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THE 



JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 



BRITISH ANT) FOREIGN. 



EDITED BY 



JAMES J3KITTEN, K.S.G., F.L.S. 



VOL. XXXIX. 

HEW YOKfc 

BOTANICAL 

(JAJgUfciW 

ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES AND CUTS 



LONDON: 
WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54. HATTON GARDEN 

190 1. 






LONDON : 

WEST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS, 

HATTON GARDEN, E.C. 



CONTKIBUTORS 



TO THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



J. E. Bagnall, A.L.S. 

E. G. Baker, F.L.S. 

J. G. Baker, F.R.S. 

Ethel S. Barton. 

J. Benbow, F.L.S. 

Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

James Britten, F.L.S. 

G. L. Bruce, M.A. 

Cedric Bucknall, Mus. Bac. 

G. R. Bullock-Webster. 

William Carruthers, F.R.S. 

W. A. Clarke. 

Llewellyn J. Cooks. 

H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

E. J. Elliott. 

David Fry. 

Antony Gepp, M.A., F.L.S. 

John Gerard, S.J., F.L.S. 

W. H. Griffin. 

Henry Groves, F.L.S. 

James Groves, F.L.S. 

W. P. Hamilton. 

W. P. HiERN, M.A., F.L.S. 

C. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S. 
E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 
G. Holmes. 
A. 0. Hume, F.L.S. 
W. Ingham, B.A. 

A. B. Jackson. 

B. Daydon Jackson, Sec.L.S. 
Sir George King, F.R.S., etc. 
L. V. Lester, M.A., F.L.S. 
H. W. Lett. 

AuGusTiN Ley, M.A. 



E. F. LiNTON, M.A. 

W. R. Linton, M.A. 

Arthur Lister, F.R.S. 

Symers M. Mac vicar. 

E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

W. K. Martin. 

J. C. Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 

P. MiCHELMORE. 

Spencer lk M. Moore, F.L.S. 

G. R. M. Murray, F.R.S. 

R. P. Murray, M.A., F.L.S. 

W. E. Nicholson. 

John Percival, M.A., F.L.S. 

C. B. Plowright, M.A. 

A. B. Rendle, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

H. J. Riddlesdell. 

W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. 

E. S. Salmon, F.L.S. 
Hans Schinz. 

C. D. Sherborn. 

Annie L. Smith. 

W. G. Smith, F.L.S. 

G. Stabler. 

H. Stuart Thompson, F.L.S. 

Richard F. Towndrow. 

W. West, F.L.S. 

James W. White, F.L.S. 

J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S. 

W. Whitwell, F.L.S. 

F. N. Williams, F.L.S. 
Albert Wilson, F.L.S. 

A. H. WOLLEY-DOD, R.A. 

B. B. Woodward, F.G.S. 



Directions to Binder. 



Tab. 417 
418 
419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 



;itelSaPrf^r=a:rr«3»«R') 



to face page 1 
49 
81 
121 
153 
193 
217 
257 
289 
321 

title 



Or all the Plates may be placed together at the end of the volume- 



The Supplement (' Flora of Staffordshire ') should be placed 
separately at the end of the volume. 




Parliinsor. del. 
.Morgan anal.etlith 



Ficus Parkin soni Hierp^ 



THE OAi^U^^ 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



BANKS AND SOLANDER'S AUSTRALIAN FIGS. 

By W. p. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Plate 417.) 

Besides the drawings executed by various artists for the original 
sketches made by Sydney Parkinson during Cook's First Voyage, 
which were engraved on copper and are now being issued by the 
British Museum, there are several which were not engraved. Some 
of these are merely sketches by Parkinson ; of others there are also 
finished drawings, many of them of equal interest with those 
engraved. The Museum publication, save in one or two cases of 
exceptional importance, only reproduces the engraved plates ; but 
among those of which only the drawings exist are some which are 
well worth publishing, as they represent species which have not 
been met with since Banks's time, and of which no other figures 
exist ; one such, Drosera Banksii, was reproduced last year in this 
Journal (t. 410B, fig. B.). 

Among them are five finished drawings of Figs, made by F. P. 
Nodder from Parkinson's sketches, to which Mr. Britten directed 
my attention while I was elaborating the Muracece of the Welwitsch 
collection. The specimens collected by Banks and Solander are in 
the National Herbarium, and as two out of the five apparently have 
not been described, it may be worth while to publish some account 
*'of the series. Of the two in question, I have drawn up descriptions, 
' based upon the specimens and figures, in which I have availed 
myself of certain details from Solander's MSS. ; of the three 
previously known species I have quoted Solander's description, in 
accordance with the plan adopted by Mr. Britten in the III ast rations 
of the Botany of Cook's Voyage. 

1. Ficus Parkinsoni Hiern, sp. n. Arbor mediocris glabra 
lactescens, ramis obsolete angulatis, ramulis crassiusculis carnosulis 
longitudiualiter corrugatis levibus ochraceis apicem obtusam versus 
foliosis, foliis alternis sparsis suboblique ovali-oblongis apice bre- 
vissime subacuminatis obtusis vel subacutiusculis basi rotundatis 
vel obtuse angustatis inconspicue 3-5-nerviis coriaceis integris 
patentibus petiolatis baud scabridis super nitidis amoene viridibus 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol.39. [Jan. 1901.] b 



4 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

poliendo. Folia opposita, petiolata, oblonga, acuta, integerrima, 
scaberrima, venosa venulisque subtus reticulata, basi parum & 
anguste cordata, quatuor vel quinque imcias longa. Petioli foliis 
sexies breviores ; alterni breviores. Peclunculi axillares, oppositi, 
solitarii, imiflori, lougitudine petiolorum. Fructus globosus, mag- 
nitudine Cerasi scaber, rnbicundus, apice perforatus apertura 
rotunda, parum rostrata. Cfr. Folium politorium Faimph. amh. 4, 
p. 128, t. 68, sed folia alteriia & basi angustata." — Solander MS. 

Hab. prope Labyrinth Bay, Palm Island, and Kocky Point, 
Endeavour Careeniug-place. 

Labyrinth Bay is on the east coast of Cape York peninsula. 
The Palm Islands are about 18° 45' S. lat., 146° 40' E. long. ; and 
Thirsty Sound (the locality mentioned on the drawing) is 22° 15' S. 
lat., 150° E. long. 

E. Brown identified his specimens from Keppel Bay, Shoalwater 
Bay, and Broad Sound, n. 3219, with those of Banks. 

This is the plant mentioned under the name of F. radnla in 
Banks's Journal, p. 316 (ed. J. D. Hooker, 1896), where it is stated that 
the Australian natives polish their darts with the leaves of this wild 
fig tree, " which bite upon wood almost as keenly as our European 
shave-grass [Equisetum hyemale L.] used by the joiners " ; it is not 
the R. Radula Willd. The native name is given in Solander' s MS. 
as *' de poor." 

5. F. GLOMERATA Roxb. PI. Corom. ii. col. 13, t. 123 (1798) ; 
Benth. I.e. p. 178. " BractecB tres, ad basin fructus, persistentes, 
ovatse, acutae, concavae, 1^-lineares. Fructus obovato-subrotundus, 
cum collo angusto lougitudine bractearum, glaber, rubicundus (dia- 
metro sesquiunciali), odore debili fragarum nee penitus saporis ex- 
pers, subdulcis, apice notatus verruca convexa, quae tecta est squamis 
circiter decem, ovatis, acutiusculis, concavis, arete imbricatis, rubi- 
cundis, vix 1 lineam longis. Flores Masculi & Feminei in eodem 
fructu. Mas. Calyx hi- (forte interdum tri-) phyllus : Foliola ob- 
longa. Filamenta duo, filiformia, albida, calyce longiora. AnthenB 
oblongge, erect^e, majusculae, albida. Flores feminei omnes a 
Cynipidibus destructi ut illos describere uon potui. Eamuli proprii 
floriferi, aphylli, porrecti e caudice & ramis crassioribus, flores in 
racemum gerentes. Flores binati, pedunculati, cicatrice (forte folii 
decidui) interstite. Peduncidi parum compressi, vix -^--unciales. 
Folia sparsa, petiolata, oblonga, acuminata, basi parum cordata, 
integerrima, glabra, venosa : venae duae infimae oppositae, paulo a 
basi cum rachi confluentes, in quadam axilla glandula linearis, 
ferruginea. Stipida lanceolato-subulatae, acuminatae, f-unciales, 
marcescentes." — Solander MS. 

Endeavour river, collected by Banks. 

Banks and Solander were delayed about the Endeavour river 
from 17th June to 3rd August, 1770 ; it is situate about 15° 30' S. 
lat., 142° 10' E. long. 

R. Brown identified his specimens from the Northumberland 
Islands, n. 3224, with those of Banks. 

This is referred to in Banks's Journal (p. 299) under the name 



ON THE CULTIVATION OP MYCETOZOA FROM SPORES 5 

F. caudiciflora (by which it is also called in Solander's MSS.) as 
" a kind of very indifferent fig, growing from the stalk of a tree." 



Explanation of Plate 417. — Ficus ParMiuoni : — Principal figure, reduced 
one half. Fig. 1. Frustum of a leaf, under side, natural size. 2. A male flower 
with adpressed bract and perianth, enlarged ten diameters. 3. The same, with 
the bract and perianth spread, enlarged about ten diameters. 4. A female 
flower, enlarged about ten diameters. 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF MYCETOZOA FKOM SPORES. 
By Arthur Lister, F.R.S. 

In some notes on Mycetozoa published in this Journal for 1899 
(pp. 145-152), I referred to the unusually large clusters of the 
spores of Badhamia utriciilaris Berk, observed in gatherings in 
the autumn of 1898 both in Epping Forest and at Lyme Regis. 
Cultivations from plasmodium found associated with the sporangia 
produced varying results ; in some cultures the spores were in large 
clusters, in others they were in the usual small groups of seven 
to ten. 

Attempts had been made in former years to complete the whole 
cycle of development from spore to sporangium in Badhamia utricu- 
laris, but without success. Although the cultures above referred 
to proved that the size of the clusters of spores in this species is an 
inconstant character, it was desirable to have the point confirmed 
by a cultivation directly from the spores, and having now abundant 
material at hand another attempt was made. 

On January 10th, 1899, spores, in large clusters of from sixteen 
to twenty-four, were sown in four watch-glasses in filtered rain 
water, and supplied with thin slices of scalded Stereum hirsutaui 
preserved in a moist atmosphere under a bell-jar. On Jan. 12th 
no spores had germinated ; the preparations were allowed to dry, 
and were rewetted on Jan. 14th. On Jan. 15th a large proportion 
of the spores had hatched ; they were again exposed to the air and 
allowed to dry and, after rewetting, swarm-cells appeared in great 
numbers. On Jan. 19th all the swarm-cells had taken the form of 
microcysts, and in one of the cultures paramaecia had entered, and 
were rapidly devouring the microcysts. The contents of this watch- 
glass were therefore cleared away, and a fresh sowing was put down 
of large-clustered spores from the same source as before. Leaving 
for the present the history of the preparations in the other three 
watch-glasses, I will follow that of the fresh culture, which was the 
only one that yielded satisfactory results. But here it may be 
interesting to note that the process of drying and rewetting appears 
to have a distinctly stimulating influence in producing the germi- 
nation of spores, and in restoring microcysts to the active condition. 
Without attempting to offer an explanation, it is a matter of ex- 
perience in numerous cultivations of Didymium di forme Daby from 



6 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

spore to sporangium, as well as in the experiments now under 
consideration, that the treatment has this marked effect. 

To return from this digression. The new culture was started 
on Jan. 26th, the spores being moistened in boiled water, and then 
spread over slices of scalded Stereum. On Jan. 27th no germination 
had taken place, and the spores were dried and rewetted. As none 
had hatched on the following day, they were again dried and were 
left until Jan. 30th, when they were wetted with boiled water, and 
a few more large-clustered spores were added. The preparation 
was not again examined until Feb. 10th, when the water was grey 
with hosts of dancing swarra-cells. On Feb. 20th these had all 
changed to microcysts : they were allowed to dry until Feb. 22nd, 
when boiled water was again added. On March 4th swarm-cells 
were present in great abundance. On March 10th a minute 
Plasmodium was seen under the microscope with y% obj. On 
March 12th about twelve small plasmodia were discovered, in which 
yellow granules could be detected. March loth, several plasmodia 
had coalesced, and slow streaming movement was visible. March 
16tb, plasmodia could be seen with the naked eye, and under the 
microscope fine streaming through a net-work of veins could be 
made out. March 17th, the plasmodia had combined into two of 
unequal size ; the larger Plasmodium was now in contact with one 
of the slices of Stereum, and as the preparation swarmed with 
bacteria, producing an offensive smell, it was removed to another 
watch-glass and supplied with fresh Stereum, on to which it soon 
crawled. The culture was now transferred to a plate covered with 
a bell-jar and fed with Stereum until the plasmodium attained a 
large size. On April 10th the preparation was divided ; one part 
was exposed to the air to form into sclerotuira, of which a good 
supply was obtained, and the remainder was fed for a week or two 
longer, when it formed into about 2000 sporangia.'" In all those 
examined the spores were in the normal small clusters of seven 
to ten. 

Of the three other cultures put down on Jan. 10th, one was 
attacked by paramaecia, which devoured nearly all the swarm-cells, 
or microcysts ; the remaining two, though tended with some care 
and exhibiting from time to time swarm-cells and microcysts, never 
produced plasmodia, and were cleared away on April 6th. 

The usual and easy method of cultivating Badhamia utricularis 
is from the sclerotium, which can be kept dry and stored for years 
without losing its vitality. A piece of Stereum hirsutum on which 
the sclerotium has formed is soaked in water for a few hours, when 
it should be removed and kept wet, but not wholly immersed. In 
the course of a day or so the plasmodium will have revived, and 
the piece of Stereum, on which it will have begun to creep, should 
be placed on a dinner plate, near the edge, and covered with a bell- 
jar. A well-soaked pileus of Stereum. should now be laid on the 
awakened plasmodium, which will soon leave the original piece and 



* The sporangia of B. utricularis vary much in dimension ; those of the 
average size contain about a million and a half of spores. 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF MYCETOZOA FROM SPORES / 

spread over the new. Every morning a fresh supply of Stereum 
should be placed in front of, and touching, the piece over which 
the Plasmodium is advancing, so that it shall not go back on the 
exhausted fungus. In this way the growth may be led round the 
plate, the old pilei are cleared away behind, and fresh added in 
front until the cultivation has reached the desired dimensions, when 
it can be dried by exposure to the air to form a fresh store of 
sclerotium. 

If, however, it is desired that the plasmodium should form into 
sporangia, the supply of food is stopped. If this is done without 
taking any further precaution, it is often found that the plasmodium 
becomes poisoned by returning to the old fungus, now loaded with 
decomposing refuse-matter, and it produces imperfect sporangia or 
dies. Though this is not always the case, yet to insure perfect de- 
velopment the following method is found to give good results. 
A pile of well-washed thick sticks, with the bark on them, is placed 
under a bell- jar, and the Stereum, on which the plasmodium is 
growing, is laid on the pile ; it is as well to add a few pilei at first, 
that the shock of removal may be recovered from ; the plasmodium 
soon leaves the Stereum, and wanders over the sticks ; there it frees 
itself from impurities, and, finding nothing to feed upon, it changes 
to perfect sporangia in four or five days. 

Another cultivation of considerable interest is that from the 
spores of a possibly new species, which I have named provisionally 
Didyynium comatum, from the abundant straight threads of which 
the capillitium is composed. It was found in March, 1899, growing 
in company with Dldnmium diffonne Duby on old fronds of hart's- 
tongue fern on the Undercliff at Lyme Regis. It is no doubt nearly 
allied to D. diffonne, and may prove to be merely a variety of it. It 
is most difficult to distinguish between the two forms in the field ; 
in both the egg-shell-like crust may be removed entire from the 
iridescent membranous inner sporangium-wall, though sometimes 
the two layers are closely adhering ; in D. comatum, however, the 
crystals forming the outer crust are often more stellate and less 
densely compacted than in D. dlfforme. In the first gatherings 
there was a marked difference between the spores of D. comatum and 
those of its ally ; they were paler and smaller ; they contracted into 
a boat-shape when placed in Hantsch's fluid or spirit, in consequence 
of one side being thinner than the other, as do also the spores of 
D. diffonne ; yet they lacked the dark branching lines usually present 
on the contracting side of the spores of the latter species. Gather- 
ings of D. comatum in April, 1900, from the Lyme Undercliff 
exhibited spores similar to those above described ; but another 
gathering of the species from a straw-yard in an open field at 
about the same date showed profuse slender capillitium, but had 
spores that could not be distinguished from the normal spores of 
D. diffonne. 

The difference between the two forms resolves itself therefore 
into the structure of the capillitium, and in the behaviour under 
cultivation to be noticed in the following account : The capillitium 
of D. diffornii is sca,Qty, aid cm^isbs of stout and usually separate 



8 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

scattered threads ; these branch upwards in a tree-like maimer, and 
are attached to the upper sporangium-wall by slender tips, and to 
the lower wall by broad bases. Ttie capillitium of the new form is 
very profuse, and consists of slender, usually straight threads con- 
nected together by a few anastomosing branches, and attached to 
the sporangium-wall above and below by narrow points. The 
colour varies in both species, but in D. di forme it is generally 
purple-brown ; in D. comatum it is almost always colourless, as far 
as can be ascertained from the comparatively limited material at 
hand. Beside the Lyme Regis gatherings a small specimen was 
obtained from near Luton in February, 1893, with profuse colour- 
less capillitium and pale spores, precisely similar to those of the 
sporangia first collected on the Lyme undercliff. 

No specimens have been found with capillitium intermediate in 
character between these strikingly diverging forms. In order to 
ascertain by cultivation whether the peculiar features of D. comatum 
would remain constant, the following experiment was made : — 
On March 9th, 1899, spores were sown in a hanging drop. In 
about six hours every spore appeared to have germinated, and the 
preparation teemed with swarm-cells. Three other cultures were 
put down in watch-glasses on March 10th, and at the same time 
spores were scattered over a piece of scalded blotting-paper, together 
with some boiled cress-seeds. As a check experiment, spores of 
D. di forme, gathered with D. coynatum, were also sown on similarly 
prepared blotting-paper. I may mention that in cultivations of 
D. di forme from spores sporangia almost invariably begin to appear 
in about a fortnight ; on one occasion, when the spores were sown 
with seeds of Plantago lanceolata, sporangia formed in eight days. 
In the case of this check experiment well-formed sporangia appeared 
in about fifteen days from the date of sowing, with characteristic 
coarse capillitium, which varied in quantity and was reduced in the 
very small sporangia to one or two threads, or was altogether wanting. 
This corresponded with former experience, when cultivations of 
this species have been carried on for many generations in suc- 
cession. It was not until forty days after the spores of D. comatum 
were sown — that is to say, on April 19th — that the first minute 
sporangia appeared in the blotting-paper preparation ; others con- 
tinued to develop until April 30th, when thirty- eight sporangia 
could be counted ; but they were so small that they could hardly be 
seen without the aid of a lens. Every one examined, even the most 
minute, had profuse slender colourless capillitium and pale spores 
of precisely the same character as that of the parent sporangia. In 
the watch-glass experiments no Plasmodium formed until May 2nd, 
or fifty-three days after sowing, and this occurred in only one of 
the glasses ; it increased to more than a millimetre across, and 
appeared to be quite healthy, when an accident prevented further 
observation. 

As far as it goes, this culture points to a specific difference 
between D. diforme and D. comatum,, but in the face of the straw- 
■ yard gathering before referred to it seems safer to mark the new 
form as T). diforme var. comatum. 



SOME BRITISH VIOLETS. 
By Edmund G. Baker, F.L.S. 

The following are notes on some British violets of the Melanium 
section which have been sent to the Natural History Museum clurino- 
the last few months. ^ 

It may be well to group the plants referable to V. tricolor L. 
(sensu lat.), if we are dealing with British forms alone, under five 
or six heads ; if plants occurring on the Continent were dealt with, 
these groups would include about double this number.* 

Viola Pesneaui Lloyd, Fl. Ouest. ed. 3, p. 43 (1876) ; V. Curtisii 
Forster /? Pesneaui Eouy & Foucaud, Fl. France, iii. 50 (1896). 
This plant belongs to the group of which F. Curtisii Forst. is the 
representative species. The group is only a small one, all the 
members being found near the sea ; the diagnostic characters con- 
trasting with the other groups being drawn from the stipule and 
the flower. The former organ is nearly palmatipartite with straight, 
linear, narrow and pointed lateral segments. The flowers are not 
so large as in V. hitea Huds., but larger than in V. arvensis Murr. 

V. Curtisii Forst. was first described in Engl. Bot. Suppl. 
t. 2693, from Braunton Burrows, where it was gathered by William 
Curtis,! and cultivated in his garden. The roots are fibrous ; the 
stem is angular and rough. The lower leaves oval, or suborbicular, 
subcordate ; the others oval-lanceolate or lanceolate. The bracteoles 
are placed below the curvature. The petals are generally a little 
longer than the calyx, " yellowish with blackish branched radiating 
lines, the lateral paler than the lower, the upper whitish " ; but 
British specimens which have been referred to this species present 
great variation as to size of flower. 

V. Pesneaui Lloyd differs from the above more particularly in 
the violet colour of the flowers, the upper petals being of a deeper 
hue. Other alleged differences are that the bracteoles are either 
placed on the curvature or a very little below, and that the plant is 
more pubescent, and that the lobes of the stipules are rather 
larger. 

Specimens agreeing with this plant in all its principal charac- 
teristics have been received from Mr. D. A. Jones, gathered at 

* The representative species of these groups for British and Western 
Continental forms would be as follows (see also Eouy & Foucaud Fl de 
France, ni. p. 40) :— (1.) V. hortensis DC. (pro varietate), Prod. i. p. 303. 
(2. V. saxatihs Schmidt, Fl. Boh. iii. p. 60. (3.) V. tricolor L. Sp. PI. p. 935 
(4.) F. arvensis^ Murray, Prod. Stirp. Gott. p. 73. (5.) V. Oly.siponensis Eouy 

n^ooJ^^S'];. ^''""- ^- '^^- ^^'^- ^ ^1^^^^)' P- 114; & in Bol. Soc. Brot. vi. p. 1^3 
(i8b«). (b.) V. Kitaibeliana Eoem. & Schultes, Syst. 5, p. 383 (7) V 

rTt ^'n^°\?".^' ^^'- P^- '^^- P- ^- (S-) ^' ^"'•^'^^« Foi'st. in Eng. Bot! 
t. ^byd. (9.) V. Vivariensis Jord. Obs fragm. i. p. 19, t. 2. (10 ) V Rotho- 
magensis Desf. Cat. p. 153. (12.) F. lutea Huds. Fl. Angl. ed i. p 331 If 
Central and Eastern European plants were also included, several species, 
such asV Hijmettia Boiss. & Heldr. and F. Mercurii Orphanides, would have 
to be added. 

t A specimen from Curtis from Forster's Herbarium is in the National 
Herbarium. 



10 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Mochras, near Harlech, Merionethshire. It may be well to give a 
description drawn up partly from a specimen sent me by Mr. Lloyd 
many years ago, and partly from Mr. Lloyd's notes : — 

V. CuRTisii Forster f3 Pesneaui Rouy & Foucaud, Flore de 
France, iii. p. 50 (1896) ; V. Rothomntfrnsh Pesneau, Cat. Loire- 
Infer, ed. 2, non Des-f. ; V. Pesneaui Lloyd, Fl. Quest, ed. iii. p. 43 
(1876). Root slender. Stems numerous, covered with a fine 
pubescence. Lower leaves oval, the petiole being generally rather 
longer than the lamina, the intermediate oval or oval-lanceolate, 
the upper lanceolate, all crennlate-dentate ; described as being 
longer than the internodes, but in the specimens not always so. 
Stipules with somewhat arcuate, narrow, ciliate, lateral lobes. 
Peduncles several times longer than the leaves. Bracteoles de- 
scribed as being situated on or a very little below the curvature ; 
in the specimens examined they are always below the curvature. 
Sepals oblong-lanceolate, pointed, shorter than the corolla, finally 
somewhat of a violet colour, with appendages distinctly passed by 
the straight spur of the corolla. Upper petals violet, lateral also 
violet a little ascending, lower at first whitish then violet, yellow 
at the base with seven rays, covering the lower base of the lateral 
petals. Capsule rounded oval, very obtuse, a little shorter than 
the sepals. 

V. sabnlosa Boreau, an allied plant, differs in having longer 
narrower leaves. 

V. Pesneaui Lloyd is in the Index Kewensis reduced to V. 
Rothomar/ensis Desf., the Rouen violet. The former is a plant of 
the seashore, the latter is synonymous with V. hispida Lam. — a 
very hispid plant, first described from specimens obtained in the 
neighbourhood of Belboeuf, a short distance from Rouen. 

There is a very interesting plant allied to V. Pesneaui in the 
British Museum Herbarium, gathered by Messrs. Britten and 
Nicholson on the sand-hills at Southport in 1882. The flowers 
are for the most part violet, and the spur is singularly long and 
slender. It is apparently at present without a name. Mr. Arthur 
Bennett informs me he has had the same plant in his herbarium 
from coast sand-hills, Wallasey, Cheshire, collected by Mr. J. 
W. Burton. The Mullaghmore form, named by my father V. Sywei, 
also belongs to this group, there being numerous puzzling inter- 
mediates between the different named forms. 

V. cARPATicA Borbas in Koch's Synopsis, ed. iii. p. 222 (1892). 
Mr. J. A. Wheldon has recently sent for comparison specimens of a 
violet gathered on arable laud reclaimed from Cockerham peat 
moss, West Lancashire. The plant bore certain points of resem- 
blance to V. pohjckroma Kerner, but did not entirely agree with 
this species, and I submitted it to Prof. Borbas, of Budapest, an 
authority on this group of plants. He identifies it as his F. 
carpatica, a plant which is not uncommon in the Carpathian Alps, 
and which he states {op. cit.) = V. declmata x tricolor var. subalpina.^^ 

* It must, however, be remembered that V. decUnata W. & K. has not been 
recorded as British. 



SOME BRITISH VIOLETS 



11 



This plant belongs to the group of plants of which the repre- 
sentative is V. saxatilis Schmidt. These are plants generally of 
montane or submontane regions. The head-quarters of the group 
mav be said to be perhaps the Pyrenees, but F. lepida Jordan has 
been recorded for Britain, and in France has the following distri- 
bution,!.^. Morbihan, Charente-Inferieure, Ardennes, Meuse ; V. 
Froiwstii Boreau in France reaches Finistere and Morbihan ; and 
V. contempta Jordan, Morbihan, Manche, so that representatives of 
this group should be further searched for in this country. The 
members of this group are allied, on the one hand, to the group of 
V. Intea Huds., and on the other to that of V. tricolor (sensu 
stricto). With the former they agree in having rather showy 
flowers with petals always longer than the sepals, and being 
perennials and subperennials. In the shape of the stipules they 
agree rather with the latter, those organs beiuij pinnately partite ; 
while in V. lutea they are digitately multipartite. The following is 
a short description of V. carpatica, drawn up from specimens kindly 
sent by Prof. Borbas : — 

Root not seen. Stems elongate, internodes about 3 cm. long. 
Leaves ciliolate. Upper and middle leaves distinctly petiolate, 
lamina oblong or oblong-lanceolate (differing in this respect from 
V. pohjchroma Kerner, where the lamina is broader), grossly serrate- 
crenate, sharply contracting to petiole, about 2-2-5 cm. long., and 
less than 1 broad. Stipule ciliolate. pinnately divided, middle 
lobe of stipule entire, narrow oblong, larger than the lateral lobes, 
which are acute. Peduncles much longer than the leaves ; bracteoles 
sometimes just below the curvature, sometimes 1-5 cm. below. 
Sepals subacuminate, shorter than spur. Petals longer than sepals, 
violet-coloured, the lowest and lateral with radiating black lines, 
yellowish white in the throat, very similar to those of V. pohjchroma 
kerner. The longitudinal diameter of flower is rather over 2 cm. 
Capsule oblong, pointed a little shorter, or nearly as long as sepals. 

The plant submitted to Prof. Borbas from Cockerham moss 
agrees with the above in almost every particular except that the 
middle lobe of all but the upper stipules is somewhat crenate- 
serrate and rather longer. 

V. NANA Corbiere, Fl. Normand. p. 81 (1893). This is one of 
the most distinct of the forms of Viola coming under V. tricolor. 
It is not recognized in the London Catalogue, but is the plant named 
7. nemausensis Jord. by Trimen in this Journal for 1871, p. 99. 
T'. nemausensis is now by some authors considered synonymous 
with F. Kitaiheliana Roem. & Schultes. This plant would then 
be F. Kitaiheliana Roem. & Schultes var. y nana Rouy & Foucaud, 
Fl. de France, iii. p. 49 {V. tricolor L. var. tt nana J)C. Prod. i. 
p. 304).* 

The distribution of this variety in France is maritime sands 
in Calvados, Manche, Vendee, Charente-Inferieure, and Gironde. 
Trimen's specimens in the National Herbarium are from St. Aubyn's 

* V. tenella Poir. Diet. p. 644 was referred to this variety by De Candolle 
in the Frodromus. 



12 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



Bay, Jersey, and Mr. C. P. Andrews has recently presented to the 
Herbarium a good series from sand-hills near Rousse Towers, 
Guernsey. This is probably the plant referred to by Babington (in 
Manual, 8th ed. p. 44) as a small form from Scilly of V. arvensis 
Murr., very like V. parvula Tineo. 



NOTES ON AFEICAN CONVOLVULACE^. 
By a. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

The following notes have accumulated during the working out 
of several collections which have been recently presented to the 
Department of Botany from various parts of Tropical Africa. These 
include the plants of Mr. Scott Elliot's expedition to British East 
Africa and Mt. Ruwenzori ; Dr. Donaldson Smith's i^lants from 
Somaliland and the district around Lake Rudolph ; Lord Delamere's 
plants from British East Africa ; Dr. Rand's plants from Rhodesia; 
and small collections made in British East Africa by Mr. S. L. 
Hinde, and in the Congo Region by Mr. W. H. Migeod. 

In the course of this work the material in the National Her- 
barium has been to a great extent revised and rearranged, and has 
afforded material for various critical notes, as well as several new 
species, especially among the South African plants. In connection 
with the latter, it seemed well to compare the material from the 
Cape in the Trinity College, Dublin, Herbarium. This I have been 
able to do at leisure by the unfailing courtesy of Dr. Perceval 
Wright, who sent over the whole of his South African Convol- 
vulacese ; and I take this opportunity of recording my gratitude 
to him. 

In the limitation and arrangement of genera I have in the main 
followed Dr. Hans Hallier, to whom most of the recent work on 
the Order is due. In several instances I find myself at variance 
with him on the limitation of species, especially of those adopted in 
his later papers ; I do not think that any useful purpose is served 
by sinking a large number of readily distinguishable species to make 
a sort of species-aggregate, which is then broken up into subspecies, 
varieties, and forms. The relative value of characters is at present 
largely a matter of individual opinion ; and if a plant can be easily 
distinguished by characters which are generally considered to be of 
specific importance, it should, except in special cases, be regarded 
as a specific entity. It is thus more easy to manipulate, and 
becomes comparable with the average species. 

The specimens, except where otherwise stated, will be found in 
the National Herbarium. 

Ipomcea (§ Calycanthemum). 

I. gracilisepala sp. nov. Suffrutex caulibus elongatis pro- 
stratis ramosis subteretibus breviter hirsutulis ; foliis inter minores, 
hastatis cum basi triangulare et lobis basalibus margine lobulatis, 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^ 13 

apice obtusiusculis, facie superiore atrato-viride, glabra cum punc- 
tulis pellucidis notata, facie inferiore sparse pilosa cum nervo 
mediaiio venisque pinnatis valde asceudentibus prominentibus, 
breviter petiolatis ; floribus solitariis vel geminis, pedunculis obsol- 
etis, bracteolis lineari-lanceolatis acutis pilosis, pedicellis quam folia 
brevioribus, pubescentibus ; sepalis e basi lanceolata lineari-acumi- 
natis, ^qualibus, dorso marginibusque breviter pilosis ; corolla 
marcida, ut apparet tubuloso-campauulata et calycem baud super- 
ante, luteola (?), areis mesopetalis nervis binis conspicuis definitis ; 
staminibus subsequalibus, tubo inclusis, antlieris elliptico-sagittatis ; 
stigmate subgloboso ; capsula pilosa biloculare, cum valvis 4 dehis- 
ceute ; seminibus 4, breviter et appresse cinereo-pilosis. 

Described from a shoot broken below the apex, 60 cm. long, not 
exceeding 2 mm. in diameter. Leaves reaching 4 cm. long by barely 
1-5 cm. broad at the hastate base. Bracteoles 6-8 mm. long by 
1-1-5 mm. broad ; flowering pedicels 6-12 mm. long, increasing in 
the fruit to 1-7 to 2 cm. Sepals 1 cm. long, 2-2-5 mm. broad, in- 
creasing in the fruit to 1-5 cm. in length and 3 mm. broad in the 
lower part, the linear acuminate apex becoming incurved. Corolla 
apparently about equal to the calyx in length, with a tube 2 mm. in 
diameter. Filaments 2-5-3 mm. long, anthers a little over 1 mm. ; 
style 3-5 mm. long. Fruit globose, 7-8 mm. in diameter ; seeds 
4-4-5 mm. long, 1*75-2 mm. broad. 

A very distinct species of the section, perhaps nearest to I. his- 
pida E. & Sch., which it resembles in habit, but is distinguished by 
its hastate leaves, with triangular not cordate base, solitary or 
geminate stalked flowers, and long attenuated sepals. 

Hab. South Africa, Zeijher, 1846, no. 1224. 

I. Hindeana sp. nov. Suffrutex humilis ramo abbreviato (in 
specimine singulo) sparse hirsutulo ; foliis oblongo-hastatis, obtusis, 
basi subcordata, lobis rotundatis, facie superiore glabra hispidula, 
atrate viride, facie inferiore in venis venulisque sparse hirsutula, 
margine breviter hirsutulo, petiolis tenuibus, aequilongis vel quam 
lamina paullo brevioribus, hirsutulis; pedunculis tenuibus petiolos 
sequantibus vel excedentibus, glabrescentibus, floribus 2 mono- 
chasialibus ; bracteolis lanceolatis acutis, pedicello glabro subfili- 
forme pedunculum sub^quante ; sepalis lanceolatis acutis, dorso 
sparse hirsutulis ; corolla infundibuliforme calycem 2^-plo ex- 
cedente, albo (?), areis mesopetalis distinctis, sparsissime pilosulis, 
cum venis binis luridis conspicue limitatis. 

The specimen consists of a slender branch, 1 cm. long, spring- 
ing from a short stouter woody shoot, 1-5 mm. in diameter, and 
bearing a few crowded leaves at the apex, in the axil of each of 
which springs an inflorescence. Leaves to 2 cm. long by 1 cm. 
broad at the base ; basal lobes spreading, barely 3 mm. broad ; 
petioles 1-5-2 cm. long. Peduncle 2-3 cm. long, bracteoles -5 cm. 
long, pedicel of opened flower (terminal) equal to the peduncle 
(2 cm.). Sepals 1 cm. long by 2 mm. broad at the base. Corolla 
2-5 cm. long, about 2 cm. broad at the mouth. 

A very distinct species, the flowers resembling those of /. mom- 
bassana Hall, f., but the sepals show no trace of the basal auricles 



14 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



which characterise those of the latter species. The leaf and flower 
also recall I. obscura Chois., hut the hirsutulous narrow pointed 
sepals at once distinguish it. 

Hab. British East Africa. Machakos, S. L. Himie, 1896. 
I. cEAssiPEs Hook. In Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. 44-48, Dr. Hallier 
has elaborated this species, extending it to include a number of 
species previously described by himself and others. These are 
arranged under ten varieties, and one variety is further divided into 
subvarieties. I have not seen all the specimens cited in the above 
arrangement, but, after carefully working through the accessible 
material, I find myself somewhat at variance with the conclusions. 
For instance, if I. kewittioides Hall. f. becomes I. cmssipes var. 
heivittioides, why is not 1. fulvicaulis (Aniseia fulvictiulis Hoclist.), to 
which 1. heivittiuides shows far more resemblance than to typical 
I. crassipes, also included as a variety ? The same question arises 
with other species, e.g. /. asperifolia Hall. f. ; in fact, once start 
making these species-aggregates, and it is not easy to stop. Dr. 
Hallier, having gone so far, should certainly have gone farther. I 
have tried to arrange the forms in question in accordance with the 
more generally accepted views on the limitation of species, with the 
following results : — 

1. crassipes Hook. (/. calystegioides E. Meyer) comprises the 
South African forms included by Hallier under var. genuina, var. 
long epe dune ulata, var. ovata, and probably var. thunbergioides, from 
the description. These hang together fairly well, varying in the 
greater or less hairiness, breadth of leaf, length of peduncle, and 
moderate to large lanceolate to ovate bracteoles. Var. iikambensis 
Hall, f., which is I. ukambemis Vatke, in LinniBa, xliii. 510, from 
East Tropical Africa, must, I think, be regarded as a distinct species 
closely allied to /. crassipes, but differing in the markedly rounded 
apex of its oblong leaves. Var. Jiewittioides Hall. f. (/. kewittioides 
Hall f.), in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. 127 (Dec. 1893), /. andowjejise Rendle 
and Britten in Journ. Bot. 1894, 171, an Angolan plant, is, as I 
have already indicated, very distinct, and more nearly allied to 
/. fidvicaidis, both in form of leaf and in the dense several-flowered 
inflorescence. 

Hallier also suggests that another Angolan species (i. adumbrata 
Rendle and Britten in Journ. Bot. 1894, 173) may be synonymous 
with his var. ononoides from the Transvaal. I have seen no 
authenticated specimens of the variety, but should prefer to retain 
/. adumbrata as a distinct species of the affinity of /. crassipes, but 
separated by the shorter, proportionately broader, very obtuse 
leaves, and small slender almost linear bracteoles. 

1. Greenstockii Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1896, 35, is also indicated 
as a synonym of the species (p. 44) ; in fact, if we exclude the two 
Nyassaland specimens which are on p. 46 tentatively referred to 
var. akambensis, it remains as the sole typical representative. It is, 
however, a distinct form with dwarfed growth, short crowded 
ascending to suberect branches, and long narrow suberect leaves ; 
and, whether or no specifically distinct, is certainly far from typical. 

On this view of the species there are left two plants not yet 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACEiE 15 

accounted for, which, though doubtless inseparable from Dr. 
Hauler's aggregate, must, I think, in the more usual acceptance 
of the term, be regarded as distinct species ; their descriptions 
follow. 

I. sarmentacea, sp. nov. Sufirutex caulibus tenuibus lignosis 
e basi crassa lignosa brunnea eforuie prostratis, fiexuosis, teretibus, 
tortulis, ut sunt petioli, nervi in fohorum dorso prominentes, pedun- 
culi, bracteolc^, et sepala tenuiter hispiduhs ; foliis oblongo-ovatis, 
obtusis, basi breviter subcordatis vel retusis, facie superiore saturate 
viride, parciter appresse pilosa, facie inferiore veuulosa, petiolis 
brevibus ; pedunculis unifloris quam folia ^-i-brevioribus, bracteolis 
parvis, anguste lanceolatis acuminatis, a calyce paullo remotis • 
sepalis binis exterioribus ovatis basi vix ampliatis acutis, interiori- 
bus angustioribus ; corolla tubiiloso-infundibulare, calycem duplo 
excedente, ut apparet purpurea. 

Shoots 20-40 cm. long, a little over 1 mm. in maximum breadth. 
Leaves 2-5-5-5 cm. long by 1-8-2 cm. broad, the under surface a 
much lighter green than the upper, and chased with the darker and 
decreasmgly prominent midrib, ascending lateral veins, and often 
ladder-like cross unions. Petioles 5-7 mm. long. Peduncles (in- 
cluding pedicel) of open flowers 1-2-1-5 cm. long, bracteoles 
7-8 mm. long by 1-5-1 -75 mm. broad. Outer sepals 12 to barely 
15 mm. long by 5-6 mm. broad, the two innermost (1-5 cm. long) 
linear, tapering from a base scarcely exceeding 2 mm. broad, the 
intermediate lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long. Corolla nearly 8-5' cm. 
long, tube a little over 2 cm. long, and 5-6 mm. in diameter about 
the middle, spread of mouth of corolla 2-8 cm. 

The vegetative characters closely resemble, from the description 
{I.e. p. 49), those of Hallier's /. crassipes var. r/randifolia, but the 
peduncles are shorter (2-7 cm. in the variety), the small bracteoles 
narrow-lanceolate, not linear, and the sepals only about half as 
broad, those of var. grandifolia being described as "1 cm. lata" ; 
the corolla is also larger. The new species has the broad ovate 
outer sepals of /. crassipes, but in the form of leaf approaches 
I./u/vicaiilis ; the latter, however, differs in the density and colour 
of its tomentum, several-flowered heads, &c. 

Hab. Transvaal ; Pilgrim's Rest, Rev. \V. (J-reenstock, 1879. 

I. bellecomans, sp. nov. Suffrutex cinereo-pilosa, cauhbus 
robustis sublaxiter foliatis, ramosis, siccis stepe compressis, baud 
sohdis, ramis s«pe strictis, patentibus ; foliis parvis, breviter petio- 
latis ovatis obtusis basi interdum truncatis, utrinque densissime 
cmereo-pilosis ; pedunculis unifloris, folia excedentibus ; bracteolis 
a calyce remotis, ovatis ; sepalis externis maguis ovatis ad folia 
simihbus sed acutis, internis admodum angustioribus e basi lanceo- 
lata acuminatis ; corolla (marcida) ut apparet roseo-purpurea in- 
fundibuliforme et calycem plus duplo excedente, in areis mesopetalis 
pile sola. 

The longest shoot (broken at the base) in the specimens measures 
55 cm. m length, and 3 mm. in breadth ; the shoots, like the branches, 
are somewhat densely covered with soft rather short whitish hairs' 



16 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

the covering becoming denser, almost as on the leaves, in the young 
tops. Leaves generally about 1*5 cm. long by 6-7 mm. broad, 
rarely somewhat exceeding this ; on the shorter branches often 
much smaller, becoming oblong-ovate or lanceolate in shape. 
Peduncles 1-5-3 cm. long, bracteoles 8-10 mm. long by 2-5-3 mm. 
broad, pedicels generally 1 cm. long. Outer sepals 1-5 cm. long 
by -5 cm. broad just above the base, the innermost 3 mm. broad. 
Corolla apparently about 3 cm. long. 

Near I. crassipes, but distinguished by habit, the dense ash- 
coloured covering of hairs, the short bluntly ovate leaves, and the 
ovate outer sepals with a rounded and not enlarged base. Apparently 
near I. crassipes var. strigosa Hall, f., which I have not seen. 

Hab. South Africa, Zeyher, 1846, no. 1213. Transvaal, Apies 
river, Burke, no. 347. 

The following plants, not previously cited, are included in those 
South African forms which I regard as representing I. crassipes : — 

Var. GENUiNA Hall. f. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. 46. 

South Africa, Zeyher, 1846, nos. 1210, 1212. Natal, Macalis- 
berg, Burke, no. 353, "flowering in October" ; and no. 177 (in herb. 
Trin. Coll. Dublin). 

Var. LONGEPEDUNCULATA Hall. f. /. c. 45. 

Zululand, W. T. Gerrard, no. 1330. 

Var. ovATA Hall. f. I.e. 47. 

Natal, near Newcastle, alt. 4000 ft., J. M. Wood, no. 6242, 
''flowers rose-purple," Jan. 1897; and, without precise locality, 
J. Sanderson, 1860, no. 276 (in herb. Trin. Coll. Dublin). 

In the Catalogue of Welwitsc/i's African Plants, i. 732, two 
numbers are assigned to /. crassipes Hook. No. 6128 is /. adum- 
brata Rendle & Britten, and in my opinion is a distinct species. 
No. 6130 is a small dwarfed specimen bearing only young flower- 
buds, and may represent a new species allied to /. crassipes on the 
one hand, and I. blepharophylla on the other. It differs from 
the former in the subequal ovate sepals, the innermost only being 
conspicuously smaller, and the oblong leaves with rounded apex 
and base recalling those of typical I. blepharophylla, which is, 
however, distinguished by its narrowly ovate sepals. 

I. OBLONGATA E. Meycr var. hirsuta, var. nov. Foliis ovato- 
oblongis utrinque marginibusque dense et subferrugine hirsutis ; 
bracteolis sepalisque dorso hirsutis. 

Leaves generally between 3 and 4-5 cm. long by 1-2-1-5 cm. 
broad, covered with a somewhat dense covering of rather long 
appressed stiftish hairs with a tuberculate base. Similar but often 
paler hairs occur on the bracteoles and sepals. 

Hab. South Africa, Zeyher, 1846, no. 1208. Natal, Macalis- 
berg, Burke, no. 179 (in herb. Trin. Coll. DubUn). 

I. Lambtoniana, sp. nov. Suffrutex caulibus elongatis prostra- 
tis sparse hispidulis denique glabris; foliis cordato-ovatis, breviter 
petiolatis, apice abrupte acutiusculis, sparsissime pilosis, venulosis 
prsesertim in pagina inferiore ; pedunculis folia baud aequantibus, 
unifloris, basi articulatis, bracteolis anguste lineari-lanceolatis a 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACEiE 17 

calyce paullo remotis velut pedunculis hispidulis ; sepalis ovato- 
lanceolatis, acutis, dorso plus minus hispidulis; tribus interioribus, 
duos externos paullo excedentibus ; corolla infundibuliforme, pur- 
purea, calycem plus duplo excedente, areis mesopetalis valde limi- 
tatis, 3-5-nerviis. 

Described from a shoot cut off at the base, and 80 cm. long and 
2 mm. greatest diameter. Leaves reaching 5 cm. long by 3-7 cm. 
broad, becoming smaller as we ascend the shoot ; petioles to 1 cm. 
long; midrib and pinnae subpromiuent on the under leaf-surface, 
pinn^ 5-6 on each side, spreadiug-ascendent, the two lower arising 
just above the leaf-base ; the reticulate connecting veins conspicuous 
on both surfaces in the dried leaf, but especially on the under. 
Peduncles -5-3 cm. long, jointed at the base ; bracteoles 5-6 mm. 
long, less than 1 mm. broad, 2-4 mm. below the calyx. Sepals 
12-14 mm. long by about 4 mm. broad. Corolla 3-5 cm. long, 
tube 7 mm. in diameter (when dried and pressed), spreading to 
about 3-5 cm. at the mouth. 

Near /. oblongata E. Meyer, but distinguished by its cordate- 
ovate leaves and jointed peduncles. 

Hab. Natal, near Ladysmith, April, 1861, W. T. Gerrard, 
no. 622 ; *' a trailer with purple flowers." Specimen in herb. Trin. 
Coll. Dublin. 

I. sublucens, sp. nov. Suffrutex ramosus, cauhbus ramisque 
ut tota planta sublucenter et albide sericeo-pubescentibus, lignosis, 
flexuosis, siccis angulatis compressis, non solidis ; foliis oblongo vel 
elliptico-ovatis, apice rotundatis, basi subcordatis, petiolos triplo 
excedentibus, in facie superiore sparsius, in facie inferiore margini- 
busque densius, et in foUis junioribus lucenter, albide serfceo- 
pubesceutibus ; pedunculis uniflods, quam folia duplo brevioribus ; 
bracteolis ad_ calycem subapproximatis, lineari-spatulatis ; sepalis 
anguste ovatis, exterioribus latioribus acutis, interioribus acumi- 
natis; corolla purpurea quam calyx triplo longiore, ut apparet 
infundibuliforme, areis mesopetalis bene definitis, dorso albide- 
pilosis. 

The specimen consists of a branched shoot nearly 70 cm. long, 
which, especially in the younger parts, bears a short white some- 
what shining pubescence ; the angular internodes reach 2 mm. in 
diameter. Leaves 4-5-6-5 cm. long, 2-3*5 cm. or rarely 4 cm. 
broad ; petioles 2 cm. or less ; midrib broad, prominent on the 
back of the blade, lateral veins pinnate, subprominent, ascending, 
crowded at the base of the leaf ; the back and margin in the young 
still plicate leaves bears a dense shining silky pubescence, which 
on the back becomes less bright and dense in the older leaves. 
Peduncles 2-5-3 cm. long ; bracteoles about 1-5 cm. long, barely 
reaching 3 mm. in breadth below the apex. Sepals l'5-l-7 cm. 
long, 4 mm. or less in breadth, the inner narrower and sHghtly 
larger than the outer. Corolla much withered and eaten, 4-5 cm. long. 

A very distinct species, perhaps nearest I. oblongata E. Mey., 
but differing in its silky whitish covering, larger leaves, longer 
bracteoles, &c. 

Hab. Port Natal ; Miss Owen, in herb. Trin. Coll. Dublin. 

Journal OF Botany.— Vol. 39. [Jan. 1901.] o 



18 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

I. Randii, sp. nov. Snffrutex ferrugine hirsutiilus, caulibus 
validis prostratis, subtriangularibus ; foliis ovatis apice rotimdatis, 
basi truncatis, petiolatis, lamina petiolum quadruple excedeute, 
venis conspicuis ; floribus inter majores, solitariis, pedicellatis, 
pedicellis quam folia triplo brevioribus ; bracteolis sub calyce, an- 
guste lineari-lanceolatis ; sepalis acuminatis, exterioribus ovatis, 
interioribus lanceolatis, dorso dense ferrugine hirsutulis ; corolla 
pupurea, calycem plus duplo excedente, fasciis mesopetalis cum nervo 
distincto utrinque limitatis, dorso superne hirsutulis ; fructu .... 

The strong horizontal shoots are about 3 mm. broad, and bear, 
like the leaf-stalks and pedicels, numerous short stiffish reddish 
brown hairs, internodes 2-4 cm. long. Petioles 1*5-2 cm. long ; 
blades 7-8 cm. long by 4-4-5 cm. broad just above the base, bear- 
ing numerous short appressed pale brownish or ferruginous stiffish 
hairs on each side, and a dense marginal covering. Peduncles 
2-4 cm. long, bracteoles about 1-5 cm. long, 2-2-5 mm. broad, and, 
like the sepals, densely hirsutulous on the back ; sepals about 
2 cm. long, scarcely 5-7 mm. broad, diminishing in breadth from 
the outer to the inner; corolla (withered) scarcely 5-5 cm. long, 
presumably infundibuliform. 

Near 1. eloiujata E. Meyer, but distinguished by the much larger 
leaves, the ferruginous hair-covering, and the larger densely hairy 
sepals. 

Hah. Rhodesia; Bulawayo, Dr. Rand, no. 271, December, 1897. 

I. Robertsiana, sp. nov. Sufi'ratex hirsutulus caulibus prostratis; 
foliis parvis, lineari-lanceolatis, breviter petiolatis ; floribus soli- 
tariis, pedunculis folia ^quantibus, majoribus, bracteolis 2, anguste 
linearibus, ad calycem approximatis ; sepalis lanceolatis ad ovatis, 
acuminatis, hirsutulis, interioribus latioribus ; corolla puri)urea, 
late infundibuliforme glabra, fasciis mesopetalis cum nervis 3 dis- 
tinctis lineatis ; staminibus valde inclusis ; stigmate subgloboso ; 
fructu .... 

The long spreading shoots have a somewhat sparse covering of 
short stiffish white hairs, which are present also on the leaf -stalks, 
the margin and backs of the leaves, the flower-stalks, bracteoles, 
and the backs of the sepals ; the upper leaf-surfaces are glabrous, 
and the leaves are often folded on the midrib. Leaves on well- 
developed shoots about 3 cm. long by -5 cm. broad, with a petiole 
of 2-3 mm. Flower-peduncles 2-3-5 cm. long, bracteoles 1 cm. or 
a little less ; sepals scarcely 1*5 cm. long by 3-5-5 mm. broad ; 
expanded corolla 5 cm. long by nearly as broad. 

Near I. elongata E. Meyer, but distinguished at once by its 
linear-lanceolate shortly stalked leaves, and longer flower-stalks. 
Recalls I. argyreioides Chois. (I. cana E. Mey.) in habit and leaf- 
form, but the smaller leaves and general hairiness of the whole 
plant distinguish it. 

Hab. Transvaal ; Pilgrim's Rest, Rev. W. Greenstock, 1879. 

I. Scotellii Rendle, sp.nov. Suffrutex humilis hirsutulus cauli- 
bus tenuibus brevibus, e basi lignosa flexuose difl'usis ; foliis trun- 
cato-cordatis, apice rotundatis interdum subemarginatis, petiolos 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACEJE 19 

flexuosos excedentibus ; dichasiis axillaribus, sessilibus, bracteolis 
anguste Imeari-lanceolatis ; floribus inter mediocres, breviter pedi- 
cellatip ; sepalis dorso dense hirsutulis, externis ellipticis snbacutis, 
internis hneari-angustatis acutis ; corolla purpurea tubuloso-in- 
fundibuhforme, fasciis mesopetalis dorso hirsutulis, conspicue tri- 
nervns ; stigmate subgloboso ; fructu .... 

A small low-growing plant with a stout woody caudex, from 
which spring a number of slender, very flexuose shoots, 5-9 cm. 
long, and 1-5-2 mm. thick, which, like the petioles, are densely 
covered with short stiffish flexuosely-spreading yellowish-brown 
hairs. Leaf-stalks 1-5-2-2 cm. long by about 1 mm. broad, leaves 
2-5-3-5 cm. long, and generally as broad, densely covered on both 
surfaces, especially on the veins, with short stiffish appressed hairs 
springing from a small indurated base. Flower-buds bluntly coni- 
cal. Pedicels 4 mm. long or less, bracteoles -5 cm. long, hairy on 
the back like the leaves and the sepals, sepals 1 cm. long, the 
outer 4 mm., the inner less than 1 mm. broad. Corolla (withered) 
2-2 cm. long, tube barely 2 mm. broad above the base. 

Near I. asperifoHa Hall, f., but distinguished by having leaves 

about as broad as long, and by the elliptical not ovate outer sepals. 

Hab. Shire, Urundi, 4-5000 ft., G, F. Scott Elliot, 1893-4, 

no. 8373. ' 

I. cARDiosEPALA Hochst. cx Choisy in DC. Prodr. ix 429 
(Ipomcea catycina Clarke in Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 201, non Meissn. in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. vii. 260.) 

Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Br. Rand, no. 366, May, 1898. 

Section Dasygh^tia. 
ment '"'"''''iS^' IQ^^^""' '^''"^^"' ^" ^^^^^' ^^^^ pAanzengeogr. Docu- 

Suffrutex fulve hirsutus, caulibus ramisque valde diffusis, ro- 
bustis angulatis compressis non sohdis ; foliis ovatis ad oblon^o- 
ovatis rarms oblongis, obtusis mucronulatis, utrinque hirsutulis 
petiolos s^pe triplo excedentibus ; pedunculis folia sub^equantibus 
vel paullo brevioribus, 1-pluri-floris; floribus magnis brevissime 
pedicellatis, bracteohs hneari-subulatis, sicut sepaUs subsimilibus 
sed e basi latiore acuminatis, dorso hirsutulis; corolla carnea in- 
tundibuhforme calycem plus duplo superante, areis mesopetahs 
valde limitatis plurmerviis sparse pilosis. 

The strong hollow spreading shoots are conspicuously flattened 

«rffi T^ u ""^f .^'•'^' ^-^ ^^^- ^^ ^^^^^^1^' ^"^^ bear numerous 
stiffish yellowish hairs, a similar covering being found on the 
leaves and inflorescence as far as the exposed backs of the sepals 
Leaves 5-5-10 cm. long by generally between 2-5-4-5 cm. broad 
above the base, rarely narrower or broader ; petioles generallv 
between 1-5-4-5 cm. long. Peduncles 4-5-11 cm. long, bracteoles 
and sepals 1.5-2 cm. long, the former 1-5-2 mm., the latter to 
d mm. broad m the lower part pedicels 4 mm. or less. Corolla 
crimson, 5 to nearly 7 cm. long, 4 cm. broad at the mouth 

Very near /. pellita Hall. f. in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. 130 (1893), 

o2 



20 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

but the latter is distinguished by its cordate leaves, and the very 
dense lucent hair-covering of leaves and stem. 

I have written out this species as I cannot find that any de- 
scription has ever been published or reference made to it in any 
published account of the genus. It belongs to the section Dasy- 
chcBtia of Hallier's arrangement of his African species in Engler's 
Jahrbuch, xviii. 180. This section contains two species, the closely 
allied I. pellita and also I. linosepala Hall, f., collected by Welwitsch 
in Angola. HalHer refers to a third species, from Natal {Gerrard, 
no. 577), represented by incomplete specimens in the Vienna Her- 
barium, and having large ovate long-stalked leaves, remarkably 
long flower- stalks exceeding the leaves, and long linear bracts. 
I have little doubt that this is I. ovata E. Meyer, as in the Her- 
barium of Trinity College, Dublin, there is a specimen from the 
Nototi River, Natal, collected by W. T. Gerrard, consisting of a 
leaf and a fruit-bearing peduncle, both detached and broken at 
the base, which evidently belong to this species, and were so 
determined many years ago by Mr. J. G. Baker. 

My description is based on specimens of Drege labelled ^'Ipomcea 
ovata E. Mey.," and others which agree with it, and, like it, come 
from Natal — namely, a specimen from near Camperdown {Medley 
Wood, no. 4999), and a specimen in the Dublin Herbarium labelled 
" Atterchff, J. Sanderson, Esq.'' It is possible that a larger series 
of specimens may show a more or less complete transition to 
I. pellita Hall, f., but whether or no the two are conspecific, it 
is worth while to have some account of a name, which, though 
included in the Index Keivensis and represented in herbaria by 
authenticated specimens, has nevertheless been overlooked by 
monographers. 

Section Pharbitis. 

I. cREPiDiFORMis Hallicr f . in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 131 (1893). 
I. tanganyikeyisis Baker in Kew Bullet. 1895, 70. 

Var. MINOR, var. nov. Planta humiUs caulibus ascendentibus 
quam in specie minoribus, foliis parvis lineari-oblanceolatis, in- 
terdum lineari-oblougis. 

Shoots 17-28 cm. long, 1-5-2 mm. thick; lower leaves smaller 
than the upper, which reach a length, including the short petiole 
(2-3 mm.), of 3-5-4 cm. long by 5-6 mm. broad. Peduncles to 
7 cm. long, scarcely more than -5 mm. thick; flower-heads about 
12 mm. across, the conical buds densely covered with a whitish 
silky pubescence. Bracteoles and sepals 1 cm. long, the latter 
reaching 1-5 mm. in breadth above the base, densely hairy on the 
back and margins. Corolla not quite 2-5 cm. long by 2 mm. in 
diameter at the base, apparently purplish in colour, the mid-petaline 
areas bounded by two strong nerves, with three less conspicuous 
nerves between. 

Hab. British East Africa; Machakos, 5-6000 ft., G. F. Scott 
Elliot, no. 6391, 1893. 

I. INVOLUCRATA Bcauv. Fl. Owar. ii. 52, t. 89. 

Bhodesia; Salisbury, Dr, Rand, no. 561, July, 1898. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^ 21 

I. piLosA Sweet, Hort. Brit. 289 (1826). 

Rhodesia ; Balawayo, Dr. Rand, no. 555, June, 1898. 

I. KiLiMANDscHARi Dammer in Engl. Pflanz. Ost.-Afr. Th. C. 332 
(Aug. 1895). I. ficifolia Lindl. var. laxlfiora subvar. parvijlora 
Hall. f. in Engl. Jahrb. xxviii. 35 (1899). 

East Tropical Africa. " Higher slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro up 
to 10,000 ft. above Morang," Eev. W. E. Taylor, 1888, 

I cannot follow Hallier in uniting this species with the South 
African LJicifolia Lindl. It is, I think, as near /. pilosa Sweet 
(= /. dichroa Choisy), and distinguished from both by the ovate-cor- 
date leaves, with a flower smaller than that of I.Jicifolia, and larger 
than that of I. pilosa. 

I. Eenii, sp. nov. Suffrutex caulibus volubilibus albide- vel, in 
partibus junioribus, flavescente-pilosis ; foliis breviter petiolatis, 
palmato-3-partitis, segmentis lanceolatis vel anguste ellipticis 
acutis, lateralibus cum lobo basale instructis, pagina superiore, 
margine, et venis primariis secundisque paginae inferioris cum 
pilis flavescentibus indis, pagina inferiore venis exceptis breviter 
albo-tomentosa ; petiolis pedunculisque ut in caulibus pilosis ; 
pedunculis petiolos excedentibus 1- vel 2-floris ; bracteolis ad 
flores approximatis, ad sepala similibus ; sepalis lanceolatis, acumi- 
natis, dorso pilosis et margine ciliatis, tribus interioribus quam 
exteriora angustioribus ; corolla infundibuliforme calycem duplo su- 
perante, areis mesopetalis trinerviis ; genitalibus inchisis ; fructu . . . 

The specimen consists of about 35 cm. of the upper part of two 
intertwining shoots which reach 1-5 mm. in thickness, and have a 
covering of soft whitish or, especially in the younger parts, pale 
yellowish hairs. The median leaf-segment reaches 2-5 cm. long by 
8-10 mm. broad, the lateral are slightly smaller, and bear on 
the outside at the base a blunt roundish lobe 5-8 mm. long ; 
petioles barely reaching 2 cm. long. Peduncles 2-5 cm. long, 
bracteoles immediately beneath tlie flower and resembling the 
sepals, but slightly smaller, 8-9 mm. long by 2 mm. broad. Sepals 
11 mm. long, the outer 3 mm., the innermost 1*5 mm. broad. 
Corolla 2-5 cm. long, spread at mouth about 2*5 cm. ; diameter of 
tube 6 mm., length about 1 cm. Filaments 6*5-9 mm. long. 
Ovary conical, style 6 mm. long, stigmas subrotund. 

Apparently near I. Marpiusiana Schinz, which I have not seen, 
but which has much smaller bracteoles and flowers, longer-stalked 
leaves, &c. 

Hab. Dammara Land, T. G. Ken, 1879. 

I. Gerrardiana, sp. nov. Suffrutex volubilis, caulibus pra3- 
sertim junioribus flavide-pilosis ; foliis exacte cordatis, abrupte et 
breviter acuminatis, petiolum tenuem subaquantibus, in pagina su- 
periore breviter et appresse pilosis, et sparsius in veins venulisque 
paginae inferioris ; pedunculis folia aequantibus vel brevioribus, 
ut pedicellis depresso-pilosis, sEepe a dichasio 3-floro terminatis, 
interdum 5-floris ; bracteolis parvis linearibus caducis ; sepalis 
subsequalibus elliptico-lanceolatis ad lanceolatis, acutis, dorso prse- 
sertim basi marginibusque hirsutulis ; corolla alba, speciosa, ut 



22 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

apparet campanulate-infundibuliforme, calycem circa 3-duplo ex- 
cedente, areis mesopetalis cum venis conspicuis binis limitatis ; 
filamentis elongatis, valde inaequalibus ; seminibus nigris, glabris. 

Shoots hollow, subherbaceous, 2 mm. in diameter, somewhat 
hispidulously pilose, the yellowish hairs closely appressed on the 
younger parts. Leaves 2-5-5 cm. long, and as broad or slightly 
broader, thin and papery when dry, and, except the venation, 
glabrous on the lower face with subprominent spreading veins. 
Peduncles 2-5-6 cm. long ; pedicels 6-10 mm. long, lengthening 
in fruit to 1-5 cm. Sepals 8-10 mm. long, the outer 2-5 mm. 
broad, the innermost about 1*5 mm. Corolla about 3 cm. long. 
Stamens slender from a broad hairy base, 9-14 mm. long ; style 
2 cm. long; anthers sagittate, 2-5 mm. long. Fruit about 7 mm. 
in diameter. 

Closely allied to I. purjmrea Lam., but distinguished by its 
smaller white flowers. 

Hab. Natal ; Ladysmith, April, 1861, W. T, Gerrard, no. 620. 
** Probably an annual ; flowers small, white, showy." 
(To be continued.) 



ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF WEST LANCASHIRE. 
By J. A. Wheldon and Albert Wilson, F.L.S. 

Several brief excursions into West Lancashire during 1900 
have resulted in the discovery of a number of species apparently 
new to the vice-county, and also fresh stations for several plants 
which are interesting on account of their rarity in this district, or 
because they are extinct, or are threatened with extinction, in the 
only localities hitherto published. 

The number of new plants, some of them of considerable 
interest, in the following list affords proof that West Lancashire 
will amply repay further exploration, and it is obvious that any 
botanist deciding to assist in the investigation of its flora will not 
go unrewarded. 

Plants not mentioned in our previous list published in this 
Journal for 1900 (p. 40), or in any of the publications there 
quoted, are distinguished by an asterisk, and are presumed to 
be now first recorded for the vice-county. Casuals, aliens, and 
denizens have the obelisk sign prefixed, while colonists and natives 
are undistinguished. As we were unable always to make our 
botanical excursions in company, our individual contributions are 
indicated by the abbreviations Wh. and Wi. ; where no authority is 
quoted, the plant was found by the authors jointly. 

We are much indebted to the Rev. W. M. Rogers for looking 
over our Rubi ; through his kind assistance we have been able to 
considerably extend the known range of many of our forms ; but 
a list of these does not fall within the scope of this article as defined 
in the opening paragraph. We have also to specially thank Messrs. 



ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF WEST LANCASHIRE 23 

E. G. Baker, E. S. Marshall, H. & J. Groves, and F. Townsend, 
for naming critical species or confirming our own determinations. 
Without such help we should not have ventured to publish some 
of the species and varieties of the list. 

Ranunculus Baudotii Godr. This has proved to be frequent in 
suitable localities near the coast, from Preston to the Heysham 
Peninsula. 

\-''Sisy)iibnwn pannonicnm, Jacq. [S. Sinapistrum Crantz). Scattered 
abundantly over a considerable area near the Wyre Docks, Fleet- 
wood, and also more sparingly (one or two plants only) about 
Preston Docks, Wh. 

Y^'Lepidium Draba L. Near Morecambe, F, A. Lees (in Natuvdlist, 
1900, p. 246). Wyre Docks, Fleetwood, very fine, June, 1900, Wh. 

"^'Raphayins Rapkanistrum, L. Fields near Preesall and Knott 
End, Wh. Near Overton and Heysham, Wi. This is quite a rare 
plant here, and these are the only records we have for it. 

\Reseda lutea L. Plentiful with R. luteola near Preston Docks, 
July, 1900, Wh. By the Wyre, Ghurchtown, near Garstang, Wi. 

^Wiola tricolor var. Lloydii (Jord.). We have found this growing 
abundantly about the margins of Cockerham Moss, and in similar 
situations elsewhere. It seems to prefer newly cultivated soil that 
has been recently reclaimed from the moss tracts. Sometimes the 
upper petals are yellow, but they are usually more or less deeply 
suffused with purple, and examples may be found with both kinds 
of flowers on one plant. Mr. E. G. Baker, who kindly confirmed 
our naming of these plants as above, points out that Jordan's 
description embraces this yellow- flowered state. 

Y^'Saponaria officinalis var. puberula Wierzb. Plentiful on both 
banks of the river Lune near Caton, and descending to Halton, 
Aug. 1900, Wh. This agrees with the Hightown plant in every- 
thing but size, the former beiug somewhat taller. The congested 
heads of flowers have a markedly different facies from the ordinary 
plant, which grows by the Kibble to the east of Preston, &c. Mr. 
Groves informs us that this latter is never entirely glabrous. 

*Spergula arvensis L. var. vulgaris (Boenn.). Field near Pree- 
sall, Wh. 

'^'Hypericwa dubiuni Leers. Bank of the river Lune near Ark- 
holme, Aug. 1900, Wi. 

Radiola linoides Roth. Arkholme Moor, Aug. 1900, Wi. 
Geranium pusUluin L. Roadside between Caton and Halton, 
Aug. 1900, perhaps of only casual origni ? Wh. 

\^'lmpatiens Noli-tangere L. We are indebted to Dr. F. A. Lees for 
calling attention to this being a West Lancashire plant {Naturalist, 
Sept. 1900, p. 279). He says: "The Hindson station of Baker's 
Flora — Ghyll near Whittington Hall, south-west of Kirby Lonsdale 
— is in vice-county 60, West Lancaster. I saw plants in a Kendal 
garden brought thence." This locality, which is inserted in Baker's 
Flora of the Lake District as in Westmoreland, is about one mile 
south of the Westmoreland boundary. 
^'^'Medicago sativa L. Plentiful on waste ground by the railway in 



24 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Fleetwood Docks, and with it \-''Vicia villosa Both and an abundance 
of j'^'Melilotus indica AIL, Wh. 

Rubiis Jissns Lindl. By a ditch-side near Abbeystead, Wyres- 
dale, and near Bailey Hey, on the north side of Beacon Fell, Wi. — 
-'R. pHcatiis Weihe. Abundant on Cockerham Moss, June, 1900. — 
Pi. erijthrinus Genev. North bank of the river Wyre near Preesall, 
Wh. Hedges by the roadside. Lower Grizedale, near Garstang. — 
jR. nemoralis var. silumm Ley. By the roadside across Lancaster 
Moor, Aug. 1900, Wh. — U. Scheutzii Lindeb. Emmets, Over 
Wyresdale, Sept. 1900. — R. rusticanus Merc. A fine form of this 
is not uncommon in West Lancashire, distinguished by its white 
flowers, broad-based somewhat pyramidal panicle, and flat leaves. 
Mr. Eogers says of it : "A very marked form which I have oc- 
casionally met with, but have no separate name for." — *i?. Drejei'i 
G. Jensen. Koadside near the reservoir, Longridge, 24 July, 
1900, Wh. Mr. Rogers writes: "You may put this to R. Drejeri 
without hesitation, as a form going off type towards my var. 
Leyamis, but still under the type." — "jR. cinewsus Rogers. In one 
or two places near Preesall and Knott End, Aug. 1900, Wh. — 
R. infestus Weihe. Caton Moor, Sept. 1900. This never occurs 
in quantity with us. In all our recorded stations, both in West 
and South Lancashire, only single bushes were found. 

PotentiUa procwnhens Sibth. Lancaster Moor and near Quern- 
more Park, Wh. 

'-^'Agrimonia odorata Mill. Lane near Melling, Aug. 1900, Wi. 
Rosa canina L. var. dumalis (Bchst.). Emmetts, Over Wyres- 
dale, Sept. 1900. — Var. urbica (Leman). Bank of the Wyre, Pree- 
sall, Aug. 1900, Wh. " On the whole, perhaps nearest to this 
variety, but differing from it in the glandular petioles and bracts." 
W. M. Rogers. — "^'R. glauca Vill. Emmetts, Over Wyresdale, 
Sept. 1900. — R. arvensis Huds. A handsome form of this, occurring 
about Longridge and Grimsargh with the ordinary form, is stated 
by Mr. Rogers to be " a glandular form (or hybrid?) approaching 
Baker's var. gcdlicoides:' — R. mollis Sm. This is very frequent and 
variable in the hilly districts of West Lancashire. 

CratcBgus oxyacmithoides Thuill. Ascends to 1100 ft. on Mal- 
low dale Fell, where its large oval fruits tipped with the multiple 
styles are quite ripe, when those of var. juonogynia (Jacq.) at 
a similar elevation are still hard and just commencing to change 
colour. 

Peplis Portida L. Muddy pool near Overton, in the Heysham 
peninsula, Wi. As the plant has long been lost at the Ribbleton 
Moor station, it is pleasing to be able to restore this to our list of 
existing species. 

\'^Carum Carvi L. Alien in Outermoss Lane, Morecambe, F. A. 
Lees (NaUiralist, Aug. 1900, p. 246). 

■''Silaus flavescens Bernh. Frequent in pastures about Cantsfield, 
July, 1900, Wi. 

'''Caucalis nodosa Scop. Near Berwick and Carnforth, June, 
1900, WL 

jSenecio saracenicus L. Banks of the Lune near Melling, Wi. 



ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF WEST LANCASHIRE 25 

*Lactuca virosa L. Waste ground near the Wyre estuary, Fleet- 
wood, Wh. 

-''Trientalis europcca L. In great abundance on both sides of 
Black Clough, Marsha w Fell, Wyresdale, June, 1900. It was 
growing under thickets of deep bracken for a distance of about five 
hundred yards, at an elevation of from 750 to 1050 ft., Wi. This 
plant is singularly rare in the north of England on the west side of 
the Pennine range of hills. 

'''Centimculus minimus L. Arkholme Moor, alt. 300-860 ft., 
Aug. 1900, Wi. 

Erythraa littoralis Fr. Near Middleton, Wi. 

iSymphytum officinale L. Near Wennington, May, 1899, Wi. ; 
and south bank of the Lune, Caton, Wh. The pale-flowered form. 

-'' Lithospenmim arvense L. Between Silverdale and Carnforth, 
Oct. 1900, Wh. 

j-'Linaria viscida Moench. By the railway near Leek, Mr. L. 
Petty ; and in a similar situation at Longridge, Wh. On shingle by 
the Lune near Melling, Wi. 

'^LimoseUa aquatica L. By the margins of brackish pools on 
Overton Marsh, Aug. 1900, Wi. 

Veronica polita Fr. Garden weed at Caton, Wh. 
Euphrasia nemorosa H. Mart. Lancaster Moor, and many other 
localities. Our commonest form. — -'E. borealis Towns. Lower 
Salter, and roadside banks at the foot of Catshaw Greave. — 
-'E. curta Fr. var. glahrescens Wettst. Coast-banks near Little 
Bispham, July, 1900, Wh. Examples were sent to Mr. Townsend 
as E. curta, but he thought them better placed under this variety, 
and kindly sent us specimens, with which ours undoubtedly agree. 

"^ Scutellaria vmior Huds. Whittington Moor and Arkholme Moor, 
Aug. 1900, in the latter station growing with Radiola linoides and 
Centunculus minimus, Wi. 

\Lamium maculatum L. Knott End and Alston, Wh. — *L. am- 
plexicaule L. Near Lytham, Oct. 1900, Wh. 

\^^ Amaranthus Blitum L. On ballast in Preston Dockyard, and 
with it a few specimens of -^Ambrosia tri/lda, Wh. 

j^'Chenopodium JicifoUuni Sm. Ballast-heaps not far from the 
railway embankment outside the Wyre Docks, Fleetwood, with 
C. ruhrum L. and (7. murale L., Aug. 1900, Wh. 

"^^Atriplex Bahingtonii var. virescens Lange. Sparingly amongst 
shingle in the Lune and Wyre estuaries, Wh. 

■^^Suceda maritima Dum. var. procumbens Syme. Saltmarsh, to the 
south of Glasson Dock, Wh. 

Salix phylicifolia L. Near Marshaw, Wyresdale, Wi. 
Listera cordata Br. Moor above Gavell's Clough, head of 
Wyresdale, Wi. 

Juncus diffusus Hoppe {J. effusus X ylaucus). In some quantity 
between Grimsargh and Alston, Wh. 

'■'^Lemna polyrrhiza L. In the canal between Galgate and Glasson, 
Sept. 1900, Wh. 

*Eleocharis multicaulis Sm. Boggy ground in Thornley Quarry 
(limestone), near Chipping, July, 1900, Wi. 



26 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Scirpus fluitans L. Ditch near Bare Railway-station, Wi. The 
second locality only in the vice-county for this. — *5. maritimus L. 
var. compactus Koch {conglobatus S. Gray). Near the Wyre mouth, 
Wh. Ovangle, on the Lune estuary, Wi. 

Rhyncospora alba Vahl. Tarnbrook Fell, Wyresdale, amongst 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos and Sphagnum, medium. These three are also 
closely associated on Cockerham Moss. This latter locality is being 
so altered by drainage that the Rhyncospora is in danger of being 
lost ; therefore this additional station is a welcome discovery. 

^Carex vulpina L. var. nemorosa Kit. Near Little Bispham, and 
by the canal between Galgate and Glasson, Wh. Here the plant 
generally grows by open ditches and canal-sides, and we have it 
verified by Mr. Bennett from similar situations in Yorkshire. It 
cannot therefore be considered to be a mere shade form. 
Y^^Phalaris minor Retz. On ballast near Preston Docks, Wh. 
. Y^' Anthoxanthum Puellii Lee. & Lam. Between the rails on the 
railway through Preston Docks, Wh. 

Y^'Apera Spica-venti Beauv. A few plants with the last two in 
Preston Docks, Wh. 

*Agrostis palmtris Huds. var. coarctata (Hoffm.). Very fine on 
waste ground near the Wyre embankment, south-east of Fleetwood, 
Aug. 1900, Wh. 

"^'Aira caryophyilea L. Embankments on both sides of the Wyre 
near Preesall and Fleetwood, July, 1900. Wh. Overton, in the 
Heysham peninsula, Wi. 

Poa nemoralis L. Near Cautsfield and Melling, Wi. Wood by 
the Lune near Catou, Wh. — P. compressa L. Plentiful near 
Glasson, at the edges of the footpath near the railway-station, 
growing with Festuca rigida, Sept. 1900, Wh. In the only pre- 
viously known locality it was in small quantity, and is perhaps lost. 

'■'''Qlyceria plica ta Fr. Between Grimsargh and Alston, Wh. 
Y^Loliiim italicum Braun. Fleetwood Docks, Wh. Weed in fields 
near Winmarleigh. 

Hordeum mariniitn L. Near the Ferry, Fleetwood, Wh. A 
singularly rare grass in West and many parts of South Lancashire. 
Cryptogramme crispa R. Br. Some fine plants among millstone 
grit rocks on white side of Tarnbrook Fell, Wyresdale, Wi. 

*Chara vulgaris L. Stonyhurst and Crowshaw Reservoir. 
Quarry near Leagram Mill, Flora of Sto7iyhurst. Pools in Thorn- 
ley Quarry, Wi. — "^'C. vulgaris var. longibracteata Kuetz. Pond 
near Middle Lane, between Blackpool and St. Annes, Oct. 1900, 
Wh. — ^^C.fragilis Desv. Below Cowan Bridge, Leek, Mr. L. Petty. 
Near Leighton Beck, Silverdale, Wi. 

'^'Sitella. A handsome form, abundant in Grizedale Reservoir, 
which Messrs. Groves think may be either .V. jiexdis or N. opaca, 
has unfortunately not yet been found in fruit. 



27 



THE BOX IN BRITAIN.- 

In conversation last year with Graf zu Solms-Laubach he made 
the extremely interesting suggestion that the Box and Yew trees of 
Box Hill might probably be the remains of a native forest which 
originally clothed the North Downs. Among his arguments against 
their being the remains of a plantation, he urged the great un- 
likelihood of such a soil as that of Box Hill being planted at all, 
and the still greater improbability of any one hitting upon such a 
combination as Box and Yew for the purpose. He urged that, 
since it is probably the only thing of its kind iu the world, careful 
enquiry should be made into its history. 

I have been able to make a few superficial enquiries to the 
following effect, and it will be seen that the subject is worth 
pursuing by some one with leisure and other advantages, which I do 
not possess. Mr. Warner, of the Manuscripts Department, has been 
good enough to search Domesday Book for me, but without result. 
He makes the suggestion that the old Court Rolls of Dorking be 
searched — if they can be found. He further sent me the following 
extract from Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. i. p. 560 
(1804) :— 

" The Downs, which rise to a considerable height from the 
opposite bank of the Mole, are finely chequered with Yew and Box 
Trees of great antiquity, and which form a scene no less venerable 
than pleasing. Of the latter of these, in particular, there was 
formerly such abundance, that that part of the Downs which is 
contiguous to the stream, and within the precinct of this Maner, 
hath always been known by the name of Box Hill, from which 
also is an extensive prospect into the neighbouring counties. 
Various have been the disquisitions concerning the antiquity of 
this plantation ; which, however, for aught that has hitherto ap- 
peared to the contrary, may liave been coeval with the soil. Here 
was formerly also a Warren with its Lodge ; in a lease of which from 
Sir Matthew Brown to Thomas Constable, dated 25 August 1602, the 
Tenent covenants to use his best endeavours for preserving the Yew, 
Box, and all other trees growing thereupon ; as also to deliver, half- 
yearly, an account of what hath been sold, to whom and at what 
prices : and in an account rendered to Ambrose his son by his 
Guardian, of the rents and profits for one year to Michaelmas 
1608, the receipt for Box Trees cut down upon the Sheep Walk on 
the Hill, is 50 /. I have seen also an account of the Maner, taken 
in 1712, in which it is supposed that as much had been cut down 
within a few years before as amounted to 3,000 Z." 

I forwarded this extract to Graf zu Solms-Laubach, who replied 
in an interesting letter, of which the following is a translation : — 

*' Many thanks for your information, which I have received with 
the greatest interest. It is really sufficient in itself to clear up the 

* Becorders of coincidences may like to note that the two following com- 
munications, written independently of each other, reached us in the same week. 
— Ed. Jodbn. Bot. 



28 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

subject, although it would be interesting to find still older proofs. 
If, however, box-wood was sold in 1608 for £50, it is clear that the 
woods must have been in existence in 1500, at which time there can 
hardly have been intentional planting of woods in England [?] . 

"It is much to be desired that either you or some younger 
London botanist should write a paper on the woods of Dorking, with 
a map showing the extent and distribution of the existing tracts of 
box. For one does not know how far these stretch westwards. 
It would be a subject of the greatest interest in plant geography, 
and one which can only be worked out by an Englishman who can 
go over the ground on foot and talk to the various land-owners. 
The general distribution of the plant, which in Europe is, broadly 
speaking, Mediterranean, should be noticed. I no longer doubt 
that Biixus belongs to the pal^otropical forms, which have outlived 
the ice age, and have once more penetrated to the north-west — 
as Sticta aurata to Brittany ; HymenophyUum tunhridgense, Isoetes 
Hystrix to Guernsey ; Lagurus ovata, Erica vagans, &c. Of these 
the greater part of the Mediterranean things are of course not 
palaeotropical, but Sticta aurata and Hymenophijllum may be 
reckoned in the category. Such a work would be therefore well 
worth doing ; and I must say I am surprised that no one, knowing 
the wonderful woods of Box Hill and their flora, which must of 
course be taken into account, should have taken up the subject. 
It is evident that on your side of the Channel you hardly realize 
the botanical marvels you possess in your woods." 

Looking further quite casually into Manning and Bray's History, 
I could not lielp being struck by the occurrence of old personal 
names, such as Peter de Boxstead (p. 90), Nicholas Box well (p. 341), 
William Box (vol. ii. p. 584), and at vol. ii. p. 656, a " Mr. Boxall 
sold 500 Yews at three guineas each." These names are strictly 
local, and Boxley in Kent and Boxgrave in Sussex occur to me as 
place names, as I write. 

I find in Messrs. Hanbury and Marshall's Flora of Kent, p. 310, 
under Buxus — 

"Boxley — Ray in Camden 262. Mr. Reeves doubted its being 
truly indigenous here ; but the fact of the village being apparently 
named after it is a strong argument in favour of its genuine wild- 
ness. It seems to have been more plentiful there formerly than at 
the present time 

First Record 1695. "Buxus I find in the notes of my learned 
friend Mr. John Aubrey that at Boxley (in Kent) there be woods of 
them. — Ray I. c." 

In Mr. Druce's Flora of Berkshire, p. 439, I find the following 
note under Buxus : — 

" The last remains of Boxgrove in Sulham parish near Reading, 
whence the country probably took its name, were grubbed up about 
forty years ago." — Gough's Camden, 155, 1789. 

" Prof. C. C. Babington, Jan. 28, 1853, sent a note to the 
Phytologist Club as follows : — * Mr. Watson, in his Cyhele, ii. 
366, appears very much inclined to consider the Box-tree as not 
originally a native of England. The following extract from the 



THE BOX IN BRITAIN 29 

beginning of Asser's Life of Kinrf Alfred appears to show that it 
was plentiful in Berkshire 1000 years since. His words are — 
• Berrocscire ; quae paga taliter vocatur a * berroc ' sylva ubi 
buxus abundantissime nascitur.' See Phyt. iv. (1853), 873. 

*'In the edition of Camden published in 1610, it states that 
'Asterius Menevensis deriveth the name [of the county] from a 
certaine wood called Berroc, where grew good store of Box.' 

'' At Buckland there are some very fine specimens of the Box, 
and it is also well grown at Besilsleigh, Kingston Bagpuze, and at 
Park Place, where Mr. Stanton tells me it reproduces itself from 
seeds in the woods. In Mavor's Agr. Berks it is said to grow near 
Wallingford. 

" The Box is a possible native of Surrey at Boxhill, and on the 
Chilterns near Velvet Lawn and near Dunstable, Bucks. In the 
other bordering counties it is certainly introduced." 

It is certainly a prevalent idea, that as Buckinghamshire is the 
country of the Beech, so Berkshire is the country of the Berroc or 
Box, but I understand that there may be philological objections to 
it. If true, it would most strikingly confirm Graf zu Solms- 
Laubach's most ingenious idea. The matter is certainly worth 
prosecuting, and I print these few notes in the hope of inciting 
some young botanist to so attractive a task. 

G. R. M. Murray. 

It has hitherto been considered doubtful whether the Box is 
indigenous in Britain — some botanists excluding it, and others 
admitting it, more or less doubtfully, as a native. Watson does 
not mention it in Topogrccphical Botany, and in the Cybele calls it a 
"denizen." Syme [E^iglish Botany, ed. 3, viii. 94) considers that 
there is " some likelihood of its being truly native on Boxhill, 
Surrey," the only other counties in which there is " any possibility 
of its being a genuine native" being Kent, Bucks, and Gloucester. 
My attention being drawn to the subject by a reference in a letter 
from Sir J. D. Hooker as to its occurrence in the last-named 
county, I have endeavoured, with the kind assistance of Mr. G. H. 
Wollaston and Mr. J. W. White, to throw some light on the 
question. 

The Box wood to which Sir Joseph referred is situated between 
Wootton-under-Edge and Alderley, clothing the hill- side for a 
considerable distance ; although the shrub flourishes luxuriantly 
and produces abundance of seedlings in the wood itself, it does not 
appear to have extended into the neighbouring wooded hill-sides 
and valleys. There is nothing here to indicate whether it is native 
or not, except the presence of some larches, which, being introduced 
trees, would perhaps suggest a similar origin for the Box. It is 
shown as a wood both in the one-inch and six-inch Ordnance maps, 
the fact that it consists of Box not being in any way indicated ; 
but about three miles away, nearly due east, in a valley which 
extends in a north-easterly direction from Alderley, there is marked 
the name of Boxwell, suggesting that some traces of the Box might 
be found there. On visiting the locality this proved to be the case; 



80 THE JOURNAL OK BOTANY 

another large wood, consisting exclusively of Box, occupies a similar 
position to that at Wootton, and extends for half a mile or more on 
the steep side of the valley. It was afterwards found that this is 
marked as "The Box Wood" in an old Ordnance map pubUshed 
about fifty years ago, as well as in the six-inch map ; but this is 
omitted in the recent one-inch map, in which only the names 
" Boxwell Court " and " Boxwell Farm " are to be found. 

The name thus being evidently connected with the wood, a 
search was made to discover, if possible, how long it had been in 
use. The following interesting account was found in the History 
of the CounUi of Gloucester, by the Rev. Thomas Rudge, pubUshed 
at Gloucester in the year 1803 :—" Boxwell, anciently Boxewelle. 
The name is derived from a box wood of about sixteen acres, within 
a warren of forty acres, from which rises a plentiful spring. This 
is the most considerable wood of the kind in England, excepting 
Boxhill in Surrey, and from the name, which has now been on record 
for more than seven centuries, it must have been of long standing."* 

This appears to leave no doubt that the Box is indigenous in 
this valley, and there can therefore be no reason why it should not 
also be a native of the woods at Wootton and Boxhill. Sir J. D. 
Hooker, to whom I have communicated the result of this investi- 
gation, tells me that it leaves no doubt in his mind that the plant 
is truly wild in these localities, and adds that Bentham, whose know- 
ledge of the conditions under which British plants are found on the 
Continent was profound, regarded it as a native. 

Cedric Bucknall. 



ROBERT SMITH 
(1873-1900). 



[A promising career has been cut short by the early death of 
Robert Smith, which took place at Edinburgh on the 28th of August 
last, from appendicitis, after an illness of only one day's duration. 
He was born in Dundee on Dec. 11, 1873, and had been intended 
for a business career, but the attractions of science proved too strong 
for this, and he became an assistant under Prof. D'Arcy Thompson 
in the zoological museum of the College, where he had previously 
been a student, and where he took his B. Sc. degree in 1896. Soon 
after this, he became Demonstrator in Botany under Prof. Patrick 
Geddes, and from that time devoted himself to plants. Prof. 
Thompson contributed a biography of Smith to College Echoes 
(the students' Journal for the University) for Nov. 9th, and this, 
with his permission, we reproduce, feeling confident that many of 
our readers will like to know more of so interesting a personaUty. 

For the accompanying portrait we are indebted to the Scottish 
Geographical Society, in whose Transactions it appeared.] 

• [««At Boxwel in Coteswold in Gloucestershire, and at Boxley in Kent 
there be Woods of them. Mr. Aubry's Notes.'' Baii Syn. ii. 310 (1696). — Ed. 

JOURN. BOT.] 



ROBERT SMITH 3l 

From early boyhood Smith had been a diligent student of 
plants ; he was a competent botanist before ever he came to 
College. He had a natural instinct for the study of form and 
the discrimination of species, an unbounded love of the plants 
themselves, a knowledge surprisingly wide and intimate of the 
mosses and higher plants of the whole British flora. Until four 
years ago, some modest excursions in the Scotch Highlands, a 
summer's journey to Norway with other students of my own, and 
a visit to the West of Ireland also in my company, had been the 
measure of his opportunities for outdoor study. In the winter of 
1896-7, as Research Scholar of the Franco-Scottish Society, he 
had the good fortune to study under Professor Charles Flahault at 




the University of Montpellier. Under a distinguished and inspiring 
teacher, in a region vastly rich and attractive to the eye of a 
northern student, and stimulated by example and competition in 
an active and cosmopolitan school. Smith worked with sedulous 
energy, and came home with his mind prepared and determined for 
the work that afterwards occupied him to the end. This chosen 
task was to be the Botanical Survey of his own country. 

For some years past, on the Continent and in America, a certain 
school of botanists have occupied themselves with the study of plant- 
distribution in a more far-reaching manner than has been customary 
with us. Instead of merely noting the local occurrence of isolated 
plants, species by species, it is the business of these students, with 
more comprehensive insight, to discriminate certain assemblages of 
plants that for one reason or another are linked together in definite 
association. The beech and the oak, the larch and the pine, the 



82 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

bent upon the links, the heather on the moor, have each associated 
with them a multitude of tributary and interdependent species ; and 
ere we can understand these complex social aggregates, and ere we 
beo-in to account for their nature and their distribution, we are 
involved in a network of problems — biological, meteorological, 
chemical, and geological. In the study of these difficult and 
very interesting problems Professor Flahault is a leader and 
pioneer. With him Smith made long journeys over the South 
of France, from the Pyrenees to the Italian Riviera, a country 
most admirably adapted to illustrate the methods of research 
involved, by reason of the great diversity and the clear lines of 
demarcation of the many distinct areas of vegetation contained 
within it. 

On his return home Smith began at once, not ignorant of and 
not deterred by the magnitude of the task, to map out the botanical 
topography of Scotland. Single-handed and with tireless industry 
he began and continued this task, travelling on foot incredible 
distances, and recording faithfully an immense multitude of details. 
Of much of this work the record is unfinished ; some of it is labour 
that has been spent in vain. But happily Smith lived to bring part 
of it to completion and to see its first-fruits harvested. 

His first publication of importance was a paper on " Plant 
Associations of the Tay Basin," read before the Perthshire Society 
of Natural Science, [the first part of which was] pubhshed in the 
Proceedings of that Society in 1898 [and the second and concluding 
portion, accompanied by an excellent map, in the same Proceedings 
for 1899-1900, pp. 69-87] . Short though it was, this paper attracted 
the attention of so high an authority as Professor Engler of Berlin, 
who makes special reference to it in a recent Memoir on the History 
of Plant Geography as being the first attempt to apply to the vege- 
tation of Britain the modern methods of topographical research. In 
the beginning of 1899 Smith published in Natural Science a paper 
" On the Study of Plant Associations," a clear and concise exposition 
of the literary history of the subject ; and in May of this year he 
was invited to give a lecture before the Royal Scottish Geographical 
Society in Edinburgh on his Botanical Survey of Scotland. He 
told me, with pleasure and gratitude, of the warm praise he received 
on this occasion from Sir John Murray, and, in particular, of the 
cordial and generous encouragement given him by Mr. Benjamin 
Peach, of the Geological Survey. 

The publication of certain of his maps was undertaken by the 
Society, and two of these, representing the districts of Midlothian 
and of Northern Perthshire, appeared, accompanied by descriptive 
articles, in the July and August numbers of the Scottish Geographical 
Magazine. These maps are an enduring monument to his talent 
and his devotion 

As a teacher, no less than as a student. Smith was painstaking 
and successful. His lectures were models of careful preparation. 
With a high view of his duty towards his students, he never spared 
himself in their service. He had a faculty of exposition such as 
does not always accompany even the soundest knowledge of a 



A DISEASE IN TURNIPS CAUSED BY BACTERIA 3S 

subject, and his unaffected enthusiasm for his science could not 
fail to arouse his students' sympathy and interest. 

Looking back now, where but a little while ago we thought only 
of looking forward, it behoves us not to estimate the measure of 
his work without remembering the difficulties against which he had 
to contend, and towards all of which he bore himself cheerfully and 
manfully. And writing these few lines as a tribute to his memory, 
my thoughts dwell not more upon his scientific work than on his 
personal character, for it was beyond common measure pure and 
lovable. 

D. W. T. 



A DISEASE IN TURNIPS CAUSED BY BACTERIA. 

By W. Carruthers, F.R.S., and A. Lorrain Smith. 

[This memoir was prepared for the Royal Agricultural Society. 
By permission of the Society it appears here contemporaneously 
with its publication in the Society's Journal, but with a few technical 
additions for scientific readers. — Ed.] 

For some years we have been acquainted with an injury to 
turnips, the cause of which we were unable to discover. The 
injured turnips had the crown of young leaves destroyed, and a 
cavity scooped out of the turnip occupied the top immediately 
below where the leaves had grown. The cavity was empty; its 
wall was of a dark brown colour, and the tissues were protected 
by the development of a corky layer. There was no indication of 
injury in the turnip beyond the wall of the empty cavity. The 
first specimen was received seven years ago, and some years later 
other specimens were obtained ; they threw no hght on the cause 
of the injury. It seemed probable that the injury was due to 
bacteria, but we did not discover any evidence of their presence. 

At the beginning of August, 1900, a number of badly diseased 
swede turnips were sent from the valley of the Nibb, in Yorkshire, 
in order that the nature and cause of the injury might be deter- 
mined. In the worst cases the young leaves had disappeared from 
the crown or were rotting away; the outer older leaves also 
showed signs of wilting, their stalks were decaying at the base, and 
a number of lateral buds were shooting up from the axils of these 
older leaves. As a rule, the outer skin of the turnip was intact, 
In some instances the top was as if scooped out, and the depression 
hned by a whitish slimy substance. In others the injury had 
further penetrated through the turnip to the base, and the whole 
centre was a mass of rotten pulp. Even in the plants less seriously 
affected, it was evident from the condition of the younger leaves 
that they were being cut off from their connection with the root. 
Some of the turnips had wounds at the side, through which the 
bacteria gained access, forming starting-points of disease in addition 
to the injury at the top of the bulb. In the specimen figured an 
older cavity was found agreeing with the injury already observed. 
Journal of Botany.— Vol. 39. [Jan. 1901.] d 



34 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



From the base of this cavity a later attack was developed. This, 
with other characters, clearly established that it was the mysterious 
disease we were dealing with. Some of the turnips were suffering 
from Finger and Toe, which was of course quite distinct from the 
rottenness that was destroying the turnips. 

A careful microscopic examination of leaf and bulb was made, 
and it was found that the injury was due to bacteria, which had 
gained access to the living plants between the bases of the young 
leaves or through the broken surface of the bulb. They were ad- 
vancing into the substance of the turnip from cell to cell, destroying 
the tissues as they went. Sections were taken from the diseased 
parts and examined, and myriads of the bacteria were seen in the 
cells. They were motile, cylindrical rods, exceedingly minute, the 




Turnip attacked by bacteria. — a, external aspect, showing the crown killed 
and new growth from the axils of the first leaves, which had naturally fallen 
off; B, section of the same turnip, showing the crown of the turnip 
destroyed, the hollow cavity produced by the first stage of the disease, and 
the further injury by the bacteria in the centre of the turnip. Both half 
natural size. 

longest about seven times as long as they were broad ; they measure 
•65 fx in breadth, and from 1- to 4" /x in length. The larger rods 
multiplied by division into two and four, and thus they varied greatly 
in length, though not in width. 

Some of the slimy substance from the cavity at the top of the 
turnip was stained and examined, and was found to be crowded with 
the same bacteria. Cultures were tried in a mixture of gelatine and 
turnip decoction by introducing into the mixture the bacteria taken 
from different parts of the diseased swedes, the medium and in- 
struments being carefully sterilized ; and little colonies of very active 



A DISEASE IN TURNIPS CAUSED BY BACTERIA 35 

rods were formed in a day or two, which liquified the gelatine, 
Unfortunately, there was no opportunity at the time of infecting 
healthy swedes from these colonies, and of following the entire life 
history of the bacteria. 

As a careful field examination seemed desirable, a visit was 

made to the injured crops in Yorkshire. The disease had advanced 

very rapidly ; fields of swedes that appeared healthy and thriving a 

(V fortnight previously were now completely 

? ^ ^ ^ ^ blighted. In the worst field, twenty-five 

// J^ acres in extent, not one turnip in five 

6^ seemed to have escaped. Yellow turnips 

^ '^^ ^ had suffered very little, though here and 

\\, ^0 0^ here a few plants growing on the head 

ff ^ rows of the fields containing diseased 

f /J swedes were attacked; cabbages growing 

'^^ near were also diseased, but a strip of 

X 2000. kohl-rabi right through the centre of a 

Bacteria which cause the dis- severely diseased crop was quite healthy. 

ease in the turnip. Mag- The kohl-rabi appears so far to be im- 

nified 2000 diameters. mune, and cabbages and yellow turnips 

are probably safe when not in contact with a diseased crop. The 

mangolds growing in the same field were not in the least attacked. 

In all cases the bacteria had lodged in the central bud, by destroying 

the tissues of the turnip below, so that the young leaves were cut 

off from their connection with the root, and they speedily withered 

and died. Where circumstances favoured the development of the 

bacteria, they increased rapidly, and the whole interior of the root 

from the crown downwards was soon destroyed. 

For the information of farmers, who in some districts were 
alarmed at the serious injury to their crops, a letter was pubHshed 
four months ago in the Times and other daily papers, and in the 
Agricultural Gazette, giving a general account of the nature of the 
disease, and suggesting steps to be taken to prevent its spreading. 

The disease worked great havoc in Yorkshire, and the same 
injury was reported from two localities at a distance from each 
other in Dumfriesshire. At a later period the progress of the 
disease was to a large extent arrested. This no doubt arose from 
the destruction of so many leaves, which left the rows somewhat 
bare. Sunlight and air gained free access to the bulbs, and the 
bacteria were dried up or destroyed. 

Many investigators in recent years have experimented on the 
influence of sunlight on bacteria, and have proved that in most 
cases they develop only in darkness. In 1877 and 1878 Downes 
and Blunt found that, while their growth was retarded by the 
influence of diffused white daylight, it was completely stopped by 
sunshine. Another observer found that the destruction of germs 
was more rapid and complete when there was also a free admittance 
of air, though one of the most recent workers in this field. Professor 
Marshall Ward, has shown that the sun's rays alone are sufficient 
to kill them. He confirmed this view by exposing to the light 
plate cultures of the spores of the anthrax bacteria covered with 

D 2 



S6 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

pieces of cardboard, out of whicli figures and letters had been cut, 
thus allowing the direct influence of the san to act on the well- 
defined areas cut out of the card. The spores were inactive on the 
exposed patches, the gelatine remaining clear, while the darkened 
parts underneath the cardboard were opaque with the crowded 
colonies of bacteria that had developed from the spores. 

The same influence appears to have been equally powerful in 
the turnip-field, for in many cases the only trace of injury left was 
a clean walled cavity at the top of the turnip, from which no 
information could be gathered as to its origin. 

It is very doubtful whether any true reparation of the injury 
followed the growth in the lateral buds. These young growths 
could not arrest the progress of the bacteria in the turnip, much 
less could they repair the injury that had been done. ■' 



SHORT notp:s. 

Aublet's 'Histoire des Plantes.' — Dr. Otto Kuntze, during his 
recent visit to this country, called my attention to a peculiarity in 
the Kew copy of Aublet's Histoire des Plantes de la Giiiane franqaise: 
namely, at p. 440 there is a genus Tatnonea established, completed 
on the following page with the specific name (/uianensis. This had 
been duly registered in the Index Kcwensis, but he had not been 
able to verify the citation in any copy on the continent. On further 
examination it was seen that the Tamonea on p. 440 was not indexed 
by Aublet, but Fothergilla adjiiirabilis was given instead. I have 
since then referred to such copies of the book as I could find in 
London, with this result, that the Banksian copy at the Natural 
History Museum is like the Kew copy, while the copy in the 
Linnean Society's Library, and two copies in the British Museum 
at Bloomsbury, are like those described by Dr. Kuntze — that is, 
at the place mentioned the name is changed to Fothergilla ad- 
mirahilis, and on the plate (t. 175) to mirabilis. I can only suggest 
that the author found out when indexing that he had printed two 
genera Tamonea (pp. 440, 659), and consequently cancelled the two 
leaves, pp. 339-442 ; the issue of the uncorrected copies must have 
been accidental. It would be interesting to know if any other copies 
are like those at Kew, and the Botanical Department, British 
Museum. — B. Daydon Jackson. 

New British Hepatice. — During a fortnight's visit in June, 
1900, to the Ben Lawers district of Perthshire, I added the following 
hepatics to our flora: — Cephalozia pleniceps (Aust.) c. per., growing 



* Some days after this paper was in type for the Koyal Agricultural 
Society's Journal, Prof. Potter read to the Royal Society a paper giving the 
results of investigations he had been making on this turnip disease. By his 
kindness we received a proof of his paper the day before it was read. He 
named the bacterium Facudomonas destructans. 



SHORT NOTES 



87 



with C. hicuspidata, Craig- an-Lochan, alt. 1800 ft., on a rocky 
bank close to the stream which flows into Allt a'Mhoirneas near its 
exit from Lochan na Larige. Mr. Pearson has confirmed the 
name. — Jungermania atrovirens (Schleich.) Dum. c. per., Craig-an- 
Lochan, alt. c. 2100 ft., on wet rocks by the side of the stream 
which comes out of Lochan Tarbh Uisge, and between the landslip 
and the rock cleft. This plant certainly comes near small J. ripdria, 
the only difference which I can see being that the perianth is 
oblong-ovate instead of pyriform as in the latter. I have expected 
for some time that this plant occm-red in Britain, and have asked 
correspondents at various times to send rae specimens of small 
riparia in the hope of finding it, but the Perthshire plant is the 
only one which I have seen. I think, however, that it will be 
found in other places, especially in limestone districts, and not 
necessarily on hills. Herr Kaalaas has confirmed the name of the 
Craig-an-Lochan plant. — J. quadriloha Lindb. in Arn.&Lindb.Musc, 
Asias bor. p. 55 (1888), Craig ChaiUeach, alt. 2800 ft., in some 
quantity on rock ledges on the east side of the hill going from the 
end of the fence to the summit. Herr Kaalaas writes of this plant : 
** Your specimens of J. quadriloha are rather small, and the leaves 
sometimes trifid instead of quadrifid ; but in the form of the lobes 
and the sinus they exactly resemble our Norwegian plant." This 
is a well-marked species, but might be overlooked for J. Flcerkii or 
J. lycopodioides. It has hitherto only been found in the North of 
Europe. — J. polita Nees, on wet ground in two localities in the 
western ravine of Ben Lawers, on the east side of the main stream, 
between 2700 ft. and 3300 ft. This is a very interesting addition 
to our flora, and is a well-marked species. The name has been 
confirmed by Messrs. Pearson and Slater and Herr Kaalaas. — Nardia 
suhelliptica Lindb. ex Kaalaas, De Dist. Hep. inNorveg.p. 386(1893), 
c. per., Craig-an-Lochan, alt. c. 2000 ft., close to the locality for 
J. atrovirens, and near the stream. Herr Kaalaas writes of my 
plant: " The specimens of N. suhelliptica are a little larger than 
the plants I have seen from Norway, but in all essential characters 
they agree very well with the original specimens of Lindberg, 
especially in the form and structure of the perianth." Although I 
was able to identify it from the description alone, I cannot yet see 
how it differs further from iV. ohovata than the alpine form J. 
spharocarpa, the J. lurida Dum., differs from that species. I do 
not, however, understand the difference in the perianth which Herr 
Kaalaas apparently considers of much consequence ; in his De Dist. 
Hep. in Norveg., it is given as species distinctissima. I do not think 
that the colour of its rootlets is a character of much consequence, 
as I observed that ordinary N. ohovata on Ben Lawers had fre- 
quently more white rootlets than the low ground plant has, and 
the rootlets of the Perthshire N. suhelliptica have occasionally a 
faint reddish tinge. — Symers M. Macvicar. 

ToRTULA CERNUA (Huob.) Liudb. IN Britain. — Mr. George 
Webster, of York, is to be congratulated on being the discoverer of 
this interesting and latest addition to the British Moss Flora. 



88 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

It was found in the last week of September of this year, in the 
magnesian limestone district, near Aberford, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire ; and, now that attention is called to it, there is but little 
doubt that it may be found in other parts of the kingdom where 
similar strata are to be found, it being chiefly a limestone-loving 
plant, of moist situations, but of arctic type. It is a very distinct 
species, and not likely to be confounded with any other species of 
the genus ; distinguished by its short stumpy capsule with scarcely, 
if at all, twisted peristome, also its oblong-lanceolate tapering leaf 
with reddish nerve, and large lax cells. The specimens have been 
very carefully examined, not only by Mr. Webster and myself, but 
also by Mr. M. B. Slater, of Malton, and by Dr. Braithwaite, as 
well as compared with an authentic example gathered by Dr. 
Schimper in the Salzburg Alps, in the herbarium of the late 
Dr. Spruce. It is the Besmatodon cernuus of Bruch & Schimper, 
Bryol. Eur. ii. t. 134, and of Schimper's Synops. ed. ii. p. 186, and 
Trichostomum indinatum of Mueller's Synopsis, i. p. 593. — C. P. 

HOBKIRK. 

Mosses of North-east Yorkshire, " V.-C. 62" (Jouru. Bot. 
1900, 484-9).— "V.-C. 62," as defined by Watson, is bounded 
on the south by the political boundary between the North and 
East Ridings, and on the west by the Rivers Ouse and Wiskett. 
In Mr. Ingliam's list several localities are given which are in 
v.-c. 64 (Mid-west Yorks) — e.g. Askham Bog, Appleton Roebuck, 
Thorp Arch, Boston Spa, and Bolton Percy ; while Leckby Carr, 
which is also mentioned, is in v.-c. 65 (North-west Yorks). The 
district has been closely worked by such excellent bryologists as 
Spruce, Slater, R. Barnes, and G. Webster, and records of their 
work are easy of access. Mr. Ingham's list would have been 
valuable had he made it as far as possible exhaustive by em- 
bodying in it all these earlier records. As it is, its utility is 
not very evident ; in fact, it may even be misleading. The second 
edition of Mr. J. G. Baker's yorth Yorkshire, now in course of 
publication, will contain a list of the mosses and hepatics of the 
North Riding, with localities revised and brought up to the present 
year by Mr. Matthew B. Slater. — Llewellyn J. Cocks. 

AcoRus IN Cheshire. — A specimen from Richardson (not that 
mentioned by Mr. Spencer Moore in Journ. Bot. 1899, 76) in Petiver's 
Hort. Sice. Angl. (Herb. Sloane, 152, fol. 177) gives an earlier date 
for his finding of Acorns than is given in the Flora of Cheshire. 
Richardson's MS. note runs: — *' This was gathered in an old moate 
at Holford, in Cheshire, where it grows in abundance ; and alsoe in 
some marle-pits called Holford pitts, about six miles from North- 
wich. I could have gathered 1100 in these places about the 
beginning of July 1711. R. Richardson." — James Britten. 



39 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Catalogue of the African Plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Weltvitsch in 
1853-61. Part iii.— Dipsacefe to Scrophulariacere (1899). 
Part IV. — Lentibulariacese to Ceratopbyllefe (1900). By 
William Philip Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. British Museum 
(Natural History) : Dulau & Co. 

Mr. Hiern is to be congratulated on the completion of bis part 
—the Dicotyledons— of the Welwitsch Catalogue. The Mono- 
cotyledons were published by Dr. Rendle in 1899— we regret that 
Dr. Schinz's other occupations have prevented him from preparing 
the notice of that part of the work which he had promised to con- 
tribute to these pages ; and the volume devoted to Cryptogams is 
passing through the press. In the course of next year, therefore, 
we may expect the completion of this lasting memorial to one of 
Africa's most eminent botanical explorers. 

In our notice of the first part of the Catalogue (Jonrn. Bot. 
1897, 23-26) we indicated sufficiently the plan of the work, and paid 
tribute to the care and labour which Mr. Hiern had bestowed upon 
it. Although many of Welwitsch's novelties have been described in 
monographs, floras, and occasional publications, there yet remained 
a considerable number to reward Mr. Hiern's investigations. Thus 
in part iii. we have one new genus ( Velvitsia in Scrophulariacea — 
a very striking plant) and 127 new species, nearly half of them 
Composit(B; and in part iv. a new genus, Syniplostemon of Wel- 
witsch's MSS.— a Labiate earlier referred by Mr. C. H. Wright to 
Plectranthus — and eighty-nine new species. The Composite genus 
Ade7iogo7ium, published from Welwitsch's MSS. in this Journal for 
1898 '(p. 290, t. 389) as new, had been already cited by Oliver 
(Ic. PI. t. 2205) as a synonym of Eufjleria ; and Mr. Hiern accepts 
this reduction, although he does not follow Oliver in regarding 
Welwitsch's plant as a variety of E. qfricana, but describes it as a 
new species — E. decumhens. 

We note that M. Hallier is followed in the limitation of the 
genera of Convolviilacece, and also mainly (perhaps somewhat too 
absolutely) as to species. Urticacece is divided, in accordance with 
Engler and Prantl, into three orders — Moracea and Ulmace(B being 
separated from the aggregate group. There is a good deal of work 
in Amaranthacea, where we find Adanson's name for Mrva, adopted 
by Dr. Kuntze in the modified form JJretia, stands in its original 
ugliness as Ouret, just as his Pupal replaces the more euphonious 
Pupalia of Jussieu ; Pandiaka Heudelotii, cited by Jackson as of 
Benth. & Hook, f., is here given more correctly as of " Jacks. Ind. 
Kew.," where the generic and specific names are first definitely 
combined. 

When noticing the last part of the Flora of Tropical Africa 
(pp. 279-281), we referred to the unfortunate absence of correlation 
between Mr. Hiern's work and that proceeding at the same time 
at Kew on the same groups of plants, and the consequent and 
unnecessary increase of synonymy. We are glad to know that 



40 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



those responsible for the neglect have taken steps which will avoid 
a recurrence of the inconvenience ; and to see that only one of Mr. 
Hiern's new species has been forestalled — VUc.v Judllensis, which is 
antedated by V. grisea Baker. We fear, however, that the forth- 
coming part of the Flora of Tropical Africa will exhibit a more 
serious conflict, as we understand that some sheets were printed off 
before the publication of Mr. Hiern's last part, which of course will 
take priority. In one or two cases we note a difference of opinion 
as to genera — thus Premna coJorata of Hiern is identical with Vitex 
mlphurea of Baker: we presume that, should the position assigned 
to the plant by Mr. Hiern be maintained, those who insist on the 
retention of the earlicot trivial name will form a third combination. 

In matter of nomenclature Mr. Hiern continues to follow on the 
lines laid down by Dr. Kuntze, exercising, however, independent 
judgment and investigation. We note that he is al)le to rehabilitate 
the genus Ethulia, which had been set aside in favour of Pirarda, 
the former genus dating, not from Linn, "gen." [Sp. PL] ii. (July, 
1763), as stated by Dr. Kuntze, but from " L. f. Decas i. p. 1, t. i. 
(1762)." Pattara {Ada^nson, 1763) for Embelia (Burm. f., 1768) and 
Parasia Rafinesque (1836) for Belmontia (E . Meyer, 1837) are instances 
in which Mr. Hiern has anticipated Dr. Kuntze in restoration ; and 
we note that he adopts Siphonanthus in preference to Clerodeiidron, 
as, although both are in ed. i. of the Species Plantarum, the former 
appears in the earlier portion, published in May, 1753, and the 
latter in the second part which appeared in August of the same 
year. We note that Mr. Hiern retains the name Wedelia for the 
well-known genus of Compositce ; that name, however, which was 
first employed by Loefling, must, we think, replace Allionia of 
Linnaeus, and Niehuhria Necker will supersede the Wedelia of 
Jacquin and most authors. 

We are glad to see that Mr. Hiern associates the name of Mr. 
Carruthers with one of Welwitsch's plants — Urticastriim Carruthersi- 
anum: "it was through his representations, when Keeper of the 
National Herbarium, that the Trustees of the British Museum 
undertook the publication of this Catalogue." 



Veitch's Manual of the Conifera. A new and greatly enlarged edition, 
by Adolphus H. Kent. 8vo, pp. 562, with numerous plates, 
and 141 figs, in the text. James Veitch & Sons : Chelsea. 
1900. 

Veitch's Manual of the ConifercB has long been recognized as a 
standard work on Conifers; and in bringing out a new and revised 
edition the publishers have increased the obligation due to them 
from the botanist, as well as by the student of horticulture and 
forestry. Mr. Kent has done excellent service in connection with 
the Manual of Orchidaceous Plants, for the subject-matter of which 
he was largely responsible ; and we have no hesitation in saying 
that, except Dr. Masters, there is no one so well fitted to approach 
the subject of a handbook on Conifers. It is possible to prepare 
monographs of some families without going beyond the walls of a 



veitch's manual of the conifer;e 41 

herbarium, but sncli a method of procedure in the case of the 
Conifera; would be disastrous. The family is one which must be 
studied while living and growing, under various conditions and in 
different stages of development, Mr. Kent has had exceptional 
opportunities for such studies, and hence his peculiar fitness for the 
task he has now undertaken. 

The plan of the book is as in the former edition. The " General 
Review" has grown to over a hundred pages, and forms an excellent 
introduction to the general morphology and distribution of the 
family, both in space and time. Here, as elsewhere, the author 
acknowledges his indebtedness to Dr. Masters's recent invaluable 
contributions to our knowledge of the order, chiefly throagh the 
medium of the Linnean Society's Journal. This part of the book 
has also been augmented by the inclusion of the papers on the 
"Diseases of Conifers," by Prof. Marshall Ward, and "Insects 
injurious to ConiferiE,'" by Mr. W. F. H. Blandford, which have 
been reprinted or abridged from the Report of the Conifer Con- 
ference held at Chiswick in 1891, under the auspices of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

In the systematic portion of the work Mr. Kent has followed the 
arrangement adopted by Dr. Masters. The Taxacem are considered 
to represent a group of ordinal rank as originally proposed by 
Lindley, a position which accords better with the marked structural 
peculiarities of the flower and fruit than the tribal rank subse- 
quently reverted to and maintained, among other botanists, by the 
authors of our Genera Plantarum, and also by Eichler, whose 
arrangement appeared in 1887 in the Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien 
of Engler and Prantl. 

The genera admitted in the Mamial are those of Dr. Masters's 
recent revision, with the exception of Endlicher's Ghjptostrohm, 
which is included in Ta.vocUum, and of Ahietia, a new name coined 
by Mr. Kent to replace Pseudotsuga of Carriere, with which he also 
includes Keteleerla of the same author. The name PseiuloUufja is 
rejected because it is a barbarous combination, and " misleading in 
such meaning as it has;" but we do not think many botanists will 
be inclined to follow Mr. Kent. The reformers of nomenclature 
have sufficient scope already, without extending their licence to 
barbarous names. 

Good descriptions are given of all genera, species, and varieties 
which are likely to be of the slightest value from an economic or 
horticultural point of view ; wherever it was possible, the descrip- 
tions have been made from fresh specimens. To extensive notes on 
geographical distribution, habitat, and economic use, Mr. Kent adds 
information as to the introduction and growth of the plant in this 
country. He has also given short biographies of those botanists, 
collectors, &c., who have been commemorated in specific names. 

The plates and figures, many of them new, are of a high order, 
and add much to the attractiveness and usefulness of the work, the 
whole get-up of which is excellent. The author has not only been 
eminently successful in his endeavour "to collect from the best 
available sources every item of information that should prove useful 



42 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

and interesting to amateurs of this remarkable family of trees and 
shrubs, and also to foresters and horticulturists" ; he has also made 
a valuable addition to the literature of botany. 

A. B. Kendle. 

Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. By L. H. Bailey, assisted by 
WiLHELM Miller and many Expert Cultivators and Botanists. 
Illustrated with over 2000 original engravings. Vol. i. A-D ; 
vol. ii. E-M. 4to, pp. xxii, 510, xiv, 511-1054. Price one 
guinea each. Macmillan & Co. : London and New York. 1900. 

The '^1900'' Supplement to the Dictionary of Gardening. By George 
Nicholson, F.L.S., etc. A-F. 4to, pp. vi, 376. Price 10s. 6d. 
L. Upcott Gill : London. 

The American analogue of Mr. Nicholson's Dictionary of 
Gardening is a far more important work, from a botanical point 
of view, than its prototype. Whether it is as useful to gardeners, 
we are not in a position to state; it is certainly more comprehensive, 
for, besides articles dealing with cultivation and revisions of genera, 
it contains brief biographies of American worthies and descriptions 
of such things as aquaria, which would hardly seem to come within 
the scope of a work on horticulture. So far as externals go, its 
good and bad qualities are about equally balanced. Thus, the cover 
is artistic, contrasting very favourably with the ugly envelope 
affected by Mr. Nicholson's publishers ; but the binding up is so badly 
done, that the volumes come to pieces almost at a glance. It is 
very well printed, but on such outrageously heavy paper that only 
a strong man could carry the four volumes any distance. The 
illustrations are not of the miscellaneous seedsman's-catalogue 
order employed in the Dictionary of Gardening — those in the 
Supplement are better; but they are for the most part scratchy 
and inadequate : the absence of most of those (excluding the por- 
traits) to which a whole page is devoted would be a positive gain to 
the book. 

The contents, however, are less open to criticism, as would be 
anticipated from the fact that Prof. L. H. Bailey is responsible for 
them. Breadth and sanity of view, thoroughness of treatment, and 
a literary style which avoids dryness but never degenerates into gush 
— these are qualities which we expect to find in his writings, and 
we are never disappointed. In certain details of arrangement, the 
American work is in advance of the English ; for example, the 
species under each genus, which in Mr. Nicholson's book are 
arranged alphabetically, are here grouped under a more scientific 
system, according to their affinities, a clavis being sometimes 
prefixed. The alphabetical plan is of course in some respects 
more convenient — we have even heard it suggested that herbaria 
should be arranged throughout by the letters of the alphabet ! — but 
the scientific arrangement is manifestly far more instructive, and in 
the long run more useful. 

In view of the fact that certain of these articles will have to be 
taken account of from a botanical and nomenclatural standpoint, 



LA ROTANIQUE EN PROVENCE 48 

it is satisfactory to note that each of them is signed. Prof. Bailey 
has indeed heen fortunate in obtaining so many collaborators ; the 
list of these in his first volume includes 170 names, and others 
appear in the second. 

On turning over the pages, we observe two or three references 
which show that the biographical notes would be the better for a 
little revision. It is odd, for instance, to find the date of John 
Bellenden Ker's death, which took place in 1842, given as 1871 
(vol. i. p. xx) ; Banks was something more than a " famous 
English scientist " (whatever that may mean) ; and Cattley was 
hardly what we should understand by "an early English natu- 
ralist." It would also be well if the dates of birth and death were 
uniformly added, instead of only exceptionally, as at present. 
There is a certain grim humour in the account of a great American 
grape-grower: "Ephraim W. Bull was loved of his neighbours and 
honored by every countryman who grows or eats a grape. He made 
very little money from his variety, and died in extreme poverty." 

The Dictioyiary of Gardeninfj has become a standard book of 
reference ; it has been adapted into French, and a French Horti- 
cultural Society has awarded the French editor a prize of £100. Mr. 
Nicholson probably thinks this is one of the things they do better 
in France. " Nearly twenty years have passed," the publisher 
tells us, in a curiously- worded preface, since it "first saw the 
light" ; but by this he means the first number, for the preface to 
the last volume is dated December, 1888. Anyway it was quite 
time that a supplement should be issued, and here we have the first 
volume of it — or rather the first instalment, for there is to be but 
one " supplemental volume " — which is of course indispensable to 
possessors of the original. It possesses all the defects as well 
as the advantages of the earlier volumes— e. r/. the bewildering 
abbreviations of works cited, and the uniform and useless page- 
headings. The figures are less miscellaneous and more pleasing : 
a number of names appear on the ugly title-page as joint authors. 
The bulk of the book would have been lessened, and its usefulness 
not diminished, if a large number of the "English names" had 
been omitted: some of these, such as "Bastard Clover" for 
I'rifolium hybridum, are mere translations; others, like "Bastard 
Cress" for Thlaspi, are never used; " Branching Annual Stock," 
again, is assuredly not " a common name for Malculmia maritima,'* 
which is always known as Virginia Stock. But, as we have said, 
the Supplement is indispensable to all possessors of the Dictionary, 
to which it forms a worthy companion. 



Legr6 (Ludovic). La Botanique en Provence an XV I^ siecle. 
Leonard Rauwollf; Jacques Raynaudet. Marseilles : Aubertin 
et Rolle. 1900. Pp. x, 149. 

M. Legre continues to increase the indebtedness of the botanic 
world to him by his rapid issue of researches on the early workers 
in botany in the south of France. We have already in this Journal 
(1899, pp. 38-92, 283) referred in terms of high praise to his 



44 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

previous performances, and this publication is quite equal to its 
predecessors. 

The name of Rauwolff is perhaps best known as the author of 
some quaintly written travels in the sixteenth century ; but he has 
a further claim on our interest by the fact of his collection of 
dried plants being still in existence, and well-preserved, in the 
University of Leyden. 

The author had the good fortune to secure the help of the 
French Government in his researches, and received a letter from 
the Minister for Foreign Affairs to the French representative at 
the Hague, and the French consuls throughout the Netherlands. 
In consequence of this potent aid, M. Legre was enabled to pursue 
his search to the best advantage, and a subvention to the Academy 
of Science at Marseilles has permitted of the issue of this work in 
its present form. 

Rauwolff was born at Augsburg between 1535 and 1540 : the 
first certain date being that of his matriculation at Montpellier, 
22 November, 1560. He began to study the plants round that city 
as soon as he settled there, where he remained till 1562 ; the year 
after that he was in Italy, then, passing by the St. Gothard, he 
came back to Germany by Switzerland. 

In the year of his return to his native town he made the 
acquaintance of Clusius, and in 1565 he married. After five years' 
absence, he came back to Augsburg as municipal doctor of medicine. 
His brother-in-law, Melchior Mannlich, was settled at Marseilles as 
a wholesale dealer in drugs and spices ; he induced Rauwolff to 
undertake a journey to Syria to discover the source of certain 
drugs, offering not only to defray the cost of the voyage, but a 
salary also. 

Rauwolff consented, and set out first for Marseilles, thence sailing 
on 2nd September on board the ' Santa Croce.' After nearly three 
years of absence, he came back in safety to his own city, where he 
resumed his interrupted duties, becoming the doctor of the hospital 
for plague patients. In 1588 he was deprived of his place in con- 
sequence of his adherence to the Protestant faith ; he left Germany 
for Austria, became surgeon to the army, and died at Hatvan, in 
Hungary, in 1596. ' Such in brief is the story of his life, of which 
fuller details may be found in M. Legre's pages. 

The collection of plants which he formed now consists of four 
volumes, and these have been carefully gone over by the author, 
who gives lists of the contents ; the names in some cases have been 
altered by Clusius, and by an unknown hand. 

The name of Raynaudet may be found more than once in the 
Adversaria of Pena and Lobel : he was an apothecary of Marseilles, and 
the three months which were there spent by Rauwolff, when waiting 
to sail, were profitably employed in botanizing with Raynaudet in 
his garden or in the neighbourhood of Marseilles. Dates seem to be 
wholly wanting as regards this early worker, but what little can be 
discovered has been laboriously pieced together by the author in 
less than thirty pages. The only thing which appears certain is, 
that he must have died at an early age, 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS 45 

This volume has been drawn up with the accustomed care of the 
writer, and is therefore a valuable addition to our knowledge of 
the men of that interesting time, when, in the sixteenth century, 
botany was developing in the south of France. 

B. Daydon Jackson. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 

Bot. Centmlhlatt (No. 49). — F. W. Neger, ' Kritische Bemer- 
kungen zu einigen Pflanzen der chilenischen Flora.' — (Nos. 49-51). 
L. Cador, ' Anatomische Versuchung der Mateblatter ' (concl.). — 
(No. 50). H. Lindberg, 'Some species of Polytnchum' (1 pi.). — 
(No. 52). F. Quelle, ' Zur Kenntniss der Moosflora des Harzes.' 

Bot, Gazette (15 Nov.).— B. E. Livingston, * Change of form in 
Green Algae' (2 pi.). — C. MacMillan, ' Observations in Lessonia* 
(3 pi.). — C. D. Beadle, ' Studies in CratcBqm: — J. F. Corell, 
'David Fisher Day' (1829-1900; portr.). — C. E. Preston, ' Root 
system of Cactacece.' 

Bot. Notiser (hiift. 6 ; 15 Dec.).— J. I. Lindroth, ' Mykologische 
Notizeu.' — B. Kaalaas, Tnchostoumm arcticum, sp. n. — K. Johann- 
son, 'Nagra bidrag till Dalarnes flora.' — B. F. Coster, ' Nagra 
weddelanden om hybrider af slaktet Epilobiwn.' — 0. Nordstedt, 
' Om Sandhems flora ' (concl.). 

Garde7iers' Chronicle (24 Nov.). — F. Kranzlin, Stanhopea steno- 
chila Lehm. & Kranzl., sp.n. — J. Hoog, Iris urmiensis (fig. 116). — 
(1 Dec). H. N. Ridley, Habenaria coliimhiB, sp. n.). — (8 Dec). 
C. T. Druery, ' Pollen Grains ' (figs. 126-129). 

Journal cle Botanique (" Juin"; received 14 Dec). — G. Fron, 
Euphorbia Litisij. — A. De Coincy, Kchium )naritimum. — F. Guegnen, 
' Surle tissu collecteur et conducteur des phanerogames ' (cont.). — 
P. Hariot, Ligmtrum Delavmjanum, sp.n. — E. Bonnet, 'Quel est 
I'inventeur des exsiccata ? ' — C. Bernard, ' Recherches sur les 
spheres attractives chez Lilium, candidum, etc' (cont.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (Dec). — E. Lampa, ' Uber einige Blatt- 
formen der Liliaceen ' (1 pi.). — J. Freyn, ' Flora von Steiermark ' 
(concl.). — P. Magnus, Urophlyctis Kriegeriana. 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 



46 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

Messrs. Dent's little volume entitled Plant Life and Structure 
(price Is. net) is one of the " Temple Cyclopaedic Primers," *' a series 
of volumes of condensed information introductory to great subjects, 
written by leading authorities, both in England and abroad, adapted 
at once to the needs of the general public, and forming intro- 
ductions to the special studies of scholars and students." The 
book, which is a translation from the German of Dr. E. Dennert 
by Clara L. Skeat, is a neat little work in small 8vo, with 116 pages 
and fifty-six figures. It is fairly accurate, but it is not easy to 
understand to what class of reader it will prove useful. The in- 
formation is certainly condensed, far too condensed for the general 
public ; and, as regards the more serious student, there are several 
inexpensive books which will give a practical working introduction 
to the science, such as cannot possibly be acquired from this little 
primer. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society held on Nov. 15th, 1900, 
Mr. W. B. Hemsley exhibited a number of specimens and drawings 
of Fitchia, including a new species from the island of Raratonga, 
in the Cook Archipelago, discovered by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman. 
The genus was described from specimens thought to have been 
procured on Elizabeth Island, a remote coral island in the Eastern 
Pacific ; but Mr. Hemsley gave reasons for believing that the 
locaUty of the plant described by Sir Joseph Hooker was Tubnai 
Island, in the same latitude, but 20° further to the west: an island 
of volcanic origin and mountainous, and theretore more likely than 
a coral island to be the habitat of such a plant, especially as it was 
originally discovered by Banks and Solander in Tahiti. Only three 
or four species are known : they are small resiuiferous shrubs of 
tree-like habit, with rather thick branches, opposite simple leaves 
borne on slender stalks, and terminal, usually solitary flower-heads. 
The systematic position of Fitchia is not very evident ; although 
usually placed in the Oichoriacece, Mr. Hemsley considered its 
affinities as a resiniferous plant to be with the Heliantkoidece, 
and near to Petrobiam. After discussing the views of systematists 
on this point, he briefly described the new species from Raratonga 
{Fitchia nutans), remarking that it secreted a resin which is exuded 
on the young branches and flower-heads, and is used to prepare an 
agreeably odoriferous oil. 

At the same meeting Mr. W. C. Worsdell read a paper entitled 
♦'Further Observations on the Cycadacece,'' intended to throw 
additional light on the problem as to the phylogenetic origin 
and relationships of this group of plants. By some authorities 
these have been considered as allied to the Conifers, while in 
appearance they resemble palms and ferns. They are now con- 
fined to the warmer regions of the globe, though they were formerly 
widely distributed. The group was at its maximum in Jurassic and 
Triassic times ; and Cycad remains, especially in the Lias and the 
Oolite, are familiar to palaeontologists in this country. This paper, 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC, 47 

like the rest of the author's work on this group, had two main 
objects — to contribute to the clear and precise knowledge of the 
vegetative structure, and to point out, by means of that knowledge 
the relationship of the Cycads to, and their descent from, fern-like 
plants. 

At the meeting of the same Society held on Dec. 6th, Dr. 
Kendle exhibited specimens of Zostera marina from Tibet and of 
Halophila stipulacea from Tuticorin, and made observations which 
we hope to publish later. Mr. H. Groves communicated a paper 
by Mr. G. C. Druce, entitled "A Revision of the British Thrifts" 
[Statice and Aiiiieria), in which he attempted a rectification of the 
synonymy, and discussed the value of the pubescence on the ribs of 
the calyx as a distinguishing character. 

The culture of Citrus trees in Australia is increasing year by 
year, and the Australian Department of Agriculture has published 
a little volume by Mr. D. McAlpine — Fungus Diseases of Citrus Trees 
in Australia — in which is given an exhaustive account of all the 
fungi that have been recorded on Citrus in the colony. He has 
found twenty-five species of fungi on the Orange, and thirty- one on 
the Lemon, besides eighteen common to both ; three species on the 
Citron, two on the Shaddock, and three which are parasitic on the 
scale-insects that infest Citrus trees. This formidable list might 
lead one to infer that these trees were peculiarly liable to attack 
from fungi; but, fortunately, they are not all parasitic. Many of 
them, such as PeniciUium glaucum, the familiar blue-mould, Clado- 
sporiiuii herhanim, and others, make their appearance after decay has 
set in, and grow on dead Citrus as on any other vegetable matter. 
The first part of the book, the most important section, deals 
with the fungi that are directly injurious to the growing plant. 
The second part is occupied by a description of fungi that are less 
harmful, or less frequent, grouped as they occur on fruit, leaf, 
stem, or root. Many of them are confined to Australia alone : 
as the fruit trees were originally imported from Europe, this seems 
rather remarkable ; but it is to be remembered that the native 
Citrus is used as stock in the colonies, and thus native diseases 
have probably persisted on the grafted plants. The harmful para- 
sites are all minute species, and occur mostly on the leaves and 
fruit. One species — Flwma omnivora — attacks the roots, causing 
root-rot. The book is well illustrated by twelve coloured plates of 
the diseases most frequently met with, and 186 figures of the fungi 
causing them ; the numerous new species are fully described, and 
each is furnished with an " English name," of which " Federation 
Dothiorella," " Scabbing Ramularia," and '' Corrugating Clado- 
sporium," may be taken as types. *' Citrus Sphaerella " is not, as 
might be supposed, a new species of Citrus, but the ''English" 
equivalent of Sphcerella citricola! Full and careful practical in- 
structions are given as to the treatment that has been found most 
efficacious in remedying or checking the pest. 

Just as we go to press, and too late for notice, appears the 
completion of vol. vii. of the Flora of Tropical Africa, bringing the 



48 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

enumeration down to Plantaginea. Sir W. Tbiselton-Dyer con- 
tributes a brief preface, in the course of which he thus explains 
the delays which have hindered the progress of the work: — "The 
present volume was ready for the press at the beginning of 1898. 
The inconvenience of the delay in publication is obvious. The con- 
tributors see other writers secure the priority of their work, while 
the manuscript has continually to be re-written to incorporate what 
has been published while it is waiting for the printer. For all this 
I am in no way responsible. I prepare the work ; but over printing 
and publication I have not the slightest control. And as no less 
than five government departments have a say in the matter, the 
task of getting them into line is one of no small difficulty. A fire 
which took place at the printer's in December of last year was a 
further impediment. Fortunately, however, most of the manuscript 
was recovered eventually from the ruins. Three more volumes will 
complete the work as originally planned. Their preparation presents 
no inherent difficulty, but their fate lies on the lap of the gods." 

This explanation of course only refers to the delays in the 
publication of the present volume. The "inconvenience" men- 
tioned, however, applies with still greater force to the thirty-one 
years during which the work remained in abeyance, for the greater 
part of which — /. e. since 1872 — it was in the hands of the present 
editor, who issued the first instalment of the contniuation in 1896. 
As a result of this delay, the work has indeed had to be "re- 
written" ; but the responsibility for this can hardly be laid at the 
door of the printer. Mr. Hiern, for example, at the request of Mr. 
Dyer ''now Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer), prepared the ScrophularinecB 
in 1874-5, and is now, after an interval of twenty-five years, re- 
writing them. It will of course be noticed that the editor only 
claims the " preparation " as his share of the work, and in this he 
acknowledges the help of his staft" ; he has not so far contributed 
to the scientific contents of the volumes. 

The appearance of "Appendix I. 1901" of the Kew Bulletin, 
which, in spite of its thrice-repeated date, was actually issued in 
November last, suggests wonder whether the printers — in this case 
H. M. Stationery Office — are in this case responsible for the delay 
in publication. One would imagine that its "preparation" could 
" present no inherent difficulty," but no number has appeared since 
October, 1899, although, as we pointed out last month (p. 501), the 
volume for 1900 has been cited. The delay is the more inexplicable 
in that, when the existence of the Bulletin was threatened in 1892, 
the Times proclaimed that its pubhcation was "one of the most 
useful functions" discharged by Kew Gardens. It will be remem- 
bered also that the Bulletin replaced the annual reports of the work 
of the Gardens which used to be issued, and which contained much 
matter of botanical interest. The Guide to the Gardens, which was 
stated in the House of Commons in 1891 to be " almost ready," 
has never appeared. Is this, as well as the Bulletin and the Cape 
African Floras, "on the lap of the gods," or are the printers once 
more responsible ? 




/m. 




# 




L 3. barton del 
R.Morgan lith 



West,Newraan imp. 



A Galls m Furcellana and Chondrus 

B. Sporangia of Ectoearpus BreviarUculatus 



49 



ON CERTAIN GALLS in FURCELLARIA amd CHONDRUS. 
By Ethel S. Barton. 
(Plate 418, figs. 1-6.) 

The subject of gall -formation in algse, as the result of attack by 
animals, has never received much attention, though the interest of 
such a study should attract both zoologists and botanists. Up to 
the present the only instances recorded are those on Vaucheria 
caused by a rotifer'-'; on Rhodymeniapahiiata Grev.t and Desmarestia 
aculeata Lam.]: by a copepod ; and on AscopJiylluni nodosum Le Jol.| 
by a nematode worm. It may be remembered that the nematode of 
Ascophyllum was not only new to science, but was the first and 
hitherto the only recorded marine species. In this paper two more 
instances are described in which algae produce galls, as the result of 
attack by nematodes. 

In May of this year it was observed that a considerable number 
of plants of Fiucellarid fastigi/ita, thrown up on the shore at Lyme 
Regis, showed irregular swellings along the thallus, and on investi- 
gation these swellings proved to be galls inhabited by nematodes. 
Somewhat similar outgrowths were also observed on Chundrus 
crispus, though very sparingly. Specimens of these al^ae have 
been sent to Dr. de Man for determination of the nematode, and 
he reports that in neither alga does he find the Tylenchus fucicola 
which inhabits Ascophyllum. It is difficult to say as yet whether 
the nematodes found in Fuicellaria and Chondnis are identical 
species, but in any case they belong to a genus other than Tylenchus. 
A description of them will be published later by Dr. de Man. 

The Furcellaria galls were present in so much greater abun- 
dance than those on Chondrus, that it was possible to work them 
out more satisfactorily. The general development of the outgrowth 
in Furcellaria is much the same as that in Ascophyllum. In the 
youngest stages observed, the peripheral cells and the layer im- 
mediately below these are disturbed and forced asiuider by the 
entrance of the nematode, which is found sometimes near the 
opening, sometimes as deep down as the centre of the thallus. 
The peripheral cells of the thallus round the point of entrance 
begin to divide transversely, parallel to the surface, and grow out 
above the level of the surrounding cells ; thus forming a small 
excrescence, the first beginning of the gall. At this stage certain 
of the cells situated below the excrescence are to be found closely 
packed with rather large granules, to be described later. The gall 
continues to grow by subdivision of its outermost cells, while the 

* Vaucher, Conferves d'eau douce, t. iii. fig. 8 (1803). 

t E. S. Barton, " On the Occurrence of Galls in Rliodymenia palmata 
Grev.," Journ. Bot. 1891, 65, t. 303. 

X E.S.Barton, "On Malformations of Ascophyllum and Desmarestia,^^ 
in Phycological Memoirs, p. 21, t. vii. April, 1892. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [Feb. 1901.] e 



50 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

long narrow cells, present in the normal tliallus jnst below the 
superficial layer, become considerably elongated. The superticial 
position of the gall, together with the long narrow form of these 
ceils, suggests at first sight a parasitic alga with penetrating fila- 
ments. The cells of the gall exhibit walls of C(»n.>iderable tnickness, 
together with dense granular cont^nis. In the largest galls the 
tissue is to a certain extent destroyed by the nematodes which are 
present among the cells. The fact that the young gall remains 
intact may be explained by a rapid growth taking place while the 
animal is still buried m the main thallus. In order to escape, 
the nematode would afterwards have to force its way through 
the close structure of the mature gall, thereby tearing it apart. 
The galls sometimes arise close together, and as each one equals 
or exceeds in size the diameter of the main thallus, a group of them 
forms a conspicuous, irregular knob. 

The granules referred to above as occurring in the cells below 
and around the growing gall differ very much both in size and form 
from those of the ordinary thallus-cells. Their form is oval or 
round, and their diameter from 4 /x to 7 /x. They are of a clear 
and slightly retractive nature, having the appearance of small 
starch-grains, but showing no concentric structure. In polarized 
light they show the well-known black cross characteristic of starch- 
grains. Under the action of acids and alkalies they swell up, and 
soon dissolve completely ; with iodine they take on a brown tint 
slightly deeper than that of the surrounding cell-contents, but after 
heating in water to 100° 0. for a short time (presumably after 
hydrolysis of the substance of the granule) application of iodine 
produces a bluish-purple tint. 

Since these structures agree in all respects, except for the 
prersence of concentric layers, there can be little doubt that they 
are identical with the granules described by Prof. Van Tieghem as 
Floridean starch." They probably consist chiefly of amylodextrin.f 
It is interesting that structures which occur in the normal cells of 
FloridecB should be found in Furcellaria only in those cells which 
have been stimulated by the action of the nematodes. 

Among the slides in the ISchmitz collection at the British 
Museum are three of Furcellaria fastigiata, labelled " Knollchen- 
Johnson." The sections are very deeply stained and rather 
imperfect, but, so far as can be seen, the galls appear to be the 
same as those I have described, though I can detect no actual 
nematode. 

The material of Chondrus crispiis, which showed galls as the 
result of attack by nematodes, was so scarce that it has not been 
possible to make a full examination of them. So far as can be 
seen, a similar process takes place, but whether the same peculiar 
cell-contents are found in the young stages I do not know, as none 

* Van Tieghem, •' Sur les globules amylaces des Floridees et des Coral- 
linees," Comptes Rendus^ xi. 804 (1865). 

t Arthur Meyer in Botanische Zeitimg, 1886, pp. 697, 713. 



SPORANGIA OF ECTOCARPUS BREVIARTICULATUS 51 

but mature galls were at my disposal. In one case the cystocarp 
had been attacked, but in another specimen the galls arose from 
the vegetative part of the thallus, as in Furcellaria. If sections 
across thallus and gall are stained with anilme blue, the colour is 
only taken up deeply by the uninjured parts of the thallus, and the 
diseased portions containing the colonies of nematodes remain much 
lighter in colour. 

Finally, I offer my best thanks to Mr. V. H. Blackman, to whom 
I owe the observations on the starch-like granules. 



SPORANGIA OF ECTOCARPUS BREVIARTICULATUS. 

By Ethel S. Barton. 

(Plate 418, figs. 7, 8.) 

During an investigation of some material of Chnoospora atlantica 
J. Ag., collected at St. Vnicent, West Indies, by Mr. W. R. Elliott, 
I was led to examine the tufts of Ectocarpus breviarticulatiis 
growing on it. This proved to be in fruit, and, as the sporangia 
have never been described for this species, it may be of interest 
to do so now. 

The sporangia in question are plurilocular, and occur sparingly; 
they are of an ovate form, with the upper end more or less pointed, 
and vary from 20-35 /x in breadth and 60-90 /a in length. They 
arise generally from a short pedicel cell, but occur also sessile, 
and even sometimes as the termination of a short two-celled 
branch. 

In Prof. Agardh's original description of E. breciarticalatm 
(Nya alger fian Mexico, Kongl. Vet.-Akad. 1847, p. 7), the cells of 
the primary creeping filaments are said to be shorter than their 
diameter, while the cells of the secondary filaments are 1^ times as 
long as their breadth. Tliis, however, is not a constant charac- 
teristic in the St. Vincent material : in some cases longer cells 
appear in the primary filament, and very often short cells are 
found in the superior filaments. Some of the latter are figured here. 



Explanation of Plate 418. — Fig. 1. Furcellaria fastujiata Lam. with 
galls, nat. size. 2. Ditto, thallus, showing early stage of gall, x 260. 3. Ditto, 
later stage of gall, x 130. 4. Ditto, mature galls, x 25. 5. Chondrus ciisiJus 
Stackh. with galls, nat. size. 6. Ditto, transverse section of mature galls and 
thallus, x 6. 7. Ectocarims hreviartkulatm J. Ag., plurilocular sporangium, 
X 375. 8. Ditto, some cells in an upper filament. 



E 2 



52 



PEMBKOKESHIRE PLANTS. 

By W. R. Linton, M.A. 

The following plants were noticed during a fortnight in Sep- 
tember, spent principally at St. David's, but including a few hours 
at Haverfordwest and a day at Tenby. Tiiose new for the county 
have an asterisk prefixed. I am indebted to Mr. A. Bennett for 
kindly corroborating the new records; to the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers 
for correcting or corroborating the PaiU ; to Mr. F. Townsend for 
the same with the Euphrasia ; and to Mr. J. Groves for help with 
the Char a. 

Ranuncaliis trichophyllus Chaix. Treleddyd Fawr Common. — 
a. hederaceus L. St. David's. — R. Flammula var. radicans Nolte. 
Frequent on wet commons, as Waun Fawr, Pwll Trefeithan, &c. — 
Aqudeijia vulgaris L. Haverfordwest. 

Fumaria covfusa Jord. On earthy wall-tops near Dowrog Com- 
mon, and in a field by Pen Berry. 

Cochlearia da7uca L. Porth Clais ; Tenby. — Brassica oleracea L. 
Tenby. — B. Sinajnoides 'Roth. Solva ; Haverfordwest. — Diplotaxis 
tenuifolia DC. Haverfordwest. — Lepidkim hirtum Sm. Frequent 
about St. David's. — Eaphanus maritimus Sm. Tenby. 

'^''Reseda lutea L. Dowrog ; fields by Pen Berry. — R. Luteola L. 
Solva. 

Viola Riviniana var. nemorosa Neum., W. & M. Pwll Trefeithan ; 
Treleddyd Fawr Moor. — V. ericetorum Schrader. Pwll Trefeithan ; 
Tenby. — ''T. lactea Sm. Waun Fawr; Pwll Trefeithan. — '''V. 
Cu'tisii Forst. Traeth Mawr. 

'''PolygaUi serpi/llacea Weihe. The Burrows; Treleddyd Fawr 
Moor. — P. vulgaris L. Tenby. 

Saponaria officinalis L. In several places. Wall-tops near 
Dowrog ; on the cliffs near the lifeboat station. — Sagina vmritima 
Don. Solva. — S. apetala L. Frequent on walls about St. David's. 
*5. ciliata Fr. St. David's, on walls. — S. nodosa Fenzl. Frequent 
on commons. — Buda rupestris Dam. Coast rocks, Caer Bwdy, &c. 

Hypericum perforatum Ij. \ H. quadratum. Stokes. Frequent. — 
'^H. undulatuni Suhousb. Caer Bwdy, and other places on banks 
by the sea ; probably also on boggy commons about St. David's, 
but I at first passed it over, until the red look of the petals 
attracted my attention. — H. puJchrum L. Frequent. — H. elodes L. 
Wet places on cliffs, St. David's. 

Malva sylvestris L. St. David's. 

Radiola lijioides Roth. Frequent on commons. — Linum angusti- 
folium Huds. In several places. Roadside, Dowrog ; Treleddyd 
Fawr Moor ; Porth Clais. 

Geranium columbinum L. Solva. — Erodimn cicutariiwi L. 
White-flowered, on walls, St. David's. — E. moschatum L'Herit. 
Solva. — E. maritimum L'Herit. Solva ; Porth Sele. 

Uiex Gal Hi Planch. Frequent. — Ononis repens L. Walls and 
fields. — Trifolium scabrum L. Traeth Mawr. — T. fragiferum L. 
Pont Pen Arthur, and other places. — 2\ procumbens L. Frequent, 



PEMBROKESHIRE PLANTS 53 

rather taking the place of T. minus. — • AnthyUis Vulneraria L. 
Frequent. — ^'Vicia angusti folia Roth. Roadside between St. David's 
and Whitchurch. 

-''Prunus insititia Huds. Here and there in hedges, St. David's. 
— P. CerafiUH L. Between St. David's and Whitchurch. — Rubus 
a/finis W. & N. Treleddyd Fawr Common. — ''R. alfmisvdiX. Bngasi- 
anus Rogers. Waun Fawr ; Dowrog Common ; Treleddyd Fawr 
Common; Clegvr Foia. "I have seen a specimen oi Bnggsumns 
from Fishgiifird, Pembroke, in C. C. Babington's /entlgmosKs packet 
in the Cambridge hb.," W. M. R. inliit. — "/^. carimsis Rip. & Genev. 
Forth Clais. — *i?. pulcherrunus Neum. Frequent. — R. rusticaniis 
Merc. Frequent. — /?. Schlechtendald. Forth Clais. — R. leuco- 
st<ichi/s Schleich. Frequent. — *i?. Borreri Bell Salt. Treleddyd 
Fawr Common. — "i?. dttmrtcrum var. ferox Weihe. About St. 
David's ; Forth Liska, &c. — R. ccbsiks L. St. David's ; Tenby. — 
Potentiila paliistris Scop. Dowrog Common. — Agrimonia odorata 
Mill. Frequent. — Poterium SanguUorba L. Tenby. — '''P. ofjicimde 
Hook. fil. About St. David's. — Piosa spinosissuiia L. St. David's ; 
Whitsaud Bay; Treled 1yd Fawr Common. — R. tomentosa Sm. 
Between St. David's and Whitchurch. — R. lutetiana Leman, and 
R. duinetornm Tiiuill. Both scarce. 

Sedttm imijllcum Huds. Common on cliff-: and rocks. 

Mgriophgllum spicatnm L. On Dowrog Common. — Callitriche 
stagniflis Scop. — PepHs Portula L. Frequent. 

Epilobium parvifioruni Schreb. — '^'E. ubscunim Schreb. St. 
David's. — hJ. palustre L. Frequent. 

Ergngium maritimuni L. Tenby. — Conium maculatum L. 
Sc. David's. — Apium gravfolens L. St, David's. — A. nodiflorum 
var. ocreatum Bab. St. David's. — A. inundatum Reichb. fil. Fwll 
Trefeithan. — Fceyiiculum vulgare Mill. Solva. — Cnthmum mari- 
timum L. St. David's. — (Enmithe crocata L. St. David's. — 
Daucus Carota L. St. David's. — Cniicalis nodosa Scop. Solva. 

AspeniJa cynanchica L. Abundant on sandhills, Tenby. — 
Sherardia nrvensis L. Treleddyd Fawr Common. 

Valeriana saiiibucifolia WiUd. About St. David's. — Valerianella 
dentata Foil. St. David's. 

Dipsacus silvestris Huds. Cliffs, Forth Liska. — Scabiosa Succisa 
L. and S. arvensis L. Common. 

Eupatorium cannabinum L. St. David's. — Pulicaria dysenterica 
Gaertn. St. David's. — Bidens cernua L. Treleddyd Fawr Com- 
mon. — Anthemis nobilis L. On commons about St. David's. — 
Chrysanthemum segetum L. Near Fen Berry. — C. Parthenium Fers. 
and Matricaria inodora L. Frequent. — Tanacetum vulgare L. 
St. David's. — Artemisia Absinthium L. Forth Clais. — A. vulgaris L. 
St. David's. — -''Arctium minus Bernh. St. David's. — Carlina 
vulgaris L. Caer Bwdy ; Solva. — Carduus pycnocephalus L. St. 
David's ; Haverfordwest. — Serratula tinctoria L. Dowrog Com- 
mon. — Hieracium. umbellatum L. Haverfordwest; Newgate; Tenby, 
a dwarf state on the sandhills. — Leontodo7i hirtus L. and L. hispidus 
L. St. David's. 

Jasione mo7itana L. Abundant on walls and cliffs, St. David's, 



64 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Statice cnirimiJfpfoJia Vabl. Perth Sele and Whitesand Bay. 

Glaux maritima L. Tenby. — Anagallis teneUa L. Abundant on 
wet commons, St. David's. — Centunciilus minimus Li. Treleddyd 
Fawr Moor ; Pwll Trefeithan. — Samolus Valerandi L. Abundant 
on commons, St. David's. 

Miciocala Ji.iifonnis Hoffmgg. & Link. Pwll Trefeithan, and in 
wet places on cliffs. — Enithraa Centaurium var. capitatu Koch. 
Treleddyd Fawr Moor. — Gentiana cawpestris L. The Burrows ; 
Traeth Mawr ; Waun Fawr; Pwll Trefeithan. — ^:'-(r. haHica Murb. 
(agreed to by Mr. W. H. Beeby). Pwll Trefeithan. — Menyanthes 
trifoliata L. Pwll Trefeithan. 

Lycopsis aivensis L. Fields, St. David's. — Alyosotis caspitosa 
F. Schultz, and J/, pahistris Belli. St. David's. — Lithospermiim 
officinale L. Tenby. — Ecldum vuigare L. The Burrows. 

Veibasi-iim Thapsus L. St. David's. — Linaria Ehitina Mill. 
Pen Berry. — Antirrhinum majns L. Walls, St. David's. — A. 
Orontinm L. Fields near Portli Sele. — -'Euphrasia stncta Host. 
Porth Clais ; Waun Fawr. — "£'. borealis Towns. Abundant on 
sandhills, Tenby. — '''£". curta var. glahrescens Wettst. Treleddyd 
Fawr Moor. — -'E. occidental is Wettst. Coast cliffs, St. David" s. 

Pedicularis palustris L. Frequent on wet commons. — Bartsia 
serotina Reichb. St. David's. 

Utricularia minor L. Dowrog Common; Pwll Trefeithan. 

Verbena officinalis L. Roadsides, St. David's ; Tenby. 

Mentha rotundifolia Huds. St. David's ; Ponally, near Tenby. 
— -'M. piperita L. St. David's. — Calamintha officinalis Moench. 
Common about St. David's. — Salvia Verbenaca L. Tenby. — 
Scutellaria galericulata L. Frequent in marsh-land. — S. minor 
Huds. Abundant on wet commons. — Marrubium. vuigare L. 
Solva. — '''Stachys palustris X silvatica (ambigua Sm.). Below Pont 
Clegyr. — *S'. arvensis L. Pen Berry. — Ballota nigra L. Frequent. 
''^^ Scleranthus annuus L. Fields near Pen Berry. 

Beta maritima L. Cliffs. — Atriplex deltoidea var. prostrata Bab. 
Whitesand Bog ; Porth Clais. — Salsola Kali L. Abundant at 
Tenby. 

liumex conglomeratus Murr. Frequent. — E. pulcher L. Solva. 
— B. Hydrolapathum Huds. Frequent. 

Euphorbia Paralias L. Sandhills, Tenby. 

Farietaria officinalis L. Common at St. David's on walls. 

Salio) cinerea L. St. David's. — '''-S. aurita L. St. David's. — 
S. cinerea X viminalis. Porth Clais. 

Spiranthes autumnalis Rich. Abundant on all the commons 
about St. David's. — '''Orchis latifoUa L. Near Clegyr Pont. 

Narthecium. Ossirragum Huds. Frequent, Waun Fawr Common ; 
Dowrog ; Treleddyd Fawr Moor. 

Sp<(rganiuni neglectum Beeby. On Treleddyd Fawr Moor. 

Alisina ranunculoides L. Frequent. Pwll Trefeithan, &c. 

Triglochin palustre L. Common about St. David's. — Potamo- 
geton natans L. St. David's. — P. polygu7iifulius Pour. Pwll Trefei- 
than. — ''P. perfoUatus L. Stream above Solva. — P. pusillus L. 
Common in ditches, St. David's, 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^ 55 

Rleochans palustru R. Br. St. David's. — E. muUicanlis Sm., 
viviparous state. Waun Fawr; Dowrog Common. — ■''Srirpus 
pauci jior us Jji^^hii. TraethMawr; Dowrog Common ; Waun Fawr. 

— '^S. flidtans L. Waun Fawr. — Carex arenariti L. Wliitesand 
Bay. — C. paniculata L. and C. echinata Murr. Dowrog Common. 

— C. (Hstans L. Forth Clais. — ■■'Cfulra Good. Waun Fawr. — 
C. flava var. cyperoides Marsson. Pwll Trefeitlian. 

Ammophila arundinacea Host. Sandhills, Tenby. — Aira caryo- 
phyllea L. Common about St. David's. — -''Festuca procumhens 
Knnth (? in Top. Bot. ed. ii.). Strand at Solva. — F. riyida Kunth. 
Walls in Solva village. — F. rot tbcello ides Kunth. Forth Clais. — 

F. glauca Lam. and F. rubra var. pruinnsa Hackel. Forth Sele. — 
Agropyron punyeus Roem. & Schult. Forth Clais. — ''A. junceum 
Beauv. Whitesand Bay. 

Asplenium Adiantum-niyrum L. and A. Trichomanes L. St. 
David's, both frequent. — Athyriiuu Filix-fcemina Roth. Dowrog 
Common. — Ceterach ojficinarum Wilde. Walls, St. David's. — 
Ophioylossum ru/yatum L. In a depression near the far end of 
Dowrog Common. 

Chara frayilis var. delicatula Braun. Fwll Trefeithan. — "0. 
aspera subsp. desmacantha H. & J. Groves. Pwll Trefeithan. — 

G. vulgaris L. Fwll Trefeithan. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^. 
By a. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

(Concluded from p. 22.) 

Section Leiocalyx. 

I. ocHRACEA G. Don, Gen. Syst. iv. 270. Convolvulus ochraceus 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1060 (1827). 

Angola ; Loanda, Welivitsch, no. 6245. 

I. (?) KENTROCARPA Hochst. ex Rich. Fl. Abyss, ii. 70 (1851). 

Angola ; Anibriz, Welwitsch, no. 6174, and Golungo Alto, Wel- 
ivitsch, nos. 6175, 6176. 

There has been considerable confusion with resppct to the Wel- 
witsch numbers 6174, 6175, 6176, and 6245, which have been 
variously distributed between I.ochraceaDou, LofihthahuantliaMoW. f., 
and /. kmtrorarpa Hochst. In the Catalogue of Welwitsch Plants, 
i. 737, Mr. Hiern puts them together under /. ochracea Don, although 
Welwitsch himself considered that they included two new and distinct 
species. 

No 6245 formed part of the original I. ophtludmanfha of Hallier, 
since united by liim in part with I. acanthocarpa Hochst., and in 
part with I. ochracea Don, the Welwitsch number falliny^ under the 
latter. This is no d 'ubt its true pbice, as h agrees with tne original 
fi«!;ure in the But. Reg. (t. 1060, Coiivoliulus ocitracnis Lindl.). It 
differs from the other three numbers in its larger flowers (the 
corolla measures 4 cm. long) and acute sepals. 



56 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY '. 

In Engl. Jahrb. xxviii. 41, Hallier includes nos. 6175 and 6176 
under I. kentrocarpa Hochst., a species based on an Abyssinian 
specimen, but localities for which are cited both in East and West 
Tropical Africa. No. 6174, which Hallier {I.e. 87) excludes with a 
query from I. ochracea, agrees with these two numbers, having the 
blunter calyx and shorter corolla. The three closely resemble 
I. kentrocarpa Hochst., but our specimen of the number (1420), on 
which the species depends, is but a fragment, and hardly allows a 
definite opinion. Dr. Hallier may have seen better material. 

I. FRAGiLis Choisy in DC. Prodr. ix. 372 (1845). I. temiis E. 
Meyer in Drege, Zwei pflanzengeogr. Docum. 139 (1843) (nomen). 
l.frafjiUs var. (jlahra Hall. f. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. 50 (1899). 
Transvaal ; Pilgrim's Rest, Eev. W. Greenstock, 1879. 
I. oBscuRA Ker, Bot. Reg. t. 239 (1817). 

East Tropical Africa. Near Lake Marsabit, Lord Delamere, 
1898 ; Masai, Scott Elliot, no. 6863, 1893 ; Tanganyika, Scott Elliot, 
no. 8364, 1894. 

Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Dr. Band, no. 604, September, 1898. 
I. AQUATicA Forsk. Flor. iEy:ypt.-Arab. 44 (1775). 7. reptans 
Poir. Encycl. Suppl. iii. 460 (1813). 

East Tropical Africa ; Lake Rudolf, Br. Donaldson Smith, 
December 16th, 1899. 

I. DAMMARANA Rcndlc in Journ. Bot. 1896, 36. 
Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Dr. Band, no. 273, January, 1898. 
I. Papilio Hall. f. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vi. 543 (3 898). 
Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Dr. Fonul, no. 365, May, 1898. 
Transvaal ; Pilgrim's Rest, Bev. W. Greenstock, 1879. 
Bouth Africa, Zeyher, no. 1225. 
I. SIMPLEX Thunb. Prodr. PL Capens. 36 (1794). 
Rhodesia ; Salisbury, Dr. Band, no. 272. December, 1897. 
I. prsetermissa, sp. nov. Suffrutex humilis habitu, ut apparet, 
I. siiiiplicis ramis ascendentibus teretibus rubro-brnnneis verrucu- 
losis, partibus in junioribus viscidulis ; foliis parvis crassinsculis 
anguste-lanceolatis cum apice cuspidate, marginatis, uninerviis, in 
petiolis brevibus, venis et margine crispato rubidis ; pedunculis 
brevibus unifloris, bracteolis parvis lauceolatis ; sepalis chartaceis, 
ovato-lanceolatis, breviter cuspidatis, dorso plus minus verruculosis, 
binis externis quam interna brevioribus ; corolla marcida rosea 
calycem plus duplo execedente, areis mesopetalis cum nervis binis 
limitatis. 

Described from a small specimen consisting of a somewhat 
sparsely leaved shoot, 13 cm. long by 1*5 mm. broad, springing 
from a short stouter woody axis, 2*5 cm. long, including two seasons' 
growth. Leaves tapering gradually from the rounded base to the 
shortly cuspidate apex, the largest 23 mm. long by 4 mm. broad at 
the base ; petioles 4 mm. or less. Peduncles 6-7 mm. long, bracteoles 
2 mm. long, 3 mm. below the calyx. Outer sepals 6-8 mm. long 
by about 3 mm. broad, the inner reaching 12 mm. long and narrow- 
ing to 2-5 mm. Corolla apparently about 3 cm. long, with a short 
tube about -5 cm. in diameter, 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^E 5? 

Near I. simplex Thunb., which it closely resembles in habit and 
flower, but is distinguished by the broad-based lanceolate leaves. 

Hab. South Africa, Zeyher, no. 1214, 1846. 

I. Welwitschii Vatke ex Hall. f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 146 
(1893). /. HystrixYLaWA. I.e. 

I have not seen the specimen of Bohm's, on which Hallier based 
/. Hi/strix, but from the plants which he assigns to this species in 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. 58, iuchidiiig one collected by 8coit Elliot in 
the Shiie Highlands (no. 8639), there can be no doubt as to their 
identity with the West African /. Welivitschii. Hallier says of 
1. Hystrix, " praecedeuti " (i.e. /. Welwitschii) " valde afifinis, sed 
multo humilior densiusque foliosa," but the Shire specimen is 
larger than the average of the Angolan, and is certainly not more 
laxly leaved. 

Section Eriospermum. 

I. Rhodesiana, sp. nov. Suffrutex ramis ascendentibus (volu- 
bilibus ?) cinereo-pubesceiitibus subrubidis ; foliis parvis, ovato- 
cordatis, obtusis, breviter petiolatis, in facie superiore fulvo sericeis, 
in facie inferiore cinereo-pubescentibus cum venis curvulis promi- 
nulis ; pedunculis uniBoris, folia vix sequantibus, ut in bracteolis 
et calycis dorso cinereo-pubescentibus ; bracteolis parvis a calyce 
remotis, lineari-oi)longis ; sepalis late-ellipsoideis ad obovatis ; biuis 
internis tria exterioria superantibus ; corolla, staminibusque . . . ; 
di^co hypogyno annulare prominulo, ovario glabro, subconico ; 
stigmatibus didymis, subglobosis. 

Specimen of a single slender woody shoot, 45 cm. long, broken 
off below, barely reaching 2 mm. in diameter. Leaves 2 cm. or 
less in length by 1-5 cm. or less in breadth ; petioles not exceeding 
4 mm. in length. Peduncles about 1-5 cm. long, •5--75 mm. thick; 
bracteoles 2-5-3 mm. long by 1 mm. or less in breadth, situated 
one-third the way up the peduncle. Sepals 5-7 mm. long, equal 
or slightly less in breadth ; ovary 2 mm. long, style 13 mm. long. 

Near /. Holnhii Baker in Kew Bull. 1894, 72, but distinguished 
by its much smaller bracteoles, smaller leaves, &c. 

Hab. Khodesia; Bulawayo, Dr. Rand, no. 141, December, 1897. 

I. HiLDEBRANDTii Vatlio lu LinnsBa, xHii. 511 (1882). 

East Tropical Africa; Ukambane, 5-6000 ft., G. F. Scott Elliot, 
no. 6723, 1893-4. 

I. kituiensis Vatke, /. c. 

East Tropical Africa; Kavirondo, G. F. Scott Elliot, no. 6991, 
1893-4. 

A form with small leaves, 3-5-4 cm. long by 5-6 cm. broad, 
and somewhat congested flowers. 

I. ARGYROPHYLLA Vatkc, I. C. 510. 

East Tropical Africa ; Langoro Road, 5,500 ft., G. F. Scott Elliot, 
no. 6877 a, 1893-4. 

I, BucHANANi Baker in Kew Bull. 1894, 73. 

East Tropical Africa; Nyassaland, BHchanan, no. 682, 1891. 

I. FRAGRANs Bojcr in Hort. Maurit. 227(1837) nomen. Pharhitis 
vagrayis Boj. /. c. (nomen) ; Choisy in DO. Prodr, ix. 341, 



58 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

East Tropical Africa ; Nyanza, Berkeley Bay, G. F. Scott Elliot, 
no. 7068, 1893-4. West Tropical Africa; Congo, Christian Sviith, 
nos. 10, 27. 

I. Hierniana, sp. nov. Sufitrutex caulibus volubilibus robnstis 
velut tota plauta cinereo-puberulis ; foliis exacte cordatis acuminatis 
apiculatis, lamina petiolum sub^equante, in pagiiia siiperiore sparse, 
in inferiore, praecipue in venulis prominulis, densius puberula : 
pedunculis brevibus cum floribus panels superadditis laminam vix 
attingentibus, ut in bracteolis parvis cadncis pedicello et calyce 
albido-puberulis; sepalis snb?equalibus ellipticis obtiisis subcoriaceis 
niargine membranaceis ; corolla calycem 4-plo excedente, glabra 
super basin tubulosam infundibuliforme, areis mesopetalis 5-nerviis 
bene limitatis; antlieris sub ore corollas, filamentis elongatis asquali- 
bus ; fructu .... 

The ribbed soft woody shoots reach 3 mm. in thickness in the 
specimen, which, up to the backs of the sepals, bears a fine covering 
of very short soft curled whitish hairs, densest on the leaf-stalks, 
the backs of the leaf-veins, and the flower-stalks and exposed backs 
of the sepals. Leaves papery in consistence, blade 7-13 cm. long 
by 5-5-9 cm. broad. Peduncles -5 cm. long; flowers subumbellate, 
geminate in the specimen, pedicels 6 mm. long, bracteoles lanceo- 
late, mostly fallen, 2 mm. long. Sepals 8-9 mm. long by about 
4 mm. broad. Corolla 4 cm. long, including a tube of about 8 mm., 
stamens 3*5 cm. long. 

Near I. fra<jrans Bojer, but distinguished by the very short 
peduncle and the shortly puberulous iufioresceuce. 

Hab. Cameroons, Bipinde, Urwaldgebiet, Zenker, no. 1614, 1898. 
^^ Ipomcea spec. aff. paiucuiat((." 

The specific name recalls Mr. Hiern's connection with the 
West Tropical African Flora in the elaboration of Dr. Welwitsch's 
collections, the account of which is now complete. 

I. Hovarum, sp. nov. Snffrutex caulibus elongatis prostratis 
tortis, siccis compressis, plus minus cinereopuberulis ; foliis ovato- 
cordatis acuminatis cum margine subundulato, utrinque minute 
puberulis ; petiolo velut pedunculis cinereo pubernlo quam lamina 
paullo breviore; pedunculis quam petioli 3-plo brevioribiis, dichasiis 
paucifloris, bracteolis oblongis ; sepalis chartaceis late ellipticis 
obtLsis, glabridis ; corolla rosea ad medium late tubulosa turn late 
infundibuliforme, calycem 6-plo excedente. glabra, areis mesopetalis 
5-nerviis ; genitalibus tubo inclusis ; fructu .... 

The specimen consists of a long trailing shoot more than 80 cm. 
long, hollow, and bearing a sparse whitish pubescence, denser in 
the yoiuiger part ; greatest thickness 3 mm. Leaves papery when 
dry, reaching 8 or 9 cm. in length by 7 in width at the base, and 
the petioles 6 cm. Peduncle 2*5 cm. long, pedicel -5 cm. or less, 
bracteoles caducous, 4-6 mm. long by 1-5-2 mm. broad. Calyx 
12 mm. long ; corolla 6 cm. lont;, the lower half tubular-campauu- 
late, then broadly funnel-shaped, with a spread of 6 cm. 

Approaches /. paniculata var. iuilivisa Hall. f. (/. cameninensis 
Taub.) in the shape of the leaf and corolla, but is distinguished by 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^, 59 

its conical buds and elliptical sepals. The large calyx also separates 
it from /. fragrans Bojer. In habit it recalls I. nsarifolid R. & S., 
which it also somewhat resembles in the form of the flower ; but it 
is distinguished by the shape of its leaves and larger oblong bracts. 
Hab. Madagascar, Hihenherg d- Bojer. 

AsTROcHL^NA MALVACEA Hall. f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 121 
(1893). Breweria m.nlvacea Klotzsch in Peters Mossamb. i. 245, 
t. 37 (1862). Convohulus m<ilvaceus Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
xxix. 117 (1875j. 

East Tropical Africa; Kavirondo, no. 7121 ; Mpororo, 3000 ft., 
no. 8044; Shire, no. 8089; all G. F. Scott ElMnt, 1893-4. 

Natal, near D'Urban, M'Ken, no. 695 (in herb. Trin. Coll. 
Dublin); Delagoa Bay, Bolus, no. 1325, 1886. 

Var. EPEDUNCULATA, var. nov. Planta humilis ramis brevibus 
aggregatis, foliis parvis ovatis, cymis 2-4-floris axillaribus sessili- 
bus, floribus L^te roseo-purpureis speciosis. 

" Springs in pretty tufts." Branches 6-16 cm. long, the 
thickest 2*5 mm. in diameter at the base. Leaves not exceeding 
2*5 cm. in length by 1*5 in breadth, with a petiole barely '5 cm. 
long, generally smaller. Flower-pedicels •5-1*5 cm. Sepals 
lanceolate to bluntly ovate, 5-7 mm. long by 2*5-3 mm. broad. 
Corolla infundibuliform, 4*5 cm. long, with a tube 2 cm. long by 
3 mm. in diameter at the base ; spread of mouth in dried specimen 
4*5 cm. 

Differs, and is at once distinguished from the species, by the 
sessile or almost sessile inflorescences. 

Hab. Rhodesia; SaHsbury, /)/•. Rand, no. 511, September, 1898. 

A. involuta, sp. nov. Suffrutex ramis strictis complanatis 
tortis, laxiter foliatis, velut pedunculis, pedicellis, et petiolis 
stellato-tomentosis ; foliis ovato-cordatis obtusis, breviter petio- 
latis, utrinque densiter stellato-pubescentibus, in facie superiore 
rugulosis, venis venulisque in facie inferiore prominentibus ; 
floribus in dichasiis axillaribus, pedunculis quam folia saepius 
brevioribus, bracteolis parvis ovatis caducis ; sepalis binis externis 
ellipticis obtusis, dorso prominenter pinnatinerviis stellato-pubes- 
centibus, sepalis internis ab externis majoribus fere occlusis, ellip- 
ticis ad oblongis, nervo mediano cariniforme, stellato-pubescente ; 
corolla marcida saspissime marginibus involutis, purpurea, ut ap- 
paret tubuloso-infundibuliformi, areis mesopetalis glabris cum nervis 
binis conspicuis limitatis ; antheris inclusis sagittatis, poUine 
echinulato ; stigmatibus oblongis ; fructu . . . 

The specimens consist of the upper portions (about 30 cm. long) 
of several laxly leaved shoots with internodes hollow, flattened and 
grooved, and about 2 mm. broad, bearing, Ukc tiie peduncles, 
pedicels, leaf stalks, and prominent nervation on the under sur- 
face of the leaf, a dense faintly ferruginous toraentum of short 
stellate hairs. Leaves 2*5-3 cm. long or less, and nearly as broad, 
the upper surface rugulose by the depression of the veins and 
veinlets, petioles -5-1 cm. long. Peduncles 1-2*5 cm. long ; 
bracteoles minute, ovate, caducous, barely 3 mm. long, pedicels 



60 THE JOURNAL, OF BOTANY 

7-12 mm. long. Two outer sepals 7-8 mm. long by 5-6 mm. 
broad, the two inner slightly shorter and narrower, the third 
intermediate in size and shape. Corolla (withering) 3 cm. long, 
with tube 1-1-5 cm. long and 3 mm. in diameter, apparently of a 
deep purple colour. Filaments 4-8 mm. long, anthers 3 mm. long, 
slender style 12 mm. long. 

Near A. iwdvacea, but certainly distinct, from its cordate-based 
leaves with their rui,niloss upper surface, broader sepals, &c. 

Hab. British Ea&t Africa ; near Lake Marsabit, Lord Delamere, 
1898. 

A. Delamereana, sp. nov. Suffrutex caule robusto velut 
pedunculis, petiolisque densiter subferrugine stellato-tomentoso ; 
foliis pro gencre magnis late ovatis vel suborbicularibus, obtusis, 
basi subcordatis, margine undulato, utrinque stellato-pilosulis, 
venis at venulis in facie inferiore prominentibus stellato-tomen- 
tosis, petiolis robustis, quam foUa 5-plo brevioribus ; floribus 
pluribus brevi-pedicellatis, in pedunculis robustis quam folia 
brevioribus, capituliformiter aggregatis, braeteolis parvis oblongo- 
acumiuatis, caducis ; sepalis binis externis ovatis obtusiusculis 
dorso stellato-pilosulis, cetera angustiora (lanceolata) occludentibus; 
corolla calycem quadruplo supemnte, ut apparet anguste infundi- 
buHforme, areis mesopetalis glabris, cum nervis tril)us conspicuis 
lineatis ; filamentis iuaequalibus tubo inclu4s, antheris oblongo- 
sagittatis, pollme echinulato; stigmatibus rhomboidalibus ; ovario 
glabro ; fruciu ... 

The specimen consists of the ends of a stout flowering branch, 
with several closely arranged leaves and axillary peduncles bearing 
a number of flowers crowded in a head. Shoot strong, woody, 
•5 cm. thick. Leaves 6-10 cm. long and broad, base shallowly 
cordate; petiole 1-5-2-5 cm. long. Peduncles generally 3-5 cm. 
long by about 2 mm. thick ; pedicels generally less than -5 cm. 
long. Sepals about 1 cm. long, the outer 4 mm. broad, the inner 
narrowing to 3 mm. Corolla 4*5 cm. long, the tube -5 cm. or less 
in diameter; filaments about 1 cm. long or less, anthers -5 cm. 

A well-marked species, distinguished from A. malvacea by the 
broader more orbicular leaf, the dense capitate inflorescence, longer 
sepals, &c. 

Hab. British East Africa ; Cantalla and Hadda, Lord Delamercy 
1898. 

A. HYOSCYAMOIDES Hall. f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 121 (1893). 

British East Africa; Uganda, G. F. Scott Elliot, no. 6300, 
1893-4. 

Lepistemon africanum Oliv. in Hook. Icon. PI. t. 1270 (1878). 

Mt. Ruwenzori, G. F. Scott Elliot, no. 8098, 1893-4. 

DicHONDRA REPEMs Forst. var. SKRiCKA Choisy in DC. Prodr. ix. 451 . 
British East Africa; Kavirondo, G. F. Scott Elliot, 1893-4, no. 
7062. 

EvoLVULUs NUMMULARius L. Sp. PI. ed. ii. 391 (1762). 

British East Africa; Nyanza, G. F, Scott Elliot, lS9S-4:,no.llS5, 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACEvE 61 

E. ALSINOIDES L. Lc. 392. 

British East Africa; Uganda, G. F.Scott Elliot, 189S-i,no.7iiA. 
Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Dr. Rand, no. 127, Jan. 1898. 

Seddera capensis Hall. f. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vi. 529 (1898). 
Rhodesia ; Salisbury, l)r. Rand, no. 126, Dec. 1897. 
S. soMALENsis Hall. f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 90 (1893). 
Somalilaud; Darar, Br. Donaldson Smith, Sept. 1894. 

Convolvulus sagittatus Thunb. var. parviflorus subvar. abys- 
siNicus Hall. f. I.e. 533. 

Somaliland; Habrawal, Dr. Donaldson Smith, 1899. British East 
Africa; Nyanza, G. F. Scott Elliot, 1893-4, no. 7145. Rhodesia; 
Salisbury, Dr. Rand, Sept. 1898, no. 510. 

C. liniformis, sp. nov. Herba pusilla glabra, caulibus ascen- 
dentibus teuuibus ramosis ; folds breviter petiolatis linearibus basi 
incunspicue auriculatis, apice breviter acutis ; floribus solitariis, 
pedunculis folia paullo excedentibus, bracteolis parvis lanceolatis ; 
sepalis sub£equalibus, oblougis, breviter mucronatis, chartaceis '; 
corolla calycem 2|-plo excedente, rosea, late infundibulare, areis 
mesopetalis male limitatis ; staminibus inclusis ; stiginate lineari- 
oblongo ; fructu . . . 

A small low-growing plant, the specimens consisting of slender 
ascending shoots with spreading-ascending branches ; the longest 
shoot is 10 cm. high, and their thickness is from -5 to -7 mm. 
Leaves 8-15 mm. lung including a stalk of about 2 mm., 1-5 mm.* 
or less in width. Peduncles 2 cm. or less in length, bracteoles 

2 mm. long, 3-4 mm. below the calyx. Sepals 7-8 mm. loug by 
2'5-3-5 mm. broad. Corolla 2 cm. long, and as broad at the mouth. 

Approaches the slender-leaved forms of 0. sar/ittatus Thunb., 
but is distmguished by its uniformly Iniear leaves with only a trace 
of auricles at the base, and by its larger flowers. 

Hab. South Africa; Zeyher, 1846, no. 1220; Schoonstroom 
River, Burke (no. 283, in herb. Trin. Coll. Dublm). 

0. Hilsenbergiana, sp. nov. SuftVuticosa volubilis cauHbus 
gracihbus subferrugme pilosulis ; foliis cordatis obtusis margine 
crenulatis, petiolis venisque priecipue in pagina inferiore velut 
peduncuUs subferrngine pilosulis; petiolo laminam sub^equante ; 
pedunculis quam folia brevioribus uni- vel bi-Horis ; bracteolis 
subulatis parvis; sepalis rotunde ellipticis breviter cuspidatis 
chartaceis margine interdum quoque dorso plus minus subferrn- 
gine pilosulis ; corolla calycem vix duplo excedente breviter et 
late infundibuhforme, areis mesopetalis cum nervis 5 parallelis 
delineatis sub apice pilosuhs ; staminibus inclusis, poUine leve 
sphaeroido-tetrahediale; stigmate lineaii-obloni^'o ; pericarpio gla- 
bro, capsula 2-valvata, semiuibus 2 nigns granulatis. 

The specimen consists of slender detached sparsely branching 
shoots to 65 cm. loug, and barely reaching 2 mm. in thickness". 
Leaves reaching 5*5 cm. long including a petiole of 2-5 cm., by 

3 cm. broad, becoming gradually smaller as we ascend the upper 
part of the shoot, almost glabrous on the upper surface, pilosulose 



62 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

on the veins of tlie lighter coloured lower face. Flowers solitary on 
a short peduncle 6-10 mm. long, or the lower geminate on longer 
peduncles (to 8*5 cm.) ; bracteoles 3-4 mm. long. Sepals 6 mm. 
long by about 4 mm. broad. Corolla scare -ly exceeding 1 cm. 
long. Anthers shortly sagittate. Ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled, capsule 
containing two black seeds with granulated testa. 

Is perhaps nearest the Soutti African C. hastatus Thunb. and 
0. sngittatus Thunb., which it resembles in the form of the flower, 
but is at once distinguished by the very characteristic cordate 
crenulate margined leaves. It also approaches C parvijiorus Vahl, 
but is distinguished by the solitary or geminate flowers, blunt sepals, 
and obtuse crenulate leaves. 

Hab. Madagascar; near Tannanarivo, Hilsenherg d Bojer ; Anka- 
fana and Bara, Deans Cowan, 1880. 

C. BuUeriana, sp. nov. Suffrutex humilis glaucescens, ramis 
prostratis tenuibus, minute pubescentibus ; foliis breviter petiolatis, 
angusto-hastatis, cum margine iutegro, lobis basalibus parvis re- 
curvulis, utrinque pilosulis saepius planis ; floribus solitariis, 
pedunculo folium excedente caule simili ; bracteolis linearibus 
velut pedicello pilosulis; pedicello quam calyx breviore; sepalis 
magnis chartaceis, ovatis, apice obtusis vel acutiusculis, dorso pilo- 
sulis, externis quam interiores majoribus ; corolla lutea, calycem 
duplo excedente, infundibuliforme, lobis triangularibus, areis meso- 
petalis male limitatis dorso pilosulis ; poUine tetrahedrale, glabro ; 
stigmatibus filiformibus sublougis ; fructu . . . 

The slender spreading branches 20-30 cm. loQg, 1 mm. in 
diameter. Leaves 2-75-3*5 cm. long, 2-5-4 mm. broad above the 
hastate base, from which the blade tapers gradually to an obtuse or 
subacute apex, basal lobes blunt, 2-3 mm. long, sometimes with an 
indication of a small secondary lobe on the outside; petioles slender, 
4-7 mm. long. Peduncle of the only open flower 3*5 cm. long, 
bracteoles 6-8 mm. long, pedicel 1 cm. Outer sepals 1-5 cm. long 
by 7 mm. broad at the base, reddish brown when dry. Corolla a 
little over 3 cm. long; the barely exserted stigmas 6 mm. long. 
Fruit absent. 

Approaches C. plicatm Desv. in its habit, large ovate sepals, 
and general structure and arrangement of the solitary flowers, but 
is at once distinguished by its narrowly hastate leaves with uncut 
margins ; the flowers are also larger, and yellow in colour. 

Hab. Natal; hill near Mooi River, at 4500 ft., J. M. Wood, 
no. 6206, Dec. 8, 1896. 

Merremia palmata Hall. f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xviii. 112 (1893). 
Rhodesia ; Bulawayo, Dr. Rand, Dec. 1897, uos. 128, 129 ; May, 
1898, no. 364. Dammara-land, T. G. Een, 1879. 
M. pterygocaulos Hall. f. /. c. 113. 
British East Africa ; Uganda, G. F. Scott Elliot, 1893-4, no. 7242. 

M. angustifolia Hall. f. I. c. 117. 

British East Africa ; Uganda, G. F. Scott Elliot, 1893-4, no. 7217. 
Rhodesia, Bulawayo, Dr. Rand, Dec. 1897, no. 130. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN CONVOLVULACE^F- 63 

M. Bowieana, sp. nov. Suffrutpx caulibus volubilibus tereti- 
bus rigidis glabris striatis ; foliis sessilibiis crassiusculis linearibus 
mticronulatis, siccis sa3piiis plicatis, in facie saperiore pilosnlis, 
iiifei-iorc glabresceiitibus ; fioribas s^epiiis solitariis, interdum di- 
cbasialibus, pcdunculis caule siinilibus, sed ))arce pilosulis, folia 
sub^eqiiantibus; bracteolis lineari-lanceolatis; pedicello calycem baud 
aequaute. ferrugine piiosulo ; sepalis late ellipticis ad late obovatis, 
cbartaceis, dorso ferrugine pilosnlis, binis eKternis ties ioteriores 
excedentibiis ; corolla calycem vix diiplo excedente, e tubo brevi 
iniundibuliforme, areis mesopetalis dorso dense et ferrugine pilosis ; 
staminibiis inclusis, filamentis tenuibus superne attenuatis, an- 
theris linearibus basi sagittatis, polline ellipsoideo, granuloso ; 
stigmate parvo globoso, ovario glabro ; fructu . . . 

Stem slender, wiry, 1-25 mm. in diameter. Leaves 3-4 cm. long, 
2'5-4 mm. broad, a few of the upper shorter and broader and 
irregularly shaped (spathulate, or lanceolate and obscurely 3- 
dentate). Peduncles 2-5-4-5 cm. long ; bracteoles 7-8 mm. long 
by 2 mm. broad ; pedicels 1 cm. long or less. Sepals 13-10 mm. 
long, 10 mm. or less in breadth ; corolla 2-5 cm. long, tube scarcely 
8 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, mouth apparently about 1*5 cm. broad. 
Style in withered flowers 1*5 cm. long, the terminal globose; stigma 
less than 1 mm. in diameter. 

A very distinct species, nearest to ill. anijmtifolid, but dis- 
tinguished by its stouter rigid wiry stem, thick stiffish linear 
leaves, and larger flowers, especially the conspicuous calyx. 

Hab. Cape Colony ; on roadsides in the districts of Zwellendam 
and George, Bowie . 

M. malvsefolia, sp. nov. Suf!"rutex caulibus elongatis, sub- 
flexuosis, asceudentibus, e specimine simplicibus ut tota planta 
minute hispidulis, siccis compressis ; foliis inter minores reni- 
formibus, trilobatis, lobis basalibus bilobulatis, nervis principibus 
3 palmatis, velut nervulis prominulis, petiolis quam folia brevi- 
oribus ; pedunculis valde elongatis, folia pluries superantibus, 
curvatis, unifloris ; bracteolis parvis, pauUo inter se discretis, 
anguste oblanceolatis ; sepalis ellipticis, obtusis, subcoriaceis, 
subasqualibus, dorso sparse hispidulis ; corolla (lutea ?) calycem 
2^-plo excedente, late infundibulifornie, areis mesopetalis colore 
et nervis 5 (? semper) distinctis dorso pilosulis ; antheris sagit- 
tatis tortis, filamentis subgequalibus subulatis ; polHne ellipsoideo, 
espinuloso, superticie granuloso, cum areis tribus depressis vix 
granulosis longitudinalibus ; stigmatibus globosis. 

The specimen consists of a single slender shoot nearly 1 metre 
long, springing from a slender woody base ; it scarcely reaches 
1-5 mm. in breadth, and, like the whole plant, bears a barely 
perceptible ash coloured hispidulous covering. Leaves l-5-2'5 cm. 
long, 2-5-3-5 cm. broad, 3-lobed to the middle, the lateral lobes 
more shortly and unequally 2-lobed ; hispidulous chiefly on the 
veins of the lower surface. Petioles 1-2 cm. long. Peduncles 
about 10 cm. long ; bracteoles 5-6 mm. long by 2 mm. broad 
above the middle. Sepals 10-12 mm. long by about 5 mm. broad. 
Corolla 2*5 cm. long. 



64 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

A very distinct species, belonging to the same set as M. qiierci- 
foLia Hall, f., but distinguished at once by its mallow-like leaves. 

Hab. Cape Colony ; Kowie sand hills, Eastern frontier, P. 
MacCoivan, no. 403, Dec. 1863 (in herb. Trin. Coll. Dublin). 



NOTES ON JERSEY PLANTS. 

By L. V. Lester, M.A., F.L.S. 

The following rough notes, compiled during five years' residence 
in Jersey, may be of interest to British botanists. Babington's 
PiimiticB Flora Sarnicm, published in 1839, the result of two visits 
to the Channel Islands in July-August, 1837, and June-August, 
1838, is out of date and most misleading. Many plants are in- 
cluded in it, mostly on the authority of Professor Lagasca and 
Mr. B. Saunders, which certainly never grew in Jersey;''' many 
other plants are omitted. Mr. J. Piquet published a list of Jersey 
plants in the Proceediiu/s of the Societe Jersiaise in 1896, which 
represents the flora of the island much better ; but it is not much 
more than a very useful catalogue, and rarely distinguishes between 
natives and foreigners. In the course of five years' fairly assiduous 
botanizing I have collected materials for a Flora of Jersey, which 
I hope before very long to publish ; and I should be very grateful 
if any botanists who have records or notes which they do not intend 
to use themselves would be kmd enough to communicate them to me. 

Ranunculus opliioylosdfolius Vill. is extinct. — R, chcarophyllus L. 
is still to be found in the only known locality. Probably native. 

Fumaria Burai Jord. is a most abundant and characteristic 
Jersey plant. 

Crambe maritima L. Extinct. 

Viola nana DC. Abundant in sandy places. 

DUmthus gallicus DC. A plant found growing in some quantity 
by Mr. Piquet, in 1897, in an out-of-the-way part of the sandy bay 
of St. Oueu's, was thus named by Mr. F. N. Williams in Journ. 
Bot. 1898, p. 493. There is a large patch, and the locality looks as 
if it were beyond suspicion ; but St. Ouen's Bay is full of casuals 
and naturalized aliens. Not found in Normandy, but common on 
the sands of the west coast of France as far north as Quimper, in 
South Brittany. Just possibly native ; certainly well established. 

The abundance of small Leguminom belonging to the genera 
Trigonella, Medirago, Tn/oliuui, Lotus, and Orniihopus is a marked 
feature. — Trifolium Molinerii Balb. Only on a small islet in Por- 
telet Bay, accessible at low water. — T. strictum L. One of the 
rarest of Jersey plants. 

* [The mistakes were probably due to the latter, as Lagasca knew plants 
well. In his diary under Aug. 7, 1837, Babington writes : " Called upon Mr. B. 
Saunders of the Caesarean Nursery, who showed us a list that he had formed of 
the native plants of the island, and allowed us to extract those names which did 
not occur in our list " {Memorials of C. C. Babington, p. 66).— Ed. Journ. Bot.] 



NOTES ON JERSKY PLANTS 6& 

Ludwifjia palnstris Elliott. Probably extinct. — (Enothera odorata 
Jacq. Thoroughly naturalized and abundant in saudy places. Ap- 
parently spreading. 

Scahinsa maritima L. One locality in St. Ouen's Bay. Lloyd 
(Fl. de rOiiest de France) does not regard it as native north of 
the Gironde. Probably introduced at some tune or other with 
lucerne seed. 

Gnaphidium nndulatuni L. An African species from the Cape 
of Good Hope, thoroughly naturalized in several localities in 
the south-west of the island. Naturalized also in Normandy 
and Brittany. Name confirmed by Herr J. Freyn (Report of 
Bot. Exch. Club, 1897). — Dlotis candidLssima Desf. Only known 
from one locality, and now destroyed by the building of a sea-wall 
in St. Ouen's Bay. Much of the best botanizing ground in the 
sandy bays is being rapidly spoilt by similar useless and costly 
constructions. A species with apparently a diminishing area. — 
Matricaria maritima L. = Pyrethrnm, maritimum Sm. Abundant 
in many places on the coast. It is hard to believe that this is 
nothing but a variety of M. inodora L., but Lloyd declares that he 
raised ordinary inland M. inodora from the seeds " des la premiere 
annee," at the same time acknowledging that it is a "remarkable 
variety." — Centaurea paniculata L. cannot, I think, be regarded as 
a native, if its continental distribution is taken into account. It is 
not found in Normandy, Brittany, or West France. In Jersey it is 
abundant in a single locaUty, close to the Scahiasa maritima L., 
where it has been for at least thirty years. The case of C. aspera L. 
is slightly different. It is abundant in St. Ouen's Bay, and rare in 
the south-east of the island. In Normandy it seems to be a casual, 
and Lloyd regards it as introduced on the coast of Brittany. In 
Guernsey it is, according to Mr. E. D. Marquand, " very rare and 
local." Just possibly native, but to be regarded, I am afraid, with 
suspicion.— C. Calcitrapa L., if ever native, is now certainly extinct. 
— Hieracium Fdosella L. var. pilosissimwu Wallr. {H. Peleteriamim 
Mer.) is extremely abundant. The type is comparatively I'are.— ■ 
H. umheUatum L. var. littorale Lindeb. is common on the cliffs of 
the north coast. — HypochcBris maenlata L. is plentiful in a single 
locahty, which is also the only station in the Channel Islands for 
the Cowslip. It is not found'in Guernsey, Normandy, or Brittany, 
or in West France north of the Loire ; but the locality seems quite 
above suspicion, and the English counties in which it occurs are 
widely separated from one another. 

Anchusa sempervirens L. Frequent in hedges and near houses, 
and in one place apparently native. It looks native in the woods 
about Dinan, in Brittany. — Echiam planta(jineum. L. is abundant. 
It was plentiful about St. Helier's in Ray's day (Sj/nopsis, ed. 2, 
119 (1696) ). On the other hand, it is only a rare casual in Guern- 
sey, and does not appear in Normandy, or in West France north of 
the Loire. 

Linaria Pelisseriana Mill, has become extremely rare, and is 
probably doomed. 

Mentha Pulegium L. Probably extinct. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [Feb, 1901.] f 



66 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

Atriplex portuUicoides L. Destroyed in its only station by the 
operations for the extension of the harbour at St. Heher's, which 
were afterwards discontinued. 

SncB'la nmritima Dumort. ? Extinct. I have seen a Jersey 
specimen. 

Tiie only Willows which can be sa'd with certainty to be native 
are 8. ciiurfa L., which is very common, and S. repens L., which is 
only found in one locality. 

Xarcissus P.seudo-Xnrcissus L. Locally abundant in woods and 
on the cliffs. Omitted from Babington, and not in Guernsey. 

Lagurus uvatus L. has been introduced from Guernsey, and is 
well established in St. Ouen's Bay. — Bromis mfidritenio's var. ri(jidus 
Bab. (not Roth, whose plant is '^a stouter form with a larger 
panic e " (see E. Hackel in Report of Bot. Exch. Club, 1898, p. 593). 
On the islet in Portelet Bay on which TnfoHwn MoHneiii grows, and 
also about Gouray. — B. maxiwus Desf. Abundant in sandy places. 
Not B. riijidus Roth, as in the London (Uitalofiw, which is "nothing 
but stout madritemis'' (Hackel, /. c), though placed byGrenierand 
Godron under maximus. 

Since the publication of his list in 1896, the following plants 
have been added to the Jersey flora by Mr. Piquet, in a short 
supplementary list published in 1898 : — 

Carex pfiniculata L. — Phalaris minor Retz. has been plentiful 
for tlie last few years on and near the railway to the east of 
St. Helier's, but cannot be reg irded as a native, though Mr. 
C. K. P. Andrews considered it to be indigenous in Guernsey. 
See Jouru. Bot. 1900, p. 33, where the plant is de-cnbed and 
figured. — O/diinrflossum viihiamm L. w;is discovered by a lady then 
residing in Jersey, who showed me the locality in 1897. 

In Journ. Bot. 1900, p. 278, Mr. S. Guiton adds Vicia lutea L., 
from the rocky hill on which Mt. Orgueil Castle is built. A 
doubtful native : the old Castle grounds are full of semi-naturalized 
relics of cultivation. 

Corydalis claviculata DC. and Orchis pyramidalis L. 

The following plants, for which I am responsible, have not, to 
my knowledge, been recorded for Jersey before : — 

Frankenia leevis L. Plemont, 1899. Apparently extinct in 
Guernsey. It is included in Babington from the Greve d'Azette, 
but on the authority of Mr. B. Saunders, which is quite valueless. 

Sugina ciliata Fr. La Moie, 1899. 

Trifolium maritimum Huds. St. Aubin's Bay, 1898. Possibly 
only a casual. 

Anthriscus silvestris Hoffm. The Ecrehos Rocks, eight miles 
east of Jersey. Common in Alderney [Mr. E. D. Marquand), not 
in Jersey or Guernsey. 

Galium ochroleucnm Syme. Portelet Bay and West Mount, 1897. 

Hieracium rigidum Hartm. var. acrifolium Dahlst. {Jide Rev. W. 
Moyle Rogers). Waterworks Valley, 1897. Whether this is the 
same as " H. lavigatum Willd. Koch. var. /?," recorded by Babington 
from the Quenvais, I do not know. 



SOME PROPOSED CHANGES IN NOMENCLATURE 67 

Lysimachia Nummularia L. Longueville, 1900. Another of 
Mr. B. Saunders's records. 

Orohauche Hedera Duby. St. Helier's, 1897. Mt. Orgueil, 
where Mr. E. D. Marquand found it in abundance, 1900. 

LiizuJa Forsteri DC. St. Aubin's, 1898- " Jersey, Prof. La 
Gasca," Bab. — L. maxima DC. Bonne Nuit Bay, 1898. 

Lfmna poh/rrhiza li. Samares, 1899. 

Zostera nana Roth. Often washed up in St. Aubin's Bay and 
on the Greve d'Azette. 

Carex Fsendo-ci/penis L. St. Ouen's Pond, 1900. Inaccessible, 
except in a very dry summer. 

Deschawpsia Jie.vuom Trin. St. Helier's, 1897. — Festuca anui- 
dinacea Schreb. St. Aubin's Bay, 1897. 

Chara aapera Willd. St. Ouen's Pond, 1900. Name confirmed 
by Mr. H. Groves. 

yitella fie.vilis Agardh. St. Peter's Valley, 1900. Named by 
Mr. H. Groves. 



SOME PROPOSED CHANGES IN NOMENCLATURE. 
By James Britten, F.L.S. 

In the course of working out the nomenclature for the IVus* 
trations of the Botany of Cook's First Voyage, now in course of 
publication, certain changes have seemed necessary, which it may 
be well to put on on record in a form more easily accessible. One 
such change has already been noted in the substitution of Cosmia 
for Calandrinia (Jouin. Bot. 1900, 76) ; those now to be given 
affect genera which will appear in the part of the Illustrations 
shortly to be issued. 

Huttum. 

This ugly name, which, like many by the same author, seems 
devoid of meaning, was pubhshed by Adanson in his Families des 
Plantes, ii. 88 (1763). There is no doubt as to what he had in 
view, for in his Index he cites •' Rumph. 3, t. lU a 116," and the 
first of these plates is cited by the Forsters when establishing their 
Barrinytonia (Char. Gen. p. 76, t. 38 (1776)). 

There has been so much divergence of opinion as to the position 
of the imperfect specimen collected by Banks & Solander and pre- 
served in the National Herbarium, that I propose to follow Miers 
in regarding it as a distinct species, for which I retain his specific 
name; it will therefore stand as Huttum culyptratuiu. Seemaun: 
(Fl. Vit. 83) assigns it doubtfully to H, (Barrinytonia) edule; 
Bentliam (Fl. Austral, iii. 28) refers to it as intermediate between 
H. (B.) speciosum. and H. yB.) acntawjulum ; Mueller (Fragm. ix. 
118) places it under H. (B.) racemosum, to which it is certainly 
more nearly aUied than to either of the other species named. None 
of these authors, however, consulted the plate, which will be re- 
produced in the Illustrations. 

i- 2 



68 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

CUMBIA. 

This name was published, as cited in the hidex Kewensis, by 
Francis Bnclianan (afterwards Hamilton) in his Jounien from 
Madras, iii. 187(1807). The entry stands simi'ly as '^ Ciunhia. 
The Pelon of the Hort. Mai.'' =•' ; but this citation of a good figure 
and full description, which has always been recognized as repre- 
senting the plant usually known as Careya arborex, is sufficient to 
justify the retention of Cmnbia, and to prevent its being regarded 
as a novien nudwn. That Hamilton liimself intended to establish 
the genus is clear from his statement in Trans. Linn. Soc. xv. 96 
(1827), where, while adopting Roxburgh's name Careya for the 
tree, he says : '*I had previously called it Ciinibia, and under this 
name gave specimens and a drawing to Sir J. E. Smith." He 
here (L. c. 97) adds a specific name to his genus (wrongly citing it 
as from Mysore, iii. 187), and calls the tree Cumhia\ ConeancB. 
The name of the Australian species will be Cumbia australis. 

'^ Nelitris. 

As pointed out by Trimen (Fl. Cejdon. ii. 339), '*the genus 
Timoniiis dates only from [DC. Prodr. iv. 461] 1830, and should 
rightly be superseded by Xelitrh [Gaertn. Fruct. i. 134] (1788); for 
Gaertuer's figure of the fruit (t. 27, f. 5) shows that this was the 
plant intended. He has in the text, however, confused it with 
some Eugenia, the specimens having been named ' Wal-jambu.' 
The name thus became applied by De Candolle to a genus of 
Myrtaceffi (properly Decaspermum. Forst.)." 

The type of the genus is N. Jambosella Gsertn. I.e. (T.Jamhosella 
Thw. Enum. 153 (1859)), a name erroneously given in the Index 
Kewensis as a synonym of I\ Kceniyii ; the widely distributed T. 
Humphii, with which as an Australian plant J am concerned, may 
be called N. Timon, that being the earliest specific name ; it is the 
Erithalis Timon of Sprengel (Pugillus, i. 18 (1813) ). 

Niebuhria. 

Niebuhria of Necker (Elem. i. 30 (1790)) must, I think, replace 
the generally accepted Wedeiia of Jacquin. 

In his Iter Hispanicum (1758), Loefling describes two genera — 
Wedelia (p. 180) and AUionia (p. 181). In 1759, Linnaeus (Syst. 
ed. 10, 890) united the two genera under the latter name, and gave 
trivial names to each, calling Loefling's AUionia, A. violacea, and 
his Wedelia, A. incarnata. The latter has been accepted as the type 
of the genus AUionia, of which indeed it is the only species retained 
in the Index Kewensis, where the genus is referred to " Loefl. Iter, 
181 (1758); Linn. Syst. ed. x. 890(1759)." 

Loefling's AUionia = Oxybaphus of L'Heritier and of authors, 
for which it has been restored by recent North American botanists 

* Vol. iii. p. 85, tab. 36. 

t It appears from Hamilton [1. c.) that Cumbia was formed by him from the 
native name Kumb or Kumbi. 



MYXOBACTERIA 



69 



(Morong and Brittoii-aiid-Brown). This necessitates the recogni- 
tion of Wedelia as the correct genus-name for the plant called by 
LinnoBus Alluma incarnata. Mr. Jackson cites Weddia incarnata 
(in italics) as from "Linn. Syst. ed. x. 890 " ; this combination, 
however, is not given by Linnaeus, and the name will stand as of 
Jacks. Ind. Kew. ii. 122^ (1895). Two other names are given in 
the I'inie.v under Wedelia — '^ incariiatu Linn. Syst. ed. x. 890," and 
" malachroides Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph, 114 " ; the former is not 
given by Linnaeus under Wedelia, and the latter appears in the 
Botany of the Sulphur (p. 44) as " AUionia (Wedelia) malacoides." 

If Wedelia of Loefling be retained, it is clear tliat the later Wedelia 
Jacq. (Enum. Carib. 8 (1760 ( ) must go ; the earhest name for this 
appears to be Niehuhria of Necker (Elem. i. 30 (1790) ), Scopoli's 
earlier genus of that name being referred to Baltimore ; the later 
Niehuhria of De Candolle is now usually combined with Mama. 
The two Australian species with which I am concerned are : — 

N. BIFLORA. 

Wedelia biflora DC. apud Wight Contrib. p. 18 (1834). 
Wollastonia bijiora DC. Prodr. v. 546 (1836). 

N. SPILANTHOIDES. 

Wedelia sjnUmthoides F. Muell. Fragm. v. 64 (1865). 

Although Niehuhria is not taken up in the Welwitsch Catalogue, 
Mr. Hiern concurs in its adoption. 

Razumovia. 
This genus was founded by Sprengel in 1807 (Mant. Prima, 
1807, p. 45) for the plant subsequently known as Centranthera 
hiDiiifusa Wall., a name retained in the Flora of British India (iv. 
301), where, however, Sprengel's name is cited as a synonym. 
Razumovia clearly antedates Centranthera, which was published by 
Brown (Prodr. 438) in 1810. C. hispida Br. will therefore stand 
as Razumovia hispida, and C. humifusa will be superseded by R. 

TRANQUEBARICA Spreng. 



MYXOBACTERIA. 

By a. Lorrain Smith. 

In 1892, Prof. Thaxter, of Harvard, published, in the Botanical 
Gazette, xvii. p. 389, the first results of his observations on the 
group of Schizomycetes that he has named Mycobacteria. These are 
bacteria that live on dead or decaying organic substances. They 
have power of slow movement, and flow together, forming col- 
lectively bodies of very definite and distinctive shape. The author 
distinguishes two periods in the life- history of these organisms. In 
the first, which he terms the vegetative period, there is a slow 
swarming of rod-like bacteria, which form a gelatinous secretion 
that connects the different individuals together. These swarm over 
the matrix on which they live, and, at certain definite points, they 
flow upwards, and form the variously shaped, erect bodies that he 



70 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

has described. This is the second state, and is the resting or en- 
C3^sted stage of the Myxohacteria ; a gelatinous wall is formed round 
the cysts, and they are capable of resisting adverse conditions such 
as cold, drought, or mechanical disturbance. In the simplest types, 
the resting stage is formed of simple, papillate, upright bodies, 
sessile or supported on a stalk ; but others have a much more com- 
plicated appearance, being fashioned into coralloid coiled strands, 
or into elongate branched stalks with numerous heads. In due 
time the contents of the cyst, rods or cocci, emerge, and the life- 
cycle begins over again. The cysts of the Myd'ohacteria are brightly 
coloured, so far as they have been observed ; they are usually of 
some shade of yellow or red, but brown and green species have also 
been noted. Most of them retain their bright colours, with some 
variations, through the different life-stages. 

Prof. Thaxter distinguishes three groups or genera of Myxo- 
hacteria — Cliondromyces and My.robacter, in which the encysted and 
swarming stage are equally composed of rods ; and Myxococcus, in 
which the rods become transformed into cocci or spores when they 
form into cysts. In Chondromyres the cysts remain more softly 
gelatinous, and may fuse togetlier if adjacent to each other. The 
cysts of Myx'>hacUr have a thick-walled gelatinous envelope, in 
wliich are included one or more cysts. The first member of the 
family tliat was recorded was Chontlromyccs crocatus Berk. & Curt., 
from South Carolina. It has an upright, somewhat branched 
irreguhir stalk, and several heads. The authors placed it among 
the Hyphoniycetes, where it remained until rescued by Prof. Thaxter, 
who has had it under observation, and who has described its true 
nature and affinities. 

Zukal, in a paper published in the Berich. Deut. Bot. Gesel. 
vol. XV. p. 542 (1897), states that the old monotypic genus Pdly- 
angium of Link is the same as Thaxter's genus Myxohacter, and 
claims for it priority of nomenclature. He had had PuJyangium 
vitellinum under observation some years ago, and considered it then 
to be a species of Mycetozoon ; it is to be regretted that Zukal does 
not give a more detailed account of his observations of Polyanyium. 
In 1886, Schroter, in Pilze Schl. p. 170, founded the genus Cysto- 
hacter, with two species. Both of these are typical Myxohacteria, 
and, in a paper published in the Bot. Gazette, vol. xxiii. p. 395 
(1897), Prof. Thaxter accepts Cystobacterfidvus Schrot. as a member 
of his Myxohdcter group, and sinks the name in favour of Schroter's. 
The other species described by Schroter belongs to the older genus 
• Cliondromyces. 

In the same paper Prof. Thaxter follows up his previous 
observations by a further description of spore-formation in Myxo- 
coccus. The rods in this genus do not divide for sporulation, as he 
at first thought they did ; they gradually enlarge at one end, and 
become shorter, each rod forming an almost round spore. The 
subsequent germination of these spores or cocci was also followed 
most satisfactorily; their contents formed into a rod which emerged 
from the spore, the empty case being left behind, or in some cases it 
remained for a time attached to the end of the full-grown rod. 



MYXOBACTERIA 71 

Most of the specimens described are from America ; one species 
is recorded from Liberia, in Africa ; and Zukal has recently found 
in Vienna four species of Clionihuiniicea identical with tliose dis- 
covered by Tliaxter; he has also described one new species — 
MyxococcKs mucrosporun. 

The specimen I have had under observation ^^rew on some 
pellets of rabbit-dung on which I was watching froui day to day 
the development of Dicti/osUdiuin, one of the near allies of the 
Mt/j:ohacteria. The pellets were gathered, on account of their 
very mouldy appearance, at Llanwymawddwy, in Merioneth.shire, 
towards the end of the long dry season of 1899. They were put 
away in a dry place for several weeks, then moistened and kept in 
a damp atmosphere. Numerous fnngi soon made their appearance, 
and in due course the cysts of what I now know were Myxobacteria. 
They looked exactly like the minute perithecia of some species of 
Nectria ; they were of a bright pinkish-orange colour, and grew in 
large numbers over the pellets. They were easily distinguishable 
with a small-power field-glass. A closer microscopic examination 
showed that the perithecia-like bodies were formed entirely of 
micrococci that were colourless when dispersed; there was no 
trace of fungal hyphse, and they could only be bacteria. I tried to 
cultivate the cocci in a hanging drop of sterilized decoction of the 
pellets, without success. Tube-cultures were also tried with a 
mixture of the decoction and gelatine, and these resulted in small 
spherical colourless colonies distributed in the gelatine after a few 
days, On examination these were seen to be formed of actively 
motile rods. An attempt was made to cultivate some of the bacteria 
from the colonies on carefully sterilized pellets, and so establish a 
relation between the different forms ; but this was, for unknown 
reasons, also unsuccessful. The coloured cysts first observed had 
disappeared meanwhile, and the whole matter was laid aside. 

In the Xatura/ist for November, 1900, I observed a reference by 
Mr. Massee to Prof. Thaxter's work on Mi/xohacteria, and recognized 
the nature of the cocci. I have no longer any doubt that the motile 
rods in the culture-tubes were a stage of the encysted cocci. Tne 
species differs in form and colour from the members of the genus 
already described, and is therefore an addition to the growing 
numbers of Myxohacteria, 



L ^ 



oooo n^ 
o ^ u^ 



B 



Myxococcus pyriformis. — A. Cysts magnified about 50 diameters. B. Cocci 
from the cysts. C. Rods from tlie colonies in the culture-tubes, both magnified 
2400 diameters. 

Myxococcus pyriformis, sp. n. Cysts scattered, pear-shaped, 
minute, varying in size, about ^ mm. in height, bright pinkish- 
orange-coloured, on a short transparent gelatinous stalk composed 



7'2 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

of cocci wliich are irregularly round or somewhat oval, 1-1'5 fi in 
diameter, or 2 x 1*5 /x ; colonies in the culture-tubes colourless or 
dirty white, formed of motile rods varying in length up to about 
3 X -8 /x. 

I have to thank Mr, Blackman for his valued advice and assist- 
ance during the progress of my investigation. The work was 
carried out in the Botanical Laboratory of the British Museum, and 
stained slides of the cocci and rods are placed in the Herbarium. 



SHORT NOTES. 

Viola tricolor L. var. nana DC. — The specimens mentioned by 
Mr. E. G. Baker as from Scilly are doubtless identical with the 
Channel Isle specimens. They are from Tresco, May, 1886 (IF. 
Curnoiv) ; St. Martin's, June, 1877 {J. Bdlj's). Mr. Curnow 
labelled the specimens " V. Curtisii.'' It was also distributed 
from St. Brelade's Bay, Jersey (Eer. A. Ley), named by Mr. Lloyd 
(Exchange Club Report for 1885, p. 124 (1886) ). I have it also 
from Mr. Andrews's station, gathered by Miss Dawber in 1894 ; 
also from Grand Havre, Guernsey, 1890, by the same lady. The 
plant is fully described by Mr. N. E. Brown in Eng. Bot. Supp. 
ed. 3, p. 32. Another interesting form of tricolor is that named by 
Mr. Lloyd " V. con finis Jordan, I". Provostii Bor." (Ex. Club Report, 
I.e.). It was gathered at Ecton, in North Staffordshire, by the 
Rev. W. H. Purchas. This has much the facies of (utea, but the 
colour is paler, and the growth that of tricolor. It is greatly to be 
desired that Mr. Baker will follow up the study of these plants, as 
there are several wanting names, and I trust that all who can will 
send him material. An interesting form occurs at Sheringham, 
Norfolk, wliich I have been unable to identify ; I hope Mr. Baker 
will do so. — Arthur Bennett. 

A Suffolk Note. — Accompanying specimens of Lycopodium in 
Petiver's Hort. Sice. Angl. (Herb. Sloane, 150, fol. 46) is a note by 
Adam Buddie which may be worth transcribing, as it mentions a 
local botanist unknown, so far as I am aware, to fame. Buddie's 
visit to Lothingland is referred to iu this Journal for 1881 (p. 55) 
by R. A. Pryor, who thought that it probably took place during 
Buddie's residence at Heuley, Suffolk, about 1697. This sef'ms to 
be confirmed by his note as to Lycopodium chivaUnn, which is 
interestmg, as the only locality recorded for the plant in the Flora 
of Snfnik is Tuddenham Heath, which is not very distant from 
Henley, and v\h cli is also a locality for L. inundatnni, the "crt epiiig 
Clubmoss " meniiontd by Buddie. The note (which is not dated) 
ji^us : — " I found y® Museus clavatus on a heath near me but very 
sjiaiingly y* being y^ onely head I found. The other creeping 
club moss I found abundantly on a boggy place on a heath in y^ 
Isle of Lovingland [Lothingland] y^ best place for simpling in 
Suffolk. I there found Sium alterum Olusatri facie [Cicnta virosa] , 



SHORT NOTES 78 

Aspleninm siveCeterach, Equisetiim nudum G. asperum [E. hyemaJe] , 
Lathyrus vicineformis &c [/.. pahistris] , Eryiigium vulgaie seu medi- 
terraiiiii [E. oimpcstir] , with other rare phmts tho no strangers to 
you, in y" company of one Mr. Barker of Beccles an industrious 
botanist who without banter knows to a yard square of ground 
where every rare phint of y*" Island grows, having search'd it for 
these severall years past." — James Britten. 

The Box in Britain. — Dunstable is mentioned as a locality for 
Box on p. 29. The Box grows apparently wild on the chalk downs 
near Ashridge and Berkhampstead, some six or seven miles from 
here. I believe there are some old trees, but I have not been for some 
years. Near by, at the foot of the chalk hills, is Boxmoor. The 
Ashridge Hills are geologically similar with the Box Hill of the 
South Downs. The local name near Ashridge and Ivanhoe is 
*'Box Hill." The Box district here is chiefly in Hertfordshire, 
although the Box is not included in Mr. R. A. Pryor's flora of the 
county. There is a place in Beds on the top of Dunstable Downs 
(chalk), about four miles from here, near Whipsuade, named Box- 
stead, the local pronunciation of which is Buck-stead. There is a 
place named *'Boxe" in Domesday Book for Herts, sect, xxviii. ; 
I see by maps that this was in S. Beds or N. Herts, as Boxe is 
associated with Craulai and Westone (Crawley and Westoning) in 
S. Beds, and Oflelei (Offley), close by, in N. Herts. At the latter 
place there are chalk hills with woods, identical with the hills and 
woods where the Box now grows near Ashridge and Berkhampstead, 
but whether Box occurs on these hills now I do not know. Chauncy, 
Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire, vol. ii. p. 126, 1826, identifies 
the Boxe of Domesday with Box and Boxbury, and says: — " Tiiis 
was a Vill or Parish, which was scituated between the Parishes of 
Stevenage, Chivesfield, and Walkerne ; there was anciently a 
Church to the same, which was erected in a Field on the Hill near 
the Woods, now called the Church-yard, where the Foundations 
may be seen ; and this Parish was called Box from a great wood, 
which retains this name to this day." On p. 128 he refers to Box- 
bury : — "As to the other Moyety of this Mannor, and Tythes of 
Boxbury King H. VIII granted them," &c. Two miles S.E. of 
Boxwood is Box Hall. In vol. i. p. 43, under Pipe Rolls of Edw. L, 
the personal names of Ralph Boxted and Ralph de Boxted, 1288, 
occur. The place-name Boxstead occurs on Dunstable Downs. 
In Chauncy's Map of Herts, 1700, he gives the place-name Box, 
not Box-wood, two miles E. of Stevenage. A farmer here, from 
Pirton, N.W. border of Herts, says there is a Box-orchard there 
with large box-trees. I have noticed that Box is pronounced bux 
by the ru^tics. Other Latni forms occur in this district, as the comp 
(tiie plain) — a field called Caiiipum downum or dinium (= field at 
base of down), itc. Tiie six incii Ordnance mnp is very inferior 
to the old one-inch, for place-names. — W. G. Smith. 

Mosses of North-east Yorkshire, " V.-C. 62" (Journ. Bot. 
1900, 484-9). — I am much obliged to Mr. Cocks for pointing out a 
mistake in this paper. It arose from a persistent idea I have had 



74 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

for some time that the "Ainsty" was in N.E. Yorkshire. Having 
had only a short time in which to prepare tlie paper, I inifortunately 
omitted looking at my vice-comity boundaries, or the mistake might 
have been avoided. Mosses from the following places mentioned in 
the paper should be transferred to v.-c. 6i : — Askham Bog, Moor- 
monkton, Hammerton, Healaugh. Appleton Roelmck, Thorparch, 
Boston Spa, Colton, Bolton Percy, Tockwith, He<say — all of which 
are in the Aiusty of York. Mosses from Leckby Carr should be 
transferred to v.-c. 65. — Wm. Ingham. 

RuBUS CRINIGER Liuton IN SOMERSET. — In September, 1894, 
I collected by a roadside near Oare, in West Somerset (v.-c. 5), a 
bramble which I conld not name. A few days ago I examined the 
specimens agaui, and, still feeling uncertain, took them to Mr. 
Rogers, who tells me that they are B. crini(/er Linton. This makes 
a new '* county record," and considerably extends the known 
distribution of the species. — R. P. ^Iurray. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Genera Mimcoi um Frondosorum, Classes Schistocarporum, Cleisto- 
carponini, Steffocarporum coniplectentla, exceptis Ortliotnchaceis 
et Pleurocdiph. Gattungen und Gruppen der Laubmoose in 
historischer und systematischer Beziehung, sowie nach ihrer 
geographischen Verbreitung unter Beriicksichtigung der Arten. 
Handschrif tlicher Nachlass von Dr. Carl Muller. Mit einem 
Vorworte von Dr. Karl Schliephacke. Leipzig: E. Kummer. 
1901. Preis 12 M. Pp. viii, 474. 

Nearly two years have elapsed since the death of the renowned 
moss- specialist Carl Mueller on February 9th, 1899. Born on 
December 16th, 1818, and actively pursuing his studies to the 
last, this indefatigable worker found the generous allotment of 
nearly eighty-one years insufficient to enable him to complete his 
life's vocation. 

In the sympathetic preface with which Dr. Schliephacke intro- 
duces this last fragment of his old friend's work, he gives us some 
interesting data of C.irl Mueller's career — how he discovered his 
first new moss [Sphagnum muUuscoides) so long ago as the year 
1840 ; how he began the publication of that classical work, the 
Synopsis Muscoruni Frondosorum in 1847 and finished it in four 
years. The two volumes contain nearly 1600 pages, and added 
473 new species to bryological science. Before issuing his Synopsis, 
Carl Mueller had already published twenty-five bryological papers, 
and since its completion he has added eighty more, three of which 
have appeared since his death. These contributions are to be found 
in all sorts of periodicals and books of travel. In 1853 was produced 
his Deutschlands Moose, a volume of 512 pages. Nor did his Uterary 
activity cease here, for during a number of years he was concerned 



GENERA MTJSCORUM FRONDOSORUM 76 

in the editorial management of the Botaniffchr ZeituyK/ &nd Die XatKr. 
What the sum total of the new species he described may be it is 
impossible to say with any approach to accuracy ; but six or seven 
tlioiisand is probably a moderate computation. He certainly pub- 
lished some two thousand after 1895, presumably urged on by 
the genesis of General Paris's Index Bnjoloijiciis ; moreover, some 
hundreds of numina nuda are put into circulation in the present 
work. 

He contemplated, Dr. Schliephacke tells us, the publication of 
a third volume of his Si/nopsis, and began to prepare the requisite 
material more than ten years ago ; but the uninterrupted supply of 
new gatherings of mosses from all parts of the world which reached 
him kept him so fully occupied that he was never able to execute 
his project. And so that new or revised synopsis of the world's 
mosses, which is so badly needed and which he, from his complete 
mastery of the subject, was so thoroughly competent to provide, 
still remains unwritten. It is true that, so far as the acrocarpous 
mosses are concerned, some degree of consolation may be found in 
the present fragment, upon which he was engaged in his last years. 
The pity is that the pen was snatched from his failing hand when 
the task was but half completed. However, as far as it goes, it is 
an exposition of his views as to the proper grouping of the genera 
and subgenera, conveying an adequate description of the morpho- 
logical characteristics of the various groups, genera, &c., and of their 
historical development, and a skilful account of the geographical 
distribution of the species, the whole being interspersed with critical 
and sagacious remarks which both add to the interest of the text 
and reveal the profundity of the author's knowledge and his 
wonderful grasp of the subject. 

The system adopted is an amplification of that which was 
expounded in the St/nopsis fifty years ago. The Cleistocarpous 
mosses are retained in a class by themselves. The Sphmpiacecp 
maintain an artificial position in contiguity with the Leacobri/acea. 
The genera are far fewer and more condensed than in rival systems 
of classification ; thus Campijlopnsis but a subgenus of Dicranum. 
The number of genera treated is about 115, and seven of these bear 
a superficial resemblance to novelty which in some cases is mis- 
leading. For three of them [Beckett ia, Thysanomitrlopsis, and 
Hfjpndontium) will not withstand the test of research. They have 
already been described in Heduvjia. Two of the others, Brothera 
and Monncranum (both Dicranaceous), were baptized in Kindberg's 
Enumeratio Bnjinearuui E.votic(num in 1891, but now are described 
for the first time. And as for the remaining two, Spruceella and 
Aulacomitrium Broth, (both Pottiaceous), they labour under the 
disadvantage of being fitted with names which are open to strong 
objection. Sprucella Steph., which barely differs from the former 
name, has been in use in the Hepatics since 1886. And, as to the 
latter, it must give way, if the Macromitrious Aulacomitrium. Mitt. 
(1891) is a sound genus. 

It is much to be regretted that no references are given to the 
first place of publication of the subgenera, as they would have been 



76 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

very welcome. Those of the genera, however, are supplied, but are 
not always satisfactory. For instance, Phasciwi, Ephemerum, and 
Astominn are referred to " Hampe Liinmu 1832." But I have never 
been able to find this reference. Pfeifit'er, in his Noniemiator 
Botanicus (1873), is unable to quote the page. It is true that 
Schwaegrichen, in the text to his tab. 301, h (Spec. Muse. Frond. 
(1842) ), refers these genera to Hampe, " in diario Schlechtendaliano 
anni 1832, p. 522 " ; but, if this journal means Linucea, then the 
reference is a myth. On the other hand, Hampe broke up the 
genus Fhasrum L. in a moss-list published in Flora, 1837, p. 285 ; 
and Astomiim and Ephemermn liave the aspect of being printed there 
for the first time. Schwaegrichen's quotation requires explanation. 
The species he quotes are not in every case allocated to the same 
eenus as in Hampe's list of 1837. 

A. G. 

Botany : an FAementary Text for Schools. By L. H. Bailey. 
8vo, pp. xi, 355, 500 figs. The Macmillan Company : New 
York. 1900. Price 6s. 

Another delightful book from Professor L. H. Bailey, recalling 
in its wealth of illustrations and general air of excellence his 
Lessons with Plants reviewed in this Journal for 1898 (p. 200). 
The Lessons was to supplement the work of the teacher ; the new 
book is made for the pupil. But the teacher should read and mark 
the paragraphs addressed to himself in the form of an introduction ; 
a series of sentences replete witti common-sense advice. The author 
has studied his pupils as well as the plants, and aptly hits off the 
relations which should subsist between them. The secondary teacher, 
he reminds us, has not to train scientific observers, but to educate 
the child, to bring him closer to the things with which he lives, to 
widen his horizon, and intensify his hold on life. Botany should 
not be taught for the purpose of making the pupil a specialist: that 
effort should be retained for the few who develop a taste for special 
knowledge. Such a one should be encouraged. There are colleges 
and universities in which he may continue his studies. But, while 
the ninety and nine cannot, and should not, be botanists, every one 
can love plants and nature. 

Professor Bailey traces four epochs in the teaching of elementary 
botany — (1) The effort to know the names of plants, and to classify. 
(2) The desire to know the formal names of the parts of plants, an 
outgrowth of the study of gross morphology when botanies came to 
be dictionaries of technical terms. (3) The effort to develop the 
powers of independent investigation ; a result largely of the German 
laboratory system, which emphasized the value of the compound 
microscope and other apparatus. " This method is of the greatest 
service to botanical science, but its introduction into the secondary 
schools is usually unfortunate " — a statement which will be 
thoroughly endorsed by every one who has witnessed the results 
by examination and otherwise of the attempt. (4) The effort to 
know the plant as a complete organism, living its own life in a 



BOTANY : AN ELEMENTARY TEXT FOR SCHOOLS 77 

natural way. This epoch started with the appearance of Kerner's 
work on Plant-Hfe, but it is to the New World and to men like 
Professor Bailey that we owe its appreciation and the development 
of what is at once a rational method of study and at the same time 
one that is attractive to young pupils. 

The book is arranged in four parts. The subjects are — the 
nature of the plant itself; the relation of the plant to its sur- 
roundings ; histological studies ; and determination of the kinds of 
plants. Each is practically a distinct subject, and the teacher may 
begin where he will. If he is wise, he will begin at the beginning. 

Part i. — The Plant Itself — occupies more than half the book. 
It consists of twenty-five short chapters, dealing with the general 
structure of the plant, its parts, and the parts they play in the life- 
processes. The text is paragraphed, and the author makes a free 
use of differences in type to emphasize axioms and other points of 
importance. The pictures are good, plentiful, and apropos, but the 
pupil is continually referred to actual plants with which he is, 
ought to be, or may easily become acquainted. The short review 
at the end of each chapter is a searching cross-examination between 
teacher and taught, and may be extended indefinitely. We note that 
the author occasionally departs from generally accepted use of terms 
— as, for instance, when he defines bracts as "much reduced leaves" 
including leaf-bud scales, or uses corymbose as practically syno- 
nymous with an indefinite inflorescence, or refers to the groups of 
sporangia on fern-leaves as " fruit-dots." We should prefer, where 
terms have crystallized out, to retain them, so long as they are 
useful and not misleading, in their generally received meaning. 

Part ii. — The Plant in its Environment (pp. 197-232) — contains 
five suggestive and attractive chapters enhanced by a series of very 
nice photographs of landscape, plant-associations, &c. Part iii. — 
Histology, or the Minute Structure of Plants (pp. 233-274) — is 
advisedly brief; it contains directions for microscopic work, and a 
short account of the general anatomy of stem, leaf, and root. The 
terms endogenous and exogenous as contrasting the mode of growth 
in the stem of a monocotyledon and dicotyledon might well be ex- 
punged from elementary works, as they have been from all up-to-date 
advanced text-books. Part iv. — The Kinds of Plants (pp. 276-340) 
— contains directions for making a collection, and an account of 
twenty-five important families witli their commoner genera and 
species arranged on the plan of a flora. At the end is an index and 
glossary, which seems to have been carefully prepared. One would 
like to think that children in our own country had the chance of 
learning about plants on Professor Bailey's plan. 

A. B. R. 



78 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS^' 

Annals of Botany (Dec.) — A. H. R. Bnller, ' Physiology of 
Spermatozoa of Ferns.' — W. A. Murrill, ' Development of arclie- 
gonium and fertilization in Tsuga canadensis.' — A. Howard, Tricho- 
sphcBiia Sacchari. — E. Sargant, * Transit from stem to root in 
vascular system of seedlings ' (1 pi.). — Id., ' Fertilization in Angio- 
sperms.' — W. Wallace, ' Stem-structure of Actinostennna bitjiaudulosa' 
(1 pi.).— F. F. Blackman, 'Primitive Alg« and Flagellata.'— W. C. 
Worsdell, 'Affinities of Bennettites.' — I. B. Balfour, 'Richard 
Spruce ' (portr.). 

Bot. Gazette (20 Dec). — R. W. Smith, 'Achromatic Spindle of 
Osmanda ' (1 pi.). — E. M. Chamot & G. Thiry, ' Chromogenic Bac- 
teria.' — J. M. Van Hook, ' Division of cell and nucleus in Liver- 
worts ' (1 pi.). — M. W. Doherty, Tihnmatostroma ahietina^ sp. n. — 
W. R. Maxon, Asplenium ebenoides. 

Bot. Zeitung (16 Jan.). — L. Jost, ' Ueber einige Eigenthiim-. 
lichkeiten des Cambium der Baume ' (1 pi.). 

BuU. Torreii ^ot. Club (29 Dec.).— C. H. Peck, 'New Fungi.'— 
P. A. Rydberg, Rocky Mountain Com/)osita.-\ — W. R. Maxon, 
Pteridophyta of Alaska. — A. Zahlbruckner, ' Zur Flechten-Flora 
Siid-Californiens.' — E. G. Britton, ' Bryological Notes.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (19 Jan.). — E. A. Bowles, * Crocus mara- 
thonisius.' — (19, 26 Jan.). A. Worsley, ' Hybridization in AniaryllecB.* 

Journal de Botanique " Juillet 1900"; received 10 Jan.). — 
P. Van Tiegliem, Pentaphylla.v et Corynocarpus. — E. Perrot, 
' Organes appendiculaires des feuilles de Myriophylhun.' — A. Finet, 
• Fieur anormale de Cypripediuni ' (1 pi.). — C. Bernard, * Spheres 
attractives chez Lilium candidum, Helosis, etc' (2 pi.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (Jan.). — L. Linsbauer, ' Bemerkungen 
iiber Anthokyanbildung.'' — H. & P. Sydow, ' Zur Pilzflora Tirols.' 
— J. Velenovsky, 'Achter Nachtrag zur Flora von Bulgarien.' — 
V. Kindermann, ' Ueber das sogennante Bluten der Fruchtkorper 
von Stereum sanciuinolentum.' 

Rhodora (Dec). — R. G. Leavitt, ' Polyembryony in Spiranthes 
cernua.' — M. L. Fernald. 'Northeastern Thalictrums ' (1 pi.). — Id., 
' Scirpus matitimus.' — C.B.Graves, 'Early growth of hnpatiens 
bijiora.' — B. L. Robinson, ' Nomenclature of Agrimonia.' — H. 
Webster, * Tricholonia portentosnni.' — (Jan.). G. E. Davenport, 
'Asplenium ebeneum var. Hortona' (1 pi.). — J. M. Greeuman, 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always oe inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 

• A note on Sideranthus in this Journal for 1899, p. 483, might have been 
referred to in this paper. 



BOOK-NOTESj NEWS, ETC. 7^* 

* Senecio in New England.' — A. W. Evans, * Fossombronia salina.*-^ 
B. L. Robinson, ' Gmiphaliam plantaginijolium Linn.' — M. L. Fer- 
nald, * Xlonarda Jistiilosa.' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



We have just received Part xx. of Dr. Braithwaite's British 
Moss-Flora (London: 26, Endymion Road, Brixton Hill. Pp. 97- 
128; tt. ciii-cviii. Price 6s.), and we observe with pleasure the 
notice that three more parts will finish the work. The present 
instalment contains descriptions of twenty-seven species, and 
illustrations of thirty. It treats of the three remaining species 
of WiipichostetiiiDii, and the sections Brachythecium (thirteen species) 
and Pleuropits (three species), thus bringing us to the end of the 
genus Hi/pniuti. Then follow four small genera — Lesquereiixia and 
Isotheciiim with four and two species respectively, and Pterogonium 
and Pterygijnandrum with one apiece. Camptothecium will be found 
united with Homalothecium under the section Pleiiropus ; and in 
Lesquereiixia , Liudberg's emendation of Lescuraa Br. et Sch., are 
included Ptychodiiun and Pseudoleskea. 

Although not strictly a botanical book, the Practical Guide to 
Garden Plants, which Mr. John Weathers has prepared and Messrs. 
Longman have published in a handsome guinea volume, has more 
claims to be so considered than most of its kind. The arrangement 
of the descriptive portion of the work is systematic, the sequence of 
the orders usual in British books being followed ; and the descriptions 
themselves, so far as we have tested them, are accurate, and are 
couched in language intelligible to any one of ordinary education. 
Besides a full glossary and a sketch of the life-history of plants, 
there are descriptions of flower, fruit, and vegetable gardens, useful 
lists of plants grouped under different headings, plans for arrange- 
ment, work, etc. — in fact, everything that the amateur gardener 
needs. Except in the glossary, there are no illustrations — a fact 
which we do not regard as altogether a drawback in these days 
when popular books are loaded with indiscriminate and often un- 
suitable figures. There is a good index of the plants described, 
which makes up for any inconvenience that might be felt by those 
unfamiliar with the systematic arrangement adopted. 

It may be noted that Kehles Parishes, by the veteran Anglican 
novelist Miss Charlotte Yonge, published by Messrs. Macmillan in 
1898, contains a long list (pp. 205-234) of the flowering plants of 
Hursley and Otterbourne, the Hampshire parishes in question. 
Miss Yonge has written about wild flowers before in Tlie Herb of 
the Field, a pretty little book published anonymously in 1858. On 
the present occasion it is much to be regretted that she did not 
submit her list to some botanist for revision. The few names of 
orders given seem to have been dropped in at random, so little do 



80 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

they correspond with the plants placed under them ; and occasion- 
ally the text has got misplaced, as when Vicia septum is described 
as ''a brilliant little red flower" — a remark clearly belonging to 
Lathyrus Xissulta, which stands next in the list. 

The Flora of Staffordshire, on which Mr. J. E. Bagnall has been 
engaged for some years, will be issued as a supplement to this 
Jouinal. It will be paged coutinuoiisly for the convenience of 
those who may wish to bind it separately. The first instalment 
appears with our present issue. 

The first two numbers (Nov. and Dec. 1900) have reached us of 
The 0. S. U. Xatnralist, published by the Biological Club of the 
Ohio State University. The editor for botany is Mr. F. J. Tyler, 
B.Sc. ; the botanical articles in the numbers Ijefore as are mostly 
by Mr. W. A. Kellerman. 

Mr. Frederick Townsend is anxious to obtain, either by ex- 
change or payment, specimens of Euphrafiia from Austria, Italy, 
and Spain. His address is : Aldworth, Haslemere. 

Messrs. Linton have just issued the Sixth Fascicle of their 
Set of British Hieracia. " in completion of (their) original design 
and undertaking." It is hinted that a supplementary fascicle of 
forms not yet represented in this set may be brought out in course 
of time. A selection from the notes accompanying the fascicle, 
wliich largely consists of forms believed to be endemic, will appear 
in our next issue. 

Mr. a. B. Jackson contributes to the Transactions of the Leicester 
Literary and Philosophical Society (vol. v., October, 1900) some 
-' Notes on the Botany of the Beaumont Leys Sewage Farm " near 
Thurcaston, in that county. 

We regret to announce the death of Dr. J. G. Agardh, of Lund, 
of whom we hope to publish a notice in our next issue. 

No. 4 of Notes from the Botanical School of Trinity Colleyei 
Dublin, issued in January, contains notes *' On the first mitosis of 
the spore-mother cells of Lilium"' (with two plates), and others on 
MardiantiacecE, Arum italicum, Cuscuta rejiexa, and Drosera rotundi- 
folia, by Dr. H. H. Dixon ; notes on Algae and on * bletting,' by 
Prof. Perceval Wright ; and a memoir of G. J. Allman. 

To Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. — With reference to the editorial 

notes contained in the Journal of Botauy for January, 1901, pages 

47 and 48, reflecting on you and your work in connection with the 

preparation of tije Flora of Tropical Africa, I desire to offer to you 

an expression of my sincere regret for the same. The preparation 

of the Flora of Tropical Africa was not committed to you until the 

year 1891, and my statement that it has been in your hands since 

1872 is incorrect. I sincerely apologize to you for having imputed 

to you unnecessary delay in its preparation, and I desire to withdraw 

ail reflections and imputations affecting you of every kind whatever 

contained in the editorial notes referred to. 

James Britten. 



*5i^'^*;.- 



00^ ^-X '^-^ 




. L. pinx. 



81 

NOTES ON MYCETOZOA. 

By Arthur Lister, F.R.S. 

(Plate 419.) 

Badhamia versicolor, n.sp. (PL 419, fig. 2). Mr. W. Gran, 
whose extensive gatherings of Mycetozoa in the West Indies are 
recorded in this Journal for 1898, pp. 113-122, has discovered in 
the neighbourhood of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, a Badhcunia which 
appears to have been hitherto undescribed. The general characters 
of the species are as follows : — Plasmodium ? Sporangia sessile, 
subglobose, 0*8 -0-5 mm. diam., pure grey or grey with a tinge of 
flesh-colour, scattered or in small groups ; sporangium-wall hyaline, 
with innate clusters of lime-granules, the lime sometimes scanty 
or wanting ; columella none ; capilhiium a coarse network of broad 
or narrower bands densely charged throughout with lime ; in some 
sporangia the granules contained in the capillitium are white, in 
others apricot-coloured; spores ovoid or somewhat cuueate, arranged 
in clusters of from ten to forty or more, purple-brown and minutely 
warted on the broad end, pale and smooth elsewhere, 10 X 8- 
12 X 9 /x diam. Hab. on lichen and moss on tree-trunks. 

The unbroken sporangia vary slightly in tint, as described above ; 
when the sporangium-wall is ruptured and the spores are dispersed, 
the contrast between those containing apricot capillitium and those 
with white is very marked, and suggests the specific name adopted. 
The prevailing colour is grey ; thus, in a superficial examination of 
495 sporangia, 300 were classed as grey, and 195 as apricot ; 
occasionally the lime is almost or entirely wanting in the white 
capillitium, but this is exceptional. The spores differ from those 
of any other species of the genus I am acquainted with ; the large 
clusters take the form of hollow spheres, and the spores resemble in 
their arrangement the drupes of a ripe raspberry ; they are remark- 
ably translucent, and are but faintly tinted except on the side 
turned towards the surface of the sphere (PI. 419, fig. 2 6-, d). The 
habitat is also different from that chosen by other members of the 
group. Mr. Gran describes the sporangia as being found breast- 
high and upwards on most of the trees in his neighbourhood that 
have lichen and moss on the trunks ; below this level they have 
seldom been met with. The specimens we have received are on 
yellow and grey lichen, principally on Phijscia parietina : some are 
on moss {(Jrthotrichnm). Mr. Gran first gathered the species in 
Sept. 1899 ; since that time it has frequently come under his 
notice; in Sept. 1900, he speaks of it as being "in tolerable 
abundance on elder, elm^ ash, &c., but very difficult to distinguish." 

B. versicolor appears to be allied on the one hand to B. Jujalina, 
and on the other to B. nitens ; considering the minute size of the 
sporangia, and their similarity in colour to the lichen on which 
they rest, it is not surprising that the species has until now escaped 
notice. Mr. Gran has searched for the plasmodium, but hitherto 
without success. 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol.89. [March, 1901.] <i 



82 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

Badhamia foliicola List. Dr. E. Jahn, of Berlin, has sent me 
a specimen of this species gathered at Jnngfernheide, near Berlin, 
in July, 1900. He describes it as frequently appearing after heavy 
rains with orange plasmodium on grass and dead leaves in woods. 
It corresponds in all respects with the abundant growths in Wan- 
stead Park in the autumns of 1896 and 1898, and at Lyme Regis in 
1897, already recorded (Journ. Bot. 1899, 145). In September, 
1900, Mr. James Saunders found B. fuliicola among straw in a 
stack-yard at Chaul End, near Luton; it was limited in quantity, 
but is identical in character with the original type. The species 
has now been obtained from four localities. 

Badhamia ovispora Racib. Miss Hibbert-Ware adds another 
station for the occurrence of this Badhamia ; it appeared in May, 
1900, in considerable quantity on stable-manure in a cucumber- 
house at St. Margaret's School, Bushey, Herts. Mr. Saunders 
gathered it plentifully in September, 1899, in a stack-yard at Stops- 
ley, near Luton, where it had been obtained in July, 1897, as before 
recorded (Journ. Bot. 1897, 354; 1898, 161). 

Badhamia lilaoina Rost. As the habitat of this species is given 
by most authorities as being on rotten wood and bark, it may be 
interesting to record the localities from which the gatherings that 
have come under my notice were obtained. In September, 1891, 
Miss G. Lister came upon a mass of bright yellow plasmodium on 
Sphagnum in a wide moor at Pilraoor, Yorkshire ; the moss was 
carefully gathered and placed in a basket, in which it was carried 
to London next day ; on reaching home, a perfect development of 
Badhamia iilarina sporangia, many hundreds in number, had 
taken place. In August, 1896, Mr. Saunders found bright yellow 
Plasmodium on Sphagnum in a swampy wood at Flitwick, Beds ; 
perfectly formed sporangia witli characteristic capillitium and spores 
of B. lilacina were produced from this growth. In September, 1899, 
some members of my family were travelling in Scotland, and noticed 
yellow Plasmodium on Sphagnum on an open moor near Arisaig ; 
careful protection was used, resulting in the formation of typical 
sporangia of the species. There is a specimen of B. lilacina in 
Greville's herbarium at Edinburgh, but we have no other record 
of this species having been collected in Britain previous to the 
Pilmoor gathering. 

Physarum calidris List. In August, 1900, I received from Mr. 
D. MacAlpine, of the Department of Agriculture, Melbourne, 
Victoria, a specimen of P. calidris found on dead plum-leaves. 
I am not aware that it has before been recorded from Australia. 
The capillitium consists of a network of broad bands charged with 
lime, associated with numerous slender threads ; the stalks are 
translucent, of the usual red-brown colour. 

Physarum contextum Bost. Mr. Cran gathered this species 
near Rhynie in Oct. 1900. It is the orange-coloured form marked 
in De Bary's collection at Strassburg " var. splendens." The upper 
sporangium-wall is brittle, and there are vitreous flakes intermixed 



NOTKS ON MYCKtOZOA 88 

with the granuhir substance such as are found in P. cowjloineratiun 
but rarely iu P. contextwn; the spores measure 11 /x, and are of 
typical colour and roughness. 

Physarum Dideema Eost. Mr. J. Jackol has sent me a specimen 
of this species from the State of Washington ; it is the first time we 
have seen an example of it from the United States. The sporangia 
are long plasmodiocarps, and the outer calcareous layer of the 
sporangium-wall is in several parts refiexed from the persistent 
membranous inner layer, a feature which is one of the distinctive 
characters of the species. The gathering corresponds in all respects 
with the English type. 

Physarum Crateriachea List. An account of a large gathering 
of this species at Wardour Castle in August, 1895, was given in this 
Journal for 1895, p. 823, where reasons were advanced for sup- 
pressing the generic name Crateriachea given by Rostafinski, and 
placing the species in the genus Physarum. Since the date of that 
notice P. Crateriachea has twice been found in the neighbourhood of 
Luton ; Mr. Saunders gathered it on straw in a plantation at Chaul 
End in September, 1899, and again in July, 1900. On both oc- 
casions there was a plentiful crop of precisely the same form as that 
obtained at Wardour Castle. In December, 1899, I received from 
Mr. R. E. Fries, of Upsala, specimens of a gathering he had made 
at Frostviken, Jamtland, Sweden; they corresponded essentially 
with our English examples and with the type in the Strassburg 
collection. The sporangia were scattered, some nearly sessile, 
others on short or longer stalks ; the stalks did not contain lime, 
except where the apex expanded into the large conical or ovoid- 
oblong columella, which was densely charged with white lime- 
granules. The capillitium in the outer part consisted of delicate 
anastomosing colourless threads, with scattered small white lime- 
knots ; near the columella the threads were coarser, and contained 
numerous brown membranous expansions such as we see in im- 
perfect developments of other species of Physarum ; the spores 
averaged about 8 // diam., intermixed with others of abnormal size. 
The points in which the Swedish specimen differed from the former 
gatherings were the more globose sporangia and the character of the 
sporangium-wall, which was almost entirely destitute of lime, and 
often iridescent. The columella was sometimes replaced by scattered 
lime-knots, but this feature occurs in the English specimens. 

Physarum Gulielm^ Penzig. In Oct. 1899, I received from 
Dr. Ph. Trilling, of Berlin, a specimen gathered by him near Kiel, 
which we place under this name. It corresponds with that sent by 
Mr. R. E. Fries from Upsala, previously described (Journ. Bot. 
1899, 117). It is allied to P. rirescens Ditm., but appears to be 
specifically distinct, notably in the white lime-knots of the capil- 
litium. With the exception of Prof. Penzig's type from Java, we 
know of no other record of its occurrence. 

Physarum didermoides Rost. var. lividum List. During the 
years 1899 and 1900 Mr. Saunders has repeatedly found this 

a 2 



Si THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

form in the stack-yards near Luton ; the characters described m 
the former notice (Jom-n. Bot. 1898, 161) are quite constant. 

Physarum straminipes List. In August, 1899, Mr. Cran supphed 
me with a typical specimen of this species found on straw near 
Rhynie, and on Dec. 30th, 1900, I gathered it on dead leaves by 
the roadside at Lyme Regis; in the same month Miss Hibbert-Ware 
obtained it, also on dead leaves, at Clevedon. P. straminipes has 
now been recorded from Bedfordshire, Dorset, Somerset, Norfolk 
(where it was collected by Mr. Burrell, of Sheringham, ni October, 
1898), and from Scotland; the characters given in the j5rst de- 
scription of the species (Journ. Bot. 1898, 163) are constant in all 
the specimens received from the various localities. 

FuLiGO ELLiPsospoRA List. I am indebted to Mr. Saunders for 
several fine specimens of F. elllpsospora. The combined sporangia 
form compact asthalia from one to two inches long, and about a 
quarter of an inch broad ; they are pure white, with a smooth 
cortex ; the spores are of the typical ellipsoid shape, and measure 
13 X 9-10 /x diam. It is the form we receive from America, but 
has not before been recorded from this country. Mr. Saunders 
found the sethalia on straw and twigs in a stack-yard on Stopsley 
Common, near Luton, on September 9th, 1899. On comparing 
this gathering with that by Miss Fry in 1898 (Journ. Bot. 1899, 
148), there is a striking difference, as in the latter specimen the 
sporangia do not form a compact aethalium, and the spores are 
nearly spherical; in the capillitium and in other respects they 
closely agree, and we do not doubt that they are both the same 
species. 

FuLiGo ochracea Peck. In a previous notice (Journ. Bot. 1899, 
148) I referred to a specimen received from Mr. Fries, of Upsala, 
as being the first recorded European example of F. ochracea. I am 
now able to report a second gathering. On September 22nd, 1899, 
a lobed mass of translucent apricot-coloured Plasmodium was found 
on rushes growing amongst a cushion of Poli/tricJiiuii commune on 
the open mountain-side of Aran Mawddwy, Merionethshire, about 
1000 ft. alt. The rnsh-stems were carefully cut with a pair of 
scissors and laid on a bed of Sphagnum ; they were brought home, 
a distance of two miles, and placed under a bell-glass. On the 
following day the plasmodium had collected in lumps from a quarter- 
inch to one inch in length, partly on the Sphagnum on to which 
it had crawled, and partly on the rush- stems. On September 24th 
the greater part had turned black; it was kept moist until the 26th, 
when it dried into inconspicuous ochraceous-olive sethalia ; in one 
or two places the sporangia had not combined into a smooth aetha- 
lium, but retained their individuality in contorted clusters ; the 
capillitium is almost B a dhamia -like in character, and consists of 
large branching apricot-coloured lime-knots with a few connecting 
hyaline threads ; the spores are purple-brown, minutely warted, 
and measure 10 /x diam. Except that the capillitium is more 
orange in colour, this gathering resembles that received from Mr. 
Fries in all respects. 



NOTKS ON MYCRTOZOA 85 

Trichamphora pezizoidea Jungli. In Junghuhn's Java type the 
sporangia are discoid, or saucer-shaped, on long translucent red- 
brown stalks ; the capillitium extends from wall to wall in branching 
and anastomosing strands, varying in thickness, with many broad 
expansions, which are free from lime, or, as Rostafinski expresses 
it, '* the tubes are empty." The absence of lime in the capillitium 
was taken as one of the chief characteristics of the genus, and it was 
borne out by other gatherings from different parts of the globe. A 
specimen found in Java by Dr. Nyman in 1898 was not in accord 
with this definition ; although in other respects agreeing with the 
type, the capillitium had the character of that of a Physanim. ; it 
contained numerous ovoid or fusiform knots densely charged with 
lime-granules, and connected by slender hyaline threads. In Sep- 
tember, 1899, Dr. Jahn, of Berlin, kindly submitted to me for 
inspection a specimen which had been collected in German East 
Africa by Standt in 1897. In general features this also agreed with 
the type of T. pezizoidea, except that the capillitium consisted 
mostly of broad, branching, somewhat straight bands, charged 
throughout with lime, such as we associate with the genus Bad- 
hamia ; a few rounded lime-knots connected by hyaline threads 
similar to those in Dr. Nyman's specimen were here and there 
present; the spores measured 15 fx, and were more strongly spinose 
than any of those described in the Brit. Mus. Cat. (p. 90). On a 
careful examination of the Sumatra specimen referred to on the 
same page of the Catalogue, the capillitium is found to be not 
entirely free from lime, but it is in such small quantity that it had 
previously been overlooked ; in the Ceylon specimen, traces of lime 
can also be seen in the broad expansions of the capillitium-threads. 
Thus, in the eleven examples of the species that have come under 
our notice, four have more or less abundant calcareous deposits in 
the capillitium, while in seven the lime cannot be detected. When 
we consider how frequently we meet with limeless specimens of 
some species of Physaram., notably in P. nutans, the grounds for 
placing T. pezizoidea in a separate genus appear to be insufficient. 
We are dealing, no doubt, with a species of which we have only a 
few examples ; but, judging from the material we possess, it takes 
its place in the genus Physanim. On comparing the Java and East 
African specimens with some examples of Physanim calidris, the 
resemblance of the two species to each other is striking ; indeed, 
the principal difference seems to be in the larger size and saucer- 
shape of the sporangia in T. pezizoidea, and in the larger, darker, 
and more spinose spores. 

Chondrioderma simplex Schroet. (PI. 419, fig. 1). In a former 
notice (Journ. Bot. 1895, 324) I described a species which I sug- 
gested might be C. simplex of Schroeter. The yellow-brown Plas- 
modium was found on Sphagnum on a wild moor in Wales by 
Mr. Saunders, who collected and protected it until it changed to 
red-brown sporangia. In July, 1899, when rambling over an open 
common near Aberdeen, we came upon three patches of yellow- 
brown Plasmodium, each about two inches across, on Sphagnum and 



Ob THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

heather, which at once suggested the Welsh gathering; a small 
part of the plasmodium was taken, and the rest left until the 
following day, when our patch was ripe and of a warm clay-colour; 
all the remainder was removed and kept in a moist receptacle, 
where it matured in the course of the next day. The crowded 
sporangia were irregular both in shape and size, varying from 0-3 
to 0-7 mm. diam. They are somewhat hemispherical, but angular 
from mutual pressure. Although a fairly abundant crop, it was so 
inconspicuous among the brown heather and moss in its ripe state 
that, if the spot had not been well marked, it could scarcely have 
been detected. As in the case of Badhcniua lilaciiia, before referred 
to, it is the bright colour of the plasmodium that catches the eye 
on the open moor. This gathering is identical with the specimen 
from Wales in almost every respect ; the membranous sporangium- 
wall is beset, as in the latter, with clear brown round granules, and 
the very slender colourless capillitium is often beaded with scattered 
granules, but less so than in the Welsh specimen. The only differ- 
ence between the two gatherings is the more ochraceous colour of 
the sporangia and the absence of an abundant hypothallus in the 
Aberdeen example, and this may be accounted for by the latter 
having matured under natural and undisturbed conditions ; the 
spores are on the average rather smaller in the Scotch than in the 
Welsh specimen ; they measure 8-9 /x as opposed to 10-12 /x diam., 
but, as they vary in different sporangia and exceptional spores attain 
to 13 fx, this difference can be of no specific importance. There is 
no question that they are both the same species ; whether they are 
the same as Schroeter's Chundrlodenna simplex, "with globose and 
sohtary sporangia, growing on old stumps," cannot now be deter- 
mined in the absence of the type. Since the above was sent to 
press, I have examined a specimen of this species received from 
Mr. H. Bilgram. He collected it on dead leaves and sticks in 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa., in September, 1900. It re- 
sembled the gathering at Aberdeen in every respect, except that 
the round lime-granules in the wall and thickened base of the 
sporangia are lighter in colour ; the specimen is consequently pale 
brown as seen under a 2 in. objective, or whity-brown — to use a 
familiar term which accurately describes it. The sporangia are 
crowded, of the same shape and size as figured in the plate ; the 
spores measure 9 ix diam. 

Chondrioderma Lyallii Mass. Mr. Fries has done me the favour 
to send a typical specimen of 0. Lyallii obtained on herbaceous 
stems at Frostviken, Sweden, in September, 1899. Another good 
gathering was made by Mr. G. H. Fox, at 7000-8000 ft. alt., on 
a mountain near Saas, Switzerland, in June, 1899. The large 
sporangia vary in colour from white to ochraceous, and are seated 
on a white hypothallus, which in some cases is produced into a 
short thick stalk ; the columella is generally broad and more or less 
hemispherical, but in some sporangia it is narrowly cylindrical, 
about 0-6 mm. long, and occasionally contracted and limeless in the 
upper part. 



NOTES ON MYCETOZOA 



87 



Chondrioderma lucidum Cke. A gathering of twenty- seven 
sporangia of this rare species was made on September 28th, 1900, 
at Llan-y-Mawddwy, Merionethshire. On the previous day bright 
yellow Plasmodium just rising into fruit was observed on the under 
surface of a taft of Hi/pmun loreum on the side of a rocky ravine. 
On the 29th the nearly globose sporangia had matured. They are 
lustrous rich orange in colour, and either sessile or on short dark 
brown stalks 0-1-0-3 mm. long; the capillitium is scanty, and con- 
sists of a coarse network of purple-brown strands, similar to that in 
Berkeley and Broome's original type of Didenna lucidum from 
Trefriw (figured in the Brit. Mus. Cat. PI. xxxv.). The sporangium- 
wall is unusually translucent for one of the Leangium group, and in 
making preparations for the microscope in glycerine jelly, a yellow 
stain immediately flows out into the medhim ; the columella is 
obconic, and of a warm cream-colour ; the spores are dark purple- 
brown, distinctly spinulose, 14-15 /x diam. This new gathering 
corresponds with the type in all essential particulars, and is 
interesting as confirming the integrity of the species, which 
before rested solely on the Trefriw specimen in which the 
remarkable capillitium suggested an abnormal development. 

Chondrioderma Trevelyani Eost. Mr. J. Jackol, of Seattle, 
Wash., U.S.A., has sent me a number of specimens of Mycetozoa 
gathered in that neighbourhood during the last year ; among them 
is one of C. Trevehimii ; the sporangia are all expanded, the lobes 
of the sporangium-walls being reflexed in an irregularly stellate 
manner, A point of some interest attaches to this growth, as in 
several of the sporangia, but by no means in all, a small knot pro- 
jects from the centre, corresponding with the drawing and description 
by Greville of the original type gathered by Trevelyan. He speaks 
of a " very small columella " being present. Berkeley saw the type, 
and wrote, '^ I find no trace of a columella ; the bottom of the peri- 
thecium within is perfectly even." My own examination of what 
remains of Trevelyan's specimen and of eight others that have 
come under my notice confirmed Berkeley's view, but Mr. Jackol's 
gathering affords convincing evidence that Greville was right with 
regard to some of the sporangia now missing in the type specimen ; 
at the same time, it is not a columella in the true sense of the word, 
but rather an excrescence, and is not always central. 

Diach^a elegans Fr. In June, 1900, Mr. D. MacAlpine sent 
from Melbourne a good specimen of D. elegans. He mentions it as 
occurring on several herbaceous plants, and it is probably not un- 
common in the district. I am not aware of a previous record of 
the species having been obtained in Australia. It is the typical 
form which is found without variation in Europe, Asia, the Cape 
and Central Africa, and in North and South America. 

DiDYMiuM DUBiuM Rost. Amongst the dense growth of creeping 
ivy that covers the w^ooded dell on the Undercliff at Lyme Regis 
where we first gathered this species in 1888, and at all times of the 
year when the locality has been searched, the flat sporangia are 



88 



THK .TOrRVAl OF FOTWY 



found in consiilen\ble alnnulaneo. Soniotinio;? liiey are on the livins: 
ivy leaves, but mostly between the hiyers of wet and compacted dead 
leaves that have collected to some depth in sheltered hollows. 

DiDYMiiM Tkoohus List. This species has abounded at intervals 
durin^: the last eighteen mouths in the stack-yards at Chaul End 
and the neiiihbonrhood. It was in iiieat abundance when we visited 
the spot with Mr. Saunders in August, 1809 : and he has since 
found it in still greater profusion, and writes that it is so common 
that he has now ceased to gather it. He has come npon the 
buttercnp yellow Plasmodium not infrequently in the deeper layers 
of straw, and has sent us a quantity of it in a tin box that we might 
see its colour. — but it changed into sporangia in transit by post. 

Lepidoderma tiokintm Rost. (PL 110. tig. 8\ In the Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue reference is made to a sessile form of this species 
received from America, which bore a resemblance to a Chouiirio- 
(ienna in that the sporangia were smooth, of an ochraceous colour, 
and the sporangium-wall consisted of two layers, an onter one 
densely charged with minnte angular granules of lime, and more or 
less closely adhering to a yellow membranous inner layer : in these 
respects they differed from the normal form, in which the sporangia 
are nsually stalked, and the lime is deposited over the surface in 
more or less scattered vitreous disc-like scales. An interesting 
confirmation of the specitic identity of the two forms was afforded 
by a specimen received from Dr. Sturgis. of New Haven. U.S.A., 
in June, 1897. It is a beautiful example of the typical stalked 
form, but in a few sporangia a deposit of crowded angular cal- 
careous granules was present in narrow patches of a pale colour 
among the disc-like scales : this deposit extended in one sporangium 
over half the surface, prodncing an ochraceous outer wall corre- 
sponding with that of the sessile American specimens above de- 
scribed : the other half ha.i the normal aspect with vitreons scales 
scattered over a dark ground : in short, we had in this sporangium, 
one side representing a T.^'piiiodermn, and the other a Chondriodr-nna 
(PI. 419, fig. 3b~i. On September 24th. 1899, in a glen at Llan-y- 
Mawddwy. lemon-yellow Plasmodium was observed on moss and 
Junuc'nnanni.i on the wet vertical face of rock, and extending in 
scattered patches for about 100 yards along the side of a narrow 
path. Heavy rain fell on tiie three succeeding days, and during 
that time fresh plasmodium continued to make its appearance : it 
was carefully secured and brought in-doors, where it matured into 
sessile ochraceous sporangia of the Chondriodt-rjna form already 
referred to. The sporangia were subhemispherical, or irregularly 
shaped plasmodiocarps. often ring-shaped round a leaf: the two 
layers of the sporanguim-wall were either adherent, or more or 
less widely separated : the capillitium and spores were typical of 
L. tiarinuni. Ring-shaped sporangia clasping the leaves of moss 
and Jufw^rnhnuiia are also of frequent occurrence in the American 
examples. Although the Welsh gathering is a fairly large one. we 
were unable to discover a single sporangium of the normal Liviiio- 
(ifntui type. and. had it not been for former experience, we should 



NOTKH ON my<^;ktozo\ 89 

have placed our .specimens under the genus Chondrioderina fPl. 419, 
fig. 3 a). Ay we bave just Haid, the deposits of Hme on the sporangia 
of fj. tif/rinnrn are normally disc-like scales, and equally distributed; 
but we alno find sporangia in which the flat deposits are star shaped 
(PI. 419, fig. .Sc), or tliey may be small, irregularly angled, and 
more or less crow^led ; in the specimen from Ceylon in the Kew 
Collecdon"' the sporangia are covered with large stellate crystals of 
the true Didi/ininut type ; in a perfectly matured gathering made by 
Prof. Penzig in Java, in February, 1898, the dark sporangium-wall is 
traversed by broad, irregular white bands composed of free stellate 
crystals, rese)nbling those in Spuniaria alhn ; while, again, the 
purple-brown wall may b^ entirely free from deposits of lime. 
Such an instance of variation as I have described appears to be 
quite exceptional among the Mycetozoa, but it points to the need 
of some modification of Rostafinski's definition of tlie genus f.cpido- 
derma. 

Btemonitis splendens Piost. var. [i Webberi. I am indebted to 
Rev. W. L. W. Eyre for the inspection of a specimen of this form 
which he collected at Giengariff, Ireland, in May, 1900. A gathering 
with precisely similar characters was made by Mr. F. W. Evens in 
August, 1898, at KiUarney ; the only other occurrence of this 
variety in tlie British Islands that has come to our knowledge was 
near Falmoutii, in Marcii, 1899, recorded in a former notice (Journ. 
Bot. 1899, 150j. These three gatherings represent the most perfect 
form of -S'. Hplendem that we have seen from this country ; var. a 
(jenuina has not yet, it appears, been found here. The capillitium 
of var. /5, with slender threads and broad mesh of the superficial 
net, takes an intermediate position between the neat structure of 
var. a and tiie loose and incomplete capillitium of var. y jiaccida ; 
the latter form is far from uncommon with us, and is certainly very 
constant in its characters; but tiie flimsy, often branching columella 
associated with broad flakes of indefinite tissue imply an imperfect 
formation ; the spores are precisely similar in all three varieties. 
The discovery of the vaiieuy Wehheri in the South-west of Ireland, 
where the climate much resembles that of Cornwall, lends support 
to the view suggested in a former paper [I.e. p. 149 ^ that the 
perfect development of the capillitium in .S. sijlendens depends on 
climatic conditions. 

Arcyria CErstedtii Rost. A fine gathering of this species was 
made in the woods of Humbie, Haddingtonshire, in July, 1899. 
It does not appear to have been before recorded from Scotland. 

Arcyria ixsignis Cooke & Kalchb. Since the account of Mr. 
Gran's gatherings of this species in Antigua was given ^Journ. Bot. 
1898, 121 j, with a short history of the previous records, two further 
instances of its occurrence have come to hand. Dr. Sturgis found 
it in some abundance and in beautiful condition at Manchester, 
Mass., U.S.A. ; and iu November, 1900, Mr. Cran received some 



H. M. Cat. p. 106. 



90 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

typical clusters of sporangia from Mr. Forrest, who had collected 
them in Antigua in the course of the autumn. 

Margarita metallica List. Miss M. Roberts gathered this spe- 
cies in November, 1900, in Carnarvonshire ; it is the first time we 
have received it from Wales. The sporangia are iridescent with a 
coppery lustre ; the flowing capillitium is more evidently branched 
than is often the case, and the attachments to the sporangium-wall 
are more distinct. 

Dianema corticatum List. Since the winter of 1898, when 
Mr. Cran first discovered D. corti.catam near his residence in 
Aberdeenshire (Journ. Bot. 1899, 152), he has continued to find it 
at intervals on dead wood; I have just received from him a fine 
specimen, gathered in December, 1900: the capillitium is perhaps 
more abundant than usual, but the spiral markings on the slender 
threads can only be made out by careful search ; otherwise all his 
gatherings correspond exactly with the original type from Norway. 

Prototriohia flagellifera Rost. We had no record of this 
species having been found in Scotland until November, 1890, when 
we received a specimen from Mr. Cran, gathered by him near 
Rhynie ; it is the sessile form with faint spirals on the capillitium- 
threads, similar to many of our Lyme Regis examples. 

Lycogala flavo-fuscum Rost. In Journ. Bot. 1897, 217, I re- 
ferred to an sethalium of L. Jhiro-fuscnm which Mr. Crouch had 
kept under observation in Bedfordshire since 1895, from the time 
that the white plasmodium emerged from a decaying elm to its 
reaching maturity. Two years later — in September, 1897 — another 
SBthalium appeared, and io October, 1899, a third came up within a 
few inches from the spot where the last had been found ; the elm 
tree was near Mr. Crouch's residence, and constantly under notice. 
It is interesting to note that an interval of two years elapsed between 
the several growths of this apparently rare species. 



Description of Plate 419. 

1. Ghondrioderma simplex Schroet. :— a. Group of sporangia, X 20. b. Ca- 
pillitium, attached above and below to the sporangium-wall, x 280. c. Spores, 

X 280. D. Spore, x 600. 

2. Badhamia versicolor List. : — a. Sporangia on lichen, x 20. b. Capil- 
litium attached to a fragment of the sporangium-wall, x 280. c. Two clusters 
of spores, 280. d. A broken cluster and an isolated spore, x 280. e. Three 
spores, X 600. 

3. Lepidoderma tigrimim Eost. :— a. Sporangia of Ghondrioderma form, x 20 
(Merionethshire), b. Sporangium showing lime, partly in vitreous discs, partly 
forming a calcareous crust, x 20 (from Dr. W. C. Sturgis, Shelburne, N.H.). 
c. Sporangia with stellate scales, x 20 (from Mr. Fries, Upsala). 



91 



NOTES ON BEISTOL PLANTS. 

By Cedric Bucknall, Mus. Bac. Oxon. ; David Fry ; and 
Jas. W. White, F.L.S. 

These notes are a continuation of those published in this 
Journal for 1893, pp. 115-117; for 1897, pp. 123-126; and for 
1899, pp. 417-418. As before, new vice-comital records are pre- 
ceded by an asterisk, and Watson's vice-counties 34 (W. Gloucester) 
and 6 (N. Somerset) are distinguished by G. and S. respectively. 

Cerastiiim arvense L. — On a bank above Portbury, S. ; Miss Ida 
Roper. Previously known in only one spot in the county of 
Somerset. 

■'Medic((f/o apicnlata Willd. — Several plants on waste ground at 
Portishead, S., where it is probably an introduction. Not hitherto 
recorded for Somerset. 

Riibus anjentatas P. J. Muell. The Lord's Wood, Houndstreet, 
S. — *-R. micans Gren. & Godr. Clifton Down, G. — *i?. Leyanus 
Rogers, Damory Bridge, G. — B. ccBsiua x B. riisticanus. Keyn- 
sham, S. The abundance of this hybrid where it occurs is re- 
markable, as it grows at intervals for a considerable distance in 
hedges on both sides of a lane. For help in determining these 
plants we are again indebted to the kindness of the Rev. W. Moyle 
Rogers. 

Piosa canina L. var. dumetomm (Thuill.). Burrington Combe 
(Mendip) ; Portbury ; Portishead, Mrs. Grerfory ; Canal bank at 
Radford, S. 

Oirsiiiiii arvense Scop, var. obtHsilobiini, f. suhlncanum G. Beck. 
Fl. N. 0. p. 1239. Koch, Syn. ed. iii. p. 1553. Bank of the Avon 
below Bath, where this distinct-looking variety has been known for 
many years under the name of Cardims setosus Bess. [Cirsium 
setsosum Biebst.). The latter form is described in Koch, Syn. ed. ii., 
as C. arvense y integrifolinm., and has all the leaves entire or sub- 
dentate ; and Syme, in Eng. Bot., says that the leaves are faintly 
sinuated or the upper ones nearly entire, and glabrous beneath. 
In the Bath plant most of the leaves are strongly sinuately lobed, 
with the lobes and the apex obtusely rounded and furnished with a 
short spine at the tip, and white-felted beneath. In these characters 
it agrees with the plant described in an arrangement of the forms 
given in the works quoted above, where they are grouped under 
three varieties as follows : — Var. commune G. Beck. Leaves atten- 
uated into the terminal spine, with acute teeth. — Var. obtnsi/obum 
G. Beck. Leaves mostly pinnatifid, with lobes and apex obtusely 
rounded and furnished with a spine at the tip. — Var. hydrophilum 
G. Beck. Middle and lower leaves interruptedly decurrent. 0. seto- 
siim Biebst. is placed under var. commune as a form with nearly 
entire leaves, almost or quite glabrous beneath. Although in the 
Bath plant the leaves are sinuately lobed rather than pinnatifid, it 
must be placed under the var. obtusilobum, and, as they are white- 
felted beneath, it is the f. subincanum. On dust-heaps on the 



92 



THK JOTIRNAT. OF BOTANY 



opposite side of the river we have gathered a form with the leaves 
glabrous beneath, which is the f. subviride G. Beck. 

The genus Euphrasia not having hitherto received much atten- 
tion in this district, we think it well to give a complete list of the 
species we have met with, most of which have been submitted to 
Mr. F. Townsend, who has kindly examined them. — ^Euphrasia 
stricta Host. Well distributed, although not always typical. Char- 
field ; Wotton-under-Edge ; Wyck, G. ; "Claverton Down, S. — 
'■'E. horealis Towns. Wotton-under-Edge, G. — '''E. brevipila 
Burn. & Grml. Turf-moor near Edington ; Edford ; Failand ; 
Tinings Farm and other places on Mendip, S. An eglandular 
form with deeply toothed leaves, exactly corresponding with Scotch 
specimens named brevipila by Mr. Townsend, was gathered in a dry 
field near Shapwick railway station, S. — E. scotica Wettst. was 
recorded under its synonym E. palxdosa Towns, for the Somerset- 
shire turf -moors in this Journal for April, 1896 ; but this was 
an error, the plant in question being undoubtedly E. brevipila. — 
E. nemorosa H. Mart. Cadbury Camp, near Clevedon ; Cheddar; 
Congresbury ; Churchill, S. On exposed downs in N. Somerset, as 
at Brean, Cheddar, and elsewhere on Mendip, a small form occurs 
which may readily be mistaken for E. ciirta Fr., but being almost 
entirely glabrous it must probably be referred to E. nemorosa. — -'E. 
curta Fr. var. glabrescens Wettst. Clifton Down, G. — -'E. Eostkoviana 
Hayne. On the turf-moor near Edington ; Edford ; Bowberrow 
Down (Mendip), S. — E. Kernvri Wettst. In boggy ground, Bow- 
berrow Down (Mendip), S. ; and gathered at Cheddar, S., by the 
Rev. W. H. Purchas, September, 1853. — '■'E. Levieri Wettst. = E. 
Eostkoviana X E. curta. With the last-mentioned species at Row- 
berrow. This interesting form has been named by Mr. Townsend, 
who has not seen it before. He considers that if the two species, 
Ej. Eostkoviana and E. carta, are present, our specimens may be 
put to Wettstein's plant. E. Eostkoviana was certainly present, 
but amongst a large number of plants gathered none could be 
referred to E. carta. The hybrid plant is shortly pubescent, as in 
typical E. carta, and the large flowers and the presence of some 
glandular hairs show the influence of Eiostkoviana. It seems not 
unlikely that E. curta has been nearly or entirely replaced by the 
hybrid. 

■'Utricuiaria intermedia Hayne. This has hitherto been known 
in the South of England only from Hants and Dorset. We now 
add it to the flora of Somerset. Specimens of the foliage only 
have, so far, been found. These were taken from a peaty ditch on 
Clapton Moor, near Weston-in-Gordano, S., and have been named 
by the Rev. E. F. Linton, who says they have well-marked charac- 
ters, and cannot belong to either of the other three recognized 
British species, 

Buxus sempervirens L. The reasons for believing this shrub to 
be truly indigenous at a locality between Wotton-under-Edge and 
Alderley, in the West Gloucestershire portion of the Bristol district, 
have been fully stated by C. Bucknall in this Journal for January 
(p. 29). 



NOTES ON BRISTOL PLANTS 03 

Cyperusfmcus L. Near Clevedon, S. Discovered September, 
1900, by Mr. S. I. Coley (see Journ. Bot. 1900, 446). The Bristol 
district has been fruitful in surprises, but no discovery could have 
been more unexpected by local field-botanists than that of the 
second British Ci/peras in North Somerset, within a mile of the 
spot where C. lowjiis existed until recently. The locality is a peaty 
valley between the Cadbury and Walton ranges of hills. Springs 
rise at the head of the valley, and drain towards Portishead by 
wide shallow rliines, with which intersecting ditches are connected. 
These ditches readily become choked with vegetation, and are 
cleared with the spade at least once a year. It unfortunately 
happened that those in which Mr. Coley met with the plant under- 
went this cleaning process before we could visit the place, so but 
few specimens were seen in situ. But an examination of the ditch- 
contents that had been thrown out upon the banks, and from which 
some very fair examples were recovered, showed that the Cyperiis 
existed m great abundance in at least two rhines, and had extended 
along them quite a mile. It is not easy to understand how annual 
plants can maintain themselves under such circumstances. How- 
ever, there are many that do. The Cyperus seeds very copiously, 
and is probably perpetuated by the few plants left upon the ditch- 
sides. The idea of recent introduction cannot, in our view, be 
entertained. 

Scirpas ceinaus Vahl. Near Clevedon, S. It was whilst ex- 
ploring the Cyperus locality that we came upon this sedge, equally 
abundant on ditch-banks, and covering a larger area. There is but 
one other known locality in Somersetshire. 

S. Taherncemontani Gmel. Abundant for about eighty yards 
along a marsh-ditch at Ken Moor, near Yatton, S. Occurs only in 
three known localities in the whole county of Somerset. 

Scluenus nigricans L. The restoration of this species to the 
flora of Somerset by its discovery near Winscombe, which is in the 
district of the Bristol Coal Field, was recorded by Mr. W. F. 
Miller in this Journal for August, 1900. 

Carex axillaris Good. Four or five large plants on a ditch- 
bank near Yatton, S., growing with both C. vulpina and C. renwta. 

C. Hornschuchiana Hoppe. Peaty meadows near Weston-in- 
Gordano, and at Max, near Winscombe, S. First found at the 
latter station by Mr. Waterfall (Fl. Som. p. 865). Much less 
frequent in North Somerset than C. distam, the inland stations for 
which are remarkably numerous in that vice-county. 

. The following aliens have been observed : — Malva parvi/iora L. 
A large patch by a roadside in St. Phihp's Marsh, Bristol, S. — 
Amarantlius retrofiexas L. Very fine and abundant on made 
ground in St. Philip's Marsh, Bristol, S. ; also on rubbish near 
Portishead railway-station, S., associated with A. dejiexush. 



94 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ELGIN MOSSES. 
By J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S. 

Two years ago, during a short visit, Mr. Macvicar collected a 
number of mosses in Elgni, but bis time being much occupied in 
other directions, after a partial examination they were laid aside. 
He recently placed the whole collection at my disposal, and I have 
completed the determination of the specimens, with the assistance 
of Messrs. H. N. Dixon and E. C. Horrell in cases of difficulty or 
doubt. 

The Watsonian vice-county Elgin or Moray (95) of the East 
Highlands Province is included by Mr. Horrell in that group of 
counties for wliich no satisfactory moss-lists exist. It therefore 
seems desirable that the following should be placed on record, as a 
contribution, necessarily very incomplete, to our knowledge of the 
plants of this vice-county. 

Mr. Macvicar informs me that the specimens were collected in 
wet swampy ground intersected by a stream, and on walls, turfy 
banks, and dry ground by the roadside, during an afternoon's ramble 
near Grantown. The district is schistose, with beds of gravel. 

Sphognum papUlosum Lindb. var. noviuale Warnst. — f. conferta 
(Lindb.). — ^\ compactiuii DC. var. unhricatum Warnst. — *S'. viol- 
lusciim Bruch. — S. suhnitens Kuss. & Warnst. var. obscurum Warnst. 
— S. riibelluin Wilp. var. versicolor Buss. — *S'. ru/escens Warnst. 

Andreaa petropliila Ehrh. 

Catharinea nndnlata W. & M. 

Polytrichiim aloUles Hedw. — P. urni<jeriun L. — /'. pUlferum 
Schreb. — P. janiperinum Willd. 

DUrichum homomalliim Hampe. 

Caratodoii piirpurens Brid. 

Dichodontium pellucidam, Schimp., with a form tending towards 
var. far/imontamim Schimp. in its short blunt leaves, but otherwise 
nearer the type. 

Dicranella heteroiiialla Schimp. 

Blindia acuta B. & S. 

Dicramiiii scopariiim Hedw. — Var. ortliophyUiun Brid. 

Leucobrijum glaucum Schimp. 

Fissidens taxifoHus Hedw. 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. — Var. rivularis W. & M. — G. pulvinata 
Sm. — G. trichophijUa Grev. 

PJiacomitrlum aciculare Brid. — R. heterostichum Brid. — jR. lanii- 
(jinosiim Brid. — B. canescens Brid. — Var. ericoides B. & S. 

Tortula muralis Hedw. — T. subiilata Hedw. The capsules only 
about half the usual size, otherwise quite normal. — T. ruralhWaxh. 

Barbula rubella Mitt. — B. rigiduia Mitt. Very short and 
densely compact tufts, apparently from walls. The leaves, how- 
ever, quite typical in shape and areolation, and the axillary gemmae 
numerous. — B. convoluta Hedw. — B. wifjuiculata Hedw. 

Encalijpta streptocarpa Hedw. — A', vulgaris Hedw. — Zggodon 
viridissimiis R. Br. 



ELGIN MOSSES 



95 



Uhta DriniuiiondiiBvid. — U. crispaBiid.— U. Intennedia Schimp. 
U. Bruchii Hornscli. 

Orthotricham riipestre Scbleich. A single tuft, growing on tree- 
bark. This is probably the variety Franzomaiiwn Vent. It is 
smaller and greener than the typical plant. The peristome is 
erect and whitish, and the superficial stomata ascend far above the 
middle of the capsule. — 0. leiocaipiun B. & S. — 0. Lyellil Hook. & 

Tayl. 0. alflne Schrad. — 0. rlvulare Turn. — O. stramineimi 

Hornsch. 

Funaria hijijroinetrica Sibth. 

Bartramia itlujphylla Brid. — B. pomi/ormis Hedw. 

Philonotis fontana Brid. 

Webera nutans Hedw. — W. annotina Schwaegr. — W. albicans 
Schimp. 

Bryum pendaliuu Schimp. The true plant, with the peristome 
of section Ptychostomum. — B.indinatwn Bla.nd. — B. pallens Swartz. 
B. pseudo-triquetrum Schwaegr. — B. capillare L. — B. erytlirocarpwn 
Schwaegr. — B. arcfenteum. L. — B. ccespiticium L. 

Mnium affine Bland. — M. rostratitm Schrad. — M. tindulatum L. 
M. hornum L. — ill. punctatum L. 

Fontinalis antipyretica L. — F. squamosa L. 

Thuidium tamariscinuin B. & S. 

Climacium dendr aides W. & M. 

Brachythecium aWicans B. & S. — B, rutabulum B. & S. — B. rivu- 
lare B. & S., with a form approaching the var. chrysophyllum Spruce 
in having plicate leaves with recurved margins ; but they do not in 
other respects agree with specimens I have from Mr. Bagnall. — 
B. velutinum B. & S. — B. plumosum. B. & S. — B. purum Dixon. 

Earhynchium piliferum B. & S. E. pralonyum B. & S. — E. 
Swartzii Hobk., the slender yellowish green form, with distant 
leaves. — E. inyosuroides Schimp. — E. striatum B. & S. — E. rusci- 
forme Milde. — E. cuufertum Milde. 

Plagiothecium denticulatum B. & S., cum fructu. 

Amblysteyium Jilicinum De Not. 

Hypnum stellatuvi Schreb. — H. uncinatum Hedw., cum fructu, and 
forma plumosa Schimp. — H. revolvens Swartz. ; typicum, and also 
the form with large false auricles, the var. subauriculatum. of 
Renauld formerly, which he does not now separate varietally. 
— Var. Cossoni Ren. — H. cupressiforme L. — Var. resiipinatum 
Schimp. — Var. ericetoruni B. & S. — Var. tectorum Brid. — Var. near 
Jiliforme Brid. — H. molluscum Hedw. — H. palustre L., including 
forms with all the vegetative characters of the var. subsphcericarjwn 
B. & S., but the fruit of the type. There can be no question that 
Mr. Dixon's view of this variety is the correct one, and that barren 
specimens cannot safely be referred to it. — H. cuspidatum L. — 
H. Schreberi Willd. 

Hylocomiwn splendens B. & S. — H. squarrosum B. & S. — H. tri- 
quetrum B. & S. 



96 THK JOURNAL OK BOTANY 

^OTEJS ON LATHYRUS. 

13y James Bkitten, F.L.tS. 

Some time ago, when working at this genus, I noted that the 
synonymy both mider it and under (h-obns in the Luhw Kticiiisifi was 
greatly confused. The reduction of the species of Orobiis to Lathi/rus 
partly accounts for this, the fact that the same trivial name has 
been employed under each genus having led to the assumption that 
the same plant was intended in each case. 80 far as I know the 
Indtw, no genus requires so much revision as Lathy nis. I do not, 
however, propose to imdertake such a task, but it may be well to 
put on record some of the notes I made. 

The greatest individual factor in the confusion which exists is 
undoubtedly the placing together under Lntlujms niontanus of two 
references which indicate entirely diti'erent plants, and the assigna- 
tion to this compound of a large number of synonyms, which have 
to be differentiated. I had drawn out a Hst of these, separating 
those which belong to L. niontanus Bernh. {Orobas tuberosus L., 
L. Hiacrorrhhiis Wimm.) from tliose of L. )nont<uius Gren. & Godr. 
(O. occidental is). But 1 tind that Dr. Karl Fritsch has already 
indicated the necessary changes in his paper, " Ueber einige Orobiis- 
Arten und ihre geographische Verbreitung " ■' — a paper in which 
the plants of the group are dealt with so fully and exhaustively 
that I have had no hesitation in suppressing my notes upon them, 
save in one or two special cases. Further elucidations from Dr. 
Fritsch's pen are "Ueber den Formenkreis der (hobus littcus h.'' 
(Verhandl. der K.K. zool.-bot. Gesellschaft in Wieu, Feb. 9, 1900), 
and a paper in Oesterr. hot. Zeitschrift for November, 1900, 
pp. 389-896. Dr. Gmzberger's important paper, '* Ueber einige 
Lat/t<//-».s- Arten am der Section Kulathi/rus'' (Sitzber. Akad. 
AYissenschaft. Wien, cv. 1, 281-352), is not concerned with the 
plants on which I offer these notes.] They are not in any way 
exhaustive, and some are of small importance ; others, such as 
that on L. nuKjeiianiciis, may, I hope, prove of sufficient interest to 
warrant publication. I cite the names as they stand in Mr. Jack- 
son's Luicd'. 

" L. Albekjilla feteud. Nom. ed. 2, ii. 13 [1841] ." A reference 
to Steudel gives this information : " Lathyrus (vulgo Alberjilla) 
Bert. Herb. nr. 1073." I have not seen this nuQiber of Bertero's, 
and am doubtful whether this indication is sufficient for the establish- 
ment of a species. Gay (Fl. Chil. ii. 141) gives •• Alrerjilla'' as the 
popular Chihan equivalent of Lathi/rus, and especially (p. 148) for 
L. piibt'scens. Neither PhiUppi (Cat. PI. Chil. 1881) nor Keiche (Fl. 
de Chile, 1898) cites Steudel's name. 



* Sitzber. Akad. Wissenschaft. Wien, civ. 479-520. 

t On p. 336 Dr. Ginzberger takes exception to the quotation of Lathyrus 
maynijiorui^ from Mill. Gard. Diet, in Ind. Kew.. and says. *'ein solcher Name 
existirt niclit." He will, however, tind it with many similar corrections of the 
text on the very last page of Miller's Dictionary. 



NOTES ON LATHYRUS 97 

" L. AMEKicANus Mill. Dlct. ed. viii. no. 19= Br(ptina per- 
foliata?" This is Wujnchoda Htenispernwidea DC. ; see Journ. Bot. 
1897, 231. 

L. ANNuus ''Linn. Amcen. Acad. iii. 417 (nota) [1756]" dates 
from Demonstr. Plant, p. 20 (1753). 

L. APHYLLus " Link, ex Wel)b & Berth. Bhyt. Canar. ii. 103 
[1836] " should stand as " Link in Buch, Phys. Beschr. Canar. 
Lis. 157 (1825)." 

" L. Armitageanus Knowles & Westc. Flor. Cab. iii. ('1840') 
[1839] 81 = nervosiis Lam." This name was published at an 
earlier date : in Loud. Card. Mag. xi. (1835) p. 525, it is quoted 
from Aris's Birmingham Gazette of the same year, and ths name 
is also cited by Sweet (Brit. Fl. Gard. 2nd Series, iv. 344 (1836) as 
'' L. Annitdtjetoius \Netit in Plort. Birm." Loudon takes " West " 
as referring- to a " West Birmingham Botanical Society," but it 
is doubtless an abbreviation of " Westcott," who was secretary of 
the Birmingham Society. 

"L. aurantius C. Koch, in Linmea, xv. 723 (1841) " = Vicia 
aurantia. 

" L. inermis Rochel, ex Frivald. in Magyar Tud. Tar. Evkon. 
ii. (1835) 250, t. 2=:hirsutus." This is an error; the plant is 
identical with L. villosns Frivald. in Flora, xix. 437 (1836), and 
antedates that name. The Kew Index erroneously identifies Orobus 
hirsutiis L. with L. hlrsiUus L. We have specimens from Frivaldsky 
of L. inermis and L. villosus. 

"L. LUTEUs Munby, Fl. Alger. 73" [78] = L. annuus ex 
Battandier, Fl. Alger. 278 — an identification suggested by Munby 
when proposing his species. 

L. magellanicus Lam. Under this name two very different 
plants have been confused for nearly a century, and are combined 
in the Index lOwenais. The confusion began in Alton's Ilortus 
Kewends (iv. 309), where Pisiini americtmum of Miller's Dictionary 
is placed as a synonym under L. mageUmiiam. This seems to have 
been done at the suggestion of Eobert Brown, who has identified 
Miller's plant in the Banksian Herbarium with L. uKKjellcmiciis 
Lam., and indicates that he proposed to place it under Pimui in 
Hort. Kew. ed. 2. From Lamarck's description it differs at first 
sight by the fact that it does not turn black in drying, as is the 
case with the group of forms or species of which nuKjellanicus is the 
type ; and a tracing of the original in the Paris Herbarium, for 
which we are indebted to M. E. Bonnet, confirms its distinctness 
from Miller's plant. This latter we have no hesitation in referring 
to L. nervosiis Lam. 

Of Miller's plant we have, besides the sheet from Chelsea 
Garden in the Banksian collection, another specimen grown in the 
same garden in 1762. Its history, as narrated by Miller, is of some 
interest; he says: — " This was brought from Cape Horn by Lord 
Anson's cook, when he passed that Cape, where these peas were a 
great relief to the sailors. It is kept here as a curiosity, but the 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [March, 1901.] h 



98 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

peas are not so good for eating as the worst sorts now cultivated in 
England ; it is a low trailing plant, the leaves have two lobes on 
each foot-stalk ; those below are spear-shaped, and sharply indented 
on their edges, but the upper leaves are small and arrow-pointed. 
The flowers are blue, each foot- stalk sustaining four or five flowers ; 
the pods are taper, near three inches long, and the seeds are round, 
about the size of tares." He says it is " commonly called Cape 
Horn Pea," and Alton adds the name "Lord Anson's Pea" : these, 
owing to the confusion between the two plants, are sometimes 
assigned in books to L. magellanicus Lam. D. Don in the descrip- 
tion accompanying the plate in Sweet's British Flower Garden 
(2nd Series, iv. 344 (1836) ) rightly identifies the plant figured with 
Miller's Pisum americanum, which he follows Aiton in regarding as 
L. miKjeJlanicus/' This figure is no doubt responsible for the con- 
fusion which at present exists in gardening books, as well as in seed 
and plant catalogues, in which, according to the Kev. C. WoUey 
Dod (Gard. Chron. Aug. 18, 1900, p. 135), ''Lord Anson's Pea" 
is often offered, but the species sent for it is L. timiitanm, or more 
frequently L. satlvus. According to a previous article by the same 
writer {op. cit. 114) the true plant was not known in cultivation 
between the time of Miller and that of Sweet ; after 1836 it was 
again lost sight of, until re-introduced (it is not stated whence) 
by Mr. A. BuUey, in whose garden in the Wirral of Cheshire Mr. 
Dod saw it flowering in July, 1899. The actual locality where 
the plant was found, according to Mr. Dod, who has consulted the 
histories of Anson's voyage, was Port St. Julian. 

The synonymy of the plant, so far as I have traced it, is as 
follows : — 

L. NERvosus Lam. Diet. ii. 7U8 (1786). 

Pisum americanum Mill. Diet. ed. 8, no. 5 ! (1768). 

L. magellanicus Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iv. 309 (1812) excl. descr. 

non Lam. ; D. Don in Sweet Brit. Fl. Gard. 2 Ser. iv. 

t. 344 (1836) ; Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, ii. 14 (quoad syn.) 

(1841); Hook. f. Fl. Autarct. 259 (quoad syn.) (1847); 

Nicholson, Diet. Gardening, ii. 237 ; Jackson, Ind. Kew. ii. 

38 (ex parte). 
L. Armitageanus West, ex Sweet, I.e. ; Knowles & Westc. Fl. 

Cab. iii. t. 81 (1839). See p. 97. 
L. triqonus Vogel in Linnasa, xiii. 31 (1839), fide Hook. Bot. 

Mag. t. 3987 (1842). 
L. elegans Vogel, I.e. p. 30, fide Benth. in Fl. Bras. xv. i. 115 

(1859). 

"L. Messerschmidii Franch. et Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. i. 106 " 
= Viciaunijuga. 

" Lathyrus Parisiensis Mill. Diet. ed. viii. no. 4." This name, 
which appears among the " species non satis notse" of DeCandolle's 

* Don refers to "native specimens collected at Port Desire, in the Straits 
of Magellan, by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solauder," but the specimens from 
that locality in Herb. Banks seem to have been collected by Captain King, and 
there is no reference to the species in the MS. lists of Banks and Solander. 



NOTES ON LATHYRUS 99 

Frudiwnm, is retained in the Index Keivemis. Miller himself com- 
bined two plants in his description. His descriptive phrase— 
" pedunculis imifioris, cirrhis polyphyllis, stipulis lanceolatis" — 
agrees with the specimens in the National Herbarium; but the 
Tournefortian synonym cited belongs, as correctly given in Hart. 
CHfort. (p. 868), to L. pahistn's, L. ; and it is probably to this that 
his EngUsh locality applies. 

The plant first appears in the 7th ed. of the Dictionary (No. 5), 
where the English description runs:— ''The fifth Sort grows 
naturally about Paris: this is an annual Plant with a slender 
Stalk, about two Feet high, garnished with Leaves, composed of 
several narrow Lobes placed alternate along the Mid-rib, which 
ends in Claspers. The Flowers come out singly upon pretty long 
Foot Stalks ; they are blue, and about the Size of those of the 
common Tare. It grows naturally in some Parts of EmjUoui, par- 
ticularly on Windsor Forest, in moist Meadows, and has often a 
variable Flower." The specimens are from the Paris Garden, and 
are L. articalatus, L.— a plant which Miller also describes under 
the name L. hispaniciis. This of course is not an English plant, 
and it is not easy to decide what Miller had in view when he speaks 
of it as such. I am inclined to think that, like Tournefort's 
synonym, L. paliistris (of which, as already noted, he cites Tourne- 
fort's descriptive phrase as a synonym) was the plant in question. 
Mr. Druce does not cite Miller under any Lathyrus, and the occur- 
rence of the species in Berkshire is, as he points out, doubtful, 
although he thinks Blackstone's Abingdon locality " not an un- 
likely one."='= Perhaps, however, a form of L. montanus was 
intended, for it will be noted that, although Miller describes the 
blossoms as blue, he adds, " it has often a variable flower." 

The misapplication of Tournefort's name may perhaps be ac- 
counted for by the fact that it is written by Linnasus on a sheet in 
Chfibrt's Herbarium (where is also the type of the species), which 
appears to belong here, but which is noted by Linnaeus as " malum 
specimen." 

It may be worth noting that the generally accepted identification 
of L. hispanicus Mill, with L. articidatus is confirmed by specimens 
from Chelsea Garden in 1732, 1754, and 1776, and by plate xcvi. of 
his Figures of Plants. 

- L. vENosus Miihl. ex Willd. Sp. PL iii. 1092 " (1800) = Vicia 
venosa Maxim., also retained. Owing to the same trivial having 
been employed under Lathyrus and Orobus for two different plants, 
the references in Ind. Kew. need correction. To Vicia venosa, 
besides the name above quoted, must be referred Orohus Muehien- 
bergii Alef. in Bunplandia, ix. 146 ; the other names so assigned 
belong to Orobus venosus Willd. 

Orobus japonicus Alef. in Bonplandia, ix. 143 (1861), referred 
to Vicia pallida in Ind. Kew. = Lathyrus maritimus. 

* It may be noted that "the statement in Top. Bot. ' Berks, Britten, v. sp.' " 
is not entirely "a mistake," as Mr. Druce supposes; it refers to the specimen 
in Dickson's Hortus Siccus, localized, "Woods, Berkshire," which, however, 
Mr. Druce is probably right in considering " not to be trusted." 

H 2 



100 TUl^ JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

0. PisciDiA Spreug. Pugill. i. 47 (1813). The doubt wliich has 
attached to this name can now be dispelled. Sprengel based his 
species on " Vicia Piscidia Forst. mscpt. In herbario Forsteri sub 
hoc nomine aderat nusquam descripta planta." The drawing by 
Forster in the Department of Botany bears the two names Vicia 
Piscidia and Galega littoralis ; the plant, published under the latter 
name by G. Forster in his Prodromua, p. 52, is Cracca purpurea, L. 

" Orobus pykenaicus Linn. Sp. PI. 729 = Lathyrus montanus." 
The synonyms quoted by Linnaeus for this plant represent, as 
demonstrated by Lapeyrouse in an excellent and interestmg paper 
in Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, ii. 292-301 (1815), two species. No 
type exists in Linnteus's herbarium at the Linnean Society, and he 
indicates by the sign f which he appends to the descriptive phrase 
cited from Sauvages that the material on which it is founded is un- 
satisfactory. The synonyms quoted are : — 

" Orobus pyrenaicus, foliis nervosis. Tounief. inst. 235 [393] . 

*' Orobus pyrenaicus latifolius nervosus. Pluk. phijt. 210 f. 2." 
Each of these is made by Lapeyrouse the type of a species — 0. 
Tournefortii and 0. Phikenetii respectively ; both are referred in the 
Index Kewensis— the former doubtfully and the latter without hesi- 
tation — to L. montanus [Bernh.] . 

So far as Plukenet's plant is concerned, a reference to his speci- 
men preserved in Herb. Sloane, xcvii. fol. 44, which his figure 
accurately represents, confirms this determination. Tournefort's 
synonym, however, presents more difficulty. 

Lapeyrouse {I. c. 396) speaks of having found in Tournefort's 
herbarium " des magnifiques individus de son orobe des Pyrenees," 
and proceeds to show their distinctness from the Petiverian plant 
with which Linnaeus had united them. He considers Tournefort's 
plant a new species between 0. luteus and 0. vermis: " elle se 
rapproche du premier par son port et son feuillage, et du second par 
ses feuilles et ses fleurs." Subsequent authors — e.g. WiUkomm 
and Lange — have referred 0. Tournefortii to L. luteus. Nyman 
(Consp. 204), who has seen the type specimens, says : " 0. Tourne- 
fortii Lap. (sec. specc. hort. paris.) est var intermedia subangustifolia, 
qualis pi. Bourg. alp. Saband. 69." Taking luteus in a large sense, 
0. Tournefortii would appear from Lapeyrouse's excellent figure 
to be nearest that species ; but those who have so decided 
seem to have overlooked the fact that Lapeyrouse describes the 
flowers as purple, and we do not find that those of luteus vary to 
that colour. 

This description is borne out by the specimen in Clifibrt's Her- 
barium, which bears the Tournefortian synonym in Linnseus's 
handwriting, and has been named pyrenaicus by whoever added the 
Linnean specific names to the sheets of that collection. This 
specimen so exactly corresponds with Lapeyrouse's figure that it 
might have been the original ; and the flowers are unmistakably 
purple. It is probable that this specimen was sent by Touruefort 
to Linnaeus, and that a specimen in Herb. Sloane, cccxxvi. appen- 
dix, fol. 23 — which is certainly the same — came also from Tourne- 
fort. Lapeyrouse, however (Hist. Abr. PI. Pyr. Supp. 108 (1818)), 



NEW CHARACE/K RECORDS 101 

says : " L'O. pijrenaicus Lin. Sp. 1029 ne doit plus etre compte dans 
le nombre des vegetaux. C'est une espece qui n'existe pas." 

I have not found any wild specimen which exactly matches 
O. Touniefortii, and my knowledge of the genus is not sufficiently 
extensive to enable me to arrive at any definite conclusion regard- 
ing its position. But it certainly has no affinity with L. inontanus 
Bernh. M. Rouy (Fl. France, v. 269) retains it (as L. Toumefortii) 
as a subspecies of L. liitens (L. Liniimi Rouy), and suggests that it 
may be a hybrid between the form of luteus which he calls hispani- 
cns and L. montanus Bernh. Dr. Fritsch (Sitzb. Akad. Wissensch. 
civ. 481) has a note on the plant, and thinks it may be a hybrid 
between L. luteus and L. vermis. The name has been very variously 
applied in herbaria. 



NEW CHARACE^ RECORDS. 
By the Rev. G. R. Bullock- Webster, M.A. 

During the summers of 1899 and 1900 1 have had opportunities 
for C/iam-hunting in various localities, and have been able to add 
the following new vice-county records : — 

Chara frarjilis Desv., C. fragilis var. Hedivigii Kuetz., and C. 
vulgaris Linn. All growing together in a small stream near Isle 
Abbots, South Somerset, September, 1899. — C. contraria Kuetz. 
and Nitella fiexilis Agard. Growing together in some abundance 
in Fowlmere, near Thetford, West Norfolk, June, 1899. — C. con- 
traria var. hispid III a Braun. In a coprolite pit, Bottisham fen, 
Cambridge, June, 1900. — C. hispida Linn, and Tolypella glomerata 
Leonh. Growing together in a drain near Sedgemoor Cut, North 
Somerset, May, 1899. 

Tolypella glomerata Leonh. In one of the clay-pits near Bridg- 
water, North Somerset, August, 1899. North Devon is the only 
other recorded county for this plant west of Hampshire. This same 
pit yielded also some fine specimens of C. vulgaris var. papillata 
Wallr., but this variety has already, I think, been recorded for 
North Somerset. 

C. canescens Loisel. Hickling Broad, June, 1899. This adds a 
fourth to the three known counties (Cornwall, Dorset, and Suffolk) 
in which the plant has been found. 

Lijchnothamnus stelliger Braun. Sowley pool, near Lymington, 
Hampshire, August, 1900. This is an interesting addition to the 
three known stations for this rare Charad — Slapton Lee, Devonshire ; 
Waltou-on-Thames, Surrey ; and Hickling Broad (and neighbour- 
hood), Norfolk. Sowley pool, it appears, was formed in the reign 
of King John by the monks of Beaulieu, who threw up an immense 
dam (tiie present road) across a natural valley where formerly two 
streams ran into the sea. By the courtesy of the owner of Sowley 
House, I had the advantage of the use of a boat, and explored the 
pool with some care. The season was too far advanced, however, 
to admit of good results. Chara fragilis, Nitella translucens, and 



102 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



y. opnca were to be found still lingering, but in a decayed condition. 
These species are already recorded for Hampshire, but Lychno- 
thamnus stelliger was a quite unexpected discovery. It occurred in 
more than one part of the pool, but very sparsely, and in poor 
condition. The plant, however, with its starlike bulbils, was quite 
unmistakable, and scarcely needed Messrs. Groves's authority to 
confirm it. 

These ten new records show that the Characece are still a much 
neglected order of plants, awaiting — and certainly deserving— the 
closer attention of botanists. 

The absence of Characece from the Somerset fenlands seems a 
curious fact. The conditions appear in every way favourable, and 
precisely similar to our eastern county fenlands where these plants 
luxuriate. Yet it requires a laboured search to discover any speci- 
mens in Sedgemoor and in Brue Level, and such as are to be found 
are starved and feeble specimens. 

Before I close I should like to put on record the remarkable yield 
of Characea supplied by a small coprolite pit at Clayhithe, near 
Cambridge. The pool is some two hundred yards long, I suppose, 
and about twenty yards wide, and lies in the middle of a field of 
arable land. It has a shelving bottom along one side, and perpen- 
dicular banks and very deep water on the other. In this piece of 
water I have collected on one and the same day Chara fragilis Desv., 
C. aspera var. desmacantha H. and G. Groves, C. pohjacantha Braun, 
C. contraria var. kispidula Braun, C. vulr/aris Linn., and var. lom^e- 
hracteata Kuetz., C. hispida, Linn., ToJypeUa glomemta, Leonh., and 
Nitella tenuissiina Kuetz. All these grow together in happy associa- 
tion and in a very fine state. 



TWO NEW SOUTH AFRICAN SCROPHULARIACEiE. 
By W. p. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. 

The two species now described form part of a small collection 
made m the Orange River Colony last year by Lieut. Pateshall 
Thomas, and recently brought to the National Herbarium. 

Hemimeris elegans, sp. n. Herba minute glandulosa fere 
glabra pallide vn-idis forsan perennis, caulibus gracilibus tenacibus 
ascendentibus basim versus foliosis tetragonis 1 dm. longis vel 
ultra, foHis oppositis vel superioribus alternis ovatis lanceolatisve 
superioribus angustioribus apice obtusis apiculatisque basi plus 
mmusve cordatis vel truncatis breviter petiolatis margine pauci- 
denticulatis 6-10 mm. longis 1-5-4 mm. latis superioribus minoribus 
sessihbusque, mternodiis mediis superioribusque quam foha longi- 
oribus, racemis terminalibus paucifloris laxis 19-44 mm. longis, 
bracteis (foliis floralibus) alternis ovatis sessilibus 2-5-3 mm. longis! 
pedicellis gracilibus unifloris subglandulosis 9-19 mm. longis, calycis 
segmentis ovaU-ovatis obtusis glandulosis sub flore 2-5 mm. longis 
sub fructu juveni 3-5 mm. longis, corolla sub-purpurea 12-17 mm. 



TWO NEW SOUTH AFRICAN SCROPHULARIACE^ 103 

lata bilabiata, labio superiore 4-lobo lobis rotundatis 3-4 mm. latis, 
labio inferiore concavo integro rotundato subtiliter nervoso 9 mm. 
lato, calcaribus 2 conicis obtusis divergentibus 9 mm. longis, fila- 
mentis complanatis non villosis l'25-2 mm. longis, capsula juveni 
ovoidea miuute glandulosa calycem leviter excedente. 

Habitat coioniEe Oramje River in regione Kalahari ; legit anno 
1900 Lieut. Pateshall Thomas I 

This new species belongs to the genus, the type of which is 
Hemimeris honcE-spei L. PI. Afr. Rar. p. 8, n. 1 (Dec. 1760) ; the 
latter is the only species which Linnaeus referred to the genus. 
Since Richter in his Codex botanicus linnceaniis (1840) does not 
notice it, and since Hemimeris, as used by Bentham and other 
authors, is a different, though allied, genus, an explanation becomes 
necessary. Linnaeus in 1763 republished the dissertation PlantcB 
africana'. rariores in the sixth volume of his Amcenitates Academica, 
pp. 77-112, and added an appendix; to some extent this is a 
revision of the original tract, and HemIxMERis bonce spei is changed 
into PiEDEROTA boiicB spei, but the description and synonyms are 
repeated, with the addition, however, of " fol. pinnatifidis " after 
the name, and of Diandria over the name ; these additions make 
no difference in effect, because in the body of the description the 
leaves were described as " pinnatifida," and the position of the 
plant at the head of the enumeration, followed next by a Gladiolus, 
suggests the class Diandria. Sir J. E. Smith was aware of what 
Linnaeus had done, for, in an article signed " S." in Rees, Cyclop, 
xvii. p. 4 H (1811), he wrote, under H. diffusa, "We can hardly 
doubt that the original Hemimeris (afterwards called Pmlerota) boue 
spei is this species, though it was at first described as diandrous." 
Hemimeris diffusa L. f. has subsequently been split into segregates, 
all of which are referred to Diascia Link & Otto ; and Bentham in 
DC. Prodr. x. p. 257 (1846), under D. diffusa, had the following 
note : " Thunbergius sub nomine H. diftusae verisimiliter species 
plures affines confudit. Linnaeus speciem quamdam huic affinem 
nomine Paederot^ Bon^e-Spei signavit." 

There is no reason to doubt that Hemimeris bonce-spei L. is of 
the same genus as Diascia Link & Otto, and this determination is 
confirmed by the Linnean Herbarium, wherein two specimens in 
Hemimeris on a sheet named " b. spei " can be easily recognized as 
belonging to Diascia L. & 0. The younger Linnaeus, Willdenow, 
and Thunberg used Hemimeris to include all the plants above re- 
ferred to; and in 1828 Link and Otto, Ic. PI. Sel. p. 7, t. 2, 
published the genus Diascia, which has since been accepted, and 
the other species of the younger Linnaeus have been kept in a genus 
to which the name of Hemimeris L. f. is retained, notwithstanding 
the fact that Hemimeris L. is considered to be different. The rule 
of priority does not sanction the dropping out of use of the original 
Hemimeris, and on that account I use the name in the correct sense. 
It is very unfortunate that Richter did not quote the first edition 
of Linnaeus's Dissertations ; he uniformly quoted, instead of the 
Dissertations, the reprints or revisions as they appeared in the 
Amcenitates Academic(B ; possibly he had not access to the originals. 



104 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Diclis umbonata, sp.n. Herba parvula inflorescentia glan- 
duloso-puberula excepta glabra ut videtur perennis, caudice sub- 
ligneo, caulibus tenacibus subtus pallidis super herbaceis et pallide 
viridibus ascendentibus tetragonis semipedalibus vel ultra dimidio 
inferiore folioso superiore minus foliato, foliis oppositis anguste 
ellipticis vel lanceolatis apice obtusis basi breviter petiolata sub- 
sessilive plus minusve angustatis vel fere rotundatis firme herbaceis 
utrinque viridibus subtus subpallidioribus margiiie denticulatis vel 
subintegris 6-10 mm. longis l-25-3-5mm. latis, petiolis brevissimis 
latiusculis anguste decurrentibus, racemis terminalibus brevibus 
densisque vel subtus laxioribus atque circiter 44 mm. longis pluri- 
floris, pedicellis in bractearum axillis orientibus unifloris ebracteo- 
latis, inferioribus fere ad 25 mm. longis subgracilibus rectis patulis, 
superioribus brevioribus, bracteis foliorum similibus sed minoribus 
et glanduloso-puberulis, calycis segmentis ovato-ovalibus obtusis 
glanduloso-pilosulis 2-2-5 mm. longis, corolla subpurpurea bilabiata, 
labio posteriore trifido 6 mm. longo lobis rotundatis, labio anteriore 
bifido 8 mm. longo lobis semi-ellipticis media basi umbone aurantiaco 
puberulo pr^ditis, palato pulverulento umbonibus 2 aurantiacis 
breviter barbatis sub labii anterioris eis praedito, calcare e basi 
conica anguste oblongo obtuso parum curvo 4-5 mm. longo, fila- 
mentis glabris nitidis latiusculis, longioribus 1-25 mm. longis, brevi- 
oribus '625 mm. longis, antheris aurantiacis 1 mm. longis. 

Habitat colonize Orange Fdver in regione Kalahari ; legit anno 
1900 Lieut. Pateshall Thomas ! 

The habit of this plant, with its comparatively narrow leaves, 
suggests the genus Xemesia, but the corolla is that of Diclis ; the 
specimens unfortunately do not supply ripe fruit. 



BRITISH HIERACIA. 



As we announced in our last issue, Messrs. Linton have issued 
the sixth fascicle of their useful and admirably prepared series of 
British Hieracia, thus bringing their original undertaking to a close. 
They think, however, that a supplementary fascicle of forms not 
represented in the set may be forthcoming later. The present 
fascicle contains the following forms which are believed to be 
endemic : — H. anylicum var. calcaratwn ; H. Griffitldi ; H. Leyi ; 
H. Schmidtil var. eustomon : H. caledunicum ; H. ruhicundum var. 
Boswelli ; H. argenteum var. septentrionale ; H. Sommerfeltii Yen'. 
spleyidens ; H. saxifragum var. orimeles ; H. rivale var. subhirtum ; 
H, murorum var. pulcherrimum ; H. murorum var. luciduhim; H. 
miiroriim Y&v. sanguineum ; H. murorum var. subidatidens ; H. orca- 
dense ; H. Orarium var. erythrmim ; II. duriceps ; H. vidgatum var. 
amplifolium ; H. vulgatum var. mutahile ; H. surreianum ; H. steno- 
phyes var. oxyodus ; H. gothicwn var. Stewartii ; H. rigidnm var. 
longiciliatum ; H. cantianum var. suhrigidum ; H. zetlandioum forma ? ; 
H. vidgatum var. sejunctum. 

The notes accompanying the specimens may be of interest to 



BRITISH HIERACIA 105 

others than those who subscribe to the set, and we reproduce most 
of them here with the authors' permission. 

" H. amjlicum Fr. var. calcaratnni E. F. Linton. This variety 
resembles var. jacuUfoUum F. J. Hanb. in the stalked narrow stem- 
leaf (if present, which more often it is not) and stem smoother than 
the type, but in other respects it differs much. Tiie petioles are 
shaggy, the root-leaves are broadly oval, the earlier ones more 
rounded, stem grey, and peduncles cano-floccose ; phyllaries rather 
narrow and short (recalling some of the Vulf/ata), floccose especially 
on the margins, ligules well developed, pilose at the tips. Lime- 
stone cliffs near Kendal, Westmoreland, and the west borders of 
Brecon. 

" H. Orarium Lindeb. form or var. ? The plant now sent out 
differs much in appearance from the var. fulvuni F. J. Hanb. oc- 
curring near Bettyhill, so much so that this name was denied it by 
Mr. Hanbury. It is, however, this species, and may be a mere 
sandhill form, but if the undulate and rubescent margins of the 
strongly dentate leaves, and the more equal proportion of involucral 
hairs and glands prove permanent characters, the varietal name 
erythrcBum, E. F. Linton may be used to denote it. 

" H. vulgatum Fr. var. sejimctmi W. R. Linton. Root-leaves 
rosulate, stems floccose and with long white hairs, usually few- 
leaved (2-4, rarely -9) ; leaves yellowish-green, yzr^^i in texture, sharply 
dentate with several large cusped teeth, stellately pubescent beneath 
hairy above ; panicle subumbellate, heads 4-12, floccose hairy and 
thinly setose, styles livid, Hgules glabrous at the tip. The Rev. 
E. S. Marshall, who gathered the series, considered that the texture, 
colouring, and dentation of the leaves separated it from H. vuhjatum. 
The iuflorescence, however, presents no distinctive feature, and we 
think it best under this species. We have what seems to be the 
same form from Cantire, Arran, and Dumbarton. 

" H. surreianum F. J. Hanb. var. megalodon E. F. Linton. Mr. 
Hanbury pronounced the previous number (146) typical, and this 
(147) a varietal form. The latter is embraced by his description of 
H. surreianum, but differs from the type in paler heads (greener when 
dry and not so dark) and more coarsely dentate leaves. Neither 
occurs in Scandinavia. 

" H. stenophyes W. R. Linton var. oxyodus W. R. Linton. This 
variety grows near the Midlaw Burn, Moffat Water, and differs from 
the type in the following particulars : inner root-leaves and stem- 
leaves more lanceolate, much more deeply cut, with large lon» 
cusped teeth ; peduncles straight or nearly so, floccose, setose, and 
slightly hairy, as are the heads ; phyllaries broad, blunt, even the 
margins rather dark ; ligule tips ciliolate. 

" ii. cantianum F. J. Hanb. var. siihrigidnm E. F. Linton. 
Differs from the type in the more densely floccose peduncles, more 
numerous involucral hairs, and somewhat livid style. An approach 
towards H. rigidum in these points and in its general facies. 

" Besides these, some other numbers call for comment : 

" H. Grijfithii F. J. Hanb., originally described as a variety of 
H. clovense Linton in Journ. Bot. (1894), with but a few characters 



106 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

to separate it from that species, was raised to specific rank (B. E. C 
Rpt. 1895, 486 ; 1897, 553) with no more complete description. It 
has been confused with H. saxifragiim Fr. var. orimeles F. J. Hanb., 
from which the long white hairs all up the stem and rather villous 
involucre help to distinguish it ; and seems to require some marks 
to separate it from forms of H. Schmidtii Tausch. 

" H. saxlfragum Fr. var. orimeles F. J. Hanb. The plant we are 
issuing is that which has appeared in lists under this name, but 
we are not content with its position under H. saxifraifiun Fr., nor do 
we think it identical with some //. saxifraijum forms from Scotland 
that have been united with it. The leaves are much broader in 
proportion to their length than any H. saxifragum variety, more 
abruptly reduced to the petiole (which is less winged), much greener 
and thicker ; the cauline leaves have a tendency to be patent and 
not suberect as in H. saxifragum, the panicle is laxer. It does not 
appear to have been described, even as a variety (see Journ. Bot. 
1894, 228; 1893, 18) ; we therefore give a description (drawn up 
by W. R. L.) to accompany our specimens. 

'' H. orimeles (sp. nov. "?) Green, slightly glaucous. St. 12-15 in., 
hairy, floccose, 3-4-leaved. Radical leaves ovate to ovate-oblong^ 
denticulate, roughly hairy on both sides, ciliate with lougish white 
stiff hairs ; cauline ovate-lane, to lanceolate, often toothed, pL m. 
patent. Panicle few-headed, irregularly lax ; peduncles floccose, 
moderately setose, with a few hairs and patent bracts: ; invols. floccose, 
with some seta) and many black-based hairs ; phyllaries rather 
broad subobtuse deep blackish green, even the margins rather dark. 
Ligules somewhat orange-yellow, tips puberulous, styles livid-yellow 
or livid. Plentiful in the Carnarvonshire hills, ranging from 
500-2500 ft. 

" H. stenolepis Lindeb. This species is closely connected with 
H. hritannicum F. J. Hanb., but differs in the following particulars: — 
it usually has one stem-leaf; root-leaves oblong-lanceolate, very 
variable at the base, with stelligerous pubescence beneath ; pedun- 
cles long and incurved ; phyllaries still more attenuate into a long 
linear point. Of the Craig Cille H. stenolepis Mr. Hanbury rightly 
observes, ' A modification of the Scandinavian form ' (B. E. C. Rpt. 
1893, 417). The fact is, the British plant is a departure from the 
Scandinavian type towards H. britanniciim. 

" H. angustatum Lindeb. The type specimens are frequently 
branched from the base, and have subentire leaves. British speci- 
mens have more dentate leaves and are usually unbranched below. 
The Scotch series (No. 151) are in the direction of Lindeberg's var. 
etatujn. 

^^ H. zetlandicum Beeby forma. So named by the Rev. E. S. 
Marshall and confirmed by Mr. F. J. Hanbury, and recorded under 
this name in Journ. Bot. 1898, p. 172 ; and we issue it as such on 
their authority rather than our own. We have gathered the same 
form in Farr Bay, E. of Bettyhill, ourselves, as long ago as 1888, 
and cultivated it both at Bournemouth and Shirley, without being 
able to exactly determine it, but have not had H. zetlandicum in 
cultivation for comparison. It may be, as Mr, Marshall thinks, 



FRANCIS Bauer's 'delineations of exotic plants' 107 

that an exposed mainland situation will account for the more 
abundant clothing of the involucre and robustness of the whole 
plant. But should not this circumstance have produced leaves 
more strongly dentate rather than (as it is) less so? Mr. W. H. 
Beeby, to whom we have submitted specimens, shares our doubt, 
but neither he nor we can suggest a better name." 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
XXVI. — Francis Bauer's ' Delineations of Exotic Plants.' 

In a description of this work published in this Journal for 1899 
(pp. 181-3) no reference is made to the authority which should be 
cited for the names of the Heaths figured, when these happen to be 
new. The matter has been brought under my notice ia connection 
with Erica se.vfaria, which is there published for the first time. 
There is no letterpress to the work, save for Banks's preface, but 
the name of each plant is printed on the plate, and this has been 
accepted as an adequate pubhcation. 

Salisbury (in Trans. Linn. Soc. vi. 334 (1802) ) cites for E. sex- 
farla '• PI. Kew. f. 11 "; in Alton's Hortus Kewensis (ed. 2, ii. 864 
"(1811)) it stands as ''Icon. hort. Kew. 11"; Bentham (in DC. 
Prodr. vii. 618 (1892)) has " Dryand. ! in Bauer icon. pi. Kew. 
t. 11 " ; and Mr. Jackson in his Inde.v has "Ait. Exot. PI. t. 11." 
Bentham, who consulted the Banksian Herbarium when preparing 
his monograph, is undoubtedly right in supposing that Dryander is 
responsible for the name ; it appears in his handwriting not only 
on the herbarium sheets, but on Bauer's original drawings for the 
work (nearly all of which are named by Dryander), and in Solander's 
MSS., where it is substituted for names previously given by Solander. 
Unfortunately Bentham's citations are not consistent ; for E. longi- 
folia (which is written up in the Herbarium in Dryander's hand) he 
cites "Ait. in Bauer icon. hort. Kew. t. 4), while the next species, 
E. Leeana (which is not written up by Dryander) is given as 
" Dryand. in Bauer icon. hort. Kew. t. 24." 

Whether, however, Dryander can rightly be cited as the authority 
for these names must depend upon howfar it is justitiable to go beyond 
the information which appears on the title-page of a book. This 
question is of importance in connection with Aiton's Hortus Kewensis, 
as to which something was said in this Journal for 1897, p. 481. 
In the present instance, however, the difficulty is increased by the 
fact that, as will be seen from the title-page of the work, reprinted 
in Journ. Bot. 1899, p. 181, and from the other information there 
given, Alton had no part in it save in so far that he was the 
Curator of Kew Gardens, from which the plants figured were 
derived. It may of course be urged that the phrase " published by 
W. T. Alton," taken literally, justifies the attribution of tlie "pub- 
lication" to him, especially as there was another pubhsher in the 
ordinary sense of the word ; and it is no doubt this last view which 



108 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

has induced Mr. Jackson to cite "Ait." as the authority, though in 
that case ''Ait. f." or "W. T. Ait." would be more accurate. 

James Britten. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Flora of Tropical Africa. Vol. V., Part iii. London : Lovell 
Reeve. 1900. Price 8s. net. 

This part contains pp. 385-546, and was published last December ; 
it completes the volume, and, with the exception of the Addenda 
(pp. 506-526), index (pp. 527-545), etc., is entirely the work of 
Mr. J. G. Baker ; it contains the bulk — about five-sevenths — of the 
LabiatcB, as well as the seven species of Flantarfo, which are the only 
members of the Plantai/inem in the Flora. The authorship of the 
Addenda is not particularly stated, but from internal evidence it 
seems that the authors of the several natural orders which were 
elaborated in the volume contributed to the corresponding portions 
(if any) to the Addenda ; thus, Mr. Burkill and Mr. C. B. Clarke to 
the Acanthacea, and Mr. Baker to the rest. There remains, perhaps, 
some doubt on this point ; for on the last page of the Addenda 
Solenostemon niveus is taken up from the Welwitsch Catalogue, a 
species which was founded upon the same plant (Welwitsch, 
n. 5619) as had been described on p. 437 under the name of 
Coleus orhicHiaris Baker ; and these two names are not correlated 
in the Addenda. 

Botanists can now obtain in a systematic sense a comprehensive 
and concise survey of the Ldbiatm of Tropical Africa with an ease 
that was not previously possible. The number of genera ni this and 
in the latter portion of part ii. is given as 43 ; and the number of 
species is 571, of which 21 species are found only in the Addenda. 

No new genus is here pubhshed for the first time, and the 
limitations of the genera are kept as close as possible to that 
settled in the Genera Plantaruni by Bentham, who had devoted 
during many years a great deal of attention to the order, and 
the value of whose judgment in the matter of genera is universally 
acknowledged ; several revisions made by recent authors are not 
adopted ; and, as might have been expected, work done at Kew has 
received in some instances preferential treatment. 

Five volumes of the Flora have now been published, and their 
dates are as follows: vol. i. in 1868, vol. ii. in 1871, vol. iii. in 1877, 
vol. vii. in 1897-98, and vol. v. in 1899-1900 ; so far as appears 
from them, Labiatm stands fourth in number of species, the only 
larger numbers being 833 for LeguminoscB in 1871, 719 for OrchidecB 
in 1897-98, and 681 for AcanthncecB in 1899-1900 ; the next largest 
numbers were 478 for FubiaceeB in 1877, 473 for Liliacea in 1898, 
and 471 for Composites in 1877. But, having regard to the differ- 
ences in the dates, to the progress made during the last twenty-three 
years, and to the more critical idea of a species which now prevails 
at Kew, there is no doubt that Fubiacem and Composite are each 



FLORA OV TKOPICAL AFRICA 109 

much more numerous in Tropical African species than are Labiahe ; 
and of the orders not yet done for the Flora it may be granted that 
Gnunine(£, Ctjperacece, and probably EuphorhiacecB will have a higher 
enumeration than Lahintie ; it thus appears that Labiatte really take 
•a place not higher than ninth in the Flora. 

As an illustration of the accelerated rate of progress in African 
botany, it may be stated that the orders UmheUiferw and Araliaceie 
were prepared for the second volume of the Flora, but were crowded 
out; they were, in fact, printed off in 1873, with the heading and 
pagination ready for the succeeding volume, and the sheets remained 
unpublished for more than six years, until in 1877 the third volume 
appeared, and then they formed the beginning of it. Notwith- 
standing this long delay, one only of the new species which were 
described in it had in the meantime been published under another 
name, and only one new species would have required incorporation 
in order to bring the work up to date. 

The number of new species of Lahiatcc now published by Mr. 
Baker is 122, besides 52 previously published by him ; the number 
of species ascribed to Dr. Giirke is 121, and that to Dr. Briquet is 
83, and there are several species due to other botanists of the 
present day, while only 25 are ascribed to Bentham, and 11 to 
Liunsus ; it is thus seen to what a great extent the Flora is 
indebted to recent research. The number of endemic species 
appears to be 508, only 63 being mentioned as occurring also 
outside the limits of the Flora. It is obvious that much material 
remains unexplored and waiting to reward further search ; for one 
of the six great divisions into which Tropical Africa is divided for 
the purpose of the Flora — namely, the North Central region — is not 
credited with even one species ; this region is bounded on the north 
by the Tropic of Cancer, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the 
east by the twenty-sixth meridian of east longitude, and on the 
south by the Upper Guinea region and the Congo Free State. As 
to the other five regions, Upper Guinea is cited for 63 species, 
Nile-land for 202, Lower Guinea for 124, South Central for 40, and 
Mozambique for 247. 

The care that has been taken to bring together in regular 
sequence all the plants of the order belonging to the Flora cannot 
fail to prove a great benefit ; it is indeed carrying out the main 
purpose of the work, and very little has escaped Mr. Baker. Two 
species, however, are omitted, namely, Plectranthus hereroensls Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. x. p. 267 (9 Oct. 1888), and Leucas Ruspolmna Giirke 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xxii. p. 134, n. 22 (19 Nov. 1895). 

The following three names, which have been published in con- 
nection with Tropical African botany, are not quoted : — 

Ocimiim longistylum Hochst. in PL Schimp. Abyss, iii. n. 1599 ; 
this, according to Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. .Ethiop. p. 125 (1867), is 
synonymous with 0. mentkifolmm Hochst. 

Salvia utilis A. Br. in Karlsrh. Saamenkat., 1841 ; this, according 
to Schweinf. I.e. p. 127, is synonymous with S. nudicaitlis Vahl. 
In the National Herbarium there is a specimen from A. Braun, 
grown in the Carlsruhe garden from Abyssinian seeds. 



110 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Leoiiutis Raineriana Vis. L'Orto Bot. Padova, 1842, p. 142, 
n. 47 ; this is L. veliitina Fenzl, /3 / Raineritma Bentb. in DC. Prodi*, 
xii. p. 535 (1848). 

It may be noted tbat on p. 477, n. 13, Leiicas Pechuelii Baker 
sbould have been ascribed to Giirke in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xxii. 135; 
also that on p. 481, n. 30, L. lanata Baker is not the same plant as 
the East Indian L. lanata Benth. in Wall. PI. As. Bar. i. p. 62 
(1830), and in DC. Prodr. xii. p. 525, n. 8 (1848), although Giirke 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xxii. p. 135, n. 36, seems to assume that it is 
the same. It appears that L. lanata Baker will require a new name, 
but the question whether this is so or not may form a difficult 
problem in nomenclature, if certain principles now in fashion on 
the Continent or in America are allowed to prevail. 

Ocijmuni iiwnadelphnin and Leucas a [finis of E. Brown ni Salt, 
Voyage to Abyssinia, Appendix iv. p. Ixiv (1814), are names only, 
and as such have no claims for recognition ; they are not noticed in 
the Flora, but the latter is quoted by A. Richard, Tent. Fl. Abyss. 
ii. p. 199 (1851), as synonymous with L. urticafolia (printed 
L. urticifulia by Baker, p. 489). Ocymiun monadelpham R. Br. is 
Coleiis conwsns Hochst. Specimens of each, named by Brown, are 
in the National Herbarium. 

Without any attempt to supply a list of omissions of plants or 
names belonging to the other orders comprised in the volume, from 
the appendix, the curious want of any mention of the Somaliland 
genus, Hceniacanthtis S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1899, p. 63, t. 4026- 
(Sept.), may be noted. References in the appendix to the prior 
pages of the volume, showing where the added species belong, would 
have been a practical advantage. The change made in the trivial 
name of Miniulopsis Thutnsuni C. B. Clarke, p. 55, which has the 
synonym Epidastopebna rflandulosiuin Lindau is obviously calculated 
to provoke a change of nomenclature on the part of foreign botanists 
and might have been wisely avoided, although the earlier trivial would 
not be very distinctive under the older generic name. 

While appreciating its sterling value, it is impossible to look 
through the volume, even cursorily, without being impressed with 
the numerous and important contributions made by foreign botanists 
to this Flora ; and these contributions are mostly of recent dates. 
From a purely scientific standpoint, it matters not at all to what 
nationalities workers belong ; but the book is printed in English 
with the belief that this language would be most generally con- 
venient ; many of its readers therefore will feel a certain sense of 
shame that the plants of a part of the world where British rule and 
influence largely prevail are not systematically elucidated in corre- 
sponding proportions by English botanists. It must be conceded 
that supremacy in this kind of scientific work is being steadily lost 
by Britain ; it is no longer adequate, as in former times, to rely 
much on voluntary efforts to cope with foreign competition ; and, 
unless the British Government takes to heart the present tendency 
of things, organizes its botanical establishments to the highest state 
of efficiency, and enlarges the supplies, it will inevitably discover 
that the best original work on the botany of its colonies and other 



ALGOLOGICAL NOTICES 111 

lands under its protection will, like many otlier good things, con- 
tinue in ever increasing degrees principally to be made in Germany. 

W. P. HiERN. 

Algological Notices. 

In Ni/t McKjauu for XaturvidensJcaherne (Christiania) (Bind 38, 
Hefte i. 1900) appears a series of short notes by Dr. N. Wille, 
entitled "Algologische Notizen I. -VI." He introduces these notes 
by explaining that, during the twenty years and more in which he 
has paid attention to algse, he has made observations which for 
some reason or another have remained somewhat fragmentary. 
These notes he has now decided to publish, since, as he rightly 
says, they may save trouble to other botanists, or may even incite 
someone to continue the investigation which from force of circum- 
stances has been left unfinished by the author. 

The first of the notes is on Chloroijlcea tuhercuhsa (Hansg.), 
found by Dr. Wille on Laminaria digitata and lihodochorton Rothil. 
He regards his plant as identical with Pahndhi (/) tuberculosa 
Hansg., recorded from the Adriatic, and describes both the mode 
of growth and the formation of akinetes or non-motile reproductive 
cells. He considers Chloro(/lcea to be one of the Chammiplionacea, 
allied to Oncobyrsa, and a diagnosis is given of the new genus. 

Note II. describes a new variety — Mandalends — of Merumopedia 
eUfjans A. Br. It differs from M. elegans var. marina Lagerh., its 
nearest ally, in the larger size of its colonies, which consist of 
larger and more irregular cells. 

Asterocystis rauiosa Gobi forms the subject of the third note. 
Dr. Wille obtained specimens of this alga at Mandal in the 
summer of 1889, and was able to determine the presence in the 
cells of a central pvrenoid in a star- shaped chromatophore. From 
lack of reagents for the staining of nuclei, he was unable to make 
these bodies visible, though he does not doubt their existence. The 
manner of cell-division is described, which gives rise in places to the 
false branching figured by Harvey, and found among families of 
the Myxophi/cecB. Dr. Wille describes a certain condition of some 
of the cells, which leads him to suggest the formation of monospores 
not enclosed in a membrane ; and this suggestion gains weight by 
a study of the mode of attachment to the plant on which it grows. 
The development of Asterocystis agrees so closely with that of the 
genus Goniotrichuin, that it would be possible to unite the two ; but 
Dr. Wille considers it wiser to retain both genera for the present, as 
he believes that Asterocystis may prove to have a resting-stage in the 
form of akinetes. He describes cells which may be these bodies, 
but the point requires more investigation. A short note on Cruci- 
genia irregularis Wille adds a few details to the description already 
published by Dr. Wille on this plant. 

_ Blastophysa arrhiza Wille forms the subject of Note V. The 
points of difference are enumerated which distinguish this species 
from B. rhizopus and B. polynwrpha, described by Dr. Kjellman. 
Although the copulation of zoospores has not been actually observed 



112 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

in this species, Dr. Wille shows from his own observation and those 
of Dr. Huber that such a process is not unhkely to exist. As to the 
systematic position of Blastophysa, Dr. Wille entirely agrees with 
Dr. Huber in removing it from Valoniacece to the Chtetophoracece, 
where he places it as a much reduced form next to PlmopkHa, not- 
withstanding the chromatophores and nuclei. In this course he is 
doubtless right. 

The last note deals with iSpiruijijra fallax (Hansg.). This plant 
was found by Dr. Wille at Tempelhof, near Berlin, in 1882, and, 
though he recognized it as new, it remained unpublished. He 
regards it as identical with S. insujnis Kiitz. var. fallax Hansg., 
published some years later ; but, as the description given by Dr. 
Hansgirg is not sufficiently full, a diagnosis is given here of the 
alga which is now raised to specific rank. 6\ fallax occupies an 
intermediate position in the genus Spiroijijra, for, though it must 
be placed in the subgenus Emplrotjura, it resembles in certain 
respects /S'. punctata CI. The special points described in each note 
are figured. 

E. S. B. 



The European Sphai/nacece {after Warmtorf). By E. Charles 
HoRRELL, F.L.S. London : West, Newman & Co. 1901. 
Pp. 87. Price 2s. 6d. 

The SpluKjuaceie are represented by a single genus which is 
sharply separated off from the rest of the Mosses by the peculiar 
spongy structure of its leaves and stems, and also by the mor- 
phology and development of its sporogonium, which are suggestive 
of a nearer descent from some Anthocerotoid ancestor than can be 
claimed for the other Mosses. Moreover, as in the case of other 
plants of promiscuous aquatic habit, the Sphar/na present such a 
wealth of perplexing transition-forms as to render their classification 
an extremely difficult matter. It is not surprising, then, that they 
should have been made the subject of a separate and critical study. 
Of those who have devoted themselves to this litudy, the principal 
exponent is Dr. C. Warnstorf, of Neuruppin. But his work, pub- 
lished in numerous papers in German periodicals, has hitherto 
failed to meet with the recognition it deserves in this country. 
With the view of making it better known to English readers and of 
enabling them to bring up the tale of our native species to the 
standard of continental systematists, Mr. Horrell has undertaken 
the task of putting into English the latest determinations at which 
Dr. Warnstorf has arrived as to the disposition and delimitation of 
the species and varieties. 

Dr. Warnstorf attaches great importance to the position and 
form of the chlorophyllose cells of the ramuline leaves as seen in 
cross-section, and also to the form and distribution of the pores of 
the hyaline cells. Hence success in the new Sphagnology is to be 
attained only by patient section-cuttmg. And as the multiplication 
of cryptogamous species usually varies in direct proportion with the 
magnification afforded by the powers of the microscope employed, 



XENIA 113 

we find a notable increase in the present group. Eighteen of the 
species given in Dr. Braithwaite's tiphagnacece are European. Dr. 
Warnstorf has increased them to fifty. How many of these are 
native to our country remains to be ascertained with the help of 
Mr. Horrell's synopsis. 

Mr. Horrell has thrown himself into his task with ardour, and 
has performed it conscientiously. He has gone afield and col- 
lected; he has determined and revised thousands of specimens. He 
gives us a key to the species, detailed descriptions of the species and 
varieties, with their geographical distribution, a bibliography, and 
an index. The discrepancy between the number of species in the 
key and the number in the body of the book is explained by a note 
on p. 39. Whilst Mr. Horrell was publishing the instalments of 
his work in the pages of this Journal last year, he learned that Dr. 
Warnstorf had revised his conclusions as to the group Cmpidata. 
Consequently he had to introduce a revised key of this group, and 
to add the descriptions of eight more species. 

It is to be regretted that a larger edition of separate copies of 
this useful book was not printed o£f. Of the 100 copies prepared, 
eighty have already been taken up by the Moss Exchange Club, and 
less than a score are left in stock. 

A. G. 

Xenia, or the i in mediate effects of Pollen in Maize. By Herbert J. 
Webber. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin no. 22. 
8vo, pp. 44, 4 plates. Washington. 1900. 

This paper deals in a most interesting manner with the phe- 
nomenon of "Xenia"— a term appHed to the changes that are 
produced in seed by cross- fertilization. That the hybrid plant 
should be changed in character was to be expected, but that the 
seed, apart from the embryo, should be altered was difi&cult to 
understand, though there could be no doubt that there was very 
distinct alteration. It is only recently that this mysterious influence, 
or " Xenia," has been satisfactorily explained by the discovery of a 
double fecundation. Prof. Nawaschin and Prof. Guignard, working 
independently of each other, discovered this fact about two years 
ago, while working on the fertilized embryo-sac of Lilium and 
Fritillaria. They found that both the nuclei of the pollen-tube 
passed over into the embryo-sac ; that one fused with the nucleus of 
the ovum, and the other with the definitive nucleus of the embryo- 
sac, and that the endosperm to which the latter nucleus gives rise 
is thus equally with the embryo the product of fertilization, and 
bears the impress of the male plant. 

There is no plant, Mr. Webber goes on to state, in which the 
occurrence of Xenia is so well substantiated as in Maize, though 
double fertilization has not yet been observed in any of the cereals, 
and his conclusions are necessarily theoretical. The generative 
nucleus in grasses has, however, been noted and described as of 
spiral form, thus agreeing in form with the male nucleus in Liliitm 
Martagon described by Prof. Guignard, and further confirmed by 
Miss Sargant. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 39. [March, 1901.] i 



114 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Mr. Webber gives an historical account of the observations 
made on hybridization in Maize by various writers, beginning with 
P. Dudley's "An Observation on Indian Corn" (1724). This 
writer remarks that "Indian corn is of several colours, as blue, 
white, red, and yellow ; if these sorts are planted by themselves, 
they will keep to their own colour. But if in the same field you 
plant blue corn in one row of hills, and the white or yellow in the 
next row, they will mix and interchange their colours ; that is, 
some of the ears of corn in the blue-corn rows shall be white or 
yellow ; and some in the white or yellow rows shall be of the blue 
colour." Succeeding investigators made experiments on Maize 
with the same result, that the influence of cross-fertilization could 
be seen in the endosperm of the seed, either as a change of colour 
or a change of form. It was also noted that the colour or form of 
the hybrid endosperm was affected only where the cross occurred 
with a plant of which the endosperm had had the same peculiarity. 
If the pericarp of the seed of the crossing plant alone was coloured, 
no trace appeared in the seed resulting from the cross-fertilization. 

Another conclusion Mr. Webber draws from his experiments is, 
that though in every case change of endosperm or Xenia invariably 
proved that the seed was a hybrid, and that such change was a 
convenient check in plant-breeding experiments, yet the converse 
did not hold true ; many seeds that showed no trace of Xenia 
proved to be hybrids. He concludes that in these cases double 
fertilization may not have taken place, and that the endosperm 
could thus bear only the characters of the female plant. Mr. 
Webber gives many examples in his excellent plates of the change in 
colour and form produced in corn by Xenia ; he is to be congratulated 
on the way in which he has shown how recent discoveries tally 
with previous observations, so that what was once mysterious and 
incomprehensible becomes a simple statement of cause and effect. 

A. L. S. 



Handbook of Practical Botany. By Dr. E. Strasburger. Trans- 
lated and edited from the German, with many additional 
notes, by W. Hillhouse, M.A., &c. Fifth edition, rewritten 
and enlarged. Pp. xxxii, 519, with 150 original and a few 
additional illustrations. London : Sonnenschein. 1900. 
Price 10s. 6d. 

Dr. Strasburger's handbooks of practical botany are sufficiently 
well known, both in the German and English form. For the latter 
the English reading student owes a debt of gratitude both to the 
translator and editor, and to the publisher. Messrs. Sonnenschein, 
in the series of excellent and comparatively cheap botanical text- 
books, have done good service — the familiar chocolate-brown -covered 
volumes fill the chief place in the botanical library of the average 
advanced student who does not aspire to the more ambitious and 
more expensive green-backed translations issued by the Clarendon 
Press. 



THK SELF-P]DUCATOR IN BOTANY 115 

The present volume contains nearly one hundred pages more than 
the first English edition issued thirteen years before, and forty-four 
more illustrations. In its preparation full use has been made of 
the third edition of the Botanische Praktikum, which appeared in 
1897. The notes added by the editor, which in previous editions 
have been indicated by bracketing, have now been for the most part 
incorporated in the text. Another alteration which will be observed 
is the omission of the bibliographical notes which have been hitherto 
appended to the chapters. The reason given that, " as the refer- 
ences were very largely to German sources, it follows that any who 
were capable of making use of them would be also capable of re- 
ferring to them as set out at length in the German original," does 
not seem adequate. A student would not be likely to have both 
German and English editions of the manual, and, while naturally 
preferring the latter to work with, might at the same time be glad 
to have references to sources of more extensive information. 

We would also suggest the inclusion of some more typical form 
than Marchantia in the study of the vegetative structure of the 
Liverworts — it is remarkable how difficult it is to oust a " type " 
which has once received the imprimatur of authority, though one 
cannot imagine that either author or editor restricts himself in 
practice to this extremely specialized and non-typical member of 

"'* ^-^""P- A. B. E. 

The Self-Educator in Botany. By E. S. Wishart, M.A. 8vo, 
pp. xiv, 226, figs. 110. London: Hodder & Stoughton. 
1900. Price 2s. 6d. 

It would be interesting to see the kind of botanist evolved by the 
process of self-education set forth in this little manual. It is no worse 
than many others, and much better than some, but a man must indeed 
be a genius in exposition who can teach through the pages of a book 
the subject-matter which is nowadays comprised in an elementary 
course of botany, including internal structure and the principles of 
experimental physiology. And this is what the author attempts in 
the present instance. We would recommend the isolated student 
to begin with the macroscopic study of familiar flowers on the lines 
laid down by Professor Oliver in the earlier chapters of his Lessons 
in Elementary Botany, or to get such a book as that by Professor 
L. H. Bailey, reviewed in the February number of this Journal. 
We do not mean to insinuate that Mr. Wishart's book is full of 
mistakes, or badly written, but, candidly, we do not think the 
isolated student will get very far into it before he is pulled up. 
Nor are the illustrations especially helpful — they are almost without 
exception extremely crude, and some very bad, notably those de- 
picting internal structure made " either from fresh preparations or 
from slides in the author's possession." 

A. B. K. 



116 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.- 



Annuano R. 1st. But. dl Roma (x. 1 ; received 7 Feb.). — R. 
Pirotta & E. Chiovenda, ' Flora Romana : Bibliografia e Storia.' 

Bot. Gazette (21 Jan.). — C. S. Sargent, ' New or little known 
N.American Trees' (mainly Cratcpijus). — T. Holm, ' Eriocaulon 
decanf/idare, an anatomical study.' — B. M. Diiggar, ' Germination 
of Fungus Spores.' 

Bot. Xotiser (haft 1 ; 2 Feb.). — B. Lidforss, ' Nagra pall af psy- 
kroklini.' — R. Sernander, * Om de buskartade lafvarnes hapterer.' 
— T. Hedlund, ' Ribes ri(bnf)n.' — P. Dusen, ' Nagra viktigare vaxt- 
fynd fran nordostra Gronland.' 

Bot. Zeitunfj (16 Jan.). — L. Jost, ' Einige Eigenthumlichkeiten 
des Cambiums der Baume' (1 pi.). 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (29 Dec. 1900).— E. de Wildeman k T. 
Durand, ' Plantae Gilletianae Congolenses.' — H. Christ, * Foug^res 
collectees pour le Dr. J. Huber au Bas-Ucayali et au Bas-Huallaga 
(Alto Amazones).' — H. & P. Sydow, ' Fungi novi brasilienses.' — 
J. Huber, ' Sur la vegetation du Cap Magoary et de I'ile de Marajo ' 
(6 pi.). — G. Beauverd, SteUaria nemonim var. saxicola. — (30 Jan.). 
J. Brun, ' Diatomees du Lac Leman.' — T. Herzog, ' Zur Kenntnis 
der schweizer Laubmoosflora.' — F. Stephaui, ' Species Hepati- 
carum.' — G. Hegl, ' Das Obere Tosstal und die angrenzenden 
Gebiete.' 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France (xlvi. 9, not dated, received Dec. 1900). 
— C. A. Picquenard, ' Quelques Parmeiia du Finistere.' — D. Clos, 
' Agrostis dispar Mich.' — (xlvii. 8; 31 Jan.). X. Gillot, ' Herbori- 
sation a Souk-el-Khemis, Tunisie.' — E. Heckel, ' Plantes medici- 
nales et toxiques d'Afrique.' — M. Gandoger, ' Flore de laTasmanie.' 
— Id., 'Flore d'Islande.' — H. de Boissieu, 'Plantes du Japon ' 
(Violariees, etc.). — J. E. Neyraut, ' Erica Watsu^ii, Tetralix et 
ciliaris.' — F. Gagnepain, Triplostegia cjrandijlora & Streptolirion 
longifolium, spp. nn. (China; 2 pi.). — Id., 'Plantes ruderales parisi- 
ennes.' 

Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. de Belgique (2 Feb.). — V. Mouton, ' Asco- 
mycetes nouveaux ou peu connus ' (1 pi.). — J. Goffart, ' Les organes 
de sudation.' — C. Van Bamkerke, ' Coccohotrys xylophilus.* — Id., 
Lepioia Meleagris (1 pi.). — E. Laurent, / La greffe de la pomme de 
terre.' — T. Durand & E. de Wildeman, ' Materiaux pour la Flore 
du Congo.' 

Bidletin Torrey Bot. Club (31 Jan.).— E. G. Britton & A. Taylor, 
' Life-history of ScldzcEa piisilla ' (6 pi.). — P. A. Rydberg, ' Rocky 
Mountain Flora.' — C. V. Piper, ' New Northwestern Plants.' — 
L. M. Underwood, Adiantum modestinn, sp. n. (N. Mexico). — T. D. A. 
Cockerell, Sophia andrenarum, sp. n. (N. Mexico). 



• The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 117 

Gardeners' Chronicle (2 Feb.). — Phajm tuberculosus (fig. 31). — 
(9 Feb.). J. Weathers, CynorcMs purpurascens (fig. 37). — (16 Feb.). 
J. Hoog, Iris paradoxa var. Choschab (fig. 45). — J. Weathers, 
Impatiens (jrandiflora (fig. 47). 

Malpighia (xvi. fasc. 5-8; dated 1900, received 21 Feb.). — 
T. Ferraris, ' Flora Micologica del Piemonte.' — G. Cecconi, ' Con- 
tribuzione alia conoscenza delle galle.' — 0. Mattirolo, * Fungi hy- 
pog^i.' — L. Montemartini, ' I nodi delle Graminacee.' — S. Belli, 
• Le Festuche italiane.' — G. B. Petrucci, ' Richerche anatomiche 
sopra la ChannBrops hiunilifi,' etc. (6 pi.). — E. Mastel, ' Unita mor- 
phologica del fiore delle Crociflore.' 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (Feb.). — V. Schiffner, ' Uber Morchia 
und Calyicidaria.' — S. Prowazek, ' Pohjtoma ' (1 pi.). 

Bhodora (Feb.). — C. S. Sargent, 'Notes on Cratceijus: — E. 
Brainerd, Scirpus atratus = -S'. Peckii. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



At the meeting of the Linnean Society on Jan. 17th, Mr. C. T. 
Druery exhibited a supposed hybrid between Ceterach ofjicinarum 
and Scolopendrium vulgare, which he had received from Mr. E. J. 
Lowe. The fronds were of somewhat foliose Ceterach form, but 
entirely devoid of scales, and with the upper third confluent, 
resembling the tip of a Scolopendrium-hond, the fructification 
partly Scolopendroid and partly Asplenoid. From this combi- 
nation of characters, the exhibitor considered the plant to be a 
true hybrid between the species named. Mr. C. H. Wright ex- 
hibited numerous herbarium specimens of Scolopendrium vulgare, 
Ceterach ojficinarum, Asplenium marinum, A. Hemionitis (ipalmatunt), 
and Scolopendrium nigripes, by which last three species it was 
demonstrated that sori in faced pairs {Scolopendrium type) may 
not only appear on species classed as Asplenium, but that, on the 
other hand, simple Asplenoid sori may exist on species classed as 
Scolopendrium (e.g. S. nigripes and A. Hemionitis). Mr. Wright 
was inclined to the opinion that the presumed hybrid was merely a 
form of A. marinum, basing his opinion partly on the leathery 
nature of both S. vulgare and Ceterach fronds as contrasted with 
the thin papery texture of the exhibits. He entered at some length 
into the various modes of attempting cross-fertilization in Ferns ; 
but the factors of uncertainty are so difficult to eliminate, that, 
until some delicate means have been devised for the actual trans- 
ference by hand of individual autherozoids to alien archegonia, 
hybridity in Ferns can hardly be scientifically proved. Mr. Druery, 
in reply, considered that the Kew examples demonstrated that a far 
closer alliance existed between S. vulgare and the Asplenia than 
appeared on the surface, the presumed generic line between the 
forms of fructification being broken through, and hence the possi- 
biUty of hybridizing. He also pointed out that, as A. marinum had 



118 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

also very leathery fronds, this argument per contra failed. One of 
the specimens of A. marinum exhibited with Scolopendroid sori in 
quantity, found in France, might also, he considered, possibly be a 
natural hybrid with S. vnh/nre, especially as its fronds and some 
pinnae were peculiarly forked, dilated, and irregularly abnormal ; 
while it is well imown that the two species are often closely asso- 
ciated in their habitats, so that their spores might easily mix. 

At the meeting on Feb. 7th, the President, Prof. S. H. Vines, while 
demonstrating the property possessed by certain vegetable liquids, 
such as coco-nut milk, and the juice of the pineapple and the potato, 
to cause the oxidation of guaiacum tincture in the presence of hy- 
drogen peroxide, a blue colour being produced, drew attention to the 
recent researches of Kaciborski on the subject. Kaciborski has made 
the interesting discovery that certain tissues of the plant-body, more 
particularly the sieve-tubes and the laticiferous tissue, contain some 
substance, to which he gives the name leptomin, which likewise causes 
guaiacum to turn blue in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and has 
gone on to infer that this leptomin may be regarded as discharging in 
the plant a function analogous to that of hasmoglobin in the animal 
body. It was urged, against this assumption, that, although both 
leptomin and haemoglobin give the guaiacum reaction, yet this fact 
does not prove that leptomin can combine with oxygen, and can act 
as an oxygen-carrier in the organism, in the manner which is so 
characteristic of haemoglobin ; and that therefore the suggested 
analogy between the two substances is at least premature. 

Mr. Carruthers, as consulting botanist of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, has recently reported on a fungoid disease of 
the leaves and fruit of cherry-trees. This report has been issued as 
a leaflet by the Society. The fully-developed fungus, Gnomonia 
erythrostoma, belongs to the group of Pijrenomycetes. It makes 
its appearance in spring on the young green leaves, causing yellow 
spots, which gradually increase in size. On these spots small peri- 
thecia are formed, containing long curved stylospores, which further 
spread the disease. The cherries are attacked at the same time as 
the leaves, and rendered unfit for market. The diseased leaves die 
early, and remain attached to the branches during the ensuing 
winter. Towards early summer the perfected form of the fungus, 
a round black perithecium that tapers up into a beak, is developed 
on the dead leaves, and produces the ascospores which reinfect the 
young leaves. The early death of the leaves and the consequent 
want of nourishment causes the branchlets to become dwarfed, the 
internodes between the leaf-bases being scarcely developed. Mr. 
Carruthers has followed Prof. Franke, of Berlin, who has carefully 
studied the fungus, in his diagnosis of the disease and in the remedy 
recommended. The dead leaves should be plucked and burned 
before the new foliage has begun to grow, and thus the source of 
infection would be removed. This would doubtless be a troublesome 
and expensive procedure, but it commends itself by its thoroughness 
and simplicity. It is in the orchards of Kent that the disease has 
appeared during the last few years, and it has already spread widely. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 119 

We are glad to learn that the rnmoiir that only German botanists 
were to be engaged on Prof. Engler's Das Pfianzenreich is incorrect. 
The elaboration of JSaias for that work has been entrusted to Dr. 
Rendle. 

Mr. a. a. Heller has issued a second edition of bis Catalogue 
of North American Plants Xorth of Mexico, exclusive of the lower 
cryptogams, which brings the enumeration up to Nov. 10, 1900. 
It is arranged in accordance with Engler and Prantl's Pjianzen- 
familien, the author being of opinion that *' the universal acceptance 
of the change from the obsolete arrangement of Bentham and 
Hooker" is "understood by all." The work of recent describers 
and nomenclaturists is fully recognized, as may be gathered from 
the fact that on one page (171), out of 79 numbered names, 60 are 
assigned to Prof. E. L. Greene, and 7 to Mr. Aven Nelson. Mr. 
Heller, finding that " a number of new combinations would have 
to be published in order to secure uniformity of treatment," prefaces 
his work with five pages of them : these subsequently appear in the 
body of the book with the name " Heller " appended. It seems to 
us that such alterations should be reserved for a work other than a 
mere list of species, such as is this Catalogue, even supposing such 
changes ultimately to be necessary. The work is well printed on 
one side of the page, the other being left for additions and corrections. 
It would be well in future editions to print the name of the order 
and the genus at the head of each page, as is done in the British 
Museum publications. No publisher's name appears on the title-page. 

The first number of his Muhlenben/ia — a new journal which, 
with commendable frankness, Mr. Heller announces as "issued at 
irregular intervals " — is entirely devoted to further changes in 
nomenclature, and indeed is "issued somewhat prematurely" in 
order to make room for them. These changes " were crowded out 
of the Catalogue, enough space not having been provided in that 
work to accommodate all of them." We are entirely in accord with 
Mr. Heller in thinking that " the bare citation without discussion 
in most cases is undesirable " ; and if " lack of time forbids a more 
extended treatment of the different species under consideration," 
we do not think botanical science would suffer were the changes 
postponed until they could be properly investigated. 

The activity of our transatlantic friends is manifesting itself in 
the establishment of botanical magazines, often small ones, in 
various centres. The latest is Torreya, " a monthly journal of 
botanical notes and news edited for the Torrey Botanical Club by 
Marshall Avery Howe." It is dated January, but did not reach us 
until early in February. There are short papers on Eudbeckia hirta 
by Dr. Britton, on seedlings of Ariscema by D. T. MacDougal, and 
on Lycopodinm by F. E. Lloyd, and others. The number contains 
sixteen pages. 

Mr. Stanley Coulter, in his Catalogue of the Flowering Plants 
and Ferns indigenous to Indiana (from the 24th Annual Report of 
the Department of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana), 



120 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

commendably abstains from increasing synonymy, and is content 
to follow Messrs. Britton and Brown in the matter of nomenclature. 
There are no descriptions, but the distribution of each species is 
traced through the State, with useful notes on such as are either 
valuable or detrimental, with local names and (unfortunately) 
''popular" names manufactured after the manner frequent in 
English books. There is an introduction in which the economic 
value of some species and the poisonous nature of others are 
treated in separate essays ; a good bibliography and a full (single) 
index add to the value of the work, which impresses us as dis- 
tinctly useful and well done throughout. 

The seventh part of MM. de Wildeman & Durand's handsome 
Illustrations de la Flore du Congo has been issued. It contains 
twelve plates, representing species of Copaiba, Thomandersia, Onci- 
notis, Pterocarpus, Perist raphe, Durenioya, Artabotrys, and Hibiscus. 
The plates, by MM. B. Herincq, C. Cuisin, and A. d'Apreval, are 
admirably executed ; they are printed in Paris. 

The second part of the Flora of Koh Chang, reprinted from the 
last issue of the Botanisk Tidsskrift (vol. xxiii.), contains an account 
of the Corallinacece of this district by Dr. Foslie. The number of 
species is small, but, as the author justly remarks, the interest of 
the collection lies in the geographical distribution. Of the ten 
species enumerated, three were determined by Major Reinbold — 
Dermatol ithon pustalatum, Amphiroa frntjilissima, and Corallina 
tenella; and among the remaining seven species, there are three 
new species and three new varieties. The forma funafiitiensis of 
Lithothamnion Philipii is raised to the rank of a species and given a 
variety of its own, to represent the form of the plant found at Koh 
Chang. Dr. Foslie's work in this, as in his other papers, is calcu- 
lated to ease the task of anyone who in the future shall monograph 
the Lithothamnion group ; for, by noting and describing the slight 
differences between closely allied species, he supplies the connecting 
links between the forms. Unfortunately, however, this system must 
lead to a large increase in future synonymy. 

To Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. —With reference to the editorial 
notes contained in the Journal of Botany for January, 1901, pages 
47 and 48, reflecting on you and your work in connection with the 
preparation of the Flora of Tropical Africa, I desire to offer to you 
an expression of my sincere regret for the same. The preparation 
of the Flora of Tropical Africa was not committed to you until the 
year 1891, and my statement that it has been in your hands since 
1872 is incorrect. I sincerely apologize to you for having imputed 
to you unnecessary delay in its preparation, and I desire to withdraw 
all reflections and imputations affecting you of every kind whatever 
contained in the editorial notes referred to. — James Britten. 



121 



A NEW HYBRID WATER RANUNCULUS. 

By H. & J. Groves, F.L.S. 

Plate 420. 

Some years ago we received from Mr. T. Hilton a curious water 
Ranunculus, collected by him at Copthorne Common, East Sussex. 
The upper leaves and the heads of carpels resembled those of R, 
Lenotmandi, but the lower leaves were much divided though not 
capillary, while in stature, and the shape and size of the flowers, it 
resembled a small state of E. peltatus. Our first impression was 
that it must be a hybrid between these two species, but the presence 
of some well-developed heads of fruit seemed to militate against 
this view, and we did not feel that there was sufficient evidence to 
come to a conclusion, so put it aside among the many puzzles in 
this group, to await further material for solution. 

On the 23rd of May of the present year Messrs. C. E. Saluion 
and James Groves visited the locality, duly found the plant, and 
collected a series of specimens. It occurred somewhat sparingly 
in a rather muddy stream in company with R. Lenorniandl and a 
fairly typical form of R. peltatus, but generally in deeper water than 
the former. 

On examining a number of fruiting heads we found that a con- 
siderable proportion of the carpels were undeveloped, and this being 
the case, taken in conjunction with the facts that the plant occurs 
in small quantity in company with both of the supposed parents, 
and that it possesses some of the distinguishing characteristics of 
each of them, we cannot resist the conclusion that it is a hybrid 
between R. Lenonnandi and R. peltatus. Tlie plant is so distinct 
and remarkable that we think it desirable to describe and figure it. 

R. Hiltoni, hibr. nov. {R. Lenormamli x peltatus). Stem rather 
stout, rooting at many of the nodes; lower submersed leaves stalked, 
once or twice trifurcate, with linear acute (not capillary) laciniaD ; 
upper long-stalked, mostly semicircular-reniform, trifid (sometimes 
tripartite), segments cuneate, deeply 3-5-lobed, lobes mostly acute; 
floating leaves rather coriaceous, cordate-orbicular, with 3 rounded 
lobes, the central lobe entire, or with two notches, the lateral with 
1 deep and 2 shallow notches ; stipules large, lower acute, upper 
broad rounded ; peduncle stout, usually longer than the subtending 
petiole, recurved with fruit ; sepals ovate reflexed ; petals obovate, 
claw but slightly yellow, nectary cup-shaped, or wanting ; stamens 
about 12-14 ; carpels about 40, glabrous or slightly hairy, dis- 
tinctly keeled, inner edge rounded towards the top. 

Discovered in April, 1896, by Mr. T. Hilton, in a stream on 
Copthorne Common, East Sussex. 

R. Hiltoyii resembles R. Lenonnandi in its rooting habit, the 
shape of the floating leaves, the number of stamens, and the usually 
glabrous carpels with rounded inner edge ; while it approaches 
R. peltatus in the shape and size of the petals and the hairy 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol.39. [April. 1901.] k 



122 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

receptacle. In the submersed leaves it is unlike both species, for 
in R. Lenonnandi all the leaves are nearly uniform in shape and 
texture, and in II. pdtatns the submersed leaves are repeatedly 
divided into capillary segments, and there are rarely any leaves of 
a transitionil character ; whereas in 11. Hiltoni, while none of the 
submersed leaves are truly capillary, almost all of them are transi- 
tional in character, some of the specimens — that figured, for in- 
stance — presenting a series of gradations from the repeatedly and 
very deeply divided lowest leaves with linear segments to the 
cordate-orbicular floatinoj leaves. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN STEROULIACE^. 

By Edmund G. Baker, F.L.S. 

The following notes have been made during a revision of the 
African Sterculuicem at the British Museum with Dr. Schumann's 
recently published Monograph." 

Melhania. 

Of this genus twenty-five species are described. There seems 
confusion with regard to M. ffiiquensis Bolus and M. Rehmamii 
Szyszyl. In Journ. Bot. 1898, p. 5, I indicated that I thought 
these species identical ; but Dr. Schumann expresses his dis- 
agreement with this view, and places them in different groups. 
M. griqnoisis was established by Mr. Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
xxiv. p. 172 (1887), on Burchell no. 2050, from Kloof Village, 
Asbestos Mountains, and on a plant from Griquatown, Mrs. Orpen, 
Herb. Bolus, no. 6045. Mr. N. E. Brown in a note (/. c) added 
several plants, among them Uehmann no. 5220. Dr. Schumann, in 
PlantcB Marluthiaim (Engler, Bot. Jahrb. x. p. 41, July, 1888), 
subsequently described as M. fjriqwmis Bolus, Marloth no. 1132, 
from West Griqnaland ; but neither here nor in his monograph 
does he cite any other plants upon which Bolus himself established 
his species. I have carefully re-examined Burchell no. 2050 at Kew, 
and still consider it inseparable from M. Relvnanni. The bracts of 
the epicalyx in Burchell's specimen are not, however, linear-subu- 
late, but ovate. Relnnann no. 5220, the type of M. Re/nnanni, is 
among the plants referred to M. (jriqiiensis by Mr. Brown in his 
note additional to Mr. Bolus's original description. 

Dr. Schumann does not retain M. BwchelUi DC. The type is 
Burchell no, 2417, and is in the Kew Herbarium ; the leaves are 
much broader than in M. prostrata DC. — the lamina is 7-9 cm. 
long and 7 mm. to 2 cm. broad, and closely tomentose above, not 
glabrescent. M. Damarana Harvey, a species omitted from my 

* Monographieen afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien iind •Galtungen. Heraus- 
gegeben von A. Engler. V. — SterculiaceaB Africanee. Bearbeitet von K. Schu- 
mann. Leipzig: Engelmanii, 4to, pp. 140, tt. xvi. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN STERCULIACE^ 123 

ennmeration in Jonrn. Bot. 1898, pp. 4-G, apparently belonging to 
§ Brotcroa. is omitted by Dr, SclmniMnn. 

The following species are apparently undescribed : — 

M. (Broteroa) Taylori, sp. nov. Frutex raraos plus minus 
numerosos emittens novellis tenuiter subtouientosis deinde gla- 
bratis ; foliis petiolatis late ovatis vel ellipticis basi rotimdaiis 
vel subcordatis quinqiie- vel subseptem-nerviis serratis utrinque 
tomentellis subtus paulo pallidioribus ; stipulis linearibus ; floribus 
s^epissimine geminatis axillaribus ; pedicellis qiiam pedunciilis 
brevioribus subtomentosis ; bracteolis lanceolatis acuminatis mox 
recurvatis tomentosis qiiam sepalis brevioribus ; sepalis similibus, 
lanceolatis acuminatis ; petalis sepala paulo superantibus ; stanii- 
nodiis linearibus quam petalis nianifeste brevioribus stamina 
superantibus; capsula extus tomentosa seminibns circa 4 pro 
valva. Species aJ M. rotuudatam Hocbst. valde affinis. 

Hab. East Equatorial Africa ; Freretown, Rev. W. E. Taylor, 
In flower and fruit, Dec. 11, 1885. 

Shrub with branches at first subtomentose, then glabrous. 
Leaves petiolate, oval or elliptical, subtomentose on both sides, 
rather lighter coloured below, smaller altogether and broader in 
proportion to length than tliose of M. rotundata Hochst., to which 
species the plant is closely allied. Lamina of largest leaf on speci- 
men examined is 3-5 cm. long by 3 cm. broad ; petiole 2 cm. long. 
Flowers axillary, geminate, peduncle subtomentose, + 3*5 cm. long, 
pedicels + 1 cm. long. Bracts lanceolate, tomentose, reflexing at 
an early stage, nearly 1 cm. long (measured in young fruiting stage). 
Sepals tomentose externally, lanceolate, acuminate, + 1*2 cm. long. 
Petals ±1*1 cm. long. Style glabrous. Filaments of stamens 
1-5 mm. Anthers 2 mm. Staminodia + 7 mm. Capsule externally 
tomentose, not pointed as in M, rvtiuulata. Loculi generally 
4-seeded. 

M. (Broteroa) albicans, sp. nov. Frutioulus ramos plus minus 
numerosos et adscendentes emittens novellis confertim argenteo- 
vel subcinereo-tomentosis ; foliis breviuscule petiolatis oblongis vel 
oblongo-oblanceolatis utrinque confertim argenteo- vel subcinereo- 
tomentosis subtus pallidioribus apicem versus serratis ; stipulis 
filiformibus ; floribus solitariis vel binis vel ternis ; bracteolis 
lanceolatis quam sepalis paulo brevioribus argenteo- tomentosis ; 
sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis ; petalis sepala paulo superantibus ; 
staminodiis linearibus quam staininibns diiplo longioribus, fila- 
mentis brevibus ; ovario globoso hirsuto loculis pluriovulatis. 

Hab. Transvaal; Pilgrim's Rest, Pwv. \V. Greenstock, 1879. 

Shrub branching, young branches and leaves covered with a 
close silvery or subcinereous tomentum. Leaves oblong or oblong- 
oblauceolate, cuneate at the base, margin more or less serrate 
towards the apex, lateral nerves inconspicuous above, more con- 
spicuous below, lamina 2-5-3-3 cm. long, 1-15 cm. broad, petiole 
5-7 mm. long. Stipules linear. Bracts lanceolate, externally 
tomentose, shorter than the sepals, ± 8 mm. long, 2 mm. broad 
at broadest point. Sepals lanceolate- acuminate, nearly 1 cm. long, 

K 2 



124 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Petals just longer than the sepals, + 1 cm. long. Staminodia 
linear, about twice the length of the stamens, 5 mm. long. 
Stamens about 2-5 mm. long. Stigmas triangular, flat, recurved ; 
style somewhat hairy. Ovary globose, covered with white hairs. 
Loculi about 6- seeded. The species is allied to M. Randil Bak. fil. 

M. (Eumelhania) apiculata, sp. nov. Frutex rarais lignescen- 
tibus gracilibus teretibus superne subtomentosis et aliquantulum 
lepidotis ; foliis modice petiolatis in speciminibus nostris parvis 
anguste oblongis utrinque cinereo-tomentosis subtus pallidioribus 
basi rotundatis vel subcordatis marginibus integris; bracteolis late 
ovatis cordatis acutis extus subtomentosis et aliquantulum lepidotis 
quam sepalis brevioribus ; sepalis lanceolatis apiculatis ; stami- 
nodiis quam staminibus paulo brevioribus angustissime oblanceo- 
latis ; ovario tomentoso ; stylo glabro ; stigmatibus recurvatis ; 
capsulis externe tomentosis loculis polyspermis seminibus glabris 
brunueis rugulosis. 

Hab. Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, J. Chisel, no. 3. ^* Akata 
maimho ; arbuste a fleurs jaune et a fonds rouge." 

Shrub with terete, woody branches, the ends subtomentose and 
somewhat lepidote. Leaves on specimen examined only reached a 
length of 2 cm., cinereous-tomentose, paler below, petioles 4-5 mm. 
long. Flowers axillary, peduncles short, 5-8 mm. long. Bracts 
ovate-cordate, externally cinereous tomentose and somewhat lepi- 
dote, in the flowering stage + 7 mm. long, and about the same 
breadth. Sepals lanceolate, tomentose and somewhat lepidote ex- 
ternally, with an apiculus which sometimes measures rather more 
than 3 mm. long. Filament + 3 mm. long, anthers 1*5 mm. long. 
Style 2-5-3 mm. long ; style-arms 5, recurved. Loculi 6- or perhaps 
more seeded. Seeds brown, rugulose, glabrous. Allied in some 
respects to M. Steudneri Schwf., but the bracts are acute, not 
acuminate. 

I have not seen specimens of M. cor char i folia Baill., from between 
Manoumbe and Mouroundava, the leaves of which are described as 
10 cm. long and the fertile stamens as 10. 

DOMBEYA. 

In this genus Dr. Schumann enumerates and characterizes 
thirty-nine species from Africa and the Comoro Islands. The 
species are divided into two subgenera, Eudombeya (K. Schum.) 
having a 5-locular ovary and 5 styles, and Xeropetalum (Planchon, 
emend. K. Schum.) is diagnosed as having a 3-locular ovary and 
3 styles. The character of the latter subgenus must undergo a 
slight alteration, as in D, Kirkii Masters 2-styled flowers will be 
found. In connection with this plant there appears to be some 
confusion. Dr. Masters founded the species on two gatherings, one 
collected in lat. 16° S. by Dr. Meller, and another at Lupata by 
Sir John Kirk. In the former there are certainly for the most part 
only 2 styles and a bilocular ovary, and an inflorescence in which 
the flowers on the branches are racemosely arranged. The plant 
from Lupata has 3 styles. Dr. Schumann places with these under 
D. Kirkii a specimen from the Nyika Country, collected by Rev. T. 



NOTES ON AFRTOAN STKRCULIACE/F. 125 

Wakefield, and one from the Duga Station, Hoist no. 3180. In 
these latter the flowers are smaller, the calyx is very pilose, and the 
leaves are a different shape — i.e. they are hroadest one-third from 
the apex, whilst in the true plant they are broadest about one-third 
from the base. 

There is much similarity between the true D. Kirkil Masters 
and D. laxi flora K. Schum., and it will be for futm-e monographers 
to determine whether these species are not synonymous. 

D. pulclira N. E. Brown and /). vihurniflora Bojer are omitted. 
The former is a plant of the subgenus Ewlombei/a, its alliance being 
perhaps with D. Biuy/essm Gerrard. It is a handsome shrub 5-8 ft. 
high, from Rimer's Creek, Barberton, E. E. Galpin no. 804. It 
differs from D. Burtjessm in having very discolorous leaves. The 
latter is from the island of Johanna, Comoro Islands, and has close 
affinities with D. hracteopoda K. Schum. 

Difficulties have been found in locating certain species in the 
series. D. Johnstoni Baker is a plant of the subgenus Eiuhmiheya 
with flowers about the size of D. Burgessm Gerr. The style is 
hairy, and it will require careful comparison with D. lasiostylis 
K. Schum, D. tang any ikensis Baker also belongs to Endomheya — 
the style is hairy below, and the flowers about the size of those of 
D. Buettneri K. Schum. D. cuanzeiuis K. Schum. must come next 
to D. huillensis K. Schum., and has been correctly placed in Xero- 
petalum. There are two gatherings of the latter in the Kew 
Herbarium by H. H. Johnston — one from Humpata, Chella Mts., 
Angola, Sept. 1883, and another from Cunene. 

D. (Xeropetalum) Taylori, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbuscula ? 
ramis teretibus novellis subpilosis ; foliis modice petiolatis obovato- 
ellipticis margine irregulariter serratis basi cordatis vel subcordatis 
seepissirae septemnerviis subcoriaceis apice acutis utrinque pilis 
stellatis inspersis subtus reticulato-nervosis ; stipulis caducissimis ; 
inflorescentia coetanea paniculata axillari pedunculata pedunculis 
pedicellisque patentim griseo- vel subbrunneo-pilosis, pedicellis sub- 
capillaceis ; sepalis lanceolatis extus pilosis quam petalis breviori- 
bus ; petalis modice obliquis, androecio quam petalis breviore ; 
stigmatibus 3 recurvatis, ovario albo-tomentoso. 

Ad D. umbra culifeiaiu K. Schum. valde accedens. 

Hab. Mombas Island, Rev. W. E. Taylor, 1886. 

This plant bears close relations also with Hoht no. 3180, from 
the Duga Station, and with a specimen collected by Rev. T. Wake- 
field at Nyika, but it differs in both leaves and inflorescence from 
D. Kirkii. 

Shrub or small tree ? Leaves petiolate, subcoriaceous, obovate- 
elliptic, the broadest part being about one-third from the apex, 
margin irregularly serrate with stellate hairs on both sides, veins 
reticulated beneath much more strongly than in D. umbracullfera 
K. Schum., lamina 4-4-5 cm. long, 2-5-3 cm. broad, petiole ± 1-5 cm. 
Inflorescence compact, many-flowered. Peduncles and pedicels with 
patent grey or brownish hairs ; pedicels capillary. Sepals lanceo- 
late, subacuminate, externally pilose, rather more than half as long 
as corolla. Petals ± 8 mm. long, + 4 mm. broad at broadest part, 



126 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

moderntely oblique. Staminodes linear, slightly broadening towards 
apex, longer tiian the stamens, which, however, have rather long 
filatnents. Ovary iiairy extei-nally. Sciginas 3, recurved. Style 
sparingly pilose. Ripe capsule not seen. 

Hermannia. 

Under this genus Dr. Schumann characterizes four subgenera — 
i.e. (1) Marehiiia', [2) Enhermanuia ', (d) Maheniicr, (i) Acicarjms — 
the diagnostic cliaracters depending on the nature of the filament, 
the intiorescence, and whether the capsule is horned or destitute of 
these appendages. The genus Gilesia, described by Baron von 
Mueller from South Australia, constitutes a fifth subgenus between 
Mardim'a and Euheiinainiia. The filaments are filiform-linear — 
the anthers somewhat hastate, bifid at tlie apex ; the peduncles 
axillary, and the flowers usually geminate. Cvnhonis lonnipes Tate 
in Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia, vol. xxii. p. 119 (1898), belongs 
also to the subgenus Gilfda. It is identical with Hemiunnia GHesii 
F. V. M. (= GUt'sia hinijioia F. v. M.). 

H. (Marehnia) Donaldsoni, sp. nov. Suffruticosa ramosa ramis 
teretibus noveliis sparsissime stellato-tomentelhs deinde glabratis ; 
foliis modiee petiolatis, pctiolo cano-subtomentoso tereti, oblongo- 
lanceolatis ciuereo-viridibus basi rotundatis subdiscoloribns subtus 
paiillo pallidioribus apice obtu.sis vel acutiuscnlis, sti^julis oblique 
ovatis acutis basi rotundatis caducis ; tioiibus in paniculas termi- 
nales et axillares di^posiiis pedunculatis et pedicellatis ; bracteolis 
et bracteis filiformibus ; calyce turbinato in lacinias lanceolato- 
acuminatas diviso; petalis calycem subiequantibus glabris ; antheris 
ciliolatis quam stylo ])aullo brevioribus, hlamentis exappendiculatis 
glabris ; ovario sessili tomentoso quinquelobo ; stylo glabro. 

Species ad H. exappendi<-uiatam K. Schum. valde affinis dififert 
imprimis foliis angustioribus, paniculis angustioribus, floribus 
minoribus, calycis segmentis lanceolatis et petalis calycem sub- 
sequantibus nee distincte longioribus. 

Hab. Resliiab, Somaliland, Dr. A. Donaldson Sinith, no. 395. 
In flower, July, 1895. 

Sufifruticose, branches terete, sparsely and minutely stellately 
hairy. Leaves green, cinereous, petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, much 
narrower than in H. ejappendicnlata K. Schum., petiole of upper 
leaves ± 6 mm. long, lamina of upper le^ives ± 3*5-3-7 cm. long, 
1-1-2 cm. broad, margin serrulate, base rounded, veins conspicuous 
on the under side. Stipules obliquely ovate. Panicles axillary, 
terminal, narrower thau in H. exappendiculata K. Schum. Flowers 
smaller than in H . exu/rpendiculata. Calyx + 6 mm. long, laciniae 
lanceolate, acnmiufite, + 3-5 mm. long. Petals subequal in length 
to calyx, a little shorter than the style, apiculate, narrowly obovate, 
almost 6 mm. long, erect. Anthers ciliolate, filaments perhaps 
half length of anthers, glabrous. Style filiform, glabrous. Ovary 
tomentose, 5-lobed, Ripe capsule not seen. 

H. Eenii, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, caulibus elongatis florentibus 
simplicibus teretibus stellato-asperis ; foliis petiolatis, petiolo pilis 
stellatis hispido, ovatis vel ellipticis fere glabris nerviis exceptis, 



NOTES ON AFRICAN STERCTJLIACE/E 127 

apicem versus serratis basi rotundatis eoncoloribns : stipulis nnf^nste 
lanceolatis qiiam petiolis brevioribns ; floribus solitaiiis axill;inl)us, 
pedimciilis qiiaiii foliis nunc longioribiis nunc brevioribns ; bracteolis 
binis vel teruis ; calyce in lacinias lanceolato acuminat;is diviso ; 
petalis qiiam calyce brevioribus oblongo-ovaiis ; staminibus quam 
petaHs longioribus; stylo quam antheris longiore; capsula angustata 
vix cornuta. 

Hab. Dammaraland, T. G. Een, 1879. 

Branches elongate, flowers distributed along the branches as in 
Heriiimviia bracfnjpHa/a Harv., to which species this plant bears 
considerable resemblance. Leaves petioled, petiole 2-3 mm., lamina 
oval or elliptical, almost concolorous, almost "labrous, not at all 
tomentose but with a few scattered stellate hairs, margin serrate or 
serrulate in upper half, veins and midrib prominent below, stel- 
lately hispid, base rounded, lamina + 1-5 cm. long by 8 or 9 mm. 
broad. Peduncles 1-2 cm. long, stellaiely hispid. Stipules + 2 mm. 
long. Calyx 6 mm. long, segments lanceolate, acuminare. sparsely 
hairy externally. Petals oblong-ovate, shorter than the sepals, 
± 5 mm. long. Capsule hairy externally, strongly angled, hardly 
horned. 

This plant is closely allied to H. hrachypetala Harvey, which 
has velvety and canescent leaves. 

I have compared authentic material of Hermannia brnchypet/da 
Harvey with that of Maheniia tom^ntosa Turcz., and, as far as I can 
judge, the two plants are synonymous. In Harvey & Bonder's 
Flora Cupensis the former stands as no. 54 in Henwmnia, and the 
latter as no. 33 in M<,h'rnia. The following are probably varieties 
of this species, differing from type especially in the character of 
their leaves. Bohm, Herb. Austro- Africanse. no. 1883, "In arenosis 
prope Hopetown," Dr. E. B. Mnskett, differs from tvpe in having 
much broader leaves ; while in Bulus no. 5590, "In planitie prope 
Potchefstroom," legit J. H. McLea, the leaves are very discolorous. 

H. damarana, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, novellis cano-subtomen- 
tosis, fohis breviter petiolatis oblcngis vel oblongo-oblanceolatis vel 
oblongo-lanceolatis apice apiculatis basi angustatis trinerviis utrin- 
que cano-subtomentosis margine integriu.sculis vel interdum apicem 
versus subserratis ; stipulis subulatis petiolum subc^quantibus ; 
floribus axillaribus solitariis nutantibus vel subnutantibus, pedun- 
culo pedicelloque cano-subtomentoso; bracteolis parvis linearibus; 
calyce turbinate in lacinias lanceolato-triangulares et subacumi- 
natas ad medium diviso ; petalis quam calyce longioribus vel sub- 
sequantibus anguste obovatis basi cuneatis; filamentis oblanceolatis 
antheris ciliolatis calycem subsequantibus ; ovario extus subtomen- 
toso baud corniito, stylo usque ad medium piiosulo. 

Hab. Dammaraland, f. G. Een, 1879. 

Suffruticose, young branchlets herbaceous, cano-subfomentose. 
Leaves 1-1-7 cm. long, 3*5-4o mm. broad, cinereous-snbtonientose 
on both surfaces, veins subprominent below. Petioles ± 3 mm. long. 
Flowers axillary, solitary. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, but 
much longer than the petiole. Calyx + 7-5 mm. long, segments 
± 4 mm. long. Petals narrowly obovate, generally slightly longer 



128 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

than the calyx, + 8 mm. Anthers ciliolate, filaments oblanceolate. 
Style with lower half slightly hairy and a little longer than the 
anthers. Ovary hairy externally. Capsule not seen. 

H. visciDA Hiern, var. nov. Randii. Suffruticosa ramosissima 
glandulosa ; petalis quam calyce brevioribus cuneato-oblanceolatis 
quam iis typi angustioribus. 

Hab. Buluwayo, Dr. B. Frank Band, no. 295. 

Suffruticose, branching copiously, apparently a taller plant than 
type. Calyx + 5*5 mm. shorter than in the type, segments lanceo- 
late-acuminate, externally subpilose. Petals much narrower than 
in the type, ± 4*5 mm. long. Anthers longer than calyx, ciliolate. 
Capsule distinctly horned. 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 
By W. a. Clarke, F.L.S. 

The above title will, no doubt, be considered an ambitious one, 
and it seems desirable to explain that it is proposed merely to 
review, and that very briefly, the literature of the century affecting 
our native plants, and more especially the phanerogams. The chief 
cryptogamic works will also be referred to in order of date, but 
without any attempt at criticism — which, for the best of reasons, 
must be left to others. 

Before proceeding to our task, it may be well to glance at the 
position of the British botanist at the end of the eighteenth century, 
and it will be found to have been by no means an unenviable one. 
Since the introduction of the Liunean system into the country, 
about the year 1760, much had been done by enthusiastic workers. 
We need only recall the names of Hudson, Withering, Lightfoot, 
Curtis, Sowerby, and Smith, in proof of this statement. Withering's 
Botanical Arratiyement had gone through three editions, the last 
(1796) being, for the time, an excellent British Flora. Lightfoot's 
Flora Scutica (1777) had done much for the northern kingdom, of 
which previously little botanically had been known. Curtis's Flora 
Londinensis (1777-98) contained splendid life-sized coloured figures 
with accurate descriptions of nearly all the flowering plants to be 
found within twenty miles of London, and a few of the mosses and 
fungi. The work has retained its value to the present day. 

James Sowerby had, in the same grand style, illustrated the 
British Fungi then known — about 400 species — and in 1790, 
together with Sir James Edward Smith, had commenced the 
well known English Butany. It appeared in monthly parts, each 
containing three plates — the first three being Cypripedinm Calceolus, 
Vero7iica spicata, and Erica vagans, each dated *' Nov. 1, 1790." 
The next part did not appear till Jan. 1, 1791, after which the 
work progressed with regularity. Up to the end of the century 
eleven volumes and part of the twelfth (altogether 822 plates) had 
been published. In 1788 the Linnean Society was established by 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 129 

Sir James Smith and others, and five vohimes of Trausnctions had 
been published. Stackliouse's Nereis Bn'tannica, Velley's Marine 
Plants of the Southern Coast of Em/laud, and Bolton's Illnstratiom of 
Ferns and Fungi were valuable works for the student of cryptogams ; 
and in the last year of the century the first two volumes of Smith's 
Flora Britannica were published. It will therefore be seen that at 
this period the British botanist was really very well supplied with 
descriptive works on the fiora of his country. 

For Ireland but little had been done — a few rare plants, such as 
Dryas octopetala, Saxifraga umbrosa, and Arbutus Unedo, had long 
been known as natives; and Caleb Threlkeld had in 1727 pubhshed 
a Synopsis Stirpiuin Hibernicarum, which, according to Pulteney, 
contained 535 species. 

Smith's Flora Britannica, having been published in the last 
year of the century, affords some interesting statistics. The total 
number of flowering plants described is 1307, but this number may 
be reduced to 1180 by subtracting about 100 species not indigenous, 
and 27 Willows not now considered distinct species. This Flora 
also contains descriptions of 36 Ferns, 6 Equisetums, 6 Lyco- 
podiums, 1 Pilularia, 1 Isoetes, 3 Charas, and nearly 300 Mosses. 
It does not include Algae, Fungi, or Hepaticae, but these families 
were included in Withering's Botanical Arrangement. 

It may be also noted that the era of County Floras had com- 
menced — Relhan, Sibthorp, and Abbot having published their 
Floras of the Counties of Cambridge (1785), Oxford (1794), and 
Bedford (1798), respectively. The continuation of these County 
Floras, which is one of the distinctive features of the botanical 
literature of the century, will be referred to later on, 

We have seen that Smith & Sowerby's English Botany was 
commenced in 1790, but it extended through thirty-six volumes, 
till March, 1814, and so is the first work which demands our 
particular attention. Its merits are too well known to need any 
record here. Its 2592 plates comprise 1445 flowering plants (of 
which, however, only about 1250 are distinct native species), 
40 Ferns, 7 Equisetums, 6 Lycopodiums, 1 Pilularia, 1 Isoetes, 
6 Charas, 343 Mosses, 80 Hepaticas, and 663 "Alg^" (including 
280 Lichens). 

The following, amongst other interesting plants, were first 
figured and described in this great work: — Mathiola incana, Arabis 
ciliata, Draba azoides, Elatine hexandra, Oxytropis canipestris, 
Rosa hibernica, Saxifraga Geiun, Bupleuruni aristatuni, Aster Lino- 
syris, Bryanthus taxifolius, Pyrola media , Moneses, Myosotis alpestris, 
Pinguicula grandiflora, Polygonatum verticillatum, Juncus tenuis, 
Scheuchzeria, Kobresia, Carex elongata, C. rarijiora, C. humilis, 
C. tomentosa, C. vaginata, C. ustulata, Alopecurus alpinus, and 
Deyeuxia neglecta. 

Of course there were a large number of contributors to English 
Botany during the twenty-four years of its publication. A few of 
the more important were — the Rev. Charles Abbot, the Bedford- 
shire botanist ; James Backhouse, of York ; Rev. Henry Beeke, of 
Devonshire ; Miss Biddulph (Algae) ; William Borrer, of Henfield, 



130 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



Sussex, a large contributor; Rev. W. T. Bree, of Warwickshire; 
James Biodie. of Brodie, Elgin ; W. Bruuton. of Ripon ; Hev. H. 
Bryant, Norfolk ; James Crowe, Norfolk, a student of Willows ; 
Rev. Sir J. Galium & Sir T. G. Cullum, Suffolk botanists; Rev. 
James Dalton, Rector of Croft. Yorkshire, the discoverer of Schench- 
zeria; Rev. Hugh Davies, of x\ugle8ea, author of Welsh Botamilo'ii/; 
George Don, the Superintendent of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
a large coiitributor of Higldand plants, but including a considerable 
number which have not since been found, and so seem to have been 
erroneously recorded as natives ; F. K. Eagle, Suffolk ; Rev. R. 
Forby, Rector of Fincham, Norfolk ; Edward Forster. Essex ; Sir 
Thomas G.ige (Lichens); R. K. Greville I Algfe) ; Miss Griffiths, of 
Torquay (Algje) ; Rev. J. Harriman, Yorkshire; Rev. J. Hemsted, 
many plants from Cambridgeshire ; Miss Hutchins, of Bautry 
(Algce and Mosses) ; A. B. Lambert, of Boyton, Wilts ; Rev. G. R. 
Leathes, Norfolk; Charles Lyell (Lichens); James T. Mackay and 
John Mackay, large contributors of Irish and Scotch plants 
respectively; W. Mathew, of Bury St. Edmunds; John Pitchford, 
of Norwich, the discoverer of Holostenm uinbellatu>n ; Jacob Rayer, 
Kentish plants; Rev. R. Relhan. of Cambs. ; Edward Robson, of 
Darlington, many plants ; Jonathan Salt, of Sheffield ; Rev. 
Charles Sutton, Norwich ; John Templeton, of Belfast, discoverer 
of Rosa hibeinica; and Lilly Wig^;:, of Yarmouth. 

During the progress of Emilish Bctani/ several works appeared, 
which may here be briefly noticed. In 1804, Walter Wade, of 
Dublin, published his Plantw rariores in Hibtrnia iiireiitce, which 
must have been very welcome, as very little had hitherto been done 
for Ireland ; and the next year (1805) Turner and Dillwyn's 
Botanisfs Guide thronqh Eiuiiaiul and Walex appeared, consisting 
simply of county lists of localities for our rarer plants. In 1807 
a great work was completed by Prof. Thomas Martyn, of Cambridge 
— namely, a new edition of Miller's Gardener s Dictionanj. About 
the same time the British '"Fuci" were dealt with by Dawson 
Turner — first in a Synopsis (1802), and afterwards in a more 
complete work of four volumes (1808-1819). In 1802 Dillwyn 
commenced his valuable monograph on the British '• Conferva," 
illustrated by 116 coloured plates; and in 1816 a monograph on 
British Jimr/ermannicP was published by William Jackson Hooker. 
He also about the same time reissued Curtis's Flora Londinensis, 
with large additions ; and in 1818, with Thomas Taylor, produced 
an excellent work on British Mosses. The above-named are the 
chief works on British botany which appeared during the first 
twenty years of the century. The Lmnean system under the 
auspices of Sir James Smith held undisputed sway in England ; 
but the elder Hooker, above mentioned, who was then the ri>ing 
botanist, in the early part of 1821 published his Flora Scotira, 
'' arranged both according to the artificial and natural methods." 
In the preface, dated 10 April, 1821, the author claims the merit 
of being the first to arrange indigenous plants according to the 
natural system. This work being in the main a compilation 
from Lightfoot's Flora Scotica and Englinh Botany, need not 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 181 

detain ns long. The additional localities were mostly derived 
from Hopkirk's Flora Glottiftna {\8lH), and notes supplied by 
Robert M;iughan, II. K. Greville. and others. In the Fangi, 
Persoon's Si/nopsis is followed, and Sowerby's figures are quoted. 
Mi/osutis repens and Hierochloe horealis are here first recorded as 
natives. 

Later in the same year (1821) a very interesting work appeared 
— namely, Gray's Natural Arraiujemeut of British Plants, "according 
to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Can- 
dolle, Brown, &c., including those cultivated for use, with an 
Introduction to Botany, in which the terms newly introduced are 
explained ; illustrated by figures." This work, though nominally 
by Samuel Frederick Gray, was mainly written by his son, John 
Edward Gray. It contains twenty-one good plates, dated "Nov. 1st, 
1821." In the preface, Gray gives as a reason for not quotin<^ the 
plates of English Botany the very high price of the work — generally 
not less than fifty guineas ; he therefore quotes Gerard and Parkin- 
son. The introduction contains a short history of the progress of 
botany, and a list of works from 14G8 to 1821. 

One remarkable feature in this work is the nomenclature, for 
the author has, in a large number of instances, rejected the names 
of Linnaeus, especially his specific names, and given new ones of liis 
own invention. He always does this where the Linnean specific 
name is a substantive — thus, Achiilm Ptanrdca becomes A. nylrt^stris; 
Aoras Calamus, A. undnlatm; Aisma Plantago, A. ynajnr ; and so on. 
As a '* Flora" of the country in the modern sense, this work could 
be of very little use, as Gray gives hardly any localities, even for 
the rarer species. 

Tlie year 1823 saw the commencement of R. K. Greville's Scottish 
Cryptogainic Flora, followed next year by his Flora Fdinensis. And 
now we have a very important work to review. Sir J. E. Smith, 
who had done so much for British Botany, crowned his efforts by 
his excellent English Flora, the first two volumes of which appeared 
in 1821. The first volume is dedicated to Sir Thomas Gery Cullum, 
and in a long and interesting preface Smith reviews the cliief works 
on British Botany, commencing with How's Phytoloyia Britannica 
(1650). Adverting to his share in the production oi English Botany, 
he says : " My name at first did not appear ; but, finding the book 
a fit vehicle for original information and criticism, I publicly 
acknowledged it by a preface to the fourth volume in 1795, and the 
title-page of every succeeding volume declares its real author" ; but, 
notwithstanding this, he complains of *' the flippancy with which 
everybody quotes ' Sowerby,' whom they know merely as the 
delineator of the plates, without adverting to the information of 
the work or the name of its author." As to his Flora Bntannira, 
he says: "The chief merit to which this work aspires is originality. 
The author has examined everything for himself, copying nothing 
without investigation." In this preface and in the entire work Smith 
most improperly ignores Gray's Xatmal Arrangement, even having 
the hardihood to say, " I have for the first time in a general British 
Flora introduced the Natural Orders of our plants " ! Smith's 



132 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



work, however, was arranged by the Linnean system, and merely 
contains the briefest references to the natural orders of Jussieu. 
Nevertheless the work was an excellent Flora of the country ; the 
third volume was published in 1825, and a fourth in 1828. The 
Cryptogams, except Ferns, are not included. It was the last work 
of the author, who died 17th March, 1828. 

In 1829 the Eev. J. S. Henslow, Professor of Botany at Cam- 
bridge, published a Cataloc/ue of British Plants ''arranged according 
to the Natural System, with the synonyms of De CandoUe, Smith, 
and Lindley." It comprises fourteen hundred and fifty indigenous 
and fifty-oue naturalized plants. This Catalogue is very interesting, 
being, as far as I know, the earliest of its kind, and a sort of precursor 
of the well-known London Cataloijiie. In the same year John Lindley, 
Professor of Botany in University College, London, published A Sijn- 
apsis of the British Flora "arranged according to the natural orders." 
This was a small book, the descriptions of the orders, genera, and 
species being concise, and localities mentioned few. In his preface, 
alluding to the long reign of the Linnean system under Smith and 
his followers, he says : " That the system of classification invented 
by Linnaeus was altogether worthy of the reputation of that great 
man, considering the state of science at the time when he lived, 
and that it effected much temporary good, may perhaps be conceded; 
but that any botanist should attempt to deny that when it fell into 
the hands of such men as were esteemed the heads of the Linnaean 
system during the last quarter of a century it became a positive 
incubus upon science, is to me, I must confess, a subject of un- 
feigned astonishment. Surely it cannot be denied that this school 
has acted as if the whole object of Botany were naming and de- 
scribing species, evidently mistaking the means for the end, and 
converting the study of the vegetable kingdom into a system of 
verbal trifling." This little book contained the first notice of Erica 
ciliaris, which had been lately found by Rev. J. S. Tozer near 
Truro ; also several new species of Buhiis. A second edition appeared 
in 1835. 

In 1830 Lindley published his Introduction to the Natural System, 
and in the same year Sir W. J. Hooker catered for the British botanist 
with his British Flora, which subsequently went through many 
editions. Hooker returned to the Linnean system in this hand- 
book, which, steering a middle course between the voluminous 
English Flora of Smith and the too concise one of Lindley, was a 
very meritorious work. A second edition appeared in 1831, a third 
in 1835, a fourth in 1838, and others later. The account of the 
Roses is very full and complete, embodying Joseph Woods's valuable 
paper in vol. xii. of the Linnean Transactions. 

In 1831 the first volume of a Supplement to English Botany 
appeared, the descriptive part being chiefly by Hooker & W. Borrer. 
The first part was issued in August, 1829. Three more volumes 
appeared in 1834, 1843, and 1849, and part of a fifth volume in 
1865 ; these together form a very valuable addition to the original 
work, containing as they do a large number of excellent figures and 
descriptions of British plants, mostly discovered since 1814, with a 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 138 

few others not figured in English Botany. It includes Cryptogams. 
In 1830 R. K. Greville published his Ahjce Britamdcce, with nineteen 
coloured plates ; and in 1831 Lindley & Hutton's Fossil Flora of 
Great Biit<nn was commenced. 

A little anonymous work appeared in 1833 under the title of 
The Irish Flora, cGrnprisiufj the PluBno(i<imous Plants and Ferns. 
It is understood to have been written by Katherine Baily, afterwards 
Lady Kane. It is arranged by the Linnean system, and most of 
the habitats were contributed by John White, of the Glasnevin 
Botanic Garden. It was reprinted in 1846. 

The next important work requiring notice is the British Phceno- 
(jamous Botany of WiUiam Baxter, 6 vols., 1834-1842. It contains 
about five hundred good coloured plates, only one plant in each 
genus being represented ; the descriptions are very carefully drawn 
up, and for the rarer species lists of localities arranged under 
counties are added ; the synonyms and references to previous works 
are carefully worked up. 

As County Floras were still few and far between, the New 
Botanist's Guide, 2 vols., 1835-7, consisting of county lists of the 
rarer British plants, must have been very welcome. Its author, 
the late Hewett Cottrell Watson, was an indefatigable worker on 
the distribution of the British Flora for more than forty years — 
from 1832 to 1874. We shall hear of him again. 

In 1836 a noteworthy advance was made by the foundation — by 
Robert Graham, R. K. Greville, J. H. Balfour, and others — of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh, and in the same year this Society 
published a Catalogue of British Plants, containing sixteen hun- 
dred and thirty-six species, including fifty-eight cryptogams. The 
Botanical Society of London was founded in July of the same year, 
John Edward Gray being the first President. In the same year 
James Townsend Mackay did good work for Ireland by the pro- 
duction of his Flora llihernica. He had published a Catalogue of 
Irish Plants in 1825, but his Flora was for many years the standard 
work on the subject. 

Mr. G. W. Francis's Analysis of the British Ferns and their Allies 
(1837) went through several editions. The Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, conducted by Sir W. Jardine, P. J. Selby, Sir W. 
J. Hooker, and others, commenced in 1838, following Loudon's 
Magazine of Natural History (1829, &c.). At this period one whose 
long life was devoted to British Botany was coming into prominence — 
namely, Charles Cardale Babington. His earliest work was a little 
Flora of Bath and its Neighbourhood, 1834 (with a Supplement in 
1839) ; and in the latter year he published his Primitia Flora 
Sarnica, or an Outline oj the Flora of the Channel Islands. 

In 1840 a History of British Ferns was published by Edward 
Newman, which went through several editions. In 1841 the native 
Seaweeds were described by W. H. Harvey in his British Marine 
Algce ; a second edition appeared in 1849, illustrated by a series of 
dried specimens. In the year 1841 also a very useful magazine 
was started, entitled The Phytologist. In its old and new series it 
extends from 1841 to 1863, when it was discontinued, but imme- 



134 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

diately followed by the Journal of Botain/^ which happily is still 
flourishing. The articles in the Fhjtolofjist were mostly concerued 
with British Botany, and by means of this magazine and its suc- 
cessor we have a very complete history of the progress of the science 
in the British Isles during the last sixty years of the century. Some 
of the chief contributors to the enrly volumes of the t'Injtolofjist 
were Dr. Bromfield, Edwin Lees, Edward Newman, H. C. Watson, 
Thomas Moore, E. G. Varenne, James Backiiouse, Rev. W. T. 
Bree, Jos. Woods, G. S. Gibson, and William Wilson of Warring- 
ton. In 1842 a very attractive book on British Forest Trees, indi- 
genous and introduced, was pubUshed by P. J. Selby. It is an octavo 
volume of 540 pages, illustrated by a large number of delightful 
engravings. It is a choice and, I believe, now rather scarce work. 
We now come to the vear 1843, in which a work appeared 
which forms an epoch in the history of British Botany — namely, 
the famous Manual of the late Professor Babington, the first edition 
of which was published on 1st May of this year. A few extracts 
from the preface to this volume (which differs in later editions) 
will be read with interest. The author remarks that, from the 
attention which had long been paid to the elucidation of the flora 
of Britain, he " did not suppose that much remained to be done in 
British Botany, for he could not expect that, after the labours of 
such men as Smith, Hooker, Lindley, and others, and the publi- 
cation of so invaluable and unrivalled a collection of figures as is 
contained in the English Botany, there could still be many questions 
concerning the nomenclature or any considerable number of un- 
ascertained species the determination of which would fall to his lot. 
He had not, however, advanced far in the critical examination of 
our native plants before he found that a careful comparison of 
indigenous specimens with the works of eminent continental authors 
and with plants obtained from other parts of Europe must necessarily 
be made, for it appeared that in very many cases the nomenclature 
employed in England was different from that used in other countries ; 
that often plants considered as varieties here were held to be distinct 
species abroad ; that several of our species were only looked upon as 
varieties by them; and also that the mode of grouping into genera 
was frequently essentially different." He then expresses his sur- 
prise at these discoveries, and attributes the facts to the ascendency 
of Sir J. E. Smith, "the fortunate possessor of the herbarium of 
Linnffius," and to the long separation of this country from conti- 
nental nations, owing to the war with Napoleon, " by which we 
were almost completely prevented from observing the progress 
which botanical science was making in other countries," so that 
"at the conclusion of the war we had become so wedded to the 
system of Linnaeus and .... so well satisfied with our own pro- 
ficiency that, with the honourable exception of Mr. Brown, -^^ there 
was at that time scarcely a botanist in Britain who took any interest 
or paid the least attention to the classification by natur^il orders 

• Robert Brown, who adopted the Natural System as early as 1810 in his 
Prodromua Florcp Noiup Hollo.vdi(P. 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 135 

which had been adopted in France, and to the more minute and 
accurate examination of plants which was caused by the employment 
of tbat philosophical arrangement." As to the plan of Manual, he 
says: *' Synonyms have been almost wholly omitted, but at least 
one British and one German figure of each plant is quoted in all 
cases in which it could be done with accuracy. Localities are only 
given for new or peculiarly rare plants, the existence of so complete 
a work as Mr. Watson's New Botanist's Guide having made it un- 
necessary inconveniently to swell the present volume by their intro- 
duction." He acknowledges his obligations " to his friends Professor 
Balfour, of Glasgow, and D. Moore, Esq., of the Glasnevin Botanical 
Garden at Dublin, for complete Catalogues of the Floras of Scotland 
and Ireland respectively," and to W. Borrer, Prof. Henslow, E. 
Forster, the Rev. W. A. Leighton, and others. It will be seen that 
a guide to the British Flora was here promised far superior to any- 
thing hitherto published in England, and the promise was amply 
fulfilled. Babington had already commenced the careful study of 
Eubi, and the Manual contained descriptions of twenty-four species 
and numerous varieties. This Manual was a great success, and 
went through many editions, all carefully brought up to date by the 
author ; the second appeared in 1847, the third in 1851, the fourth 
in 1856, and the 8th and last in 1881. The book is too well known 
to require further description. 

The well-known London Catalogue of British Plants, published by 
the Botanical Society of London, already mentioned, first appeared 
in 1844, and has now gone through nine editions. The total 
number of species contained in the first was fourteen hundred 
and twenty-eight, of which thirteen hundred and seventy-one are 
phanerogams. The nomenclature adopted was that of Hooker's 
British Flora, which had then gone through five editions in less than 
a dozen years. The Rev. J. E. Leefe was then the chief authority 
in the genus Sallv, and Mr. Edwin Lees was consulted as to Kubi. 

In 1845 the British freshwater Algae were described and illus- 
trated in two handsome volumes by A. H. Hassall, and in the next 
year Babington published his Synopsis of the British Ruhi. Also in 
this year Harvey's Plnjcolixjia Britannica appeared, forming an im- 
portant addition to our knowledge of marine Alg^. It is illustrated 
by 300 fine coloured plates, and describes 388 species. Henfrey's 
Outlines of Structural and Physiological Botany (1847) was a very 
useful work, by a master of his subject. In this year also Hewett 
Cottrell Watson commenced the publication of his valuable Cybele 
Britaymica, an elaborate work showing the distribution of each of 
our native flowering plants through eighteen provinces, afterwards 
subdivided into one hundred and twelve vice-counties. Each species 
is also classified as a native, colonist, denizen, or alien ; and, again, 
as British, English, Atlantic, Germanic, Scotch, or Highland. A 
second volume of the Cybele appeared in 1849, a third in 1852, 
and a fourth in 1859. Mrs. Hussey's Illustrations of British Myco- 
logy, also published in 1847, was an interesting addition to the 
library of the cryptogamic botanist. About this time we first 
hear of the American wat^v-weed Klodm in England, the second 



136 . THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

and third volumes of the Phytologist containing several notices of 
its occurrence. 

In 184^9 the botanical student must have welcomed J. H. 
Balfour's Manual of Botany, and the still more valuable translation 
by Edwin Lankester of Schleiden's Principles of Scientijic Botany. 
The Botanical Gazette, a monthly journal edited by A. Henfrey and 
others, was commenced in 1841), and continued to 1851. It con- 
tains many interesting papers by C. C. Babington, H. C. Watson, 
Rev. W. A. Leighton, and other well-known botanists. An early 
number in 1850 contained an abstract of Fries's SynibolcB ad His- 
toriam Hieracionini, which must have opened the eyes of many of 
its readers. About this time this genus [Hieraciuni) was beginning 
to be seriously studied by Messrs. .James Backhouse, J. G. Baker, 
and others, and many additions were made to the British list of 
species. (See Phytol. iii. 99G and iv. 805, 8U.) 

The events of 1852 were the appearance of J. H. Balfour's 
excellent Class Book of Botany, entirely superseding former works 
of the like character, and Henfrey's translation of Von Mohl on 
the vegetable cell. Passing on to 1855, we have in Wilson's 
Brijoloyia Britannica a valuable addition to the literature of mosses; 
and next year James Backhouse published his well-known Mono- 
graph of the BritisJi Hieracia, m which he described thirty-three 
species as British, many of them only then recently distinguished. 

In 1857 the Rev. M. J. Berkeley published his Introduction to 
Cryptoganiic Botany, and in the same year appeared Henfrey's 
Eienientary Course of Botany : and this brings us to 1858, when a 
most useful book was published, namely, the excellent Handbook of 
the British Flora . . . for tlie use of Beyinners and Amateurs, by 
George Bentham. The author of this delightful book had already 
distinguished himself by his Monograph on tlie Genera and Species 
of the Labiatce (1832-6), and subsequently obtained a world-wide 
reputation by the great Genera Plantaruni, produced by him in 
conjunction with Sir J. D. Hooker, 1862-83. In the preface to this 
Handbook the author, after saying that he "had been frequently 
applied to to recommend a work which should enable persons 
having no previous knowledge of botany to name the wild flowers 
they might gather in their country rambles, and that he had found 
this difticult, as the standard floras required too much previous 
scientific knowledge for a beginner or mere amateur," goes on to 
say that he "here attempted a descriptive enumeration of all the 
plants wild in the British Isles distinguished by such characters as 
mio^ht be readily perceived by the unlearned eye, and expressed in 
ordinary language, using such technical terms only as appeared 
indispensable for accuracy, and whose adopted meaning could be 
explained in the work itself." This being his object, he at first 
thought that a mere compilation might be sufficient, "the British 
plants being so well-known, and having been so repeatedly de- 
scribed with so much detail ; but he soon found that a careful 
comparison and verification of the characters upon the plants them- 
selves was necessary." He then states that the descriptions had 
been drawn up from British specimens, and compared with the 



BRITISH BOTANY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 18? 

characters given in Hooker & Arnott's British Flora and Babington's 
Manual, or with detailed descriptions in some of the best local 
floras ; that they had been verified upon continental specimens, and 
checked by the examination of living specimens ; and that he had 
"availed himself of numerous and repeated observations made 
during forty years' herborizations in various parts of Europe." 
The result of his labours certainly was the production of a most 
attractive introduction to the study of the British Flora, freed from 
every unnecessary difficulty. As to his method of treatment of 
species, he says: — "It will no doubt be matter of astonishment 
that whilst the last edition of Hooker & Arnott's Flora (1855) con- 
tains 1571 species, and that of Babington's Manual (1856) as many 
as 1708 (exclusive of Chara), that number is in the present work 
reduced to 1285. This is not owing to any real difference of 
opinion as to the richness and diversity of our vegetable produc- 
tions, but is occasioned by a different appreciation of the value of 
the species themselves." Accordingly he greatly reduces the 
number of brambles, roses, hawkweeds, and willows which had been 
separately described by Babington and others, and also lumps 
together many species in the other genera — e. g. the Batrachian 
Ranunculi, which he includes under the single name R. aquatiUs. 
Such treatment of closely allied species is, no doubt, eminently 
desirable in a book meant for the beginner. 

In reviewing this Handbook a word of praise must be added for 
its excellent analytical keys to the natural orders, and also to each 
important genus. The plates of FntjUsh Botany are referred to 
throughout. Bentham's Handbook, together with a few good life- 
sized outline drawings of about one hundred of the plants most 
likely to be met with by a beginner (which latter is, in my opinion, 
still a desideratum in the literature of British botany), would be 
worth their weight in gold to anyone wanting an inducement to 
take up some branch of natural science. Such plates would make 
the first identifications easy, and afterwards the Handbook alone 
would be sufficient. There is also an illustrated edition of this 
Handbook, but the figures are very small. 

In 1863 was commenced a very important work, being a new 
edition of Smith & Sowerby's English Botany, with entirely fresh 
descriptions of the genera and species by J. T. Boswell Syme. The 
plates are reproductions of those in the original, with new ones for 
species since discovered, and the colourmg of them by hand is very 
inferior ; Syme's descriptions, however, are valuable. Here again 
the work is too well-known to require a detailed description. In 
the same year was commenced the Journal of Botany, British and 
Foreign, under the editorship of Berthold Seemann, and it has 
continued under different editors to the present time. 

During the latter part of the century the works in some way 
connected with British botany have been so numerous that I can 
only select a few for notice. 

Daniel Oliver's Lessons in Elementary Botany (1864) is a useful 
book for a beginner ; and in 1866 Messrs. D. Moore and A. G. More 
commenced to publish their Cybele Hibemica, or Outlines of the 

Journal of Botany.— -Vol. 39. [April, lUOl.] l 



188 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Geographical Distribution of Plants in Ireland. In 1869, Professor 
Babington published an able account of the British Eubi, with very 
full descriptions of the numerous species into which the genus had 
then been divided. This brings us to the year 1870, when yet 
another guide to " the British Flora " appeared, and has received a 
considerable amount of patronage, for this is the date of the first 
edition of The Stnde^ifs Flora of the British Islands, by Sir J. D. 
Hooker; the object of which, in the words of the author, was **to 
supply students and field botanists with a fuller account of the 
flowering plants and vascular cryptogams of the British Islands 
than the manuals hitherto in use aim at giving." We are told by 
the author that ''the ordinal generic and specific characters were 
to a great extent original, but collated with those of Mr. Boswell- 
Syme in his edition of English Botany.''' The book has many good 
and useful features which distinguish it from other similar works ; 
the distribution of each species throughout the world is shortly 
stated ; also the total number of species in each genus. In the 
critical genera — Rubus, Bosa, and Hieraciiwi — a plan of grouping 
allied species or varieties is adopted which is intermediate between 
those of Babington and Bentham. A third edition of this handbook 
appeared in 1884, containing improvements in the classification 
and characters of the orders, genera, and tribes in accordance with 
the before-mentioned Genera Plantarum of the author and George 
Bentham ; and since this date no new British Flora has appeared. 
Such a work brought up to date is now much wanted. 

For the student of cryptogams two important works appeared 
in 1871— M. C. Cooke's Handbook of British Fungi, and Rev. W. A. 
Leighton's Lichen Flora of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel 
Islands. This latter, a most elaborate work, went tlirough three 
editions, the last in 1879. 

In 1873-4 the two volumes of H. C. Watson's valuable Topo- 
graphical Botany appeared ; and a second edition, corrected and 
enlarged by J. G. Baker and Rev. W. W. Newbould in 1883. This 
well-known work affording a bird's-eye view of the distribution of 
the several species of the British Flora, is indispensable to the field 
botanist. It is to be hoped that a new edition, for which much 
material has been accumulated, may soon be published. 

In 1878 a very interesting Dictionary of English Plant Najneswua 
commenced by Messrs. James Britten and Robert Holland. In a 
review of the first part it was truly stated that "such an extensive 
series of the names of English plants has never before been seen." 
The Dictionary was completed in 1886. Readers of this Journal 
will also gratefully remember the very useful Biogrbphical Index of 
British and Irish Botanists compiled by Messrs. James Britten and 
G. S. Boulger, 1888-91.- In 1880 Dr. Braithwaite commenced to 
publish a most complete work on the British Moss- Flora, with 

* [Mr. Clarke's modesty forbids him to refer to his interesting First Records 
of British Flotvering Plants, which was first issued in this Journal and appeared 
last year in a second (revised and corrected) edition ; but it cannot be omitted 
from this enumeration. — Ed. Journ. Bot.^ 



BKITISH HUTANV IN THE NINETEENTH CENTCKY 1H9 

accurate illustrations of every species. This is now near its com- 
pletion and, for those to whom its expense is a barrier, an excellent 
Manual on the same subject was published in 1896 by Messrs 
H. N Dixon and H. G. Jameson. From these works it appears 
that the number of species known as British has quite doubled 
durmg the century. Valuable works on British Fungi have during 
recent years been produced by Mr. M. C. Cooke, adding a very large 
number of species to the British list. In 1892 a Supplement to 
the third (byme s) edition of Emjllsk Botany was commenced, and 
IS still m progress. The Irish Flora has also received much atten- 
tion, and Its distribution has been worked out in the before-mentioned 
Cybele of Messrs. D. Moore and A. G. More (ed. 1, 1866 ; ed. 2, 1899), 
and lu several local Floras. But perhaps some of the best work of 
the last fifty years has been done by experts on certain critical 
genera especially the elucidation of the Pondweeds by Messrs. 
Artliur Bennett and Alfred Fryer; the Roses and Rubi by Professor 
Babmgton, Kev. W. M. Rogers, and others ; the Hawkweeds by 
Messrs. Hanbury, Linton, and Marshall ; and the Charace<c by 
Messrs. H. & J. Groves. ^ 

fr.r^l'!-^''^*^''/^'^ ""^ ^h ^^"^^'^ '^^' '^'^^'^^^^^ ^y ^^^ appearance of 
translations of some of the best German works on Botany, including 
h^Qh^ lext-b.Hjk, first translated by Messrs. Bennett and Dyer (1875)" 
and later by Professor Vines. On a former page reference has been 
made to the three County Floras produced m the eighteenth century. 
ihe ast century, especially the latter half of it, has been productive 
ot a large addition to these, so that now but few counties are without 
a riora. One of the earliest was Baines's Flora of Yorkshire (1840) 
tollowed next year by an excellent one for Shropshire by the Rev. 
W. A. Leighton, excellent at least for its careful and complete 
descriptions of species ; the localities enumerated are but fewf A 
i<iora 0/ Hens appeared in 1849, and that of Wilts was commenced 
by the late Thomas Bruges Flower in 1857 (a more complete one 
ol fl\ ■^''''•°" .^^'"§^ published in 1888). These were the 

chiel Floras appearing in the first half of the century. During the 
latter halt the following counties have been treated in like mamier. 
I mention them m order of date :-Cambs, Essex, Surrey, Norfolk, 

Herts'" SHftMl'Ti ' ^Tr^'^T' Middlesex, Dorset, Hants, Oxon 
Herts, Suftok, Derby, Warwick, Somerset, Berks, Kent, Cheshire 
and Cumberland ; also some Scotch and Irish Floras have appeared 
and one lor Carnarvonshire and Anglesea. The early Floras were 

wXtW 'f\fl7 ^^'"'IVJ'l^ ^ "^^'^'^^ improvement commenced 
with that of Middlesex (1869), in which the county was divided into 
districts according to the river drainage, and all old records were 
carelully looked up. 

Another important matter dealt with during the last twenty 
years ol the century is nomenclature, and our British list has sufiered 
many changes from an endeavour to adhere strictly to the '' law of 
priority. ' I have already mentioned the chief new plants which 
were figured and described in Enfjlish Botany (1790-1814). Since 
that date the most interesting additions to the British flora during 
the century were the following :—Elatme Hydropiper, Hype^ 



?riciun 
L 2 



110 THE JOUhNAL OF BOTAXV 

linariifoiiitHi and H. undalatum, Ule.v Gallii, Trifolium Bocconi, 
T. striction, and T. J\folinerii (all three found in Cornwall between 
1840 and 1850), Astragidus alpimis, Cotoneaster, several species of 
Caliiiriche. E/dlohiiini lancfolatiim, Bupleunim. falcatnm, (Eiianthe 
pimpinelloides, Selimim Carvifulia, Inula salicina (found in Ireland in 
1813, bat not published till 1865), several si)ecies of Arctium, Phy- 
teiiuia spicatwn, Erica ciiiaris (found in Cornwall), and two other 
species found in Ireland, the true Primula elattor (1841) and 
P. scoticd, some subspecies of Myosutis, several species of Oruhanche 
and Utricularia, Pinguicnla al/dna. Thymus ChamcBdrys, Calamint/ia 
sylvatica, Stachys alpina, Teucrium Botrys, Herniaria hirsuta, Poly- 
(jonum maritimum and P. mite, Euphorbia stricta and E. pilosa, 
Salix lanata, EJodea canadensis, Spiranthes cestivalis in Hants and 
S. Piomanzoffiana in Ireland, Epipoyum aphyllum, two species of 
Epipactis, Ophrys arachnites in Kent, Habenaria intacta in Ireland 
(1864), Romulea Columnce, Sisyrinchium anyustifolium (Ireland), 
Gladiolus illyricus (Hants), Leucojum vernum, Sim'^this bicolor, 
several species of Allium, Juncus, and Lrizula, Woljjia Michelii 
(our smallest flowermg plant), numerous species of Potamoyeton^ 
Cyperus fitscus, Scirpus nanus and S. cernuus, Eriophorum gracile, 
about fifteen species of Carc.v, and a like number of Grasses. The 
last edition of the London Catalogue (1895) contains 1861 separately 
numbered species of flowering plants, 48 Ferns, 11 Equisetums, 
5 Lycopodmms, and 33 other species (IsoHcs, Pilulana, Chara, 
Nitella, &c.) ; but, if we deduct from the above 16 Channel Island 
species, 192 not indigenous, and about 150! Riibi and Hieracia, 
it would reduce the number of flowering plants to about 1500, which 
may be compared with the 1180 with which the century started. 



NOTES ON AFRICAN LABIATiE. 

By James Britten, F.L.S. 

In the course of arranging the African Labiat^e in the National 
Herbarium in relation to the monograph of the order in the recently 
published parts of the Elora of Tropical Africa, I have jotted down 
a few notes which may be taken as supplementary to Mr. Hiern's 
notice of the work on pp. 108-111. I have printed only those 
which may be of use to other workers in the same field, and 
therefore have not cited such additional nimibers or localities as 
are found in our Herbarium. Many of the notes relate to the 
Welwitsch collection, of which, as is well known, the British 
Museum possesses what is practically the study set. It is not 
quite easy to see on what principle numbers are quoted : for some 
common species — e.g. Leucas martinicensis, *'a cosmopolitan tropical 
weed" — the citations are very numerous; in other cases specimens 
intimately connected with the establishment of the species are not 
referred to : the numbers of iSchimper, Hildebrandt, Welwitsch, and 
bcott Elliot are among those incompletely quoted. A few synonyms 



NOTES ON AFRI(l\N LARTAT/'R 141 

omitted from the Flora may be added to those given by Mr. Hiern 
(I.e. 109, 110); LfUC((S ci/iata /3 hirsitta is the name under which 
Kotschy's [)lant, the type of Bcntham's L. 'inihica, was disiributed ; 
it is cited by Bentham (DC. Prodr. xii. 530) as '• L. ciliata Hochst. 
non Benth." Tiie names (only) in Brown's a)>pf ndix to Salt's 
Abyssinia have of course no claim to recognition; but, as Moliicrel'a 
iiitetjrifolia is quoted, it is not easy to see why j\[. scariosa and M. 
repanda, which stand upon precisely the same footing, are omitted. 
Acrocephalus villosus Thoms. (non Benth.) in Appendix to Speke's 
Journal, 644, might have been quoted under A. cijUndraceus. 

In the genus Ociminu, the correlation (in the appendix) of the 
Welwitsch plants taken up in the Flora with those of Mr. Hiern's 
Catalogue is imperfect. For example, Welwitsch 5571, which 
Mr. Baker makes the type of a new species, is placed by Mr. Hiern 
without doubt under O. americanum Mill. (0. caniim Sims) ; No. 
5583, which according to Mr. Hiern is partly 0. americanum and 
partly 0. kmjanum, is placed by Mr. Baker under the former ; No. 
5568, similarly divided by Mr. Hiern, is not cited in the Flora ; 
No. 5572, according to Mr. Hiern is 0. suave, according to Mr. 
Baker, O. viride. Under 0. Johnstonii, 0. graveohns Oliv. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. series 2, ii. 347 (not of A. Br.) should have been cited. 

In the genus MoJanthns, the Welwitsch correlation is again 
imperfectly done. For example, Mr. Hiern refers three Welwitsch 
numbers to M. Welwitschii Briq., and the plants they represent 
are manifestly identical. In the Flora, however, one of the tliree 
is taken as the type of a new species, .^. cnueifoliits Baker (which 
is placed in a section to wiiich it cannot possibly belong), and no 
reference is made to Mr. Hiern's determination. In the same way, 
the two numbers identified by Mr. Hiern as j^. Engleri Briq. are 
considered in the Flora as two species, one of tbem new ; and no 
allusion is made to the identification in the Welwitsch Catalogue. 
There are indeed many evidences that the comparison of the two 
books has been done in a perfunctory manner : e. g. on p. 459 it is 
stated that Salvia pseadococcinea "was found by Welwitsch in 
Angola," whereas Mr. Hiern rightly records it for the island of 
Madeira. 

Plectranthus cylindracem Hochst. In the Welwitsch Catalogue 
(i. 861) Mr. Hiern unites with this species, which he places under 
Germanea (an earlier name for the genus), Geniosporum lasiostachymn 
of Briquet (in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xix. 164) — a species estabUshed 
on the Welwitsch number (5489) which Mr. Hiern places under 
P. cyJindraceus. In the Flora of Tropical Africa (v. 351) Mr. Baker 
retains Geniosporum, lasiostachyum, citing Welwitsch 5489, but 
adds a note that " Welwitsch's 5489 is represented at Kew by a 
Plfctranthus,'' Later on in the same monograph (p. 414) Mr. 
Baker establishes a new species, P. moschosmoides, upon Welwitsch 
5489. In the National Herbarium we have besides Welwitsch's 
specimens the type of Hochstetter's cylindrareus ; and there can be 
no doubt as to these being identical. Mr. Baker, in his key to the 
species, characterizes P. moschosmoides as having entire leaves, those 
of P. cylindraceus being crenate ; but the leaves in Welwitsch's plant 



142 THK JOTTRNAL OF BOTANY 

correspond exactly in their margins with those of P. cylindraceus. 
In the copious "addenda " to the Flora no reference is made to the 
identity of G. lusiostachyiun with P. cylindraceus, although this is 
clearly indicated by Mr. Hiern. 

The synonymy of the plant under Plectranthus is : 
Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. in Schimp. iter Abvss. Sect. 2, 
1113 ! Benth. in DC. Prodr. xii. 60 (1848) ; Baker in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. V. 414 (Dec. 1900). Germanea cijlindracea Hiern, Welw. 
Cat. i. 861 (Aug. 1900). 

Geniosporum lasiostachyum Briquet in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xix. 164 
(1894) ; Baker in Fl. Trop. Afr. v. 351 (June, 1900). 

Plectranthus moschosmuides Baker in Fl. Trop. Afr. v. 414 (Dec. 
1900). 

The omission under Solenostemon ccymoides of the synonym 
Coleus ? africanm (Benth. herb. 54) is not of much importance, but 
it might have been cited, especially as Don's specimens, on which 
Bentham's plant was estabUshed, are in the National Herbarium. 
Coleus orbicularis Baker (/. c. p. 437) is, as noted by Mr. Hiern 
(Journ. Bot. 1901, 108) the same as Solenostemon niveus Hiern, 
Welw. Cat. i. 864, the full description of which is transcribed on 
p. 526 of the Flora, without any indication that the plant had 
already been described from the same Welwitsch number earlier in 
in the book. " Coleus rupestris Hochst. in Schimp. PI. Abyss. 
No. 2172" is cited (p. 409) as the type of Plectranthus rupestris 
Baker, and later (p. 430) as a synonym of C. barbatus Benth. var. 
Schimperi Baker {C. Schimperi Vatke). According to Briquet (Bull. 
Herb. Boiss. ii. 131) the two plants are identical. This author 
retams the name C. rupestris Hochst., and says: " Le nom donn6 
par Hochstetter ayant ete publie dans un exsiccata regulierement 
numerote, a etiquettes autographiees, a une priorite incontestable 
sur celui de Vatke, au terme des Lois de la Nomenclature, art. 42." 
This position seems, as M. Briquet says, *' incontestable," but it is 
not accepted by Mr. Jackson, in whose Index Hochstetter's names 
are ignored. Nor does Mr. Baker always cite them : e. g. I cannot 
find in the African Flora Acrocephnlus abyssiiiicus Hochst. in 
Schimp. PI. Abyss, ed. ii. no. 2046. There is also an unnecessary 
variety in the citation of the plants ; in many cases the names are 
quoted thus : " Thymus serrulatus Hochst. ; Benth. in DC. Prod. xii. 
203 " ; in others thus : Micromeria longijiora Hochst. in Schimp. 
PL Abyss. Exsicc. no. 2192 " : the latter is manifestly the correct 
method. If, however, the principle be acted upon, it will result in 
changes of accepted names : Mr. Baker, for example, retains Salvia 
Schimperi Benth. in DC. Prod. xii. 282 [1848] , and cites (as does 
Bentham) S. hypoleuca Hochst. in Schimp. PI Abyss, exsicc. [sect. 3] 
no. 1916 [1844] . Bentham seems to have set this aside in favour 
of his own S. hypoleuca (Prodr. xii. 279), but if the Schimper label 
constitutes publication Hochstetter's name must be restored, and 
S. hypoleuca Benth. will require another trivial designation. 



148 

J. G. AGARDH 
(1813-1901). 

Jacob Georg Agardh, who died on January 17th last, was born 
at Lund on December 8, 1813. He was the son of Dr. Carl Adolf 
Agardh, who was at one tune a professor at Lund University, and 
afterwards became bishop in the diocese of Karlstad. Both father 
and son devoted their botanical energy to the study of marine algae, 
the elder Agardh laying the foundation and the son continuing the 
work till within a few months of his death. Jacob Agardh studied 
at the University of Lund, which he entered as a student in 1826 : 
in 1832 he became doctor of philosophy, docent in 1834, and 
demonstrator of botany in 1836. In 1847 he became extraordinary 
professor, and in 1854 he was made ordinary professor, which post 
he held till 1879, when he retired. 

The first few papers he published were on botanical subjects 
other than marine algae ; but in 1836 appeared his first paper in 
the branch of botany of which he was to become so great a master. 
From that year till shortly before his death he continued to write 
on marine algae, and leaves behind him a monument of labour 
and learning. His greatest work is the Species Genera et Oi dines 
Algarum, of which the first volume was published in 1848, and dealt 
with the group of PhBophjcem. Four volumes on Floridem followed, 
the last being a revision and enlargement of the first two. The 
CoralUne(By published in the second volume, were treated by Prof. 
Areschoug, and were not revised by Prof. Agardh in his later work ; 
indeed, that group was never worked oat by him, though he wrote 
so much on other orders of Floridece. The ChlorophycecB were 
also neglected by him as a whole, though he deals at some length 
with the group of Siplionea in his great work Till Algernes Systeniatik, 
published between 1872 and 1890. This consists of a series of 
monographs on various genera, including descriptions of many new 
species, and may indeed be regarded as an amplification of parts of 
his earlier work, the Species, Genera et Ordines, mentioned above. 
In 1879, Prof. Agardh published an important work, Florideernes 
Morphologie, and in 1889 a monograph entitled Species Sargassorum 
Australia^ with good coloured and other figures. In 1892, when in 
his eightieth year, he issued the first part of a new work on the 
lines of Till Algernes Sy^Umatik, entitled Analecta Alyilogict, and 
this he continued to publish till within a few months of his death. 
It is not to be expected that the work in these last few parts could 
be equal to that of his earlier life, but the very fact rhat a man of 
his advanced age could continue to work and publish the results 
shows his untiring energy and interest in his subject. 

Prof. Agardh received much material from Australia, where 
Miss Hussey and others collected for him, and from his position in 
the world of phycology, many plants must have been continually 
passing through his hands. A large number of specimens in the 
Kew Herbarium are named in his handwriting, and the herbarium 
of the late Mr. Bracebridge Wilson, now in the British Museum, 



144 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

had been referred to him. Many of these plants are described or 
mentioned in his works. 

Prof. Agardh was always ready to answer an appeal for help in 
the identity of a plant, and whenever it was necessary he would 
send his own type specimen for comparison. At the end of last 
year he was kind enough to entrust a unique specimen to a worker 
at the British Museum, notwithstanding his advanced age and the 
fact that he was most anxious to have no phmt absent from his 
herbarium at the time of his death. The plant was returned in a 
few days' time, and it was not till after his death a few weeks later 
that a letter from his widow fully revealed the effort it had been to 
the aged botanist to part for even a short time with his type- 
specimen. Prof. Agardh's herbarium was given during his life-time 
to Lund University, but so long as he lived he retained the right of 
lending specimens. After his death, however, it was his wish that 
no plant should be taken out of the collection, and his herbarium 
will therefore be guarded as rigidly henceforward as is that of the 
British Museum itself. 

A full share of honours from his own nation and from others 
fell to Agardh's lot, in recognition of his work. He was elected a 
foreign member of the Linnean Society in 1867, and thirty years 
afterwards received the gold medal of the same Society, on which 
occasion the then President, Dr. Albert Giinther, thus summarized 
his work : — " There is no group of marine littoral algse which has 
not been presented to us in a more orderly arrangement by the 
genius of Agardh. His industry and extraordinary^ abilities have 
been devoted throughout his long life to the construction of a 
natural system of classification of marine plants, and his labours 
have been crowned with the success of universal acceptance." 

E. S. B. 



SHORT NOTES. 

Hayling Island Plants. — On September 13th, 1900, I spent 
some hours here, mainly devoted to examining the various forms 
of SaUcornia ; a few other things were incidentally met with, which 
may be worth mentioning. I am indebted for assistance in deter- 
mining them to Mr. Arthur Bennett and Rev. E. F. Linton. — 
Lepigonum ? A remarkable form occurred, having the general habit 
of L. neglectum Kindb., but with a strong, woody, doubtless perennial 
root, numerous interlaced stems, and smooth (not papillose) seeds, 
mostly winged. But for this membranous margin, Mr. Bennett 
"would have called it L. famculare Lonnrotb, Obs. PI. Suec. p. 13 
(1854), who says, 'media fere est inter Lejyigonum viariunm Wahl. 
et L. saHniim Fr.' " — Chenopodiiiui hotryodes Sm. Very local, a short 
mile east of Hayling Bridge ; usually smaller than the Pegwell Bay 
(East Kent) plant, but evidently the same species, and quite different 
from C. ruhium var. pseudchotryoides. New for Hampshire, and I 
believe also for the English south coast. — SaUcornia stricta Dum. 
By far the most abundant saltwort ; conspicuous by its erect habit 



RHOHT XOI'ES 145 

and its bright, translucent green colour. Seeds ovate-oblong, very 
bairy. — S. rmnosisshna Woods. I only saw this at one spot, near 
the station for Chenopodium hotnjodes, but no doubt it grows in other 
parts of the island. — S. pusiUa Woods. This, the chief object of my 
search, was met with in abundance about a quarter of a mile east 
of the bridge ; it is a very characteristic little plant, usually 2-3 in. 
high, but occasionally as much as 6 in, (these taller specimens 
branched freely), erect, grey-green in colour. It was in full flower 
at this season. I had only seen it previously in Herb. Woods, 
kindly lent to me some years ago by Mr. Townsend. — N. Ivjnosa 
Woods. Mr. Bennett concurs in referring to this a strong woody- 
rooted plant which is locally plentiful at the south end of the 
bridge. Unlike the forms of S. radicims Sm. that I have met 
with here or elsewhere, it produces numerous erect or ascending 
branches ; their flowering tops are stout, and of a clear pale green. 
The young seeds were covered with short stiff hairs, almost giving 
them the appearance of being tuberculate. In Fl. Hants this is 
reduced to a variety of radicam, with which Mr. Bennett agrees ; 
having regard to their very different habit when growing, I feel 
considerable doubt about the matter, which deserves further in- 
vestigation. — Zostera marina L. var. angmtifolia. Plentiful near 
Hayling Bridge, together with typical Z. marina and Z. nana ; 
I examined the fruit while fresh with a strong lens, but it did not 
then appear to be furrowed. Mr. Bennett writes that Prahl (Krit. 
PI. Schleswig-Holstein, p. 211) denies the identity of ^. avf/nstifolia 
Reichb. with var. august ifolia Hornem. (Flora Danica, t. 1501), an 
earlier name (1816) than that of Fries ; and that Prahl further 
suggests Reichenbach's anfiustifulia being Z. marina x 7ia7ia. It 
is quite possible that we have two plants in Britain under the name 
of dngnstifolia, and the southern form (usually much more luxuriant) 
may perhaps be a hybrid, though it fruits freely ; but the angusti- 
folia of Inverness, Ross, and Sutherland is certainly not so, being 
found where typical marina is absent, though frequently accompanied 
by nana. I have seen ^^avgustifolia'' in several stations, but I have 
never been able to find connecting links between it and typical 
marina. — Spartina Toivnsendi H. & J. Groves. Several strong tufts 
were observed a little south of the bridge; an extension of its known 
range eastwards. Comparing these with the S. stricta of the same 
locality, the divergence was seen to be great ; this good species has 
been somewhat disrespectfully treated in the Student's Flora, ed. 3, 
p. 471.— E. S. Marshall. 

SciRpus MARiTiMus. — DuHng last summer and autumn Mr. Fred. 
Davey and myself (he was the first to find it) noticed a very marked 
variety of Scirpus maritimus L., which does not appear to have re- 
ceived any special notice in England, though it certainly seems to 
merit a distinctive varietal name, which on the continent has been, 
I find, assigned to it. Var. b. ampactus, in which all the spikes of 
the inflorescence are gathered together into a compact clump, is, 
I believe, more or less common wherever the ty[)e occurs at all 
plentifully, but in the variety I refer to the entire inflorescence is 
reduced to a single spike. This variety was, so far as I have been 



146 THK JOTTKNAL OF BOTANY 

able to ascertain, first ilefiiied by Dr. 0. W. Sender in his Flora 
Ra'nhurgemis (1851), p. 27, as follows: — ^'Ysii\ ^ mo )instachys — 
spicula soUtaria " ; and there is in the British Museum Herbarium 
one continental specimen, exactly agreeing with our Cornish speci- 
mens, which was received duly labelled " numostachys Sender." 
The variety is noticed in Ascherson's Flora of Brandenburg (i. 754), 
where it is said to be rare. No doubt it is merely a depauperated 
form of maritimus, just as niacrostachys and cymosus (/= mnhellatus) 
are very luxuriant forms ; but at first sight it seems difficult to 
account for these excessively depauperate forms, which are to be 
found growing side by side with typical maritimus and compactus. 
A. 0. Hume. 

Hypnum rotundifolium Scop. IN East Gloucestershire. — This 
spring we had the good fortune to rediscover this rare British moss 
near Stroud, Gloucestershire (v.-c. 33). The exact locality we with- 
hold for prudential reasons. Specimens have been submitted to 
Dr. Braithwaite and Mr. A. J. Wheldon, who assure us we are not 
mistaken in its identification. We understand that it is not now 
to be found in the only locality recorded in Dr. Braithwaite's 
British Moss- Flora and Dixon's Handbook, where previously it had 
been gathered by Mr. Bin&tead, and therefore the spot in which we 
discovered it to be growing remains at present, as far as we know, 
the only locaHty in Britain. It was apparently well established, 
and in good fruiting condition. We are hoping, through the medium 
of the Moss Exchange Club, to distribute a few specimens to its 
members. — Geo. Holmes and E.J. Elliott. 

Set of British Hieracia (p. 105). — In the sixth Fascicle, lately 
issued, H.snrreianuni F. J. Hanbury, var. megalodon E. F. Linton 
is rightly numbered 148 in the Table of Contents and on the label, 
but by a slip of the pen appears as 147 in the Preliminary Remarks 
and in the Index.— E. F. Linton. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 
Plant Names. 

Fiore Populaire, ou Histoire Naturelle des PlantPS dans le.nrs rapports 
avec la Linguistiqae et le Folk-lore. Par Eug^me Rolland. 
Tom. III. [Caryophyllaceae— Rutacese] . Paris: Libraire Rol- 
land. 1900. 8vo, pp. 378. Price 8 fr. 
Irish and Scottish Gaelic Names of H'^rbs, Plants, Tre^s, etc. By 
Edmund Hogan, S.J., John Hogan, B.A., and John C. 
MacErlean, S.J. Gill, DubUn ; Nutt, London. 1900. 8vo, 
cloth, pp. xii, 137. Price 3s. net. 
M. Rolland's work continues to make steady if not rapid pro- 
gress, and, as is the nature of such compilations, becomes more 
exhaustive as it proceeds ; the list of additional works cited in this 



KI.ORF. I'OPUT.AIRK. V.TC . 147 

volume fills nearly three pages, so that there must already be a 
considerable accumulation of information supplementary to the two 
earlier parts. It is of course of the essence of a work of this kind 
that finality can never be attained ; a fact which none know better 
than the compilers themselves. 

In the present instalment more than a hundred pages are devoted 
to the Vine, which is treated under numerous heads — the plant as a 
whole ; its various parts ; the names of its various cultivated forms ; 
proverbs, popular sayings and customs connected with its growth 
and with the seasons which affect it ; and a long list of books in 
which some of these points are amplified. 

We are still unable to discover the principle upon which M. 
Rolland includes or excludes names. The most trivial variants of 
French names are included, but with regard to other countries, if 
England may be taken as an illustration, a process of exclusion is 
carried out. For example, only two of the eight names given in the 
Dictionary of Enqlisk Plant-Names for Hijpericum cahjcinum are taken 
up by M. Rolland; of Geranium sylvaticiun, two out of four; of 
Malva sylvestris, five out of seventeen, many of which, however, are 
mere variants : and this process of selection seems to be pretty 
generally adopted. It is curious, by the way, that so conspicuous 
a plant as the Hypericum, mentioned should have but one popular 
French name, and that only at Quimper ; the other French name 
given — " millepertuis a grandes fleurs " — is from a book, and sug- 
gests the inquiry as to iiow far it is desirable to include obviously 
manufactured titles in a work of this kind. 

As we have said before, it is to be regretted that M. Rolland 
does not submit his proofs to some botanist for revision as to the 
names given to the plants. He includes, for example, the genus 
Elatine in Caryophyllaceae, and gives as English names for it, on 
the authority of Ray, ♦' fluellin, speedwell," which of course the 
English botanist applied to Linaria Elatine and L. spuria. He 
includes in the Tiliaceous genus Corchorus, C. japonicus, which is 
an old name for Kcrria japonica in RosaceaB. We note a few 
misprints—^, g. on p. 180 " Saint Columbus- wort " should be 
*' Columba's wort." 

M. Rolland quotes freely from Mr. Cameron's Gaelic Names of 
Plants — a work which has been reviewed in this Journal. The 
cautionary attitude which we felt it necessary to adopt with regard 
to Mr. Cameron's work is more than justified by the criticisms 
passed upon it by Father Edmund Hogan in his Gaelic Names of 
Herbs. Father Hogan, however, is wrong in supposing that Mr. 
Cameron is dead, and that his work is no longer on sale ; the new 
edition, published last year, was noticed in this Journal for 1900, 
p. 450. Father Hogan's list will be far more useful to M. Rolland 
than Mr. Cameron's book, but he may find some difficulty in 
determining the hot mical synonyms of the plants indicated by 
their EngUsh equivalents, and in the transliteration of the Gaelic 
characters in which Father Hogan prints his names. It is a 
scholarly piece of work, and the compiler has brought together not 



148 THK .TOTTRNAL OF BOTANY 

only all the published but much unpublished matter bearing on the 
subject. Besides tiie names of plants, words " immediately con- 
nected with asfriculture, horticulture, wood, corn, etc." find a place; 
there is an " English-Gaelic " as well as a Gaelic list. 

We could have wished that Father Hogan had not "resisted 
the temptation " to explam the meaning of certain names and their 
connection with Irish and Scottish folklore. As it is, however, he 
has made a serious contribution towards the bringing together of a 
complete collection of Gaelic names, and we doubt not that in 
M. Holland's next part he will add it to the list of the books he has 
cited. 



Cours de Botanique. Par Gaston Bonnier et Leclerc du Sablon. 
Tome I., fascicule 1. 8vo, pp. 1-384, figs. 1-553. Peelman : 
Paris, 1901. Subscription price to complete work, 20s.; each 
fascicle separately, 4s. 9d. 

This Course of Botany, for the use of students in Universities, 
in Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy, and in Schools of Agriculture, 
will form two volumes of about 2500 pages in all, with more than 
3000 figures. It will appear in six fascicles, the last of which is 
promised for 1903. 

From the table of contents issued with the first fascicle we 
note the division of the subject-matter into twelve p-.irts — namely, 
i. ** Generalites," a general introduction ; ii. Morphology of Angio- 
sperms ; iii. Tiie Groups of Angiosperms ; iv. Gymnosperms ; 
V. Vascular Cryptogams ; vi. Mu^cineae ; vii. Thallophx ta ; viii. 
Physiology; ix. Experimental Morphology; x. Botanical Geo- 
graphy; xi. Paleontology; xii. Variation. The authors claim to 
have followed a new plan. The description and the anatomy of 
plant organs are studied in a number of typical examples selected 
from common plants. The account of plant families includes not 
only the external characters usually described, but also their more 
interesting anatomical peculiarities and their application to agri- 
culture, uidustry, and medicine. A large space is given to the 
study of plant diseases, plant geography and paleontology, and to 
"experimental morphology" — that is to say, the influence of en- 
vironment on the structure of plants. The authors have also made 
the history of botanical discoveries the object of special researches, 
the results of which are described at the end of the different parts 
of the work, while some of the more characteristic figures from 
these " ancient authors " are reproduced. The description of facta 
illustrated by concrete examples takes precedence of generalizations 
deduced therefrom ; the reader can thereby discriminate the proven 
from the hypothetical. Finally, the three thousand odd figures 
have all been drawn specially for the work, the majority from 
nature. 

The present fascicle contains the first part (pp. 1-138), which 
includes an introduction and a short account of the general struc- 
ture of plants, and about half of the second part (pp. 139-384), 



AUTIOLKS IN JOUKNALS 149 

which deals with the morphology of Angiosperms. This is treated 
in six chapters, devoted respectively to stem, leaf, root, flower, frui 
and seed, and development. In the first part we note a somewhat 
full account of tlie various forms of cell and tissue elements, the 
metliods of wall-thickening and the development of vessels being 
especially well exi)lained and illustrated. In the second part the 
structure and arrangement of primary and secondary tissues is 
worked out by a study of various types. Thus for the primary 
structure of the stem we have Mercuri'ilis annua, Spartijonjuvceiim, 
Veronica Beccabnn[/a, Com^ulvuhis arvends, for dicotyledons ; and for 
monocotyledons, Zea Mai/s, Honieum murinum, Phcenix dacti/lifera, 
and Convallaria niajalis. Diagrammatic drawings illustrating the 
course of the bundles, and the arrangement of tissues in transverse 
section, and drawings of histological preparations under higher 
magnification are freely supplied. There is no doubt something to 
be said for this type method of studying plant structure, though, 
taking into consideration the attention which is now paid to 
practical work, the teacher may prefer to relegate such study of 
types to the laboratory and to look to the text -book to correlate 
and gather into one general account the facts which have been thus 
elaborated. 

Two useful features of this work are the resume at the end of 
each part and the short historical review. Thus at the end of part i. 
we find a short accoimt of the work of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, 
Schieiden, and others on the cell and tissues, with reproductions of 
some of their figures. The historic side is so often neglected that 
we are glad to note that the authors have made its introduction one 
of the special points in their work. 

A. D. sx. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 



Bot. Gazette (23 Feb.). — H. C. Cowles, ' Physiographic Ecology 
of Chicago.' — J. Donnell Smith, * Undescribed Plants from Central 
America ' (1 pi.). 

Bot. Zeitumj (1 March). — E. Meissner, * Ueber das Verhaltuiss 
von Stamm- und Nadellange bei einige Coniferen ' (1 pi.). 

Bull, de VHerh. Boissier (28 Feb.). — 0. & B. Fedtschenko, 
' Materiaux pour la Flore du Caucase ' (cont.). — J. Freyn, • Ueber 
neue bemerkenswerthe orientalische PHanzenarten.' — J. Huber, 
• Plantge Cearenses.' — G. Hegi, ' Das Obere Toesstal.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (2 March).— F. E. Lloyd & S. M. Tracy, 
'Insular Flora of Mississippi and Louisiana.' — E. P. Bickuell, 

• The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their coverg 
or title-pages, but it must not always oe inferred that this is tne actual date of 
publication. 



150 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

' Nomenclature of New England Agrimonies.' — F. V. Covilie, 
' Home of Botn/chium pumicola' (1 pi.). — E. L. Morris, 'N. American 
Plantaijinacea' (1 pi.). — G. N. Best, 'Revision of N. American 
Hetet'odadium ' (2 pL). 

Gardeners'" Chronicle (2 March). — Pelargonium inaquilubum Mast., 
sp. n. 

Journal de Botanique (" Aout " and " Septembre " 1900, received 
26 Feb. ; *' Octobre," received 14 March). — C. Sauvageau, ' Re- 
marques sur les Sphacelariacees.' — (Aug. & Sept.). N. Patouillard 
& P. Hariot, 'Champignons du Senegal et du Soudan' (1 pi.). — 
(Sept. & Oct. ). Ph. van Tieghem, ' Sur les Dicotyledones du groupe 
des Homoxylees.' — (Oct.). A. de Coincy, 'Especes critiques du 
genre Echium.' 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (MsLVch). — J. Brunnthaler, S. Prowazek, 
& R. V. Wettstein, * Vorlaufige Mittheilung iiber das Plankton des 
Attersees.' — V. Schiffner, ' Ueber Makinoa ' (1 pi.). — P. Magnus, 
* Zur les drichte der Untersucheidung des Kronenrostes der Graser 
in mehrere Arten.' — R. Frieb, ' Der Pappus als Verbreitungsmittel 
der Compositenfriichte.' 

Bhodora (March). — M. L. Owen, * Ferns of Mount Toby, Mass.' 
M. L, Fernald, 'Northeastern Carices' (Vesicarieae).' — Id., Juncus 
tenuis var. nov. Williainsii (1 pi.). — R. G. Leavitt, 'Embryology of 
Spiranthes cernua.' 

Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd S. vi. 1 (Jan.). — N. E. Brown, &c., 'Two 
Collections made by F. V. McConnell & J. J. Quelch at Mount 
Roraima, British Guiana' (14 pi., see p. 151). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Mr. Newton B. Pierce has published (Bulletin no. 20) an ex- 
haustive treatise on the disease of Peach Leaf-curl. He has been 
engaged on the work, the results of which are here tabulated, since 
1893. The disease has been long recognized to be caused by a 
fungus, Exoascus deformans, which attacks the leaves and twigs, 
causing in both cases swelling and deformation, with complete 
destruction of the foliage and consequent loss of fruit, which 
'^ceases to grow, yellows, wilts, and likewise falls." Mr. Pierce 
finds that the fungus develops on the upper surface of the leaf 
only, and that the irritation or stimulation caused by the parasite 
induces an abnormal development of the tissues of the host, 
resulting in the folding over and crumpling of the leaf and in 
the swelling of the diseased branches. It was thought that the 
mycelium harboured during the winter in the twigs and branches 
of the trees, and tbat in spring it developed with the growth of the 
leaf. 



BOOK-NOTKS, NEWS, ETC. 151 

Mr. Pierce has proved that infection from this source is 
comparatively trifiing, that each season's attack is due to direct 
infection of the young leaves from spores that have wintered on twig 
or bud, and that germinate in spring on the newly formed leaves. 
He found that these spores could be killed and the disease effectually 
checked by spraying the trees with some fungicide about three weeks 
before the buds opened. The value of spraying the dormant trees 
had been already proved by growers in California ; they had been 
using various kinds of insecticide on their fruit trees to destroy the 
San Jose scale during the winter, and they found that the peach 
trees so treated were comparatively free from leaf-curl. Spraying 
the trees after the leaves had developed and the fungus had taken 
hold is found to be very ineffective in curing the disease. Some of 
the most striking results were obtained on trees known to be liable 
to the disease, of which the half only was sprayed, the other half 
being protected from the spray by a large canvas stretched through 
the tree. On the branches sprayed the leaves grew in a healthy and 
luxuriant manner, and the yield of fruit was large. On one such 
tree 718 peaches weighing 284'8 pounds ripened ; on the unsprayed 
portion 92 per cent, of the leaves dropped off the tree, and only 
40 peaches weighing 14-3 pounds came to maturity. The volume 
is profusely illustrated by figures and by thirty beautiful plates from 
photographs of trees sprayed and non-sprayed, and of healthy and 
diseased branches and leaves. — A. L. S. 

The second part of the Australian portion of the Illustrations of 
the Botany of Cook's Voyaifes has been passed for press, and will be 
issued almost immediately by the Trustees of the British Museum. 
The illustrations are brought down to the end of Gamopetalae ; a 
third part will complete the work. The Trustees have also ready 
for publication the concluding portion, dealing with the Cryptogams, 
of the Welwitsch Catalogue. 

The most recent part of the Transactions of the Linnean Society 
(dated January last) is devoted to an account of botanical collections 
made by Messrs. F. V. McConnell and J. J. Quelch at Mount 
Roraima, British Guiana. Mr. N. E. Brown has undertaken the 
phanerogams, except the Orchidace* for which Mr. Rolfe is 
responsible; the ferns and their allies are by Mr. C. H. Wright; 
the mosses by Dr. Brotherus ; the hepatics by Dr. IStephani ; and 
the fungi by Mr. Massee. There are two new genera — Quelchia, a 
Composite allied to Moquinia, and Connellia, the latter based upon two 
species described by Dr. Mez under the one name of Pmja Augusta : 
these and other interesting novelties are illustrated by fourteen 
excellent plates. 

The first issue of " the Victoria History of the Counties of 
England" — a work of imposing appearance — is devoted to Hamp- 
shire. The natural history of each county is to be a feature of the 
series, and the editor has been fortunate in securing for this first 
instalment the services of Mr. Frederick Townsend, who contributes 



152 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

a well-written and interesting introduction dealing with the flowering 
plants. This limitation should be borne in mind in connectifm with 
the statement, " it is remarkable that endemic species are not found 
in Great Britain " ; even as limited, this seems a little too absolute. 
The botany of each district (according to the Flora of Hampshire) is 
epitomized, and Mr. Moyle Rogers contributes a special account of 
the roses and brambles. 

The Cryptogams are dealt with by various authors. Mr. H. N. 
Dixon has undertaken the Mosses and Liverworts ; Mr. W. H. 
Wilkinson the Lichens; Mr. E. M. Holmes the Algse ; and the 
Rev. W. L. W. Eyre the Fungi. It is much to be regretted that 
the contributions of these authors were not made to conform to 
one plan. As it is, Mr. Dixon gives a suitable introduction to the 
Mosses, followed by a short list of '' some of the less common 
species " ; the Liverworts occupy only half a page. Mr. Wilkinson 
writes a brief general introduction to the classification of Lichens, 
with notes on tiieir uses — both entirely out of place in a work like 
the present — followed by what seems to be a complete county list. 
Mr. Holmes writes half a page about the Freshwater Alg£e and a 
page and a half concerning the Marine, but gives nothing in the 
shape of a list ; he mentions several seaweeds as " new to Britain," 
a statement which, he informs us in a footnote, means that they 
have been detected in this county since the publication of Harvey's 
Phijcologia Britannka half a century since. Mr. Eyre's contribution 
consists mainly of a list of Fungi, with a short introduction. From 
this description it will be seen tiiat for purposes of comparison or 
tabulation the material is practically useless : it is to be hoped that 
other counties will receive more adequate, or at any rate more con- 
sistent, treatment. We note, by the way, that Mr. Townsend says 
the Spartinas "are used for thatching, and are locally called Sage ! " 
There seems Httle ground for wonder at this if " Sage" be regarded 
as a local pronunciation of "sedge" — a name often extended to 
plants other than Car ex. 

To the Flora Exsiccata Bavarica published by the Botanical 
Society of Regensburg are now added two fascicles of Mosses and 
Hepatics, each containing twenty-five specimens. These may be 
obtained by purchase or by exchange. Enquiries should be addressed 
to Herr Dr. T. Familler, Karthaus-Trull, bei Regensburg. 

" The Nomenclature of the New England Agrimonies " is being 
discussed so warmly by Dr. B. L. Robinson in Rhodora and Mr. 
E. P. Bicknell in the Torrey Bulletin as to suggest that " New England 
Acrimonies " would form a more suitable title for the papers. 

The Report of the Botanical Exchange Club for 1899, for which 
the Rev. W. R. Linton is responsible, has just been published. We 
hope to give some extracts from it in our next issue. 

We have received the third part of Mr. F. M. Bailey's Flora. 
of Qaeendand, in which the enumeration is brought down to 

Gentimiacea. 




ES.Saimon del. 
B.Aloockl^t■h.. 



"West^vIewraaTi iiup. 



Thuidiiam Bro then Scblrmc rz . 



153 

THUIDIUM BROTHERI, sp. nov. 

By Ernest B. Salmon, F.L.S. 

(Plate 421.) 

DioicuM?, minutulum, dense csespitosum, bipinnatnm, ramispin- 
natis remotis 2-5 mill, altis frondes obloiigas minutas simulantibus, 
cjespitibiis dense iutricatis amcene viridibus fetate nigro-viridibus, 
caule depresso-prostrato gracili arcuato radiculoso paraphyllis sub- 
nuUis, foliis caulinis parvulis remotis (caulis apicem versus couferti- 
oribiis) patentibus apice saepe refiexis e basi cordata amplexante 
breviter acuminatis vel subtriangnlaribus margine infra revolnto, 
foliis rameis parvulis e basi latiore ovatis acutis nervo concolori 
pellucidiore, cellulis parvis distinctis subhexagono-quadratis circiter 
8 IX latis dense papillosis, paraphyllis nullis vel perpaucis magnis 
solitariis, foliis ramulinis minutis ovatis vel ovalibus acutis, foliis 
omnibus siccitate contortulis margine cellulis prominulis et papillis 
papilloso-crenulatis, nervo sub apice evanido et dorso aspero, peri- 
chaetio radicaute, foliis perich^tialibus majoribus pallidis tenuiori- 
bus, externis e medio patentibus vel patulis e basi late ovata longe 
et anguste acuminatis dentato-serrulatis, nervo crassiusculo fere ad 
apicem cuspidis fiexuosae denticulatas prodacto, cellulis lasvibus 
quadrangulis et elongato-quadrangnlis, capsula in pedicello gracili 
rubello circiter H mill, longo apice scabrello oblonga vel tnrgide 
oblonga horizontali parvula circiter 1 mill, longa asymmetrica 
leptoderma laevi fulvella siccitate infra os strangulata sDtate arcuata 
interdum subapophysata, peristomii dentibus et processibus aequi- 
longis, externi dentibus siccitate inter processus incnrvis, ciliis 
2-3 paulo brevioribus e membrana ad vel ultra dentium medium 
exserta orientibus, anuulo revolubili e una vel duabns cellularium 
seriebus composito, operculo rostrato, calyptra cucnllata Ifevi, sporis 
minutis laevibus circiter 12 /x diam. 

Patria. India; Chanda district, Central Prov. (J. F. Duthie, 
no. 10,047 in Herb. Kew.). 

Species minuta, ramis remotis frondiformibus et paraphyllis 
nullis vel subnuUis distinguenda ; T. contortuIcR (Mitt.) affinis. 

T. Brotheri quite approaches in habit the species of the section 
Pelekium of the genus, but differs in its smooth cucuUate calyptra. 
Dr. V. F. Brotherus, who has worked specially at Indian bryology, 
remarked on a specimen sent to him : " 1 am in possession of very 
ample material of Thuidia from India. The species sent by you is 
not identical with any of the new species I have proposed, and 
seems undescribed." 

Description of Plate 421. 
Thuidium Brotheri, sp. nov. — Fig. 1. Portions of plants, nat. size. 2. Part 
of stem, with branch, x 12. 3, 4. Two stem-leaves, x 150. 5. Leaf from branch, 
X 150. 6. Areolation of same, at one-third from the base, x 400, 7. Apex of 
sanae, x 400. 8. Leaf from branchlet, x 1")0. 9. Apex of same, x 400. 10. 
Perichtetial leaf, x 52. 11. Areolation of same, at one-fourth from the base, 
X 255. 1'^. Eipe capsule, x 12. 13. Capsule, with operculum, x 25. 14. 
Operculum, x 25. 15. Calyptra, x 25. 16. Portion of peristome, x 150. 
17. Cells of the exothecium, x 2o5. 18. Spores, x 400. 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol.39. [May, 1901.] m 



154 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

A KEY TO BRITISH HEPATITE. 
By Symers M. Macvicar. 

The following key being intended for the less advanced student 
and for beu^inners, 1 have used easily-observed characters as far as 
possible, and have only made use of those derived from tlie in- 
florescence or perianth where these are necessary, or are generally 
present. This unavoidably lessens the exactness of the key, but it 
seemed better not to depend mainly on characters which are either 
rarely to be found in the British species, or are too difHcult for 
beginners. 

Where there is only one species in a genus, I have not given the 
character of the genus, but the characters which disiingaished the 
species. Tlie inflorescence should be known in every case, but, as 
tliis is the stumbling-block of beginners, a few hints on the subject 
may be given. In the first place, it is absohitely necessary that the 
student be sure that he has an entire plant before him. Let him 
take a tuft of the plant to be examined, place it in a saucer with 
water, gently knead it with the fingers to remove the soil, and 
partially to separate the stems ; then place it in another saucer with 
water, and disentangle an entire plant with needles. This is the 
most difficult part with the inflorescence of small species as Ccpha- 
luzia, the stems being very delicate and closely interwoven. In 
such cases it is sometimes advisable to use camel-hair brashes 
instead of needles. With paroicous species the antheridia will 
seldom be found beneatli old perianths : it is better to examine 
plants with perianths which are immature. If it is a paroicous 
species which innovates beneath the mature perianth, swollen 
bracts with antheridia may be seen towards the apex of the 
branches, and young female flowers be detected by turning down 
the uppermost leaves. The male bracts of a large number of 
species resemble the ordinary leaves, except that they are more 
swollen at base, and are imbricated. They may form a terminal 
spike, or give an interrupted appearance to the middle of the stem. 
Some genera have their inflorescence on short lateral or postical 
branches, the male bracts often forming a small catkin, and 
dift'ering from the leaves. They are usually readily detected, but 
the student must not expect to find the inflorescence in every 
plant. Much care and patience are required, but with a little 
practice it becomes not difficult to detect male bracts, and young 
or sterile female flowers. In the swollen male bracts there is very 
frequently to be seen an air-bubble, which must not be mistaken 
for an antheridium. With minute species the finding of the 
inflorescence is a matter of manipulation which must be over- 
come. In dissecting off leaves of Acolea (Cesia) species for exami- 
nation, the student must be sure that they are not female bracts 
which lie has taken, as these difler in shape fr m the leaves. 

The genera are those used by Mr. Pearson in his Hepatica; of 
the British Isles, as far as has yet been published. The remainder 
are familiar, with the exception of rah/cuian'a. where I have followed 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRITISH HEPATICli 155 

Stephani in his Species Hepaticanim, in preference to what has been 
generally named Mdrckla or DilcBna. Ricciorarpu^ natans has been 
inchided witli lUcria for the purposes of the key. Jnnf/t^nnmia 
crenubita Sm. will be found under ?Jucah/x. Maraupdla comerta 
and M. idpina are placed under Acolca. M. rnuiluta is omitted, as 
the evidence for its occurrence in the British Isles is considered 
insufficient. I have also followed Stephani in considering our 
lUccia nup-ella to be different from De Candolle's plant, and have 
employed the name B. Pearsoni given to it in Species Hepaticarum. 
The following contractions have been used : — 

ant. . antical. post. . jwsticaL 

int. . internal. occ. . occasionally. 

m.orl. more or less. stips. . stipules. 

per. . perianth. usu. . nsualiy. 

GENEEA. 

. f Plant foliose 2 

^{Plantfrondose 48 

n J Leaves and stips. equal, or nearly equal, in size and shape 3 

1 Leaves and stips. (if present) not resembling each other 12 

o (Leaves entire or repand dentate Scalia Hoolisri 

(Leaves lobed 4 

. f Leaves 2-lobed 5 

JLeaves 3-4-lobed 9 

- (Lobes entire or slightly dentate 6 

I Lobes spinous-dentate or lacininte-ciliate 8 

{Leaves usu. falcate-secund with long subulate acuminate segments ... 
Herherta adunca 
Leaves erect or slightly secund, segments not subulate 7 

„ (Leaves § bilobed, usu. closely imbricate, rarely distant Anthelia 

^^ Leaves ^-| bilobed, distant, plant smaller Hijgrohiella laxi folia 

Leaves spinous-dentate, plant red Mastigojjhora Woodsii 

Leaf-segments with long hair-like processes, plant cream-coloured or 

pale green Tricliocolea tomentella 

qj Leaves divided to base into setaceous segments 10 

(Leaves not divided to base into setaceous segments 11 

[Segments incurved, mostly 2 cells broad at base Lejndozia setacea: 

10 \ Segments spreading, 1 cell broad throughout... J5Ze/>7Mro.s^om(X tricho- 
\ pi I y Hum 

Leaves erect, segments entire or spinous-dentate Cliandonanthus 

11-1 st'tiformis 

Leaves almost transverse, segments longly ciliate BleijJiarozia 



12 



f Capsules opening irregularly Fossomhronia 

(Capsules opening with four entire valves 1.3 

, q f Leaves complicato-bilobed 14 

( Leaves not complicato-bilobed 27 

, , j Post, lobe smaller than ant. lobe 15 

(Post, lobe equal to or larger than ant. lobe 20 

M 2 



156 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

^ ^ I Stipules present 16 

■^'^ (Stipules absent 19 

(Post, lobe saccate 17 

(Post, lobe not saccate (exc. Lej. calyptrifolia) 18 

J Leaves entire Frullania 

\ Leaves spinous-dentate Juhula Hutchinsice 

(Post, lobe Ungulate or oblong Porella 

\Post. lobe not Ungulate or oblong Lejeunea 

[Minute; lobes nearly equal or ant. lobe echinate Lejeunea 

19] Larger ; post, lobe much smaller than ant. lobe ; rootlets arising from 
( post, lobe Badada 



20 



21 



(Inner bracts not united to form a perianth Acolea 

[inner bracts united to form a perianth 21 

(Per. adherent to the bracts Marsupella 

(Per. free 22 

rto ( Per. compressed, bilabiate Scajpania 

"^"^jPer. not bilabiate 23 

rtQ f Postical branches present 24 

(Branches lateral, very rarely postical 25 

(Lobes dentate or spinous-dentate, stips. x\\iin.evo\is,...Ceplialozla dentatd 
Lobes entire, stipules absent; lateral branches also present 
Eremonotus myriocarpus 

/■Whole margins of lobes acutely dentate-serrate. ..Pr/o??oZo&«/s Turneri 

25] Margins of lobes entire, or toothed at upper part only, or with a tooth 

( near tlie base ...26 

I Leaves f divided, lobes very unequal ; ant. lobe at least twice longer 
than broad DijjlophyUum 
Leaves ^ or less divided, with ant. lobe not twice longer than broad ; or 
lobes equal, or ant. lobe almost reduced to a tooth ,. .Jungermania 

\ Stems flagelliferous, leaves 3-5-toothed or lobed 27 

( Stems not flagelliferous combined with leaves 3-5-toothed or lobed... 29 
[ Stips. to about ^ divided or lower, segments narrow ; leaves usu. 

] 4-toothed Lepidozia 

Stips. hardlj' more than notched, segments broad ; leaves usu. 3- 
\ toothed Bassania 

(Leaves whitish, translucent, more rarely pale green, flat or convex, 
stips. large, emarginate, or 2-4-toothed 30 
Leaves green or brown; if whitish, then concave 31 

[Leaves incubous, entire or shortlv 2-toothed Kantia 

30] Leaves buccubous, irreg. or deeply 2-toothed, or the upper entire 

i Lo2}hocolea 

(Leaves with an indexed auriculate post, lobe ; plant large, purple ... 
Pleurozia cochleariformis 
Leaves without an auriculate lobe (except CephaJozia curvifolia)...d2 
(Leaves cuneate, occas. subrotund, with narrow base; plant brown, 
miinute, epiphytic Clasmatocolea cuneifolia 
Leaves not cuneate or subrotund, with narrow base 33 

(Stems erect, leaves thick, ant. margin incurved ; upper leaves irreg. 
spinous-dentate, lower leaves entire Adelanthus decipiens 
Leaves without these characters combined 34 



26 



27 



28 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRITISH HKPATICiE 157 

(Leaves vertically appressed, obliquely orbicular, very concave, trigones 
larjjfe, stems erect ; plant ochraceous, or more rarely green. (See 
Nardia conipressa.) Jamesoniella Carringtoni 
Leaves without these characters combined ....85 

gg I Perianth absent 36 

( Peria u th present 37 

og j Cladocarpous ; leaves entire Saccogyna viticidosa 

(Acrocarpous; leaves lobed Acrobolbus Wilsoni 

,^rj f Calyptra partly adherent to perianth Harpantlms 

[ Calyptra free 38 

ygjBranches all postical Cephalozia 

(Branches mostly lateral 39 

j'Cladocarpous ; calyptra large, fleshy, usu. longer than the small 

39 j perianth Chiloscyphus 

(Acrocarpous ; calyptra never longer than the perianth 40 

/"Leaves concave, bilobed, whitish; stips. large, ovate-lanceolate 

"^Oj ^ Pleuroclada 
(Stips. if present not large and ovate-lanceolate 41 

^^ (Per. m. or 1. adherent to the bracts 42 

(Perianth free 43 

^2 (Per. adherent almost throughout Nardia 

(Upper half or more of per. free Eucalyx 

('Leaves patent, elongate-ovate, shortly bilobed, margins incurved 

'IS j Anastrophylliim Donianum 
(Leaves not elongate-ovate and bilobed 44 

^^ jPer. cylmdrical, depressed at apex Lioclilcena lanceolata 

(Per. not depressed at apex 45 

.f, ( Per. laterally compressed, bilabiate 46 

1 Per. not bilabiate Jungermania 

. g j Per. contracted at mouth Mylia 

(Per. not contracted at mouth 47 

j'Rhizomatous caudex present; stems very rarely radiculose 

^rjj Play lock ila 

No rhizomatous caudex ; stems creeping, rudiculosc... Pedinoj^hyUuvi 

[ ■:- inter riijjtwm 

[Frond with radiating lamellae on upper surface Petalophylhun 

48 j Balfsii 

(Frond without such lamelke 49 

/Several pyriform involucres close together on upper surface of frond 
49- Spluerocarpus terrestris 

(Without pyriform involucres on frond 50 

[Frond m. or 1. linear, with a globose dark purple involucre below the 
oOJ apex Targionia hypophylla 

(No globose involucre below apex 51 

g-| (Capsules immersed in the frond Riccia 

(Capsules not immersed in the frond 52 



52 



Capsules hnear, bivalved AntJioceros 

Capsules globose 53 

[Capsule solitary on a lougish pedicel; frond without pores 54 

53 j Several capsules on the under side of a stalked receptacle ; frond with 

( pores (exc. Dwmortiera) 59 

g i j Plant having a perianth 55 

(Plant without a perianth 56 



158 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



55 i 



58 



62 



68 



Section of frond showing a fascicle of smaller cells Pallavicinia 

Lyellii 
Frond not showing such a fascicle Calycularia 

{■ Flagon-shaped receptacle for gemmaB very frequently present in the 
frond; ovate-toothed stips. present on each side of nerve beneath 
Blasia pusilla 
Stips. and gemmiferous receptacle absent 57 

/Calyptra hairy; nerve of frond sharply defined Metzgeria 

STJCalyptra smooth or papillose; distinction between nerve and lamina 
( not sharply defined 58 

Elatprs persistent on centre of capsule ; antheridia beneath warty 
eminences scattered on face of frond Pellia 

Elaters persistent on summit of the valves ; antheridia in two rows 
on short lateral branches Aneura 

;-qJ Frond without pores ; large wavy dark green ...Dmnortiera hirsuta 
I Frond with pores 60 

[Semilunar receptacle for gemmae usu. present on the frond 

60 ] Lunidaria cruciata 
(No semilunar receptacle for gemmae 61 

/ Female receptacle rayed ; frond usu. 1-5 in. long ; receptacle for gemmae 

61-1 beaker-shaped, with fringed margin Marchantia polytnorpha 

(Female receptacle sinuate or lobed 62 

Female receptacle conical ; frond usu. 2-5 in. long, areolae and pores 
very d istinct Conocephalus conicus 

Female receptacle not conical; frond 5-li in. long 63 

Long hairs at base and apex of female peduncle ; frond smooth when 
dry Beboidia hemisphcerica 

No hairs at base or apex of female peduncle ; frond rough when dry 

Chomiocarpon quadratus 

SPECIES. 

FRULLANIA. 

1 J Ant. lobe of branch leaves, at least, usu. with a line of enlarged cells... 2 
I Lobes without a line of enlarged cells 4 

^ ( Stipules hooded Tamarisci 

\ Stipules plane 3 

/ Stips. \ divided with obtuse usu. truncate lobes ; enlarged cells scattered 

Q 1 fragiUfolia 

*" 1 Stips. \ divided with acute lobes ; enlarged cells in a continuous line 
i microphylla 

. I Per. tuberculate ; post, lobe }i breadth of ant. lobe dilatata 

(Per. smooth: post, lobe ^-J breadth of ant. lobe germana 

LEJEUNEA. 

I ! Leaves calyptriform ,. calyptrifolia 

\ Leaves not calyptriform 2 

.^Plants with stipules 3 

""IPlants without stipules 13 

o ( Stipules entire MacJcaii 

jStipules notched or lobed 4 

, j Lobes of stipules divergent 5 

\ Lobes of stipules m. or 1. incurved 6 

wf Stips. rather deeply divided, lobes acute hamatifolia 

* (Stips. only emarginate, lobes very obtuse.. ovata 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRUISH HEPATI0.1-: 159 

,. (Some of the lobes of leaves equal in size 7 

(None of the lobes equal 8 

r-J L'^bes mostly nearly equal, stems not ri<j:id ulicina 

I Lobes frequently unequal, stems markedly rigid diversiloba 

gj Per. smooth, without angles Macvicari 

(Per. distinctly angled = 9 

Q ( Stips. usu. twice larger than post, lobe 10 

i Stips. not twice lirger than post, lobe 1'2 

fTufte<l ; stips. large, leaves imbricate, greenish or yellow 11 

10-' Not tufted ; stips. smaller, delicate, leaves hardly imbric, often reddi'^h 
{ Holtii 

Pellucid, shining when dry ; stips. less than three times larger than 

post, lobe serpijUi folia v. j^ldnfuscida 

Not pellucid, yellow, larger, leaves more oblong; stips. of upper leaves 

three times larger than post, lobe .flava 

/Leaves pellucid, shining when dry; stips. smaller than post, lobe; 

! angles of per. crenulate patens 

12 { Leaves little pellucid, less shining when dry; stips. as large or half 

larger than post, lobe : angles of per. usu. entire ...serpyllifoUa v. 

V cavifolia 

Leaves with styliform appendage calcarea 

Leaves without styliform appendage 14 

^ . f Leaves echinate, lobes greatly unequal Bossettiana 

(Leaves not echinate, lobes nearly equal 15 

-.;- (Lobes mostly aoute, frequently papillose; per. rare ttiicroscopica 

(Lobes obtuse; perianths common minutlssi7na 



11 



.{ 



. j Post, lobe large, rounded-cordate, widely crossing the stem ...voliita 

(Post, lobe m. or 1. quadrate, not or little crossing the stem 2 

iy f Paroicous ; frequently with per complanata 

"^ ( Dioicous ; rarely with per 3 

.,( Mature leaves very conxex, brown; post, lobe tumid aqiiilegia 

^ ( Mature leaves flat or slightly convex, brown or green ; post, lobe Hat. . . 4 

. (Leaves olive or reddish brown, no gemmte on leaves 5 

(Leaves usu. green, leaf-margin frequently gemmiferous ...Lindbergii 
/Per. compressed at apex, bilabiate; post, lobe quadrate, outer angle 

- j acute, remote from the stem Garringtonii 

^ '\ Per. terete, trumpet-shaped ; post, lobe with upper margin usu. rounded, 
V outer angle if present nearer the stem, plant much smaller ...Holtii 

PORELLA. 

(Stips. ciliate-dentate, leaves usu. toothed, plant shining, acrid 

1-i IcBvigata 
\ Stips. entire or occ. slightly dentate at base 2 

o (Post, lobe minute, lingulate-oblong, ant. lobe ovate-oblong ...pinnata 
(Post, lobe larger, broadly ovate to oblong, ant. lobe broader 3 

(Rather flaccid; leaves subimbric, post, lobe longly decurreut 
rividaris 
Stiff; leaves closely imbric, post, lobe scarcely decurrent 4 

/Ant. lobe obliquely ovate, trigones small, post, lobe usu. about half 

. J breadth of stips. platyphylla 

1 Ant. lobe rotund-ovate, trigones large, post, lobe nearly as broad as 
I stips Thuja 



160 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ANTHELIA. 

( Dioicous ; per. oblong .julacea 

\ Paroicoiis ; per. oblong-ovate, leaves usu. with larger cells... Jiwatzkana 

BLEPHAROZIA. 

/Tufts lax, purplish red, stems pinnate; cilia of ant. laciniae of stem 

leaves shorter than the breadth of the laciniae at their base 

J ciliaris 

i Tufts dense, tawny, irreg. branched ; cilia of ant. laciniae of stem 
leaves longer than the breadth of the laciniae at their base 
pulcher7'ima 

LEPIDOZIA. 

J (Leaf-lobes divided nearly to base, segments setaceous setacea 

( Leaf-lobes not divided beyond ^-f, segments not setaceous 2 

2 j Monoicous ; base of segments 4-7 cells broad reptans 

(Dioicous 3 

fUsu. in compact tufts ; base of segments 8-12 cells broad, androecia 
usu. at end of short post, branches cupressina 
Straggling among mosses ; base of segments 3-5 cells broad, androecia 
uou. at end of rather long lateral branches Pearsoni 

BAZZANIA. 

/Green; leaves usu. horizontal, not much altered when dry, apex 

-j^J broadly truncate, stips. oblong-quadrate trilohata 

j Brownish or ochraceous, more rarely green ; leaves deflexed, greatly 

i so when dry, apex obliquely truncate or more rarely acute 2 

I Ochraceous; leaves reniform with large overlappi-ng base ...Pearsoni 

2 j Usu. brownish ; leaves oblong-ovate, base smaller, little or not over- 

i lapping, stips, usu. cordate at base tricing idaris 

KANTIA. 

1 Stips. divaricate-patent, deeply bifid, segments subulate, and with a 
subulate tooth ; leaves with two sharp usu. divergent teeth and 
broad sinus argata 
Stips. lying m. or 1. closely on the stem, or patent, less deeply lobed, 
segments never subulate 2 

I Stips. large, rotundate, emarginate or shortly lobed, segments entire ; 

j leaves typically entire and rotundate at apex trichomanis 

2< Stips. smaller, broader than long, more deeply lobed, segments more 

acute, with frequently a tooth at side ; leaves narrowed at apex, 

V frequently 2-toothed, tooth often reduced to one cell Sprengelii 

CEPHALOZIA. 

J (Stems with flagellae 2 

(Stems without flagellae 8 

ojLeaves orbiculate, entire 3 

(Leaves bilobed 4 

jStips. none, or few and minute ; plant of bogs Sphagni 

8 j Stips. numerous, larger, on gemmiferous stems becoming equal in 

i size to the leaves; usu. on stumps denudata 

. (Monoicous g 

I Dioicous 6 

per. with one layer of cells throughout, leaves h bifid hicuspidata 

6 < Per. with two layers of cells in the middle, leaves |-^^ bilobed, lobes 

I incurved .pleniceps 

g (Small, leaves ^-J divided Franciaci 

\ Larger, leaves ^ divided, resembling Jung, infiata 7 



u{ 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRITISH HEPATIC^ 161 

„ (Acrocarpous, flagellae few heferostipa 

i Cladocarpous, flagelhe immerous .flaitans 

Q ( Leaves with an injflexed auricle curvifolia 

(Leaves without an inflexed auricle 9 

q (Leaves spinous-tootlied, complicate dentata 

(Leaves not spinous-toothed 10 

j-^jStips. present on stem 11 

(No stips. on stem 15 

^ , j Paroicous ; involucre swollen Jackii 

{ Monoicous or dioicous , 12 

.n (Monoicous elachista 

1 Dioicous 13 

-jQ I Cladocarpous ; lobes of leaf ending in a claw-like apiculus ceraria 

( Acrocarpous 14 

Per. 3-angled ; lobes of leaf acute, cells lax, pellucid ...Lammersiaiia 
Per. usu. 4-6-angled ; lobes of leaf subacute, cells o-pd^q}ie...divaricata 

,~ ( Monoicous; per. longly ciliate, cilia about 5 cells long comiivens 

(Dioicous 16 

, ^ f Bracts ent ' re 17 

(Bracts toothed 19 

) Bracts | divided into lanceolate segments ; leaves decurrent, with long 
m. or 1. conniveut segments hibernica 
Bracts ^-^ divided, segments not lanceolate ; mouth of per. with setae 
1-2 cells long 18 

.r,\ Per. with a single layer of cells .jjallida 

(Per. with two layers of cells in the middle lunidcBfolia 

jqjPer. usu. 4-6-augled, acrocarpous divaricata 

(Per. 3-angled, cladocarpous 20 

{Leaves subimbricate, incurved when dry, usu. fulvous ; mature per. 
3-keeled throughout, mouth setose or ciliolate cateniilata 
Leaves usu. distant, whitish ; mature per. 3-gonous at the upper part 
only, mouth minutely setulose leiicantha 

PLEUROCLADA. 

[Leaves very concave, patulous; stips. frequently with a tooth 

j albescens 

(Leaves less concave, patent or erecto-patent ; stips. QniiVQ...islandica 

SCAPANIA. 

(Mature leaves from middle or lower part of stem must be examined.) 

j^ (Leaves verrucose 2 

( Leaves not verrucose 3 

(Ant. lobe triangular-ovate to subrotund, incumbent ; plant usu. more 
slender, with post, lobe ciliate-dentate asperci 
Ant. lobe ovate-subquadrate, erecto-patent or reflexed, apex acute, 
j usu. much more divergent from the stem ; jjost. lobe dentate or 
V almost entire cequiloha 

„ J Lobes equal or nearly so 4 

(Lobes unequal 6 

(Prostrate, strongly creeping; ant. lobe rather smaller, almost oblong, 

4 \ outer angle divergent, rather acute BartUngii 

(Ascending or erect ; lobes rotundate 5 



162 



THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



^Leaves ^ divided, not undulate; cells becoming gradaally smaller 

towards the margin, which is usn. entire comiiacta 

Leaves ^divided, entire and undulate, or dentate; cells punctate, 
becoming suddenly and distinctly smaller towards the margin : 

leaves softer subalpina 

y j Margin of leaves commonly entire or nearly so 7 

(Margin of leaves ciHate or dentate 11 

rAnt. lobe reniform, very convex, about three times smaller than 

7-1 post, lobe idiginosa 

(Ant. lobe not reniform, usu. about h size of post, lobe 8 

gj Plant small, about h in. or less ; on banks or rock-ledges 9 

(Plant larger; usu. in marshes or on wet rocks 10 

/Stems slightly radiculose, leaves rather remote, little accrescent, ant. 

9 J ^ Jobe rectangular-ovate, per. ciHate : on banks and ditch-sides... c«/-^(r 

j Sterns densely radiculose, leaves close, accrescent, ant. lobe ovate, per. 

' sinuate-dentate, or entire ; on rock-ledges rosacea 

(Cells of leaf, except at its base, nearly equal in size, cell-walls rather 
thick; ant. lobe usu. with an incurved point irrigua 
Cells of centre of leaf twice as large as those at the apex, cell-walls 
thin; ant. lobe usu. rounded undulata 

j^jMargin of leaves ciliate 12 

(Margin of leaves dentate or serrate 14 

j2 J Post, lobe flat, horizontal ornithopodioides 

"" (Post, lobe convex, erecto-patent 13 

^ J Lobes § divided with straight cilia; plant green nemovosa 

13 j Lobes divided to base with irreg. curved spinous cilia ; plant reddish 
\ nimbosa 

14] Both lobes acute and acutely serrate umbrosa 

(Post, lobe at least obtuse, lobes not serrate 15 

I' Mature leaves ochraceous or yellowish brown; ant. lobe reniform- 

jg ) rotund, frequently reflexed resiipinata 

I Leaves green or reddish, rarely ochraceous ; ant. lobe subquadrate to 

V rotund, more rarely reflexed 16 

-^g I Bracts nearly equal; plant soft undulata 

(Ant. bract \-l size of post, bract; plant firm 17 

(Leaves dentate ; on wet rocks .parpurea 

17 -j Leaves spinous-dentate or denticulate, usu. of a lighter colour, ant. 
i lobe usu. more acute ; on drier rocks intermedia 

DIPLOPHYLLUM. 

^ I Leaves with a line of elongated cells in the centre albicans 

(Leaves without such line 2 

2 (Lobes of leaves acute Dicksoni 

"" (Lobes usu. obtuse 3 

3 1 P^i'picous or monoicous ; low ground plant obtaslfoliimi 

(Dioicous; alpine plant taxifollum 

LOPHOCOLEA. 

X I Upper stem leaves usu. entire or emarginate; ipa^ro'icous. . .heterop)hylla 
(Upper stem leaves never entire; leaves whitish, translucent 2 

2 (Leaves irregularly toothed spicata 

(Leaves usu. regularly 2-toothed, teeth longer 3 

^ (Dioicous bidentata 

3 j Monoicous ; teeth longer and straighter, fertile stems more branched 

V cKspidata 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRITISH HEPATIC-E 



163 



HARPANTHUS. 

/Laxly tufted or creeping among mosses; leaves horizontal, sinus 

1 broad, shallow, ^^~l deep Flotowianus 

I Densely tutted, leaves more concave, nearly erect, sinus deeper, |-1 
( scutatus 

MYLIA. 

( Papillae present on cells of upper leaves, which are rotiindaie... Taylor i 
(No papillae on cells of upper leaves, which are usu. ovate ...anomala 

PLAGIOCHILA. 

. J Ant. margin of leaf much decurrent 2 

(Ant. margin little or not decurrent 3 

2 j Leaves ciliate-dentate, dentate or occ. entire ; per. ohlon^. .asplenioides 
(Leaves spinons-toothed ; per. broadly obovate spinulosa 

., j Post, margin of leaf with several teeth 4 

(Post, margin entire or rarely with a single tooth ; plant small 5 

J j Teeth of leaves blunt ; leaves ovate-oval amhagiosa 

(Teeth spinous; leaves roundish-oval .punctata 

- j Leaves nearly horizontal, emarginate Stahleri 

\ Leaves obliquely inserted, bilobed 6 

^ (Stips. numerous, subulate, persistent exigua 

\ Stips. none, or few and minute 7 

[Leaves firm, indigo-green, nearly black when dry ; occ. a small tooth 

„ I near centre of post, margin tridenticidata 

Leaves usu. rather tender, green or light brown, not becoming nearly 
1 black when dry .jmnctata 

JUNGERMANIA. 

-. J Leaves entire 2 

( Leaves lobed 8 

2 ] Stem with stipules 3 

( Stem without stipules 4 

/ Leaves frequently notched, bracts entire, per. ovate to ovate-oblong, 
I not twice longer than the bracts ; on shady rocks and stones 

3 \ siibapicalis 
j Leaves entire, bracts emarginate, lobed or toothed ; per. cylindrical, 
I much longer than the bracts ; on wet moors aiitwmnalis 

, ] Leaves round ; per. 4-angled above sjphcerocarpa 

(Leaves longer than broad; per. not 4-angled o 

f Leaves broadly cordate with narrow attachment, embracing the erect 

o- nearly rootless stem, leaves soft cordifolia 

(Leaves ovate or parabolic ; stem creeping, with many rootlets 6 

(Paroicous; per. m. or 1. lanceolate, apex narrow, acute .inmiila 

6^Dioicous; per. oblong-ovate or pyriform, more plicate, apex trun- 
i cate 7 

„ j Per. oblong-ovate; plant small, blackish green atrovirens 

\ Per. pyriform ; plant usu. larger, paler green riparia 

Q j Lobes of middle stem leaves 2 9 

(Lobes of middle stem leaves more than 2 24 

Q j Leaves complicato-bilobed 10 

I Leaves not complicato-bilobed 15 

^PjJAnt. lobe almost reduced to a tooth exsecta 

(Ant. lobe equal or nearly equal to post, lobe 11 



164 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

11 (Stips. large, bipartite, with entire segments Kunzeana 

jStips. absent, or, if present, minute and awl-shaped 12 

22il^eaves nearly parallel to stem, acutely |-bilob«d, minute ...Pearsoni 

*" (Leaves patent or erecto-patent, ^-bilobed or less 13 

/■Leaves imbricate, lobes unequal, usu. rounded, post, lobes closely 

13 j tiled saxicola 

I Leaves approximate or distant, upper lobes equal, usu. pointed 14 

/'Stems little or not radiculose, lobes of lower leaves unequal ; on rocks 

j^J or among mosses minuta 

I Stems densely radiculose, lobes of lower leaves equal ; on decaying 
\ wood HelUriana 

1g (Both margins of leaves retlexed orcadensis 

(Both margins of leaves not retlexed 16 

jgf Stipules usually present 17 

( Stipules absent 18 

/■Lobes obtuse, oval or rotundate, sinus gibbous, reflexed obtusa 

17j Lobes m. or 1. triangular, some usu. acute hantriensis 

i (Stips. few or none in var. acuta.) 

-jg jLobes rounded, usu. obtuse 19 

(Lobes acute 20 

/Leaves obovate or subrotund, dark green ; in wet places injiata 

19- Leaves m. or 1. quadrate, with larger cells, light green ; on limestone 

twrhinata 

20 'Upper leaves 3-5-lobed, undulate 21 

I Upper leaves rarely more than 2-lobed, not undulate 22 

(Paroicous; stem thin, plant usu. light green cajntata 

(Dioicous; stem very thick, plant bluish green incisa 

/Leaves closely imbricate, nearly erect, sinus acute; stem less than 

1 I in. long hicrenata 

j Leaves not closely imbricate, patent or erecto-patent, siuus obtuse ; 

' plant larger 23 

I' Sinus notably variable in shape, upper leaves quickly incurved when 

2gJ drying; plant commonly brown alpestris 

I Sinus not very variable, leaves slowly incurved when drying; plant 
( commonly green, or stems red ventricosa 

(^.\ Stems usu. with cylindrical innovations ijracilis 

( Stems without such innovations 25 

^K ! Stipules present 26 

(Stipules usually absent 28 

2g (Leaves about as long as broad, lobes usu. o, incurved Flcerkii 

(Leaves broader than long, lobes usu. more than 3 27 

(Leaves nearly transverse, very concave, with incurved lobes ; margin 
of lobes notably reflexed, sinus gibbous qiiadriloba 
Leaves oblique, not concave nor with incurved lobes, lobes usu. 
mucronate lyco^jodioides 

<^Q (Leaves flat, nearly horizontal harhata 

\ Leaves undulate, oblique or transverse 29 

(Lobes of leaf obtuse, leaves concave, usu. saccate at base, embracing 
the stem polita 
Lobes of leaf acute 30 

Stem very thick ; leaves nearly transverse, ant. margin not reflexed, 

oQj about equal in length to the post, margin incisa 

Stem thinner ; leaves oblique, post, margin curved, longer than the 
usu. reflexed ant. margin Lyoni 



21 



22 



KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF BRITISH HEPATIC^; 166 



{Rootlets white, leaves frequently reddish, usu. with a distinct mar- 
ginal row oflarger cells, at least in the fertile stems crenulata 
Rootlets purple, or some at least hyaline red 2 

of Paroicous ; bracts \ attached to per obovata 

■ [ Usu. dioicous ; one bract usu. free, the other -^ attached to iper.... hyalina 

NARDIA. 

[Paroicous; leaves of fertile stems usu. emarjSfinate ; per. almost at 
ij right angles to stem geoscyphus 

(Dioicous; leaves entire, rarely emarginate ; per. not as above 2 

[Stems without rootlets, or nearly so ; plant soft, brownish, aquatic ... 
2 \ comjpressa 

(stems with many rootlets; plant firm, leaves glistening scalaris 

MARSUPblLLA. 

- j Leaves distant, scale-like nevicensis 

(Leaves approximate or imbricate 2 

2 (Paroicous or synoicous 3 

\ Dioicous 5 

of Sinus and lobes obtuse, rarely abruptly subacute olivacea 

(Sinus and lobes acute 4 

. j Leaves broadly ovate to subrotund ustulata 

1 2-3 times larger, leaves laxer, cordate at base siJarsifolia 

[Leaves appressed when moist, rather pellucid, deeply and acutely 

5-^ lobed ; plant small, resembling copper wire Stableri 

(Leaves patent or erecto-patent when moist, opaque; plant larger... 6 
[Lobes and shallow sinus usu. obtuse; margin usu. reflexed 

6 i eynarginata 

( Sinus acute, deeper, to \ divided; margin not reflexed 7 

[ Lobes acu; e ; plant small Funchii 

7 j Lobes rounded ; leaves obovate from a narrow sheathing base, plant 
( larger sphacelata 

AC OLE A. 

- (Leaves patent from an erect sheathing base alpina 

"(Leaves appressed; plant smaller 2 

[Leaves refuse, margins much lacerated, apex of stem frequently 

2 i recurved cor a llioides 

(Leaves more deeply divided, margins not or little lacerated 3 

of Margins distinctly crenulate 4 

(Margins not or hardly crenulate 5 

Plant silvery white, more rarely greenish, stems clavate ohtusa 

Plant brown or olive, smaller, stems of nearly the same diameter 
throughout ; marginal cells elongate crenulata 

_j Paroicous; leaves oval or oblong, incised only |-| adusta 

I Monoicous or dioicous ; incision deeper 6 

n ( Monoicous ; reddish brown, rootlets few, short; sinus acute... co/t/er^a 
(Dioicous 7 

[Larger, brownish yellow to greenish; leaves very conspicuous, margin 

_J reflexed in the upper leaves, sinus acute concinnata 

1 Smaller, olive-brown or nearly black; leaves thick, margins plane, 
\ sinus rather obtuse, and forming nearly a right augle...cras5i/o/ia 



166 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



FOSSOMBRONIA. 



, (Spores furnished with papillfe 2 

(Spores with crests 3 

,y ( Papillas 20-25 on face and end of spore ccespitlformis 

" (PapilliB about 110 on face and end of spore Mittenii 

Q (Crests in nearly parallel lines 4 

( Crests forming alveoli 5 

. I Crests on face 15-24 pusilla 

(Crests on face 28-36 cristata 

/Margin of spores appearing as if winged; alveoli 7-10 on face of spore 

_J angtilosa 

j Margin appearing as if crenulate, not winged ; alveoli at least 2-3 

I times as numerous Dumortieri 

CALYCULARIA. 

(■Involucre laciniate, per. oblong; rootlets yellowdsh Jiyhernica 

j Involucre lobed, plicate, per. campanulate ; rootlets reddish brown ; 
( alpine plant Blyttii 

PELLIA. 

/Paroicous; ant. margin of invol. absent, mouth looking towards apex 
I of frond, calyptra much exserted; int. wall of capsule with 

1-! numerous rings epiphylla 

I Dioicous ; invol. forming a complete ring, mouth erect ; fronds usu. 

V narrower and darker-coloured 2 

[Int. wall of capsule without rings, calyptra usu. immersed; male 

P 1 plant with dichotomous furcate innovations calycina 

' 1 1nt. w^all of capsule with some rings, calyptra exserted ; male plant 
( without such innovations Neesiana 

ANEURA. 

(Frond simple or with a few short undivided branches, thick, fleshy, 

1 -j channelled above, margins usu. crisped .pinguis 

(Frond repeatedly divided, not fleshy, margins rarely crisped 2 

(Branches broadly winged, stem biconvex, 6 cells thick at middle, two 

2] cortical smaller muUifida 

(Branches not w'inged (margins not attenuated) 3 

(Branches erect or procumbent, frequently narrowed towards the ends, 

and palmatifid ; usu. on logs pabnata 

Branches prostrate, never palmatifid, and rarely narrowed towards 

I the ends 4 

/ Monoicous ; small, stems 5 cells thick in the middle, internal cells 

. j not larger than the cortical latifrons 

1 Dioicous; rather large, stems 6-7 cells thick in the middle, internal 
( cells larger than the cortical pinnatifida 

METZGERIA. 

, (Frond hairy on both sides .piihescens 

(Frond without hairs above 2 

Post, s de of nerve 2, rarely 3, cells broad ; hairs on margin geminate, 

long and curved; dioicous hamata 

Post, side of nerve 4, rarely 3, cells broad 3 

(Hairs single, rarely on the margin, but just within it; dioicous 

3 \ furcata 

I Hairs on the margin, mostly geminate; monoicous conjugata 



' 



NOTES ON WELSH HAWKWEEDS 167 

RICCIA. 

, (Frond with aerial cavities 2 

(Frond without evident aerial cavities 4 

2 'Frond linear, dichotomously forked .Jiaitans 

[ Frond not linear 3 

/Frond obcordate, longly fimbriated; or lobed and deeply sulcate 

3 J nata7is 
I Frond flat, not sulcate, obcuueate, lobed or furcate; surface- pits 
( becomini? numerous crysfallina 

. jMnrgins of frond ciliated 5 

[ Margins not ciliated 7 

g (Frond green on both surfaces ciliata 

1 Frond purplish beneath 6 

g I Very small, 2-3 lines long, simple or bilobed, sulcate above ...tumida 

(Larger, furcate, broadly channelled above fflaucesce7is 

faces 8 

9 

j Frond almost four times broader than thick, attenuated towards the 

Q ] margin ; fruit scattered glauca 

Frond three times broader than thick, margins thick ; fruit clustered 
' sorocarpa 

Q ( Frond broadly and slightly channelled b if urea 

"(Frond deeply and acutely sulcate Pearsoni 

ANTHOCEROS. 

/Spores yellow, granulose papillate; frond nearly smooth and flat, 

^ I thick loiviH 

"j Spores black, or nearly so, spinous ; frond warty, with crisped edges, 

I thinner 2 

., f Antheridia about 2 in each cavity punctata s 

"^ I Antheridia about 20-30 in each cavity Stahleri 



„ (Frond green on both surfaces 8 

( Frond purplish beneath 9 



NOTES ON WELSH HAWKWEEDS. 

By Eev. Augustin Ley, M.A. 

HiERAciuM cALEDONicuM F. J. Haub. vai'. PLATYPHYLLUM A. Ley. 
This plant, described by me in this Journal for 1898, p. 7, as a 
variety of H. pollinariuui F. J. Hanb., apparently cannot be main- 
tained under that species, but falls very well under H. caledonicnm 
F. J. Hanb., where, therefore, I wish, with the concurrence of Mr. 
Hanbury and Rev. E. F. Linton, to place it. It is usually easily 
distinguished from the type by its leaves being much broader, the 
root-leaves often cordate at the base, and coarsely toothed ; by its 
longer branches, forming a very acute angle with the stem ; by its 
thicker peduncles, and by both peduncles and phyllaries being much 
more densely tomeutose. Its ligules are usually, but not uniformly, 
sty lose. It is a very much more abundant plant in South Wales 
than the type. 

H. vuLGATUM Fr. var. cacuminum A. Ley (Journ. Bot. 1895, 
p. 86), described as a variety of /7. diaphanmn Fr., ought, I am 



168 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

now convinced, to fall under H. vulgatum Fr. I propose therefore 
to place it under this species, very near to var. amphihohim Lindeb., 
of which indeed it may be a mountain form. It is, however, a more 
slender, delicate plant, with narrower, less deeply dentate leaves, 
and broader blunter phyllaries. 

H. RiGiDUM Hartm. var. nov. strigosum. Stem 1-3 ft., bearing 
abundant stiff, white, black-based hairs usually throughout its whole 
length ; with 5-10 long lanceolate acute leaves, the upper sessile, 
the lowest and the root-leaves decurrent into a rather long petiole ; 
lower surface with stiff white hairs, edge shortly ciliate, bearing 
several deep acute teeth. Branches long, 1-2 -flowered, confined to 
the upper third of the stem, forming an acute angle with the stem 
and ascending. Heads few, large, buds ovate-truncate. Outer 
phyllaries short, blunt, inner long, narrow, rather acute, with 
conspicuously dark green centre and light margin, etomentose, 
bearing abundant stiff white hairs, and very few long-stalked glands 
near the base. Peduncles with sparse loose tomentum, eglandular. 
Style yellow. Near var. loufjicHiatuni F. J. Hanb., but distinguished, 
so far as the small amount of material I have seen of that plant 
enables me to judge, by its stem and phyllaries being much more 
hairy, the hair stiffer ; by its larger heads, and longer, more closely 
ascending branches ; by its longer leaves with less hairy upper 
surface, less ciliate edge, deeper coarser teeth, and longer petiole. 
Micro-glands in the present variety usually absent, or very in- 
conspicuous. Original root-leaves blunt. Linton's Set of British 
Hieracia, No. 153. 

Mountain gleus, mostly on river-side rocks and near waterfalls ; 
abundant in South Breconshire. 

Localities. Glyn Tarell, 1888; Blaen Taf-fawr ; Cwm Taf- 
fechan ; Hepste and Mellte Glens ; Upper Nedd Glen ; Upper 
Tawe Glen ; Glyn CoUwng — all on river-side rocks. On mountain 
cliffs at Craig Gledsiau, Glyn Tarell, and Llyn-y-fan-fawr. On dry 
limestone ledges at the head of Dyffiyn Crawnon ; on railway 
banks at Glyn Collwng, becoming stylose, with discoloured styles 
on dry railway ballast — all these localities are in South Breconshire. 
On the Yrfon near Abergwesyn, North Breconshire ; I believe also 
on mountain cliffs at Llyn-y-fan-fechan, Carmarthenshire. 

Plants gathered by me in Glyn Tarell first in 1883, and subse- 
quently named by Dr. Lindeberg for Mr. F. J. Hanbury " H. lapponi- 
ciimFr., nov. var." (see Journ. Bot. 1889,p.73),differfromthevariety 
of H. riglduni Hartm. here described, in having darker broader less 
hairy phyllaries ; but, as this slight difference seems due to the 
spray of a waterfall within the reach of which the plants named 
"H. lapponicufn Fr." grow during wet seasons, and has been ascer- 
tained to disappear from the same plants during drier seasons, I am 
bound to express my conviction that these plants will have to be 
placed under the present variety of H. riyiduni Hartm. 



169 

NEW NATAL PLANTS. 

By J. Medley Wood and M. S. Evans. 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1899, p. 255.) 

[Mr. J. M. Wood's Report of the Natal Botanic Gardens for 
1900, received by us on March 30th, contains the following de- 
scriptions of new species, with the prefatory note here reproduced. 
Up to the time of our going to press, no issue of the Kew Bulletin 
has appeared since October, 1899, so the species in question were 
first published in the Report, whence they must be cited. To 
obviate the manifest inconvenience attendant upon publication of 
novelties in a purely local report, we have thought it well to 
reprint the descriptions, a continuation, as the authors state, of 
those published in this Journal ; for convenience of citation we 
have indicated, in square brackets, the original paging of the 
Report. — Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

In my Annual Report for 1899, I repeated the descriptions of 
the third decade of new Natal plants described by Mr. M. S. Evans 
and myself, and published at home in the Journal of Botany. It 
was intended to publish a fourth decade, but the outbreak of war 
and press of other business prevented our obtaining specimens from 
the upper districts. We therefore determined to send what re- 
mained for publication in the Kew Bulletin, and not to continue the 
decades at present. The following descriptions were therefore sent 
for pubUcation some months ago, and may possibly appear before 
this Report is pubUshed ; but, as few people in Natal see that publi- 
cation, I think it best to include them in this Report, especially as 
all the other species have already appeared in former Reports. 

Senecio tugelensis Wood & Evans. Annual, herbaceous, 
erect, stems simple, striate, glabrous. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, or 
ovate-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, lower ones tapering to a winged 
amplexicaul petiole, upper ones amplexicaul, margins closely serrate, 
glabrous, purple beneath. Heads solitary, or 2-3 on somewhat 
elongated glabrous peduncles bearing 2-3 scattered lanceolate bracts, 
radiate, calycled with 6-7 linear bracteoles. Involucre of 12-14 
glabrous scales. Ray florets 12-14 ; 4-5-Hned, yellow ; disc florets 
60-80. Achenes (unripe) glabrous. 

Habitat: Natal; sources of Tngela, summit of Drakensberg, 
near Mont aux Sources; 10-11,000 feet altitude. March, 1898. 
M. S, Evans, No. 750. 

The whole plant 6-14 inches high ; leaves 1-2 inches long, 
f-| inch wide. Involucral scales f inch long. Heads spreading 
to 1 inch diameter. 

Senecio seminivea Wood & Evans. Suffruticose, ascending, 
branches curved, glabrescent below, glandular hairy in upper 
portion. Leaves crowded, alternate, sessile, half amplexicaul, 
pinnate, 5-7 lobes on each side, young ones very densely white 
woolly tomentose, mature one subglabrous, leaflets simple, entire 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 39. [May, 1901.] n 



170 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

or 2-3-lobed, acute, margins entire. Heads solitary, radiate, 
pedunculate, calycled with 2-3 linear glandular bracteoles. Invo- 
lucral scales 10-15, glaudular hairy, with membranous margins, 
8-4-nerved in central portion. Disc florets 40-50; ray florets 
10-12; 4-lii)ed. Achenes glabrous. [P- 8.] 

Stems 5-10 inches high ; mature leaves f — §■ inch long, lobes 
l|-2 lines long. Involucral scales 3-4 lines long. Ray florets 
extending to 1^ inch diameter, yellow ; disc florets yellow. 

Hdhitat : Natal ; summit of Drakensberg, near Mont aux 
Sources, 10-11,000 feet altitude. M. S. Evans, No. 752. 

This species is apparently closely allied to S. tanacetoides Sond., 
but can at once be distinguished from that species by the peculiarity 
of the fascicles of young leaves being snowy white with woolly 
tomentose pubescence, while the adult leaves are dark green and 
almost glabrous, and this may be as well seen in the dried speci- 
mens as in the living ones ; and also by the glandular hairs on 
the upper part of the stem, peduncle, and outside of involucral 
scales. We have only observed this species on the summit of the 
Drakensberg, while S. tanacetoides is plentiful at the foot of the 
mountain. 

Athrixia arachnoidea Wood & Evans. Suffruticose. Stems 
solitary, erect or ascending, occasionally branched, terete, leafy to 
apex, arachnoid. Leaves alternate, erecto-patent, sessile, linear, 
acute, margins reflexed, glabrous or thinly arachnoid above, very 
densely so beneath. Peduncles 1 -headed, short, terminal or axillary 
near apex of stem, swollen towards apex, clothed with scattered 
subulate, arachnoid scales similar to those on the involucre. Heads 
turbinate. Involucral scales pluriseriate, arachnoid, subulate, 
squarrose. Ray florets 20-30, disc florets about 100. Pappus 
uniseriate, without interposed scales, the bristles persistent, thinly 
clothed with minute hairs. Ripe achenes not seen. 

An undershrub 6-12 inches high. Leaves in centre of stem 
f-1 inch long, 1^-2 lines wide, gradually shorter to base and apex. 
Peduncles 3-6 lines long. Heads 9 lines diameter. Involucral 
scales 3-4 lines long. Ray florets 6-7 lines long, purple ; disc 
florets 4 lines long, yellow. 

Habitat : Natal ; amongst grass, Polela, about 6000 feet altitude. 
July, 1895. M. S. Evans, No. 513. 

Aloe natalensis Wood & Evans. Shrubby, copiously and re- 
peatedly branching from the very base, each branchlet ending in a 
dense rosette of leaves, occasionally producing adventitious roots 
from the lower branches. Leaves 30-40 in a rosette, linear-lanceo- 
late, falcate, acute, subglaucous, neither spotted nor lined, margined 
with deltoid curved prickles. Peduncles usually simple, bracts 
broadly obovate, veined. Racemes densely many-flowered; pedi- 
cels erecto-patent. Perianth bright red, cylindrical. Stamens 
finally slightly exserted. Stigma exserted. [p. 9.] 

The whole plant 8-12 feet high, with a diameter of 12-15 feet. 
Rosettes of leaves very numerous. Leaves 18-30 inches long; 
1^-2^ inches wide ; ^-| inch thick at the base ; prickles 1 line 



NKW NATAL PLANTS 171 

long, i-f inch apart. Pedicels 1-1^ inch long. Racemes 5-10 
inches long, spreading to 3 inches wide, bracts ^ inch long and 
wide. Perianth 1^-lf inch long. 

Habitat: Nataf; Midlands from 800-3000 feet altitude, usually 
but not always on cliffs or rocky hills. 

Differs from any species of aloe known to us, or described in 
the Flora Caj)ensis, and well distinguished by its copiously i)ranch- 
iug habit. It forms large clumps, and covers a large extent of 
ground in comparison with its height. The rosettes of leaves in 
moderate sized plants number from 200-300 or more, with a still 
larger number of small ones. 

Athanasia MONTANA Wood & Evans. Sutt'ruticose, much branched. 
Stems erect, terete, clothed with scars of fallen leaves, finely arach- 
noid, pubescent. Leaves alternate, sessile, oblong-ovate to lanceo- 
late, acute, broad-based, margins deeply and sharply serrate; thickly 
covered with glands ; with axillary tufts of small, entire, linear 
leaves. Inflorescence a compound corymb, many-headed, pedicels 
bracteate, bracts linear-lanceolate. Involucral scales minutely 
ciliolate, subsimilar. Pappus of several short papillose scales. 
Achenes (unripe) striate, papillose. 

Plant 2-3 feet high. Leaves ^-f inch long, 2-4 lines wide ; 
axillary entire ones 1^-2 lines long ; heads 4 lines diameter. 

Habitat : Natal ; Drakensberg, source of Bushman's River. 
6-7000 feet altitude. June, 1896. M. S. Evans, No. 662. 

The nearest species to this known to us is A. leucoclada Harv., 
from which it is distinguishable by its more robust and branching 
liabit, and also by its inflorescence being a compound corymb of 
many heads, and not "simple, dense, few-headed." 

Geigeria rivularis Wood & Evans. Sulfruticose, erect or as- 
cending, glabrous, clothed with leaves from base to apex. Leaves 
linear, tapering to base and apex, entire, flat, impress-dotted, 
glabrous, acute, midrib inconspicuous. Heads lateral and terminal, 
subsessile or shortly pedunculate, subtended by many leaves. In- 
volucral scales, outer ones linear from a broadened base, with 
swollen midrib ; inner ones lanceolate, coriaceous, shorter than the 
outer ones. Pappus, outer of oblong, blunt, and inner of oblong 
bristle pointed scales. Receptacle covered with stiff" bristles. 
Achenes very villous. [p. 10.] 

Stem 6-8 inches in height. Leaves 1^-2 inches long, 1-1^ line 
wide. Heads 1^ inch diameter. Outer involucral scales ^-1 inch 
long. Flowers yellow. 

Habitat: Orange River Colony, near Harrismith, 5-6000 feet 
altitude. March. J. ili. Wood, No. 4784. 

This plant is very closely allied to G. Bnrkei and G. Zet/lieri, 
but differs from the former in indument, shape, and size of invo- 
lucral scales and fimbrils. This is not strictly a Natal plant, but, 
being found so near the border, and the district having not yet been 
very closely botanised, it is very possible that it may yet be found 
on the Natal side of the border. It is the only one of the series 
that has not been actually collected in Natal. 

N 2 



172 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Geigeria natalensis Wood & Evans. Suffruticose from a 
thickened woody root. Stems branching, often from base, slender, 
erect or ascending, glabrous, leafy to base. Leaves narrow linear, 
glabrous, punctate, entire. Heads subtended by leaves. Involucral 
scales, outer one subulate from a broad base ; inner ones lanceolate, 
coriaceous, ciliate on upper portion, longer than the outer ones. 
Pappus scales, outer ones oblong, obtuse ; inner ones oblong, 
bristle-pointed. Receptacle covered with stift" bristles. Achenes 
very villous. 

The whole plant 9-12 inches high. Leaves 1-1^ inch long, 
^-f line wide. Involucral scales, outer, 3 lines, inner, 5 lines 
long. 

Habitat : Natal ; dry stony hill, Whitecliffe, near Greytown. 
April. J. M. Wood, No. 4317. 

This plant differs from G. rivularis W. & E. by its generally 
much more slender habit, size and shape of leaves, and comparative 
size of involucral scales, and in the much smaller size of the flower- 
heads. Flowers yellow. 

Ursinia brevicaulis Wood & Evans. Suftruticose. Stems 1 
or more, erect or ascending, short, unbranched, leafy from base to 
apex, leaves crowded, pinnatipartite in upper portion, segments 
about 6, opposite or alternate, linear, simple or occasionally bifid, 
glabrous, punctate, acute at apex, petiole elongate, gradually dilated 
towards base, semi-amplexicaul, glabrous. Peduncle 1 -headed, 
elongate, thinly clothed with minute hairs. Involucral scales 
glabrous, outer ones dark-edged, inner larger, amply membrane- 
tipped, all obtuse. Palae a little constricted below apex, terminating 
in a rounded membranous lobe. 

Stems ^-1 inch long. Leaves l-lf iiich long, petiole below 
lowest segments, f-l^ inch long ; segments 2-3 lines long. Pe- 
duncles 2i-5 lines long. [p. 11.] 

Habitat: Natal; summit of Mont aux Sources, 10-11,000 feet 
altitude. March, 1898. M. S. Evans, No. 744. 

Lythrum rivulare Wood & Evans. Suffruticose, erect. Stems 
many from a woody root, copiously branching ; leaves scattered, 
petiolate, lanceolate, acute, entire, margins reflexed, glabrous. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary 3-1 -flowered by abortion, the 1-flowered 
peduncles with a pair of bracts above the middle, the 3-flowered 
peduncles with smaller bracts, the lateral flowers only having a 
pair of bracteoles below the calyx, the central flower without 
bracteoles. Bracts linear, equalling the pedicels, bracteoles smaller. 
Calyx 8-costate, 4-toothed. Petals 4, ovate. Stamens 4, exserted. 
Flowers pink. 

The plant 15-18 inches high. Leaves \ inch long, less than 
1 line wide. Calyx 1 line long, petals equalling calyx. 

Habitat : Natal ; province of Zululand near Tugela River, 
J. Wy lie (Wood, No. 5689). 

This plant differs from L. sagittcBfolium Sond., which also has 
four stamens, by form, size, and indument of leaves, and also in 
inflorescence ; and from L. hyssopifolium, in size and position of 
leaves, mode of inflorescence, and number of stamens. [p. 12.] 



173 



MR. CHARLES HOSE'S BORNEAN MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

By a. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

The following is a list of the Monocotyledons contained in 
collections made by Mr. Charles Hose in the Baram district of 
Sarawak in the years 1894-95 ; including also a few collected in 
the Minahasa district of North Celebes. The plants are in the 
National Herbarium. 

Burmannia coelestis Don. 

Baram, Nov. 1, 1894 ; no. 353. 

Oheronia iridi folia Lindl. 

Baram, Nov.' 10, 1894; no. 151. 

Not hitherto recorded from Borneo, though known from India, 
the Philippine Islands [Cuming y nos. 2120, 2137), and Australia. 

Oberonia Hosei, sp.nov. Herba breviter caulescens, foliis 
distichis brevibus ensiformibus subacutis ; scapo bracteato, cum 
racemo gracili folia diiplo excedente ; floribus minimis, spiraliter 
ordinatis, haud densis ; bracteis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis, 
margine erosis, pedicellum cum ovario paullo superantibus; sepalis 
late ellipticis obtusis integris, siccis reflexis ; petalis ovatis, sepala 
subsequantibus, marghie erosis; labello aurantiaco concavo 3-nervio, 
e basi auriculata superne paullo angustato, apice bifido, lobis acutis. 

Plant 12 cm. high, with a short erect stem barely 2-5 cm. long 
bearing 8 distichously arranged leaves, tlie largest 4-5 cm. long by 
•5 cm. broad. Scape sheathed at the base by the uppermost leaf, 
bearing only small membranous acute bracts in the lower part (2*5 
cm.), fertile portion 7 cm. long ; the minute orange-coloured flowers 
aggregated in groups of threes, becoming solitary above. Bracts 
1-25 mm. long; flowers subsessile, pedicel and ovary together 
1 mm. long ; flower when spread open 2 mm. across. Sepals 
•75 mm. long. Lip 1 mm. long by -75 mm. broad at the base, 
apparently a deeper orange than the rest of the flower, narrowing 
slightly from below upwards, bifid at the apex for about one-third of 
its length, with an obsolete lobule between the triangular segments. 

Is perhaps nearest the Silikim species 0. auriculata King & 
Pantling, from which it differs in its orange flowers, more densely 
arranged on the raceme, with broader petals, and especially in the 
lip, which is broader at the base and less deeply cleft. 

Baram, Nov. 10, 1894 ; no. 80. 

Liparis Jfaccida Reichenb. f. 

Baram district, Entoyut river, Nov. 13, 1894 ; no. 459. 

Platyclinis brevilabrata, sp. nov. Planta minor rhizomate 
subrobusto; pseudobulbis fusiformibus flavis, siccis corrugatis; foHo 
lineari-lanceolato obtuso, breviter petiolato ; scapo tenui, folium 
superante, e basi vaginata florifero ; racemo multifloro, floribus 
parvis; bracteis latis truncatis pedicellos breves subaequantibus ; 
sepalis obtusis, subaequalibus, dorsali oblongo-subspathulato ; 
lateralibus oblongo-lanceolatis; petalis linearibus, inferne paullo 



174 THE JOl'KNAL OF BOTANY 

augustatis, quam sepala minoribus ; labello, petalis duplo minore, 
obtuse, rhoinboideo-spathulato, disco depresso, lobis lateralibus 
obsoletis ; columnaB brachiis elongatis, acumiuatis, clinandrio 
postice valde evoluto, trapezoideo, cum denticulo miiiuto lateral! 
et supenie in deiites parvos aristuliformes producto; anthera hemi- 
spliserica. 

Strong woody rhizome about 3 mm. thick, the short internodes 
enveloped by scarious ovate light brown scales. Pseudobulbs 
l'6-3 cm. long by 'o cm. or less in thickness. Leaf 4-7 cm. 
long, including a short petiole of 2-4 mm., 8-14 mm. broad, muhi- 
nerved, 5 veins standnig out more prominently than the rest on the 
dorsal surface. Scape 10-11 cm. long, bracts 1-5-2 mm. long, 
pedicel with ovary 2-3 mm. long. Sepals 5-5-6 mm. long, the 
lateral barely shorter than the dorsal; petals 4-5-5 mm. long, 
narrower than the sepals ; lip 2 mm. long by 1-25 mm. broad below 
the apex; column including clinandrium 25 mm. long. 

A very distinct little species, characterized by its short blunt 
leaves, and small trapezoid-spathulate lip with obsolete lateral 
lobes. 

Baram, Oct. 25, 1894 ; no. 52. 

Dendrobium (§ Aporiim) Serra Lindl.? No flowers present. 
Baram, Nov. 8, 1894 ; no. 153 in part. 

D. (§ V'mfatcB) conostalix Reichenb. f. 
Baram, Nov. 1894 ; no. 148. 

Not hitherto recorded from Borneo, though a wide- spread Malayan 
plant (Malacca, Singapore, Java, Philippines). 

D. (§ Banthusifolia) f/emellum Lindl. 
Baram district, Miri river, Feb. 1895 ; no. 511. 
A wide-spread Malayan plant, not previously recorded from 
Borneo. 

BuJhophyllnm clandestlnum Lindl. 
Baram, Nov. 23, 1894 ; no. 152. 

B. elatius Ridl. 

Baram, Dec. 1894; no. 234. 

The flowers in Mr. Hose's specimens differ from those on which 
the species was founded (see Journ. Linn. Soc. xxKi. 275) in their 
more acute sepals. Is the species distinct from the little-known 
B. odoratum Lmdl. ? 

Eria (§ Hi/meneria) Hosei, sp. nov. Planta caule crasso, 
vaginis pallide bruneis tecto ; foliis in specimine 5, ad apicem 
caulis congestis, oblongo-lanceolatis, acutis, 9-11-nerviis ; racemis 
axillaribus, quam folia duplo brevioribus, multifloris ; bracteis 
saepe ellipsoideis, reflexis ; floribus inter mediocres, longius pedi- 
cellatis, pedicellis gracilibus, veluti rhachi puberulis ; sepalis sub- 
£equilongis, acutis, lateralibus ovato-rhomboideis, basi secundum 
columnae pedem longum extensis; petalis angustis, sepalum dorsals 
ovatum ut apparet longitudine aequantibus ; labello cum basi trape- 
zoideo, lobis lateralibus oblongis ascendentibus, lobo medio multo 
majore, rotunde ellipsoideo, obtuso. 



MK. CHARLES HOSE's BORNEAN MONOCOTYLEDONS 175 

Stem 1*5 cm. thick ; leaves 14-20 cm. long by 35-4 cm. broad, 
thinly coriaceous when dry, stalk broad, about 1 cm. long. Ra- 
cemes about 10 cm. long, bracts about 1 cm. long ; pedicel with 
ovary 1-1-5 cm. long. The large lateral sepals are 7 mm. long by 
3*5 mm. broad in the middle, the base extended forwards along the 
column-foot (7 mm. long) forms a blunt spur around the concave 
lip base. Lower portion of lip 5 mm. long, broadening slightly 
upwards, and barely 3 mm. wide at the top; lateral lobes 2-5 mm. 
long by 1"5 mm. broad, mid-lobe 4 by 3'5 mm., the broad apex 
somewhat crenulate ; column 4 mm. long. 

A very distinct species of the habit of E. florlbmida, but easily 
distinguished by its less dense larger-flowered racemes. 

GrammatophyHum speciosum Bl. 

Baram district, Apoh river, Nov. 20, 1894 ; no. 122. 

Cymbidium Finlaysonianum Lindl. 

Baram district, Miri river, Jan. 1895 ; no. 565. 

A widely spread Malayan plant not hitherto recorded from 
Borneo. 

Mr. Hose's plant closely resembles specimens sent from Pahang 
by Ridley, and also the no. 679 of Zollinger's Java collection and 
no. 2082 of Cuming's Philippine plants. Cuming's no. 2121 is also 
conspecific, but the large, almost orbicular mid-lobe of the lip has 
a markedly emarginate apex. 

A specimen from Christian Smith, labelled " Barn Island, 
Straits Sincapore, July 4, 1796," has narrower sepals 13-14 lines 
long and barely 2 lines broad, and a narrower median lip-lobe. 

DipODiuM PALUDosuM Reicheub. f. 

Baram, March, 1895; no. 45. 

The plant shows some differences from the specimens from 
the Malayan Peninsula and Labuan and the cultivated specimens 
(see Bot. Mag. t. 7464) in the Kew Herbarium. The flowers are 
larger, the longer oblanceolate petals are obviously larger than the 
lateral sepals {e.g. petals 2-7 cm. long by 6 mm. broad, sepals 
2'2 cm. by 4*5 mm.), while the lip is still shorter (1-6-1-8 cm.). 
The base of the lip is also longer, and the lateral teeth are more 
conspicuous. The perianth leaves show no trace of spotting in the 
dried specimen. Assuming the specimens to be conspecitic, the 
species evidently shows considerable variation. Thus we have at 
the Museum another Borneo specimen (near Patong, Grabowsky, 
1881) in which the sepals and petals more resemble the smaller- 
flowered form ; they are shorter than in Mr. Hose's plant, subequal 
(and obviously spotted) ; the lip-base below the lateral teeth is, as 
in the smaller flowers, very short, but the lateral teeth are much 
longer than in the Hose specimen, being 6 mm. long by 1 mm. 
broad ; the pedicels of the pollinia are also conspicuously longer 
than in both the others (2 mm. long, only 1*5 mm. in the Hose 
specimen), and the ellipsoid upper lip-lobe is densely tomentose 
from apex to base. The leaves are also stouter, broader, and less 
tapering. Grabowsky describes the flowers as yellowish white 
spotted with brown ; in size and form they resemble those of 



176 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Z). pictum, where also the lip has similar lateral teeth, but a much 
broader upper lobe, hairy only at the apex. 

VanJa Hookeriana Reichenb. f. 

Baram, April, 1895 ; no. 366. 

Ciyptosti^lis Arachnites Bl. 

Baram, Nov. 8, 1894 ; no. 31. 

Saccolabium perpusilhun Hook. f. 

Baram district, Redan, Nov. 3, 1894 ; no. 33. 

A native of Singapore not previously recorded from Borneo. 

Appendiciila hifaria Lindl. ? 

Baram, Nov. 8, 1894 ; no. 153 in part. 

Only a single flower, which resembles A. bifaria, but has a 
longer lip. 

A. ANCEPS Bl. [A. complcmata Ridley in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxxii. 
389). 

Baram, Nov. 13, 1894 ; no. 149. 

Malayan Peninsula, Singapore and Java, but not previously 
recorded from Borneo. 

I have followed Schlechter (see M6m. Herb. Boiss. no. 21, p. 34) 
in considering the peninsula plants on which Ridley founded his 
species as conspecific with the Java specimens. The Bornean plants 
are smaller, about 6 in. high, with leaves 2-3-5 cm. long by 7-8 mm. 
broad. I can find no difference in the flowers. 

Globba affinis, sp. nov. Herba minor perennis erecta, folii 
vagina angusta, saspe rubescente, plus minus pilosula, margine 
superne ciliolata ; ligula breviter rotundata ciliolata ; lamina sub- 
sessili, snbasymmetrico lanceolata, acuminata, iu facie superiore 
pilosula vel glabrescente, in facie inferiore glabra ; panicula pedun- 
culata brevi compacta, ramis patentibus plurifloris; bracteis ovatis; 
calycis limbis triangularibus, subaequalibus ; corolla alba, tubo 
gracili calycem triplo excedente, lobis cymbiformibus, stammodiis 
his paullo longioribus, elliptico-oblongis ; labello spathulato-cuneato, 
apice latissimo emarginato ; staminis filameuto angnste lineari, 
anthera brevi rotundata, utrinque sub medio longe calcarata ; bacca 
sessili, pisiformi, costata, glabra. 

Plants from 30 cm. high; leaf-blades 5-14*5 cm. long by 1*3- 
3-3 cm. broad, sheath barely exceeding 2-5 mm. from back to front. 
Panicle terminal, 2-5-5 cm. long, peduncle 9 cm. or less, branches 
spreading or spreading-ascending, 3-5-1 cm. long, the longer ones 
many-flowered; bracts 2-5-4-5 mm. long. Calyx-tube 3 mm. long, 
segments 1 mm. Corolla-tube 13 mm. long, lobes 3 mm. ; stami- 
nodia 4 mm. long; lip 7 mm. long by 4-5 mm. broad just below 
the apex; filament 13 mm. long; anther 1 mm.; spur acuminate 
from a triangular base, 2*5 mm. long. 

Evidently closely allied to G. brachijanthera K. Schum. (in Engl. 
Jahrb. xxvii. 329), also from Borneo, but distinguished by its pilo- 
sulose leaf-sheaths, dense inflorescence, uniformly narrow staminal 
filament, and anther spurred from the sides, not from the base. 

Baram district, Entoyut river, Nov. 1894, no. 456 ; and Baram, 
Oct. 25, 1894, no. 109. 



MR. CHARLES HOSE's BORNKAN MONOCOTYLKDONS 177 

Alpinia Fraseriayia Oliver. 

Baram mouth, Jan. 1895 ; no. 61. 

Endemic. 

Clinogyne grandis Baker. 

Baram, April 18, 1895 ; no. 696. 

Dioscorea damona Roxb. 

North Celebes, Minahasa district; no. 801. 

D. pyrifolUi Kunth. 
- Baram", Dec. 1894 ; no. 80. 

S mil ax leucophylla Bl. 

North Celebes, Minahasa district ; no. 823. 

S. odoratissima Bl. 

Baram district, Mt. Skiwa, 1-2000 ft., Dec. 1894 ; no. 442. 

DraccBna f/raminifolia Wall. 

Baram district, iVliri river, Jan. 1895 ; no. 527. 

D. angusti folia Roxb. 

Baram district, Miri river, Jan, 1895 ; no. 542. 

DianeUa ensi folia Red. 

Baram, Nov. 1894 ; no. 150. 

Moiiochoria hastcefoUa Presl. 

Baram district, Miri river, Feb. 1895 ; no. 508. 

Forrestia )narginata Hassk. 

Baram district, Entoyut river, Nov. 1894 ; no. 370. 

Flagellana indica L. 

Baram, Dec. 1894, no. 166 ; Miri, April 28, 1895, no. 609. 

Pinanga lepidota, sp. nov. Palma ut apparet elegans, inter- 
nodiis rubro-puuctulatis ; frondibns flabellatis, suboblongis, mar- 
ginibus subparallelis, apice alte bifidis, lobis subtruncatis, grosse 
dentatis, costulis in utroque latere circa 14 percursis ; infra basin 
attenuatam cum segmento angusto lanceolate acuminato distanti 
utrinque suffultis ; petiolo et rliachi junioribus albido-lepidotis ; 
vagina tubulosa, ore obliqua, tenniter striata, lepidoto-puberula ; 
spadice simplici, glabro, erecto ; fructibus distichis l»te brimeis. 

Tiie frond consists of a large terminal portion, broadening very 
slightly upwards, 25-26 cm. long by 10-5 cm. broad just below the 
apical nicision, which is 10-11 cm. deep ; the lower small pair of 
segments are 2-3-ribbed, 12-14 cm. long, and l'3-l-5 cm. broad; 
they are subopposite, and situated about 4 cm. below the large^ 
segment. In one leaf there is but one lower segment, the larc^e 
segment being asymmetrical, the larger side on which there is no 
lower segment containing 18 lateral ribs. Petioles Q'6 cm. long. 
The hairs on the petiole and rachis of the younger leaves are flat 
and whitish, with a few narrower red ones interspersed ; a slightly 
raised line between each of the lateral ribs of the leaf-blade is 
sparsely covered with similar small narrow reddish scale-hairs. 
On the sheaths the scale-hairs consist of a flat red portion, breakin<^ 
up at the margin into flexuose whitish hairs. On the young sheaths 
the naarginal hairs are closely packed laterally, forming a scale-like 
covering ; in the older they spread irregularly, giving a puberulous 



178 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



appearance. Spadix 8 cm. long: fruits (scarcely ripe) narrowly 
ovate, 11-12 mm. long by about 4*5 mm. broad. 

Near P. disdcha Bl., but distinguished by the form of the leaf, 
the white lepidote rachis, and especially by the erect spadix. 

Baram, April, 1895 ; no. 702. 

Oncospenna tigillaria Ridl. 

Baram district, Miri, April 27, 1895; no. 701. 

Tiie specimens include no fruits, but seem to be conspecific 
with specimens from Singapore sent under this name by Mr. 
Ridley. 

Ceratolohus discolor Becc. (e descript. in Malesia, ill. 63). 
Baram, March, 1895; no. 704. 

There are also three species of Calamm which I have not been 
able to determine. 

Pandanus sp. 

Baram, April, 1895 ; no. 707. 

No flowers present. 

Amorphophalliis campanulatus Bl. 

North Celebes, Minahasa district ; no. 809. 

Pothos (§ Allopothos) Hosei, sp. nov. Planta forte insignis, 
foliis magnis robustis, petioUs laminae dimidium vix sequantibus, 
ad geniculum usque vaginatis ; lamina oblonga ad elliptico-oblonga, 
basi obtusa, apice abrupte et breviter acuminata, innequilatera, 
altero latere circa tertia parte majore, nervis coUectivis utrinque 
duobus basi et supra basin folii nascentibus, margini approximatis ; 
peduneulo singulo in axillo cataphylli oriente ; spatha subcoriacea 
breve ovata obtusa, basi peduneulo decurrente ; spadice sessile 
cylindrico; staminibus tribus externis sterilibus, petala sequantibus ; 
internis brevioribus, fertilibus. 

The specimens consist of the upper part of a shoot with one 
adult leaf, and there is no note as to the size of the plant. The 
larger leaf has a blade 22 cm. long, the width on the two sides of 
the midrib being 5 and 6*5 cm. respectively, and a petiole 10-5 cm. 
long, with a strong somewhat narrow sheath not exceeding 6 mm. 
from back to edge. Peduncle 2*5 cm. long, subtended by a lanceo- 
late scale-leaf about 2*2 cm. long ; spathe 3 cm. long by about 
1-5 cm. greatest breadth ; spadix 4-5 cm. long by nearly 5 mm. in 
diameter at the base, densely and regularly flowered ; style conical, 
tapering, about 1 mm. long. 

Near P. Rumphii, but distinguished by its more oblong leaf with 
the lateral ascending nerves rising at or just above the ba>e, and its 
shorter spathe. It also approaches P. inaujnis Engl., but the leaf 
has an abruptly acuminate apex, and only two marginal nerves, 
and the inflorescence is smaller in every part. 

Baram district, Marudi, April, 1895 ; no. 582. 

Sciaphila major Becc. 

Baram, Nov. 24, 1894. no. 178; and Entoyut river, Nov. 12, 
1894, no. 427. 
Endemic, 



KKNT MOSSKS 179 

Dlplacnun caricinum E. Br. 

B:iiam, Nov. 1, 1894 ; no. 348. 

India ; Malaya. 

Ptmicum indicum L. 

Baram, Nov. 1, 1894 ; no. 276. 

Leptaspis urceolata Br. & Benn. 

Baram district, Entoyut river, Nov. 1894; no. 372. 

Dinorhloa Tjanlwrreh Biise ? 

Baram district, Miri river, Jan. 1895 ; no. 65. 

The spikelet clusters are larger and denser than in the type. 
The spikelets are mostly empty, with expanded lower glumes ; a 
few remain about 3 mm. long, but the stamens are all more or less 
aborted; the latter differ from those of the type in h?iving filaments 
nearly as long as the upper portion, which consists of a more or less 
aborted anther and an acuminate connective. 



KENT MOSSES. 
By E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

In 1877 a list of the Mosses of Kent was prepared with the view 
to Its mcorporation in the Blora of Keyit, when published. When 
that work was recently finished, I was unable to spare the time to 
bring the cryptogamic flora of the county up to date, but am now 
able to publish additional species of mosses. I pointed out in 1877 
that several more species might be expected to occur in Kent, and 
the majority of those then indicated have since been detected and 
many new localities for previously recorded species have been dis- 
covered, especially by the Rt. Hon. Lord Justice Stirling, who has 
most carefully investigated the neighbourhood of GoudhSrst, where 
he resides, and where, as might have been expected from the simi- 
larity of the soil to that of the neighbouring districts in Sussex 
many species recorded for Sussex, but previously unknown as 
Kentish, have been discovered, especially on the damp sandy clay 
which, except near the neighbourhood of Tunbridge Wells is not 
frequent m Kent. Since the publication of the list of Kentish 
Mosses, Mr. Dixon's excellent Student's Handbook of British Mosses 
has appeared and has come into general use, and Mr. E. C. Horrell 
has published an account of the Spharpiacem as revised by Warnstorf 
In the following list, therefore, the names given by these two authors 
will be followed; those in the previous list will be given in paren- 
theses, but for the sake of convenience of reference the order followed 
will be that of the previous list published in 1877. The initials 
used indicate the following gentlemen by whom the various species 
were detected : — 

J. S. . . The Right Honourable Lord Justice Stirling 

W. E. N. . Mr. W. E. Nicholson, Lewes. 

E. S. S. . Mr. E. S. Salmon, Reigate. 

E. C. H. , Mr. E. C. Horrell, Peckham. 



180 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

The Sphagna in this list have been determined by Mr. E. C. Horrell, 
who has paid special attention to this group. Where the collector's 
name is not given, the author is responsible for the names.. The 
species new to the county, added since 1877, are as follows : — 

Sphagnum suhnitens R. & W. var. violascens Warnst. Goudhurst, 
J. S. — S. cyntbi folium Warnst. var. versicolor W. Goudhurst, J. S. 
— Var. pallescens W. Keston Common, E. C. II. — S. medium Limpr. 
var. roseum Warnst. Keston Common, E. C. H. — S. papillosum 
Lindb. var. normale Warnst. Keston Common, K. C. B. — Var. 
sublme Warnst. Keston Common. E. C. H. ; Seal, near Sevenoaks. 
— S. ruhellum Wils. var. ruhrum. Grav. Keston Common, Cocks. — 
S. crassicladum Warnst. Near Ightham, E. C. H. — S. rufescens 
Warnst. Keston Common, Cocks. — S. cnspidatum R. & W. var. 
falcatiim. Keston Common, E. C. H. 

TetrapJds Browniana Grev. [Tetrodontium). On stones in a stream 
in Hungershall Wood, Tun bridge Wells, but on the Kentish side of 
the river, very sparingly. The place where it grows is being altered 
by building and sewerage operations, and several rare species of 
mosses have disappeared since 1877 in this locality. 

Catharinea amjustata Brid. Bedgebury Wood, near Goudhurst, 
W. E. N. d- J. S. Growing in some abundance in damper parts of 
the wood, it is not easily distinguished at sight from some forms 
of C. undulata, but under a lens it is easily recognized by its wide 
nerve. A few specimens were found in fruit in December. — 
C. tenella Rohl. In the same wood as, and in company with, the 
last species, K. S. S. S J. S. First found by Mr. Salmon in a 
barren state, but subsequently in fruit, sparingly. It resembles 
C. undulata in the young state, but the leaves have a more trans- 
lucent appearance, and are practically free from spines on the 
surface. The leaves also have a more lanceolate or broader 
appearance than in C. angustata. 

Fotytrichum strictwn Banks. Ginning's Springs, near Westen- 
hanger. 

Archidium alternifolium Schimp. On damp sandy clay in a 
quarry near Goudhurst, abundantly, E. M. H. d- J. S. 

Fleuridiuui alternifolium Rabenh. Ightham. 

Selifjeria pusilla B. & S. Morant's Court Hill, near Dunton 
Green ;* Kemsing Quarry. This species occurs in the same wood 
as S. paucifolia Carr., but is readily distinguished by the wide- 
mouthed capsule and the denticulate base of the leaves. 

Dicranella crispa Schimp. In a lane between Laugton Green 
and Speldhurst, abundantly, T. W.— D. rufescens Schimp. Goud- 
hurst, in two places, TF. E. N. d J. S. — D. Schreberi Schimp. 
Damp wood near Dover; field near Bessell's Green, Sevenoaks. In 
both places sparingly. — Var. /3 elata Schimp. Gravel-pit, Goud- 
hurst, W. E. y. d J. S. 

Dichodontium pellucidmn Schimp. In a damp lane between 
Langton Green and Ashurst, and at Hingershall Rocks, E. M. H. 
In two places near Goudhurst, J. S. d IF. E. N. 

Weissia multimpsiilaris Mitt. (Systegium). Field near Bessell's 
Green, Sevenoaks , sparingly. — W. crispa var. (3 aciculata Mitt. 



KENT MOSSES 181 

In some abuiidance in a grassy field near Ightham. This variety 
has been distributed by me as IVeissia umlticapsnlarls, and has been 
accepted as sucii by several bryologists. It differs very mnch in 
habit from W. crispa Mitt., growing in somewhat loose spreading 
patches amongst grass, and almo«t hidden by it ; the uppermost 
leaves are longer; the plant is duller in colour, and less crisped 
when dry. In areolation of the leaf, however, it more nearly 
approaches \V. crispa, and fruits more freely than typical W. viulti- 
capsularis. Mr. W. E. Nicholson, who has carefully examined the 
plant, is of opinion that it is referable to the above variety. — 
W. viicrofitoma C. M. Seal, near Sevenoaks. This species appears 
to be by no means common in Kent. — IF. squarrosa C. M. Near 
Stone Street, Sevenoaks, and near Bessell's Green. Goudhurst, 
J. S. This species grows usually in much damper situations than 
W. viridiihi, and when the lid has fallen is easily recognized by the 
membrane closing the mouth of tlie capsule ; and also by the plane 
margins of the leaves. — \V. tenuis C. M. Fant Woods, Maidstone, 
in fruit abundantly ; and White Rock, near Stone Street, sterile. 
Goudhurst, on an old bridge, J. S. This species seems to prefer 
shady greensand rocks or stones. 

Leptudontium geuimasctus Braithw. On a barn near Riverhead. 
The thatch on the barn has since been renewed, and the plant has 
disappeared. 

Pha.wum Fkerkecuium W. & M. On clods of chalk in open fields, 
in September and October, Morant's Court Hill. Recognized by 
its reddish tint and by growing in a scattered manner, preferring 
the shady side of clods of chalk turned up by the plough. On the 
level soil it is quickly hidden from sight by the action of the rain. 

Pottia bryoides Mitt. On a grassy slope near Shoreham, very 
sparingly. 

Barbula Hpadicea Mitt. In one place near Goudhurst, W, E. N. 

Trichostomum tortnosum Dixon. Between Shoreham and Eynes- 
ford, on the side of a clialk cutting, H. W. Moninijton. I have not 
seen a specimen, but it is said to occur in similar localities in 
Surrey. 

Grimmia comniiitata Hiiben. On a tiled roof near Goudhurst, 
very rare, W. E. N. d J. S. — G. pnlvinata Smith, var. /? obtusa 
Hiiben. On a wall, Knowle Park, Sevenoaks. — G. orbicularis 
Bruch. A single tuft on a wall in Seal Hollow Lane, Sevenoaks. 
Easily recognized by the dimidiate calyptra, and by the fruit being 
more developed in February than that of G. pulvinata. 

Rhacomitrium lanwp'nosum, Brid. Three tufts only on a tiled 
shed, Bedgebury, near Goudhurst, W. E. N. S J. S. 

Zygodon viridissimiis Brown, var. (3 rupestris Lindb. In fruit 
near Bessell's Green. 

Ephemerum serratuni Hampe, f3 any usti folium. B. & S. In fruit 
abundantly in a grassy field near Ightham, in company with Weissia 
crispa var. aciculata Mitt, and Fnnaria fascicular is Schimp. ; Goud- 
hurst, IF. E. N. d J. S. — E. sessile Rabenh. Bedgebury Wood, 
near Goudhurst, W. E. N. d J. S, 

Funaria ericetorum Dixon. Goudhurst, in several places, J. S. 



182 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANV 

Joyden's Wood, near Bexley. — F. fascicular is Dixon. Frequent on 
stony grassy fields on the lower greensand. Goudhiirst, in several 
places, ./. iS'. Near Ightham, abundantly; near Ide Hill, Cndliam. 

Brijnm pseudutriqiietnim Scliwaegr. Keston Common, E. George. 
Ightham, E. M. H. Goudhurst, not uncommon, J. S. 

Philunotis capUlaris Lindb. Godden Green, near Sevenoaks, 
E. M. H. d Mrs. Holmes. Bedgebury Wood, Goudhurst, sparingly, 
with male tlowers, W. E. A'. S J. S. 

Fissideiis virididus Wahlenb. Forest Hill, E. George. Seven- 
oaks, E. M. H. Goudhurst, in two places, J. S. — F. decipiens 
De Not. Godden Green, Sevenoaks. Found only in a sterile con- 
dition. — F. collinus Mitt. Kemsing. This plant, which grows 
amongst grass on chalky hill-sides, is regarded by Dixon as only a 
form of F. adiantoides Hedw. 

Eurhynchium striatulum B. & S. Basted Hill, near Borough 
Green and Plaxtol, rare and sterile. — F. abbreciatum Schimp. 
Plaxtol, E. M. H. Goudhurst, in three places, E. S. S. d J. S. 

Plugiothecium Borrerianiini Spruce. Rusthall, Tunbridge Wells, 
in fruit, J. S. The fruit is very rare. 

Ambli/stegiwn protensum Lindb. Woods near Stone Street, Seven- 
oaks. This plant is placed by Dixon under Hypnuni stellatum as 
var. jS protenmm B. & S. It is, hov,'ever, very distinct in habit 
from that moss. It was growing prostrate on boulders of greensand 
rock in a wooded valley, and grew closely adherent to the stone. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 

By William E. Beckwith. 

[The following list is evidently a continuation of the notes by 
the late Mr. W. E. Beckwith which appeared in this Journal for 
1881 and 1882, and carries his records down to the year 1889. 
The manuscript was kindly lent by Miss Beckwith for the use of 
the Committee now engaged in the preliminary work of the pro- 
posed new Flora of Shropshire, and has been copied by Mr. 
R. de G. Benson. — W. P. Hamilton, Ron. Sec. to the Committee.'] 

Ranunculus Lingua L. By Blackmere and Osmere Meres, near 
Whitchurch ; by a pool near Baschurch Railway-station; in a small 
pool between Hufley and Perril, near Shrewsbury, but which is 
evidently the last remains of an extensive piece of water ; by 
Marton Pool, near Chirbury; ditches on Baggy Moor, near Bagley. 
Rare, except by large, or what have been large, pieces of water, 
or in wide open ditches. — JrL parvijiorus L. Bridge over Great 
Western Railway west of Baschurch Station. A rare plant in 
Shropshire. — ti. arvensis L. Ploughed fields on the outskirts of 
Wyre Forest; also near Cressage, Harley, Westbury, Cruckton, 
and Baschurch. Not common, but often imported with seed-corn. 

Trollius europmis L. Ditches at the Hayes near Oswestry, and 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS 



188 



in grass -fields near Welsh Frankton. In both places ifc may have 
escaped from gardens. 

Aquilcffia vulgaris L. Plentiful on the steep right^ bank of the 
Mole brook below the village of Leighton, but the varied colours of 
the flowers betray its garden origin. 

Aconitum yapellm L. Plentiful by the river Ledwytch, in the 
neighbourhood of Pouglimill and Caynham, near Ludlow. 

Berbeds viilrjcuis L. Hedges about the Sharpstones Hill and 
Monkmoor ; by the river Perry near Baschurch ; by Westbury 
Railway-station; Shawbury (3/m Kilvert). 

^ymphcBa alba L. Pools on Shawbury Heath ; Osmere Mere ; 
abundant in Sundorne Pool. 

Nuphar Uitea Sm. Osmere Mere ; river Perry, above Baschurch. 

Papaver Argetuone L. Ploughed fields and hedgebanks near 
Buildwas Abbey, Baschurch, and Croesmere. 

Corydnlis claviciilnta DC. On Grinshill Hill and Pirn Hill; in a 
bog near Welshampton ; in a wood near Colemere Mere. 

Brassica nigra Koch. By the Severn at Cressage, and near 
Dawley Church. 

Cardamine amara L. By the Worfe, from Rindleford to its 
mouth ; bogs near Arkoll and Lawrence Hill ; by the Severn near 
Shelton, Uffington, Eaton Constantine, Cressage and Leighton, and 
in wet places in woods in Leighton parish ; boggy field by the road 
from Cressage to Cressage Park ; by river Perry near Baschurch ; 
brook at Harnage ; Manor Pool, Shifnal ; Snow Pool, Dryton ; by 
the river Roden below Lee Bridge. — C. impatiens L. Helmuth, 
and woods above Watling Street, between Church and Little 
Stretton ; plentiful. 

Arabis perfoliate Lam. Lane near Moreton Corbet. Mr. W. 
Beacall has found it in hedges at the Cliff, and Marton, near Bas- 
church. 

Barbarea stricta Andrz. Mr. J. G. Baker considers specimens 
from by the stream flowing from Cross Houses to the Severn, and 
from by the mill on the Roden at Newton-on-Hine-Heath, to belong 
to this species. 

Cochlearia danica L. Old roofs near the Smithfield, Shrewsbury. 

Thiaspi arvense L. Neaves Castle, Garmeston and Lye Farm in 
Leighton parish ; Cound village ; plentiful by Lady Oak near Cres- 
sage and Belswardine Hall ; Fox Farm ; Chilton. 

Teesdalia nitdicaulis Br. Bank above Snow Pool near Dryton ; 
hedge by Hampton Bank near EUesmere. 

Lepidium Smithii Hook. Grinshill Hill ; Mary's Dingle, near 
Leighton; by a chapel on Overley Hill; lane near Moreton Corbet; 
frequent on the Sharpstones Hill, near Slirewsbury ; rather common 
about Church Siretton. 

Coronopux Ruellii Gaertn. On the roads on Kingsland Shrews- 
bury, and about Albright Lee, Cross Hill, Harlescott and Betton 
near that town ; lane below Eye Farm and by Leighton Hall, 
Leighton ; below Eaton Constantine Rectory ; bridle road from 
Donnington to Beslow, near Wroxeter. — C. didymus Sm. Left 
bank of Severn opposite Cherry Orchard ; sent me in 1889 by Mr. 



184 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



H. Royle. (Mr. Beacall records this frora same neighbourhood in 
May, 1880.) 

Reseda Luteola L. Wenlock and Haughmond Abbeys ; by 
Severn, above Cressage and near Buildwas ; limekilns in Farley 
Dingle and Iron Bridge ; near Madeley and Coalport; near Cound, 
Caynham Court, Longville, Eaton Mascott, Battlefield, Harley, and 
Oswestry ; abundant around Oakengates on old pit-mounds. 

Helianthemum viiJf/are Gaertn. Sent me by Mr. W. Beacall from 
Haughmond Hill. 

Viola palustris L. Blackmere Mere, near Ellesmere; boggy field 
near Hampton Bank ; Shawbnry Park Wood. — F. hirta L. By 
roadsides and iu wood in Farley Dingle and near Tickwood. — 
T^ lutea Huds. On the Longmynds and Caradoc, near Church 
Stretton. 

Drosera rotund (folia L. Wet places at Hampton Bank and Moss 
by Swetmere, near Ellesmere ; plentiful in small bogs at the base 
of the Caradoc ; by pools on Hoduet Heath. — D. anglica Huds. 
^oggy ground at Hampton Bank, on Whixall Moss. 

Silene injiata Sm. Hedgebanks at Grindle, near Shifual; abun- 
dant on Wenlock Edge, Harley, Cressage, Charlton Hill, Betton, 
West Felton, Baschurch, Grinshill, Oswestry, Ellesmere, Cockshutt, 
Martou near Chirbury. 

Lychnis Githago Lam. Plentiful in cornfields near Shifnal ; 
also found about Shrewsbury, Wroxeter, Eaton Constantine, 
Leighton, and Acton Burnell. Not common, but often imported 
with clover-seed. 

Cerastium guatenielluni Feuzl. Upon Charlton and Broomhill 
and near Snow Pool, Wroxeter. Mr. H. Auden has also collected 
it on Pontesford Hill. — C. seniidecandnon L. High Rock, Bridg- 
north ; by foot-road to Rindleford. 

Stellariu aijuaticn Scop. By the Severn, near Cressage, Leigh- 
ton, and Bridgnorth ; in its old bed near Salop ; Walford Pool ; by 
brooks and ditches about Minsterley, Bomere Farm, and abundant 
near Betton Pool ; by the old bed of the Tern, at its mouth; by 
brook at Hanwood ; Shelton Rough ; Baggy Moor ; Rodington ; 
Kinnersley ; Attingham Park ; by the brook at Yockleton, and 
river Perry at Baschurch ; Stanwardine-in-the-fields. — -S'. media 
With. A large form of this, which Mr. A. Bennett considers to be 
Hfglectit, grows in a wood at Pimley, near Uffington, and under the 
High Rock, Bridgnorth. 

Sagina nodosa E. Mey. Frequent about canal wharf near 
Rednal Station, and by the canal at Weston LuUingfields. 

Spergularia rubra Fenzl. Common about Bridgnorth ; Snow 
Pool, Wroxeter ; Shawbnry Heath ; Cliff Hill, near Nesscliffe ; by 
railway near Hodnet ; bottom of Carding Mill Valley, Church 
Stretton. 

Montia jontana L. Plentiful in ditches and wet places ; by 
Bomere Pool, Osmere Mere, and Newton Mere ; abundant by small 
streams and in wet places on the Longmynds. 

Elatine hexandra DC. Plentiful in Newton Mere, near Ellesmere. 

Hypericum AndroscBmum L. Hedges near Cressage Park ; iu 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS 185 

Willey Park ; wood by railway below Shinetou ; Hurst Wood, 
Leigbton. — H. huwifumni L. Charlton Hill, plentiful ; Grinshill ; 
Hawkstoue ; round Whixall Mosj*, and about Wyre Forest ; round 
Church Stretton, plentiful. — H. inontanum L. Lane near East- 
hope, on Wenlock Edge. Very rare. — H. hirsutum L. About 
Leigbton, Cressage Park, Harley, Cound, Hook-a-Gate, Redhill, 
Condover; near Bridgnorth, Linley, Hughley, Eaton Coustantine ; 
plentiful about Little Wenlock ; Coalport and Longville. — H. 
Elodes L. By Oxon Pool, Shrawardine Pool, Snow Pool, at Ber- 
rington, and on Shawbury Heath. 

Malva moschata L. Cressage, Cound, Berrington, Bomere Pool, 
Longville, Stokesay, Minsterley, Eaton Constautine, Arkoll Hill, 
and Charlton Hill ; about Whitchurch, Much Wenlock, and Sharp- 
stones Hill, plentiful; near Walk Mill, Ali-Stretton. 

(jreraniuni. pruteme L. By the Severn at Quatford, Hughley, 
and near Dowles ; by the river Roden at Stanton -on-Hine-Heath, 
and Shawbury ; by brook which flows into the Severn by Linley 
Railway-station. — G. pi/renaicnm. L. By the chapel at Eaton 
Mascott ; by road between Cound and Cross Houses ; on the 
Hermitage Hill, Bridgnorth, and by the Weir Coppice, Hanwood, 
and near Oxon. — (r. pusilhtm, L. Charlton Hill and by Snow 
Pool, Wroxeter. — G. columbhuim L. About Much Wenlock, 
Munslow, Kemberton, Harley ; by Severn above Cressage ; Prest- 
hope. — G, iwidiim L. Longnor and Dorrington, li. M. Serjeantson. 
Hermitage Hill; Hanwood; Brointield ; Ludlow Castle. — G. 
sylvaticum L. Many places in Wyre Forest, but nowhere plentiful. 
Erodium ciciitarium L'Herit. Norton, near Wroxeter ; Cound 
Arbour and Cound Stank ; Dryton ; Clitf Hill, Baschurch ; Charlton 
Hill. 

Enonymus europmis L. Woods about Buildwas and up Farley 
Dingle ; Acton Burnell ; Shawbury, by the Roden ; Chaiiton Hill ; 
Cause Castle ; Baschurch ; Minsterley ; Lee Bridge ; Eaton Mas- 
cott ; Cound Moor ; Cressage ; Apley Park ; High Rock ; Preston 
Boats; Sharpstones Hill ; Red Hill; Hanwood; Nobold ; Oakley 
Park; Poughmill ; Yockleton ; Cross Hill ; Plealey; Shrawardine; 
Easthope. 

Rhainiuts catharticus L. Woods by the line east of Baschurch 
Railway-station; about the '' Yestalls," plentiful. — E. Fnuu/iila L. 
Baggy Moor, by Limpit Hill; one bush (''in fruit," IV. Beacall) ; 
Wyre Forest, plentiful ; hedges near Rednal Station and by Croes- 
mere Mere. 

Ult'x nanus Forst. Shelve ; thought to be so by authorities at 
Kew, but requires further investigation. 

Genista anglica L. Sliawbury Heatii ; small bog by Sharpstones 
Hill. — G. tinctoria L. About Sundorne ; Much Wenlock ; Eaton 
Constantine ; Golding ; Battlefield ; abundant near Longville, 
Kenley, Hughley, and Easthope. 

Ononis spinosa L. Hadnal Ease ; Under Wenlock Edge ; near 
Harley ; by Leigbton Hall. 

Melilotiis arvensls Wallr. Sides of railway by Buildwas ; on 
Kingslaud ; m clover-fields at Dorrington ; Wroxeter. 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol, 39. [May, 1901.J p 



186 THK JOTRNAL OF BOTANY 

Anthyllis VnJneraria L. Wenlock Edge, near Presthope. 

Trifolium striatum L. Ranslett (?) Diugle, right bank of brook. 
— T. hi/hrpliim L. Red Hill; Eaton Constanrine, sown with clover 
and rve-grass. — T. arvense L. Rock-hole at Rusliton ; Grinshill; 
Shawbdry; rock-hole by Baschurch ; near Hodnec. ('' Hodnet 
Heath," BeaccU.) 

A.straf^ahis fih/ci/phyllus L. Rhidleford Bridge, below the mill ; 
back of liirch Pool. 

Ornithopus perpusillus L. Hawkstone Park ; Nesscliffe ; Grins- 
hill; The Cliff; Sharpstones ; abundant on Longmynds. 

Vicia tetrasperma Moench. Hawkstone Park, and about Weston, 
Gound, Cressage, Upton Magna, and Ludlow. — V. sylvatica L. 
Wood by railway below Shiueton ; woods east of railway between 
Church and Little Stretton. 

Latliyrus hitifolius L. Rock-hole by railway west of Baschurch 
Station. — L. syivt^stns L. Shelton Rough. — L. wacrorrhiza Wimm. 
Welshampton ; Farley Dingle, plentiful. 

Prunns insititia L. By Severn above Cressage ; Beslow ; Eaton 
CoDstantine Glebe. — P. avium L. Sharpstones Hill; Oteley Park; 
near Wem ; BettonWood; Upper Mill, Leighton ; near Westbury; 
Linley ; Henged, near Oswestry ; by Grove, Leighton, and near 
Buildwas Church. — P. Padua L. Moreton Corbet; Shawbury; 
hedges near Prees ; by the Perry about Baschurch ; plentiful about 
Henged, Whittington, and Halston. 

Spircea salicifolia L. By roadside near Nesscliffe (Leighton's 
Flora). No claim to be wild, as the late MissL. H. Jenkins planted 
it there. — S. Filipendtda L. Bushy rough ground by Olympian 
field, Much Wenlock. 

Sanguisorba officinalis L. Meadows by small brook above Cruck- 
ton Hall. 

Poteriiim Sanguisorba Ij. Farley Dingle; Tickwood; Buildwas; 
plentiful on Wenlock Edge. 

AlchemiUa vulgaris L. Stokesay ; Much Wenlock ; Little Wen- 
lock ; West Frankton, plentiful ; ArkoU ; Charlton and Newton 
Hills ; Cantlop Mill ; Farley Dingle ; Church Stretton ; Oswestry ; 
Baschurch ; Oakley Park ; Leighton ; Shawbury Park. 

Potentilla argentea L. Haughmond Hill, by Downton ; Sharp- 
stones Hill. — P, Comarum Nestl. WhixallMoss; Grinshill; Shaw- 
bury Heath ; Osmere Mere ; Oxon Pool ; Shrawardine Pool, abun- 
dant ; Weeping Cross Bog ; Longville ; Hufley ; Marton Pool, by 
Chirbury. 

Geum rivale L. Brook below Lumhole Pool ; foot of Charlton 
Hill ; by Roden at Newton, plentiful ; Perry, above Milford ; old 
bed of Severn at Halston, plentiful ; Wilfield ; Shawbury ; Shaw- 
bury Park, plentiful ; Holdgate (yir. Bcacall). — G. intermedium. 
In several places by streams about Halston, near Whittington. 

Pyrus torminalis Ehrh. Farley Diugle, Tickwood Hall, Black- 
firs (?) ; one large tree, dingle below Neaves Castle. — P. Aucuparia 
Gaertn. Woods above Buildwas, and in Farley Dingle ; hills and 
bogs. 

[The MS. ends here.] 



187 



SHORT NOTES. 

Impatiens Roylei. — Last year we found this plant growing in 
thousands and in the greatest luxuriance along some two miles of 
the uppermost course of the East Looe River (there only from four 
to eight feet in width), between Coombe Gate and Moorswater, 
Cornwall. I notice that it has been called " a cumbersome and 
weedy thing ; " but, growing in the soft warm south-west, with the 
base of its stem in the clear running stream, it is a magnificent 
plant, 5-7 ft. or more in height, stalwart, with a stem from 1 to 
1| in. in diameter just above the surface of the water, erect, 
symmetrical in shape, with numerous aggregations of blossom, 
the central mass as big as a man's head, and those terminating all 
the principal lateral branches, though smaller still most striking — 
masses of bloom varying on different plants through a dozen lovely 
shades of colour from the very palest pink imaginable to the deepest 
claret-colour, and with a profusion of large, elegant, dark green, 
lanceolate leaves, some of them fully 15 in. in length. Stunted 
specimens of this Balsam are common in Cornwall in orchards and 
cottage gardens; but in the Upper Looe River the plant has become 
thoroughly naturalized, and I have never seen it quite as fine even 
in its native habitats. — A. 0. Hume. 

LoNicERA Xylosteum IN Kent. — At the end of May last I saw a 
large bush of Lonicera Xylosteum on a hedge-bank in a tane not far 
from Keston Church, Kent, The Flora of Kmt does not mention 
the species as occurring in the county. — W. H. Griffin. 

Camptothecium nitens in Worcestershire. — My esteemed co- 
worker in the moss-flora of Worcestershire, Mr. E. Cleminshaw, 
M.A., has recently found this rare moss in a marshy spot in the 
Clent district, where I have since had the pleasure of seeing it. 
This is a somewhat unexpected moss for the midlands. — J. E. 
Bagnall. 

Leptodontium recurvifolium in Ireland. — This fine moss, which 
was first found by Dr. Tavlor in 1842 on Knockavohila, a mountain 
between Kenmare and Killarney, in Co. Kerry, is stated by Dr. 
Braithwaite and Mr. Dixon to be extinct in the locality. It is 
therefore interesting to mention that it was rediscovered by the Rev. 
C. H. Binstead in 1896 at Connor Hill Pass and on Brandon 
Mountain, both in Co. Kerry ; and by myself in 1898 at Coomanard 
Loughs, which are situated in a remote and wild deep glen two 
miles north-east of Connor Hill Pass. — H. W. Lett. 



188 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 

Annalii of Botitny (March). — A. G. Tausley & E. Chick, 'Con- 
ducting Tissue-System in Bryophyta ' (2 pi.). — E. A. N. Arber, 
' Effect of Salts on assimilation of carbon dioxide in Vlca latissima.' 
— D. T. Gwynue-Vauglian, 'Anatomy of Loxsnma' (1 pi.). — W. 
Watson, 'Germination of seeds of Bertholettid ' (2 p\.). — D. H. 
Campbell, * Embryo-sac of Pepe^-onda ' (1 pi.). — R. H. Bififen, 
'Biology of Bulgaria poh/niorpha' (1 pi.). — E. C. Jeffrey, -Infra- 
nodal organs in Calamites and Dicotyledons ' (2 pi.). — B. M. Davis, 
•Nuclear studies on P^///a ' (2 pi.). — I. H. Burkill, 'Ovary of 
Parnasda palustris.' 

Bot. Gazette (16 March; received 10 April). — H. C. Cowles, 
'Physiographic Ecology of Chicago' (concl.). — M. L. Fernald, 
' Nomenclatorial Principles.' — J. W. Harshberger, ' Feeding Plas- 
modia of FuUgo.* 

Bot. Notiser (haft 2 ; 1 April). — T. Hedlund, ' Ora Ribes nibnim.' 
— R. Sernander, ' Om de buskartade lafvarnes Lapterer.' — L. P. ii. 
Matsson, Rosa caryoplu/llacea. 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (31 March). — C. de Candolle. ' PiperacesB 
et Meliaceae brasilienses a cl. W. Schwacke lectre.' — 0. & B. Fedt- 
schenko, ' Flore de la Crim^e ' (cont.). — R. Chodat, ' PlantaB Hass- 
lerianae' (Paraguay). 

Bull. Torreij Bot. CI lib (27 March). — A. Eastwood, • Nemophilas 
from Pacific Coast ' (6 pi.). — M. A. Howe, ' Uicci<( Bei/richiana & 
R. dictyospora.' — E. P. Bicknell, ' Teucrium in E. United States.' — 
P. A. Rydberg, ' PotentillecB.' 

Gardeners' Chronicle (30 March). — C. T. Druery, ' Fern phe- 
nomena discovered in 19th century.' 

Journal de Botanique (" Novembre 1900" ; received 30 March). 
— C. Sauvageau, • Les Sphacelariacees ' (cont.). — A. de Coincy, 
' Especes critiques du genre Ischium ' (concl.). — Ph. van Tieghem, 
' Sur les Dicotyl6dones du groupe des Homoxyl^es ' (cont.). 

Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) xxxv. no. 242 (1 April). — A. L. Smith, 
' Fungi from West Indies ' (3 pL). — I. H. Burkill, ' Flora of Vavau.' 
— G. C. Druce, ' British species of Sea-Thrifts and Sea-Lavenders.' 
' Oesterr. Bot. Z e itschrift {A^ril). — F. Pax, ' Neue Pflanzenformen 
aus den Karpathen." — A. V. Schiftner, • Zur Flora von Madeira, 
Tenerififa, und Grand-Cauaria ' {Hepaticce). — A. Waisbecker. ' Zur 
Flora des Eisenburger Comitats.' — H. Freilach, 'Anatomie des 
Blattes von Sanseviera.' 

Rhodora (April). — M. A. Day, ' Herbaria of New England.' — 
C. S. Sargent, ' CrattEgus from Montreal.' — G. P. Clinton, 'New 
Smuts on Eriocaulon.' — E. L. Greene, Eupatorium boreale^ sp. u. 

• The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date ol 
publication. 



189 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

At the meeting of the Lianean Society on April 4th, 1901, 
Mr. W. B. Heinsley exhibited specimens of Sapium and Hei-ea and 
Ca^tilloa, with a view to clear up certain questions concerning the 
Rubber-trees, by examining a large series of plants and seeds 
forwarded by Mr. Jenman, Government Botanist in British Guiana. 
The genus Hevm included ten or a dozen described species in- 
habiting eastern tropical South America, but none in the West 
Indies. Hevea brasi liens is, the source of the true Pard rubber, 
is not very different from Hevea ijuianensis, which is restricted 
to French Guiana, the differences between them being shown in 
the figures given of the floral structure and seeds in Hooker's 
Icones PInntarum, plates 2570-2577. It was formerly supposed 
that two species of Hevea might be distinguished in British 
Guiana, one {Hevea pauciflora) having thin leaves and a hairy 
ovary, the other thick coriaceous leaves and a glabrous ovary ; 
but, after examining a large number of specimens, Mr. Hemsley 
had come to the conclusion that the differences were not constant, 
and that all the specimens exhibited might belong to one spe- 
cies, and merely represented individual variation. The exhibition 
demonstrated the difficulty of determining species of Hevea from 
imperfect specimens, and especially from seeds alone. A paper 
was read by Messrs. W. B. Hemsley and H. H. Pearson. " On a 
Small Collection of Dried Plants made by Sir Martin Conway in 
the BoHvian Andes in 1898-99." This collection contained but 
forty-six species, but these were of special interest from the great 
height at which they were found, /. f. between 18,000 ft. and 
18,700 ft. above sea-level. The highest Andine plants on record 
were stated to be Mah-astruiu jiabel latum Wedd., and a grass, Dey- 
eiixia glacialis Wedd. 

Dr. E. L. Greene publishes, in the Catholic Uyiiversitij Bulletin 
of Washington for April, a severe criticism of "Some Literary 
Aspects of American Botany." " It would be extreme to say that, 
from the literary point of view, the condition of American botany 
has been retrograding somewhat rapidly for ten or a dozen years 
past, and is in a state which I am sure the forefathers of our 
Science in this country, the good men of sixty and of thirty years 
ago, would think of as deplorable ; and they would be right." 
Dr. Greene, we think, weakens his case by the strength of his 
language, and by a certain vein of hypercriticism which pervades 
his paper ; but he has written an interesting essay (to be followed, 
we gather, by others on the same subject), to which we may take 
occasion to recur. 

We have received a circular with reference to the formation of 
a new society, to be called the International Botanical Association, 
which is to be inaugurated at a meeting to be held in the botanical 
laboratory of the University of Geneva on the 7th of August. 
'• The chief object of the Association will be the foundation of a 
bibliographic periodical criticising in a perfectly impartial manner 



190 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



all botanical publicatious in such a way that the important be 
separated from the less so. It will not-— as some periodicals do — 
devote page after page to pubUcations of questionable value, while 
most important works are put off with two or three lines or even 
not mentioned at all. The criticisms will — at the desire of the 
contributors — be published in engiish, frencb or german. All 
will be submitted to the judgment of au editor nominated by the 
Association and responsible to it. Under no circumstances the 
membership will cost more than 25s., including the gratis delivery 
of the periodical." Dr. J. P. Lotsy, Wageningen, Holland, receives 
applications for membership. 

The Botanical Gazette for March contains a detailed and very 
trenchant criticism of '• Some Recent Publications and the Nomen- 
clatorial Principles they represent," from the pen of Mr. M. L. 
Fernald. It is based on Mr. Heller's recent Cittalofjue of North 
American Plants, to the methods of which we took exception on 
p. 119, but deals unsparingly with the " Rochester Code," and the 
results of its application. Mr. Fernald advocates the adoption of 
the Berlin rule for generic names, and " the so-called Kew rule of 
retaining the first specific name used under the accepted genus." 

Messrs. Roscoe Pound and F. E. Clements have issued a hand- 
some volume on the Phytor/fOf/raphy of Xehraska, embodying a 
general survey of " the result of nearly five years of active study 
of the floral covering of Nebraska, carried on by members of the 
Botanical Seminar in the Botanical Survey of the State : " it is 
" published by the Seminar " at Lincoln, Neb. The first edition 
of the work was issued in 1897, but the greater part of it was de- 
stroyed by fire. The work is of course mainly of local interest, 
but is very comprehensive ; the table of contents occupies four 
pages of small print, the main division being into five chapters — 
I. Physiognomy and Climatology; II. Statistics and Regional 
Limitations ; III. The Vegetation-Forms of the Flora ; IV. The 
Ecological and Biological Relations of the Natural Groups ; 
V. The Plant Formations : these headings, however, give no 
adequate idea of the amount and varied interest of the information 
contained in the volume. There is a very complete and rather 
extravagantly printed index of the plants referred to ; the nomen- 
clature is that of Britton and Brown's Illastrate'l Flora, and the 
objectionable innovation of trinominals is adopted. The conve- 
nience of the book for purposes of reference is greatly impaired by 
the absence of italics for the names of plants, the whole text being 
printed in excellent but uniform type; the inconvenience is inten- 
sified by the spelling of all specific names with a small initial letter. 

Under the auspices of the Scliweiz. botanisch. Gesell.-chaft, the 
elements of a great work on the Cryptogamic Flora of Switzerland 
are in course of publication. The composition of the several treatises 
being entrusted to acknowledged ex})erts, the completed work is likely 
to be of au exhaustive character. We have just received the second 
part of the first volume — Die Farnkrdiiter der Schweiz, by H. Christ 
(Bern : K. J. Wyss. 1900. Pp. 189 ; 28 figures in the text. Price 
i francs) — which is a monograph of all the vascular cryptogams of 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 191 

the country, with the exception of Equisetum, Lycopodiiim, Isoetes, 
and Selafjinella, an adequate census of which has not yet been 
made. i)r. Christ's contribution is divisible into three portions — a 
lengtliy introduction, a handy key to the genera and sptcies, aud a 
systematic arrangement of the phiuts. In this last we tind 23 
gener.i, 53 species, 119 varieties and subvarieties, some 19 hybrids, 
and 25 sports — a precision of treatment which mdicates the exhaus- 
tive manner iu whicli tlie author has dischar^'ed his task. Inter- 
spersed are plenty of critical notes and records of the distribution 
at home and abroad. The introduction atibrds much attractive 
reading on such matters as the existing collections of dried ferns 
in Switzerland and the published literature ; the variation and 
hybridization of the species ; the iufluence of locality, soil, and 
altitude; plant-associations, geographical distribution, and so forth. 

William Hodgson, who died at Workington, Cumberland, on 
March 27, was born at Raughtonhead Hill, near Dalstou, in the 
same county, on April 7, 1824. At the age of seventeen he became 
parish schoolmaster at Watermillock, and later tilled with much 
success a similar post at Aspatria. He was active in local politics 
in the Liberal interest, and in other ways was a useful member of 
the community. From a very early period Hodgson was interested 
in botany, and, largely owing to the encouragement of Mr. J. G. 
Baker, published in 1898 a Flora of Cumbedand, which was noticed 
at some length in this Journal for 1899 (pp. 184-6). At the time 
of his death he was engaged on an account of Cumberland plants 
for the "Victoria History " of the Enghsh counties. He was elected 
an Associate of the Linnean Society in 1884. 

Dr. Peter Cormack Sutherland, who was prematurely included 
in the Biographical List of BritisJi Botanists, died at Durban, Natal, 
on the 30th of last November. He was born at Latheron, Caith- 
ness, in 1822, and graduated at Aberdeen in his twenty-fifth year. 
In 1850-1 he went on the expedition in search of Franklin, and 
published a Journal of his voyage in 1852. In 1853 he went to 
the colony of Natal, where he shortly became Government Geolo- 
gist and (in 1855) Surveyor-General, a post which he held until his 
retirement in 1887. In Harvey's Flora Capensis he is mentioned 
as having sent " small but carefully selected collections made in 
various parts of his district during hasty professional visits ; in one 
of which expeditions he discovered Greijia Sutherlandi, one of the 
most remarkable of South-east African shrubs." According to the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, in which a fuller account of Sutherland is 
given, he "■ had the honour of initiating into the ways and customs 
of South African life " Mr. Cecil Rhodes, who resided with him for 
several months iu 1871, "before entering upon his great mission 
in life." Sutherland does not seem to have done any botany after this. 

We take the following notice of Mr. Arthur Coppen Jones, who 
died at Davos Platz on March 8th, from the British Medical 
Journal for March 30 (p. 806) :— 

" Mr. Coppen Jones was born in London thirty-five years ago. 
He studied at the Royal School of Mines, where he won the Forbes 
prize. He had been intended for a life of pure science, and he 



192 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

worked at comparative anatomy under Huxley. But his health 
broke down when he was about twenty, and he went to Davos on 
account, of })uhnonary tubercle, which after some years healed, and 
never troubled him again. In the meantime he had taken up the 
study of bacteriology under Koch at Berlin. The medical men of 
Davos were not slow to avail themselves of his service for bacterio- 
logical work and chemical examinations. In the course of his 
extensive work in this direction, the occurrence of branched forms 
of the tubercle bacillus and the occasional presence of club-shaped 
bodies suggested a relationship with actinomydes. To test this view 
he worked in some of the pathological laboratories of Germany. 
The outcome of his researches was embodied in a paper in the 
Centralblatt filr Baktefioloijie, 1895, Nos. 1 to 3. He advanced 
reasons for regarding the tubercle bacillus as a mould of fungus 
[sic] instead of as a bacterium, and in a later paper suggested 
the name * tuberculomyces.' The well-deserved recognition on 
the part of German bacteriologists of this careful piece of work 
stimulated Jones to further exertions. But he overtaxed his 
strength. While he was working in Zurich in 189G, symptoms of 
vesical tuberculosis appeared. Tliis distressing ailment more than 
once seemed likely to become quiescent, as the same disease in the 
lung had previously done ; but the restless energy of tiie patient 
and his devotion to work led again and again to fresh outbursts of 
activity. In spite of the great handicap such an illness inflicted, 
Jones translated Fischer's Structure ami Function of Bacteria for the 
Clarendon Press. Tlie translation, which appeared a few months 
ago, was very favourably received. Coppen Jones was a man of 
sterling worth, honest and painstaking in everything he did, and 
withal a good fellow." 

Charlotte Mary Yonge. the well-known Anglican writer, to 
whose list of Hampshire (Hursley and Otterbouriie) plants reference 
was made on p. 79, died at Otterbourne (where she was born on 
Aug. 11, 1827) on the 24th of March. Although not a botanist, 
Miss Yonge had much affection for and some knowledge of plants. 
The Herb i>f the Field, which first appeared in a little magazine 
then under Miss Yonge's editorship, was printed as a volume in 
1853, and again in 1858 ; it is a pleasant little book, in the style of 
which Miss Anne Pratt was a better known exponent. She also 
supplied the letterpress for a folio volume of plates (first printed 
abroad), entitled Lessons from the Vegetable Kingdom ; this was first 
published in Edinburgh in 1857, and went through several editions. 

The Daily ^ews has been indulging in botany, with the usual 
result. From its columns (April 17) we learn that "botanists 
regard the beautiful rambling hedge rose of our country lanes as 
the original stock whence all the delightful varieties of the double 
roses of our gardens sprang." We are also told that "railway 
travellers often mistake" the "yellow grouping" of the lesser 
celandine " for another gold dainty of early spriug, the gorse," 
and that " the elegant snowdrop grows in gleaming tufts in every 
hollow " ; and so on. 



-. rf^^^S 




198 



LIMONIUM LYCHNIDIFOLIUM var. COEYMBOSUM. 

By C. E. Salmon. 

(Plate 422.) 

Last August, as announced in this Journal for 1900, p. 483, 
Mr. 0. R. P. Andrews discovered this plant in Alderney, where he 
found it growing sparingly on low rocks by the sea, in company 
with FAmcndum, occidentale. This is a new record for the Channel 
Island Flora, although it is known to occur in many places on the 
west coast of France, and also in Normandy ; and it is possible 
that this striking and distinct-looking plant may be found in Great 
Britain itself. 

I have followed Dr. Kuntze in adopting the earlier name 
Limonium for the genus which appears in our books as Statice. 
The synonymy of the plant under description is as follows : — 

Limonium lychnidifolium 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Plant, ii. 395 
(1891). 
Statice auHcidcc-ursifoUa Pourr. in Act. Acad. Toul. iii. 330 

(1788), pro parte. 
8. auricuUefolia Benth. Cat. PI. Pyren. 123 (1826) pro parte 

et auct. pi., non Vahl. 
S. lychnidi folia Girard in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, xvii. 18 (1842). 

var. CORYMBOSUM. 

8. lychnidifolia /J conjmbosa Boiss. in DC. Prodr. xii. 647 
(1848). 

Girard' s original description of his lychnidifolia (omitting for 
the present Pourret's plant) was published in 1842, and may be 
translated : " Leaves more or less obovate, rather broadly acuminate, 
scurfy-pulverulent ; lowest >icale of the scape often differing from 
the upper ; branches stiffly erect, distichous ; spikes erecto-spreading, 
subcongested, rather dense ; inner bract exceeding the outer three 
times-''; calyx very obtusely 5-lobed; reproductive organs exserted; 
anthers oblong." 

In the long and careful account which follows, Girard further 
distinguishes his plant. I give what seem to be the most valuable 
specific characters in condensed form : — Plant 6-18 in. high ; rather 
robust. Root stout, woody. Leaves 2-4 in. long or more, ^-1 in. 
wide, more or less obovate, sometimes subrotund or obovate- 
lanceolate, rather broadly acuminate, subacute (usually tapering 
to an obtuse point); apiculate (or not); scaly; glaucous; petiole 
2-41 lines wide, longer (or shorter) than the blade ;^ 5-9-veined. 
Scape (tapering from base) branched in its upper third (oi* in its 
upper half). Scales usually varying in shape ; the lowest foliaceous, 
|-1| in. long, 1-6 lines wide, the others smaller (and decreasing to) 
2-3"hnes long^ 2 hnes wide, ovate-triangular, acuminate, with a 



* Probably by a printer's error, the words " inner " and " outer " have their 
positions reversed in his original description. 

Journal OF Botany.— Vol. 39. [June, 1901.] p 



194 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

scarious margin. Branches stiffly erect, 1-3 in. long (lowest ones, 
with spike, 2^-3 in. long) ; (panicle broadest about the middle) ; (no 
sterile lower branches). Spikes i-l in. long, dense-flowered, 
spreading, at first straight, then recurved. Spikelets 2-4- (3-5-) 
flowered ; not congested. Outer and middle bracts §-1^ lines long. 
Inner bract 2^-2^ lines long ; 3 (2^-2^-) times longer than the outer 
bract, Bracteoles (1-3 in each spikelet) a little shorter than inner 
bract, frayed at the apex, (slightly gibbous). Calyx with very 
obtuse short subrotund lobes ; tube rather hairy ; (teeth of veins 
short, broad-based, acute ; veins usually hairy, more copiously so 
near base, occasionally half-way up teeth). 

I have added in brackets certain variations from and additions 
to Girard's description ; these are the results of an examination of 
an undoubted example of I ijchnidi folium, in Herb. Brit. Mus. collected 
by Companyo in 1852 near Perpignan and Sainte-Lucie (Aude). 
(Fl. Gall, et Germ. Exsicc. C. Billot. No. 1053). 

The variety corymbosum was first described (under Statice 
lychnidifolia Gir.) by E. Boissier in De Candolle's Prodromus in 
1848, where we find this diagnosis: — " /?. corymbosa, panicula 
minus ramosa confertiore ramorum inferiorum elongatione sub- 
corymbosa." 

A close examination of Mr. Andrews's plant, which is, I think, 
best placed under this variety, gives the following further points of 
difference from true lyclinidifoUam : — Plant 8-10 in. high. Scape 
branched below the middle, often from quite close to its base. 
Branches (lowest) very long, 3-4f in. with spike, forming a broad 
panicle usually broadest above the middle and so rather corymbose ; 
very rarely 1-2 sterile lower branches. Spikes \-l in. long. Spike- 
lets 1-2-flowered, usually 2. (Jute)- bract l|-li lines long. Inner 
bract 2^ lines long, scarcely twice as long as outer. Bracteoles 1 in 
each spikelet (or in the 1 -flowered spikelets), strongly gibbous. 

L. lychnidlfolinm and its var. corymbosum may be distinguished 
from our other British species as follows : — 

L. occidentale 0. Kuntze (Statice occidentalis Lloyd) is a more 
slender plant with lanceolate- spathulate and smaller leaves (never 
so broad), 1-3- veined ; scales of the scape varying but little in size 
(about 4-1^ hues long), and never foliaceous ; spikes ascending- 
spreading, never horizontal or recurved nor so congested as in 
lychnidifolium ; teeth of calyx-veins longer, narrow and very acute. 
Mr. C. R. P. Andrews also noted that in his plant, when growing, 
the rich brown colour of the bracts showed up the scarious calyx m 
stronger contrast, as compared with the species in question. 

L. Dodartii 0. Kuntze {Statice Dodartii Girard) is nearer lychni- 
difolium, and is quite as robust ; it is distinguished by the stout 
scape, which hardly tapers at all from base to apex ; by its leaves, 
which are not so large, and which are rounded (or very obtusely 
pointed) at the apex, 3-5-veined; its spikes are rigidly erect, sub- 
vertical, never spreading or horizontal, and its panicle narrow and 
elongated; also the scales vary but little in size (about 2^-1 line long). 
I omit mention of the plant called intermedia by Syme, as this 
and forms near it require further study. 



"STATICE PUBESCENS SM." ' 195 

The earlier name for the species, Statice auricida-ursifolia of 
Pourret, cannot stand as a synonym of L. hjch)ddi folium without 
the words "pro parte " being added; in the British Museum Her- 
barium is a sheet from Pourret on which are specimens of both 
lijch nidi folium and Girardianum (Statice densijiora Girard), which 
seems to show that Pourret mcluded two plants in his description. 

I should be very grateful for the loan of any dried examples of 
British L. occideutale, Dodartii, and intermedium, for the study of 
this particular group of Limonium ; any fresh living specimens sent 
to " Clevelands," Reigate, Surrey, would also be extremely useful. 

I have to express my thanks to Mr. C. R. P. Andrews for notes 
on the finding of the plant, and to Mr. Britten for help given in the 
preparation of this paper. 

Explanation of Plate 422. 
Limonium lychnidifoliuin 0. Kuntze, var. corymbosum, natural size, drawn 
from an Alderney specimen:—!. Outer bract. 2. Middle bract. 3. Inner 
bract. 4. Bracteole. 5. Calyx. All enlarged four times. 



STATICE PUBESCENS Sm. 
By the Editor. 



Mr. Druce in the recently issued number of the Linnean 
Society's Journal'' follows Dr. Otto Kuntze in placing under 
Statice the Thrifts, which have usually been called Armeria, and 
in adopting Limonium for the Sea-Lavenders ; and in this change 
all who accept the rule of priority will concur. He recognizes 
three species as British, thus following Boissier, though with some 
hesitation, in regarding Armeria pubescens Link as entitled to specific 
rank. This view, so far as I have been able to ascertain, is not 
maintained by most British botanists, but the limits of a species 
are of course matters on which there will always be difterences of 
opinion : Mr. Druce's method of dealing with the subject, and his 
creation of "varieties or subvarieties " both of S. maritima and 
S. pubescens, does not, however, inspire confidence as to their claim 
to specific distinction. Meanwhile I think it is clear that if the 
latter is to figure in our lists as an independent species, it must 
do so under a name other than that given by Mr. Druce. 

Mr. Druce writes the name " S. pubescens, Sm. ex Schult. Syst. 
vi. 772." In the Inde,v Kewensis it stands ^' S. pubescens Sm. ex 
Schult. Syst. vi. 772 (cum cit. falsa) "—an important qualification 

* Botany, vol. xxxv. No. 242, pp. ^6, 67 (April, 1901). The present seems 
a suitable opportunity for expressing our regret that, owing to the non-publication 
of a note sent to this Journal in 1898, Mr. Druce should feel himself unable to 
contribute to our pages papers hke the present, which would thus be more 
accessible to British botanists than they can be in the Journal of a learned 
Society. It would, we are sure, be as satisfactory to the readers of this Journal 
as to its Editor if Mr. Druce could see his way to a renewal of the old relations 
between us. 

p 2 



196 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

which Mr. Druce ignores. Schultes (/. c.) writes " Statice Armeria 

Linn Smith Brit. i. p. 341. Engl, bot t. 226 (sub puhes- 

cente) " ; but in neither of the works cited does Smith employ the 
name pubescms. It will hardly be contended that Smith can be 
credited with the name on the authority of a false citation ; and it 
cannot be assigned to Schultes, who does not himself employ it. 

I do not know the date of ''Armeria piibescens Link in Repert. Nat. 
Cur. Berol. i. 180" — a reference to a work which neither Mr. Jackson 
nor Mr. Druce seems to have seen, and which is not in the library of 
the Natural History Museum ; but those who follow the rule of re- 
taining the first name given under the accepted genus will probably 
call the plant under discussion S. linear i folia Laterrade, Fl. Borde- 
laise, ed. 2, p. 189 (1821). The earliest edition to which I have 
access is the fourth (1846) ; in this S. Armeria var. pubescens DC. 
is cited as a synonym, and it is so placed (with a mark of certainty) 
by Godron (Fl. France, ii. 733), who adds, "nonRiedel." "Riedel" 
is probably a misprint for " Loisel " ; there was an earlier linear i- 
folia of Loiseleur (Fl. Galhca, 182 (1806)), but on a later page 
(723) of the same work, the author says: '' Statice linear if olia'^. 
non est species nova et distincta, sed vera S. Armeria Linn^ei." 

The synonymy of the plant as a species is : — 
Statice linearifolia Laterr. Fl. Bordelaise, ed. 2, p. 189 (1821). 

Armeria j^ubescens Link in 'Repert. Nat. Cur. Berol. i. 180' 
(? date) ; Boiss. in DC. Prodr. xii. 680 (1848). 

S. pubescens Druce in Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) xxxv. 76 (1901). 

Those who follow the rule of adopting the oldest trivial will 
retain the name pubescens (with, I presume, Mr. Druce as the 
authority) ; Mr. Druce has not adopted that rule in his treatment 
of Limonium, where he retains L. hjchnidifolium'''' for a plant which 
(under Statice) has an earlier trivial, as will be seen from Mr. 
Salmon's paper in the present number of this Journal (p. 193). 

I do not add under *S'. linearifolia the varieties named by Mr. Druce 
under S. pnbeMem, partly because I have not knowledge sufficient 
to enable me to arrive at a definite conclusion as to their value, but 
still more because the practice of transference on purely literary 
grounds can only increase synonymy, and seems prompted mainly 
by a desire to associate one's name with new combinations. I am 
sorry to see that Mr. Druce, in addition to the arrangement which 
he adopts for Statice, indicates an alternative which necessitates 
three fresh combinations, all duly set forward. A further and 
more striking example of this objectionable practice is found in 
the last report of the Botanical Exchange Club (p. 599), where 
Mr. Druce, having described a new variety of Buda media as "var. 
glandulosa mihi,'' continues : — " I have ventured to give it the above 
name, whether it be considered a variety either under the generic 



* It may be noted here that Limonium occidentale, for which Mr. Druce 
gives no authority, is so called by Dr. Kuntze on the same page for which 
L. lychnidifolium is cited. Mr. Druce does not tell us why he leaves L. Dodartii 
O. K. as a variety of auriculcefolium while he gives L. occidentale as a separate 
species: Mr. C. E. Salmon (see p. 193) considers the three plants distinct. 



QUEENSLAND ORCHIDS 197 

names Buda, Arenaria, Tissa, or Spciy/ulana, and, with the alteration 
of the terminal letter, under Lepu/onum or Urion, for it is blessed 
with an astomiding variety of synonyms." It would appear from 
this that Mr. Druce has here at one stroke created six combinations 
— or seven, for '^ Urion'' is of course a misprint for '^ Corioji," 
a generic name which cannot be used if 1753 be taken as the 
starting-point of nomenclature. Whichever be accepted, the re- 
mainder must, I presume, be cited by a future monographer as 
synonyms, unless such wholesale naming can be ignored by common 
consent. This proceeding, which has lately been suggested from 
Berlin, would be difficult if not impossible of execution ; we can only 
appeal to botanists to avoid a practice which, however gratifying to 
an individual, can only result in unnecessary additions to our already 
encumbered synonymy. 



QUEENSLAND OECHIDS. 
By a. B. Eendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

We are again indebted to Mr. J. Sparkes for two interesting 
Orchids which he has received from his correspondent in North 
Queensland, Mr. Arthur Owen Jones, J. P. The specimens will be 
found in the National Herbarium. 

The first is a form of Cijmbidiiim Sparkedi noh., received from 
the same source and described in this Journal for 1898 (p. 221). 
Like the type-specimens, it shows the longer ligulate perianth- 
leaves which is the chief distinction from its nearest ally, C. canali- 
culatiun E. Br., but approaches the latter in its less deep crimson 
colour and its crimson-spotted lip. 

The second is a new Dendrohium. 

Dendrobium (Stachyobium) Jonesii, sp. nov. Planta caulibus 
simplicibus 6-12-pollicaribus anguste fusiformibus teretibus pluri- 
vaginatis, basi subtumidis, apice specimine 4-foliatis; foliis anguste 
ellipsoideis basi angustatis apice breviter acutis ; racemis sub- 
terminalibus folia subsequantibus gracilibus nutantibus specimine 
12-floris, bracteis minutis ovatis obtusis ; floribus albidis, sepalis 
petalisque erecto-patentibus, subacutis, sepalo dorsali anguste tri- 
angulari, sep. lateralibus subfalcate-triangularibus, basi cum pede 
columnae mentum obtusum efficientibus ; petalis sepala fequantibus 
linearibus subacutis ; labello breviore concavo glabro transverse 
purpureo-striato, lobo terminali truncate subobtuso, lobis lateralibus 
brevibus obtusis, disco cum carina flava mediana instructo ; columna 
superne purpureo-maculata. 

Habit of D. gracilicaule, but a larger plant with stouter more 
fusiform stems 8-11 mm. in greatest diameter. Leaves about 
10 cm. long by 2-5-3 cm. broad. Fertile bracts brownish, mem- 
branous, 2 mm. long; flower-stalks 8 mm., white; ovary green, 
2 mm. long. Sepals 12 mm. long, the dorsal 3 mm., the lateral 
4 mm, broad at the base. Petals 1*7-8 mm. broad. Lip barely 



198 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

6 mm. long, 5*5 mm. greatest breadth when flattened, terminal 
lobe 1-25 mm. long by 4-75 mm. broad. Column 3 mm. long, foot 
8-5 mm. Anther-cap rounded, poUinia deep yellow, cohering in 
pairs. Mr. Sparkes says : •* Sometimes, usually early in the day it 
is very sweet-scented, later no trace of scent is to be perceived." 

Nearly allied to D. gracilicaule F. Muell., but apparently a 
larger plant with stouter more fusiform stems, cream-coloured 
flowers and sepals not spotted, more pointed perianth-leaves, and 
narrower petals. The lip also has shorter lateral lobes, and the 
disc bears a single, not a trilamellate keel. D. gracilicnule has a 
more southern subtropical distribution, occurring in New South 
Wales and as far north as Moreton Bay, in Queensland ; the present 
species is well within the tropics. 

I). Jonesii is evidently closely allied to, and may be identical 
with, D. gracUicauU var. Howeamon Maiden (in Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, xxiv [errore xxv] , 1899, 382), from Lord Howe Island. 
This agrees in the stouter stem and the colour of the flowers, but 
the author makes no mention of any differences in form and size of 
sepals, petals, and lip. 

Hab. Near Geraldton, Johnstone Eiver, North-east Queensland, 
A. Owen Jones, Esq., J. P. 

Flowered by Mr. J. Sparkes at Ewhurst, Surrey, January, 1901. 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETON. 
By Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1900, p. 130.) 

Potamogeton fluitans Roth. The following extract from Roth's 
Catalecta Botanica (fasc. 1, p. 31, 1797) will show that Schreber's 
specimens in the Munich Herbarmm are, as I supposed, the plant of 
Roth: *^ Potamogeton Jill itans foliis inferioribus longissimis, lanceo- 
latis, acuminatis, membranaceis ; superioribus ovali-lanceolatis, 
cariaceis omnibus petiolatis. Pioth, Fl. Germ. torn. 1, pag. 72; 
tom. 2, pars 1, pag. 202, no. 2. Prope Erlnngam etiam obser- 
vavit 111. Praes. de Schreber.'" 

To the best of my belief these specimens represent the plant 
accepted by European botanists as the plant of Roth. 

P. poLYGONiFOLius Pour. In his account of this plant (as P. 
ohlongus Viv.) in Linnaea, ii. 216 (1827), Chamisso says: " Hujus 
loci forsitan est : Potamogeton de St. Pierre Miguelon pres Terre- 
neuve in Herb. Brongniart, sed major." Since that time I know 
of no record of the species from the American continent. Specimens 
allied to it occur in Chili!, Uruguay!, Argentina!, &c., but they 
are not the same. I have not seen Brongniart's specimen, and 
Dr. Morong does not include polygunifoUus in his N. American 
XaiadacecB ; but, from the occurrence of Calluna in Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland, I have been expecting to hear of its occurrence in 
Canada. Prof. Macoun has now sent me specimens from Sable 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETON 199 

Island, about a hundred miles from the coast of Nova Scotia, just 
such as one might gather on a Scottish moor. 

Sable Island is some two hundred and seventy-five miles from 
the Isle of Miguelon and St. Pierre, off Newfoundland ; the next 
nearest points in which it has been gathered are, I believe, the 
Azores (about fifteen hundred miles), Madeira, and the Canaries. 
On Sable Island the plant occurs in shallow pools where water was 
deeper earlier in the spring ; indeed, in some places the pools were 
almost dry. It was the common species in the shallow or (nearly) 
dried up pools. Lobelia Dortrntmna, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and 
MyriophyJlum teneUum. occurred with it. In a deep pool on the 
island there also occurred F. perfoiiatiis L., P. pectinatus f. pseudo- 
marimis Ar. Benn., P . pennsijlvanicus Qih^^in., and P. pusUlnsJj. var. 
capitatns Ar. Benn. 

I hope the plant will now be searched for, particularly by 
botanists in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Originally Sable 
Island consisted of two adjacent islets, but it is now, according to 
Prof. Macoun, merged into one, and is "a bank of sand about 
twenty-one miles long, and from one hundred yards to one and a 
half mile in width. The lagoon that receives the sea-water is 
about nine miles long ; at the point where the lagoon ends is a 
sand-bank, which shuts off the lagoon from a series of pools of 
fresh water which were certainly part of the lagoon long ago." 

P. LUCENS L. var. Connecticutensis Kobbius. Dr. Morong, when 
sending me specimens after the publication of his monograph, wrote, 
"I think this should go rather to P. Zizii than to luceiis," and in 
this I entirely agree. It will stand as P. Zizii Koth var. Con- 
necticutensis MoroDg in litt. = P. angustifoliiis Bercht. & Presl. var. 
Connecticutensis mihi. 

P. Faxoni Morong, Naiad. N. Amer. (Mem. Torr. Club, iii. 22 
(1893) ). The plant here described by Dr. Morong as a new species 
was named by its finder " P. rufescens?"; others suggested F. 
lonchites, and in this Journal for 1890, 301, I suggested it might 
be a hybrid. It was afterwards found that specimens of rufescens, 
lonchites, and a third doubtful plant had been distributed as if the 
same. The plant seemed to approach lonchites on one side, and, 
though less nearly, rufescens on the other. When specimens were 
first sent me by Dr. Morong, I suggested to him it was possibly 
Claytonii X rufescens [alpinus). Further specimens did not support 
the affinity with rufescens, but I still have some difficulty in re- 
garding them as distinct from Io7ichites, and am still of opinion 
that the two specimens first sent are different from all those sent 
later, and that the upper leaves very closely resemble those of P. 
Claytonii Tuck. In its submerged leaves lonchites has a wide range 
of variation — in some specimens leaves 13 in. x i in., in others 
15 in. X li in. ; the latter form will likely enough some day be 
suggested as lonchites x amplifoUus Tuck. 

P. nitens Weber ?. Prof. Macoun sends me specimens of two 
remarkable plants collected by Mr. W. Scott in 1897 at Navy 
Island, and at Queenstown, Ontario. Although unlike in habit, I 



200 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

believe them to belong to the same form, which, I think, must be 
referred to P. nitens, but in a form not found in Europe, as they 
are probably produced by the var. Fiichanlsonii of perfoliatus, the 
leaves being elongated in the same proportion, and so much longer 
than any European form of nitens. Not only this, but one of 
these specimens assumes the closely branched habit of that var. of 
perfoliatus, with the dark and shining colour of nitens. 

The Rev. E. J. Hill sends me, from " St. Mary's River (in deep 
water), often 6 ft. long; Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, U.S.A.," a 
plant that I am unable to refer to any other than nitens Web. ; in 
fact, it bears a remarkable resemblance to Dr. Scully's specimens 
from Kerry, Ireland. Mr. Hill writes that it grows in deep water 
with strong current. There are two or three spikes of flowers, and 
these show the closed state usual in nitens. If Macoun's plant is a 
product of the elongated leafed form of perfUiatus v. Piichanhonii 
(often 4J in.), this will perhaps be the case with the intermediate 
form, which seems absent in Europe. Forms approaching the 
American have been sent so named, but I have not been able to 
convince myself they are so. 

I have seen }ntens from the following localities in North America : 
Wenham, Mass. (one specimen identical with some of Nolte's 
Schleswig-Holstein specimens) ; Indian River, Millsboro', Dela- 
ware, 1885, A. Conimaiis; and the stations already given from Rev. 
E. J. Hill and Prof. Macoun. 

P. DiMORPHus Rafin. (P. Spirillus Tuck.) A very interesting 
extension of the distribution of this species has been sent me by 
the Rev. 0. Hagstrom ; specimens from Brazil gathered by Dr. 
Lindman in 1892. In the United States, I do not know of it south 
of Virginia (about 35° N. lat.), whence I have specimens ; but the 
allied species, F. diversif alius Rafin. (P. hijbridus Michx.), ranges 
soath to San Luis Potosi, Mexico ! (25° N. lat.) on the west, and to 
Cuba ! on the east of the continent. It is possible that when the 
intervening countries are more thoroughly examined one or the 
other of these species will be discovered. In the British Museum 
Herbarium is a specimen, " Bahia Blanca. B. Ayres, Argentina, 
1884. M. G. Mansel, R.N.," which is allied to P. amplifolius 
Tuck., but the lower (middle) leaves are tapering into the petiole. 
Further specimens would perhaps connect the two, and prove 
another interesting extension. P. amplifolius occurs south to 
Forida, Chapman, 1844 ! (as P. natans). 

P. AcuTiFOLius Link. In Schreber's herbarium at Munich are 
specimens of this plant labelled "Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Muhlen- 
berg." I asked Dr. Morong his opinion of this ; he replied that he 
thought there was a mistake in the label. He wrote further : " Dr. 
Porter, of Lafayette College, has been all over that region, and two 
keen- sighted students of ours have been fishing in these waters for 
the last two years ; none of them has found this species, or my 
Hillii, P. zosterifolins occurs in the region, as well as further 
north." There is no question that the specimen is acutifolitis, and, 
although perhaps some transference of labels may have taken 
place, it would be well for American botanists to keep it in mind. 



NOTES ON POTAMOaKTON 201 

P. ANGusTiFOLius Bercht. & Presl (P. ZUi Roth). Prof. Macoim 
sends from Ontario, collected by Mr. W. Scott, a very interesting 
form of what appears to be the above plant. It is a characteristic 
specimen showing the lower leaves of liicens (or rather longifolins), 
and the floating ones of heterophyllus. Dr. Morong gives "" leaves 
(submerged) 2-6 in. long," but these are 12 in. and over, though 
the floating leaves are only those of fine heterophyllus. 

P. PUsiLLus L. var. nov. capitatus. This was sent me by Prof. 
Macoun from Sable Island, and I have also specimens from the 
" Spallumsheen River, British Columbia, 10.7.1889, leg. J. M. 
Macoun," which I had wrongly referred to my var. elongatus. The 
present variety differs from the usual form of P. pusilhis by the 
long and exactly linear leaves, tapering only at the extreme end, 
the prominent medial nerve, the long and very slender peduncles 
(the heads of flowers at a short distance looking as though they 
are elevated above the plant without any peduncle), and the extra- 
ordinary long hafts to the sepals (perianth-segments) ; these are as 
long and often longer than the segment itself (the usual state being 
something like a sixth of the segment) ; and the fruit-stems ap- 
proach in character to those of my P. Aschersoiiii rather than the 
usual form of pusilhis. 

P. PUSILLUS L. var. nov. pseudo-rutilus. Habit of P. rutilus 
Wolfg., but with nearly the fruit of pusillus. Leaves linear attenuate, 
rigid, spreading, central nerve prominent, laterals almost obsolete ; 
stipules appressed to the stem, in the upper branches all as long as 
the internodes ; apical propagating-buds abundant ; peduncles one 
mch ; spikes dense-flowered. Differs from any form of pusilhis 
known to me by its extreme rigidity, and the leaves all spreading 
like a fan, by the substance of the leaf being nearly taken up by the 
central nerve, by the strong and appressed stipules, and its likeness 
to rutilus in habit. 

Lake Scugog, Ontario, Canada, 1897, W. Scott, ex Prof. Macoun • 
Wolf Lake, Indiana, U.S.A., 1900, Bev. E. J. Hill. 

P. cRispus L. Since the publication of the North American 
Naiadacem this species has been found in Canada. Morong over- 
looked the fact that Pursh gives it from " Canada to Virginia " in 
his Fl. Am. Sept. 120, 1814, marking it ''v v." as having seen a 
hvmg specimen, and referring to Curtis's Fl. Lond. and Flora 
Banica, t. 927. At a meeting of one of the American Botanical 
Societies, Dr. Morong noted that it had been found in Arizona 
(Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 1886, 171) ; here he considered it had been 
introduced by birds. The oldest dated American specimen I can 
find in England is in Mr. Cosmo Melvill's herbarium, "Phila- 
delphia, 1841-2, Gavin Watson & Kilvington." One from Delaware 
in the British Museum Herbarium is probably older ; it was 
collected by R. Eglesfeld Griffith, of Philadelphia, whose name is 
not in Prof. Harshberger's volume on Philadelphia botanists. Prof. 
Macoun now sends it from lakes at Niagara. 

(To be continued.) 



THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
XXVII. — The Dates of Humboldt and Bonpland's *' Voyage." 

So much difficulty is found by workers in ascertaining the dates 
of books which have been publisiied in parts, that we do not hesi- 
tate to place on record the results of an effort to elucidate the 
periods of the actual publication of the zoology and botany of the 
Voyatje aux regions eqiiinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, &C., by 
Humboldt and Bonpland. With the exception of the two parts of 
the Monoyraphia Melastomaceanim, dealing respectively with the 
MelastovKB and Pihexie(B, our account is fairly complete ; anyone 
possessing the unbound livraisons will confer a favour on us and 
on others by filling up the gaps which remain in our list. 

The brief account of the zoology has already appeared in the 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, for 1899, but as we are able to add to the 
information there given, we reprint it here, in order that the record 
for the whole work may be, as far as possible, complete. 

ZOOLOGIE (Recueil d' Observations de). 
This book was issued in livraisons as follows : — 

Vol. I., Uvr. 1, pp. 1-46 {& 47, 48), 1805, forming pp. 1-25 of 2nd issue. 

2, 49-104, 1807, „ 26-64 

3, 105-196, 1807, ,, 65-12(5 

4, 197-293, 1809, „ 127-200 & 253-259 of 

2nd issue. 
5 & 6, 294-412, 1809, „ 261-297 & 201-252 & 

298-809 of 2nd issue. 

A break then occurred until 1812, when livraison 7 was issued, 
with the following " Avis " on a loose slip of paper : — " Avec cette 
Livraison, qui terminera le premier volume des Observations de 
Zoologie et d'Anatomie comparee, on fournit aux Abonnes un 
nouveau texte pour la totalite de ce volume. On a cru devoir faire 
ce sacrifice, afin que cet ouvrage resemblat, pour le caractere et le 
papier, a toutes les autres parties du Voyage de M. de Humboldt. 
Les Acquereurs pourront faire relier ce volume ; ils rendront tout 
le texte des livraisons precedentes, dont il ne conserverout que les 
planches." Fortunately for nomenclature, the British Museum 
(Natural History) secured some years ago a parcel of odd parts, 
which prove to be a complete set of the first issue ; these are 
properly cared for, and are of considerable interest. 

The completion of the work dates as follows : — 

Livr. 7, pp. 305-368 (with reprint of pp. 1-412 of 1st issue, forming 
pp. 1-309 of 2nd issue), 1812 (title-page dated 1811), 
Bibl. Fran?. 7, viii. 1812. 
Vol. II., livr. 8, 1-64, 1813 (Bibl. Fran?. 2, i, 1813). 

9, 65-96, 1813 ( ,, 24, ix, 1813). 

10, 97-144, 1817 ( „ 13, xii, 1817). 

}M 145-224, J821 1 ( „ 15. ix, 1821). 

13, 225-256, 1827 ( „ 17, i, 1827). 



14 9^7 R^2 1832 1^ " 15, xii, 1832). 

14, 257-352, 1832 | (Title-page dated 1833). 



THE DATES OF HUMBOLDT AND BONPLAND S "VOYAGE 



208 



BOTANIQUE. 
Plantes 6QUIN0XIALES ^'= I— VII, 234; 191, Pref. dated 1805. 



Livr. 1, 




sheets, pp. 1-8, 


2 pis 


J.Gen. Litt. Fr., viii (5) 131. 


1805. 


2, 




9-88, 


10 




viii (8) 229. 


1805. 


3, 




39-72, 


10 




ix (6) 161. 


1806, 


4, 




73-106, 


11 




ix(10)291. 


1806. 


5, 




107-138, 


9 




x (4) 101. 


1807. 


c, 




139-170, 


9 




xi (1) 2. 


1808. 


7, 




171-202, 


49-57 




xi (2) 34. 


1808. 


8, 




203-232, 


58-65 




xi (4) 98. 


1808. 


Vol.11. 9, 


T.P 


. to vol. ii., double 












frontispiece, & 1-20, 


66-68 




xi(ll)323. 


1808. 


10, 
11, 




21-36, 


74&81 




xii (2) 34. 


1809. 


12, 
13, 


already published -88, 


Bibliographie Fran(;'ais, 22 Nov. 


1811. 


14, 


[4] 


89-104, 


106-113 


,, 


16 Ap. 


1812. 


15, 


5 


105-124, 


8 


,, 


12 Feb. 


1813. 


16, 


7 


125-152, 


8 


^^ 


1 Oct. 


1813. 


17, 


10 


(end) 153-191, 


11 


M 


,, 21 June 


1817. 


Melastomace^ : — Melastomes, 


VI, 146 ; 


Rhexies, II, 160. 






Preface dated 1806 ; of II, dated 1823. 




Livr. 1, 




(Melast.) 








1806. 


2, 
3, 




(Rhex.) 








? 

9 


4, 




(Me'last.) pp. -18, 


5-9 pis 


J. Gen. Litt. Fr. x (4) 101. 


1807. 


5, 




19-34, 


10-15 




X (7) 194. 


1807. 


6, 




35-43, 


16-20 




x(ll)323. 


1807. 


7, 




(Bhex.) -40, 


-15 




xi (5) 131. 


1808. 


8, 




„ 41-56, 


16-20 




xi (9) 258. 


1808. 


9, 
10, 




(Melast.) 44- 






xii (8) 228. 


1809. 


11, 
12, 


2 


!! -80, 


4 


Bibl. 


Fran?. 22 Nov. 


1811. 


13, 


4 


81-96, 


5 




26 June 


1812. 


14, 


3 


(Rhex.) 57-68, 


5 




9 Oct. 


1812. 


15, 


3 


69-80, - 


5 




22 Jan. 


1813. 


16, 


3 


81-92, 


5 




, 11 June 


1813. 


17, 


3 


(Melast.) 97-108, 


5 




13 May 


1815. 


18, 


6 


109-l;32, 


4 




3 Aug, 


1816. 


19, 


4 


133-end, 


5 




26 Oct. 


1816. 


20, 


3^ (Ehex.) 93-104, 


5 




21 Mar. 


1818. 


21, 


4 


105-120, 


6 




1 July 


1820. 


22, 


4 


121-136, 


5 




28 Ap. 


1821. 


23, 


3 


137-146, 


5 




5 July 


1823. 


24, 


H 


147-end, 


5(Fer.,Bull.l82 


3,iv,53);„30Aug. 


1823. 


In the 


Gott. gelehrt. Anz. 


1809, p. 1777, Melas 


^omes, pp. 1-46, pis 


. 1-20, 


and Ehexies 


pp. 1-40, pis. 1-15, are reviewed as 180 


3-1808, 








Nova Genera et Species Pla 


NTARUM. 




This consists of seven 


volumes. 


as follows 


: — 






Vol. I, Iviii, 377 ; 


Pref. dated 1815. 


55 shts,, 96 pis. 








II, 406 ; 


T.P. „ 


1817. 


51 „ 96 „ 








III, 456 ; 


T.P. „ 


1818. 


57 „ 108 „ 








IV, 312; 


T.P. „ 


1820. 


39 „ 112 „ 








V, 432 ; 


T.P. „ 


1821. 


54 „ 103 „ 








VI, 542 ; 


T.P. „ 


1823. 


58 „ 93 „ 








VII, 506 ; 


T.P. „ 


1825. 


36 „ 104 „ 





* The dates of the parts are followed by the authority for these, when 
known. 



au4 


t 








THK JOURNAT, OF BOTAN1 










The dates of the parts are :- 


— 










ivr. 1, 
2, 


]u 


shts 


. Vol 


. I, PP 1- 


44 pi 


5. 




Bibl. Franc,'., 


3 Feb. 1816. 


3, 


20 










25 






M 


2 May 1816. 


4, 


251 










27 






,, 


31 Aug. 1816. 


"4, 


'13i 




Vol 


11, 


pp. 1- 


25 






,» 


3 May 1817. 


0, 


18 










25 






1, 


13 Dec. 1817. 


7, 


17 










22 








28 ^eb. 1818. 


8, 


50 










34 [? 


24] 




,, 


6 June 1818. 


9, 


20 




Vol 


III 


PP- 1- 


25 






J, 


3 Oct. 1818. 


10, 


19 










15 






j^ 


13 Feb. 1819. 


11, 


19 










25 






,, 


17 July 1819. 


12, 


18 










25 






,j 


27 Nov. 1819. 


13, 


15 










f) 






^^ 


11 Mar. 1820. 


14, 


14 




Vol 


(111,417-456) 
IV, 1-72 J 


25 






,, 


15 Ap. 1820. 


15, 


16 






pp. 73-152 


25 


326-340 


,, 


27 May 1820. 


16, 


12 










24 






jj 


22 July 1820. 


17, 


12 










24 






,, 


16 Sept. 1820. 


18, 


9 










13 






>) 


24 Dec. 1820. 


19, 


16 




Vol 


V, 


pp. 1- 


24 






>J 


26 May 1821. 


20. 


14 










24 








29 Sept. 1821. 


21, 


16 










20 






,, 


23 Feb, 1822. 


22, 


15 










20 








29 June 1822. 


23, 


251 








305-encl 


15 


Fer 


Bull. 


1823, h, 84; „ 


22 Mar. 1823 


24, 


28 




Vol 


VI 


pp. 1-72 


37 






„ „ 472 




19 Ap. 1823 


25, 


17 








73-178 


15 






„ iv, 55 




30 Aug. 1823. 


26, 


15 








179-240 


15 






ii, 1824, 45 




24 Jan. 1824. 


27, 


16 








241-320 


17 






ii, „ 165 




24 Ap. 1824. 


28, 


15 








321-392 


10 






V, 1825, 71 




21 Aug. 1824 


29, 


15 










15 






,, 


4 Sept. 1824. 


30, 


13 




Vol 


VI] 


, pp. l-5(') 


15 




,, 


iv, „187f.n.„ 


13 Nov. 1824 


31, 


16 










15 






Bibl. Franc., 


25 Dec. 1824 


32, 


16 










15 






jj 


19 Feb. 1825. 


33, 


15 










15 






M 


14 May 1825. 


34, 


15 










15 








18 June 1825 


35, 


15 










18 






»» 


30 July 1825 


36, 


29 








-506 


10 






»J 


3 Dec. 1825 




[The sheeting 


of the French records 


is a 


L mystery to both of us.] 










MiMosEs :— T.P. 1819 ; 


pp. 


233. 






Livr 


1, 


3^ 


sheets, pp. 1-4, 


5 pis 


] 


Bibl. Frano., 12 June 


1819. 






2, 


3 




5-16, 


5 






25 Sept. 


1819. 






3, 


3 




17-28, 


5 






18 Dec. 


1819. 






4, 


3 




29-40, 


5 






22 Ap. 


1820. 






5, 


3 




41-52, 


5 






29 July 1820. 






6, 


5 




53-72, 


5 






15 Dec. 


1820. 






7, 


3 




73-84, 


5 






15 June 1821. 






8, 


3 




85-96, 


5 






3 Nov. 


1821. 






9, 


3 




97-108 


5 






12 Jan. 


1822. 






10, 


3 




109-120 


5 






20 July 


1822. 






11, 


5 




121-140 


3 






26 July 


1823. 






12, 


5 




141-160 


5 






24 Jan. 


1824. 






13, 


6 




161-184 


2 






15 May 


1824. 






14, 


10 




185-223 


2 






3 July 


1824. 












Synopsis Plantarum. 










Tom. 


I, 


31i sheets. 


Bibl. 


Frane., 


14 Dec. 1822. 












II, 


33| 




,, 




L9 Ap. 1823. 












III, 


3U „ 




^, 




6 Mar. 1824. 












IV, 


33^ „ 




». 




4 Feb. 182 


6. 





THK DATES OK HUMBOLDT AND BONPLAND's " VOYAGE " ' 205 

Kevision des Gkaminees :— I, T.P., 1829. II (plates) 
T.P. dated 1835. 

Livr. 1, r, sheets, pp. 1-16, 5 pis. Bibl. Franc., jif ^'^^*'- 1829. 

o i 1^ ^o . '(21 Feb. 1829. 

^' i IJi^' '! " 11 Ap. 1829 



3, 

5, 4 

6, 4 

7, 4 

8, [4J 

9, 4 
10 



23, 4 



RAMINEES : 1, 


T.P., 


T.P. dated 


1835. 


pp. 1-16, 


5 pis. 


17-32, 


5 


33-48, 


5 


49-64, 


5 


65-80, 


5 


81-96, 


5 


97-120, 


5 


121-136, 




137-152, 


5 


153-168, 


6 


169-184, 


5 


185-200, 


5 


201-216, 


5 


217-232, 


5 


233-252, 


5 


253-272, 


5 


273-292, 


5 


293-308, 


5 


309-324, 


5 


325-340, 


5 


341-356, 


5 


357-374, 


5 


375-386, 


5 


387-398, 


5 


399-410, 


5 


411-422, 


5 


423-434, 


5 


435-446, 


5 


447-458, 


5 


459-474, 


5 


475-486, 


5 


487-498, 


5 


499-510, 


5 


511-522, 


5 



2 May 1829. 

6 June 1829. 

4 July 1829. 
22 Aug. 1829. 
19 Sept. 1829. 



4 f«"lfi« « " 11 Nov. 1829. 

12 4 }«?"J^' r " '^0 Jan. 1830. 

Jo' I 185-200, 5 „ 13 j^eb. 1830. 

J!' 1 '-^Ol-^l^' 5 „ 13 Mar. 1830 

J!' i ^17-232, 5 „ 27 Mar. 1830 

]u' I 233-252, 5 „ 8 May 1830 

v' ? ^.3-272, 5 „ 5 June 1830 

18' 4 ISIo'l' - " 12 June 1830. 

22; 4 3l-1i: . " ys?-^??? 



11 Dec. 1830. 



^^' ^ 375-386, 5 „ 25 T>po iR^(\ 

If I ^B7-B98, 5 ;; f2'?etJ8l?: 

'^6 ^ 5??iP,' 2 " 26 Feb. 1831. 

2?' 3 tJ1!?' f " 18 June 1831. 

£' ^ ^23-434, 5 „ 25 June 1831. 

20' 3 Al'tt' '5 " 2'^ July 1831. 

' ' ^ 447-458, o . « A no- -^QQ^ 

3?' I i??-f^' '^ '' 17Se"^t.8l: 

S' ? II^!f' ^ " 22 Oct. 1831. 

33' 3 slUfn 5 " 12 Nov. 1831. 

3!' 3 i??"?5 5 " 10 Dec. 1831. 

' 'j11-o22, o ,, 31 r)pp ^oo^ 

35, [Counted as issued with 40] ^' ^^^^• 

3 ??fr^i' ? " ''5 ^^-^y 1832 

o .f^"?^^' '^ " 26 May 1832 

^*'' 3 547-558, 5 „ o jn/p ^009 

39, 3 559-570 - " .:!'!""" ^??2 



37' 3 ?Si!^' ? " 5 May 1832. 

38 3 S7IS' S' " 26 May 1832. 

^^; ^ ^^^-' ; '; 23Sn:l?^^- 

il ' 571-578 (d^ T.P.) 10 ;; lljulyim 

42' 

43,' f 21i 579-end, 21 „ 22 Mar. 1834. 

44, 



C. Davie s Sherborn. 
B. B. Woodward. 

[The following notes on the dates of publication of the botanical 
portions of some French voyages, contributed by the same authors 
to the Aimah and Magazine of Natural History for April last, may 
be appended to the above paper.] 

'Voyage aux Indes orientales .... pendant .... 1825-29 
pubhee .... par M. C. Belanger.' 
Botanique. 
Livr. 2 & 3 were issued in 1834 (Bibl. Frany.), but apparently consisted of 
St Vin^n^''^^^^'-- ??> '.' CyPtogamie," by Belanger and Bory de 
bt. Vincent, according to Pritzel, seems to have been issued in 1846. 



206 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

' Voyage au Pole Sud et dans rOceanie sur les Corvettes TAstrolabe 
et la Zelee, execute .... pendant .... 1837-40, sous le 
commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville,'. &c. 

Botanique. 2 vols. 

I. Plantes cellulaires. 1845. Bibl. Fran?. 16 Aug. 1845. 
II. Plantes vasculaires. 1853. Wiegmann, Arehiv, 1855, ii. 372. 
Geologic. The Atlas of Geology, which was issued in 1847 (Bibl. Fran?. 
23 Jan. 1847), contained 5 pis. of fossils named by Orbigny — they are 
" nomen et figura," since no descriptions were published. 

* Voyage autour du Monde execute pendant .... 1836 et 1887 sur 

. . . . ' la Bonite,' commandee par M. Vaillant,' &c. 

Botanique. Par M. Gaudichaud. 
Introduction. 8vo. 1851. 
Explication et description des planches de I'Atlas par C. d'Alleizette. 

186 pp. 1866. 
Cryptogames. 355 pp. 1846. Bibl. Franc,^ 7 Nov. 1846. 

Note. — The whole of the tJryptogams appeared in 1846 ; Montague, in 
the preface, says that the complete MS. was sent to the editor in 
Dec. 1843, that some proofs were sent by him to Berkeley in 1844, 
who published extracts therefrom ; but the work was not issued 
till 1846. 
Atlas. 150 pis. [1846-49?] 

* Voyage autour du Monde .... sur .... la Coquille pendant 

.... 1822-25 . . . .' Par L. J. Duperry, &c. 



Botanique. 






Livr. 1. 6 


sheets. Crypt, pp. 


, 1- 48. Bibl. Franv. 12 Sept. 1827. 


2. 6 




49- 96. 26 Dec. 1827. 


3. 5 




97-136. 16 Feb. 1828. 


4. 8 




137-200. 3 Jan. 1829. 


5. 6 




201-2.50. 8 Aug. 1829. 


6. 6^ 




251-300^ 14 Nov. 1829. 


7. 5 


Phan. 


1- 40. 1 Aug. 1829. 


8. 6 




41- 88. 2 Apr. 1831. 


9. 2 




89-104. 2 July, 1831. 


10. 4 




105-136. 10 Mar. 1832. 


11-14. 8J 




137-200. 12 July, 1834. 


Voyage autour du Monde . 


. . . execute sur I'Uranie et la 


Physicienne, pendant . 


. . . 1817-20 . . . .' Par M. 


L. de Freycinet. 




Botanique. Par M. C. Gaudichaud. Alg», by Agardh ; Fungi, by Persoon. 


jivr. 1. 6 sheets, 
2.5 


pp. 1-48. Bibl. Fran?. 25 Oct. 1826.) j,, ^.. ■ ,007 
49- 88. 27 Dec. 1826.r^';n ' 


3.5 


89-128. 


24 Feb. 1827.) ^""'' 


4.5 


129-168. 


13 June, 1827. Ibid. xii. 233. 


5.6 


169-216. 


12 Sept. J827. Ibid. xiii. 1828, 75. 


6.6 


217-264. 


23 Feb. 1828. Ibid. xiii. 1828, 418. 


7.6 


265-312. 


16 Aug. 1828.) 
27 Dec. 1828. Ij,.^ .7 
18July, 1829.t^''''^•'^''•'^^• 
12 Sept. 1829. J 


8.6 

9. 4 (? 5) 


313-360. 
361-400. 


10. 4 


401-432. 


11.4 


433-464. 


28 Sept. 1829. ) ..-. ■■■ 70 
6 Mar. 1830. p^^*^- ^^"^- ^^^ 


12. 7i 


465-522. 



207 



BOTANICAL EXCHANGE CLUB REPORT, 1899. 

[The following are among the more interesting notes published in 
the above-named Report, which was issued on March 28, and is edited 
by the Rev. W. R. Linton, the distributor for 1899.— Ed. Journ. Box.] 

Ranunculus scoticus Marshall. Traheen's Lough, Achill Island, 
W. Mayo, 23rd June, 1899. Just my Scotch pctiolaris, and growing 
in a similar situation, on the stony margin of the lake. It seems to 
fruit much more freely than li. FlaiiwuUa. The first certain record 
for Ireland. — E. S. Marshall. '* Herr Freyn {B. E. C. Rep. 1898, 
p. 564, 1900) refers this to Wallroth's var. am/ustifolms {Sched. Crit. 
1822, p. 288). I cannot agree with him. I have grown the plant 
for several years side by side with a form of Flanwmla, and the 
specimens grown by me and seen by me in no way agree with 
Wallroth's description. See note in Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist. 1894, 
p. 51. The variability of B. Flammula is, I know, great, but I am 
inclined to think scoticus a subspecies." — A. Bennett. 

Arabis ciliata R. Br. var. Jiispida Syme ? Origin, Cong, E. Mayo ; 
garden, Milford, 6th July, 1899. This is the only Arabis that I 
have observed on the limestone about Clonbur and Cong, whence 
I originally brought roots during the winter of 1894-5° It has 
since seeded and spread freely in my garden, keeping remarkably 
constant. The stem-leaves are not auricled, but truncate, and it 
seems different from our A. hirsuta of S. England, agreeing better 
with book descriptions of A. ciliata var. hispida Syme, of which I 
have not seen authentic specimens. If this suggestion proves to be 
correct, no doubt a good deal of Irish (probably also of Scotch) 
A. hirsuta will rank with it. The differences from typical hirsnta 
appear to be rather subspecific than specific. — E. S. Marshall. 
'* We consider this is A. hirsuta, which is distinguished from 
A. ciliata and its var. by the root-leaves being more stalked, the 
pods longer and narrower, and the seeds (fourteen to the inch) more 
scattered. These features are conspicuous in Mr. Marshall's plant " 
E. F. L. and W. R. L. 

Erophila virescens Jordan (capsulis angustioribus). Milford, 
Surrey, 8rd and 17th April, 1899. This whitlow grass, which I 
have observed about Milford for several years, agrees well with 
Jordan's type-specimens, figure, and description of his K. virescens, 
except in having narrower capsules with a more wedge-shaped base! 
It is remarkable for its brii/ht green, fleshy, glabrescent leaves! 
usually appressed to the ground in a regular rosette, and is a very 
pretty little plant. I believe it to be a good and perfectly distinct 
species, well apart from E. prcecox. — E. S. Marshall. 

BuDA MEDIA Dum. var. glandulosa mihi. Hay Cliffs, Dover, 
Sept. 1899. This curious variety of B. media grew on the bare 
chalk cliff of Hay, Dover, probably on a slightly more impervious 
band, in District 7 of the Flora of Kent, where this plant is referred 
to on p. 67. It was originally referred to in the Phytoloijist, n. s. 
vol. v. p. 33 ; but the authors of the Flora of Kent say that the 



208 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

station seems an unlikely one for B. media or B. marina, and they 
would not be surprised if it proves to be B. rupestris. As a matter 
of fact, the specimen belongs to B. media, but it differs from the 
type not only in its place of growth, but in having a woody root- 
stock; and the pedicels, instead of having glabrous calyces, are 
distinctly glandular. 

Geranium purpureum Vill. Dry sunny banks, St. Ouen's, Jersey, 
21st May, 1899. This plant seems to correspond well with the very 
full description of G. purpureum Vill. in Lowe's Flora of Madeira, 
except that the carpels are downy, whereas Lowe describes them as 
smooth. The Rev. R. P. Murray tells me that it is exactly the 
form which is abundant in Portugal. It is distinguished from 
(t. Eobertianum L. by (1) the erect habit ; (2) the absence of the 
villous hairs, and consequently of the very characteristic odour of 
(r. Robert ianum : (3) the smaller size of the parts of the flower. 
What relation does this bear to the G. purpureum auct. angl. of the 
London Catalogue.^ In Brebisson's Fl. de Normandie two species 
(besides G. Robertianum) are given: (1) G. minutijiorum Jord. = 
G. purpureum Vill. pro parte, of which G . modestum Jord. is put 
down as a variety ; (2) G. Lehelil Bor., the description of which 
will not tit the Jersey plant. In the Student's Flora, G. purpureum 
Vill. = G. modeatum. Jord. — G. Lebelii Bor., and according to 
Reichenbach G. Rail Lindl. also = G. purpureum Vill., though 
English authorities seem to regard it as a ** shaggy" maritime 
form of G. lucidum L. In Smith's Fnt/lish Flora, Geraniwn lucidum 
saxatile, foliis Geranii Robertiani (an excellent description of the 
Jersey plant) is given as a var. of G. Robertianum L. Can anyone 
disentangle these synonyms? In Lloyd's Flore de V Guest de la 
France, G. purpureum Vill. is the only species given besides 
G. Robertianum, and it is made to include G. modestum and 
G. ininutijiorutn Jord. — L. V. Lester. "This is the plant we 
call purpurewa in Britain. It differs from G, purpureum Vill. in 
having downy carpels." — E. F. Linton. " G. purpureum Vill. is 
distinguished from G. Robertianum by its shorter and narrower 
petals, and its carpels being more closely or thickly rugose. G. 
modestum Jord. is a form of G. pur pur emu with a less hairy calyx. 
G. minutiflorum Jord. is a southern maritime var. of G. purpureum.'' 
W. R. L. 

Rosa pimpinellifolia x canina = R. hibernica Sm. var. glabra 
Baker. Hedges near Hoylake, Cheshire, 5th August, 1899. I am 
not at all sure that I ought not to have labelled these R. pimpinelli- 
folia X (jlauca. In either case it is a good example of how a hybrid 
may exceed either or both of its parents in frequency. I saw only 
three or four plants of R. pimpinellifolia L., and those not within a 
quarter of a mile of the hybrid, but I only searched a portion of the 
coast sandhills, where it probably grows. Canina forms were also 
few, and I saw no glauca or subcristata at all, though the latter is 
stated to be frequent in the district in the Flora of Cheshire. The 
hybrid is so abundant as to fill many of the hedges, and, except one 
bush of R. Doniana, or possibly R. Robertsoni, it belongs exclusively 



BOTANICAL EXCHANGE CLUB REPORT, 1899 209 

to the var. f/labra. Its hybrid origin is already shown by the uni- 
versally abortive fruit. — A. H. Wolley-Dod. " I quite agree in 
this naming. The tendency to reflexed sepals in some of the fruits 
points to R. canina rather than /t. (jlauca as the second parent. 
The glabrous leaves, with here and there compound serrations, and 
a few glands on the petiole, suggest li. damalis as the canina form." 
E. F. Linton. 

R. DUMETORUM Thuill. Glcbc hedges, Knighton, Radnor, 8th 
August, 1899. M. Crepin writes of this : "I do not think that this 
form belongs to the coriifoUa group, although its sepals are ascending. 
Its styles are not woolly as in E. corii/olia, and, besides, its general 
facies is not that of the latter. Perhaps one should see in this form 
a variety of U. canina of a group near B. dumetorim, with teeth often 
a little glandular. R. implexa has the leaflets glabrous, excepting 
the midrib." I had suggested the alternative names, R. coriifoUa 
Fr. or R. implexa Gren., to M. Crepin, on account of the (usually) 
strongly ascending sepals, but his comment on this character in 
many examples is often " sepales redresses accidentellement," so 
it appears that that character is not to be relied on. — A. H. 

WoLLEY-DoD. 

Myosotis versicolor Reichb. ? var. pallida Brebisson. This 
variety is common on dry banks in Jersey, April and May, 1899, 
and is very consistent in colour, though variable in habit. The 
points of distinction are — {a) foliage a yellower green ; [b) calyx 
never tinged with purple ; [c) flowers pure white, never yellow, 
never shading off into, or turning, blue. It appears to differ from 
M. Balhisiana Jord., the flowers of which are yellow, and from 
M, duhia Arrondeau, the flowers of which are white, but turn blue. 
In Brebisson's Flore de Normcnidie two other varieties are given : 
(1) var. pallida, flowers white or very slightly yellow; (2) var. 
ehmyata, " stems weak, little branched, elongate. Flowers yellowish, 
then reddish, very small." The Jersey plant seems to correspond 
with var. pallida. In Joiirn. Bot. 1893, p. 266, a " white variety 
with paler foHage " is mentioned as found in the Scilly Islands. — 
L. V. Lester. " Is this variety of J\L versicolor more than an 
albino form which would have, in addition to white flowers, foliage 
of a paler hue ? " — E. F. Linton. 

PoA TRiviALis L. var. glabra Doll, Rhein. Fl., p. 92. In Bloxham 
Grove, near Banbury, Oxfordshire, June, 1899. This plant is con- 
tained in the British Museum Herbarium under the name of P.pra- 
tensis, coll. A. French, 1878, but the specimens there suggested to 
me, at a cursory view, a form of P. nemoralis, but the ligule did not 
agree. French evidently saw that it was abnormal, and he remarks 
that it was the prevailing grass in the Grove. This grove is a 
circular spinney, planted probably in an old stonepit ; but the trees 
have gone from the centre, and it is now open to cattle, who evi- 
dently make it a resting-place, since the grass was so trampled down 
as to render it impossible to obtain good specimens. Prof. Hackel 
agrees with me in referring them to this variety of P. trivialis. — 
G. Claridge Bruce. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [June, 1901.] q 



210 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



SHORT NOTE. 

ScAPANiA cRASsiRETis Bvijhn IN Britain. — AmoDg a collection 
of hepaticffi made iu Perthshire by Mr. P. Ewing in July, 1900, 
was one which I had little doubt was this species. The locality 
was Ben Heasgarnich, on a wet rock at 3200 ft. alt. The plant 
differed considerably in appearance from a series of Norwegian 
specimens in my possession, being shorter and rather stouter. I 
sent specimens to Herr Kaalaas, who confirms the name. He 
writes : " The result of my examination is that it really must 
belong to S. crassiretis Bryhn, although it differs in some degree 
in habit and size from Norwegian specimens of the plant. The 
essential characters, however, are quite the same," This species 
was first described by Bryhn in Recue Bryologigiie, 1892, p. 7. 
There is also a description of it in Kaalaas' De Distrib. Hep. in 
Norveg., 1893, p. 248. It has hitherto been only known from 
Norway, where it is apparently nowhere common, but has a wide 
distribution, occurring also on the west coast among Atlantic 
species. It is a slender and, typically, an elongate plant, forming 
compact reddish-brown tufts on wet alpine rocks. The antical 
lobe of leaf is half the size of the postical, obliquely cordate or 
reniform, incumbent, widely crossing the stem, margin entire, with 
obtuse apex, cuticle verruculose. S. piuyurascens is the only plant 
which might be mistaken for it in the field, but the antical lobe is 
of a different shape, not or seldom crossing the stem, and is usually 
denticulate ; it is also generally of a brighter reddish colour. The 
lax form of S. resupinata, as it occurs on our hills, has a consider- 
able resemblance to it, but in this state it does not grow on wet 
rocks, but on rock ledges or grassy banks among other species and 
mosses. It does not form compact tufts in those positions, and the 
antical lobe is dentate. The only other species occurring on the 
hills with any resemblance to it is S. (Bqiiiloba, but in this the 
antical lobe is not incumbent, and the apex is acute ; it also does 
not occur on wet rocks. S. nemorosa and S. aspera need not be 
considered in the field in this connection, as they are, at least in 
Scotland, exclusively low-ground plants. Under the microscope 
S. crassiretis can be distinguished from its allies by its cell structure. 
The cell-walls are greatly incrassate, the lumen being stellate, and 
the trigones very conspicuous. This stellate appearance seems to 
be constant, and is a marked feature. Flowers and fruit of this 
species are unknown. — Symers M. Macvicar. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Disease in Plants. By H. Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
Macmillan & Co. 8vo, pp. xiv, 309. Price 4s. 6d. 

There are already before the public a number of books that 
treat of the diseases of plants. The present work does not compete 
with these, but, as the title indicates, deals rather with the plants 



DISEASE IN PLANTS 211 

themselves in health and disease, and how they react to external 
conditions. The book has been compiled, the author tells us in the 
preface, to meet the wants of a general public of agriculturists and 
cultivators who wish to understand something of the nature of the 
plants with which they are dealing, and of the maladies by which 
these are attacked, but who have no desire to know minute details 
of histology or the life-history of the fungi or insects that cause 
disease. They are, he considers, in the position of the laity who 
know the danger of being wholly ignorant of disease, but who 
willingly leave expert knowledge to the professional man. It is 
questionable how far Prof. Marshall Ward is right in condoning 
such ignorance, for it is jnst the life-history of the disease-causing 
organisms that the agriculturist requires to know, in order that he 
may apply a suitable remedy at the right season. How can he 
properly deal with rusted wheat, unless he knows that he must also 
have an eye on the barberry ; and how is he to fight finger-and-toe 
without understanding that the spores of Plasmodiophora remain in 
the soil ready to begin their life-cycle again in some Brassica ? 

The first section of the book is entitled " Some Factors," and 
gives an account of the life and development of the normal plant. 
A discussion of the biology of the soil is included, and the bearing 
of man's interference on cultivated plants as regards selection and 
hybridization. The whole section is full of interest and suggestion, 
though necessarily, from want of space, many points of interest are 
merely indicated. 

The second and larger part of the book deals with disease, which 
is defined as '' variations of functions in directions or to extents 
which threaten the life of the plant," or, further, whatever causes 
the "premature death of the plant." The Professor deals in turn 
with the many risks the plant has to encounter before it reaches 
maturity. The causes, the nature, and symptoms of disease are 
passed in review, and a sketch is given of various malformations 
and monstrosities. A printer's error on p. 245 makes " frugiferous " 
bats responsible, in the tropics, for the bare condition of the 
branches termed stag-head. The concluding chapters discuss the 
nature of protoplasm, with special reference to the life and death of 
plants. 

A short historical sketch of each subject adds greatly to the 
interest of the work, and a carefully chosen bibhography is ap- 
pended to each chapter ; but it seems a pity that all illustration 
has been dispensed with, especially where description is necessarily 
short. Professor Marshall Ward demands from his readers a fair 
knowledge of botany in order to follow his arguments — a more 
extensive knowledge than the ordinary cultivator possesses or is 
likely to possess. Unless the Professor anticipates the day when — 
if it may be allowed to travesty Plato — "agriculturists will be 
philosophers, and philosophers will be agriculturists." A good 
glossary of the technical terms used in the book would be of great 
service, and might with advantage be added in a subsequent edition ; 
so valuable a work should be made available to as large a circle of 

readers as possible. . ^ ^ 

A. ij. b. 



212 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



Isle of Man Botany. 



The Rev. S. A. P. Kermode has published in the Manx Y71 Lioar 
Manninafjli (vol. iii. pp. 273-291, 1900) a list of the "Flowering 
Plants " of the island. In his prefatory note the author hopes 
" that the list is now tolerably complete." Nothing is said of any 
continuation, but at present it only extends to the Naiadacece. 
"In arrangement and nomenclature Hooker [Student's Flora, 
3rd edition, 1881) has been followed throughout ; no specific 
localities are given, except in the case of the rarer plants." 

Mr. Kermode gives a list of the various authorities quoted, 
among them Watson's Topographical Botanij, but he has over- 
looked twelve species there recorded, nor does he include sixteen 
species recorded in this Journal and in The Naturalist; but as a 
set-off against these he records thirty-eight species not given in 
Top. Bot. Of these, liaphanus maritimus (this is called " Wild 
Radish "), Viola lactea, Ulex nanus, all the Ruhi, Cicuta, (Enanthe 
pinipinelloides, Culamintha Sepeta, and Juncus compressus will need 
to be confirmed. No doubt the " Viola lactea'' is really V, canina 
L. (V, ericetorum Schrad.), and " T. canina'' V. sylvestris. Ulex 
Gallii is recorded by Babington, not nanus. The (Enanthe is no 
doubt Lachenalii, which, however, is also given (from "Forbes 
cat."). Many of the other additional species given are probably 
correct, and may be accepted on distributional grounds. The 
almost entire absence of alpine species where the hills (in at 
least one instance) exceed 2000 ft. is somewhat remarkable. 
Epilobiuni alsinefolium is given from two localities ; this descends 
in the north of Scotland to 450 ft. (Marshall). Juncus compressus 
is probably J. Gerardi. 

It is a great disappointment to find no Manx names for the 
plants ; of the English names given some are wrongly applied — for 
Q^^iiXa^le, Prunus avium \^ called " Bird Cherry " ; this, the Latin 
name notwithstanding, is popularly applied to P. Fadus ; and 
P. avium, called " Wild Cherry " or " Gean " in England. 

The following species may be added to the list on the authority 
of Mr. P. G. Ralfe, of Castletown: — Raphanus Raphanistrum, Aren- 
aria serpyllifolia, Hypericum perforatum, Saxifraga granulata, and 
Cerastium triviale. 

Mr. Hieru, whose notes in this Journal for 1897 are referred to, 
will be somewhat surprised to find " the Rev." prefixed to his name ! 

Arthur Bennett. 

Prodromi Flora Britannic a Specimen adumbravit F. N. Williams, 
F.L.S. (Cucurbitaceas, Lobeliaceae, Campanulace^e, et Aster- 
acearum subfam. Asterinae.) Obtainable at 181, High Street, 
Brentford. Price Is. by post. 

It is pleasant to notice a fresh and independent attempt to show 
the way how to produce at least a foretaste of a new British flora. 
In an introductory article, consisting of two pages, Mr. Williams 
explains and defends the scope and plan of the work. Careful 



PRODROMI FLOR^ BRITANNIC^ SPECIMEN 213 

attention has been paid to systematic arrangement and nomen- 
clature, and the system of Engler and of the modern German 
botanists has been adopted, in preference to that of Jussieu, 
De Candolle, or Bentham and Hooker. Characters are not sup- 
plied for the classes, families, or genera, but abundant references 
to standard authors are quoted ; in CcDiipositcB (called AsteracecB) a 
table shows the disposition of the genera in series, subfamilies, 
tribes, and subtribes, and, together with some original matter, 
characters are given for the various groups subordinate to the 
series. All the species are critically described in Latin; "the 
Latin style used is that of the nominative absolute with separate 
sentences, instead of the frequently used ablative in a single long 
sentence broken up by semicolons." But might not the accounts 
of British plants have been rendered in the English language ? 

Proper precision has been applied in the employment of the 
terms used to express the different forms of pubescence and the 
various shades of colour ; this precision and the correct citation 
and description of varieties are useful features of the scheme, which 
extends over sixteen octavo pages, and embraces thirty species in 
fifteen genera. Tournefort and Jussieu and other of the older 
botanists, though not earlier than 1700, are cited for the genera, so 
far as the names are adopted ; in the case of less ancient authors, 
however, a different style or standard is followed ; as an instance, 
on page 16, for Anaphalis the original authority of Aug. P. De Can- 
doUe is dropped out, notwithstanding the fact that the species com- 
prehended by its author are still meant to be retained in it ; the 
extension, by which several other species are supposed to be in- 
cluded, and which involves some modification of the characters, 
ought not to ignore the work of the first proposer. 

Synonymy in the case of the species has been rigorously ex- 
cluded, except for that which has received a new name, namely, 
Inula vulf/arls Williams, the plant which Linnaeus called Conyza 
sqiiarrosa. With regard to this the author in a note (page 14) 
apologizes as follows : — " In proposing this name for the Linnean 
plant, I have followed S. F. Gray and St. Lager in discarding a 
specific name which is identical with that of a closely allied genus, 
in which the two parts of the binomial would be incompatible, as 
illustrated in Inula Conyza Cand., under which name the species is 
commonly indexed. I. vulgaris Trev. is Pulicaria vulgaris Gartn. ; 
and the specific name of "squarrosa" is not available, as Linnaeus 
has also described an I. squarrosa. No other synonyms for the 
plant under its present genus are recorded in Index Kewensis, which 
is the excuse for proposing the present name, suggested by Bauhin's 
name for the plant, Conyza major vulgaris.'' 

The style of Linnaeus has been followed in treating the generic 
name of Erigeron as of the neuter gender, although classical usage 
regards the noun as masculine. The abbreviation for De Candolle 
which Mr. WiUiams adopts is Cand., an improvement on the more 
customary DC. 

The localities and distribution of the less common species are 
briefly given, and for each species the station which it usually affects 
is added, with an Enghsh name at the end ; these and the intro- 



214 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



ductory aud foot notes are the only parts written in English. The 
original British habitat, Shute Common, Devon, is duly recorded 
for Lobelia iirens L., and this neighbourhood is stated to be the only 
station for the species in Britain ; no reference, however, is made 
to the Cornish record satisfactorily recorded in this Journal for 
1883, p. 359, by the late T. R. Archer Briggs. The law of priority 
is disregarded in continuing to prefer the name Wahlenhergia Schrad. 
(1814) to Cervicina Dehle, Fl. Egypte, p. 150 (1812). 

An example of " the few additions likely to ensue with the 
diminishing area of unturned soil " occurs in the inclusion (page 11) 
oi Aster salifjmis Willd., found in Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, in 
1867, " a patch of undrained soil, where it is possible that it is 
native." 

On the scale of this specimen sheet, the whole British flora 
would occupy about a thousand pages, or sixty such sheets ; and it 
is to be hoped that Mr. Williams himself will enrich our literature 
with its continuation and completion. __, ^ ^-. 

W. P. HiERN. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS,* 

Bot. Gazette (15 April). — C. S. Sargent, 'North American Trees* 
{Cratmjus, Betula, Ciipressiis). — C. 0. Townsend, ' Effect of Hydro- 
cyanic acid gas on Grains.' — A. C. Life, ' Tuber-like rootlets of 
Cycas.' — N. B. Pierce, ' Walnut Bacteriosis.' 

Bot. Notiser (haft 3: 15 May). — E. Adlerz, ' Nya Hieracium- 
former och Hieracium-lokaler ' (5 pL). — T. Hellund, ' Ribes riibnim' 
(concl.). 

Bot. Zeitung (16 April). — Graf zu Solms-Laubach, 'Cruciferen- 
studien' (1 pL). 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (30 April). — H. Christ, 'Reliquiae 
Weinlandianae ; eine Pteridophyten-Sammlung aus Deutsch Neu- 
Guinea.' — R. Buser, ' Les Alchemilles Bormiaises.' — F. Stephani, 
• Species Hepaticarum ' (cont.). — C. A. M. Lindmann, ' Beitrage zu 
den Aristolochiaceen ' (2 pL). 

Bull. Snc. But. France (vol. xlvi : session extraordinaire a 
Hyeres, 1899 ; received 18 May).— C. Gerber, ' Les fruits tri- et 
quadriloculaires de Cruciferes.' — P. Bumee, ' Le sac embryonnaire 
des Orchidees ' (2 pi.). — L. Legre, ' La Botanique eu Provence au 
XVP siecle : Louis Anguillara, Leonard Rauwolff.' — E. Heckel, 
' Le parasitisme des racines de Xhnenia amerirana.' 

Bull. Torreg Bot. Club (18 April).— H. J. Banker, 'Hydnace®.* 
— A. Nelson, ' New Plants from Wyoming.' — D. Griffiths, Claviceps 
cinereuni, sp. n. — C. L. Shear, ' Mexican species of Bromus.' — R. J. 
Rennett, ' Teratology of Arisama.' 

Gardeners Chronicle (27 April).— M. Foster, 'Iris Willmottiana, 
sp. n.' (fig. 100). — (11 May). Sir George King (portr.).— Thomas 

• The dates assigned to the numbers are those which apoear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this iVthe actual date of 
publication. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 215 

Meeban. — (18 May). C. de Candolle, 'Proliferous leaves' (fi^s. 
117-120). 

Journal de Botanique (" Jan." & '* Fevrier " ; received 26 April): 
'' Mars " (received 16 May). — H. Hua & A. Chevalier, ' Les Lan- 
dolphiees du Senegal, dii Soudan et de la Guinee fran9aise.' — C. 
Sauvageau, 'Les Spliacelariacees ' (cont.). — (" Jan." & " Mars"). 
C. Gerber, ' Sur la respiration des Olives.' — (" Fev."). L. Guig- 
nard, ' La double fecondation dans le Mais.' — (" Mars "). H. Le- 
comte, 'Sur les graines de Landolphia.' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

At a meeting of the Linnean Society held on April 18th, Mr. 
W. B. Hemsley exhibited the leaves and Mowers of two new genera 
of Chinese trees : (1) Bretschneideria, commemorating the eminent 
sinologue and botanist whose death has lately been announced, dis- 
covered by Dr. Henry in the province of Yunnan, lat. 23° N., in 
forests at an elevation of 5000 ft., and bearing pink and white flowers 
like the horse-chestnut, to which it is related ; and (2) Itoa, also a 
native of Yunnan, growing at a similar elevation and to a height of 
about twenty feet ; this genus, named in honour of a famous Japanese 
botanist, was stated to be allied to Idesia Maxim., Poliothi/rsus Oliver, 
and Carrierea Franch., all monotypic genera inhabiting China, but 
differing from them in certain respects which Mr. Hemsley indicated. 
Mr. Hemsley and Mr. H. H. Pearson communicated a paper on 
the Flora of Tibet, based on various collections of high-level plants 
received at the Kew Herbarium. The country dealt with was de- 
scribed as lying between 80° and 102° lat. and 28° and 29° long., 
and having an average altitude of 15,000 ft. Within this ar^a 
360 species of vascular plants had been collected, and were referred 
to 144 genera and 46 natural orders. Almost all the orders repre- 
sented were nearly of world-wide distribution, and none were really 
local. Of the 360 species, only 30 appeared to be peculiar to Tibet. 
In illustration of the paper, a selection of the plants was exhibited; 
most of them dwarf deep-rooted herbs, very few annual or mono- 
carpic, and the only woody plant. Ephedra Gerardiana, was described 
as scarcely rising above the surface of the ground. The majority 
had been collected at altitudes varying between 15,000 and 18,000 ft. 
Mr. C. B. Clarke pointed out that the name " Thibet" or " Tibet " 
was quite unknown to the people who dwelt in the country so-called, 
and its precise boundaries were even still imperfectly defined. It 
was convenient, however, to retain a name by which it was known 
to so many European travellers, and their explorations and col- 
lections were making us better acquainted with the country every day. 
We are informed by Fellows of the Linnean Society who were 
present at the meeting on the 4th of April that the account of the 
proceedings given in our last number is incorrect. Mr. Hemsley, who 
is said to have exhibited specimens, was not present at the meeting, 
nor was Mr. H. H. Pearson, to whom, with Mr. Hemsley, the reading 



216 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

of a paper is attributed. We can only say that onr account was taken 
from the official circular sent out to Fellows by the Linnean Society, 
which is thus entirely responsible for the misstatement. 

Mr. E. D. Marquand, who has for the last twelve years been 
collecting material for a Flora of Guernsey and the lesser Channel 
Islands — Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou, Lihou, Crevichon, and 
Burhou — announces that his work will be published this year by 
Messrs. Dulau & Co. at the subscription price of 8s. It will include 
the cryptogams, and somewhat unusual prominence will be given 
to plant-names and plant-lore. Each island is treated as a separate 
and independent botanical area, possessing its own peculiar features, 
and its own distmctive flora, for the islands differ much more widely 
than is commonly supposed, both from each other and from the 
adjacent portion of the French mainland. 

The third volume (for 1900) of the Meddlanden fran Stockholms 
Hogskolas Botaniska Institut contains an important paper on the 
Spitzbergen flora by Messrs. G. Andersson and H. Hesselman. It 
is illustrated by plates and figures, some of which — e. g. those 
referring to forms of CocJdearla — have a special interest for British 
botanists. There are valuable additional notes on Cerastiwn, Ra- 
7iimculus, and Salix ; Dr. Lagerheim has several papers dealing 
with fungi, etc. ; and there are other contributions from Messrs. 
Knut Bohlin, 0. Borge, J. L. Lindroth, and 0. Kosenberg. 

Captain H. H. P. Deasy's In Tibet and Chinese Turkestan, ''being 
the record of three years' exploration," has just been published by 
Mr. Fisher Unv/in. The author acknowledges the help of Mr. E. G. 
Baker in preparing the botanical appendix ; the plants collected by 
Captain Deasy have been placed iu the National Herbarium, and 
named by Mr. Baker, Mr. Spencer Moore, and Dr. Kendle. The 
new species were described in this Journal for 1900, pp. 428, 495 ; 
to these may be added the description of a new variety [Deasi/i 
Baker f.) of the polymorphic Futentilla sericca, of which the following 
description is given in Captain Deasy's book (p. 401): — " Planta 
caBspitosa ; caules breves graciles erecti vel adsceudentes ; folia radi- 
calia pinnata, foliolis approximatis parvis summis majoribus reliquiis 
decrescentibus oblongis vel ovato-oblongis lobatis vel grosse serratis, 
folia caulinia digitatim 3-5 foliolata. A dwarf plant, with radical 
leaves 2-3 cm. long ; leaflets small, subsessile, green above, white 
tomentose below ; terminal leaflet 5-6 mm. long ; peduncles 1- 
flowered ; petals 5, yellow, + 5 mm. long. Nearly allied to P. sericea 
L. var. 7 dasijphylla Lehmann, Rev. Potentill. p. 34 (= P. dasyphylla 
Bunge)." 

The part of the Annua rio del R. Istitiito Botanico di Roma (anno 
ix, fasc. 2°), just to hand, contains a paper by Prof. Pirotto and 
Dr. Longo on the structure of Cynomorium (with two plates); papers 
by Dr. Piccone on Red Sea algae ; and notes on the Calabrian 
Flora by Dr. Longo. 

In response to suggestions, the useful Key to British Hepatica 
published in the May number of this Journal has been reprinted 
in pamphlet form, price Is., and may be obtained from West, 
Newman & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 




Antennaria dioica (sjjecimiria LinncEana). 



217 



ANTENNARIA DIOICA var. HYPERBOREA Cand. 

By Frederic N. Williams, F.L.S. 

(Plate 423.) 

If British specimens of Ante^inaria dioica are compared with 
a series of continental forms referred to the species, it will be 
seen that all the European forms may be grouped in three varieties, 
inclusive of tlie type ; and that tbough intermediate forms may 
seem to occur, the length of the calathial stalks, the breadth 
of the basilar leaves, and the degree of pubescence on both 
surfaces of the leaves, sufhciently characterize the variety to 
which individual specimens may be referred. This paper is based 
on a critical examination of the material in Herb. Kew. and Herb. 
Mus. Brit. 

That S. F. Gray was the first to describe and refer to its proper 
species the variety hyperburea has been generally overlooked in 
British floras and plant-lists; though, as the synonymy given 
further on will show, he cannot be quoted as the authority, on 
account of his unfortunate rejection of the jejune Linnean name in 
favour of the earlier trivial name used by Bauhin and Erndtel. 

The grouping of the synonyms under each of the three varieties 
will best give their history in a concise form : — 

Antennaria dioica Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. Plaint, ii. p. 410, t. 167, 
f. 3 (1791). 
Var. a, TYPicA. 

Syn. — PiloseUa minur FvLGha. Hist. Plant, p. 60H (1542): Dodoens, 

Pempt. t. 68. 
(j-naphailnm uiontanum Bauhin, Pinax, p. 263 (1623) ; Erndtel, 

Viridarium Warsawiense, p. 53 (1730). 
Chrysocoma humilis )iw)itaua Morison, Hist. iii. p. 89 (1699). 
Gnaphalium dioicum L. Sp. PL p. 850 (1753). 
Gnaphalium dioiecium Hill, Herb. Brit. i. p. 36 (1756). 
Elichrysum vioutcmum Seguier, PL Veronens. suppl. p. 260 

(1754). 
Antennaria niuiitana 8. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PL ii. p. 458 

(1821). 
Gnaphalium alpimun C. A. Mey., Verz. PHanz. (1831). 

Var. /5 hyperborea Cand. Prodr. vi. p. 270 (1837). Specimina 
majora. Rhizoma crassius, stolonibus brevius radicantibus. Folia 
aut utrinque lanata, aut subtus lanata supra subaraneoso-pubes- 
centia, tomento utrinque persistente (foliis adultis facie superiore 
interdum subglabrescentibus) ; basilaria latiora obovato-spathulata 
patentiora. Periclinii squamae latiores obovat^e magis obtusae. 
Calathia brevius pedicellata, in capitulum corymbosum simplex 
disposita. 

Journal or Botany. — Vol. 39. [July, 1901.] R 



218 tHE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Syn. — (j-naphaUum hyperhoreum J. Donn, Hort. Cantab, ed. 7, p. 237 

(1812). 
Antennaria montana var. lanata S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. 

PI. ii. p. 458 (1821). 
Gnaphallum dioicum var., Smith, Engl. Flora, iii. p. 414 (1825). 
Ayitennaria hyperborea D. Don in Engl. Bot. Suppl. t. 2640 

(May, 1830), 
Gnaphalium horeale Turcz. herb. (1835), ex Cand. Prodr. vi. 

p. 270(1837). 
Antennaria dioica var. australis Griseb. Spicil. Fl. ii. p. 198 

(1844). 

Var. y congesta Cand. Prodr. vi. p. 270 (1837). Specimina 
nana, quam in typo roinora. Caulis 30-36 mm. FoHa juniora 
utrinque albo-tomentosa. Calathia inter folia congesta sessilia ; in 
calathiis femineis, squamarum parte scariosa saturatius colorata. 

Syn. — Gnaphalium alpinum Asso ex Cand. Prodr. vi. p. 270. 

The species is generally distributed over Europe (Portugal per- 
haps excepted), across N. Asia, touchmg N. Persia, and reaching 
Japan. It is found on the N. American continent from Alaska to 
Labrador and Newfoundland, and from the Arctic Circle to S. Cali- 
fornia, where, according to N. L. Britton,* var. fS is the prevailing 
form, var. a being occasionally met with. 

In the British Isles the species is found on heaths, sandy 
pastures, and alpine rocks, from the sea-level up to 600 metres in 
the Highlands ; and its earliest record is the year 1641.+ 

The references to exdccatcB in the distribution of var. hyperborea 
in the following paragraphs are worked up from the material in 
Herb. Kew. : — 

Var. P hyperborea. — Of this plant D. Don writes that it was 
"first observed by the late Mr. John Mackay on Breeze Hill, Isle 
of Skye, in 1794. Sir J. E. Smith has noticed it in English Flora 
as a variety of A. dioica ; but after many years' observation, and an 
attentive comparison of it, cultivated together with A. dioica and 
A.plantaginea, I am now fully satisfied of its being entitled to rank 
as a species." Smith's previous reference to it is as follows : — 
''Avery fine variety, almost twice the size of the common sort, 
with the upper surface of the leaves downy, at least while young, 
was gathered on Breeze Hill, in the Isle of Skye, by the late Mr. 
John Mackay, which some have thought a new species. But it 
seems a mere variety, becoming still larger in a garden, and having, 
as far as I can make out, no specific mark of distinction." 

In H. C. Watson's herbarium there is a single specimen, poor 
and scarcely characteristic, from Churchill Babiugton, found at 
Loch Coriskin, in the Isle of Skye, in September, 1838. In Borrer's 
herbarium there is also only a single specimen, from Skye, probably 
gathered in 1819, as it bears Winch's original label on which he 

* 111. Fl. Un. States & Can. ii. p. 398. 
t Johnson, Mercurius Botanicus, ii. p. 22. 



ANTENNARIA DIOICA VAR. HYPKRBOREA CAND. 219 

has written " (Tnaphaimm In/perboreum.'' This has an historical 
interest, as either this particular specimen or one from the same 
gathering was sent by Winch in 1819 to De Candolle for exami- 
nation, and is the type for the variety described in the Prodro>nus. 

On the continent of Europe var. [3 is more widely distributed 
than is usually indicated in floras; and, as the following specimens 
cited show, it occurs in Switzerland, Hungary, Servia, Bulgaria, 
Montenegro, and Turkey, also in Denmark, and the island of 
Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, as well as in the Daghestan territory 
of the province of Cis-Caucasia. 

Exsicc. Alpe di Fliihe, near Zermatt (Bobert Brown, 1827) ; 
Ganes, on Mt. Magura, Transsylvania {Czecz, 1874) ; Transsylvania 
(Sc/mr, 1870, no. 2016 b, forma purpurea elegantissima) ; a specimen 
labelled '' GnaplwJium, australe'' {AdiDnoi^ic exs. Serbicae, 1897); 
Mt. Kopaonik (Friedrichsthal) ; Mt. Peristeri [Grisebach] ; Mt. 
Chortiasch (Friedrichsthal) ; Mt. Despoto-dagh, in Turkey, near 
Karlova {Friwa/dzky) ; Montenegro {Baldacci, It. Albanicum, vi. 
no. 221, 1898); Mt. Hodja Balkan, in Bulgaria (ex herb. Hooker), 
labelled " var. austraUs " ; a specimen from Daghestan, on the west 
bank of the Caspian Sea [Becker, 1877). There is also one of 
J. Mackay's original specimens from Dawson Turner's herbarium, 
labelled '' (j-naphaliiim new, Isle of Skye " : and another labelled 
"Isle of Sky, Dr. Smith, 1806." 

The following specimens from N. Asia should also be referred 
to var. /? : — Specimens from Guriel, in Siberia (Szowitz), and from 
Alach-Jun and Krest-Judomiskoi (l'i(rczanmow,18d5, '^ Gnaphalium 
boreaJe''), from Irkutzk, and Siberia Altaica (1867) ; also Japanese 
specimens from Abashiri, in the island of Yezo (PI. du Japon, 
1890, no. 5456, Faurie). 

In the British Herbarium of the Herb. Mus. Brit, there is a 
single sheet of var. hijperborea with six specimens attached. One 
from E. Forster's herbarium is not at all characteristic, as the upper 
surface of the leaves is almost glabrous. Two are garden specimens 
raised from a plant collected in the Isle of Skye (without date). 
Of the other three specimens, the most characteristic is one from 
Sowerby's herbarium, with a label attached in the handwriting of 
G. Don the elder, "I call this GnaphaUum hyperboreiun ; it was 
found by Mr. J. Mackay, Edinburgh, in the Isle of Skye. May 
this not be the variety mentioned by Lightfoot as being m Dr. 
Ross's collection?" What the date of this determination may be 
is uncertain; but the name, as stated above, was taken up (subse- 
quently) by James Donn in 1812. On turning to Lightfoot's 
Fl. Scotlca, ii. app. p. 1109 (1777), we find, "a variety of this, a 
foot high, was found near New Posso. Mr, Yalden." Posso Craigs 
is a hill in Peeblesshire. 

Var. y congesta. — This variety was founded on Asso's specimens, 
which he referred to GnaphaUum alpinuni. Boissier's specimens, 
which agree with the type, were collected on the Sierra Nevada, in 
the south of Spain, at a height of 2550 metres, in ice-crevices, 
above Corral de Veleta, Among the Scottish specimens in Herb. 

K 2 



220 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Kew. is one labelled " The Highlands," a dwarf form, with a stem 
barely 35 mm., which exactly agrees with the Spanish specimens 
on another sheet, and is quite distinct from either of the other two 
British varieties. On the evidence of this specimen, I think that 
var. congesta may be added to the Scottish flora, and possibly it 
may be found in lofty stations suitable for its growth, if diligently 
looked for. If this can be satisfactorily settled, it will be seen that 
all the three European varieties of Anteiuiarla dioica elvc to be found 
in the Scottish Highlands. 

The late Dr. F. B. White, in Scottish Xaturalist, 1886, p. 323, 
and in Fl. of Perthshire, p. 180, has described a var. peclicellata, 
found at Glen Tilt and near Strowan Station, in which the calathia 
are not so close together, on pedicels from 12-28 mm., and, as he 
says, "probably only an extreme state, as intermediate forms occur." 
It seems indeed to be only a form sliglitly different from the type 
of the species, scarcely to rank as a variety. Among the specimens 
in the British Herbarium, the description seems to fit some speci- 
mens gathered by A. Croall in 1854 at Little Craigandhal, and 
labelled, " Plants of Braemar no. 105." In these, the calathia are 
spread out in a semicircle, owing to the greater length of the pedicels. 

In the plate which accompanies this paper, the single sheet in the 
Linnean Herbarium, which contains eight specimens of Antennaria 
dioica, is reproduced by photography. At the bottom of the sheet 
is the word " dioicum " in Linne's handwriting. In three of the 
specimens rose-coloured scales are more noticeable ; in three others 
no rose-coloured scales are to be seen. One specimen has two 
flowering stems. 



SOME BEITISH VIOLETS.— II. 

By Edmund G. Baker, F.L.S. 

The Pansies growing in hilly or mountainous districts in this 
country can, with trifling exception, be arranged in two of the 
groups referred to in my previous paper (pp. 9-12). The repre- 
sentative species for these groups are V. lutea Hudson and V. saxa- 
tilis Schmidt* (F. alpestris Jordan). These groups have many 
points in common — the plants are perennials or subperennials, 
never annuals, as is generally the case with the groups of V. ar- 
vensis Murray and V. tricolor L. sensu stricto ; the flowers are 
nearly always showy, the petals being always distinctly longer 
than the sepals, except in the case of T'. lutea Huds. var. hamulata. 
The two groups differ in the stipules, which in the group of V. lutea 
are digitately multipartite or digitately pinnatifid, while in the 
saxatilis group they are pinnatipartite. Particular attention must 
also be paid to the character of the rootstock. In mountainous 
or hilly country in close proximity to the sea — as, for instance. 



* This species has not been recorded as growing in Britain, but is widely 
spread on the Continent. 



SOME BRITISH VIOLETS 



221 



in the west of Ireland — considerable difficulty is experienced in 
defining exactly the boundary between the group of V. lutea and 
the group of v! Ciutidi. Mr. A. G. More, in this Journal for 1873, 
p. 117, when speaking of the Flora of Ireland, states that the 
sandhill pansies of the whole coast belong rather to V. Curtisii, 
except some plants he refers to growing near Lahinch and Miltown, 
in Co. Clare." 

Generally speaking, F. Curtuil is a plant of sandy sea-shores, 
and V, lutea of grassy places in hilly and mountainous regions ; 
the former having short decumbent stems and short subterranean 
stolons, and in the latter the stems are either short or elongated, 
but ascendiug, and long, slender, subterranean stolons. 

Group I. — Representative species V. lutea Hudson. 

Perennials. Rootstock branched, branches slender, producing 
short or more rarely elongated ascending stems. Stipules of lowest 
leaves digitately multipartite or digitately pinnatifid. Petals gene- 
rally longer than the sepals, spreading (except in the case of var. 
hamulata Baker). 

The members of this group are found in grassy places in hilly 
and mountainous districts, very occasionally on sandbanks near the 
sea — as at Lahinch and Miltown, in Co. Clare. 

V. LUTEA Hudson, Fl. Angl. ed. 1, p. 331 (1762), p.p.; Eng. 
Bot. t. 721 (1800). F. (jrandifiora Hudson, Fl. Angl. ed. 2, 
p. 380, p. p. F. sudetica Willd. a lutea DC. Prod. i. p. 302 
(1824). It is unnecessary to give a detailed description of this 
well-known species. Hudson's plant, as the name implies, was 
yellow-flowered. 

Var. AMCENA Henslow, Cat. Brit. Plants, p. 3 (1829). F. amcena 
T. F. Forster in Symons' Synopsis, p. 198 (1798); Eng. Bot. 
t. 1287. F. sudetica Willd. var. media DC. I.e. The flower is thus 
described in the original description : — " Flos magnus saturate pur- 
pureus aut violaceus. Petala superiora obtuse ovata, purpurea ; 
lateralia barbata purpurea, venosa, venis saturatius purpureis ; 
infima magna, superiore parte lutea, venis purpureis notata ; calcar 
breve, obtusum." It is described as from Scotland, where it was 
first found by Mr. Dickson. The plant from which the original 
description was taken cannot have had a particularly elongated 
stem, as it is described as being only half the length of the scape 
— i.e. " Scapus erectus canaliculatus caule duplo longior." 

Gardiner [Rambles in Braemar, 1845, p. 18) gives nine grades 
of colour-variation which he states exist between this and T'. lutea. 

A very fine Violet grows on some of the Breadalbane Mountains, 
which bears close relations to F. amcena and to the F. grandifiora 
figured by Villars (Cat. PI. Jard. Strasbourg, p. 288, tab.V. (1807) ) 
— the F. lutea Hudson, var. grandifiora of Koch's Synopsis, ed. 2, 
p. 95. I have closely compared it with Villars' figure and with 



* Specimens 1 have seen in Mr. Shoolbred's herbarium from sand-banks, 
Miltown, Co. Clare, approach very closely to the Pansy from MuUaghmore to 
which my father gave the name V. Symei, 



222 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

specimens from Schultz Herb. Normale no. 1019 (from granitic 
escarpments between Minister and Gerarclmer, in the Vosges), 
which have been referred to this variety. Although, as just stated, 
it is closely allied, there are several differences, and I venture to 
describe it as a subvariety : — 

Var. AMCENA subvar. insignis. Perennial. Stem rather short or 
somewhat elongate (5-15 cm.). Lamina of lowest leaves orbicular, 
several times longer than the petiole, base rounded or subcuneate, 
margin crenate-serrate ; lamina of upper leaves ovate-oblong or 
oblong, differing from our specimens of V. lutea var. c/randiflora 
in several points — in the obtuse apex, longer petiole, and broader 
lamina ; the petioles and lamina are more or less hairy. Stipules 
palmately pinnatifid ; terminal lobe rather larger than the others. 
Peduncle 5-6 cm. long. Bracteoles placed below the curvature. 
Flower about the same size as that of var. n r and i flora, but upper 
petals narrower. Sepals subacuminate. Upper petals divergent, 
narrow obovate, + 1*8 cm. long, 8-9 mm. broad at broadest point — 
lateral petals spreading, lower petal rather broader than long, 
+ 1'3 cm. long, + 1'7 cm. broad at broadest point. Spur just 
longer than the appendages of the calyx, not so long as in var. 
c/randiflora. Capsule sliorter than sepals.. 

Hab. South side of Craig Caillaich above Fnilarig, in Breadal- 
bane ; and rocks, somewhat moist, at very considerable height on 
Ben Lawers, frequent, Aug. 1794, Robt. Brown, in Herb. Mus. Brit. 
Cliffs of Ben Lawers, G. C. Driice, Aug. 1888, Herb. G. C. Druce. 

It is larger-flowered than typical var. amcena, and has, as has 
been stated, a stem sometimes 15 cm. long. The large size of the 
flowers (which are purplish) makes this a very striking plant. 

I am unable to follow Messrs. Rouy and Foucaud in their de- 
scription of V. lutea a nnf/uiculata, for which they quote the following 
synonymy : — 

" V. grandiflora Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. 2, p. 380; V. lutea var. 
yrandiflora Koch, Synopsis, ed. 2, p. 95 ; G. et G. Fl. Fr. i. p. 185." 

F. grandiflora Hudson, Fl. Angl. ed. 2, p. 380, has generally 
been considered synonymous with V. lutea Hudson, ed. 1, p. 331 '■' ; 
but it should be noted that Hudson under V. grandiflora quotes 
Viola caule triquetro simplici foliis oblofigiusculis stipulis pinnatijidis of 
Linnaeus (Mantissa, p. 120), and Viola montana lutea grandiflora 
Bauhin, Pinax, 200, which are both placed by Linnaeus (Mant. I.e.) 
under his grandiflora. 

V. lutea Hudson a unguiculata Rouy & Foucaud is for the most 
part then synonymous with V. lutea Huds. var. grandiflora Koch, 
but is confused by these authors in their synonymy with V. lutea 
Hudson, Fl. Angl. ed. 1, p. 331. V. B. Wittrock, in his "Viola 
Studien," i. (in Acta Horti Bergiani, Band 2, No. 1, p. 96) describes 
and figures V. grandiflora Lin. Vill., but his fig. 107 on tab. vii. 
shows considerable difference in the character of the stipules from 
those organs as figured by Villars. 

* Confer Smith, English Flora, p. 307 ; and Koch, Synopsis, ed. ii. p. 95 
(1843). 



SOMK BRITISH VIOLETS 223 

Var. HAMULATA Baker, North Yorkshire, p. 207 ; Report Bot. Exch. 
Club, 1865, p. 7. The type of this plant was unfortunately destroyed 
by fire in 1864. It is said to bear the same relation to V. lutea that 
F. arvensis bears to V. tricolor ; and is thus described in the Report 
cited : — 

" Rootstock thread-like, perennial, wide-creeping. Stems diffuse, 
much branched at the base, slender, quadrangular, pubescent below, 
but the pedicels naked. Lower leaves on naked channeled stalks, 
about I in. long, roundish, with ciliated crenations about as broad 
as deep, upper ovate, bluntish or even lanceolate, acute, with cre- 
nations two to three times as broad as deep. Stipules with the 
terminal lobe much larger than the others, leafy and toothed, the 
lobes all ciliated, the lateral ones two or three on each side, usually 
one only on the other, linear or subspathulate, entire, erecto-patent 
or sometimes curved like a sickle. Bracts three-quarters of the 
distance up the pedicel, minute, ovate acute, about the same width 
as the stalk. Sepals | in. long, lanceolate acuminate, slightly 
ciHated, the upper pair smaller, equalling the petals. Expanded 
corolla t in. deep by ^ in. across, petals all yellow, upper pair pale, 
obovate, 2 lines across, lateral pair smaller, deeper-coloured, with 
each a tuft of hairs at the throat, the lowest 4 lines, not marked 
with any lines or marked at the throat with three to five faint ones. 
Spur slender, curved upwards, barely one and a half times as long 
as the subquadrate bluntly toothed calycine appendages. Anther- 
spur linear-filiform, curved upwards, six to eight times as long as 
broad. The typical V. lutea has the terminal lobe of the stipules 
entire and less leaf-like, the lower petal when the plant is fairly 
developed ^ in., the lateral pair ^-f in., and the upper pair ^ in. 
across, so that the fully expanded corolla measures about 1 in. each 
way, and the spur keeled and thickened at the end, about twice as 
long as the deeply toothed calycine appendages." 

Found on Richmond Racecourse, North Yorkshire ; and, with 
Thlaspi occitanum, at the lead-mines on Copperthwaite Moor, near 
Reeth. 

Other plants of this group not found in Britain, but found 
in France or Belgium, are — Viola sudetica Willd. (the type), 
F. calaminaria Lejeune, and V. chrysmitha Schrader. 

F. sudetica Willd. was quoted in English Botany as being 
synonymous with F. lutea Huds. Koch (in Synopsis, ed. ii. p. 95) 
descrilDes a F. hitea Huds. var. sudetica, founded on F. sudetica 
Willd., and states that it differs from the type by being taller, 
having larger flowers, and petals often repand-crenate. 

F. calaminaria Lejeune is a Belgian plant with yellow or 
yellowish, not very large flowers (2-2^ cm. long), and considered 
by some botanists as uniting F. lutea and F. tricolor. 

V. chrysantha Schrader in Reichb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. ii. (1832), 
p. 709 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. tab. 4516, is also believed by some 
botanists to be intermediate between F. lutea Huds. and F. tricolor 
L. (sensu stricto), but the plant as figured by Reichenbach has a 
longer spur than either of these species. 



224 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Group II. — Eepresentative species V. sa.vdtilis Schmidt 
(T'. alpestris Jordan). 

Perennials or subperennials. Stipules pinnatipartite, that is 
the middle lobe markedly different from the lateral lobes. Petals 
always longer than the sepals, spreading. Like the preceding, the 
members of this group are found in grassy places in hilly or moun- 
tainous country ; they are allied on the one hand to the group of 
F. lutea, on the other to the group of F. tricolor L. (sensu stricto). 
As has been previously stated, the head-quarters of the group seems 
to be the Pyrenees, and it is only outlying members that have been 
recorded for this country. 

The group may be subdivided either by the colour of the 
flowers, which seems to be more trustworthy here than in the 
group ^ of V. Curtisii, or by the character of the median lobe of 
the stipule. 

Certain species seem fairly coustantly to have yellow flowers — 
as, for instance, V. alpestris Jordan and V. Provostii Boreau. Others 
are rarely, if ever, entirely yellow — as, for instance, V. lepida Jordan, 
in which the upper petals are obovate and of a beautiful caerulean 
violet. 

It will be noted, however, that the members of this group can- 
not be rigidly placed in subdivisions by the colour of their flowers, 
and that the subdivisions to some extent overlap one another, as 
even here the coloration is subject to certain variations and grada- 
tions ; but, as colour of the flowers is certainly to some extent a 
useful guide, I think it better to attempt a subdivision on this basis. 

* Yellow-flowered species with radiating dark lines on the lower 
petals, rarely or hardly ever with violet-coloured flowers. 
Continental species belonging to this series are V. alpestris 
Jordan, V. ffavescens Jordan, and V. Provostii Boreau. Of these, 
only the last, as far as I am aware, has hitherto been definitely 
recorded for any part of Great Britain. A plant bearing marked 
similarity with V. alpestris Jordan in several of its most important 
characteristics was gathered by Mr. W. A. Shoolbred on Kirkibost 
Island, N. Uist, in 1898. The stem branches copiously; the 
leaves are ovate or ovate -oblong, the lamina being longer than 
the petiole. The stipules on the main stem are pinnatipartite, the 
median lobe being conspicuously larger than the lateral lobes and 
subsimilar to the leaves; the stipules on some of the lateral branches 
are somewhat different. The flowers are showy and yellow, with 
petals longer than the sepals, and lower and lateral' petals with 
radiating dark violet lines. Spur violet-coloured, longer than the 
appendages of the sepals. It may be well to leave this plant for 
further study ; meanwhile I append a description of V. alpestris 
Jordan, drawn up from the original description and authentic 
material. 

Plant of from 1-3 dm., covered with a very short pubescence, 
diffuse from the base, much branched, with ascending flexuous 
branches. Leaves oval or oval-oblong, crenulated, not cordate. 



SOME BRITISH VIOLETS 225 

with a short petiole enlarged at the summit. Stipules pinnatifid, 
with 8-10 lateral straight lobes, terminal lobe subsimilar to the 
leaves. Peduncles elongated, bracteoles whitish, placed below the 
curvature. Sepals lanceolate, elliptic, acuminate. Corolla large, 
petals whitish yellow, oboval, overlapping by their edges— the 
lateral obliquely oboval, the lower oboval, enlarged and emarginate 
at the summit and marked with five violet strife. Spur blue-violet, 
obtuse, compressed, hardly curved, passing the appendages. Cap- 
sule oval, obtuse. 

The following description of V. Provostii Boreau is drawn up 
from specimens kindly lent me by the Messrs. Groves : — 

V. Pkovostii Boreau, Fl. Centr. ed. iii. p. 82. V. confinis 
Jordan ex Nyraan, Conspectus, p. 80; Billot, Fl. Gall, et Germ. 
Exsicc. Nos. 1825 bis et ter. Boot apparently perennial or sub- 
perennial. Lower leaves ovate, erenate. Upper leaves ovate- 
oblong, crenate-serrate, finely hairy, lamina generally longer than 
petiole, base cuneate, apex obtuse. Middle lobe of stipules oblanceo- 
late, entire or occasionally a little erenate, much narrower than 
leaves, lateral lobes 2-3 on each side. Peduncles much longer than 
leaves — bracts some distance from the curvature. Flowers showy, 
paler yellow than lutea, petals longer than sepals. Spur longer 
than appendages of calyx. Upper petals ±1-1 cm. long, -7 cm. 
broad, Lamina of upper leaves 1*5 cm. long. 

This description is taken from a plant collected by Rev. W. H. 
Purchas on a steep limestone bank near Ecton, North Staffordshire, 
June 1885, Herb. Groves, and identified as above by Mr. Lloyd. 

Specimens I have seen in Messrs. Groves's herbarium from Mr. 
Lloyd of V, confiMis Jordan agree in almost every particular, except 
that the leaves are slightly narrower. 

"" Flowers yellow or sometimes more or less violet. 

Median lobe of stipules entire, oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. 

V. MONTicoLA Jordan, Obs. 2nd Fragm. p. 36. V. tricolor h. 
K, bella Gren. & Godr. Fl. France, i. p. 184. Stems erect or 
ascending. Leaves oval or ovate, suddenly contracted to petiole, 
upper oblong-ovate. The terminal lobe of the stipule is much 
narrower than in F. cdpestris Jordan, and entire. Flowers yellow, 
or more or less violet or tricoloured. Peduncles longer than the 
leaves. Petals always longer than the sepals. Spur considerably 
longer than the appendages of the calyx. The head-quarters of this 
Violet are in the South and East of France, and Jordan's specimens 
of F. monticola from Bagneres de Luchon are in the National Her- 
barium. Mr. G. C. Druce records var. bella Gren. & Godron from 
high ground near Streatley and Tattendon, and at Bradfield and 
Beenham, Berkshire (Fl. Berks, p. 79). 

I have followed MM. Rouy & Foucaud in considering V. tricolor 
L. K. bella Gren. & Godr. synonymous with V. monticola Jordan, as 
I have compared specimens and the original description of var. 
bella Gren. & Godr. with Jordanian specimens of V. monticola, and 
they seem to agree in all leading characteristics. 



226 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Some British plants which I have had an opportunity of ex- 
amining from near Stokenchurch, Oxon, referred to var. bella Gven. 
& Godr. by Prof. Freyu, agree well in the flowers with specimens of 
monticola, but the median lobe of the stipule is broader. 

The above description is drawn up from authentic continental 
material. 

"-.* Upper petals generally bluish violet ; the others pale. 

Petals more rarely yellow. 
In this series occur tw^o plants closely related to each other. 
The names of both of them have appeared as suggested identifi- 
cations for plants of this country. The following notes on them 
are from the original descriptions of M. Jordan : — 

V. Sagoti Jordan, Obs. Fragm. 2, p. 34. Lower leaves with 
rather long petioles, oval or oval-oblong, base cuneate or sub- 
cuneate or lowest subcordate, upper leaves narrower, lanceolate. 
Stipules pinnatifid. Petals longer than the sepals. Upper petals 
broad obovate. Differs from T". carpatica Borbas by the lamina of 
the leaves being not so elongated, and broader. 

In the Flora of Oxfordshire Mr. Druce refers a plant from Stow 
Wood to V. Sagoti ; and there are specimens in his herbarium re- 
ferred here, on the authority of Prof. Freyn, from {n) near Forfar ; 
(b) Ballater, S. Aberdeen ; (c) Braemar, S. Aberdeen. 

V. Paillouxh Jordan, I. c. p. 36. Near V. Sagoti, from which 
it differs by its upper leaves being more elongated and more pointed. 
Stipules pinnatifid, but their lobes are longer and more pointed. 
The petals are very similar to those of V. Sagoti, and are of a bluish 
violet, sometimes very pale. The sepals are more acuminate. 

.^"^^ Petals generally violet-coloured and yellowish white in the throat, 
* or upper petal violet, and lateral and lower petal paler. 

To this series belong V. lepida Jordan and V. carpatica Borbds, 
both of which names have been suggested for British plants. 

V. lepida Jordan, Put/iUus, p. 28. Root perennial. Stems 
ascending, branched from the base. Leaves pale green, puberulous, 
lower ovate or lanceolate, somewhat obtuse, crenate. Stipules 
pinnatifid, lateral lobes linear, subpatulous, intermediate oblong, 
almost spathulate, subentire or slightly dentate. Petals twice as 
long as the calyx, upper obovate, of a beautiful caerulean violet, 
lateral pale blue, lowest broadly obovate, whitish or violet. Spur 
violet-coloured, patent-defiexed, longer than the appendages of the 
calyx. Capsule subrotund. 

A plant gathered in 1860, near the Spital of Glen Shee, in Perth- 
shire, by my father, was referred to this species by Prof. Boreau 
(Journ. Bot. i. pp. 11, 12). A plant collected by Mr. W. A. Shool- 
bred near Fort George, E. Inverness, is closely allied ; and another 
allied plant is one collected by Eev. E. S. Marshall near Roy Bridge, 
Glen Spean, W. Inverness (Herb. Groves), but this latter perhaps 
would be better placed as a form of V. amcena T. F. Forster. 



KENT MOSSES 



227 



V. cARPATicA Borbas in Koch's Synopsis, ed. iii. p. 222 (1892); 
Baker fil. Journ. Bot. 1901, p. 10. Tlie British habitat is Cocker- 
ham Peat Moss, West Lancashire. I have noted other gatherings 
from this county which are very closely allied to this species — as, 
for instance, a plant gathered by the Rev. E. S. Marshall near 
Sandling Park, East Kent, no. 1345. 

]\ polychioma Kerner is allied to V. carpatica Borbas, but differs 
in the broader lamina of the leaf. 

In the limitation of the group of V. saxatUis I have ventured to 
differ slightly from MM. Rouy & Foucaud in their recent Flora— 
thus, for instance, Y. contnnpta Jordan, whicli was recorded many 
years ago on the authority of M. Boreau from cornfields near Thirsk, 
seems better placed with certain of its allies not in the present group, 
but in that of which the representative species is V. tricolor L. 
(sensu stricto). There are other continental described species and 
varieties belonging to this group which it is only necessary to 
briefly mention. They have never been recorded as growing in 
this country. 

V. polychroma Kerner, already mentioned, and V. tricolor L. var. 
perrobusta Borb. Magyar Nov. Lap. 1888, p. 18, is stated by Borbas 
(in Koch, Synopsis, ed. 3, i. 221) to be " V. lutea—> tricolor ^ It 
has tricoloured flowers, and is allied to V. tricolor by its stipules, 
and is only known from Upper Hungary. 

I have to tender my best thanks to Messrs. H. Groves, W. A. 
Shoolbred, and G. C. Druce for the loan of the pansies from their 
herbaria. 



KENT MOSSES. 

By E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 182.) 

The following list includes additional localities for species already 
recorded for the county of Kent, and also a few species new to the 
county, the names of which have been received, since the last paper 
was pubUshed, from Mr. L. J. Cocks, of Bromley Hill, to whom the 
initials L. J. C. in the text refer. The initials E. G. refer to the 
late Mr. Edward George, of Forest Hill, whose collection is now, I 
beheve, in the possession of the Horniman Museum. A few species 
new to the county, added since the last list was published, are indi- 
cated by an asterisk. 

Where the generic name has been altered, since the publication 
of the list of mosses in the Journal of Botany in 1877, the name 
then in use follows in parenthesis the name now used. In this 
list the order given in Dixon's Handbook of British Mosses has been 
followed. 

Sphagnum cipnbifolium Ehrh. Bedgebury Wood, Goudhurst, J. S. 
— Var. 7 conge'stiim Schimp. Kilndown Wood, Goudhurst, J.S. — 
S. subsecimdum Nees. Louisa Lake, Bedgebury Wood, J. /S.— Var. 
contortum Schimp. Bedgebury Wood, J. S. — S. squarroswn, Pers, 



228 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Louisa Lake, Bedgebury Wood, J. S. — S'. acutifolinm Ehrh. Goud- 
hurst, </. S. — S. intennedium Hoffm. Goudliurst, J. S. 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. Goudhiirst, frequently in fruit ; Cran- 
brook, A. W. Hudson, J. S. 

Catharinea undulata Heb. S. Mohr. [Atrichiim). Goudhurst, 
J. S. ; Sevenoaks ! — Var. /3 attenuata Wils. Sevenoaks ! 

Polytnchum nanum Brid. [Pogonatum). Bedgebury Wood I — P. 
aloides Brid. [Pog<matu})i). Tunbridge Weils ! Goudhurst, J. S, — 
P. urnigerum Brid. (Pogo)iatiim). Goudimrst, J. S. — P.formosum 
Hedw. Bedgebury Wood, J. S. — P. counnnne L. Goudliurst, J . S. ; 
Greenhitlie, E. G. — P. juniperinum Hedw. Goudhurst, J. S.] Bid- 
denden ! Mere worth Woods, near Mailing ! — P. piliferum Schreb. 
Bedgebury Wood ! 

Leiicohiyum glaucnw Hampe. Goudhurst ! 

Pieiiridium axillare Liud. (P. nitidum Br. & Sch). Bedgebury 
Wood! St. Paul's Cray Common, L. J. (\ — P. suhulatum Br. & Sch. 
Goudhurst ! 

Ditrichiim homomaUum Hampe. Bedgebury Wood, J. S. — D. 
Jiexiccnde Hampe. Between Sibertswold and Waldershare Park 
abundantly. 

Ceratodon purpureus Brid. Goudhurst, J. S. 

Dicranella riifescens Schimp. Spring Park Wood, W. Wickham, 
L. J, 0. — D. cerviciilata Schimp. Goudhurst, J. S. — D. heteromalJa 
Schimp. Goudhurst, J. S. — 7). varia Schimp. Goudhurst, J. S. 

Dicranoiveissia cirrhata Liudb. Goudhurst, J. S. 

Campy lopmJIeA'iiosus Brid. Goudhurst, J. S. — C. pyriformis Brid. 
Goudhurst, J. S. 

Dicmnum scoparhim Hedw. Goudhurst, J. S. — D. Bonjeani De 
Not. Ginning's Springs, Westenhanger ! 

Fissidens hryoides Hedw. Forest Hill, E. G. ; Goudhurst, J. S. 
— F. exilis Hedw. Pickhurst Green, near Bromley, L, J, C. — F. 
adiantoides Hedw. Folkestone, Miss K. Appleford. — F. taxifolius 
Hedw. Forest Hill, E. G. ; Goudhurst, J. S.—F. viridulus Wahl. 
Goudhurst, J. S. 

Grimmia apocarpa Br. & Sch. Goudhurst, J. S.; Sevenoaks; 
Egerton ; Newington, near Sandgate ! — G. pulrinata Sm. Maid- 
stone ! Tenterden, Dr. E. A. Heath ; Goudhurst, J. S. — G. tricho- 
pkylla Grev. Hydropathic grounds and Rusthall Common ; Tun- 
bridge Wells, abundantly ! Goudhurst ! 

Rhacomitrium aciculare Brid. Goudhurst, J. S. 

Acaulon muticum C. M. {Phascum). Sevenoaks ; Eynsford, 
abundantly ! 

Phascum cuspidatum. Schreb. Goudhurst, J. 8. — P. Flcerkeanum 
W. & M. Keston, L. J, C. — P. curvicolle Hedw. Shoreham ! 

Pottia recta Lindb. Folkestone Warren ! — P. minutala Br. & Sch. 
Goudhurst ! — P. Starkeana C. Miill. Bedgebury Wood ! Dover I — 
P. trimcatula L. Goudhurst, J. S. — P. cavifolia Ehrh. Kemsing ! 
Dover ! — P. lanceolata Schimp. Seal ! Folkestone ! — P. intermedia 
Fiirnr. [trimcatula L. /S major), Goudhurst, J. S. ; Coney Hill, 
Hayes, L. J. C. 

Tortula ainbigua Angstr. Goudhurst, J, S. — T. aloides Br. & Sch. 



KENT MOSSES 229 

Goudhurst, J. S. — T. marginata Br. & Sch. Goudhurst, J. S. ; 
Southborongb, Tunbridge Wells ; Chipstead ; and White Rock, 
near Sevenoaks ; Sandling, near Maidstone ; on bricks, Bromley, 
L. J. C. — T. inutica Lindb. {latifolia Br. & Sch.). Goudhurst, J. S. 
— T. siibuJata Brid. Tunbridge Wells ; Goudhurst, J. S. — T. muralu 
Hedw. and var. cestlva Brid. Goudhurst, J. S. — T. ruralis Hedw. 
Goudhurst, J. S. — T. intermedia Berk. Goudhurst, J. S. — T. l(evipila 
Schwaegr. Goudhurst, J. S. ; Sevenoaks ! — T. papillosa Wils. 
Goudhurst, J. S. ; Sevenoaks ! Hayes Ford, near Bromley, L. J. C. 

Barbula luiidalAndih. {Trichostonnim). Tunbridge Wells; Shore- 
ham ; Ightham ; Greenhithe ; Lenham ; Sandgate. In fruit, in 
December, near Godden Green, and near Bessell's Green, on stones, 
partly immersed in the ground ! Goudhurst, J. S. ; Down, L. J. C. — 
B. rubella Mitt. [Tricliostomum), Goudhurst, J. S.\ Sevenoaks! — 
B. tophacea Mitt. {Tricliostomani). Goudhurst, J . 8. — B. fall ax Hedw. 
Goudhurst, J. S. — B. rigidnla Mitt. (Tortula). Goudhurst, J. S. — 
B. cylindrica Schimp. {Tortula insulana De Not. ). Seal ; Sevenoaks ! 
Goudhurst, J. iS. — B. vinealis Brid. (Tortula). Riverhead ! fruiting 
near Sevenoaks and Maidstone ! Goudhurst, J. S. — B. sinuosa 
Braithw. (Tortula). Basted ; Lenham ! — B. Hornschuchiana Schultz. 
[Tortula). Shoreham ! Borough Green ! Bessell's Green ! — B. revo- 
lutu Brid. (Tortula). Riverhead! Tunbridge Wells! Goudhurst, J. S. 
— B. convoluta Hedw. (Tortula). Keston Common ; Folkestone ! 
Sevenoaks ! Goudlnirst, J. S. — B. unguiculata Hedw. (Tortula). 
Goudhurst, J. S. 

Leptodontium jiexifolium Hampe. Bedgebury, Goudhurst, J. S. 

Weissia viridula Hedw. Goudhurst, J. S. — W. tenuis G. M. On 
chalk. Leaves Green, L. J. C. 

Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. Seal ! 

Zygodon viridisslmus Brid. Goudhurst, J.S.\ Folkestone Warren ! 
— Var. ^ rupestris Lind. In fruit on a wall near Bessell's Green I 

Ulota Bruchii Brid. Goudhurst, ./. 8. ; Ightham ! — U. phyllantha 
Brid. Sibertswold ! 

Orthotrichum cupulatuDi Hofi'ni. Kemsing. — O. saxatile Brid. 
Sandgate ! West Mailing ! — O. tenelluin Bruch. Chilstone Park, 
near Charing! — 0. ft//i?i^ Schrad. Wrotham! West Mailing! Siberts- 
wold ! — O. Sprucei Mont. Goudhurst, J. S. 

Ephemerwii serratum C. M. Kevington and Farningham Woods, 
L. J. C. ; Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Br. & Sch. Goudhurst, J. S. ; Ight- 
ham ! Seal ! 

Funaria fascicularis Schimp. Grove Park, L. J. 0. — L. hygro- 
metrica Hedw. Chevening! Borough Green! Stone Street! Swans- 
combe Wood ! West Mallmg ! Goudhurst, J. S. 

Aulacomniou palustre Schwaegr. (Gyimocybe). Goudhurst, J. S. ; 
the fructification rare.— J. androgynum. Schwaegr. Goudhurst, J. S. ; 
Stone Street ! Southborough, W. Fawcett. 

Bartraniia pumiformis Hedw. Goudhurst, rather rare, J. S. 

Philonotis fontana Brid. Keston Common ! Westenhanger 1 
Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Leptohryum. pyriforme Wils. Goudhurst, J. 8. 



230 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

Webera wttans Hedw. {Lamp rophy Hum). Rusthall Common ! 
Keston Common! Goudhurst, J. 8. — W. annotina Schwaegr. (Lam- 
prophyllum). Goudhurst, J. S. — W. carnea Schimp. (Lampro- 
plujlhim). Beechborough ! Folkestone ! Goudhurst, J. 8. — W. anno- 
tina Schwaegr. {LatnprophyUum). Goudhurst, J. 8. — W. albicans 
Schimp. {LamprophiiUum). Goudhurst, J. 8. — W . Tozeri Schimp. 
[Epipteri/rjium). Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Brt/wn pendulum Schimp. Catford Bridge, E. George. — B. tor- 
quescens Br. & Sch. Folkestone Warren, abundantly ! — B. ccespiti- 
cium L. Maidstone ! Kemsing ! — B. capillare L. Goudhurst, J. 8. ; 
Basted! — B. Donianum. Grev. Godden Green; fruiting in Seal 
Hollow Road, Sevenoaks! Goudhurst, J. 8. — B. atropurpureum 
Web. & Mohr. Folkestone Warren ! Goudhurst, J. 8. — Var. tjmci- 
lentum Tayl. Kevington, L. J. C. — B. erythrocarpum Schwaegr. 
Pole Hill! Seal Park! Goudhurst, J. 8.; Ashover Wood, Penshurst! 
B. murale Wils. Sevenoaks ! Basted ! Boxley, near Maidstone ! 
Tunbridge Wells ! Greenhithe ! Newiugton, near Sandgate ! Goud- 
hurst, J. 8. — B. alpinnm. Hads. Spring Park Wood, L. J. 0. (The 
locality is a somewhat unusual one, from its low elevation.) — B. 
aryenteum Linn. Catford Bridge, E. Givrye; Goudhurst, W. E. N. 
— B. roseum Schreb. Holwood, L.J. C. ; Godden Green and Bessell's 
Green, near Sevenoaks ! 

Mnium ajfnie Bland. Ightham ! — M. undulaUun L. Hunger- 
shall Rocks ! fruiting abundantly on a large detached rock, April, 
1878, since destroyed ; Chevening Park ! Goudhurst, J. 8. — M. 
cuspidatum Hedw. Knowle Park, Sevenoaks, fruiting occasionally. 
— M. rostratnm Schrad. Tunbridge Wells, T. Walker ; Seal ! 
Goudhurst, J. 8. — M. hornum, L. Sevenoaks, abundantly ! Goud- 
hurst, J. 8. — M. undulatum. Hedw. Cranbrook, A. W. Hudson. — 
M. punctatum L. Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Fontinalis antipyretica L. Seal ! Mereworth Woods ! Lulling- 
stone Park ! Goudhurst, J. N. 

CrypJicea heteromalla Mohr. Sevenoaks ! Chevening ! Goud- 
hurst, J. 8. 

Neckera complanata Huebn. Dunton Green ! Goudhurst, J. 8. ; 
Bredhurst ! — A', pumila Hedw. Tunbridge Wells ! Goudhurst, J. 8. 

tlumalia trichomanoides Brid. Sevenoaks ! Bredhurst ! Goud- 
hurst, J. 8. 

Fteryyophyllum lucens Brid. Goudhurst, in fruit! 

Leucodon smiroides Schwaegr. Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Leskea poly car pa Ehrh. Goudhurst, J. 8. 

Anomodon viticulosus Hook. & Tayl. Goudiiurst, J. 8. ; Green- 
hithe, E. George ; fruiting near Ightham Moat, White Rock, and 
Godden Green, near Sevenoaks ! 

Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S. Hungershall Rocks! 

Thuidium abietinum B. & S. {T. histricosum Mitt.). Cudham I 
Shoreham ! — T. tamariscinum B. & S. Goudhurst, J. 8. — T. recog- 
nitum Hedw. Near '' The Fox," Keston, L. J. C. 

Isothecium myurum Brid. Goudhurst, -/. 6'. 

Cylindrothecium concinnum Schimp. Brastead andDown, L. J. 0. ; 
Kemsing I 



KENT MOSSES 



231 



Pleuropiis aericeus Dixon [Homalotheclum). Dunton Green, £". G. ; 
West Mailing, in fruit ; Goudhurst, J. S. 

Camptothecium lutescens B. & S. Greenhithe, E. George', Dover! 

Br achy thee iiun (/lareosum B. & S. Iglitham ! — B. albicans B.&S. 
Bedgebury Wood, J. S. — '^B. salebroswn B. & S. Bredhiirst, 
J. Marten. — Var. y palnstre Schimp. Syn. Biddenden ! — B. rii- 
tahulum. B. & S. Forest Hill, E. George ; Goudhurst, J. 8. — 
B. rivuJare B. & S. Goudhurst, J. 8. — B. velutinuin B. & S. St. 
Paul's Cray, E. George ; Goudhurst, J. 8. — B. populeum B. & S. 
Bredhurst ! — B. piionosuui B. & S. Hungershall Rocks ! Bedgebury 
Wood, J. tS'. — B. c(Espltoswn, Dixon. Knowle Park, Sevenoaks ! 
Goudhurst, J. 8. — B. purum Dixon. Goudhurst, J. 8, ; Green- 
hithe, E. George. 

Eurhynchium crassinervlum B. & S. Beechborough ! Godden 
Green ! — E. piliferum, B. & S. Goudhurst, J. 8. — E. prcElongum 
B. & S. Cheveuing ! Goudhurst, J. 8. — E. Swartzii Hobkirk, 
Goudhurst, J. 8. ; Ightham and near Otford, in fruit ! — E. currl- 
setitin Husn. Goudhurst, J. 8. — E. pumilum Schimp. Pole Hill, 
Duuton Green ! Goudhurst, J. 8. — E. myosuroides Schimp. Goud- 
hurst, J. 8. — E. teuelluin Milde. Greenhithe, E. George — ''■Var. 
scabrellum Dixon. Farningham, L. J. C. ; Sevenoaks, Shore- 
ham ! — E. striatum B. & S. Greenhithe, E. George ; Goudhurst, 
J. 8. — E. abbreviatum Schimp. Goudhurst, J. 8. — E. muraJe 
Milde. Basted. — E. coufertum Milde. Greenhithe. E. George. — 
E. megapolitaniwi Milde. Sevenoaks ! 

Plagiotheciuvi depressiwi Dixon. Stone Street ! Maidstone ! 
Bredhurst ! — P. latebricola B. & S. Chipstead ! Goudhurst, with 
gemmae, J. 8. ! woods between Bromley and Beckenham, L. J. C. 
— P. denticulatiim B. & S. Cheveuing Park, E. G. ; West Mailing! 
— P. sylvaticiim B. & S. Bredhurst ! — P. undulatum B. & S. 
Greenhithe, E. G. — P. silesiacum B. & S. On stumps of Castanea 
vesca, Kippiugton, Sevenoaks ! 

Amhlystegium serpens B. & S. Greenhithe, E. G. — '''A. variutn 
Lindb. Kemsing, L. J. C. — -''A. Juratzkce Braithw. Wood between 
Bromley and Beckenham, L. J. C. — A. irriguum Schimp. Near 
Ightham Moat, in fruit ! — A.Jilicinuin De Not. Dunn's Green ! 

Hypniun riparium B. & S. (Amblystegiian). New Cross, E. G. ; 
Weald, Sevenoaks. — H. polygamuw Schimp. Ginniug's Springs, 
near Westeuhanger ! — //. chrysophylliiui Brid.. Woods near Cudham, 
abundant; Shoreham ; Bredhurst I Cranbrook, A.W.Hudson. — 
H. admicuni Hedw. var. ft Kneiifii. Goudhurst, J. 8. ; Folkestone 
Warren, plentifully ; New Cross, E. G. — H. exannulatum Giimb. 
Greenhithe ! — • H. cupressifonne L. Greenhithe, E. G. — H. mol- 
luscum Hedw. Dover ! — H. strauiineum. Dicks. Goudhurst, J. 8. 
— H. cordifolium Hedw. Ginuing's Springs, near Westeuhanger, 
very rare; Frizley Bog, Cranbrook, A. W. Hudson. — H. cuspidatum 
L. Bredhurst ! — H. 8chreberi Lindb. Greenhithe, E. G. ; Tun- 
bridge Wells ! 

Hylocomium splendens B. & S. Tunbridge Wells ! — H. loreum 
B. & S. Tunbridge Wells ! 



282 



ALOPECURUS HYBRIDUS IN BRITAIN. 
By a. Bkuce Jackson. 

In the autumn of 1899 my friend Mr. Henry Bromwich showed 
me an Alopecurus which he gathered in wet spots on the banks of the 
Avon at Kenilworth, and which exhibited several marked features of 
interest. While partaking of the characters of A. genicidatus and 
A. pratensis, it could not be satisfactorily referred to either species, 
and indeed seemed to be exactly intermediate between them. In 
this Journal for 1899, p. 358, Mr. Arthur Bennett, in a note on 
Mr. Mitten's Alnpccariis pronus (now expunged from our list as a 
monstrosity), mentioned another plant, the A. hyhridus Wimmer 
[A. pratensi-r/eniciilatU!i Wichura), described in Garcke's Flora vun 
Nord- und Mittel Deiitschkaid (ed. vi. p. 438), and alluded to by 
Syme in EiKjlish Botani/, vol. xi. p. 26, who possessed specimens 
from Bremen collected by Dr. Focke. The publication of this 
note led me to devote special attention to the Warwickshire 
novelty, specimens of which liad been furnished me by the 
discoverer. Suspecting that it might be Wimmer's plant, I 
subsequently forwarded an example to Prof. Hackel, who wrote : 
** Your grass is certainly the Alopecurus hi/bridus Wimmer (A. pra- 
tensis X (jeniculatus Wichura). Whether it is a hybrid or not I am 
unable to decide, but there is reason to suppose that it is of hybrid 
origin." 

On July 15th last, accompanied by Mr. Bromwich, I visited the 
Warwickshire locality, a low-lying meadow bordering the River 
Avon at Chesford Bridge, Kenilworth. The meadow had been 
mown prior to our visit, but we were fortunate enough to find the 
Alopecurus in considerable abundance on the moist margin of the 
field, where it was associated with coarse herbage which had escaped 
the scythe. The plant soon attracts attention by reason of its 
straggling growth and general luxuriance. The upper leaf-sheaths 
are remarkably glaucous, and in this respect the plant recalls 
A.fulvus, but in structure it differs entirely from that species. It 
resembles A. (jeniculatiis in habit, but the flowering spikes are 
usually much longer and stouter than in that plant. 

The following is a translation of Wimmer's original description 
of A. hyhridus in his Flora von Schlesien, ed. 3, p. 31 (1857) : — 

** Alopecurus hybridus, n. sp. A. nigricans Wichura im 
Jahresber. d. Schles. Geseilsch. 1846, p. 61. Culm ascending, 
geniculate, glabrous ; ligule lengthened ; glumes hairy on the 
back, almost shaggy, ciliated, rather blunt, obliquely truncate ; 
awns oblique or slightly geniculate. Found only once, in 1845, 
by Wichura, at the edge of a pool near Reichenbach, in company 
with A. pratensis and A. geuiculatus. Habit and size similar to the 
preceding [A. pratensis] , but in the construction of the flowers 
nearer to A. geuiculatus. The glumes of a dull purple at the point, 
almost one-third larger iho^n A. geuiculatus : awn about the same 
length. Wichura considered this a hybrid of A. geuiculatus and 



ALOPEOUnUo HYBRIDUS IN BRITAIN 



283 



A. pratensis, but the characters of our plant do not favour this 
supposition, the soft ciliated glumes being against the hybrid 
theory. I am more inclined to consider it a form of A. nigricans 
Hornem., but neither the description in Fries nor the original 
specimens — in which the glumes are shaggy and have no awns, 
and the culms are upright — agree with A. nigricans. I have in 
the meantime therefore placed this form under a new name." 

Dr. Heidenreich, in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. xvi. 277 (1866), 
discusses Wichura's A. pratensis x (jenicidatus at considerable 
length. He gives comparative descriptions of the plant and its 
assumed parents, and contrasts them as follows : — 



A. irratensis. 

Culmi validi, erecti, 
pedales et ultra. 



Folia 6-9 unciales longa, 
summum 2-6 unc. 
longum. 

Ligula brevis, lineam 
longa, truncata. 

Panicula crassa, '^-4 un- 
cias longa, 3-4 lineas 
lata, ramis 1-7 spiculas 
gerentibus. 

Spiculte 2 lineas longte, 
ovato-lanceolatiK. 

Glumse acutae, tertia ima 
parte connatfe, carina 
villoso-ciliata. 

Palea acutiuscula, 



A. pratensis x geniculatus. 

Culmi subgraciles, basi 
procumbentes, genicu- 
lato-adscendentes ; ela- 
tiores quam in A. geni- 
culato ; l§-2 pedales. 

Folia 4-6 uncias longa, 
summum 1 rarissimo 
3 uncias longum. 

Ligula oblonga, 2 lineas 
longa, obtusiuscula, 

Panicula subgracilis, If- 
2| unc. longa, 2| raris- 
simo 4 lineas lata ; ra- 
mis 1-4 spiculas geren- 
tibus. 

Spicule If lin. longae, ob- 
longo-lanceolatae, sub- 
ovatae. 

Glumte obtusiusculffi, 
quinta v. quarta ima 
parte connate ; carina 
piloso-ciliata. 

Palea obtusiuscula. 



A. geniculatus. 

Culmi graciles, basi pro- 
cumbentes geniculato- 
adscendentes ; 1-2 pe- 
dales. 

Folia 2-4 uncias longa, 
summum ^-1 unc. 
longum. 

Ligula elongata, 2-3 
lineas longa. 

Panicula gracilis, 1^-2 
uncias longa, 2-3 lineas 
lata ; ramis 1-2 spiculas 
gerentibus. 

Spiculfe lineam longfe, 
ovato-oblongcG. 

Gluma3 apice subtruncato- 
obtusse, basi ima con- 
nataB ; carina ciliata. 

Palea obtusissima. 



On examination I find that the Warwickshire plant exhibits all 
the characters ascribed to A. hgbridus by the above authors. As 
will be seen from the accompanying descriptions, the flowering 
glumes and pale afford an important distinguishing character. 
They differ markedly from A. pratensis in being considerably smaller 
and blunter, but not so obtuse as in A. gejiicidatus. The ciliation 
of the glumes is also very conspicuous, the hairs being apparently 
stiffer and coarser than in the allied plants. I am inclined to think 
that this Foxtail is a cross resulting from the association of the 
above mentioned species. In support of the hybrid theory I must 
point out that we found both the alleged parents occurring almost 
within a stone's-throw of the meadow which yields A. hgbridus. Mr. 
Bromwich suggests that both A. geniciihitiis and A. pratensis may 
have originally occurred in the field, and that the resiilting hybrid 
may have survived its parents there. In no description of this 
plant can I find any mention of the glaucous sheaths. This 

Journal of Botany. Vol. 39. [July, 1901.] s 



234 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

character may not, however, be a permanent one, although it is 
very marked in Warwickshire examples. 

Last autumn the Rev. H. P. Reader sent me a carious Alopecunis 
collected by him in very wet spots by the Trent near Armitage, 
Staffordshire. This plant has not the glaucous tint of the Warwick- 
shire A. hi/hndiis, and the hairs fringing the glumes are finer and 
less shaggy; but in all other respects it resembles Wimmer's plant, 
and must, I think, be left under it. It is difficult to understand 
why Wnnmer named the Silesian novelty A. hybrldus, while doubting 
its hybrid origin. 

I have not had an opportunity of consulting the specimens 
named A. promis in Mr. Borrer's herbarium at Kew, but Newbould, 
who, according to Syme, made a casual examination of them, ex- 
pressed the opinion that there was a mixture of specimens, or that 
they were hybrids. If the latter be the case, it is possible, as Mr. 
Bennett suggests, that they are the same as A. hyhridus. 

I hope that British botanists will keep a look-out for this 
interesting grass during the present summer. It may possibly 
prove to be not uncommon in moist meadows. 

P.S. — Since writing this paper, Prof. Hackel has supplied me 
with further information regarding A. hyhridus, and has also fur- 
nished me with its distribution on the Continent. The following 
is an extract from his letter : — 

''Alopecunis hyhridus Wimm. Fl. v. Schles. 3 ed. 31 (1857) is 
certainly a hybrid oi }>ratensis x genicuJatus; Wimraer himself gave 
this name [prat, x genie.) for it in Denkschr. Schles. Gesellsch. 149 
(1853) ; at a later period (1857) he doubted the hybrid nature of 
the plant, but he was wrong in doing so. The identification with 
A. nigricans Horn. {A. ventricosus Pers., A. arundinaceus Poir.) was 
made by Wichura in Act. u. Verand. Schles. Ges. 1845, 59 ; 1846, 
p. 63, not by Wimmer, and was erroneous. 

" The synonymy of the plant is : — 

Alopecurus pratensis X GENicuLATUS Wimmer, Denkschr. 

Schles. Ges. 1853, p. 149. 
A. nigricans Wichura, I.e. 1846, p. 63, non Hornem. 
A. hyhridus Wimm. Fl. v. Schles. ed. 3, p. 31 (1857). 
A. intermedius Hallier, FL v. Helgol. Bot. Zeit. xxi. (1863). 

" Distrihution. Germany : Bremen, Helgoland, Tilsit, Jena, 
Saalfeld, Leipzig, Schlesien (Lieguitz). Bohemia: Prepechy. 
Galizia : Lemberg. Russia: Fernia, St. Petersburg." 

[The plant is also described in Ascherson and Graebner's 
Synopsis Mitteleuropdischen Flora, liefer, vii, part 2, pp. 138, 139 
(1899), to which reference may be made. — Ed. Journ. Bot.] 



236 



TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE var. PARVIFLORUM. 
By I. H. BuRKiLL, M.A., F.L.S.- 

There are three abnormal states of the common red clover in 
which the corolla is found unduly shortened. One of these is due 
to an insect larva which feeds within the bud, stunts its growth, 
causes it to remain closed and the basal parts to be fleshy ; the 
second occurs wheu the petals are in part sepaloid ; the third is a 
condition in which the corolla-tube is crumpled and the ovary 
slightly foliaceous ; moreover it generally has peduncles to the 
heads and short pedicels to the llo\vers. This last is Trifoliiim. 
pratense var. parvijiornui, and has the following synonymy : — 

T. pratense var. parcijioram Babingt. Manual Brit. Bot. ed. 1 
(1843), p. 72 ; Lange in Oeder's Flora Danica, t. 2782. 

T. brachystylos Knaf in Lotos, 1854, p. 237. 

r. pratense var. pedicellatiun Knaf ex Celakovsky, Prod. d. Flora 
von Boehmen, iii. (1875) p. 669. 

r. pratense forma 7'. brackyanthemiun /? heterophi/lliiin Rouy in 
Rouy et Foucaud, Floie de France, v. (1899) p. 120 (pub- 
lished as Ann. Soc. Sc. Nat. Charente-infer.). 

Babington's type-specimens from Elgin, as well as others from 
Plymouth and Walton-on-Naze, and a type of Lange's figure have 
been accessible to me in the Herbarium at Cambridge ; a type of 
Knaf's name, collected by Auerswald in Bohemia, f has been seen 
in the Botanical Department of the British Museum of Natural 
History, South Kensington ; at the Royal Gardens, Kew, are speci- 
mens collected at Fairmile in Surrey, at St. Leonards, at Tonbridge 
Wells, and at Elgin, from the herbaria of Borrer and H. C. Watson, 
and from near Bordeaux, collected by C. des Mouhns ; and I have 
myself collected it at Hunstanton in Norfolk, Grattou Park in Surrey. 
Waltham St. Lawrence in Berkshire, and (in company with Mr, 
G. Nicholson) near Heiligeublut in Carinthia^on each occasion a 
single root. All these specimens agree very closely. 

The first definition of the variety parvljionim runs: "heads 
more or less stalked : calyx-teeth as long as, or longer than, the 
corolla," and is correct as far as it goes. Celakovsky 's description 
is '' Ahren grosstentheils gestielt ; Bliitheu langer oder kiirzer 
gestielt ; Deckblatter theilweise ausgebildet ; Grififel kiirzer als die 

* [Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 
vol. xi. part I. pp. 29-31. Read 26 November, 1900.] 

t [Mr. BurkiU has omitted to notice that the type was collected, not by 
Auerswald (from whose herbarium it came) but by Knaf himself, at Tomatan, 
in June, 1856. The attached label is signed by Knaf, who had named the plant 
T. hr achy stylos, and then added the following note : " Ditfert a T.pratensi tlori- 
bus plus minus longi pedicellatis, pedicellis interdum ramosis, stylis brevioribus, 
tubum corollse non asiiuantibus, capitulis aliis bractea suffultis, aliis saape desti- 
tutis; foliolis fol. rad. apice emarginatis, etc. 'Lotos' etc. Nihilominus tamen 
varietatem memorabilem T. pratensis esse puto, cui nomen propono : var. pedi- 
cellatiun.'" We gathered the plant many years ago at the Balham end of 
Wandsworth Common, where it occurred in some quantity. —Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

s 2 



286 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Staubgefasse." But the following is fuller and more in accord 
with the specimens: — Plant not robust; heads more or less stalked; 
bracts sometimes developed; corolla in the mature flower crumpled 
at the base within the calyx and not exceeding the longest of the 
calyx-teeth ; pistil becoming foliaceous, the ovarial part linear- 
lanceolate, and often open above ; ovules more or less aborted. 

Examination of buds not ready to expand reveals no crumpling 
of the corolla ; so that this evidently takes place in the rapid 
growth of the tube which precedes the expansion of the flower ; 
and it is impossible to resist the assumption that the unusual size 
of the ovary and the narrowness of the mouth of the calyx are the 
causes of it. 

Phyllody of the ovary to a greater degree than in typical parvi- 
fiorum is not uncommon in Tnfolium pratense ; less modification in 
this direction I have found in a plant from Glen Clova, Forfar- 
shire, where the peduncle and pedicels were undeveloped, but the 
corolla crumpled and the ovary elongated, though seen on micro- 
scopic examination to contain two normal seeds. 

Nyman * correctly called T. pratense var. parvijionim an ab- 
normal condition ; Penzig has given it a place in his Pflanzen- 
teratologie \ ; and Babington,:[; until the publication of Lange's 
incorrect figures of the petals and ovary, doubted if it were more 
than an accidental state. I have wished here to show how it 
is abnormal. 

Lange found his specimens at two localities in Denmark ; 
Ascherson § records it as occurring near Karlsruhe ; and Magnus, 
who mentions the foliaceous carpels, || had it from Memel in East 
Prussia. Others have named additional localities. 

Less robust than the common form of Tyifolium pratense, it 
resembles superficially the variety of this species called T. micro - 
phylliim by Lejeune in his Flore des environs cle Spa,*iJ a type of 
which may be seen at Kew. As Lange wrote " T. pratense var. 
microphylluvi " on the label of his specimen, I believe that he 
recognized this ; but T. viicrophyUnin (T. pratense var. microphyllani 
Lejeune & Courtois) is not an abnormality. 

Similar also in habit are plants with prolification of the flower, 
which I have seen from various places in Britain and have col- 
lected near Bagneres-de-Bigorre in the Pyrenees ; and superficially 
similar in the flower-head is T. pratense ys^v. multijidiun Seringe"* — 
another abnormality, of which a type may be seen at Kew. It is 
abnormal from sepalody of the petals. 



* GonsjJectus Florce EiirojJece, Oerebro, 1878, p. 173. 
t Genoa, 1890, i. p. 386. 

I 31 e mo rials, Journal and Botanical Correspondence of C. C. Babington, 
Cambridge, 1897, p. 421. 

§ Verhandl. hot. Vereins Brandenburg , xx. 1878, p. 110. 

II Ibid. xxi. 1879, p. 80. 

^f Liege, 1811, ii. p. 115. T. microphijlluin Desv. is T. pratense, but I ilo 
not know lor certain in what form or variety. 
** In DC. Prod. ii. (Paris, 1825), p. 195. 



237 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
XXVIII. — Periodical Publications. 

The notes on the dating and indexing of botanical periodicals 
which appeared in this Journal for 1894 (pp. 180, 271) and 1896 
(p. 168) have justified their publication, in that certain journals 
have adopted the suggestions made. The matter, however, is of 
so much importance, as everyone engaged in bibliographical in- 
vestigation knows, that I may be excused for recurring to it. It 
would certainly be a great gain to posterity if some general plan of 
dating and indexing could be agreed upon, and this should not be 
difficult, at any rate so far as dating is concerned. 

The following remarks are not intended to be exhaustive. They 
are based upon periodicals which happen to be readily accessible at 
the time of writing, and which must be constantly referred to by 
workers at systematic botany. Certain repetitions will be found of 
points indicated in the former articles; such repetitions may perhaps 
be excused on account of the practical importance of the subject. 

Dating. 

Since attention was called to the matter, the Botanische Jahr- 
hilcher has borne on the back of the title-page the date of each of 
the parts composing the volume, and in a supplement to vol. xxvi. 
is given a list of the dates of each part of the preceding twenty-five 
volumes. There is thus no difficulty in ascertaining the date of 
publication of any species included in the work. A similar reform 
has been introduced in the Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, although 
here the dates are placed on the back of the last page of the index, 
where they are likely to be overlooked, and the month only, not 
the day of the month, is given. 

The Italian periodicals are singularly unsatisfactory, not only 
in dating but in other particulars. The Nuovo Gtoniale Botanico 
Italiano appears quarterly, and bears on its wrapper and at the 
head of each number the month in which it nominally appears, but 
there is reason to doubt whether this information is altogether 
trustworthy ; the number dated January of this year, for example, 
did not arrive until the beginning of March, and the number 
of the Bullettmo delta Societd Botanica Italiana, dated " Ottobre- 
Novembre 1900," came to hand on Feb. 5th, 1901 ; this, by the 
way, is dated only on the cover. Malpu/hla is in even worse case, 
for the only date on the wrapper is that of the year of issue. It is 
styled " rassegna mensuale," but never even approximates to a 
monthly issue ; during 1899, for example, it was published in six 
parts, containing respectively fascicles 1,2; fascicle 3 ; fascicle 4 ; 
fascicles 5, 6, 7 ; fascicles 7-10; fascicles 11, 12. The curious 
Italian custom by which the title-page of a volume is issued with 
its first number instead of with its last prevents the insertion of 
the actual dates of publication on the back of the title, and in the 
case of MalpigJda further conflicts with accuracy. Of the volume 
for 1900, the part containing fascicles 1-4 was received at the 



238 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

beginning of November of that year; the second part (fasc. 5-8 j 
arrived towards the end of February last; the third part (fascicles 
9-12), completing the volume, comes at the beginning of June, but 
the title-page of the volume appeared in the first part, and, like the 
wrappers of each part, is dated 1900 ! 

The dating of the Bulletin of MUcellaneous Information lias so 
often formed the subject of comment in the?e pages that there is 
no need to refer to it further than to say that the volume for 1899 is 
still incomplete, the last number issued being that for •' September 
and October" (published in October) of that year. The reference 
to " Kew Bulletin, 190U, ined." in the Botanical Magazine for 
November last is thus likely to mislead, as no issue of the Bulletin 
(save certain appendixes) appeared during 1900. A difficulty 
may therefore arise as to the authority for the species to which 
this reference is appended; it is described (/. c) by Sir Joseph 
Hooker, and must, we think, be accredited to him, his citation of 
" Rolfe in Kew Bulletin, 1900, ined.," being that of an unpublished 
name. The actual dates of the issues of the Bulletin during 
1895-98 will be found in this Journal for 1896, 169 ; 1897, 451 ; 
1898, 239 ; 1899, 399. 

The Joimial de Botanvjue is another periodical in which the 
convenience of posterity is persistently ignored. The numbers 
since April, 1899, have been systematically misdated, several 
bearing the date 1900 not having been issued until the present 
year ; and as the title-page to the volume bears the date of the 
nominal year of issue, it will be extremely difficult in the future to 
ascertain the exact or even nearly approximate period of publication. 

In American periodicals the danger seems to lie in another 
direction. The dates of publication are given with such absolute 
exactitude as sometimes to arouse suspicion. For example, the 
January number of the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club bears 
at the foot of its first page "issued 31 January." The number 
contains sixty pages and six plates ; can we certainly conclude that 
the arrangements of the Bulletin are so perfect that no hindrance 
can possibly arise which may invalidate the entry on p. 1 ? The 
date on the last number for 1900 is Dec. 29th, in another year it was 
Dec. 30 ; here it is evident that a very slight delay would cause 
the new species appearing in the number to date from the following 
century. The Botanical Gazette is dated on the first page of the 
advertisements which precede the contents ; the drawback to this 
plan is that it disappears in the bound volume. I am inclined to 
think that the best plan yet suggested is that in the first number 
of Torreya, which states tliat " the exact date of publication of each 
issue is given in the succeeding number" : certainly by this method 
accuracy should not be difficult. 

The matter would, however, be most satisfactorily settled if 
editors would make it a rule, in cases where there is any doubt as 
to numbers being issued punctually on the first of the month, of 
placing on the back of the title-page of the volume the exact date 
of each. If this were always done, folk would know where to 
look for the intimation, which at present, even when supplied, 



PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS 239 

appears iu very different situations; and would thus be saved 
much of the unnecessary trouble which every systematic worker 
has experienced. 

I am curious to know what value is to be attached to the dates 
printed at the foot of each sheet or part of a sheet in Prof. E. L. 
Greene's Fittonia. This magazine is issued in parts in the ordinary 
way, but the dating is remarkable. For example, vol. iv. part 20, 
"January-April, 1899," is thus allocated at the foot of the pages : 
Pages 1-8, 5 Jan. 1899. Pages 25-40, 17 March, 1899. 
„ 9-16, 31 Jan. „ „ 41-52, 11 April, „ 

„ 17-24, 7 Feb. „ 
The breaks mostly occur in the middle of a genus — " A fascicle of 
New Violets," for example, is thus divided, and so is Anteunaria. 
Are these dates to be accepted as vaUd for citation ? They are 
recognized as such by American botanists, and what is known as 
the " Check-list " was issued in sheets, each bearing a date. It 
would seem to me that the distribution of such fragments ranks 
with the sending out of "advance copies" of a paper or monograph, 
and that the true date of pubUcation is that at which the work is 
obtainable by the public. 

It would, I think, tend to convenience if every plate published 
in a periodical bore the name of the periodical, as well as the 
volume and date : only in this way can plates be traced which have 
become separated from the accompanymg text. The name of the 
Botanical Magazine appears neither on plate nor letterpress; nor 
does the name of the plant figured appear on the plate. Each 
folio of the text is, however, dated ; but Hooker't! Icones Plantarnm 
has not even this aid to identification, and neither text nor plates 
bear the faintest indication of the method of their publication. The 
date of the issue of each part is given on the title-page of the 
volumes. 

Indexing. 

The Bidletm of Miscellaneous Information is now adequately, 
almost lavishly, indexed. For example, in 1891— the period at 
which " it was found necessary to publish it monthly "—an index 
to the first five volumes was issued, followed five years later by 
another general index, which included the preceding and the subse- 
quent five volumes. It may be well to note that these two mdexes 
are made on different principles, so that the entries in the 1891 
index do not necessarily appear in the one issued in 1896. Should 
a third be issued later, embracing the two former, the compiler 
would do well to rearrange the material ; the entries under " Africa," 
for example, seem to be in three alphabets, besides a fourth under 
"African"; the whole, indeed, needs the revision which it will 
doubtless receive. Meanwhile each volume is fully indexed, not 
without the kind of cross-reference dear to cataloguers, e.<j, : — 
" Library Association, visit to Kew, 200 

[see Kew) " : 

when we follow the latter instruction, all that rewards us is 
" Kew, visit of Library Association, 200," 



240 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



It would, however, tend to convenience if the index were always 
similarly placed ; in 1892 it occupies the last pages uf the volume ; 
in 1893 it follows the "contents" in the front of volume, and is 
independently paged ; in 1894 the earlier and better position is 
resumed. 

The Annals of Botany remains what it has ever been — an 
astounding example of a high- class journal, edited by men of 
undoubted position, which is devoid of the faintest pretence to 
anything in the shape of an adequate index. Under " Contents " 
we have a list of the papers in each part, exactly as they appear on 
the covers of each as issued ; then comes what is styled an "index." 
This is in two parts:— "A. Original papers and notes" ; "B. List 
of Illustrations," the latter further divided into " «. Plates," and 
"6. Woodcuts." "A" is merely a list, under authors' names, of 
the headings of the papers, once more taken from the covers of 
each part. Probably no index ever cost less trouble to make and 
more to those who want to find out what the volume contains. One 
wonders that the Clarendon Press, which publishes the Annals and 
deservedly holds a high place in matters bibliographical, can be 
content to issue a publication so inadequately indexed." 

The index of the Journal of the Linneaii Society (vol. xxxiii.) 
shows a tendency to over-elaboration. The introduction of the 
word " mentioned " when a plant is only incidentally referred to 
has something to recommend it, for it enables workers to avoid the 
annoyance of looking up any number of references before arriving 
at the place where the species is fully discussed ; but this result 
might be attained by a difference of type. We cannot think it 
necessary to index every variety and even form mentioned in 
a monograph ; for example, the fact that Arenaria yramliflora 
is monographically treated on a given page seems to preclude 
the necessity of devoting fifteen lines in the index to its 
varieties and forms. Some of the entries are unnecessarily long ; 
e.g. "Horse-Chestnut Tree, Preliminary Observations on the 
Seasonal Variations of Elevation in a Branch of, by Miller Christy, 
501-506," might assuredly be abbreviated for index purposes, and 
w^e think the page on which a paper begins is usually considered 
a sufficient reference. But the fault, if fault it be, is on the right 
side. 

The Botanical Gazette has a very full index of subjects, in which 
new names are printed in black type, and synonyms in italics ; 



* It is not only in its indexes that the Annals shows a lamentable want of 
bibliographical method. In the bibliography appended by Mr. F. F. Blackman 
to his article on " The Primitive Algae " in the issue for December last, the date 
of each paper is given after the author's name in an abbreviated form — thus, 
" Blochmann, F., '85 " ; the title of the paper, which follows, has a reference to 
the volume of the periodical in which the article appeared, but in no case to the 
page! Occasionally we have such citations as " '97 a," " '97 b," which appear 
to indicate separate papers published by the author cited during the same year. 
Mr. G. S. West's contribution on " The Alga-flora of Cambridgeshire," published 
in this Journal for 1899, is not included in the bibliography, but is mentioned by 
Mr. Blackman in a supplementary note in the March number of the Annals, 
where the date is inaccurately indicated as " '98." 



PERIODICAL PITBLICATI0N8 241 

the names of contributors are indexed, but no indication of their 
contributions is given. There are some classified entries, but these 
rightly stand in their places in the alphabetical order. The Bulletin 
of the Torreij Club follows the far less convenient plan of having three 
indexes — one, styled "contents" is a list of papers under the names 
of their authors, and follows the title-page; the others — "subject 
index" and "generic index" — come at the end of the volume. 
For general inconvenience this is a good second to the Annals of 
Botany, especially with regard to genera. Every reference to a 
genus, however incidental, is indexed, but no species, not even 
new ones, are entered ; so that, for example, in order to find what 
new Alliums have been described in the volume, twelve references 
have to be made, where one would be sufficient if the sensible plan 
of the Botanical Gazette were adopted. Pittonia has an excellent 
index of the plants described in its volumes, but the " contents " 
are arranged on no plan (or on several plans ?), such words as 
"On," " The," "A," and " Some" standing first in the entries, which 
are not alphabetical. 

The index to the Bulletin de la SociSte Botanique cle France is apt 
to be long delayed, and errs by division ; thus in vol. xliii. we have 
" Comptes rendus des Seances," arranged by dates ; then an alpha- 
betical list of the names of authors, with no indication of their 
work ; then a list of books noticed, arranged under authors' names ; 
and finally a list of names of plants. In spite of this elaboration, 
it is practically impossible to find certain papers in the index with- 
out wading through the six pages of "Comptes rendus": even 
headings which one would expect to see under names of plants — 
e. g. Prof. Van Tieghem's "Classification des Loranthees " — are not 
to be found there, and of course a paper " sur la division du noyau 
cellulaire " can only be traced in the " comptes rendus," unless one 
knows the name of the author. The Bulletin de V Herbier Boissier 
(vol. vii.) has an index of authors and one of the names of plants, 
but none of subjects ; so that, unless one knew the name of the 
author, it would be difficult to find that anything had been pub- 
lished on the " dissemination des graines par les poissons." This 
Bulletin publishes certain appendixes, the plants of which are 
included in the index ; but, as the former are paged separately and 
bound after the index, reference to them is not easy. The Journal 
de Botanique has (1) a list of articles arranged by the names of 
authors ; (2) a list of plates ; (3) a " table alphabetique generale 
des matieres," — no fewer than seven papers stand under "sur," 
and others under " le," "la," and "les"; (4) an index of the 
names of plants — four lists where one would serve. 

Prof. Engler's Botanische Jahrbllcher holds among foreign peri- 
odicals the pre-eminence for a useless index which is attained by the 
Annals of Botany among periodicals written in English. A list of 
the papers arranged under authors' names in order of publication, 
filling barely a page, is considered an adequate guide to the contents 
of a volume of more than 700 pages ! In this case the inconvenience 
is accentuated by the fact that the volume before us — vol. xxviii. — 
is almost entirely occupied by systematic papers, including the 



242 



THE Jol'RNAL OF BOTANY 



descriptions of hundreds of new species, not one of which can be 
found save by the tedious process of searching through many pages 
of print. With the volume is issued an excellent "Register" of 
the novelties described in the first twenty-five volumes of the 
Jahrbiu'her, which, although by no means adequate as an index, is 
some help towards ascertaining the systematic contents of the 
series ; it would appear therefore as if botanists must wait twenty- 
five years for a list of species described, or index each volume for 
themselves. The contrast between Bhodora, whose '24G pages occupy 
28 columns of index, and the Jahrbiirkn-, which considers about a 
page sufficient for the 705 which follow it, would be ludicrous if 
the inconvenience to workers could be left out of the question. It 
is to be hoped that Prof. Eugler will take steps to justify the 
reputation for method which Germany holds among scientific 
workers. The Botanisches Centralblatt (vol. Ixxix.) has a most 
elaborate series of indexes, twenty-three in number, each arranged 
under authors' names ; these occupy 13 pages. 

The Xiiovo Ginniale Botanico ludiaito and its adjunct the 
Biillettino give only a list of papers under authors* names alpha- 
betically arranged ; that is to say, there is no index. Mdl/jighla is 
in like case ; and so is the Annuario del B. Istitutu Botanico di 
Roma, except that in this the authors are not even arranged alpha- 
betically. 

A comparatively recent practice, which originated, if I am not 
mistaken, in this Journal for 1885, and is now generally adopted, 
is the indication (by the addition of an asteri.^k or by dift'ereuce of 
type) of novelties — wdiether penera, species, varieties, or new combi- 
nations — publi>hed in the volume. This is manifestly a convenient 
method, and should be universally adopted. 

In connection with this subject, a word may be said as to the 
indexes of systematic works. Considering how small the point is, 
it is remarkable how much inconvenience is caused by not printing 
the name of the genus at the head of each column, even when it is 
continued from the one preceding. This is omitted in Nyman's 
Conspectus, to the great detriment of ready reference. In the two 
Floras of Africa, now issuing at Kew under the same editorship, the 
name is given in one and omitted in the other. This apparently 
arises from the following with Chinese exactness the method 
adopted in the earlier volumes of each work; which, however, does 
not seem to have prevented the introduction of the new plan of 
spelling adjectival forms of proper names with a small initial 
letter. In the general index to the Flora of British India the 
preferable mode was adopted, although to the single volumes the 
indexes were printed in the criticized form. The maximum in- 
convenience is supplied in the Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs drawn 
up at Kew, where a page often begins, without any heading what- 
ever, in the middle of the synonymy of a species ! 

The question of headings to pages is closely allied to that of 
indexing, and shows a like variety. In periodicals the plan of 
giving the name of the magazine on the left-hand page, and that 
of the article on the right, is undoubtedly the best ; but the number 



SHORT NOTES 248 

of periodicals which have nothing at the head of the page is re- 
markable, including ns it does the Kew Bulletin, the Memoirs 
of the Torreij Club, Botanische Zeitung, Flora, Botaniska Notiser, 
and Oesterreichische Bot. Zeitschrift. In the Annals of Botany, the 
Bulletin of the Torreij Club, Malpi(/hia, tTournal of t/ie Linnean 
Society, Giornale Botanico Italiano, and others, the names of 
author or articles head eacli page, the name of tlie periodical 
being omitted. In systematic works, the plan adopted in the 
British Museum and Kew systematic publications of indicating at 
the head of each page the genus as well as the order under 
treatment adds greatly to the facility of consultation. In some 
important works, however — e.y. Prof. Eugler's Pfianzenwelt Ost- 
Afrikas — the pages have no heading of any sort. 

My object in calling attention to these apparently trivial matters 
is to save future workers the unnecessary expenditure of time and 
trouble which their neglect has occasioned, and is occasioning to 
the present generation of botanists. The reforms advocated are 
neither unreasonable nor difficult of execution, and it is confidently 
hoped that, in some quarters at least, they will receive favourable 

consideration. _ _ 

James Britten. 



SHORT NOTES. 



OcTODiCERAs JuLiANUM IN Britain. — I am pleased to record from 
two Worcestershire localities the very singular and interesting 
Octodiceras Jnlianum Brid., a moss not hitherto recorded from any 
British station. Tliis has been found by my enthusiastic and 
painstaking friend Mr. J. B. Duncan, of Bewdley, in two different 
localities, and in fair abundance near Stourport. Mr. Duncan 
says: "The moss is evidently quite aquatic, and, judging from its 
development, is well established ; the two localities where I gathered 
it are over a mile apart ; the plant was growing on a piece of 
natural timber along with Fontinalis and Eurhynchium ruscifonne, 
and just covered with water." The plant naturally puzzled my 
friend, as its first look is that of a Fissideus, and it might be 
mistaken for a very small narrow-leaved variety of F. polypkyllm ; 
but under the microscope the very short inferior lamina and truly 
different areolation at once decide its distinctness, and my deter- 
mination of the plant has been confirmed by Mr. H. N. Dixon. 
There appears to be no reason why this plant should not be found 
in many British streams, and it has probably been overlooked from 
the fact that it has very much the look of a Fontinalis when growing. 
It is found more or less frequently over the greater portion of 
Europe, in Canada, and the United States. Schimper and Husnot 
describe it as grov/ing on stones in water, but Mr. Dixon kindly 
informs me that Limpricht says that on the Continent it is found 
growing on tree-roots, &c., in water as well as on stones. Lesque- 
reux and James, in their Manual of the Mosses of North America, 
say, -'on stones and branches in wooded creeks and swamps." 
The following description may be useful to some : — 



244 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Plants slender, filiform, fasciculate-ramose, branching from 
innovations the whole length of the stem, or from the base only, 
floating. Leaves distant, linear-lanceolate, short-auriculate, the 
lamina ending at the auricles and three times as long. Flowers 
monoecious, terminal, on more or less elongate branchlets, the male 
axillary sometimes aggregate ; perigonium of two or three leaves ; 
fruits (cladogenous) on young shoots. Calyptra nearly black, erose 
or lacerate at base ; capsule oblong-ovate, greenish, soft, red at 
orifice, gradually narrowed to a short green pedicel, very fragile 
at the base, lid as long as the capsule, teeth short, irregularly 
laciniate or perforate above the middle, yellowish at base, pellucid. 
J. E. Bagnall. 

New Worcestershire Carices. — The recent spell of dry weather 
has afforded good opportunity for the getting of sedges and other 
water plants ; and it has been gratifying to find in a damp copse 
only four miles from the centre of Birmingham, and just within 
the Worcestershire boundary, Ctire.v Ucviijata Smith, which has not 
previously been recorded for the county, and it is also very rare in 
Warwickshire. It was kindly named by Mr. Arthur Bennett. 
Growing near it are fine patches of C. vedcaria and a quantity of 
C. strigosa, which is rare in Worcestershire and absent from War- 
wickshire. The following species can also be found in different 
parts of the copse, viz. C. Pseudo-cypenis, rostrata, valpina, remota, 
Goodenowii, and syJvatica. Part of this wood is, alas ! being used 
as a tip for rubbish by the Birmingham Corporation; but bushes 
of " guelder rose " and raspberry and the white flowers of Ruhini 
suherectm still adorn the greater portion ; and Equisetiim si/lvaticnin 
is spread over a considerable area, with E. limosum in two of the 
pools, and a great mass of Viola palustris hard by. At Stanklin 
Pool, near Kidderminster, Carex Ehrhartiana (Hoppe) is to be found 
in a boggy part of the pool, growing with the type C. teretiuscula 
Good., and interspersed with C. rostrata, as at Sutton Park. It is a 
new locality for both these sedges, and an interesting extension of 
the present range of the little-known form called Ehrhartiana. 
I understand, however, that the latter is now looked upon as 
merely a state of the true type, with which opinion I should myself 
concur. — H. Stuart Thompson. 

Carex depauperata near Bristol. — In May, 1888, I gathered 
what I thought was a young specimen of Carex sylvatica in Leigh 
Wood, on the Somerset side of the Avon ; but, observing recently 
its resemblance to an immature form of C. depauperata Good. ( = 
C. ventricosa Curtis) from Mr. Arthur Bennett, I sent my Bristol 
plant to him, and he agrees that it is depauperata. Mr. J. W. White 
tells me that it has not been seen at its old station near Axbridge, 
on Mendip, for many years ; so the appearance of this very rare 
sedge in a fresh locality in North Somerset is of some importance. 
H. Stuart Thompson. 

Ulex nanus in the Isle of Man. — Mr. L. Watt, of Clydebank, 
has sent me a specimen of undoubted na^nis from West Douglas 
Head. He says : " This is the Ule.v that is common all over from 



SPECIES GENEKA ET ORDINES ALGARUM 245 

Douglas Head to Snaefell, and from Port Erin to Ramsay." This 
being so, the doubt I expressed (p. 212) is answered. — Arthur 
Bennett. 

G-ALiuM sylvestre IN OXFORDSHIRE. — This plaut, which does not 
seem to have been recorded for Oxfordshire, was found during a 
recent excursion of the Toynbee Natural History Society, in chalk- 
fields near Bottom Farm, a few miles west of Henley-on-Thames. — 
G. L. Bruce. 

New Yorkshire Hepatics. — On May 4, 1901, on Coatham 
Marshes, North-east Yorkshire, I found a large patch of Morckia 
hihemica covered with capsules, and in such fine condition that 
Mr. Pearson says he has seen no specimens like it. From a 
distance the patch had the appearance of Pellia epiphi/lla with 
its long and crowded silvery seise. On washing out the ' Mordda, 
I found a few plants of Petalophyllim Kalfsii (Wils.) Gottsche, with 
young fruit, and quite distinct from the Morckia by the fan-like 
frond with lamella on the upper surface. It is interesting to add 
these two hepatics from the east coast of Britain. Mr. Pearson 
says the Petaloplujllum is one of the most important discoveries 
amongst the HepaticaB of recent years. — Wm. Ingham. 

Cardamine impatiens in Middlesex. — The existing records for 
this plant in Middlesex are old ones, and their correctness is doubted 
by Trimen & Dyer in their Flora, and apparently in Topographical 
Botamj. It still occurs in the county, and with every appearance 
of being indigenous ; I found several plants in June last on the 
bank of a stream in the Harrow district.— P. Whichelmore. 

The Plates of 'English Botany,' ed. hi. — Is it possible to 
ascertain who drew the plates first published in the third edition of 
English Botany? As is well known, fresh details were added to 
some of the original plates, while in some instances fresh plates 
were substituted for those of the earlier editions. Messrs. Bell & 
Sons, who bought the book from Mr. Hardwicke's assignees, have 
no information on the subject. It would be of interest to place the 
information on record, and possibly some reader may be able to 
supply it. — James Britten. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Species Genera et Ordines Algarum . . . auctore J. G. Agardh. 

Vol. III., pars 4: supplementa ulteriora et indices sistens. 

Lund: Gleerup. 1901. 8vo, pp. 148. 

The last work we are ever to receive from the pen of Prof. J. G. 

Agardh has just been published — the final supplement to his famous 

Species Genera et Ordines Algarum . This work was begun, as is 

well known, in 1848, and in 1880 the second part of vol. iii. 

appeared. Eighteen years later the third part was published,' 

coming as a surprise to phycologists, for many other papers had 



246 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

appeared in the interval, and it was supposed that the Species 
Genera et Onliiies had been finished. Now cotnes the fourth and 
final part as a last supplement, and with it an index, which not 
only refers to the last few parts and also to the Analecta and 
other works on Floridece. 

The first division of this volume deals with the affinities of the 
Floridece and the views of authors on the connection between this 
group and representatives of lower groups of alg^. Tnis is followed 
by (ii.) a treatment of the genus Callopkyllis, giving the character- 
istics of the subdivisions into which the species fall, with notes on 
certain plants and on the work of other authors. A short note on 
(iii.) Micruccelia follows, and another (iv.) on ChiDiipia. Chylocladia 
catenata forms the subject of division v., being placed by the author 
in a subdivision Endodictyon of the genus Chylocladia. 

The next division (vi.) consists of a lengthy treatment of 
(irracilaria, which genus he divides into four main groups — Macro- 
cystidece, Microcystidem, Platycystidea, and Plectocystidece, depending 
on the size and position of the thallus cells as seen in transverse 
section. Sixty-one species are enumerated, including more than 
one that is new. Two new species of Ciirdicea are next described 
(vii.), one from Australia, collected by the late Miss Hussey, and 
one from ISlew Zealand, sent by Mr. K. M. Laing. 

Division viii. treats of plants which have been placed under 
Nizzophlea and Dasyphlea ; followed by further details on Enduyenia 
(ix.), a new genus described in Analecta, Continuatio iv. Another 
new genus, Hitsseya, is next described, allied to Chondria (x.). 
It contains one species, H. austral is. A third new genus is founded 
in xi., Mlcrogowjriis, allied to Ehodyinenia, the species for which it 
was created being M. phyllophoroides, from Australia. Tlie last 
section ot" this work (xii.) is devoted to a few remarks on certain 
species of Floridea which are somewhat ambiguous — Cordylecladia 
conferta, Delesseria Bartoni(B, Thysanocladia oppositifolia, Grateloupia 
acuminata, and Grateloupia girjantea. 

The index referred to above concludes this book, three-fourths 
ot" which were seen in type by the aged author, whose untiring 
energy and wide knowledge have done so much for the study of 
phycology. E. S. B. 

Morphology of Spermatophytes. By John M. Coulter, Ph.D., and 
Charles J. Chamberlain, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. x, 188, with 106 
figures. Appleton & Go. New York. Price not stated. 1901. 

The title of this book is misleading. As it stands on the shelf 
it shows only the comprehensive statement " Seed-plants." But 
though we may condone a somewhat brief and vague statement on 
the back of a book, we expect the title-page to give a fair indication 
of its contents. The preface does not help, but the "Contents'" 
inform us that the present volume is Part 1., and deals only with 
Gymnosperms, the incomparably larger group of Angiosperms 
being presumably left for future treatment. Certainly the Gymno- 
sperms afford scope enough and to spare for one book, and we 



MORPHOLOGY OF SPEKMATOPHYTES 247 

should welcome a more emphatic separation than is expressed by 
the view which regards these and the Angiosperms as merely sub- 
divisions of one of the great divisions of the plant -world. Kobert 
Brown got as far as that nearly a century ago when he recognized 
the importance of the difference between an ovule on an open 
carpel and ovules enclosed within an ovary chamber. But from 
Hofmeister onwards the tendency of research has been to widen the 
gulf between the two subdivisions of seed-plants, and to indicate 
that in the Gymuosperms we have a group, perhaps more than one 
group, which should rank as a planD-division of equal value to 
Pteridophyta, holding a position between the fern-plants and the 
flowering-plauts proper, Messrs. Coulter and Chamberlain might 
well have seized the opportunity afforded by the publication of a 
book which recapitulates the results of recent work, and more than 
auy other emphasizes this position, to recognize that position by a 
distinctive group name. Part II. of a woriv on the same lines is at 
present an impossibility. There is much, very much more to be 
done on the gametophyte stage of the life-hibtory of the Angio- 
sperms before a volume companion to the one before us can be 
written. 

As regards the book under review, it is an excellent and authori- 
tative summary of the general morphology of the Gymnosperms. 
These are considered as including four series — Cycadales, Ginkgoales, 
ConiJ'erales, and Gnetales. The second comprises the monoiypic 
genus Ginkgo, the characters of which, as striking and peculiar as its 
name, justify its separation from the Conifers as a ditiiinct group. 
Anatomical details are referred to only where they bear directly upon 
the general character of the groups ; tiie work does not profebS to 
be a text-book of anatomy. Cytoiogical details in the gametophyte 
stage are, on the other hand, very fully described. Nor is the 
treatment, except for broad distinctions, a systematic one. Genera 
in each series are referred to as illustrating points in morphology, 
but the subdivision of the series is barely touched upon. 

Briefly we have here a book which gives just what a student has 
hitherto been unable to get in a single volume — an intellectual 
gymnospermous repast almost as perfect, from the points of view 
selected, as was possible at the time of publication, and set forth as 
regards typography and illustrations m quite the best neo-American 
style. Many of the figures are new, occasionally embodying the 
result of researches hicnerto unpubhshed, as, for instance, in the 
case of some of those describing the cytology of the gametophyte 
in the Conifers. 

The authors draw attention to an unusual limitation which they 
adopt of the two stages in the hfe-history of the plant. They regard 
the history of the sporophyte as closed with the appearance of the 
spore motuer-cell rather than with that of the spore. " Tnis has 
seemed to us to be the best defined line of demarcation between the 
two generations, both on account of the redaction division, and 
because preceding this division the mother-cell passes into a more 
or less prolonged resting condition. It certainly represents the 
greatest break in the continuity of the life-history." The seed 



248 THE JOURNAL OK BOTANY 

teaches that a prolonged resting conditiou is no argument for or 
against a morphological dividing line in life-history. But my 
colleague Mr. V. H. Blackman, who has kindly looked through the 
book with me, seems to favour this putting back of the gametophyte 
stage. In their account of the male gametophyte in the Cycads, 
the authors point out that the relation between the ciliated sperm- 
cells of the Cycads and those of the Fern-plants is rather biological 
than morphological, as each corresponds to the mother-cell of 
a fern antherozoid and not to the ciliated male cell. They are 
therefore identical with the so-called male cells of all ordinary seed- 
plants, being peculiar only in the possession of cilia. The contrast 
with Pterodophytes, where each mother-cell organises and dis- 
charges a ciliated sperm-cell, is a sharp one. 

The bibliography at the end of each chapter is useful ; we are, 
however, surprised to find no reference to Dr. Masters's work on 
the morphology and taxonomy of the Criiciferm. 

We regret that we can give no information as to the price of the 
book, the more so as it is one which the advanced student should 
read. It is difficult to understand the extreme modesty of some 
publishers in refraining from obtruding the price of a book on the 

'''''^'''- A. B. E. 

Recent American Papers on Fungi. 

In America, even more than in this country, cultivated plants 
are subject to epidemics of disease caused by parasitic fungi. An 
account of one of these pests that attacks the violet has been pub- 
lished by Mr. P.H.DorsettinBulletinNo.23 of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture. The violet disease is due to a hyphomycetous fungus, 
Alternaria ViolcE. The plants are attacked on any part and at any 
stage, but it is the growing leaves that suffer most. They are much 
disfigured by the spots and blotches caused by the fungus, and often 
entirely killed. The disease has in many places seriously checked 
the culture of violets. Mr. Dorsett suggests preventive measures, 
as fungicides are found to be ineffective. The illustrations from 
photographs are very good. 

Dr. Herman von Schrenk published last year a report on some 
of the fungi that grow on red cedar, Juniperiis virginiana ; he has 
recently issued in Bulletin 25 the preliminary results of his studies 
on some of the diseases of New England conifers caused by fungi 
of the group of PohjporecE. Most of them are well-known enemies 
of European foresters, but in the great untended woods of America 
they work more damage than they are allowed to do here. One of 
the most troublesome and the most difficult to stamp out is Polij- 
poras Schweiiiitzii, which fastens on the roots, and spreads under- 
ground from tree to tree ; the fruiting bodies are at first produced 
on the ground, and finally on the trunk of the tree. The other 
members of the group that he describes — P. j^micola, Trametes 
Pini, &c. — are wound parasites ; they gain entrance by broken 
branches, or through the holes caused by insects and woodpeckers. 
Where conditions are favourable to their growth, they very soon 



RECENT AMERICAN PAPERS ON FUNGI 240 

destroy the tree. The value of the report is greatly enhanced by 
photographs and drawmgs. 

Mr. Erwin F. Smith has given us, in Bulletin No. 26, an 
account of Wakker's hyacinth germ, Pseiidumonas UyacintJd, which 
causes a disease of hyacinths known as '* the yellow disease," or 
" Wakker's disease." Mr. Smith has followed Wakker in his 
investigation, and has confirmed the bacterial nature of the 
disease by a long and careful series of cultures and innoculations 
of healthy plants. The microbe, he tells us, " enters the plant 
through wounds, and multiplies in the vascular system, filling the 
vessels, especially those of the bulb, with a bright yellow slime 
consisting of bacteria." Gradually the whole plant is destroyed, 
and great loss is caused to hyacinth growers. The disease is con- 
fined to the Netherlands. The subject of bacteria causing diseases 
of plants is occupying more and more the attention of plant 
pathologists, and all additions to our knowledge are sincerely 
welcome. 

Bulletin No. 27, issued by the same Department, deals with the 
" Wilt-disease of Cotton, and its control." The disease, which is 
caused by a fungus that lives in the soil and attacks the roots of the 
cotton-plant, had been already described by Mr. Erwin Smith in a 
previous Bulletin. Mr. W. A. Orton has been experimenting on 
the best methods of combating the disease, and gives the results in 
this paper. It has been found impossible to kill the fungus by the 
application of fungicides to the soil, or to the plants attacked. He 
strongly advises growers to avoid planting cotton on infected soils, 
and, above all, to choose for cultivation the plants that have been 
proved to be resistant. Parasitic fungi are curiously selective as to 
their host, and, for no apparent reason, one variety of a species is 
preyed upon and another left. 

From the New York Agricultural Experiment Station there 
have been issued recently three Bulletins dealing with parasitic 
fungi. No. 182 gives the result of experiments with sulphur-lime 
in the prevention of onion-smut, Urocystis CepidcB, a disease which 
works much havoc in certain districts in America. The sulphur- 
lime is sown along with the onion-seed, and the benefit to the onion 
crops has been very marked. No. 185 discusses an appie-tree canker 
caused by Sphmwpsis Malonun. The fungus grows also on pear, 
quince, and hawthorn. Scraping the bark and whitewashing is 
recommended as a cure. 

An account of the ravages of WUzucionia occupies Bulletin 
No. 186. It is a sterile fungus forming a brown mycelium, and 
occasionally sclerotia. It has been found to be the cause of disease 
in a large series of plants both in Europe and America. These 
papers are valuable additions to our knowledge of plant-diseases, 
and their prevention or cure. 

Mr. C. G. Lloyd, of Cincinnati, has been publishing at intervals 
Mycological Notes dealing with the larger fungi, which he is willing 
to send to all students of these plants, free of charge. The latest 
of these, issued in Dec. 1900, deals with the Collybias of Cincinnati. 
Mr. Lloyd pays no regard to tradition in his systematic work ; he 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [July, 1901.] t 



250 thb: jouknal of botany 

refuses to cumber the name of the plant with the authority for the 
species, as, he thinks, b.y so doing we but minister to the vanity of 
the species maker; and also he rejects the claims of priority to 
displace a well-known name. The author writes with much en- 
thusiasm, but not always with care, and so we find such sentences 
as " we have had opportunity to since observe it rather frequent." 
Some day, we doubt not, Mr. Lloyd will cite his authorities, and 
pay attention to his style. He is issuing a series of photographs of 
Agaiics, and, if they are as good as the illustrations of his Collybias, 

they must be most helpful to students of mycology. 

A. L. S. 



Les Desmidiees de France. Par Joseph Comere. 8vo, pp. 222, 
16 plates. Klincksiek, Paris. 

This is a very pretentious volume, as it deals with the Desmids of 
the whole of France, where the most varied conditions obtain as to 
habitat, &c. We must confess that we are greatly disappointed 
with the work. It will serve the purpose of a catalogue of those 
species hitherto recorded for France ; the introductory matter 
should prove useful to the beginner, and so should the short 
descriptions of the species to a botanist ; but criticiil remarks con- 
cerning allied species, which are of the greatest use to an earnest 
student, are totally lacking. It is painfully evident that a master 
of this group of plants is still wanting to France. The number of 
species of Desmids recorded for the whole of France is some scores 
less than those on record for the county of Yorkshire alone. The 
number of localities, too, is very few — much fewer than we should 
expect from an average English county. 

On p. 25 the author writes : — '• Une bonne figure vaut toujours 
mieux pour la determination des especes qu'une description si 
parfaite qu'elle soit." We only wish that the author had given 
good figures. The drawings are certainly not good ; they are 
crude— many of them very crude — and the faults exhibited are so 
numerous that it is a difficult matter to determine where to begin 
and point out a comparatively small number of the more inaccurate 
figures. We strongly advise M. Comere to examine the figures of 
a work published on British Desmids fifty-three years ago, and 
then notice his own figures, issued after five progressive decades 
have elapsed — in a country, too, which is usually supposed to be 
much more artistic than Britain. On PI. xiv., fig. 'da and fig. 86, 
two figures are given of one of the most characteristic species — 
^' Micrasterias furcata," which certainly belong to the genus, but 
could not be mistaken for this species by the merest tyro. On the 
same plate the figure representing M. Tlwmasiana does not show 
the characteristics of that species, and the outline of 3/. Jennerl is 
not that of the type. The apices of fig. 1, PI. i., are not those of 
Closterium lineatum, and we are quite certain that no real Closteria 
exhibit the want of grace and symmetry depicted in many of the 
figures with which this genus is illustrated. On PI. vi., fig. 1, a 
caricature of PleurotcBiiiiim nodulosum is given which certainly does 
not agree with the author's description of it. The figures of 



DTCTYOSIPHON 251 

Tetvwnorns, on the same plate, make one think that French examples 
are fast deteriorating with regard to symmetry and grace. No 
attempt is made in the figures on the same plate to show the cha- 
racteristic feature of the genus DocUUwn. On PL vii. a notable 
characteristic is omitted in fig. 1. Fig. 4 does not represent 
typical Cosmariiim ccelatum, and fig. 6 is certainly a wonderful 
C. Holmieme. Fig. 36 b will do for the vertical view of a Staura- 
strum, the four angles will not do for any Cosmarmm ; the author 
had better try again to copy Wille's figure (attributed to Leme in 
the author's description of this plate). The want of symmetry 
throughout this plate is striking. Just to refer to two things out 
of many on Plate viii., fig. 1 is a bad drawing of Cosmarium 
pachydernmm, its chief characteristic being omitted, and C. Brebis- 
sonii always has twice as many papillae in the periphery as those 
figured by the author. On Plate ix., fig. 26 a certainly does not 
belong to the same species as fig. 266. On Plate x., two figures 
of FjUastrum insigne are given, whose polar lobes are totally 
different from those characteristic of this species ; and fig. 13 is 
shocking. On PI. xi. Staurastnim verticilJatum is quite wrong, and 
has obviously been copied from Cooke. On PI. xv. a figure is 
given of a species we do not believe in ; the author should compare 

itwith a specimen of Xanthidium antilopcEcum when tlie surrounding 
mucilage is contracting. Fig. 13 is also no representative of 
mature X. aculeatum. 

We have not space to comment any further on the drawings ; 
we are however of opinion that neither Messrs. Petit, Gay, 
Lemaire nor Gomout would have issued such plates as accompany 
this work. The author does not appear to have had proofs sub- 
mitted to him, as the spelling of both generic and specific names 
requires careful revision. 



W. W. 



DiCTYOSIPHON. 



A PAPER by Dr. Sv. Murbeck, entitled " Ueber den Bau und die 
Entwickelung von IHctyosiphon fceniculaceus Grev.," appears in the 
Videnskabsselskabets Skrifter. Mathem.-naUirvid. Klasse, 1900, No. 7. 
The author divides his work into the following sections : — Growth, 
Branching, Thallus Cavity, Conducting and Strengthening Tissue, 
Assimilative Tissue, Cell-tension, Hairs, Hyphfe, Attachment, Re- 
productive Organs. 

Under these headings the subject has been worked out in great 
detail, and some facts brought to notice which are interesting in 
connection with other members of the PhmophycecB. The family of 
Dictyosiphonacea, is a small one, as defined by Engler & Prantl in 
Naturl. Pflanzenfamilien, consisting only of three genera — Dictyo- 
siphon, Gobia, and Scytothamniis. Of these, the first two are repre- 
sented in the northern hemisphere, and can therefore be conveniently 
studied and compared, as is the case in the present paper, by 
European botanists ; the third — Scytothcnmnis — is only recorded 
from the South Temperate region, and an account of this genus, 



252 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



which it is hoped will soon appear, must gain largely in interest by 
a study of this examination of Dktijosiphon by Dr. Murbeck. 

The section describing the strain arising from unequal growth 
of the innermost and outermost cells of the thallus is perhaps the 
most interesting, as touching on wider biological questions than 
can be raised in the other parts of the paper. As the author says, 
the question of the tension of tissues in marine algae is a subject of 
recent study only, and the result shows a marked contrast to the 
mode of tension in the higher plants. This is of course to be 
expected in view of the wholly different surroundings of the two 
groups. Among the algae, except in the case of those which secrete 
lime, everything makes for greater flexibility and elasticity, and, 
even among plants and animals hardened by an outward secretion 
of lime, there remains, as is shown by Prof. Stewart in his paper 
on the subject,'^ uncalcified nodes between each joint, which prevent 
the plant from becoming so rigid as to cause its destruction from 
the movement of the water. It is obvious that in fairly large plants, 
such as Dictyosiphon fmiiculaceus, some such elasticity as is described 
by Dr. Murbeck is necessary for their protection. 

The growth of the hairs is fully described and figured, but no 
new facts are given concerning the use to the plant of these growths, 
so common among the PhcEophi/cecB. The formation of pits, the 
consequent enlargement of the surface of the thallus, and Prof. 
Reinke's theory as to the possible employment of the hairs in 
abstracting mineral substances from the water, is brought forward, 
and the experience of the author, in common with others, is shown 
to be that the more plentiful the hairs, the finer the plant. But 
which is cause and which effect ? When will someone experiment 
on this point in the growing plant ? 

The occurrence of hyphae in D. fceniculaceus is here demonstrated 
for the first time, though they were already known in Z). hippuroides, 
The interest lies, however, less in this fact than in the irregularity 
of their occurrence in the thallus, being found in large quantities 
in some parts, and in others not at all. The Wille theory as to the 
connection of hyphae with the assimilation of COg seems hardly to 
fit a case like this, and there are also difficulties in the way of re- 
garding them as mechanical supports. A study of allied Phceophycea 
is necessary for a solution of this question. 

A description of the mode of attachment between D. fceniculaceus 
and Chordaria, on which it grows, shows an ingenious intermingling 
of the two plants at the point of junction, and it would be interesting 
to study the mode of attachment of other members of the family, or 
of this one on other hosts. 

* Cat. Comp. Anat. R. Coll. Surgeons, i. 54. 



258 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 



Bot. Gazette (18 May).— H. N. Whitford, ' Genetic development 
of forests of N. Michigan.'— E. W. D. Holway, ' Mexican Fun^^i.'— 
■G. M. Holferty, ' Ovule and embryo of Potamogeton natans' (2' pi.). 

Bot. Zeituug (1 June).- L. J. Celakovsky, 'Die Gliederun^ der 
Kaulome (1 pi.). ° 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (31 May). — A. de CandoUe, 'Plantfe 
Madagascarienses ab Alberto Mocquerysio lect«.' — H. Christ, 
' Elaphoglossiim Bangii, une fougere ancestrale.'— K. MuUer ' Mono- 
graphie der Gattung Scapama.' — C. Meylan, 'Catalogue des 
H6patiques du Jura.' — G. Beauverd, 'Dissemination des ^raines 
par le vent.'— G. Hegi, 'Das Obere Tosstal.' 

Bull S^c. Bot. France (vol. xlviii, 1, 2 ; June).— M. de Vilmorin, 
' Annand David' (1826-1900).— E. Bescherelle, ' Flore bryologique 
de Tahiti.'— J. Comere, ' Diatomees recoltees a St. Jean de Luz '— 
E. Bornet, ' Gaspard Adolphe Chatin ' (1813-1900; portr.). — L 
Geneau de Lamarliere, ' Contribution a la Flore de la Marne '— 
L. Lutz, ' Additions k la Flore de Corse.'— D. Clos, ' Sonchus lacenis.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (21 May). — H. M. Bichards, ' Ceramo- 
thamnion Codii ' (gen. nov. ; 2 pi.). — P. A. Rydberg, ' Rocky 
Mountain Flora.' Piperia, gen. nov. orchid. (= Montolivaa Rydb ) 
— E. A Burt, ^Tremella mycetophila' (1 pi.). — A. Eastwood, 
Paroiiychm Franciscana, sp.n. - J. K. Small, ' Shrubs and trees of 
bouthern States.' — B. L. Robinson, ' Further notes on the Agri- 
monies.' —H. H. Rusby, ' Plants collected in S. America, 1885-6 ' 
(contd.). 

Gardeners' Chronicle (25 May).— 7«/7>a Wilsoniana (fig. 121).— 
(1 June). Malortiea Koscknyana Wendl. & Dammer, sp n — C *T 
Druery, 'Truncate Ferns.'— (15 June). 'Thomas Meehan' (portr i' 
(22 June). M. Foster, ' his Exvhankiana, sp. n.' (fig. 152). 

Joxirnal de Botanique (April ; received 28 May).— C. Sauvageau, 
' Les Sphacelariacees ' (cont.).— H. Hua & A. Chevalier, ' Les Lan- 
dolphiees du Senegal,' &c. (concl.). - C. Gerber, 'La respiration 
des Olives (concl.). 

Malpighia (xiv. fasc. 9-12; dated 1900, received 5 June) — 
Mattirolo, ' Sulla importanza pratica della Botanica scientilica '-^ 
G.Lopriore;A. B.Frank '(1839-1900; portr.).-Id.,'^.,,rr^.f«^ 
novae. — A. i^iori, - Nuovo microtomo automatico.'— G. B. Tra verso 
'Micromiceti de Tremezzina.'— A. Piccone, ' Noterelle Ficologiche ' 
id., ' Flora marina del Mar Rosso.'— A. Beguinot, ' Carex GrioletiV 

Oesterr Bot. Zeitschrift (May and June ; received 19 June).— 
E. Hackel, ' Neue Graser.' — M. Soltokovic, ' Die perennen Arten 
der Gentiana aus der Section Cyclostigma.' — (May). 0. E. Schulz 
♦Zur geographischen Verbreitung des Melilotus poloniciis.' — yI 

; The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
pubHc'a^or'' '' """'' "°' '^"^"^^ ^' '""'''"'^ '^^' '^'' ^'''^' actualdatlof 



254 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Scbiffuer, ' Einige Materialism zur Moosflora des Orients.' — 
(June). A. Burgerstein, ' A. V. Kerner's Beobaclitiingen iiber 
die Zeit des Oeffnens und Schliessens von Bliiten.' — J. Vilhelm, 
' Neue teratologische Beobachtungen an Parnassia palustris.' — J. 
Doriler, Centaurea Halacsyi, sp. n. 

Rhodora (20 May).— F. Lamsou-Scribner & E. D. Merrill, 'New 
England Panicums.' — F. 0. Collins, ' Notes on Algae.' — A. Rehder, 
' Hybrids of Quercus ilicifolia ' (1 pL). — (June). Botany of Mount 
Katahdin. — J. F. Collins, ' Bryopbytes of Maine.' 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

We have received from Mr. Upcott Gill the second and con- 
cluding part of the Century Supplement to the Dictionary of Gardening, 
of which the earlier portion was noticed on p. 48. We have already 
expressed our opinion of the merits and demerits of the work, the 
former of which greatly outweigh the latter. The coloured plate of 
daffodils, which faces the ugly title-page, is a disfigurement rather 
than an ornament to the book — a criticism which applies to several 
of the illustrations in the text — and is made uglier by the blue 
lettering employed ; and some of the information given — e. g. as to 
the apparatus used for "spraying" — reads like an advertisement. 
We note many references — e. g. under Quercus — to the discrepancies 
m nomenclature between the '' Kew Hand-list" and the Index 
Keivensis. 

It is announced that Prof. C. E. Sargent's Silva of North America 
will be supplemented by two extra volumes, containing plates and 
descriptions of trees added during the last ten years to the region 
covered by the work. The new volumes will contain 115 plates, 
and will be published next spring. 

Messrs. W. & G. S. West are issuing in the Transactions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union a localized list of tbe freshwater algae 
of the county. A hundred pages of the list, embracing 470 species 
and many varieties, have already been issued, this being less than 
half the number to be recorded. Many species are recorded for the 
first time in Britain. The authors give those synonyms which they 
consider will be useful to future workers, and they express a hope 
that the list " will be deemed worthy to form an acceptable and 
substantial basis-list, serving as a useful guide to future workers 
both in the matter of the classification of these plants and in the 
species they may expect to find." Judging by the numerous 
localities under a large number of the species, much of the ground 
seems to have been well worked. It is probably the most complete 
list of fresh-water nlgse ever issued for any district. 

The first part of vol. viii. of the Flora of Tropical Africa has 
been issued. The following botanists have contributed : Mr. N. E. 
Brown {Pontederiacece, Xyridea, Aroidea) ; Mr. C. B. Clarke (Com- 
melinacecB) ; Mr. J. G. Baker (Juncacea) ; Mr. C. H. Wright {Palmea 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 255 

aud Pandaned). Tlie genus Zy(j(uithera N. E. Br. is established on 
Englei's figure and description of Fseudohydrosme BiUtneri. 

A NEW part (vol. iii. part 2) of Mr. J. M. Wood's Natal Plants 
contains figures and descriptions of twenty-five South African spe- 
cies, among which are some well-known and other more interesting 
■plants — e.g. Strycknos Henninysii Gilg., Olea Woodiana Knobl., 
Gladlulus inandensis Baker. 

In the new part (cxxv. ; issued May 15) of the Flora BrasiUensis, 
Prof. Cogniaux continues his enumeration of the Orchidacece. We 
note under the species of (Jattleya an extensive enumeration of the 
apparently interminable florists' varieties : the synonymy of C 
labiata alone occupies about twenty closely printed columns ! 

Biltmore Botatiical Studies is the most recent addition to the 
list of American periodicals. The first number is dated April 8, 
1901; it will be " issued at irregular intervals " — a phrase which 
might be added to the title of certain periodicals nearer home — and 
is described as "a Journal of Botany embracing papers by the 
Director and Associates of the Biltmore Herbarium." The papers 
in the presenc issue are careful pieces of work ; they comprise a 
paper on CratcEyiis by the Director, Mr. C. D. Beadle, in which 
twenty-one new species are described ; the large crop of North 
American novelties in this genus at present leads us to express a 
hope that the old types are sufficiently understood. With Mr. F. E. 
Boyutou Mr. Beadle gives a revision of Marshallia, illustrated by 
eleven plates, and with Mr. C. L. Boynton discusses certain species 
of Budbeckia. A paper on " new or little-known species of Trillium'' 
is contributed by Mr. T. G. Harbison. Messrs. Wesley & Son are 
the London agents for the periodical ; the price of the present 
number is fifty cents. 

The " Minutes of Evidence taken before the Departmental 
Committee on Botanical Work and Collections at the British 
Museum and at Kew wdth Appendices and Index to accompany 
the Report presented to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury dated 11th March 1901 " have been printed, but have 
not yet, we believe, been published. 

The new part (dated 21 June; of Da>> Fjianzenreich is devoted 
to a Monograph of the Munimiaceoi by Miss Janet Perkins and Dr. 
Gilg. In Die Xatilrliche Pjiajizenfaiiiilieu the Mosses are continued; 
the latest iustahnent contains the Andrseales and Bryales, by 
Dr. Brotherus and W, Ruhland; and the Dicranacece, for which Dr. 
Brotherus alone is responsible. 

The accuracy in general matters for which the Daily Mail has 
long been conspicuous, extends to its botanical information. We 
reproduce the most recent item in the hope that the publicity now 
given to the methods of the " professional botanist" will cause him 
to abstain from this nefarious means of adding to his income : — 

" Four of the daintiest of English wild plants are rapidly dis- 
appearing from this country, and one, at any rate, can rarely be 
seen outside Kew Gardens. This is the Cypripedium calceolus, 



256 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

commonly known as the ' lady's slipper.' It is really a wild orchid, 
with a pretty yellow flower resembling in shape the article which 
has given it its popular name. The other vanishing plants are the 
Osmunda regalis, the Scolopendrium vulgare (hart's tongue), and 
the Asplenium veride (green spleenwort), all of which are ferns. 
Their disappearance is due to the depredations of the tourist, 
especially of the cyclist, and the professional botanist, who scours 
the woods and disposes of his ' finds ' for a few pence in the streets 
of the nearest large town." — Daili/ Mail, June 26. 

There can, however, be little doubt that, apart from the ravages 
of " professional botanists " and the destructive efforts of various 
local bodies, who throughout the country are engaged in destroying 
grassy roadsides and scarifying hedgebauks, to the great advantage 
of the nettles, docks, and other weeds which take the place of the 
native vegetation, our British plants are threatened with a new 
danger. We entirely associate ourselves with the protest printed 
by Professor L. C. Miall in the Times of June 8, which we reproduce 
in the hope that our readers may, in their respective localities, join 
in opposing any similar proposition that may be made. Prof. Miall 
writes : — 

"I have before me the programme of the Essex Technical 
Instruction Committee for Field Studies in Natural History. The 
course for 1901 is intended to instruct teachers in the elements of 
botany by means of rambles in search of wild flowers. One leading 
feature is a vacation course of ten days in the New Forest. The 
teachers are to be accompanied by local guides, and their attention 
is particularly directed to the rarest species, which are specially 
named, as well as the places in which they are known to grow. To 
collect, dry, and identify plants is the chief aim of the leaders, who 
not only urge every teacher to make his own collection, but suggests 
that duplicate plants will prove useful for ' special fascicles.' It 
would not interest many of your readers to discuss at length the 
educational value of such a programme. It seems to me lamentable 
that teachers should be advised to study natural history by schedules, 
and to gather plants merely in order to name and dry them. I 
imagine that they will be worse and not better for working through 
so dry and barren a course. Nothing shows the want of judgment 
of the promoters more clearly than that untrained botanists should 
be seriously advised to pay particular attention to the difficult and 
uncertain subspecies of the common bramble. But all of us, 
whether we are concerned with the teaching of botany or not, have 
an interest in the preservation of our native plants. The Essex 
Committee is simply organizing a raid upon plants which are 
already near to extinction. I hope that they will fail to discover 
the rarities which they selfishly covet ; their enterprise is, I venture 
to say, an injury to natural history and to education alike. It may 
not be too late to get this programme cancelled, and I would beg 
those who care for live natural history to use their influence in 
diverting the attention of the Essex collectors to some other pursuit 
where they will do less harm." 




S.MoQxe a,iial. 



West,Uewma3i imp. 

A. Leurocline litKospermoides . ~E> . Omania araloica . 



257 

ALABASTRA DIVERSA.— Part VIII. 

By Spencer Le M. Moore, F.L.S. 

(Plate 421.) 

Leurocline, 

Borraginearum e subtribu Lithospermear am genns novum (tab. 424 A). 

Calyx alte 5-pai-titus, segmentis liberis angustis inter se in- 
asqualibus postico revera minore persistentibus. CorollaB tubus 
cylindraceus, faucibus ampliatis intus nudis ; limbus 2-labiatus, 
labio superiore erecto breviter 2-lobo, labio iuferiore breviter 3-lobo 
patente. Stamina 5, faucibus iuserta, inclusa ; filamenta brevis- 
sima; anthersB oblongs, obtascTe. Ovarii lobi 4, gynobasi planae 
insert! ; stylus filiformis ; stigma breviter 2-lobum. Nucul^e 
saepissime 4, trigonse, tuberculat^, areola plana basilari gynobasi 
planas affixae. Fruticuli parvi, ramosi, liispidi vel verrucati. Folia 
alterna. Flores mediocres, ex axillis superioribus solitatim 
oriundi. 

This genus has all the characters oi Ecldocldlon, except that the 
stamens are inserted in the throat of the corolla, and, its principal 
raison d'etre, that the nutlets are fixed by a flat base to a flat (not 
conical) gynobase. In this latter character, as also somewhat in 
habit, it resembles Lobostemon, from which it differs in having an 
irregular calyx with small posticous lobe, a distinctly zygomorphic 
corolla, included stamens and bilobed stigma. Its position in the 
order, as understood by Bentham in the Genera Plan ta rum, seems 
to be next Sericosto)tia, from which, however, it is separated by 
several important characters. 

Leurocline lithospermoides, sp. nov. Caule stricto mox 
ramoso, ramis foliosis erectis rigidis glabris, foliis sessilibus lineari- 
oblongis obtusis vel obtusissimis supra glabris subtus marginibusque 
pilis brevibus hispidis basi albo-verrucatis obsitis, pedicellis sub- 
nullis, calycis ampli segmentis a corolhe tubo superatis linearibus 
vel lineari-lanceolatis acutis hispidis segmento postico nunquam 
evanido, corollas tubo juxta medium coartato limbi dilatati lobis 
rotundatis undulatis, stylo incluso, nuculis obtusis. 

Hab. British East Africa, Leikipia, June, 1893 ; Dr. J. W. 
Gregory. Gof, 3900 feet, and between Le and Tocha, 1898 ; Lord 
Delamere (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Planta usque ad 25-0 cm. alt., sed saepe humilior. Folia 
1 •0-2*0 cm. long., modice 0'25-0-3 cm. lat. Calyx modicus circa 
0*8 cm. long., nonnunquam vero longior vel etiam brevior ; tubus 
brevissiraus, intus albide hirsutus ; lobus posticus + 0-25 cm. 
long., lobi reliqui inter se inasquales et ± 0-5-0"7 cm. long. ; calyx 
fructifer parum auctus. Flores caerulei. Corollae tubus extus 
glaber vel obscure pruinosus, intus sursum pilosus, 0-85 cm. long., 
basi vix 0-2 cm., medio 0-1 cm., faucibus circa 0-3 cm. diam. ; 
limbus 0-6-0'8 cm. diam. ; labium anticum 0-3 cm., posticum 
0*4 cm. long. Filamenta circa 0*05 cm. long., posticum quam 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [Aug. 1901.] u 



258 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

reliqua paullo altiiis affixum ; authenie 'vix 0*1 cm. long, btylus 
crassiusculus, glaber, 0*35 cm. long. Nuculte rubescentes, 0*2 cm. 
long., vix totidem diam. 

The variation in the size of the calyx from flower to flower is a 
point worth mention. 

I am of opinion that Lohostemon somalenm Franchet (Revoil, 
Faiine et Flore ties Pays Cumalis, Sertiim Sovialense, p. 44) must be 
referred to this genus. In assigning to Lohostemon the plant 
studied by him, the excellent French botanist just named was 
doubtless swayed by the flat insertion of the nutlets upon a flat 
gynobase. Thanks to the courtesy of M. Jules Poisson of the 
Paris Museum, I have been able to examine a few fragments of 
Revoil's specime]], which, though they prove erroneous what I had 
supposed might be the case — namely, that the plant above described 
was identical with Lohostemon somalensis Franchet — yet are suflicient, 
taken together with M. Franchet's description, to convince me that 
the latter is not a Lohostemon. The only point about which infor- 
mation is not forthcoming relates to the stigma of the supposed 
Lohostetuon ; but even if that organ have not the structure we find 
in Leurodine lithospermoides, the character of the new genus might 
be modified in accordance without doing violence to the general 
principles underlying the classification of the order. The difter- 
ences between the two species may then be summed up thus : — 
Planta verrucata. Folia lauceolato-ovata, 

nee ultra 1-0 cm. long. Calyx fere omnino 

glaber, 0-5 cm. long. Nuculte acutai . L. somalefisis. 
Planta hispida. Folia lineari-oblonga, usque 

ad 2*0 cm. long. Calyx hispidus, saltem 

0-75 cm. long. Nuculci3 obtuste . . . L. lithospermoides. 
Dr. Giirke (Engler & Prantl, Lflainen/amilien, iv. 3a, s. 128) 
appears to have overlooked the alleged extension of Lohostemon into 
the northern hemisphere. 

Omania, 
Scrophulariaceariun e tribu Eaphrasieanun genus novum (tab. 424 B). 

Calyx tubulosus, 5-angulatus, aliquantulo bilabiatus, labio 
superiore trilobo inferiore bilobo. Corolhie tubus sursum breviter 
amplificatus ; limbus bilabiatus, labio postico erecto concavo emar- 
ginato marginibus revolutis, labio antico majori trifido bigibboso 
sestivatione externo. Stamina 4, didynama ; antherae leviter ex- 
sertse, inter se iequales ; loculi discreti, stipitati, obtusi, omnes 
polliniferi. Stylus filiformis ; stigma capitatum, obscure bilobum. 

Ovula in loculis indefinita. Capsula . Sufl'rutex ramosus 

facie Lindenhergim. Folia parva, opposita, Integra. Flores breviter 
pedunculati, ex axillis foliorum superiorum orti. Bracteolae 0. 

Omania arabica, sp. unica. Ramis ascendentibus teretibus 
una cum foliis calycibusque arete et minute pubescentibus, foliis 
ovatis obtusis modice 0*5 cm. long, et 0-35-0-4 cm. lat. (summis 
vero minoribus) petiolis circa 0*2 cm. long, fultis, pedunculis 
petioles aequantibus, calyce in toto 0*6 cm. long., hujus lobis anticis 
lanceolatis 0*3 cm. long., posticis paullo latioribus 0-2-0'25 cm. 



ALABASTRA DIVERSA 259 

long., corollae extus pubescentis tiibo 0*15 cm. diam. et 0-6 cm. 
long., limbi labiis vix 0*6 cm. long., labio postico lanceolato-oblongo 
antico latissime oblongo, filamentis attenuatis atratis, antlieris 
oblongis obtusis 0*17 cm. long., disco parvo lobiilato, ovario oblongo 
una cum stylo glabro. 

Hab. Oman, Arabia, 1898; Lt.-Col. A. S. G. Jayakar (Revh. 
Mus. Brit.). Muscat; Aucher-Eloy, No. 5165 (Herb. Kew.). 

At first sight this plant looks extraordinarily like a Lindenheryia, 
in which genus Aucher-Eloy's specimen has long lain at Kew, the 
sheet marked in Mr. Bentham's handwriting, " Lindenbergia sp. 
nov. ? " Examination of a bud, however, shows clearly that the 
upper lip is inside in ciestivation instead of outside, thus removing 
the plant from the tribe Gratiolea. But this, although the chief 
differential character, is not the only one, for a zygomorphic calyx 
is what we do not find in Limienbenjia, and the upper lip of our 
plant's corolla has reflexed edges just as have the corollas of the 
EaphrasiecB. The proper position of Omania I consider to be next 
to Bungea C. A. Mey. 

Philippia keniensis, sp. nov. Ramulis minute cinereo-pub- 
escentibus delude glabris, foliis arete imbricatis lineari-oblougis 
obtusis dorso sulcatis viscosis petiolos 4-plo excedentibus, pedicellis 
quam flores longioribus, calycis lobis 3 ovatis obtusis quarto longiore 
ovato-lanceolato fere a basi libero, corolla calycis lobo longiori 
sequilonga anguste campanulata, antheris subinclusis profunde 
bifidis, ovario subgloboso, stylo angusto satis elongate subexserto, 
stigmatis lobis 3 brevissimis. 

Hab. Mount Kenia ; J. W. (J-re(/un/, 1893 ; H. J. Mackinder, 
1899 (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Ramuli erecti, rigidi. Foliorum lamina 0*4 cm., petiolus 01 cm. 
long. Pedunculi 0-3 cm. long. Flores circa 0*25 cm. diam. Calycis 
lobi 0-13 cm., lobus impar 022 cm. long. Antherae 0*1 cm. long. 
Stylus 0*15 cm. long. 

A near ally of P. trimera Engl., but certainly not conspecific 
with it on account of its somewhat longer and relatively narrower 
leaves, the long peduncles, broader calyx-lobes, and different style. 

Xysmalobium Schumannianum, sp. nov. Humilis, caule 
erecto sat valido deorsum tuberoso-dilatato mox ramoso, ramis 
crebro foliosis angulatis junioribus complanatis lateribus pubescen- 
tibus, foliis elongatis subsessilibus linearibus acutis basi parum 
rotundatis paucis infimis lineari-lanceolatis basi cordatis et quam 
reliqua manifesto brevioribus omnibus glabris subtus reticuiato- 
venosis nervo mediano maxime eminente, cymis sessilibus pauci- 
floris, pedicellis levissime complanatis quam folia multo brevioribus 
puberulis, floribus parvis, calycis intus pluriglaiidulosi segmentis 
lanceolatis acutis glabratis, corollae rotatie tubo subnuilo lobis 
ovato-lanceolatis acutis fere omnino glabris mox reflexis, coron^e 
squamis gynostegio brevioribus linearibus dorso valde incrassatis 
ibique lateraliter arete compressis, gynostegio sessili, stigmate 
leviter depresso, folliculis . 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos ; Dr. 6'. L. Hinde, 1896 
(Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

u 2 



260 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Planta ex specimine unico milii obvio 20-0 cm. alt. Caulis pars 
hypogaea circa 1-0 cm. diam. ; pars epigaea adhuc simplex 0*4 cm. 
diam. ; rami 0*l-0-25 cm. lat. Folia modica 5*0-6*0 cm. long, et 
0*2-0'4 cm. lat., firme membranacea ; petioli circa 0*1 cm. long. 
Pedicelli 1*0-1*4 cm. long. Calyx 0*3 cm. long. Corollas lobi 
0-45 cm. long., in sicco virides. Corona squamae 0*25 cm. ; gyno- 
stegium 0*3 cm. ; pollinia 0*1 cm. long. 

Easily distinguished by reason of the long and narrow leaves, 
the small green flowers, and the large dorsal thickening to the 
corona scales. 

I have named this in compliment to Professor Karl Schumann 
of Berlin, who very kindly compared a small piece with types in 
the botanical museum of the German capital. 

Marsdenia spissa, sp. nov. Forsan erecta, caule sat valido 
subtereti glabro eminenter lenticellifero, foliis petiolatis ovato- 
oblongis apice breviter cuspidatis obtusis basi rotundatis firme 
membranaceis glabris, cymis umbelliformibus brevipedunculatis 
plurifloris ad ai^icem caulis arete approximatis, pedicellis flores 
excedentibus puberulis, calycis segmentis ovatis obtusissimis mar- 
gine ciliatis glandula unica alternantibus, coroll^e rotatas tubo sub- 
nullo lobis ovato-oblongis obtusis membranaceis margine et parte 
abaxiali crispule pubescentibus, coronae squamis parvis oblongis 
obtusissimis crassiusculis basi inappendiculatis gynostegio brevi 
vix asquilongis, polliniis pyriformibus, stigmate convexiusculo, 
folliculis . 

Hab. British East Africa, near Lake Marsabit, 1898 ; Lord 
Delamere (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Caulis 0*3 cm. diam., intervallis 1*0-2*0 cm. long, foliigerus. 
Foliorum lamina 5*0-5*5 cm. long., 3*0 cm. lat., in sicco lutescenti- 
viridia ; costae secundariae utrinque 5, cost^e omnes subtus pro- 
minentes. Pedicelli circa 0*5 cm. -vix 1*0 cm. long. Calycis 
segmenta 0-2 cm. long., 0*17 cm. lat. Corolla vix 1*5 cm. diam. ; 
lobi 0-55 cm. long. Coron^T squamaB 0*2 cm. long., 0*1 cm. lat. 
Gynostegium 0*22 cm. long. Pollinia 0-05 cm. long. 

The massed cymes, rotate corollas, and short corona scales are 
among the chief peculiarities of this species. 

Parasia (Belmontia) Thomasii, sp. nov. Herba ascendens, 
sparsim ramosa, glaberrima, carnosula, foliis sessilibus stepe breviter 
amplexicaulibus rotundato-ovatis obtusis brevissime cuspidulatis 
basi rotundatis vel leviter cordatis, floribus solitariis terminalibus 
vel ex axillis summis oriundis subsessilibus, calycis ovoideo-oblongi 
a tubo corollaB bene superati segmentis lanceolatis sat louge acumi- 
natis dorso ala inflata oblonga obtusissima sursum in carinam 
transeunte enervosa ouustis, corolla hypocrateriformis tubo elon- 
gato inferne uniform! superne leviter amplificato limbi lobis late 
obovatis obtusissimis, staminibus in parte f tubi altitudinis insertis, 
filamentis brevibus, antheris oblongis glandula oblonga sat magna 
coronatis et basi glandulis 2 (vel abortu 1) minimis appendiculatis, 

stylo corollae tubo semiaequilongo, stigmate oblongo, capsula ► 

Hab. Orange River Colony, 1900; Lieut. H. E. Pateshall 
Thomas (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 



ALABASTRA DIVERSA 261 

Specimina radice orba usque ad 8-0 cm. alt. Caulis in sicco 
obtuse alatus et aliquantulo corrugatus, circa 0*2 cm. diam. Folia 
1-0-1-3 cm. long., 1*0 cm. lat., margine breviter revoluta, radiatim 
trinervia, nervus medianus subtus eminens. Calyx 1*0 cm. long., 
in sicco 0-4 cm. lat. ; ala circa 0-5 cm. long., vix 0*2 cm. lat. 
Corollns tubus l-G-1-8 cm. long., deorsum 0-1 cm. sursum 0-2 cm. 
diam. ; limbus fere 2*0 cm. diam. ; lobi 0*75 cm. lat. Filamenta 
circa 0*1 cm., antherarum loculi 0*3 cm., necnon giaudula 0*1 cm. 
long. Ovarium compressum, ambitu lanceolato-oblongum, 0*4 cm. 
long., medio 0-17 cm. lat. 

The leaves of this beautiful little plant are much like those of 
Sebcea crassulafolia Cham. & Schlecht., only not nearly so markedly 
amplexicaul. The flowers of the two are, of course, quite different. 
No Belmontia known to me, either by specimens or by description, 
could possibly be mistaken for the above. I have used the generic 
name Parasia, as it enjoys a few months' priority over Belmontia. 

Pseudosopubia Delamerei, sp. nov. Herba erecta, in sicco 
nigricans, scabrida, caule subtetragono folioso striato, foliis oppositis 
anguste oblongo-linearibus obtusis sessilibus, bracteis foliis simili- 
bus junioribus vero brevioribus, pedicellis quam folia brevioribus 
bracteolis 2 parvis oppositis anguste linearibus onustis, floribus pro 
genere magnis, calycis evanide nervosi late campanulati in sicco 
atro-cyanei glabri lobis triangulari-deltoideis acutiusculis quam 
tubus brevioribus, corollae extus glabrae tubo sursum maxime ampli- 
ficato necnon inflate deorsum sensim ac leviter attenuate prope 
basin tubiformi, labiis duobus latissimis postico emarginato antico 
breviter trilobo lobis ambitu fere semicircnlaribus undulatis, 
antherarum thecis oblongis sursum leviter attenuatis ibique poro 
dehiscentibus anticis connectivo elongato fultis, capsula . 

Hab. British East Africa, Dadaro, 3700 feet, 1898; Lord 
Delamere (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Folia 1-0-1-2 cm. long., 0-1-0*15 cm. lat., intervallis 1-0-2-0 cm. 
inserta, in sicco deflexa. Bracte^e minores usque ad 0-5 cm. 
imminut^e. Pedicelli patentes, 0-4-0-6 cm. long. Bracteolae circa 
0-3 cm. long., subapicales. Calyx totus vix 1-0 cm. long. ; limbus 
1-2 cm. diam. ; tubus 0*6 cm. long. ; lobi 0-35 cm. long., basi vix 
0-4 cm. lat. Corollae verisimiliter cyane* tubus 1-5 cm. long., basi 
0-4 cm. sursum paullo ultra 1-0 cm. diam. ; labium posticum vix 
1-5 cm. long, et 2-0 cm. lat.; labium anticum 2-7 cm. lat., hujus 
lobi 0-5 cm. long., 1-2 cm. lat. Staminum posticorum filamenta 
infra medium tubum inserta, 0-8 cm. long. ; horum theca 0-7 cm. 
long.; staminum anticorum filamenta juxta medium tubum inserta, 
0-6 cm., theca 1-0 cm., connectivus 0-6 cm., theca abortiva 0-1 cm. 
et hujus connectivus incur vus 0-4 cm. long. ; et filamenta et con- 
nectivi crassiusculi. Ovarium late ovoideum, glabrum, 0-3 cm. 
long. ; stylus 3-0 cm. long. 

The genus Psemlosojmbia has recently (Ann. R. Istit. Bot. Roma, 
Ann. vii. 28) been estabhshed by Professor Engler, who includes 
in it, besides a Somaliland plant collected by Riva (P. obtusifolia 
Engl.), two other species previously referred to Sopubia. The 
present plant resembles P. Hildebrandtil Engl, somewhat in its 



262 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

leaves, and, jiiclging from the figure in Bot. Jabrb. xxiii. t. 13, its 
flowers are most like tbose of Riva's plant ; but it has several 
points wbicb mark it out as being undoubtedly a distinct species. 

Streptocarpus Vandeleuri Bak. fil. & S. Moore, sp. nov. 
Folio unico ? ovato basi cuneato supra pilis elongatis stramineis 
basi bulbiferis hispidissimo subtus pallidiori et scabridulo necnon 
secus nervos araneoso margine undulato ibique aculeis curvatis 
pilis similibus nisi robustioribus obsito, pedunculo piloso in speci- 
mine nostro 11-floro, calycis lobis linearibus pilosis, corollfe tubo 
tubuloso-infundibulari curvato a basi ipsa ^quilato limbi admodum 
obliqui lobis late ovatis obtusis, staminibus inclusis, filamentis 
sparsissime glandulosis juxta medium tubum affixis, ovario quam 
corollcT tubus multo breviore una cum stylo dense glanduloso- 
pubescente, stigmate capitato, capsula . 

Hab. Greylingstad, Transvaal ; Capt. Vandeleur (Herb. Mus. 
Brit.). 

Folium circa 19 cm. long, et 10*5 cm. lat. ; nervi utriusque 
faciei prominuli, nervi secundarii utrinque circiter 15, leviter 
curvati. Calycis lobi circa 1*0 cm. long. Corollre tubus circa 
3-5 cm. long., 0-7-0-9 cm. lat. Flores ex scheda cl. inventoris 
albi. Filamenta 1-0 cm. long., maxima pro parte dilafcata ; antherse 
vix 0-4 cm. long. Ovarium 1-5 cm. long., 0*2 cm. lat., in stylum 
1-2 cm. long, desinens. 

This striking plant belongs apparently to the unifoliate section, 
but we are not certain about this, seeing that our material consists 
only of an inflorescence and a detached leaf. As will be seen from 
the measurements, it is one of the largest- flowered species of the 
genus. Its affinity is with S. Dunnii Hook. fil. (Bot. Mag. t. 6903) 
and S. Cooper i C. B. Cl. It differs markedly from its allies in the 
greater (and uniform throughout) breadth of the corolla tube, and 
this organ is more distinctly curved than is the case with that of 
S, Dunnii. 

Streptocarpus Armitagei Bak. fil. & S. Moore, sp. nov. 
Folio unico oblongo vel ovato-oblongo obtuso margine irregu- 
lariter crenato-lobulato sessili crassiusculo molliter tomentoso pras- 
sertim subtus reticulatim venoso supra inter venas bullulato costa 
crassa subtus villosa pagina iuferiore glandulis parvis rubris dense 
obsita, pedunculis 1 ?-5-nis dense pubescentibus circa 20-floris, 
pedicellis pro genere perbrevibus, calycis lobis lanceolatis vel lineari- 
oblongis pubescentibus necnon glandulis rubris onustis, corolla ei 
S. Dunnii Hook. fil. subsimili sed deorsum minus attenuata levis- 
sime curvata extus piloso-pubescente aliquatenus rubro-glandulosa, 
staminibus inclusis, antheris reniformibus, staminodiis minutissimis, 
ovario brevi sessili leviter torto cano-tomentoso, stylo quam ovarium 
circa 5-plo longiore deorsum piloso sursum clavato, capsula . 

Hab. Barberton, Transvaal ; it. Armitage (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 
Summits of the Saddleback Range, Barberton ; Galpin, No. 704 
(Herb. Kew.). 

Folium usque ad 18-0 cm. long, et 7*0 cm. lat. ; costae secun- 
dariae utrinque circiter 18. Pedunculi circa 10-0 cm. alt. Pedi- 
celli dense pubescentes, O-o cm. long. Calycis lobi 10 cm. long. 



ALABASTRA DTVERSA 



263 



Corollae tubus 3-0 cm. long., 0-8 cm. lat. Flores rosei. Antherae 
0-3 cm. lat. Ovarium 0-5 cm. et stylus 27 cm. long. 

A plant showing much affinity to S. Diinnii, and, indeed, Mr. 
Galpin's specimen has received that name at Kew. But in our 
opinion there is too much difference between it and S. Dminii to 
justify this course. The chief differences lie in the indumentum, 
the short pedicels, broader calyx lobes, and deeper coloured corolla- 
tube with much less of that narrowing in the lower half characteristic 
of the species described by Sir Joseph Hooker. 

The length of the peduncles and the dimensions of the leaf 
have been taken from the Kew specimen, Mr. Armitage's not 
furnishing these particulars satisfactorily. 

Geniosporum (^ Temnocalyx, sectio nova) fissum, sp. nov. 
Herba, caule minute pubescente demum fere glabro, foliis parvis 
sessilibus cuneato-oblongis obtusis margine medio 1-2-dentatis 
ceterum integerrimis mox minutissime puberulis, inflorescentia 
parum ramosa folia longe excedente, bracieis ovatis obtusis dense 
ac minute pubescentibus, deciduis, pedicellis calycem excedeutibus, 
calycis pubescentis campanulati antice funditus Jissi lobis subab-qua- 
libus (postico vero paullo majore) lanceolatis acutis tubo longioribus, 
corollae tubo calycem paullo excedente anguste tubuloso-campanu- 
lato limbi labio postico abbreviato 4-fido labio antico quam posticus 
paullo longiore integro piano, staminibus breviter exsertis. 

Hab. British East Africa, Dadaro, 3700 feet, 1898; Lord 
Delamere (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Folia 1*5 cm. long., medio 0*6 cm. lat., in sicco subgrisea. 
Inflorescentia usque ad 11*0 cm. long. ; ramuli floriferi juveniles 
bracteis arete imbricatis onusti ; verticillastri pluriflori, intervallis 
0*5-l-0 cm. long, inserti. Bracteae 0-25 cm. long., vix totidem lat. 
Pedicelli circa 0*3 cm. long., pubescentes. Calyx totus 0*2 cm. 
long. ; tubus 0*05 cm. et lobi 0-15 cm. long. Corollae tubus 2-5 cm. 
long. ; labium anticum ovatum, 0-2 cm. long. ; labium posticum 
paullo ultra 0-1 cm. long. Antherae 0*03 cm. diam. Nuculae . 

The peculiarity of the section here proposed is that the calyx 
is slit throughout along the line of junction of its two anticous 
lobes. I have in vain sought other characters which might justify 
one in regarding this plant as the representative of a new genus. 

Orthosiphon (§ VmaATi) gofensis, sp. nov. Verisimiliter 
fruticulus caule erecto tenui sursum ramoso, ramis graciUbus 
crispule pubescentibus, foliis parvis sessilibus oblanceolatis obtusis 
crenato-serrulatis supra puberulis subtus pubescentibus, verticil- 
lastris pauci-(2-6-)floris in racemum folia superantibus dispositis, 
bracteis deciduis foliis similibus sed quam ea multo brevioribus, 
pedicellis floriferis calycibus paullo brevioribus, calycis florescentis 
cylindrici pubescentis lobo postico rotundato obtusissimo lobis 
lateralibus oblongis obtusis quam posticus paullulum brevioribus 
lobis anticis linearibus lateralibus subaequilongis, calycis fructe- 
scentis angusti puberuli lobo postico erecto vel fere erecto ore 
calvo, corollae minimaB tubo sat lato calycem paullo superante lobis 
brevibus, staminibus inclusis, stigmate clavato-capitato leviter 
emarginato. 



264 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Hab. British East Africa, Gof, 1898 ; Lord Delawere (Herb. 
Mils. Brit.). 

Specimen unicum meos ante oculos spithameum. Caulis 0*2 cm. 
diam., glaber. Folia l*0-2-0 cm. long., 0-3-0-4 cm. lat., subtus 
decoloria ; petioli 0*15 cm. long. Bracte^^ 0*3 cm. long. Pedicelli 
floriferi 0*2 cm. long., pubescentes. Calyx florescens 0-25 cm. 
long. ; fructescens nervis pauUo eminentibus percursus, modo 0*4 
cm. long., lobus posticus 0-15 cm. long., lobi reliqui (qiiam posticus 
paullulum breviores) inter se subf^equales, antici vero angustiores et 
majus acuminati. Corollcns tubus 0-35 cm. long. ; limbi microscopice 
pilosuli labium anticum circa 0-16 cm. long., hujus lobus inter- 
medins obovatus quam laterales ovati manifeste longior. Nuculre 
subcylindriccT, 0-065 cm. long. 

As respects habit and foliage almost an exact counterpart of 
0. parvifolius Vatke. This habit, together with the exceedingly 
small and narrow fruiting calyces with naked throat, the corolla 
tube exceeding the calyx and the included stamens and style are 
the main points about the species. 

Plectranthus (§ Germania) keniensis, sp. no v. Herba for- 
mosa, elata, caule robusto fere omnino glabro crebro ramoso, ra- 
mulis foliosis pilosis, foliis sat magnis longipetiolatis late ovatis 
acutis basi cordatis rtirius truncatis grosse dupliceque crenatis 
tenuiter membranaceis mox fere omnino glabris, panicula elongata 
pauciramosa pilosa, verticillastris s^epissime 5-6-floris, bracteis late 
ovatis obtusis quam pedicelli brevioribus, pedicellis calyces ex- 
cedentibus, calycis florescentis campanulati pilosi tubo limbum 
excedente lobo postico late ovato obtusissimo lobis reliquis triangu- 
laribus acuminatis, calycis fructescentis lobo postico quam reliqui 
breviore lobis anticis quam laterales pauUo brevioribus, corollfe 
magnae tubo calycem excedente ultra calycem leviter curvato et 
inde maxime ampliato labio postico amplo trifido quam anticus 
oblongo-ovatus pauUo breviore, staminibus inclusis. 

Hab. Mount Kenia, Aug. 14th, 1899 ; H. J. MacJdnder (Herb. 
Mus. Brit.). 

Herba saltem ultra semimetralis. Caulis circa 0*4 cm. diam., 
in longitudinem alte sulcata. Foliorum lamina 5-0-7"5 cm. long., 
et totidem lat. (exstant vero folia juvenilia usque ad 3-5 cm. long, 
imminuta), in sicco laete viridis ; petioli usque ad 7*0 cm. long., 
pilosi. Panicula saltem 35-0 cm. long. Bracte^e 0-25 cm. long., 
pilosae. Pedicelli 0-6 cm. long. Calyx florescens 0-4 cm. long. ; 
lobus posticus vix 0-2 cm. long. Calyx fructescens 0*7 cm. long. ; 
hujus lobi antici 0*3 cm. long., leviter incurvi ; lobus posticus 
0*23 cm. long. Corolla (teste cl. inventori) saturate violaceae tubus 
usque ad 0-45 cm. supra basin cylindricus, pars amplificata 0*7 cm. 
long. ; labium posticum 0*8 cm., labium anticum 1-0 cm. long. 
Filamenta 0-5 cm. long. Antherae 0-1 cm. diam. Nucule com- 
pressae, ovoideae, glabra, 0-15 cm. long. 

To be placed near P. fiaccidus Giirke and its allies. The habit, 
the large cordate leaves on long petioles, the large flowers with 
very broad corolla lobes and upper part of the tube are among 
the distinguishing features of this handsome plant. 



ALABASTRA DIVERSA 



265 



[Obs. — To '' Plectranthus Jloyibundiis N. E. Br." (Journ. Bot. 
1900, p. 464) should be added ♦' var. lowjipes N. E. Br." The type 
form, which is extratropical, does not occur among Dr. Rand's 
plants.] 

Coleus (§ SoLENosTEMONoiDEs) soHialensls, sp. nov. Herba 
caule erecto ramoso robusto intervallis brevibus foliato strigoso- 
pubescente, foliis longipetiolatis ovatis obtusis basi cuneatis margine 
crenulatis crassiusculis pilis paucis brevissimis strigosis appressis 
utrinque obsitis, petiolis anguste alatis, verfcicillastris 2-5-floris in 
racemum simplicem folia multoties excedentem dispositis, pedicellis 
calycem excedentibus una cum racemo glanduloso-pubescentibus, 
bracteis minimis ovato-lanceolatis valde deciduis, calycis florescentis 
glanduloso-pubescentis a corolla) tubo paullo superati lobo postico 
jam patente late ovato acuto lobis lateralibus tubo a3quilongis et 
revera lobum posticum paullulum excedentibus lanceolatis acutis 
lobis anticis linearibus acutis quam laterales brevioribus, calyce 
fructescenti puberulo 0-6 cm. long., corollne labio postico late ovato 
obtusissimo quam anticum oblongum multo breviore. 

Hab. Gan Liban, Somaliland, March, 1899 ; Br. Donaldson 
Smith (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 

Caulis juxta solem 0-3-0-4 cm. diam., radice elongato creberrime 
fibrillifero fultus. Foliorum lamina modice 3*0 cm. long., l-6-2'0 
cm. lat., subtus glandulis parvis dense obsita ; petioli 1-3 cm. long., 
pubescentes. Bracteae 0*13 cm. long., pubescentes. Pedicelli 0*5- 
0-6 cm. long. Calyx florescens 0*3 cm. long. ; lobus posticus 
0-17 cm. et lobi laterales 0-22 cm. long. Calyx fructescens 6 cm. 
long. ; lobus posticus plane decurreus circa 0*3 cm. long, et lat. ; 
lobi reliqui postico ?equilongi, acuminati. Corolla tubus 0*4 cm. 
long., 0-2 cm. lat., paullo supra basin subito antice deflexus; labium 
posticum 0-35 cm. long. ; anticum fere 1*0 cm. long. Staminum 
vagina 0*45 cm. long. ; filamenta libera 0-6 cm. long. Anthera) 
vix 0*1 cm. diam. Nuculfe ambitu subcirculares, polit^e, 0*1 cm. 
diam. 

Apparently nearest C. vestitiis Baker ; differing from it, inter 
alia, in clothing of branches and leaves, pedicels longer than the 
calyx, corolla tube longer than the calyx, &c. 

Neomiillera damarensis, sp. nov. Herba elata, erecta, cre- 
bro ramosa, caule ramulisque minute glanduloso-pubescentibus, 
foliis longipetiolatis e basi lata ovatis grosse crenato-serratis pube- 
rulis tenuiter membranaceis, paniculis elongatis permultifloris, 
floribus solitariis in cymas racemosas ramosas ssepe unilateraliter 
dispositis, bracteis obsoletis, pedicellis calyce brevioribus, calycis 
florescentis campanulati pubescentis usque ad medium lobati lobis 
subaequalibus lanceolato-ovatis acutis lobo postico concavo lobis 
reliquis planis, calycis fructescentis oblongi parum inflati basi 
circumscissi lobis erectis, corollae tubo calycem longe excedente 
dimidio infer iore cylindrico angusto juxta medium subito incurvo 
indeque amplificato, labio postico parvo bilobo antico majori con- 
cavo, filamentis paullo supra insertionem connatis, genitalibus labio 
antico inclusis. 

Hab. Damaraland, 1879 ; T. G. Een (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 



206 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Folia usque ad 2-5 cm. long., et 2-2 cm. lat., glandulis minimis 
abundanter instructa ; petioli fere usque ad 2-0 cm. long., minute 
pubescentes. Paniculus 30-0 cm. long., hnjus ramuli modici 3*0- 
4-0 cm. long. Pedicelli 0-15 cm. long. Calyx florescens in toto 
0-3 cm. long. Calyx fructescens 0-5-0'6 cm. long., 0*2 cm. lat., 
nervis parum eminentibus percursus. Coroll?e tubi pars cylindrica 
0-4 cm. long., 0-07 cm. lat.; pars amplificata vix 0-5 cm. long., 
sub limbo 0-4 cm. lat. ; labium posticum rotundatum, 0*3 cm. lat. ; 
labium anticum 0*7 cm. long. Filamentorum vagina 0-2 cm long. ; 
filamenta libera 0-45 cm. long.; antherae 0-08 cm. diam. Nuculae 
ovoidese, polit?e, 0-1 cm. lat. 

Differs from N. Wehdtschii Briquet, the only species hitherto, 
in leaf, densely paniculate inflorescence, &c. The equahty in size 
of the anticous calyx lobe to its fellows is a small character in 
respect of which the generic diagnosis requires shght modification ; 
the lobe is, however, concave, and in this it agrees with N. 
Welu'itschii. 

Explanation of Plate 424. 
The drawings of the plants natural size ; the analyses more or less magnified. 
A. Leurocline Utho>^permoides. 1. Corolla opened out. 2. Calyx opened 
to show the small posticous lobe, bilobed stigma, &c. 3. View of fruit, the 
nutlets slightly disparted to show the flat gynobase. B. Omania arahica. 
4. A bud showing the upper lip ai) inside in cTstivation. 5. Calyx opened to 
show its zygoniorphic character. 6. Corolla cut open. 7. Ovary in transverse 
section. 



PLANTS OF NOKTH SCOTLAND, 1900. 

By Kev. E. S. Mabshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

I SPENT nearly three months with my family in the far north of 
Britain last summer, making my head-quarters at Tongue, and 
reaching points as far distant as Durness westward and Wick east- 
ward. On July 10th my wife and 1 met our old friend Mr. W. A. 
Shoolbred in Thurso for an expedition to Ben Griam More, near 
Forsinard, which had been justly recommended to us by Mr. W. 
Lindsay as a good hill for its comparatively small height ; we then 
crossed to Orkney for five days' collecting, and our companion 
returned with us for a few excursions near Tongue. On August 14th 
we made a partial ascent of Ben Wyvis with Mr. F. C. Crawford, of 
Edinburgh, having only time to hastily explore its smaller south- 
eastern corrie. The vice-counties visited are — 106 East Ross, 
107 East Sutherland, 108 West Sutherland, 109 Caithness, and 
111 Orkney. As usual, I am greatly indebted to Mr. Arthur 
Bennett for help in working out critical forms ; also to Messrs. 
H. & J. Groves, Hanbury {Hiemcium), Kiikenthal (Carex), Linton 
and Townsend {EupJuasia). The sign ■■'■ denotes an unpublished 
vice-comital record ; f an apparently new British plant. 

TJtalictnim alpinum L. 107/''- Ben Griam More. 108. Remark- 
ably plentiful along the coast about Tongue, descending almost to 
sea-level. 



PLANTS OF NORTH SCOTLAND 267 

Fumaria panidiflora Jord. 111.- Abundant in cornfields near 
the head of Loch Stenness, between Stromness and Sandwick ; 
also east of Loch Kirbister. — F. Bnrm Jord. 108.- Cultivated 
land at Dun Varrich, Tongue. 111. Oatfield near Scapa Bay, 
plentiful.— F. murah's Sonder. 111.- Cornfields above Loch Sten- 
,ness, with F. paUidifiora ; in considerable quantity, but small and 
apparently not quite typical. 

Barbarea arcuata Reiclib. 109.^'^ Frequent, and I believe native, 
by the Wick Kiver, two to five miles above the town. Confirmed by 
Mr. Bennett, who considers it practically identical with Thuringian 
specimens collected by Haussknecht. B. vnlf/arU R. Br. grows just 
above the bridge at Thurso, but has every appearance of being an 
introduced plant. 

Arabis petraa Lam. var. Mspida DC. 108. Very scarce on the 
north-west cliff's of Ben Hope, at about 2000 ft. I failed to find 
Draba rupestris; perhaps a small state of D. incana may have been 
mistaken for it there, as was the case in its reputed Irish station. 

Cardamine hirsiita L. 107. At 1500 ft. on Ben Griam More— an 
unusual height for it to attain, according to my experience. 

Erophila prcBcox DC. {E. brachycarpa Jord. !|. 109.- Frequent 
at Dunnet Links, and on the grassy cliffs hard by ; this greatly ex- 
tends its known range in Britain. — E. infiata Hooker fil. ? 108.- 
Pebbly drive at Loch Loyal Lodge, half-way between Tongue and 
Altnaharra. Pods decidedly turgid ; very like what I have under 
this name from Glen Shee, though (owing to the altered conditions) 
much more robust. 

Cochharia groenlandica L. 108. Strand at Hielam Ferry; sandy 
coast, Skerray. 111.- Exposed turfy headlands. Black Crai^, Main- 
land. 

Viola silvestris Reichb. 109.- Bank near Bilbster Station.— 
V. arvensis x tricolor. 111. Cornfields between Stromness and 
Sandwick. 

Silene acaulis L. 106.- Ben Wyvis at 3000 ft., scarce. 

Lychnh alba x dioica. 108. t Near Tongue Ferry, with the 
parents; confirmed by Mr. Bennett, who gives the following 
synonyms : — Melamlri/wn diibium, Hampe, M. intermedium Schui° 
17. album x rnbrmii Gaertner. Probably ''new" in name only ; 
for, in a recent paper on the subject of natural hybrids, Mr. R. a! 
Rolfe suggested that it was likely to prove not "uncommon. My 
specimens were just intermediate in character, and appeared to be 
sterile, but they were hardly advanced enough to make sure of this. 

Cerastiwn tetrandrum Curt. 108. A remarkable form (or state) 
grows in fissures of the limestone clifi:'s filled with blown sand, three 
or four miles east of Durness ; it is erect, with the inflorescence 
mostly termmal, and approaches the C. alshioides Pers. of Southern 
Europe. — G. semidecandrum L. 108.- Tongue, apparently very 
scarce and local. 

Sarjina maritima Don, var. debilis (Jord.). 108. Scullomie Har- 
bour. 

Lepiyonum rubnim Fr. 107. Plentiful on railway-ballast south 
of Forsinard. — L. marlnum Wahl. 108.- Kyle of Tongue, local. 



268 THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

111. Hamna Voe, Stromness. — At the north-east end of Tongue 
Island we found abundance of a plant having the general appear- 
ance of L. marinum, though of a brighter green than usual, and 
without the broad scarious wing to the seeds. A single specimen 
was also seen on the beach at Linksness, Hoy (111). As this is 
apparently undescribed, I propose for it the name of var. apterum 
(or aptera, if Spergnlaria is eventually accepted as the generic name). 

Radiola Hnoides Roth. 111. Loch of Skaill, near Sandwick. 

Lupimis nootkutcnsis Donn. 111. Heathy waste between Strom- 
ness and Sandwick ; several patches, in one instance covering 
several acres. Alien (or "deserter," as a local botanist aptly 
called it). 

TrifoUiim medium L. 106. Achterneed, near Strathpeffer ; rare 
in the north Highlands. Close by grew Fmbus l\o;/ersil Linton. 

Dnjas octopetala L. 107. '' Ben Griam More. 

Alchemilla vulr/aris L. var. alpestris ( Schmidt). 109. Wick River ; 
Thurso River, together with the type \A. pratensis Schmidt.). 111. 
Near Stromness. 

Rosa mollis x pimjjineUi/olia. 108. Low cliff at Hielam Ferry. 

Pyrus Aucuparia L. 111. On the Dwarfie Hamars, Hoy, this 
was found in flower ; the bushes varied in height from 1^- to 5 ft. 

Sa.vifrnga oppositifolia L. 107." Ben Griam More. — S. tri- 
dactylites L. 109. Dunnet Links. 

ilippurisvidgarislj. 107. Near Forsinard. 108. Near Thurso. 
111. Peat-bog west of Stromness. Uncommon, I think, so far north. 

Callitriche hamidata Kuetz. 106. Small tarn in the south- 
eastern corrie of Ben Wyvis. 

Epilobium angustifolinm L. 108. Ben Hope, at 2000 ft. ; very 
scarce. 

MyrrJiis odorata Scop. 108. In several places about Tongue 
village ; no doubt a relic of cultivation, like Saxifraga iimbrosa L. 

Scandix Pecten-Veneris L. 111. Cornfields between Stromness 
and Sandwick ; only a few plants were seen. 

Ligusticum scoticum L. 111. Coast between Waulkmill Bay and 
Scapa Bay, in a single station. 

Corniis suecica L. 107. Ben Griam More; locally plentiful at 
1500 ft. on the east side. 

Valeriana samhHcifolia\^\\\(\.. 111. East side of Kirbister Loch, 
sparingly. 

Saussurea alpina DC. 107. Ben Griam More ; more abundant 
than I ever saw it elsewhere. 

Centaurea Scabiosa L. In Journ. Bot. 1898, p. 170, Mr. Shool- 
bred and I mentioned and described a doubtful form which we had 
found at Coalbackie and Melness, on the east and west coasts of 
Tongue Bay. Specimens w^ere forwarded to the Botanical Exchange 
Club, and commented on by Herr Freyn, of Prague, in the Report 
for 1897, p. 552, as being " a very remarkable plant, which has not 
hitherto come under my notice. ... In any case, this Centaurea is 
highly interesting." It has kept quite distinct in cultivation, and 
reproduced itself from seed. Much as the species varies in foliage 
(especially in that very neighbourhood), this stands out promi- 



PLANTS OF NORTH SCOTLAND 269 

nently; though I have found some intermediates which appear to 
be " mongrels." Last year I was able to study the wild plant 
afresh, and satisfied myself that it was a good variety, if not a 
subspecies. The root-leaves are rather numerous, quite entire, 
occasionally a foot long (including the stalk i in luxuriant specimens, 
oblanceolate, narrowed into a slender petiole not much shorter than 
the blade. Lower and upper stem-leaves entire, the middle ones 
often with one or two pairs of stipuliform pinn?e at their base, 
entire or obscurely crenate-dentate. Mr. James Groves has kindly 
pointed out that there is a var. iitte(jrifoliaYi\\iot, Novce Form. Querc. 
(1880) S. A. 40, quoted in Beck's Flora of Lower Austria as having 
" all the leaves undivided." This may perhaps be the same thing; 
but a Tyrolese specimen with undivided leaves in Herb. Brit. Mus. 
differs in habit from the Sutherlandshire plant; and Herr Freyn's 
inability to recognize this induces me to name it provisionally as 
var. succiso' folia, from the close resemblance of its leaves to those 
of a very luxuriant IScahlosa Siiccisa which occurs on the cliffs at 
Coalbackie. 

Hieraciioii (jlobosum Backh. 106. Ben Wyvis. — H. Backhousei 
F. J. Hanb. 106.^'= Ben Wyvis.—//. angHcum. Fr. 111. Frequent 
along the South Burn, Hoy. — H. argentcum Fr. var. scptentrionale 
F. J. Hanb. 108. Abundant on the coast about Scullomie and 
Skerray ; inland by the Vagastie Burn, Altnaharra. A single 
specimen of the type was found at Coalbackie. — H. nitidiun Backh. 
107.''' East side of Ben Griam More at 1500 ft. 108. Scarce on 
the northern cliff's of Ben Hope. — //. Som)nerJ'eltii Lindeb. 108. 
Near sea-level on cliffs below Castell Varrich, Kyle of Tongue. — 
//. stenolepia Lindeb. 108. Low dolomite cliffs at Hielam. — 
//. muronim. L. var. micradadluui Dalilst. 108. Eocks near Farr 
Church, Betty Hill. — Var. ciliatwn Almq. 108. Eastern base of 
Ben Loyal ; also on the north-western cliffs of Ben Hope. — 
//. orarium Lindeb. 108. Sandy cliff', Coalbackie ; only one plant 
seen. — Var./?</t'?o^?, F. J. Hanb. 109. Thurso Eiver. 111. On the 
cliff's of Waulkmill Bay occurs a form which I cannot separate from 
the foregoing, of which it has the orange -yellow flowers, dark styles, 
and pilose-tipped ligules. Mr. Hanbury objects that the leaves are 
too entire, and the involucral clothing not shaggy enough ; but the 
specimens varied a good deal in these respects. It closely resembles 
the Melness sandhill hawkweed which Messrs. Linton have recently 
issued as var. erythrceiim, but which I also incline to consider as only 
a state of y^v.fiilvum, due to situation; last summer, which was cold 
and wet, this was very like the Thurso plant. — //. duriceps F. J. 
Hanb. var. cravoniense F. J. Hanb. 103.'' Ardskinid Point, Tongue 
Bay, very rare ; exactly matching authentic Yorkshire specimens. — 
H. angastatum Lindeb. 108. Bather plentiful on the north-western 
cliffs of Ben Hope. — //. auratum Fr. 111. By a streamlet between 
Kirbister and Waulkmill Bay. — //. uuibellatuin. L. var. paucijiorum 
Hartm. 108. Grassy cliff's, Skerray ; locally abundant. 

Taraxacum palustye DC. var. iidum (Jord.i. 108. Tongue, abun- 
dant. This is, I suspect, the same thing as 1\ ojjicinale var. alpinum 
Koch, lately recorded by Mr. Druce from Loclmagar, &c. ; at least. 



•270 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



the description fits it well enough, and what we have been calling 
jf. iidiim Jord. is frequent on the Grampians. 

Sojichus arveusis L. var. fjlahrescens Hall. (IcBvipes Koch), 108.''' 
Oatfields near Coalbackie, with the type. 

At'ctostaphylos alpina Spreng. 106. West side of Ben Wyvis. 
107.* Abundant on Ben Griam More, descending to 1000 ft. It 
was in good flower upon the lower slopes of Ben Hope on May 25th. 

Azalea procumhens L. 107. Summit of Ben Griam More. 

Pijwla rotmidi/olia L. 108.- Ben Hope, at 2000 ft., with P. 
minor L. ; very rare. 

Primula acaulh X veris. 108. Near Betty Hill. The links at 
Reay (109) were ablaze with cowslips at the end of May. 

SijwphijtiDii tuberosum L. 109. "^^ High bank of the Wick River, 
between three and four miles above the town ; very scarce, but 
apparently a true native, and remote from houses. 

Veronica a(/restis L. 108. A garden weed at Loch Loyal Lodge. 
111. Cornfield near Stromness — the blue-flowered form. — V. ar- 
veusis L. var. eximia Towns. 109. '■' Grassy cliffs near Dunnet Sands. 

Euphrasia borealis Towns. 111. Stenness ; Waulkmill Bay. — 
E. brevipila Burnat & Gremli. 111. Common in Mainland, Orkney. 
— K. brevipila X curta. lll.f Stenness. — 7?. .sro«/>rt Wettst. 111. 
About Hobbister and Kirbister. — E. curta Fr. 106." Achterneed. 
107." Forsinard. 108. Tongue; Scullomie; Skerray. A luxuriant 
form, 9-12 in. high, occurs near Melness. 111.''' Common in Main- 
land and Hoy — both type and var. gJahrescens Wettst. — E. curta X 
/oulaoisin, n. hybr. 108.1 Scullomie. — E. curta x latifolia, n. hybr. 
108. t Scullomie. — E. curta X scottica, n. hybr. 108. i Among 
heather, east of Scullomie. — E. foulaends Towns. 106.''' Ben 
Wyvis, at nearly 3000 ft. This was referred by Mr. Townsend to 
E. latifolia; but it lacks the abundant white pubescence and whitish 
flowers of that closely-allied species, and appears to me quite iden- 
tical with the Ben Loyal plant which he accepts as being true 
foulaensis. I have only met with E. latifolia on the coast, at no 
great altitude. 111.-'- Black Craig, &c., in short turf. — E. latifolia 
Pursh. 108. Very fine and abundant on grassy slopes at Scullomie 
and Skerray. 111.'' Black Craig. 

Ehinanthus Crista-galli L. 111. A small narrow-leaved form 
growing sparingly on the south side of Loch Stenness; Mr. C. E. 
Salmon collected it at Inchnadamph (108) a year or two back. 

Melampijrum pratense L. var. montanum Johnst. 107. Lower 
slopes of Ben Griam More. 

Thymus Serpyllum Fr. var. prostratum Hornem. 111. Between 
Stromness and Sandwick ; particularly plentiful near the Loch of 
Skaill. 

Ajuga pyramidal is L. 107. Ben Griam More; scarce and very 
local at about 1500 ft. 

Salsola Kali L. 108.* Melness Sands, scarce. 

Polygonum viviparum L. 107.* Ben Griam More. 

Betula nana L. 106. West side of Ben Wyvis. 108. Locally 
plentiful at the north-east base of Ben Loyal, descending below 
800 ft. ; some bushes were about a yard high, and fruited freely. — 



PLANTS OF NORTH SCOTLAND 271 

B. alpestris Fr. 108. t I had long been on the watch for hybrids 
between B. nana and B. pubescens ; therefore, having found the two 
growing together in good quantity below Ben Loyal, I made a 
careful search, which was at length rewarded by the discovery of a 
plant bearing evident traces of this parentage ; it occurred by a 
streamlet at just 800 ft. above sea-level. On comparing this with 
the account of B. alpestris in Summa Veg. Scand. p. 212, I found 
it to correspond in all respects, except that the leaves were sparsely 
hairy; oddly enough, the specimen in Herb. Brit. Mus. of Fries, 
Herb. Normale (which might have well been cut from the same 
bush), shows the same divergence. The original description is as 
follows: — " Foliis subrotundis obtuse serratis obtusis glaberrimis, 
siibtus Iceiibiis, amentis fructiferis peduncidatis erectis, pedunculo 
amentum iequante, lobis squamarum digitato-trifidis, laciniis 
dlstantibm porrectis subteqnalibus, nucibus obovatis, ala cinctis 
latitudinem nucis asquante. B. nana v. intermedia. Hart))}. Vet. 
Ac. Handl. 1818, p. 148. B. alba v. interm. Wahl. Suec. p. 624. 
B. humihs HarUn. Scand. 2, p. 228, nee Schrank, Koch. . . . Valde 
aualoga cum B. inter))iedia Thom. !, sed hsec ad B. alba))i accedit, 
ut alpestris ad B. r/lutinosani. B. alpestris semper . . . fruticosa 
est, vix orgyalis, foliis fere B. nance ..." Kegel apparently re- 
garded B. inteDncdia Thomas as nana x verrucosa ("alba"); but 
Focke makes them both to be nana x pubescens. In 1886 Mr. 
F. J. Hanbury and I found a good-sized tree in Glen Oallater, South 
Aberdeen, which was eventually agreed to by Mr. Bennett as the 
plant of Thomas, after comparison with an authentic specimen at 
Kew ; it certainly agrees well enough with the figures in F/. Danlca 
and in Eeichenbach. In 1887 I came across a second example, about 
8 or 9 ft. high, near the ferry at Cashil Dhu, Loch Hope, which was 
slightly nearer to B. alpestris, but hardly separable from the Aber- 
deenshire plant. As far as Britain is concerned, I think that we 
may probably consider B. alpestris as B. nana ? x pubescens S , and 
B. inten)iedia as B. nana ^ X pubescens ? ; the first approaching 
m.0XQ oXo^Qly to nana, t\iQ ^ecoiidi to pubescens. B. Jiuuiilis Schrank 
is a true species, and quite distinct. 

Salix cinerea X repens. 108. Ardskinid, Tongue Bay, in two 
forms; one just intermediate, the other on the repens side. With 
them grew another bush which appears to be \aurita x repens) 
X ci7ierea, accompanied by ^S'. aurita x repens (a)nbiyua Ehrh.). — 
S. phylicifolia L. 111. Linkness, Hoy ; Loch Kirbister, &c.. Main- 
land. — S. LapponuDi L. 106.* A few bushes were noticed on one 
crag in the south-eastern corrie of Ben Wyvis. — «S. Myrsinites L. 
107." Sparingly on Ben Griam More ; both the type and well- 
marked var. procumbens (Forbes). 

Juniperus co)nuiunis L. var. inter)nedia Nyman. 108.''' By the 
cave at Ardskinid. "Yes; this looks quite like the Austrian 
Tyrol plant." — Ar. Bennett in litt. 

Malaxis paludosa Sw. 108. Bog, a little east of Scullomie. 

Epipactis atrorubens Schultz. 108. Near the cave, Ardskinid ; 
extremely local, but fifty or sixty specimens were seen. Close by 
we secured a single plant of K. atrorubens x latijoUa,\ which was 



272 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

a good intermediate in all respects ilati/oUa is very scarce in this 
station). M. Schulze only mentions the hybrid as having been 
found once in Russia and once near Jena, in Germany ; but Focke 
(Pflamenmischliiif/e, p. 380) says that it " occurs not uncommonly 
with the parents, and has been represented as a transition-form, 
which was supposed to prove the specific identity of the two species." 
In Britain they very seldom grow together. 

Orchis mascula L. 108. Plentiful on the limestone near Durness, 
at Ardskinid, and about Betty Hill ; the leaves were always un- 
spotted. — 0. inccmmta L. 107.''' About Forsinard. 111. Abundant 
in a swamp at Orgill, Hoy, with very pale flowers ; also seen in two 
or three spots on Mainland. — 0. latij'olia L. var. brecifolia Reichb. 
109.-'' Swampy pasture about a mile north of Bilbster Station ; just 
like the plant of South-east Ireland, the leaves being faintly ring- 
spotted, and the flowers dingy purple. — 0. latifoUa x maculata ? 
108. Scullomie. 109. Near Bilbster. 111. Near Stromness. I 
believe this identification to be correct, but am not quite free from 
doubt. — O. )iiaculata L. subsp. 0. ericetunini Linton li^V. Bournemouth, 
p. 208). Evidently very common throughout North Scotland; Mr. 
Linton has confirmed the name in all the cases submitted to him. 
We observed it as follows : — 107. Forsinard. 108. Tongue, Scul- 
lomie, Skerray, Betty Hill. 109. Wick, Bilbster. 111. Hoy and 
Mainland, passim. 

Habeiiaria conopsca Benth. 108. A form with flesh-coloured 
blossoms grows about Tongue ; this is probably the G-ijmnadenia 
conopsea ^ paUidijIora Lange, tlaandh. i den danske Flora. — 
H. coiwpsea X Orchis )naculata (subsp. ericetorum). 108." Coast- 
slopes near Scullomie ; discovered by Mr. Shoolbred. We only 
obtained two specimens ; roughly speaking, they were like H. co- 
nopsea with a spotted broader lip, rather shortened spur, and paler 
flowers. I have seen a Kentish specimen in Mr. Hanbury's col- 
lection, which is very similar, though larger. — H. albida x conopsea. 
108.-'^ Two specimens in a hilly pasture at Tongue ; one at Scul- 
lomie. In this neighbourhood the parents are both abundant, and 
grow together in many places ; but I had great difiiculty in finding 
the hybrids between them. Probably they are fertilized, as a rule, 
by difterent insects, as one would expect from the great difterence 
in the length of the spur. One specimen was just intermediate, 
another towards albida ; the third, though also an evident hybrid, 
had the spur hardly at all shorter than in conopsea. I saw one of 
the West Inverness plants so named by Mr. Rolfe in a fresh state, 
two or three years ago, which closely resembled these. 

Iris Pseudacorus L. 111. The prevailing form is var. acoriformis 
(Boreau); we only found the type at the north-west end of Loch 
Stenness. 

J uncus supinus Moench, var. Kochii Bab. 108. Plentiful about 
Loch Deerie, near Tongue. 

Lnzula erecta Desv. 106. At 3000 ft. on Ben Wyvis occurs a 
form which is probably var. sudetica of Lond. Cat. ed, 9 (L. nifjricans 
DC, L. inultijiora y niyricans Koch); it scarcely differs from plants 
which I have gathered near the Eggisch-horn, Upper Valais. 



PLANTS OF NORTH SCOTLAND 273 

Spcm/animii s'uiiplex Huds. 111. Swampy ground near the South 
Burn, Hoy, a mile or more from Rackwick. — S. affine Schnizl. was 
flowering in a pool near Sandy Loch, towards Orgill. 

Potamogeton Jieteroplujllus Schreb. 111. A narrow -leaved plant 
in the pool just mentioned ; Mr. Bennett remarked that it had the 
look of P. (/racilis Wolfg. (non Fr. i, a heterophyllus-ton'n. found in the 
lakes of Finland, &c. — P. heterophyllus x perfoliatus [ P. nitens 
Weber). 111. Mill-pond between Stromness and Sandwick (form 
P. curvifolius Hartm. ). Pool at the north-west end of Loch Kirbister 
(form P. intermedins Tis.). With the parents. 

Zostera vwrina L. var. anguati folia Hornem. 108.'' Kyle of 
Tongue, very local ; Mr. Bennett points out that Hornemann, not 
Fries, was the author of the varietal name. 

Eleocharis uniglumis Reichb. 111. Plentiful on the south side 
of Loch Stenness. E. multicanUs Sm. was noticed not far from 
Rackwick, Hoy. 

PJriophoriwi latifoliuiH Hoppe. 108. Below Ben Loyal, on the 
west side. 

Carex paucijiura Liglitf. 107. Plentiful at 500 ft. on the moor- 
land between the railway and Ben Griam More. 108. West of Ben 
Loyal, between 300 and 400 ft. I never saw it below 1000 ft. else- 
where. — C. incurva Lightf. var. erecta 0. F. Lang {= C. j unci folia 
All.). 108." Damp micaceous ground at Scullomie Harbour. 
Stems erect or ascending, 2-12 in. long; leaves much longer than 
usual, those from the root occasionally attaining a height of 6 in. 
Mr. Bennett has it from Orkney ; I have gathered a very similar 
form near the Matterhorn, above Zermatt. — C. chordorrhiza L. (in 
Ehrhart, Phytophylacion). 108. This is abundant in a swamp on 
the north side of the Mudal Water, Altnaharra, as well as on the 
south side. — C. paniculata L. 111. A few plants in a swamp east 
of Loch Kirbister. — C. carta Good. 108. Dried-up lake near Loch 
Modsarie, between Tongue and Skerray ; also in the marshes near 
Loch Naver, Altnaharra — -scarce in both stations. It seems to be 
rare in the north. — C. aqnatilis Wahl. 109. The prevailing form 
of the Wick River is ordinary low-ground aqiiatilis [elatior Bsih.); 
but a plant occurs not uncommonly with decidedly acuminate or 
cuspidate glumes, half as long again as usual. — C. aguatilis x 
Goodenowii. 109. f Wick River, in two forms; one (a very beautiful 
plant) rather approaching tToodenowii in its inflorescence when dry, 
though looking exactly intermediate in a living state ; the other, of 
which I seem to have gathered only one example, looks just between 
the two. — C. aquatilis x salina, var. kattegatensis ( X C, Grantii 
Ar. Benn.). 109. Three or four forms were collected ; one, which 
approaches aquatilis, is probably the C. aquatilis var. cuspidata 
Laestad., now considered to be a hybrid. The variableness of 
C. salina hereabouts is very great. — 0. Goodenowii J. Gay. 108. 
A curious form (or monstrosity) was found in good quantity by Mr. 
Shoolbred at the south end of Loch Deerie ; it has small globose or 
ovoid female spikelets, the solitary male spikelet bearing several 
apparently perfect fruits at its apex. — C. pilulifera L. var. longe- 
hracteata Lange \Leesii Ridley |. 106. Ben Wyvis. — C. panicea L. 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol.39. [Aug. 1901.] x 



274 THE JOURNAL UF BOTANY 

Veil'. tUDiidula Laestad. 108. Plentiful and luxuriant in the marshes 
near Loch Naver, Altnaharra. — C. capillaris L. 107. Near the 
summit of Ben Griam More. 108. Limestone hills east of Durness; 
on the dolomite near Hielam Ferry, at sea-level ; Coalbackie, and 
other places on the coast near Tongue. — C. binervls x rifjida, 
n.hybr. 106. South-east corrie of Ben Wyvis, with the parents, 
at 2700 ft. or more ; a good-sized patch, but only two spikes were 
present. Root- and stem-characters almost entirely rigida ; leaves 
much longer, but similar in texture. Inflorescence half-way between 
the two, quite barren ; the lowest spikelet in my specimen has a 
peduncle 1 in. long, and is placed 2 in. below the others, which are 
contiguous, as in rvjida. A few minutes before, Mr. Crawford had 
discovered (at nearly 3000 ft.) an extraordinary sedge, of which I 
have no specimen, which resembled C. ritjida in habit, with the in- 
florescence of C. curta ; we did not observe the latter species, but 
could feel no doubt about its being the offspring of these two. 
Roots were sent to the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh ; so that 
further light on both plants may be expected. — C. Hornschucliiana 
Hoppe X Oederi var. uedocarpa And. (C. sterilis Syme ; / C. fidva 
Good.). 108. Marshes, Altnaharra. 111. Stenness, Mainland. 
All my gatherings of this group were accepted by Herr Kiikenthal 
as correct. — Cjiaca L. var. lepidocarpa (Tausch.i. Frequent in the 
north, where I have never found typical //«<•«. 108. About Tongue, 
in several stations ; Betty Hill. 109. Swampy ground near the 
Wick River. 111. Linksness, and other places in the north part 
of Hoy ; common. In the four specified localities it grew with 
C. Hornschuchiana, and produced perfectly barren hybrids. C. 
Hornschiichiana X lepidocarpa is mentioned by Dr. Focke in Beo- 
bachtunfjen an Miscldingspjianzen (1892) as, in cultivation, never 
expanding its male flowers; which I have found to be normally 
the case with hybrids of C. HonischucJiiaiia. — C. Oederi Retz. 107. 
By the loch lying at the northern base of Ben Griam More. 111. 
South shore of Loch Stenness, easl of the hotel. 

Agrodis canina L. var. scotica Hackel. 106. Ben Wyvis, ap- 
parently scarce. 

Deschampsia discolor R. & S. 108. West end of Loch Modsarie, 
in small quantity. 

Avena pubesce^is Hiids. 111. Cliffs, Waulkmill Bay. — A. strigosa 
Schreb. 108. A weed in oatfields at Tongue ; as is A. fatita L. at 
Coalbackie. 

Koeleria cristata Pers. 111. Loch of Skaill. 

Briza media L. 109. Left bank of the Thurso River, near the 
foot-bridge, in very small quantity ; one of the rarest northern 
grasses. 

Glyceria plicata Fr. 111." By several small ponds between 
Stromness and Sandwick, together with G. jiuitans R. Br. and 
G. pedicellata Towns. By Mr. Townsend's kind permission I give 
the following extract from a letter of his : — " I think you are right 
in supposing G. pedicellata a hybrid. I have never found it in seed, 
though searched for for innumerable years. The anthers never 
expand, and the cells are divergent and yellow ; those of /iiiitans 



THREE NEW VARIETIES OF HYPNUM FLUITANS 275 

are purple, and equally broad at either end ; those of plicata and 
declinata are much shorter, but similar. Babington did not, I think, 
believe in hybrids at the time I described pedicellata. I first named 
it hybrida, but he persuaded me to alter the name." 

Cijstopteris fnujilis Beruh. var. dentata Hooker. HI. Dwarfie 
Hamars, Hoy. 

Eqnisetiim palustra L. var. midiini Newm. 111. Orgill, Hoy. 

Isoetes echiuospom Dur. 108. Loch Modsarie. 

Cham fmiiilis Desv. 111. Peat-bog west of Stromness ; ap- 
proachmg var. harbata.~C. aspera Willd. 111. Mill-pond between 
Stromness and Sandwick.— Subspecies desmacantha H. & J. Groves. 
Loch Stenness and Loch Harray ; a very dwarf form of it.— 
C. baltlca Bruzel. 111.^:= South side of Loch Stenness; a very 
interesting and unexpected discovery, the only previous British 
localities being in the extreme south (Dorset and West Cornwall). 
The identification is due to Mr. Crawford, who collected it there in 

August; it was confirmed by Messrs. Groves in both cases. 

C. vulgaris L. 111. Ditch near the Dwarfie Stone, Hoy. — Var. 
lumjibracteata. Near Stromness. 

Nitella opaca Agardh. 108. Exceedingly variable both in size 
and habit in Loch Deerie, near Tongue, where I quite thought that 
I had found three dift'erent species ; all were, however, referred to 
opaca by Messrs. Groves, who remark that they represent a verv 
interesting series of forms. 109. Ditch near the Wick River. 111. 
Near Stromness, Mainland ; pool between Orgill and Rackwick, Hoy. 



THREE NEW VARIETIES OF HYPNUM FLUITANS L. 

By H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

It requires some courage to propose a new variety of this species, 
already so prolific in varieties and subvarieties (forty-nine forms' 
find names in Sanio's scheme, Bot. Centralblatt, 1888) ; perhaps 
indeed it demands some apology. A large number of our British 
forms have passed through Mons. Renauld's hands since the 
publication of his Monograph of the Harpidioid Hypna in Husnot's 
Muscoloijia Gallica ; nearly all of these have been assigned more or 
less readily to one or other of the varieties described in that 
system ; but two forms which I recently sent to him difter from 
any of these varieties in a marked degree, sufiiciently so in 
M. Renauld's opinion to demand their separation as varietal 
forms. He has kindly suggested that I should associate my 
name with his in publishing these, and the following dia<^noses 
are mainly drawn up from the notes and drawings with winch he 
has furnished me. 

H. FLUITANS L. (amphibium) var. Robertsi^ Ren. & Dixon, 
var. nov. Floating; variegated with yellow, golden broivn, and pur- 
plish red, glossy; stems elongate, almost simple, with a few short, 

x 2 



276 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



distant branches only. Leaves rather closely set, erect- spreadimj, 
only very slightly falcate-secund at the tips of the branches, narrow- 
lanceolate, gradually tapering to a lon(i,jine, sharply -toothed siibiUa. 
Nerve narrow, scarcely reaching half-way up the leaf. Cells long, 
narrow, thick-waJled, the basal somewhat incrassate, slightly porose. 

Hab. In a bog near Craig-lyn-Dyfi, Llan-y-mawddwy, Meri- 
oneth, North Wales, alt. 2000 ft., Sept. 1898, ^liss M. Roberts. 

Allied to var. setiforme Eeu., differing in the shorter leaves, the 
colour of the tufts, mixed with a purplish red, and especially by the 
cells with the walls incrassate, the basal ones slightly porose. This 
character brings it near to the j'alcatuin group, and especially to var. 
anylicuDi f. Holtii Sanio {Auihlysteiiiuin jiiiitans var. *j Holtii Sauio, 
Braithw. Brit. Moss Fl. iii. 51), from which it differs in the 
colouring, glossy leaves, less-branched stems, etc. The line of 
demarcation between the groups amphibiiun and j'alcatum is at 
times not very clearly defined, and there are certain forms for 
which it is not easy to determine the most satisfactory position, 
the present variety being one of these. It is a very pretty plant, 
the glossy, variegated colouring being unusual. 

H. FLUiTANS L. (am/iJiibinm) var. squalidum Ken. & Dixon, 
var. nov. In dense intricate masses, pale dull t/reen above, uf a dirty 
reddish brown below. Stems little-branched, rather robust, the leaves 
somewhat complanate-spreading, falcate in upper part of stem and 
branches, rather large, lanceolate, somewhat abruptly terminatiny in 
a fine, faintly -toothed, almost pili/onn subula. Other characters as 
in var. Jeanbernati Ren. 

Hab. In stagnant water, Dawley, Shropshire, May 11, 1896; 
Rev. W. H. Painter. 

l^is variety is nearly allied to var. Jeanbernati Ren., from which 
it differs in the fine subula of the leaves, as well as in the habit. 
The stem-leaves are widely complanate-spreading, giving the ap- 
pearance of some aquatic forms of H. riparium L. — it was indeed 
at first sent me as H. riparium var. splendens De Not. 

A third variety has perhaps a still greater value than the two 
described above, seeing that its ascertained distribution is much 
wider. A plant collected somewhat extensively by Mr. J. A. 
Wheldon and Mr. A. Wilson in Lancashire, on elevated moorlands, 
and again by Mr. W. Ingham in Yorkshire, has for some time 
given rise to discussion. Its short nerve, the scarcely secund, wide 
leaves, shortly and broadly pointed, the loose areolation and very 
indistinctly defined auricles, gave it a very different character from 
that usually obtaining in this species. Under his somewhat hetero- 
geneous group ^' a obsoletum,'' Sanio has described a var. Holleri 
having very nearly the same characters, and M. Renauld at first 
referred our plants to this, ranking them under var. Jeanbernati as 
f. Holleri Sanio. In a letter recently received from him, however, 
he writes: " Cette determination est, a la rigueur, acceptable; 
cependant comaie la var. Holleri Sanio est mal con9ue et mal 
decrite, et que d'ailleurs le groupe obsoletum Sanio est tres confus je 
prefere aujourd'hui fonder une variete nouvelle qui doit etre placee 
a cote de la var. Jeanbernati Hen.'' For this variety M. Renauld 



A NEW PHILODKNDRON 277 

proposes the name athintienm, and has drawn up the following 
description : — 

^ H. FLUiTANS L. {amphibium) var. atlanticum Ren. Forme 
voisine de la var. Jeanhemati Ren., dont elle dififere par la couleur 
verte, le tissu chlorophyllieu, les feuilles plus larges, ovales puis 
rapidement retrecies en un acumen court; nervure un peu plus large 
(58-64 fx au lieu de 46-48 /x), tissu basilaire plus lache, cellules 
moyennes plus larges et plus courtes. 

Hab. England: R. Wyre, West Lanes., coll. Albert Wilson, 
1900 {Wheldon, No. 9). Summit of Pendle Hill, Lanes., alt. 
600 met., coll. J. A. Wheldon, July, 1898. 

France : Meymac (Correze), alt. 900 met., coll. Lachenaud, 1901. 

Forma r/racilis Ren. Plante plus grele, feuilles plus petites mais 
de meme forme que le type, nervure plus etroite, tissu plus lache 
que dans la var. Jeanhemati. 

Hab. England: Arucliffe Wood, Yorkshire, 1900, coll. W. 
Ingham {Wheldon, No. 19). 

Prof. Barker, I may add, sends me the var. atlanticuni from 
North Derbyshire, where he says it occurs abundantly on some of 
the moorlands. In some parts of Lancashire Mr. Wheldon finds it 
one of the most predominant forms of H, fiuitans. 



A NEW PHILODENDROy. 

By a. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc. 

Philodendron crassum, sp. uov. 

Herba caudice brevi crasso procumbente ; foliis confertis, 
petiolo I lamina vix aequante, crassissimo, subfusiforme subterete, 
facie autem superiore pauUo concavo cum acietibus marginalibus 
brevibus ; lamina elliptico-ovata ad subellipticam, apice apiculata, 
supra nitida, costa apicem versus cito evanescente, nervis laterali- 
bus subasqualibus ascendentibus ; peduuculo dimidium spath^ vix 
superante ; spatha suboblonga obtusa ad basin evoluta, intus e 
fundo purpurea, superne albida ; spadice spatham aequante, parte 
foeminea masculae dimidiam partem sub^quante, parte mascula 
sterili quam feminea breviore, staminodiis ovaria excedentibus 
infimis clavatis ; ovariis plurilocularibus, ovulis paucis, stigmatibus 
late capitatis ; staminibus ovaria excedentibus. 

A plant with the habit of P. cannafoiium Mart. The adult 
leaves have a leaf-stalk 22-23 cm. long with the greatest thickness 
4-2 cm. about one-third the distance above the base, narrowing to 
about 1-6 cm. just below the blade ; the shallowly concave upper 
surface reaches 3 cm. in width at the thickest part ; it is bounded 
by low subacute edges. The blade reaches 36 cm. in length by 
17 cm. in width below the middle ; it shows no pre-eminent 
secondary veins. The petiole has a spongy internal structure, with 
the intercellular spaces lined with mucilage. The spathe is 13-5 cm. 



278 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

long by 4 cm. broad ; the female area of the spadix 4 cm. long, 
the male 7*5 cm., including the sterile portion of 2*5 cm. ; the 
ovary 2 mm. long, the stamens 2*5 mm. by 1*5 mm. broad across 
the top. 

The species is most nearly allied to P. canncBfoUum, but is dis- 
tinguished by its more shortly stalked elliptic-ovate leaves, which 
show, moreover, no pre-eminent secondary veins. 

The plant is in the collection of Mr. A. H. Smee, at Hack- 
bridge, Surrey, where it flowered six years ago, and again early 
last April, opening with daylight and beginning to close about 
five o'clock in the afternoon. Mr. Smee received it some years 
ago from General Macdonnell, from Rio de Janeiro. There is no 
information as to where it was collected, but presumably it was in 
the neighbourhood of Rio, or at some spot within easy access. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Middlesex Orchids. — In this Journal for 1890 (p. 120) I referred 
to the remarkable abundance of orchids on our chalk hills in the 
summer of 1889, especially mentioning Orchi-s pyramidalis as thickly 
covering the Harefield and Springwell downs. Since that date not 
a single plant has appeared above ground. Even should it reappear 
next June, thirteen years must surely be an abnormally long period 
of rest, and the fact that the longest previous gap was five years 
only, goes far to suggest that it is so. I was at first inclined to 
attribute this failure to the persistent droughts we have experienced 
since 1891, but 0. latifoHa failed to appear in the marshy Frogs' 
Meadows, and, on the other hand, Ophnjs muscifera came up on the 
chalk every year without a break : these instances lend little support 
to the theory. In any case the behaviour of the orchid tribe is, to 
me, a perpetual puzzle. The lavish distribution of 1889 would 
seem to have been general, for, botanizing, on the Surrey hills in 
June and July of that year, I found the same profusion everywhere, 
and it would be interesting to learn if a similar scarcity up to the 
present time has been noticed in that and other districts. I may 
add that, whilst searching for Gymnadenia conopsea (last seen in 
1891) under Garret Wood, near Springwell Lock, I gathered 
HeHanthemum vulgare, a common species which, strange to say, 
has not yet been reported from Middlesex. — J. Benbow. 

RuBiA ROTUNDiFOLiA Bauks & Sol. — Tliis species, although duly 
included in the Index Kewensis, seems to have been overlooked by 
systematists : it is not mentioned in DC. Frodromus, or in the 
Flora Orientalis. It is, however, duly published with a short 
diagnosis — *' foliis quaternis sessilibus subrotundo-ovatis acuminatis 
ciliatis utrinque laevibus, caule inermi" — in Russell's Natural History 
of Aleppo, ed. 2, ii. 267 (1794) ; and a comparison of specimens 
shows its identity with B. Aucheri Boiss. (Diagn. Ser. i. iii. 54 
(1843)), a name which it displaces. Patrick Russell's plants are 
in the National Herbarium ; the specimen in question is labelled 



SHORT notp:s 279 

" Syria monies prope Antiocham." Dr. Rendle has already cited 
in this Journal (1900, p. 81) the passage in Russell's book which 
indicates that the species established therein should be ascribed to 
Banks and Solander jointly. — James Britten. 

JuNGERMANiA sAxicoLA Schrad. — In Part xx. just issued of Mr. 
Pearson's important work on British Hepatic^e, the claim of Jiinger- 
mania saxicola to be considered a British species rests on a single 
gathering made by the late Dr. Greville in the Shetland Isles. 
In November, 1898, in carefully examining a collection of Scotch 
hepatics made at 13almoral in 1894, I determined one specimen 
gathered near Braemar to be J. saxicola. Owing to eye troubles, 
this was laid aside until within the last few days, when I sent it to 
Mr. Pearson, and he has confirmed the decision. — G. Stabler. 

Pembroke Plants. — The following plants, which, so far as I am 
aware, are hitherto unrecorded for the county, I gathered, with one 
exception, during a visit to Tenby from June 18th to 29th last : — 
Orchis incarnata L. Penally Marsh, abundant. Both this species 
and 0. lati folia were growing there, and, though well-marked 
examples could be gathered of each, there were plants which it was 
extremely difficult to assign to either, and the question naturally 
arose — were these hybrids, or intermediates connecting the two 
species ? — 0. incarnata x maciilata. This hybrid was gathered 
growing among plants of well-marked incarnata. — Kpipactis imhistris 
Crantz. Abundant near the Black Rock, Tenby, but of course only 
in bud at this date. I am indebted to Mr. J. E. Arnett, of Tenby, 
for information which enabled me to collect this species, and also 
for beautiful flowering examples gathered later. — Juncus Gerardi 
Lois. Swamp near railway, Tenby ; abundant. — J. effusus x 
(jlaucus. Penally Marsh ; several clumps were observed. — Carex 
laevigata Sm. Penally. — Pliegopteris caJcarea Fee. Mr. J. E. Arnett 
has collected this at Precelly. In addition to the above I may 
mention Carex paludosa Good., which occurs in fair quantity in 
Penally Marsh, and is queried for Pembroke in Top. Bot. ; and 
Agropijron junceum Beauv., which is quite common on the Burrows 
at Tenby, but which is not recorded in Top. Bot., although it is 
entered in Dr. R. W. Falconer's "Contributions towards a know- 
ledge of Tenby plants" (1848), and is also included in Babington's 
paper " On the Botany of South Pembrokeshire" in this Journal 
for 1863 (pp. 258-270). Mr. Arthur Bennett has kindly verified 
the Carices. — Richard F. Towndrow. 

Radnorshire Plants. — During a short visit this summer to 
Llandrindod Wells, I observed the following interesting plants in 
the immediate neighbourhood : — Carum verticiUatum Koch, abun- 
dant by the lake ; Dianthus deltoides, near quarries in several places ; 
Cnicus pratensis Willd., near Howey ; also a considerable number of 
sedges, including Carex Javigata Sm., in wood near the lake. The 
botanical part of a local guide is generally so feeble and disappointing, 
that I refer with much pleasure to an interesting list contributed to 
Buf ton's Guide by the late Rev. John B. Lloyd, of Liverpool. It 
contains over three hundred plants observed by him within two miles 



280 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

of Llandriiidod, nearly all of which I identified. The Carnm is 
included, and would, I think, be first record for the county. — 
Wm. a. Clarke. 

The Plates of ' English Botany,' ed. 3 (p. 245). — Most of the 
fresh plates and alterations in the third edition of FiujUsh Botany 
w^ere done by J. E. Sowerby. After his death, in 1870, Fitch did 
some. For the Supplement, N. E. Brown drew his own plates. — 
J. G. Baker. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Flora Capensis. Vol. v. Part i. Acanthacepe by C. B. Clarke ; 
Selagineae by E. A. Rolfe ; Verbenace^ by H. H. W. Pear- 
son. 8vo, pp. 224. London : Lovell Beeve. Price 9s. net. 

The gratifying progress now making by the Flora Capensis 
justifies the hope that the work may be completed within half 
a century of the date of its commencement. It is, of course, 
obvious that by that time the earlier volumes will be, as indeed 
they are already, practically useless as an enumeration of South 
African plants — it will be remembered that a period of more than 
thirty years elapsed between the issue of the third volume in 1805 
and the resumption of the work in 1896; but it may be hoped that 
steps are being taken for a reissue of these, brought up to the 
standard of our present knowledge. 

The part just issued is mainly the work of experts. Mr. C. B. 
Clarke had previously monographed the Acanthaceoi for the Flora 
of Tropical Africa ; and Mr. Rolfe has for many years made the 
SelaginecR his own. Mr. H. H. Pearson's treatment of the VerbenacecF. 
is in marked contrast to the remainder of the work in the length of 
the descriptions, which seems to us in many instances to be greatly 
in excess of what is needed in a handbook such as we always under- 
stood to be aimed at by the originators of the series of colonial 
floras. This is not only noticeable in genera containing novelties 
and critical species, such as Vitex, where 9 species occupy 6^ pages, 
but in genera such as Lippia, where so wide-spread a weed as 
L. nodijiora takes more than half a page to describe. This mode 
of treatment is in striking contrast with Mr. Clarke's work, in 
which some new species are disposed of in four, three, or even in 
two — e. g. Justicia cheirantliifolia — lines. Making every allowance 
for divergence of treatment, we should have thought that something 
more nearly approaching uniformity might have been secured by 
the editor of the later parts of the Flora, as it was by Harvey in 
the earlier volumes. 

It is to be regretted that certain bibliographical eccentricities to 
which we called attention in noticing earlier portions of the work 
are still allowed to disfigure its pages. The placing in brackets of 
the name of the authority for a species is not only unusual, but 
absolutely misleading, as it has now a generally recognized and 
different significance. It is true that Harvey so printed the names 



HANDBTICH DKR SYSTKMATISCHKN ROTANIK 281 

forty years ago, but his model has been departed from in so many 
other matters that the retention of this\nisleading method can 
hardly be justified on the score of uniformity ; it is moreover out 
of harmony with the plan of the other colonial floras. The printing 
of the adjectival forms of proper names without a capital letter is a 
recent Kew eccentricity which we had hoped to have seen abandoned ; 
it is not in accordance with precedent (either in the earlier volumes 
of the work or in the other colonial floras) or with custom, either 
at home or abroad: neither the American nor the Berlin rules adopt 
it ; and it is flatly opposed to the Decandollean " laws," which say : 
" Whatever be the form chosen, every specific name derived from 
the name of a person should begin with a capital letter." 

Another unsightliness which tends to confusion is the printing 
in italics not only the synonymy, but also the names of the authors 
and books cited: this renders the synonyms difficult to distinguish. 
In the earlier volumes of the work the same difficulty was not felt, 
as the synonyms and references were few ; now they often extend 
to twelve or thirteen lines, and occupy more space than the descrip- 
tion of the plant. It is, we think, to be regretted that the earlier 
plan, by which synonyms and references were mainly confined to 
those which pertained to the plant in its connection with South 
Africa, has given place to something like a complete bibliography. 
This, it seems to us, is entirely out of place in a work of the kind ; 
it must add materially to the cost and extent of the Flora, and thus 
render it much less convenient for use in the field. 

We note that Mr. Rolfe has a new species, Selar/o Muudii, 
named from a collector whom he calls '' Muud." According to 
Harvey (Gen. S. Af. PI. 26), Kunth in establishing his genus 
Mundia fell into a similar error; Harvey considered it was "in- 
tended to commemorate the services rendered to botany by M. 
Mundt, a most meritorious collector of South African plants," and 
he accordingly altered the spelling to Mundtia, in which form it 
appears in Bentham & Hooker's Genera, and in many other books. 
It is not, however, quite certain that Kunth had Mundt in view,^:^ 
and in any case the spelling as published, both in this and in Mr. 
Rolfe's case, must stand, in accordance with the practice which 
has accepted Cinchona in preference to the more etymologically 
correct Chinchona. 

Handbuch der Sijstemathchen Botanik. Von Dr. Richard R. v. 
Wettstein, Professor an der Universitat Wien. Bd. l' 
8vo, pp. iv, 201, tt. 126. Leipzig & Wien: Fr. Deuticke.* 

J- JU J. . 

The object of this new handbook is to give a more detailed 
account of the systematic phase of botany than is contained in 
the general text-books. The author intends also to pay special 
attention to questions of phylogeny. To these ends the more im- 
portant types will be reviewed and illustrated as fully as possible, 

* See a note in this Journal for 1889, p. 262. 



282 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

while stress will be laid upon those whose development is of special 
importance from the phylogenetic point of view. 

The present volume contains a general introduction and the 
first instalment of the special portion, comprising an accomit of the 
Thallophytes. Volume ii., containing the Cormophytes, is promised 
for next year. The general introduction, which occupies forty-four 
pages, contains a short history of the evolution of systematic botany, 
and a sketch of the value of homology, embryology, geographical 
distribution, and other factors in determining phylogenetic relation- 
ships. 

At the commencement of the special part Professor Wettstein 
gives an outline of the classification which he adopts. The plant 
world, he says — as far as our present knowledge goes — includes 
organisms belonging to seven great developmental series, or stocks, 
as follows : — 

i. Myxophyta. iv. Euthallophyta. 

ii. Schizophyta. v. Phaeophyta. 

iii. Zygophyta. vi. Rhodophyta. 

vii. Cormophyta. 
Stocks i.-vi. are considered in the present volume, and the majority 
indicate by their name the character of the organisms included. 
Myxophyta are the Myxomycetes, including also Plasmodiophora. 
Schizophyta comprise the two divisions fission-algae and fission- 
fungi, or the old CyanophycecE and the Bacteria, which are 
generally thus associated in recent arrangements. Zygophyta 
contains the PeridinecB (which, if plants, must be put somewhere), 
the BaciUariea or Diatoms, and the ConjiiyatcB, the latter com- 
prising the three families Desmidiacea, ZygnemacecB, and Meso- 
carpacecB. Euthallophyta include two classes — one the Cldorophycea, 
or the rest of the green alg£e, and a second the Fungi. Phaeophyta 
and Rhodophyta are the brown and red algae as generally under- 
stood. Thus the important departure from systems generally in 
vogue is the bringing together of the green algas and the Fungi in one 
group, and the exclusion at the same time of the two other large 
groups of sea-weeds. If, however, we accept the view of the 
evolution of the Fungi as a whole from a common algal stock, 
there is no doubt that the most nearly allied algae are to be found 
among the C/dorophycea, and Prof. Wettstein is therefore phylo- 
genetically justified in his - distribution of the groups. But as a 
matter of convenience we much prefer the more usual method, 
such as, for instance, is adopted in Prof. Engler's Fflanzenfamilien 
— namely, the consideration of the great groups of Algae as one 
section, and the great group of Fungi as another section of the 
subkingdom Thallophyta. Even if we grant that the Fungi have 
sprung from a common algal stock, which presumably finds its 
nearest representative in the CIdurophycecB, we must bear in mind the 
great development along widely diverging lines that has occurred 
since the origin of the group, which development removes it as a 
group far more widely from the Alg^, considered as a whole, than 
the generally received subdivisions of Algae are removed from each 
other. 



GRASSES 283 

We shall be much interested to see Prof. Wettstein's treatment 
of the seventh stock, Cormophyta, and to hear his reasons for 
lamping into one series everything which is not a Thallophyte. It 
is a curious inversion of the old system, which was of course merely 
an expression of ignorance, where everything which was not a 
flowering plant was a Cryptogam. 

As regards the elaboration of individual series, their subdivision 
is on familiar lines, that of the Fungi being based on Brefeld's 
arrangement. A special feature is the number and excellence 
of the illustrations. These will ensure the book a welcome by 
the ordinary student, who will probably not be greatly disturbed by 
departures from the more generally adopted arrangement of the 
larger groups. - A B R 

Grasses. A Handbook for use in the Field and Laboratory. By 
H. Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F.K.S. Pp. viii, 190, tt. 81. 
Cambridge University Press. 1901. Price 6s. 

Professor Marshall Ward's book on Grasses is the latest 
addition to the biological series of the Cambridge Natural Science 
Manuals. It is not intended to be a complete manual of Grasses, 
but "an account of our common native species, so arranged that 
the student may learn how to closely observe and deal with the 
distinctive characters of these remarkable plants when such problems 
as the botanical analysis of a meadow or pasture, of hay, of weeds, 
or of ' seed ' grasses are presented, as well as when investigating 
questions of more abstract scientific nature." With this end in 
view, the author has elaborated a series of chapters in which the 
species are arranged (1) according to their vegetative characters ; 
(2) according to the anatomical characters of the leaf; (3) according 
to their flowers and inflorescences; (4) according to the grain. 
These arrangements represent the expenditure of considerable 
labour ; but, while one realizes the interest attaching to the process 
of elaboration, it is difficult to regard them otherwise than as a sort 
of botanical exercise. The student who is able to use any one of 
these systems could quite well avail himself of the more scientific 
system of a good British Flora — more scientific because the general 
aggregate of characters is its basis, while by its use the student 
learns to appreciate the relative value of the individual factors. 
We grant that it may be useful to run a grass down from vegetative 
characters only, but so many of the characters are comparative, 
that the system when we are dealing with individual and often 
incomplete specimens is apt to fail at the crucial point, and practi- 
cally in working with a limited flora like our own, a series of 
carefully preserved and properly determined specimens for purpose 
of comparison will be far more helpful than a tabular scheme. 
And, after all, this is at least as scientific a method as one depending 
on a single set of characters. 

In addition to the chapters on classification, there are several 
on the general structure and biology of grasses, forming a useful 
introduction to a more detailed study of the order. 



284 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

The text, for the size and character of the book, is well illns- 
trated, but the great majority of the figures are borrowed, with due 
acknowledgment, from well-known works, chiefly of German origin, 
and, this being the case, it is not easy to understand why it is 
necessary to charge six shillings for the volume. Fischer of Jena 
would have produced it, with plenty of original illustrations, for 
three marks. Tlie book, though not without some value as an 
introduction to the study of a family of great botanical and infinite 
economic interest, can hardly be considered so indispensable as to 
demand a price which is, from the student's point of view, 
exorbitant. Perhaps, to quote a student's remark, "they don't 
expect to sell many." ABE 

Histoire de VAbrotonum. Signification de la desinence ex de quelqnes 
noms de plantps. Par le Dr. Saint-Lager. Paris : J. B. 
Bailliere. 1900. Pp. 48. 

The subject of this pamphlet is twofold, as shown in the above 
title: (1) to correct the spelling of the name usually given as 
Abrnta,nu)u : and (2) to consider the meaning of the ending " ex " in 
certain plant-names. As to the first, the author has no difficulty 
in showing that the name was originally written as he gives it ; 
that botanists including Caspar Bauhin have since mis-spelled it, 
and even induced a false derivation, based on the error. Dr. Saint- 
Lager is an untiring stickler for reform in naming, far beyond any- 
thing advanced by the most revolutionary of present-day reformers, 
for he would willingly go behind Linnaeus. His views are so well- 
known that it is needless here to dwell much on them, especially as 
none of the disputants in the nomenclature question seem disposed 
to adopt them. The author even goes so far in his zeal as to mis- 
quote Besser's Tentamen de Ahrotmis ... as "Tent. Abroton." 
(p. 21) ; even Camerarius and C. Bauhin are similarly treated, 
which is unpardonable. Once, indeed, the author cites Tentamen 
Abrotdsnonnn, probably by oversight. 

Apart from these special peculiarities of the author, there will 
be found a large amount of interesting matter in these pages. 
Passing from the form of the name, Dr. Saint-Lager proceeds to 
discuss the geographic origin of Artemisia AbrotanuDi Lam., finally 
suggesting that it is merely a cultivated form of A. procera Willd. 

The latter part of the pamphlet is devoted to a consideration of 
the plant-names ending in ex, such as Ule.v, Ilex, Eumex, and 
Carex. With these he compares the animal-names haying a like 
ending, of which he gives a long list, and states that it probably 
is the same as the prefix " ac," conveying the idea of something 
sharp or pointed. B D J 



28^ 



AHTlCLtJS /A' JO URN A LS^ 

Annah of BotcDiy (June). — M. Ferguson, ' Development of 
pollen-tube and division of generative nucleus in Pines ' (3 pi.).— 
F. 0. Bower, ' Imperfect sporangia in Pteridopliytes.'— A. H. Trow, 
' Biology and cytology of F[/thiu))i ultiinuiii, sp.n.' — G. Massee & 
E. S. Salmon, ' Coprophilous Fungi' (2 pi.). — L. A. Boodle, 
'Anatomy of ScJiizcEacea; ' (3 pi.). 

Butanical Gazette (20 June). —J. H. Scliaffner, ' Life-history of 
Enjthyoniuni' (6 pi.).— H. M. Hall, * Californian Plants ' (1 pi.).— 
A. Nelson, 'Rocky Mountain Plants.' — E. B. Copeland, ' Geo- 
tropism of Stems.' 

Bot. Zeitimg (15 July). — K. Giesenliagen, 'Taphnna, Exoascns 
& Mivimisiella.' 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (30 June). — H. Hallier, ' Pflanzeu 
aus dem Malaiisch-Papuanisclien Inselmeer ' (4 pi.). — E. Penard, 
Phytelios loricata, sp.n. — R. Chodat, 'Variation numerique dans 
Orchis Morio:—G. Hegi, 'Das Obere Tosstal ' (cont.). 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique (xl. 1 ; 29 June).— Th. Durand & E. de 
Wildeman, * Materiaux pour la Flore du Congo.' 

Bull. Torreij Bot. Club (19 June ; received 6 July). — M. A. 
Howe, ' Acicularia and Acetabuiuni' (2 pi.). — C. C. Curtis, ' Trans- 
piration and the resistance of stems.' — E. J. Darand, ' The genus 
Holivaycr (1 plate). — J. K. Small, 'Shrubs and trees of the 
Southern States' (cont.). 

Gardeners' Chronicle (29 June).— W. B. Hemsley, ' Tree Lobelias 
of Tropical Africa" (fig. 156). 

Jounial de Botanique ("Mai"; received 28 June). — C. Sau- 
vageau, 'Les Sphacelariacees ' (cont.).— P. Parmentier., 'Recherches 
sur le pollen des Dialypetales.'— M. CoL ' Recherches sur I'appareil 
secreteur des Composes.' 

Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. (" April" ; received 2 July). — J. Bresadola 
& F. Cavara, ' Funghi di Vallombrosa.' — L. Micheletti, Erirjeron 
Karwinskynnus var. mucronatm. — Th. Giovannozzi, ' I movimenti 
igroscopici delle piante ' (IpL). — A. Beguinot, ' Flora dei depositi 
alluvionali del Tevere.' 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (July). — P. G. Franz Vrba, ' Zur 
Anatomic der Achsen von Alyssuui saxatile.' — E. Hackel, ' Neue 
Gi-aser.' — A. V. Hayek, ' Zur Flora von Steiermark.' — J. Velen- 
ovsky, ' Zur Moosflora von Montenegro.' — F. Stephani, ' Die 
Elaterentrager von Calycularia.' — M. Soltokovic, ' Die perennen 
Arten der Gentiana aus der section Cyclostiyma' (cont.). 

Rhodora (Jane). — J. R. Churchill, E. F. Williams, M. L. Fer- 
nald, C. G. Kennedy, & J. F. Collins, ' Botanical Excursion to 
Mount Katahdin.'— J. F. Collins, ' Bryophytes of Maine.' 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 



At the meeting of the Linnean Society held on June 20th, 
a paper by Messrs. W. West and G. S. West was read, "On 
the Freshwater Algae of Ceylon," founded on material collected 
by Mr. W. G. Freeman in 1896-97 at various localities in the 
island. Representatives of almost all the families of Freshwater 
Algae were obtained, and two of the collections were especially 
rich in DesiiiidiecB ; altogether 395 species were collected. The 
Desmids observed were essentially tropical in character, and not 
very dissimilar to those of Northern India, Burma, Singapore, and 
some of the East India Islands, a noteworthy feature being the 
presence in Ceylon of a large number of species which occur in 
Madagascar. There was also a. marked resemblance between the 
algal flora of Ceylon and that of Northern Queensland, and the 
only two species known from Hongkong were each found both in 
Ceylon and Queensland. The investigation of these collections 
had resulted in the discovery of some sixty new species, many of 
which deserved special mention on account of their extraordinary 
forms. Messrs. George Massee and E. S. Salmon communicated a 
paper " On Coprophilous Fungi." " Mr. N. E. Brown read a paper 
entitled "A Revision of the Genus Hi/peiieojjhi/Uutn, with Notes on 
certain allied Genera of Compositce.'' After pointing out that the 
genus tlijpeiicophijlluni had been founded by Steetz on a remarkable 
plant collected by Peters in Portuguese East Africa, and that spe- 
cimens of it were so rare in collections that much misapprehension 
prevailed regarding it, he remarked that Bentham had united it 
with the genus Jamnea Pers. An examination, however, of the 
material now available had demonstrated that this view was 
•untenable; he regarded Hypericophylliini as quite distinct from 
Jaumea in its distribution, habit, and appearance; in the pos- 
session of glands in its leaves and tissues ; and in its remarkable 
pappus, the hooked bristles of which appeared to be unique in this 
order. He therefore proposed to restore this, with three other 
genera, to their former generic rank, and furnished a key to their 
distinctive characters. In addition, he described a new species 
[H. scabriduiii) from British Central Africa, whence specimens had 
been received from Nyassaland between Kondowe and Karonga, from 
the Manganja Hills, and from the Shire Highlands, near Blantyre. 

Dr. Oscar Loew has discovered a new enzyme, which he has 
called Catalase. He found that an extract of tobacco-leaves retained 
the power of decomposing hydrogen peroxide after the other known 
enzymes had disappeared. He was thus led to investigate the sub- 
ject, and found the new enzyme, which exists in two forms, soluble 
and insoluble. Its chief property is its catalytic action on hydrogen 
peroxide, and it is of universal occurrence, as Dr. Loew has proved, 
both in the higher and lower plants In the various metabolic 
changes in the cell, a substance such as hydrogen peroxide would 

* [This is apparently the paper by the same authors printed in the Annals 
of BotcDiij iov June, but no reference is there made to its having been read 
before the Linnean Society.— Ed. Joukn. Box.] 



BOOK-XOTES, NEWS. ETC. 287 

be continually formed, and would, if retained, be deleterious to the 
life of the plant. Dr. Loew supposes, therefore, that catalase may 
render great service in catalysing the peroxide as soon as it is 
formed. He found it, though not in large quantities, in the leaves 
of herbarium specimens that had been collected in 1841. The 
results of his investigation are published in Report No. 68 of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The S. p. C. K. has issued a neat little half-crown volume on 
Poisonous Plants in Field and Garden by the Rev. G. Henslow, the 
utility of which is not obvious. The number of plants which are 
practically a source of danger is extremely limited, and an illustrated 
account of these might be useful ; but this volume includes a small 
amount of information about a large number of species, with the 
usual quotations from other authors, and a number of figures 
which have already done duty in various works. It is systematically 
arranged, but even the orders are not characterized : thus we are 
told that our British LefjuininoscB "are easily known by the peculiar 
form of the flower," but this is not described further than by saying 
it has "an imaginary likeness to a butterfly." Many of the species 
are undescribed, save by a phrase which would apply equally to 
others: e.;/. the only information as to Oroba)icJie minor is that it 
"is parasitic on clover and several other plants," which is equally 
true of Ciiscuta. Why does Mr. Henslow say that the " Harebell of 
Scotland" is Scilia nutans f It is certainly not the plant of the 
" Lady of the Lake." 

The third Appendix to the non-existent Kew Bulletin for 1901 
contains a list of the "new garden plants of the year 1900," with 
a reference to the place of their publication. " These lists," we 
are told in a prefatory note, " are indispensable to the maintenance 
of a correct nomenclature," but this statement seems to need qualifi- 
cation, as we are further told that " in every case the plant is cited 
under its published name, although some of the names are doubt- 
fully correct." The latter remark is certainly true : t^. </. the first 
name upon which our eye fell was " Cham^lirion Carolinia," which 
stands in the Index Keweiisis as ChauuBlirium carolinianuin. 

The death of Dr. Emil Bretschneider, which took place on or 
about May 14, has deprived Chinese botany of one of its most assiduous 
students. For thirty years he has devoted unremitting attention 
to the investigation of its history ; his first essay. On the Study 
and Value of Chinese Botanical Works, was published at Peking in 
1870-1 ; and his last work, History of European Botanical Discoveries 
in China, appeared in 1898. Of this important volume — a very 
storehouse of information concerning the progress of botany in 
China and the investigators who have contributed to our knowledge 
thereof — an appreciation appeared in this Journal for 1899 (pp. 86- 
88), in which also, in 1894 (pp. 292-298), was printed a paper from 
his pen, "On Some Old Collections of Chinese Plants." Bret- 
schneider's knowledge of plants, although he made some collections, 
was mainly confined to those of pharmaceutical interest ; but he 
has done much to render accessible to Europeans the information 
contained in Chinese botanical works. 



288 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

It is a matter for satisfaction that Bretschneider did not adhere 
to his intention to delay the publication of his magnum opus until 
the completion of the Inded'' Flora Sinensis. *' It is not to be fore- 
seen," he wrote in 1898, "when Mr. Hemsley's admirable work, 
interrupted more than four years ago, will be brought to an end " ; 
and its conclusion still seems equally remote. Since 1891, only two 
parts of the Inded-, amounting together to 142 pages, have been 
published — one in 1894, the other in 1899 ; and it is needless to 
point out that such delays are fatal to anything like a complete 
presentment of our knowledge of the Chinese flora at any definite 
date — the earlier portions (1889-91) must be hopelessly behind the 
later in completeness, and the book as a whole is thus rendered 
useless for statistical purposes. We would urge upon the Council 
of the Linnean Society — in whose Journal the Index appears, 
although we understand they are not primarily responsible for its 
publication — to take all steps in their power to ensure the speedy 
completion of the work. We understand a large portion of the 
manuscript has for some time been ready, and it should not be 
difficult to remove any obstacles to its speedy publication. 

We have before called attention to the inconvenience likely to 
arise from the publication of plants as new species in two places, 
without any indication in the later publication that the descriptions 
have already appeared. An example of this may be noticed in 
Malpighia, vol. xiv. fasc. ix-xii, pp. 425-456 (dated 1900, but not 
issued till 1901), where Prof. Lopriore publishes as " Amarantaceae 
novas" some genera and a large number of species which he had 
previously published in Botanische Jahrhucher, xxvii. 37-60, as long 
ago as April, 1899. We can, however, find no reference in Malpir/hia 
to this earlier publication : on the contrary, the terms " nov. gen." 
and " n. sp." are employed in such a way as to imply that the plants 
are new. The fact that the two papers are not entirely identical 
is likely to add to the confusion which this method can hardly fail 
to cause. 

Mr. Aven Wilson seems to have hit upon a new mode of 
addhig to unnecessary synonymy, by the creation of synonyms for 
"homonyms" — at least, that appears to us to be the outcome of 
his note in the Botanical Gazette for June, p. 407, which runs as 
follows: — ''Arnica multijiora Greene, Pitt. 4: 162, evidently is 
A. Columbiana Aven Nelson, Bot. Gaz. 30 : 200, since both are, in 
part, founded on the same collections and the same numbers are 
cited. The latter name is the earlier by two or three months. 
Dr. Greene's A. Columbiana (Pitt. 4 : 159) having thus become a 
homonym it may become Arnica Greenei, n. n." 

An article on the Tree Lobelias of Tropical Africa in the 
Gardeners Chronicle for June 29 is accompanied by a picture from a 
photograph of these remarkable plants, two of which were described 
and figured by Mr. E. G. Baker in this Journal for 1894. These are 
not referred to by Mr. Hemsley, but his article contains a reference 
to "L. squarrosa Baker f." — a name which we are unable to trace. 

Erratum. — P. 245, 1. 19 from bottom, for " Whichelmore " read 

"MiCHELMORE." 



Journ. Bot. 



Tab. 425. 




Hypoxis stellata {speciiiien Linmcanuni). 



289 



ON lANTlIE, A GENUS OF HYPOXIDACE^. 

By Frederic N. Williams, F.L.S. 

(Plate 425.) 

In the two editions of Species Plantanim Linnasiis describes 
eleven species of Auutn/IUs. Afterwards, in the twelfth edition of 
Systema Naturce (1767), he describes another, Atnanjllis undulata 
(now known as Nerine undulata Herb.). Lastly, A. dubia, though 
usually cited^as of Linnaeus (and now known as Hippeastrum 
eqiiestre Herb.), is described in a paper read by J. Aim in June, 
1775, and afterwards published in the eighth volume of Anuenitates 
Academical (1785), edited by Schreber seven years after the death of 
Linnaeus. Other species were subsequently without adequate 
consideration adduced to the loosely characterized Amanjllis of 
Linnaeus, until Ker, Dean Herbert, and others, so disintegrated the 
genus, that in its depleted state it is now represented in the Index 
Kewensis by a single species, Amaryllis Belladonna. Link, to include 
this plant, characterized much more satisfactorily the genus Calli- 
core,-' taking up the plant under the name of C. rosea, which is 
an eminently suitable name ; and adding also three others, which 
are now, however, included in Hippeastrum. It would not be a 
matter for regret if Amaryllis, now limited to a single species, 
which occurs only in Cape Colony and the Canary Isles, were to 
disappear from the list of generic names, in favour of Link's more 
clearly defined genus Callicore. With the disappearance of Ama- 
ryllis there would be no advantage in retaining the derivative 
names of " Amaryllidace^ " and " Amaryllide^ " ; and the ordinal 
and tribal names of '' Hypoxidaceae " and " Hypoxideae," used by 
Lindley and by Robert Brown respectively for the same group of 
genera, if applied with a wider significance, would be more appro- 
priate, as being based on a genus which is represented by species 
which range from South Africa and Tropical Africa, across South 
Asia, and the whole of the Australasian continent, to North 
America. The tribe of Hypoxidem has at various times by com- 
petent authorities been included in Liliacece, Iridacea, and Hcvmo- 
doracece, and the name, used in the ordinal sense with this wider 
significance, would thus serve to emphasize phylogenetic affinities, 
which are not sufficiently implied in the use of the other ordinal 
name.! 

In his Synopsis of Hypoxidacc(B,\ Mr. J. G. Baker includes four 
genera. Of these four genera, Pauridia has since been shown to 

* Handbuch z. Erkennuny d. Geiodchse, i. p. 193 (1829). 
t See also Caruel in N. Gioni. Bot. Ital. x. p. 91 (1878). 
I Journ. Linn, Soc. xvii. (1878). 

Journal OF Botany. — Vol. 39. [Sept. 1901.] y 



290 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

belong to Hamodoracete, and Molineria may best be considered a 
subc^enns of Curculvjo, if we do not accord generic importance to 
the occasionally beaked ovary, but rather to the character of the 
fruit being an indehiscent berry instead of a circumscissile dehiscent 
capsule. To these two genera, which comprise the tribe of Hypox- 
idecB, I propose to add a third, by reviving Salisbury's genus lanfhe 
for the glabrous species included in Hiipoxis. This splitting has 
already been indicated by Mr. Baker in his Synopsis, by grouping 
the species of Hypod-is in two subgenera, lanthe and Eu-hypoxis. 
In the former are sunk Fahricia Tiiunb. (in part), lanthe Salisb., 
Spiluxene, Salisb. ; in the latter are sunk Xiobea Willd., Franque- 
villea ZolL, Platyzyya Lallem. 

The presence or absence of pubescence in a group of species is 
not in itself, of course, a distinctive generic character ; but an 
examination of the available material certainly shows that the 
other characters adduced are constant in many series of specimens. 
Unfortunately the glabrous species of Hypoxis are not showy plants, 
and no living specimens are available for dissection. There are 
none under cultivation either in the bulb-pits or in the ranges in 
Kew Gardens. Several of the hairy species are, however, under 
cultivation ; and the examination of herbarium-specimens shows 
the constant differences in Horal structure exhibited by the two 
groups. Mr. R. Schlechter has recently pointed out''- that geo- 
graphically as well as ecologically in South Africa the distribution 
of the entirely glabrous and of the hairy species respectively is in- 
teresting. The former occur in south-west Namaqua-land and the 
higher western region of Cape Colony, but fail altogether in the 
eastern region, and collectively are shade-plants, occurring gener- 
ally at lower elevations, and even near the sea-level, in contrast to 
the higher range attained by the hairy species. 

The characters adduced by Salisbury for the separation of 
Lanthe, Spiloxene, and Hypoxis, though not borne out in the exami- 
nation of a series of specimens, sufficiently indicate his critical 
acumen in the examination of plants, and the soundness of his 
views as to the fundamental characters which should serve for the 
separation of genera. The following remarks are transcribed from 
Salisbury's Liriogamw, a book not readily obtainable, in the section 
relating to Hypoxuiew : — " lanthe has an annual bulb, dilated at the 
base into a jagged margin like that of Hesperanthus ; its leaves are 
attenuated, in one species striped with white down the middle ; 
pericarpium unilocular from the earliest period ; internal surface of 
petals yellow without a large spot at their base ; filaments inserted 
on the receptacular disc as close as possible to the style, and per- 
fectly distinct from the petals ; rachis of anthers confluent with the 
filament ; stigmata united ; and its seeds are inserted by compara- 
tively long funiculi all over the surface of three very large bolstered 
parietal placentas. Spiloxene, so named from the dark spot at the 
base of its petals, agrees with lanthe m its root, but has longer and 
more attenuated leaves, more or less scarious and crenulated at the 



Engler's Jahrbuch, xxvii. p. 88 (1899). 



ON lANTHK, A GKNMS OF HYPOXIbACE.Ii 291 

edge ; its flowers are very large, solitary, and seldom in more than 
one or two of the inner axils ; peduncle fistular, with a long 
sheathing foliaceous bract towards the bottom; pericarpium trilocu- 
lar, but as it ripens tlie partitions, which are very thin, nearly vanish, 
and the centre of the placentas becomes hollow ; petals only ex- 
panded during sunshine ; filaments inserted in two series on the 
disc of the pericarpium, and nearer to the style than to the petals ; 
midrib of anthers an uninterrupted continuation of the filament; 
stigmata united nearly up to the top ; and seeds inserted in many 
rows. Lastly, to Hypu.vis I only refer those species which agree 
with Linne's type, erecta, in having perennial roots full of yellow or 
orange-coloured juice ; leaves continuing to vegetate nearly through 
the whole year, and never decaying all at the same time, trifarious, 
generally pubescent, sharply keeled, not unlike those of Garex ; 
slender tough angulated solid peduncles ; panicled or solitary 
flowers, the two lowest generally opposite ; a small bract at the 
base of each pedicel ; petals of one yellow colour internally ; fila- 
ments inserted conjointly in the marginal disc of the pericarpium 
and base of the petals ; anthers ' pivotantes ' or nearly so, as the 
French well express this sort of insertion, their midrib far broader 
than the top of the filaments, not confluent ; seeds only in two 
series on narrow placentas." In the series of specimens I have 
examined, among the species referred by Salisbury to lanthe and 
Spiloxene, the basifix anthers and free stigmas seem to be constant, 
while in the hairy species of Hypoxis the anthers are uniformly 
medifix and versatile (though not so freely movable as in Lilium), 
and sagittate at the base, and the stigmas united. The constancy 
of these two important floral characters, the basifix anthers and 
free stigmas, justifies, I think, the separation of the entirely glabrous 
species from the hairy species ; the former to be included in the 
revived genus lanthe, which in an amended form is here defined. 

Ianthe. 
Perigonii tubus supra ovarium baud productus ; segmenta sub- 
sBqualia persistentiapatentia, interiora oblonga, exteriora lanceolata 
dorso viridula. Stamina perigonii basi inserta ; filamenta erecta 
subulata ; anther^e iutrors^e basifix^e lineari-oblongfe. Ovarium 
erostre, clavatum vel subgloboso-turbinatum ; stigmata discreta 
libera lanceolato-sagittata erecta ; ovula; in loculo 4-20 ; stylus 
brevis subulatus. Capsula clavata vel subgloboso-turbinata, mem- 
branacea, infra apicem circumscissa operculata, evalvis vel loculicide 
trivalvis, septis saepe evanidis. Semina miuuta globosa curvato- 
funiculata, lateraliter plusmiuus rostello biappendiculata ; testa 
Crustacea lucida atro-castanea. Embryo albumine laxe carnoso 
interdum fere farinaceo inclusus. — Herbse acaulescentes omnino 
glabra. Folia graminoidea persistentia, haudplicata; omnia basi- 
laria, cormo monocarpico prodeuntia. Pedunculi terminales, tametsi 
simulate axillares. Flores solitarii, rarius in umbellam laxam 
dispositi, lutei vel albidi. 

Y 2 



202 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

JSyii.: Fabrlcia Tbuub. (p. m. p.) in Fabric. Reise nach Norw. p. 23 

(1779). 
lantJie Salisb. Gen. Plant, fragm. p. 44 (1866). 
SpUoxene Salisb. ,, ,, ,, 

Hijpoxis subgen. lanthe Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvii. p. 99 

(1878). 
Hypoxis sect. lanthe Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Natiirl. Pjianzenf. 

ii. abt. V. p. 121 (1887) ; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phanerog. 

p. 415 (1888). 

Geoyr. area. — Most of tbe species are found in Cape Colony, a 
few in Australia and Tasmania, and one in New Zealand. 

Provisional List of Species. 

1. I. alba Salisb. \ = Fahricia alba Tbunb. in Fabric. Reise nach 

Norw. p. 26 (1779). 

2. 1. aqimtica. ; ^ Hypoxis aquatica Linn. f. Suppl. Plant, p. 197 

(1781). 
B. I. curculigoides ; = i/*//Jo.m curculif/oides Bolus, in Hook. f. Ic. 
Plant, t. 2259 a (1893), non Wall. List (1828). 

4. I. glabella; = Bypoxis glabella K. Br. Prodr. i. p. 289 (1810). 

5. I. gi'3iQi\i^es; = Hi/poxis yracilipes Scblecliter, in Engl. Jahrb. 

xxvii. p. 88 (1899). 

6. I. leptantha ; = H^^jo.iv's leptantha Bentli. Fl. Austral, vi. p. 451 

(1873). 

7. I. linearis Salisb. \ = Hypoxis linearis Kennedy, in Andr. Bot. 

Reposit. t. 171 (Aug. 1801). 

8. I. Maximiliani ; = Hypoxis Maximiliani Sclilecbter, in Engl. 

Jahrb. xxvii. p. 89 (1899). 

9. I. minuta ; = Helonias minuta Linn. Mant. Plant, ii. p. 225 

(Oct. 1771). 

10. I. monophylla ; = Hypoxis monophylla Schlechter, in Engl. 

Jahrb. xxiv. p. 453 (1897). 

11. 1. occidentalis ; = ii^t/;;o.uis occidentalis Benth. Fl. Austral, vi. 

p. 451 (1873). 

12. I. ovata Salisb. ;= Hypoxis ovata Linn. f. Supjil. Plant, p. 197 

(1781). 

13. I. pusilla ; = Hypoxis pusilla Hook. f. Fl. Tasman. ii. p. 86, 

t. 130 b (1860), non H. B. et K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. (1815). 

14. I. Schlecliteri ; = K^juo.f/s Schlechteri Bolus, in Hook. f. Ic. 

Plant, t. 2259 b (1893). 

15. I. serrata Salisb. ; = Fabricia serrata Thuub. in Fabric. Reise 

nach Norw. p. 29 (1779). 

16. I. hiQ\\2^idi\ = Amaryllis capensis Linn. Sp. Plant, ed. 2, p. 420 

(1762), excl. syn. ; Hypoxis stellata Linn, herb., etLinn. f. 
Suppl. Plant, p. 197 ; Spiloxene stellata Salisb. Gen. Plant, 
fraym. p. 44. 

17. I. umbraticola ; = Hypoxis umbraticola Schlechter, in Engl. 

Jahrb. xxvii. p. 89 (1899). 



ON lANTHE, A GENUS OF HYPOXIDACEiE 293 

Clavis analytica. 

1. Scapus foliis brevier. Flores 1-3 in pedunculo, rarius umbellati. 

* Stamina OBquilouga. 
*\\ Flores umbellati. 
1. aquatica (2). 
11 5F Flores 1-3 in pedunculo. 
f Scapus basi bracteatus. 

xPerigonium expansum 8 mm. diam. 

1. minuta (9). 
X xPerigonium expansum 88-50 mm. diam. 
I. linearis [7). 
t f Scapus infra medium bracteatus. 
X Oapsula subgloboso-turbinata. 

/. ovata, glabella (12, 4). 
X xCapsula clavata. 

°Perigonium expansum 10-20 mm. diam. 

I. serrata, occidentaUs (15, 11). 
°° Perigonium expansum 85-90 mm. diam. 
1. Maximiliani (8). 
** Stamina inaequilonga ; filamenta 3 longiora, 3 breviora. 
X Capsula subgloboso-turbinata. 

/. pusilla (13). 
X X Capsula clavata. 
° Folia plura. 

I. leptantha (6). 
°° Folia singula. 

I. monophylla (10). 

2. Scapus foliis longior, interdum aequilongus. Flores in pedun- 

culo solitarii, rarius 2. 
■■' Stamina aequilonga. 

t Scapus basi bracteatus. 

X Stigmata angusta linearia. 
° Cormus longe ovatus. 
/. Schlechteri (14). 
°° Cormus giobosus. 
I. alha (1). 
X X Stigmata lata oblongo-lanceolata. 
I. cwc.uligoides (3). 
t \ Scapus medio bracteatus. 
I. stellata (16). 
" ■'' Stamina inaequilonga ; filamenta 3 longiora, 3 breviora. 
t Perigonii segmenta ovario longiora. 

I. gracilipes (5). 
1 1 Perigonii segmenta ovario breviora. 
I, umbraticola (17). 

Salisbury derives the generic name ''lanthe" from laivu {i.e. 
late floreo), using the words in their Ciceronian sense, and without 
prejudice to the wayward nymph of that name. 

Two other glabrous species of Hypoxis have been described by 



294 THE JOTTRNAL OF BOTANY 

Mr. J. Ct. Baker. One, H. Sculiyi, may, perhaps, be reduced to a 
variety of lanthe aqnatica ; the other is H. Andrewsii, otherwise 
H. obJiqua Andr. {)ion Jacq.). This latter species is founded on 
the figure of a plant cultivated in a Clapham nursery, and nothing 
further is known about it. An examination of Andrews' figure 
shows that the rhizome is a tuber with numerous long root-fibres, 
and not a corm, such as is characteristic of other species which 
are referred to lanthe. If, therefore, the species is to be kept up, it 
should find a place in Hypo.vh proper until more can be known 
about it. 

No fossil forms or impressions of any of the Hi/po.ridea: have 
been identified. 

The plate which illustrates this paper represents a specimen of 
lanthe stellata, and is reproduced by photography from a sheet in 
the Linnean Herbarium to which a single specimen is attached, 
and at the bottom of which is written the single word ' stellata ' 
in Linne's handwriting. 



MOSSES OF WEST LANCASHIRE. 
By J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S., and Albert Wilson, F.L.S. 

This list, which is supplementary to our article on the " Mosses 
of West Lancashire" {Joum. Bot. Nov. and Dec. 1899), contains 
numerous plants which are new not only to vice-county 60, but 
also to the Mersey Province. These latter are indicated by having 
an asterisk prefixed. The few species included in the following 
pages w4]ich were also recorded in our first list are marked by an 
obelisk sign, and are introduced here, either because their rarity in 
the county renders the discovery of a new locality interesting, or 
because we wish to modify statements as to their rarity given in 
the list named. All the remaining species have been found or 
determined since our original list was written. 

The foregoing remarks are not intended to apply to the Sphagna. 
Many of these appeared in the paper quoted under other names. 
The publication of Mr. Horrell's work on the European Sphag- 
nacecB called for a revision of these, and that we have so soon 
been able to allot them names under the Warnstorfian system is 
entirely due to the great help given us by Mr. Horrell, who has 
spared neither time nor trouble in confirming, correcting, or 
naming our gatherings. We have not quoted all the localities we 
possess for each species, but sufficient to indicate the richness 
of the Lancashire fells in these plants. Some bryologists look 
askance at the new system of Sphagnology. Whatever faults it 
has, it certainly has the merit of finding names for, and enabling 
us to quote, well-marked and commonly occurring forms which 
could not be satisfactorily referred anywhere under the older 
arrangement. 

We have received numerous lists and specimens from Mr, H. 



MOSSES OF WEST LANCASHIRE 295 

Beesley, of Preston, mostly confirmed by Dr. Braithwaite or Mr. 
Bagnall. These are indicated by the capital B. As in our first 
list, the abbreviations 117/. and Wi. stand for Wheldon and Wilson 
respectively ; and where no authority is quoted, the specimens 
were found by the authors jointly. The figures 1, 2, 3 refer to our 
north, east, and west divisions, as defined in this Journal for 
Nov. 1899, pp. 465 and 466. 

We have again to record our indebtedness to Messrs. J. E. 
Bagnall, H. N. Dixon, S. M. Macvicar, and Mons. F. Renauld for 
much help, and to express our thanks for their unfailing kindness 
and courtesy. 

Sphagnum Jimhriatum Wils. var. tenue Grav. 3. Cockerham 
Moss. — f. compacta. Cockerham Moss. — "8. Rm^sowii Warust. var. 
virescens Russ. 2. Caton Moor, Sept. 1900. — ''■'S. Warnstorjii Russ. 
var. versicolor Russ. 2. Marshaw Fell, Wyresdale, June, 1900, Wi. 
— S. ruhelhim Wils. var. rnhnim Grav. 2. Wolfhole Crag and 
moor above Gavells Clough, Wi. Clougha, Wh, Roeburndale and 
Udale. — f. robusta. Upper Roeburndale. — Var. purpurasceua 
Warnst. 2. Windy Clough, Wh. Black side of Tarnbrook Fell, 
Wi. — Var. versicolor Russ. 2. Black side of Tarnbrook Fell. 3. 
Cockerham Moss. 1. Greygarth Fell. — Var. pallescens Warnst. 
Cockerham Moss. — S. acutifolium Russ. & Warnst. Apparently 
rarer with us than either S. rubcllum or S. subnitens. — Var. (jriseum. 
Warnst. 2. Longridge Fell, Wh. Lythe Fell and Upper Grize- 
dale, Wi. — Var. ijall ido-rflaucescens V^avn&t. 2. Harris End Fell, 
Wi. — Var. pallescens Warnst. 2. Mallowdale Fell. Clougha, Wh. 
V^hitnioov {L robusta subf. da><ijchtda). — Var. i"g?*sico/or Warnst. f. 
robusta. 2. Tarnbrook Fell, Wi. — Var. jiavo-rubellum Warnst. 
Mallowdale Fell. — Var. ?'mV^^ Warnst. 2. Longridge Fell, Wli. 
White Moss, Roeburndale, Wi. Scorton, B. — f. f/racilis. 2. White 
side of Tarnbrook Fell, 117. — f. auo-orthoclada. 2. Windy Clough, 
Wh. Gavells Clough, TT7. — Var. rubrum Warnst. 2. Clougha, 
Wh. Whitmoor, Lower Salter, Wi. — '''-S. quinquefarium VJavust. 
var. viride W. 2. Clougha, Wh. — S. subnitens R. & W. Common 
on the fells. — Y&v. ^flavo-rubellnm Warnst. 2. Longridge and Fair- 
snape Fell, Wh. Bleasdale Fell, Fairsuape Clough, Upper Grize- 
dale, and Calder Valley, Tf7. 1. Whittington Moor, 117. — Var. 
versicolor Warnst. 2. Upper Grizedale, Admarsh, and Lythe Fell, 
Wi. 1. Whittington Moor and Ireby Fell, 117. — Var. griseum 
Warnst. 1. Upper Ease Gill, Wi. — Var. violascens Warnst. 2. 
Longridge Fell, Wh. Upper Roeburndale, Calder Valley, Blaze 
Moss, and Trough of Bowland, Wi. Tarnbrook Fell. — Var. virescens 
Warnst. 2. Fairsnape Clough, Wi. — Var. obscurum Warnst. 2. 
Wardstone. Upper Grizedale and Blaze Moss, 117. — Var. flares- 
cens Warnst. 1. Gressingham Moor, 117. — Var. pallescens 
Warnst. Upper Grizedale, 117. — S. squarrosum Pers. var. spectabile 
Russ. 2. Dolphinholme, Wh. Barnacre, near Garstang, Wi. 
Mallowdale Fell and Greenbank Fell. — Ym. subsquarrosuui^w^^. 
2. Calder Valley, near Garstang, Wi. Mallowdale Fell. — S. teres 
Angstr. var. squarrosulum Warnst. 3. Cockerham Moss. — .S\ 



ayb THK JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

cusjyidatum R. & W. Common on the fells and mosses. — Var. 
falcatum Russ. 2. Upper Grizedale, Lower Bleasdale, and Lythe 
Fell, Wi. Longridge Fell, Wh. — Var. suhmersum Scbimp. Common 
on all the fells. — Var. plumosum Nees & Hornsch. Cockerham 
Moss, Wh. d- Wi. Near Scorton, B. — S. trinitense C. Mull. 3. 
Cockerham Moss. 2. Longridge Fell, Wh. Lower Bleasdale, Wi. 
— S. pitlchruni Warnst. 2. Upper Roeburndale, Wi. 3. Cocker- 
ham Moss. — "^'-S. obtusum Warnst. 3. Cockerham Moss, June, 
1900. — S. recurvwn R. & W. Very common on the fells and 
mosses. — Var. mucronatiim Warnst. 3. Cockerham Moss, June, 
1900. 2. Longridge Fell, Wh. Harris End Fell and Whitmoor, 
Wi. Wardstone. — Var. amblypJn/llum Warnst. Longridge Fell, B. 

— S. molluscum Bruch. 1. Easegill. 2. Whitmoor, Wi. Tarn- 
brook Fell. — f. compacta Warust. Cockerham Moss. — S. compac- 
turn DC. Frequent on the drier fells. — Var. imhyicatum Warnst. 
2. Longridge Fell, Wh. Whitmoor and Tarnbrook Fell, Wi. 
White Moss, Hindburn. — Var. s</6s^urt>vosM>» Warnst. 2. Long- 
ridge Fell, Wh. Whitmoor, Wi. White Moss, Hindburn. 1. 
Gressingham and Arkholme Moor, Wi. — S. subsecundiim Limpr. 
2. Longridge, L\ — *5. inundatum ^N&vmt. 1. Lords Lot Wood, 
Arkholme, Wi. 2. Longridge, B. — S. rufescens Warnst. Common 
on the fells and mosses. 1. Whittington Moor, Wi. 2. Longridge 
Fell, Wh. Lower Bleasdale, Wi. Tarnbrook Fell. — '''S. aquatile 
Warnst. 2. Longridge Fell, Wli. Whitmoor. — "*S. crassicladum 
Warnst. Rather frequent. 2. Slope of Fairsnape Fell towards 
Chipping, Clougha, and Ellel, Wh. Harris End Fell, Wi. Udale. 

— -''S. medium Limpr. var. roseum Warnst. 2. Tatham Moor, Wi. 
White Moss, Hindburn, Upper Roeburndale, and Tarnbrook Fell. 
— Var. roseo-pallescens Warnst. 2. Wolfhole Crag, 117. 3. Cocker- 
ham Moss. — S. cymbifolium Warnst. Not nearly as frequent as the 
next. — Var. glaucescens Warnst. 1. Lords Lot Wood, Wi. 2. 
Wardstone, Wh. S Wi. Scorton, B. — S. papillosum Lindb. var. 
normale. Common on the fells, as also f. conferta. — Var. sublave 
Limpr. Frequent on the fells, and sometimes attaining an 
enormous size. — -''S. turfaceum Warnst. 2. Longridge Fell and 
Clougha, Wh. 3. Cockerham Moss. 1. Arkholme Moor, Wi. 

Andreaa Bothii W. & M. 2. Upper Roeburndale, Oct. 1899. 
Whiteray Gill, Hindburn ; North side of Harris End Fell, and 
Tarnbrook Fell, Wi. — Var. falcata Lindb. 2. Catshaw Greave, 
April, 1900, Wi. Hawthornthwaite Greave. — A. crassinervia^vwoh. 
2. Upper Roeburndale, Oct. 1899. 

\Tetraphis Browniana Grev. 2. Grit rocks by a waterfall near 
Botton, Hindburn, Oct. 1899, Wh. d Wi. By two falls in Whiteray 
Gill, two and a half miles from the above, Wi. 

\Oligotrichum incurvum, Lindb. 2. This proves to be frequent, 
even abundaut in several localities at the head of Wyresdale, Wi. ; 
also in Hindburn, Roeburndale, &c. 

\Catharinea crispa James. 2. Since recording this we have 
found it abundantly by most of the dale streams — e.g. Hindburn, 
Roeburndale, Foxdale, Udale, Tarnbrook Wyresdale, Marshaw 
Wyresdale, Grizedale, and Hodder Valley. 



MOSSES OF WEST LANCASHIRE 297 

Polytrichum aloides Hedw. var. Dicksojii Wallm. 2. By the 
Lune between Lancaster and Caton, sparingly, May, 1900, Wh. — 
P. nanum Neck. 1. Gatebarrow Woods, near Silverdale, Wi. 

Pleuridmni axillare Liiidb. 2. On the mud of a recently-drained 
mill dam, Calder Vale, Dec. 26th, 1900. — f P. alteniij'olium Raben. 
3. Cottam, B. 

Brachi/odus trichodes Fiirnr. 2. Gully west of Dale Beck, 
Greenbank Fell, Hmdburn, Oct. 1899. 

Dicranella riifescens Schimp. 2. Over Salter, Roeburndale, Oct. 
1898 ; and Tatham Beck, Hindburn, Wi. Greenbank Fell and 
Caton Moor. 

Blindia acuta B. & S. 2. Gavells Clough, Wyresdale, June, 

1900, Wi. 

■'Campijlopus atrovirens De Not. 2. Clougha Scar, Oct. 1899, 
Wh. Slope of Wardstoue towards Tarnbrook Fell at 1300 feet, 
June, 1900. In both localities on Millstone Grit. — "0. flexn- 
osus Brid. var. zonatns Milde (= var. majus Boul.). White side 
of Tarnbrook Fell, June, 1900, Wi. We are indebted to Mr. 
Dixon for the determination of this fine and distinct looking 
variety. 

Dicranodontiwii longirostre B. & S. 2. Deep shaded hollows 
amongst grit rocks on Hell Crag, Tarnbrook Fell, Sept. 1900. — 
tVar. alpinus Schimp. 1. A second locality for this has been found, 
viz. Greygarth Fell, at 1900 feet, Aug. 1899, Wi. 

''Dicramim scoparium Hedw. var. paludosum Schimp. 1. Whit- 
tington Moor, Wi. 

Fissideiis viriduhts Wahl. var. Lyiei Wils. 3. Near Garstang, 
Jan. 1900, Wi.—F. exilis Hedw. 3. Lea, B. 

Grimmia Doniana Smith. 1. Greygarth Fell, near summit, 
July, 1899, Wi. 

''Rhacomitrium protensmn Braun. 2. A small form of this occurs 
on rocks by the Wyre near Dolphinholme, May, 1900, Wit. 

Pottia intermedia Fiirnr. 3. Between Lytham and St. Annes, 
Jan. 1900, Wh. 1. Near Middleton and Overton, Wi. Silverdale 
and Carnforth, Wh. — f P. recta Mitt. 1. Near Carnforth and 
Silverdale, Wh. Henridden and Yealand, Wi. — P. lanceolata C. M. 
Several places near Silverdale, Feb. 1901, Wi. 

Barhula Hornschuchiana Schultz. 3. Southshore, near Black- 
pool, March, 1898, Wh. 1. Thrang End, V/i. 

■■'Pleurochcete squarrosa Lindb. 3. Limestone rocks near Silver- 
dale, Oct. 1900, Wh. 

\Orthotrichwn Lyellii Hook. & Tayl. 1. Not unfrequent on trees 
in the neighbourhood of Whittington, Melling, and Cantsfield, Wi. 
—^=0. leiocarpum B. & S. 1. On elders, Silverdale, Feb. 1901, Wi. 
— 0. teiielliwi Bruch. 2. In small quantity near Garstang, Dec. 

1901, Wi. {teste Dixon). 

\Tetraplodon mnioides B. & S. Clougha, Wh. 
Splachnum sphcericum Linn. f. 2. Wardstone, at 1600 feet, 
June, 1900. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Brid. Catforth and Ashton, 1900, B. 
Disceliwn nudum Brid. 2. Tatham Beck, Hindburn, Sept. 



298 THE JOUKNAL OF HOTANV 

1899, abundant, Wi. Caton Moor and near Tarnbrook ; with fruit 
in each locality. 

\Amhhjodon dealbatns P. Beauv. 2. Moor near Gavells Clough, 
on the white side of Tarnbrook Fell, Wi. 

Aulacomnium. andnxjipiiua Schwaeg. 3. Lea, 1900, B. 

■\Webera eJongata Schwaeg. 2. Near Garstang, B. (teste Dr. 
Braithwaite). 

\Leucodon sciuroides Schwaeg. 1. On a wall near Ireby, Wi. 
Trees near Borwick, Wi. 3. Weeton, near Blackpool, very fine, B. 
Heterochidinm heteropterum B. & S. 2. Waterfall near Bolton, 
Hindburn, Oct. 1899. Clougha, Wh. 

''''Cyli'ndrotheciuDi concinnuDi Schimp. 1. Amongst Tliaidium 
recognitum, Silverdale, April, 1900, WJi. Roadside south-west of 
Dalton Crag, very fine, Wi. 

■''■ Brack ytliecinm velutinum B. & S. var. intricatum Hedw. 3. Cat- 
forth, B. [teste Dr. Braithwaite). — -Var. pralonyum B. & S. 3. 
Lytham, B. [teste Dr. Braithwaite). — B. salebroswn B. & S. 3. 
Ashton, near Preston, 1900, B. 

■''Eunjnchitim ruscifonne Milde var. atlanticum Brid. 2. Near 
Botton, Hindburn, Oct. 1899. — ^'E.abbreviatum Schimp. 1. Rocky 
wood near Silverdale, Oct. 1900, Wh. — E. teneUum Milde. 1. 
Silverdale, in several localities, Tf7t. Scorton, B. 

'■'Plaf/iothecium, denticulatum B. & S. var. densiun Schimp. 2. 
Clougha Pike, Oct. 1899, Wh. 

'''AmbhjsLegium. JuratzLcB. 3. By the canal between Galgate and 
Glasson,' Sept. 1900, Wh. Lea, B.—A. ^fiuviatile B. & S. 1. Rocks 
in the Leighton Beck, Wi. — =;=^. Jilici)uim De Not. var. trichodes 
Brid. Coast between Silverdale and lugs Point, 117*. 

jHypnnm riparium L. var. lonyifoiiiun Schimp. 2. On rotten 
wood in a pond at Claughton, near Garstang, March, 1900, Wi. — 
H. aduncum Hedw. (group typicuiti) '''f. falcata Ren. 3. Sandhills 
near St. Annes, Wh. — ff. yracilescens Ren. Between Lytham and 
St. Annes, Wh. — '-^'f. diversifolia, Ren. St. Annes, Wh. — '''(Group 
Kneiifii) var. atteniiatinii Boul. (confirmed by Renauld). 3. Near 
Catterall, very fine and characteristic, Wi. — Var. inter luedium 
Schimp. 3. Ashton, near Preston, 17 April, 1901, B. — {(Group 
pseudofluitans) var. paternum Sanio. 3. Ashton, near Preston, 
April, 1901, B. — Jl. Jinitans {ampJnbium) "'var. Jeanbernati Ren. 
Frequent on the fells. 2. White Moss, Hindburn. — '''Forma Holleri 
(Sanio) Ren. A form of the preceding, apparently, found in more 
exposed places and at higher altitudes. We place it here on Mons. 
Renauld's advice. 2. Longridge Fell, Wh. Tatham Moor, Cat- 
shaw Fell, and Hawthorntbwaite Fell, Tr7. Mallowdale Fell, 
Wardstone, Tarnbrook Fell, and Bleasdnle. — "Forma teiiella Ren. 
Bleasdale. — -Forma condensata Sanio. 2. W^hite Moss, Hindburn. 
— Var. elatum Ren. et Arnell. A form at present doubtful, of 
which Mons. Renauld writes '^ad var. elatum accedens," was found 
by us on Cockerham Moss, June, 1900. — "Var. qracile Boul. 2. 
Longridge Fell, Oct. 1898, Wh. Botton Head Fell and Whiteray 
Fell, Wi. 2. Greygarth Fell, Wi. 3. Cockerham Moss. — >!^Var. 
Payoti Ren. 2. Greenbank Fell. — t(Gr. falcatum) var. falcatmn 



MOSSES OF WEST LANCASHIRE 299 

Schimp. 2. Harris End Fell, Fairsnape Fell, and Lower Bleasdale, 
Wi. — '''Var. ovale Ren. MS., var. nov. Small, slightly branched, 
procumbent, of the characteristic colour of the group, alar cells 
coloured and slightly incrassate. Leaves oval, suddenly contracted 
to a moderate subule ; nerve weak, and often forked. Near summit 
of Greygarth Fell, at 1800 feet, Wi. Found also on Peudle Hill in 
S. Lanes. — (Gr. exannulatum) *var. jnnnatum Boul. 2. Calder 
Valley and Bleasdale Fell, Wi. Mallowdale Fell and Hindburn. 
1. Berwick Swamp and Greygarth Fell, Wi. — ■■'•Fovnm,<;ten<)ph}/lloides 
Ren. MS. Tatham Moor, Hindburn, Wi. — "Forma polijclada Ren. 
MS. White Moss, Hindburn, &c. — fVar. brachydictyoii Fien. 2. 
White Moss, Hindburn. — (Subgroup Rotre) var. fttlci folium Ren. 
3. St. Annes, TFA, 2. Between Greenbank and Dolphinholme, TFA. 
Marshaw, Wi. — "Forma immdata Ren. Marshaw, Wi. — -'H. ver- 
nicoswn Lindb. var. majus Lindb. 1. Bog near Docker, Nov. 1900, 
Wi. — \H. revolvens Swartz. The state which Renauld formerly 
called var. suhaiuiculatiun occurs with the last at Docker. — H. 
ochraceum Turn. *var. complanatum Milde. 2. In the Tatham Beck, 
Hindburn, Sept. 1899, Wi. — Var. fiaccidmi Milde. Hindburn, 
Oct. 1899. — H. palustre Linn. var. hamulosum B. & S. 2. Damas 
Gill, Wyresdale, Wh. — H. scorpioides Linn. 1. By Leighton Beck, 
Silverdale, Aug. 1899, and near Docker, Wi. 2. Marshaw Fell, 
Wyresdale, Wi. — H. giganteum Schimp. 3. Sparingly at St. 
Annes, Aug. 1899, Wi.' 1. Bog near Docker, with fruit, Wi.— 
■'H. sarmentosHui Wahl. 2. Marshaw Fell, Wyresdale, at only 
650 feet ! June, 1900, Wi. 

\Hylocomium brevirostre B. & S. 1. Gatebarrow and near 
Leighton Beck, Wi. 

J Frullania fragilifolia Tayl. 1. Dalton Crag. 
Lepidozia Pearsoni Spruce. 2. Apparently frequent on the 
higher gritstone moorlands. Longridge Fell, Feb. 1899, and 
Clougha, Wh. Mallowdale Fell, Hell Crag, Haylot Fell and 
Udale. 

Kantia Sprengellii Mast. 2. Longridge, 1896, c. frt., Wli. 
Upper Grizedale, Wi. Udale. Railway cutting near Garstang, Wi. 

iCephalozia Lammersiana Huben. 2. Upper Grizedale, Wi. — 
to. sphagni Dicks. 2. White Moss, Hindburn. 3. Cockerham 



Scapmiia resupinata (Nees). 2. Clougha, Wh. Tarnbrook Fell, 
Wi. — Var. minor Pears. 2. Long Crag, above Tarnbrook Fell, 
and Whiteray Fell, Hmdburn, Wi. Clougha, Wh. — S. neviorom (L.) 
1. Warton, April, 1899, Wi. 2. Upper Grizedale, Wi. 

Lophocolea cuspidata Limpr. 2. Leagram Hail, W]i. 
■\MyHaanomala Hook. White Moss, Hindburn. 

Nardia compressa Hook. 2. Longridge Fell, July, 1898, Wh. 
By the Roeburn below Wolfhole Crag, and on Haylot Fell. 

Blasia pusilla (Linn.). 2. Caton Moor, Sept. 1900. 

Ricciella Jiuitans Linn. 2. Between Whittingham Asylum and 
Longridge, July, 1900, Wh. 



300 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

SOME RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH 
MUSEUM ACANTHACE^. 

By Spencer Le M. Moore, F.L.S. 

The following list contains determinations of African AcanthacecB 
recently received at the Museum, as well as of some which, by 
accident, were not seen by Mr. C. B. Clarke while working at his 
two monographs which deal with the Order as represented in 
Tropical and South Africa. 

Thunhergia affinis S. Moore. Machakos ; Dr. S. L. Hinde, 

T. alata Bojer var. minor (var. uov.). 

Folia parva, nequaquam ultra 2-5 cm. long., modica 1*5 cm. 
long., margine dentata ; petioli plerumque l*5-2-0 cm. long., 
angustissime alata. Bracteolae modo 1-3 cm. long. CoroUae tubus 
nee ultra 1*5 cm. long. 

Hab. Tropical East Africa; Bcv. W. E. Taylor. 

According to the single specimen seen, a lowly twiner, about 
half a metre in height. 

Thunbergia (§ Euthunbergia) Elliotii, sp. nov. Verisimiliter 
scandens caule gracili folioso sparsim ramoso appresse hirsutulo, 
foliis parvis ovatis obtusis basi latis integris nonnunquam leviter 
undulatis petiolis brevibus alatis fultis utriuque pr^esertim vero 
subtus hirsutulis, pedunculis solitariis folia sub^quantibus hirsu- 
tulis, bracteolis ovato-oblongis breviter acuminatis hirsutis, calycis 
12-lobi lobis anguste lineari-lanceolatis tubum sub^equantibus 
glanduloso-pubescentibus, corollas tubo parum amplificato bracteis 
subaequilongo, antheris sursum mucronatis staminum posticorum 
unicalcaratis anticorum bicalcaratis marginibus fere omnino calvis, 
stigmatis bilabiati labiis subasquimagnis, capsula . 

Hab. BritishEastAfrica,Nandi, 7-8000 feet; G. F. Scott Elliot, 
No. 6969. 

Foliorum lamina 2-0-2'5 cm. long., 1-5-2-0 cm. lat., in sicco 
minutissime buUulata ; petioli 0'3-0'5 cm. long. Pedunculi circa 
2-0 cm. long. Bracteolae usque ad 2-0 cm. long., 5-nervos^, intus 
puberulee. Calycis tubus 0-2 cm., lobi 0-25 cm. long. Corollas 
tubus basi 0-3 cm. sub limbo 055 cm. diam. ; limbus circa 2*0 cm. 
diam., ejus lobi obovati. Antherte loculi circa 0*3 cm. long. 
Ovarium 0-2 cm. ; stylus vix 1-0 cm. long. 

Near T. lahorans Burkill, but differing from it in the broad 
petiolate leaves, acuminate bracteoles, narrower corolla-tube, longer 
glandular teeth to the flowering calyx, &c. 

Brillantaisia puhescens T. And. Between Zanzibar and Uyui ; 
Rev. W. E. Taylor. 

B. madagascariensis T. And. Tropical East Africa ; Rev. W. 
E. Taylor. 

Buellia patula Jacq. Somaliland, Mio, 4750 feet ; Lord Delamere. 

Mellera suhmutica C. B. CI. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan. 

Miuutlopsis runssorica liUideiVL. Tanganyika; G. E. Scott Elliot, 
No. 8354. 



SOftlK IIKCENT AD1>1T1()NS TO THK BRITISH MUSEUM AOANTHACE^ 301 

Whitjieldia SUihlmanni C. B. CI. Eabai, Mombasa; Eev, W. 
h. fay lor. 

Dijschoriste radicans T. And. Somaliland, Gof and Elhimo ; 
Lord Delamere. 

Micranthus lowjifolia Lindan. Tropical East Africa ; Rev. W. 
ii. Tai/lor. 

Acanthus enmiens C. B. CI. Kikuyu ; F. J. Jackson. 

Pseudoblepharis BoiviniBiiiW. Giryama and Tsimba Mountains : 
Rev. ]\ . E. Taylor. 

Blepharis extenuata, sp. nov. Suffrntex parvus ramosus 
g aber, rainis patulis parum angulatis, foliis sessilibus lineari- 
oblanceolatis apice breviter spinulosis marginibus 2-3-spinuloso- 
serratis subcoriaceis paribus juxtapositis sub^equalibus, ramulis 
florileris abbreviatis solitariis vel paucis (usque ad 4) aggre^atis, 
loins florahbus auguste linearibus longe patenterque spinoso pin- 
natifidis spims utrinque 2-3, bractea parva rigida triangulari- 
cleltoidea sursum serrulata quam bracteolcT breviore, bracteolis 
subulatis debihter spmuloso-acuminatis a calyce superatis, calycis 
rigidi minutissnne pubescentis lobo postico integro vel breviter 
tritido xobum anticum excedente, corolL^ minutissime pubescentis 
labio 5-lobo, capsula . 

Hab. Namaqualand ; W. C. Scully, No. 243. 

Caulis usque ad 0-3 cm. diam., pallida. Kamuli brunneo- 
rubescentes, cortice subnitenti laxe obducti, circa 0-2 cm. diam 
^olia 1-5-20 cm long., vix 0-3 cm. lat. Folia floralia usque ad 
d-5 cm. long., deorsum carinata et 0-2 cm. lat. ; liarum spin^e 
patentes 0-5-0-8 cm. long., rigid.^. Bracte* 0'3 cm. bracteolc4que 
u-b cm. long. Galycis lobus anticus ovato-oblougus, 4-dentatus 
U'7 cm. long ; denies intermedii laterales excedentes ; lobus posti- 
cus panduriformis, 1-5 cm. long. ; lobi laterales ovati, acummati, 
0-6 cm. long. Flores verisimiliter lutescentes. Corolla tota 1-8 cm 
long. ; tubus 0-35 cm. long. ; labmm sursum 0-6 cm. lat., huius 
lobi exteriores brevissimi, lobi intermedii fere semicirculai4s, 
U 65 cm lat., lobus centralis late obcordatus, 0-24 cm. lat. Anther* 
U'd cm. long. 

Apparently nearest B. XoU-me-tanyere S. Moore, this can easily 
be distnaguished by its narrow leaves, slender floral leaves set 
with long and thin spines, the bract much shorter than the 
bracteoles, &c. 

Blepharis Scullyi, sp. nov. Acaulis, radice elongato valido 

sparsissime fibrilhiero, foliis sessilibus oblanceolatis apice crebroque 

marginibus spinescentibus hirsutulis membranaceis, ramulis flori- 

eris elongatis attenuatis multifloris, bracteis imbricatis late ob- 

ongo-obovatis sursum 5-lobis pubescentibus lobis 3 intermediis 

longioribus utrinque semel vel bis spinulosis lobis omnibus apice 

eleganter s'pmosis, bracteolis subulatis pubescentibus quam bractea) 

manifeste brevioribus, calycis ampli pubescentis lobo postico quam 

anticus paulo majore, coroUee labio 5-lobo, capsula 1-sperma. 

Mab. Namaqualand ; W. C. Scully, No. 249. 

Radix fere 20-0 cm. long., rectus, sursum 0-3 cm. diam. Folia 

circa 5*0 cm. long, et 1-0 cm. lat., serratur^ spinulos* usque ad 



302 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

0*5 cm. long. Rcamuli floriferi usque lO'O cm. long., circa 1*5 cm. 
lat. Bructea in sicco substiaminea paullo ultra 2*0 cm. long., 
I'O cm. lat., concava; lobi intermedii triangulares, 0*8 cm. long. ; 
lobi externi 0'15 cm. long. Bracteohe 0-8 cm. long. Calycis lobus 
posticus ovatus apice breviter spinosus, 1-5 cm. long., basi 0*9 cm. 
lat.; lobus anticus brevissime bidentatus 1-3 cm. long., basi 0*6 cm. 
lat. ; lobi laterales 0-8 cm. long. Corolla tota vix 2*5 cm. long. ; 
tubus 07 cm. long., deorsum dilatatus sursum cylindricus, pars 
cylindrica 0'4 cm. long., pubescens ; labium sursum 0-85 cm. lat. ; 
hujus lobi externi ovati, obtusissirai, 0*15 cm. long.; lobi inter- 
medii circa 0*3 cm. long. ; lobus centralis obcordatus, 0*33 cm. 
long. Antherse 0*32 cm. long. Capsula 1*0 cm. long., 0*4 cm. 
lat. Semen liumectatum circa 0*5 cm. lat. 

Lepidiigathis scariosa Nees. Gof ; Lord Dehunere. 

L. Andersunicma Lindau. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan, No. 228. 

Crabbea velutina S. Moore. Somaliland, between Le and Tocha; 
Lord Delauiere. 

Crossandra pum/ens Lindau. Rabai, Mombasa and Giryama 
and Tsimba Mountains ; Ber. W. E. Taylor. 

0. spinosa Beck. Mio, 4750 feet ; Lord Delauiere. 

C. iinicronata Lindau. Giryama and Tsimba Mountains ; Bcv. 
W. E. Taylor. 

[Obs. — C. puberiila Klotzsch var. ? Smithii C. B. Clarke in Flora 
of Trop. Africa, v. p. 117. The type of this variety — it is in the 
British Museum — is manifestly not in any way related to C. pube- 
rala Klotzsch. To me it seems to be merely C. nilotica Oliv. var. 
acuminata Lindau.] 

Barleria eranthemoides R. Br. Somaliland, Jara ; Dr. Donald- 
son Smith. Between Cantalla and Hadda, and between Le and 
Tocha ; Lord Delamere. 

B. irritans Nees. Cape Colony, between Graaf Reinet and 
Zuurberg Mountains ; Bcv. H. C. Day. Without locality ; 
Mrs. Clarke. 

B. setiyera Rendle, var. ? brevi.spina C. B. CI. East Tropical 
Africa ; Bev. W. E. Taylor. 

B. spinulosa Klotzsch. Nyassaland; Buchanan, 1895, No. 224. 

B. ventricosa Nees. Somaliland, Wagga Mountain; Mrs. Lort 
Phillips. 

B. Volkensii Lindau. Rabai Hills, Mombasa; Bev. W. E. Taylor. 
Near Lake Marsabit ; Lord Delamere. 

Neuracanthus gracilior, sp. nov. Caule erecto tereti scabri- 
usculo crebro folioso, foliis lanceolato- vel ovato-oblongis obtusis 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus basin versus cuneatis undulatis firme 
membranaceis glabris pag. sup. nitenti necnon cystolithis eminenti- 
bus onusta pag. inf. aliquatenus decolori reticulato-nervosa, spicis 
strobiliformibus sat attenuatis terminalibus vel ex axillis summis 
ortis, bracteis ovatis spinuloso-acuminatis longe fulvo-ciliatis dorso 
puberulis et eminenter nervosis, calycis bracteis sequilongi lobis 
lineari-setaceis acuminatis pilis hispidis dense obsitis anticis quam 
postici altius connatis, coroUse labio postico 2-lobo lobis late del- 



S(»MK RECENT ADDITIONS TO THK BRITISH MUSEUM ACANTHACEA: 303 

toideis obtusissimis labio aiitico brevissime 3-lobo, ovarii loculis 
2-ovulatis, capsula . 

Hab. Manoiigo between the Cuiiene and Zambesi Rivers ; 
H. Baiuii, No. 852. 

Planta circa 30-0 cm. alt. Folia 4-0-G-5 cm. long., inferiora 
nommnqiiam fere 3-0 cm. lat. attingentia, modica vero 1 •2-1-5 cm. 
lat. Spic^ usque ad 7-0 cm. long., vix 1-0 cm. lat. Bracteee 
0'8-0-9 cm. long., juxta medium 0-45 cm. lat. ; nervse longitudi- 
nales 9. Calyx 0*9 cm. long. ; lobi antici 0-5 cm., postici 0-6 cm. 
long. Corolla M cm. long. ; linibus 0-6 cm. diam. Ovarium 
ovoideum, 0-12 cm. long. ; stylus 0-3 cm. long., glaber. 

Distributed as Nenracanthiis deconia S. Moore, which, however, 
has much broader spikes, different bracts, differently shaped calyx- 
lobes connate higher up and to the same height in the case of both 
anticous and posticous lobes, &c. 

Pseuderanthemum Hildebraiultu Lindau. Rabai Hills, Mombasa 
and Giryama and Tsimba Mountains; Rev. W. E. Taylor. 

P. siibviscosum (PJranthe)niim mbviscosim C. B. CL). Nyassahmd, 
1895; Buchanan, No. 118. 

Justicia Pseiidorum/ia Lindau. East Tropical Africa ; Rev. W. 
E. Taylor. 

J. Jiava Vahl. Gof and Dadaro ; Lord Delamere, Gof ; Br. 
Do7ialdson Smith. Mochi, 4-5000 feet ; Rev. W. E. Taylor. 

J. nyassa7ia Lindau. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan, No. 168. 

J. lo7ujecalcarata Lindau. Le and Gof ; Lord Belamere. 

J. dyschoristoides C. B. CI. East Tropical Africa ; Rev. W. E, 
Taylor. 

J. Whytei S. Moore. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan, No. 115. 

J. Melampyrum S. Moore. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan. 

J. PhillipsicB Rendle. Somaliland, Gan Liban ; Br. Bonaldson 
Smith. 

J. odora Vahl. Le ; Lord Belamere. 

Justicia (§ Calophanoides) Taylorii, sp. no v. Caule elato 
geniculato subtetragono patenti-strigoso-villosulo deinde pubescente, 
foliis longipetiolatis ovatis obtusis nonnunquam breviter cuspidu- 
latis basi rotundato-truncatis pubescentibus mox puberulis in sicco 
viridibus, glomerulis paucitioris raro brevissime spicatis, foliis 
florahbus ovatis obtusis bracteas maxime excedentibus ceteroquin 
foUis similibus nisi multo minoribus, bracteis par vis subulatis quam 
calyx brevioribus, calycis segmentis subcTqualibus linearibus^ vel 
anguste lineari-lanceolatis sursum attenuatis coroU^e tubo breviori- 
bus hispidulis ; corollas extus piloscne sursum parum amplificato, 
limbi labio postico breviter biiobo, antherarum loculo superiors 
quam inferior breviore, capsula parva oblonga glabra. 

Hab. German East Africa ?, Mochi (4000-5500 feet) ; Rev. W. 
E. Taylor, 1888. 

Foliorum pagina 2-5-4'0 cm. long., 1-5-2-0 cm. lat. ; petioli 
1-0-vix 2-0 cm. long., patenti-vihosuli. Folia floralia circa 0*8 cm. 
long. Bracteffi vix 02 cm. long. Flores purpurei. Calyx 0*4 cm. 
long. Corollge tubus verisimiHter 0-5 cm. long. Antherarum loc. 
superior 0*07 cm. long., basi mucronulata, loc. inferior 0*1 cm. 



804 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

long., calcar 0*05 cm. long. Capsula mucrouata, 0*7 cm. long. 
Semina 0*1 cm. diam., minute tuberculata. 

A very distinct species, quite unlike any other of its section. 
The single specimen serving for the description has several buds, 
but only one fully-grown corolla, of which the upper part has been 
destroyed. 

Justicia (§ Calophanoides) Baumii, sp. nov. Caulibus ascen- 
dentibus gracilibus puberulis, foliis parvis brevipetiolatis ovatis 
utrinque obtusis evanide undulatis glabris glandulis immersis 
minutis crebro instructis, floribus in axillis superioribus 2-3-nis 
subsessilibus, bracteis calycem excedentibus oblanceolatis obtusis- 
simis hispidulo-ciliatis, bracteolis imminutis subulatis, calycis seg- 
mentis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis puberulis quam corollae tubus 
brevioribus, corollae extus puberul^ tubo a basi sensim ampliato, 
limbi labio postico quam anticum breviore bidentato, palato maxime 
exstante, capsula anguste obovato-oblonga acuta glabra, seminibus 
quove in loculo 2 suborbicularibus tuberculatis. 

Hab. Riuvivi, between the Cunene and Zambesi rivers, at 
1200 metres elevation ; H. IJaiim, No. 720. 

Planta sat humilis ex speciminibus nostros ante oculos nee ultra 
12-0 cm. alt. Folia + 1-0 cm. long, 0-6-0-8 cm. lat., in sicco Isete 
viridia. Bracte^e 0*5 cm., bracteolae 0-08 cm., calycis segmenta 
0-4 cm., corollae tubus 0'6 cm. long. CoroUfe violaceas labium 
posticum circa 0*4 cm. long. ; anticum vix 0*6 cm. long. ; hujus 
lobi oblongi, obtusi, «gre 0'2 cm. long. Ovarium ovoideum, sursum 
angustatum, 0-33 cm. long. ; stylus deorsum pilosiusculus, 0*35 cm. 
long. Capsula O'Q cm. long., 0*3 cm. lat. Semina 0-1 cm. diam., 
pallide brunnea. 

Near J. PhillipsicB Rendle, but easily distinguished by the lowly 
habit, different bracts and calyx, much narrower lobes of lower lip 
of corolla, and diverse capsule. 

By an obvious oversight this has been distributed as Justicia 
monedimoides S. Moore [Moneclima Welwitschii C. B. Clarke). As 
indicated above, it is not a Monechma. 

Justicia (§ Piostellularia) Smithii, sp. nov. Appresse et 
mox minute strigoso-pubescens, caule ascendente quadrangular!, 
foliis ovato-oblongis obtusis in petiolum brevem gradatim attenuatis, 
spicis terminalibus abbreviatis, foliis fioralibus anguste lanceolatis 
acutis quam folia manifeste brevioribus, bracteis linearibus acutis 
calycem bene excedentibus, calycis segmentis subaequalibus lineari- 
lanceolatis acuminatis quam tubus corollae paullo brevioribus, 
corollffi extus pubescentis tubo a basi parum ampliato, limbi labio 
postico emarginato quam anticum breviore, antherarum loculis sub- 
aequalibus loc. inferiore calcari elongate attenuate curvulo onusto, 
ovario glabro. 

Hab. Hamaro, Somaliland ; Dr. Donaldson Smith, 1899. 

Planta annua, vix spithamea, radice tenui suffulta. Folia 
3-0 X 1"0 cm. attingentia, plurima vero circa 1*5 cm. long., et 
0*5 cm. lat., firma, in sicco lutescenti-viridia. Folia floralia vix 
0-8 cm. et bracteae 0*6 cm. long., has circa 0*05 cm. lat. Floras 
lutei. Calyx 0-4 cm. long. Corollae tubus 0-4o cm. long., 0*2- 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL WORK COMMITTEE 805 

0"25 cm. lat. ; labium anticum 055 cm. long., 0'61at., lobi obovati, 
vix 0-2 cm. lat. ; labimii posticmn late ovatmii, 0-4 cm. long. 
Antberarum loculi paullo ultra 0-1 cm. long., loc. inferioris calcar 
0-07 cm. long. Ovarium anguste ovoideum, 0-15 cm. long. Stylus 
deorsum puberulus, 0-5 cm. long. Capsula 

Near J. aridicola Rendle, but with several points of difference 
as respects leaves and flowers. The corollas of J. Smithii are 
much like those of J. Lortece Rendle, only smaller ; here, however, 
resemblance between the two plants ceases. 

Alonechma/ scabrinerve C. B. CI. in Fl. Trop. Afr. v. p. 215. 
Mr. Clarke did not see a flower of this, and hence was led to query 
the genus. After careful search a flower was found on a specimen 
at the Museum, and examination of this proves it to be a true 
Monechma. 

M. hracteatiim. Hochst. Somaliland, Wagga Mountain ; Mrs. 
Lort Phillips. Ellamo ; Lord Delamere. 

Adhatoda E^igleriana C. B. CI. East Tropical Africa ; Bev. W. 
E. Taylor. 

Isoglossa strigulosa C. B. CI. Nyika, Lake Nyassa ; Crawshay. 

I. somalensis Lindau (ex descript.). Ellamo ; Lord Delamere. 

I. Gregorii Lindau. British East Africa, Kikuyu ; F. J. Jacksoyi. 

I. grandlfiora C. B. CI. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Biidianan, Nos. 107, 
108. Zambesi River ; Rev. Dr. Stewart. 

Echolium Linneanum Kurz. Giryama and Tsimba Mountains ; 
Hev. W. E. Taylor. 

Hypoestes Forskalei R. Br. Mau Forest and Kikuyu ; F. J. 
Jackson. Somaliland, Wagga Mountain ; Mrs. Lort Phillips. 

H. Hildebrandtii Lindau. Gof and Le ; Lord Delamere. 

Diapedium Leonotis, 0. Kze. Nyassaland, 1895 ; Buchanan, 
No. 198. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL WORK COMMITTEE. 

[This Report, more fully entitled ''Report to the Lords Commis- 
sioners of His Majesty's Treasury of the Departmental Committee 
on Botanical Work and Collections at the British Museum and at 
Kew, dated 11th March, 1901," was ordered by the House of 
Commons to be printed on the 12th of June, and has been issued 
by the Stationery Office at 28. It is a volume of 218 pages, and 
contains a vast amount of interesting matter connected with the 
history of the National Herbarium and of the collections at Kew, 
some of which we may reproduce later for the benefit of our 
readers, with such comments as may seem desirable. 

On the present occasion we publish an abridgement of the 
recommendations of the Committee, from which we believe nothing 
of importance has been omitted, giving the conclusions arrived at 
and the facts upon which these are based. 

The Chairman of the Committee was Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 39. [Sept. 1901.] z 



306 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

M.P. ; the other members being "the Right Honourable John, 
Baron Avebury, P.O., F.R.S., and Frederick DuCane Godman, 
Esquire, F.R.S., as representing the Trustees of the British Museum ; 
with Stephen Edward Spring Rice, Esquire, C.B. ; Horace Alfred 
Darner Seymour, Esquire, C.B. ; Professor Isaac Bayley Balfour, 
D.Sc, F.R.S., Queen's Botanist for Scotland; Francis Darwin, 
Esquire, M.B., F.R.S., Reader in Botany in the University of Cam- 
bridge ; and Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S. ^ Benjamin 
Daydon Jackson, Esquire, Secretary of the Linnean Society, was 
afterwards appointed Secretary to the Committee." 

The Report is signed by all of these except Lord Avebury, who 
sent in a separate memorandum, which is appended to the Report, 
and follows it here. Lord Avebury and Mr. Seymour also add a 
memorandum in which they do not agree with their colleagues as 
to the advisability of creating a new advisory Board; this we do not 
think it necessary to reproduce in these pages. — Ed. Journ. Box.] 

Preliminary Observation^. 

The Botanical Department of the British Museum, and the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, are, in their primary intention, 
institutions of widely different characters. 

The Botanical Department of the British Museum is a collection 
of such objects belonging to the vegetable kingdom as can be placed 
in a museum, and its functions are limited to the uses of such a 
collection for the advancement of botanic science and for the 
purposes of giving popular instruction and of exciting popular 
interest in natural history. It does not concern itself with the 
applications of botany, either at home or elsewhere. 

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is, in the first place, an 
organization dealing with and giving assistance to His Majesty's 
Government on questions arising in various parts of the Empire 
in which botanic science is involved. So far it has a distinctly 
imperial character. It is at the same time an institution for the 
prosecution of theoretical botanic research, i.e. of botanic research 
carried on independent of practical ends, it is a school for advanced 
horticultural education, it acts as the botanic adviser of the Govern- 
ment on agricultural questions, and as a public garden it affords 
general instruction and recreation to the people. 

The British Museum and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
possess each of them an herbarium or collection of dried plants, 
together with certain botanic specimens, fruits, woody parts, &c., 
which cannot be "laid in" in an herbarium as ordinarily understood. 
For the present purposes, however, in speaking of the herbarium, 
we may suppose such objects to be included. These herbaria, with 
the libraries attached to them, are, so far as pertains to the present 
inquiry, the only collections of a similar character belonging to the 
two institutions. The two herbaria having features in common, 
have nevertheless each special features. The differences are in 
part due to the way in which each collection has grown up, as will 
be seen from the following brief historical statement. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL WORK COMMITTEE 807 

History of British Museum Collections. 
Certain botanic collections formed part of the British Museum 
at its institution in 1753. These were the collections of Sir Hans 
Sloane, consisting of dried plants, the Sloane Herbaria, often 
spoken of in this report as the pre-Linnean Herbaria, and of woods, 
fruits, &c. No very large additions seem to have been made to 
these collections between 1753 and 1820. 

The Eoyal Botanic Gardens at Kew, begun in the middle of the 
eighteenth century by the then Dowager Princess of Wales, were 
very largely developed during the latter part of that century and the 
beginning of the next by His Majesty George III., with the assistance 
and advice of Sir Joseph Banks. Though the gardens were the pri- 
vate property of the Crown, they were enriched, at the expense of 
the nation, by the results of various expeditions, and by specimens 
obtained from the Colonies and elsewhere. The living plants were 
cultivated in the gardens, the dried plants were retained by Sir 
Joseph Banks, and thus contributed to form the valuable herbarium 
known as the Banksian Herbarium. This herbarium Sir Joseph 
Banks kept at his residence in Soho Square ; but there is some 
evidence that a duplicate herbarium was kept in the gardens. This 
latter, however, subsequently disappeared. At his death, in 1820, 
Sh' Joseph Banks bequeathed this Banksian Herbarium, together 
with his library, drawings, &c., " usually kept in ... , my house 
in Soho Square," to his librarian, Robert Brown, for "his use and 
enjoyment during his life, and after his decease to the British 
Museum." One condition of the bequest was that Robert Brown 
should "assist the superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens at 
Kew as he also now does." The Will provides that the collections 
might with Robert Brown's assent pass into the hands of the 
Trustees of the British Museum during Robert Brown's lifetime. 
In 1827 this transference was made, Robert Brown becoming at 
the same time an Under Librarian of the Museum, with the 
additional title of "Keeper of the Banksian Botanical Collections," 
he having charge of these alone, and not of the other botanical 
collections. In 1885 Robert Brown became " Keeper of the 
Botanical Department," the whole of the botanical collections 
being placed under his care. The foundation of the botanical 
collections at the British Museum was thus supplied by the Sloane 
Herbaria and the Banksian Herbarium, together with fruits, 
woods, &c. Under Robert Brown and succeeding keepers the 
botanical collections were increased. The Banksian Herbarium, 
by the addition of new specimens, was developed into what is now 
known as the "General Herbarium," the Sloane Herbaria being 
kept distinct. In 1859 a separate collection of British plants, the 
British Herbarium, was formed. In 1881, when the Natural 
History Department was transferred from Bloomsbury to Crom- 
well Road, the General Herbarium consisted of 509 cabinets of 
specimens. Since that date large additions have been made ; the 
number of cabinets is now 1560, containing 1,673,000 specimens. 

z 2 



dOo THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

History of Kew Collections. 

After the death of King George III. and of Sir Joseph Banks 
in 1820, the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, remaining a private 
garden of the Crown under the charge of the Lord Steward, though 
assisted by the Treasury and the Admiralty, did not for several 
years undergo any great development. In 1841, however, it ceased 
to be a private garden of the Crown. The management was trans- 
ferred to Her Majesty's Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land 
Revenues, Works and Buildings, and William Jackson Hooker, 
then Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow, was made director. 
Professor, afterwards Sir W. J. Hooker, brought with him from 
Glasgow to Kew, and for some years kept in his own residence, a 
a large private herbarium, described at the time as the largest in 
England, if not in the world. This he continued to increase. In 
1854 Mr. G. Bentham presented to the nation, on certain conditions, 
his private herbarium, about one-fifth the size of that of Sir W. J. 
Hooker. This was deposited in a house belonging to the Crown, 
formerly occupied by the Kmg of Hanover, the use of it being 
granted for that purpose. In the following year the herbarium of 
Sir W. J. Hooker, still a private herbarium, was transferred to the 
same building. In 1865, upon the death of Sir W. J. Hooker, his 
herbarium was purchased by the State, and this, with the smaller 
herbarium given by Mr. Bentham, was the beginning of the present 
national herbarium at the Royal Botanic Gardens. Since the 
death of Sir W. J. Hooker large additions have continued to be 
made to the herbarium ; and it now consists of more than 2,000,000 
specimens, and is the recognised official depository of all botanic 
collections acquired through Government expeditions. 

In an herbarium specimens may be present which are the actual 
plants made use of in the description of new species by the authors 
of those species. Such specimens, usually spoken of as "type 
specimens," have a value of a different order from that of other 
specimens, and an herbarium may, in general terms, be spoken of 
as more or less valuable according to the number of "type speci- 
mens" which it contains. Owing to its mode of origin the General 
Herbarium of the British Museum is of special value inasmuch as 
it contains the " type specimens " of the Banksian Herbarium. It 
is also of value, though of less value, by reason of the type specimens 
contained in the collections acquired since 1827 ; the additions to 
it since the transference to Cromwell Road contain many "type 
specimens," but the increase in such specimens has not been 
proportionate to the general increase. The pre-Linnean Sloane 
Herbaria are mainly of value for antiquarian or historical re- 
searches, and the value of the British Herbarium lies chiefly in the 
convenience which it offers for all enquiries limited to British 
plants. The Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew has, 
on the other hand, a special value on account of its being very 
rich in type specimens of a date posterior to that of the Banksian 
Herbarium, more particularly of the plants of India and of the 
British Colonies and Possessions. In all these it is far richer than 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL, WORK COMMITTEE 809 

the Herbarium at the British Museum, so much so that, as a rule, 
botanists engaged in researches in systematic botany find it profit- 
able to work at Kew in the first instance, visiting the British 
Museum subsequently 

History of previous Inquiries. 

A Royal Commission "to inquire into the constitution and 
government of the British Museum," appointed in 1847-8 and 
reporting in 1850, put to Mr. Robert Brown, then Keeper of the 
Department of Botany, questions relating to the desirability of his 
(botanical) collections being united with a botanic garden such as 
that at Kew. Mr. Robert Brown was of opinion that such a step 
was not desirable, basing his opinion on the distance of Kew, on 
the absence from the gardens of an adequate library, and on the 
slight advantage to botanic researches carried on in an herbarium of 
a connection with a botanic garden. 

In 1858, upon the death of Mr. Robert Brown on the 10th of 
June in that year, the Trustees instituted an inquiry, by means of 
a sub-committee, as to " whether it may be expedient or otherwise 
to remove the botanical collection from the Museum, as it presents 
a case in some degree peculiar." The sub-committee heard the 
evidence of Sir W. J. Hooker, Dr. J. D. Hooker, and Dr. Lindley 
in favour of the removal, of Mr. G. Bentham in favour of moving 
the Banksian Herbarium only, of Professor Owen that the removal 
of the botanic collections would not be any material disadvantage 
to the other great natural history collections, and of Dr. Falconer, 
Sir Charles Lyell, and Professor Henfrey against the removal. 
The sub-committee, partly influenced by the conflict of opinion 
among the witnesses, and partly, if not chiefly, by the fact that the 
herbaria and library at Kew were largely private property and by 
the want of accommodation there, reported against the removal. 

Towards the end of the same year a memorial signed by nine 
eminent Zoologists and Botanists was presented to the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer urging upon Her Majesty's Government the 
recommendation that the whole of the Kew Herbarium, a large 
portion of which was at that time private property, should become 
the property of the State, that the Banksian Herbarium and the 
fossil plants at the British Museum should be transferred to Kew, 
and that suitable accommodation should be made for the national 
scientific museum of botany so formed. 

In 1860 a Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed 
to consider the separation of the Natural History Collections from 
the rest of the British Museum, incidentally received evidence rela- 
tive to the removal of the botanical collections to Kew, but in its 
Report merely points out the relatively small needs of the Keeper 
of Botany. 

In 1871 the important Commission on Scientific Instruction 
and the Advancement of Science, generally known as the Devon- 
shire Commission, was appointed. The fourth Report of the 
Commission presented in 1874, and dealing with the British 
Museum as a whole, discusses at length proposals for dealing with 



310 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

"the Botanical Establishments now maintained at the expense of 
the State, the one at the British Museum, the other in the Royal 
Gardens at Kew," concerning ^Yhich it had received much evidence. 
It says "the evidence which has been laid before us leaves us no 
alternative but to recommend that these two Botanical collections 
. . . should not be merged into one, but that both be kept in a state 
of efficiency, and that the special scientific direction which each 
has spontaneously taken should be retained." The special direction 
here referred to is in the case of Kew that of systematic botany, in 
the case of the British Museum that of botanical palaeontology. 
The Commission were also impressed with the desirability of having 
in the British Museum " a geographically arranged collection as 
the complement of the purely systematically arranged collection at 
Kew." The Commission accordingly recommended "That the 
Collections at the British Museum be maintained and arranged 
with special reference to the geographical distribution of plants 
and to palaeontology, and that the collections at Kew be maintained 
and arranged with special reference to systematic botany." This 
recommendation has not been carried out. The Department of 
Botany of the British Museum has not been developed in the 
direction of botanical palaBontology. The collections of fossil 
plants are not under the cliarge of the Keeper of Botany, but are 
under the charge of the Keeper of Geology. The general herbarium 
is not arranged geographically, but systematically ; indeed it is 
actually less geographically arranged than is the herbarium at 
Kew, since in the latter, species within each genus are arranged 
geographically, whereas in the former a systematic arrangement is 
maintained to tlie end. Except for this geographical feature of 
the Kew Herbarium, and for the fact that each herbarium contains 
" type specimens" which the other does not, the two herbaria may 
be considered as duplicates one of the other. The objects which 
the Devonshire Commission had in view when it recommended the 
maintenance of both establishments have not been attained. 

The question of the union of the botanical collections of the 
British Museum and of Kew has thus been raised again and again. 
Each time the question has been decided in the negative, though 
not always for the same reason ; and the fact that the question has 
from time to time been raised anew may be taken as indicating 
either that the circumstances affecting the question have from time 
to time changed (which is the case), or that the previous decision 
did not appear to be based on convincing grounds. It is to be 
noted also that union at Kew has been most usually suggested, not 
union at the British Museum 

Union of the two Herbaria desirable. 

The views of the Trustees of the British Museum on the subject 
of the union of the two herbaria are contained in their letter to the 
Treasury of the 12th July, 1899 ; to this, we have ascertained, they 
have nothing to add. We observe, however, that they make no 
reference either to the intrinsic increase of efficiency which must 
arise from the amalgamation of two institutions and staffs now 



REPORT OF THK BOTANICAL WORK COMMITTEK 811 

doing the same work, or to the scientific advantage of having type 
specimens collected mider one roof instead of two. Their views on 
other points do not appear to us to be supported by the evidence 
which we have had before us. 

Taking so far as we have been able everything into considera- 
tion, and regarding the question from the point of view of the main 
purpose for which the two collections are maintained, namely, that 
of botanic research, and therefore dealing in the first instance in 
the case of the British Museum with the General Herbarium only, 
we have come to the conclusion that it is desirable that the two 
herbaria should be united into one 

Taking, then, into consideration all the various arguments 
which have been adduced on the one side and on the other, we 
have come to the conclusion that statutory powers should be 
obtained for the transference of the general herbarium of the British 
Museum to Kew, accommodation for it and for the present her- 
barium at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, being provided there. 

Besides the General Herbarium, the British Museum possesses 
the Sloane collections and other pre-Linnean herbaria. It has 
been urged by some witnesses that these being, mainly of historic 
or antiquarian value should be retained at the British Museum, as 
being near to the Departmental Botanical Library, which is at 
present maintained there, and also not far from the National 
Library at Bloom sbury. The proximity of the Linnean Herbarium, 
now in possession of the Linnean Society at Burlington House, 
has been brought forward as a similar reason. But it seems only 
natural that the Sloane Herbaria should as heretofore go with the 
Banksian Herbarium, which forms the nucleus and perhaps the 
most valuable part of the General Herbarium. And in respect of 
the advantage of such historic herbaria being in close proximity to 
a library containing old botanic books, it may be remarked that if 
the General Herbarium is removed to Kew the chief reason for 
maintaining a Departmental Botanic Library at the British Museum 
is done away with, and the main part of the Library should follow 
the Herbarium to Kew. And indeed it might be further urged that 
steps should be taken to ensure that the National Botanic Establish- 
ment, such as Kew would then be, should be the seat of a Botanic 
Library as complete as possible. 

In respect to the Linnean Herbarium, its retention in so isolated 
a manner by the Linnean Society would become a still greater 
anomaly than it is at present if the Sloane Herbaria were removed 
to Kew, and the same may be said of the collection of the East 
India Company (including the Wallichian types) also in possession 
of the Linnean Society. It may fitly be urged that the State ought 
to become the owners of the Linnean Herbarium and other historic 
collections now the property of the Linnean Society, if that Society 
could be induced to part with them, in which case they too should 
be transferred to Kew. 

There remains to be considered the British Herbarium. This 
is the only example of that geographic arrangement that was re- 
commended by the Devonshire Commission as being one of special 



312 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

directions in which Botany at the British Museum ought to develop, 
and it existed antecedent to that Commission. This is an herbarium 
of a special character with a corresponding value. Specimens of 
plants found in Great Britain and Ireland are not placed in the 
General Herbarium ; they are collected together in this British 
Herbarium. The British Herbarium, like the General Herbarium 
is for the purposes of research, and can only be consulted by 
investigators, not by the general public. 

The objections which were referred to above as being urged 
against the removal of the General Herbarium to Kew on account 
of the distance of Kew from the centre of London, apply more 
closely to the British Herbarium. It is this which is most 
frequently consulted by the busy man spoken of above. But as we 
said above we cannot attach great weight to these objections ; and 
obviously if all the rest of the herbaria are transferred to Kew the 
British Herbarium must go too ; it could not be left alone at the 
British Museum. In thus recommending the transference to the 
Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew of so large a portion of the botanic 
collections at present at the British Museum, of all that portion in 
fact which is used for scientific research, we are recommending a 
course of action of a very grave nature. We are aware of the 
gravity of the recommendation 

We have now to deal with an aspect of the botanic collections 
of the British Museum on which w^e have not yet touched. So far 
we have been considering those collections as an instrument of 
scientific research ; but they have in addition, more especially 
since the transference from Bloomsbury to Cromwell Road, served 
another purpose. Like the Department of Zoology, the Department 
of Botany under the guidance of the Keeper has instituted and 
developed an exhibition of botanic objects calculated to excite 
popular interest and to impart popular instruction in the pheno- 
mena of the vegetable world. The exhibition so formed has also 
been found to serve as an instrument of education to students of 
botany and as a useful adjunct to the equi]3ment of teachers in 
London. The botanic collections in fact consist of two distinct 
parts — firstly, the herbarium to which the general public is not 
admitted, w^hich is exclusively an instrument of scientific research ; 
and secondly, the popular and illustrative collection displayed in 
the gallery to which the general public is freely admitted ; some 
objects serving a like purpose are also exhibited in the Central 
Hall. 

We have already come to the conclusion that the first-named 
botanic collections which serve for research should be transferred 
from the British Museum to Kew. We have now to consider what 
course should be recommended in respect to the second, the popular 
and illustrative botanic exhibition. In doing so we may assume 
without discussion that a national botanic collection, paid for by 
the State, ought to serve the purpose of exciting popular interest 
in, and of spreading among the people a knowledge of the vegetable 
kingdom. In considering this question we have to bear in mind 
the facts that at Kew the collection of living plants already serves 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL WORK COMMITTEE 313 

such a purpose among others, and that the Economic Museums at 
Kew form in part also a popular exhibition. The installation at 
Kew of a popular illustrative botanic exhibition similar to that 
existing in the public gallery at the British Museum would be a 
continuation of the work already done at Kew. And the value of 
such an exhibition as a means of developing botanic knowledge 
among the people would be increased by its being placed in con- 
tiguity with the living plants. Indeed, we recommend that steps 
should be taken, as opportunity offers, in this direction. But we 
do not think that such a popular exhibition at Kew should be 
substituted for the exhibition at present existing at the British 
Museum. On the contrary, led by the following considerations, we 
have come to the conclusion that this should be maintained. In 
the first place, the argument based on the distance of Kew from 
the centre of London, though not having, in our opinion, an 
importance in reference to research, does seem to us to be very 
strong in reference to an exhibition intended for the general public. 
We believe that it would be a serious evil if the opportunities for 
learning something about the vegetable kingdom, which are now 
placed before the visitors to the British Museum, were done away, 
and such opportunities were open only to those able to make the 
longer journey to Kew. 

Fossil Plants. 
The British Museum contains botanic collections other than 
those which we have hitherto considered, namely, the fossil plants. 
Concerning these we have received conflicting evidence. On the 
one hand, we have been told that from the point of view of scientific 
research the interest and value of fossil plants is greater to the 
botanist than to the geologist, and this has afforded a reason for 
transferring them as well as the herbaria to Kew ; to this may be 
added the further reason that, in many respects at least, for the 
study of these fossil plants access to living plants is especially 
useful. On the other hand, it must be remembered that the fossil 
plants which are preserved in the British Museum are with some 
few exceptions placed in, and regarded as belonging to, the Depart- 
ment, not of Botany, but of Geology, and it has been stated to us 
that the removal of the fossil plants to Kew would mean a dis- 
memberment of the geologic collection. It must be borne in mind 
in reference to this question that the Geological Department of the 
British Museum is not in the ordinary sense a geologic collection, 
that is, one having relation to what is called stratigraphic geology ; 
it is essentially a paL^ontologic collection. And it is by reason of 
this nature of the collection that fossil plants are placed in the 
collection together with the fossil animals. The position of pale- 
ontology in the scientific hierarchy is a peculiar one. It is often 
ranked as a separate science ; and yet from one point of view, one 
namely which does not regard the geologic side of the matter, it 
appears as a mixture of zoology and of botany. From the stand- 
point of botany it would be satisfactory were the National Botanic 
Collections at Kew completed by the inclusion of the fossil plants ; 
but we feel that, considering the circumstances in which the fossil 



814 THE JOURNAL OK BOTANY 

plants are housed at the British ]\[useum, we should in a certain 
sense he going heyond our instructions, and he taking up a definite 
attitude towards pah^ontology, if we were to recommend that fossil 
phmts, heing hotanic specimens, should, together with the hotanic 
collections, he transferred from the British ^luseum to Kew. ^Ye 
therefore make no recommendation concerning the collection of 

fossil plants 

lurom)HtiuIations. 

We accordingly recommend : — 

1. That the whole of the hotanic collections at the British 
Museum now administered hy the Keeper of the Department of 
Botany under the Trustees, with the exception of the collections ex- 
hibited to the public, be transferred to the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, and placed in the charge of the First Commissioner of His 
Majesty's Works and Public Buildings under conditions indicated 
below, adequate accommodation being there provided for them. 

2. That a Board, on Nvhich the Trustees of the British Museum, 
the Royal Society, and certain Departments of His Majesty's 
Government should be directly represented, be established in order 
to advise on all questions of a scientific nature arising out of the 
administration of the Gardens, the powers and duties of the Board, 
its relations to the First Commissioner and to the Director, as well 
as the position of the latter and the functions of the Gardens, being 
defined by Minute of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury. 

3. That the illustrative botanic collections now pubhcly ex- 
hibited at the British Museum be maintained, and, so far as it is 
possible and expedient, enlarged and developed with the view of 
increasing popular interest, and imparting popular instruction in 
the phenomena of the vegetable world, and be placed under the 
charge of an officer of adequate scientific attainments, responsible 
to the Director of the Natural History Departments. 

4. That upon the transference of the botanic collections from 
the British Museum to the Royal Botanic Gardens, such arrange- 
ments be made both in respect to the accommodation of the 
collections and the staft" administering them, that they shall fully 
serve the purposes which they have hitherto served. 

5. That the botanic collections consisting of fossil plants, now 
in the charge of the Keeper of the Department of Geology in the 
British Museum, be maintained for the present under the same 
conditions as heretofore. 

Lord Avebury's Memorandum. 

I regret that I am unable to concur with my colleagues in their 
recommendation that the herbarium now in the British Museum 
should be transferred to Kew. 

It seems no doubt at first sight an anomalous arrangement that 
there should be two national herbaria ; firstly, on account of the 
expense ; and secondly, because botanists in some cases have to 
consult two collections instead of one. But the evidence shows 
that the saving of annual expense through the suggested fusion 



SHORT NO IKS 



815 



would be small, and that the initial outlay for building cabinets, 
&c., would be heavy. The alleged inconvenience Reems to me to 
be exaggerated, and affects only a few of those engaged in syste- 
matic botany, who are thus obliged to consult two herbaria instead 
of one ; while on the other hand, to those engaged in other depart- 
ments of botany, the existence of the two herbaria is an advantage. 
I deprecate the proposals contained in the majority Report for 
the following reasons : — 

1. The British Museum is the greatest museum in the world, 
and is justly the pride of the nation. To dismember it, by de- 
priving it of so integral a part as the Botanical Department would 
be destructive of its unique character as a fully representative 
museum, and specially of a natural history museum ; would be 
vehemently opposed by many, if not most, British botanists, and 
as it seems to me, would be a great injury to science. 

2. To London and country botanists the British Museum is 
much more accessible than Kew. 

3. The plan proposed would separate the fossil, from the 
recent, plants. 

4. It would involve the creation of a new Board. 

If, on the other hand, Kew Gardens and the British Museum 
were brought into closer relations, as recommended in the Report 
which I have signed in conjunction with Mr. Seymour, several 
advantages would result ; for instance, the officers of the Museum 
would have access to the living plants ; while those of Kew Gardens 
would have access to the British Museum library and the collection 
of fossil plants. 



SHORT NOTES. 

LiMONiuM HUMiLE Mill. — lu Joum. Linn. Soc. xxxv. 77, Mr. 
Druce follows Dr. Otto Kuntze in adopting Lihionima rarijiorum. as 
the name of the plant which stands in the last edition of the Loivlon 
Catahxjxie as Statice lari/lom Drej. There can, however, be no doubt 
that the proper name for this under Limonium is L. hunile Mill. 
Diet. no. 4 (1768). Miller's description is based entirely on the 
English plant— he does not record the species from any extra- 
English locality— described by Ray (Hist. Plant, iii. 247) under the 
name "Limonium Anglicum minus, caulis ramosioribus, iloribus 
in apicis rarius sitis." This was sent to Ray by Dale from the well- 
known Essex localities whence specimens collected by him are in 
the National Herbarium. Dr. Kuntze considers Miller's name as 
^^= St. bdlidifolia Gouan = St. caspia W."; but I think he is in 
error in so doing, nor am I sure that the two plants last named are 
identical. This, however, as well as the name to be applied under 
Liinunium to either or both, is a matter for future monographers. — 
James Britten. 

.JuNGERMANiA sAxicoLA Schrad. (p. 279).— I can add two localities 
for this hepatic on the mainland of Scotland to the one from Ben 
Mac Dhuirgiven by Mr. Stabler. Among rocks at the waterfall, 
Carn Dearg, Aviemore, alt. 1200 ft., with Chandonanthus setiformis, 



316 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

1898 ; in two places at Craig-an-Lochain, Killin, one being among 
boulders at the base of the west precipice, alt. 1800 ft., the other on 
a rocky bank near the centre of the range at about the same altitude. 
The Shetland locality for this species is interesting, as it appears 
generally rather to avoid a maritime climate. It has not been found 
on the Faeroes, which have been well searched, nor does it occur on 
the islands off the west coast of Norway, according to Herr Kaalaas. 
It is also rather rare in the inner fjord region, but is fairly common 
on the east side of the country. — Symers M. Macvicar. 

Note on Ghik^a Schweinf. & Volkens. — In this Journal for 1896, 
p. 128, I described as a new species of Graderia (G. speciosa) a plant 
collected by Dr. Donaldson Smith in Somaliland. I remarked that 
it was an interesting addition to the genus, differing from the two 
previously described species in its much larger, more open flowers, 
and in the complete disappearance of the sterile half of the anther 
in the posterior stamens. In the next year Drs. Volkens and 
Schweinfurth published {Liste des plantes recoltees par les Princes 
Demetre et yicolas Ghika-Comanesti dans leur voyage au pays des 
Somalis ; Bucarest) a new genus — Ghikcea — of the same section of 
Scrojyhularineo', with one species — G. spectahilis. This genus, which 
is without doubt my Graderia speciosa, is retained by Engler (Bot. 
Jahrb. xxiii. 507, where also a figure of the flower is given, t. xiii. 
figs. J, k), and also by Wettstein in the Supplement to the Pjianzen- 
familien (Nachtrag. 297), the distinguishing generic character being 
the complete absence of the sterile portion of the posterior anthers. 
Through the courtesy of Professor Engler, I have just had an 
opportunity of examining a flower of Ghikaia spectahilis, and, 
though there is some variation in the size of the corolla, I have 
little doubt that the plant collected by Dr. Donaldson Smith is 
conspecific with Ghika:a spectahilis. I have thought it worth while 
to mention this, as it is obvious from the construction of the name, 
Ghikica spectahilis, that Graderia speciosa has been overlooked not 
only by the original founders of Ghikaa, but also by subsequent 
workers, all of whom make it a rule to retain through generic 
vicissitudes the original species-name of a plant. — A. B. Rendle. 



NOTICE OF BOOK. 



Irish Topographical Botany. By Robert Lloyd Praeger, B.A., 
B.E., M.R.I. A. 8vo, cloth, pp. clxxxviii, 410 ; six maps. 
Price 10s. London : WiUiams & Norgate. 

Those who know something of Mr. Praeger's work in the study 
or the field will expect a really good book from his pen ; and it may 
be said at once that this anticipation is here fulfilled. It is, indeed, 
many years since anything of so much value to British botanists 
generally has appeared, although one would hardly have looked for 
this in a treatise limited to Irish plants. 

The author states in the Preface that he was led to undertake 
his task by observing the absence of census-numbers for Ireland in 



IRISH TOPOGKAPHICAL BOTANY 317 

the last edition of the London Catalofjue (1895). At that time, 
Messrs. Colgaii and Scully's second edition of Cybele Uibeniica was 
in an advanced state of preparation. Mr. Praeger states that its 
puhlication "made Irish Topoyraphical Ijutany a -^o&Qihility'' \ and 
that the latter "may fairly be described as a companion to" the 
former. This is curiously exact, even as regards bulk ; the volumes 
weigh almost precisely the same (about 2^ lb.) : both are beauti- 
fully printed on good paper, and suitably bound. The later work 
excels in its maps, the production of which has delayed its appear- 
ance for a month or two ; the large one facing the title-page and 
those illustrating the petrography and orography of the country, 
are especially valuable. 

The chief point of contrast between the two books lies in the 
subdivision of the country. Cybele retains the twelve districts of 
the first edition; Mr. Praeger has adopted H. C. Watson's system 
of vice-counties, making forty in all. These correspond with the 
counties, except Galway and Cork (with three divisions apiece), 
Kerry, Tipperary, Mayo, and Donegal (with two) ; bringing the 
arrangement into substantial agreement with that now generally 
adopted in Great Britain. The Introduction treats each of these 
briefly, but adequately; giving the area, greatest elevation, soils, 
lakes, rivers, &c., together with the number of species at present 
known to occur, and a list of those which are rare, or restricted to 
the vice-county. 

Almost every page of this Introduction will repay careful 
reading, and the average Englishman has a good opportunity 
of correcting his ignorance as regards the sister isle — e. <j. it 
may be news to most of us that "Ireland is, for its size, the 
flattest island in the world"; that "Kerry has the same average 
temperature in December as Bordeaux and Kome " ; while "in 
July, bligo is no warmer than Archangel"; and that "the Central 
Plain of Ireland is the largest tract of Carboniferous Limestone in 
Western Europe." 

The total Flora (exclusive of Characece, which, however, are 
fully treated at the end) is reckoned at about 1160 species, on the 
basis of the current London Catalo(jue; which Mr. Praeger reduces 
to 1019 species, or 1138 species and subspecies, in his arrangement. 
The number of discoveries made in recent years makes it probable 
that this aggregate will still be considerably increased when the 
country has been more thoroughly explored. 

The names adopted in the Cybele are retained throughout; 
wisely, doubtless, considering the state of flux to which the 
prevailing fashion has reduced our nomenclature. Of Watson's 
"types," the British is represented in Ireland by no less than 
98 per cent., the Germanic by only 11-7 per cent. To the North 
American group Hieracium auratum, Fr. might well have been 
added. 

Sections are devoted to the plants of the sea-coast ; of sandy and 
gravelly soils, of bogs, of marshes, of rivers and of lakes ; they are 
models of accuracy and terseness, revealing the mind of a man who 
knows his subject, and not merely knows about it. This, indeed, 
applies generally to the book, which is singularly free from repetitions 



318 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

and redundancies, with a good, breezy, vigorous style, undisfigured 
by "fine writing," affectations, or '' sloppiness." 

Mr. Praeger sketches out in an interesting fashion the history 
of several certainly introduced species (e. g. Linaria minor, Arenaria 
tenidfoUa, Matricaria discoidea) ; he also shows, with regard to 
questions of doubtful nativity, an unusually unbiassed judgment 
and a rare perception of probabilities. The full and up-to-date 
bibliography of Irish topographical botany is one of the most 
serviceable helps that could be given to students. 

"In the consistent use of latest records, this work exhibits a 

departure from the practice usually followed in Floras In 

the present case, the whole object is to exhibit a view of the flora 
of Ireland as it is ; to give a present-day census of the plants of the 
country." Accordingly, Mr. Praeger prints after each vice-comital 
record of a plant the name of the most recent, rather than that of 
the first observer. He argues that '' the names of persons are here 
published, not with any reference to original discovery, but simply 
as vouchers for the records''; and that Ci/bele has already done full 
justice to historical and original claims. Opinions will probably 
differ as to the course adopted ; on the whole, it seems justifiable. 

The " Field Work " chapter shows how ably Mr. Praeger has 
marshalled his available forces, and what an indefatigable outdoor 
worker he himself is. Pioughly speaidng, 20,000 county records 
(500 species in 40 divisions) were required before the book could be 
produced; 12,000 of these were lacking in 1895, 15,000 being the 
number actually aimed at — and obtained ! Monaghan (477) alone 
fails to reach the prescribed standard, and this exception is due to 
an accident. The author devoted practically all his hoUdays for 
five years (roughly, two hundred days) to this object ; the ''ordinary 
day" being twelve hours, and the distance covered varying from 
fifteen to thirty-five miles. Materials to the extent of some five 
thousand sheets of specimens have been placed in the National 
Museum, the critical plants named by recognized authorities — an 
excellent plan. 

Thus we have, practically, a complete survey of Irish plant- 
distribution down to the present time. Varieties are not usually 
dealt with, and some subspecies are still too little known for treat- 
ment (e. g. EuphrasicE, with the exception of E. salishurgensis). 
Misprints are few and unimportant ; a curious one is Hieracium 
vulgatum var. '' inacultatum'' for maculatum ; and H. riyidiun yslv. 
" (jlabrescens'' should be scahresctus. Care.c (Ederi Eetz is not even 
recognized as a subspecies. Two or three plants are "calcicole" in 
Ireland which could hardly be so reckoned in England — e.g. J uncus 
ijlaucu!<, not uncommon here both on sand and clay. The Lough 
Mask (East Mayo) station for Daboecia polifolia, about which the 
author is not satisfied, may be accounted for by its occurrence in 
some plenty on the west side of the lake, ^axifraga umbrosa 
(decidedly " calcifuge ") grows sparingly on the limestone at its 
south-west corner. 

In conclusion, the book is again warmly recommended to all 
who take an interest in British botany, as being full of interest and 
well worth its cost. Edward S. Marshall. 



319 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 

But. (iazette (24 July). — C. E. Allen, 'Origin and nature of 
middle lamella.' — C. E. Preston, ' Structural Studies on South- 
western Cactacea'.' — A. Rehder, ' Basilbna & Sddwnotm of Rafin- 
esque.' 

Hot. ZeitiUKj (15 Aug.). — A. Scherfel, ' Zur Pliylogeuie einiger 
Gruppen niederer Orgauismen ' (1 pi.). 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (31 July). — E. de Wildeman & Th. 
Durand, ' Plantfe Gilletianae Congoleuses ' (cont.). — H. Scliinz, 
' Beitriige zur Keuntnis der Afrikanischen Flora ' (cont.). — A. de 
Coincy, * Qu'est-ce que V Echiiim Wi^n-zhiclxii Haberle ? ' — G. Hegl, 
' Das Obere Tosstal' (cont.). 

Bull. Ton-eij But. Club (July).— N. L. Britton, ' Thomas Conrad 
Porter' (1822-1901 ; portr.). — W. A. Cannon, -Anatomy of Phora- 
dendron villosum ' (2 pL). — C. Flahault, ' Phytogeographic Xomen- 
clatiu'e.' 

Gardeners Chronicle (27 July). — Beyoiiia Forgetiana Hemsl., 
sp.n. — (3 Aug.). W. B. Hemsley, ' Dr. Augustine Henry ' (portr.). 

Journal de Botanique ("Juiu"; received 26 July). — P. Van 
Tieghem, ' Sur le genre Lophira.' — P. Parmentier, • Recherches 
sur le pollen des Dialypetales ' (cont.). 

Journ. Linnean Soc. (Bot. xxxv. no. 243; 15 July). — AV. B. 
Hemsley & H. H. W. Pearson, ' Plants from the Bolivian Andes ' 
(contains no novelties). — G. Massee, ' Redescription of Berkeley's 
Types of Fungi ' (cont. ; 2 plates). 

Minnesota Botanical Studies (20 July). — E. M. Freeman, 
'Minnesota Uredinea;' (1 pi.). — Alaria curtipes De Alton Saunders, 
n.sp. (1 pi.). — F. K. Butters. ' Minnesota XylariacecE.' — W. A. 
Wheeler, 'Flora of Red River Valley' (8 pi.). — H. B. Humphry, 
Gigartina exasperata il pi.). — M. G. Fanning, ' Algffi of St. Paul 
City water' (4 pi.). — D. Lange, ' Revegetation of Trestle Island.' — 
J. C. Atkin & E. W. D. Holway, 'Violet rusts of N. America' 
(1 pi. I. — H. L. Lyon, ' Embryogeny of Xehimbo ' i3 pi. ^ 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (Aug.'. — k. Zahlbruckner, ' Vorar- 
beiten zu einer Flechtenflora Dalmatiens ' — V. Schiftner, ' Calycu- 
laria crispula & C. birmensis.' — E. Hackel, 'NeueGriiser' \Fauicuiii). 
A. V. Hayek, 'Flora von Steiermark ' -cont.'. — M. Soltokovic, 'Die 
perennen Arten der Gentiana aus der Section Cgclostigma ' (concl.i. 

Elwdora (July; received 3 Aug.). — T. Meehan, 'T. C. Porter.' — 
W. Deane, ' Ericacece of New England.' — M. L. Fernald, ' Scutellaria 
parvula & S. ambigua.' — R. G. Leavitt, 'Embryology of New Eng- 
land Orchids' il pl.t. — M. A. Day, ' Herbaria of New England' 
(cont.). — (Aug.; received 24 Aug. i. W. Deane, ' Umbelli/erce of 
New England.' — R. S. Smith, 'Aerial rimners in Trientalis ameri- 
cana.' — R. E. Schuh, ' Rhadinocladia.' 



' The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 



320 THE JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

We regret to learu that Mr. George Nicholson, who has been 
at Kew since 1873, has been compelled by ill-health to resign the 
Ouratorship of Kew Gardens. Mr. Nicholson was at one time a 
diligent student of British plants, and a frequent contributor to 
this Journal. Mr. J. R. Jackson, the amiable Keeper of the Kew 
Museums, with which his connection began in 1858, is also retiring 
from the service of the Gardens. Mr. Nicholson is succeeded by 
Mr. W. Watson, the Assistant- Curator, and Mr. Hillier will replace 
Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Arthur Smith, of 5, Cavendish Street, Grimsby, Lincoln- 
shire, asks us to insert the following : — " The Alien Flora of Britain. 
I am anxious to have notes and records of Alien Plants which occur 
in Britain, and beg to ask your assistance in the matter. If you are 
willing to co-operate, I should be glad to have notes of such from 
your locality, and, as far as possible, specimen plants. Should you 
have a knowledge or theory how the plant came to its situation, 
please give it; and in sending plants give names, if known — if not, 
I will do my best to name them. In any case always give colour 
of flower." We believe Mr. S. T. Dunn has for some time been 
engaged on a work dealing with our introduced plants. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle for Aug. 8 gives a list of Selborne 
plants, " the direct descendants of those which White must often 
have seen." " The names are not arranged in any order," and the 
list is thus not easy to consult ; but we note among the names 
Mimulus liiteiis, which we do not think White is likely to have 
met with. It will be remembered that a complete list of the plants 
— 440 in number — actually noted by White as occurring at Selborne 
was printed in this Journal for 1893, pp. 289-294. 

We should have mentioned earlier the death of the eminent and 
venerable Japanese botanist Ito Keisuke, which took place at Tokyo 
on the 21st of January, in his ninety-ninth year. Some account of 
his work, from the pen of his grandson, Mr. Tokutaro Ito, will be 
found in this Journal for 1887, accompanied by a portrait : a later 
portrait and account is given in the Annals of Botany for September, 
1900. 

Mr. K. F. Towndrow is known as a writer of graceful verse, and 
now another botanist, Mr. F. T. Mott, puts forward claims to the 
laurel in a little volume called The Bensclif Ballads. One of 
these — "A Summer Campaign" — narrates an excursion of four 
botanists 

" Where the shrubby SiKcda jusfc fringes the land, 
And Salsola spreads out his thorns on the sand. . . • 
Where Osmunda sat throned in a leaf-sheltered nook, 
And the slender CEminthe peered up from the brook. 

" They ransacked the land and they searched by the sea, 
And brought back their vasculums filled with debris ; 
Rlnjnchospora alba and Myrica Gale 
And Triticum repem, the blue littorale.'" 




.Rcixdle ajia,! . 
Lcoclt del efc lith 



A. TrilliiiTn jpvisillvLm Mich . B. T.RuLgeK j^stici^. 
C . Lixaosella aquatic a XVar. tenxiifolia. i^C'/r./' 



321 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM. 

By a. B. Rendle, M.A., D. Sc. 

(Plate 426.) 

Certain enquiries by American botanists as to the old types of 
the species of this genus induced me to go somewhat exhaustively 
into the matter. x\s repeatedly happens, the richness of the National 
Collection in original and classic specimens was most helpful in the 
elucidation of the more difficult forms, and I was in hopes of being 
able to make a general revision of all the species. But it soon 
became evident that, without a much larger suite of specimens than 
at present exists either at the British Museum or Kew, a general 
monograph which would add sufficiently to revisions already in 
existence was out of the question. It seemed, however, advisable 
to publish a careful account of the original specimens, since their 
detailed description should be of considerable help to American 
workers, who, having the great advantage of studying the plants in 
the field, and of obtaining an unhmited supply of specimens, might 
approach with confidence the subject of a monograph, if once the 
identity of the earlier species were established. 

I have included a few notes on certain species and forms which 
impressed me as more or less distinct ; some of them are based on 
plants from Rugel's collection in the mountains of Carolina and 
Tennessee, most of which cannot be consulted except in the National 
Herbarium. Through the kindness of Mr. F. W. Burbidge, Mr. T. 
Smith of Newry, and several others, I have been able to examine 
cultivated specimens of a number of the species. 

1. Species ivit/i sessile Jiowers. Stigmas sessile. 
1. Trillium sessile L. Sp. PI. 340 (1753). Trillium flore sessili 
erecto. 

Linn£eu3 cites the following : — 

1. Paris foliis ternatis, flore sessili erecto. Gron. virg. 44. 

2. Solanum virginianum triphyllum, flore tripetalo atro- 
purpureo in foliorum sinu, absque pediculo, sessiH. 
Phik. aim. 352, t. Ill, f. 6. 

3. Solanum triphyllum, flore hexapetalo : tribus petalis pur- 
pureis, ceteris viridibus reflexis. Catesb. car. i, p. 50, t. 50. 

We are fortunate in possessing the types of each of these authors 
in the National Herbarium. 

1. Gron. virg. 44 (1743). "Paris foliis ternis, flore sessili erecto." 

This plant is in the Gronovian herbarium. It is no. 856 of 
Clayton's Virginian plants, bearing the name, "Anonymos caule 
simplici nudo, ad fastigium tribus solummodo foliis vestito, e 
quorum medio flos purpureus irregularis exoritur : radicem habet 
tuberosam striatam." 

The stem, which is broken off at the tuber, is 20 cm. high, 
reaching barely 3 mm. in diameter ; the sessile bluntly elliptic-ovate 
leaves are mottled, 5*5-6*5 cm. long by 4 cm. broad ; sepals lanceolate, 
blunt, 2-7 cm. long by -8 cm. broad; petals lanceolate, acute, 3 by 
•8 cm. ; filaments purple, broadening from base to apex, 4 mm. long 

Journal oe Botany. Vol. 39. [Oct. 1901.] 2 a 



322 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

by 1*75 mm. broad at the base, anther 11 mm. (including the pro- 
longed connective, which is 1'5 mm.) ; ovary subglobose, 8 mm. 
high ; stigmas 6*5 mm. long, erect, recurving slightly at the apex. 
Gronovius also cites (1) " Solanum triphyllum, flore tripetalo 
atropurpureo, in foliorum sinu absque pediculo sessili. Ba)iist. 
Cat. Stirp. Virg." (in Eay Hist. ii. 1926). There is no specimen 
in Banister's herbarium which forms part of Herb. Sloane. 
(2) ** Solanum triphyllum, flore hexapetalo, tribus petalis purpureis 
erectis, cseteris viridibus reflexis. Plukn. Catesb. Hist. Carol, vol. i. 
t. 50.'' This, which Linnaeus also cites, we shall consider presently. 

2. Pluk. aim. 352, t. Ill, f. 6. Among Plukenet's plants in 
Herb. Sloane is one closely resembling this figure, and written up 
by Plukenet as the same plant (Herb. Sloane, 90. f. 95). The 
stem, cut off below, is 13 cm. long ; leaves broadly elliptical, 
scarcely ovate, blunt, 5 cm. long by barely 4 cm. broad ; sepals 
lanceolate, subobtuse, 2-4 cm. by -6 cm. ; petals lanceolate, sub- 
acute, 2'4 cm. by -S-'SS cm. ; filaments broadening from above 
downwards, 3 mm. long by barely 1*5 mm. broad at the base, anthers 
8-10 mm. long excluding prolonged connective, which is 2-2*5 mm. ; 
stigmas erect, 9 mm. long, ovary 4-5 mm. long; the stamens over- 
top the stigmas by barely the length of the prolonged connective. 
The leaves in the figure are represented as mottled ; it is impossible 
to say whether they were so in the dried specimen. 

3. Catesb. car. i. p. 50, t. 50. Catesby's figure represents a plant 
with larger broadly lanceolate mottled leaves, and three elongated 
oblanceolate purple petals standing erect and conspicuously longer 
than the sepals. Catesby's Carolina plants form part of Herb. 
Sloane, where the specimen in question is found on the same page 
(H. S. 212, f. 59) as his other species of the genus (figured in t. 45). 
The leaves, however, are elliptical and blunt, not elongated as in the 
figure, and closely resemble those of the Gronovian and Plukenet 
plants. They are mottled, 6*8-7 cm. long, 4-4*3 cm. broad ; as in 
the Gronovian and Plukenet plants they are 3-5-nerved, the two outer 
nerves being less conspicuous or absent. The stem, cut off at the 
base, is 10*5 cm. long, and reaches 3 mm. in width. Sepals linear- 
lanceolate, obtuse, 3*5 cm. by 1 cm. ; petals narrowly liuear-oblanceo- 
late, subacute, 5 cm. by -5 cm., erect; stamens purple, conspicuously 
overtopping the stigmas, filaments broadening downwards, barely 
3 mm. long, anthers including short prolongation of connective 
(•7 mm.) 15 mm. ; stigmas 6 mm. or more, straight. 

The specimen in Linnaeus' s herbarium named T. sessile is 
different from any of the above. It is a small plant with narrowly 
elliptical leaves, and a small shortly stalked sessile flower. Sir 
J. E. Smith has written ^^pumilum Pursh?" ; it is without doubt 
T. pusillum Michx., to which we shall presently refer. 

Dealing only with the available types cited by Linnaeus, we 
might conclude that his T. sessile included two distinct plants, one 
of Gronovius and Plukenet with subequal lanceolate sepals and 
petals, and stamens half as long as the petals ; and the other, that 
of Catesby, with narrowly linear-lanceolate petals nearly half as 
long again as the sepals, and stamens about one-third the length 
of the petals. A further difference suggested by Catesby's plate — 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM 323 

namely, the larger lanceolate strongly trinerved leaves with tapering 
tips — disappears on reference to the specimen. It is of interest to 
note apropos of this discrepancy that J. E. Smith, who erroneously 
referred Catesby's other specimen (T. Cateshal Elliot) to T. ceniuum 
L., remarks: "Icon Catesbseana tarn informis, atque colore tarn 
erronea est, ut earn ad nostram speciem pertinere, nisi herbarium 
auctoris in Museo Britannico inspexissem, minime crediderim ; rara 
pulchraque htec planta meliorem sane postulat" {Spicileg.Botan.4). 
Dr. J. K. Small, in a review of the " Sessile-flowered Trillia of 
the South-eastern States" (Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. xxiv. 169), protests 
against the inclusion of many widely differing forms under a single 
name, and distributes under six species the varieties included by 
Watson ("Revision of North American Liliaceae " in Proc. Am. 
Acad. xiv. 273) under 2\ sessile L. and 2\ recurvatum Beck. Dr. 
Britton had previously consulted my colleague Mr. E. G. Baker as 
to the identity of the Grouovian and Plukenet plants. Dr. Small, 
impressed with the dissimilarity between these and Catesby's figure, 
writes : " Thus we see that the first and second quoted descriptions 
in the Species Plantarum are represented by specimens which agree 
with each other in all essential particulars, while the third quotation 
is founded wholly on a plate which represents a species totally 
distinct from that on which the first and second descriptions were 
founded. Therefore the name Trillium sessile must be associated 
with the small oval-leaved plant, and the large plant must receive 
a name." The name given is T. Under ivoodii. The writer states 
that the two species " are remarkably constant in comparative size," 
and " can readily be segregated on size and habit alone, and of 
course comparative measurements of organs would serve as an 
excellent basis of separation. But this is not necessary, since we 
have such good specific characters as exist in the flower, especially as 
respects the stamens and styles." The distinctive characters as 
given by Dr. Small are — 

T. sessile. T. Underwoodii. 

Rootstock ovate or ascending, Rootstock horizontal. 

corm-like. 
Stem 1-2 dm. tall, slender. Stem 1-3 dm. tall, stout. 

Leaves oval or suborbicular, 4-8 Leaves varying from ovate-lanceo- 

cm. long, obtuse or acute, late to ovate-orbicular, 8-18 cm. 

rounded at the base, 3-5- long, acute or short acuminate, 

nerved, not mottled. rounded or subcordate at the 

base, mottled. 
Sepals 2-3 cm. long, acute or Sepals 4'5-5-5 cm. long, obtuse 

acutish. or acute. 

Petals narrowly elliptic, slightly Petals lanceolate, elliptic or ob- 

shorter than or longer than lanceolate, 5-5-8-5 cm. long. 

the sepals. 
Stamens about half as long as Stamens 3-4 times shorter than 

the petals. the petals. 

Filaments dilated at the base, Filaments very short, anthers 

-|— I shorter than the anthers. 1*5-2 cm. long, subsessile. 

Styles elongated, nearly straight. Styles almost wanting, stigmas 

recurved. 

2 A 2 



324 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Let us take these characters seriatim. So far as I am able to 
judge from our dried specimens, the rootstock character is not a 
constant one ; plants which from other points would be classed 
under T. sessile show a horizontal rootstock comparable with that 
of Underivoodii. 

The size of the plant is very variable ; that of Catesby's plant 
{i. e. type of U^iderwoodii) closely resembles those of the Gronovian 
and Plukenet specimens. On the other hand, of two specimens 
collected at Lexington, Kentucky, by Dr. Short, which differ in 
nothing but size, and would undoubtedly be considered as T. sessile 
in the most limited sense, the stem in one case is 8 cm. long by 
3 mm. wide, in the other 26 cm. by 6-7 mm. wide. Cultivated 
specimens also often show remarkable differences in size, though 
alike in other respects. 

The leaves of all the three historic specimens are similar ; the 
difference in shape implied by Catesby's figure is not borne out by 
his specimen, the leaves of which fall within the limits of size 
given for T. sessile. Moreover, the leaves of the Gronovian plant 
still show distinct traces of having been mottled, and the same 
character is obvious in Plukeuet's figure. 

The sepals of Catesby's plant (3-5 cm. long), though larger than 
in the other two specimens, do not reach the lower limit of length 
assigned to Underwoodii. The petals (5 cm. long) are, however, 
conspicuously longer than the sepals, though they also fall short of 
the lower limit assigned to T. Underwoodii. The stamens are scarcely 
more than one-third the length of the petals, while in T. Ufiderwoodii 
the proportion is about 1 to 2. 

The length and form of the filaments is similar in all three 
specimens, but the anthers in Catesby's plant are one-third longer 
than those of the other two. 

The specimens which I have examined do not show any longi- 
tudinal demarcation of style and stigma. The ovary appendages 
are similar in all, consisting of erect or slightly apically recurving 
processes which are apparently stigmatic down the whole of the 
inner face. Those in Catesby's plant are intermediate in length 
between those in the other two specimens. 

Therefore, if we restrict our observations to the type specimens, 
it is evident that although many of the characters indicated by Mr. 
Small are not confirmed, yet that the Carolina plant is distinguished 
from the Virginian by its larger sepals, by its narrowly oblanceolate 
petals which are also longer both actually and relatively to the 
sepals and stamens, and by its longer anthers. 

It is possible to arrange a limited number of herbarium speci- 
mens in a series of more or less distinct forms. Thus dealing with 
specimens from the Atlantic slope, we have: — 1. What we may 
regard as typical T. sessile conforming to Clayton's Virginian 
specimen and that of Plukenet, with lanceolate to oval-lanceolate 
petals about equal in length to the sepals and generally about twice 
the length of the stamens. The plants seem, as a rule, smaller and 
less robust than the other forms ; the leaves are bluntly ovate to 
orbicular. 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM 325 

The T. uanthum and T. tinctorium of Rafinesque (Bot. U.S. ii. 
98) may belong here. 

2. A. form represented by Catesby's plant, having oblanceolate 
petals with long narrow bases standing erect in the centre of the 
flower, and conspicuously longer than the lanceolate to broadly 
linear-lanceolate sepals ; stamens about one-third the length of the 
petals, connective scarcely prolonged above the anther. Good 
specimens of this form occur in Herb. Banks, labelled ''Am. 
Sept."; the leaves are slightly larger and more elongated (elliptic- 
oval to ovate, 7-8 by 3-3-5'7 cm.), the petals slightly broader 
(6-8 mm. in breadth), while the anthers vary from 10-18 mm. in 
length, the connective ending almost on a level with the pollen - 
sacs ; the stigmas vary from 4*5 to 5 mm. long, and are straight or 
slightly recurved at the tip only. The leaves are conspicuously 
mottled. Curtis's Bot. Mag. tab. 40, " taken from a plant 
which flowered in my garden last spring from roots sent me the 
preceding autumn, by Mr. Eobert Squibb, Gardener, of Charleston, 
South-Carolina," is a good representation of the specimens. 

A similar specimen occurs in a volume of plants collected by 
Mr. Job Lord in Carolina (Herb. Sloane, 285, f. 4); Lord's label 
reads : " This Plant Grows in moist fertil ground y* has a deep & 
loose (or light) soil. It has three Leaves at y^ top of y^ stalk, 
amidst w'' stands upright one dark reddish purple Flow'', w" it is 
full ; but greenish before it is full blown. You may see y® flow'' in 
it's perfection in one of y^ samples, & y*" shape & mann^' of standing 
of y*" Leaves in y^ other. Gathered may 3'^ 1704 Those spots in 
y^ Leaves y* now (dried) look most green, w" they are fresh look of 
y^ colour of y^ Liver of a beast, before it be sodden, as it is when 
taken out of y® beast." The leaves are ovate, not exceeding 6*5 cm. 
in length by 4*5 in breadth. The petals which closely resemble 
those of Catesby's plant are 4 cm. long (sepals 2*5 cm.), and the 
stamens 1-2 cm. The connective is not prolonged beyond the 
pollen-sacs. The specimen of Trillmm sessile in Walter's Carolina 
herbarium is also similar. In his Flor. Carol. 126 (1788), Walter 
has T. sessile " flore sessili erecto, petalis coriaceis purpureis." 

Nearly allied to the Carolina form are some specimens from 
Florida {''Trillium sessile L.?" in herb. Chapman) which seem to 
approach most nearly to the idea of Dr. Small's 2\ Undencoodii. 
The somewhat robust stems reach 24 cm. in length and -5 in 
thickness ; the leaves are those of Catesby's figure, ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate and more or less elongated to an acute or subacute tip, 
mottled and prominently 3-nerved ; they reach 12*5 cm. in length 
by 5*3 cm. in breadth. The lanceolate petals i4'5-5'5 cm. by 
1-2-1-4 cm.) exceed the sepals (3*3-4 cm. long), and are 3|- to 4 
times as long as the stamens ; the connective is prolonged beyond 
the anther, and the stigmas are short (3-3-5 mm.). 

A similar but somewhat smaller specimen from Arkansas occurs 
in herb. Nuttall. 

Another similar and generally robust form with a stout hori- 
zontal rhizome, and a stem from 16 to 40 cm. long and as much as 
6-7 mm. thick a little above the base, has broadly ovate to ovate- 



326 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

orbicular leaves, generally shortly acute or subacute, with 3-5 con- 
spicuous nerves. The lanceolate to oblanceolate petals (4-6 cm. by 
•7-1*4 cm.) exceed the lanceolate sepals (3-4-5 cm. by '8-1 cm.), 
and are 3-4 times longer than the stamens. The connective is 
scarcely prolonged above the anther, and the stigmas are short. 
It embraces several of Rugel's gatherings in the mountains of 
East Tennessee (above warm springs, &c.), and one from the 
Alleghany Mountains in North Carolina. It may perhaps be 
T. rotundifoJium Raf. /. c. 97. 

The Western specimens as indicated by Watson (Proc. Am. 
Acad. xiv. 273) fall into two sets : — 

(1) A robust plant with large broadly rhombic-ovate sessile 
leaves (in our specimens reaching 10 cm. long and nearly as broad), 
and oblanceolate to rhombic-obovate petals (5*5-6 cm. long by 
1*1-2*6 cm. broad) considerably exceeding the lanceolate sepals, 
and 3-3| times as long as the stamens (filaments about 2 mm. long, 
anthers 1*5 cm. excluding the prolonged connective, 1 mm.) ; 
stigmas short (4 mm. long). 

This is the var. californicum Watson, /. c, and the \Sbi\ giganteiim 
Torr. in Pacif. Rail. Rep. 4, 151, uon Hook., also Greene, Man. 
Bay-Region Bot. 314. 

The larger specimens of the Tennessee form approach this, but 
show less difference between size of sepals and petals. 

Watson includes here var. chloropetahim Torr. /. c, characterized 
by its green obovate elliptical obtuse petals, twice the length of the 
sepals. Greene, /. c. follows Torrey, and recognizes it as distinct. 

(2) Similar to (1), but with shortly petiolate leaves, and the 
oblanceolate petals narrower, especially towards the base. In the 
specimens which I have examined the stigmas are larger than 
in (1), 6-5-7 mm., and straight. 

This is the var. cfiganteum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, 402 
(1841) = var. angjistlpetaJum Torr. in Pacif. Rail. Rep. 4, 95 [151] , 
(1857). I have received cultivated specimens from Messrs. Perry, 
of Winchmore Hill, as "2". sessile var. rubrum." 

Specimens in cultivation which I have received from various 
sources as var. californicum resemble rather the robuster forms 
from the Atlantic side. 

2. T. DiscoLOK Wray ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 3097 (1831). 

T. sessile var. Wrayi Watson in Proc. Amer. Acad. xiv. 273 (1879). 

This seems to be a distinct species, and is so regarded by Small 
(I. c. 171). It is characterized by its sulphur-yellow to green, very 
obtuse obovate petals narrowing to a claw at the base. 

3. T. viRiDE Beck in Amer. Journ. Sci. xi. 178 (1826) ; Kunth, 
Enum. V. 123 (1850); Small, I.e. 173. 

T. viridescens Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. xv. (new ser.) 

155 (1837). 
T. sessile var. Nuttallii Watson in Proc. Amer. Acad. xiv. 273 

(1879). 
This seems a good species as indicated by Dr. Small, who also 
pointed out the identity of the plants of Beck and Nuttall. 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM 327 

The absolute size of the flowers varies considerably, one of 
Nuttall's type specimens having remarljably long and narrow sepals 
and petals. The species can, however, be distinguished by the claw- 
like, differently coloured base of the generally narrow greenish petals. 
As Dr. Small indicates, its affinity is with T. recnrvatnm Beck. The 
most nearly allied of the forms of T. sessile is the Carolina form of 
Catesby, &c., which recalls T. viride in its erect petals with their 
elongated narrow bases. 

Missouri, Arkansas. 

4. T. RECURVATUM Bcck ; Watson, /. c. ; Small, I. c. 174. 
T. unguicidatum Raf. Bot. U.S. ii. 98 (1830). 

T. wiguiciilatum Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. /. c. 155 (1837). 

Distinguished from T. viride by its stalked leaves, ultimately 
recurved sepals, and proportionately broader petals. It is interesting 
to note that the same name was given independently by Rafinesque 
and Nuttall. Beck in the original description says, leaves " sessile or 
on very short petioles." Can the " sessile" refer to the T. lanceo- 
latum Boykin which Dr. Small considers a distinct species, but 
which Watson {I.e. 274) made a variety of T. recnrvatnm? 

5. T. LANCEOLATUM Boykin ex Watson in Proc. Amer. Acad. xiv. 
274 (1879) ; Small, I. c. 

T. recnrvatnm Beck, var. (?) lanceolatum Watson, /. c. 273. 

Specimens which I have seen from Kentucky {Short), Georgia 
{Torrey), and others, favour Dr. Small's view, that this is a distinct 
species. The plants have sessile lanceolate leaves, narrower than 
in 2\ reciirvatiwi, and narrower petals. 

ii. Species with stalked flowers. Stigmas sessile. 
Trillium erectnm series (Spp. 6-9). 

6. T. ERECTUM L. Sp. PI. 341 (1753) ; Watson in Proc. Amer. 
Acad. xiv. 274 (1879), in part. 

T. rhomhoidenm Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. 215 (1803), excl. var. grandi- 

florum. 
T,fcetidnm Salisb. Parad. Lond. t. 35 (1806). 
T. petididnm Willd. Hort. Berol. t. 35 (1816). 
Linnaeus's description runs, " TrilUum flora pedunculate erecto," 
with these citations : — 

Paris fohis ternis, flora pedunculate aracto. Amcen. acad. i. 

p. 154. 
Solanum triphyllum brasilianum. Baiih. pin. 167 \ prodr. 91; 

Burs. ix. 12. 
Solanum triphyllum canadensa. Corn, canad. 166, 1. 167 [should 

be "t. on p. 167"]. 
Solano congener tryphyllum canadense. Moris, hist. 8, p. 582, 

§ 18, t. 8,f. 7. 
Habitat in Virginia. 

The reference Amoen. acad. i. p. 154 is to an annotated list of 
the plants in the herbarium of Joachim Burser by one Roland 
Martin. The plant in question, of which a description is given, 
was received by Burser from a certain French doctor returning 



B28 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

from Toupinambault, Brasil ; Burser sent a duplicate to Caspar 
Bauhin, who describes the phmt in his Prodr. 91 (1620) as Solcnmm 
tri/phi/llum Bvasilianum, saying, "hoc in sylvosis Brasiliae apud 
Tououpinambaultios copiose reperitur, referente PharmacopnsoGallo, 
qui una cnm ahis D. Bursero communicavit" ; the sepals are 8 in. 
long, petals 2 in. Tlie author in his Amoen. cites also Solanmn 
trlphylliun canadense. Corn, canad. 166. 

Linnseus's fourth citation, Solano coiufener triphylhim Canadense 
Moris, hist. 3. p. 532, § 13, t. 3, f. 7, is the same plant as Cornuti's, 
which is moreover cited as a synonym. 

The plant in Linn?eus's herbarium under this name is a specimen 
of Medeola rirginica L. received from Kalm. 

In the absence of Burser's specimens, we are referred back to 
Cornuti's figure and description to determine what Linn feus meant 
by his species ; this is evidently what is generally understood as 
T. erectnm. 

The specimens show considerable variation in the size and 
breadth of the leaves, size of the flowers, colour, relative size and 
breadth of petals, absolute and relative length of stamens and 
stigmas, and relative length of anther and filament. 

We can distinguish — 

(1) A smaller less robust form with rhombic, shortly acuminate 
leaves, flowers small to moderate, stamens barely or not much 
longer than the short recurved stigmas, and filaments three-fifths 
to four-fifths the length of the anthers. The petals may be white 
or claret, and are ovate, blunt, and slightly to about one-third 
longer than the sepals. The stamens are 6-10 mm. long, the 
stigmas 2-4 mm. 

I have seen specimens from Canada, New York, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, and Tennessee (Smoky Mts. Finns canadensis 
region, Rugel). Some of the Tennessee specimens have very 
small leaves and flowers (sepals 12 mm., petals 14 mm., and 
stamens 6 mm. long). 

T. penduhim Willd. /. c. must be included here. 

(2) A robust form with large broadly rhombic shortly acuminate 
leaves, large flowers, anthers more than twice to many times as 
long as the filaments, and falling short of the tips of the long stout 
outwardly curving stigmas. The petals may be white or claret ; 
they are elliptic or ovate, obtuse to subobtuse, and about equal in 
length to the sepals. The stamens are 1-2 cm. long, the filaments 
2*5-5 mm., the anthers 8-18 mm.; the connective is generally just 
prolonged above the anther-cells ; the stigmas from 5 to 10 mm. long. 

We have specimens collected in Canada by Masson (1799-1802) 
with sepals and petals 4 cm. long, and from several of the North- 
eastern United States (Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois). 

The specimen which Bauhin had from Burser, purporting to 
come from Brazil, may belong to this form ; it is described as having 
leaves 4 in. broad and 5 in. long, "ex rotunditate acuminata," 
sepals 3 in. long, petals white, 2 in. long by 1 in. broad. 

(3) Var. viridifiorum Hook. Bot. Mag. 3250, nearly allied to 
(2), but characterized by its rather broadly ovate greenish petals. 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM 329 

I have received a cultivated specimen from Mr. G. F. Wilson, 
of Weybridge, queried " 3\ canadense,'' which, 1 think, represents 
this variety; it has filaments five-sevenths to five-eighths the length 
of the anthers, while the figure in the Bot. Mag. represents the 
filaments about half the length of the anthers. 

7. T. Vaseyi Harbison in Biltmore Bot. Studies, i. 24 (1901). 
I had separated as a very distinct form plants collected by Rugel in 
the Smoky Mountains, Tennessee, which are evidently identical 
with the plants recently described under the above name, "from 
the high mountains of the Southern Alleghanies." They have a 
robust stem, ovately-rhomboid leaves, large ovate purple petals, 
and long slender anthers much exceeding the very short recurved 
stigmas. 

'^^^%. T. cAMTSCHATicuM Pallas in herb. ; Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. 
246 (1814). T. ohovatum Pursh, I.e. 245, as regards the specimens 
of Pallas. 
1/ We have several sheets of this plant in Pallas's herbarium in 

the National Collection ; a stout horizontal rhizome bears the stiff 
straw-like remains of numerous withered peduncles surrounded by 
the deeper brown scarious sheaths. The functional peduncles are 
glabrous, 23-35 cm. long, and barely reach 4 mm. in diameter. 

Leaves rhombeo-rotundate, often with somewhat flattened base, 
apex subacuminate (5-10 cm. long and nearly or quite as broad, 
sometimes slightly broader than long) ; pedicel 1*5-6 cm. long, 
erect or curving above. Sepals oblong-elliptical to oblong-ovate, 
2-3-5 cm. long ; petals longer than the sepals, elliptical to ovate 
or subobovate, blunt, pale-coloured, 2-5-nearly 4 cm. by 1 •3-2-2 cm. ; 
stamens 12-17 mm. ; anthers three or more times as long as the 
filament, not very much exceeding the short stigmas (3-5 mm.) ; 
ovary pyramidal. 

I have also seen the following specimens : — 

Kam^chatka. Cook's third voyage; ad portum St. Petri & Pauli, 
Liitk. ; Wright ; Adoltz. 

Korea. Bushell in Herb. Hance, no. 918. 

Amur. Maximowicz. Sachalin, Glehn. 

Japan. Hakodate, Maximowicz. 

We have no Canadian specimens of this form ; compared with 
our American specimens it comes nearest T. Vaseyi Harbison, but 
the latter is distinguished by its relatively longer stamens and 
shorter stigmas. 

9. T. TscHONOSKii Maxim, in Melang. Biolog. xi. 863 (1883). 

Generally robust plants with leaves ovately rhombic to rotund 
^ rhombic and shortly acuminate, generally large in proportion to 
the small flowers ; sepals and petals subequal ; stamens short, 
filament and anther subequal, anthers about on a level with the 
very short thick recurving stigmas. Berry succulent, globose, 
filled with subreniform reddish brown seeds. 

Stem variable in length and thickness, 13-40 cm. by 3-8 mm. 
maximum thickness ; leaves sessile to subsessile, 7-16 cm. long 
by 5-3-15 cm. broad ; pedicel erect in flower and fruit, barely 



330 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

l-3*5 cm. long. Sepals lanceolate to narrowly ovate, subacute to 
acute, l-2-2'6 cm. long by 6-8 mm. broad; petals lanceolate to 
rotund-ovate or -obovate, blunt, slightly shorter, subequal to, or 
slightly longer than the sepals, white or purple, sometimes more 
or less reduced in size or absent (T. Smallii Maxim.). Stamens 
half or less than half the length of the petals (6-10 mm. long), 
connective often shortly produced above the anther- cells ; stigmas 
2 mm. long ; ovary pyramidal, longitudinally winged. Berry -8-2 cm. 
in diameter ; seeds 2 mm. long. 

This approaches nearest to form (1) of T. erectum, which 
resembles it in the small flowers, approach to equality between 
filament and anther, short stigma, and relative length of stamens 
and stigmas. The Asiatic specimens are generally much more 
robust, with larger generally relatively broader leaves, and are 
characterized by subequality between the petals and sepals and 
the filaments and anthers. The petals are also more delicate in 
texture. 

T. Smallii Maxim. (/. c. p. 862) seems to be a form having a 
varying and unequal amount of reduction in the size of the petals, 
which may even be altogether absent. 

I have seen the following specimens : — 

Himalaya. Sikkim, 10,000 ft. {Gamble, no. 643, and Pantling 
in herb. Clarke, no. 46652) ; Bhotan {Grijfith, no. 5601). 

China. Hupeh {Henry, no. 6067 & 6067 B) ; West Szechuen 
and Tibetan frontier {Pratt, no. 840) ; Szechwan, Mt. Omei, 8000 ft. 
{Faber, no. 980). 

Japan. Hakodate {Maximou-icz) ; Nippon, Nikko {Tschonoski, 
Bisset); Nagasaki (3/rt.i'i///c»u-/c5) ; Hakone (Z>/ss<'^) ; Chinsenji (Z>/s- 
set); Miogisan {Bisset); Fujisan {Bisset); Central Mts., 2-7000 ft. 
(Maries). 

10. T. GRANDiFLORUM Salisb. Parad. t. 1 (1805); Watson in Proc. 
Amer. Acad. xiv. 274 (1879). 

T. rhomhoideum var. grandijiorum Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer. i. 216 
(1803). 

We have no specimen from Salisbury, but among his drawings, 
where also fragments of plants from which the sketches were made 
are sometimes found, I find the originals of the dissections for the 
plate in the Paradisus. There is evidence that the dissections on 
the plates were generally copied from Salisbury's drawings, though 
no intimation of this is given in the work. The plate is such an 
excellent representation of the species, that there is no question as 
to identity. 

Specimens show considerable variation in size of leaves and 
flowers, length of pedicel, &c. The large petals are generally 
obovate or oblauceolate, sometimes tending to broadly elliptical; 
they are blunt, and longer than the sepals. The narrow filaments 
are rather shorter than the linear anthers (from five-eighths to six- 
sevenths of their length), and the anthers exceed the slender erect 
or somewhat spreading stigmas, the latter, generally between 4 mm. 
and 6 mm. long, but sometimes reaching 1 cm., are occasionally 
coherent for a very short distance at the base. I find, as Salisbury 



NOTES ON TRILLIUM 331 

states, that the ovary is obviously unilocular, the three placentas 
being sessile on the ovary-wall, and not, as usual in the genus, 
projecting more or less nearly to the centre of the chamber. The 
artist in the ParacUsiis has not drawn the placentas, though they 
are indicated in Salisbury's original sketch. 

Mr. T. Smith, of Newry, who has kindly sent me living speci- 
mens of nearly all the cultivated species, tells me that " there are 
two forms of T. fjrandijJorum, one which grows in bogs and one on 
dry soil," and says that " we generally have to lose them in order 
to find out which is which." I have not had the opportunity of 
comparing these two forms. 

A specimen in Herb- Kew. from Goat Island, Nicaragua, has 
leaves with a stalk 1 cm. long ; and there is also a monstrous form 
from Syracuse, New York (from herb. Gray), with leaf-stalks as 
much as 3 cm. long. 

11. T. ovATUM Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 245 (1814) ; Watson, /. c. 
T. calif oniiciim Kellog in Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. (1863), 50, fig. 2. 
T. grandiflorum Hook. Flor. Bor. Am. ii. 180, in part, i.e. as 

regards the Columbia locality. 

T. obovatum Hook. /. c. non Pursh. 

The western representative of T. (jrandiflorum, from which it is 
distinguished by its generally narrower and lanceolate petals. The 
flowers are on an average smaller, but considerable variations in 
size occur. Watson says (Proc. Amer. Acad. xiv. 274), "stigmas 
somewhat stouter and more recurved," but in my limited experience 
I do not find this a general character. 

It is often difficult to distinguish T. ovatumivomT. fjraudifiorum 
in the herbarium. Mr. Smith, however, says that in the garden 
this difiiculty does not exist, as T. ovatum " opens its flowers first, 
and immediately after emerging from the ground, and before the 
leaves have developed, the stem afterwards lengthening until the 
flower dies ofl' purple, while T. grandijiomm grows to its full height 
before the flower shows at all." 

Note.— In Erythea, vii. 104 (1899), Mr. C. V. Piper describes a 
new western species, T. cmssifoliinu, allied to T. ovatum, but 
differing " in its erect rhizomes, shorter petals, and thickish 
differently shaped leaves." The petals are 2-2-5 cm. long, white 
or pinkish in colour, broadly to rather narrowly lanceolate, acumi- 
nate or acute, and scarcely as long as the narrowly or broadly 
lanceolate acute sepals. The locality is "on damp hillsides, foot- 
hills near Wenatchee." 

12. T. Rugelii, sp. nov. Herba robusta glabra, foliis late 
rhomboideis subsessilibus breviter acuminatis ; flore pedunculate 
e foliorum medio cernuo ; sepalis patentibus lanceolatis obtusis ; 
petalis patentibus rotunde-ovatis, sepalis sub^quilongis ; antheris 
linearibus quam filamenta plus triplo longioribus, et stigmata crassa 
brevia et recurvata valde excedentibus, ovario sph^rico sex-sulcato. 

A fine plant springing from an apparently horizontal root- 
stock. Stem pale brown, very wrinkled and somewhat straw-like 
when dry, 40 cm. long by 5-6 mm. thick above the base, becoming 
much slenderer in the upper third. Leaves 12-13 cm. long and 



332 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

as broad, the three main veins well-marked on the under face. 
Peduncle 4-6 cm. long. Sepals 18-22 mm. long by 8-10 mm. 
broad ; petals about as long as the sepals, but twice as broad, 
colourless in the dried specimen ; filaments 2-5 mm. ; anthers 
8 mm. long, deep purple ; ovary and stigmas deep purple, the 
former 5 mm. long, the latter 4 mm. 

A distinct-looking plant, near T. cernuum and T. erectum. It is 
distinguished from the former by its large broadly rhomboid leaves, 
proportionately small flowers with almost rounded petals, and 
anthers exceeding the short recurved stigmas ; and from the 
latter, to which it is perhaps more nearly allied, from the shape of 
its leaves and characters of stamens and pistil, it differs in its 
nodding flowers and subrotund petals. 

Hab. On the mountains at Broad River, North Carolina ; 
Piitgel, March, 1841. Specimens in Herb. Mus. Brit. 

13. T. CERNUUM L. Sp. PI. 339 (1753). Trillium flore pedun- 
culate cernuo. With the following citations : — 

Paris foliis ternis, fiore pedunculato nutante. Cold, noveh. 81. 

Solanum triphyllum, flore hexapetalo carneo. Catesh. carol, 
i. p. 45. 

Habitat in Carolina. 

The plant in Linnreus's herbarium was received from Kalm. 
It has very shortly-stalked rhombic-ovate shortly acuminate leaves 
8-8*5 cm. long by 6-6-5 cm. broad, and a strongly recurved flower 
with lanceolate acute sepals barely 2 cm. long by -6 cm. broad, 
colourless petals slightly longer and about as broad, and stamens 
with linear oblong anthers shorter than the three distinct thick 
spreading stigmas. 

We have in the Department of Botany a very similar specimen 
received from Chelsea Garden in 1758, and also several plants in 
herb. Miller closely agreeing with the Linnean specimen. The 
latter are authentic for the Dictionary of Gardening, where (ed. viii. 
1768) Miller says his plants of T. cernuum were sent him from 
Philadelphia by Dr. Bensel, who found it growing in plenty there. 
He also says the petals are whitish green on the outside and purple 
within ; no trace of colour is left in the petals of the specimen, but 
the anthers are still reddish. We have also a specimen from John 
Bartram, and numerous other specimens from Canada and the 
North Atlantic States. 

Pursh's idea of T. cernuum was similar, judging from plants 
from his herbarium which I saw in Herb. Kew. 

As regards the two citations which Linuaeus adds to his brief 
diagnosis, the first refers to the list of plants observed in the 
province of New York in 1742 by Cadwallader Colden, described 
by himself and sent to Gronovius and by him to Linnaeus, who 
obtained the author