p. 533 (1873) ; 
Ball, Str. Feath. ii., p. 427 (1874) (Chota Nagpur), v., p. 418 (1877) (Maha- 
nadi & Godaveri Rivers) ; vii., p. 225 (1878) (Ganges to Godaveri) ; Hume 
& Marshall, Game-B. Ind. 1, p. 254, pi. (1878) ; Markham, Str. F. ix., p. 
206 (1880) (Allahabad) ; Butler, ibid, ix., p. 422 (1880) (Belgaimi Dist.) ; 
Davison, ibid, x., p. 410 (1883) (Nilghiris) ; Barnes, Birds Bombay, p. 306 
(1885) ; Taylor, Str. F. x., p. 531 (1887) (Orissa) ; Gates, ed. Hume's Nests 



-oo'- 



Galloperdix lunulata, — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. xxii., p. 263 (1893); 
Markham, Journ Bomb. N. H. Soc. ix., p. 35 (1894) (Ken. R.) ; id., Man. 
Game-Birds I., p. 209 (1895) ; Gates, Man. Game-B. I., p. 220 (1898) ; 
Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind. iv., p. 108 (1898) ; Finn, Ibis, 1899, p. 472; King, 
Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. xxi., p. 100 (1911) (Saugor) ; Whitehead, ibid, 
xxi., p. 16(3 (1911) (Schose); Pitman, ibid, xxii., p. 801 (1914) (C. Provinces, 
habits). 

Galloperdix lunulata, — Gates, Cat. Egg & Brit. Mus. 1, p. 50, pi. iv., fig. 
9 (1901). 

VERNACULAR NAMES.— ksko\ {Orissa and Sinc/b/wom) ; Hootkah 
(Gondhi) ; CuU-koli {Tamil) ; Jitta kodi {Telegu). 

Description — Adult Male. — Crown of head black, glossed with 
green, each feather having a white oval spot, these again some- 
times with a narrow black centre ; sides of head, nape and neck all 
round, throat and extreme upper breast brownish-black, each 
feather with a gloss}^ black terminal, and a white sub-terminal bar ; 
the chin is whitish or buffish-white, less spotted with black. Whole 
upper parts from hinder neck to shorter upper tail-coverts rich 
chestnut with white, black-edged ocelli, the white decreasing in 
extent towards the tail-coverts, and often absent or obsolete on 
lower back, and rump. Longer upper tail coverts and tail brownish- 
black, the rect rices with green or purple reflections in a good 
light. 

Scapulars and innermost median and greater coverts like the back 
but with strong metallic green gloss; other coverts like the back, 
but with larger and more conspicuous ocelli ; bastard wing and 
quills brown, some of the innermost secondaries glossed on the 
outer web with green like the scapulars. Smaller under wing- 
coverts and axillaries chestnut with black and white bars ; greater 
coverts brown faintly edged with chestnut. 



14 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI L 

Breast and upper abdomen bright buff, each feather with a 
terminal spot of black, the buff palest next these spots ; flanks 
chestnut, each feather with a buffy white bar between two black 
ones. The colours of the flanks and breast grade into one another. 

Lower abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts brownish-chestnut, 
more or less spotted with insignificant black-edged white spots ; 
the under tail-coverts are black-tipped, and the longest almost 
wholly of this colour. 

There is not much individual variation in colour, though some 
birds are more spotted than others, and some have the head a 
deeper black than the rest. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. — Legs and feet horny-green, plumbeous 
horny, or plumbeous ; upper mandible blackish horny, lower pale 
horny especially at the base and gape ; irides hazel brown or dark 
brown. 

Measurements. — Wing, 144-161 mm., average 28 specimens, 
153 mm.; tail, 128-135 mm.; tarsus, 42 — 45 mm.; spurs, gene- 
rally two on each leg, sometimes less, sometimes three on each 
leg or on one only. The spurs run up to about an inch in length 
(25"4 mm.) ; Bill from front, about 19 mm. and from gape about 
22-23 mm. 

"Weight, 9-10 ozs." (Hume). 

Adult female. — Crown black, the feathers with chestnut stripes, 
occupying nearly the whole of each web on the forehead, and the 
posterior crown chestnut tipped as well ; broad supercilia chestnut, 
the feathers with pale centres ; ear-coverts deeper chestnut ; chin, 
throat and cheeks pale yellowish-buff, mottled with chestnut ; neck 
all round, upper parts and wings dark brown tinged with greyish- 
olive, especially on back, scapulars and lesser coverts. Upper tail- 
coverts browner than the back ; tail deeper richer brown, obso- 
letely rayed with black bars. 

Below, the brown neck changes gradually to paler rufescent 
brown on breast and upper flanks, and then again to earthy brown 
on lower abdomen, vent and under tail-coverts. 

Such variation as exists in adult females consists in the absence 
or prevalence of narrow terminal spots or bars on the lower plumage, 
and less often on the upper. These markings appear to have 
nothing to do with age, as old bii'ds are to be found both well 
spotted and immaculate. 

One female from Raipur is noticeable for its very bright, almost 
pure chestnut, breast. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Similar to the same parts in the male. 

Measurements. — Wing, 138-159 mm., average 20 specimens, 146 
mm.; tail, 128-145 mm.; tarsus, about 40 mm.; bill from front 
about IS mm., and from gape about 21-22 mm. 
" Weight, 8-9 ozs. " (Hume). 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 15 

The Young Male, and Female resemble the adult female, but are 
much duller. Above, the whole plumage is much freckled and 
weakly barred with dull black and rufous brown, and the tail and 
inner secondaries are chestnut brown, distinctl}- barred with black. 
Below, the whole surface is brownish, and the breast is no more 
chestnut than the rest of the plumage, but is more or less freckled 
with dull pale bufl. 

The Chick in Down is a rich chestnut rufous above, the head and 
a broad dorsal line darkest and brightest; below, a dull pale earth- 
brown, more chestnut on throat, upper breast, flanks, thighs and 
vent. The wing and tail feathers, when they appear, are dull 
rufous brown, vermiculated with black and with a few tin}'- buff 
ocelli on scapulars and innermost wing-coverts. 

Distribution. — The distribution of the Painted Spur-Fowl is 
practically the same as that of the Red Spur-Fowl. Roughly to the 
North its boundaries are the Sind, Jumna and Ganges rivers, west- 
wards it is found as far as the Eastern slopes of the coastal Hill 
Ranges, but not apparently on the Malabar coast itself or in 
Western Travancore, though it is found in suitable places through- 
out Coimbatore and Mj^sore. On the East it extends right up to 
the coast wherever the country is suitable. 

Nidification. — There is not much on record about the breeding of 
this very common bird, and more detailed information is wanted. 
The breeding season appears to extend from February to June, the 
principal months being April and early May. It is of course resi- 
dent wherever found, and breeds throughout the area it inhabits. 
The nest is the usual scrape, natural, or made by the birds, under 
the shelter of a rock, bush or tree trunk, and the only materials 
used are the fallen leaves and rubbish. The eggs are, I think, 
generally 3 in number, sometimes 2 or 4, and, rarely 5. In appear- 
ance they are hardh^ separable from those of the Red Spur-Fowl, 
but I think as a rule they are rather paler in tint, not so warm a 
buff-cream colour. They are just as smooth and fine-textured and 
the same long shape, but I have one clutch of & eggs in my 
collection which are very pointed and inclined to a peg-top 
shape. 

Ihe 15 eggs I have been able to measure vary in length from 
39-9 X 30-3 mm. to 42-4 x 28-4 mm., and in breadth from the 
latter to 41-6 x 31-0 mm., the average is 40-6 x 29-9 mm. Like 
the other Spur-Fowl this bird is monogamous, and probably pairs 
for life. 

Mr. Blewitt records that : — 

" The parent birds assiduously care for their young, and 
" when disturbed exhibit great anxiety for their safety. When 
" closely pursued, the old birds endeavour by many artifices to 
" draw the attention of the intruders from the spot where the 



16- JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl 

" chicks lie concealed, and invariably on the cry of a chick 

" wounded or captured, the parent birds daringly return to the 

" rescue, often to within a dozen yards or so of the sportsman. 

" The chicks are very soon able to fly as well and as fast as 

" the old birds, and it is then not easy to get very near 

"them." 

General Habits. — This Spur -Fowl is not so restricted to dense 

forest or bamboo cover as the last species, and appears rather to 

haunt broken ground with numerous boulders and rocks amongst 

the vegetation, and this love of rocks and rocky ground seems to 

be the principal cause in restricting its haunts, for in wide stretches 

where these are absent, no birds will be found, though in suitable 

areas on either side it may be common. Neither does it ascend the 

hills to the same height as does the Red Spur-Fowl, and probably 

few birds live at altitudes over 3,000 feet, though the evidence on 

this point is very scanty. 

Major 0. R. S. Pitman says that he found them extraordinarily 
common in the Central Provinces on rocky hills of Granitoid Gneiss 
covered with forest, bamboo and thorn jungle, with thin scrub and 
grass on the tops. Here they seemed to prefer the crests of the 
hills where the cover consisted of this scrub and grass rather than 
those parts lower down with tree forest, and the more open this 
cover, the greater the certainty of finding several pairs of Painted 
Spur-Fowl. 

In a letter to me Major Pitman writes : — 

" It much prefers running to flying, and is fond of scuttling 
" about amongst rocks or standing on the highest one of some 
" group of rocks and thence surveying the country all round it. 
" During three weeks I saw many every day, and, though 
" when hard-pressed they are not difii cult to flush, flying rather 
" like a partridge, I never saw one fly up-hill unless occasion- 
" ally when birds flew down from one hill across a col to the 
" next one. Then if flushed again, they would sometimes fly 
' ' back to their original crest. Down-hill they fly readily enough 
" however steep and seem to get along equally well whether 
" hurling themselves down obliquely or at the steepest angles. 
" I have often noticed both sexes perch in trees when fright- 
" ened whether by dog or man, possibly to see better what 
" was worrying them ; even then though they had to fly up it 
" was either a sort of scramble from directly below or a point 
" used as a rest as they flew down-hill. 

" When frightened on the slopes at the bottom of a hill, 
" they invariably make for the top running, all with a view of 
" eventually being able to look back from some high vantage 
•' point. Thus I found an excellent way of shooting them was 
" to walk along the hill crests with a beater on either side 



THE GAME BIRDS OF ESDI A. 17 

" of the hill about 50 yards below me. By this means 
'• birds from the slopes would always run up and were 
" then flushed together with those which were originally on 
" the top. 

" I cannot agree with some descriptions of this bird Avhich 
" say that it is difficult to flush, and even when flushed at 
" once makes straight for the thickest cover. My experience is 
" that males when first put up usually fly along the crest of 
" the hills, and after being flushed a couple of times or so, 
"breakback; broods and pairs flew straight down-hill, and 
'• at once started running up again. On such occasions they 
" generally just went over the crest and squatted a few yards 
" down the opposite slope. 

" When flushed the males get up Avith a curious bubbling, 
" scolding, chuckling noise and at night I heard this same 
" cry on the rocky hills. 

" Females with broods, whether young chicks or nearly 
" fullgrown, in the first instance usually led them away by 
" running, uttering at the same time a peculiar scolding 
" chuckle. Even under these circumstances they were always 
" so eager to climb to the tops of rocks and look back that 
" one could often get right up to them. 

" Their food seemed to consist of seeds, berries, grain and 
"other vegetable matter. In the crops of all I examined 
" there was a soft dark brown mash with occasionally a few 
" small seeds distinguishable in it, and I also found a lot of 
" stale dry mowrah flowers in their crops after the middle of 
" May. 

" The legs of the males ] examined had from two to three 
" spurs, in one case three on both legs, the females had from 
" one to two, often two on each leg." 
Jerdon does not think much of it as an article for the table, he 
writes : — 

" Its qualities for the table are inferior to those of the last 
" species, having less flavoxn- and being more dry. Kumbers 
" are snared in the hills not far from Madras, and are geaierally 
" procurable in the Madras market. I have kept them in 
" confinement for long. They thrive pretty well, but the 
" males are very pugnacious. The males have a fine cackling 
" sort of call, very fowl-like." 
It should be noted that C apt. Baldwin states that this Spur- 
Fowl when running carries " the tail up, not like a partridge. " 
This must surely be wrong, but I have never seen it contradicted, 
and unfortunately skins will not either refute or confirm this, and 
some sportsman should remember to take observations which will 
enable him to do one or the other. 
3 



18 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Galloperdix bicalcarata. 

The Ceylon Jungle-Fowl. 

Fevdix Ucalearatus, — Pennant, Ind. Zool., p. 40, pi. vii. (1769). 

Perdix zeylonensis,— Gm.e\. Syst. Nat. 1, pt. ii., p. 759 (1788) ; Bonnat., 
Encycl. Meth. 1, p. 210, pi. 93, fig. 3. (1791). 

Perdix eeylonensis, — Lath. Ind. Orn. ii., p. 644 (1790) ; Temm., Pig. et. 
Oall. iii., pp. 311, 718 (1815). 

Ceylon Partridge, Lath., Gen. Syn. Suppl. ii., p. 278 (1802). 

Francolinm ceylanensis, — Less., Traite d'Orn., p. 504 (1831). 

Galloperdix zeylonends, -Blyth., Cat. Mus. As. Soc, p. 241 (1849); Gould, 
B. Asia vi. pi. 67 (1854) ; Hume, Nests & Eggs Ind. B. p. 535 (1873). 

Galloperdix bicalcarata, — Layard, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) xiv., p. 105 
<1854) ; Blyth, Ibis 1867, p. 308 ; Holdsworth, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 469 ; Legge., 
Ibis, 1874, p. 26; 1875, p. 400 ; id., Birds Ceylon iii., p. 741, pi. (1880); Hume, 
Str. Feath. vii., pp. 430, 453 (1878) ; Hume & Marshall, Game-B. Ind. i, p. 
261 pi. (1878) ; Gates, ed. Hume's Nests & Eggs Ind. B. iii., p. 426 (1890); 
Ogilvie Grant, Cat. Birds B. M. xxii., p. 264 (1893); id., Man. Came-B. 
1, p. 210 (1895) ; Butler, Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. x. p. 31 (1896) ; Blanford, 
Faun. Brit. Ind. iv., p. 109 (1898) ; Lewis, Ibis, 1898, p. 5ol ; Gates, Man. 
Game-B. 1, p. 224 (1898) ; Wait, Spolia Zeylanica x, pt. 39, p. 371 (1917). 

VERNACULAR NAMES. Haban-or Saban-kukula {Cinyhalese). 

Description — Adult Male. — Crown, nape, hind neck, back, scapu- 
lars and wing-coverts black with white central lines ; on the head 
these are very narrow, but gradually broaden towards the back 
until on the outer wing-coverts they become large pear-shaped 
drops. The bases of the feathers of both back and wing-coverts are 
pale brown or chestnut brown, verniiculated with blackish, and 
these show through every^vhere ; on both the lower back and greater 
wdng-coverts the feathers have broad chestnut edges verniiculated 
with black and grade gradually into the chestnut rump and shorter 
tail-coverts. The rump is sometimes immaculate except for a 
terminal black spot or narrow bars of bufi' and black, at other times 
there is a certain amount of black vermiculation ; the coverts are 
invariably freely vermiculated with black and the longer tail- 
coverts and tail are black, the central tail feathers sometimes, and 
the outer feathers on the bases nearly always, vermiculated with 
chestnut. 

Primaries brown ; secondaries brcs^^n, vermiculated with chestnut 
on the outer webs, the innermost on both webs ; greater coverts 
like the quills, but with white pear-shaped black-edged ocelli at 
the tips. 

Sides of head white, the feathers with tiny edges of black ; chin 
and throat pure white. Neck, breast, flanks and abdomen white, 
each feather black-edged. On the flanks the black edges dominate 
so that this part of the plumage is almost black ; the upper breast 
is boldly black and white, and the centre of th? abdomen almost 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

white. Vent, posterior, abdomen and flanks dnllt earth-brown with 
white spots. Under tail-coverts blackish-brown with grey tips. 

The extent to which individual variation is found is in the pro- 
portionate amount of black and white on the feathers of the breast 
and lower paits and in the amount of vermiculation on the back 
rump and upper tail-coverts. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — " Iris brownish-yellow or brownish-red ; 
orbital skin red; bill, legs and feet red; spurs dusky reddish." 
(Legge.; 

Measurements. — "Length, 13-5 to lo-8 inches." ( Legge.) 
Wing, 151 to 174 mm., average of 20 specimens, 164 mm,, tail 
121 to 130 mm. ; tarsus, 54 to 57 mm. ; bill at front about 22 mm,, 
and from gape about 25 mm. The spurs run up to about 20 mm., 
and are more generalh* about 12-15 mm. 

I can find no records of weight. 

There are usually two spurs on each leg, sometimes onl}^ one on 
one, and sometimes as many as three. 

Adult Female. — Crown blackish-brown, the feathers of forehead 
and sides with paler centres ; sides of the head diill chestnut, the 
feathers black-edged. Whole upper plumage and wing-coverts 
diTll chestnut vermiculated with black, most profusely so on the 
longest upper tail-coverts. Tail black, the two central pairs of 
feathers faintly vermiculated Avith chestnut. 

Quills brown, the secondaries all vermiculated with chestnut on 
the outer webs, and the innermost on both webs. 

Below, chestnut, practically immaculate on the breast, and more 
and more vermiculated with dark brown towards the vent. Vent, 
posterior, abdomen and flanks earthy chestnut ; under tail-coverts 
darker chestnut, densely vermiculated with black. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — "Iris brownish-yellow; bill, legs and 
feet lighter red than in the males." (Legge.) 

Measurements. — " Length, 11-75 inches." (Legge.) 

Wing, 143 to 150 mm., average 8 specimens, 146 mm. ; tail, 
108 to 110mm. ; tarsus, 46 to 48mm. ; bill from front about 18mm. 
and fi'om gape about 22 mm. 

The spurs are small, seldom as much as 12-5 mm., and niTmber 
either one or two on each leg, sometimes, however, wanting on one 
or both legs. Wait says that the females are generally without spurs, 
but this is not so with the British Museum series. 

Distribution. — This Spur-Fowl is found only in Ceylon, and only 
in those portions which are well forested and have an ample rain-fall. 
Thus it is very common in the South- Western portion, more or less 
common in the West and East, but is not found in the extreme 
North-West nor in the North-Eastern portion of the island. 

Nidiflcation. — The breeding season of the Ceylon Spur-Fowl 
lasts almost throughout the year. Wait says that it appears to be 



20 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl, 

from about November to March, or April and occasionally again in 
July and August. I have a pair of eggs taken in June, and Hart 
found them in October. Possibly February and March are the two 
months in which most eggs are laid. 

The nestins' arrangements are much the same as those of the Eed 
and Painted Spur-Fowls. No real nest is made, but the eggs are 
laid in some shallow hollow under the protection of a bush or thick 
clump of creepers or grass, and the only lining is the mass of fallen 
debris carpeting the whole forest. The site selected appears always 
to be in very thick cover, and, preferably, in evergreen forest with 
dense undergrowth. 

Undoubtedly the number of eggs most often laid is tw^o. Wait 
says " usually two, sometimes more, " but I understand that three 
is the largest number he has personally seen or taken. Legge 
found two only, but the natives told him that they laid up to four, 
and Hart records it as laying from 4 to 6 eggs. Personally I have 
never seen a genuine clutch of more than three, but believe four 
may rarely be found. 

They are like other Spur-Fowls' eggs, but of a warmer tint of 
buff or cafe-au-lait, and are not so elongated. 

The eggs measured by W. E. Wait averaged 1-60" x 1-16" 
(42-1 X 30-4 mm.), but 3 in my collection and a few others which 
have passed through my hands average only o9-l x 28-9 mm. The 
largest 40*2 x 29-0 mm. and 39*0 x 29'5 mm. and the smallest 
38-0 X 28-4 mm. and 39-4 x 28-3 mm. 

Like other Spur-Fowls, the Ceylon bird is monogamous, and the 
cock and hen remain together throughout the year. 

General Habits. — The Ceylon Spur-Fowl may be found within the 
damper regions of Ceylon at all heights from the broken ground of 
the foot hills up to 4,500 feet or even 5,000 feet, and according 
to Wait " spreads further into the dry flat country between the hills 
and the sea" on the South-East. Ample cover is essential. Legge 
records that : — 

" The shy habits of this bird would prevent its being detect- 
" ed in most places where it is even abundant, were it not for 
" its noisy cries or cackling, so well known to all who have 
"wandered in our Ceylon jungles. 

" It frequents tangled brakes, thickets in damp nullahs, 
" forest near rivers, jungle over hill sides, and in fact any kind 
" of cover which will afford it entire concealment. 

" It runs with great speed, and has the knack of noiselessly 
" beating a retreat at one time, while at another it ventrilo- 
" quizes its exciting notes, until the sportsman becomes fairly 
" exasperated, and gives up the attempt he has made to stalk 
' it in disgust. I have more than once endeavoured to cut off 
" its retreat or flush it by rushing into a little piece of jungle 



. THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 21 

" or detached copse in which I had found it, and from which 
" it seemed impossible for it to escape, but I invariably failed 
"in the attempt, a failure aggravated by mj^ titter bewil- 
" dernient at its unaccountable disappearance. 

"The cock birds begin to call at six in the morning, and 
" when one has fairly commenced, the curious ascending scale 
" of notes is taken up from one to another, until the wood re- 
-sounds Vv'ith their cries." 

Most writers give the Ceylon Spur-Fowl the credit of being a 
strong swift flyer when once it is forced to take to wing, and its 
flight is possibly stronger than that of its Indian relations whose 
powers in this respect are not very great. Like them, however, it 
is a skiilker of the most crafty and persistent description, and 
very hard to flush. Even dogs only force it up into the nearest 
thick bush or tree, where it will lie concealed and quiet until it 
thinks all danger has passed. 

Everyone seems to agree that it is hard to rear from eggs and 
almost impossible to tame if caught. If precautions are taken to 
prevent its killing itself against the roof or sides of its cage or 
enclosure when startled, or if they do not quickly die from unsuit- 
able food or refusal of all food, thej^ still always remain shy, wild 
birds, resenting observation and also the presence of other birds or 
beasts. 

They are constantly trapped hj the natives, who la}" snares for 
tliem in the places they most frequent for feeding purposes. A 
favourite trap described to me by a Mr. Kellow, formerly a tea-plan- 
ter in Ceylon, is said to consist of little triangles made by two fences 
■with, open bases and open apexes, in the latter of M-hich are numer- 
ous nooses into which the birds walk, led thereto by the fences 
which they run along in preference to jumping or flying over. 

They are also said to be decoyed into a ring of nooses by a captive 
bird, for the cocks are very quarrelsome, and the cocks in the 
vicinity soon come to the challenge of another invading their 
sanctuaries. As far as I could ascertain, however, the decoy system 
was one introduced into Ceylon by immigrant Tea labourers, and 
used by them only. 

Legge remarks that in their manner of fighting the males remind- 
ed him of the game-cock, both in the way they elevated and depres- 
sed their heads and in the w^ay they imitated one another's action. 

The flesh is very good eating, and has been likened to that of 
Grouse. Their own food is both vegetarian and insectivorous, and 
they are particularl}- fond of the ripe berries of that imported pest of 
Ceylon, the Lantana bush. Hart says that their diet is principally 
^vhite ants, and various other insects and their larvas. 

Its powers of ventriloquism have already been rc^ferred to above, 
and this has been corroborated by many observers. So great indeed 



22 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVII 

is this power that Layardsays that when listening to hirds confined 
in his aviaries, he conld have declared that the calls proceeded from 
everj^ part of" the ground rather than from the aviary itself. 

Ophrysia superciliosa. 

The Mountain Quail. 

Rollulus superciliosus, — Gray., Knowsl. Menag., Aves. p. 8, pi. xvi. (1846) 
(India). 

Ophrysia superciliosa, — Bonap. Comp., Rend, xliii., p. 414 (1856) (noloc); 
Hume, Str. Feath. vii., p. 4-34 (1878) (no loc); Hume & Marshall, Game-B. 
Ind. ii., p. 105 pi, (1879) (Mussorie, Nainital) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Oat. Birds 
B. M. xxii., p. 266 (1893) ; id., Handb. Game-B. 1, p. 212 (1896) ; Blanford, 
Faun. Brit. Ind. iv., p. 105 (1898) ; Gates, Man. Game-B. 1, p. 121 (1898) ; 
Comber., J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xvi. p. 361 (1905). 

Ptilopackus {Ophrysia) superciliosa, — Gray, List Gallinee Brit. Mus., p. 4-5 
(1867). 

Malacoturnix superciliosus, — Blyth, P. Z. S. 1867, p, 475 (Mussorie) ; 
Gould, B. of Asia vii., pi. 8 (1868). 

Malacortyx super ciliaris, — Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 313. 

Coturnix [Ophrijsia) superciliosa, — Gray, Handl. B. ii. p. 269 (1870). 
VJERNACULAR NAMES. None known. 

Description, — Adult Male. — Forehead and a broad siTpercilium 
reaching to the nape white, a band above and below this snpercilium 
black ; chin, throat, sides of the face and ripper ear-coverts black ; 
lower ear-coverts and cheeks white, extended in a broken band down 
the sides of the throat; a spot in front of the eye and another 
behind it white ; crown greyish-brown with velvety black central 
strige. Plnmage, generally, above and below dark clear slaty 
olive-brown, each feather with black edges to the basal four-fifths 
of each web except on the longest tail-coverts and tail feathers. 
Under tail-coverts black with broad white terminal bars. 

The wings are rather browner and lighter than the rest of the 
upper plumage, and the primaries are vermiculated with pale dull 
bu.ff on the basal halves of the outer webs. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — ^" Bill coral red; legs and feet dull red or 
dusky red" (Hutton). 

Measurements. — " Length 10 inches" (Hutton). 

Two specimens in the British Museum. Wings, 86 mm. (in moult), 
and 95 mm. ; tails, 80 and 82 mm. ; tarsus, 29 mm. ; bill from front 
11-5 mm., and from gape 13*5 mm. two other specimens not quite 
adult have wings of 85 and 86 mm. 

Adult Female. — Above cinnamon brown, the centre of the crown 
with practically no markings, nape and neck with broad black 
streaks changing to triangular black spots on the back, scapulars,, 
rump and upper tail-coverts which are bordered with fulvous, more 
especially on the scapulars. A white spot both in front and behind 
the eye, and a small white eyebrow, A broad supercilium, ear-cov- 
erts and sides of the head vinaceous-brown, merging into albescent 



THE GAME BIRDS OF IM)IA. 2g 

on chin and throat ; a broad black band on either side of the 
crown and a black patch under the e3'e next the beak. 

Wings like the back; primaries light brown, mottled with buff on 
the outer webs, the mottlings gradually increasing in depth of colour 
and extent towards the innermost secondaries which are like the 
back. 

Below a beautifiil pale, but bright, vinaceous brown, each feather 
with a broad black central stripe and faint chestnut edgings ; flanks^ 
and vent vermiculated with, brown and black. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — " Bill duskjr red, lower mandible brightest ; 
legs dull red; e3'elids black, with a small white spot at the corners". 
(Hutton.) 

Measurements. — Two females in the British Museum collection. 
Wings, 88 and 93 mm. ; tails, 70 and 71 mm. ; tarsus and bill, not 
different in size to that of the males. 

Young Male. — Judging from a specimen in the British Museum 
collection, the young male must be somewhat like the female, as it 
still retains a few buff and brown mottled wing-feathers and a certain 
amount of mottling on the breast. 

Distribution. — As yet only known from ]\Iussoorie and Naini-Tal. 
Nidification. — Unknown. 

General Habits. — The 10 specimens enumerated by Hume in 
Gartw-Birr'- remain the only known specimens of this bird. The 
original Sjcjclmens were a pair in the Knowslej^ Collection, and their 
origin 'was unknown but supposed to be "from India". This was 
in 1846. In 1865 Kenneth Mackinnon shot a pair near Mussoorie 
in the month of November, and in the following year from Novem- 
ber to June, 1868, there were several birds^ or covies of birds at 
Jerepani at aboxit 5,500 feet elevation, and five specimens were 
procared, and finalh- Major G. Carwithin shot one at Sher-ka-danda, 
7,000 feet, near to Naini-Tal. Since then this bird has never been 
seen again. Kenneth Mackinnon, writing to Hume about the birds 
he sent, said : — 

"It was shot together with a second, also a male, out of a 
"covey of 8 or 10 in grass jimgle on the southern face of 
" Budraj. 

" I noticed that nearly half the birds, probably females, 
"were brown, rather darker than the ordinary game brown. 
" They were very difficult to flush, and, but for tho dogs, we 
" could not have got them up. After being flushed they col- 
" lected again at some distance with a shrill whistling unlike 
" that of any of our other birds. Their flight was slow and 
" heavy, and I should never have supposed them capable of 
" migrating far. 

' ' I saw these birds frequently after this, and have frequently 
" heard their whistling when out shooting near Mussorie. They 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol.XXVII. 

" are not confined to the spot where I shot that brace, T. have 

"seen and heard them at other similar places, at about the 

" same elevation, in the neighbourhood of Mnssorie, but to the 

"best of mj recollection only dming the winter, but of this 

"latter I am not sure." 

Oapt. Hutton's boys knocked over three specimens, one of which 

was destroyed, and again a fourth in December. Hutton writes 

of these as follows : — 

" There were only 5 or 6 birds in this covey, and all }Oung 

" apparently. This one was shot Avitli a pistol, as we find the 

"gun of little use, the birds refusing to take wing and only 

" running among the long high grass when pressed, and allow- 

"ing themselves to be nearlj^ trodden upon before they will 

" move. During the forenoon they wander to feed up among 

" the long-grass to which they obstinately cling, feeding on the 

" fallen seeds, and their presence being made known by their 

" short Quail-like note. They will not cotne out into the open 

" ground, and in the afternoon they descend into sheltered 

" hollows amongst the grass and brushwood." 

Major Carwithin records of the bird shot by hip-- that it was shot 

by him on the eastern slopes of Sher-ka-danda w^ev: '. ''-ig; for 

Cheer-Pheasant. The ground is described as ■ 

patches of brushwood here and there." 

The above contains all we know about these bird 
thought that they were migratory birds probably -;' Jn 

South-Eastern Chinese Tibet. Judging, however, i; l, > "<^ 

know of their habits, I should think it is more probable that they 
are resident birds, and that Mussorie and Naini-Tal probably form 
the outposts of their habitat in native Garhwal and Nepal. Their 
skulking habits and the extraordinar}?^ persistence with which they 
refuse to fl}" would suffice to keep them unknown to any but the 
most observant of sportsmen, and as the few that are flushed gene- 
rally would get up when men were expecting pheasants, they would 
probably not waste shot upon such small i'rj. 

Probably we shall have to wait until someone with time, patience 
and acute powers of observation makes a regular business of once 
more locating and obtaining these birds. Once found, their very- 
habits should make them an easj^ pi'ey to clever netters, and perhaps 
we jnaj see some before long in the Zoological Gardens in India 
and Loudon. 



{To be continued.) 



25 

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY 

No. XXII. 
By 

Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 
(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A. — A NEW BAT OF THE GENUS RhINOPOMA FROM S. E. PERSIA. 

The following new bat belonging to the genus Rhinopoma 
occurs among the collections made b}- Col. J. E. B. Hotson : — 

Rhinopoma pusillum, sp. n. 

A species of the cy stops group, smaller than any as yet des- 
cribed. 

General build light and delicate, about as in R. muscatellum and 
seianum, but size still smaller. Connecting band of ear well 
developed. Feet small and ver}^ slender. Tail short, slightly 
shorter than the forearm, the converse beirg generally the case in 
all the smaller forms of Bhinopoma. 

Skull with the prominent nasal inflations characteristic of the 
cystops group, and these proportionally a little higher ; top of 
muzzle, as seen in profile and compared with the line ot the 
tooth row, slanted downward anteriorly in cystops, horizontal in 
muscatellum and seianum, iipwards anterior!}* in the new form, 
though very slightly so. Sagittal crest well developed anteriorly. 
Bullfe not so large as in muscatellum and seianum. 

Molars smaller than in any of the allied species. Canines shorter, 
comparatively broad at base. 

Dimensions of the type, measured on the spirit specimen: — 

Head and body, 54 ; tail, 4G ; ear, 17-5 ; lower leg and foot (c.u.), 
32 ; hind foot (c.u.) 11-3. Skull :— greatest length, 15-5 ; median 
naso-occipital length, 14 ; zygomatic breadth, 9'2 ; breadth across 
nasal inflations, 5-5; mastoid breadth, 8; length of bulla, 4-4; 
basal diameter of canine, 1-1 ; front of canine to back of m'., 5 '3 ; 
combined length of m\ and m"., 2-6, 

TJab.-.—^ih, S. E. Persia, near the Perso-Baluchistan frontier. 

Type:— 0\di female in spirit B.M. No. 20.1.19.3. Collected by 
Col. J. E. B. Hotson, presented by the Bombay Natural History 
Society. One specimen onh*. 

Considering how near are the respective localities I had expected 
this would prove to be seianum, but it is readily to be distinguished 
by its small size, much smaller teeth and shorter tail. 



26 

THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OP THE PLAINS 

OF INDIA. 

(INCLUDING THOSE MET WITH IN THE HILL STATIONS 
OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY.) 

BY 

T. R. Bell, i.f.s. (ketd.). 

{Oontinued from page 954 of Vol. XXVI.) 
Part XXV. 

39. Genus — Virachola.. 

Eyes hairy ; body robust. In the male there is tuft of hairs turned up- 
wards from the inner margin of the fore wing, these hairs fixed on that 
margin ; in the hind wing there is also a male sexual mark : glandular, de- 
pressed, on the upper surface, near the base, pear-shaped with the narrow 
end directed towards the base, extending slightly below the costa into the 
discoidal cell and reaching as far out as the discocellulars ; the palpus of the 
male shorter than that of the female ; the hind wing with an anal lobe and 
a thin threadlike tail at the end of vein 2. The genus contains three 
species, all belonging to the Indian region. Two of these are found through- 
out India except in the absolutely desert tracts and in Ceylon ; the third is 
confined to the Andamans. The transformations of the two Indian species 
are known and have often been described ; they will be found below. The 
larvte and pupae are very similar to those of Beudorix and Bindahara and 
the larv£e all feed on the inside of fruits of difTerent sorts. They are all, 
the butterflies of the present genus that is, very powerful fliers, quick and 
agile and capable of traversing long distances. Our two species, isocrates 
and perse, are both fond of the sun and the males bask on the tops of 
high trees, sitting with the wings half-open as long as the sun is bright. 
They rest, with them closed, under leaves, &c. 

196. Virachola perse, Hewitson— Male. Upperside : Fore wing with the 
costa above the median vein up to the base of vein 2 deep black ; the apex 
broadly black ; the black colour occupying the whole apical space and 
outer margin, leaving the inner and lower portion of the wing blue ; some- 
times with an ochreous-red patch varying in size outside the cell. Hind 
wing with the costa broadly black, the band narrowing suddenly round the 
apex and continued narrowly down the outer margin to the anal angle ; 
aladominal space also rather broadly black ; the fold grey ; the remaining 
inner space blue ; the anal lobe black, with a dull ochreous spot in it ; tail 
black, tipped with white ; cilia of both wings black. Underside : vinous- 
grey, sometimes with a red tinge ; markings darker grey, pale-edged. 
Fore wing with an irregular, rather large spot at the end of the cell with 
dark edges ; a discal band of conjoined spots from the cost to near the 
submedian vein ; the lowest small, the first four outwardly oblique, the 
others straight down, commencing a little inwards. Hind wing with a 
black, subbasal spot below the costa ; twin spots at the end of the cell ; a 
discal band of conjoined spots, the third and fourth a little outside the 
others, its lower part curving suddenly in towards the abdominal margin 
below its middle ; anal lobe black, a small, round black spot in the first 
interspace, ringed with ochreous. Antennae black, ringed with white, 
club with an ochreous-red tip ; frons grey ; eyes ringed with white ; head 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 27 

and body black above, grey beneath. — Female. Upperside paler blue, with- 
out gloss. Foro wing with broad, costal and outer, marginal, black borders, 
a white patch, sometimes tinged with ochreous beyond the cell. Hind 
wing witn the costal and outer, marginal, black borders broader than in 
the male ; abdominal space clear of blackish suffusion ; the fold blackish- 
grey ; a white, anteciliary line from the anal lobe to vein 2. Underside 
paler than the male, markings similarly disposed, but more defined. 
Expanse : male, 35-50mm ; female, 4o-60 mm. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, very much flattened in shape. Surface pitted all over 
with small cells which may be hexagonal but their shape is obscured by 
the thick, coarse walls which are double the diameter of the cell — aper- 
tures ; there are some scattered thickenings of the intersections of 
cell walls ; on the very apex of the egg there is a more or less circular 
depression, the bottom of which is minutely pitted. The egg is broadest 
just above the base. The colour is green as seen at the bottoms of the 
cells and apical depression ; the cell-walls are all white obscuring most of 
the ground-colour. B : 1.7omm. ; B : 1mm. 

Larva. — Nearly exactly the same as that of V. isocrates. Head of 
medium size, light j^ellow-brownish ; shining. The stir/ace shining ; covered 
with similar black hairs but slightly longer than in ■isocrates ; the other 
hairs also longer : instead of one hair, subdorsal, on each segment there 
are here three or four subdorsal on each side on segments 4-6 and two 
on 8-10 ; the little wart-like tubercular swellings below each spiracle bear 
some rather longer, white bristles ; the edges of the shovel perhaps 
more tumid. The spiracles large, oval, black. The colour indigo-brown ; 
segments 1-3 orange-brown ; marks on segments 7, 8 are light-cream 
coloured ; segments 11-13 same colour as 1-3, but somewhat darker ; the 
spiracles of segment 12 larger, L : 25mm. ; B : nearly 7mm. 

Pupa. — Similar to that of isocrates but the constriction more pronounced 
because the abdomen is more swollen at segments 7 and 8 where it is 
highest and broadest ; circular in transverse section. Surface covered 
with minute hairs sparsely, more dense round spiracles and a little longer 
along the front margin of segment 2 ; the thorax is more humped than in 
isocrates. Spiracles of segment 2 facing slightly forwards instead of 
being flush ; the other spiracles long and narrow, dark -brown. Colour dirty 
light-brown, L : 16 mm. ; B : 7 mm. 

Habits. — Exactly the same as those of V. isocrates. They do 
not deviate in any single particular from them ; ants only attend 
the larvae as scavengers and not as visitors except that they ma}^ 
occasionally find some of the sugary ferment on the backs of the 
latter that might attract them — there shonld be a good deal of the 
sort adhering to a bristle-bearing surface. The butterflies are 
strong and rapid in flight and difficult to catch ; the males bask 
also, like those of isocrates, but are not found at the tops of hills 
so much ; they do not commonly visit flowers, neither do they go 
to water. The habitat of i^erse in India is from the Himalayas to 
the South. It is, seemingly, confined more to the jungles than the 
other species, isocrates, and is certainly more plentiful on the 
sea-coast in Kanara than that species, and continues plentiful as 
far as the jungle lasts to the east, say to where the rainfall diminishes 
to 40 inches. The commonest foodplant is Randia dmnetorum 
(fruits). 



28 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

197. Virachola isocrates, Fabrisius. Male (PL H., fig. 54) — Upper side -. 
violet brown. Fore wing : with the colour darkening on the margins in cer- 
tain lights, showing a bright violet gloss on the inner area ; an indistinct 
orange-ochreoLis patch, varying in size in difierent examples, beyond the 
cell, only visible in certain lights. Hind wing : with the costal area and 
abdominal fold blackish-brown ; anal lobe whitish with a black spot in it, 
varying in size in different examples, with some pale bluish-white scaling 
on its upper side, in some examples the black spot nearly fills the whole of 
the anal lobe ; tail black, tipped with white. Cilia of both wings with the 
basal part black, the outer half white, becoming bluish-grey below the tail 
and round the anal lobe. Underside vinous-grey, or slaty-grey, markings 
darker than the ground colour, edged on both sides with white. Fore 
wing with a bar at the end of the cell, a discal band of conjoined spots, 
decreasing in size hindwards, nearly straight down, from near the costa to 
below vein 2, where the spot is very small. Hind wing with similar discoi- 
dal bar and discal band, the latter somewhat irregular ; the third, fourth 
and sixth spots a little outside the others, then the band, with a sudden 
curve, reaches the abdominal margin a little below its middle ; anal lobe 
black with a white spot on its upper inner side, a smaller black spot tinged 
with orange in the first interspace, with some blue, grey and white scaling 
between them ; both wings with indications of a narrow, submarginal band 
and very fine, marginal, grey line. Antennre black, ringed with white, 
club with an orange tip, with a white streak below at its base ; frons 
greyish-white ; eyes ringed with white ; head and body above and below 
concolorous with the wings, abdomen below white. — Female. (P1.,H., fig. 
54a) — Upperside brown. Fore wing : with the colour darkening towards the 
margins, the orange-ochreous patch larger and more distinct and varying 
much in extent, in some examples extending broadly to the base below the 
median vein. Upperside as in the male, but the bands are broader and 
more outwardly curved ; the black, anal spots larger. Expanse : male, 
40 — 45 mm. ; female, 45 — 50 mm. 

Larva. — The shapz is exactly the same, practically, as that of Deudorix 
epijarbas, with the same kind of anal end, i.e., a " shovel," circular and flat, 
on the dorsal areas of segments 12-14 ; the general style of marking is 
also similar. Head rather small, hidden under segment 2, shining, round in 
shape and dark-brown in colour ; segment 2 semicircular in shape, thick- 
ened round the margins, slightly emarginate in dorsal line on front 
margin, evenly convex transversely, with a dorsal depression which has on 
it a double, fine, dorsal line flanked on either side by a small, black spot ; 
segment 3 broader and higher than segment 2, flat on dorsum or top, rising 
suddenly from the front margin, that is forming a perpendicular declivity 
from the surface of segment 2 ; segments 4-6 shorter than 3, the body 
highest at segment 4, each of the segments 4-6 with a transverse dent 
on dorsum ; segments 7-l0 about the same breadth — the larva is broadest 
at segment 3 — with, each, a small, dorsal, elliptical indentation ; segments 
3-10 have also a lateral, central longish depression or dent parallel to 
the front and hinder margins : segment 11 is dorsally flat (as in Deudorix) 
and not very distinguishable from the succeeding " shovel " segments : 
the surface of the shovel-disc is pitted and the margins raised ; all seg- 
ments very distinct except the anal ones, especially on the dorsoventral 
margin which is somewhat flanged or thickened all round ; segment 18 
a,bout the same breadth as segment 2 and the hinder margin of 14 is 
semicircular. The surface of the larva is shining-oily looking, covered with 
many small, tubercvilar, black hairs ; front margin of segment 2 and the 
whole dorsoventral margin of body with a row of fine, short, white hairs 
much longer than the tubercular, black ones ; on top of each segment 3-10 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 01 INDIA. 2D 

is a subdorsal, erect , white much longer hair, each rising from a small 
swelling ; bases of legs and prolegs also finely hairy. Spiracles are oval 
shiny-brown and sunk in depreusions. Colour of the body is a dark indigo- 
blue with the front margins of segments 2, 3 broadly yellow, top of 
segment 3 also yellow, with a dorsal, blue line ; segments 7, 8 with a lar^^e 
dorsal, square, whitish patch over both of them, the whole length of the 
segments and about one-third of the breadth, with a semicircular, small 
blue indentation on the dorsal line of each near the hinder margin ; these 
two segments 8, 9 have also a whitish blotch under each spiracle ; seo-- 
ments 11-13 are translucent-looking grey as well as the veutrum ; legs 
shining glassy-yellow. The organs on segment 13 are small and cyHndri- 
cal, occasionally protruded from the circular orifices, white ; gland not 
perceptible. L: 20 mm. ; B: 6 mm. 

Pupa, — Is quite normal in shape ; head under segment 2 which over- 
reaches it in a thin margin ever so slightly, eyes prominent with a central, 
shiny depressed line ; antennae hardly distinguishable between eyes and 
margin of segment 2 ; segment 2 transversely convex, sloping up to the 
hinder margin very steeply, rounded in front — that is the front end of 
pupa is rounded ; thorax with its front ascent in the same plane as that 
of segment 2, only slightly humped, rather long, the hinder margin 
running into segment 4 in a point on dorsal line ; constriction slight and 
gradual; abdomen and thorax the same breadth to segment 8, transverse 
section at segment 8 circular, slightly depressed ; segmental divisions 
distinct, that between 9, 10 especially accentuated — that is the segmental 
membrane is visible ; segment 11 to anal extremity are, dorsally, in a plane 
very nearly perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pupa — the passage 
from 10 being of course evenly rounded ; the anal segment itself turned 
under ventrally. The surface is sparsely cohered with minute, comb-topped 
hairs which are denser round the front margin of segment 2 and round the 
spiracles ; otherwise pitted and dull. Spiracles of segment 2 are long, 
prominent, velvety-looking and light in colour; the rest are in small, circular 
depressions, slightly prominent, oval, brown in colour and consi^icuous. 
Colour of the pupa is brown-pinkish suft'used with blackish ; wings light 
reddish-brown, spotted and splashed with blackish ; a blackish, dorsal, 
blotchy line and row of dark, lateral spots on abdomen ; sides of thorax 
and head blackish. L : 16 mm. •,]i:Q. 25mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid on flowers, fruits, stalks, leaves, &c., 
always one at a time. The little egg-larva eats into the carpel or 
the fruit, wandering until it finds one, if born otherwise than in a 
flower or on a fruit. The mother-insect generally chooses a fruit 
that is not too far advanced and often a flower — to give the small 
larva a chance : what it does when the egg is laid on bark, leaves, 
&c., is a matter of conjecture. Certain it is, however, that many 
eggs are laid which never come to anything ; also many larvas bore 
into fruits that never reach maturity — possibly because they cannot 
get inside the hard stone ? For it is m the. interior of the stone, 
in the case where a tree with a stoned fruit is chosen that the larva 
chooses to live and feed. When well-grown it does not seem to 
have any difficulty about piercing the stone and during its habita- 
tion of the inside, which means during the time it has siiflicient 
food to go on with, it enlarges the perforation so as to admit of its 
passing its body through it as it finds necessary. When it has 



30 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL 

finished one fruit, lioUowed it out completely that is, it wanders out 
and looks for another, — it is generall}^ at these times, in all proba- 
bility, that many get eaten by birds, &c. When the fruit chosen 
is large enough to accommodate more than a single larva, there may 
be several in it. In these cases where one large fruit — such as a 
Pomegranate for example — contains only a few larvas of small size, 
it takes them a long time to finish the contents. In the course of 
time, also, the gradual demolition of the vital parts of the inside, 
would and does lead to the eventual atrophy and the consequent 
weakening of the stalk attachment. In the ordinary course of 
events, the fruit would fall before the contents were nearly finished. 
To prevent this, the larvae have evolved a very efficacious method : 
they tie the fruit on to the branch at the stalk. They come out at 
intervals from their retreat and weave silken ropes all over the stalk 
and the surface of the fruit as well as on the neighbouring surface 
of the branch, repeating this again and again until the fixings be- 
come so strong that it reqiiires quite an effort to tear the fruit away. 
Every larva attaches its particular fruit to the branch or twig in this 
manner and thus prevents it being shaken off" by the wind or falling 
to the ground while still inhabited. If it did, it would quickly rot 
and the inside wotild become unserviceable as food ; or ants and 
other enemies would invade the premises and make short work of 
the inhabitants. Of coTirse, when the caterpillars come out to fix 
the fruit, they are always liable to be snapped iip by a bird or lizard 
or something, so that it is a dangerous game for them ; but it is not 
half as dangerous as if they were to fall to the ground in their houses 
or house to become a prey to many more pertinacious and probably 
more numerous enemies. This is not the only adaptation that 
these larvse have developed in the coiirse of by-gone ages either. 
The " shovel" at the end of the hodij is another. The inside of a 
fruit becomes very insanitary after a time, wet and damp and 
mould}'- and extremely strong-smelling (anybody can testify to 
this who has bred the larvae from " Ghela ", Bandia diimetorimi). 
As the sap accumulates from the wound, d^^.e to the biting of the 
larvee, and gets mixed with the droppings, it becomes necessary 
to clean up and hence the shovel. It is used to push out the refuse 
from the interior and just fits the orifice which is always made of 
the requisite size for that purpose. The inside of a fully eaten 
fruit is as clean as a new pin, especiallj^ when the larva is full grown 
and about to change. It pupates inside the last fruit as a rule 
and a ver}^ general rule. The operation is rarely effected anywhere 
else. Before finally settling down to change, the larva spins a web 
across the orifice, and always a web with two holes at the sides 
and hinged on one side as well ; it is quite opaque. The j)upa is 
formed inside, attached by the tail and a body-band to the surface. 
The butterfl)^, upon emerging, runs to the hole, forces its way 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 3] 

under the edge of the weh — the edge that has been left unfastened 
by the larva for that piu-pose — and runs ont to find a place from 
which to hang and develop its wings. Ants are hardly ever found 
with the larvae and the few that were observed had probably other 
things in view than to visit them — the sugarj^, fermented juices of 
the inside of the frait for example. The fruits the larvee have been 
found in are various : — Bandia dumetorum (Buhiacece) : JErio- 
botria japonica {B.osaceoe') ; Psidium guava (Myrtacece) ; Tamarin- 
dus indica (Legtmiinosece) ; Strijchnos nnx-vomica (Loganiacece) ; 
Gardenia latifolia (Biobiacece) . It is evident, from this list, that 
they feed upon any species handy. The pupa is so attached 
inside the fruit that its head is directed towards the opening. 
It is stated by Downes that "we may notice an interesting fact, 
namely that the insect has the precautionary instinct, which acts 
as a second inducement, to make the aperture in the fruit in that 
stage of its existence in which it is furnished with organs best 
adapted for that purpose ; for, had the larva omitted taking this 
step, the consequences would have been that the insect, when come 
to the butterfl)'* state, would have been a prisoner totally unable to 
escape, being unprovided with any instrument suited to the 
purpose." But it does not ; it makes the aperture and enlarges 
it as found necessary all through its existence for egress and 
ingress so as to be able to come out and fix the stalk : after a time 
that is, after it has passed through, say, the first two stages. The 
larvae in confinement will leave any fruit to which there is want 
of access of air because of the fermentation and consequent smell 
which must be exceptional!}^ bad. Also, in confinement, they ma}* 
not be able to shovel out the dirt owing, perhaps, to the hole not 
being uppermost and free — no wonder the}^ then quit. Ants 
take away the droppings for some purpose or other but the larva 
does the cleaning itself, independently of their help. The shovel 
is very often used to block up the opening — to prevent enemies 
from gaining ingress verj- probably ; though this device is not 
always resorted to. 

The butterfly itself is a strong, powerful flier and takes quite 
long flights on occasion as when in pursuit of another one — a 
practice it is much prone to when basking on the tops of trees in 
the sun. It sits there expectant of sport — and gets it. It is one 
of the " basking butterflies " that is always to be found on the tops 
of the trees on the summit of the 2,000' high hill near the coast at 
Karwar in Kanara; and it appears at about 2 p.m. in the monsoon 
months — all butterflies have their particular time of day for putting 
in an appearance. Once known, their sequence is as good as a 
watch up there. The females are never seen on the hills-tops and 
do not bask. They may be fonud ovipositing however round the 
food plants. The insects are very diflicult to catch in a net because 



32 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

of their swiftness and high-fljdng habits ; they are, also, so strong 
that they batter themselves to pieces before one can get hold of 
.them. To illustrate the strength of the larval jaws E. H. Aitken 
remarks a iiropos of V. -perse — and it is apposite here — that "the 
stony hardness of the fruit turns the edge of one's penknife and 
one's curiosity too." Also, in alluding to the strength of the fas- 
tening of the fruits to the branches he says " I have taken a pome- 
granate infested with these larv^ (several usually inhabit each fruit) 
and made it stand in an egg-cup. In the morning it was so secu- 
rely fastened that in taking up the fruit I lifted the cup." 

Virachola isocrates inhabits the whole of India, Burma and Ceylon 
except the desert tracts. It is commoner in the open country, with 
moderate rainfall of say about 20" where scrub jungle is the best 
forest available, than in heavy forest country with a large rainfall ; 
it is commoner in the Bijapur District than in Kanara in the Bom- 
bay Presidency. It is also, in the latter District, more plentiful on 
the uplands at 2000' than on the sea-coast. 

The figures 54 and 54a of the male and female on Plate H Vol. 
XXVI are fair ; the male shows too little purple on the upperside ; 
the female upperside is too light. Both are too pink. 



( To be continued.) 



33 

THE PAST AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
LION IN SOUTH EASTERN ASIA 

BY 

N. B. KiNNEAR. 

From the popular point of view one of the, if not the, most interesting 
animals found in India is the lion and to many, who are not members of 
the Society and have not read Colonel Fenton's papers in the Journal it 
may come as a surprise to hear that the lion does occur in this country 
though, it is true, in very small numbers and in a restricted area. 

Dr. Blanford, in his volume on the Mammalia in the Fauna of British 
India series, gives a good account of the present and former distribution 
of the lion in India, but as that work is now out of print and not easy to 
obtain, I propose in the present paper to trace as far as possible the history 
of the lion in this country. At the same time a number of notes have 
been included on the lion in Persia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, which 
I have collected for some time. As it has not been possible to see the 
Asian, certain numbers of the Oriental Sporting Magazine and several of 
the other old Indian sporting magazines, a number of records have probably 
been missed and in the same way some records from books of travel 
referring to Mesopotamia, Persia and Asia Minor have also not been seen. 

In the various cave and river deposits throughout Europe the remains 
of what is called the cave lion, Felis spelcca, have been found and by many 
authorities this animal is considered to have been identical with the lion of 
the present day or, at the most, a race. The deposits in which these 
remains are found belong to the Pleistocene. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer in his paper on '• The Antiquity of the Lion in Greece ", 
which was reproduced in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute 
in 1903, summarises what has been written on the lion being found in 
south east Europe and Asia Minor by various authorities, and his conclu- 
sions are that, within historic times, lions were found in Greece, if not also 
in the Balkans and the valley of the Danube. According to Herodotus 
the baggage camels of Xenophon were attacked by lions in the country 
of the Poeonians in Macedonia, this was roughly about 355 B. 0. so that 
at that time most of Asia Minor and Syria were included within the range 
of the lion. Also we know that in Biblical times lions were found ki 
Palestine, but according to Canon Tristram they appear to have become 
extinct about the time of the Crusaders, the last mention of them being 
by writers of the I2th century, when the lion still existed near Samaria. 

We may take it then that during the l:^th century, the lion roamed 
over parts of Syria, along the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, parts of 
Arabia, the south western corner of Persia and northern India, through the 
Punjab, Sind, as far east as Palamau and south to the Nerbudda. There is 
no evidence of the lion being found in Afghanistan or Baluchistan nor 
have I been able to find any record of its occurrence in southern Arabia. 

Coming now to actual records it is proposed to trace the history of the 
lion in S. E. Asia down to the present day and for the sake of convenience 
this will be arranged under the two headings (1) Syria, Mesopotamia and 
Persia, and ('2) India. 

(1) SvpaA, Mesopotamia and Peesia. 

Rich, in his " Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan " pubHshed in 
1836 and dealing with the years 1820-21, mentions that a part of the Tigris 
called Jat was famous for lions, but apparently he did not see or hear any 
5 



34 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

there, though at the junction of the Hye and the Tigris he saw some 
Arabs carrying a bier containing the mangled remains of a young child 
which had been killed by a lion. Lower down, below Kut, he heard lions 
roaring at night, but did not actually see any. 

Colonel Chesney, the leader of the Euphrates Exijedition, which was to 
prove the practicability of the Euphrates as a quick mail route to England, 
made his first visit to Mesopotamia m 1830, to carry out a hurried survey 
of the EujDhrates and the Tigris. In his account of this expedition he 
mentions that near Gobain Island, on the well wooded banks of the 
Euphrates above Hit, he saw a lion on the bank within eight yards of his 
boat, and higher up at El Werdi he heard lions roaring at night. 

The Euphrates Expedition took place in 1835-36, but no lions appear to 
have been seen on the voyage down the river, and Ainsworth, writing after 
1850 (Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition), says that " it is 
remarkable that the last two mentioned explorers (Loftus and Layard) 
saw many lions during their excavations of the mounds in the central parts 
of Khaldeaja, whilst we met with none during the navigation of the river,'' 
and later on he remarks that " the jungle of the Karun is reputed to be 
infested with lions, but we never saw one." 

On the completion of the expedition down the Euphrates, the steamer 
" Euphrates " was taken up the Tigris, and at Bagdad Ainsworth tells us 
that he saw a tame lion sitting in a kufa with its owner. He also mentions 
that near Kut the natives spoke in terror of the lion, but that though he 
always went on shore, when the steamer was tied up for woodcutting, the 
only large carnivora he saw was a cheeta. 

Assistant Surgeon Winchester, who was on the same trip, seems to have 
been more fortunate in seeing lions and he writes (Memoir on the River 
Euphrates, etc., during the late Expedition of H. 0. armed steamer 
''Euphrates" Rec. Bomb. Geog. Soc, Nov. 1838) that below Ctesiphon, 
where the tamarisk was very thick on the river banks, he saw about sunset, 
three lions basking on the river's edge. The lions were fired at, but the 
shooting was bad and " so independent were they " notes Winchester that 
" they did not move ! " 

The next author to mention lions is Layard, the famous explorer of the 
ruins of Nineveh. He not only came across many lions, but also hunted 
them with the friendly Bakhtiyari chiefs in Arabistan, of which he gives 
interesting accounts, but of that more later. 

In 1840, on his first visit to Mesopotamia, he mentions that while they 
were encamped on the desert side of the Tigi-is, near Mosul, they lit fires to 
keep off the lions "which are occasionally found there in the jungle in this 
part of Mesopotamia ", and at Tekrit his raftsman would not stop during 
the night "for fear of marauders and thieves and also he averred lions, 
which are occasionally, but very rarely, found so far north on the banks of 
thn Tigris " (Autobiography, vol. 1). 

In 1841 Layard saw a lion which had done much damage in the plain 
of Ram Hormuz and had eventually been killed by a detachment of the 
Luristan regiment. " It was unusually large and of very dark brown 
colour in some parts of its body almost approaching black." He goes on 
to say that " The lion has not, I believe, been known to traverse the high 
chain of the Luristan mountains into the valleys of the Persian side.* 
In the plains of Khuzistan its usual places of concealment are the brush- 
wood and jungle on the banks of the rivers and streams and in the rice 
fields." (Early Adventures). On the desolate hills near Mt. Asemari 

* Layard apparently meant north of the Bhaktiyari mountains^ gince at this 
time lions certainly occurred round Shiraz. 



FAST AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE LION IN ASIA. 35 

in Khuzistan Layard says that besides wolves, lions, leopards, bears 
hyiBnas, jackals and other beasts of prey, various species of wild sheep 
and goats are found in great numbers, and while living with the Bakhtiyari 
near there he was present at a number of lion hunts. Of one of these he 
writes " One afternoon when Mehemet Taki Khan was seated at the 
doorway of his castle with the elders, a man arrived breathless and in 
great excitement, declaring that in crossing the plain he had met with a 
lion in his path. The beast, he said, was preparing to spring upon him 
when he conjured it in the name of Ali to spare a poor unarmed man, who 
never harmed any of his kin. Thereupon the lion being a good Musalmau 
and a Shia to boot, as some lions are believed to be, turned away and 
disappeared amongst the bushes. The man, ungrateful to the lion, offered 
to conduct Mehemet Taki Khan to the spot. . . . ". Layard then o-oes on to 
say how the man took them to a hollow covered with brushwootl, where 
he said the lion was and on its being disturbed it sprang out at one of the 
chief's followers, who wounded it with his long gun but did not kill it. 
The lion then seized another follower and in doing so knocked down a 
third. The situation, as can be imagined, was most critical and Layard 
gives a delightful account of how the lion was killed. " Mehemet Taki 
Khan himself " he says "jumped off his horse, and advancing towards the 
beast addressed it thus in a loud voice : " O lion, these are not fit anta- 
gonists for thee. If thou desired to meet an enemy worthy of thee 
contend with me." The lion did not however appear to think that the 
chief was better than any of the rest and did not let go of its prey, 
so " the chief approached it and drawing the long pistol which he carried 
in his girdle, fired at its head and the lion falling on the ground was 
quickly despatched by the guns and swords of his, Mehemet Taki Khan's, 
followers." This lion was an unusually large one and had a short black 
mane. 

As a rule, Layard tells us, these lions seldom attack human beings, but 
once, while on a hunting expedition, one of the party was carried off in 
the night. They were sleeping in the open and the man was not missed 
till, next morning, his remains were found close by ! In the plain of Ram 
Hormuz, the flocks and herds of sheep and oxen belonging to the Bakhti- 
yari suffered from the depredations of lions. On account of this, Layard 
tells us, the Bakhtiyari used to place male buffaloes on the outskirts of their 
encampments, since " It is said that the buffalo does not fear a lion, and v/ill 
even drive it away," 

Between the years 1848 and 1849 Layard was at Nineveh and in his 
book " Nineveh and Babylon " he writes " The lion as I have observed is 
now rarely found on the banks of the Tigris as far north as Mosul, or even 
above Bagdad. That it was originally an inhabitant, there can be no 
doubt. From the earliest period it was considered the noblest of game, and 
was included amongst the wild beasts preserved in the paradises, or parks, 
attached to the royal palaces. On the monuments of Nineveh, the 
triumphs of the King are deemed no less worthy of record than his victory 
over his enemies." 

Of the distribution of the lion in Mesopotamia as a whole, Layard in the 
abovementioned book says " The lion is frequently met with on the banks 
of the Tigris below Bagdad, rarely above. On the Euphrates it has been 
seen, I believe, almost as high as Bir, where the steamers of the first 
Euphrates Expedition under Col. Chesney were launched. On the Sin jar, 
and on the banks of the Khabour, they are frequently caught by Arabs. 
They abound in Khuzistan, the ancient Susiana. I have frequently seen 
three or four together and have hunted them with the chiefs of the tribes 
inhabiting that province." 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

When making excavations at NiSer near Kama, Lay arc! frequently saw 
lions and he says that " The Midian Arabs boast of capturing them in the 
following manner, and trustworthy persons assure me that they have seen 
the feat performed. A man, having bound his right arm with strips of 
tamarisk, and holding in his hand a short piece of the same wood, about a 
foot or more in length, hardened in the lire and sharpened at both ends, 
will advance into the animals lair. When the animal springs upon him, 
he forces the wood into the animals extended jaws, which will then be 
held open whilst he can dispatch the astonished beast at his leisure with 
the pistol he holds in his left hand." 

The Bedouins and Jebours, in Layard's time, used frequently to find lion 
cubs in the spring at Khabour and at Hillah. On his first visit to the 
last mentioned place Layard was presented with a pair of lions by Osman 
Pasha. These two lions appear to have been very tame and were allowed 
the run of the town, in the same way as sacred cows are allowed in this 
country. As the behaviour of these lions is rather amusing, I give Layard's 
description in full. " One was nearly of full size, and was well known in 
the bazaars and thoroughfares of Hillah, through which he was allowed to 
wander unrestrained. The inhabitants could accuse him of no other 
objectionable habit than that of taking possession of the stalls of the but- 
chers, who, on his approach made a hasty retreat leaving him in undisturb- 
ed possession of their stores, until he had satisfied his hunger and departed. 
He would also wait the coming of the large kuftas, or wicker boats of the 
fishermen and driving away the owners help himself to a kind of a large 
barbel, of which he appeared to have a decided relish. When no longer 
hungry he would stretch himself in the sun, and allow the Arab boys to 
take such liberties with him as in their mischief they might devise. He 
was taller and larger than a St. Bernard dog, and, like the lion found 
generally on the banks of the rivers of Mesopotamia, was without the dark 
and shaggy mane of the African species. The other lion was a cub, and 
had recently been found by an Arab in the Hindeyah Marshes." 

Loftus, who travelled in Chaldea and Susiana about 1849-50, while 
encamped near Sinkara killed two lion cubs and frequently heard lions 
roaring. He also says that at this date lions were to be found at Susa 
near Dizful in Khuzistan. (Travels and Researches in Chaldea and 
Susiana.) 

The lion existed in Upper Mesopotamia to a much later date than any 
already given, and in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1880 
Durnford writes that " Sheik Muslapha also informed him that five years 
ago a lion appeared near Biledjik* and after destroying many horses was 
done to death." In 1885 Cannon Tristram in his " Fauna and Flora of 
Palestine " says " the latest trace being that a few years ago the 
carcass of one was brought into Damascus" adding that "it is still 
common in Mesopotamia though rare in India." Still later Sir Alfred 
Pease, in his "Book of the Lion," published three years ago, remarks on 
the status of the lion in Upper Mesopotamia as follows: "I find in my 
notes on the Fauna of Asia Minor made during a journey in 1891, the 
following :— The lion is no longer found in Asia Minor, but exists in Meso- 
potamia and Arabistan, between Poelis, west of Aleppo, and Deyr, and in 
the Euphrates valley, where it frequents impenetrable thickets growing 
in places along the banks and in the islands in the river ; it is also found 
in the lower part of the Karun river but is nowhere plentiful." Unfor- 
tunately there is nothing to show how this information was obtained and 
whether it was from direct occurrences or simply what the Arabs reported. 

* This is probably Biredjic, of the Times atlas, on the Euphrates north east of 
Aleppo. 



PAST AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE LION IN ASIA. 37 

Sir Oliver St. John, in Blanford's Eastern Persia, volume 2, which was 
published in 1876, writes that lions "are very numerous in the reedy- 
swamps bordering the Tigris and Euphrates and are also found in the 
plains of Susiana, the modern Khuzistan." At this date too, they were 
also common in the country south of Shiraz as far east as longitude 53, but 
how far north the lion existed, St. John was unable to say, though he had 
definite information that they were not found north or west of Kerman- 
shah*. In a certain valley west of Shiraz four or five adult lions used to 
be killed every year, which shows that in Sir Oliver St. John's time they 
must have been pretty common. 

Mr. Robertson, H. B. M. Consul at Bnsra, informed Sir Victor Brook in 
1875, that lions were then plentiful on the Karun, and Dr. Morit, writing 
on the Geology and Ethnology of Lower Mesopotamia, mentions that in 
1888 lions were still numerous. 

About 1907 or 1909, Sultan Abdul Hamed presented to the Berlin Zoolo- 
gical Gardens a full grown lion from Mesopotamia, but whether or not it 
came from Mesopotamia proper is not mentioned. This appears to be 
the last record for Mesopotamia, but in the adjoining country of Persia 
Sir Percy Sykes tells us that in 1900t the hills around Kazerun between 
Bushire and Shiraz were full of game " notably the maneless lion, which 
haunt this locality," and ten years later| he wrote " lions still exist along 
the banks of the rivers in Arabistan, but in very small numbers, I once saw 
a dead one floating down the Karun being eaten by sharks." Apparently 
this is the last authentic record of the lion in Mesopotamia, since Hubbard 
in his book "From the Gulf to Arat," published in 1916, says that on 
" the Karun it is now ten years or more since the last lion was seen 
in this part of the world." Whether a few stragglers still exist in the 
country between the Karun and Amara or near Kharbour remains to be 
seen, but so far no member of the Expeditionary Force§ has been able to 
give any definite information as to whether any are still to be found 
though many have been asked, 

India. 

India. — There is no evidence to show that the lion inhabited Afghan- 
istan or Baluchistan within historic times, but it was formerly found in 
Sind,|i Bahawalpur and the Punjab, becoming extinct round Hariana, in 

» Dr. A. B. Meyer in " The Antiquity of the Lion in Greece "' mentions Khau- 
rism as a locality in which the lion was found. This is on the strength of a 
statement in a book called " A Narrative of a Journey from Herat to Khiva, 
Moscow and St. Petersbiirg-h" by Abbott. 

The book was published in 1843 and in the appendix at the end of volume two 
the lion is mentioned, along with the tiger, leopard and bear, as occurring- in 
Khaurism, now spelt Khorassan, the country between the Caspian and Afghanis- 
tan, Xo other traveller as far as I have been able to find out, confirms this 
statement. 

t Ten thousand miles in Persia, 1900, p. 319. 

t The Field, 1910, -p. G25. 

§ In an official publication on Mesopotamia published in 1916 it is stated ttiat 
a t'ew lions may be met with near Kharbour and on the borders of Persia. 

II Blanford, F.B.I. Mammalia, includes Khandesh within the range, but accord- 
ing to the Bombay Gazetteer for Khandesh, published in 1880, this is not certain 
and in a footnote it is stated that " whether lions were formerly found in 
Khandesh seems doubtful."' Reference is made to an article which appeared m 
the Oriental Sporting Magazine on "Lion Hunting in Khandesh," but, as it is 
pointed out. this article refers to Guzerat and not to Khandesh. Lions certainly 
have not been found in Khandesh since 1818, as special enquiries have been made, 
and there would seem to be no record of lion shooting in Khandesh since tne 
beginning of British rule." 



38 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL SIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

the latter province, in 1842. It was however extinct in Sind before that 
date and the last on record was shot near Kot Deji in 1810. Exactly 
how far eastwards the lion was a regular inhabitant we do not know, though 
there is a statement of one being killed in the Palamaw district, Behar 
and Orissa, in 1814, but whether this was merely a straggler or not, there 
is no evidence to show. The southernmost limit appears to have been the 
Narbada. In 1832 one was killed at Baroda, while further north it was 
comparatively common round Ahmedabad in 1836. Central India in 
these early days was one of the strongholds of the lion and to give an 
idea of its numbers we may mention that Lydekker was informed that 
during the Mutiny, Colonel George Acland Smith killed upwards of 300 
Indian lions and out of this number 50 were accounted for in the Delhi 
district ! 

The occurrence of the lion in Cutch is doubtfully recorded. The lion 
probably was found in Cutch at one time but the records are not satisfac- 
tory. Lt. Dodd m.entions that Burns about 1830 wrote that lions as well 
as tigers, bears and wolves were found north of Bhooj, but that none except 
the last named were now found, though a solitary lion was shot near Bela 
on the Runn, which was supposed to have been a straggler from Guzerat. 

Edward Blyth, the curator of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, in his 
catalogue of the mammals in the collection, which was published in 1863, 
wrote that the " lion was extirpated in Hurriana about 1842, a female 
was killed at Rhyl in Damoh district Saugor and Nerbudda territories, so 
late as the cold season of 1847-48, and about the same time a few still 
remain in the valley of the Sind river in Kotah, C. I. The species would 
appear to be now extinct in that district." 

A few years later writing in the Oriental Sporting Magazine, Blyth 
drew attention to some more recent records of the lion, which he said 
must have come as a surprise to sportsmen and naturalists, as it was thought 
that they had been long exterminated in these localities. 

These two records consisted of one from Deesa, where Lt. Clarke of the 
Royal Artillery was badly mauled by a lioness in March 1864 and lost his 
arm, and near Gwalior, where three officers out shooting in March of the 
following year came suddenly on three lions, two of which they secured. 
Blyth seems to have missed certain records, for in 1863 Col. Martin of the 
Central Indian Horse, and Mr. Beadon, the Deputy Commissioner, saw and 
killed no less than eight lions at Patulghar, 70 miles north-west of Goona 
while in 1864 Mr. Arratoon of the police " shot at and wounded a lion near 
Sheorajpur (25 miles west of Allahabad) and eventually with native help 
stoned him to death as he had no spare ammunition." In 1866 Blanford 
tells us that Messrs. Lovell and Kelsay, of the railway staff at Jubbulpore, 
shot a lion in Rewah near the 80th mile stone on the railway from Allahabad 
to Jubbulpore, and in the same year no less than nine lions were shot by 
one party in the neighbourhood of Kotah, Rajputana. 

Round Goona lions were still numerous and two or three were shot in 
1867, and Blanford, writing in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
for that year, says " a few appear to be killed about Gwalior and Goona, but 
the animal is scarce." At the end of his article he summarized the distri- 
bution of the lion in India at that date as follows : — " The lion seems still 
to exist in three isolated parts of central and western India, omitting its 
occasional occurrence in Bundelkund. These are (1) from near Gwalior to 
Kotah, (2) around Deesa and Mt. Abu and thence southwards nearly to 
Ahmedabad and (3) in part of Kathiawar, in the jungles known as the 
Ghur." 

On Waterloo day, 1872, Sir Montagu Gerard killed a lion on Cheen 
Hill, nine miles from Goona, and the last one in Central India proper 



FAST A ND FRESIJNT DISTRIB UTION OF THE LION IN ASIA. 39 

appears to have been that mentioned by Sclater as having been killed 
by Col. Hall near Goona in the following year. 

In Rajputana they became extinct about the same date and in the 
Gazetteer of the " Western Rajpntana States Residency and Jodhpur 
Residency " we find that a full grown female lion was killed on the Anandra 
side of Abu by a Bhil shikari in 1872, and in Jodhpur " the last four '' are 
stated " to have been shot near Jaswantpura about 1872." 

Lydekker gives 1888 as the date the last lions was killed in Guzerat 
exclusive of Kathiawar, bat the last record I have been able to find is that 
mentioned by Colonel Nurse in the Society's Journal, volume XIII, 1900, 
in which he says " the last, I believe, killed in 1878 near the village of 
Bhoyen, about two miles from Deesa." According to the Gazetteer for 
Palanpur the lion was " now very rare " there in 1880. 

The lion is still found in small numbers in the Native State of Junaghad 
in Kathiawar, where they are principally found in the Gir forest, but 
occasionally lions stray over the border into neighbouring states, where 
it is not long before they are shot. 

For information in regard to the present position of the lion in Juna- 
ghad reference can be made to Colonel Fenton's two papers in the 
Society's Journal, Volumes XIX and XX, and Mr. Crump's notes in the 
Mammal Survey Report for Kathiawar in Volvmie XXII. 



40 



THE FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 
(JODHPUR AND JAISALMER). 

BY 

E, Blatter, S.J., and Prof. F, Hallberg. 

Part V. 

(^Continued from loacje 987 of Vol. XXVI.) 

1. Statistical Notes, 

We give in the first place a tabulated list of the orders represented in 
"bhe Rajputaca Desert, together with their respective genera and sjpecies, 
indigenous as well as introduced: — 



Order. 



Genera. 


Total 

of 

Genera. 


Species. 


Indige- 
nous. 


Intro- 
duced. 


Indige- 
nous. 


Intro- 
duced. 



Total 

of 

Species. 



Menispermacese . 


1 




1 


2 




2 


Nymphaeace&3 . . 


1 

.L 




1 


1 




1 


Papaveracese . . 




2 


9 




2 


2 


Cruciferse 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


5 


C!apparidace£e . . 


4 




4 


8 




8 


Violacese 


1 




1 


1 




1 


Polygalacese 


1 




1 


2 




2 


Caryophyllace^.. 


2 




2 


2 




2 


Portulacacese . . 


1 




1 


2 




2 


Tamaricaceee . . 


J. 




1 


3 




3 


Elatinacese 


1 




1 


3 




3 


Malvaceae 


4 


'l 


5 


12 


4 


16 


Sterculiaceee . , 


1 




1 


4 




4 


Tiliacese 


2 




2 


10 




10 


Linacese 




"l 


1 




1 


1 


^ygophyllaceee . 


5 




o 


"e 




6 


Oeraniaceee 


4 


. . 


4 


5 




5 


Rutacese 




1 


1 




2' 


2 


Burseracese 


2 




2 


3 




3 


Meliacese 


, , 


1 


1 




"l 


1 


Oelastraceae 


1 


, , 


1 


I 




1 


Rhamnacege 


I 




1 


5 




5 


Yitacese 




"l 


1 


, , 


1 


1 


Sapindacese 


"l 




1 


1 




1 


Anacardiace;e . . 


1 


"l 


2 


1 


"l 


2 



I LOR A 01 THE INDIAN DESERT. 



41 





Genera. 




Species. 










Total 






Total 


Order. 






of 






of 












Indige- 


Intro- 


Genera. 


Indige- 


Intro- 


Species. 




nous. 


duced. 




nous. 


duced. 




Moringacere 






1 


1 


1 


2 


LeguminosiB 


■'1 


io 


31 


47 


13 


60 


EosacGiB 






1 


1 




1 


CombretacesB . . 






1 


4 




4 


MyrtacejB 


* ' 


3 


3 




3 


3 


Lythraceje 


1 


2 


3 


3 


2 


5 


SaxifragaceiB . . 


1 


. . 


1 


1 




1 


Onagracete 


-1 
-*- 




1 


1 




1 


Cucurbitacese . . 


8 


"1 


9 


14 


"3 


17 


Oactacepe 


• • 


1 


1 




1 


1 


Ficoidete 


5 




5 


io 




10 


Umbelliferse 


. . 


1 


1 


.. 


"1 


1 


Rubiacepe 


3 




3 


"4 




4 


Compositiie 


28 


3 


31 


33 


'3 


36 


Oleacete 




1 


1 




1 


1 


Salvadorace;e . . 


■'l 




1 


2 




2 


Apocynacete 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


AsclepiadacejB . . 


9 




9 


9 




9 


Gentianacefe . . 


3 




3 


3 




3 


BoraginacetB . . 


6 




6 


15 




15 


Convolvnlacefe . . 


9 




9 


21 


*"l 


22 


Solanacea3 


7 




7 


9 


6 


15 


Scrophulariacere. 


7 




/ 


9 




9 


Orobanchacese . . 


1 




1 


1 




1 


Bignoniaceie 


1 




1 


1 




J. 


Pedaliacese 




"1 


1 




"1 


1 


Acanthacese 


"7 




7 


'12 


• ' 


12 


Verbenacepe 


4 




4 


4 




4 


Labiate 


3 




3 


9 


1 


10 


Nyctaginaceso . . 


1 




1 


3 




3 


Amarantacete . . 


8 


'1 


9 


17 


1 


18 


Chenopodiacese . 


5 




5 


7 




7 


Polj'gonacejB . . 


2 


"1 


3 


3 


1 


4 


AristolochiaceiB . 


1 




1 


1 




1 


Lauraceaj 


1 




1 


1 




1 


Pluphorbiacese , . 


2 


"1 


3 


13 


"1 


14 


Urticacefe 




3 


3 




5 


5 


Gnetacese 


"1 




1 


""1 




1 


Hydrocharitacese 


1 




1 


1 




1 


Liliaceje 


3 


'2 


5 


3 


2 


5 


CommelinaceEe . . 


2 




2 


4 




4 


Naiadaceee 


2 




2 


6 




6 


Cyperacese 


6 




6 


26 




26 


Gramiuese 


■2b 


3 


28 


65 


3 


68 


Orders 69 (58 in- 
digenous) 


226 


46 


272 


440 


67 


507 



42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVII. 

As can be seen in the above list there are 69 orders, 272 genera and 507 
species. Of these are indigenous : 58 orders, 226 genera and 4.40 species. 
From now we shall confine ourselves to the indigenous plants only. 

The following are the 10 dominant orders : — 

1. Graminese with 65 species in 25 genera. 



2. 


Leguminospe 


)) 


47 


?j 


M 21 


3. 


Oompositse 


jj 


33 


a 


„ 28 


4. 


Cyperacese 


;> 


26 


V 


„ 6 


5. 


Convolvulacei3e 


)) 


21 


)) 


„ 9 


6. 


Amarantacefe 


)> 


17 


>> 


„ 8 


7. 


Boraginacepe 


i» 


15 


>f 


„ 6 


8. 


Cucurbitacese 


)j 


14 


<} 


„ 8 


9. 


EuphorbiaceiB 


>> 


13 


'} 


2 


10. 


( Malvaceae 
1 Acanthacese 




12 
12 


>! 
I) 


„ 4 
„ 7 



In order to get a clearer insight into the relations of the flora of "W. 
Rajputana with the neighbouring countries, we add a list of the 10 dominant 
orders of N. Gujarat, the Indus Plain region and the Gangetic Plain region. 
The fact that W. Rajputana itself belongs to the Indus Plain region 
cannot prevent us from instituting this comparison, as W. Rajputana was 
practically unknown from a botanical point of view when J. D. Hooker 
wrote his " Sketch of the Flora of British India." 



N. 


Gujarat* 


hid 


us Plain Region** 


Gangetic Region** 


1. 


Graminese. 


]. 


Gramineee. 


1. 


Graminese. 


2. 


Leguminos£e. 


2. 


Leguminosee. 


2. 


Leguminosse. 


3. 


Cyperacese. 


3. 


Compositse. 


3. 


Cyperacese. 


4. 


Compositse. 


4. 


Cyperacese. 


4. 


Compositse. 


5. 


Convolvulacefe. 


5. 


Scrophulariacege . 


5. 


Scrophulariacese. 


6. 


Euphorbiaceoe. 


6. 


Labiatse. 


6. 


Malvaceae. 


7. 


Acanthacese. 


7. 


Boraginaceee. 


7. 


Acanthacese. 


8. 


Malvaceee. 


8. 


Malvacete. 


8. 


Euphorbiacese. 


9. 


ScrophulariaccEe. 


9. 


Euphorbiacese. 


9. 


Convolvulacese. 


10. 


Amarantacese. 


10. 


Convolvulacese. 


10. 


Labiatse. 



•Saxton and Sedgwick in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. VI (1918) 218. 
*• Hooker, J. D.,ln Imper. Gazetteer, ed. .3. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



43 



W 




o d a 

re r^ r— ' 5j 

• > p^ j^. 

sc -s !z; -i ^ 

>S &j .s T^ ^ «s 5 

^ • c a 3 . IS 6 

g'Ido s -g ^-lia 

-s §-5a.^§|^ 

^ o g o .5 I ^ ^ 

- * § fe O 

I i ^ 

55 



44 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 



A comparison of the Dicotyledons with the Monocotyledons shows the 
great poverty of the latter, whether we consider the orders, genera, or 
species : 



Or- 
ders. 



Genera. 



Indige- 



Intro- 
duced 



Total of 
Genera. 



Species. 



Indi- 
o-enous. 



Intro- 
duced. 



Total of 
Species. 



Dicotyledons 



Monocotyle- 
dons 



63 



187 



39 



41 



228 



44 



385 



105 



(52 



397 



110 



If we take only the indigenous plants into account we find that the 
Dicotyledons make up 76"13 per cent., and the Monocotyledons 23'86 per 
cent, of the total, in other words, the ratio of Monocotyledons to Dicoty- 
ledons is 1 : 3'9. 

The ratio of orders to genera and species is 1 : 3'9 : 7*3. 



The proportion of genera to species is striking. In the whole of British 
India it is 1 : 7, in the Bombay Presidency (including Sind) it is 1: 2-6, 
whilst in the Eajputana desert it is 1 : 1"99. 

For the number of genera belonging to each order we refer to the 
following diagram which does not require any explanation : — 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



45 



o 

On 

a 

o 



O 



a 

bC 



O 



.-S cc 



I » 



ffl 


Q 


o 




l-l 


r^ 


Q 


•1> 


Ch 




>» 




O 


o 



^ > 



^ cS 



pa & 






•s O 



S3 

Q 



"BjeuaS JO I 00 



02 m 



52i 








-1-3 


^ 


>» 


r— I 


;z< 


6 


G 


CS 


o 


IH 


a 


IS 


be 









a "^ 



3 eS 



Pa 



o 



f^ 



Ph 






Ph 



t o . % 

.?. ^ ^ r. 



pq Q 



o o 

03 K 



a 5 



S cS ^ 
Cum 
<c «s S 

.2 <i H^ 



46 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Out of 440 indigenous species we have classified 406 according to their 
geographical distribution. 34 have not been considered on account of their 
abnormal and erratic distribution, which makes one doubt whether the 
plants have been accurately named and compared in all cases. These 
are the results of our classification arranged according to the greater or 
smaller number of species belonging to each division : 



North African-Indian Desert 


.. 71 


Indian . . 


.. 67 


Tropics of the Old World . . 


.. 46 


Trop Afr. and N. Afr.-Ind. Desert 


.. 44 


Tropical Africa 


.. 37 • 


Oriental 


.. 28 


Indo-Malayan 


.. 27 


Tropics generally 


.. 26 


All warm countries . . 


.. 25 


Endemic 


.. 17 


Mediterranean 


.. 9 


Cosmopolitan 


.. 7 


Temperate and subtropical regions 


.. 2 


We can easily distinguish 3 well-marked 


elements in 



Rajputana desert : A western, an eastern, and 
(including those which are purely Indian). 
The following make up : — 

The Western Element. The Eastern Element, 



the flora of the 
general element 



The General Element. 



N. Afr.-Ind. Desert 


71 


In do 


-Malayan 


27 Indian 


67 


Trop. and N. Afr. 


44 






Trop. of Old World 


46 


Trop. African 


37 






Tropics generally 


26 


Oriental 


28 






All warm countries 


25 


Mediterranean 


9 






Endemic 
Cosmopolitan 


17 

7 



Total 



189 



27 Temp, and subtrop. reg. 2 



190 



The following diagram gives the same data graphically : — 

- N. Afr.-Ind. Desert. 
++++++++++++++++++++++ Indian. 



++++++++++++++++ 



* -;■!■ « * « •» « * 



++++++ 



- + 



Explanation 



+++++ 



Tropics of Old World. 
Tropical and N. African. 
Tropical Africa. 
Oriental. 
Indo-Malayan. 
Tropics generally. 
All warm countries. 
Endemic. 
Mediterranean. 
Cosmopolitan. 
Trop. and Subtrop. regions. 

Western element. 
Eastern element. 

The rest. 



I LOR A OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 47 

The general element can be neglected for our purpose, as it consists of 
species which are either only Indian or show a wider distribution over the 
Eastern and Western parts of the Old World, or comprise even certain 
regions of the whole globe. 

What is left to form an estimate of the plant-geographical position of 
the flora is the western element with 189 species, and the eastern (here 
Indo-Malayan) element with 27 species. The eastern forms just 1/7 of the 
western. These numbers indicate that the Indo-Malayan and western 
botanical regions meet in the Western Rajputana desert. The ecological 
conditions of the country are not such as to exclude Indo-Malayan 
types entirely, but the western element is preponderant. This proves 
that Drude was correct, when he drew the line of demarcation between 
the Indo-Malayan flora and the Perso-Arabiau region from the Gulf of 
Cambay northwards along the Aravallis. 

We have said that there are 17 endemic species. We mention their 
names, as they are new to systematic botany : 

Farsetia macrantha, Blatt. and Hall. (Cruciferce). 
Melhania magnifolia, Blatt. and Hall, {t^terculiaceoe) . 
Zizyphus truncata, Blatt. and Hall. (Rhamnucece) . 
Psoralia odorata, Blatt. and Hall. (Leguminosce). 
Tephrosia multifiora, Blatt. and Hall. ( ?> ) 

Tephrosia petrosa, Blatt. and Hall. { }> ) 

lihj-nchosia rhombifolia, Blatt. and Hall. ( ,, ) 

Rhynchosia arenaria, Blatt. and Hall. ( >> ) 

Anogeissus rotundifolia, Blatt. and Hall. (CombretacecB). 
Ammannia desertorum, Blatt. and Hall, (Lythraceoe). 
Pulicaria rajputantB, Blatt. and Hall. (Compositce). 
Glossocardia setosa, Blatt. and Hall. ( ,, ) 

Convolvulus densiflorus, Blatt. and Hall. (Convohulacece). 
Convolvulus gracilis, Blatt. and Hall. ( •> ) 

>ai!rua pseudo-tomentosa, Blatt. and Hall. {Amurantaceoe). 
Euphorbia jodhpurensis, Blatt. and Hall. (Euphorbiacece). 
It is very likely that a better knowledge of the Cutch, Sind and Balu- 
chistan floras will reduce the number of endemic species. 



(To be continued.') 



48 
INDIAN DEAGONFLIES, 

BY 

Major F. C. Feaser, I.M.S. 

{With Text-figures.') 

{Continued from page 932 of Volume XXVI.) 
Part VII. 

64. Rhyothemis plutonia, Selys. 

Male and female much alike. 

Male : Expanse 64 mm. Length 30 mm. Female : Expanse 54 mm. 
Length 28 mm. 

Head : eyes reddish brown above, paler olivaceous beneath and at the 
sides; vesicle, frons and upper part of epistome metallic blue green; occiput 
blackish brown ; lower part of epistome, labium and labrum brown. 

Prothorax black. 

Thorax and abdomen brown with a metallic green lustre. Legs brown. 

Wings ; both short, the fore narrow, the hind very broad, especially at 
the anal area ; black or blackish brown by transmitted light but reflecting 
a dark, metallic green. In the male the] metallic lustre is general through- 
out the wing but in the female is most marked at the base, especially in 
the fore part of loop. The apex of forewing in the male is hyaline, 
this area being very variable, from a mere spur at the extreme apex, to a 
wider area extending to within 1 or 2 cells of the stigma and running 
obliquely outwards and backwards. In the female both wing apices are 
hyaline, in the fore to just proximal of the stigma and in the hmd to 1 
cell distal of the stigma, its free border being here deeply concave. In the 
male, there is often a clearer triangular area just distal of the node more 
marked in the hindwing than in the fore. 

Sexual organs as for the genus. 

Hab. Burma, Bengal, Indo-Malay and Indo-China, Borneo. 

65. Rhyothemis triangularis, Kirby. 
Rhyothemis lankana, Kirby. 
Rhyothemis bipartita, Selys. 

Expanse 60 mm. Length 28 mm. Subject to slight variation in size. 

Head : eyes reddish brown above, lilaceous at the sides and beneath ; 
vesicle and forehead metallic green ; face and labrum yellowish. 

Prothorax brown. 

Thorax and abdomen blackish with a metallic green lustre. Legs black. 

Wings short and broad, the anal field of hindwing very broad. In both 
sexes hyaline, with the bases of all wings deep black, this part appearing 
dark metallic blue Ly reflected light. The hyaline part is suffused with a 
greyish brown'which gradually deepens as traced towards the wing apices. 
The limits of the black basal marking in the forewing, up to the 2nd 
antenodal nervure and to the distal or proximal end of trigone ; in the 
hind up to the 3rd antenodal nervure or in some specimens up to as far as 
the node. The outer border of the marking sharply defined and serrated 
or notched. The extent of the marking is extremely variable, Ceylon 
specimens usually being more extensively marked than those from South 
India. In an average specimen, the black extends to within I cell of the 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



49 



node, 3 cells distal of the trigone and as far as the apex of the loop. 
Usually there are two, more or less clear, hyaline rays at the base of the 
hindwing. 

Sexual organs as for genus. 

Hah. South India, Coorg, Ceylon, Java, Borneo. 

Geniis — Pantala. 




Fig. 53. Wings of Pantala flavescens showing neuration. 

Genus Pantala, Fabr, 1861. 

Head large and globular ; eyes contiguous for a long distance ; suture 
very deep and separating two Hat areas which lie below the forehead, the 
latter narrow and prominent ; vesicle broad and low. 

Prothorax with a very small lobe which is almost entirely hidden by the 
approximation of head and thorax. 

Thorax robust, very hairy. Legs slim and lung ; hind femora with about 
?5 small, evenly sized spines and some larger, wider-spaced ones in the 
outer third ; mid femora with a row of gradvially lengthening, larger spines. 
Tibial spines very long, moderately robust and numerous. Claw-hooks 
robust, situated about the middle. Armature of legs very similar in the 
female. 

Abdomen cylindrical and appearing relatively short due to the depth of 
the hindwing, dilated at the base, constricted at the third segment and 
then gradually tapering to the end. Supplementary ridges on the I'nd, 
3rd. 4th and oth segments. 

Wings long, the fore narrow, the hind very broad ; reticulation close ; 
'.rigone in forewing 2 or 3 cells distal to the line of trigone in hind ; 
sectors of the arc with a moderately long fusion, about equal in the two 
wings ; the arc lying between the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures ; ante- 
nodal nervures 13^. the final one incomplete ; I cubital nervure in the 
forewing, 2 in the hind, the distal of which lies near the trigone and forms 
a minute subtrigone ; no supplementary nervures to the bridge ; trigone 
in the forewing traversed once, very narrow, the costal side about :jth the 
length of distal side, its relation to the hypertrigone a little more than a 
right angle ; trigone in hindwing entire, its base very slightly proximal 
to the arc ; cSth nerviire in the hindwing from the anal angle of trigone, 
in the forewing nearly straight, so that the discoidal field is strongly 
contracted at the termen ; discoidal field begins with 3 rows of cells for 4 
or 5 rows and is then continued as rows of 4 ; 2 rows of cells between .5 and 
5a ; all hypertrigones entire ; 4th nervure strougly undulated ; 5th nervure 
7 



50 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

diverging from the 4th and tending to become lost in the general reticula- 
tion a short distance from the termen ; the 7th nervure at the distal end 
of 7a, strongly approximated towards the 6th and bent abruptly towards 
the termen ; loop long and narrow, made up oE 2 rows of cells none of which 
are as a rule divided, its outer angle tending to become obliterated and 
its midrib to become straightened. The inner border with a strong angle 
from which a nervure descends and splits the anal area into a distinct 
outer zone of large cells and an inner one of narrow, elongated ones. Mem- 
brane moderately large. Stigma of forewing much larger than that of hind. 

Anal appendages very long and slender, in close apposition. 

Sexual organs : male : 2nd segment very small, the lamina projecting and 
deeply fissured so that it appears to be made up of 2 lobes ; tentaculse 
broad, depressed, the internal directed outwards, the external only present 
as a rudimentary ridge on the internal ; lobe small, oval and depressed. 

Female : borders of 8th segment not dilated ; no distinct vulvar scale 
formed on the 8th ventral plate, the free border of which projects as a 
stunted, tongue-like process ; 9th ventral plate short, carinated, near its 
middle 2 small, horn-like processes similar to those seen in Rhyothemis. 

Anal appendages in the female as long as those of the male. 

66. Pantala flavescens, Fabr. 
Libellula flavescens, Fabr. 
Libellula viridula, Palisot de Beauvais. 
Libellula analis, Burm. 
Libellula terminalis, Burm. 

Male and female very similar. Expanse 85 mm. Length 48 mm. 

Head rounded and relatively large ; eyes capped with bright red or 
reddish brown, pale lilac blue at the sides and beneath ; vesicle and occiput 
bright yellow or olivaceous ; face and forehead bright yellow, often with a 
dash of bright red at the upper part of latter ; labium and labrum dark 
yellow. 

Pro thorax ochreous. 

Thorax variable in colour, usually olivaceous or golden brown but some- 
times a reddish orange, especially in wet season forms which are more 
highly coloured. Laterally paler, bluish green or greenish white, no markings. 

Abdomen ochreous or yellow, suffused with red along the dorsum and on 
the dorsum of the 8th, 9th and 10th segments, small black spots. Beneath 
the first four segments, bluish green or whitish, the remainder dark yel- 
lowish brown and all bearing lateral, black " f "-shaped marks. 

Superior anal appendages very long, as long as segments 9 and 10, 
brownish or the basal part yellow 

The female is very similarly coloured but has no red on the face or ab- 
domen and the eyes are olivaceous brown above. The abdomen is stouter 
and without the constriction at the 3rd segment. 

Wings similar in the sexes but the basal spot paler and more diffuse in 
the female. Hyaline with a pale yellow, basal spot in the hindwing extending 
as far as the cubital nervure, inner border of the loop but not as a rule to 
the termen. Very often the apices of the wings are a little smoky. Stigma 
reddish brown. Membrane white. Legs ochreous streaked with black. 
Sexual organs as for genus. 

Hab. Throughout India. P. flavescens occupies in the dragonfly world the 
same position, which Cynthia cardui occupies in the lepidopterous, it being 
a very cosmopolitan insect and found throughout the warmer zones of the 
whole world. 

In Indian limits it is usually found to be gregarious and a swarm of a 
hundred or more may often be seen dancing lazily iu the air. They prefer 
open breezy situations and for no explicable reason, will often choose the 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



51 



lee-side of a banyan tree bordering a hot, dusty highway. To such situ- 
ations they appear to migrate from their breeding places which are usually 
to be found at no great distance off, these being generally shallow 
swamps or marshes. 

Genus — Tramea. 




Fig. 54. Wings of Tramea basilaris to show neutration. 

Genus Tramea, Hagen, 1861. 

Head very large ; eyes contiguous for a long distance, about equal to the 
length of occiput ; vesicle large ; forehead broad and prominent, but with no 
marked foreborder ; suture flush. 

Prothorax with a very small posterior lobe which is completely hidden 
beneath the head. 

Thorax robust, cubical, very hairy, almost pilose. Legs very long and 
slim ; the hind femora with a row of stout, widely-placed, gradually 
lengthening spines; mid femora similar ; tibial spines robust, numerous; 
claw-hooks robust, situated near the apex. Armature in the female very 
similar. 

Wings very long, the fore moderately and relatively narrow, the hind broad; 
reticulation close; trigone in the forewing 3 or 4 cells distal to the line of 
the trigone in the hind ; sectors of arc fused for a long distance in the 
forewing and running close together for some distance, in the hind a much 
longer fusion ; arc lying between the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures ; 
antenodal nervures 10|^ to IH, the final incomplete; the distance between 
the first two antenodals is much greater than the following ones ; 8th 
nervure in the forewing from the anal angle of trigone, very short and only a 
little convex, its outer end more or less lost in the general reticulation ; the 
discoidal field on account of the shortness of the 8th nervure, but very 
slightly dilated at the termen, usually parallel-sided iihroughout its extent, 
4 rows of discoidal cells ; base of trigone in the hindwing at the arc ; only 1 
cubital nervure to all wings ; no supplementary nervures to the bridge ; 
trigone in the forewing extremely narrow and very long, usually traversed 
twice; trigone in the hindwing long and narrow, eni ire ; all hypertrigones 
entire ; subtrigone in forewing almost or quite square, with 6 or 7 cells, its 
outer angle more or less lost ; 4th nervure straight, but the outer end bent 
abruptly towards the termen; 5a strongly con cave, with 2 rows of cells between 
it and 5 ; a well-marked accessory nervure running, about midway between 
the 3rd and 4th nervures and parallel to both, but with a concavity towards 



52 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVU. 



the 3rd ; loop very long and very narrow, its inner border with an angle very 
similar to that seen in Pantcila flavescens, from which a tolerably distinct 
supplementary sector runs back to split up the anal area into an inner area 
of narrow, elongated cells arranged in oblique rows and an outer, of 
rounder, hexagonal cells. Divided cells in all angles of the loop ; body 
of loop narrow and strongly constricted, the toe much elongated. Stigma 
small, that of the hindwing much smaller than that of the fore. Membrane 
moderately large. 

Abdomen long and narrow, cylindrical, the base tumid, the 3rd and 4th 
segments markedly constricted, the remainder fusiform in the male, 
cylindrical in the female. 

Anal appendages very long and slender in both sexes. 

Sexaal organs : male : lamina broad and dexaressed, the border curling 
outward a little ; internal tentaculse very robust, long, almost straight 
hooks, somewhat carrot-shaped ; external tentaculse obsolete ; lobe quad- 
rate, strongly arched posterior border. 

Female : border of 8th segment not dilated ; 8th ventral plate prolonged 
into a split, vulvar scale ; 9th ventral prolonged into a tongue-like process 
overhanging the 10th and furnished at its middle with two small, horn-like 
processes similar to those seen in Pantala. 

Key to Species. 



A. Basal marking of hindwing a golden yellow 

enclosing a dark reddish brown, smaller 
mark 

B. Basal marking of hindwing a blackish brown 

without any surrounding zone of yellow . . 
67. Tramea basilaris burmeisteri, Kirby. 
LibeUula chinensis, Burm. 
Libellula basilaris, Hagen. 



v^ 



T. basilaris burmeisteri 



T. limbata. 





Fig. 5b, Sexual organs of Tramea basilaris burmeisteri. 

a. Female organs, b, Male organs, (x 12). 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES, 53 

Expanse in both sexes 90 mm. Length 50 mm. 

Male: head; eyes deep reddish brown above, lilaceous at the sides and 
beneath ; vesicle yellow ; occiput olivaceous : forehead brilliant crimson, 
with a fine, well-defined, black, basal line; bright red above, paler yellow 
below ; labrum yellow; labium brownish. 

Prothorax olivaceous yellow. 

Thorax ochreous on the dorsum, where it is thickly covered with short, 
light brown hairs, paler at the sides and a bluish or yellowish green, marked 
with two oblique, black stripes placed close together and often confluent 
at their middles. A black humeral stripe often present, incomplete below 
or connected by a fine black line to the black on the under surface of the 
fore part of thorax. 

Abdomen rust red, with black annules as far as the 6th, at the distal end 
of each segment. These annules widening laterally and occasionally 
incomplete on the dorsum ; black spots on the dorsal surface of the 
7th to 10th segments, each of those bearing a fine, clear white annule at 
its proximal border. Some specimens especially those caught during the 
rains, have the abdomen a brilliant red. Legs black, the armature brown. 

Wings hyaline. A basal marking in the hindwings, consisting of a golden 
yellow background in which lie two, dark brown, irregular spots. The yellow 
area extending as far as the middle of trigone, nearly as far as the 2nd 
antenodal, as far as the midrib of loop and thence somewhat obliquely to 
the termen but not reaching the tornus or anal margin. The anterior 
brown spot begins in the cubital space and extends out to trigone and 
backwards for about one cell's breadth into loop ; the posterior is separated 
from the anterior by about one cell's breadth and extends obliquely 
towards the tornus, being a little constricted at its middle. The nervures 
in this spot are golden yellow and contrast well with the dark ground 
colour. Antenodal nervures 11^. Membrane white. Stigma mahogany 
red ; that of the hindwing about two-thirds the size of the fore. 

Female very similar to the male. Eyes and face without the red, 
olivaceous or yellowish, the cap of the eyes being brown. Thorax similar 
to the male. Abdomen, segments 2 to 7 Ught olive brown, with complete 
distal, black rings, the remaining segments blackish brown. 

Basal marking in hindwing more extensive, the yellow extending as far 
as the 3rd antenodal and outer end of trigone. 

Sexual organs as for genus. 

Hab. — Throughout Continental India and extending into Thibet in the 
North, and to Ceylon southwards. Burma and Indo-Malay. This insect 
is usually found hovering over tanks in which it breeds or wandering in the 
near neighbourhood, generally ascending to great heights. On some days, 
during the rains in Bombay, the air is seen to be full of them, often in 
company with pantala whose flight they rival in gracefulness. I once took 
a male specimen of this insect about forty miles oft" the Kathiawar coast on 
board a liner so that it probably has strong migratory instincts. 

68. Tramea limbata, race similata, Rambur. 

Tramea limbata, Kirby. Tramea rosenbergi, Brauer, 

Libellula limbata, Desjar- Tramea transmarhia, Brauer. 

dins. Tramea samoensis, Brauer. 

Libellula incerta, Rambur. Tramea eurybia, Selys, 

Tramea incerta, Brauer. Tramea euri/ale, Selys. 

Libellula mauriciana,BTa.\ieT. Tramm continentalis^ Selys. ^ 

Libellula similata, Rambur. Tramea limbata continentalis, Ris. 

Tramea simil ta, Brauer. Tramea translucida, Kirby. 

Libellula stylata, Rambur. Tramea madagascariensis, Kirby. 

Tramea sfylata, Brauer. 



54 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

From the long list of synonyms, it will be seen that Tramea limhata is 
the name applied to a series of insects, differing but slightly and all 
tending to merge the one into the other. Ris remarks that they are all 
probably subspecies or varieties of one form and that the Indian represen- 
tative is a tolerably well defined form, described first from a female 
specimen under the name of similata by Rambur, and later from a male, 
under the name of stylata, by the same odontologist. 

Male. Expanse 90 mm. Length 50 mm. 

Head : eyes dark brown above, olivaceous at the sides and beneath ; 
\resicle occiput and face dark olivaceous brown ; forehead dark, glossy, 
metallic violet ; labrum blackish brown : labium olivaeeous brown, with 
the middle lobe and a stripe on the lateral lobe, black. Some greenish 
yellow occasionally on the sides of face. 

Prothorax brown. 

Thorax densely pubescent, dark reddish brcwn with some obscure dark 
lines laterally and often some pruinescence beneath. Legs black. 

Abdomen deep mahogany brown, the last three segments black. Broad, 
black annules at the junctions of the segments and the borders often edged 
with black. Anal appendages very long, black. 

Wings hyaline, reticulation black ; a basal spot in the hindwing of a deep 
blackish brown, a ray in the intercostal spaces extending as far as the 1st 
antenodal nervure and separated from the main larger spot, which extends 
halfway along the subcostal space, nearly or quite up the trigone in the 
cubital space, for 1 cell in the base of the loop and from thence in a more 
or lesi indented line to the torntis, at which spot only it reaches the ter ■aen. 
In some spacimens, there is a very marked indentation where the base 
of the loop cuts into the marking, so that it appears more or less bilobed. 

Stigma reddish brown, the hind about two-thirds the size of the fore. 

Membrane pale brown, or grey. 

Sexual organs : male : lamina similar to hasilaris ; internal tentaculoe 
longer and narrower than basilaris and the end of hook more bent ; lobe 
lono- and narrow. Female similar to hasilaris but the vulvar scale smaller 
and not obscuring the 9th ventral plate which is longer than in that insect. 

Female very similar to the male but paler in colour. A broad, blackj 
basal line to the forehead. The abdomen a dark olivaceous brown or 
yellow, or in many specimens a reddish brown as far as the ] Otb segment. 
Basal marking of hindwing more extensive outwardly but less so posteriorly. 
Outwardly it extends as far as the trigone or slightly within it and for 
halfway along the body of the loop internal to the mid rib. Posteriorly it 
fails to reach the tornus and internally, the anal border, where a small, 
clear hyaline area is enclosed. (A very small, hyaline area, similar to this 
is occasionally seen in the male but is absent in all my specimens). Wings 
decidedly smoky. 

Burma specimens differ a little from the above description. The face is 
a deep red, the forehead a lighter red and with a broad, black, basal band. 
The basal marking extends rather beyond the 1st antenodal nervure, as far 
as the arc, to just within the trigone, rather more into the loop and to 
within 2 or 3 cells of the termen. The hyaline area at the base covers 
about 12 cells. The colour of the marking is a deep reddish brown. 

Hob. — Similar to that of hasilaris and with similar habits. Cosmo- 
politan. 



INDIAN DRAG ON FLIES, 

Gemis Hydrobasileus. 



65 




Fig. 57. — Wings of Hydrobasileus croceus to show neuration. 

Head relatively large ; eyes contiguous for a long distance ; forehead 
prominent and rounded ; suture deep ; vesicle high and deeply notched. 

Frothorax with a small lobe which is hidden beneath the head. 

Thorax robust. Legs long and slim ; hind femora with a row of numerous 
small but gradually lengthening spines ; mid femora with similar spines 
but less numerous and rather wider spaced ; tibial spines fine, short and 
numerous ; claw-hooks very robust, situated about the middle of claws. 
Armature of the female very similar but the spines rather less numerous 
and more widely spaced. 

Abdomen relatively short, the base dorso-ventrally dilated, the sides 
much compressed, tapering from the base to the end. A transverse ridge on 
the 4th segment. 

Wings very long and broad ; reticulation moderately close ; trigone in 
the forewing about 3 cells distal to the line o.' the trigone in the hind ; 
sectors of arc in forewing with a short fusion, in the hind a somewhat 
longer one, the sectors running very close together at their origin ; arc 
lying between the 1st and 2nd antenodals; antenodal nervures 12^ to 18^ 
the final incomplete, the distance between the 1st two antenodals dis- 
tinctly longer than that between those following : base of trigone in 
the hindwing at the arc ; 1 cubital nervure to all wings ; no supplementary 
nervures to the bridge ; 8th nervure from the anal angle of trigone ; tri- 
gone in the forewing very long, with a very short costal side, traversed 
once or twice ; trigone in the hindwing longer than usual, entire, the 
distal side concave ; all hypertrigones entire ; subtrigone in the forewing 
variable, with 8 to 8 ceRs, its outer angle a little obscure and tending to be 
lost in the general reticulation ; 4th nervure strongly undulated ; 2 rows 
of cells between 5 and 5« ; 8th nervure in the forewing moderately curved 
and short ; the discoidal field contracted at the end due to an abrupt 
curving of the 7th nervure towards the termen, the field usually beginning 
with one or two rows of 4 cells and then continued as rows of 3 cells ; the 
loop with a long body and short toe, its outer angle very obtuse and its 
inner border often incomplete and lost in the general reticulation so that 
the loop is open at the apex ; a distinct supplementary sector runs from 
the angulation of the inner border of loop, which splits up the anal area 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

into an mner area of narrow, elongated cells arranged in transverse rows 
and an outer of somewhat larger cells. Stigma equal in the two wings, 
of moderate size. Membrane moderately large. 

Sexual organs: male : lamina depressed, its free border tvirning out- 
ward, tentaculse straight, the point turning a little outwards ; lobe short, 
oval, a little less prominent than the tentaculse. Female : border of 8th 
segment not dilated ; end of 8th ventral plate prolonged into a deeply 
cleft vulvar scale ; 9th ventral plate carinated at its distal half and 
bearing two small horny processes similar to those of tramea. 

Only one Indian species. 

69. Hydrobasileus croceus, Karsch. 
Tramea croceus, Brauer. 
Tramea extranea, Hagen. 
Hydrobasileus sxtratieus, Kirby. 

Expanse 90 mm. Length 50 mm. 

Male : head ; eyes reddish brown above, lilaceous or olivaceous at the 
sides and beneath ; vesicle brown ; face and forehead ochreous, tinged with 
red and with a brown, basal line to the latter; labrum yellow. 

Prothorax light bro^in. 

Thorax olivaceous or ochreous, paler at the sides where the colour is a 
whitish green.- Legs ochreous or yellow. 

Abdomen dark ochreous to reddish brown, the first 4 or 5 segments with 
the borders finely dark brown and on the 5th to 7th, a brownish, subdorsal 
stripe. A dorsal band commencing on the 7th which merges into reddish 
brown on the 8th to 10th segments. 

Wings suffused with bright golden yellow, this more intense along the 
costa of both wings and over the basal area of the hind. The apices often 
tinted with pale brown, this being more marked in the hindwings. Nervures 
in the basal part of wing and in the costal fields, bright yellow. The basal 
marking black and its included nervures a bright yellow ; its size and shape 
somewhat variable, usually beginning at the tornus and running out as far 
as the apex of the loop where it ascends that structure, being limited 
outwardly by its outer border. Anteriorly the border of the spot is more or 
less crenated and runs obliquely from the outer angle of loop to the tornus. 
Stigma brownish yellow. Antenodal nervures numbering about 17. 

Female very similar to the male. The face and forehead olivaceous with- 
out any reddish tinge ; the thorax similar to the male ; the abdomen ochre- 
ous, with a reddish tinge and all the sutures, the carina and the lateral 
borders finely mapped out in black. Wings scarcely differing from 
those of the male. 

Sexual organs. See under genus. 

Anal appendages in the female very small, ochreous. 

Hab. — Throughout India in the moister zones, Ceylon, Burma, Indo- 
Malay and Indo-China. 



(7b be continued.) 



57 



SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS FROM THE INDIAN 
MAMMAL SURVEY 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

By R. C. Wroughton, f.z.s. 

Part VI. 

(Continued from iKuje 967 0/ Volume XXVI.) 
Subfamily 111. — Cricetin.e. 

The Cricetin^ contains three Indian genera which are arranged 
in a key. by Blanford, as follows ; — 

Key to the genera of the Cricetin^. 

A. — Molars rooted, tubercular I. Cricetulus. 

B. — -Molars rootless, elongate, composed 
of prisms, 

a. — Ear-conch present 11. MiCROTUS. 

b. — Ear-conch absent HI. Ellobius. 

Gen. I. — Cricetulus. 
The separation of Cricetulus, as a subgenus, from Cricetus, to 

represent the oriental forms, was proposed by Milne-Edwards in 

1867, and it is now accepted as a full genus. 

No. 309. phceus, Pall. Blanford records a doubt as to 

No. 310. fulvus, Blanf. the validity of these three species, 

^o. 311. isabellinus, deVil. Thomas who has quite recently 

studied them (A. M. N. H. (8). xix, 

p. 452, 1917) concludes that none of these names apply to the 

Ladak form, for which he proposes the name alticola. There is no 

other species. 

Distribution : — 

C. alticola, Thomas. Type locality : — Shushal, I3,500's 

Ladak (Ward — Cr u mp) . 

Other localities :— Ladak ; Upper 
Sutlej Valley (Whitehead) (B. M.). 
Type :— B.M. No. 6. 10. 3. 13. 

Gen. II. — MiCROTUS. 
This genus has been divided into a large number of subgenera 
of which, however, only five are found in or on the boundaries 
of our area. They may be placed in a key as follows : — 
8 



58 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Key to the subgenera of Microtds. 
A. — Pattern of lower anterior molar with some triangles closed 
a. MamniEe 2 — 2 = 8. 
a\ Palate normal. 

a^ Claws small, those on forefeet 

always shortest .. . ... ... I. MiCROTUS. 

6^ Claw^s large, those on forefeet 

nsually longest .... ... II. Phaiomys. 

6\ Palate abnormal, ending in a broad 
median plate, cut off from the maxil- 
laries on both sides... ... ... III. Alticola. 

h. Mammae 0-2=4 ... ... ... IV. Hyperacrius. 

B. — Pattern of lower anterior molar with all V. EoTHENOMYS. 
triangles open. 

Subgenus I. — MiCROTUS. 
No. 306. sikimensis, Hodgs. The only species recorded from our 

area. 
Distribution : — 

M. (M.). sikimensis, Hors- Type locality : — Sikkim. (Hodgson), 
field. Other localities: — Sikkim (Hodgson); 

Kalapokhi-i, Darjiling (B. M.), Sikkim 
(M. S. I.) 

Tyj)e:—B. M. No. 79.11.21.397. 

Subgenus II. — Phaiomys. 

AT one 7 7 ,7 • -D1 r Bonhote described a species. 

No. 305. blytm, Blanf. 7^ • r n r i • i t 

^ waltom, irom Lhassa, 01 which 1 

named a subspecies petulans, (J. B. N. H. S., xx, p. 931, 1911), 

on specimens taken bj?^ Captain C. H. T. Whitehead. This form 

may be distinguished from blythi as follows : — 

Key to the forms of Phaiomys. 

A. — General colour drab ... ... ...1. blythi, Blanf. 

B. — General colour sepia ... ... ...2. waltoni petulans,Wr. 

Distribution : — 

1. M. (P.) blythi, Blanford. Type locality .■— Tsomoriri, 14,000', 

Western Ladak. (Theobald). 
Other localities .-—Thibet (B. M.). 
Type : — Ind. Mus. Calc. No. a. 
{TjTpe oi leucurus, Blyth, Ind. Mus. 
, . Calc. No. a.). 

2. M. {P.) waltonipetulans. Type locality : — Teza, Upper Sutlej 

Wroughton: Valley. (Captain C. H. T. Whitehead). 

Other localities :— Upper Sutlej' Val- 
ley (B.M.). 
: Type:— B. 11.-^0.10.12.2.27. 



SUMMARY OF T£LE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 69 

Subgenus III. — Alticola. 

Miller dealt with these voles in 
No. 300. roylei, Gvaj. his paper on Dr. Abbott's collection 

No. 301. stoliczkanus, Blanf. from Central Asia, and I propose 
No. 302. stracheyi, Thos. to follow his results closely. In 

No. 303. wynnei, Blanf. two cases, however, I cannot accept 

No. 304. blanf ordi, Scullj". the type localities mentioned by 

him. In the case of roylei I have 
already pointed out in this Journal (J. B. N. H. S., xxiii, p. 299, 
1914) my reasons for believing Kumaon and not Kashmir to be the 
type locality. The name M. stracheyi, Thomas, is a re-naming of 
the animal called " Cricetus songarus " hj Horsfield, who, in his 
Catalogue (p. 145) distinctly states that the specimen is " From 
Capt. R. Strachey's Collection in Ladak." The following is Mil- 
ler's key to the species : — 

Key to the species of Alticola. 

A. — Under parts dark. 

a. The third upper anolar with 4 salient 

angles ... ... ... ... 1. wynnei, Blanf. 

The third upper molar with 6 salient 

angles. 
a\ Hind-foot 22 mm. ... ... 2. roylei, Gray. 

6\ Hind-foot 20 mm. ... ... 3. moniosMS, True. 

B. — Under parts whitish. 

a. Back bright, ferruginous, brown ... 4. stoliczkanus, ^Ij- 

b. Back grey or pale fawn. 

a\ Tail vertebra over 45 mm. ... 5. blanf ordi, Scull. 

. b^. Tail vertebras xnider 40 mm. 

a^. Third upper molar with 6 salient 
angles. 
a\ Anterior upper molar with 10 

salient angles ... ... 6. s^racAe?/t, Thos. 

6\ Anterior upper molar with 8 

salient angles ... ... 7. albicauda, Tvne. 

If. Third upper molar with 5 salient 
angles, 
a'. Teeth heavy ; posterior loop 
of third upper molar form- 
ing much less than half of 
crown ... ... ... 8 . acrophilus^ Mill . 

6^ Teeth light; posterior loop of 
third upper molar forming at 
least half of crown ... 9. cricetulus, Mil] . 



60 JO UENAL, B 0MB A Y NA TURAL HIST. SO CIETY, Vol. XX T II. 

Distribution : — 

1. M. (A) wynnei, Blanford. Type locality : — Murree, Punjab. 

Other localities : — Mnrree (B. M.). 
Co-types :—B. M. Nos.92.2.27.1 & 
8.3.9.18. 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 8.3.9.18. 

2. M. (A.) roylei, Gray. Type locality : — Kumaon. (See 

above). 

Other localities: — Kumaon; Sikkim 
(M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 2002a. 

3. M. {A.) montosus, True. Type locality : — Central Kashmir, 

11,000'. (Abbott). 

Other localities : — Kashmir (Ward) ; 
Kaghan Valley (Whitehead) (B.M.). 

Type:—\J. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
!^^^(TYpe of imitator, Bonhote, B.M. 

35508 ^ "^ ^ 

No. 5. 1. 5. 12.). 

4. M. (A.) stoliczkanus, Type locality : — Plateaux of North- 

Blanford. ern Ladak. 

Other localities : — None. 
Co-types : — Ind. Mus. Calc. Nos. 
a and 6. 

5. M. (A.) blanfordi, Scully Type locality :— G-ilgit, 9.000'— 

10,000'. 

Other localities : — Gilgit; Skardo 
(Whitehead) (B. M.). 

Co-types:— B. M. Nos. 83-3-M22 
and 8. 3. 9. 17. (Other co-types Ind. 
Mus. Calc. Nos. a. and b. in al.). 

Lectotype :— B. M. No. 8.3.9.17. 

6. M. (A), stracheyi, Tho- Type locality: — Ladak, Strachey, 

mas. (See above). 

Other localities : — Ladak (Ward) 
(B. M.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 60.5.4.113. 

7. M. (A.) albicauda, True. Type locality : — Baldu Valley, 

Baltistan. (Abbott). 
Other localities : — None. 
Type :— U. S. Nat. Mus. No. ^^J^. 

^^ 36816 

8. M. (A.) acrophilus, Mil- Type locality: — Ladak side of 

ler. KaraKorum Pass, 17,000'. (Abbott) 

Other localities : — None in B. M. 
fz/pe :—U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 26.126 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 61 

9. M. {A.) cricemlus, Miller. Type locality : — Tso Kjan, 16,000', 

Ladak. (Abbott). 

Other localities : — None. 
Tijpe :— 13. S. Nat. Miis. No. 
84043. 

Subgenus IV.^Hyperacrius. 

Three species have beeu described (all from Kashmir), one by 
True and two by Miller, who arranges them in a key as follows : — 
Key to the species of the subgenus Hypeiiacrius. 
A. — Hind- foot (with claws) 19 mm.; 

upper tooth-row 7 mm. ... ... 1. aitchisoni, Mill. 

B. — Hind-foot (with claws) 16-18 mm. 
upper tooth-row 6 mm. 

a. Ear, from meatus, 10-11 mm. ... 2. fertilis, True. 

b. Ear, from meatus, 7*8 mm — ... 3. brachelix. Mill. 

Distribution : — 

1. M. (H.) aitchisoni, Mil- Type locality : — Gulmarg, Kash- 

ler. mir. 

Other localities : — None. 
Type :— B. M. No. 96.11.2.3. 

2. M. (H.) fertilis, True. Type locality :— Pir Panjal, 8,500', 

K ash mir. (A bbott) . 

Other localities : — Central Kashmir 
(B. M.). 

Type:^V. S. Nat. Mus. No. ^3^J. 

^^ c6510 

3. M. (H.) brachelix, Mil- Tyjje locality : — Nagmarg, Kash- 

ler. mir (Abbott). 

Other localities : — -Kashmir (Ward) 
(B. M.). 

Type:—\J. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
63445. 
Subgenus V. — Eothenomys. 

This form has never been taken 

No. 307. melanogaster, M.- within our limits, but as it, 

Edws. with several subspecies, is found 

all over Szechuen and may there- 
fore be found in the Kakhyen Hills, I have included it here. 

Distribution : — 

M. (E). tnelanogaster, Milne- Type locality : — Moupin, Szechwan. 
Edwards. Other locaiiiies : — Not yet taken 

within the Northern Burmese bor- 
der. 

Typ)e : — In Paris Museum. 



62 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

: Gen. III. — Ellobius. 

The only species of the genus 
No. 308. fuscicapillus, Bly. found within our area. Blanford 

records that it was taken at Quetta 
by Hutton, but Blyth when he named it thought that it came 
from the Himalayas. The British Museum has no Indian speci- 
mens, and only three in alcohol contributed by the Afghan Boun- 
dary Commission from Bala Marghab, &c., in Afghanistan. A 
lady recently gave me a description of a small animal seen by her 
at Quetta, which she stated to be not uncommon, and which could 
only have been this animal. 

Distribution : — 

E. fuscicapillus, Bljth. Type locality: — Unknown (? 

Quetta) (Hutton). 

Other localities ; — Bala Marghab, 
Afghanistan. 

Type ; — Not traced. 

Family V. — SPALACiDiE. 

Blanford recognises only one genns of the Bamboo Rats, but 
Thomas has recently revived Nyctocleptes for the giant forms, 
restricted Rhizomys to the medium-sized ones, and established 
Cannomys for the smaller animals of the badius type (A. M. N. H. 
(8) xvi., p. 57, 1915). These three genera may be arranged in 
key as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Spalacid^. 

^ — Size large, condylo-basal length of 
skull 57-76 mm. ; soles of feet granu- 
lated; mammae 1-3=8 or 2-3=10. 

a. Size larger, condylo-basal length of 

skull 71-76 mm,; posterior sole- 
pads conjoined I. Nyctocleptes. 

b. Size smaller, condylo-basal length 

of skull 57 mm. ; postei-ior sole- 
pads separate ... ... ... II. Rhizomys. 

5, — Size small, condylo-basal length of 
skiill 43-50 mm. ; sol«pads not 
granulated; mammse 2—2=8 ... III. Cannomys. 

Gen. I. — Nyctocleptes. 

No. 314. sumatrensis, Raff. The proper name for the Indian 

form is cinereus, McClelland. Besides 
sumatrensis, Thomas has distinguished another form from Sumatra, 
but cinereus alone is found within our limits. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEJ, 63 

Distribution : — 

N. cmereus, MacClelland. Type locality : — Motilmein. 

OtJier localities : — Teuasserim (M. 
S. I.). 

Type : — Not traced. (Co-types of 
erythrogenys, Anderson, Ind. Mus. 
Calc. Nos. a. and b.). 
Gen. II. — Rhizomys. 

No. 313. pruinosus, Bl. Besides the Assam species, Thomas 

has recently described senex, from 
eastern Burma and Yunnan (A. M. N. H. (8) xvi, p. 313, 1915). 
These two may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Rhizomys. 
A. — Size smaller, palatilar length of skull 

32.2 mm. ... ... ... ... I. pruinosus, Blyth. 

B. — Size larger, palatilar length of skull 

37-2 mm. ... ... ... ... 2. senex, Thos. 

Distribution : — 

1. R. pruinosus, Blyth. Type locality : — Cherrapunji, Assam 

(F. Skipwith). 

Other localities: — Khasi Hills CB. M.) 
Co-types: — Ind. Mus. Calc, Nos. 1. 

m. and n. 

2. R. senex, Thomas. Type locality: — Yunnan. (Orii). 

Other localities : — Mountains east of 
Bhamo (B. M.). 

Tijpe :— B. M. No. 12. 7. 25. 42. 

Gen. III. — Cannomys. 

Besides badius, Hodgs., of Nepal and castaneus, Blyth, ot 
Teuasserim, Thomas has recently described ^pater from Mt. Popa and 
c. plumbescens from the Shan States. These four forms may be 
arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the species of Cannomys. 

A. — Size larger, condylo-basal length 49- 
53 mm. 

a. Colour normal ... ... ... I. badiics, Hodgs. 

b. Colour paler and brighter, pinkish 

cinnamon ... 2. jjater, Thomas. 

B. — Size smaller, condylo-basal length of 
skull 43-46 mm. 

a. Colour normal 3. cas^awews, Blyth 

h. Colour plumbeous \^. c. plumbescens, 

Thos. 



64 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Distribution : — : . 

1. C 6a(?ms, Hodgson. Type locality:— '^e^pal (Hodgson). 

Other localities: — Daijiling; Khasi 
Hills ; Manipur (B. M.); Chin Hills, 
Chindwin (M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 43. 1. 12. 61. 

2. C. pater, Thomas. Type locality : — Mt. Popa, Burma. 

(B. N. H. S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — Mt. Popa (M.S.I.) . 
Type:—B. M. No. 14. 7. 19. 231. 

3. C. castaneus castaneus, Type locality: — " Arakan" (?) 

Blyth. (Phajae). 

Other localities : — Thaton, Burma ; 
Tenasserim (B. M.). 

Co-types : — Ind. Mus. Calc. Nos. I. 
■ and m. 

4. C. castaneus plumhescens, Type locality : — Gokteik, N. Shan 

■ Thomas. States (B. N. H. S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — N. Shan States 
(M. S. I.) 

Type:—B. M. No. 14. 7. 8. 78. 

Famil}?- VI. — HYSTEiciDiE. 

The family includes two genera which may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Hystricid'i'. 

A. — Tail short, clothed with spines, with 

hollow quills at the end ... ... I. Acanthion. 

B. — Tail long, clothed with scales, with a 

tuft of bristles at the end... ... II. Atherurus. 

Gen. I.^ — Acanthion. 

Some years ago Lyon in a paper on Malay Porcupines (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. xxxii, p. 575, 1907) revived the name Acanthion 
for them. In a note, quoted in my Sind Report (J. B. N. H. S. 
xxiv, p. 757, 1916), Thomas pointed out that that name must 
equally be applied to the Indian species, in place of Hystrix, as 
now used. 

The Indian Museum Catalogue 
No. 315. leucura, C & H. gives no locality for the type of 
No. 316. hodgsoni, Gray. bengalensis, and I have entirely 

No. 317. bengalensis. Blyth. failed to find any authentic record 

of any other specimen having been 
taken. I propose to take the general view and regard it as a 
synonym of hodgsoni. Thomas has quite recently divided off the 
south Burmese porcupine, under the name of klossi, from brachyurus, 



SUMMARY 01 THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



65 



the Malay form. At the commencement of the Survey I named 
a species, cuneiceps, from Cutch (J. B. N, H, S. xxi, p. 771, 1912), 
the note incorporated in my Sind Keport, quoted above ; however, 



Thomas accepts it only as a subspecies, 
arranged in a key as follows : — 



These forms may be 



A. 



Key to the species of Acanthion. 
-A full crest of long hairs ; a mantle 



of long, thin spines ; the stout, stiff 
spines of the back ringed black 
and white. 

a. Size larger, condylo-basal length of 

skull 155 mm. ... ... ... 1 

b. Size smaller, condylo-basal length 

of skull 1 45 mm. ... ... . . . S 

B. — Little or no crest ; no mantle ; chief 

spines white with a black median 

ring. 
a. The black on the chief spines much 

more than the white tips ... ... 3. hoagsom, Gray 

6. The black on the chief spines much 

less than the white tips ... ... 4. klossi, Thos. 



I. leucunis, Sykes, 
I. cuneiceps, Wr. 



Distribution : — 

1. A. leucurus leucunis, 

Sykes. 



2. 



Type locality: — "Dukhun" (Sykes). 

OtJier localities : — Bannu, Punjab ; 
]-{ajputana ; Sehore ; Central India ; 
Dekhan; Nilgiri Hills; Malabar; 
Ceylon; Nepal (B. M.); Kathiawar; 
Palanpur ; Khandesh r Berars ; Dhar- 
war ; Coorg ; Mysore ; Ceylon ; 
Kumaon (M. S. I.). 

T^joe:—B-M. No. 42.8.6.6. (Type 
o^indica, Gray and Hardw. not found ; 
Type of zeylonensis, Blyth, Ind. Mus. 
Calc. No. e. ; Tj-pe of mcdabarica, Scla- 
ter, B. M. No. 65. 1. 30. 10.). 
A. leucurus cuneiceps, Tyjye locality: — Nokania, Cutch. 



Wroup-hton. 



3. A. hodgsoni, Gray. 



(B. N. H. S.— Crump). 

Other localities : — Cutch ; Sind (M. 
S. I.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 12. 9. 1. 11. 

Type locality: — Nepal (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Sikkim (B. M.) ; 
Bhutan Duars (M. S. I.). 



6a JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXV II. 

Co-types :—B. M.. Nos. 45. 1. 8. 8 
&47. 7. 22. 9. (Lectotype of alojphus, 
Hodgson, B. M. No. 53.8.16.11; 
Type of bengalensis, Blyth, Ind. Mus. 
Calc. No. /.). 

Lectotype :— B. M. No. 47. 7. 22. 9. 
4. A. Mossi, Thomas. Type locality: — Tenasserim. (B.N. 

H. S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities : — Sagaing, and Mt. 
Popa, Burma ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 14. 12. 8. 223. 

Gen. II. — Atherurus. 
No. 318. 'tnacrura, L. The only species found in our area. 

Distribution : — 

A. macrourus, Linnseus. TyjJe locality: — " Asia." 

Other localities : — Tenasserim (B. 
M.) ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 
Type : — Unknown. 
Suborder II. — Duplicidentata. 

The two Families in this Suborder may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Key to the families of the Duplicidentata. 

A. — Ears, long ; a tail present ... ... I. Leporid^e. 

B. — Ears, short ; no tail ... ... ... II. OcHOTuNiD^. 

Family I. — Leporid^. 

The Hispid Hare is now generally classed in a separate genus, 
Oaprolagus, from the ordinary hares which make up the genus 
Lepus. The two may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Leporidje. 

A. — Ears at least as long as the head ; tail 

white beneath ... ... ... I. Lepus. 

B. — Ears shorter than the head; tail 

entirely brown ... ... ... II. Caprolagus. 

Gen. I. — Lepus. 

The first four names in Blan- 
No. 319. nigricollis, F. Cuv. ford's list represent the hares of the 
No. S20 . ruficaudatus, Geoff, plains, while the last three are the 
IJio. S21. dayanus, B\a,uf. mountain hares. Of the former, 

'No. 322. peguensis^Bl. in addition to those here enume- 

No. 323. tihetanus, Waterh. rated, Bonhote named siamensis, in 
No. 324. oiostolus, Hodgs. 1902 (P. Z. S., p. 40), while in the 
No. 325. hipsibius, Blanf. course of this Survey I have added 

three names (J. B. N. H. S. xxi, p. 



SUMMARY 01 THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 67 

338, 1912 ; xxii,p. 15, 1913; xxiv, p. 42, 1915). Of the mountain 
forms I think craspedotis, Blanford, may be kept distinct from 
tihetanus, but as to hypsibius, Blanford, I can offer no opinion. 
Including these additional forms the species of the true hares may 
be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the species of Lepus. 
I. — Hair comparatively short and coarse. 
A. — Tail brown above. 

a. Colour darker; ears blackish brown 1 . ruficaudatus, Geoff. 

b. Colour paler; ears bright buff ... 2. rajput, Wr. 
B. — Tail black above. 

a. Nape black. 

a. Feet ochraceous ... ... o. nigricollis, F. Cnr. 

b\ Feet white ... 4. singhala, Wr. 

b. Nape grey or brown or ochra- 
ceous. 

a. Nape grey ... ... ... 5. simcoxi, Wr. 

6\ Nape brown, or ochraceous. 
a'. Face pale, grizzled brown 

and buff; a grey rump ... 6. dayanus, Blanf. 

6". Face darker, grizzled black 
and ta^. 
a^. Nape brown ; general 

ground colour tan... ... 7. maJiadeva, Wr. 

b^. Nape ochraceous, or ru- 
fous. 
a^. Nape ochraceous ; feet 

white ... ... ... 8. pegicensis, B\j. 

6*. Nape rufous; feet ochra- 
ceous ... ... ... 9. siamensis, Bonh. 

II. — Hair long and silky. 
A. — Tail black above. 

a. General colour paler, ecru drab ; 

nape fawn... ... ... ... 10. craspedotis, ^lanf. 

b. General colour darker, dark pin- 
kish drab; nape cinnamon rufous.. 11. tibetanns, Waterh. 

£.— Tail all white. 

a. Ears longer than hindfoot with 

tarsus ... ... ... ... 12. oiostolus, Hodgs. 

b. Ear not longer than hindfoot 

M'ith tarsus ... ... ... 13. hypsibius, Blanf. 

DiSTKIBUTION : — 

1. L. ruficaudatus, Geoffrey. Type locality : — "Bengal." 

Other localities : — Saran, Bengal ; 
Pari, Orissa; Nepal; Sikkim (B.M.); 



3 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVII. 

Gwalior ; Kuniaon ; Behar ; Bengal ;: 
Sikkim ; Darjiling ; Bhutan Duars 
(M. S. I.). 

Type : — Perhaps in Paris Museum.. 

2. L. rajput, Wi'oughton. Type locality : — Sambhar Lake, 

Eajputana (Adams). 

Other localities : — Sambhar Lake,. 
Ulwar (B. M.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 85.8.1.342. 

3. L. nigricollis, F. Ouvier. Type locality : — Madras. 

Other localiiies: — ^S. Mahratha Coun- 
try ; Dekhan ; Nilgiri Hills (B. M.) ; 
Satara ; Ratnagiri ; Dharwar ; Kanara;. 
Mysore; Bellary; Coorg (M. S. L). 

Type: — Perhaps in Paris Museum. 

4. L. singhala, Wroughton. Type locality : — Kumbukkam, Cey- 

lon (B.N. H. S.— Mayor). 

Other localities : — Ceylon (B. M.) ;. 
Ceylon (M.S. L). 

Type:—B. M. No. 15.7.1.8. 

5. L. smcoaji, Wroughton, Type locality: — Edalabad, Khan- 

desh. (B. N. H. S.— Crump). 

Other localities : — Khandesh; Nimar;; 
Berars; Central Provinces (M, S. I.). 

Type:—Ji. M. No. 11.8.7.1. 
^- L. dayanus, Blanford. Type locality : — Sukkur. Sind (Dr. 

Day). 

Other localities : — Sind (B. M.) ;, 
Sind ; Cutch ; Palanpur ; Kathiawar ; 
(M. S. I.). 

Co-types .•— B. M. Nos. 90. 4. 9. 2 
and 3. 

Lectotype :— B. M. No. 90.4.9.3. 

7. L. mahadeva, y^voughton. Type locality: — -Dhaim, Mahadeo 

Hills, Central Provinces. (B.N.H.S.— 
Crump). 

Other localities: — Mahadeo Hills (M. 
S.I.) 

Type:~-'B. M. No. 12.7.8.1. 

8. L. p)sguensis,^\yt\i. Type locality : — Upper Pegu (Pha- 

Other localities : — Pangoon (B. M.) : 
Chindwin ; Mt. Popa (M. S. I.). 
Type :■ — ^Ind. Mus. Calo. No. a. 

9. L. siamensis, 'Bonhote. Type locality: — Cliiengmai, Siam 

(Lyle). 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



69 



12. L. oiostolm, Hodgson. 



Other localities ; — Siam ; Bhamo (Ha- 
rington) (B. M.). 

Type:~B. M. No. 1.7.7.13. 

10. L. craspedotis, Blanford. Type locality : — Pishin, Baluchistan 

(Blanford.) 

Other localities : — 'Quetta, Baluchis- 
tan ; Afghanistan (B. M.). 

Type : — Ind. Mus. Calc. No. a. 

11. L. tibefanus, Waterhouse. Type locality : — Little Thibet. (Vig- 

ne). 

Other localities :— Yassin, Gilgit ; 
Ladak ; Kurram Valley (B. M.) 

Type :— B. M. No. 53.8.29.25. 

Tyjje locality: — Nepal. (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Sikkim ; Ladak ; 
Upper Indus Valley (B. M.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 43.1.12. 44. 
(Type of piallipes, Hodgson, not 
traced). 

Type locality : — Changchenmo Val- 
ley, Ladak (Stoliczka). 

Other localities : — No specimen. 

Co-types : — Ind. Mus. Calc. Nos. a. 
and b. 

Gen. II. — Caprolagus. 

No. 326, hispidus , Pears. The only species of the genus. 

Distribution : — 

C. hispidus, Pearson. Type locality : — Assam. (McClel* 

land). 

OtJier localities :— E. Bengal ; Nepal 
(B. M.) 

Type : — Not traced. 



13. L. hypsibius, Blanford. 



Family 11. — Ochotonid^. 
There is only the one genus. 

Gen. — Ochotona. 



No. 327. roylei, Ogil. 
No. 328, curzonicB, Hodgs. 
No. 329. macrof u, Gtinth. 
No. 330. rufescens, Gray. 
No. 331. ladacensis, Gtinth. 



In dealing with the collection 
made by the Survey in Kumaon, 
I classed the specimens of this 
genus as roylei. Later when speci- 
mens were obtained from Sikkim, 
it appeared impossible to separate 
them from roylei, and yet ther 



70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL SI8T. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



1. rufescens, Gray. 

2. wardi, Bonh. 



were apparently different from the Kumaon individuals, so I sug- 
gested that Hodgson's name nipalensis should be revived for these 
latter. Now however on laying out all the available material I 
am of opinion that mere colouring cannot be trusted as a guide 
where seasonal changes are so great and so common. I therefore 
propose to call all this group roylei, pending the working out of the 
genus on adequate material. This material is badly wanted, and 
should include specimens taken " all round the year, " or as near it 
as possible for each locality. Bonhote added a species, wardi, (P. 2*. 
S., p. 124, 1904), allied to rufescens., which I include in the follow- 
ing key to the species : — 

Key to the species of Ochotona. 

A. — Palatal and incisive foramina not dis- 
tinct. 
a. Combined foramina constricted in 
centre. 
a^ Colour brownish, with white collar 

behind the ears ... 
b^. Colour greyish, with red head and 
shoulders in summer ... 
6. Combined foramen not constricted. 
a\ Ears small, 23mm., or less. 

a^. Uniform pale brown ; feet white. 
6^. Dark brown 
6^ Ears large, 27 mm. 
B.- -Palatal and incisive foramina distinct. 

Distribution : — 

1. 0. rufescens, Gray. Type locality :- 

bul. 

Other localities : — Ziarat, Baluchis- 
tan ; Bolan Pass, Quetta ; Kurram 
Valley, Afghanistan (B. M.), 

Co-types :— B. M. Nos. 44.9.15.9 & 
10. 

Lecfotype :— B. M. No. 44.9.15.9. 

Type locality: — Talien, Kashmir, 
(Col. Ward). 

Other localities : — Gulmarg, 8,700' ; 
Gugga Nala, 8,900' ; Liddar Valley, 
9,500'; Sultanmurg, 11,000' ; Kisht- 
war, 11,000' ; Badrawar, 12,000' ; 
Kashmir, Chilas, 12,700'; Gilgit, 
Hazara, 13,700' ; Tashgaum, 9,500': 
Ladak (B. M.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 4. 5. 6, 1. 



o. 
4. 
5. 

6. 



curzonicB, Hodgs. 
roylei, Ogil. 
macrotis, Giinth. 
ladacensis, Giinth. 



-Baber's Tomb, Ka- 



2. 0. wardi, Bonhote. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



71 



3. 0. curzonioe, Hodgson, 



4. 0. roylei, Ogilby. 



5. 0. macrotis, Giinther. 



Type locality : — Nepal. CHodgson). 

Other localities ; — Sikkim (B. M,). 

Co-types;— B. M. Nos. 58.6.24.98 
and 99. 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 58. 6. 
24.99. 

Type locality : — Choor Mountain, 
Punjab (Ogilby). 

Other localities : — Garwhal ; Kuma- 
on ; Nepal ; Sikkim (B. M.). 

Type I— B. M. No. 55. 12. 24.326. 
(Type of nipalensis, Hodgs. B. M. 
No. 43.1.12.63; Type oi hodgsoni, 
Blyth, not traced). 

Type locality : — Kuenlun Moun- 
tains, Thibet (Biddulph). 

Other localities: — Shushal, 13,500', 
and Indus Valley, 12,000'; Ladak 
(B. M.). 

Co-types I— B.M. No. 44.3.1.14 & 
75.3.30.3. (Type of auritus, Blanford, 
Ind. Mus. Calc. No. a. : Co-types of 
griseus, Blanford, Ind. Mus. Calc. 
Nos. c. and d.). 

Lectotype;— B. M. No. 75. 3. 30. 3. 

Type locality : — Chagra Lake, 
14,000', Ladak; (Biddulph). 

Other localities : — Upper Sutlej Val- 
ley (Whitehead) (B. M.). 

Co-types :— B. M. No. 75. 3. 3. 32. 
and specimens in Calcutta. 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 75.3. 
30. 2. 

Order VII. — Ungulata. 

With the exception of the Muntjacs, or Kib-faced Deer, practically 
nothing has been done in this Order by the Survey. This was 
to be expected, for the great majority are large animals, which do 
not lend themselves to collection on a large scale. The late R. 
Lydekker, F. R. S., brought out a Catalogue of the specimens in 
the British Museum (Natural History) in 1913, and it seems 
almost unnecessary to deal with the subject here, but for the con- 
venience of Members I have decided to extract as shortly as 
possible, the information contained in that Catalogue, in so far as 
it concerns the Indian region. 

The Order is divided into three Suborders as follows : — 



6. 0. ladacensis, Giinther. 



72 JOTJRIsAL, BOMBAY NATURAL KIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Key to the suborders of the Ungulata. 

A. — Upper lip and nose not produced into 
a flexible trunk. 

a. The third and fourth toes, which 

may be the only ones, equal in 
size, and symmetrical to a verti- 
cal line drawn between them ... I. Artiodactyla. 

b. The third toe, which may be the 

only one, larger than the lateral 
ones, when present, and symmet- 
rical in itself II. Perissodactyla. 

'iS.— Upper lip and nose produced in a 

trunk III. Proboscidea. 

Suborder I. — Artiodactyla. 

The Suborder is divisible into three Sections as follows ; — 

Key to the sections of the Artiodactyla. 

A. —Upper incisors wanting ; ruminating. 

a. Horns or antlers present, at least 

in males... ... ... ... I. Pecora. 

b. No horns or antlers ... ... II. Tragulina. 

B. — Upper incisors present ... ... III. SuiNA. 

Section I. — Pecora. 

This Section includes two Families which may be distinguished 
as follows ; — 

Key to the families of the Pecora. 

A. — Horns permanent; a corneous sheath 

on a bony core ... ... ... I. BoviDiE. 

B. — Horns solid, no cores, deciduous, gene- 
rally branched ... ... ... II. CERVIDiS. 

Family I. — BoviDjE. 

The BoviD^ have been divided into a number of Subfamilies, 
but in dealing with the restricted Indian fauna, it has not seemed 
necessary to use thern. I may note however that in the following 
key, the first three genera represent the Bovine, the next four the 
Oaprin^, the next three the Rupicaprin^, the following two the 
Tragelaphin^, and the last three the Antilopin^. The genera 
of the BoviD^ may be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Bovid^. 

/. — Horns smooth, or closely, irregularly, 
and transversely wrinkled. 



SUMMARY 01 THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



73 



A. — Horns in the two sexes not differing 
much in size. 
a. Horns inserted far apart, at extrem- 
ities of vertex. 
a". Horns circnlar, or oval, in sec- 
tion. 
a'. Dorsal vertebra, 13 ; no long 

hair on flanks ... 
h'. Dorsal vertebree 14 ; a fringe 
of long hair on flanks 
&^ Horns triangular, or partly so, 
in section 
b. Horns inserted close together. 
a^. Horns large in male, small, 
usually mere spikes, in female. 
a. Males inodorous; horns curved 
at sides of head. 
a\ Horns in male with a cir- 
cular or spiral curve 
6^ Horns in male curved in 
an S. 
6". Males odorous ; horns ascend- 
ing spirally, or scimitar- 
shaped 
h\ Horns small, not longer than 
head not differing except in 
size, in the two sexes. 
a^. Adult horns directed straight 
back over the head. 
a. Horns angulatein front... 
6'. Horns circular in section. 
a*. Size larger; face 

glands present 
6*. Size smaller; face 
glands absent 
6''. Adult horns bent down- 
wards, then outwards, and 
finally upwards 
-Horns in male only. 
a. Size large ; male with two horns ; 

a long tail 
h. Size small ; male usually with four 
horns ; a short tail 
//. — Horns with prominent rings at sub- 
equal intervals. 
10 



I. BiBOS 
II. POEPHAGUS. 
III. BUBALUS. 



IV. Ovis. 

V. PSEUDOIS. 

VI. Capka. 



VII. Hemitragus. 



VIII. 



IX. 



Capricornis. 

NEMORHiGEDUS 



B. 



X. BUDORCAS. 



XI. BOSELAPHUS. 



XII. Tetraceros. 



74 : JOURNAL, BOMBAY NAT LfRAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

A. — Adult horns much longer than 
head ; females hornless. 
a. Horns spiral ; muzzle not swollen, XIII. Antilope. 
h. Horns straight; muzzle swollen... XIV. Pantholops. 
B. — Adult horns scarcely longer than 
head ; female sometimes with 
horns ... ... ... ... XV. Gazella. 

Gen, I. — BiBOS. 

Blanford includes in the genus Bos all the five subgenera re- 
cognised by Lydekker but Thomas supports me in the view that 
the three subgenera (Bos is limited to Europe, and Bison to Ameri- 
ca) represented in India should be treated as full genera. 

The species frontalis I retain 

because a wild specimen is 

claimed as having been killed in 

No. 338.^awrMS, H. Smith, Tenasserim. The name soncZaicMS, 

No. 339. frontalis, Lamb. Miiller and Schlegel must give place 

No. Z^O.sondaicus, M. & S. to hanteng, Raff, which is older by 

ten years. Lydekker divides ga,u- 
rus and banteng into a number of subspecies. The whole may be 
arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to ihe forms of Bibos. 

A. — Horns turning inwards at the tips. 

a. No white on back of thighs ; no 

horny mass between the horns. 
a^ Intercornual ridge rising in a pro- 
minent forwardly inclined arch. 
a.^ Generally no dewlap ; no throat 

fringe ; colour olive black ... 1. g. gaurus, H. Sm. 
6.^ A distinct dewlap and throat 

fringe; colour darker ... 2. g. readi, Lyd. 

6^ Intercornual ridge forming a less 
prominent and less forwardly 
inclined arch, which may be 
entirely absent ... ... ... S. g. hubbacki, Ljd. 

b. A large white disc on back of 

thighs; a horny mass connecting 

the horns ; coat unicolor ... ... 4. bant, birmanicusi 

Lyd. 
B. — Horns not, or scarcely, turning inwards 

at tips ... ... ... .. b. frontalis, L&mb. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 75. 

Distribution : — 

1. B. gaurus gaurus,^. ^Tcath.. Type locality. — "India." 

Other localities : — R a j p u t a n a ; 
Central Provinces ; Western Ghats ; 
Kanara ; Mysore ; Travancore ; Nepal; 
Bhutan Duars; Assam ( B. M.); 
Kanara; Coorg (M. S. I.). 
Type : — Unknown. 
"2. B. gaurus readi, Lj^dek- Type locality :■ — ^Burma. (Read), 
ker. Other localities : — Burma ; Tenas- 

serim (B. M.). 

Type : — In Mr, Read's collection 
in 1913. 

3. B. gaurus huhhaclci, Type locality: — Pahang, Malay 
Lydekker. Peninsula (Hubback). 

Other localities: — Malay Peninsula 
(B. M.). 

^y^e.-—B. M. No. 7. 11.27.1. 

4. B. banteng birmanicus, Type locality :■ — Burma. 
Lydekker. Other localities : — Burma (B.M.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 79.11.21.16. 

5. B. frontalis, "La-mhert. Type locality: — Tipperah. 

Other localities .•— Tenasserim (feral); 
Assam (semi-domesticated) (B. M.). 
Type : — Unknown. 

Gen. II. — POEPHAGUS. 

No. 341. grunniens, L. The only species of the genus. 

Distribution : — 

P. grunniens, Linnaeus. Type locality : — Thibet. 

Other localities ;— Sikkim ; Thibet 
Ladak (B. M.). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Gen. III. — BuBALUS. 
No. 342. bubalus, L. This is the only Indian species, 

(Blanford wrongly spells it bubalus), 
but Lydekker recognises three subspecies w^hich he distinguishes 
as follows : — 

Key to the subspecies of B. bubalis, L. 
A. — Colour blackish. 

a. Horns crescentic, or subcircular ... 1. b. bubalis, L. 

b. Horns directed mainly outwards ... 2. 6. macroceros, 

Hodgs. 
B. — Colour brown dun ... ... ... 3. b. fulvus, Blanf. 



76 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Distribution : — 

1. B. bubalis bubalis, Type locality: — Eome, Italy (do- 
Linnseus. mesticated). 

Other localities : — Assam. 
Type : — Unknown. 

2. B. bubalis macroceros, Type locality : — Assam. 
Hodgson. Other localities : — Central Assam 

(B. M.). 

Type : — Not traced. 
S. B. bubalis .fulvus, Type locality : — Mishmi Hills, 
Blanford. Assam (Hume). 

Other localities : — Mishmi Hills (B. 
M.). 

Go-types .•— B. M. No. 91.8.7.215, & 
in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
Lectotype :~B. M. No. 91.8.7.215. 
Note : — / believe the wild buffalo is found over considerable areas 
in the Central Provinces, etc., but I can find no record of any specimen 
from that part of India in either the British Museum {including 
the Hume Collection), or the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Gen. IV.— Ovis. 

No. 343. hodgsoni, Bl. Lydekker treats the first two as 

No. 344. poliy Bl. subspecies of ammon, L., revives 

No. 345. vignei, Bl. cycloceros, and names a new form, 

punjabiensis, as subspecies of vignei. 
These five forms may be ai-ranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the forms of Ovis. 

^.— Size small, 32-36 inches high at the 
shoulder ; a long-haired and parti- 
ally (or wholly) black throat ruff ; 
no nuchal or dorsal crest ; tips of 
horns turning mainly inwards. 

a. Horns curving nearly in one plane 

and tending to form a circle. 
a^ Size larger, reaching 36 inches 
at shoulder; much black in 
ruff, which is small ... ... 1. v. vignei, ^Ij. 

b^. Size smaller, reaching 32 inches 
at shoulder ; ruff strongly 
developed ... ... ... 2. v. punjabiensis, 

Lyd. 

b. Horns turning outward at tips, 

forming an incipient spiral ... 3. v. cycloceros, ^nit. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. IT 

B. — Size large, 46-48 inches at shoulder; 
throat ruff, when present, wholly 
white, yellowish, or greyish ; 
generally a dark nuchal, and some- 
times a dorsal, crest ; tips of honis 
markedly everted. 

a. Tips of horns but slightly everted; 
the whole forming about one com- 
plete circle... ... ... ... 4. a. hodgsoni, Bly 

h. Horns slender, forming an open mid 

outwardly extended spiral .. . ... b. a. poli, Bly. 

Distribution ; — 

1. 0. vignei vignei, Bljth. Type locality : — -Astor (Vigne). 

Other localities : — Ladak (B. M.). 
Type : — ^Unknown. 

2. 0. vignei punjabiensis, Type locality : — Salt Eange, Punjab 

Lj'^dekker. (Hume). 

Other localities : — Salt Range, and 
Akhor Hills, Punjab (B. M.). 
Type:— B. M. No. 12.10.31.65. 
o. 0. vignei cycloceros, H-V-t- Type locality: — Afghanistan. 

ton. Other localities : — ^Afghanistan ; Ba- 

luchistan ; Waziristan (B. M.) 

Type : — Not traced. (Type of blan- 
fordi, Hume B. M. No. 12. 10. 31. 71.) 

4. 0. ammon hodgsoni, Type locality : — Thibet. (Hodgson). 

Blyth. Other localities : — Ladak ; Sikkim ; 

Thibet (B. M.) 

Type:—B. M. No. 45.1.8.150. 

5. 0. ammon poli, Blyth. Type locality :—Sjr Daria, Pamirs. 

Other localities .-—Altai Plateau ; 
Karakol ; Togdumbash ; Pamirs (B.M.) 
Tijpe:—B. M. No. 79.11.21.20. 

Gen. V. — PsEUDOis. 

No. 346. nahura, Gray. The only species in the genus. 

Hodgson called it nahoor five or 
six years before Gray published 
the name nahura. 

Distribution ; — 

P. nahoor, Hodgson. Tijpe locality ;- -Northern Nepal 

(Hodgson). 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Other localities : — Ladak ; Barinda 
Pass, Punjab ; Garwhal ; Kumaon ; 
Nepal; Sikkim (B. M.) ; Sikkim 
(M. S. I.). 

Ty^e:—Q. M. No. 43.1.12.122; 
(skull and horns 43.1.26.12.). 

Gen. yi. — Capra. 

Lydekker accepts the name 
No. 347. osgagrus, Gmel. blythi, Hume, for the Persian Wild- 
No. 348. sibirica, Mey. goat, ranking it however as a sub- 
No. 349. falconeri, Wagn. species of Jiircus, L. The Ibex and 

Markhor are well marked forms, 
iDut they have been split into a large number of subspecies, based to 
a great extent on the size and shape of the horns, characters which 
vary considerably and are most difficult to describe. Lydekker re- 
icognises seven of these subspecies, viz., four of the one and five of 
the other, but confesses his inability to arrange them in any kind 
«of key. I, too, have therefore omitted these forms from my key, 
■but have entered them separately under the heading Distribution. 
The three main forms may be distinguished as follows ; — 

Key to the forms of Capra. 

A. — Horns scimitar-shaped; beard long, 
and restricted to the chin. 

a. Front side of horns compressed to an 

edge ... ... ... . . . 1 . hircus blythi, Hume. 

b. Front side of horns wide, flattened... 2. sibirica group. 
^.- -Horns spirally twisted ... ... 3. falconeri grouip. 

Distribution : — 

1. C. hircus blythi, Hume. Type locality : — Sind. 

Other localities :■ — -Khirtan Hills, 
Uric Hill, Surjun Hills, and Mekran 
Hills, Sind ; Baluchistan (B. M.). 
Type:—B. M. No. 12. 10. 31. 62. 
2 (a). C. sibirica wardi, Type locality :■ — -Nanga Parbat, Bal- 
Lydekker. tistan (Ward). 

Other localities :■ — Baltistan (B. M-)- 
Type:—B. M. No. 0. 6. 25. 1. 
2 (6) G. sibirica shyn, Type locality :■ — -North and East 

Wagner. Kashmir. 

Other localities : — Tillel Valley and 
Sind Valley, Kashmir; Wardwan; 
Khagan Valley, Hazara (B. M.). 
Type : — Unknown. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 79 

Note ; — Lydekker uses Blyth's name, viz., "sakeen" but Blyth never 
publisJied a description of that name, consequently Wagner's name, 
altJiough confessedly based on the animal intended by Blyth, must stand, 
2 (c). C. sibirica jpedri, Type locality: — Gilgit. 

Lorenz. Other localities ;— Chitral (B. M.). 

Type .-—In Vienna Museum. 

2 (d). C. sibirica filippii. Type locality :—Jja]ioul. 

Camerano. Other localities ;— Spiti ; Upper Sut- 

lej Valley (B.M.). 

Type :■ — -In Turin Museum, 

3 (a) . C. falconeri falcon- Type locality ;— Astor. 

eri, Wagner. Other localities : — Astor ; Baltistan ; 

Indus Valley (B. M.). 
Type :■ — -Unknown. 
3(6). C. falconeri cashmir- Type locality:- — Pir Panjal, Kash- 
iensis, Lydekker. mir. 

Other localities : — Pir Panjal (B.M.). 
Lectotype :—B. M. No. I2.l0.3l.54. 
3(c). C. falconeri mega- Type locality :■ — N.Afghanistan. 
ceros, Hutton. Other localities : — Afghanistan Ba- 

luchistan (B. M.). 
Type : — Not traced. 
S (d). C. falconeri jerdoni, Type locality: — Suleman Eango, 
Hume. Punjab. 

Other localities : — Dehra Ismail 
Khan and Sheikh Budin, Punjab 
(B. M.). 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 12.10.31.52. 
3 (e). C falconeri chialta- Type locality: — Chialtan Hills, 
nensis, Lydekker. Baluchistan. (Appleton). 

Other localities : — None. 
Type:—B. M. No. 13. 3. 15. 1. 

Gen. VII.— Hemiteagus. 

No. 350. jemlaicus, H. Sm. The name of the Tahr was first 
1^0. 361. hylocrius, Ogi\. written jemlanicus smd then twice 

corrected to jemlahicus by H. Smith. 
The two species may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Hemitragus. 

A. — Horns flattened externally ; mammee 

four ... ... ... ... ... 1. jemlahicus,^. Sm. 

B. — Horns convex externally; mamm^ 

two ... ... ... ... ... 2. hylocrius, Og. 



80 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII 

Distribution : — 

1. H.jemlahicuSj'K. Smith. Type locality : — Jemla Hills, Nepal. 

Other localities : — Kulu ; Sutlej 
Valley ; Garwhal ; Kumaon ; Nepal ;, 
Sikkim (B. M.). 

Type :—B. M. No. 886. 1. 

2. H. hylocrius, Ogilby. Type locality : — Nilgiri Hills, 

Madras. 

Other localities : — Nilgiris ; Travan- 
core (B. M.). 

Type .•— B. M. No. 55. 12. 24. 291.. 

Gen. VIII. — Capricornis. 

Pocock in a paper published in 1908 (A. M. N. H. (8) i, p. 183) 
discussed the question of the proper generic names of the Serows 
and Gorals, and decided that Capricornis must be used for the 
former and Nemorh^dcs for the latter. 

No. 352. bubalinus, Hodgs. Pocockin 1913 (J. B.N. H. S. 

No. 353. sumatrensis, Shaw. xxii, p. 296) reviewed the distin- 
guishable forms of this genus, 
and recorded his reasons for treating them all as subspecies of 
sumatrcensis. The following is adapted from his key, viz. : — 

Key to the forms of C. sumatrcensis. 

' A. — Head, body, and limbs not all red. 

a. Head, and body brownish black or 
black. 
a\ Legs white or dirty white below 
• • the knee. 

a'. Belly onl3^a little paler than the 
sides, their colours blending ; 
much less white on the jaw, 
throat, and breast ... ... 1. s. thar, Hodgs. 

6". Belly white, sharply contrasted 
with the rufous brown of the 
sides ; much white on chest, 
and along lower jaw... ... 2. 5. rodoni, Poc. 

h^. Legs with a considerable amount 
of rusty or yellow below the 
. knees and hocks, 
a". Legs below knees and hocks all 

rusty; body brownish black... 3. s. milne-edivardsi, 

Lav.' 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



81 



6^. Legs below knees and hocks 

rusty fawn ; knees and fetlocks 

white; body jet black ... 4. s. jamrachi, Voc. 

h. Head pale chocolate brown, body 

probably that colour also, and legs 

probably white below the knee ... 5. 

B. — Head, body, and limbs all red ... 6. 



s. humei, Poc. 
s. Tubidus, Bl. 



Distribution 



C. sumatrcensis 
Hode'son. 



thar, 



C. sumatrcensis rodoni, 
Pocock. 



c. 



sumatrcensis milne- 
edwardsi, David. 



Type localiiy : — Nepal. (Hodgson). 
Other localities :■ — -Siitlej Valley, 
Kumaon ; Nepal ; Sikkim (B. M.). 
Lectotype :—B. M. No. 43.1.12.89. 
Type locality : — ^Chamba State, 
Punj ab . (Rodon) . 

Other localities : — ^None. 
Type :— B. M. No. 2. 12. 11. 1. 
Type locality : — Moupin, Sze Chuen. 
Other localities : — Sze Chuen ; Pegu ; 
Moulmein ; Mount Muleyit ; Tenasse- 
rim (B. M.) ; N. Shan States ; Pegu 
(M.S.I.). 

Type : — Perhaps in Paris Museum. 
4. C sumatra'nsis jamrachi, Type locality: — Kalimpong, Darjil- 
Pocock. ing. 

Other localities : — Kursiong, Dar- 
jiling(B.M.). 

Type:—^. 10. 12. 1. 
Type locality : — Kashmir. (Humey. 
Other localities .•— Pir Panjal, Kash 
mir (B. M.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 91. 8. 7. 65. 
Type locality : — Arakan. 
Other localities .-—Arakan (B. M.) 
Type : — Not traced. 

Gen. IX. — Nemorh^dus. 

In the paper quoted above, Pocock 
No. 354. goral Hardw. recognises three species which he 

distinguishes as follows : — 

Key 10 the species of NEMORHiEDUS. 
A^ — Tail shorter, about three inches long, 
exclusive of hair ; black stripe on foreleg 
passing over the knee, down the middle of 
the cannon bone, to the fetlock, 
11 



C. sumatrcensis humei, 
Pocock. 



6. C sumairoensis rubidus, 
Blyth 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

a. G-eneral colour grey or fawn-grey, 

more or less suffused with black ; 
spinal stripe absent, or not passing 
beyond withers ; no stripe down 
middle of tail, and none on back 
of thigh ... 1. goral, Hardw. 

b. General colour brown, suffused with 
black ; spinal stripe reaching at least 
to the croup ; a black stripe down 

tail ; blackish on back of thigh ... 2. hodgsoni, Poc. 

B. — Tail longer, about five inches without 
hair ; black stripe on foreleg not 
passing over knee, but turning down 
outer side of cannon bone ... ... 3. griseus, M. Edw. 

Distribution : — 

1. N. goral^ Hardwicke. Type locality :■ — Western Himalaya. 

Other localities : — ^Kashmir ; Dhar- 
amsala, Punjab ; Garwhal ; Kumaon 
(B.M.). 

Type :■ — Not traced. (Type of Uro- 
tragus bedfordi, Lyd. B. M. No, 97. 
4.3.1). 

2. IV. hodgsoni, Pocock. Type locality : — Sikkim. (Blanford- 

Mandelli). 

Other localities : — Nepal (B. M.). 
Type ;— B. M. No. 91. 10. 7. 169. 

3. N. griseus, Milne- Type locality : — Moupin, Sze Chuen. 

Edwards. Other localities : — Arakan, Upper 

Burma (B. M.). 

Type :■ — -In Paris Museum. 

Gen. X. — BuDORCAS. 

Blanford does not include this animal in his Fauna, though he 
mentions it (Mamm. p. 515, 1891) as occurring in the Mishmi 
Hills. More I'ecently it has been obtained in Bhutan. The Sze 
Chuen form may still be found within our limits. The three forms 
which interest us ma}'' be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the forms of Budorcas. 

A. — Dorsal stripe extending from occiput 
to tail ; ears, and entire face in front of 
them, black. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY 



83 



a. Kather larger ; paler, with large 

dun saddle ... ... ... 1. t. taxicolor, ^odigs,. 

b. Rather smaller ; darker, with smaller 

saddle ... ... ... ... 2. t. tvJiitei, Lyd. 

B. — Dorsal stripe not extending forward 
of the withers ; black on head confined 
to back of ears, a ring round each eye, 
face in front of same, and tip of chin... 3. tibetana, M. Edw. 



IDlSTRIBUTION : — 

I . £. taxicolor taxicolor, 
Hodgson. 



2. B. taxicolor wMtei, 
Lvdekker. 



3. B. tibetana, Milne- 
Edwards. 



Type locality : — Mishmi Hills. 

Other localities :■ — Mishmi Hills 
(B. M.). 

Co-types:— B. M. Nos. 53.8.16.9, 
79.11.21.11 and 662. 

Lectotype .•— B.M. No. 79.11.21.662. 

Type locality : — -Bhutan (J. Claude 
White). 

Other localities : — Bhutan (B. M.). 

Type:— B.M. No. 6. 8. 24. 1. 

Type locality : — Moupin, Sze Chuen. 

Other localities : — Sze Chuen (B. M.) 

Type : — In Paris Museum. 



Gen. XI. — BosELAPHUS. 

No. 355. tragocamelus, Pall. The only species of the genus. 
Distribution : — 



B. tragocamelus, Pallas. 



Type locality : — Plains of India. 
Other localities : — Central India ; 
Central Provinces ; Oudh (B. M.). 
Type : — Unknown. 



Gen. XII. — Tetraceros. 

No. 356. quadricornis, The only species of the genus. 
Blainv. 

Distribution : — 

T. quadricornis, Blainville. Ttjpe locality .-—Plains of India. 

Other localities ;— Kathiawar ; Cen- 
tral India ; Central Provinces ; 
Southern Mahratha Country ; Eastern 



i 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Ghats, Madras (B. M.); Berars ; Cen- 
tral Provinces ; Dharwar (M. S. I.).. 

Type:—B. M. No. 884.c. (sktill 
43.a.)- 

Gen. XIII. — Antilope. 
No. 357. cervicapra, L. The only species of the geniis.. 



DiSTEIBUTION : — 

A. cervicapra, Linnseus 



Type locality : — -Plains of India. 

Other localities: — Punjab; Kathia- 
war; Rajpntana ; Oenti'al India; 
Dharwar (B. M.); Sind; Kathiawar ; 
Khandesh; Coorg (M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. 



Gen. XIV. — Pantholops. 



No. 358. Tiodgsoni, Abel. 

DiSTfilBUTION : — 

P. hodgsoni, Abel. 



The only species of the genus. 



Type locality : — 'Hundes Districty 
Thibet. 

Other localities : — ^Thibet ; Ladak ; 
Sikkim; Kumaon (B. M.). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Gen. XV. — Gazella. 



No. 359. bennetti, Sykes. 
No. 360. subgutturosa, 

Giild. 
No. 361. picticaudata, 

Hodgs. 



The name subgutturosa has been 
restricted to the Yarkhand, &c., forms 
and the name seistanica , Uyd., pro- 
vided for the form from Baluchistan, 
&c. The three forms may be dis- 
tinguished as follows : — 



Key to the species of Gazella. 

^_ — Females horned ; horns of males not 
turned in at tip ; face stripes dis- 
tinct ... ... ... ... 1. bennetti, S>jkes.. 

B. — Females hornless ; horns of males 
turned in at tip. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



85 



a. Face stripes present ; no caudal disk. 2. seistanica, Lyd. 

b. Face stripes absent ; white caudal 

disk ... ... ... ... 3. picticaudata, 

Hodgs. 

DiSTKlBUTION : — 

1. G. bennetti, Sj'kes. Type locality: — Dekhan. (Sykes). 

Other localities : — Sind ; Punjab; 
Eajputana ; Central India ; Nepal ; 
Bengal (B. ,M.); Sind ; Cutch ; Ka- 
tliiawar; Central India; Central Pro- 
vinces ; Khandesh (M. S. I.). 

Co-types :—B. M. Nos. 42.8. G. 9 c. 
10. (Type of christyi, Blyth. B. M. 
No. Qli.a.). 

Lectotype :—B. M. No. 42.8.6.9. 

2. G. seistanica, Lydekker. Type locality ;— Seistan. 

Other localities : — Seistan. 
Type:—B. M. No. 10.1.22.2. 

3. G. picticaudata, Hodgs. Type locality : — Hundes District, 

Thibet. 

Other localities': — Thibet ; Ladak ; 
Sikldm (B. M.). 

Type:—B. M. No. 48.6.11.19. 



(To he continued.) 



86 

NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 

(Gontinuecl from Vol XXVI, Page 1023.) 

BY 

Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, f.z.s., f.e.s. 

19, Fruhstorfer in ''Iris" or ''Deutsche EntomologischeZeitsclirift " 
No. 27, p. 172, 1914, gives new names to certain Rapalas, viz., varuna gabe— 
nia for the ^ssam race, said to be paler than others : nissa tacola for the 
Assam race of the W. Himalayan niesa, Kollar. 

20. There is a paper called " Ubersicht der Lycseniden " by Fruhstorfer 
in the "Berlin Entomologische Zeitschrift" No. 56, p. 198, 1911-12, which 
has not been brought to the notice of Indian Lepidopterists ; it appeared 
at the same time as the " Lepidoptera Indica,' vols. 7 & 8. 

(1). Four varieties of Poritia hewitsoni, M, are given : principalis, the 
ordinary form : interjecta with the orange spot very large ; nigrita, a very 
dark form ; palilia, an extreme dry season form, very bright blue above 
and bluish gray below. 

(2). Poritia erycinoides, Ed, is confined to Sumatra, where it has 3 named 
varieties ; the race flying from Tenasserim to Siam is phraatica. Hew, 

(3). The Burmese race of the Bornean Poritia phalia. Hew, is described 
as hinghami from the figure in Bingham's " Butter-flies of India, etc," a 
somewhat dangerous course ; potina, Hew, is the Malayan race. 

(4). The genus Zarona is sunk to Deramas, Dist. and jasoda, DeN, placed 
as a race of livens, Dist. from Perak. 

(5). The genus Arrhenotrix is sunk to Dacalana, while the following are 
sunk to Tajuria, Charana, Ops, Britomartis, Bullis, Bemelana and Gophanta. 
This, in my opinion, is a good thing, as the difi'erences are not very pro- 
ounced. 

(6). The N. Indian race of the S. Indian Camena deva, M, is called 
..gada, Fruh. 

(7). Camena lucida, Druce, from Borneo is put as the name type 
of what we used to call cippus, Fab, and now call argentea : argentea, Aur,. 
is the S. Indian race and minturna, Fruh, the N. Indian. 

(8) The Indian races of the Javan Tajuria jalindra, Hors, are given as : 
indra, M, N. India : macanita, Fruh, S. India : tarpina, Hew, Andamans. 

(9) The Ceylon race of Tajuria cippus. Fab, from Continental India, is 
given as longinus. Fab ; thus we get back a familiar name. 

(10). The dry season form oi Tajuria maculata. Hew, is called albipicta, 
Fruh. 

(11). Tajuria megistia, Hew, is stated to be Sumatran and the Indian 
races are : yajna, Doh, from Kumaon : istroidea, DeN. from Sikkim, based 
on a dry season form: thria. Den, from Tenasserim. The inference is that 
Fruhstorfer considers that, what we call istroidea and megistia at present, 
are seasonal forms of the same species ; this does not seem correct. 

(12). The Indian race of the Javan ApTinoeus syama, Hors, is given as 
orissana, M. Aphnceus zoilus, M, is treated as a distinct species, of which 
zebrinus, M, is probably a race. 

(13). Aphnceus lohita, Hors, was described from Java and the Indian ra- 
ces are said to be: himalayanus, M., N. E. India; concanus, M, South 
India ; lazularia, M, Ceylon : seliga, Fruh, Tenasserim. 

(14). Aphnceus vulcanus, Fab, is given from Sikkim, S. India and Ceylon, 
with race hracteatus. But, from the N. W. Himalayas to Mhow. 



NOTHS ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 87 

(15). Aphnceus ictis. Hew, is given from Ceylon, with the following 
races : maximus. El, from Burma ; lunuUfera, M, from Sikkim ; khur- 
danus, M, from Bengal and S. India ; trifurcata, M, from the N. W. Hima- 
layas, of which uniformis, M, and elima. M, are names for the dry season 
form. 

(16). Aphnceus fusca, M, is treated as a species. 

(17). Loxura atymnus, Cr, is from S. India with races : arcuata, M, from 
Ceylon ; prahha, M, from S. India with Andamans : continentalis, Fruh, from 
Sikkim to Burma, the dry season form being mahara, Fruh. 

(IS). The Indian race of the Javan Sithon nedymond, Cr, is called 
ismarus, Fruh. 

(19). The Indian races of the Javan Sintliusa nasaka, Hors, are pallidior, 
Fruh, W. Himalayas and ohscurata, Fruh, E. Himalayas and presumably 
Burma. 

(20). Sinthusa chandrana, M, is the form from W. China and the W. 
Himalayas with race grotei, M, from Sikkim to Burma. 

(21). Sinthusa amha, Kir, is given from Ferak and Borneo and is said to 
be probably a race of tiasaka, Hew. 

(22). Horaga onyx, M, is given from continental India with races cinga- 
lensis, M, Ceylon : moulmeina, M, Burma and rana, DeN, Andamans. 

(23). Catapoecilma elegans, Druce, is from Borneo and the Indian races 
are major, Druce, N. India and Burma : myosotina, Fruh, S. India and Cey- 
lon. 

(24). The name type of Hypolycmna erylus, God, is not from India : hima- 
vantus, Fruh, is the race from India and Burma and andamana, M, from the 
Andamans. 

(25). Hypolyccena rtiarGiana, Hew, is confined to Sumatra, Borneo, the 
Burmese race being miniata, M, Thamala he does not think is worth con- 
sidering as a separate genus to Hypolyccena. 

(26). Bindahara pliocides. Fab, is given from Sikkim to Burma: race 
moorei, Fruh, from Ceylon and race areca, Fd, from the Nicobars. Race 
sugriva, Hors, which is a familiar name to us, is the Javan form. 

(27). The dry season form of Ticherra acte, M, is called idina, Fruh. 

(28). Cherita freja. Fab, is given from Sikkim to Burma, with race 
pseudo-jaffra, M, from S. India and Ceylon. 

(29). Marmessus lisias. Fab, is from Cochin China, the Burmese race 
being hoisduvali, M, of which the dry season form is alcira, Fruh. Marmes- 
sus moorei, M, is said not to occur in India. 

(30). Biduanda fabricii, Doh, is placed as a race of the Malayan species 
thesmia, M. 

(31). Biduanda martina. Hew, is a race of the Javan hypoleuca. Hew, The 
genera Mayito and Drupadia are sunk to Biduanda. 

(32). Ilerda epicles, God, is Javan: the Indian race is indicus, Fruh, the 
dry season form being indica, Fruh, and the wet season form latilimbata, 
Fruh, while rufonotata, Fruh, is a variety with very wide red markings. 

(33). Bapala manea, Hew, is a butterfly found in the Celebes, with an 
Indian race, grisea, M, which is found from Kangra to Burma. The male 
has no brand ; it is metallic blue above and below the discal band is 
very narrow. This is what we have called varuna, Hors, the type 
of which came from Java. I should think that the Indian form is much 
more likely to be conspecific with the Javan than the Celebesian 
form, but Fruhstorfer says varuna is a species not occurring in India. 

(34) Rapala deliochus, Hew, is put as a race of the Javan kessilma, 
Hors. 

(35) Raimla nissa, Koll, is confined to the Western Himalayas and 
Sikkim, rectivitta, M, being the Assam race. 



88 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVII. 

(36) Bapala xenophon, Fab, is said to be Javan, the Indian race being 
suffusa, M, What we have hitherto called xenophon, is said to be dieneces. 
Hew, of which intermedins, Std, is the Andaman race. 

(37) Bapala melampus. Or., is confined to S. India and Ceylon and 
jarbas, Fab, is the race from N.-E. India and Burma. Fruhstorfer, how- 
ever, modifies his views in the reference quoted in Note 39 above, where 
he says jarbas is quite distinct and that melampus is a very rare insect 
only found in Mussoorie. The treatment of these two species is rather 
a good example of the very sketchy methods adopted by Fruhstorfer. 

(38) The genera Virachola and Lehera are sunk to Deudoryx, perhaps a 
wise step. 

(39) Deudoryx epijarbas, M., is given from S. India and Oeylon, with the 
following races : ancus, Fruh, N.-W. Himalayas to Sikkim ; amatius, Fruh, 
Assam to Tonkin. Perhaps he does not know that tbis species occurs in 
the Andamans or a name would be at once forthcoming. 

(40) Deudoryx perse. Hew, is given from the N.-W. Himalayas to Sikkim : 
race ghela, Fruh, S. India and Oeylon ; race maseas, Fruh, Andamans ; 
smilis, Hew, was described from East India and is taken to represent the 
race from Tenaserim and Malay Peninsula. 

(41) Deudoryx skinneri, W. M. & DeN., is considered as the name for a 
variety of the female of eryx, L. 

21. In note 17 (J. B. N. H. S. XXIII. p. 310) I stated that I had no 
access to the original descriptions of Papilio echo, Ehrman or Athymy gynea, 
Swin. (1) The reference for the latter is wrongly quoted by Swinhoe in 
Lep. Ind. and I spent some time at the B. M. searching for the description 
in vain : I now find that Fruhstorfer in the Macrolepidoptera places it as 
the Perak race of the Bornean ambra, Stg. (2) Papilio echo is stated to be 
very similar to bootes, Wd, but there are no spots on the tail and all the 
crimson markings above and below are much reduced ; the upper median 
cell of the hindwing below bears a faint red streak in the place of the 
white spot; the tails are longer than in janaka, M., but not so long as in 
bootes, Wd. The type specimen is in Mr. Ehrman's collection at Pitts- 
burg and was obtained by the late Bernhard Gerard in the Khasi Hills. 
Jordan in the Macrolepidoptera places echo as = nigricans, Roth, the 
W. China race of bootes. (3) In my list of Indian Butterflies .1. B. N. H. S. 
XXI, I omitted 2 Papilios given by Jordan in the Macrolepidoptera as 
occurring in Indian limits: they are evemon albociliatis, Fruh, from 
Assam and the Shan States, a species between doson, Fd., and eurypylus, L. 
(4) The second is arycles, Bdv., from the Shan States, like agammemnon, L. 
but tailless. 

22. Col. Swinhoe has described several new forms in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History. 

(1) Elymnias inerula, Swin, from Kandy. As hecate, But, N. Borneo, 
but on the hindwing below there is a prominent whitish blue spot below 
the middle of the costa (xvi, 171). This is sure to turn out a variety of 
fraterna, M . 

(2) Hypolimnas curiosa, Swin, from Starn, C. P. This is obviously a 
sport of bolina, L. (xvi, 171). 

(3) Jamides alocina, Swin., from Haipaw, Yet Sank, Shan States. It is 
a milky white insect, tinged with lavender blue. A long description is 
given, but nothing is mentioned as to how it difl'ers from the other species 
in this difficult genus, (xxi, 171). 

(4). Bapala nissa nissoides, Swin,, from the same locality as the last, 
whence a long series was obtained. The discal patch on the forewing above 
is said to be large, bright and square in shape, while the anal ocellus on 
the hindwing below is minute, (xvi, 171). 



NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 89 

(o). Astictopterus quadripunctatus, Swin, Khasi Hills. Above as olivas- 
cens, M, larger : there are two subapical white clots on the forewing above 
and three below, (xvi, 171). 

(6). In xviii, 209, Svvinhoe describes the females of Bullis buto, DeN 
from the Khasi Hills and Tajuria drucei, Swin, from Haipaw, Shan 
States. 

(17). Isamia nohlei is the name Swinhce gives to a butterfly caught by- 
Noble in Rangoon in 1887 and figured as irawada, var, by Moore in Lep. 
Ind. pi. 47. le. (xviii, 481). This is merely a variety of splendens. 
But. 

(9). Isamia eclecta, Swiu, from Palone, Burma, caught in June 1887. 
There is a long description, but no comparison with any other insect, (xix, 
331). This will certainly be a variety of some well-known form, probably 
splendens. But. 

(8). Arhopala dascia, Swin, from Toungoo. This is said to be rather as 
ganesa, M, but darker and is what Watson figured in plate A., fig. 6, J. B. 
N. H. S. X., but Watson's specimen had the tails broken ofi'. (xix, 499). 
Watson was too careful an observer to make a mistake about tails ; I have 
already named his specimens as ganesa uutsoni in J. B. N. H. S.xxi, 998. 
^1. dascia I suspect to be the same as my ellisi described in J. B. N. H. S. 
xxiii. 303 ; my name has prioritj'. 

(10) Swinhoe describes the female of his Rapala francesca from Cherra 
Poonji. (xx. 158). 

(11). Cyrestis atosia, Swin, from Maymyo. (Graham, presumably the 
late Major G. H. Graham) said to resemble irmce, Forbes, from Sumatra ; 
it belongs to the manalis group, which is represented in India by the oiivea 
group. Swinhce states that Bingham in his " Butterflies of India " figured 
nivalis, Fd. from Java instead of the very distinct nivea, Z. S., which has 
a broad black costal border from the base to the apex of the forewing. In 
atosia the band is similar, but the transverse lines are dark chocolate brown 
(xx, 408). It seems to be very near to nivea, and I think will prove to be 
a mere variety of nivalis. 

(12). Neptis amicus, Swin, from Toungoo (Graham). Resembles clinia from 
the Andanians, but above the markings are larger, the submarginal band is 
pure white, while on the forewing below, the cell streak is narrower and 
the subapical spots are joined together (xx, 408). This is probably a 
seasonal form of susruta, M. 

(13). Tacupa curiosa, Swin, Xaga Hills (Graham : 3 males). Tacnpa is 
a new genus in the group Astictopterina;. The specimens were named 
Watsoniella swinhaii. El, but are generically distinct. In describing the 
genus, Tacuma, Swinhce does not mention how it diff"ers from any other 
genus, nor does he say how ctiriosa difl'ers from any other species. It is said 
to be a chocolate black insect, very dark and uniform, the veins promi- 
nent, below it is paler, the outer and hind margins of the forewing being 
paler still (xx, 408). 

23. Lord Rothschild gives us some interesting notes on the 3Iorphince 

or what he calls AmathusiidcB. 

(1). In Novitates Zoologicfe xxiii, ne figures a male Stidopthalma from 
Kindat, Burma, which he considers to be sparta, DeN, and states that sparta 
is a distinct species and not a race of Jioicqua, as considered by Fruhstorfer. 
In N. Z. XXV, he names the Stictopthalma caught by Col. Tytler at Sebong, 
Manipur, tytleri, Roth and considers that the male he previously figured 
from Burma belongs to this species and not to sparta, which is a distinct 
species between Jiou-qna, Wd, and louisa W. M. As far as I know De Ai- 
ceville's type of sparta remains nnique, but I believe that time will show 
that ti/tleri=sparta. 
12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

(2). The form of Enispe euihymius, Db, from Burma, Siam and the Malay- 
Peninsula is separated as race intermedia. Roth ; it is intermediate between 
euihymius and durania, Fruh. (N. W. xxiii) 

(3). Thauria laihyi, Fruh, described from Tonkin is a species distinct 
from -aliris, Wd, described from Borneo. In Burma we have aliris interme- 
dia, Crowley, from N. Burma; aliris pseudaliris. But, from S. Burmah and 
Tenasserim ; lathyi amplifascia, Roth, from South and Central Burma and 
Tenasserim. In Toungoo the two species occur together ; intermedia differs 
from amplifascia in that the oblique light bands are wider and the male has 
very conspicuous cellular androconial tufts. (N. Z. xxiii and A. M. N. H. 
xvii, 474). 

(4). Stictopthalma camadeva nagaensis. Roth, from the Naga Hills. Much 
paler than camadeva, Wd, or camadeovides, DeN, and at once conspi- 
cuous by the golden yellow costa and small chevrons on the forewing ; 
below all the transverse lines are much straighter. (N.Z. xxiii). 

(5). In A. M. N. H. xvii, 474, Stictopthalma godfreyi, Roth, is described 
as a new species from Siam, near camhodia. Hew, from Cambodia. Mr. O. C. 
Ollenbach obtained a specimen of godfreyi from Taungshaun, Taung. Tavoy, 
caught on May 17th, 1917. A forewing of the same species was picked 
up by Mr. Ollenbach in the neighbourhood of Tavoy in February 1918. 
Godfreyi is a very distinct species of the size of camadeva, Wd, the ground 
colour above being very dark brown ; there is a double postdiscal row of 
large white spots, terminating on the costa in a large white patch : along 
the termen there are a series of chestnut coloured chevrons. Below the 
ground colour is a dark fulvous ; there are two ocelli on the forewing and 
three on the hindwing. 

24. Dr. Chapman in Novitates Zoologicae xxii. p. 80, gives an analysis 
of the genus Curetis based on an examination of the male genitalia. The 
thetis section has the harpe soft and hairy and contains the following 
species ; Q). thetis, Drury, from N. India to the Malay Peninsula ; (2). 
phcedrus, Fab, always paler, from Bengal to Ceylon ; (3). saronis, M, from the 
Andamans, with vace nicobarica, Swin, from the Nicobars and race gloriosa, 
M, from Sylhet to Burma ;in saronis the postdiscal line is always distinct, 
while the lunules between veins 5 and 6 on the forewing hardly project 
beyond the others as they do in thetis. In the bulis group the harpe is 
smooth and hard ; below the bands are not parallel to the margin as they 
are in the thetis group, this group contains the following species : (1) bulis, 
Db and Hew, from the N. W. Himalayas to Malayana, with felderi, Dist, as 
possiblya race from S. Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula ; (2) sperthis, Fd, 
from Malayana and not recorded from India ; (3) acuta, M, differing from bulis 
in having a constantly smaller sedagus while there is always a dark tooth 
projecting from the dark costal border into the discal red area ; paracuta,. 
DeN, is given as the Chinese race, acMto occurring in N. India and Burma^ 
while dentata, M, stigmata. M, and angulata, M, are treated as synonyms. 
This is a very useful analysis, but I do not understand acuta, which was 
described from China and ^aracwto from Japan ; acuta is the oldest name 
and might represent the Chinese race, while dentata would be the name 
for the Indian race. Again thetis =^ phcedrus is the name usually given 
to the form from South India and Ceylon, while gloriosa, M, is the N. 
Indian and Burmese species : I do not know where the types of thetis or 
phcedrus came from : — 

25. A good deal has been written about the genus Parnassius lately : 
the more important papers are : — 

(a) Novitates Zoologicse, xxv, p. 218. Catalogue of the Parnassiince. 
(b). Trans. Ent, Soc, 1915, p. 351 — 360. Some new forms of Parnas^ 
eitis by A. Avinoff. 



NOTi:S ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 91 

(c) Jahrbuch des Nassavischen vereins fur Katurkunde Ixv, p. A, some 
notes by Bryk. 

I propose to give an up-to-date list of the Indian and S. Thibet forms, 
culled from these sources, referring to them by their letters when neces- 
sary. 

(1). Hyptrnvmstra helios balucha, M ; Verity says balucha= maxima Gr.Or. , 
but the B. M. type is a good deal smaller, (a). 

(2). Parnassius jacquemontii. Bdh ("Himalaya"). Nashing La & Chita 
Ladak. 

r. himalayensis, El. (Lahoul). Kulu : Nila valley : Tonglon, Sikkim : 

Afghanistan ? ab. impunctata. Aust. (Sikkim). 
r. chitralensis M. (Madaglasht, Chitrai). 

Avinoff in "Records of the Indian Museum" ix, 330, gives P, 
rhodius chitralensis, Verity, from the Shandur Pass, Chitrai and 
Darkot. I think he means P. jacquemonti chitralensis, M. 
(3). Parnassius epaphus, Ober. (Kashmir). Skoro La. 
r. phariensis, Avinoff. Phari jong, S. Thibet. 
r. sikkimensis, El. (Kamba Jong, Chumbi Valley) 
r. unnamed, a good deal larger than last. Native Sikkim. (a). 
r. unnamed, darker, with very large spots. Phari Jong, Tongla 

Pass : and Yatsung, Sikkim ? (a), 
r. unnamed, a very white form. Chitrai. (a). 
(4). Parnassius discobolus insignis, Sta;. Avinoff in "Records of the 
Indian Museum" ix., 330, records this from the Shandur Pass, Chitrai ; 
I have specimens in my collection referable to this form. 

(5). Parnassius hardwickii, Grsiy, (lj2L({?ik). Chitrai to Sikkim. No races,, 
aberrations or seasonal forms are given, (a). 

(6). Parnassius delphius stenosemus, Konrath. (Kutie Pass. Ladak). 
r. stoliczanus. Fd. (Narka, Rupshu, Ladak). 

ab. atkinsoni, M. (Pir Parjal, N. Kashmir.) 
r. lampidius, Fruh. (Kamba Jong, Chumbi Valley). 
r. macdonaldi, Roth. (Yatung, Thibet), between lampidius and albulus 

ab Styx, Std. (a). 
r. u?inamed, 1 2 froi^i Kulu, larger than stoliczanus. (a). 
r. nicevillei, Avinoff. (b). Burzil pass, Kashmir : Zogila : Kishtwar 
Mts. caught by Lt. Brownlow. Between stoliczanus and atkinsoni, 
Avinoff has 70 specimens of this form, including two conspicuous 
aberrations one of which is near cardinal, the 3 red ocelli being 
very well developed ; he names it cardinalia, Avinoff'. The 
specimens from the Zogi La and the Kishtwar Mts. have the 
markings on the hindwing more developed and may be a separate 
race. 
r. mamaievi, Avinoff'. (b) W. Ladak. A member of the staudingeri- 

hunza group. 
r. workmanni, Avinoff. (b). Saltoro Glacier, Baltistan, caught by 
Mrs. F. B. Workman's expedition. Markings much reduced : 
between mamaievi and hunza. 
r. hunza. Gr. Gr., (Beik Pass, Hindu Kush). 
r. chitralica, Verity, (Shandur Pass, Chitrai). 

r. kafir. Avinoff. (b). Mountains between Kila Drosh and Kafiristan, 
obtained by Mr. A. Smith. No transverse discal band on the 
forewing : the shape of the hindwing narrower and angled at 
vein 6. 

It looks as if every mountain will be found to have its own race 
of delphius, rather reminding one of the land snails in the valleys 
of a certain Sandwich Island. 



«2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

(7). Parnassius acco, Gray (Ladak). 

r. gemmifer, Fruh. (S. Thibet). Kamba jong (a). 

r. haileyi, South. (S. Yatung). 

r. hunnyngtoni , Avinoff. (b). Mountains between Sikkim and Thibet 
caiTght by Mr. Hannyngton's collectors early in the year. Avery 
small form. The dark basal area differs in contour from acco. 
where it is irregular about the cell. In the male above the dark 
markings are very red. Cilia are very long and of the ground 
colour. In the female the pouch is shorter than in acco. Avinoflf 
puts this race as a species distinct from acco.. 
r. hampsoni, Avinoif. (b). Karakoram. 
(8) Parnassius maharaja, Avinoff'. (b), Rupshu, 18,000 feet, Chinese 
Turkestan and Karakoram. Near cephalus and szechenyi. I 
imagine liupshu must be the Southern province of Ladak, but 
that is a long way from Chinese Turkestan. 
.(9) Parnassius acdestis, Gr. Gr. 

r. rupshuana, Avinoff'. (b). -Rupshu, Chinese Turkestan. 

r. ladakensis, Avinoff'. (b). one female from Shera La, E. Ladak. 

r. latonius, Bryk. Kangma, near Shigatse, S. Thibet. A heavily 

marked and large form of Acdestis lampidius, Fruh, from Sikkim. 

Acdestis is treated in Seifcz "Macrolepidoptera" as a race of delphius. 
(10). Parnassius imperator augustus, Fruh. (Mountains between Sikkim 

and Thibet). Yatung (a). 
(11). Parnassius charltonius, Gray. (Ladak). Lahoul. (a). 

r. hryhi, Haude, (Nilang Pass). 

r. unnamed. Cashmere. A large form (a). 

ah. deckerti. Verity. (Chitral). Ladak. (c). 

ab. hatcdei, Bryk, Kashmere. (c). 

ab. atroguttata, Bryk. Nilang Pass, Chitral. (c). 

r. occidentalis, Bryk. Chitral. (c). Described from one male and 
two females. 
(12). Parnassius simo, Gray. (Ladak). 

r. acconus, Fruh. (Ohumbi Valley). Kambajong (a). 

r' simonides. Aust. (Internat. Ent. Zeitschrift : 1911-12 v., 360). 
High mountains N. of Ladak. A small form. Localities given in 
brackets are those of the type. 
2,Q. Mr. Bethune Baker in T. E. S. 1913. p. 205-12, gives some notes 
on the i^/'^osmV/ce. ; he states that JaZoA:a, M., is a distinct species 
more nearly sllied to pTieretiades, Ev., than to orbitulus, Prun, and 
that ellisi, DeN, and leela, DeN, are synonymous v^ith. jaloka. In the 
Ent. Rec. xxvi, 135 and A, M. N. H. xvii, 378. he discusses the 
synonymy of the Lycaenidse, or, as he calls them the Ruralidae, 
Ruralis has been dug out and found to be older than Lyceena. It 
is used as a generic name to replace Thecla plus Zephyrus. Heodes 
has also been disinterred and is to replace the familiar Chrysop- 
Jianus. Polyommatus has been taken for the argiis group of 
Lyceena and boeticus, Ramb, put in Lampides along with 
tslianus. The true Lyccenas are split up into a number of genera, 
Lyceena itself being restricted to the non-Indian arion group, Mr, 
Bethune Baker is working out a revision of the genus, which will be 
extremely useful, but I wish he would not rob us of our familiar 
names, nor multiply needlessly the many genera we already have 
to deal with. His new classification is, I believe, to be based 
solely on genitalia examinations, regardless of the habits, larval 
stages, facies, etc. 



^'orJSS ON inbian butterflies. 9a 

27, The life-history of Leptociicus curius, Fab, is given in the Entomolo- 
gist xlvi, 203. Other papers that may be of interest to Indian naturalists 
are : — 

(a). Notes on Ceylon butterflies, W. Ormiston " Spolia Zeylanica " 6.-2- 
18. This is a most interesting and useful paper dealing vv^ith the habits 
and localities of Ceylon butterflies. Mr. Ormiston has collected for nearly 
30 years and has collected a mass of useful information. 

(b) A list of butterflies of Borneo, Part iv., Papilionidse by J. C. Moul- 
ton. Journal No. 67, Dec. 1914, Straits Branch. Royal Asiatic Society, 
The same author in T. E. S., 1913,273, writes on new and little known 
Bornean. Lyccenidce, with a revision of the genus Thamala. 

(c). Fruhstorfer in " Iris " xxiv., 58. (1910) ran through the Hesperiidcg 
and produced a number of new races. Swinhoe in writing up the Hesperi- 
idoe in Lep. Ind. had the paper before him, so it is unnecessary to sum- 
marise it, but there are several points in the paper that Swinhoe overlooked. 

28. Major H.D. Peile, I. M. S., sent a note on 17-4-15 regardins certain 
butterflies caught in Nov. 1913 by Col. S. W. Lincoln in thick forest near 
Anisakan, North Shan States. 

(a). Sttctopthalma louisa fruhstorferi, Rober. 1 female. This race was des- 
cribed from Tonkin and difl'ers from typical louisa from S. Burma, in that 
the tawny brown colour of the hindwing extends and surrounds the sagit- 
tate spots. 

(b). Euthalia sp. Three females, one of which has been deposited in 
the B. M.. and placed with. Enthalia pratti, ijeech, from Central China, to 
which species it certainly seems more nearly allied than to any other. The 
B. M. specimen differs irom pratti in the following respects : ground colour 
above more bronzy ; forewing above, central of the 3 subapical spots mis- 
sing and the lower spot pushed forward ; the black markings in the cell are 
heavier ; of the discal white band the costal streak is faint, the outer edges 
of the series are more rounded, and the inner edge of the 4th spot from the 
costa is very oblique ; the lower spot is shifted right forward towards the 
outer margin, on the hindwing above only the costal is white. The hind- 
wing below is more vinous tinted and the apex is browner ; there is a trace 
of a white spot below the lower subapical spot. On the hindwing below 
only theupner two spots of the discal band are well marked. 

Major Peile proposed a new name for these specimens, but I advise him 
to refrain at present, until the male turns up. 



94 
FURTHER NOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 

BY 

Hugh Whistler, f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

In Volume XXVI of the Journal, pages 770-775, I recorded a 
-short series of observations made out at Pagoo near Simla in 1918, 
Tinder the impression that it would be a long time before I should 
again have an opportunity of visiting that locality. The unexpect- 
ed however always happens and the end of October 1919 found 
me under orders to spend a month's leave in Simla to recover from 
the effect of illness. This gave me an excellent opportunity of 
increasing and supplementing the observations of the previous 
year, more specially as I reached Simla on November 2nd Mdiereas 
the previous visit had ended on October 31st. From the 2nd to 
the 1 3th November I was in Simla itself and thereby limited in 
my field for observation to occasional expeditions to neighbouring 
hillsides. The period from 13th to 23rd November was spent 
-at Fagoo with 'I ally collecting and observation, and on the 27th 
November I finally left Simla for the plains. As many very in- 
teresting species were met with, and a series of over a hundred 
skins was collected, it appears desirable to set these notes on record. 
With them have been incorporated the results of a short period 
rspent at Fagoo by Captain Claud Ticehurst, R.A.M.C, from the 
15th to the 21st October. The original intention was for us both 
to have been there together, but this plan unfortunately was upset 
by various causes. It will be seen that the list now given includes 
7 species which do not appear in the list of birds of the Simla Hills 
by Mr. A. E. Jones (Jour. B. N. H. S., Vol. XXVI, 601) and fur- 
ther work in these parts will certainly bring more additions to 
light. The field is very great and many species are exceedingly 
local and capricious in their distribution. 

In the case of certain of the more interesting specimens obtained 
I have appended a few notes on measurements, etc., etc. The mea- 
surements have been taken in accordance with the methods used 
in the " Practical Hand-book of British Birds " (Witherby^. I feel 
that some apology is required for the changes in nomenclature, 
not only as compared with the Fauna, but even with my previous 
note, I can however only iirge that it is inevitable that these notes 
should reflect the general instability of ornythological nomencla- 
ture, annoying at the moment, but intended ultimately to secure a 
-general uniformity. 

The Jungle Crow, Cioides intermedius, Adams. 

Abundant iu all the places visited as before. 

The Himalayan Nut-cracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes hemispila, Vig, 



FURTHER NOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA 



95 



This species was certainly more abundant than on my last visit 
and was common even at Kufri on November 9th. The gizzards of 
two specimens preserved contained the long white seeds of some 
species of pine, and this would appear to be their ordinary food 
judging from the frequency with which individuals are to be seen 
examining the ends of pine branches. They travel considerable 
distances along the hills to their feeding grounds, and appear to 
be very regular in their movements. 

The Himalayan Great Tit, Parus major subsp. ? 

A few individuals of this Tit (Pams atriceps, Horsf., partim 
of the Fauna B. 1. Vol. 1, p. 46) were observed at 6,500 feet 
below Kasumpti on the 6th November, but as the species was not 
otherwise met I have not yet been able to settle, by comparison 
of specimens, conclusively which race is the breeding bird of the 
Simla hills but in all probability it is Panes major caschmirensis 
Hartert. (Vog. Pal, F. p. 345.) ' 

The Green-backed Tit, Parus monticolus vionticolus, Vig. 

Ticehurst found the Green-backed Tit common out at Fagoo in 
company with mixed hunting parties, but by the date of my 
arrival comparatively few were still to be found about Fagoo 
and Kufri, and these only down in the valleys, rarely venturing 
higher than 7,500 feet. It was however still common on Jakko. 
It frequents any type of forest or cultivation. 

The Crested Black Tit, Parus onelanolophus, Vig. 

Abundant about Kufri and Fagoo up to 8,500 feet, and invari- 
ably met with in flocks, which were accompanied in most cases 
by a few Goldcrests and individuals of the other species which 
earlier in the autumn are so common in these hunting parties. 
On Jakko the Black Tit was not so distinctly in the majority. 
In October a few birds were still in pairs. 

The Yellow-browved Tit, Parus modestus, Burton. 

A male of this curious Tit was obtained by me on November 24th 
at an elevation of roughly 7,500 feet, between Mahasoo and Simla. 

It was in company with a hunting party composed chiefly of 
Myithalus and I shot it under the impression that 1 was procuring 
some species of Phylloscopus. The measurements are as follows : — 
Bill from skull 18mm. ; wing 57'5mm ; tail 35"5mm. ; tarsus 16 mm. 

The Red-headed Tit, Mgithalos erythrocephalus erythrocephalus, Vig, 

Occasional flocks were met with in all places, but they did not 
venture much above 8,000 feet. 

The Himalayan Goldcrest, Regulus regulus Mmalayensis, Jerdon. 

First observed by Ticehurst near Kufri on October 19th. 
Several had arrived on Jakko by the second week of November 
and at Fagoo I found it common ; it was only met with in company 
with hunting parties of Parus, ^Egithalos and Phylloscopus. 

Of seven specimens obtained in the two trips only two have fire- 
red feathers in the coronal streaks ; all the others have the streak 
plain lemon yellow, but unfortunately, as 1 found great difficulty 
in sexing these minute birds by dissection, I am unable to draw 
any deductions of value as to whether the presence or absence 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

of the red feathers is governed by the same conditions as in the 
typical race ; it would be interesting to examine a better series. 
There is some variation in the shape of the tail feathers between 
the sharply cut acuminate feather of the adult male and a 
coarser more broad and rounded type ; this is doubtless a mark of 
age. The seven specimens yield the following range of measure- 
ments, which I have not given in detail owing to the failure to 
sex the series satisfactorily: — Bill from skull 10-11 mm. ; wing 
50-55mm. ; tail 33'5-37 mm. ; tarsus 15'5-18 mm. 

The White-throated Laughing-Thrush, Garrulax albogularis, Gould. 

A single flock was met with close to WildfLower Hall (8,000 ft.) 
on November 24th. They had just moved up out of the catch- 
ment area. 

The Variegated Laughing-Thrush, Trochalopteron variegatum variegatum, 
Vig. 

This species has obviously a well marked altitudinal migration 
as it had almost vanished from the ridge at Fagoo, where I had 
found it so common last year and where Ticehurst met a few 
flocks ; and in the first days of my stay at Simla it had arrived 
on Jakko where it is entirely wanting during the sumimer. A 
decrease on the ridge at Kufri was also observable. 

The Streaked Laughing-Thrush, Trocludopteron lineatum griscentior, 
Hartert. 

No particular change was observable in the status of this 
species, unless the upper limit of its range at Fagoo had des- 
cended by a few hundred feet. It is active early and late but 
a great skulker in the middle of the day. 

The Black-headed Sibia, LioptHa capistrata pallida, Hartert. 

Only observed about 7,500 ft. on the eastern side of Jakko ; 
here it was common in small parties which fly from top to top of 
the trees after the manner of Jays, also descending at times into 
the low undergrowth below the trees. 

The Stripe-throated Siva, Siva strigmla strigula, Hodgs. 

On November 4th and 6th a small flock was frequenting a 
nullah on the eastern side of Jakko about 7,500 feet, feeding in 
company with a mixed hunting party. The call is very distinctive 
being a varied combination of the syllables ' Pip ' and ' Peep.' 
It may be worth noting that I saw a couple snuggle up to rest 
side by side on a twig, after the manner of Bulbuls or Munias. 

The Indian White-eye, Zosterops palpebrosa, Temm. 

A few were met with in some cultivation at 6,500 feet, below 
Kasumpti on November 6th, but the species was not otherwise 
observed by me. Ticehurst however found one with a party of 
Phylloscopi on October 20th. 

The Black Bulbul, Hi/psipetes psaroides, Vigors. 

Parties of this Bulbul were observed in Simla on November 4th, 
and at Kufri on November 9th. On November 19th a large flock 
was found in the same nullah at Fagoo whence I recorded it in 
my previous note. 



FURTHER yOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 97 

The White-tailed Nuthatch, Sitta Idmalayonsis, Jard. and Seiby. 

A pair ^/ere observed about 7,500 feet in a nullah on the eastern 
side of Jakko on November 11th. 

The White-cheeked Nuthatch, Sitta leucojm-s Ieucopsi>>, Gould. 

Only observed on November 21st when two or three were met 
with in company with a very large flock of Parus melanotop/ms; this 
was at 8,500 feet near Fagoo : attention was drawn to their 
presence by the very curious call •' Quair Quair " in a tin trumpet 
sort of tone, and by their habit of perching on the topmost shoots 
of the large deodars in which the flock was met. I obtained a single 
specimen with difliculty, and its companion deserted the hunting 
party and remained in the locality anxiously calling for the 
missing bird. 

The Ashy-bellied Drongo, Uicrurus leucophKus lowjicaudatus. Hay. 

A single specimen was hawking about in a nullah on the eastern 
side of Jakko at 7,500 feet on November 6. 

The Wall Creeper. Tichodroma muraria (L). 

One was seen on the railway line near Solon on October I'lst and 
another on Tara Devi on ^November 2nd. 

The Himalayan Tree-Creeper, Cert/na liimalmjanu liimalai/ana, Vig. 

Occasional individuals were met with, usually in the company 
of hunting parties, throughout my staj^ at all heights and places 
visited. 

The Cashmere Wren, Troylodytes trof/lodyte-< ner/lectu-f, Brooks. 

First observed by me by Sunjouli tunnel on November i3th, and 
after that date I saw a total of some 20 birds in all about Fagoo 
and Kufri between 7,500 feet and >!,500 feet. In every case they 
were solitary, and attention was always drawn to their presence in 
some bush or tangle of undergrowth by the familiar scolding call. 

In the two years a total of t' specimens were obtained, but as in 
the case of the Goldcrest I was very unsuccessful in sexing these 
birds satisfactorily. Measurements of the seriesare aa follows : — 



Xo. 


Sex. 


Bill from 
Skull. 


W'inr/. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 






mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


*2907 


s 


U 


50 


28 


19 


2932, 2898.. 


22 


12-5: 13 


45-5 : 48 


28: 28-5 


17 :-(-) 


290(3, 2945, 


2 2 2 (?) 


12-5: 


4()-5: 45-5: 


26-5: 27-5: 


(-): 17-5: 


2953. 




13-5: 13. 


47-5. 


28-5. 


16-5. 


2356, 2357. 


Sex ? Ossi- 
fication of 
skulls incom 


13-5: 12-5 
plete. 


47-46 


28-5: 25 


IS : 10-5 


:2917 


Sex? 


13-5 


46-5 


28-5 


19-5 



All the above birds are exactly alike in plumage and appearance 
with the exception of the fact that in Nos. 2898 and 2945 the 
lower mandible was paler than the upper, whereas in the remainder 
the entire bill was dark brown. Iris dark brown ; legs dark brown ; 
mouth yellow. No moult in any specimen. 
Hodgson's Grey-headed Flycatcher-Warbler, Cryptolojiha xanthr.xchi- 

■itos xanthoschist'js, Gray, 
13 



98 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL mST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

In marked contrast to the abundance of this species in Simla 
during the summer months I saw only a single individual at 6,500 
ft. below Kasumpti on 6th November. Ticehurst however observed 
it in October. 

The Pale Bush- Warbler, Hor cites pallidus, Brooks. 

Ticehurst observed two individuals in thick scrub near Fagoo 
but the species had vanished before my arrival. 

The Siberian Chiff Chaff, Phylloscopus collyhita trMi&, Blyth. 

In October the Siberian Chiff Chaff was observed commonly on 
the hill-sides about Fagoo, often singly in bushes, or in company 
with other Phylloscopi. These birds however m.ust have been on 
passage as I only definitely identified a single specimen, in the 
ilex trees before the Dak Bungalow at Fagoo on JSTovember 22. 

Hume's Willow-Warbler, Phylloscopus liumei humei. Brooks. 

Ticehurstfound the autumn passage of this Warbler in full swing 
as it was at the time of his visit the commonest of the Phylloscopi, 
hunting in company with Tits and P. proreguhtS. These birds had 
practically all vanished before my arrival though I noticed one or 
two individuals still on Jakko up till November 7th. 

Brook's Willow- Warbler, Phylloscojjus subviridis, Brooks. 

Two specimens were obtained from a hunting party at 7,500 ft. 
on the eastern side of Jakko on November 7th. 

Pallas' Willow- Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus newtoni, Gatke. 

On my arrival in Simla this AVillow-Warbler was fairly common 
in the hunting parties about 7,500 ft. on Jakko, but I did not with 
certainty identify it at either Kufri or Fagoo ; here however 
Ticehurst had found it fairly common in October. 

The Short-billed Minivet, Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vig. 

Ticehurst only observed a solitary individual at Fagoo, while I 
saw a party of 3 females or young males tiy past the Dak bunga- 
low at Fagoo on 18th November. 

The Common Mynah, Acridotheres tristis, (L). 

No change was observed in the status of this bird. 

The White-browed Blue Flycatcher, Muscicapa superciliaris, Jerd. 

Observedby Ticehurst in Simla, but it had moved down to lower 
levels before my arrival. 

The Slaty-blue Flycatcher, Muscicapa leucomelanurus, Hodgs. 

One was obtained by Ticehurst at Fagoo from some bushes in a 
nullah. It was tame and confiding and took much of its food 
from the ground. 

The Orange-gorgetted Flycatcher, Muscicapa sirophiata. 

I obtained a male of this species from a hunting party of Tits 
and other small birds in thick jitngle at 8,000 ft. near Kufri on 
November 23rd. It was hawking about the inner boughs of the 
trees exactly after the manner of Muscicapa par va parva. 



FURTHER NOTRS OX BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 99 

The Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Chelidorhynx hypoxantha, BIyth. 

A specimen was obtained from a mixed hunting party at 7,oOO 
ft. on the eastern side of Jakko on November 7th. 

The Indian Bush-Chat, Pratincola torquata indica, Blyth. 

A pair of these Chats was observed in cultivation at Fagoo by 
Tlcehurst. 

The Dark-grey Bush-Chat, Oreicola ferrea ferrea, Gray. 

This common summer resident in Simla had vanished before 
my arrival. A few however were met by Ticehurst who considered 
it rather a skulker, inclined to dive into cover from its perch on 
some bush top when noticed. 

The Little Fork-tail, Micro': iclila scoukri, Vig. 

Ticehurst observed a single bird from the Railway near Solon on 
21 st October. 

The Blue-fronted Redstart, Plioenicunis frontalis, Vig. 

Ticehurst observed 3 or 4 as early as October 19th about the 
sallows in forest nullahs. I observed it in small numbers from 
7,;'500 to 8,000 ft., at Simla, Kufri and Fagoo, but the species was 
probably on the move lower, as it was clearly decreasing in num- 
bers towards the end of my stay. The call note is indistinguish- 
able from that of Phoenicurus ntfioentris. 

The Blue-headed Redstart, Phoenicurus cosruleocephala, Vig. 

Ticehurst was a little early for this species and only observed 
two males. I found it in slightly larger numbers than the last 
species about the same localities, but in addition as low as 6,500 
ft., below Kasumpti, on November 6th. This Redstart frequents 
the upper branches of trees more freely than the other species 
but is not averse to the thickets of damp sallows which grow in 
the more shaded portions of the hills and are beloved of P. 
frontalis. 

The Grolden Bush-Robin, Tarsiger chrysceus, Hodg. 

Ticehurst met with single example of this handsome species 
above 8,500 ft. near Kufri on October 21. It was in damp sallow 
thicket and was tame and confiding. 

The Red-flanked Bush-Robin, Tarsiger rufilatus, Hodge. 

Ticehurst met with one or two individuals amongst pine trees 
on October 19th. 

On my trip the species was met with as follows : — 

One at 8,500 ft. at Kufri on November 9th : and three near 
Fagoo about 8,000 ft. on the following dates, November loth. 
14th and 18th, all were in undergrowth under trees, and the 
last three were all viewed from the Fagoo-Kufri road in the 
undergrowth above it. The movements and habits ajjpear to be 
those of the Redstarts except that the tail is not shivered. 

The birds of 9th and 13th November were respectively a 
male and female just completing their body moult into Ist 
Winter plumage. The bird of 18th November is similar, but un- 
fortunately not sexed. All three birds agree with the description 



100 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

of the adult female, so the description of the young given in the 
Fauna, Vol. 11. 107, evidently refers to the juvenile plumage. 

The Himalayan Ruby-throat, Calliope pectoralis, Gould. 

Ticehurst met with this Ruby-throat about 8,000 ft, at Fagoo 
on October 16th and 18th, obtaining the latter specimen. Both 
birds were great skulkers and were found in the bushes at the 
bottom of small nullahs running through cultivation. 

It appears probable that a bird which I wounded and lost not 
far from the same place in October last year was of this species, 
but I did not include it in my first list as there was then no clue 
to its identity. 

The Red-spotted Blue-throaty Luscinia suecica, L. 

One was obtained by Ticehurst on October 16th in short scrub 
on a cultivated hill-side at Fagoo. 

The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush, MijioiiTioneii^ temminckii tcmminchii, 
Vig. 

A few individuals were observed but the species had I think 
started to descend to lower levels before my arrival. 

The Black-throated Ouzel, Turdus ruficollis atrogularis, Temm. 

This Ouzel had begun to arrive early in the month about Fagoo 
and Kufri but only occasional individuals were seen before 
November 21st when there were a number about the hill behind 
the dak bungalow at Fagoo, clearly fresh arrivals. A flock was 
seen in the catchment area near Sanjouli on November 24th. 

The Himalayan Missel-Thrush, Turdus viscivorus honajiartei. Cab. 

During the whole of my stay at Fagoo a loose scattered flock 
of about 20 Missel-Thrushes was frequenting the southern slopes, 
and the extreme summit of the hill mentioned above. They 
appeared to be feeding largely on the small red berries of a 
curious creeping bush which dotted the bare side of the Mil. On 
November 17th a single individual was found about 7,500 feet 
in the valley to the west of the ridge on which the State rest-house 
stands. 

This race of Missel-Thrush differs from the European bird 
T. V. viscivorus in its larger size (wing 160-173 mm. as against 
145-158 mm.) and in its somewhat paler colouration. 

The three specimens obtained measure as follows : — 

Tarsus. 

mm. 
38 
36 
36 

The young bird is distinctly paler, almost whitish, on the chin 
and throat, than the old pair. No bird shows any trace of moult. 

Soft parts : — iris dark brown ; orbicular plumbeous ; bill dark 
brown, basal portion of lower mandible horny (No. 2923) or yellow- 
ish (No. 2916) ; legs olive brown ; claws black (No. 2923) or olive 
yellow, joints marked with brown, claws blackish (No. 2yl6). 



No. 




Bill from 
Shutl. 


Wing. 


Tail. 






mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2916. 


17-11-19 


c^ad. 27 


164-5 


116 


2923. 


18-11-19 


$ ad. 27 


159 


112-5 


2937. 


21-11-19 


$lst win- 26-5 
ter 


159 


109 



FURTHER NOTE^ O^J BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 101 

The Eastern Alpine Accentar, Prunella collaris rufilatus, Sw. 

A single bird was shot by the side of the upper road (8,000 ft.) 
close to Wild -flower Hall on November 24th, but I did not other- 
wise meet with the Alpine Accentor unless a flock of birds seen 
flying over head in the same locality was rightly identified as of 
this species. This specimen proved to be a male, and appears ti> 
be referable to the above race, which has been shown by White- 
head {Ihi.<. 1909, 224) to occur on the Samana in winter and to 
breed on the Suf ed Koh above 12,000 feet. The examination of a 
series of birds is however desirable -to confirm the identification. 

•Jordon's Accentor, Rrunella strophiatu^ jerdoni, Brooks. 

Ticehurst met with a party of four of these Accentors at Fagoo 
as early as October 19tli. It was common about the Fagoo-Kufri 
ridge when 1 first arrived there and had arrived on Jakko before 
the middle of November. 

The Black-throated Accentor, Primella atrigvlaris, Brandt. 

A few individuals, occasionally one or two together, were met 
amongst the undergrowth between 7,500 and 8, 500 feet on the 
Fagoo-Kufri ridge on various dates after November loth. Minute 
seeds were in the crops of the two specimens obtained. 

The Altai Accentor, Prunella Jnmalayamis, Blyth. 

Single individuals were obtained on November 9th and 
November 14th about 8,500 feet near Kufri, and a third example 
was sh')t from a small flock at the same elevation at Fagoo on 
November 21st. While the single birds were both extremely con- 
tiding and allowed a close approach as they sat motionless on the 
stones on bank faces, I found that this species when in flocks 
was extremely hard to procure. These flocks were common, 
occurring on the hill sides about 7,500-8,500 feet, and 
appearing indiflerent both to the presence or absence of wind 
and sun (in this they strongly contrasted with most birds about 
these hills). I found great difticulty in discriminating these 
flocks from those of the Mountain-Finch ; both species are shy 
and restless, difiicult to see when feeding amongst the waste 
bush clad slopes, rising in loose order, and once roused difflcult 
to mark down again ; as the flocks when disturbed fly backward 
and forward round the contours of the hill sides, rising and lower- 
ing many hundred feet. The call note is silvery and very finch- 
like, and with the reddish-brown iris and the .streaked back this 
Accentor seems to aft'ord a curious case of parallelism with the 
Mountain-Finch, which in Entomology would certainly be called 
"Mimicry." 

The Black and Yellow Grosbeak, Pycnorhampus icteroides, (Vig.) 

Only observed at Kufri on November 9th and again on Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th about 8,000 feet :— 

The Pied-mantled Rosefinch, Carpodacus rlwdochlamys grandis, Blyth. 

This race of Rose-Finch was first described by Blyth (Journal, 
-\. S. B. xviii. 810) in 1849 with the type locality of " Range 
beyond Simla, near snowline," but for some time it was confounded 
by later writers with the true Carpodacus. rhodocMamys of 
Brandt 1843 (type locality Altai). The latter is somewhat 



102 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, fol. XXVII. 

smaller in size (wing of male 87-91), with the rosy superciliary 
plumes meeting over the forehead, with a heavier beak, and a 
brighter tint of rose colour on the upper parts. 

The restricted range of C. rh. grandis is given by Hartert. (Vog. 
P. F. P. 101.) as from Pushut in N. E. Afghanistan and the 
Karakorum Mountains, Kashmere, and the Himalayas to Kumaon. 
There appears however to be but little on record regarding this 
race and of records of interest to Punjab ornithologists 1 only find 
the following: — Jerdon (B.I. i.i. 401) says that it has been 
obtained in the Tyne range of Mountains between Simla and Mus- 
soorJe, and in the Pubher valley, near the snow, on the Simla side 
by Hutton. 

Later Hume writes (Lahore to Yarkand. 259.) '' This species is 
only a winter visitant to the British Himalayas. At that season it 
is not very uncommon, and one or two specimens are to be found 
in every collection made during the cold weather near Darjeeling, 
Almora, Massoorie, Simla and Murree." 

The British Museum Catalogue shows the following specimens 
from the Hume collection : — 

2 specimens from Kotegarh near Simla. 
9 Pumlahie 17 November 1869. 
$ Baja in Kunaitee 1st January 1871. 
S $ Simla November 1880. 

One Simla 1st December 1880. 

(S near Ohamba. 

The late Captain C. H. T. Whitehead obtained a female^on 
December 15th, below Sardi in the Salt Eange (Jhelum district) 
as he duly recorded in the Journal. 

Mr. A. E. Jones has kindly sent me an adult male which he 
obtained with two others at Ohhoi near Campellpore on 27th 
December 1918, remarking that although the species was fairly 
common adult males were scarce. 

I had hardly expected to meet this bird on this trip and was 
somewhat surprised on November 9th to find a few associating with 
Meadow Buntings about 8,500 feet on the ridge above Kufri. After 
that I discovered that there were a -small number about the entire 
ridge above 8,000 feet between Kufri and Fagoo, but none were 
actually identified after November 20th. They were met with 
singly or in small parties in any type of ground or cover, and the 
call note was a curious '' Sqwee."' 

A small series of 2 adult males, 3 immature males and 2 females were 
collected. Their measurements are as follows : — 

No. Description. Bill from skull. Wing. Tail. Tarsus. 

2893. Adult male (rose plumage) 
2940. a. „ „ „ 

2894. Male (1st winter plumage) 
:^87o. „ 
:2874. „ 
2899. Female (probably 1st winter).. 



•2900. 



mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


19 


94 


73 


20-5 


17-5 


93-5 


74 


22-5 


18 


91-5 


69-5 


22-5 


17-5 


87 


67 


23 


18-5 


94 


71 


22 


18-5 


90 


70 


22 


20 


88 


67-5 


22 



No specimen shows any sign of moult, but I should judge from 
the appearance of the feathers that whereas the two adult males 
had moulted rectrices and remiges at the recent autumn moult, 
the other birds had not done so. 



FURTHER NOTES ON BIRDS ABO J FT SIMLA. 103 

The young males and the females are absolutely alike in plum- 
age and agree completely with the description of the adult female, 
of which however I have been unable to examine specimens. 

Iris brown ; legs dull brown, claws blackish ; Bill dull brown 
above, horny livid below (adult males) ; livid horny (young males 
and females). 

The Pink-browed Rose-Finch, Carpodaacs rhodochroa, Nig. 

A very few of these Rose-Finches were met about 7,-")0()- 
8,000 feet on Jakko and at Kufri, and the two specimens which 
I actually obtained I fired at under the impression from their 
behaviour that I was obtaining Jerdon's Accentor. The call note 
is very sweet and canary like. 

The Himalayan Greenfinch, Acantliis spinoides, Vig. 

On Ticehiirst's arrival at Fagoo there were small parties of this 
Finch still about in the cultivation. Adults were in worn breed- 
ing dress and a bird in juvenile plumage just out of thw nest was 
obtained by him on October 19th. 

The species was not however observed by me apart from the 
fact that I heard its call note just below Kasumpti Bazar on 
November 6th. 

The House-Sparrow, Passe?' domesticus indicus, Jard -'c Selby. 

Common both in Simla and at about Fagoo rest-house. A 
pair observed appear somewhat darker on the underparts than 
birds from the plains. 

The Cinnamon Sparrow. Passer ndilans debilis, Hartert. 

Common about Fagoo, both in October and November and a 
flock met with in cultivation at 6,500 feet, below Kasumpti on 
November 6th. When in flocks about cultivation this sparrow is 
wild and difficult to approach, but the birds about the neighbour- 
hood of houses are tame and familiar enough, either taking the 
place of the last species or being found together with it. 

Stoliczka's Mountain-Finch, Montiftinf/illa nemoricola altaica. Eversm. 
First observed on November 13th at Kufri where a fiock 
were frequenting the rough undergrowth of sallow which borders 
the terraced cultivation there at 8,500 feet. One or two other 
flocks were seen towards Fagoo on later dates, but I never was 
able to get to terms with this finch and only secured a single 
specimen by firing at a flock which passed high over my head 
when I was beating a wood for pheasants. The habits of these 
flocks have been noted under the heading of Prunella himalayana. 

The Pine-bunting, Emheriza leucocephala. S. G. Gmel. 

A few were observed about 8,500 feet at Kufri on November 
9th and a single bird was found several hundred feet higher than 
this on the same ridge on November 14th. The call is a sharp 
''Pit, " Pit." 

The White-capped Bunting, Emhen::a stewarti, Blyth. 

While it was difficult to be sure of identifying this bunting 
amongst the great numbers of the next species, I certainly saw 
it about 8,500 feet on the Kufri-Fagoo ridge on November 9th 
and 14th. 



104 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The Eastern Meadow-Bnntinp-, Emberiza cia siracheyi, Moore. 

As before this was the most abundant species on the hill-sides. 
It is distinctly pugnacious. 

The Crag-Martin, Ripiiia nij}e>i)i>>, Scop. 

Only a few odd birds were observed about Fagoo in October 
although at that time the Crag Martin was common along the 
road near Sanjouli. In November I saw none near Simla itself 
bat found a good ;nany about Fagoo ; here it was rather erratic 
in its appearance; some days none would be seen or only an 
occasional individual ; on others distinct iiights would be hawking 
about a particular locality. It is possible that the explanation 
of this is that the species was passing through on migration, a 
suggestion that is rendered all the more probable by the fact 
tliat 3 specimens shot on November 22nd were all very fat. 

The Martin, Chelidon urhica, subsp. ? 

One or two House Martins were observed hawking about the 
Kufri ridge on November 13th, but as no specimens were pro- 
cured the exact race must remain in doubt. 

The Striated Swallow, Hinindo rufula, subsp. ? 

On 2nd Noveniber from the train I observed a large flock of 
Swallows, apparently of this type, and clearly on migration, on 
the telegraph wires near Solon Brewery. 

The Upland Pipit, Oreocorys sylvanus, Hodgs. 

On November 6th [ heard what I feel sure was the song of 
this Pipit at 6,500 feet, below Kasumpti, on the slopes where I 
have met the bird in previous siunmers. 

The Tree-Pipit, Anthus trivialis irivialis, L. 

Ticehurst met with a few odd Tree-Pipits on different days in 
cultivation at Fagoo in October. 

The Indian Tree-Pipit, Anthus trivialis maculatus, Hodgs. 

Ticehurst obtained one from damp sallow undergrowth at 
Kufri on October 21st. 

The Brown Rock-Pipit, Anthus leucophrys jerdoni, Finsch. 

A single bird was seen by Ticehurst on October 15th at Fagoo, 

The Water-Pipit, AntJius spinoletta hlakistoni, Swinh. 

From November 15th onward a large flock of Water Pipits was 
frequenting the ground described under the paragraph regard- 
ing the West Himalayan Skylark. They were very restless and 
rather shy, spending much of their time on the dry terraced hill 
side above the pond. The only specimens procured were imma- 
ture but there need be no hesitation in attributing them to this 
race, which is very common throughout the Punjab plains in 
winter, and with specimens of which they closely agree. 

The White Wagtail, Motacilla alba, subsp. ? 

A party of 3 Wagtails of this type were seen passing over at 
Fagoo on October 15th. 



FURTHER NOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 105 

The Grey Wagtail, Motacilla cinerea, Tnnst. 

One was seen by me from the train on November 2nd in a 
stream bed about 4,000 ft. 

The West-Himalayan Skylark, Alauda gulgula gnttata, Brooks. 

Here and there on the bare hill tops near Fagoo may be found 
small semi-artificial ponds which are used for the watering of 
local herds of cattle. The neighbourhood of these ponds is usual- 
ly productive to the ornithologist as, for the most part, other 
water is scarce. One pond that I paid particular attention t<» 
was situated at 8,500 feet. The edges were made up with hard 
earth, dry and baked in the sun ; the water was dark and muddy- 
looking with no vegetation in it. Round about stretched an 
expanse of coarse short rough grass and low moor-land plants, 
scarred here and there by crevices cut into the hard ground by 
the draining away of rain water, and amply studded with stones. 
On one side rose the still bleaker summit of the hill to another 
200 feet or so, terraced all up its sides with that curious forma- 
tion of natural steps so familiar to those who live near the Kentish 
and Sussex downs. The locality thus described was quite small 
in extent. 

Here on November 15th I found a number of these Skylarks 
and met with them again on subsequent dates about the same 
place, which they were never willing to leave if it could possibly 
be avoided : a few others were occasionally met on the bare 
summits of neighbouring ridges. 

Having previous acquaintance with the difiiculty of identifying 
races of Larks I was careful to procure a series of sis specimens. 
These on comparison with a series of A. g. gidgtda from the 
Punjab plains (Ludhiana, Jhang) prove to be much larger birds, 
and darker in colour with less rufous on the upper surface. These 
are exactly the differences pointed out by Hartert (Vog. P. P., 
Vol. I., p. 247) between Alauda g. gidgida and A. g. gtdfata, for which 
latter race he gives only the locality of Cashmere. The measure- 
juents of the two races he gives respectively as : — A. g. gulgida, 
wing 83-97 mm., A. g. gidtata , w'mc, !I5-102 mm., exceptionally up to- 
107 mm. 

The measurements of my specimens are appended below, and I 
have no hesitation in referring them to A. g. guttata : 
No. Bill from skull. Wing. Tail. Tarsus. 









mm. 


mm . 


mm. 


mm. 


201i». 


17-11-19 


6 


14-5 


97 


59-5 


22-5 


2908. 


15-11-19 


6 


14 


98 


58-5 


22-5 


2920. 


17-11-19 


6 


14 


100-5 


61 


23 


2938. 


21-11-19 


2 


13-5 


14-5 


60 


23-5 


2910. 


1.5-11-19 


9 


13-5 


95-5 


58 


23-5 


2909. 


15-11-19 


9 


14 


95 


59 


23 



No bird shows any trace of moult. The soft parts in all were 
similar, viz. : iris olive brown : bill horny ; culmen and tip blackish ; 
mouth yellowish ; legs pale reddish brown ; joints and claws dusky : 
soles yellowish. 
The Eastern Skylark, Alauda ai-vensis cinerascens, Ehmeke. 

In the locality described under the last species I found a flock 
of Skylarks on November 15th and with some difficulty procured 
11 



106 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

two specimens ; these were very fat, in distinct contrast to all the 
specimens of the last species, and it is in consequence probable 
that these birds were migrating. On the next day a solitarj^ 
individual was seen on a bare ridge some 900 feet lower but not 
procured. The measurements of these two birds are given below 
and while I hesitate to be dogmatic on two specimens, I am of 
opinion that these birds belong to the same race as a small series 
of Skylarks obtained near the Chenab in Jhang District during 
the winter months. These from their very white underparts I 
identify provisionally with that race of Skylark described in the 
Hand-book of British Birds under the above name. 

No. Bill from sliull. Wing. Tail. Tarsus. 

2911. J 15-0 mm. 114 mm. 7.3-5 mm. 24 mm. 

2912. c? 15-5 mm. 116 76 25 
My identification is however necessarilj^ provisional because of 

the situation outlined below. 

There is considerable difhculty over the question of the identi- 
fication of Asiatic races of Alauda arvends, due to the absence of a 
sufficient series of breeding birds to enable the number of real 
races to be accurately discreminated. 

Yet initil such breeding races have been satisfactorily worked 
out it is most unsatisfactory to endeavour to identify winter or 
passage birds. This difticultj^ has not yet been circumvented, 
and the situation is made much more difficult by the confusion in 
the past between A. arvensis and A. giihjida. 

The latest examination of the Eastern Skylarks which I have 
seen is that by Hartert (Vog. Pal. F. Vol. I, p. 247). Hartert 
states that Alauda arvensis cinerea. Ehmeke, now corrected to A. 
a. cinerascens Ehmeke {vide Hand-book of B. B. p. 166), is the 
breeding bird of West Siberia, Turkestan and Persia, wintering 
further South. He goes on to state that the birds which winter 
in India and China may belong to that form, or to the Eastern 
Asiatic form of Alauda arvensis inter^nedia., Swinhoe, or to the 
su^jposed Himalayan breeding form which he states it is impossible 
to be certain of until a series of breeding specimens is available 
for examination. 

This unsatisfactory position led me to take up the question of 
where these Himalayan birds breed, with the view of then con- 
sidering how it might be possible to obtain a series. But an 
examination of the literature of the subject has proved most un- 
satisf actor J^ In short I begin to wonder whether there is a 
breeding form in the Himalayas at all. The evidence on the 
point appears to be as follows : — 

The Fauna of B. I. (Vol. II. 325), in which of course the Skylark 
is treated as one species, identical in Europe and Asia, gives the 
following account : — 

" Distribution. — The whole extent of the Himalayas from Hazara 
and Kashmir to Assam, where the Skylark appears to be a con- 
stant resident, moving about to different levels according to 
season. In the winter many birds appear to visit the plains of the 
Punjab and N.-W. Provinces and a lark killed by Dr. Anderson 
near Bhamo in Upper Burma appears referable to this species." 

Under the next paragraph Habits it continues " Breeds in the 
Himalayas in May and June " giving a brief description of nesting 
habits. 



FURTRER NOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. ]07 

The first point to be noted is that the synononiy on the same 
page includes ^?a?/rffl trihorhyncha, Hodg. &\\([Alavda fjuttaia. Brooks. 
This latter name is incorrectly attributed to this species. Since 
Alauda guttata, Brooks, is really the Kashmere race of the other 
species of Skylark gidgtda, and should be called Alavda gidgnla 
guttata, Brooks (Vog. P., F. p. 249), it of course breeds in 
Kashmere. Alatida iriborhyncha, Hodgson, which apparently breeds 
commonly in Ladakh and is figured in "Lahore to Yarkand" 
(p. 268, plate xxviii) is expressly stated by Hume later (S. F. 1., 
48) to be identical with A. guttata. Brooks. It is therefore clear 
that part of the evidence on which the breeding of the Skylark in 
the Himalayas (Kashmere and Ladakh) is based in the Fauna 
refers not to a skylark of the arvensis species, but to a race of 
the gidgula species. 

In Hume's Nests and Eggs, (2nd ed.. Vol. ii.. p. 220) it is ex- 
pressly stated that a large Skylark, which is certaiidy not A. 
triborfiyncha, " breeds, J believe, i)retty well all through the Hima- 
layas, at elevations of from 8,000 to 10.000 feet, although I only 
knotv of its nests having been found in Kooloo and Cashmere." 
The further account there given is not verj- clear, but mentions 
Soonamerg as a Cashmere locality where Captain Cock obtained 
the eggs, and it attributes then to the doubtful race /eiopus. Yet 
at one time Hume certainly considered leiopus as a synonym of 
A. triborJnjKcha (S. F. ix. 3-54). I notice also that while the 
British Museum Catalogue includes a specimeii named Ieio2nis 
from the Hume Collection obtained in "The Sutlej Valley" 'in 
June " the collection appears to include no Kooloo or Kashmere 
skins of this species. 

Fulton has stated (Journal. B. N. H. S. xvi, p. 56) that the 
Skylark is a resident between o,000 and 11,000 feet in Chitral. 
while Perreau (Jour., B. N, H. S. xix., 901) says " Some present 
in the winter low down, very common in March : some present in 
April after which they disappeared, probably going higher." 
Neither writer mentions any lark of the Alauda gul{jula type, nor 
does it apoear that specimens were submitted to critical exami- 
nation, so I am not prepared to accept the statement that any 
race of arvensis breeds in Chitral until skins can be produced. 

Ward is quoted as stating (Jour., B. N. H. S. svii. 724) that A. 
arvetisis is a resident in Cashmere, but I have been unable to 
consult the original reference. As he does not appear to include 
Alauda gidtata or A. gulgula it is possible that the identitication of 
the birds as arvensis may be a mistake. The evidence regarding 
the breeding of any race of arvensis in Cashmere is clearly net 
conclusive. 

On the extreme Western edge of our area there is no evidence 
at all that any race of A. arvensis breeds. Whitehead and Ma- 
grath {Ibis. 1909, 246) found it to be an abundant winter visitor 
from November till March, about Kohat and Kurram, and ex- 
pressly state that it is replaced by A. gulgida as a summer breed- 
ing species. 

From Quetta arvensis has been reported as a breeding species, 
but I understand from private correspondence that really it is 
only a winter visitor while the breeding birds when verified have 
proved to be A, r/ulgula and not arvensis as recorded. 

In Nepal, Scully states (S. F. viii., 338) that a race of arvensis 
which he calls didcivox, is tolerably common in the winter, being 



108 JOURNAL, B MB Al NATURAL KIST. SOCIETY, rol.^XXVlI. 

quite social in its habits and frequenting the fields in February 
and March, leaving about the end of the latter month. 

In Gilgit (S. F. Vol. ix) Biddulph found some race of A. arvensis, 
here also named dulcivox, to be a winter visitant only, first appear- 
ing in November and leaving by the end of March ; he also clearly 
states that although there is a breeding Skylark in Gilgit it 
belongs to the form Alaucla guttata, Brooks ; it arrives at the end of 
March and leaves about October. As he appears to have secured 
a fair series of both birds, and critically notes on their peculiari- 
ties these records are of considerably more value than niost of 
those referring to the Himalayan Skylarks. 

The respective status of these two Skylarks in Gilgit is again 
emphasised by Scully in the "Ibis" (as reprinted in S. F. x., 135). 

So far the published records which I have been able to consult 
on the question. 

I have made a few enquiries by letter from which it appears that 
' no race of A. arvensis is known near Simla or Dharmsala, in the 
Garhwals or Kumaon, or near Darjheeling. 

I have gone into this question at some length, in the hope that 
members of our society who are suitably situated in the Himalayas 
will endeavour to obtain a small series of whatever Skylark is 
breeding in their vicinity, care being taken not to confuse the 
problem by the inclusion in the breeding series of migrants or non- 
breeding birds. At present i confess to being sceptical whether 
any race of arvensis does breed in the Himalayas at all, but pos- 
sibly there is evidence which I have overlooked and which T 
should be most grateful to have brought to my notice. There are 
of course many winter records of Skylarks in the plains, but it is 
not worth collating these until the question of the supposed breed- 
ing Himalayan race is settled one way or the other. 

The Long-billed Horned-'Ls.rk, Eremophila alpestvis longirostris, Moore. 

The greatest prize from my hill pond was however reserved for 
November 18th. I had just secured a Missel-Thrush and was 
sitting on the high bank above the pond packing it up and giving 
directions to my orderly when a bird ran out from under the lee 
of the bank -^nd along the dry hard margin of the pond quite 
close to us. It ran like a small plover or sandpiper but I had no 
difficulty in recognising it as some member of the genus of the 
Horned Larks, which I had never seen in life before. Luckily my 
•22 bore with dust shot was ready beside me and I at once shot at 
the bird which rose and flew across the pond falling dead on the 
other side. It proved to be a male in freshly moulted plumage. 
The measurements are as follows : — bill from skull 19, wing 122-.'5, 
tail 76, tarsus 26*5 mm. 

The West-Himalayau Scaly-bellied Green Wood-pecker, Picus squamalus 
squamatus, Vig. 

Two odd ones were met by Ticehurst in Pine forest. 

The Brown-fronted Pied Wood-pecker, Dryohates auriceps, Vig. 
Fairly common in and about Simla at 7,500 feet. 

The Himalayan Pied Wood-pecker, Dryohates himalayensis, Jard. & 
Selby. 

An occasional odd bird was observed on the Kufri-Fagoo ridge. 



FURTHER yOTES ON BIRDS ABOUT SIMLA. 



109 



The King Vulture, Otogyps calvus, Scop. 

A single King Vulture was seen over Jakko on November litli 
and again on November 24th. 

The Himalayan Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus himalayensis, Hume. 

Common about Simla and Fagoo, both in October and November. 

The Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopter us percnopter us, L. 

Common at Simla m October but only a few observed there in 
November. Not seen near Fagoo. 

Dodsworth (Ibis, 1913, p. 544) and A. E. Jones (Journal, B. N. 
H. S. xxvi, 616) both recorded the Egyptian Vulture of Simla as 
belonging to the Eastern form Neophron percnopteriis ginginianus : 
this appeared to me to be most unlikely so I requested Mr. Jones 
to examine a few specimens and let me know the result. He 
accordingly shot a couple and sent me the particulars 
recorded below. AVhile it is unsafe to dogmatise without further 
material, it is clear that the description of these two specimens 
supports my belief that the race of Neophron found at Simla is 
the typical one. 

No. 1. Male: shot 7-9-1919 at 7,000 feet, testes small, tail 
and wing feathers very worn. 
Bi//, pale flesh, streak of pale horn colour on either side 

of upper mandible. 
Cere, orange shading to lemon on throat and nape. 
leys <fc feet, fiesh colour ; Claics, horn. 
No. 2. Female : shot 7-9-1919 at 7,000 feet. Organs appear- 
ed to be those of a bird too old to breed, tail and 
wing feathers very worn. 
Bill, ja^esh colour throughout. 

Care, rich orange, shading to lemon on throat and nape. 
Leys db feet, flesh colour ; Claws, horn. 

The measurements of these two birds were as follows : — 



Bill from gape 
Cere to tip of bill 
Depth of bill at 

end of cere 
Mid toe (without 

claw) from tarsus. 
Tarsus 
Wing 
Tail from oil gland 



No. 1. 

2f ins. = 70 mm. 
1 in. =2-")'4 mm. 

•o^j ins. = 14 nun. 

2§ ins.^60'4 mm. 

3 ins. = 76'2 mm. 
2Q\ ins.=-jl4-4 mm. 
lOi' ins.=26o''j mm. 



No. 2. 

2f ins.^70 mm. 
lit ins.=26*.j mm. 

•o-j ins.= 14 mm. 

2f ins.= 60"4 mm. 

3^ ins.= 79-3 mm. 
I'd^ ins. =495-3 mm. 
10^^ ins.=:257'2 mm. 



The Ljimmergeyer, Gypaetus barbaius yrandis, Storr. 
Observed as commonly as in the previous year. 

Hodgson's Hawk-Eagle, Spizaclus nepalensis, Hodgs. 

Ticehurst met with this species on one or two occasions near 
Fagoo. 

The Pariah Kite, Milinis govbula^ Sykes. 
Observed as before. 



110 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, VoLXXVIh 

The Shahin Falcon, Falco peregrlnus peregrinator, Sundev. 

A Falcon seen on the summit ot Jakko on November 7th was 
doubtless of this species. 

Blizzard sps., Buteo sp. 

An occasional Buzzard was seen on the ridge between Fagoo 
and Kufri about 8,500 ft. in November, but I failed to obtain a 
specimen or satisfy mj^self as to v/hat species was represented. 

The Common Kestril, Falco tinnwiculus, subsp. ? 

A few odd birds were observed from 6,500 feet at Kasumpti to 
8,500 ft. at Fagoo bo4;h in October and December, but I was unable 
to obtain any specimens. 

The Indian Turtle-Dove, StreptopeJia turtur ferrago, Eversm. 

Not common. With the exception of a small party which were 
usually to be found in a small patch of pines about 8,500 feet about 
Kufri, only one or two odd birds were seen along the Kufri-Fagoo 
ridge. 

The Eastern Wood-Pigeon, Palumhus palumbus casiotis, Bp. 

One was seen at 8,500 feet near Fagoo on November 15th. 

The Chukor Partridge, Alectoris graeca clmlcor, Gray. 

On one stretch of very stony and barren hill-side I found many 
coveys of Chukor, but elsewhere met with only a single pair which 
kept very closely to the same spot. 

I only discovered the favoured locality on the last day of my 
visit through hearing and seeing some 15 to 20 Chukor acting in 
a very excited manner for no apparent cause. They were calling 
loudly, running, and making short flights round about a patch of 
ground which appeared favourable for a stalk. This I assayed, 
though only a single •410 bore vras in my hands, and had managed 
to get well into the centre of the birds when I discovered that the 
excitement was due to a large red fox which leapt out of a 
hollow in the ground near me. He had doubtless also been 
engaged on a stalk and I had spoilt his chance ; one covey was 
only a few yards from him and ignorant of his whereabouts. 

The Black Partridge, Francolinus fyancolinus asice. 

On November 18th a pair of Black Partridges were flushed on 
a fairly open hill-side at Fagoo at an elevation of 8,500 feet. 

The White-crested Kalij Pheasant, Ge.nnceus albocri status, Yig. 

The Koklas Pheasant, Pucrasia pucrasiamacrolopha, Less. 

I did not pay much attention to Pheasants from the point of 
view of sport but noticed that both the above species were present 
in small numbers on much of the ground which I visited. 

The crop contents were examined of a hen of each species shot 
in the evening of the same day on very nearly the same ground 
The Koklas had been feeding almost entirely on coarse green 
grass ; with this was a very little maiden hair fern and moss, 
and a few grass seeds. The Kalij on the other hand had eaten 
a much more varied selection of seeds, roots, small bulbs and 
a little clover. 



FURTHER NOTES OX BIRDS ABOLT SIMLA. Ill 

The "Woodcock, Scohpax rusticola, L. 

On the 19th November I shot a Woodcock on the Kufri road 
at about 8,000 feet. It was feeding in thick undergrowth just 
above the road and so close to it that a dog with me scented it 
from the road and ran up and flushed it. This bird Mas extremely 
fat and was preserved with difhculty. A second bird was apparent- 
ly flushed the same evening but I did not actually see it, thougli 
a man with me declared that it had risen in front of him from 
a path. In support of his statement he showed me fresh borings 
which might have been made by a Woodcock. 

This appears a suitable opportunity also to record the fact that 
the Woodcock has at last been proved to breed close to Simla. 

On loth May 1919 a valued correspondent met a hen Wood- 
cock with 4 chicks only 2 or 3 days old, in the downy plumage ; 
these were in fairly heavy jungle about ^,oU0 ft. My correspon- 
dent caught the 4 chicks and the old bird came quite close to- 
him in her anxiety until 3 of the chicks were given back to her : 
the fourth was preserved for me and it is now in the collection 
of Capt. C. B. Ticehurst. On the same day in the same locality a 
nest was found containing a single chipped and dented egg 
which was quite fresh but apparently deserted. No bird was seen 
near it and it was finally taken on the 19th May and given to me : 
it measures 47*o X 34*o mm. and is in my opinion undoubtedly 
the egg of a Woodcock. 



112 
THE POWER OF SCENT IN WILD ANIMALS 



E. C. Stuart Baker, F.Z.S., F.L.S., M.B.O.r. 

Recently there has been a good deal of discussion as to the powers uf 
scent in wild animals, more especially amongst the Felidce. and rather con- 
tradictory opinions have been given on the subject. 

My own opinion is that cats have a very indifferent sense of smell, and it 
may be of interest if I give some of the reasons which have led me to this 
belief. 

Although many minor incidents occurring during the earlier days of my 
life in the Indian jungles had made me j)retty sure that such was the case, 
it was not until I tried to work out the life history of a certain notorious 
man-eating tiger that I became quite confirmed in mj'- own mind of the 
defectiveness of this sense in tigers. 

These animals, as every one knows, obtain many of their victims by lying 
up in extra thick patches of cover beside tracks made, through forest and 
orass, by cattle, deer, pigs, etc. As long as the tiger is favoured by the 
wind, the unfortunate prospective dinner will often wander right up to 
within a few paces of the would-be diner without getting any hint of his 
presence and it is not until the tiger makes his actual rush, that he 
knows, too late, of his danger. But 1 believe it is equally the case that 
in many instances the tiger, himself, does not know what kind of animal 
he is charging upon until he is practically on the top of his victim. 

It is this, indeed, which in some cases turns an ordinary tiger into a 
man-eater, and such was the case in the present instance. It appears 
that a ijarty of villagers were returning from their work on their fields 
and were passing along a narrow deer track which led towards their 
home through a dense patch of jungle, such as generally grows up 
the second year on abandoned cultivation. Weary with their work 
there was no conversation and, beyond the soft pad, pad of their feet along 
the muddy track, nothing to indicate to a watcher what it was that was 
usino- the path regularly traversed by Barking-deer and Sambhur on their 
way to water. Suddenly there was a hoarse coughing grunt and the 
tiger rushed out, knocked over the leading member of the band and then 
incontinently bolted down the path as hard as he could go. One of the men 
describing the episode to me some time after said that men and tiger 
were racing down the path together, and that though two or three 
more of the party were knocked over as they ran none were touched by 
tooth or claw and the tiger seemed quite as frightened as themselves. 

It was nearly dusk when the man was killed and the sudden eastern dark- 
ness fast setting down, so the villagers left the body where it lay and hurried 
hack to their village as fast as they could. The unfortunate man was a 
Mikir, a tribe who, however brave they may be by daylight, will never leave 
the immediate vicinity of their own houses by night for they believe every 
patch of forest, every hill and every piece of water to be the abode of some 
wicked spirit who works his evil will in the hours of darkness. It was not, 
therefore, until the next morning that they returned to recover the bod^^ 
of their comrade and when they did so they found on arriving at the spot it 
had been partially eaten, the legs from the buttocks to the knees being 
finished. The evidence given hj the tiger's tracks in the muddy pathway 
showed that he had not touched the body until hard driven by hunger. 
His footprints showed that he could not have returned to it until early 
morning after the dew had ceased to fall and, apparently, hs had several 
times come up to within a few feet of the corpse from either side before 



THE POIVER OF SCENT IN WILD ANIMALS. 113 

finally mustering up sufficient pluck to satisfy his hunger. Even after 
commencing to feed he had, seemingly, had one or two bad frights as he 
had rushed headlong from the body more than once prior to his being 
disturbed by the Mikers in the morning. 

In this case there can be no doubt that the tiger had relied entirely on 
his sense of hearing so that until lie actually struck the man down he had 
no idea that he was attacking anything more formidable than deer or 
some other of his usual game. When he found what he had done he was 
at first smitten with terror, but later, failing to kill anything else, he was 
tempted to go back and investigate and then by degrees hunger overcame 
his natural fear of man and he commenced the meal which eventually 
turned him into the boldest and most clever man-eater I have known. 

On one occasion when walking through the forest with a shot gun and 
accompanied by some terriers I came on this oame tiger standing some five 
yards away, listening with ears pricked up and eyes staring towards me, but 
evidently not using his sense of smell at all. The small dogs routed him 
for a time but that evening he returned and killed a cooli within a few feet 
of where I had been standing. 

On yet another occasion I saw him as I was coming up a pathway leading 
from my office to my bungalow. The pathway was cut on the side of a 
sloping hill, covered with sun grass from three to four feet high, and sud- 
denly down below me I caught sight of the tiger moving along a track made 
by the school boys taking a short cut to the school house fifty yards away 
down the bill. It was about three o'clock on a sunny afternoon and the 
school was in full swing, the boys after the manner of all small Indian 
school boys, hard at work reciting loudly the lessons they were learning, 
making a perfect babel of noise. The tiger was slinking along this track, 
his attention entirely fixed on the sound in front of him and evidently 
gloating over a hoped for easily won meal, not the first obtained in similar 
circumstances. I was not thirty yards from him and the wind was blowing 
steadily from me to him, but he seemed utterly unconscious of my presence 
until turning my foot in the gravelly soil I made a sound which attracted 
his attention. One glimpse of my white sola-topee, evidently a most 
dangerous enemy in his opinion, was enough for him and he quickly and 
quietly slunk away into some jungle and when, a few seconds later, my 
chaprassie came running up with my rifle he was no longer to be 
found. 

Once, however, I was even nearer than this to a tiger without his being 
able to smell me. At the time I was out after Sambhur and was sneaking 
along a deep nullah running through some open bamboo forest, here and 
there dotted with small but very dense Ber bushes. It was just as dawn 
was breaking and in the deep hollow the light was still very dim as I 
dodged from one clump of bushes to another. As I got to one of these 
clumps I heard something more on the far side and shake the bush, very 
much as if a deer was feeding on the Ber berries and shaking the branches 
as he pulled at them. I was just about to step from behind the bush 
when I heard a deep '^ Aough h h " and of course at once realized that 
my supposed deer was a tiger. There may have been five or six feet 
between us, certainly not more and though I could smell the tiger strongly 
he evidently was very doubtful about me and kept inhaling long breaths 
in the attempt to make out what I was. Finally, deciding it was some- 
thing suspicious, he began to trot away in the opposite direction and as I 
stepped from behind the bush raced up the bank giving me a snap-shot 
which luckily spined him and rolled him over. He had originally come 
up to the bush from the opposite direction to myself and was apparently 
lying beside it when the sound of my approach roused him up. 
15 



114 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY NATUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

On yet another occasion I lay for some minutes on a sandbank within 
25 yards of a tigress as she drank, and she calmly alternately lapped and 
cleaned herself without anj' suspicions of my presence before she eventually 
put herself into a satisfactory position for a shot and I was able to termi- 
nate the interview. 

Most sportsmen who have sat up for tiger, whether on mychauns com- 
paratively high up or actually on the ground behind screens, know that 
it really matters little which way the wind blows as far as frightening the 
tiger goes but that, on the other hand, the most absolute silence is essential. 

A clever tiger who lies up any where within hearing distance of his kill 
over which a mychaun has been erected, will never return to it, however 
hungry he may be, unless he has heard the last — as far as he can tell — of 
his persecutors clear off. A very good instance of this was given me by 
Mr, G. M. Peddie of the Assam Bengal Railway. A tiger had been 
regularly killing cattle and goats belonging to his coolies and every 
attempt to shoot it had failed. Time after time Mr. Peddie had had 
mychauns made over the kill and at other times when a tree with a con- 
venient branch was handy had gone out by himself with one gun bearer 
and climbed on to the perch and waited. Whatever his arrangements were, 
however, the result was always the same — no tiger, — yet a visit the follow- 
ing morning generally showed that after he had gone the tiger had returned 
and made a hearty meal. 

Happening to pass through Mr. Peddie's camp at this time he told me of 
his failures and said that he thought the tiger must be able to smell him, 
I advised him the next time he went out to take a number of men 
with him, let them make as much noise as they liked whilst he climbed up 
to his mychaun and, after he had settled himself comfortably, to let them 
go away still talking as they went. 

Within two days I got a letter to say that the tiger had been bagged. 
Mr. Peddie had followed my suggestions with the result that immediately 
the coolies who had come with him to the kill had noisely retired for 
about a couple of hundred yards, the tiger had sneaked out, walked 
round the far side of the kill listening to the men in the dis- 
tance, followed them slowly up and, finally, after he thought 
he had heard them off the premises returned to his dinner and was 
promptly shot with a single bullet through heart and lungs, Mr. 
Peddie told me that judging from the action of the tiger he followed the 
men almost entirely by sound though every few paces he put his nose to 
the ground and inhaled a deep breath as if getting a whiff of the trail left 
by the men. At the same time invariably after one of these inhalations 
he finished by cocking his ears and listening intently as if to verify his 
poor sense of smell by his outer sense of hearing. 

The trick of making a very noisy approach to a kill and an even more 
noisy departure, so that the fact that one or more persons have been left 
behind may not be detected, is of course a very old one. It had been 
taught me by my father but has often proved effective within my own 
experience. 

Of course I must not be understood to claim that tigers have no sense 
of smell. Some they have, though it is not acute, and an incident 
in the career of the man-eater already referred to proves this. My Head 
Quarters were at the time at a place called Gunjong in the North Cachar 
Hills, right away on the North-East Frontier of India where tigers — like 
he poor— were always with us. They often came near the house, more- 
han once kiUed my animals in their stables and I had already killed on& 
iger within a stone's throw of my garden. On the occasion referred to, 
a tiger had two nights running passed along by the narrow path on the 



THE POWER 01 SCENT IX WILD ANIMALS. 115 

crest of the hill just outside my garden fence, the tracks showing that he 
had come in the early night and returned in the very early morning, I 
accordingly determined to sit up and see whether he would not come 
again a third time but as there were no trees suitable for mychauns I 
arranged to squat under the shadow of a very big, very dense orange tree 
where there was just room to sit uprii;ht and move one's rifle round in a 
circle. Unfortunately it was a pitch dark night and though the tiger 
came and remained within easy shooting distance of me for at least an 
hour I never saw anything to shoot at. The one gap in the fence in front 
of me had a big white post against which anything passing must have 
shewn up but this was carefully avoided. On one side of me and about 
fifteen yards to the right was a very massive hedge of bougainvillea and 
most of the hour the tiger entertained me with an endless walk backwards 
and forwards behind this. He knew something was wrong somewhere but 
what he could not decide ; every now and then I could hear him put his 
nose to the ground and draw deep breaths in the attempt to get my scent, 
then he would once more resume his walk, the soft pad, pad of his feet 
hardly audible in the intense stillness unless a dried leaf or brittle twig 
betrayed his movements. Every now and then he would make a little 
whimper a sound I have sometimes heard tigers make when hungry, and 
less often, he would give vent to his impatience in a long drawn, 
" a-a-a-ough. " 

He could not possibly have seen me and I made no sound so in this 
instance it must either have been his sense of smell which warned or else 
that uncanny extra sense which so many animals seem to possess of the 
vicinity of danger. 

Eventually he cleared ofl' the way he came, and I went ofl:' to bed to be 
awoke the next morning just after day light by two sweating frightened 
men who came to tell me that this tiger had killed their companion about 
two miles from my bungalow. I went out at once but failed to get him 
and after this he killed wath the greatest regularity, disposing of 52 people 
in eight months before I finally shot him. 

This tiger, all through his career, as far as we could ascertain, killed by 
sound alone or by sight and sound ; his boldness was extraordinary and he 
would enter huts and villages in broad daylight and pull people out, but 
his usual habit was to lie up beside a village path in some patch of grass or 
jungle, much too dense to see through, and leap out on any one he heard 
passing. His caution, however, was just as great as his boldness and he 
would never face any risk he could avoid or run any danger he did not 
understand. He had no objection to charging out upon a crowd of men 
whose advent, as they approached his hiding place, had been heralded by 
the patter of their feet and the sound of their voices, but if some of them 
turned and faced him he never tried conclusions with them. 

On the morning following the night I sat up for him in my garden, he 
attacked two men who, as is usual with hill-men, carried spears and daos 
They saw him as he charged up a steep hill at them and when be had got 
within a couple of paces of them dashed their spears in his face upon 
which he immediately turned tail and bolted. The next three men who 
passed that way a few minutes later ran when they caught sight of him 
and the slowest was promptly caught and completely eaten within the next 
three hours. 

Three or four times I saw this man-eater when 1 was unprepared for 
him and each time he seemed to be depending mainly on sound for his 
preliminary charge and it was only at the last moment, on catching sight of 
something unusual, he repented and cleared off. My large white, or khaki- 
coloured sola-topee always seemed to scare him terribly and I have 



116 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

no doubt that more than once his superstitious dread of this unknown, 
object saved my life ; indeed on one occasion I passed within inches of 
where he was lying and knew nothing of it until 1 had passed some paces 
when with a " woof " he jumped up and bolted. I had had to follow him up 
into some long grass by means of one of the tunnels in it made by 
deer and other game and up which he had dragged the body of a man he 
had killed. When I reached the remains of the body I found the tiger had 
retraced his steps and then leaped on one side, probably on hearing my 
approach. I suppose my whole attention was so concentrated on the ex- 
pected tiger in front of me that I was oblivious to anything on either side 
of me, but it was a lesson never to be forgotten and in the many times 
afterwards in which I had to follow him up I always remembered to keep a 
very sharp look out on both sides of me as well as in front. 

I saw an excellent example once of the want of scent possessed in a tiger, 
who was drinking at a stream, within ten paces of a sambhur with the 
wind blowing in titful gusts from the deer to the cat. We were poling 
down the Diyung River in a dugout, a dense mist driving up the stream 
into our faces and completely obscuring both banks except at odd moments 
when the wreaths blew on one side. I was sitting on the edge of the 
boat, my legs dangling in the water and a shot gun on my knees waiting 
for the mist to rise and give me a chance of shooting my grub for the 
day, when the mist suddenly curled away from the bank and gave me 
a glimpse of a grand tiger, his head between his paws as he lay on the 
edge of the bank lapping his morning drink. Next second the rapid 
stream hadi svvun^ us round a bend of the river and there stood a Sambhur 
Stag, head n air, evidently troubled by some faint whiff of his striped 
foe so close to him. The rifle I had snatched up too late for the tiger was 
in time for the deer who dropped where he stood with a shot through 
the neck. When we brought the boat to the bank and investigated 
matters more closely, we found that tiger and deer had been well within 
ten yards of one another although separated by a very dense strip of reeds 
and grasses. The tiger certainly appeared to have had no hint of the 
presence of the deer though the wind was in his favour, whilst the deer, 
almost equally certainly had been disturbed by the presence of the tiger, 
though the wind was against him. 

Tame, or semi-tame, leopards which I have had in captivity have never 
shewn any great powers of scent, although some of them were allowed 
considerable liberty. Whilst my dogs would come up to me at a run 
when tracking me by scent, the leopards would nose about, snuffle 
and inhale and often fail altogether to find me out. Bears, which 
I have had at the same time as leopards, were much keener nosed and 
though clumsy in their movements would soon hunt me out. On the 
other hand the leopard was the quickest at hearing of all my animals, 
even sambhur and barking deer were not half so quick. 

After the leopard had had a good meal it was often possible to allow j 
him off his leash with the other animals, who curiously enough never | 
showed the instinctive fear of him one would have expected, and often j 
T have been able to compare their powers of hearing and invariably the 1 
leopard was the first to hear any sound with the occasional exception of | 
a little prick-eared Tibetan dog. 

The first sound, which to my human ears, used to convey the news that 
any one was approaching my compound was the creaking of a bamboo 
gate which let them into it, but long before this the animals knew all :' 
about it. First the leopard would prick up his ears, raise his head, and 
stare, with that curious far away look in his pale eyes, in the direction 
of the new-arrival, next the deer would erect their heads, stamp with their 






THE POWER OF SCENT IN WILD ANIMALS. 117 

forefeet and also turn in the same direction and lastly the dogs would show 
that they too had heard. The bears and monkeys never seemed to take 
any notice unless the person was approaching about meal time, but even 
then they were the last to pay any attention. 

Unlike the true cats, tbe civet cats have an extraordinary powerful sense 
of smell. 1 once had a beautiful grey beast brought to me by some Nagas 
late in the evening as it was getting dusk. They asserted that it was ab- 
solutely tame so I took it out of the basket and it at once licked my hands 
and climbed over me uttering a sound like a contented little purr. I kept it 
with me for about an hour and then wanting to go to bed decided to lock 
him up in an old aviary I had once used for some eagles. Leaving it, as I 
thought, safely shut up, 1 turned in, but hardly was I in bed before I heard a 
scratching at the thatch roof and presently down dropped the civet, pushed 
itself cheerfully through my mosquito net and evinced the greatest delight 
at having once more found me. Feeling that it was hardly a desirable bed 
companion, 1 again grabbed it by the neck and carried it out to the cage. 
Shut up once more it was out, however, and back in my bed almost as soon 
as I was. Determined to be allowed to sleep in peace I again carried him 
right away out of the garden to a huge cotton tree about '200 yards away 
and saw him run safely up into the top branches far overhead, but, before I 
got back to my garden, I turned to have a look and there was my recently 
acquired pet with its nose to the ground simply racing over it after me. 

This cat would often nose out birds' nests in trees or bushes within a few 
feet of the ground and then climb up and devour any eggs or young con- 
tained in them. When he arrived at a bush with a nest in it he would halt 
for a second or two with his little nose lifted up and quivering about in 
every direction until it was in a bee-line with the nest and then up he 
climbed. Fortunately he was the most amenable animal to deal with I have 
ever had and soon learnt that no nests within my garden fence must be 
touched. He was immense pals with all the dogs and could track them up 
by scent at a gallop, proceeding in ungainly leaps after the manner of his 
kind. His sight for distant objects was very poor though for anything near 
it was exceptionally quick. 

Before leaving the subject of feline senses it may be of interest to relate 
a story of a leopard child which has not yet ever been published though it 
was pretty well known at the time. 

In the North Cachar Hills, where the boy was found, Government taxation 
used to consist in part of labour, so much being supplied by every village 
for the upkeep of roads, rest-houses, etc. Sometimes men would petition 
for exemption from this labour on various grounds, and one day when ques- 
tioning a man as to why he wanted exemption from such labour he told me 
that he had a little " wild " son to look after and as his wife had recently 
died he could not leave the village to work or the boy would run back to 
the jungle, 

I accordingly went outside the court to see the " wild child "and satis- 
fy myself as to the truth of the story. There sure enough outside was a 
small boy about seven years old, or less, squatted on the ground like a small 
animal ; directly I came near him he put his head in the air and snufled 
about, finishing by bolting on all fours to his father between whose legs he 
backed like a small wild beast retreating into a burrow. Looking closer at 
the child I saw that he was nearly or entirely blind from some form of 
cataract and his little body was covered with the white scars of innumerable 
healed tiny cuts and scratches. Struck with his appearance I asked the 
father to tell me all about the boy and he then narrated the following 
wonderful story which I fully believe to be true, but which my readers must 
accept or not as they think fit. 



118 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCLJETT, Vol. XXVIl. 

It appears that about five years before I saw father and son, the Cachari 
villagers of a village called Dihungi, had found two leopard cubs close to their 
village which they killed. The mother leopard had tracked the murderers of 
her children back to the village and had haunted the outskirts for two days. 
The third day a woman cutting rice in some cultivation close to the village 
laid her baby boy down on a cloth whilst she went on with her work. Pre- 
sently, hearing a crj^, she turned round and saw a leopard bounding away 
and carrying the child with it. The whole village -at once turned out and 
hunted for leopard and baby but without success and finally they were for- 
ced by darkness to leave the boy, as they supposed, to be eaten by the 
leopard. 

Some three years after this event a leopardess was killed close to the 
village by a sportsman who brought in the news of his success together 
with the information that the leopard had cubs which he had failed to 
secure. On hearing this the whole village turned out and eventually 
captured two cubs and one child, the boy of this story. He was at once 
identified by his parents, claimed by them, and their claim admitted by the 
whole village. 

Subsequently when visiting Dihungi I interviewed the head man and 
also the man who actually caught the child and they both corroborated 
the father's tale in every detail. It appeared that at the time he was 
caught the child ran on all fours almost as fast as an adult man could 
run, whilst in dodging in and out of bushes and other obstacles he was 
much cleverer and quicker. At that time he was only suffering from 
cataract to a slight extent and could see fairly well, but after he was caught 
his eyes rapidly became worse. His knees, even when I saw him and when 
he had learnt to move about upright to a great extent had hard callosities 
on them and his toes were retained upright almost at right angles to his 
instep. The palms of his hands and pads of toes and thumbs were also 
covered with very tough horny skin. When first caught he bit and fought 
with every one who came within reach of him and, although even then 
affected in his eyes, any wretched village fowl which came within his reach 
was seized, torn to pieces and eaten with extraordinary rapidity. 

When brought before me he had been more or less tamed, walked up- 
right except when startled into extra rapid motion, was friendly with his 
own villagers, whom he seemed to know by scent, would eat rice, vegetables, 
etc., and consented to sleep in his father's hut at night. Clothes, being a 
Cachari child of tender years, he had not been introduced to. 

His blindness was not in any way due to his treatment by the leopard — 
if the story is true — as I found that another child, a couple of years older, 
and the mother also had both had the same cataract. At the same time 
the defective sense of sight may well have intensified his sense of smell as 
the loss of the one must have caused him to rely more on the other. When 
caught the child was in perfect condition, thin but well covered, and with 
a quite exceptional development of muscle. 



119 
SOME SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHIANS. 

BY 

C. R. Nakayan Rao, M. A 

Central College, Bangalore. 

[With two ■plates.'] 

These notes discuss a portion of the material collected some time ago 
in certain parts of Coorg and Shimoga, and I propose to include in this 
paper a few remarks on some of the unidentified examples of batrachians 
belonging to the Bombay Natural History Society, entrusted to me for 
determination. Through the courtesy of Dr. N, Annandale I have had 
access to the named collection of amphibians in the Indian Museum, and I 
should like to thank him and Dr. Boulenger who has very kindly examined 
a few specimens submitted to him for his opinion. 

Two specimens belonging to the species Spclerpes Juscus are contained 
in the Society"'s collection and the label on the specimens shows that they 
are from Burma. There are a few points in which these two examples 
differ from the description of juscus given in the Catalogue of the British 
Museum. For instance, ]. The remnants of cirri or balancers are absent 
below the nostrils in both the specimens. 2. The distance between the 
snout and the gular fold is less than three times in the length of the snout 
and the vent. 3. Two parotoids are present in both examples. 4. The 
deep groove behind the gular fold is continuous with the cervical groove 
starting from the posterior angle of the eye. -5. A lateral glandular fold 
over the costal grooves (9-10) is present. 6. Total length from tip of 
snout to tip of tail 105mm., more than 4 in. (a) 7. The tail is marbled. 
■Considering the locality that the specimens are alleged to come from and 
also in view of the fact that the characters enumerated above are constant 
in the two forms, I naturally thought whether they could not be distinct 
iromfuscus. But Dr. Boulenger who has examined one of the specimens, 
identifies it as the European Spelerpes fuscus and states that it could not 
have been picked up in Burma, {b) The only species of Spelerpes present in 
the Indian Museum is 8. ruber, No. 2712 from North Carolina, and there is 
practically no further material in India for comparison. As the source of 
these salamanders cannot be definitely traced for the present, the inter- 
pretation of Dr. Boulenger is certainly the more natural and correct one. 

Among the unidentified examples of batrachians belonging to the 
Society I found 1. Rana pileata, 2. R. plicatella. 3. R. erythrtsa, 4. 
Rhacophorus bimaculatuJS, 5. GalopTirynus pleurostigma, 6. Kaloula pulchra, 
7. Bufo melanostictus, 8. Leptobrachium hasseltii? All these are from 
Burma, except Rh. bimaculatus which I found in Mr. Kinnear's collection 
from Somavarapatna, Coorg. The occurrence in South India of this species 
which is known to affect the rain forests of Assam is certainly very in- 
teresting and is reported here for the first time. The two specimens of 
Cal. pleurostigma are in a beautiful state of colo^ir preservation and the 
scheme of markings on them closely conforms to the description of 



(a) Dr. Boulenger's measurement for the male specimens is 96mm, and Dr. Gadow 
(Camp, Nat. Hist Amp. Kept., p. 105) states that the total length of fuscus 
remains under four inches. 

(6) The only two salamanders known from this region are Tylototrtton verru- 
cosus and Amhlystoma persimile. 



120 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL 

Engystoma interlineatum (c) rather than Boijlenger's account (d). The ventral 
surface bears in both the examples beautiful white roundish or squarish 
spots, not alluded to by any previous writers and such as are present in 
some species of Megalophrys. 

Only the following examples of batrachia included in my collection call 
for observation at present. 

Eana hexadactyla, Less. 

1890. Rana hexadactyla, Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind. Eept. Batr., p. 441. 

Larva. 

1904. Rana hexadactyla, Fergusson, J. B. N. H. S., Vol. XV., p. 500. 
A young specimen measuring 23 mm. taken in Jog, Shimoga Dist., shows- 
the following peculiarities as compared with examples of similar size. 

1. The strong fold of skin behind the eyes and across the head is conti- 
nued over the tympanum on each side. 

2. Pearl-like granules crowd over the body and the limbs and toes 

3. First finger equals the second. 

4. A very distinct canthus rostralis. 

5. Nostrils with valve-like flaps. 

6. The tibio tarsal articulation reaches beyond the eyes 
This specimen has been sent to the Indian Museum. 

Rana tigrina, Daud. 
1890. Rana tigrina, Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind. Kept. Batr., p. 449. 
1915. Rana tigrina, Nicholls, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 603, 609. 

1917. Rana tigrina, Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. VI, p. 112. 

1918. Rana tigrina. Id: & Boulenger, Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XV, 51, 67. 

Larva. 

1904. Rana tigrina, Ferguson, J. B. N. H. S., Vol. XV, p. 501. 

1917. Rana tigrina, Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal. Vol. VI, p. 125.. 

The variations observable in this ppecies are quite striking and are asso- 
ciated with the different modes of life adopted by the individual members.. 
In the Mysore State, e. g., Bangalore as in Madras town both this species 
and its variety crassa occur together and though both are of robust build 
their powers to stand captivity are so small, that any prolonged observa- 
tions on their habits in a vivarium becomes almost impossible. My own 
experience is that the fossorial habits are by no means confined to crassa 
and I have on several occasions exhumed specimens of tigrina S. S. 
while digging for earthworms. The presence of a horny plate on 
the roof of the mouth or on the sides of the lower jaw of the larvae is 
purely arbitrary and indicates nothing. In my opinion it would not be 
perfectly safe to use this character as a basis for specific or racial 
distintion. The dental formula ascribed to the tadpole by Dr. Annandale {e} 
does not provide for the outer limits of variations and the description 
of Dr. Boulenger (/) would be correct if the formula is written thus, 1 : 3 
or 4/3 or 4 : 1. 

The osteological characters of Rana tigrina recently described by Dr. 
Nicholls would appear to be subject to a great deal of variation and the 
following description refers to the more important of them. He compares, 
the vertebral column of the Indian bull frog with that of the European 

(c) J. A. S. B., 1854, Vol. XXIII, P. 732, 

id) Faun. Brit. Ind. Eept. Batr., 1890, p. 490. 

(e) 1917, Mem. As. Soc, Bengal, Vol. VI., p. 125. 

(f) 1918, Rec. Lid. Mus., VoL XV., Part II, 57. 



SOMi: SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHIANS. 121 

i?. temporaria, and Dr, Annandale(gr) states that he has been able to confirm 
the observations of Dr. Nicholls on most of the bones by an independent 
examination. In South Indian colleges where practical zoology is 
taught, the laboratory type is B. hexadactyla, and during the breeding 
season of frogs, examples of B. tigrina are frequently brought to the 
class for practical work. The skeleton of a B. tigrina S. S. prepared for 
the Central College recently showed certain abnormal indi%ddual vari- 
ations and led to the making of a large series of skeletons of this species 
for the purpose of comparison. On a careful examination of these series 
with the skeletons of B. hexadactyla and B. cyanophlyctis, I am not able 
to confirm some at any rate of the statements of Dr. Nicholls. 

(a). The vertebral column : — In regard to the neural arches, B. tigrina 
is said to show, '' a very marked overlap of each arch dorsally upon that 
immediately posterior to it and accordingly when the vertebrje are in 
position, the centra are not visible from above (/i)". " In this imbricate 
condition of the vertebral column, it would appear then, that B. tigrina has 
retained (or reverted to) a somewhat primitive condition (i)" such as is met 
with in the families of Discoglossidce and Pelohatidoe. The condition, 
shown in text fig. 1 of the paper cited,in support of the above statement, is 
easily produced by a bend or flexture such as appears in badly prepared 
skeletons, (j) and ; however, in carefully prepared bones the neural arches 
only notch between the zygapophyses (h) so as to produce a more or less 
open-work condition that Dr. Boulenger ( Z ) describes as being character- 
istic of the genus Bana. I possess two skeletons of B. esculenta and a 
comparison with them or with the two other Indian species already 
mentioned, discloses nothing strikingly different in the vertebral 
column of tigrina. I may further mention that its vertebral column 
is certainly not like that of Discaglossus pictus (m) and the figure 
of Dr. Nicholls therefore does not represent the correct position of 
the neural arches in well prepared and normally articulated spinal column. 
It is further pointed out that the imbricate condition of the neural arches 
is produced in trigina as in Pelobates fuscus, by the fact that in these 
examples the centrum has practically the same length as the neural 
arch (to). In the vertebrae of B. tigrina that I have forwarded to Dr. 
Annandale, the length of the centrum is 1^ of the length of the neural 
arch measured along the mediam line. This holds not only for the 
sixth vertebra that Dr. Nicholls selects for comparison, but for all others in 
the series. The dorsal view of the vertebral column of B. tigrina is not, 
however, the fully and completely open-work condition figured for B. tem- 
poraria by Howes (o) and for B. esculenta by Ecker, (p) and the seemingly 
imbricate appearance is due to, — I. The largely developed neural spines, 
directed backwards hiding the vertebral gaps. 2. The pre and post 
zygapophyses are considerably flattened and hide the communications 
between the dorsal gaps and the vertebral foraminae, and 3. On the 
posterior border of the neural arch of some of the vertebrss, a flange or 
arcualium is developed. ^ 

(g) 1917, Mem. As. Soc, Bengal, Vol. VI, p. 124. 

(h) 1915, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 603. 

(i) 1915, ibid. pp. 603-604. 

(/) All osteological material in support of these statements are sent to the 

Indian Museum, 
{h) This is true of E. hexadactyla and E. cyannophlyctis also. 
(I) 1897, the Tailless Batrachians of Europe, Vol. I. p. 38. 
im) 1907, Wiedersheim and Parker Comp. Anat. Vert., p. 56. ' 
in) 1915, Proc. Zool. Soc, London., p. 605. 
(0) 1902, Howes, Atlas Pract. EI. Zool, pi. IV., fig XXXV. 
(p) 1889, Ecker. Anat. Frog., p. 18( 
16 



122 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII » 

In regard to the development of the neural spines, I agree with the 
statement of Dr. NichoUs (p. 606) and I find that the neural spine of the 
seventh vertebra is as upright as that of the eighth. The cartilaginous 
ribs of the third vertebra of R. tigrina are said to be very like those of 
P. fuscus and this condition is obviously common to more than one Indian 
frog. The third vertebra of some of tne examples of Jiexadactyla also show 
this character and the third vertebra of these two Indian species are to be 
distinguished by a flange or an osseous tubercle in tigrina alone. This 
tubercle or flange may perhaps represent the partial bifurcation of the 
diapophyses described by Dr. Bourne (q) as an abnormal occurrence in 
temporaria. As regards the diapophyses of the eighth vertebra, it may be 
mentioned that its stouter nature is rather an exception than a rule, and 
in the specimens that I have sent to the Indian Museum they will be seen 
to be not bigger than the transverse process of the seventli vertebra. The 
sacral diapophysis is certainly cylindrical in tigrina. I entirely agree with 
the description of the coccyx in Dr. Nicholls's paper, but in respect of the 
shoulder girdle, although there is a slight overlap, the ventral suture of 
the two corocoids which meet in a median bar in front, passes through 
the median axis of the girdle. Dr. Nicholls's text fig. 3A showing the 
right corocoid beyond the mid-ventral line, is rather an exaggeration. The 
overlapping condition is certainly a primitive feature which tigrina has 
retained, and in the metamorphosing larvss of this, as in other Kanid larvse 
(r) it is the epicorocoidal cartilages that overlap and the left corocoid bone 
extends slightly dorsaily over the right, while ventrally they meet in a 
median suture. 

(b). The skull: — Dr. Boulenger appends a short description of the skull 
of B. tigrina to his definition of the species (s) and in certain regards it 
needs amplification. The cartilaginous basis of the skull is really confined 
to the processes given off from the nasal capsule which is, however, perfectly 
ossified ; the principal processes being the transverse ones meeting the 
cartilaginous epiphyses of the pterygoid, the anterior and the anterolateral 
and the alar cartilages. The floor, the roof and the septum of the olfactory 
capsule are ossified by the great development of the othmoid bone — the 
cornets are present in the form of powerful turbinated bones. The large 
nasals which overlie the bony capsule, — occasionally with bony outwardly a 
verj"- short directed spines, — are united with one another and with the fronto- 
parietals so completely that the sutures may be lost or may be faintly indi- 
cated by grooves. The osseous floor of the nasal capsule is underlaid by 
two equally large vomers the outer borders of which have two processes 
enclosing a deep notch between them, — the anterior process almost meeting 
the maxillary bone, while teeth are borne on the postero-lateral border. 
The sagittal and coronal sutures are only indistinctly marked or not at all, 
and the upper surface of the skull is either flat or slightly convex (noticed 
in R. temporaria and R. oxyrUnus (t). The parietal ridge is generally 
strongly marked, extending backwards to the apex of the heart-shaped 
foramen magnum. The mastoid ridges and the mastoid elevations are pro- 
minent. The lateral cartilaginous portions of the cranium are completely 
replaced by the backward extension of the spenethmoid which is incorpo- 
rated behind into the ala magna. Thus the foramen pro ramo-nasalis, 
foramen opticus and foramen oculomotorius are simple perforations in the 
sphenethmoidal bone. In some specimens the downward prolongation of 

iq) 1894, Bateson, Mat., Stud. Var., p. 124, and 1884, Bourne, Q. J. M. Sci., 

XXIV, p. 86. 
(r) 1901, Gadow., Camb. Nat. Hist., Amph. Kept., p. 25. 
(s) 1918, Bee. Ind. Mus., Vol. XV., p. 57. 
it) 1889, Ecker, Anat., Frog. p. 23. 



Journ-, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate 




SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHIAN?. 



SOME SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHIANS. 123 

the fronto-pariels may meet the upward extension of the parasphenoid 
in front of the exit of the optic nerve. The foramen trigeminus is a large 
vertically oval aperture and in some specimens of skulls, is constricted 
slightly in the middle by the approximation of tongue-like processes of 
the sphenethmoid and the ala magna. The ophthalmic branch of the fifth, 
the sixth and the palatine branch of the seventh occupy the dorsal part of 
the foramen, while through the lower half of the foramen emerge the 
maxillo-mandibularis of the fifth and the hyo-mandibularis of the facial 
nerves. The trochlear nerve has no separate exit and issues through the 
foramen opticus. The canalls nervi vagi may bear three orifices, — though 
the usual number is only two, — the internal foramen condyloidium for the 
exit of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves and two lateral ones for the 
entry of the internal and the external carotid arteries. The maxillo — pala- 
tine process is large and extending below the nasals, supports the cartila- 
ginous epiphyses of the pterygoid and the transverse cartilaginous exten- 
sion from the nasal capsule. 

(c). The individual abnormal variations. — 

i. The pelvic girdle. In the preparation 1 have forwarded to the 
Indian Museum the ventral border of the ilium extends far beyond 
the sacral diapophyses and before maceration, was continued over the 
transverse processes of the eighth and the seventh vertebrte by means 
of a flat cartilaginous bar. In accordance with this fact the diapophyses 
of these vertebrte are flattened into wing-like expansions at the base, 
thus deviating from the cylindrical shape. The dorsal blade of the 
ilium is practically of the same depth throughout and it is the 
terminal portion of this sharp border, which unites with the trans- 
verse process of the sacral vertebra by a cartilaginous epiphyseal 
connection. 

ii. The femur. The inner border of the right femur bears a strongly 
developed tubercle or a process projecting in the living specimen 
between the great adductor and internal vastus muscles. There is a 
distinct ridge on the ventral surlace of the bone, running from the 
head of the femur to more than half the distance. A similar but fain- 
ter ridge is found on the dorsal face also. 

iii. The pectoral girdle. The inner end of the left corocoid is dis- 
tinctly forked and a mass of epicorocoidal remains persisted in the 
living condition, in front of the corocoidal suture. The future is imper- 
fect on account of the deficiency of the left corocoid. The ventral 
face of the bony style of the omosternum bears a strong carina-like 
ridge throughout its length. 

Rana leptodactyla, Boul. 

1890. Rana leptodactyla, Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rept. Batr., p. 448. 

Larva. 

1918. Rana leptodactyla, Annandale, Rec. Ind, Mus., Vol. XV., p. 19. 

I have had opportunities of witnessing the spawning of this frog in Coorg 
and could rear the larvse only up to the two-legged stage. I am of opnnon 
that the tadpoles described by Dr. Annandale in the paper cited, do^ not 
belong to R. leptodactyla. I have myself examined the tadpoles No. 17698 
contained in the Indian Museum collection, and I have in my own collec- 
tion other tadpoles quite identical with this number, a few of these latter 
tadpoles with me have developed the feet. Judging from this and other 
characters I am led to infer that the examples described under leptodactyla 
may prove to belong to one of the species of NyctibcetracJius. I am forwarding 



124 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 

to Dr. Annanclale these suspicious looking larvce aud other material, 
and at present I am not in a position to say anything regarding the larvse 
he describes under N. pygmeus {u). 

The eggs of R. leptodactyla are large, measuring with the gelatinous outer 
coat 4fmm. and are laid in small clumps at several places along the grassy 
margins of the ponds. The sexual embrace is axial. The total number of 
eggs included in any one batch does not usually exceed thirty, and the 
batches of eggs deposited by any one frog in the different parts of the 
same pond may vary from six to eight. The localities for spawning are 
most arbitrarily selected and have no reference to protection or develop- 
ment being ensured. The debris that usually collects round the margins of 
ponds fed by storm- water confers, however, some measure of protection. 
The gelatinous outer envelope of the eggs which swells out into a large 
spherical mass in the water, shrinks in the preserving fluid. The two poles of 
the eggs are not distinguished by any colour. 

The tadpoles are of moderate size, oval, rather flattened above (elevated 
in the young). The ventral surface is convex. The snout is obtusely 
pointed. The nostrils are widely separated, nearer to tip of snout than to 
eyes. The inter nasal space is only half the inter orbital width. The 
eyes are dorsal and directed upwards in the young, but outwards in the 
older forms. Eye nearer to the snout than to spiracle. The spiracle is 
lateral, not visible from above, sinistral, tubular, pointing backwards and 
upwards. It is nearer to the root of hind leg than to tip of snout. A 
frontal gland is present. The mouth disk is moderate, ventral in position. 
Lips opposible, the lower fringed with a double row of fingers-like processes, 
which extend on the emarginate sides. The upper beak is broadly 
semilunar, produced more or less in the middle into a blunt tooth-like 
process. The lower beak is V-shaped and the margins of both the beaks 
are entire. The dental formula is 1 : 2 -(- 2/1 : 2 or 3. The upper entire 
tooth row is the longest and the other two are broadly interrupted. The 
innermost lower series is either narrowly broken or entire and all the 
three series are equally long. The vent is dextral, tubular. The tail is long, 
pointed at the tip. The muscular part at the middle of tail is as deep as tho 
membranes, — these are poorly marked in front but are deep and convex 
behind. The dorsal surface of head and body is olive green or brown, mora 
or less speckled. The ventral surface whitish, immaculate. The tail is 
spotted throughout. 

Measurements of a specimen in which the hind limbs are fully grown : — 
Total length . . . . . . . . 43mm. 



18mm. 
11 l/2mm. 
10mm. 

7mm. 



Length of head and body 

Greatest breadth of body 

Greatest depth of body. . 

Greatest debth of tail . . 
The eggs and specimens of tadpoles were obtained at Watekolle, Coorg, in 
December 1918 and were taken also in Shimoga, Mysore State. Twelve 
hours after the deposition of the eggs, the young one aro found wriggling in 
their gelatinous envelopes, which gradually spread out into a continuous 
film over the water. This viscous mass becomes completely dissolved, before 
the final emergence of the larvse takes place. Buds of hind limbs sprout 
nearly a fortnight later, which is certainly a remarkably short period for- 
the Ranid larvae in general and the rapidity in the present case is correlated 
with the fact that metamorphosis has to be completed before the element in 
which the larvae live should dry up. 

The eggs and the tadpoles are in the Indian Museum. 

(u) 1918, Op. cit., p. 21. 



SOME SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHTANS. 125 

Nydihatrachus sancti-palustris sp. nov. 
r Vomerine teeth in two strongly set, large oblique series, behind th» 
choana, — considerably further behind in the young. Habit moderate. Xo 
cathus rostralis, which in the young is obtuse. Length of snout nearly 
equals the diameter of the eye in the adult, but longer in the youno-. Eyes 
moderately prominent, directed upwards and forwards. The upper eye lid 
is narrow and smooth in the young and covered by warty folds in the 
adult. The inter orbital space is slightly wider than the upper eye lid. 
Nostrils equidistant between the eye and tip of snout. Snout optuse in 
the young, broadly rounded in the adult. Fingers moderate, first shorter 
than], the second ; tips swollen, truncate. Toes more than half webbed 
tips dilated into disks. Subarticular tubercles moderate. An inner 
metatarsal tubercle. Tarso-metatarsal articulation reaches the eye or 
slightly beyond. Skin xiearly smooth in the young but covered by short 
semicircular folds on the back and the sides, in the adult. A median 
fold on the snout, forking behind in the adult, but generally continued 
between the eyes in the young. A moderate sub-orbital fold and another 
from the eye to the shoulder. Reddish brown above, limbs barred. A 
broad dark band between the eyes. Throat bronzed in the adult, as also 
the under surface of limbs. Abdomen yellow, the liver showing through 
the transparent skin in the form of a squarish dark patch. In the youno- 
the upper surface of the limbs is lighter, the dark bands extend on the 
toes. A triangular bright yellow mark on the snout and orange yellow 
streaks on the shoulder, sometimes continued to the groin in the youno-. 

From snout to vent 39mm. 

Locality. — The sacred swamps of the Cauvery, Brahmagiri hills 4,000 
feet, Coorg. 

The type and syntypes are in the Indian Museum. Dr. Boulenger has 
retained for the British Museum one of the three specimens which he 
kindly examined. 

Nyctibatrachus sancti-paliistris modestus var. nov. 

This variety of the foregoing species differs in a striking manner and in 
several important particulars and for the purpose of comparison, I have 
selected examples of the same size. 

1. The length of the throat along tha mid-ventral line is ^ the distance 
measured ventrally between the angles of the mandibles in sancti-paluslris, 
and in modestus it is 4. 

2. The length of snout equals the diameter of ej^e in modestus, exceeds 
by far in sancti-palustris of the same size. 

3. Nostrils nearer tip of snout in modestus. 

4. The inter orbital width more than twice the upper eyelid in modestus. 

5. No canthus rostralis. 

6. A more elongate metatarsal tubercle. 

7. Tarso-metatarsal articulation reaches the snout or sHghtly beyond. 
Toes less fully webbed. 

8. Skin thrown into long longitudinal folds on the body and limbs. 

9. Pinkish above, more or less blotched. Limbs barred. Throat and 
under surface of limbs finely speckled. Abdomen white. An orange 
yellow band on each shoulder. 

Total length 25 mm. 

Locality. — -Jog, Shimoga, Mysore State. 

Type and syntype in the Indian Museum. 

Bufo. 
Two specimens of Bufo collected in Coorg appeared to me to be distinct 
from B. stomaticus which I had examined in the Indian Museum in June 



126 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 

1919. Dr. Boulenger to whom they were sent is, however, of opinion that 
they cannot be separated from stomaticus. With a view to verify my 
position, I have, through the courtesy of the Director of the Zoological 
^lurvey of India, been enabled to re-compare my material with the Indian 
Museum collection. At the end of the reconsideration, I find myself un- 
able to accept the decision of Dr. Boulenger. For reasons given below I con- 
sider myself sufficiently justified in regarding the two examples as repre- 
senting a distinct local race differing from their North Indian congeners 
in several important particulars. Though I do not possess at present 
sufficient material to establish their specific distinctness, which may per- 
haps prove the more correct view to take, I have no doubt about their being 
racially distinct. 

Bufo stomaticus peninsularis var. nov. 

Head without bony ridges or feebly marked by minute cornified tuber- 
cles. Snout obtuse, rather truncated obliquely. Interorbital space 
broader than upper eyelid. Tympanum moderate about f the length of 
the upper eyelid. First finger equals the second. Toes half-webbed, 
subarticular tubercles inconspicuous. Two meta tarsal tubercles, — the 
inner spade-like. Tarso metatarsal articulation reaches the tympanum. 
Skin perfectly smooth or covered uniformly by minute tubercles. Under 
surface non-tuberculate. A feebly marked flask-shaped fold over the 
occiput. Parotoids much flattened, inconspicuous. Cutaneous pores 
ao-gregated in small numbers over the skin. Colour of live specimens either 
pale buff or olive green more or less speckled with brown. Under surface 
yellow on a background of dirty white. 

From snout to vent 45 mm. 

Locality. Mavkote and Watekolle, Coorg. 

Type and syntype in the Indian Museum. 

The enumeration of characters in which the variety peninsularis diff'ers 
from stomaiicws, (Indian Museum nos. 16067, 16068, 17254 and 17274) may 
now be proceeded with. They are all from Northern India. 1. The inter- 
orbital space is 1^ or 1 J of the upper eyelid in peninsularis and equals the 
upper eyelid in stomaticus. 2. The length of the snout is li the length 
the upper eyelid in peninsularis and is 4 in stomaticus. 3. The mandibulars 
symphysis form an acute angle in peninsularis and is a broad semicircle in 
stomaticus. 4. Inner meta-tarsal tubercle spade like in peninsularis and 
conical is stomaticus. 5. The vertical diameter of the tympanum is | the 
leno-th of the upper eyelid in peninsularis and f in stomaticus. 6. The 
upper eyelid is entire, coterminous with the canthus in penmsuluris and 
notched both ends in stomaticus. 

Bufo parietalis, Boul. 

1890 Bufo parietalis, Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rep. Batr., p. 507. 

A single specimen of this species 1-8 inches (y) is included in the 
collection and shows the following peculiar characteristics : — 

1. The bony ridges are by no means prominent. 

2. There is a distinct occipital and a prefrontal ridge. 

3. Toes are considerably less than half-webbed and subarticular tuber- 
cles are absent. 

Specimen in the Indian Museum. 

Explanation of Plates. 
1. The abnormal Bana tigrina. 
Fio'. 1. The pelvic girdle and the abnormal femur. 
Fig. 2. The abnormal femur showing the tubercle and the ridge. 



(w) Dr. Boulenger's record is 3-25 inches, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rapt. Batr., p. 507. 



Journ., Bomba.y Nat. Hist. Soc 



Plate II. 






1 r 







20 



SOUTH INDIAN BATRACHIANS 



SOME SOUTH INDIAN BATBACHIANS. 127 

Fig. 3. The third vertebra showing the tubercle on the diapophyses and 

the arcualium. 
Fig. 4. The abnormal ilium with the forward cartilaginous extension. 
Fig. 5. The pectoral girdle showing the forked left corocoid and the 

keeled omosternum. 
Figs. 6&7. Side views of the skull of the normal i?. tigrina, showing 

the relation of the sphenethmoid, the frontoparietal and the 

parasphenoid bones, and their degrees of development. 
Fig. 8. Lower view of the skull shown in fig. 7. The right vomer is 

removed to show the bony base of the nasal capsule. 

2. Bana leptodaclyla. 

Figs. 9,10»S:11. Egg"^ more than twice ; tadpole* twice ; mouth* roore 
four times magnified. 

3. Nyctibatrachus. 

Fig. 12. N. sandi-palustris sp, no v. 

Figs. 13&14. The under views of sancti-palusiris and mode-stus var. 

nov. respectively. 
Figs. 15, 17 and 16, 18. The hind limb and the meta-tarsal tubercle of 

sandi-palustris and modestus respectively. 

4. Bufo. 

Figs. 19, 21 and 20, 22. The throat and profile of B. stomaticiis 

No. 17274 belonging to the Indian Museum and peninsularis 

var. nov. 

Lettering. — a. Arcualium on the posterior border of the neural arch. ar. 

articular facet of the tendon of m. vastus externus. 

C. cartilaginous bar extending over the transverse processes of 

the VIII and VII vertebrae. 
Cor. corocoid with the forked end. 
db. dorsal blade of ilium. 
EE. ecto and mesethmoid bones, 
ep. epiphyseal connection between the dorsal blade of ilium and 

sacral diapophysis. 
FP. frontoparietal bone. 

il. ilium. K. carina on the omosternum. om. omesternum. 
PS. parasphenoid bone, r. ridge on the two faces of the femur. 
SE. sphenethmoid bone. t. tubercle, v. vomer. 



128 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB 



BY 

C. H. Donald, f.z.s. 

Part V. 

(Continued from page 1020 of Vol. XXVI.) 
Type G. 



Family 

Subfamily 

Genus 



FALOONIDJE. 
FALCONING. 

ClKCUS. 



tarsi under 3" ; 
quills notched, 



No. 1233. Circus macruncs. The Pale Harrier. 
Charaoteristics. Size medium, wing about 14V' ; 

Outer web of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, 
but not of 5th. 

Colouration. Adult male. " Upper parts pale ashy grey, gener- 

ally, except in very old birds, more or less 
tinged with brown on the crown, back, scapulars 
and quills ; lores whitish ; forehead and above 
and beneath the eye white ; ear-coverts pale grey 
streaked with white ; the ruff behind the ear-coverts 
differing in texture, but scarcely in colour. Pri- 
maries ashy grey, 3rd, 4th, and 5th, black or 
blackish-brown on part of the terminal half, some 
black on 2nd and 6th, the basal portion of all 
quills white ; upper tail coverts banded grey and 
white, middle tail-feathers grey unbarred, the 
others white, with grey bars ; lower parts white, 
throat and upper breast with a faint grey tinge" 
(Blanford). 

Adult female. " Above brown, feathers of head 
and hind-neck broadly margined with rufous or 
buff, and the smaller wing-coverts with broad pale 
rufous borders ; forehead whitish, a buffy white 
supercilium and patch below the eye ; moustachial 
stripe and ear-coverts brown ; a well marked ruff 
of small white or buff feathers with broad brown 
shaft-stripes all round the neck, behind the ear- 
coverts, and across the throat ; quills brown above 
buff or whitish below, with blackish-brown cross- 
bands on both sides ; upper tail-coverts white, 
brown shaft-stripes or other markings ; middle 
tail feathers brown, outer feathers buff' or rufous- 
white, all with dark brown cross-bands. 

Lower parts white, with rufous-brown shaft- 
stripes, broadest on the breast ; in old birds these 
stripes become very narrow, especially on the 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts. 

Young birds resemble the female above, except 
that the feathers have, at first, rufous edges 
throughout, there is a white nuchal patch with 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 129 

throughout, there is a white nuchal patch with 
brown shaft-stripes, and the ruff is unstreakecl, 
or almost unstreaked buff and very conspicuous ; 
the upper tail-coverts are white, the lower parts 
throughout are rufous-buff, with faint shaft-stripes. 
There is a gradual passage from this plumage 
into that of the adult; nearly adult males are often 
found with patches of brown on the crown and 
brown shaft-stripes on the breast " (Blanford). 
" Bill black ; cere greenish : iris yellow in adults 
brown in tbe young ; legs yellow."' (Blanford). 
Measurements. Length of females about 19'o ; tail 10 : wingl4"5 ; 

tarsus 2-9. Length of males 18 ; tail 8-7o ; wing 
13'7o ; tarsus 2*7. 

I have given the above description of this bird 
in full, from the Fauna of British India, as it very 
nearly applies to the next species also, and because 
I have noticed that these two birds are very frequent- 
ly taken for each other. In his description of the 
next species, the Hen-Harrier, Blanford merely 
gives the difference between it and the present 
species, so there should be no confusion between 
them. If it is remembered, in the first instance, 
that one glance at the wing of the bird, with- 
out looking at the plumage at all, is sufficient 
to keep the two species apart, it would save a 
great deal of trouble and leave no room for 
doubt. In the Pale Harrier the oth quill is 7iot 
notched, whereas in the Hen-Harrier the oth quill is 
notched . Secondly, look at the upper tail-coverts. 
In the Pale Harrier these are always streaked 
with brown, or edged with brown or buff. In the 
Hen-Harrier the upper tail-coverts are pure white in 
both sexes. 
Habits, etc. The Harriers, as a genus, are well known birds and 

unmistakable as sucli. Their curious habit of Hying 
low over grass or scrub jungle and dropping silently 
to the ground, or for a second almost stopping still 
in mid-air, and then continuing their flight over an- 
other bit of grass or scrub is unlike any other Bird 
of Prey. 

All the Harriers appear to do a great deal of work 
to earn their dinner for it is seldom that one gets a 
big enough meal in one quarry to satisfy it. Fortu- 
nately it is not averse to taking almost anything it 
can get, from grass-hoppers and insects of all kinds 
to lizards, mice and birds, but it seldom loses an 
opportunity of trying for birds when it gets a chance. 
The writer watched a male of this species, on one 
occasion, trying for little birds for the better part of 
two hours, over a dried up water course, overgrown 
with bullrushes and grass. The water-course was 
some 3 to 400 yards long and about 30 feet wide ; 
the centre was clear of weeds which only grew on 
either bank. The Harrier started at one end. flying 
very slowly and checking at frequent intervals, pre- 
17 



130 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXTU. 

paratory to dropping, but each time it did so a few 
birds would hurry out and drop back into the weeds- 
a little further on. Time after time the Harrier 
turned and twisted, swooped and rose and its legs 
were over and over again seen to shoot out as a bird 
came within striking distance, but each time it 
missed its prey by inches. Up one bank and down 
the other it went, times innumerable, but did not 
succeed in getting a single bird. There was a wide 
open plain on either side of the water-course and 
the birds which had taken shelter among the weeds 
appeared to be very loth to leave it, for they merely 
flew, when the Harrier got directly above them, for a 
short distance and went into the rushes again a 
little further on, only to be flushed again. 

The flight is light and graceful but slow, a bout of 
flapping being followed by sailing and frequent 
'' banking " as the bird half turns from one side to 
the other, as though unable to make up its mind as 
to which side it should go. Harriers generally are 
not very often seen soaring in the winter, but during 
their bi-annual migrations they may frequently be 
seen circling high \\]i in the air> 

When circling the wings are held very nearly in 
line with the body, though slightly upwards inclined. 
Whilst flying over scrub, i.e.. when hunting, the 
wings are frequently seen to be held well over the 
plane of the body for short distances. The tail is 
long and projects well beyond the line of the wings 
and the bird somewhat resembles a Goshawk, but the 
wings are relatively longer and narrower. 

The Pale Harrier is a winter visitant to India and 
nothing is known of its nidifleation in this country. 

On the wing this species can generally be distin- 
guished from the Hen-Harrier by its marked upper 
tail-coverts, if the back can be seen and in the case 
of the male by its lighter under parts, as well as the 
tail-coverts. In the Hen-Harrier a bluish-grey 
marking will be noticed on the chin and upper breast, 
whereas this is wanting in the Pale Harrier in which 
the chin and upper breast are, at most, a very pale 

No, I3:?o. Circus cyaneus. The Hen-Harrier. 

CJmraderistics. Size medium, wing about 14"; tarsi under S" ; 

outer iceb of oth quill notched. 

Colourarion. Adult viale. Very similar to the preceding 

species, except that the general colouration is some- 
what darker, being a more bluey grey, especially on 
the upper breast and throat. "There is a distinct 
white nuchal patch with brown shaft-stripes." 
Upper tail-coverts are pure icliite. 

" The adult female is distinguished from that of 
C. macrurus by having the margins of the head and 
neck-feathers more rufous, by the rufous markings 
on the wing-coverts and scapulars being larger and 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 131 

more in the form of spots, by the white around the 
eyes being more sullied, and the moustachial stripe 
and ear coverts being rufous with dark streaks instead 
of uniform brown, and by the upper tail-coverts being 
pure white. The ruft is well marked. Young birds 
have the lower parts buff or pale rufous, with dis- 
tinct broad shaft-stripes and the ruft', though dis- 
tinct, is always striated." 

"Bill black; cere yellow ; iris yellow, brown in 
the young and according to some observers in 
females ; legs and feet yellow " (Blanford). 

Measurements. "Length of male about IS" : tail 9; wing 13; 

tarsus 2-75. Length of female 21 ; tail lO'o ; wing 
15 : tarsus 3" (Blanford). N, B. — Usually the tarsus 
is just under 3". 

Habits, etc. This bird can at all times be separated from 

C. macrurus by its pure white upper tail-coverts and 
by having its fifth primary notched. The iris of the 
adult female is yellow, so far as I have seen though 
in the young bird it is brownish. 

The Hen-Harrier is a winter visitor to the Punjab 
and to be found throughout the Province, during 
that time. Very like the Pale Harrier in its habits, 
mode of hunting and flight, but 1 think, somewhat 
more given to soaring than the latter. During the 
spring and autumn it is found at great heights and 
1 have come across him at 15,000 feet and over, 
beating over the barren hill-sides and chasing 
accentors and finches. 

The adult male can generally be recognised by 
the darker colouring on the breast, throat and chin 
in particular, and both sexes by the pure white 
upper tail-coverts. 

Nothing is known of its nidification in the Pro- 
vince and I certainly have never met with this 
species, even in the higher Himalaya, during the 
summer months. Blanford states that it has been 
known to breed at Tso Morari in Thibet. 

1237. Cir.us rur/inosus. The Marsh-Harrier. 

Characteristic . Size medium ; length 21 1" ; wing ]6;tail 9| ; 

tarsus over 3". From cere on culmen to tip of bill 
is more than 0-76". (in the two preceding species 
it is under 0-75"). Female dark brown throughout 
except the head and the male is never so pale as 
the other two and much more variegated. 

Colouration. " Adult male. Head, neck and breast bufl' or pale 

rufous, with dark brown shaft-stripes, broader on the 
breast ; back and most of the wing-coverts dark 
brown ; scapulars still darker, sometimes grey to- 
wards the base ; smallest coverts along the fore- 
arm whitish, with dark brown shafts ; outer greater 
coverts, primary-coverts, and all quills except first 
6 primaries dark silvery grey, remaining coverts 
and very often the tertiaries dark brown ; first six 
primaries black with the basal portion white ; upper 



132 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



tail-coverts white, with rufous and brown mixed in 
various ways ; tail grey above, isabelline below ; 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts ferruginous brown, 
more or less striped darker. 

Females are dark brown except the crown, nape, 
chin and more or less of the throat, which are buft' 
with brown stripes. There is sometimes a patch of 
buff on the breast, the wing-coverts and back 
have buff edges, and the upper tail-coverts are 
rufous. 

The young of both sexes resemble the females 
except that the buff on the head is sometimes un- 
streaked and more limited in extent, being confined 
in some cases to a nuchal patch or even wanting 
altogether." (Blanford.) 

" Bill black ; cere and base of bill greenish-yel- 
low ; iris yellow, brownish-yellow in females and 
young ; legs and feet rich yellow"' (Hinne.) 
Measurements. " Length of males 31 ; tail 9'5 : wing 16 ; tarsus 

3-4. Length of females 32-5 ; tail 9-75': wing 16-6 ; 
tarsus 3'5 " (Blanford). 
Habits, etc. The Marsh-Harrier is a familiar feature of every 

jheel in the Province and wherever there is a 
swamp of any kind with reeds, there will be found 
one or more of this species. Like all other memi- 
bersof this genus this species spends most of its time 
beating slowly over reeds and grass. The flight is 
very similar to the others except that the beats of 
the wing are slower and more deliberate, it is more 
given to soaring and when so engaged it holds its 
wings well above the level of the back. Nothing in 
the way of food comes amiss to this species from a 
wounded teal to a dead crab or a grasshopper. It 
is much more given to sitting than any of the others 
and, in fact, spends a great deal of its time sitting 
on the bunds of paddy fields or edges of jheels. 
This species must have a hard struggle for existenca 
and is only saved from starvation by the fact that 
it is content to eat things which other Raptores do 
not consider worthwhile to take from it. 

Pallas's Fishing-Eagle and the Spotted Eagle are 
ever on the look out for any tit-bits the Marsh Har- 
rier may find, and unless the latter can hide itself and 
its quarry in long grass, it stands very little chance 
of enjoying its breakfast. 

There appear to be many more specimens in the 
garb of the female than that of the male, and for 
every one of the latter one might meet with 10 of 
the former. 

This Harrier, though migratory, breeds frequently 
in this country and nests have been taken in various 
places, and the bird is by no means uncommon in 
the summer. Like all Harriers it builds on the 
ground and lays 4 or 5 eggs " which are either pure 
white or slightly spotted and measure about 2" by 
l-o"" (Blanford.) 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



133 



Jkntjs Astue. 
Xo. 1243. Astur ]jalumbarius. The Goshawk. 



C/iaracteristics. 



Colouration. 



Measurements. 



HaUts, etc. 



to about half 
to f length 

of the upper 



Size medium, length of female about 24 ", male 
20 "; wing 14 " (female), 12" (male). Tip of prima- 
ries in closed wing reaching only- 
way down the tail. Bill from gape 
of mid-toe, without claw. 

Variable. In old birds the whole 
parts become a sort of ashy grey-brown, the feathers 
having paler edges " The crown, area behind eye, 
ear-coverts, and sides of neck darker, sometimes 
almost black ; forehead, lores, long supercilia, and 
nuchal patch uniting them behind streaked and mix- 
ed with white ; quills brown above, whitish below, 
with dark bars ; tail light brown or brown mottled with 
white above, paler below, crossed by four broad 
dark brown bars and tipped buffy white : lower parts 
white, with blackish shafts and brown bars, which 
become narrower and more numerous in older birds ; 
lower tail-coverts white unbarred. Young birds are 
brown above, most of the feathers edged or tipped 
with buft'y white ; crown nape and hind-neck with 
broad buff or pale rufous edges : quills as in the adult, 
but with the barring more distinct above : tail with 
five dark cross-bars and tipped with buff : lower parts 
buff or pale rufous, with brown longitudinal oval 
spots, each having a black shaft-line in the middle. 
Nestlings are covered with pure white down." (Blan- 
ford). 

" Bill bluish horny ; cere yellow Avith a greenish 
tinge ; iris and legs yellow " (Blanford). 

Length of female 24 : tail 11 ; wing 14 ; tarsus 3-3 : 
of a male — Length 20 ; tail 9-o ; wing 12'5 ; tarsus 3-2 
(Blanford). 

The Goshawk is among the best known of the Indian 
Raptores, not because he is common, but because he 
is much sought after and far and away the best hawk 
used in hawking. Every Indian Prince in whose 
State falconry still survives does not consider his 
menage complete without a Goshawk, and it is the 
zenith of every Indian falconer's ambition to possess 
one. Most Britishers would probably prefer a falcon, 
as the spot shown by a hawk is in no way comparable 
to that of a falcon, but for all that there is no denying 
the qualities which combine to make the hawk, the 
Goshawk m particular, the valuable bird it is, Rs. 150 
to 200 being paid f -r a young female a few days 
after it has been captured. 

The Goshawk, during the summer months, is a 
dweller of the high mountain ranges and to be 
found in the oak and spruce forests at elevations 
from 9 to 11,000 ft. Like all true Hawks and Hawk- 
Eagles, this species does most of its hunting from the 
boughs of some thickly foliaged tree, usually pouncing 
on ^its prey before the latter has realised its 



134 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

clanger. 1 have found this species sitting on a rock 
on the edge of a plateau, far above the limit of trees, 
waiting for a covey of snow-patridges to come out 
and feed among the rocks. They are trapped in 
large numbers during the late autumn, in long verti- 
cal nets stretched along ridges, where small game is 
plentiful. These nets, or rather a succession of them, 
cover very often a mile or more of country and vary 
from 10' to 15' in height, 

They are erected much in the same waj'- as a tennis 
net but the lower end forms a bag into which the 
victim falls and remains there luitil the men visit the 
nest and take it out. Another method adopted to 
catch this species is by means of three vertical nets 
each about 7' x 6' x o'. They are erected to form 3 
sides of a square and a pigeon placed in the centre. 
The man in charge hides opposite the open side of 
the square, whence he makes the pigeon flutter 
by pulling a string, when a hawk is seen. 

This is a most efl'ective trap for hawks generally, 
and placed on the top of a knoll, is visible for miles 
around, and will attract a Goshawk from very long 
distances. 

This species, though it does most of its hunting 
among trees, may often be seen circling at great 
heights. In the Himalaj'as, hawks will generally be 
found to soar late in the morning or early in the 
afternoon. Seldom in the middle of the day, 
early morning or late evening, and if watched it 
will be seen that a bout of circling on steady 
pinions is almost invariably followed by a few 
quick beats of the wing. 

The short rounded wings and the long, projecting 
tail, proclaim the members of this and the next genus 
from afar, and though I have found falconers who 
can differentiate, at a glance, between a sparrow 
hawk and a shikra, I am afraid I have never suc- 
ceeded in being able to place them /or certain. 

The Goshawk, if disturbed during the day, drops 
from his perch to within a couple of feet of the 
ground and flies low and fast until it approaches the 
tree it intends to alight in and then rises almost 
vertically into the branches. 

This species, together with the Hodgson's Hawk- 
Eagle does more damage among game birds than 
perhaps all the other birds of prey combined. Their 
numbers appear to be on the decrease and I have 
questioned several men who have the right to erect 
nets for them, and they all say that they seldom get 
more than half a dozen .in the year where 16 to 20 
used to be caught a couple of decades ago. 

On one occasion, while in camp in the Simla Hills, 
I had a most extraordinary experience with one of 
these birds. It was late in November and we had 
had an early fall of snow on the hills. My camp 
was situated in a valley with a fringe of deodars on 



IHE BIBBS OF PBEY OF THE PUNJAB. ]3r> 

three sides and open on the fourth, and I was 
working in the verandah of the tent which Avas 
enclose(^ by " chicks" all round, except the centre 
" chick " which was tied up and acted as a doorway. 
Suddenly there Avas a tremondous commotion among 
the fowls and one old cock came rushing into the 
verandah with something hanging on to him, rushed 
past my table and into the tent itself. I followed and 
pulled the squalling bird out from under the bed 
and to my surprise found a very ancient male 
goshawk, still holding on. I naturally thought it 
must be somebodj^'s tame bird escaped. 

The hawk literally fell oft' the cock as soon as I 
pulled the latter out from under the bed, and lay on 
the floor in a sort of fit. I picked him up and found 
it emaciated to a degree and nothing, but skin and 
bone. There was a slight wound in one wing, Avhich 
accounted for his condition, and the poor thing 
evidently put in every ounce of his remaining 
strength to get a meal, but the cock was one too 
much for him in his starving condition. The warmth 
of the stove revived him and he sat on my fist as 
though he had been accustomed to it for weeks and, 
had a feed of raw meat, a small one to begin Avith 
followed by another in a couple of hours. 

In three or four days the bird began to put on 
condition and in about a fortnight, the Aving having 
entirely healed, I released him after giving him a 
good meal. This bird was a very pale blue grey 
above and pure Avhite beloAv profusely barred Avith 
black. A dark grey head and oranc/e eyes. 

The GoshaAvk breeds in trees from March to June 
and lays 3 to 4 eggs. '• usually nearly pure Avhite, 
but occasionally spotted or blotched." I have had 
youngsters brought to me as late as July and the only 
nest 1 have seen Avas high up in the fork of a Blue 
Pine (Pinus excelsa) at an elevation of about 8,-500 
feet. 

The Goshawk is the only "True " hawk that will 
folloAV its quarry for any distance. I have myself 
seen them folloAV partridges for 600 yards or so, and 
Hume quotes Mr. Thompson, a keen falconer, as 
saying that he has knoAvn his GoshaAvks to take a 
partridge or quail 800 to 1,000 yards where the 
haAA'ks Avere slipped. 
No. 1244. Astur hadius. The Shikra, 
Characteristics, Size small, length from 12* to 14 inches: wing 

7 to Si; tail 7. Tip of prmiaries in closed Avmg 
only reaching to about half Avay doAvn the tail ; 
bill from gape § to | length of mid-toe without 
claw. 
Colouration. Somewhat similar to the preceding species, 

generally and varying from it by the upper parts be- 
ing brown, in the young, with buff edges to the 
feathers, to a pale ashy grey in old birds. 



136 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The under parts of the young plumage are white 
with brown centres to the feathers, the upper 
breast being much more marked than the abdomen, 
and the marking practically disappearing at the 
lower tail-coverts. 

The breast of an old bird becomes almost rusty 
red, beautifully pencilled and barred, and the upper 
surface is almost uniformly ashy grey throughout. 

" Bill bkiish dusky at the tip ; cere bright yellow ; 
irides yellow, becoming dee]3 orange in old birds ; 
legs and feet yellow." (Blanford.) 
MeasurciKents. Length of females about 14; tail 7 ; wing 8'25 \ 

tarsus '2 ; bill from gape 0'8. Males — the length 
is about 12'5 ; wing 7. (Blanford.) 
Habits, etc. The Shikra is a common feature of almost every 

grove and garden in the Punjab. It ascends far up 
into the Himalayas, but I do not think they are even 
locally migratory, as I have known couples to breed 
in the plains, year after year in the same spot. It 
lives on lizards, mice and small birds in its wild 
state and I have seen this species eating a frog. 

This without exception, is the most easily tamed 
and trained bird of all hawks and falcons and won- 
derfully hardy. With care and trouble it is 
possible to hunt this bird within 10 days of its 
capture, and I have had one coming to the hand on 
the third day. 

The Shikra might often be seen soaring high up 
in the heavens and has the same habit as the rest 
of the true hawks of flapping vigorously after 
accomplishing a few circles on steady wings. The 
long tail and short rounded Avings show him to be 
a hawk at once, but the Shikra and the Sparrow- 
Hawk are not easily separated unless they pass 
very near. 

During the breeding season the Shikra is very 
noisy and its call of two notes, " titu titu" can be 
heard all over the place and at this season it 
assumes a most extraordinary flight at times. 

The wings, slightly bent, are held far above the 
level of the back and it progresses in a succession 
of very slow deliberate beats. 

This species must prey a good deal on the Indian 
Babbler the " Seven Sister" of the European, in this 
country, as every Shikra is anxious to get at them 
as soon as he hears them, but easy though they must 
be to catch, the Shikra has his work cut out to retain 
its quarry. The moment one is caught, the remain- 
der of the flock rush to the rescue of their '' Sis- 
ter." With feathers flufted out and wings drooping 
and tail spread the entire sisterhood come to the 
attack and the Shikra is struck from every side 
of the compass atone and the same time. I have 
had a tame Shikra knocked clean over on to his 
back and made to release bis hold and seek shelter 
from the infuriated mob. If he can take his prey 



TRE BIRDS OF PBEY OF THE JPUNJAB. 137 

away at once and fly across an open bit of country 
or get into very thick scrub, he is probably left in 
peace, but otherwise he finds it no easy matter to 
retain his meal. Though slow in flight, the babler 
is extremely quick in sharp sudden attacks at close 
quarters. 

The Shikra breeds in trees from April to June 
building a nest of twigs and sticks lined with 
grass, roots and laying usually 3, sometimes 4, 
smooth, bluish-white eggs, usually unspotted, very 
rarely with a few small greyish specks, and measur- 
ing l"oo by 1'2:?. 

Like the Goshawk, the Shikra is not lacking in 
pluck and dash and can be trained to quarry 
bigger and stronger than itself. 

Crows and patridges can be taken by a Shikra 
and Dr. Blanford quotes Jerdon as stating that 
even young peafowl and small herons do not come 
amiss, but personally 1 have never seen one take 
anything bigger than a crow or a partridge, 
though 1 have seen one pull down a wounded 
Great Stone-Plover which could just fly. 

Genus Accipiter. 

Ko. 1247 Accipiter nisus. The Sparrow-Hawk. 

Characteristics. Size small, length of female about lo" ; wing 

9i" ; of male, length about 13 ; wing 8. Tip of 
primaries in closed wing reach to about half way 
down the tail : bill from gape about half mid-toe 
without claw. There is a vast difference between 
the tarsi of Astur and Accipiter, that of latter 
being very much thinner and the mid-toe longer. 
'■' Five or six dark bars, one terminal, on 4th, quill 
in adults : no gular stripe." 

Colouration. Adult male. " Upper parts slaty grey, some birds 

darker than others, the white bases of the feathers 
showing more or less on the nape and supercilia ; 
feathers of scapulars, rump and upper tail-coverts, 
and sometimes of the back, dark-shafted ; quills 
dark brown above, whitish beneath, with broad 
blackish cross-bands ; tail generally with 4 (some- 
times ■')) cross-bars on the middle feathers, 5 or 6 
on the outer, the last bar broadest and sub-terminal, 
tips of feathers white : lower parts white or buff, 
the lower parts more or less distinctly dark-shafted : 
breast and flanks very often sufl'used with rusty 
red, the throat with a few dark shaft-lines ; the 
breast, abdomen and thigh-coverts rather irregularly 
barred with rufous brown, the bars usually as broad 
as the interspaces, bxit in very old birds either rusty 
red or narrow and dark brown ; under tail-coverts 
white." 

Adult females are browner above and less rufous 
beneath, with the dark shafts to the feathers more 
conspicuous. 
18 



138 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIT. 

Young birds are brown above, the feathers with 
rufous edges at first, the white very consi^icuous 
on the nape and supercilia ; lower parts white, bufl', 
or brownish-buff, feathers of tlie breast, abdomen, 
and lower wing-coverts with dark shaft-stripes and 
spade or heart-shaped rufous-brown spots with dark 
edges ; these spots pass into bars. 

"Bill bluish-grey; cere, legs, and toes yellow, 
claws black ; irides yellow in young birds, orange in 
old." (Blanford.) 
Measurements. '' Sexes very differeiit in size. Length of female 

about 15" ; tail 7' ; wing 9-6 ; tarsus 2-4 ; mid-toe 
without claw 1-6 ; bill from gape -85 : in the male, 
length about 13 ; tail 6-5; wing 8; tarsus 2-1." 
(Blanford.) 
Habits, etc. The Sparrow-Hawk, the Basha of the Indian fal- 

coner, is another favourite and a good manj^ are 
caught in the nets set for Goshawks, in the Hima- 
layas and brought down for sale. This species is 
more given to hunting in forests than is the Shikra 
and may often be seen flying very low to the ground 
and very fast, in the mornings and evenings. The 
Himalayan variety (Hume's melanoscliistus) is a very 
dark coloured bird, almost black above and deep 
rusty red beneath. Mr. A. E. Jones, of Simla, has 
found the species breeding in the vicinity of Mahasu 
and the Catchment area, (Simla) but how far this 
" Himalaj'an variety " extends east or west of Simla 
I am unable to say. 

The flight of the Sparrow-Hawk while hunting is 
unlike that of a Shikra, but while soaring the two 
resemble each other very closely. 

In the hand, the very thin tarsi and the long thin 
mid-toe separates this genus from Astur, at once. 

In the forest, like the Goshawk, this species drops 
from a branch, flies very low and shoots almost 
verticallj^ up into the tree it selects to alight in. 

The " Basha " is a better bird than the Shikra for 
purposes of sport, being faster and following its 
quarry for longer distances. Doves appear to be the 
favourite food of the female Sparrow-Hawk, in its 
wild state, and bunches of feathers dotted about 
among the trees where a pair of these hawks have 
made their home, tell their own tale. 

Hawks and falcons, even when soaring or flying 
from place to place, have their eyes on every point 
of the compass, and only the other day, I was wat- 
ching a Sparrow-hawk, which flew close over my head, 
when it suddenly turned sharp round, increased its 
pace and dashed into a tree some hundreds yards 
away in its rear. A crowd of shrieking parroquets 
dashed out of the branches and 1 saw the hawk 
flutter to the around as though it had got one in its 
talons. 1 went up to see and found it was a dove 
that had been caught and not a parrot. The hawk 
had been flying in absolutely the opposite direction 



THE BIRDS OF PliEY OF THE PUNJAB. 



139 



when its keen eyes must have seen the dove go into 
the tree, as it certainly could not have seen it sitting 
there, among the branches. The tree was a mango 
and thickly foliaged. 

The call of the Sparrow-Havvk is very different to 
that of the Shikra and is composed of two long 
notes followed by three or four very short ones 
repeated in quick succession, something like "tin tiu 
ti titi '". 

The " bashin " the male of the sparrow-hawk is 
very much smaller than the female and I have never 
seen it used for hawking. 

This species builds in the Himalayas from about 
0,000 ft. elevation upwards, in trees, and JBlanford 
sa; s it often takes possession of a deserted crow's 
nest and " lays usually 4 eggs, but sometimes as 
many as 6 or 7. These are bluish-white, oval, much 
spotted and blotched with rufous-brown, especially 
towards the broader end, and measure about 1-7'" 
by 1-3." 



No. 1218 AcrAiritey virc/atus. TheBesra Sparrow-Hawk 



Characteristic. 



Colouration. 



Measurements. 



Habits, etc. 



Size small, wing 7 to 8" ; tip of primaries in 
closed wing reaching only about half Avay down the 
tail. Bill from gape about half mid-toe without 
claw ; a gular stripe usually present ; 7 or 8 bars on 
4th quill in adults. 

Very similar to the preceding species in some of 
its various phases of plumage, but usually darker 
resembling more the Himalayan varietj' of A. nisus, 
except for the gular stripe and the extra bars on the 
4th quill. 

" Bill leaden grey, blackish a+. the tip, cere pale 
lemon-yellow ; irides bright yellow, orange in old 
birds ; legs and feet yellow." (Blanford) 

" A Himalayan female measures : — length 14. 5 ; 
tail 7 " ; wing 8 ; tarsus 2-.5 ; mid-toe I'S : bill from gape 
1-7 ; the male is smaller, tail 6 ; wing 6-7o." (Blan- 
ford) 

Personally I am not at all familiar with this spe- 
cies and have only seen two to my certain knowledge. 
One little male was identical with the male of 
A. nisus in the dark Himalayan plumage. It lacked 
the gular stripe but had 7 distinct bars on the 4th 
quill. The second was a young bird in the possession 
of a falconer, said to have been caught in the Kan- 
gra hills. 

The Bera and B/iooti as the male and female are 
respectively called, are frequently taken in the nets 
erected for Goshawks, in the Kangra District, but as 
often released. My old falconer was familiar with the 
species and had a very high opinion of it and consi- 
dered the female better than the Bas/ia (A. ?iisus) 
being faster and more tenacious but others again 
and particularly some of those wiio csitch and 



140 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL KIST. SOCIETF, Vol. XXVII. 

sell hawks, in the Kangra District, have told me 
that there is no demand for them and that when 
caught in the nets they generally release them 
though they always keep the Baslia. 

Out of the dozens of the smaller hawks I have 
caught in various parts of the Himalayas, the little 
male above referred to is the only one that I have 
ever succeeded in catching, and yet it does not 
appear to be very rare and is certainly widely dis- 
tributed all over the Himalayas, Mr. Hume record- 
ing specimens from Giu-hwal, Murree and Lahore. 

Nothing appears to be known of its breeding in 
the Punjab though Blanford records nests taken 
in Sikkhim and Ceylon, both nest and eggs resem- 
bling those of the preceding species. 



To he continued. 



141 



NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN 
BIRDS IN LADAK. 



F. Ludlow. 

The following notes were collected on a shooting trip from Srniaoar to 
the Tso-Morari Lake in Rupshu, and a return journey via the Wakka Nal- 
lah, Sum, and the Wardwan, during the spring and summer of lUlO. 

In the majority of instances where clutches were taken the parent bird 
was shot off the nest and identified as far as possible with Blanford and 
Gates. Where doubt existed the bird ivas skinned and forwarded to the 
Society for identification, whilst Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker very kindly went 
through the eggs and gave me the benefit of his expert opinion. 

The Raven, Corvus corax tihetamcs. 

Fairly common in Central Ladak and Rupshu where it breeds in cliffs in 
late winter. Fully fledged young seen out of the nest with the parent 
birds on the shores of the Tso-Morari Lake in early May. 

The Jungle Crow, Corvux coronoides intermedius , 

Nests at Kargil on 18th April 1919 and at Leh on 23rd April ] 919, both 
in poplar trees. 

The Jackdaw, Corvus vionedula coUaris. 

The only place at which 1 encountered this species beyond the Western 
Himalayan barrier, was at Dras on loth April 1919 where I observed a pair 
in the neighbourhood of the rest-house. 

The Magpie, Pica pica hactriana. 

Seen directly one crosses the Zoji La., and never lost sight of in the 
main or side valleys until the treeless Rupshu country is reached. One of 
the commonest birds in Ladak, I found a single pair at Gya (Alt. 13,o00 
feet) inhabiting the only tree the place boasts of. Breeds in willows and 
poplars and occasionally in bushes. Found it building at Kargil on isth 
April 1919 and took a clutch of G eggs at Mashoo near Leh on ijyth April 
1919. Eggs measure So — 34x24 mm. Its more Eastern congener, the 
Bl.-vck-rumped Magpie of Thibet was not met with. 

The Red-billed Chough, PyrrJiocorax pyrrhocorax. 

Common in Central Ladak and Rupshu where it lays in April and May. 
One clutch of 3 incubated eggs taken at Meroo midway between Upshi 
and Gya, at an altitude of about 13.000, on 14th May 1919. Nest in 
cliff, built of sticks and lined with wool. Eggs are a very pale salmon 
pink blotched with brown and with secondary purple markings, not un- 
like those of the common Saudgrouse in colour. They measure 40'.j — 41 x 
27'5 mm. 

Breeds in the town of Leh itself as on 13th June 1919 I saw parent birds 
feeding their young in the holes of a large kind of ' Hlato ' about oOO yards 
South of the main bazaar. 

The Yellow-billed Chough, Piirrhocorax graculus. 

Retires during the latter half of May to breed in the most inacces- 
sible cliffs, one spot being the crags overlooking the village oi Bhot Karbu, 
and another, the stupendous perpendicular cliffs of the AYakka Nallah. 

The most accessible breeding haunt of this bird which I encountered was 
in small cliffs on the left bank of the Wakka River, a mile or so beyond the 
village of Paskyum near Kargil, but even here ropes would be a necessity. 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL mST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV II. 

This chough appears to be more gregarious than pyrrhocorax I do not 
remember having seen it in Rupshu, although it possibly occurs there. 

Hume's Lesser White-throated Warbler, -S^i'm a/^7ifea. 

Took a nest containing two fresh eggs at Shushot near Leh on 10th 
June 1919. Nest cup-shaped, of dried grass lined with a few hairs, 
and placed in a low bush two feet from the ground. Eggs greemsh-white 
spotted with yellowish-brown at the broad end, and possessed of a few 
shitish secondary markings. Eggs measure 18-75x12/0 mm. Altitude 
10,600 feet. 

Tickell's Willow- Warbler, FhjUoscopus affinis. 

Two clutches each containing four eggs taken m the Wakka JN allah on 
•>8th June 1919 and 30th June 1919. Eggs slightly incubated. Nests, 
elonoated ovals composed of dried grass, lined with feathers and with a 
side "entrance, placed m low bushes about two feet from the ground. Eggs 
white, sparingly spotted with brownish-red. In the second clutch one egg 
was pure white. Eggs measure 14-75-16 X 12 mm. Altitude about 12,500 feet. 

The Brown Willow-Warbler, Pliylloscopus coUybita tristis. 

Very common above and below Leh between 10,000 and 12,000 feet. 
Numerous clutches taken in June and July. Normal number in clutch 4. 
Nest similar to that of affirms. Eggs, white, spotted with rusty-red, mea- 
sure 15-5-16x11-5-12 mm. 

The Plain Willow- Warbler, Fhylloscopus neglectus neglectus. 

A sino-le clutch containing four eggs taken at Marshalong near Leh on 
6th June 1919. Nest of the usual Fhylloscopus type. Eggs, white, spotted 
with rusty-red, measure 14-5-15 X 12-12-5. Altitude about 11,500 feet. 

The Olivaceous Willow- Warbler, Fhylloscopus indicus indicus. ? 

A single clutch ot 4 eggs taken on 23rd June 1919 at Bhot Karbu. Nest of 
the usual Fhylloscopus type but placed on the ground amidst grass in the bed 
of a river. Eggs similar to those of tristis but measure 17-16'5 X 12-11-75 mm. 
The correctness of this identilication is open to doubt, as I failed to obtain 
the parent bird after having had two shots at it. From the colouration, 
size and general behaviour of the bird. I, however, suspected it at the time 
to be indicus, and Mr. Stuart Baker after having examined the eggs is 
very much inclined to agree with me. 

The Large Crowned Willow -Wavhlev, Acanthopneuste occipitalis. 

A single clutch of 4 eggs taken m the Wakka Nalla on 28th 
June 1919. Nest composed of dried leaves and grass lined with thin soft 
dry strands of grass placed in a low bank beneath the exposed roots of a 
willow. Eggs, pure white, bluntly pointed at the fine end, measure 16-15-25 
X 12-50—12-25 mm. Altitude 12,500 feet. 

The Indian Oriole, Oriolus oriolus hundoo ? 

An oriole straggles as far as Leh during the summer but is far from 
being common. I never met with its nest or secured a specimen of the 
bird, and it might possibly turn out to be the European Oriole. 

The Siberian Chat, (Enantke pleschanka. 

Two clutches taken, each containing four eggs. First nest taken on 25th 
May 1919 in a hole in a rock on the Ooti Plain near the Tso-Morari lake 
at an altitude of 15,500 feet. Second nest taken in a * mani ' wall at Thuo-ji 
on the Tsokr Chumo lake on 2nd June 1919 at an altitude of 14,900 feet. 

Nests of dried grass lined with a mixture of wool, hair, and 'feathers. 
In both instances the eggs were hard set with embryos about a week old. 
Egos, light blue, with small brownish-red spots at the broad end measure 
21-22 X 15-5-16 mm. ' 



XIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN BIRDS IN LADAK. 143 

The Desert Chat, (Enantho desorti atyar/ularis. 

A single clutch taken at Upshi, 40 miles from Leh, on Gth June 1919. 
Nest constructed in a hole of a stone support to the bridle path, and com- 
posed of the same material as in the case of ple^clianka . Eo-crs liaht blue 
very similar to the last named species, but the brownish-red spots tend to 
fuse into a ring at the broad end. Eggs measure I'S by 16 mm. Altitude 
about 11,800 feet. 

The Indian Redstart, Phcenicurus ochrurus mJiL-entrix. 

A very common bird indeed from Suru to Rupshu, breeding from May to 
July in holes in banks and beneath stones on the steep mountain side. In 
Ladak it has a special predilection for the ' mani ' wall as a nestino- site. 
Nests of dried grass lined with wool, hair and feathers. Numerous clutches 
taken. Normal number in clutch 4-i5. Eggs pure Cambridge blue, generally 
inispotted, but I found one cluch at Gya on 5th June 1919 in which the 
eggs were very faintly marked with minute reddish-brown spots. Eggs 
measure 22-19'5 x 14-15 mm. 

The Indian Blue-throat, Ci/anosyhia nuecica ahbotti. 

Two nests found at Bhot Karbu on 24th June 1919. The first contained 
4 very much incubated eggs, the second 4 newly hatched young. Nests 
placed on the ground amongst long grass and low bushes, cup-shaped and 
built of dried grass. The eggs are described by Blandford as being " blue 
spotted v/ith reddish brown ", but the eggs 1 have before me are sage green 
«2<^-Msr-fi! with reddish-brown. Distinct spots are not appaient. Eggs measure 
19-75-20-25 X l4-75-lo mm. Altitude 11,500 feet. 

The Vy'hite Spotted Blue-throat, Cijannsylvia suecica palli<lo(/ularis:. 

Nest containing 4 slightly incubated eggs obtained at Mulbek, a day's 
march from Bhot Karbu on 25th June. Nest and eggs similar to that of 
abbottl except that the eggs are more olive than sage-green. Eggs measui*e 
19"75-20'25 X 14'75-15 mm. Mr, Stuart Baker remarks 'in epistola ' "'the 
breeding of these two birds within the above limits is remarkable and 
points to the fact that they should be regarded as true species and not 
races.'' As Ward records this bird as a rare breeder on the Shyok River 
in Ladak, it appears that the trinomials should be dispensed with. 

The Himalayan Ruby-throat, Ccdliope pectoralis -pectoralis. 

A nest containing 3 fresh eggs was taken at Donore, which lies midway 
between Suru and the summit of the Bhot Khol Pass on 11th J^iily 1919 at 
an altitude of about 12,000 feet. The nest was composed of dry grass and 
placed on the ground underneath a boulder. 

Two of these eggs are pale blue very faintly freckled with reddish-bro-.ui 
and are those of •pectoralis. They measure 22 x 16 mm. The 3rd egg 
is a specimen of Cuculuscanorus telephorus and measures 24'5 X 18 mm. 
It is pale blue spotted with reddish-brown. This cuckoo was not unfre- 
quently seen and heard around Suru and in the Rungdum Valley, but 
I did not come across it in the Upper Indus Valley around Leh. 

The Grey-headed Ouzel, Merula castanea. 

Nest of 3 fresh eggs taken at Chengher in the Wardwan Valley on 
24th July 1919 at an altitude of about 7,000 ft. Nest, composed of twisted 
twigs and roots intertwined with dead leaves, and lined with green needles 
of a pine, was placed on the top of a stump of a tree airongst thick jungle 
about 5 ft. from the gro nd. Eggs light green covered with brownish-red 
smudges; 3 measure 29 22'5 mm. 

The Robin Accentor, Laiscopus rubeculoidcs. 

Nest with 3 eggs taken toward the head of the Umlah Nallah near Leh 
on 18th June 1919 at an altitude of about 13.000 ft. Nest placed on the 



144 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

ground and composed of dried grass lined with hair and small particles of 
moss. Eggs, turquoise blue, measure !20-5-21 X 15'0 mm. 

The Rufous-loreasted Accentor, Laiscopus stropUatus jerdoni. 

Nest with 3 eggs taken on 6th July 1919 near Suru at an altitude 
of about 11,000 feet. Nest and eggs similar to above. Eggs measure 
20-5 X 14-5-15 mm. 

i^dam's Mountain-Finch, MontifvimjiUa nivalis adamsi. 

Nest taken at Mashoo near Leh on 9th June 1919 containing 4 eggs 
much incubated. Nest on the ground underneath a large stone, built of 
dried grass and lined with a profusion of feathers. Eggs pure white and 
measure 2i'-23x 16-16-5. Altitude 11,500 feet. 

A second nest at the foot of the Foti La near Lamayuru in a 'mani ' wall 
contained feathered yoimg on 23rd June 1919. A third nest also with 
young was found in a cleft in the rocky hillside at the foot of the Namika 
La on 24th Juue 1919. This bird is not uncommon in Central Ladak and 
affects rocky nallah beds, especiallj^ those which contain water, at an 
altitude of 10,000—13,000 feet. 

Blandford's description of this bird breeding in lony di/Ices in which the 
Tartars bury their dead probably refers to the ' mani ' walls, so common 
a feature of Ladak scenery ; but I do not think they enclose Tartar dead 
but are erected rather to commemorate some pious Lama. 

P House Sparrow, Passer ?- 

A species of House Sparrow is common in Central Ladak, and was seen 
also around the Champa encampments on the shores of the Tsokr Chumo 
Lake in Rupshu at an altitude of 15,000 feet. I regret I did not secure 
specimens. Passer chinomomeus does not cross the Western Himalayan 
Range — at least I did not encounter it, although it is common in the 
Ward wan. 

The Eastern Meadow-Bunting, Emheriza stracheiji. 

Nest containing two fresh eggs taken in the Rungdnm Valley near Suru 
on 4th July 1919 at an altitude of about 13,000 feet. Eggs measure 23*25 
—23x16-50 mm. 

The Crag-Martin, Ptyonoprogne rupestris. 

Common but nests in most inaccessible places. Took a single egg from 
a nest in the Wakka Nallah on 27th June 1919, at an altitude of 12,000 
feet. Egg white with reddish-brown spots. Measures 20 X 14-50 mm. 

Hodgson's Pied Wagtail, Motacilla alba Iwdcjsoni. 

Common. Nest, at Bhot Karbu on 23rd June 1919, built on the ground 
underneath a stone in a dry portion of the river bed, containing 3 newly- 
hatched young and one egg on the point of hatching, At Bazgo near Leh 
on 19th June 1919, I saw parent birds feeding young out of the nest. 

Hodgson's Yellow-headed Wagtail, Motacilla citreola dtreoloides 

X(?mr''\'^^c?aT^''^} ^^f-^^'.^'-"'^ S"^^^ in svvampy localities 'between 
10,000 and 13,000 feet. Nest u. the majority of cases on the ground 
amongst long^ green grass and small bushes, occasionally in a bank 
I'l'^T^r '^V^^'V^IS^-^-^^^ IJne^^ ^^^ith hair. Numerous dutches taken. 
At Shushot near Leh I found this bird building on 11th June 1919 At 
Mu Ibek on 24th June 1919 I took a nest of 4 fresh eggs At Se vm!;e tf 
Parkutse above Suru on 5th July 1919 I found this bfrd breeding in abund 
ance near the water channels in the fields. The normal clutch appears to 
be 4 but two nests were found here each containing one incubated e4 a 

ffiffl '"'Vf^ ""l' ^""''» T' ^ ^°"^*h ^"^h one e|g and one youno fne 
a fifth with 3 fresh eggs and a sixth with 4 much incubated eaas ° ' 



NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN BIRDS IN LADAK. 145. 

Half way up the Bhot-Khol Pass, at a spot called Donore, on Tlth July 
1919, I came across four nests of this bird. The first contained fully 
fledged birds able to fly, the second feathered young still in the nest, the 
third three fresh eggs whilst the fourth had only just been built and con- 
tained nothing. 

Blandford states that " the two sexes of this bird are pretty certain to 
be alike in plumage." This is not the case in the breeding season at any 
rate. The 5 dift'ers remarkably from the J , in that the whole undersur- 
faoe and the head are only tinged with yellow, whereas in the (S these 
parts are deep yellow. Eggs measure 21-50 — 20'50x 16-25 — 15 mm. 

{Note. — Since writing the above my attention has been drawn to the 
fact that Whitehead in the Ibis of 1909 has written to a similar efl'ect with 
regard to the colouration of the sexes, and I have been persuaded to let 
the above stand for the pvirpose of independent corroboration.) 

The Long-billed Horned Lark, Otocorys lonrjiro-'itns. 

Nest taken in the Rnngdum Valley on 5th July 1919 at an altitude of 
about 12,000 feet. Two eggs in the clutch, inuch incubated. Nest on the 
ground underneath a stone, very small, cup-shaped, lined with hair and 
dry grass. Eggs, a dirty white mottled with chocolate-brown, measure- 
25-55x17-25 mm. 

Elwes's Horned Lark, Otocori/s elicesi. 

Nest with 2 eggs found whilst ascending the Thasangi La in Rupshu on 
3rd June 1919 at an altitude of 16,000 feet. Nest built on the ground 
underneath a small " gabshun " bush, composed of dried grass lined with 
the pappus growth of the " gabshun " seed. Eggs, of the same colour as. 
lonyirostris but are much less attenuated, measuring 22 — 22-5x17 — 17-5 
mm. 

Large numbers of these birds were seen feeding in the fields of the 
Indus Valley above Leh early in May at an altitude of about 11,000 feet. 
When 1 returned a month later they had all disappeared. 

The Sky- Lark, Alauda an-ensis cinerea. 

Common in the Upper Indus Valley above and below Leh wherever there 
is cultivation. Clutch at Shushot on 10th June 1919 and another at Nimu 
on 14th .June 1919, both with 8 eggs which measure 24 X 16— 16-25 mm. 

The Blue Rock-Pigeon, Colwnba Uvia livia. 

This and the next species seem equally abundant both in Central 
Ladak and Rupshu, breeding for the most part in inaccessible precipices. 

The Blue Hill-Pigeon, Columha rupestris. 

Found an empty nest at Thujgi on 2nd June 1919 in clift's overlooking the^ 
Champa encampment. A frail structure composed of a few twigs placed 
in a hole of the clift'. Common everywhere above and below Leh and 
greatly preferable to Uvia for the table. 

The White-bellied Pigeon, Columha leuconota leuconota. 

Fairly common in the Wakka Nallah and around Suru but I do not re- 
member having seen it in the Indus Valley above Leh or in Rupshu. 

The Thibetan Sand-Grouse, Sprr/iaptes tihetanus. 

I only saw two pairs of this bird during the month I spent in Rupshu. 

The Chuckor, Alecteris graeca pallida. 
Common and breeds everywhere. 

The Thibetan Partridge, Perdix hodgsonice. 

Common between the Polokonka Pass and the Tso-Morari Lake, especial- 
ly in the Puga Valley near the sulphur and borax deposits. It frequents, 
trama' bushes in the valley beds and is very loth to take wing. Not 
19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

-seen below 15,000 feet. By the end of May it had paired off but had not 
commenced to nest. 

The Black-necked Crane, Gvm nigricollis. 

I saw three specimens of this crane on the Tsokr Chumo Lake in Rupshu 
on 2nd June 1919. I succeeded in shooting one whose head and wing I 
brought back for identification. The Champas informed me it bred there. 
Its call note is very similar to that of communis. 

The Ibis-bill, Ibidorhynchus struthersi. 

Saw several specimens of this strange bird in and near the islands of the 
Maroo Jliver just below Inshin in the Wardwan Valley in July 1919. It is 
a sure find here as I have seen it in this neighbourhood on two previous 
-occasions. 

The Eastern Redshank, Tringa totanus eurhinus. 

Seen in pairs on the Tsokr Chumo Lake, Puga Valley, Tso-Morari Lake 
and Ooti Plain, but it does not breed in these places until after the month 
of May. 

Came across large numbers of this bird in the Rungdom Valley above 
Suru on 5th July 1919. Found two empty nests in the midst of small 
bushes amongst the swamps. From the behaviour of the parent birds, and 
the piercing cries they uttered, it appeared as though their young had 
been hatched. 

The Himalayan Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria. 

Shot a specimen in the Puga Valley in Rupshu where it doubtless 
breeds. 

The Fantail Snipe, Gallinago coelestis. 

Shot a specimen in May 1919 on the Ooti Plain beyond the Tso-Morari 
Lake in Rupshu. This was the only specimen I saw in Rupshu. 

The Brown-headed Gull, Larus hruneicephalus . 

Abundant on the Tsokr Chumo and Tso-Morari Lakes, but it had not 
commenced to lay by the end of May. 

The Common Tern, Sterna hivundo tibetanus. 

Pairs seen in the Rungdum Valley on 5th July 1919 but no eggs taken. 

The Bar-headed Goose, Anser indicus. 

Common oc the Rupshu Lakes where it breeds in June. 

The Brahminy Duck, Casarca rutila. 

One of the commonest birds in Rupshu breeding in holes in the sur- 
rounding i-aountains, often at a great altitude and at a considerable dis- 
tance from water. The Ladaki is an omnivorous feeder but this is one of 
the few animals he will not touch. 

The Goosander, Merganser castor. 

Fairly common along the banks of the Indus above Leh and on the 
Ptupshu Lakes. The crops of a pair of birds I shot were full of a species 
of eel-worm. Breeds here. - 



147 
SOME NEW INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 

BY 

Major F. C. Eraser, i.m.s. 

During the year, 1919, quite a number of new species have been added to 
-the list of In lian Odonata and amongst them are two new species of Gmia- 
cantha. One of these, viz., G. bainhr'myi, was taken by Mr. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher at Gauhati, Assam, the other species by myself at Poona, of which 
the following is the description : — 

Gynacantha millardi, sp. nov. 

Several male^ and femalea, Poona, Bombay, Deccan, October-November and 
February to March. 

Male and female alike. 

Head labrum, face and frons pale green without any markint^s. (The 
■usual T-shaped mark is absent in this species.) Eyes in juvenile specimens 
a deep blue, in adults an olive green with a dark brown cap above. 

Prolhorax and thorax bright foliage green, the female having a brownish 
tinting on the dorsum. No markings whatever. 

Abdomen a pale fawn, the sides of the first three segments green as in 
the thorax and more so in the male than in the female. Ore illets brown. 

Anal appendages very narrow and long, especially in the male, fringed in- 
ternally with lougish hairs. Legs brown. 

Wings long and broad, hyaline, stigma a pale brown. Forewing with 19 
annodals, hindwing 14, forewing with 13 postnodals, hindwing 15, 
hypertrigones with 3 nervures, trigones with 3, the inner with a nervure 
running from its centre to the proximal side, loop with 10 cells. 

Length of hindwing 44 mm., of abdomen 46 mm. 

This species is a night-flyer, not appearing on the wing until dusk, after 
which it can be seen for a longtime silhoutted against the sky as it flits 
swiftly up and down. Its principal food appears to be mosquitoes. There 
appear to be two broods during the year, the one appearing in October and 
lasting until the end of November, the other in February when teneral 
specimens are seen. It is moderately plentiful during the whole of 
March and disappears abruptly from the beginning of April. 

Tribe AGRIONINI. 

Mortonagrion, gen. nov. 

Head not bearing any post-ocular spots but the eyes margined inwardly 
• and narrowly with bright colouring. 

Protkorax simple, the posterior lobe large and prominent, broadlj' arched. 

Thorax with the anterior border laminated and projecting forward to 
mesh with the posterior lobe of the prothorax. 

Abdomen very slender, very gradually dilating from the 7th to the 10th 
segment. Anal appendages highly specialised, 10th segment with a bifid 
dorsal tubercle. 

Wings hyaline, petiolation ceasing proximal to " ac", stigma equal in 
both wings, rhomboidal but the distal and posterior borders rather longer 
than the proximal and costal respectively, arc distal to the i^nd antenodal 
nervure, its distance from that nervure being equal to the length of the 
costal border of the quadrilateral, postnodal nervures 7 to 9. " ac" nearer to 
the 2nd antenodal nervure in the hindwing, about midway in the forewing, 



148 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

meetin- " ab " well distal to its commencement, " ab " continued outwardly 
in the same straight line as " Ou2", that is to say, the junction of the two- 
is not angulated. Quadrilaterals diflerently shaped m the two wmgs, that- 
of the forewing being more angulated and with the costal border only half 
the length of the posterior, that of the hindwing with the costal border- 
tNvo-thi?ds the length of the posterior. Female without a ventral spme to- 
8th segment. 

Mortonagrion varralli, sp. nov. 




Fore-and hind- wings of Mortonagviori. varralli. 

Several of both sexes from Pmmi Lake near Bombay, lith March 1920. 

Male. Length of abdomen 23-25 mm., of hindwing 14-15 mm. 

Read, labrum and epistome pale blue, vertex pale reddish browQ, occiput. 
a similar colour except for a small, oval spot of pale blue bordering the eye 
inwardly. Eyes slatey blue with a reddish tinge above. 

Prothorax reddish brown, pale blue at the sides and narrowly anteriorly. 

Thorax pale reddish brown on the dorsum and upper part of sides. A 
narrow, pale blue humeral stripe. The sides pale blue except for a diffuse- 
pale brown stripe on the 2nd lateral sviture. Legs pale brown. 

Abdomen similar in colour to the thorax. Fine, apical, dark brown anntiles. 
to all seo-ments. The ground colour deepens dorsally near the apex of each 
segment, but there is a clearer annule between this deepening and the- 
browDy black annules. These latter followed by fine, pale blue, basal annules- 
which on the 8th segment lengthens to cover about two-thirds of the segment. 
The apical border of this conspicuous blue marking deeply notched in the 
mid-dorsal line. The sides of the 1st and 2nd segment pale blue. Beneath, 
whitish. 

The dorsal, apical border of the 10th segment presenting a bifid tubercle 
very similar to that of lachnura senegalensis. The anal appendages seen 
from above show the superior divaricating, the inferior converging, superior 
slightly shorter than the inferior, broad at the base, truncated and direct- 
ed downwards to almost meet the inferior, the latter broad at the base,, 
tapering strongly and curving inwards so that their tips almost meet,, 
curving upwards. 

Female exactly similar to the male except for the blue marking on the- 
8th segment which covers only one-third of it and has a diffuse unnotched 
border. No spine on the ventrum of the 8th segment. 

Hab. In dark, shady jungles, keeping amongst undergrowth. Never 
comes out in the sunlight. Breeding apparently in wells. Pawai and: 
Vihar Lakes near Bombay. 



SOME NEW INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. I49 

Pseudolramea praleri. sp. nov. 

1 c? from Turzum Tea Estate. Darjiling, coll. O. Lindgren. 

Head globular ; eyes broadly contiguous, reddish brown above blackish 
■brown at the sides and beneath ; suture flush ; face broad and flattened 
.yellowish brown, the labrum ochreous and edged with black which has a 
metallic sheen ; vesicle high, flattened at the summit, not notched, ochreous ; 
occiput small, reddish brown. 

ProtJiorax sxnaU, hidden completely. 

Thorax bulky, coated with long, coarse hair, reddish brown on the dorsum, 
golden brown at the sides where the lateral sutures are mapped out 
obscurely with broken, black lines. 

Legs black. The hind femora -with a row of ca 20 short, robust and 
.gradually lengthening spines, tibial spines long and numerous, claw hooks 
robust, situated near the end of the claws. 

Wini/s long and tapering, reticulation close, node slightly proximal to 
the middle of wing, trigone in the forewing nearly 3 cells distal to the 
line of the trigone in the hind, trigone in forewing very narrow, its costal 
side much less than half the length of the proximal, traversed once only ; 
trigone in the hindwing narrow, entire, its proxima!side convex outwards 
and in line with the arc ; sectors of arc separate nearly to their origins 
in the forewing, a long fusion in the hind ; arc between the 1st and 2nd 
antenodal nervures ; antenodal nervures lH-12^, the final incomplete, the 
distance between the first two much greater than between the others ; only 
1 cubital nervure to all wings ; no supplementary nervures to the bridge ; 
stigma brownish, that of forewing nearlj^ twice as long as that of the hind ; 
4 rows of cells in the discoidal field which is of even width throughout ; sub- 
•trigone in the forewing nearly square, formed of 6 cells ; Rspl. very strongly 
arched, 3 rows of cells between it and Rs. ; Mspl. well developed strongly 
curved in the forswing, flattened in the hind ; the lis. and M4. nervures 
strongly curved towards the termen near their ends, in the hindwing, 
M4. and Mspl. approximate at the angulation ; loop very long and narrow, 
the toe not markedly broadened, divided cells at the trigone and 
external angle ; anal area distinctly divided up into an outer area of more 
open cells and an inner of closely packed, flattened cells arranged in 
oblique rows. No basal markings whatever to either wing, the whole wing 
being hyaline except for a single cell in the anal angle which is brown and 
•chitinous. Length of hindwing 46mm. 

Ab'lomen 32 mm., without the anal appendages which are 4 mm. in 
length. Transverse ridges en the 2nd and 3rd segiuents, 1st and 2nd 
segments dilated, especially dorso-ventrally, 3rd and 4th slightly constricted 
and the remainder tapering to the end, a golden brown in colour, the 
apices of all segments and the dorsal surfaces of the 8th to 10th segments 
black. Anal appendages bayonet- shaped, the sujierior twice as long as the 
inferior, brown. 

Sexual organs of the male, tramea-\\\s.e. Lamina depressed and broad, 
not fissured ; tentaculte carrot-shaped, long and tapering and ending in a 
short, downwardly curved spine. The ends divergent, the external tenta- 
■culse obsolete. Lobe long, high and narrow. 

This specimen, which is closely allied to Tramea, differs from that genus 
by the greater separation of the sectors of the arc, by the wide space and 
number of cells between Es. and Rspl. by havnig transverse ridges only 
on the 2nd and 3rd segments and none on the 4th and by the wings being 
•quite immaculate. The latter characteristic is not due to age as the speci- 
men is fully adult. I have named it after Mr. S. H. Prater of the Bombay 
INatural History Society's staff". 



150 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII.. 

Protostida lindgreni, sp. nov. 

1 J from Turzum Tea Estate, Darjiling. ,11 

Head labrum and antuclypeus pale greenish white, the f®raier bordered, 
with black ; remainder of head a shmy black with a bluish metallic reflec- 
tion ; the ocelli bright amber and very conspicuous m their dark setting ;. 
eyes'pale yellow with a black cap above and a narrow, black, equatorial 

belt. , . , X • 

Pfoi/iorax black with a broadish, pale yellow, subdorsal stripe on each 

Thorax black on the dorsum, yellow at the sides. A black line along 
the lateral suture. Legs yellow, the extensor surfaces black. Wings, 
hyaline, stigma blackish brown, postnodal nervures in forewing 16. 

Abdo77ien\revy long and attenuated, almost as long as in P. gravehji 
Laid. 1st segment black on the dorsum, the sides and an apical annule 
yellow, :2nd segment broadly black on the dorsum, the sides yellow, 3rd 
to lUth segments black at the apices, yellow at the base, these two colours 
gradually blending into one another. 

Anal appendages, yellowish, of about equal length, equal to the length 
of the last two abdominal segments or nearly so. The superior broad at 
the base and with the outer half bent sharply downwards and shaped 
like the blade of a kukri ; the inferior shaped like the horns of stag-beetle, 
twisted at the middle and convergent at the apices. A long spiny process- 
springs from just beyond the middle of each process on its inner side and 
almost meets its fellow across the middle line. At the base of the inferior 
appendages is a short, stout spine directed backwards and upwards. 

This single specimen is named after Mr. O.Lindgren of Darjiling to 
whom I am indebted for it. It bears a superficial resemblance to P. 
himalaica, Laid, but an examination of the anal appendages serves easily- 
to distinguish them. 



151 

A TENTATIVE LIST OF THE YERTEBEATES OF THE 
JALPAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL. 

BY 

Chas. M. I^^GLIS, F.Z.S., M.B.o. u., W. L. Tkayees, H. Y. 
0'Do^'EL, M.B.o.u. A^^o E. 0. Shebbeake, i.f.s. 

Part HI. 

{Continued from page 999, Vol. XXV I). 

Earn-Owl (1152), Strix flammea. — Uncommon. 

Grass-Owl (1153), Sh'ix Candida. — Common in grass land. 

Brown Fisli-Owl (1J64), Ketupa zeylonensis .-■ — Common along riverside 

forest. 
Forest Eagle-Owl (1170), Huhua nijMlensis. — Found in the forest, but not 

often seen. 
Scop's Owl (1173), Sc.oi)S gin. — Common and extends well into the plains. 
[Spotted Himalayan Scop's Owl Q17o), Scops spilccephalus. — Only shot in 

theTerai.] 
Collared Scop's Owl. (1178), Scops bakkamcena. — Verj^ common. This owl 

has two distinct calls ; one the usual call of three or four notes and 

the other a single note sounding like icot repeated at slow intervals. 
Spotted Owlet (1180), Athene hrama. — Common near habitations, but not 

in the forest. 
Large Barred Owlet (1188), Glaucidium cuculoides. — Noticed in the forest. 
Jungle Owlet (1184), Glaucidium radiatum. — Very common. 
Collared Pigmy Owlet (1186), Glaucidium brodiei. —Uncommon. It extends 

well into the plains. 
Brown Hawk-Owl (1187), Xinox scutulata. — Very common. It has a fine 

call note sounding like poiv oof, pow-oof. 
The Osprey (1189), Fandion haliaetus. — A few pairs seen along the princi- 
pal rivers and occasionally over small pieces of water. The latest date 

of departure noted by O'Donel was the 9th of June. 
Cinereous Vulture ^1190), VuUur monachus. — Occasionally descends to the 

plains. 
Black Vulture (1191), Otoc/t/ps cr/i t;it^-.— Common. 
Himalayan Griflon (1193), Gyps himalayensis.— Common. 
Himalayan Long-billed Vulture (1195), Gyps tniitirostris.— Common. 
Indian "White-backed Vulture (1196), I'sntdogyps bengalensis .—Common. 
Booted Eagle (1208), Hieraetus pennatus. — Uncommon. 
Piufous-bellied Hawk-Eagle (li'09), LopJwtriorchis kieneri. —Fvocuved by 

O'Ponel, but very rare. 
Black Eagle (1210), IctinaHus vmlayensis.— Uncommon, extending well 

into the plains during the winter. 
Changeable Hawk-Eagle (1212), SpizaetuslimnaHtus.—V&ixly common. 
Hodgson's Hawk-Eagle (1213), Spizaetus nepalensis.—^ot\cei\. during the 

cold weather. 
Crested Serpent Eagle (1217), Spilornis cheela. Very common. 
Pallas' Fishing-Eagle (1223), Haliaetus leucoryj^hns.— Common. 
Large Grey-headed Fishing Eagle (1226), Folioaetus ichthyaeius. Fairly 
common. ^ 

Hodgson's Fishing-Eagle (1227), Folioaetus humilis. A few pairs extentr 
well into the plains along the rivers. 



152 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Brahminy Kite (1228), Haliastur mcZtts.— Rather uncommon. 
Common Pariah Kite (1229), Milvus ffovinda.— Common. 
Lar<re Indian Kite (1230), Milvus melanotis.—Gommon. 
Biack-vvuicred Kite (1232), Elanus creruhus.—^etiu occasionally _ 
Pale Harrier (1233), Circus macrunis.—A wintor visiter to the plains. 
Hen Harrier (1235), Circus cyaneus .—Common during the winter. 
Pied Harrier (1236), Circus melanoleucus.—Onr commonest harrier. Most 
individuals disappear during the rains, but a few are undoubtedly 
resident. O'Donel has notes showing birds met with during every 
month of the year. 
Marsh Harrier (1237), Circus (srur/inosus.— Uncommon. 
Common Buzzard (1241), Buteo desertorum.—Ohtained during the winter. 
The Shikra (1244), ^sfuf &ac^ms.—Ooramon. 
Crested Goshawk (1246) LopJwspizias trivirgatus. Shot by Inglis m the 

forest at Kuntimari at the end of January. 
The Sparrow-Hawk (1247), Accipiter nisus.- Uncommon. 
Besra Sparrow-Hawk (1248), Accipiter virgatus.—Vevy common. 
Crested Honey-Buzzard (1249), Per7iis cristMus.—YeTy common. 
Black-crested Baza (1251), Bazalophotes.—^ot uncommon in the plains. It 

is generally found in pairs but occasionally large parties are seen. 
[Blyth's Baza (1252), Baza jerdoni. — Only shot in the Terai.] 
t^eregrine Falcon (1254), Falco peregrinus. —Oht&ined near the larger rivers 

during the winter. 
Shahin Falcon (1255), Falco peregrinator. — Occasionally seen during the 

winter. 
Indian Hobby (1261), Falco sever us. — Uncommon in the plains but possibly 

resident as O'Donel has seen a bird as late as the 6th August. 
Fted-hearded Merlin (1264), Aesalon cUcqih^ra. — Not uncommon in the plains 

where it breeds during May and June. 
The Kestrel (1265), Tinmmculus alaudarius. — Common in the winter in the 

1' plains. 
Red-legged Falconet (1267), MicroTiierax eutolmus. — Not uncommon in the 
foothills. It does not extend very far into the plains. We have seen 
it capture a Ruby-throat. 
Bengal Green Pigeon (1271), Crocopus pJicenicopterus phcenicopterus. — Found 

in the forest but not so common there as it is in the open country. 
Ashy-headed Green Pigeon (1273), Osmoireron pompadora pihayrei. — Not 

uncommon. 
Orange-breasted Green Pigeon (1278), Osmotreron biscincta domvillii. — Not 

uncommon in the forest. 
Thick-billed Green Pigeon (1281), Treron nipalensis . — Not uncommon in 
the forest. Green Pigeons are very common round Kuntimari at 
certain seasons and Shebbeare has shot the above four species there. 
Pin-tailed Green Pigeon (L282), Sphenocercus apicauda. — Common in the 
plains and foothills. It breeds freely in the plains during April and 
May. 
Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon (1283), Sphenocercus spjienura. — Common in 
the hills, plains and foothills, possibly breeding in the plains as well as 
the hills. These two species are frequently found in the same flock 
known as the Kolcla. 
Green Imperial Pigeon (1284), Carpophaga oenea oznea. — Common in the 
plains and foothills, but not noticed in the hills round Buxa. It breeds 
in the plains. The Nepalese name is Hukus. 
Hodgson's Imperial Pigeon (1286), Ducula insignis insignis.— Common in the 
hills round Buxa and in the foothills. This is also called Hukus by the 
Nepalese. 



VERTEBRATES OF THE JALPAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL. 153 

Bronze-winged or Emerald Dove (1291), Chalcophaps indica. — Very common 
in the forest, of the plains. The Nepalese name is Sivi-duhur. 

Indian Blue Rock-Pigeon (1292), Columba livia intermedia. — Apparently 
only found in the cultivated southern part of the district. 

Ashy Wood-Pigeon (1301), Alsocomus 2)ulchricollis. — This has been shot by 
Mr. W. P. Field and by Shebbeare at Gorumara at an elevation of 
300 ft. as already recorded in No. 2, Vol. XXV of this Joonial. 

Indian Rufous Turtle-Dove (1304), Streploiidia turtu meena. — Very common 
in the paddy lands daring the cold weather. It is locally known as 
the "Bamboo dove". 

Indian Turtle-Dove (1305), Streptoj^elia turtiir ferraffo. — This has also been 
got along with the preceding species. 

Spotted Dove (1 307), StreptopeUa suratenais suratensis. — Exceedingly common 
in the open country. 

Indian Ring-Dove (1310), Sireplopelia risoria risoria. — Very common in the 
open country. 

Indian Red Turtle-Dove (1311), (Enopopelia tranqziebarica tranquebarica. — 
Very common in parts of the forest especially at (Jorumara and 
numbers are seen in the cold weather in the paddy lands at Kuntimari. 
The call note is a peculiar croaky sound. 

Burmese Red Turtle-Dove (131 la), CEnopojielia tranquebarica humilis. — 
Some birds approach this sub-species more than the last. 

Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove (1312), Macropijqia tusalia. — Common in the hills 
and extending well into the plains but only found in forest. The 
Bhutia name for it is Naiti. 

Common Pea-Fowl (1324), Pavo cristatus. — 'Very local. Common in parts of 
the district; more so to the east of the Torsa. Where common they 
breed freely. 

Grey Peacock-Pheasant (1327), Poli/pleclron bicalcaratum. — There are spe- 
cimens in the British Museum obtained by Mandelli in the Buxa 
and Bhutan Duars ; from the former locality in May and from the latter 
from February to May. Inglis has received, through the further 
generosity of Mr. Phillips, a male of this species. It was obtained 
in March about 4 miles S. E. of Buxa and at a height of 2,000 ft. or 
thereabouts. Every thanks are due to Mr. Phillips for the great 
interest and continued help he has given us in obtaining specimens of 
species, the occurrence of which we were doubtful. 

Burmese Jungle-Fowl (1328), GaJlus bnnklva bankiva.— Common everywhere 
in the forest and vicinity. Our birds appears to bo referable to this 
species, not having the white ear-lappet. 

Black-backed Kalij Pheasant (1338), Genna-us melanoyiotus.—Yery local but 
scattered in various places all over the northern part of the district 
in hills and pliins alike. It is seen as low as 329 feet above sea level 
and as far as 16 miles from the foothills. It usually haunts damp 
evergreen jhoras and without dogs is not often seen and when treed 
by them is rather difficult to spot^ Both O'Donel and Inglis have seen 
a Kalij with white bars on the rump on separate occasions, in the 
neighbourhood of Sivoke, and Shebbeare got a similar bird in the 
adjoining district of Goalpara which Mr. Stuart Baker considers a 
hybrid between Gennaus horsfieldi horsfieldi and Gennceus mdanonotvs. 
Xo pheasants with white bars on the rump have been seen by us in 
this district which lies between the above localities. 

The Monal (1342), LopJiophorus refidgens.—Snnder gives this as "found 
between Buxa and Sinchula, but rare." We have so far not been able 
to get it. 

~Blue-breasted Quail (1354), Excalfactoria cUnensis. 

20 



154 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL mST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Common or Grey Quail (1355), Coturnix communis. 

Biack-breasted or Rain Quail (1356), Cotumix coromandehca. 

Incriis ' Bush-Quail (1361a), Microperdix in^Ksj.— The type specimens were- 
"'procured in Goalpara ; there is an account of this bird m No. 1, Vol 
XIX of this Journal. Primrose has seen the bird m this district 
not far from the Torsa, and Shebbeare also believes he has seen it. 
There is a racrged skin in the British Museum said to have been 
aot in the Bhutan Duars. This is evidently the bird mentioned by 
lit -Col. Thornhill as shot by him at Alipur-Duar, vide, J. B. N. H. S., 
Vol. XV, p. bll. . ^ . ^^ 

Blyth's Hill-Bartridge (1363), Arhoricola rufigularis.— Common m the- 
undergrowch round Buxa, and the only Hill Partridge obtained 

by us. 
Red- breasted Hill-Partridge (1366), Arhoricola mandellii.Specmiens have 
been obtained in the Bhutan Duars in April, probably in this district, 
though we have been unable to get it. 
Black Partridge (1372), Frcmcolinus ndgaris.— This, like other Game Birds, 
is fast on the decrease. The Sonthal coolie, introduced in large- 
numbers from Chaibassa of late years, loves shikar and, according to 
Travers, many and many a partridge is run down by these people. 
Grey Partridge (1375), Francolinus pondicerianus. — ^Sundor says it is found 

in similar localities as those in which the Black Buck is got. 
Kyah or Swamp Partridge (1376), Francolinus gularis.— Getting scarce as 

suitable localities decrease. 

Burmese Bustard-Quail (1382), Turniv pugna.v j^lumbipes. — Resident and 

breeding in the tea during June and July. This bird has an excep- 

tionallyloud note in the breeding season onf, oof, oof, strongly boomed. 

[Little Button-Quail (1383), Turniv dussumieri.)^ Almost certain to occur.]' 

Indian Batton-Quail (1381), Turnix tanU to?i/l'i'.— Recorded from Bhutan 

Duars. A specimen in the British museum being got there in April. 
Blue-breasted Banded-Rail (1389), Hypotcenidia striata. 

Banded Crake (1395), Eallina suj)erciliaris. — For the past four years the 
call of a bird had been puzzling O'Donel during April and May and it 
was only this year that he was able to shoot it and found it to be 
this species. He found them inhabiting fairly thick jungle, the favourite 
place being light tree forest with scrub over which creepers hang. 
Judging from the number of birds heard calling they must exist in 
fair numbers. The note " Kok'" said through one's nose is the exact 
sound and is uttered during the late afternoon and at night and 
appears to be the breeding call as bird answers bird, and O'Donel 
firmly believes that it breeds here. It is easy to get close to the bird, 
but quite a different thing to see it as the grass is up in the scrub 
jungle at this time of the year. The above remarks were all given 
by O'Donel. 
[Brown Crake (1400), Amauronis akool — Only shot in Goalpara, but 

pi-obably got in the south of the district]. 
White-breasted Water-Hen (1401), Amatirornis pJiainicurus . — Common. 
[The Moorhen (1402), Oallinula chloropics. — Only shot in Goalpara, but 

certain to be found in the south of the district.] 
[Water Cock (1403), Gallicrex cinerea. — Only shot in Goalpara, but probably 

got in the jheels.] 
Purple Moorhen (1404), Porphyria poUocepalus. — Got in the jheels. 
[Great Indian Bustard (1414), Eupodotis edicardsi. — Sunder gives this as 
common in the grass jungle of high lands in the cold weather. This 
is most improbable as they have never been found nearly as far east- 
as this district.] 



VERTEBRATES OF THE JALRAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL, loo. 

Lesser Florican or Likh (1416), Si/pheotis aurifa. — Decidedly uncommon. 
Two were shot at Neora Nuddy tea garden and reported to Travers. 
This garden is not very far from Baradighi. O'Donel has recorded 
them from Hasimara in Vol. XXII, No. 1, page 201 of this Journal. 
He has only seen them in April, May and June. 

Bengal Florican (1417), Syjiheolis hengalensls. — This fine bird is steadily 
decreasing owing to the indiscriminate shooting of hens and the in- 
creasing acreage under tea. It breeds in March and April, the. 
eggs according to O'Donel, being often laid in tea and consequently 
destroyed during cultivation. One was shot near Kamshai during the 
X'mas week of 1918. 

Stone-Curlew (1418), CEdicnemus scoIoimx. — Common. 

Great Stone-Plover (1419), Esacus reciirvirostris. — Found on the larger rivers 
and breeds on the Sankos. 

Small Indian Pratincole (1427), Glareola lactea. — Common and breeds on^ 
the Sankos. 

Bronze-winged Jacana (1428), MetojiOcUus indicus. — Common in centre and 
south of the district. 

Pheasant-tailed Jacana [14'2':)), Hydrophasianus chirurgus. — Found in south 
of the district. 

Red-wattled Lapwiug (1431), Sarcogrammus indicus. — Very common. 

Indian Spur-winged Plover (I4oo), Hoplopterus ventralis. — Very common. 

Eastern Golden Plover (1439), Charadrius fulvtis. — Seen in open country. 

Grey Plover (1441), Squalarola helvetica. — Seen at Nilpara. 

Kentish Plover (1446), Mgialitis cdexandnna. 

Little liinged Plover (1447), Mgicditis duMa. 

Long-billed Hinged Plover ( 1449), JEgialitis placida. 

The Ibis-bill (14o;3), Ihidorhynclms struthersi. O'Donel has shot them on the 
Tista and Torsa rivers. He never saw them beyond two miles from 
the hills. 

Common Sandpiper {\-iQO), Totannshypoleucus. 

Wood Sandpiper (1461), Totem us glareola. 

Green Sandpiper (1462), Totanus ochropus. 

The Greenshank (1466), Totanus glottis. 

Little Stint (1471), Tringa viinuta. 

Temminck's Stint (J474), Tringa temmincld. 

The Woodcock (1482), Scolopax rusticola. — Woodcock are rarer in the Duars . 
than one would expect and although the district is not far from their- 
haunts in the hills, they seldom visit us in the cold weather. Travers 
has seen one and one was shot by Mr. Whitmore in the Nagrakata 
district. Mr. K. S. Hutchinson, d.i.g. Police, Jalpaiguri records ten 
birds put up twice in tiger beats at Gorumara on 11th and 12th April 
1920. This is exceedingly late for them to be in the plains; they 
should be pretty high up in the hills by then. 

Wood-Snipe (1483), Gallinago nemoricola.— According to sportsmen who have 
been in the district many years, this bird was commoner before so • 
much jungle was cleared for tea. O'Donel says it is apparently a 
very irregular winter visitor. He put up three while out shooting along 
a forest stream in November 1915 but although he has searched the 
same stream since then he has never seen any more. Travers has 
shot one and according to him it is very rare. Stuart Baker mentions • 
it as met with in Buxa and Jalpaiguri and that he got a bird shot m 
the swamps at the foot of the hills in May but we have found no- 
other records except those mentioned above. 

Common Snipe (1484), Gallinago coelestis. 



156 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

Pintail Snipe (1485), GalUnago stenura. 

Travers writes that this district is not one where large bags of 
snipe are made; iu the adjoining districts of Dinajpur and Rangpur 
they are far more numerous. Snipe arrive early in August and some 
remain as late as May, The 19th of August (Stuart Baker gives the 
12th August) and the 5th of May are the earliest and latest dates 
on which he has actually shot specimens, pintail, in both cases ; but he 
has seen birds a fortnight earlier and later. They have been reported 
to him in every month of the year and it is probable that a few do 
summer here and breed in the lower hills in Bhutan and within 
our limits. In V'ol. XXIV, No. 2, page 367 of this Joimial, Mr. 
Hodding wrote that he had caught, on the 12th August 1915, one 
out of three yoimg Fantail Snipe which were with one of their parents 
on a nearly submerged piece of grassland on the Tista m the Rangpur 
district. Travers states that snipe are more numerous in October 
and November and again in February and March, though in a few 
favourite places a few remain throughout the cold weather. Pintail 
remain longer that the fantail and the former are often foiind in scrub 
and thatching grass near a feeding ground that has dried to 
hardness. 

Himalayan Solitarj^ Snipe (1486), GalUnago solitaria. — With the exception 
of O'Donel's remarks, those on the Woodsnipe are the same for this 
species. 

•Jack Snipe (1487), GalUnago gallinu^a — Uncommon. 

Painted Snipe (1488), Bostrahda capensis. 

Indian River Tern (1508), Sterna siena. — Found on large rivers. 

Black-bellied Tern (1504), Sterna melanogaster. — Found on large rivers. 

White-shafted Ternlet (1509), Sterna smensis .—Shot on the Sankos. 

Indian Little Tern (1510), Sterna minuta gouldice. Seen on the Sankos. 

Indian Skimmer or Scissors-bill (1517), Bhynchops albicollis.—Oiten seen 
on the Sankos. 

Eastern White Pelican (1520 j, Pelecanus ) „j , 

roseus. I *Ve have once or twice seen flocks 

White or Roseate Pelican (1521), Pele-l ^^ °^^® or other of these peli- 
caniisonocrotalus.— ) °^^^^ during the cold weather. 

Large Cormorant (1526), Phalacrocorax carbo. — More common along forest 
streams, but occasionally seen on the upper reaches of the Torsa 
river. 

;[Indian Shag {'\ 527), Phalacrocorax fiiscicolUs. —Only seen in Goalpara.] 

Little Cormorant (1528), Phalacrocorax javanicus. — Very common every- 
where in the plains. 

Indian Darter or Snake-Bird (1529), Plotus melanogaster. 

Black-Stork (1547), Cicomanigrra. Observed near Nilpara. A few pairs 
seen on the larger rivers in winter. 

White-necked Stork (1548), Dissura episcopus. — A specimen in the British 
Museum from the Bhutan Duars was got in February. 

Black-necked Stork (1549), Xenorhynchus asiaticus .—Gommori in the beds 
of the rivers and apparently resident. 

The Adjutant (1550), Leptoptilus diibius. 

Lesser Adjutant (1551), Leptoptilus javanicus . 

Eastern Purple Heron {lo54:),Ardeamanillensis. 

•Great White-bellied Heron {l557),Ardeainsignis.~Vncommon and keeping 
to the larger nvers and those runningthough forest. O'Donel remarks 
that it disappears from the plains during the rains and that it generally 
feeds at dusk, but also occasionally does so at mid-day 

.Large Egret (1559), Herodias alba.— 'Not uncommon. 



VERTEBRATES OF THE JALPAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL. 15? 

Smaller Egret (1560), Herodias intermedia. — A specimen in the BritisL 

Museum was got in January. 
Cattle Egret [Ib^'l), BuhuUus coromandus. — Very common. 
Pond Heron (1565), Ardeola grayi. — Very common. 
Little Green Heron (1^67), Butorides javanica — Very common. 
Night Heron (1568), Nycticorax grisevs. 
Chestnut Bittern (1572). Ardetia cinnamomea. — Common. 
[Black Bittern (1573), Dujpetor flamcollis . — Shot in Goalpara and believed 

to be found in this district.] 
The Bittern (1574), Botnurus stellaris. — Sunder gives it as found on banks- 
and churs of large rivers and jheels. We have never seen it in this- 
district. 
Grey Lag Goose (1579), Anser ferus. — 1 
Red-billed Goose (1579a), Anser rubri- > Rare, one of these geese is found.. 

rostris. — j 

Barred-headed Goose (1583), Anser indicus. — Rare. Geese are occasionally 
seen on the Tista and we believe they have also been seen away 
from the river. 
Comh'Dvick {\oS'i), Sarcidiornis melanonotus. — One specimen in the British 

Museum from the Sikkim Terai. 
[White- winged Wood-Duck (1585), Asarcornis scidulatus. — Inglis' collector 
saw a duck on the Neora river. He said it was about the size of a 
Comb-duck but brown below. It could not have been a Comb-duck as 
the man knows that bird well and the only bird Inglis thinks it could 
have been is this species.] 
Ruddy Sheldrake or Brahmiuy Duck (1588), Casarca ruiila. — Common on 

larger rivers. 
Whistling Teal (1589), Dendrocycna javanica. — Resident and very common, 

breeding freely in the district. 
Large Whistling Teal (1590), Dendrocycna fulva. — Rare. Travers records one 
shot at Borara and a pair were also seen there which flew off in 
company with a large flock of the common whistling teal. 
Cotton Teal (1591), Nettopus coromandeliamis . — R'ssident and very common. 

It breeds in the district. 
The Mallard (1592), Anas boscas. — Large bags of ducks are not made in this- 
district. Travers says they are got in large numbers in the adjoining 
district of Dinajpur and Rangpur and also that many speoies of duck 
remain upon little ponds and lakes in October and early November 
and then depart for the south. A few Mallards are seen in October and 
are rarer after November, and after December they probably proceed 
south. 
Falcated Teal (1594), Eunetta falcata. — Travers records a bird shot at 
Borara and a couple were shot a few miles to the south of the district.. 
These birds are probably commoner than they are supposed to be as 
unless drakes are shot one seldom hears of them. 
The Gadwall (1595), Chaulelasmus streperus. — Some years these duck are 
far more plentiful than others and a fair proportion are sometimes 
obtained. 
Common Teal (1597), Nettimn crecca. — This is the commonest of the true 

teal and large flocks are seen during migration in April. 
The Wigeon (1599), Mareca penelope. — Not common. Single birds are 

often seen. 
The Pintail (1600), Do^Za acuta. — Large flocks are found in March upon 

the larger rivers. 
Garganey or Blue-Winged Teal (1601), Querquedula circia. — Not as coromoru 
as the common teal, but large flocks are seen at migration time. 



.158 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVJL 

The Shoveller (1602), Spaiida chjpeaia. — Not uncommon. 

Red-crested Pochard (16*04), Ncttarufina. — Not frequently shot. 

The Pochard (160o), Nyrocaferina. — Not rare. 

White-eyed Duck (1606), Nijroca ferruginea. — The commonest non-resident 
duck. It comes early and stays late and in this district is a fair table 
bird. 
' Tufted Duck (1609), N yr oca fuligula. — Shot in fair numbers. 

The Goosander (1613), Mercjanser castor. — Very common on the larger rivers, 
but not generally seen more than 13 miles from the hills, though on 
the Sankos they occur a good deal further ofl:'. O'Donel has seen full 
plumage drakes in December. They take a heavy toll of the fish in the 
rivers and Travers has seen them in a line across the shallows of a 
stream and their crops are always, in those shot, crammed full of fi.sh. 

Indian Little Grebe {\^\1), Podicipes albipennis. — Occurs in the south. 

Crocodile.'S. 

The Gharial (1), Gavialls gangeticus. — Mostly found in the. south, where it 
attains a very large size in the Sankos. 

Tortoises. 

\Trionyx gangeticus (o), According to Dr. Annandale this tortoise is likely to 

occur but we have not observed it.] 
\Trionyx leithii (6), The same remark applies to this'species.] 
Trionyxhurum (7). 
Chitra indica (12). 
Emyda granosa (13). 
Testudo elongata (16). 
Geomyda indopeninsularis . 
Geoniyda tricarinata (25). 

[Cyclemys dhor (27), According to Dr. Annandale this is also likely to occur. 
Kachuga tectum (42). 

Lizards. 

Hemidactyhis gleadovii (86), Known as the "tiktiki." 
■ Gecko verticillatus (103), Known as the " tuktu " or gecko. 
Common Bloodsucker. (145) Calotes versicolor. —Known as the " bloodsucker." 
Veranus spp. .?— At least one monitor lizard (goi-sanp), erroneously called 

iguana, <>ccurs, probably more than one. 
Mabuia carinata (211). 

Snakes. 

TypMops jerdoni (27), There is a specimen in the Indian Museum from Buxa 

Duars. 
Burmese Blind Snake (276), TypMops diardi.~One obtained by Capt. K. 

L. W. Mackenzie at Buxa, and Col. Wall recorded another which 

Mr. Jacob obtained in the Jalpaiguri district. 
• Common Python (286), PytJion moluncs. —Common in certain localities It 

grows to a large size, an 18 feet specimen was recorded by Major 

Begbie as got m Tondu forest which had swallowed a leopard. One 

was captured some years ago at Baradighi with a recently swallowed 

barking deer inside it. 
Shaw's Wolf Snake (348), Lycodonjara. 

Common Wolf Snake (351), Lycodonaulicv.s.~YeTY common in bungalows. 
■Collared Dwarf Snake (363), PohjodontopUs collaris.—A single example 

was obtained by Capt. K. L. W. Mackenzie at Buxa and three from 

other parts of the District by Mr. Jacob. 



VERTEBRATES OF THE JALPAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL. 159 

Striped Kukri Snake (376), Simotzs cydurus. — Very common, brick red 

and brown coloured varieties are obtained. 
"White-banded Kukri Snake (377), Simotes albocinctus. — Capt. Mackenzie 

obtained four examples at Buxa. 
Indian Eat Snake (397), Zamenis mucosus. — Common, 
Trinket Snake (406), Coluber Helena. 

Striped-necked Snake (410), Coluber radiatus. — Two were obtained by- 
Captain Mackenzie at Buxa. 
Ring-tailad Dhaman, Coluber cantoris. — A single example was obtained by 

Mr. Jacob. 
Golden Tree Snake (463). Chrysopelea ornata. — Mr. Jacob obtained a single 

example and Capt. Mackenzie got one at Buxa. Travers get one in 

a coolies' house. 
Eastern Bronzeback (417) Dendropliis pictus. 
Dibrugarh Bronzebaclc, DendrojMs proarchos. 
Indian Bronzed -backed Tree Snake, Dendrelaphis fristis. 
Malayan Bush Snake (431), Tropidonotus subminiatus. — Obtained by Capt. 

K. L. W. Mackenzie at Buxa. 
Himalayan Bush Snake (432), Tropodonotus himalayanus. — Recorded from 

Buxa. 
Hooded Tree Snake (422), Pseudoxenodon macrops. 
Buft'-striped Keelback (434). Tropodonotus stolatus. 
Chequered KeeJback (435), Tropodonutus piscator. 
Arrow-backed Cat Snake (447), Dipsadomorphus gohool. 
Grey Cat Snake, (449), Dipsadomorphus hexagonatus. — Recorded from Buxa 

and also got by Travers. 
Black-baired Cat Snake, Dipsadomorphus cynodon. 
Indian Egg Eating Snake, ( 45'^), Elachistodon loestermanni. — Two specimens 

of this very rare snake were obtained by Travers. 
Mock Himalayan Viper, (453). Psammodynastes pulverulentus. — Two examples 

were obtained by Capt. Mackenzie at Buxa. Travers got at Baradighi . 
Malayan Whip Snake (460), Dryophis ptrasinus. 
Common Green Whip Snake (461), Dryophis mycterizans. 
Schneider's Water Snake (467), Hypsiryhina enhydris. — -Recorded from Jal- 

paiguri by Wall. 
Banded Krait (484), Bimr/arys fasciatus. — Mr. Jacob shot a specimen 

attacking a Dipsadomorphus cynodon. Travers has got several spe- 
cimens 
Common Krait (482), Bungarus candidus. — Rare in the Duars. 
Lesser Black Krait. Bungarus lividus. \ A record specimen of lividzis 41" 
Black Kra.it, Bungarus niger. jlong was captured at Baradighi. 

These Black Kraits are found in fair numbers, but no case has been 

known of any coolie having been bitten by either of them. 
The Cobra (485), Naia tripudians. — Duars Cobras are generally monocellate, 

though spectacled specimetis are occasionally met with. 
King Cobra (486), Naia bungarus. — 'Rare. An 8'-8-|" specimen pursued 

some coolies for a short distance at Baradighi. When killed a large 

monitor lizard was found inside. 
Russell's Viper (-520), Vipera russelU. 
Comon Green Pit Viper (581), Zachesis gramineus. 

Batrachians. 

Indian Bull Frog (16), Ranatigrina. 

Common Indian Toad (115), Bu;fo melanostictus.— This toad frequently enters 
bungalows. 



160 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVII.. 



Fish. 



(Singi, Beng.) (133), Saccobranclms fossilis. 

(Bo\vali, Beng.) (134), Wallago attu. 

(Bachwan, Hind.) (135), Eutropiichthys vacha. 

(Tengra, Beng.) (172), Macrones hleekeri. 

(Bagara, Beng. ; Crunch, Hind.) (207), Bagarius yarrelli. 

[Gagata batasio (224).— Recorded from the Tista ri^er, not observed by iis.] 

[Nemachilus corica (2o.3).— Recorded from N. E. Bengal, not observed by us.] 

[Psilorhnncm halltom (278).— Recorded from hill streams and rapids in 
N. E. Bengal, not observed by us.] 

[Oreinus richardsonii (2S3).— Recorded from Sub-Himalayan range and 
Bhutan, not observed by us.] 

(Rohu, Hind.) (297), Labeo rohita. 

(Denkara, Beng. ; Gobi, Oep.) Lahio pangusia. 

(Tehr., Nep.) Laheo sp.— A hill stream species, so far not identified. 

CirrJiina reba (3-;3). 

(Darangni, Mech.) (326), Semiphtus macdellandi. 

(Dowka, Mech.) (339), Barbus chagunio. 

Barbus sarana (341). 

Barbus dukai {3h2). — Recorded from the Tista, not observed by us. 

(Sor-masa, Nep. ; Jungi-Mas., Beng.) (353), Barbus tor. — There appears ta 
be three varieties of Mahseer ia this district, t«'o of which are dis- 
tinguished by colour alone, the first being lighter, silver and gold, the^ 
second darker, slate and copper approaching the colour of B. hexas- 
tichus, and the third known by its elegant shape and neat mouth 
The first type is everywhere the commonest, though in the Sankos, the 
second is fairly common ; the third t'ype is least common ; it has been. 
caught in the Jaldhaka and, I thin!:, in the Torsa and Sankos. 

(Katli, Nep. ; Baluk, Beng.) (354) , Barbus hexastichus . — The fish which we 
get here does not quite tally with the description in the Fauna, the 
fins being slaty-blue and with no reddish tinge in the caudal and anal. 
In a freshly caught fish the scales above the lateral row are almost 
exactly the colour of a freshly minted penny and their bases are 
bronze-green ; those below the lateral row are white with a faint blue- 
green wash. The upper part of the head is dark olive, almost black, 
fading to white on the underside. 

Barbus chola (374). 

Barbus conchonius (389). 

(Dankoni. Beng.) (411), Rasbora daniconius. 

Basbora buclmnani (412). 

(Katal-Kusi, Nep., Kursha, Beng.) (413), Aspidoparia morar. 

Barilius bendelisis (426). 

(Na-musha, Mech.) (431), Barilius birna. 

Bariliusbola (435). — Sometimes known as the '"' hill trout."' 

[Danio CBquipinnatiis. (439). — Observed in the adjoining Terai by Inglis.] 

[Danio dangila (440). — Ob.served by Inglis in the adjoining Terai.] 

I Danio rerio (443). — Observed by Inglis in the adjoining Terai.] 

(Moh., Hind., (519). — Notopterus kapirat. 

(Kowa, Hind. (536). — Belone cancila. 

Ambassis nama (628) "J 

Ambassis ranga (629) >One or more of these species occur. 

Ambassis baculis (630) ) 

(Tota, Beng.) (827), Nandus marmoratus. 

(Turi, Beng.) (1159), Mastacembelus armatus. 

(Sal-Mas., Beng.) (1203), OpUoceplialus striatus.—YLnown as murreL 



hRTEBRATES OF THE JALPAIGURI DISTRICT, BENGAL. 161 

[Ophiocephalus punctatus (1206). — We think this species is found.] 

Anabas scandens (1208). — Known as the climbing perch. 

{Osphromenus nohilis (1211). — Recorded from N. E. Bengal, not observed 

by us.] 
Tetrodon cutcutia (1406). 

"We append a list of native names of fish given by Sunder in his Settle- 
ment Eeport with the hopes that some member may be able to let us 
know to what fish they refer. We mention what we think some of them 
maybe : — 

Chital. (Probably 520), Notopterus chitala. 

Chandan Koorsha. 1 ,t~, ., , „„-^ -^ , , ,„^-^ ^ 

Pani Koorsha } (Possibly ^95), Labeo yomus and (305), Labeo anr/ra 

Baos or Kalbaos ('293), Labeo calbasu. 

Soul. (1198), Ophiocephalus marulius. 

Airh. 

Bag Airh, 

Magur. (121), Clarias macjur. 

Moja Tengr.i. ~j 

Lallua Tengra. V Macrones s^. 

Kooji Tengra. j 

Taki, Sati of Toopkooni. 

Khoilsha. 

His or Ilsa. (Probably 470), Clupea ilisha. This is only found here 

in bazars. 
Elanga. Danio sp. ? 
Kuchia. (70), Amphipnous cuchia. 

"M ■ Vi ]i ' ( 0"6 of these is probably (135), Eutropiichthys vacha, 

Foli. 

Pabdd. (138), CaUichrous bimaculatusov (\-k), Callichrous pabda. 

Khata, viz., Buna Khata and Deo Khatta. 

Katna. 

Khotti. (Perhaps (417), Rohtee cotio. 

Bhot Khotti. 

Borelli. 

Dudua Cheng. A 

Hooloo Cheng. I Possibly Ophiocephalus sp. 

Boora Cheng. J 

Barra Isla. , 

S?;^^!\^f*- ( Asia is theNepalese for (283), Oreinusrichardsonii. 
Bhath Isla. f r \ j) 

Kala Isla. ; 

Bairn. (Perhaps 1159), Mastaceinbelus armatus. 

Koochia. (70), Amphipnous cuchia. 

Tara Koochia. 

Ohoota Gochi. 

Falua Gochi. 

Tooree Gochi. Turi is the Bengal for (1159) Mastacembelus armatus, 

Balia. 

Batasi. (150), Pseudeutropius atherinoides. 

Darika. 

Bhol. 

Tepa. Tetrodon sp. 

Pangas. 

Chella. (Perhaps 449), Chela gora. 

Puti. Various small species of Barhus. 

21 



162 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Baspata. (143), Ailia coila. 

Khorsola. {IQl), Macrones corsula. 

Ahela. 

Cheku. 

Baghi. (Probably 230), Botia dario. 

Poya. 

Ghoor poya. 

Jhuri poya. 

Moogroosh. 

Ghora. (449), Chela gora ? 

Pogol. 

Dhakra. 

Badangi or Chapti. 

Lengsa. 

Tita. 

Khoota. 



163 J 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

No. I.— TIGER AND GOAT. 

In the Deccan, at any rate, it is uncommon, I believe, for a tiger to be 
attracted by a goat, so the following incident is perhaps worth mentioning. 
One January evening my daughter and I went out to sit up for a 
panther a mile or so from our camp in the Hyderabad Districts. The 
machan was placed on a thickish tree in a glade amid fairly heavy jungle. 
After we were seated, a flock of goats was driven in due course along the 
foot of the hill, where the panther was supposed to live, and came up behind 
our tree, bleating lustily. A kid was quickly seized and tied up to a 
stump in the glade, and the rest of the flock passed on feeding leisurely 
back in the direction of the village, while the men in charge kept calling 
as they went, in accordance with the usual procedure to give the panther 
the idea that the goat left behind was a casual straggler. 

The flock had not gone much more than 100 yards when my daughter, 
her attention attracted by a slight rustling to the rear, nudged me and 
whispered "Big Tiger!" Glancing back over my shoulder, there sure 
enough, I saw, not the spots of the panther we were expecting, but the 
stripes of a full-grown tiger, which was striding stealthily along — ears cocked, 
and a beautiful picture of alert concentration — in the direction of our 
machan. Passing out of sight beneath us for an instant, the tiger then 
ran rapidly on to the kill. My daughter in her anxiety to save the goat 
fired at the tiger tail-on, rather too soon to get a picked shot, and the beast 
bounding oft' into the long f^rass it became a case of driving in a herd of 
buffaloes the next day, but that is another story. 

The goat, it may be mentioned, was saved by the skin of its teeth, 
receiving only one claw mark, as the tiger reached out to seize it. 

When the incident was dicussed afterwards, one well-known old 
shikari of the neighbourhood was inclined to scout the idea that any tiger 
would follow up a flock of goats in this fashion. The shikari of the village, 
however, expressed no surprise and said he knew the tiger in question 
well as a brute which would go for anything from frogs in the tank to- 
dogs, goats, or even a man. 

The Residexcy, Hyderabad, Deccan, S. M. FRASER. 

January 1920. 

No. II.— LENGTH OF TIGERS AND PANTHERS. 

[n No. 3, Volume XXVI of the Journal, H. H. The Maharaja of Dhar 
gives some notes on the length of tigers and panthers, shot in his State. 
It would be interesting to know how the measurements were taken. Such 
measurements cannot be considered satisfactory unless taken in a straight 
line between pegs, the tail being measured separately. Measurements 
round curves must always be unreliable, as no two people are likely to 
make them alike. His Highness specifies a tigress 9 feet 10 inches in 
length. 1 find my longest tiger recorded as 9 feet 8 inches in length, and 
tigress 8 feet 6 inches. Out of a long series carefully measured only two 
of each sex reached even those lengths. Tails are generally three feet, an 
inch or two more or less. Measurements were taken in a straight line 
between pegs driven into the ground at the nose and root of the tail. 
Measurements of skulls in a straight line between uprights from end to end 
and across the zygomatic arches should also be taken. 

In Volume XX of the Journal the length of a panther shot by a villager 
in Tehri State is given as 9 feet 3 inches, bui it is not stated how it was 
measured. 

Baffoed Grange, Cheltenham, R. G. BURTON, Brig.-Genl. 

December 1919. 



164 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

No. III.— TIGERS IN TREES. 

With regard to Mr, Monteath's note on this subject in Journal No. 3, 
Volume XXVI, some interesting instances of tigers climbing trees are 
civen in the Bengal Quarterly Sporting Review for 1843. Two similar 
mstances are also recorded by " Teutonius " in the India Sporting Review 
of 1856. But the most remarkable instance is related in graphic detail in 
the South of India Observer in 1870, when Colonel Christie and Mr. Hadow 
shot a tigress out of a tree that was perpendicular for 25 feet from the 
ground and about a foot in diameter. The tigress climbed the tree twice 
during the hunt, which took place near Ootacamund. 

R. G. BURTON, Col. 

December 1919. 



No. IV.— SCENT. 



A fox-hunter writes to the Times that the scent of the fox emanates 
from a sub-caudal gland, and not from the pads, as is commonly supposed. 

This opens up an interesting, though unsavoury, field for enquiry. It is 
probable that all cauine species are similarly provided, and observation 
might elicit whether this is characteristic of all animals. 

In following up a wounded Indian wild dog in the Melghat Forest in 
1891, I observed a strong ammoniac secretion, which had exuded on to the 
tail, and the scent of which could be detected from a distance. When the 
dog was brought to bag, an aboriginal Kurku, observing this, remarked 
that in pursuing its prey the wild-dog flicks poison with its tail into the 
eyes of its victim, thus blinding the animal. The Kurkus were eager to 
obtain the wild dog's liver to make medicine, ascribing to it aphrodisiac 
properties. 



R. G. BURTON, Col. 



10^/i December 1919. 



No. v.— FOOD OF THE GREY MUSK SHREW {GROCIDURA 

G^RULEA). 

According to Blanford (Mammalia, Fauna of British India), the food of 
-this shrew consists mainly of insects and he says that " experiments made 
by Anderson on individuals kept alive by him showed that they refused to 
touch any kind of grain, but devoured insects, especially cockroaches, 
freely and he found no vegetable food of any kind in the stomachs of 
several he examined". I have recently had a large number of these 
shrews caught in my garden, as I found small holes made in the grass lawn . 
As a result 1 have caught more than 40 of these shrews and in several 
oases the bait in the traps— Cocoanut— was in the mouth of the shrew when 
the trap killed it. The holes in the lawn appear to be made for the pur- 
pose of digging up the roots of the ' bimli ' grass and I found a lot of this 
grass lying on the ground, bitten ofi just below the surface of the ground 
The roots of the 'bimli ' are bulbs which go down several inches into the 
ground and it may have been these bulbs that the shrews were after 

In any case I think it conclusively proves that these shrews also eat 
v«-^getable matter. 

W. S. MILLARD. 
Bombay, Malabae, Hill, 

Bth April 1920. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 165 

No. VI.— EXPECTED PLAGUE OF FIELD RATS IN 1920. 

With reference to Mr. L. J. Sedgwick's note at p. 661 of Vol. 
XXVI of our Journal on the above subject, and Mr. J. Davidson's 
note on the same at p. 1041 of the same volume, through the kindness 
of The Hon'ble Mr. P. J. Mead, c. i.e., i.e. s., I have been favoured with an 
inspection of these records from the Bombay Secretariat — Part II, P. W. D., 
Famine Relief Works — Destruction of rats in the Eastern Deccan, October 
1879 to May 1880 — and a perusal of these records furnish some interesting 
details which I give below. 

History of the Plague of Field Rats after the Famine of 1877-78. 

The Rat Plague appears to have been confined to the area known during 
the last famine (1877-78) as famine districts, viz. — 

Nasik. Satara. Kaladgi (Bijapur). 

Khandesh. Sholapur. Belgaum. 

Poena. Ahmednagar. Dharwar. 

The remaining nine districts of the Presidency, namely, 

Ahmedabad, Surat, Kolaba, 

Broach, Kaira, Ratnagiri, 

Panch Mahal, Thana, Kanara, 

having been altogether free from this pest. 

Dates of commencement of Rat-plague. 

The appearance of these vermin seems to have first attracted notice in 
November 1878 in the Sholapur Collectorate and in the ending of December 
of that year they appeared also in Kaladgi Collectorate. The Collector 
of Poena dated theic first appearance as late as February 1879, and they 
occurred at the same time in Ahmednagar District. I cannot find any trace 
of when they were first noticed in Dharwar, the district which sufi'ered most 
from this visitation. 

The Collector of Kaladgi (Mr. Middleton) states that "the heavy 
rainfall during the later monsoon had fostered the growth of weeds in the 
crops which otherwise promised an abundant harvest but for the appear- 
ance of rats. For many years there had not been a year in which they 
could have done so much damage as they did this year (1879). The 
crop was far above the average and the loss was on that account greater. 
The origin of the plague is not satisfactorily accounted for. Superstition 
attributed it to the vengeance of the famine victims whose ghosts returned 
in the form of rats to claim the food for want of which they had perished. 
A more credible cause is that the rats, which always abound, found safety 
and were able to breed in enormous numbers on the fields formerly 
cultivated but left waste by the deaths of the cultivators during the two 
previous years. They found shelter while their enemies, the birds of prey, 
had not increased in equal numbers. Snakes which are useful in^destroy- 
ing rats had probably decreased owing to the absence in 1876-77 of the 
grass and vegetation which are necessary to conceal them. ' 

Breeding Season. 

The plague of rats appears to have temporarily increased after the 
breeding season at the close of the monsoon, 1879. 

The first letter in reference to the decrease of the pest is from the 
Collector of Sholapur to the Commissioner, Central Division, Poona, dated 
3rd October 1879 and mentions that " the number of these vermins had 
d ecidedly decreased. Formerly one Waddar would bring m 70 to 80 in a 



166 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

day, but now the same man will only get perhaps 20. This is so far satis- 
factory, but I would point out that the present is the breeding season and 
that in each hole may be found nests of young rats which was not the 
case in the hot weather or even in July." 

As regards the breeding season, Mr. Elphinstone, Acting Collector of 
Dharwar" in a letter to the Commissioner, S. D., dated 3rd November 1879, 
says : " the breeding season for rats has commenced a few weeks ago and 
that in consequence enormous numbers of them are now being killed." 
He goes on to say that the season is very favourable for cotton sowing 
*' and it would be a pity to endanger what will otherwise be a bumper crop 
by allowing the rats, which destroyed the American cotton last season, 
to multiply, which they are still likely to do if the period of rewards is 
not extended one fortnight longer, say to the 30th instant." In a subse- 
quent letter, dated 6th November 1877, from Mr. J. Elphinstone, it is 
stated that the number of rats killed during the week ending the 1st 
November had " again increased to the enormous number of 360,680 and 
if the period for killing rats is not extended to the end of December the 
havoc caused by these vermin among the rabi crops is likely to be very 
great. If Government withheld help at this critical time all the money 
that has been extended by Govermnent up to the present moment may be 
lost. The breeding season of rats has commenced in real earnest and 1 
am informed by the District Officers here that the great numbers that are 
killed, nearly all are young rats." 

A Government Resolution, dated 13th October 1879, runs as follows : — 
" Owing to the enormous numbers of rats which still threaten the 
crops in the Dharwar districts, no less than 412,024 having been 
destroyed in the week ending 27th September 1879, Government are 
pleased to extend the period of rewards for the extermination of these 
vermin up to the 15th November 1879." 

Terminatiojs^ of the Eat-plagub. 

The plague of rats diminished about the end of November 1879 and 
terminated about January 1880. 

Species op Rats. 

There appears to have been three species of rats concerned. The 
Collector of Sholapur reported that " he saw in January 7th, 1879, fields, 
especially those with groundnuts, completely burrowed by rats and what- 
ever crop was obtainable was that which was dug out of the burrows. The 
rats were of three species, a small black rat, a larger one and a brown rat 
or Jerboa. The last is by far the most destructive and it is a serious ques- 
tion for the future if it lives and multiplies. It digs its hole or burrow on 
higher uplands and in hard soil so that it may not be affected by rain and 
drowned. The other rats frequent black soil and perish during the rains." 

The Collector of Nasik (Mr. Ramsey) reported that he did not consider 
the vermin to be a rat, but a species of Jerboa, a purely grain eating animal 
which is found more or less in the Deccan. He attributed this sudden 
appearance to the exhaustion of the grain stores in underground preserves, 
termed " Peos " on which these animals used formerly to subsist, and failing 
this they betook themselves to standing crops. 

Damage catjsed by the Eats. 

The damage done by these pests was enormous. The Collector of 
Kaladgi wrote that " the devastation committed by rats was so great that 
m February 1879, immigrants poured into Kaladgi from the Nizam's 
territory and relief works were opened in April 1879. It was expected 
that the rats would perish in the heavy rains of the monsoon, but the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 167 

■rains held off nntil past the middle of July, and when the fields were sown 
the seed was scratched up and devoured by rats." 

Methods of extermination. 

Various methods were resorted to in endeavouring to exterminate the 
rats. 

The Collector of Poona (Mr. Richey) reported in July and August, 1879: 
" Phosphorous paste balls were tried for their destruction in the Indapur 
taluka, but were found to be utterly ineffectual." 

The Collector of Ahmednagar (Mr. King) stated that endeavours were 
made to extirpate the rats with the Burmese method of catching them and 
also by suffocating them with fumigation, but neither succeeded. 

The Collector of Sholapur writes : " other methods such as by asphyxa- 
tion and sulphur squibbs were also tried. They were successful as far as 
they went but would have suited more for a farmstead than for wide 
country. The disappearance cf rats is traced to — 

1. Their destruction by the above modes. 

2. Rain having choked their holes. 

3. A species of vermin or tick which has killed them off." 

The most effective of the various measures appears to have been the 
catching of the rats by the Waddars. 

The Collector of Poona writing in reference to this says : " the only agency 
for their destruction in great numbers was that of the Waddars. These 
were at first reluctant to offer their services in the hope that the reward of 
one rupee per 100 rats killed would be increased, but when they were 
refused employment on relief works, they took to rat killing. The des- 
tructive operations continued in this district till 27th December 1879 ; 
when the total number killed stood at 365,766 at a cost to Government of 
Rs. 3,643-13-1." 

In a letter, dated 3rd November 1879, Mr. Elphinstone, Assistant Col- 
lector of Dharwar, writes : " Waddars employed are the only people who 
are able to do much execution among the rats. The rats destroyed the 
American cotton last season, the breeding season for rats commenced a few 
weeks ago and enormous numbers are in consequence now being killed." 

On the 20th January 1880 he reported that rewards were only paid after 
comparison with the rats or rats tails which were burnt or cut in pieces and 
buried ia the presence of the Mamletdars or the head Karkuns. 

Total ncmbee of Rats killed. 
The following shows the number of rats killed in the different districts :— 
Districts. S,ats hilled. 

Nasik 243,551 

Khandesh 



Poona . 
Satara . 
Sholapur 
Ahmednagar 



4,742 

365,766 

29,427 

1,163,019 

1,767,414 

Kaiadgi (Bijapur) 4,130,209 

Belgaum 135,226 

Uharwar 7,132,453 



Total .. .. 14,971,807 

I give below extracts from the opinions as to the methods adopted 

for the extermination of the rats. a *■ a 

Report made by the Acting First Assistant Collector, Dharwar, dated 

February 2nd, 1880 : "That this marvellous decrease in the numbers ot 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

rats had resulted from the measures taken in consequence of this issue of 
the Government's order about rewards cannot well be doubted. On aU 
sides I am told so, as if it were a matter that admitted of no doubt what- 
ever. The cultivators as a body are (it would appear) assured that it is. 
so." 

The Collector of Kaladgi writes (21st February 1880) : ''The destruc- 
tion of rats brought about by the offer of rewards was most beneficial.. 
They might perhaps have died afterwards from natural causes but they 
were killed sooner and the destruction of upwards of 4 millions of rats, 
must have saved the crops to a vast extent. Besides the payment of 
their rewards enabled large number of people who would otherwise have^ 
been thrown back on Relief works to support themselves and the money 
was as profitably spent as any sums were during the famine." The total 
number of rats killed in the Kaladgi district was 4,130,209. Total rewards 
paid Rs. 40,437-7-9. 

The Collector of Ahmednagar (Mr. King) was by no means sure that 
their numbers were very appreciably reduced by artificial means. He 
writes : " Rain is very effectual in killing the vermin either by drowning or 
causing the soil to swell and to close the burrows. Frost in November and 
December also appears to have killed them." 

The Commissioner, Central Division ( Mr. Robertson), " was told that 
shortly after the rains, in many villages in the Shrigonda taluka, large 
numbers of rats were seen dead outside, and even in their holes, covered 
with a species of tick which appears to have killed them in large numbers. 
Ticks do not attach themselves to dead bodies. On enquiry it was report- 
ed that red ticks fastened themselves on the rats while alive and caused 
their deaths." 

The Collector of Poona writes : "the plague has now ( 21 February 1880) 
ceased and in the Collector's opinion the rapid fall in niimbers killed is not 
owing to rats having been virtually exterminated but is probably due ta 
natural causes." 

The Collector of Sholapur considers that if the rats had not been killed 
the plague would have ceased all the same but the damage would have 
been far greater. Possibly the later monsoon rain killed them off, but 
Mr. Spry is sceptical as to the tick theory. 

Khandesh, Satara and Belgaum suffered much less than the other dis- 
tricts referred to. 

It appears from the above facts that the concensus of opinion was that 
the cessation of the plague of rats was due to natural causes and not to the. 
measures which were taken by Government to exterminate them, but it is 
admitted that the measures by which some 15 million rats were destroyed 
provided relief for starving people and that they probably saved a large 
amount of damage to the crops. It is not clear that the ticks were the 
cause of the rats' disappearance. In regard to the anticipated plague in 
the cold weather of 1920-1921, the question arises is pretention possible 
now? Would It be worth while to employ the Waddars m one or more of 
the districts which was most affected by the famine of 1918-19 to catch the 
rats now m order to prevent a plague occurring next cold season ? 
<xr.p7i^ iT 1 '^r^ y^'''^ ''"'' ^"^"^^y ^^" b«^^ carrying on elicited a. 
KTt r 'J^Tr?'"''?™^*^^^^^*^*^'^ ^^"«"« species of rats found 
tWp.S ? hke to endorse Mr. Kinnear's appeal that specimens of all 
tlLllL >:"]""' f.t""-^^^^ by determining to what 

ZIZ^^Z ^J.^'^.'^gf^'^^^heir life history, it may be possible that in the 

otrri:gfn%STr:ticwr^^ "^^^'^ '^'-'''^ '^ p---^ -«^ pi^g-^ 



Bombay, March 1920. 



Presidency. 

W. S. MILLARD. 



i 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 169' 

No. VII.— FEMALE BLACK-BUCK {A. CEBVICAPRA) WITH HORNS. 




I enclose photo of a freak Black-buck doe shot by me in the Mainpnr 

District (U. P.) in 1908 I am sure the photo 

will interest members of the Society. 



Fategakh, U. p., 
31st January 1210. 



E. G. BROWNE. 



'■■€ 

•mmmm 


1, 


j 

i 


r 


tt' 


i 


I 


_.! 1 



[We publish the photo of another head of a female o^^ Black-buck with 
horns received from Mr. G. J. Griparis. The animal was shot by hmi at 
Amraoti, Berar. Further instances of this nature are recorded in our 
Journal, Vol. XXIII, page 354— Eds.] 
22 



170 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV 21. 



No. VIII.— ABNOKMAL SAMBHAR HORN. 




^'I enclose a photograph of an abnormal Sambhar Antler in the possession 
of E, A. Sweetenham, Esq., of the Somerford Orchard, Ramgarh, Naini Tal 
District, U. P. He got it from a man at the foot of the Hills and the latter 
said that the Antler had been picked up in the Bhabar, a tract between 
the foot of the hills and the lower-lying Terrai further to the South. I 
liave never seen anything like this type of abnormality. There seems to 
me hardly any doubt, but that the animal who carried this, or a pair of such 
Antlers, must have been a Sambhar as the beam and tines are clearly of 
■this variety of the stag or deer family. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 171 

The dimensions are as follows : — 

Round beam just below the place where the 

abnormal growth begins . . . . . . 8^ inches. 

Round beam iust above burr. . . 73 

The outer curve to tip of longest tine . . 33 

The abnormal growth measured in a direct 

line from beam is about 6 or 7 inches. 
The length is a fair size of Antler for the 

locality though larger have been seen. 

St. Qdentin, Naini Tal, U. P., G. TATE. 

16th August 1919. 

[Further references to abnormal Sambhar horns may be found in our 
Journal, Vol. XVII, pages 845, 846 and 1020 and Vol. X, p. 534.— Eds.] 



No. IX.— BIRDS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES NESTING IN COMPANY. 

With reference to Mr. Allen's note on page 1044 of Volume XXVI, it 
may be of interest to record that in the Ferozpc re District on the 31st May 

1 came across a medium sized Shisham tree containing nests as follows: — 

About 15 feet up. The Black Drongo [Dicrurus ater), 4 eggs. 

About 1 foot higher up. The Red Turtle Dove {Oeno2)0]]elia tranquebarica) , 

2 eggs. 

About 4 feet higher still. The Southern Green Pigeon {Crocopus 
cJilorogaster), 2 eggs. 

And finally, about 30 feet up, the Madras Red-vented Bulbul (Molpasfes 
hcemorrhoiis) , no eggs but bird sitting in nest. 

The tree was in the compound of a Oanal inspection bungalow, and, like 
many others in the compound, had partly withered for want of water, the 
bungalow being situated on a sand hill well above the level of the Canal. 
Below, on both banks of the Canal were rows of fine trees, providing, one 
would think, far more suitable nesting sites. I imagine that the Drongo 
chose the withered tree, and the others followed suit to obtain the benefit 
of his efficient " Chowkidari ". 

Lahore, H. W. WAITE, 

I2th April 1920. Indian Police. 

No. X.— CURIOUS NESTING SITE OF THE INDIAN HOOPOE 
{UP UFA INDWA). 

There is adjoining the cattle pound at Chakwal in the Jelum District a 
mud building used for storing bhusa. This has no windows and a single door, 
which does not fit properly. The building remained empty for some time, 
and although the door was kept fastened there was room enough between 
it and the threshold to allow Hoopoes to creep in and out, which they were 
seen doing on several occasions. Eventually, on the 8th May, the door was 
opened, and 8 Hoopoe's eggs discovered, laid amongst the litter of bhusa on 
the floor. 

Lahore, H. W. WAITE, 

l'2th April 1920. Indian Pelice. 



No. XI.— BREEDING OF BLACK-NECKED STORK. 
{XENORHYNCRUS ASIATICUS). 

I send you the following note as it may be of interest. On the 10th 
December last, I saw from my tent door a Black-necked Stork, 



172 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII^ 

Xenorhynchus asiaticus, standing on the edge of her nest. She had just 
flown up from the jheel a little way off and after a bit she settled herself 
into the nest. I was unable to visit the nest then but next morning I 
went to the nest, taking a man to climb. The bird was on the nest but 
flew off as the man went up. On his approaching the nest, to my surprise 
two nearly full grown young birds got up in the nest, and as the man got 
close, flew off; they were very shaky and wobbly, evidently their first and 
a ' forced ' flight. The man went on to the nest, and to my surprise said 
there vras an egg. I told him to bring it down, thinking it was an addled 
one, but on his reaching the ground 1 saw there were two eggs. On blowing 
them they proved to be perfectly fresh. Surely this is most curious ? 

GoNDA, llth March 1920. F. FIELD. 



No. XII.— EGRET AND LIZARD. 

I witnessed this morning what appeared to me a rather astonishing 
performance on the part of a common white Egret (Paddy bird or Bogla.), 

When I first noticed it, it had caught either a Chamaeleon or a Lizard at 
least a foot long. This creature was struggling furiously in the Egret's bill. 
It repeatedly succeeded in escaping but was always recaptured after 
running a few yards. After a bit its struggles became feeble and I noticed 
that it was then always caught by the head, whereas at first the bird caught 
it by any portion of the body it could catch hold of. The Egret now 
started to try and swallow its head first. The head and front legs went in 
but it began to struggle furiously with its hind legs and long tail sticking 
out. The commotion that went on in the bird's neck was now extraordi- 
nary to witness. It looked as if the lizard's head or legs must break out 
through the neck. Several times a black patch appeared on the neck of the 
bird which looked like the lizard's head coming through but it was only that 
the skin was stretched very tightly and the colour of the lizard or skin 
showed through the feathers. At last after fearful efforts the hind legs 
also went down. The bird then stood working its neck, in which the 
bulge could still be seen, up and down for about ten minutes. After that it 
flew away none the worse. When the bird stood holding the lizard in 
its bill the latter looked quite as long as the bird itself and I would never 
have beheved it could have been swallowed. 

Khtjmti, Ranchi Dist., H. R. MEREDITH, i.c.s. 

Chota Nagpur, 13^^ May 1919. 



No. XIII.— COMMON POCHARD {N. FERRINA) AT BANGALORE. 

Last Sunday Captain W. Le C. Brodrich while out with me shot a 
male Common Pochard {Nyroca ferrina) in full plumage. Is it not very 
rare for this bird to be found so far south as Bangalore ? Both Oates and 
Finn say that he is not found south of Bellary. 

E. O. KING, Capt., i.a.k.o. 
Bangalore, 10th March 1920. 

[Stuart Baker in " Indian Ducks and their allies" says that the ocour- 
rence of these birds in Mysore is very rare — Eds.] 

No. XIV.— MESOPOTAMIAN BIRD NOTES. 

With reference to the Revd. F. C. R. Jourdain's remarks on my notes, ©n 
Mesopotamian birds, I submit the following in reply. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. I73 

Previous to collecting for the British Museum I collected for the Karachi 
Museum, sending specimens from Ormara (Mekran), Bushire (Persia) and 
Fao(Me8pot). 

Among the specimens sent to the latter institute, was one of a Warbler 
which was identified as Scotocerca inquieta or to be more correct that name 
was supplied to me for the specimen sent ; at the time 1 was not in a posi- 
tion to know that this was an error and accepted the identification as 
being correct, hence my labelling the eggs sent to the British Museum as 
belonging to this bird. It was onlj' on receiving Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's list 
published in the Ibis that I knew an error had been made. 

Some years later I came to know that some of my specimens from the 
Gulf got mixed up in the Karachi Museum with some others collected in 
Sind, with the result that certain specimens from the Gulf were included 
in the Sind Fauna, and I conclude a specimen of Scotocerca inquieta 
collected in Sind, was taken as part of my Fao collection, which will ac- 
count for the wrong name being supplied to me. 

As to Mr. Jourdain's remarks that Hypolais imllida and not K. lanrjuida 
breeds in Fao, he is probably correct, for I accepted Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's 
identification and concluded, without examination, that all the Hypolais 
were lanc/uida, as certainly were the two I sent home, thus havin^^ as 
I thought established the breeding of H. languida. 

Lanius/allaa, 1 csinnot see that confusion is made worse; Dr. Sharpe 
originally identified my specimen as falla.r, later on he thought he had 
made a mistake and changed the identification to assijnilis. These names 
were widely used at the time, but since the revision of nomenclature they 
have been discarded for the prior names of aucheri and j^allidirostris, 
respectively, both of which birds are known to occur in Mesopotamia. At 
the time Dr. Sharpe wrote, these grey shrikes were not so well understood 
as at present and his confusion of the two races is understandable. As to 
which race my specimen belongs, Mr. Jourdain can easily satisfy himself, 
as the specimen should be in the National Collection. 

Hartert in "Die Vogel des Paliartic J anna", page 450, gives falla.v as a 
synonym of L. aucheri, 1853, and on page 4i'9 ibid states " assimilis. Brehm, 
1854 — pallidirostris . Casein 1852 ". 

Cumming's Chat — I did not know such a bird existed till about 1908, 
when asked by a Collector for some skins of <S'. cummin;/i — the red-tailed 
Chat — beyond this I knew nothing of the bird till within a few months ago 
Capt. Ticehurst gave me a description and particulars of it. Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe never informed me of the correction and as he identified all my 
specimens sent to the British Museum, I naturally concluded that on going 
over the chats at a later time, he identified the bird as new and named it 
after me. 

I have always felt that this would prove to be an individual variety, 
until I found out that Dr. Hartert in his " Vogel des Paliartic Fauna " 
states that more than one specimen has been secured. 

As to Garrula, I do not know what puzzled Mr. Jourdain for as far as I 
can now recollect, my notes are correct as applying to Fao. The Euro- 
pean bird was plentiful as a bird of passage at the time stated, while the 
Indian bird was a rare visitor actually at Fao, but it may be more plenti- 
ful above this station; at no time did I come across more than one or two 
birds within twenty miles of Fao and then not as a resident. 

The nestlings received by me were taken by an Arab about 30 miles up 
river beyond Fao. 

Possibly the Indian bird comes to breed in Mesopotamia for I feel sure 
the winter is too severe for it to remain on. 

W. D. CUMMING. 

Karachi, 7th February 1920. 



174 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

No. XV.— THE GREAT INDIAN HORNBILL {DICROCERROS 
BICORNIS). 

Members of the Society and others who have had the pleasure of visiting 
our small Museum will be sorry to leara of the death on Monday evening, 
the 3rd May, of the Great Indian Hornbill which had lived in the Museum 
since August 1894 and was always a source of interest and amusement, 

'< William ", the name affectionately given to this bird, was certainly an 
appropriate one for if ever there was a big Bill it was to be found here. 
The power behind this enormous beak is used in the case of the free bird 
for many purposes amongst which may be mentioned the provision of a nest 
for the breeding season, but in captivity it was principally used to draw 
attention to its owner's wants and the noise the bird made by hammering 
at the roof or sides of its cage (an old disused temporary bath-room) would 
arouse even the most inattentive of its attendants and servants. 

There is a story that many years ago a lady was beiug shown round the 
Museum by Mr. ii'hipson, who was then the Honorary Secretary, and on 
arriving at the Hornbill's cage the lady was told " You know that bird has 
something in common with some ladies. He paints himself every day" "Ah 
Mr. Phipson you won"t catch me. I have been told of the stories you tell 
to visitors " was the lady's reply. Mr. Phipson's was " My dear lady it is 
the tirst true story I have told you since you entered the Museum." 
Whether it was the first or not cannot now be proved but true it was. 
The Great Indian Hornbill makes good use of the gland, called the 
' Uropygial,' above the tail feathers from whence exudes an oily yellow 
pigment. The bird laying back its head on to the gland would cover its 
big casque with the yellow paint and take great pride in the operation. 
The pigment no doubt served to preserve the horny substance of the casqtie 
for it is a curious fact that whilst the bird has been named from dead 
specimens the " concave" casque hornbill — in the living specimens the 
casque is convex. In the dead specimens the centre of the casque has 
collapsed. 

The Hornbill's original home was Karwar and he was presented to the 
Society in August 1894 by Mr. H. Ingle. In his early youth "William " 
was a famous cricketer and could be relied on to equal a Presidency cricke- 
ter in his capabilities as a field. Of late years, owing either to old age or 
perhaps approaching blindness, he seemed however unable to catch any- 
thing and the old system of feeding had to be changed and, instead of the 
fruit on which he lived being thrown to him, the dish had to be held up 
to him from which he would select those fruits which seemed to his sensi- 
tive beak to be sufficiently succulent. In the day time, when he could be 
observed, " William " hardly ever condescended to take food placed on the 
floor of the cage. 

■ On only one occasion did this Hornbill ever depart from his life long 
abstinence from drink of any kind, and on the occasion in question it was 
force majeure. He had playfully extracted a lighted cigar out of a friend's 
mouth and swallowed it. Mercifully the cigar was promptly extinguished 
in the process as in order to make the bird disgorge, brandy was poured 
down its throat ! All the liquid nourishment these birds require is obtained 
from the fruit they eat. 

" William " was supposed to have been about six months old when he 
came to Bombay— so was about 26 years old at the time of his death. He 
has been carefully skinned and will be sent to England to be mounted by 
a skilful taxidermist and will eventually occupy a prominent position in the 
Natural History Museum which it is hoped Government will soon build. 

R. A. SPENOE. 
BoMBiY Natuiial History Society's Museum, 

5th May 1920. /j; ■ ■ 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 175 

No. XVI.— SUPPRESSION OF THE NAME OF THE SNAKE 
DESCRIBED BY ME AS OLIOODON EVAN SI. 
In Volume XXII, page 514, of this Journal, I described a new snake 
under the name Oligodon evansi, the type of which was preserved in our 
Society's collection. Mr. Prater has drawn my attention to the similarity 
between this and specimens of Trirhinopholis nuchalis Boulenger, and 
suggests that Oligodon evansi is not a valid species. I have revised my 
notes, and find that Mr. Prater is quite correct, so that my name calls for 
suppression. 

Bangaloke, 3rd May 1920. F. WALL, Lieut. -Col., i.m.s. 



No. XVII.— OCCURRENCE OF THEOBALD'S KUKRI SNAKE 

(SIMOTES THEOBALDl) IN ASSAM. 

Among the snakes recently presented to this Society by Mrs. Jackson, 
Tura, Assam, is a specimen of Simotes theobaldi. Dr. Boulenger in the 
Fauna of British India, Reptilia, gives Pegu, U. Burma, as the habitat of 
this species. Its occurrence in Assam is worthy of record. 

Bombay Natural History Society, S. H. PRATER. 

'ird March 1920. 



No. XVIII.— COBRA WITHOUT THE CUNEATE SCALE. 

Since getting back here I have looked up my notes about the cobra whose- 
head I left with you. It was killed on April Ist, 1920. It was 3'-G" long, 
and had all normal characteristics except it lacked the cuneate scale. 1 
may note that it had no occellate marks (var cceea). I have now had. 
14 cobras (the longest 5'-2i") brought me here and not one has had 
occellate marks. At Manpur (14 miles south of Mhow Cantonment) which. 
I left in March 1919 I used to get both ccBca and typica. 

The other cobras 1 saw in the Museum which had no cuneate scale were 
not the ordinary species but banded {fasciata ). So perhaps this case- 
is unusual. 

Bhopal Agency, Sehore, C. I., C. E. LUARD, Lt.-Col. 

11 th April 1920. 



No. XIX.— on THE BREEDING OF THE CHECKERED WATER 
SNAKE {TROFIDONOTUS PISCATOIt.) 

On April ISth I had a Tropidonotu,^ piscator 2 (var., guincunciaius) brought 
me. She was brought alive with 80 eggs. These examinations shewed 
were quite lately voided. Each egg tvas ^" to f" long, white, but not glossy.. 
As this seems late in the year I record it. 

Bhopal Agency, Sehore, C. I., C. E. LUARD, Lt.-Col. 

I7th April 1920. 



No. XX.— THE MYSTERIOUS ' JHOOR.' 
During a recent tour through the Gir Forest I overheard a conversation 
between the forest guards and the cattleherds regarding a strange beast 
that is supposed to inhabit the deep pools in the forest rivers. I ques- 
tioned a large number of men who have spent all their lives in the Gir, 
including Hebat Jamadar, the famous old warder of the lions (now very old, 
feeble, and probably ninety years of age) and made the following notes. It 
would be of interest to know if such a belief exists in ctlier parts of India. 
" The beast is named the Jhoor, lives in the deep rocky pools scoured 
out in the beds of the big rivers, and is very seldom seen as it never leaves 
the water. Hebat and two other men declare they have seen it. It pulls 



176 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

in the largest buffaloes when they go clown to drink. If the buffalo should 
be recovered after a few days, nothing but the skin and bones remain, with 
a large puncture in the abdomen through which evidently the flesh has been 

■ extracted. The Jhoor has a body closely resembling a large turtle, with a 
long neck, and snake-like head, and four very long flexible legs or tenta- 
cles. It seizes its victims by the nose and winds its tentacles round the 
four legs, places its carepace under the chest of its prey, and levers it into 
deep water," 

I am of opinion that this strange beast is a myth. The deep pools are 
infested with huge crocodiles which are very destructive to cattle and pull 
in the largest buflaloes. In several places villages have been deserted 
owing to the decimation of the flocks by crocodiles at the drinking pools, 
and the danger of children being dragged in. The Jhoor, 1 am afraid, 

■ carries on his head the sins of his more tangible brother, the crocodile. 

JuNAGADH, Uh March 1920. B. BROOK FOX. 

No. XXI.— LARGE CARP FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 



T enclose a photo, which may be of interest to you of a 140 lb, Tigris 
■Salmon (so called) which 1 caught on a 2" spoon at Samarra on 21st 



MISCELLANEO US XO TES. 1 7 7 

September 1919. I believe this to be a record as regards tLe size of the 
tish caught spinning, though I know much larger ones have been caught on 
meat and " atta ". 

The fash is a species of Barbel, but 1 should like to know its correct name. 
Head Quarters, 17th Divisiok, F. B. LANE Major. 

Mesopotamia, 
1st November 1919. 

[Photos of large Carp from Mesopotamia appeared in our Journal, 
Vol. XXVI, No. 2, p. 679. The name of the fish is Barbus sezc/?— Eds.]. 



No. XXII.— A NEW HAWK MOTH. 

When on leave in Mussoorie in 1918, I found eggs of a Hawk moth, 
and young larvae. Being suddenly ordered away, I only obtained two 
moths, one of which was later smashed uj) in the post. The last one 
reached home safely, and proves to be a new species. 

If any member who is visiting Mussoorie or other stations close by 
during the rains would care to help, I will let him know where he can get 
eggs and larvae. The British Natural History Museum would like a series 
of moths, and incidentally he could get some for himself and the Society. 
The larvte are easy to rear, or if eggs were sent to me I would rear them. 

F. B. SCOTT, Major, i.a. 
Ferndale, Shillong, 

2nd March 1920. 

No. XXIII.- STRANGE FIND OF THE LARVA OF THE BUTTERFLY 
{TEINOPALPAS IMPERIALIS). 
I was riding up to Sukia, elevation 6,050 feet, when upon the road I 
chanced to see this fine Caterpillar almost under my pony's foot. I 
at once jumped off my pony and secured this unknown specimen, un- 
known then to me, as I had often wished to get this larva of this fine 
Butterfly, but without success from the Lepcha collectors. What the 
Caterpillar was doing on the road puzzled me but alongside was a big Oak 
tree and I had been told the larva of this insect fed on the Oak so it 
may have fallen down after being attacked by some enemy bird or 
lizard. I was also aware the larva fed on Daphne nepalensis, a large 
shrub, the bark used by the Nepalese to make a coarse paper, the wood 
sweet scented. Close at hand, as I expected at this elevation, I looked for 
several shrubs and found Daphne papyracea or Wallichia (Chota Aryili, Nepa- 
lese) and it may have been the Caterpillar was making for one of these. 
Anyhow the larva looked fairly full grown. Plucking the leaves of the 
Oak and '• Daphne" 1 put the insect into a fairly big bocc with plenty of air 
holes. The Caterpillar was green with a large thick head, Papilio-shaped, 
the tail was certainly aggressive when I took hold of it from the ground 
which made me think I had got some Spingidse larva yet new to me. On 
my ret rn home from Darjeeling 2 days after I was exceedingly pleased 
to find che Caterpillar had turned into a soft pupa, a shape new to me, oval 
greenish with a strange horn, this was enough to show me that it was no 
" Sphingidae" larva. The date of turning would be the end of Septem- 
ber 1918. The perfect Butterfly did not come out until the following 
April 1919. 7 months in the pupa state. Whether this insect is second 
brooded is diflicult to say, but I am inclined to think it is. Senchal is 
the favourite hunting ground, catches are mostly made in August and end 
of July by Lepcha collectors. 
23 



17S JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HI^ST. SOCILTl, Vol. XXVIL 

In Lieut.-Colonel Bingham's book, Volume II, Butterflies, page 9, it is 
recorded 

" The larva of this magnificent butterfly, according to Mr. Knyvett, 
feeds on Dlmime nipaleiisis, but so far as I know no description of it has 
been published". 

I trust to get hold of some larva this year as well as the larva of other 
interesting Papilios. 

OSCAR LINDGREN. 
TuRzuM Tea Estate, Nagkispur p. o., 
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, 

April 1920. 

No. XXIV.— LIFE HISTORY OF THE " BUPRESTID " LEAF 

MINER {TRACRYS BLCOLOR, KERREMANS) 

A PEST ON BUTEA FRONDOSA IN MYSORE. 

[With a plate). 

Introduction : — Butea frondosa trees (Dhak or Palas) are subject to the 
attack of several insects, viz., leaf eating caterpillars falling under Limaco- 
dids, Lycsenids and Sphingids, Coleopterous insects such as snout beetles 
or weevils, and Buprestid beetles and pentatomid bugs. All the above are 
only very minor pests excepting the Buprestid Beetle — a leaf miner — which 
is assuming the form of a serious pest in the majority of the places where 
Butea are found in Mysore State. The injury to the plants consists in 
that the adult beetles feed on the leaves of the plant and that the 
grubs pass their life as leaf miners feeding on the leaf tissue and forming 
regular pockets in the leaves, the leaves having a blistered appearance. 
Almost all the leaves of a plant are affected, they are unable to perform 
their normal functions, and they look quite dry without even a tinge 
of green matter and as a consequence many of the plants kept under 
observation for 4 or 5 years have never made any appreciable growth at 
all on account of this. 

The adult. This beetle is a small oval wedge shaped creature, the head 
and thorax being of a bronzy colour, the rest of a steel blue colour, with 
4 or 5 wavey white lines marked across the elytra. It measures 5"25-5'5mm, 
lengthwise and 3'25-35 mm. at the broadest part. The beetles are hard to 
recognize on the plants as they cover themselves up with their excreta and 
thus resemble the droppings of some small birds. The beetles are com- 
monly found on the plants from about the end of April or the beginning of. 
May and egg-laying and continuous breeding begins from now and con- 
tinues up to about February-March There occur as many as. 4 or 5 broods 
in a year. 

Oviposition. The female beetle moves about the upper surface of the 
leaves before egg laying and. when a spot is selected at the angle 
formed by the junction of one of the veins with the midrib on the upper 
surface of the leaves it first scrapes the epidermis of the leaf with .the. 
mouth parts, lays an egg and then covers it with the dirty white excreta 
with which the beetle is covered. The flattened oval eggs are Jaid singly 
as well as in groups of 2 or 3, sometimes 4 or 5 on the upper surface 
of the leaves. When the eggs are laid in groups they are usually laid 
overlapping one another. 

T/te Egg. The newly laid egg is colourless, flat, oval and measures 
1-75 mm. to 2-25 mm. at its long axis and 1-25 mm. to 1-75 mm. at its 
short axis. The egg remains colourless for 5 days and on the 6th day it 
turns to a shining black colour and now the dirty white excreta with which 
the egg is covered is plainly distinguishable. 13 days after the egg 
turns to black, i.e., 19 days from egg-laying, the egg hatches out. 



Journ., Bomba.y a.t. Hist. Soc. 




Fio-. 1. A. E--ji-s of the Beetle. 

B. Pockets in the leaf made l>y 
the Grub?. 



Fk 



2. Injury to the leaf by the 
adult Beetles. 




Fi"-. 4 



Full wrown Grubs. 



Adult Beetles. 
! . Ventral side- 
2 Dorsal side. 



THE "BUPRESTID" LEAF MINER {TRACHYS BICOLOR, KERRExMANS) A PEST ON 
BTJTEA FRONDOSA IN MYSORE. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 179 

T/ie Grub. Immediately on hatching, the grub which is of the charac- 
teristic Buprestid form^ — flat, round, wedgeshaptd, large head and thorax 
and the body tapering to a point at the posterior end — splits open a 
portion of the underside of the egg and begins to eat through into the 
leaf tissue. The npper side of the egg remains quite intact. The wedge- 
shaped, flat front portion of the grub is thrust into the tissue of the leaf 
and the grub works gradually from side to side consuming the substance 
of the leaf all the time without in any way injuring the epidermal layers 
of the leaf and thus a small cavity is formed in the leaf. The grub goes on 
widening the cavity gradully and feeding for about a month by which time 
a fairly big pocket about half the area of the leaf is formed and pupation 
takes place within this cavity now. The newly hatched out grub is 2 mm. 
long and I mm. broad at the broadest portion. It is of a pale whitish colour. 
The fully developed grub is of a dull white colour with a tinge of yellow 
and measures 11'5 to 12 mm. lengthwise and2"V5 to 3'5 mm. at the 
broadest part. The centre of the segments 2nd to the 10th behind the 
head in the grubs, both on the dorsal and ventral sides are marked with 
peculiar markings in black resembling "shirt" buttons. The larval life 
is 29 days. 

The pupa. Pupation takes place in the larval chamber. The pupa is 
flat and brownish in colour and is 6 mm. long and 3"5 mm. broad. The 
pupal life lasts 9 days. The adult beetle on emerging from the pupal 
stage remains within the chamber for a few hours and then bites a hole 
through the lower surface of the chamber and escapes ©ut and begins feed- 
ing on the leaves. 

Natural enemies. Found small black ants Camp'inotus sp. feeding on 
freshly laid eggs. A very minute chalcid parasite parasitises the grub. 
It was found to walk over the upper surface of the pocket of the leaf tap- 
ping with antennae the difl"erent portions and finally bendirg its abdomen 
to pierce the thin wall of the pocket and lay eggs on the grub. 

Conchifiion. Considering the fact that no mention is made of any insects 
afi'ecting Butei, frondosa plants seriously and this is one of the important 
plants on which lac is raised in India, I venture to record the above facts 
regarding this insect in the hope that lac growers in India will be parti- 
cularly interested in the subject. 



P. V, SUBRAMANIAM, 

Assistant Entomologist, 
Mysore Agricultural Department. 
Bangalore, 15tJi March 1920. 



^H In March, 1917, I came across a few peculiar onion bulbs of which three 
^^Figs. 1-4) have been figured here. In external appearance these were 
indistinguishable from other bulbs of A. cepa, but, on closer examination, 
were found to diS"er in being easily compressible and in containing 
abortive inflorescences (Infl.). It is a matter ol surprise that no similar 
case of abortive inflorescence has been either cited or described in either 
Master's Vegetable Teratology or any other available literature. 

Although left for a fairly long time in a grocer's store, curiously enough, 
these specimens contained inflorescences (Infl.) bearing full-sized (deter- 



No. XXV.— A SHORT NOTE ON THE ATROPHIC ABORTION 
OF THE INFLORESCENCE OF THE ONION {ALLIUM CEPA, L.) 

( With two plates). 



180 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL mST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIU 



mined by actual measurement) waxy-white flowers. Fig. 1 shows the 
inflorescence (Infl.) inside the partiaUy opened bulb of specimen No 1. 
Fi- 2 shows the scape (Sc.) (in specimen No. 1) which assumed quite a 
curious shape. It deviated so much from the type, that, it became solid, 
fleshy and stunted (its length being only 6-25 cm. whereas a normal scape 
is 30-60 cm in length) and it bore the inflorescence along the whole of 
its left side instead of bearing it on its top. The whole inflorescence thus 
developed was wrapped up by a membranous covering (Memb.) with 
prominent parallel nerves, A part of this membrane was found adnate to 
the left side of the scape. This covering seemed to be nothing but a 
modified form of a spathe. In the fourth specimen, which has not been 
depicted here, 1 noticed two waxy ovate-lanceolate fleshy structures, 
diflering in shape from all the other scale-leaves (Si.), adpressed to the 
tiny inflorescence (Infl.) inside the bulb. Fig. 3 shows the two kinds of 
inflorescence (Infl.) met with in specimen No. 2, in which a group of 
flowers or fascicle (b.) arose directly from the stem below and a small 
umbel (a), partially hidden by ' b. ' was borne by the irregularly z.gzag 
solid scape (Sc) slightly twisted to the left. Except the basal part of a 
withered normal scape (Sc\ seen also in Figs. 1 — 3) no trace of a fresh 
scape is seen in Fig. 4, all the flowers (Fl.) having taken their origin 
directly from the stem (St.). Dissections of the flowers (Fl.) from each 
of the above specimens revealed the fact that, although etiolation had 
taken place, owing to the partial exclusion of light, still, the perianth and 
the sporopliylls were developed quite up to their normal size and shape. 
Except in specimen No. 1 (in which the anthers appeared to have dehisced)' 
the anthers in all the other specimens were found to contain scanty pollen 
grains. Tue ovaries (' B ' and ' D ' in Fig. 5) were provided with either a 
long-styled (D) or a trifid sub-sessile (B) stigma (intermediate forms being 
noticeable in some of the flowers) and generally three compressed ovate 
ascending and minutely pitted ovules (* F ' and ' E ' in Fig. 5) in each cell. 
As the ovules, particularly those in specimen No. 1 were quite tough 
(unlike functionless ovules which are easily compressible) and as in some 
of the anthers the pollen-sacs were almost empty, it seemed probable that 
at least some of the flowers were self -fertilised. Here, it is obvious, that, 
no cross-fertilisation could have taken place at all. 

Histological difl'erences between a normal (Sc.^) and an abortive scape 
(Sc. in Fig. 3 ) were no less marked. The following were the main points- 
worth noticing : — 

1. The epidermis (Ep.) of the abortive scape (Fig. 7) was thicker than 
that of the normal scape (Fig. 6) and was provided with comparatively 
larger cells, which were not of uniform size and shape throughout. 
Whereas the cuticle (Cut.) was uniformly thickened in the normal scape, in 
the abortive scape it was distinctly thicker on the outer or ' dorsal ' surface 
than on the inner or ' ventral ' surface. Stomata (Stom.) were often present 
in the epidermis (very clearly seen in longitudinal sections of the epidermal 
region) of the abortive scape, whereas no stomata were generally found in 
that of the normal scape. 

3. The ring of sclerenchymatous cells (Scl. ) in the abortive scape 
(Fig. 7) in which the vascular bundles (V. b.) lie scattered, was composed 
of cells having walls thicker than of those in the normal scape (Fig. 6). 

3. The vascular bundles (V. b.) in the abortive scape (Fig. 7) were 
numerically less than those in the normal scape (Fig. 6), but proportionately 
greater for the area supported by them. 

4. Two distinct groups of large vascular bundles (V.^ b.^ ) were found 
developed in the ventral area near the centre of the solid abortive scape 
(Fig. 7), whereas in the normal scape (Fig. 6) the central portion was hollow. 



J>ur., Bombay N£it< Hist. Soc. 



Plate I. 



Sef 



Jn^ir 



-H. 



St 



Sc. 



Pt<;. 



' HAT. sere . 



^5^ae/f^'-*-- -vva.i) 



Ir^fl. 



l1^?i 









Fig. 4 



tnJat. 5-;rE • 



53 



B c 

Sid. -«.«; ^rro»,h v((«; 

..ovule- 






.!> 



ABORTIVE INFLORESCENCES OF 

ALLIUM CEPA L. 



Fks;. $ maonifie^I 



Jour., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soe. 



Plate II. 




Centred Empl-y 
•Spcxce 



fefe-" 



'y 



p' 



Ty 



Fig. 



vo-nsveries^,^-^ 






En, 



.^^^s^^^K^ «=^+- 



<?h 



-fn. 






[^ :D.el .p.M-D. 






TRANSVERSE SECTION OF NORMAL AND 
ABORTIVE SCAPES OF ALLIUM CEPA L. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 181 

■~j, A transition from relatively large rounded to small elongated cells 
was distinctly noticeable iu the pith (P.) in the section of the abortive 
scape (Fig. 7), whereas in the normal scape (Fig. 6), the cells of the inner- 
most part were distinctly rounded and generally big. 

It will be worth while to consider the causes which have contributed to 
check the growth of the inflorescences in these specimens. It is quite 
obvious that, as the bulbs were never planted out on soil and as these could 
not derive any nourishment from any extraneous source, these had to 
suffer ultimately from starvation. For the sxipply of the plastic materials 
necessary for the development of the scapes, flowers and ovules etc., for the 
continuation and preservation of the stock, the bulbs had to depend solely 
on the reserve materials stored in the fleshy scale leaves (Sl.). These 
being nothing but limited sources of supply, could serve to provide nou- 
rishment only for a limited period of time. Although, stored in a grocer's 
shop, still, these bulbs were not totally deprived of all those necessary 
external stimuli, e.ff., Light, Heat, Air and Moisture, etc., which serve to 
stimulate development. These forms of energy, however, were not, in the 
long run, sufticient for inducing the production of normal development of 
all the organs. Hence, we find that in specimens Nos. 1 and 2 (Figs. 1 — 3) 
abortive scapes were developed and that in specimens Nos. 2 and 3 (Figs. 
3 and 4) some or all the flowers were arranged in sessile fascicles instead 
of iu umbels. The reason why the scapes and flowers could not find an 
opportunity of seeing the light of the day is this, that, — as much of the 
vigour of these bulbs was spent, without being ultimately recouped, in 
furthering the development of the inflorescences and scapes (where these 
. were present) the pressure exerted inside the bulbs by these growing 
organs was not sufticient to overcome the resistance oflered by the outer 
•coating of dried scale-leaves. The thickened cuticle on the outer edge, 
the thicker-walled sclerenchymatous ring in the cortex and the sub-central 
■vascular bundles appear to be nothing but the outcome of an effort, on the 
part of the poorly nourished growing scapes, to gain an additional strength 
1;o withstand the pressure exerted by the shrinking scale-leaves. 

My sincere thanks are due to Dr. H. G. Carter, M.B., Oh.B., Economic 
Botanist in the Botanical Survey of India, for some useful suggestions. 
Explanation of Figures. 
Fig. 1.— Specimen No. 1 partially opened to show the abortive inflores- 
cence (Infl.) covered by a membranous covering (Memb.). Natural 
size. . 

Fig. 2. — A fuller view of the solid scape (Sc.) and inflorescence (Infl.) m 

specimen No. 1. Natural size. 
Fig. 3.— A portion of the scale leaves (SI.) removed to show the fascicle 
(c.) arising directly from the stem and the zigzag scape (Sc.) 
supporting an umbel (a) in specimen No. 2. Natural size. 
Fig. 4.— Some of the frontal scale leaves removed to show the fasciculate 

inflorescence (Infl.) in specimen No. 3. Natural size. 
Fig. 5.— A flower from an abortive inflorescence dissected to show the 
diflTerent parts. (A) Front view of a flower without the ovary. 
(B) Side view of an ovary. (C) Front view of an ovary. (F-) 
Transverse section of an ovary. (F) Ovules. All magnified. 
Fig. 6. — Transverse section of a normal scape. Magnified. 
"Fig. 7.— Transverse section of an abortive scape (Sc.) from specimen 
No. 2 (See Fig. 3). Magnified. 

P. M. DEBB^RMAN, b. sc, m.k.a..s., 
Systematic Assistant in the 

Botanical Survey of India. 



182 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII^ 

EDITORIAL. 

Members will learn with regret of the retirement of Mr. Millard from the 
post of Honorary Secretary. Mr. Millard became Joint Honorary Secre- 
tary with Mr. Phipson in 1898 and took on the work single handed when 
the latter retired hi 1905, and he remained Honorary Secretary until April 
1919 when he retired to England on medical advice. Those who have been 
brought in contact with him realise the extent of the Society's obligation 
for the manner in which he'.has conducted its affairs for the last 20 years. 
To use his own words "To him it was a labour of love ". Unsparingly he 
devoted his time and energy to the advancement of the Society's interests 
and we are glad the Journal enables us to record the Society's gratitude. 

Although Mr. Millard has retired from India he is continuing to work 
for the Society, and in England will act as our representative. There is a 
great amount of work to be done at home in connection with the forth- 
coming publications of the Society and with the selection and choice and 
approval of plates. All this Mr. Millard will look after, and he will be in 
close personal touch with the officials at the Natural History Museum and 
at the Zoological and Botanical Gardens. Members in England who would 
like to communicate with Mr. Millard on Society's business should address 
correspondence to c/o Grindlay and Co., London. 

Another loss sustained by the Society has been the resignation of Mr. N. 
B. Kinnear from his post as Keeper of the Museum and one of the Editor& 
of the Journal. Mr. Kinnear joined us in 1907 and the care of the 
Museum remained in his hands till October 1919 when he went to England 
on 6 months' leave. Mr. Kinnear did splendid service for the Society not 
merely in the Museum but also in the way he encouraged members to 
collect for us and helped them in their difficulties. During the war Captain 
Kinnear was Intelligence Staff Officer to the Bombay Brigade but, despite 
the long hours of work this entailed, all his spare time from military duties- 
was given to the Society. During the periods Mr. Millard was on leave 
Mr. Kinnear acted as Joint Honorary Secretary, and at these times the 
Editorial work of the Journal fell mainly on him. 

At a Committee meeting held on the 22nd of March 1920 it was resolved 
that a vote of thanks be passed to Mr. Wroughton for his work on behalf 
of the Society at the British Museum, particularly in connection with the 
Mammal Survey. 

A similar vote was recorded in favour of Mr. T. B. Fry for his work at 
the British Museum in keeping the registers and identification lists of the 
Mammal Survey specimens sent home. 

The pages of this Journal have for several years past recorded some of 
the work done by Mr. Wroughton, but only those actually working in 
connection with the Society knew the amount of hard, willing, and en- 
tirely honorary work these two old members have put in for the Society. 

We have recently received a letter expressing the thanks of the Trustees 
of the British Museum for the donation of several interesting specimens. 
These included mammals from India, Burma, Persia and Arabia, and among 
them were the skin of a rare Flying Squirrel {Eupetaurus cinereus) from 
Ohitral, a female example of the new form of Blood Pheasant (Itharjenes- 
hurseri) from near Htawgaw, between the Kachin Hills and China, and 51 
small mammals from Persia, collected by Col. J. E.B. Hotson, CLE. , in- 
cluding the type of a new Bat {Myotis myotis risorius). 

Members resident in England will be interested to learn that the Com- 
mittee have decided to open a Banking account in London in the name of 
the Society, with the National Bank of India there, and to accept subscrip- 
tions from members resident in England at two shillings exchange, so that 



EDITORIAL. 183 

the annual subscription, including postage on Journals and registration is 
£1-15-9 payable in London. Members in England having money trans- 
actions with the Society are asked to pay cheques drawn on English Banks 
into our Bankers at home, and so obviate any loss to the Society throuo-h 
varying exchange. 

We would draw the attention of members to the appeal from Mr. E. C 
Stuart Baker for information regarding eggs and nesting habits of Partrid- 
ges, which he requires for his paper on these birds in his serial on Game 
Birds now current in the Journal. It would be very advantageous if 
members who have the opportunity for making observations or collecting 
eggs would communicate with Mr. Stuart Baker. It is on the activities of 
its members that a Society like ours must chiefly rely. It is due to their 
efforts that so much has been accomplished in the past and we look to their 
continued assistance and support in the future. 

Butterfly collectors will be interested in Col. C. H. Ward's ofler of a 
collection of Indian butterflies. Col. Ward has been collecting for several 
years and his collections offer a great opportunity to members interested. 

With the view to assist in the ready identification of poisonous snakes, 
the Society has in course of preparation a chart by means of which pois- 
onous and non-poisonous snakes may be readily distinguished. The use of 
technicalities has been entirely avoided; the object of the chart being to 
oft'er to the layman, by the use of simple diagrams, an easy method by 
which he may tell whether a snake is poisonous or not. The chart has 
already been approved by several Provincial Governments for use in their 
schools and hospitals and dispensaries. For the individual member we are 
preparing a folding pocket chart which he can carry with him on shikar 
trips or for use on occasions when information on this point might be of 
vital importance. For the medical cure of snake bite it is essential that 
the species of snake should be known. Generally the snake which caused 
the injury is killed and by means of this chart an easy method of identifi- 
cation will be found. Instances are on record where people have died of 
fright after being bitten by a perfectly harmless species. Such a chart as 
this should go far towards spreading knowledge of a subject which is of great 
importance to people resident in India. We expect to have copies ready 
by next cold weather ; the price will be low and members can register 
their names for copies now if desired. 

Mr. Stuart Baker is preparing a Hand List of the Birds of the Indian 
Empire which will summarise the extent of our present day knowledge of 
Indian Avifauna. The list will show the various races, will include the many 
recently described species, and will give short notes as regards distribution 
and locality where the types were obtained. The list will be published'ln 
our Journal and on completion will be issued separately and ought to be a 
welcome addition to the library of all those interested in ornithology, 

A similar list is being prepared by Col. Wall in connection with the 
snakes. Both these lists will be useful supplements to the volumes in the 
Fauna of British India Series which, owing to the advancement of our 
knowledge in recent years, have in many instances been rendered practi- 
cally obsolete. 

Members who were in Mesopotamia, and those especially _ who 
helped with the collection, will be sorry to learn that the Society's 
entire collection of Mesopotamian Lizards was lost in transit after having 
been identified at the British Museum. We take this opportunity of 
appealing to those still stationed in Mesopotamia to remedy the loss by 
sending us fresh specimens. Specimens should be put into fairly strong 
spirits of wine and after " pickling " for some time they can be taken out 
and wrapped in cotton soaked in the spirit, and soldered up in a tin for 
despatch by post. 



184 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The various collections of Birds, Mammals, etc., from Mesopotamia are 
now all in England where they are being worked ont. The lists of identi- 
fications will be published in the Journal and on completion of the whole 
Mesopotamian series they will be bound together and be available as a 
separate publication, and as such will form a handy work on the Fauna of 
that country. 

It is hoped that these editorial notes, which it is proposed to continue, 
will by giving members a wider knowledge of our affairs and activities 
increase their keenness and interest, as it is on these that the life and 
progress of a Society like ours depend. 

Capt. J. A. Budden wrote to us from England a short time ago with re- 
gard to the Journal, and in his letter he says — " I fully understand that 
your Journal is for the scientific advancement of Natural History in India 
but T make a plea that you cater for the ordinary lover of the jungle. 
Why not get known reliable members to write popular articles on their 
shoots and observations, etc., which would be full of interest to many sub- 
scribers who are out of touch with the highly scientific side of Natural His- 
tory. Many Forest Officers — good observers, hunters and writers — would 
interest us all." 

Capt. J. A. Budden's suggestions are excellent and there is no doubt 
that many of our members could send us very valuable articles which would 
be of an intensely interesting nature and whilst valuable from the scientific 
point of view would appeal to the ordinary non-scientific member. Our 
trouble in the past has been that so few of our members who can write 
could be encouraged to write. The Miscellaneous Notes at the end of each 
number offer a means for bringing about the end aimed at, and we appeal 
to all members who have facilities for making notes and observations on 
Natural History subjects, either on shikar trips or any occasions when 
brought in contact with Jungle life, to send in tlieir observations. Help in 
this direction will tend greatly to popularise the Journal and so would be 
to the advantage and benefit of our Society. 



185 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF A MEETING HELD ON 22nd JANUARY 1920. 

A meeting of members and their friends took place on Thursday, the 
22nd January, Colonel C. H. Ward presiding. 

The election of the following 53 new members since the last meeting was 
announced : — Mr. Bjarne Hagem, Bombay ; Mr. E. Chappie, Bankok ; Mr. 
George Brown, Ceylon; Capt. A. B. Gibson, Bombay; Lt. -Col. M. Hen- 
derson, Quetta ; Capt. R. G. Bignell, Aden ; Mr. R. W. D. Willoughby, 
I.C.S., Khery, Oudh ; Mr. H. R. Cox, Simla ; Lt.-Col. H. Brooke Smith, 
D.S.O., R.F.A., Bombay ; the Mess President, Officers' Mess, King's 
Own Yorkshire Lt. Infy., Mhow, C. I. ; Lt. W. H. C. Jones, Belgaum ; 
Major E. H. B. Stanley, I, M.S., Lahore Cantonment; Major G. Petit, 
R.A.M.C, Bombay ; Major P. B. Arbuthnot, I.A., Secunderabad ; Mr. A. R. 
Ubsdell, Calcutta,- Lt. A. P. Beatty, JuUunder ; Lt. R. E. Boothby, 
Meerut, U. P. ; Capt. W. R. Ward, O.B.E., Bombay; Sir Lakhajiraj, 
K.C.I.E., Rajkot; Mr. G. S. Napier-Ford, Vandiperiyar ; Mr. Malik 
Sahim Abdul Haq, Jullunder ; Capt. E. C. Sylvester, R.F.A., Vandi- 
periyar ; Miss L. D. Greene, M.A., Lahore ; Mr. C. F. Cunningham, Bom- 
bay ; Mr. C. S. Chaston, Topolia, P. O. ; Lt.-Col. A. W. N. Bowen, R.A. 
M.C., Ahmednagar; Mr. K. B. Mazagonwalla, B.A., Bombay; Mr. H. F. 
Lodge, Bombay ; Mr. C. F. C. Steward, Mirik, P. O. ; Major Sidney Smith, 
R.G.A., Karachi; Mr. Chas. F. Morris, Bombay; Mr. A. N. Campbell, 
Bombay ; Dr. R. N. O'Moynan, Bilaspur, C. P. ; Mr. L. E. Aspinal, Rangoon ; 
Mr. E. C. Dowson, Ceylon; Lt. J. G. Miller, Kandri ; the Librarian, Bu- 
reau of Science, Manila, P. I. ; Mr. W. G. Beagle-Atkins, Sadiva ; Brig.- 
Genl. A. C. Wauchope, Mesopotamia ; Major D. G. Oliver, Bombay ; Thakur 
Rameshwar Singh of Bandanwara, Ajmer ; Mr. E. E, G. L. Searight, Bom- 
bay ; Mr. E. G. Browne, Fatehgarh, U. P. ; Mr. P. G. Gilliam, Bagdogra, 
P. O. ; Mr. T. E. T. Upton, Calcutta; Mr. J. J. Macpherson, Jalpaiguri ; 
Mr. R. C. Lowndes, Bombay ; Mr. C. Dover, Calcutta ; Mr. C. M. Harlow, 
I.F.S., Calcutta ; Mr. Allan Mackenzie, Bengal ; Mr. W. H. Woodhouse- 
Adolphus, Coimbatore ; Capt. H. Bullock, LA., Salonica ; and Major H. R. 
P. Dickson, C.I.E., Bahrain. 

The following contributions to the Museum were received since the last 
meeting : — 



Contribution. 


i 

Locality. 


Donor. 


76 Mammal skins and skulls . . 


M o g o k c h u n g, 
Assam. 


Mr. J. P. Mills. 


213 Mammals . . . , . ^ 

10 Birds [ 

Botanical specimens . . j 






Shiraz, Persia . . 


Lt.-Col. J. E. B. 




Hotson. 


3 Urial skins (Oris vignei) . . "] 






5 Marmots {Arctomys sp.) . . \ 






1 Pale Weasel (P. alpinus) . . y 


La dak and Tibet . 


Mr. F. Ludlow. 


1 Mouse Hare {Lngomys sp,).. j 






9 Birds skins . . . , J 






2 Indian Gerbilles (G. indica) ") 






1 Hare {Lepus sp.) . . . . /■ 


Montgomery, Pun- 


Mr. W. A. Phillips. 


1 Jackal ( C. indicus) . . j 


jab. 





21 



186 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Contribution. 



Locality. 



Donor. 



2 Ohinkara 

benetti). 

12 Mammals 

1 Bird skin 



skulls {Gazella 



:} 



6 Blackbuck {A. cervicapra) 



Hamster [Cricetulus sp.) 

Fox (Vulpes sp.) 

Little Malay Chevrotain {Tra- 

gulus k. ravus). 
Pine Marten {M. flaviguld). 
Weasels (Mustela canigula) 
Bat (Pepistrellus sp.) 
Mammals, 2 Birds and 

nests with eggs. 
Wild Dog (C. dukhunensis) 



Hamster (Cricetulus sp.) 
Pigmy Shrew [Fachyura sp.). 
Pale Hedgehog (alive) {Urina- 

ceus micropus) . 
Bat {Myotis sp.) in al. 
Coronetted Sandgrouse 

P. coronatus). 
Turnstone {S. interpes) 
Small Mammals . . . . j 

Birds' skins . . 

Wood Snipe (G^. nemoricola). 
Birds' eggs 

Pale Harrier (C. cyaneus) . . 
Birds . . 



Cutch . . 
Ceylon 

Dhar, C. 1. 

Menjil, N. Persia. 

Mesopotamia 

Tavoy 

Simla 

Imaw Bum Range 

N. Burma. 
Hasimara, Bhutan 

Duars. 
Kasin, N. Persia. 
Mesopotamia 
baroda 

Darjeeling 

Punjab, Sind and 
Baluchistan. 

Mesopotamia and 
the Punjab. 

Chapra , . 

Museyeh, Meso 
potamia. 
Do. 

Basra 



1 Wood Snipe {G. nemoricola) 

1 Short-toed eagle {C. gallicus). 

2 Goosander {M. castor) 
1 Black-barred Oat Snake 

{D. cynodon), 
9 Snakes 
1 Banded Coral Snake 

(C. macclellandi) , 

1 Snake (Aspidura 

procta). 

2 Shrimps and 1 Fish 
1 Scorpion and a few insects, 

etc. 



Imphal, Manipur. 
Thana, Bombay. . 
Garhwal 
Tura, Assam 

Do. 

Maymyo, Burma 



H. H. The Rao of 

Cutch. 

M. J. W. B. Good- 
fellow. 

H. H. The Maharaja 

of Dhar. 
Capt. CM. Ingoldby 
Lt. W. H. O. Shortt 
Mr. C. Hopwood. 



Mr. A. E. Jones. 

Mr. F. K i n g d o n 

Ward. 
Mr. H. V. O'Donel 

Capt. P. A. Buxton. 
Capt. E. A. Glennie. 
Dr. R. N. Jadav. 

Mr. O. Lindgren. 

Capt. C. Ticehurst. 



Major F. E. W. 

Venning. 
G. J. Monahern. 
Capt. 0. R. Pitman. 

Capt. T. R. Livesey 
Major W. M. Logan 

Home. 
Mr. C. Gimson. 
Mr. W. R. Clarke. 
Capt. A. S. Brooke 
Dr. J. Ahlquist. 

Mrs. Jackson. 
Lt. B. H. Hayes. 



<rac% - Haputale, Ceylon. Mr. James Erskine. 



Madras . . 
Mesopotamia 



Mr. Rodgers. 
Lt.-Col. H. D. 
Peile, I.M.S. 



PROCEEDINGS. 187 

Minor contributions from: — Capt. H. R. Rishworth, Mr. 0. Beesou J. 
Erskine, H. French, Mrs. Jackson, Lt.-Col. Tupe, O. C. Ollenback, Major 
Kiinhardt, R. E. Haslam, Col. A. B. Dew, O. Linclgren, Capt. F. B. 
Scott, Lt.-Col. A. W. Bowen, Mrs. Cocke, W. R. Clarke, T. H. Cameron,' 
J. Makeig Jones, Mr. Ackworth and Mr. Baretto. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The Society has to acknowledge a large number of contributions received 
since the last meeting. Our thanks are due to Col. J. E. B. Hotson for 
his continued efl'orts on our behalf, his recent collections from Baluchistan 
have been of great scientific value, several new forms and species having 
been discovered. The Society has since received from him a further 
consignment of 213 mammals, several birds and pressed plants obtained 
around Shiraz in Southern Persia. 

EXHIBITS FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 

Since demobilization the number of contributions from Mesopotamia, &c., 
has dwindled down, but the Society still continues to receive some speci- 
mens. Among these are 28 bird skins from Major W. M. Logan Home 
and 23 from Major F. E. W. Venning ( the latter number including a few 
skins from the Punjab ). Several birds' eggs were presented by Capt. C. 
R. S. Pitman and a Pale Harrier from the banks of the Euphrates by Capt. 
T. R. Livesey ; Lt. W. H. O. Shortt sent a fox from Baghdad and Capt. 
Glennie, a Pigmy Shrew. A Scorpion and a few insects were contributed 
by Lt.-Col. H. D. Peile, I. M.S. The Society has received a number 
of skins of that curious rodent the Grey Hamster [Cricetulus). The 
Hamsters are Palsearctic and yet have been recognised as practically 
identical with a genus found in North America, formerly described under 
the name Sesperomys. A large series of these were received from Col. 
Hotson and specimens have also been collected for us by Capt. P. A. Bux- 
ton, R.A.M.C. Capt. C. M. Ingoldby, R.A.M.C, and Capt. C. B. 
Tichurst, R.A.M.C, from Persia and Baluchistan. 

EXHIBITS FROM INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 

The most outstanding feature of our contributions from within Indian 
limits is a collection of skins from Mr. J. P. Mills, I.C.S., Mokokchung, 
Assam. Mr. Mills' collection includes examples of the White-handed Gibbon, 
Small-toothed Palm-Civet, Ferret-Badger, various Tree Shrews and Bamboo 
Rats. Another valuable collection is that obtained for us by Lieut. Kingdon 
Ward in the Imaw Bum Range on the Burmo-Yunnan frontier. Among the 
specimens sent are examples of Anderson's Squirrel, several Brown-toothed 
Shrews, Pere David's Vole, a Weasel and Bamboo Rats. A Chinese Blood- 
Pheasant and a Laughing-Thrush were also collected by him in the same loca- 
lity. The collection is a useful supplement to the work of the Mammal Survey 
in Burma. The Society records its obligations to Mr. F, Ludlow for a series 
of Marmot skins collected by him in Tibet. These animals have been for a 
long time very greatly needed for the proper working out of this genus, of 
which practically little is known scientifically. Mr. Ludlow also presented 
us with the skins of 3 Oorials, 3 Hares and a Pale Weasel. Twelve mammal 
skins from Ceylon were received from Mr. G. W. B. Goodfellow. Mr. C. 
Hopwood, I.F.S., contributed a Malay Chevrotain from Tavoy and Mr. A. 
E. Jones a Pine Marten, two Weasels and a Bat from the Simla Hills. ^ Six 
Blackbuck heads and skins were received from H. H. the Maharaja of 
Dhar. His Highness has already sent a number of these skins and has 



188 JOURNAL, BOyiBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

kindly promised to continue to send specimens shot at different periods of 
the year with a view to ascertaining any seasonal colour variation in these 
animals. 

Amongst various additions to our bird collection are two very fine exam- 
ples of the Goosander by Capt. A. S. Brooke, Grharwal. Contributions to 
our collection of Reptilia include 9 snakes from Mrs. Jackson and a 
Black-barred Cat Snake from Dr. Ahlquist, Tura, Assam ; a Diamond-backed 
Rat Snake from Peshawar from Mr. Makeig-Jones ; a Banded Coral Snake 
from Lt. B. H. Hayes, Maymyo ; and 9 frogs from Mr. F. J. Mitchell, 
Srinagar, Kashmir. 

Prof. F. Hallberg read some Notes, illustrated with photographs, on the 
plants of North Canara. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Professor Hallberg for his interesting 
paper and for the excellent photographs exhibited by him. 



189 



PROCEEDINGS. 



OF THE MEETING HELD ON 26th FEBRUARY 1920. 
Annual Meeting. 

A meeting of members and their friends took place on Thursday, the 
26th February 1920, the Hon. Sir George Carmichael, K.C.S.I., presiding. 

The election of the following 24 new members since the last meeting was 
announced : — The Director of Agriculture, Gwalior Government, Gwalior 
C.I. ; Mr. H. R. Cooper, B.Sc, F.C.S., Assam ; Mr. J. M. Wilson, Badli- 
par, Assam ; Mr. R. F. Stephen, Badlipar, Assam ; Mr. F. A. Hill, Badlipar, 
Assam; Mr. R. Stanley, Badlipar, Assam ; Mr. J. J. Perry, Tavoy ; Mr. 
Manek M. Manekji, Tavoy ; Mr. H. Brian C. Hill, Chabua, Upper Assam ; 
Lieut. S.G. Butler, I.A.R.O., Calcutta ; Captain H. M. Stanford, R.F.A., 
M.B.O.U., Mesopotamia ; Mr. Raymond W. d'Adhemar, Delhi ; Mr. M.' 
C. Mc. Leod, Calcutta; Mr. J. G. Brooker, Mirpurkhas ; Mrs. W. Ouseley, 
Dhukrani; Mr. J. Ribeiro, L.C.E., Bombay; Mr. Wm. Theobald, Mysore ; 
Mr. G. L. Shaw, Banarhat, Jalpaiguri ; the Honorary Secretary, Club of 
Western India, Poona; and Colonel H. N. Dunn, A.M.S., Bangalore. 

The following gentlemen were elected as ofhce-bearers for the present 
year : President, — H. E. the Right Hon'ble Sir George Lloyd, G.C.I.E., 
D.S.O. ; Vice-Presidents— Mr. J. D. Inverarity, B.A., LL.B.; the Hon. 
Sir Norman Macleod, and H. H. the Maharao of Cutch, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. 

Managing Committee :— Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, F.E.S., Mr. T, R. 
Bell, CLE., Rev. E. Blatter, S.J., Mr. E. Comber, F.Z.S., Colonel G. H. 
Evans, CLE., F.L.S., Lieut-Col. W. H. Evans, R.E., Major M. L. 
Ferrar, LA., CB.E., Major F. C Eraser, l.M.S., M.D., Lieut-Col. J. 
E. B. Hotson, I.A.R.O., CB.E. (I.C.S.), Mr. C M. Inglis, Professor V. N. 
Hate, Lieut.-Col. W. Glen Listen, CLE., I.M.S., Mr. F. M. Mackwood, 
the Hon. Mr. P. J. Mead, CLE., I.CS., Mr. H. P. Macnaghten, B.A., 
Mr. R. A. Spence, Lieut.-Col. F. Wall, l.M.S., C.M.G., C.M.Z.S., 
Lieut.-Col. H. J. Walton, I.M.S., CM.Z.S., and Mr. John Wallace, CE. 

Mr. H. F. Lodge, Honorary Treasurer and Mr. W. S. Millard., Honorary 
Secretary. 

The following contributions to the Museum were received since the last 
meeting :— 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


Wild dog pup {Cuon dukhunensis) 


Gonda, U. P. . . 


Mr. F. Field. 


4 Blackbuck skins with horns 


Dhar, CI. 


H. H. The Maharaja 


{A. cervicapra). 




of Dhar. 


8 Mammals 


Naga Hills, 
Assam. 


Mr. J. P. Mills. 


1 Himalayan Black Bear {Ur- 


Manipur 


Col. G. W. Row. 


sus Imnalayanus) . 






2 Desert Foxes ( Vulpus sp.) 1 
1 Jungle Cat {Felis sp.) . . j 


N. Baghdad 


Lt. W. H. 0. Shortt. 


I Crested Pochard {Ni/roca'\ 






rufina). \ 


20 miles from 


General Wauchope. 


1 White-eyed Duck {N.fuli- ( 


Babylon. 




gula). J 







190 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Donor. 


2 Hobbys {Falco subuteo) 

2 Arabian Cliukor (C. melan- 


Pegu 

Aden, Arabia . . 


Mr. S. E.F.Jenkins. 
Capt. R. G. Bignel. 


ocejjfuda.) 






Do. 


1 LcMs cohratus (Arabian S 


aw- 


Aden 


scaled Viper). 








Skull of a Grampus {Orca sp.) 




Bushire . . 


Major F. C. Fraser, 
I.M.S. 


1 Scorpion 

1 Centipede . . 


:} 


Rangoon 


Dr. H. H. Marshall. 


2 Spiders 


. ) 






234 Mammals 


•J 


Assam 


Mr. H. W. Wells. 


15 Birds 






IRaLtus.r.rufescens.. 


} 


Southern India . . 


Mr. A. F. Martin. 


1 Golunda ellioti 


) 






1 Zamenis diadema (Diamo 


nd- 


Mesopotamia 


Lt. W. H. 0. Shortt. 


backed Rat Snake). 









ACCOUNTS FOR 1919. 

Mr. H. F. Lodga. the Honorary Treasurer, in presenting the accounts 
for the year ended 31st December 1919, said that a copy of the audited- 
balance sheet was on the table for the inspection of members and this 
would as usual be published in the Society's journal. The following, 
however, were the main features of the accounts of the past year. On ist 
January 1919, the Society opened with a credit balance of Rs. 14,727-5-8 
and during the year this figure was increased to Rs. 15,168-12-11, the cash 
balance shown on the 31st December 1919. The receipts during the year 
under review amounted to Rs. 33,767-4-8 which shows a decrease of 
Rs. 2 203, when compared with the corresponding figures of the previous 
year. The expenditure during the year 1919 amounted to Rs. 34,196-14-8 
and this figure shows an increase of Rs. 9,719-10-11 over the corresponding 
figures for 1918. 

The increase in expenditure was easily understood as the Society in 
common with every other institution had lately had to pay considerable 
more for every thing required to carry on it8 work. In spite of this the Socie- 
ty had not increased the annual subscription which remains at Rs. 15 and 
it was hoped to avoid having to do so. Indications for 1920 pointed to the 
fact that expenditure generally would be still further increased and to 
counteract the rise in prices every efi'ort ought to be made to increase the 
revenues of the Society and this can best be done by the enrolment of new 
members. It is therefore hoped that members would do their best to inter- 
est their friends who were not already members in the work of the Society 
with a view to their being enrolled as members. 

Since the close of the year ended 31st December 1918, 125 members had 
joined the Society and 52 had resigned or died, making a net increase of 73 
to the membership of the Society which now totalled 1,821. During the year 
1918 the membership of the Society had been increased by 84. The slight 
decrease in the number of new members during 1919 must not be taken as 
an indication that the Society was losing its popularity. The Society was 
full of vitality and its members were to be found in all parts of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. Now that we had come to the end of the first year of 



PROCEEDINGS. 191 

peace and the process of settling back again into peace-time conditions was 
well under weigh, it was hoped that the year 1920 would show a marked in- 
crease in the Society's general prosperity both as regards new members and 
cash balances. 

As regards the Mammal Fund, the balance at the commencement of the 
year was Rs. 8,684-7-2 and the closing balance Rs. 12,389-2-5. During the 
year under review the Mammal Survey was dormant till October 1919 
except in Baluchistan where Lieut. -Col. Hotson at his own expense 
defrayed half the charges of Mr. Baptista to carry on the Survey work in 
that area and very valuable work was done. Col. Hotson is now continuing- 
the work with the same assistance in S. Persia. As soon as it was discover- 
ed that neither the services of Messrs. Shortridge nor Crump, who were in 
charge of the Survey before the war, were again available Mr, Wells was 
brought out from England and proceeded straight to Assam, We have 
only just received his first collection of specimens. If funds will permit, it 
is proposed to engage another Collector in order that this very valuable 
survey may be the more quickly completed. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

As regards contributions received for the Museum since the last 
meeting : — 

Two foxes and a jungle cat were presented by Capt. W. H. O. Shortt 
from Baghdad, Mr. J. P. Mills, I.C.S., sent in a further lot of Mammal skins 
from Assam, these include bamboo rats, flying squirrels, water shrews, a 
marten, and a wild dog. A black bear skin and skull was received from 
Lieut. -Col. G. W. Row, Manipur, Assam. The Society has obtained a few 
bears' skins, from the Assam Hill Ranges. These have proved of great inter- 
est and it is intended to Lave them examined and worked out at the British 
Museum, so as to establish the identity of the various species found in 
those hills. 4 black bucks' skins and skulls were presented by H. H. the 
Maharaja of Dhar. Two very fine examples of the Arabian chukor (C melano- 
cephala) were sent to us from the neighbourhood of Aden, by Captain R, 
Bignell. This species is the largest of the chukor partridges and is a remark- 
ably handsome bird. An Arabian saw-scaled viper was also received from 
him. Two Indian Hobbys were presented by S. E. F. Jenkins, Pegu, and 
Major F, C. Fraser, I.M.S., contributed a perfectly preserved skull of a 
grampus from Bushire. 

MAMMAL SURVEY. 

The first consignmemt of specimens since the restarting of the Mam- 
mal Survey, which was in abeyance during the war, has just been received 
from Mr. H. W. Wells, the Society's Collector. Mr. Wells commenced work 
in October last, starting at Margherita in Assam; he collected for some time 
along the Assam-Burmese border but fonnd the jungle very thick and 
heavy ; he is now at Tura in the Garo Hills. The collection just unpacked 
consists of some 234 species and is extremely interesting. It includes some 
remarkable monkeys and a fine series of shrews. The collection will shortly 
be sent to the British Museum (Natural History) for identification and 
return. Vast tracts of Assam present practically a virgin field to the Zoolo- 
gical Collector and the work of the Mammal Survey will, it is hoped, be 
productive of some remarkable additions to our knowledge of the fauna of 
that interesting region. 

The Society is anxious to bring out a second collector and so complete 
the Survey more quickly if only sufficient funds can be obtained. 



192 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

THE GEOLOGY OF WORLI HILL. 

Mr. Ribeiro read a very interesting paper on the above subject and 
illustrated it with several very fine examples of various minerals and fos- 
sils collected by him at Worli. 

He said Worli Hill at no distant date formed by itself one of the seven 
isles which go to make up our present (^ity of Bombay. It is a very interest- 
ing spot geologically, in fact the most interesting in Bombay. The Hill 
is made up of two lava flows, between which is sandwiched a 30-feet 
thick bed of sedimentary deposits. The lava beds are similar to the trap 
rock in the other parts of the island, but the aqueous strata contain a 
large amount of interesting relics from which important facts can be 
deduced. 

An examination of the beds of trap above and below the sedimentary 
rock shows that the latter is older than both the trap flows, and the 
occurrence of a very large amount of frog fossils goes to prove that the 
aqueous deposits took place under fresh water, probably in a lake or a 
river. 

Mr. Ribeiro said that he had secured a fine collection of rock, mineral 
and fossil specimens from the Hill, but it was very much to be regretted 
that owing to the non-existence in a City like Bombay of a standard collec- 
tion of minerals and geological specimens, it is not possible to give the 
specific names of theai beyond saving that they consist of Oalcite quartz 
and Zeolites. 

The full text of Mr, Ribeiro's paper will be published in the Society's 
Journal. 






CONTENTS OF THIS N U M B E R—{contd.} 

Page 
Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I.— Tiger and Goat. By S. M. Fraser = 163 

II. — Length of Tigers and Panthers. By Brig. General 

R. G. Burton 163 

III. — Tigers in Trees. By Brig. General E. G. Burton . . 164 

IV.— Scent. By Brig. General R. G. Burton 164 

v.— Food of the Grey Musk Shrew {Croeidura m^ruleay 

By W. S. Millard 164 

VI.— Expected Plague of Field Rats in 1920. By W. S. 

Millard 165 

VII. — Female Black-Buck {A. cenncapra) with horns. By 

E.G. Browne 1&9 

VIII.— Abnormal Sambhar Horn. By G. Tate 170 

IX. — Birds of difl'erent species nesting in company. By 

H. W. Waite 171 

X. — Curious Nesting Site of the Indian Hoopoe {Upupa 

indica). By H. W. Waite 171 

XI. — Breeding of Black-necked Stork {Xenorhynclms 

asiaticus). By F. Field 171 

XII.— Egret and Lizard. By H. R. Meredith, i.c.s 172 

XIII. — Common Pochard {N. ferrina) at Bangalore. By 

Capt. E. O. King : 172 

XIV, — Mesopotamian Bird Notes. By W. D. Gumming. ... 173 
XV. — The Great Indian Hornbill {Dichocerros bicornu). 

By R. A. Spence 1 74 

XVI. — Suppression of the name of the snake described by 
me as Oligodon evansei. By Lt.-Col. F. WaU, 

I.M.S., c.M.u •• 173 

XVII. — Occurrence of Theobald's Kukri Snake {Simotes 

theobaldi) in Assam. By S. H. Prater 1 75 

XVIII. — Cobra without the cuneate scale. By Lt.-Ool. C. E. 

Luard ^ ' ■^ 

XIX.— On the Breediug of the Checkered Water Snake 

{Tropidonotus piscator). By Lt.-Col. C. E. Luard. 47^ 

XX.— The Mysterious ' Joor.' By E. Brook Fox 175 

XXI.— Large Carp from Mesopotamia. By Major F. B. 

Lane 1^^ 

XXII.— A New Hawk Moth. By Major F. B. Scott, i.A.j. . 177 
XXllI.— Strange find of the larva of the Butterfly (Teino- 

paipas imperialis.) By Oscar Lindgren i V'f 

XXIV.— Life History of the ' Buprestid ' Leaf Miner {Trachys 
hicolor, Kerremans), a pest on (Butea frondosa) in 
Mysore. By P. V. Subramaniam. (With a plate.) i^Q 
XXV.— A Short Note on the Atrophic abortion of the 
inflorescence of the Onion (Allium cepa, L.) (With 
two plates.) By P. M. Debbarman, B.sc, M.R.A.s. I /»• 

XXVI.— Editorial ^ ^? 

Proceedings 

Printed by E. U. Pearsoo for the Ptropi-ietors of the Times Press, Bouibay, and 
published by W. S. MUlard for the Bombay Natural History Society— looj.iVJi 



THE 



JOU RNAL 



OF THE 



Bombay Natuml History Society. 

EDITED BY 
R. A. SPENCE, M.L.A., and S. H. PRATER. 

VOL. XXVII, No. 2. V^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ 
Date of Publication, 20th Becemher 1920. 



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CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER, 

Page 

The Game Bieds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part 
XXX. By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., 
M.B.o.u. (With a coloured Plate of Francolinus fran- 
colinus melanonofMs, The Assam Black Partridge) 193 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 
XXV. By T. R. Bell, c.i.e., i.f.s. (retired) (With 
coloured Plate M.) 211 

The Birds of the Indian Empire. By E. 0. Stuart Baker, 

O.B.E., F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.o.u., C.F.A.O.U 228 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. 

XXIII. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S 248 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XXIV. 

By R. C. Wroughton, F.z.s ^ 249 

Description of a New Snake of the Genus ZAMENI8 from 
Persia. By G. A. Boulenger, ll.d., d.sc, f.r.s 251 

Description of a New Land Tortoise from Northern 

Persia. By G. A. Boulenger, ll.d., d.sc, f.r.s. ...... 251- 

Indian Dragonflies. Part VIII. (With 10 text figures.) 

By Major F. 0. Fraser, i.m.s 253 

The Flora of the Indian Desert. (Jodhpur and 
Jaisalmer.) Part VI. (With 3 Plates.) By Rev. B. 
Blatter, S. J., and Prof. F. Hallberg 270 

The Birds OF Prey of the Punjab. Part VI. By 0. H. 

Donald, F.z.s., M.B.o.u 280 

Summary of the Results from the Indian Mammal 
Survey of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
Part VII. By R. C. Wroughton, f.z.s 301 

Bombay Natural History Society's Mammal Survey of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. (Report No. 32, Baluchis- 
tan). By R. C. Wroughton, f.z.s 314 

Report on the Mammals of Mesopotamia collected by 
Members of the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force 
1915 to 1919. By Major R. E. Cheesman, m.b.o.u., 
F.R.G.s 323 

A List of Snakes from Mesopotamia collected by Mem- 
bers OF the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force 
1915-1919. By G. A. Boulenger, ll.d., d.sc, f.e.s. 347 

A List of Lizards from Mesopotamia collected by Mem- 
bers OF THE Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force 
1915 to 1919. By G. A. Boulenger, ll.d., d.sc, f.r.s. 351 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

Dec. 1920. Vol. XXVII. No. 2. 

THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. C. Stuart Baker, F.L.S,, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., 

'^^*'""'" "'"^^/^^ 

V/ith a Coloured Plate. /. SFP 7 1Q97 </^ 

(^Continued from page 24 of this Volume\ 

Genxis—FRANCOLINUS. ^^^^S^lAi^ 

The genus Francolinus contains a veiy large groiiiJ of African, 
European and Asiatic Game-birds which in general appearance are 
very like the true Partridges (Perdix) but have 14 tail feathers in- 
stead of 16 or 18. The legs also are longer and stouter and, in the 
males, are generally furnished with a spur. 

The wing is longer than the tail, but is short and rounded. The 
third or fourth primary is longest, and the fifth and sixth almost as 
long. In some species the sexes are alike, in other dissimilar. 

Only five species of Francolin are known in India, but three of 
these are further divided into two or three geographical races, many 
of which Hartert has recently discussed at length in Novitates 
Zoologicse. 

Key to Species and Sub-Species. 

A. Quills transversely barred or spotted with buff on both 
webs. 
a. Scapulars with a coaspicuous buff submarginal band. 
a'. Males with chestnut collar and females with chest- 
nut nuchal patch. 
a". Darker .. .. . .F.f. asice. 

h" . Much paler . . ■ -F.f. henrici. 

c" . Darkest, much black 

above and below • -F.f. melanonotus. 



194 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

v. No chestnut collar or patcli. 

d". Darker F. p. pictus. 

e" . Paler .. .. . .F. p. pallidus. 

b. No submarginal buff band on sca23ulars F. chinensis. 
B. Quills without transverse bars or spots. 

c. Breast buff with narrow black cross-bars. 
c\ Darker, centre of throat ochra- 

ceous .. .. . .F. jJ- pondicerianus. 

d'. Paler, centre of throat creamy 

white .. .. . . F . p . interpositus . 

e' . Palest, more grej and less 

chestnut . . . . . .F . p. mecranensis. 

d. Breast brown, with broad longitudi- 

nal white stripes . . . .F. gularis. 

In giving the synonymy of the various races I have as far as 
possible worked them out geographically, but in many cases the 
areas and countries referred to overlap, whilst in some no definite 
locality is given. References to forms which do not occur within 
the limits of the Indian Empire have not been given. 

Feancolinus feancolinus asi^. 
The Northern Indian Black Partridge. 

Francolinus asify.— Bonap., Oompt. Rendu. XLII., p. 882 (1856) (Asia), 
Bree., Ibis, 1863, p. 115. 

Francolinus orientalis eti/ropaus. — Buturlin., Orn. Monatsb., p. 81 (1907) (?) 
(Greece). 

Tetrao francolinus. — ^Linn. Syst. Nat. I., p. 275 (1766) ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 
I., (2), p. 756 (1788) (S. Asia). 

Perdix francolinus. — ^Lath. Ind. Orn. II., p. 644 (1790) (Europe, Africa, 
Asia) ; Temm. Pig. et Gal. III., p. 340 (1815) (part) ; VieUl. Tabl. Ency. 
Metb. I., p. 214 (1823); Jard. Nat. Lib. Orn. IV., p. 110 (1834) (part). 

Francolinus vulgaris,— Slyth, Cat. B. Mus. Asiat. Soc. p. 251, (1849) (N. 
India, Persia, etc.) ; Adams, P. Z. S., 1858, p. 502 (Bombay, Bengal, etc.) ; 
id, ibid, 1859, p. 186 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861 p. 236 (Oudh. and Kumaon) ,• Jerd. 
B. of I. III., p. 558, (1864) ; Tytler, Ibis, 1868, p. 203, (Simla to Mussoorie) ; 
Pelz., Ibis, 1868, p. 383, (Koteghur) ; Hume, N. & E. In. Birds, p. 537 (1873!) ; 
BaU, Str. Feath. II., p. 427 (1874) (Chota Nagpore) ; Butler, ibid, IV., p. 5, 
a876) (Deesa); Ball, ibid, VII., p. 225, (1878) (Ganges to Godaveri) ; Hume 
and Mars. Game-birds, II., p. 9(1879); Reid, Str. Eeath., X., p. 62 (1881) 
(Lnicknow) ; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 423 (Chamba) ; Taylor, Str. Feath, X. 
p. 530 (1881) ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 175 (Afghanistan) ; Gates, ed. Hume's 
N. & Eggs III., p. 428 (1890); Blanf. Fauna B. I. IV., p. 136 (1898); Jesse, Ibis, 
1901, p. 604 (Lucknow) ; id, ibid, 1902, p. 475 (Fyzabad) ; Inghs, Jour. B. N. 
H. S., XIV., p. 563 (1902) (Behar) ; Jesse, Ibis, 1903, p. 153 (Gogra-Ganges) : 
Whymper, Jour. B. N. H. S., XVII., p. 232 (1906) (Naini-Tal) ; Ward, ibid, 
p. 944 (1907), (Jhelum) ; King, Jour. B. N. H. S.,XXI., p. 100 (1911) (Saugor); 
Osmaston, ibid, XXII. , p. 544, (1913) (Gorukpur) ; Brooking, ibid, XXVL, 
p. 677 (1919) (Euphrates Valley). 

Francolinus francolinus. — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M. XXII., p. 132 (1893). 

Francolinus francolinus asice. — Hartert, Nov. Zool. XXIV., p. 288 (1917). 

YERNAGVLARNAME8.—Tq\x& Kalo-tetra (G^arAwjaZ) ; Kala-titar {Hin.) 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 195 

Descrijjtion — Adult Male. — Crown to nape sandy or rufous brown, 
the feathers centred dark brow^n, supercilium and feathers round the 
eye black ; a broad white band from lower lores, cheeks and ear- 
coverts white ; chin, throat and broad patch below ear-coverts run- 
ning up to nape black ; feathers of nape showing a little black and 
white mottling. A broad chestnut collar all round the neck ; behind 
the collar the back and sides are black, each feather with white spots 
on either web; back, scapulars and smaller wing-coverts, and inner- 
most secondaries brown, each feather with a sub-marginal black- 
edged band of buff or sandy rufous, the transition from the black 
upper back being very gradual and not abrupt. Lower back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts and tail feathers black with narrow white or ful- 
vous-white bars, the outer tail feathers with the terminal third un- 
barred black. Primaries, outer secondaries and greats coverts, 
dark brown with spots or broken bars of rufous buff. 

Below, the breast is black, unspotted in very old males in the cen- 
tre, but with oval white spots on the sides ; flanks black with 
larger, longer, oval, white spots, rarely running to longitudinal bars 
on the posterior flanks and generally with narrow brown fringes ; 
lower breast and thigh-coverts black to blackish brown with very 
large white spots or bars ; centre of abdomen and vent light 
chestnut with whitish bars, under tail-coverts chestnut, rarely 
having a few bars of white or fulvous. 

Under wing-coverts and axiUaries mottled fulvous and dark brown. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Irides hazel-brown to dark brown ; bill 
black or dark horny brown, the tip of the lower mandible whitish ; 
legs and feet reddish brown to orange red or brick red, always brighter 
and redder during the breeding season than at other times ; claws 
black or horny brown ; spur dark horny, often paler at the tip. 

Measurements. — Length about 13 inches (330mm.) ; wing 145-5 to 
168 mm. ; average 80 birds, 155*3 mm. ; tail 77 to 110 mm.; tarsus 
about 45 to 50 mm.; bill at front about 24 mm., and from gape 
27 mm. 

Eirds from various districts vary greatly in size. Thus 41 birds 
from Gurgaon average under 153, whilst others from Kumaon and 
Simla average in wing measurement a full 158 mm.; Deccan birds 
are very small. 

" Weight 10 to 20-ozs." (Hume). 

Hume remarks on the weight " I have shot males in good condi- 
tion in Gurgaon scrub weighing only 10-ozs. and others in the 
Kadar of the Ganges, in the Marut district, weighing fully 20-ozs." 

In addition to being smaller, birds from Gurgaon and the Plains 
generally have darker heads than those from the hills and the wbite 
and black mottling of the neck seems to extend further down 
the back. 



196 JOUHNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Adult Female.— Ahove similar to the male, but paler and duller ; 
the black and white cheeks and supercilia are replaced by dull, 
pale buff ; the ear-coverts are brown or bu% brown, and the 
cheeks are more or less speckled with dark brown. The chestnut 
collar is replaced by a duller chestnut nuchal patch, sometimes 
freckled or slightly barred with brown. Eump, upper tail-coverts 
and central tail feathers dull pale brown, with narrow wavy bars 
of pale buff edged with black ; outer tail feathers as in the male. 

Below, chin, throat and foreneck white or buffy-white ; breast 
and flanks white or pale buff, sometimes with a ruf escent tinge, with 
wavy arrow-shaped bars of black, narrowest on the neck and upper 
breast, and gradually becoming broader on the posterior flanks and 
lower breast, but again fewer and more narrow on the abdomen 
where they occasionally disappear altogether. Ventral region pale 
dull chestnut, sometimes with faint brown bars and sometimes with 
whitish tips, under tail-coverts chestnut. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in the male, but the legs never become 
a bright brick-red or orange-red as do those of the male in the breed- 
ing season. The bill is paler, more a horny-brown, than black, and 
the base and gonys is paler still. 

Measurements. — Length about 12 inches (300 mm.) or rather 
more ; wing from 138 (one specimen, Gurgaon) and 144 to 167 mm. ; 
average 149 "9 mm. Tarsus and bill a little smaller than in the 
male, and the former only very rarely with a spur, though there is 
often a tiny knot to indicate the place where it should grow. 

"Weight 8 to 17-ozs." (Hume). 

Young Males are like richly-coloured females, but with dark,, 
almost black supercilia and white cheeks, the rufous nuchal patch is. 
darker and more pronounced and the breast is black, though the 
two white spots take up practically the whole visible portion of 
each feather. 

The black throat and foreneck is soon assumed, but the chin 
remains white for some time longer. 

Chick in first Plumage is a peculiarly lark-like little bird, pale: 
rufous buff everywhere with broad dark brown bars and spots. 
Below the buff is paler, almost albescent, and the spots are 
smaller. 

Chick in Down.— YLesid bright rufous with darker crown and 
with paler supercilia and cheeks and dark line through the eyes,. 
above brown with a very pale buff streak on either side of the 
back and rump ; chin whitish, neck and throat fulvous-white, and 
rest of body below dull earthy white. 

At a slightly older stage when the wing quills grow, the brown of 
the crown seems to become more defined and darker as well aa 
greater in extent. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 197 

Distribution . — Excluding Sind and the extreme N. W. Frontier 
of India, the whole of Northern India as far East as W. Nepal in the 
Hills and East to and including Behar, but not Bengal and Orissa. 
Birds from these two provinces and also from E. Nepal are somewhat 
intermediate between asice and melanonotus, but are nearer the lat- 
ter, and I agree with Hartert in retaining them with this race. 

Southwards it extends to Deesa, Gwalior, Sambalpur, the Central 
Provinces to Saran, Parguga and Udaipur and Western Bengal to 
Chota Nagpore. 

Ty)pe Locality. — Asia. To restrict this further, I now designate 
Gurgaon, India, as the type locality for this race. 

Nidification. — The Indian Black Partridge breeds principally in 
May and June and early July, but the breeding season extends over 
a very protracted j)eriod. I have had eggs taken in early April in 
the Deccan, and in late September in Behar, whilst Whymper records 
finding hardset eggs near Naini-Tal at 5,000 feet on the 21st October. 
In the South it would appear that the favourite nesting month is 
April, over the central and western portions of its habitat June and 
perhaps July, and in the drier portions of Behar not until September 
at the end of the rains. 

I think in some parts of its breeding range two broods are reared 
in the year, for though niost of the eggs sent me from Behar have 
been taken in August and September, I have had others taken in 
April. 

They make their nests in grass, tamarisk or scrub jungle, some- 
times in sugar-cane, crops or indigo, but most often in the two first 
named. The nest itself is generally a rather flimsy affair, composed 
merely of a small amount of grass added to the fallen material and 
collected in some hollow, either natural or scratched out by the birds 
themselves. Occasionally, however, the nest is quite a compact 
affair, a thick pad some two or three inches deep, being formed of 
grass, dead leaves and odd fallen twigs. 

The number of eggs laid is, I think, most often 6 to 8, but Hume 
says from 6 to 10, and Jerdon writes of 10 to 12 or even 15 in a 
clutch. Certainly clutches of 4 and 5 only are by no means rare, 
and I have frequently had such sent to me which had been ad- 
vanced in incubation. 

The eggs vary in colour from a pale stone colour, which is rare, 
to a deep olive chocolate brown. The majority are a rather pale 
olive brown, and in some almost an olive green, in fact they are 
very much like the eggs of the common pheasant, but the range of 
variation is proportionately far greater. I have, however, seen no 
eggs of the beautiful blue variety occasionally taken in clutches of 
pheasants' eggs. Many eggs, more especially the darker ones, 
have numerous white specks and blotches formed by a calcareous 



198 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl 

deposit, apparently deposited on the egg immediately prior to ex- 
pulsion, and after tlie deposition of tlie colouring matter has been 
completed. These spots are easily removable with a sharp knife, 
and the egg then appears to be unicoloured. 

The texture is stout, but fine and generally rather glossy, and it 
is noticeable that the greener the egg the higher the gloss. 

Hume's expression of sphero-conoidal exactly expresses the shape 
of most eggs, others are more oval, whilst at the other extremity some 
may be found which are of quite exaggerated peg-top shape, the big 
end being almost flat. 

Hume who does not divide the races, gives the average of 70 eggs 
as 39 '8 X 33*0 mm., practically, however, the whole of these are 
typical a&i(B as he seems to have had no eggs from Sind, and only 
5 taken by Cripps in the Duars which might be attributed to md- 
anonoius. He gives the variation in length as 34 '7 to 45*8 mm., 
and in breadth as 29 • 9 to 35 • mm. 

The average of 40 eggs which have passed through my hands is 
35*9 X 31*3 mm. The longest and broadest are 38 "6 x 31*0 mm. 
and 36*3 x 32 "3 mm., the shortest and narrowest are 32 "6 x 30*4 
and 35 -2 x 29-4. 

The majority of my eggs are, however, from Behar, where the 
birds are smaller than in the Western area. 

General Hahits. — The one essential for the Black Partridge is co 
ver and lots of it, and if this cover is near water, so much the better, 
but it is not a sine qua non, for many parts of its habitat are very 
arid and dry. Eajputana and other districts frequented by the 
Black Partridge elsewhere are very devoid of water except during 
the rains, yet it seems to hold its own there quite well. 

As regards cover, it really does not seem to matter much what 
this is, but possibly its favourite consists either of grass a few feet 
high or scrub jungle, which is fairly thick. They haunt thin forest, 
date and scrub groves, dense eJcra and nal of river beds and swamps, 
plains of short grass, not two feet high, and practically any kind of 
cultivated crop which afiords sufiicient concealment. 

I fear that shooting and trapping by natives at all seasons of the 
year has greatly decreased the numbers of this fascinating bird over 
most of its range ; civilization has destroyed many of its favourite 
haunts, and the crops which have taken the place of the seas of 
grass and jungle, though forming quite sufficient cover, have brought 
with them the ever-hungry native. Hume writes of places where he 
could make sure of bagging 50 couple to his own gun in one day, 
though even then he adds where " in past times 60, 70 and 80 brace 
have been thus brought to book." Hume alsotells us of how in six 
days he and Home shot 1771 brace of Black Partridge in the Aligarh 
District besides nearly 200 head of other game. I fear that such 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 199 

shoots are no longer possible, but still good bags can be had with 
time available and proper arrangements made, and the charm is as 
great as ever. 

The very cry of this Partridge is a sporting one : " Che-chirree 
chick-chiree " ringing out in the early morning before the sun is 
up or the dew off the grass urges the sluggard out of bed. Some- 
times the first two words are repeated twice, but generally only the 
six syllables are uttered, the emphasis being placed on the 
" chick " and the last syllable of the cry. It is so joyous and 
musical a call that it cannot but appeal to every lover of Nature, 
even if he is not a sportsman bent on the murder of the utterer of 
the cry. 

The Black Partridge is a satisfactory bird to shoot, for he rises 
quite well for an Indian game-bird, gets away fairly quickly, and 
flies strong and straight, though not at the pace of an English 
Partridge. Moreover he does not require such hard hitting as one 
generally takes him as he flies away from the shooter and so he 
does not present the tough shield of breast feathers presented by 
the driven bird. 

Big coveys are the exception, for the birds soon separate when 
the young are old enough to look after themselves, and though 
the cocks and hens keep together throughout the year, even they 
often wander about some distance apart, so that often shots can be 
obtained at more than one member of a covey or at both the two 
birds of a pair. 

Shooting with a few beaters in grass or crops is the form of sport 
with this bird most often indulged in, and from a shooting point of 
view is certainly the easiest, but birds can also be driven from one 
piece of cover to another, and then afford faster, harder shots, 
more like those obtained at a drive of Partridges at home. 

In the hills which they ascend certainly up to 6,000 or 7,000 feet, 
Dodsworth records them at 8,000 in the Simla Hills, one must use 
dogs to work the heavier jungle which they there frequent, and even 
then one can hardly hope for bags of any size judging by the 
standard of the Plains. 

Hume describes the joys of a Black Partridge shoot from elephants 
a sport often indulged in even now, but generally at the end of some 
tiger or big game shoot, when it no longer matters about disturbing 
or frightening away the real object of the day's outing. He says 
that Black Partridge are easy to shoot in such circumstances, and 
that he saw a Col. Congreve kill with ball cartridge in consecutive 
shots 6 Black Partridge ! ! 

The natives trap the males in very large numbers to keep as pets. 
The method adopted is the universal one of surrounding a decoy 
bird with nooses so that when the wild bird hears the challenge of 



200 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

tte tame lie rushes in and gets caught. They are great fighters, and 
occasionally a tame decoy gets killed by a wild bird that has avoided 
the nooses, for they are very savage in their attacks, and their long 
sharp spurs soon inflict a fatal wound. 

In captivity they are not used for fighting purposes, or at least they 
are very seldom so used, though Capt. C. E. S. Pitman informs me 
that round about Ferozepore they are some times trained for this 
purpose, but they become tame rapidly, and can be allowed loose 
in a very short time. They run at a great pace, and their predilic- 
tion for this form of movement seems even stronger in captivity 
than when wild as they always answer their master's call on foot 
rather than by flight. 

They crow in captivity all through the months of March, April 
and May and again, though less often, in August and September, 
calling continuously through the early morning and after the cool 
of the evening. In their normal state they are said to call occasion- 
ally throughout the year, though principally in March and April, 
but wherever they are I think that when heard calling they will also 
be found to be breeding. 

The BlacK Partridges are principally grain and seed-feeders, but 
also eat any small insects and a good deal of green food. As 
a dish for the table, most peoj)le consider them rather dry and 
flavourless, but they are not a bad change from endless fowl or goat 
when one is in camp. 

Franc oLiNus feancolinus henrici. 
The South Persian Black Partridge. 

Francolinus henrici.- — Bonap, Compt. Rendu. XLII., p. 882 (1856) (Sindh). 

Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi. — Zarudny, Orn. Monatsb. XIV., pp. 151, 152, 
(1906) (Mesopotamia). 

Francolinus orientalis arabistanicus. — Zarudny. & Harms., Orn. Monatsb. 
XXI, p. 54 (1913) (Zagrossisclie and Mesopotamische Gebite Persians). 

Perdix francolinus. — Lath. Ind. Orn. II., p. 644 (1790) (part); Temm., 
Pig. et Gal. III., p. 340 (1815) (part) ; Vieill. Tabl. Ency. Meth. I., p. 214 
(1823). 

Francolinus vulgaris. — Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. Asiat. Soc, p. 251 (1849) (N. In- 
dia, etc.) ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 502 (Bombay, Bengal, etc.) ; id, ibid, 
1859, p. 186 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 236 (Oudh & Kumaon) ; Jerd., B. of I. III., p. 
558 (1864) ; Tilippi, Viag. Pess. I., p. 351 (1865) (Persia) ; Hume, N. & E. In. 
Birds, p. 537 (1873); Hume, Str. Feath. I., p. 226 (1873) (Sind) ; Le Mes., 
Str, Feath. III., p. 379 (1875) (Sind); Schalow, Jour. f. Orn., 1876, p. 186. 
(Persia) ; Blanf., East Persia II., p. 273 (1876) (Baluchistan, etc.) ; Doig., 
Str. Feath. VIII., p. 371 (1879) (E. Xarra) ; Butler, Cat. B. of Sind, p. 54 
(1879) ; Hume & Mars. Game-Birds^ II., p. 9 (1879) ; Murdoch, Str. Feath. 
X., p. 168, (1881), (Sind) ; Swinh. Ibis, (1882,) p. 119 (S. Afghanistan) ; Gates 
ed. Hume's N. & Eggs III., p. 428 (1890) ; Rattray, Jour. B. N. H. S. XII., 
p. 345, (1898) (Thull); Blanf., Fauna. B. I. IV., p. 136 (1898); Gumming; 
Jour. B. N.H. S. XVI., p. 692 (1905) (Seistan); Whitehead, Ibis, p. 269 
(1909) (Kurram) ; id., Jour. B. N. H. S. XX., p. 969 (1911) (Kurram). 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 201 

Francolinus francoUnus. — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M. XXIL, p. 136 (1893), 
Francolinus francolinus henrici. — Hartert, Nov. zool. XXIV. p 289 (1917)' 
VERNACULAR NAMES.— Kala-tetm or Kala-tetri (Hin) '; Taru (Pushtu). 
Description— Adult if aZe.— Similar to F.f. asike, but paler every- 
where. This is more especially the case in regard to the small Sind 
birds. As regards the extent of the barring, this appears to me 
to vary individually to such an extent that it is of no value as a 
sub-specific character. The under tail-coverts are a darker chest- 
nut than they are in asice, and there is hardly ever any trace of 
barrings. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in asice. 

Measurements. — Birds from Persia and Afghanistan seem to run 
larger than those from Sind and Baluchistan, the former measuring 
in their wings from 164 to 175 mm., and the latter from 148 to 163 mm. 
In colour they agree very well, and I do not consider it necessary 
to again sub-divide them. The Afghanistan and Sind birds are 
the palest, whilst the Baluchistan birds, though as small as those 
from Sind, agree with the Persian birds in being perceptibly 
darker. 

Adult Female. — Differs from the female of F.f. asice in being paler. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in asice. 

Measurements. — -The only Sind female I have seen has a wing 
of 149 mm., others of this race vary between 153 and 160 mm. 

Chick in Domi from Fao in Persia varies from the chick of asice 
far more than the adults do from one another. Above it is a pale 
whitish fawn, the central markings more narrow, though longer in 
shape than they are in asice. The cjuills have many light bars and 
narrower dark ones, making these feathers appear much lighter 
than they do in the other races. The head is of the palest fawn 
with a narrow darker centre, and below it is unmarked creamy white. 

Distrihution. — Southern and South-Eastern Persia to Fao and 
Bagdad, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Sind. 

A specimen from Chitral is undoubtedly of this race, and probably 
all those found in the hills of the N.-W. Frontier of India as far 
North as Quetta will prove to be the same. 

Type Locality. — Sind. 

Nidification. — There is practically nothing on record about the 
breeding of this race, but as it is a resident bird, it will be found 
nesting wherever it occurs. 

In Baluchistan and the foot hills of the N.-W. Frontier it breeds, 
apparently in the thin scrub jungle, and, where there is any, in 
grass patches. In South Persia it breeds in the sparse grass border- 
ing the rivers and river beds, and also in amongst a species of 
Polypodium, which grows over an enormous area of country 
during the rains, forming the staple food of Sand Grouse, and 
perhaps also of this partridge. 

2 



202 JOUENAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVll. 

The only two eggs I have seen are two in my collection sent me 
from S. Persia, and taken on 27th April 1917. They are typical 
normal Black Partridge's eggs, and measure 37-0 x 31 '0 and 37*3 

X 31 "0 mm. 
Whitehead and Rattray both found it breeding on the N.-W. 

Frontier. 

General HaUts.— The Persian Black Partridge inhabits much the 
same -kind of cover as the last bird, but within its Indian limits 
g^erally haunts much more broken ground. It is found every- 
where iia suitable places in the Baluchistan and Afghan Hills up 
to at leapt 7,000 feet, and is common up to 4,000 feet in most 
localities along the frontier. 

In Persia it is said to be common along many of the river beds 
in the Tamarisk and heavy grass which grows so luxuriantly on their 
banks. 

Capt. C. E. S. Pitman informs me that these partridges drink 
very regularly every morning and evening. 

Francolinus francolinus melanonotus. 
TJie Assam Black Partridge. 

Francolinus melajionotus. —Hnme, Stray Feath. XI., p. 305 (1888) (Assam 
and Manipur). 

Perdix francolinus. — Lath., In. Orn. II., p. 644 (1790) (Part) ; Lesson, Traite 
d'Orn., p. 505 (1831), (Bengal, etc.). 

Francolinus vulgaris? var brevipes. — Hodg. in Grays Zool. Misc., p. 85, (1844), 
(Nepal, nomen nudum.) ; id. Icon. ined. in B. M. Nos. 630 ; Bonap, C. B. 
XLIIL, p. 414 (1856). 

Francolinus vulgaris. — Stephen in Shaw's Gen. Zool. XI., p. 319, (1819), 
(Bengal, etc.) ; Adams, P. Z. S., 1858, p. 502 (Bombay, Bengal, etc.) id, ibid, 
1859, p. 186 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 236 (Oudh and Kumaon) ; Jerd, B. of I., IIL, 
p. 558 (1864) ; Blyth., Ibis, 1867, p. 157 (Manbhum) ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, 
p. 383 (Manbhum) ; Hume, N. & E. In. Birds, p. 537 (1873) ; Scully, Str. 
Feath. VIII., pp. 348, 367 (1879) (Nepal Valley) ; Hume and Mars., Game- 
Birds, n p. 9 (1879); Hume, Str. Feath. XL, p. 304 (1888) (Manipur); 
Gates ea, Hume's N. & Eggs IIL, p. 428 (1890); Blanf., Jour. B. N. H. S., 
IX., p. 186 (1894) (Bengal) ; Stuart Baker, ibid, XII., p. 492 (N. Cachar) ; 
Blanf., Fauna. B. I. IV., p. 136 (1898) ; Stuart Baker, Jour. B. N. H. S., 
XVIL, p. 971 (1907), (Khasia Hills) ; Higgins, ibid, XXIIL, p. 368 (1914) 
(Manipur), 

Francolinus francolinus. — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M. XXII., p. 132 (1893). 

Francolinus francolinus melanonotus. — Hartert, Nov. Zool. XXIV. p. 290 
(1917). 

VERNACULAR NAMES.— Kais-teiur (Nepalese) ; Tetri-sorai {Assamese) ; 
Kembi (Manipuri) ; Dao-chirree (Cachari) ; Inrui-jirip (Katcha-Naga). 

Description. — Adult Male. — Similar to F. f. asice, but very much 
darker both above and below ; the feathers of the upper parts have 
the centres very dark brown, sometimes almost black, with their 
paler edges very narrow and very rufous; the white bars on the rump, 
upper tail-coverts and tail are very narrow. Below the white spots 
are generally less round and more oval in shape ; on the extreme 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 203 

lower breast at the sides these bars become longitudinal in shape, the 
outermost running round the submargin of the feather. The under 
tail-coverts are darker chestnut, and are unbarred. 

The spurs are said to be smaller, and sometimes absent, but I 
have not noticed this amongst the many I have shot, and this seems 
to be more a matter of age and individuality. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in asice, but I think the legs very often 
seem to be a brighter, richer red in old birds. On the other hand*- 
I have seen some sj)ecimens — not in the breeding season, whose legs 
I should have described as horny-brown. Probably these were 
young males of the first year. 

Measurements. — Wings 143 mm. to 155 mm. Birds from Assam 
Bnd Manipur average a little smaller than those from Sikkim and 
Nepal, i.e., 149*6 mm. against 152 mm. The former birds are also 
darker and more richly coloured, the latter are, however, much 
nearer true melanotus than asicB. Birds from Bhagiratti and Bengal 
are also a trifle larger and paler than those from Assam. 

Adult Female. — Similar to the Female of asice, but much darker, 
and the breasts are much more regularly and profusely barred with 
black. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. — As in asice . 

Measurements — Wings 141 — 149 mm. 

Chick in Doun. — There are none in the British Museum collection, 
but they are well-known to me, and I think there is a greater contrast 
between the chicks of the three races than there is in the adults. 
The chicks of melanotus are very richly coloured, the dark portions 
including the crown are broader in extent, a richer darker chestnut 
brown, whilst the fulvous below is also much deeper. 

Distribution — Eastern Nepal, Sikkim, the whole of Assam and 
Eastern Bengal and the Hill tracts of Tippera and Chittagong. The 
birds of Central and West Bengal must also be placed w^'th this 
race, as must those from Northern Orissa, though both aii some- 
what intermediate. On the other hand those found in the drier 
climate of Behar are nearer asice. 

Type Locality. — Manipur. 

Nidification.—The breeding season of this Black Partridge commen- 
ces in early April, and continues until the first few days of July. 
Undoubtedly April is the month in which most eggs will be found, 
and those taken in July will, in many cases, be second broods, for 
many birds lay twice. In North Cachar, where the birds were very 
common in the wonderful park-like lands in the North, practically 
every egg was laid in April immediately after the first light rain had 
brought on a fresh growth of grass on the burnt lands. Tn Northern 
Assam and the Plains of Cachar, Sylhet, etc., the birds occasionally 
laid in the end of March, and more often in May, and then again in 



204 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



July. In tlie Eastern Diiars and the foot hills of Nepal, June and 
May seem to be the two months principally affected as breeding 
time, but in the higher ranges they once more revert to April. 

Everywhere the time is governed by the abundance of food, and 
this in turn depends on the rainfall and the time of year the natives 
burn off the grass. 

The nest varies considerably. As a rule it is a slight ill-formed 
pad of dead leaves and grass collected in some small hollow in 
grass or scrub jungle, but now and then one finds quite a well-made 
nest. I once came across one near Shillong on the 6th June 1907 
placed between grass roots on a small stony grass-covered hill close 
to the station. Cattle had been feeding in this grass forming little 
deep tracks amongst the roots, and the nest in question was wedged 
into one of these. The base of the nest was a thick compact mass 
of dead leaves, bracken-fronds and grass, and over this was placed 
a thick lining of grass worked up on either side so that the nest was 
almost semi-domed. The nearest bracken grew at least 100 yards 
from the nest, so that in this instance the birds must have gone to 
some trouble to make their nest comfortable. 

They breed up to 6,000 feet, but not often over 4,000, and prob- 
ably their favourite altitude is under 2,000. They almost always 
select sun-grass land in which to nest, and seem to prefer such as 
is from 1 to 3 feet high. A few breed in high grass, ekra, elephant 
grass and scrub jungle, but even in these instances they are invari- 
ably near grass land and, almost equally invariably, the patches 
themselves are small and not too dense. 

The nests are easy to find, for the Cock-bird calls long and cheerily 
morning and evening close to it, and if one has a little patience it 
can soon be located, moreover the hen sits very close in the cool of 
these hours and seldom rises until one almost steps on her, when 
away she goes with a tremendous whirr of wings and loud 
protests against being disturbed. In the heat of the day the cock- 
bird is silent and the hen leaves the nest, so that finding the nest 
then becomes a mere matter of luck. 

As far as my own experience goes this Partridge does not lay large 
clutches, and I think 4 to 6 is the number most often found, and 
more than once I have known 3 eggs only to be incubated. I have 
never seen more than 8 eggs in a clutch, and that only once, and 
perhaps half-a-dozen times 7 eggs. I think 16 days is the period of 
incubation, but it may be a day or two more. 

The eggs are, ^ as might be suspected, indistinguishable from 
those of F. f. asiw, and vary over about the same range of colour 
as does that bird, but on an average they are darker, and, I think, 
browner and less olive. At the same time I have had one or two 
clutches a very distinct dark olive-green. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 



205 



100 eggs average 36 "5 X 30 • 9 mm.; the longest and shortest meas- 
ure respectively 39 • x 33 • mm. and 34 • x 28 • 3 mm. , the broad- 
est and most narrow 37 "6x33 '3 mm. and 34 -3x27 '7 mm. 

Like all Francolinus the cock-bird is monogamous and jDrobablv 
the birds pair for life. 

General HahiU. — The Assam Black Partridge is principally a bird 
of grass lands, seldom frequenting the scrub and tree jungle so often 
haunted by the birds of the South and West. This is probablv due 
to the fact that in the humid regions of the North-East, all forests are 
of such dense and lofty growth that they are not suited to the 
habits of the birds as are the sparse "Sal " and other forests of the 
North- West of India. 

They are very common in many of the grass lands, both North and 
South of the Brahmapootra, being found in the long elephant grass 
and thick reeds close to the river, and in the wide stretches of sun- 
grass which cover miles upon miles of the plains at the foot hills 

of the Himalayas. Nowhere, however, do they — as far as I know 

exist in numbers sufficient to supply a full day's sport to anyone 
out to make a bag, but for the man who wants a day with Nature 
and his gun, they suffice to supply an excuse and much hard work 
with a few birds to bring home in the evening. 

Many years ago — in 1883 to be exact, — there were still a few 
birds left in Nadia, some 40 miles from Calcutta but though no one 
ever shot there, and I never heard of their being trapped, they and 
the last of the Black Buck disappeared altogether a few years later. 

In Sylhet, Cachar and Manipur they were fairly numerous, in the 
two last places in the grass plains at about 2,000 feet. 

Personally I hardly ever shot these birds, as the places they 
frequented were also the grazing grounds of the Gaur and Buffalo, 
which one dare not disturb with a shot. The country they were 
found in North Cachar was extraordinarily beautiful. Great rolling 
downs, covered with short brilliant green grass and scattered 
oak-trees, whose great black trunks showed up effectively against 
the green. Here and there meandered tiny streams, their banks 
edged with long semi-withered sun-grass which had, from its 
position, been able to withstand the fires which had burnt the rest 
of the grass for many miles in all directions. In these strips and 
in the damper pockets the Black Partridges took up their quarters, 
and the greetings of their cheery calls as one started out in the 
early dawn after big game is a sound I shall never forget. 

The call made one feel that the birds were full of the absolute joy 
of life, and it was easy to understand the Mahomedan version of 
the call " Subhan tere kudrut " (All powerful, who shall describe 
thy power), the early morning hymn of praise which the Mahome- 
dans say all birds and beasts raise to their Creator. 



206 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

From the crests of the hill one could see the birds afar ofE out in the 
open scratching about and feeding like small barn-door fowls, and 
every now and then the cock-bird would mount to the crest of an 
ant-hill or the top of some fallen stump and ring out his hymn of 
praise. Even in the breeding season and when the cock-birds were 
calling from many directions, I never saw a calling bird attacked, 
or, indeed, approached by another, and it never seemed to be either 
uttered by the birds or accepted by others as a challenge to fight. 

They appeared to feed in the open only in the very early mornings 
and again for about an hour in the evenings before sunset, but they 
continued to crow much later and to start again earlier, whilst, 
during the months of March, April and May, one might often hear 
an odd call at almost any hour of the day. 

On the rare occasions I shot them for the pot I found them quite 
nice eating, but I nearly always had. them in a stew-pot, as roast 
they were rather dry. Birds of the year after they have been 
feeding in the mustard fields on the young shoots are excellent 
eating however cooked. 

When the hill rice is ripe they are very fond of lying up in the 
thick cover it affords, and birds shot from them always have 
their crops full of rice. 

The family parties seem to break tip in November or early De- 
cember, but the grass was always so dense and high in these 
months that it was not easy to know whether one had flushed the 
whole party or not. 

They are very easy to keep in captivity, and become so tame 
that they can be allowed almost total freedom without fear of losing 
them except during the breeding season when they naturally 
require closer looking after. 

Franc OLiNus pictus pictus. 
The Southern Painted Partridge. 

Perdix picta— J a.rd. and Selb., 111. Orn., p], 50 (1828) (Bangalore) : Jard 
Nat. Libi. Om. IV., p. 103, pi. III. (1834). 

Perdix hepburnii. — Gray, III. Ind. Zool. 1, pi. 55, Pig. 1 (1830-32). 

Francolinus pictus.— Gr&j, Gen. B. III., p. 505 (1846)''; Jerd. B of I IT p 
561 (1863) (part) ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, pp. 157-8 ; Holdsw., P. Z. S., 1872 ' p 469 
(Ceylon) ; Hume, N. and E. Ind. Birds, p. 538 (1873) : Fairbank, Str.' Feath 
IV., p. 262 (1876)( Deccan); Day. & Wen., ibid, VJI., p. 87 (1878) (Deccan) ': 
Hume & Mara., Game-B. Ind. il., p. 19 (1879) (part) ; Legge., B. of Ceylon III 
p. 744 (1880) ; Butler, Cat. B. of S. Bom., p. 68 (1880) ; Vidal., Str. Feath X ' 
p. 160 (1881) (Western Ghats) ; Davidson, ibid, p. 316 (1882) (W. Khandesh) '• 
Macgregor, ibid, p. 440 (1887) (Deccan & S. Mahratta) ; Taylor ibid p 530 

il^^^i'oSf^' !n-* ^"°''''' ^- ^ ^§S8 in., p. 430 (1890) (part) ; Ogilvie- Grant, 
Ib.s. 1892, p. 40 (part) ; id., Cat. B. M. XXIL, p. 138 (1893) /id., Man. Game- 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 207 

B. 1., p. 106 (1895) (part); Gates, Man. Game-B. I., p. 160 (1898) (part); 
Blanf., Fauna., B. I. Aves. IV., p. 137 (1898) ; Butler, Jour. B. N. H. S. X., 
p. 312 (1896) (Ceylon) ; Davidson, ibid, XII., p. 64 (Kanara) ; Gates, Cat! 
Egg. B. M. I., p. 37 (1901) (part). 

VERNACULAR iV\4J/^.— Kakera Kodi (Tehgu). 

Description — Adult Male. — Crown black with narrow rufous-buff 
margins to the feathers ; forehead, supercilia and sides of the head 
ferruginous red; nape and neck like the crown but with the buff mar- 
gins wider and more conspicuous ; upper back blackish with oval 
whitespots; wing-coverts blackish brown with buff spots and scajDu- 
lars the same, but with rufous buff margins. Wing-quills and 
greater coverts brown with rufous buff bars, broken on the 
primaries, complete on the inner secondaries on which the brown is 
almost as dark as on the scapulars. Lower back, rump, upper tail- 
coverts and central tail feathers black with narrow bars of white, 
the latter sometimes more or less tinged with buff ; outer tail 
feathers more or less black on the terminal third. 

Below, chin white or rufous, more or less marked on the sides 
with tiny black specks, sometimes forming a line from the corner 
of the lower mandible ; foreneck darker rufous, more boldly streak- 
ed with black ; breast and flanks black with large white drops 
increasing in size towards the lower breast and posterior flanks ; 
centre of abdomen and vent dull pale rufous brown, more or less 
tipped with dirty whitish ; under tail-coverts chestnut. 

Colours of the Soft Parts. — Irides dark brown ; legs reddish or 
yellowish brown ; bill dark brown to black, the tip always black- 
ish, the base and gape paler or horny white. 

Measurements. — Length about a foot, wing 132 to 148 mm., ave- 
rage of 30 specimens 138'5 mm., tail from 66 to 89 mm., generally 
about 80 mm.; bill from front about 26 mm. ; tarsus about 40 mm. 

The spurs are rudimentary or absent. 

Weight " 8*5 to 12*7 ozs." Hume. This is apparently for both 
sexes. 

Adult Female. — Like the male, but with the lower back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts and tail dull pale brown with narrow bars of 
white bordered with darker brown. The throat is generally white, 
and the markings on the flanks and lower breast generally form 
black arrow head shaped central bars on a pale buffy brown. 

Colours of the Soft Poiis. — As in the male, but duller, the legs are 
never as red in the reddest legged males, and are rarely even a dull 
horny brown ; the bill is brown rather than black, and with a greater 
depth of whitish at the base. 

Measurements .—ThevQ seems to be no difference in size between 
the males and females, though the latter probably weigh distinctly 
less on an aveuage. I can find no recorded weights. 



208 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 



Distrihution.-The typical Painted Partridge is found only m 
Cevlon and in the South of India. In the west and central portion 
of 'its range it only occurs well to the south, but on the east works 
further North. Its northern limits may be taken as Khandesh and 
Eaipur working up on the east into Behar. The specimens m the 
British' Museum come from Ceylon, Belgaum, Khandesh, Deccan, 
Raipur, Chanda and Behar. In Ceylon, according to Wait, it is 
confined to the Ura basin and the eastern and south-eastern slopes 
of the hills. 
Type Locality. — Bangalore. 

Nidification.— Throughout practically the whole area over which 
both races of this Partridge breed, the breeding season seems to be 
from the time the rains break, i.e., the middle or end of June upto 
the end of September, July and August being the months in which 
most eggs are laid. There are very few eggs of this sub-species in 
Museums, and the Hume series consists wholly of eggs of jjallidus, 
the northern form, but Col. Sparrow sent me a few from Trim- 
ulgherry taken in August and September, and I have others from 
the Buchanan and Bulkley collections taken from July to 
September. In Ceylon it is said to lay " about Xmas time." 

The Painted Partridg'fe" appears to select patches or strips of grass 
and scrub jungle in between cultivated fields and open country 
rather than extensive stretches of grass-land in which to breed, and 
its favourite ground is perhaps such as is evergreen with rather thin 
grass two or three feet high, more or less mixed with bushes. Jerdon, 
who was not much interested in nidification, long ago remarked on 
this Partridge's predilection for laying its eggs under the shelter of 
some bush and my correspondents inform me that they think the 
majority of nesting sites selected are of this nature. The nest itself 
is very primitive, merely a few pieces of grass and a few dead leaves 
on the ground, sometimes in a hollow, sometimes on quite flat 
ground, where the eggs arc only kept from rolling about by the fall- 
en rubbish around them. 

The eggs appear to vary in number from 4 to 7 or 8 in a full clutch, 
and I can find no satisfactory evidence to prove the assertions some- 
times made that they lay 10 or 12. 

In shape they are very similar to those of the Black Partridge, 
but whilst some are quite as peg-top in shape as the most pyrif orm 
of the eggs of that bird, some are much more of a true oval than 
any I have seen of Francolinus francolinus. In c^our they are, on 
the whole much paler, much less brown and mor^ inclined to a pale 
stone colour or very pale olive-grey. A few eggs are almost a pure 
grey, and I have seen no eggs of the comparatively dark olive- brown 
so common in the eggs of the Black Partridge. 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 209 

In texture they are fine and close, and the surface has a distinct 
gloss sometimes quite highly developed. They are much more 
fragile than the eggs of the Francolinus francolinus, a difference 
strikingly great between two species so very closely allied. 

The average size of 15 eggs, all I have been able to examine of 
true pictus, is 35 • 9 X 30 • 9 mm. The smallest egg both in length and 
breadth measures 33 • 6 x 28 • 6 mm., the longest is 37 "8 x 31 '9 mm., 
and the broadest is 36 '5 x 32*0 mm. 

The Hen-bird is a very close sitter, and will not move until 
almost trampled on. 

The Cock-bird is monogamous, and like the rest of his genus, 
probably pairs for life. 

They breed only in the Plains, and nowhere do they ascend 
the hills for more than a few hundred feet, and even that only as 
stragglers. 

General Habits. — The habits of the Painted Partridge are very 
similar to those of the Black Partridge, but whereas the latter 
prefers good cover combined if possible with a certain amount of 
dampness, the Painted Partridge likes very dry jungle, and does 
not mind its being rather thin. It never enters the heavy forest of 
l^e Western Coast, but wherever cultivation has taken the place 
of forest, and grass has grown up over the abandoned areas, there 
almost to a certainty, the Painted Partridge will sooner or later 
put in an appearance. 

Perhaps its favourite haunts are short grass on broken, stony 
plateaus and plains, or thin scrub jungle, and in either place trees 
are desiderata, for this bird is much more fond of perching than 
the Black Partridge. They call like that bird from some elevated, 
perch but more often from trees rather than from ant-hills 
boulders and fallen stumps. 

Hume says that the Painted Partridge " often, if not generally, 
roosts on bushes and trees, whence I have shot them after dusk and 
have disturbed them before dawn", and he adds that they may 
often be seen perched on some conspicuous part of the tree whilst 
the hen sits modestly — and wisely — hidden in the thicker foliage. 

They are often found in such crops as offer suitable cover, or if 
the crops themselves are too thin they hide in the adjacent scrub or 
grass and wander out into the fields in the mornings and evenings 
to feed, scratching about in the earth and picking up grain, seeds 
and insects, or feeding on green shoots, etc. White ants are a very 
favourite food with this bird, as indeed with almost all birds, and it 
is said to be a foul feeder when living anywhere near villages. 

Pitman found that it drank regularly every evening about si 
o'clock in July in the Central Provinces, but he did not notice it 
drinking in the morning as the Black Partridge always did. 



210 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Although never getting big bags, he obtained very fair sport with 
the Painted Partridge by driving the grass and scrub round culti- 
vation. The birds were very clever at squatting close until the 
beaters were almost on them, when they doubled back through 
their legs or rose and doubled back over their heads, giving no 
chance of a shot. At other times they rose well and gave capital 
shots as they crossed the open. 

In Hume's time Laird wrote : " 7 or 8 brace of Painted Partridges 
with 15 brace of Quail, etc., would be here (Belgaum) reckoned a 
good bag for one gun ", and probably much the same would be the 
case now. In a few other localities they may be rather more numer- 
ous and rather larger bags possible, but I have heard of no place 
where much over 20 couple can be hoped for in a day's shoot. 

Hume says that they fly faster and take more hitting than the 
Black Partridge, and are about the equal in pace to the English Par- 
tridge. 

Other sportsmen say that it does not fly nearly so fast as our 
home bird, and that though it may make more fluster and fuss as 
it rises, it is much easier to hit, and takes less hitting to bring down 
than that bird does. 

Possibly a Painted Partridge walked up in grass or scrub is no* 
much slower than a common Partridge walked up with dogs through 
crops affording good cover, but is nothing like as fast as a driven 
bird coming up with the wind and an inherited instinct of what to 
expect in front of him. 

The call of this bird is not unlike that of the Black Partridge. It 
has been syllabised by many writers, but perhaps Jerdon's " Chee- 
kee-kerray Chee-kee-kerray " gives as good an idea of its sound 
as it is possible to put in words. The birds, both sexes apparently, 
have also a call to one another sounding like " chuck chuck " 
repeated softly several times ; this may only be a call note to the 
young. The latter, according to a writer in the Bengal Oriental 
Magazine, " begin to call soon and to chirrup like Crickets ", and 
this cricket-like note is one also uttered by the young of the 
Black Partridge. I often heard the latter in North Cachar when 
out big-game shooting, and it was sometime before I found out 
its origin by putting up a family party of two old birds and three 
chicks who, on re-settling, commenced chirruping loudly until the 
whole family was satisfactorily re-united. 

The chicks of the Painted and Black Partridges grow their wing 
quills very rapidly, and can fly as well as their parents for a short 
distance when they are little larger than sparrows. 

The flesh of the Painted Partridge is rather dry, but quite plea- 
sant, and has sometimes been described as excellent. 
{To he continued.) 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NAT. HIST. SOG. 



PLATE m\ 




79a 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 
Horace Knight, del. 

Hentschel-Colourtype. 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 
Explanation of Plate M. 



Figs. 74, 74 a, Taractrocera ceramas c? $ 

,, 75, 75 a, Telicota bambusse rj' 2 

,, 76, 76 a, Taractrocera mcevius (^ 5 

,, 77, 77 tt, Pai'iiara mathias ^ $ 

,, 78, 78 a, Udaspes folus ^ 5 

,, 79, 79 a, Stiastus gremius ^ 5 

, ,, 80, 80 a, Hesperia galba s $ 



211 

THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 
OF INDIA. 

INCLUDING THOSE MET WITH IN THE HILL STATIONS 
OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY.) 

BY 

T. R, Bell, i.f.s. 
{Continued from page 32 of this Volume.) 

Pakt XXVI. 
With plate M. 
Family — HESPEKiiDiE. 
"All six legs perfect. Wings with the discoidal cell of hind wing slenderly and 
often incompletely closed ; veins 8, 9, 10, 11, all emitted from subcostal nervure 
before the end of cell and ending on costal margin ; all other veins direct from 
the cell, none branched either in the fore wing or in the hind wing. Of compara- 
tively small size generally very robust build and rapid flight. Antenna wide 
apart at base, with a thick club or strong, curved hook at the tip. Palpi short, 
broad, closely pressed against the face, densely scaled on the first and second 
joints. Hind legs generally with a pair of moveable spurs or spines at the end 
of tibiae and another pair at the middle ; middle legs with a pair of moveable 
spines at end of tibiae." 

The above is more or less in the words of Marshall and deNice- 
ville in their " Butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon". Colonel 
Bingham characterizes the family thus, as already given in the key 
to the Butterflies at the beginning of these papers : — 

" Antennae wide apart at base ; hind tibiae generally with a medial as well as 
terminal pair of spurs ; all veins in the fore wing from base or from cell ; none 
forked or coincident beyond." 

To this may be added that the eggs are generally few and nearly 
always more or less dome-shaped, either smooth or longitudinally 
ribbed more or less strongly, sometimes serrate along the ribs, some- 
times tuberculate (rarely). 

The larvae are fusiform, the anal end rounded, sometimes flattened, 
the head always conspicuously broader and higher than the neck ; 
no projections of any sort either on the head or on the body in the 
mature state though (Gmigara for example) there may be a cereous 
excretion taking the form of threads that rub oif easily. 

The pupae are moth-like in all cases, nearly always smooth, with- 
out processes of any kind and are attached by the tail and a body- 
band. 

The habits of the butterflies differ somewhat according to genera 
and species but the flight is very rapid in the great majority and of 
a jerky nature in all. Some of the insects are diurnal, some crepus- 
cular in their habits, a few, apparently, even nocturnal {Ismene goma- 
ta). The larvae live in cells formed of leaves or sections of leaves 
in various characteristic ways and the pupation takes place often 
within them, though many larvae wander and make special 
arrangements ; Baoris, Udaspes pu23ating more or less in the open 



212 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

on the under side of a leaf, part of which is drawn together by a few 
silks to form a concave depression ; Amjpittia maro head-down, 
absolutely in the open, on a stalk of rice or grass near the ground. 

' A proposed Classification of the Hesjperiidce, with a Eevision of 
the Genera,' by Lieut. E. Y. Watson, Madras Staff Corps, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S , which appeared in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Sociey, 
of London,' January 17, 1893, is practically the latest efiiort at arrang- 
ing the skiiapers scientifically into, first, more or less natural groups 
and, secondly, into proper genera. The work deals with all known 
species, both from the old world as well as the new world and is based 
on the study of 234 generic names of which 49 were sunk by the author 
as synonyms, while 45 new genera were described. He states at 
the same time that it is based entirely upon the collection of the 
British Museum while he acknowledges that " in addition to the 
collection of the British Museum, free access has been afforded me to 
the valuable collection of Messrs. Godman and Salvin." His time 
being limited, a certain number of species mentioned were not sepa- 
rated into genera but were included in those to which they seemed 
to be most nearly allied. 

Watson says that, before 1874, no serious attempt had ever been 
made to arrange the genera of the family into natural groups but 
that it had been done later for limited faunae. He then states that 
the only suggested arrangement that seemed to him to be a perfectly 
natural one was that of Scudder in the ' Bulletin of the Buffalo Society 
of Natural Science ' (1874). According to this, two sub-divisions 
were erected for the Hesjperiidce of New England in America, namely 
the Hesperidi and the Pamphilidi, based to a very large extent upon 
the secondary sexual characters of the males, the egg, larva and pupa 
supplying subsidiary characters. Watson approves of these and then 
alludes to an amplification of Scudder's arrangement by Mabille in 
1878 in the ' Annales de la Societe Entomologique Beige ' which 
suggest a third tribe called the Pyrrhopygini which he adopts. Speyer 
then, in 1879, in ' Genera of the HesperiidEe of the European Fauna ' 
published in the ' Stett. ent. Zeitung ' made a suggestion that has 
proved to be of the greatest importance in the classification of genera, 
namely that the position of vein 5 of the fore wing in relation to veins 
4 and 6 would be a character of value. Watson makes full use of 
this character in his keys. He alludes to the very superficial way 
in which many authors have characterized their genera and has 
adhered to the decisions of Scudder in his ' Historical Sketch of the 
Genera of Butterflies ' absolutely to fix the doubtful ones. For 
genera described after Scudder's work and for which no type was 
specified, the species that best agreed with the genus was taken as 
type. He then refers to the male secondary characters on the wings : 
the costal fold, discal stigma and tufts of hair which he concludes 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 213 

are of great importance as indicating groups or subfamilies but are 
of little use as generic characters. All butterflies possessing a costal 
fold belong to his own Hesjjeriince, all possessing a discal stigma to 
his Pampkilmcp. The PyrrhopygmcB, on the other hand, have no 
secondary male characters of either description on the fore wing, 
and are confined altogether to the New World. 

The characters of the three subfamilies are enumerated in the 
following key : — 

Fore wing with vein 5 usually nearer to 4 than to 6 ; 
with cell invariably more than two-thirds the length of 
costa ; withou^t costal fold or discal stigma. Antennae 
with club thick, ending in a blunt point usually more or 
less bent into a hook. Wings held horizontal when at 
rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pyrrhopygince. 

Fore wing with vein 5 nearly always nearer to 6 than 
to 4 ; cell rarely more than two -thirds the length of 
costa ; costal fold sometimes present. Antennae rarely 
blunt, nearly always ending in a fine point. Wings nearly 
always held horizontal in repose . . . . . . . . Hesperiince, 

Section A. — Fore wing with vein 5 slightly nearer either to 4 or to 6, never 
conspicuously close to either ; cell always more than two-thirds the length of 
costa. Hind wing with vein 5 never fully developed except in a few Old World 
genera. Antennae usually bent into a hook, sometimes sickle-shaped, always 
ending in a fine point. Third joint of palpi never curving over vertex of head. 
Wings at rest held horizontal or erect over back 

Section B. — Fore wing with vein 5 nearer to 6 than to 4 ; cell less than 
two-thirds the length of costa. Hind wing with vein 5 never fully developed. 
Antennae seldom hooked, sometimes bluntly pointed. Third joint of palpi never 
curvmg over head. 

Fore wing with vein 5 nearer to 4 than to 6 ; cell almost 
always less than two-thirds the length of costa ; males 
never with a costal fold but sometimes with discal stigma. 
Hind wing with vein 5 well developed or not. Antennae 
almost invariably ending in a fine point. Palpi with the 
end joint long or short, directed variously, sometimes 
curving over the head-vertex. The wings are always held 
closed perpendicularly over the back in complete repose . . Pamphilince. 

Section A. — Fore wing with, except in some aberrant Australian forms, vein 
5 sHghtly nearer to 4 than to 6 ; cell always less than two-thirds the length of 
costa ; no costal fold and rarely a discal stigma. Hind wing with vein 5 never 
well developed. Antennae various, never much hooked, usually sharply pointed- 
Palpus with third joint usually inconspicuous, rarely long and slender v/hen it is 
always erect and never horizontal. Wings held erect in repose. 

Section B. — Fore wing with vein 5 much nearer 4 than 6 ; cell less than two- 
thirds costa ; no costal fold but often a discal stigma. Hind Aving with vein 5 
rarely developed. Antennae never hooked, the club s-ometimes without crook, 
some tunes with. Palpi in a few genera with the third joint curving over vertex, 
long and slender ; in most it is minute. The butterflies, when basking, depress 
the hind wings and elevate the fore wings, " an attitude p3cuhar to this section " 
( Watscn). 

Section C. — Fore wing with vein 5 equidistant between 4 and 6 or nearer 6 ; 
cell from half to just over two-thirds t'le length of costa ; no costal fold but with 
various other sexual male marks on wings and legs. Hiad wing with vein 5 
usually well developed, Antennse with the club of varying stoutness, always 



214 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX Vlh 

lapering to a fine point ; sometimes hooked. Palpi with the second joint up- 
turned, resting against the face; the third joint long, thin, naked and projecting 
in front of the face. The wings are always held closed over the back when at 

The above key is for all tlie Hesperiidce of the world. The Pyrrho- 
pygincB are wholly confined to the American continents. Section A 
of the HesperiincB has but seven genera out of 50 which are of the 
Old World and only five that are Indian, namely Orthofhoetus, Capila, 
Calliana and Hantana, Crossium. Section B contains about 42 
genera out of which some 16 are Indian, 5 African, 1 Australian, and 
the rest American. Section A of the Pamphilince contains about 
34 genera of which 13 are Indian, 6 African, 4 Australian, 3 North 
Asian and the rest American ; Section B, 59 genera ; 20 Indian, 6 
African, the rest American ; Section C, 5 genera, all of the Old World 
and confined to Eastern Asia, India, Burma to the Philippines and 
Australia. 

Later on, in the Journal of iihis Society (B. N. H. S.), Capt. Watson 
as he then was, published a supplementary paper called ' A Key to 
the Asiatic Genera of the Hesjperiidce,' being an excerpt of his original 
work, written for the convenience of workers in India (Vol. IX, 
part 4, p. 411 ; 20th June 1895). The original keys have been modi- 
fied to suit the restricted fauna. They are as follows : — 

Fore wing with vein 5 nearer to than to 4 ; male 
occasionally with a costal fold but never with stigma. 
Male with a tuft of hair at proximal end of hind tibiae in 
nearly every case. Wings in repose always horizontal . . Hesperiince. 

Fore wing with vein 5 nearer to 4 than to 6 ; male never 
with a costal fold but often with patches of modified 
scales on upperside. Male without tuft on hind tibiae. All 
species rest with their wings closed over the back • . PampMlince. 

Captain Watson has, as formerly, divided this latter subfamily 
into three sections ; the first two, in this case, founded on a slight 
difference of neuration, being purely artificial, have only been adopt- 
ed for convenience. "The third section, however, consists of a closely 
allied group of genera which appear to have no near allies among 
the PamphilincB, so much so that it is questionable whether it would 
not be advantageous to form them into an additional subfamily 
under the name of Ismeneinm, the species contained under which 
would stand in much the same relation to the remainder of the Old 
World HesperiidcB that the PyrrhopygincB do to those of the New 
World. The name (but with a much more extended meaning) has 
been made use of by M. Mabille in a paper on the Hesperiidce of the 
Brussels Museum published in the ' Annals of the Entomological 
Society of Belgium, Vol. XXI (1878)." These sections of the Pam- 
philincB he characterises as follows : — 

Section I. — Palpi various but never as in Section III. Vein 5 of fore wing 
straight throughout its length and not arising markedly nearer to vein 4 than to 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 01 INDIA. 215 



vein 6, the middle discocellular being, therefore, only slightly longer than 
the lower one. 

Section II. — Palpi various but never as in Section III. Vein 5 of fore wing 
deflected at origin and consequently arising much nearer to vein 4 than to vein 
6, the middle discocellular being, therefore, much longer than the lower one. 

Section III. — Palpi with th,e third joint long, slender and naked, porrected 
horizontally in front of the face. Species robust. Habits often crepuscular. 

Watson then gives keys for all the Asiatic genera of Skippers consisting of the 
following genera under the different sections : — • 



Section I. — Pamphila, 


Taractrocera, 


Itys, 


*Heteropterus, 


Ochus, 


Zographetus, 


Baracus, 


Ampittia, 


Isma, 


Astictopterus, 


Aeromachus, 


Matapa, 


*Apostictopterus, 


Sebastonyma 


*Sepa, 


Sancus, 


Pedestes, 


Pudicitia, 


Koruthaialos, 


Lophoides, 


Acerbas, 


Suada, 


Hyarotis, 


*Zea, 


Suastus, 


*Isoteinon, 


Erionota, 


lambrix. 


*Idmon, 


Gangara, 


*Ge, 


Arnetta, 


Paduka, 


?nd states that all, with the excepti 


ion of those marked -with an asterisk, are 


recorded from Indian limits. These 26 Indian genera 


contain some 60 species. 


Section II. — Kerana, 


Hidari, 


Telicota, 


*Ancistroides, 


*Eetion, 


Padraona, 


Pirdana, 


Pithauria, 


Halpe, 


Plastingia, 


Notocrypta, 


Onryza, 


Lotongus, 


Udaspes, 


Iton, 


Creteus, 


Actinor, 


Baoris, 


*Zela, 


* Gehenna, 


Gegenes, 


*Zampa, 


Cupitha, 


Erynnis, 


*I\Iimas, 


Augiades, 


*Adop8ea, 



of which those with an asterisk are not Indian : 20 genera with some 87 species. 
Section III. — Ismene, Hasora, Rhopalocampta, 

Bibasis, Badamia, 

all 5 represented in India by some 23 species. 

He gives the affinities and ranges of the different sections stating that, in 
Section I, " Pamphila and Heteropterus are closely allied to one another and also, 
apparently, to Hesperia and the closing genera of the preceding subfamily, i.e., 
Thanaos, Oomalia and Car char odus.'' Of Section II he says that the arrangement 
of the genera appears to be fairly natural and that it connects satisfactorily 
with the preceding section ; that Kerana to Eetion appear to be closely aUied 
and to show relationships with Erionota, Sancus, Koruthaialos and Astictopterus 
of Section I ; " PitJiauria is rather out of place, but appears to be close to Hidari 
and is probably a near ally of Baoris ; Notocrypta and Udaspes are certainly 
closely related to each other but show no particular affinity to any other genera. 
Actinor, Gehenna, Cupiilm and Onryza appear to be allied to Halpe which is 
itself close to Iton and Baoris ; Padraona and Telicota are hardly generically 
distinct and are certainly close to Augiades, Erynnis and Adopcea ; while Gegenes 
appears to be allied to both Baoris and Erynnis:' On the affinities of Section 
III he remarks that it is a well-marked group of closely-aUied genera showing no 
near relationship with any others of the family ; but that the habits and general 
Jades agree best with the Pamphilince ; adding, however, that their neuration 
appears to have more resemblance to that found in the sub-family H&spenm^ ; 
and suggests that they might with advantage be treated as a distinct subfamily. 

It might be of interest to repeat here what Watson says about the ranges of 
the different groups. The last or third section, the Ismeneince (to make a 



216 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

subfamily of it as Watson suggested and as has actually been done by Swinhoe 
va.LepidopteraIndica,th.e\a,tQst^orkon Indian Skippers and Indian butterflies 
generally) is confined to Asia, Africa and Australasia ; Ismene and Bihasis have 
not been recorded out of Asiatic hmits ; Hasora is chiefly Malayan and extends 
as far as Australia ; Badamia also extends to that continent ; Bhopalocampta is 
a very large genus almost entirely confined to Africa, only two or three species 
being found within Asiatic Hmits. 

In Section II of the PampUlince, the genus Gehenna has only two species, one 
from Borneo, one from Sumatra ; Ancistroides, in similar case, is confined to 
islands of the Malay Archipelago ; Zela, Zampa, Eetion are Malayan ; Mimas 
from New Guinea ; Adopcea is northern, Holarctic. Extra information given 
is that Taractrocera, Telicota extend to the Australasian region ; Ampittia, Baoris, 
Baracus to Africa ; Padraona to AustraUa, doubtfully to Madagascar and S. 
America ; Adopcea, Erynnis are Holarctic. 

Section I : aU the genera, with the exception of Pamphila, Heteropterus> 
are Asiatic ; the former being European, the latter Holarctic. Heteropterus, 
Isoteinon, Ge, Idmon, Sepa, Zea, Apostictoptenis have not been recorded from 
Indian limits. Isoteinon, Heteropterus are confined to Northern x4.sia ; Ge, Idmon, 
Zea, Sepa are from Malacca and Sumatra ; Apostictopterus has a single species 
found in China. 

Watson's subfamily of Hesperiince is divisible into two quite natural parts, one 
consisting of those insects that keep their wings erect in repose, the other con- 
taining the species that keep them open and stretched horizontally out. 

His PampMlince can be at once divided into two quite natural groups, one 
consisting of Sections I and II, the other of Section III as has already been 
mentioned by him. 

The latest work on the Hesperiidce, from the pen of Colonel C. Swinhoe, has 
appeared comparatively recently as the chmax to the truly monumental Lepi- 
doptera Indica, originally started by Moore more than twenty years ago. It 
occupies part of volume IX and the whole of volume X and is accompanied 
by fine, coloured plates in which are depicted all the butterflies described with 
a goodly number of then caterpiUers and chrysahdes. The author has erected 
twelve new subfamilies but gives no keys to them. These are : — ■ 
Ismeneinse, Pamphilinse, Matapinee, 

Achalarinse, Astictopterinse, Notocryptinse, 

Celsenorrhinse Suastinse, Plastingiinse, 

Hesperiinse, Erionotinse, Erynninee. 

In this arrangement he restricts the subfamily Hesperiince of Watson to the 
genera Garcharodus, Gomalia, Hesperia and Thanaos, in which the insects do 
not spread their wings horizontally when at rest ; dividing those that do so rest 
into Aclialarince and Celcenorrhince. He finaUy divides off Section III of Watson's 
PampMlince as the subfamily Ismeneince and erects eight subfamihes for Sec- 
tions I and II. These two sections Watson himself has allowed to be purely 
artificial as has been seen above, whereas Swinhoe beUeves his subfamilies to be 
fairly natural and, therefore, a better arrangement. 

Based upon certain knowledge of the earher stages of members of all of these, 
the probabilities are that Swinhoe' s behef is correct ; but this knowledge also 
suggests that certain alterations therem must be made. To start with, there- 
fore, a more natural sequence of the above subfamilies is suggested as follows : — 
Achalarinaj, Erynninse, Erionotinee, 

Celsenorrhin^, Plastingiinse, Matapinge, 

Hesperiinse, Suastinse, Astictopterinse, 

Ismeneinse, Pamphilina?, Notocryptinse, 

with the first two subfamilies in which the insects sit with wings horizontally 
spread in natural sequence to the New World Pyrrhopygince. Then follow all 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 01 INDIA. 2] 7 

those resting with wings closed over their backs, connected by the Hesperiince 
which occasionally rest with wings in abnormal positions ; as, in Gomalia and 
Thanaos, where the position adopted is. occasionally, neither one nor the other. 
In these two genera the \Yings are held in a " pent-house " attitude as in the 
great majority of moths, sloping at an angle along the body ; Gomalia alhi- 
fasciata, tor example, occasionally rests wth the wings in the pent-house 
position and the abdomen curled up so characteristic of the noctuid genus 
Eutelia. All these butterflies, however, often hold their wings in the normal, 
erect way characterising the great majority of the subfamilies. In the genus 
Hesperia also, the imagines have the habit of basking with the wings half open, 
that is with the fore wings slightly opened from the erect position and the hind 
wings still more separated as do many of the insects of the genera Telicota, 
Baoris, Halpe, d-c. 

Although the above represents the most natural sequence of Col. Swinhoe's 
subfamilies, there are various objections to be made to the groups themselves 
and to their internal constitution. These twelve groups are best discussed in 
detail in order : — 

Achalarince. — Will have to stand as nothing is known about the earlier stages : 
on a general view of the pictures of the insects composing it as given in Colonel 
Swinhce's Lepidoptera indica the subfamily seems to be quite a natural one. 

Celcenorrhince. — Is a natural group and will also stand, even to the component 
genera and their species. Out of the 13 genera of Avhich it is composed 7 are 
known in their early stages of egg, larva and pupa and show strong affinities ; all 
the insects rest with horizontally spread wings as do the Achalarince. 

Hesjjeriince. — Also natural wdthin certain limits. The transformations of 
most of the genera are known and show certai i affinities ; the insects rest with 
their wings perj^endicularly raised over their backs except in the case of the 
genera Gomalia and Thanaos which at night and in dull weather hold them " pent- 
house " rather like moths of the genus Eutelia and even, like these, curl the 
abdomen up. However these insects also occasionally close the wings over the 
back. All the subfamily have egsjs with strong meridional ridges except 
Gomalia which has them strongly and densely coarse-tuberculate (the tubercles 
are, however, arranged in radiatmg rows) with a 7 -sided Ud on the top through 
which the larva emerges — all, indeed, of the eggs are characterized by the fact 
that the larva emerges through the very top. 

Ismeneince. — Is a very natural group as may be gathered by what has already 
been said about it. The transformations of Ismene, Rhopolocampta, Bibasis, 
Hasora and Badamia are known. 

ErynnincB. — There is not much to be said for tliis group as it contains ele- 
ments that are quite irreconcilable with each other. To begin with the whole 
of what may be called the Baorine section must be taken out of it : the genera 
Baoris, Caltoris, Chapra and Gegenes ; Erynnis will remain. These excerpted 
genera together Avith others of the subfamily Matapince will form a new 
subfamily which may be styled Baorince. Colonel Swinhoe's Matapince will 
disappear as explained below, the genera Hyarotis, Acerbas, Arnetta, Zogra- 
phetus, Scobura, Sebastonyma, Itys, Iton and Isma going to Notocryptince while 
Aero77mchi(S (and Swinhoe's new genus Machachus erected for one of the sections) 
go to Pamphilince ; the only remaining genus which is the tA^e-genus, Matapa, 
going naturally into Erionotince with which (as e\idenced by the earUer stages of 
Gangara thyrsis and Matapa aria) it has every affinity. 

Blasting iince. — Is seemingly a natural group but, as only a single representa- 
tive, namely Plastingia suhmaculata, of the various genera contained therein has 
been bred, 'it is difficult to say. This particular butterfly is very Hke Suastus 
gremius in facies and has similar eggs, larva and pupa besides making its cell in 
the same way so that, from its earlier stages, it should go into Suastince from 
which, however, it is separated in the perfect state by having an inconspicuous 
4 



218 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

third joint to the palpus (although the palpus is very robust and rather long) 
instead of the long, naked, prominent third joint of Suastus, lamhrix, Baracua 
and Stiada ; it also has exceptionally long antennae with an exceptionally long 
and very much hooked tip to the club ; the antennse of Suastus, lambrix, Baracus 
and Suada are somewhat shorter and have much shorter hooks or bends. 

Suastince. — Is not a good subfamily but has been separated for the above 
reasons of palpi ; the genus Suaskis has a strongly few-ribbed egg; lambrix has 
a smooth one, finely cellular-reticulate under a lens; Baracus one with a minutely 
tuberculate surface under magnification and 17 very fine meridional ribs ; in 
fact the three species representing these three genera are a heterogeneous 
collection offering nothing much in common except the naked third joints of 
the palpi. The subfamily will be omitted. 

Erionotince. — Quite a natural group and only requires the addition of Matapa 
to complete it. The transformations of Gangara thyrsis, Matapa aria, Erionota 
thrax and Paduka lebadea are known and serve to characterize it. 

Pamphilince. — Contains Pamphila, Taractrocera, Ampittia and Ochus. The 
genera A'eromachus and Machachus, both formerly known as Aeromachus but 
recently spht by Swinhoe, must be added. The transformations of Taractrocera, 
Ampittia and Pamphila are known. The habits of the insects are similar. 

AstictopterincE. — Is untenable. The habits and early stages of Sancus are 
identical with those of Notocrypta and Udaspes so that Sancus must go into 
Notocryptince into which Astictopterus, Koruthaialos and Watsoniella should be 
put. Suada fits better into Plastingiince. 

Notocryptince. — Is a natural group into which Sancus, lambrix, Astictopterus, 
Koruthaialos and Watsoniella should be put. 

So far, then, superseding Swinhoe's arrangement, there will be the following 
subfamilies to be considered: — 

1. Achalarinse, 5. Plastingiinse, 9. Bao rinse, 

2. Celsenorrhinse, 6. Erionotinse, 10. Notocryptinse, 

3. Hesperiinae, 7. Pamphilinse, 

4. Ismeneinse, 8. Erynnin*, 

in which his Astictopterince, Suastince and Matapince have disappeared, while a 
new subfamily, the Baorince, has been created. These subfamilies will also, 
with the exception of numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4, all be shghtly different from his m 
their constitution as regards genera. Their composition, after this reconstruc- 
tion, is given below, making use of Colonel Swinhce's genera, but marking with 
an asterisk (*) all the new genera created by him — he has made a good few, 
basing them chiefly upon " male-marks ", such as a stigma on the wing or a 
tuft of hairs. He considers such sex-marks to be of generic importance : a 
matter of opinion about which there has been no little controversy. m 

Subfamily Achalarinoe {\). Subfamily CeZcenorrM^ice (2) 1|1 

Genus Achalarus, Scudder, Genus Celcenorrhinus, Hubner. 

Calliana, Moore, Charmion, deN., 

Pisola, Moore, Daimio, Murray, 

Crossiura, deN., Satarupa, Moore, 

Hantana, Moore. Tagiades, Hubner, 

Odina, Mabille, 
Odontoptilum, deN., 
Ctenoptilum, deN., 
Darpa, Moore, 
Abaratha, Moore, 
Gerosis, Mabille, 
Coladenia, Moore, 
Sarangesa, Moore, j 

Tapena, Moore. 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 01 INDIA. 219 



S'ubfamily Hesperiince (3). 
Genus Hesperia, Fabr., 
Pyrgus, Hlibner, 
*Spialia, Swinh., 
Gomalia, Moore, 
Carcharodus, Hiibner, 
Thanaos, Boisduval. 

Subfamily Plastingiince (5). 
Genus Plastingia, Butler, 
Lotongus, Dist., 
Zela, deN., 
Hidari, Dist., 
Pirdana, Dist., 
(Erane, El. & Edw., 
Creteus, deN., 
Pithauria, Moore. 
Pifiauriopsis, W.-M, & 
Pedestes, Watson, 
Suastus, Moore, 
Suada, deN, 
Arnetta, Watson, 
Isma, Dist. 
Scobura, El. & Edw., 
Iti/s, deN. 

Sebastonyma, Watson, 
Zographetus, Watson. 

Subfamily Erynnince (8). 
Genus Erynnis, Schrank, 
Augiades, Hiibner, 
Telicota, Moore, 

*Corone, Swinn, 
Padraona, Moore, 
Halpe, Moore, 

*Thoressa, Swinh, 
Onryza, Watson, 
Actinor, Watson, 
Baracus, Moore, 
Cupitha, Moore. 



Subfamily Ismeneince (4). 
Genus *Pola, Swinh. 

*Gecana, Swinh., 
*Tothrix, Swinh., 
*Burara, Swinh., 
Rhopalocampta, Wall., 
Bibasis, Moore, 
Hasora, Moore, 
Parata, Moore, 
Badamia, ]\Ioore. 



Subfamily Erionotince (6). 
Genus Erionota, Mabille, 
Oangara, Moore, 
Pudicitia, deN., 
Paduka, Dist., 
deN., Matapa, Moore. 



Subfamily Pamphilince (7) 
Genus Pamphila, Fabr., 

Taractrozera, Butler, 
Ampittia, Moore, 
Ochus, deN., 
*Aeroniachus, deN., 
Machachus, Swinh. 



Subfamily Baorince (9). 
Genus Baoris, Moore, 
*Caltoris, Swinh, 
Chapra, Moore, 
Parnara, Moore, 
Oegenes, Hiibner, 
Iton, deN. 



Subfamily Notncryptinoe (10). 
Genus Notocrypta, deN., 
Sancus, deN., 
Udaspes, Moore, 
Hyarotis, Moore, 
lambrix, Watson, 
Acerhas, deN., 
*Tamela, Swinh, 
Astictopterus, Felder, 
Koruthaialos, Watson, 
Watsoniella, Bery. 
Some justification of the subfamilies resulting from the foregoing analysis is 
called for. The series begins with those insects which rest with the wings hori- 
zontally outspread and never hold them closed together perpendicularly over 



220 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII . 

the back when in repose, exemplified by the two groups Achalarince and Celce- 
norrhince. It is true that nothing is known of the early stages of the first but 
Colonel Swinhoe quotes Doherty's statement about Calliana pieridoides that " it 
flies in the darkest parts of the forest towards the end of the afternoon, alighting 
with outspread wings ; in the morning it hes concealed, adhering closely to the 
underside of leaves ; then floats lazily up and down the bed of a stream." What 
is true of one species will probably be true of the others and, if the group be a 
natural one as it surely has the appearance of being, what is true in respect of 
the resting position of the members of one genus will be true of the others. The 
general fades of all the species of the subfamily suggest strongly the known 
species of Celcenorrhinus of the second subfamily, to which Doherty's remark 
will equally apply. 

Celcenorrhince. — The larval stages of seven out of fourteen genera are known- 
The eggs are dome-shaped, distinctly ribbed ; the larvae feed upon dicotyledonous 
vegetation ; the chrysalides have well-marked and prominent expansions to the 
spiracles of segment 2 and the proboscis free beyond the wings and the pupal 
cell is closed. The butterflies rest with wings horizontally spread. 

Hesperiince. — The eggs are dome-shaped and strongly ribbed ; the larvse feed 
upon dicotyledonous plants ; the pupae are like those of the preceding family, 
in that they have strong expansions to the spiracles of segment 2, a free proboscis, 
and they all are formed in closed cells. The butterflies rest with their wings 
erect over their backs in repose except that, in the genera Gomalia and Thanaos, 
as exemplified by the species G. albifasciata and T. tages (a home insect), they 
have the habit of sitting in dull weather and at night with the wings " pent- 
house " after the manner of noctuid moths, that is with them held slanting, the 
inner or abdominal margin along the body, the wing thus hiding the body from 
the side-view ; Gomalia, indeed, even curls the abdomen up like moths of the 
noctuid genus Eutelia. This latter insect occasionallj'- holds the wings erect 
while Frohawk says Thanaos basks with them outspread. There is thus some 
abnormality in the group. 

IsmeneincE. — Have dome-shaped, ribbed eggs. The larvee are stout and 
brightly coloured and feed upon dicotyledons ; the pupae are stout, pink or green 
in colour, have no prominent expansions to the spiracles of segment 2 and the 
proboscis is not produced beyond the wings. 

Plastingiince. — Have ribbed eggs as far as the members of it are known — and 
only Plastingia and Suastus, a single -species of each, have been bred. The larvae 
are found on palms (Calamus, Cane and Phoenix, the Date Palm as well 
as other palms) ; the pupae are fairly stout and have well-developed spiracular 
expansions to segment 2, a frontal " boss " and a short, free end to proboscis. 
Butterflies rest with erect wings. 

Erionotince.~ILa.Ye very finely ribbed eggs, the ribs very numerous and not 
easdy seen; the larv« feed upon bamboos and palms; the pupae are formed in clos- 
ed, spirally coiled, roomy cells and have the proboscis produced free beyond 
the wings (immensely long in Gangara), no promment spiracular expansions, 
and possess a rounded bow between the eyes. Insects rest with wings erect. 

PamphilincE.— -Eggs finely ribbed or mmutely rough-tuberculate, a transition 
between the nbbed and smooth eggs. Larvje feed upon grasses. Pup^ formed 
m more or less laxly made cells, with a somewhat accentuated boss or pomt be- 
tween the eyes ; probosci? free beyond the wings or not ; a well-marked though 
not prominent spiracular expansion. The wings are held erect in repose. 

ErynnincB.— Eggs smooth or with very fine ribs with the single exception of 
the genus Cupitha which has eggs similar to those given for the Plastingiince. 
The larva of Cupitha also feeds upon dicotyledons while those of all the other 
genera of the subfamily feed upon monocotyledons— palms,bamboos and grasses; 
t also has an opaque skui whereas all the others have more or less thin skin^ 




THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 221 

through which the tracheae can be seen. In fact this genus is abnormal and 
really fits into no subfamily properly. Pupae of all the others as well as that of 
Cupitha are rather like each other, have well-developed expansions to spiracles 
of segment 2, mostly funnel-s'iaped ; the proboscis slightly produced and a 
slight boss between the eyes. The pupal cell is closed and often, as in the genera 
Halpe, Thoressa, is cut free fro n the plant and falls to the ground. All the 
insects hold their wings erect in repose and often bask with them separated from 
that position slightly. 

Baorince. — Eggs quite smooth. Naked-looking, whitish larvae feeding upon 
bamboos, grasses or palms. Pupa naked, with a long beak between the eyes, 
light green with a slight powdering of waxy excretion ; no spiracular expansions ; 
a long, spatulate cremastral segment. It is formed on the underside of a leaf or 
blade with tail-pad and body-string, quite unprotected, except that the edges of 
the blade are draAvn towards each other sUghtly by a few silks — they are never 
brought together completely. There is a single exception in Parnara bada where 
the pupa is of the erynnine type and the cell is tightly closed. Indeed, this insect 
should be included in that subfamily preferably. Parnara canaraica has its 
pupa and cell and larva normal for Baorince. The insects all rest as in Erijnnince 
and bask similarly. 

Notocryptinoe. — Eggs limpet-shaped, smooth except that numerous tiny, short 
ribs (as many as 40 and over) are discernible on the narrow ring or band upon 
which the eggs stand — they are often brown-red in colour. The larvte 
resemble those of the preceding family but have smaller heads. The pupae are 
precisely similar but the method of making the cells is different in the earlier 
stages though the pupal cell is similar. The food plants of the larvae are 
grasses or palms or belong to the family Scitamineep, the Gingers, and, 
therefore, are monocotyledons. The butterflies rest with wings erect. 

All the above may be stated in tabular form, based upon the eggg and food- 
plants of the caterpillers — the larvae and pupae will fit in all right : — 
Eggs ribbed. 

Larvae feeding upon dicotyledons . . . . Subfamilies 1 , 2, 3, 4. 

Larvae feeding upon monocotyledons . . . . Subfamilies 5, 6, 7. 

Eggs more or less smooth. 

Larvae feeding upon monocotyledons . . . .Subfamilies 8, 9, 10. 

And some such arrangement as follows might eventually be found to be the 
most natural for all the skippers of the world : — 
Family Hesperiidce. 
Section Pyrrhopyyides. 
Group Pyrrhopygines. 

Subfamily Pyrrhopygince. 
Section Hesperiides. 
Group Celcenorrhines. 
Subfamily Achalarince. 
Subfamily Celcenorrhince. 
Group Hesperiines. 
Subfamily Hesperiince. 
Subfamily Ismeneince. 
Section Baorides. 
Group Baorines. 
Subfamily Baorince. 
Subfamily Notocryptince. 
It would be absurd, however, to lay down that the above arrangement will 
eventually prove correct, for the knowledge of the earMer stages of the Skippers 
of the world is still very scanty. That for the Indian insects of the family is 



222 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



very incomplete. The number of larvse recorded of the different subfamUies 



AchalarincB 
Cdc&norrhince 



Plastingiince 



Erionotince 



Pamphilince 



Erynnince 





4 out 

2 

1 

2 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 out 

1 



of 23 Celoenorrhinus. 
14 Tagiades. 
1 Tapena. 
8 Coladenia. 



Representing 7 out of 14 
genera and 14 species 
out of 75. 



Or 2 of 7 genera 
of 12 species. 



2 out 



2 
1 
2 
2 

1 

1 out 
1 
1 out 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 



out of 



4 Aharatha. 
2 Odontoptilum. 
6 Sarangesa. 

Hesperiince . . 1 4 Spialia. 

1 Gomalia. 

Ismeneince . . 1 out of 2 Gecana. 

5 Burara. 

2 Rhopalocampta. 
I Bihasis. 

4 Hasora. 

5 Parata. 

1 Badatnia. 
of 8 Plastingia. 

2 Suastus. 
of 3 Erionoti. 

1 Oangara. 

1 Paduka. 
5 Matapa. 

2 Pamphila. 
8 Taractrocera. 
2 Ampittia. 
1 Erynnis. 

3 3 Telicota. 
1 2 Augiades. 
1 7 Padraona. 
1 1 Cupitha. 
1 1 Baracus. 

1 2 Machachus. 
BaorincB . . 1 out of 2 Baoris. 

4 17 Caltoris. 

2 5 Chapra. 
2 5 Parnara. 
1 2 Gegenes. 

Noiocryptince . . 2 out of 6 Notocrypta. 

1 1 Sancus. 

1 1 Udaspes. 

1, 2 lambrix. 

1 1 Hyarotis. 

which means that, all in all, something is known of the earlier stages of 42 genera 
out of a total of 81 and 61 species out of a total of 261. 

As an example of how little has been done in breeding these insects and study- 
ing their life-histories it is interesting to know that out of the 64 species of Indian 
HesperiidcB bred, 57 have been discovered in the Kanara District of the Bombay 
Presidency alone and that by only three individuals. The earlier butterfly 
breeding operations in Kanara were pubhshed in this Society's Journal (Bombay 
Natural History Society) in the year 1890 (Vol. V, pp. 260, 349) and continued 



Or 7 out of 9 genera and 
10 out of 24 species. 



2 out of 12 genera and 2 
out of 30 species. 

4 out of 5 genera and 4 
cut of 11 species. 



3 out of 5 genera ; 4 of 19 
species. The Pam- 
liila is a home species. 

All genera ; 9 species out 
of 27. The Enjnnis 
known is the home 



one {comma) 
Silver-spotted 
per. I 



Or 5 out of 14 
and 10 out 
species. 



the 
Skip- 



genera 
of 47 



Amounting to 6 genera 
out of 8 and 6 species 
out of 16. 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 223 

in the year 1896 in Vol. X, page 237, again at page 372, further at page 568 
and finished in Vol. XI, page 22 in the following year. The part deahng with 
the Skippers is this last and it is accompanied by some coloured plates of larvae 
and pupae. 

There are about 2^350 species of Hesperiidoe known to exist in the whole world 
to-day according to Seitz's great work, the Macrohpidoptera of the World of which 
some 1,000 species are American, 350 African, 200 Palaearctic and 800 Oriental. 
Swinhoe enumerates 761 species from the Oriental Region, excluding Australia 
and, of these, 283 are purely Indian, by which he understands India, Burma, 
Ceylon and the Andaman Islands. These belong to 88 genera which he groups 
into 12 sub-families. These twelve sub-families have been above shown to be 
reducible tolO. 

Out of the 283 species only 62 come into the present papers as butterflies of 
the Plains and Bombay Hill Stations. All but seven of these have been bred, 
their transformations and hfe-histories being carefully noted. Those still remain- 
ing to be studied are Daimio milliana, Swinh., a single specimen of which was 
9aught on the Ghats in the Kanara District of Bombay in the monsoon at a place 
called Anshi and Zogmphetus ^gygia, (Hewits.) of which, similarly, only a single 
individual was taken near the sea-coast; Corone (Telicotu) palmarum, Swinh., 
Telicota augias, (Linn.), Arnetta vindhia7ia, (Moore), insects of the drier parts ot 
the country; and Stmskis bipimctus, (Swinh.), A\hich was also once caught in 
Kanara. This makes six, but the larva of Corone palmarum has really been 
recorded once as feeding on Date Palm although no descriptions or drawings 
were seemingly ke]}t(Indian Museum Notes, Vol. V Xo. 3, p. 126, pi. IX) asonlv 
the male and female insects are there figured. Similarly the larva of Rhopal- 
ocampta benjamini, (Guerin), is known to feed upon Meliosma 2)ungens, Wall, 
and Sabia campaiudata Wall. (Family Sabiacece) in the Himalayas as dis- 
covered by de Rhe-Philipe at Dehra Dun who figured the larvae and pupa but 
apparently wrote no descriptions (J., B. N. H. S., Vol. XT, 1898, page 602, pi. 
W, figs. 30, 30b larvae ; 30c pupa). A list of the 62 species is subjoined, those 
still requiring attention being marked with an asterisk (*)• 

Celcenorrhimis ambareesa, (M..) Hasora badra,M. 

leucocera, (Koll.) chabrona, Plotz. 

area, (Pliitz.) alexis, M. 

Satarupa milliana, Swinh. ( =Parata) 

( =Daimio) biiileri, Auriviilius. 

Tagiades obscurus, Mabille. ( ^Parata) 

litigiosa, Moschler. Bibasis sena, M. 

Odontoptilum angulatuvi, M. Badamia exclamationis, (Linn.) 

Abaratha ransonnettii, Feldcr. Bhopalocampta benjamini, Guerin. 

Coladenia indrani, M. Plastingia submaculata, Staud. 

Sarangesa dan, (Fabr.) Suastus gremius, Fabr. 

dasahara, M. bipunctus, Swinh. 

purendra, M. Arnetta vindhiana, (M.) 

Tapena thwaitesi, M. ogygia, Hewits. 

Hesperia galba, Fabr. Gangara thyrsis, Fabr. 

( ^=^Spialia) Matapa aria, M. 
Oomalia albofasciata. M. 
Ismene fergussoni, deN. 
( =Gecana) 

gomata, M. 
( =Burara) 



I 



224 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Taractrocera moevius, Fabr. 

ceramas, Hewits. 
( =^nicevillei, Swinh. 
Ampittia dioscorides, (Fabr.) 
Aeromachus jhora, deN. 

( =MacJiacJius) 
Telicota-hamhusce, M. 
augias, Lirni. 
palmarum, M. 
( ^^C or one) 

mcesoides, Butler. 
( =Padraona) 
Padraona gola, M. 
Halpe moorei, Watson. 
Tiyrtacus, deN. 
astigmata, Swinh. 
( =Thoressa) 

honorei, deN. 
( =Thoressa) 
Baracus hampsoni. El. & Edw. 
Cupitha purreea, M. 
Baoris farri, M. 

Jcumaraj M. 



( =CaUoris) 

seriata, M. 
( :=Caltons) 

conjuncta, Herr,-ScliaflE. 

( ^=Caltoris) 

colaca, M. 
( =Caltoris) 

matkias, M. 
( =Chapra) 

subochracea M. 
( z^Ghapra) 

canaraica, M. 
( :^Parnara) 

hada, (M.) 
( z=Parnara) 
Oegenes nostradamus, Fabr. 
Notocrypta restricta, M. 

fisthamelii, (Boisd.) 
Sancus suhfasciatus. (M.) 
Udaspes folus, Cramer. 
Hyarotis adrastus, (Cramer.) 
lambrix salsala, M. 



These insects will arrange themselves in their proper subfamilies as under : — 



Subfamily Celoenorrhince (1). 
Genus Celanorrhinus 1. 
Species ambareesa (I), 
leucocera (S). 
area (3). 
Satarupa 2. 
( =Daimio) 
milliana (4). 
Tagiades 3. 

obscurus (5). 
litigiosa (6), 

Odontoptilum 4> 

angulatum (7). 
Abaratha 5. 

ransonnettii (S). 
Coladenia 6. 

indrani (9). 
Sarangesa 7. 

dan (10). 

purendra (12). 
dasahara {12). 
Tapena 8. \ 

thwaitesi (13). 
Subfamily Hesperiince (2). 
Genus Hesperia 9. 
{:=Spialia) 
Species galba {IJi). 
Oomalia 10. 

albojasciata {15). 



Subfamily Ismeneince (3). 
Genus Ismene 11. 
Species fergussoni {16) 
{Gecana) 

gomata {17) 
{Burara) 
Hasora 12. 
badra {J8). 
chabrona {19). 
alexis {20). 
{Parata) 

butleri {21). 
{Parata) 
Bibasis 13. 

sena {22). 
Badamia I4. 

exclamatioms {23). 
RJiopalocampta 15. 
benjamini {24). 
Subfamily Plastingiince{4:). 
Genus Plastingla 16. 
Species submaculata {25). 
Suastus 17. 

gremius {26). 
bipunctus {27). 
Arnetta 18. 

vindhiana {28). 
Zographetus 19. 

ogygia {29). 



THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES 01 TBE PLAINS OF INDIA. 225 



^nhia-raWy Erionotitice (o). 
Genus Oangara 20. 
Species thyrsis {30), 
Matapa 21. 
aria {SI). 
Subfamih- Pamphilince (6). 
Genus Taractrocera 22. 
Species moevius {o2). 
ceramas {S3). 
=nicevillei. 
Ampittia 23. 

dioscorides {S.'f,). 
Aeromachsus2Jf. 
{Machachu) 
jhora (5). 
Subfamil_y Erynnince (7). 
Genus Telicota 25. 
Species bambusoe {SG). 
augias {37). 
palmarum {3S). 
{Corone) 

mcesoides {30). 
{Padraona) 

Padraona 20. 
gola {40). 
Halpe 27. 
moorei (4^). 



{Tkonssa) 
Barac2is 28. 

Immpsoni {^5). 
Cupitha 29. 
purreea {^G). 
Subfamily Baorinse (8). 
Genus Boor is 50. 
Species farri {47). 

kurnara {4-3). 
striata {49). 
conjimcta {50). 
colaca {51). 
mathias {52). 
subochracea {53). 
bada {54).- 
ranaraica {55). 
Gcgenes 

nostradamus {5G). 
Subfamily Notocri/ptince (9). 
Genus Notocrypta 52. 
Species restricta {57). 
feistlmmelii {53), 
Sancus 33. 

suhfasciatus {59). 
Udaspes 34. 

folus {GO). 
Hyarotis 35. 

adrastus {01). 
lambrix 30. 

salsala {02.) 



hyrtacus (-^5). 
astigmata {43). 
{Thoressa) 

honorei {44). 

Although the above is the most natural grouping of sub-families, it is not 
easy to make a key to them all. The first four come in quite easily but the last 
five are very difficult to co-ordinate. The key is as follows : — 
A. — Insects in repose with wings extended horizontally. 
Fore wing : with vein 5 alwaj's nearer to 6 than to 
4. Eggs strongly ribbed. Larvte feeding on 
dicotyledonous plants . . . . . . . . CelcenorrMnoe. 

B. — Insects with wmgs in repose either held erect over 
the back or slanting along the body. Fore wing: 
with vein 5 various. 

a. Insects with wings either erect or slanting. 
Fore-wmg : vein 5 always nearer to 6 than to 4. 
Small butterflies never more than 37mm. in 
expanse. Eggs strongly ribbed. Larvae feed- 
ing on dicotyledonous vegetation . . . . Hesperiince. 

b. Insects with wmgs invariably held erect when 

resting. Fore icing : vein 5 various. 
a]. Fore-wing : vein 5 various. Palpi : robust, 
the second joint held pressed against face, 
erect, the third joint naked, long and direct- 
ed out horizontally, or nearly so, in front of 
head. Eggs all strongly ribbed. Larvae 
feeding upon dicotyledons. Robust, large 
insects, with an expanse of wing from 45mm., 
at least to 75mm. Ismenemai. 



226 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVII. 

b\. Fore wing : vein 5 never nearer to 6 than to 
4 ; sometimes from or very nearly from the 
middle of the discocellulars, i.e., half way 
between 4 and 6 ; mostly nearer to 4. Palpi ! 
never as in Ismeneince. Eggs various. Larvae 
feeding upon monocotyledons ; the only 
exception is Cupitha purreea, placed in the 
Erynnince. 
a2. Antennce : with the tip of club blunt, 
never with a pouit, be that point ever so 
small . . • • • • • • • • • • P^^'mphilince. 

62. Antennce : with the tip of the club with a 

point, well-marked in the great majority of 

cases, sometimes small, but always present. 

a3. Eyes : bright blood-red. Eggs extremely 

finely ribbed, the ribs mdistinct ; dome- 

sha])ed, about double as broad as high. 

Larvae feeding upon palms, bamboos or 

on plantains, the pupa makes a spiral cell 

and that of Gangara has an enormously 

long proboscis Erionotinm. 

63. Eyes s never red. 

a4. Breadth of head divided into the length 
of antenna, always over 2" 1mm., 
the least number being 2 '3mm. In 
aU these insects the head is small, the 
antennae rather long. The larvae are 
very similar to those of the Baorince and 
the pupa is also very like those of 
that subfamily and is naked and formed 
in an open cell made by a silk or 
two fixed across a half cylinder so to 
speak, this half cell being caused by 
the shrinking of the silks: on the under- 
sides of the leaves for Udaspes, Noto- 
crypta and Sancus. The eggs are all 
limpet-shaped, blood-red, quite smooth 
standing on a narrow, shelving, basal 
ring or band. The foodplants are 
grasses and gingers (Sciiaminece, for- 
merly known as Zinziberacece) as far 
as is known . . . . Nciocryptince. 

64. Breadth of head divided into length 
of antenna never over 2' 3mm ; nearly 
always 2mm., or less, down to 1* 4mm. 
All insects with broad heads, especi- 
sl\j so in the subfamihes Baorince 
and Erynnince. Eggs ribbed or more 
or less smooth — always ribbed and 
strongly so in Plastincjiince ; quite 
smooth in Baorince and less so in 
Erynnince. 
a5. Hind iving : underside with white 
dots at most, never with bands, blade 
dots or large spots and never with 
dark clouding or fascice or streaks of 



I 



TEE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA 227 

any kind. Eggs all smooth. Larvse 

all white with broad anal segment. 

Pupse like those of Notocri/pfincB : 

naked, green, with a long, conical 

snont in front, a jiroboscis free beyond 

the wings and no spiiacular expan- 
sions. The cell is formed as for that 

sub-family. The foodplants of all 

the larvae are bamboos and grasses. Baorince 
b5. Hind iving : never as in Baorince 

on the underside. 
a6. Hind winrj : underside with black 
dots. Eggs few, and strongly 
ribbed, with an apical ring. Lar- 
vse as in Erynnince. Pupae also 
similar. Cell formed by cutting 
out an oval piece of blade with the 
midrib as one side, tightty closed 
all round and cutting it free so 
that it falls to the ground. Food- 
plants of larvae are bamboo, palms 
or cane . . , . Plastingiince. 

66. Hind tvinrj : underside not as 
above. Eggs smooth or ribbed, 
generally the former. Larvae 
with thin skins. Pupte vnth. large 
spiracular expansions to segment 
2. Cell tightly closed. Food- 
plants, grasses and bamboos . . Eri/nnince. 



(To he continued.) 



"BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 

BY 

E.G. Stuart Baker, O.B.E., F.L.S,, P.Z.S,M.B.0.U., C.F.A.O.U. 

It is now 22 years since the last volume of Blanfords' and Gates' 
Avifauna of British India appeared and it is to be hoped that before 
very long the Secretary of State for India may see his way to 
sanction a new edition of the Fauna. Pending this, however, it 
seems desirable that something should be done to show our workers 
in India what has been accomplished since that excellent series was 
published. With this idea in view I have compiled the following 
Catalogue. 

It does not for a moment pretend to be complete for much yet 
remains to be done in working out species, genera and even the 
families of our Indian Birds. On the other hand our advance in In- 
dian ornithological knowledge has been great since 1898 and many 
ornithologists have contributed to this advance. First and foremost 
must be placed Dr. E. Hartert of Tring Museum whose wonderfid 
work on Palaeartic birds (Die Vogel Palseartischen Fauna) con- 
tains an endless wealth of information on all our Indian visitors from 
Northern climes in addition to much on more purely tropical forms. 
The late Col. H, H. Harington did useful work amongst the Time- 
liidee and others, including the writer, have from time to time worked 
out certain families, genera and species. 

The classification adopted is that of Gates' but certain birds have 
been removed from one familj^ to another on account of discoveries 
made since the Fauna was written. Especially has this been the 
case in the sub-family JBrachypterygince which has been transferred 
almost en bloc to the Turdidce. 

The Catalogue has been arranged principall}^ with a. view to 
economy in space and contains only the following details. The 
scientific and trivial name of each bird ; the first reference with date ; 
when the name in the reference is identical with that given in the 
Catalogue it is not repeated but when trinomials are used in the 
Catalogue and only binomials in the reference the initial letter of the 
generic name is given and not the name in full and where the generic 
name differs from the Catalogue name the reference is then given in 
fall. Serial numbers are given and following these the number in 
brackets according to the Fauna of British India. When one 
number covers more than one race or species in the Fauna it is 
repeated in the Catalogue but when a species or sub-species is given 
which is not referred to at all in the Fauna the second number is 
left blank. After the reference the date is given and then the type 
locality in brackets and, in some cases where it is necessary to narrow 
the type limits given, a second locality is noted and underlined and 
this second name must be considered the type locality in future. 



BIR DS OF THE 1 NDIA N EMPIRE. 229 

This is required as in some instances, such as "Himalayas", "India", 
etc., the one localitj^ may cover numerous races and it is therefore 
imperative to designate more clearly the area of the bird originally 
described. 

The distribution is given in all cases in which Blanford's and 
Gates' species are divided into geographical races or in which the 
distribution as given in the Fauna has had to be amended or added 
to. 

Details of reasons for alterations to names or for sub-divisions 
into sub-species are, of course, impossible in the space available and 
have been left out for future articles on particular families and 
genera. 

When the Catalogue is completed a table will be given showing 
the full name of all the references. 

The Society intends, I understand, to bring out the Catalogue in 
book form and this, especially if interleaved, should form a useful 
hand list to collectors in which to note down their collections and an 
easy book to annotate and keep up to date as further species are 
worked out. 

HAI^D-LIST or THE ^'BIRDS OE INDIA." 

Order PASSERES. 
Family Corvid^. 

1. (1) Corvus corax laurencei. The Punjab Raven. 

C. laurencei, Hume, Lahore to Yarkand, p. 235 (1873), (Punjab). 
Punjab, Bombay, U. f., N. W. P. Pare straggler Kash- 
mir and C. P. 

2, (1) Corvus corax tibetanus. The Himalayan Raven. 

C. tibetanus, Hodg., Ann. Mag. Nat. His., 2nd Series, 3, p. 203 
(1849), (Sikkim). 

Himalayas from Kashmir to E. Tibet. 

3.* (2) Corvus corax umbrinus. The Brown-necTced Raven. 

C. umbrinus, Sundev., K. Vet. Acad. Fork. Stockh. p. 199 
(18:^8), (Senaar). 

Sind, Baluchistan, S. Persia, Arabia, Palestine and ? N. 
E. Africa. 

4. (3) Corvus corone orientalis. The Eastern Carrion Crow. 
Eversm., Add. Pal Zool. fasc. it, p. 7 (1841), (Buchtarma) 
Kashmir, N.-W. Frontier, Siberia, Yenesei to Japan. 

st. (4) Corvus coronoides levaillanti- The Indian Jungle-Crow. 
C. levaillanti, Less., Traite d'Orn. p. 328 (l^Sl), (Bengal). 
Northern India S. of Himalayas. 

* The Indian Brown-necked Raven does not seem to me to he identical with all 
the African birds which probably form several races, one of wliich is ruficollis. 

t The various races of Indian Jungle Crow are only sub-species of the Australian 

coronoides. 



230 



JUUENAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol.XXVlI. 



6. (4) CoYWxs cor onoidQs int&v medins. The Himalayan J ungh- 

Crow. 

C. intermedius, Adams, P.Z.8., 1850, p. 171 {Sikkim). 
Himalayas E. to Sikkim and Bhutan. 

7. (4) Corvus coronoides andarr.anensis. The Burmese 

Jungle-Crow. 
0. andamanensis, Beavan, Ibis, 1866, p. 420 {Andamans). 
Assam, Burma, Siam, Malay States and Andamans. 

8. (4) Corvus coronoides culminatus. The Southern J < 

Crow. 

C. culminatus, Syhes, P. Z. 8., 1832, p. 96 (Deccan). 
India from the Deccan South to Ceylon. 

g. (5) Corvus frugilegus tschusii. The Eastern Booh. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. I., p. 14 (1903), {Gilgit). 
Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kashmir, Ladak. 

10. ((!) Corvus cornix sharpei. The Eastern Hooded Crow. 

C. sharpei, Oates, Fauna B . I. i, p. 20 (1889), {Peshawar). 
W. Siberia, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. 
Winter N. W. India. 

11. (7 Corvus splendens splendens The Indian House- 

Crow, 
0. splendens, Vieill, Nouv. Diet. d'His. Nat. viii, p. 44 (1817), 
(Bengal). 

All India except Sind. 

12. (7j Corvus splendens zugmeyeri. The Sind House-Crow. 

Lauhm., Orn. Monatsb. xxi,p, 93(1913), (Las Bela, S. E.Balu^ 
chistan). 

Sind, Baluchistan. Winter adjoining N. W. F. P. 

13. (8) Corvus splendens insolens. The Burmese House-Crow. 

0. insolens, Hume, Str. Feath. ii, p. 480 (1874), [Tennas- 
serim), 

Burma, Siam and Malay Peninsula. 

14. (8) Corvus splendens protegatus. The Ceylon House- 

Crow. 
Madar. Orn. Monatsb. xii, p. 195 (1904), (Colombo). 
Ceylon. 

15- (9) Corvus monedula collaris. The Kashmir Jackdaw. 

C. collaris, Drum., A. 31. N. H. xviii, p. 11 (1846), (Mace- 
donia). 

From E. Paissia to Turkestan, Persia, N. W. India and 
Kashmir. 

16. (10) Pica pica bactriana. The Kashmir Maggie. 

P. bactriana, Bp. Consp. . , , 

N.-W. India to Kashmir. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 231 

17. (10) Pica pica sericea. The Chinese Magjne. 

P. sericea, Gould, P.Z.S., 1845, p. -2 {Amoy, China). 
Shan States, Kachin Hills into China. 

18. (11) Pica pica bottanensis. The Black-rumped Magpie. 

P. bottanensis, Deless., Rev. ZooL, 184:0, p. 100 {Butan). 
N.-E. Sikkim into Tibet. 

19. (12) Urocissa erythrorhyncha erythrorhyncha- The 

Chinese Red-billed Blue Magpie. 
Corvus erythrorhynchus, Ghnel., Sys. Nat. i, p. 372 (1788), 
(China). 

Yunnan into China. 

20. (12) Urocissa erythrorhyncha occipitalis. The Red- 

hilled Blue Magpie. 
Psilorhiuus occipitalis. Bhjth, J. A. S. B, tv, p. 27 
(1846), (N. W. Himalayas). 
N. W. Himalayas to Assam. 

21. (12) Urocissa erythrorhyncha magnimstris- The Bur- 

mese Red-billed Blue ^fagpie. 
Psilorhinus magnirostris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv., p. 27 
(1846), {Ya Ma Dong ML). 
Burma and Siam. 

22. (13) Urocissa flavirostris flavirostris. The Yellow- 

billed Blue Magpie. 
Psilorhinus fiSLVivostvis, Blyth, J . A. S. B. a»., ^. 28 (1846) 
{Darjiling) . 

N.-E. Himalayas to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet. 

23. (13) Urocissa flavirostris cucullata. The Western Yel- 

low-billed Blue Magpie. 
U. cucullata, Gould, B.ofA. V.,pl. 51 (1861). (Ktilu Valley). 
N.-W. Himalayas and W. Nepal. 

24. (14) Cissa chinensis chinensis. The Green Magpie. 

Coracias chinensis, Bodd., Tabl. Pl. En., p. 38 (1783), 
(China). 

India and Burma to China. 

25. (15) Cissa ornata. The Cetjlon Magpie. 

Pica ornata, Wagler, Lsis, 1829, p. 749 (Ceylon). 
Ceylon. 

26. (16) Dendrocitta vagabunda. The Indian Tree-Pie. 

Coracias vagabunda. Lath. Ind. Orn. i., p. 171 (1790), 
(India), (Calcutta.) 
India, Burma and S. China. 

27. (17) Dendrocitta Ieuco?:astra. The Southern Tree-Pie. 

D. leucogastra, Gould, P. Z. 8., 1833, p. 57 (Malabar Coast). 
Southern India, North to the Wynaad Hills. 



232 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VII. 

28. (18) Dendrocitta sinensis himalayensis. The Hima- 

layan Tree-Pie. 
D. himalayensis, Blyth, Gat. p. 92 (1865), {Himalayas). 
N. W. Himalayas to Chin Hills and Arrakan. 

29. (18; Dendrocitta sinensis assimilis. The Burmese Tree- 

Fie. 
D. assimilis, HvMe, Str. Feath.v.,p. 117 (1877), (Muleyit). 
Burma S. of Chin Hills, Shan States and Siam. 

30. (19) Dendrocitta frontalis. The BlacJc-br owed Tree-pie. 

D. frontalis, McClell, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 163 (Assam). 
Nepal to E. Assam N. & S. of the Brahmapootra Eiver. 

31. (20; Dendrocitta bayleyi. The Andaman Tree-Pie. 

D. bayleyi, TytUr,J. A. 8. B. xxxii., p. 88 (1863), (S. 
Andamans) . 
Andamans. 

32. (21) Crypsirhina varians. The Black Racket-tailed 

Magpie. 
Corvus varians, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp. xxvi, (1801) {Java). 
Lower Bnrma, Siam, Cochin China, to Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo. 

33. (22) Crypsirhina cucullata. The Hooded Racket-tailed 

Magpie. 
C. cucullata, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 20 {Thayetmyo). 

Central South Burma, Siam and N. Malay Peninsula. 

34. (23) Platysmurus leucopterus. The White-winged Jay. 

Glaucopis leucopterus, Temm., PI. Col. no. 265 (1824), 

{Sumatra) . 
Extreme S. of Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra. 

35. (24) Qarrulus lanceolatus. The Black-throated Jay. 

Vigors, P. Z. S., 1830, p. 7 {Himalayas). 

36. (25) Qarrulus leucotis leucotis. The Burmese Jay. 

G. leucotis, Hume, P. A. S., Bengal, 1874, p. 443, 
[Kaukaryit) . 

N. W. Burma, Chin and S. Shan Hills to S. Burma. 

37. (25) Qarrulus leucotis oatesi. Shar2:)e's Jay. 

G. oatesi, Sharpe, Bull, B. 0. C. v., p. 44, 1896 {Chin Hills). 
N. E. Burma, E. Chin and Kachin Hills, N. Shan 
States. 

38. (26) Qarrulus bispecularis bispecularis. The Hima- 

layan Jay. 
G. bispecularis, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 7 {Himalayas). 
N. W. Himalayas to Nepal. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 233 

39. (26) Qarrulus bispecularis interstinctus. The Sikkim 

Jay. 
Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 430 (1918), (Darjiling). 
Sikkim, Eastern Nepal. 

40. (26) Qarrulus bispecularis persaturatus. The Khasia 

Hills Jay. 
Hartert, ibid (Shillong). 

Hills South of Brahmapootra. 

41. (26) Qarrulus bispecularis rufescens. The Yunnan Jay. 

G. rnfescens, Reichenoiv, Orn. Monatsbr., p. 123 (1897), 
{N. Yunnan). 
Yunnan. 

42. (26) Qarrulus bispecularis haringtoni. The Chin Hills 

Jay. 
G. haringtoui, Rippon, Bull. B. 0. C. xv., p. 97 (1905), {Mt. 
Victoria) . 

Chin Hills, Kachin Hills and ? N. Shan States. 

43. (27) Nucifraga caryocatactes hemispila- The Himala- 

yas Nutcracker. 
N. hemispila. Vigors, P. Z. 8., 1830, p. 8 (Himalayas). 

44. {-l^) Nucifraga multipunctata. The Larger Spotted Nut- 

cracker. 
Gould, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 23 (N. W. Himalayas). 

45. (29) Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. The Red-hilled Chough. 

Upupa pyrrhocorax, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 118 (1758), 
{England), 

46. (30) Pyrrhocorax graculus. The Yellow-hilled or Alpine 

Chough. 

Corvus graculus, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 158 (1766), {Swiss 
Alps). 

47. Podoces hendersoni. Henderson s Ground-Chough. 

Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 408 (Yarkand). 

48. Podoces humilis. Hume's Ground- Chough. 

Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 408 {Sanju Pass, Yarkand). 

49. (31) Parus major cinereus. The hidian Grey Tit. 

P. cinereus. Vieill, Nouv. Diet. d'His. Nat. xx., p. 316 
(1818), (Java). 

N. India, Assam, W. Burma, Sunda Is, Java. 

50. (31) Parus major intermedius. The Afghan Gretj-Tit. ^ 

P. bocharensis var. intermedius, Sarudny, Bull. Proc. Nat- 
Moscow {No. 3.) Vol. 3, p. 789 (1890), {S. W. Transcaspia). 
Baluchistan, Afghanistan, N.-E. Persia and S.-W. 
Transcaspia. 



234 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

51 (31) Parus major kaschmiriensis. The Kashmir Grey- Tit. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. 3, p. 345 (1905), {CMgit). 
Kashmir, Garhwal, Simla and hills of the N.-West. 

52. (31) Parus major planorum. The Punjab Grey-Tit. 

Hartert, Nov. Zool. xii, p. 499 (1905), {S. Punjab). 
Plains of N.-W. India and South Punjab. 

53. (31) Parus major mahrattarum- The Southern Grey-Tit. 

Hartert, ibid, p. 499 (Ceylon). 
South India and Ceylon. 

54 (32) Parus major tibetanus. The Tibet Grey-Tit. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. 3, p. 346 (1905), (ChaJcsam). 

S. E. Tibet, Yunnan and ? Kauri Kachin Hills. 

55- (32) Parus major coraraixtus. The Burmese Grey-Tit. 
P. commixtus, Sivinhoe, Ibis, p. 63 (1868), {S. China). 

Tennasserim, Eastern Burma, Shan States and South 
China. 

56. (33) Parus iiuchalis. The White-winged Black-Tit. 

P. nuchalis, Jerdon, Madr.Jour.L.S. xiii, p. 131 (1844), 
{Eastern Ghats). 

57. (34) Parus monticolus. The Green-backed Tit. 

Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831,^. 22 (Himalayas), (Simla). 

58. Parus cyanus tianschanicus. The Tianschan Blue- 

Tit. 
Cyanistes cyanus var tianschanicus, Menzbier, Bull. Z. S, 
France, ix, p. 276 (1884) (Mt. borderivg the deserts of 
Central Asia). 

59. Parus palustris korejewi. The Turkestan Marsh- 

Tit. 
P. communis korejewi, Zarud. and Harms., Orn. Monatsb. x, 
p. 54 (1902), (Karatau Turkestan). 

Turkestan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and extreme N. 
W. India. 

60. Parus palustris poecilopsis. The Yunnan Marsh- 

Tit. 
P. Poecilopsis, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. 13, p. 11 (1902), 
(Chatung, W. Yunnan). 
S. W. China and Yunnan. 

*6i. (85) ^githaliscus concinna iredalel The Red-headed 

Tit. 

Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. C. xli, p. 2 (1920 >. (Simla). 

Himalayas from Chitral to the Mishmi Hills over 
5,000 ft. 



* ^. erythrocephaius is invalidated by Linnes Parus erythrocephalus 

X ed, p. 191 (1758). The generic name will therefore be concinna of Gould 1855. 
and a new name has to be given to ths Indian race. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 235 

62. (3G) /Egithaliscus concinna manipurensis. Hume's 
Red-headed Tit. 
A. manipurensis, Hume, Sir. Feath. 2. p. 254 (1888), (Ma- 
mpur). 

Hills South of the Brahmaputra over 4,000 ft. 

63. (36) >Egithaliscus concinna pulcheJlus. The Shan Red- 

headed Tit. 
A. pulchellus, Rip2)07i, Bull. B. O. C. p. 2 (1900) (Nanoi, 
Shan States.) 

Southern Shaii States. 

64. (SG) /Egithaliscus concinna talifuensis. Ripjmi's Red- 

headed Tit. 
A talifuensis, Rippoii, Bull. B. 0. C. 14, p. 18 (1903) {Gyi- 
dyin, North Shan States). 

Mts. E. of Talifu, Yunnan, S. W. China, N. Shan 
States. 

65. /Cgithaliscus bonvaloti bonvaloti. The Chinese 

Black-headed Tit. 
A. bonvaloti, Oustalet, Ann. Pc. Nat. Zool. (7) xii, p. 286 
(1891), (Ta-tsien-lii). 

Western China. Yunnan and N. E. Shan States. 

66. /Cgithaliscus bonvaloti sharpei. Mt. Victoria Black- 

headed Tit. 
A. sharpei, Rippon, Bull. B. 0. C. xiv, p. 84 (1904), {Mt. 
Victoria). 

Mt. Victoria, Chin Hills. 

67. (37) /Egithaliscus leucogenys. The White-cheeked Tit. 

drites leucogenys, Moore, P. Z. S. xxii, p. 139 (1855), 
{Afghanistan). 

68. '38) /Egithaliscus niveogularis. The White-throated Tit. 

Orites niveogularis. Gould. {Mocre), P. Z. S. xxii., p. 140 
(1855), {North India). 

69. (39) Egithaliscus ioschistus. The RufGiis-fronted Tit. 

Parus ioschistos, Hodg , Jour. A. S. B. xiii, p. 943 (1844), 
{Nepal). 

70. (40) Sylviparus modestus modestus- The Y ellow-hrotved 

Tit. 
S. modestus. Burton, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 154 {Nepal). 
Nepal, Sikkim and Hills N. of Brahmapootra. 

71. (40) Sylviparus modestus saturation. The Chinese 

Yellow-browed Tit. 
S. saturatior, Rippon, Btill. B. 0. C xvi, p. 87(1900), 
{Mt. Victoria). 

Burma, China and Assam Hills S. of Brahmapootra, 



236 JO URNAL, B 0MB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SO CIETY, Vol. XX VI. 

72. (10) Sylviparus modestus simlaensis. The Simla Yellow- 

hrowed Tit. 
Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. C. xxxviii, p. 8 (1917), {Simla). 

Hills about Simla, Kashmir and probably hills 
further N.-W. 

73. (41) Maclolophus spilonotus spilonotus. The Indian 

Black-sjMted Yelloiv Tit. 
Parus spilonotus, Blyth, Cat. B.M.A. 8. xvi, p. 445 (1849), 
{Himalayas) N. Cachar. 

Nepal to Miri Hills and Hills South of Brahmapootra. 

74. (4.1) Maclolophus spilonotus subviridls. The Burmese 

Black- sjjotted Yellow Tit. 
Parus subviridis, Tick -. {Blyth), J. A. S. B. :c:nv, p. 265 
(1855), {Tennasserim.) 

Burma, Chin Hills, Shan States. 

75. (42) Maclolophus xanthogenys xanthogenys. The Yellow- 

cheeked Tit. 
Parus xanthogenys, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 23 {Hitna- 
layas) {Mttrree). 

Murree to Nepal and Sikkim. 

76. (43) Maclolophus xanthogenys aplonotus. The Southern 

Yellow-cheeked Tit. 
Parus aplonotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 444 (1847), 
{Mt. of Central India). 

Mt. of S. India as for N. as Behar and Chota 
Nagpore. 

77. (255) Melanochlora sultanea sultanea. The Sultan Tit. 

Parus sultaneus, Hodg., Ind. Rev., 1836, p. 31 {Nepal). 

Himalayas from Nepal to Burma, Shan States and 
N. Siam. 

78.* (255) Melanochlora sultanea flavocristata. The Malayan 

Sultan Tit. 
Parus flavocristatus, Lajresn., Mag. Zool., 1837, pi. 80 
{Tennasserim). 

South Burma, Siam and Malay States. 

79. (44) Lophophanes melanolophus. The Crested Black. Tit. 

Parus melanolophus, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 28 {Hima- 
layas). 

80. (45) Lophophanes ater aemodius. The Himalayan Cole- 

Tit. 
Parus BP-modius, Hodg. {Blyth), J. A. 8. B. xiii, ii, p. 943 
(1844), {Nepal). 

81. (46) Lophophanes rubidiventris. The Rufous-bellied 

Crested Tit. 
Parus rubidiventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B.xvi,p. 445 (1847) 

{Ne2Ml). 



« A 



very poor sub-species distinguished by its slightly smaller size. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 237 

82. (47) Lophophanes rufonuchalis rufonuchalis. The Simla 

Black Tit. 
Parus rufonuchalis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xviii, p. 110 (184D), 
i^Simla). 

Turkestan, Himalayas, Chitral to Garhwal. 

83. (48) Lophophanes rufonuchalis beavani. The Silckim 

Black Tit. 
Lophophanes beavani, Blyth, Jerd. B. I. ii., p, 275 (1863), 
(Sikkini) . 

Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet and W. China. 

84. (49) Lophophanes dichrous dichrous. The Brown Crested 

Tit. 

Parus dichrous, Hodg. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 943 (18^4), 
(Nepal). 

Himalayas, S, Kashmir to Sikkim. 

85. (49) Lophophanes dichrous wellsi. The Yunnan Brown 

Crested Tit. 
Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. C. xxxvii, p. 8 (1917), (Yunnan). 
Yunnan and ? N. Shan States. 

86. Remiz coronata. The Turkestan Penduline Tit. 

^githalus coronatus, Severtz., Izr. Ohs. Moskov. viii, '2, p. 
136 (1873), {Syr Darya). 

Transcaspia, West Turkestan, East Persia to Sind 
andN. W. P. 

Family Paradoxornithidae. 

87. (50) Conostoma asmodium. The Great Parrot-hilled 

Babbler. 

C. remodius, Hodg., J. A. S. B. x, p. 857 (1841), {Nepal). 

88. (51) Paradoxornis flavirostris. Gould's Parrot-billed 

Babbler. 

Gould, P. Z. S., 1836, p. 17 {Nepal). 

89. (52) Paradoxornis guttaticollis. Austen's Parrot-billed 

Babbler. 

A. Darid, Nouv. Arch. Mus. vii, Bull., ^.14(1871). {Setchuan 
Moupin) . 

90. (5;J) Suthora unicolor. The Brown Suthora. 

Heteromofpha unicolor, Hodg., J. A. S. B. xii, p. 448 
(1843), {^epal). 

91. (55) Suthora nipalensis. The Ashy-eared Suthora. 

Hodg., Ind. Rev. ii,p. 32 (1838), {Nepal). 

92. (55) Suthora poliotis poliotis. The Ashy-breasted Suthora. 

S. i,o\iotis, Blyth, J. A. S.B. xx, p. r,2-J (1851), (Cherrapoonji) 
Hills S. ot Brahmapootra to Kachin Hills. 



97- 



238 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVII. 

Q, (54) Suthora poliotis humii The Black-fronted Suthora. 
S. humii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 487 (1883), {Nepal). 
Nepal, Sikkim to Darjiling. 

04 (54) Suthora poliotis feae Salvadoris Suthora. 

S. fete, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa mi, p. 364 (1889), 
{Karennee). 

Kareimee, S, Shan States. 

otL (56^ Suthora poliotis ripponi. Rippon's Suthora. 
^^' ^ ' Q.rivvoni, Sharpe, Bull. B. 0. -C. xv., p. 96 (1905), (ML 
Victoria) 
Chii-. Hills. 

o6 Suthora verrauxi craddocki- Bingham's Suthora. 

S. craddocki, Bingham, Bull. B. O. C. xiii., p. 54 (1904), 
(Loipang-Nan) . 

Hills of the Mekong watershed 8,500 feet. 

Suthora webbiann brunnea Anderson's Suthora. 
S. brunnea, Anderson, P. Z. S., 1871, j). 211 (Momien 
Yunnan) . 

Yunnan and the Kachin Hills, E. of Bhamo. 

g8 (37) Suthora fulyifrons. The Fulvous-Fronted Suthora. 
Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 579 (1845), (Nepal). 

99. (58) Suthora ruficeps ruficeps. The Red-headed Suthora. 
Chleuasicus ruficeps, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 578 (1845), 

(Sikkim). 

Sikkim and Hills N. of Brahmapootra E. to Dafla Hills. 

100. (iig) Suthora ruficeps atrisuperciliaris. The Black- 

hrowed Suthora. 
Chleuasicus ruficeps var.. atrisuperciliaris. Godw. — Aus., 
P. A. S. B., 1877, p. 147 (Sadiya, Assam.) 

Hills S. of Brahmapootra and E. of Dibong R. to 
Shan States. 

10 1. Neosuthora davidiana thompsoni. Thompson' s Su- 
thora. 

Suthora thompfoni, Bingham, Bull. B. 0. C, xiii., p. 63 
(1903), (Kyatpin). 

Lalang State, Burma. 

102. (60) Psittiparus ruficeps ruficeps. The Red-headed 

Parrot-hilled Babbler. 

Paradoxornis ruficeps, £Z?/i7i, J. A. 8.B. xi, p. 177 (1842), 
(Sikkim) . 

Sikkim and Assam E. to Abor Hills N. of Brahma- 
pootra. 

103. (60) Psittiparus ruficeps bakeri, Baker's Parrot-billed 
Babbler. 
Scaeorhynchus TafLce];'shakeri, Hartert, Nov. Zoo. vii.. p. 548 

(1900), (N. Cachar). 

Hills S. of Brahmapootra to Chin Hills 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 239 

104. (61) Psittiparus gularis gularis. The Grey-headed Par- 

rot-hilled Babbler. 

Paradoxornis gularis (Horsf.), Gray, Gen. B. ii., p. 3a9 
(1849), (Sikkim). 

Sikkim to the extreme E. of Assam N. of Brahma- 
pootra. 

105. (61) Psittiparus gularis transfluviatilis. Hartert's Par- 

rot-Billed Babbler. 

Scceorhynchus gularis transfluviatilis, Hartert, Nov. Zool. 
vii., p. 548 (1900), (N. Cachar). 

Hills S. of Brahmapootra, Manipur, Chin Hills. 

Family Turdoidid^. 
Sub-family Turdoidince. 

106. (62) Dryonastes ruficollis. The Rufous-necked Laugh- 

ing-Thrush. 
lanthociucla ruficollis, Jard. and Set.. III. Orn tlnO.S., pi. 
21 (1838), {Himalayas). 

107. (63) Dryonastes nuchalis. Ogle's Laughing-Thrush. 

Garrulax nuchalis, Godw. — Aus., Ann. Mag. Nat. His. (4) 
xviii., p. 411 (1876), (Dibrugarh, Assa7n). 

108. (04) Dryonastes chinensis. The Black-throated Laughing- 

Thrush. 

Lauius chinensis, Scop., Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii,p. 86 
(1786), (China). 

109. (65) Dryonastes ccerulatus coerulatus. The Grey-sided 

Laughing-Thrush. 

Cinclosoma ccerulatus, Hodg., As. Res. xix, p. 147 (1836), 
{Nepal). 

Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, Naga and Cachar Hills and 
Manipur. 

110. (66) Dryonastes coerulatus sub-coerulatus. rAe/SM?ow^ 

Laughing- Thrush. 

Garrulax sub-ccerulatus, Hume, Sir. Feath. vii. 2^- 1^0 
(1878), (Shillong). 
Khasia Hills ozily. 

1 1 1. Dryonastes coerulatus kaurensis. The Kachin 

Laughi ng-Thrush. 

D. kaurensis, Rippon, Bidl. B. O. C. xii, p. 13 (1901), 
{Bhamo). 

North and Central Kacbin Hills. 

112. (67) Dryonastes sannio. The White-bro'wed Laughing- 

Thrush. 
Garrulax sannio, Swinh., Ibis, 1S67, p. 403 {China). 



240 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl 

113. (G8) Dryonastes gallanus. Austen' s Laughing-Thrush. 

Garrulax gallauus, Godw-Aus., P. Z. S. , 1874, p. 44 
[Manipur). 

Manipur and Chin Hills, 

114. (69) Qarrulax leucolophus leticolophus. The Hima- 

layan White- crested Laughing- Thrush. 
Corvus leucolophus, Hardiv., Trans L.S.xi, p. 208 (1815). 
{Mt. above Sardwar). 

Himalayas from Simla to N. Chin Hills, Kachin 
Hills and N. Burma. 

115. (70) Qarrulax leucolophus belangeri. The Burmese 

White-crested Laughing- Thrush. 
(x. belangerijZess., Trait. d'Orn., p. 648 (1831). 
Pegu, Shan States, S. Chin and Kachin Hills. 

116. (71) Qarrulax leucolophus diardi. The Siam White- 

headed Laughing-Thrush. 

Turdus diardi, Less., Trait d'Orn. p. 408 {1831), {Siam) 
{Bangkok) . 

S. Yunnan, Siam, Cambodia, Cochin China and S. E. 
Tennasserim. 

117. (72) Qarrulax pectoralis pectoralis. The Black-gorgeted 

Laughing-Thrush. 

lanthocincla pectoralis Gould, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 186 
{Nepal). 

Nepal to extreme E. Assam, N. Burma and N. Shan 
States. 

118.* (72) Qarrulax pectoralis semitorquata Grant' s Laugh- 
ing-Thrush. 
G. semitorquata, 0. Grant, Bull. B. 0. C. x, (1900) 
{Five Finger Mt. Hainan). 

South Burma, S. Shan States, Yunnan, Siam, Hainan. 

119. (73) Qarrulax moniliger moniliger. The NecMaced 

Laughing-Thrush. 
Cinclosoma moniligera, Hodg., As. Res. xix, p. 147 (1836), 
{Nepal). 

Nepal to E, Assam, Arrakan, Chin Hills and N. 
Shan States. 

120. (73) Qarrulax moniliger fuscata. The Burmese Neck- 

laced Laughing-Thrush. 

Stuart Biker, Bull. B. 0. C. xxxviii, p. 64 (1918), {Tavoy). 
Southern Burma and Siam in the Peninsula and S. 
Central Burma. 

121. (74) Qarrulax g-ularis. McClelland' s Laughing-Thrush. 

lanthocincla gularis, McOlell, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 150 
{Cachar) . 



* G. leucotis of Blyth is a synonym of G. pectoralis and G. meridionals of Kloss 
(Ibis, 1920, p. 11) does not seem to be distinguishable from semitorquata. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 241 

122. (75) Qarrulax delesserti. The Wynaad Laughing- 

Thrush. 
Crateropus delesserti. Jerd., Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 256 
(1839), {Wynaad, S. India). 

123. (76) Qarrulax albogularis. The White-throated Laughing- 

Thrush. 
lanthocincla albogularis, Gould, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 187 
(Nepal). 

124. (77) Qarrulax strepitans. TickelVs Laughing-Thrush. 

G. strepitans, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 268 (1858), [Mt. 
Muleyit). 

125. (78) lanthocincla ocellata ocellata. The White-spotted 

Laughing- Th rush. 
Cinclosoma ocellatum, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831 p. 55 (Hima- 
layas) . 

126. (79) lanthocincla cineracea cineracea. The Ashy Laugh- 

ing-Thrush. 
Trochalopteron cineraceiim, Godw. — Aus., P.Z.S., 1874, 
p. 45 (Nac/a Hills). 

Cachar, Manipur, Naga Hills East into Chin Hills. 

127. lanthocincla cineracea styani. Styan's Laughing- 

Thrush. 
Trochalopteron styani, Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Paris 6, p. 226 
(1898), (Ta4sien-lu). 

Yunnan and Eastern Shan States. 

128 (80) lanthocincla rufog^ularis rufogularis. The Ru- 
fous-chinned Laughing-Thrush . 

lanthocincla rufogularis, Gould, P. Z. S'., 1835, p. 48 
( Himalayas) ( Sikki m). 

Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Hills N. of Brahma- 
pootra. 

12^. (80) lanthocincla rufogularis assamensis. HarterVs 
Laughing-Thrush. 
Hartert, Vog.Pal.i, p. 635, (1910) (Margherita). 

Hills S. of Brahmapootra, E. to Lakhimpur, S. to Chit- 
tagong. 

130. (80) lanthocincla rufogularis cccidentalis. The Kash- 

mir Laughing-Thrush. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. i, p. 635 (1910) (Dehra Boon). 
Kumaon, Kashmir and N.-W. Himalayas. 

131. (81) lanthocincla austeni austeni. The Cachar Laicgh- 

ing-Thrus'i. 
Trochalopteron austeni, Godiv.-Aus., J. A. S. B. xxxix, ii., 
p. 105 (1870), (Hengd ng Peak, Cachar Hills). 
Khasia, Cachar and Naga Hills. 



242 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

132. (81) lanthocincla austeni victoriae. The Chin Hills 

Laughing-Thrush. 
I. victorige, Rippon, Bull., B. 0. C xvi, p. 47 (1906), 
{Mt. Victoria). 
Chin Hills. 

133. (82) Trochalopterum erythrocephalum erythrocepha- 

lum. The Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 
Cinclosoma erythrocephalum, Vigors, P.Z.S., 1831, p. 171 
(Himalayas), (Chamba.) 

Himalayas, Chamba to West and Central Nepal. 

134. (85) Trochalopterum erythrocephalum nigrriraen- 

tum. The SiJckim Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopteron nigrimentum (Hcdg,) Gates, Hume's N. and 
E. 2nd Ed. 1, p. 57 (1889), (Nepal). 
Eastern Nepal, Sikkim and East Assam to the 
Dibong R. 

I35' (83) Trochalopterum erythrocephalum erythrolaema. 

Hume's Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 
T. erythrolsema, Hume, Str. Feath. xi, p. 163 (1881), 
(Matchi, Manipur.) 

Manipur and Chin Hills. 

136. Trochalopterum erythrocephalum godwini. 

Godwin- Austin'' s Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 
Harington, Bull. B O.G. xxxiii, p. 92 (1914), (N . Cachar 
Hills). 

Cachar and Naga Hills and ? E. in the Hills S. of 
Brahmapootra. 

137. Trochalopterum erythrocephalum woodi. Wood''s 

Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 
Stuart Baker, Bull. B. 0. 0., xxxu, p. 17 (1914), (Loi-Sing, 
N . Shan States). 

Northern Shan States and Kachin Hills. 

138. (84) Trochalopterum erythrocephalum chrysopterum. 

The Shillong Yellow-winged Laughing- Thrush. 
lanthocincla chrysoptera, Oould, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 48 
(Khasia Hills). 

Khasia Hills only. 

I39' (-6) Trochalopterum erythrocephalum melanostigma. 

Blytlvs Red-headed Laughing-Thrush. 
Garrulax melanostigma, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv p '^68 
(1855), (Mt.Muleijit). 
Karennee, Mt. Muleyit, Tennasserim. 

140. (87) Trochalopterum phoeniceum phoeniceum. The 

Nepal Crimson-winged Laughing-Thrush. 
lanthocincla phosnicea, Gould, Icon. Av., pi. 3 (1837), 
(^epal). 

Nepal, Sikkim and Hills North of Brahmapootra. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 

141. (87) Trochalopterum phoenicium bakeri. The Assam 

Crimson-u'ingcdLangliing-Tlinish. 
Hartert, Bull., B. O. C. xxiii, p. 10 (1909), (N. Cachar). 
Hills South of Brahmapootra, Manipur and Chin Hills. 

142. (87) Trochalopterum phoenicium ripponi. The Biir- 

m ese Crimson-winged Lcmgl ing-Thrush. 
T. ripponi, Oates, Bull. B. 0. C. xi, p. 10 (1900), (Kachin 
Bills). 
Kachin Hills, Shan States North and South. 

143. Trochalopterum milnei sharpei. The Burmese 

Red-tailed Laughing- Thrush. 

T. sh&Tiiei, Eippon, Bull.B.O.C. xii,p. 13(1901), {Kengtung 
State). 

Kachin Hills and N. Shan States. 

144. {^%) Trochalopterum .«ubunicoIor. The Plain-coloured 

Lau§ hing- Th rush . 
Troclialopteron subunicolor, {Hodg.) Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii 
p. 951' (1843), {Nepal). 

145 (89) Trochalopterum affine affine. The Blach-faced 
Laughing-Thrush. 
Garrulax affinis. {Hodg.) Biyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 950 
(1843), {Nepal). 

Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. 

146. Trochalopterum affine oustaleti. The Yunnan 

Blacl'-faced Laughing-Thrush. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. i, p. 633 (1909), {Tsekore). 
Yunnan. 

147. (90) Trochalopterum variegatum variegatum. The 

Eastern Variegated Laughing-Thrush. 
Cinclosoma variegatum, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 56 
{Himalayas), (E. Nepal). 
Eastern Himalayas from Chamba to Nepal. 

148. (91) Trochalopterum variegatum simile. The Western 

Variegated Laughing-Thrush. 
Trochalopteron smnle, Hume, Ibis, li^l I, p. 408 {Far N. 
West), (Oilgit). 
"Western ±iimalayas, N.W. Kashmir, Gilgit to Chitral. 

149. (92) Trochalopterum squamatum. The Blue-winged 

Laugh ing-Th rush . 
lanthocincla squamata, Gould, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 48 {Hima- 
layas). (Sikkim). 

150. (93) Trochalopterum cachinans cachinans. The Nilgiri 

Laughing-Thrush . 

Crateropus cachitians, Jerd., Madr. Jour, x, p. 255, 'pl. 7 
(1839), {Nilgiris). 
Nilsjiris. 



T) T I 1 1 L, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII 

151. (94) Trochalopterum cachinans cinnamomeum. Davi- 

son's Laughing-Thrush. 
T. cinnamomeum, Davison, Ibis, 1886, p. 204 {unhnown). 
Davison suggests Palni Hills. 

152. (.)5) Trochalopterum jerdoni jerdoni. The Banasore 

Laughing-Thrush ■ 
Garrulax jerdom, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 522 (1851), 
{Banasore Peak). 

The Hills of Ooorg, Wynaad, Palghat, Palni. 

153- l96) Trochalopterum jerdoni fairbanki. The Travan- 
core Laughing-Thrush. 
T. fairbanki. Blanf., J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, ii, p. 175 (1868), 
{Palni Hills). 

Hills of South Travancore. 

154. (97) Trochalopterum jerdoni meridionale. Blanford's 

Laughing-Thrush. 
T. meridionale, Blanf., Hume Sir. Feath. vii, p. 36 (1878), 
{Travancore). 

Hills of North Travancore. 

155. Trochalopterum elliotti yunnanense- The Yun- 

nan Laughing-Thrush. 
T. yunnanense, Eippon, Bull. B. 0. O. xix, p. 32 (1906), 
{Yangtze, Yunnan). 
Hills of Yunnan. 

156. Trochalopterum henrici. Prince Henry's Laughing- 

Thrush. 
T. h.envici,Oustalet, Ann.. Sci. Nat. {7) xii, p. 274(1891), 
(Tibet). 
\ Tibet. 

i57« (98) Trochalopterum virgatum. The Mani'pur Streaked 
Laughing-Thrush. 
Godw.-Aus., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 46 {Razami), 

Hilln South of Brahmapootra, Manipur, Looshai and 
Chin Hills. 

158. (99) Trochalopterum lineatum llneatum. The Hima- 

layan Streaked Laughing-Thrush. 
Cinclosoma lineatum. Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 56 {Nepal). 
Nepal and Sikkim. 

159. (99) Trochalopterum lineatum griseicentior. The 

Simla Streaked Laughing-Thrush. 
Harterf. Vog. Pal. i, p. 636 (1910), {Simla). 
S.Kashmir. Simla to Hazara. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 245 



1 60. (99) Trochalopterum lineatum gilgit. The Gilgit 

Streaked Laughing-Thrush. 
Hartert , Vog. Pal. i, p. 636 (1910), {Gilgit). 
Gilgit, Chitral and N. Kashmir, 

161. (100) Trochalopterum lineatum imbricatum. The Bhu- 

tan Streaked Laughing -Thrush. 

Garrulax imbricatus, Blyih, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 9A1 (1843), 
{Bhutan) 
Bhutan. 

162. (101) Qrammatoptila striata striata. The Striated 

Laughing-Thrush. 
Garnilus striates, Vigors, P. Z. -V., 1830,^. 7 {Himalayas), 
{Naini Tal ). 

Himalayas, from Sutlej Valley to Bhutan. 

163. (102)^ Qrammatoptila striata austeni. Austen's Striated 

Laugh i ng- Thr ush . 
G. austeni, Oates, Fauna B. I. i, p. 104 (1889), {Dofla 
Hills). 
Hills North and South of the Brahmapootra. 

164. (103) Stactocichia merulina. The Spotted-breasted Laugh- 

ing-Thrush. 
Garrulax merulinus, BJyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 521 (1851), 
( Manipur) . 

Hills South of Brahmapootra to Looshai. 

165.* Babax lanceolatus lanceolatus. The Chinese 

Babax. 

Pterorhinus lanceolatus, Verr.. Nmv.Arch. M us. Paris, vi, 
Bull, p. 36 (1871), {Chinese, Tibet). 

West China, Yunnan and Kachin Hills. 

166. Babax lanceolatus bonvaloti. The Small Tibet 

Babax. 
B. bonvaloti, Oustf., Ann. Sci. Nat. vii, p. 273 (1892), {So. 
Tibet). 

So. Tibet. " Tara in Tibet" (Hartert). 

167. Babax koslowi koslowi. Bianchi's Babox. 

Kagnakowia kozlowi, Bianchi, Bull. Ac. Peters (5), .r.rnj, 
p. 4o (1905), {Dzetschu, S. E. Tibet). 

South Tibet, The Watershed of the Mekong. 

168. Babax koslowi victoriae. The Mt. Victoria Babax 

B. victo^ia^ Ri^fon, BvllB. 0. C. xv, p. 97 (1905), {Mi. 
Victoria) . 
Chin Hills. 



* I cannot separate B. I. lanceolatus and B. I. yunnanensts. 



246 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 

169. Babax waddelli. The Giant Tibetan Bahax. 

B. waddelli, Dresser, P. Z. 8. (1905) i., p. 54 {Tsangpo). 
South and Central Tibet. 

170. (104) Argya eari. WThe Striated Babbler. 

Malacocercus earlii, Blytli, J. A. 8. B. xiii,p. 369 (184 4), 

(Calcutta) . 

171- (10')) Argya caudata caudata. The Common Babbler. 

Cossyphus caudatus, Dumont, Drc. 8ci. Nat. xxix , 
p. 266 (1823), {no he). (Behar) . 

Practically the whole of India. 

172. (105) Arg-ya caudata huttoni. The Afghan Babbler . 

Malacocercus huttoni, BlytJi, J . A. S. B. xvi, p. 476 
(1847), (Kandahar). 

Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Quetta. 

173- (106) Argya gularis. The Burmese White-throated Bab- 

bler. 
Ohatarrhoea gularis, Blyth, J.A.S.B. xxiv, p. 478 (1865), 
(E. side of Bay of Bengal). 

174- (107) Argya malcolmi. The Large Grey Babbler. 

Timalia malcolmi, 8ylces, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 88 (Dukkun). 

175. (108) Argya subrufa. The Rufous Babbler. 

Timalia subrufa, Jerd. Madr. Jour. L. S.,p. 269 (1844), 
(Wynaad). 

176. (109) Argya longirostris. The Slender-billed Babbler. 

Pyctorhis longirostris, (Hodg.) Moore, P. Z. S., 1864, 
p. 104 (Nepal). 

»77- (110) Turdoides terricolor terricolor. The Bengal 

Babbler. 

Pastor terrieoloT, Bodg., J. A. S. B. v, p. 771 (1836) 
(jyepal). ^ 

N. India from Sind to Bengal. 

178. (110) Turdoides terricolor malabaricus. The Sou- 
thern Indian Jungle Babbler 

South India from Orissa to Bombay. 

.7P. (110) Turdoides terricolor sindianus. Ue Sind 

Sind, Mt. Aboo, Punjab. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 247 

i8o. (Ill) Turdoides griseus griseus. The White-headed 
Babbler. 

Tardus griseus. Gm., Sys.Nat. i, p, 824 (1788), {Carnatic). 
South. India E. as far North as Ellore and Belgaum. 

i8i. (112) Turdoides griseus striatus. The Ceylon Babbler. 
Malacocercus striatus, Swains, Zool. III., p. 127 (1831), 
(Ceylon). 
Ceylon only. 

182, (113) Turdoides griseus scraervillei. The Bombay 

Babbler. 
Timalia somervillii, SyJces, P. Z. 8., 1832, p. 88 (Bombay). 
Travancore to Bombay on the West Coast. 

183. (IH) Turdoides rufescens. The Ceylon Rufous Babbler. 

Malacocercus rufescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi., p. 453 
(1847), (Ceylon). 



(To be continued.) 



24fe 
SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAIVOIAL SURVEY. 

No. XXIII. 
By 

Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 
{Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A NEW BAT OF THE GENUS MyOTIS FROM SiKKIM. 

InMr.Wroughton's Report No. 26, on Darjiling Mammals, a note 
by me is published (Journ. B. N. H. S., xxiv, p. 779, 1916) on two 
specimens of Myotis sicarius, with a comment that one of them is a 
good deal smaller than the other, with specially smaller teeth. 

We have now received from the Bombay Society two further speci- 
mens of this group, male and female, and both of them precisely agree 
with that smaller, specimen, and as both sexes are represented I can- 
not but consider that the series includes two species, of which one needs 
description as new. 

Although the first discovery was made by Mr. Baptista, it is to the 
two recent specimens that the clearing up of the confusion is due, 
and as the Society owes them to Mr. C. Primrose, I take the liberty 
of forming the specific name as follows : — 

Myotis primula, sp. n. 

General characters of Bl. sicarius, but smaller and with smaller 
teeth. 

Colour and external characters apparently quite as in sicarius. Fur 
of back about 7 mm. in length. General colour above mummy- 
brown, the ends of the hairs glossy and rather paler. Undersurface 
greyish white, the bases of the hairs slaty ; medium ventral area 
more or less tinged — perhaps stained — with yellowish. 

Skull shaped as in sicarius, but sm^aller ; [compare the skull 
measurements below with those published by Mr. Wroughton 
(J. B, N. H. S., Vol. XXIII, p. 608)]. Canines shorter and considerably 
more slender, their antero-posterior diameter in sicarius 1 • 3mm. in 
primula 1 ' 0mm. Small premolar even smaller in proportion to the 
anterior one, quite internal to the tooth row. Below, this difference 
is accentuated, for the middle lower premolar is in sicarius in the 
tooth row and of about one-third the area in cross section of the 
anterior tooth, while in primula the two are as in the upper jaw, 
the middle one quite internal and only about one-tenth the area of 
the first. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 249 

Dimensions of the type, the starred measurements taken in the flesh. 

Forearm : — 46mm. 

Head and body 47*, tail 39*, ear 15*, lower leg and hind foot 
(c. u.), 31.5. 

Skull, greatest length 17 '2, basi-sinual length 13' 1, zygomatic 
breadth 11*8, interorbital breadth 4 '5, breadth of brain case 8*5, 
palato-sinual length 7 "8, front of canine to back of m^ 6 '9, front of 
p' to back of m" 4* 6, breadth across outer corners of m' 7" 3. 

Hah. of type. — Pashok, Darjiling, 3,500', of Mr. Primrose's speci- 
mens , Teesta Valley Tea Estate, 3,000'. 

T?/j3e.— Adult male B. M. No. 16.3.25.30. Original number 500. 
Collected 30th July 1915 by N. A. Baptista. Presented to the 
National Museum by the Bombay Natural History Society. 

No. XXIV. 
The Mainland Representative of Ratufa m. dandolena. 

By R. C. Wroughton. 

Messrs. Robinson and Kloss in a " Nominal List of the 
SCIURIDAE, of the Oriental Region, with a list of specinrens 
in the Collection of the Zoological Survey of India " published 
in the records of the Indian Museum, xv. p. 171 et seq. 1918, 
revive the name albipes, Blyth, for two specimens of Ratufa, the 
one from the Nilgiris and the other from the Shevaroy Hills. 
The recent receipt of six specimens of a Ratufa, collected by Mr. 
Stoney from " the foot of Hills to the West of Srivilliputtur," 
has led me to investigate the proposal to revive Blyth's name in 
this connection. 

Blyth bases his original description on a stuffed skin and skeleton 
in the Calcutta Medical College, the origin of which was 
unknown, and which are now, it would seem, no longer available. 
The description commences by likening the new form to macroura, 
Pennant, i. e. to macroura dandolena, Thos. and Wrought, (cf. The 
Giant Squirrels of Ceylon, J. B. N. H. S., xxiv. p. 34, 1915.) and 
goes on to say that it is " of an uniform dull brown colour above 
and on the outside of the limbs down to the feet " and further 
" Paws whitish with black hairs intermixed upon the toes " and 
finally goes on to say " However the latter {i. e. ' macroura' or 
dandolena) may vary the forelimbs from the elbow are invariably 
white, and a corresponding portion of the hind limbs. ... I 
take that now described to be a particular race, equivalent to 
many others that are named ; but the habitat remains to be 
ascertained." 



250 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVir 

I have now seen 8 specimens from Madura, collected by Mr. 
Stoney and without exception, exactly as in dandolena, they have 
the forearm to the elbow and the lower leg to the knee white, and 
therefore, as Blyth points out cannot be alhi2:)es. 

I have not of course seen the two specimens m the Indian Museum, 
but one of them collected by W. Daly is almost certainly conspecihc 
with a specimen (same collector and locality) presented to the British 
Museum by Blanford, which in its turn is absolutely inseparable 
from the Madura series. 

R albipes was, it follows from his description, a generally brown 
animal, the lower half of whose face was whitish, and whose body 
colour extended along the limbs to the wrists and ankles, the feet 
being white. This clearly does not apply to either the Ceylon or 
the mainland macroura and Blyth' s species can only be one of the 
forms of insignis, MiUer, with which the description nearly agrees. 
But with which form the description is not detailed enough to decide. 
Under the circumstances Blyth's alhipes might be shelved as being 
unrecognisable in the absence of type and type-locality. 

I have carefully compared the Madura series with the large series 
of dandolena obtained by the Survey from Ceylon and I have failed 
to find any character in skin or skull to differentiate the members 
of one from those of the other, so that the island and mainland forms 
must both equally bear the name Ratufa macroura dandolena. 



251 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNAKE OF THE GENUS 
ZAMENIS FROM PERSIA. 

BY 

G. A. BouLENGER, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Zamenis hotsoni. 

Snout moderately prominent, obtuse. Eye moderately large. 
Rostral broader than deep, the portion visible from above measuring 
one-fourth or one-third its distance from the frontal ; internasals as 
long as or a little shorter than the prtefrontals ; frontal broader than 
the supraocular, once and a half to once and two-thirds as long as 
broad, longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep ; one praeocular, not 
reaching the frontal, with a subocular below it ; two postoculars ; 
temporals 1 + 2 ; seven upper labials, third and fourth entering the 
eye, fourth in contact with the anterior tempo^-al ; four lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin- 
shields as long as or a little longer than. the anterior, separated from 
each other by scales. Scales smooth, with a single apical pit, in 17 
rows. Ventrals not angulate laterally, 196; anai divided; sub- 
caudals 90. Pale fawn-colour or greyish above, each scale, except 
the outermost, wiih a black central shaft ; head without markings ; 
upper lip, pr£e-and postoculars, outer row of scales, and lower parts 
yellowish white. 

Two specimejis, the larger measuring about 500 millim. from 
Shiraz, presented by Major J. E. B.Hotson. 

Distinguished from Z. gemonensis and Z. daliUi bj^ the 
smaller eye ; from the former by the single scale-pits, from the 
latter by the number of rows of scales on the body and the less 
slender form, 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW LAND-TORTOISE 
FROM NORTHERN PERSIA. 

BY 

G. A. BouLENGER, LL.D., D. Sc, F.R.S. 
Testudo huxtoni, sp. n. 

Shell moderately convex, a little more than twice as long as deep 
the posterior border expanded, slightly reverted and feebly serrated. 
Nuchal shield 3 times as long as broad ; supracaudal completely 
divided ; 1 1 marginals on each side ; vertebrals all broader than 
long, the third once and a half as long as broad and as broad as the 
corresponding costal. Plastron large, the lobes much shorter than the 



252 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL KIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

width of the bridge and nearly twice as broad as long ; front lobe 
truncate and slightly notched in front, hind lobe openly notched 
behind. Suture between the gular shields a little longer than that 
between the humerals ; pectorals forming a very narrow band in the 
middle, their outer border about half the length of that of the 
abdominals, the median suture between which is as long as its 
distance from the anterior border of the plastron and once and one- 
third its distance from the anal notch ; suture between the femorals 
shorter than that between the anals, which equals that between the 
numerals ; axillary shield small, ingiiinal large. Head moderate ; 
beak neither hooked nor notched, feebly serrated on the sides ; 
alveolar ridge of upper jaw short and feeble ; a large cordiform 
prsefrontal shield, with a narrow shield on each side between the 
eye and the rhinarium, followed by a large but somewhat smaller 
frontal. Fore limb with 5 claws, with 4 longitudinal series of 
large imbricate, rounded scutes in front ; a large, claw-shaped 
tubercle on the back of the thigh. Shell yellowish brown, with 
irregular and ill- defined blackish blotches; soft parts dark brown, 
the scutes on the fore limb blackish at the base, the claws pale 
horn- colour, blackish at the base. 

The single specimen, stufied, appears to be a female. Its 
measurements are as follows : — 



Length of shell 



Width 

Depth „ „ 

Length of plastron 

,, ,, front lobe of plastron 

„ ,.. hind „ ,, „ 

Width of bridge 

Length of head 

Width „ „ 



280 mm. 



180 

130 

220 

60 

66 

110 

48 

37 

This Tortoise was found at Manjil, between Eesht and Kasuin, 
South Coast of the Caspian Sea, on a hill-side about 7,000 — 7,500 
feet, by Captain P. A. Buxton, and presented to the Bombay 
Natural History Museum by Capt. C. M. Ingoldby. 

it is very closely related to T. ibera, Pall., and T. zarudnyi, 
Nikolsky, both of which are inhabitants of Persia, but it is easily 
distinguished from them by the divided supracaudal shield and the 
extremely narrow pectorals. 

I am not certain whether T. zarudnyi deserves specific-recognition; 
at any rate the characters pointed out by Siebenrock (1909^ are 
worthless. A specimen from Zirkuck, E. Persia, received from the 
Petrograd Museum in 1899 as T. zarudnyi has the first vertebral 
shield a little broader in front than behind, the third vertebral 
not broader than the third costal, and the posterior margin of the 
carapace not more strongly serrated than in some individuals of 
T. ibera. 



258 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 

BY 

Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S 
(With 10 Text-figvres) 
(Continued from page 66 of this Volume.) 
Part VIII. 
Genus — Tholymis, Fabr. 
Tholymis, Hageii, Stettin, ent. Ztg., 28, p. 221 (1867)— Brauer, Zool. 
bot. Wien, 18, pp. 36o, 712 (1868)— Kirby, Trans. Zool. Sog. 
Lend. 12, pp. 258, 265-1889)— Calvert, Biol. C. A. Neur , pp. 199. 
219 (1905-1906). ^ 




Fig. 58. — Wings of male Tholymis tillarya (x 2^). 
'" Head relatively large, eyes contiguous for a long distance, rather' more 
than the antero-posterior diameter of the occiput, forehead rounded and 
without prominent foreborder, suture flush, vesicle high and deeply fissured. 

Prothorax with a very small posterior lobe, almost hidden by the apposi- 
tion of the head with thorax. 

Thorax robust, somewhat cubical and shortened. Legs slim and long, 
hind femora with a row of fine, gradually lengthening, sparce spines, mid 
femora with a similar row but fewer in number, tibial spines numerous, 
very fine, claw-hooks robust, situated near the middle of claws. 

Abdomen dorso-ventrally swollen and less so from side to side,' then 
tapering gradually to the end. 4th segment with a transverse ridge. 

"Wings moderately long and broad, rounded at the apices, reticulation 
very close, trigone of forewing slightly distal to the line of the trigone in 
the hind, traversed once, long and narrow, trigone of the hindwing at the 
arc, entire, its distal side slightly concave, arc between the first and 
second antenodal nervures, antenodal nervvires 10^, the final incomplete, 
sectors of the arc with a moderately long fusion in the forewing, a longer 
fusion in the hind, 1 cubital nervure to all wings, no supplementary 
nervures to the bridge, all hypertrigones entire, 4th nervure markedly 
undulated, 2 rows of cells between 5 and 5a, 7a well formed, Sth nervure 
very flat and the discoidal field therefore much contracted, 3 rows of cells 
in the discoidal field, loop very long and very narrow, open at its apex, 
the inner border running straight to the termen, anal field very broad, the 
narrow cells composing it arranged in transverse rows. Membrane large. 
Stigma large, the anterior usually the same size as the posterior, but 
occasionally very slightly larger. 



254 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

Sexual organs. See under species. 
Only one species taken within Indian limits. 

70. Tholymis tiliarga.— Hagen, Stett. Ent. Ztg., 38, p. 220 (1867)— 
Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien. 18, p. 712 (1868)— 
Selys, Mitt. Mus. Dresden, 1878, p. 293.— Id. 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 14, p. 305 (1879)— Kirby, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 12, p. 265 (1889)— Id. 
Cat. p. I (1390)— Selys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 30, 
p. 439 (1891)— Kirby, Linn. Soc. Journ., Zool. 24, 
p. 547 (1893)— Martin, Mem. Zool. France, 
9, p. 101 (1896)— Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
2, p. 230 (1898)— Martin, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 
19, p. 221 (1901)— Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1902, I, p. 65— Martin, Mission Pavie (p. 4. sep.) 
(1904)— Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 15, p. 
271 (1908). 
Libellula bimaculata, Desjardins, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 4, p. IV (1835). 
Libelhda pallida, Palisot de Beauvais, Ins. Africa, America, p. 171, tab. 

2, fig. 2 (1805). 
Tholymis pallida, Hagen, Stett. ent. Ztg. 28, p. 221 (1867)— Kirby, 

Cat. p. 1 (1890). 
Libellulla tillarga, Fabr. Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 285 (1798) — Burmeister, 
Hand. Ent. 2, p. 852 (1839)— Rambur, p. 39, Neur, 
(1842)— Calvert, Trans. Amer. Soc. Ent. 25, p. 69 
(1898). 
Pantala tillarga, Brauer, Zool. bot. "Wien. 14. p. 162 (1864). 
Zyxomma tillarga, Brauer, Novara, p. 104 (1866) — Id. Zool. bot. Wien. 
17, pp. 288, 505 (1867). 
Expanse 70 mm. Length 43 mm. 

Male : head, eyes bright red or reddish brown above, lilaceous at the 
sides and beneath, occiput brown or reddish, vesicle reddish, frons and 
upper part of epistome reddish or bright ochreous, labrum ochreous, labium 
yellow. 

Prothorax ochreous, no markings. 

Thorax golden yellow or with a bright reddish tinge on the dorsum, 
paler at the sides. 

Abdomen bright red or bright ochreous with a reddish suffusion along 
the dorsum. 

Wings hyaline, the bases tinged with light golden yellow. In the 
hiudwing a large discal spot which is most intense at the node where it 
abruptly ends in an almost straight border, running back for rather more 
than half the diameter of the wing. Inwardly it gradually fades, until 
lost just distal to the trigone. In the adult, external to this spot, a large, 
diffuse, opalescent whitish spot develops, which viewed from above in the 
gloaming, has a deceptively, phosphorescent appearance. 

Sexual organs. Lamina depressed, slightly arched, its border shallowly 
notched and fringed with long yellow hairs, external tentacul^ obsolete 
internal very compact, triangular, the hook short and thick and turning a 
little outwards, lobe broad and oval. 

Anal appendages long and slim, of about the length of the two final 
segments of abdomen. 

Female : eyes brown above, olivaceous at the sides and beneath, occiput 
olivaceous brown, vesicle and face ochreous, paler below, labrum and 
labium yellow. 

Prothorax and thorax, an olivaceous brown, somewhat greenish at the 
sides, legs ochreous. 

Abdomen olivaceous brown. 

Wings hyaline, the basal marking very obscure. The discal marking 
only just visible and without the opalescent outer marking. Stigma, as in 
the male, reddish brown. 

Sexual organs : border of the 8th segment not dilated, 8th ventral 
plate prolonged into a long, depressed, vulvar scale which at the end is 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



255 



split into two leaf-like, triangular processes ; 9tli ventral plate prolonged as 
a tongue-like process, extending to the end of the 10th segment. This 
process strongly carinated and furnished at its base with two small hooks, 

Eab. — Throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, Thibet, Indo-Malaysia and 
Indo-China. 

This insect is one of our few night-flying dragonfiies. Occasionally it 
may be seen flying in the day-time in shady groves or dark jungles, but 
usually it prefers to wait for sundown, at which time it quite suddenly 
appears in great numbers, flying low over water. Of great interest is the 
opalesceno patch on the hindwings of the male which serves the purpose of 
a recognition mark for the females. After it has become too dark to 
distinguish the insect, the pale, lambent glow of this patch may be seen 
flitting like a Will-o-the-Wisp over the surface of the waters, where the 
insect is busily engaged hunting mosquitoes, whilst keeping one eye open 
for a chance female. 

Genus — Zyxomma, Rambur. 

Zyxomma, Eambur, Neur. pp 26, 30 (1842)— Hagen, Stett, Ent. Ztg., 
10, p. 171 (1849)— Brauer, Zool. bot. A^'ien. 18, pp. 364 712 
(1868)— Kirby, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 12, pp. 258, 301 ,889) 
— Foerster, Kahr. Mannheim, 71-72 (p. 3 sep.) (1906). 




Fig. 59. — Wings of male Zyxomma jjetiolatum showing neuration (x3). 

Head relatively large and globular, eyes contiguous for a very long 
distance and resembling those of an Anax, occiput very small, vesicle 
rounded above and overhanging the central ocellus so that this is invisible 
when viewed from above, forehead prominent and deeply notched in 
front of the ocellus, as if to give a free field of vision to the latter. 

Prothorax slightly arched, very small, its posterior lobe fringed with 
short hairs. 

Thorax small, cubical, short, coated thickly with short hairs. 

Legs : hind femora with a row of verj^ small, closely-set spines and one 
much larger spine at the distal end, mid femora with similar armature, 
tibial spines slim and numerous, claw-hooks robust, situated near the 
midelle of the claws. Armature of the female very similar. 

Abdomen very long and slim. The first 3 segments markedly tumid from 
side to side and ventro-dorsally, the remainder cylindrical, very slim and 
parallel-sided to the end. The joints of the segments markedly swollen. 

Anal appendages very long and slim, nearly as long as the two last 
abdominal segments. 

Wings long and moderately broad, reticulation close. Trigone of the 
f ore wing shghtly distal to the line of that of the hind, its relation to the 
hypertrigone about a right angle, traversed once, very narrow, trigone of 



256 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL SIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

hindwina at the arc, entire; its distal side very slightly concave, sectors 
of the arc fused for a short distance in the forewing and for a long distance 
in the hind, a shorter fusion in the female, arc between the 1st and 2nd 
antenodal nervures, antenodal nervures 10^ in the male, 11^ in the female, 
the final incomplete, 1 cubital nervure to all wings, not usually supple- 
mentary nervures to the bridge but in two of my specimens there is one 
accessory in each right, hind-wing, 8th nervure in the hindwing from the 
anal angle of the trigone ; in the fore, very flatly curved so that the dis- 
coidal field is contracted at the termen, discoidal field with 3 rows of 
cells, all hypertrigones entire, 4th nervure not noticeably undulated, 1 
row of cells between 5 and 5a, anal loop long and narrow, its apex open, 
resembling in this respect T. tillarga, bifurcated cells at the outer angle 
only (occ'asionally at the trigone also), anal field broad, its cells not 
markedly diflerentiated but arranged in transverse rows. Membrane and 
stigma moderately large. 

Sexual organs : male, lamina broad, slightly depressed, its free border bifid 
and furnished with two triangular processes, its surface coated with long 
hairs, external tentaculee cupped, small, almost obsolete, internal tentaculse 
a short, hooked spine turning strongly out and backwards, its surface fur- 
nished with minute spines, lobe quadrate, broad and short. The whole 
of these organs very small. Female: border of 8th segment not dilated, 
8th ventral'plate split for about two-thirds of its length, prolonged in to a 
lonw vulvar scale which reaches nearly to the end of the 9th segment, 9th 
ventral plate bent ventralwards and furnished with a tuft of black hairs. 




Ifig_ 60.— Male sexual organs of Zyxomma petiolatwn ( xl2 ). 

71. Zyxomma petiolatum, Ilambur, Neur. p. 30, tab. 2, fig. 4d (1842)— 
Hagen, Zool. hot. Wien, 8, p. 479. (1858)— 
Brauer, ibid., 17, p. 287 (1867)— Id., ibid., 18, 
p. 712 (1868)— Selys, Mitt. Mus. Dresden 
(1878) p, 293. — Id., Comptes end. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., 7, VII, 88 (sep.)— Kirby, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 12, p. 308, tab. 57, fig. 10. (1889)— 
Id, Cat. p. 335 (1890)— Selys, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Genov, 30, p. 439 (1891)— Kirby, Linn. Soc. 
Journ. Zool. 24, p. 554 (1893) — Id., Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (6) 14, p. 19 (1894)— Tillyard, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 64— Martin, Miss. 
Pavie (p. 7. sep.) (1904). 



INDIAN DRAG ON FLIES. 



257 



Zy.iomma seychellarum, Martin, Mew. Soc. Zool. France, 9, p. 103 (189ti). 

Expanse 67mm. Length 48mm. 

Male and female similar. 

Head : eyes rich olive green, of uniform depth above and beneath, occiput 
reddish brown, vesicle dark brown, epistome, frons and labrum a pale brown. 

Pro thorax pale brown. 

Thorax pale brown, rather darker on the dorsum. No markings. 

Abdomen light warm brown with moderately broad, blackish annules at 
the intersegmental nodes. Legs brown. 

Wings hyaline or a little smoky, the apices usually but variably suffused 
with brown as far inwards as the middle of stigma, a brownish ray in the 
superior costal space not reaching the Ist antenodal nervure and a similar 
ray in the cubital space extending out as far as the cubital nervure. A 
small triangle of the same colour at the anal angle in the hind-wing. Mem- 
brane greyish black. Stigma brown. 

Rab. — Throughout the plains of India probably as far north as the foot 
hills of the Himalayas. Karachi, common at the sewage farm. Bombay 
and Madras, Poona. This insect is another one of our night-flying dragon- 
flies. It has a very short duration of flight, usually of not longer than 
half or three quarters of an hour. In Poona, specimens are seen on the 
wing for the first time at about 7 p.m. and go to rest at about 7-45 p.m. In 
Bombay they appear rather later and are seen until darkness obscures 
them. I have seen them on the wing on several occasions during the day- 
time but only in situations, where an artificial twilight reigned, such as 
down deep wells or actually in the precincts of buildings where they were 
hawking mosquitoes in the darkened corridors. Occasionally they may be 
put up from bushes whilst beating dense jungle. Their nocturnal habits 
may have some connection with the large size and uniform colouring of the 
eyes and also the hood-like vesicle which shades in the central ocellus and 
thus cuts oft' peripheral rays of light. Their food appears to be exclusively 
mosquitoes. It is a curious coincidence that the apex of the loop is open 
as in Tholymis tillarga, another night-flying species. 

Genus — Camacinia, Kirby. 
Camacima, Kirby, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 12, pp. 260 266 (1889)— Karsch 
Berlin, Ent. Zts. 33, pp. 356, 359 (1890)— Kruger, Stett. 
Ent. Ztg., 64, p. 253 (1903). 




YiG. 61. — Wings of male Camacinia gigantea, showing neuration (x 2)^ 
Head large and broad, the lower face projecting, bull-dog-like, forehead 
rounded, suture moderately deep and splitting the frons into two horse- 
shoe shaped, flattened areas, vesicle high and overlapping the central 
ocellus as in Zyxomma. 
9 



258 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Prothorax with a very small posterior lobe, the free border of which is 
slightly fissured. 

Thorax robust, deep and long. Legs robust, long, hind femora with a row 
of widely set, gradually lengthening spines, mid femora with a similar row 
of rather longer spines, tibial hairs fine and numerous, claw-hooks robust, 
situated about the middle of claws. Armature of the female very similar. 

Abdomen short but very robust, flattened from side to side and strongly, 
dorso-ventrally dilated at the base tapering gradually to the anal end. 

Wings long and broad, mainnervures very massive, reticulation very close, 
due largely to a development of secondary neuration, trigone in the fore- 
wing about 2 cells breadth distal to the line of the trigone in the hind, its 
costal side lengthened ; traversed many times, its relation to the hyper- 
trigone about a right angle, trigone in the hindwing traversed several 
times, its distal side strongly concave, situated at the arc, hypertrigone in 
the forewing traversed several times ; in the hind, usually only once, sub- 
trigone in the forewing prolonged proximally, traversed many times, 
sectors of the arc separated, but running close together for a considerable 
distance, arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures, 8th nervure in 
the hindwing at the anal angle of trigone, antenodal nervures very 
numerous, from 24 to 30, final antenodal, complete or incomplete, 4th 
nervure undulated more or less, the end steeply curved towards the termen, 
1 to 4 rows of cells between 5 and 5a, 2 cubital nervures in the hindwing, 
1 to 6 in fore, numerous supplementary nervures to the bridge, 8th nervure 
in the forewing variable, either flat or moderately curved, discoidal field vari- 
able, commencing with 2 or 3 up to many cells, either contracted or dilated 
at the termen, anal field very broad, loop long and narrow, the middle 
nervure very obtusely angled, nearly straight, filled with a close a reticula- 
tion, the anal field filled with a close reticulation of secondary nervures, 
the cells rrangedin transverse rows. Stigma large, membrane large. 

Sexual organs of male very small, tentaculse with internal and external 
tentaculse. For details, see under species. Of the female, border of 8th 
segment not dilated, vulvar scale very small. 

Key to Species. 

i. 3 rows of cells between 5 and 5a, 5 to 8 rows of cells in discoidal 
field. 
Discoidal field contracted . . . . . . C gigantea. 

ii. 1 row of cells between 5 and 5a, or a few 
doubled cells. 
Discoidal field beginning with a row of 4 or 5 
cells and then continued as rows of 3 cells. 
Discoidal field dilated . . . . . . . , C. harterti. 

72. Camacinia gigantea, Kirby. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 12, p. 367 (1889) 
—Id, Cat, p. 2 (1890)— Karsch Ent. Nach 17, p. 
42, (1891)— Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 
14, p. 112 (1894)— Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. (1902) 1, p. 65 — Kruger, Stett. Ent. Zei. 
63, p. 105 (1902)— Martin, Miss Pavie (p. 4. sep). 
(1904). 
Neurothemis gigantea, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien, 17, p. 8 (1867) — Id., 
ibid., 18, p.717 (1868)— Hagen, Stett., Ent. Zeit., 
30, p. 94 (1869)— Selys, Mitt. Mus. Dresden 
(1878) p. 293— Id., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov., 14, p. 
292, (1879). 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 94 to 104 mm. Abdomen of female 
rather shorter. 



I^UIAX DRAG ON FLIES. ^b^ 

Heaa : eyes reddish brown above, puce coloured at the sides and 
beneath, occiput ochreous, vesicle, frons and face brownish red, labrum 
and labium golden yellow. 

Prothorax golden yellow. 

Thorax reddish brown above, golden yellow at the sides. Legs bricrht 
ochreous. 

Abdomen reddish brown on the dorsum, golden yellow laterally, the 
borders dark reddish brown and the distal borders ot segments dark brown. 

Wings rich golden yellow from the base to a little more than halfway 
between the node and stigma, from which point it slopes steeply back to 
reach the termen at the 6th nervure. The outer borders of this basal area 
suffused broadly with brown as far as the tornus, but with an interruption 
at the apex of the loop in the hindwing and the whole of termen in the 
frontwing, from the level of the inner end of the bridge to the tornus. The 
area external to this hyaline, except for the extreme apices of wingp which 
are tipped with brown and suffused with saffron for a narrow extent. 
Stigma reddish brown. Reticulation in the coloured area bright yellow. 
Discoidal field contracted in the forewing, 5 to 8 rows of cells, 8 rows 
of cells between o and oa, 3 rows of cells between 7 and 7«, basal re- 
ticulation in the hindwing of male much closer than that in the female. 

Sexual organs very small, lamina depressed, broadly arched, external 
tentacuhe broad and rounded, internal tentaeuke small, outwardly 
directed hooks, lobe very small, strongly arched and tapering. 

Anal appendages as long as the 9th segment, spined beneath, ochreous. 

P^emale very similar to the male but the coloured area in both wings, 
rather smaller and brighter in colour. The apices of the wings diffusely 
brown as far as the inner end of the stigma. In juvenile specimens. 
the bordering of the coloured area is merely a deeper yellow than the 
rest instead of brown or there may be some small diffuse spots along the 
hinder margin. Reticulation, especially in the basal area, much more 
open than in the male. 

Sexual organs : border of the 8th segment not dilated, 8th ventral 
plate not prolonged greatly but at its end, split into small, tumid, rounded 
processes,. 9th ventral i^late tumid, broad, and furnished with two small 
pointed processes near its base. 

Hah. Burma. 

The formation of secondary reticulation as seen in this insect and in 
species of Xeurothemis, etc., is evidently due to sexual selection, as it is 
much more pronounced in the male than in the female. I do not think 
that sufficient stress has been laid on the inflxience of this factor, the 
study of which may throw considerable light on several anomalies in the 
neuration map of the dragonflies wing. In these species, we find two 
influences warring against each other, one tending to simplify the neuration 
by reduction and the other tending to complicate and increase 
it. The construction of a colour scheme in which the basis is a network 
of fine golden or crimson threads can only be brought about bj^ an increase 
in the neuration. 

73. Camacinia harterti, Karsch, Berlin Ent. Zthr., 33, p. 359 (1890)- 

Kirby, Cat., p. 177 (1890)— Kruger, Stett. Ent. Ztg., 63, p. 107 (1902). 

Camacinia harmandi, Martin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., 1900, p. 103 — 

Id., Miss. Pavie (p. 4 sep.) (1904)— Id., Bull. Soc. 

Ent. Ital. 60, p. 196 (1908). 

Expanse 90 to 95 mm. Length 44 to 48 mm. 

Head : eyes reddish brown above, paler at the sides and beneath, 
vesicle, frons and upper epistome reddish brown, labrnm and labium 
ochreous, somewhat darker over the lateral lobes, occiput brown. 



"260 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL MLST. SOCIETY, yol. XXYII. 



?e°;:eMtro75o,aen b«,vn with ^ ^V^^^^Zt ^^^ '' '"= 
sides Legs dark brown, coxse and base of femora ocMeous. 
^^'Ibdomelochreons, the borders da.k brown or^b^^^^^^^ ,^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Wings hyaline base of /^^^^^^g §; Xrcostannd cubital spaces, base 
trigone and black -y/.-Jl^^ ^ ^f ^,f ^^ror ceUs distal of the trigone 
of hindwmg golden yellow as tar out as forewins, extending 

and black rays in ^he same spaces as ^^J^^^^ J^^^'^i^tal end of 
respectively as far as the 1st antenodal ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ extending into 
trigone reticulation at ^^e ^^^ /J^^^f ^7^ 1 antenodal nervurL, the 
loop and proxunal end of discoidal neia. ^^ nervure in the forewing, 

'S::X! « -eul ^a:^:htCne:tiiotar.°t 3 ,ows o. ceUs .„, I 

long distance. hnrder curling a little outwards 

Sexual organs : lamina depressed, the bore er c"^""^ 

hooks, lobe small and linear. 

dark rays less extensive, the reticulation at the base bright yellow 
?heo^'terhalf of the wikgs smoky, especially along the borders and at 

the apex. 

SticTTna dark brown. Membrane grey. 

lexua? organs: border of 8th segment not dilated, vulvar scale very 
small, split distally into two roundish processes. 

Hab. — Bengal, Sikhim. 

Genus.— ^THRIAMANTHA. 

Mthriamantha, Kirby, Trans. ZooL S°c. Loiid 12 pp^^262 283 
(1889)— Karsch, Berlin Ent. Zthr., 66, p. d/o U^^)^/ 
Selys Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41 p. 81 (1897)- 
Forster, Jahr. Mannheim, 71-72 (p. It sep.) (1906). j 

Dlcvanopyga, Karsch, Berlin Ent. Zthr., 33, pp. 282, 356 (1890). 




Fig, 



62._Wino-s of Mthriamantha brevipennis showing neuration (x 



INDIAN DRAG0NFLIE8. 261 

Head relatively small, eyes contiguous for a considerable extent, 
forehead rounded, with no definite foreborder, vesicle prominent, suture 
deep. 

Prothorax with a small, rounded, hidden lobe. 

Thorax long and narrow. Legs long and narrow, hind femora with 
a row of widely-set, short spines and a few slightly longer ones at the 
distal end, mid femora with a row of gradually lengthening spines, tibial 
spines long and numerous, claw hooks robust, situated just distal of the 
middle of claws. 

Abdomen relatively broad and rather short, somewhat depressed in the 
male, cylindrical in the female, tapering to the end in the male, more 
parallel sided in the female. 

Wings short and broad, reticulation very open and indistinct, trigon* 
in the forewing just distal to the line of the trigone in the hind, entire, 
very broad, the costal and proximal sides being subequal, its relation to 
the hypertrigone rather more than a right angle, trigone in the hindwing 
at the arc, entire, arc between the Ist and 2nd antenodal nervures, its 
sectors separated in the forewing and joined for but a short distance in 
the hind, 8th nervure arising from the anal angle of the trigone, or slightly 
separated, 6 antenodal nervures, the end one complete, 1 cubital nervure 
to all wings, no supplementary nervures to the bridge, all hypertrigones 
entire., 4th nervure in the forewing with a very flat convexity, 1 row of 
cells between 5 and ^a, 8th nervure in the forewing short, strongly curved, 
2 rows of cells in the discoidal field, the latter dilated at the termen, 
loop moderately short and straight, its mid-rib nearly straight, no divided 
cells at the trigone but occasionally some at the outer angle, cells in the 
anal area long and narrow, arranged in oblique rows, stigma medium 
sized, membrane large. 

Sexual organs : male : lamina depressed, tentaculse small, not pro- 
jecting as much as the lobe, broadly triangular, the hook turning back 
and outwards, lobe small and rounded. Female : 8th abdominal segment 
not dilated, vulvar scale projecting, split into two processes. 

74. yEthriamantha brevipennis brevipennis, Kis., Coll. Zool. Baron de Selys, 
Fasc. XVI, 1913. 
Libellula brevipennis, Ramb. Neur, p. 114 (1842). 
Diplacina brevipennis, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien, 18 p. 733 (1868). 
^thriamantha brenpennis, Kirby, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 12, p. 283, 
tab. 53, fig. 3 (1889)— Id., Cat., p. 24 (1890)— Selys, 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg., 41, [82. (1897)— Ris, Jena, 
Denkschr., 13, p. 346 (1908). 
Urothemis brevipennis, Selys. Ann. Mus. civ. Genov. 30, p. 468 (1891). 

Expanse 54 mm. Length 30 mm. 

Male : eyes reddish above, lilaceous at the sides and beneath : face and 
epistome ochreous : vesicle yellow : occiput olivaceous. 

Prothorax pale brown. 

Thorax reddish brown, no marking. Legs black, the hind femora having 
a bright crimson spot at the base. 

Wings hyaline with the extreme base a light golden yellow, this colour 
extending out as far as the Ist antenodal nervure, the cubital nervure, 
and for a few cells in the anal field adjacent to the membrane, in the 
hindwing, the extent of this colour is rather more, going beyond the 1st ante- 
nodal nervure but not reaching the arc or the trigone. There are also 
some dark brown rays in the intercostal and cubital spaces and a spot in 
tiie anal field. Stigma reddish brown. 

Abdomen red on the dorsum, ochreous or yellow at the borders. 



•262 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST, SOCLLTY, Vol. XXVII, 

Anal appendages ochreous, the superior small, narrow and furnished with 
some small spines, the inferior slightly smaller. 

Fema e very similar to the male but the eyes ohvaceous brown above 
and the body ochreous or dull yellow. No reddish colour on the abdomen. 

i't-Thfs insect has beeia reported from Bengal, Upper Burma and 
Ceylon. Barkuda Island, Ohilka Lake, Ganjam. 

It appears to be widely distributed, but uncommon. 

Genus— Urothemis. 




Fic4. 63. — "Wings of Urothemis signaia signata (x 3). 

Genus Urothemis, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien. 18, pp. 175, 368, 737 (1868), 

Kirby Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12, pp. 262, 282 (1889), 

Kasch, Selys and Forster, Eis. Coll. Zool. du Selys 

p. 1016, Fasc. XVI (1913). 

Head large, eyes broadly contiguous, somewhat longer than the occiput 

from before back, forehead without any marked foreborder and split by a 

very deep suture into two rounded eminences, vesicle high, but slightly 

notched, occiput small. 

Prothorax with a small posterior lobe. 

Thorax robust, somewhat cubical. Legs moderately long and slim, hind 
femora with a row of very small, closely set spines and a single longer one 
at the end, mid femora with a row of longer, less numerous, more widely 
set and gradually lengthening spines which reach to the end of the femur, 
tibial spines numerous, long and slim, more numerous in the fore and mid- 
femora than in the hind, claw hooks robust, situated near the end of the 
claws. Armature of the female very similar. 

Wings long and moderately broad, especially the hind, reticulation 
close, trigone in the forewing slightly distal to the trigone in the hind, 
costal side of trigone in the forewing about half the length of the pro- 
ximal, relation of the trigone to hypertrigone slightly less than a right angle, 
trigone in the hindwing at the arc, arc between the 1st and 2nd antenodal 
nervures, its sectors separated in the forewing but fused for a moderate 
distance in the hind, 8th nervure arising from the anal angle of the trigone 
in the hindwing, 7 antenodal nervures, the final complete, the distance 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



263 



between the 1st and 2nd nervures greater than the following, 1 cubital 
nervure to all wings, no supplementary nervures to the bridge, all hy- 
pertrigones entire, 4th nervure slightly undulated, 1 row of cells between 
o and 5a, 8th nervure in the forewing very flat, 2 rows of cells in the 
discoidal field, sides of latter parallel, the end of field a little contracted 
or dilated, loop short and straight, its mid-rib nearly straight, divided cells 
at the outer angle and trigone, cells in the anal area split into an outer 
area of moderately large cells arranged in oblique rows and an inner area 
of narrow, longish cells arranged in transverse rows, stigma and membrane 
moderately large. 

Abdomen moderately short, broad and depressed, slightly constricted at 
the 3rd segment, more or less fusiform in the male, the sides parallel sided 
in the female, the 4th segment without ridges. 

Sexual organs: male: lamina depressed, small, external tentaculse 
obsolete, internal tentaculte triangular, with a broad base and an almost 
straight hook, which is less projecting than the lobe, lobe small, oval or 
pointed. Female : border of the 8th abdominal segment not dilated, 8th 
ventral plate longer than broad, projecting markedly and prolonged as a 
tubular vulvar scale nearly to the end of the 9th ventral plate, split for the 
greater part of its length, 9th ventral plate prolonged into a notched, 
tongue-like process, 10th segment very small. 
Only one species found within Indian limits. 

75. Urothemis signata signata, Ris, Coll. Zool. du. Selys, p. 1016, Fase. 

XVI (1913). 
Libellula sancjuinea, Burm. Handbk. Ent. 2, p. 858 (1859) — Hagen, 
Zool. bot. Wien, 8, p. 480 (1858)— Calvert, Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 87 (1898). 
Urothemis sanf/uinea, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien, 18, p. 737 (1868) — Kirby, 
Cat. p. 23 (1890)— Id., Linn. Soc. Journ. 24-p. 
562 (1893)— Selys. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 41, p. 
75 (1897)— Martin, Mission Pavie (p. 5 sep.) 
(1904) — Forester Jahr. Nassau, 59, p. 316 tab. A, 
fig. I. (1906)— Ris, Jena. Denkr., 13, p. 344 (1908). 
Libellula signata, Ramb. Neur., p. 117 (1842). 




Fig. 64.— Male genital organs of— a. UrotJiemis signata signata, c. Macro- 
diplax cora, d. Gamacinia gigantea, and Female organs of Urothemis 
signata signata. 



'2M JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Expanse 75 to 78 mm. Length 40 to 44 mm. Male : eyes bright, blood- 
red above, olivaceous at the sides and beneath, labium yellow, 'with dark 
brown borders, labrum reddish yellow, face, forehead and vesicle red 
with a very narrow, black, basal line to the forehead, occiput red. 

Thorax reddish, golden brown, marked laterally with 3 interrupted or 
broken black lines. 

Abdomen red marked with black, small, transversely linear, black spots 
on segments 4 to 7, on either side of the dorsal carina at the distal end of 
each segment and small, dark dorsal stripes on segments 8 and 9, expand- 
ing laterally in the distal half of segment 8 and broadening at the proxi- 
mal end of segment 9. 

Anal appendages ochreous. Legs black, the femora yellowish at the 
proximal ends of the flexor surfaces. 

Wings hyaline, the extreme apices faintly smoky, a basal, amber colou- 
red spot at the bases of both wings. In the forewing, extending halfway 
to 1st antenodal nervure and cubital nervure and from thence of even 
width to the anal border. In the hindwing this area extends as far out as 
the 1st antenodal and the cubital nervures. In the latter also, there are 
some blackish brown rays and a variably sized spot of the same colour as 
follows : — rays in both costal spaces extending as far as the 1st antenodal 
nervure and another in the cubitus extending as far as the arc, a large 
spot in the anal area extending from the base outwards as far as the line 
of the arc, its outer border curving gently to meet the base at a variable 
distance in front of the tornus. There is usually a small, triangular area 
lying between this spot and the ray in the cubital space where the wing is 
hyaline. The nervures in the dark spot are beautifully depicted as a 
golden network. 

Sexual organs as for genus. 

Female : head ; eyes reddish brown above, olivaceous at the sides and 
beneath, occiput golden yellow, labrum pale yellow, labium and lower part 
of epistone olivaceous, vesicle and forehead bright yellow, the latter with 
a much better defined, black, basal line than that of the male. 
^ Prothorax and thorax pale olivaceous at the sides or even with a greenish 
tinge, olivaceous brown above. An undulating, black, post-humeral line 
and a black line on the second lateral suture and lastly, an irregular black 
spot on the spiracle. Two black lines crossing the tergum between the bases 
of the wings. 

Abdomen olivaceous or greenish yellow with difl'use, broad, blackish lines 
at the distal border of each segment, which coalesce at the last four 
segments. 

Anal appendages ochreous. 

Wings similar to the male but the dark spot in the anal area usually less 
extensive. The apices of the wings rather more extensively smoky than 
in the male. Stigma reddish brown with heavy, black borders. 

Legs black, the anterior femora yellow on the flexor surfaces. 

IToJ.— I have specimens from Assam, Madras, Bangalore, Poona, Bombay 
and Ceylon. It is also reported from Bengal and should be found through- 
out Burma. A line drawn from about Dinapur to Bombay would probably 
demarcate its northern limits. It is a dragonfly of the plains, usually 
occurring in the moister areas and favouring swamps and shallow tanks 
in preference to streams and running water. It is a very active creature 
and difficult to capture. The female is very retiring and comparatively 
rare, the few specimens taken usually being found in cop 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



265 



Genus — MAfiRODiPLAx, Brauer (1868). 

Macrodijylax, Brauer, Zool. bot. Wien., 18pp. 366, 737, (1868 — Kirby 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 12,pp. 261, 262 (1889)— Karsch, Berlin, Ent. Zthr. 
33, p. 3-56 (1890)— Selys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41, p. 72 (1897). 




Fig. 65. — Wings of Macrodiplax cora (x about 2^). 

Head large, eyes contiguous for a long distance, this longer than the 
depth of the occiput, forehead prominent and rounded, no marked fore- 
border, suture broad and deep, vesicle prominent and slightly notched, 
a distinct temporal projection at the side of the eyes. Prothorax with 
a very small posterior lobe which is rather hidden beneath the head, flatly 
arched and not fringed with hairs. 

Thorax robust, somewhat cubical as in Urothemis. Legs long and slim, 
hind femora with a row of very small, evenly sized and moderately closely 
set spines, with a longer one at the distal end, mid-femora with a row of 
more widely spaced and gradually lengthening spines. Tibial spines 
numerous, slim and long, claw-hooks robust, situated near the end of the 
claws. Armature of the female very similar. 

Abdomen moderately short and robust, the base dilated ventro-dorsaily 
and laterally, a slight constriction at the 3rd segment, then depressed, 
fusiform and tapering towards the end. In the female the sides of the 
abdomen are nearly parallel. No transverse ridges to the 4th segment. 

Sexual organs, see under species. 

Wings long and broad, reticulation fairly wide, trigone in the forewing 
slightly distal to the line of the trigone in the hind, broad, its costal side 
more than half as long as the proximal and its distal side somewhat 
angulated outwards, relation of the trigone to the hypertrigone, a little 
more than a right angle, subtrigone in the forewing 2 or 3 cells, trigone 
in the hindwing at the arc or a little proximal, sectors of the arc in the 
forewing separated, in the hind fused for a variable distance, arc between 
the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervures, 6 to 7 antenodal nervures, the final com- 
plete, 8th nervure in the hindwing at the anal angle of trigone, 4th ner- 
vure not undulated, 1 cubital nervure to all wings, no supplementary 
nervures to the bridge, all trigones and hypertrigones entire, 1 row of 
cells between 5 and 5«, both 6a and 7a very highly developed, 8th 
nervure in the forewing short and very strongly convex, the discoidal 
JO 



266 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXJII. 

field beginning with 2 rows of cells and strongly dilated at the ter- 
men, loop with divided cells at the anal angle of trigone and at the external 
angle, the anal area split up into an outer area of 5 or 6 rows of large cells, 
not arranged distinctly in transverse rnvs, and an inner area more closely 
reticulated, of narrow cells arranged in transverse rows. Stigma small. 
Membrane large. 

Only one species found within Indian limits. 

76. WlacPOdiplax cora— Brauer, 18, p. 737 (1868)— Selys, Mitt. Mus. 
Dresden (1878), p. 294 (ex Brauer)— Id., Ann. Soc. 
Spain., II. (p. 15 sep.) (1882)— Id., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., 41, p. 72— Ris, Tijds. v. Ent., 55, p. 168 
(1912). 
Diplax com, Brauer Zool. bot. Wien. 17, pp. 20, 289 (1867). 
Libellula lycoris, Selys, Pollen and Van Dam, Madagas, Inn., p. 22 (1869) 

Id.,— Oomptes Ent. Belg., 4. v. (sep.) (1878). 
Urotheinis lycoris, Kirby, Oat. p. 24 (1890), 

Macrodiplax lycoris,Be\ys, Ana. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41, p. 73 (1897) — Till- 
yard, Proc. Linn. Soc, New South Wales, 31, p. 484 
(1906). 
Libellula nig vilabris, Selys, Mitt. Mus. Dresden, 1878, pp.94, 304— Kir- 

by. Cat. p. 23 (1890). 
UrotJiemis vittata, Kirby, Linn. Soc. Journ., 24, p. 552, tab. 42, fig. 2 

(1893). 
Macrodiplax vittata, Laidlaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (1902) — Mac Lach- 
lan, Nat. Hist. Socotra, p. 399, tab. 24 A, fig. A, Aa 
(1903) -Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 15, p. 271 
(1905). 
Expanse 62 to 70 mm. Length 36 to 38 mm. 
Head : eyes reddish brown above, slate coloured beneath and at the sides, 
vesicle pale yellow, tipped with bright pink in front, occiput reddish, 
face pale yellow, the upper part of the epistone suffused with red, labrum 
dark brown, labium pale yellow, with black borders. 
Prothorax pale brown. 

Thorax uniform olive brown in front, pale greenish yellow at the sides, 
with two irregular, black stripes laterally, the anterior of which crosses the 
spiracle and is incomplete in its upper half. 

Legs black, all coxse and bases of the femora yellowish on the flexor 
surface. 

Abdomen bright reddish orange very similar to Pantala and with a broad 
middorsal, black stripe which broadens in front and behind on each segment 
and has a more or less diffuse border. 
Anal appendages yellow or ochreous. 

Wings hyaline, the base of the hind bearing a large amber, tinted spot, 
which extends 1 ceil into the loop and to just beyond the cubital nervure. 
Stigma yellow, of equal size in fore and hindwings. Membrane white. 

The female very similar in colour to the male, its abdomen a duller 
ochreous tint and the black markings narrower. The base of the abdomen, 
somewhat greenish. 

Sexual organs : male : lamina depressed, its free border with a double 
notch, external tentaculse almost obsolete, the internal a very small hook, 
lobe depressed and narrow. 

Female : border of 8th abdominal segment not dilated, the end of the 
8th ventral plate prolonged into a small, somewhat projecting vulvar 
scale, flat and convex, overlapping the 9th segment but slightly, 9th 
ventral plate furnished with two small, widely diverging hooks about its 
middle, the 10th segment prolonged into a short, blunt projection. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 



267 



Hab. — Ceylon and Southern India. I have taken this species in Madras, 
but it is not common and very difficult to distinguish from Pantala flavescens 
when on the wing. It is somewhat smaller than the latter insect, but 
resembles it closely otherwise. It frequents open situations such as grassy 
commons or hovers over low scruV. I have never seen it over water. 



In the key to the genera of the Libellulinte on page 618, Vol. XXV, 
No. 4 of the Journal, Natural History Society, Bombay, I wrongly des- 
cribed Macrodiplax as " dull coloured," the descriptions having been made 
from faded specimens. Since then also, I have decided to include a 
Mesopotamian species, n'z., 8elysiothemis nigra, and so now make the 
following alterations to the key : — In line 4, " 3 cells " should be altered 
to " 2 or 3 cells," and all below that line, in the key, should be deleted 
and the following substituted : — 

X. Only 6 antenodal nervures. 

x' Neuration of wing greyish white and almost 
invisible. Stigma bicolourous. 
Discoidal field but slightly dilated.. .. Seh/xiotheniis. 

X- Neuration of wing black and distinct. 
Stigma unicolourous. 
Discoidal field widely dilated . . , , Macrodiplax . 

Y. Nearly constantly 7 antenodal nervures. 

Discoidal field, but slightly ailated . . . . V rothemis . 



Selysiothemts, Ris, 
p. 70 



Geniis- 
Ann. Soc. 
(1897). 



— Selysiothemis. 

Ent. Belg., 41, p. 47 (1897)— Selys, ibid.. 




j^ig, 66. — Wings of Selysiothemis ni(jra (x 3). 

Head large ; eyes broadly contiguous, the optic suture longer than the 
occipital triangle ; no distinct temporal projection to the eyes as in 
Macrodiplax, only a slightly arched projection ; forehead without a sharp 
foreborder, a little flattened in front ; suture deep ; vesicle large, broadly 
arched and rounded. , • ,, ■> -, 

Prothorax with a small posterior lobe, depressed and spherically arched. 

Thorax narrow. Legs long and tolerably slim. Male ; hind femora with 
a row of very closely set and very small spines ; mid-femora with ca. 10 



268 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVII. 



moderately robust spines. Female : hind femora with a row of gradually 
lengthening spines in the distal third ; mid femora with a row of spines 
which are very short in the proximal half and lengthening gradually in 
the distal half. Tibial spines moderately long, very slim. Claw-hooks 
long, slightly distal to the middle. 

Abdomen moderately short, the base very slightly tumid, slightly con- 
stricted at the 3rd segment, then slim and cylindrical to the end, 4th 
segment without a transverse ridge. 

Wings broad, reticvdation wide ; trigone in the forewing about 1 cell 
distal to the line of the trigone in the hind ; arc between the ist and 
2nd antenodal nervures ; sectors of the arc in the forewing separated, 

in the hind fused for a short distance ; 
antenodal nervures 5-6, the last incom- 
plete, the distance between the 1st and 
2nd considerably greater than between 
the others ; 8th nervure in the hindwing 
at the anal angle of the trigone ; 1 cubital 
nervure to all wings ; no supplementary 
nervures to the bridge ; trigone in the 
forewing free, broad, the costal side 
rather more than half of the proximal, 
the distal side strongly angulated at the 
point where the nervure dividing the first 
discoidal cells joins it ; relation of the 
trigone to the hypertrigone rather more 
than a right angle ; trigone in the hind- 
wing free, slightly proximal to the arc, 
its costal side bent back slightly at the 
distal end ; 1 row of cells between 5 and 
5fl ; 4th nervure with but a slight con- 
vexity ; 8th nervure in the forewing 
short and strongly curved ; 7a well 
formed ; 2 rows of cells in the discoidal 
field, the latter moderately dilated at 
the termen ; loop extending about 1 
the trigone, its apex very blunt, only 
occasional divided cells at the outer angle and none at the trigone, 
its midrib very straight ; a supplementary nervure springing from the 
inner border of the loop, but the differentiation of cells in the anal 
field by no means distinct. Stigma very small, indistinct. Membrane 
relatively large. 

Sexual organs of the male without any external tentacuite. The female 
with a very small, vulvar scale. 

77. Selysiothemis nigra, Ris, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41, p. 48 (1897)— 
Seyles, ibid, p. 71 (1897)— Bartenef Ann. Mus. 
Zool. Acad. Imp. St. Petersburg, 16, p. 411 (1912) 
—Id., Mid Caucasus, Mus., 7, p. 108 (1912). 

Libellula nigra. Van der Lind, Monog., p. 16 (1825)— Selvs, Monog., 
pp. 29, 55, 209 (1840)— Hagen, Syn. Lib.^Eur., p. 37 
(1848)— Ramb. neur. p. 118 (1842)— Selys-Hagen 
Revue, des Odonates, p. 65 (1850). 

Urothemis nigra, Selys, Comptes rendus Soc. Ent. Belg., 4 v. (sep.) 
(1878)— Id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 31. p. 77 (1887) 
— Kirby, Cat. p. 28 (1890). 

Trithemis nigra, Brauer, Zool, bot. Wien, 18, p. 736 (1868). 




67. — Male sexual organs 
of Selysiothemis nigra. 

cell beyond the outer angle of 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 269 

llrothemis advena, Selys, Comptes rendus Soc. Ent. Belg., 4. v. (sep ) 
(1878)— Id., Aim. Soc. Ent. Belg., 31,p. 69 (1887) 
— Kirby, Cat. p. 24 (1890). 
Expanse 52 mm. Length 30 mm. Hindwing 25 mm. Abdomen 20 mm. 

Male : head : eyes blackish brown above, paler or lilaceous at the sides 
and beneath, in tenera) specimens the eyes are dark ochreous and paler 
beneath and with a purplish tinge, the females are always of this colour 
labrum ochreous, labium, and lower part of face pale olivaceous, upper part 
of face and forehead with some blackish. In teneral specimens, the labrum 
is pale yellow and the rest of the face and forehead is a waxy white as 
is also the vesicle. In adult specimens a dark band develops on the fore- 
head and is prolonged down at the sides of the eyes and the vesicle 
becomes dark olivaceous. 

Prothorax and thorax black in the adult, the ventral side more or less 
pruinescent, in teneral specimens they are of a waxy white with obscure 
brown mid dorsal, humeral and lateral lines. The legs are straw coloured 
on the flexor surfaces and blackish brown on the extensor but in the adult 
they become wholly black. The bases of the femora yellowish. 

Abdomen black in the adult with the ventrum pruinescent. In the 
teneral condition a waxy white with blackish brown markings on the 
dorsum. These markings diffuse, broadening apically and more extensive 
on the anal segments. In the last few segments, a prolongation of the 
brown goes forward from the distal end of the segments laterally, to 
enclose a spot of the ground colour. The last 3 segments are almost 
entirely brown on the dorsum. 

Anal appendages yellowish or white, the superior strongly curved down- 
ward and equal in length to the inferior. 

Wings peculiarly invisible owing to the neuration being a pale or dirty 
white in colour. The stigma is bordered in front and behind with well- 
defined black, the intervening part is almost translucent or slightly 
opalescent. 

Female : very similar to the teneral male, but the brownish markings on 
the thorax almost obsolete and the black markings of the abdomen replaced 
by bright ochreous. Legs paler. Wings similar to the male. 

Sexual organs: male: lamina depressed, fissured and furnished with short 
hairs : tentacul* short, triangular and the apex prolonged into a recurved 
hood. The external tentacula represented only by a small protuberance. 

Lobe square. Female : border of 8th segment not dilated ; the vulvar 
scale very small, depressed. Appendages small, white or creamy. 

Hah. — Lower Mesopotamia and Persian Gulf. Bushire. Very few 
specimens appear to have found their way into collector's hands before the 
war, a surprising fact when one considers how very common an insect it 
is in its native country. I have seen it in countless swarms at Basra and 
the lower Shat-el-Arab whilst it frequently takes to the sea and may be seen 
in great numbers coming aboard steamers trafficking in the Gulf. I saw 
one such swarm come on board the Ambulance Transport Varsova on 
19th August 1919, quite one hundred miles south of the bar of the Shat-el- 
Arab, but at the end of the same month not a single specimen was to be 
seen on land at Basra. I saw a similar swarm in 1917 on board a ship a 
few miles south of the Shat-el-Arab, all of which were teneral specimens. 
It is quite possible that this species will eventually establish itself in Sind 
and North- West India. 

On land it has habits similar to Diplacodes and is always found settling 
on the ground or low shrubs. Barren, open desert lands appear to be 
preferred. 

(To he continued.) 



I 



270 

THE FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 
(JODHPUR AND JAISALMER.) 

BY 

E. Blatter, S.J., and Prof. F. Hallberg. 

Part VI. 

With 3 iMtes. 
{Gontinued from page 47 of this Volume.) 

PART II. 

ECOLOGICAL NOTES. . 

1. Meteorology. 

The Indian Desert forms the east end of the greatest desert district of the 
■world, extending from the Atlantic coast of Africa and including the Sahara, 
part of Arabia, S. Persia and Baluchistan. 

The chmate of our region is characterised by excessive drought, the rainfall 
being scanty and irregular. The winter rains of Northern India rarely penetrate 
into the region, and there is thus only one rainy season : that of the south-west 
monsoon. 

We give a hst of meteorological data, obtained from the Government Obser- 
vatory, Colaba. 

A few remarks are necessary to show the extreme irregularity of the rainfall. 
The year 1917 was a record year, during which about three times as much rain 
fell as the statistics of about forty years would lead one to expect. On the other 
hand, not a single cent was registered at either Khabha or Ramgarh, Jaisalmer 
State, in 1899. During the year in question 26 cents was received at Jaisalmer, 
and the whole of this in April. In August 1881 ten inches fell in a single day 
at Jodhpur. 

The cold season — from about the middle of November to the middle of March 
— is characterised by extreme variations of temperature, and the temperature is 
frequently below freezing point at night. During April, May and June the 
heat is intense and trying, and scorching winds prevail with great violence, 
sand-storms with great desiccating action being frequent. The relative humidity 
of the atmosphere is always low. 

The meteorological conditions during our tour were very unusual, and for this 
reason we think it worth while giving our observations in detail, in spite of their 
fragmentary nature. We were held up for several days at Bhikamkor on account 
of the Jodhpur -Phalodi railway line having been washed away in places by 
the rain. 

In general, the region possesses a healthy chmate, except during the period 
after the rains. As was to be expected, the year 1917 was particularly bad in 
this respect. At the time of our visit, practically the entire population was 
suffering from malaria. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. 806. 



Plate XXyil. 







jft^mt^' 






A. — At Loharki. To the riifht : Dane Cinvadino- the plaiiO with Aerua sp- 
To the left : Crotalnria hurUia. Alonjj- edji'e of dune and in the centre : 
Calotropis procera. In the background Loharki villag-e with cultivated 
trees. 




B. — Two miles west of Jaisalmer town. Crotalaria burliia, Calotropis 
procera. — Herd of cattle. 

The Flora of the Indian Desert. 



ILORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



271 



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272 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



•re^X 



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FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



273 



















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274 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



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Journ., Bombay Nati Hist. Soc. 



Plate XXXIII. 







;tAi 



A.— Sandy plain West of Jaisalmer town with scrub veg-etation. To the 
right : Small pond with Acacia arabica. On the hill in the backgfround : 
Jaisalmer Fort. 




B. — Low lime-stone hills near Jaisalmer town, rising abruptly from the 
above plain. Predominant plant : Crotalaria burhia. 



The Flora of the Indian Desert. 



ILORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 



275 



The direction of the wind indicates the point from which it blows. The 
direction within brackets after a species of cloud below indicates the point 
towards which the cloud moves, the accompanying number its velocitj^ on a deci- 
mal scale. The amount of clouds is also indicated on a decimal scale, 
meaning a nearly clear, 10 an overcast sky. The abbreviations refer to the 
international system for cloud names. 

Jodh2}ur. 

October 19. Sky Clear. 

October 20. 6-30 a.m. Sky : ; Ci. 

All day an increasing quantitj' of light Ci. 



October 21. 

Balariv'-i. 
October 23. 

October 24. 
Osian. 
October 24. 



October 25. 



Bliilcamhor. 
October 25. 



7-0 a.m. 
2-15 p.m. 

8-0 p.m. 
8-0 p.m.- 
6-0 a.m. 

8-45 a.m. 
0-45 p.m. 



Sky: 3 
Sky : 2 ; 

Sky : 10 
-9-30 p.m. 
Sky : 10 



Sky: 
Skv 



10 ; 
10 



1-45 p.m. — 5-0 p.m. 



8-15 p.m. 
10-0 p.m. 
6-30 a.m. 



10-15 a.m. 
1-0 p.m. 



Ci. 
Ci. 

; Str.-Cu., Al.-Cu., Al.-Str. 

Halo 23° round moon. 

; Str.-Cu., Al.-Cu., Al.-Str. 

Str.-Cu., AI.-Cu., Al.-Str. 
; Str.-Cu., Str.-Cu. -Lent., Al.-Cu., Al 
Sky : 10 ; Kb., Str.-Cu., AI.- Str. 
A few drops of rain. 
Al.-Str. 



Sir. 



Sky : 10 

Fine rain. 

Amount of rain fallen : 0*03 inch. 

Sky : 10 ; Str. [W 7], Al.-Str. [E 0]. 

Fine rain. 



Sky: 
Sky: 
Upto 

finer. 

inch. 



10 ; Nb. 

10 ; Nb. 

5-30 p.m. 
5-45 p.m 
Sky : 10 



[W7]. 



October 26. 7-15 a.m. 



9-0 a.m. 
2-15 p.m. 
5-35 p.m. 



About midnight 
Amount of rain fallen 
(rain gauge full). 
Sky ; 10 ; Xb. [SSW 6]. 
Amount of rain fallen ; 0.07 
Sky : 10 ; Nb. [S 5], Al.-Cu, 
Sky: 10;Nb. [S 4], Al.-Cu. 



Fairly strong rain, afterwards 
Amount of rain fallen : I'll 
Nb. [SW 7]. 

Thunder-storm. 
62 inch. 



inch. 



[NNE 2]. 
About 0'5 inch. 



Al.-Str. 
may be 



5-50 p.m 



October 27. 7-0 a.m. 



2-15 p.m. 
6-45 p.m. 
All day 



October 28 

Phalodi. 

October 29, 

October 30, 

Baj:). 

November 1. Early morning 

Shihad to Vinjorai. 

November 1 to Nov. 11. Sky clear. 



The rain has stopped, 
assumed to be lost. 
Fragments of double rambow in the clouds in SE. 
Fine rain. Nb. dispersing. Mamm.-Nb. vi- 
sible at sunset. 
Sky : 10 ; Str. [SW 8]. 

Fog and heavv dew. 
Sky : 0. 
Sky clear. 
Sky clear. 



6-30 p.m. Sky : ; 
All day : Sky clear. 



Ci.-Str. (in S). 



Skv : 1 ; Ci. 



276 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL 
2. Climate and Vegetation. 

From what has been said above, it is clear that the chmate is hostile to all 
vegetation, only plants possessing special adaptations being able to establish 
themselves. These adaptations are in general of two types, having two distinct 
objects in view : to enable the plant to obtain water, and to retain it when 
obtained. Those interested in the anatomical pecuharities of the plants of the 
region are referred to the paper by T. S. Sabnis : " The Physiological 
Anatomy of the Plants of the Indian Desert," at present appearing in the 
Journal of Indian Botany. 

The struggle for existence between the plants, of the same or of different spe- 
cies, is practically non-existent, there being plenty of vacant spaces, and the 
formations being generally of the open type. The chief exceptions to this rule 
are the following parasites -.—Cuscuta Tiyalina (growing on many . host-plants, 
see Vol. XXVI, p. 543), Striga ocobancheoides (on Lepidagathis trinervis), Striga 
eupJirasioides (on grasses, etc.), Cistanche tuhulosa (on Capparis decidua, see plate 
XXII-B.) — The case of Crotalaria hurhia is discussed under the sand formation. 
Possibly the abundance of this plant may have something to do with nitro- 
bacteria, Uving in symbiosis with the plant in its root nodules. 

Many seeds fail to germinate, and numbers of seedlings are destroyed, thus 
never reaching maturity. 

The bulk of the vegetation consists of a kind of scrub made up of shrubs and • 
perennial herbs, capable of great drought resistance and of a period of compa- 
rative rest, extending throughout the greater part of the year. There are few 
trees to be seen, and these are stunted and generally thorny or prickly, thus 
protecting themselves against plant-feeding animals. Of the latter, there are 
vast herds of camels, cattle, sheep and goats, forming the chief wealth of the 
rural population, and appearing to thrive in spite of the arid nature of the 
country (Plate XXXII-B.). The presence of these herds is a factor of some 
importance in the economy of the region, certain plants being kept down, while 
others remain untouched. Thus it is sometimes impossible to find a fairly com- 
plete specimen of many plants over large areas, the branches being eaten, and 
only the woody base left. Plate XXXIV-A. shows a case, where a specimen of 
Heliotropium undulatum (the plant to the left) has escaped total destruction 
owing to its being accidentally protected by an ant-hill. On the other hand, , 
the specimen of Sericostoma pauciflora to the right is not touched although 
unprotected, in spite of its being a close relative of the former plant. Some- 
times a spiny shrub protects a plant, otherwise greedily eaten by animals. A 
case of this is shown in Plate XXXIV-B., where a line specimen of the grass 
Andropogon annulatus, reaching the unusual height of eight feet, has taken refuge 
among the branches of the very prickly Zizyphus rotimdifolia. The luxurious 
growth of the grass is due to the local presence of moisture in the gravelly soil. 
Of unprotected specimens in the same habitat, practically only the roots were 
left. Below we give a hst of the plants especially liked by camels : Capparis 
decidua, Salvadora oleoides, Haloxylon salicornicum, Fagonia cretica, Crotalaria- 
hurhia, Clerodendron pMomidis, Calligonum polygonoides, Indigofera ovalifolia. 

The proper desert plants may be divided into two main groups : those depend- 
ing directly upon rain, and those depending on the presence of subterranean 
water. 

The first group consists again of two types : the "ephemerals" and the " rain 
perennials," — The ephemerals are delicate annuals, apparently free from any 
xerophilous adaptations, having slender stems and root-systems and often large 
flowers. They appear almost immediately after rain, develop flowers and fruits 
in an incredibly short time, and die as soon as the surface layer of the soil dries 
up. We did not come across any plants of this type, which may however have 
been due to the fact that our visit took place towards the end of the rainy season. 



Journ.i Bombay Nat. Hist^ 8oc. 



Plate XXXIV. 




k.—HeUotr opium unduJatum, partly eaten by animals, and surrounded by 
an ant hill. To the risht : Sericostoma imuciflora. (Gravel plajn near 
Devikot, in Jaisalmer State). 




B.— On moist ground near Devikot village. Andropogon annulatus pro- 
tected by Zizyphus rotuiidifolia. 



The Flora of the Indian Desert. 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 277 

The few annuals observed have generally a comparatively long taproot, the 
exceptions from this rule being best regarded as accidental visitors to the region 
■{such as Spennacoce striata, Aspliodelus tenuifolius). — The rain perennials are 
also visible above ground only during the rainy season, but have a perennial 
underground stem. Here belong the bulbous Monocotyledons, of which Dip- 
cadi erythroium is a representative from our region, also various Cyperacece. 

By far the largest number of the indigenous plants are capable of absorbmg 
water from deep below the surface of the ground by means of a well developed 
root system, the main part of which generally consists of a slender, woody tap-root 
of extraordinary length. This adaptation in some cases enables a plant to dis- 
jjense with all xerophilous characteristics. A noteworthy example is Citndlus colo- 
cynthis, one of the Cncurbitacece, which remains green throughout the year, in 
spite of its long, trailing branches, which often reach 50 ft. in length, and bear 
a fair number of large leaves. A fruiting sjiecimen of the plant is shown on 
Plate VII-A. 

Generally, however, various other xerophilous adaptations are resorted to 
such as reduced leaves, thick tomentum, succulence, coatings of wax, thick 
cuticle, protected stomata, etc., all having for their object a reduction of transjii- 
ration. The plants belonging here are chiefly more or less woody perennials. 
A few annuals occur, however, svich as the rare Monsonia heliotropioides. 

8. Formations. 

It was originally our intention to adopt the nomenclature used by F. E. 
Clements in his work " Plant Succession " (Washington 1916) for our descrip- 
tion of the vegetation of the Indian Desert. For many reasons, into the details 
of which we cannot enter here, this plan has been abandoned. Accordingly 
the term " consocies " used on some of the earlier plates (PI. VII-B., X-A.) 
should be replaced by the term " family." Similarly the words " in the con- 
socies " under PI. X-B. should go out. 

The uniformity of the climate of our region causes a corresponding unifor- 
mity of the vegetation. The formations may therefore be taken as exclusively 
edaphic, and it is convenient to adopt Schimper's definition : " The communi- 
ties of plants as determined by the quahties of the soil are termed formations." 

Accordingly, we distinguish the follomng five formations : Aquatic, Sand, 
Gravel, Rock, Ruderal. 

For the sub-divisions of the above formations we use the term association, 
folloA^ing Warming's definition : " An association is a community of definite 
floristic composition wthin a formation." 

We shall further use the term family, introduced by Clements, but in the 
following generahzed sense : A family is a community of individuals belonging 
to a smgle species, and occupying a definite area of whatever shape or size, the 
boundaries of which are determmed by the numerical distribution of the mdivi- 
duals, no account bemg taken of the eventual occurrence of other species within 
the area. 

Thus PI. X.-A. shows a smgle family of Edij^ta erecta with abrupt boundaries, 
the change in numerical distribution within the occupied area being continuous. 
In PI. X.-B. we have several isolated families of the same plant. In the case 
discussed no other plant occupies the same locahty, and we may therefore des- 
cribe the local vegetation as a pure association of Edij^ta ereda^ consistmg of 
several families. A pure association may coincide with a family, as in PI. XXI V- 
A., XXV-B. {Cyperus arenarius), or form part of a family, as in PI. XX\ -A. 
{Calotropis procera) or VII-B. {Indigofera argentea). The area occupied by a 
family of Aristida hirtigluma sho\\Ti in PI. XIX-B. contains also other species 
-and hence the plant does not form a, pure association ; this is of course the rule. 



£78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NAIUEAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Aquatic Formation. 

Water is naturally scarce within our region and lias to be collected during the 
monsoon for irrigation purposes. Wherever possible artificial basins are con- 
structed, preferably with a rocky bottom, since a sandy or gravelly bottom 
retains the water only with difficulty. At the time of our visit the amount of 
water in these tanks was unusually great owing to the exceptionally heavy rains. 
Just before the rainy season, the smaller ones are generally empty and during 
ordinary years, the maximun water level must be far lower than that observed 
by us. 

The chief tanks visited by us are : 

(1) Kailana Lake near Jodhpur (PL V-A.) occupies a comparatively large 
rocky valley and supphes Jodhpur city with water. The dam is shown in 
PI. I B., and the luxurious vegetation on the outside forms a striking 
contrast to that of the surrounding arid hills. The lake itself contains 
masses of Alg(£, among which various species of Chara were noted. The 
Naiedacace were represented by Potamogeton crispus and Naias australis. 

There were hardly any semi-aquatic associations along the shores of 
the lake at the time of our visit, although they probably would be well 
developed after the partial drying up of the water. Below the dam, 
however, we found Bergia ammannioides and B. odorata associated with 
Ammannia baccifera and A. multiflora. 

(2) The tank above the Balsamand Garden near Jodhpur is a small rock basin 
in which Trapa hispinosa was collected. We have not observed this 
plant in any other locahty and conclude that it must have been culti- 
vated here. 

(3) The lake near Mandor (PI. VI-A.) is a large shallow expanse of water 
in the plain, and is rather difficult of approach on account of its marshy 
shores. Mandor was our best locahty for Gyperacece and many of these 
plants occurred in the neighbourhood of the lake. The vegetation on the 
banks along the muddy irrigation canals leading from the lake is best 
described as ruderal. The lake as shown on the photograph is probably 
much larger than in ordinary years. 

(4) A small pond surrounded by marshy ground about 8m. north of Phalodi 
(PI. XXIV-B.) was filled with muddy water devoid of vegetation, except 
for a number of immature specimens of Vallisneria spiralis, a plant not 
observed in any other locahty. The shores were covered by high Gy- 
peracece partly associating with Andropogon annulatus. The surround- 
ing damp gravel was a favourite habitat of Bergia odorata. 

(5) The small village tank at Bap has a gravel bottom and partly marshy 
shores. The submerged association observed by us consisted of Potamo- 
geton pectinatus, Naias graminea, Naias WelwitscJiH, and Ghara sp. 

(6) Gharsisar Lake outside Jaisalmer town (PI. XII- A.) is not of much 
interest botanically. 

(7) The same may be said of Amarsagar and Bada Bag tanks, both artificially 
dammed rock basins (PL XII-B., XI-B.), although the shores may have 
a rich vegetation in the middle of the dry season. Both irrigate exten- 
sive gardens. In the Bada Bag (PL XI -A.), a large muddy field of almost 
pure Ammannia baccifera association was observed. 

(8) A small artificial pond with gravel bottom between Seu and Badka had 
a flora different from the ordinary type. There was found an association 
of Nijmplioia lotus and Limnanthemum parvifolium, neither of which was 
observed elsewhere. We noted also a zone of Ghara sp. 

(9) A few drying-up pools near Barmer railway station were bordered by 
pure famihes of Eclipta erecta (PL X-A. & B.). Although this plant is 
ruderal rather than aquatic, it is meetioned here owing to the fact, that 



FLORA OF THE INDIAN DESERT. 279 

a habitat of this type seems necessary for it to thrive in this region. It 
attains its maximum development about 2-3 feet above the surface of 
the water nearer which young plants and seedhngs only are found, so that 
zones and islands result. 
(10) Many smaller pools or tanks were met with, but proved very uninterest- 
ing. There is generaUy one or two near every village. Rivers containing 
water there were none. We. crossed a river-bed 2 miles East of Sodakoer 
(PI. XXX), the vegetation of which hardly differed from the surrounding 
gravel area. A sandy river-bed at Barmer was totally devoid of 
vegetation. 
From the above may be seen that the submerged flora is, as might have been 
expected, rather poor, and very local. The semi-aquatic flora consists mainly 
of certain Cyperacece, Lythracece and Elaiinacece, and is often well developed 
as regards number of individuals. The almost complete absence of Hydro- 
char itacece is noteworthy. The genus Rotala, too, is absent. There are hardly 
any aquatic grasses. Desmostachya bipinnata may perhaps be referred here. 
It frequents irrigated gardens and margins of tanks. 

The occurrence of Naias australis and Naias Welwitschii within our region is 
veiy interesting, both plants being new to India. 



(To be continued.) 



280 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



BY 

0. H. Donald, f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 
Part YI. 

{Continued from imge 140 of this volume.) 

Type H. 

This chapter of the "Birds of Prey of the Punjab" deals with 3 genera, 
comprising 11 species, of what must be far and away the best known of Raptores 
by name at least. 

All the species in this Type (H) have three characteristics in common which 
separate them from the members of all other Types, at a glance. The first men- 
tioned of these characteristics is by far the most important, and in itself suffi- 
cient to differentiate them and to place them in this Type. These characteristics 
are : — 

{a) Upper mandible toothed and sometimes a festoon is also present behind 
the tooth ; nostril circular with a central tubercle. 

(6) Irides some shade of brown, usually very deep and almost black in some 
lights. 

(c) Wings long and pointed but not alwavs reaching to tip of tail. 

The three genera are :— FALCO, .^ISALON and TINNUNCULUS, i.e., 
the Falcons, Meiims and Kestrels. 

Besides the above, there are in India, four other genera comprising in all 8 
species ■v^■hich all have toothed mandibles, viz : — Baza (3 species) which are dis- 
tinguished by having a sort of double tooth; Erythropus (1 species); Microliierax 
/3 species) and Poliohierax (1 species) but none of these are found in the Punjab 
so far as I am aware. 

Now, though all the true Falcons, the Merhns, and the Kestrels can be placed 
in their proper Tj^-pe by a single glance at the beak and nostril, the separation of 
the different species from each other, in Falco, is by no means so simple. Varia- 
tions in plumage from the young to the adult stage are considerable, and 
diffei-ences in size of specimens, of the same species, are by no means negligible. 

Like most of the Raptores previously dealt with, the Falcons, Merhns and 
Kestrels are easily distinguishecf by their flight, not only as such, but can usually 
be correctly placed in their proper species, by anyone who has studied their 
flight, but it will not be an easy matter to put the subtle differences in black and 
white and still make them intelligible to my readers. 

The 3 genera and 11 species of this Type are as under : — 
Genus. Species. 



Falco 



Msalon 
Tinnunculus 



F. peregrinus The Peregrine Falcon 

F. peregrinator The Shahin „ 

F. harbarus The Barbary ,, 

F. jugger The Laggar „ 

F. cherrug The Saker or Cherrug Falcon 

F. milvipes The Shanghar Falcon 

F. subbuteo The Hobby 

F. sevenis The Indian Hobby 

^. regulus The Merlin 

M. chiquera The Turumti or Red-headed Mer- 

Un. 

T. alcmdarius The Kestrel 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



281 



Falco. 



Msalon. 



Tinnunculus. 



F. ^^'segrinus. 

F. 2'>eregrinator 

F. barbarus. 

F. jngger. 

F. chernig. 

F. milvipes. 
F. subbvteo. 
F. sererus. 



Key to the Genera. 

Size medium to small ; toes long, middle toe without 
claw as long, if not longer than, the tarsus ; tail round- 
ed, not graduated ; 2nd quill longest, 1st much longer 
than fourth. 

Size small ; 2nd and 3rd primaries longest and sub- 
equal, first primary much shorter and approximately 
equal to the fourth ; first two quills always notched 
on the inner web. Other characteristics as in Falco. 
Size small ; foot much smaller and weaker than in 
the Falcons, mid-toe without claw being from two 
thirds to three fourths the length of the tarsus ; Tail 
graduated, outer rectrices being 1 to 1-J- inches shorter 
than the middle pair. Upper parts tinged with rufous 
throughout, with black bands in the females and young. 

Key to the Species. 

Size medium, mng in male about 12 '5 and in female 
about 14 • 5 ; 1st primary longer than the third ; cheek- 
stripe broader than the eye ; no nuchal collar ; crown 
dark grey (sometimes, though rarely, black) ; breast 
very slightly rufous. 

Size medium, \\\\\g in male about 11 " 5 and in female 
about 13" ; 1st primary longer than the third ; cheek 
stripe broader than the eye ; crown black or blackish ; 
under parts rufous. 

Size, a little smaller than the above, wing 11 in males 
to 12*5 in females ; 1st primary longer than the third ; 
cheek-stipe narrow, a buff nuchal collar ; head ashy 
grey or rufous. 

Wing in male about 12 "5 and in female about 1 
1st primary subequal to 3rd or shorter ; a distinct nar- 
row cheek-stripe ; middle tail feathers entirelj' brown 
in adults. 

Wing in male about 14 • 5 and in female about 15 • 5"; 
1st primary subequal to 3rd or shorter ; no c '.eek-stripe ; 
middle tail feathers, usually brown with white spots 
on each web, adults not banded above. 

Wing in male 14 and in the female about 16" ; adults 
banded with rufous on back, wings, and tail. 

Size small, wing of male 10| and of female about 11" ; 
Breast white or buff with brown streaks. 

Very similar to F. buteo except that this species 
has a deep rufous breast, unspotted in adults. 
.g._Both the Hobbies {F. subbuteo and severiis) resemble 
the Peregrine group in having the first primary longer 
than the third. 

The size, as indicated by the length of wing, is some- 
what misleading Avhen the Shaheen or Barbary Falcons 
are compared ^nth the Hobbies. Half an inch or an 
inch would appear to make very little difference, but 
the former are altogether heavier and robuster birds 
wdth much longer toes and more powerful claws 
generally. Whereas the mid-toe without claw in 
the Hobbies would not exceed 1 J" in length, in the 
remaining sis species it will be found to be 1|" or over. 



)-i 



282 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



M. regulus. 
M. chiquera. 
T. alaudarius. 



Size small, wing about 8 to 9" ; 2nd and 3rd prima- 
ries longest and subequal, first much shorter and appro- 
ximately equal to the 4th ; crown grey or brown, dark- 
shafted. 

Size small, wing in females about 9" ; 2nd and 3rd 
primaries longest and subequal first much shorter 
and approximately equal to the fourth ; crown chest- 
nut. 

As for genus. 

Type H. 
Family FALCONID.^. 
Subfamily FALCONING. 
Genus Falco. 



No. 1254. Falco peregrimis. The Peregrine Falcon. 



Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Size medium, length of male about 15" and of a» 
female about 18" ; 1st primary longer than the 3rd ; 
cheek-stripe broader than the eye ; no nuchal collar, 
crown dark grey, sometimes almost black ; breast 
very shghtly tinged with rufous. 

In adults. Slate-grey above, darker on the head 
and neck and gradually shading down to a pale grey 
on the rump, most of the feathers dark-shaftsd and 
except on the head and nape with dark cross-bands. 
Cheek-stripe black ; Primaries blackish, with white 
bars on the inner webs, except near the end ; Secon- 
daries ash}^ grey Avith darker cross-bands ; tail dark 
grey or blackish with numerous ashy-grey cross bars, 
closer together and paler towards the base, extreme 
tip and borders near tip, whitish ; lower parts white 
with a rufous tinge, a few brown or black spots on the 
lower breast and middle of the abdomen, and narrow 
dark bars on the flanks, lower wing-coverts, thigh 
coverts, and under tail-coverts. 

Young birds are very dark brown above, the fea- 
thers edged with rufous, the buif bases of the feathers 
showuig about the nape ; the tail feathers with about 
six transversely oval rufous spots on each web, form- 
ing imperfect cross-bars ; primaries as in adults ; 
cheek-stripe narrower ; lower parts white, buff, or 
rufescent, spotted, except on the throat, with broad 
brown elongate median stripes, becoming broad spots 
on the flanks (Blanford). 

The transition from the young to the old plumage 
is gradual but considerable and, I do not think there 
can be much doubt, that variations of a marked degree 
exist in individuals of the same age. 

The bird with an almost jet black head and dark- 
brown back and under parts of a rich cream colour 
with deep brown markings, is an entirely different, 
looking bird to the one with the slaty grey back and 
pxire white under parts, sparsely speckled with black, 
and transverse bars on the flanks. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PU^iJAB. 



283 



A few years ago I caught a tiercel with a head and 
nape ahnost jet black and resembUng that of the next 
species, much more than that of the Peregrine. 

" Bill bluish, dark at tip ; cere yellow ; irides brown ; 
legs and feet j^ellow." (Blanford). 

" Length of a female about 1 9 ; tail 7-5; wing U' 5; 
tarsus 2- 1 ; mid-toe without claw 2* 25 ; bill from 
gape 1 • 3 ; Males are considerably smaller : length 
about 16 ; wing 12.5." (Blanford). 

Mr. Hume records an Indian female measuring, 
20- 25 in length ; expanse 39 ; wing 13" 25 ; tail 6" 75 ; 
tarsus 2*25 ; mit-toe 2" 06. 

The Peregrine Falcon is a winter visitor to the Pun- 
jab, though it is possible that some few stragglers 
may even breed in the Himalayas, and Hume records 
having seen a trained Peregrine which the owner in- 
formed him had been taken from a nest on the Indus 
River. Personally I have never, to my certain know- 
ledge, seen this bird in the Himalayas during the 
summer. 

The Bliyri, by which name tliis species is known to 
the Indian falconer, is essentially a bird of the river 
and jheel. It arrives in Northern India just after the 
ducks make their appearance and disappears when 
they go . It is an early hunter and may be seen on the 
wing just after dawn, flying low over the extensive 
plains bordering any of our Punjab rivers. When 
hunting, the Peregrine flies low and fast, the mngs 
usually slightly bent back from the first joint, and 
with fast jjowerful beats. 

On viewing ducks on a pool or a flock of doves in 
the fields, the falcon drops to withm a few feet of the 
ground, the beat of the wings become even faster than 
before and the wings bend closer into the body and it 
fairly hurls itself through the air and into the middle 
of the flock, which will probably rise " en masse " 
when the falcon is still a few yards distant. Having 
selected one particular bird, the chase begins, unless 
by good fortune for the falcon, it ends before it really 
begins in an easy capture. Usually the dove succeeds 
in evading those dread talons in the first instance and 
neatly doubles back. Up rises the falcon almost ver- 
tically to her " pitch ", turns, and shoots do^vn like 
an arrow in the wake of its quarry following every 
turn and twist of the latter. 

Another miss and up she goes again to repeat the 
performance, determined to secure its breakfast before 
the dove can reach the shelter of the trees surrounding 
a village, not far distant. The dove reaches the fringe 
of trees closely followed by the falcon and dashes right 
into the branches of the nearest tree. The falcon once 
more rises high into the air, circles round once or twice 
in the hope of its quarry, or another bird leaving the 
security of the trees for the open ground beyond, gives 
up the chase and flies straight away, rising steadily as 
it goes, to make an attack elsewhere. 



284 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

During the day the Peregrine betakes itself to some 
big tree overlooking a river or a jheel, and shelters from 
the heat of the sun. It usually perches on one of the 
thicker branches about half way uj) and seldom on the 
topmost branches, like so many of the other falcons 
do. 

Another favourite haimt of the Peregrine is the 
sandy bed of the river itself. A mound of sand, a half 
buried log, or a stump or stake in the ground, from 
which it can view' the country for miles round, have 
attractions for a hungry falcon. 

Whereas duck probably form its staple diet, a crow 
colony is almost a certain find for a hungry Peregrine , 
late in the evening. One that has failed to secure a 
tit-bit in the shape of a duck or a dove, earlier in the 
afternoon, vill wend its way to a crow colony sooner 
or later, whence it need never go hungry, even though 
the quality of the meal is not all that can be desired. 

I have alreadj^ stated that the flight of the birds 
in this type (H) is by no means easy to describe. The 
flight of the falcons generally is not only distinctive 
but is capable of a more or less intelhgent description 
but to giA^e such a description as will enable a novice 
to differentiate between the different members of this 
type, is quite another matter. 

Indeed the trained eye has to depend on factors 
other than shape of wings, the way they are held, length 
of tail, etc., to separate one falcon from another on the 
wing, and even where the flight itself is distinctive 
the difference is subtle enough to defy description 
thougii noticeable to the trained eye. Size and 
colour of certain portions of the body or wings must 
be taken into account and even then it is not always 
possible to make absolutely certain of your bird. 

The sharp pointed (svv^allow hke) wings, the shorter 
tail, proclaim the falcons at a glance. 

The wings are held level, i.e., on the same plane as 
the body and even when soaring will frequently be 
found to be slightly bent, though this is by no means 
alwaj's the case. 

If seen at close quarters, the white or light coloured 
breast (in the adult plumage) will help to differentiate 
the Peregrine from the Shaheen, which has a rufous 
breast and under parts. The latter' s black head and 
very dark upj)er parts are also a guide to its species. 

The Barbary resembles the Shaheen except for 
its light coloured head. 

The Laggar, in adult plumage, has a very white 
breast, often shows a slight white patch on the under- 
part of the wing, and the marking of the wing is also 
" patchy ". Moreover they usually hunt in couples. 

The Cherrug or Saker Falcon is very much bigger 
and is seldom to be found in the haunts of the Peregrine 
or the Shaheen. It affects dry sandy tracts. 

The Merlins and Hobbies are all very much smaller. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



28» 



Genus Falco. 
No. 1255. Falco peregrinator. The Shaheen Falcon. 
Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Measurements. 



Habits, etc. 



Length of male about 15", of a female about 18" ; 
1st primary longer than the .3rd ; cheek-stripe broader 
than the eye (sometimes, in very old birds, the cheek- 
stripe is fused into the back of the head and nape and 
indistinguishable in itself), no nuchal collar, crown 
blackish ; lower parts deep rufous. Wing 11 .5 to 13". 

" This falcon is distinguished from the Peregrine at 
all ages by its darker and almost black head and nape, 
and by the deeper rufous of the lower surface, especial- 
ly on the breast, abdomen and lower wing-coverts. 
The colour of the lower parts varies, however, greatly; 
in some birds, especially those from Southern India, 
it is deep ferruginous or chestnut, whilst in many 
Himalayan birds it is scarcely darker than in some 
(exceptional) Peregrines. Except in very old birds 
there is almost always in the present species some 
rufous sprinkled over the nape, o\^ang to there being a 
rufous band on the feathers between the black ends 
and the white bases. In old birds of F. peregrinator 
all markings disappear on the breast and abdomen 
very narrow bars remaining on the flanks alone, and 
bars almost disappear on the pale ashy feathers of the 
back, rump, and scapulars. 

In young birds of the year the whole upper surface 
is almost black, the feathers at first having rufous edges 
which soon disappear by wear ; there is some rufous 
on the nape ; and the tail is marked \vith transverse, 
oval, rufous spots as in the Peregrine but they are 
more numerous ; the chin and throat are pale rufous 
and unspotted, the breast and abdomen marked with 
longitudinal droits, but the lower abdomen is some- 
times unspotted." (Blanford). 

" Bill slaty blue, dark at the tip ; cere, orbits and 
legs yellow ; irides intense brown." 

" Length of a female about 18" ; tail 6' 5 ; \ving 13" ; 
tarsus 2; mid-toe without claw 2*1 ; bill from gape 
1-25; of a male, length 15; wing 11*5. (Blanford). 

This beautiful falcon is a dweller of the hills and 
breeds freely all over the lower hills in the Punjab, up 
to an elevation of about 7,000 ft. 

Pigeons, doves, parrots, mynahs and thrushes come 
in for the attentions of this falcon and to watch one 
hunting, particularly in the hills, is an education. Like 
the Peregrine it is a very early hunter and begins 
its day if anything earlier than does the latter, and 
certamly continues to a later hour in the evening. 

I have had the good luck on several occasions to 
have nij' camp near a Shaheen's pet hunting grounds, 
and it is extraordinary how faithful they are to certain 
locaUties, even to the extent of the same branch of a 
particular tree in that locality. 

In Dharmsala there are cliffs just above my house. 
Above and all down one side, these chffs are smTOunded 
by a heavy oak forest. Immediately below is fairly 



286 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

open ground, below which is a small lake and below 
that again the Cantonments. Further away to the left 
is a \illage mth a wide extent of cultivation, and down 
below there is an unrestricted view of the low-lying 
hills of Kangra and the plains. 

On a much lopped oak tree, at one corner of the 
chfEs, the Shaheen is to be found any afternoon, 
between the months of March and the middle of 
May. 

Thereafter she vanishes to re-appear again in 
September. Her pet tree commands a magnificent 
view and no pigeon can fly anywhere in the Canton- 
ments, nor dove aUght in the village fields, which 
escapes her all seeing eyes. 

Periodically she leaves her perch and makes a cir- 
cuit of the hill, as if bored with nothing to do, return- 
ing within ten minutes or quarter of an hour, to her 
own perch. 

From this coign of vantage it is a treat to see her 
give chase. If you watch her on her j)erch for a few 
minutes you will see her head bob uj) and down as 
though focussing the eyes on some distant object. 

Suddenlj', with a spasmodic movement her "^vings 
half open and she gets lower on her perch, as though 
preparing for a spring. Thus she sits for a few seconds 
with her wings still half open, being blown about in 
the breeze, her eyes fixed straight ahead of her and 
downwards and the head shoots up and down as though 
on springs. As suddenly she changes her mind, draws 
up her wings and sits bolt uj)right, but only for an 
instant. Again her wings half open and her mind is 
made up and off she goes. With fast beating wings 
she rises steadity, but in a different direction to that 
in which she had preAdously been looldng. Up and 
up she goes then suddenly turns and shoots down hke 
an arrow at incredible speed. The stoop is, how- 
ever, not that of the trained falcon, mth wings tightly 
glued to the body, but a succession of such stoops 
intercepted by moments of wildly vibrating wings 
hurling and pushing her through the air at ever in- 
creasmg speed. Down, down she comes missing the 
top of a rhododendron bush by inches and with a great 
sv/ish, a streak passes within a few feet and rises 
straight up into the blue sky, for two or three himdred 
feet without a cheek, then the wings open wide and 
the falcon circles two or three times and then flies off 
to her old perch. 

The Merhn is the only other falcon that follows its 
quarrj' in this way, and somewhat resembles the 
ordinary flight of a wagtail or sparrow, except that 
it is not so undulating but much more direct. 

The Shaheen arrives at her hunting grounds at 
about four o'clock and if not successful in procuring 
her dinner earlier, will be seen hunting bats, as a last 
resort, well after sunset. 



THE BIRDS OF FREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



287 



It is by no means uncommon even on the plains 
and 1 have seen it as high up as 9,000 ft. in the Hima- 
layas. 

They build in cliffs, a nest composed of sticks and 
lay broTTOish yellow eggs, speclded and blotched 
with reddish brown measuring 2 by 1 • 63. I\Ii-. Dods- 
worth records a nest he found in the vicinity of Simla 
on the 30th March 1913 containing two eggs. He 
says :— " In the present case there was no nest of any 
kind, and the eggs were reposing on the bare ground. 
The colouration of the two eggs is entirely different. 
One— a magnificent specimen is a rich imiform deep 
brick-red, the other has a ground colour of brownisli 
yellow, and is heavily blotched with reddish brown. 
In shape they are broad ovals, a good deal pointed 
towards the small end. They measure (1) 1-92" x 
1-53", (2) I -88" X 1-52". 

Type H. 



Genus Falco. 
No. 12o8. Falco barbarus. The Barbary Falcon. 
Characteristics. 



Coloxiration . 



Length of male about 15 and of a female about 17 ; 
first primary longer than the 3rd ; cheek-stripe nar- 
row ; a buff nuchal collar ; head ashy grey or rufous. 

" Head more or less ashy grey or brown, with a white 
or buff frontal band, and varjdng to rufous or a chest- 
nut brown towards the nape, the feathers being dark 
shafted." Sides of neck buff ; broad nuchal collar 
rufous, often mixed with brown (occasionally nearly 
the whole croA^ii and nape are light chestnut) ; upper 
parts ashy grey -with dark or blackish cross-bars, the 
bars broad and predominating on the upper back and 
wing-coverts, less broad on the scajjulars, narrow, and 
in old birds faint, on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; 
primaries dark brouii, closelj- banded with pale rufous 
on the inner webs excejDt near the tips ; secondaries 
ashj- grey with dark cross-bands ; tail with alternating 
bars of ashy grey and blackish grey, the former liroader 
near tlie root, the latter near the end, tip whitish ; chin 
and throat white, or rufescent, rest of lower parts pale 
rufous, deptli of tint varpng ; the breast in some with 
a few narrow dark shaft hues and the abdomen 
■nith small spots ; the flanks and under- Ming coverts 
Mith dark bars, but in old birds all markings on the 
breast and abdomen disappear, and only arrow-head 
shaped marks remain on the flanks. 

Young birds are dark bro\ra above the feathers with 
broad rufous edges, ^^-hich wear oft' after a time, scai)u- 
lars with rufous sj)ots ; uj)per tail-coverts barred with 
rufous ; forehead, middle of crown and sometimes 
superciKarv streaks, with the nuchal collar, buff or 
rufous, the collar mixed with brown ; quills brown, 
barred as in adult : tail bro-\ni with equal rufous bars 
at regular intervals ; lower parts more or less rufous 



288 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Measurements. 



Habits, etc. 



pale and wliitisli on the throat, marked with elongate 
spots on the breast and abdomen, and broader spots 
on the flanks." (Blanford). 

" Bill bluish, black at the tip ; cere legs and feet yel- 
low ; irides dark brown." 

"Length of a female about IT"; tail 6" 5; wing 
12'5; tarsus TQ; midtoe without claw 2 ; bill from 
gape I'l : length of males 15; tail 5- 75; wmg 11" 
(Blanford), expanse about 3J feet. 

Mr. Hume records a nest of this species having been 
taken at Mm-ree by Major Delme Radchffe and the 
Gumal Pass.near Dera Ismail Khan, is another locality 
where the nest has been taken. I beheve the young 
of this species are frequently brought in by 
Pathans from the Samana Range near Kohat and I do 
not think that there is much doubt that the Barbary 
Falcon breeds in the hills bordering the North West 
Frontier Provmce, but I know of no instance of the 
nest having been found in the Punjab, apart from the 
one above mentioned. 

I have seen and caught the bnd in Bhadarwa, in 
the Kashmn State, in the autumn and have seen it in 
various parts of the Punjab Plains, but the only 
one I ever tamed and trained, was not nearly so good 
as the Shaheen. 

Hume says : — "I believe, we may say that the Red- 
cap Falcon occurs throughout Northern India, during 
the cold weather, as far south as Gwahor, bemg rare 
east of the Juimia, less rare between the Sutledge and 
Jumna, and decidedly common west of the Sutledge 
specially ui the Peshawar valley, and the tract west 
of the Indus, and that it breeds in Cabool and Cash- 
mere and thi'oughout the southern ranges in the 
Himalayas, west at any rate of Dalhousie, at heights 
of from four to seven thousand feet ; but further in- 
formation with regard to this species is much required." 

The Barbary Falcon is said to breed in cUfis, and 
the eggs, three to four in number, resemble those of a 
Peregrine but are somewhat smaller. 



TvpE H. 
Genus Falco. 



No. 1257. Falco jugger. The Laggar Falcon. 



Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Length of male about 16 ; and of a female about 
18 ; First primary sub-equal to 3rd or shorter ; wing 
in male 12*5, in female 14 ; a distinct narrow cheek 
stripe ; middle tail feathers entirely brown in adults. 
" Adult. Forehead, lores, and supercUia white, 
with dark streaks ; crown and nape brown, with broad 
rufous edges to the feathers ; a streak running back 
above the ear-coverts, and a moustachial band from 
the gape sometimes continued to the eye, with some 
feathers round the orbit dark brown ; rest of sides 



THE BUiDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



289 



Measwrements. 



Habits, etc. 



of head white, with a few dark shafts beneath the eye; 
upper plumage from the nape brown with an ashy 
tmge ; quills the same ; inner webs of primaries, 
except near the end, with broad white bars, tail 
brown, middle feathers unbarred and pale tipped, 
outer feathers with whitish bars on the inner webs and 
white tips ; lower parts white, a few dark streaks, 
wanting in very old birds, on the breast, and spots 
on the abdomen; flanks and outer thigh-coverts 
chiefly brown. (Blanford). 

'' Young bu-ds are almost brown throughout, the 
chin and throat white, and some white on the fore- 
head, sides of head, breast and lower tail-coverts, 
buff instead of white on quills and inner webs of tail 
feathers. There is a gradual disappearance of the 
brown on the lower parts with successive moults." 
(Blanford). 

" Bill greyish blue, the tip blackish ; cere yellow in 
adults, greenish grey in young birds ; irides dark 
brown ; legs and feet yellow, pale plumbeous to dull 
greenish grey in the young (Hume) " (Blanford). 

Length of female about 18 inches ; tail 8 ; wing 14 ; 
tarsus 2 ; mid-toe without claw 1 ' 8 ; bill from gape 
r25: of a male, length 16 ; tail T'o; wing 12*5. 
(Blanford). 

The Laggar Falcon is widely distributed throughout 
India and is generally to be found in open plains, over 
scrub and thin jungle and the vicinity of cultivation 
and villages. It ascends the lower hills to an altitude 
of about 3,000 ft. but is seldom seen near heavy for- 
ests. It preys on a variety of small birds, from part- 
ridges downwards and may often be seen hunting bats 
in the evening. Laggars usually hunt in pairs and 
are past masters in following s^Dortsmen near a snipe 
jheel, or when after quail. I witnessed a beautiful 
chase one day after a snipe, in the Kangra valley, but 
the snijie got away in the end. 

Mr. Hume describes how a pair of these birds followed 
him every time he went out quail shooting near their 
haunts and used to stoop at the quails his party put 
up. '■ This did not happen once or twice " says Mr. 
Hume, " or even during one or two seasons, it was 
regularly the case for the four or five successive years, 
that I remember the birds returning to their favourite 
tree." 

I have noticed this <raiY more than once, in places 
which are often shot over. 

In the air the Laggar can usually be recognised by 
his very white breast and dark and white pattern on 
the under surface of the wing, and of course by the fact 
that two are generally seen together. The Tunmiti 
or Red-headed Merlin is the only other of the po nted 
long-winged birds wliich hunt in couples, and this 
species also has a white breast, but there is a vast dif- 
ference in the size and the Laggar looks U t mes 
bigger. 



13 



290 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL msr. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVLI. 



The Laggar buUds, on trees, in clifEs [or on ruined 
buildings, from January to March and lays usually 
four eggs, reddish or brownish, speckled or spotted 
all over with a darker and richer shade of the same, and 
measure about 2"01 by 1*57. 

N.B. — -Whatever the age or the plumage of any 
individual, and there is a great difference between the 
young and the adult, the central tail feathers in the 
Laggar Falcon are always plain brown, unbarred or 
unspotted, and this factor is worthy of careful con- 
sideration when in doubt. 



Genus FAico. 
No. 1258. Falco chernig. The Saker or Cherrug Falcon. 



Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Size medium, length of a female about 22" and of 
a male about 20. 1st primary subequal to .3rd or 
t:horter, no cheek stripe, middle tail feathers usual- 
ly brown with white spots on each web ; adults not 
banded above. 

" Adult. Crown and nape white (the crown some- 
times pale rufous) with black shaft-stripes, which are 
broader on the nape ; lores and sides of head white, 
with scattered dark streaks ; no cheek stripe from the 
eye, but sometimes a broken moustachial stripe from 
the gape ; ear-coverts brown, streaked darker ; upper 
parts brown throughout, the feathers with rufous or 
tawny margins, and frequently a few rufous spots 
forming imperfect bars on the scapulars and larger 
wing-coverts ; quills brown, paler beneath ; primaries 
broadly barred with white on the inner webs, the bars 
widening and generally coalescing towards the inner 
boarder ; secondaries with smaller white markings 
or with white sjots, or uniformly coloured brown ; tail 
feathers brown, with a whitish tip, generally with round 
or oval white spots on both webs, but occasionally 
the middle feathers are unspotted (as in F. jugger) 
and sometimes the spots become on the outer rectrices 
imperfect bands, interrupted at the shafts ; lower parts 
white, with large elongate brown spots on the breast 
and abdomen and larger spots on the flanks and thigh 
coverts ; with age the spots grow smaller, rounder, 
and more scattered, especially on the breast 

" Young birds do not differ greatly from old except 
that the brown spots on the lower plumage are much 
more developed, and cover the greater part of the 
breast and abdomen ; the head, too, is sometimes 
brown, and a moustachial stripe is usually well marked; 
the middle tail feathers are often unspotted at first. 

" Bill pearly white, tipped black ; cere, legs and feet 
dull yellow in old birds, greyish green in the young ; 
irides dark brown, or brownish yellow or yellow." 
(Blanford). 

N.B. — I have examined very many birds but 
cannot remember ever having seen one with eyes ap- 
proaching yellow. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB, 



291 



Measurements. 



Habits, etc. 



" Length of a female about 22" ; tail 9 ; wing 15-5; 
tarsus 2-2; mid-toe without claw 2; bill from gap] 
1 • 45 ; length of male 19' 5 ; tail 8 ; wing 14- 5" (Blan- 
ford). 

This fine falcon is a ^vinter visitor to the plains of 
India and though by no means a common bird even, 
in mid winter in most parts of the Punjab a goo 1 
manj^ are caught and brought into the Amritsar mar- 
ket for sale from the western Punjab and Bikaneei-. 
This is a desert species and seldom to be seen near 
jungle or cultivation, though I caught one in Wazira- 
bad many years ago, right in the very heart of miles 
of cultivation. 

The food of this species for the most part is said to 
be the Spiny-tailed lizard {Uromastix hardivickii) but 
rats and mice do not come amiss and the one above 
mentioned had recently caught a frog and came down 
to a mynah a few minutes later. 

The Saker is much prized for falconry and trained 
to gazelle, kite, houbara, grass owl, etc., and it would 
be difficult to say which quarry fm-nishes the least 
sport. 

]\Iore than once I have lost sight of both falcon and 
quarry when the latter was the grass owl, as the pair 
ringed and circled almost directly overhead, and on 
one occasion the falcon was not found till the following 
evening. The first Saker I ever flew at a Kite gave 
the most extraordinary exhibition I have ever seen 
and the kite, perhaps, was the most surprised object 
on earth or in the sky, that day. The falcon liew 
straight at the kite as soon as she was slipped, made a 
half hearted attack and then turned half right and 
went straight away, much to the amusement of a 
couple of friends who had come to see the fun. '" If 
that is a sample of falconry I can't say much for it " 
and similar remarks were not lacking, as we watched 
the falcon getting smaller in the dim distance. 

I told the falconer to call her back, but the old 
fellow was quite indignant at the idea, and merely 
remarked "You just wait and see Sahib, she is a 
tiger and is not going to disappoint us like that " 
or words to that effect. 

We watched and the falcon disappeared from view 
altogether and even the old falconer began to have 
qualms that he had seen the last of the bhd. 

The kite, in the meantime had risen to a consider- 
able height and had not been in the least alarmed by 
the falcon's half-hearted attack, and still circled round 
in the company of some half a dozen vultures. 

The old falconer was the fii st to spot the falcon again 
and in a very ecstasy of delight shouted out, '" Look 
Sahib, look, did'nt I tell you she was a tiger, and 
now you will see." High up, a tiny speck against 
the sky, came the falcon from the direction whither 
she had gone and having reached well over the 
vultures and kite she simply shut her whigs. M.nd 



292 JO URNAL, B 0MB A Y NA TUBAL KIST. SO CIETY, Vol XX VII. 

came down like a bullet, striking the kite fair and 
square, though the latter turned over to meet the 
blow with its upturned claws. The kite staggered 
as the falcon passed on her downward swoop, to rise 
almost vertically to her pitch, and down she came again 
" raking " the kite badly as the latter zigzagged down- 
wards to avoid the falcon's talons, and this time a 
handful of feathers floated in the breeze behind. The 
kite appeared to be in a bad way and had somehow 
injured one wing. It did not attempt to rise but 
flew straight ahead and distinctly lop-sided. The 
falcon after her stoop, rose again only to about the 
level of her quarry, turned and went straight for it, 
the two birds flying at each other, and "bound" with 
out the least hesitation and the two came down in 
spirals with wings extended. As thej^ came to earth 
we found that the falcon had got the kite with one 
claw by the neck and the other was firmly imbedded 
in the shoulder of the kite, Avhereas both claws of the 
kite were round the tarsi of the falcon. 

Nothing is known of the nidification of this species 
in India. 

Type H. 

Genus Falco. 

No. 1259. Falco milvipes. The Shanghar Falcon. 

Characteristics. Size medium, wing in male about 14" and in female 

about 16 " ; 1st primary subequal to 3rd or shorter. 
Adults banded with rufous on back wings and tail. 
Colouration. " Crown brown, the feathers with broad rufous mar- 

gins, still broader and mixed with bufE on the nape; 
cheek-stripe black, ill defined ; lores and forehead 
whitish. Upper plumage and tail brown, with rufous 
cross-bars throughout (somewhat as in a female Kest- 
rel) ; inner webs of primaries mostly covered by con- 
fluent white bars, except near the tips of the feathers ; 
lower parts buff or white with spots on the breast 
abdomen, and flanks, those on the breast and middle 
of the abdomen disappearing in old birds." 

" In young birds the rufous bars are irregular and 
iU-marked, and those on the tail more or less imperfect. 
In this stage F. milvipes is very hke F. cherrug, but 
may generally be distinguished by some of the bars 
going quite across the tail feathers. A nestling from 
Tibet in the Hume collection, attributed to this species, 
has, however, the tail absolutely unbarred." 

" Bill bluish, black at the tip ; cere, legs and feet 
yellow." (Blanford). 
Measurements. Length of female about 23" ; tail 9'' ; wing 16" ; 

tarsus 2'2 ; mid-toe without claw 2 ; bill from gape 
.1-35: length of male about 20 ; tail 7i ; wing 14. 
(Blanford). 
Habits, etc. This is a rare winter visitor to the plains of India 

and little is known about it. 



THE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



293 



I cannot remember ever having seen it on the plains 
or in captivity, though on two occasions I have seen 
a bird which, I think, must have been this species 
high up in the Himalayas, once late in the autumn 
and on the other occasion early in the spring. 

On both occasions the bird I saw appeared to have 
a very white and glistening breast and mider parts, 
though I saw them at fairly close quarters I could 
not be sure of their identity. 

Of its distribution Blanford says—" Tibet and Mon- 
golia. A few birds have been obtained in the Pun- 
jab at times, and one by Sir 0. St. John at Quetta." 
Nothing appears to be known of its nidification." 

Genus Falco. 



No. 1260. Falco subbufeo. The Hobby. 



Characteristics. 
Colouration. 



Measurements. 
Habits, etc. 



Size small, wing about 11"; tarsus about 1^" or 
less; mid-toe ^vithout claw about ly ; " Breast white 
or buff with brown streaks ". 

Head, cheek strijoe and the side of the head, beneath 
and behind the eye, blackish ; the superciUum and 
forehead whitish and a partial collar of buff on the 
hind-neck. Rest of upper plumage dark slaty grey, the 
tail feathers barred with dull rufous on the inner webs. 
Quills blackish with rufous bars. 

Under surface white, or whitish tinged with buff 
and each feather with a deep brown streak ; the thigh 
coverts, abdomen and under tail coverts rufous oi- 
deep ferruginous. 

Young birds are usually blackish above with buff 
or fulvous edges to the feathers. Cheek and throat 
fulvous or pale rufous, as also the under parts generally 
the latter with dark brown streaks to the feathers. 

" Bill bluish, with a black tip ; lower base of bill, 
cere, and orbital skin greenish yellow ; irides intense 
brown ; legs orange (Cripps) "' — (Blanford). 

"Length of female about 13"; tail 6; wing 11 ; 
tarsus r 4 ; mid-toe without claw 1 " 25 ; bill from 
gape 8 : of a male wing 10" 25 ; tail 5-5". (Blanford). 

This beautiful httle falcon is by no means rare in 
the Himalayas and its wonderful evolutions in the 
air cannot help attracting attention. Its long pointed 
wings make it appear bigger than it really is, and one 
often has to look twice to make sure that it is not a 
Shaheen one sees. If watched for a few seconds it 
will be seen to constantly change direction and turn 
and twist in the air in a most amazing way ui pursuit 
of insects, on which it mostly preys. The Hobby does 
not usally make its appearance till late in the afternoon 
and may be seen ending, stooping, rising vertically, 
and playing extraordinary tricks in the air, sometime 
after all diurnal birds have gone to rest. 

In spite of its extreme rapidity of flight, from a fal- 
coner's pomt of view the Hobbies are disappointing 
as they lack the dash and daring of the Merlin. They 



294 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

are very easily tamed and can be taught to " wait on " 
at great heiglits and have been used in the pursuit of 
larks, etc., a good deal. 

This species breeds in the Himalayas and the finding 
of the nest has been recorded (in the Journal of the 
B. N. H. Soc.) from various places. Lt.-Col. Rattray 
found a nest on Mii'anjani in the Murree Hills and Mr. 
A. E. Jones records nests from Simla (Vol. XXIV, 
page 359). 

I have seen the bird in Kulu and in the hiEs behind 
Dharmsala in mid-summer, so presumably it breeds 
there though I have not, so far, found the nest. 

The nest is built in trees but the Hobby does not 
appear to be averse to appropriating an old crow's 
nest as this is what Mr. Jones had to say with regard 
to his find — " The nest was on the outskirts of a 
deodar forest placed 65 feet up a deodar {Cedrus deo- 
darus) at an elevation of 6,000 ft. The nest was un- 
doubtedly built by crows (C. macrohynchus) but the 
hobbies had added a ' fence ' of thorny twings round 
the brim. The Iming was fine rootlets, hair, grass 
and small pieces of twine. A few of the hobbies' fea- 
thers adhered to the nest. The eggs were slightly 
incubated. Two eggs are of a dull salmon-pink ground, 
evenly and finely speckled with liver red and some 
blotches of the same shade sparsely distributed over 
the surface. The third egg is a uniform bright brick 
red with a few indistinct blotches of a deeper shade 
collected at the larger end. The gizzard of the bird 
contamed portions of a bird." 

Genus FAiiCO. 
No. 1261. Falco severus. The Indian Hobbv. 



Characteristics. 



Colouration. 



Size small, wing about 111- ; tarsus under li ; mid- 
toe without claw about T 35 ; "breast deep rufous, 
unspotted in adults." 

Very similar to the preceding species ; the top and 
sides of head and the back of the neck black, shading 
to a dark slaty grey on the back. The tail dark gi-ey 
with a blackish subterminal band, blackish, in the 
yomig with grey cross-bands. 

" Chin, throat, and sides of neck white tmged with 
rufous ; rest of lower parts, including the under wing- 
coverts, deep ferruginous red." (Blanford). 

" Young birds are brownish black above, with light 
rufous edges, broadest on the secondaries, upper tail- 
coverts and tail ; a few rufous feathers scat- 
tered over the nape ; breast, abdomen, and under 
wing-coverts, deep rufous with black spots." (Blan- 
ford). 

" Bill plumbeous ; irides deep brown ", cere, gape 
and oribital skin lemon yellow ; legs and feet deep 
yellow (Cripps). (Blanford). 



TRE BIRDS 01 PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 295 

MeasuremPMti.. " Length of a female about 11.5 ; tail 4.75 ; wins; 

9.8; tarsus 1.35; mid-toe without claw 1.35; bifl 
from gape • 9 : length of a male 10- 5 ; winc^ 9. (Blan- 
ford). 
Habits, etc. Very similar to the preceding species and as Hume 

saj^s, F. sever us bears the same relationship to F. sub- 
buteo that F. peregrinator bears to F. peregrlnus, 
being a more subtropical species with a comparatively 
limited range of distribution. 

This species is common thi-oughout the Himalayas, 
but I think they affect somewhat lower altitudes than 
does F. subbuteo a,t any rate after the young ones have 
left the nest. Whereas high up on the Alpine pas- 
tures F. subbuteo is very common in the early autumn, 
F. severus is more restricted to the glades and slopes 
in the \acinity of deodars and pines, at about G to 8,0 )0 
ft. elevation. 

Anything from a smgle pair to almost a dozen may 
be seen hawldng insects in the afternoons and ti! .'•it-' 
in the evening. 

I have tried both the Hobbies with birds for baits 
but never succeeded in catching one, except ^vith a 
siccada. On more occasions than one, I have had one 
start from its perch, for a quail or a sparrow, but never 
has one got to within several yards of my net. 

I have found the nest of this species in Tehri Gurh- 
wal and agan in Bhadarwa (Kashmir), but though 
this is the Indian Hobby with a much more restricted 
range, its nest has not been so often found as that of 
the preceding species, which is supposed only to be a 
winter visitor. 

The chief point of difference between the two birds 
is the colouring of the under parts which, in the case 
of F. subbuteo is, at most, tinged with rusty brown 
while in F. sevenis. all, except the chin and upicr 
breast is a deep ferruginous red, easily distinguished 
even when the bird flashes past at some distance. 

In Vol. XVI, p. 518 of the Journal of the B. N. 
Soc. Mr. Macdonald records the finding of a nest in 
a cliff in Bm'mah. 

Genus tEsalon. 
Xo. 1263. ^ salon reguhts. The INIerlm. 

Characteristics. Size small, wing about 8 to 9" ; 2nd and 3rd pri:n. 

aries longest and subequal, first much .siioro.n- and 
approximately equal to fourth ; crown gray or brown 
dark-shafted ; Fii'st two quills notched. 

Colouration, In the adult male, practically the whole oi the uppe i 

parts are bluish grey, varying in individuals fioni a 
pale to a dark tint, with dark brown or black shaft - 
stripes to each feather. The sides of the head, the 
forehead and the lores are whitish and tlie elicclcs and 
supercilia rusty brown, as well as the nuchal collar 
but the cromi of the hea 1. like the back is a clcav blue 



296 JOVBNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII 

grey, with dark shafts to the feathers. Primaries are 
blackish, the inner webs barred with whitish towards 
the base, and outer webs tinged with blue grey. Tail 
bluish grey tinged with whitish and sometimes with a 
faint rufescent wash, and a broad band of black 
immediately before the terminal white tip. 

Throat white and the rest of lower plumage whitish 
with a rufous tinge, and dark brown shaft-stripes. 

The female differs from the male in havmg the head 
brown or brownish, with dark shafts to the feathers 
and the upper parts generally brownish with a grey 
tinge and reddish margins to the feathers. 

" The tail barred throughout, and the quills with 
rufous cross-bands ; the nuchal collar and lower parts 
less rufous than in the male and the breast and upper 
abdomen with much broader brown shaft-stripes 
these frequently occupying more space than the white 
borders. 

" Young birds of both sexes resemble the female, 
but are browner with broader rufous edges to the fea- 
thers of the upper parts, with the crown rufous (dark- 
shafted), and with the tail alternately banded brown 
and white ; the quills too are barred almost across" 
(Blanford). 

" Bill dark slaty grey, greenish at base of lower 
mandible ; cere legs and feet yellow ; irides brown" 
(Hume). 

"Length of a female about 12"'; tail 5*5; wing 
8* 75; tarsus 1'5; mid-toe 1'3; bill from gape "8; 
Length of a male 11 ; wing 8". (Blanford). 
Habits, etc. The Merlin is another of our winter visitants, arriv- 

ing in the autumn and leaving again in the spring. 
It is much esteemed for falconry and for its size 
is second to none in point of speed and courage, and 
few fa' cons can show a more pleasing spectacle than 
the little M erlin in pursuit of a hoopoe or a lark. They 
are very easily tamed and trained but are dehcate 
and require careful handling. 

This species is much given to sitting on the ground, 
or on low bushes, whence it can keep a sharp look out 
for birds passing overhead. When in full chase the 
flight of this bird is not unlike that of the Shaheen but 
more undulating, something like that of a flock of 
starlings. A " bund " between two dry paddy fields 
or the open plains adjoining a stream or river, are 
favourite haunts of the Merlin and, if watched, it will 
be noticed that its little head is hardly still for a second . 
It appears to be on sjirings, bobbing this way and that, 
ever on the look out for some luckless quarry. Hav- 
ing sighted something worthy of its attentions, it will 
rise hurriedly and go off with fast vibrating wings, 
inclining steadily upwards. If you have the good 
fortune to see the object of its attentions, possibly a 
flock of sparrows or wagtails, you will notice that the 
moment they realize their danger, they will begin to 
mount higher and higher, but the Merhn is mounting 



THE BIRDS OF PREY 01 THE PUNJAB. 297 

too and coming up with them fast. Suddenly two 
or three of the little birds in front leave the rest and 
begin to twist and swerve, as if uncertain what to do 
next, and suddenly decide to dive for the bushes far 
below. The little Merlin shows no indecision but 
fairly cleaves the air in a succession of regular bounds 
and is up to the birds it has selected for its own in a 
couple of seconds, and then begins as pretty a bout 
of serial gyrations as one could wish to behold. Stoop 
after stoop, twists and turns, with a rapidity which 
the eye can only just follow. A drop of a hundred 
feet with closed wings, a sudden flick, and hawk and 
quarry are yards apart, and then a rise for the open 
sky followed by a zigzag course, as the Merlin again 
catches up and follows every turn and twist in the 
train of its quarry, only inches dividing the two. A 
sudden vertical rise upwards, a double back, as the 
Merhn shoots forward, and a headlong drop for the 
friendly bushes below, which the fraction of a second's 
start has made possible, but the little falcon turns, 
shuts its wings and with a couple of quick beats to 
give impetus, hurls herself through space and just as 
those friendly bushes, and safety therein, seem so very 
near, the little bird finds those relentless claws even 
nearer, and once more has to swerve, rise and twist 
and just as it makes one final dive for liberty it feels 
a sudden sharp prick, as the Merlin bears off its prize 
to the seclusion of a tussock of grass away from prying 
eyes. 

The Merlin builds on the ground but the nest has 
never been found in India. 



Genus u.'E salon. 
No. 1264. uEsalon chiquera. The Turumti or Red-headed Merlin. 

Characteristics. Size small, wings in females about 9" ; 2nd and 3rd 

primaries longest and subequal, first much shorter and 
approximately equal to the fourth ; crown chestnut. 

Colouration. Very similar to the adult male in the preceding 

species but can always , and at any age be differenti- 
ated, by this species having a chestnut crown and nape. 
Generally the plumage of the upper parts is a pale 
bluish grey with dark shaft-stripes and a few dark bars 
on the scapulars and wing coverts which fade with 
age. 

The under parts are pure, white especially the chni 
and breast with very faint thin black lines, which 
become wider and more distinct lower down, and bars 
on the flanks and abdomen. 

The tail is grey with narrow dark bars and a broad 
marginal black band the extreme tip being white. 
The crown of the head sides and nape are bright 
chestnut and the forehead and lores white. 



298 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII 

In the yoimg bird the barring of the feathers of the 
upper parts is more distinct and there are more dark 
bars generally. There is a slight rufescent tinge on 
the lower parts and at the bend of the wing and the 
head is more rufous than chestnut with dark shaft- 
stripes. 

" Bill bluish black greenish yellow at the base ; 
cere orbital skin and legs yellow ; irides rather light 
brown " (Hume). 
Measurements. Length of female about 14 ; tail 6 ; wing 9 ; tarsus 

1*6; mid-toe 1-5; bill from gape •9." (Blanford). 
The male is smaller. 
Habits, etc. The Turumti is well distiibuted throughout this 

country in suitable localities. It affects groves and 
gardens or open plains bordered by trees and is not 
to be found at high altitudes. 

They usually hunt in pairs and for the most part 
prey on small birds. The flight of this species is very 
• different to that of the Merlin when in pursuit of 

game being very straight and with regular beats 
of the wings and not in jerks and " jumps ". This is 
a plucky little falcon and can be trained to take the 
Roller and the Hoopoe and occasionally partridges. 
In its wild state I have seen them frequently pull down 
a dove and on one occasion a Blue -rock Pigeon and 
have caught them in a net with a mynah as a bait. 
I cannot remember ever having seen one soaring. 

A pair I had used throughout one winter and which 
had afforded me m^^ch sport I kept on through the 
summer as pets and both became firm friends of a 
couple of young mjrnahs which I had at the same time, 
all fom- birds perching together on a towel horse in a 
spare bathroom. 

The falcons were placed there earher in the after- 
noon and the mynahs would make their way thither 
of their own accord and sit alongside their erstwhile 
enemies, in the most friendly and confiding manner. 

The Turumti breeds in the early spring laying 4 
eggs in a neat little nest h'gh up in the fork of some 
tree. The eggs are brownish red mottled and blotched 
with darker red." 

Genus Tinnunculus. 
No. 1265. Tinmmculus alaxidarius. The Kestrel, 

Characteristics. Size small length about 14" ; foot much smaller 

and weaker than in falcons, mid-toe without claw being 
from two thirds to three fourths the length of the tar- 
sus ; tail comparatively long and graduated the 
outer rectrices being 1 to IJ inches shorter than the 
middle pair ; upper rarts tinged with rufous through- 
out T,itL biacK Lands in the females and young. 

Golouration. The top of the head, the sides and the nape ashy 

grey with dark shaft-stripes to the feathers ; ear-co- 
verts and cheeks greyish or white and the forehead 



TRE BIRDS OF PREY OF THE PUNJAB. 



299 



Measurements. 



Habits, etc. 



and lores white tinged with yellow ; tail, rump and 
upper tail coverts, like the head, ashy grey. A black 
subterminal band to the tail and narrow" white tips. 
The remainder of the upper plumage is a deep brick- 
red with black triangular spots on back and sca- 
pulars which vary in intensity and numbers v/ith diff- 
erent individuals. Quills dark brown towards the tips 
and nearly white at the base, with whitish bars. The 
under parts generally buff or pale rufous with long 
Unes and streaks on the breast which pass into spots 
on the lower breast and flanks, except the lower abdo- 
men which is unspotted ; the under side of tlie tail is 
whitish, as also the wing lining, with dark spots. 

Females are more dingy above, being some shade 
of rufous, throughout ; the head feathers are streaked 
with dark brown shaft-stripes and the rest of the upper 
parts with black or blackish bars. The under parts 
are paler than the back and spotted with black as in 
the males. 

The young are somewhat similar to the females, 
but the tail may assume its grey tinge before the head 
in the j'oung male. 

" Bill bluish black ; gape, cere and eyelids yellow ; 
irides brown : legs orange vellow, claws black." (Blan- 
ford). 

N.B. — T. cenchris the Lesser Kestrel, has 
whitish or pale horny claws, but specimens of T. 
alaudarius also occasionallj- are met with, with light 
coloured claws. 

Length about 14" ; expanse 2-|' : tail 6|- to 7" ; 
wing 9-J- ; tarsus 1-J- ; mid-toe 1 ; bill from gape • 85. 
Not much difference between the sexes. 

The Kestrel, or Windhover, is a familiar feature of 
the landscape from the grassy slopes of the Himalayas 
to the plains of India, though locally migratory ^\-ith 
the seasons. It is not often found m dense forests, 
though one may occasionally be seen hovering over 
a glade in the midst of a dense jungle. 

This beautiful httle hawk is very often most confid- 
ing and will permit one to sit down within a few paces 
of its perch and watch it searchuig for its prey. Like 
the Merlin, the head is always bobbing up and down, 
as it focusses its eyes on to some tiny tuft of grass or 
on some movement. Silently and slowly it will leave 
its perch and fly down with half bent wings until with- 
in a couple of feet of the object of its attack, when it 
will suddenly put on a spurt and fairly dash on to the 
ground. Its movements depend on the nature of its 
quarry. Sometimes a Kestrel will be seen droppmg 
from the skies at a terrific pace with no attempt to 
check its stoop until it apparently actuaUy hits the 
ground, whereas a few minutes later the same bird 
will be seen to come down very gently, with extended 
wings and alight with the utmost caution. A grass 
hopper crawling up a blade of grass, or along the 



300 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

ground, calls for no haste, whereas a mole cricket, or 
a lizard, may find a hole to disappear into any mo- 
ment, and requires speedy attention. 

It is by watching the " hoverers " (the Osprey, 
The Short-Toed Eagle, the Black-winged Kite and 
the Kestrel) that one begins to realise what marvellous 
eyesight the birds of prey are gifted with. When one 
sees a Kestrel hovering some 500 ft. above the earth 
and sees it drop to rise again with nothing visible in 
its talons, and as it flies slowly up one notices the head 
bend down and the claws come forward to meet the 
head and a couple of tiny, semi-transparent wings 
flutter to earth, one knows that the object which 
attracted the attention of those wonderful eyes, from 
such a height, was not much bigger than one's thumb 
nail, it leaves one wondering and marvelling. 

The Kestrel makes a delightful little pet, and has 
been trained to catch sparrows and other small birds. 
It will come readily to a quail behind a net, but its 
food consists almost entirely of insects, lizards and 
mice, and in its wild state it very seldom attacks 
birds. That bixds pay little or no attention to one 
hovering in their immediate vicinity is proof that 
they do not consider it an enemy. 

It builds in cliffs, in the Himalayas, very often in 
deep holes and lays 4 or 5 eggs " brick to Islood red, 
mottled and blotched with a deeper colour, and mea- 
suring about 1"57 by \'2\" (Blanford). 



{To be concluded in the next number.) 



301 

SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS FROM THE INDIAN 
MAMMAL SURVEY 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

By R. C. Wroughtox, f.z.s. 

Part VII. 

{Continued from page 85 of this Volume.) 

Famil}^ II. — Cervid^. 

Two subfamilies are recognised which may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Key to the subfamilies of the Cekvid^. 

A. — Antlers, face, glands, and foot glands 
(at least in hind limbs) present; no 
caudal gland ... ... ... I. CERViNiE. 

B. — Antlers, face-glands, and foot-glands 

absent ; a caudal gland in male ... II. MosCHiN^. 

Subfamily I. — Cervine. 

Lydekker recognises onlj^ two genera, one of which however he 
subdivides, into six subgenera. Thomas supports me in holding 
that all these subgenera should be treated as full genera. One 
of them is not represented in our region, but the remaining six 
may be arranged in a key as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Cervine. 

i. — Upper canines tusk-like in males ; 
horns short ; pedicels as long as 
horns, or longer, and continued down- 
wards as prominent converging 
frontal ridges ; no phalanges to 

lateral digits I. Muntiacus. 

II. — Upper canines (when present) not 
tusk-like ; long horns on short pedi- 
cels, which are not produced down- 
wards on the face ; bony phalanges 
present in lateral digits. 
A. — A specialised gland forming a mo- 
derately deep cleft on front of 
hind pasterns ; antlers three-tined ; 
tail lonsf. 



302 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

a. Size larger ; gland cleft on liind 
pasterns without long hairs ; 
coat spotted at all seasons ... II. Axis. 
h. Size smaller ; gland cleft on 
hind pasterns, lined with long 
hairs; coat spotted, at most, in 
summer ... ... ... III. Hyelaphus. 

B. — No specialised gland, or deep cleft, 
on front of hind pasterns ; upper 
canines nsually present. 
a. Mnffle extending some distance 
below the nostrils ; antlers 
normally three-tined ; tail rela- 
tively long and bnsh}^, coat 
unicolorons ... ... ... IV. RUSA. 

h. Muffle scarcely extending below 

nostrils ; tail short. 

a. Antlers typically dichoto- 

moiisly forked, with at least 

four tines ; no light rnmp- 

patch ... ... ... V. RuCERVUS. 

6\ Antlers usuallj^ five-tined ; a 
light rump-patch or area on 
back of hams ... ... VI. Cervus. 

Gen. I. — MuNTiACUS. 

This name was given by Rafinesque in 1815, a year earlier 

than Blahiville's Cervulus. 

No. 362, muntjac, Zimm. I re-examined this group recently, 
No. 363, /ec5, Thos.& Dor. (J. B. N. H. S. xxiv, p. 42, 1915), 

and decided to recognize four 

species excluding jfece. These five species may be arranged in a 

key as follows : — 

Key to the species o/Muntiacus. 

A. — Upper surface of tail rufous or fulvous. 

a. Grizzling not extending backwards 

beyond the shoulders. 
a^. General colour tawny ochraceous.l. grandicornis, Lyd. 
6\ General colour bright chestnut. 2. vaginalis, Bodd. 

b. Grizzling extending backwards 

over back. 

a\ General colour ochraceous buff. 3. aureus, H. Sm. 

b^. General colour hazel ... ... 4. malabaricus, Wr. 

B. — Upper surface of tail black ... ... 5. fecB, Thos. & Dor. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



303 



Distribution : — 

1 . M. grandicornis, Lydek- Tyjje localitij .-—Amherst District 

ker. Burma. (Allen). 

Other localities : — Lower Chindwin • 
Shan States (B. M.) ; Chin Hills • 
Chindwin; Mt. Popa; Shan States j 
Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 

Tijpe:—B. M. No. 4.9.23.1. 

2. M. vaginalis, Boddeert. T ijpe locality : — Bengal. 

Other localities : — Kumaon ; Nepal ; 
Sikkim ; Garo Hills (B. M.); Sikkim • 
Bhutan Duars ; Chindwin (M. S. I.). 

Type .-—Unknown. (Co-tj^pes of 
ratwa, Hodgson, B. M, No. 43.1,12, 
123 and 43,1.26.13. ; Lectotype B, iAJ.' 
No, 43,1.12.123.) 

3. M. aureus, Hamilton Type locality : — Unknown. 

Smith, Other localities ,-— Dekhan (Sykes) ; 

(B, M,) ; Central Provinces ; Berars ; 
Kiimaon (M. S. I.). 

TyjJe : — Unknown. (Type of tamu- 
licus. Gray, B. M. No. 701. b., skull 
only). 
A- M. malaharicus,^vo\\g\\- Type locality: — Nagai^hol, Coorg. 
ton. (B. N. H. S.— Shortridge). 

Other localities :■ — Kanara ; Coorg ; 
Ceylon (M. S. I.). 

Type :— B. M. No. 13.8.2lM03, 
5, M. fece, Thomas & Doria. Type locality : — Mt. 'Muleyit, Bur- 
ma. (Fea). 

Other localities : — S, W. Siam (B. 
M.), 

Type : — Genoa Museum, 

Gen, II. — Axis, 

No. 368. axis, Erxl, Lydekker admits a subspecies for 

Ceylon, which may be distinguished 
from the peninsular form as follows: — 

Key to the subspecies of Axis axis. 

A. — Antlers stouter; spots larger; fore- 
head usually with a dark chevron and 
a few white spots 1. «• axis, Erxl. 

B. — Antlers lighter ; spots smaller; fore- 
head uniformly brown 2, a. ceylonensis, Pitz. 



30 4 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SUCIIITY, Vol. XXV II. 

Distribution : — 

1. A. axis axis, Erxleben. Type locality : — Peninsular India. 

Other localities : — Berars ; Central 
Provinces ; Kanara ; Oudh ; Rohil- 
kund ; Kuniaon ; Bengal ; Nepal ; 
Sikkini (B. M.) ; Central Provinces ; 
Kanara ; Coorg (M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of nudi- 
palpibra, Ogilb}'-, B. M. No. 693. i.) 

2. A. axis ceylonensis, Fit- Type locality: — Ceylon. 

zinger. Other localities: — -Ceylon (B. M.); 

Ceylon (M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown (Type of" zeyla- 
nicus, Lydekker, B. M. No. 5.5.18.1.) 

Gen. III. — Hyelaphus. 

No. 369. porcinus, Zimm. The only form in our area. 

Distribution : — 

H. porcinus, Zimniermann. Type locality : — Indo-Gangetic 

Plain. 

Other localities : — Kumaon • Rohil- 
kund ; Nepal ; Sikkim ; Bengal ; Garo 
Hills ; Burma (B. M.). 

Type : — Unknown. 

Gen. IV. — EusA. 

No. 367. unicolor, Kerr. Lydekker accepts a number of sub- 

species, of which however only one 
actually belongs to our area. A second is recorded from Sze 
Chuen, and may later be found in N. E. Burma so I have included 
it here. Lydekker distinguishes the two as follows : — 

Key to the forms of RuSA. 
A. — Size rather larger ; face longer ; 

shanks dark ... ... ... ... 1. u. unicolor, Kerr. 

B. — Size slightly smaller; face shorter; 

shanks light... ... ... ... 2. u. dejeani, Pons, 

Distribution : — 

1. R. unicjlor unicolor, Type locality : — Ceylon. 

Kerr. Other localities .•— Mhow ; Godavery 

Vailejr ; Kumaon ; Oudh ; Nepal ; 
Sikkim (B. M.) ; Western Ghats 
Dharwar ; Coorg ; Ceylon ; Kumaan 
Bhutan Duars (M. S. I.). 
Type : — Unknown. 



SUMMARY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 



300 



ft 



2. R. unicolor dejeani, Type localihj :—Sze Chuen. 

Pousargues. Other localities :~No specimen in 

B. M. 

Tyj}e : — Paris Museum. 

Gen. V. RuCERVus. 

No. 365. duvaucelU, Cnv. Lydekker accepts two subspecies of 
No. 366. eldi, McCl. eldi for our region, viz., eldi, and 

frontalis, from S. Burma and Manipur 
respectively. Thomas has more recently studied this group (J. B. 
N. H. S.xxv, p. 364, 1918). He shows that the original of eldi 
came from Manipur and not from Pegu, and that consequently 
that name must be used for the form now called frontalis. The 
true Thamin of Pegu being thus without a name, he proposes for it 
that of thamin, at the same time raising it to specific rank alongside 
of eldi ; finally he establishes a subspecies of thamin, viz., bruct i, 
for the animal from the Ruby Mines, Burma. The four forms of 
RuCERVUS (including duvaucelU) may be arranged in a key as 
follows : — 

Key to the species of Rucervus. 

A. — Brow tine differentiated from the 

beam, leaving it at an appreciable 

distance above the burr 
B. — Brow tine continuous with the beam, 

i.e., leaving it immediately above the 

burr. 

a. Under surface of hind pasterns 

horny 

b. Under surface of hind pasterns 

hairy. 

a^ Antlers spreading widely outwards 
almost from the burr ... 

&!. Antlers rising parallel for an ap- 
preciable distance, and then only 
spreading feebly outwards 

Distribution : — 



1. duvaucelU, Cuv. 



2. eldi, McClelland. 



3. t. thamin, Thos. 



4. t. brucei, Thos. 



1. R. duvaucelU, Cuvier. 



Type locality .-—Plains of India. 

Other localities .-—Central Provinces; 
Kheri, Oudh ; Kumaon ; Nepal; 
Brahmaputra Valley ; Gauhati, Assam 

(B. M.). 

Type: — Unknown. (Type of ela- 
phoides, Hodgson, B. M. Nos. 45.1.8, 
128-131.; Type oHimorphe, Hodgson, 



15 



4306 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVU. 

B. M. No. 45.1.8.271; Type of 

lyratus, Schinz, Ind, Mus. Calc. 
No./.). 

2. R. elclL McClelland. Type locality :—Ma.ni-puv. (Eld). 

Other localities : — Manipur (B . M . ) . 

TyjJe : — 'Not traced. (Co-types of 
frontalis, McClelland, B. M. No. 79. 
11.21.36. and Ind. Mns. Calc. Nos. b. 
and c. ; Type of cornipes, Lj^dekker, 
B. M. No. 1.17.13.1). 

3. R. thamin tliamin, Type locality :■ — Pegu. (Evans). 
Thomas. Other localities : — Lower Chindwin ; 

Pegu; Thatone, Tenasserim (B. M.). 
Type:—B. M. No. 0.7.23.1. 

4. R. thamin brucei, Tho- Type locality : — Pubj^ Mines, 
mas. Burma. (Bruce). 

Other localities : — -Ruby Mines. 
Tijpe:—B. M. No. 17.7.8.17. 

Gen. VI. — Cervus. 

No. 364. cashmirianus, Lydekker adds two more forms 

Falc. which occur either within our region; 

or on its immediate border. These 
three ma3'n3e arranged in a hey as follows ; — ■ 

Key to the species of Cervus. 

A. — Muzzle mainly dark, lower lips and 

chin fawn or brown ; ears long and 

pointed, with sinuous upper margins. 
a. A white rump patch; antlers five- 

tined, sharply angulated and bent 

forward at the third tine, so that 

the tips of the fifth are bent inwards. 1. affinis, Hodgs. 
h. White area restricted to back of 

hams ; a brownish patch on croup, 

in front of tail; antlers wapiti like. 2. macneilli, Lj^d. 
B. — Muzzle pale fawn, lower lip and chin 

white ; ears bluntly pointed, with 

straight upper margins ... ... 3. haiiglu, Wagn. 

Distribution : — 

1. C. affinis, Hodgson. ' Tyjoe locality: — Chambi Valley; 

Sikkim (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Chambi Valley ; 
Bhutan (B. M.). 

Ty2ie .•— B. M. No. 45. 1 . 8. 94. 



SUMMARY 01 TBI: INDIAN MAMMAL SUM I HI, 



307 



2. C. macneilliLjdekkev. Type locality :~Sze Clmen (Uac- 

neill). 

Other localities : — None. 
Type :—B. M. No. 9. 5. 31. 1. 

3. C. hanglu, Wagner. Tijjje locality :~Ka,shmiY. 

Other localities : — Kashmir (B. M.). 

Tt/jJe .-—Unknown. (Type of cash- 
meerianus, Falconer, B. M. No 46 8 
24.2.). 

Subfamily II. — MosCHiNiE. 

Gen. — MosCHUS. 

No. 370, moschiferus, L. The only Indian genus. 

The only species. 

Distribution : — 

M. moschiferus, Linnaeus. Type locality : — " Tataria versu ; 

Chin am." 

Other localities : — -Kashmir; Garwhal, 
Nepal ; Sikkim ; Cachar (B. M.) ; Sik- 
kim (M. S. I.). 

Type :■ — Unknown. (Type of chry- 
sogaster, Hodgson, B. M. No. 43.1.12. 
93. ; Type of leucogaster, Hodgson, 
B. M. No. 43.1.12.95; Type of 
cachariensis, Hodgson, B. M. No. 43. 
1.12.97; Type of saturatus, Hodgson 
B. M. No. 43.1.12.98). 

Section II.— Tragulina. 

There is only one Family. 

Family. — Tragulid^. 

Thomas has recently (A. M. N. H. (8) xviii, p. 72, 1916) restrict- 
ed the name Tragulus to the unspotted forms of Malaya, and 
revived Hodgson's Moschiola for the spotted peninsular form. 
These two genera may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Tiiagulid^. 

4.— Body spotted; chin and throat hairy. . I. Moschiola. 
B. — Body not spotted ; skin between rami 

of mandibles naked II. Tragulus. 

Gen. I. — Moschiola. 

No. 371. ineminna, Erxl. The only species. 



308 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 
DlSTEIBUTION : — 

M. meminna, Erxleben. Type locality : — India. 

Other localities : — Dekhan ; Kanara ; 
Mysore ; Coorg ; Travancore ; Ceylon 
(B. M.); Kanara; Coorg; Ceylon (M. 
S. L). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of malac- 
censis, Gray, B. M. No. 42.5.26.19). 

Gen. II. — Tkagulus. 

No. 372. javanicus, Gmel. Two forms are found in Biirma, a 
No. 373. napu, Raff. large and a small, for which Blanford 

borrows names from Java and Suma- 
tra, but more recently Miller has provided the names ravus and 
canescens, (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xiii, p. 186, 1900, and xv, p. 173^ 
1902), They may be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Tkagulus. 

A. — Size smaller, head and body about 

18-19 inches, hind foot 4-5-5 inches ... 1. ravus, Mill. 

B. — Size larger, head and body about 25- 

30 inches; hind foot 5*5-6 inches ... 2. canescens, Mill. 

Distribution : — 

1. T. ravus, Miller, Type locality : — Trong, S. W. 

Siam (Abbott). 

Other localities : — Tenasserim (B. 
M.); Tenasserim (M. S. I.) ; 

Type ;— U. S. Nat. Mns. No. 83506. 

2. T. canescens, MiWev. Type locality: — Trong, S. W. Siam 

(Abbott). 

Other localities .-—Tenasserim (B. 
M.) ; Tenasserim (M. S. I.). 

Type .-— U. S. Nat. Mns. No. 83509, 
Section III. — SuiNA. 
Only one Family is represented. 

Family — Suid^, 
Two .genera are represented which may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Key to the genera of the Suid^. 
A. — Size large, height 20-40 inches at the 

shoulder; tail fairly long; mammge 12. I. Sus. 
B. — Size small, height 10 inches at 

shoulder ; tail short; mammee 6. .,, II. PocULA. 



SUMMARY 01 THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY 



309 



1 . S. crisiatus cristatus, 
Waoner. 



Gen. I. — Sus. 

No. 374. cristatus, Wagu. Miller has founded the name 

No. 375. andamanensis, Bl, jubatus for the Tenasserim pio-, and 

nicoharicus for the form from the 
Nicobars. These may be arranged in a key as follows : 

Key to the forms of Sus. 

A. — Size larger ; 30-40 inches at shoulder; 
face not banded ; last molar complex. 

a. Larger; ears long and haired ... 1. c. cristatus, Wagn. 
h. Size smaller, ears shorter ; nearly 

naked ... 2 . c. jubatus, Mill. 

B. — Size smaller, about 20 inches at 
shoulder ; face banded ; last molar 
simple. 

a. Upper tooth row 83mm. ... ... '6. andamanensis, ^\. 

b. Upper tooth row 95mm. ... ... 4. nicobaricus, Mill. 

Distribution : — 

Type locality : — Malabar. 

Other localities : — Central Provinces; 
Nilgiri Hills ; Malabar ; Nepal ; Sik- 
kim (B. M) ; Kathiawar ; Western 
Ghats ; Dharwar ; Bellary ; Coorg ; 
Ceylon ; Bhutan Duars ; Chindwin 
(M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of affinis, 
Gray, B. M. No. 38.3.13.48 ; Type 
of zeylonensis, Blyth, Ind. Mus. Calc, 
No. p. ) 

Type locality .•— Trong, S. W. Siam 
(Abbott). 

Other localities .-—None. 

Type .•— U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 83518. 

Type locality .-—Port Blair, Anda- 
mans. 

Other localities .-—Andaman (B.M.). 

Type : — Not traced. 

Type locality 
Island. (Abbott.) 

Other localities .-—No specimens in 
B. M. 

Type .•— U. S. N. Mus. No. Ill, 794. 

Gen. II.— PoKCULA. 
No. 376. salvanius, Hodgs. The only species. 



2. S. cristatus jubatus, 
Miller. 



3. S. andamanensis, I 
Blyth. 

ii b- 



4. S. nicobaricus. 



Miller. 



-Great Nicobar 



310 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Distribution : — 

P. salvania, Hodgson. Tfpe locality : — Sikkim (Hodgson). 

Other localities : — Sikkim (B. M.) 
Type:—B. M. No. 58. 6. 24. 72. 

Suborder II. — Preissodactyla. 

Blanford recognises three Families which he distinguishes as 
follows : — 

Key to the families of the Perissodactyla. 
A. — Only one digit developed on each foot. I. Equid^. 
B. — More than one digit on each foot. 

a. Three digits on each foot ... ... II. EmNOCEROTiDiE. 

6. Four digits on each foot ... ... III. Tapirid^. 

Family I. — Equid^. 

Gen. — Equus. 

The only genus represented in India. 

There are two forms in our area 
No. 333. hemionus, Pall. or on its borders which may be 

distinguished as follows ; — 

Key to the species of Equus. 
A. — Larger height about 4ft. 3 ins. ; hoofs 

wide, over 75mm. ... ... 1. Jciang, Moore. 

B. — Smaller height about 3ft. 10 ins.; 

hoofs narrow, under 62mm. ... 2. o. indicus, Matsc. 

Distribution : — 

1. E. kiang, Moorcroft. Type locality: — Ladak. 

Other localities : — Ladak ; Nepal (B. 
M.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of polyo- 
don, Hodgson, B. M. No. 48.6.11.16). 

2. E. onager indicus, Mat- Type locality : — Kach. 

schie. Other localities .-—Kach ; Sind; Ba- 

luchistan (B. M.). 
Type : — Unknown. 

Family II. — RHINOCEROTIDiE. 

Gen. — Rhinoceros. 

This, the only genus represented in oui- area, is divided into two 
subgenera as follows : — 

Key to the subgenera of Rhinoceros. 

^.— A single horn on nose I. Rhinoceros. 

5.— Two horns on nose 11. Dicerorhinus. 



SUMMARY 01 THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 811 

Subgen. I, — Rhinoceros. 

No. 334. unicornis, L. These two species may be dis- 

No. 335. soncfaicws, Desm. tinguished as follows : — 

Key to the species of Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros). 

A. — Fold ill front of the shoulder not con- 
tinued over the back of neck ; skin 
of sides bearing tubercles... ... 1. unicornis, \j. 

B. — Fold ill front of shoulder continued 
over back of neck ; skin of sides 
divided into small polygonal scales. 2. sondaicus, Desm. 

Distribution : — 

1. R. (R). unicornis, Lin- Tijpe locality .-—Assam. 

najus OtJier localities :— Assam; Nepal 

(B. M.). 

Type : — Unknown. (Type of steno- 
cephalus, Gray, B. M. No. 722. e.). 

2. R. (R) sondaicus, Des- T^^e Zom% .-—Sumatra. (Diardand 

niarest. Duvaucal). 

Other localities .-—Cochin China ; 
Malay Peninsula; Sumatra; Java; 
Borneo (B. M.). 

Type :■ — Unknown. (Type of wasafe, 
Gray, b'. M. No. 59. 8. 16. L). 

Subgen. II.— Dicerorhinus. 

In 1901 Thomas grudgingly ac- 
No. 336. sumatrensis, Cl^v. cei^ted lasiotis, Sclater as a sub- 
species of sumatrensis {r. Z. b. ii, 
p. 154), solely on its larger size. Lydekker also keeps the two 
forms separate, and Sclater in his Catalogue oi the Indian 
]Museum, Calcutta, distinguishes them as follows :— 

Key to the forms of Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus). 
^.-Skull narrow ; tooth-roW short ... I. s. sumatrensis Cuv • 

B.-Skull broader ; tooth-row longer ... 2. s. lasiotts, feci. 

DiSTRIBU riON I — 

1. R. (D). sumatrensis sum- Type ^oca^i^^ .•— Suniatra. 

atrensis, C^ier. Other Wme. .--Pegu ; ^^la) 

Peninsula; Borneo (B. M.). 

ff^.^g .—Unknown. {Type ot mger, 
GravfB'.M. No. 72.12.31.1.). 
2.R.(D). sumatrensis las- Type locality :-C\nUagong. 
V,-ok Sclater. Other lomhHes:-^orre. 

T//jje.-— B. M. No. 1. 1. — 1- 



312 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Fol. XXVII. 

Family III. — Tapirid^. 
There is only one genus recognised but Lydekker, accepts 
ACROCODIA (Goldman), as a subgenus to contain the Indian forms. 

Gen. — Tapirus. 
Sub-genus. — Acrocodia. 
No. 337. incUcus, Guv. The only species. 

Distribution : — 

T. (A), indicus, Ouvier. Tyj^e locality /—Malay Peninsula. 

Other localiiies .-—Malay Peninsula ; 
Sumatra (B. M.). 
Type : — ^Unknown. 
Suborder III. — Probosciddea. 
Gen. — Elephas. 
The only genus. 

Thomas (P. Z. S. p. 101,1911.), 

points out that Linneeus him- 

No. 332. maximus, L. self gives the type locality of 

maximus as Ceylon.' Lydekker 

however asserts that there are two 

races of elephants in Ceylon, an indigenous and an imported, and 

holds that it was on one of the latter that the name was based. 

He thus recognises two forms which lie distinguishes as follows: — 

Key to the forms of Elephas. 
A. — Tusks large ... ... ... ... 1. m. maximus, L. 

B. — ^Tusks insignificant ... ... ... 2. m. zeylanicus, 

Blainv 

Distribution : — 

1. maximus maximus, Lin- T^pe locality: — Doubtful, pro- 

ngeus. bably S. India. 

Other localities : — No specimens. 
Tyjoe : — Unknown. 

2. E. maximus zeylanicus, TyjJe locality: — Ceylon. 

Blainville. Other localities : — No specimens. 

Type : — Unknown. 

Order VIII. — ^Edentata. 

The only Stiborder (of several recognised) represented in India 
is the Squamata. 

Suborder. — Squamata. 
Only one of several Families is found in our area. 

Family.— Manid^. 
There is only one genus. 



SUAIMAliY OF THE INDIAN MAMMAL SURVEY. 313 

Gen. — Manis. 

Blanford was mistaken in plao- 

"ig the name pentadactyla, as 

No. 399. pentadactijla, L, representing the common Pango- 

No. 400. aurita, Hodgs. lin, for that name is an older 

No. 401. jo/mmm, Desm. sjmonym of aurita, consequently 

crassicaudata, Geoff"., mu.st be sub- 
stituted for it, while it takes the 
place assigned b}' him to aurita. With these changes of names 
Blanford's key stands as follows : — 

Key to the species of Manis. 

A. — Fore-claws about twice the length of 
hind-claws. 
a. 11 to 13 rows of scales round the 

body ... ... ... ... 1. crassicaudata,G eofi. 

h. 15 to 19 rows of scales round body... 2. pentadaclyla, L. 
B. — Fore-claws but little longer than 

hind-claws- ... ... ... 3. jam^i'm, Uesn;. 

Distribution — 

1. M. crassicaudata, Geoi'- Type locality: — -India. 

fro}'. Other localities : — -Shevaroy Hills ; 

Madras ; Kandy ; Ceylon ; Bengal 
(B. M.); Cutch ; Kanara ; Bellary ; 
Mysore ; Coorg ; Ceylon ; Bengal 
(M. S. I.). 

Type : — Unknown. 

2. M. pentadactyla, Lin- Type locality: — Formosa. 

na3us. Other localities: — Nepal; Sikkim 

(B. M.); Mt. Popa; Pegu (M. S. I.). 
Type : — Unknown. (Type of aurita, 
Kodgs. B.M.No. 43.1.12.85). 

3. M. javanica, Desmarest. Type locality : — Java. 

Other localities .•— Baukasun ; Tenas- 

serim {B. M.). 

fype .-—Perhaps in Paris Museum. 

Order IX. — Cetacea. 

Order X. — Sirenia. 

I hare found no record of recent woi'k, on Indian material, in 
these two groups, and have omitted them entirely from this 
♦Summary. 

{To be continued.) 



314 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY'S 
MAMMAL SURVEY OF INDIA, BURMA, AND CEYLON. 

Report No. 32, Baluchistan. 

By R. 0. Wroughton, F.Z.S. 



Collection 

Locality 

Date 

Collected By ... 

Eabliek, Reports : — 



No. 32. 
Baluchistan. 

January 1916 to July 1918. 
Col. J. B. B. Hotson. 
For previous reports, see, Vol. XXVI., 
p. 1025, 1920. 



This fine Collection was made by Col. J, E. B. Hotson (assisted 
to some extent by the Society's Taxidermist, N. A. Baptista) in 
British Baluchistan. 

This area is not strictly part of " India " proper either geographi- 
cally or zoologically but as the collection completes the linking up 
of the Indian with the West Asian (Persian, Arabian, &c.) fauna, 
already foreshadowed in the Sind Collection (No. 24) it deserves a 
place in the Survej^. 

Broadly the eastern half of British Baluchistan, made up to a 
great extent, of part of the Khalat State and the Las Beyla State. 
Its principal feature is the Central Brahui and Pab Ranges, running- 
North and South, and forming a central ridge. The western half 
may be again subdivided into a northern and southern half, the 
latter the Mekran, from the sea to the Siahan Mountain Range, 
with several lesser parallel ranges between. The country north of 
the Siahan Range is understood to be for the most part uninhabit- 
ed desert and is not represented in this Collection. 

Four of the eight forms of bat obtained are Sind species but 
have not so far been taken further south in India. Among the 
Insectivora, both species of Hedgehog and the Crocidura belong- 
to the frontier. The panther is of course found throughout India, 
and so is the Wolf (C. pallipes). The Mongoose is identical with 
the Sind form, as also probably is the Jackal. The Mottled 
Polecat (F. peregusna) is a local form of the frontier, and so is the 
Hoary Fox (F. cana) ; while the common fox of the country (F 
fersica) though distinct from leucopus is very closely allied to it 

Among the Rodents the Banyan Squirrels Funambulus and 
Gerbils Tatera sherrini are identical with north Indian forms. But 
the rest for the most part are specifically and in many cases 
generically distinct from any forms found in India proper. The 
House-mouse Mus hactrianus appears to be distributed all over 
Baluchistan, and to differ specifically from the Punjab or Sind 



t 



MAMMAL SURVEY OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 315 

form, but, so fav as can be gathered from this very full collection, 
the House-rat is entirely absent from the country, being only tound', 
evidently introduced by shipping, at or close to marine' ports. 

In the Collection are represented 44 forms included in 34 genera 
and as might be expected on the border-land of transition from 
one Fauna to another it has been found necessary to give quite a 
number of new names to intermediate forms, but from the point 
of view of novelty by far the most interesting, are the two forms 
of the Vesper Mouse Calomyscus (Jiotsoni and baluchi), a genus 
intimately related to the New World Peromyscus by the form of its 
teeth. A single specimen of another species (bailwardi) of the genus 
was taken at Mali-i-Mir, 70 miles N. E. of Ahwas, Persia, by Col. 
Bailward and Mr. R. B. Woosnam, and these three species form a 
small group without any intermediate forms either structurally 
or geographically between them and the American Peromyscus. 

The following list shows the new species and subspecies found 
in this collection : — 

(1) Myotis lanaceus. 

(2) Pamechinus amir. 

(3) Crocidura portali. 

(4) Allactaga hotsoni. 

(5) Cheliones hurrianoe collinus. 

(6) Meriones jaersicus. 

(7) Calomyscus baluchi. 

(8) Calomyscus Jiotsoni. 

(9) Odiotona rufescens vulturna. 

(1) RousETTUs ARABicus, And. & deWint. 

The Arabian Rouset. 
1871. Cynonycteris amplexicuudata (nee Cteoff) Dobson. Cat. Chir 
Ind. Mas. p. 2. 

1891. Xantharpyia amplexicaudata, Blanford. Mamm. No. 137. 

1892. Rousettus arabims. And. & deWint. Zool. Egypt p. 86 & seq. 

Panjgur, J 12, $ 11. 

(2) ASELLIA TRIDENS MUBRAIANA, K. And. 

The Sind Trident Leaf-nose. 
1813. RUnolophus tridens, Geoffrey. Descr.d' Egypte, II, p. 130. 

? Phyllorhina tridens murraiana, Anderson. Car. p. 113. 
1891. Hipposiderus tridens, Blanford. Mamm. No. 158. 

Panjgur, $ 21, 6 1- 

(3) HiPPOSIDEROS FULVUS PALLIDUS, K. And. 

The Sind Leaf -nose. 

1891. Hipposiderus bicolor, Bla,nioTa. Miimm. No. 166. 

1918. Hipposideros fulvus pallidus,K. Anderson. A. M. N. H. 9, 11, P. ^31 . 

Panjgur, J 1- 



316 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Fol. XXVII. 

(4) Eptesicus nasutus, Dobs. 

The Si7id Serotine. 

1877. Vesperugo nasutus, Dobson. J. A. S. B. XLVI., pt. 2, p. 311. 

1891. Veserugo nasutus, Blanforcl. Mamm. No. 175. 
Rajbar, 2 1. 

This species was described from Sind, but is as yet unrepresented in 
the British Museum. 

The present specimen has had its skull broken, so that its relationship is 
not certain, bnt it is probably E. nasutus, and would also seem to be 
nearly allied to the Western Persian bat, Eptesicus pellucens . Thos. originally 
described as a subspecies of E. matschiei of Aden, from its Persian ally 
however it may be distinguished by its more uniformly coloured membranes 
without the prominent white edging and peculiar transparency found in 
pellucens. These details were kindly furnished by Mr. Thomas. 

(5) PiPISTRELLXJS KUHLI LEPIDUS, Blyth. 

The Kandahar Pipistrel. 
(Synonymy in No. 24). 
Panjgur, cJ 5 ; Nag. S 2, $ 1 ; Kalgal Jaur, S 1. 
(6) Myotis lANACEus, Thos. 

The Woolly Mouse-ear. 

1919. Myotis lanaceus, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S. XXYI, p. 933. 

Shastun nr. Dizak, Persian Baluchistan, $ 1. 
The publishing of the name as lanceus was obviously a misprint. 

(7) Rhijstopoma microphyllum, Geoff. 

The Egyptian Mouse-tail. 
1812. Rhinopoma microphyllum, Geoffroy. Decsr. d' Egypte, II., p. 123. 
Las Bey la, § 2. 

(8) Hhijs^opoma pusillum, Thos. 

The Slender Mouse-tail. 

1920. Rhinopoma pusillum, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S. XXVII., p. 25. 

Sib., $ 1 (in al). 

(9) EniisropoMA, sp. 
Ispid Lamin, Persian Baluchistan, (S 1. (juv). 
The specimen is too young for certain identification, all the more so that 
there are at least three species which may be represented in this locality. 

(10) Hemiechinus megalotis, Blyth. 

The Large-eared Hedge-hog. 
1845. Erinaceus megalotis, Blyth. J. A. S. B. XIV., p. 353. 
1891. Erinaceus megalotis, Blanford. Mamm. No. 105. 

Mastung, c? 2, $ 3 ; Sorab, c? 1, $ 1 ; Shahdadgi, 6 1 ; 
Khojdar, ^ 1 ; Mazaryib, 5 2. 

An interesting series of a species hitherto very insufficiently represented. 
Type locaHty, Kandahar. 



MAMMAL SURVEY OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 317 

(11) Paraechinus amir, Thos, 
The Afghan Hedge-hog. 
19. Paraechinus amir, Thomas. A. M. N. H. (8) I., 1918. p. 230. 

Sib, cJ 1, ? 1 ; Chahabar, $ 1 ; Chib, J 1 ; Panjgur, $ 2. 
This species is no doubt very closely allied to P. macracanthus, Blanf., 

but besides the skull differences mentioned in Thomas's description some 

of which prove to be rather variable — this series shows that ainir may be 
distinguished from macracanthus by its blackish belly and chest. 

(12) Crocidura portali, Thos. 
PortaVs Shreio. 
19. Crocidura portali, HhomskS. A. M. N. H. (9) V., 1920. p. 119. 

Kelat, ? 1 ; Turbat Kech, cJ 1, ? 1 ; Panjgur, S 1. 
These shrews vary very considerably in colour, though they agree in 
being much lighter than most other members of the genus. 

On the whole they seem best referable to the little C. portali recently 
described from Palestine, but as this involves their occurrence right across 
Persia and Syria, the reference should for the present be looked upon as 
provisional. 

They are also related to, but paler than, the central Asian C. iliiisis, 
Miller. 

(13) Felis parous, L. 
The Panther. 
(Synonymy in No, 5.) 
Perso-Baluch Border ? 1. 
(14) Herpestes epwardsi ferrugineus, Blanf. 
Blanf ord's Indian Mongoose. 
(Synonymy in No. 24.) 
Mand, J 1 ; Jumajgi, 2 1 ; Panjgur, J 1, $ 2 ; Gebri, c? 1 ; 
Quarquarsdan, 5 1 ; Geh, c? !• 

Some of the specimens look rather grey but one at least from Quarquars- 
dan is as highly coloured as any from Sind. 

(15) Vormela peregusna, Gueld. 

The Mottled Polecat. 

1770. Mustela peregusna, Gueldenstaedt. Nov. Comm. Acad. Sci. Imp. 

Petrop., XIV., p. 441. 
1891. Putorius sarmaticus, Blanf ord. Mamm. No. 80. 

Kanak, 1 cured fiat skin, no skull. 

(16) Oanis aureus, Linn. 

The Jackal. 
(Synonymy in No. 1.) 
Mastung, $ 1 ; Khojdar, J 1 ; Panjgur, d 4, $ 1. 
When working out the Indian Jackals I purposely left out the northern 
form until we knew more of true aureus from the Persian Gulf. These 
must similarly wait, and for the present go under the name aureus. 



318 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

(17) Cakis pallipes, Sj'-kes. 

The Indian Wolf. 
(Synonymy in No. 3.) 
Khojdar, S 1- (juv). 

(18) VuLPKs PEESiCA, Blanf. 

The Persian Fox. 

1875. Vulpes persicus, Blanford. A. M. N. H. ser. XIV., p. 310. 
Vulpes persicws, Blanford. Eastern Persia., II., p. 39. 
Mand, J 1, 9 1; Shirwan, $ 1 ; Bamgour, $ I, ? 1. 
Chaliarbar, J 1 ; Gwarpuski, $ 1 ; Panjgur, J 1, $ 3 ; 

Sor Kilkaju, 5 1 ; Kojdar, § 1 ; Wakir, $ 1 ; Wadh, d 1 ; 
Nasirabad, 5 1. 

(19) Vulpes cana, Blanf. 
The Hoary Fox. 
1877. Vulpes canus, Blanford. J. A. S. B. XLV., pt. 2., p. 321. 
1888. Vulpes cana, Blanford. Mamm. No. 73, 
Turbat Kech, c5^ 1. 

(20) FUKAMBTJLXJS PENNANTI ARGENTESCBlsrS, WrOUght. 

The Sind Banyan Squirrel. 

(Synonymy in No. 24.) 

Gajar, J 1, $ 1; Kelat, $ 1; Geh, d 1; Turbat Kech, J 3, § 3; 

Panjgur, $ 2 ; Turbat, 6 S, 9. 1 ; Mand, d 4; Noding, S 1. 

We have recently seen so much of seasonal variation in this genus that 

I hesitate to add a new name, but as almost might have been expected 

these specimens are much more coldly coloured than any from further 

south. 

(21) Allactaga indica, Gray. 

The Afghan Jerboa. 

]842. Allactaga indica, Gray. A. M. N. H. X., p. 262. 

1863. Alactaga bactriana, Blyth. Cat. Mamm., p. 110. 

1891. Alactaga indica, Blanford. Mamm. No. 262. 
Sourab, § 2. 

Cuvier in 1836 spelt the generic name as above, following Pallas who 
bad already used it specifically. He dropped an " 1 " in 1838 and was 
followed by all later authors up to about the end of the century, 

(22) Allactaga hotsoni, Thomas. 
Hotson's Jerboa. 
1919. Allactaga hotsoni, Thomas, J. B. N. H. S. XXVI., p. 936. 

Kantt, 20 ms., S. W. of Sib, Persian Baluchistan, 3,950 5 1. 

(2.3) Tateka shekkini, Wrought. 
The Sind Gerbil. 
1917. Tatera sherrini, Wroughton. J. B. N. H. S. XXV., p. 43. 

Las Beyla J 1, $ 1. 
In the Sind Report No. 24, the Gerbil was listed as indica later in 
Results (XXV., p. 43). I distinguished it as sherrini. The present spe- 
cimens appear to be the same species. 



MAM3IAL SURVEY 01 INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 319 

(24) Tatera persica, Wrought. 
The Seistan Gerbil. 
1906. Tatera persica, Wroughton. A. M. N. H, 7, XVII., p. 496. 

Panjgur, c? 44, 5 39 ; Hoshab, S 1 ; Turbat, d 3, 2 1 ; Mand, 
S 2, 2 2 ; Isiphan, $ 1; Daga, J 1 ; Tuphon Gishai, J 1 ;' 
Bazdat, J 1 ; Rekin, J 3,? 4; Manguli, $ 1 ; Seahendamb $ 1; 
Nag, (5 1, 2 6; Shirejau Palk, 2 2 ; Sitana, d" i; Turbat K'ech, 
c? 5, 2 7 ; Nasirabad, 2 1 ; Sami, J 5, 2 1 ; Tejeban, J 1 • 
Harboi, J 1 ; Gazar, 2 1 ; Khoidar, J 2, 2 2 ; Chahabar, o 5 
2 8. ' 

(25) Cheliones hxjrrian.^ collinus, Thos. 
The Western Desert Gerbil. 
19. Cheliones hurriancs collinus, Thomas, J. B, N. H. S. XXVI., p. 726. 
Kelat, J 2 ; Hazarganji, 9 1 ; Nal, J 1, 2 ^ ; Wadh, J 5, 2 4; 
Chahabar, 2 -1 ? Chambar, (5 2, 2 1- 
These specimens by their size and the marked slaty bases of the hairs 
of the belly fall into Thomas's subsp. collinus. It is possible that later it 
may be found that the more \vestern(Chahabar, &c.,)individuals (at present 
the most westerly representatives of the genus) may prove, with Persian 
specimens, to require a separate name. 

(26) Mekiones peksiuus baptist.e, Thos. 

The Persian Jird. 
19. 3Itriones persicus baptistce, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S. XXVI., p. 934. 

Charboi, 2 1; Kelat, c? 4, 2 4 ; Gwambauk, J l;Koldars, J I; 
Pasht Kuh, c? 1 ; Panjgur, c? 2 ; Kulochak, J 1. 
I have adopted the English name, based on the local vernacular, given 
to this genus when its first individual was found in the very early 18th 
century. 

(27) Mekiones erythrourus, Gray. 

The Afghan Gerbil. 

1842. Gerbillus erythroura, Gray. A. M. N. H. X., p. 266. 
1891. Gerbillus erythroura, Blanford. Mamm. No. 267. 

Kelat, Bakichistan, cJ - ; Sourab, cT 2. 

(28) DiPODiLLUs NANUS, Blanf. 

The Baluch Dipodil. 
1875. Gerbillus nanus, Blanford. A. M. N. H. 4, XVI., p. 312. 
1891. Gerbillus nanus, Blanford. Mamm. No. 267. 

Pasni, J 4, 2 2 ; Gwambauk, J 1, 9 1; Har (Kalva), J 1 ; 
Rekchak, 2 1 ; Harboi, 2 1 ; Chahabar, J 1 ; Hoshab, 6 2 ; 
Shaharak, cJ 1. 
. Specimens under this name are recorded in the reports from Kathiawar, 
Palanpur and Sind. Thomas however after examining the present speci- 
mens has arrived at the conclusion that these represent true D. nanus, and 
that the form found in Sind, &c., is distinct, and has published his conclu- 
Bions elsewhere in this Journal. I have abandoned Blanford's English 
name which ceases to be descriptive. 



320 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATVRAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

(29) Mus MUSCULUS, Linn. 
The House Mouse. 
(Synonymy in No. 1.) 
Chahabar, J 1, $ 1 ; Pasni, ^ 1. 
Both localities are on the coast and these specimens no doubt represent 
imported stock. They are not quite the same as European House-mice bvit 
until the many shades of change from the Indian frontier westward have 
been studied as a whole it is most undesirable to multiply named 
subspecies, 

(SO) Mus BAOXRiANUS, Blyth. 

The Kandahar House Mouse. 

(Synonymy in No. 24.) 

Panjgur, 6 79, $ 56 ; Ispihan, J 2, $ 1 ; Sib, $ 2 ;Mand, S 2, 
5 1 ; Chib, d 3, $ 1 ; Turbat, d 3, ? 1 ; Chahabar, c? 8, 
5 7 ; Johran Kahur, S 1 ; Khojdar, cJ 1, § 1 ; Manguli, J I, 
$ 4 ; Sourab, c? 4, $ 4; Mastung, d 6, § 5 ; Kalatak, (S 1, 
? 1 ; Shakarak, $ 1. 

The most northerly specimens (from Mastung) have been compared with 
the type of bactrianus, Blyth, the type locality of which is Kandahar and 
I can discover nothing to consistently differentiate these Mastung speci- 
mens from the rest. The name has already been used in these reports 
for specimens from Sind but these are clearly separable on size. Blyth has 
described a species gerbillinus from Find Dadan Khan which might very 
well be the Sind species. Unfortunately the Museum has no representa- 
tive specimens from the Jhelum Valley, or indeed from the Punjab. I 
propose therefore to use the name gerbillinus for the Sind specimens (in 
substitution for bactrianus) iintil something is known of the Punjab forms. 

(31) ACOMYS DIMIDIATXTS, Rupp. 

The Sinai Spiny Mouse. 
1826. Mus dimidiatus, Buppell. Atlas, p. 37. 

Chahabar, J 4, 5 1 ; Karochi Durk, 5 1. 
These specimens differ from the solitary specimen taken by Waston at 
Laki near Sohwah. They seem to resemble the Sinai form but it is a 
difficult group and more material especially of our Sind form is required 
to make a reliable identification possible, I have temporarily ranked it 
as dimidiatus. 

(32) CALOMYSctrs BALUCHI, Thos. 

The Baluch Vesper Mouse. 
19. Calomyscus baluchi, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S. XXVI., p. 939, 

Harboi, J 2, $ 5 ; Kelat, d 5, $ 2. 

(33) Calomyscus hotsoni, Thos. 

Hotson^s Vesper Mouse. 

19. Calomyscus hotsoni, Thomas, J, B, N. H. S. XXVI,, p. 939. 
Gwambauk, (5 4, $ 3. 

The isolated appearance of this genus so closely related to the American 
genus Peromyscus, is most startling, At Mr. Thomas's suggestion I have 
adopted for it the name Vesper-Mouse which is that used for its representa- 
tive in the U. S. A. 



MAMMAL SURVEY OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 321 

(34) Cricetulus migratorius, Pall. 

The Little Grey Hamster. 

1794 Mus migratorius, Pallas. Reis, II., p. 703. 
1891. Cricetus phosus, Blanford. Mamm., No. 309. 
[ Kelat, d 1- 

Thomas has in his paper on this Genus (A. M. N. H. 8, XIX p. 452 1917) 
adopted the name migratorius as the oldest applying to this species. 

(35) Ellobius fuscocapillus, Blyth. 

The Quetta Vole. 
1841. Georychus fuscocapillus, Blyth. J, A. S. B. X,, p. 262. 
1891. Ellobius fu^cicapillus, Blaniord. Msimm. "No. 308. 
Much Baluch, c? 2 (juv. I). 

(36) P.ATTUS RATTUS ALEXANDRINU8, Geoff. 

The Egyptian Bat. 
(Synonymy in No. 24.) 
Chahabar, c? 3, $ 5 ; Pasni, J 4, $ 6 ; Talas Sunt, § 1. 
These undoubtedly are either imported or from imported stock, elsewhere 
in Baluchistan, Battus seems to be unrepresented. Four of the above speci- 
mens have pure white undersides and possibly represent the frugivorus of 
Rafinesque. 

(37) Nesokia griffithi, Hardw. 
The Hazara Nesokia. 
(Synonymy in No. 15.) 
Khojdar, c5' 1, ? 1. 
The English name earlier in these Reports does not differentiate the 
present Genus from Gunomys, with the result that some of the other 
species would require too long a name. I propose to adopt the Latin name 
Nesokia for the Genus. 

(38) Nesokia indica, Hardw. 
The Rajputana Nesokia. 
(Synonymy in No. 24.) 
Panjgur, J 19, ? 27. 

(39) AcaxthiojST leucurus, Sykes. 
The Indian Porcupine. 
(Sjaionymy in No. 1.) 
Bajukan, J" 1 ; Khojdar, c? 1, $ 1. 

(40) Lepus craspedotis, Blanf. 
The Afghan Hare. 

1-75. Lepus craspedotis, Blanford. Eastern Persia, II., p. 80, pi. VIII. 
Pishmant, J 1 ; Sorab, $ 1 ; Panjgur, d 1, ? 1 ; Sor, d 1 ; 
Harboi, c? 1, 9 1 ; Shah-i-arab, $ 1 ; Hazar Gange, ? 1. 
17 



322 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

(41) OCHOTONA KUFESCENS VTJLTUKNA, ThoS. 

The Baluch Pika. 

19. Ochotona i-ufescens vuUurna, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S. XXVI., p. 937. 
Harboi, S 2. 

As Thomas pointed out in describing this form elsewhere in this Journal 
the present, for which I propose the name Baluch Pika, is a southern fotm 
of 0. r. rufescens, the Afghan Pika; there are two corresponding western 
forms, viz., 0. r. regina and 0. r. oizier, completing so far as we know the 
distrilaution of the species rufescens. 

(42) Ovis viGNEi cYCLOCEBOs, Hutton. 

The Afghan Urial. 

1840. Ovis vignei, Blyth. P. Z, S., p. 70. 

1842. Ovis cydoceros, Hutton. Calc. Jouru. Nat. Hist., p. 88. 

1913. Ovis vignei cydoceros, Lydekker. Oat. U. M. I., p. 88, 

Lashkarankan, 2 1 ; Saplah, S 1 ; Nali-jingian, (S 1 ; Gwatbuk, 
(S 1 ; Hoshab, $ 1 ; Gwambuk Kane, (5 1 ; Hodal Pass, 
c? 1 ; Dab-Koh, S 1 ; Porigent, J 1. 

(43) CaPRA iEGAGRUS BLYTfll, Lyd. 

The Sind Wild Goat. 

1874. Capra cegagrus blythi, Hume. Hume P. A. S. B., p. 240. (nomen 
nudum). 

1898. Capra (sgagrus blythi, liydekkav. Wild Oxen Sheep and Goats, p. 
264 Pasni, J 1 ; Lob, c? I, 2 1 ; Kilikaur, S 1 ; Gajar, J 1 ; 
Khojdar, (S 1 (juv.). 

(44) Gazella bexnettii, Sykes. 

The Indian Gazelle. 

(Synonymy in No. 1.) 

Pasni, 2 1 ; Mand, Si, $ 1 ; Gumasgi, c5 1 ; Hoshab, ^ 2; 
Gajar, $ 1 ; Nasirabad, d 1 ; Meherab, $ 2. 



W/i 



'/: 



^^L^ 









X 



323 

REPORT ON THE MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA 
Collected by members of the Mesopotamia n 

EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, 1915 TO 1919. 
BY 

Major R. E. Cheesman, m.b.o.u., f.r.g.s. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas conferred a privilege when he invited me to write 
this paper. Both he and Mr. R. C. Wroughton have combined in making 
the task a light and pleasant one. It has been necessary for me to ply 
them with a continual hail of questions throughout and to their patient 
guidance must be attributed any merit the paper may possess. To the 
rest of the staff in the mammal room of the British Museum Natural 
History I also acknowledge a debt of gratitude for valuable assistance. 

The collection comprises 259 specimens of 36 different species and sub- 
species. Nine have already proved new to science. Several more are 
awaiting further material, and are only provisionally placed under the 
name of their nearest ally. 

It may be said, that ' awaiting further material ' often recurs in the notes. 
A lot of confusion is caused by the hasty naming of species and sub-species, 
on slight differences of colour or proportions, which afterwards prove to 
be mere individual variation and are not constant. It seems preferable 
to err on the side of caution. 

The collection consists entirely of mammals contributed by members of 
the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force. It has therefore an historic- 
interest as well as a scientific value. 

Many of the specimens were collected very close to the enemy's lines 
and some must have been skinned within range of his guns. The acqui- 
sition of such a good series imder the diffici-lties attending service 
conditions is largely due to the encouragement ij,iven to all Officers inter- 
ested in birds, beasts and fi&hes, by the officials of the Bombay Natural 
History Society, who in spite of the many calJs on their time during the 
War, always managed to acknowledge and identify the specimens sent. 

Again a factor that played no small part, is the able pamphlet, " Notes 
on the Animals of Mesopotamia", written by Capt. N. B. Kinnear in 
1916 and circulated at an opportune ir: ment. 

To all interested in Natural Histoiy, that is the large majority of Officers 
and men in Mesopotamia, this 1 as been a treasured book of reference. 
To those who were collecting it has proved invaluable. I have taken it 
throughout the writing of this paper as the framework to which the 
present notes on the s; ecimens obtained must be considered as a sup- 
plement. 

To Major-Glen. Tir P. Z. Cox, and Lieut.-Col. A. T. Wilson, 1 was 
personally indebted while on service for much timely assistance, for the 
loan of a gun and for facilities of transport of specimens down river and 
. n to India. Without this many of my skins would either never have 
boon collected or have been spoilt or even lost en route. 

All my specimens have been united under the name of the Cox-Cheesman 
collection. For the help given me by all my senior officers in Mesopotamia 
I would like to express my appreciation. They have always been ready to 
smooth the way for collecting when possible and to read " King's Regu- 
lations" in their widest interpretation to that end. 



324 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

Gapt. P. A. Buxton has kindly allowed me to make use of his collection 
which was sent direct to the British Museum for inclusion in this paper. 

The Indian Museum sent a few specimens to the British Museum for 
identification. These have also been added. 

A list of the officers who collected and sent specimens to the Bombay- 
Natural History Society is given below. 

Care has been taken to avoid errors, but in the event of omissions or 
mistakes in the spelling of names it is hoped that they will be excused, as 
the writing on labels is often difficult to read and is sometimes obliterated. 

Major E. Arthur. Capt. F. Ludlow. 

Major R. Bagnall. Capt. H. L.Mackenzie, i.m.s. 

Lieut.-Col. F. M. Bailey, c.i.b. Brig.-Gen.H. J. A. Mackey, c.m.g., 

Major R. E. Cheesman. m.v.c, d.s.o. 

Major C. Christy. Lieut.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath. 

F. Collins, Esq. H. J. May, Esq. 

Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, D.s.o., I.M.S. Capt. Napier, i.m.s. 

Maj-Gen. SirP.Z. Cox, g.c.i.e.,k.c.s.i. Patiala Lancers. A squadron. 

J. M. S. Culbertson, Esq. Capt. C. R. S. Pitman, d.s.o,, m.c. 

Deputy Civil Commissioner. The late Major G. A. Perreau. 

Lt.-Col. Evans. Major G. B. Scott. 

Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s. Capt. G. C. Shortridge. 

Capt. Graham, r.a.m.c. The late Capt. W. H. Shakespeare. 

Capt. R. W. G. Kingston, i.m.s. Capt. W. H. O. Short. 

Capt. C. M. Ingoldby, k.a.m.c. Lt.-Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., i.m.s. 

J. Jenkins, Esq. Lt. D. Webster, b,.n. 

Kilminater, Esq. H. Whitehead, Esq. 

Capt. T. R. Livesey. Lt.-Col. Sir A. T. Wilson, c.s.i., 

C.M.G., C.I.E., D.S.O. 

Although many men are now conversant with the topography of the area 
covered by this paper, a short sketch will not be out of place, for those who 
are not. Mesopotamia, for which the Turkish name of Iraq is preferable , 
is a large fiat alluvial plain of comparatively recent origin. It is 450 miles 
in length and about 150 miles in breadth. The foothills of the Kurdistan 
and Persian Mountains form a Northern and North-Eastern boundary, while 
to the South and West lies the margin of the Arabian and Syrian desert. 

The land of the lower reaches of the Karun River, although in Persia 
has been included in this paper, as f antistically it is in the great Mesopota- 
mian plain. 

Through the plain the three main rivers— Tigris, Euphrates and Karun — 
wind a serpentine course towards the sea at Fao on the Persian Gulf. The 
Tigris and Euphrates unite at Kurna and also at Gurmat Ali to form the 
Shatt-al-Arab, a river of considerable width. This is in turn joined by the 
Karun at Mohommerah. All three rivers bring down a large amount of 
silt, and it is of this the Mesopotamian soil is composed, without any 
admixture of stones or gravel. The Karun enters the Iraq plain at Ahwaz 
where it crosses a low spur of the Jebel Hamrin range of hills, in a series 
of rock-strewn rapids. The Tigris crosses the same range several hundred 
miles to the North- West through the beautiful Fatah Gorge. It however 
does not finally leave the land of rocks behind until Samarra is passed, 
where there are cHffs of conglomerate. This region of undulating hills and 
rocky ranges extends from Samarra north-wesi to Mosul as well as along 
the North and North-East boundary previously mentioned. So far very 
little collecting has been undertaken there. It is the home of the porcupine 
and the gazelle grazes on the higher plateau. The latter is also well 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 395 

distributed along the Mesopotamian plains to the sea. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of Mosul I have seen the mounds and tunnels of a species 
of mole or rodent mole which does not occur lower down. 

The capture of a 'badger' with young was reported at the Ali Gherbi 
Military Grass Farm during a flood. From the description there seems little 
doubt it was the new species of ratel, which has been obtained by Col 
A. T. Wilson in the foothills near the Tyb river less than 30 miles distant 
and is mentioned by Kinnear. 

Of real forest land there is none, although the broad belt of date palms 
that fringe the banks of the Shatt-al-Arab gives that impression from the 
river, until glimpses of the desert appear a mile or so in the background. 
These plantations are the haunt of the jackal and the Persian mungoose. 

I am inclined to treat the stories of ancient Mesopotamian forests as a 
myth. If the Kings of Egypt came there to hunt elephants it is probable 
they also hunted their owners who had imported them. The buildincx of 
the huge canals at least four thousand years ago points to the land being 
desert then and not a region capable of sustaining natural forest. Two 
vast permanent reed covered marshes have been formed above Kama by 
the overflow of the Tigris, Euphrates and Kerkha, a Persian river. 
These are the Hammar Lake and Hawaiza marsh. These and 
smaller marsh districts have so far produced no mammal peculiar to 
those areas unless we may include the otter. Judging by the number of 
these skins exposed for sale in the bazaars, they must be plentiful. 

Patches of thick jungle occur locally in the large U bends of the rivers 
and grow a tangle of dwarf tamarisk and Euphrates popular. They seldom 
exceed a mile or two in width, but harbour small herds of wild pig. It is 
unfortunate that no skins or skulls have been sent so we do not yet 
know the species. We can be sure however that the boars seen are too 
large to be the Indian pig and I am of opinion that the hair is too brown 
for the typical European wild boar and lack the hoary grey tinge of the 
bristles of this species several of which I have examined recently in the 
London Zoological Gardens. It is also certain from the many mascots seen 
about the Mesopotamian camps that the young are striped. 

Low cover is afiorded by scrub growing in the vicinity of banks of rivers 
and canals. This chiefly consists of a dwarf acacia, Prosopis stephania, 
the " Shok " of the Arabs and the wild liquorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra ; 
also Lycium europaeum, a thorny plant with bright red berries, and 
Sueda monoica, of which the lower leaves are succulent and which appears 
to thrive also on the salt lands, where no other plants can live. 

Here are the wild cat, hares, jackal, mole rats, several of the gerbils 
{Tatera, Dipodillus and Meriones) and the hedge hogs. The foxes are found 
in the bare desert country behind, seeming to prefer it to the cover. 

The country on the right bank of the Euphrates has distinct features. 
It is the only real desert region and is in fact the edge of the Syrian desert. 
Gravel is found as far down as Shaiba within a fevv miles of the sea. The 
hysena, and Loftus' jerboa were obtained in this and no other locality, 
add to this a very pale fox, jackal and hare and a new hedge-hog and 
gerbil and we have evidence that this portion of the country contains a 
fauna of exceptional interest : — 

Although the contributors to this collection are to be congratulated on 
the results, it must not be considered that the work is finished. It has 
just begun. The satisfaction of the thirst of science can be but temporary. 
A few notes of the particulars required are given for the assistance of those 
who find themselves in a position to continue the collection. 



326 JOURIiAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The following measurements, if possible in millimeters, should be takea 
before skinning and recorded on the label : — 

1. H. & B. Head and body, that is from the tip of nose to the joint of 

tail and spine. 

2. TL. Tail without end hairs. 

3. HF, Hind foot without claws, i.e., from the tip of the longest toe to 

the hinder side of the heel. 

4. Ear. Ear from notch at base to tip. This would be the longest 

inside measurement of the ear. 

In addition it is important to record on the label the date, sex, locality, 
altitude above sea and your name. 

The locality of small villages should be identified wifch towns or districts 
well known or marked on maps. 

Other field notes such as nature of the soil, food, immature, etc., are also 
of great assistance when working out a collection. 

Have the skin removed as carefully as possible. Correctly made up skins 
are stuffed and dried, leaving the animal in a squatting position — the front 
legs pointing forwards, and the hind legs backwards — the bone is pulled 
out of the tail and a straight wire with wool wound round it takes its place 
but a roughly made skin is better than no skin at all. 

The skull of small mammals at least shonld be dried with the meat on and 
sent separately. The bones and teeth travel better when treated thus. 
Both skin and skull should be labelled with the same number to ensure 
subsequent identification. The value of a series of skins and skulls of the 
same species cannot be over-estimated. Accurate identification or separa- 
tion of closely allied forms, is only made possible by the comparison of a 
large number of specimens. 

Do not hesitate to send everything you can get. It is often the apparent- 
ly common place which proves to be an important link in the chain. 

1. Ehinolophus hipposideeos MIDAS, K. And. 

1905. Rhinolophus midas, TS.. Andersen, P. Z. S. ii, p. 138. 
1918. Bhinolophus hipposideros midas, K. Andersen, A. M. .N. H. 9, ii. 
p. 378. 

Midas Horse Shoe Bat. Arabic " Kushaf-el-leyl " or " Sahat ". 
N.B. — These names apply to all bats in Arabic. 

2<5 1$ Baghdad. Buxton 23-9-17 to 11-10-17. 

Ic? 1 „ Ingoldby, Nov. 1917. 

A small bat with long pale grey fur, with purplish tinge towards the end 
of the hairs. The ears are large with curved and pointed tips. 
Buxton remarks from Baghdad — Apparently common. 
The distribution given is Gilgit to Cyprus. Andersen. 
The type locality is Jask, Persian Gulf. 

2. ASELLIA TKIDENS, E. Geoff. 

1812. Ehinolophus tridens, E. Geoffroy, Desc. Egypt, ii., p. 130. 
Trident Leaf-nosed Bat. 

1. Feluja, Euphrates. Mackenzie. No. date. in al. 

2, Lake Akkar Kuf. Baghdad. Pitman, 24-3-17 and 16-8-17 „ 
This bat is slightly larger than the last, though the description of the 

fur would be much the same. The very large ears are its chief distinction 
in the field. 

This was compared with the series of A. tridens from Egypt and appears 
inseparable. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 327 

Andersen and De Winton give the rlistribution as Senegal, Algeria, 
Tunisia, S. Syria and Zanzibar, with a sub-species A. tridens murraiana 
from Karachi and Bushire. 

3. PiPISTRELLUS KUHLI, Kuhl. 

1819. Vespertilio kuhlii, Kuhl. Ann. Wett. Ges. Nat. IV., p. 199. 
White bordered Pipistrel Bat. 

Id 16$ 1 Amara Buxton 29-1-18—7-6-18. 

2d Baghdad „ 8-10-17. 

1 Shushter, S. Persia Bailey. 21-1-18, alt. 500 ft. 

2 Busra Cox-Cheesman June, 1916. 

2 Sheikh Saad Ingoldby 20-7-16 & 21-7-16, 

2 Busra Christy June, lyl8, in al, 

The commonest bat of the lower Tigris. 

Although several almost black forms appear in the series, this is usually 
a small dark brown bat, with short hair and ears and a pale border to the 
wing filament. Buxton remarks, plentiful in Amara and the only bat that 
appears in winter on warm nights, and all females were pregnant in 
March. 

Ingoldby saw them chasing insects round the lights of river steamers 
near Sheikhs Saad, and I found it in numbers in the Busra houses. 

Miller gives the distribution as Mediterranean region eastward into 
Asia. It has been recorded by the B. N. H. S. Mammal Survey from Sind. 

4. PiPisTKELLus coxi, Thos. 

1919. Pipistrellm coxi, Thomas, J. B. N. H. S., Vol. XXVI, No. 3, 
p. 747. 

Cox's Pipistrel Bat. 

1. Type. Beit Mahommad. Amara, Cox-Cheesman. 20-3-18. 
1. Makina, Busra. Christy 20-3-18. 

A small bat with light grey back, white belly and black ears and muzzle. 
The type was caught in the house of Sheikh Mahommad, in the vicinity 
of marshes on the Chahala canal. The Makina specimen in the Mess of 
No. 33 B. G. Hospital. 

It has been named by Mr. Oldfield Thomas after Major-Gen. Sir 
P. Z. Cox . 

5. Eptusicus, Species. 

Serotine Bat, spec. 

1. Amara. Cox-Cheesman, 16-3-18. 

A single specimen of a bat was collected in Amara, much resembling 
P. kuhlii in size, but the forearm is longer, colour paler and white border 
is missing. In the absence of the skull definite determination is not 
possible until more specimens are forthcoming. It is probably nearly 
allied to Eptesicus matschiei pellucens — several of which were obtained by 
Woosnam in Ahwaz. 

6. Eptesicxjs hingstoni, Thos. 

1919. Epteeicus hingstoni, Thomas. J. B. N. H. S., Vol. XXVI, No. 3, 
p. 745. 

Hingston's Serotine Bat. 

1. Type. Baghdad. Hingston, 1-5-17. 

1. Busra. Cox-Cheesman, 6-8-18. 

1. Khazimain, Baghdad. „ „ ^ll^'}^: , 

1 S . Busra. Wall., 15-1-17. M. 16 in al. 
Of the two Busra specimens only the skulls have been examined 



328 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX FIT 

A bat about twice the size of P. huUii, fur on the back, mouse coloured, 
underparts paler, ears brown. It has been named by Mr. Oldfield Thomas 
after Capt. R. W. G. Hingston. 

7. Eptesicus walli, Thos. 

1919. Eptesicus walli., Thomas, J. B. N. H. S., Vol. XXVI, No. 3, p. 746. 

Wall's Serotine Bat. 

1$. Type. Busra. Wall, 27-5-16. 

The type of this species has a smaller forearm than that of E. hingstoni. 
This bat has been named by Mr. Oldfield Thomas after Lt.-Col. 
F. Wall. 

8. Taphozous kachhensis magnus, Wettst. 

1914. Taphozous magnus, Wettstein, Ann. Vienna, Nat. History Museum, 
Vol. 27, page 465. 

Babylonian Sheath-tailed Bat. 
1 c? Amara. Ingoldby, 29-7-16. 

2^ Amara. Buxton, 27-10-17. 

1 $ Shaiba Cox-Oheesman, 1-10-16. 

1 c? IV Ctesiphon Arch „ „ 4-10-18. 

1 Busra Connor, 29-6-18, M. 13. 

A sub-species of the Kutch Sheath-tailed Bat. 

This is a large bat with tail protruding through the centre of the inter- 
femoral membrane. The fur is confined to the head and central portion 
- of the body, giving a very naked appearance to the limbs and inter-feuioral 
membrane. The ears are large. 

They are plentiful in Shaiba and Amara, and after sunset large numbers 
can be seen emerging from the houses, winging their way with steady 
flight to the desert. They are also very quarrelsome and noisy in the 
houses. 

The same bat was described under the name of Taphozous kuchhensis 
hahylonicus in 1916 by Thomas, who, owing to the war, had no means of 
knowing that it had been previously described by Wettstein. 

9. Pachyura, Species. 

Musk rat. 

1$ Busra Cox-Cheesman, 6-8-18. 

1 2 Busra Whitehead, 1-6-18. 

16 Kurna Buxton, 26-3-18. 

1 No locality Connor, Nov. 1918 M. 6 in al. 

1 „ „ Wall „ „ M. 5 in al. 

1 „ „ Wall, no date M. 4 in al. } 

1 Busra Wall, no date M. 3 in al. \ ^^^'^ 

1 „ Christy, June 1918 in al. 

There are seven specimens in all of the larger Pachyura or musk rats, 
which seem to represent two forms. 

I feel inclined to place together the three made skins and one from 
Connor in alcohol. This is a gray form and might be indigenous. The 
other three in alcohol— one from Busra and two without locality ace in bad 
condition— and evidently belong to a larger form. One of these marked 
M. 3 has the small premolar characteristic of Pachyura missing, but whe- 
ther It has never developed or has fallen out, cannot be positively ijostu- 
lated. ^ ■' ^ 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 329 

This larger form may well have been imported by shipping, as suggested 
by Kinnear. The fact that so far all specimens have been obtained on 
the Shatt-al-Arab, in the area of ports of call of the Indian cargo boats, 
should not be lost sight of. 

It has not been possible to carry the identification further the whole 
group of these shrews or musk rats, being at present in a state of 
profound confusion. 

Pachyura is an oriental genus — but there is one species — a dwarf found in 
Europe and a few species in East Africa. They have four premolars — one 
of which is minute. This small tooth is missing entirely in Crocidura. 

Crocidura is an African genus with one or two species in Europe acd a 
few in Asia. 

10. Pachyura etrusca, Savi. 

1822. Sorex etrusca, Savi Nuovo Giorm de Lett Pisa i, p. 60. 

Pigmy Shrew. 

1 9 Trenches near Kut. Magrath, 30-8-16. 

1 Busra Cox-Cheesman. 

1 Busra Eraser, no date. 

1 S Amara Buxton, 5-8-18. 

In the present state of our knowledge of these little known animals there 
seems to be no alternative but to accept provisionally Savi's name etrusca. 

Kinnear suggests it may prove to be Sorex pusillus, whose length he gives 
as 2. 4 inches. Gmelin's original description gives the length as 3. 6 
inches (German) which is double the size of our largest specimen. 

It may be as well to note that our pigmy shrew bears a strong resem- 
blance to some specimens that have recently been sent in from Palestine 
by Shortridge. 

The known range of P. etrusca is Spain eastwards to Aden and is now 
extended to the present locality. 

11. Bemiechinxjs auritus. Pall. 

1778. Erinaceus auritus, Pallas. Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop X[V, p. 593. 
Long-eared Hedge-hog. Arabic " gunfudh." 

4 6" 2$ Amara. Buxton, 19-10-17, etc. 

2 S Busra. Shortridge, 25-3-16 and 27-3-16. 
I $ Busra. Wall, 17-8-16. 

1 2 Busra. Wall, 23-1-17 M. 8 in al. 

1 Busra. Cox-Cheesman, 19-6-16. 

a foot. Culbertson, 22-1-17. 

1$ Amara. Connor, 9-10-16. 

1<S Busra. Short, 6-5-18. 

1 9 Busra. Christy, June 1918— Pregnant, ni al. 

Thii; is the common hedge-hog of the lower Tigris ; specimens are still 
requiied from Baghdad and abov-e, also from the Euphrates. ^^ 

Bus ton says, "very common in Amara, hybernates 3 months. He 
obtained 1 young in July. The writer found it plentiful in Sheikh Saad. 
This hedge-hog might be described as having hair of whitish brown, almost 
white in places, with light coloured quills and long ears, the feet and 
forehead are sandy brown. , 

The genus Erinaceus has now been restricted to the European hedge- 
hog. The genera Hemiechinus and Paraechinus being accepted for the more 
Eastern forms. The difference in the two lines in the front line of quiJls. 
In Hemiechinus the quills and hair meet in a clear cut line across the 
18 



830 JOVMNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol 

forehead, in Paraechinus a groove without quills runs from the centre 
of the forehead towards the crown. A key and description can be found 
in Summary of the Indian Mammal Survey. Wroughton, pt. ii., J. B. N. 
H. S., 1918, Vol. XXVI, p. 31. 

Trouessart gives the distribution of H. auritvs as S. E. Europe, Caspian 
and S. Siberia. 

12. Pakaeohinus ltjdlowi, Thos. 

1919. Paraechinus ludlowi, Thomas, J. B, N. H. S., Vol. XXVI., No. 3. 
p. 748. • 

Ludlow's Hedge-hog. 

IcJ Type Hit. Euphrates, Ludlow, 8-8-18. 

The type is the only specimen seen. Ludlow remarks that it was on 
stony desert soil at 400 ft. altitude. He also says that he found this 
within 20 yards of the Euphrates and that the preceding genus H. auritus 
was plentiful at Hit. 

.^Besides the generic difference, this hedge-hog can be distinguished from 
H. auritus by the colour of the quills which are almost white on the sides 
of the animal, with a broad row of brown quills running down the centre 
of the back. Most of the hair is white — the tail, feet and nose being brown — 
with brown streaks running up the forehead. It also appears to attain 
a larger size. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas has named this after Capt. F. Ludlow. 

13. Felis chaus, Guld. 

1776. Felis chaus, Guldenstadt, Nov. Com. Ac. Petrop XX, p. 483. 

Jungle Cat. Arabic " Bizoon." 

1 2 Amara Buxton, 2-12-17. 

1$ Qualet Saleh Webster, Jan. 1911. 

1 $ „ „ Buxton, 23-2-18. 

1 Mesopotamia Perrian, Jan. 1917. 

1 d Madij Ludlow, 15-2-18. 

1 Shahroban Mackie, July 1917. 

1 $ Shahroban Indian Museum (Connor), Dec. 1918. 

This is the cat frequently met with on the Tigris among the scrub- 
jungles by the river. It grows to such a size that it is easy to mistake it 
for the jackal at a short distance. Its black ear tufts, yellow tinge of 
colouring and short tail have led in many instances to the reports of 
caracals and even lynxes being seen or shot on the Tigris and Euphrates 
during the war. 

So far the only authentic record of the caracal in this neighbourhood, is 
the specimen obtained by Loftus at Dizful, which I have examined. 

The uniform brick-red colour and absence of black or brown markings 
would distinguish this caracal at a long distance from F. chaus. 

These specimens vary considerably. Buxton's from Amara has the 
under-parts white and is a brightly coloured cat, while his and Webster's 
from Qualet Saleh, although from much the same locality, are less highly 
coloured, with buff belly. De Winton dealt with the sub-species of this 
cat in 1898 (A. M. N. H. 7 ii, p. 291) but I have been unable to determine 
to which sub-species these belong. Buxton's Amara specimen, skin and 
skull, can be duplicated from the series of Felis c. affinis from India, col- 
lected by the Indian Mammal Survey, while the Qualet Saleh skins appro- 
ximate to the British Museum series of F. chaus nilotica irom. Egypt and are 
also very similar to some among the F. c. affinis series. Major St. John 






MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. y31 

compared a specimen obtained near Bushire with a living member of Fdis 
chaiis in the London Zoological Gardens. He came to the conclusion that 
they were identical (Blanf. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 36.) 

I do not consider the separation of the present series uf the Mesopota- 
mian cat from F. chaus would be justified as yet. 

F. chaus is found throughout India, W. Asia and N. Africa. The type 
locality is the Caspian. 

14. Felis ocreata iraki, Subsp. nov. 

Pale Eastern Wild Cat. 

Type 1, Koweit, Arabia, Shakespeare, May 1913. 

1 (S , Sheik Saad, Tigris, Cox-Cheesman, 8-12-16. 

Felis ocreata is, according to Temminck, the origin of the domestic cat 
and is the Abyssinian representative of a group to which these two speci- 
mens belong. 

It has been known in literature as Felis caligata, Felis maniculata, and 
Felis lyhica. Schwann in 1904 pointed out that the first description of this 
cat was given by Gmelin, as Felis ocreata in 1791. 

Besides being widely distributed in Africa, specimens have been obtain- 
ed near Aden by Col. Yerbury in 1895, at Lahej, S. W. Arabia, by Messrs. 
Percival and Dodson in 1900, and at Moab, Palestine, by Tristram in 1893. 
All these Asiatic skins are very similar to the African in shade of colour 
and markings. The two from Koweit and Sheikh Saad although very 
similar to each other in these respects, are unlike any of the other speci- 
mens in the British Museum and obviously represent a paler race. It has 
been considered advisable to give them subspecific rank. 

Felis ockeata iraki, Subsp. nov. 

Size similar to Aden and Palestine specimens, with slightly heavier 
dentition. 

General colour dove grey, with tendency to salmon buff shading. Fore- 
head silvery, caused by a subterminal brown ring on the hairs showing past 
the silvery tip, base of hairs salmon buff". White patch in front of eye. A 
few buff stripes on the face. Ears uniform reddish buff', a few long reddish 
hairs at the tips, but no tufts. Back without distinct pattern, colour as on 
the forehead, darker towards the centre, paler towards the flanks. The 
buff bases to the hairs showing through on the flanks, form almost invisible 
spots which lower down become more distinct. Tail long, extending some 
inches beyond the outstretched hind legs, tip brown black, with two or 
three brown black rings above separated by greyish white intervals. Belly 
white, grading to pale buff at the sides and with obscure reddish spots. 
Legs on the upper side pale creamy white to the toes, thighs and upper 
fore legs slightly darker with cross bars of pale brown. Underside of the 
feet brown black. 

Dimensions of the fype.— Head and body, 630 mm ; tail, 372 ; hindfoot, 
134; ear, 47. Skull:— Greatest length, 94; condyle basal length, 83; 
ijygomatic breadth, 64.5 ; palatal length. 34.5 : least interorbital breadth, 
17 ; breadth of braincase (broken), 45 ; upper tooth row behind canine 
22.5 ; length of carnassial, 11.5 ; greatest length of buUse, 22. 

Ha6.— N. E. Arabia and Mesopotamia. The type from Koweit, Arabia. 
Another specimen from Sheikh Saad, R. Tigris. 

I'wpe.— Apparently a male. B. M. No. 20.1.19.2. Collected May 1913, by 
the late Capt. W. H. Shakespeare. Presented to the British Museum by 
the Bombay Natural History Society. 



332 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The Sheikh Saad specimen is shorter in the tail than that from Koweit. 
It was shot in low scrub on the River bank below Sheikh Saad. As this, cat 
appears as a rare straggler within the range of the preceding species, 
F. chaus, with which it might in the field be confused, the chief differences 
may be emphasized as follows. The tail in typical F. chaus reaches little 
more than half the length of the outstretched hindlegs, in all the F. ocreata 
group the tail extends two to five inches beyond them. The ear of F. chaus 
is deep reddish with a darker patch in the centre and a tuft of long hairs 
at the tip, in F. ocreata the ear is paler, self-coloured, and without the tuft. 
The hair on the body of F. ocreata is distinctly softer. The most marked 
difi"erence however lies in the skull, which in F. clmus is almost twice the 
size of that of the F. ocreata group, with far larger carnassial teeth. 

The European wild-cat, Felis sylvestris, extends to Asia Minor and will 
probably be represented in N. Persia, but is not likely to be found on the 
Mesopotamian plains. 

15. Hbrpfstes pebsicus, Gray. 

1864. Herpestes persicus, Gray, P. Z. S., p. 554. 

Persian Mungoose. Arabic Jeraydee ma'l Nakhala, or 'Abu 
al arrais ' 

! $ Amara Connor, 25-8-16. 

2 c? „ Buxton, 21-12-17 & 1-12-17. 

1 „ „ 25-2-18 1918. 

1? Busra Shortridge, 12-1-17. 

1 Baghdad Ingoldby Dec. 17. 

1 Busra Connor, no date M 22 in al. 

1 Busra Wall „ „ M 23 

1 „ Christy June 1918 in al. 

This is the common mongoose of the Tigris, at least from Fao to Baghdad. 
The Arab children tame them easily and sell them as pets for a few annas. 
Connor remarks that his female from Amara had full grown young follow- 
ing her in August. The first Arabic name, literally, rat of the palm-tree, 
is misleading, and some men have seriously informed me that they live on 
dates. But the Arab is not accurate in his observations and seeing a mon- 
goose in a palm tree probably led to this belief. 

The type locality is Mohammerah and its range is given from there to 
Kuzistan. No specimen of a larger mongoose has been so far obtained, but 
in May 28, 1917, I chased but failed to secure, a large mongoose beyond 
the oil fields at Maidan-i-Naptun. This might have been an Indian species 
or even the Egyptian, M. ichneumon, which Kinnear points out may reach 
the country west of the Tigris. 

16. Hyaena hy^na, L. 

1766. Canis hycena, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 1., p. 58. 

The Striped Hyaena. Arabic Dhab'a. 

1 Ur of the Chaldees. Patiala Lancers. 

Lt.-Col. Cox, 1/4 Som. L.I., told me he had seen a hyaena in the desert 
outside Makina near Busra in 1916, and chased it for some distance on a 
horse. Ludlow tells me that 4 miles N. of Feluja on the left bank of 
the Euphrates he rode and chased a hyaena to ground. The earth was 
m the side of a mound, self dug, with more than one entrance. Outside 
there was a large larder of Camel and donkey bones. 

These, the only records I have of the hyaena are from the Euphrates. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 333 

It is probably met with on the Tigris as well, but will nowhere be 
plentiful. The desert tribes north-west of Baghdad seemed very vacrue 
as to its whereabouts or existence there. Sheikh Feisul ibn Saoud from 
Central Arabia was well acquainted with them and recognised them 
at once in the London Zoological Gardens. 

The specimen from Ur has been compared with a recent series of Hyana 
hy(vna from India, ..r<- d,;:rc«»r8 identical with the exception of being 
slightly paler. The type x^c uty of the species is Bunder Abbas. 

The range is Palestine, Persia, Trans-Caspia and India. Also North 
Africa. 

17. Canis pallipes, Sykes. 

1831. Canis pallipes, Sykes, P. Z. S., p. 101. 
Indian Wolf. Arabic 'Dhib. ' 

I Shaiba Livesey, June 1917. 

1 c? Tanooma, Basra. Christy, May 1918. 

In addition to the skins sent, wolves have occasionally been seen and 
killed on the Tigris, their appearance is however rare and I have not hearr? 
of their being seen otherwise than singly or in pairs. The wolf sent by 
Christy was collected by Major R. W. Cooper, who shot it. He states 
it measured 26 inches and a bit to the shoulder. It had killed sheep from 
a wire pen several nights in succession at Tanooma. 

On comparison with the series of Canis lupus and Canis pallipes, there 
is no doubt that the Mesopotamian wolf belongs to the latter species. 

A skin and skull of C. pallipes was collected near Aden by Percival 
and Dodson in 1899 and in 1894 Col. Jayakar obtained a skin of C. pallipes 
from near Bunder Abbas, both are now in the British Museum. 

Distribviion. — Sind and throughout India. The type locality is Dekkan. 
The occurrence of this wolf in Mesopotamia is a link with those found in 
Arabia mentioned by Kinnear. 

18. Canis aureus, L. 

1758. Canis aureus, Linugeus, Syst. Nat. 1, lOthed., p, 40. 
Jackal. Arabic Wow-wi. 

1 cJ Kut Pitman, 1.3-1-17. 

Id' Shaiba Livesey, Feb 1917. 

1(5 Legait ,, 5-4-17. 

1 Mesopotamia „ 16-10-16. 

4 Baghdad Ingoldby, 18-1-18. 

IJ Shahroban Connor, Jan. 1919. 

1 ,, Indian Museum (Connor), 5-5-19. 

•2 2 Amara Buxton, 4-11-17 and 17-1-18. 

1 Persian Gulf Evans, 14-2-18. 

The skins of Mesopotamian jackals are separable into two groups. Some 
agree with a series selected from the National collection from the di- 
rection of Bunder Abbas, the type locality from which LinnaBus described 
C. aureus. Unfortunately the type itself is unknown. The skins in this 
series were from Bunder Abbas. Rae. 1911. Shush, near Dizful, 
Woosnam 1905— S. Arabia, Bury, 1902. Fao, Gumming, 1893, and Seis- 
tan, Kennion, 1910. These with the present collection from the lower 
Tigris and Euphrates may be described as bearing a ground colour of pale 
sandy to pale buff. The larger hairs are brown tipped with a few black 
tipped. The skin sent from Shaiba by Livesey is an exceptionally pale 
example, but the coat is old and the variation would be caused by the 



334 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

fading effect of the Shaiba desert sun on an already pale specimen of 
G. aureus. These would therefore all be referable to C. aureus aureus. One 
of Ingoldby's specimens from Baghdad has no duplicates among any of 
these. The ground colour here is bright fox-red with black tips to the 
longer hairs in sufficient numbers over the loins to create the appearance 
of a black patch. This bright colouring is identical with several specimens 
from Khotz near Trebizond, and one from Greece. Here we have strong 
evidence of a dark raca coming to Mesopotamia from Armenia and meeting 
the paler C. aureus from the Persian Gulf. At Sheikh Saad Garden in 
1917 considerale raids were being made by jackals on the fields of melon 
and vegetable marrow grown for the troops. When the order was given for 
their destruction the men killed over sixty jackals in a few weeks. 

Buxton remarks " abundunt everywhere. Destroys broad beans by 
rolling in them in spring, trampling patches quite flat. Eats cucumbers. 
Litters of cubs, seen under bushes as soon as they can walk." 
19. VuLPBS PERSiCA, Blanf. 

1875. Vulpes persica, Blanford, A. M. N. H., XVI., p. 310. 

Persian Desert Fox. Arabic Huseinee. 

1. Legait Livesey, 20-4-17. 

4. Purchased at Busra Shortridge, 26-2-16. 
1. Ahwaz Ludlow, 4-7-17. 

1. Shatt-al-Adhaim Pitman, Nov. 1917. 

These small foxes are grey on the sides merging into fox-red towards 
the centre of the back and on the legs and forehead. The throat and un- 
derparts contain portions of mauve grey. 

Livesey's specimen from Legait is a very pale example with the fore- 
head, flanks and brush almost silvery white, touched here and there with 
chestnut. The tips of the ears and centre of the neck and back are 
chestnut brown. This would seem to be a case of partial albinism, as 
there are cases of similar colouring among a series of V. leucopus from 
Sind. 

The long brush becomes white tipped with age. 

They are plentiful in the desert mounds formed by the ruins of the 
irrigation canals of the ancients. In these their earths are found, but 
they more often lie in the open. Their footmarks can be seen round the 
holes of Jerboas and Ger bills on which they largely prey. I once approached 
to within a few feet of one — intent on digging out these small rodents. The 
Arabs course them with greyhounds and sell the skins in the markets. 
These skins are often called ' bizoon el chowl ' which might be misleading as 
literally it means ' cat of the desert.' 

This fox would appear from the specimens to hand to belong to the 
leucopus group, and there is little doubt it is Blanford's V, persica. 

V. leucopus is found along the Sind, Punjaub frontier, while Blanford 
gives the habitat of V. persica as Persia around Isfahan. 
20. Maktes poina, Erxl. 

1777. Maries (Mustela) foina, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim. I, p. 458, 
Beech Marten. 

1. Push-ti-koh. Napier, July 1917 . 

The Beech Marten keeps to considerable elevations in the mountains 
and is not likely to be met with in the plains of Mesopotamia, but it 
contributes to the interest of the paper to include specimens obtained just 
over the Persian border. Unfortunately there is no skull and the skin has 
the appearance of a bazaar purchase which would account for the exact 
locality not being given. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 335 

There seems to be little known regarding the Martens in this reeion 
although they occur in the highlands of Asia Minor. Major St John re 
marks "I am told that Marten skins are commonly sold at Ispahan said tc 
come from the Westward. But whether this means Asia or the forests of 
the Zagros I cannot say" (Blanford's Eastern Persia, II, p 44) The Zagros 
is an old name for the Push-ti-koh. He assumes that these skins were 
Maries abietum, a synonym of Martes maries, the Pine Marten, a species 
which has a larger amount of white on the throat patch, but rehable identi- 
fication rests on skull differences. 

Maries foina has a range from central and southern continental Europe to 
Western Asia, also Afghanistan and the Himalayas. 

21. Mellivora wilsoxi, sp. nov. 

Wilson's Ratel. 

1$ Baksai, Tyb River, Iraq— Persian Frontier. Wilson, May 1914. 

The material representing Mellivora indica in the British Museum is most 
meagre. On comparing the present specimen with what is available and 
with the series from Africa, I find that it shows a number of differences 
from both, which, though not great in themselves, are so constant that tJi- 
erection for it of a new species seems justified. 

For comparison below I have used a specimen obtained by the Mammal 
Survey of India from Bengal. The dimensions given in brackets are those 
of this specimen which unfortunately is a $ . 

Mellivora wilsoni, sp. nov. 

A Mellivora having the mantle extending almost to the tip of the tail, as 
in indica, but the mantle showing a marked white border along the shoul- 
ders and flanks as in so many of the African forms. 

Size rather smaller than indica (even allowing for the difference in sex 
of the two specimens compared) with a rather longjer tail proportionately. 

General colour black with a greyish-white mantle commencing from be- 
tween the eyes (commencing rather behind the line of the eyes in indica) and 
extending over the entire back and upper side of the tail almost to its tip ; 
bordered by a white band, about 20mm. wide, from the ears along the flanks. 
Tne individual hairs of the mantle are pure white to their bases, rather sparse 
and about 30 — 3omm. long. Everywhere these overlie a finer, shorter coat 
of brown hairs (except in the marginal border where they are absent) and 
these seen through the white hairs give the eSect of grey colour to the 
mantle. On the marginal border the white hairs are closer set, and longer 
(40 — 45mm. on flanks), which with the absence of the underfur accounts 
for the contrast between the margin and the rest of the mantle. The claws 
are black. 

Dimensions of the type. — Head and body, o9o mm. (705) ; tail, 175, (175) ; 
hindfoot, 100, (120) ; ear 19, (19 from dry skin). ,SA;mZZ.— Condylobasal length. 
122, (1 33); palatilar length, 56, (55) ; interorbital breadth, 32, (28); breadth of 
brain case 58, (62) ; upper tooth row behind the canine, 27, (28) ; length of 
carnassial, 11. 5, (13). 

Hah. — S. W. Persia, the type from Ram Hormuz, alt. 500. 
Tiipe.—KAnlt $ B. M. No. 5,10-4-21. Original number 24. Collected 4th 
April 1905, by Mr. R. B. Woosnam and presented to the National Museum 
by Col. Bailward. 

The specimen taken by Col. A. T. Wilson near Baksai, some distance 
further N. W. and sent for identification to the British Museum by the 
Bombay Natural History Society corresponds closely, in all essential char- 
acters with the description of M. xvilsoni so far as the absence of the skull 



336 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

allows me to judge. The pattern is quite the same . The general black 
body colour has rusted to a deep brown, except in the centre of the belly, 
while the pure white hairs on the mantle of the type are altered in this 
specimen to a creamy white. The claws are cream coloured. Dimensions of 
the Baksai specimen : — Head and body,, 741mm ; tail, 191 ; hindfoot, 102. 
Mdlivora from Aden have the mantle darker grey than M. wilsoni and the 
grey of the mantle extending only a short way down the upper surface of 
the tail, this is more characteristic of the African forms. 

The Baksia specimen was caught in open desert, while that from Ram 
Hormuz was trapped at a hole in a bank among corn lands. 

I have named this species in honour of Lieut. -Col. Sir A. T. Wilson. 
Owing to the absence of the skull it was found necessary to take Col. 
Bailward's specimen as type of the species. 

22. LUTRA LTJTRA, L. 

The Common Otter. 

1. Amara. Christy, June 1918. Obtained from an Arab. 

Arabic •'* Keleb-al-mi " 

This proves to be the common otter, Lutra lutra, as predicted by Kin- 
near. 

Buxton says : — The marsh Arabs spear them by moonlight with a trident. 
So far otters have been most in evidence in the marshes in the lower 
reaches, but there is little doubt that they are found throughout the length 
of the larger rivers. 

Distribution : — Miller gives the range of L/utra lutra as N. Africa, east- 
ward into Asia, and westward in Europe to Ireland and north to the Arctic 
Coast. 

23. Jaculus lgfttjsi, Blanf. 

1875. Dipus loftusi, Blanford, A.M.N.H., XVI., p. 312. 
Loftus Jerboa. Arabic Jerboor. 

1 cJ Busra, Cox-Cheesman, 12-10-18. 

„ „ 21-10-18 skeleton and skull in al. M. 19. 

1 „ „ 28-10-18 in al. M. 1. 

These are the size of a half grown rat. 

The kangaroo like legs and thick fur below the feet, ol three toes, are 
the chief characteristics noticed here. Colour of back isabelline, darker 
towards the tail and white below. The tail is isabelline with a tuft of dark 
hair ending in a white tip. 

These two specimens were kindly given to me alive by Capt. Turner in 
June 1917 and lived sometime in the collection at Bombay. He obtained 
them from the line of the Busra-Nasariyeh Railway. During the heat of 
the day these animals would frequently fight in their cags, make an angry 
spitting noise like a rabbit when fighting and suddenly fall into a trance 
like sleep, from which they required a considerable shaking to awaken. 
They drank frequently, taking small sips in their forepaws. This is remark- 
able as their earths are often placed where both dew and water would be 
to all appearances unobtainable. 

They usually remove the sand in front of their burrows by pushing it in 
front of them with their fore feet. For the excavation they adopt the 
more usual method, i.e., backwards. -^ 

The Jerboas are considered eatable by Mahommedan law, the other small 
rodents are ' haraam ' or forbidden. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 337 

Blanford gives a plate of this animal in his ' Eastern Persia, ' ii., p. 75. 
In his description in 1875 he mentions that it is distinguished from its 
allies by its colour and proportion. 

Distribution. — Persia and Mesopotamia. According to Trouessart Loftus 
obtained the type at Mohommerah. 

24. Tatera bailwardi, Wroughton. 

1906. Tatera bailwardi, Wroughton, A. M. N. H., Ser. 7. XVII. p. 498. 
Bailward's Gerbil. (Bundi Kir, Karun River) 

I) S Amara Buxton, 22-11-17 to 12-10-18. 

c? Sinn Abtar Kut Shortridge, 6-7-16, 

1 Mesopotamia Bagnall, 12-2-17. 

1 Baghdad Ingoldby, 18-12-17. 

(S Akka Kuf 

Baghdad '■' Pitman, 27-7-17. 
imm. „ „ 14-8-17. 

3 c? 1 2 Sheikh Saad "^ Cox-Cheesman, 24-2-17 to 5-3-17. 

1 imm. „ „ ,. 14-8-17. 

1 Shahroban. i^ Indian Museum (Connor), Jan. 1919. 

In the Gerbil family the hind foot is long, but the hind legs are 
considerably shorter than in the Jerboas. This is the most numerous of 
the Gbrbils so far met with on the Tigris at Baghdad and below. It is the 
size of a rat with large black eyes, soft sandy brown hair, with rufous tinge 
and speckled with black-brown. Underparts white. The long tail is dark 
brown above and below and pale at the sides and well covered with hair. 
This tail marking distinguishes Tatera from all other Gerbils. 

Buxton remarks that his specimens were taken with cheese and were 
common among lucerne patches. 

Mine were flooded out of burrows made below freshly sown garden peas, 
on which they were probably feeding. 

Distribution. — Lower Tigris, Euphrates and Karun rivers. 

25. Tatera pitmani, sp. nov. 
Pitman's Gerbil. 

1 2 Type. Baiji near Fatah Gorge, Tigris, Cox-Cheesman, 18-4-19. 

1 O )? v j< )j ;j •; M 

A larger species than T. baihoardi with less rufous on the back and 
flanks. 

The chief distinction is the difference in proportions. The skull of T. pit- 
mani being considerably the larger, while the feet of both are about the 
same size. 

Upper surface of back sandy brown, well speckled towards the centre 
with black brown caused by the brown tips of the hairs. Base of hairs 
dark grey. A light area around the eye clearly defined, some of the hairs 
being white to their bases. Under surface white, the lateral line of demar- 
cation not specially sharply defined. 

Ears similar to back but darker. Hands and feet white, tail dark brown 
above and below, pale buff at the sides of the basal half of the tail, termina- 
ting in a dark brown tip with elongated hair. 

bimensiotis of the type. — Head and body 194 mm.: tail 184 mm.; hind 
foot 41 mm. ; ear 29 "mm. 

Skull— Greatest length 49-0 mm.; condylo incisive 45'0 ; zygomatic 
breadth 26 ; nasals 22; interorbital breadth 8; palatine foramina 9-8; upper 
molar series 7 "2. 

Hab.~The rocky soils and foothills of the Jebel Hamrin range on the 
N. Eastern boundary of the Iraq plain. 
19 



338 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl 

y^/pe.— Adult female B. M.No. 19-12-24. 1, Original number 390. Collected 
by R. E. Cheesman at Baiji, Tigris, April 18, 1919. Another specimen from 
the same place. 

The measurements of the male are: — head and body 203 mm, tail 194 ; 
hind foot 41 ; ear 26. The skull is also larger than that of the type, but 
was unfortunately incomplete. 

The skull measurements are larger than those of the type of Tatera persica 
which is in turn as large or even larger than either T. toeniura or T. indica, 
according to Wroughton. 

This Gerbil will be found to be akin to Meriones toeniurus described by 
Wagner in 1843. The measurements were those of a stuffed specimen, 
without skull, the type locality being given as Syria. 

Wroughton when writing on the genus Tatera in 1906 (A, and JN. M. H. 
ser. 7 XVII, p. 495) deduced that Wagner's description was too vague to 
indicate more than a large Tatera. Unfortunately there are no specimens 
from Syria in the National collection. 

Of the specimens of Tatera obtained by Col. Bailward at Bundi Kir, 
Karun River, Wroughton identified two of the larger with T. toeniura. 
The average measurement in mm. was head and body 187 ; tail 197 ; hind 
foot 42 ; ear 29. Skull greatest length 47; length of upper molar series 7. 

Three smaller specimens from the same collection and one from Loftus ; 
fiom the same locality and one presented by the Euphrates Expedition, 
he describes under the name of T. hailwardi. The type, a male, measured 
head and back, 166 m.m. ; tail 182 ; hind foot 41 ; ear 28 ; skull greatest 
length 44 ; upper molar series 6'5. Since the arrival of the present series 
of Tatera in the Mesopotamian collection we are able to form the opinion 
that Tatera toeniura does not extend across the desert from Syria to the 
North-Eastern boundary of Mesopotamia as we now have evidence that in 
the intervening country on the Lower Tigris and Euphrates the resident 
species is T. hailwardi, to which all Tatera obtained at Baghdad and below 
on the Tigris are referable. It appears safe to assume that the two speci- 
mens from Baiji belong to a hitherto undescribed species with a range on 
the rocky soils above the alluvial Iraq plain. 

They inhabit burrows in patches of sandy soil in the vicinity of river 
banks. I have named this species in honour of Capt. 0. R. S. Pitman. 

26. Gebbilltjs chebsmani, Thos. 

1919. GerUllus cheesmini, Thomas, J. B. N. H. S,, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, 
p. 748. 

Cheesman's Gerbil. 

\S . Type Lower Euphrates. Cox-Cheesman, 21-8-17. 

This Gerbil was captured on the Busra-Nasariyeh Railway by Capt, 
Turner, who generously presented it to me. It was taken alive to 
Bombay. In general colour and size it resembles a brightly coloured 
dormouse. The edge of the pale chestnut of the back and the white of 
the underparts meeting in a clearly marked line along the side. The 
chestnut continues between the ears to a point towards the nose. The 
hair round the eyes being much lighter. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas has kindly named this after the writer. 

27. DiPODiLLUs DASYUKUs, Wagn, 

1842. Dipodillus dasyurus, Wagner, Arch. Naturg. i., p. 20. 
Dasyurus Naked-soled Gerbil. 

\<S 1$ Baghdad Buxton, 11 & 12-9-17. 

3-^ 1$ Amara ,, 15-9-18 and 7-11-18. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 



339 



These are small Gerbils about the size of dormice. The two from Ba^^h- 
dad are pale chestnut on the flanks, shaded to brown towards the 
centre of the back with underparts white. The tail is darker above than 
on the side or below. In the four from Amara the general colour of the 
back is browner than in those from Baghdad. 

Buxton remarks from Baghdad " trapped on bare mud banks of the 
Tigris with bait of flour paste " and from Amara he says " apparently- 
common in bare salt desert with a few bushes of Suceda" Suceda 
monoica is the common salt loving shrub. He also says " I kept a lot in cap- 
tivity and they fed almost exclusively on the succulent leaves of this plant. 

The burrows are not complicated having 3 or 4 entrances, all within 3 
or 4 feet of each other. 

The holes descend very steeply to about 12 to 18 inches below ground 
level. I ,^ 

When you attempt to dig out these animals they scratch their way out 
of the burrows, into the surrounding earth and definitely block the track 
they have excavated. If you follow the main burrow you dig past the 
occupants, which are lying up a few inches away in the soil." 

In the present state of our knowledge of this genus it is not safe to go 
further than provisionally to place these under D. dasyurus. 

Trouessart gives the distribution of D. dasyurus as Arabia, Red Sea 
and Oman. 

28. MeRIONES CHARON, Thos. 

1919. Meriones cliaron, Thomas, A, M. N. H. Ser. 9, Vol. Ill, p. 269. 
Karun Desert Gerbil. 

\(S 2 2 Kazimain, Baghdad. Cox-Cheesman, 18-1-19. 

1 imm. Beled, Tigris. „ „ 21-10-18.; 

Another of the Gerbil family : slightly larger than the last. 

These were living in earths on the dry banks of irrigation channels among 
cornland and were trapped with a bait of cocoanut. I have extracted a 
few sentences from Thomas' description of M. charon. " Small, with termi- 
nally crested tail, general colour above finely speckled sandy bufl', under 
surface white, tail dull bufl'y with an upper crest of black hairs." 

These have been compared with a series of Meriones erytlirourus from 
Shiraz and Kandahar, the reddish colour at the base of the tail is a 
character of M. erythrourus and missing in the Mesopotamian specimens, 
which also appear to belong to a smaller species. 

To Meriones charon the resemblance is much closer. This species was 
found by Loftus on the mounds of Susa, and Woosman obtained the type 
at Ahwaz, Karun river. As none of the skulls of the Tigris specimens 
show adult formation, it has been considered advisable for the present to 
place them provisionally under M. charon. 

29. Eattus eattus, L. 

1758. Mus rattus, Linnseus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 61. 
Black Rat. Arabic ' jeraydee. ' 

iV.5.— This name applies to all rats and most small rodents. 

2 2 Kazimain, Baghdad. Cox-Cheesman, 30-3-19. 
19 Busra Kilminster, 17-5-18. 
l^ ,^ Whitehead, 12-5-18. 

Id 1$ Amara Buxton, 6-11-17 & 27-11-17. 

15 Busra May, 22-5-18. ^ 

1 J Amara Indian Museum (Connory, bep. 

1916. 



340 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HWT. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The long tail and small size should distinguish this species from the 
next. This rat is a tree loving species and is frequently seen passing from 
date tree to date tree by the fronds. 

Buxton found it common in houses at Aniara. 

Hinton has dealt with the Rattus group recently in the Journal of the 
B. N. H. S. of Dec. 20, J918, No. XVIII. Although many species and 
sub-species of the house rats have been separated under different names 
from time to time, in many cases he has been unable to distinguish them 
specifically. 

As instances occur of the black rat being brown and the brown rat being- 
black, I have asked Hinton to identify the rattus specimens from Mesopo- 
tamia and he has placed them in the two species given — that is Rattus rattus 
and Rattus norvegicus. 

This rat originally came from India and spread westwards. In Mesopo- 
tamia it should be more or less in its original form. It was first taken to 
England by the Crusaders and also scattered about the world by shipping. 
Considerable changes of colour and habits have since taken place. 

30. Rattus xokveuicus, Berkenhout. 

1769. Mus norvegicus, J. Berkenhout, Outlines Nat. Hist. Gt. Bri- 
tain and Ireland. 1, p. 5. 
Brown Kat. 

■2S 2 $ Busra May, 8-5-18 to 26-5-18. 

12 „ Whitehead, 4-5-18. 

16 „ Jenkins, 26-5-18. 

1? „ No name, 5-5-18. 

1$ „ Collins, 13-5-18. 

The large rat with tail shorter than length of head andbodj^. 
This rat originated from S. Eussia in the region between the Caspian 
and Lake Baikal. It has spread like Rattus rattus by means of shipping, 
to all parts of the world and likewise dark and light forms have been 
evolved by change of environment. 

It is interesting to note that no specimens were obtained higher than 
Busra. 

.'il. Nesokia buxtoxi, Thos. 

1919. Nesolia buxtoni, Thomas, J. B. N.H.S., Vol. XXVI, No. 2, p, 422. 
Buxton's Mole Kat. 

16 Amara Buxton, 24-4-18. 

4:6 ■ „ „ 31-3-18 to 30-9-18. 

3 c? Kurna „ 17-5-18 to 17-7-18. 

3 6 Lake Akkar, 

Kuf, Baghdad Pitman, 27-7-17 to 18-8-17. 
1 Sheikh Saad, Ingoldby, 18-3-17. 

■2 6 12 . ,n Cox-Cheesman, 26-2-17 to 19-3-17. 

15 Nasariyeh Indian Museum (Hodgart) Janu- 

ary 1918. 
The four skins from Sheikh Saad diji'er from the rest in the quality of 
the fur which lacks the inter-mixture of black stift' hairs and the coats are 
therefore softer in textui-o. 

These mole rats somewhat resemble the English water vole in general 
appearance. 

They may be recognised by the rather short tail, almost hairless, and 
the enormous length of the rodent teeth. Their hair is soft, golden brown 
on the back with long black hairs of coarser texture inter-mingled. The 
under parts are grey white. 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 341 

Buxton remarks from Amara, they are common but very difficult to 
trap. He trapped one with cheese, but the rest of his specimens were 
shot at the mouth of the burrow. He adds: " during the spring- floods 
they excavate hard even by day light and come to the surface to throw out 
earth". I also found them difficult to trap and my specimens from Sheikh 
Saad garden were dug out of their holes by a gang from a Santali Labour 
Corps, who proved experts at catching them alive in their hands and were 
sorely disappointed that they were not allowed to eat them. 

They live in colonies in holes in dry banks of canals. Their holes are 
always stopped at the entrance with loose earth. So anxious are they 
that the holes shall be closed, that I used to remove the loose earth. 
Very shortly a head would appear and the damage be immediate!' 
repaired. 

The nearest ally in colour to N. huxtoni is N. huttoni from Kandahar, an 
illustration of which appears in Blanf. Eastern Persia ii, p. 61, a neigh- 
bouring species. 

Nesokia bailwardi from S. Caspian is a dark wood brown. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas I'.as named the Mesopotamian species after Capt. 
P. A. Buxton. 

32. Mus MUscuLUs GENTiLis, Brants. 

1827. Mus gentilis, Brants, Muizen, p. 126. 
House Mouse. Arabic ' Fars.' 

8cJ 5$ Amara Buxton, 27-11-17 to 8-9-18. 
1 c? Sinn Abtar, Kut Shortridge, 5-7-16. 

1 Busra Cox-Oheesman, May 1916. 

Ic? Twin Canals „ 15-11-16. 

Id 1 $ Sheikh Saad Cox-Cheesman, 26-2-17 & 4-3-17. 

1$ Busra Kilminster, 22-5-18. 

1 c? 1 2 „ Whitehead. 15-5-18 & 20-5-18. 

2 d 1 2 „ May, 27-5-18 & 28-5-18. 
1 Amara Wall, M. 10 in al. 

1 „ Connor, M. 11 in al. 

3 Busra Christy, June 1918 in al. 

These mice are found in the fields as well as in houses, and often 
turned up in tents in the most distant desert camps. Among the speci- 
mens received were several tending to a chestnut brown coloration on the 
back. The majority were brown. 

Blanford obtained a specimen of Mus bactrian%s, the Kandahar house 
mouse, from Shiraz and mentions that he expects that this will be the 
house mouse of S. Persia. 

i/MS musculus musculus of Linnfeus, the common house mouse of 
Europe, although originating from Central Asia, has now been carried all 
over the world. Typical forms of this have recently been taken at Menjil, 
N. W. Persia, by Buxton. 

Mus musculus gentilis, an Eastern form of the common house mouse is 
found in Egypt. A rough guide to these three forms is belly dark, with 
slate coloured bases, to hairs, 3Ius. m. musculus. Belly whitish, but 
with slate bases to hairs, Mus. m. gentilis. Belly white, with white bases 
to hairs, Mus. bactrianus. The tails of the Mesopotamian specimens from 
measurements in the flesh, average 76-5 m.m. which is eleven m.m shorter 
than a series recently collected by Hotson in Shiraz. Several Mesopotamian 
specimens have the pure white underparts of M. bactrianus. 



342 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL KLST. SOCLETY, Vol. XXVII. 

33. AcANTHiON, Species. 

Porcupine. Arabic Necce or Da'alej. 

1 (5 1 2 . Bait-al, Khalifa, Samarra, Pitman, 1-2-18. 

Pitman's two specimens are browner than either Hystrix crisiaia from 
Europe or AcantJiion leucura, the common Indian porcupine. One of the 
Samarra skins had both hind feet white. 

The porcupine is sparingly distributed among the rocky undulations and 
hills, but there is no record of its appearance on the plains. I have seen 
porcupine quills in the caves of the hills between Samarra and Tekrit on 
the right bank of the Tigris. On the mounds of Susa near the Kerkha river 
there was a well used earth of this animal with beaten tracks leading to 
it. 

Blanford originally placed the Persian porcupine with H. cristata, but 
subsequently identified it with H. leucura. 

The porcupines formerly called Hystrix are now divided into two genera. 
Acanihion which includes those from India, and Hystrix, comprising the 
African, as well as the porcupine found locally in the Mediterranean region 
of Europe. 

Muller has lately published a paper S. B. Ges. Nat. Fr., Berlin, 1911, p. 
110, describing six new sub-species of the Asiatic porcupines. It is not at 
present known how many of these will prove valid. As his paper covers the 
present area I have perforce to leave the species open. 

34. Lepus coNJfORi, Robinson. 

1918. Lepus dayanus connori, Robinson, Rec. Ind. Mus. XV, pt. 11, No. 6. 
Connor's Hare. Arabic "arneb". 



7. 




Hindiyeh Barrage, Euphrg 


ites Pitmai 


1, 2-7-17 to 13-7-1^ 


Id 


1? 


Kut 


>> 


13-1-17 


1 




Shat-al-Adhaim 


)f 


30-9-17 




1? 


Jilam plain, N. Samarra 


>) 


4-2-18 




2 


Frontier of Arabistan 


Wilson 




ic? 




Feluja, Euphrates 


Ludlow, 


7- i-18 


Id 




Hit 


)j 


14-4-18 


1 




No locality 


Arthur, 


1919. 


Id 


2$ 


Amara 


Buxton, 


27-1-18 & 11-2-18, 


2d 




Kumait, Tigris 


>j 


28-2-18. 




1? 


Shahroban 


Connor, 


Jan, 1919. 


1 




Twin canals 


Graham, 


, 28-11-16. 



The Iraq hare is inseparable from specimens obtained by Woosnam on 
the Karun river at Bundi Kir. 

Robinson in 1918, described a hare obtained between Ahwaz and Ma- 
hommerah by Connor. To this it would seem the present species should be 
referred. 

There are two distinct phases of colour in the present series ranging 
from a ground colour of grey to that of rufus. Even the grey individuals 
show a tinge of rufus on the flanks, throat and nape of the neck. 

I have not been able to discover any constant difference in the skulls, 
nor do the dates give an explanation that the two phases are due to season- 
al change of coat. It must therefore be assumed that these are merely 
colour variations. 

Ludlow's specimen from Hit has features distinct from the rest. It is 
small with a golden buff ground colour. The tips of the hairs are silvery 
buff*. Black tibs and centres to the hairs do not enter into the colour 
composition of the back as it does in all the rest. 



3fAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 343 

^ The size may be due to its being a leveret, but there is no skull to de- 
cide this. 

The arrival of more specimens of this little golden hare from Hit will be 
awaited with interest. 

The examples obtained on the Tigris have been compared with Palestine 
and Arabian species. All and the Samarra specimen in particular, bear a 
strong resemblance to a series from the Dead Sea. A series of' six L. 
craspedotis, the Beluch hare lately arrived from Hotson in Persian Beluchi- 
stan was compared with five Tigris hares from Buxton. 

The average head and back measurements taken in m.m. in the flesh 
were L. connon 472 m.m. against L. craspedotis 411 mm. Ear measure- 
ment L. connori 105 m.m. against L. craspedotis 123-3 m.m. The Tigris hare 
is therefore a large bodied, slightly rufus hare with small ears ; while L. 
craspedotis is a small bodied grey hare with very long ears. 

Lzpus connori difl'era from L. dayanus, a Sind species in three distinct 
features. The hair of L. connori is long and soft, the upper part of the tail 
is black and the nape of the neck fox red. L. dayanus has short hair of 
coarser texture. The upper part of the tail is sandy brown and the nape of 
the neck grey. The comparison of a series of both brings conviction that 
the Iraq hare is worthy of specific rank and should not be associated with 
L. dayanus. From this it is also geographically separated by a very distinct 
hare L. craspedotis as we have seen. 

The range of L. connori is at present the lands of the Lower Karun, 
Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 

35. Gazella marica, Thos. 

1897. Gazella inariea, Thomas, A.M.N.H. Ser. 6, Vol. XIX, p. 162. 

The Marica Gazelle. Arabic ' gazaal ' and ' Dhabi.' 

IS 2? Busra Dep. Civil Commissioner, 28-3-18 to 16-12-18. 

Died in Victoria Garden, Bombay. 
1 Nasariyeh Livesey, 4-7-17 skin without mask or skull. 

1 c? 1 $ Shushtar Bailey, skulls. 

1 S Ahwaz Ludlow, 3-7-17, skull. 

1 imm. Amara Buxton, spring, 1918. Skin. 

The gazelles have taken more time than any other group of animals in the 
collection. Partly because the whole position of the Gazelle family, espe- 
cially in this area, is in need of expert revision. Little reliance can be 
placed on previous works on the subject as the series on which they are 
based are small. 

Perhaps it will be more helpful in this paper to note briefly the chief 
features of the geographically neighbouring species with which the Meso- 
potamian skins have been compared, and the conclusions arrived at. 

Any of the species mentioned may occur in Mesopotamia. 

The species compared were : — G. arabica. 0. aubgutturosa and 0. marica. 

The Arabian gazelle, G. arabica. This is a small race, the forehead and 
nose are bright chestnut. Females horned. Inhabits the deserts of Oman 
N. of Aden and Western Arabia. 

The lower Mesopotamian gazelle lacks the chestnut on the head and has 
indistinct brown face streaks with a tendency to whiteness increasing with 
age. It is also larger. 

The Persian gazelle, G. aubgutturosa. These were long coated, with 
distinctly brown coloration. The forehead was brown, in some specimens 
white hairs were intermixed. 



344 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HiST. SOCIETY, Vol, XXVII. 

An extract from a description of 0. suhgutturosa by Lyddeker and Blaine 
is, males with a goitre like swelling in the throat during the rutting sea- 
son, color dark sandy faun in summer. In winter much paler. An in- 
distinct dark flank band. Face markings indistinct, the median dark 
stripe fading into white with age. Females without horns. 

It has a range in Persia and Afghanistan, at elevations of 3,000 to 
7,000 ft. 

The specimens under review differ from these, being shorter in the 
coat. The color of the Busra skins is sandy with a tendency to pinkish, 
the legs are almost white, while those of the Persian gazelle are reddish 
brown and we have a horned female from Major Bailey at Shushter and 
also from the Deputy Civil Commissioner, Busra. 

The description of G. marica by the same authors is a pale coloured desert 
form with white forehead, fawn face streaks nearly obsolete, ears, long- 
whitish fawn on backs, pale flank bands nearly obsolete. Females with 
horns. 

Range — desert tract from Nejd to W. Oman. 

The specimens from lower Mesopotamia include a complete skin, skull 
and mask of a beautiful adult male from the Deputy Civil Commissioner at 
Busra. The skin in all particulars, especially in the white nose and fore- 
head, closely resembles the type of G. marica in the National collection. 
The horns of this type are those of a younger animal and are in consequence 
much smaller. The male skull and horns from Shushter resemble the 
Busra head. The female from the same locality is that of an adult and 
is horned. The young male from Ahwaz has horns identical with those 
of the type of G. marica. 

The skin from Nasariyeh is much paler than the Busra colouring, but 
may be young. 

These particulars in addition to the resemblance of the Busra skin to 
this type, have led me to. place the lower Mesopotamian gazelle with 
G. marica for the laresent. 

36. Gazella, Spec. 

4 J 2 2 Samarra Pitman, skulls 

■2 6 22 „ „ 13-1-18 masks. 

6 Mesopotamia „ 13-3-18 masks. 

The heads obtained in Samarra are those of a smaller gazelle than those 
from lower Mesopotamia. The horns are lyrate in form and of a lighter 
build. Unfortunately no skins accompanied them. There are two skulls 
with perfect horns of old males. Two are those of adult females and are 
without even rudiments of horns. The four masks from Samarra have 
brown face streaks with a tendency to grizzled white. The six masks mar- 
ked Mesopotamia, are nearly all white. The whiteness of the heads of 
gazelles seem on the plains around Tekrit and Samarra and of masks 
obtaineid in this neighbourhood and examined by the writer in Mesopotamia 
has always appeared remarkable. In addition to the neighbouring species 
previously mentioned under G. marica I have compared these with G. dorcas, 
G. muscatensis, G. henneitii and G. gazella. 

The Dorcas gazelle, G. dorcas, has bright chestnut on forehead and nose, 
general colour dark-red fawn extending down the legs with a pronounced 
dark flank band. Female horned. Habitat given in "The Book of the 
Antelopes." Sclater and Thomas as Tripoli, Morrocco through Egypt and 
Syria. 

The" Muscat gazelle, G. muscatensis, is much the same in size and 
colouring. Female horned, A resident of Oman Eastern Arabia. . 



MAMMALS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 346 

The Indian gazelle, O bennettii — the Chinkara — the horns are short and 
not lyrate. Female horned. Habitat. — From India through Baluchistan 
and to the shores of the Persian Gulf. 

Palestine gazelle. G. gazella — bright chestnut on forehead and nose. 
Habitat Syria. 

In all these the bright chestnut on the nose and forehead is quite dis- 
tinct from the facial colouring of the Samarra masks. 

The horns of the Samarra gazelle are more delicate than any now in the 
National collection and I am of opinion that it will prove a new species of 
which the Females are hornless. In this Mr. Oldfield Thomas agrees. As 
it will probably be allied to G. subgutturosa, the goitre like swelling on the 
throat of the males during the rutting season, should be looked for and 
noted. It would also be of value to know if the hornless females from 
Samarra and the horned females from lower Mesopotamia are constant 
features. 

37. Ovis LARiSTANicA, Nas. 

1909. Ovis laristanica, Nasanov, Bull, Ac. Sci. St. Petersb. p. 1179, 

Laristan Red Sheep. 

1 S imm, Baktyari, W. Persia. Scott, June 29, 1911. 

1 <S imm. no locaUty. . Arthur. Reed . Bombay, ol-3-19 

This material is insufficient for any but provisional conclusions. 

The nearest described species of wild sheep are Ovis orientalis ispaha- 
nica, Nasanov, type locality Ispahan, and Ovis laristanica, Nasanov, type 
locality Laristan, S. Persia. 

There are no Specimens of either in the National collection. Lydekker 
in his " Catalogue of Ungulate Mammals," Vol. 1, p. 83, 1913, provisionally 
allows the Laristan sheep specific rank. 

I have had the advantage of seeing an excellent series recently col- 
lected by Hotson in Baluchistan and Shiraz, which has been sent to the 
British Museum for identification, by the Bombay Natural History Society. 
This, in my opinion, links the Red Sheep of the Push-ti-koh with that of 
Afghanistan, the type locality of the Afghan Unal, Ovis vignei cydoceros, 
with which the specimens from Baluchistan and Shiraz agree. 

The difference between the two groups, Ovis orientalis and Ovis vignet, are 
well marked in typical adult specimens. 0. orientalis, Red Sheep, has hornless 
females and the curve of the horn of the male if continued from the end 
points over the shoulder. In 0. vignei, the Urial, the females have small 
horns and the horn of the male curves forward, the ponit being m front ot 
the eye. The subspecies of both are separated chiefly on size, and 
geographically. in i a • 

The Ovis orientalis group, type locality Cyprus, extends through Asia 
Minor and Transcaucasia to Persia. A subspecies on the Elburz Mountains 
has been named 0. o. erskinei. ^ , , 

The Ovis vignei group, type locality Astor near Gilgit, extends tlirou^n 
the Salt Range, Punjab, to Afghanistan, where we have the subspecies 
0. V. cydoceros to which the specimen from Baluchistan and Shiraz are ax 
present referred, as they have the typical horn of the viynei group and 
the females are horned. , , , ^^ , , „„„„:,„ona 

It seems unlikely that in face of the facts revealed by Hotson s spec'™«"« 
that a subspecies of the group with hornless females /ho"Jd crop up at 
Ispahan, therefore Nasanov's Ovis orientalis ispahamca should be acceptea 
with caution until a confirmatory series of specimens is forthcoming trom 
that locality. 
20 



346 JOURNA.L, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIl. 

Blanford, in " Eastern Persia ", quotes Major St. John : — " I believe, 
myself, that it will be found that 0. gmelini is confined to the Elburz and 
that 0. cydoceros extends from Baluchistan to Mesopotamia ". As 0. 
gmelini belongs to the orientalis group and 0. cydoceros to the vignei grouj) 
this quotation seems about to be proved prophetic. 

Specimens from Budjnurd near the Persian-Turkestan Frontier are of 
the larger forms of the vignei group, and are referred to 0. v. arkar, a 
subspecies from the Ust-Urt plateau, Transcaspia. 

38, Oapka aegagrtjs blythi, Lyd. 

1898. Capraaegagrus blythi, Lydekker. Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats, 

p. 264. Sind Wild Goat. 

$1. Shushtar..W. Persia. .Bailey, Reed, Bombay, 23-2-18 (skin with- 
out skull). 

As the only specimen is a female without skull, I have been obliged to 
assume the probability of the Push-ti-koh wild goats being the same as 
those recently sent by Hotson from Shiraz, in order to give even an 
approximate classification. 

Capra aegagrus blythi is a smaller subspecies than that found in the Cauca- 
sus and Asia Minor, viz., Capra egagrus egagrus, and has a slighter deve- 
lopment or even absence of the knobs on the front edge of the horns and 
this latter is also sharper in C. en. blythi. 

The type locality of Capra egagrus blythi is Sind and since the arrival 
of Hotson's specimens its known range can be extended to Baluchistan and 
Shiraz. 



347 
A LIST OF SNAKES FEOM MESOPOTAMIA. 

COLLECTED BY MEMBERS OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN EXPEDITIONARY 
FORCE, 1915 TO 1919. 

BY 

G. A. BouLENGER, LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S. 

WITH FIELD NOTES BY CAPT. C. M. INGOLDBY. 

TYPHLOPID^. 

1. Typhlopsbraminus, Daud. 
Basra (Lieut.-Col. F. Wall). 

Habitat: Southern Asia ; Islands of the Indian Ocean ; South Africa; 
Mexico (probably transported by human agency). 

GLAUCONIID^. 

2. Glauconiamacrorhynchus, Jan. 
Faleya, Euphrates (Capt. H. T. Mackenzie). 

Habitat : Algerian Sahara, Nubia, Mesopotamia, Persia. 

BOID^. 

3. Eryx jaculus, L. 

Basra and Sheik Saad (Lt.-Col. F. Wall); Amara (Capt. P. A. Buxton) ; 
Shaiba (Lt. T. Livesey) ; Basra (Capt. C. R. Pitman) ; Bagdad (Capt. CM. 
Ingoldby) ; Mesopotamia (Maj. Fitzgerald). 

Habitat : North Africa, S. W. Asia, S. E. Europe. 

Very common along the Tigris within a mile or so of the river especially 
near villages. Excepting Trop. tessellatus, the most commonly killed snake 
owing to his frequent appearance above ground in daylight and his 
sluggish movements. The largest I have measured was 2 feet 5|ins. in 
length.— C.M.I. 

COLUBRID^. 

4. Tropidonotus tessellatus, Laur. 

Basra (Lt.-Col. F. Wall, Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor) ; Quelat Saleh below 
Amara, Sheik Saad, Haquicole on Euphrates near Hamar Lake (Capt. 
C. M. Ingoldby) ; Faleya (Capt. Mackenzie) ; Zobeya (Capt. Pitman) ; Basra 
(Maj. C. Christy). 

Numerous specimens, nearly all with a single upper labial shield (the 
fourth) entering the eye. r /-.u- a 

Habitat : Europe and Asia as far East as the extreme West of China and 
the extreme North-West of India, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Persia, 
Mesopotamia, Syria and neighbouring parts of Sinai and Egypt. 

Abundant wherever there is water. Major F. E. W. Venning who 
collected the specimens from the Hamar Lake, on the Euphrates has 
told me that on warm days the shallow water edging the lake appears to be 
writhing with them. — C.M.I. 

5. Zamenis gemonensis, L&uT, v&T. asianus, Boettg. 

Basra, Amara, Bagdad, Haquicole (Lt.-Col. F. Wall) ; Faleya (Capt. 

Mackenzie) ; Basra (Maj. C. Christy). t.,. j n r..„fl <»««» 

fiaii^ai: This form is known from Asia Mmor, Rhodes, Cyprus, Syria 

andPersia. 



348 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

This exceedingly handsome snake is found almost exclusively in the palm 
o-roves edging the rivers. It does not appear to acquire its pure black co- 
loration until over 4 feet in length. 

It is a swiftly moving creature, climbing palm trees with ease and biting 
with accuracy and animus when handled. 

I have found lizard remains in the stomach of one ; the usual diet however 
is certainly snakes. Near Bagdad, the only place where I had the oppor- 
tunity of observing them in any numbers, the victim in the great majority 
of cases was TarbopMs iberus. One specimen kept in captivity for several 
weeks ate voraciously any small snake offered (usually Zam. daJiUi or 
Zam. ventrimaculatus) eventually dying as a result of attempting to 
swallow too large a specimen of the latter. They are thirsty creatures 
drinking often and copiously from a saucer, occasionally immersing the 
whole mouth in the process — C. M. I. 

6. Zamenis clalilii, Fitz, 
Bagdad (Capt. Ingoldby). 

Habitat : S. E. Europe, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, N.-W. Persia 
Cyprus, Syria. 

This most slender and beautiful snake is common in the palm groves, 
frequenting the j^oimg thorny palm bushes where it ".an feed in reasonable 
safety. Its food seems to be chiefly insects, occasionally small lizards. 

Active in day-time only. All specimens refused food in captivity — C.M.I. 

7. Zamenis ventrimaculatus, (xray. 

Basra, Twin Canals at Sheik Saada, Esra's Tomb between Quarah and 
Amara (Lt.-Col. Wall) ; Shaiba (Lt. Livesey) ; Faleya (Capt. Mac- 
kenzie) ; Zobeya (Capt. Pitman) ; Bagdad (Capt. Ingoldby) ; Samash (Maj. 
Lane) ; Baquba, N.-E. of Bagdad (E. W. E. Wouterz) ; Sheik Saad 
(Sir P. Z. Cox), Basra (Maj. C. Christy). 

Habitat : From the Euphrates to Kashmir and N.-W. India. 

An active snake, most frequently met with on the desert at considerable 
distances from water. The colour harmonises perfectly with the baked 
earth of its surroundings — O.M.I. 

8. Zamenis diadema, Schlg. 

Basra, Bagdad, Twit Canals at Sheik Saad (Lt.-Col. Wall) ; Shaiba 
(Lt. Livesey) ; Faleya (Capt. Mackenzie) ; Zobeya (Capt. Pitman) ; 
Nasiryah (Lt. Livesey) ; Baquba (E. W. E. Wouterz) ; Daur (Capt. W. 
M. Logan Home). 

Habitat : From the Sahara and Arabia to Kashmir and N. W. India. 

Very common throughout at any rate lower Mesopotamia. The markings 
of the young persist in adult life — C.M.I. 

9. Lylorhynchus diadema, D. and B, 

Shaiba (Lt. Livesey); Faleya (Capt. Mackenzie); A waz (Capt. E. S. Hearn). 
Habitat : From the Algerian Sahara to Arabia, Syria and Persia. 

10. Contiacollaris, Men.. 
Bagdad (Lt.-Col. Wall). 

Habitat: Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Persia. A specimen from Muscat is 
preserved in the Collection of the Bombay Natural History Society. T 
now regard C. modesta, Mart, with the scales in 17 rows, as a distinct species. 

11. Contia coronella, Schlg. 

Shaiba, Zobeya (Lt. Livesey); Faleya (Capt. Mackenzie). 
Halitnt : Was known from Syria and S. W. Persia. 



SNAKES FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 349 



12. Tarbophis iberus, Eichw. 

Bagdad (Capt. Ingoldby); Mesopotamia (Capt. Mackenzie). 

The 6 specimens in the collection have the scales in 21 rows, as in Wall's 
T. tessellatus (J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. XVIIl, 1908, p. 802) from S, W. Persia, 
of which 1 have examined the type and which 1 cannot separate from T. 
iberus* 

Habitat: Caucasus, Mesopotamia, S.W.Persia. 

Moves chiefly by night. Usually extremely sluggish and placid, allowing 
itself to be picked up and handled without protest. One which I had kept 
in a small box for two days before transfer to a cage was on removal 
exceedingly aggressive, hissing and biting vigorously. The largest 1 found 

was coiled in a bunch of dates, at midday, on the top of a tall palm 

C.M.I. 

13. CoelopeUis monspessulana, Herm. 
Bagdad (Lt.-Col. W^all, Capt. Ingoldby). 

Hahitat: Borders of the Mediterranean, eastwards to the Caucasus and 
Persia. 

Fairly common near Bagdad whenever vegetation is fairly dense. 

Lives in holes, usually at the roots of bushes or palms. Most active at 
night, but not infrequently seen moving in the shade by day, during the 
great heat. Markings pretty constant, ground colour varying from bluish 
gray to dark olive brown in specimens of equil size — C.M.I, 

14. (7 ce^owe Itis moilensis, Reuss. 

Sodom, Sheik Saad (Capt. Ingoldby) ; Shaiba (Lt. Livesey). 

Habitat : Northern Sahara, from Algeria to Egypt and Xubia, Arabia, 
Western Persia. 

One specimen sent me by Capt. Cheesman from Sodom near Sheikh Saad. 
The skin between the dorsal scales is orange or bright brick-red colour. 
On being disturbed the creature dilates its neck somewhat, producing a 
striking appearance of a vivid flush as if the neck were aglow — C.M.I. 

15. Psammopliis scJioJcari , Forsk. 

Basra (Lt.-Col. Wall) : Shaiba (Lt. Livesey). 

Habitat : Borders of the Sahara. Arabia, Syria, Persia, Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, Sind. 

16. Naia morgani, Mocquard. 

Shaiba (Lt. Livesey) ; Mesopotamia (Capt. Mackenzie). 
Habitat : Previously known from Persia. 

When Wall's description of Atmctaspis ivilsoni appeared in this Journal 
(XVIII, 1908, p. 804, fig.), I concluded that his snake was identical with 
Mocqar'd's Naia mcrgani (Bull. Mus. Paris, 1905, p. 78), and I entered 
it in my notes as a synonym of that species, a conclusion fully confirmed 
by a comparison with WalYs type specimen kindly entrusted to me by 
M"-. Kinnear. Naia morgani is well characterized by its larger rostral, the 




specnnens 

blackish brown, a little paler beneath. vi-tt lonr 
Wall's Melanoseps macphersoni (Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. XVil. lt^U»^, 
p. 27, fig.), from the Aden Hinterland, is a synonym of my Atractaspis 
andersonii (Ann. and Mag. N. H. XVI, 1905, p . ISO)- 

* Tuphlops wilsoni. described as n&^ in the same paper, is, iu my opinion, a 
synonym of T. vermicularis, Merr. 



350 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL^RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

VIPERID^. 

17. Vipera lebetina, L. 

Bagdad (Lt.-Col. Wall) ; Aushurn (Lt.-Ool. H. D. Piele). 

Habitat: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Cyclades, Cyprus, and South 
Western Asia from Syria and Asia Minor to Baluchistan, Afghanistan and 
Kashmir. 

1 8 . Cerastes cornutus, L . 

Basra (Lt.-Ool. Wall); Shaiba(Lt. Livesey). 

All the specimens, six in number, lack the horn-like scale above the eye 
whence the species derives its name and which is more frequently present 
than absent in North African individuals. 

Habitat : Borders of the Sahara, Arabia and Palestine. Had not been 
previously recorded from Mesopotamia. 



351 

A LIST OF LIZARDS FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 

COLLECTED BY MEMBERS OF THE MFSOPOTi^MIAN EXPEDITIONARY 

FORCE, 1915 TO 1919. 

BY 

G. A. BOULENGER, LL.D., D.SC, F.R.S. 

The following is an enumeration of the Lizards sent to the Bombay 
Natural History Society's Museum during the Mesopotamia Expedition 
which Mr. Kinnear has entrusted to me for identification. I have also 
referred to the specimens presented to the British Museum by Capt. P. A. 
Buxton, Major C. Christy, and Capt. C. L. Boulenger : — 

GECKONID.^. 

1. Ceramodactylus dorice, Blanf. 

Zobeya, Lower Mesopotamia (Capt. F, C. Fraser). 
Habitat : Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia. 

2. Gymnodactylus scaber, Ptupp. 

Amara (Capt. P. A. Buxton), Basra (Lt.-Col. F. Wall). 

Habitat: Egypt, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Afghanistan, Sind. 

3. Hemidaclylus flaviridis, Riipp. (coctoei,!). and B.) 
Basra (Lt.-Col. F. Wall, Lt.-C-l. F. P. Connor). 

Habitat : Coasts of the Red Sea and of the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Mekran 
Coast, India, Burma. 

EUBLEPHARIDx*:. 

4. Eublepharis macularius, Blyth. 
Mesopotamia (Capt. H. T. Mackenzie). 

Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia, Transcaucasia, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sind. 

AGAMID.*:. 

5. Agamapersica, Blanf. 

Euphrates Barrage (Capt. C. R. Pitman), Faleya, Euphrates (Capt. F, W. 
Mackenzie), Bagdad (Capt. R. W. Kingston), Amara (Lt.-Col. F. P. 
Connor), Zobeya (Capt. P. C. Fraser). 

Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia. 

6. Agama ruderata, Oliv. 

Faleya (Capt. H. L. Mackenzie), Amara (Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor), Zobeya 
(Capt. F. C. Fraser, Lt. T. R. Livesey), Basra (Lt.-Col. F. P. Dickinson, 
Maj. E. H. Martin). 

Habitat : Asia Minor, Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Sind. Also 
Egypt and Nubia. A. pallida, Reuss, should be regarded as a variety of 
this species, as some of the specimens from Mesopotamia tend to show. 

7. Agama nupta, De Fil. 
Mesopotamia (Capt. H. T. Mackenzie). 
Habitat: Mesopotamia, Persia, Baluchistan. 

8. Phrynccephalus maculatus, Andera. 
Zobeya (Capt. F. C. Fraser). 

Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan. 

9. Uromastix microlepis, Blanf. 

Zobeya (Lt. T, R, Livesey), Mesopotamia (Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor). 
Habitat : Head of the Persian Gulf. 



352 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV II. 

VARANID^. 

10. Var anus gr i sens, Y>a,\xd. 

Nasariyeh (Oapt. C. R. Pitman) Mesopotamia (Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor). 
Habitat : North Africa, South-Western Asia from Arabia and the Caspian 
Sea to North-Western India. 

AMPHISB^NID^. 

21. Pachycalamuszarudnyi, Nik. 

Shaiba Lezait (Lt. T. R. Livesey). 

Originally described from Western Persia, under the name of Di^^omefc^on 
zarudnyi, Nikolsky, Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersb. X. 1906, p. 68. A speci- 
men from the Island of Manama, Persian Gulf, was presented to the British 
Museum by Dr. G. K. Monami in 1910. 

LAOERTID.*]. 

12 . Acanthoclactylus hoshianus, Daud. 
Var. asper, And. 

Basra (Maj. C. Christy). 

Var. euphraficus, Blgr. 

Ramadieh, Euphrates (Capt. C. L. Boulenger). 

An interesting new form, described by me in the Annals and Magazine, 
Nat. Hist. (9) iii. 1919, p. 549. 

Habitat : North Africa, Arabia, Syria. Had not been recorded from 
Mesopotamia before. 

13. AcantJiodadylus scutellatus, And. 
Basra (Maj. C. Christy). 

Habitat : North Africa, Senegambia, Arabia, Syria. First record for 
Mesopotamia. 

14. Acanthodactylus fraseri, Blgr. 

A new species, discovered by Capt. F. C. Fraser at Zobeya and described 
in this Journal, XXV, 1918, p. 373. 

15. Eremias brevirostris, Bland. 

Faleya (Capt. F. W. Mackenzie), Zobeya (Lt. T. R. Livesey), Ramadieh 
and Desert of Tel Jebarrah (Capt. C. L. Boulenger). 

The types of this species are from Karabagh in the Punjab and Turn 
Island in the Persian Gulf. The lizard has since been found in Persia 
near Bushire and in Syria {E. hernouUii, Schenkel), and I refer to the same 
species one of the specimens from Dasht in Baluchistan included by Blan- 
ford under his Mesalina pardalis. 

16. Ophiops elegans, Men. 
Var. ehrenbergii, Wiegm. 

Ramadieh, Euphrates, (Capt. C.L. Boulenger). 

Var. persicus, Blgr. 

Sharoban, N.-E. of Bagdad (Capt. C. L. Boulenger). 

Var. mizolepis, Stol. 

Euphrates at Suk esh Shuyak and on road from Felujah to Ramadieh 
(Oapt. C. L. Boulenger). 

Amara (Capt. P. A. Buxton), Basra (Lt.-Col. F. Wall). 

The rauge of this lizard extends from Constantinople and Tripoli to 
N.-W. India. The var. mizolepis was originally described from the low coun- 
try. S.W. of Karabagh, on the Indus, and was found at Basra by Blan- 
ford; specimens from Haifa in Palestine also appear to be referable to it. 



LIZARDS FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 353 

SCINCID^. 

17. Mabuia vittata^ Oliv. 

Amara (Capt. P. A. Buxton), Mesopotamia (Capt. C. R. Pitman). 
Habitat : Algeria, Tunisia, Lower Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Asia Minor, 
Mesopotamia, 

18. Muhuia septemtoeniata, Reuss. 

Amara (Lt.-Col. Connor, Capt. P. A.. Buxton), Basra (Lt.-Col. F. Wall, 
Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor), Ramadieh, Euphrates (Capt. C. L. Boulengere). 

Habitat : Erytrea, Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, 
Persia, Sind. 

19. Ablepharus brandti, Strauch. 

Amara (Capt. P. A. Buxton), Basra and Suks-esh-Shuyek, Euphrates 
(Capt. Boulenger). 

Habitat : Bokhara, Samarkand, Mesopotamia, Persia, Baluchistan^ 
Punjab, Sind. 

20. Eumeces schneideri, Daud. 
Mesopotamia (Capt. H. T. Mackenzie). 

Habitat: Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Asia Minor, Transcaspia, Meso- 
potamia, Persia, Baluchistan. 



21 



354 

A NOTE ON THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS MYCALESIS 
(LEPIDOPTERA), OCCUEEING WITHIN INDIAN LIMITS. 

{With four Pieties.) 

BY 

Lt.-Colonel W. H. Evans, E.E. 

1. Having found it impossible to classify satisfactorily the species of the Galy- 
sisme and Samanta groups of the genus Mycalesis, I asked my friends to try and 
assemble some material for me. Led by the late Messrs. Hannyngton from Coorg 
and Ellis from Burma, by General Tytler from Manipur, Mr. Mackwood from 
Ceylon and followed by several others, my appeal met with a generous response 
and before the war I had accumulated a very considerable amount of material 
for investigation. I dissected the genitalia of about 400 males and had prepared 
the accompanying plates showing venation, primary and secondary sexual 
characters. Unfortunately the war broke off my investigations and it has been 
a little difficult to pick up the threads again after an interval of 5i years. 

2. Up to the present the so-called genus Mycalesis contains the following 
" genera "or " sub- genera " and species described from Indian limits ; the first 
named species is the " type " in each case. 

(1) Virapa ; anaxias ; adamsoni. 

(2) Samundra ; anaxioides. 

(3) Oarer is ; sanatana. 

(4) Sadarga ; gotama. 

(5) Suralaya ; orseis. 

(6) Mydosama ; fuscum. 

(7) Caly sisme ; 7nineus ; per sens ; perseoides ; subdita ; visala ; rama; evansii . 

(8) Myrtilus ; mystes. 

(9) Telinga ; adolphei ; oculus. 

(10) Culapa ; mnasides. 

(11) Pachama ; mestra ; suavolens. 

(12) Samanta ; malsara ; watsoni ; nicotia ; mAsenus ; heri, 

(13) Kabanda ; malsarida. 

(14) Nissanga ; patnia. 

(15) Loesa ; oroatis. 

Except that the 3 last named species under Samanta appertain rather to Pa- 
chama, the above groups, which are based on the venation and the secondary 
sexual characters, form a very natural arrangement. I think, however, that the 
employment of subgenera is now generally considered undesirable. For the 
purpose of classifying the species in the genus, the first step needed is a careful 
analysis of all the features at all stages ; the next step is the arrangement of the 
species in as natural an order as is possible ; the final step is the production of a 
key, whereby the species fall into certain groups, which can be designated by 
letters, numbers or Latin or English names. We all realise that any linear arrange- 
ment is bound to be unsatisfactory, as it is opposed to the whole system of evolu- 
tion, but it is the only thing to be done. I consider that all the species mentioned 
above should be included under one genus, which may be called Mycalesis for 
the present, though eventually this name will have to be restricted to the African 
species with naked eyes and culapa used for the hairy-eyed Asiatic species. 
The genus Orsotricena has sometimes been included under Mycalesis, but its 
smooth eyes, venation, primary and secondary sexual characters, as well as its 
facies, entitled it to full generic rank, which Bingham very rightly accorded it. 

3. The results of my investigations are embodied in the key at the end, where 
the outstanding features of each species and race are summarised. Most of these 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 




Plate I. 





^^^"^^ 




,v...^^ 



(>5o.TrT_.XTi.<^>-«.') Q-TvacXo-co^tJ.j'. (5cc6xv-^aA ckc;^'^^-^ ?. (G a.-.- 1 V cj ) S^a.TT.o-"!i, 




Wing Characters of Indian Mijealesis. 



SFECIES OF THE GENUS MYCALESIS i^ INDIA. 355 

features have been dealt with by other authors and the only point that I wish 
to draw attention to is the correlation between certain of the secondary sexual 

A— Forewing below a nacreous patch of variable size above the dorsum 
usuaUy contauung an oval cavity lying along vein 1 filled with androconia • this 
feature is correlated with an almost exactly similar one on the upperside of the 
hindwing, situated above vein 7 at its origm ; over the androconial patch on the 
hindwmg there is an erectile tuft of fine, long, hairs sprmging from ^vithin the 
cell. The actual androconial patches or brands may be missing in certain 
species, but the nacreous areas on both wings and the hair pencil on the hind- 
wing are present in all species of the genus. 

B— Forewing above an elongated cavity along the middle of vein 1 filled with 
androconia and covered by a hair pencil springmg from nearer the base; this 
pencil is moveable in the plane of the -ning, but is not erectile ; it is usually 
tucked into a narrow slit along the centre of the androconial patch ; on the 
underside of the forewing the patch appears as a raised lump. Correlated with 
this feature are certain distortions and swelUngs of the vems of the hindwing. 
This character is present in a greater or less extent in Moore's genera Virapa, 
Samundra, Gareris, Sadarga and Sicralaya. 

C — A few species have developed additional features, which are referred to in 
the key. 

4. The Calysisme group is dealt with in the next paragraph ; the following 
notes deal with the remaining groups : — 

(a) anaxias was described by Hewitson from South India. Fruhstorfer 
gives cemate as the race from Burma, stating that it differs from the Sikkim 
form in being larger, having the outer margins broadly paler and in that the pre- 
apical band is yellow rather than white ; I have only one male of anaxias from 
Burma (Tavoy), which has the band slighly yellower and wider, but a more exten- 
sive material might perhaps justify the name cemate. South Indian specimens 
diflPer, however, constantly from specimens from X. E. India in that the brand 
on the upperside of the hindwing is black instead of white ; above the white 
band is broader in the male, while below this band is sharply defined outwardly 
by an apical brown area and not diffused into a pale yellow apical area, as is the 
case with the Northern dry season form. I therefore propose the name miranda 
for the anaxias race flying from Sikkim to Manipur. I have no specimens of an 
anaxias form from the Xicobars, but I would like to point out that the descrip- 
tions given by Doherty and Bingham of manii differ so greatly that they hardly 
seem to refer to the same insect. 

(6) sanatatm is considered by Fruhstorfer to be a race of the Chinese francis- 
ca. Specimens from S. Burma have the hindwing prolonged and are paler ; 
they are probably what Fruhstorfer calls gomia, but his description and locality 
for this race are very obscure. I consider Tytler's albofasciata to be a high 
elevation race of sanatana ; it is closely allied to Leech's magna from S. China. 

(c) nudgara is given by Fruhstorfer as the Tenasserim race of nicotia ; I have 
no specimens to enable me to confirm the differences he mentions. 

{d) The malsara group has been cleared up by General Tytler in B. N. H. S. 
XXIII, 226, but I think that my loatsoni should be sunk to Cramer's mamerla, 
if Fruhstorfer's figure in the Macro-Lepidoptera is correct. In Tenasserim. as 
seems to occur with other species of this genus, the forewing is prolonged at the 
apex and the hindwing at the tornus, while the outer margin is scalloped ; the 
shape agrees -with what Fruhstorfer calls annamitica but the secondary sexual 
characters are not so highly developed; it might stand as annamitica, for the 
present. 

(e) perna, surkha and 7iauti!us are considered to be the Indian races of the 
Malayan mnasides, oroatis and orseis ; charaka is a race of the Chinese gotama. 



356 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 

5. In the Calysisme group rama and evansii are easily separated, but the re- 
mainder afiord one of the most difficult problems in the study of butterflies ; 
males may be dealt with more or less satisfactorily, but the females in some cases- 
are almost impossible to separate. An additional complication is that in S. 
India several species fly in 3 forms — normal dry season, normal wet season, 
and an intermediate form, with complete, but reduced oceh. I started off by 
dissectiag the genitaUa of nearly 300 males and then, taking into accoimt the 
various features and localities, arranged them over labels bearing the names- 
given in the key. 

(a) perseus occurs throughout the area and I have no difficulty in separating 
this species in either sex. The Southern form differs as detailed in the key. 

(&) mineus also occurs throughout the area and the Southern race always 
rims smaller ; the intermediate form occurs in this species in North India as well 
as in South India. The diffused ring of the ocellus seems to separate this 
species fairly satisfactorily from everything except igilia, but here the angu- 
lation of the discal band on the forewing below serves to distinguish the latter 
species. 

(c) igilia is what Bingham described as a variety of perseoides from Kathle- 
kan, Mysore, and on the strength of this description Fruhstorfer gave it the name 
igilia, placing it as a race of perseoides. I have a long series from Coorg and a 
specimen from Travancore. It has nothing to do with the Burmese perseoides 
and is a very well defined species with a very restricted locaUty. It fhes with 
orcha but not apparently with subdita. 

{d) mercea is an isolated species fljdng in Pachmarhi with visala, from which 
it is easily separated by its smaller size and the tessellated border of the hind- 
wing. I found it common in October 1910, just when the dry season brood was 
out in full swing and a few individuals of the wet season form were stiU about ; 
curiously enough aU the fresh males were of the intermediate form and all the 
females normal dry season. 

(e) perseoides is an isolated species from Burma and is common in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rangoon. It is easily recognised in the male, while the pecuhar, 
dull ochreous tint on the underside of the dry season form is very characteristic, 
being found also in mystes. 

(J) visala — I have from Pachmarhi, Sikkini to Burma and the Andamans. It 
is a weU defined species as regards the secondary sexual characters of the male: 
and the pointed forewing of the dry season female ; wet season females are very 
difficult to separate from khasia. I do not think that it occurs south of Pachma- 
rhi, specimens recorded from South India being either subdita or orcha. Fruh- 
storfer makes a point of the venation of visala differing from that of its alHes,but 
I cannot find any appreciable constant difference, though individuals differ to 
a certain extent. The Pachmarhi dry season form differs from N. Indian forms 
in having the band ©n the underside of the forewing a good deal shorter, while- 
the discal line on the forewing above is very prominent. It is rare east of Sik- 
kim, where its place appears to be taken by khasia. From Burma I have very 
few specimens, but Fruhstorfer's name neovisala seems justifiable. 

(gf) subdita — I have from Ceylon, where it is the only form of this group and 
from a few locahties in South India, where it seems very rare. The differences 
between it and orcha are given in the key ; they are not very considerable and^ 
but for the differences in the male genitaha, I should not have separated them ; 
had subdita been confined to Ceylon, I would have treated it as a race of orcha. 

(h) khasia and rnxha are very alike and, but for the fact that orcha occurs in. 
an intermediate form, I would not have separated them as races. 

6. Several authors have hinted that the various species of Mycalesis inter- 
breed. I do not agree ; races no doubt do, where they meet.butto me the essen- 
tial definition of a species is that it does not interbreed with another species. It- 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate II. 




Wing- Characters of Indian Mijcalais. 



SPJECIES OF THE GENUS MYCALESIS IN INDIA, 357 

is probably impossible to evolve any theory to account for the development of 
the very closely allied species of the Cahjsisme group, but something on the fol- 
lowing lines may have taken place, perseus and 7nineus I take to be the oldest, 
the former having remained pretty constant and not developed into other 
species, mineusis an insect of the plains and in the dim distant past it developed 
into 2 races (a) and (b) whose areas became cut o£f but again became re-united after 
sufficient time had elapsed to establish the races as species, mineus (a) preferred 
the plains, while mmeus (b) preferred the hills, where, as these elevations became 
elevated and separated from one another, it developed into a number of local 
races, say b' to b". Eventually changes in the earth's crust, temperature, etc., 
permitted these races to extend into one another's area; some no doubt re-united, 
while others led a separate existence, entitUng them to be ranked as species 
mineus hl^siibdita developed in Ceylon, whence it has spread to the continent, 
where it refuses to interbreed with its cousins, but finds it difficult to maintain 
its existence in face of the competition prevaHing. mineus h'-=igilia, h^^mercea 
and h^=perseoides have not spread into other areas, but refuse to interbreed 
with their invading relations, mineus h'^visala developed in Sikkim and has 
successively invaded the Central Provinces, but its penetration eastwards has 
not met with the same success, mineus h''^=khasia developed perhaps in Assam, 
whence it has very successfully invaded S. India and Burma. It is the most 
abundant species as far as my experience goes. 

7. Regarding the plates .• they have been drawn by mj'self and are , I am 
afraid, very crude. The intention of the plates showing venation is only to illus- 
trate the features mentioned in the key ; no other conclusions should be drawn 
from them. A study of the plates depicting the genitaha will, I think, be worth- 
while ; they bear out to a certain extent Moore's subgenera and the arrangement 
adopted in my key. Where more than one example for a species has been taken, 
it must not always be assumed that the genitaha differ with the locahty, as may 
seem to be indicated by the drawings ; I have tried to represent, as far as pos- 
sible, the variations that occur in the species ; in some instances, however, there 
is no doubt that the locaUty does affect the genitaha very considerably. In some 
species, e.g., nicotia, the clasps vary very considerably with individuals, but the 
tegumen and the hooks are pretty constant. The difference in the hooks between 
the closely aUied malsara and lepcha is very noticeable, beihami and davisonii have 
clasps more related to nmmerta than to lepcha, whose genitalia differ greatly with 
the locality, but their facies lead me to regard them as races of lepcha. The 
teeth at the upper edge of the clasp are much finer ui malsara than in lepcha. The 
clasp of mnasicles and the hooks of patnia are very extraordinary. It will be 
seen that the Cahjsisme group is a very definite one and, as one might imagme 
from their facies, the clasps resemble one another very closely, except ihsA, evansii 
is very distinct, igilia and mineus are aUied to one another and well distinguish- 
ed from the rest, subdita from its clasp is easily distinguished from the otherwise 
almost inseparable orcha. The clasp of perseoides is variable and approaches 
that of visala, it is curious how very different the clasp of imjstes is to any member 
of the Calysisme group though females are quite difficult to separate. 

8. The following abbreviations have been used in the key :— 
A, B, C refer to the secondary sexual characters, see para 3. 
V refers to the venation. v'=vein No. 1. 

f=forewing and h=hindwing. j . • j • 

upf, unf, uph, unh,=upper and underside of the forewing and hmdwmg res- 
pectively. 

DSF & WSF=dry and wet season forms. 

dcv^=discocellular vein. 

The figures given after the locahties represent the average expanse in mohes 
and decimals of an inch of males and females respectively. 



358 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

Key to the Indian Mycalesis. 

1. (10). B — present. V — origin 10 f at or near end cell. 

2. (3.6.9). F — above unmarked, dark brown; below outer area paler, 
lilacine in WSF, lilacine and yellow in DSF. A — f no brand ; h brand white, 
tuft pale yellow. B — f brand black, prominent both sides ; tuft black, bases 
dark brown, from either side of v^ ; h origin v" pushed back to before middle 
of cell, rendering upper dcv very long and concave. C — absent. V — h 3 & 4 
from end cell ; 6 & 7 well separated in $ . 

adamsoni, Wat. Manipur — N. Burma. 1.8 — 2.0. 

3. (2.6.9). F — above pre-apical white band. 

4. (5). C— absent. V— as 2. 

a. F — inner edge apical band midway between apex and end cell. 

a}, F — above no prominent ocelli ; below as 2. A — f brand small, black ; 
h tuft pale yellow. B — as 2. 
«-. A — h brand black. 
artaxias anaxiaSyHew., S.India. 1.9 — 2.1. 
b^. A — h brand pale yellow. 
a^. see 6'. 
anaxias miranda, nov. Sikkim — Assam. 1 . 8 — 2 . 0. 

6^. F — above paler outwardly, apical band yellowish. 
anaxias cemate, Fr. Burma. 1 . 8 — 2 . 0. 

6^. F — upf prominent ocellus in 2, sometimes also in 5 and in 2 uph. Be- 
low uniform brown ; h discal band obscure in c^ , irregular and white 
in 5 . A — as 2. B — f brand and tuft very obscure ; h venation as 2. 
anaxias radza, M. Andamans, 1.8 — 2.0. 
b^. F — apical band broader, inner edge extends nearly to cell. 
anaxias manil, Doh. Nicobars. 

5. (4). C — f obscure pale patch between bases 3 & 4 ; h prominent black 
atch between bases 5 & 7 ; costa h very arched. A — as 4a^. B — f brand and 
.;ft brown and only above v^; h v" pushed back as well as 7 and basal half of 6 

swoUen. V — h' & 4 from end cell ; 6 & 7 from a point in the 2 • F — "pf 
ocellus in 2 more or less apparent ; below as 2. 
anaxioides, Mar. S. Burma. 2.2—2.5. 

6. (2.3.9). F — above brown, pupiUed ocellus in 2 f at least ; unf never an 
ocellus in 3. A — f brand small, brown ; h brand and tuft brown. C — absent. 

7. (8). V—h v' from end cell. B— as 2. 

a. F — below discal band lilac ; upf usually ocellus in 5, none uph. 
a\ Seeb\ 

francisca sanatana, M. Kilu — ^N. Burma (below 6,000 ft.). 2.0 — 2.2. 

¥. F — paler, h prolonged. 

francisca gomia, Fr. S. Burma. 2.0 — 2. 2. 

b. F— below discal band white ; upf prominent ocellus in 5, and sometimes 
in 2 & 3 uph. 

francisca albofasciata , Tyt. Manipur (above 6,000 ft.). 2,1 — 2.2. 

8. (7). V — h 3 from before end cell. B — f no brand, tuft very obscure ; 
h upper dcv as in 2, but swollen. F — pale brown ; upf ocellus in 2 large and pro- 
minent, also one in 5 ; uph no ocelli ; below pale brown, inwardly darker in 
DSF, discal band white. 

gotama charaka, M. Assam — Burma. 1.8 — 2.0. 

9. (2.3.6). F — (S above purple glossed, no pupilled ocelli ; ? pale brown, 
all ocelli show through and are pupiUed obscurely ; below pale ochreous, discal 
lines dark brown. A — f brand brown, medium size ; h brand long, brown ; 
tuft dark brown. B — f tuft brown, obscure and no brand ; h origin v'' pushed 
back, but dcv is straighter. C — f dorsum very convex ; h large black patch 
between bases 2 — 4. 

orseis nauitlus, But., Naga Hills — Burma. 1.9 — 2.1. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



^ 



n 






10 



P<atc III. 



I / 



(/y:C^-:^j ^4v..U^a^ (.^<.>..^»..) 




V ct_d^7-rv3ovi.cV ~ 







Genitalia of Indian Mycalesis. 



SPJECIES OF THE GENUS MYCALESIS IN INDIA, 359 

10. (1). B— absent. 

11. (52). V — origin 10 at or near end cell, f. 

12. (33.51). V — origin 3 h at or just beyond end cell. 

13. (14). V—f dcv between 4 & 5 nearly straight. F d' above dark 

brown, ocelli show through unpupilled ; 9 pale brown, all ocelli show through 
complete with pupils and rings. Below ochreous, with 2 prominent fulvous 
bands. A^ — f no brand ; h no brand, only a cavity ; tuft white. C — h v" swol- 
len at the base. 

fuscum, Fd., S. Burma. 1.7 — 2.0. 

14. (13). V — f dcv between 4 and 5 concave and angled. 

15. (30). F — above normally only an ocellus in 2f (except 18. a) very rarely 
an ocellus in 5 f or 2 h (usually so in 28), but never more than one ocellus h. 

16. (29). V- — h 6 and 7 well separated at the base ; lower dcv at an angle 
to v'. C— absent. A — tuft pale yellow. 

17. (20.27 .28). A — f small brand placed centrally under the origin of v-. 

18. (19). A — h brand black ; f black ; very small. F — ocellus upf never 
ringed ; unh ocellus in 3 shifted prominently out of line towards termen ; unf 
WSF curved series of ocelli in 2, 3, 4 and 5 ; DSF termen f straight or slightly 
concave. 

a. F — above usually unmarked in WSF. Smaller. 

perseus typhlus, Fr., Ceylon — Himalayas and Bengal. 1.6 — 1.9. 

b. F — above always with a pupilled ocellus in 2 f . Larger. 
perseus perseus, F., Kangra — Burma. 1.7 — 2.0. 

19. (18). A — h brand salmon pink or brown ; f small, dark (or rarely pale) 
brown. F — ocellus upf situated in a more or less pale area, outwardly and in- 
wardly defined by a narrow dark line ; the ocellus ring diffuses into this area 
and is never narrow, of uniform width or sharply defined. 

a. F — WSF often very dark below and with small ocelli. DSF pale area 
often very extensive. 

mineus polydecta , Cr., Ceylon — Bengal. 1 . 7 — 2 . 0. 
6. F — larger. 

mineus mineus, L., Kulu — Burma. 1.8 — 2.1. 

c. F — darker ; ocelli below larger. 

mineus nicobarica, M., Nicobars. 1.8 — 2.1. 

20. ( 17 . 27 . 28). A — f brand extends from under origin v" to at least under 
origin v' and often much further. 

21. (24). A— f brand in WSF extends to beyond outer edge of the discal 
band ; in DSF to under origin of v' or v' , but if not through the discal band, 
the latter is bent outwards between v^ and v^ and sharply angled at v'. 

22. (23). A— h brand brown or pale yellow ; f brand pale yellow or brown 
in DSF ; in WSF inner half brown and outer half pale yellow. F— resembles 
19. a as regards the pale area upf in the DSF but unf discal band always 
angled at v^ in DSF and always up to v^ in WSF, being outwardly curved 

before reaching it. 

iOT7ia,Fr., Travancore, Co org, Mysore. 1.6—1.9. 

23. (22). A— h brand pale brown ; f usuaUy pale brown, sometimes brown 
especially in DSF from the C. P. and Burma. , ^^^^ ^ ,„rq«H . 

a. F-DSF apex sharp pointed and termen straight ; WSF more rounded , 
WSF ocellus above large and well defined. , o o q 

visakt visala, M., Central Prov., Kumaon— Assam, l-^^^-*' 

b. F— apex more rounded ; $ not distinguishable from ^bc. 
visala neovisala, Fr., Burma. 1 . 9 — 2 . 2. 

c. F — apex rounded ; much darker. 

visala andamana , M., Andamans. 1.8—2.2. „u ^ff^n ,in tr. it • 

24. (21). A-f brand never to beyond discal band, though often up to it , 

discal band never angled at y\ 



360 JOURNAL^ BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

25. (26). A — ^h brand black. F — ^WSF ocellus above with, rather broad 
and prominent yellow ring ; unf discal band reaches costa ; apex f very rounded. 
DSF always more or less ocellated and with a wavy post-discal line beyond the 
ocelli more or less apparent. 

^erseoides, M,, S. Burma. 1.8 — 2.0. 

26. (25). A — h brand pale yellow. 

a. F — above sub-terminal pale Kne is followed by 2 dark Unes separated by 
a pale line and followed by the cilia, the inner half of which are pale and 
the outer haK dark. In 19 this feature occurs more or less, but at any 
rate on the forewing of the $ the pale line is preceded by a prominent 
dark line bordering the ground colour. Above the ocellus has a narrow 
well dejfined ring, though often obscure ; unf nearly always an ocellus 
in 1. WSF black below. 
suhdita, M., Ceylon, Nilgiris, Madras, Orissa. 1.8 — 2.0. 

6. F — f apex very rounded ; h termen very scalloped and almost caudate 
at v^. 5 termen f chequered. S DSF always ocellated ; $ very varie- 
gated. 
mercea, nov. Pachmarhi (C. P.). 1.7 — 1.9. 

c. Occiirs in 3 forms, wet, intermediate and dry. 

Mas^a orcAa, Evans. Palnis, Coorg, Mlgiris. 1.8 — 2.0. 

d. Occurs in 2 forms only, wet and dry. 

Tchasia Ichasia, Evans. Assam — Burma. 1.9 — 2.1. 

27. (17 . 20 . 28). A — f and h brand silvery white, hard to see on the nacreous 
ground. F — above dark ferruginous ; ocelli ringed fulvous ; usually ocelli in 5 
f and 2 ii above ; below ochraceous with broad yellow discal band. 

mma, M., Ceylon. 1.9—2.2. 

28. (17.20.27). A— f no brand ; h brand dark brown, tuft reduced. F— 
below pale brown, discal band broad, pale yellow. Wings very rounded. 

evansii, Tyt., Manipur. Assam. 1.8 — 2.0. 

29. (16). V — ^h bases of 6 and 7 approximate, lower dcv in line with v'' 
F — DSF dull ochreous below, always more or less ocellated. A — f no brand and 
h no brand, tuft white. C — ^h white brand below origin v*', covered by recum- 
bent tuft black hairs rising beyond middle of cell ; v^ swollen and covered by 
recumbent tuft of black hairs. 

mystes, DeN., Manipm- — N. Burma. 1.8 — ^2.0. 

30. (15). F — ^normally 3 oceUi uph (may be 2 or 4). Above very dark 
ferruginous brown. A — ^h brand black, tuft brown. V — 5 and 6 well separated 
at base. 

31. (32). F — above large ocellus in 2 f and ocelli h ringed fulvous ; unringed 
ocellus in 2 f. A — no brand f, tuft h very inconspicuous. 

adolphei, Guer., Nilgiris, Coorg. 1.9 — 2.2. 

32. (31). F — ^large ocellus in 2 f on a wide fulvous area ; ocellus in 5 f 
minute or absent ; h ocelli ringed fulvous or on a fulvous area. Termen h caudate 
at V*. A — f brand small, black. 

oculus. Mar., Palnis, Travancore. 2.0 — 2.4. 

33. (12.51). V — origin V' before end of cell. 

34. (45 . 50). F — above pupilled ocelli present in 2 and 5 f and 2 h (5 f somS' 
times absent in 39). 

35. (36). F — below dark discal line. Apex f produced. Above ochreous 
brown ; ocellus in 2 f very large, with broad yeUow ring ; minute oceUi 5 f and 
2 h. Below pale. A — f no brand but prominent square white patch in the 
usual nacreous area ; h. brand golden brown, tuft bright yellow. C — absent. 

mnasicles perna, Fr., S. Burma. 2.3 — 2.7. 

36. (35). F — below pale yellowish discal band. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc 



Plate IV. 



wcmoff 




Genitalia of Indian MijCoksis. 



SPECIES 01 THE GENUS M YCALESIS IN INDIA . 361 



37. (38). F— below uiiiform, unmottled. Cilia white. Above prominent 
ocellus in 2 and 5 f and 2 h ; 5 f slightly larger than 2 h and slightly smaller than 
2f. A— f brand small, pale yellow ; h brand pale yellow, tuft pale brown. C— 
long erect dense brown hairs along basal portion v^ h. 

suavolens, Wm., Sikkim — N. Burma. 2.3 — 2.7, 

38. (37). F — below basal portion mottled. C — absent. 

39. (40). F— cilia white. Above ocelU small ; 2 f and 2 h equal, 5 f minute 
or absent. Below f in addition to ocellus in 2 only 2 obhquely placed apical ocel- 
li ; h ocellus in 3 absent. A — f brand minute, black ; h brand small, black; 
tuft brown. 

a. F — upf white discal band obscure. 
mestra vetiis, Fr., Sikkim, Bhutan. 2.5 — 2.7. 

b. F — upf white discal band prominent. 
mestra mestra. Hew. , Assam. 2 . 5 — 2 . 7. 

40. (39). F — ciha pale bro-mi. Above ocelh larger ; 5 f and 2 h equal, 2 
f much lai'ger. Below ocelli complete and f all in line. 

41. (42). F — uph in addition to ocellus in 2, always one in 3 and usually 
in 4, rarely also in 1. upf ocellus in 2 very large. A^f no brand ; h brand black, 
tuft brown. 

heri, M., Kumaon — Bhutan. 2.5 — 2.8. 

42. (41). F — uph rarely more than the ocellus in 2, if more very small. 

43. (44). F — below outer basal area before discal band nearly black, mot- 
tling confined to the base. A — f brand small salmon ; h salmon tuft yellow 
brown. 

misenus,!)'^^., Sikkim — Assam. 2.3 — 2.5. 

44. (43). F — below brown all over and mottled up to discal band ; ocellus 
in 2 upf much larger than the rest. A — brands f and h and tuft black. 

a. See 6. 

nicotia nicotia. Hew., Mussoorie — Burma. 2 . 1—2 , 3. 
6. Above ocelli larger ; below band wider. 

nicotia nudgara, Fr., Tenasserim. 2.2 — 2.4. 

45. (34.50). F— above ocelli blind. Below mottled ; pale yellow or white 
discal band. A — f and h brands black, tuft brown. C — absent. 

46. (47). F — above white discal band clearly defined. 
malsara, M., Sikkim — Burma. 1.9 — 2.1. 

47. (46). F — above white band not visible. 

48. (49). F — upf nearly always sub-equal ocelli in 3 and 5 as well as the 
normal one in 2 ; rarely an ocellus in 1. ujjh always an ocellus in 2 and 3 even 
when the ocelli upf are reduced to a single one in 2. Cila brown. 

a. see b. 

mamerta mamerta, Cr., Assam — Burma. 1.8 — ^2.0. 
h. wings more elongated ; termen h very scalloped. 

mamerta annamitica, Fr.. Tenasserim. 1.9 — 2.1. 

49. (48). F— upf normally no ocellus in 3, if present smaller than the 
ocellus in 5 ; uph there may be oceUi in 2 and 3 but always absent if the 
ocellus in 5 f is absent. 

a. Cilia white, prominently chequered at ends of veins. 
lepcha davisonii, M., Palnis, Animalai hills. 1.8 — 2.0. 

b. Cilia brown. Band below mde, outwardly ill-defined. 
lepcha bethami, M., Central Pro v. Orissa. 1.8 — 2.0. 

c. Ciha brown. Band below narrow, thread like or obsolete towards costa t. 
lepcha lepcha. M., Kulu — Kumaon. 1.8 — 2.0. 

d. Cilia white, not chequered. Very dark above and below. 
lepcha kohimensiSjTyt., Ass&m. — Burma. 1.8 — 2.0. 

50. (34.45). F— above unmarked, prominent double ante-termmal Ime ; 
below uniform, discal band lilacine ; ocelli in 2 and 3 h larger than the rest. 

22 



362 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII, 

Wings very rounded. A — f brand absent or minute, dark ; h. brand black ; tuft 
brown, inconspicuous. C — h bases 2, 3 and 4 slightly swollen and covered with 
scattered erect hairs. 

malsarida. But., Assam. 1'8 — 2*0. 

51. (12.33). V — origin v' far beyond end cell h. A— f no brand ; h brand 
black ; tuft pale brown. C — absent. F — above dark bi'own, ocellus in 2 f set 
obliquely at lower, outer, edge of a pale area ; minute ocellus in 5 f (often absent) ; 
these ocelU pupilled ; no ocellus h. Below not mottled. 

a. F — ^pale area above fulvous and a broad fulvous patch in cell f. Below 
fulvous. 

patnia patnia, M., Ceylon. 1*5 — 1*7. 

b. F — pale area above white and not in cell. Below rather pale brown. 
patnia junonia, But., South India. 1 . 6 — 1 . 9. 

52. (11). V — ^f origin v" well beyond end cell. A — f small dark brand 
h brand pale yellow ; tuft pale yellow. C — h small dark brand above origin 
v''" ; v^ distorted towards v^ resulting in a fold of the wing, over which there is 
a recumbent tuft of brown hairs. F — above brick red, blind ocellus in 2 ; 
below very dark, not mottled. 

oroatis surkha. Mar., Tenasserim. 2*0 — 2*2. 



363 

SOME NOTES ON THE GENUS GAPRIMULOUS 
{NIGHTJARS) IN THE PUNJAB. 

BY 

Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
With a note on the Nightjars of Sind by Dk. C. B. Ticehubst. 

It has for some time past been apparent to me that our knowledge of the 
Nightjars or Goatsuckers which appear in the Punjab is most incomplete. 
The reasons for this are not far to seek. In the first place the genus 
is a very difficult one to study from the nocturnal habits of its members, 
and the fact that so far as my experience goes it is almost impossible to 
distinguish the various species in the field unless the call notes are heard 
and recognised. Secondly, even after an individual has been shot, specific 
identification is not by any means easy unless the observer has previous 
acquaintance with the dift'erent kinds, or has specimens available for com- 
parison ; as the various characteristics do not readily lend themselves to 
written description. 

Thirdly in addition to the above special reasons there is the general fact 
that, until late years, the Punjab has been neglected Ornithologically 
as much as any provincial area of India. 

Accordingly 1 recently collected all the records that were within my 
reach so far as they concerned the Punjab (in the political sense including 
certain mountain areas), or other contiguous areas, which might be expected 
to throw light on the status of the birds in the Punjab. The result was to 
show very clearly that in none of the six species concerned was our know- 
ledge in any way complete ; indeed as regards several it is most incom- 
plete. It then occurred to me that it might be of interest to publish the 
result of my survey in the hope and belief that a clear view of these woeful 
gaps might encourage the placing on record of individual records or other 
particulars of interest, which must be within the knowledge of many of our 
members. The size of the country, the sparseness of the European popu- 
lation, the fact that such population is mainly oflicial and very busy, and 
the entire absence of scientific proclivities amongst the Indian population, 
are such that there is no possibility of the general and exhaustive know- 
ledge of the avifauna which exists in the British Isles. It is therefore all 
the more incumbent on those of us who are interested in the subject to 
place in print such facts that come to our notice in order that they may be 
available for the next observer in the area. In England the Ornithologist 
everywhere is the heir to an exhaustive literature and an oral tradition, 
and generally a personal introduction to the study of his scieuce. In In- 
dia each observer in each district starts afresh, or after a considerable gap 
of some twenty to forty years, and has to assist him but a scanty literature. 
Under these circumstances there cannot be too strongly impressed on every 
one the value and importance of recording observations however discon- 
nected or fragmentary. , 

In these notes I have not touched at all on questions of plumage or oology, 
but on these points too, more information is badly required. Writing, far away 
from Museums and Libraries, with only a portion of my own books ana 
specimens available I have doubtless overlooked some records, and snoum 
be grateful to any one who would bring them to my notice. As i Have tnea 
to emphasise above, this article is intended to emphasise not our kno^iejjg®' 
but our lack of it, in the hope that some of the gaps may be quickly hllect. 



364 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

The Key gi^^en below may perhaps be a useful supplement to that given 
in the " Fauna of India Birds", (Blanford and Gates) on which individual 
specimens do not always work out correctly. 

Finally I would urge all members interested to endeavour to obtain and 
submit for competent identification any Nightjars about which they are 
doubtful, especially all Nightjars which are caught at sea on board ship on 
the voyage between India and England. Nightjars frequently come aboard 
and often can be caught. 

KEY TO PUNJAB MEMBERS OF THE GENUS CAPRIMULGUS. 

( Note : White includes buff.) 

f 2 outer pairs of tail feathers with large white 

I terminal spots. . . . . . . . . . 2 

I 4 outer pairs of tail feathers with white sub- 

1 ^ terminal spots . . . . . . . . indicus S 

I Outer tail feather without white spots . . 5 

I 2 outer pairs of tail feathers entirely white 

t except at the tip . . . . . . . . monticola S 

„ C Wing under 160 mm. . . . . . . . . asiaticus d 2 

\ Wing over 160 mm. . . . . . . . . 3 

f Large white spots on 1st four primaries . . 4 

X Large white spots on 1st three primaries . . maerurus S 

( General tint above sandy grey. Black spots 

3 on crown transverse . . . . . . . . mahrattensis <S 2 

I General tint above silvery grey. Black spots 

V. on crown lanceolate . . . . . . . . unwini S 

Large white spots on 1st three primaries . . unwini 5 
Large white spots on 1st four primaries . . 6 

f General colour above dark brown with black 
n J markings . . . . . . . . . . indicus $ 

I General colour above dark brownish grey 

(^ with rufous markings . . . . . . monticola $ 

THE JUNGLE NIGHTJAR, CAPRIMULGUS INDICUS INDICUS. Lath. 

The Jungle Nightjar has been divided into three races, the typical form 
C. indicus indicus (wing in c^' 197-203 mm.) found in India, replaced in 
Ceylon by the smallest race, C. indicus helaarti, with a wing in the male of 
173-183mm. The third form is C. indicus jotalca of S. E. Siberia, China, 
Japan and other eastern localities which is larger, with a wing in the male 
of 212-224mm. 

There has been a certain amount of confusion regarding these Nightjars 
as the various races intergrade with one another both in size and colour 
and it is impossible to be sure of the correct identification of individuals. 
Under the circumstances therefore so far as the Punjab is concerned (lying 
in the extreme N. W. corner of the entire range of the species) I propose 
to treat all records of the Jungle Nightjar as referring to C. indicus indicus, 
irrespective of the name under which the record was made. Since, from 
the geographical position of our area, it is extremely unlikely, whatever 
may be the case in other parts, that the status of the sub-species may be 
confused by migration from the areas of the other two races. 

I find the following records : — 

Ratray took a clutch of eggs at Fort Munro, Baluchistan border, on 
28th July 1904, which is figured in the Journal B. N. H. S. Vol. xvi, p. 660. 
The bird is apparently not uncommon about Hazara and the Galis. Hume 



{ 



NOTES ON THE GENUS CAPBIMULGUS IN THE PUNJAB. 365 

mentioned it at Abbottabad (S. F. vi 56-57); it is included with, the 
remark " breeds m Gahs " in Buchanan's list of Hazara birds in the 
gazetteer of that district. Rattray took 2 very hard set eggs near Dunga 
Gali on 7th June 1904 (Jour. B. N. H. S. xvi, 660) but Magrath reports 
It as rare at Thandiani (Jour. B. N, H. S. xviii, 284) ; according to a 
marginal note by Andrew Anderson in my copy ot Jerdon it " lavs in 
Murree." •' 

About Simla it is common according to G. F. L. Marshall (Journal Simla 
N. H. S. 1886, p. 7) and A. E. Jones (Jour. B. N. H. S.xxvi, 614) the 
latter adds the information that it prefers the barer hill side contiouous to 
jungle and ascends to 6,000 ft. ^ 

The information regarding the Punjab plains is very meagre. Hume 
implies that it occurs (S. F. vi, 56-57) and a female from the Hume collec- 
tion obtained at Sirsa (no date) is catalogued by the British Museum. 

Mr. A. H. Marshall, Indian Police, informs me that he shot a specimen 
at Kasinda, Rohtak district, in December 1910. 

I have never obtained the Jungle Nightjar personally. The call is var- 
iously described as " tew-yo-yo frequently repeated" (Jerdon), a plaintive 
"choo-yo-yo" (G. F. L. Marshall), a rapidly repeated " Chuck-Chug-ChurJ" 
(Magrath), and a continuously uttered " tchouk, tchauh,tchouk" (Dresser.). 

UNWIN'S NIGHTJAR, CAPBIMULGUS EUBOPJEUS UNWINI, Hume. 

This Nightjar is the Eastern race of the Common European Nightjar C. 
europccus europceus, Linn ; and was first described by Hume from Hazara, in 
the Ibis. 1871, p. 406. The original description will be found reproduced in 
Stray Feathers Vol. 111,407. It difi'ers from C. europaus in that the general 
tint is slightly greyer and paler. The white spot on the inner web of the 
first primary in the male always extends to the shaft and touches it as a 
rule for a space of 10 to 15 mm. The white spot on the second primary is 
not confined to the inner web but is always continued to the outer web in 
the form of a white band. The under tail coverts are usually but very 
faintly barred and frequently are quite unmarked. 

In size this race is smaller with a shorter wing on the average. Wing of 
adult as a rule 180-186 mm. (as against 190-202 mm. in C. europceus 
europceus) but extremes of 174 and 194 mm. have been recorded. 

The restricted distribution of this Eastern form is thus given by Hartert 
(Vog. Pal. Fauna ii, 849) :— 

" The breeding bird in parts of Turkistan (Ferghana) Transcaspia, Persia 
(at all events in E. and S. W. Persia), Afghanistan, lialuchistan, the Pa- 
mirs, Kashmir and Gilgit : a winter visitor to Sindh, the Punjab, and occa- 
sionally to the N.-W. Provinces (Etawah). A specimen was caught on a 
ship off Cape Gardafin on 6th November ; occasionally also in South Africa 
(Natal.)" 

In endeavouring to amplify the above distribution I have discovered the 
followicg records with regard to Unwin's Nightjar. 

At Quetta, Delme-Redcliffe, Marshall, and Meinertzhagen have found it 
to be a fairly common summer visitor and breeding (Jour. B. N. H. S. xv., 
351 ; xxiii, 363 ; xxiv, 158). At Chaman just over the border in Southern 
Afghanistan, Barnes recorded it long ago as not uncommon and breeding in 
May, before which month he apparently did not observe it (S. F. ix. 215 
et 453). 

Then at Thall, Rattray and Whitehead both found it to be common in 
summer, and the former took 10 nests (Jour. B. N. H. S. xii, 343; Ibis 
1909, 253). 



366 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

In«Grilgit, Biddulph and Scully reported it to be a common summer 
visitor arriving early in May and breeding about 5,000 ft. in the valleys 
(S. F. ix., 313 ; X, 101, et 261). 

Hume obtained specimens from the Hazara and Agrore Valley including 
a female from Murree (10th May). (S. F. iv, 501, Cat. Brit. Mus). Cocks 
and Marshall took three nests about 5,000 feet near Murree in May (S. fi'. 
i., 350). In the same region Rattray considered the species not common and 
only recorded it near Dunga Gali where he took two nests (Jour. B. N. B. 
S. Vol. xvi, 660.). I have no breeding record east of Murree. 

To sum the above up, it is clear that Unwin's Nightjar is a summer visitor 
and breeding species from May onwards in the lower hills and valleys of the 
chains of mountains which run up and down the north westerly and north- 
easterly frontiers of the Punjab. It is also extremely probable that a 
small number breed in the Salt Range as I obtained a male with the testes 
greatly enlarged near Choa Saidan Shah on 26th May 1913 (Ibis. 1916, 84) 
and similar stragglers may be expected in the contiguous low ranges such 
as the Kala-Ohittar, and the broken country about Rawalpindi. 

The questiDn next arises as to what becomes of these Nightjars in the 
winter ; Hartert says that the bird is a winter visitor to Sindh, the Punjab, 
and N. W. Provinces, i.e., the United Provinces, but I cannot find the 
evidence on which this is based. 

Whitehead says that it passes through Kohat in spring and autumn 
(Ibis. 1909, 253) and Doig has recorded that it is a passage migrant for a 
short time in September to the Eastern Narra, Sind (S. F. viii, 372.) The 
only other record that I have traced for the Punjab and Sindh is a 
female in the Hume Collection, obtained near Sirsa, but the date is not 
given in the B. M. Catalogue, (see also S. F. iv, 501). 

My own records are scanty ; an adult female was shot on the Canal 
bank at Gujranwala on 1st August 1915 and two other Nightjars seen about 
the same tirue (6th July and 5bh August) were probably of the same 
species ; these wo aid all be on the autumn migration. 

In Jhang district I have obtained three specimens only, one at Kot 
Lakhlana (on the Lyallpur border) on 27th September 1918, a female at 
Jhang on 3rd May 1919, and one at Chund on 20th August 1919. These 
birds were all doubtle.-'s on passage. I have a few records of Nightjars seen 
but not identified in various districts and some of these may refer to this 
species, but the number of such records is not great and there is no use in 
quoting them in the absence of identification. 

The above data would point to the fact that Unwin's Nightjar is only a 
spring and autumn passage migrant in the Pimjab and it would be in- 
teresting to know what are its true winter quarters. It does not appear to 
me that they are fully known as yet and any authentic records bearing on 
its distribution in time and place are therefore to be welcomed. 

The call note of this sub-species does not appear to have been described. 

SYKE'S NIGHTJAR, GAPRIMULQU8 MAHRATTENSI8, Sykes. 

This Nightjar inhabits Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the plains of 
North- Western India extending South to Belgaum and eastwards to 
Upper Bengal. It appears to be closely related to Caprimulgus nubicus. 

To examine its distribution more closely, I find the following records. 
In Seistan, ' according to Cumming (Jour. B. H. S. xvi, 690), it is very 
numerous in summer from April to September, breeding all over the 
gravel-strewn " dasht " in May and June ; he does not specifically note 
that it migrates in winter but his words appear to point to that conclusion, 
which is probably correct, as Rattray records that at Thall the species is 



NOTES ON THE GEN US CAPRIMULGUS IN THE PUNJAB, 367 

a fairly numerous summer visitor arriving about the middle of May and 
breeding m June and July. Here it frequents the more open hill sides 
and nullahs and is not found in jungle. (Jour B. N. H. S. xii. 343). 

A pencil note by Andrew Anderson, the well known naturalist of the 
seventies, in my copy, of ' Jerdon's Birds of India ' is my authority for 
stating that Sykes' Nightjar breeds in the Murree hills. At Bannu 
Magrath procured several in September probably on migration (Ibis 1909 
253). In the Eastern Narra, Sindh, Doig recorded the bird as a permanent 
resident and it is said to breed there from February to July (S. F. viii 
372). Hume procured a single male on the extreme northern border of 
Sindh, where the Indus river leaves the Punjab, on the 13th December. 

The above records suggest that Sykes' Nigtjar is a resident in the plains, 
and a summer visitor to the hill areas of its range, the latter presumably 
wintering in the plains with the resident birds. If this deduction is correct 
I presume that it is a permanent resident in the Punjab ; it is in any case 
not common. The only records which I can trace are those of the British 
Museum Catalogue and a single bird obtained at the end of October near 
Lahore by Currie (Jour. B. N. H. S. xxiv, 570). The Catalogue includes 

2 S Delhi (no date), $ Bhahawalpur (Feb. 14), $ J Ambala (Feb.), four 
males and a female from Sirsa (February, July), all from the Hume Collec- 
tion. 

I have only met with this species on three occasions, all in the bed of the 
River Sutlej, one at Phillour on 10th May 1910, and a pair shot near Jella- 
labad (Ferozepur) on 25th February 1912. 

These various dates for the Punjab support the assumption that the bird 
is a permanent resident. The call is described by Gumming as like that of 
a frog, 

THE COMMON INDIAN NIGHTJAR, CAPRIMULGUS 
ASIATICUS ASIATICUS, Lath, 

The distribution of the Common Indian Nightjar is given in the Fauna 
of British India series, "Birds", Vol. iii., 187 ; as from Sind and the Pun- 
jab through India and Ceylon, and in Burma as far south as Moulmein. But 
since that account was written the birds inhabiting Ceylon have been sepa- 
rated under the name of C. asiaticus minor, Parrot (Orn. Monatsbr. 1907, 
p. 170) and it is probable that when sufficient material is available the birds 
of the remaining areas may require some division into sub-species. In the 
meantime our Punjab birds must remain as C. asiaticus asiaticus. 

The species has lately been recorded from Southern Tibet, Mipi, Dibang 
Valley, 4,800 ft. 13th May 1913, by Capt. Bailey (Jour. B. N. H. S., xxiv. 76). 

As regards the Punjab there is but little on record. In Hume's 'Nests 
and Eggs' (2nd edition, Vol. iii, 48) Cock records a nest found at 
Dharmsala and says " The bird does not remain with us during the winter, 
but comes up about April and departs about August," and implies that it is 
common. 

In the Catalogue of the British Museum I find the following specimeus 
from the Hume collection, namely two males and a female from Gurgaon 
(December and February) and a female from Sirsa (Dec. 14) which is re- 
ferred to also in Stray Feathers, (vii. 169). 

Mr. A. H. Marshall, Indian Police, informs me that he shot a specimen 
at Silanah jheel, Rohtak District, in September 1910. 

I have personally met with the species on two occasions. The first of 
these was on the 20th November 1914 when 1 shot one from a party of 2 or 

3 which were resting in short grass amongst Uck plants in a small grove of 
Kikur trees near the Otu jheel, Sirsa. I heard the characteristic call near 
Chandighar in Ambala District on the nights of the 25th and 26th March 
1916. 



368 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 

It is not clear from the above whether this Nightjar is a permanent 
resident or merely a winter visitor to the plains and its range in the Hima- 
layan foot hills should surely be extended. 

The call is well described as the sound made by a stone skidding over 
ice and is syllabised by Colonel G. F. L. Marshall as "Chak-Chalc Char-r-rk 
and by Jerdon as tyook-tyooh-tyook. The latter adds that the bird when 
flushed rises with a low chuckle. 

FRANKLIN'S NIGHTJAR, CAPRI MULGU8 MONTICOLA, Franklin.. 

Franklin's Nightjar is found throughout a large portion of the plains of 
India, throughout the Lower Himalayas, in portions of Burma and in the 
south of China. 

As regards our area the information is very deficient. At Thall, Rattray 
states that it is common and a permanent resident, and that he found it 
breeding plentifully (Jour. B. N. H. S. xii, 343). 

A note by A. E. Jones (Jour. B. N. H. S. Vol. xxvi. 614) warrants the- 
assumption that it breeds near Simla. 

The British Museum Catalogue includes the following specimens from 
the Hume collectii>n ; two females and one immature bird from Delhi, male 
and female from Gurgaon district, three females and one male from Sirsa 
(all the above without dates), a female from Simla (March) and a male 
from Simla (April 15). Certain records by Currie (Jour. B. N. H. S. Vol. 
xxiv, 604) I omit as the birds were not fully identified. 

Franklin's Nightjar, as it so happens, is the member of the genus with 
which I am best acquainted in the Punjab. 

So far as I have observed the bird, and confirmed my identifications with, 
specimens, the bird is a regular autumn passage migrant in some numbers, 
arriving and leaving suddenly, and being very local in its appearance. On 
these occasions it is confined to patches of ground where grow large clumps 
of the familiar 'Sirkana' or Pampas grass, whether such patches are growing 
on open sandy plain, around the edge of some jheel or tank or amongst the- 
embankments of one of the larger railway bridges over our larger rivers. 
One such locality may be found full of the birds while similar ones around 
are empty. The only one of these patches of which I have been able to 
ascertain particulars for more than one year is visited annually, so it is 
possible that the birds follow definite lines of flight. 

It is perhaps worth while giving details of my observations in case other- 
observers in the same localities can supplement them. 

I have omitted a number of records of single birds, which although they 
were probably of this species, were not definitely identified as such. 

Ferozepore District, 1912. 

Auo'. 6th. — R. Sutlej bridge. 4 flushed and $ shot in a patch of thick 
grass jungle by pools of water at one portion of the- 
embankments. 

10th — Another female shot from the same patch. 

25th — Some still about in the same place. 

Hissar District, 1914. 

July 24th. — Many reported to me at Hissar. 

26th. — Great numbers found in a patch of bush jungle in the Govern- 
ment Bir near some flood water from the canal ; there 
were none in other patches of similar ground. None were 
found in this place when I went again on 1st August. 

Aug. — An unusual number of Nightjars noted singly during the- 

month, but none definitely identified. 



l^OTES ON THE GENUS CAPRIMULGUS IN THE PUNJAB. 369 

Sept. 1st.— Many in the grass and bush jungle partly flooded in an old 
famine relief work called Rajpura. Three birds were shot 
for identification. 
13th.— Still common in the same patch of ground and two shot. 1 may 
note that this tank is surrounded by much similar ground 
yet the Nightjar appeared confined to the tank. 
Note.—Mr. R. Branford, I.C.S., V.D., Supdt. of Government 
Cattle Farm, informed me that Nightjars had become 
similarly abundant in July and August 191-5 and in 
August 1916. 

Ludhiana District, 1917. 

July 31st. — A flight of 9 or 10 observed in one portion of a sandy plain 
behind Civil Lines, covered with straggling patches of Sirkana 
grass. Specimens were shot and found to be heavy in 
moult. 

Aug. 9th. — Two, apparently of this species, flushed in grass jungle near 
the Budhan nala. 
10th. — Some on the embankment on! the railway bridge at Ladhowal. 
one shot. 

Sept, 15th. — Two flushed in the same place. 

Jhang District, 1919. 

Aug. 20th — A solitary female shot from a borrow-pit at the side of the 
railway line near Chund bridge. 
The call of this Nightjar is said to be very similar to that of C. asiaticw^ 
siaticus, but 1 have never heard it. When flushed in the day time 
individuals utter a low sort of chuckle not easily described. 

HORSFIELD'S NIGHTJAR, CAFBIMULGUS MACRURU^ 
NIPALEXSIS. Hartert. 

My only definite record of Horsfield's Nightjar for our area is that in 
the British Museum Catalogue of a male from Simla (March 5) in the 
Tweeddale Collection. It is there attributed to C. macrurus albonotatus but 
since that date the Nepalese and West Himalayan form has been separated 
under the name of C. nipalensis. Hume however describes a clutch of eggs 
taken at Dharmsala by Captain Cock (N. and E. 2nd Ed. Ill, 44). 

G. F. L. Marshall (.Jour., Simla N. H. S., 1886, 70) remarks in his descrip- 
tion of Simla birds that it •• ought to be heard in the valleys near"' but 
does not say anything more definite. 

The call is described by Jerdon (in addition to a low chirp, sometimes 
emitted on the wing) as the sound of striking a hammer on a plank, but 
Marshall (loc. Cit.) says that that gives little idea of the richness and 
volume of the sound " Chounk Chounk,'' repeated at intervals. 



With reference to the above article on the Nightjars of the Punjab, 
appended is a brief summary by Dr. C. B. Ticehurst on the Nightjars of 
Sind and Baluchistan so far as there is any information. 

SIND. 

Caprimulgus mahrattensis. —Rume (S. F. Vol. I) says Nightjars are 
very rare in Sind and he met with this species on the Upper Snul frontier, 
but that he was told Nightjars of sorts were common round Larkhana, 
23 



370 Journal, Bombay natural hist, society, Vol xxvil 

Mehur and the Munchar. Barnes says this species is very common round 
Hyderabad breeding in April and May and nests have been found as early 
as February. Doig considered it resident on the Narra, nesting on 
" Kuller " ground (bare, salt impregnated ground) and he found nests in 
May and July. I personally have met with species on several occasions 
in Lower Sind and I consider it to be resident and the Nightjar of Sind, 
I found it extremely common on the Narra and Jamrao canals in Decem- 
ber, inhabiting jungle. In other places T have met with it in quite open 
desert. 

Caprimulgus europcsus umoini.—-l:int\QT recorded this species as an autumn 
passage migrant at Hyderabad during September and October arriving in 
August. This species appears to be a regular passage migrant in Lower 
Sind, and doubtless in Opper Sind also, on both spring and autumn 
passages. Tt does not so far as I know breed in Sind. 

Capnmulgus asiaticus. — Murray records this species at Schwan on Nov- 
ember 27th and Butler says it is not uncommon round Schwan in January. 
Beyond this I have no knowledge of this species in Sind and I have not 
met with it myself, even round Schwan. Why it should be so local and 
what its true status is I have no idea. 

BALUCHISTAN. 

Capvimulgus mahrattensis. — This species appears to be resident in Balu- 
chistan in suitable places, but does not appear to ocour in the higher 
mountainous regions, viz., Kelat-Quetta-Ziarat ranges. Gumming found 
it common in Seistan from April to September breeding April-June. It 
certainly breeds in the Paff Hills and probably in all the lower hills of 
Baluchistan. It extends westward as far at all events as Bahu Kelat 
on the border of Persian Baluchistan. 

Capnmulgus europceus umoini. — This is the Nightjar of the higher moun- 
tains of Baluchistan to which it is a summer visitor. It breeds round 
Chaman in May (Barnes) and certainly must breed in the hills r und 
Quetta, Ziart, Mastung, etc., as also in the higher hills round Panjgur in 
Central Baluchistan. To the lower hills and coast line as at Ormarsa it 
is a spring and autumn passage migrant as in Sind. 

Caprimulyus cBgyptius. — Does not come further east than Bampur in 
Persian Baluchistan. 



371 



REPOKT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE BOMBAY 
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

The Committee of the Bombay Natural History Society have the honour 
to submit herewith their report on the operations and progress of the Society 
covering a period from the signing of the Armistice in November 1918 to the 
1st August 1920. 

The Society was founded on the 15th November 1883 by certain Residents Foundation, 
of Bombay " for the purpose of exchangmg notes and observations on Zoology 
and Botany and exhibitmg interesting specimens of animal life." In the 
month of May 188.5, the Society divided its activities into separate sections to 
insure the more scientific treatment of zoological phenomena, and in January 
1886 issued, under the editorship of Messrs. R. A. Sterndale and E. H. Aitken, 
the first number of its now w-ell-known and popiilar Journal. This publication 
has now completed its 26th Vohxme. 

The administration of the institution is directed by a Committee consisting Adminis- 
of a President, three Vice-Presidents, an Honorary Secretary, Honorary tration. 
Treasurer, and twelve members. The Museum, and Library are in the charge 
of a Curator. The Editorship of the Journal is in the hands of the Honorary 
Secretary who is assisted by joint Editors. 

The following is the Personnel of the management for the current year : — 

H. E. The Right Hon'ble Sir George Lloyd. G.C.I.E., D.S.O. 

Vice-Preside nts. — • 
Mr. J. D. Inverarity, B.A.. LL.B. 

The Hon'ble Sir Norman MacLeod, Kt., Chief Justice of Bombay. 
H. H. The Maharao of Cutch, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. 

Honorary Secretary. — 

]\Ir. R. A. Spence. 
Honorary Treasurer. — 

]\Ir. H. F. Lodge, M.C. 
Honorari) Editors. — 

]VIr. W. S. amiard, Mr. R. A. Spence, and Mr. S. H. Prater. 

Cxirator — 

Mr. B. C. Ellison ; ]\Ii-. S. H. Prater (Acting). 

Managing Comm ittee. — 

Mr. T. Bainbriage Fletcher, F.E.S. ; Mi-. T. R. Bell, CLE., I.F.S. (retd.) ; 
Rev. E. Blatter, S.J., F.L.S., Mr. E. Comber, F.Z.S. ; Col. G. H. Evans, 
CIE., F.L.S.; Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, R.E.; Lt.-Col. J. E. B. Hotson, 
I.A.R.O., C.B.E. (I.C.S.) ; Mi-. C. M. Inglis, M.B.O.U.; Prof. V. N. Hate ; 
Major F. C. Eraser, M.D., I.M.S. ; Lt.-Col. W. Glen Liston, CLE., I.M.S.; 
Mr F. Ludlow, LE.S.; Mr. F. M. Macwood; The Hon'ble Mr. P. J. Mead, 
CLE., I.C.S.; J\Ii-. H. P. Macnaghten, B.A.; Mr W. S. Millard, F.Z.S.; Mr. P. 
M. D. Sanderson ; Lt.-Col. F. Wall, LM.S., C.M.G., CM.Z.S.; Lt.-Col. H. J. 
Walton, LM.S., C.M.Z.S. and Mr. John Wallace, CE. 
At the outbreak of War the number of members on the roll was 1,600. At .Meml>ers. 
the date of the Armistice the number was 1,775. On the 1st Juty 1920 tne 
nominal roll stood at 1,841 but of these 499 had not paid their aimual subscrip- 
tion for 1920. Included in the hst of members are 102 life members who 
have compounded in one lump sum. . n-^^ T■4^^^ 

The Societv takes its title from its origin and establishment in the City Title. 
of Bombay, but its membership is spread throughout India, Burma and Leylon 
The roll of members inckides also a number of learned Societies and individuals 
resident in Europe, America, Africa and AustraUa. 



372 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIS'J , SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



Grant from 
Govern- 
ment. 

Treasurer's 



Subscription The entrance fee is Rs. 10 and the annual subscription is.Rs. 15 for which 
and Entr- members receive the Society's Journals, post free, and the assistance of the 
ance Fee. Society on questions dealing with Natural History, and the identification of 
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MUSEUM AND LIBRARY. 

Collections. The Society's Museum contains 4,330 specimens of Mammals, 6,000 Birds, 
3,200 Birds' Eggs, 3,700 Reptiles and Fishes, and 27,000 other Invertebrates in 
addition to Botanical specimens. The average monthly additions total 
about 80. The majority of the specimens are classified and arranged. The 
Society possesses a valuable reference Library containing over 1,000 Volumes 
mainly devoted however to the Natural Plistory of the Oriental Region. The 
Museum is open to members and their friends from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on week 
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FINANCE. 

The Society is almost entirely supported by the annual subscriptions of 
its members. It receives in addition an annual grant of Rs. 5,000, from the 
Government of Bombay. The Museum unfortunately suffers greatly from the 
Society's limited income. 

The Honorary Treasurer's report for the year ending December 1919 is 
Report for appended : — 

year 1919. " ]VIr. H. F. Lodge, the Honorary Treasurer, in presenting the accounts for 
the year ended 31st December 1919, said that a copy of the audited balance 
sheet was on the table for inspection of members and this would as usual be 
published in the Society's Journal. The following however were the main 
features of the accomits for the past year. On the 1st January 1919 the Society 
opened with a credit balance of Rs. 14,727-5-8 and during the year this figure 
decreased to Rs. 14,297-11-8, the cash balance shown on the 31st December 
1919. The receipts during the year under review amomited to Rs. 33,767-4-8 
which shows a decrease of Rs. 2,203, when compared with the corresponding 
figures of the previous year. The expenditure during the year 1919 amomited 
to Rs. 34,196-14-8 and this figure shows an increase of Rs. 9,719-10-11 over 
the corresponding figures for 1918. 

The increase in expenditure was easily understood as the Society in common 
with every other institution had lately had to pay considerably more for every 
thing required to carry on its work. In spite of this the Society had not in- 
creased the annual subscription which remains at Rs. 15 and it was hoped 
to avoid having to do so. Indications for 1920 pointed to the fact that ex- 
penditure generally would be still further increased and to comiteract the 
rise in prices every effort ought to be made to increase the revenue of the 
Society and this can best be done by the enrolment of new members. It is 
therefore hoped that members would do their best to interest their friends who 
were not already members in the work of the Society with a view to their 
being enrolled as members. 

As regards the Mammal Fmid the balance at the commencement of the year 
was Rs. 8,684-7-2 and the closing balance Rs. 12,389-2-5." 

EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH. 

Mammal The most important work taken up in this connection has been the Mammal 

Survey. Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. The Survey was instituted in the year 




— o 

It 



■5§ 



REPORT 01 THE COMMITTEE. 373 

1912 with the object of making as complete a study as possible of the occur- 
rence and distribution of mammals fomid in India, Burma and Ceylon and 
with the furtlier object of supplementing the collection of Indian Mammals at 
the Society's Museum and the British Museum as well as the collections of 
other Museums and scientific establishments in India. 

The fmids necessary for the promotion of this work were obtained principally 
through individual subscription and thi-ough grants provided by various 
Governments. The European War put an end to this Mammal Survey so far 
as work done by collectors in the employment of the Society was concerned, 
as the four collectors employed — 'Messrs. Shortridge, Mayor, Crump and 
Macmillan — joined the Military forces of the Empire at the earliest oppor- 
tmiity, Capt. Macmillan laying down his life at Ypres and Mr. Crump, who 
obtained the M. C, being severely womided. 

The interest of the Society in a systematic collection of the smaller mammals- 
was not however overlooked by the members of the Society. From the nature 
of the War many members who were active contributors were collecting 
outside or on the very borders of the territory selected for the scope of the 
Mammal Survey, and good collections were received from Lt.-Col. J. E. B. 
Hotson, I.C.S., I.A.R.O., in Mekran and Persia, Capt. Ingoldby, R.A.M.C., in 
Waziristan, Mr. J. P. Mills, I.C.S., in Assam, and from many members in Meso- 
potamia — especially Sir Percy Cox, K.C.S.I., Major R. E. Cheesman and Lt.-Col. 
F. P. Connor. 

The demobihsation of men after the signing of peace enabled the Society 
to resume the work of the Mammal Survey so far as that was done by collectors 
definitely engaged for the purpose. None of the old collectors still ahve has 
so far been able to return but in the autumn of 1919, Mr. H. W. Wells com- 
menced work in Assam on the borders between India and China. 

Though the difficulties of collecting are greater in Assam perhaps than any- 
where else in India, and are particularly difficult to a newcomer, this part 
of the country was selected as the scientific results to be obtained from a 
systematic survey are hkely to be greater here than anywhere else in India. 
Difficulties would moreover be lessened through the help to be obtained from 
members of the Society resident in Assam and particular thanks are due in 
this respect to the Hon'ble Sir Nicholas Beatson Bell, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., 
Mr. J. P. Mills, I.C.S.. Mrs. Jackson, Mr. L. Bishop, Capt. W. J. H. 
Ballantme, ]Mi\ H. O. Allen, Mr. A. Locket, Mr. A. M. Primrose and Mr. A. J, 
W. Milroy. 

The Government of Assam kindly made a grant of Rs. 1,000 towards the 
expenses of the Survey, and Government officials have at all times given all 
the help and assistance possible to our collector. 

The results of the ]\lammal Survey so far as the discovery of new Genera 
and Species, and sub-species are concerned are referred to under the heading 
" Publications " at the end of this report. 

The work of the Mammal Survey has now been carried on in Upper Smd 
Frontier (IMi-. S. H. Prater), Cutch and Kathiawar and Gujarat (.Mr. C. A. 
Crump), Satara and Ratnagiri Districts (Mr. S. H. Prater), S. Kanara and 
Mysore (Mi-. G. C. Shortridge), Madura (IVIr. S. H. Prater), Almora (Mr. 0. A. 
Crump), GwaUor (Major E. W. Mayor), East Khandesh, Berars and part ot the 
Central Provinces (Mr. C. A. Crump), Bihar and Orissa and the Alidnapore 
District of Bengal (Mr. C. A. Crump), Sikkim and Darjeehng and the Bengal 
Terai (Mr. C. A. Crump), the Chindwin River, South Shan States, Dry Zone, 
Burma, Mergui and Tenasserim (Mr. G. C. Shortridge and Capt. Macmillan) 
the Pegu District, Burma (Mr. J. M. D. Mackenzie), Ceylon (Major J^. VV. 

Fm^easy reference a map shomng the districts aheady collected in is append- 
ed hereto. The area worked up to the Armistice is coloured in red. lae 



374 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL KIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVII. 



The Indian 
Desert. 



Persia and 
Baluchistan. 



Mesopota- 
mia. 



Indian Avi- 
fauna. 



parts now being worked are coloured in blue. Assistants are being trained 
for the work and it is hoped that this year the Society will be in a position 
to take advantage of the offer of H. H. The Maharaja Scindia of Gwahor to 
give facihties to our Collector to work in and round Sipri where the red and 
black soils meet, and also of the very valuable offer by Dr. Anandale, the 
Director of the Zoological Survey of India, to give assistance to a collector 
working round the shores of the Chilka Lake in Orissa where Dr. Anandale 
has a bungalow and has himself already obtained very valuable scientific 
results from collections of fresh water fauna. 

For purposes of scientific classification, all material collected by the Society's 
Mammal collectors is sent to England to the British Museum where it is arranged 
and classified by those who have made a life-long study of Mammals from 
all parts of the world. After satisfying the requirements of the National Museum 
the collections will be returned to the Society who will distribute the surplus 
named specimens amongst various Museums in India and elsewhere. 

The Results of the Survey in the shape of " Scientific Results" and "Reports" 
are written at the British Museum by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and Mr. R. 
C. Wroughton, formerly Inspector General of Forests in India, and are pub- 
hshed in the Society's Journal. Mr. Wroughton has also published a ' Sum- 
mary of the Results of the Mammal Survey ' which brings the work on 
* Mammaha ' in the " Fauna of British India Series " more or less up to 
date so far as small mammals are concerned. The Volume pubhshed in the 
above series having been issued so long ago as 1891 had for many years 
become obsolete. In this respect the Survey has aheady proved its great 
usefulness. 

Besides our work on Mammals, the Society was able to pubhsh most ex- 
haustive reports on the Flora of the Indian Desert, including observations 
on the Geology and Meteorology of what is described as the least known of the 
Indian Plains. The thanks of the Society are due to Rev. E. Blatter, S. J., 
and Prof. F. HaUberg for their exertions in this connection. Father Blatter 
and Prof. Hallberg, accompanied by Mr. S. H. Prater of this Society, had 
moreover in 1915 made a trip through the High Wavy Mountains in the Madura 
District, Southern India, from which good Botanical and Zoological results 
were obtained. 

Through the Agency of Col. J. E. B. Hotson, C.B.E., I.C.S., I.A.R.O., very 
valuable and interesting collections of mammals, birds, reptUes and plants have 
been made in the above countries. The advancement in our knowledge of the 
fauna and flora of these regions, due to the systematic collecting of Col. Hotson, 
is shewn to some extent in the number of new genera and species discovered 
by him, and the information gained as to the geographical distribution and 
range of species in these little known tracts. 

During the War a large number of contributions were received from members 
serving with the forces in Mesopotamia. The contributions include valuable 
collections of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Insects. These collections are 
now being worked out by experts in England, and the results of then researches 
will be published in the forthcoming issues of the Journal. At the request 
of the Civil Commissioner, Bagdad, it has been decided to collect the various 
papers at the close of the series and issue them as a separate pubhcation. 
As such it will constitute a valuable work on the Fauna of the country. 

We have to record the exceedingly valuable work done by Mr. E. C. Stuart 
Baker in the preparation of a "Hand List of the Birds of British India " to be 
issued by the Society in a similar form to the "Hand List of British Birds" 
pubhshed by the British Ornithologists' Union. Gates and Blanford pubhshed 
their books on Birds in the Fauna of British Lidia series between 1888 and 
1898. The considerable amount of research work done since that period, 
together with the introduction of the trinomial system, has altered a number 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. 375 

of the names and rendered Gates and Blanford, until amended in this respect, 
of Uttle value to the Ornithologist. Mr. Stuart Baker's work goes far towards 
making good this defect. 

Further, with a view to showing the distribution of birds in India, the follow- 
ing lists have been published during the period under review : — 

The Birds of Prey of the Punjab. By C. H. Donald,' F.Z.S. 

Birds of the Ludhiana District, Punjab. By H. Whistler, M B.O.U.. 

F.Z.S. 
A List of Birds found in the Simla Hills. By A. E. Jones. 
A Tentative List of the Vertebrates of the Jalpaiguri District, Bengal 
(With Plates) By C. M. Inglis and others. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The Society's Journal published during the period under review contained 
the following contributions to Scientific Biology :— 

The Scientific results of the Mammal Sukvey No. 18, by Maktin C. General Bio- 
■HiNTON AND Nos. 19, 20 AND 21, BY Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., R.C. logy, 
Wroughton and Winifred M. Davidson. 
Martin Hmton's paper comprises a report on House Rats of India. It is 
based on the enormous amount of material collected by the Survey and is a 
valuable monograph on the distribution and races of the genus Rattus in India. 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas' papers form a sjmopsis of the groups of True IVIice 
found within the Indian Empire and deal with new species of Mammals found 
in Baluchistan and N. W. India. 

The 21 papers on the Mammal Survey hitherto pubUshed comprise 
descriptions of 6 New Genera, 68 New Species and 83 New Sub-species. 

Summary of the results from the Indian Mammal Survey of the 

Bombay Natural History Society, Parts, 2, 3, 4 and 5. By R. C. 

Wroughton, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Mr. Wroughton' s papers are a revision of the present day genera, species 

and geographical distribution of Indian MammaUa in special reference to 

Blanford's Volume on Mammalia in the Fauna of British India series. 

A New Species of Nesokia from Mesopotamia, by Oldfield Thomas, 

F.R.S. 
Some New Masimals from MESOPOTAivnA, by Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 
These papers deal with descriptions of new mammals obtained by the 
Society's members in Mesopotamia and are pubhshed by permission of the 
Trustees of the British Museum. 

Asiatic Starlings by Capt. C. B. Ticehubst, R.A.IM.C. 
The paper deals with the classification and geographical races of the Genus 
iSturnus found in Asia. 

A Mesopotamian Bulbul, by Capt., C. B. Ticehurst, R.A.M.C. 
On a new sub-species of Bulbul obtained by the author at Basra. 

Supplementary Notes on Indian Birds by B. B. Osmaston CLE., I F.S. 
The article is witten on special reference to certain errors and omissions 
in the Volumes on Birds in the Fauna of British India series. 

Description of a New Snake of the genus Contia (B. and G.) from 

Persia by G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 
On A collection of Snakes made in the Nilgiri Hills and the Ad- 
jacent Wynaai). Part I and 2. By Col. F. Wall, I.M.b., O.M.U 
Col. Wall's paper is based on a collection of 1699 snakes comprising 43 
different species, one of which is new to science. 

Notes on Indian Butterflies, by Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, R.E., F-E.S. 
These articles are wi-itten ^vlth a view to bringing up to date our informatiou 
on Indian Butterflies and are continued from the previous V olume. 



376 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL 



Chart for 
identifica- 
tion of poi- 
sonous 
Indian 
Snakes. 



Indian Deagonflies— Pakts III, IV, V and VI. By Major F.C. Fkasek, 
I.M.S. 

The papers are intended primarily to give a brief outline of the Anatomy 
and Biology of Indian Dragonflies and subsequently a description of the various 
families, genera and forms found within Indian limits. 

The Cyperacece of the Bombay Presidency — Part II. By L. J. 
Sedgwick, I.C.S. 

The papers pro-^dde a more up to date flora of this family (Rushes) adding 
20 new species to the number given by T. Cooke in his work on the Flora of the 
Bombay Presidency. 

A Revision of the Indian species of Rotala and Ammannia. By E. 
Blatter and Prof. Hallberg — Part II. 

The articles are published with a view to correcting the many mistakes as to 
identification, description and synonymy which have crept into the more recent 
works on Indian Botany and amplify the number and description of species 
as contained in the papers by Clarke oil Indian Lytharacea in Hooker's Flora of 
British India (Vol. II, 1879). 

Some South Indian Coccids of Econobiic Importance, by T. V. Rama- 
KRiSHNA Ayar, B.A., F.E.S.,F.Z.S. Government Entomologist, Madras. 

Describes 33 species of Coccids inhabiting S. India, with special reference 
to these as Garden and Orchard pests. 

Expected Plague of Field Rats in 1920 by L. J. Sedgwick, I.C.S., 
WITH A Note by Mr. N. B. Kinnear. 

Written in special reference to the recrudescence of plague of Field Rats- 
in years immediately following periods of famine with a note by Mr. N. B. 
Kinnear containing suggestions and recommendations in regard to the above. 

Articles of popular interest have been contributed by Mr. E.G. Stuart Baker, 
in his serial on the Game Birds of India . Mr. T. R. Bell in his articles on the 
Common Butterflies of India, and Lt.-Col. F. Wall, whose work on Common 
Indian Snakes is concluded in the present Volume. In addition to the above 
a number of interesting articles and notes on the Indian Fauna and Flora are 
published. These articles are a contribution to the Society's principal object, 
which is the spread of knowledge and the awakening of popular interest in 
Nature study in this countrv. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The past eighteen months have been of considerable importance as marking 
a definite stage in the career of the Society. Hitherto the Society had existed 
for the benefit of members and the spread of knowledge in regard to the Na- 
tural History of India amongst those interested. During the period reported 
on, the Society has extended its scope of work so as to include that of iateresting 
the urflearned in the Natural History of India and indicating means by which 
a knowledge of Natural History can be of practical value to every one in the 
vast Empire of India. 

Medical research has secured to us a sure remedy against death from the bite 
of a Cobra or a Russell's Viper. Statistics however tell us how often people 
in tliis country die from the bite of a non-poisonous snake through fright alone. 
The provision of easy, yet accurate, methods of identification between the 
poisonous and non-poisonous snakes of India has therefore for a long 
time been a great desideratum. The Society provided this so far as the 
medical profession and scientifically trained people were concerned when they 
published in 1907 Lt.-Col. WaU's "Treatise on Poisonous Terrestrial Snakes 
of the Indian Empire." New editions of this work were pubhshed in 1913- 
and 1917. In 1919 Lt. Hayes suggested that Col. Wall's book might be 
simphfied so as to enable a key distinguishing between the poisonous and non- 
poisonous snakes of India to be pubhshed in Chart form. His idea was elabor- 
ated by Mr. S. H. Prater of the Societj^'s Museum and approved by Col. Wall. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. 



377 



The chart is being printed in England and, by the means of simple diagrams 
and letterpress, enables individuals with no previous experience of the subject 
to recognise the poisonous snakes found in India. It has been adopted for 
the use of Hospitals, Dispensaries and Schools by the Bombay Government 
and most of the Pro\Tncial Governments in India. It is proposed to print the 
charts in the various vernaculars to meet the needs of the primary schools in the 
different provinces. 

The introduction of charts descriptive of the indigenous Fauna and Flora Nature 
which will help Indian students to obtain a more intimate knowledge of wild study in 
hfe in India would be a decided advantage. Nature study as hitherto taught schools, 
in Schools in India deals for the most part with animals and plants not found in 
this country. This is partly due to the want of suitable literature on the subject, 
and to remedy this defect the Committee is considering the pubUcation of 
a series of illustrated charts with short descriptions on : — 
Common Indian Birds. 
Common Indian Animals. 
Common Indian Butterflies. 
Common and Useful Indian Plants. 

Further steps in this connection are the giving of lectures on Natural History 
subjects to various schools, these lectures to be illustrated where possible with Lectures, 
lantern slides. The Committee of the Society is prepared to render all possible 
assistance in this connection and they are glad to report that one of their number, 
Col. Glen Liston, C.I.E., I.M.S., has already been giving lectures on popular 
and useful Natural Historj^ subjects to Teachers in High Schools in Bombay 
with a view to helping them when teaching nature study to their pupils. 

With a view to still further co-operating with the Educational ])epartments 
connected with the Local and Pro\dncial Governments in India the Society Educational 
proposes to prepare educational charts for the use of schools, the Health Depart- charts. 
ment of Municipalities and other Institutions as well as the general public. 
These charts will convey information on subjects which ultimately concern 
the health and well-being of residents in India. With this object the Society 
is arranging descriptive charts on the follo^A^ng subjects : — 
The House Fly as a danger to health. 
Mosquitoes — in connection wdth Malaria. 
The Louse — ^and its relation to Disease. 
The Bed-bug and how to deal with it. 
House Rats as enemies of mankind. 

These charts will contain diagrams and simple descriptions together \vith 
recommendations for the preventive measures to be adopted against these pests. 
FORTHCOfflNG PUBLICATIONS BY THE SOCIETY. 

Indian Ducks and Their Allies, by E. C. Stuart Baker, F.Z.S., M.B. 
O.U. 2nd Edition, revised and enlarged, with 31 coloured Plates, being 
Vol. 1 OF the Game Birds of India. 

The first edition reprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Natural^ History 
Society and pubhshed in 1908 was sold out withm a short period. To meet 
the widespread demand for a work which appeals both to the Sportsman and 
Naturahst, the Society have decided to bring out a second edition. The letter- 
press has been revised and brought up to date and an additional plate illus- 
trating the various species of swans occurring in India is included in the present 
issue. 

The Game Birds of India (Snipe, Bustard, Sandgrouse). Vol. 11., by 
E. C. Stuart Baker, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Reprinted from the Bombav Natural History Society's Journal with 14 
coloured Plates by H. Gronvold and other illustrations. The Series wiU 
be completed in four volumes. Vol. HI containing the Pheasants and V ol. i v 
the Partridges. 
24 



378 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, rol. XXVII. 

Palms or Beitish India and Ceylon. By Revd. E. Blatter, S.J., F.L.S. 
Reprinted from the Bombay Natural History Society's Journal and profusely 
illustrated with over a hundred photographs and a large number of text blocks. 
The Volume deals with the Palms of India, Burma and Ceylon, both indigenous 
and introduced and contains interesting accounts of History, Uses, and legends 
attached to this interesting order in a manner that would appeal both to the 
botanist and the general reader. 

Hand List of Birds of the Indian Empire. By E. C. Stuart Baker, F.Z.S. 
Hand List of Snakes of the Indian Empire. By Col. F. Wall, C.M.G., I.M.S. 
Fauna of Mesopotamia. A series of articles on Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and 
Fishes of Mesopotamia by various authors. 

PAST PUBLICATIONS BY THE SOCIETY. 
The following are still available : — 
The Poisonous Terrestrial Snakes of the British India. Price Rs. 2 

to Members and Rs. 3 to non-members. 
List of Indian Butterflies. Price Rs. 2. 

Wood destroying White Ants of the Bombay Presidency. Price Re. I. 
Catalogue of the Society's Library. Price Rs. 2. 
The Flora and Fauna op Matheran and Mahableshwar. Pries Re. I. 
The Society's Journal from No. 1 published in 1886 to date. Back- 
numbers and occasionally complete sets are obtainable from the Secretary to 
whom application should be made. 

THE SOCIETY'S JOURNAL. 
Future numbers will contain the following : — 
Papers on Game Birds of India, Burma & Ceylon. By E. C. Stuart Baker — 
(continued). 
„ Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. By T. R. Bell. — 

(continued). 
Flora of the India Desert. By Rev. E. Blatter, S. J., & Prof. 
Hallberg — ^( continued). 
„ Indian Dragon Flies. By Major F. M. Eraser, M.D., I.M.S— 
(continued). 
WANT OF MUSEUM ACCOMMODATION. 
The want of space in the Society's Rooms renders it difficult for the Society's 
Museum to take even to a limited extent the part so splendidly played in the 
cause of education by the National Museum at Home. The Committee would 
draw attention here to the proposals agreed to by the members of the Society 
and placed before the Trustees of the Prince of Wales' Museum of Western 
India whereby, Avithout in any way sacrificing the individuality of the Society 
and its work in Scientific research, the collections of the Society would be housed 
in a public museum and arranged so that the full educational value of the col- 
lections would be available to the general pubUc and to students in particular. 
It is greatly to be regretted that such slow progress is being made with the 
carrying out of the scheme. 

CONCLUSION. 
The Committee cannot close this report without expressing their deep sense 
of the obligation the Society owes to Mr. W. S. Millard who resigned this year 
his positions as Honorary Secretary and Editor. Mr. Millard had been connected 
with the Society since 1888 and to him and Mr. Phipson the enlargement of the 
scope of the Society's work is largely due. The Committee have also to report 
with great regret the resignation of Mr. N. B. Kinnear who had been in 
charge of the Society's collections since 1907 and one of the Editors of the 
Society's Journal and who also acted as Joint Honorary Secretary during Mr. 
Millard's absence. 

R. A. SPENCE, 

Honorary Secretary. 



1 



379 



EDITORIAL. 

In the preceding pages of this number there appears a report of the work of this 
Society since the Armistice. The report ^yas originally written with the 
idea that Government and other Natural History Societies and Institu- 
tions should know what this Society had been doing, was doing, and intended 
to do, but subsequently recognising that it was fii-st and foremost necessary 
that the members of the Society should be kept thoroughly acquainted with 
the work of the Society, which they maintain through their subscriptions, the 
Committee decided to publish the report in the Journal. It will, we hope, prove 
of interest. 

Before this Journal is issued members will all have been made aware of the 
proposals to transfer part of the Museum of this Society from its old quarters 
in Apollo Street to the premises of the Prince of Wales' Museum in Bombay. 
Until the original idea of building a Natxu-al History wing to the existing Prince 
of Wales Museum building is carried into effect — and for Avant of money it is 
unlikely that this will be effected for several years — the offices and work of tli*- 
Society will be carried on in the old premises. The change will not affect the 
Interests of members in any way, nor the personal relation which has for so long 
existed between the upcomitry members and the Committee in Bombay. What 
the change will bring about, it is hoped, is that the collections to which mem- 
bers have contributed in the past, and which we believe members will contri- 
bute to in the future, will be better looked after than it is now possible to 
look after them in our crowded quarters. With better Museum accommodation 
we should be able to be of more assistance to members who wish to work out 
their own collections, or have them worked out for them, and we shall be 
able to let others have some benefit from the interesting exhibits which have 
been received from our members during the course of nearly forty years. 
Naturalists are the least selfish of men and it must have been a source of regret 
to many that the valuable collections this Society possesses have, for reasons 
outside its oAvn control, been inaccessible to the general public, and for the 
matter of that to the general run of members. 

Before touching on the work of the Society's Mammal Survej^ during the 
past few months, the Editors have been asked by the Committee to express 
their thanks, and the thanks of all the members of the Society, to General Hi.s 
Excellency Maharaja Sir Chandra Shumshere Jung Bahadur Rana, G.C.B., 
G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., etc., Prime Minister of Nepal, for his kindness in allowing 
one of our trained Indian collectors to work in Nepal. Owing to this permission 
we have been able to send a qualified skinner, who was trained in Natural 
History work by Mr. Kinnear, to work under Col. R. L. Kennion in Nepal. 
It is a piece of good fortune which we had long hoped for but had not dared to 
ask for until we were able to do so through the instrumentality of Col. Kennion, 
whose interest in Natural History is so well knoAvn. Since Brian Hodgson 
collected in Nepal from 1830 to 1845 the country has been practically unworked, 
para-types of his original type specimens are badly wanted by the British 
Museum and other Museums, and the results of His Highness' permission 
should be most valuable. 

]\Ir. Wells is still carrying on the work of the Survey in Assam and avc are 
very grateful to Mr. A. J. W. Milroy, one of our members, who has afforded 
Mr.' Wells the opportunity of accompanying him on a journey into the Cachar 
Hills, where, with Mr. Milroy's as