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Bibliotheque botanique 

EMILE BURNAT 



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Provicnl Jc 



LiM-cs proNfiuinl iU' hi l»ilili()lli<''<|u«' li<>l;iiii(|iic 
(rEmile Burnatt l8-28-l*)-20:), iiisrivs en oclohiv l'.)-2U 

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THE 



JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



KDITKU BY 



JAMES BRITTEN, K.S.G., F.L.S 

L\TR Senior Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum. 



tWRART 

pew YORK 

UOTANiCAL 

UAKOBM 



VOL. LII 



WITH PLATES AND TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON 

WEST, NEWMAN .fe CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

19 14. 






LONUON : 

PKINTED BY WEST, NEWMAN AND CO. 

HATTON GARDEN, E.C. 



CONTEIBUTORS 



TO THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



E. G. Baker, F.L.S. 
J. G. Baker, F.L.S. 
W. Barclay. 

E. J. Bedford. 
Arthur Bennett, A.L.S. 
Spencer H. Bickham, F.L.S. 
V. H. Blackman, F.R.S. 
Sidney F. Blake, A.M. 

G. S. BOULGER, F.L.S. 
James Britten, F.L.S. 
W. H. BURRELL, F.L.S. 

F. Cavers, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S. 
Miller Christy, F.L.S. 
J. E. Cooper. 

A. D. Cotton, F.L.S. 

H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

R. A. DUMMER. 

J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. 

W. Fawcett, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Antony Gepp, M.A., F.L.S. 

Col. M. J. GODFBRY. 

G. GooDE, M.A. 

F. J. Hanbury, F.L.S. 
J. W. Hartley. 

W. P. HiERN, M.A., F.R.S. 
E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

A. Bruce Jackson. 

B. Daydon Jackson, Ph.D., 
Sec. L.S. 

C. E. Larter, F.L.S. 

G. Lister, F.L.S. 

A. S. Marsh, B.A. 

B. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 
Arthur Mayfield. 



J. Cosmo Melvill, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

A. H. Moore. 

Spencer le M. Moore, F.L.S. 

C. E. Moss, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Seiitchi Narita. 

W. E. Nicholson. 

R. Paulson, F.L.S. 

S. R. Price. 

H. W. PUGSLEY, B.A. 

J. Ramsbottom, B.A., F.L.S. 
J. K. Ramsbottom. 
Clement Reid, F.R.S. 

E. M. Reid, D.Sc, F.L.S. 
A. B. Rendle, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
H. J. Riddelsdell, M.A. 

H. N. Ridley, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
W. D. Roebuck, F.L.S. 
W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 
C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. 
A. LoRRAiN Smith, F.L.S. 

F. Stratton, F.L.S. 

E. N. Thomas, D.Sc. 
H. H. Thomas. 

H. S. Thompson, F.L.S. 

W. G. Travis. 

T. Wainwright. 

H. F. Wernham, D.Sc. F.L.S. 

G. S. West, D.Sc, F.L.S. 
J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S. 

J. W. White, F.L.S. 

F. N. Williams, F.L.S. 
W. Wilson. 

F. G. Wiltshear. 

E. A.Woodruffe-Peacock,F.L.S. 

Major A. H. Wolley-Dod. 



Directions to Binder. 



Tab. 529 






to face page 1 


„ 530 






89 


„ 531 






113 


„ 532 






193 


„ 533 






225 


„ 534 






257 


Portrait 


OF 


William West. 


161 



The Supplement (' A Flora of Gibraltar and the Neighbourhood 
should be placed separately at the end of the volume. 



Journ.Bob. 



Tab. 529. 




P. Higl-ley del.et Jith . West.Newman imp . 

Tal'botiella eketensis Bak.fil. 



I 

IN. 

C3 



LIKRAKY 
PEW YORK. 
BOTANICAL 
THE QAltOBN 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 

COLLECTED BY Mr. AND MrS. P. AmAURY TaLBOT. 

(Plate 529.) 

Mr. and Mrs. P. Amaury Talbot have been continuing tlieir 
work of botanical exploration in Southern Nigeria. For the last 
twelve months Mr. Talbot has been stationed in the Eket District, 
a broad strip of land bordering the Gulf of Guinea, stretching 
westward from Calabar and the Cross River. Mr. Talbot de- 
scribes the land bordering the shore of the Gulf as one vast 
littoral, crossed and recrossed by a network of waterways, so that 
it is possible to pass by canoe from French Dahomey on the one 
side to the German Cameroons on the other without once sighting 
the sea. The country is drained by the inner stretches of the 
Cross River and the Kwa Ibo. It consists of mangrove marsh 
lining the banks of creek and stream, and of fertile palm swamp 
with coco-nut, piassava, and oil-palms, while toward the sea- 
shore dwarf dates fringe the low-lying lands. 

Unfortunately, owing to the unsettled nature of the country, 
botanical exploration has been carried on with some difficulty, but 
notwithstanding this, a large collection has been sent to the 
National Herbarium, where it is in course of determination. Many 
cvj specimens are identical with those previously sent by the Talbots 
from the high-lying Oban District, but the collection contains a 
good proportion of West African species not yet recorded from 
Nigeria, though generally previously known from the Cameroons. 
An interesting feature is the presence of species hitherto known 
only from material collected by Gustav Mann at Calabar. There 
are also a good number of novelties, and it is proposed to publish 
descriptions of these, and notes on other species of interest, in the 
pages of this Journal. The present instalment includes a new 
genus of Leguminosae and a number of new species, especially of 
the families Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae. Mrs. Talbot has paid 
special attention to the Napoleonas, and the collection will supply 
a substantial addition to the number of species hitherto known 
from West Tropical Africa. The notes as to habit, &g., have been 
kindly supplied by Mrs. Talbot. A TJ "R 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [January, 1914.] b 



2 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

POLYPETALiE. By E. G. Baker, F.L.S. 

Anonace^. 

Isolona campanulata Engler & Diels, No. 3261. — An interesting 
Cameroons species, not previously collected in South Nigeria. 
Sepals bright green petals, centre blackish purple. Eket-Ibeno 
Eoacl. 

Bixine^. 

Oncoba Mannii Oliver. — This seems to be rather common in 
Southern Nigeria and also at Bipinde in the Cameroons. Zenker, 
Nos. 1637-2860-2333 distributed as 0. aristata Oliver, belong 
here. 

Legubiinos^. 

Talbotiella, Baker fil., nov. gen. 

Beceptaculum breviter infundibuliforme. Sepala 4, suborbicu- 
laria, aestivatione late imbricata, inter se fere aequalia. Petala 0. 
Stamina 8-10 inter se parum inaequalia, filamentis filiformibus 
inter se liberis, antheris versatilibus, longitudinaliter dehiscenti- 
bus. Ovarium stipitatum, villosum, 2-ovulatum, stipite recepta- 
culo adnata, stylo terminali elongato, sursum glabro, stigmate 
parvo, capitellato. Legumen ignotum. 

Frutex foliis paripinnatis foliolis multis oppositis. Bacemi 
axillares, laxe pluri vel multiflori. Bracteolcs 2, submembranaceae, 
lineari-oblongge, baud involucrem formantes, apicem versus pedi- 
cellorum positas. Squam(B ad basin pedunculorum scariosae, 
brunnescentes, imbricatse, cymbiformes, dorso nitidae. 

T. eketensis, sp. nov. (PI. 529). — Bamuli lignosi cortice 
nigrescente obtecti ; stiimlis angustis ; foliis multifoliolatis, /oZioZw 
oppositis 12-16 jugis oblongis sessilibus, obliquis (margine postico 
basi in triangulum acutum brevissimum protracto) apice rotun- 
datis, superne glabris, subtus breviter pubescentibus, costa sub- 
centrali, rhachide tenui superne canaliculata ; florihus in racemes 
pluri vel multiflores et laxos dispositis, pcdicellis gracilibus 
pubescentibus, bracteoUs lineari-oblongis, sepalis ad basin fissis 
membranaceis concavis : receptaculo extus pilis sparsis obtecto ; 
fetalis nullis ; staminibtis 8-10 filamentis filiformibus calyce 
longioribus ; ovario stipitato villoso, stylo tenui, stigmate parvo ; 
fructu ignoto. 

Ibeno, at estuary of Kwa Ibo Eiver, No. 3188. Bush 1-6 metres. 
Leaves 5-8 cm. long, leaflets 7-13 mm. long, 3-4-5 mm. broad. 
Bracteoles + 8 mm. long. Calyx 4-5 mm. long. Keceptacle 
+ 2 mm. long. Ovary 2-5 mm. long. 

This genus belongs to the tribe Cynometreae of the Cffisalpineae, 
and is allied to Cynometra, especially to such species as C. Hankei 
Harms. 

The genus Cynometra, as defined in Bentham & Hooker's Gen. 
Plant., consists of trees or shrubs, with paripinnate leaves in one 
or few pairs, five petals, and an arcuate-ovoid or subreniform, 
rarely straight, thick, turgid, rarely subcompressed pod. It there- 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 6 

fore seems undesirable to place in Cynometra plants possessing 
the structure of Talhotiella. 

T. eketensis is very closely allied to the plant described by 
Dr. Harms (in Engl. Jahrb. xxvi. 267) as CryptosepaUtm ? Staudtii. 
Unfortunately good flowers were not present when his species was 
described, and the number of the stamens is doubtfully considered 
to be 2-3. Talhotiella is quite different in structure from Crypto- 
sepaluvi ; in this latter genus the calyx, as the name implies, is 
minute, there is one posterior petal, three stamens, and the ovary 
is 2-4-ovulate. 

Mrs. Talbot's notes are as follows : — Bushes growing in pro- 
fusion in rather loose drift sand. Highest growth 4-6 metres. 
Dwarfy shrubs flower at 1 metre. New leaves very pale green 
shaded mauvy pink, older leaves dark glossy green. Flowers all 
white ; stamens and anthers brightest orange ; petiole white at 
top, palest green below. Bracts bright pink. 

EOSACE^. 

Strepho7iema Mannii Hook, fil. Agrees with Mann, No. 2293 
in Hb. Kew, from Old Calabar and Gaboon rivers. 

The position of the genus Strephonema is a matter of some 
uncertainty. Bentham & Hooker in their Genera Plantarum place 
it in Lythracese, from which Koehne •= excludes it in his Mono- 
graph of the order. Baillon has suggested that it is an abnormal 
Eosaceous plant. The ovary is partly adherent to the tube of the 
calyx, and there are two pendulous collateral ovules. Mr. Spencer 
Moore and I, who have both dissected flowers independently, 
came to the same conclusion, and incline to agree with Baillon's 
suggestion, and consider that the structure indicates considerable 
affinity with such genera as Pygeum in the Pruneae tribe of 
Eosacege. 

Ehizophorbje. 

Cassipourea eketensis Baker fil., sp. nov. Bamuli graciles 
teretes glabri ; foliis inter minores generis oppositis ovatis basi 
cuneatis breviter petiolatis subcoriaceis glabris apice acuminatis 
apice ipso obtusis nervis lateralibus utrinque 5-7 ante marginem 
arcuatis inter sese conjungentibus costa subtus prominente ; 
stipulis caducis ; florihus axillaribus glomeratis ; pedicellis calyce 
brevioribus ; calyce campanulato usque ad medium 5-lobato lobis 
triangularibus acutis erectis valvatis ; petalis unguiculatis apice 
fimbriato-laceratis ; staminibus calyce duplo longioribus antheris 
subglobosis; s^?//o tereti stigmate dilatato; ovario triloculari ovulis 
in loculis 2 axi collateraliter affixis. 

Sine numero. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, the actual apex being obtuse, 5'6cm. 
long, 16-27 mm. broad, petiole 1-2 mm. long. Calyx + 5 mm. 
long. Petals fimbriate-lacerate, + 9 mm. long. Stamens nearly 
twice as long as the calyx. Disc cupuliform. Ovary trilocular, 
hairy. 

* See also Sitzungsbericht Bot. Verein. Prov. Brand, xxii. 66. 

B 2 



4 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Allied to Weihea Afzelii Oliver, but this plant has smaller 
leaves and more numerous flowers. 

No. 3234 is closely allied but the leaves are longer. 

Passiflore^. 

Soyauxia Talbotii Baker fil., sp. nov. Frutex 5-6 metr. 
(Mrs. Talbot). Bamuli sursum parce strigoso-pilosi deorsum fere 
glabri ; stipulis mox deciduis ; foliis subcoriaceis petiolo brevi 
instructis oblongis basi acutis apice acuminatis nervis lateralibus 
circ. 12-13 patentibus inter sese per venas tenues laxe reticulatas 
conjunctis; inflorescentiis axillaribv;s laxiuscule racemosis rhachide 
fulvo-tomentosa ; florih^is breviter pedicellatis ; bractcis parvis ; 
calycis segmentis ovatis extus ferrugineo-tomentosis ; ijetalis ob- 
ovatis obtusis sepala sequantibus ; filamentis filiformibus petalis 
longioribus ; disco tubiformi brevi ; ovario piloso ; stylis filiformi- 
bus subulatis sepala superantibus. 

Ikotobo Eoad. No. 3254. 

Leaves 14-16"5 cm. long, 45-48 mm. broad, lateral nerves 
10-20 mm. apart. Petiole + 3 mm. long. Eacemes 6-0-10'Ocm. 
long. Pedicels + 1 mm. long. Sepals 3-5-4-0 mm. long. Styles 
+ 7 mm. long. 

Very closely allied to S. hipindensis Gilg., but the flowers are 
slightly larger and the lateral nerves of the leaves are more distant. 

Flower white, with dark very small anthers. 

GAMOPETALtE. By Spencer Moore & H. F. Wernham. 

KUBIACE^. 

Urophyllmn eketense Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex erectus, 
ramulis novellis valde compressis viridibus, tardius glabrescentibus 
subteretibus cortice laivi brunneo ; foliis magis pergamaceis ob- 
ovato-oblongis vix acuminatis, utrinque nisi subtus in venis obscure 
puberulis glabris supra nitentibus, venis conspicuis supra impressis 
subtus prominentibus, basin versus in petiolum minute puberulum 
breviusculum leniter angustatis, stipiilis ovatis majusculis viridis- 
simis appresse puberulis ; florihus in cymis axillaribus nee quasi- 
terminalibus paniculatis minute puberulis multifloris laxiusculis 
pedunculatis, bracteis linearibus subfiliformibus; calyce subintegro; 
bacca pisiformi glaberrimo, 4-loculari. 

Oron-Eket main road. No. 3327. 

The leaves average from 18 cm. x 6 cm. to over 21 cm. x 8 cm. ; 
with stalk from 2-3 cm. long ; lateral nerves, about 20 on each 
side of the midrib. Stijndes, 1'5 cm. x 8 mm. Fruiting p)eduncles, 
2-2-5 cm. long. 

This species has evident affinities with the Central African 
U. viridiflorum Schweinf., but it is distinct in the shape of 
its leaves and their longer stalks, and in the wholly axillary 
inflorescence. 

Tarenna eketensis Wernham, sp. nov. Arbor ca. 30-pedalis, 
ramulis divaricatis, novellis strigillosis ; foliis chartaceis ellipticis 



. PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRfCT, S. NIGERIA 5 

utrinque angustatis breviter acuminatis obtusis, venis secundariis 
subtus prominentibus appresse sericeo-pubescentibus, reticulo 
tertiario conspicuo plus minus impresso, petiolo brevi tamen 
manifesto, stipulis ovato-triangularibus glaberrimis apice rotun- 
datis ; infloresccntia laxiuscula, raraulis qua pedicelli et ovaria 
densiuscule appresse pubescentibus demum glabrescentibus, 
bracteis foliaribus vel parvis ; calycis dentibus brevibus acutis ; 
coroUcB tubo extus strigilloso, lobis glabris oblongis obtusis tubi 
dimidium excedentibus. 

Main road from Oron to Eket, mostly in farm-clearings. 
No. 3024. 

Near T. nitidula Hiern, differing especially in the thicker 
leaves with their distinctive venation, the obtuse stipules, the 
pubescent corolla, &c. The leaves attain about 12 cm. x 5 cm., 
with stalk barely 8 mm. long ; there are 6-7 secondary nerves on 
either side of the midrib. Stipules, about 7 mm. x 4 mm. at 
most. Primary lateral peduncles, 3-4-5 cm. long ; thyrsus about 
4 cm. long and 6 cm. across. Pedicels, 4-5 mm. long. Corolla- 
tube 4-5 mm., lobes 3 mm. Anthers 4 mm. long ; style exserted 
over 5 mm. 

The ultimate inflorescence-branches, pedicels, ovaries, and 
calyces are densely clothed with a minute but conspicuous golden- 
brown silky pubescence, and the youngest branchlets are more or 
less sparsely strigose, as well as the leaf- veins on the under sur- 
face ; otherwise the plant is glabrous, with shining leaves. 

" Calyx-lobes pinkish ; corolla-lobes greenish-white ; stamens 
cream ; pistil white." 

Gardenia Cunliffeae Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex scan dens 
glaber, in siccitate omnino nigricans, ramulis novellis brevissimis, 
tardius cortice brunneo rugosulo indutis ; foUis glabris obovato- 
oblongis apice rotundato, petiolatis, stipulis parvis ovato-lanceo- 
latis acutis caducis ; florum fragrantissimorum cymis sessilibus 
saepius 3-floris glaberrimis, pedicellis breviusculis, in ovarium et 
calycem limbo dentibus brevibus 5 acutissimis deciduis insensim 
dilatatis ; corolla tubi parte brevi inferiore anguste tubulari dilute 
viride insuper subito late infundibulariter dilatato, lobis candidis 
purpureo-maculatis late oblongis apice rotundato. 

Ubium Eiver. No. 3149. A plant preserved in the Kew 
Herbarium, collected in Lagos by Millen (No. 144), is referable to 
the same species. 

The leaves attain a size of over 13 cm. x 7 cm., with petiole 
over 2 cm. long ; there are 4-5 pairs of secondary veins ; stipules 
8 mm. X 5 mm. Pedicels 5 mm. or longer. Calyx and ovary 
3 mm. Lower, tubular part of corolla projects about 5 mm. 
beyond the calyx ; the upper, funnel-shaped part of corolla-tube 
measures 2-5 cm. in length, and 3-5 cm. wide at the mouth ; 
co?'o//a-lobes 1-7 cm. x 1'4 cm. 

The nearest affinity seems to be G. Annce E. P. Wright, but this 
is readily distinguished by the shape of the leaves alone. 

" Corolla-tube very pale-green externally, dark green inside 
toward the base ; lobes white above, with vivid purple splashes. 



O THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Stamens cream. Stigma yellow, with cream tip. Fruit like a 
small plum, vivid orange" (Mrs. Talbot). 

Named after Mrs. Cunliffe in recognition of her keen and 
practical interest in the Nigerian flora. 

Randia Galtonii Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex ramulis tereti- 
bus viridibus molliter et densiuscule pubescentibus ; foliis mem- 
branaceis 3-natis oblanceolatis basi cuneatis longiuscule saepius 
caudato-acuminatis acutissimis, petiolo brevissimo, utrinque proe- 
cipue subtus et in venis inconspicuis hispidulo-pubescentibus, 
stijJuUs lato a basi in setis 2 productis ; floribns in axillis solitariis 
7-8-meris sessilibus magnis, calycis omnino hispiduli lobis setaceo- 
subulatis elongatis, corollce extus pubescentis tubo gracili desuper 
glabrescente, insuper sub lobos oblongos caudato-acuminatos 
infundibuliformiter ampliato. 

Oron-Eket main road ; fl. Feb. No. 3219. 

A striking species, allied to B. octomera Bth. & Hk. f., from 
which it differs in the more lengthily acuminate and more hairy 
leaves, and the much larger and differently-shaped corolla-lobes. 
The leaves are in whorls of 3 ; those at the ends of the shoots are 
small, and very unequal, two being subequal 9-10 cm. x 2*5-3 cm., 
and the third about 5 cm. x 1'5 cm. The adult leaves are sub- 
equal, 10-15 cm. long (exclusive of the almost setaceous acumen 
often over 2 cm. long) x 4'5 cm. wide above the middle ; secondary 
veins 5-8 pairs ; the petiole is at most barely 5 mm. ; the low^er, 
entire, part of the sti]_mles is 8 mm. wide and 3-4 mm. deep, and 
the two setge above reach 1 cm. in length. Calyx-ixxhe and ovary 
together 2 cm. long, calyx-lobes 3-4-5 cm. Coro?/a-tube— the 
slender tubular part — 14 cm. long, the funnel-shaped upper part 
about 3 cm. deep, and 4-4*5 cm. wide at the mouth ; corolla- 
lobes 7-8 cm. x 1-1*5 cm. Anthers 2 cm. long. Stigma exserted 
2*5 cm. 

The species is named after Major Galton, of Hadzor, Droitwich, 
whose interest in the Nigerian flora has led him to attempt the 
introduction of Nigerian trees and shrubs on his English estate. 

" Calyx very dark green ; corolla-tube bright green, lobes white 
within and divided on the back longitudinally into a bright green 
half and a creamish-white half ; stamens light drab ; style and 
stigma cream " (Mrs. Talbot). 

Randia Cunliffeae Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex humilis ample 
patulus, ramulis hispidulo-pubescentibus ; foliis glauco-griseis 
(Mrs. Talbot) tenuiter chartaceis 3-natis ellipticis v. oblanceolatis 
breviter nee caudate acuminatis acutis, brevissime petiolatis, utrin- 
que hispidulis, stipiilis a basi latiusculo triangulari 2-3-setaceo- 
acuminatis ; florihus in axillis solitariis 8- vel pleio-meris sessilibus 
magnis ; calycis hispiduli lobis plano-subulatis rigidiusculis vix 
setaceis ; corolla extus sparsiuscule asperulo-pubescentis tubo 
validiusculo, insuper parum ampliato, lobis oblanceolatis breviter 
cuspidato-acurainatis. 

Oron-Eket main road. No. 3385. 

Allied to the preceding species, but readily distinguished by 
the habit, the shape and colouring of the leaves, flat calyx-lobes, 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA ' 

and by the shape of the corolla, with its rather broad tube, but 
little widened above. 

The leaves, including the ultimate ones, are all subequal 
(cf. B. Galtonii), about 12 cm. x 4 cm., petiole not more than 
7-8 mm. Calyx-lohe^ 3-4 cm. long, and as much as 2-3 mm. 
broad. Co?*o//a-tube over 14 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide at the 
middle when dry, and less than 2 cm. wide at the mouth ; lobes 
3"5 cm. X 9 mm. 

Canthium viridissimum Wernham, sp. nov. Kamis sub- 
teretibus senioribus cortice ssepius fusco-brunneo conspicue lenti- 
cellato indutis, novellis brevibus glabris flavis complanatis ; foliis 
membranaceis glaberrimis in siccitate viridissimis ellipticis utrin- 
que breviter acurainatis, petiolo brevi, stipulis acutis minutiusculis; 
inflorescentia sessili, in juventute compacta tandem latiuscula 
foliis tamen multo breviore, floribus glabris pro genere medio- 
cribus, alabastro obtuso pedicellis viridis gracilibus fiores multo 
excedentibus ; calyce infundibulari subintegro ; corolla tubo sub- 
globose inflato. 

Oron-Eket road, near Ikotobo. No. 3121, and other un- 
numbered specimens. 

Eeadily distinguished by the very thin leaves, 8-9 cm. x 
8-5-4 cm., and the short, light yellow young shoots. The straight 
flowering-branches bear flower-clusters not exceeding 3-4 cm. in 
diameter at each node. Floral pedicels 7 mm. long. The calyx 
is 2 mm. deep, and the corolla-tube is exserted 3 mm. beyond it, 
being 4 mm. wide , corolla-lobes 3 mm. long. 

" Calyx-lobes bright green ; corolla-lobes bright green, white 
toward the centre of the flower. Anthers orange-brown. Stigma 
bright orange with dark green centre-spot" (Mrs. Talbot). 

Cuviera calycosa Wernham, sp. nov. Arbor 90-pedalis, 
glabra, in siccitate nigricans, ramulis tenuibus mox cortice cinereo 
indutis ; foliis pergamaceis ellipticis v. oblongis pro genere parvulis, 
breviter et anguste acuminatis, obtusis, basi acutis, glabris, petiolo 
breviusculo, stijndis parvis lanceolatis acuminatis nisi basi lato 
caducis ; cymis paucifloris dichotomis laxiusculis, bracteis oblongo- 
lanceolatis obtusis ; calyce magno lobis inaequalibus ovato- 
lanceolatis acuminatis acutissimis, corollam multo excedente ; 
corollce tubo late infundibulari-cylindraceo breviusculo, lobis 5 
longe setaceo-acuminatis, pilis bine inde paucis longiusculis 
conspersis ; bacca glaberrima calycis a limbo persistente coronata. 

Near Esuk Ekkpo Abassi. Fl. & Fr. May. No. 3300. 

A remarkable species, the nearest afdnity being clearly C. 
nigrescens Wernham ; the present species is distinct, especially 
in the very large calyx and small corolla. The leaves measure 
10-11 cm, X 4-4-5 cm., with petiole about 1 cm. long ; secondary 
nerves 5-6 pairs ; stijjules 6-8 cm. long. Peduncle 3 cm. ; cyme 
11-12 cm. wide, 5-6 cm. long. Pedicel 5 mm. ; calyx-tuhe 
minute, lobes 3-3-5 cm. x 4-7 mm. Corolla-tuhe barely 5 mm. 
long, and nearly as much in average breadth ; lobes, flat part 
4-5 mm., setae over twice that length. Berry 1-4 cm. x 1-1 cm. 

" Youngest flowers white, older ones cream, oldest thin orange. 



8 THE JOURlNAL OF BOTANY 

Centre of flower greenish. Calyx-lobes bright green, with margin 
and sette white. Seta) of corolla-lobes white ; anthers dark-purplish 
brown ; style white, stigma pale green " (Mrs. Talbot). 

Coffea eketensis Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex ramosissima, 
ramis divaricatis decussatis novellis minute puberulis ; foliis 
chartaceis ellipticis, utrinque angustatis, brevissime petiolatis, 
apice subacutis, utrinque ipsis in venis glaberrimis, venis secun- 
dariis paucis distantibus, petiolo puberulo, siipiUis a basi lato 
brevissimo setaceo-apiculatis ; florihus in axillis soHtariis prse- 
cocibus, bracteis exterioribus epicalycem tubularem dentibus 
lineari-lanceolatis acutissimis acurainatis formantibus, hractcolis 
lanceolatis acuminatis acutissimis valde concaveis ; calycis 
minutiusculi lobis late rotundatis 8 ; corollce tubo gracillimo 
lobis oblanceolatis apice rotundatis. 

Along the rivers, and 2-3 miles from Oron on the Eket road. 
No. 3064. 

Leaves about 5 cm. x 2-5 cm., secondary veins 3-4 pairs ; 
petiole 2 mm. ; stipules, including the setaceous apiculus, about 
4 mm. long. Bracteoles 1 cm. long. Calyx barely 1 nrm. deep. 
Corolla-tuhe 2-2-3 cm. long, lobes 7 mm. x 2 mm. 

Alhed to C. jasviinoides Welw., differing principally in the 
thicker leaves with glabrous and fewer veins, and the less 
precocious flowers with 5-lobed corolla. 

" Flowers white, bracts bright-brown, calyx-lobes bright pale- 
green " (Mrs. Talbot). 

Cephaelis Talbotii Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex giabrescens, 
10-15-pedalis, ramulis complanatis bifariatim ferrugineo-pubes- 
centibus ; /o/ze's magnis ovalibus v. ellipticis basi acutis, breviuscule 
acuminatis apice subacutis, utrinque nisi subtus in venis sparse 
puberulis glabris, venis supra impressis subtus conspicue promin- 
entibus, petiolatis, stipuUs bipartitis ovatis acuminatis basi 
ferrugineo-pubescentibus membranaceis ; capitulorum multorum 
inflorescentia in axillis longepedunculata trichotoma, bracteis pri- 
mariis paucis lanceolatis foliosis, capitulis parvis, involucri bracteis 
ovato-lanceolatis interioribus dentatis v. 2-3-fidis; calycis hmbo 
infundibulari brevissime et insequaliter dentate, dentibus apice 
rubescentibus ; corolla nisi in ore barbate glabrae tubo subglobose 
ampliato sub lobos oblongos patentes apice incurvato coriaceo. 

Oron-Eket main road. No. 3386. 

The leaves measure about 15-25 cm. x 8-11 cm., with stalk 
1-5 cm. long ; secondary nerves about 18 pairs, each half of 
the stipule 2 cm. x 6 mm. Peduncle 8-9 cm. long; bracts 
1-3 cm. X 2-5 mm. Inflorescence — a rather lax cyme of small 
capitula — about 4-5 cm. in diameter, and 3-5 cm. in length, each 
head being 8 mm. in diameter. Ovary and calyx-\\mh together 
barely 1-5 mm. Corolla-iwhe 2 mm., lobes about the same length. 

The nearest allied species is C. cornuta Hiern, which differs, 
however, chiefly in its pubescent corolla with differently shaped 
lobes. 

The collection includes a Rul)iaceous plant in fruit, which 
appears to be a Cephaelis. The inflorescence is a trichotomous 



PLANTS PROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 9 

umbellate cyme of small heads, each of about 1'8 cm. diameter, 
and comprising as many as a dozen small, ellipsoidal, longi- 
tudinally furrowed glabrous berries 5 mm. long and 3'5 mm. 
broad. Each berry is crowned by the persistent, membranous, 
reddish calyx-limb 1-5 mm. high, with short, narrow, sub-setaceous 
teeth. The branches of the inflorescence, like the peduncle 
(7-8 cm.), are densely rufo-pubescent ; the whole inflorescence 
measures over 7 cm. across. The reddish, papery bracts are from 
6-10 mm. long. The single leaf which the specimen bears is 
glabrous (except for the puberulous midrib below), obovate 
narrowed toward the base into a petiole about 1 cm. long, 
and shortly acuminate with subacute apex ; the blade measures 
22 cm. X 10 cm. ; secondary nerves about 20 pairs. 

I have little doubt that this plaut is a fruiting specimen of 
C. cornuia Hiern. The latter species (Fl. Trop. Afr. iii. 224) is 
based on a specimen gathered in Old Calabar by Dr. Robb, and 
preserved in the National Herbarium. This consists of about ten 
loose inflorescences in the flowering stage, with a couple of more 
or less immature leaves. The structure and indumentum of the 
inflorescence, the bracts, and the calyx, are all identical with those 
in Talbot's plant, and the leaves of Robb's specimen may be 
reasonably conceived as representing an earlier stage of the leaf 
in the plant before us. 

(To be concluded.) 



DISTEIBUTION OF UTRICULARIA IN BEITAIN. 

By Arthur Bennett. 

In this account I have added the records for the Watsonian 
counties which have come to my knowledge since the publication 
of the Supplement to Top. Bot. ed. 2 (Journ. Bot. 1905, 
Supplement). 



U. VULGARIS L. 

60. Lane. W. Flora. 
104. Ebudes N. J. Bot. 1910, 

225. 
109. Caithness. Miss Lillie sp. 

U. MINOR L. 

37. Worcestershire. Flora 280. 

76. Renfrew. Ann. Scot. N. 
Hist. 1891, 106 

89. Perth E. Sturrock in 
Perth Herb. (var. jjlaty- 
loba Meister teste Gliick). 

U. MAJOR Schmidel [neglecta 

Lehm.). 
44. Carmarthen. Hamer sp. 
46. Cardigan. Salter, 1906. 



59. Lancaster S. Edinb. herb. ! 

63. YorkS.W. Cardiff herb. ! 

69. Westmorland. Martin- 

dale ! 

79. Selkirk. Marshall sp. 

89. Perth E. Sturrock sp. 

92. Aberdeen S. Trail sp. 

96. Easterness. Ann. Scot. 
N. Hist. 1911, 171. 
102. Ebudes S. McNeill sp. 

109. Caithness. Lillie sp. 

110. Hebrides. Shoolbred sp. 

U. INTERMEDIA Hayne. 
11. Hants S. Borrer in herb. 

Edinb. ! 
89. Perth E. Four localities, 
teste Dr. Gliick, 



10 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



90. Forfar. "Eescobie." Dr. 

Gliick in litt. 

91. Kincardine, 1848. Edinb. 

herb. ! as minor. 

Mr. Druce gives 96, 100, 105, in 
Ex. Club Eeport for 1910, 
514. 

The following counties are re- 
ported for U. intermedia, but 
need verification : — 

25. Suffolk E. Winch add. 

59. Lancaster S. Winch add. 

67. Northumberland. Thom- 
son, herb. Watson. 

70. Cumberland. Winch Con- 
trib. 

81. Berwick. Border Flora. 

85. Fife. Ann. Scot. N. Hist. 
1901, 103. 

92. Aberdeen S. N. Flora. 

93. Aberdeen N. Trail. 
95. Elgin. Druce. 

107. Suth. E. Graham Excur. 
Somerset ? Devon ? 



U. OCHROLEUCA Hartm. 
9. Dorset. Linton sp. 
11. Hants S. Mennell herb.! 
62. York N. E. Martindale. 
69. Westmorland. Fox sp. 

72. Dumfries. Corrie sp. 

73. Kirkcudbright. Coles sp. 

74. Wigton. McAndrew sp. 

87. Perth W. Perth herb. ! 

88. Perth M. Ewing sp. 

(3200 ft.). 

89. Perth E. Druce. 

90. Forfar. Edinb. herb. ! 

91. Kincardine. Edinb. herb. ! 

96. Easterness. Dixon sp. 

97. Westerness. Macvicar sp. 

98. Argyll. Marshall sp. 

99. Dumbarton. Watt sp. 

101. Cantire. Ewing sp. 

102. Ebudes S. Somerville sp. 

103. Ebudes M. Macvicar sp. 

104. Ebudes N. Ewing sp. 

105. Eoss W. Salmon herb. ! 

106. Eoss E. Mennell sp. 
108. Suth. W. Miller sp. 
110. Hebrides. Shoolbred sp. 
112. Shetland. Beeby sp. 



U. Bremii Heer. 

At present it is best not to report any county. That of 
N. Lancashire is an error, reported by me in Journ. Bot. 1912, 
316. Dr. Gliick pronounces the specimens only "minor." It 
differs from our Surrey minor considerably, the flower being 
double the size. 

With the exception of the two southern counties, the distri- 
bution of U. ochroleuca, as at present known, is decidedly 
northern in Britain. 



GIBEALTAE PLANTS. 
By Major A. H. Wolley-Dod. 

The following notes and descriptions relate to plants which it 
seems desirable to treat more fully than would be convenient in 
my Flora of Gibraltar now being issued as a Supplement to this 
Journal. I am indebted to Mr. N. E. Brown and Mr. Turrill 
respectively for the descriptions of Euphorbia gihraltarica and 
ByncJiospora alba var. pauciseta, and to Dr. Stapf for assistance in 
that of Alropis iberica. 

Delphinium peregrinum Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 740. Linnaeus 
described the inner petals of this species as subrotund, and the 



GIBRALTAR PLANTS 11 

specimen in his herbarium has them subcordate at the base of the 
limb. Most authors, however, have regarded them as eUiptical 
and more or less narrowed below, and from this, together with 
the synonymy cited, much confusion has arisen. Boissier (Voy. 
Bot. pp. 12-13) recognized that in this species and its allies or 
varieties the lateral petals vary indefinitely in form, and his 
D. peregrin uvi covered species and varieties with them either 
orbicular and subcordate, or elliptical and more or less narrowed 
below. DeCandolle (Fl. Fr. vi. p. 641) appears to have been the 
first to describe a species, D. junceum DC, having elliptical 
lateral petals, his D. cardiopetalum and D. gracile having them 
suborbicular. In addition to the form of the petals, the aggregate 
species varies indefinitely in leaf-cutting and habit, the racemes 
being sometimes dense and compact, and at others elongate and 
lax, while the leaves are firm or flaccid, close-set or distant, so 
that a subdivision into fixed species has not proved satisfactory. 

Perez Lara (Fl. Gad. p. 89) observed that D. longipcs Moris 
(Z). peregrinum var. longipes Boiss.) always has suborbicular 
lateral petals, and proposed the following arrangement : — 

D. peregrinum Linn, a genuinum (D. peregrinmn Boiss.). 
Lateral petals elliptical, attenuate at base, the racemes either 
short or elongate [D. junceum DC). 

(i cardiopetalum (Z). cardiopetalum DC). Lateral petals sub- 
orbicular, truncate at base. 

Sub var. longipes {D, longipes Moris). Lateral petals orbicular, 
subcordate. 

Subvar. gracile [D. gracile DC). Lateral petals ovate, cordate. 
This arrangement has the defect of restricting typical D. ijcre- 
grinum Linn, to a form with elliptical narrowed lateral petals, 
which its author did not intend, also of making no substantial 
difference between subvarieties longipes and gracile, which seem 
to me identical. 

A better arrangement, which I am following in my Flora of 
Gibraltar, is that of Boissier (I. c), though the definition of his 
aggregate species and in part the synonymy are my own, viz. : — 
D. peregrinum Linn. Lateral petals suborbicular, truncate or 
subcordate at base, or elliptical and more or less narrowed below. 
Var. confertum Boiss. (Z). cardiopetakmi DC, D. halteratum 
Sibth. & Sm.). Racemes dense. 

Var. longipes Boiss. (D. longipes Moris, D. junceum DC, D. 
gracile DC). Racemes elongate, lax. 

In the neighbourhood of Gibraltar I have only seen the 
form of var. longip)es with truncate or subcordate lateral petals, 
which is very common in all sandy places, but the following are 
recorded : — 

D. gracile DC Uncultivated sandy places and cornfields at 
Algeciras, Beverchon. 

D. peregrinum Linn. var. confertum Boiss. Near Algeciras, 
Schott. 

Var. longipes Boiss. Catalan Bay and on the Neutral Ground, 
Boiss., Kelaart, Dautes, and on the slopes of San Roque, Boiss. 



12 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Umbilicus citrinus, sp. nov. (^ CotyleI. {U. penduUnus DC. 
var. bracteosus Willk. in Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp. Suppl. 
p. 213.) Herl)a caule circa 0-5 m., foliis raclicalibus peltatis, longe 

petiolatis, caulinis ; racemis secundis, circa 15 dec. longis, 

floribus horizontalibus vel pendulis, pedicellis 2-5-3 mm., bracteis 
hyalinis, pedicellis duplo longioribus, calicis lobis triangulari- 
bus acutis, vix 2 mm. longis, corolla flava, 9-12 mm. longa, 
cylindrica, sub lobis contracta, lobis ovato-lanceolatis, nervo 
valido excurrente notatis, carpellis corollas tubo duplo breviori- 
bus, antherarum basin vix attingentibus, antheris filamentis 
longioribus. 

Differs both from U. korizontalis DC. and U. penduUnus DC. 
in being taller, in its secund racemes of longer bright yellow 
flowers, the corolla-tube constricted below the longer broader 
lobes, and in its much shorter carpels. 

It grows sparingly by the Almoraima Soto (No. 2127), and in 
a neighbouring valley near Long Stables. Eeverchon's No. 571 
from shady woods near Grazalema also belongs here. 

Umbilicus pendulinus DC. var. truncatus, var. nov. Herba 
foliis omnibus basi truncatis vel subcordatis, profundius lobatis, 
petiolis lateralibus. 

The cauline leaves of this species are frequently laterally 
petioled, but in the variety even the lowest radical have that 
peculiarity. 

On roofs of houses in Palmones Village (No. 751). 

Sbdum Winkleei, comb. nov. (S. liirsutum subsp. hceticum 
Kouy. Umbilicus Winkleri Willk.) Specimens sent to Willkomm 
by Winkler, from the S. Carbonera were described by him as 
Umbilicus Winkleri in Act. Soc. Bot. Germ. 1883, p. 268, and 
figured in 111. Fl. Hisp. i. pi. 74 a. Later, in 1887, Eouy, in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. xxxiv. p. 441, described a subspecies bceticum 
of Sedum liirsutum All., based upon specimens sent from the 
S. de Palma by Eeverchon, differing from the type in being larger, 
more glandular, leaves longer, and flowers twice the size. 

I have seen no specimens from either collector, but one 
collected by Porta and Rigo on the S. Carbonera, labelled Umbi- 
licus Winkleri Willk., and plants seen there, as well as on the 
Alcadeza Crags and in the S. de Palma, agree exactly with 
Willkomm's figure and description, as well as that of Eouy, and 
I have little doubt that both authors have described the same 
species. Eouy, however, has overlooked the important feature of 
the plant — that the petals are united at the base for about one- 
third of their length, instead of at the base only — which doubtless 
caused Willkomm to place it in Umbilicus, but as this character 
is variable in Sedum, and the plant so closely resembles a large 
variety of S. liirsutum, I propose to keep it in the genus under 
the name given above. 

It grows in considerable quantity on rather damp rocks on the 
summit of the S. Carbonera (No. 1293), in the Waterfall Valley 
in the S. de Palma, and on the x\lcadeza Crags. Specimens 



GIBRALTAR PLANTS 13 

by Bourgeau from S. de Monchique, Algarve (No. 1872), and 
S. de Guadarrama above Cbozas (No. 2218), also belong here. 

Calluna vulgaris Salisb. var. depressa, var. nov. Planta 
prostrata, raniis tortuosis, dense intertextis ; racemis paucilioris. 

Plain east of Queen of Spain's Chair, near Gibraltar, abun- 
dantly (No. 48). 

Its habit gives this variety a very distinct appearance, and no 
other form occurs in the immediate neighbourliood, though the 
type is abundant on the mountain itself and in other parts of the 
district. 

Euphorbia gibraltarica N. E. Br., sp. nov. (§ Anisophyllum). 
Herba annua, caulibus prostratis, tenuibus, a basi plerumque divari- 
cate ramosis, ramis 8-12 dcm. longis, basi undique longe sed parce 
hirsutis, apicem versus superne brevius puberulis, inferne glabris, 
foliis oppositis, breviter petiolatis, 12-20 mm. longis, 6-9 mm. 
latis, oblongis, basi obhque cordatis, apice rotundatis obtusisve, 
sgepe macula lata fusca notatis, argute nee profunde serratis, 
serraturis apiculatis, inferioribus longe sed inconspicue pilosis, 
superioribus glabris aut basi longe ciliatis, stipulis minutis, libris, 
triangularibus, circa 1 mm. longis, involucris in inflorescentite 
furcibus solitariis et per 3 terminalibus, anguste obconicis, in 
pedicello eis aequante aut superante sensim attenuatis, glabris, 
glandulis 4, minutis, appendicibus suborbicularibus aut transverse 
ellipticis, 0-5 mm. latis, intensius roseis ; capsulis 2 mm., globosis, 
Isevibus, glabris ; seminibus 1-4 mm. longis, 0-8 mm. latis, nigre- 
scentibus, subtetragonis, angulis tribus carina pallidiore obtusa 
notatis, quaterno anguste canaliculate, foveolato-reticulato. 

On railway ballast at Second Venta, near San Koque (No. 2192). 

Near E. Peplis Linn., but differs greatly in seed and other 
characters, and quite distinct from any European Euphorbia. 

Asphodelus serotinus, sp. nov. Herba rhizomae fibris elon- 
gatis, carnosis, fusiformibus ; foliis ut in A. microcarpo, at Sfepius 
glaucissimis ; caule lj-2 m., vulgo 1'5 m., graciliusculo, pallido, 
glauco, saepe ramosissimo ; pedicellis nee sub anthesi nee statu 
fructifero multo patentibus, paulo supra basim articulatis ; floribus 
eis A. microcarpi similibus ; periantho 15 mm. longo, albo, vitta 
olivea-viride lineato ; bracteis pedicelli articulum inferiorem cequan- 
tibus, late lanceolatis, pallidis, vitta centrali fusca ; staminibus 
perianthium aequantibus vel paullo longioribus, stylo multo brevi- 
oribus, lilamentis ad medium usque minute puberulis, ungue 3 mm. 
longo, latitudine quam longitudine paullo majore, valde ciliato, 
faciebus subglabris ; capsula quam in A. microcarpo minore, 6 mm. 
lato, 4^ mm. longo, valde pyriforme aut in collum pedicelli apice 
hemisphaerico angustiorem contracto. 

Anthesis Aprili serotino, quo tempore A. microcarpus defloratus 
est. Near A. microcarpiis Viv. but differs in time of flowering 
(late April), altitude, and especially in the form of the capsule. 

Dried specimens look very like small-fruited forms of ^4. micro- 
carpus, but there is no doulDt that it is quite distinct from any 
form of that species growing in the neighbourhood of Gibraltar. 



14 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

As I did not discover it till A. inicrocarjms was quite past 
flowering, I was unable to compare the claws of the filaments in 
the fi'esh state, but from my notes they are broader in proportion 
to their length than those of A. microcaiyus. 

Abundantly from the Alcadeza Crags to Boca de Leon, in the 
Cork Woods, and succeeds A. viicrocarpus in that neighbourhood 
(Nos. 1818, 1961). 

Eynchospora glauca Vahl var. pauciseta Turrill, var. nov. 
A planta typica foliis angustioribus, spiculis majoribus, setis 
paucioribus minoribus recedit ; a var. chinense C. B. CI. setis 
paucioribus minoribus distinguitur. 

Neither typical B. glauca Vahl nor any variety of it has been 
recorded before from Europe. The present plant is therefore 
extremely interesting, both as extending the known distribution 
of the species and also as forming the type of a new variety. The 
original B. glauca was described by Vahl from specimens collected 
in Jamaica, and the present plant differs from it in having long, 
narrowly linear leaves (a somewhat variable character in this 
species), spikelets up to 6 mm. long, and either no bristles, or from 
one to three (most often two) much reduced ones, which are 
always shorter than the nut (excluding the beak), and sometimes 
only represented by small protuberances less than 1 mm. long at 
the base of the nut. The Gibraltar plant comes much nearer the 
variety chinensis C. B. CI., and the only constant distinguishing 
features are found in the reduced bristles of the former. If the 
variety chinensis is kept as a species, as Boeckcler, its first 
describer intended, the variety pauciseta should be considered a 
variety of it rather than as a variety of B. glauca. 

At the Waterfall, Garganta del Aquila, S. de Palma, Algeciras, 
Wolley-Docl, Nos. 1348, 2088. 

Atropis iberica, sp. nov. Caespitosa, culmis 6 dec, intensius 
glaucis, foliis juventate conduplicatis, tandem subplanis, 2-5-3 mm. 
latis explanatis, nervis utraque facie 3-4 subprominentibus, ligula 
ad 5 mm. longa, ovali-lanceolata, ex basi decurrente acute acumi- 
nata, paniculis 16-24 cm. longis, laxis, paulo nutantibus, deorsum 
visu SEepius subunilateraliter triangularibus, rarius symmetricali- 
bus, ramis ex quoque nodo 2-3, ineequalibus, patentibus, longi- 
oribus basi breviter nudis, pedicellis plerumque 1-2 mm. longis, 
spiculis variegatis, 8-10 mm. longis, flosculis 5-6 (rarius ad 8)5 mm. 
longis, glumis conspicue inaequalibus, explanatis ovato-lanceolatis, 
acutis, inferiore uninervia, superiore trinervia quam inferiore duplo 
longiore, ad mediam usque flosculi proximi attingente, paleis 
suboequalibus, inferiore acuta, vel breviter acuminata, edenticu- 
lata, subvalidius quinquenervia, nervis exterioribus subprominen- 
tibus, basim versus saepe pubescente, superiore dense ciliata, 
antheris 3 mm. longis. 

Ab A. Foucaudii Hack, differt ligula elongata acuta, gluma 
inferiore 1-, superiore 3-nervia (baud 3- et 5-nerviis), magis acutis, 
paleis acutis vel acute acuminatis, apice anguste membranaceo- 
marginatis integris, antheris duplo majoribus. 



ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 15 

In considerable quantity in the sandy bed of the Palmones 
Eiver, near Algeciras, within tidal influence (2062). Dr. Stapf, 
who has very kindly revised my description, informs me that there 
are Portuguese specimens at Kew, labelled A./estucceforniis. 



ALFEED RUSSEL WALLACE. 
(1823-1913.) 

By the death of Alfred Russel Wallace, which took place at 
Broadstone, near Wimborne, on November 7th, the last of the 
giants of English nineteeth-century science is removed. He was 
born, of Scottish ancestry, at Usk, Monmouthshire, January 8th, 
1823; "educated" at Hertford Grammar School, which he left 
before he was fourteen ; and apprenticed to an elder brother who 
was a land-surveyor. This employment was distasteful : his 
attention had already been turned towards Natural History, and, 
as in so many other cases, Humboldt's Personal Narrative had 
fired him with a desire to visit the Tropics. It is noteworthy that 
he began by collecting British plants, though he was eagerly 
reading books of travel, so that when, during a short time in 
1844-5, when he was acting as a master in the Collegiate School 
at Leicester, he made the acquaintance of Bates, then already an 
ardent entomologist, it required but little encouragement to make 
him decide to start for America. He himself says {Travels on 
the Ainazon, Pi-eface): — "My attention was directed to Para and 
the Amazon by Mr. Edwards's little book, A Voyage ujj the 
Amazon, and I decided upon going tliere, both on account of its 
easiness of access and the little that was known of it compared 
with most other parts of South America. I proposed to pay my 
expenses by making collections in Natural History, and I have 
been enabled to do so." Writing to Bates at the time, he 
expressly says that one of their objects must be the collection of 
facts " towards solving the problem of the origin of species " ; 
but, although they were not then published, it must be re- 
membered that Darwin had then not only received the initial 
suggestion of the theory of natural selection from reading 
Malthus on Population in 1838, but had, in June, 1842, and 
during the summer of 1844, written out the first and second 
abstracts of his theory. 

Wallace and Bates sailed for Para in April, 1848 ; and a year 
and a half later they were joined at Santarem by Spruce, another 
Collegiate School master, who, encouraged by Bentham and 
Hooker, and probably also, as Wallace suggests (Spruce, Notes 
of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes, Introduction, p. xxxiii.), 
by what he heard from entomological friends at the British 
Museum of how successful Bates and Wallace had already been, 
had determined to undertake the botanical exploration of the 
region. 

The three collectors separated, Wallace first ascending the 
Eio Negro to the Uaup6s. In September, 1851, Spruce writes 



16 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

from ManAos (then Barra do Rio Negro) to John Smith, the 
Curator at Kew, that Wallace had just come down from the 
frontier bringing sketches of several palms, many probably new. 
Three months later he informs the same correspondent that 
Wallace, who had started up the Eio Negro a month before 
Spruce had done so, was " almost at the point of death from a 
mahgnant fever," whilst his younger brother, Herbert Wallace, 
who had come out with Spruce, had succumbed in the previous 
May. Wallace, however, having fortunately sent home his first 
two years' collections, started for England at the end of July, 
1852. The vessel in which he sailed took fire, and the bulk of 
the specimens he had with him, his sketches and notes, were 
destroyed. After drifting ten days in open boats, Wallace and 
the crew were picked up; but the voyage had lasted eighty-two 
days when he landed in England on October 18th, 1852. 

In 1853 Wallace published his little book on the Palms of 
the Amazon, illustrated from his own sketches. Though useful at 
the time, it was practically superseded by Spruce's classical 
" Palmse Amazonicae " in the Linnean Society's Journal, vol. xi. 
(1870). The same year saw the publication of Travels on the 
Amazon and Bio Negro, Bates's Naturalist on the Amazons 
appearing in 1863, and Spruce's Notes of a Botanist on the 
Amazon and Andes (edited by Wallace) not till 1908. Wallace's 
journal abounds in botanical notes, and contains one brilliant 
chapter specially devoted to the vegetation of the Amazon Valley. 
Few passages in his writings are better known than the para- 
graphs in this chapter in which he contrasts the gloomy solemnity 
of the tropical forest with the brilliant colours of temperate land- 
scapes. 

In 1854 Wallace started once more for the Tippies, reaching 
Singapore in July, spending in all eight and a half years in 
the Malay Archipelago, and collecting in Sumatra, Java, Timor, 
Celebes, Borneo, and New Guinea. An essay, written at Sarawak 
in February, 1855, and published in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History for September, 1855, " On the Law which has 
regulated the introduction of new species," is even more impor- 
tant in the history of biogeography than in that of biogenesis. 
Though it attracted the attention of Lyell, Darwin, and Huxley, 
Wallace was disappointed to find that it obtained little general 
recognition. It was after reading Malthus's book, as Darwin had 
done just twenty years before, that Wallace, while prostrated with 
fever at Ternate in February, 1858, wrote the essay " On the 
tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original 
type," which he sent to Darwin, and which was read, together 
with Darwin's chapter " On the variation of organic beings in a 
state of nature," on the momentous July 1st, 1858, at the 
Linnean Society. Everyone is familiar to-day with the story of 
the admirable magnanimity with which the two great naturalists 
recognized each other's work. 

" I have felt all my life, and I still feel," writes Wallace in 
1870, " the most sincere satisfaction that Mr. Darwin had been at 



ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE 



17 



work long before me, and that it was not left for me to attempt 
to write The Origin of Species. I have long since measured my 
own strength, and know well that it would be quite unequal to 
that task." On the other hand, Darwin writes to Wallace: — 
" You are the only man I ever heard of who persistently does 
himself an injustice, and never demands justice." 

In March, 1859, Wallace wrote to Dr. Sclater from Batchian 
accepting, with some suggested minor alterations, the six zoolo- 
gical provinces that Sclater has proposed ; whilst another essay, 
written about the same time, " On the Zoological Geography of 
the Malay Archipelago," gives further details as to the boundary 
between the Indian and Austsi'-alian regions that he located ^ in 
Lombok Channel. Circumstances thus forced upon his attention 
the problems of the geographical distribution of animals, and both 
as collector and as writer he became a zoologist rather than a 
botanist. 

The sale of his Malay collections brought him a small fortune, 
which, when invested, yielded a modest income for a single man ; 
but in 1866 he married the daughter of William Mitten, the 
bryologist, by whom he had a son and a daughter ; and his subse- 
quent hfe in England was one of unremitting literary toil, at first 
in London and later at several successive country homes. The 
two fascinating descriptive volumes on The Malay Archipelago, 
published in 1869, were followed in 1876 by his magnum opus, the 
classical Geographical Distribution of Animals, which he himself 
described as an endeavour to do for the twelfth and thirteenth 
chapters of the Origin of Species what Darwin's own Animals and 
Plants under Domestication had done for the first chapter. Island 
Life, first published in 1880 and enlarged in the second edition of 
1895, was supplementary to the main treatise, and had appended 
to it an elaborate treatment of the two subsidiary questions of the 
Glacial Period and the permanence of continents and ocean-basins. 
In this work there is a considerable amount of botanical matter. 
Profoundly influenced by the briUiant suggestions of Edward 
Forbes, Wallace was always impressed by the importance of 
geological history in dealing with the past and present distribution 
of land and water. He made much use of such considerations 
in modifying Croll's theory of the Glacial Period ; and, though 
considered by a younger antagonistic school the champion of the 
permanence of continents and oceans, he constantly accepted 
very extensive distributional interchanges of land and water. The 
World of Life, one of his last works, deals with new evidence on 
the same questions. 

In 1881 Wallace was granted a Civil List Pension : in 1882 
the University of Dublin honoured itself by conferring upon him 
the degree of LL.D. ; and other universities followed suit at later 
dates. From his receipt of the Royal Medal of the Eoyal Society 
in 1868 to the award of the first Darwin- Wallace Medal by the 
Linnean Society in 1908, Wallace's manifold services to biology 
have been fully recognized by his confreres ; and he was naturally 
one of the earliest recipients of King Edward's Order of Merit. 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [January, 1914.] c 



18 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

This is not the place to deal with his many labours in various 
other fields, such as psychical research and land nationalization, 
nor can we do more than mention the valuable volume of essays 
0)1 Natural Selection issued in 1875, and the popular exposition of 
the whole theory of evolution, as he understood it, in Darivinism 
(1889). While he differed from Darwin in his views as to the ap- 
plication of the theory to man, Wallace constantly asserted — even 
more strongly than Darwin himself had ever done — the sufficiency 
and controlling effect of natural selection, as opposed to the 
various post-Darwinian views on evolution. 

G. S. BOULGER. 



SHOBT NOTES. 



Hypericum Desetangsii (Journ. Bot. 1913, 317). — Dr. A. 
Thellung, of Zurich, has kindly drawn my attention to three 
important papers upon the above plant and its nearest allies, viz., 
A. Frohlich, in Sitzungsberichte d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Wien, math.- 
natw. Kl. cxx, 505, 1911, and the same writer in CEsterr. bot. 
Zeitschr. Ixiii, 13, 1913. A. Thellung in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 
xviii, 18, 1912. In the last-named paper H. Desetangsii is reported 
from "England"! I wrote to Dr. Thellung for further details, 
and he replies : — " The Hypericum from England seen by me was 
found by Prof. Dr. Hans Schinz, in the summer of 1903, in 
Camborne, Cornwall, growing spontaneously in the garden of the 
Eev. Hooper. The specimens are to be found in the botanical 
museum of Zurich University." I am glad to be able to add 
West Lancashire, v.-c. 60, to the list of counties possessing 
H. Desetangsii, as Mr. J. A. Wheldon recently sent me an 
example collected by him, labelled — " H. dubium forma. Bank 
of the Lune near Caton, W. Lancashire, Aug. 1900," which is 
undoubtedly the same as the Lewes plant. — C. E. Salmon. 

Cumberland and Durham Plants. — In 1911 and 1912 my 
friend Mr. A. Wallis sent me examples of the following plants 
from the above counties : — 

Durham, v.-c. 66. Ornitliopus perpusillus L. In considerable 
quantity in one or two places on the Seaton sandhills. 1911. 
Interesting from the fact that Tate & Baker remark (Fl. 
Northumb. & Durham, 1868, 152), "Not seen anywhere recently." 
— Centaurium pulchellum Druce. Seaton sandhills. 1912. Not 
reported before, I believe, for Durham. — Chenopodium glaucum L. 
Slag heap. Old Hartlepool. 1912. Known there for twelve 
years. — Polygonum litorale Link. Tees estuary and Seaton 
sandhills. 1912. I think those who separate P. Baii and 
maritimum as species should, to be consistent, equally keep 
apart litorale and aviculare. — EupJiorhia Esula L. On sandhills 
form.ed over an embankment of slag at Teesmouth. 1911. 

Cumberland, v.-c. 70 (1911). Cerastium tetrandrum Curt. 
Sandhills near Drigg. — Euphrasia Eostkoviana Hayne. iNear 
Stye Head Farm, — E. scotica Wellst. Borrowdale. This may 



SHORf NOTES 19 

be an aJdifcion for the county. — Statice humilis C. E. S. f. nana 
C. E. S. Esk estuary, near Eskmeals Station. — Polygonum Baii 
Bab. Esk estuary. — Juncus Geranli Lois. Esk estuary, Drigg. — 
Utricularia ocliroleuca Hartm. Ennerdale Lake. — C. E. Salmon. 

Note on Symphytum. — There has, I think, been much con- 
fusion between Symiiliytum perecjrinum of Ledebour and S. asper- 
7'ivium of Bieberstein. I suppose this is partly from tbeir close 
resemblance when they are not in flower. They both grow in my 
neighbourhood (Tunbridge Wells), and I have not seen any men- 
tion of a difference I find in the shape of the petioles of their 
root -leaves. A cross-section of these will show this clearly. Li 
S. peregrinwn the proportions of this are 4J (wide) by 4 (antero- 
posteriorly) ; in S. asperrimum 3^ (wide) by 7^, the groove on its 
upper surface being much deeper and narrower. This distinc- 
tion is quite lost in the dried and pressed specimen, but in the 
living plant always available. One of the plants has a much 
wider limb, of a paler blue than the other. This I take to be the 
true S. asperrimum. If in this I should chance to be wrong, the 
distinction will still hold good, though in the reverse direction. 
A corresponding section in the case of S. officinale purpureum has 
its lower side (dorsum) much more widely curved than either of 
the others. — Edward G. Gilbert. 

Plants of Scilly.— While sojourning among the Isles of 
Scilly in September last, I landed on the Great Ganinick — a 
conical pile of granitic rocks matted together by a dense growth 
of bracken, brambles, sea-beet and grasses — and found on the top 
Calamagrostis Epigeios in considerable quantity. This, I believe, 
has not been previously noticed in Scilly, and is a rare plant on 
the Cornish mainland. In a marsh near the coast on St. Mary's 
a peculiar form of Juncus maritimus was abundant — so plentiful 
that, a few weeks later, the crop was mown and carted away to 
thatch a cottage roof. In its ordinary state /. maritimus is short 
and stiff, with a panicle that is far exceeded by the sharp-pointed 
lower bract. The Scillonian plant is weak and tall, 4 to 5 ft., and 
the panicle is mostly larger and more diffuse, with a lower bract 
that never exceeds it, and is often not more than a sixth or a 
quarter its length. The only variety I find described — /. rigidus 
Desf. — does not fit my plant. I suggest, therefore, that this 
should be known as var. atlanticus. Of Eupliorhia Peplis, which 
could not be found in Scilly some sixty years ago when Ealfs 
searched for it, we saw fifteen plants. — Jas. W. White. 



REVIEWS. 

Mikrochemie cler Pflanzen. By Hans Molisch. Pp. ix. and 395, 

with 116 text-figures. Jena : Fischer. 1913. Paper, 

13 marks ; cloth, 14 marks. 

The importance of microchemical tests in the study of the 

anatomy and physiology of plants has long been recognized, 

though it has been greatly exaggerated by some writers and under- 



20 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

estimated by others. At first glance, nothing could appear simpler 
or more obvious than the proposition that, since the reactions by 
which any given substance is recognized macrochemically will be 
yielded by that substance when the test is made under the micro- 
scope, the different kinds of cell-walls and cell-contents may be 
demonstrated by the use of reagents which either impart charac- 
teristic colours to walls and contents, or act as selective solvents, 
dissolving some of the walls and contents and leaving others un- 
dissolved, or produce precipitates whose nature furnishes evidence 
regarding the character of the substance that has united with the 
reagent to produce the precipitate. As is well knowm, valuable 
results have been obtained in chemistry and geology by the 
application of the microscope to the examination of small quan- 
tities of solid and liquid substances, but when we are dealing with 
the cells and tissues of plants, considerable difficulties are pre- 
sented. The microchemical examination of a drop of water, even 
when several substances are dissolved therein, is a simple matter 
as compared with that of a plant cell containing perhaps a hundred 
different chemical compounds, and among these various colloidal 
bodies which interfere with crystallization and other reactions. 

On the other hand, it must be remembered that in many cases 
a microchemical test may afford the only practicable method for 
the detection of substances which are present in quantities too small 
for macrochemical analyses, and that microchemical methods, 
used with due precautions, have many striking additional ad- 
vantages. 

The pros and cons of the subject are, however, admirably 
discussed by Molisch in the introduction to the book under 
review, which will be found of the utmost service to students of 
every branch of pure and applied botanical science. The author 
states that he has been engaged in the preparation of this book 
for more than twenty years, and that practically every reaction 
described has been repeatedly tested by him, the result being that 
the work stands in a class quite apart from the numerous com- 
pilations devoted partly or entirely to vegetable microchemistry 
which have hitherto been published. Throughout his descrip- 
tions of the modes of occurrence and methods of detection of the 
various substances present in the cell-walls and wall-contents, the 
author emphasises the need for caution in the interpretation of 
results and for obtaining confirmatory reactions in those cases 
where at present we have no reliable and certain method of 
demonstrating the presence of a given substance — e.g., various 
glucosides and alkaloids — in the cell, or where the reaction is 
with probability or certainty to be ascribed to post-mortem 
chemical change, and so on. The author might with reason and 
advantage have pointed out still more explicitly that, while many 
of the results obtained by macrochemical analysis of plant extracts 
are vitiated by the neglect of investigators to distinguish between 
substances actually present in plants and those formed in the 
processes of extraction and testing, the necessity for caution in 
the interpretation of results is infinitely greater in the case of 



THE SIMPLES AND DRUGS OF INDIA 21 

microchemical tests, the apparent simplicity of which tempts the 
unwary to rash conclusions ; and that in a large degree it is the 
uncritical use of microchemical methods that has led to the some- 
what sweeping and unjust condemnation which these methods 
have received from various quarters. 

The author gives a concise account of methods, with a list of 
reagents, in the somewhat brief general portion of the book 
(pp. 1-36). The remainder (special portion) is divided into four 
sections, dealing respectively with inorganic bodies, organic bodies, 
the cell- wall, and inclusions of the protoplast and cell-sap. Full 
references to literature are appended to each section, and a good 
index facilitates the use of the book, which is illustrated by 
numerous excellent figures, the great majority of these being 
original. The work will be of the greatest value to teachers 
wishing to plan a course of instruction in microchemistry, while 
the lists of plants in which the various substances described occur, 
render the book of special interest to workers in systematic 
anatomy, since there can be no doubt that microchemical charac- 
ters frequently give reliable indications of affinity or otherwise. 

F. C. 

Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India. By Garcia da 
Orta. New edition (Lisbon, 1895). Edited and annotated 
by the Conde de Ficalho. Translated, with an introduc- 
tion and index, by Sir Clements Maekham, K.C.B., F.E.S. 
4to. Pp. xxi, 509. London: Henry Sotheran & Co. 1913. 
This is the first English version of a very rare book, the third 
book printed in India in 1563, and " full of printers' errors." 
The work became known by Clusius's epitome of it, Antwerp, 
1567, where the author is given as " ab Horto," a translation of 
his name into Latin ; it further underwent a change into " Del 
Huerto," and is thus catalogued by the careful Dryander in his 
Banksian Library Catalogue. The original Portuguese text does 
not seem to have been reprinted adequately until Count Ficalho 
did so, as mentioned in the title-page of the volume now before 
us. (There was a faulty reprint issued in 1872.) 

We have therefore to thank Sir C. Markham for translating 
the entire work from the Portuguese into English, providing an 
introduction and notes, and, with the help of Sir George Bird- 
wood, giving the modern equivalents of the Indian names of the 
plants discussed, the addition of Acosta's figures, with three 
indexes, and copious notes. 

The introduction states that Garcia da Orta was born in or 
about 1490, at Elvas, near the Spanish frontier. He reached Goa 
in 1534, where he is believed to have ended his days about 1570, 
having been practising as a physician in India for thirty-six years. 
It must have been several years before this that he was persuaded 
to put upon recoi'd his great knowledge of Indian drugs, of which 
this is the result. It is drawn up in a series of fifty-nine colloquies 
or conversations between da Orta and his friend Dr. Euano, " the 
man in the street," a recent arrival at Goa, well read in the old 



22 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

authorities such as Dioscorides and Phny, and ready to quote 
from them, to which opinions da Orta frequently opposes his own 
experience. 

The first colloquy is concerned with the meeting of the two 
speakers; after that, the subject-matter of each discourse is usually 
confined to one drug, as Aloes, Amber, Camphor, Cinnamon, 
till in the last " Betel and some other things, in which some 
mistakes throughout the work are amended, which have been left 
through forgetfulness," as it is naively expressed. 

In 1578 Cristobal Acosta, a medical man of Burgos, published 
his Tractado de las drogas medicinas de las Indias orientales, 
Burgos, 4to ; also turned into Latin by Clusius in 1582. The 
chief source of Acosta's text was the work of da Orta, but he 
added figures, and these_ cuts, twenty-three in number, have been 
reproduced in Sir Clement Markham's translation. The determi- 
nations of the plants mentioned are due to Sir George Birdwood, 
as already mentioned, to whom the volume is dedicated. It closes 
with indexes of persons and authorities quoted, of names of drugs, 
and finally of names of places. 

Many subjects are discoursed of in a simple and entertaining 
manner, but an attempt to instance any would take us too far, and 
exceed the space at our disposal. For any one who has a taste 
for botanical archaeology or the history of pharmacy, the present 
volume will be a very welcome addition to his bookshelves. The 
translator deserves the thanks of such for putting at our disposal 
an English version of one of the rarest volumes on Indian drugs. 

B. D. J. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, &c. 

Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, of Hull, London, and York, 
announce for publication " an entirely new work bringing the 
vegetational history of the county quite up-to-date " — The Vege- 
tation of Yorkshire — by Mr. F. Arnold Lees, which will be issued 
to subscribers at 12s. Qd. net. The Preface, which is subjoined to 
the circular announcing publication, is so characteristic of the 
" free popular style which has always marked the author" that 
we venture to reprint it : — " Prepared originally, from personal 
observations and printed records stretching over 25 years, for the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (who commissioned it), the inability 
of that body to issue it — the reasons do not concern the present 
venture — enables the Author and Publisher to unite to give this 
important work — on the lines of the Botanical Survey, using the 
three variously up-to-date Floras (Baker's, Lees's, and Kobinson's) 
as a foundation —a worthier format, and a much wider dissemina- 
tion than would otherwise be possible. It is no exaggeration to 
say that in the botanical world this ' Greater Flora ' (J. D. 
Hooker) has been looked forward to, and its tardy completion 
urged on, in many wide apart circles, not only in England and 
Europe, but from New York to the Antipodes. Its subject — 
essentially an analysis of the wild vegetation of England's largest 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 23 

and most vari-surface county, is one that has bearings upon and 
is apphcable in its factual incidences to many of the still larger 
island areas of the Temperate zones. No source of science 
delving into the facts of the past has been neglected ; the question 
of ' fossil ' seeds in earthy deposits, ancient or more recent, as 
well as sea-bed dredgings, etc., etc., which might throw light 
upon the origins, and persistings or passings of its floral features 
from century to century, has been systematically ' gone into,' and 
made the basis of a classification which departs widely from 
the worn, useless one of ' Natives,' ' Colonists ' and ' Aliens ' (for 
all plants must, at some beginning have been the last at first, even 
if the first at last in a usefully tentative view), while the autho- 
rities for all assimilated lemmas of nationale will be found fully 
acknowledged. The diction of a pen guided by a mind trained to 
insight as regards the question at issue, combined with a ' free,' 
' popular ' style, such as has always marked the author, will, it is 
believed, make the present work as distinct a step in advance as 
the Flora of 1888 was over those of the Babingtonian Days to 
which it succeeded." 

M. C. Howard has issued a third volume of his important 
work, Les Zoocecidies des Plantes d'Eitrope, including those of 
both shores of the Mediterranean (Hermann, Paris, price 10 francs), 
which consists of a supplement representing the work on the 
subject during 1909-12. No student of galls can afford to be 
without this careful compilation, which contains numerous illus- 
trations. There is an excellent bibliographical index, as well as 
one of the plants mentioned as hosts. 

The chief interest, from the point of view of this Journal, of 
Mr. Aubyn Trevor-Battye's handsome and attractive volume con- 
taining accounts of his Gamjying in Crete (Witherby, 10s. 6d. net) 
centres in the appendix devoted to a consideration of the Cretan 
Flora, of which he gives a general view. The characteristic 
features of the flora are enumerated, with special notes upon some 
of the more interesting species, e. g. Acer creticum, of which the 
leaf-modifications by environment are described. The notes on 
the disposition of the forests, which are formed by Gupressus 
sempervirens var. horizontalis, Quercus Ilex, Pinus halepensis and 
P. Laricio are interesting : the author was much struck by the 
mischief caused by forest fires, which destroy the seedling trees, 
and made representations concerning this to the Government 
Department concerned with the forests of the island, which it is 
hoped may be attended with success. A list of the more con- 
spicuous plants of the island and a brief bibliography bring the 
botany of the volume to a close. It is to be regretted that the 
proofs were not more carefully read : the names of plants are 
frequently misspelt, nor is the carelessness confined to them — 
e. g. Sibthorp's dates are given as i 573-91. The narrative which 
forms the chief part of the volume is interestingly written, and is 
enlivened with numerous illustrations. 

Mr. W. H. Johnson has compiled for use in connection with 
the study of the principles of agriculture in West African schools 



24 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

a little volume on Elementary Tropical Agriculture (Crosby Lock- 
wood, 3s. 6d. net), which will it is hoped also prove useful in other 
tropical countries. It deals simply and clearly with the various 
parts of a plant, with chapters on soil, food, fungoid diseases and 
insect pests ; a second part is concerned with the school garden 
and various matters connected with cultivation. There are twenty 
useful illustrations, and the book is admirably printed. 

Mr. A. Bruce Jackson has printed for private distribution, at 
the request of the Duke of Northumberland, A Catalogue of Hardy 
Trees and Shrubs groiving at Alhury Park, Surrey — a companion 
volume to that on the trees of Syon House, published in 1910 and 
noticed in our volume for that year (p. 296). The book is 
divided into two parts, one dealing with the " gardens," the other 
with the " woods " ; this necessitates a certain amount of repeti- 
tion, and we should have thought the two might well have been 
combined, indicating by a prefixed initial which plants were found 
only in one or other of the divisions. The list has evidently been 
done with much care, and is very nicely printed ; we note very few 
slips — "Phillyr(^a" (p. 25) — is one. There are brief but useful 
notes ; references to important works are given ; and a short 
history of the estate is given as a " foreword." 

Dr. Henry Franklin Parsons, who died at Croydon, Surrey, 
on the 14th October, was an excellent " all-round " botanist. 
Born at Frome, Somerset, in 1846, of a large family, more than 
one member of which are well known in the world of art, he 
graduated in medicine with distinction in the University of 
London. His assistance in the Flora of his native county is 
acknowledged by its author and a manuscript list of plants 
observed by him is preserved in the Taunton Museum. Appointed 
Medical Officer at Goole, he paid considerable attention to the 
Yorkshire Flora, contributing a paper on maritime plants to the 
Naturalist in 1875, drawing up botanical reports for the Natura- 
lists' Union for 1877 and 1878, and assisting Dr. Lees with his 
Flora (1888). Becoming Medical Inspector to the Local Govern- 
ment Board in 1879, a post which he held for thirteen years when 
he became Assistant Medical Officer, he devoted much of his 
leisure to the Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society, of 
which he became a Vice-President. In addition to geological and 
meteorological papers he contributed to its Transactions papers 
on the times of flowering of spring flowers (1897), on the flora of 
the commons near Croydon (1899, 1902), and on London casual 
plants (1906), and gave educational addresses to sections of the 
Society on hepatics, lichens, and other topics. He conducted 
many of their excursions and fungus forays, drawing up careful 
reports of the species observed, and also communicated an annual 
report on the weather in its relation to local vegetation down to 
1912. He retired from the Local Government Board in 1911. 
For many years Dr. Parsons had also acted as examiner in sani- 
tary science for the University of Cambridge. His herbarium has 
been bequeathed to the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, and is placed in the Taunton Museum. 



25 

PLANTS FEOM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 

COLLECTED BY Mk. AND MrS. P. AmAUEY TaLBOT. 

(Plate 529.) 

(Concluded from p. 9.) 

Apocynace.e. 

Gabunia Dorotheae Wernhcam, sp. nov. Omnino glaber- 
rimus, ramulis complanatis striatis fistulosis ; foliis subcoriaceis 
late oblanceolatis v. elliptico-oblongis, basi acutis vix acuminatis, 
venis secundariis conspicuis plus minus distantibus, petiolo 
brevissimo v. obsolete, stipidis valde conspicuis cavernulas altas 
axillares necnon vaginas interpetiolares formantibus ; conjmhis ad 
15-20-floris, pedunculis longis folia nee tamen superantibus, basi 
ramulis adnatis, pedicellis longiusculis ; cahjcis segmentis ovatis 
obtusis ; corolla tubo basin versus contorto insuper gracili, lobis 
oblanceolatis. 

No. 3387. 

Leaves 20-26 cm. x 9-11 cm., with stalk at most 2-3 mm. 
long ; secondary nerves 8-14 pairs. Peduncles Q-11 cm.. Pedicels 
1-1'5 cm. Calyx 4-5 mm. long ; corolla-tnhe 4-5 cm., lobes 
1-1-1-4 cm. long, and to 4 mm. broad. Anthers sessile, 1 cm. 
above the base of the corolla-tube. 

Nearly related to G. eglandulosa ; it differs chiefly in the 
relatively shorter lobes and longer tube of the corolla. 

Voacanga eketensis Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex ramuHs 
complanatis glabris demum pallidis fistulosis ; foliis papyraceis 
ellipticis utrinque angustatis obtusiusculis, supra glabris subtus 
in venis prominentibus minute flavo-puberulis, petiolo brevi 
puberulo supra altissime canaliculato basi ampliato ; inflores- 
centiis dichotome umbellatis, in axillis summis gcminis, omnino 
glabris, bracteis caducissimis, pedunculo s^pe decurvato glaber- 
rimo ; calycis late campanulati tubo intus supra basin a glandulorum 
zona induto, lobos latos rotundos demum reflexes superante ; 
corollce tubo supra contorto, in medio et sub lobos constricto, 
intus sparsissime hie inde puberulo, lobis patentibus oblanceolatis 
basi anguste oblongis, tubum superantibus. 

No. 3388. 

Leaves 13-16 cm. x 6-7'5 cm., secondary nerves 10-12 pairs, 
petiole about 6 mm. Peduncle 4-6 cm. Calyx-txxhe 6-5 mm., 
the internal gland-zone about 2-5 mm. above the base; lobes 
4'5 mm. x 5*5 mm. Corolla-ixxhe 1 cm., lobes 1-1-2 cm. Anthers 
4 mm., including the slender straight tail 2 mm. long. 

Near V. picberiila K. Sch., but much more glabrous, the 
inflorescence being quite so ; the proportionate lengths of tube 
and lobes in both calyx and corolla differ in the two species, and 
the anthers are much smaller. 

Voacanga glaberrima Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex omnino 
glaber, ramulis teretibus novellis valde complanatis et sulcatis ; 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [February, 1914.] d 



26 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



foliis magnis ellipticis utrinque angustatis subacutis petiole 
basi inflate supra alte canaliculate; inflorescentia dichotoma 
pauciflora laxa, longepedunculata, due quemque ad nedum 
in axillis eppesitis, bracteis caducissimis ; fiorihus mediocris, 
pedicellis longiusculis gracilibus, calyce infundibulari majuscule, 
tube lebos eblonges ebtusissimes paullum superante, intus glandu- 
lerum linea paullulum supra basin indute ; corolla tube infra 
medium apicemque versus censtricto, aliquante centorte, lobes 
erecte-patentes eblonges obtuses subaequante ; staminihiis omnino 
inclusis. 

No. 3389. 

A very distinct species, with nearest affinity the Liberian 
V. caudiflora Stapf, from which it is readily distinguished by the 
large bread leaves and bread corolla-lobes. The leaves measure 
18-29 cm. X 8-12 cm., with stalk net much mere than 1 cm. long 
at most; secondary nerves 14-18 pairs. I'eduncles 11-5 cm., 
each dichotomizing into secondary peduncles 2-5 cm. long ; 
ultimate umbels with 2-3 flowers ; 'pedicels 6 mm. ; calyx-ivSiQ 
7-8 mm., lobes 6 mm. ; co?-o//a-tube and lobes each 1-1-2 cm., 
the latter up to 3 mm. broad. 

Pleioceras glaberrima Wernham, sp. nev. Frutex scandens 
glaber ramulis novellis gracillimis cemplanatis, demum certice 
rugose rubro indutis ; foliis lanceolatis ad anguste ellipticis, 
utrinque angustatis, acuminatis, utrinque in venis ipsis subtus 
conspicuis glabris, petiolatis, subcoriaceis ; cymis trichotemis 
minute et obscure pubescentibus pedunculatis in ramulorum 
summorum furcis singulis orientibus, bracteis minutis ; calycis 
segmentis evatis obtusis ; corollce extus glabrae latiuscule cam- 
panulatae lobis oblongis obtusis tubum multo superantibus, lobe 
quoque supra basin squama oblonga carnosa obtusa apice mode 
libero, hujus etiam utroque latere in basi ipso appendice filiformi 
apice 4-fido capitate inserta onusto ; antheris caudis valde in- 
curvatis. 

Main read from Oron to Eket, 28 miles, mostly in farm- 
clearings. No. 3038. 

Similar to the previous species, its nearest ally, but distinct 
in the climbing habit, the single axillary inflorescences, and the 
shape and venation of the quite glabrous leaves. The latter 
measure 6-5-11 cm. x 2-4*3 cm., with stalk 5-8 mm. long ; 
secondary nerves 6-8 pairs. Inflorescence 15 cm. wide or more, 
with peduncle up to 3-5 cm. Calyx 3 mm., corolla-tnhe 3 mm., 
lobes 7 mm. ; filiform appendages 5 mm. Anthers 2-2-5 mm. 

" Corolla-lobe cream-yellow shading toward flower-centre with 
brownish-red. Corolla-scales mauve-pink ; filiform appendages 
each with 4 bright-yellow knobs " (Mrs. Talbot). 

Pleioceras Talbotii Wernham, sp. nev. Frutex scandens 
glaberrimus latice viscose, ramulis Itevibus ; foliis lanceolatis ad 
anguste evalibus acuminatissimis acutis, brevissime petiolatis ; 
paniculis densiusculis, j9e(Z/ce//iS siepe longiusculis tenuibus, calycis 
lobis rotundatis, corollce lobis ovate-lanceelatis subacuminatis 
acutis, appendiculis filamentesis 10 simplicibus nee capitatis. 



PLANTS PROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 27 

Oron-Eket main road, in farm-bush. No. 3008. 

Distinct in its habit, its glabrous branches and acuminate 
leaves, acute corolla-lobes, and the simple filamentous appendages 
one on each side of each stamen. 

Leaves up to 7 cm. x 2 cm., acuminate for ^ to |- their length, 
stalks not exceeding 3-4 mm. Pedicels to 5 mm. or longer. 
Calyx barely 1"5 mm. Coro//a-tube 4 mm., lobes nearly 5 mm. 
long. 

" The latex is used as bird-lime. Calyx palest green, shaded 
purple at base, corolla-tube mauve, limb cream-yellow, mauve 
shade in centre of flower. Appendages very fine yellow " 
(Mrs. Talbot). 

Pleioceras oblonga Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex 3-pedalis 
ramulis laevibus striatis ; foliis plerumque elliptico-oblongis ad 
oblongis, breviter acuminatis acutis, basi obtusis v. subrotundis 
breviter petiolatis, utrinque glaberrimis; paniculis laxiusculis sub- 
corymbosis ; calycis lobis subrotundis ; corollce tubo lobos ovatos 
obtusos multo excedente, appendiculis filamentosis simplicibus 
necnon conspicue capitatis. 

In drift-sand, or in the bush. No. 3111. 

Eelated to the preceding species ; diiiers especially in habit, 
and the much smaller corolla-limb with broadly ovate lobes, as 
well as in the capitate appendages. 

Leaves to 10 cm. x 4 cm., acuminate for 1-2 cm. at most, 
petiole 4-5 mm. Peduncle 3-4 cm. Pedicels to 8 mm. long. 
Calyx 1-5 mm. at most in length. Corolla-ixuhQ 3-4 mm., lobes 
barely 2 mm. long. 

" Flowers cream-yellow with ring of red in centre of corolla- 
limb " (Mrs. Talbot). 

Pleioceras Stapfiana Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex ramulis 
glabris cortice rugoso fusco-rubro indutis ; foliis pergamaceis 
ellipticis basi obtusis v. subrotundatis, breviter acuminatis obtusis, 
utrinque nisi subtus in venis obscure et interrupte minute 
puberulis, venis secundariis saepius plus minus obscuris utrinque 
5-7, petiolo brevi sparse pubescente; florihus in cymis terminalibus 
2-3-chotomis ramulis divaricatis novellis sinuosis minute pubes- 
centibus complanatis laxis diffusis dispositis, bracteis plurimis 
brevibus ovato-lanceolatis subobtusis ciliatis, pedicellis calycem 
sgepius superantibus; calycis segmentis ovatis breviter acuminatis 
obtusis ; corollce extus insuper minute pubescentis latiuscule 
campanulatse lobis oblanceolato-oblongis tubum multo superanti- 
bus, lobo quoque supra basin squama oblonga obtusissima apice 
modo libero, hujus etiam utroque latere in basi ipsa appendice 
filiformi apice trifida inserta onusto ; antJieris caudis incurvatis. 

Along the rivers. No. 3390. 

Leaves 9-12-5 cm. x 4-6 cm. ; petiole 6-9 mm. Peduncle Oto 
4 cm. Inflorescence attaining 16 cm. in width. Calyx 3 mm. 
long. Co?-o//a-tube 3 mm., lobes 7"5 mm. ; filiform appendages 
nearly 5 mm. long. Anthers rather more than 2 mm. 

Related to P. Gilletii, differing especially in the ample lax 

D 2 



28 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

diffuse inflorescences with long peduncles. I have named the 
species in deference to Dr. Stapf who has been unsparing with his 
assistance in my examination of the Apocynaceae. 

An interesting member of the collection is a species of Stapf's 
genus Cyclocotyla (Kew. Bull. 1908, p. 259) allied to Crasiyido- 
spermum, of which there is ample material, including three or four 
mature flowers. The genus was based on a plant collected by 
Pynaert in the Congo Free State, and named C. congolensis. I 
have examined the type in the Kew Herbarium ; this bears no 
open flowers. The leaves with their close transverse venation 
and the curiously cylindrical corolla-tubes are strikingly similar 
in C. congolensis and in Talbot's plant. On dissection, however, 
I find that each of the two ovary-chambers contains but two 
ovules placed one above the other — not five or six in two rows as 
in the Congo species. Further, in Talbot's plant, the disc is very 
deeply lobed, and the " calyx-cup " to which the genus owes its 
name {vide Stapf, loc. cit. 260) is not noticeable ; and finally the 
inflorescences are axillary as well as terminal. The expanded 
corolla-limb is extremely small, and after the fall of the corolla 
the calyx closes rapidly over the top of the ovary. The ripe 
fruits would be interesting, but unfortunately none are available. 

The characters just named led me at first to conclude that 
Talbot's plant should be referred to a new genus allied to 
Cyclocotyla. But the principal differences between the two may be 
due merely to immaturity in the specimens of G. congolensis. So 
that in the absence of further material it will be well, perhaps, to 
regard our plant as a second species of Cyclocotyla for the present, 
differing from the prior species in the closer leaf -venation, the 
axillary inflorescences, the shape of the disc, and the number and 
arrangement of the ovules. 

Cyclocotyla oligosperma Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex scan- 
dens glaberrimus, ramulis gracilibus ; foliis oppositis pergamaceis 
ellipticis v. oblongis breviter acuminatis obtusis basi acutis petiolo 
gracili longiusculo, venis secundariis plurimis approximatis trans- 
versis ; cymis paucifloris laxiusculis alaribus v. terminalibus, 
pedunculatis. Pedicellis calycem multo excedentibus. Calycis 
tubo lobos subaequante. Corollce tubo validiusculo limbum angus- 
tum multo superante, lobis subrotundis brevibus. Ovarii integri 
quoque in loculo ovula 2. 

Kwa Ibo E. No. 3052. Fl. through the dry season. 

Leaves about 10 cm. x 4 cm., petiole about 1"3 cm. ; lateral 
nerves, thirty pairs or more. Peduncle up to 2 cm., or longer; 
pedicel to 5 mm. Calyx 3-5 mm. deep, about half occupied each 
by lobes and tube. C'oroZ/a-tube 8-5 mm. long ; limb 5'75 mm. in 
diameter. AntJiers nearly 5 mm. long, sessile at about 2 mm. 
above the base of the corolla tube. Style about 1 mm. long, of 
which about one-third or more is occupied by the stigma. 

" Calyx and peduncles palest green. Corolla-tube cream, limb 
white with primrose centre. Stem and petioles shaded bronze ; 
leaves very dark green " (Mrs. Talbot). 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 29 

ASCLEPIADACE^. 

Tacazzea 2^cdicellata K. Schum. var. occidentalis N. E. Br. 
Fine specimens of this rare plant, represented hitherto only by 
the type-specimen at Kew from Lagos. No. 3265. 

Tylophora smilacina S. Moore, sp. nov. Gaule volubili 
gracili folioso puberulo hac atque iliac ramuloso ; foliis petiolatis 
cordatis apicem versus cuspidatis apice obtuse acutis optime 
5-nervibus papyraceis utrinque (costis pag. inf. microscopice pube- 
rulis exemptis) glabris ; cymis solitariis interaxillaribus sparsim 
puberulis 2-3-cymulosis cymulis sat distantibus subumbellatis 
saepius 2-5-floris ; bracteis minutis pubescentibus ; pedicellis 
gracilibus calyce multo longioribus puberulis ; calycis lobis ovato- 
oblongis obtusis extus pubescentibus ; corollcB mediocris rotatae 
lobis ovatis obtusis glabris ; corona phyllis tuberculosis late 
ovoideis antherarum basin attingentibus columnae stamineae basi 
pauUulum amplificat^ omnino adnatis ; antheris erectis breviter 
appendiculatis ; stigmate incrassato convexo antheras paullo ex- 
cedente. 

Near the Sacred Lake, Ikotobo, in thick bush. No. 3252. 

Leaves 4-5-6 x 2"5-3'5cm., drying brownish green above, paler 
below, very shining, nervation conspicuous especially the five main 
nerves ; petioles usually 1-1-5 cm. long, slender, puberulous. In- 
florescences mostly 6-8 cm. long. Cymules up to 1*5 x 1"5 cm., 
but usually smaller, the two lower frequently l'5-2 cm. apart. 
Pedicels 7-10 mm. long. Calyx divided almost to the base, 
rather more than 1 mm. in length. Corolla pale crimson, 
when moistened nearly 1 cm. across, apparently purple, the 
lobes 4 X 2-5 mm. Corona pale, 1 mm. long. Pollinia minute. 
Stigma reaching 1 mm. beyond the tips of the anthers, 1 mm. in 
diameter. 

To be inserted next T. conspicua N. E. Br., which has leaves 
diffei'ent in several respects, considerably larger flowers with 
broader corolla-lobes, the staminal column greatly widened below, 
larger dark purple coronal-tubercles and a stigma which, while 
shorter than the anthers, is depressed at the apex and has a small 
convex boss in the centre of the depression. 

T. liherica N. E. Br. A second Nigerian locality for this, the 
other being Oban. No. 3360. 

Ceropegia Talbotii S. Moore. A second locality — the type- 
specimens from Oban. No. 3357. 

LOGANIACEiE. 

Strychnos (§ Intermedin) eketensis S. Moore, sp. nov. 
Verisimiliter frutex scandens inermis ecirrosusque ; ramulis folio- 
sis, aliquanto tetragonis longitrorsum late sulcatis cortice glabro 
laete brunneo nitente circumdatis ;/o/iis breviter petiolatis oblongo- 
ovatis apice saepe breviter cuspidatis ipso obtusis obtusissimisve 
nonnunquam emarginatis basi obtusis vel rotundatis crasse cori- 
aceis glabris utrinsecus sed praesertim pag. sup. nitidis costarum 
lateralium jugo basali margin! approximato mox anfracto difficili- 



30 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

usque aspectabili jugo alfcero prominentiore ad 6-8 mm. supra 
basin costas central! imposito dimidio foliorum abaxiali marginem 
leviter appropinquante arcuatoque costis et costulis (ut reticulum 
laxum) subtus magis eminentibus ; cymis foliis plane brevioribus 
axillaribus pedunculatis satis patentibus bracteatis bracteis late 
subulatis rigidis ; floribus breviter pedicellatis pentameris ; calycis 
segmentis suborbicularibus ci'assiusculis inferue regulatis micro- 
scopice ciliolatis ; corollm triente inf. indivisae tubo calyci a3qui- 
longo faucibus villoso lobis triangulari-oblongis obtusiusculis 
crassiusculis in sicco dorso rugulatis ; antheris basi villosis ; 
ovario subgloboso sparsim piloso quam stylus inferne incrassatus 
paullo breviore. 

No. 3237. 

Leaves 13-17 cm. long, 6-8 cm. broad, in the dry state usually 
greyish green on the upper and brownish on the lower side ; mid- 
rib very prominent below ; petioles stout, channelled above, quite 
glabrous, 5-7 mm. long. Cymes usually 5-8 x 4-6 cm., the 
peduncles and branches puberulous, with very minute hairs ; 
bracts 2-3 mm. long, shortly sheathing at the base, the inner 
face of which bears a number of glands. Pedicels usually 
1-2 mm. long. Buds ovoid. Calyx nearly 2 mm. long, the 
lobes up to 1"5 X 2 mm. Corolla with tube 2 mm. in length and 
lobes 4 X 1'5 mm. Filaments 1-25 mm. long ; anthers broadly 
oblong, obtuse, 1 mm. long. Ovary 1"25 x 1 mm. ; style 2 mm. 
long. 

Very near S. mcmccyloides S. Moore from Oban, but certainly 
different, on account of the glabrous branches, broader leaves, 
longer, open cymes, differently shaped buds and much larger 
flowers. 

Gaertnera eketensis Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex (?) glaber 
ramulis gracilibus ; foliis pergamaceis lanceolatis v. ellipticis v. 
oblongis acuminatis subacutis, basi angustatis breviter petio- 
latis, venis secundariis paucis distantibus reticulo interveniente 
plus minus transverso, stiimlis membranaceis vaginam plus 
minus persistentem uno latere fissam formantibus apice irre- 
gulariter setosis ; i)anicula terminali laxa thyrsoidea, ramulis 
minute pubescentibus, bracteis linearibus ; floribus pentameris 
brevissime pedicellatis ; calyce brevissime dentato v. subintegro ; 
corollcB extus subglabrte tubo lobos lanceolatos superante, ore 
villoso ; anthcrarum apicibus ut stilus stigmatibus minutissime 
puberulis exsertis. 

No. 3391. 

Near G. Dinklagei K. Sch., from which it differs, among other 
points, in the pentaraerous condition of its flowers, with their 
relatively shorter corolla-lobes and almost entirely included 
stamens and exserted style. 

Leaves 10-12 cm. x 3-4 cm. ; lateral veins 5-6 pairs, petioles 
5-7 mm. Stijnilar sheath at first about 5 mm. long, with settB 
about the same length, later increasing to 8-10 mm. Liflorescence 
about 7 cm. x 5-5 cm. Calyx rather more than 7 mm. Corolla- 
tube 3'5 mm., lobes 2-5-3 mm. 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 31 

BlGNONIACE^. 

Kigelia Spragueana Wernham, sp. nov. Aibor 80-peclalis, 
foliis oppositis v. ternatis nonnunquam alternatis, foliolis obovatis 
V. oblongo-ellipticis brevissime acuminatis acutis integris glabris 
membranaceis utrinque tenuiter reticulatis, petiolulis brevissimis ; 
alabastris in apice minute apiculatis ; calyce subuequaliter dentato 
nee manifesto bilabiato dentibus latis brevibus subacutis ; intus 
eglanduloso ; corollce tubo lobos suborbiculares minuscules multo 
superante ; disco nee lobato ; ovario glabro, stigmatis lobis ovatis 
obtusis. 

Near Mkpokk. No. 3392. 

Leaflets 11-13, 8-11-5 cm. x 3-5-5 cm., with stalks 3-5 mm. ; 
lateral veins 6-8 pairs. Calyx 1-9 cm. long, lobes 4-5 mm. 
Gorolla-tuhe 5-5-6 cm. long, constricted 1-8-2 cm. above the base ; 
lobes about 1-5 cm. in diameter. Stamens inserted 1-5 cm. above 
the base of the corolla-tube ; anthers 8 mm. long. Ovary nearly 
1 cm. long. 

" Flowers very dark terra-cotta" (Mrs. Talbot). 

Near K. elliptica Sprague, with which Mr Sprague has been 
good enough to make a careful comparison of the present species. 
They differ, he points out, principally in the subequal toothing of 
the calyx in the latter ; in K. elliiitica the calyx is strongly bi- 
labiate. 

The leaf-arrangement is somewhat curious. In one specimen 
it is distinctly ternate ; in another the leaves are set both oppo- 
sitely and alternately. The latter may be due to twisting or 
adnation. 

ACANTHACE^. 

Thunbergia (§ Thunbergiopsis) Talbotiae S. Moore, sp. nov. 
Caule volubili sat crebro folioso puberulo ; foliis petiolatis ovatis 
basi late truncatis interdum levissime cordatis apice breviter 
acuminatis margine distanter dentatis brevissimeve lobulatis raro 
subintegris basi 5-nervibus firrae membranaceis supra scabridis 
vel saltem scabriusculis subtus pilis brevibus strigillosis indutis ; 
florihus majusculis longe pedunculatis ; pedunculis in axillis 
oppositis solitariis puberulis ; bracteolis ovato-oblongis apice 
subito brevissime acuminatis nervis paucis parallelis in sicco 
baud perspicuis humectatisve et reticulum plane aspectabilibus 
percursis ; calyce 5-angulari subtruncato (brevissime 5-dentato) 
pubescente ; corolla bracteolas facile superante tubo basi angus- 
tato superne gradatim amphficato lobis suborbicularibus tubo 
plane brevioribus; antheris stam. duorum basi bicalcaratis duorum 
loculo altero calcarato altero mutico ; stigmate infundibulari, 
subtriangulari. 

In thick bush near Awa. No. 3391. 

A slender-stemmed climbing plant. Leaves for the most part 
6-5-8 cm. long, and 3-6 cm. broad, often 4-5 cm. in breadth at 
the very base, where may occasionally bo seen a slight tendency to 
hastation, acuminate part + 1 cm. long, with a filiform apex ; 
petioles 7-20 mm. long, excavated above, puberulous. Pedicels 



32 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

4-5-5-5 cm. long. Bracteoles 35 x 18 mm., thinly membranaceous. 
Floivers white. Calyx 1 mm. high. Narrowed base of corolla 
8 mm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, widened portion 30 mm. long, at the 
throat 22 mm., diam 8 ; lobes up to 15 x 13 mm. Filaments 
fleshy, swollen below, 10 mm. long. Anthers shaggy-haired in 
front, 10 mm. long or somewhat less, the incurved spurs 2-3 mm, 
long. Disk fleshy, reaching as high as the calyx. Ovary glabrous, 
3 mm. long. Style 22 mm. long, glabrous. Stigma 6 mm. in 
length, at the mouth 4-5 mm., broad, size gradually diminishing 
till at the bottom it is only 1 mm. in breadth. Capsule not seen. 

This should be placed in the genus near T. cordata Lindau 
and T. togoensis Lindau, from both of which it differs in many 
important respects. 

Physacanthus inflatus Clarke. Believed to be the first Nigerian 
record for this Cameroons plant. The flowers are mauve with 
white centre. No. 3301. 

Asystasia dryaclum S. Moore. Previously known only from 
Oban. No. 3114. 

Justicia Talhotii S. Moore. Previously collected in the Oban 
district. No. 3396. 

Dicliptera Talbotii S. Moore, sp. nov. Planta spithamea 
ramulis sat tenuibus aliquanto anfractuosis angulatis cito glabres- 
centibus ; foliis parvis ellipticis basi apiceque obtusis tenuiter 
membranaceis glabris ; involucris 2-floris in glomerulos breves 
ovatos densos vel densiusculos axillares terminalesve dispositis ; 
foliis floralibus parvis linearibus subulatis patentibus glabris ; 
bracteolis exteriorihus oblongo-obovatis acutis 3-nervibus dense 
albo-incanis ; bracteolis interioribus calycem aequantibus vel 
paullo superantibus anguste lineari-lanceolatis acutis incanis ; 
calycis segmentis angustissime lineari-lanceolatis acutis pube- 
rulis ; corolla, ex bracteolis breviter eminentis tubo cylindrico 
superne (ut limbus fac. ext.) piloso-puberulo labio postico 
suborbiculari antico obovato-oblongo 3-dentato, staminibus 
breviter exsertis. 

No. 3217. 

Leaves up to 25 x 13 mm., but usually smaller. Inflorescences 
at most 2 x 1"5 cm. Floral leaves about 3 mm. long. Larger of 
the oilier bracteoles 8 x 3*5 mm., smaller 6 x 3-25 mm. ; inner 
bracteoles 4-5 mm. long. Calyx 4 mm. long. Corolla 9 mm. in 
length ; tube 6 mm. long, 1-1-25 mm. broad ; front lip bright 
mauve, 4 x 1'5 mm., hinder white, 3-5 x 4 mm. Filaments 
2-5 mm. long ; anthers 1 mm. Ovary 1 mm. long ; style pilose, 
4 mm. long. 

Near D. Elliotii C. B. Clarke, from which it can easily be 
recognised by the differently shaped hoary bracteoles. 

Hypoestes Talbotice S. Moore. A second Nigerian locality ; the 
type is from Oban. No. 3401. 

Verbenace^. 
Clerodendron eketense Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis molUter 
pubescentibus ; foliis tenuiter membranaceis late ovalibus brevis- 



PLANTS FROM THE EKET DISTRICT, S. NIGERIA 33 

sime acuminatis acutissimis basi rotundatis v. subcordatis supra 
sparse subtus densius in venis pubescentibus, venis distantibus 
valde obliquis, petiolo longo dense pubescente, basi indurante 
persistente ; infloresccntia thyrsoidea laxiuscula omnino dense 
pubescente, bracteis plurimis parvis lineari-lanceolatis, ijedicellis 
8-9 mm. v. longioribus ; calycis ampli minute hispiduli lobis 
anguste ovatis acuminatis acutissimis tubum late campanulatum 
superantibus ; corolla tubo pro rata brevi, extus insuper prgesertim 
densiuscule pilis glandulosis induto, gracillimo insuper plus minus 
subito ampliato, lobis oblanceolato-oblongis; staminihus porrectis 
nee longe exsertis. 

No. 3393. 

A well-defined species, distinguished by its soft short pubes- 
cence, the ample thin oval leaves with long stiff stalks directed 
outwards and downwards, and the large calyces with but a short 
length of the corolla exserted. The nearest allied species seems 
to be C. Welivitschii Giirke, but this has the corolla-tube nearly 
4 cm. long. 

Leaves 16 cm. x 10 cm., petiole 3-5-5 cm. Inflorescence 
about 10 cm. x 6 cm. Calyx l-5-l'6 cm., lobes over 1 cm. 
Corolla-tuhe 1-7 cm., the lower slender tubular portion 1*3 cm., 
lobes 4-5 mm. Stamens exserted about 7 mm. 

APETAL^. By S. Moore. 

Tylostemon (§ Hexaerhena) confer tus, sp. no v. Frutex 
ramis ramulisque subteretibus striatis glabris ; foliis saepe 
majusculis petiolatis ovato-oblongis apice obtusis ipso apiculatis 
basi cuneatim coartatis tenuiter coriaceis utrinsecus glabris costis 
lateralibus utrinque circa 10 patentibus marginem versus arcuatis 
necnon dichotomis ut costa crassa centralis reticulumque sublaxum 
pag. inf. magis perspicuis ; ixmiculis subsessilibus axillaribus 
raro terminalibus abbreviatis satis densifloris harum ramis ut 
pedicelli alabastraque subtilissime fulvo-tomentellis ; bracteis 
late cymbiformibus extus tomentellis, pedicellis quam flores 
brevioribus ; perianthii campanulati intus glabri lobis tubo 
brevioribus suborbicularibus ; staminum serr. 1 et 2 filamentis 
abbreviatis crassis pubescentibus quam antherae ambitu sub- 
quadratae brevioribus ; staminodiis ser. 3 columnaribus pubes- 
centibus basi biglandulosis ; staminodiis ser. 4 minutis, ovatis, 
pubescentibus ; ovario subgloboso glabro, stylo inferne crasso 
superne attenuate aequilongo. 

No. 3399. 

Leaves when fully grown 16-20 cm. long and 6"5-7'5 cm. 
broad, othei's ± 10 x 5-5 cm., drying brownish ; petioles stout, 
terete if not shallowly channelled above, longitudinally wrinkled, 
usually about 1 cm. long. Panicles many-fiowered, usually not 
much more than 1 cm. in length, and often less than that, about 
1 cm. also in width. Bracts few seen, 1-5-3 mm. long. Pedicels 
1 mm. at most in length, usually shorter. Perianth 1-75 mm. 
long, 1-5 cm. in diameter just before opening; lobes '75 x "8 mm. 



34 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Fertile stamens -5 mm. long; outer row of staminodes -4 mm. long, 
the columnar portion a little longer than the diameter of the 
subglobular glands. Ovary -4 mm. in diameter; style -4 mm. long. 
Near T. ohscurus Stapf and differing from it chiefly in the 
congested inflorescences and the shape of the stamens and 
staminodes. 

LORANTHACE^. 

LoRANTHUs (§ Bufescentes) Talbotiorum Sprague in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. vi. i. p. 1026 (anglice). Alahastris pilis frequenter ramosis 
dense ferrugineo-tomentosis ; ramis validis (summun 8 mm. 
diam.) teretibus supra foliorum insertionem ferrugineo-tomen- 
tosis alibi tandem glabris pallide nitidis lenticellis paucis anguste 
elliptico-oblongis linearibusve usque ad 6 mm. long, praeditis; 
foliis brevipetiolatis ovato- vel lanceolato-oblongis sub apice acuto 
recurvis basi angustissime cordatis 15-17"5 x 6-5-8-5 cm. crasse 
coriaceis supra glabris nitentibus subtus opacis et costa media 
furfuraceo-ferruginea exempta glabris ; U7nbeUis axillaribus fasci- 
culatis pedunculatis 3-4-floris ferrugineo-pubescentibus ; pedun- 
culis 2'5 mm., pedicellis 1"5 mm. long. ; hractea erecta ovata 
ellipticave apice rotundata extus pubescente intus glabra 3x2 
mm. ; toro calyce cum subcylindrico circa 2 mm. long. ; calyce 
breviter denudato '5 mm. long. ; corollce extus rufo-tomentellae 
intus glandulosae tubo fere usque medium unilateraliter fisso 
(ampulla basali inconspicua ovoideo-oblonga) 6-8 mm. long, 
basin versus plus minus curvato lobis erectis spathulatis 10-11 
mm. long. ; filamentis corollse loborum basi insertis circa 8 mm. 
long. ; antheris oblongis circa '5 mm. long, harum loculorum 
septis 4 ; disco minimo ferrugineo-piloso ; stylo glabro sursum 
metuliformi hujus parte incrassata pallidiori 6 mm. long, collo 
circa 1 mm. long. ; stigmate capitato 5 mm. diam. 

Hab. South Nigeria, Oban ; Mr. (C- Mrs. Talbot, 1281. 

The above is a translation of Mr. Sprague's description. It is 
inserted here because L. Talbotiorum has again been obtained by 
Mr. & Mrs. Talbot, this time in the Eket district. No. 3395. 

L. Braunii Engl. var. Talbotii, var. nov. A typo discrepat 
prsecipue ob perianthium supra basin parvam inflatam maxime 
attenuatum, parte attenuata brevissima, in sicco modo 1 mm. 
long, totidemque diam. Basis inflata 1'5 mm. long. 3 mm. lat. 
No. 3400. 

It is very difficult to discriminate between some supposed 
species allied to L. Braunii, which has led Mr. Sprague to unite 
several of them with the latter. He was good enough to examine 
the plant under notice, and it has been named as above in accord- 
ance with his advice. 

Euphoebiace^. 

Grotonogyne Manniana Miill. Arg. Male plant. Previously 
known only from Fernando Po. No. 3258. 

C. Zenkeri Pax. Female plant. A Cameroons-Gaboon 
species, now first recorded as Nigerian. No. 3397. 

Caperonia latifolia Pax. The leaves are smaller than usual 



DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN BRITISH ALG^ 35 

(3-5-4-5 X l'8-2 cm.), and much like those of Sutton Hayes, 703, 
from Panama. The fii'st Nigerian record for this species. No. 3398. 
Maprounea vievibranacea Pax & K. Hoffm. Distribution : 
Cameroons and Spanish Guinea to Belgian Congo ; now first 
reported as a Nigerian plant. No. 3253. 



Description of Tab. 529. 
1. Branch with inflorescence, natural size, of Talhoticlla cketciisis Bak. fil. 
2. Buds with narrow bracteoles, x 2, 3. Flower, x 2. 4. Longitudinal section 
through flower, x 8. 



THE DISTEIBUTION OF CBETAIN BRITISH ALG^. 
By a. D. CottoxV, F.L.S. 

When discussing the peculiar features of the marine flora of 
the West of Ireland in the report for the Clare Island Survey 
(Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxxi.part 15), theoretical conclusions 
with regard to certain species were hampered owing to lack of 
precise data as to distribution. This applied not only to the 
Continental range, but also to that in our own country. Three of 
the most noteworthy were Ptilota pliiiiiosa, Gallitliamnion arlms- 
cula, and Codium mucronatum var. atlanticum, each of which 
possesses a somewhat remarkable distribution in the British Isles. 
All three were plentiful in the warm waters of the Clare Island 
district, and they occur also on the west of Scotland, but none of 
them are found in any part of the English Channel or south-east 
of England. The difficulty with regard to the English east coast 
admitted of explanation ; but it was not easy to understand why 
these plants should not extend by way of the Welsh coast to 
Devon and Cornwall. 

The algal flora of Wales, from Anglesea to St. David's Head, 
is but poorly known ; and it was not possible to state in the 
Report whether the species in question reached this region or 
whether they stopped short at a point further north. There was 
also a measure of uncertainty with regard to North Devon and 
North Cornwall, although this area had been often and thoroughly 
explored. Unlike some algae, these are conspicuous species and 
of well defined habitats, so that they could hardly be overlooked 
if properly searched for. Two trips therefore were made to the 
Welsh coast during the past season with a view to certifying the 
presence or absence of these and other species, the districts chosen 
being Cardigan Bay (Barmouth to Aberystwyth) and Pembroke- 
shire (Newport Bay to near St. David's Head) ; whilst during a 
summer holiday at St. Ives some of the north Cornish coast 
between Padstow and the Land's End was examined. 

The following notes refer only to the species mentioned above. 
It appears worth while to publish details of the trips instead of a 
mere statement of results, as the marine botany of Wales has 
been somewhat neglected. 

We may first recall the distribution of the species in question. 



36 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Gallitliamnion arbuscula is a boreal alga. It is found in Norway, 
the Faeroes, Scotland and Ireland, and is abundant in the Glare 
Island district, forming a band on rather steep exposed rocks. In 
the much colder waters of the North Sea it does not occur south 
of Yorkshire, and on our west coast it was known to descend 
to Ayrshire and Isle of Man. Ptilota plwnosa is also a northern 
species. Found in Iceland, Nova Zemblya, and Spitzbergen, it 
descends as far as Yorkshire on our east coast, and had been 
recorded from North Wales and the Isle of Man on the west. On 
Clare Island it is plentiful, being attached to the stipes of Lami- 
naria Cloustoni and washed ashore in company with such south- 
ern plants as Taonia and Gallymenia reniformis. It is supposed 
to occur right round Ireland. With regard to these two species 
it was pointed out (1. c. p. 170) that ecological factors appeared 
more likely to explain their absence on the south and west coasts 
of Great Britain than unfavourable currents or lack of spores. 
Both require an open rocky coast, and the scarcity of such ground 
south of Yorkshire may have limited their range in the North 
Sea, and prevented their access to the Straits of Dover. But on 
the west coast this explanation does not hold, rocky ground being 
plentiful both in north and south Wales. The third species, 
Godium viucronatum (first correctly identified during the Glare 
Island Survey), is a much more remarkable plant. Frequent in 
Australia and New Zealand, and almost identical with the form 
known as Nova Zelandice, it is in Europe only known from the 
British Isles. Though long overlooked, it can happily be recog- 
nised with certainty in the herbarium, and its distribution was 
carefully worked out for the Glare Island Eeport. It occurs in 
Scotland from Orkney to Bute, and in the north of Ireland from 
Antrim to Donegal, and from thence southward to Bantry Bay. 
On Clare Island it is plentiful and conspicuous. In the Irish 
Channel it occurs on the Isle of Man, but is absent (as far as is 
known) from the east of Ireland, from England, and from the 
rest of Europe ; also from the Atlantic coasts of North America. 
The plant can hardly have been introduced to Ireland, since it 
has existed in Bantry Bay for over a century. A special look-out 
for this alga should be kept, as any data that would throw light 
on its isolated position in Europe would be highly valuable. 

1. Gardigan Bay. — The two regions investigated were those 
of Barmouth and Aberystwyth, advantage being taken of the 
British Mycological Society's meeting at Dolgelly in May 1913 to 
examine the coast-line in the vicinity. The rocks are slaty, Cam- 
brian and Silurian respectively. In neither locality did the ground 
appear suitable for the algse sought for. The shore is flat, and 
does not possess steep, clean, exposed rocks, the well-known 
habitat for C. arbuscula. No specimens of L. Gloustoni (the 
usual host of P. i^lumosa) were noted, but it is possible, and 
indeed likely, that that plant occurs in deeper water. Clean rock- 
pools, of the type in which Godium viucronatum flourishes, were 
also absent. At Aberystwyth a large amount of angular gravel is 
present (probably derived from glacial drift), and the injurious 



DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN BRITISH ALG^ 37 

effect of this on the vegetation is very apparent. During westerly 
gales and high seas the gravel is dashed over rocks ; and even such 
tough plants as Ascopliijllum are in places shorn off, while the 
scarcity of many of the more delicate species in pools which 
appear otherwise suitable, is no doubt to be attributed to the 
same cause. Through the kindness of Professor R. H. Yapp I 
was able to look through the algal herbarium at the University 
College, but though possessing a good variety of species for the 
type of shore, none of the algae in question were represented. 
Professor Yapp informed me that similar ground continues as far 
south as Aberaeron, and that the same type of vegetation obtains: 
the presence of loose stones and sand would doubtless be specially 
inimical to Godium mucronatum, and he did not recollect having 
seen any representatives of the genus in the neighbourhood. The 
same factor is probably also operative on the flat rocky shore 
south of Barmouth, though it was not so clearly demonstrated. 
At Borth the ground is obviously unsuitable. 

As far as Cardigan Bay is concerned, therefore, we may be 
fairly safe in saying that over a very large area (probably from 
Portmadoc to Aberaeron) the three species under consideration 
are absent, though as shown above this may be largely accounted 
for by unsuitable conditions. 

2. Pembrokeshire (August 18th-21st). — Pembrokeshire ap- 
peared likely to prove interesting, not only from its rocks being 
of a different character to those of Cardigan Bay, but from its 
position at the extreme south-west corner of Wales. It was 
possible that the rock-loving species in question might obtain a 
footing in that neighbourhood, and that they might descend as 
far south as St. David's Head, though they were not known to 
occur on the coasts of Cornwall, the other side of the British 
Channel. Fishguard was chosen as a centre ; it is easy of access, 
and, unlike Tenby and Milford, open to the west. But in this 
neighbourhood the precipitous cliffs are a great obstacle ; and the 
time lost in going from one bit of accessible ground to another, 
when tides waiting for no man are in question, is a serious 
matter. 

In a southerly direction the coast-line was examined at 
irregular intervals from Fishguard to a point about half-way 
between Strumble Head and St. David's. The cliffs and head- 
lands are for the most part composed of volcanic rocks, and these 
descend sheer into the sea ; but bays of slaty rocks, which are 
more accessible, are also present. The latter are strewn below 
with stones and gravel, and, as can be seen from above, they 
support little or no vegetation. Two near Pembrush Point 
were descended by paths none too safe, but practically no algal 
growth, save Enteromorpha and a small amount of Fucus, was 
found. Time did not permit of extending the search to the 
Head itself, but it is probable that the same type of coast 
continues. It is very unsuitable for littoral algae owing to the 
steep cliffs and lack of reefs. 

North of Fishguard a much better vegetation was met with. 



38 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Newport Bay, with its wide sweep, was hurriedly searched, and 
though not possessing a rich flora, was very much better than 
anything previously seen. On the rocks at the south-west corner 
(and probably at the north-east also) algal associations of the 
" exposed " series were found, the band of the short form of 
Porphyra umhilicalis being well developed. These rocks appeared 
suitable for Callithamnion arbuscula, but it was absent. Pools 
sufficiently clean and clear for Codium mucronatum were frequent, 
but not a plant was noted. Considering the date of the visit 
(August) the vegetation of this bay showed much variety, and 
in spring the flora must be a rich one. 

A certain amount of rocky ground occurs between Goodwick 
and the old town of Fishguard. These rocks, which are easily 
reached by boat, possess a fair algal vegetation, but it is of the 
semi-sheltered type. A large amount of clean drift had collected, 
the examination of which gave a good idea of the sublittoral 
flora. No specimens of Ptilota, however, occurred amongst it. 

By far the best piece of collecting ground w^as a little bay at 
Dinas. The rocks, slaty but not much broken, are accessible on 
either side of the bay, and the ground exhibits on the right the 
exposed type of rocky-shore formation, and on the left the 
semi-sheltered type, and the sand-and-rock series. These rocks, 
though they occupy a small area, have a very rich flora ; and the 
sudden appearance of such a large number of species shows how 
generally the spores are distributed, and how ready the plants are 
to thrive when the conditions for their establishment are suitable. 
For an examination of the flora of the rocky shore of Pembroke- 
shire this little bay could hardly be beaten ; indeed, for variety of 
ground and richness of flora in a compressed area, it is one of the 
best I have met with. By the road, which is hilly, Dinas Bay is 
four and a-half miles from Fishguard town and six miles from 
Fishguard Harbour Hotel. In good weather it is a pleasant sail 
of three or four miles from the G. W. E. quay at Fishguard. 

On the right side of Dinas Bay the Nemalion association is 
well developed, and in its upper parts a distinct but rather sparse 
belt of Gallithamnion is present. It was at once obvious that 
this belt was composed of C. spongiosum, and not of C. arbuscula, 
a conclusion which was confirmed by the microscopic examina- 
tion of a number of specimens both saxicolous and epiphytic. A 
few pools exist, but Codium mucronatum was hunted for in vain. 
Ptilota also was not found. This concluded the search in south- 
west Wales. It is tolerably certain that P. jAnviosa is absent, 
and that C. arbuscula does not occur. Not a sign of the interest- 
ing Codium mucronatum was seen on any occasion. 

3. North Cornwall (September). — The north Cornish coast is 
so familiar that it need not be described. Padstow, Newquay, 
and St. Ives were the spots specially investigated, each of which 
had been more or less worked by Mr. E. M. Holmes and by the 
late R. Y. Tellam. St. Ives is poor for algae, but the shore towards 
the south-west affords here and there some better ground. Both 
at St. Ives and at Newquay C. arbuscula was altogether absent, 



DISTRIBUTION OP CERTAIN BRITISH ALG^ 39 

though a slight growth of Geranium acanthonotum, which is often 
a co-dominant species in the association, was present ; Nemalion 
also, which enjoys similar conditions, formed bands and patclies. 
At Padstow the ground is too sheltered for the Callithamnion or 
Nemalion belts, and time was not available for the exploration of 
the exposed coast-line in that neighbourhood. Pools occur near 
Padstow, as at Newquay and St. Ives, but Codium imicronatum 
was completely absent. P. pluniosa also was not observed any- 
where in Cornwall. 

4. North Wales. — As this area had not been visited, an effort 
was made to obtain information by means of correspondence and 
examination of herbarium collections. Professor E. W. Phillips, 
of Bangor, was kind enough to supply notes, and also to lend a 
number of specimens from the Anglesea neighbourhood (chiefly 
Menai Straits and Puffin Island) from his private collection. The 
examination of these showed that whilst P. pluviosa is plentiful in 
North Wales, the other two plants, Callithamnion arbuscula and 
Codium mucronatum, are not found. This was in agreement with 
Professor Harvey Gibson's list of algae for the Liverpool Marine 
Biological Committee's district (Trans. L.M.B.C. vol. v. 1891, a copy 
of which was kindly lent me by the author)."^' Professor Harvey 
Gibsoii writes that he has not found Codium mucronatum on the 
north coast of Wales, but that Callithamnion arbuscula is plentiful 
in the Isle of Man, and specimens from that locality exist in the 
Kew collections. Mr. N. E. Brown, of Kew, has examined the 
shore around Llandudno, and he tells me he has never observed 
any species of Codium in the rock pools of that region. 

We are now in a position to summarize the facts as to the distri- 
bution of these species. As far as Wales is concerned, P. plmnosa 
is frequent on the rocky shores of north-west corner, but does 
not appear to extend south of Anglesea ; Callithamnion arbuscula 
and Codium mucronatum, on the other hand, though common in the 
Isle of Man, do not reach the Welsh coasts at all. With regard 
to the British Isles, the Callithamnion and Ptilota are general in 
Scotland and descend as far as Yorkshire in the North Sea, and 
are abundant in the warm waters of the west of Ireland, but in 
the Irish Channel stop short at the Isle of Man and Anglesea 
respectively. Both are supposed to occur in the south of Ireland, 
but this requires confirmation. Codium mucronatum remains as 
mysterious as ever. No trace of it has been seen in the localities 
investigated in North or South Wales, and it may be safely stated 
to be entirely absent from Devon and Cornwall. It is still only 
known in Europe from the Atlantic shores of Scotland and Ireland 
(where it has existed since the early part of last century) and from 



* A not irrelevant addition to that list may, however, be here noted, namely, 
the ordinary Codium toinentosum, which was found by Professor Phillips and is 
preserved in his herbarium. A fragment of a frond of Ptilota phuiiosa, in- 
scribed " Ilfracombe E. T.," also occurs in his collection. But as the plant 
does not occur in this well-worked region, the locality given must be regarded 
as erroneous. 



40 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

the Isle of Man. Whether it is spreading at all it is not yet possible 
to say. Though Cardigan Bay as a whole is not good for marine 
algae, a certain amount of excellent ground occurs here and there 
in both the northern and southern parts ; and the presence of a 
very large number of species at Dinas Bay, Pembrokeshire, indi- 
cates that algal spores are widely distributed, and that the plants 
are ready to thrive when the conditions are suitable. Hence it is 
unlikely that geological factors are wholly responsible for the 
absence of the algge we have been considering. Their distribution 
on the south and east of Ireland requires to be reinvestigated, 
and when this has been done it will be profitable to again con- 
sider the question of tides and currents. Meanwhile, this con- 
tribution as to their distribution in Great Britain may not be 
superfluous. 

P.S. — Since the above was written, an interesting paper by 
C. L. Walton on the shore fauna of Cardigan Bay has come to 
hand (Journ. Mar. Biol. Assn. vol. x. No. 1, Nov. 1913, pp. 102- 
113). In describing the geological features of the bay, the author 
draws attention to the large quantity of residual drift, and its 
injurious effect on the fauna. He also notes the importance of 
the dip and strike of the older rocks, and remarks that when the 
strike is parallel to the coast, if the dip is low the rocks are 
barren ; if high, with a landward dip, they are also barren ; but if 
high and seaward, there may be a fairly good fauna on the land- 
ward slope. With regard to these factors, contrasts as well as 
similarities will be seen when the algal vegetation is considered. 
Geological points of this nature have been largely overlooked by 
writers on algal ecology ; but it is clear that for the more detailed 
study of the vegetation they must be carefully considered, as they 
not only directly account for the presence or absence of certain 
associations, but in the case of hard rocks, especially, largely 
determine the general contour of the foreshore. The points 
emphasized by Mr. Walton do not, however, throw any further 
light on the alg^ discussed above. 



DOESET PLANTS. 
By H. W. Pugsley, B.A. 



During the summer of 1912, and again in 1913, I spent a 
fortnight at Swanage, which is a good centre for field botany. 
The following brief notes may be of interest. On both occasions I 
searched on the east side of Littlesea for Scirjncsparvulus, but with- 
out success ; and as other botanists have recently similarly failed 
to find it there, I fear it may have been extirpated by the inroads 
of the sand, which at some points is obviously advancing towards 
the lake. In 1913 I was accompanied on several walks by Mr. 
C. B. Green, who is compiling a very exhaustive list of local 
records. 



DORSET PLANTS 41 

Fumaria officinalis L. var. Wirtgeni Haussk. — Quite typical 
near Wareham Eailway Station. 

Spergularia marginata Kittel. — In the Flora of Bournemouth 
this is recorded only for Keysworth (near Wareham), but in 
following the shore of the harbour from Poole to Sandbanks it 
was found to be nearly as common in the salt-marshes as S. salina 
Presl. It still occurs on the dry cliffs at Tilly Whim, with Aster 
Tripoliiwi, as recorded in the Flora of Dorset. 

Astragalus glycyphyllos L. — A single plant of this was observed 
in 1912 on a grassy roadside between Swanage and Durlstone 
Head. Its origin there is not easily explained, as it is not a 
species likely to be introduced ; and it may occur naturally in 
some of the enclosed ground in that vicinity. It is recorded for 
Dorset by Pulteney without locality, and the only specific habitat 
in the Flora is " Between Ashmore and Kushmore " in the north- 
east of the county. 

Atriplex laciniata L. — The Flora of Dorset remarks of this 
plant " North and South Haven beaches. Bell Salter ; not con- 
firmed since Pulteney's time," and the Flora of Bournemouth 
states " an old record not confirmed of late." Mr. Salmon 
(Journ. Bot. 1911, 365) notes the species for South Haven, and 
in 1913 it occurred in fair quantity on the beaches at both North 
and South Haven. 

Salicornia disarticulata Moss and S. appressa Dum. — Sandy 
marsh at South Haven. Both confirmed by Dr. Moss. 

Epipactis latifolia All. — A few plants near Durlstone Head. 
Hitherto recorded only for Creech Grange, in the Isle of Purbeck. 

Juncus compressus Jacq. — A dwarf rush seemingly referable to 
this species grows with /. Gerardi Lois, in a few spots near 
Littlesea, and some intermediate individuals of possible hybrid 
origin were also observed. The plant does not match typical 
/. compressus, as its ripe capsules, while clearly exceeding the 
perianth-segments, are shorter and more globular ; and it closely 
resembles a form collected by Mr. J. W. White at Borrow, 
Somerset, and described in Journ. Bot. 1889, 49. Buchenau 
reported Mr. White's plant to be intermediate between /. com- 
pressiis and /. Gerardi, but it apparently finds no place in his 
monograph in Engler's Botanischen Jahrbiicher, Band xii. p. 185 
(1890), or in his subsequent works on Juncus, and would seem to 
be still an unnamed form. It is intended to deal further with 
this rush when fresh flowering material can be obtained. J. com- 
pressus has not been previously recorded for the Isle of Purbeck. 

Deschampsia setacea Eichter — Wet heath near Stoborough. 
New to the Isle of Purbeck. 



MR. JOHN GILBERT BAKER. 

A PLEASANT function took place at Kew on January 13, when 
an address of congratulation on the attainment of his eightieth 
birthday, signed by those who had been associated with him 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [February, 1914.] e 



42 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

during his long connection with the Herbarium of the Eoyal 
Gardens, was presented to Mr. John Gilbert Baker, one of the 
oldest surviving contributors to this Journal, of which he was at 
one time assistant editor. The Morning Post of the following 
day published an account of an interview with Mr. Baker, from 
which we take the following autobiographical details: — 

" I come of a family of yeomen farmers who were Quakers, 
and I was born at Guisborough, in Yorkshire, where my father 
was a general merchant. My earliest recollections are of the 
quiet little country town of Thirsk, to whicli my father removed 
his business when I was only six months old. At the age of nine 
I was sent to the Quaker school at Ackworth, where I remained 
for three years, at the end of which time I was transferred to 
another Quaker school, that of York. Among my schoolfellows 
at York were Joseph Rowntree, the founder of the well-known 
cocoa business, John Rowntree, his brother, Henry Seebohm, 
who became famous as an ethnologist [ornithologist] , and two 
other brothers, George and Henry Brady, both of whom after- 
wards became Fellows of the Royal Society, a distinction which 
was conferred on myself as long ago as the year 1875. The 
Quaker school at York was a capital place. The discipline was 
mild, which was not the case, I believe, at most of the schools in 
my youthful days, and above all special attention was given to 
the natural science which soon became my delight. Of course, 
at the time of which I speak, that is to say early in Queen 
Victoria's reign, scientific study was not nearly so widespread as 
it is now. My school was the first to institute a Nature Study 
Society, and to this practically all the boys belonged. We used 
Babington's Manual, an excellent book of its kind, though costly 
according to present notions, and we used to go botanising in 
our leisure time in the fields round about the old Cathedral 
city. I entered into the pursuit with such enthusiasm that 
before I had been at the school twelve months I won a prize for 
the best collection of plants, and was thereupon made curator of 
our little herbarium. The Headmaster, Mr. John Ford, was not, 
so far as I am aware, specially devoted to scientific study, but 
several of the teachers were ardent botanists. I left school at the 
age of fourteen and went into my father's business, where I 
remained for eighteen years. During that time I was not wholly 
engrossed in commercial pursuits. 

" All my spare time was employed in studying botany, and 
during this period of my career I wrote my book entitled North 
Yorkshire : Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 
Geography. This was published by Messrs. Longmans, and a 
second edition was brought out in 1906 by the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. Three years after this work was published I 
received a communication which changed the whole current of my 
life. It was a letter from Sir Joseph Hooker, who had recently 
been appointed Director of Kew Gardens in succession to his 
father. Sir William, and in it he offered me the post of First 
Assistant at the Herbarium under Professor Daniel Oliver. Sir 



MR. JOHN GILBERT BAKER 



43 



Joseph was at that time a stranger to me, and his communication 
came as a complete surprise. I need hardly say how thankfully I 
accepted his offer. That was the beginning of a long connection 
with the Gardens that has been to me a source of continual 
delight. Evenually, as you are probably aware, I succeeded 
Professor Oliver as Keeper. I had the privilege of assisting Sir 
Joseph Hooker with some of his scientific books. Sir Joseph was 
a man of unbounded energy, and, in my opinion, one of the 
greatest men of science who ever lived. He had been a great 
traveller, visiting the Antarctic region among other parts of the 
world in pursuit of his favourite studies. His father. Sir William, 
was of a more stay-at-home disposition, but he did great things 
for the Gardens, which, when he first went there, were in a state 
of absolute chaos. It had been a private garden of the Koyal 
Family, and in the reigns of George IV. and William IV. had been 
greatly neglected. Sir William built three great houses, estab- 
lished communication with all the botanic gardens in the world, 
brought from Glasgow his herbarium and library, and, in short, 
made the place for the first time a thoroughly scientific institution. 
The good work has been well carried on by his successors, Sir 
Joseph Hooker, Sir W. Thiselton Dyer, and Sir David Prain. 
During Sir David Prain's comparatively short tenure of office he 
has built a beautiful series of tanks for hardy water-plants and 
bog and marsh plants, and has done a lot to the Rockery, while 
altering the walks in such a way as to give easier access to the 
temperate house and other points of interest. Sir William 
Hooker planned out a vast scheme under which all the plants of 
the British Dominions and dependencies, 50,000 in number, are 
to be made into a list. That scheme began with Australia, and 
is not yet finished, although the end is now in sight. The 
magnitude of the undertaking may be judged from the fact that 
in India alone there are 13,000 plants, more than are to be found 
in the whole of Europe. The fact is that in India you have a 
sort of variation in climatic conditions, from perpetual snow to 
extreme tropical heat. Africa is still to a large extent an un- 
explored region from the point of view of the botanist. The 
flora of the Cape has been completed, and in it are the names of 
10,000 plants. In tropical Africa scarcely a day passes but a new 
plant is discovered. Mrs. Talbot has recently made a collection 
in Nigeria, which totals 10,000 genera and 200,000 species. Of 
these 15 of the former are new^ as are 150 of the latter. 

" The science of botany, I need hardly say, is a very different 
thing from what it was when I began my studies. Linnaeus is 
quite out of date, although his system is still useful as a sort of 
index to plants, but in his day only about 10,000 plants were 
known in the entire world. The system of Linnaeus is what is 
called the artificial system, and it was superseded by that of 
Jussieu, which is the natural system. The difference between 
the two would be best described by saying that that of Linnaeus 
was a dictionary in which the different plants are given in alpha- 
betical order, while that of Jussieu is a grammar in which they 

E 2 



44 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

are arranged in groups. Jussieu's work was carried on by De 
Candolle, who classified according to the natural system all the 
plants known in his time. But when these eminent men wrote, 
geology can hardly be said to have existed, and our views of 
botanical science have been profoundly affected by the discovery 
of the law of evolution. No one now believes that there have 
been successive creations in the sixteen geological periods. With 
plants as with animals it has been a case throughout the world's 
history of the survival of the fittest. The teaching of botany in 
England was altered under the regime of Sir W. Thiselton Dyer, 
a great organiser. Before his time lecturers dwelt on the natural 
orders and external appearance of plants ; now the German 
method is followed of studying the cells under the microscope 
and the physiology of plant life. 

"Anything that would conduce to the welfare of Kew Gardens 
is of national interest, for it is by far the most important esta- 
blishment of its kind in the wide world. In the Berlin Gardens 
they mount their plants on rockeries and group them roughly 
according to the different mountain systems to which they 
belong, and this is a very interesting plan. But the Berlin 
Gardens do not vie in importance with ours, which extend to 
300 acres and are visited yearly by a million and a half of people. 
The existence of such a place for study reflects great credit upon 
our Government, which has not stinted the means of keeping it 
up. One of its best friends has been Mr. [Joseph] Chamberlain, 
who when he was in the Government obtained an extra grant, by 
means of which the great temperate house, one-eighth of a mile 
long, which had long remained unfinished, was completed. Mr. 
Chamberlain has always taken the greatest interest in the 
Gardens, which he used to visit regularly every year. I well 
remember those appearances of his, and the orchid which he 
invariably wore in his buttonhole. As you know, he is a great 
collector, and we often used to exchange plants with him. His 
collection of orchids at Highbury, Birmingham, is, I believe, 
worth £25,000. The great value of certain orchids consists in 
their rarity. As with other things, it is a question of supply and 
demand, and prices rise when they are sought after by wealthy 
collectors. The question of beauty is a subsidiary one. As a 
matter of fact you can buy some of the most beautiful specimens 
in existence for five shillings. I remember that we had a rare 
lily that was going to be photographed, but it was eaten up 
during the night by a cockroach. That cockroach did not know 
that his supper cost us something like £10." 



BIBLIOGKAPHICAL NOTES. 
LVa. — Miquel's 'Plants Junghuhnian^.' 

Some MS. notes in the copy of Miquel's unfinished Plantcs 
JunghuhniancB in the library attached to the National Herbarium 
supply important corrections to Mr. Dunn's contribution in this 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 45 

Journal for 1913 (p. 358). I have verified these notes, which may 
be tabulated as follows : — 

( [Flora, 1851, p. 302, and 
Fasc. 1 = pp. 1-106; March, 1851 Wikstrom, .Irs^^era^^. 1851, 

( p. 133 (1855).] 
„ 2= „ 107-270; 1852 [Wikstrom, ^. c] 

([Gramineae (p. 341) bears date 
Febr. 1854 ; see also Wikstr. 
op. ciL, 1853-54, p. 125 
(1856).] 
[ [Lichenes (p. 427) and Colle- 
„ 4= „ 395-522; 1857 macese (p. 491) bear date 

I Febr. 1856.] 
The enumeration of the Hepatic®, excerpted from vol. v. of 
Verhandl. dcr K. Akademic Wettcnschcqjpen, 1857, and included in 
fasc. 4, terminates abruptly. It was evidently intended to issue a 
completion of the work, for van den Bosch in vol. ix. of the work 
just cited (" Hymenophyllacege Javanicse," 1861) and in Nederl. 
Kruidk. Archie/, iv. (" Synopsis Hymenophyllacearum," 1859) 
quotes pp. 545-571 of " fasc. 5, ined." -^ ^ Wiltsheae. 

LVI. — "The Department of Botany." 

The account of the Department of Botany occupies pp. 79-193 
of the first volume of The History of the Collections contained in 
the Nat2iral History Departments of the British Museum which 
was published in 1904. It is divided into three portions : — 
1. General Sketch (pp. 79-84) ; 2. Chronological Account of tho 
Principal Accessions to the Botanical Collections to the end of 
1902 (pp. 85-128) ; 3. Alphabetical List of the more important 
contributions to the Collection of Plants in the Department of 
Botany (pp. 129-193). It is stated in the Preface to the volume 
that the section was undertaken by " Mr. George Murray, assisted 
by Mr. Britten " : Mr. Murray's name is appended to it at the 
foot of p. 193 ; and on p. 84 is a note : " Mr. Murray desires to 
state that advantage has been taken of Mr. Britten's unique 
knowledge of the history of the botanical collections. He, with 
Mr. Gepp's help, has completed the work." 

How far this represents the facts of the case is sufficiently 
well known to those who were officially employed in the Depart- 
ment at the time of the preparation of the work ; but it may be 
worth while to place these facts on permanent record. With the 
exception of the second section, which was transcribed from the 
records of accessions by Mr. F. G. Wiltshear, now in charge of 
the Departmental Library, the whole of the work was done by 
myself, with the help of Mr. Gepp in regard to the collections 
of Cryptogams. Mr. Murray's only part in the book was the 
addition of his autograph and the note quoted above, which was 
added, though not in the form that we had accepted as satis- 
factory, in consequence of representations made to him by Mr. 
Gepp and myself. Mr. Murray did not even read the proofs, 
although he officially passed them for press. James Britten. 



46 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

SHORT NOTES. 

EoMULEA CoLUMNJE. — It seems to have escaped the notice of 
British botanists, who now uniformly adopt it, and indeed of 
botanists generally, that, on the principle of priority, this name 
cannot stand. As the Index Ketvensis correctly shows, it is 
synonymous with Ixia parvifiora of Salisbury, who was the first 
to give it a specific name. Eichter (PI. Europ. i. 252 (1890) ) cites 
Salisbury's name in his synonymy of Bomulea Columnce, quoting 
this latter from its first publication by Sebastiani and Mauri (Fl. 
Eom. Prodr. 18 (1818) ). Bomulea parviflora of Ecklon, cited in 
the Index (Top. Verz. 19 (1827) ) is a nomen muhim, doubtfully 
referred by Mr. Baker (in Dyer, Fl. Cap. vi. 1, 42) to his var. 
parviflora of B. rosea, and therefore cannot stand. Salisbury's 
description is from a plant " sponte nascentem in Ins. Jersey, 
legit E. Finlay." Specimens from this collector, of whom I know 
nothing more — he was apparently the first to find the plant in the 
Channel Islands — are in Herb. Banks ; the sheet was indorsed by 
Dryander: "Guernsey, on the sides of hills in dry places; in great 
quantity near Irwin's Eedoubt. Jersey, near Grouville, in sandy 
places, Lieut. Finlay." Other specimens were sent from Jersey 
by Mr. Gosselin, and it was partly from the latter that the 
material was received upon which the figure in English Botany 
was based ; a note by Sowerby on the plate, which is embodied 
in the printed text, explains the composite nature of the figure — 
" Flower from a root sent by Sir Joseph Banks, and grown by Mr. 
Anderson at Kensington ; the remainder from a wild Guernsey 
specimen sent us dry by Mr. Gosselin." The full synonymy of the 
plant will be found in Eichter (/. c.) ; in an abridged form it runs : 

EOMULEA PARVIFLORA, COmb. nov. 

Ixia parviflora Salisb. Prodr. 34 (1796). 

Ixia Bulhocodium Sm. E. Bot. 2549 (1813), non aliorum. 

Bomulea Columns Seb. & Maur. Fl. Eom. Prodr. 8 (1818) 
et auct. plur. 

Trichomona Columnce Eeichenb. Fl. Excurs. 83 (1830). 
It may be noted that both Eichter and the Kew Index erroneously 
cite the E. Bot. reference as " Trichonema Bulhocodium," and 
that Ixia Bulhocodium Sm. finds no place in the latter. — James 
Britten. 

The Adventitious Flora of a Library Court. — It may be 
of interest to record the following remarkable list of plants that 
were growing last summer in the back court of the University 
Library, Cambridge, all — with one exception — having originated 
from seeds that had been brought by wind or birds. In one small 
gravel-covered piece of ground, only nineteen feet square, in the 
south-west corner, with the buildings rising to a considerable 
height on two sides, there appeared no fewer than six species of 
Epilobium {E. angustifolium, E. hirsuUim, E. parviflorum, E. 
montanum, E. roseum and E. ohscur^tm), besides Tilia vulgaris, 
Acer Bseudo-platanus, Botentilla reptans, Sambucus nigra, Betula 



SHORT NOTES 47 

alba, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, S. caprea x {cinerea ?), 
S. aurita x caprea, S. {aurita ?) x caprea, Taxus baccata and 
Asparagus maritimus, whilst Marcliantia polymorpha covered most 
of the bare places. There were no catkins on the willows, so the 
Rev. E. F. Linton, who saw them in sitiX, could not with certainty 
name all of them. The Mulberry {Morus nigra) occurred in this 
same corner some years ago, but has been removed. On the 
gravelled border of other parts of the court were to be found Ilex 
Aquifolium, Gratagus Oxyacantha, Betula alba, Salix caprea, S. 
cinerea x {aurita ?), and Asplenium Buta-muraria (growing from 
a joint in the wall). Most interesting were two plants of the sea- 
coast grass Festuca rottbcellioides, discovered by Mr. Jenkinson, 
the Librarian, and transplanted by him from Clare College, where 
numerous traces of it could still be seen in the autumn, though 
the authorities had done their best to destroy it by means of a 
weed-killer. Many of the above plants, unfortunately, were 
ruthlessly destroyed during the holidays by the too energetic 
gardener. The front court, too, has its interest for botanists. 
Most Cambridge men have noticed the ferns Pteris aquilina, 
Lastrea Filix-mas, Asplenium Trichomanes, and the beautiful tufts 
of Asplenium Buta-muraria, that have for years grown, together 
with Linaria Cymbalaria, undisturbed, with their roots deep down 
in the cracks between the Senate House steps — " the best locality 
for ferns in Cambridgeshire ! " All the ferns excepting A. Tricho- 
manes occur elsewhere in the court. The list could be lengthened 
considerably if the names were given of the flowers that make the 
lawn gay in summer, when it has been left unmown for a short 
time. In the middle court the most conspicuous plants during 
the last year or two have been Erigeron canadense (in great 
abundance), Epilobium montanum, and Linaria Cymbalaria. — 

G. GOODE. 

Euphorbia gibraltarica (pp. 10, 13). — The attribution of 
this name to Mr. N. E. Brown is an error for which I am not 
responsible. Mr. Brown was good enough to help me in working 
out the species, but the ultimate naming and description are my 

own. A. H. WOLLEY-DOD. 

Utriculakia ochroleuca. — To the list of counties on p. 10 
should be added: "92. Aberdeen S. Dr. Trail sp." — Arthur 
Bennett. 



BEVIEWS. 

Biochemio der Pfianzen. By Friedrich Czapek. Erster Band. 

Pp. xix. and 828. Jena : Fischer. 1913. Paper, 21 marks ; 

cloth, 25.20 marks. 

That the first edition of this work, published in 1905, in two 

volumes, containing 581 and 1025 pages respectively, supplied a 

generally felt demand is sufficiently indicated by the fact that it 

has long been out of print. In view of the enormous amount of 

work published during the last eight years in this extremely pro- 



48 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

gressive branch of investigation, one is at first surprised that 
the present volume, the general arrangement of which remains 
much the same as in the first edition, has grown only by about 
200 pages. However, a second glance shows that the author 
has now prepared what is practically a new book rather than a 
new edition. The explanation, apart from the author's unrivalled 
power of discrimination and compression, is simple. When 
Czapek's book first appeared, it was the most extensive work on 
biochemistry, but in the meantime there have been published 
numerous treatises dealing with every branch of the subject, 
including the great encyclopfedia (BiocJiemisches Handlexicon) 
edited by Abderhalden, Wehmer's Die Pflanzenstoffe, and a host 
of smaller works, among which we may mention the fine series of 
Monogi'aphs on Biochemistry edited by Plimmer and Hopkins. 

It is doubtless owing to the important technical applications 
of biochemistry that the publication of research papers has been 
so closely followed and accompanied by that of books summa- 
rising the results of these researches, with the result that perhaps 
in no other branch of science can one so readily keep in touch 
with the latest developments of the subject. Czapek's work, 
however, stands quite apart from all the others, for it is some- 
thing more than, and something very different from, a mere ency- 
clopaedia of the chemistry of plant products. Indispensable though 
books of the latter class are, there is perhaps even greater need 
for a philosophical treatise on the chemical physiology of plants, 
and this is what Czapek has supplied in this new edition of the 
Biochemie der Pflanzen. Instead of merely expanding the book 
in order to include the results of work done in biochemistry of 
plants during the last eight years, Czapek has, by wholesale con- 
densation and omission of material now available in other compi- 
lations and in special monographs, been able — without unduly 
enlarging his work — to give a critical summary of the progress 
made up to the present time in the direction of ascertaining the 
nature, relationships, and biological significance of the substances 
built up and broken down in the course of metabolism. Hence, 
this still bulky volume, packed with citations and serving as a 
guide to the extensive literature of the subject, is thoroughly 
readable, and presents a clear picture of the chemical aspects of 
plant physiology, which is only rendered the more complete and 
attractive by the wealth of detail introduced and fitted in place, 
the author never losing sight of the fundamental principles which 
the multitudinous details, if less skilfully handled, would tend to 
obscure rather than to illustrate. 

The volume opens with a concise historical introduction, in 
which the author reviews the general progress of phytochemistry 
from the time of Aristotle onwards. The general section (pp. 20- 
239) contains a critical account of the present state of knowledge 
and opinion concerning colloids and colloidal phenomena, catalysis 
and enzyme action, immuno reactions, chemical stimulation, &c. — 
in short, of the whole of the remarkable body of facts and theories 
resulting from the application of modern physical chemistry to 



BIOCHEMIK DBR PFLANZEN 49 

the problems of vital organization and metabolism. In con- 
cluding this section, in which the amazing progress of biochemistry 
is more strikingly reflected than in any other part of the book, 
the author considers the chemical aspects of heredity, variation, 
evolution, pointing out that in the light of the recent work of 
Keeble, Armstrong, and others, various colour varieties and 
mutants in flowers may be regarded as cases of " chemical 
mutation," and that many other morphological characters will 
doubtless be shown by future work to be the outw^ard and visible 
signs of inner biochemical changes taking place in the cell. 

The remainder of this volume is devoted to the carbohydrates 
(in the widest sense) and the lipoids (fats, waxes, phosphatides). 
It is impossible here to indicate, even by a bare enumeration of 
the chapter headings, the extraordinarily detailed and compre- 
hensive nature of the author's treatment of these groups of 
substances in their various relations to each other and to metabolic 
processes. Many will doubtless be inclined to consider the 
amount of condensation to which these chapters have been 
subjected as somewhat ruthless, so much that appeared in the 
first edition having been excised altogether in order to make room 
for new matter based on recent investigations. In many cases, 
for instance, in the sections dealing with chlorophyll and allied 
substances, the older work — largely based on impure extracts — 
has very pi'operly been omitted or relegated in severely condensed 
form to the valuable historical introductions which preface the 
main sections throughout the book. In other cases, however, one 
is inclined to wonder whether the author has not gone rather too 
far in his fixed determination to condense or omit material dealt 
with in other text-books, despite the fact that what the work has 
lost in encyclopasdic fullness (and perhaps dullness) it has cer- 
tainly gained in other directions. The outstanding feature of the 
work is the remarkable width of its range, the author having 
thoroughly ransacked the literature of pure and applied chemistry 
and botany in his brilliantly successful efforts to sort out and 
piece together a vast number of scattered observations which 
thus acquire a significance which would have escaped a writer 
less critical and less able to estimate relative values, while, on the 
other hand, a good deal of work which has formed the basis of 
uncritical and even extravagant theories is here dismissed with 
scant ceremony. Although the references to literature prior to 
1905 have been greatly cut down, this volume contains some 6000 
citations. It is almost incredible that any one author can have 
actually consulted every one of these thousands of books and 
papers. Hence, it is hardly surprising that one can detect a 
sHght slip here and there. For instance, in the section deahng 
with light intensity and its measurement, a footnote reference is 
given, following the heading " Messende Methodik " (p. 534), to a 
paper by Wiesner {Flora, Band 105, p. 127), which certainly does 
not deal with methods of light measurement, though its title 
(" Ueber die Photometrie von Laubsprossen ") might imply that it 
does. p ^ 



50 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Index Keiuensis Plantarum Phanerogaviarum Supplementuyn Quar- 
tum Nomina et Synonyma ojnnium Generum et Specierum ah 
initio anni mdccccvi usque ad finem anni mdccccx nonnulla 
etiam antea edita complectens ductu et consilio D. Prain 
confecemnt Herharii Horti Regii Botanici Kewensis Cura- 
tores. Oxonii e Prelo Clarendoniano [Nov.] 1913. 4to, 
cloth, pp. 1-252. Price £1 16s. 

Among the many works which issue from the Kew Herbarium, 
it may be doubted whether any has proved of more universal 
usefulness to phanerogamic botanists at large than the " Kew 
Index," to adopt the title by which it is generally known. It is 
therefore with much satisfaction that we receive the Fourth 
Supplement, which brings the work down to the end of 1910, and 
which, considering the arduous nature of the undertaking, has 
been issued with reasonable promptitude. 

In a prefatory note Sir David Prain indicates certain altera- 
tions which differentiate the present from the previous Supple- 
ments, as well as from the body of the work ; this it may be well 
to reproduce : — 

" Supplementum 4'"3i usque ad anni 1910 finem prolatum 
ita expolire maluimus ut magis botanices studiosis valuisset 
atque profecisset. Propositae consulto ad eum prsecipue adno- 
tandae sunt immutationes infra enunciatse. Imprimis annum in 
quo nomina edita sunt semper designatum est. Iterum nomina 
antea usitata sub nomina nunc utenda recitata sunt ; nominibus 
nudis inter synonyma enumeratis nomina accepta addita sunt. 
Nomina hibridarum arte operatorum negleximus : denique, nomina 
iam locis setate posterioribus perscripta et ex iis denuo memora- 
vimus." 

Small as these alterations are, they are distinctly improve- 
ments. The omission of dates of publication was, as we have more 
than once pointed out, one of the few oversights which detracted 
from the value of the Index and of its Supplements. We are glad, 
by the way, to note that these are given in the right place, i. c. at 
the end of the citation ("iv. 348 (1907) " ) instead of in the way 
frequently employed of late years (" iv. (1907) 348 " ) — a method 
which possesses no advantages and which, in the case of most 
periodicals, is positively inaccurate and therefore misleading. It 
is doubtless convenient that references to readily accessible works 
should in many cases be added to those indicating place of first 
publication, but it may be hoped that this will not lead to quota- 
tions at secondhand, to which it seems somewhat to lend itself. 

The citation of names already given after those now printed 
is presented in a new form : these are now preceded by a colon 
instead of by the sign " =," which in the original work was 
employed in more than one sense and was thus open to mis- 
understanding. All names are now printed in the same type ; 
the use of italics for synonyms is discontinued. The names of 
garden hybrids, as to which in the Index there was some in- 
consistency, " some being abolished and others retained," are now 
entirely excluded : garden names, however, even when nomina 



INDEX EEWENSIS 51 

nuda, seem to be thought deserving of a place : thus we have on 
the first page " Abutilon album, Ilort. ex Gentile PL Ciclt. Serves 
Jard. Bot. Brux. 3 (1907) nomen. — Hab.?" — a sufficiently doubt- 
ful plant. Names omitted from the Index and from earlier 
Supplements are included ; for a future Supplement it might be 
well to include a list of such names which will be found in the 
National Herbarium. The numerous still-born names published 
by Garsault in 1764 and 1767 are now included — a desirable 
addition in view of the fact that Gihbert's, many of which are on 
the same footing, found place in the Index. We note however 
that Gentaurium majus [Centaurea Gentaurium L.) is omitted — a 
somewhat important oversight, inasmuch as the association of 
this with C minus {Erythraa Centaurmm Pers.) has been cited 
as evidence that Garsault had no claims to botanical knowledge 
and that his names have no claim to recognition.''' 

It is of course only by use that the detailed accuracy of such 
a work can be tested, but so far as a necessarily casual inspection 
enables us to judge, this Fourth Supplement shows a great im- 
provement on its predecessors. The new names published in this 
Journal, which have in former Supplements often been overlooked, 
seem, so far as we have tested them, to be duly recorded, the only 
omission we have noticed being, curiously enough, Bazumovia 
hisiyida, to the omission of which from the Third Supplement we 
called attention when noticing that volume.! The work is 
singularly free from misprints — the only one we have noticed is 
in the third entry (" peudunculata ") — and the references are very 
carefully done (Berger should replace Eendle as the authority for 
Aloe pacdogona). We have thus little but praise for this Fourth 
Supplement : our only regret is that when alterations were 
being introduced, the insertion of a comma between name and 
authority should not have been abandoned, in accordance with 
general custom. And is it too much to hope that Mr. Jackson's 
long promised introduction to the work may be issued with the 
Supplement now in preparation ? 



TJie British Bust Fungi ( Uredinales) : their Biology and Classi- 
fication. By W. B. Grove. Cambridge University Press. 
Pp. xii. -{- 412, 290 figs, in text. Price 14s. net. 
The study of the Uredinales, the group of fungi known more 
popularly as "rusts," is one of the most fascinating in the whole 
realm of botany. It is only within comparatively recent times 
that some understanding has been arrived at with regard to their 
strange life-histories and their amazing niceties as concerns their 
particular host plants. One of the first systematic books (cer- 
tainly the best, if regard be paid to the amount of original work 
contained therein) to take any account of the biology of the group 
was Plowright's Monograph of the British Uredinecs and Usti- 

* See Jouru. Bot. 1909, 322, where in line 5 from top ^' majus" should be 
" TWjnws." 

t Journ. Bot. 1908, 267. 



52 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

laginecs, reviewed in this Journal for 1889. Since that time no 
Enghsh book deahng with the rusts has appeared, and, considering 
the vast amount of research which has been done on the Continent 
during the past few years — much of which seems quite unknown 
to British mycologists — the present book, gathering up this work 
as it does, should prove a welcome addition to our mycological 
literature. 

The first thing to strike one on perusing it is the very small 
amount of original work from the biological side : an occasional 
observation such as everyone must make is all that is recorded. 

The book is divided into two parts : general and systematic. 
In the former the life-histories of typical Uredinales are described, 
giving an indication of the variation met with. Other matters 
considered are sexuality, the nature of the so-called spermatia, 
the nuclear life-history, alternation of generations, the spore 
forms and their groupings, specialisation, and immunity. A 
further chapter deals with classification and phylogeny. As 
this portion of the book consists of only eighty-four pages, the 
various accounts are necessarily much condensed. Boom for a 
little expansion could have been obtained by a slightly different 
arrangement which would have saved a certain amount of repeti- 
tion. Most of the recent work on the special points in this section 
has been considered. It is here naturally that there are differences 
of opinion. The evidence brought forward of fertilization by 
" Christman's method " in Puccinia Caricis is quite inadequate. 
The phylogenetic tree on p. 83, which places the Ascomycetes and 
the Basidiomycetes on one line of development and the Uredinales 
and Ustilaginales on another, will not be accepted by many 
mycologists who understand the questions which arise. The 
other points in these preliminary chapters call for no comment 
here save that they seem to have been on the whole fairly 
stated. 

The classification adopted differs slightly from that proposed 
by Dietel in the Appendix to Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 
followed with minor modifications by the majority of recent 
authors, but Endophyllum is made the type of a family as 
in Dietel's first system. The order is divided into the Impedi- 
cellatee ; Melampsoracege, CronartiaceaB, Coleosporiaceee and En- 
dophyllacese : and Pedicellatse ; Pucciniaceae. The Melampsoraceee 
are subdivided into Melampsorese and Hyalopsoreae ; Coleosporiaceae 
into Coleosporieae, Ochropsoreae, and Zaghouanieae, and Pucciniacese 
into Puccinieas, Phragmidiese, and Gymnosporangieae, subfamilies 
proposed at different times by various authors. A generic key is 
given. In the body of the book the families are taken in the 
reverse order from that in which they appear in the classification 
and in the generic key, for which there seems no reason. The 
author tells us in his preface that the specific descriptions are based 
upon those of the Monographia Uredinearum of the brothers Sydow. 
" Those of all the species of which British specimens could be 
procured have been carefully revised, and there is hardly one of 
them that has not been added to or amended. Fischer's Uredineen 



THE BRITISH RUST FUNGI 53 

der Schweiz and McAlpine's Busts of Australia have also been 
found extremely useful " — the former, we should say, particu- 
larly so. 

Following the example of recent works line drawings of certain 
spore forms, usually the teleutospore, are given in most cases. A 
list of synonyms is given, but there is no attempt at completeness 
and very few dates are added. It would have been a great 
advantage to students to have dates in all cases. To confirm 
dates is a very heavy task, but when an author has really looked 
up all the references, it gives but little trouble to add the date, and 
in doing so he greatly helps those who have not access to a large 
botanical library. Very useful notes are appended to the descrip- 
tions, giving accounts of recent studies. It is in the gathering 
together of these scattered facts that the book will prove most 
useful. Annual critical rSsumes of such work appear in certain 
journals, but its relation to systematic mycology is often overlooked. 
The host plant, relative frequency, date, locality and universal 
distribution are usually all given. Where spore forms have not 
been observed in this country they are described within square 
brackets (except in the case of the interesting genus Miles ina). 
It would seem, however, that we may be accepting very many 
statements from observers in different countries with insufficient 
reservation since "as is now known, the life-histories of such 
heteroecious forms require to be worked out for each country 
separately." For instance, it seems unsafe to join up the 
aecidiospores and teleutospores of Gronartium Quercinum described 
from American specimens when only the uredospores have been 
found in this country, and " their dimensions are smaller " than in 
America. 

The author does not go as far as many with regard to the 
much named " biological species " and quotes with gusto the 
rather notorious case where Probst showed that one such species 
was confined to a form of a variety of a subspecies. It would 
seem that all the recently proposed genera of the old world have 
been adopted. There is still some uncertainty as to some of 
these genera. For example, for the old Ghrysomyxa albida a new 
genus KUhneola was proposed by Magnus. Into this genus 
Arthur put Phragmidium Tormentillce. and in this is followed by 
Mr. Grove. This same species, however, was placed by Magnus 
himself in the genus Xenodochus and this is accepted by Klebahn. 
A way out of the difficulty on the present lines would seem to be 
to make a third monotypic genus. A totally different proposition 
meets one in the case of the genus Puccinia, where in the present 
work 137 species are described. As no scientific arrangement of 
these has yet been proposed, Sydow's method of classifying them 
according to the host plant is adopted. Certain conceptions of 
the author as to what must be regarded as species seem rather 
open to criticism. The suggestion that Triphragmium FiUpendidce 
should be lumped with T. Ulmaria is one that will not be followed 
without the proof of inoculation experiments. The nomenclature 
is according to the International Rules (Brussels Congress, 1910) 



54 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

but in certain cases, e. g. Phragmidmm disciflorum, there seems to 

have been a shght misunderstanding as to what those Eules entail. 

A useful index of host plants, one of the species, a list of excluded 

species, a glossary, and a bibliography — not so complete as one 

would wish— complete the volume. The name of the publishers 

is sufficient guarantee of attractive printing and binding. The 

line drawings (there are also a few wash drawings) are clear. 

Mr. Grove has compiled a book, reasonable in price, which must 

be in the hands of all British mycologists. t -n 

•^ *=■ J. Eamsbottom. 

Gruppe7itoeise Arthildung. By Hugo de Vries. 8vo, pp. viii. 
365, with 121 figs, and 22 coloured plates. Borntraeger, 
Berlin. 1913. Price 22 Marks. 

More than ten years ago in his Mutations-Theorie De Vries 
endeavoured to show that the production of new species was, like 
any other physiological process, a matter for experiment. Much 
work has been done on the subject since then by De Vries him- 
self. Dr. E. Gates, and others, especially in relation to the genus 
CEnothera, investigations on which played so important a part in 
De Vries's original memoir. The present remarkably w^ell-illus- 
trated volume details the results of a large number of experimental 
crossings between species and forms of CEnothera and the relation 
of these results to the author's theory of the origin of species by 
mutation. 

The text is divided into five sections. The first, entitled "The 
Origin of Species through Mutation," is an exposition of the 
author's views on mutations in the light of his theory of intra- 
cellular pangenesis. The pangens are contained in the nucleus, 
and have each their special character. Their condition varies, 
and may be active, inactive, or labile, and the last-named state is 
the cause of the conditions requisite for mutability. Section ii. 
deals with " Keciprocal and Double-reciprocal Hybrids." The 
author points out that the products of reciprocal crosses are very 
often unlike, indicating that the characters contained in the pollen 
differ from those in the egg-cell. Such species De Vries terms 
heterogamous in contrast with isogamous species, in which pollen 
grain and egg-cell bear the same characters. By the process of 
gamolysis — that Is, the determination of these special characters 
by crossing — De Vries seeks to analyse the constitution of 
numerous natural species as well as mutants. Sections iii. and iv. 
are respectively headed " Twin-hybrids " and " The Pangenetic 
Investigation of New Species," and Section v. is a general dis- 
cussion on the " Causes of Mutation." Appended are a biblio- 
graphy of the literature of the subject since 1903 and a systematic 
list of the crossings in the genus CEnothera which are described 
in the text. 

The book is an important contribution to the study of genetics ; 
and not the least useful features are the series of photographic 
blocks with which the text is illustrated and the well-executed 
coloured plates at the end of the volume. ABE 



55 : 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

Mr. Cbdric Bucknall publishes in the Journal of tlie Linncan 
Society (xli. No. 284 ; December 29) a " Eevision of Symphytum,'" 
which, as will be expected by those who read his paper on some 
hybrids of the genus published in this Journal for 1912 (pp. 332- 
337), is evidently a very careful piece of work. He recognises 
twenty-five species : one of them — discovered by Shuttleworth at 
Hy6res in 1871, and distributed by him as S. floribundum — is 
now first described ; other new species are S. anneniacum and 
S. Bornmuelleri. The species which have been found in Britain 
as introductions are S. asperum, S. pcregrinum, S. tcmricicm, 
S. caucasicum, and S. orientate ; the confusion associated with 
the name asperrimitm, which has been applied to at least seven 
species, has been unravelled. The history of the genus is fully 
detailed ; there is a very full synonymy, including that of pre- 
Linnean authors, and a full list is given under each species of the 
specimens examined, and — perhaps a little redundantly — the 
names under which they appear in the herbaria consulted. The 
descriptions throughout are very full and show much personal 
investigation : the paper is, in fact, a model monogra.ph, and Mr. 
Bucknall is to be congratulated on the result of his many years' work. 

Notwithstanding the plenitude of botanical literature, com- 
prehensive works of reference on the various branches of the 
science are all too scarce, and much time is wasted and informa- 
tion overlooked in consequence. The Bradley Bibliography, which 
is being issued under the able direction of Prof. C. S. Sargent as 
Publication No. 3 of the Arnold Arboretum, is a welcome addition 
to this class of works. It is to be " a guide to the literature of the 
woody plants of the world, published before the beginning of the 
twentieth century," complete in five quarto volumes. Two of 
these, dealing with dendrology, have already appeared ; the first 
" includes all botanical publications containing references to 
woody plants, except those which are restricted to a particular 
family, genus, or species, which are found in the second volume 
and are arranged according to the system of Bngler & Prantl," 
and in chronological sequence under each subject. The third 
volume will be occupied with literature on the economic products 
and uses of woody plants and with arboriculture; the fourth with 
forestry, and the last with an index to the whole. Dr. A. Rehder, 
who has had this work in preparation for upwards of ten years, 
made a tour of the principal botanical libraries in Europe and 
America in his endeavour to render the enumeration as thorough 
as possible. Each title is given at ample length and followed by 
particulars of size, date and place of publication ; occasional 
annotations also add to the value of the entries. The volumes 
are of convenient format, and their fine typography is worthy of 
the Riverside Press from which they issue. The expense con- 
nected with the production of this work, which has been made 
possible by a family gift commemorative of William Lambert 
Bradley, must have been considerable, and is reflected in its cost, 
$100, or nearly £21.— F. G. W. 



56 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

A LONG and interesting account of William Gardiner (1808- 
1848), contributed by Mr. Alexander P. Stevenson to the recent 
part (xxvi. pt. 2) of The Transactions of the Botanical Society 
of Edinburgh, contains a note reprinted from Gardiner's Botanist's 
Bepository which may throw some light on the difficulties attend- 
ing the verification of George Don's discoveries : The innkeeper 
at Auchmithie, hearing Don's name mentioned, " pronounced a 
warm invective against that gentleman, who, he observed, had 
ruined these trees, for since he had been prowling about there, not 
a plant worthy of notice was to be seen. I had no reason to 
doubt mine host's assertion, for I have frequently searched Mr. 
Don's habitats in vain. I verily believe his plan respecting rare 
plants was — first to dig up all the specimens he could see, and 
then note the locality." 

The Second Circular of the International Botanical Congress 
for next year, issued last month, contains the "program of work" 
for the Congress, which was defined by the Congress of 1910 as 
follows : — 

" 1. To fix the starting-point for the nomenclature of {a) 
Schizomycetes (Bacteria) ; {h) SchizophyceoB (excepting Nosto- 
caceae ; (c) FlagellataB ; (cZ) Bacillariaceae (Diatomacese). 

" 2. To compile lists of nomina generica utique conservanda 
for (a) Schizomycetes ; (b) Algae (incl. Schizophyceae, Flagellatae, 
&c.) ; new lists for groups not included in the list of 1910 and 
also a supplementary list ; (c) Fungi ; {d) Lichens ; (e) Bryophyta. 

"3. Compilation of a double list of nomina generica utiqtie 
conservanda for the use of palaeobotanists. 

" 4. Discussion of motions relating to neio points which were 
not settled by the Eules adopted at Vienna in 1905 and at 
Brussels in 1910." 

The English members of the various committees for the 
consideration of these points are — for Mosses, Mr. Antony Gepp ; 
for Algae, Mr. Gepp and Mr. A. D. Cotton ; for palaeobotany, Dr. 
Arber, Dr. D. H. Scott, and Prof. Seward. Copies of the Circular, 
which defines the functions of the various Committees, may be 
obtained from the General Secretary, Dr. Eendle, to whom 
inquiries regarding the Congress may be addressed. Dr. Eendle 
is also a member of the Editorial Committee, " functioning as a 
Permanent Bureau of Nomenclature." 

The new edition of the Biographical Index of British and Irish 
Botanists is pi'actically ready for press, and it is hoped that it may 
be printed before the end of the year. The attention of our 
readers may be called to the list of little-known British botanists 
■which was printed in this Journal for 1912 (pp. 61, 130, 194) in 
the hope that further information might be forthcoming concern- 
ing those whose names appear therein. That hope has received 
but slight fulfilment, and we once more call attention to the list 
in case there should be some who have not yet forwarded the 
information they may possess. This should be sent to Mr. Britten, 
41 Boston Eoad, Brentford, Middlesex, who will also be glad to 
send a copy of the list to any who may not possess it. 



57 

NOTES ON BEITISH PLANTS. 
By C. E. Moss, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

I. SaGINA SAGINOiiDES. 

This species has come into some prominence recently owing 
to a discovery — or perhaps I should say a rediscovery — on Ben 
Lawers by the members of the International Phytogeographical 
Excm^sion, led by Mr. A. G. Tansley, in August, 1911. The 
particular Sagina which was then found and discussed has since 
been named S. scotica by one of the members of the party (Mr. 
G. C. Druce in Bot. Exch. Club. Brit. Eep. for 1911, iii. 14, 1912), 
and regarded as a hybrid of S. in-ocumhens and S. sagino'ides by two 
other members of the party (Dr. C. H. Ostenfeld in New. Phyt. 
xi. 117, 1912 ; Professor C. A. M. Lindman in Bot. Not. 267, 
1913). So far as I understand the position of Ostenfeld and 
Lindman, these botanists regard the plant as a fixed and sterile 
hybrid, which originated long ago, and which has since continued 
to reproduce and spread itself by vegetative means. My own 
view of the plant is that it is a variety of S. sagino'ides. 

If Druce (in Journ. Bot. 1913, 91) is correct in identifying a 
specimen of Kobert Brown's as belonging to the disputed plant, 
then this is the earliest specimen known. I am not, however, 
very happy with regard to this determination. The specimen 
clearly belongs to the species S. sagino'ides, as I regard it ; but 
Brown describes his plant as " decandris " and " pentagynis " ; 
and one of the capsules of the specimen is nearly twice as long as 
the calyx. However, Druce is doubtless able to identify S. scotica. 
There is no date or locahty on Brown's label ; but another speci- 
men of *S'. sagino'ides on the same sheet was collected by Brown 
on Ben Lawers in 1794. The label of the plant mentioned by 
Druce contains a MS. description and a MS. name ; and the latter 
is, in my opinion, a MS. synonym of S. sagino'ides. 

I am assured that the disputed plant has for many years been 
definitely known to many Scottish botanists, and that these did 
not regard it as sufficiently different from S. sagino'ides to merit a 
special name. 

Lindman [op. cit.) gives some interesting details as to the 
history of the disputed plant in Scandinavia ; and the present 
note emphasises the fact that it was clearly known to Eeichenbach 
over seventy years ago, and known more or less clearly to several 
other Central European botanists in more recent years. It is not 
a rare plant in herbaria, where it is sometimes named S. ^;?-o- 
cumhens, but usually S. sagino'ides. 

Whilst the disputed Sagina was being discussed on Ben 
Lawers by the members of the International Phytogeographical 
Excursion, I dug up two sods of the plant. One of these I 
forwarded to Mr. E. W. Hunnybun, who drew the specimen for 
volume iii. of the Gamhvidgc British Flora; and the other I 
forwarded to Cambridge to be grown in my garden. Here it has 
flourished; and I have also been fortunate in successfully growing 

Journal op Botany. — Vol. 52. [March, 1914.] f 



58 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

specimens of the larger form of S. saginoules from the same 
locality. Hence I have had excellent opportunities of comparing 
the one with the other, and both with the alHed species S. pro- 
cumhens. 

In my opinion, the disputed Sagina has neither tlie appearance, 
nor the characters, nor the general behaviour of a hybrid. It is, 
in its essential features, constant over a very vast area in the 
northern hemisphere : in Scotland, it grows on several mountains 
in situations where its alleged parents are absent : the characters 
of the plant remain constant in cultivation : its pollen is normal : 
it produces, in abundance, plump capsules filled with good seeds ; 
and there is, so far as I can judge, no evidence of any factorial 
segregation. Under all these circumstances, I prefer to await the 
results of actual experiments before accepting the hypothesis, so 
ably maintained by Ostenfeld and Lindman, that the plant is of 
hybrid origin. 

As great emphasis has been placed upon the alleged infertility 
of the disputed plant, I repeat that in my garden it produced good 
seed freely throughout the summers of 1912 and 1913. In 1912, 
I sent samples of this seed to Druce and Ostenfeld. In early 
September, 1913, the Eev. E. S. Marshall and I visited Ben 
Lawers, and found that the little Sagina was quite fertile in its 
native haunts. Professor P. Graebner also states (fide Druce in 
Journ. Bot., loc. cit.) that the plant is fertile in the Botanic 
Garden at Berlin. I suggest that the apparent sterility of many 
herbarium specimens of this plant is due to their immaturity, 
and to their having been collected too early."'' This explanation is 
more especially likely to be correct when the "barren" herbarium 
specimens possess tetramerous flowers, for, as is shown later 
on, such flowers are common in the disputed plant in its early 
flowering stage. 

It is true that the disputed plant propagates itself very readily 
by vegetative means ; but all the British perennial members of the 
genus reproduce themselves more or less freely and effectively in 
what is essentially the same manner. 

The disputed plant is a little nearer S. procumhens than its 
ally, though it will be generally admitted that this fact does not 
demand the hypothesis of hybridity. 

A statement that the capsules of the disputed plant (" S. scotica 
Druce ") are larger than those of its near ally (" S. saginoules L.") 
is due to an accidental inversion of the names of the two plants 
{vide Journ. Bot. 142, 1913). 

The first published account of the two plants was given by 
Eeichenbach in his Icones Fl. Germ, et Helv. vol. v. (1841). Here 
both plants were named and figured. Eeichenbach placed them 

* A parallel case may here be mentioned. Salicornia fruticosa L. is very 
rarely found with ripe seeds on herbarium sheets : the seeds are not ripe until 
late October or November, when few collectors are at work. On the other hand, 
ripe seeds of S. glauca Del. are very common in herbaria : this species ripens its 
seeds nearly two months earlier than S. frnticosn, and at a time therefore 
when plant collectors are busy. 



SAGINA SAGINOIDES 59 

both in his genus Spergella, a genus, I may add, which is rightly 
reduced to Sagina by all modern botanists. The disputed plant 
was there named Spergella saginoules, its larger ally Spergella 
macrocarpa. I do not detect the slightest confusion here. 
Eeichenbach, it seems to me, chose to regard the smaller of the 
two plants as the Linnaean type of the species ; and the larger 
plant he separated from it as a distinct species. The only differ- 
ence here between Eeichenbach and some other botanists is that 
Eeichenbach regarded the smaller plant as the Linnaean type, 
and others have so regarded the larger plant. There is nothing 
in the original Linnaean description to enable anyone to decide 
which of the two plants is really the Linnaean type : the specimen 
in the Linneean herbarium, whilst certainly belonging to the 
species S. sagmo'idcs as I understand it, is too young and too 
incomplete for me to state to which of the two forms it should be 
referred ; and therefore it seems to be essentially a case where the 
choice of the first author who separated the plants is binding. 
Some authors later than Eeichenbach have perhaps confused the 
issue by assuming that Spergella macrocarpa Eeichenb. w^as a 
larger plant than any described form of Sagina sagino'ides ; and 
perhaps this supposititious plant is the var. macrocarpa or the 
Sagina macrocarpa of some botanists. This, however, does not 
apply to all botanists who have taken up Eeichenbach's names ; 
and even if it did, it would not invahdate Eeichenbach's un- 
equivocal view of the case. Beck (Fl. Nied. Ost. 358, 1890) is 
perfectly clear about the matter, for his var. Jiiacrocarpa is 
definitely Spergella macrocarpa Eeichenb., and his var. typica is, 
by description, Spergella sagino'ides Eeichenb. In thus reducing 
Eeichenbach's two species to varietal rank, Beck has in my 
judgment correctly assessed the relationship of the two forms. 

Brilgger (in Jahresber. Naturf. Granbiind, xxiii.-xxiv. 71, 1881) 
has recorded a plant from the Bernina district of Switzerland as 
" Sagina saxatilis xprocumbens," adding in brackets after a short 
description and note " (S. media Brgg.)." The description given by 
Briigger is not a very satisfactory one ; and the only specimen so 
named in Briigger's herbarium at Chur is, as stated by Lindman 
{op. cit.), neither the disputed Sagina nor any other form of S. sagi- 
no'ides. Lindman's words (p. 273) are: — "Dr. Thellung has noted 
on the label [of Briigger's plant] that it is a common [form of] 
S. procumhens with some pentamerous flowers," and adds that he, 
Lindman, finds Thellung's identification to be "quite correct." 
However, from the evidence of unnamed specimens among Briig- 
ger's plants named S. procumhens, Lindman beheves (p. 274) that 
" there is in Briigger's herbarium quite sufiicient material of a 
' Sagina media ' " ; and he accordingly adopts Briigger's name for 
the disputed Sagina. This name, I think, should be cited as 
" X S. media Briigger emend. Lindman." 

Wohlfarth (in Koch's Syn. ed. 3, i. 268, 1892) divides Sagina 
sagino'ides (sub nom. S. linncBV') into {a) var. micrantha and {h) 

* The point of view which I adopt with regard to the use of small letters 
for trivial names was stated in this Journal for 1913, p. 21. 

F 2 



60 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

var. decandra : these varieties date back to Ledebour's Fl. Eoss. i. 
339 (1842). So far as I can judge, the var. decandra is S. sagino'ides 
as understood in the present communication ; and the var. mi- 
crantha (= Si)cr(jula micrantha Ledebour Fl. Alt. ii. 183, 1830) is 
a plant unknown to me. 

Lagerheim (in Kgl. Norske Vidensk Selsk Skr. for 1898, no. i, 

4, 1898) found the disputed Sagina (i. e., S. sagino'ides var. typica 
Beck) in Scandinavia, and stated his view that the plant is a 
hybrid of S. 2^vociimbens and S. sagino'ides : Lagerheim's name 
may therefore be written x S. normanniana ; and this name is 
not open to the objection — an objection which applies to the 
name x S. media — that the author gave an inferior description 
and perhaps mixed or confused his own specimens of his own 
plant. 

It is worth noting that Swartz (in K. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 
44, 1. 1, fig. 2, 1789) describes his Spergula sagino'ides as possessing 
only five stamens. Smith draws attention to this statement — 
exemplified also in Swartz's figure — when describing his own 
plant and figure (Eng. Bot. ed. 1, t. 2105), and adds that whether 
his (Smith's) plant is Swartz's or not it is certainly Linne's. As 
Presl cites Smith's figure when founding his Sagina linncBi, we 
have, in this remark of Smith's, the origin of Presl's trivial name. 

In all the specimens of Sagina sagino'ides which I have observed, 
including both the forms here discussed, the stamens have been 
n + n, where n is four or five ; and Presl correctly gives the number 
of the stamens of the species as eight or ten. I do not doubt that 
Presl deliberately included both forms of the species in his S. linncei, 
for tetramerous flowers in the larger form are quite rare. It is 
also fair to say that Smith also included both forms in his Spergula 
sagino'ides, for both forms are so named in his herbarium. 

From the point of view, then, adopted in the present paper, 
the following citations are set out : — 

Sagina saginoides Dalla Torre Anleit. Beob. Alpenpfl. 75, in 
Hartinger's Atlas der Alpenfl. (1882) incl. Sagina macrocarpa ; 
Britton in Mem. Torr. Club. v. 151 (1894) ; Spergida sagino'ides 
L. Sp. PI. 441 (1753) ! ; Smith Fl. Brit. 504 (1800) ! ; Sagina linnai 
C. B. Presl Eel. Haenk. ii. 14 (1831) ; Sagina saxatilis Wimmer 
Fl. Schles. 75 (1841). 

(a) S. SAGiNOiDES var. macrocarpa Beck Fl. Nied.-Ost. 358 
(1890) ; Spergella macrocarpa Eeichenbach Icon, v., 26, fig. 49636, 
(1841) ; Sagina macrocarpa Maly Enum. PI. Austr. 293 (1848) ; 
Sagina saxatilis var. macrocarpa Hausmann Fl. Tirol. 133 (1854). 

Icones : — Eng. Bot. ed. 1, t. 2105, as Spergula sagino'ides ; Fl. 
Dan. t. 1577, as Spergula sagino'ides ; Svensk Bot. t. 765, as 
Spergida sagino'ides ; Eeichenbach Icon. v. t. 202, fig. 49636, as 
Spergella macrocarpa. 

Exsiccata : — Billot, 1423 (partim), as Sagina linnai; Fellman, 
42, as Arenaria hiflora (corrected to ;S'. saxatilis) ; Fries, ix. 40, as 

5. saxatilis. 

(b) S. SAGINOIDES var. TYPiCA Beck loc. cit. ; Spergella sagi- 
no'ides Eeichenbach loc. cit. t. 4962 ; x Sagina normanniana 



SAGINA SAGINOIDES 



61 



Lagerheim loc. cit. ; S. glabra var. scotica Druce in New Phyt. 
X. 325 (1911) ! ; S. scotica Druce in Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Rep. 
for 1911, iii. 14 (1912) ! ; S. procwnbens x sagino'ides Ostenfeld in 
New Phyt. xi. 117 (1912) !, ? excl. syn. Briigger ; Lindman in Bot. 
Notiser. 267, et fig. (1913) !, ? excl, syn. Briigger ; x S. media 
Briigger [loc. cit.] emend. Lindman oj;. cit. p. 273. 

Icones : — Reichenbach oj). cit. t. 4962, as Spergella sagino'ides. 

Exsiccata : — Billot, 1423 (partim), as Sagina linncei ; Reichen- 
bach, 1095, as Spergella sagino'ides ; Schultz et Winter, i. 21, as 
Sagina linnai. 

In citing Billot's No. 1423 (as exemplified in Herb. Univ. 
Cantab.) under both varieties, I am casting no reflection on his 
perspicacity. I think it is quite probable that he deliberately in- 
tended in these specimens to indicate his view of the species Sagina 
sagino'ides ; and, if this is really so, it only remains for me to add 
that I follow Billot (as well as Smith and Beck and probably 
Presl) in my concept of the species in question. 

The distinguishing characters of the two British varieties of 
Sagina sagino'ides are tabulated below. These characters are 
taken from fresh specimens grown in my garden originally from 
Ben Lawers, from fresh material growing on the same mountain, 
and from Lindman's excellent description [op. cit.). It is well to 
add that, as yet, cultivation of my own garden specimens has 
induced no alteration worth mentioning in the characters of 
either variety, and that Lindman (p. 272) seems to have detected 
no differences in Scandinavian material which had been in 
cultivation for fifteen years. 



S. sagino'ides var. typica. 

Habit 

Less robust and more strag- 
gling. Vegetative propagation 
by axillary buds or shoots 
more pronounced. 
Barren rosettes 

More numerous, but indi- 
vidually smaller. Leaves short- 
er (up to about 1-8-2-0 cm. 
long). 
Pedicels 

More slender. 
Floivers 

First flowers mostly tetra- 
merous. Later flowers mostly 
pentamerous. Latest flowers 
mostly tetramerous.''' 



S. sagino'ides var. jnacrocarpa. 



More robust and less strag- 
gling. Vegetative propagation 
less pronounced. 



Less numerous, but indi- 
vidually larger. Leaves longer 
(up to about 2-5 cm. long). 



Less slender. 

Usually pentamerous, very 
rarely tetramerous.''' 



* In this connection, it should be mentioned that S. procumhens is some- 
times pentamerous even when growing in lowland localities where any form of 
S. sagino'ides is unknown. 



62 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



S. sagino'ides var. macrocarim. 



On the average, about 1*6 
mm. long and 2-25 broad. 

Usually erect (or suberect) 
in fruit, rarely spreading. 

On the average, about 1'5 
mm. long and 2*0 broad.'-' 

On the average, about 5-8 
mm. long, and about 1'3-1"9 
times as long as the calyx. 



S. sagino'ides var. iyinca. 

Sepals 

On the average, about 1*3 
mm. long and 2'3 broad. 

Occasionally spreading in 
fruit, often erect (or suberect). 
Petals 

On the average, about 1-0 
mm. long and 1-5 broad.''' 
Capsides 

On the average, about 3-5 
mm. long, and about 1-1-1-3 
times as long as the calyx. 

I feel that it cannot be successfully maintained that the 
characters tabulated above are of sufficient importance to justify 
botanists in regarding the two plants as specifically distinct. It 
will be noticed that the differences are either comparative or refer 
to matters of mere number and size. I find that, when large 
numbers of specimens of the two plants are compared, the actual 
discontinuity between the two varieties is trifling, though I admit 
that with patient examination it is possible to determine precisely 
almost any complete and mature specimen whether living or dried. 
Further, if Druce is correct in identifying Kobert Brown's plant, 
alluded to earher on in this paper, as /S. sagino'ides var. typica 
(i.e., S. scotica Druce), then there is not merely an absence of 
discontinuity in the important character of tlie size of the capsule, 
but there is actually a considerable amount of overlapping. 

S. sagino'ides, in each of its British forms, may be distinguished 
from the allied S. procumbens by its more robust habit, its larger 
leaves which are scarcely mucronate, its usually longer pedicels, 
its more frequently pentamerous flowers, its larger petals, its 
larger capsules, its usually erect (or suberect) fruiting sepals, and 
its much greater abundance in sub-alpine and truly alpine 
localities, usually in wet situations. From the allied S. subulata 
it may be distinguished by its being totally glabrous and eglan- 
dular, by the much less pronounced apical mucronation of the 
leaves, and by its smaller flowers and capsules. It has to be 
confessed, however, that " species " in this genus have been made 
exceedingly small, and that reduction in other parts of the genus 
is desirable ; for example, are not S. ciliata and even S. reuteri 
too closely allied to S. apetala to be allowed to remain as separate 
species ? 

The two varieties of S. sagino'ides can scarcely be said to grow 
in distinctive habitats. In Scotland, both occur in and near sub- 
alpine and alpine streamlets and springs. The var. typica tends 
to spread from the springs and streamsides on to the surrounding 
siliceous grassland, and even on to small hillside Iclgers, more than 



* Petals are frequently present in S. procumbens, but are not more than 
half as long as the sepals. 



SAGINA SAGINOIDES 63 

does the var. macrocarpa ; but the two often occur side by side in the 
wetter sitviations. The var. typica descends to lower altitudes (ca. 
550 m.), and the var. macrocarpa to higher altitudes (ca. 1320 m.); 
but the stations overlap a great deal.* The latitudinal range 
of the two varieties is practically identical, as the var. typica occurs 
in Iceland, Scandinavia, Central Europe, Asia, North America, and 
Greenland, as well as in Scotland (see Lindman op. cit). 

As to the respective names the plants should bear if they 
are regarded (erroneously regarded, as I think) as different 
species, I submit that Eeichenbach's names have not, in recent 
discussions, received due recognition. The trivial names of 
Keichenbach are legally correct : he was the first author to 
name the two plants as separate species : his figures are less 
faulty than those of his predecessors : there is nothing in the 
original descx'iption to invalidate his choice of the type : there is 
no doubt or ambiguity or confusion regarding the identity of his 
plants : later authors, including such an eminent systematist as 
Beck von Mannagetta {loc. ci^.), have accepted his names ; and hence 
I can see no valid objection whatever (supposing the two plants 
are regarded as different species) against the names Sacjina macro- 
carpa (Maly, op. cit.) for the larger plant and Sagina sagino'ides 
(Linn, sub nomine Spcrgula, emend. Eeichenbach sub nom. Sper- 
gella) for the smaller plant. If it be contended that the name 
Sagina sagino'ides has under the new circumstances become a 
nomen confusum, then I think the name S. scotica (Druce, loc. cit.) 
holds the field ; but I should not agree to the rejection of a 
Linnaean trivial name where the confusion is so slight as in this 
case. If, indeed, such a contention were upheld, how many 
LinnaBan names, either generic or specific, would remain valid ? 

Whilst discussing this nomenclatorial matter, one may perhaps 
be pardoned for alluding to the form of such names as Sagina 
sagino'ides. By the International Eules, one has to reject such 
names as Castanea Castanea ; but it must be admitted that names 
of the latter form, whilst doubtless objectionable from some points 
of view, are less nonsensical than such names as Sagina sagino'ides 
and Gerastium cerastio'ides. 

The actual outcome of the whole discussion is that two very 
closely allied plants, properly distinguished and figured by 
Eeichenbach more than seventy years ago, have been brought 
into prominence, and their characters and distribution worked 
out in some detail. It is also clear that, even with precisely the 
same critical plants before them, systematic botanists cannot 
always agree as to the characters, the nature, and the status 
which these plants actually possess ; and until agreement has 
been reached regarding the status or rank of a plant, it is, in the 
nature of the case, quite impossible to attain unanimity with 
regard to the name it shall bear. 



* S. procumbens is recorded by White (Fl. Perthshire, p. 86) up to 1000 m. ; 
but all these higher altitudes attributed to S.i^rocnmbens now need revision, as 
this species has been confused with S. sagino'ides var. typica. 



64 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

THE MUSS^NDAS OF MADAGASCAE. 

By H. F. Wernham, B.Sc. 
(Department of Botany, British Museum.) 

In a recent paper (Journ. Bot. 1913, p. 233) I pointed out the 
possible significance of the relative size of the limb and tube of 
the corolla in the genus Mussanda. In the case of species with 
one of the calyx-lobes developed as a foliar attractive organ, the 
limb is relatively insignificant. In the case of the Mussanda 
species found in Madagascar and the Mascarenes — all endemic 
save one [M. arcuata) — the corolla-limb is relatively large, and the 
calyx-lobes subequal {^Landia), none being amplified into the 
foliar organ characteristic of, e. g., M. luteola. 

M. elegans is the only continental African species known in 
which the corolla-limb is amply developed and the calyx-lobes 
invariably subequal ; and it is thus worthy of note that the two 
conditions of the corolla-limb in question are in significant corre- 
spondence with two respective areas of distribution, viz., con- 
tinental Africa and the islands in question. A further interesting 
point in the same connection is the fact that M. arcuata, which is 
transitional from the aspect of the corolla-limb and the calyx- 
lobe development (Journ. Bot. 1913, p. 233), occurs widely in 
both the areas named. 

Again, all the species now concerned appear to be erect in 
habit, either shrubs or trees, with the exception of M. arciiata. 

All the eighteen species dealt with in the present paper are 
endemic in Madagascar, with four exceptions, namely, ill. arcuata, 
Poir., just mentioned, which occurs in Mauritius and Bourbon, as 
well as in Madagascar ; M. mauritiensis (p. 66) and M. Stadmannii 
Michx. (p. 66), confined to Mauritius; and 71/. Landia Poir., ex 
hb. Justice Blackburn, the locality of which is in doubt, but pro- 
bably Mauritius. 

Key to the Species. 

Plants glabrous, or almost so, including the flowers ; corolla- 
tube, 2"5 cm. long at most, usually much less, occasionally 

puberulous externally along 5 obscure ridges 1. arcuata. 

Plants not glabrous. Corolla-tube over 3 cm. at least, usually 
over 4 cm., never glabrous. 
Pubescence on principal leaf-veins adpressed, or mostly so. 
Calyx-lobes + rigid, appreciably broad, not subsetaceous. 
Leaves not glabrous above. 

Leaves not oblanceolate (except in M. asperula) ; 

+ rough above with very short hairs, usually 

much over 10 cm. long. 

Leaves broadly oval, shortly acuminate at most, 

barely twice as long as broad. 

Corolla-tube about four times as long as lobes 

2. tricJiophlebia. 
Corolla-tube less than three times as long as lobes. 
Calyx -lobes linear, mostly upwards of 1 cm. long 

4. Stadmannii. 



THE MUSS^NDAS OP MADAGASCAR 65 

Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, barely 5 mm. long 

usually o. Landia. 

Leaves long-acuminate, mostly over three times as 

long as broad 5. mauritiensis. 

Leaves rather small, mostly broadly oblanceolate, 

about two and a half times as long as broad 6. asperula. 
Leaves oblanceolate, sparsely pilose above with longish 

red hairs, barely 5 cm. at longest 11. ramosissima. 

Leaves glabrous above, or punctate, except for obscure, 
closely adpressed pubescence on veins. 

Corolla-tube over 6 cm. long 8. erectiloba. 

Corolla-tube not much over 4 cm. long. 

Leaves punctate above ; calyx-lobes mostly less than 

1 cm. long 9. punctata. 

Leaves not punctate above ; calyx-lobes nearly 2 cm. 

long in flower 10. hymenopogonoitles. 

Calyx-lobes subsetaceous for greater part of their length. 

7. Pervillei. 
Pubescence on principal veins below spreading. 
Flowers not sessile. 

Fruiting calyx-lobes attaining 2-2-5 cm. in length. 

Leaves less than 8 cm. long 12. arachnocarpa. 

Leaves over 15 cm. long 16. lyilosa. 

Fruiting calyx-lobes less than 1 cm., rarely over 1 cm. 
long, then setaceous. 
Leaves markedly scabrid above, with short hairs swollen 

at base 17. scabridior. 

Leaves not scabrid above. 

Leaves less than 6 cm. x 2-5 cm 13. Humhlotii. 

Leaves over 12 cm. x 6 cm 18. vestita. 

Flowers sessile or subsessile, solitary, or in a few-flowered 
head. 
Corolla-tube less than 5 cm. long, lobes less than 2 cm. 

14. inonantlia. 
Corolla-tube over 8 cm. long, lobes nearly 3 cm. 15. fusco-pilosa. 

Note. — The species are arranged as far as possible in order of 
their affinity. 

1. M. ARCUATA Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. iv. 392 (1795). 
Landia stelligcra et L. astrograiilia Comm. ex Hb. Mus. Paris. 
Nom. vulg. " Caca poule" (Bouton). 

Madagascar : Forbes ! Gerrard, 18 ! Baron, 6822 ! Ilumblot, 
197! Lijall, 288! Central: Baron, 570! 2472! 3692! 4767! 
Nossi-be : seashore, Hildehrandt, 2911 ! Mbatourana, between 
Tamatave and Antananarivo : Meller ! S. Marie Is. : Forbes ! 
Mauritius : Ayres ! Bojer ! Bouton ! Garmichael, 9 ! Graham ! 
Hilsenbenj £ Bojer \ Roxburgh I Sieber (Fl Maur.), 78! Thomp- 
son ! Bourbon : Aublet ! Balfonr ! Commerson 1 Hardioicke ! 

The above do not differ essentially from the Continental speci- 
mens (1913, 274). One or two of the Mauritius specimens show 
signs of a pilose midrib on the under side of the leaves and of 
hairs in lines on the corolla-tube ; but none can properly be 
classed with my variety /i jmbescens (I. c. 274). 

31. arcuata is strikingly distinct from all the other Madagascar 
species in its glabrous shoots, leaves and small flowers, as well as 



66 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

its scandent habit. Bouton remarks of this " arbrisseau liane " 
that it grows in the ravines in every part of the island of 
Mauritius, and flowers almost all the year round. He refers to it 
as a " plante medicinale." 

2. M. TRiCHOPHLEBiA Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xx. 66 (1883). 
M, ')nacro2)oda Baker, loc.cit. xxi. 410. 

Central Madagascar : Baron, 497 ! 1764 ! 2181 ! 2293 ! 3088 ! 
3642 ! 3644 ! 3974 ! 7017 ! Betsileo-land ! Baron, 107 ; East 
Tmerina, Andrangoloaka, Hildebrandt, 3615 ! Hbb. Mus. Brit. 
Kew. 

3. M. Landia Lam. 111. t. 157, 2 ; Poir. in Lam. Encyc. iv. 392. 
M. holosericea Sm. in Eees, Cycl. xxiv. n. 6 (1819). M. latifolia 
Poir. Encycl. Suppl. iv. 36. 

Mauritius ? Hb. Blackburn. Hb. Kew. 

In the absence of Poiret's type and the original of Lamarck's 
figure {supra), I find considerable difficulty in identifying this 
species. According to the figure in question, the leaf-bases are 
noticeably rounded, and the ovate calyx-lobes and ovary short. 
The only specimen I can find in the British herbaria which 
matches this figure at all satisfactorily is the one quoted, origi- 
nating from the herbarium of Mr. Justice Blackburn, now pre- 
served at Kew. This, collected probably in Mauritius, I am 
disposed to regard as the true M. Landia Poir. 

This is distinguished readily from the two succeeding species 
in size of calyx and ovary on the one hand {M. Stadmannii), and 
in leaf-shape on the other {M. mauritiensis). 

The confusion which has arisen among these three species is 
not improved by the fact that De Candolle (DC. iv. 372) gives 
M. Landia Sm. in Eees, Cycl. xxiv. as a synonym of M. Stadmannii 
DC. Smith's M. Landia is certainly the same as M. Landia Poir. 
and M. Landia Lam. 1. 157, for Smith quotes this figure under his 
M. Layidia, and Poiret's description refers to the same plant. 

4. M. Stadmannii Michx. ex DC. Prod. iv. 372. Oxyanthus 
cymosus Keichenb. in Sieb. M. Maur. {v. infra) ex DO. Prod. 
loc. cit. 

Mauritius : Sieber ii. 79 ! Bojer ! Bouton ! Carmichael, 165 ! 

Bouton's label reads : " Vulg. Quinquina rudigera. Croit 
dans les forets dans tous les quartiers de File. Arbrisseau se 
couvrant de fleurs blanches. Fl. mois de Fevrier." This has 
been confused with M. Landia (q. v.) ; but it seems to be quite 
distinct in its long, sublinear calyx-lobes and its elongated ovary. 

5. M. mauritiensis Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis sericeis ; 
foliis lanceolatis, longe acuminatis, basi acutis, apice acutissimis, 
supra asperulo-pubescentibus, subtus in venis sericeo-pubescen- 
tihus, 2)etiolo dense flavo-sericeo; floribus . . . fructibus oblongis 
sparse, pedicellis densius sericeis, corymbose dispositis ; calycis 
limbo lobis triangulari-lanceolatis acuminatis acutis dense sericeis 
coronatis. 

Mauritius: "in sylvis, ad radices montium," Bojer \ " Sur 
les hautes montagnes," Hb. Blackburn ! Hb. Kew. 



THE MUSS^NDAS OF MADAGASCAR 67 

Eeadily distinguished, even in the absence of flowers, from 
the previous species and M. Landia by the lengthily acuminate, 
large lanceolate leaves. The latter measure 14-22 cm. x 2-3-6 cm. ; 
secondary veins 8-10 pairs ; i^etiole to 1'8 cm. Peduncle 2*5-3 cm. 
Calyx-lohe^ 5-7 mm. Fruit 1*7 cm. long, 8-5 mm. wide. 

6. M. asperula Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis novellis densi- 
uscule appresse pubescentibus ; foliis oblanceolatis v. anguste 
obovatis, basi acutis apice breviter acuminatis acutis, supra 
scabridulis, subtus in venis primariis strigillosis in reticulo minute 
asperulo-pubescentibus aliter glabris, petiolo brevi, stijyuUs parvis 
lanceolato-triangularibus alte bifidis acutis insuper subsetaceis ; 
inflorescentia bis trichotome corymbosa ramulis appresse pubes- 
centibus, hracteis bracteolisque setaceis ; calycis lobis lanceolatis 
acuminatis acutis appresse pilosis ; corolla tubo extus breviter 
sericeo insuper parum ampliato, lobis ellipticis mucronatis ; ovario 
oblongo sericeo. 

Central Madagascar : Baron, 493 ! Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Near 71/. erectiloba Wernham, differing in the shape and indu- 
mentum of the leaves, &c. Leaves 5-5-9'5 cm. x 2-2-3"3 cm. ; 
petiole less than 1 cm. ; secondary nerves, 7-9 pairs ; stipules 
7 mm. long at most. Peduncles, primary, 3 cm. or longer ; 
secondary, 2*5 cm. ; bracts 8 mm. long. Pedicels, 1-6 mm. Calyx- 
lobes to 7 mm. Corolla-tnhe 5-5 cm., lobes 1*4 cm. x 4-6 mm. 
Ovary 6 mm. long. 

7. M. Pervillei Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis obtuse quad- 
rangularibus, novellis la3viter dilute brunneo-sericeis ; foliis amplis 
ovalibus breviter acuminatis acutis, supra asperulo-pubescentibus 
subtus in venis conspicuis sericeo-strigosis, reticulo tertiario fusco 
manifesto, petiolis mediocribus nonnunquam longiuscuHs sa^pius 
appresse sericeo-brunneo-pilosis, stipulis rigidiusculis a basi lato 
triangularibus setaceo-acuminatis extus sericeis ; florihus in pani- 
culis corymbosis multifloris subtrichotomis ramulis appresse 
pilosis, hracteis setaceo-linearibus ; calycis lobis subsetaceis ; 
corollcB extus primo densiuscule sparsiuscule tandem appresse 
pubescentis tubo gracili insuper parum ampliato, lobis ellipticis 
mucronatis ; ovario breviter strigilloso tardius glabriore, in bacca 
tandem breviter oblonga subglabra a calycis lobis setaceis coro- 
nata pedicellata maturante. 

Madagascar : North and north-west : Baron, 6373 ! 5800 ! 
Perville ! Nossi-b6 : Hildebrandt, 3003 ! 

Leaves 10-17 cm. x 5-5-9'5 cm. ; petiole l-2'5 cm. ; secondary 
veins 10-14 pairs ; stipules 1 cm. long, 5 mm. broad at base. 
Flowering peduncle about 2-5 cm. ; primary bracts about 8 mm. 
GalyxAohe's, to about 8 mm., somewhat accrescent in fruit. 
Corolla-tuhe 3-5 cm., or rather longer ; lobes about 1 cm. x 5 mm. 
Fruit 1-7 cm. long, 8-9 mm. wide. 

8. M. erectiloba Wernham, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis sparsim 
et obscure appresse pilosis mox glabrescentibus ; foliis ellipticis v. 
oblongis plerumque brevissime acuminatis basique apiceque acutis, 
supra Isevibus nisi in venis hie inde pilis brevibus appressis indutis 



68 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

glabris, subtus in venis sparsim appresse pilosis, petiolo saepius 
breviusculo similiter induto, stipidis basi brevi lato oblongo insuper 
bifidis subulate- v. subsetaceo-linearibus sparsim appresse pilosis ; 
injiorescantia trichotome corymbosa ca. 9-flora, bracteis setaceis, 
ramulis subglabris complanatis ; calycis lobis rigidiusculis a basi 
anguste triangulari linearibus subglabris ; corollcB tubo longo 
gracili insuper parum ampliato extus breviter sericeo, lobis lanceo- 
latis acuminatis acutis ; ovario anguste infundibulari basi attenuate 
sparsim strigilloso. 

Madagascar : Ankafana, Deans Coivan ! Tanala, Ambobimi- 
tombo forest, 4390-4680 ft., Forsyth Major, 274! Hbb. Mus. 
Brit., Kew, 

Allied to M. trichophlebia Baker, but differs especially in the 
shape and indumentum of the leaves and calyx-lobes ; and more 
nearly, perhaps, to M. Pervillei Wernham, from which it differs 
in the size of the corolla and the shape of the lobes. 

Leaves 6-5-8*5 cm. x2-3-3-5 cm., petiole to 1 cm., secondary 
veins 8 pairs ; stipule entire, basal part 3-4 mm., with two 
distant prongs 8 mm. long. Primary peduncle 2 cm., secondary 
yeduncles 1'3 cm. long, each commonly bearing 3 flowers with 
pedicels about 8 mm. long. Caly x-lohe^ 1-1-5 cm. long. Corolla- 
tube 6'5-7 cm. long, lobes 1-6 cm. x 4-5 mm. Ovary 7 mm. long. 

Var. 13 scABHELLA Wernham, var. nov. Foliis amplioribus 
supra scabridulis subtus in venis strigillosis ; corolla minus valida. 

Madagascar : Fort Dauphin, Scott Elliot, 2607 ! Chisel, 97 ! 
Hbb. Mus. Brit., Kew. Cloisel writes on his label : " Tatome, 
grand arbre a fleur rouge et blanc." 

9. M. PUNCTATA Drake, Hist. PL Madag. t. 447 (1897). Frutex 
nisi floribus subglaber ; foliis plerumque oblanceolatis brevissime 
acuminatis acutis, supra trichomis minutis basi inflatis hie inde 
conspersis punctatis, subtus in venis sparsiuscule brevissime 
appresse strigillosis, alitor glabratis, petiolatis, stipidis triangu- 
laribus bipartitis acutis ; floribus per 1-3 in axillis imis et caulis 
furcis dispositis ; calycis lobis linearibus nonnunquam inaequalibus 
extus qua ovarj2i7;i subcampanulatum ferrugineo-sericeis; corollce 
breviusculiE tubo extus rufo-sericeo insuper sensim ampliato, lobis 
oblongo-ovatis submucronatis. 

Madagascar: Mahalougouloue ('?), Thovipsonl Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Remarkable for the almost glabrous, punctate leaves, and the 
rather short flowers considerably widened above. As in the case 
of other Rubiaceae figured so excellently by d'Apreval for Drake's 
unfinished work, no description, unfortunately, is extant; but 
I have no doubt whatever that Thompson's plant is specifically 
identical with M. punctata as figured. Leaves not exceeding 
8-5-9 cm. X 3-3-3 cm., petiole 1-1-5 cm., 8-11 pairs of secondary 
veins. Peduncle 0-10 mm. Pedicel 1 cm. or more. 6'a/^a;-lobes 
usually 1 cm. or slightly longer. Gorolla-twhe 4 cm. long, widen- 
ing, from a distance of about 2-5 cm. above the base to nearly 
1 cm. broad at the mouth ; lobes 8-5 mm. x 5 mm. 

10. M. HYMENOPOGONOiDES Baker in Journ. Bot. xx. 138 
(1882). 



THE MUSSiENDAS OF MADAGASCAR 69 

Central Madagascar: Tanala, in forest, Baron, 313! 

Eemarkable for the narrow leaves, quite glabrous except for 
the relatively scanty and closely adpressed hairs on the veins 
below^, and for the long narrow calyx-lobes 1-6 cm. or longer in the 
flower, and increasing to over 2 cm. in the fruit. The whole plant 
approaches glabrousness, such indumentum as there is being very 
closely adpressed ; the parts thus present a remarkably smooth 
appearance. 

11. M. ramosissima Wernham, sp. nov. Verisimiliter frutex 
erectus, ramosissimus, ramulis novellis densissime appresse rufo- 
pilosis cortice tandem cinereo rugosulo indutis ; foliis parvis 
oblanceolatis apice subrotundatis nee acuminatis, utrinque 
praesertim in venis ac subtus densius appresse rufo-pilosis, 
petiolo dense rufo-sericeo ; stipulis lanceolatis bipartitis acu- 
minatis acutis ; florihus in foliorum ramulorum apicem versus 
confertorura axillis dispositis, longiuscule pedicellatis ; calycis 
lobis oblongo-linearibus subacutis dorso in costis 3-5 prominenti- 
bus rufo-strigosis ; corollcB extus densiuscule sericeoe tubo gracili 
parum insuper ampliato lobis elliptico-ovatis breviter cuspidatis ; 
ovario angusto in pedicellum insensim desinente rufo-strigoso a 
calyce manifesto superato. 

Madagascar : Hnmblot, 392 ! Hb. Kew. 

A very distinct species, readily distinguished by the shape of 
the small, red-haired leaves and the long slender flowers, &c. The 
affinity is with M. imnctata Drake, and M. hymenopogoiioides 
Baker. Leaves 4*5 cm. long, 1-7 cm. broad in upper part, with 
stalk as much as 6 mm. long and 6 secondary veins, prominent 
below, on either side of the midrib; stipules 5-7 mm. x 2-5-3 mm. 
Pedicel 1 cm., passing into ovary about the same length. Calyx- 
lobes 1-2 cm. x 1"7 mm. Gorolla-tuhe 5-5 cm. long, lobes 
1"3 cm. X 6-7 mm. 

12. M. arachnocarpa Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex v. arbor, 
ramulis sparsiuscule hispidulo-rufo-pubescentibus ; foliis chartaceis 
oblanceolatis basin cuneatum versus leniter angustatis breviter 
acuminatis acutissimis, supra in vena centrali impressa minute 
patento-strigillosis alitor hispidulo-pubescentibus, subtus praesertim 
in venis prominulis moUiter asperulo-pubescentibus, petiolo brevis- 
simo pubescente ; stipulis binis subulato-setaceis rufo-pilosis ; 
florihus in umbellis paucifloris terminalibus dispositis ; bracteis 
bracteolisque setaceo-linearibus ; fructu ellipsoideocostato sparsius- 
cule rufo-pubescente ; pcdicellis longiusculis ferrugineo-pubescenti- 
bus ; calycis lobis rigidiusculis linearibus subacutis velut bacca 
indutis. 

Madagascar: Fort Dauphin, Scott Elliot, 2624! Hb. Kew. 
Fr. May. 

The specimen, unfortunately, bears no flowers ; but it clearly 
represents a distinct species allied to M. Huviblotii, from which it 
differs in the shape and indumentum of the leaves, the stipules, &c. 

Leaves 5*5-7 cm. x 1*5-2 cm. ; petiole barely 5 mm. at most, 
secondary veins 8-11 pairs ; stipules 9 mm. Bracteole (fruit) 
6 mm. Pedicel (fruit) 1-2 cm. Fmit 1'5 cm. long, rather more 



70 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

than 1 cm. wide, crowned by the persistent calyx-lohes, attaining 
nearly 2 cm. in length. 

13. M. Humblotii Wernham, sp. nov. Verisimiliter frutex 
erectus, i-amulis novellis densiuscule ferrugineo-pubescentibus pilis 
patentibus, tandem cortice sublsevi nee rugoso indutis ; foliis 
crassiusculis elliptico-oblongis vix aeuminatis acutis basi obtusis v. 
subrotundatis, supra in vena centrali impressa rufo-strigosis aliter 
breviter sparsim strigillosis, subtus in venis prominentibus prseser- 
tim in centrali densiuscule aliter breviter et obscure patule pubes- 
centibus, petiolo brevi dense ut costa induto ; stijmlis parvis 
triangularibus acutis setoso-acuminatis bipartitis ; florihus pedi- 
cellis longiusculis dense rufo-pubescentibus in summis axillis 
solitariis ; calycis lobis linearibus subacutis rigidiusculis sparse 
pilosis ; corolla tubo extus pi'aecipue insuper densiuscule basin 
versus sparsiuscule plus minus patente pilosis, insuper nee multo 
ampliato, lobis ovatis breviter aeuminatis acutis extus rufo-sericeis 
intus minutiuscule pubescentibus ; ovario dense ferrugine sub- 
tomentoso. 

Madagascar : Humblot, 617 ! Hb. Kew. 

Allied to M. ramosissima, but distinct in the soft, spreading 
pubescence, the leaf-venation, and the size of the flowers. Leaves 
3'5-4-5 cm. x l'5-2 cm. ; petiole 6 mm. at most ; secondary 
veins 6-9 pairs ; stijndes not more than 6*5 mm. Pedicels barely 
1 cm. at most. Calyx-lohes, to 1*5 cm. long. Co?-o//a-tube about 
3"5 cm. long, lobes 1*4 cm. x 6"5 mm. Ovary 6 mm. long. 

14. M. monantha Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex ramulis novellis 
densissime rufo-pilosis; foliis ellipticis v. oblongis utrinque angus- 
tatis et acutis, supra in vena centrali densiuscule aliter sparsim 
tamen uniformiter rufo-strigosis margine ciliatis, subtus discolori- 
bus in venis dense aliter sparsim patente pilosis, petiolo brevi 
piloso ; stijndis membranaceis hirsutis triangularibus insuper in 
setis 2 divisis ; florihiis suaveolentibus candidis solitariis sessilibus 
V. subsessilibus 5-6 meris ; calycis lobis linearibus nonnunquam 
setaceo-subulatis inter longiores acutis ; corolla tubo insuper nee 
multo ampliato extus patente hirsute, lobis ellipticis breviter 
aeuminatis acutissimis extus sparsiuscule appresse pilosis ; ovario 
dense ferrugineo-piloso. 

Madagascar : TJiompson ! in Hb. Mus. Brit. Between 
Tamatave and Antananarivo, on clay at 3000 ft., Mellerl in Hb. 
Kew. 

An isolated species, with M. fusco-inlosa Baker, perhaps, as its 
nearest ally, but with many obvious differences from this ; it is 
especially remarkable for the solitary sessile flowers. 

Leaves 7-11*5 cm. x 3-5-4-8 cm., petiole barely 1 cm. at most, 
stipules 8 mm.; secondary veins 8-11 pairs. Calyx-lohes 1'8 cm. 
long. Corolla-inhe upwards of 4-5 cm. long; lobes 1'3 cm. x 7 mm. 
Ovary 5-6 mm. deep. 

15. M. Fusco-PILOSA Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xxi. 410 
(1885). 

Central Madagascar : Sarow, 2467 ! 2470! 6118! 



THE MUSS/ENDAS OF MADAGASCAR 71 

One of the largest-flowered species known, with corolla-tube 
nearly 9 cm. long, readily distinguished by the size and long, 
spreading indumentum of its sessile flowers. 

16. M. PiLOSA Baker in Kew. Bull. 1895, 105. 
North Madagascar : Baron, 6179 ! Hb. Kew. 
Distinguished by the dense spreading hairs on the narrow, 

oblanceolate leaves and the branchlets, and by the long linear 
calyx-lobes, nearly 2-5 cm. long in the flower. 

17. M. scabridior Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis hispidulo- 
molliter pubescentibus ; foliis inter majora, supra pilis brevibus 
curvatis basi inflatis scabris subtus breviter praesertim in venis 
hispidulis ; stiiyulis fere ad basin in setis 2 breviusculis distantibus 
divisis ; in/lores cent ia multiflora corymbosa, ramulis hispidulo- 
pubescentibus, bractcis parvis setaceis ; calycis lobis lanceolato- 
linearibus, in fructu parum accrescentibus ; bacca oblonga costata 
a calycis limbo persistente coronata. 

Central Madagascar : Baron, 1505 ! 3975 ! Hb. Kew. 

With affinities to M. vestita this is readily distinguished from 
all the other species by the markedly scabrid upper surface of the 
leaves. These are elliptical, reaching about 14 cm. x 8'5 cm., 
with pubescent stalk as much as 2 cm. long ; there are 8-11 
secondary veins on either side of the midrib; they are but shortly 
acuminate, with obtuse apex. 

18. M. VESTITA Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 166. 
Madagascar : Hilsenberg it Bojer ! Central : Baron, 3731 ! 

Betsileo-land, Baron, 55! Langley-Kitchmgl Hbb. Mus. Brit., 
Kew. 

Distinguished by the thick, velvety, light-coloured tomentum 
on the under surface of the leaves. According to Hilsenberg and 
Bojer the native name is Fatoora. 

P MACEOCALYX Wernham, var. nov. Calycis necnon corolla) 
lobis longioribus, hujus tubo loborum longitudinem bis paullo 
excedente. 

Central Madagascar : Anfakana, Deans Cowan I Mt. Antety, 
above Ambositra, Forsyth Major, 635 ! Hbb. Mus. Brit., Kew. 

Calyx-lohes 1 cm. or longer ; coro/Za-tube 3-5 cm. long, lobes 
1-5 cm.-l'8 cm. x 9 mm. 

Species dubi^. 

M. EEiANTHA Rich, in M6m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. v. 246 (1829). 
The description is very inadequate. The indumentum of petioles, 
branchlets and subulate stipules is described as " rufo-sericeis " ; 
and the calyx-lobes are lanceolate and equal ; so that the species 
belongs to the section Landia. The subulate stipules should be 
distinctive, as also the silky, presumably adpressed, indumentum. 

M. Thouarsiana Baill. Adans. xii. 295 (1879). Based on a 
plant gathered by Dupetit-Thouars in Madagascar. Described as 
glabrate, with leaves sometimes irregularly denticulate on the 
margin ; inflorescence very dense and much branched. These 
characters are unfavourable to the inclusion of this plant in the 



72 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

genus MusscBmla, as is also the presence of a spurious wing 
to the seeds. The corolla is unknown ; and the author himself 
expresses a doubt as to the genus. 

M. ? ciTRiFOLiA Lam. Encyc. iv. 393 (1797). Nom. vulg. Charro, 
Eees Cycl. xxiv. According to the description, the leaves are 
borne 3 at each node, the calyx and corolla are glabrous, and the 
latter is small. These characters suggest that this plant, which 
was collected by Martin in Madagascar, should not be included in 
this genus ; and a similar conclusion applies to the so-called 
nearly allied M.? longifolia Lam., I.e. 

M, DISCOLOR Thouars, in Eoem. & Schult. Syst. v. 254 (1819)- 
Another imperfect description. Baker (Hb. Kew) is of opinion 
that this may be identical with his M. vestita (q.v.) ; and in view 
of the description, " foliis . . . subtus piloso-canescentibus," this 
is not unlikely. As a matter of fact, the very locality is doubtful. 



THE MOSS FLOKA OF SUFFOLK. 
By Arthur Mayfield. 

The following list of Suffolk mosses is intended to supplement 
the two papers published by the Kev. E. N. Bloomfield in this 
Journal for 1885 (pp. 233-238) and 1888 (pp. 69-71). 

During 1912-13 I have been gathering mosses in the county, 
chiefly in the parish of Mendlesham, near the centre of the county, 
where the subsoil is mainly the chalky boulder clay. I have thus 
been able to add considerably to the East Suffolk list, and also to 
record the occurrence of plants which either had escaped notice 
or were not considered species by the earlier botanists. 

Mr. Bloomfield kindly allows me to include some additional 
records published by him in the Transactions of the Norfolk and 
Nonoich Naturalists' Society (vol. vii. pp. 227, 427) and in the 
Victoria County History ; these are indicated by the initials 
E. N. B. A few records are quoted from the Census Catalogue of 
British Mosses. These are given on the authority of the late 
Prof. Barker, but owing to his death information as to the exact 
localities whence they were obtained has been lost. 

All the plants of my own gathering have been submitted for 
verification and correction to Mr. Wm. Ingham ; I have also 
received much valuable help from Mr. Bloomfield and Messrs. 
W. H. Burrell, H. N. Dixon, and W. E. Nicholson, to all of 
whom I tender my thanks. 

Names of mosses hitherto recorded for Suffolk are preceded 
by an asterisk. 

Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. var. suhnitens Dixon. 25 and 
26. Eedgrave Fen, east and west. (The boundary line between 
the two vice-counties divides the fen into two nearly equal parts.) 
— S. fimhriatum Wils. 26. West Suffolk, Census Catalogue. 

Polytrichum strictum Banks. 25. Herringfieet {Turner, 1806), 
E. N. B. — P. gracile Dicks. 25. Mendlesham. 



THE MOSS FLORA OP SUFFOLK 



73 



■'Dicranella Schreberi Schimp. 25. Mendlesham. 
■''Fissidens viridulus Wahl. 25. Mendlesham. — *Var. Lylei 
Wils. 25. Mendlesham and Old Newton. — F. incurvtis Stark, 

25. Mendlesham; Gipping. — F. bryoides Hedw. 25. Mendlesham ; 
Brockford. — *F. decipiens De Not. 25. Stuston Common. 

Bhacomitrimn canescens Brid. var. ericoides B. & S. 25 or 26. 
Suffolk (Eagle), E. N. B. 

Phascum cuspidatum Schreb. var. piliferum Hook. & Tayl., 
and *var. curvisetum Nees & Hornsch. 25. Mendlesham. 

Pottia crinita Wils. 26. West Suffolk, Cenaus Catalogue. — 
P. Starkeana C. & M. 25. Belton (Borrer), E. N. B. ; Greeting. 

26. Bury {Bunbury), E. N. B. 

Tortula pusilla Mitt. 25. Mendlesham. — T. Icevipila Schwaeg. 
var. IcBvipilaformis Limpr. 25. Grundisburgh (W. B. Sherrin), 
E. N. B. — T. ruraliformis Dixon. 25 and 26. East and West 
Suffolk, Census Catalogue. 

■'Barbula lurida Lindb. var. intermedia Euthe (nearly approach- 
ing B. cordata Dixon). 25. Needham Market. — B. tophacea Mitt. 

25. Mendlesham ; Playford. — B. cylindrica Schimp. 26. Drink- 
stone churchyard. — B. vinealis Brid. 25. Mendlesham. — B. 
sinuosa Braithw. 25. Sweffling, E. N. B.; Mendlesham ; Need- 
ham Market. 26. Great Finborough. — -'B. Hornschuchiana 
Schultz. 25. Mendlesham. — B. convoluta Hedw. 25. Mendles- 
ham ; Playford. 

OrthotricJmm cupulatu7n Hoffm. 26. Sweffling, E. N. B. 

26. Great Finborough. — 0. tenellum Bruch. 25. Finningham. — 
0. pulchellum Smith. 25. East Suffolk, Census Catalogue. Mr. 
Bloomfield assures me that he has it on good authority that 
Braithwaite's record of this plant from Burgh Castle was 
erroneous. 

Physcomitrella patens B. & S. 25. Mendlesham, 

Philonotis fontana Brid. var. falcata Brid. 26. Tuddenham, 
Skepper. Eecorded as P. calcarea in Journ. Bot, 1885, 286, but 
corrected by Mr. Bloomfield in Trans. Norf, & Norw. Nat. Soc. 
vii. 427. 

Leptobryum pyriforme Wils. 25. Ditches at Mendlesham and 
Playford. 

Bryum pendulum Schimp. 25. East Suffolk, Census Catalogiie. 
— B. pseudo-triquetrum Schwaeg. 25. East Suffolk, Census Cata- 
logue. — *J5. erythrocarpum Schwaeg, 25. Mendlesham. — *£. 
miirale Wils, 25. Mendlesham. 

Mnmm affine Bland. 25. Stuston Common ; Nacton ; Greeting, 

Cryphcsa heteromalla Mohr, 25, Trees about Yarmouth, 
Botanists' Guide. 

Pterogonium gracile Swartz, 26. Icklingham (Eagle), E. N. B. 
in Victoria County History. 

Thuidium abietinum B, & S. 25, Souston Common, — 
T. hystricosum Mitt. 26. Barton Mills (Borrer, BraitJmaite), 
E. N. B. — *r. recognitum Lindb. 25. Stuston Common and 
Greeting. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [March, 1914.] g 



74 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

■'Climacium dendroides Web. & Mohr var. fluitans Hiib. 25. 
Stuston Common. 

Brachythecium rivulare B. & S. 25. Playford. 

Eurhynchium Sivartzii Hobk. 25. Mendlesham. 

Aviblystegium varkim Lindb. 25. Mendlesham ; Old Newton ; 
Needham Market. — -''A. irriguum B. & S. 25. Mendlesham. 

■'Hypmim riparmm L. var. subsecimduvi Schimp. 25. Mendles- 
ham.— iZ". elodes Spruce. 25. Eedrave Fen, east. — "'H. stellatum 
Schreb. var. 23^ote7is7tm Eohl. 25. Mendlesham. — "H. aduncum 
Hedw. var. falcatmn Hedw. 25. Mendlesham. — "=Var. gracilescens 
Schimp. and var. j^olycarjwn Bland. 26. Knettishall. — '"'Var. 
intermedium SGhixmp. 25. Eedgrave Fen, east; Stuston Common. 
— "'''-Var. patermtm Sanio. 25. Mendlesham ; Stuston Common. — 
■'H. Sendtneri Schimp. 25. Stuston Common. — H. Wilsoni 
Schimp. var. hamatum Lindb. 26. Tuddenham [Skepper), E. N. B. 
— H. lycopodioides Schwaeg. 25. East Suffolk, Censtis Catalogue. 
— ■■H. revolvens Swartz. 25. Eedgrave Fen, east. — H. cordifolium 
Hedw. 25. Bogs on Bradwell and Belton Commons, Botanists' 
G^iide. — H. giganteum Schimp. 25. Eedgrave Fen, east. 



A NEW ANNONA FEOM JAMAICA. 
By W. Fawcett, B.Sc, & A. B. Eendle, F.E.S. 

Annona prsetermissa, sp. nov. ^r6or parva, ramulis novellis 
puberulis mox glabris. Folia elliptica vel ovato-elliptica, apice 
subacuminata, basi late cuueata, supra basim versus atque in costa 
media subinde pubescentia cetera glabra, subtus subtiliter adpresse 
pubescentia, supra costis planis et venis subobsoletis infra costis 
prominentibus et venis planis ; petioli pubescentes. Pedunculus 
biflorus, tomentosus ; pedicelli supra medium bracteolati, tomen- 
tosi. Alahastra acuminate conica. Sepala late deltoidea, tomen- 
tosa. Petala tria, oblonga, extra tomentosa, intus subcarinata. 
Fruct2cs globosus, areolatus, tuberculatus, tuberculis apice hamatis. 
Type in Herb. Jam. 

A small tree, about 15 ft. high. Leaves 12-18 cm. 1., 4'5-8-5 cm. 
br. ; petioles 13-16 mm. 1. Peduncle very short to 1 cm. 1. ; 
pedicels very short to 1-4 cm. 1. Sepals 2-5-3 mm. 1. Petals 
2'5 cm. 1., -5 cm. br. Stamens 2 mm. 1, ; anther about 1*5 mm. 1. 
Fruit about 6 cm. in diam. Seeds 17 mm. 1., 10 mm. br. 

Hab. — Craig Hill, near Gordon Town, June, 1902, Faiocett ! 

Near A.jamaicensis Sprague, but easily distinguishable by the 
longer, oblong petals, the conical, not ovoid, buds, the areolate 
fruit and larger seeds. 



75 

EOBEET JACOB GOEDON. 
(1741-1795.) 

By James Britten, F.L.S. 

The Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists con- 
tains the following entry : — 

"Gordon (fl. 1774-79). Colonel. Travelled in Africa, 

1774, and, with Paterson, 1777-79. Discovered and 
drew many StapelicB. Masson, ' Stapelia,' pref. viii. ; 
Journ. Bot. 1884, 145. Stapelia Gordoni Mass. 
This summary, which represented all that was known at the time 
of compilation, may now be considerably amplified ; as a conse- 
quence of this, Gordon's name will disappear from the next 
edition of our book, in which it is clear he has no claim to be 
included, but it may be worth while bringing together such 
information as exists about a remarkable man. 

In the sale of the Stafford Library at Sotheby's in November 
last was included a collection of 400 watercolour drawings made 
by Gordon in South Africa from 1777 to 1790 ; the drawings — 
which included natives, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and plants as 
well as plans and views of the district round the Cape and the 
Orange Eiver — although somewhat crudely executed, are evidently 
extremely accurate, and are furnished with descriptions in Dutch : 
the views and plans, many of which are very large, are in two 
volumes atlas elephant folio, the drawings in four volumes 
elephant folio. The collection was purchased by Messrs. Maggs 
Brothers, of 109 Strand, for £690, and was promptly placed on 
the market by them at almost double the price — £1250. A 
special catalogue ("Supplement to Catalogue 316") was issued 
by them which contains reproductions of two of the maps, 
of the drawing of a Hottentot man, woman, and child, of two 
native groups, of a giraffe and another animal, and lists of the 
animals and plants figured — of the latter in somewhat unfamiliar 
form — e.g. " Orthnathogicum " for Ornithogalwn. 

The early history of the collection, however, is given in a 
letter to Banks from Philip Gidley King (1758-1808), who at the 
time of writing was Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island but 
was then in London. A copy of this is preserved in the Banksian 
Correspondence, and may be worth transcription : — 

" London, May 27th, 1797. 
" Sir, 

" Agreeably to your wish, I have informed myself 
more fully respecting the Papers of the late Colonel Gordon, 
brought to this Country by his widow. 

" The Charts, &c., are contained in two Boxes (which I saw 
inspected yesterday at the Custom house). The largest Box 
contains, as Mrs. Gordon informs me, a general Chart, smaller 
Charts and Views of the Interior parts of Africa seen and visited 
by her late husband, in all about ninety-five, with a Manuscript 

a 2 



76 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

account wrote in Dutch. There are also a few bundles of family 
Papers. The second Box contains a very full and large Book, in 
which are arranged upwards of 400 drawings of Natural History, 
appropriate to the Charts and Views. 

" The Charts and Natural History Mrs. Gordon informs me 
were all designed by her own husband, who drew every outline, 
and had them finished under his own eye. As her wish is to have 
these Charts, &c., inspected by such persons as may be deemed 
adequate to judge of their consequence to this kingdon, she desires 
me to request in her name the indulgence of their being permitted 
to be withdrawn from the Custom house, where they are now 
lodged, without being subject to the duty. 

" I beg leave to apologize for the part I have taken in this 
business, to which I am alone prompted by the respect I bear to 
the memory of her deceased husband, and her situation as a 
stranger in this Country, from whence it is her intention to 
depart with her family for her native Country, Switzerland, the 
instant her business is finished. — I have the honour to be most 
respectfully, 

" Sir, Your most obedient, 

" humble servant, 

" Philip Gidley King." 

From this it is clear that Banks knew of the collection and 
had some thoughts of obtaining it. Whether it actually reached 
him I do not know ; but it may be noted that in the Banksian 
collection of Masson's drawings (see Journ. Bot. 1884, 144; 1885, 
227) are two — Hoodia Gordoni and Pachypodmm naviaqiianum — 
which are labelled " Webber " in Dryander's hand, the latter being 
noted by him as "copied from a drawing of Captain Gordon's at 
the Cape of Good Hope"; it may however well be that this 
information was supplied to Dryander by Masson. This drawing 
is reproduced in Lieut. William Paterson's Narrative of Four Jour- 
neys into the Country of the Hottentots and Cajfraria (1789) : it 
seems likely that the other figures of plants in the volume are from 
the drawings of Gordon, who accompanied Paterson on his jour- 
neys in 1777 and 1779, and to whom the latter frequently refers. 
Masson (StapelicB, viii.) mentions both Gordon and Paterson — 
who in his book always spells his name " Mason " — as having 
"discovered some very remarkable species of Stapelia" ; his 
description and figure of S. {Hoodia) Gordoni are taken from the 
drawing referred to above. 

According to the Maggs Catalogue, " Colonel Eobert Jacob 
Gordon was a Dutchman of Scottish extraction, born in Guelder- 
land in 1741. He was in command of the Dutch forces at the 
Cape, and it is said that when the English took the Colony in 
1795 he shot himself in chagrin at the failure of his resistance to 
our arms." Paterson (L c. 113), under date August 1779, gives an 
account of his naming of the Orange Eiver in honour of the 
Prince of Orange, which however [l. c. 61) he seems to have done 
previously in 1777. Incidentally, it would appear that it was 



SHORT NOTES 



77 



indirectly to Gordon that Australia is indebted for its great wool 
industry, as liis widow in 1795 sold to the commanders of the 
Siipply and BoUance sloops of war some merino sheep which were 
taken to Australia to Captain John Macarthur, who was then 
experimenting in wool production in New South Wales. 

A warm appreciation of Gordon will be found in John White's 
Journal of a Voyage to Ncio South Wales (1790), p. 90. White 
visited Gordon at the Cape in 1787; his garden, he says, displays 
" not only the taste and ingenuity of the gardener, but the skill 
and knowledge of the botanist." " The Colonel is a man of 
science of an active and well-cultivated genius, who appropriates 
those hours he can spare from his military duties (in which he is 
said to excel) to a perusal of the book of nature and researches 
after useful knowledge." It was his intention " to publish the 
observations and remarks which have been the result of his 
researches," and it is to be regretted that this intention was 
never carried out, as we may share White's conviction that Gordon 
had " made himself better acquainted with the subject, and pene- 
trated farther into the interior parts, than any traveller or 
naturalist that [had then] visited the Cape." It is to be hoped 
that the collection of Gordon's drawings may find its way into 
the possession of someone who will see that lists of the species 
collected by him are drawn up by competent hands. 



SHOBT NOTES. 



Ptilota plumosa Ag. in Devon (p. 35). — Mr. A. D. Cotton, 
writing of Ptilota plumosa and two other algae, says that " none of 
them are found in any part of the English Channel. ... it was 
not easy to understand why these plants should not extend by 
way of the Welsh coast to Devon and Cornwall " ; and in a foot- 
note to p. 39 says that a fragment of a frond of the Ptilota 
inscribed " Ilfracombe, E. T." occurs in Prof. Phillips's collection, 
but " as the plant does not occur in this well- worked region, the 
locahty given must be regarded as erroneous." In July, 1907, I 
found, about four miles east of Ilfracombe, a plant I sent to Mr. 
E. M. Holmes, which he returned to me labelled, " It certainly is 
Ptilota plumosa," with drawings made by him on the back to 
show its structure as compared with that of P. elegans. — C. E. 
Larter. 

A Correction (p. 43). — The interviewer from the Morning 
Post who visited me on Jan. 13th, in writing out his notes has 
mixed up two entirely distinct statements. He asked me. How 
many plants are there in Tropical Africa? I told him it was 
impossible to estimate the number, because many districts had 
not been explored yet, and gave him an illustration of this — Mr. 
and Mrs. Amaury Talbot's collection from Southern Nigeria 
recently worked up and published by the botanists of the Natural 
History Museum. This contained 600 numbers, of which 150 



78 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

proved to be new. Then we spoke of the plants of the whole 
world ; I gave him 200,000 species as a rough estimate. When 
his report was published I was startled to find that it stated 
Mr. and Mrs. Talbot's Nigerian collections numbered 200,000 
instead of 600 species ! — J. G. Baker. 



REVIEWS. 

The Story of Plant Life in the British Isles : Types of the Common 
Natural Orders. Introductory volume by A. E. Horwood. 
Illustrated with 73 [figures from] photographs. 8vo, cloth, 
pp. xiv, 243. London : J. & A. Churchill. Price 6s. 6d. net. 
It is forty-five years since Sir Joseph Hooker pointed out, in 
the preface to his Student's Flora, the need for a companion 
volume to that work which should summarize "those physiological 
and morphological observations on British plants which have of 
late given so great an impulse and zest to botanical pursuits," and 
held out a prospect that he might at some future time be able to 
undertake the task. Long as his life was, this hope was never 
realized, and the need for such a work is far greater than ever. 
Indeed, it may well be doubted whether any single volume of 
reasonable extent could adequately present even a summary of 
such observations, to which would have to be added some con- 
sideration of the investigations grouped under the name of ecology. 
The statement in the preface to Mr. Horwood's book that he 
had " endeavoured to give briefly a connected account of the 
essential phases of the life-history " in the case of the plants 
selected for description led us to hope that the scheme proposed 
by Hooker had at least been attempted ; and the announcement 
that his " method of description is an advance upon previous 
works of the kind " induced pleasurable anticipations. We regret 
that in neither respect have these anticipations been fulfilled. We 
cannot see that his book as a whole differs to its advantage from 
many of those already on the market ; from the literary point of 
view it is indeed distinctly below them, for Mr. Horwood's style 
is involved, and it is not always easy to determine what he means. 
This criticism may sound harsh, but we do not think anyone w^ho 
will read the first five paragraphs of the Introduction will consider 
it too severe; we will quote only the fifth. Having told us that 
" physical surroundings play a great part in the shaping of species, 
apart from their diversity and the fact that these diversities are 
correlated with plant distribution and plant variation," Mr. Hor- 
wood continues : — 

" But this is not all, for we learn from the character of the 
surroundings its requirements as regards light, heat, moisture, 
altitude, soil, &c., and the manner in which the plant occurs, 
either in small communities, large ones or otherwise helps us to 
obtain a much broader and more intelligent view of the vegetation 
of a district, or its physiognomy on a large scale, which in turn 



PLANT LIFE IN THE BRITISH ISLES 



79 



reveals to us the bases of scenery and landscape. So that here 
the painter or the poet may join in the study of botany from a 
really vital standpoint." It is to be regretted that the school- 
mistress whose help in revising the proof-sheets Mr. Horwood 
acknowledges did not add to her " many helpful suggestions " one 
as to the need for clearness of expression and another as to the 
principles of punctuation. 

Leaving the Introduction, in which is much that might be 
criticized, we come to the descriptive portion. Mr. Horwood's 
plan is to select for description "common types" of "the more 
widely distributed and more familiar orders." We are unable to 
discover on what principle his selection has been made :_ thus, 
in Monocotyledons, Melanthacece, with one representative, is 
included, while Liliacece, and AmaryllidacecB, which include the 
wild Hyacinth and the Daffodil, are omitted ; in GluviacecB we 
have some account of Gyperacece and a description of Eriophonm, 
but the Grasses are entirely absent, and this from a work which 
purports to be a " handbook of the common Natural Orders " 1 
" The rarer representatives of the orders will be dealt with in a 
forthcoming work" — a statement which seems to mean (see 
p. 219) that the orders not included in this volume will appear 
there : anyway, it is not easy to see how the Daffodil, the wild 
Hyacinth, and the whole of the Grasses can be included under 
this head. Nor is "the beginner" greatly helped by being told 
that " reference can easily be made to more comprehensive works." 
What he wants is one book, and there is no reason why a volume 
of this size should not suffice his requirements. 

Turning to the " life-history " of the plants, which it is the 
main object of the book to present, it is fair to say that Mr. Hor- 
wood gives a good deal of useful information as to the habits_ of 
the plants described, and details connected with fertihzation 
receive more attention than is usual in popular books. In this 
respect the author's hope may claim to have been to a certain 
extent reaUzed, but his treatment leaves much to be desired. We 
find no account of the seedling state of any species : nor, to take 
a single example, is any reference made to so common and striking 
an occurrence as the propagation of Cardamine pratensis by means 
of its leaflets, or to the curious and almost equally frequent 
prohferation of its flowers. Omissions of this kind are serious in 
a book the object of which is "to bring the student iiito the field 
[author's italics] to study " ; and we are bound to say that we do 
not find in his descriptions much indication of original observation. 

The book suffers throughout from want of arrangement, which 
leads to useless repetition. To take an example, the Holly is 
described both under " the Holly group" (pp. 78-80) and at length 
under its special heading (pp. 80-82) ; if the two descriptions had 
been combined, and the matter rearranged, at least a page would 
have been saved. Its chief defect, however, is in the prominence 
of matter in no way relevant to " life-history," although painfully 
familiar to readers of "popular" books. Still keeping to the 
account of the Holly, we find the following : — 



80 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

" In Northumberland holly leaves were used for divining. It 
was planted near houses to ward off lightning, as early as the days 
of Pliny. Because it resembles the word ' holy ' it was reputed to 
be inimical to witches. Holly wreathes [sic] were employed in 
Eoman times at weddings. People used to cure their chilblains 
by threshing [sic] them with holly leaves. The bark has been 
used in place of cinchona, being astringent " (p. 82). 

It is difficult to imagine that unauthenticated scraps of this 
kind — even if accurate, which we do not think is always the case — 
can be of the slightest value to any serious student. The same 
may be said of the scraps of verse — Shakespeare is misquoted on 
p. 55 and Samuel Lover on p. 96 ; the dedications — there is no 
authority for saying that Caltha " is called Marigold because it 
was dedicated in mediaeval times to the Vii'gin Mary " ; snippets 
from Gerard, "Baldur" (p. 141), and the like; and the references 
to foreign species. 

A further example of padding is found in the space devoted to 
the popular names of the species, which have been appropriated 
wholesale from the Dictiojiary of English Plant-names. Mr. 
Horwood has not even taken the trouble to consult the body of 
that work: he has simply "lifted" from the index, in which all 
the English names are conveniently placed under their Latin 
equivalent, such portions as suited his purpose. He has not even 
taken the trouble to do this correctly ; thus in taking the twenty- 
three names of the Ash (p. 158) he misprints " Urchin, Wood- 
broney " as "Urchin Wood, Croney" ; and tells us that "Esh " — 
the north-country variant of Ash — "means to flog, the twig of an 
ash being used for the purpose " ! This astounding derivation, 
worthy to stand beside Dr. Brewer's "Coltsfoot — cold's food, i.e. 
food for colds and coughs" — is at any rate, in common with others 
(see "Bow Thistle," p. 115) equally ridiculous, Mr. Horwood'sown; 
the Dialect Dictionary gives no such use of the word. Nor has he 
even appropriated intelligently, for he includes words obsolete and 
of doubtful application; thus he gives as " common names of the 
Violet " several to which in the Dictionary a " ? " is attached. 
Under Tilia we have this amusing note : " Though Pliny gave 
the name ' Tilia,' there are some old vernacular names that might 
equally have given origin to it, such as Telle, Til," &c. — names 
which anyone but Mr. Horwood would have seen are derived 
from Tilia. Perhaps, considering the numerous misprints and the 
unintelligent way in which the names are printed, it is as weU 
that Mr. Horwood should not have acknowledged the source of 
his information, even by placing it in the very inadequate biblio- 
graphy (p. 222) ; nevertheless this wholesale appropriation of 
other men's work calls for explanation either from the author or 
from his pubhshers, whose attention we call to the fact. 

The numerous figures from photographs which accompany the 
descriptions are very unequal : some — c. g. Violet, Sloe, Angelica, 
and Coltsfoot — are good, others — e. g. Broom, Meadow Cranesbill, 
Groundsel — the reverse. The indications of size are sometimes 
misleading — e. g. the flowers of Stitchwort and Oxeye Daisy do 



MILDEWS, RUSTS, AND SMUTS 81 

not appear to us " enlarged." As a rule the attempt to show the 
whole or a considerable portion of the plants leads to indistinct- 
ness — e. g. the Gean, Tufted Vetch, Creeping Buttercup, and 
many others ; the Cuckoo Flower shows only white flowers 
standing out of a black background. This method of illustration 
has its advantages, but unless it is very well carried out, these are 
not always apparent. 

It remains to be said that the volume Would be improved by 
more careful reading ; we have already referred to the need of 
revision as to composition and punctuation, and to the numerous 
misprints in the names extracted from the Dictionary of English 
Plant-names, but others occur — e.g. Dioscoreacece is spelt "Diosco- 
raceae " (pp. x, 198 (twice), 209, 244) and " Dioscoriace^ " (p. 222), 
but never correctly; " Anagrgecum" (p. 201), "Tofeildia " (p. 206, 
thrice), " Brittanicse " (p. 224). 

We should not have noticed the book at such length had it 
not been for the author's somewhat pretentious estimate of its 
importance and for the fact that it is the first of three volumes, 
the remaining two of which are "to be published very shortly." 
It would have been easy to have extended our criticism ; but 
sufficient has been said to show that Mr. Horwood would do well, 
before sending these to press, to submit them to a friend who has 
a blue pencil and is not afraid to use it. We would also suggest 
that, should he wish to borrow extensively from works already in 
existence, it would be courteous to obtain permission to do so, or 
at least to acknowledge the source of his information. 

James Beitten. 

Three Books on Fungi. 

1. Mildetus, Busts, and Smuts: a Synopsis of the Families Perono- 

sporacecB, Erysiyhacea, UrcdinacecB, and Ustilaginacea. By 
George Massee, assisted by Ivy Massee. Pp. 229 ; 5 
plates, 1 coloured. Dulau & Co., Ltd. 1913. 7s. 6d. net. 

2. The Fungi ivhich cause Plant Disease. By F. L. Stevens, Ph.D. 

Pp. ix and 754 ; 449 figs. New York : The Macmillan 
Company. 1913. 17s. net. 

3. The Diseases of Tropical Plants. By Melville Thurston 

Cook, Ph.D. Pp. xi and 317 ; 85 figs. Macmillan & Co., 
Limited, St. Martin's Street, London. 1913. 8s. 6d. net. 
1. Mr. Massee has added another to his already long list of 
fungus text-books. The groups included are, with the exception 
of Perisporiacese, indicated in the subtitle, and a "chapter" is 
devoted to each. An account is given of the interesting points in 
the life-history of each family, followed by a description of the 
essential characters. A useful generic key is added and a note to 
each genus. The genera and species are then described. In the 
case of Peronosporaceae a key is given to the species of each genus. 
An innovation is the introduction into these keys of fungi not yet 
found in this country but which are liable to be met with as the 
host-plants are present. In the rusts, descriptions are given of 
European species of Puccinia and Uroinyces parasitic on native 



82 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

British plants, bub not recorded as occurring in Britain. The 
idea is excellent, but it is rather disconcerting to find that in 
both cases many well-authenticated British records have not been 
accepted. 

The treatment of the Peronosporaceae and Erysiphaceee calls 
for no special comment, save that what is said of Phytophthora 
erythroseptica shows that Pethybridge's account of the life-history 
of the fungus has not been carefully read, and the comments 
indicate a want of knowledge of recent work on the genus. The 
treatment of the Uredinales seems far from satisfactory. Certain 
species of ^cidiwn and Ureclo are placed in an appendix, though 
in some cases, e. g. ^cidnmi leucospermum, the alternate stage is 
well known on the Continent, and ought certainly to have been 
mentioned. To accept most of the biological species of Puccinia 
and then to give only three species of Melampsora seems illogical. 
It is interesting to find that Phragmidium Fragariastri is made 
to include P. Poterii, P. Sanguisorbce, P. Potentillce, and P. Tor- 
mentillce on the ground of morphological transitions. Truly, 
P. TormentillcB seems at present to be undergoing many vicissi- 
tudes (c/. p. 53). The author also considers that Hemileia 
amoricana is our only British species. There are many misprints. 
Mistakes are also far from infrequent. " The only British species " 
of Endopihyllum (p. 68) becomes the usual two on p. 93. Bifi'en 
(p. 129) is given credit for experiments pei'foi-med by Tranzschel 
and confirmed by Brooks. The collaborator of Pethybridge in 
the investigation of the potato disease becomes "Murray" instead 
of the more appropriate "Murphy." The " ascigerous condition" 
of Calyptospora Gosppertiana is given in plate iii. The genus 
Chrysomyxa seems to be absent altogether, except in one of the 
plates, whilst Pucciniastrum is apparently represented by one 
species of Uredo placed in the appendix. There is little, if any- 
thing, new in the treatment of the Ustilaginales. 

In three places are statements with regard to the lack of books 
dealing with the microscopic fungi here considered. "It is now 
nearly half a century since the last British book on fungi, includ- 
ing the rusts and mildews, was published." This presumably was 
Cooke's Handbook. The statement is misleading. The fact is 
that it is now customary to monograph groups separately, and 
not to consider collectively five families which have practically 
nothing in common. Perisporiaceae (two genera, four species) is 
the only family which has not been treated by a British author 
since Cooke's book, which included the whole of the fungi. 

The book contains an index of genera and species and another 
of host-plants. Both appear to be very good. The plates give 
clear line drawings, but their usefulness is questionable ; a few 
text-figures would have been of greater aid to students. The book 
is of a size that makes it possible to be carried in the pocket. If 
more care had been taken with it, we imagine that the book, which 
is strongly bound and well printed, would have been the field 
companion of most British mycologists ; even as it is, it will be 
found the most convenient for work in the field. 

J. Eamsbottom. 



FUNGI WHICH CAUSE TLANT DISEASE 83 

2. If any justification were needed for adding to the growing 
library of works on plant diseases, it would be found in the 
economic importance of the subject. The cultivation of plants 
involves the crowding together of species which entails the danger 
of epidemic attack, so that some comparatively innocuous and 
negligible fungus becomes by opportunity a destructive parasite. 
Thus new attacks by fungi or by animals are constantly being 
discovered, and the life-history of the organism causing the disease 
must be traced before effective remedial measures can be applied. 

The books before us are both by American writers well-known 
for their work on the diseases of plants, and though they are 
more or less restricted in scope they are of interest and value to 
all students. 

The volume by Dr. Stevens is, he tells us, " intended to intro- 
duce to the student the more important cryptogamic parasites 
affecting economic plants in the United States," but as fungi, and 
especially those that cause diseases of plants, are largely cosmo- 
politan, the book is fitted to be of world-wide service. It often 
happens that some part of a plant already injured becomes covered 
with fungal growths, and it is extremely important to know 
whether such fungi are of parasitic or saprophytic habit. 

Dr. Stevens has gone over the whole field from Myxomycetes 
to Fungi imperfecti, selecting those fungi that are known to have 
caused trouble. He gives synoptic tables and diagnoses of 
families and genera that are either proved or suspect as the 
cause of disease, and lists the species that are fatal ; in the case 
of American species he supplies full descriptions. The Fungi 
impcrfecti are classified and described as such, but where the full 
life-history of these forms has been worked out, references are 
given to the perfect forms. The book is well illustrated, and is 
provided with copious bibliographies, a glossary of the terms 
employed in the text, and an index of hosts and parasites. It can 
be recommended with confidence to all students of this very 
extensive and difficult branch of botany. 

3. Dr. Cook deals only with the diseases of tropical plants. The 
demand for the vegetable products of the tropics, such as cotton, 
rubber, cocoa, &c., has increased enormously, and the book has 
been written with a view to help the planters in their struggle 
with new and adverse conditions. 

The first few chapters give in order a survey of plant life ; the 
nature and symptoms of disease ; the structure and function of 
plants ; the classification of fungi ; and an account of various 
causes of plant disease. Other chapters are devoted to a short 
account of slime-moulds, phanerogamic parasites, bacteria, insects, 
worms, and, lastly, functional or physiological diseases. Most of 
the diseases are due to fungi, and a discussion of these occupies 
the larger part of the earlier chapters. 

The second and more extended part of the work deals with the 
host-plants in due order and the maladies that attack them, 
starting with corn and rice, and winding up with forest and 
ornamental trees. Preventative and curative agencies are also 



84 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

discussed. The subject is widely conceived, and, in the limited 
space, fairly well carried out. It is, however, the fault of many 
similar books that, in the attempt to tell everything, much is left 
unexplained. Thus we find that " damping-off " of seedling sugar- 
canes is caused by three different fungi — Pythium Deharyanuvi, 
which is fully described in the introductory chapters, Bhizoctonia, 
and Glomerella ; there is no indication, however, as to the appear- 
ance or the affinities of the two latter — they are mere names. The 
same inequality of treatment is meted out to many other genera 
and species. 

Fungi imperfccti receive scant attention, though they are 
responsible for many leaf-diseases. Many of them are the imper- 
fect or development stage of some Ascomycete or Basidiomycete, 
and in not a few instances the full life-history is well known ; yet 
Dr. Cook writes, "The Fungi ivqjcrfecti are so called because we 
do not understand their life-history and development." 

The illustrations are abundant and instructive, and the book 
will doubtless be of great value to the agriculturist in the tropics. 
A bibliography is appended of the literature dealing with culti- 
vated tropical plants. « t c< 

^ ^ A. LoRRAiN Smith. 

The Flora of South Africa. By Kudolf Marloth. Vol. i. 4to, 
with 36 coloured and 30 monochrome plates. London : 
Wm. Wesley &■ Son. Subscription price for the volume £2 2s. 

By his collections of South African plants and his published 
memoirs Dr. Marloth has won a deservedly high reputation 
among students of South African botany ; it was fitting, there- 
fore, that he should have been entrusted with the task of pro- 
ducing a series of four well-illustrated volumes designed to do 
justice to the varied and wonderful flora with which he is so well 
acquainted. In these days of research in all directions, a mere 
enumeration of genera and species is obviously insufficient for the 
purpose, since such an enumeration, while indispenable for deter- 
mining the position and affinities of a plant, leaves the whole 
romance of its history untouched. Enquiry is much concerned 
nowadays with the relations of plants to their environment, with 
the causes underlying the phenomena of their distribution, with 
details of their structure and chemical constitution, and with the 
ways in which they are or may be rendered serviceable to the 
ever-growing wants of mankind. It is from all these points 
of view that Dr. Marloth has endeavoured to treat the subject. 
He first gives the characters of a family and then a key to the 
genera included in it ; this is followed by an account, often at con- 
siderable length, of species selected as possessing peculiar interest 
in one or more of the ways above-mentioned. When it is added 
that the families are sufficiently and often lavishly illustrated by 
means of coloured and monochrome plates, reinforced by a num- 
ber of figures in the text, it will be seen that high things have been 
aimed at, and so far at least as the volume before us permits of a 
judgment, we have no hesitation in saying, with unqualified success. 

The present volume commences with the Thallophyta, treated 



FLORA OP SOUTH AFRICA 85 

somewhat shortly but at sufficient length for the student. The 
ArchegoniatcB follow, the synopsis of genera and illustrations of 
each of the families being particularly good. The space devoted 
to the Gymnosperms has been wisely utilised, and full justice 
is done to the Cycads and Welwitschia. These items disposed of, 
way has been made for the Dicotyledones, which occupy the bulk 
of the volume ; of the 141 families of these plants recognised by 
the author 31 are treated here, including all the Monochlamydea 
and of the Dialypetalm the Eanales and the Rhoeadales. The 
system followed is mainly that of Engler's Synopsis, a system 
not without its faults, but on the whole an improvement on the 
linear arrangements previously in vogue, though to old-fashioned 
folk it will be somewhat disconcerting to find, for instance, 
Buttercups and Water Lilies in close juxtaposition to Laurels 
and GeratophyllacecB. But the author has endeavoured to bring 
his work, so far as is under the circumstances possible, into agree- 
ment with that of his predecessors, references to the Flora 
Capensis being numerous, while Harvey's Genera of South African 
Plants is cited throughout. The treatment and illustrations of 
the parasitic families Lorantliacece, HydnoracecB, BalanopJioracece 
and Bafflesiacece are worthy of special mention ; also of that 
family, so important at the Cape, the Proteacea, as of the gall- 
flowers of the figs. Best of all seems to us the notice given to 
Mesembriantheniuin, to which genus 26 figures in all are devoted ; 
the person who can read the fascinating story of the " window- 
leaves" of certain species of this genus without a thrill of pleasure 
must, indeed, be without a spark of love for Natural History. 

We know of nothing like the present work upon the flora of 
any of the overseas Dominions, and the Homeland itself, it must 
be confessed, is in the same predicament. To Dr. Marloth should 
therefore be given all the credit owing to, though, unfortunately, 
not always achieved by, those who act as pioneers in the advance 
of science. He has had assistance from many quarters as, for 
instance, in the preparation of the drawings for the plates, and 
Professors Diels and Brotherus and Mr. Sim have taken a hand 
in the construction of the synopses of genera, while Mr. W. T. 
Saxton's help has been available for the Thallophyta. The incep- 
tion of the undertaking is due to Lady Phillips, without whose 
munificent support it could not have been realised, and who has, 
in consequence, earned a debt of gratitude from all those who, 
whether experts or students or travellers, will profit by this truly 
remarkable production. The printing, by the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, is a fine example of the workmanship turned out at 
that well-known establishment. o lyj- 

A Naturalist in Western China. By Ernest H. Wilson. 2 vols, 
with 101 plates. Methuen. Price 305. net. 
There is a threadbare proverb about having too much of a 
good thing, the converse of which would, one imagines, find a 
more responsive echo in the experience of mankind at large ; 
certainly it was our feeling when we reached the last page of 



86 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Mr. Wilson's second volume. We could have wished to know 
more of his adventures during the eleven years he spent in China 
— at first on behalf of Messrs. Veitch, afterwards under the 
auspices of the Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum. As his 
map shows, he must have toiled along many a breakneck track, 
escaped perils, witnessed remarkable scenes of which he tells us 
nothing. A too modest estimate of his narrative powers, above 
all the desire, as far as possible, not to re-traverse a field where he 
has had several forerunners, are the considerations that have led 
him to restrict his personal story. 

The provinces of Hupeh, from Ichang westward, and of 
Szechuan, including in the latter the little known Chino-Tibetan 
marches, is the region dealt with in these volumes. The difficulties 
of travel in this part of the Middle Kingdom must be enormous, 
entailing as it does carriage of bed and bedding, food and cooking 
utensils, over some of the most villainous tracks trodden by foot 
of man ; nor should that sign of respectability, a chair, be 
omitted, nor, significant item, a store of insect powder ! So pro- 
vided Mr. Wilson fared cheerily onward, ever on the q2ii vive for 
botanical spoil, while his companion, Mr. Walter Zappy, busied 
himself with the rich fauna of the country. We pass with him 
in spirit through parts of Hupeh hitherto unvisited by Europeans. 
He takes us across Eichthofen's Red Basin of Szechuan, with its 
wonderful irrigation canals, and so into the mountainous western 
borderland. For him the mountains had a special call ; it was 
on them he expected to make his principal finds, and, as many a 
herbarium and the Plantce, WilsoniancB, now in course of publica- 
tion, testify, the harvest he reaped was indeed a splendid one. 
And it was at the very threshold of this marvellous region, the 
home of the richest temperate flora of the globe, that Maries 
turned in 1879 under the impression that Eobert Fortune had 
already secured virtually all that was worth collecting in China ! 

Sixty-eight thousand specimens, comprising about five thousand 
species and seeds of over fifteen hundred plants, were the si^olia 
opima Mr. Wilson brought home. How many of these species 
are new to science cannot at present be stated ; but we do know 
that the labours of recent travellers, such as Mr. Pratt, Professor 
Henry of Cambridge (not Dublin, Mr. Wilson !), and the French col- 
lectors, together with those now under notice, have revolutionised 
even the best-informed botanists' notions of the Chinese flora. Mr. 
Wilson's predecessors, however, have given us no record like the 
present volumes, with their many illustrations of scenery, their 
exciting descriptions — at one place the author had to pass through 
masses of Cypripediums so dense as to render crushing the flowers 
unavoidable ; their carefully worked-out zones of mountain vege- 
tation and valuable information for botanist, horticulturist and 
forester. Several excellent wild fruits were found, which, by 
grafting, will be the starting point, it is to be hoped, for new and 
improved varieties. We agree with Mr. Wilson in thinking that 
the value of certain Chinese reputed medicines should be enquired 
into ; true, some of the remedies now in use are as absurd as 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 87 

those European mediaeval compounds which cause us a shudder 
and a smile ; but his own experience seems to show that, though 
much of the pharmacopoeia is fantastic and worthless, there is a 
residuum worthy of serious testing. On the whole, Mr. Wilson was 
favourably impressed with the people of the country ; but he is de- 
servedly severe on their want of thrift in clearing away the forests, 
thus leaving a menacing problem for the near future ; also on the 
poor quality of much of their fruit, the result of slovenly cultivation. 
Charles Lamb, dilating on the catholicity of his taste, tells us 
he banished from his shelves only such books as " no gentleman's 
library should be without." This attitude should, and doubtless 
would, have caused the great humourist to look askance on 
A Naturalist in Western CJiina, for it answers fully the qualifica- 
tion entailing such banishment, provided, of course, the "gentle- 
man " in question has a taste for natural history ; not botany 
alone, since zoologists, geologists, ethnologists, and sportsmen as 
well as traders will all find something in these pages to claim 
their attention. But the appeal in chief is to the botanist and 
horticulturist, an appeal emphasized by Professor Sargent's 
essay comparing the forest floras of China and Eastern North 
America. We trust these handsome volumes, the outcome of 
indomitable pluck and patience, will meet with the success they 
so richly merit. S. M. 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

The second volume (first in appearance) of the Cambridge 
British Flora is announced to appear in March. It will contain 
the orders Salicaceae, Myricacese, Fagacese, Corylaceoe, Betulacese 
(by the Eev. E. S. Marshall), Ulmacese, Cannabaceae, Urticacese, 
Santalaceae, Loranthaceae, Aristolochiacese, Polygonaceae, Amaran- 
taceae, and will be mainly the work of the editor, Dr. Moss, who 
in Chenopodiaceae will have the assistance of Mr. A. J. Willmott 
in A triplex and of Mr. E. J. Salisbury in Salicornia, the genus 
Salsola being treated by Mr. C. E. Salmon. The order Aizoaceae 
is included in virtue of the Mesemhryanthemuvi naturalized in 
Cornwall. The prospectus containing information as to price, 
format, &c., of the work, with a specimen plate, may be obtained 
from the Cambridge University Press. 

Of the Eev. E. F. Linton's Supplement to the " Set of British 
Salices," to which reference was made in this Journal for 1913 
(p. 232), two fascicles have been issued — the first in June last, 
the second at the end of last year. From the information issued 
with the second fascicle we learn that " The present venture has 
been started on a co-operative basis ; much material has already 
been sent in, and more has been offered or promised, by Dr. G. 
Fogerty, Messrs. E. A. Phillips and A. E. Bradley, and Miss 
L. Day, towards the first three fasciculi ; for the future, specimens 
of any unusual form or supposed hybrid will be welcome on 
approval, on the chance of their proving suitable for incorporation, 
if a sufiicient quantity (about thirty-five sheets) from the same 
stock can be furnished." The first fascicle (1912-13) contains 



Ob THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

specimens of S. alba x fragilis, S. caprea, L. f. vel hybrida, 
*S'. caprea x myrsinites, S.o-urita, L., S.cinerea, L. (two examples), 
S. aurita X cinerea ; in the second (1913) are S. triandra, L., 
S. triandra, L. f. near subsp. Hojfmanniana (Sm.), S. aurita x 
purpurea, S. cinerea x purpurea, S. aurita x caprea, S. cajyrea x 
rcpens, S. cinerea, L. forma, S. Andersoniana x cinerea, S. Ander- 
soniana x j^^^ylicifolia. Offers of co-operation should be addressed 
to the Rev. Edward P. Linton, Edmondsham Rectory, Cranborne. 

The parts of Herr Carl Christensen's Index Filicum were 
noticed in this Jom-nal as they appeared during the years 1905-7. 
There is no need now to point out the remarkable value of this 
useful work ; for all students of ferns recognize its high merits, 
and the International Congress of Botanists at Brussels in 1910 
selected it as the starting-point for the nomenclature of ferns. Herr 
Christensen has recently published a Supplement {Index Filicum. 
S^ipplementum, 1906-1912. Hafniae 1913 apud H. Hagerup. 
Pp. 133), divided into two parts — the first containing the names of 
33 genera and subgenera and of 2611 species proposed during the 
years mentioned ; the second consisting of corrections of, and addi- 
tional synonyms to, several species adopted in the Index. — A. G. 

The recent parts of the Transactioyis of the Linnean Society 
include Mrs. A. Weber van Bossa's account of the Marine Algae 
(BhodophycecB) collected by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner during the 
' Sea-lark ' expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905 (October, 1913) ; 
Professor Harvey-Gibson's observations of the morphology and 
anatomy of Mystropetalon (December, 1913) ; and an account of 
the cuticles of some recent and fossil Cycadean fronds by Mr. 
H. H. Thomas and Miss Nellie Bancroft, also published last 
December. Dr. Weber van Bosse's paper, which is illustrated by 
three plates, contains the description of two new genera, Oligo- 
cladus and Amphishetema, and of numerous new species ; Tapei- 
nodasya Ethelce commemorates Mrs. Gepp, who has unfortunately 
been prevented by illness from working out the collection. 

Some of the sections of Die Silsstvasser-Flora Deutsclilands, 
Osterreichs und der Schweiz, issued under the general editorship 
of Prof. A. Pascher, have recently been noticed in this Journal. 
Another section (Heft 14, Bryophyta. Jena : Gustav Fischer, 
1914. Pp. iv and 222 ; figs. Price, Mk. 5-60, in paper cover ; 
Mk. 6-20, bound), the joint production of three experts, is now 
published, and comprises the following groups : Sphagnales 
(C. Warnstorf), Bryales (W. Monkemeyer), HepaticaB(V. Schiffner). 
The number of species comprised in the three groups is forty- 
eight, one hundred and forty, and sixty respectively. It is at first 
sight rather surprising to find so many mosses included in a list 
of water-plants. The explanation is that many species, which 
normally thrive in a dry habitat, have a capacity for adapting 
themselves to an aquatic life. The three authors have discharged 
their task conscientiously, and give careful descriptions of every 
genus, species, variety, and form, with keys to facilitate the work 
of identification. The figures are numerous, and many of them 
are original. — A. G, 



Journ.Bob. 



Tab. 530. 








p. HigLley del.et lith. West.NewmaTi imp . 

A. Mi-Lschleria angolensis S. Moore. 

B. Rhamphogyne rhynchocarpa S.Moore. 



.89 



ALABASTEA DIVEESA.— Part XXIII. 

By Spencer le M. Moore, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

(Plate 530.) 

I. Vernoniace^ Africans nov^." 

Ethulia Scheffleri, sp. nov. Fmticosa, ramulis erectis crebro 
foliosis sessilibus vel subsessilibus lineari-oblanceolatis obtusis vel 
obtuse acutis basi coartatis margine serrulatis firme membranaceis 
cito glabris, capitulis subspbaeroideis pluriflosculosis ad apicem 
ramulorum corymboso-paniculatis, inflorescentiis polycepbalis 
foliis majoribus subsequilongis puberulis bracteis subulatis quam 
pedunculi proprii certe brevioribus prseditis, capitulis subspbae- 
roideis pluriflosculosis, involucri 4-serialis phyllis exterioribus 
parvulis ovato-oblongis acutis vel obtusis interioribus oblongis 
appendice scariosa purpurea dorso glandulis sessilibus lucentibus 
induta coronatis, coroliis exsertis, achseniis anguste cylindrico-tur- 
binatis truncatis 5-angulatis inter angulos glandulosis. 

Hab. Uganda, Lamuru station, 3000 m. above sea-level; 
Scheffler, 288. 

Frutex fide cl. detectoris 2 m. alt. Folia 3-8 cm. long., 8-13 mm. 
lat., accedunt pauca summa 2 cm. x 3 mm. nisi etiam minus. 
Inflorescentige +8x4 cm. Bracteae plurimae 2-4 mm. long. 
Pedunculi proprii capitulorum profecto evolutorum + 8 mm. long. 
Capitula pansa 7x7 mm. Involucri phylla extima 2 mm. inter- 
media 3-5 mm. intima 4-5 mm. long. Corollse tubus basi tenuis, 
superne anguste campanulatus, 2-5 mm. long., basi -3 mm. faucibus 
1 mm. lat. ; lobi lineari-oblongi, tubo aegre aequilongi. Styli rami 
exserti, 1-5 mm. long. Achaenia vix 1-5 mm. long., brunnea. 

Foliage like that of some forms of E. conyzoides, but capitula 
larger with involucres unlike. 

Muschleria, Vernoniacearum gen. nov. (Plate 530.) 
Capitula homogama, tubuliflora, flosculis paucis. Involucrum 
cylindricum, phyllis pauciseriatis, arete imbricatis, angustis. 
Eeceptaculum leviter foveolatum, nudum. CoroUae regulares, tubo 
anguste infundibulari, limbo 5-lobo. Antherae basi sagittatae, 
auriculis obtusis anth. contiguarum connatis. Styli rami teretes, 
hirtelli. Achaenia 10-costata, compressiuscula angulataque, apice 
truncata. Pappus parvulus, cupuliformis, ore undulato. Caules 
erecti, bene foliosi, singuli vel plures rhizomati persistenti insi- 
dentes. Folia alterna. Capitula angusta, in glomerulos densos 
ad apicem ipsius caulis vel ramulorum brevium aggregata. 

Muschleria angolensis, sp. unica. Caule lignoso subsimplici 
apicem versus solummodo ramoso subtereti in longitudinem costato 
scabrido, foliis sessilibus linearibus apice mucronatis margine 
revolutis coriaceis supra scabridis subtus albo-tomentosis, glome- 

* The types of species described are in the National Herbarium. 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [April, 1914.] h 



90 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

rulis subsphseroideis vel corymbosis foliis perpaucis caulinis simi- 
libus nisi minoribus nonnunquam stipatis, capitulis 6-flosculosis, 
involucri 4-serialis phyllis lineari-lanceolatis longe acuminatis 
dorse carinatis interioribus quam exteriora longioribus omnibus 
rigidis puberulis, corollis exsertis, achisniis subturbinatis inter 
costas microscopice glandulosis. 

Hab. Angola, Forte Dom Affonso, Munongue and Kaconda; 
Gos&iveihr, 2907, 3092, 4144, 4325. 

Planta 1^-31 spithamea. Caulis 2-4 mm. diam. Folia solem- 
niter 1-5-4-5 cm. long., 1-5-3 mm. lat., pag. sup. olivacea. Glome- 
ruli subspbaeroidei, 2'5-3-5 cm. diam., corymbosi plerumque 
6x5 cm. vel paullulum ultra. Capitula pansa usque ad 16 x 3 mm. 
saepe vero minora. Involucri phylla ext. 4-5-8 mm. long., int. 
9-11 mm. Corollas purpureas ; tubus 7 mm. lobi 3 mm. long. 
Antheraj 3 mm. long. Stylus exsertus, superne incrassatus 
hirtellusque ; rami 2 mm. long. Achaenia 3 mm. long. Pappus 
•2 mm. alt. 

In appearance tbis is somewhat like a Corymbiuvi, the species 
of which have 1-flowered capitula, a different involucre and 
pappus with a lacerated edge. 

The generic name has been adopted in recognition of the work, 
especially on GompositcB, of Dr. Eeno Muschler. 

Vernonia (§ Lepidella) fontinalis, sp. no v. Herbacea, bi- 
spithamea, caule ex collo satis valido sparsim breviterque lanoso 
erecto simplici vel pauciramoso sericeo-tomentoso dein pubescente, 
foliis inferioribus rosulatis sessilibus oblongo-oblanceolatis obtusis 
chartaceis supra scabriusculis subtus appresse puberulis superi- 
oribus sparsis ceteris similibus sed minoribus, capitulis submedio- 
cribus pedunculatis subsessihbusve pluriflosculosis corymbos oligo- 
cephalos efiicientibus, involucri late campanulati sericeo-tomentosi 
5-serialis phyllis oblongo-lanceolatis interioribus gradatim longi- 
oribus oblongis omnibus obtuse acutis, corollis subexsertis, achaeniis 
turbinatis prominenter 5-angulatis angulis setulosis faciebus glan- 
dulis lucentibus inspersis, pappi squamis anguste lineari-lanceo- 
latis acuminatis setis paucis scabriusculis stramineis corollas 
aequantibus. 

Hab. Angola, Kubango, in meadows at the source of the 
Kuartiri ; Gossweiler, 4180. 

CoUum usque ad 1 cm. diam., fibras simplices validas copiose 
emittens. Folia glandulis immersis creberrime induta, inferiora 
summum 5 cm. long., 13 mm. lat., superiora + 3 cm. x 5 mm., 
summa imminuta nee perpauca in involucri phylla non transeuntia, 
omnia in sicco viridia. Corymbi summum 10 x 5 cm., saepe vero 
breviores. Capitula pansa 11 X 15 mm. Involucri phylla char- 
tacea, extima 4 mm., intermedia 6 mm., intima 8 mm. long. 
Corollae ex schedis cl. detectoris rubro-violaceae ; tubus cylindricus, 
6*5 mm. long. ; lobi lineari-oblongi, obtusi, apice setuliferi, 2-5 mm. 
long. Achaenia 2-5 mm. long, vel paullulum ultra, brunnea. Pappi 
squamae achaeniis circa aequilongae, setae 9 mm. long. 

This belongs to the group of species ranged round V. amhigua 
Kotsch. & Peyr. and V. Petersii O. & H., and of these most nearly 



VERNONIACRiE AFRICAN.^; NOVJ-] 91 

approaching V. amhigua, from which the present plant differs 
chiefly in its rosulate, only puberulous leaves, elongated inflores- 
cences, larger heads, and acute not lengthily acuminate involucral 
leaves. 

Vernonia (§ Hololepis) Duemmeri, sp. nov. Caule erecto 
sursum ramuloso puberulo jam glabrescente, foliis subsessilibus 
ovato-oblongis apice mucronatis basi obtusis margine crenulatis 
membranaceo-coriaceis supra scabridis subtus brunneo-pubescenti- 
bus, capitulis mediocribus circa 60-flosculosis ad apicem ramu- 
lorum (nonnunquam perbrevium) solitariis foliis ultimis perpaucis 
stipatis, involucri subhemisphaerici pluriseriati phyllis lineari- 
lanceolatis (intimis lineari-oblongis) spinuloso-acuminatis interi- 
oribus gradatim elongatis tela araneosa subsparsa onustis, corollis 
breviter exsertis, achicniis cylindrico-turbinatis 10-costatis inter 
costas pilosis, pappo biseriali setis albis exterioribus quam interi- 
ores multo brevioribus. 

Hab. Uganda, Zinga and Ripon Falls ; Di'unmer, 35. [Also 
Grass land, Uganda ; Bev. C. Wilson, 72 in Herb. Kew.] 

Suffrutex vel frutex, ex schedis cl. detectoris 2-4 ped. alt. Folia 
pleraque 4-5 x l"5-2 cm., siccitate brunnescentia ; petioli lati, 
2-3 mm. long. Capitula 14 x 18 mm., quidque foliis 1-5 nunc 

2 cm. (vel etiam majus) long., nunc (sed raro) usque ad 5 mm. 
diminutis stipata. Involucri phylla extima 2 mm., intermedia 
4-6 mm., intima 7"5-8 mm. long. ; horum acumen fuscum, leviter 
induratum, glabrum. Corollae tubus 7 mm. long., anguste infundi- 
bularis, triente inf. -3 mm. lat., faucibus 1 mm. ; lobi lineares, fere 

3 mm. long. Styli rami 3 mm. long. Achaenia longit. 3 mm. 
paullulum excedens, optime costata, grisea. Pappi setse ext. fere 
1 mm. long., int. 5 mm. 

Easily distinguished by foliage and involucres from the few 
species of this section. 

Probably conspecific with this is another Kew plant collected 
by A. Whyte in a journey from Nandi to Mumias. 

Vernonia (§ Xipholepis) paludigena, sp. nov. Rhizomate 
crasso sparsim fibroso caulem simplicem erectum supra basin 
nudam foliosum scabriusculum fulciente, foliis late oblanceolatis 
vel oblanceolato-obovatis apice mucronatis basi in petiolum brevem 
longe attenuatis margine subargute calloso-dentatis coriaceis nitidis 
utrinque scabridis costaque media pag. inf. puberula, capitulis 
submajusculis multiflosculosis in corymbos oligocephalos digestis, 
involucri subhemisphaerici circa 7-serialis phyllis lineari-lanceolatis 
longe acuminatis margine serrulato-ciliolatis chartaceis superne 
membranaceis viridibusque exterioribus saepe plus minus patenti- 
bus recurvisve, achaeniis anguste cylindricis 10-costatis basi callosis 
glabris, pappi squamis anguste linearibus acutis setis 2-serialibus 
scabriusculis dilute stramineis. 

Hab. Belgian Congo, in a marsh at Kabinda; Kassner, 2832. 

Herba fere metralis. Caulis 3-4 mm. diam., eximie striatus. 
Folia inferiora baud rosulata etsi perpauca infima approximata, 
12- fere 20 cm. long., ultra medium 4 cm. lat., in sicco supra 

II 2 



92 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

viridi-bi'unnea subtus pallidiora; petioli circa 1'5 cm. long., supra 
canaliculati ; folia juniora gradatim diminuta. Corymbus circiter 
12 X 8 cm. Pedunculi 3-5-12 cm. long. Bracteae paucae, lanceo- 
lataB, + 2 cm. long., ultimas capitula appropinquantes filiformes, 
4 mm. long. Involucri phylla extima 5 mm. long., intermedia 
10--14 mm., intima 18 mm., omnia dilute viridi-grisea. Corollas 
maturae baud suppetunt. Achaenia basi callosa, brunnea, 6 mm. 
long. Pappi squamas 2 mm. long., setas 9 mm. 

The affinity of this is with V. Melleri Oliver & Hiern, from 
which it differs in foliage and capitula. V. Melleri was redescribed 
by 0. Hoffmann under the name of V. scabrifolia, and referred to 
his § Laclmorhiza. To me this section seems unnecessar5^ for 
since the involucres and pappus yield such excellent sectional 
characters in this genus, I think it a pity to isolate a few species 
upon the fact of their having some woolly hairs upon their root- 
stocks: I agree, however, that if such a character is helpful in 
the grouping of the species of a large homogeneous genus, like 
Senecio, for instance, it may well be brought into use. 

Vernonia (§ Decaneuron) chlorolepis, sp. nov. Khizomate 
crasso sparsim piloso, caule erecto superne ramoso folioso etsi 
basi nudo valido tereti hispidule scabrido tandem glabrescente, 
foliis sessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis raro oblongo-obovatis acutis 
basi angustatis decurrentibus integris vel distanter denticulatis 
coriaceo-membranaceis pag. utravis scabris vel scaberrimis, capi- 
tulis magnis late campanulatis multiflosculosis ad apicem ramo- 
rum solitariis corymbum referentibus, involucri subhemisphaerici 
pluriserialis phyllis lineari-lanceolatis (intimis lineari-oblongis) 
mucronatis interioribus gradatim longioribus rigidis scabriusculis 
deorsum dilute stramineis sursum viridibus, coroUis exsertis, 
achgeniis cylindricis 10-costatis subtiliter pubescentibus, pappi setis 
2-seriatis exterioribus abbreviatis scabridis rubiginoso-stramineis. 

Hab. Angola, Kubango, in thickets at Forte Princeza Amelia, 
and Kaconda at Landringo ; Gossweiler, 2331, 4253. 

Caulis circiter ^-metralis, 5 mm. diam., longitrorsum striatus. 
Folia solemniter 7-9 x 1-5-2-5 cm., summa diminuta et in invo- 
lucri phylla transeuntia, pallide viridia, utrinque prominenter 
nervosa ; reticulum laxum. Capitula matura 2'5-3"5 x 4-5 cm. 
Involucri phylla extima 8-10 mm., intermedia cii'ca 15 mm., intima 
usque ad 20 mm. long. Corollas coeruleae ; tubus extus sparsim 
glandulosus, angustus, sursum levissime ampliatus, 15 mm. long. ; 
lobi anguste lineari-oblongi, acuti, 8 mm. long. Antheras exsertae, 
7 mm. long. Styli rami 4 mm. long. Achaenia 4*5 mm. long. ; 
pappi setas ext. circa 3 mm., int. 14 mm. long. 

V. carnea Hiern, to which this is allied, has somewhat different 
toothed leaves, much smaller heads and involucral leaves, although 
similar in shape, consistence, and colour, very much smaller. 

No. 2331 cited above has smaller heads (2x4 cm.) than the 
other, and its involucral leaves a little narrower. 

Vernonia (§ Decaneuron) ornata, sp. nov. Caule e rhizo- 
mate crasso fibrillifero ascendente robusto fistuloso in longitudinem 
eximie costato glabro, foliis maxima pro parte juxta solum approxi- 



VERNONIACEa: AFRICANS NOV35 93 

matis sessilibus lineari- vel oblongo-oblanceolatis obtusis subdis- 
tanter calloso-denticulatis chartaceis utrobique scabriusculis paucis 
junioribus ceteris similibus nisi minoribus gradatim diminutis, 
capitulis magnis multiflosculosis corymbum oligocephalum pauci- 
bracteatum baud elongatum referentibus, involucri subbemi- 
sphterici 5-serialis phyllis lanceolatis (interioribus gradatim longi- 
oribus lanceolato-oblongis) acuminatis coriaceis superne vero 
saepius membranaceis fuscisque dorso scabriusculis margins 
scabriusculo-ciliolatis, corollis exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis basi 
callosis 10-costatis appresse setulosis, pappi setis 2-serialibus 
(paucis extimis abbreviatis) scabriusculis rubicundulo-stramineis. 

Hab. Angola, moist meadows in marshes of the Kiuriri near 
Kassuango and of the Cambambe at Kuebo ; Gossxoeiler, 3313, 
3885. 

Circiter bispithamea. Caulis diam. adusque 5 mm. Folia in 
sicco viridi-grisea, summum 29 x 4 cm., ssepe 14-18 x 2 cm., 
caulina seniora + 10 x 1"5 cm., summa + 3*5 cm. long. ; costa 
media subtus optime eminens ; costae laterales planae ; reticulum 
laxum sat difficile aspectabile. Corymbus 2-5-cephalus, ± 10 cm. 
long. Capitula pansa 3'5 x 4-5-5 cm. Involucri phylla extima 
5-10 mm. long., intermedia 15-20 mm., intima vix 30 mm. long. 
Corollas violaceae vel coeruleae ; tubus elongatus, anguste sub- 
cylindricus (superne leviter dilatatus), 25 mm. long. ; lobi anguste 
lineari-oblongi, obtusi, longit. 10 mm. paullulum excedens. An- 
therae exsertae, 6 mm. long. Styli rami 7*5 mm. long. Achaenia 
7 mm. long. Pappi setae paucae 5-10 mm. long., complures 
20-22 mm. 

The affinity is with V. carnea Hiern, which, however, is quite 
unlike it in several respects. 

Vernonia (§ Decaneuron) concinna, sp. nov. Herbacea, 
verisimiliter sat elata, caule erecto sesquimetrali vel paullo minus 
alto valido folioso glabro, foliis caulinis sparsis sessilibus lanceo- 
latis vel oblanceolato-oblongis obtusis margine distanter vel sub- 
distanter calloso-denticulatis basi breviter decurrentibus coriaceis 
glabris, capitulis mediocribus circa 25-flosculosis in paniculam 
terminalem angustam crebro bracteatam puberulam cito fere 
glabram digestis, involucri campanulati 7-serialis phyllis oblongis 
acutis interioribus gradatim longioribus intimis optime elongatis 
omnibus (apice fusco exemptis) tomento sordide albo vel dilute 
brunneo obductis, corollis breviter exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis 
10-costatis inter costas glandulis lucentibus praeditis, pappi setis 
inter sese fere aequalibus (perpaucis interdum paullo brevioribus) 
plerisque apice curvatis ciliatis fulvis. 

Hab. Angola, Amboim-Novo Eedondo, near the Forte Quissaca ; 
Gossiveiler, 4480. 

Caulis 5 mm. diam., in longitudinem eleganter costatus, fuscus. 
Folia 9-10 cm. long., 2-3 cm. lat. basin decurrentem versus 
angustata necnon petioliformia, ima basi levissime dilatata, in 
sicco brunnea vel brunneo-viridia. Panicula circa 30 cm. alt., 
summum 7 cm. lat. ; axis cauli similis nisi angustior ; rami 



94 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ascenclentes, distanter bracteati, apice oligocephali (raro monoce- 
phali), + 4 cm. long. Bracteae ex axi ortse pleraeque 1-5-2 cm. 
long., 5 mm. lat., margine denticulatge ; bracteae ramulorum 
plergeque 5-8 mm. long., summae imminutse in involucri phylla 
transeuntes. Capitula pansa 1"5 cm. long., totidemlat. Involucri 
phylla extima 2-5-3 mm., intermedia 4-6 mm., intima 10 mm. 
long. Corollae tubus anguste infundibularis, 10 mm. long., inferne 
vix 1 mm. lat., faucibus 2 mm.; lobi oblongi, 4 mm. long. Achaenia 
3"5 mm., pappus 9 mm. long. 

Near V. Quartiniana A. Eich., but, among other features, the 
foliage and capitula of the two are very unlike. 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) lafukensis, sp. nov. Erecta, veri- 
similiter suffruticosa, circiter bispithamea, caule sat valido simplici 
vel apicem versus rariramoso usque ad inflorescentiam folioso 
pubescente, foliis subsessilibus oblongo-oblanceolatis basi apiceque 
obtusis margine denticulatis pergamaceis utrobique in nervis 
puberulis glandulis immersis praeditis pag. sup. nervis planis vel 
subplanis pag. inf. (ut reticulum arctum) optime eminentibus, 
capitulis submediocribus breviter pedunculatis 12-flosculosis in 
corymbum brevem polycephalum bracteatum griseo-tomentellum 
subcongestis, involucri turbinati circa 7-serialis phyllis ovatis 
(intimis oblongo-obovatis) chartaceis perpaucis extimis appendice 
membranacea colorata lanceolata acuminata onustis ceteris appen- 
dice late ovata phyll. exteriorum acuminata phyll. interiorum saepe 
obtusa vel obtusissima et (costa media dorso excurrente) apiculata, 
corollis exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis pubescentibus obscure 
costatis, pappi setis pluribus (exterioribus paucis brevioribus) 
aliquanto complanatis apice saepe leviter clavellatis scabridis 
stramineis. 

Hab. Belgian Congo, Lafuka Eiver and in open fields at 
Lufongo ; Kassner, 2846 a, 2863 a. 

Folia inferiora 6-9 x l"4-2-2 cm., superiora gradatim diminuta 
± 25 X 7 mm., in sicco griseo-viridia ; petioli summum 2-3 mm. 
long., validi, ut caulis fusci. Corymbi 3-6 x 5-10 cm. Bracteae 
foliis similes sed minores(+15 x 3 mm.). PeduQCuli proprii 
saepius circa 5 mm. long. Capitula maturata (flosculis inclusis) 
18 X 8 mm. Involucri phylla margine dorsoque scepe pube grisea 
induta, pauca extima circa 10 mm. long., intermedia circa 12 mm. 
(inclusa appendice 6x6 mm.), intima 12-5 x 4 mm., horum 
appendix circa 2-5 x 2-5 mm. Corollae tubus inferne tubulosus, 
superne subito dilatatus, pars dilatata fere medium usque in lobos 
triangulari-obloDgos obtusiusculos divisa, pars tubulosa 8 mm. 
pars dilatata (inclusis lobis 2-5 mm. long.) 5'5 mm. long. Antherte 
partim exsertae, 5-5 mm. long. Styli rami 4 mm. long. Achaenia 
2 mm., pappi setge pleraeque 7 mm. long. 

Allied to V. cardiolepis 0. Hoffm. and V. Britteniana Hiern, 
but differing from both in foliage and in the short crowded 
inflorescences. The sparsely hairy involucres with acuminate 
appendages are also good points by which it can be distinguished 
from the latter, while the involucral leaves of F. cardiolepis, besides 
having a rotundate appendage, are much narrower. 



VERNONIACE^ APRICAN^i: NOV^ 95 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) vallicola, sp. nov. Suffrutex caule 
^-f-metrali erecto robusto basi nudo alibi crebro folioso densiuscule 
griseo-pubescente demum glabrescente, foliis sessilibus (summis 
subsessilibus) ovato-oblongis basi apiceque obtusis margine den- 
tato-seiTulatis subcoriaceis supra glabris subtus sparsim pubes- 
centibus costis (reticulo arcto hand exempto) pag. inf. maxime 
eminentibus, capitulis mediocribus circa 20-flosculosis in corym- 
bum subpaniculatum raribracteatum circiter 10-cephalum foliis 
duplo longiorem dispositis, pedunculis pedunculisque propriis 
griseo-pubescentibus his quam capitula plerumque longioribus, 
involucri cylindrico-turbinati 6-serialis phyllis exfcimis abbreviatis 
ovatis intermediis longioribus ovato-oblongis intimis oblongis vel 
late oblongo-linearibus omnibus chartaceis stramineis (exterioribus 
stramineo-brunneis) et lamina petaloidea obovata obtusa onustis, 
corollis breviter exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis basi callosis dense 
appresse setulosis, pappi straminei setis pluribus apice aliquanto 
dilatatis scabridis paucis exterioribus ceteris brevioribus. 

Hab. Angola, Kuito, in the valley of Fiengo ; Gosstveiler, 
3781. 

Folia solemniter 5-6 x 2-2-5 cm., secus caulem subapproxi- 
mata (intermedia circa 15 mm. long.), pauca ima perpaucaque 
summa minora, sc. circiter 3-3'5 cm. long., hgec in bracteas 
transeuntia, in sicco griseo-viridia. Corymbi 9-10 x 8-10 cm. ; 
bracteae + 1*5 cm. long., paucae capitula appropinqantes anguste 
lineares, + 6 mm. long. ; pedunculi proprii plerique 1-5-3 cm. 
long. Capitula pansa 2-8 x 1-1-2 cm. Involucri phylla extima 
4-5 mm. long., intermedia (appendice sibi ipsi aquilonga inclusa) 
16 mm., intima 16 mm. long., horum appendix circa 3 mm. long. 
Corollae tubus attenuatus, sub apice subito in limbum campanu- 
latum fere usque medium lobatum ampliatus, longit. 2 cm. 
paullulum excedens. Antherae inclusa?, 6 mm. long. Styli rami 
6 mm. long. Achgenia 3-4 mm. long., pappi setae pleraeque 
12-13 mm. 

Easily distinguished from V. armerioides 0. Hoffm. by the 
leafy stems, differently shaped leaves with close and prominent 
reticulation and cylindrical-turbinate involucres. 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) castellana, sp. nov. Herbacea, bi- 
spithamea vel paullo ultra, caule erecto siraplici basi nuda exempta 
sparsim folioso pube brevi densiuscula gaudiente, foliis subdistan- 
tibus (internodiis plerisque 2-3-5 cm. long.) oblongo-obovatis 
obtusis obtusissimisve basi in petiolum longum cuneatim coartatis 
margine undulatis vel denticulatis papyraceis supra scabriusculis 
subtus in nervis reticuloque eminente pubescentibus, capitulis 
inter minores circa 15-liosculosis in corymbum subscaposum longi- 
pedunculatum abbreviatum satis densum ordiuatis, bracteis per- 
paucis foliis multo minoribus, pedunculis propriis capitulis saepius 
aequilongis brevioribusve ut inflorescentiae rami tomentosis, invo- 
lucri campanulati pubescentis 4-serialis phyllis intus gradatim 
longioribus oblongo-ovatis (intimis oblongis) chartaceis appendice 
ovata (vel phyll. interiorum lanceolata) obtusa vel acuta onustis, 
corollis exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis obscure costatis setulosis, 



96 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

pappi setis 2-serialibus stramineis breviter barbellatis exterioribus 
abbreviatis angusteque squamatis. 

Hab. Angola, on the Cului Eiver, in pasturage at Forte Dom 
Affonso ; Gossiveiler, 2883. 

Foliorum limbus basi saepe obliqua, 13-15 cm. long. 4-5-6 cm. 
lat., in sicco griseo-viridis subtus paullo pallidior ; petioli validi, ima 
basi dilatati, obscure decurrentes, supra plani dorso rotundati 
sparsim pubescentes, + 4 cm. long. ; folia perpauca ultima + 5 x 
2 cm. Pedunculus 30-40 cm. alt., pubescens. Bractese perpaucas 
vetustiores 2-3 cm. long., 3-4 mm. lat.; juniores capitula appropin- 
quantes lineares, + 5 mm. long. Capitula (corollis admissis) 
12 X 6 mm. Involucrum 7 mm. long. ; phylla extima 2-3 mm. 
intermedia 6-7 mm. intima 9 mm. long. Corollae coBruleo-violaceae 
tubus superne amplificatus, 8 mm. long, (pars amplificata 2 mm.) 
lobi lineares, 3 mm. long. Antheras exsertae, 2-5 mm. long. Styli 
longe exserti, rami 2 mm. long. Achaenia 2"5 mm. long. ; pappi 
setae ext. 2 mm., int. 7 mm. long. 

In habit this is somewhat like V. viilancjiana S. Moore, in 
capitula V. lasiopus 0. Hoffm., near which latter species it should 
find a place. It is also close to V. prcemorsa Muschl., which, 
besides smaller and narrower leaves, has larger heads with broader 
involucral leaves. 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) Anandrioides, sp. nov. Caule 
valde abbreviato filioso valido griseo-tomentoso rhizomate satis 
crasso tubera fusiformia hac atque iliac emittente suffulto, foliis 
rosulatis sessilibus late obovatis apice rotundatis basin versus 
angustatis et petiolum late alatum mentientibus margine repandis 
crenulatisve pergamaceis supra glabratis subtus in nervis griseo- 
tomentosis alibi pubescentibus glabrescentibus, capitulis medio- 
cribus pluriflosculosis paucis ex axillis foliorum solitatim oriundis, 
pedunculis scaposis erectis quam folia longioribus vel iisdem 
subaequilongis nudis vel bracteis perpaucis linearibus onustis dilute 
fulvo-tomentosis, involucri subhemisphaerici 4-serialis pubescentis 
phylhs paucis extimis bracteis similibus lineari-lanceolatis sursum 
attenuatis ceteris oblongo-ovatis (intimis oblongis) chartaceis 
appendice brevi lanceolata vel ovata colorata coronatis, corollis 
exsertis, achaeniis cylindricis basi callosis 8-costatis pube grisea 
obtectis, pappi setis paucis inaequilongis scabriusculis apice 
aliquantulum dilatatis breviterque barbellatis stramineis. 

Hab. Angola, Kubango, in gravelly pasturage near Forte 
Princeza Amelia ; Gossiveiler, 2132. 

Planta summum spithamea, saepe vero solummodo circa 6 cm. 
alt., habitu Plantaginis alicujus. Caulis 1-2 cm. alt. Folia viva 
solo applicata, 3*5-7 cm. long., ultra medium 3-4 cm. lat., supra 
in sicco brunneo-subtus griseo-viridia. Pedunculi 2-5-20 cm. 
long., apicem versus leviter incrassati ; bractese dum adsint 
+ 8 mm. long. Capitula pansa 1-3-1-5 x 2 cm. Involucri 
phylla extima + 7 mm. long. ; intermedia (inclusa appendice 
4 mm. long.) 10 x 4 mm. ; intima 11x3 mm., horum appendix 
circa 3 mm. long. Corolla vivide coeruleo-violacea tubus elon- 
gatus, attenuatus, 9 mm. long., superne subito campanulatim 



VERNONIACE^ AFRICAN.^ NOV^ 97 

dilatatus; lobi oblongi, partis campanulatae dimidium adasquantes, 
2-5 mm. long. Antheroe 4 mm. long., superne exsertoe. Stigmatis 
rami 3-5 mm. long. Achuenia 3-5-4 mm. long. ; pappi setae 
perpaucas exteriores 3-4 mm., ceterae summum 10 mm. long. 

Near V.pumila Kotsch. & Peyr., but with dissimilar coetaneous 
leaves as well as different involucres. The allied species V. nan- 
densis S. Moore has coetaneous but oblanceolate leaves, larger 
heads and involucral leaves, &c. 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) campicola, sp. nov. Caule erecto 
crebro folioso angulato striatoque pubescente citissime puberulo, 
foliis amplis sessilibus oblongo-obovatis obtusis dimidio inf. 
gradatim attenuatis margine late dentatis membranaceis utrinque 
scabriusculis, capitulis majusculis multiflosculosis paucis (exempl. 
unici nobis obvii 4) ad apicem caulis corymbosis pedunculisque 
validis pubescentibus suffultis, involucri subsphaeroidei phyllis 
pluriseriatis interioribus gradatim majoribus chartaceis exterioribus 
ovatis interioribus late oblongis omnibus appendice ovata obtusa 
scariosa reticulato-nervosa onustis, corollis exsertis, achseniis 
cylindricis basi callosis 8-costatis pubescentibus, pappi setis 
aliquanto complanatis superne leviter dilatatis scabriusculis 
rubiginoso-stramineis paucis exterioribus ceteris brevioribus. 

Hab. Belgian Congo, Lufongo on open plains ; Kassner, 2845 a. 

Folia 18-23 x 3-5-6 cm. ; exstant vero minora, in sicco 
brunneo-virescentia, subtus pallidiora ibique sub lente glandulis 
lucentibus pilisque brevibus sparsim inspersa ; radicalia desunt. 
Corymbus 5x9 cm. Capitula 3-5 x 4 cm. Involucri phylla 
extima circa 10 mm., intermedia 15-20 mm., intima 25 mm. long. 
Corollse tubus elongatus, angustus, apicem versus subcampanulatus, 
27 mm. long., hujus pars amplificata 4-5 x 2-5 mm.; lobi oblongo- 
lanceolati, 4 mm. long. Styli rami vix 5 mm. long. Achaenia 
fere 2 mm. long. Pappi setae ext. + 6 mm., ceterae + 10 mm. 
long. 

This belongs to the group of species clustering round V. in- 
signis 0. & H. and V. Calvoana 0. & H. The foUage and achenes 
are its chief peculiarities. 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) Yatesii, sp. nov. Verisimiliter fruti- 
culosa ramis subtetragonis puberulis ramulis tenuibus pube cinerea 
densa obtectis mox puberulis, foliis parvulis oblanceolato-oblongis 
obtusis basi in petiolum brevem gradatim attenuatis margine 
apicem versus dentato-serratis firme membranaceis utrinque cito 
glabris vel fere glabris, capituHs pro rata parvis circa 25-flosculosis 
ad apicem ramulorum solitariis breviter pedunculatis pedunculis 
dense cinereo-pubescentibus, involucri campanulati phyllis circa 
6-seriahbus interioribus gradatim paullo longioribus oblongis 
humectatis crassiusculis appendice brevi herbacea oblongo-ovata 
acuta onustis araneoso-pubescentibus, corolla3 tubo inferne 
attenuate superne dilatata, antheris basi acutis, achaeniis oblongis 
4-5-costatis glabris, pappi setis comparate brevibus paucis (circa 
18) 2-seriatis inferne subpaleaceis superne attenuatis valde 
inaequalibus scabridis sordide albis. 

Hab. Nupe, Nigeria; C. C. Yates. 



98 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Folia l'5-2 cm. long., 4-8 mm. lat., in sicco olivaceo-nigra ; 
petioli 3-5 mm. long. Pedunculi adusque 4 mm. long. Involucra 
7x8 mm. ; phylla intermedia 6 mm. long., 1-2 mm. lat. ; horum 
appendix + 2 mm. long., tenuia, difficile separabilia. Corollas 
puniceae, in toto 4 mm. long. ; tubus in feme -3 mm. superne fere 
1 mm. lat. ; lobi oblongi, obtusi, 1 mm. long. Styli rami 2 mm. 
long. Acboenia 4 mm. long., in sicco dilute straminea, punctulis 
brunneis creberrime inspersa. Pappi setae ssepissime 1-5-3 mm. 
long. 

A curious little plant, with somewhat the look of a Centra- 
therum, but without the caducous pappus of that genus. The 
involucral leaves are so closely appressed as to make it impossible 
to separate them in the dry state, and not easy when moistened. 
Relatively to the achenes the pappus is short for Vernoiiia, and its 
hairs are few and in the dry state stand close together; moreover, 
when moistened they diverge slowly until they are at right angles 
to the achenes, no doubt a means whereby the achene is anchored 
when it falls upon moist ground. 

Under these circumstances I have doubts whether this should 
be placed in Vernonia, but I place it there provisionally, as there 
seems no more suitable genus to receive it. 

(To be continued.) 



MYCETOZOA FROM AROSA, SWITZERLAND. 
By Gulielma Lister, F.L.S. 

Arosa is in Canton Graubunden, about eight miles west of 
Davos. The village with its numerous hotels and sanatoria is 
finely situated at an altitude of 6000 feet, on the hillside high 
above the Plessur river, which flows north by a winding course 
to join the Rhine near Chur. The lower slopes of the steep 
valley are clothed with spruce woods ; above, the trees give place 
to moist meadows, alpine pastures, and mountain heights where 
snow often remains throughout the summer. 

The weather during the five weeks I spent at Arosa last 
summer was changeable. Three times heavy snow fell and 
covered all the land for a few days, when it was succeeded by 
rain and mist with intervals of brilliant sunshine. 

While searching for Mycetozoa in the latter part of June, I 
found but scanty and weathered remains of such species as 
Tricliia varia, Cribraria macrocarpa and Lycogala in the spruce 
woods. Later, when I had been joined by Miss Hibbert-Ware 
and Miss Schinz, the weather was more genial and we learnt the 
more favourable places in which to hunt. During the last week 
of July Plasmodium was found emerging from stumps and 
prostrate trees in many parts of the woods. 

On the alpine pastures, clumps of Cirsium sjnnosissimum, 
Senecio alpinus and Aconitum Nai)elUis afforded good hunting 
grounds. Amongst the fresh young foliage were many of the 



MYCETOZOA FROM AEOSA, SWITZERLAND 99 

previous year's flower-stalks, decayed and hollow within, which, 
when split open, usually showed the tracks of plasmodium that 
had chosen this sheltered situation in which to creep, feed, and 
often also to form sporangia. Here Perichcena vermicularis 
abounded. Higher on the hills, where patches of winter snow 
still lingered or had recently lain, on the sodden brown turf were 
found such species as Physarum vernuvi, Didymium Wilczekii, 
Lcpidochrma Garestianum, and other cold-loving Mycetozoa. 

The following is a list of the forty-eight species we found, 
one of which appears not to have been previously described. 

Ceratiomyxa mucida (Mueller) Macbr. Abundant during the 
last weeks of July on spruce logs. The typical form only was 
found. 

Badhamia alpina, n. sp. Plasmodium pale yellow or yellow- 
ish white. Sporangia sessile, clustered or scattered, subglobose, or 
hemispherical on a broad membranous base, 0-5 to 0-9 mm. diam., 
grey, or dark brown and iridescent when without lime, usually 
seated on a dark horny layer of hypothallus over which are 
scattered deposits of lime-granules ; sporangium-wall membranous, 
fragile, with or without scanty deposits of lime granules. Capilli- 
tium a dense network of slender tubes, expanded at the nodes, and 
containing scanty deposits of lime. Spores greyish-lilac, very 
faintly warted, 10 to 12 jx diam., average 11 /u. Found in some 
abundance on and inside hollow scapes of Cirsium spinosissimum 
and Senecio alpinus, above Arosa, 7000 ft. alt. This species closely 
resembles B.foUicola Lister, from which it is distinguished by the 
pale colour of the plasmodium, the more hemispherical sporangia, 
and the pale nearly smooth spores. From B. panicea Eost. it 
differs in the yellow not creamy white colour of the plasmodium, 
the much closer network of the often limeless capillitium, and 
paler spores ; it differs also in the absence of any red colour at the 
base of the sporangium and of the strands of brownish-red hypo- 
thallus which usually characterize B. panicea. We had received 
previously three specimens of B. alpina from Graubunden gathered 
by Prof. A. Volkart, viz. one from Trimmis, at 5300 ft. alt., on her- 
baceous stalks, June, 1903, and two others from the Furstenalp at 
5300 ft. and 6000 ft. alt. respectively, June, 1901, on dead raspberry 
twigs and old stalks of Veratnim album. M. Ch. Meylan has also 
gathered this species sevei'al times near Ste. Croix in the Jura 
Mts. A specimen found by Dr. E. E. Fries "in regione subalpina," 
2600 ft. alt., at Areskutan, Jamtland, Sweden, in August, 1905, 
appears also to be B. alpina. All these specimens we formerly 
regarded as forms of B. foliicola with unusually pale and smooth 
spores before we realized how constant this character is, and that 
it is associated with pale plasmodium. 

Badhamia foliicola Lister. This first attracted our attention 
by numerous patches of bright orange plasmodium found creeping 
over twigs, fir-needles, grass and herbage under a spruce tree. 
By marking the spot we were able in a few days to collect fine 
clusters of the mature inconspicuous grey sporangia. The spores 
are violet-brown, 10 /t diam., and distinctly spinulose. This 



100 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

seems to be the first true record of the species for Switzerland, 
for in the light of our present knowledge the previous Swiss 
records should be referred to B. aliyina. 

Physarum viride (Bull.) Pars. One gathering only, on a 
spruce cone in the woods. 

P. NUTANS Pers. A single specimen found in the hollow of a 
spruce stump. 

P. FULVUM (Macbr.) Lister. A cluster of about fifty sporangia 
was found on a pile of spruce boughs in a steep wood. Except 
for a gathering made by M. Charles Meylan on Le Chasseron, 
Jura Mts, last May, this alpine species has not been found out of 
N. America, where it appears to be rare. M. Meylan's specimen, 
part of which he kindly sent me, has more globose and sessile 
sporangia than the type from Colorado (figured in Mycetozoa, 
pi. 66) ; they vary from yellowish -buff to white, or are yellow 
below and white above ; the lime-knots of the elastic capillitium 
are yellow and often unite to form a pseudo-columella. In the 
Arosa specimen the sporangia are obovoid on long or short yellow 
membranous stalks ; some are yellowish-chestnut, others are 
bright yellow all over, or yellow below and white above where the 
wall breaks up into fragile lobes ; the capillitium consists of 
an elastic network of yellow threads with numerous orange or 
orange-red angular lime-knots, containing irregular nodules of 
lime; the spores are rich brownish-purple, spinulose, 11-12 /x 
diam. This specimen shows a striking resemblance to Leocarjms 
fragilis Rost. both in the shape of the sporangia and in the 
capillitium and spores ; but although the colour of the sporangia 
varies in both these species, the walls of P.fulviim are membranous 
and rugose with included deposits of lime-granules, and show 
nothing of the polished cartilaginous layers characteristic of 
Leocarpus fragilis. 

P. VERNUM Somm. On Cirsiiim scapes. 

FuLiGO SEPTiCA (L.) Gmelin. One weathered sethalium found 
on a spruce stump. 

DiDERMA NivEUM (Rost.) Macbr. Found in abundance, but 
mostly in a weathered condition, on turf near melting snow. 

D. Trevelyani (Grev.) Fries. Two clusters found on Cirsium 
scapes on the alps. The sporangia show no trace of columellae. 

D. radiatum (L.) Lister. A curious development consisting 
of a dozen brownish-buff sporangia was found on a chip of spruce 
wood. They are sessile or on very short flesh-coloured stalks, or 
form short curved plasmodiocarps. The lime-granules are dis- 
solved from the cartilaginous sporangium-\valls which are marked 
with the cavities where the granules lay ; the columella is 
hemispherical, the capillitium colourless, and the spores purple- 
brown, 8 to 11 /x diam. I have since received specimens of 
typical stalked D. radiatum gathered at Arosa in August by the 
Hon. Terence Bourke. 

DiDYMiUM DiFFORME (Pers.) Duby. Both large and small 



MYCETOZOA PROM AROSA, SWITZERLAND 101 

plasmodiocarps were found in many places on the alps on dead 
Cirsium stalks. 

D. WiLCZEKii Meylan. This alpine species was found 
abundantly on the alps, and showed great diversity of form. 
The largest gathering was on dead scapes of Aconitum Napellus 
at an elevation of about 8000 ft. near the Altein Furka Pass ; it 
consisted of some hundreds of sporangia clothed with flat discoid 
scales formed of closely cohering crystals of lime. A remarkable 
variety was obtained on the Ochsenalp. The specimen consists 
of two depressed plasmodiocarps, about 13 mm. long ; the 
superficial crystals form a continuous crust, and are easily 
brushed off from the glossy purple-brown sporangium-wall ; a 
columella is represented by the thickened spongy base of the 
plasmodiocarp ; the spores are unusually large, 13-16 jj. diam., 
purple-brown, closely and minutely spinulose. The most striking 
feature is the capillitium, the threads of which are pale purple, 
sparingly branched, about 2 /x diam., marked with a few dark 
bead-like thickenings, and also with three to four slender close-set 
spiral bands ; these either wind smoothly round the thread, or 
together form a prominent spiral : the direction of the spiral 
is similar to that on the elaters of Trichia. We have been 
accustomed hitherto to regard the development of spiral bands on 
the capillitium as a character of generic importance, found only in 
the Calonemeae division of the Mycetozoa. It is, therefore, rather 
disconcerting to have perfectly regular spiral bands formed on all 
the capillitium threads of this Didymium which in every other 
respect resembles D. Wilczekii. 

Lepidoderma Carestianum Eost. A few thick-walled plasmo- 
diocarps were found on turf near melting snow, and on Girsium 
scapes. The capillitium of one specimen shows an unusual struc- 
ture ; the threads are pale yellow, simple below, branched above, 
and consist of a central strand surrounded by a sheath broken up 
into long or short segments ; such a structure usually occurs in 
the capillitium of CoUoderma, but I have not seen it in any other 
species. 

Colloderma oculatum (Lippert) G. Lister. On decayed 
spruce stumps, on both sides of the Plessur valley. Fragments 
of mossy wood with sporangia were brought back to England and 
kept moist under a bell-jar for four months, during which time 
fresh sporangia continued to appear at one point or another over 
the surface. Besides a growth of moss the wood was coated with 
a gelatinous green alga, with which Colloderma is usually associ- 
ated. Through the alga the plasmodium emerges as scattered 
sulphur-yellow beads, which soon secrete a gelatinous envelope ; 
in many cases the mature sporangium pushes out through this 
envelope, enclosed only by a delicate iridescent membrane which 
readily breaks and allows the spores to be scattered. 

Stemonitis fusca Eoth. On spruce logs. 

S. ferruginea Ehrenb. On spruce logs, found only in a 
weathered condition. 



102 THE JOURNAL OF ROTANY 

S. HERBATiCA Peck. On a spruce log, weathered. 

CoMATRiCHA NIGRA (Pers.) Schrad. Fairly abundant on fallen 
spruce boughs. 

C. TYPHOiDEs (Bull.) Eost. var. heterospora Eex. On a 
spruce stump. 

Lamproderma violaceum (Fr.) Eost. var. Caresti-e. Eather 
abundant on and inside hollow Cirsmm scapes. The sporangia are 
all shortly stalked, some are globose, others are ovoid; in one 
group of sporangia the sporangium-walls may either persist in 
large flakes, or break up into fragments adhering to the tips 
of the capillitium : the capillitium forms a dense intricate net- 
work, and is purplish-black except at the extreme tips, which are 
colourless ; the spores are very minutely spinulose and either very 
dark grey, slightly pale on one side, 11-5 to 14 /x diam. ; or, in one 
gathering, they are pale grey, 10 to 12 [i. These specimens differ, 
M. Meylan tells me, from his L. atrosporum by the capillitium 
being too dense ; in L. atrosporum the spores can be freed from 
the sporangia at a breath. 

Enerthenema papillatum (Pers.) Eost. On decaying stumps. 

Cribraria aurantiaca Schrad. On rotting spruce logs. 

C. MACROCARPA Schrad. Abundant. On one tall stump the 
sporangia extended over an area of several square feet, but were 
old and mouldy. 

C. purpurea Schrad. Found on the same stump as the largo 
growth of G. macrocarpa. The sporangia measure about 3 mm. 
in total height , they are old, and have turned a dull crimson. A 
similar change from the typical reddish-purple colour to crimson 
has taken place in a few sporangia of a large gathering kindly sent 
me from the Jura Mountains by M. Meylan. 

C. RUBiGiNOSA Fries. A fine but weathered development was 
found on a spruce stump. The sporangia measure from 3 to 
3'5 mm. in total height : the deep cups are marked below with 
numerous, close-set oblique or curved lines of thickening, and 
above with a close reticulation ; the sporangium-walls seem to be 
persistent throughout. In Mycetozoa, ed. 2, p. 177, the specimen 
from Berne, quoted under this species, should be referred to 
M. Meylan's new species C. femiginea.--' This differs from 
C. rubiginosa in the more piriform shape of the sporangia, in 
the shallow cups being marked wath about twenty strong ribs, 
and in the rusty-red spores. The colour of the spores is the chief 
character that distinguishes C.ferruginca from C. macrocarpa. 

DiCTYDiuM CANCELLATUM (Batsch) Macbr. var. alpinum. 
Found in several places on stumps. The largest growth covered 
an area of three square inches on the under side of a spruce log : 
the sporangia are erect or inclined on stout stalks 2 mm. high : 
they resemble typical var. alpinum in having only twenty to thirty 
ribs to the sporangial net, but differ in the colour of the ribs being 

* See Annuaire du Conservatoire et dn Jardin hotaniqiie de Genh'e, 1913, 
p. 319. 



MYCETOZOA FROM AROSA, SWITZERLAND 103 

deep red instead of brown ; in some sporangia the ribs branch and 
anastomose to form a Cribraria-\ike net, in others the ribs send off 
obhque branches on either side, as in Schrader's ilkistration of 
Dictydium venosuvi.''- 

LiCEA FLEXUOSA Pors. Found developing from rosy Plasmo- 
dium and also in a mature condition on spruce stumps and boughs. 

L. MINIMA Fries. Abundant on a few much decayed spruce 
stumps. The sulphur-yellow plasmodium continues to emerge 
and form sporangia for some days over the same area of wood, so 
that one may find all stages of growth intermixed, varying in 
colour from yellow to bright chestnut or brownish-black. The dark 
granules dotted over the inner surface of the margins of the lobes 
of the sporangium walls are not free " plasmodic granules " such 
as we see in Gribraria, Dicttjdiwn and Lindhladia, but prominent, 
often irregular warts or outgrowths from the walls themselves. 

L. pusiLLA Schrad. Fairly abundant on decayed spruce 
stumps. The colour of the emerging plasmodium is watery drab. 
I am not aware that this has been recorded before. When the 
sporangia are still young and pale the outlines of the areolae 
and lobes into which their walls will ultimately divide are clearly 
defined as a net of dark lines. This species can be distinguished 
from L. minima in the field by the spores being black instead of 
a reddish-brown colour in mass. 

TuBiFERA FERRUGiNOSA Gmelin. A cluster of sporangia was 
found emerging from a spruce stump in pinkish-yellow plasmo- 
dium, which matured indoors. 

Lycogala epidendrum (L.) Fries. On spruce stumps. 

Trichia pavoginea (Batsch) Pers. Abundant on spruce logs 
and stumps. The elaters in some sporangia have the spiral bands 
replaced partially by ring-shaped thickenings. 

T. scABRA Rost. Two large developments were found on 
spruce logs. 

T. persimilis Karst. On spruce stumps. 

T. VARiA Pers. Abundant on wood. 

T. coNTORTA (Ditm.) Rost. var. alpina. On Cirsiwn scapes. 

T. DECiPiBNS (Pers.) Macbr. On spruce stumps. 

T. BoTRYTis Pers. On spruce logs and stumps. 

Hemitrichia Karstenii Rost. A group of brown sporangia 
was found on a heap of spruce boughs. 

H. abietina (Wig.) Lister. On decaying spruce. The bands 
on the capillitium are two or three, arranged in a loose spiral, and 
often interrupted by ring-shaped thickenings. 

H. leiotricha Lister. A single shortly-stalked sporangium was 
found on a chip of spruce wood. The structure of the sporan- 
gium-wall with its comma- or ring-shaped thickenings and deposits 
of olivaceous refuse matter and the colour and markings of the 
spores are typical. The capillitium is remarkable in having the 

* See Nova Genera Plcmtarum, pi. iii. fig. 6. 



104 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

spiral bands on the threads running in the reverse direction from 
that in Trichia, i. e., they pass from the right below to the left 
above when the thread is seen horizontally. This is the first 
instance that I have seen of reversed spiral bands in any species 
of the Mycetozoa ; the nearest approach is in Oligonema flavidmn 
Peck, where the rows of minute warts that are studded over the 
capillitium are often arranged to form rows passing round the 
threads in the reversed spiral direction. Of the cause or possible 
significance of such a reversal we know nothing. Its exceptional 
occurrence draws our attention to the constancy with which the 
usual type of spiral occurs. 

Aecyria denudata (L.) Sheldon. A large development of 
crimson sporangia was found on a decaying spruce log. 

A. INCARNATA Pors. Developed indoors from white Plas- 
modium found on a spruce stump. 

A. NUTANS (Bull.) Pers. Found emerging as a mass of 
creamy-white plasmodium from a spruce stump, and matured 
indoors. It was probably slightly injured when it was cut off the 
stump, for, although the spores are normal, the capillitium is 
irregular, varying from 5 to 8 /x diam., and studded all over with 
stout conical spines. 

Perich^na vermicularis (Schwein.) Eost. Abundant on and 
inside hollow Cirsium scapes on the alps. The slender buff 
sporangia form simple or net-like plasmodiocarps ; the plasmo- 
dium, instead of being watery-white, as we had previously seen 
it, is rosy-red; the veins of bright red sclerotium were conspicuous 
when the stalks were split open and examined. 

Margarita metallica (Berk. & Br.) Lister. Found twice on 
spruce wood ; the sporangia were either solitary or clustered. 

Dianema corticatum Lister. Fairly abundant on decaying 
roots and stumps of spruce, both in the rosy plasmodium stage 
and as mature sporangia. 

Prototrichia metallica (Berk.) Massee. Two sporangia 
found on decaying spruce roots ; both are brilliantly iridescent 
and mounted on brownish-yellow stalks about 1 mm. high ; the 
colour of the spores in mass is olive-brown, instead of the usual 
pink or brownish-pink of freshly formed spores. 

After we left Arosa, the Hon. Terence Bourke and Miss 
Jasmine Bourke kindly sent me collections of Mycetozoa made 
there by them during the month of August. 

Of the fifteen species which they found, the following five had 
not been seen by us at Arosa, viz. : — 

Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks.) Eost. 

DiDYMiuM MELANOSPERMUM (Pcrs.) Macbr. 

CoMATRiCHA TYPHOiDES (BuU.) Eost. The typical form. 

Cribraria piriformis Schrad Several developments of per- 
fectly developed sporangia, with spores varying in colour from 
bright reddish-brown to purplish-brown when seen in mass. 

Arcyria FERRUGiNEA Sautcr. 



105 

TWO HEPATICS NEW TO BRITAIN. 
By W. E. Nicholson. 

During the autumn of 1912 I found in several stubble fields 
in the neighbourhood of Lewes a small species of Biccia which 
generally had some traces of violet colouring about it and was 
most frequently ciliate. It bore some general resemblance to E. 
Warnstorfii Limpr., but it seemed constantly different in the 
more compact rosettes with shorter wider branches. This seemed 
to point to R. commutata Jack, and on my submitting the plant 
to Dr. Schiffner, he confirmed it as that species, remarking that 
it was rather more compact than the plant from the original 
locality and that from Dalmatia, but that this might well be 
accounted for by the habitat, as morphologically and in the spores 
it agreed well with these. B. commutata is no doubt closely 
allied to B. Warnstorfii, and the differences may to some small 
extent be accounted for by differences in the habitat of the two 
species, B. Warnstorfii being perhaps more frequently found in 
lighter soil than B. commutata ; but, on the other hand, the 
differences are retained on the cultivation of both species in the 
same soil. In Sussex the two species sometimes grow in the 
same field, and Mr. H. H. Knight has found the same thing in 
Gloucestershire. On the Continent B. Warnstorfii is credited 
with a northern range, being principally recorded from Northern 
Germany, while B. commutata has a distinctly southern dis- 
tribution. Both plants will probably be found to have a much 
wider distribution in Britain than is at present suspected. In 
the autumn of 1912 B. commutata was much more abundant in 
Sussex than B. glauca, with which it might perhaps be confused 
in the younger stages, though if transverse sections be cut of 
mature fronds of the two species there is no possibility of 
mistaking one for the other. The following diagnosis, largely 
borrowed from that of Dr. K. Miiller, may be of use in dis- 
tinguishing the plant (K. M. Mus. Hep. 1 Abt. p. 191). 

Monoicous. Thallus small, dark vivid green, rarely reddish, 
flat, two or three times forked, 2-7 mm. long and 1-1-5 mm. 
broad. Branches linear, oval or ovate with margins here and 
there stained with red, usually inserted almost rectangularly, 
truncate to emarginate at the ends, with or without marginal 
cilia and with a narrow channel only at the ends of the branches; 
further back the upper side of the thallus is convex. Frond 
section one and a half to three times as broad as thick, ellipsoid 
in the older parts with rounded margins wider towards the apex, 
slightly convex below, flat above with a short obtuse sinus and 
bow-shaped towards the sides. Cells of the epidermis thin- 
walled, spherical, without mamilla. Ventral scales colourless or 
reddish violet, soon disappearing. Ostioles rising slightly above 
the upper surface of the thallus. Spores brown 80-85 fx with a 
distinct yellow and notched margin, closely papillose, areolte 
consequently indistinct, 8 fj. wide, 6-8 visible in the diameter of 
the spore. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [April, 1914.] i 



106 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Habitat. East Sussex over a wide area ; East Kent {E. M. 
Holmes), West Gloucestershire and Worcestershire {H. II. Knight). 

Dr. Miiller describes a var. acrotricha Lev. with marginal 
cilia, but I have generally found a few cilia on the Sussex plant 
when freshly gathered. These frequently disappear when the 
plant is cultivated under moist conditions, but they reappear 
when the plant has finished its growth or is cultivated under 
drier and more exposed conditions. I am inclined therefore to 
regard the presence of cilia in this species as a normal feature of 
the plant, representing a state in the life of the individual frond 
rather than a true variety. The Sussex plant is rarely of a vivid 
green except when growing under very moist conditions ; most 
frequently it is of a rather pale glaucous colour, recalling that of 
B. glauca, though it usually has some trace of violet both in the 
frond itself and the ventral scales. It is probable that some of 
the plants which I referred to the var. siihinermis of B. glauca in 
the past may have belonged to the present species. 

The other plant, also rather a critical form, is a species of 
Fossomhronia, which I gathered in Babbacombe Bay, near 
Torquay, in March, 1913. I noticed in the field that the plant 
had a rather stout stem, strongly convex on the under side with 
hyaline or, occasionally, brownish rhizoids, unlike the violet 
rhizoids of all the described British species, and the microscope 
revealed the fact that the papillae on the spores, which were 
otherwise like those of F. ccBspitifonnis, showed an occasional 
tendency to anastomosis, so as sometimes to make the surface of 
the spore very irregularly areolate. These characters seemed to 
indicate F. Husnoti Corb., but on my submitting the plant to Mr. 
S. M. Macvicar he pointed out that the spores were considerably 
larger than those of typical F. Husnoti, 43-53 /x, as against 
40-45 fx in that species, and that their surface was less distinctly 
areolate. These differences I was well able to observe by 
comparing my plant with a specimen of F. Husnoti from Florence, 
which I owed to the kindness of Dr. Schiifner. On my submitting 
the Babbacombe plant to Dr. Schiffner, he pronounced it to be 
certainly F. Husnoti, and he apparently attached considerable 
importance to the frequent presence of three spiral elaters. In 
view, however, of the departures from the type above noted I 
have ventured to describe it as a new variety : — 

FossoMBRONiA HusNOTi Corb. var. anglica. A F. Husnoto 
cliffert sporis grandioribus •043-053 mm.,papillis minus rcgulariter 
anastomosantibus foveolas paucas valde irregulares formantibus. 

Hab. Moist banks by the sea, Babbacombe Bay (TF. E. N.), 
near Llandovery, S. Wales (H. H. K). 

F. Husnoti and F. ccBspitiformis are very closely allied species, 
and it might seem as reasonable to describe the present plant as 
a variety of the latter as of the former, but in a genus where the 
violet rhizoids are such a marked feature of the other European 
species, it seemed worth while to draw attention to a form with 
hyaline or brownish rhizoids, a feature which I have found 
maintained on cultivation of considerable material. The stem, 



SHORT NOTES 107 



moreover, is very strongly developed on its under side so as to 
make it rather more subterranean than in the other species, and 
no doubt the frequent presence of three spiral elaters is a 
character of some importance. I have, however, found this 
feature not infrequently present in Sussex forms of i^. ccBspitiformis, 
though it is less usual in forms from S. Europe. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Ptilota plumosa Ag. (p. 77). — For over forty years I have 
been the possessor of a fine and unmistakable specimen of Ptilota 
plumosa in my herbarium, which was sent me by the late Mr. Henry 
Goode, as collected by himself " near Falmouth, Cornwall, summer 
of 1871." I knew Mr. Goode only by correspondence, but was 
assured of his reliability and absolute sincerity, and as one who 
only distributed algae of his own collecting, invariably off the 
coasts of S. Devon and Cornwall. I believe he passed away in 
the early eighties, at a good old age. His abode was near 
Plymouth. I may add that I have never myself found P. plumosa 
Ag. in any Welsh station save that of Path-y-Pistill, Holyhead, 
where in the summer of 1883 I found many most perfect and 
beautiful fronds, usually floating. I have searched in vain for it 
at Penluaen Mawr, Llanfairfechan, Llandudno, Barmouth, &c. — 
J. Cosmo Melvill. 

Valerianella eriocarpa Desv. — Eeferring to my notes as to 
the occurrence of this plant in the Isle of Wight ( Journ. Bot. 1912, 
231 ; 1913, 288), it may be worth recording that on this date 
(March 2nd) there are thousands of young plants in the same 
habitat, where in 1912 they were abundant, and where last year I 
could only find, after long searching, one or two plants. If the 
Botanical Exchange CIuId or any botanist would care to have 
specimens I would gladly dry some as soon as the plants are in 
fruit. — Frederic Stratton. 

Aberdeenshire Plants. — Mimulus mosckatus, reported (Journ, 
Bot. 1911, 370) as being found by me in Haughton Wood, Afford, 
Aberdeenshire, is increasing greatly since that date. — Linaria 
repens still grows at Auchindoir, Aberdeenshire (whence it is 
recorded in Dickie's Guide (1860) ), where there was once a cottage 
garden. The stems attain the length of three feet. Cattle had 
eaten the longest stalks overhanging the dyke, before I (in August 
last) took careful measure. — William Wilson. 

PoLYPORUs SQUAMOsus. — Somo vory early fruit bodies of 
Polyporus sqiuunosics have appeared recently in the " Backs " at 
Cambridge. My attention was called to one of these by Mr. 
Maltby ; this was a fructification produced inside the hollow 
trunk of an elm in St. John's College Backs. On further exami- 
nation of trees, other fructifications were found — several on a 
horse chestnut near the elm tree, and three or four more on an 



108 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

old elm stump (behind King's College) which was known to be 
badly infected with the fungus. The fructifications appeared in 
all probability during the second part of February, and were past 
maturity in early March. Generally they were rather small. The 
usual period for the fructification to appear is from May to 
September, as reported by Buller. I have, however, recorded 
fructifications in the Cambridge district as late as the middle of 
November and now as early as February. The winter has of 
course been mild in Cambridge. — S. Eeginald Price. 



REVIEWS. 

A Flora of Norfolk loith Papers on Climate, Soils, Physiography 
and Plant Distribution, by Members of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society. Edited by W. A. Nicholson. 
Demy 8vo, cloth, 214 pp. 2 maps. Price 6s. 

Mr. Kirby Trimmer's Flora of Norfolk was published in 
1866 ; it was never a satisfactory book and has been for many 
years out of print, and the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' 
Society has done well to prepare a new one. Mr. W. A. Nichol- 
son had for some years been collecting material for such a work, 
and the Society acquired his MSS. which, " with much additional 
information compiled from the work of botanists, resident and 
non-resident," is now issued in a neat volume. 

The book, so far as one who is practically unacquainted with 
the county is at liberty to express an opinion, is very carefully 
done. The small (though clear) type employed enables the 
volume to appear in a more pocketable form than is usual in 
similar works, and there is an absence of the irrelevant matter 
which sometimes finds its way into local floras ; space has been 
saved, too, by a free but intelligent use of abbreviations. The 
scattered records in this Journal and elsewhere seem to have 
been carefully swept up. The four districts into which the county 
was divided by Mumford in his list in "White's Directory— da,te 
not stated — and adopted by the Society in 1869 is followed here ; 
a brief account is given of their characteristics. The other 
important matters indicated in the title are duly discussed at 
reasonable length ; there has evidently been a commendable desire 
not to be prolix or discursive. 

We regret, however, the absence of what has become a pro- 
minent — sometimes too prominent — feature in our local floras — 
some account of the history of the botany of the county and of 
those who have taken part in its investigation. Such an account 
adds not only to the value but to the interest of the book ; and 
Norfolk has been so especially favoured by botanists that the 
omission is the more to be regretted : J. E. Smith, W. J. Hooker, 
Dawson Turner, among illustrious names ; Pitchford and Crowe 
among those who grew and studied Willows, as was fashionable 
in botanical circles towards the end of the eighteenth century. A 
glance through the Biographical Index of Botanists will reveal 



A FLORA OF NORFOLK 109 

many more, including some about whom information is badly 
wanted, which should have appeared in the roll-call of botanists 
which we expect to find in a local flora. We also miss the descrip- 
tive and critical notes which often lend more than a local value to 
works such as this, and which indicate observation of a higher 
type than that which a mere record conveys. 

We note the presence of a considerable number of names in 
local use, and the omission of the more absurd of the " book- 
names " which — e.g., in Carex — often disfigure books of this 
class. We are glad, too, that all the names, whether Latin or 
English, are placed in one index. Nor must we omit to mention 
what is evidently a very full and careful list of Mosses and Liver- 
worts prepared by Mr. W. H. Burrell, with the assistance of 
Mr. H. N. Dixon ; the Fungi are altogether omitted. There are 
two excellent maps. 

It will be seen from what has been said that we have in Mr. 
Nicholson's book a solid though not an exciting contribution to our 
knowledge of British local botany — a knowledge the gaps in which 
are being steadily filled up. 

Pflanzenphysiologie : Versuche unci Beohachtungen an hoheren und 
niederen Pjianzen einschlusslich Bacteriologie und Hydro- 
hiologiemitPlanktonkunde. By K. Kolkwitz. Jena: Gustav 
Fischer. Pp. 258. 12 coloured plates, 116 text figures. 
9 Mark. 
The present work has grown from the author's Pflanzeri- 
physiologische Versuchen zu Ubimgen im Winter, published in 1899, 
and is a course of physiology arranged for the students of 
the Berlin University and the Agricultural Academy. The first 
part, consisting of sixty pages, deals with the nutrition of the 
higher plants — chlorophyll and its functions, turgidity and os- 
mosis, sugar and reserve food material, proteins, respiration, water 
and air. The experiments are well-devised, though most of them 
are familiar ; the exposition is clear and reference is made to 
recent literature. The principal part of the book deals with 
Cryptogams. After a description of the microscope and its acces- 
sories, the various phyla are considered in order, beginning with 
the Myxomycetes and ending with the Ferns. Much of the 
matter cannot be said to be physiological in the ordinarily accepted 
sense of the term. Methods of collection, culture, and examina- 
tion, as well as a description of the habitat, are given where 
possible. The physiological significance of various processes in 
the life-history is well described in many instances. The most 
interesting portion of the book is the section " Algen, Plankton 
und Okologie der Gewiisser," as was to be expected, seeing that the 
author is a recognized authority in hydrobiology. The short 
descriptions of many plants might have been left out with advan- 
tage. In some cases the cryptogams so treated are commonly 
met with in the neighbourhood of Berlin (and of London) and 
might therefore claim place, but Sargassum, Macrocystis, &c., 
seem out of place in such a book. This portion of the work would 



110 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

prove an excellent introduction to the study of cryptogamic 
botany. The book is unique in the stress which it lays upon the 
cryptogamic section of the plant world, a section known principally 
in many of our English " schools " through the intricacies of the 
vascular anatomy of Pteridophytes — present and past. It is well 
printed and well illustrated. ^ -p 

Icones Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum Extra-tropicarwn ; or, 
Figures with Descriptions of Extra-trojncal South African 
Orchids. By Harry Bolus, F.L.S., Hon. D.Sc. (Cape). 
Volume iii., demy 8vo, tt. 100, with text. Wesley. Price 
£1 10s. net. 

It is satisfactory to learn that the late Mr. Bolus's important 
work is to be carried on by Mr. H. M. L. Bolus, the Curator of 
the Bolus Herbarium. The present volume was apparently left 
in MS. by the author of the preceding instalments, as his name 
alone appears on the title-page, and the preface, while acknow- 
ledging the help of Mr. F. Bolus, who has drawn nine of the 
plates and made additions of various kinds to others, makes no 
reference to any collaborator in the literary portion. 

Of the plates in the volume before us, 36 have already appeared 
in the author's Orchids of the Cape Peninsula, which is now out 
of print. Among the genera represented, Disa has 36 plates, 
Satyriitm 12, Disperis and Pterygodinm 11 each ; the other 
genera included are Acrolophia, Eulophia, AngrcBCum, Bartholina, 
Huttoncea, Holothrix, Hahenaria, Brachycorythis, and Ccratandra. 
The descriptions correspond with those of the previous volume 
noticed in this Journal for 1912 (p. 28). There is a new species 
of Holothrix — H. Beckii, named after its discoverer and sole 
collector ; and a hybrid — Satyriuni coriifolium x carneum — 
described from three living specimens, found growing widely 
apart, but always among the parent species. 



Floral Evolution : with Particular Reference to the Sympetalous 

Dicotyledons. By H. F. Wernham, B.Sc. Neio Phytologist 

reprint, No. 5. Pp. viii + 151. Price 3s. Cambridge: at 

the Botany School. 

The above work is based upon a course of lectures delivered 

by Mr. Wernham at the Chelsea Polytechnic in the summer of 

1910, and was published in its present form in the pages of the 

Neio Phytologist. The author states that his purpose has been 

to give a connected account of one of the larger groups (namely, 

the GamopetalcB or Metachlamydea or Sympetalce) of flowering 

plants, with continual reference to a definite evolutionary story, 

having for its motif a few broad biological principles applicable to 

the phylogeny of the Angiosperms generally. " In the endeavour 

to preserve the continuity of this evolutionary story, it has been 

necessary to hasard suggestions of affinities and lines of descent 

which may be by no means generally acceptable ; and the student 

is warned that in such cases the suggestions are purely tentative." 



FLORAL EVOLUTION 111 

Mr. Wern ham's primary contention is that the GamopetalcB 
are polyphyletic in origin ; and on this matter the reviewer is in 
full sympathy with the author. Many botanists have put forward 
more or less detached suggestions to the same effect ; but none 
perhaps has stated the case more whole-heartedly. At the same 
time, the reviewer confesses that some of the particular sugges- 
tions of afUnities are regarded in the light of the author's warning 
of their purely tentative nature. 

The work is very readable and very well written, and Mr. 
Wernham has performed a useful service in drawing the attention 
of botanists to a department of their science which, in these days 
of callunetums and heterozygotes, is too apt to be altogether for- 
gotten. We are bound to confess, however, that the methods of 
study of floral morphology have not kept pace with the develop- 
ment of technique in other branches of botany. In early and 
mid-Victorian days researches on the morphology of the parts of 
the flower were not unfashionable ; but since the microtome came 
into vogue there has been a great falling off in work of this 
character. Yet it is undoubtedly the case that many of the 
problems discussed in Floral Evolution are incapable of solution 
without assistance from the microtome and all its concomitant 
paraphernalia. The reviewer looks forward to the time when 
problems of floral morphology will once more become a vogue, 
and when modern methods of research will be applied to this 
branch of botany, which is at once most interesting and most 
important from the evolutionary point of view. 

C. E. M. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

We are glad to see that the Times is taking up the question 
of the extermination of primroses near London, and indeed further 
afield; an article published in its columns for March 13 is followed 
by a letter from Mr. H. Kowland-Brown, of Harrow Weald, who 
writes : — " For something over forty years I have watched the 
annual invasion of the tramp dealer in our woods here, and along 
the once exquisite Middlesex lanes in which, also, the wild hyacinth 
flourished abundantly, and the nightingales sang in the high 
hawthorn hedges. Primroses, hyacinths, high hedges, and night- 
ingales are now all gone from the lanes, and every Sunday in the 
season motors bring down troops of indiscriminate ' collectors ' 
to harry the few remaining beauty spots in the woods left by the 
itinerant vendors, for whom at least there is some intelligible 
excuse. I have seen half-a-dozen cars drawn up by the roadside 
by a tiny copse known from my childhood as 'the Bluebell Place,' 
and immortalized as such on the canvas of English painters. A 
few years more, and — the wood being no longer preserved for 
game — the hyacinths will have followed the primroses; for the 
most distressing feature of the work of destruction is to be seen 
upon the road itself strewn with broken spikes of bloom, and bulbs 
dragged up by the greedy picker, to whom locked gates and thorn 



112 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

hedges offer no obstacle sufficient. It is just the same with the 
willow ' palms ' — flowering this year happily too soon, at least for 
the Easter holiday crowd — every bush on the common, every 
branch by the way broken down and disfigured as high as hand 
may reach." It is many years since we expressed surprise that 
the Selborne Society had not made its influence more felt in the 
matter of plant preservation : the formation of an influential 
"Plant Protection Section" is an important step in the right 
direction, but so far we are not aware that any definite results 
have followed : meanwhile the question becomes yearly of greater 
urgency. Mr. Brown concludes his letter by an appeal to " the 
local authority," which might, we would think, at least control or 
modify the efforts of the roadmen who throw upon the roadside 
turf the parings and hedge trimmings they annually remove, leaving 
them there to destroy what yet remains of grass ; and who scrape 
the hedge banks and hedge bottoms to the great benefit of the 
nettles, which profit by the destruction of other plants and usurp 
their place, to the great detriment of the charm of the countryside. 

The volume on Wild Floivers which is contributed by Mr. 
Macgregor Skene, B.Sc, to Messrs. Jacks' series of "People's 
Books " is arranged according to colour — a scheme which is 
doubtless intended to save trouble in identification, but which 
can hardly be considered scientific. Nor are we sure that it 
attains its object, for folk see colours very differently — we should 
not ourselves class Eed Campion as purple or Water-Plantain as 
rose ; nor is it easy to see why Bladderwort is placed among 
"flowers rarely found or very inconspicuous," seeing that it is 
described as " fairly common " and the flowers as " large yellow." 
Mr. Skene recommends Babington's Manual and Bentham and 
Hooker's Handbook, but omits Hooker's Students' Flora, which is 
more useful than either. As a companion to the Handbook he 
recommends " Smith's Illustrations of the British Flora "; by this 
is intended the volume of figures by Fitch, prepared for the 
illustrated edition of Bentham's earlier Handbook (which Bentham 
and Hooker's replaced), which were issued as a separate work, 
with supplementary figures by Mr. W. G. Smith, in 1880: from 
this are taken the numerous excellent illustrations in Mr. Skene's 
book, which form its most attractive feature. The descriptions 
are careful and accurate and the volume is a wonderful sixpenny- 
worth. 

The February number of the Journal of Genetics contains a 
" Preliminary Note on the Genetics of Fragaria," which includes 
experiments with F. vesca and notes on garden hybrids ; it is 
illustrated with one plate and cuts. Mr. E. S. Salmon writes 
" On the Appearance of Sterile 'Dwarfs' in Hnnmlus Lnp7ilns," 
with two plates. The other papers deal with zoological matters. 

Corrections. — In our last issue, p. 72, line 8 from bottom, 
"not" should be inserted before " hitherto " ; on p. 86, line 14 
from bottom, the words "of Cambridge (not Dublin, Mr. Wilson !) " 
should read " of Dublin, formerly of Cambridge." 



Journ. Bot. 



Tab. 531. 




><) 





r< 





Cm O 






CL, o 



c - .,• 

CD ^ _- 



-c L' « iJ 

a:' .2 M S 

■CJ3 i- Q.:^ 

'•^ ^ rt ■" . 

= : § =* 

<^ -o ^ 

w ~= c .:; 

o •• 

o g 



o - 



^'5 cv-r 

•~ •= w « 

'-' a: S 

< 5 w 2 
m^ Ho 

< i < i^ 
2 = SO 



O ': O.-. 



113 



A NEW FOSSIL COEEMA. 

By Clement Keid, F.K.S., & Eleanor M. Reid, B.Sc. 

(Plate 531.) 

The Empetrace(2 form so small an order, with only three 
genera and about six species, that the discovery of a new species 
fossil in Britain is worth recording. The fruits in question were 
found by us in 1904 in the pre-glacial deposits of Pakefield, in 
Suffolk. Their curious shape and mode of attachment made us 
then refer them to some unknown species of ViburniLvi, and as 
such they were described in 1908.''' The great difficulty in cutting 
sections of these pyritised fruits from the Cromer Forest-bed made 
us also less careful to examine their internal characters than we 
should have been. 

A few years after the discovery of the Pakefield specimens two 
endocarps belonging to the same plant f were found at Tegelen, 
in Dutch Limburg, in deposits somewhat more ancient than those 
of Pakefield, and probably of about the age of our Norwich Crag. 
These also were figured by us as belonging to this unknown 
species of Viburnum. 

The study of a still older Pliocene flora in Dutch Limburg, 
with many fruits and seeds belonging to unknown genera, has 
lately necessitated the systematic examination of the flora of the 
Pala3arctic Region, as represented by the fruits and seeds in the 
Kew Herbarium. In the course of this work we came across the 
small genus Gorema, and were at once struck by the resemblance 
of its endocarps to our unknown fossils. A close comparison of 
the recent fruits with our fossils left no doubt whatever that they 
belong to the same genus, though the fossils represent an extinct 
species. This Corema happens also to be the first extinct 
plant that has been recognized in the Cromer Forest-bed, 
though several other plants found in that deposit no longer 
live in Britain. 

Of the two living species of the genus, the one nearest our 
fossil, C. alba, is found on the coast of Portugal and Spain, and in 
the Azores. The other, C. Conradi, belongs to the coastal region 
of the New England States in North America. 

Thus not only does our fossil show a former wider distribution 
of the genus, but it is the first plant now specially belonging to 
the Atlantic province to be found fossil in the North Sea basin. 

As regards the conditions under which the extinct Corema 
grew, we can only say that the two deposits in which it has been 
found were both in all probability laid down as river alluvium 
within a few miles of salt water. This would agree with the 
habitat of the two living species, both of which are confined to 
coastal regions. 

* Litinean Sociehfs Journal, Botany, xxxviii. p. 215, figs, lb-11. 
t Verslagen Kon. Akad. Wet. Amsterdam, 1910, p. 267, figs. 30, 31. 

Journal op Botany.— Vol. 52. [May, 1914.] k 



114 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Corema intermedia, sp. nov. Planta fossilis nisi fructus 
ignota. Drupa . . . endocarpiis 3, longit. 2-2-2-5, latit. 2-0-2-5 mm.; 
monospermis ovatis osseis extus incrassatis, dorso irregulariter 
costatis, facie canaliculatis. Testa tenuis membranacea alveolata, 
alveolis irregulariter transversis. 

Endocarps 3, ovate, hard, bony, thick-walled, irregularly ribbed 
longitudinally on the dorsal surface, channelled on the ventral 
face and facetted at an angle of about 120". Seed with a thin 
membranous testa with cells arranged in irregular zigzag trans- 
verse lines. Length of endocarps 2-2-3-0 mm. ; breadth 2-0- 
2-5 mm. 

In size our endocarps are midway between those of C. alba 
and C. ConracU. In shape they resemble C. alba, though they 
are considerably smaller, more ovate, and less tumid. To C. 
Conradi, which has minute fruits, they bear little resemblance. 
The very peculiar cells of the membranous adherent testa are like 
those of C. alba, but the adhesion of this testa to the endocarp 
makes it difficult to examine in the fossil, and we have been 
unable to photograph its very characteristic structure, though 
this can be seen in places in the interior of the specimen shown 
in fig. m. 

NOTES ON BKITISH PLANTS. 
By C. E. Moss. 

II. Eanunculus obtusifloeus. 

It seems to be generally admitted by modern systematic 
botanists that Bammculus baudotii Godron (1839) " and B. con- 
fusus Godron (1848) should be reduced to a single species. They 
were, in fact, so reduced by Syme (1863), by Sir J. D. Hooker 
(1884), and by Rouy & Foucaud (1893). Syme united Godron's 
two plants under the name B. baudotii, and gave each a varietal 
name: B. baudotii Godron became B. baudotii var. vulgaris Syme 
(1863) ; and B. confusus Godron became B. baudotii var. confusus 
Syme (1863). Hooker named the same aggregate species (i. e., 
B. baudotii Godron ampl. Syme) B. marinus, and mentioned that 
he could not verify the characters of the varieties as constant. 
Rouy & Foucaud used the same aggregate name as Syme, and 
reduced B. confusus Godron to a subspecies. Mr. N. E. Brown 
(1891) also expressed the opinion that B. baudotii Godron and 
B. confusus Godron are only forms of one and the same species. 

This aggregate species {B. baudotii Godron ampl. Syme) has a 
west-European and Mediterranean distribution ; but it is not so 
markedly Atlantic in its range as the allied species B. homio- 
phyllus Tenore, 1830 {=B. lenormandi Schultz 1837), B. tripar- 
titus DC. (1808), andi?. hololmcus Lloyd (1844): this last is not 
known to be a British plant ; but one feels that it must 
occur in southern England, or at least in the Channel Islands. 

* Full citations are given later on in this note. 



RANUNCULUS OBTUSIFLORUS 115 

Apparently western Europe is exceptionally rich in species of 
Batrachian Ranunculi. 

In choosing the name B. baudotii for his aggregate species, 
Syme passed over an earlier one, Batrachium obtusiflorum S. F. 
Gray (1821). It was, of course, customary in this country at 
that time to follow " the Kew rule " ; and consequently Gray's 
name would have been ignored by Syme even if he had seen it, 
since it was placed in a different genus. There was also the 
name B. tripartitus Nolte (1826) to consider ; but this name was 
pre-occupied by B. tripartitus DC. (1808) for another legitimate 
species. 

Gray's plant {B. obtusiflorum) was founded on B. tripartitus 
var. obtusiflorus DC. (1818), and de Candolle's variety, in its turn, 
on an illustration by Petiver {English Herbal, t. 39, fig. 1, 1713). 
This plant of de Candolle's was an addition to the B. tripartitus 
DC. (1808) which became B. tripartitus var. ynicranthus DC. (1818). 

It is clear that B. tripartitus var. obtusiflorus DC, being 
founded on one of Petiver's plants, is British ; and I am satisfied 
that Petiver's figure must be referred to B. baudotii Godron 
ampl. Syme. It is equally clear that Gray's plant is the same as 
de Candolle's var. obtusiflorus, and therefore that Gray's trivial 
name (being the earliest) must be utilised for Syme's aggregate 
species ; and this is the but of the present communication. 

Godron, when founding his B. baudotii, remarked that the 
plant showed a closer affinity with B. tripartitus DC. than with 
B. aquatilis L. emend. ; " and it certainly is the case that it is an 
interesting connecting link, as regards both its characters and its 
distribution, between the two species B. tripartitus DC. and 
B. aquatilis L. emend. On the whole, it seems justifiable to 
retain these as three distinct species, as is done by Hooker fil. and 
by Rouy & Foucaud. There seems to be a real (though a small) 
gap between each of them ; and if they are not kept as separate 
species, the resulting aggregate becomes so unwieldy that more 
confusion is caused by their union than by their separation. In 
particular, the interesting distribution of the segregate forms 
becomes lost sight of or at least obscured. 

As to the subdivisions of Syme's aggregate B. baudotii (or 
B. obtusiflorus, as it must now be named), Syme's varietal names 
appear to be the earliest ; and, if this is so, they must be adopted 
by those who regard Godron's two plants as being of varietal 
rank and who follow the international rules of botanical nomen- 
clature. Godron's two plants are undoubtedly very closely 
related ; and few, if any, students of Batrachian Ranunculi will 
desire either that they should be kept up as distinct species, or 
placed apart from each other as subdivisions of different species. 
Fries's plant {B. marimom) too is extremely close to those of 
Godron : in fact, it was reduced by Godron to a variety of his 
B. baiidotii ; and both Hooker fil. and Rouy & Foucaud follow 

* This is R. aquatilis L. Sp. PI. 556 (1753) excl. vars. ; = R. diversifolius 
Gilibert (1782) emend. Kouy Sz Foucaud (1893), non Schrank (1789). 

K 2 



116 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Godron in this particular matter. Fries's plant indeed seems to 
be merely a submerged state of B. baudotii Godron destitute of 
floating leaves, as maintained by N. E. Brown (1891). 

The name " tripartihis " has been applied to at least five 
different plants (c/. Koch in litt. cited by Godron, 1839), namely, 
to the two British forms or varieties of B. tripartihis DC, to 
B. ohtusiflorus, to a form of B. aquatilis L. emend., and to a 
form of B. trichophyllus Chaix emend.''' 

Of the two British forms or varieties of B. tripartitus DC, 
one has been referred by Messrs. Groves (1907) to B. lutarius 
Bouvet (1872) = B. kitarium Eevel (1865). I have seen no 
authentic specimen of Revel's plant, which has actually been 
placed by French botanists under B. homiophyllus Tenore 
\—B. lenormandi Schultz). However, all the British plants in 
question which I have seen appear to be better placed under 
B. tripartitus DC than under B. Jiomiophylhis Tenore { = B. lenor- 
mandi Schultz) ; and this opinion coincides with the view of 
N. E. Brown (1891). One may perhaps be permitted to doubt if 
this plant of Revel has really been found in the British Isles ; or 
is it the case that Revel's plant should be placed under B. tri- 
partitus DC ? The latter is by no means an untenable view, if 
one may judge from Revel's description and figure. 

One may now allude to B.petiveri Koch. Koch first used this 
name in Sturm Deutschl. Fl. (1840), and again in the second edition 
of his Synopsis (1843). B. tripartitus Nolte (1826) and B. tripar- 
titus var. ohtusiflorus DC are cited by Koch as synonyms. 
N. E. Brown (1891) states that there is a specimen of B. tripar- 
titus Nolte in Herb. Mus. Brit., and that he agrees with Hiern 
(1871) in referring Nolte's plant to B. confusus Godron ; and this 
agrees with Hiern's allocation (with which I fully concur) of de 
Candolle's var. ohtusiflorus. I think too the figure in Sturm 
(82, 2) may also be referred to the same species, i. e., to B. ohtusi- 
florus. However, the B. petiveri Cosson and Germain Fl. Env. 
Paris 10, Atlas, t. 1, fig. 5-6 (1845) is not Koch's plant, being 
referred (and no doubt correctly) to his B. hololeucos by Lloyd in 
the various editions of his Fl. de I'Ouest. 

In Koch's Syn. ed. 2 (1843), B. petiveri is subdivided into two 
varieties, namely, var. minor and var. major. The var. minor is 
the B. petiveri Koch in Sturm (1840), discussed above. The var. 
major is regarded (erroneously, I think) by Hiern (1871) as the 
same as B. triphyllos Wallroth (1840). The latter plant seems 
rightly placed by Rouy & Foucaud (1893) under their B. diversi- 
folius { = B. aquatilis L. emend.). It is closely related to 
B. heterophylhts Babington (1855) non Wiggers (1780) nee 
Hooker fil. (1884), and is a rare plant. It occurs in the Channel 
Isles, though I have not seen the restricted plant of Wallroth 
from the British Isles proper. 

* Chaix (1786) established his E. trichophyllus on No. 1162 of Haller's 
Hist. Stirp. Helv. ii. 69 (1768) : from this it is necessary to exclude Haller's 
var, /3 which is R. fceniculatus Gilibert (1782) = i?. circinatus Sibthorp (1794). 
But see also F. N. Williams in Journ. Bot. xlvii. (1908). 



RANUNCULUS OBTUSIFLORUS 117 

B. petiveri var. major Koch (1843) is referred by Kouy & 
Foucaud, on the other hand, to the particular form of the species 
B. trichojihylhis which was named B. radians by Eevel (1853). 
This appears to be a form of B. tricliophylUis with floating leaves, 
and is, in some ways, a link connecting B. obtusiflorus and 
B. trichophyllus. Koch, in the synonymy of his B. petiveri var. 
major, cites his own B. aqiiatilis var. tripartitus (1835) ; and, 
judging from the authentic illustration of this in Sturm Deutschl. 
Fl., Kouy & Foucaud would seem to be quite correct in their 
determination. The plant I regard as B. radians Eevel is locally 
abundant in the ditches of the fens of Cambridgeshire : it seems 
to be essentially identical with what passes for " B. godroni 
Grenier," but I have seen no authentic description of the latter 
plant. Grenier promised one in 1850, in Schultz Arch, de Fl. ; 
but I have been unable to find that the promise w^as ever fulfilled. 

The synonymy of B. obtusiflorus and its two west-European 
varieties is as follows : — 

E. OBTUSIFLORUS comb. nov. ; B. tripartitus var. obtusiflorus 
DC. Syst. Nat. i. 234 (1818) ; Batrachium obtusiflorum Gray Nat. 
Arr. Brit. PL ii. (1821); Hiern in Journ. Bot. ix. 69 (1871); 
B. tripartitus Nolte Novit. Fl. Holsat. 51 (1826) non DC; 
B. petiveri Koch in Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 82, 2 (1840) ; Batrachium 
marinum Fries Fl. Suec. Mant. iii. 51 (1842); B. petiveri var, 
minor Koch Syn. ed. 2, 13 (1843) ; B. baudotii [Godron am pi.] 
Syme Eng. Bot. i. 24 (1863) ; N. E. Brown in Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 
Suppl. 13 (1891); Eouy & Foucaud Fl. France, i. 65 (1893); 
Batrachium salsuginosum Dumortier in Bull. Soc. Eoy. Belg. ii. 
217 (1863) ; B. marinus Hooker fil. Stud. Fl. ed. 3, 5 (1884). 

(a) E. OBTUSIFLORUS var. vulgaris comb. nov. ; B. baudotii 
Godron Essai in Mem. Soc. Eoy. Nancy, 21, fig. 4 (1839); 
Babington in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, xvi. 395 (1855)!; Batrachium 
baudotii Van den Bosche Prodr. Fl. Batav. 7 (1850) ; B. baudotii 
var. vulgaris Syme op. cit. 25 (1863) ; form baudotii Hiern ■'' op. 
cit. 69 (1871). 

Icones : — Babington in Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2966, as B. baudotii. 

Exsiccata : — Billot, 2802, as B. baudotii ; Fries, ix. 28, as 
B. marinum; F. Schultz (Herb. Norm.), 404, as B. baiidotii; 
Wirtgen, ix. 436, as B. baudotii. 

(b) E. obtusiflorus var. confusus comb. nov. ; B. confusus 
Godron in Grenier & Godron Fl. France, i. 22 (1848) ; Babington 
op. cit. 394 (1855) ! ; B. baudotii var. confusus Syme Eng. Bot. i. 
25 (1863) ; form confusus Hiern op. cit. 69 (1871) ; B. baudotii 
subsp. confusus Eouy & Foucaud Fl. France, i. 66 (1893). 

Icones : — Fl. Dan. t. 1993, as B. tripartitus ; Koch in Sturm 
Deutschl. Fl. h. 82, t. 2. as B. petiveri ; Syme Eng. Bot. i. t. 23. 



* Mr. Hiern's "forms," or " ultimate forms," as he terms them on p. 44 
(1871), have no definite systematic grade; and consequently it is incorrect to 
cite Mr. Hiern as the author of these "forms" when they are given definite 
rank, such as species, subspecies, race, variety, ox forma. 



118 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Exsiccata : — Billot, 3801, as B. confusus ; Fries, xv. 28, as 
B. confusum ; Wirtgen, ix. 437, as B. 2)etiveri. 

In the above remarks it has, of course, been necessary to 
refer to plants which are related (either botanically or in nomen- 
clature) to B. ohtusiflorus ; and below will be found the species 
(as I understand them) of the section Batrachium of western 
Europe, with the full citations of the various plants referred to in 
the present communication. The citations are placed after the 
names of the species to which I consider they belong. A dash is 
placed before those names which, in my opinion, ought to be 
distinguished as subspecies or varieties. In recognising nine 
west-European species of the section Batrachium, I am following 
several leading modern authorities. Syme (1863) united B. aqua- 
tilis and B. tricJiophyllus; but otherwise his species were the 
same as those given below. Hooker (1884) and Eouy & Foucaud 
(1893) adopted precisely the species which are here given. 
Bentham (Handbook Brit. Fl. 59, 1858) reduced them all to one 
which he named " B. aquaticus Linn." [sic] ; but I know of no 
modern systematic botanist in Europe who would now accept 
Bentham's view of species ; whilst Babington (Man. ed. 9, by 
H. & J. Groves, 1904) divided the section into sixteen species. 

1. E. HEDERACEUS L. Sp. PI. 556 (1753) ! 

2. E. HOMioPHYLLus - Tonore Fl. Nap. iv. 338 (1830); 
B. ccenosus Gussone Suppl. Fl. Sic. Prodr. fasc. ii. 187 (1834) ! ; 
Godron in Grenier & Godron Fl. France, i. 19 (1848)!; B. lenor- 
mancli Schultz in Bot. Zeit. xx. 726 (1837) ! — ? Batrachium 
lutarium Eevel in Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, xxv. 413, t. 4 
(1865); B. Uitarius Bouvet in Bull. Soc. Angers for 1871, 96 
(1872). 

3. E. TRiPARTiTus DC. Icon. PI. Gall. Ear. 15, t. 49 (1808) ; 
N. E. Brown op. cit. 13 (1891) excl. syn. Knaf ; B. iripartitus var. 
micranthus DC. Syst. Nat. i. 234 (1818) ; Batrachium trijmrtitum 
Gray Nat. Arr. Brit. PL i. 721 (1821) ; form tripartitus Hiern op. 
cit. 68 (1871) ; — form intermedius Hiern op. cit. 67 (1871) excl. 
syn. Knaf ; B. lutarius ['? Bouvet, loc. cit.] H. & J. Groves in 
Journ. Bot. xlv. 452 (1907). 

4. E. HOLOLEUCUS Lloyd Fl. Loir.-Inf. 3 (1844) ; B. petiveri 
Cosson & Germain Fl. Env. Paris, 10, Atlas, t. i. fig. 5-6 (1845) 
non Koch. 

5. E. OBTUsiFLORUS Moss. SsB abovB. 

6. E. AQUATiLis L. Sp. PI. 556 (1753) excl. vars. ; Godron 
Essai in Mem. Soc. Eoy. Nancy, 24 (1838) ; Koch, Syn. ed. 2, 
12 (1843) ; B. heterojjhyllus Wiggers Fl. Hols. 42 (1780) ; Hooker 
fil. op. cit. 5 (1884) ; B. diversifolius Gilibert Fl. Lituan. iii. 262 
(1782) ; Eouy & Foucaud Fl. France, i. 63 (1893) ; non Schrank; 
Batrachi^Lvi heterophyllum S. F. Gray op. cit. 721 (1821) ; — 
B. triphyllos Wallroth in Linnaea, xiv. 584 (1840) ; form tri- 



The justification of this citation may form the subject of a future note. 



MISCELLANEA BRYOLOGICA 119 

phyllos Hiern op. cil. 69 (1871) excl. syn. Koch. ; — Batrachium 
heterophijllnm''- Fries Summ. Veg. Scand. 140 (1846) non 
S. F. Gray; B. heterophyllus Babington op. cit. 393 (1855)!, non 
Wiggers nee Hooker til. 

7. E. FLUiTANs Lamarck Fl. France, 6d. 2, iii. 184 (1778). 

8. E. TRicHOPHYLLUs Chaix in Villars Hist. PI. Dauph i. 335 
(1786) emend. ; Hooker fil. op. cit. 6 (1884) ;— E. drouctii [Schultz 
ex] Godron in Grenier & Godron Fl. France, i. 24 (1848) ! ; — 
B. aquatilis var. tripartitus Koch Syn. ii. (1835) ; B. petiveri var. 
major Koch Syn. ed. 2 (1843) ; Batrachium godronii Grenier in 
Schultz Archiv. Fl. 172 (1850) nomen; Grenier Eev. Fl. Mont. 
Jura, 25 (n. d.) nomen ; B. radians Eevel in Act. Soc. Linn. 
Bordeaux xix. 120, fig. 1 (1853) ; form radians Hiern op. cit. 99 
(1871) incl. form godronii. 

9. E. ciRCiNATUs Sibthorp Fl. Oxon. 175 (1794) excl. syn. L.t 
In conclusion, a few words may be added regarding the 

terminations of some of the trivial names. In consulting the 
literature of these water-crowfoots, one has been struck by the 
great want of uniformity in two matters. One sees indifferently 
B. hololeucus and B. hololencos, B. tripliyllus and B. triphyllos. 
On the whole, one prefers the Latinised form in all such cases. 
Again, there is much inconsistency in the use of one "i " or two 
" i's " as genitive terminations. One sees indifferently B. baudoti 
and R. baudotii, B. godroni and B. godronii, B. hachi and B. bachii, 
B. lenormandi and B. lenormandii. The former would seem to 
be the more correct form ; but the recommendations of the 
botanical congresses tend to keep the matter in an unsettled 
state, for they illegitimately ask for two " i's " when a word 
ends in a consonant, and are inconsistently content with one " i " 
if the word ends in " -er." It seems, indeed, as if the recom- 
mendations with regard to the construction of botanical names 
need revision by a committee of scholars. 



MISCELLANEA BEYOLOGICA.— III. 

By H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1913, p. 330.) 

Sematophyllum acutirameum (Mitt.), a "composite" species. 

In the course of working out a collection of mosses made by 
Eev. C. H. Binstead in Ceylon, it became necessary to study the 
above plant. It was described by Mitten (Muse. Ind. Or. p. 106) 
as Stereodon aciitirameus ; the localities given being " In Ceylon, 
Gardner \ In mont. Khasian., ad Moflong, in pinetis, Griffith ! " 



* Probably this ought to be cited as a subspecies ; but the point is con- 
fused by Fries placing his " Batrachium " heterophylluvi under ''Ranunculus " 
aquatilis. 

t Cf. Williams in Journ. Bot. xlvii. 15 (1908). 



120 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

On examining the material at Kew, I found a great confusion 
of specimens. Neither Gardner's plant nor Griffith's is there 
represented ; the specimens of Sevi. acutirameum determined by 
Mitten are Thwaites's C. M. 239 and 2396 (with others of Bed- 
dome's from the Nilgiris). It was at once evident that there were 
at least two species represented here, and it was necessary to 
ascertain which, if either, was Mitten's species. Mrs. Britton 
was kind enough to search Mitten's herbarium, and to send me 
specimens of Gardner's plants (Ceylon, No. 110 — the type, and 
Ceylon, No. 71) as well as of Thwaites's No. 239. 

Gardner's two plants are identical, and on examination prove 
to be the same thing as S. monoicum (Bry. Jav.) Jaeg. The 
authors of the Bry. Javanica, it may be recalled (ii. 208), say 
of their species, " affinis videtur Stereodon acutirameus Mitt." 
Authentic specimens of S. monoicum agree exactly with Gardner's 
plant, and it may be pointed out that there is absolutely nothing 
in either the figures or the description of Hijimum monoicum at 
variance with the diagnosis given by Mitten. Why then did the 
authors of the Bry. Jav. describe the Javan plant as new ? The 
answer is no doubt to be found in the note which accompanies 
Mitten's description of his S. acutirameiis, " S. Braunii simillimus, 
sed foliis angustioribus et florescentia diversa." Now, as >S. Braunii 
(C. M.) is not by any means closely like S. acutirameiim (i. e. S. 
monoicum), and has leaves very distinctly narrower than in Mitten's 
species (it is in fact one of the markedly narrow-leaved species), 
it was natural that the authors of the Bry. Jav. should consider 
their plant M'ith its widely oval leaves as distinct, in spite of the 
applicability to it of Mitten's diagnosis. The problem remains, 
what led Mitten to describe his type from Ceylon as having leaves 
narrower than in S. Braunii (C. M.) ? This is easily solved, since 
it is quite clear that Mitten entirely misunderstood S. Braunii, as 
is plain on referring to Gardner's No. 784, which Mitten records 
(M. Ind. Or., I.e.) as Ster. Braunii, but which is quite a different 
plant with distinctly wider leaves, and is, I have little doubt, 
/b'. Nietnerianum (C. M.) Jaeg. {Hyimum Nietnerianum C. M. in 
Linn. 1869-70, p. 64), with the description of which it entirely 
agrees. The seta is smooth above, not scabrous as in S. Braimii, 
the capsule very small. 

We may go a step further, and find the explanation, with great 
probability, of Mitten's misunderstanding of S. Braunii. It must 
be recollected that Mitten had not, at that time, the Bry. Jav. 
with its excellent figures to consult, and had to depend for his 
knowledge of S. Braunii on C. Muller's description in the Synopsis 
(ii. 687), and on any available specimen. Now the specimen of 
" Hy2J. Braunii MiilL, Herb. Dz. & Mb., Java," in Hooker's Herb., 
is probably the only specimen which would be available to Mitten 
at that time, and is no doubt that on which his conception of 
S. Braunii would be based. But this unhappily is not S. Braunii 
at all. The leaves are much wider and more shortly pointed than 
the figures in Bry. Jav., and the seta is smooth, or only indis- 
tinctly roughened at apex. It is a small specimen, and I do not 



MISCELLANEA BRYOLOGICA 121 

venture to name itr' but it is at least very close to S. Nietnerianum 
(C. M.), of which Miiller writes : " Habitu H. sigmatodontii vel 
Braunii . . . differt . . . ab hoc pedunculo laBvi, foliis multo latioribus 
ovatis (nee anguste lanceolatis ubique convolutisj." It also resem- 
bles in appearance S. Gedeanuvi (C. M.). Now there is another 
specimen at Kew, under S. Gedeanum, which from the mounting 
and labelling was clearly sent out from Leyden at the same time 
as the specimen labelled H. Braunii in question. The labelling 
of the two is as follows : — 

H. Braunii MiilL, Herb. Dz. & Mb., Java. 

H. Gedeanum Miill., Herb. Dz. & Mb., Java. 

The writing on the two is almost in facsimile, and is no doubt 
in the same hand. Now the specimen labelled " i?. Braunii'' is, 
as I have said, a very difierent plant from the true Braunii, 
with more erect, much wider leaves. The other specimen, 
"jff. Gedeamim,'" consists of two tufts, one of which is certainly 
entirely S. Braunii, the other contains some stems also of 
S. Braunii, with another species which may well be S. Gedeanum. 
It appears extremely probable that the labels have been inter- 
changed in the process of putting up these duplicates ; in any 
case, the erroneous naming is with little doubt the cause of 
Mitten's misunderstanding of S. Braunii and the consequent train 
of errors. Upon them he based his conception of S. Braunii, and 
his record of Ster. Braunii (Gardner, 784) from Ceylon, which is 
really S. Nietnerianum ; and also described his Ster. acutirameus 
as having leaves narrower than in S. Braunii ; which later, no 
doubt, led the authors of the Bry. Jav. to consider their Javan 
plant as distinct, and to describe it as H. monoicum. 

What now are Thwaites's 239 and 239 &, determined by Mitten 
as Ster. acutirameus ? The specimen at Kew of 239 consists of 
two species, in four tufts, which I have marked a, b, c, d. Of these 
a, b, c are identical with Mitten's type (No. 110, Gardner), i. e., 
S. monoicum (Bry. Jav.). The plant marked d is different, and 
agrees with 2396 (which is the same plant in the Kew and British 
Museum specimens). This is a tall plant with narrow, longly 
convolute, spreading leaves, not infrequently secund ; it is dis- 
tinctly synoicous ; the seta, roughened above, is about 1 cm. long, 
the capsule very small (1 mm. long, including the peristome). The 
perichsetial bracts are erect, gradually pointed and slightly denti- 
culate. It is clearly, I think, S. sigmatodontiiim, which has not, 
I believe, been recorded from Ceylon ; but its existence there is 
quite in accordance with its recorded geographical distribution. 
It agrees in all its general characters, and the synoicous inflores- 
cence is, I think, quite conclusive. 

This, however, does not exhaust the whole question of the 
Ceylonese " S. acutirameum." Among the specimens sent by 

• The examination of herbarium specimens of Sematophyllum is rather 
difficult, except with a good deal of dissection, since it is always necessary to 
ascertain tlie nature of the inflorescence, while the seta and perichaetial bracts 
also need careful examination. 



122 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Mrs. Britten from Mitten's herbarium was one, " Ceylon, Dr. 
Thwaites, 239 in part," which is different from any of the plants so 
far mentioned. It is dioicous, has leaves very similar to those of 
S. monoicum, but wider, more concave, with more abruptly 
narrowed and rather longer and finer points, the seta much longer, 
2-5 cm., and the perichaetial bracts very distinct, the inner having 
a shortly loriform denticulate acumen, at the base of which the 
leaf is abruptly widened, with two or three coarse teeth at 
each side. It agrees, in fact, exactly with the plant described 
and figured in the Bry. Jav. as H. Gedeanuvi C. M. (ii. 208, t. 307), 
where the characteristic perichsetial bract is shown as described 
above. Assuming this to represent C. Miiller's species (as to 
which the authors express a certain amount of doubt), this speci- 
men of Thwaites's is certainly referable to S. Gedeanum. Obviously, 
therefore. Mitten had no very clear conception of his Ster. acuti- 
rameus, and Thwaites's C. M. 239 and 239 &, issued by Mitten 
under that name, contain at least three distinct plants. 

I have endeavoured to find out what the co-type of Ster. 
acutirameiLs Mitt, is, " In mont. Khasian., ad Moflong, in pinetis, 
Griffith ! " No specimen of this is to be found in either of the 
national collections, nor do any of Griffith's specimei:is exist in 
Mitten's own herbarium. But under S. Gedeanum at Kew there 
is a specimen determined by Mitten as " Acropormm Gedeanum 
C. MiilL, Khasia, Moflong, Herb. Griffith, 245," which I take to 
be in all probability Mitten's co-type of Ster. acutirame^is, but as 
to which he probably revised his opinion at a later date, naming 
it A. Gedeanum (otherwise he would without doubt have recorded 
Griffith's 245 in the Muse. I. Or. under S. Gedeanus, but the only 
record of that species there is " In Ceylon, Gardner ! "). I am 
not able to say certainly to what species this belongs ; it does 
not, however, agree with the H. Gedeanum of the Bry. Jav., 
either in leaves or in perichgetium ; nor with S. monoicum, though 
near it. 

I propose, therefore, to drop the name of S. acutirameum, as 
representing a composite species. It may be argued that the type- 
specimen being the plant described as H. monoicum in the Bry. 
Jav., the name acutirameum should be retained for that plant. 
The description and figures in the Bry. Jav., however, have 
established the species quite clearly, and as it is a widely distri- 
buted one, it would be unfortunate to disturb the nomenclature. 
Moreover, it is quite clear that Mitten had no definite idea of the 
species described as Ster. acutirameus — I have shown that three 
or four different species were so named by him at one time or 
another (and a Burmese plant, Moulmein, leg. Parish, 96, also 
determined by Mitten as Ster. acutirameus, is probably distinct 
from them all) — while there is almost a certainty that one of the 
two plants actually cited by him for Ster. acutirameus (Griffith's 
Khasian plant) was a different species from the actual type. Nor 
have I in the above remarks in any way attempted to exhaust the 
number of different species that have passed in one herbarium or 
another as S. acutirameum ! I believe, therefore, that there will 



MISCELLANEA BRYOLOGICA 123 

be a consensus of opinion in putting a merciful end to this much 
tormented name. 

Daltonia nov^-zelandi^ Mitten. 

In Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) iv. (1859), p. 95, Mitten described 
a plant under the above name from " New Zealand, ravines near 
Wellington, Stephenson." In the Handbook of the Neio Zealand 
Flora this is reduced, without comment, to a synonym of D. 
nervosa (H. f. & W.), and D. novce-zelandice forthwith disappears 
from bryological literature. 

Quite recently Mr. W. Gray, from whom I have received many 
interesting New Zealand mosses, sent me a packet labelled " 168, 
Daltonia mixed with Saulovia, Eopuaranga, Wairarapa, N. Z," 
On examination it proved to be a species unknown to me, and 
appeared to agree quite well with Mitten's original description of 
D. novce-zelandice. Further, it became clear that this description 
by no means fitted the plant now known as Bellia nervosa (H. f. & 
W.) Broth. {Hookeria nervosa H. f. & W.), a robust plant with 
stout nerve reaching to apex, and very short seta, which with 
D. straminea Mitt, has been placed in the new genus Bellia by 
Brotherus on account of these features, and especially of certain 
definite peristome characters. Now Mitten, among other things, 
has for his D. novce-zelandicB "nervo sub apice evanido," while he 
describes it as very closely resembling D. splachnoides in habit ; 
neither of which remarks applies at all to Bellia nervosa. I 
therefore attempted to see Stephenson's plant, of which Mitten 
writes that only a very small quantity had been seen. None, 
however, is to be found in the National Collections ; nor is there 
any plant in Mitten's own herbarium so labelled; but Mrs. Britton 
has found with D. pusilla H. f. & W. a mounted specimen, 
"Daltonia, New Zealand" — the only New Zealand Daltonia to be 
found in the collection. This is in all probability Stephenson's 
plant. It agrees exactly with W. Gray's 168, and with Mitten's 
original description of D. novce-zelandicB, and is an entirely good 
species, in no way closely related to Bellia nervosa (H. f. & W.). 
It is most nearly allied, perhaps, to the Tasmanian D. pusilla H. f. 
& W., but that is a smaller plant, with decidedly narrower and 
more attenuated leaves, and distinctly narrower cells.''' The 
areolation in D. novce-zelandice is rather markedly wide and not 
much incrassate, while the leaves are somewhat abruptly narrowed 
above to a moderately wide, not very attenuated nor very acute 
point. It is at present known only from the two localities above 
mentioned, in the North Island. 

Beachythecium trachypodium (Funck) B. & S. in Britain. 

Brachytheciuvi trachypodium is recorded in the Census Cata- 
logue of British Mosses (1907) for v.-c. 88, i. e., Mid Perth. The 
record depends, I believe, entirely upon a specimen in Mitten's 

* It is doubtfully distinct, as Fleischer suggests (Musci . . . vonBuitenzorg, 
iii. 960), from D. angiiMifolia Dz. & Mb. ; which again is scarcely separable 
from the probably widespread D. splachnoides Hook. & Tayl. 



124 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

herbarium, but I am not aware that it was ever pubHshed by 
Mitten as a British plant. The specimen has been kindly sent to 
me by Mrs. Britten. There are two sheets. One has been 
labelled at New York, " Found with Brachrjthecium trachypodium 
(Brid.)." It is a good fruiting specimen of trachyj^odium, with 
Mitten's sketches attached, no locality or date, the only data given 
being " Mr. Black" in Mitten's hand. It is pretty obvious that 
this is a Continental specimen placed side by side with the British 
plant for comparison. The other consists of a small packet, 
labelled in Mitten's hand " Hypnum tr achy Imodium '^. Encalypta 
rhahdocariM,-'' Ben Lawers, Hb. Hooker." It is accompanied by 
a drawing of a leaf and basal cells, which might very well 
represent B. trachypodium. The specimen itself is mainly the 
Encalypta, with one or two stems of a Brachythecium not unlike 
some of the less well characterized forms of B. trachypodiuvi, and 
with leaves that certainly show decided though weak striation — 
one of the principal characters separating B. trachypodium from 
B. velutinum. For all this I should consider it to belong to 
B. velutinum rather than to B. trachypodmm. The latter species 
is usually distinguished by its more robust, more rigid habit, with 
rather stout obtuse branches; the Ben Lawers plant is more silky, 
with rather slender, tapering branches. In habit and leaf form 
the Ben Lawers specimen is exactly in agreement with certain 
forms of B. velutinum, notably var. pralongum B. & S. (e. g. Husnot, 
Musci Gall. No. 741), to which var. I should refer it. I do not 
think the slight striation of the leaves, unusual as it is in B. velu- 
tinum, can be held to outweigh the other characters, and I should 
certainly consider it very unsafe to base a British record of 
B. trachypodium on this plant. The specimens in question are 
now placed, at Mrs. Britten's request, in the Kew Herbarium. 



INDEX SPECIES IN A FLOEA. 
By the Eev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, F.L.S. 

What is an index species ? A plant that points out the in- 
coming of a new combination of circumstances, or the existence 
of such circumstances when hidden from view. 

A party of botanists were working a marsh dyke with its glory 
of Lythrum, Utricularia, Sparganium, Juncus, and Carices. 
Suddenly they came on Stachys palustris, intruding, as it were, 
amongst the true marsh species. The banks of the dyke were 
still firm peat, of the Sparganium, Juncus, and Carices formation, 
but the bed of the dyke had reached the Oxford Clay lying below 
at the spot, and this permitted S. palustris to survive and flourish. 
There was nothing very wonderful in being able to point out the 
junction spot in a second and this plant as its index species ; the 
wonder should be that such things are ever passed over, but it 

• This has been written over " Btreptocarpa,^' but the specimen is E. 

rhabdocarpa. 



INDEX SPECIES IN A FLORA 125 

was looked on as astonishing by other workers because they had 
never given their minds to true observation." 

Surely true ecology (useful but hateful word !) is the art of 
observing the sequences in nature which follow from changed 
circumstances. Master the natural surroundings of the plants 
under all conditions, then the slightest change of circumstance 
even when invisible, as in the case given, will be clearly demon- 
strated to the mind. Other instances of invisible influences are 
easily given. The Chalky Boulder Clay lying in Lincolnshire 
west of its mother rock, the high Chalk of the Wolds, is not a 
fairly uniform bed of clay like the Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays. 
It is made up of layers growing more and more chalky till the 
basement layer is reached. The lowest zone may contain as much 
as 90 per cent, of carbonate of lime ; or, in other words, practi- 
cally be chalk moved to another situation. In working a Chalky 
Boulder Clay area of any considerable size, lying near its mother 
rock, it will be observed that where the bed feathers out to a thin 
edge I on the rock below, or where the streams which drain it 
have cut shallow valleys through its upper and more clayey layers 
into its lower and more chalky depths, the flora at once shows 
a change of species : in pasture by the appearance of Plantago 
media, in hedges of Sison Amomum, and generally by the coming 
in of Senecio erncifolms, and such species in ditches as Ranunculus 
auricomus, var. depauperata, or var. apetala. I have never found 
the typical plant under such circumstances. 

The Lower Lias Clays and Limestones give a similar set of 
varying circumstances, but caused in another way, and generally 
more visible. These beds were laid down in a fairly shallow sea- 
bottom not far from land, and consist of thick masses of stiff blue 
clay interstratified with beds of good building limestone, which, 
being more resisting to denudation than the clay, frequently make 
low escarpments. The flora at once indicates the change from 
clay to stone, though the outcropping zones of limestone are 
sometimes practically invisible and not more than a few yards 
across. Campanula glomerata appears on the narrowest zones, 
and C. Trachelium and C. latifoUa along with it on the wider ; 
and B. auricomus is found also in its most perfect state — the only 



* I noted at the time, for I was specially collecting insect visitors that day, 
that Buinbus agrorum — the only humble-bee that I have ever personally recorded 
as visiting Stachys j^alustris for honey, though Mr. G. ¥. Scott-Elliot has 
recorded three others — only flew as far as this spot on the dyke. It sucked 
honey, and then circled round and round, and finally returned by the way it 
had come, along the upland part of the dyke, quite omitting the marsh stretch 
below. I do not mean to imply by this that B. agronim is not a marshland 
species. It is common enough here on our peat carrs, often taken on Lythrmn ; 
in fact, the only species of Bombus I have ever taken personally on it, though 
Mr. Scott-EUict records two others. I simply wish it to be understood that the 
bees observed that day did not mix the honey taken from the upland flora at 
this junction spot with that from the true marsh species. This fact is, I take 
it, worth record. 

t This feather edge is beloved of certain plants, and also varieties of Helix 
virgata, which are not found on the more clayey masses above. 



126 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

place where I have found the typical form. These and many 
others are all good index species in working such a rock in our 
Lincolnshire area. It must be remembered that index species 
may be quite local. Wide field-work demonstrates that they 
may be peculiar to a very limited area indeed as true index 
species. This will be perfectly proved when the true ecological 
method has been applied widely. For instance, Potentilla argentea 
is the best index species for the Spilsby Sandstone in Lincoln- 
shire. It is confined in this county solely to that bed ; but 
beyond our area it is a mere sand index species. 

Not only do index species proclaim what exists now under 
given circumstances, but they can be safely used to demonstrate 
in limited areas what once existed, though the circumstances have 
now completely changed. This is one of the great advantages of 
intensive ecological study of limited areas when the results are 
applied to solving the problems of county or vice-county floras. 

To give an instance of this, take the Pyrola. They are recog- 
nised as woodland or woodland scrub species." In Lincolnshire 
some most curious facts come out of a historical consideration of 
the position in the past of our only species, P. minor. The great 
block of parishes for which it is recorded lies on the eolian sands 
at the foot of the escarpment of the wolds for a distance of eight 
miles north and east of Market Easen. Now on these sands 
Pimcs sylvestris grew as a self-sown species from prehistoric 
times till about 1840, if not later. Beyond this area Pyrola is 
found in a few isolated spots. These places are worth careful 
study to see whether it is a good and safe index species of 
ancient, but now departed, pinesques in this county. In 1840 it 
was recorded, under the mistaken name of P. rotundifolia, for 
Laughton Common.! This common was the centre of a vast 
pinesque which flourished into historic times, and stretched north 
to south for fifteen miles over the eolian sand dunes of the Trent 
valley. I have personally seen tons of pine which have been dug 
out of the peat in various parts of this old forest. One spot was 
called Welfholme — a truly suggestive name for part of the forest 
that once was there. P. media has been destroyed in this area 
since 1840 by allowing rabbits to increase beyond all reason. | 



* The Marine Sand Dune variety arenaria of P. rotundifolia is no excep- 
tion to the general rule ; where I have seen it growing in the valleys of the 
Lancashire eolian hills, the ground was scrubby with Halix repens, &c. 

f There can be no question as to this, for the County Herbarium possesses 
a specimen of P. minor from Nottingham named P. rotundifolia by the same 
authority, the Rev. J. K. Miller, a very good botanist for his time (1787-1855). 

\ In the Journal of the Ecological Society, i. p. 273, some doubt is cast 
on the point whether hungry rabbits will eat Senecio Jacohcea. I can only say 
round the spot where P. minor formerly grew — for it is known exactly — 
S. Jacobcea was badly eaten by them. The trees of a fagesque of forty years' 
growth were badly barked, and many plants were locally exterminated along 
with Pyrola. The most astonishing fact I discovered in this rabbit inquiry 
\fa,sihe\ynyAnthriscusi'ulfia)is met and adapted itself to this rodent's appe- 
tite. The plants were but four or five inches long, buried in moss completely 
out of sight with the exception of their flowers and seeds. 



CASUAL PLANTS IN MIDDLESEX 127 

The next area we come to for which Pyrola has been recorded 
is still in N. Lines. (54), between Lincoln and Boston. The 
Kirkby moor and Koughton bed of Plateau Gravel and Coningsby 
bed of Old River Gravel are still its home. There I have proof 
that the last of the self-sown prehistoric pinesque scrub was not 
finally uprooted and destroyed till past the middle of last century. 
The only other recorded spot for this species is in S. Lines. (53) 
in a wood on the same Old River Gravel that the ancient pinesques 
frequented at Coningsby. There is no peat in this locality, as 
there is in all the others, to preserve for us proof that pinesques 
formerly existed in this spot ; but considering what is known of 
the other districts, it is surely safe to say that they were once 
there too. I can prove their presence in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood on the same Old River Gravel. 

True ecology will not rest there ; it will explain much lying in 
my notes which is as yet hidden from the wisest. There are 
index species, varieties, and even hybrids ; and we do not yet 
know to what they point. For instance, the Rev. H. J. Riddels- 
dell borrowed the arranged County Herbarium series of Ajmmi 
nodifloruvi and A. inundatum, and their forms. The first is wide- 
spread and common, growing in all kinds of waters ; the second, 
thinly but widely scattered, and found in neutral or acid waters. 
A form found with us was returned named Moorei Riddelsdell, 
which the late Canon Fowler once suggested in conversation 
was nothing but a hybrid between them, on account of its mixed 
characteristics. The curious thing is that all the specimens re- 
turned named Moorei {i.e., approximately inundatumx nodifloruvi) 
were taken in the known inundatuvi conditions — distinctly acid 
waters ; in the Trent valley too, with the exception of a specimen 
I have heard of, collected by Mr. G. C. Druce at James Deeping 
parish on the very borders of this county. I have no notes of any 
insects visiting the flowers of these Apiums, neither has Mr. Scott- 
Elliot, which seems extraordinary — not even a Thysanopteron. 



CASUAL PLANTS IN MIDDLESEX. 

By J. E. Cooper. 

The following list, which is far from being exhaustive, may 
serve to show the great variety of casual and alien plants to be 
found on waste ground and building land round the Metropolis. 
All the plants mentioned were collected by the writer. The list 
excludes (1) plants which are apparently native and (2) those 
which are presumably garden escapes. 

The following abbreviations are used : — 
C. E. = Crouch End. H. M. = Hackney Marshes. 

E. F. = East Finchley. M. Hill = Muswell Hill. 
F. = Finchley. Y. = Yiewsley. 

For the identification of several plants the writer is indebted 
to the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew\ He also desires to 



128 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

thank Messrs. E. G. Baker, S. T. Dunn, and A. B. Jackson for 
assistance in naming others. 

Kanunculace^. — Banunculus arvensis L. E. F. 1883 ; H. M. 
1912. — R. sardous Crantz. Uxbridge, 1910. — Delphinium Ajacis L. 
Y. 1910. 

PAPAVERACEiE. — Rc&meria hybricla DC. Near Potter's Bar, 
1912. 

Crucifer^. — Alyssum incanum L. C. E. 1897 ; F. 1900, 1909 ; 
Y. 1910-11 ; M. Hill, 1904 ; Cowley, 1913. — SisymhrinmiKinnonicum 
Jacq. E. F. 1909 ; M. Hill, 1902 ; F. 1910 ; H. M. 1910-13 ; Y. 1909-10. 
— S. ColumncB Jacq. H. M. 1909, 1912-13. — S. Loeselii L. 
Hampstead, 1910 ; Y. 1911-12. — S. SopJiia L. Y. 1909-13 ; 
F. 1910 ; H. M. 1912.— Erysimum cheiranthoides L. E. F. 1882, 
1909; Y. 1909-10, 1912-13. — ^. orientale Mill. E. F. 1907; 
F. 1909; H. M. 1913. — ^. repandum L. Y. 19Q1 . — Camelina 
sativa Crantz. C. E. 1887 ; M. Hill, 1906, 1909 ; Y. 1908-9, 
1912-13.— Bras sica nigra Boiss. H. M. 1912.— S. elongata Ehrh. 
F. 1911-12. — 5. alba Boiss. M. Hill, 1912; H. M. 1912-13.— 
Diplotaxis muralis DC. F. 1907-8; Y. 1908-13. — Lejndium 
Draba L. M. Hill, 1906, 1912-13 ; H. M. 1909 ; Hanwell, 1910, 
1912 ; Y. 1910, 1912-13.— L. ruderale L. Waste ground every- 
where. — L. virginicum h. M.Hill, 1902. — Thlaspi arvense h. 
C. E. 1887; M. Hill, 1892, 1902; F. 1909; Harefield, 1910; 
H. M. 1913.— Neslia paniculata Desv. C. E. 1899 ; E. F. 1907 ; 
H. M. 1912-13.— Bapistrum orientale DC. Y. 1912-13 ; H. M. 
1912-13.— B. per enne DC. Y. 1910; F. 1912.— E. rugosum Berg. 
H. M. 1913.— Euclidiimi syriacum Br. H. M. 1912. 

Caryophyllace^. — Dianthus Armeria L. E. F. 1883. — 
Saponaria Vaccaria L. C. E. 1885; E. F. 1907; H. M. 1912-13; 
Y. 1913. — Gypsophila elegans Bieb. H. M. 1913. — Silene 
conoidea L. H. M. 1912.— >S. anglica L. Y. 1908 ; F. 1909-10; 
H. M. 1913.— S. nutans L. H. M. 1912.— S. noctiflora L. C. E. 
1897; M. Hill, 1902; H. M. 1910; Y. 1909, 1913. — Lychnis 
Githago Scop. F. 1908-9 ; Y. 1909, 1913. 

Malvace^. — Hibiscus Trionum L. Fortis Green, 1909. — 
Malva pusilla^m. Y. 1909-10. — M. parviflora Jj. Fortis Green, 
1911 ; Y. 1912 ; H. M. 1912. 

GERANiACEiE. — Geranium pusHlum'BviXiTi. E. F. 1908. — Oxalis 
corniculata L. Muswell Hill Road, 1897. — Impatiens p)arviflora 
DC. Hampstead, 1891, 1908 ; C. E. 1897 ; Uxbridge, 1910. 

Leguminos^. — Tngonella Foennm-gracum L. Y. 1908, 
1913._r. ccBTulea Ser. H. M. 1912-13.— Medicago falcata L. 
M. Hill, 1904; H. M. 1912.— ill. denticulata Willd. Y. 1908-9; 
H. M. 1912-13.— Var. apiculata Willd. Y. 1909 ; H. M. 1910, 
1912.— -M". lappacea Desv. Y. 1908; H. M. 1912.— Melilotus 
alba Desv. Waste ground, many localities. — M. officinalis 
Lam. F. 1906; Y. 1908, 1910; E. F. 1909; H. M. 1909.— 
M. indica All. C. E. 1898; M. Hill, 1902; F. 1908, 1910; 
Y. 1909-10, 1913; H. M. 1909-10. — Tr if olium lappaceim L. 



CASUAL PLANTS IN MIDDLESEX 129 

E. F. 1907 ; Y. 1908 ; F. 1910.— T. ochroleucon Huds. F. 1907 ; 
M. Hill, 1907. — r. arvense L. F. 1908; B. F. 1909.— 
T. imrviflorum Ehrh. H. M. 1913. — T. resupinatum L. 
M. Hill, 1902. — Anthyllis Vulneraria L. Eoadside near Staines 
Moor, 1910-13. — Scorpiurus subvillosus L. Fortis Green, 1911. — 
Vicia bum L. Y. 1912 ; H. M. 1912.— F. villosa Eoth. Y. 1908, 
1913. E. F. 1908.— F. pseudocracca Bert. C. E. 1897 ; F. 1909 ; 
Y. 1911-13 ; H. M. 1912-13. — F. 2)eregrina L. H. M. 1912.— 
Lathijrus Aphaca L. E. F. 1909 ; H. M. 1909, 1912 ; Y. 1912.— 
L. hirsutus L. C. E. 1897; E. F. 1909; H. M. 1912-13.— 
L. Cicera L. H. M. 1912. 

'RosACEM.—PotentiUa hirkt L. C. E. 1897 ; M. Hill, 1902 ; 
Y. 1908-9 ; F. 1910.— P. argentea L. Highgate, 1887-8 ; Y. 1901. 

Umbellifee^. — Coninm viaculatum L. Y. 1912. — Bupleurum 
rotundifolium L. Whetstone, 1906. Y, 1908. — B. j)rotractum 
L. & H. H. M. 1913.— Cantm Carvi L. Highgate, 1887 ; E. F. 
1909 ; Y. 1910-11, 1913. — Fceniculum vulgare Mill. H. M. 
1912-13. — Gonandmm sativum L. H. M. 1913. — Caucalis 
daucoides L. H. Mill, 1906 ; H. M. 1912. — C. arvensis Huds. 
Harefield, 1913 ; near Colnbrook, 1913. 

Kubiaceje. — Galium tricorne Stokes. Highgate, 1887 ; F. 
1908; Y. 1910, 1913; H. M. 1912-13. — A sjm-ula arvensis L. 
E. F. 1908. 

Valerianace^. — Valerianella dentata Poll. Harefield, 1912. 

DiPSACE^. — Dipsacus fullonum L. Y. 1908, 1910-11, 1913. 

Composite. — Erigeron canadenseh. Highgate, 1897; M.Hill, 
1905; F. 1906, 1908; Y. 1909; H.M. 1909-10.— ^. acre L. Y. 1910; 
Harlington, 1910.— Ambrosia trifida L. Highgate, 1897 : H. M. 
1912.—^. artemisifolia L. F. 1900; M. Hill, 1902.— Xa7ithmm 
spinosum L. H. M. 1913. — Achillea tanacetifolia All. Y. 1910. 
— Guizotia ahyssinica Cass. Y. 1913. — Anthemis tinctoria L. 
Y. 1910 ; F. 1910.— .4. Cotula L. F. 1910; Y. 1912 ; H. M. 1912. 
—A. arvensis L. F. 1907, 1910; Y. 1910, 1912 ; H. M. 1912.— 
Matricaria suaveolens Buch. Highgate, 1907, 1910 ; F. 1908 ; 
H. M. 1912-13.— Cotula coronopifolia L. M. H. 1913.— Artemisia 
biennis ^im. H. M. 1913.— .4. longifolia Mitt. Y. 1913.— 
Senecio viscosus L. Highgate, 1897 ; M. Hill, 1900 ; Y. 1909, 
1913; F. 1910; H. M. 1909-10.— Car dims pycnocephalus L. 
{tenuiflorus Curt.). Y. 1913. — Cnicus eriophorus Scop. C. E. 
1896. — Silybum Marianum Gaertn. E. F. 1907-8, 1910; Y. 
1908-9, 1913. — Centaurca calcitrapa L. Fortis Green, 1911. — 
C. solstitialis L. Y. 1912 ; Harefield, 1912. — C. melitcnsis L. 
Y. 1912 ; H. M. 1912-13.— Car^/ia?/iws tinctorius L. E. F. 1906 ; 
Y. 190Q-9. —Picris echioides L. E. F. 1883; F. 1910; Harefield, 
1912.— Lac^wca virosa L. Y. 1908-13 ; M. Hill, 1910 ; Harefield, 
1913.— L. Serriola L. Y. 1913. 

Primulaceje. — Anagallis foemina Mill. Highgate, 1911. 

BoRAGiNACE^. — Lappula echinata Gilib. Y. 1910; H. M. 
1913.— 5ora^o officinalis L. E. F. 1908; Y. 1913 . — Anclmsa 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [May, 1914.] l 



130 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

officinalis L. E. F. 1908. — Lithospermu7n officinale L. Y. 1910-12 ; 
H. M. l9lS.~Echium vulgare L. M. Hill, 1903 ; Whetstone, 
1906 ; F. 1909 ; E. F. 1909. 

SoLANACE^. — Atropa Belladonna L. C. E. 1896; Harefield, 
1908. — Datura Stramonium L. var. tatula L. Y. 1913. — 
Hyoscyamus niger L. Neasden, 1908; Y. 1910; F. 1909-10; 
H.M. 1910, 1912-13. 

ScROPHULAEiACEiE. — Autivrhinufn Orontiiim'Lt. Stan well Moor, 
1913. — Alonsoa peduncularis Wetts. F. 1909. 

ljKBih.T!M.— Salvia verticillata L. M. Hill, 1905 ; F. 1907-8 ; 
Y. l^Qd.—Marruhium vulgare L. M. Hill, 1905 ; Y. 1911 ; H. M. 
1912. — Stachys arvensis L. Stanwell Moor, 1913. — S. annua L. 
C. E. 1897 ; F. 1910 ; Y. 1912. — Galeopsis angustifoUa Ehrh. 
M. Hill, 1900 ; F. 1910 ; Y. 1910, 1912.— G. Tetrahit L. Highgate, 
1883 ; E. F. 1908, 1910 ; H. M. 1909 ; F. 1910. — Leommis 
Cardiaca L. Hendon, 1907. 

Plantaginace^. — Platitago arenaria W. & K. C. E. 1896; 
H. M. 1912. 

AMARANTACEiE. — Amarautlius retroflexus L. E. F. 1897 ; F. 
1908, 1910-11; Y. 1908-11, 1913; H. M. 1912-13.—^. Blitumh. 
H. M. 1913. 

GnEiio-po-DiAC-EM.—ChenojJodium murale L. M. Hill, 1896; 
E. F. 1906.— C. Tubrum L. E. F., F., Y., H. M. (very abundant). 
— C. polyspermum L. E. F., F., Y., M. Hill (abundant). — C. 
glaucum L. M. Hill, 1906; Y. 1909.— C. Bonus-Henricus L. F. 
1912-13. — C. amhrosioides L. Y. 1911. — Suceda mariiima Dum. 
H. M. 1909. 

PoLYGONACE^. — Bumcx limosus Thuill. Hornsey, 1887-8; 
C. E. 1897 ; F. 1911 ; H. M. 1913. 

EuPHORBiACEJE. — MercuHalis annua L. E. F. 1909 ; H. M. 
1909-10, 1912; Y. 1913. 

XjRTicACEiE. — Cannabis sativa L. C. E. 1897 ; Y. 1908-9. 

Graminaceje. — Panicwn Crus-galU L. Highgate, 1896 ; C. E. 
1897; M. Hill, 1902; F. 1908; Y. 1908-10; H. M. 1912-13.— P. 
miliaceum L. C. E., F., E. F., Y. (abundant). — P. capillare L. C. E. 
1897 ; Highgate, 1899.— Setaria viridis Beauv. C. E. 1897 ; M. Hill, 
E. F., Y., F. (often abundant). — S. glauca Beauv. (occurs with 
the last in all localities). — Phalaris canaricnsis L. (abundant at 
times in all localities). — P. minor Retz. H. M. 1912. — P. para- 
doxa L. E. F. 1907 ; F. 1908 ; Y. 1908, 1912 ; H. M. 1912.— 
P. angusta Nees. H. M. 1913. — Anthoxantlmm aristatum Boiss. 
H.M. 1909, 1913; Y. 191^.— Agrostis scaira Willd. F. 1910; 
H. M. 1912; Y. 191^.— Apera Spica-venti Beauv. M. Hill, 1906; 
E. F. 1909; H. M. 1909; Y. 1910-13. — Air a cai-yoj^hy Ilea L. 
H. M. 1913. — Trisetum paniceum Pers. H. M. 1913. — Avena 
fatua L. E. F. 1908-9 ; F. 1908-10 ; H. M. 1909. — Cynosurus 
echinatush. E. F. 1910, F. 1910-11; Harefield, 1910 ; H.M. 
1913.— Glyceria distans Wahlb. H. M. 1909-10, 1912 ; B. F. 
1910, — Festuca myurus L. Y. 1912-13; H. M. 1913. — Bromus 



BRITISH PLANTS 131 

rigidus Eoth. M. Hill, 1907; Y. 1911-13; H. M. 1913. — 5. 
tcctorum L. Potter's Bar, 1912; H. M. 1913. — 5. secalinus L. 
F. 1913. — B. arvensis L. E. F., M. Hill, Y. (sometimes ohnn- 
diint).—B.brizceformisW. H. M. 1912 ; Y. 1913.— B. unioloichs 
H. B.&K. E.F. 1906-8; F. 1908-10; Y. 1909, 1913; H. M. 1913. 
— ^gilops cylindrica L. Fortis Green, 1909. — ^. triuncialis L. 
H. M. 1912.~H:ordeum jubatum L. H. M. 1909-10. 



REVIEWS. 
British Plants. 
The Cambridge British Flora. By C. E. Moss, D.Sc, F.L.S., 
assisted by Specialists in certain Genera : illustrated from 
Drawings by E. W. Hunnybun. Volume II. Salicacece to 
Chenopodiacecs. Folio ; paper boards, pp. xx, 206 ; 206 plates. 
Price £2 5s. net. Cambridge : University Press. 
British Floivering Plants. Illustrated by Three Hundred full-page 
coloured plates [by Mrs. Henry Perrin] , with detailed 
descriptive Notes and an Introduction by Professor Boulger, 
F.L.S. 4to, buckram gilt, pp. xlv ; Ixvi plates with text. 
London : Quaritch. 
It is somewhat remarkable that there should appear within a 
few days of each other two works devoted to the British Flora 
which, from their different standpoints, may be regarded among 
the most important of their class. We must go back to the 
beginning of Syme's edition of English Botany half a century ago 
for anything equalling in importance The Cambridge British Flora, 
while we shall find nothing to compare in sumptuousness of get- 
up with the new work on British Floioering Plants. 

The appearance of Dr. Moss's work — we note that, originally 
appearing as editor, his name now stands as author — has been 
anticipated by British botanists with the greatest interest : not 
only to them does it appeal, for its completeness and attention to 
detail entitle it to take rank among works of Continental impor- 
tance. The Cambridge University Press has been fortunate in 
securing the services of Dr. Moss, than whom no one more com- 
petent for the task could be found. By a combination as admirable 
as it is rare. Dr. Moss is at once an acute field botanist, a diligent 
investigator of herbaria, and a student of botanical literature : in 
a comparatively short time he has attained a leading position 
among British botanists and has acquired a knowledge of the 
history of his subject equalled by few. Mr. Hunnybun's drawings 
are all made from living plants, so that the work may be regarded 
as representing more fully than has been hitherto done our 
knowledge of British botany at the present day. 

The many features new to British botany which the book 
contains begin with the arrangement, which is that of Engler's 
Syllabus — not hitherto adopted in any British flora. It has been 
found convenient to begin with the second volume, which con- 
tains orders of unattractive appearance though of great botanical 
interest : a list of these was given so recently in these pages 



132 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

(p. 87) that it is unnecessary to repeat it here. The treatment 
of the species is so detailed that only one critically versed in 
their study could offer any useful comment upon it. We must 
therefore content ourselves w^ith some remarks upon the general 
plan and execution of the work, as detailed by Dr. Moss in his 
introduction. 

The objects of the work are thus stated : " First, an attempt 
is made to register the present state of knowledge with regard to 
British plants — their classification, their names, their characters, 
and their distribution. Secondly, an attempt is made to relate 
British plants to the allied forms of foreign countries. And 
thirdly, a hope is entertained that the work will result in stimu- 
lating further research concerning British plants, particularly with 
regard to the study of their variations and the distribution of the 
less well-known forms." 

The section on nomenclature is interesting and clearly set 
forth, but we regret that the Eules and recommendations laid 
down by the International Congress at Vienna have not been 
altogether, instead of "in general," adopted. We are entirely at 
one with Dr. Moss in rejecting the accidental binominals of Hill 
and other pre-Linnean books, though we are not so clear as to 
the exclusion of Adanson as "pre-Linnean in character although 
not in chronology " ; but we think the names of species ought, in 
all possible cases, to stand as in the first edition of Linnaeus's 
Sjjecies Plantarum. What is referred to as "the Kew rule" was 
not happily so named ; for although the retention of the earliest 
trivial name received by a species when placed under its correct 
genus — always observed by the British Museum and usually by 
French botanists — was often followed at Kew, it was there sub- 
ordinated to " convenience " when such subordination was con- 
sidered desirable. 

Our chief objection however is to the use of small letters for 
trivial names, as to which Dr. Moss expressed his views in this 
Journal for 1913, p. 21 : as we then said, " it seems to us undesir- 
able to depart from a practice which is sanctioned both by rule 
and custom," and we cannot agree with him when he says that 
no "precise rule or custom" exists. The matter is hardly of 
sufficient importance to make a fuss about, and we allow Dr. 
Moss — who, like the rest of us, likes to have his own way and is 
perhaps more fortunate because more insistent in getting it — to 
follow his plan in our pages rather than deprive our readers of 
his valuable contributions. But it seems undesirable to depart 
from established custom unless for some considerable advantage ; 
and it is not without significance that the Kew botanists, who at 
one time adopted the practice, soon returned to the general 
custom. A similar departure from general use is noticeable in 
the printing of the name of the species at the head of each 
description without any appended authority : Dr. Moss gives no 
reason for this method, which was opposed by all the botanists 
who spoke at the meeting held to consider the plan of the Flora. 
The synonymy given for each species includes certain names 



BRITISH PLANTS 133 

taken from pre-Linnean British authors, chiefly from Gerard and 
Eay — a beautiful photogravure portrait of the latter forming the 
frontispiece to the volume — followed by a number of references to 
the more important works in which the plant has been described, 
under the name adopted or under others : to each reference the 
date is appended. No attempt is made to include folk-names, 
although one English synonym is given for each species when such 
name is generally known. A good deal of attention has been given 
to distribution, which in many cases is illustrated by useful maps. 
In the matter of classification, the subdivision of orders is 
carried out very thoroughly ; many of the subdivisions are new : 
thus of the three subclasses of Engler's Archichlamydeae, two are 
here first estabhshed, and Populus is grouped under four series, 
all of them new. Although the numerous subdivisions of species 
which make some Continental books practically unworkable is 
comparatively restrained, there are amply sufficient here to tax 
the observation of the collector ; thus of Atriplex imtula four 
varieties and three forms of one of these are described : the 
reference appended to the authority for some of the names has a 
somewhat strange appearance — one does not at first sight recog- 
nize that " var. crecta forma crassa Moss and Wilmott in Camb. 
Brit. Fl. ii. 174 " actually refers to the page in the present volume 
on which the name appears. 

The book is handsomely printed, but might have been better 
arrayed. It would perhaps be too much to expect that a new 
page would be begun for each species, but certainly each family 
should start on a fresh one. It is not easy to understand why 
the genera should be printed in small black type while the species 
are in large capitals. The different types are however on the whole 
judiciously employed ; and the use of a large quantity of small but 
clear type allows the inclusion of a vast amount of information. 

A few names will come to most botanists as new : Pojnilus taca- 
mahacca Miller (1768) supersedes P. candicans Aiton (1789) ; Oxyria 
appears as Bheum digynum Wahlenberg. Mesemhryanthe'nnim 
edule occurs for the first time in a British flora, being "naturalized 
near the sea on cliffs, rocks, old walls, and hedgebanks in the 
Channel Islands, Cornwall (including the Scilly Isles) and in the 
Isle of Wight"; Quercus Ilex and Q. Cerris are also regarded as 
naturalized in southern England ; Salsola Tragus, " not indi- 
genous," is included as having been found in various localities. 
The genus Salsola, by the way, is contributed by Mr. C. E. Salmon; 
the Rev. E. Marshall has undertaken Betula, a genus at which he 
has long worked ; the rest of the book is by Dr. Moss, with the 
assistance of Mr. Wilmott in Atriplex and of Dr. E. J. SaUsbury 
in Salicornia. 

Turning to Mr. Hunnybun's plates, it is to be noted that 
"each plant or portion selected has been drawn natural size," and 
is " reproduced without reduction or enlargement " : "each drawing 
has been made from a fresh plant, the name of which has been 
vouched for by some competent authority whose letter of identifi- 
cation " — and we assume also the specimen — " is preserved in the 



134 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Cambridge University Herbarium." In a few cases, cultivated 
examples have been used, but by the co-operation of numerous 
botanists Mr. Hunnybun has been supplied with specimens of 
most of the species which were not gathered by himself. The 
orginal pen-and-ink drawings were presented by Mr. Hunnybun 
to the University ; many wei'e previously circulated among 
botanists, who expressed a high opinion of their artistic merit and 
scientific value. The number of forms presented is remarkable 
and, at any rate so far as British botany is concerned, unique ; 
thus Pojmlus iind A triplex are represented by 17 plates, Ulmus by 
16, Salicornia by 12. They are reproduced by a special process 
and are mostly in outline ; the few dissections added in most 
cases, are not, we understand, considered by experts as altogether 
satisfactory. For the botanical accuracy of the plates the name of 
Dr. Moss is sufficient guarantee, and Mr. Hunnybun is to be 
congratulated on the success with which he has, in most cases, 
succeeded in conveying the habit — the port, as the French more 
expressively put it — of the plants : this is especially notable in 
the PolygonacecB and Chenoj^odiacecB. The plates of Salicornia 
form an important contribution to the knowledge of the genus 
and will we think be welcomed by Continental as well as by 
British botanists. The branches of trees please us less ; from 
the artistic standpoint they leave a good deal to be desired. In 
many cases the specimens seem to have been thrown down any- 
how and to have been drawn as they fell — we do not suppose that 
such was the case, but it is certainly the impression conveyed. 
This is the more to be regretted because the size of the page 
enables the specimens to be fully displayed, and there thus seems 
no reason why they should be placed across one another as they 
are in numerous instances — e. g. nos. 2, 19, 20, 28 ; the object may 
have been to avoid a formal and diagrammatic appearance, but we 
think anyone who will contrast these with nos. 18, 22, 23, 26, will 
prefer the more formal arrangement. In many of the Atriplexes 
and Chenopods the separate leaves are scattered about in a casual 
way as if they had fallen from a height on to the paper, usually 
pointing downwards. In many cases, too, where a fragment of a 
plant only is given, the whole might well have been displayed. A 
study of the figures in some of the sixteenth-century herbals, 
notably those of Brunfels (1530) and Leonard Fuchs (1542-3) 
would, we think, have resulted in the production of figures not 
less accurate but far more artistic as well as more informing ; a 
comparison of Mr. Hunnybun's plate of Knotgrass with Fuchs's 
figure will illustrate our meaning. 

A like criticism applies to many of the plates which form the 
raison d'etre of Mrs. Perrin's handsome volume — the first of four — 
on British Floivering Plants, on the title-page of which, by an 
excess of modesty, her name does not appear. Many of these are 
extremely good, although, well reproduced as they are, they are 
not as good as the original drawings, in the exhibition of which 
we noticed some — notably that of the Sloe, to appear in a later 
volume — of really supreme excellence. Turning over the pages, 



BRITISH PLANTS 135 

we should place among the figures of first rank those of the 
Scotch Fir, the Water Plantain, the Arum, the Fritillary, the 
Twayblade and the Eagged Eobin : all these are excellent. But 
the very accuracy of Mrs. Perrin's reproduction of individual 
specimens has in many cases resulted in an inadequate represen- 
tation of the plant presented. Even Mr. Hunnybun's plates 
occasionally suffer from this individuality, but we are inclined 
to think that in his case a wide general knowledge has enabled 
him to interpret the individual in the light of the species, whereas 
Mrs. Perrin seems to have restricted herself absolutely to what 
was actually before her ; nor has she always selected characteristic 
specimens. x\s examples of this may be mentioned the otherwise 
excellent figures of the Bur-reed, the flowers of which are too 
young to show the " golden tufts of ripe stamens," the Arrowhead, 
and the EjnjMctis called latifolia: this last, so far as it goes, could 
hardly be better, but almost all the flowers are unexpanded. The 
Bog Asphodel is somewhat past its prime ; the example of Orchis 
mascula does the species scant justice ; the figure of the Corn 
Cockle hardly adequately represents a very beautiful plant, either 
in the colour of both flower and leaves (many of the greens 
throughout are susceptible of improvement) or in the size of the 
former. The representations, seeing how much space was at 
the artist's disposal, are sometimes disappointingly inadequate; 
the Sheep's Sorrel, for example, might well have shown the under- 
ground growth which makes the plant so terrible a nuisance in 
gardens where it has attained a hold : the figure in Curtis's Flora 
Londinensis may be contrasted with this. The only really un- 
satisfactory plate in the book is that of the Stitchworts ; this 
according to the list contains three, but according to the text four 
species ; we are inclined to think the former correct, as we can 
find nothing in the least resembling S. palustris, either in flowers 
or foliage. 

Mr. Boulger's introduction and " descriptive notes " are of 
course accurate. The arrangement followed is that of Engler ; 
admitting that this is " the best linear grouping as yet achieved," 
we have doubts as to the wisdom of adopting it in a popular 
volume ; many folk who have no claim to be considered botanists 
have a sort of general notion that things begin with Banunculacea. 
To the scientific botanist the book hardly appeals — it contains 
only 290 species and entirely omits grasses and sedges, as well as 
" the less attractive water-plants " , hence we rather regret the 
care and cost which must have attended the production of the 
coloured analytical plates. A little more botany might we think 
have been added ; thus, when describing a species something 
might have been said about its allies — e. g. under S'parganium 
erectum some indication might have been given of the characters 
of S. simplex. The letterpress is an excellent example of a 
successful combination of science and popular lore, thus differing 
in this respect from most popular books. The English names 
which head the description are occasionally unfamihar — e. g. 
"Good Friday Grass," a purely local name for Luzula campcstris — 



136 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

and even inappropriate — anything less suggestive of " Spring 
Beauty" than Glaytonia perfoliata it would be difficult to con- 
ceive, however appropriate the name may be to the species in the 
same genus with which it is usually associated. 

It remains to be said that the book is beautifully printed and 
handsomely bound in buckram ; the colour-printing is on the 
whole excellent. 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society on April 2, Mr. Clement 
Keid showed a lantern-slide of photographs from seeds of a new 
species of Corcvia [C. intermedia) from the Pliocene Cromer Forest 
Bed. The same had also been found in a similar deposit in the 
Netherlands, at Tegelen. The plant forms the subject of a paper 
by Mr. Eeid in our present issue. Mr. R. Allen Eolfe exhibited a 
series of coloured drawings of five hybrid Ophryses, raised by 
M. Fernand Denis, Balaruc-les-Bains, France, from Ophrys ten- 
thredinifera Willd. crossed with the pollen of 0. aranifera Huds. ; 
together with the two parents. This was believed to be the first 
hybrid Ophrys raised artificially, and it proved the origin of a 
natural hybrid that has been recorded from three localities in 
Italy, and is known under the names of 0. Grampinii Cortesi and 
0. etrusca Asch. & Grabn. The hybrids varied somewhat between 
themselves, but all showed an unmistakable combination of the 
characters of the two parents, particularly in the colour and 
markings of the lip, and in the peculiar combination of rose and 
green in the sepals and petals. M. Denis has a batch of some 
forty seedlings in flower or bud. At least eighteen natural hybrid 
Ophryses have been recorded, and Mr. Eolfe believed there were 
others. 

"After several years of preparation and discussion the Federal 
Government has just decided to create a large reserve, on the lines 
of the American Yellowstone Park, in the Lower Engadine for the 
protection and preservation of Swiss fauna and flora, especially 
the former. A subsidy of £1200 a year has been granted to the 
communes interested for a period of ninety-nine years, but the 
contract must be renewed every twenty-five years for the upkeep 
of the park, supervision, &c. The ' park ' is ready-made by 
Nature, for it is situated in one of the most lonely and most un- 
touched corners of Switzerland, containing mountains, forests, 
streams, and pastures which have been rarely visited except by 
smugglers who ' trade ' with Italy in contraband goods. The 
little village of Zernetz will be the headquarters of the park, 
through which there are only a few bridle paths, although it is 
not very far from the fashionable resort of St. Moritz. The 
reserve will be stocked by the authorities and at the expense of 
private societies. Owing to the lack of legislation the fauna of 
the Alps during the last fifty years has been almost exterminated, 
and the new measure will be only just in time to save several 
species." — Standard, April 2. 



137 

NOTES UPON TEESDALE PLANTS. 
By C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. 

The following notes have been put together mainly for the 
purpose of comparing the condition of the more uncommon Tees- 
dale plants in 1892, an ordinary English season ("three fine clays 
and a thunderstorm "), and in the phenomenally hot and dry 
summer of 1911. 

The first visit was from June llth-20th, when my brother and 
I had the advantage of the company of Messrs. J. B. and A. J. 
Crosfield, without whose guidance many of the " Teesdalians " 
would have been missed ; the second trip was from July 4th-20th, 
in the company of Dr. A. H. Fardon. 

It will be seen that, although the conditions may be pleasant 
for botanizing, a hot dry season by no means produces such a 
good display of mountain or rock plants as a normal summer. 
The Globe-flower had suffered extremely ; a meadow near High 
Force, yellow with the blossoms in 1892, did not show a single 
flower or fruiting-spike in 1911. 

D. = Durham, v.-c. 66 ; W. = Westmoreland, v.-c. 69. All 
the v.-c. 64 records were noted in 1911. Supposed new records 
have an asterisk. 

The Eev. E. S. Marshall, Eev. E. F. Linton, Messrs. H. and J. 
Groves {Characece), and Mr. A. Bennett have kindly helped me in 
naming critical forms. 

Thalictrum minus L. Limestone W. of Selside, v.-c. 64. 

Meconopsis cambrica Vig. Pot hole, near Selside, v.-c. 64. 

Draha incana L. Forest-in-Teesdale and limestone ridge near 
Ettersgill Beck, D., 1911. 

Cochlearia alpina Wats. By Harwood Beck, D., 1911. Lime- 
stone hills above Brough, W., 1911. 

Helianthevmm canum Baumg, var. vineale (Pers.). Flowering 
in profusion in its well-known locality in 1892 ; in 1911 not 
putting up nearly so many blossoming shoots. The Teesdale 
plant seems to have leaves much more glabrous above than those 
of the Great Orme's Head form, indeed some of them are quite 
hairless. Mr. Williams (Prod. Fl. Brit, pars x, 1912, 573) fails to 
distinguish vineale on "comparing examples from Clare with 
examples from the Welsh coast," but, as far as the Teesdale plant 
is concerned (I do not know the Irish), it seems worth separating 
at least as a " forma." 

Polygala amara L. In fair quantity in 1892 and 1911 ; the 
blue-flowered plant seen in 1911 does not grow intermixed, 
apparently, with the more frequent (as regards Teesdale) pink 
form. J. D. Hooker had evidently not seen the blue form in 
Teesdale; he says (Stud. Fl. 1884, 51): "The Teesdale form 
(P. uliginosa Fries) is rather more fleshy and has rosy flowers ; 
the Kent form (P. austriaca Crantz) is blue-flowered. I find no 
difference between their capsules. It is certainly the P. amara of 
Linn. Herb." 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [June, 1914.] m 



138 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

P. oxyptera Eeichb. Holwick Scars, 1911, v.-c. 65. 

Arenaria uliginosa Schleich. In good quantity in its well- 
know locality in both 1892 and 1911. 

A. gothica Fr. Seen in three stations in the Ingleborongh 
district, v.-c. 64. 

Sacjina nodosa Fenzl. E. side of Ingleborough, v.-c. 64. 
■•'•Montia laviprosijerma Cham. Holwick Fell, 1911, v.-c. 65. 

Geranium pratense L. Near Malham village, v.-c. 64, a 
beautiful form occurred with pale lilac flowers. 

G. luciclum L. Near Great Musgrave and laneside near Hill- 
beck, Brough, W., 1911. 

Vicia sylvatica L. Swindale Beck, Brough, W., 1892. 

Dryas octopetala L. Plentifully in flower in 1892 in its only 
Teesdale station ; not a single blossom showing in 1911, although 
leaves were in abundance. 

Geuvi rivale x 2irhanum {intermedium Ehrh.). Barnard Castle, 
with the parents, D., 1892. 

Alchemilla alpestris Schmidt. Forest-in-Teesdale and High 
Force, D., 1911. -Near Cronkley Fell, v.-c. 65, 1911. 

'■'■"A. minor Huds. Forest-in-Teesdale, D., 1911. Mickle Fell, 
v.-c. 65, 1911. 

Saxifraga nivalis L. In its Westmoreland station in fair 
quantity in 1892 ; we failed to hit the right spot in 1911, but my 
friend Mr. A. Wallis tells me he saw it in 1913 (see J. G. and E. G. 
Baker in Journ. Bot. 1894, pp. 302, 345). 

Galium sylvestre Poll. Forest-in-Teesdale and limestone ridge 
near Ettersgill Beck, D., 1911. Limestone hills above Brougli, 
W., 1911. 

■■'Valeriana Mikanii Syme. Near High Force, D., 1911. 

Matricaria suaveolens Buchen. Too common near Clapham, 
v.-c. 64. 

Senecio spatMilcefolitts DC. Seen in its station near Brough, 
Westmoreland, in 1892, in plenty, but with no signs of its 
attempting to flower or having flowered ! In 1911 the conditions 
were exactly the same, and I was interested to hear from 
Mr. J. Backhouse that he has never seen it in flower in this — its 
only inland locality in Britain — where his father discovered it. 
Some rosettes were brought back to Keigate in 1911 and planted 
in chalky soil ; these flowered sparingly in 1912, but luxuriantly 
and well in 1913, some of the stems bearing twenty-four 
heads! 

Mr. J. G. Baker has an interesting note upon the plant in this 
Journal for 1885, p. 8, where he remarks that the dividing line 
between S. spathulcefolius DC. and S. campestris DC. is very hard 
to define; in this opinion I concur. He goes on to say: " Accord- 
ing to Grenier & Godron, there is no campiestris at all in France, 
but all the French plant is spathulcefolius. But cross the Channel 
and immediately on the chalk downs of Sussex and the Isle of 
Wight campestris begins, and there is no spatkulcBfoliiis till the 
whole breadth of England and Wales is ci-ossed. Speaking from 
a geographical point of view, one would not care to believe in 



NOTES UPON TEESDALE PLANTS 139 

such an anomaly as this, unless there were very decided evidence 
in its favour." 

As regards the first point, I think S. spatliulcBfolius (at least 
as far as the Holyhead and Westmoreland plants are concerned) 
may be best distinguished by being a larger plant in all respects 
(though I admit size alone is a poor character), having a more 
arachnoid appearance {campestris is sometimes nearly glabrous), 
shorter pappus, and especially by its larger number of heads and 
the shape of its leaves. These have on the stem peculiar broad- 
based petioles, whilst the root-leaves are often long-petioled 
(longer than the blade), with their base much more truncate than 
in cainjjestris. As to the second point, it may be noted that 
recent French botanists (Coste, Eouy, &c.) admit the two plants 
as inhabitants of their country, although apparently cavipestris 
is decidedly the scarcer. 

The two plants would bear further investigation, and it is 
worth noting that Hooker (Stud. Fl. 1884, p. 220) considers our 
larger plant to be S. campestris DC. var. maritima Syme (S. 
spathulafolius Bab. non DC). Syme (Eng. Bot. ed. 3, v. p. 90, 
1866) divided S. campestris as follows : — " a. genuina. Kadical 
leaves entire or slightly toothed. Stem 3 inches to 1 foot high. 
fi. maritima. Eadical leaves generally with numerous broad teeth. 
Stem 1 foot high. Anthodes more numerous and larger than 
in var. a." But he goes on to say, "Of var. (i I have seen no 
specimens." 

Eosettes gathered in 1911, which flowered in 1913, promise to 
flower again this season, although some have died; Mr. Williams 
(Prod. Fl. Brit. i. 1901, 40) says "biennis"; most Continental 
floras give it a perennial habit. It may really be a biennial, whilst 
individuals in exceptional circumstances remain on and flourish 
for two or three more seasons. 

Owing to an error as regards county in Babington's ac- 
count of this plant in Journ. Bot. 1882, p. 35, Yorkshire has been 
credited with possessing the locality instead of Westmoreland, 
and this has not, I believe, been corrected until the present 
note. 

Hieracium anglicum Fr. and var. hrigantum F. J. H. Lime- 
stone hills above Brough, W., 1911. The latter plant was ob- 
served in 1892, and reported under another name in Journ. Bot. 
1893, p. 219, which thus needs correcting. 

'■■H. lasioplmjllum Koch. Falcon Glints, D., 1892. Determined 
by A. Ley. 

H. stenolepis Lindeb. var. suh-hritannicum Ley. Limestone 
scars E. of Ingleborough Cave, v.-c. 64. 

H. sylvaticum Gouan var. ■•'tricolor W. E. L. Limestone 
ridges above Brough, W., 1892. 

Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. Limestone near Etters- 
gill Beck, D., 1911. 

T. p)ahistre DC. var. ■■'•runcinato-hastatttvi Lamotte (E. & F.). 
Above High Force Hotel towards Ettersgill Common, D., 1911 
{fide J. W. White & G. Bucknall). 

M 2 



140 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Camixmula latifolia L. Field-sides N. E. of Brough, W., 
1911. Clapham, v.-e. 64. 

Gentiana campestris L. By the Tees between Winch and 
Shepherd's Bridges, v.-e. 65, 1911. 

Symphytum tuberosum L. Near High Force, D., 1911. 
" Kecorded from near Durham on the authority of E. Eobson, 
but has not been seen recently." Baker & Tate, Fl. Northumb. 
and Durham, p. 230, 1868. 

Myosotis alpestris Schm. Seen in three localities in 1892, 
two in Westmoreland, one in v.-c. 65 : no doubt these are the 
stations recorded by James Backhouse in Nat. 1884, p. 12. It 
seems most scarce in its Yorkshire home, where, in 1911, only 
two or three blossoms were seen. It is evidently considerably 
affected by drought, as one of the Westmoreland localities, 
literally blue with thousands of flowers in 1892, was not nearly 
such a striking sight in the hot summer of 1911. 

■■'Eu2Jhrasia Kerneri Wettst. Near scars E. of Ingleborough 
Cave, v.-c. 64. 

*BhinantJnis stenophyllus Schur. Near Eibblehead, v.-c. 64. 

Melampyrum pratense L. var. ■'ericetorum Oliver. Stank 
Wood, near Appleby, W., 1911. Hills near Farther Eome, 
Giggleswick, v.-c. 64. Although the habit, shape of leaves, &c., 
seemed to bring the plants from both these localities under 
the montanum of Johnston, the toothed bracts seemed to oppose 
such a determination. This conclusion brought about a closer 
examination of more material and a comparison with the original 
descriptions of Johnston's M. montamim in his Flora of Berwick- 
upon-Tiveed, 136 (1829), and D. Oliwex'^ M.pratense var. ericetorum 
in Phytol. iv. 678 (1852). A further note by the latter writer {op. 
cit. 1078, 1853) seemed very much to the point, for there he 
argues that Johnston did not examine a full enough series to 
justify his specific characters of montanum, and comes to the 
conclusion that this plant is really but a montane form of 
ericetorum. This would appear to be actually the case, and thus 
the plants could be, I consider, more naturally arranged as 
M. pratense L. var. ericetorum D. Oliver, to represent the more 
widely spread (I believe) variety, with a "forma montanum 
(Johnst.) " (under ericetorum) for those who wished to differentiate 
the smaller-flowered, more delicate, usually montane plant with 
entire bracts. 

Utricularia minor L. Cocket Moss, near Giggleswick, not 
flowering ; v.-c. 64. 

■■'Mentha rotundifolia Huds. Swindale Beck, Brough, W., 1911. 
Mr. Arthur Bennett tells me that the late Mr. Martindale found 
this in the county in 1907. 

Lamium hyhridum Vill. Koadside between Clapham and 
Station, v.-c. 64. 

Rumex domestictis Hartm, Between Eibblehead and Selside, 
v.-c, 64. 

Cephalanthera ensifolia Eich. Wooded slope, Swindale Beck, 
Brough, W., 1892. 



NOTES UPON TEESDALE PLANTS 



141 



Hahenaria chloroleuca Eidley. An interesting form of this 
occurs near High Force, with spike and individual blossoms of 
the size of bifolia, but the structure of the flowers seems entirely 
that of chloroleuca. 

Allium oleraceum L. var. complanatum (Bor.). Limestone 
W. of Selside, v.-c. 64. 

Scirjms setaceus L. Lane near Cocket Moss, near Giggleswick, 
v.-c. 64. 

Carex carta Good. yqx. fallax Asch. & Graeb. Mickle Fell, at 
about 2400 ft., v.-c. 65, 1911. 

C. ornithopoda Willd. Limestone hills above Brough, W., 1892. 

C.fulva Host. East side of Ingleborough, v.-c. 64. 

C. flava L. By the Tees near Winch Bridge, D., 1911.— Var. 
UindocariM (Tausch.). Near Malham Tarn, v.-c. 64. 

C. CEderi Retz. var. adocarpa And. By the Tees near Winch 
Bridge, D., 1911. 

Avena lyratensis L. var. longifolia (Parn.). Near Winch 
Bridge, D., 1911. 

■■'Glyceria declinata Breb. Near the Ettersgill Beck, High 
Force, D., 1911. Lane near Cocket Moss, near Giggleswick, 
v.-c. 64. 

Woodsia ihensis Br. Seen in 1892, although as far back as 
1868 it was reported as " now nearly or quite extinct." 

Cystoptcris alpina Desv. Seen on both visits, but in 1911 it 
was much cropped by sheep and no perfect fronds were noted. 

'■■'Polysticum Lonchitis Roth. In 1892 one plant was seen on 
the Yorkshire side of Teesdale ; in 1911 two or three examples in 
Durham territory. In Baker & Tate's Fl. of Northumb. and 
Durham (1868), it remarks — "Now nearly or quite extinct." 
Seemingly not on record for v.-c. 65. 

P. aculeatitm Roth. var. lobatum (Presl.). Forest-in-Teesdale, 
D., 1911. Swindale Beck, above Brough, W., 1911. 

BotrycJiium Lunaria Sw. Forest-in-Teesdale, D., 1911. 

Equisetum sylvaticum L. Roadside near Rome, Giggleswick, 
abundant, v.-c. 64. 

E. palustre L. An interesting form of this with branches 
peculiarly "flattened" (as though pressed) and prostrate, occurred 
at a considerable height on Mickle Fell, v.-c. 65, 1911. Mr. 
Arthur Bennett agrees with me in thinking it must come very 
near var. prostratum Hoppe, but we have not seen any authentic 
material for comparison. 

E. hyemale L. Swindale Beck, Brough, W., 1892 and 1911. 

Chara fragilis Desv. var. ^barhata Gant. Pond near Brough 
on the Middleton Road, W., 1892. — Var, '''delicatula Braun. 
Malham Tarn, v.-c. 64. 

C. contraria Kuetz. Malham Tarn, v.-c. 64. 

C. vulgaris L. A small form with many uncoated segments 
occurred in a stream between Langdon and Widdy Bank Fell, D., 
1892, and a form with prominent secondary cortical cells grew in 
a pool near Swindale Beck above Brough, W., 1911. 

Nitella opaca Agardh. Pool near Winch Bridge, v,-c. 65, 1892. 



142 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

NOTES ON JAMAICAN SPECIES OF CAPPARIS. 
By William Fawcett, B.Sc, F.L.S., & A. B. Rendle, F.R.S. 

(1) Gapparis cynophallophora L. Sp. PL 504 is based on the plant 
Capiparis, no. 2, of Hortus Cliffortiamis, 204 ; Linnaeus merely 
repeats the diagnosis from the earlier work. The full description 
given in Hortus Cliffortianus points unmistakably to the species 
usually known as C. jamaicensis Jacq. ; Linnaeus cites Pluk. Aim. 
126, t. 172, f. 4, as a synonym, but states that the figure differs 
from his own plant, and omits this reference in the Species 
Plantarum. A dried specimen from the Hortus Cliffortianus in 
the National Herbarium is without doubt Capparis, no. 2, of 
Hortus Cliffortianus, as indicated by R. Brown's MS. note on the 
sheet. Further confirmation is found in the Linnean Herbarium, 
where there is a specimen of C. jamaicensis Jacq. named, in the 
handwriting of Linnaeus, C. cynophallophora. In the Systema, 
ed. 10, 1071 (1759) Linnaeus enlarges the diagnosis and cites 
references from Plumier(Ic. 73, f. 1) and Browne (Jam. t. 27, f. 1), 
and in the second edition of the Species Plantarum (p. 721), which 
has been mostly used by the older botanists as the starting-point 
for Linnean names, gives additional synonyms from Plukenet and 
Sloane, which, with the citation from Plumier, refer to another 
species, the one known generally as C. cynophallophora, not to 
C. jamaicensis Jacq. The quotation " Brown. Jam. 246, t. 27, 
f. 1 " {Breynia, no. 1. Fruticosa, &c.), is somewhat doubtful, but 
the drawing of the calyx in the plate w'ould point perhaps rather 
to C. jamaicensis Jacq. than to the other species. In his own 
copy of Browne's Natural History of Jamaica Linnteus has 
written Capparis cynophallophora against Breynia, no. 1., but 
there is no specimen from Browne in the Linnean Herbarium. 
The plant of Plumier, Plukenet, and Sloane is identical with 
Linnasus's C. fiexuosa described on the next page (Sp. PI. ed. 2, 
722), and based on Morisonia fiexuosa Amoen. Acad. v. 398. It 
is founded on a Jamaican specimen from Patrick Browne which 
is named "fiexuosa" in Linnaeus's hand in the Linnean Herbarium. 

Under C. siliquosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 1071, are cited two refer- 
ences— " Brown. Jam. 246, n. 2," and "Pluk. Phyt. t. 327, f. 6." 
In his copy of Browne's Natural History of Jamaica, Linnjeus 
has written " Capparis siliquosa" against the species in question, 
Breynia, no. 2. The original of Plukenet's plate is in herb. Sloane, 
and is C. loncjifolia Sw., apparently a distinct species, but flowers 
are unknown. In Species Plantarum, ed. 2, 721, Linnaeus doubt- 
fully includes the reference to Plukenet, and adds the remark, 
"Simillima praecedenti " (i.e. cynophallophora). In the Linnean 
herbarium there is, mounted on the same sheet with a specimen 
of G. cynophallophora, another specimen named by Linnaeus 
G. siliquosa, which is only a form of G. cynophallophora L., 
and supports the view that G. siliquosa is conspecific with 
G. cynophallophora. 

(2) G. baducca L., which follows cynophallophora in the Species 



NOTES ON JAMAICAN SPECIES OF CAPPARIS 143 

Plantar urn, ed. 1, is similarly based on a reference to Hortus 
Glijfortianus, namely, Ca2)imris, no. 3, p. 204 ; and the expression 
"foiiis . . . perspatia confertis" clearly indicates C.frondosa Jacq. 
(Enum. PL Carib. 24), the name generally borne by this plant. 
The Asiatic plant referred to in Hortus Cliffortiamis as ft, 
from which Linnaeus took the trivial name, is another species, 
but Linnffius incorporated this and the references under it as 
synonyms of G. haducca in the first edition of the Species Plan- 
tarum, and in the second edition added synonyms from Plumier & 
Browne, which again are different species. 

(3) Breynia indica L. Sp. PI. 503 is renamed Gapparis Breynia 
in the Sy sterna (ed. 10, 1759) and in the second edition of the Species 
Plantarum, but according to the rules of nomenclature, the original 
trivial name must be restored, and the species must be cited as 
Gapparis indica. 

(4) G. ferruginea L. Syst. ed. 10, 1071. Linnseus's diagnosis is 
probably based on Browne's specimen, which in his own herbarium 
is named " ferruginea " in Solander's hand. He cites Brown. 
Jam. t. 27, f. 2, which in the second edition of Browne's work (in 
which names have been added on the plates) is rightly named 
Ganella alba, and there is a sheet of this species from Browne in 
the Linnean herbarium, which Linnseus has erroneously referred 
to "Baducca" (c/. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 720). In Amcenitates, v. 398, 
Linnaeus gives a fuller description of C. ferruginea, and in Species 
Plantarum, ed. 2, 721, 2, omits reference to Browne, t. 27, f. 2, 
but cites as a synonym " Crataeva fruticosa, &c.. Brown. Jam. 247, 
t. 28, f. 1," which is undoubtedly the true G. ferruginea, and is 
thus named in Browne's second edition. In the text of his work 
Browne appends his tab. 27, fig. 2, to the description of "Breynia 
(3). Fruticosa, &c.," which is doubtless the same as " Crataeva (3). 
Fruticosa, &c., t. 28, f. 1," and bears the same common name, 
" Mustard Shrub with a willow leaf" ; it is therefore a synonym 
of G. ferruginea, and in his copy of Browne's work Linn»us 
has written the name Gapparis ferruginea against both these 
descriptions. 

The names to be adopted for the Jamaican species and the 
synonymy are as follow: — 
1. C. CYNOPHALLOPHOEA L. Sp. PI. 504 (1753), Hort. CHff. 

204 (1737), Syst. ed. 10, 1071 (1759) (excl. syn. Plum.), 

and Sp. PL ed. 2, 721 (1762) (excl. syn. Plum., Pluk. & 

Sloan.). 
G. siliquosa L. Syst. ed. 10, 1071 (1759) (excl. syn. Pluk.). 
C. jamaicensis Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 23 (1760), Sel. Stirp. 

Amer. 160, t. 101, and Ed. Pict. 78, t. 150. 
C. torulosa Sw. Prodr. 81 (1788), and Fl. Ind. Occ. 932. 
G. Breynia Sw. Obs. 210 (1791) (non L. nee Jacq.). 
C. emarginata A. Eich. in Sagra Cub. x. 28, t. 9 (1845). 
Breynia 1. Fruticosa, foiiis ohlongis obtusis. Tab. 27, f. 1. 

Browne Hist. Jam. 246 (1756) (excl. syn.). 
Breynia 2. Arborescens, foiiis ovatis utrinque acuminatis, 

siliqua torosa longissima, Browne loc. cit. (excl. syn.). 



144 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

2. C. iNDicA comb. nov. 

C. Breynia L. Syst. eel. 10, 1071 (1759) (non Sw.). 

C. anygdalifolia Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 24 (1760). 

G. amyadalina Lam. Bncyc. i. 608 (1785). 

Breynfa inclica L. Sp. PI. 503 (1753). 

Ceratonia affinis arbor siliquosa d'c., Sloane Cat. 153 (1696), 

and Hist. ii. 60. 
Salix arbor folliculifera, &c., Pluk. Aim. 328, t. 221, f. 1 

(1696). 
Breynia amygdali foliis latioribus Plum. Nov. PI. Amer. Gen. 

40 (1703). 
Breynia elceacjni foliis Plum. loc. cit. t. 16. 

3. C. LONGiFOLiA Sw. Procli". 81 (1788), and Fl. Ind. Occ. 934. 

Salix folliculifera longissimis argenteis ct acutis foliis Pluk. 
Aim. 328, t. 327, f. 6 (1696). 

4. C. FEKRUGiNEA L. Syst. ed. 10, 1071 (1759) (excl. ref. to Browne), 

Amcen. v. 398, and Sp. Pi. ed. 2, 721. 
C. elaagnifolia Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 23 (1760). 
C. octandra Jacq. Sel. Stirp. Amer. 160, t. 100 (1763), and Ed. 

Pict. t. 149. 
Breynia 3. Fruticosa, foliis singularibus, oblongo-ovatis,superne 

nitidis, siliquis minoribus teretibus cequalibus (excl. tab. 27, 

fig. 2), Browne Hist. Jam. 246 (1756). 
Crateva 3. Fruticosa ; foliis singularibus obhngis utrinqtte 

acutis, subtus quasi villosis ; floribus octandris, racemis 

comosis alaribus. Tab. 28, f. 1. Browne op. cit. 247. 

5. C. BADuccA L. Sp. PI. 504 (1753). 

C.frondosa Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 24 (1760), Sel. Stirp. Amer. 
162, t. 104, and Ed. Pict. t. 153. 

6. C. FLExuosA L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 722 (1762). 

C. cynopliallopJwra L. Syst. ed. 10, 1071 (1759) (with ref. to 
Plumier), and Sp. PI. ed. 2, 721 (in part) (non Sp. PI. 504). 

Morisonia flexuosa L. Amoen. v. 398 (1760). 

Acaciis affinis arbor siliquosa &c., Sloane Cat. 153 (1696), and 
Hist. ii. 59. 

Cap)paris arborescens lauri foliis fructu longissimo Plum. Cat. 
7, PI. Amer. (Burm.), t. 73, f. 1, and Ic. ined. ii. 36. 

Cynophallophorus, &c., Pluk. Aim. 126, t. 172, f. 4. 



SOME HEPATIC^ FROM THE ISLE OF MAN. 

By J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. 

The object of this communication is to draw the attention of 
those who enjoy facihties for a study of the Hepaticae of the Isle 
of Man to the circumstance that, so far as I am aware, little or 
nothing has yet been done towards recording the species that 
occur in the island. The subjoined list makes no pretence to be 
other than a very small contribution to the subject ; the plants 



SOME HEPATIC^ FROM THE ISLE OF MAN 145 

were all collected during a short visit in April, 1914, to the Marine 
Biological Station at Port Erin, followed by a two days' walk 
through the more hilly part of the island. It seems, however, to 
be worth while to publish this note, in order that others may, 
perhaps, be induced to extend the list, and to deal with the 
problems presented by the distribution of the plants within the 
Manx area. More extended search will unquestionably result in 
the recognition of many other indigenous species and genera. 

Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dum., common. 

Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum., Port Erin. 

Aneura multifida (L.) Dum., rather common. — A. sinuata 
(Dicks.) Dum., near Port Erin. — A. ijinguis (L.) Dum., rather 
common. 

Metzgeria furcata (L.) Dum., Colby Glen; Chasms, Port Erin. 

Pellia einpkylla (L.) Corda, very common. 

Alicularia scalaris (Schrad.) Corda, many forms of this vari- 
able species. 

Eucahjx subellipticus (Lindb.) Breidl., wet rocks in Sulby 
Glen. 

Aplozia crenulata var. gracillima (Sm.) Heeg., Laxy Glen. 

Gymnocolea inflata (Huds.) Dum., roadsides through heather 
moors. 

Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum., Fleshwick Bay, 

Lophocolea cuspidata Limpr., woods and banks. — L. hetero- 
pliylla (Schrad.) Dum., woods and copses. 

Ghiloscyphus polyanthus (L.) Corda, below wet rocks behind 
Eleshwick Bay. 

Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dum., common. 

Galypogeia Trichomanis (L.) Corda, common on the moors. 

Dip)lophyllum albicans (L.) Dum., common. 

ScajJania nemorosa (L.) Dum., Sulby Glen. — S. imdulata (L.) 
Dum., Sulby Glen, &c. 

Lejeimia cavifolia (Ehr.) Lindb., rocks near Port Erin. — L, 
cavifolia var. planiuscula Lindb., Colby Glen. 

Fmllania dilatata (L.) Dum., common on tree-trunks in 
damp copses and woods. — F. Tamarisci (L.) Dum., amongst moss, 
not uncommon. 

Anthoceros Icevis L., Sulby Glen. 

It will be noticed that several genera which might have been 
expected to furnish species to be included in the above list are 
conspicuous by their absence from it. Thus Lepidozia, Lophozia, 
Fossomb)Wiia, Madothcca, Badula — to mention only a few of the 
more prominent ones — were not encountered, although it seems 
hardly likely that they are really unrepresented. In any event the 
geological and general physical character of the island, as well as 
its geographical position, should serve to render the study of its 
hepatic flora both attractive and interesting. 



146 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ALABASTEA DIVEESA.— Part XXIV.- 
By Spencer le M. Moore, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 98.) 
II. Rhamphogyne, Asteroidearum gen. nov. (Plate 530b.) 

Capitula heterogama, disciformia, paucii3osculosa, flosculis ext. 
5 int. (? . Involucrum ovoideum e phyllis paucis sub-2-seriatis 
membranaceis sistens. Eeceptaculum parvum, planum, nudum. 
Corollae parvulae, oblongae, fll. fem. 3-dentatse, fll. hermaph. 
3-4-dentat8e. Antherae 3-4, apice baud appendiculatiie, basi 
rotundatse, oblongo-ovoidete, cite sejunctae. Ovarium superne in 
rostrum deflectum excurrens. Styli til. bermaph. rami breves, 
complanati, appendicibus papillosis sibi ipsis fere ajquilongis 
onusti. Acba3nia compressa, calva, longe rostrata. — Herba 
perennis, nana, caespitosa, ramosa. Folia alterna, imbricata, 
pinnatifida vel Integra. Capitula parva, ad apicem ramorum 
solitaria necnon sessilia. 

Ehamphogyne rhynchocarpa, sp. unica. Ahrotanella rhyncho- 
carpa Balf. fil. in Phil. Trans. E. Soc. clxviii. 352, tab. 27 a. 

Hab. Eodriguez Island ; Dr. J. B. Balfour. 

The genus Ahrotanella being essentially Antarctic, the alleged 
occurrence of a species in the Island of Eodriguez seemed to be 
a point worthy of examination. The figure cited above, very good 
except for a most important omission, represents a plant that 
might pass muster as a somewhat abnormal member of the genus 
to which it is referred. The style-arms, however, of the herma- 
phrodite florets with their papillose appendages are not those 
characteristic of the tribe Anthemidece. By some oversight these 
have been omitted from the drawing, the only style-arms shown 
being those of a female floret, although the style of the herma- 
phrodite florets is said in the description {I. c.) to be " alte bifido, 
ramis ciliatis." In fact, this plant undoubtedly belongs to the 
Asteroidecs, and should find a place in the neighbourhood of 
Dichrocephala. The most peculiar feature about it is the curious 
beaked ovary and achene. 

^ III. Decadia Lour. >, 

The characters Loureiro f gives for this genus are succinctly as 
follow. A persistent 3-leaved calyx ; corolla of ten petals; stamens 
about 30, adnate to the base of the petals ; superior ovary with 
a filiform style and somewhat fleshy stigma ; fruit a 3-celled 
drupe. The plant he calls Decadia aluminosa, but assigns no 
place to it among Dicotyledones. Blume \ suppressed Decadia in 
favour of Dicalyx, also a genus of Loureiro's, but printed near the 
end of the work already cited and a good way after Decadia. 
This is rather curious in view of the discrepancies in the two 

* The types of the species described are in the National Herbarium, 
t Fl. Cochinch. 315 (1790). | Bijdr. 1116 (1826). 



DECADIA 147 

descriptions drawn up by Loureiro ; moreover, as will be seen 
directly, Blume could not have examined the type of Dccadia 
aluminosa, although he claims that name as a synonym for his 
Dicalyx aluminosus. Wight and Arnott "■' remark about Loureiro's 
plant tliat it "appears to be a species of Syviplocos." Meisner,! 
writing shortly afterwards, is in doubt about it, and places it with 
a note of interrogation in TiliacecB and in Terns trcemiacece as well 
as in Rosacea, finally following Wight and Arnott in thinking it 
a Syviplocos. Endlicher j: sinks Decadia in Symplocos, but with 
doubt, and the same conclusion is reached by De Candolle § on 
the authority of a specimen of ;S'. spicata in herb. Hamilton under 
the name of Decadia spicata. For Lindley |1 Decadia is synonymous 
with Syviplocos. Bentham and Hooker ^i are more cautious, and 
in the absence of material for examination consider the position 
of Decadia uncertain ; Baillon appears to have passed it by un- 
noticed; Gilg '■''■' follows Blume unhesitatingly. Brand in his 
monograph of Syviplocacea \\ makes Dicalyx aluviinosus Bl. a 
synonym of his Syviplocos aluvmiosa, but in doing this he expressly 
excludes Blume's synonym, i.e. Decadia aluviinosa Lour., neither 
can I find mention of the latter anywhere in the monograph in 
question. Moreover, under S. aluviinosa he remarks that Dicalyx 
aluviinosus has been indicated as equivalent to Syviplocos spicata 
Eoxb., but he cannot confirm this, as of the three Blume speci- 
mens named Dicalyx aluviinosus in the Leyden herbarium none is 
S. spicata, two being types of new species — S. aluviinosa Brand 
and S. syrincjoides Brand, while the third is *S. ferruginea Eoxb. 
The position to-day is therefore that Decadia is one of those 
puzzles only to be solved by examination of the types upon which 
they have been founded. 

The British Museum, as is well known, shares with Lisbon 
and Paris the distinction of possessing types of Loureiro's collect- 
ing, and among those at the first-named establishment is a sheet 
of specimens written up Decadia aluviinosa in Loureiro's own 
hand. There are no open flowers on these, but buds alone although 
in a fairly advanced state. Dissection shows Loureiro's diagnosis 
to be wrong in two vital particulars. The supposed 3-leaved calyx 
resolves itself into the bracts (or bract and two bracteoles) beneath 
the flower characteristic of the subgenus Hopea of Syviplocos, 
while the ovary, instead of being superior, is wholly inferior and 
not even half-superior, as is the case with some species of the 
genus. Loureiro's plant is therefore without the possibility of 
doubt a Syviplocos. 

As to the species — that is a more difficult matter. While it is 
certainly near S. spicata there are reasons for suspecting the 
conspeciticity of the two. It cannot be S. aluminosa, which is 



* Prodr. Flor. Ind. Or. 82 (1834). 

t Plant. Vase. Gen. 'n. passim (1836-43). 

X Gen. Plant. 1411 (1836-40). § Prod. viii. 240 (1844). 

II Veg. King. ed. ii. 593 (1847). •[ Gen. Plant, ii. 668 (1876). 

** Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. i. 168 (1891). 
tt Pflanzenreich, 6 Heft, iv. 242 (1901). 



148 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

described as having a paniculate inflorescence (the inflorescence 
of D. aluminosa, if branched at all, is branched only at the very 
bottom) ; moreover, the pedicels are said to equal or exceed the 
calyx in length (those of D. aluminosa are exceedingly short) and 
the stamens are about forty. S. fcrruginea with broader leaves 
has stout ferrugineous spikes (Z). aluminosa has them very slender) 
and larger flowers. The description of S. syringoides fits our 
plant well except for its young branches being alluded to as 
ferrugineous-tomentose, a condition impossible to affirm in the 
other's case, what indications of young branches there may be 
pointing to ordinary pubescence. On the whole, I think it likely 
that D. aluminosa may be S. syringoides, and as such it has been 
written up provisionally in the National Herbarium. ^ 

IV. DiCALYX COCHINCHINENSIS Lour." 

Brand places this at the end of his monograph t among the 
doubtful species with the note: " Sine dubio optima species, sed 
adhuc specimina non sunt nota." There is a sheet of this in the 
National Herbarium, and although, the flowers being in young 
bud, the specimens leave something to be desired, one can deter- 
mine the affinity of the species with but little doubt as to the 
validity of the conclusion reached. 

Of course the organs Loureiro describes as a 3-leaved outer 
calycine whorl are, as in the last case, three bracts. The rest of 
the characters, generic and specific, given in the description are 
in the main correct so far as the specimens enable one to tell, 
except that the flowers are said to be hermaphrodites and females 
on different plants ; so far as I have been able to study the 
matter, they seem to be either hermaphrodite or male, and so to 
answer the " polygamo-masculi " sexual character given by Brand 
as of occasional occurrence in the genus. Although, owing to the 
early state of the flowers, the androecium cannot be properly 
examined, there seems no reason to doubt that our plant is refer- 
able to § Bohua, The description is appended. 

Symplocos cochinchinensis, comb. nov. Eamuhs sat vah- 
dis ferrugineo-tomentosis celere glabris, foliis elongatis oblongo- 
obovatis basi in petiolum validum canaliculatum ferrugineo- 
tomentosum coartatis margine apicem versus serrulatis ceterum 
integris chartaceis supra glabris pallideque nitentibus subtus 
sparsim puberulis, paniculis axillaribus terminalibusve foliis bre- 
vioribus ferrugineo-tomentosis, floribus secus inflorescentiarum 
ramulos pseudospicatis, bracteis pedicellum brevissimum occlu- 
dentibus late ovatis obtusis vel obtusissimis extus ferrugineo- 
tomentosis, calycis segmentis oblongis obtusis extus sericeis, 
corollae segmentis oblongis obtusis extus sericeis, staminibus 
circiter 80 ?, ovario semi-infero 3 ?-loculo, bacca ampulliformi 
glabra in sicco rugosa brunnea. — Dicalyx cochinchinensis Lour. 

Folia pleraque 15-20 cm. long., 4-5-6 cm. lat., in sicco viridia 

* Fl. Cochinch. 663. t Op. cit. 90. 



DICALYX COCHINCHINENSIS 149 

vel plus minus rubiginosa ; petioli + 1 cm. long. Panicula circa 
5 cm. long. Bracteae 2-4 mm. long. Calyx 2 mm. long. Bacca 
sicca 6 mm. long., summum 4 mm. lat. 

Affinity with S. floridissima Brand ; differing from it, inter 
alia, in foliage, the densely tomentose panicles and nearly sessile 
flowers. 

V. AsCLEPlADACEiE DUJE AfRICAN^C PR^TERVIS^. 

Schizoglossum Eylesii, sp. nov. Caule ultrametrali simplici 
e radice tuberoso-fusiformi stricto inferne nudo alibi sat crebro 
folioso inferne tereti eximieque striate glabrescente superne sub- 
tiliter pubescente, foliis sessilibus brevissimeve petiolatis anguste 
linearibus acutis margine revolutis praesertim in pag. inf. costa 
centrali eminente subtiliter pubescentibus in sicco arrectis, um- 
bellis pluribus lateralibus sessilibus 5-6-fioris, bracteis parvulis 
linearibus extus pubescentibus scariosis diutule persistentibus, 
pedicellis floribus subaequilongis pubescentibus, calycis segmentis 
lanceolatis acutis corolla brevioribus, corollas alte partitas lobis 
oblongis obtusis dorso sparsim pubescentibus intusglabris, coronse 
phyllis aegre ex basi columnae stamineae certe brevioris oriundis 
scutiformibus apice rotundatis intus perspicue bicarinatis et 
paullulum infra apicem appendicem lanceolatam superne incurvam 
sibi ipsis pauUo breviorem gignentibus, antherarum alis promi- 
nentibus appendicibus ovatis supra stigma inflexis. 

Hab. Ehodesia, Mazoe, alt. 4800 ft. ; F. Eyles, 500. 

Eadicis pars tuberosa 4 cm. long., summum 1 cm. diam. Caulis 
circa 12 dm. alt., juxta basin 2-5 mm. diam. Folia inferiora 
+ 7"5 cm. long., 1-2 mm. lat. ; petioli dum adsint 1 mm. long. ; 
folia juniora gradatim imminuta, sc. usque ad 15 x "5 mm. vel 
etiam minus, omnia in sicco grisea. Bracteae circa 1"5 mm., 
pedicelli summum 5 mm. long. Calycis segmenta 2-2 mm. long. 
Corollas lobi 3 mm. long., 1 mm. lat. Coronas phylla 3 mm. long. ; 
pars basalis 1-75 x 1-25 mm. ; appendix 1-25 mm. long. Columna 
staminea 1*5 mm. long. Antherarum alas aegre 1 mm. long., 
appendices '8 mm. Pollinia anguste oblonga, "6 mm. long. ; 
glandula -25 mm., caudiculae -2 mm. long. 

This has much the appearance of S. strictissitmim S. Moore, 
but different flowers. Its place in the genus is next *S'. fusco- 
purpureum Schlechter & Eendle, which differs in habit, leaf, and 
corona. 

Fockea Monroi, sp. nov. Caule verisimiliter repente primo 
tereti subtiliter pubescente deinde angulato glabro, foliis oblongis 
vel anguste oblongo-lanceolatis apice obtusissimis ipso mucro- 
natis basi in petiolum brevem angustatis firme membranaceis 
leviter scabriusculis, cymis interpetiolaribus abbreviatis pauci- 
floris, bracteis rainutis ovatis acutis scariosis ut cymarum axis 
pedicelli calycis segmenta necnon corollas facies exterior pubes- 
centibus, pedicellis calyci aequilongis, calycis segmentis triangu- 
laribus obtusis vel obtuse acutis, corollas tubo calyce breviore lobis 
a basi lata oblongis revolutis asstivatione tortis, corona circa 
15-fida dentibus subulatis interdum bifidis acuminatis dente inter- 



150 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

medio quam laterales majori tubo ligulis 5 elongatis integris vel 
bifidis fere usque ad apicem tubi eidem adnatis carinasque for- 
mantibus parte libera ex tubo longe eminente onusto addita ligula 
satis elongata etsi tubo inclusa integra vel bifida carinis quibusque 
memoratis infra medium tubi affixa basique integra vel dentata, 
antherarum appendicibus oblongis quam antherae circiter ter longi- 
oribus, folliculis fusiformibus glabris. 

Hab. Khodesia, Victoria ; Monro, 828, 837. 

Folia plerumque 4-7 cm. long., 8-10 mm. lat., in sicco viridia; 
costa media supra plana subtus eminens ; petioli 2-3 mm. long., 
supra excavati. Pedicelli 2-2-5 mm. long. Calycis segmenta 
2 mm. long. Corollae tubus 1 mm. long., lobi 15 mm. long., juxta 
basin 2 mm. lat., superne 1 mm. vel etiam minus. Coronae tubus 
segre 5 mm. long., hujus dentes 1-1-5 mm. long. ; ligulse 4 mm. 
long. ; ligulge inclusaB 2 mm. long. Columna staminea 1 mm. 
long. Antherarum alse -5 mm. long., appendices fere 2 mm. long. 
Pollinia pyriformia, -25 mm. long. Folliculus 12-5 cm. long., 
inferne fere 2 cm. superne circa 1 cm. lat. Semina 9 mm., coma 
3-5 cm. long. 

Differs from F. Lugardi N. E. Br., inter alia, in the small 
leaves, the distinctly pedicelled flowers, the longer segments of 
the calyx and the longer corona with different toothing. 

No. 942, of the same collector, also from Victoria, with closer 
and shorter branching, smaller leaves (2-3-5 cm. x 4-6 mm.), and 
somewhat reduced flowers, is a plant apparently conspecific with 
the above, but growing under different conditions. 

' VI. CoNYZA DECURRENS Linn. 

Under Monenteles Pterocaulon A. P. de Candolle " remarks : 
"An forte Gomjza decurrens Lin. sp. 1206 eadem aut affinis ? " 
This in spite of the fact that Linnaeus gives India as the locality 
of his species, whereas M. Pterocaulon was founded on a Mada- 
gascar plant of Bojer's collecting. LinnjBus's description (/. c.) 
is short and almost valueless for purposes of identification ; so 
that but for the fortunate circumstance of there being specimens 
of C. decurrens in the Linnean herbarium at Burlington House, 
no answer to de CandoUe's query would be possible. Examination 
with Dr. B. D. Jackson's kind help of the Linnean material showed 
C. decurrens to be conspecific with an unnamed Pterocaulon in 
the National Herbarium collected by Bojer : this latter is without 
locality, the only note accompanying the specimens being to the 
effect that its Madagascar name is " Ari-androo-vavi." 

It now became necessary to ascertain whether Bojer's speci- 
mens just mentioned were referable to Monenteles Pterocaulon DC. 
I therefore forwarded to M. Casimir de Candolle a small scrap, 
together with a photograph of the sheet of Bojer's specimens 
taken by Mr. D. A. Rendle, with a request to that gentleman that 
he would kindly compare this material with the type of M. Ptero- 



Prod. V. 455, 



A NEW BERTYA 151 

caulon in his herbarium. M. de Candolle was good enough to do 
this, with the result that he has no doubt about the correctness 
of his grandfather's surmise. Under these circumstances, M. 
Pterocaulon being unknown from India, one must conclude that 
Linnaeus was mistaken in supposing C. decurrens to be a native 
of that country. 

The plant appears to have become established in Mauritius, 
and in connection with that fact has received the name of 
Pterocaulon Bojeri Baker.''' The synonymy therefore stands as 
follows : — 
Pterocaulon decurrens, comb. nov. '' 

Conyza decurrens Linn. Sp. PI. ed. ii. 1206 (1763). 

Monenteles Pterocaulon DC. Prod. v. 455 (1836). 

Pterocaulon Bojeri Baker Fl. Maur. 164 (1877). 

Besides Bojer's material, the species is represented in the 
National Herbarium by the following : — North-west Madagascar, 
Pasandava Bay ; Ilildehrandt, 3014. Central Madagascar ; P^ev. 
B. Baron, 1321. North Madagascar; ibid., 6461. 



Description of Pi,ate 530. 

A. Muschleria augolensis. 1. Open inflorescence. 2. Congested ditto. 
3. A floweiing capitulum, x 4. 4. A floret, x 5. 5. Anthers, x 10. 6. Ripe 
achene, x 16. 

B. Rhamplwgijne rhyncJiocarpa. Style-arms, x 16. 



A NEW BEETYA. 
By E. a. DiJMMER. 

While engaged on the Conifers of the Lindley Herbarium, 
Cambridge, my attention was drawn to a specimen included 
among the Podocarps of that collection, which was doubtfully 
referred to that genus by Lindley. This plant was collected by 
Eraser in the Barrens, north of Arbuthnot's Eange, in Australia, 
and turns out to be an undescribed species of Bertya, of the 
natural order Eujjhorbiacece, for which therefore the name B. 
neglecta is proposed. Bertya, a genus comprising approximately 
fourteen species, is limited to Australia and the adjacent island 
of Tasmania, and includes a series of shrubs, some of an ericoid 
aspect, of which B. gummifera merits cultural attention. 

The species under consideration, of which the female flowers 
are as yet unknown, has the superficies of B. rosmarinifolia, but 
is immediately distinguished from it by its more glabrescent 
character, the presence of minute spinules which clothe the twigs 
and the leaves, the relatively larger male flowers and the ten 
larger bracts which subtend them. 

Bertya neglecta, sp. nov. A bushy heath-like shrub. Cur- 
rent year's twigs subumbellately disposed, erect, straight and 



Fl. Maur. 164. 



152 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

rigid, usually unbranched, 4-12 in. long, terete or angulate towards 
their extremities, dull brown, spinulose and sparingly pilose, 
densely leafy. Leaves ascending and subimbricate, or eventually 
spreading, borne on broad flattened petioles scarcely exceeding 
■J-^ in. long, the blade linear, obtuse or truncate at both ends, 
i~l in. long, averaging J^ in. in breadth, thickly coriaceous, 
minutely and sparingly spinulose, the upper surface with a median 
groove, decidedly convex on account of the revolute thickened and 
entire margins, the lower surface sparingly pilose and spinulose 
with a broadened and conspicuous midrib. Flowers solitary in the 
axils of the upper leaves, arranged racemosely, the inflorescences 
up to 2f in. long. Male flowers when unopened broadly ovoid, 
when mature cylindric and l-j% in. long, shortly pedicellate, sub- 
tended by ten imbricate persistent bracts, the lower six small 
oblong or triangular and thickened, the upper four thinner in 
texture and larger, ovate to oblong, rounded or subacute, and up 
to Jjj in. long ; anthers crowded and spinally arranged on a 
thickened ascending axis. 

Bertya neglecta, sp. nov. B. rosmarinifolicB Planchon affinis 
sed ramulis foliisque minute spinulosis glabrioribus, floribus $ 
majoribus, bracteis 10, difTert. 



A NEW ARCTOTIS. 
By R. A. DiJMMER. 



Arctotis Scullyi, sp. nov. Fruticosa, sparsim ramosa, ramis 
validis dein breviter subhispidulis, foliis sessilibus planis lanceo- 
latis vel lineari-oblongis acutis nisi acuminatis integris vel rari- 
dentatis lobatisve crasse coriaceis utrinque (ut scapus) arete 
subhispidulo-pubescentibus, scapo terminali monocephalo, in- 
volucri phyllis exterioribus parvis triangularibus caudato- 
acuminatis interioribus multo majoribus oblongis obtusis cite 
glabris. 

A shrubby plant of unrecorded height, sHghtly hispid all 
over and with stout angled sordid brown scabrous shortly 
harsh-haired current year's twigs, the internodes being i-l in. 
long. The leaves are ascending and often overlap, have a 
broad insertion but do not clasp the axis, are flat, lanceolate or 
linear oblong, acute or acuminate, usually broadest about or 
below the middle, 1^-2* in. long, i-^ in. broad, thickly leathery, 
and thickly clothed on both sides with a brownish or whitish 
short harsh pubescence, penninerved ; the margin is entire or 
possesses two obscure teeth or lobed about or above the middle. 
Scape terminal, short, 1-3 in. long, bearing one flower-head, terete, 
harsh-haired, nude or with a few small leaf-like bracts towards its 
base. Flower-head averaging 1| in. across, the lower involucral 
scales small, triangular and tipped with a hairy caudate acumen, 
the upper much larger, oblong, scarious, concave, obtuse or 
rounded at their apices, glabrous at maturity, up to ^^ in. long, 



SHORT NOTES 153 

and i-i in. broad. Eay-florets averaging 1 in. long, yV~to i'^- 
broad, probably whitish. 

Arctotis Scully i falls in the section Euarctotis, characterized 
by the tuft of hairs which arise from the base of the achene and 
surrounds the latter, and is probably most closely related to 
A. belUdifolia, from which, however, its sessile not basally clasp- 
ing leaves, their scabridity on both surfaces, and their different 
conformation differentiate it immediately. Its discovery is due to 
the efforts of Mr. W. C. Scully (no. 221; ex herb. Bolus, 9615), 
who, during a several years' sojourn in Little Namaqualand, 
collected numerous plants, many of which still await description. 
The region alluded to is one of the richest as regards annuals in 
South Africa, and includes in particular an abundance of Compo- 
sites, many of which are of singular beauty, and would assuredly 
repay the trouble of introduction. 



SHOBT NOTES. 

Leucojum vernum L. and Galium Vaillantii DC. in Somer- 
set. — For some years Miss M. A. Hellard has known the Spring 
Snowfiake in a locality between Bishop's Lydeard and Williton, 
v.-c. 5, where she kindly showed it to me in good flower towards 
the end of last February. Time did not allow me to make a 
thorough search ; but a friend who went down to see it, a few 
days later, found that it extended (by and near a brook) for almost 
a third of a mile. It has the appearance of a native ; but I am 
not yet sure about its true status. The Bedstraw, previously 
known in this county only as a casual at Twerton, near Bath, was 
plentiful in potato-fields, &c., near Ashcott Station, and also 
occurred near Shapwick Station, v.-c. 6, last September. — Edward 
S. Marshall. 

The Early Season. — On May 1st I gathered in a wheat-iaeld 
on stiff clay in the parish of Norton, Herts, flowering and fruiting 
specimens of the Corn Gromwell (LitJiospermum arvense) ten 
inches high, and with well -developed fruits. Some of the white 
blossoms had a slight pink tinge, whereas in the mountains on 
the Continent they are not infrequently pale blue. Hawthorn 
was in blossom by April 28th on Norton Common and elsewhere 
in the vicinity. — H. S. Thompson. 



REVIEWS. 

Researches on the Irritability of Plants. By Tajadis Chunder 
BosE, M.A., D.Sc. Longmans, Green & Co. 1913. 
In this publication Prof. Chunder Bose has added to his 
previous work in this important field of physiology a faithful 
account of a unique series of experiments, rendered possible by 
his own ingenious invention of recording apparatus. 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [June, 1914.] n 



154 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

The author states it to have been his aim to make the plant 
accurately self-recording and subject to automatic stimulus, so as 
to eliminate as far as possible the personal factor from the experi- 
ments. 

Only those with like aims can appreciate to the full the 
success that Prof. Chunder Bose has attained in this direction, 
but the veriest tyro must be struck with the beauty and pre- 
cision of his automatic inventions — the oscillating recorder and 
the resonant recorder. In both, friction between the writing 
point and the writing surface is overcome by intermittent contact ; 
in the former by vibration of the writing surface, in the latter by 
vibration of the writing point, The resonant recorder was invented 
to provide a means of recording minute time- measurements of 
hundredths of seconds. This can be done very accurately by 
means of the intermittent recorder, providing that the oscillation 
period remain constant. The author has very ingeniously made 
use of tlie principle of resonance and ensured regularity of contact 
by timing electro-magnetic impulses to synchronize with the 
natural frequency of the recording index. 

Prof. Chunder Bose has also used greatly improved methods 
of stimulation, capable of quantitative variation, and including 
various electric and electro-thermal methods of excitation. 

With these improved methods he has been able to analyze 
experimentally the phenomena of stimulus and response, as seen 
in the sensitive plants Mimosa, Biopliytum, &c. One of the most 
successful results thus obtained is the demonstration of a latent 
period strictly comparable to that shown by animal muscle under 
stimulation. 

The ordinary fall of Mimosa leaf under stimulation is accom- 
panied by development of a galvanometric negativity, but it is 
found that, when the stimulus is applied at some distance from 
the responding organ, a slight positive response appears before 
the much more marked negative one. The author claims that his 
experiments show that all stimulations are dual, but that unless 
separated by time of travel, the stronger masks the weaker 
effect. 

Prof. Chunder Bose's main thesis is that the plant exhibits 
true physiological phenomena of excitation, conduction and con- 
traction, and that there is the most striking parallelism between 
muscle action and plant movement. Thus the plant shows the 
additive effect of repetition of minute stimuli ; increase of response 
with increase of stimulus, and, most striking of all, a complete 
reversal of direction of movement after over-stimulation. The 
latter fatigue phenomenon strictly parallel with relaxation of 
muscle on over-stimulation. 

Our author, believing Pfeffer's results to have been incon- 
clusive, has paid particular attention to the question of the trans- 
mission of stimulus, and claims, and we think rightly, that the 
present more extensive experiments prove the co-operation of the 
living protoplasm in the process ; in short, that it is a physio- 
logical and not merely a physical conduction. 



AN ACCOUNT OP THE MORISONIAN HERBARIUM 155 

One cannot but wish that circumstances had allowed of the 
author discussing the results from the point of view of general 
plant physiology, as there are many interesting aspects which 
would bear comparison with other physiological processes, as, for 
instance, the accumulative effect of stimulation, also seen in 
geotropic movements ; the apparent presence of an optimum, &c. 

The author has noted a depression of excitability on rainy 
days, which he attributes to absorption of water by the pulvinus. 
One is not quite convinced that there may not be another inter- 
pretation of the results following upon application of water to the 
pulvinus, and still more so in connection with retardation of 
excitability on rainy days. 

Prof. Chunder Bose is much to be congratulated on furnishing 
such valuable additional data — data which must be taken into 
account in all future considerations of this difficult subject. They 
should prove of interest and value to animal as well as plant 
physiologists, and we can but hope that he will still further add 
to the debt we owe him by investigating the nature of the diffe- 
rential excitability to which he attributes the movement of the 
pulvinus. -^ -^ rp 

An Account of the Morisonian Herbarium in the possession of the 

University of Oxford, together ivith Biographical and Critical 

Sketches of Morison and the tioo Bobarts and their Works 

and the Early History of the Physic Garden (1619-1720). 

By S. H. Vines, M.A., F.E.S., Sherardian Professor of 

Botany in the University, and G. Claridge Druce, Hon. 

M.A., Curator of the Fielding Herbarium. 8vo, cloth, 

pp. Ixviii, 350, with portraits. Oxford : The Clarendon 

Press. Price 15s. net. 

This is a companion volume to the Account of the Dillenian 

Herbaria which was issued by the same Press in 1907, and was 

noticed in this Journal for that year (p. 282), and is yet another 

tribute to Mr. Druce's well-known energy ; for though Professor 

Vines, who in the earlier volume appeared as editor, is here placed 

as joint author, it may safely be assumed that the bulk of the 

undertaking has fallen to Mr. Druce's share. 

The book consists of two parts, the first containing the history 
of the Oxford Garden, with full biographies of the two Bobarts 
(1599 ?-1680 ; 1611-1719), whose names are so intimately asso- 
ciated with its foundation and history, and of Robert Morison 
(1620-1683), the first Professor in the University. These bio- 
graphies, each of which is accompanied by a portrait, are exceed- 
ingly well done; the history of the various publications of Morison 
and the younger Bobart is worked out in so much detail and 
with so great care that it can hardly be expected that future 
commentators will be able to supplement it. One small detail 
may, however, be added : the original figures in Morison's Plan- 
tariwi Historia were, according to Stokes (With. Arr. ed. 2, 1), 
" chiefly by Bobart," the editor of the book. It may be well to 
supply the reference to the " collection of British plants, made 



156 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

chiefly from Oxen, made by Plot and named by Bobart," which 
are indicated as " in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) " : these are 
in vol. 113 of the Sloane Herbarium ; other plants connected with 
Plot are in H. S. 168. 

The identification of the plants of the Morisonian Herbarium 
is preceded by an account of the Herbarium itself and a list of the 
collectors whose plants it contains. These largely correspond 
with the contributors to the Sloane Herbarium, formed somewhat 
later, an account of which it is known will be published by the 
Trustees of the British Museum, though not as immediately as 
was suggested by a note inserted in this Journal (1913, 316) 
during the absence of the Editor. The Herbarium consists of 
about 6,500 specimens, including many not named in the Historia 
but identified here ; we can well believe that their identification 
has been " a long and laborious task," even when alleviated by the 
expert assistance which the authors acknowledge. Whether it 
was worth all the trouble that has been expended upon it is, of 
course, a matter of opinion ; the authors point out that as the col- 
lection was not formed by Morison but was " organized by the 
younger Bobart," " it might be consequently inferred that none of 
the specimens illustrating [Morison's] volume can be regarded as 
' type-specimens ' ; but there can be no doubt that Bobart was 
quite familiar with Morison's species, sufficiently so as to render 
the specimens authoritative for reference." We ourselves do not 
think the identification of first importance, inasmuch as a cursory 
inspection of the detailed list shows that in many instances more 
than one plant is represented under the same name: thus " C. 
Madraspatensis panicula sparsa " is represented by two if not 
three species (p. 116), and a note on the following page on a 
specimen identified as " Juncoides niveum (L.) "'•' shows " a double 
error " of a complicated kind. There is, we cannot but think, 
considerable danger of basing too much upon the specimens and 
their identification : thus, without necessaril}- endorsing Dr. Eobin- 
son's conclusions as to the nomenclature of Oxalis corniculata — 
his paper is in Journ. Bot. 1906, not " 1907" — we do not consider 
that they are disposed of, as the authors (p. 13) seem to think, by 
the correction of one of the synonyms quoted by Linnaeus. A 
more thorough examination of the book would doubtless afi'ord 
further matter for remark, but the publishers by issuing the 
volume uncut have not rendered its contents readily consultable. 
There is an excellent index of plant-names, but none of the 
collectors cited nor of the English localities or counties in which 
British specimens were collected ; both of these would have been 
useful to those who consult the book, wdiich, whatever opinion 
may be formed as to its positive utility, must certainly take rank 
as a monument of industry. 



* This appears to be a new combination, as do " Juncoides sylvaticum 
(Huds.) " (p. 113), " Centauriiim spicatuni (Pers.) " (p. 57) and others similarly 
indicated ; these, we presume, will have to be cited as of " Vines & Druce." 



PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 157 



Plant Physiology. 



Vorlesungen ilher Pjianzen-physiolotjic. By Dr. Ludwig Jost. 
Third edition. Pp. 760 + 11 plates+ 188 figs. Jena: Gustav 
Fischer. 1913. Price 16 marks. 

Plant Plujsioloijij. By Dr. Ludwig Jost. Supplement to the 
English Translation by E. J. Harvey Gibson. Pp. 168 + 
7 figs. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 1913. Price 
2s. &d. net. 

The third edition of Prof. Jost's well-known work on Plant 
Physiology is very welcome to botanists. Immediately on its 
first appearance in 1904 it was recognised as the best general 
survey of the subject within the moderate compass of a single 
volume. Of course, the work did not compete at the time with 
the fuller treatise of Pfeffer, though it was certainly far more 
readable. However, the last part of Pfeffer's work was pub- 
lished in 1904, while Jost's book has been kept steadily up to 
date and so is now indispensable as a presentation of the physio- 
logical work of recent years. The new edition is well up to the 
standard of the two earlier ones, for the very voluminous litera- 
ture of the last few years has been, in the main, admirably dealt 
with. One finds an adequate account, within the space available, 
of most important recent investigations, such as that of Willstatter 
on the chemistry of chlorophyll, the new work on the nature of 
the respiratory process by Palladin and others, investigations on 
the permeability of protoplasm, &c. The illuminating results of 
various workers in the United States on the wilting coefficient 
are, however, not adequately treated by the statement that two 
workers have confirmed in the case of wheat Sachs's results with 
tobacco. Sachs was certainly a pioneer in this work, but he touched 
only the fringe of the subject, and his results should certainly 
give place to those of recent workers. x\gain, in discussing the 
question of the control of transpiration by stomatal movement, 
fuller reference should have been made to the recent work of 
Lloyd and Francis Darwin. Such small irregularities of treat- 
ment are inevitable in a work of this scope ; the wonder is that 
the general level is so high, since the labour of compilation must 
have been very heavy. The bibliographical references, instead 
of following each chapter as in previous additions, are now 
distributed as footnotes in the text ; this is a great improve- 
ment. 

The second book is a supplement to the English translation of 
Jost's work. That it should come for review at the same time as 
the third German edition does little credit to the Clarendon Press. 
The English edition was a translation of the first German edition, 
and appeared in 1907, in the same year as the second German 
edition. There were a number of mistakes in the English edition, 
and it was, of course, partly out of date very shortly after its 
appearance. It has taken six years to rectify the mistakes and 
bring the English edition up to the level of the second German 



158 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

edition by means of this supplement which incorporates the 
alterations in that edition. As a result of this long delay, which 
seems inexcusable, the supplement appears at the same time as a 
new German edition, and the English rendering again falls behind. 
Apart from its being already out of date, the supplement is very 
troublesome to use, as it has to be compared page by page with 
the English edition. Nothing less than an early translation of 
the third German edition will now be satisfactory to botanists, 
nor, we may add, consonant with the dignity and reputation of 
the Oxford Press. ,, -tt r, 

V. xi. a. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc 



The "Report for 1913" of "The Botanical Exchange Club 
and Society of the British Isles" becomes yearly less and less 
obviously connected with the Club and more and more a medium 
for the expression of the views of Mr. Druce, the Secretary, upon 
various botanical matters and above all for the publication of the 
" comb.-nov." of which he is so expert — we had almost said so 
unscrupulous — a manufacturer : the stronger expression was sug- 
gested by finding (p. 314) three new names suggested for the same 
plant ! We have more than once expressed an opinion, which we 
know is widely if not universally shared, as to the unfortunate 
obsession which can regard work of this kind as in any way 
tending to the advance of science, and it seems useless to protest 
further against Mr. Druce's action. Suffice it to say that in the 
present "Report" he seems to have surpassed himself, and the 
proposed recognition of John Hill's accidental binominals has 
afforded him a new opportunity for the display of his powers in 
this direction. The " Report " has not reached us for notice, so 
we are excused from saying anything more about it. It is note- 
worthy that Mr. Druce says that his opinion "in no way assumes 
to carry with it the authority of the Club." 

From a printed circular which, though headed " private and 
confidential," is sent out with the " Report," we learn that 
Mr. Druce is " anxious to raise a sum of £200 in order to be able 
to publish a history of the London Botanical Society, to reprint a 
few of the earlier Reports of the Club, to publish a general Index 
to the whole of the Reports, to put the Society in a more satis- 
factory financial position." As to the first object, assuming that 
by " the London Botanical Society " the Botanical Society of 
London is intended, we are glad that Mr. Druce proposes to act 
on the suggestion made in this Journal for 1911, p. 352 ; " no 
one," as we then remarked, "could do it better." The others seem 
to us of more doubtful utility : the last we do not understand — 
"the Society " cannot be that previously mentioned in the same 
sentence: does it refer to the "Society of the British Isles," 
which sprang into existence as a nomcn nudum on the titlepage of 
the Exchange Club Report for 1910 (see Journ. Bot. 1911, 325), 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 159 

and has, so far as we know, never received the diagnostic character 
necessary to recognition ? 

The Annals of the Bolus Herbarium is a new periodical, of 
which two parts (price 5s. net each) will appear each year. It is 
a small quarto, edited by Dr. Pearson, the Professor of Botany of 
the South African College, Capetown, in connection with which it 
is issued : the present number contains forty-four well-printed 
pages and six plates executed by some not very pleasing pro- 
cess : the figures themselves however are informative and useful. 
A portrait of Dr. Bolus appears as frontispiece : the papers 
are on the Flora of the Great Karasberg, with an introduction 
by Dr. Pearson and a list of the plants collected by F. and 
L. Bolus and M. W. Glover, to which the plates relate ; a 
description of a new genus of Iridcce (Pillansia) by F. Bolus, 
which is not figured ; a Key to the Spermaphyta of the Cape 
Peninsula ; and a review of Dr. Moss's Vegetation of the Peak 
District, which doubtless " contains much that should be of 
interest to students of the vegetation of S. Africa," but seems 
somewhat out of place here. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society on March 5th, a paper 
was read by Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton, entitled " Short Cuts by 
Birds to Nectaries," illustrated by lantern-slides from photo- 
graphs and drawings made by the author during his travels in 
Africa. He stated that birds were watched visiting flowers, and 
flowers were examined for indirect evidence. Not only sunbirds 
(which indeed are often great evaders of pollen), but many other 
birds as well, visited certain flowers freely for their honey, and 
were probably of use to them for cross-fertilization. Certain 
birds, and some individuals more than others, apparently disliked 
being besprinkled with pollen, and tended always to enter flowers 
by breaches made by themselves or their predecessors. Other 
birds tried, contrariwise, to enter the flowers by their natural 
openings and so to be of use to them for cross-fertilization, 
excepting in the case of individual flowers that happened, through 
inconvenience in their own or the bird's position, &c., to ofl'er 
some difficulty. If these were insufiiciently protected as well, 
they were often either pierced or the openings already made in 
them by the more indiscriminating birds were utilized. Insects 
also tended to utilize the breaches made by birds, and so probably 
in large part failed to counteract the latter's discriminative 
influence. In most cases the eliminative effect, if any, of the 
damage was not traced. In two instances it was (for individuals) 
immediate and clear, flowers of a certain type being bodily 
removed. 

At the meeting of the same Society on April 2nd, Mr. 
E. Allen Kolfe, A.L.S., exhibited a series of coloured drawings of 
five hybrid Ophryses, raised by M. Fernand Denis, Balaruc-les- 
Bains, France, from Ophrys tenthredinifera, Willd., crossed with 
the pollen of 0. aranifera Huds. ; together with the two parents. 
This is believed to be the first hybrid Ophrys raised artificially, 



IGO THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

and it proves the origin of a natural hybrid that has been recorded 
from three locahties in Italy, and is known under the names of 
0. Grampinii Cortesi, and 0. etrusca Asch. & Grabn. The 
hybrids varied somewhat between themselves, but all showed an 
unmistakable combination of the characters of the two parents, 
particularly in the colour and markings of the lip, and in the 
peculiar combination of rose and green in the sepals and petals. 
M. Denis has a batch of some forty seedlings in flower or bud. At 
least eighteen natural hybrid Ophryses have been recorded, and 
Mr. Eolfe believed there were others. He would be greatly 
obliged to anyone who would send him examples at the Kew 
Herbarium, as he is studying them. 

i\.T the meeting of the same Society on May 7th, Mr. H. N. 
Eidley gave an account of "The Botany of the Utakwa Expedi- 
tion, Dutch New Guinea," which had been worked up by various 
botanists. He stated that the extensive collection of plants made 
by Mr. C. B. Kloss during Mr. Wollaston's expedition to Mount 
Carstensz, Dutch New Guinea, in 1912-13, is the most important 
collection of New Guinea plants brought to this country. In 
spite of the large collections made by Dutch and German collec- 
tors, there are upwards of five hundred new species and eight new 
genera in the collection, many of great interest. The plants were 
collected at various heights from sea-level to an altitude of about 
13,000 feet, where vegetation ceased. The areas explored may be 
divided into four botanical regions: — (1) The Coastal region, 
where the flora was largely of Malayan affinity. (2) The foot- 
hills, ranging from 500 to 3000 feet elevation, an area of dense 
forest, the flora still typically Malayan but containing a distinct 
Australian element. (3) The Frontal mountain belt from 3000 to 
8000 feet elevation, the begonia and balsam region. Here culti- 
vation ceased. Palms disappear, and the first of the Palsearctic 
forms are met with, such as Viola, Banunculus, Hypericum, and 
Galium. (4) The main mountain range. Here the big forest 
trees disappear, and herbaceous plants show a marked increase. 
Casuarinas, Pandani, and Violets form a conspicuous part of the 
flora. The highest tree is Podocarpus papuanus, sp. nov. This 
attains an altitude of 10,500 feet. Above 11,000 feet the rocks 
became too steep for most plants, the only plants being rhodo- 
dendron bushes, a daisy {Myriactis), some grasses and mosses. 
The flora of this upper region from 8000 feet upwards comprised 
many Palaearctic forms. Geranium, Thalictrum, Astilbe, Euphrasia, 
Potentilla, Gentiana, &c., with the Australian types, Pterostylis 
and Corysanthes. 

We regret to announce the recent deaths of Mr. William 
West, Mr. J. A. Martindale, and the Eev. E. N. Bloomfield, of 
whom notices will appear in due course. 

The address of the Eev. H. J. Eiddelsdell is now Wigginton 
Eectory, Banbury. 




Lafayette. Manchester, 



WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



161 

IN MEMORY OF WILLIAM WEST. 
(1848-1914.) 

(with portrait.) 

By W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S. 

By the death of WiUiam West, which took place at Bradford 
on May 14th after a brief illness, this Journal has been deprived 
of one of its most valued contributors. His first paper, " Bryo- 
logical Notes," appeared in 1881, and from that time until 1912, 
when he published a long and interesting paper on the Flora of 
Shetland, "with some ecological observations," hardly a volume 
has appeared without a contribution from his pen. As these 
contributions — a small portion of his literary output — show, he 
was a man with an extraordinarily wide and varied range of infor- 
mation. He had a competent knowledge of all branches of field 
botany, and his attainments in plant physiology and morphology 
showed that, had he been specially interested in those branches of 
study, he would have made his mark as an original investigator. 
But it was as a student of the freshwater algae, and especially of 
the Desmids, that he obtained his world-wide reputation. In 
this department he was one of the foremost men of his time, and 
the numerous papers and memoirs contributed to various journals 
and to the Transactions and Proceedings of learned societies 
testify to his unflagging energy and zeal in the pursuit of his 
favourite study. As a systematist he has been for many years 
recognized as an authority on the freshwater algae, and he has 
also made valuable contributions, in numerous memoirs, to our 
knowledge of their distribution and biological relationships. 

WilUam West was a native of Leeds, a city which has pro- 
duced not a few naturalists of distinction, and was born February 
22nd, 1848, on the edge of Woodhouse Moor. He studied for 
the pharmaceutical profession, eventually quaUfying and being 
registered on November 16th, 1870, and removing to Bradford in 
1872, set up in business there. He was married in 1874 to 
Hannah Wainwright, also a native of Woodhouse Moor, Leeds, 
who died in 1904, leaving two sons and a daughter, all of whom 
inherited their father's ability, the sons passing through Cambridge 
University with high distinction, and both of them taking up 
botanical work. The elder, William, died in India in 1901 (see 
Journ. Bot. 1901, 353) ; the younger, George, is now Professor of 
Botany at the University of Birmingham. 

In 1886 William West took up science teaching as a profession, 
and was appointed Lecturer in Botany, and afterwards also in 
Biology and Pharmacology at the Technical College, Bradford. 
He was remarkably able and successful as a teacher, gaining the 
respect and affection of his students to an extraordinary degree. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was established on its 
present lines in 1877, and West was one of the band of able 
naturalists who were instrumental in making it the powerful and 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [July, 1914.] o 



162 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



successful instrument of local scientific research which it has 
been ever since. He became Secretary of the Botanical Section 
in succession to Dr. H. Franklin Parsons, but his professional 
duties prevented his taking much active part in its work after 
these first few years. He was elected President for 1899, a signi- 
ficant mark of the appreciation of the esteem in which he was 
held by his fellow Yorkshiremen. He became a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society on March 17th, 1887; he was also a member and 
frequent attender at the meetings of the British Association, and 
Secretary of its Botanical Section in 1900 at Bradford. 

In the earlier years (1878-1887) of West's scientific work he 
was an all-round botanist with a wide and accurate knowledge of 
all the groups both of flowering and flowerless plants, being gifted 
with a powerful and retentive memory and remarkable powers of 
observation. He published numerous notes about this time, 
dealing wath such subjects as Mosses (1878), the Autumn Flora 
of Whernside (1879), a February stroll near Baildon (1881), the 
principal plants of Malham (1883), the plants of the Bradford 
district (1886), Buckinghamshire Lichens (1880), the Eoses of 
Towton Battlefield (1879), &c. He contributed a considerable 
amount of material to Lees's Flora of West Yorkshire (1888), after 
which he began to concentrate his energies on the freshwater 
algae, the Desmicliacece especially. His son George was now 
co-operating in these studies, and the practical self-training of 
the father and the parental and academic training of the son, 
based upon a combination of practical field-work and an apprecia- 
tion of specific and varietal differentiation with a capacity for 
broad and sound generalization, began to yield fruit in no small 
degree. Theirs was no mere local study, the whole world was 
now their sphere of investigation, and the command of the com- 
plete literature of their subject and of innumerable gatherings 
from almost all parts of the globe, with the willing co-operation 
of European and American workers, enabled the two Wests to 
establish themselves among the foremost students of their subject. 

William West's remarkable knowledge of cryptogamic plants 
of all kinds and of their conditions of growth made him a unique 
personality in Britain, probably in Europe. He was an ecologist 
long before the term itself was coined, always fully conscious of 
the importance of the common and dominant forms. The algo- 
logical investigations which were now his main line of research 
were most systematically and diligently carried on. Holidays 
were utilized to the full for visiting all parts of the British Islands, 
especially the outlying montane regions of Scotland and Ireland, 
North Wales, and the English Lakes. The work began near 
home, and their native county of Yoi'k was worked, a list published 
for each of its Eidings, and finally in 1900-1901 a complete alga- 
flora of the county. Then came papers dealing with North Wales 
(1890), the English Lake district (1892), the West of Ireland 
(1892), Scotland (1893), the South of England (1897), the North 
of Ireland (1902), the Orkneys and Shetlands (1905), and the 
Clare Island Survey (1912), many of which were published in this 



IN MEMORY OP WILLIAM WEST 163 

Journal. European countries were left to Continental workers, 
except for papers dealing with Denmark (1891) and Portugal 
(1892). But material was sent to them from many parts of the 
world, and this formed the basis of memoirs published for the 
American States of Maine (1888, 1891) and Massachusetts (1889), 
and for the West Indies (1894, 1899). For the Old World were 
published papers on Singapore (1897), Koh Chang (1901), Ceylon 
(1902), Burma and other parts of India (1907), and Kinabalu and 
North Borneo (1914) ; meanwhile another able Leeds algologist, 
Mr. W. Barwell Turner, had monographed the Desmids of India. 
The Wests dealt with Madagascar in 1895, Central Africa in 1896, 
and Welwitsch's African collections in 1897, and (in 1911) the 
freshwater algae collected by the Shackleton Antarctic Expedition. 

Besides these more serious undertakings, numerous notes were 
published in various journals, as well as articles of more general 
scope and import, including memoirs on the Conjugation of the 
Zygnemaceae (1891), and Observations on the Conjugatse (1898). 

Speaking generally, the earlier papers (to 1893 or so) appeared 
as by William West alone, the later ones by himself and his son 
jointly ; but the co-operation in the work had extended over the 
whole series, and of later years the algological work fell to the 
son, while the father devoted time to the study of the ecology of 
the bryophytes and lichens. 

Finally came the pubHcation of their culminating work by the 
Eay Society — the Monograjyh of the British DesmidiacecB ; of this 
four volumes have appeared (1904, 1905, 1908, 1911), while two 
remain to be completed by the surviving author. 

These algological investigations did not, however, exhaust the 
potentialities of the subject, and led up to another line of in- 
vestigation, that of the phytoplankton of lakes and rivers. In 
this the two Wests were the pioneer British workers, and they 
took up the task in characteristically full and systematic fashion. 
Aided by grants from the Government Grant Fund and from the 
Eoyal Irish Academy, the detailed field work was begun about 
1900, and Western and Southern Scotland, the lakes of England 
and iSforth Wales, those of Western and South-western Ireland, 
as well as Lough Neagh, Malham Tarn, and the rivers Ouse, 
Lochay, and Bann, were visited during the vacation seasons 
of several years. The results of these plankton researches 
proved to be of high importance, and were summarized in the 
Proceedings of the Boyal Society for 1909. From a bio- 
logical point of view the British Lakes are of great interest, 
the researches of the two Wests showing that the lake- 
plankton of extreme Western Europe, and particularly of the 
British Islands, differs completely from that of Central Europe, 
being characterized by the presence and dominance of Desmids. 
Their observations showed that Desmid -plankton occurred only 
in rich Desmid-areas, and that these rich areas were directly 
correlated with montane areas, with heavy and persistent rainfall, 
and, most important of all, with the presence of the oldest rocks, 
Archaean and the older palaeozoic rock-formations ; and their 

2 



164 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

success in working out this new line of research has produced 
significant results which were a revelation and a surprise to 
Continental observers. 

The last subject which occupied West's attention was the 
ecology of cryptogams, on which a paper — the first of a projected 
series — was read in abstract at the Linnean Society at the meet- 
ing on June 18, a month after his death : of this an abstract will 
be found on p. 191. 

The personality of William West endeared him to all with 
whom he came into contact. He was a man of warm enthusiasms, 
with a singular charm of manner and a quiet vein of genial 
humour, and those who, with the present writer, have been on 
most intimate terms with him for nearly forty years, can best 
appreciate what manner of man he was, and feel the greatness of 
the loss which they have sustained by his succumbing to heart 
failure supervening upon an attack of his old enemy asthma. He 
was followed to his resting place in Schotemoor Cemetery, 
Bradford, by a great number of his old students and his old 
friends. 

The accompanying portrait is reproduced from a photograph 
taken by Messrs. Lafayette, of Manchester. 



NOTES ON SOME PLANTS OF MID-PERTH. 

By Rev. E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

The greater part of last July was spent at Fortingal, v.-c. 88, 
where there is an excellent hotel ; Messrs. W. A. Shoolbred and 
C. E. Salmon joined our party for most of the time, and we had 
the pleasure of again meeting Mr. D. A. Haggart, who accom- 
panied us on several occasions. At the beginning of September 
Dr. C. E. Moss and I had three days' collecting in the same 
district, which is quite rich, as Messrs. Lintons' papers of over 
twenty years ago indicated. This vice-county has, I suppose, 
been better worked than any other in the Highlands, so that 
novelties must be few and far between ; such supposed additions 
are starred. The Lyon Valley hereabouts is rich in Thalictrum. 
I doubt whether restricted T. minus L. {T. collinum Wallr.) 
occurs there ; but a plant closely allied to T. majus auct. angl. is 
frequent, as well as the one referred by the Lintons to T, Kochii 
Fr., of which it has the ovoid fruit. 

■■' Caltha raclicans Forster. One luxuriant specimen occurred by 
a streamlet on the south side of Ben Lawers, at about 2000 ft. ; 
usually it is a low-ground plant. 

Erophila inflata Hook. fil. ascends to fully 2600 ft. on Ben 
Lawers ; the pods are shorter and often less inflated than in my 
gatherings from Glen Shee, E. Perth, and between Altnaharra 
and Tongue, W. Sutherland, perhaps owing to the greater altitude. 

Cochlearia micacea E. S. Marshall, Abundant on the north 



NOTES ON SOME PLANTS OF MID-PERTH 165 

side of Meall Garbh ; very local on the north side of Creag Mohr. 
It occasionally descends to about 2600 ft., and on Ben Lawers 
reaches 3950 ft.; but the main range is between 3000 and 3500 ft. 
The long-podded form is scarce on these mountains ; a very few 
pink-flowered plants were observed. In cultivation I find it to be 
a rather short-lived perennial ; but I suspect that it is usually 
biennial, in the wild state. The dense cushions of early bloom 
are very striking and pretty. 

Arenaria rubella Hook. A specimen from the west side of 
Ben Lawers measures five inches across. 

A. leptoclados Guss. var. viscichda Eouy & Fouc. Dr. Moss 
detected this on a roadside wall near Coshieville. 

Hypericum maculatum Crantz [duhium Leers). What appears 
to be a form of this, very different from our ordinary EngHsh one, 
being of low growth, with much paler flowers, was found in good 
quantity by the roadside between Fearnan and Lawers, and 
sparingly near Bridge of Lyon, Fortingal. 

Vicia sylvat'ica L. Very fine by the Allt Odhar, Fortingal, and 
by the x\llt Coire Pheiginn, at 700 ft. ; not observed elsewhere. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria L. We collected (for A. odorata Mill.) 
flowering examples of a luxuriant Agrimony, fairly plentiful among 
bushes and rocks on the cliffs above Fortingal, from 500 to 1100 ft., 
with large, glandular leaves ; but Mr. Arthur Bennett suggests 
A. Eupatoria var. '•'sepnim Brebisson, Fl. Norm. 110 (1869), which 
may be the same as var. umbrosa Coss. & Germ., Fl. Paris. 182 
(1845). 

Galium erectum Huds. One fine plant on limestone near 
Garth Castle; Mr. Haggart informed me that he had seen it 
more plentifully, eastwards. The habit is diffuse; and Mr. 
Bennett refers it to var. aristatum Bab. Man. ed. 3, 153 (1851), 
English Botany, t. 2784 (non G. aristatum L.). 

Antennaria dioica Gaertn. Plants agreeing with the descrip- 
tion of var. piedicellata B. White, Scottish Naturalist, 1886, p. 323, 
were gathered on a hillock north-east of Garth Castle. 

Crepis mollis Aschers. (succiscefolia Tausch). Fine and 
plentiful, just north of Garth Castle; very local in Glen Lyon, 
about four miles above Fortingal. No definite station in the 
county was known to Dr. White ; but I understand that it has 
been gathered near KilHn by Messrs. H. and J. Groves. 

Taraxacum spectabile Dahlst. Meall Garbh, Creag Mohr, &c. ; 
apparently quite common on the mountains. 

Hteraciuvi anglicum Fr. The type and H. iricuvi Fr. grow by 
the Lyon at several spots, though neither is abundant. 

H. sinuans F. J. Hanb. Sparingly by the stream at the foot 
of Fin Glen, north-east of Ben Lawers, at 1600 ft. ; it ascends to 
nearly 3000 ft. on Ben Lawers itself, but is rare in this district. 

H. nigrescens Willd. Typical, but extremely scarce, by the 
Inverinain Burn, below Meall Garbh, between 1800 and 2000 ft. 

H. submurorum Lindeb. Specimens agreeing best with this 
were found at 1700 ft. by the Allt Odhar stream, north-west of 
Fortingal, among shaded rocks. Heads not quite so black as in 



166 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

typical examples ; but the rather low elevation may account for 
this, and I cannot refer them to anything else. 

H. ruhicundum F. J. Hanb. Stream-sides in Fin Glen, 
between 1600 and 2000 ft., very scarce; differing from type in the 
ligules being very ciliate and the styles very dark, but Eev. 
E. F. Linton agrees with me that it belongs to this species. 
Only recorded from Killin, in Perthshire. 

H. argcnteum Fr. Kocks by the Lyon, two miles below 
Fortingal, as well as higher up the river. 

H. Sommerfeltii Lindeb. Rocks at the east end of the Stuich- 
an-lochan, Ben Lawers, from 2700 to 3000 ft. ; the dark-styled 
form. 

H. i^seudonosmoides Dahlst. Locally frequent by the Lyon, 
and on rocks above it. 

H. callistojjhyllum F. J. Hanb. Typical, but very rare, l^y 
the stream in Fin Glen, at 1600 to 2000 ft. 

H. sylvaticum Gouan var. micracladium Dahlst. Allt Odhar, 
at 1700 ft. ; scarce. 

H. variicolor Dahlst. Not uncommon ; but both Mr. Linton 
and I fand it hard to draw a clear line between this and H. rotun- 
datum Kit. The leaves are, as a rule, more elongated ; when in 
shade, their blotches tend to disappear. Keltney Burn ; Allt 
Odhar ; streams below Meall Garbh (north side) ; rocks above the 
road from Bridge of Lyon to Fearnan. In this neighbourhood its 
range is from 2000 down to 1400 ft., with one exceptional station 
at about 400 ft. 

■■'H. subnlatidens Dahlst. Mr. Linton concurs in referring to 
this some luxuriant, shade-grown specimens, with remarkably long 
foliage, found by the Allt Odhar, at 1700 ft. 

H. rivale F. J. Hanb. Stream-sides, Fin Glen and Allt Odhar, 
at 1700 ft. 

H. sagittatum F. J. Hanb. var. suhhirtum^ . R. Linton. Fin 
Glen ; Allt Odhar ; Inverinain Burn ; by the Lyon, near Invervar. 
Locally frequent, ascending to 2000 ft. 

H. euprepes F. J. Hanb., type. An alpine black-headed form 
occurs on cliffs at the east end of the Stuich-an-lochan, Ben 
Lawers, at nearly 3000 ft. — Var. glabra turn Linton. In many 
places by the Lyon, often very luxuriant, with lower peduncles 
up to nine inches long ; near Garth Castle ; Fin Glen ; eastern 
cliffs of the Stuich-an-lochan, Ben Lawers. From 300 to 2700 ft. 
-H. farrense F. J. Hanb. One fine plant, in a shady ravine 
300 yards north of Garth Castle. 

U. custales Linton. Fin Glen and Inverinain Burn, between 
1600 and 2000 ft. 

H. ccBsiovmrorum Lindeb. Allt Odhar, and by the Lyon, near 
Invervar, at about 700 ft. 

H. dissimile Lindeb. Rocks above the road from Bridge of 
Lyon to Fearnan (1400 ft.) ; Allt Odhar (1700 ft.) ; the usual 
Scottish form. 

H. Deivari Bosw. Near the Keltney Burn, &c. 

H. gothicum Fr. Abundant on a grassy, bushy hillock near 



NOTES ON SOME PLANTS OF MID-PERTH 167 

Garth Castle, often as the forma latifolia W. E. Linton. An 
abnormal form of the type with sooty styles was collected on 
slopes above the Lyon, about six miles above Fortingal. 

■'H. sparsifoliuvi Lindeb. This name is suggested by Mr. 
Linton for a yellow-styled hawkweed found on low rocks at the 
north-east end of Loch Tummel. It closely resembles one from 
near Inchrory, Banffshire, which his brother placed here, and 
under the type, in 1905 ; also (allowing for difference of situation) 
some much taller specimens from the Shee Water, two miles below 
Spital of Glen Shee, 1892. I think that all of them belong to 
this species. 

H. strictum Fr. Near the Keltney Burn, and in two or three 
places by the Lyon, but not plentiful. 

H. reticulatnm Lindeb. Frequent and often remarkably fine in 
Glen Lyon ; sometimes the leaves are untypically efloccose beneath. 

H. coryinbosum Fr. var. salicifolium (Lindeb.). Keltney Burn, 
and a little above Bridge of Lyon. 

Armeria maritima Willd. A very fine form of this, which I 
believe to be Syme's var. planifolia, grows in wet ground on the 
north side of Creag Mohr, from 2200 to 2500 ft. 

Mimulus moschatus Douglas. Well established in a muddy 
ditch about five miles above Fortingal, Glen Lyon. 

Euphrasia gracilis Fr. A form with white (instead of blue 
or reddish) flowers was noticed on a dry bank near the road, two 
miles west of Lawers Inn. Fine E. Bostkoviana Hayne {E. offici- 
nalis L., vera ?) is abundant in the low ground. 

BhinantJms Drummond-Hayi Druce. Very local on the 
northern slopes of Creag Mohr, at 2200 ft. 

Melampyrum pratense L. var. ■■'ericetorinn Oliver? Bushy 
hillock east of Garth Castle, in plenty. The name was given to 
it by Mr. Salmon, and it seems to agree quite well with the 
description in Phytologist, 1852, p. 678 ; but I have not seen Irish 
specimens. In the stronger plants the bracts are decidedly 
toothed, not entire, as in var. montanum. I have found precisely 
the same thing at Wybunbury Bog, Cheshire. 

Mentha piperita L. Established in bushy ground near the 
Lyon, three-quarters of a mile below Fortingal. Mr. Salmon 
determined it as a. officinalis (Hull), our normal form. 

Polygonum aquale Lindman. Common in Glen Lyon, below 
Fortingal ; named by Dr. Moss. It varied a good deal ; one of 
the forms agrees with the plant figured by Syme as P. aviculare 
var. arenastrum. 

Betida alba L. x pubescens Ehrh. var. microphylla E. S. Mar- 
shall. Two trees of this hybrid combination, which seems to be 
new, grew with the parents by the Allt Coire Pheiginn, west of 
Garth Castle, at 700 ft., both being good intermediates {B. pube- 
scens var. microphylla is frequent in the district). Dr. Moss and 
I agreed in this determination. 

Ahius glutinosa Gaertn. The only form observed is var. 
microcarpa Eouy {teste Moss). 

Salix caprea L., var. sphacelata Wahlenb, Allt Coire Pheiginn 



168 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

(700 ft.) ; stream descending from the north side of Meall Garbh 
(1600 ft.) ; both certified by Dr. Moss. Probably frequent in glens 
of the Highlands ; I am inclined to think it a good average variety. 

S. nigricans x 2:)hylicifolia. An excellent intermediate was 
found by Dr. Moss and myself on Ben Lawers, very little belov^r 
3000 ft. 

Taxus baccata L. Not native ; but two trees of considerable 
age grow on the cliffs above Fortingal, at 700 and 1100 ft., 
doubtless bird-sown from the very ancient yew in the churchyard. 

Habenaria conopsca Benth. A variation with deep claret- 
coloured flowers was noticed in the Lyon valley, below Fortingal. 

Polygonatum verticillatum All. Apparently new for the 
Breadalbane district ; shown to us by Mr. Haggart in a rocky 
ravine, associated with Gonvallaria majalis L. 

Juncus biglumis L. Meall Gruaidh (or Greigh) ; head of Fin 
Glen ; north side of Creag Mohr. 

EriopJwrum latifolium Hoppe. Hill-bog, west of the Lawers 
Burn, at 1200 ft. ; extending only over a very limited area. 

Kobresia biimrtita Dalla Torre (ccm'cena Willd.). Occasionally 
reaches 3000 ft. on the Ben Lawers range ; it occurs on the north 
side of Creag Mohr. 

Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. A tall, slender form was met with 
in profusion near the west end of Loch Tummel. — Var. virescens 
And. By the Lyon, about six miles above Fortingal ; confirmed 
by Mr. Bennett. 

C. atrofusca Schkuhr. We obtained this in two corries (about 
a mile apart) of a mountain, south of Glen Lyon, for which it was 
not known before ; one fruiting stem measures sixteen inches, and 
several were fully a foot high. The leaves have a decidedly 
glaucous hue, which I have not seen mentioned ; Mr. Druce is 
evidently right in placing it between C. atrata L. and C. rarijiora 
Sm. We found the altitude to vary from 2300 to about 3000 ft. 

C. fulva X CEderi (type). Northern shore of Loch Tummel, 
in small quantity ; the hybrid of C. fiUva with C. (Ederi, subsp. 
cedocarpa And. is quite common, as usual. 

"^'C ^7^-/Zato Huds. (rosira to Stokes) x vesicaria. Marshes at the 
head of Loch Tummel, showing considerable vai'iation. 

Agrostis nigra With. Native in grassy ground by the river at 
Fortingal ; we also gathered it in Mr. Druce's station near Lawers 
Inn, but less dark-flowered. 

Poa nemoralis L. An intensely glaucous plant, apparently 
var. ccssia Gaud., is abundant on the upper cliffs above Fortingal, 
from 1000 to 1200 ft. 

'-'Glyceria declinata Br6b. Muddy ground near Fortingal Hotel ; 
also close to Lawers Inn. 

Equisetum arvense L. What I know as ' var. nemorosum 
Braun ' grows in damp shade at Fortingal, and by the road from 
Bridge of Lyon to Fearnan. 

■'•E. arvense x Uviosum {E. litorale Kiihlewein). South shore 
of Loch Tummel, near the shooting-lodge ; also at the north-west 
end. In bo^h cases the parents were associated with it ; the 



A NEW CHIMAPHILA PROM SAN DOMINGO 169 

terminal cones, by no means freely produced, are very small and 
abortive. New for Scotland ; but probably overlooked. 

E. variegatum Schleieh., a. arenarium Newm. A few plants 
on Meall Garbh, at 2600 ft., and by Loch Tummel, where it is 
associated with Myrica gale and Schcenus ferrugineus. 



A NEW CHIMAPHILA FEOM SAN DOMINGO. 

By Sidney F. Blake, A.M. 

While working recently on the variations of the widely dis- 
tributed Winter green known as Chwia2:)hila umbellata (h.) Burt., ■■'• 
I was struck by the marked difference from all other specimens 
in the British Museum shown by those collected in San Domingo 
by Baron Tiirckheim, and referred on the label to this species. 
Although the plant has long been known to range over a large 
part of temperate Europe and Asia, nearly all of North America 
from Canada to the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala, and 
Japan, its presence in the West Indies has only recently been 
indicated by Urban (Symb. Antill. v. 453 (1908)), on the basis of 
specimens collected long ago by Eggers ; but a careful examination 
of Tiirckheim 's specimens, which are in fresh flower, and of 
duplicates at Kew of Eggers' plant, which is in old fruit, shows 
that they represent a decidedly distinct species. Not only are 
the leaves much smaller and fewer-toothed, but the peduncle and 
pedicels, densely dotted with glandular atoms in all the forms of 
G. livihellata, are here perfectly glabrous, while the filaments, 
widened and short ciliate near the middle in G. umbellata, in the 
San Domingo plant are enlarged nearer the base and are quite 
glabrous. In view of these marked characters the San Domingo 
plant seems best considered an endemic species which may bear 
the name / 

-: Chimaphila domingensis. Planta humilis 10-15 cm. alta ; 
foliis cuneato-obovatis obtusiusculis subsessilibus 1-8-2-5 cm. 
longis 6'5-8 mm. latis dentibus 2-5-jugis hebetibus ; pedunculis 
(et pediculis) glaberrimis 4-6 cm. longis ; floribus 3-5 subumbel- 
latis ca. 11 mm. latis ; sepalis orbicularibus glaberrimis margine 
minute eroso non ciliato ; petalis suborbicularibus minute irregu- 
lariter erosis (purpureis fide Eggers (apud Urban), sed in specim. 
Tiirckheimianis certissime albidis) ; antheris violaceis ; filamentis 
basi ovate ampliatis glaberrimis. 

Santo Domingo : pine woods, alt. 2200 m., Valle Nuevo, near 
Constanzu, August, 1910, Tiirckheim, 3434 (type in Brit. Mus.) ; 
among stones, alt. 2270 m., Valle Nuevo, May 30th, 1887, Eggers, 
2269 (hb. Kew.). 

I am indebted to Dr. Eendle for permission to dissect a flower 
from the Tiirckheim specimens in the British Museum. ^^ 

* This combination has been universally quoted from Nutt. Gen. i. 247 
(1818), but can hardly be considered made there, as no synonym is cited; 
however, it had been properly made the previous year by Barton (Veg. Mat. 
Med. U.S. i. t. 17, t. 1 (1817) ), as indicated by Gray, Syn. Fl. U.S. (1818). 



170 

THE MANX SAND-DUNE FLOEA. 
By J. W. Hartley and J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S. 

Early in June of the present year we spent half a day on the 
sand-dunes of the north coast of the Isle of Man. Our chief 
object was the collection of lichens, but we were also desirous of 
comparing the vegetation of these dunes with the flora of the 
similar but more extensive eolian sands of the coasts of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. The season was too early for a thorough investi- 
gation of the higher plants, and we are sensible that the lists 
given are far from complete. Sufficient, however, was noted to 
show that these dunes are of a totally different type from those 
of Southport, Wallasey, or St. Anne's. The area of blown sand 
is not extensive, commencing near Jurby and extending in a 
narrow belt towards Point of Ayre. Inland the dunes overlie and 
merge into the boulder clay, which eventually rises into a range 
of low hills following the coast-line. At Point of Ayre there is a 
wide expanse of barren heath, where the blown sand only partially 
covers extensive beds of shingle, and does not form dunes properly 
so called. 

In many places the sand has been blown away except where- 
held by the roots of ling and heather, exposing the shingle or 
boulder clay beneath. The moorland then bears a not distant 
resemblance to the peat-hags of our moorland summits, only the 
peaty bases of the stools are composed of sand instead of peat. 
This ground looked interesting, and appeared to be especially rich 
in CladonicB, which were fine and well-developed. Unfortunately 
we arrived too late to give it an adequate examination, and dark- 
ness coming on we were reluctantly compelled to leave the 
exploration of this Point of Ayre heathland for a future excursion. 

As compared with that of Southport, the flora of these dunes 
is poor and uninteresting. The species are fewer and of a less 
specialized dune-type. The differences which immediately strike 
the observer may be briefly summarised : — 

(1) The dunes are comparatively flat, and provide less variety 
of aspect than those of the mainland. The absence of high 
dunes and intersecting deep hollows, besides affecting the flora, 
diminishes the picturesqueness of their appearance. 

(2) The whole of the coast we examined, both dunes and 
heathland, was very dry. There are no wet " slacks." The flora 
is therefore more uniformly mesophytic and xerophytic than at 
Southport, the rich bryological and hydrophytic associations of 
the latter locality not being represented. 

(3) The absence of Salix repens, a dominant species of the 
Lancashire dunes, enhances the general flatness ; the secondary 
dunes built up by this species adding greatly to the diversity of 
the surface when it is present. 

(4) The calciphilous species are less prominent, the restricted 
calciphile species being absent. 

(5) The larger fungi are very scarce, much more so than on 
the damper dunes of the mainland, where, from May onwards, 



THE MANX SAND-DUNE FLORA 171 

they may always be seen in profusion. Not a single species was 
noticed on this occasion, and only one or two on a previous visit, 
some years ago, in September. 

(6) The rapid transition from the sand-dune vegetation to 
that of heathland, with the presence of Pteris, Callitna, Erica, and 
Ulex, all of which are either excessively rare or absent from the 
Lancashire dunes, is especially noteworthy. 

The causes which bring about these differences are apparently 
twofold. The dominant factor is probably the great depth of the 
subsoil water, due perhaps to the sand overlying pebble beds 
derived from the boulder clay. We were informed that at Point 
of Ayre it was possible to dig a depth of some seventeen feet 
without reaching water. At Southport, on the contrary, it lies 
only a few inches beneath the surface of the deeper hollows, and 
often stands in pools. Another factor, which probably strongly 
affects the vegetation, is the apparently smaller lime content of 
the soil. Shells are less plentiful in the sand, most of which is 
probably derived from the boulder clay of the north of the island. 
The bulk of sand is also smaller than that delivered to the 
estuarine dunes of the mainland. Owing to this deficiency of 
material, or to the steeper inclination of the land, the dunes are 
less extensive and of slower growth, and appear to go through a 
constant alternation of growth and demolition. The high boulder 
clay banks in the vicinity prevent the spread of blown sand to 
any considerable distance inland, and the material is not supplied 
in sufficient quantity to enable the dunes to make any marked 
advance on the seaward margin. Here in several places there is 
abundant evidence of recent erosion. 

The poverty of species will be evident on perusal of the 
following list, which, whilst doubtless very incomplete, probably 
includes the majority of the plants found at the several points 
visited. The List of Plants of the Isle of Man, published by the 
Kev. S. A. Kermode, does not help much, as localities are rarely 
quoted, but some of those he enumerated may possibly have been 
from this area. If so, they are certainly not obtrusively evident. 
Amongst those he names which are likely to occur are Glaucium 
luteum, Crambe maritivia, Trifolium striatum, T. arvcnse, Anthyllis 
vuliieraria, Carlina vulgaris, Leontodon hirtus, Erythrcza Cen- 
taurium, Etqjhorbia Paralias, E. portlandica, and Sedum acre. 
Most of these are abundant on the drier Lancashire dunes, and 
there seems to be no adequate reason for their absence here, if 
they really are absent. 

About Jurby and Lhane several well-marked zones of vege- 
tation could be discerned. 

I. The Strand Association. — This in some places is developed 
on shingle, in others on sand. It forms an almost continuous 
band dominated by Atriplex, amongst which we were able to 
distinguish (although not yet flowering) A. hastata Ij., A. Bahing- 
tonii Woods, and A. laciniata L. Other plants observed were 
Cakile maritima Scop., Glaux maritivia L., Arenaria i^eploides L., 
and Salsola Kali L. On pebbles where the ground was shingly 



172 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

a few minute lichens develope. On a few pebbles brought home 
for examination we found Acarospora pruinosa Jatta f. nuda Nyl. 
ex Lamy., A. sniaragdula Ach., and Bhizocarpon confervoides DC. 
f . fuscescens Leight and f . dispersa Leight. We did not observe 
at any of the points visited a fringing zone of Agropyron junceuni, 
such as may be seen between Ainsdale and Birkdale, but the 
species occurs sparingly on the coast. 

II. The Marram Association. — The dunes rise rather abruptly 
from the strand, in some parts in a continuous slope, in others 
with a low steep scarp. In the latter case the freely exposed 
roots of Marram grass show that erosion by tide or wind has 
taken place. This grass is the dominant plant, and the slightly 
undulating dunes it forms are neither as lofty nor as much cut 
into hills and valleys as those of the mainland. After reaching 
their maximum height, which is low as compared with the dunes 
between Formby and Southport, they fall in a gentle slope towards 
the land, forming a depression or shallow valley, which roughly 
and with some interruptions follows the contour of the coast-line. 
There are a few deeper hollows in which water probably stands 
for a short time in wet seasons, but there are no permanently wet 
"slacks." In these hollows a number of mosses and lichens 
carpet the ground, but none of them are of a distinctly hydro- 
philous type. 

The following species of this association were recognizable at 
this early season of the year : — 

Ammophila arenaria Link, dominant. 
Agropyron junceum Beauv. Taraxacum officinale Weber. 

Festuca rubra (aggr.). T. ohliquum Dahlst. 

Senecio vulgaris L. Carex arenaria. 

The above plants are the first to appear ; further from the littoral 
zone they all still persist, with the addition of the following : — 
Arenaria serpyllifoUa L. var. Valerianella olitoria Poll. 

macrocarpa Lloyd. Galiiim verum L. var. viariti- 

Cerastium tetandrum Curt. mum DC. 

C. semidecandrum L. Polygomim Itaii Bab. 

Erodium maritimum L'Herit. Phleum arenariiim L. 
E. cicutarium var. glutinosum Aira caryoph^jllea L. 

Clav. Bromus hordeaceiis var. lepto- 

Eryngium maritimum L. stachys Beck. 

A single lichen was noted on dead stools of Marram grass, viz. 
Cladonia fimbriata Fr. f. exilis (Ach.). 

III. The Marram loith Bracken Association. — In the lower 
part of the main depression, Pteris aquilina begins to appear 
amongst the Marram grass, and soon forms a well-marked zone, 
sharing the ground with the grass, and in places becoming the 
dominant species. Here many of the plants mentioned in the 
preceding group continue to flourish. Lichens and mosses carpet 
the ground in profusion, thriving where the sand is enriched in 
humus by the decay of the more luxuriant vegetation. Cladonia 
alcicornis forms light-coloured patches, and together with other 



THE MANX SAND-DUNE FLORA 



173 



CladonicB is much more abundant than on the Lancashire dunes. 
The species noted were as follows : — 



Pteris aquilina L., dominant. 
Ammopliila arenaria Link ,, 
Brassica monensis Huds. (rare). 
Viola ericetorum Schi-ad. 
Arenaria Lloydii Jord. 
Cerastium tetrandum Curt. 
C. semidecandrum L. 
C. viscosum L. 
Polygala oxyptera Reichb. 
Erodium cicutarium var. gluti- 

nosum Clav. 
Ononis maritima Dum. 
Trifolium duhium Sibth. 
Lohis corniculatus L. var. crassi- 

folius Pers. 
Sedum anglicum Huds. 
Galium verum L. 
Valerianella olitoria Poll. 



Bellis i:)eren7iis L. 
Taraxacum officinale Weber. 
Matricaria inodora L. 
Jasione montana L. 
Calystegia Soldanella Br. 
Myosotis collina Hoifm. 
Thymus Serpyllum L. 
Plantago Coronop^is L. 
P. lanceolata L. 
Carex arenaria L. 
Aira caryophyllea L. 
A . pracox L. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 
Agrostis alba L, 
Festuca ovina L. 
F. rubra (aggr.). 
Bro7nus hordeaceus L. 
Botrychiicm Lunaria Sw. 



Bryophyta. 



Ceratodon purp^ireus Brid. 
Dicranum scoparium Hedw. 
D. scoparium var. orthophyllum 

Brid. 
Barbula convoluta Hedw. 
B. Hornschuckiana Schultz. 
Tortula ruralis Ehrh. 
T. ruraliformis Dixon. 
Bryum pendulum Schimp. 
B. capillar e L. 
B. roseum Schreb. 
Brachythecium albicans B. & S. 



Brachythecium velutinum B. & S. 
B. purum Dixon. 
Camptothecium lutescens B. & S. 
Hypnum cupressiforme L. 
H. cupressiforme L. var. tecto- 

rum Brid. 
Hylocomium splendens B. & S. 
H. splendens var. gracilius 

Boul. 
H. squarrosum B. & S. 
H. triquetrum B. & S. 



LiCHENES. 



Peltigera canina Hoffm. 
Cladonia alcicornis Floerke. 
C. pyxidata Fr. var. pocillum 

Fr. 
C. chlorophcea Flk. 
C. fimbriata Fr. f. exilis (Ach.). 



Cladonia fimbriata var. conista 

Nyl. 
C pityrea Flk. 
G. furcata Hoff m. 
C. pungens Flk. 
Bacidia muscorum Mudd. 



In addition to the above, the following three lichens were found 
growing on pieces of weathered old leather lying on the dunes : — 
Lecanora Hageni (Ach.). Buellia phacodes Koerb. 

Binodina exigua Gray f. demissa Stiz. 

IV. The Marram luith Heather Association. — As the landward 
border of the preceding association is reached, the bracken begins 
to fail, and intermixed with it are a few plants of Galluna vulgaris. 
Further on this becomes more abundant, and is accompanied by 
a small quantity of Erica cinerea and Bosa spinosissima. In 



174 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



conjunction with a diminished quantity of Marram grass these 
plants dominate the rest of the ground. This slopes rapidly 
upwards, and soon becomes ordinary heathland, characterized 
here by the occurrence of Ulex and Calluna. The Ulex is the 
last plant to enter the dune formation, and only appears at about 
the point wliere the Man-am disappears. In the list of plants of 
this association given below, those only are tabulated which occur 
on what may be termed the dune-heath, viz. that portion in which 
the ericetal species are accompanied by Ammophila arenaria. 
Where the Marram disappears and furze becomes a common 
associate of the heather, which occurs as the sand thins out over 
the boulder clay, the flora belongs to a different formation. Time 
did not allow of a careful examination of this heathy tract, which 
has no equivalent on the Lancashire coast, where the sand-hills 
gradually merge into dune-pasture and cultivated ground. 

The following species, all noted within the range of the 
Marram grass, belong to this association : — 
Calluna vulgaris, dominant. Senecio Jacohcea L. 

Pteris aquilma, ,, S. sylvaticus L. 

Ammophila arenaria, „ Arctium {mimis Bernh.?). 

Bosa spinosissima, siihdoimna,nt. Centaurea nigra L. 



Erica cinerea, 
Rammculus hulbosus L. 
Erophila verna E. Meyer. 
Viola ericetorum Schrad. 
Polygala oxyptera Keichb. 
P. serpyllacea Weihe. 
Cerastiiim viscosum L. 
C. vulgatum L. 
Geranium molle L. 
Ononis repens L. 
Meclicago lupulina L. 
TrifoUum repens L. 
Lotus corniculatus L. 
Vicia angustifolia L. 
Conopodium denudatum Koch. 
Anthriscus vulgaris Bernh. 
Bellis perennis L. 



Leontodon autumnalis L. 
Campanula rotundifolia L. 
Lycopsis arvensis L. 
Veronica officinalis L. 
Euphrasia curta Wettst. 
Thymus Serpyllum L. 
Plantago lanceolata L. 
Bumex crispus L. 
B. Acetosella L. 
Luzula mnltiflora DC. 
Anthoxantlmm odoratam L. 
Aira caryophyllea L. 
A. prcecox L. 
Cynosurus cristatus L, 
Dactylis glomerata L, 
Lolium perenne L. 
Festuca ovina L. 



Bryophyta. 



Polytrichum pmiperimim 

Willd. 
Campylopus fragilis B. & S. 
Dicranum scoparium Hedw. 
D. scoparium var. orthophyllum 

Brid. 
Ceratodon purpureus Brid. 
Tortula mralis Ehrh. 
Ftimaria hygrometrica Sibth. 
Webera niitans Hedw. 
Bryum inclinatiim Bland. 



de- 



Climacium dendroides var. 

pauperatum Boul. 
Brachythecium purum Dixon. 
Hypnum Schreberi Willd. 
H. cupressiforme L. 
H. ciqjressiforme var. ericetoriim 

B. & S. 
Hylocomium squarrosum B. & S. 
H. triquetrum B. & S. 
Ptilidium ciliare Hampe. 
Frullania Tamarisci Dum. 



THE ORIGIN OP SPECIES 175 

LiCHENES. 

Peltigera canina Hoffm. Gladonia fivibriata var. conista 
P. rufescens Hoffm. Nyl, 

P. phy socles Ach. C. gracilis Hoffm. 

Cetraria aculeata Fr. C.furcata Hoffm. 

Gladonia pyxidata Fr. C. furcata var. corymhosa Nyl. 

C. pyxidata var. pocillum Fr. C. pungens Nyl. 

C. chlorophcBa Flk. Cladina sylvatica Nyl. 

C.fimhriata Fr. f. exilis (Ach.). C. uncialis Nyl. 

C fimbriata var. tuhcBformis Bilivibia ligniaria Massal. 

Fr. Lecidea idigiiiosa Ach. 



THE OEIGIN OF SPECIES. 

[The following is an abstract of a paper on " The Origin of 
Species by Crossing " read at a meeting of the Linnean Society 
on the 19th of February, by Dr. J. P. Lotsy, of Haarlem. The 
paper was illustrated by diagrams, lantern-slides, and dried 
specimens.] 

We have in all questions of evolution to gather our facts from 
individuals, because species as well as varieties are abstractions, 
not realities. Nobody is able to show you a species or a variety ; 
all he can do is to show you one or more individuals which he 
believes to belong to the species or variety under discussion. 

Of individuals we know two kinds : homozygotes and hetero- 
zygotes. The first are stable; the latter segregate, earlier or later, 
into new homozygotes. The offspring of a homozygote is identi- 
cal with its parent, with the exception of mere temporary non- 
transmittable modifications. If this be true, selection in the pro- 
geny of a definite homozygote can have no effect. That it has 
no effect has been proved by Johannsen. A homozygote con- 
sequently is absolutely stable and produces offspring which is 
genetically identical with it. Yet not all homozygotes are the 
same, there are many different kinds of homozygotes : homo- 
zygote beans, homozygote Antirrhinums, &c. 

All these different kinds of homozygotes we may call with 
Johannsen genotypes, because they differ in genetical constitu- 
tion, and we can then say that the world is populated — with the 
exception of heterozygotes — by a large number of sharply-defined 
absolutely stable genotypes. Under such conditions evolution 
may well seem impossible ; fortunately, the behaviour of the 
heterozygotes shows us that it is quite possible. 

A careful study of the descendants of a heterozygote shows 
us that it segregates in the next or later generations in a number 
of individuals, part of which are heterozygous, but part of which 
are homozygous, and that these homozygotes belong to different 
genotypes. 

A heterozygote consequently gives birth to a smaller or larger 
number of different genotypes. 



176 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

By carefully watching therefore a heterozygous individual we 
see the origin of genotypes. 

The next step is thus to produce at will these genotypes — 
originating heterozygotes. This we can do by crossing two 
individuals belonging to different genotypes. 

The next question is : Do all heterozygotes obtained by crossing 
segregate and thus give rise to different genotypes ? 

Until very recently it was believed that only heterozygotes 
obtained by crossing so-called varieties did segregate, while crosses 
between so-called species were said to give a stable offspring. 
Evidence is rapidly accumulating that this is not true as far as the 
latter is concerned, that species-hybrids also segregate. 

I therefore claim that the origin of genotypes by crossing is of 
much wider application than was formerly supposed, that perhaps 
it is of universal application. I further claim that the genotypes 
are the real, long sought-for units of the natural system, and I 
propose that in future the term species be limited to them, in 
accordance with the view held by systematists for ages that 
" species " is the proper term for the units of the natural system. 
[The question of Progressive Mutations, based upon Prof. H. 
de Vries's work upon (Enothera Laviarckiana, was then discussed.] 

The chief question is whether (2/. Lamarckiana is a pure geno- 
type, because only if the purity of type is beyond any possibility 
of doubt is there good reason to explain the throwing of deviating 
types as due to new formation of factors ; in any other case these 
can be explained as the result of new combinations of factors 
already present in the plant throwing them. Heribert Nilsson 
has, in the opinion of the speaker, undoubtedly shown that 
CE. Lamarckiana is no pure genotype, and consequently cannot 
serve as a reliable basis for the study of the origin of mutants. 
Nor did the speaker know of any other case in which progressive 
mutation from a pure genotype has been proved. 

[Mutation by loss of Factors was next considered. It was 
submitted that but one thing is proved, viz. ; that the real units 
of the living kingdom are genotypes ; that such genotypes can, 
under proper precautions, be kept pure for an indefinite time ; and 
that there is no certain evidence that they can be changed in any 
other way than by crossing.] 

What then is the reason of the apiparent variability of a species 
in the Linnean sense ? In the first place, the fact is that a Linnean 
species is a collection of independent stable Jordanian species. 
Indeed, as Bateson says ; " Between Jordan with his 200 odd 
species for Erophila and Grenier and Godron with one, there is 
no hesitation possible : Jordan's view .... is at least a view of 
natural facts, whereas the collective species is a mere abstrac- 
tion." The Linnean species, indeed, has been a snare, and if we, 
as Darwin did, consider it as a unit, the small species contained 
in it must naturally appear to be deviations of the type — in other 
words, varieties. If, then, one further sees that between Linnean 
species which one considers to be units, transitional forms exist, 
it is perfectly logical to build up a theory that one species can 



THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 177 

change to another hy means of its variabiHty. Besides, the 
illusion of variability is not created by the presence of these small 
species alone. As Bateson says : " When this variability is 
sorted out, and is seen to be in part a result of hybridization, in 
part a consequence of the persistence of hybrids by partheno- 
genetic reproduction, a polymorphism due to the continued 
presence of individuals representing various combinations of 
Mendelian allelomorphs, partly also the transient eifect of altera- 
tion in external circumstances, we see how cautious we must be 
in drawing inferences as to the indefiniteness of specific limits 
from a bare knowledge that intermediates exist." The author 
expressed his firm conviction, as explained before, that no trans- 
mittable variation exists, and that all apparent variability is due 
to an original cross. 

Finally, the author proceeded to the origin of species before 
sexual reproduction took place. He laid stress on the fact that 
this of course is mere speculation. 

As such he offered the following points : — 

(1) If a species is a perfectly stable genotype, reproducing 
faithfully its kind for ever, unless crossing interferes, all 
differences between the individuals belonging to a geno- 
type must be non- inheritable modifications. 

(2) Inheritable variability does not exist, with the always 
possible exception of mutation through loss of factors. 
All that has been described as variability is the result of 
vegetative or generative segregation of heterozygotes. 

(3) No inheritance of acquired characters occurs. The total 
of the inheritable factors now found among higher 
organisms must have been present in the total of the 
" urorganisms," each of which, however, possessed but a 
small number. 

[At the meeting of the same Society on June 4, the Eev. George 
Henslow gave an address on "Darwin's Alternative Explanation of 
the Origin of Species, without the Means of Natural Selection," 
of which the following abstract was supplied.] 

The cause of variation, always " changed conditions of Life," 
with " Definite or Indefinite Results " {Variation, £c. vol. ii. p. 272, 
1868). 

Natural Selection is not a cause : e. g. Mivart {Origin, dx. 
6th ed. ch, vii.). Also, E. W. Hutton, who says : — " Having 
Natural Selection to be a true cause, and one that largely explained 
the Origin of Species from Varieties, by causing a gradual diver- 
gence of character, &c." {Darioinism and Lamarckism, p. 38, 1899). 

No necessity for the words " several generations " for giving 
rise to a variation, as plants vary at once ; but they are required 
for fixing them so as to be heredity under any conditions. 
"Species" and "Variety" are terms representing the varying 
amounts of change necessary for adaptation. Hence there need 
be no intermediate forms. 

First reference to " definite action," &c., as a cause {Origin, &c. 

Journal op Botany. — Vol. 52. [July, 1914.] r 



178 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

1st ed. End of Introduction, 1859). His original view {Origin, dc. 
pp. 11, 12) not strongly emphasized until 1868 (Variation, etc., and 
Origin, d'C. 6th ed. 1878). Reason for delay given to Wagner 
{Ltfe, it-c. vol. iii. p. 158; Oct. 1876), viz :— " I could find little 
evidence of the direct action of the environment." 

" Definite variation " leads to " permanent modification of 
structure," i. e. inheritance of acquired characters {Origin, itc. 
6th ed. p. 421, 1878). These may become only relatively, or even 
absolutely, stable under all conditions of life. 

Indefinite variations, also caused by " direct action of changed 
conditions of life." They consist of a supposed mixture of indi- 
viduals, the minority possessing " favourable " {i. e. adaptive), the 
ynajority, "injurious" {i.e. inadaptive) variations. Such is the 
Theory of Natural Selection as described {Origin, dc. 6th ed. p. 63, 
1878). 

Natural Selection is not required, for the majority die by 
"fortuitous destruction" {Origin, £c. 6th ed. pp. 53, 54, 59-89), 
e. g. Sir E. Ray Lankester says, one out of a million eggs of an 
oyster may survive, i. e. per chance (Darwin's word). 

Contra, F. Buckland says of young oysters, transferred to new 
localities, that within two months they begin to assume the 
" native characters " {Variation, dc. vol. ii. pp. 280, 281). 

In illustration, Mr. Henslow adduced the following examples : — 

Mesophytic plants becoming aquatic and vice versa, e. g. Water 
Crowfoot. E. g. Monocotyledons originated from aquatic Dicoty- 
ledons. Mesophytic plants becoming Xerophytic and vice versa 
by means of water, e. g. Restharrow, &c. Cultivated plants 
originating, by prepared soil, from wild plants, and their rever- 
sion, e. g. root crops. Depauperised and dwarfed plants, recog- 
nized as specific ; through drought, submergence, parasitism, and 
saprophytism. 

Darwin's final charge against scientists for their misrepresen- 
tations : — " Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but 
the history of science shows that, fortunately, this power does not 
long endure " {Origin, &c. 6th ed. p. 421). It has lasted for 
fifty-five years (1859-1914). 



NOTES ON DR. FOCKE'S BUBI EUROPE I (1914).- 

By the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

Biobi Europcei is the latest product of Dr. Focke's unrivalled 
work on the brambles of the world, and of Europe in particular. 
Here we find in great detail his maturest views on our British 
Rubi in correlation with those known on the continent of Europe. 
We can hardly be too grateful to him for the untiring labour 



* Bibliotheca Botanica. Herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Chr. Luerssen 
Danzig-Zoppot. Heft 83. Wilhelm Olbers Focke : Species Kuborum. Mono- 
graphise generis Rubi Prodromqs. Pars iii. Stuttgart. 191-4. 



NOTES ON DR. POCKE'S RUBI EUROPiEI 179 

evident throughout. Some criticism of the conclusions reached 
is, however, inevitahle. And naturally those whose opportunities 
of study have been more concentrated through a long series of 
years on the forms occurring in any one country, or group of 
neighbouring countries, may still doubt whether the last word 
has been said in every case. As will be seen by anyone turning 
over the pages (in the earlier groups especially), Dr. Focke finally 
assents to most of our names, though he often groups them 
differently, as was to be expected in so elaborate a classification 
as that now formulated by him. To this difference of grouping 
only occasional reference will be found in the following notes. 
The few illustrations from photographs which occur here and 
there — however unsatisfying in some respects, as they must 
always be — are yet of real value as reproducing exactly both 
leaves and detailed outline of flowering branches. 

The first three groups of the Fruticosi section of Bubus in our 
London Catalogue, ed. x. {Siiberecti, Suhrhamnifolii, and BJiamni- 
folii) contain twenty-four numbered " species." Of these, four 
(castrensis, incnrvatus, diirescens, and lacustris) are, so far as is at 
present known, endemic in Britain, and so necessarily retain our 
names in Buhi Europai ; as do eighteen out of the remaining 
twenty, leaving only two of the twenty-four — B. integribasis and 
B. LindUianus — in doubt. Of these, B. integribasis must now 
apparently be either struck out of our list, or provisionally, as a 
matter of convenience for reference, changed from " B. integri- 
basis P. J. Mlill. ? " (as it now stands) to B. integribasis Rogers 
{non P. J. M.) ; as Dr. Focke, who first suggested the name for 
our plant, has, after considerable previous hesitation, distinctly- 
disallowed it. He says of it : " In planta Britannica [B. integri- 
basis Eogers) foliola potius obovata, aculei pauUo longiores et 
robustiores sunt. Stamina stylos superant. Petala roseola. 
B. cceresiensi [Sudre et Gravet] sine dubio magis aflfinis quam 
B. integribasi." And he adds, " Im siidhchen England." Our 
plant, as thus distinguished, is locally abundant throughout 
South-east Dorset and along the New Forest border in South 
Hants, extending in that direction to Woolmer Forest, North 
Hants. I have also seen it on Tooting Common, Surrey. It 
must therefore have a permanent place in our list, and ultimately 
a new name. 

In the case of B. Lindleianus, Dr. Focke now writes : 
" B. vulgarem et B. Lindleyanum olim (Syn. Rub. Germ.) dis- 
tinguere conatus sum, sed revera omnino confluunt et limites 
naturales non existunt." Whether in consequence of this we 
should change our name is no doubt a question for decision ; as 
to which, I must own, I feel no little difficulty. Lees's Lindlei- 
anus is one of our most widely distributed and strongly marked 
British brambles, with which I have long been very famihar. Of 
the German B. Lindleyanus (Syn. R. G. and Aschers et Graebn. 
Syn. Mitt. Fl.) I have seen no specimens ; but I have six sheets 
of " B. vulgaris Wh. & N.", collected by Dr. Focke at Minden 
(1871 and 1873), Rinteln (German, boreal.) 1872, and Bremen 

p 2 



180 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

1889, and I could not put these together as one species ; nor does 
any single sheet seem to me identical with our plant, though the 
two Minden sheets are near it. The figure of R. vulgaris (tab. xiv. 
p. 38) in Eub. Germ, is also considerably unlike our R. Lindlei- 
anus. So I am still unwilling to surrender our name for Weihe 
& Nees' more aggregate one. 

As to R. Rogersii Linton, there is happily no longer room for 
uncertainty. It is now accepted by Dr. Focke as a good " species," 
and as (so far as is yet known) endemic in the British Isles, while 
his R. mnmohius takes subordinate rank after it, as " R. 'pUccito et 
a. Rogersii similis." In further differentiation of the German 
plant he adds, " foliola multo majora quam in R. Rogersii, vix 
plicata ; terminale in foliis quinatis cordato-suborbiculare vel 
cordato-ovatum ; infima breviter petiolulata. Rami fertiles, 
petioli pedunculique multo parcius aculeati quam in R. Rogersii. 
Flores majores quam in R. jiUcato et R. Rogersii. Petala incurva, 
i.e. e fundo patente ascendentia." Though thus distinct enough 
from our plant, it is obviously allied to it. 

The above notes refer only to numbered " species " in our first 
three groups. In addition to such species, we have eight well- 
marked forms in these groups. In the London Catalogue these 
are all entered as varieties, the plan of the Catalogue being to 
class all the plants admitted into it as either species or varieties. 
But it must not therefore be taken for granted that all these 
"varieties" (either here or elsewhere) are necessarily of equal 
value, i.e. as conspicuously distinct all from the species with 
which they are placed. I have never thought them so certainly, 
as I tried to show by dividing them into " sub-species " and 
" varieties " in my Handbook of British Ruhi. These more or 
less subordinate forms are not always easily traced in Ruhi 
Europcei. This is partly due to the author's comparatively slight 
acquaintance with some of them, only a few having been seen by 
him when he visited England in 1889 and 1894 ; while he has not 
always been kept duly supplied with dried specimens. Of those 
in our first three groups, however, Briggsianus is the only one 
which he seems not to have noticed. As to the rest, he suggests 
no important change or rearrangement, except in the case of 
Bertramii, which, apparently, he no longer accepts as British, 
though I can find no discrepancies between his fuller description 
and my short one in my Handbook of British Ruhi, p. 22, nor 
between our plant and " Slesvig " specimens received from Mr. 
Friderichsen. His R. 02)acus, however (a variety of R. nitidus in 
the London Catalogue, but a sub-species in my Handbook), he 
places as an independent but unnumbered form or species after 
his R. ammobius, with the note added : " R. nitidus subsp. opacus 
Rogers Handbook of British Ruhi, p. 23, ex mea sententia non 
differt, quamvis R. opacus R. plicato magis affinis videtur quam 
B. nitido." 

Thus far I have written as if our grouping fairly corresponded 
with that adopted in Ruhi Europai. But, as I have stated above, 
it does so only partially, even while we are considering the earlier 



NOTES ON DR. FOCKe's RUBI EUROP^ffil 181 

species, as in the above notes. Dr. Focke's arrangement, as now 
elaborated by him for the Ruhi of the World, is really much more 
complicated than ours, and, as we advance beyond our first three 
groups, a detailed comparison between the two systems, and the 
attempt to keep a corresponding order in dealing with the plants, 
becomes increasingly difficult. From this point, therefore, I may 
content myself with briefer notes bearing almost exclusively on 
details connected with the specific and varietal names. 

Thus the Villicaules — a small intermediate group with us — is 
now divided by Dr. Focke between his more aggregate Bhanmifolii 
and Silvatici, and nothing need be here added to what may be 
found on its species and varieties in the 1905 volume of this 
Journal, p. 201. As regards our Discolores also, his treatment now 
is not materially changed from that found in his Aschers. et 
Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl., pp. 499-512, and is hardly such as to 
call for special comment here. When we come to Silvatici and 
Vestiti it is otherwise ; and changes are suggested of special 
interest to us. 

Our B. hesperms is no longer associated by Dr. Focke with his 
i?. myricce, but is placed by him in an independent position, as a 
numbered species, between B. Sprengelii and R. Arrhenii ; while 
B. myriccB is removed to a place among the Egregii, with the 
following explanation : " Prima, quae vidi, specimina comparavi 
cum B. myricce. meo {vide Rogers, Handbook, 1. c), sed, plantis iterum 
atque iterum examinatis, differentiae nunc graviores mihi 
apparent. B. myricce ex affinitate B. Silvatici removi." So 
B. myricce disappears from our list. I may add that though 
B. hesperius, exactly as described in the 1896 volume of this 
Journal, has so far been found only in Ireland, a very closely 
allied form, which need not perhaps claim a separate name, occurs 
near Bangor (Carnarvon) and in three or four English counties. 
It is unknown on the Continent, and Dr. Focke expressly separates 
from it the " B. hesperius, Piper, Erythrea v. p. 103," published 
two years later than the Irish plant. 

B. Colemanni Blox. Dr. Focke now places this between 
B. villicaulis and B. Sehneri ; but our position — last among 
Silvatici and close to Vestiti — seems preferable. He also says of 
it: " Verosimile mihi videtur B. Colemanni auctorum recentiorum 
' speciem ' aggregatam esse. Plantae Bloxamii typicae originem 
hybridam {villicaulis x rculula?) suspicor." Such an opinion 
should not be lightly brushed aside. But opportunities of 
studying the living plant have greatly multiplied in recent years, 
and it proves to be very widely spread in England, east and west, 
from Yorkshire to Hants. It is also locally abundant, and, as a 
rule, quite remarkably constant. Bloxam's dried specimens of his 
Leicestershire plant have shorter and usually more roundish 
leaflets than I have seen from any other county ; but I cannot see 
that they are otherwise different. 

B. orthoclados Ley. In Aschers. et Gr. Syn. vi. 470 (1902) a 
new name {B. euchloos Focke) was substituted for Ley's name, a 
change not welcomed by Mr. Linton and me in our paper in the 



182 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

1905 vol. of this Journal, p. 201. Ley's name is now restored for 
the British plant, and B. cuchloos separated from it and transferred 
to M. Gravet's Belgian plant, referred to on p. 47 of my Handbook. 
But a further suggestion is now made that both are probably of 
hybrid origin: the British as " plicatus x Sprengelii,'' and the 
Belgian as " ? suberectus x Sjirengelii." Of the latter I have seen 
only dried specimens, which in this instance are not sufficient for 
distinction, as Dr. Focke points out. Mr. Ley took Dr. Focke and 
me in 1894 to see his plant on the Beacon Hill, near Trelleck, 
Monmouthshire, where it "occupies a large area of woodland (some 
three square miles)," and his article describing the plant (Journ, 
Bot. 1896, 159, 160) contains the following remarks bearing on 
the question of a possible hybrid origin: "On the adjoining heath 
occurs what seems to be a form of the same bramble with leaves 
much more deeply cut and plicate, and with the glands of 
the panicle-rachis fewer and subsessile. A hybrid also occurs 
on the heath between the last-named plant and (probably) 
B. Sprengelii W." Some of the specimens in my herbarium re- 
present this hybrid, and others varying examples of B. orthoclados 
— all tending to conlarm Dr. Focke's present view. In our future 
lists, therefore, it may perhaps be sufficient to give Ley's plant as 
a hybrid — Sprengelii x 1 plicatus. I have seen specimens of very 
similar plants from several of our western counties, from Cheshire 
to W. Gloucester. The B. orthocladus Boul. Eonc. Vosg. 127 
(1869) is now " suspected " by Dr. Focke to be B. foliosus x 
macropliyllus ; but apparently the same plant had in 1861 been 
named B. anoplostachys by Mueller, its discoverer, and so could 
have no right to Boulay's name in 1869 (Journ. Bot. 1905, 201). 

Next to B. orthoclados in Bicbi Europai comes "i?. riibricolor 
Blox. in Syme Engl. Bot. ed. 3, iii. p. 180, teste J. E. Griffith," 
without further description than the following : " Frutices 
humiles, inter se variabiles, sed omnes B. nitido similes et crebre 
vel parcius glandulosi. Flores rosei. V. v. sp. Bei Bethesda in 
N. Wales." But I believe it to be impossible to separate Bloxam's 
plant (now for many years shut out of our list) from the very 
aggregate B. lentiginosus Lees, which is common and variable in 
the Bethesda neighbourhood. 

(To be concluded) 



PROTECTION OF THE CAPE FLORA. 

The Selborne Magazine for April contains an interesting 
account of the steps taken for the protection of the Cape Flora, 
from the pen of Mr. A. Handel Hamer, Vice-President of the 
Mountain Club of South Africa. The gradual destruction of the 
more attractive plants of Table Mountain and other habitats near 
centres of population had proceeded for some time. At last 
" public opinion grew strong on the matter, and in 1905 the Cape 
Government passed an Act under which regulations could be 
ssued forbidding the sale of certain species, and instituting close- 



PROTECTION OF THE CAPE FLORA 183 

times during which certain species might not be plucked. This 
legislation, however, had very little, if any, effect, owing to the 
fact that its administration was left to the police. In 1910 the 
Mountain Club of South Africa began to take up the matter 
afresh, and for this purpose one of the effects of the establishment 
of the Union Government of South Africa was fortunate, inasmuch 
as the protection of the fauna and flora was given over to the 
Provincial Councils, which were established for each Province, 
as the late separate Colonies now became. An influential depu- 
tation was arranged, and waited upon the Administrator of the 
Cape Province (Sir Frederic de Waal) to urge the necessity of 
further steps being taken. The representations of this deputation 
were well received by Sir Frederic, who has thrown himself 
actively into the work of constructing the necessary Provincial 
legislation in all directions. As a result, about twelve months 
afterwards, new regulations were got out, greatly enlarging the 
scope of the former ones, and absolutely forbidding the plucking 
of a large number of species by anybody for a period of three 
years. At the same time a Wild Flowers Protection Committee 
was formed by the Mountain Club, who invited delegates from 
the National Society, the Eoyal Society of South Africa, the 
South Africa Museum, the South African College, The Publicity 
Association, and the City Council. From this large committee a 
vigilance committee was picked of members who were determined 
to see the regulations administered. 

" The immediate result was to demonstrate the absolute use- 
lessness of the Cape Government's Act under which the new 
regulations were issued. As soon as prosecutions were instituted 
it was found that they could rarely be successful, because it was 
necessary to prove that the flowers had been plucked on Crown 
lands, and there was no means of compelling the accused to say 
where he had got the flower from. Moreover, according to the 
preamble of this Act, the species was required to be in danger of 
extinction." A new ordinance was therefore obtained, of which 
the practical legislative points are as follows : — " The onus of 
proof is placed upon the accused that he obtained a prohibited 
flower in a legitimate manner. Such a legitimate possession 
could only occur if he were the owner or had the written per- 
mission of the owner of the land from which it had been obtained, 
or if it had been cultivated in land set apart for the cultivation of 
flowers. The selling of blooms, or any other parts of specified 
plants, by anybody whatsoever (owner of the land on which they 
grew not excepted) can be prohibited by the regulations, except- 
ing only flowers cultivated on land set apart for the purpose. 
Provision is made by which the Commissioner of Police can issue 
authority to suitable persons, by virtue of which written authori- 
ties or warrants the holders can require the name and place of 
abode of any person reasonably suspected of transgressing the 
regulations. If the required information be refused an additional 
fine is provided for if the offender be eventually brought to book. 
These warrant-holders have formed themselves into a special com- 



184 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

mittee, and have drawn up a constitution with a view to keeping 
themselves up to the mark and providing i7iter alia that they 
should meet periodically to compare notes, and that no names 
should be handed to the police for prosecution until the cases 
had been submitted to the committee or a sub-committee 
appointed to supervise prosecutions. The reason for this latter 
provision is, of course, to avoid the possibihty of the movement 
being injured by hasty or mistaken prosecutions." 



SHORT NOTES. 



EosA siNiCA. — Rosa sinica is often cited as of Ait. Hort. Kew. 
(ed. 2, iii. 261) — e.g. by Lindley, Rosarum Monographia (1820), 
Hemsley in Index Fl. Sinensis, i. 250, Hook. f. in Fl. Bl-it. Ind. ii. 
364 — to designate a species distinct from R. sinica L. Syst. Veg. ed. 
13, 394 (1774), a plant with subglobose glabrous receptacle. 
Alton in his first edition (Hort. Kew. ii. 203 (1789) ) merely 
copies Linngeus's diagnosis ; the reference in the second edition 
is a repetition of the first. R. sinica Ait. is therefore identical 
with R. sinica L. Alton adds " cult. 1759 by Mr. Philip Miller." 
Miller makes no reference to this species in his Dictionary, and 
there is no specimen from him in the Banksian Herbarium. 
Eobert Brown in his MSS. writes: "said to be cultivated in 1759 
by Mr. Philip Miller, and as there is no reference to his Dictionary, 
it must be inserted from the memory of Mr. Alton, the elder." 
R. sinica as a synonym or closely allied species of R. lavigata 
starts with Lindley, whose description is based on a specimen 
from Bladh in Herb. Bank, whose figure is copied from a Chinese 
drawing in the same collection. R. sinica L. is probably the 
same as R. inclica L., see Lindley, op. cit. — W. Fawcett. 

Lecanora isidioides Nyl. in the New Forest. — This 
extremely rare and local lichen, which has hitherto been recorded 
in Great Britain from a small area in North Wales only, was 
found quite recently (April, 1914), growing in a part of the New 
Forest, near the hamlet of Cadnam. It is on the mossy trunk of 
an oak tree, southern aspect, and extends in more or less isolated 
patches from one to eight feet above the ground. The plant is in 
a very healthy and vigorous condition, both in the development 
of the thallus and in the production of apothecia. Crombie says 
[Monograph of Lichens foimd in Great Britain, parti., 1894): — 
" The thallus is rather scattered, greenish grey when moistened, 
usually but sparingly fertile, though in one corticolous fragment 
the apothecia are somewhat numerous." The New Forest 
specimens are abundantly fertile, so much so that the apothecia 
are in some cases slightly angular owing to close contact. The 
fruits are also, on the average, slightly larger than those of the 
Salwey and Borrer specimens in the herbarium of the British 
Museum, but this may possibly be due to the age of the specimens. 
The diameter of the larger apothecia of the New Forest specimens 



SHORT NOTES 185 

is just over 2 ixim. The spores are all slightly constricted, and 
the mature ones are decidedly brown ; they vary much in size, the 
largest being 0'03 mm. long and 0'015 mm. broad. The Salwey 
specimens are dated Cwm Buchen, 1835, and one of Borrer's, 
1841. Crombie remarks, in the monograph already referred to, 
that Lecanora isidioides has not recently been met with, and there 
is no record from anywhere in Great Britain since the date 
of the book. — Robert Paulsen. 

PucciNiA Smyrnii. — This fungus, parasitic on Smyrnium 
Olusatrimi, is recorded by Plowright as occurring, "^cidiospores, 
May to June; teleutospores, June to July," and by Grove, in his 
book, as " ^cidia, April-June ; teleutospores, June-August." It 
is perhaps, therefore, worthy of record to state that through the 
kindness of Miss D. E. Gepp I have received consignments of the 
fungus from Torquay each month from August to April. In every 
case aecidia and teleutosori were present, the former always much 
the more abundant. In December, January, and February the 
teleutosori were very few in number and indifferently hypophyllous 
or epiphyllous. The teleutospores germinate overnight in hanging- 
drop, giving rise to a typical promycelium, the sporidia produced 
often having germinated in situ by the morning. — J. Ramsbottom. 

Isle of Man Hepatic^ (p. 45). —Prof. Farmer states that 
" little or nothing has yet been done towards recording the 
species that occur in the Island." As an official of the Moss 
Exchange Club I should like to call attention to the second edition 
of the Census Catalogue of British Heijaiicce, issued in May, 
1913, where all the species mentioned by Prof. Farmer are 
recorded, except Eucalyx suhelUpticus (hitherto only noted for 
Mid-Perth), Lejeunia cavifolia var. planiuscula and Anthoceros 
IcBvis. The list given in the Catalogiie is a rich one, based on 
work done by Mr. G. A. Holt, with supplementary records 
supplied by Mr. Beesley and others. I understand that Mr. 
Hunter has recently made further additions of interest. Alto- 
gether about eighty species and varieties are known to occur in 
the Island. Of the genera referred to by Prof. Farmer there are 
recorded three species of Lepidozia, seven species of LopJiozia, 
and one species each of Fossomhronia, Madotheca, and Radula. — 
J. A. Wheldon. 

BE VIEWS. 

Floioering Plants of the Biviera : a Descriptive Account of 1800 
of the more Interesting Species. By H. Stuart Thompson, 
F.L.S. With an Introduction on Riviera Vegetation by 
A. G. Tansley, M.A. 24 coloured plates (112 figures), 
after water-colour drawings, by Clarence Bicknell, and 
reproductions of 16 photographs of vegetation by the 
author. Pp. xxviii, 249. 8vo, cloth. 10s. M. net. 
Longmans, Green and Co. 
There was certainly room for a portable book descriptive of 

the numerous flowering plants to be found on the French and 



186 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Italian Eiviera, and Mr. Stuart Thompson has succeeded in 
supplying it. For this he is especially well quaHfied, for besides 
a good general acquaintance with European plants, he has 
acquired a special knowledge of the plants of the region, more 
particularly of the Department of the Var, which has an 
especially rich flora — 2140 species of phanerogams alone being 
recorded for it. His previous volumes on alpine and sub- alpine 
plants have moreover already shown his competence for the task. 

The book is wisely planned so as to include within its covers 
all that is needed to render the descriptions intelligible to the 
intelligent amateur. There is a chapter on collecting and 
presei'ving plants, a glossary of botanical terms, and a synopsis 
of families. Mr. Tansley's general introductory essay, although 
comprised within nine pages, is a clear and readable account of 
the general features of the vegetation, which are also presented 
by the excellent reproductions of Mr. Thompson's photographs. 
Keys to the genera are given under each order ; the descriptions 
of the species should present no difficulties to those who are 
accustomed to work with a British flora, and indeed can without 
difficulty be mastered by those who attempt the w^ork of dis- 
crimination for the first time. They will be aided in their work 
by the coloured figures, much reduced from the admirable 
drawings of Mr. Clarence Bicknell, who has generously allowed 
the author to make use of these. Their insertion may be justified 
on the principle that half a loaf, or even a smaller portion, is 
better than no bread ; but those who know Mr. Bicknell's volume, 
published in 1885, on the Floioering Plants and Ferns of the 
Eiviera, will share with us the hope that more of his drawings 
may be reproduced in a style worthy of the originals. Mr. 
Thompson in his preface usefully summarizes the literature which 
has already appeared on the plants of the region ; and acknowledges 
the help he has received from various botanists — a curious 
sentence towards the end of the penultimate paragraph needs 
revision. " The nomenclature does not follow rigidly the Vienna 
Eules of 1905 ; and in some cases a well-known name is purposely 
left, even though it may not be the earliest." We are glad that 
Mr. Thompson has not felt it necessary to coin what are called 
" English names." 

It remains to be said that the book is admirably printed on 
thin but opaque paper, is suitably bound and is light in the hand. 
We anticipate for it a large sale. 

Genera of British Plants, arranged according to Engler's ' Sijllahm 
der Pflanzenfamilien' {Seventh edition, 1912), luith the 
addition of the Characters of the Genera. By Humphrey 
G. Carter, M.B., Ch.B. Pp. xviii. -f 121. Price 4s. net. 
Cambridge : at the University Press. 
Arranged according to any reasonable system of classifica- 
tion, a book with such a subject should prove a welcome addition 
to the literature of British botany. So much attention is paid 
nowadays — too often vainly, it must be said— to hair's-breadth 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE BRITISH MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY 187 

distinctions between " sub-species," " varieties," " sub-varieties," 
"forms," and so forth, that this compact Httle vohime dealing 
w^ith the British flora from a wider outlook comes as a wholesome 
change. It should be not only a help to the beginner who does 
not know his genera, but a healthy reminder to the expert species- 
monger who forgets their existence. 

The merits of Engler's system appeal most strongly, perhaps, 
to the systematist whose practical experience has been confined to 
the flora of the north temperate regions in the eastern hemi- 
sphere. The general practical systematist, whose daily business 
it is to deal with tropical plants as well, embracing every genus of 
every natural order, may regard the older British system of 
Bentham and Hooker with more favourable eye. Nevertheless, 
if Engler's system is all that Mr. Carter claims it to be in his 
preface, he has increased the debt that British botanists will owe 
him for his lucid exposition of the genera native in their country, 
by referring them to " the nearest approach to a natural system 
that we possess." 

The modification of the nomenclature in Pteridophyta, made to 
" secure uniformity in the terminations of the names of orders," 
might have been extended beyond that group, or omitted altogether. 

Bower's classification of the Ferns, and Warming's arrange- 
ment of the Urticales, are the only departures from Engler's 
system adopted ; and these seem desirable in both cases. 

The book is well printed, and the type differentiated with 
judgment. The size is not inconvenient, but the volume might 
have been more pocketable, even at the cost of a little greater 
thickness. The price, too, is rather high, even for an introduction 
to Engler's system, when Hayward's Pocket-book can be bought 
for another sixpence. jj_ p_ Wernham. 

Transactions of the British Mycological Society for 1913. (Vol. iv. 

part 2 ; pubhshed May 28, 1914.) Worcester: Baylis & Son. 

Price 10s. 6d. 
The increased activity amongst mycologists in this country is 
indicated by the Transactions of the British Mycological Society 
for the season 1913. The number before us contains tw^o hundred 
and twenty-seven pages, and is greater in size than either of 
the first two volumes, which each occupied five years. There is 
also a great increase in the number of active members, and there 
can be no doubt that the Society is flourishing in every way, and 
fulfilling all the functions that such a society can. The informal 
spring foray held at Dolgelley is reported, and a list of the fungi 
and mycetozoa found there is given. The autumn foray at 
Haslemere is described at length, and the fungi found there are 
listed ; Mr. Carleton Rea is responsible for these accounts. The 
mycetozoa of the Haslemere foray are recorded by Miss G. Lister, 
and short notes are added in certain cases. The President for 
the year, Mr. A. D. Cotton, gave as his address " Some Sugges- 
tions as to the Study and Critical Revision of certain Genera of 
the Agaricaceje," in which he urged that the monograph was the 



188 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

means by which any real advance would be made, and pointed 
out various recent ideas on intensive description. Mr. Cotton 
also has a short paper on the production of impoverished spores 
by decapitated agarics. Other papers on Basidiomycetes are : — 
" The Fruit-body Mechanism of Bolbitius," by Professor A. H. R. 
Buller, in which it is shown that this genus stands far apart from 
Coprinus ; " Some Notes on the Genera of the Thelephorese," 
showing the origin of the present ideas on the group, by Miss 
E. M. Wakefield, who also has a note " On the Identity of Corti- 
ciuvi porosum Berk, et Curt," which is held to be identical with 
the C. stramineum of Bresadola. Mr. F. T. Brooks records his 
observations on pure cultures of certain Ascomycetes and 
Basidiomycetes, the lignicolous species dealt with being grown 
on sterilized blocks of wood. In the Uredineae, Mr. J. Eams- 
bottom deals with the nomenclature of some of the species 
according to the International Rules of Nomenclature. Mr. W. 
Watson describes as new a Pyrenomycete, Pleospora hepaticola. 
In the Discomycetes, Mr. Ramsbottom gives " Some Notes on the 
History of the Classification of the Discomycetes," beginning 
with Theophrastus and ending with the present systems ; and 
" A List of the British species of Discomycetes arranged accord- 
ing to Boudier's System, with a Key to the Genera." The names 
given in Massee's " Fungus Flora " are appended. Dr. Bayliss 
Elliott describes, diagnoses, and illustrates a new variety of 
mould, Sepedonium mucorinum Harz var. botryoides. New records 
for this country and new species to science are dealt with by Dr. 
J. W. Elhs (" New British Fungi "), Miss A. Lorrain Smith and 
Mr. J. Ramsbottom ("New or Rare Microfungi"), and Mr. Rea 
(" New and Rare British Fungi "). The last paper is illustrated 
by three plates, two of which are coloured, and are from drawings 
by Mrs. Rea. The results obtained by cytologists in the study 
of the reproductive processes of fungi during the past year are 
dealt with by Mr. Ramsbottom. It will be seen that all branches 
of the study receive attention in the Transactions, and both the 
Society and their indefatigable secretary, Mr. Carleton Rea, are 
to be congratulated on the appearance of a handsome number. 

Die Stoffivanderung in ahleheyidend Blattern. Von Dr. Nicolas 
Swart. Pp. 1-118, 5 Tafeln. 6 Mark. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 
This interesting addition to the literature of vegetable 
physiology begins with a general introduction of a couple of 
pages, occupied chiefly with a discussion of previous conclusions, 
such as those of Ebermayer (1876) concerning the behaviour of 
various food-materials stored in the leaf in the autumn up to the 
time of its fall. The opinion of the earlier students of this sub- 
ject was that the food-materials in question travelled into the 
stem, or perennating parts, when the deciduous leaves made their 
preparations for fall. Wehmer's subsequent work (1892) and 
criticism of this is mentioned, especially in regard to erroneous 
deductions made from ash-analysis. The rest of the work is 
divided into three parts. The first (pp. 4-69) deals with the 



UNTERSUCHUNGEN UBER DIE FLECHTENGONIDIEN 189 

" Auswanderungslehre " historically, affording a valuable risumi 
of previous researches from Sachs (1863) onwards, and con- 
cluding with tabular details of the author's ash-analyses of various 
plants of widely-differing affinities ; the respective weights of the 
various food-materials in the green leaf, and the yellowing, falling 
leaf are compared. Part ii. (pp. 70-96) deals with the colour- 
change induced in the leaf before it falls — namely, from green to 
yellow. The subject is viewed from many points : the arrange- 
ment of the chlorophyll ; anatomical changes in the leaf-base ; 
microscopic changes in the chloroplasts ; climatic influences ; 
effect of anthocyan upon translocation of food-stuffs. This part 
concludes with the statement that the yellowing of the leaf is 
not the result of its gradual dying, but a vital process, the visible 
effect of various physiological changes. Part iii. (pp. 97-117) is 
entitled " Schlussbetrachtungen," and deals with the general 
causes of leaf-fall in evei'green plants and in deciduous trees. 
Finally, the causes of the loss of food-material from leaves before 
their fall is discussed. This loss, it would seem, is not due to 
such a simple process as the mere travelling of the substances 
into the permanent parts, but is an essential portion of the com- 
plicated changes, structural and chemical, inseparable from the 
phenomenon of leaf-fall. The subject before us is one aspect of 
the wider familiar proposition that leaf-fall is essentially a pro- 
cess concerned with life, not death. And this process is so com- 
plex, the changes presumably so continuous and covering so long 
a period, that the observations of a single student, taken even 
with that scrupulous care of which Dr. Swart's work bears the 
unmistakable impress, must needs be somewhat unconvincing, if 
only for the practical limits placed upon their frequency during 
that period. This book of his is, nevertheless, of considerable 
historical interest, and is written with a lucidity and conciseness 
not always common in the work of his countrymen. The author's 
own results are not very considerable, but they should afford a 
useful indication of the general lines upon which co-operative 
research might profitably be directed. 

H. F. Wernham. 

Unters2ichungen iiber die Flechtengonidien. Von Fredr. Elfving. 
Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. Helsingfors, 1913. Tom. xliv. No. 2. 
71 pp. ; 8 plates. 

In this publication Herr Elfving has revived the old con- 
troversy as to the origin of the green cells or gonidia in the lichen. 
The dual nature of the thallus has been so long accepted, and has 
fitted in so exactly with the life conditions of the conjoint organ- 
isms, that it gives one a considerable shock to be taken back to 
the position held by Tulasne, and to find it again seriously main- 
tained that the gonidia are genetically connected with the hyphae. 
The author has not tested his theory by cultures — which alone 
would be decisive— but by examination of the growing areas of 
the thallus. He claims to have seen the different stages of forma- 
tion of the gonidia in a number of lichens associated with such 



190 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

different " algae " as Cystococais, Trentepohlia, Stigonema, and 
Nostoc. He allows that those gonidia increase by division within 
the thallus after they have been formed by the hyphae, and that 
they also may live a free life in the open as " algae." 

Elfving's view lands us in a series of problems : how are we 
to account for the origin of other algae that do not enter into 
symbiosis with the lichen fungus, but the life-histories of which are 
entirely comparable with that of gonidia in a free condition, unless, 
as he seems to hint, the ancestors of those algae are to be found 
among lichen gonidia ? Again, how explain the twofold repro- 
ductive system combined in one plant — the fungal and the algal ; 
each after its kind '? It is easier to suppose wrong observations 
as to the genetic connection of the colourless and the coloured 
cells, than to accept the conclusion that a homogeneous plant 
should exactly follow the life-history of two different groups of 
plants, and of various sections within that group. The author does 
not attempt to explain these anomalies ; he is content to affirm and 

reaffirm the correctness of his own observations. a t o 

A. Li. b. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc 



It has required large type, wide leading, and broad margins to 
extend to less than a hundred small pages Dr. William Macdonald's 
reprinted papers on Makers of Modern Agriculture (Macmillan). 
The "makers" are Jethro Tull (1674-1740), Thomas William 
Coke—" Coke of Norfolk "—(1752-1842), Arthur Young (1741- 
1820), Sir John Sinclair (1754-1835) and Cyrus H. McCor- 
mick (1809-1884) — the last a Virginian, " the inventor of the 
reaper" — i.e. the reaping machine. The sketches betray evi- 
dence throughout of their newspaper origin ; thus the notice of 
McCormick begins : — " It is hardly to be expected that those 
people who devoutly chant in a million churches the fourth 
sentence of the Lord's Prayer should think with gratitude of any 
other person than the Divine Giver of all Good. Yet it is strange 
to reflect that, although every schoolboy knows something of the 
life of our least Poet Laureate, not one in ten thousand could tell 
you the career of the man who responded in a truly miraculous 
manner to the heartfelt, world-voiced matin of both rich and poor, 
' Give us this day our daily bi'ead.' " The knowledge which Macaulay 
ascribed to his schoolboy pales before that which Dr. Macdonald 
postulates for his. The " subsequent paper," promised on p. 52, 
does not appear : it was to deal with the writings of Young, of 
which Dr. Macdonald says : " Our library is far from complete, 
yet we possess sixty-six volumes of his sparkling prose, which 
placed one upon another attain a height of nine feet — a monu- 
ment of amazing industry .... He met and conversed with the 
greatest savants of the age, yet his mind never burst the old wine 
bottles which he served out in the Sussex store." " Spai'kling 
prose" of this kind adorns the little book throughout, but we 
cannot help thinking it is dear at half-a-crown net. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 191 

The Country Month by Month, in which Mrs. Owen (better 
known as the editor of " A Son of the Marshes ") and Mr. 
G. S. Boulger combined " to try and give a practical direction to 
lovers of Nature in their observations by teUing them of the sights 
they may expect to find, month by month, in their country 
wanderings," has now been reissued in a handsome voUime of 
500 pages, whicli is rendered attractive by the addition of twelve 
coloured plates and twenty illustrations from photographs. The 
names of the authors are sufficient guarantee that the slipshoddity 
which still characterizes too many "popular" works is absent 
from this, and we know of no better book for the dweller in the 
country who wants to know something about the birds, plants and 
insects — the first dealt with by Mrs. Owen, the others by Mr. 
Boulger — which he may meet with on his walks. The book, 
which costs 6s. net, is published by Messrs. Duckworth, who still 
follow the practice, which we hoped had become obsolete, of dis- 
figuring the titlepages of their " review " copies with an ugly 
rubber stamp in violet ink. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society on June 18th, a paper 
by the late Mr. William West, "Ecological Notes, chiefly Crypto- 
gamic," was read in abstract by Dr. Stapf, who remarked that 
this paper was the outcome of a suggestion by Prof. Engler, that 
whilst abundance of observations existed of ecological facts 
regarding phanerogams, the cryptogams had been neglected. 
This paper, intended as the first of a series, deals chiefly with the 
corticolous associations of epiphytes. A very large number of 
observations were detailed, and an approximate percentage 
estimate of the chief epiphytes was given. Stereodon cupressi- 
formis var. filiformis is found to be the most prevalent epiphytic 
moss generally ; but in some localities, especially those with a 
very heavy rainfall, Isothecium myosuroides becomes the most 
abundant, especially on the lower part of the trunks. Parmelia 
saxatilis is the most abundant epiphytic lichen : P. physodes 
sometimes becomes dominant in exposed and wind-swept places. 
Lecanora tartarea and Platysma glaucum attain dominance some- 
times in places subject to frequent montane storms. Fndlania 
dilatata is probably the most frequent epiphyte among the 
Hepatics, but Metzgeria furcata is now and then the most abun- 
dant. From the detailed tables given of epiphytes, which only 
represent portions of the district examined, and are not given as 
what may be expected in every locality, the percentage comes 
out: — Stereodon cupressiforniis 16, Parmelia saxatilis 6, Isothe- 
cium myosuroides 2, Frullania dilatata 2, Parmelia fuliginosa vsiv. 
Icetevirens 2, Lecanora tartarea 2, Platysma glaucum 1, and various 
species of Pertusaria 1. The observations extend over parts of 
Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and the Lake District. 

The following British botanists will attend the forthcoming 
meeting of the British Association in AustraHa : — Prof. F. 0. 
Bower, President of the Botanical Section ; Prof. A. C. Seward, 
Vice-President ; Misses M. Benson, E. M. Berridge, L. J. Clarke, 



192 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

L. S. Gibbs, E. E. Saunders, A. L. Smith, and E. N. Thomas, and 
Messrs. W. Bateson, E. H. Compton, G. C. Druce, A. H. Evans, 
H. 0. Forbes, E. P. Gregory, W. P. Hiern, T. Johnson, and Dr. 
A. B. Eendle. 

In a paper entitled Beitrdge zur Kenntnis der Pteridophyten- 
gattung PhyUitis (reprinted from Q^sterreich. Botan. Zeitschrift. 
1914, pp. 19-36, 5 pis. and 2 maps), Friedrich Morton publishes 
two studies of the genus PhyUitis Ludw. [Scolopcndrinm Adans.) : 
(i.) the finding of P. Heviionitis (Lag.) 0. Kuntze in the 
Quarnero region, and the distribution of the species ; (ii.) the 
systematic position, distribution, and ecology of P. hybrida 
(Milde) Christensen. Having made a comparative study of this 
species and its allies in respect of the following structures : (1) the 
endings of the vascular bundles in the frond-lobes ; (2) the posi- 
tion of the sori ; (3) the indusium ; (4) the layers of tissue from 
which the indusium arises, he is of opinion that P. hybrida is no 
hybrid, but an independent species, occupying a systematic posi- 
tion between Ceterach and P. Scolopendrimn, similar to that of 
P. Hemionitis, to which, in its anatomy and morphology, it is 
most nearly akin. It is endemic in the southern Quarnero 
Archipelago, in the Adriatic Sea. 

We regret to note the death, at the age of seventy-five, of 
M. Philippe van Tieghem, Professor of Botany at the Paris Natural 
History Museum. Van Tieghem's most important botanical work 
was on the comparative anatomy of the vegetative structure of 
the flower in numerous families of seed-plants. Many of these 
communications were published in the Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles, of which he was botanical editor from 1882, when he 
succeeded Decaisne, until the time of his death. One of the best 
known and most important appeared in 1869 on the comparative 
anatomy of the female flower and fruit in Gymnosperms, in which 
he attacked the problem of the morphology of the cone-scales 
from an anatomical point of view, and demonstrated a uniform 
plan of structure in this organ throughout the Pinacete. In 1884 he 
produced his Traiti de Botanique, the second edition of which (1891) 
contained 1855 pages. His systems of classification were, as far as 
concerned the flowering plants, based primarily on characters of the 
ovule ; they were conceived on too narrow lines, besides being bur- 
dened with a novel and extensive terminology. Van Tieghem also 
made valuable contributions to the study of the phycomycetous fungi , 
especially on the morphology and physiology of the Mucorineas. 

The Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society (xxxix. part 3, 
April) contains an interesting illustrated paper by Mr. E. A. 
Bunyard on " The History and Development of the Strawberry," 
and a lecture by the Eev. G. Henslow on " The Evolution of 
Plants and the Directivity of Life, as shown by the Eeproductive 
Organs " ; as well as contributions from the Wisley Laboratory 
and many papers dealing with horticultural matters. 

The degree of D.Sc. in Botany has been conferred by the 
University of London on Mr. H. F. Wernham, of the Department 
of Botany, British Museum. 



Journ.Bot. 



Tab. 532. 




P.Highley del.et lith . West.Kewman imp. 

Poa remctiflora Murb. /"exilis. 



193 

POA EEMOTIFLOEA Murb. IN JEKSEY. 

By C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. 

(Plate 532.) 

In the Journal of Botany for 1913, p. 16, mention was made 
of a Poa found in the Channel Islands in 1910, and thought to be 
new to Great Britain and the Sarnian flora. This diminutive 
grass seems to have lieen first observed by Tommasini in 1872, 
and to have been first published by J. Freyn in his " Flora von 
Siid-Istrien " (Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, xxvii. 469 (1877) ) as 
"Poa annua L. /3 exilis Tommas. ined., 1-3 stemmed, in minute 
rosettes, only 2-8 cm. high ; panicle few-flowered, spike-like or 
with only 1-2 horizontally-spreading branches at the base . . . 
(Tommasini, 1872)." 

In 1895 Battandier and Trabut (Fl. de I'Alg^rie, 206) introduce 
the grass as P. annua L. /5^ remotiflora Hackel, with the follow- 
ing meagre description : " Epillets allonges lin^aires, 5-6 fleurs 
espac6es." 

It was, however, left to S. Murbeck to work out minutely this 
interesting grass, and the results of his careful examination may 
be found in his Contribution de la Flore du Nord-ouest de I'Afriqne, 
iv. 22 (1900), where he compares it with allied forms, and gives 
valuable figures. 

I cannot do better than quote his description verbatim, omitting 
as unnecessary for British botanists the contrasting characters 
of P. dimorphantha, 

" P. remotiflora (Hack.) nob. — Nova spec. — Annua, foliorum 
fasciculis sterilibus destituta. Culmi plerumque numerosi, fasci- 
culati, e basi arcuata adscendentes, 5-20 cm. alti, Isevissimi. 
Vaginae glaberrimae, Iteves, inferiores compressae et dorso carinatae. 
Ligula foliorum inferiorum truncate-, superiorum triangulari- 
oblonga. Laminae lineares, planae vel subcomplicatae (explanataa 
l'5-4-5 mm. latae), laete virides, moUes, margine et ad nervum 
medianum scabriusculae, caeterum glaberrimae, etiam foliorum 
inferiorum apicem versus sat subito acutatae. Panicula triangulari- 
ovalis vel oblongo-rhomboidea, duplo vel triplo longior quam latior 
(longit. 3'5-7'5 cm., latit. 1-5-3-5 cm.), unilateralis, laxa, ramis 
2-3-nis, laevibus, erecto-patulis, patentibus vel infimis post anthesin 
patentissimis attamen non refractis. Spiculae oblongae vel oblongo- 
lineares, acutiusculae, a lateribus compressse, 2-5-florae, 3"5-5-5 mm. 
longae, virides vel violaceo-variegatae, rachilla glaberrima. Gluma 
inferior ovato-oblonga, subacuta, 1-nervis, 1-1-3 mm. longa ; 
superior oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, obtusa vel acutiuscula, 3-nervis, 
1-5-2 mm. longa. Flores in quaque spicula remoti, rachillam non 
vel vix occultantes, sat dissimiles: zw/c?-iores hermaphroditi, sub- 
proterandri, oblongo-lanceolati, 2-2-8 mm. longi; glumella inferior 
dorso rotundata, a basi usque ad ultra medium nervis 5 dense 
sericeo-villosis ornata, apice membranaceo rotundato-obtusa ; 
glumella superior inferiorem subaequans, a basi fere usque ad 
apicem ad nervos sericeo-villosa ; lodiculae oblique triangulares ; 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [August, 1914.] q 



194 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



filamenta staminum glumellis non vel vix longiora; antherae 
0-22-0-33 mm. longge, albidae, loculis ovoideis, circ. duple longi- 
oribus quam latioribus ; caryopsis oblongo-ovoidea, quam glumella 
inferior circ. tertia parte brevior ; flos supremus nunc herm- 
aphroditus nunc femineus, post anthesin ovoideo-lanceolatus, 
acutiusculis, 1-8-2 mm. longus, stipiti eo tertia vel quarta parte 
breviori insidens, erectus ; glumella inferior superiore paullo 
longior, ut superior fere usque ad apicem ad nervos sericeo-villosa ; 
lodiculae minutissimae, triangulares ; caryopsis ovoidea, quam 
glumella inferior tertia vel quarta parte brevior. — Fl. & fr. Mart. 

" Syn. P. annua var. remotiflora Hack, in Baenitz Herb. 
Europ. Lief, xxxix. (1880), n. 3999 (sine diagn.). P. annua 
fi remotiflora Hack, in Batt. & Trab. Fl. Alg6r. v. 206 (1895). 

"Icon. Tab. nostra, xiv. fig. 12. 

''Distribution geographique. Algerie: Lieux humides entre 
Philippe-ville et Damr6mont (Murb. & Olin.) ; d'apr^s Batt. & 
Trab., I.e., aussi a Kouiba et a Teniet-el-Haad. — Grece : In locis 
incultis prope Athenas (Heldreich, 1878). 

" Cette plante, distinguee il y a d^ja une vingtaine d'ann^es 
par Hackel comme vari^te du Poa annua L., mais dont une 
description n'a et6 publiee qu'en 1895 par Trabut," est tres voisine 
du P. annua, auquel elle a ete r^unie aussi par cet auteur. Elle 
ne parait toutefois pas avoir et6 jusqu'ici etudi6e en detail. En 
reality, elle presente plusieurs caract^res importants, qui la 
differencient de I'espfece de Linne (voir ci-dessous). L'extr^me 
petitesse des anth^res, qui sont constamment 2 a 3 fois plus 
courtes que dans cette derniere, me parait surtout constituer une 
difference si essentielle, qu'il est pr6ferable de regarder cette 
plante comme une esp^ce a part. 

" Un Poa remotiflora ['Poa {ArctopJiila) remotiflora'] se trouve 
d6ja dans Kuprecht (Fl. samoj. p. 63, 1845). — Mais comme la 
plante de Euprecht appartient au genre Colpodium Trin. {Arcto- 
phila Eupr.) et qu'il n'est pas probable qu'elle constitue une 
espfece distincte du Colpodium pendulimmi Griseb., je n'ai pas vu 
d'inconvenient a employer ici comme designation specifique le 
nom de vari^te donne par Hackel. 

" On trouvera ci-dessous un aper9u des caract^res par lesquels 
se distinguent entre eux les Poa dimorphantha, remotiflora et 
annua. II se fonde, comme les descriptions donuees plus haut, 
non settlement sur des specimens s6ch6s, mais aussi sur des ex- 
emplaires vivants, cultiv^s dans le Jardin botanique de Lund. 



"P. remotiflora. 
" Cliaumes arqu6s-ascendants. 



"P. anmia. 

" Chaumes ascendants ou 
couches. 



" Glumes inferieures com- 
prim6es, car6n6es sur le dos. 



" Glumes infirieures sub- 
cylindriques, b> peine carenees 
sur le dos. 



• Trabut la decrit ainsi (I. c.) : " Epillets allonges lin^aires, 5-6 fleura 
espac^es." 



POA REMOTIFLORA IN JERSEY 



195 



"P. remotiflora. 
''Feuilles scabres sur les 
bords ; meme les inf^rieures 
assez brusquement attenu6es 
vers le so m met. 

" Panic ide ovale-triangulaire 
ou oblongue-rhomboidale, de 
1-5 a 3 fois aussi longue que 
large, semi-conique (a base semi- 
orbiculaire) ; rameaux infer. 
6tal6s apr^s I'anth^se. 

" Fleurs espac6es, assez dis- 
semblables, les infer ieures (de 
1^4) longues de 2 a 2-8 mm., 
hermaphrodites, lanceol6es-ob- 
longues apr6s I'anth^se ; les 
superieiires (1 ou 2) gen6rale- 
ment femelles, subaigues, 
6troitement ovoides apr6s I'an- 
these, longues de 1'8 a 2 mm., 
la terminale de^k^ plus longue 
que son p^dicelle. 

" Filets des 6tamines pas ou 
a peine plus longs que la glu- 
melle inferieure et n'atteignant 
pas meme le milieu de la fleur 
superieure contigue. 

" Antheres longues de 0-22 k 
0-33 mm., a loges ovoides, 
environ 2 fois aussi longues 
que larges." 



" P. annua. 
" Feuilles scabres sur les 
bords ; meme les inf^rieures 
brusquement contract^es au 
sommet. 

" Panicule triangulaire, de 1*2 
a 1-6 fois aussi longue que 
large, semi-conique (a base semi- 
orbiculaire) ; rameaux etales ou 
r6fi6chis apr6s I'anth^se. 



" Fleurs imbriquees, peu dis- 
semblables, les infirieures (de 
1 a 5) longues de 2-5 a 4 mm., 
hermaphrodites, lanceol^es- ou 
ovales-oblongues apr6s I'an- 
these ; les sup&rieures (1 ou 2) 
g6n6ralement femelles, aigues, 
6troitement ovoides apr^s I'an- 
these, longues de 2 a 2-5 mm., 
la terminale au moins 2 fois 
aussi longue que son p6dicelle. 

"Filets des 6tamines pas 
plus longs que la glumelle in- 
ferieure et n'atteignant jamais 
le sommet de la fleur sup6rieure 
contigue. 

" AntMres longues de 0*6 a 
0-8 mm., a loges oblongues- 
lineaires et de 4 a 5 fois aussi 
longues que larges." 

Ascherson & Graebner (Syn. Mittel-eur. Fl. ii. 389, 1900) refer 
to our plant as P. annua L. subsp. exilis, and consider that the 
small plant mentioned by Freyn in 1877 should be separated as a 
form, " fi. Tommasinii. Low-growing, 2-8 cm. high ; panicle 
few-spiked, clustered together above." They also remark that 
this form of the subspecies (corresponding to P. annua D. pauci- 
flora) occurs in their Central European region only, and not the 
typical state. This is certainly also the Channel Island form. 

Kouy (Fl. Fr. xiv. 268, 1913) places the plant as a "race" 
under Poa annua ; he does not differentiate the dwarf state, and 
mentions localities in Corsica and the Department of Var. 

The chief distinctive characters of P. remotiflora may be easily 
contrasted with those of P. annua in the table given by Murbeck, 
the more obvious features being the oblong spike (often quite 
simple in f. exilis), the panicle-branches non-reflexed after flower- 

Q 2 



196 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ing, the non-imbricate flowers and the very small anthers. These 
points serve to distinguish the plant from the dwarf, starved pale- 
yellow states of P. annua of our trodden path-margins and dry places. 

I am much indebted to Dr. O. Stapf for finally determining 
the Jersey specimens ; he remarks: "It differs from the typical 
Mediterranean form in having smaller, relatively stouter florets 
with longer hairs." These characters will be useful to those who 
separate the dwarf f. exilis from typical remotiflora. 

The nomenclature is : — 
PoA REMOTIFLORA Murb. Coutrib. Fl. Nord-ouest Afrique, iv. 22 
(1900). 

P. annua L. /3 remotiflora Hackel in Battand. & Trabut, Fl. 
Alg^r. v. 206 (1895). 

P. amiua L. subsp. exilis Aschers. & Graeb. Syn. Mittel-eur. 
Fl. ii. 389 (1900) ; Battandier, Supp. Fl. Alger. 90 (1910). 

P. annua L. "race" P. exilis Eouy, Fl. Fr. xiv. 268 (1913). 
Forma exilis. 

P. annua L. fi exilis Tommas. ex Freyn, Fl. Sud-lstrien, Zool.- 
Bot. Gesellsch. (Wien) xxvii. 469 (1877). 

P. annua L. subsp. exilis Aschers. & Graeb. forma B. Tom- 
masinii Aschers. & Graeb. Syn. Mittel-eur. Fl. ii. 390(1900). 

Distribution. — Jersey : Sandy places near the sea, March, 
1877, J. Piquet ! (Hb. Mus. Brit.) (f. exilis). Near Fort Eegent, 
West Mount, and other places, frequent, J. W. White t£' C. E. S., 
1910 (f. exilis). Guernsey : Scart Point, Ap. 1891, I. H. Burkill 
(Hb. Kew) (f. exilis). France, S. : Var. Portugal. Middle and 
Southern Italy. Corsica. Sicily. S. Istria. Greece ! Morocco. 
Algeria. Cyrenaica. Syria. Persia. 

Exsicc. — Baenitz, Herb. Europ. Lief, xxxix. (1880), no. 3999 ; 
Heldreich, Herb. Gra^c. Norm. 1098 ! 

Icon. — Murbeck, 1. c. t. xiv. fig. 12. 



Explanation of Piate 532. 

1-2. P. remotiflora f. exilis, drawn from Jersey specimens, natural size. 
3. Ditto, luxuriant. 4. Spikelet, enlarged four times. 



NOTES ON BRITISH PLANTS. 
By C. E. Moss. 

III. The Genus Alsine. 

Since the appearance in this Journal (xxxvii. 317, 1889) of 
Hiern's article on Alsine, there has been much uncertainty in the 
minds of British botanists regarding the names of the plants which 
are usually placed in the genus. Mr. Hiern, it will be remem- 
bered, substituted Alsine (Hiern) for Spergidaria, and Minuartia 
(Hiern) for Alsine (Gaertner). H. &. J. Groves, in their edition of 
Babington's Manual (1904), adopted both of Hiern's substitutions, 
although they retained a " suborder Alsinece " for a group of plants 



THE GENUS ALSINE 197 

without an Alsine, and placed their Alsine (Hiern) in a " suborder 
Pol//ca)'pc(e." Eendle & Britten (List, 1907) also adopted Minic- 
arlia (Hiern) and Alsine (Hiern). On the other hand, Druce 
(List, 1908; Hayward's Bot. Pocket Book, 1909), Marshall (Lond. 
Cat. ed. 10 (1908)) and Carter (Gen. Brit. Plants, 1913) continued 
the union of Alsine (Gaertn.) with Arenaria, after de Candolle 
(Prodr. iv. 401, 1824) and Bentham & Hooker (Gen. PI. i. 150, 
1862). Syme (Eng. Bot. ii. 107, 1864) and WiUiams (in Journ. 
Bot. xxxiv. 427, 1896) had both adopted Alsine (Gaertn.). 

I do not think there is very much to be said in favour of the 
union of Alsine (Gaertn.) and Arenaria, unless a great many other 
genera of the family Dianthacece (or Caryophyllacece) are also 
united. It is admitted that the modern genera of the family are 
very closely allied, and that they are indeterminable in the 
absence of ripe fruit ; but it is at least in keeping with the scale 
all but universally adopted for the other genera of the family to 
retain one name {Alsine Gaertn. or Minuartia Hiern) for the 
plants whose capsules dehisce with the same number of teeth as 
the ovary has stigmas, and another name {Arenaria) for the plants 
whose capsules dehisce with twice as many teeth as the ovary has 
stigmas. The union of both groups of plants in one genus would 
logically demand the union of many other genera of the family ; 
and, unless the changes were very comprehensive indeed, there 
would be no gain from the practical point of view of identifying 
the genera without fruit, whilst the changes of specific names on 
the large scale that would be necessary to bring about this 
practical benefit would probably not meet with general acceptance. 
Hence, the points that have to be decided are : (1) whether Alsine 
(Gaertn.) shall be retained in the commonly accepted sense, or 
(2) whether Alsine (Hiern) shall be applied to Delia (Dum.) and 
the name Minuartia (Hiern) given to Alsine (Gaertn.). 

I must state at the outset that I am not in sympathy with the 
changing of any established generic name on grounds of priority 
alone ; and, in the Cambridge British Flora I do not propose to 
make a single generic change of this kind. This decision is in 
the fullest accord with the general aims and spirit of the Inter- 
national Eules, and indeed is logically demanded from those who 
accept the principle of a list of nomina conservanda of genera. 

The changes in the names of species which result from the 
substitution of one generic name for another are too numerous to 
allow established names of genera to remain long in the arena of 
nomenclatorial conflicts. Whenever it is proved that the recog- 
nized name of any genus is incorrect from the point of view of 
priority, the already established name of that genus should be 
automatically placed on the list of nomina conservanda. Only 
those botanists who have given special attention to generic names 
realize how many changes would be involved if the so-called "law " 
of priority were rigidly followed in the matter of the names of 
genera. In fact, I personally regret there is no list of nomina 
conservanda of species ; but the task of preparing such a list would 
be colossal ; and there is no wonder therefore that the Vienna 



198 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Congress shrank from a Herculean undertaking and contented 
itself with laying down a rule of priority for the names of species. 

Keturning to the question of Alsmc (Gaertn.) versus Minu- 
artia (Hiern), the matter is not a very complicated one if the 
history of Alsine is chronologically considered. 

Linnaeus, in the first edition of his Species Plaiitarum (p. 272, 
1753), had only two species of Alsine. The first was Alsine 
media L. and the second /I. segetalis L. It is clear that if priority 
alone be allowed to determine the issue, the name Alsine should 
be used for one of these two species. Each species has its claim. 

Scopoli (Fl. Carn. ed. 2, i. 224, 1772) took the first of the two 
species, and defined his Alsine to include it and it alone. This 
species is now universally regarded as a Stellaria — it is the 
common chickweed, S. media Villars ; and hence the Alsine of 
Scopoli (1772) sinks in Stellaria L. (1753). Hiern {loc. cit.) 
therefore fixed his attention on the second species, A. segetalis L. 
This species is sometimes placed in Spergularia and sometimes 
placed in a separate but closely allied genus, Delia. Mr. Hiern 
retained Alsine (Hiern) for Spergularia (including Delia), and 
gave the requisite new combinations for the British species 
involved. Spergularia, however, is now a nomen conservandum ; 
and to those of us who accept the nomina conservanda, Hiern's 
changes under this heading are now obsolete. If, however, 
A. segetalis L. is placed in Delia (Dumortier Fl. Belg. 110, 1827) 
as is done by some authorities (e. g., Ascherson & Graebner Fl. 
Nordostd. Flachl. 316, 1898), Hiern's view would still hold good 
— if, as I have said, priority alone be allowed to determine the 
matter. It is doubtless from this point of view that Schinz & 
Keller (Fl. Schweiz ed. 3, 204, 1909), whilst retaining Spergularia, 
adopt Alsine (Hiern emend.) for Delia. 

This change having being accomplished, it remained to find a 
name for the plants which have been usually referred to Alsine 
(Gaertn.). Hiern utilized Minuartia (Hiern) for the purpose, and 
made the necessary new combinations for the British plants ; 
and, as I have already stated, Hiern has been followed in this 
matter by H. & J. Groves and by Eendle & Britten, and also by 
Schinz & Keller {op. cit. p. 200). The position of these botanists 
is perfectly logical, if judged from the standpoint of priority. 

There is, however, another point of view to be considered, as 
will be seen by continuing the study of the historical development 
of the Linnean concept of Alsine. 

In the second edition of the Species Plantarum (p. 389, 1762) 
Linnseus added a third species to his genus. The added species 
was Alsine mucronata L., which has been an Alsine ever since in 
the great majority of books on botany. Linnaeus placed this 
species between the other two, his species now being respectively : 
(1) A. media L. { — Stellaria media Villars), (2) A. mucroyiata L., 
and (3) A. segetalis L. 

Gaertner (Fruct. ii. 223, t. 129, 1791), in founding his genus 
Alsine, took the second edition of the Species Plantarum as his 
starting-point. He rightly passed over the first species {A.mcdialj.), 



THE GENUS ALSINE 19'J 

as this had ah'eady been correctly placed in Stellaria by Villars ; 
and then it was perfectly natural that he should take the second 
species {A. mucronata L.) as the type of his genus. Thus, from 
Gaertner's point of view, the third species {A. segetalis L.) does 
not enter into the discussion. Gaertner's view was adopted by 
Wahlenberg (Fl. Lapp. 1812; Veg. Helv. 1813; Fl. Suec. 1826), 
who made the necessary new combinations for the species as he 
dealt with them in his various works. Wahlenberg has been 
followed by the vast majority of botanists, including Syme & 
Williams in this country. Wahlenberg, in fact, is usually cited 
as the authority of the genus, though Wahlenberg himself refers 
his Alsine to Gaertner. It is, from my point of view, quite 
immaterial whether Gaertner or Wahlenberg is cited as the 
authority : the genus is the same in either case, even though 
Wahlenberg has referred species of Spcrgularia to it ; it is, of 
course, erroneous to ascribe it to Scopoli (c/. Dalla Torre & Sarn- 
theim Gen. Siphonog. 157, 1900), for the Alsme of Scopoli, as has 
been shown, has nothing to do with Alsiiic of any European 
botanists and must be sunk in Stellaria L. 

With regard to Gaertner's use of the second edition of the 
Species Plantarum, it must be borne in mind that the first 
edition was a very rare book in his day, and, indeed, almost 
inaccessible to the great majority of the botanists of the eighteenth 
and of the first half of the nineteenth centuries. A reprint of the 
first edition, and greatly increased facihties of travel, have rendered 
the first edition accessible to the majority of botanists ; but the 
early botanists adopted the only sensible and practicable course 
when they used the second rather than the first edition of the 
Species, because they could not check or verify the names of 
the first edition. The fashion of citing the second edition as the 
starting-point still persists, as, e.g., in Eouy & Foucaud's Fl. de 
France ; and it is one of the easiest tests of a mere copier to find 
if he adds " 1753 " to the page of the second edition. It is a 
question whether it would not have been better, in the interests 
of nomenclatorial stability, for the Vienna Congress to have 
adopted the second instead of the first edition as the commence- 
ment of the names of vascular plants, because the second edition 
had virtually, for the reasons just given, been taken as the 
starting-point of nomenclature by nearly all the earlier post- 
Linnean botanists, who have thus impressed the names of the 
second edition so deeply in botanical literature and botanical 
thought that it is useless nowadays to attempt to change them."'- 

* It was with all this in mind that I decided (see Cambr. Brit. Fl. ii. p. xiii. 
1914), iu order to avoid some undesirable changes of specific names which would 
be necessitated by rigidly adhering to the first edition of the Species FlaiUariun 
as the starting-point of nomenclature, to begin with the second edition in the 
case of those species which were subdivided into two or more species by 
Linnaeus himself in the second edition. In the case of these latter species, it 
is the names of the second edition that have become common to all countries ; 
and thus this slight departure from the letter of the Vienna Rules will always 
result in conserving established specific names. I can conceive of no one, except 
the stickler for mere priority, objecting to this little innovation. 



200 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Bearing in mind that Alsine (Gaertn., Wahlenberg) is the 
name that is to-day in ahuost universal use and that it has 
been so since the time of Wahlenberg, those botanists who 
accept the principle of a list of nomina conservanda of genera, 
can offer no legitimate objection against the suggestion now 
made of placing Alsine (Gaertn., Wahlenberg) on the list in 
question. It seems to me that this is the only legal method of 
avoiding the undesirable substitution of the name Minuartia 
(Hiern) for the established name Alsine (Gaertn., Wahlenberg) : 
the plan would leave Delia free for those who desire to use it, and 
seems indeed to be the logical corollary of the conservation of 
Sjjercjularia. 

The following citations of the British species are given on the 
assumption that Alsine (Gaertn., Wahlenberg) is regarded as 
a nomen conservandum. 

Alsine L. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (non ed. 1) emend. Gaertner Fruct. ii. 
223, t. 129 (1791) ; Wahlenberg Fl. Lapp. 127 (1812) ; Fenzl in 
Endlicher Gen. PI. 964 (1836-1840) ; Bentham & Hooker Gen. 
PI. i. 150 (1862) as a section ; Pax in Engler & Prantl Pflanzenfam. 
iii. lb, 82 (1888) ; Rouy et Foucaud Fl. France iii. 261 (1896) ; 
non Scopoli nee Hiern nee Schinz & Keller; Minuartia L. Sp. 
PI. ed. 1, ampl. Hiern in Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 320 (1899). 

1. Alsine steicta Wahlenberg Fl. Lapp. 127 (1812); Spcrgula 
stricta Swartz in Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockholm xx. 235 
(1799) ; Arenaria uliginosa [Schleicher ex] DC. Fl. Fran9. iv. 786 
(1805)!; Alsine uliginosa Syme Eng. Bot. ii. 115 (1864); 
Mimiartia stricta Hiern in Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 320 (1899) ; non 
Arenaria stricta Michaux Fl. Bor. Am. i. 274 (1803). 

The only British station of this plant known to British 
botanists is in Upper Teesdale ; but by Rouy & Foucaud {op. cit. 
p. 266) the plant is also recorded for Ireland. 

2. Alsine verna BartHng in Bartling Sc Wendland Beitr. ii. 
63 (1825) ; Syme Eng. Bot. ii. 109 (1864) ; Arenaria saxatilis 
Hudson Fl. Angl. 168 (1762) non L., inch Ar. laricifolia non L. ; 
Ar. verna L. Mant. PI. i. 72 (1767) ; Ar. liniflora Jacquin Fl. 
Austr. V. 22, t. 445 (right-hand figure) (1778) ? non L. ; Ar.juni- 
perina Withering Arr. ed. 3, 424 (1796) non L., incl. Ar. laricifolia 
non L. ; Al. saxatilis Wahlenberg Veg. Helv. 87 (1813); Minuartia 
verna Hiern in Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 320 (1899). 

The British forms of this species are very variable ; and some 
of them have been given names by British botanists. However, 
I am not able to state whether or not these names have been 
correctly applied. 

3. Alsine rubella Wahlenberg Fl. Lapp. 128, t. 6 (1812) ; 
Syme Eng. Bot. ii. Ill (1864) ; Arenaria gieseki Hornemann in 
Fl. Dan. fasc. xxvi. 5, t. 1518 (1818) ; Ar. hirta [Wormskiold ex] 
Hornemann o^j. cit. fasc. xxviii. t. 1646 (1823) ; Ar. rubella Smith 
Eng. Bot. iv. 267 (1824) ; Minuartia rubella Hiern op. cit. 320 
(1899). 

This is an Arctic species not known to occur in Central Europe. 



THE GENUS ALSINE 201 

4. Alsine tenuifolia Crantz ''■'■ Inst. ii. 407 (1766) ; Wahlen- 
berg Veg. Helv. 86 (1813); Syme Eng. Bot. ii. 112 (1864); 
Arenaria tenuifolia L. Sp. PI. 424 (1753) ! ; Minuartia tenuifolia 
Hiern in Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 321 (1899) non Nees in litt. ex 
Martius Hort. Erlang. 44 (1814) ; M. leiAophijlla H. & J. Groves 
in Babington's Man. ed. 9, 61 (1904). 

5. Alsine sedoides Kittel Fl. Deutschl. ed. 2, ii. 997 (1844) non 
Froelich in litt., ex Koch Syn. 114 (1835) ; Cherleria sedoides L. 
Sp. PI. 425 (1753) ; Alsine clierleria Grenier et Godron Fl. France 
i. 253 (1848) ; Eouy et Foucaud Fl. France i. 253 (1848) ; Al. 
cherleria Petermann Deutschl. Fl. 851 (1849) ; Syme Eng. Bot. 
ii. 108 (1864) ; Minuartia sedoides Hiern in Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 
321 (1899). 

I take it that the International Eules, being retrospective in 
their action, necessitate the adoption of A. sedoides Kittel. 

This is an Alpine species unknown in northern Europe : 
there are very few members of the British flora which have such 
a geographical range as this. 

6. x\lsine I'EPLOiDES Crautz Inst. ii. 406 (1766) ; Wahlen- 
berg Fl. Suec. i. 282 (1826) ; AreJiaria peploides L. Sp. PL 423 
(1753) ! ; Honckenia peploides Ehrhart Beitr. ii. 181 (1788) ; 
Syme Eng. Bot. ii. 106 (1864) ; Minuartia peplo'ides Hiern in 
Journ. Bot. xxxvii. 322 (1899). 

The chief points dealt with in this note regarding Alsine are 
thus summarised : — 

(1) In the first edition of the Species Plantar itm (1753) of 
Linnaeus there are two species of Alsine — A. media L. and 
A. segetalis L. 

(2) Scopoli (1772) took the first of these as the type of his 
Alsine] but as A. media L, is now universally recognised as a 
Stellaria, the genus Alsine Scop, disappears. 

(3) Hiern (1899) took the second of the above species as the 
type of his Alsine. Sometimes this species is placed in (S'^;cr- 
(jularia, ^which is a nomen conscrvand um ; and thus ^4/si»c Hiern 
is obsolete. By other authorities the species is placed in Delia, 
and thus, judging by priority alone, Delia Dum. would become 
Alsine Hiern emend. Schinz & Keller. 

(4) In the second edition of the Species Flantarum (i. 1762) 
Linnteus added a third species of Alsine, A. mucronata L. 

(5) Gaertner (1799) took this third species as the type of his 
Alsine, and was followed by Wahlenberg and almost all other 
botanists. The name Alsine, as thus defined, is consequently 
established firmly in botanical literature ; and, on this ground, it 
is here suggested that the name be placed on the list of nomina 
cojiservanda. 



* Alsine Crantz Inst. ii. 404 (1766) includes Sagina L., Elatinc L., 
McehringiaL., Bujfonia L., PolycarpumL., Alsine L. (partim), Arenaria L., and 
Spergula L., but not Cherleria L. 



202 

NOTES ON DE. FOCKE'S BUBI EUBOP^I (1914). 

By the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 182.) 

B. hypoleucHS Lefv. & Muell. As this is the earlier of the two 
names suggested in recent years for our plant (the date of publi- 
cation being B. hypoleucus L. & M. 1859, B. adscitus Genev. 1860), 
and as there seems to be no question as to the identity of the two 
plants, it appears best that we should now retain the earlier name 
hypoleucus — accepted by us in 1905 (instead of B. micans Gren. & 
Godr.), after the publication of Dr. Focke's work in Aschers. & 
Graebn. Fl. Mitt. — rather than again follow him in his final pre- 
ference for B. adscitus. His reason for such preference in Rubi 
Europ. is as follows : — " Specie! cognitio ex hac descriptione [i. e. 
Genev. Mem. Soc. M. et L. viii. p. 88] derivata est ; nomen adsciti 
igitur praefero." I have not, however, seen authentic specimens 
of Continental hypoleucus ; and so, personally, I should have also 
preferred the name adscitus, as our typical and widely distributed 
British plant agrees admirably with Genevier's specimens and 
description, as well as with the living examples of his plant that 
I have seen abundantly in the Channel Islands, Brittany and 
Normandy. Compare Journ. Bot. 1905, p. 202, and my Hand- 
book of British Bubi, p. 48 {" B. micans Gren. & Godr."). 

A brief account of my B. Lettii (Journ. Bot. 1901, p. 381) is 
followed by the note, "Formam borealem B. adsciti esse e speci- 
minibus exsiccatis suspicor" — a suggestion which I considered 
only to reject, when I preferred placing it amongst our Egregii 
because of the Koehlerian-like armature of all its stronger 
examples. While obviously recalling B. adscitus in the very greyish 
tint of the whole plant, B. Lettii seems best placed between 
B. criniger and B. Gelertii. Dr. Focke confines it to Ireland, and 
thus far the strong, highly glandular type has not been found 
elsewhere, though what seems to be a weaker form of the same 
plant occurs in some of our western counties, especially in 
Cardigan, Salop, and Hereford. Between his B. adscitus and his 
B. vestitus he also places a plant of the Plymouth neighbourhood 
(which I cannot now trace) as " B. adscitus x rusticanus. Planta 
spectabilis, luxurians, alte scandens, thyrsis longis et inflores- 
centiis compositis amplis patulis ornata. Singuli frutices in 
eodem loco variabiles ; occurrunt in plantis magnis interdum folia 
semper fere ternata cum foliolis subtus virentibus. Sterilis 
videtur. V. v. duce Archer Briggs." Our reasons for preferring 
the name B. leucostachys Sm. to the slightly later one B. vestitus 
Wh. & N. — which is generally adopted on the Continent and is 
still adhered to by Dr. Focke — are given in full in Journ. Bot. 
1905, p. 202, and need not be repeated or added to here. This is 
placed by him in closer relation to B. hypoleucus {B. adscitus) 
than in our list. 

It is when he comes to deal with the Vestiti that his sugges- 
tion of a hybrid origin for some of the plants becomes more 



NOTES ON DR. FOCKe's RUBI EUROP^I 203 

frequent ; and I regret that I cannot refer fully to this part of his 
work. But the following paragraph is so remarkable that the 
readers of the Journal may be glad for me to quote it in full : — 
" Conjecturae do originehybridogena nonnullorumKuborum Vestitis 
similium. Buhus adscitus et B. vestitns, simili modo ac Bubi 
Suberecti, gregem naturalem bene distinctam constituunt. Eepe- 
riuntur vero species complures nonnullis characteribus ad Vestitos, 
aliis ad diversos Bubos vergentes. Quaeritur anne tales species 
ambigentes originis hybridogenic sint, praecipue in aevo diluviano 
vel pliocasno ortae. Illis temporibus nondum species nobis cog- 
nitae hodiernae floruerunt, sed formae atavaB, quarum proles mutata 
et genuina et hybridogena nunc Europam incolit." This is fol- 
lowed by the heading " Species et prospecies, quarum origo 
hybridogena e Eubis Vestitis suspicari potest," and a table, from 
the fourteen lines of which the following are examples : — 

Series vel 
" Species atavje (vel recentes) parentes. Species hybridogenae. subseiies. 

" B. adscitus et B. sulcatus. B. leucandrus. Silvatici. 

B. vestitns et B. sulcatus. B. macrophyllus. ,, 

„ B. vulgaris. B. pyramidalis. Vestiti. 

„ B. egregius. B. vmcronatus. Sevii-Egregii. 

„ B. ccBsius. B. Balfourianus. Corylifolii." 

B. gynmostachys Genev. This name, given as a variety of 
B. leucostachys in my Handbook and in Lond. Cat. ed. x., is now, 
contrary to Dr. Focke's earlier views (for which see Journ. Bot. 
1905, pp. 76, 202), considered by him too indefinite and unsatis- 
factory ; while J. Lange's B. macrothyrsus (which we have treated 
as a synonym of B. gymnostachys) takes its place, and becomes a 
numbered " species." He says, with reference to B. gymno- 
stachys, " Vidi specimina Genevierii a B. macrothyrso non dis- 
tinguenda, sed botanici Gallici auctorem diversos Eubos sub hoc 
nomine comprehendisse asserunt." And, again, under B. macro- 
thyrsus, he adds, " Aspectus hujus plantae ab illo B. vestiti valde 
discrepat, sed notae ditferentes vacillant. E ramis exsiccatis 
facile ' species ' artificiales construuntur, sed specimina Britan- 
nica, Hersynica et Holsatica satis congruere videntur." With us 
the name gymnostachys has certainly not hitherto been applied to 
one form only, but has included slightly varying forms of B. leuco- 
stachys, together with our strongly marked and highly glandular 
Bangor (Carnarvon) plant, which is clearly indistinguishable from 
Lange's B. macrothTjrsus as supplied to me from " near Kiel, 
Holstein," by Messrs. Friderichsen and Gelert. Quite the same 
plant was found in Northants by Mr. Druce last year, and my 
herbarium contains several other sheets from English counties — 
from Yorks and Flint to Somerset, Dorset and Devon. So the 
name gymnostachys may well be dropped from our Bubus list, 
and macrothyrsus substituted for it, either (preferably, I think) as 
a strongly marked variety of B. leucostachys, or in an independent 
position, as in Bubi Europm. 

B. leucanthemus P. J. Muell. ? There seems to be no reference 



204 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

to this in Rubi Eiiropm except as a synonym of " -B. vestikis," 
with the note " Frutex B. vestiti unicus in vicinitate oppidi Weissen- 
burg observatus sub hoc nomine descriptus est." Perhaps some 
of the plants for which I have from time to time suggested this 
name would be better placed, as varying forms or hybrids, under 
li. hypolcuciis ; but most of them from widely separated counties 
— Westmoreland to Dorset in the west, and Sussex, Kent and 
Surrey in the east — agree closely with the greater part of 
Genevier's description of B. hucanthemns Miill. !, as reported by 
him from several districts in France. So there seems good ground 
for the provisional retention of this name in our list, either in an 
independent position between B. hyi)oleucus and B. leucostaclujs, 
or as a variety (or possible hybrid) under one of them. 

B. claniciis Focke. Dr. Focke has found himself obliged to 
alter this name, as he explains " nomen erroneum ; planta a 
botanicis Danicis quidem lecta sed nondum in Dania ipsa reperta 
est." He now calls it B. orhifolius (Lefvre, exs.) Boulay in Eouy 
et Cam. Fl. Fr. vi. 22"; and keeps it, as before, near B. macro- 
phyllus. He still regards our British plant as one with it : — 
'• Sowie zerstreut in England and Wales." B. mollissimus Eogers, 
which in our list appears (after " B. danicus ") as a variety under 
B. hirtifolius, is placed as a synonym for " B. S2ihcanus P. J. 
Muell. in Boulay, Konc. Vosg. p. 34, no. 27 (1866)," though the 
only distribution mentioned, is " Zerstreut im Westlichen England, 
in Wales und Irland," in exact agreement with that given for 
Diollissivms in my Handbook, p. 49. 

B. egregins Focke, var phjmcnsis Focke. nov. var. This is an 
addition to our Flora, the description added to the above name 
being as follows : — " Eglandulosus vel glandulas brevissime stipi- 
tatis in caule, inflorescentitl vel bracteis sparsas gerens. Caules 
ssepe sat dense pilosi ; inflorescentia variabilis, nunc angusta 
longa subracemosa, nunc vario modo composita. — Britannia." A 
further reference to it later is " Die var. phjmcnsis in sildlichen 
England, besonders aus dem Tale des Plym und an andern Stellen 
bei Plymouth bekannt." Dr. Focke wrote to me about this plant 
two years ago as follows : — " Once I gathered, with Mr. Briggs, a 
late-tlowering, small Buhus in the Valley of the Plym. In general 
aspect it was near B. longitJiyrsiger, being in fruit at the same 
time ; but the stronger stems of the unnamed plant were of a 
more upright growth. Lately I examined my specimens anew, 
and I could find no essential difference from small forms of my 
B. cgregms. Usually this latter species bears some scattered 
glands, whereas the Devon plant is eglandular." Probably I 
have not seen this "Devon plant" growing, and should have 
failed to place it among our glandular Egregians if I had come 
across it. Typical B. egregins, so far undetected in Britain, has 
always proved a difficult species to me ; and though I have long 
had a good series of specimens, I have so far found myself unable 
to understand it. The account of '' phjmcnsis " is followed by the 
following note : — " (Forma : effeminatus Focke, nov. nom. ; molli- 
ter pilosus inflorescentite extra axillares longte, multiiJorte ; sepala 



NOTES ON UR. focke's rubi europ^i 205 

longe acuminata, in Acre patentia in fructu reflexa ; stamina 
stylis multo breviora. Fruticem vidi unicum baud procul ab 
Oxford Britanniae)." I can throw no light on this note, such as 
seems necessary before the name can be admitted into our list. 
Some of the other more difficult plants in our " middle and 
collective group " Egregii come in for original and interesting 
treatment. 

Thus under R. mucronatus Blox. (p. 189) we find the note : 
" Occurrunt vero, praecipue in Britannia media et meridionali, 
formai complures ambiguae, qute bine inde species constantes 
aemulantur, praecipue : — 

" B. mucronatus var. mulicauUs Rogers Handb. Brit. Rub. 
(1900) 56, efc formae copiosius aculeolatae : ? B. oigocladus (cit. 
Muell. et Lefvr.) Rogers I. c. 65 ; non Muell. et Lefvr. ex Sudre. 

" ? i?. Newbouldii (cit. Babingt.) Rogers I. c. 66. 

" B. Bloxamianus Golem, ex Rogers I. c. 66. 

" B. regillus A. Ley Journ. Bot. 1896 p. 217 ; Rogers I. c. 67. 

" Omnes h» plantae accuratius vivae et in locis natalibus 
examinandae sunt." 

But after many years' study of these plants, living and dried, 
I am confirmed in my conviction that all of them, except my var. 
niidicaulis, are really best placed where they are found in my 
Handbook and in London Catalogue, ed. x., among (not Egregii 
but) Eu-Badulce. As for my nudicaulis — an abundant and very 
constant plant throughout S. Dorset and S. Hants, and reaching 
I. Wight and S. Wilts — there seems no room for doubt that its 
closest relation is to B. mucronatus, though it keeps quite dis- 
tinct from that type. 

Next we find, on p. 190, as an example of " Formae et pro- 
species B. mucronato affines " : — 

" B. Briggsii Blox. in Journ. Bot. vii. p. 33 (1869) teste Archer 
Briggs Fl. Plymouth p. 125, qui B. Briggsii varietatem B. fusco- 
atri (ex sensu Briggsiij esse dicit. B. fusco-ater (cit. Weihe), 
Briggs Fl. Plym. p. 124. B. oigocladus (cit. P. J. Muell. et 
Lefvre?) Rogers Handb. Brit. Rub. p. 65." 

This seems a wholly unsatisfactory arrangement. We clearly 
cannot accept B. Briggsii as the name for our widely distributed 
and locally common plant, the " B. oigocladus Muell. & Lefv. '? " 
of my Handbook and of London Catalogue, ed. x. Dr. Focke's 
explanation is as follows : — " Bloxamii B. fusco-ater (secund. 
specim. exsicc.) planta erat B. fusco-atri Weihei similis. Jure 
igitur auctor B. fusco-atrum Briggsii nomine novo salutavit. 
Briggsius specimen a Bloxamio nominatum a suo (falso) B. fusco- 
atro distinguere conatus est et demum sub titulo levis varietatis 
segregavit. Bloxamius vero non unicum specimen sed integram 
speciem nominare voluit." But in Fi. Plym. p. 124, Briggs gives 
" b. Briggsii " as a " very rare " " variety " of his " B. fusco-ater 
Weihe," and states definitely that whereas " Bloxam maintained 
that it was a distinct species " he " preferred to consider it a 
variety of B. fusco-ater, as does Professor Babington." I may 
add that Briggs left me all his Bubus specimens, and that I still 



206 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

have all his Briggsii sheets. He told me in later years that he 
found it apparently dying out, and so was disposed to regard it 
as "possibly a quite abnormal form." To me it has looked like a 
csesian hybrid, and for that reason I have omitted it from my 
Handbook and from successive editions of the London Catalogue. 
His '' fusco-ater " {" B. oigoclad^is ? " oi Handbook and London 
Catalogue) is certainly a very different looking plant, and is not 
only locally abundant in England but also extends to Ireland, 
and in a modified form to the Channel Islands. It was Dr. 
Focke who first suggested the name " B. oigocladus " for it as 
" probably right," and to that view he held for several years. If 
he is right, as he probably is, in now declining to accept our 
plant as M. & L.'s B. oigocladus, it should, I suppose, either 
remain in our list for the present as " i?. oigocladus Eogers (non 
M. & L.)," or be altogether omitted until a more satisfactory con- 
clusion is reached. There seems to me no room for doubt that I 
have rightly placed it among Eu-Badulce, where B. Briggsii 
could hardly be put. 

Dr. Focke's recent treatment of B. anglosaxonicus Gelert and 
B. uncinatns P. J. Muell. was referred to at some length in Journ. 
Bot. 1905, pp. 76, 77, 203, and in their case little need be added 
here. He still holds that B. anglosaxonicns may come under 
B. ajncidatus Wh. & N.; but he adds (p. 231) the following 
notes: — "Species potius collectiva quam limitibus definita 
videtur, sed quamvis planta valde variabilis sit, specimina typica 
e terris longe distantibus ssepe inter se optime congruunt. Praeter 
banc formam satis constantem Eogers /. c. distinguit varietates : 
curvidens A. Ley, vestitiformis et raduloides. Speciei notas 
atque limites bene exposuit O. Gelert I. c. sub B. anglosaxonico. 
Haud raro vero difficile est specimina sicca a B . raduld et 
acanthode distinguere." B. melanoxylon Muell. & Wirtg. This 
name, given us in the first instance by Dr. Focke {vide Journ. Bot. 
1897, p. 47) for a plant widely distributed in Scotland, and 
occurring in several Welsh and English counties, is now [B^tbi 
Eurojjcei, p. 216) withdrawn by him as incorrect, and " B. furvi- 
color Focke nov. nom." substituted for it, with a short description 
and the statement that it is " like B. melanoxylon, but differs in 
its concolorous leaflets." None but British localities are given 
for it. 

When we come to the Eu-Badulce — i. e. to the Badula as 
strictly and rather narrowly limited in my Handbook (p. 5) — we 
find substantial agreement with our names. But a place is 
found for my subsp. anglicanus under B. macrostachys P. J. 
Muell., as a near ally of B. radula — an arrangement for it with 
which I have no quarrel, though on the whole I still prefer a 
closer association of it with B. radula itself, together with 
echinatoides, my other subsp. under the species radida, now left 
so by Dr. Focke as " var. vel ex Eogers subsp." Both these 
plants, easily recognized and very widely distributed in England 
and Ireland, are quite obviously less distinctly eu-radulan than 
B. radula itself, but they seem most helpfully placed in the closest 



NOTES ON DR. FOCKE's RUBI EUROP.EI 207 

possible relation to it, as the alliance is such that at first they 
were not distinguished from it. 

As regards the plants which make up our groups Sub- 
Koehleriani and Sub-Bellardiani, Dr. Focke's treatment of them 
hardly calls for comment here except perhaps in two instances — 
phyllo thyrsus and cavatifolius. Of var. x>hyllothyrsus (Frider.) 
— under B. Bahingtonii Bell Salt. — he now writes : " B. phyllo- 
thyrsiis Friderichsen, quern Eogers varietatis titulo sub B. Bahing- 
tonii describit, ex mea sententia, nil nisi B. chlorothyrsus est. 
Planta anglica sic nominata parum a B. Bahingtonii differre 
videtur." It evidently must not be concluded from this that in 
Dr. Focke's opinion his B. chlorothyrsus is a near ally of our 
B. Bahingtonii, seeing that he describes them in different groups, 
with fifty-six pages between them ; but his contention is that I 
have been mistaken in applying Friderichsen's name to our plant, 
which he regards as only a variety of B. Bahingtonii. I now 
agree with him in this. In spite of a very remarkable general 
resemblance, the two plants are so widely different in glandular 
and acicular development that they must be assigned to different 
groups — Friderichsen's remaining where Focke places his 
B. chlorothyrsus, among the Silvatici and immediately after 
B. silvaticus, while the right place for our plant is among the 
Suh-Koehleriani and near B. Bahingtonii. It should perhaps be 
added that the mistake, only now detected, was due to the fact 
that Mr. Friderichsen's friend, the late Mr. 0. Gelert, when stay- 
ing with me in 1897, the year after the publication of B. 'phyllo- 
thyrsus, gave that name to our plant without hesitation, in spite 
of the difference in glandular development observed at the time. 
Since then I have from time to time placed with it a considerable 
number of plants from Surrey and other counties, none of which 
can rightly claim a place among Silvatici. The name phyllo- 
thyrsus must, therefore, be removed from our list. It seems 
equally clear that B. festivus Muell. & Wirtg. should be restored 
to it (vide Journ. Bot. 1893, p. 45). It might be placed next after 
B. Bahingtonii, though not as a variety of it, and include several 
of the plants hitherto named phyllothyrsus. In Buhi Europai it 
is given as " species conjungens collectiva," and under " var. cu- 
festivios " we find Mr. Ley's Dinmore Woods (Heref.) plant 
(No. 95, Set of British Buhi) quoted for it. Perhaps a pro- 
visional place should also be found, among the Silvatici, for 
B. chlorothyrsus Focke, in agreement with the note under that 
name on p. 177 of Buhi EuropcBi : " In Britannia vidi formam 
foliolis subtus cano-virentibus distinctam (legit W. E. Linton in 
Derbyshire) quam praeterea exsiccatam a B. chlorothyrso separare 
non possum." 

Our B. cavatifolius P. J. Muell., which Dr. Focke apparently 
accepts as Mueller's plant, he now places under B. pallidas Wh. 
& N. as " forma luxurians densiflora et latifolia"; but it seems 
decidedly nearer to our B. Bahingtonii, and (as I have seen it in 
fair quantity in Herefordshire and Monmouthshire and from two 
localities in W. Gloucester) clearly and constantly distinct from both. 



208 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

On reaching the last three groups in our list, including all, or 
nearly all, the Eubi with very mixed armature, the difficulty of 
comparison with the concluding pages of Buhi Europai is seriously 
increased. This special difficulty arises partly from the greater 
range of variation, which appears to be a genei'al feature of the 
more glandular Eubi, and partly from the circumstance that these 
highly glandular Eubi with very mixed armature are, as a rule, 
much more thinly distributed than the members of the earlier 
groups — in Britain at all events, and probably in most parts of 
the Continent also. On these plants, therefore, I propose adding 
only a few brief notes of a more general character. 

Thus, if we consider them in the order in which they stand 
in our London Catalogue, ed. x., it may be said in general 
terms : — 

1. The following species are now recognised as common to 
Great Britain and the continent of Europe: — B. rosaceus Wh. & 
N., B. hystrix Wh. & N., B. Koehleri Wh. & N., B. viriclis Kalt. 
(sensu ampliss.), B. Bellarclii Wh. & N., B. hirtns Waldst. & Kit. 
(sp. collect.), B. dumetorum Wh. & N. (sp. collect.), B. diversi- 
folius Lindl. (a species in Bubi Eiiropcei, but a var. in London 
Catalogue, ed. x.), B. corylifolius Sm., B. Balfourianus Blox., 
B. ccEsius Linn. These all are strongly marked plants, and may 
be regarded as somewhat widely distributed here and on the 
Continent. 

2. Less strongly marked ; as a rule less widely distributed, 
and therefore somewhat more open to doubt as to their identity 
here and on the Continent, and perhaps partly on that account 
not reported for Britain in Biibi Europcei, though probably cor- 
rectly included in our list, are the following: — B. adornatus P. J. 
Muell., B. horridica2ilis P. J. MuelL, B. hostiUs Muell. & Wirtg., 
B. fusco-ater Weihe, B. divexiranms P. J. Muell., B. serpens 
Weihe, B. Kaltenhachii Metsch., B. mimUiJiorus Wirtg. (or P. J. 
Muell. ?), B. saxicolus P. J. Muell., B. tereticaulis P. J. Muell., 
B. cyclophyllus Lindeb. All these names (except perhaps B. cyclo- 
2)hyllus, which was first suggested as British by Babington) 
have from time to time, and mostly more than once, been given 
to British plants by Dr. Focke, though there seems no evidence 
in Bubi Europai that he would still so apply them. As regards 
cyclophyllus, we have followed Babington in substituting this 
name for his conjungens, to be used in an aggregate sense for 
forms of^ B. corylifolius Sm. other than the type (" a. sublustris 
Lees " of London Catalogue, ed. x.). As however, there seems to 
be considerable uncertainty about the right use of Lindeberg's 
name, it may be wise to substitute conjungens Bab. as is done in 
Bubi Europm. 

3. British plants for which names different from those in our 
list are preferred in Bubi Europcei : — B. plmthostylus Genev., 
B. Marshalli Focke & Eogers and its " b. semiglaber Eogers," 
B. acutifrons Ley. Brief notes on these may be found of interest. 

B. plintliostylus Genev. is given in Bubi Europai as a synonym 
of B. Beuteri E. Merc, but our plant, apparently known only 



AZOLLA IN BRITAIN AND IN EUROPE 209 

from our descriptions, is not accepted as certainly the same. Our 
R. Marshalli Pocke & Rogers is placed as " var. Marshallii Focke 
& Rogers " under li. pilocarpus Gremli, together with our very 
variable var. semiglaher. On this Mr. Marshall's translation 
(Journ. Bot. 1905, p. 77) of Dr. Focke's remarks in Aschers. & 
Graebn. (1902-3) may be consulted. Apparently our very re- 
markable type has not yet been found on the Continent. As to 
the treatment of B. aciUifrons Ley, reference may be allowed to 
p. 204 of the same volume of this Journal, where reasons are 
given for hesitation in accepting the proposed substitution of 
B. humifasus Wh. & N. for Ley's name. Ley's var. amplifrons 
(Journ. Bot. 1902, p. 69), though a very strongly marked form, 
does not seem to be noticed in Buhi Europcei. 

4. Described in Buhi Europai as British, but not as yet 
detected elsewhere in Europe : — B. Purchasianus Rogers, B. cocj- 
natus N. E. Brown, B. dasyphyllus Rogers, B. ochrodermis Ley. 
B. cognatus has a distinct place and brief description in Bubi 
Europcei, but is held to be very like the Scandinavian B. horridus 
Hartm. B. dasyphyllus is very briefly and inadequately described 
by Dr. Focke, and as British only ; but in 1912 I received excel- 
lent specimens of it collected by Mr. Friderichsen " in woods, 
Tolne, Denmark," in that year. Apparently otherwise still un- 
known on the Continent, though exceedingly abundant in Great 
Britain and frequent in Ireland. 

5. British plants included in London Catalogue, ed. x., but 
apparently not mentioned in Buhi Europcei : — B. Poioellii Rogers, 
B. Durotrigum R. P. Murr., B. rotundifolius Bab., B. Buchnalli 
J. W. White. 

6. British plants recently published, but not included either 
in London Catalogue, ed. x., or in Bubi Europai : — B. lacustris 
Rogers, in Journ. Bot. 1907, pp. 9, 10, B. glareosus Rogers & 
Marshall, in Journ. Bot. 1912, pp. 309, 374. 



AZOLLA IN BRITAIN AND IN EUROPE. 
By a. S. Marsh, B.A. 

[Reprinted by permission from the Proceedings of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society, vol. xvii. part 5 (May 5, 1914).] 

In the middle of October 1913 a species of AzoUa was found 
in Jesus Ditch, Cambridge, by Mr. H. Jeffreys, of St. John's 
College. Mr. Moss called my attention to the fact, and at his 
suggestion and with his frequent kind assistance I have identified 
the species and collected a few notes on the distribution of plants 
of this genus in Europe generally and the British Isles in 
particular. 

The Cambridge plant I found to be Azolla filiculoides Lam. It 

was growing among the Lemna, but two or three large patches, 

several metres broad, bore Azolla almost pure, the dull brownish 

colour of the plant as seen in large masses showing up markedly 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [August, 1914.] r 



210 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

against the bright green of the duckweed. When first found 
the plants seemed to be without reproductive organs, but on 
November 2nd it was bearing micro- and macro-sporocarps in 
some quantity. On November 26th, after several sharp frosts, 
the Azolla was growing vigorously, still with sporocarps, and had 
spread over larger areas, at the eastern end of the ditch becoming 
the dominant species of the aquatic vegetation. At the present 
time (February 9th) it is very abundant, but very red in colour 
and broken up into small pieces. 

As to means of introduction of this fern into Cambridge we 
are completely ignorant. The nearest of the previously recorded 
stations is the Norfolk Broads area, while the obvious suggestion, 
that we are dealing with a Botanic Garden escape, is untenable, 
since there was before this discovery no Azolla except A. caro- 
liniana being grown at the Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

Azolla, according to Baker,'' is a genus with five species 
inhabiting the tropics and warm temperate regions of both hemi- 
spheres. Of these species two have been introduced into Europe, 
and both occur in the British Isles. These two are A. caroliniana, 
which occurs native in America from Lake Ontario to Brazil, and 
A. filiculoides, from South America. I 

The characters of these two species have been well summed 
up in two recent papers on the occurrence of A. filiculoides in 
Europe, and from the accounts of these authors (viz. Bernard | 
and Beguinot and Traverso§), from Baker ij and from von 
Martins, *! the following details of the principal differences 
between the species are taken. 

Azolla filiciiloides (Lamarck, Encyclopedie Methodique : 
Botanique, T. i. p. 343 and plate 863, 1783). The plants are 
in dense tufted masses, the ends of the shoots being porrect and 
often protruding, not lying fiat on the surface of the water as in 
the other species. The whole shoot is much larger and thicker, 
the branching is more compound and the branches are closer 
together. The upper lobes of the leaves have a broad distinct 
margin, and bear numerous unicellular trichomes on their upper 
surfaces. The reproductive organs show the most distinctive 
characters. The glochidia or hooked hairs which are attached to 
the massulcz or microspore masses have non-septate stalks. The 
macrospore wall is furnished with large, deep, circular pits. 

Azolla caroliniana (Willdenow, Species Plantarum, v. p. 541, 
1810). The plants are much smaller with much less dense branch- 



* Baker, Fern Allies, p. 137, London, 1887. 

t The distributions are as given in Coste, Flore de France, iii. pp. 702, 703, 
Paris, 1906, and Ascherson u. Graebner, Synopsis der initteleuropilischen Flora, 
i. p. 114, Leipzig, 1896. 

\ Bernard, Recueil des Trav. Bot. Neerland., i. pp. 1-14, 1904, quoted in 
the Report of the Botanical Exchange Club for 1912, p. 186. 

§ Beguinot e Traverse, " Azolla filiciiloides Lam. nuovo inquilino della 
flora italiana," Bull. Sac. Bot. Ital., pp. 143-151, 1906. || Baker, loc. cit. 

*'^ von Martius, Flora Branliensis, vol. i. part ii. p. 657, plate 82, Leipzig, 
1884. 



AZOLLA IN BRITAIN AND IN EUROPE 211 

ing. They lie flat on the surface of the water. The roots are 
not as numerous or as conspicuous as in A. filiculoicles. The 
margin of the upper leaf lobe is not as broad as in the other 
species, and the trichomes of the upper surface are said to be 
bicellular, though I have not been able to observe this character 
satisfactorily. The glochidia have 3-5 transverse septa in the 
stalk, and the macrospore wall is not pitted but merely finely 
granulate. 

The history of the genus in Europe began in 1872, when 
A. caroliniana was introduced into Continental botanic gardens, 
whence it soon escaped into neighbouring ditches and ponds, and 
multiplied enormously. In 1878 De Bary described it as a " new 
water- pest " in Kassel, and in 1885 it was very abundant at 
Leyden and Boskoop in Holland. * It was also found at Bonn, 
Giessen t and Strassburg ^ in 1885, and in Berlin in 1887.]: In 
Bohemia it was found by Celakovsky near Pilsen in 1895, and it 
had spread much earlier into England (1883), France (1879), and 
Italy (1886). § 

In England A. caroliniana was first obtained at Pindon 
(Middlesex), and an account of this is published in Science Gossip 
for 1883. It has been recently reported from various spots in the 
Thames valley, between Oxford and London, but it must be 
remembered that until Ostenfeld ji pointed out the fact in 1912 
(from specimens found in 1911) it was not realised that we had 
any Azolla other than A. caroliniana. For instance, DrucelT 
(1908) gives only one species, A. caroliniana. The following 
records for the British Isles have been published, though, until 
the material has been re-examined in the light of Ostenfeld's 
discovery, they must be considered recoi'ds for the genus rather 
than for the species. Azolla described as A. caroliniana has been 
found at Hayes Place (Kent), Oxford, Sonning, Henley, Enfield, 
Sunbury and Suleham.*" Of these I have been able to examine 
material from Sunbury and Enfield kindly sent by Mr. 0. E. 
Britton. The Sunbury plant is ^. filiculoicles, the Enfield specimen 
A. caroliniana. Another Azolla from Enfield was sent by Mr. 
HoUoway, but this was A. filiculoides. The Norfolk Azolla, which 
is good A. filiculoicles, has also been several times referred to as 
A. caroliniana. I have seen A. caroliniana from one other British 
locality, viz. Godalming, where it was found in 1913. 

The species is described by Ascherson and Graebner (1896) 

* Kittel, Gartenfiora, 1885. 

t Dosch u. Scriiia, Excursionsjlora Hessen, 3te Auflage, p. 24. 
I Luersseii, Farnpflanzen, p. 598. 

§ This account is taken chiefly from Ascherson and Graebner, loc. cit., 
but see also Saccardo, Cronologia della Flora I(aZ/(i;!rt, Padova, 1909 ; Ibid., 
" De diffusione Azollie earoliuianffi per Europam," Hedwigia, 1892, p. 217; 
Beguinot and Traverso, loc. cit., where many additional references are given. 

Ij Ostenfeld, " Floristic Eesults of the International Excursion," New Phyt. 
xi. p. 127, 1912. 

H Druce, List of British Plants, p. 88, Oxford, 1908. 

♦* Reports of the Botanical Exchange Club, 1910, p. 609; 1911, p. 56 ; 1912, 
pp. 186, 220; Journal of Botany, xl. p. 113, 1902; xlviii. p. 332, 1910. 

R 2 



212 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

as fruiting only very rarely, they knowing of only one ease of fruit 
being produced in Europe — a record from Bordeaux. No fruiting 
material has been found in the British Isles, although fruiting 
A. filiculoides has more than once been described under the wrong 
specific name. 

Azolla filiculoides was introduced into Europe in 1880 by 
Eoze, '' who naively remarks, " Le climat de Bordeaux paralt, du 
reste, assez bien convenir a ces deux esp^ces americaines, car 
quelques poign6es de la premiere [.4. caroliniana] en 1879, et de 
la seconde [A. filiculoides] en 1880, jetees qk et la dans les fosses 
des marais de cette ville, ont donne naissance a une legion 
innombrable de ces plantes, qui ont envahi presque tous les fosses, 
mares et 6tangs du departement de la Gironde." 

It spread over many parts of France and then into other 
countries. In 1896 Ascherson and Graebner knew of it only in 
western and northern France. In 1900 it had reached Italy, f 
In the British Isles A . filiculoides was first noticed as a distinct 
species by Ostenfeld ]: in 1911, who found it at Woodbastwick, 
Norfolk, and at Queenstown Junction, Co. Cork. It was, however, 
present in this country before that time. The Sunbury record of 
A. caroliniana in 1910 § should certainly be ascribed to the other 
species, while the Azolla was noticed in the Norfolk Broads || 
before Ostenfeld's identification. 

I have also seen fruiting specimens of A. filictdoides found in 
1912 at Almondsbury, West Gloucestershire, and kindly sent me 
by Miss I. M. Roper. The same species now occurs at Reading, 
where it is peculiar in being without the endophytic blue-green alga, 
AnahcBna, which usually inhabits the cavity of the upper leaf-lobe. 

At present ^4. /2ZiC2Jo/f?cs seems to be growing in importance 
as a constituent of British vegetation, for, as the result of the 
floods of 1912, it has been distributed over large areas in Norfolk. 
It is described as occupying a definite position as a member of the 
association of Typha ang^cstifolia, especially in South Walsham 
and Ranworth Broads. T 

A. filiculoides fruits quite readily in Europe. Both the 
specimens found by Ostenfeld were fruiting, the Almondsbury 
and the Sunbury plants were in fruit, and I obtained fruit last 
autumn, not only from Cambridge, but, by the kindness of 
Mr. W. E. Palmer, of St. John's College (the author of the 
article in Nature), also from Norfolk. Ascherson and Graebner*''' 
also describe it as a freely fruiting species. 



* Eoze, " Contribution a I'etude de la fecondation chez les Azolla," Bull, 
de la Soc. hot. de France, xxx. p. 198, 1883. 

f Saccardo, Cronologia, loc. cit. ; Beguinot e Traverse, loc. cit. 

+ Ostenfeld, loc. cit. ; Report of the Bot. Exch. Club for 1912, pp. 220, 301. 

§ Re}]. Bot. Exch. Clnb for 1910, p. (i09 ; Joimi. Bot. xlviii. p. 332, 1910. 

II Rep. Bot. Exch. Club'for 1910 and 1911, loc. cit. 

M Palmer, "Azolla in Norfolk," Nature, xcii. p. 233, 1913. The plant is 
wrongly named A. caroliniana, but I have seen fruiting specimens, which prove 
it to be A. filiculoides. 
** Loc. cit., p. 115. 



NOTES ON THE MANX Fr,ORA 213 

In conclusion, I should like to suggest that it is of some 
importance to keep a look-out for Azollas in the British Isles, as 
in the event of their becoming important factors in our vegetation, 
as full a knowledge as possible of their early history in the country 
would be of great interest and value. 



NOTES ON THE MANX FLORA. 

By J. W. Hartley and J. A. Wheldon, E.L.S. 

Whilst engaged in making a lichenological survey of the Isle 
of Man, early in June of the present year, we noticed a few 
flowering plants, some of which may prove to be new to vice- 
county 71, or at least from new stations. But there is great need 
of a revision of Manx plants, and it is hoped that a general 
botanical survey of the Island may be undertaken shortly. The 
most recent lists of species that we are aware of are the Rev. 
S. A. P. Kermode's " List of Flowering Plants," reprinted from 
Yn Lioar Manninagli, vol. iii., in 1900; and the " Flora of the 
Manx Curraghs," by one of us, which appeared in the Lancashire 
Naturalist, 1910, pp. 271-274 and 301-304. Mr. Kermode's Hst 
does not include the GraminecB or Gijperacece,, and specific loca- 
lities are only quoted for the rarer species. Lists of Grasses and 
Ferns have, however, appeared in local publications, and in 1889 
the Rev. S. Gasking contributed to Research a catalogue of Manx 
plants without localities, which included the Grasses, Sedges, and 
higher Cryptogams. 

Gheiranthus Cheiri L. On walls, Rushen Abbey. 

Cochlearia danica L. Shore near Glen Maye. 

Reseda Luteola L. Copse near Jurby. 

Viola ericetorum Schrad. Heathy ground near Blue Point. 

Polygala oxyptera Reichb. Sand dunes about Jurby and Blue 
Point. 

Gerastium vulgatum L. North of Peel. 

G. viscosum L. Shore near Blue Point. 

G. tetrandruvi Curt. Scattered, with G. semidecandrum L., on 
the dunes from Jurby to Blue Point. 

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. viacrocarpa Lloyd. With the 
preceding species. 

Spergularia rupestris Lebel. Peel ; and very fine on rocks on 
the Glen Maye shore. 

Sagina ciliata Fr. Sparingly near Point of Ayre. 

Erodium cictUarium L'Herit. var. glutinosum Clav., and E. 
maritimum L'Herit. On the dunes near Lhane. 

Ononis maritima Dum. (0. repens L. wav. prostrataBveh.). A 
very glutinous prostrate form at Jurby and near Point of Ayre. 

Lotus corniculatus L. var. crassifolius Pers. Shore near Blue 
Point. 

Rosa spinosissima L. Dunes near Lhane. A taller state is 
frequent on hedge-banks about Jurby and Blue Point. 



214 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Sechim anglicum Huds. Abundant on the dunes of the north_ 
where it seems to replace S. acre, which was not seen. 

Smyrnium Olusatrum L. Ballasalla, Jurby, Lhane, &c., very 
frequent, and nearly always affected by Puccinia. 

Anthriscus vulgaris Bernh. Lhane and Jurby. 

Galium verum L. var. maritimum DC. Sand-dunes near 
Lhane. 

Valerianella olitoria Poll. Common on the sand-dunes from 
Jurby towards Point of Ayre. 

Dij^sacus sylvestris Huds. Seen between Glen Cam and 
Jurby, but the locality was not noted. We find, however, that it 
is not included in Mr. Kermode's list. 

Petasites fragrans Presl. Bishop's Court Glen ; no doubt 
planted. 

Cnicus arvensis Hoffm. var. vestitus Koch. Near St. Germans. 

Taraxacum Icevigatum DC. Sand-dunes near Lhane. 

Jasionc montana L. A small form with prostrate stems, and 
anthodes as small as those of var. littoralis Fr., but with hairy 
leaves, occurs on the dunes near Jurby and Lhane. 

Euphrasia curta Wettst. A very dwarf form on the dunes at 
Lhane. 

Salix aurita L. and S. lutescens Kern. Glen Kushen. 

Polygonum Rail Bab. Near Blue Point. (Eecorded as P. 
Bohcrti Lois, in Lanes. Naturalist, 1910, p. 304.) 

Scilla verna Huds. Very fine on the coast about Glen Maye. 

Carex arenaria L. Common on the dunes about Jurby and 
Lhane. 

C. flava L. Boggy fields near St. Germans. 

Phleum arcnarium L. Plentiful at Blue Point and Lhane. 

Ammopliila arenaria Link. Sand-dunes from Jurby onwards 
to Point of x\yre. 

Aira car yopJty Ilea L. and A. prcecox L. Both abundant in the 
north of the Island, on sand-dunes and hedge-cops. 

Trisetum flavcscens Beauv. Glen Maye. 

Festuca rigida Kunth. Peel Castle. 

F. rottboellioides Kunth. Rocks on the shore near Glen Maye. 

Bromus hordeaceus L. var. leptostachys Beck. Dunes near 
Jurby. 

BotrycMum Lunaria Sw. Amongst Pteris, on the dunes near 
Blue Point. 



ARMERIA ARCTICA Wallr. FOSSIL IN BRITAIN. 

By Clement Reid, F.R.S. 

Among some fruits associated with Salix polaris in a deposit 
belonging to the Glacial Period, discovered at Borna, south of 
Leipzig, Dr. C. A. Weber has recently found and figured Armeria 
arctica Wallr., a species supposed to be confined to Arctic North 
America and Greenland. He, however, found the same plant in 



A NEW SPECIES OF DISCINELLA 215 

the herbarium at Stockhohn, among specimens from Siberia, 
where it had not previously been recorded. He also again recog- 
nized it, among plants wrongly determined, from the glacial 
deposits of Denmark and perhaps Galicia. ■' 

Armaria arctica is therefore circumpolar, and it had formerly 
a wide extension southward. 

Dr. Weber's figures and description made me re-examine some 
unknown fruits which I had obtained at various times from British 
glacial deposits, but could not determine ; they certainly did not 
belong to A. maritivia, and the American A. arctica was not in 
my collection. Comparison leaves no doubt that this circumpolar 
species was common also over the lowlands of Britain during the 
Glacial Epoch. I have fruits of it from the base of the boulder 
clay at Mundesley, on the Norfolk coast (associated with Salix 
polaris and Betula nana) ; from the top of the glacial deposits at 
Saughton and Corstorphine, close to Edinburgh (associated with 
S. polaris, S. herbacea, S. reticulata) ; and from material collected 
by Messrs. E. T. Newton and S. H. Warren at Bonder's End, in 
the Lea Valley, where also it is associated with Salix herbacea and 
Betula nana. 

As this Arctic species was formerly so widely distributed over 
the lowlands of Europe, the living mountain forms of Armcria in 
Britain should now be re-examined critically, for it is probable 
that they will be found to belong to this species, or to one of the 
allied Arctic species, and not to the sea-coast A. maritima. As 
distinguished from A. maritima the fruiting calyx of A. arctica is 
more robust, shorter, broader, much more openly campanulate, 
and is densely pilose on the ribs but smooth on the intervals. All 
these characters are well seen in the fossils, though some of the 
specimens, as we should expect, have lost the hairs. The smooth 
intervals at once separate A. arctica as belonging to a different 
section of the genus from that in which A. maritima is placed. t 
The fruiting calyx gives the best specific characters in this genus. 



A NEW SPECIES OF DISCINELLA. 

By J. Ramsbottom. 

The genus Discinella was founded by Boudier in his " Nouvelle 
classification naturelle des Discomycetes charnus," in Bull. Soc. 
Myc. Fr. 1885, i. p. 112. There is no Latin description, but the 
generic characters can be easily understood from the information 
supplied in the key to the genera, and from the fact that Phialea 
Boudieri Quel, is made the type species. The characters are 



* Die Mammutflora von Borna, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 1914, Bd. xxiii. 
Heft 1. 

t See Boissier in De Candolle, Prodromus Systematic Naturalii' Herini Vege- 
tabilis, pars xii., 1848. 



216 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

more fully given by the same author in his Histoirc et Classifica- 
tion des Discomycetes cVEurope (1907). According to Boucher the 
principal characters are the terrestrial habit and the size of the 
fungus, which can reach as much as 12 mm. The species are 
thick, shortly stipitate, having somewhat the appearance of oper- 
culate species, though they are inoperculate. The hymenium is 
more or less surrounded by a dentate margin. The exterior of the 
receptacle is subtomentose. The inoperculate asci are remarkably 
small, eight-spored, with a raarginate pore. The paraphyses, 
which are fairly slender, are filled with oil globules, united some- 
times into masses. The spores are fusiform and contain oil 
drops, which are accompanied or not by granulations. (The 
genus Discinella of Karsten {Hedwigia, 1891, 30, p. 301) is 
different from Boudier's genus : " est Discina Fr. em. apotheciis 
minoribus," and the species described, D. corticaUs, is not 
terrestrial.) 

The species of Discinella which have been recorded in this 
country are D. purpurascens (Pers.) Boud., D. exidiiformis (B. et 
Br.) Boud., and D. Menzicsii Boud. The last-named species was 
described and figured in Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 1913, iv. p. 62, 
as Calijcella Menziesii, from specimens sent from Perth by Mr. J. 
Menzies. Boudier, in the same publication, 1914, p. 323, places 
the species in the correct genus. At the end of last year Mr. D. 
Garnett found this fungus at Silchester, growing amongst moss 
and usually under Ulex, and brought it to me for identification. 
As the fungus appeared suitable for cytological investigation, 
several collections were obtained, and an attempt was made to 
find young stages. In the search numerous very small bodies 
were met with which, on examination, proved to be mature 
apothecia. These specimens were kindly brought to me for 
examination, Mr. Garnett fully realizing the close similarity these 
fructifications had to those of 1). Menziesii. The fungus is 
apparently new, and is distinguished from its allies by the 
exceptionally small size of the apothecia. It would be included 
by Saccardo in the genus Humaria. 

Discinella minutissima Ramsb. et Garn. — Minutissima sub- 
stipitata, isabellina, 300-400 /x lata, carnosa, crassa, margine non 
prominulo, obtuso ; stipite obconico, crasso ; paraphysibus tenui- 
Idus, 2-3 /x crassis, oleosis, simplicibus, filiformibus, ad apices non 
aut vix incrassatis, hyalinis ; ascis inoperculatis minoribus octo- 
sporis, foramine marginato, cylindrico-clavatis, 40-50 /x x 4-5 jj., ad 
basim vix attenuatis, ad apicem iodo non caerulescentibus ; sporidiis 
oblongo-fusiformibus, hyalinis, levibus, continuis, stepe leniter cur- 
vatis, 7-8 /x X 2fx, intus guttulosis et granulosis, guttulis SEepius 
3 majoribus, granulis minoribus. 

Ad terram argillosam in Silchester, Hants, x\pril 22, 1914. 



217 

SHORT NOTES. 

EoMULiEA PARViFLOBA (p. 46). — Dr. Stapf calls my attention 
to the publication of this name in Bubani's Flora Pyrcnaa, iv. 
150 (1901). Judging from the synonymy, this is identical with 
Salisbury's Ixia iMrviflora, and the name must therefore be cited 
as of Bubani. It is curious to note that Bubani does not cite 
Salisbury's publication, of which he was probably not aware ; he 
based his name on " /. parviflora Pourr. Herbr. Matr.," to which 
he adds " ita ego." — James Britten. 

Apera interrupta Beauv. in Lancashire. — Mr. J. A. 
Wheldon and I found this rare grass at Freshfield, South Lan- 
cashire, v.-c. 59, early in July. The plant occurred on sandy 
and cindery soil for some distance along the margin of the road 
leading from the station to the shore. The specimens were 
numerous and well-grown. No other "alien" plants were seen 
in the vicinity, but there can be no doubt that the plant in this 
locality is purely a casual, as to the origin of which we can make 
no suggestion. There is no record to our knowledge of this species 
ever having been met with in Lancashire before, although its 
congener Apera Spica-venti occasionally crops up about docks, 
canals, and railways ; and as there is a possibility that it may 
establish itself on the open sandy soil of the district, it may be 
well to put particulars of our " find " on record. — W. G. Travis. 

Miller's ' Abridgement,' ed. 4. — As there seems to be some 
obscurity about the " discovery " of the fourth edition of the 
Abridgement (1754) of Miller's Gardeners Dictionary, I may 
point out that I was the first to call attention to it as an autho- 
rity for the citation of genera, in Journ. Bot. 1910, p. 183, and 
again in Prodr. Fl. Brit. p. 461 (February, 1911). The many 
binomials to be found in it are, of course, only accidental and are 
not valid for citation ; and have even less claim to notice than 
similar " accidentals " in Hill's British Herbal and in Gersault's 
List, which are both of later date. As it has been suggested that 
this work of Miller may be ignored by decision of Congressional 
vote on the principle of the "nomina conservanda" anomaly, 
I should protest that it can be no more suppressed than the 
classical but badly printed Species Flantarmn of the previous 
year. — F. N. Williams. 



REVIEWS. 

Physiological Plant Anatomy. By Dr. G. Haberlandt. Translated 
from the fourth German edition by Montagu Drummond. 
777 pages, with 291 figures in the text. Macmillan & Co., 
Ltd. 1914. 25s. net. 

The relation of an organism to its environment is one of the 
most interesting of all biological problems if, indeed, it cannot 
be said to comprise the whole of biology. The "hand and eye " 



218 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

characters of plants, the various macroscopic adaptational devices 
which they display, must at times appeal to all botanists. For 
those who are fortunate enough to have had a training in micro- 
scopic manipulation there is something further — the possibility of 
the attempt to correlate the internal anatomy of plants with their 
life-processes and with their surroundings. The study of plant 
anatomy as such is of purely academic interest. It is only to a 
certain type of mind or, in any case, only to a trained anatomist, 
that the various forms of " woody fibre " and their position in the 
plant can appeal. The older observers in anatomy and physiology 
certainly realized the functions of many types of plant tissue. 
Anatomy and physiology w'ere, however, kept distinct. An epoch- 
making paper by Schwendener — " Das mechanische Prinzip im 
anatomischen Bau der Monocotylen " — was published in 1874, 
in which the skeleton of the plant and the structure and relation 
of this " mechanical" system were correlated with function in a 
very convincing manner. Every examination student is now 
taught the essence of Schwendener's principles but, probably 
because no controversy was aroused, Schwendener's name is not 
so often attached to them as it is to that suggestion of his which 
revolutionized the study of lichens. Many of Schwendener's 
pupils adopted the anatomico-physiological attitude, and in 1884, 
Haberlandt (who has succeeded Schwendener as Professor of 
Botany in Berlin) published the first edition of his famous 
PhysiologiscJie Pflanzenanatomie. The book under review is a 
translation of the fourth edition of this work. " In its present 
form, therefore, this work may be assumed to embody the mature 
and considered views of its author, with regard to that section of 
botanical science which he has made peculiarly his own." It is 
therefore more satisfactory to have a careful translation of this 
work than a book which is merely a compilation. The volume 
opens with an introduction of thirteen pages, in which the author 
defines the aim of his book and attempts to refute certain 
philosophical objections to parts of the study: — "The object of 
Physiological Plant Anatomy is twofold. It consists, first, in the 
recognition of the physiological functions pertaining to the tissues 
of the plant and to the structural units, or cells, of which these 
tissues are composed ; and, secondly, in the discovery of the 
connection that exists between the several functions and the 
anatomical arrangements required for their proper performance." 
There is also a discussion concerning " functionless " cells which 
" play no useful part in the general economy of the plant." This 
seems rather too definite ; on the other hand, we should be 
inclined to doubt whether some of the functions bestowed upon 
certain cells have any real existence. If a function cannot be 
assigned to a tissue at present, it seems as illogical to assume that 
no function exists as it does to hold that the functions assigned 
are in all other cases the correct ones. " The value of teleological 
explanation depends entirely upon the philosophical attitude of its 
author " we are told, and in some cases the attitude of the present 
author is apparent. 



ETUDES SUR LA FLORE DU KATANGA 219 

There are fourteen chapters : — The cells and tissues of plants, 
meristematic tissues, dermal, mechanical, absorbing, photosyn- 
thetic, vascular, storage, aerating, secretory and excretory, motor, 
sensory and stimulus-transmitting systems, and a concluding 
chapter on secondary growth. Each of these chapters is sub- 
divided into convenient portions. 

The translator's part of the work seems to be well and care- 
fully done. Owing to the adoption of a somewhat free trans- 
lation, the book hardly reads as if it were translated. The time 
that has elapsed since the fourth German edition (1909) appears 
rather long, and meanwhile certain portions of the study, for 
instance, those on light perception, have been somewhat extended. 
The recent results have not been incorporated by Mr. Drummond, 
we think advisedly. The only additions made are indicated by 
square brackets and seem to consist merely of words added for 
greater clearness. An innovation is the gathering together of the 
notes at the end of the book instead of the perhaps more conve- 
nient place at the end of each chapter which they occupied in the 
German editions. There is a subject index and an index of plant 
names. Botanical students will welcome this book. There are 
few laboratories which do not possess the original work, but the 
German language is not, as a rule, read by students with ease. 
The binding and printing are both excellent and the figures clear. 
The author is to be congratulated on the completion of his 
arduous task of making this standard work accessible to many 
who would not otherwise have been able to read it. 

J. Eamsbottom. 



Etudes sur la Flore clu Katanga. (Annales die Musce du^ Congo 
Beige, Botanique, ser. iv. vol. ii. fasc. i.) Par Em. de 
WiLDEMAN. Brussels, Sept. 1913. 

Dr. de Wildebian continues his researches into the flora 
of the southernmost province of the Belgian Congo in a Memoir 
in which a large proportion of the families of Pteridophyta, 
Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones occurring in that part of 
Africa find a place. In a work so discursive it is no matter for 
wonder if some of the author's determinations invite criticism. 
For instance, the plant named Geophila herbacea K. Schum. 
{Kassner, 2427) seems to us to be G. reniformis Cham. & Schlecht. ; 
so, too, Pentanisia variabilis Harv. is rather P. ScJuoeinfurthii 
Hiern, and Nicxia platyphylla Gilg is N. sambesina Gilg, while 
for Buellia prcetermissa Lindau, B. patula Jacq. should be read, 
and Kassner's 2908 is certainly not Brillantaisia patula T. And., 
nor is the same collector's 2619 Barleria salicifolia S. Moore ; 
moreover, Kassner's 2405 is PhyllantJms leucanthus Pax, not as 
here stated P. odontadenius Miill. Arg. Among several over- 
sights we may mention that the plant called Vcrnonia Kassneri 
De Wild. & Muschler must be renamed, the trivial being already 
occupied, and the same remark applies to Ipomixa Kassneri. The 
letterpress also is not entirely satisfactory ; thus the headings 



220 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Myrtacece and Melastomacece have become mutually displaced, and 
what Phili2)2)ia is doing in the Umbelliferous galley is not evident. 

Strong objection must be taken to Dr. de Wildeman's practice 
of publishing specific names without a reference ; thus we find, 
inter multa alia, reference to Sojjubea Kassneri Pilger " in hb. 
Berol." for a plant already described, and other determinations 
similarly authenticated of species still lacking a published 
description ; the names, too, of several of Mr. Edmund Baker's 
Crotalarias not yet formally published appear here simply 
with " Baker sp. nov." after them ; also we are given no means 
of distinguishing the younger botanist from his venerable father, 
who must have been a marvel of precocity if he was already 
writing, as we are told he was, in Hooker's London Journal oj 
Botany seventy-one years ago ! 

One is sorry to make remarks of this kind concerning a work 
not without its good points. The many descriptions of new species 
are written, as is usual with Dr. de Wildeman, in an admirably clear 
manner, and the photographic plates show up the species more 
effectively than is often the case with that style of illustration. 
But there are too many signs of haste throughout the memoir to 
enable one, after careful examination, honestly to praise it without 
many reservations. g_ ^ 

Two Additions to British Local Floras. 

A Supplement to the Flora of Somerset. By Edward Shearburn 
Marshall, M. A., F.L.S. 8vo, cloth, pp. iv. 242. Taunton: 
Published by the Somersetshire Archteological and Natural 
History Society. 1914. Price 7s. 6d. 

Flora Orcadensis : containing the Flowering Plants arranged 
according to the Natural Order by Magnus Spence, and the 
Mosses by Lieut. James Grant. 8vo, cloth, pp. xcv. 148. 
With Maps and Portraits. Kirkwall : D. Spence. 1914. 
Price 4s. 

The extent of Mr. Marshall's Siipplement to R. P. Murray's 
Flora of Somerset (1893-6) confirms the view always held by the 
present writer that the estimate of Murray's book published in 
this Journal for 1897 (p. 150) was somewhat too high — it was a 
good book, but hardly of " first-rate botanical excellence," falling 
short as it did of the standard raised by Trimen and Dyer's 
Flora of Middlesex (1869), and mixintained by many other works, 
of which Mr. White's Flora of Bristol (1912) is the most recent. 
The Somersetshire portion of the last-named work has been made 
full use of in Mr. Marshall's book; indeed, he calls it his " main- 
stay," an estimate which seems a little over-generous, for the 
Supplement owes its chief value to Mr. Marshall's own notes, 
and to the greatly extended information regarding the plants of 
the county and their distribution. 

In some respects the Supplement is susceptible of improve- 
ment. There should have been an introduction in which the 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE FLORA OF SOMERSET 221 

principal additions or exclusions, whether of species or of dis- 
tribution, should liave been specified ; and it would iiave been 
well if the page of the original work had been indicated under 
each species included therein and appearing in the present work 
— the number of the species under each genus might, at any rate, 
have been cited. One would have been glad to have had some 
biographical matter, which is entirely lacking in Murray's Flora ; 
and we think some distinction should have been made between 
notes— e.(/. those on Berberis aristata and the hybrid Daphne — 
which originally appeared in this Journal, and those which are 
now first published. Other references might conveniently have 
been added — e.g. to Plantago Coronopus var. sabrina — and one is 
a little surprised to find no acknowledgement in the brief preface 
of the evidently considerable help given by Miss Eivett and Miss 
Roper. 

Turning over the pages, we note much matter of general 
interest. There are many new localities for Aconitum, which Mr. 
Marshall thinks (and those who have seen the plant in situ will 
agree with him) a true native in Somerset : Dr. Stapf, we are 
told, has " been unable to meet with exactly our English plant on 
the Continent." The treatment of Viola in accordance with Mrs. 
Gregory's monograph has led to numerous corrections and 
additions, extending over seven pages. The " usual if not the 
only Somerset plant" of the Alchemilla vulgaris aggregate is 
A. minor Hudson {A. filicaulis Buser). Daucus gummifer, which 
appeared in the Flora, is withdrawn, as also is Gentiana cam- 
pestris. The treatment of Hieraciitm is greatly amplified, and 
contains interesting notes ; the single Euphrasia of the Flora is 
distributed among fourteen names, the result of observations pub- 
lished since Mr. Murray's book was written. Mentha also has 
undergone considerable amplification. It may be noted here that 
Euphorbia LatJtyrus, which is given in the Flora for Steep Holm 
as " not truly wild " and " naturalized," was found there by 
Banks in 1773 ; his specimen in the National Herbarium is 
endorsed by himself : — " I found this one plant among the 
Ligustrum on the south side of the Steep Holmes Island, but 
being hurried by the tide had not time to search for more." 
There are interesting additions to Salicornia, represented in the 
Flora only by S. herbacea ; and a long note on the Snowdrop 
calls attention to the probability of its nativity in the county. 
The " var. bracteata Druce " of Scilla nonscripta is supposed to 
be " rather a form than a variety " ; a note to this effect 
will be found in Journ. Bot. 1908, 200, where it is shown 
that the authority for the name should be " Hort. ex Baker." 
Wolffia is an interesting addition to the county list, and Asple- 
nium germanicuvi was probably accidentally omitted from the 
Flora. 

These are but indications of the valuable information 
which render this Supplement, apart from the Flora to which 
it relates, of interest to all concerned with the study of British 
plants. 



222 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Mr. Magnus Spence's Flora Orcadensis contains much of 
interest. Dr. Irvine Fortescue tells us in his "Foreword" that 
it "is the result of many years of careful observation and research, 
and the author has spared neither time nor trouble in making his 
work as full as possible." The introductory portion includes 
among other interesting matter accounts of the author's excursions 
and the notes in the section entitled, not very happily, " Natural 
Selection " ; there is also useful biographical matter concerning 
previous contributors to our knowledge of the flora ; the sketch 
of the geology is very comprehensive. 

The list of species, in which introductions are prominent, 
suggests that Mr. Spence has not, j^C'Ce Dr. Fortescue as quoted, 
done quite all that he might have done to elucidate his subject, 
and there is an air of uncertainty about some of his entries which 
detracts a good deal from their value. Thus of a " var. montana " 
— a name with which we are not familiar — of Vicia sejnum he 
writes: "This is said to be found in Lyradale, Redland. I 
have not seen it, and do not know on whose authority it is 
given"; while, having definitely recorded Alchemilla vulgaris 
var. montana on his own authority, as well as on that of a 
contributor, he says in a later paragraph, " Rev. E. F. Linton, in 
a paper on the segregates of A. vulgaris [sic] , states that A. mon- 
tana is not British : in that case the variety in Orkney will be 
A. fiUcaulis," which has already had a separate entry. Of 
Eiyilobium tetragonum he says: — " Some doubt has been expressed 
as to whether this plant grows in Orkney ; but I believe it is to 
be found in several places in St. Andrews": surely this might 
have been decided ? 

The most interesting note in the book is that contributed by 
Mr. Moss (p. 138), in which he refers to a plant sent by Mr. 
Spence (who however had pointed out its differences) to Mr. 
Hunnybun as Primula scotica : of this Dr. Moss had at first 
regarded it as a variety, but he now considers it possibly identical 
with P. striata Fries, although further material is necessary 
before this can be decided. Those who use the book must not 
overlook the numerous additions to the text on pp. 127-137 : 
another appendix of " plants used medicinally " w^ould have been 
better incorporated in the text. So-called " English " names are 
given throughout : there are also a few local names of interest — 
Achillea Millefolium, " meal-an-folly " — a corruption of the 
specific name ; Artemisia vulgaris, " bulwands " and " grobbie " ; 
Spircea Ulmaria, " yule-girse " ; Menyanthes, " craw-shoe " ; 
seeds of Spergula, "reuth " ; Tormentilla, "hill-barks." There is 
a list of Mosses by Lieut.-Col. James Grant, of whom, as of Mr. 
Spence, a portrait is given ; with the exception of these and 
of the ferns and allies and Charas, only phanerogams are 
included. 

The book, interesting as it is, is one which might easily have 
been better had it been submitted to a competent " reader," who 
would at least have corrected the typographical blunders, which 
are sadly numerous — we note on one page (141) " Lepidopitra," 



ROOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 223 

" Sperganum," " palustra," and misplaced capitals: he would also 
have instructed the author in the art of making references. We 
are indebted to Mr. Bennett for some notes on the work, which 
we hope to print in an early number. 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

Joseph Eeynolds Green, who died at Cambridge on June 3, 
was born at Stowmarket, Sufl'olk, on December 3, 1848. He 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1878, having previously 
taken his B.Sc. at London University ; he graduated as M.A. in 

1888 and took his D.Sc. in 1891, and was elected a Scholar of his 
college. After taking this latter degree he worked in Michael 
Foster's laboratory on the enzymes contained in the seeds of 
plants ; he then undertook researches on fermentation, and in 
1899 published a book on Soluble Ferments. In 1887 he became 
Px'ofessor of Botany to the Pharmaceutical Society, an office 
which he held for twenty years, and was Hartley Lecturer on 
Vegetable Physiology in Liverpool University. In 1892 he was 
elected Fellow of Downing College, and in the same year was 
president of the botanical section of the British Association, at 
whose meetings he was a constant attendant. In 1895 he pub- 
lished a Manual of Botany, in two volumes, and in 1905 an 
excellent Introduction to Vegetable Physiology ; in 1909 appeared 
his continuation of Sachs's History of Botany, dealing with the 
period 1860 — 1900. x\t the time of his death he had completed 
a work on the History of Botany in England, which will probably 
be published. He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 

1889 and was elected F.E.S. in 1895. 

The Journal of Genetics for June (vol. iv. part 1) contains a 
long paper by G. H. Skull, of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, on " A Peculiar Negative Correlation in CEnothera 
Hybrids." As a result of his experiments the author criticizes 
somewhat severely some of the conclusions arrived at by Dr. 
R. B. Gates in his papers on the genus published in the Linnean 
Transactions and elsewhere ; the paper is illustrated by two 
plates. M. Wheldale and J. & LI. Bassett write " On a Sup- 
posed Synthesis of Anthocyanin " ; N. I. Varilov, of the 
Agricultural Higher School of Moscow, has a paper on " Immu- 
nity to Fungus Diseases as a Physiological Test in Genetics and 
Systematics, exemplified in Cereals," more especially in wheat 
and oats ; and H. M. Leake, Economic Botanist to the Indian 
Government, has a preliminary note " On the Factors controlling 
the Ginning per cent, of Indian Cottons." 

To the meeting of the Linnean Society on June 4 Professor 
H. H. W. Pearson contributed a paper, " Notes on the Mor- 
phology of certain Structures concerned in Reproduction in 
Gnetuvi" — an investigation of (1) androgynous and pseudo- 
androgynous spikes of Gnetum Gnemon ; (2) the young embryo sac 
of G. africanum. The spike which bears the male flowers occa- 



224 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

sionally shows complete female flowers in the lowest node or 
nodes. These flowers become pollinated. Their occurrence no 
doubt explains earlier references to the presence of fertile seeds 
on the "male" spikes. One of the complete female flowers in 
this position possessed four envelopes, the outermost of which 
bore an axillary bud. The two envelopes which stand between 
the outermost and the innermost are interpreted as being derived 
by duplication from the normal middle envelope. In its vascular 
supply and other characters, the axis of the " male " spike of 
G. Gnemon resembles that of G. scandens, and differs from those 
of the West African species. The microspore- mother-cell is 
4-chambered. The pollen-grains in the micropyle contain either 
two or three apparently free nuclei. In the nucellus of the 
female flower the " pavement tissue " described by Coulter for 
G. Gnemon is formed also in G. africanum. Lotsy's account of 
the appearance of a cellular endosperm in the chalazal end of the 
sac of G. Gnemon before fertilization is true for G. africanum and 
confirmed for G. Gnemon. In G. africanum the nuclei of these 
cells are all formed by fusion, as in Welwitscliia. The fusing 
nuclei appear to be both morphologically and physiologically 
equivalent to the free gametes of the micropylar end of the 
sac. The primary endosperm is therefore homologous with that 
of Wehvitschia. Seasons for regarding it as morphologically 
different from the prothallus of Ephedra and the lower gymno- 
sperms are discussed. 

The latest number (xlii. 286, July 14) of the Journal of the 
Linnean Society (Botany) contains a monograph of the African 
species of Crotalaria, by Mr. E. G. Baker. For the purpose of 
his paper, Mr. Baker has visited the Herbaria at Paris, Brussels, 
and Berlin, and from these, in addition to the collections in the 
Kew and National Herbaria, he has obtained material which has 
brought up the number of African species to 309, of which 76 
were previously undescribed. "Of these novelties, 9 belong to 
the section Simplicifoliae, 21 to the Sphoerocarpae, 1 to the 
Spinosae, 45 to Eucrobalaria." The paper, which is accompanied 
by six plates, bears testimony to the great strides that have been 
made in our knowledge of African botany since the pubHcation of 
the Flora Capensis (1861) and the Flora of Tropical Africa (1871) 
in which 106 and 24 species are respectively enumerated. 

The collection of drawings of South African flora and fauna 
made by Eobert Jacob Gordon, of which some account was given 
on p. 75, has been purchased by a committee in Holland, formed 
for the purpose, at the price of £1250. The drawings wall be 
placed in one of the State museums. 

The Beport of the Watso7i Botanical Exchange Club for 1912- 
13 has reached us ; we hope to give some extracts from it in an 
early issue. 

The Editor wishes it to be understood that he does not concur 
in the views as to nomenclature expressed by Dr. Moss in his 
paper on Alsine (pp. 196-201). 



Journ.Bot . 



Tab. 533. 



w 




p. Highleydd.etlith. ' West, Nei«nan imp. 

Neosabicea Lehmannii Wern^haTrv. 



225 

NEW RUBIACEiE FKOM TROPICAL AMERICA.— IV. 

By H. F. Wernham, D.Sc, F.L.S. 
(Department of Botany, British Museum.) 

(Continued from vol. li., p. 324.) 

^ (Plate 533.) 

Neosabicea Wernham, 
Rubiacearum e tribu Mussaendearum novum genus. 

Calycis lobi 4 subfoliacei plus minus angusti, elongati, sub- 
SBquales. Corolla subtubularis sub lobos parum ampliata ; lobi 
breves, valvati ; tubus intus insuper dense pilosa. Stamina 4, 
tubi basi inserta ; filamenta tenuissima elongata ; antherae dorso 
affixse, lineares obtusae. Discus inconspicuus. Ovarium biloculare ; 
stylus filamentosus inclusus apice bilobus ; ovula in loculis pauca 
complanata, placentis tumidis septo prope basin affixis adscenden- 
tibus plus minus impressa. Fructus . . . Herbge suffruticosse 
scandentes. Folia opposita ; stipulae minimae fere obsoletas. 
Flores parvi in racemis axillaribus dispositi. 

N. Lehmannii Wernham, sp. unic. F^rutex volubiHs, ramulis 
pubescentibus ; foliis ellipticis vix acuminatis obtusis basi non- 
nunquam cuneatis + 5 cm. x 3 cm., supra scabridulo-pubescen- 
tibus subtus pubescentibus, venis subtus prominulis secundariis 
utrinque ca. 8, petiolo brevi 2-5 mm. longo, stipulis fugaciis ; 
racemis paucifloris pubescentibus, ca. 5 cm. longis ; calycis lobis 
lanceolatis subacutis vix ad 5 mm. longis ; corolla extus sparsi- 
uscule pubescentis tubo insuper parum ampliata vix 1 cm. longo, 
lobis ovatis subacutis ca. 4 mm. x 3 mm. 

Colombia : Cauca, Popayan, 7150 ft., LeJmiann, 3514 ! Hb. 
Mus. Brit. 

Remijia Trianse Wernham, sp. no v. Frutex ramis crassis 
angulatis ferrugineo-villosis, novellis dense tomentosis ; foliis 
oppositis V. ternatim vei'ticillatis subcoriaceis ellipticis ad ca. 
40 cm. X 18 cm. basi angustatis leniter acuminatis, supra glabratis 
subtus praesertim in venis hispidulo-villosis, venis supra impressis 
subtus prominulis secundariis utrinque ad + 20 ; petiolo valido basi 
nonnunquam tumido ad 4 cm. v. longiore ; stipulis maximis tarde 
deciduis foliaceis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis acutis ad 8 cm. x 
3 cm. extus rufo-hispidulis ; inflorescentia ad 35 cm. longa, bracteis 
submembranaceis stipularum forma multo tamen minoribus + 
2 cm. X 8 mm. ; floribus parvis, calycis lobis brevissimis triangu- 
laribus, corollce, tubo + 8 mm. lobis subaequantibus; fructu ovoideo, 
ca. 2-5 cm. x 1*5 cm., glabrescente. 

Colombia : Villavicencio, Plain of San Martin, 1300 ft., Triana, 
3273/1 ! Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Allied to the Brasilian B. ferruginea DC, but distinct, especi- 
ally in the much larger and differently-shaped leaves, with longer 
petioles, larger persistent stipules, short, broad calyx-teeth, &c. 

Declieuxia peruviana Wernham, sp. nov. Suffrutex ramulis 
virgatis novellis gracilibus fere glabris tardius cortice ai'genteo- 
JouRNAL OF Botany. — Vol. 52. [September, 1914.] s 



226 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

griseo indutis ; foliis linearibus subcoriaeeis + 1-3 cm. x 2 mm. 
obtusis sessilibus margine revolutis glabris venis nisi subtus 
centrali prominula occlusis, stipulia triangularibus ca. 2 mm. x 
1 mm. conspicuis acutissimis rigidulis ; injlorescentia subcapitata 
l"5-2 cm. in diam. ; florihus parvis vix 5 mm. longis extus glabris. 

Peru : Chachapoyas, Mathews I Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Eemarkable for its small linear leaves and delicate habit. 

Declieuxia roraimensis Wernham, sp. nov. Glaberrimus, 
foliis lanceolatis 7-11 cm. x 2-3 cm., utrinque angustatis apice 
subacutis, petiolo brevi vel ad 1-3 cm. longo, stipulis lanceolatis 
acuminatis 7 mm. x 3 mm. infra medium bifidis ; florihus parvis 
in cymis corymbosis folia excedentibus longe- (5-6 cm.) peduncu- 
latis dispositis, calycis limbo subintegro, corollce tubo 5 mm. longo 
insuper infundibulari lobis oblongis obtusis 2-3 mm, longis. 

British Guiana : Roraima, Scliomhurgk, 581 ! Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Differs from all other species known to me in the habit, which 
closely resembles that of many Psychotrics, as also in the bifid 
stipules. De Candolle (Prodr. iv. 481) described a plant which he 
named suggestively D. ? i^sycliotrioides, expressing, however, a 
doubt as to the genus, as no flowers were present. This also has 
bifid stipules, according to the description ; but they are said to 
be subulate, the peduncles short, the inflorescence falling con- 
siderably short of the leaves. De Candolle gives as localities for 
D. 2^sychotr hides, Cayenne {Pair is), and Panama and Mexico 
{Haenke). 

LiNDENIA. 

The genus Lindenia is an interesting member of the tribe 
PhOndeletiea, with long-tubed, showy flowers. Two species have 
hitherto been known from the New World, L. aciitiflora and 
L. rivalis, both natives of Central America, and forming the 
respective subjects of plates 475, 476 in Hooker's Icones. The 
genus comprises two other species, L. austro-caledonica Brongn. 
and L. vitiensis Seem., the locality being indicated in each case 
by the specific name. 

The flower typical of Lindenia recalls that of the large- 
flowered MussandcB with subequal calyx-lobes. The two following 
species are very distinct from those previously described ; both 
are preserved in the Kew Herbarium, to the authorities of which 
I am greatly indebted for the privilege of examining the material. 

L. radicans Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex repens, caulibus 
gracilibus novellis appresse pubescentibus demum glabrescen- 
tibus ; foliis membranaceis ellipticis utrinque angustatis acutis 
acuminatis, 5-8 cm, x 2-3 cm., cystolithis breviter linearibus 
dense onustis, venis utrinque appresse hirtellis, secundariis 
utrinque 4-6, iMiolo gracillimo ad 2 cm. longo, stijMlis e basi 
brevissime triangulari subulato-setaceis ; floribus solitariis sessili- 
bus ; calycis laciniis linearibus acutis inaequalibus ad ca. 2 cm. 
longis ; corollce tubo gracili extus appresse pubescente ca. 4-5 cm. 
longo, lobis latis dorso subsericeis margine ciliatis rotundatis nee 
acuminatis ca. 1"5 x I'l cm., ore minute necnon densiuscule 



ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE 227 

ferrugineo-fui-furaceo ; staminibus omnino inclusis ; ovario dense 
appresse griseo-pubescente biloculari. 

Mexico : shaded places on rocks at crossing of the river near 
Tocotepeque, Jvily, Hartweg ! Hb. Kew. 

Remarkable for the creeping habit, thin leaves with densely 
packed and conspicuous cystoliths, rounded corolla-lobes, and 
included anthers. 

L. acuminatissima Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex, /o//is perga- 
maceis lanceolatis utrinque angustatis acutis ad ca. 3 x 1"2 cm. 
supra subnitentibus necnon glabrescentibus subtus pubescentibus, 
brevissime petiolatis, stipulis brevibus acutissimis rigide subu- 
lato-triangularibus. Floribus in axillis solitariis ; calycis lobis 
subulato-linearibus ca. 4-7 mm. longis ; corolla, tubo ad 7-8 cm. 
longo extus dense appresse sericeo, lobis 2-6 x 1 cm. ellipticis 
caudato-acuminatis acutissimis. 

Barclay ! in Hb. Kew. 

The label bears the names "Gardenia mitis. Tobago Jasmine " ; 
the exact locality is thus, unfortunately, doubtful. The new 
species is allied to L. rivalis, but it is readily distinguishable 
therefrom by the lengthy acumination of the corolla-lobes and the 
much shorter calyx-lobes. 

Explanation of Plate 533. — Neosahicea LehmannWWernh&m. — 1. Portion 
of flowering-shoot, natural size. 2. Single flower, x 4. 3. Flower in longi- 
tudinal section, x 4. ^^ 

ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE. 
By Albert Wilson, F.L.S., and J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S. 

In the copious literature devoted in recent times to the 
subject of plant geography, the constituents of the chief plant 
associations of Great Britain have been well discussed, and the 
subject has reached a further stage in its evolution, viz. the 
investigation of the inter-relation of the various units included in 
each group, and the causes which determine the presence or 
absence of certain of them. This necessitates a careful biological 
study of each species, and an inquiry into its means of adaptation 
to the ecological conditions of the habitat. 

Although this advanced stage has been rapidly reached in the 
case of the higher plants, owing to wide floristic knowledge 
gleaned by generations of enthusiastic "field botanists," our 
information on the grouping of associations dominated by 
cryptogams is still incomplete, and the literature somewhat 
scanty. In the various associations dominated by spermopbytes, 
their cryptogamic associates have not been fully worked out, and 
only the more conspicuous ones are mentioned in lists of 
characteristic species, frequently, indeed, the generic name alone 
being deemed sufficient, e. g. Bryum, Sjjhagmini, Polytrichum, 
Cladonia, &c. Yet these genera contain species insisting on very 
varied climatic and edaphic conditions, and as a rule it will be 

s 2 



228 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

found that cryptogamic plants are very sensitive to such in- 
fluences, and often form a reUable index to the cHmatic and 
geological conditions of the environment. 

But before the effect of these conditions can be adequately 
gauged, there is much preliminary work of a systematic and 
floristic nature to be done. These few notes, meagre as 
they are, may therefore have their value as a small contribution 
to our knowledge of one of the more inaccessible and less 
easily worked " formations," viz. the Upper-Arctic Alpine 
Formation. 

Before going further it may be well to explain what is meant 
by the term Upper-Arctic Alpine Formation. It consists briefly 
of the flora of the higher mountain summits in Great Britain. 
Where the continuous undulating and rising ground begins to be 
differentiated into individual summits, a change from the pre- 
vailing moorland and subalpine vegetation becomes noticeable. 
In addition to the characteristic plants of such habitats, we begin 
to find examples of Arctic types ; and, to meet conditions of 
greater exposure, the morphological features of the species 
become modified in various ways, with which botanists are now 
familiar. At 2700 ft. and upwards, the Upper-Arctic Alpine 
Flora predominates. It is divided by Moss (1) into three groups. 
The first, the Chomovhyte Association of Crags and Carries, does 
not concern us here, as we did not meet with this class of habitat 
on the route by which we ascended Ben-y-Gloe. The two 
remaining divisions are sections of what K. Smith (2) termed the 
" Alpine plateau " and Warming " Fell-field." One of them, the 
Moss-Lichen Association, is an open association occurring on 
fairly level plateaux and scree-slopes, the vegetation being 
sparsely scattered over ground strewn with gravel, stones and 
boulders. The other is a closed association, occurring on slopes 
of usually less broken ground at similar altitudes, known as 
BJiacomitrium Heath, which at its lower limits, and under 
certain conditions, passes into various moorland groups. Two 
other associations are possibly to be separated within the 
formation — that dominated by Antlielia (3) on wet rocky slopes ; 
and the Marsupella Association of Macvicar (4), which is partial 
to slopes facing east and north, and is dominated by hepatics and 
such plants as Dicranum falcatnm. The two associations des- 
cribed in this paper are the Moss-Lichen Association and the 
Bhacomitrium Heath, which are well-marked and distinct on 
Ben-y-Gloe, although they frequently show transition stages, and 
become more or less intermingled. Such modifications we have 
observed on a slope of Braeriach towards Glen Eunach in West 
Invernesshire, and elsewhere. 

The flowering plants of these associations have been fairly 
well worked out and recorded, and we do not propose to devote 
attention to them now. Many of our most interesting Highland 
plants are included amongst them, such as alpine species of 
Potentilla, Alchemilla, Vaccinium, Arctostaphylos, Saxifraga, 
Azalea, Salix, Juncus, Luzula and Carex. The species are, 



ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE 229 

however, less numerous than in the Chomophyte Association, or 
in the groups of the lower slopes of the hills. 

The Cryptogamic Flora, on the contrary, requires much 
further exploration. In Mr. Tansley's Tyjjes of British Vegeta- 
tion, the flora of the Bkacomitrium Heath is represented by a list 
compiled from field notes by K. Smith and C. E. Moss, and from 
indications in local floras. The only cryptogams mentioned in 
this list are Bhacomitnum lanuginosuvi, B. ericoidcs, Cetraria 
islandica, Cladonia rangifcrina and Peltigera canina. It may be 
remarked in passing that, of the subsidiary species named, Cladina 
rangiferina was the only one we saw on Ben-y-Gloe. In the list 
representing the Moss-Lichen Association in the same work (1), no 
mosses or lichens are included, which is rather suggestive of a 
certain Shakespearian play produced with the part of Hamlet 
excised. But the florultB of these associations vary greatly on 
different mountains, and even on different portions of the same 
massif, according to the altitude, aspect, degree of moisture, 
steepness of slope, and rock-constituents. In a more recent work 
by C. B. Crampton (5), the plateaux debris of quartzite hills in 
Caithness is stated to contain the following mosses and lichens: — 
Bhacomitrium lanuginosum, Hyjmum Schreberi, and Cladina, spp. 
Dr. Moss says {loc. cit.): "The lists of species available at present 
do not warrant any attempt to draw up complete lists ; as to the 
lower plants there is little information." 

It was principally for this latter reason that, happening to 
meet with fine examples of these associations on Ben-y-Gloe, we 
deemed it advisable to make a few notes on their constituents. 
This mountain, " the mountain of the mist," attains a greater 
height and has a finer outline than any other in Perthshire, east 
of Tay and Garry. It is situated about seven miles north-east of 
Blair Atholl and rises direct from Glen Tilt. There are two peaks, 
a western one having an altitude of 3505 ft., and an eastern 
— known as Carn nan Gabhar or " Cairn Gowar " — rising to 3671 ft. 

We spent but a few hours on the mountain, and owing to 
thick mist only reached the lower of the two peaks. The ascent 
was made from Glen Tilt in rain and mist, on May 6th, 1912, the 
course being up the north-west side of the mountain. The 
aspect presents very little crag or rock exposure, and loses the 
interest provided where the chomophytic formation is present. 
Where this latter exists contiguous to the associations we are 
dealing with, the species are often reinforced from the crags and 
show greater variety. 

The lower slopes of Ben-y-Gloe are covered with the usual 
grass association so common in the Highlands, above which 
there is a considerable area of heather moor, with, in places, 
patches of ground dominated by Scirpus caspitosus. In the 
heather moor the chief Sphagna noted were compact tufts of 
Sphagnum ruhellum, S. fuscum, and a little S. subnitens, thus 
differing from our Lancashire moors, on which S. p>apillosum 
predominates, and S. fnsciim is practically absent. The ling 
thins out as the ground rises, and above 2500 ft. becomes much 



230 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



mixed with crowberry [EmiMrum nigrum) and some bilberry 
{Vaccinium Myrtillus). At about 2800 ft., near the shoulder of 
the flat-topped ridge or plateau which leads up to the summit on 
the south-west, the ground is somewhat broken and stony, the 
association becomes gradually more open, and eventually resolves 
itself into a fair area of the Moss-Lichen Association. We were 
able to make a careful examination of only a small portion of 
this ground, and the list of species submitted below is of necessity 
incomplete. The season was very early for this altitude, and the 
time allowed by train arrangements was all too short for search- 
ing out the more minute cryptogams. Moreover, the different 
classes of these plants require searching for on separate occasions. 
We have found from experience how easily mosses and hepatics 
may be overlooked when Hchens are being collected, and how 
incompatible the quest of flowering plants is with that of the 
smaller cryptogams. Subject to allowance for these limitations 
the following is a complete list of all the species noted on this 
detached portion of the Moss-Lichen Association, occurring on 
boulders, stones, and thin soil overlying the quartzite rock : — 



Flowering Plants. 
Alchemilla alpina L. 
Empetrum nigrum L. 
Gnaphalium supinum L. 
Vacciniitm Myrtillus L. 
Salix herbacea L. 
Aira and other grasses not in 
flower. 

Vascular Cryptogams. 
Lycopodium Selago L. 
L. alpinum L. 

Mosses. 
Andrecea petrophila Ehrh. 
Polytrichum alpinum L. 
P. piliferum Schreb. 
Dicranum fuscescens Turn. 
D. scoparium v. turfosum Milde. 
Bhacoviitriiim hcterostichum 

Brid. 
B. lanuginosum Brid. 
Webera nutans Hedw. 

Hepatics. 
DiplophyJhwi albicans Dum. 

Fungi. 
Ticothecium erraticum Massal. 

Lichens. 
Cladonia cervicornis Schaer. 
Thamnolia vermicnlaris Schaer. 



Lichens {continued). 
Stereocaulon coralloides Fr. 
S. evoliUum Graewe. 
Spharopkorns fragilis Ach. 
Cetraria aculcata Fr. 
Platysma triste Cromb. 
Gyroi^hora polyphylla T. & B. 
Parmclia alpicola Fr. fil. 
P. lanata Wallr. 
P. lanata var. reticulata Cromb. 
Lecanora polytropa Schaer. 
L. badia Ach. 

TIceviatomma ventosum Mass. 
Lecidea aglcea Sommerf. 
L. fuscoatra Ach. 
L. Kochiana Hepp. 
L. lithophila Ach. 
L. lapicida Fr. 
L. auriculata Th. Fr. 
L. contigiia Fr. 
L. confluens Ach. 
L. fusco-cinerea Nyl. 
L. limosa Ach. 
L. demissa Th. Fr. 
L. griseoatra Schaer. 
Buellia badioatra Koerb. var. 

atrobadia A. L. Sm. 
Bhizocarpon geograpliicum DC. 
B. geographicum DC. var. atro- 

virens Koerb. 
B. confervoides DC. 



ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE 231 

Ascending another 700 ft., the summit plateau is reached, 
consisting of tlie same kind of broken gravelly ground, with 
scattered stones, and patches of very thin soil, formed chiefly of 
the debris of cryptogamic plants. The flora at this elevation is 
slightly different. The dominant plants are Carex rigida and 
Alcliemilla alpina. 

The quartzite blocks, of which the cairn is built, yield addi- 
tional Gyrophorce, viz. G. crosa, G. torrefacta, and G. cylmdrica, the 
first and last-named being very scarce. On loose stones we saw 
a small quantity of a sterile Pyrenopsis, but Parmelia alpicola was 
fairly well developed on quartz crystals. On half-decayed patches 
of Cladonia, Bhacomitrium and Dicranum fmcesceus there is an 
abundance of Lccanora tartarea var. f rigida, with Lecidea arctica 
Somm. and L. limosa Ach., on peaty soil fiUing the crevices of the 
stones. These two lichens appear to thrive in the most bleak and 
exposed situations offered by our mountains. They are accom- 
panied by a few starved-looking examples of Thamnolia vermicu- 
laris, a curious Cladonia-like plant, resembling in shape a small 
white earthworm. So far as we observed, this Hchen is much less 
fine and abundant here than in the moss-lichen association of the 
granitic summits of the Cairngorm range. We saw here the 
hepatic Gymnomitrium obtusuvi, and no doubt other minute 
species might have been noted had conditions permitted a more 
careful search ; but the Bryophyta were not obtrusively evident. 
Two lichens, Lecidea tabidula Nyl., and L. deparcula Nyl., are 
recorded by Crombie (6) as occurring on small stones on this 
summit, but we failed to find them, although they doubtless enter 
into this association, as also does Lecidea nigroglomerata A. L. Sm. 
on Cairn Gowar. 

Turning now to ecological considerations, this particular 
ground, from the broken nature of the surface, which is weathered 
into stones and gravelly detritus, is subject to rapid drainage, and 
there is practically no available subsoil water for the plants near 
the surface. The hard crystalline rock is markedly dysgeogenous, 
and not retentive of moisture. Any soil formed is either washed 
down into the interstices, or completely removed by the fierce 
gales to which these plateaux are exposed. But for the frequent 
showers and cloud-fog, and occasional pockets in w^iich a little 
humus is detained by the matted stems of cryptogams, the higher 
plants would scarcely be able to exist. In such situations the 
amount of rainfall is of minor importance as compared with its 
frequency, and probably the plants depend more on the prevalent 
cloud-mist than on rain for their supplies. There are intervals of 
bright sunshine and strong wind, producing rapid evaporation of 
moisture. Added to this frequent desiccation there is consider- 
able fluctuation of temperature, producing together a set of con- 
ditions which reduce the possibilities of plant life almost to 
zero. 

The special contrivances by which certain flowering plants are 
enabled to face these untoward circumstances are well known and 
need not be repeated. As regards the Bryophyta, they are mostly 



232 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

small and densely tufted, and the tufts are frequently sunk in 
crevices of the rock or ground which they completely fill, allowing 
little purchase to the wind. The leaves are frequently very 
hygroscopic, as in chomophytic species, in wet weather open, 
in drought closely appressed and imhricate. The stunted growth, 
often attained by a shortening of the internodes, brings the leaves 
closer together, so that when appressed their apices alone are 
exposed. The cells are usually small, thick-walled, and often the 
thickness is increased externally by papillae. This seems to be 
especially the case with mosses having comparatively blunt leaves. 
These papillae probably act, like the apices of the leaves, as foci 
on which moisture condenses during cloud-fog. The Lichens, 
also, are usually diminutive in size, or, if of larger growth, more 
or less compact and cushion-like. The only Cladonia noted was 
a small form of C. cervicornis, in which the thallus was reduced 
to a dense squamulose cushion, and the podetia very diminutive. 
Stereocaulon and Spliaropliorus occur in very compact forms, the 
outer stems prostrate, the next inclined, the central ones erect, so 
that the points only are exposed, and no lateral stress is received 
in wind-storms. The only foliose Parmclia seen was the closely 
appressed P. alpicola, which is so reduced as to resemble a 
crustose Lecanora. The laciniae of the thallus are very convex, 
imbricate and complicate, and often torulose, so that when wetted 
the water is partly retained in the very numerous depressions 
thus formed in the thallus, and such as finds its way under the 
subtubular divisions is retained. The tough leathery Gyrophor(B 
are centrally affixed, and often depressed at the margins, forming 
shields beneath which moisture is retained longer than on the 
open rock. In the case of G. torrefacta the under side is often 
fibrillose and covered with several trabeculate membranes, the 
whole producing a sponge-like texture. Occasional perforations 
admit moisture under the thallus. Lecanora tartarea assumes a 
very different appearance from that which it presents on trees or 
rocks at lower altitudes. It creeps over mosses and plant-roots, 
giving off at intervals slender spinulose processes, w'hich no doubt 
act as dew-collecting points. The erect fruticose lichens, so 
plentiful in the next group, are almost absent. They are repre- 
sented by Parmelia lanata, a decumbent or prostrate appressed 
plant with the appearance of Alcctoria nigricans, but a totally 
different habitat and mode of growth ; and Thamnolia vcrmicu- 
laris, a prostrate plant which hardly leaves the ground except 
where it turns up its pointed ends as an attraction to the dew. 
Many of the Lccidece. have large fruits, and very little thallus. 
The hyphae ramify in minute interstices of the stone, and the 
gonidia cluster under the lee of their own apothecia, so that they 
often at first sight appear to be quite athalline. This is especially 
the case on loose stones of small size, where the conditions are 
intensely dry. 

Like the scouts of an army, these outposts of vegetable life 
lead a precarious existence, and they take " cover " behind any 
prominent object, especially on the leeward side. Their growth 



ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE 233 

in a horizontal direction is often determined by the height of 
some neighbouring tuft or stone, in the shelter of which they lie. 

The attitude of many of the species may be described as one 
of " crouching " to obtain shelter from the wind. When shelter 
and moisture are both denied them, they have still a defence in 
reserve. Before a prolonged drought they simply adopt a con- 
dition of suspended animation. How long they can so live would 
be difficult to ascertain, but they must certainly be able to lie 
dormant for several weeks without injury. 

From the lower to the higher of the two plateaux or terraces 
described above, the ground rises in a moderate slope, and affords 
an excellent example of the closed Bhacomitrium Heath Suh- 
association. The requisite conditions appear to be rapid drainage, 
shallow soil, and a low mean temperature. Another condition 
which has been suggested as favourable for the production of 
Bhacomitrium heath is the absence of direct sunshine from 
northern slopes for several months during the winter, ov;ing to 
the low angle of elevation of the sun. The ground is also usually 
too steep and wind-swept for great accumulations of snow. On 
Ben-y-Gloe the drifts or Schneefiechten which we encountered lay 
below the Bhacomitrium heath. 

Except where the thick dense carpet of Bhacomitrium has 
been accidentally torn away, or where jutting rocks protrude 
through its compact layers, this association in its most perfect 
development contains few or none of the higher plants. The 
stems of the moss become procumbent, overlapping each other to 
a considerable depth, and the subsidiary vegetation consists 
mainly of lichens attached to its decaying branches. Macvicar (4) 
in alluding to the Bhacomitriiim heath says " the hepatics are 
almost absent from it," and so we found it here. We are able 
also to agree fully with the following statement by Moss (1) : 
" While the closed Bhacomitrium association would appear to 
increase the shelter for other species, it is noteworthy that the 
proportion of Highland species is generally less in it than on the 
more open stony waste." It is probable these remarks were 
intended to apply to flowering plants, but they are also applicable 
to the mosses, hepatics, and lichens. 

Tlie Bhacomitrium heath forms a delightfully soft and springy 
carpet to the feet of the traveller, and the change from the 
arduous toil of the heathery lower slopes is always welcomed by 
the climber. We found the flora here, as on similar tracts of 
other mountains, poor and scanty. It is doubtful if a prolonged 
search even at a more favourable time of the year would have 
added very materially to the list of species noted in the centre of 
the moss-carpet, i. c. where the association is closed and perfect. 
Probably, however, a considerable number of small cryptogams 
and encroaching spermophytes might be detected at various points 
where it merges into other formations. The paucity of species in 
the closed Bhacomitrium heath overlying quartzite rocks will be 
seen from the following list, in which the species are arranged in 
order of frequency. 



234 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Dominant. Lycoj^odium alpinnm L. 

Bhacoviitrium lamujinosum Polytriclium aljnnum L. 

Brid. Cetraria aculeata Fr. 

Abundant. Cladonia cervicornis Schaer. 

Cladina rangiferina Nyl. ^- r acil i s B.o&n^ 

Cetraria crispa Nyl. C. macilenta Hoffm. v. coronata 

Alectoria nigricans Nyl. ^ ' 

Eare. 

Frequent. Cladonia destricta Nyl. 

Cladina sylvatica Nyl. Lecanora tartarea Ach. 

C. uncialis Nyl. Cladonia hellidiflora Floerke. 

C. uncialis Nyl. v. ohtusata Nyl. C. squamosa Hoffm. forma. 
C. uncialis Nyl. v. turgesccns G- degencrans Floerke. 

Cromb. G- degcnerans Floerke v. plcolc- 

Cladonia deformis Hoff'm. pidea Nyl. 

Empctriim nigrum L. Alectoria ochroleuca Nyl. 

BcBomyces ariiginosus DC. 
Occasional. Bilimhia melana Arnold. 

Hypnum Schreberi Willd. Hjfpnum cuprcssifornie L. 

Ckf/07Ma furcata Hoffm. ^7/ ocom4W7;Worcm^t B. & S. 

Dicramim fuscescens Turn. PtiUdmm ciliarc Hampe. 

Carea; n^eVZa Good. ^^^^^^'"^ hP^orum Fr. 

The majority of the species in this list ascend considerably 
above the 3000 ft. contour. The vegetation of the plateau gravel 
has been described as cushion-like or crustaceous ; that of the 
present association may be said to be mat- or carpet-like. The 
dominant moss has long, much divided, trailing stems, which are 
interlaced together by numerous short hooked branches and long 
leaves. This clinging of the stems does not always prevent strong 
gales from tearing up large sheets of the carpet. Bare patches 
formed in this manner revert to the moss-lichen stage until the 
Bhacomitrium reassumes dominance. The apices of the leaves of 
this moss are devoid of chlorophyll, papillose and eroso-ciliate, 
thus presenting innumerable small prominences for the reception 
of dew. It will be observed that this echlorophyllose area is as 
papillose as the rest of the leaf, and therefore we cannot in this 
instance regard the papillae as simply designed to shield the 
chlorophyll from the sun, or to prevent evaporation, which is 
usually accepted as their raison d'etre. The condensed moisture, 
or, during show^ers, rain-water, runs down to the thick underlying 
mass of old stems and leaves, whicla hold it like a sponge. Still 
lower a layer of humus is rapidly formed. Most of the flowering 
plants and other dependent species cower beneath the shelter of 
the moss, only in favourable seasons protruding their growing 
tips, and, as is apparent from the paucity of individuals as well 
as species, often suffering severely for their temerity in so doing. 
The smaller mosses and lichens, especially those of effuse hori- 
zontal growth, have no chance, and are rapidly smothered, the 
erect fruticulose lichens greatly preponderating. Cladina and 
CladonicB with elongate podetia are frequent, presenting often 



ALPINE VEGETATION ON BEN-Y-GLOE, PERTHSHIRE 235 

spinulose points al)Ove the moss. Cciraria crispa straggles up 
through the mats, singly or in dense tufts. Its margins are beset 
with cilia, giving it a distant resemblance, on a larger scale, to 
the eroded leaf-margin of the dominant moss. In dry weather 
the thallus rolls up and becomes subtubular. Some of the large- 
branched Cladonice have perforate axils, the orifices being at times 
spinulose, the spines acting as water conductors to the interior of 
the hollow podetia. A lichen almost confined to this association 
is Alectoria nigricans, and the allied A. ocliroleuca is also partial 
to it. They resemble miniature trees. The trunks obtain support 
by standing buried in the Ehacomitrium, the branches rising above 
the surface, where they ultimately become dark and discoloured by 
exposure to sun, wind, and frost. In dry weather they are readily 
overlooked, but under moister conditions their entangled ramuli 
and slender branchlets become everywhere studied with tiny drops 
of dew, and are then very noticeable. When dry they are rigid 
and brittle ; then the feet of the alpine hare or ptarmigan readily 
crush them into small particles, to be disseminated by the wind. 
In this manner this rare lichen is probably propagated ; its fruit 
is unknown with us, but has been found, according to Crombie (7), 
in Labrador and Arctic North America. 

It must be observed that this list of species applies only to the 
Upper Arctic-Alpine formation of Ben-y-Gloe, and that had we 
been dealing with the similar formation of the micaceous debris 
of Ben Lawers, or granitic detritus of the Cairngorms, we should 
have a very different list of species, and in the case of the former 
a very much richer one. Such beautiful plants as Solorina crocea 
on Lawers, and Platysma nivalc on Braeriach, with many others 
as rare if not so handsome, would reward the explorer of the 
Arctic-x\lpine area of those mountains. A comparative list of 
plants from the various summits above 3000 ft. would provide 
exceedingly interesting matter for speculation. 

References. 

(1) A. G. Tansley and G. E. Moss : Types of British Vegeta- 
tion. 1911. 

(2) E. Smith : Botanical Survey of Scotland. Scott. Geog. 
Mag., 1904. 

(3) W. G. Smith : Anthelia, an Arctic- Alpine Association. 
Scott. Bot. Keview, No. 2, April, 1912. 

(4) S. M. Macvicar: The Distribution of Hepatics in Scotland. 
Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin. xxv., 1910. 

(5) C. B. Crampton : The Vegetation of Caithness considered 
in Eolation to the Geology. 1911. 

(6) J. Crombie: Grevillea, i. p. 62, and viii. p. 112. 

(7) J. Crombie: Monograph of British Lichens, part i., 1894. 



23G 

THKEE CONIFERS. 
By R. a. DiJMMER. 

Thuya (Biota) orientalis var. nov. mexicana Diimmer. In 
1817 Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth (Nov. Gen. et Sp. ii. 3) des- 
cribed Ciipressus thurifera from specimens collected at Tasco and 
Tehuilotepec in Mexico ; it was subsequently detected by Uhde 
in Michoacoa and Oaxaca, and on the Sierra Madre by Seemann, 
and Hartweg averred having seen specimens of it 120 ft. high 
near Real de Monte ; since that time it has remained undiscovered, 
and, as the paucity of herbaria material suggests, is one of the 
rarest of conifers. 

Thirty years later Endlicher (Syn. Conif. 62) included this 
species in the genus ChamcBcyimris, whence the name Chamoi- 
cyixtris thurifera; but Masters having examined fragments of the 
original specimens, which are preserved in the Willdenow Her- 
barium, Berlin, and at Paris, restored it to its original position. 
In his critical account of the genus Cupressus, Masters (Journ. 
Linn. Soc. (Bot.) xxxi. 349) gives figures depicting leafy twigs and 
cones " of this plant, which in no way agree with Cwpressus 
lusitanica, its variety Benthami, two cypresses with which it has 
been confounded. 

While engaged on the conifers of the Lindley Herbarium, 
Cambridge, my attention was drawn to a small fruiting specimen 
labelled " Chamacyparis thurifera Endl. 308, Culta. Sept. 5, 81. 
Orizaba," which suggested this long-lost plant. This particular 
specimen was described by Lindley himself as such in Gard. 
Chron. in 1856 (i. 772), and as his remarks are of interest, I here 
transcribe them : — 

" There is commonly found in gardens throughout Europe a 
Mexican coniferous tree called Cupressus thurifera, under the 
supposition that it is the plant so called by Humboldt. Endlicher, 
however, pointed out the mistake, showing that the garden plant 
is a true Cypress, while that of Humboldt is a Chamcecyparis, and 
therefore he called the latter Chamcecyparis thurifera, giving the 
name of Cupressus Benthami to the wrong-named garden plant. 
Dr. Klotzsch had previously circulated the name of C. Lindlcyi 
for the same thing. No two plants can be more different than 
Cupressus Benthami and Chamacyparis thurifera — the first a true 
Cypress with numerous seeds to each scale of the cone — the 
second a Chamacyparis with only two or one, and those not 
winged. 

" But nobody seems of late years to have met with this 
Chamoicyparis in Mexico ; even in the vast Herbarium of Kew it 
is not to be found. A few cones of a Cypress-like plant with 
roundish wingless seeds having, however, been received by the 
Horticultural Society, and raised in the Chiswick Gardens, further 

* The cones (fig. 27) are those of Thuya (Biota) orientalis var. mexicana — 
Botteri's cones, which are preserved at Kew and at Cambridge, and which Dr. 
Masters erroneously suggested might belong to this species. 



THREE CONIFERS 237 

inquiry has led to the discovery that this Orizaba plant is in all 
probability the long-lost Chamaciji^aris thurifera. Botteri sent 
them home without one word of information, but with a small 
dried specimen, from which we learn that he found it in a culti- 
vated state. Being a true Gliamacijparis, and only one from 
Mexico being known to botanists, the inference that we have at 
last the true plant of Humboldt seems inevitable. In that great 
philosopher's work, above quoted, it is said to be a very tall 
resinous tree with spreading branches, whose timber is used for 
building purposes. The young seedlings in the Garden of the 
Horticultural Society are very glaucous, with almost the aspect of 
a Thuya. How far they may be able to bear this climate remains 
to be ascertained." 

Now, as the wingless character of the seeds of Lindley's 
specimen, in conjunction with the non-peltate nature of the cone- 
scales, excludes it from Gupressiis and ChamcBcyixiris respectively, it 
must be a Tlmya, and one which, though agreeing with C. (Biota) 
orientalls in its foliar characters, merits, on account of its peculiar 
cones and seeds, at least, in view of its reputed garden origin, 
varietal rank. 

It might have been premised that these fruit distinctions 
would be ultimately correlated with peculiarities in the disposition 
or shape of the leaves, but such is not the case ; the latter have 
remained stable, and show no salient points of distinction from 
Thuya orientalis, a plant of great horticultural age, which no 
doubt had even penetrated into so little known a region as Orizaba 
in Mexico, where possibly the change in edaphic and climatic 
factors evoked this mutant. Its cones are solitary, subsessile, 
light brown in colour, and subglobose and ^^ in. across, are com- 
posed of six non-peltate decussately arranged scales, which are 
slightly fused at the base, the larger outer being suborbicular, 
obovate or subrhombic in general outline, |-y\ in. long, ^'W-i in. 
broad, with a small scarcely perceptible dorsal process, and" slight 
longitudinal depression below it, their inner faces being marked at 
the base by the scars of attachment of one to three seeds ; the 
inner scales are not narrower, narrowly obpyramidate and quad- 
rangular, their apices flattish and slanting, with a small median 
process. The seeds are wingless, greyish brown and smooth, 
4-6 mm. long, obliquely ovoid, obscurely 3-4 angled, bevelled 
on one side at the base, and opposite to this a semicircular 
lighter coloured scar. Hence the cones differ from typical Thuya 
orientalis in their smaller more globose shape, their light brown 
colour (no glaucous sheen being apparent), the different confor- 
mation of the scales, the absence of the horn-like dorsal recurved 
processes, so conspicuous a feature of the type, and the much 
smaller seeds, which in Thuya orientalis measure up to 8 mm. in 
length, and do not possess the peculiar basal bevelling charac- 
terising the latter. 

_ The plants raised in the Chiswick Gardens from the seeds of 
this variety doubtless perished, for no Thuya bearing such cones 
has ever been alluded to in horticultural literature, as far as the 



238 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

writer is aware, but there is reason to assume that the variety 
existed on the Continent, for Carrifere opines that the plant 
cultivated there as Cupressus thurifera was a Biota. Kent's 
description (Veitch's Man. Conif. 230 (1900)), based upon speci- 
mens received from La Mortola, apparently coincides with this 
rare species ; but Mr. A. Berger, in a letter to Messrs. Henry & 
Elwes, states that this plant has disappeared and that two plants 
formerly cultivated under this name at La Mortola turned out to 
be Cu2)ressus sevipervirens and C. Uisitanica var. BentJiami (C. 
Benthami) respectively; similarly, seeds of C. thurifera distributed 
in 1909 by the Dendrological Society of France differed in no 
respect from those of C. lusitanica. Quite recently Mr. Clinton 
Baker has received specimens from Mons. J. Daveau of the Jardin 
des Plantes, Montpellier, under the name of Cnpressus thurifera, 
which were collected in a cemetery of the State of Puebla, Mexico, 
by J. Nicolas (No. 9776) in January, 1911, but which Dr. Henry 
agreed with me must be assigned to Cupressiis (Biota) orientalis. 
The latter specimens have therefore confirmed our suspicions as 
to the cultivated nature of the species in that region. 

Two other cone-bearing specimens in the Lindley collection 
labelled C. thurifera Schlecht., collected between Angauguco and 
Italpuxahua and Banco, are referable to Ciipressus Uisitanica var. 
Benthami. 

Callitris neo-caledonica, sp. nov. The vegetation of the 
island of New Caledonia has been discussed by the French botanist 
Brongniart, by Professor Engler, and latterly in an able manner 
by Dr. E. Schlechter in Engler's Bot. Jahrbuch, xxxvi. (1905), 
who bases his observations upon several months' sojourn in the 
island. His sketch was subsequently followed by an enumeration 
and description [op. cit. xxxix. 1906) of the plants collected, among 
which many novelties occur; and the author lays special stress 
upon the advisability of exploring the north-west corner of the 
island, and the near-lying New Hebrides, regarding the flora of 
which our knowledge is regrettably deficient. 

In view of the remarks which follow, it appears expedient to 
allude to Schlechter's remarks respecting the Conifers wdiich 
obtain on the island. These are invariably confined to upper 
mountain-slopes between elevations of 1400-1500 metres above 
sea-level, only one, Agathis ovata Warburg, apparently affecting 
an altitudinal range from sea-level to 1300 metres, where, as 
solitary specimens, it is particularly abundant in the Serpentine 
Eegion. The Araucarias, of which A. Balanscs, A. montana, and 
A. Muelleri are cited, are among the tallest of the Conifers, rarely 
exceeding 35 ft. in height, and, being easily recognized by their 
distinct pyramidal aspect, form, in contradistinction to the 
remaining gymnospermous vegetation, small and nearly pure 
strands, especially in the south of the island ; Dacrydium is repre- 
sented by three species, D. Balanscs and the Yew-like and Arau- 
caria-iike D. taxoides and D. araucarioides respectively, which 
are scattered among woods of an Australian-Malayan element, 
chiefly composed of various Myoporums, Cunonias, Spiraeanthema, 



THREE CONIFERS 239 

Soulameas, Eugenias, and several Myrtles, &c. Podocmyiis 
gnidioides remains dwarf, covers the ground, and in its prostrate 
and creeping habit mimics Juniperus Sahina; of other Podocarps, 
P. minor and P. usta, with broad spreading crowns, rarely exceed, 
like the Dacrydia and species of Callitris, 25 ft. in height. The 
latter are associated with the Podocarps and Dacrydia in the 
upper woods of the southern region of the island, and in exceed- 
ingly exposed situations remain dwarfed and shrubby. Libocedrus 
austro-caledonicus (L. neo-caledonicus of Schlechter) is seemingly 
rare ; it was detected by Schlechter in the woods on the slopes of 
Mount Humboldt at elevations of 5300 ft. Three species of 
Callitris are cited, G. Balansce, C. sulcata, C. suhumhellata ; the 
two latter were first referred to by Parlatore in the list of plants 
of the Florence Garden, and were subsequently described by him 
in De Candolle's Prodromus under the name of Frenela, where he 
cited specimens in Hooker's Herbarium. A reference to these 
shows that F. sulcata is based upon a fruiting specimen bearing 
scale-leaves, collected by Moore in New Caledonia, and communi- 
cated to Kew by Messrs. Veitch in August, 1862. F. suhumhellata 
is founded upon specimens which were obtained on dry stony 
ground at the base of the mountain-ranges south-west of New 
Caledonia by an unnamed collector, showing both scale and 
primordial acicular leaves, the latter free and arranged in fours, 
the former in threes, and like those of Junipers fused. These 
specimens can in no way be regarded as specifically distinct from 
F. BalanscB, and agree with Balansa's specimens of F. Balansce. 
of Brongniart & Gris., which also exhibit both foliar phases and 
where their intimacy is remarkably well shown. The synonymy 
is as follows : — 

Callitris sulcata Schlechter in Engler's Bot. Jahrb. xxxix. 
IG (1906) ; C. suhumhellata and C. Balansce Schlechter, I. c. 
Frenela sulcata and F. suhumhellata Parlatore, Enum. Sem. Hort. 
Florent. (1862), 23 ; in De Candolle Prod. xvi. ii. 446-447 (1868) ; 
Frenela Balansce Brongniart and Gris. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. xvi. 
(1869), 327. 

Schlechter collected specimens of a Callitris on the mountains 
of Ngoye at elevations of about 3000 ft. in December, 1902, which 
he regarded as identical with G. Balansce, but a critical examina- 
tion precludes this and warrants their retention under a separate 
name; the salient points which distinguish this species from its 
congener lie in the short and moreover congested nature of the 
articulated twigs, the much shorter leaves with prominent dorsal 
convexities, and their denticulate not deeply and closely laciniate 
hyaline margins. The following is a description : — 

Callitris neo-caledonica sp. nov. A tree about 25 ft. high 
with a broad crown ; third year's branchlets stout, terete, rough, 
greyish brown, invested with the remains of the decurrent scale- 
leaves, current year's twigs short, articulated, 3-angled, leafy, 
1-3 in. long, 1-7-2 mm. broad, ascending, fastigiate, densely 
crowded. Leaves (only homomorphic as far as is known) imbri- 
cate, scale-like, ternate, fused except their incurved triangular 



240 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

apices, averaging 3-5 mm. long, their dorsal convexities separated 
by shallow grooves ; apices free, triangular, acute, their margin 
not hyaline but opaque and microscopically denticulate. 

C. sulcatcB Schlechter affinis sed ramulis hornotinis articulatis 
brevibus valde confertis, foliis brevioribus, marginibus baud 
hyalinis vel laciniatis sed opacis minute denticulatisque diiifert. 
(Schlechter, 15179, Herb. Kew.) ! 

^ PoDOCARPUS MoTLEYi Diimmer (comb. nov.). In 1857-8 Mr. 
James Motley collected specimens (No. 1300) of a Conifer near 
Bangarmassing (spelt also Bangermasin or Bandgermasin) in 
Southern Borneo, which he described as a large lofty tree with 
smooth yew-like bark, bearing the native name, " Kaju saribu 
dauni," meaning literally the " tree of a thousand leaves," in 
reference doubtless to its densely leafy crown. Some of these 
specimens fell into the hands of the celebrated Italian botanist 
Parlatore, who described and named the species Dainmara 
Motley i (without, however, seeing fertile material), in compliment 
to its discoverer. 

Parlatore's original description occurs in his List of Seeds of 
the Florence Botanical Gardens for 1862 (published 1863), and 
synchronously, if not earlier in this Journal for Feb. 1863 (p. 36) : 
Seemann [1. c.) in a footnote to Parlatore's description writes : 
"The genus must be considered doubtful, as the fruit is unknown. 
It may be a Podocarpus. Some time ago I asked the question in 
the Gardeners' Chronicle, how the Nageia section of Podocarpus 
could be distinguished from the genus Dammara in habit ; and since 
then Mr. Charles Moore of Sydney has drawn my attention to 
the fact that the Dammara is leafy, even after the branches are 
several feet long, whilst in Podocarpiis it becomes bare at a very 
early stage ; and, as far as I have been able to observe, this 
distinction holds good." 

This difference is decidedly apparent in specimens under 
cultivation : in the Temperate House at Kew the leaves are 
known to persist on the trunks of the various species cultivated 
there for 5-20 years ; moreover, another constant obvious vege- 
tative character separating these two genera appears to lie in 
the terminal buds ; which in Podocarpus are narrowed and 
always pointed, while in Agathis {Dammara) they are without 
exception broad and hemispheric or depressedly hemispheric. 

Messrs. Seward & Ford in their interesting account of the 
Arancarieae, recent and extinct (Phil. Trans, cxcviii. 317 (1906)), 
confirm Seemann's suspicions, having made an anatomical in- 
vestigation of the leaves ; they say " the lamina, which is almost 
isobilateral, is characterised by the occurrence of resin canals 
between [below] the vascular bundles, and by numerous thick- 
walled fibres, with hardly any lumen below the epidermis. In 
this and other features the anatomy conforms to that of leaves of 
Podocarpus Nageia." Prof. Seward in a letter adds that in 
Podocarpus the resin canals of the leaves are below, in those of 
Agathis between the veins. Taking these views therefore into 
consideration, there can be but little doubt as to the correct status 



THREE CONIFERS 241 

oi Acjathis Motleyi; and this was strikingly shown when in 1868 
Parlatore (in DC. Prodr. xvi. 2, 508) described fertile material, 
which he did not recognise as of the same plant — collected l)y 
Beccari (No. 2649) between 1865 and 1868 in Sarawak, North- 
west Borneo — as Podocaiyus Bcccarii. 

The following is a brief description of the plant, to which I 
have added its synonymy : — Current year's twigs short, sub- 
verticillate, distinctly pulvinate and narrowly ridged, terminated 
by narrow sharply acuminate buds, enclosed by 2-4 oval 
acuminately cuspidate denticulate-lacerate scales. Leaves oppo- 
site, ascending and hence overlapping, oval, acute, or shortly and 
sharply cuspidate, attenuate or rarely rounded basally, with a 
very short broad not twisted petiolar base ; 1-1| in. long, ^-f in. 
broad, coriaceous and rigid, doubtless dark lustrous green in the 
living state, indistinctly longitudinally striate when dried ; margin 
not recurved. Male strobiles unknown. Females flowers disposed 
singly in the axils of the leaves, borne on a short, stout, j^ in. 
long peduncle. Receptacles thickly fleshy, cylindric, damson- 
coloured. Seed globose, smooth and brownish with a slight 
glaucescent sheen, f in. in diameter. 
PoDOCABPUS Motleyi, comb. nov. 

Dammara Motleyi Parlatore, Index Sem. Hort. Bot. Florent. 
26 (1862) ; in Seemann, Journal of Botany, i. 36 (1863) ; 
and in De Candolle, Prod. xvi. ii. 377 (1868). 

Agathis Motleyi Warburg, Monsunia, i. 185 (1900). 

Podocaiyus Beccarii Parlatore, ojj, cit. 508 ; Pilger, Taxacete, 
59 (1903). 

Podocarpus sp., Seward & Ford, in Phil. Trans, cxcviii. 317 
(1906), with figure of leaf. 

Nageia Beccarii Gordon, Pinetum, 186 (1875). 

<^ 



JOSEPH ANTHONY MARTINDALE. 
(1837-1914.) 

Joseph Anthony Martindale, who passed away in his 77th 
year on April 3rd, was one of our ablest British Lichenologists, 
and was recognised as such on the Continent as well as in this 
country. He was born on July 19th, 1837, at Stanhope, in the 
Weardale Valley, Durham. His father moved soon afterwards to 
Durham, and became first mathematical master at Bede College, 
remaining there, however, only a short time, for when young 
Martindale was only eleven years old his father was conducting 
a private school at Sunderland, and lecturing and writing on 
agriculture and chemistry. Joseph, who was the eldest of seven 
children, at that age obtained a medal for chemistry, amongst 
youths of eighteen and nineteen, under the examination of a well- 
known professor, but his father, with a stern rectitude, forbade 
him to accept the medal, an act of probity which Martindale 
himself in later years used to refer to as rather hard upon him. 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [September, 1914.] t 



242 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

On his father's death, which occurred when Joseph was thirteen 
years pld, he became a pupil teacher, was trained at the Battersea 
Training College, and was appointed to a school at Stanwix, near 
Carlisle, in 1857. On October 3rd, 1859, he came to Staveley as 
headmaster, an appointment which he held with great success 
until his retirement in 1902 ; after his retirement he continued 
to lecture under the County Education authorities. He was twice 
married ; to Mary Ann Seed in 1861, and to Emily J. Euthven in 
1894, leaving six children by the first, and one by the second 
marriage. His eldest son, Mr. G. E. Martindale, inherits his 
father's botanical tastes. 

Somewhat reserved with strangers, but of a kindly and un- 
selfish disposition, Martindale took an active interest in politics 
and in the local management of the village, serving on the parish 
council and other bodies, acting as organist of the parish church, 
and joining in the Volunteer movement of 1878. 

Physically he was active and vigorous, making all his jour- 
neys on foot when acting as inspector of religious instruction for 
the council schools of Westmoreland. Intellectually he was a 
man of considerable ability and determination, doing with the 
utmost thoroughness and precision everything he took in hand. 
His hchenological studies led him to acquire a mastery of the 
German language after he was forty years of age. French he 
knew well, and was thus able to correspond in their own 
languages with Arnold and Nylander. 

Besides being a classical scholar, Martindale was famihar with 
Anglo-Saxon, and was versed in the Norwegian and Icelandic 
languages. He held strongly to Anglo-Saxon associations, and 
challenged the ultra-Norwegian theories held by some of the 
Westmoreland antiquaries, by material derived from local place- 
names. He was mainly instrumental in the discovery of an 
ancient British settlement at Millrigg, Kentmere, and in 1900 
read a paper on the subject before the Cumberland and West- 
moreland Archgeological and Antiquarian Society. 

His interest extended to entomology, geology, and osteology, 
and he was an old and honoured member of the Kendal Literary 
and Scientific Society and a member of its Council from 1903-1913. 

Although best known outside his adopted county as a 
lichenologist, Martindale was a good all-round botanist. When 
he first took up the study of the botany of Westmoreland, he, 
with his usual thoroughness, collected all the records of plants of 
the period before Linnaeus, from 1597 to 1774, availing himself 
largely of Mr. Harry Arnold's rich library at Arnbarrow: these he 
found to number 153 species. He then followed up the labours 
of Thomas Lawson in 1638, the Quaker schoolmaster of Great 
Strickland and father of Lakeland botany, who sent to his 
contemporary, John Eay, a list of 150 local plants, and of the 
stations in which they grew ; and brought the records up to date 
by consulting those of Wilson and Hudson in the 18th, and 
Gough in the 19th century. Of the total number of plants, 1858, 
enumerated in the London Catalogue (8th edition), Mr. Martindale 



JOSEPH ANTHONY MARTINDALE 



243 



found records for 1023 in Westmoreland and Furness ! But ho 
was too conscientious to allow aliens and garden escapes to be 
recorded as natives, and thus reduced the number to 897 un- 
doubted native species. In order to work out their distribution, 
he coloured the local map into six river basins, viz. the Leven and 
Duddon, the Kent, Lune, Eamont, Eden, and Tees, and the map 




was published by Bartholomew. By the help of local botanists, 
he was able to give, besides his own list of 500 lichens and 138 
fungi, a list of 360 mosses and 118 hepatics, besides algae, diatoms 
and desmids, and brought the results before a local Natural 
History Society in 1888. His own herbarium contained about 
2000 flowering and about 1000 flowerless plants. 

Martindale appears to have begun the study of lichens about 
the year 1867, judging from a letter received from him February 
25th, 1869, accompanying a series of north country flowering 
plants which he kindly sent for my herbarium, in which he says : 
" I have for the last two years done next to nothing among the 
phaenogams, all of ray spare time being fully taken up with the 

T 2 



244 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

study of lichens, and I find that I make but very Httle progress 
with them. On looking over my collection I am astonished at 
the great number which I have determined, to which the mark of 
' doubtful ' is attached. Those I am certain of are very few in 
comparison." 

During the next twenty years he evidently continued the 
study of the group until he mastered them, publishing papers on 
the Eeindeer Lichen, and on the lichens of the Placodium 
murorum group, which showed a masterly grasp of the subject ; as 
well as a list of the lichens of Westmoreland, in the Naturalist for 
1886-87 : this included many rare species, and several new to Great 
Britain. Among these latter were -.—Exihcheia Martinclalei Cromb., 
Collema isidioides Nyl. (Warton Crag, Cumberland), Collemopsls 
ohlongans Nyl., Calicium roscidum Fkh., Parmelia isidiotyla Nyl., 
Gyropliora sjJodochroa Ach., Lecanora flavocitrina Nyl., Lecidca 
acutula Nyl., L. decUnascens Nyl., Platycjrapha pcriclca Nyl. 

The progress of the list was arrested by the death of his first 
wife, which affected his own health ; it will, it is hoped, appear 
in a complete form in the botanical section for the county (which, 
at my suggestion, Martindale was engaged to undertake) in the 
Victoria History of the Counties of England. 

My first acquaintance with Martindale came through J. M. 
Barnes (1814-90) of Levens, Milnthorpe, a most genial and liberal 
correspondent, who in 1867 sent me Westmoreland mosses in 
exchange for those of Devon. This excellent bryologist told me 
that he, Martindale, and George Stabler (1839-1910) used to 
meet once a month at each other's houses, and then go out on 
exploring expeditions. This little group of botanists did much 
for the botany of the county, and their names are perpetuated in 
plants they discovered in the course of their work : Barnes, in 
Bryum B arnes ii \\ood; Stabler, in Anthroceros Stableri Steph., 
Marsupella Stableri Sj^vuce, and Plagiochila Stableri 'Pesirson; and 
Martindale in E])hebeia Martindalei Cromb. 

Like the majority of practical lichenologists he was not a 
believer in the Schwendenerian theory. In a letter to me on 
February 20th, 1912, he writes: "The Schwendenerian theory 
creates more difliculties than it seems to solve. It is passing 
strange that lichen gonidia should so closely resemble algae, but 
it would be much stranger that Palmellacecs should remain for 
untold generations in an initial stage, without going on to com- 
plete their cycle or without dying away. This must be the case, 
if Schwendener is right, with many imprisoned ' algie ' in the 
thallus of lichens, that have never been known to fruit, and have 
therefore never imprisoned any algae, since the original ger- 
mination of the spores from which they came. There are several 
other things altogether independent of the question of gonidia, 
the chief of which is that the fertilisation is not effected as in the 
Ascomycetes, that is, if we accept as correct the statements of 
fungologists respecting them. I have myself microscopically 
examined thousands of apothecia, and scarcely ever limited my 
work to looking at and measuring the spores, but took in the 



SrARTINA TOWNSENDII 245 

whole organ. I have examined them in their earliest beginnings 
and there is nothing resembling a poUinodium. The fungi them- 
selves are degenerate plants descended from some chlorophyllous 
parentage, and my belief is that lichens and ascomycetes descend 
from some common ancestor, but have diverged just as man and 
the ape have diverged in different directions from a common 
earlier type." 

The Kendal Museum, of which Martindale was honorary 
curator, owes a great deal to his loving care of the herbarium, 
much of his valuable time having been spent in the preservation 
and arrangement of the fine collection there of the flowering and 
flowerless plants of the county. 

E. M. Holmes. 

SPAETINA TOWNSENDII Groves. 

[The fifth volume of the Proceedings of the Bournemouth 
Natural Science Society contains a paper by Dr. Stapf on the 
above-named plant, originally delivered by him before the Society 
as a lecture in 1913. Dr. Stapf's previous paper on this interesting 
grass was reprinted in this Journal for 1908, pp. 76-81 : the 
present contains much additional matter of interest as to the 
origin of the plant, some of which we here reproduce. The paper 
is illustrated by figures of S. alterniflora, S. stricta, and S. Toion- 
senclii. — Ed. Jouen. Bot.] 

Yabious theories have been advanced to explain the first 
appearance of the grass in the English Flora. The most plausible 
would seem to be that it was due to accidental introduction from 
a foreign country ; but our present knowledge of the genus and 
its distribution does not support it. Another suggestion is that 
Townsend's grass arose as a sport or mutation from SjMrtina 
stricta, which formerly used to grow on the shores of Southampton 
Water. Spartina stricta is, however, a singularly uniform and 
conservative species throughout its area, rather receding than 
advancing, and slow in adapting itself to changed conditions. It 
is evidently not the material from which one might expect sports 
or mutations to spring, so distinct and vigorous as Townsend's 
grass. 

There is, however, a third theory which is more plausible. 
According to it, Townsend's Spartina arose from a cross between 
>S'. alterniflora and S. stricta. S. stricta does not at present 
occur in the neighbourhood of Southampton or in Southampton 
Water ; but we know for certain that it did so not very long ago. 
S. alterniflora is common in the Itchen Eiver and also found in 
various places at the head and on both sides of Southampton 
Water. There was, no doubt, sufficient opportunity for the two 
species to hybridize. Unfortunately, it has not been possible so 
far to produce artificial hybrids of S. alterniflora and >S'. stricta. 
The evidence in favour of this theory is, therefore, necessarily 
circumstantial. It rests partly on the structure and the general 
behaviour of the grass, and partly on the occurrence of a natural 



246 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

hybrid between the same two parents in another part of the world 
and its extreme similarity to Townsend's grass. As to structural 
characters, there is no doubt that many of them may be 
considered as intermediate between those of S. alterniflora and 
S. stricta, although they are frequently, more or less, obscured by 
the remarkable readiness with which Townsend's Spartina 
I'esponds to external conditions, now dwarfing down to the 
modest size of S. stricta, now running up to and even exceeding 
the height of fine examples of S. alterniflora. Similarly, its 
remarkable vigour, its pronounced instability, and its varying 
fertility, very much enhanced in certain years and almost 
suppressed in others, may be adduced in favour of the hybrid 
nature of the grass, as those conditions are traits frequently 
observed in hybrids. But the strongest evidence seems to be in 
the following fact : — Spartina alterniflora and S. stricta meet out- 
side their English area only in one other place, namely, the 
estuary of the Bidassoa River, south of Bayonne, in the Bay of 
Biscay. There they grow intermixed, and among them has been 
found their hybrid. Foucaud described it in 1895, and named it 
Spartina Neyrautii, after its discoverer, Neyraut. Now this 
S. Neyrautii is so similar to S. Toivnsendii that Foucaud pro- 
claimed both as hybrids from the same parents, explaining such 
differences as there are by the assumption that S. alterniflora was 
the female parent in the case of the Bidassoa cross, and S. stricta 
in that of the English plant. The fact is very remarkable, and 
the argument deducible from it for the hybrid origin of Towns- 
end's grass has almost the force of experimental proof. 

Thanks to its vigour and occasional fertility, Townsend's grass 
has, in a comparatively short time, conquered thousands of acres 
of bare mud-land, it has invaded and, in places, much reduced 
the beds of Spartina alterniflora in Southampton Water, and even 
attacked the marshes which so far have been the home of 
Spartina stricta. However, its principal domain is and will 
probably for ever be the mudflats from one to three feet below 
high water-mark. Here the changes brought about by Towns- 
end's grass are remarkable. It is not only that the aspect of the 
flats is altered, the eye meeting great expanses of green com- 
parable to meadows or cornfields, where there was previously a 
monotonous sheet of grey at low- and half-tide, also the animal 
life on the flats and their physical character is undergoing a 
change. To mention only a few economically interesting effects 
on the fauna : in more than one place the larger molluscs which 
were collected for food have disappeared ; with the arrival of the 
grass, eel-spearing has been seriously interfered wath, whilst even 
duck shooting has been spoiled owing to the birds finding a 
welcome cover in the dense grass belts. But the most important 
change concerns the physical condition of the flats. It is obvious 
that the copious systems of roots and stolons must contribute to 
the stabilisation and solidification of the mud. In addition to 
this binding action the stems and lower leaves and leaf-bases act 
as a very effective strainer on the water, which is charged with 



SPARTINA TOWNSENDII 247 

solid particles brought clown by the streams, catching and 
precipitating them. The result is an accelerated and increased 
deposition of mud over the area tenanted by the grass. The level 
of the mudbank becomes raised, the mud itself firmer. Further, 
the decay of each year's growth enriches gradually the mud with 
nitrates and sulphides and other salts, and prepares it for the 
reception of types of vegetation which were until then excluded 
from it. On the land side of the Spartina belt, where there is 
only a foot of water at high-tide, a growth of Aster Tripolium and 
Ohione portulacoides springs up among the grass, the first heralds 
of the reclamation of land that has set in. If the process 
continues, the muddy foreshore will gradually be replaced by 
terra firma. But another effect is more immediate, that of the 
protection which the grass affords to the shore behind it against 
the erosive action of the sea. The stems of the grass opposing 
themselves in their millions to the onrushing tides, to currents 
and the wind-driven sea, act like a natural breakwater to the 
shore behind them. It might be feared that the grass would 
become a nuisance to navigation by blocking up the waterways, 
but this is not the case. Bound to shallow water, it is not likely 
to invade the deeper water channels. On the contrary, the 
consolidation and gradual elevation of the grass-grown fiats along 
them tends to increase the scouring action of the currents and 
tides on the sides and bottoms of those waterways, making their 
banks steeper and increasing their depth. 

There is no reason why artificial plantations of Townsend's 
grass, under conditions corresponding to those of its native 
habitat, should not be successful. Propagation by division is 
easy, and the grass takes on well and grows rapidly, as experi- 
ments made in the Medway River and in New Zealand show. 

When the grass is young, the leaves and stems are succulent 
and sweetish, and cattle and horses relish it. Several American 
species of Spartina are cut and fed to horses and cattle on a large 
scale. Analyses of Townsend's grass, made on behalf of the 
Board of Agriculture, show that for nutritious qualities it is quite 
equal to its American allies, and may be classed as a good average 
fodder grass. Other uses to which the grass has been put and 
might be put on a larger scale are for thatching, and, above all, 
for mulching. It has even been tried for paper-making, but with 
doubtful success. 



SEX CHARACTER IN PLANTS. 

[The following interesting summary of the experiments at 
Merton Park appeared in the Tifues of July 20.] 

Work of great interest is now being done at the John Innes 
Horticultural Institution at Merton Park, where Professor Bate- 
son and his staff are conducting investigations in genetics and in 
the problems of sex characters and hybridization in plants. The 
whole question of variations and mutation and the transmission 
of sex characters from one generation to another is not only one 



248 THK JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

of the mosfc fascinating of the day, but it may, perhaps, have the 
largest importance to humanity. The work at Merton Park is 
not scientific, in the sense that it has no immediate apphcation to 
practical affairs. 

When we interpret it into an effort to produce a truly disease- 
resisting strain of potatoes, to grow flax a foot or two taller than 
it has been grown before, and investigate the farmer's curse of 
thrips, to increase the fertility of fruit trees, to turn out beautiful 
new varieties of well-known flowering plants, then the work 
seems practical enough. The work is young yet ; but every step 
gained, almost every series of experiments, adds some con- 
tribution, if only a negative one, to our economic knowledge. It 
is a pity that John Innes, who left his bequest for the foundation 
of a horticultural institution (and possibly had never heard the name 
of Mendel), cannot see to what excellent use his legacy is being put. 

If you go into the fruit house at Merton Park you will find it 
full of fruit trees — apple, plum, and cherry — from three to five 
feet high, growing in pots. Certain kinds of these trees have 
been known to be self- sterile — that is to say, that they cannot be 
fertilized with their own pollen but must be fertilized with that 
from other varieties. Also it has now been discovered that some 
distinct varieties are not capable of inter-fertilization. It is 
evidently of the first importance to fruit growers to know what 
varieties when crossed produce the best results. 

You will see here a tree, perhaps a cherry, which a month or 
two ago was a mass of blossom. There is a photograph to show 
what it looked like when every branch was covered equally 
densely with flowers. Now out of seven or eight branches five 
or six, it may be, are absolutely devoid of fruit. Two branches 
only are weighed down with clusters of ripe cherries. When the 
tree was in blossom the flowers on each several branch were 
carefully dusted with pollen from some other variety of cherry. 
The result shows which crosses were fertile and which were not. 
The method is not new ; it has been developed in the United 
States, but the results obtained here are and will be full of 
interest to British fruit-growers. 

In the flower houses sex investigations are being carried on by 
the crossings of begonias, calceolarias, nasturtiums, primulas, 
campanulas, and other flowering plants, and in calceolarias, 
especially, some quite new combinations of form and colour have 
been developed. Most of these are the results of experiments 
with C. cana, an unattractive, primitive-looking thing with woolly 
leaves which only a botanist would guess to be a calceolaria. So 
far as is known, G. cana has not heretofore been used in crossing ; 
but some of the hybrids from it are of great beauty, tall branching 
plants of the " tree" type, of novel shades of mauve and lavender 
and other curious tints. 

From the experiments with nasturtiums, again, some con- 
spicuously handsome double flowers have been produced ; one 
especially of a superb crimson-scarlet, and another almost equally 
handsome, banded with scarlet and yellow. In crossing the 



SEX CHARACTER IN PLANTS 249 

single females with double males, the doubles produced are herma- 
phrodite males and sterile females. The female parent being single, 
fertile females carrying the "double" character apparently do not 
result, at least to the second generation (F. 2). There seems to be 
some likelihood here of a clue to the nature of the double 10-weeks 
stock, of which, also, the double flowers are presumably sterile 
females. Meanwhile, some of these new flowers, mere by-products 
on the line of investigation, are singularly desirable flowers. 

It is not possible here, even in outline, to indicate the trend of 
many of the experiments which are being conducted, the conclu- 
sions from most of which are at present most tentative. In 
working with begonias, after some years of experiment, the 
curious discovery was made, to the surprise of the discoverers 
themselves, that the ordinary exhibition type of double begonia is 
in many cases, if not in all, female. Some of the specimens carry 
ovules free on the petals. The discovery has necessitated the 
wiping out of the results of some four or five years of investiga- 
tions which had been carried on on the supposition, as is the 
current belief, that the flowers were male. 

Some very interesting suggestions are made, again, by the 
results of experiments with the varieties of the liliaceous plant 
CJdorojjJiytuvi, which has leaves variegated in longitudinal stripes 
of yellow and green. From forms of which the middle of the leaf 
is yellow and the edges green it is found that the seedlings are 
yellow. Where the colours are reversed — green in the middle 
and yellow at the edges — the seedlings are green. That is to say, 
that the seedlings appear to carry the characteristics of the stem 
and midrib and not of the outer portion of the leaf. If this is 
constant, it would seem to throw a ray of light on the question of 
what portion of the soma or body of an organism it is from which 
the germ derives its character ; a matter which may have an 
obvious bearing on inheritance in many things besides plants. 

An exhaustive series of experiments has been made in coloura- 
tion, using the common snapdragon or Antirrhmum, some of the 
results of which have been already embodied in scientific papers 
by the investigators. Briefly it has been found that all the 
combinations and variations of colouring in Antirrhinums are 
derived from four pigments — namely, ivory, yellow, red, and 
magenta. All of these have been isolated and obtained in a pure 
form, and the chemical identification of them is now possible. 
The first-named two pigments have been identified with apigenin 
and luteolin respectively. 

This chemical interpretation of Mendelian factors may obviously 
be a matter of far-reaching importance. We can hardly imagine 
the possibility of tracing through the germ the principle which 
makes for longness or shortness in pea plants (as in Mendel's 
famous experiments), or which produces the rose comb or single 
comb in fowls ; but we seem to be getting within reach of some- 
thing more tractable when we deal with a common colouring 
matter of known constitution. The equation begins to be not all 
unknown quantities. 



250 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

SHORT NOTES. 
Ptilota plumosa and Henry Goode. — I had the pleasure of 
the personal acquaintance of Henry Goode, who is said by Dr. J. 
Cosmo Melvill (p. 107) to have collected Ptilota i)lumosa at 
Falmouth. He was a most enthusiastic collector, and for several 
years used to bring his algas to me to name when he was in doubt. 
He lived at Plymouth as a centre, from about 1860-70, but went 
occasionally for a week or two to Falmouth and Penzance and 
other localities for seaweeds, and was lucky enough to find one or 
two pieces of Carpomitra at Penzance, and, if I remember rightly, 
also Croiiania and Gigartina pistillata. He corresponded with 
algologists all over the world, and when he died left in his will, 
concerning his herbarium, that I was first to take all the speci- 
mens that I cared for, and that Mr. F. W. Smith, of Falmouth, 
was to have the remainder. The foreign algae I selected from his 
collection formed the nucleus of my collection of foreign algae now 
in Mason's College at Birmingham. I may say that Mr. F. W. 
Smith, who resided at Falmouth, sent Goode many beautiful speci- 
mens — he mounted specimens in albums for sale privately, and 
also sold loose specimens to collectors ; the names were ascertained 
either from books or from correspondents, and both in his collec- 
tions and in Goode's I often found specimens wrongly named, 
localities were often added afterwards by Mr. Goode from memory, 
as he often forgot where the specimens came from, when not 
labelled at the back by the collectors ; Goode generally wrote the 
name in front of his specimens. I doubt, therefore, whether any 
reliance is to be placed upon the fact that Goode's specimen was 
labelled " Falmouth." I have visited Falmouth several times, but 
never saw Ptilota plumosa there : on the other hand, the Isle 
of Anglesea is quite a probable spot for it. I have gathered good 
typical specimens of Phyllopliora Brodim at Penmon in Anglesea, 
and under the Menai Bridge, as well as Phlceospora suharticulata 
and ClicBtopiteris plumosa, northern algae which I have never seen 
in Devon or Cornwall ; also Cordylecladia and other southern 
algae at Penmon, so that evidently at this point the northern 
algae find their southern limit on the West Coast, just as Dcles- 
seria angustissima finds its northern limit just below Scarborough, 
on the East Coast and southern algte extend to Anglesea. Ptilota 
plumosa was recorded from Holyhead and Port Dafarch some 
years ago by Mr. J. E. Griffith, of Bangor, in his Flora of Anglesea 
and Carnarvonshire (p. 237), as growing on the stem of Laminaria 
digitata. The only satisfactory statement concerning the locality 
of an alga is when it is found actually attached to a growing plant, 
or a rock, as many weeds are floated for a very considerable distance 
before decaying, and floating algae are always doubtful records from 
the spot where they are found. Even West Indian seeds are washed 
up in the Hebrides by the Gulf Stream. — E. M. Holmes. 

Gaultheria Shallon in Surrey. — A specimen of this has 
been sent me by a correspondent, who describes it as growing on 
sandy soil at a high elevation on Leith Hill, Surrey, " apparently 
quite wild." — H. J. Eiddelsdell. 



251 

REVIEWS. 

A Monograph of the Genus Sabicea. By Herbert Fqller 
Wernham, D.Sc, F.L.S. 8vo, cloth, pp. 82, with twelve plates 
and text-figures. Price 6s. London: British Museum. 1914. 

When volume iii. of the Flora of Tropical Africa appeared 
(1877), the genus Sabicea comprised nineteen species, a number 
gradually increased until, with the publication last year of the Cata- 
logue of the Talbots' Nigerian Plants, forty-four species had been 
described. It speaks well for the thoroughness of Dr. Wernham's 
research that he has detected no fewer than sixty-two additional 
species, thus making the total number known to-day a hundred 
and eight. This result is embodied in the excellent monograph 
with its twelve well-executed plates now lying before us. 

The nineteen pages of introduction are full of interesting 
reading, and, provided the author's views on the derivation of the 
various groups are regarded as suggestions merely as to what 
may have happened — and this is all that is claimed for them — it 
must be admitted that they are plausible and preferred with much 
ingenuity. The main grouping of the species is founded upon the 
inflorescence, the earliest form of which the author supposes to 
have been the open cyme, from which has been derived the 
condensed head, and finally the head surrounded by an involucre 
of bracts. The difficulty in this matter of descent is that we do 
not know whether unchecked advance from the simple to the 
more complex really has occurred in the history of any group of 
organisms. Thus, to take one case — a case with direct bearing, as 
it happens, upon the point in question. The head of Composites 
is allowed by all to be the highest expression of effectiveness in 
floral arrangement ; yet there are genera, undoubtedly derived 
from GompositcB of normal type, in which the head is reduced to 
two or three florets, or even a single floret in a scattered inflores- 
cence, thus harking back to a very primitive state of things. The 
truth is, we know little at present about the phylogeny of 
Angiosperms, and still less about that of their genera and species, 
and so far ontogeny cannot be said to have proved of much use in 
enlightening our ignorance. This, however, should not deter 
monographers from giving us their conclusions, for speculation 
can do no harm, provided its true nature be kept in view. 

Dr. Wernham's key has been carefully constructed, and the 
species should be easily recognisable from it. We notice, too, a 
very good point, one unfortunately not always present in recent 
monographs, viz. the citation of the herbaria where the various 
species may be found. We cannot, however, refrain from mention- 
ing that in some cases the full nomenclature has not been given. 
For instance, a Brazilian plant was considered in the Phanerogamic 
Botany of the Matto Grosso Expeclition to be conspecific with 
S. novo-granatensis K. Schum. Dr. Wernham finds this to be a 
mistake, and he describes the plant under a new name without 
reference to the erroneous identification. This is, however, 
scarcely a matter of primary importance, and we may hope 



252 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

that in fui'ther monographs of Uuhiacea which we are promised 
from the same pen full citations will appear. But we are not 
disposed to be any less warm on this account in congratulating 
the author on the capital piece of work he has turned out. 

S. M. 

The Standard Cyclopedia of Hortic^dture. By L. H. Bailey. 

Vol. i. A-B. 4to cloth, pp. 602. 700 figures in text. New 

York : Macmillan & Co. 1914. 25s. net. 
This work, which is to be completed in six volumes to be illus- 
trated with coloured and other plates, with four thousand engravings 
in the text, contains contributions from most of the leading horti- 
culturists and botanists of America, all of them experts in the 
particular subjects on which they write. We learn from the preface 
that the work " discusses the cultivation of fruits, flowers, and 
garden vegetables in the United States and Provinces." In style, 
it is similar to the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture published 
fourteen years ago, but the treatment in the earlier work was 
confined closely to " the trade "-^to those plants " sold in the 
United States and Canada"; in the present, "the trade" is 
interpreted more liberally, and includes the species offered and 
supplied to American customers by many European dealers. The 
horticultural possibilities of the various States are outlined, and 
biographies of eminent horticulturists are given. 

The first part contains a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom, 
based on Engler's system, with a key to the families and genera 
arranged according to the Genera Plantarum Bentham & Hooker. 
It seems illogical to employ the two systems used in the same 
work. The real reason for the key being on Bentham and 
Hooker's system is that it was prepared for the former Cyclo- 
pedia : an additional reason is that "the now system is better 
adapted for showing relationship or likeness, while the old system 
is well adapted for bringing out differences : most of those who 
use this part of the Cyclopedia will probably be in seai'ch for 
differences/' 

A list of English equivalents of the Latin names and a 
glossary of botanical and horticultural technical terms are 
appended. We read in the preface: "It is impossible now to 
know how many wrong determinations, inaccurate and in- 
sufficient descriptions, and faulty judgments, have been perpetu- 
ated from author to author through long series of years. . . . 
The best that can be done in very many cases is to accept the 
name appearing in a catalogue, and to attach to it the most 
authentic or most adaptable description of a recognised botanical 
species of the same name; there is no telling whether the dealers' 
plant is properly determined or whether it represents the botanical 
species bearing the same name." It would seem that the scientific 
horticulturist meets with the same difficulties in America as 
we do in this country. There is no reason why a nurseryman 
should not have pet names for his plants, even though these may 
have some semblance to real botanical names ; but the free manner 



THE BANANA 253 

ill which names are printed in catalogues has resulted in what can 
only be described as chaos. Names are given which have no 
application to the plants described, and sold as such : the names 
of others sometimes look as if they were taken from one of the 
old herbals. 

A condensed description of each genus is given, followed by the 
native localities. The descriptive portion is characterised by the 
excellence which we always expect, and never in vain, to find in Mr. 
Bailey's work. Keys to the species are added, arranged primarily 
to aid the gardener in making determinations. The species are 
arranged systematically; and, where necessary, an alphabetical 
index is supplied for rapid reference : a list of synonyms and refer- 
ences is appended. The descriptions are excellent : although the 
editor hopes "that every entry will be worked over and improved 
within the next decade," the book is as authoritative and excellent 
as it is possible to be. The compilation is comprehensive, and 
the treatment of modern theory and practice exhaustive. 

The book is clearly printed on good paper, and well and 
neatly bound. The illustrations are clear and to the point, 
though some are of little artistic merit. As a Cyclopedia it 
stands far above anything we have seen, and the publication of 
the succeeding five volumes will be looked forward to with interest. 

J. K. Eamsbottom. 

The Banana : its Cultivation, Distribution, and Commercial Uses. 
By William Fawcett, B.Sc. 8vo. Pp. xi. 287, tt. 17. 
London: Duckworth. 1913. Price 7s. 6fL 

Mr. Fawcett is to be congratulated on the appearance of a 
useful and much-needed handbook. It embodies the experience 
gained during his twenty-one years' residence in Jamaica as 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, a period during which 
the value of the bananas exported from the island increased from 
£250,000 to £1,000,000. To the results of his own experience 
Mr. Fawcett has added those of an exhaustive study of the 
literature of his subject, including the cultivation of the fruit in 
the Tropics generally. 

The banana is the product of cultivated varieties of three 
species of Musa — M. sainentum, cultivated extensively in Jamaica 
and Central America and also in Malaya ; M. Cavendishii, the 
smaller and more delicate-tasting Canary Island banana ; and 
M. acuminata, grown in Malaya. The plantain, a much larger 
fruit, used cooked before it is ripe instead of bread or potatoes, is 
the product of another species, M. paradisiaca. Plantains are 
not exported to Great Britain, and, as Mr. Fawcett remarks, " they 
are not much wanted in countries where potatoes are plentiful 
and much cheaper, and are more valuable than bananas in the 
countries where they grow." After a preliminary chapter giving 
a full account of the structure of the plant-root, stem, leaf, tlower 
and fruit, a number of chapters are devoted to its cultivation, 
including the question of manures and fertilizers, with a short 



254 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

chapter on the financial aspect and some advice to those about to 
cultivate. Fungus diseases and insect-pests are described in 
detail and remedies suggested. The economic use of the banana 
provides material for several chapters, from which, apart from its 
well-known value as a food, it appears to have medicinal value, 
and also to be worth consideration as a source of alcohol. The 
author does not, however, encourage any hope of its competing 
with M. textilis and other species as a soui'ce of fibre. An inte- 
resting account is given of the development of the banana trade 
and the manner of transport of the fruit by sea and land ; and a 
useful series of chapters is devoted to a general review of the 
cultivation of the banana and plantain in various parts of the 
Tropics. The last chapter is a systematic botanical account of 
the species of Miisa, nearly seventy in number, each of which is 
briefly described. An appendix supplies a few recipes for cooking 
bananas. ABE 

Die Silsswasscr- flora Deutschlancls, Osterrcichs tmd der Schiveiz. 

Heft 1 : Flagellata I., von A. Pascher und E. Lammermann. 

Jena. 1914. 
This volume will prove a useful and reliable key to the 
Pantostomatinae, Protomastiginge and Distomatinse. It is a 
fitting complement to Part II. of the Flagellata already issued. 
Pascher contributes the introductory remarks and Lammermann 
the important systematic part. The figures are reasonably good, 
but the descriptions are in many cases very brief, with no critical 
remarks and no distribution. One fails to see why scores of 
species should be included in a flora of Germany, Austria and 
Switzerland, with the remarks " Bislang nur aus Nordamerika," 
&c. It implies that all Flagellates have a world-wide distribution, 
whereas there is much evidence to the contrary. 

Heft 6: Chlorophyceae III., von W. Heering. Jena. 1914. — 
This part includes the Ulotrichales, Microsporales and CEdo- 
goniales, and it is the best of the series yet published. The 
descriptions are good, but the figures, more especially in the 
Chgetophoraceae, leave much to be desired. The general account 
of the genus Microspora is incorrect, both in the cytology and 
formation of zoogonidia. Once more many genera and numerous 
species are included which should have no place in a Flora of 
Central Europe. Some American and even African genera and 
species are described and figured, none of which are known to 
occur, and most of which are never likely to occur in Europe. 
Inclusions of this kind are positively harmful and misleading, 
although apparently quite in keeping with the German character. 
Dr. Heering's treatment of the species of many of the genera is 
excellent and is accompanied by considerable critical observation. 
On the whole, this little volume will prove a useful, if small, 
laboratory guide. 

G. S. West. 



255 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

One of the recently issued parts of the Records of the Botanical 
Survey of India (voh vii. No. 1) is devoted to the first portion of 
what is evidently a very thorough and exhaustive study of the 
Flora of Aden, by the Eev. Ethelbert Blatter, S.J., F.L.S., Pro- 
fessor of Botany at St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. Beginning 
with a history of the botanical exploration of Aden, with an account 
of what has been done by previous workers (with brief biographies), 
the physical aspects of the region — area and position, geology, 
topography, and conditions of plant-life are considered : an 
account of the vegetation follows, which includes its general 
aspects, with notes on its origin in the Indo-African desert and 
the North African steppe, and of the means of dissemination by 
wind and water and by the agency of animals and man. The 
systematic portion, with synopsis of orders and description of 
species, will appear later. This part contains one large and 
excellent map and five illustrations of the town and people. 

The other recent parts of the Records contain reports on the 
Mosses of the Abor Expedition (1911-12) and on Mosses collected 
by Mr. C. E. C. Fisher and others in South India and Ceylon, by 
Mr. H. N. Dixon ; this (vol. vi. No. 3) contains two excellent 
plates and descriptions of numerous novelties. In No. 4 of the 
same volume Messrs. G. H. Cave and Mr. W. Smith write on the 
East Himalayan species of Alangium, and the latter describes 
new species from the Calcutta Herbarium. 

We regret to find that we neglected to notice two papers 
reprinted from the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for 
the Advancevient of Science, Literature and Art — surely some 
shorter name might have been devised? — for 1913. In one of 
them Miss C. E. Larter gives a careful account of the distribution 
of Viola in Devonshire, in which she has had the help of Mrs. 
Gregory for the Noniimiwn and of Dr. Drabble for the Melanium 
section : to the latter V. mcduanensis Bor. is added, which has 
not previously been recorded for Britain. In the other paper 
Mr. Hiern edits the Fifth Eeport of the Botany Committee, 
which contains numerous additional species and localities for 
each of the eight districts into which the county has been 
divided. 

The first of the series of six volumes entitled The Oxford 
Survey of the British Envpire (Clarendon Press) is devoted to the 
British Islands and Mediterranean possessions ; to this Dr. Moss 
contributes a general account of the distribution of British plants 
and correlates Forbes's and Watson's work with that of recent 
Continental authors, as well as with that of Mr, Clement Eeid. 

The most recent addition to the " Bibliotheque Scientifique 
Internationale " is a treatise on La Vie et la Lumiere, by Dr. 
Raphael Dubois (Paris, Librairie F. Alcan ; price 6 francs). The 
first chapter is devoted to " les vegetaux lumineuses " as repre- 



256 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

sented by the genus Photobacterium, on which the author has 
made various experiments ; it is illustrated by a curious " photo- 
graphie du buste de Claude Bernard eclaire par la lumiere des 
Photobacteriees. ' ' 

Mr. p. Diemer, of Cairo, has published a pretty little book 
containing some thirty pictures, reproduced from photographs 
of Sovie Desert Floioers by Mrs. Grace M. Crowfoot, to which 
are added brief descriptions based on those in Muschler's Manual 
Flora of Egypt. There is an interesting introduction dealing 
with the characteristics of the Flora. The price of the book is 
not stated ; the copy before us is announced in violet ink on the 
title-page as "Gratuit pour la redaction," and the publisher adds 
to his generosity by sending a ready-written review, of which we 
do not propose to avail ourselves further than by agreeing that 
" with this book in hand a good many of the commoner of the 
flowers growing near Cairo can be readily identified." 

Dr. Staff contributes to the supplement to vol. 50 of the 
Botanische Jalirhilcher an important paper on "The Southern Ele- 
ment in the British Flora." We regret that a paper of such special 
interest to British botanists should appear in a German periodical 
with which few, if any of them, are likely to be acquainted. 

A note in the Selhorne Magazine for August, signed " K. M. 
Styan," records the finding, in August, 1913, of " a tiny patch " of 
Asperula nitida, " not very far from the summit of Ben Nevis." 
The identification has been verified at the National Herbarium, 
where a specimen of the plant has been placed. A. nitida is a 
native of Asia Minor, " now cultivated somewhat in English 
gardens." Although the writer of the note thinks the view that 
it was planted there is " too ridiculous to credit," we have little 
doubt that its occurrence is to be thus explained : it is, w^e believe, 
well known that attempts have been made to establish plants upon 
the Scottish mountains as elsewhere, and this seems to be one of 
the few occasions on which the attempt has proved successful. 

A SERIES of papers on " The Flora of the Brent Valley Bird 
Sanctuary," by Mr. J. C. Shenstone, appeared in the Selborne 
Magazine during 1913. 

Vegetationsbilder von Kilimandscharo, by Dr. Gertrud Tobler- 
Wolff and Dr. Fr. Tobler (Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1914), forms 
Parts 2 and 3 of the twelfth series of the "Vegetationsbilder" 
edited by Professors Karsten & Schenk. The letterpress accom- 
panying the plates explains in an admirable way the various 
features of the district visited by the authors. The plates them- 
selves are well executed and, although encumbered with the 
embarrassing excess of detail and want of individual definition 
common to similar photographs, give an excellent idea of the 
scenery depicted. Special mention may be made of plate 7 {Lco- 
notis mollis Benth), plates 9 and 10 (giant Lobelias), plate 12 
(Heaths), and plate 17 (Helichrysums). This is altogether a 
valuable addition to this series of botanical photographs. 



Journ. Bot. 



Tab. 534. 




HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA Casp. 



257 



HYDRILLA VEBTICILLx\TA Gasp. IN ENGLAND. 

By Arthur Bennett, A.L.S. 

(Plate 534.) 

HvDRiLLA verticillata Caspavy in Bot. Zeit. xiv. 899 (185G). 

H. ovallfolia Rich, in Mem. Inst. Par. xii. (1811). 

Udora verticillata Gorski in Eicii. Skizze. v. Lithuan., itc, 127 
(1830). 

U. lithuanica Besser in Flora 11. Beibl. 12 (1832). 

U. occidentalis Koch, Syn. eel. 1. 669 (1837). 

U. pomeranica Reichb. Icones f. 104 (1845). 

This interesting addition to the British Flora has been found 
by Mr. W. H. Pearsall in Lake Lancashire, v.-c. 69 b, at Estwaite 
Water, growing with Naias flexilis — itself an occurrence of 
note — Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton Sturrockii, P. imsillus 
and CalUtriche autumnalis. The " Water " where the plant 
occurs is rich in aquatics, and Mr. Pearsall suggests that 
this may be due, among other causes, to the number of water- 
fowl that frequent it — wild ducks, coots, water-hens, &c. — by the 
score. The English examples seem to be produced from winter 
buds, the first leaves being opposite, then gradually producing 
leaves in threes and fives (occasionally fours) at each node ; they 
are linear-acuminate, pellucid, with small cells on the leaf- 
margins which can hardly be called serrations, as they seem to 
be extra-marginal — not as shown in Elodea in English Botany, 
ed. 3, ix. t. 1446. 

The following description is given by Sir J. D. Hooker {P'lora 
of British India, v. 659) : — 

" A submerged leafy dioecious herb. Leaves short, 3-4-nately 
whorled, or the lower opposite. Male floiuers solitary, stoutly 
pedicelled, in a subglobose sessile muricate spathe ; sepals 3, 
ovate or obovate, green ; petals 3, oblong or cuneiform ; stamens 3, 
anthers large, reniform, opening elastically ; pistillode small. 
Female floivers 1-2, sessile in a tubular 2-toothed spathe ; perianth 
of the male, but leaflets narrower ; ovary produced beyond the 
spathe in a filiform beak, 1-celled ; styles 2-3, linear, undivided ; 
stigmas 3, fimbriate ; ovules anatropous. Fruit subulate, smooth or 
muricate ; seeds 2-3 oblong, testa shortly produced at each end. 

" Plant forming large masses. Leaves \-^ in., 4-8 in a 
whorl, with a short sheathing one at the base of each branch 
and a short pair above this ; linear or oblong-linear, serrulate or 
entire. Flowers ^-J in. long ; perianth segments very variable. 
Fruit smooth or sometimes muricate, or (in Ceylon) squarrose 
with filaments above the middle. The male flowers escape from 
the sheath when mature, and float to the top of the water." 

I have followed Ascherson and Graebner (Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 

i. 399) in adopting Caspary's name for the plant. The genus is 

near Elodea and Anacharis, and perhaps all three should be 

included under one. The plant has been found in Europe in 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [October, 1914.] u 



258 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Pomerauia, S.E. Prussia, Russia (in tlie governments of Wilna, 
Kurland, and Witebsk) and E. Asia, Australia, Mauritius, Central 
Africa, and Madagascar. Whether it is indigenous in Europe is 
doubtful: Nyman (Consp. Fl. Europ. Supp. ii. 285 (1890)) 
remarks: " Patria hujus plantie est India orient., ubi frequens 
dicitur." If not indigenous, it is not easy to suggest how it has 
become distributed, unless the seeds become attached to the feet 
of aquatic birds, many of which i^ange widely over the world. The 
suggestion that it is carried in their crops seems not admissible, 
as Danish ornithologists have shown that, as a rule, birds in 
migration travel with empty crops. The plant occurs also in 
Tropical Asia, Tropical Africa, the Mascarene Islands, and 
Australia. 

The occurrence of Naias in the same lake is also remarkable. 
We now have this species in Ireland, Scotland, and England; for 
its distribution in Ireland and Scotland see Trans. Bot. Soc. 
Edinb. xxiv. 16 (1909). In Europe it is rare, being recorded in 
Finland !, North Russia, Sweden in Scania ! and formerly in 
Upland, North Germany (Binow-See and Paarsteiner-See), Pome- 
rania and Lithuania. It is generally distributed in the United 
States and Canada. Hooker (Stud. Fl. ed. 3, p. 439 (1884) ) gives 
" Asia," but Dr. Rendle names no Asian stations in his revision 
of the genus in Trans. Linn. Soc. (Botany), vol. v. 

The accompanying plate is from a photograph kindly supplied 
by Mr. W. H. Pearsall. 

THE INDIFFERENT COILING OF ARUM SPATHES. 
By Miller Christy, F.L.S. 

It is now over thirty years since I first observed the fact that 
the spathes of the common Cuckoo-pint {Arum mamdatum) are 
coiled or rolled indifferently either way in different individuals — a 
fact which I have not seen noticed in botanical literature, except 
in a brief note by myself published in this Journal for 1883, 
p. 237. The same is the case with the flowers of the common 
greenhouse "Arum-lily " [BicJiardia africana or Calla (Bthiojnca). 
The peculiarity is common, probably, to all the Aroidae. 

Later, I observed that the leaves of A. maculatum, on their 
first appearance above ground, are also coiled or rolled indifferently 
either way, and that all the leaves on any one plant are always 
coiled or rolled the same way as the flower-spathes on that plant. 
This is, after all, merely what miglit have been expected ; for a 
spathe is no more than a modiiied leaf or bract. 

It may be asked, perhaps, how it is possible, without great 
difficulty, to substantiate the statement that all leaves and spathes 
on any one plant ai'e always coiled or rolled the same way, seeing 
that the leaves regularly appear at least two months, and often 
more, before the tips of the spathes are visible above ground and 
that they uncoil very soon after their appearance. In reality, 
however, substantiation is easy; for, when even the earliest leaves 



THE INDIFFERENT COILING OF ARUM SPATHES 259 

first appear above ground (which is often as early as January or 
February), the spathe is ah'eacly fully formed, though, of course, 
very small and still entirely below ground. By pulling up the 
plant and splitting it open, one can easily ascertain, even at this 
early stage, which way its spathe is rolled. 

The facts noted in connection with the aestivation of the leaves 
and spathes of the Arum have long seemed to me curious and 
anomalous ; for Nature does not, as a rule, leave matters of this 
kind to chance (so to speak). In most similar cases, she follows 
some definite rule for each species or each genus, as the case may be. 
Thus, among climbing plants, a majority (as the Wliite Convolvulus 
and the Scarlet Eunner) revolve their shoots and tendrils in one 
definite direction, while others (as the Hop and Honeysuckle) 
revolve in the opposite direction.* Darwin observes f that, in 
almost all climbing plants, members of the same genus revolve 
their shoots and tendrils in the same direction. The same is true, 
I believe, of the aestivation of the flowers and leaves of all plants 
having flowers or leaves which are coiled or rolled in their earlier 
stages — that is to say, in each species or genus, the flowers or 
leaves are regularly coiled or rolled either one way or the other : 
not either way indifl^erently. Again, among mollusca having 
helically- or spirally-coiled shells, a large majority of species coil 
in one definite direction, though some species coil in the opposite 
direction. In most species of mollusca, however, one meets 
occasionally with abnormal individuals coiled in that direction 
which is opposite to the direction normal in the species — a 
peculiarity which is much commoner, for some unexplained 
reason, in some species and in some localities than in others. | 
The case of the spathes of A. maculatum is, however, totally 
different from any of the foregoing cases ; for, as stated already, 
the spathes of this species are coiled or rolled either way in- 
differently. Similar cases are, I believe, rare in Nature. 

In view of these facts, it occurred to me, several years ago, 
that it might be worth while to undertake investigations with a 
view to ascertaining whether plants of the Arum, having leaves 
and spathes coiled either in one direction or the other, occur in 
Nature in about equal numbers ; or whether plants having their 
leaves and spathes coiled in one direction or the other are in a 
majority. 

Accordingly, I began a series of investigations, which I con- 
tinued at intervals for five years. During country walks or in 
odd moments wherever I happened to be (often in shrubberies 
attached to my own garden), I gathered spathes of the Arum, 
afterwards counting and recording the number of each kind I had 

* See Darwin, Climbing Plants, 2nd ed., pp. 23-35 (1875), and Dr. B. 
Daydon Jackson, Glossary of Botanic Terms, 2nd ed., p. 3G7 (1905). The 
majority revolve in tlie direction which Darwin calls (oj). cit., p. 33) "against 
the sun." 

t Darwin, oj). cit., pp. 33-34. 

I See J. W. Taylor, Monograpli of Land and Freslncater Mollusca of British 
Isles, i., pp. 23-2-1, 108-109 (1900). 

u 2 



260 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

secured. In all cases, I gathered one spathe only from each 
plant. Further, to secure a more reliable result, I abstained 
usually from gathering more than one spathe from two adjoining 
groups of plants, whenever it seemed likely that both groups had 
grown from the seed of one parent plant. In this way I have 
gathered and counted either spathes or leaves or both from no 
fewer than 1228 plants — a number large enough, I think, to 
enable one to arrive at a fairly definite conclusion on the point at 
issue. The results of my counting are set forth in detail in a 
tabular statement which follows. 

Before examining those results, however, it is necessary to 
find terms capable of expressing, definitely and without ambiguity, 
the two directions in which the spathes and leaves of the Arum 
are rolled or coiled. For this purpose, I employ the terms 
" dextral " and " sinistral." These are, I hold (for reasons I hope 
to set forth elsewhere), the only terms capable of being used in 
such case without liability to confusion. Let the observer 
imagine himself to be standing upright, within the spathe (or, 
better still, within the central stem or axis), facing and looking 
out of the opening of the spathe. If, in that case, the wing of 
the spathe, on leaving the central stem or axis as it begins to coil, 
passes first to the observer's right hand, that spathe is what I 
call " dextral." If, on the contrary, it passes first to the observer's 
left hand, the spathe is what I call "sinistral." (It should be 
remembered that, if the observer imagines himself to be outside 
the spathe and facing its opening, the conditions are exactly 
reversed.) The annexed illustration shows a dextral and a sinis- 
tral spathe of A. viaculatum, as well as a transverse section 
through the " bulb " of each, the sections being viewed, of course, 
from above. In each case A represents the central stem or axis 
(within which the observer is supposed to be), and B the point 
he is supposed to face as he looks out of the opening of the 
spathe. 

Turning now to the results of my counting, as shown in the 
tabular statement annexed, it will be seen that, of 1228 Arum 
spathes, gathered at random, on thirty-two different occasions 
between 25th April, 1909 and 10th May, 1914, from hedgebanks, 
roadsides, ditches, and woods, at various places, chiefly in Essex 
and Gloucestershire, 645 proved to be sinistral and 583 to be 
dextral — a majority of 62 for the sinistral spatlies. It is clear, 
therefore, that, among the 1228 spathes examined, the sinistral 
spathes stood to the dextral spathes in the same relation that 
100 stands to 90. In other words, the sinistral spathes out- 
numbered the dextral spathes by about 10 per cent. 

It is worth noting that we get much the same result if we 
take the results of the thirty-two observations separately. Thus, 
no fewer than nineteen (or about 60 per cent.) of these obser- 
vations yielded a majority of sinistral spathes ; only eleven (or 
about 34 per cent.) yielded a majority of dextral spathes ; while 
in two the numbers of each kind of spathe were equal. 

The numbers of observations made and of spathes counted are, 



THE INDIFFERENT COILING OP ARUM SPATHES 



261 



admittedly, not large. Nevertheless, the numbers appear to be 
sufficiently large to prove conclusively that, in Nature, sinistral 
spathes are really and persistently more numerous than dextral 
spathes. It is significant that this is demonstrated by the results 



•iV 



L%'<l!l 



:.|;-tl 






Line or th£ 
•Seciwm belonr 




® 



B 
SINISTRAL 



6 

DEXTRAL 



Spathes of Anim maculation, and sections thereof. 

of the thirty-two observations, each being taken separately, and 
by the total result of the observations, all being taken together. 

It might be interesting to speculate as to whether this small, 
though marked, majority of sinistral spathes is a feature which is 
in course of being acquired or in course of being lost. It would 



262 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



Anmi maculatiivi : Observations on the Indifferent {Sinistral or Dextral) 

Coiling of its Spathe. 



No. 








No. of 


No 


. of 


Maj 


ority 


Propor- 


of 


Date 


Locality 


Situation 


SpathcF 


of 


tions.* 


Obs. 








Exd. 


Sin. 


Dex. 


s. 


D. 


S. 


D. 




1909 




















1 


April 25 


Chignal St. James, 
Essex. 


Garden. 


6 


5 


1 


+ 


— 


100 


20 


2 


May 9 


Writtle, Essex. 


Ditches A' banks. 


112 


60 


52 


+ 


— 


100 


87 


3 


„ 9 


,, 


„ 


13 


9 


4 


+ 


— 


100 


44 


4 


„ 23 


Chignal St. James. 


ij 


32 


14 


18 




+ 


78 


100 


5 


„ 23 
1910 


" 


" 


6 


4 


2 


+ 




100 


50 


6 


May 1 


,, 


,, 


31 


21 


10 


+ 


— 


100 


48 


7 


„ 1 


,, 


Woodt 


12 


6 


6 


equal 


100 


100 


8 


„ 1 


,, 


Woods t 


12 


8 


4 


+ 


— 


100 


50 


9 


,, 1 


,, 


Ditches tfe banks. 


10 


4 


6 


— 


+ 


67 


100 


10 


,, 1 


^ J 


,, 


39 


20 


19 


+ 




100 


95 


11 


,. 14 


Cirencester, Glos. 




44 


21 


23 




+ 


91 


100 


12 


,, 15 


Nailsworth, Glos. 


Wooded hillside. 


20 


11 


9 


+ 




100 


82 


13 


,, 16 


Stroud, Glos. 


Roadside banks. 


52 


25 


27 




+ 


93 


100 


14 


„ 21 


Rivenhall, Essex. 


Churchyard. 


76 


33 


43 


— 


+ 


77 


100 


15 


,, 22 


Stisted, Essex. 


Ditchescfcbanks. 


33 


19 


14 


+ 




100 


74 


16 


,, 22 


Pattiswick, Essex. 




10 


7 


3 


+ 





100 


43 


17 


„ 28 


Little Baddow, 
Essex. 


Roadside bank. 


17 


10 


7 


+ 


— 


100 


70 


18 


„ 29 


Chignal St. James. 


Ditches* banks. 


64 


35 


29 


+ 


— 


100 


83 


19 


June 5 
1911 


Ashdon, Essex. 


Wood. 


3 


1 


2 




+ 


50 


100 


20 


April 23 
1912 


Saffron Walden and 
Debden. 


Woods, &c. 


18 


9 


r) 


eql 


ml 


100 


100 


21 


April 8 


Hoxne, Suffolk. 


,, 


17 


8 


9 


— 


+ 


89 


100 


22 


May 5 


Chignal St. James. 


Broom Wood. 


104 


55 


49 


+ 




100 


89 


23 


„ 19 


,j 


Broom Wood & 


41 


26 


15 


+ 


— 


100 


58 








ditches. 










1 






1913 
















1 


24 


May 4 


J? 


,, 


23 


11 


12 


— 


+ 


91 100 


25 


„ 8 


, ) 




27 


17 


10 


+ 


— 


100 


59 


26 


„ 8 
1914 


>> 


" 


74 


33 


41 




+ 


80 


100 


27 


April 13 


,, 


Banks ct ditches. 


47 


30 


17 


+ 


— 


100 57 


28 


„ 28 


) J 


Broom Wood. 


76 


34 


42 


— 


+ 


81 100 


29 


„ 28 




Banks ct ditches. 


59 


30 


29 


+ 


— 


100 


97 


30 


May 2 


Saffron Walden. 


Chalk-pit. 


54 


31 


23 


+ 


— 


100 


74 


31 


„ 3 


Chignal St. James. 


Banks ct ditches. 


70 


38 


32 


+ 


— 


100 


84 


32 


„ 10 


" 


" 


26 


10 


16 


— 


+ 


62 


100 




1228 


645 


583 


19' 


11 


100 90 
















and 


two 


















eqi 


lal 












32 


1 



* Decimals ignored : the nearest whole number taken. 

t All from one cluster: grown, probably, from the seeds of a single flower. 



THREE NEW COMrOSIT.E FROM PERU 263 

be of interest, too, to ascertain by experiment whether the rolling 
of the spathe constitutes what is known as a Mendelian character. 
Herein, however, I propose to do no more than place on record 
the facts observed. 

The number of similar cases which occur in Nature is, I 
believe, small. Darwin records '■' that the Woody Nightshade 
[Solanum Dulcamara), a plant with exceedingly feeble climbing 
powers, revolves its shoots and twines indifferently in either 
direction. He mentions! also one or two other more or less 
similar cases among chmbing plants. 



THEEE NEW COMPOSITE FEOM PEEU. 
By Albert Hanford Moore and Spencer le M. Moore. 

During a recent visit to South America Mr. H. O. Forbes 
made a small collection of plants in Peru, and upon his return 
presented them to the British Museum. The list includes several 
GompositcB, all known species except the three here described. 
The first is a Spilanthes ; of this, as it was not determinable from 
the clavis given by Mr. Albert Hanford Moore, of Washington, 
in his monograph of the genus (Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sci. xlii. 
521, 569 (1907) ), a specimen was sent to that gentleman with a 
request, kindly complied with, to furnish a description, if its 
supposed novelty should indeed prove a fact. For the others I 
am responsible. — S. M. 

^^ Spilanthes iolepis A. H. Moore, sp. nov. Caule erecto minute 
pubescente foliis ovatis ca. 2-3 cm. longis 1-1-5 cm. latis pihs 
albis instructis dentibus aut serrationibus induratis, apice acuto, 
basi rotundata vel subacuta, petiolis ca. 0-6-1 cm. longis ; capitulis 
subovoideis aut subcylindricis conspicue irregulariterque violaceo- 
punctatis, pedunculis 2-6-5 cm. longis; involucri squamis numerosis 
violaceis pubescentibus ; achseniis valde ciliatis. 

Hab. Peruvian coast to 7000 ft. 

A S. leucantha H. B. K. (Nov. Gen. & Sp. PI. iv. 210, t. 370 
(1820) ) maxime differt achaeniis ciliatis ; a S. ocymifolia (Lam.) 
A. H. Moore {op. cit. 531) involucri squamis numerosis in locum 
6-8, foHis plerumque majoribus ; et ab ambabus differt capituUs 
violaceo-punctatis et involucri squamis violaceis, foliorum dentibus 
induratis. 

The earlier illustrations of Spilanthes ocymifolia show a larger 
number of involucral scales, as characteristic of S. iolepis rather 
than of S. ocymifolia \ \ L'Heritier even gives the number as 
twelve in the accoiiipanying text. The involucre in the Illustr. 
Genres has a stiff diagrammatic appearance, and I have observed 

* Climbing Plants, 2nd ed., pp. 20, 34, and 43 (1875). 
t Op. cit., pp. 33-36. 

t Bidens ocijmifoUa Lam. — Poir. Illustr. Genres, iii. '244, t. GG8, f. 3 
(18'23) : .Spilanth'us alhus LHer. Stirp. Nov. i. 7, t. 4 (1784). 



264 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

that crudities in old drawings, especially when these have been 
sketched from the living plants, which were afterward not avail- 
able to the author at time of writing, frequently find their way 
into the text. In other particulars, including especially the size 
and typical shape of the leaves, both Lamarck's and L'ileritier's 
descriptions and figures are sufficiently close to the widely distri- 
buted plant commonly identified with them. The insistence of 
both authors on the leaves being entire or subentire is important. 
The leaves of S. ocymifolia are rarely toothed, and then have 
broad not hardened teeth, while S. iolepis has little indurated 
teeth or serrations. 

S. leucantha is readily distinguished by the entirely glabrous 
achenes ; S. ocymifolia by the small number of involucral bracts 
(4-8), and leaves which are on the average much larger. S. iolepis 
differs from both in the violet colour of involucre and spots of the 
disk (note the names " leucantha " and " albus " above), and the 
indurated toothing of the leaves. It is also more pubescent, the 
leaves producing characteristic, short, somewhat stiff, greyish or 
whitish hairs. 

Wedelia Forbesii, sp. nov. Caule herbaceo gracili sparsim 
ramoso hispidulo, foliis parvis subsessilibus lanceolatis obtuse 
acutis basi obtusis trinervibus margine subevanide denticulatis 
membranaceis pag. utraque sed praesertim inf. hispidulis, pedun- 
culis solitariis folia longe excedentibus gracillimis ipso sub capitulo 
incrassatis hispidulis, involucri phyllis ext. late oblongis obtusis 
ima basi coriaceis aliter herbaceis phyllis int. ext. similibus nisi 
paullo minoribus omnibus extus hispidulis, ligulis circa 9 bene 
exsertis, receptaculi paleis late oblongis acutis prope apicem 
denticulatis dorso prominenter carinatis apice puberulis tenuibus 
decoloribus costa nigra percursis, achaeniis oblongo-Hnearibus 
appresse setosis, pappo cyathiformi ore breviter ciliolato-lacerato 
adjecta arista satis rigida duplo longiore. 

Hab. Valley between Pacasmayo and Eail-head, 7000 ft. 

Folia 3-4-5 cm. long., 1-1-5 cm. lat., minute glanduloso- 
punctata ; petioli 2 mm. long., hispiduli. Pedunculi 8-16 cm. 
long. Capitula pansa 1 cm. long., 2 cm. diam. Involucri phylla 
ext. 8x3 mm. Eeceptaculi palese 6-6-5 mm. long. Ligulse 
ovatse, apice bidentatae, binervosae, 8x5 mm. Achaenia adhuc 
maxime cruda 2-5 x '75 mm. ; radii compressa, 1 mm. lat. 
Pappus -4 mm. long. 

The small, almost entire leaves and long peduncles, together 
with the pappus, are the chief feature of the species. 

Trixis (j Aplochl^n^i;) hexantha, sp. nov. Eaimis fruticosis 
sat tenuibus sursum foliosis pubescentibus dein glabrescentibus, 
foliis parvis petiolatis oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel 
obtuse acutis basin versus gradatim extenuatis firme membranaceis 
supra puberulis subtus pubescentibus, capitulis aequaliHoris 6- 
flosculosis pro rata mediocribus in paniculas breves corymbosas 
oligocephalas ordinatis, involucri campanulati phyllis 5 uniseriatis 
lineari-oblongis obtusissimis nisi obtusis pubescentibus apice 
barbellatis adjectis bracteis paucis (solemniter 3-4) linearibus 



THE ROGUE WALLFLOWER 



265 



obtusis pubescentibus pbylla suboequantibus, receptaculi alveolis 
ore pubescentibus, corollis tiavis ex involucro plane eminentibus 
horum labio exteriori ovato-oblongo 3-clenticulato inteiioii alte 
bipai'tito, acbyeniis linearibus basi leviter angustatis apice breviter 
contractis papillosis, pappi setis copiosis 2-senatis scabriusculis 
dilute stramineis. 

Hab. Valley between Pacasmayo and Eail-head, 7000 ft. 

Folia exempl. unici nobis obvii summum 3x1 cm., pleraque 
equidem circa 20 x 5 mm., in sicco griseo-viridia ; costa media 
supra plana, subtus maxime prominens ; petioli 4-5 mm. long. 
Paniculae 2-5 x 2-5 cm. Pedunculi proprii saepius 2-4 mm. long., 
pubescentes. Bracteae 6-7 mm. long. Involucri pbylla 7*5 mm. 
long., 1'5 mm. lat., coriacea, margine membranacea, dilute griseo- 
brunnea. Corollarum tubus anguste infundibularis, 7 mm. long. ; 
labium exterius 4-4-5 x 2 mm. ; labium interius 3'5 x "4 mm. 
Achaenia 5-6 mm., pappus 8 mm. long. 

Distinguishable at once from T. paradoxa DC. by means of 
the small, narrow leaves and the short involucres. 



THE ROGUE WALLFLOWER. 

By F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S. 

[Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Boyal 
Horticultural Society, xl. 83-87 (August, 1914). In addition to 
the papers cited, reference may be made to a note in this Journal 
for 1882 (p. 282) by Robert Holland, and to a paper by Duchartre 
— " sur une monstruosite de la fleur du vioHer {Cheiranthus 
Chein) " in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) ser. 5, xiii. 315-339, t. 1.— Ed. 

JOURN. BOT.] 

From time to time there appears among wallflowers a rogue 
form apparently without petals and looking at a cursory glance as 
though the flowers had failed to open. This rogue form is not 
confined to any one variety, but occurs in both yellows and reds. 

The form has been known for a long time and has even received 
a botanical name, for A. P. de Candolle ''■'- describes it under the 
name Cheiranthus Cheiri y gynantherus, with the following 
diagnosis : " Antheris nempe in carpella mutatis." It appears to 
arise suddenly from time to time, but, as the observations to be 
described below show, it may possibly be that certain apparently 
normal individuals among wallflowers are so constituted that their 
seed necessarily produces both normal and rogue form. That is, 
they may be hybrids in the Mendelian sense and, so to speak, 
carry the characters of both normal and rogue forms. On the 
other hand, we have no evidence to show that the rogues do not 
arise suddenly as seminal sports. 

The malformation existing in the rogues is a very peculiar one, 
in which both petals and stamens are involved. The petals are 

* DC. Prodromus, I. p. 135 (1S24). 



266 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

reduced to oblong coloured pieces about the length of the sepals or 
a little shorter. A remark in Masters' Vegetable Teratology ■'- 
seems to infer that at times the petals may be developed normally. 
He says, "In most of the flowers of this variety the petals are 
smaller and less perfectly developed than usual." Brongniart f 
makes a similar remark : " Dans ces Clieirantlms monstrueux, qui 
etaient tres nombreux dans les parterres du Museum en 1841, les 
sepales et les petales existent dans leur position habituelle, mais 
en general les petales ne prennent qu'un developpement imparfait, 
ce qui signale immediatement les plantes qui sont le siege cle cette 
monstruosite." We have not, however, met with any cases in 
which normal petals were developed. It is almost to be expected 
that sucli cases would occur, for it is scarcely credible that a 
single character-determinant should produce the remarkable and 
dissimilar abnormalities which occur in both petals and stamens. 

The most extraordinary change, however, is in the stamens 
which are converted into carpels. As Allman \ has pointed out, 
there is considerable variation in the number of the supplementary 
carpels and in their adhesion. The full number is six, derived from 
the six stamens, but those corresponding with the two lateral 
stamens are not infrequently smaller than the others, or altogether 
absent. Allman found the ovary with the short style of these 
supplementary carpels was derived from the filament of the stamen, 
while " the stigma was plainly a transformed anther." 

Brongniart § has well described the various forms of this rogue 
met with, all of which we have seen in our own cultivations (see 
figure). We cannot do better than quote Dr. Masters' translation 
of his notes. II " Sometimes these six carpellary leaves are 
perfectly free, and in this case they spread open, presenting two 
rows of ovules along their inner edges, or these edges may be 
soldered together, forming a kind of follicle like that of the Colum- 
bine ; at other times, these staminal pistils are fused into two 
lateral bundles of three in each bundle, or into a single cylinder 
which encircles the true pistil. In a third set of cases these outer 
carpels are only four in number, two lateral and two antero- 
posterior, all fused in such a manner as to form around the 
normal pistil a prism-shaped sheath, with four sides presenting 
four parietal placentae, corresponding to the lines of junction of 
the staminal carpels." 

The conversion of stamens into carpels is a comparatively rare 
phenomenon, though conversion of stamens into petals is frequent. 
It occurs in Papavcr souinifcnon, and we have seen it in 
P. oricntale in our own garden, but in these cases, only some of 
the stamens are transformed ; it has also occurred in Polemonium 

* Masters, M. T., Vegetable Teratology, p. 305 (1869). 

f Brongniart, A., " Sur quelques cas de transformation des etamines en 
carpelles." Ball, de la Soc. Botaniqtie de. France, t. 8, p. 453 (1801). 

I Allman, Prof. G. J., " On the Morphology of the Fruit in the Cruciferae, 
as illustrated by a monstrosity in the Wallflower." Report Brit. AiSociation, 
July, 1851 (Ipswich) Trans., p. 70 (18.V2). 

§ Brongniart. A.. I.e. ante. ]| Masters, M. T.. I.e. ante. 



THE ROGUE WALLFLOWER 



267 



ccerukum. Masters '■■ quotes Goeppei't as saying that the 
peculiarity in P. somniferum was reproduced by seed for two years 
in succession, but whether the seed was produced by the central 
or the supplementary carpels he does not say, while Brongniart \ 
obtained fertile seed of P. coarulenm from both central and supple- 






The " Rogue " Wallflower, with details of variation in the Flower Structure. 

mentary carpels. He does not record the result of sowing this 
seed, however. 

No one seems to have tried to obtain seed from the lateral 



* Masters, M. T., I.e. ante. 



t I.e. ante. 



268 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

carpels of the rogue wallflower until Professor G. Henslow, in 
1910 or 1911, pollinated flowers of a rogue which occurred in his 
garden at Leamington. '■ Some of the flowers he pollinated from 
a red, others from a yellow variety. Both central and supple- 
mentary carpels set seed, the former much more than the latter. 
This seed was sown at Wisley and grown on to flower, the plants 
produced being all alike, except in colour, and all normal. None 
showed variation in number or form of petals, stamens, or carpels, 
but both red and yellow flowers were produced, some of the 
former with streaks of yellow. The normal type was thus clearly 
completely dominant to the rogue. We do not know to which 
colour type the original rogue belonged. 

Seed was saved from these plants interpollinated and sown as 
soon as ripe. Some of the resulting plants flowered in 1913 and 
showed that the seed had given rise to two types, the normal and 
the rogue, but as many had not arrived at flowering size they were 
all grown on to flower in 1914. A few plants died from one cause 
or another, but 143 flowered, and of these 101 were of the normal 
type (both red and yellow) and 42 of the rogue type (both red and 
yellow). On the assumption that we have to deal with a simple 
3 to 1 Mendelian segregation, the expectation would be 107 
normals and 36 rogues, and the numbers obtained are sufficiently 
near to the expectation to suggest that simple segregation is 
taking place. 

The case is a particularly interesting one, for the differences 
between the two forms are marked and complex, and the fact that 
the dominance is complete is in itself very interesting. As we 
have said, the change from maleness to femaleness is a rare one, 
but the results of the experiment seem to show that in CheirantMis 
femaleness is recessive to maleness. 

The persistence of this rogue type in small numbers, even 
though now great care be exercised in eliminating them from 
plants growing for seed, may be readily understood, if we assume 
the rogue on its first occurrence produced seed.f The seeds 
produced by it must have been hybrids, since the rogue itself 
produces no pollen, but they would doubtless have been sown 
among others from perfectly normal plants, and the culture 
would consist of many true normals, and a few hybrids, apparently 
normal, and quite indistinguishable from the normals in structure. 
The normals would far outnumber the hybrids, and the chances 
of interpoUination among the latter would be correspondingly 
small, with the result that, while hybrids would be produced with 
each succeedmg generation, rogues — the pure recessives — would 
rarely appear. 

We may show this graphically by the following diagrams, 
where N stands for the dominant normal, r for the recessive rogue. 

Crossing the rogue with the normal (which can be done only 
one way) we have : 

* Journal R.H.S. xxxviii. p. xxxix. (1912). 

t Roguea allowed to grow among plants produce a few seeds without 
artificial pollination. 



THE ROGUE WALLFLOWER 269 

N (? X r ? 

Ni- j, 
(hybrid) F, 

Seed may be produced by the Nr plants either by intercrossing 
among themselves or by crossing from the normals, and the results 
will be different in these two cases : 

1. Where the hybrids intercross : 

Nr X Nr 



NNf Nr| Nrf rr $ 

(normal) (hybrid) (rogue) 

and rogues will reappear in the proportion of one to three, two of 
which are hybrids. 

2. Where the hybrids cross with the normal (the most likely 
thing to happen) : 

NN <? X Nr { 



NN f Nr f 

(normal) (hybrid) 

normals and hybrids being produced in equal proportions. Besides 
these there are numerous normals breeding true, so that the 
proportion of hybrids to normals will diminish in succeeding 
generations. They could be eliminated by breeding from indivi- 
duals, but as this is not done the hybrid type persists and there is 
always the possibility (although a remote one) of a rogue being 
thrown off, even without the possible occasional variation that is 
usually supposed to account for the production of these monstrous 
forms, and quite apart from the physical environment of the 
plants grown for seed. 



AZOLLA CAROLINIANA Willd. 

By W. H. Burrell, F.L.S. 

There is good evidence to show that Azolla filiculoides Lam. 
has established itself in the Thames Valley and elsewhere, but it 
is desirable that botanists should understand the obscure status 
of A. caroUniana Willd. in the list of British plants. The value 
of the only vegetative character by which it was supposed the 
two species could be distinguished when barren has been ques- 
tioned — " The character of the hairs of the leaves does not seem 
to be decisive " (Bot. Ex. Club Eep. for 1913, p. 31G) and we 
have now the statement that no fruiting material has been found 
in the British Isles (Marsh, Journ. Bot. 1914, p. 212). There 



270 THK .TOURNATi OF P.OTANY 

seems to be no valid reason why the British and Irish plants 
should not be reduced to one species, A. filiculoidcs. 

The problem arose in 1912 when Ostenfeld diagnosed the 
Norfolk plant, and his opinion had to be harmonized with the 
generally accepted belief, based on high authority, that the plant 
at Woodbastwick was A. caroliniana. The easy and natural 
solution of the difficulty was to assume that two species were 
present, which seemed not improbable, because the material 
grouped itself into two well-defined types : one distinguished by 
its pale green leaves with hyaline border, standing at a wide angle 
with the stem, the fronds riding high and very buoyantly on the 
water ; the other having its dull olive-green leaves edged with 
red, closely imbricated, the fronds being smaller and more closely 
appressed to the water. An attempt to make the smaller plant 
A. caroliniana failed ; it was always barren, and, after a prolonged 
study, the opinion was formed that it was an immature state 
which eventually passed to the adult fruiting state of A.filiculoidas, 
the altered angle of the leaf-lobes and the increased buoyancy of 
the fronds being due to inflation of air cavities in the basal 
tissues. Direct evidence is not available to show {a) that these 
small immature plants develop the fruit of A. filiculoides in due 
course ; (b) at what stage in development the marked inflation of 
the air cavities takes place. In culture tanks the plant deteriorates, 
and observation of isolated fronds in statu natures, has failed, 
owing to fluctuation of water-level at Woodbastwick from tidal 
causes. No attempt has been made to grow it on uninfected 
waters, for sentimental reasons. While it is desirable that these 
two details should be cleared up, it may be stated in support of 
the relationship of the two forms that (a) they usually occur 
together in Norfolk, and have been received mixed from other 
stations. A vast quantity of the immature state was noted in 
Ean worth and Walsham Broads in October, 1913. The distri- 
bution of Azolla in the Bure Valley by flood took place in August, 
1912, just at the period when fruit was approaching maturity. 
Eeproduction ])y spores was to be expected, and would account 
for the large proportion of immature material present at the later 
date. (6) The smaller plant has repeatedly been diagnosed as 
A. caroliniana, but whenever fruit has subsequently been produced, 
it has proved to be that of A. filiculoides, and there seems to be 
no clear reason for assuming that two species are involved. 

In considering possible causes for the existing confusion, 
Campbell's history of the plant in America seemed to offer a 
useful clue: — "^4. filiculoides is confined to the western part of 
America, being reported from Chile to California at least and 
probably beyond. Until very recently American botanists con- 
founded this species with A. caroliniana of Eastern America, and 
in the Botany of California only that species is mentioned. I 
have examined material from various parts of California, and in 
all cases the plants were undoubted specimens of A. filiculoides " 
(Ann. Bot. vii. 155). 

The introduction of material incorrectly named, and its distri- 



A NF.W HVnKll') Ol'UHVS 271 

bution by nurserymen and others, might account for the spread of 
an error which originated in America, but in view of the clear 
summary of diagnostic characters by Strasburger in his mono- 
graph, accessible in the more important botanical libraries, the 
persistence of the error is difficult to explain. 



A NEW HYBRID OPHRYS. 
By Colonel M. J. Godfeey. 

Ophrys olbiensis Godfery, hybr. nov. 0. arachnitiformis 
Gren. & Phil, x 0. Bcrtolonii Moretti. Tuber .... foliis infe- 

rioribus folio summo caulem vaginante acuto, spica laxa 

floribus pluribus distantibus, bracteis ovarium multo excedentibus 
acutis, sepalis lineari-oblongis obtusis refiexis, petalis sepala semi- 
aequantibus glabris, labello sepalis breviore ovato trilobo emargi- 
nato apice appendice parvula basique mammillis 2 prominentibus 
externe dense velutinis instructo saturate purpureo-brunneo maculo 
scutiformi utrinque emarginato notato. 

Tubers not seen, doubtless ovoid or sub-globose like those of 
the parents. Lower leaves not seen. Upper leaf sheathing acute. 
Stem erect (20 cm.). Spike lax, with several distant flowers 
(eight in the specimen found). Bracts sheathing much longer than 
ovary, acute, green. Outer divisions of perianth linear oblong 
obtuse, reflexed, longer than labellum, pink with green median 
nerve. Inner divisions half as long as the outer ones, non-ciliate, 
brownish pink, border undulate, Ijrownish. Labellum trilobed, 
rather small, ovate with two prominent mammte at base (which 
are densely furry on the outer side), dark purplish brown, with a 
glabrous iridescent shield-shaped spot emarginate both above and 
below, a little nearer the apex than the base. Apex of labellum 
emarginate, with a rudimentary appendix. 

This hybrid has the habit of 0. arachnitiformis. The un- 
usually long outer segments of the perianth, and their marked 
reflexion, are very striking. The labellum is like that of arach- 
nitiformis, with the shield of Bertolonii, but no other markings. 
Found at Hy6res, April 5th, 1914. 



WATSON EXCHANGE CLUB REPORT, 1912-1913. 

From the note of the Distributor for the year, Mr. W. Barclay, 
which stands first in this Report, it is gratifying to learn that 
both in quantity and in quality the specimens sent in have been 
above the average. We note, too, with interest the energy dis- 
played by those whose names are comparatively recent additions 
to our workers : Mr. W. C. Barton, for example, has sent in 
nearly 700 sheets, " the largest number that has ever been con- 
tributed at one time by any member." The Club is fortunate in 
having as its referees those who have long since taken rank 



272 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

among the leaders in British hotany — the Eevs. E. F. Linton, 

E. S. Marshall, W. Moyle Rogers, and Mr. C. E. Salmon ; and it 
is satisfactory to note that the Report is confined to matters 
which definitely come within its scope, with a commendable 
absence, save in one or two cases, of " casuals." 

Intended, as it is, primarily for members of the Club, and 
confined to notes upon specimens sent by or to them, the Report 
does not lend itself largely to citation, and it seems to us that its 
domestic character is more marked than it has been in other 
years. We cannot but feel, also, that in some cases the conflict- 
ing opinions of recognized authorities are calculated to puzzle 
rather than to help the worker. Take for example the plant 
named by the collector Glyceria distans Wahl. var. 'pidvinata 
Fries. Mr. Bennett accepts this identification ; Mr. Marshall 
says it " cannot be this variety " ; Prof. Hackel agrees, and 
suggests Atropis convoluia, but " hesitates to give a definite 
opinion"; Dr. Stapf "has no doubt it is Atropis viaritima " ; 
Dr. Rendle has examined it and " would suggest that it is neither 
convoluta nor maritima," and adds that " Dr. Lang should send 
more satisfactory specimens." In this case there is no question 
of a mixture of specimens, as the editor, Mr. Goode, tells us that 
the notes, with the exception of Mr. Marshall's, " have been sent 
after an examination of the same specimens." Again, of a plant 
entered under Spergularia salina var. neglecta, it is suggested 
that " the gathering was a mixed one," would it not then have 
been better to suppress the contradictory notes ? Here is another 
example of the same kind : 

" Hieracmm macnlatiim Sm. Lindfield, E. Sussex, May 29, 
1912. — R. S. Standen. I have not seen Smith's type of H. 
maculatum ; but my collection contains at least two plants under 
that name which can hardly be conspecific. The Rev. Augustin 
Ley was surely right in referring this Lindfield hawkweed to 
H. Sommerfeltii Lindeb. var. splendens F. J. Hanb. [H. Griffithii 

F. J. Hanb. prius) ; I have again carefully compared them, and 
find the resemblance, especially to cultivated var. splendens, 
exceedingly close. The only H. ' maculaUim ' of mine which 
Mr. Standen's plant approaches is that from old walls at 
Chichester, which is more pilose-headed than the rest, but far 
less shaggy-headed than these and other specimens from Lind- 
field. The occurrence of any Sommerfeltii-iovm., so far south, 
is a geographical puzzle. — E. S. M. It has long appeared to me 
that we have two forms placed under this name ; one form with 
longer hairs clothing the involucre and coarser ciliation of the 
leaves than the other. I am not prepared to say which is Smith's 
plant. The Lindfield plant seems to agree with specimens from 
Chichester walls, gathered by the late Rev. F. H. Arnold, and 
said by him to be from the station where Smith got the original 
specimens. I have not as yet seen these. It is not H. Sommer- 
feltii, nor var. splendens F. J. Hanb. — E. F. L." 

For the other notes on Hawkweeds, as for those on such 
critical genera as Viola, Bubus, Rosa, Euphrasia, Mentha, and 



WATSON EXCHANGE CLUB REPORT 273 

the like, reference must be made to the Eeport, from which we 
proceed to make a few extracts. 

" Sisymbrium altissimumlj. { = S. jMuiionicum J ncq.). A few 
specimens are sent to record the great extension of area now 
occupied by this species at St. Anno's-on-the-Sea, W. Lanes., 
v.c. 60, July 15 and 19, 1912. When I first found this plant 
at St. Anne's, ten years ago, it occurred on both sides of the 
bridge over the railway in St. Thomas's Road, but it has now 
spread over the district between Blackpool and Lytham. — 
Charles Bailey." 

" Viola ' canina L. ' var. crassifoUa (Gronv.) x stagnina. 
Woodwalton Fen, v.c. 29, Hunts., June 5, 1912. Named as 
above by Mrs. Gregory, on the spot. A very beautiful violet, 
when growing ; it showed clear traces of the parents, among 
which it occurs, and formed large masses of flowering-stems, 
visible from a considerable distance. — E. S. Marshall." 

" Sagina nivalis Fr. Ben Lawers (at 3000 ft.), Mid Perthsh., 
v.c. 88, July, 1912. This is not a rare plant on the Breadalbane 
Range, but it seems to be dying out on Ben Lawers. I do not 
see it in the Eastern Ravine at all now. In the well-known 
station on the Western Ravine the plants are only about ^-1 in. 
in diameter. I do not know any botanist (or collector) who 
knows the station these are taken from, though some of them are 
evidently very old plants. — P. Ewing." 

" Er odium cicutarium L'Herit. var. glandulosum Bosch. 
(1) On sand among bracken, Lihou Island, Guernsey. An extra- 
ordinary plant, pointed out to me by Mr. Marquand ; straggling 
over sand under bracken, especially at the mouth of rabbit 
burrows. The branches were as much as 3 ft. long, with flowers 
and green foliage only towards the tip. — W. C. Barton. (2) 
Sandy Coast, Grand Havre, Guernsey, August 21, 1912. In 
plenty on the sandy coast, this small-flowered form was growing 
only in rosettes up to 12 in. diameter. I saw no plants develop- 
ing long straggling branches as on Lihou Island and on Headon 
Hill. — W. C. Barton. This is our usual small form of barren 
sandy ground (heaths, &c.), which I suppose to come under type 
{ — a vulgatum Syme). The species is, as a rule, more or less 
glandular.— E. S. M." 

" E. moschatum L'H6rit., var. (Ref. No. 38). Sandy coast, 
Grand Havre, Guernsey, August 21, 1912. I have not seen an 
authentic specimen of var. minor Rouy & Foucaud, but my 
No. 38 agrees well with their description, and seems probable 
from the habitat. I quote from Rouy & Foucaud: 'var. /i minor, 
Nob. Plante de 8-12 cm. tr6s reduite dans toutes ses parties ; 
feuilles a segments petits (3- 4 fois plus petits que dans le type), 
ordinairement profondement incises ou subpinnatifides ; p6don- 
cules 2-4 flores, plus courts que la feuille ; bee du fruit bien plus 
grele, mais de meme longueur. Ca et la dans les pelouses 
maritimes rases.' The variety or form is frequent along the 
sandy coast from Grand Havre to Ler^e. Mr. Marquand told me 
that, so far as he knew, it had been passed over as a dwarf form 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [October, 1914.] x 



274 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

of Erodium cicjctariuvi, of which also I send specimens (my 
No. 36). In the British Museum there is a similar plant 
collected by Mr. Marshall (No. 2924, April 1, 1905, on limestone 
rocks, Purn Hill, Bleadon), on which he remarks, 'very glandular, 
not musk scented, stamens (apparently) not bidentate at base.' — 
W. C. Barton. From the broad stipules and other charactei's, 
this seems to be referable to E. moscliatitvi, though the two 
specimens before me are rather far advanced. If so, it is 
extreme fj minor Rouy. — E. S. M." 

" Erifjeron mucronaius DC. Old walls, St. Peter Port, 
Guernsey, August 4, 1912. A Mexican plant, established in 
Guernsey over forty years. — W. C. Barton." 

"■Pyrola rotundifoUa L., form intermediate between type and 
var. arenaria. Grande Mare, Guernsey, August 16, 1912. (See 
Marquand's Flora of Guernsey and Journ. Bot. 1893 [334, 373] .) 
It is unfortunate that the habitat of this plant is being rapidly 
reduced. Only a very small area of La Grande Mare is still 
undrained ; the large pools have disappeared, and a few years will 
probably see the extinction of the marsh plants of the locality. — 
W. C. Barton. The plant received differs from all those in my 
herbarium by its smaller orbicular foliage and more numerous 
flowers (twelve, besides what looks like a rudimentary one at the 
apex) ; the fruit is also appreciably smaller. Of P. serotina Mieg. 
I have seen neither specimens nor description ; Nyman makes 
P. rotundifoUa var. arenaria Koch a synonym, and gives N.W. 
France as one of its habitats, which brings it rather near to 
Guernsey. There is still one blossom with the petals unshed, 
though it was collected on August 16 ; by which time typical 
rotundifoUa would be long over in the south of England. I fail 
to see how this Guernsey specimen is intermediate between that 
and the W. Lancashire var. maritima, which tends to be rather 
dwarf ; there are only two bracts (not very large or conspicuous) 
below the inflorescence. — E. S. M." 

" AnagaUis arvensis L. var. carnea (Schrank). Albecq, 
Guernsey, August 16, 1912. The variety is frequent in Guernsey, 
especially near the sea, growing with the type. I saw no blue- 
flowered specimen in the island, and am convinced this is not a 
hybrid, as suggested by Continental botanists and by Dr. Williams's 
Prodronius, p. 431, but a colour form (see Journ. Bot. 1911, p. 44). — - 
W. C. Barton. Correct; the petals are distinctly glandular- 
ciliate.— E. S. M." 

" X Sym])kytuni densifloruvi Bucknall (= S. officinale, var. 
imrpuretim x <; S. peregrinum). Bank of the Land Yeo, near 
Gatcombe Mill, N. Somerset, v.c. 6, June, 1912 (see Journ. Bot. 
1912, p. 334). Specimens passed by Mr. Bucknall. — Jas. W. 
White." 

" X Symphytum discolor Bucknall (= S. officinale, var. 
ocliroleucum x < S. peregrinum). By the Land Yeo stream, 
near Gatcombe Mill, N. Somerset, v.c. 6, June, 1912 (see Journ. 
Bot. 1912, p. 333). Specimens passed by Mr. Bucknall. — 
Jas. W. White." 



M'ATSON EXCHANGE CLUB EEPORT 275 

" S. peregrinum Ledeb. {fide C. Bucknall). By cart track 
between Manor Farm and King's Hedges Koad, Chesterton, 
Cambs., v.c. 27, June 7, 1912. — G. Goode. S. 'peregrinum Ledeb., 
when growing on the banks of streams, is a tail, kixuriant plant, 
with iiowers rose-coloured in bud, then bright blue, the stem 
without wings, and l^earing abundant fruit. When growing in 
dry localities, the iiowers remain rose-coloured or are only 
partially blue, and the entire plant is not so well developed as 
when growing in moister situations." 

" This species forms a series of hybrids with the white and 
purple-flowered varieties of S. officinale, which have been described 
by the writer in the Journal of Botany, vol. 1. p. 332 (1912). 
These are distinguished by the more or less winged stem, by the 
colour of the flowers, which are white, rose-coloured, bluish or 
purple, always changing to a cinereous blue in the dried plant, 
and by the fruit being sparingly produced. 

" Typical S. pcregrinmn, as well as some of its hybrids, has 
often been named S. patens Sibth., but the latter is probably only 
S. officinale y&v. j^urjjureuni with undeveloped fruit, and the calyx- 
lobes, in consequence, spreading after the flowering instead of 
being connivent over the nutlets, as is the case when they are well 
developed. S. peregrinum has also been confused with S. asperum 
Lepech. (<S'. asperrimuvi Donn and M.B.), which, in Britain, is a 
much rarer plant. It is distinguished by the small calyx with 
obtuse segments, the calyx in S. peregrinum being generally con- 
siderably larger, with acute lanceolate segments. With regard to 
the clothing of hairs and prickles, and in other characters, both 
species are variable, and they are often difficult to separate except 
by the above-mentioned characters of the calyx ; and when, owing 
to conditions of climate or situation, the flowers are imperfectly 
developed, even these characters are liable to be deceptive. It is 
probable that intermediates, and possibly hybrids, occur, and that 
they are sometimes the cause of the difficulty in the accurate 
determination of these plants. 

" Ledebour, in the Flora Bossica, has well distinguished the 
two species, and complete descriptions, with remarks on the forms 
which occur both in the wild and naturalised state, will be found in 
the writer's 'Revision of the Genus Symphytum' in the Journal of 
the Linnean Society (Botany) xli. Dec. 1913. — Cedbic Bucknall." 

" Veronica hyhrida L. Riverside rock, under Leigh Woods, 
Bristol, N. Somerset, v.-c. 6, July 6, 1912. New county record. 
It is only this past summer that a few plants have become 
established on the Somerset side of the Avon. — Ida M. Roper. " 

" Ghenopodium leptopliyllum Nutt. {fide G. C. Druce). Waste 
heap of London rubbish north of Welwyn Tunnel, Herts., v.-c. 20; 
Sept., Oct. and Nov. 1912. Habit very different from G. album, 
and possibly a distinct species. — J. E. Little. This is Clicno- 
podimn album var. leptophyllum Moquin in DC. Prodr. xiii. part ii. 
71 (1849), naturalised or adventitious in Europe from North 
America. The name ' G. leptophyllum Nuttall,' often seen in 
systematic works, is merely a name cited in synonymy by 



276 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Moquin. Citation ' C. album var. leptophyllum Nuttall ' is also 
incorrect. The plant is verj; closely allied to the European forms 
of C. album, and is no species. — C. E. Moss." 

" Agrostis verticillata Vill. Roadsides and quarries on diorites 
or syenites, near Vale Castle, Guernsey, August 14, 1912. Confined, 
so far as my experience goes, to the quarries of ' granite,' or the 
edges and drains of roads made with ' granite,' small particles of 
which are held tenaciously by the roots. I have a few specimens 
stoloniferous. — W. C. Barton." 



SHORT NOTES. 

Linaria arenaria DC. in N. Devon. — Whilst botanizing on 
Braunton Burrows on Monday, August 17th, I found a plant that 
was quite new to me, and which I subsequently identified as 
Linaria arenaria DC. I thought at the time that I had found a 
plant that was also new to Britain, but on taking it to the 
British Museum, I was shown specimens that had been collected 
at Westward Ho ! a few years previously. My attention was also 
drawn to notes in this Journal for 1907, pp. 411, 451, the first of 
which speaks of the discovery of the plant at Westward Ho !, and 
the second states that the seed of the plant had been introduced 
there from Brittany. The Eev. E. S. Marshall has since informed 
me that a lady sent him specimens of the plant, which he believes 
came from the same spot in which I found it, namely, at the 
Saunton End of Braunton Burrows. The spot where I found the 
plant was a considerable distance from the sea, from which it is 
separated by a very wide beach and also plain sand dunes. This 
is a plant that does not appear to grow on the plain sand dune, 
but in sandy turf associated with such plants as Viola Curtisii. 
It had the appearance of being native, and there certainly could 
have been no question of its having been brought to the spot in 
ballast. Moreover, the seed being small and heavy, they could 
not have been blown there from Westward Ho! Saunton End is 
some eight or nine miles from Westward Ho !, and Braunton 
Burrows extend for some six miles to the west of Saunton End, 
and are separated from Westward Ho! by the wide estuary of the 
River Taw. As the plant occurs on the sandy coasts of Normandy 
and Brittany, there would appear to be no valid reason why it 
should not be native on the sandy coasts of Devon. It was 
plentiful in suitable ground, but did not appear to occur at all on 
the sand dunes which, with the river, intercept it from Westward 
Ho ! The object of this note is not to express an opinion, but to 
state the facts as I observed them. The history of this plant in 
Britain exemplifies the folly and mischief of sowing seeds in this 
country of obscure foreign plants, which might reasonably be 
expected to be truly native. Of course it is possible that whoever 
sowed the seed at Westward Ho! also sowed it at Saunton, though 
this seems scarcely probable. Perhaps Mr. Wainwright, who 
wrote the note on its being sown at Westward Ho !, can throw 
some light on the subject. — Frederick J. Hanbury. 



SHORT NOTES 277 

Eanunculus ophioglossifolius Vill. — Specimens have lately 
been received by the Department of Botany of this interesting 
and almost extinct British species, collected by Mr. Ronald Good 
in a very wet and marshy meadow near Dorchester. As is well 
known, it was once a native of St. Peter's Margh, Jersey ; Mr. 
Arthur Bennett has a specimen dated 1872, but Dr. J. C. Melvill 
failed to find it in 1876. It was found by Mr. J. Groves in 1882 
in a wet ditch west of Hythe, Hampshire ; it was recorded for 
E. Gloucester in 1890 by Mr. F. J. Hanbury (Journ. Bot. 1890, 
282), and was found in 1912 near Badgeworth, in that county, 
by Mr. A. S. Montgomrey, a specimen from whom is in Herb. 
Mus. Brit., in 1912. The distinguishing characteristics are the 
very small, pale yellow flowers, the long-petioled, cordiform lower 
leaves, and the small achenes with a very short style, tubercled 
on the sides, with a few stiff hairs. — B. G. Baker. 

Seligeria PAuciFOLiA IN NoRTH Hants. — On July 30th I 
met with this rare little moss on detached pieces of chalk in a 
densely shaded lane near the secluded village of Combe, North 
Hants, at the foot of the chalk downs near the Berkshire border. 
This species is well known in Sussex, Surrey, and Kent, but there 
is only one previous record for Hants (v.-c. 11), and I have no 
note of the exact locality. It seems to be almost always found 
on detached fragments of chalk, although the original specimens 
from Wetherby, Yorkshire, on which Dickson founded the species 
under the name of Bryum yancifoUum in the fourth fasciculus of 
his Cryptogamia, occurred on fragments of bricks in rubbish- 
heaps. — k. Bruce Jackson. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos in Somerset. — I have received fresh 
specimens of this plant and of Empetruvi nigrum from Miss 
Helen Saunders, of South Molton : they were gathered last 
month on Exmoor, a few yards from the Devon boundary. The 
former is new to Somerset, the latter very rare in the county. — 
James Britten. 

A Correction. — In the article on " Alpine Vegetation on 
Ben-y-Gloe " (pp. 227-235) the quotations from Types of British 
Vegetation were erroneously attributed to Dr. C. E. Moss. 
Therefore on pages 228, 229, 233 and 235 for "Moss" read Smith; 
chapter 13 (pp. 288-329) in the work quoted, on Arctic-Alpine 
Vegetation, is by Dr. W. G. Smith. 



REVIEWS. 

Materiaux pour la Flore Cnjtogamique Suisse. Vol. iv. fasc. 2. 
Monographies d'Algues en Culture Pure. Par R. Chodat. 
Berne, 1913. 

This volume, as indicated by its title, contains an extended 
account of such Green AlgtB (mostly of the Protococcales) as 
Professor Chodat has been able to obtain in pure cultures. After 
a preliminary statement on the value of specific characters, the 



278 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

•author gives a lengthy account of cultures in the genera Scene- 
de.wius, Clilorella, Pabnellococcus, and a few others. Chodat's 
present ideas of specific distinctions are somewliat quaint, and are 
in striking contrast to those which he expressed in 1902. In his 
account of cultural experiments in the genus Sceneclesmus, he 
describes numerous new "species," which appear to be based upon 
physiological rather than morphological characters and would more 
correctly be regarded as biologic forms. His inclusion of Tetradesmus 
toisconsincnsis Smith within the genus Scencdesmiis is inconsistent 
with the separation advocated for other genera, and Smith's care- 
ful cultural work indicates that Tetradesmns possesses a morpho- 
logical character of such importance as to warrant its generic rank. 

Coccomijxa snhelUpsoidea Acton is stated to be a species of 
CJdamydomonas, notwithstanding the fact that this Alga has no 
motile state except in special cultures, and that it lives exclusively 
on damp rocks and stones, having entered into the thallus of that 
most primitive of all Lichens, Botrydina vulgaris. 

Chodat still attaches great importance to the presence or 
absence of pyrenoids in the chloroplasts of the lower Green Algae, 
although there is abundant evidence that pyrenoids may appear 
de novo in many algal chloroplasts and disappear in others. It is 
upon the sole basis of the presence of a pyrenoid that he upholds 
the distinction between Honnidium nud Stichococais, and between 
CJdoreUa and PahneUococcus. The incongruity of this may be 
realized when it is remembered that in some species of Ulothnx, 
such as U. cequalis and U. subtilis, pyrenoids are habitually absent. 
Moreover, Chodat has himself described species of the genus 
Ankistrodesmus { = iniai)liidinm) botli with and without pyrenoids, 
at the same time recognizing that they belong only to one 
genus. 

A new genus, Monodits, is described, which appears to be very 
closely allied to Cldorella; and a second one, Coccobotnjs, is esta- 
blished for the algal cells obtained in cultures from certain species 
of Vcrrucaria. Coccohotrys is placed alongside Botryococcus and 
relegated to the Pha^ophyceae ! In the Lichens Solorina crocca 
and S. saccata he finds a Coccomyxa — C. Solorina. 

Chodat again puts forward, with certain sliglit alterations, the 
same system of classification as that in his work Etude critique 
et exfcrimentale sur le j^olyinorijJiisme des AJyues (Geneve, 1909). 
This system was reviewed in this Journal for 1910, p. 294, and tlie 
criticisms then made require no further modification. 

The work is illustrated by two liundred and one text-figures and 
by nine coloured plates of cultures on solid media. f . q w - • 

Catalogue of the JSIesozoic Plants in the British Museum {Nat. Hist.). 
The Cretaceous Flora. Parti. ByM.C.STOPES. Pp.281 + xxiii. 
Plates I. and II. Trustees of Britisli Museum. Price 12s. 
The plant remains of the Cretaceous period possess special 
interest, owing to the fact that during this epoch the Angiosperms 
became for the first time an important constituent in the vegeta- 
tion of the earth. Although the Angiospermic remains from pre- 



CATALOGUE OF MESOZOIC PLANTS 279 

Cretaceous times are very scanty and not yet properly investigated, 
we find that some of the Cretaceous beds, especially in Portugal, 
North xVmerica, Greenland and Moravia, are full of dicotyledonous 
leaf-impressions, many of them resembling leaves of modern 
genera. It is thus of the greatest importance that the Cretaceous 
flora should be critically examined and catalogued. The British 
Museum, too, possesses at South Kensington vast stores of 
beautiful fossil plants of Cretaceous and Tertiary Ages, which 
have never been properly studied and described, and it is very 
satisfactory that a commencement of this work has been made. 
The difficulties of the task are appalling, and the author of the 
present work found that no progress could be made until a list of 
the material had been compiled. This list occupies a large part 
of the volume. The references to papers on Cretaceous plants 
published before 1910 occupy forty-seven pages, and the list of 
species described extends to another hundred and eighty-seven 
closely printed pages. 

The more descriptive part of tlie book deals with the Alga? and 
Fungi. The families Codiace®, Dasyscladacete and Corallinacese 
are represented by forms which were fairly well preserved by 
their calcareous incrustation, and show clearly their vegetative 
structure, though naturally their reproductive organs are scarcely 
ever preserved. The genus Lithothamnium appears to be repre- 
sented by a number of species whose external form and internal 
structure certainly resemble that of the recent genus, though the 
absence of reproductive structures renders the use of this generic 
name a little speculative. The much-discussed forms called 
Chondrites are doubtfully placed in the order Phgeophycese. 
Much controversy has arisen as to whether the impressions of 
this type are really to be regarded as plant remains or merely as 
artifacts mechanically produced. The author has come to the 
conclusion "that the genus 'Chondrites' does contain ' species ' 
which are truly the remains of Algae, though many of those de- 
scribed for the genus are probably of purely physical phenomena," 
and that in any case it is useful to retain this genus for the 
present. 

The Cretaceous fungi are not of special interest, because their 
remains are so scanty, though petrified wood, &c., sometimes 
contains well-preserved examples of parasitic forms. The form 
called Pleosporites Shiraimis seems to be a w^ell-marked Pyreno- 
mycete infecting the leaves of Cryptomeriopsis, and some other 
imperfectly known forms are placed among the Pyrenomycetes. 
Some leaf impressions have the appearance of infection with a 
fungus of the Bhytisma type, but a great deal of uncertainty 
attaches to these specimens. One or two forms infecting wood 
have been referred to the Basidiomycetes, but their identification 
with this group is somewhat speculative. We shall await the 
appearance of the second volume of this work with much interest, 
hoping that the author will make clear how much reliance we are 
to place on the identification of Cretaceous dicotyledons with 
modern genera. H H T 



280 THE JOURNAL OF 150TANY 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, etc. 

In July, 1889, we gave in these pages (Journ. Bot. 1889, 
193-198) some account of H. G. Eeichenbach, whose deatli 
had occurred on the preceding 6th of May, in the course of which 
we quoted from his will the passage in which, while bequeathing 
his herbarium and library to the Imperial Hof Museum at 
Vienna, he added the condition that it should not be consulted 
until twenty-five years after his death. That period has now 
elapsed, and on 16th of last May the sealed cases which contained 
the specimens were opened under official inspection. A note by 
Dr. Zahlbriickner, Keeper of the Museum, pul)lished in the OrcJiul 
Bevieio for July, states that the contents were found in excellent 
condition, and that the specimens will probably be available for 
consultation by the end of the year. 

The Kew Bulletin (no. 6) announces the retirement from the 
Kew Herbarium of Mr. N. E. Brown, after forty years' service, 
he having reached the age limit. Mr. W. B. Hemsley pays a 
well-earned tribute to the value of Mr. Brown's work, both 
published and in the Herbarium, which " contains lasting and 
invaluable evidence of his industry with pen and pencil." 

In view of what was reported (p. 24) respecting the herbarium 
of the late Dr. H. Franklin Parsons, it may be well to put on 
record that the whole of his natural history collection (including 
the herbarium) will be accessible to the public at the Grangewood 
Museum, Croydon. The collections contain valuable fossils, and 
a good local herbarium of flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liver- 
worts, lichens, and fungi. 

The recent issue (parts x-xii) of Tlie Essex Naturalist, pub- 
lished in August, contains papers on the " Coast-Flora of the 
Clacton District," by Mr. F. Saxer, and on " Autumn Botany at 
Clacton," by Mr. C, E. Britton ; Miss Lister enumerates the 
Mycetozoa found during the Cryptogamic forays in Epping 
Forest ; and Mr. S. H. Warren gives a list of seeds found 
during the opening of the Eomano-British barrow on Mersea 
Island. 

The part of vol. xxxv. of the Proceedings of the Dorset Natural 
History Society lately issued contains the first portion of " A 
Tentative Account of the Fungi of East Dorset " by the Eev. 
E. F. Linton. The fungi of Dorset have hitherto been almost 
entirely neglected, so that this is a valuable contribution to our 
knowledge of the botany of the county. The present instalment 
extends to forty pages ; the completing portion will appear in 
next year's volume of the Proceedings. 

The most recent (July) part of the botanical Transactions 
of the Linnean Society contains " An Anatomical Study of the 
Palaeozoic Cone-genus Le^ndostrohus," with seven plates, by Dr. 
Agnes Arber. 



281 



ALCHEMILLA ACUTIDENS Buser, 
and other forms op alchemilla vulgaris l. 

By C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. 

In order to give a connected account of the history of 
Alchemilla aciitidcns in Britain it is necessary to recapitulate 
the following details. 

In August, 1911, on the occasion of the first International 
Phytogeographical Excursion, Dr. Ostenfeld noted the presence 
of this species on Ben Lawers, Perthshire, and the discovery was 
reported by Mr. Druce {Neio Phytologist, x. 312 ; Bot. Exch. 
Club Eeport for 1911, p. 18; Journ. Bot. 1912, p. 201). 

In this Journal for 1913 (p. 141) I reported that Dr. Lindberg 
had seen one of the specimens collected by Dr. Ostenfeld on Ben 
Lawers, and pronounced it an autumnal state of A. alpestris, and 
not acutidens. 

In 1913 I had the opportunity, when staying with the Eev. 
E. S. Marshall at Fortingal, of gathering and examining a good 
series of all the Ben Lawers forms. Eoots were brought back 
for growing on in the garden, as it seemed evident that a plant 
growing in several places on the Breadalbanes (not only on Ben 
Lawers) could not be satisfactorily placed under A. alpestris. 

After careful examination and comparison with numerous 
examples from the Continent, I felt sure that our plant from 
Scotland should come under A. acutidens (possibly as a variety), 
and that the original determination of Dr. Ostenfeld was there- 
fore correct. 

I again troubled Dr. Lindberg with a set of specimens from 
Scotland and elsewhere, and included the example collected by 
Dr. Ostenfeld mentioned above, pointing out that my specimens, 
identical with his in every way, could not (collected in early July) 
be called " autumn states" of A. alpestris, and the points wherein 
it differed from that species. 

Whilst it was satisfactory to receive all the examples back 
labelled A. acutidens, it was puzzling to have this change of view 
without any explanation from Dr. Lindberg as to its cause, and 
this I have been unable to obtain. I can only conjecture that 
the reason was the absence from the British examples of _ a 
character emphasized by Dr. Lindberg (Nord. Alchemilla vulgaris- 
formen, 1909, p. 42) as distinctive of A. acutidens—'' folia subtus 
nervis per totam longitudinem + pilosis." Taking this into con- 
sideration and bearing in mind other distinctions, I have come to 
the conclusion that our plant from Scotland might well be dis- 
tinguished as a variety of acutidens with the name alpestriformis, 
as it certainly shows some affinities with A. alpestris. ^ Indeed, 
in Dr. Lindberg's original decision he said " the hairiness and 
teeth point to alpestris," o^ndi Dr. Ostenfeld wrote recently: "I 
am glad to hear that the Ben Lawers plant was A. acutidens . . . 
but I think you are right in pointing out that it is more glabrous 
Journal op Botany. — Vol. 52. [November, 1914.] y 



282 THE .TOURNAL OP BOTANY 

than the Central European form ; it comes near to the Faroese 
and Icelandic one." 

In the original description of A. amitidens Buser in Bull. 
Herb. Boiss. ii. p. 104, 1894, a long and detailed account is given 
from which I translate the following points of distinction from 
allied forms : — 

" Plant medium sized, rather slender and graceful, not tall, 
loith stems dcciimhent, rather yellowish green. Leaves strongly 
undulate, lobes of lower leaves very rounded with a cut between 
them equal to 2-3 of the teeth (recalling the lower leaves of incisa), 
those of the upper leaves parabolic-triangular, acute, toothed all 
round. Teeth numerous, 6-9 on each side, very equal, small or 
medium size, narrow and close, tapering acute, penicillatc, conni- 
vent, very silky and ciliate. Leaves subco7icolorous, clear shining 
green above, ^jaZe beloio, becoming yelloio ivith age and by desicca- 
tion, glabrous, or the upper ones radiated with silky lines in the 
folds above, and silky along the veins and hairy upon the lobe 
next the petiole below. Petioles slender, hairy, often faintly so, 
with long stiff laxly applied hairs or a portion of the petioles 
glabrous. Stems rather numerous (2-5), spread-out in the grass, 
slender, hairy at the base (internodes 1-2) with long stiff, ap- 
pressed or laxly-set hairs, glabrous for the remainder. Stem leaves 
(lower) cut as far as a third with lobes semi-obovate and with 
conuivent toothing ; the upper cut as far as a half, with lobes 
separated and with porrect toothing. Lower pedicels long and 
divergent, upper quickly diminishing and closer. Flowers rather 
large, dark yellowish green, glabrous. Urceoles when young 
broad-obconic, a little shorter than the sepals, when mature tur- 
binate or turbinate-ovoid, equalling the sepals. Calyx and calicule 
relatively well developed, recalling glabra. Sepals triangular- 
ovate, acute, obliquely erect after flowering and usually conceal- 
ing the moderately exserted styles ; calicule segments half as 
broad and nearly as long (f-1) as the sepals, lanceolate, very 
acute. Pedicels equalling or twice as long as the urceoles. 

" Leaves 2,5-10,5 x 1,8-9 cm. Stems 10-39 cm. Petioles 
2-20 cm. Flowers 3-3,5 mm. long, 3,5-4 broad. Urceoles 
1-1,5 mm. Sepals 1,3-1,5 mm. Pedicels 2,5-1." 

A description is then given of "two allied races " of A. acutidens, 
nQ,med A. cuspideiis Sbud A. flavescens respectively. These will be 
alluded to later. 

I may confess at this point that I have been unable to separate 
satisfactorily all Buser's species and varieties, even with the 
help of the careful descriptions he has given and with authentic 
dried specimens. Others seem to have had the same difficulty — 
Briquet in Burnat, Fl. Alpes-Marit. iii. 149 (1899) calls the plant 
under discussion A. vulgaris L. var. y acutidens, and remarks 
that A. cuspidens Buser and A. flavescens Bus. are, in his opinion, 
mere variations of this variety. Rouy and Camus (Fl. France, 
vi. 451, 1900) go further ; they combine A. acutidens and A. cus- 
pidens under A. connivens Buser (in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1894, 107) 
as a subspecies of A. vulgaris L. Finally, H. Lindberg (Nord. 



ALCHEMILLA ACUTIDENS 



283 



Alchemilla vulgaris-formen, 111, 1909) groups undei' one species 
which he calls " A. aciUidens Buser, Lindb. fil. ampl." the follow- 
ing plants of Buser — A. connivens f3 Wichurae (Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
1894, 110), A. acutidens subsp. oxyodonta and A. Miirhechiana 
{Botaniska Notiser, pp. 141-142, 1906). 

As regards ciisindens and flavescens, Briquet is perhaps cor- 
rect in considering the former scarcely separable from A. acutidens ; 
it is described as having leaf-lobes with divisions less deep but 
more marked and more separate (recalling incisa), and its flowers 
larger {xeoiXlmg firma) than those of acutidens. Busev's fiavesceiis 
may, perhaps, be a distinct form found in Siberia ; it is entirely of 
a dark yellow (when dry), with more abundant hairiness; the 
petioles silky, also the base of stem, which is hairy nearly to the 
top ; the leaves are hairy either all over or in the folds, and the 
toothing smaller but less acute. 

Ascherson & Graebner (Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. vi. 411, 1902) divide 
" A. eu-alpestris " into the following six varieties — I. sinuata 
(Buser) ; II. acutidens (Buser) (with a form b. flavescens Bus.) ; 
III. montana (Schmidt) {= A. connivens Bus.) with a sub-variety 
b. Wichurae {= A. connivens /i Wichurae Buser), IV. versipila 
(Buser); V. typica {= A. alpestris Schmidt) with a b. latiloba 
{A. alpestris f. latiloba Buser); VI. frigens (Buser) {~ A. frigida 
Buser non Wedd.). 

Mention must be made of Buser's A. acwninatidens (Bull. 
Herb. Boiss. xi, 624, 1902) and the following are the chief 
distinctions there given to separate it from A. acutidens : — 



A. acutidens. 

Leaves glabrous above or silky 
along the folds and on the teeth, 
beneath + silky along the edges, on 
the front part of the lobes and on 
those adjacent to the petiole ; teeth 
numerous (6) 7-9 on each side, 
narrower and closer together, very 
equal, with the exterior edge more 
curved, connivent upon the lower 
leaves, strongly ciliate and peni- 
cillate ; terminal tooth almost equal- 
ling the lateral. 

Urceoles turbinate, with the base 
elongated. 

Styles almost double the length 
of the filaments. 

Pedicels (2-5 mm.) equalling 2-2^ 
times the urceoles, upper pedicels 
of the cluster equalling the urceole. 



A. acuminatidens. 
Leaves glabrous above, beneath 
faintly silky upon the front part of 
the edges ; teeth 5-7 on each side, 
unequal, acute, with the exterior 
edge straighter and thus the teeth 
more like a saw and spread out, 
faintly ciliate ; terminal tooth small. 



Urceoles campanulate or tur- 
binate, with the base abrupt. 

Styles not exceeding the fila- 
ments. 

Pedicels equalling Ig-lj times 
the urceoles, the upper ones of the 
cluster one-third shorter than the 
urceole. 



Buser concludes by observing: — "Generally A. acu7ninatidens 
does not attain that degree of slender elegance that distinguishes 
A. acutidens, the plant is more thick-set, the toothing coarser and 
more unequal, the inflorescence more condensed, the flowers more 
contracted and smaller. The amount of hairiness is half that of 

y 3 



284 



THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 





Leaves of A. acutidens var. alpestrifonnis, from Ben Lawers. 



ALCHEMILLA ACUTIDENS 



285 





Leaves of A. alpextrif:, from Clova, Forfar. 



286 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



acutidens and about like that of A. alpestris Schmidt, with which 
acuminatidens has a certain superficial resemblance. The very 
rounded or suborbicular leaves seem to me to meet more rarely, 
and the lobes to be less deep than in acutidens." 

I do not think the characters regarding the length of style or 
pedicel can carry much weight, as undoubted A. acutidens has the 
former shorter, as long as, or longer than, the filaments, whilst 
the pedicels vary greatly in length on the same example. 

I have not been able to see a type specimen of A. acuminatidens, 
but the example representing this species in Dorfler's Herb. Norm, 
4660 — "/. vegeta, 7ombrosa: revidit E. Buser " (where it is called 
a subspecies of aciitidens) seems to me hardly separable from 
A. alpcstris, of which it has the more coarse unequal toothing, 
more robust growth, less hairiness, &c. 

It may be convenient to point out, in tabular form, what seem 
the chief distinctions of A. alpestris, A. acutidens, and its var. 
alpestriformis : — 



A. alpestris. 
Sterns erect, glabrous, 
except for lowest inter- 
node (rarely to second) 
which has + appressed 
hairs in small quantity. 



Leaves with 7-9 ob- 
tusely triangular or 
rounded lobes, which 
are toothed all round ; 
teeth 6-9 on each side, 
+ obtuse, broader than 
long, apical tooth small- 
er (rarely same size) 
and teeth + irregular 
in size on same lobe. 



Leaves practically 
glabrous above ; also 
below except for veins 
which (though some- 
times practically gla- 
brous also) usually have 
+ appressed hairs from 
apex to scarcely halfway 
to petiole, never to base. 

Petioles usually prac- 
tically glabrous, some- 
times laxly -appressed 
hairs are present. 



A. acutidens. 
Stems decumbent, 
densely hairy at base, 
diminishing upwards, 
usually glabrous above 
third internode, hairs 
± appressed. 

Leaves with about 9 
obtuse, rounded or even 
acute lobes, which are 
either toothed all round 
or entire at sinus for 
short distance (see fig. 
1) ; teeth 7-9 on each 
side, acute, longer than 
broad, apical tooth uni- 
form in size (rarely 
smaller), and teeth + 
regular in size on same 
lobe. 

Leaves practically 
glabrous above ; also 
below except for lobes 
next petiole which have 
+ plentiful appressed 
hairs and veins with + 
abundant appressed 
hairs along whole 
length. 

Petioles distinctly 
(usually densely) hairy 
with laxly -appressed 
hairs. 



Leaves practically 
glabrous above ; also 
below, where (rai-ely) 
there are sparing ap- 
pressed hairs on lobes 
next petiole, and veins 
i sparingly hairy with 
appressed hairs from 
apex to halfway to pe- 
tiole (rarely further). 

Petioles not so hairy 
as type (rarely almost 
glabrous), hairs ap- 
pressed or slightly 
spreading. 

Besides these differences, the shape of the flower seems also a 



var. aljiestriformis. 
Stems decumbent, 
less hairy than type, 
often glabrous above 
second internode (rarely 
glabrous above lowest 
internode), hairs + 
appressed. 

Leaves of same shape 
and toothing as in type. 



ALCHEMILLA ACUTIDENS 287 

character ; in acutidens and its variety the sepals are more acute 
and taper more from their base, as compared with those of alpes- 
tris (see figures). Apparently, too, A. acutidens never becomes so 





Flower of A. acutidem var. alpestri/onnis Flower of A. alpestris 

(each enlarged four times). 

coarse and robust as A. alpestris even in the most suitable 
positions, but retains its more graceful habit, with decumbent- 
ascending stems which never attain such a height as those of 
alpestris. The leaves of the latter, too, are not so strongly 
undulate as those of acutidens, but this character is quite lost in 
dried specimens. 

The shape of the lobes of the leaves of acutidens and yar. 
alpestriformts is extraordinarily variable ; Buser in describing 
A. acutidens (and the remark holds good with its variety) says 
(I.e. p. 104) : — " Lobes rather deep .... loith differences of outline 
very pronounced according to age and position." Thus I have seen 
var. alpestriformis with flattened rounded lobes (similar to those 
of A. acutidens figured by Lindberg, op. cit. 1. 17) on Meall Garbh, 
Perthshire, and plants with triangular- acute lobes (similar to those 
figured on t. 16) near Lochan nan Chat, Ben Lawers. 

It must be borne in mind that the descriptions (both as regards 
shape and clothing) of the leaves given above are those taken from 
mature summer examples; the first spring leaves of J.. aZjJcs^m 
are sometimes extremely like those of acutidens, but the later 
summer ones, when mature, are quite distinctive. 

Synonymy and Distribution. 

Alchemilla acutidens Buser in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1894, 104. 
A. vulgaris L. var. y acutidens Briquet in Burnat, Fl. Alpes- 

Marit. iii. 149 (1899). 
A. vulgaris L. subsp. A. connivens Camus in Rouy Fl. Fr. vi. 

451 (1900) ; non Buser. 
A. vulgaris L. II. B. A. alpestris Schmidt. A. eu-alpestris 
A. & G. II. aciLtidens Aschers. & Graeb. Syn. Mittel. Fl. vi. 
412 (1902). 
A. acutidens Buser, ampl. Lindb. fil. Nord. Alchem. vulg.- 

formen, 111 (1909). 
Iceland ! Faroes, Norway ! Sweden ! Finland ! Russia ! Swit- 
zerland ! France, Austria-Hungary, Italy. 
Var. ALPESTRIFORMIS, var. nov. 

A Alchemilla acutidente caulibus petiolisque minus pilosis, 
foliis fere glabris nisi tamen subtus nervibus in dimidio superiore 
pilosis, diftert. 



288 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Scotland. — Fei'thshive: Ben Lawers, 800-1000 m. ! 1911, 
C. H. Ostenfeld. Ben Lui I 1912, W. G. Travis. Meall-nan- 
Tarmachan \ 1914, B. C. Davie. Meall Garbh, 3000 ft., 1913 ! 
Gleann Muilinn, Fortingal, 1800 ft. 1913 ! 

The specimens collected by Mr. McTaggart Cowan at Hope- 
town, Linlithgow ! (Bot. Ex. Club Eeport for 1910, p. 555) and 
referred by Mr. Druce (Journ. Bot. 1912, 201) to A. acutidcns, are 
now named by Dr. Lindberg, A. alpcstris. With this view I 
agree. I have not seen the Welsh specimens collected by Mr. 
Druce (see Journ. Bot. I.e.), so the Carnarvonshire locality is 
omitted for the present." 

Some confusion has been caused among British botanists by 
the plants distributed in 1911 by Mr. Druce as A. vulgaris L. var. 
acutidens from Ben Lawers, through the Exchange Club. Both 
alpestris and acutidens grow upon this mountain, and there is no 
doubt that both were dispersed through the Club, which accounts 
for the diverse views expressed in the Report for 1911, p. 84. 

It may not be out of place here to draw up a short account of 
the remaining British species : — 

Key. 

1 ( Stems and petioles with spreading hairs ... 2 

(Stems and petioles glabrous or with + appressed hairs 3 

n (Pedicels and urceoles hairy . . . .A. minor Huds. 
(Pedicels and urceoles glabrous . A. pratensis Schmidt. 

/ Petioles and stems + glabrous ; leaf-toothing 
irregular and teeth broader than long. Pedi- 
cels and urceoles glabrous . . A. alpestris Schmidt. 
3-( Petioles and stems with + appressed hairs ; leaf- 
toothing + regular and teeth longer than 
broad. Pedicels and urceoles glabrous 
V A. acutidens Bus. var. alpestriformis. 

A. MINOR Huds. Stems densely hairy, with patent hairs from 
base to practically summit, usually scarcely diminishing in quan- 
tity even at apex. Petioles densely hairy with patent hairs. 
Root-leaves sparingly hairy on both sides, more densely on veins. 
Pedicels and urceoles more or less hairy with patent, normally 
plentiful, hairs. 

Reported or I have seen specimens from the following vice- 
counties :— 3, 4, 5 ! 6 ! 7 ! 8 ! 9, 12 ! 14 ! 16, 17 ! 18 ! 20 ! 21 ! 22, 23, 
24, 26 ! 28 ! 30 ! 32 ! 34 ! 35 ! 36 ! 37 ! 38 ! 39 ! 40 ! 41 ! 42, 43, 49 ! 
51! 53! 55! 56! 57 ! 59 ! 60, 61, 62! 63, 64! 65! 66! 69! 72! 73, 
74 ! 77 ! 80 ! 81, 83 ! 84, 85 ! 88 ! 89 ! 90 ! 92 ! 94, 100 ! 105, 106, 
107, 108! 111! 112! 

Var. filicaulis Buser. Whole plant much less hairy, stems 
and pedicels practically glabrous, urceoles sparingly hairy or 
glabrous also. 

* Since these lines were written Mr. Druce has kindly sent me his Nant 
Francon (Carnarvonshire) specimens collected in 1899. I fail to see how these 
can be placed under acutidens. 



ALCHEMILLA ACUTIDENS 289 

Only in Scotland = v.-c. 88 Perth mid. : near Caputh Bridge ! 
1889, F. B. White. Meall Greigh, 1913 ! V.-c. 90 ! v.-c. 97 ; 
v.-c. 111! v.-c. 112! 

The plant from Orkney, v.-c. Ill, in Hb. Kew, collected by 
Dr. Gillies in 1818, is much coarser and taller, but I think must 
be referred to this variety. 

A. PRATENSis Schmidt. Stems densely hairy with patent hairs 
from base to practically summit, usually diminishing in quantity 
tov\'ards the apex. Petioles densely hairy with patent (and rarely 
appressed) hairs. Eoot-leaves glabrous above ; sparingly hairy 
over surface beneath, more densely on veins. Pedicels and 
urceoles glabrous (rarely with a few patent hairs). 

Vice-counties 3 I 4, 5, 16! 17 ! 20 I 23, 24 ! 34 ! 35 ! 38, 39 ! 41 ! 
42 ! 44 ! 47 ! 54, 55, 57 ! 58 ! 59 ! 60 I 62 ! 63 ! 64 ! 65 ! 67 ! 69 ! 70 ! 
72 ! 73 ! 75 ! 76, 77 I 79, 83 ! 84, 87 ! 88 ! 89 ! 90 ! 91 ! 92 ! 94 ! 99, 
100, 106, 109, 111, 112 ! 

A. ALPESTEis Schmidt. Vice-counties 6 ! 14 ! 21, 24 ! 27 ! 39, 
41 ! 43 ! 46 ! 48 ! 49 I 55 ! 57 ! 58, 59 ! 60 ! 62, 64 ! 65 ! 66 ! 67 ! 
69 I 70 ! 72 ! 73 ! 74 ! 77 ! 78, 79, 81 ! 83 ! 84 ! 86 ! 87 ! 88 ! 89 ! 
90 ! 92 ! 94, 95 ! 96 ! 97 ! 98 ! 99 ! 100, 101 ! 103 ! 104, 105, 106, 
107, 108, 109! 110, 111! 

It will be seen that, as far as Great Britain is concerned and 
as far as our present records stand, ^4. minor is the commonest and 
most widely spread form, occurring from Shetland to Devon and 
Suffolk to Carnarvon. A. 'pratensis is almost equally widely dis- 
tributed, with a range from Shetland to Devon and Kent to 
Carmarthen, but seems to be absent from rather more counties 
than minor, particularly in the Ouse and N. Thames provinces. 

A.alpestris, obviously of a more northern type, occurs copiously 
in Scotland and the north of England, and reaches as far south as 
Norfolk, Leicester and Cai'digan, with outlying colonies in Sussex, 
Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Somerset, and Glamorgan. 

For the loan of specimens and help in other ways my thanks 
are due to Professor I. B. Balfour, Dr. C. E. Moss, Dr. H. 
Lindberg, and Messrs. W. G. Travis, W. Barclay, C. Bailey, J. A. 
Wheldon, A. Bennett, J. W. White, G. C. Druce, and the Perth 
Museum authorities ; the photographs of the leaves were kindly 
taken by my sister. 



ALABASTRA DIVERSA.— Part XXV. 

By Spencer Le M. Moore, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

1. Plants Nov^ Papuans, 
adjuvante h. n. ridley, f.r.s.* 

Begoniace^. 
y Begonia sogerensis Ridl., sp. nov. Rhizoma sublignosum. 
Caules herbacei, glabri, 30 cm. alti, tistulosi, ramosi, 5 mm. crassi, 
striolati, ramis hirtulis. Folia obliqua, oblongo-lanceolata, acu- 

* The types of species described are in the National Herbarium. 



290 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

minata, basibus valde inaequilateris, marginibus irregulariter 
dentatis, superne glabra, subtus nervis 5-8 paribus, furcatis, et 
costa birtulis, 12-20 cm. longis, 4-9 cm. latis ; petiolis 1- 
3-5 cm. longis hirtulis. Stipulae lanceolatae acutae 5 mm. longaj. 
Panicula terminalis, ad 9 cm. longa, laxa, glabra, ramis 3 cm. 
longis. Bractege latae, oblongge, obtusae, 3 mm. longae. Flores 
masculi parvi, albi, pedicellis glabris vel hirtulis 3 mm. longis. 
Sepala 2, cordata, obtusa, 6 mm. longa, 7 mm. lata. Petala nulla. 
Antherae sessiles, oblanceolatte, obtusae, baud appendiculatae, cir- 
citer 50. Flos femineus 1-2, in axilla folii summi. Capsula 
oblonga, obovata, basi lato alis tribus aequalibus latis oblongis 
obtusis, 2 cm. longa, 2-5 cm. lata (alis in medio 5 mm. latis), 
pedicello 2 mm. longo. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, at 2500 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 
157, 261, 444. 

Flowers white or greenish white. 

Allied to B. oblong if olia, Stapf, but the leaves have larger and 
more irregular teeth ; the bracts are larger and oblong, sepals 
cordate, fruit larger, and not narrowed to the base. The lower 
part of the stem is almost or quite glabrous, often with small 
elevations where the scanty trichomes have fallen away. 

Aealiace^. 

Scheffiera Forbesii Eidl., sp. nov. Arbor medius, caule 
ad apicem 2 cm. crasso. Folia 9-11-foliolata, petiolis 18 cm. 
longis, petiolulis 2-5-3'5 cm., furfuraceis, pilis pallidis ad basin 
verticillatis, foliolis oblongis, lanceolatis, cuspidatis, obtusis, 
basibus cuneatis, coriaceis, glabris, 13 cm. longis, 4-5 cm. latis 
vel minoribus, marginibus incrassatis, nervis 6 paribus. Stipulae 
lanceolataB, acuminatae, 2-5 cm. longae, pilis magnis ad bases. 
Panicula magna, 24 cm. vel ultra longa, ramis pluribus, remotis 
45 cm. longis. Pedunculi umbellarum 1-1-5 cm. longi. Pedicelli 
5 mm. longi. Ovarium semi-ovoideum, 1 mm. longum. Discus 
rugulosus, undulatus, coriaceus. Petala 5, transverse oblonga, 
truncata, latiora quam longiora, pallida, 1 mm. longa. Stamina 5, 
flava, antheris latis oblongis, filamentis brevissimis antheris 
sequilongis. Bacca 5 mm. longa, oblonga, apice convexa, 5-loba, 
5-locularis, stigmatibus brevissimis. Semen semilunars, basi lato, 
superne acuminatum. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere ; H. 0. Forbes, 297, 651. 

Fruit purplish pink. 

Allied to S. Junghuhnii Miq., but the stamens are much 
shorter and the disc is flatter. 

Schefilera bractescens Eidl., sp. nov. Caulis palhdus, 1 cm. 
crassus. Foha 10-foliolata, petiolis validuHs, petiolulis 6-8 cm. 
longis, foliolis tenuibus, papyraceis, lanceolatis, apicibus cuspi- 
datis, basibus cuneatis, glabris, nervis 5-6 paribus, tenuibus, 
16-18 cm. longis, 7-8 cm. latis. Panicula 30 cm. longa, ramis 
dissitis, gracilibus, 15-20 cm. longis. Bracteao ad bases ramorum 
lanceolatse, obtusas, albo-hirsutae, 1*5 cm. longae, 3 mm. latae. 
Pedunculi 1cm. longi, dissiti. Umbellse circiter 6-florie, pedicellis 



PLANTS NOV^ PAPUANS 291 

2 mm. longis. Ovarium breve, turbinatum. Calycis margo vix 
distincta, Integra. Corolla et stamina non visa. Bacca carnosa, 
5-angularis, 5-locularis, apice convexo, stigmatibus brevibus. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, at 2500 ft.; H. 0. Forbes, 47. 

" Small tree." 

Allied to Sell, polybotrya Miq., but the leaves are thinner in 
texture, and the large bracts at the base of the branches of the 
panicle are not to be seen in that species. 

Myesinace^. 

Msesa rubens, sp. nov. Arbuscula, ramulis sat validis crebro 
lenticelliferis, foliis ovato-oblongis sub apice cuspidato-attenuatis 
margine obscure undulatis chartaceis utrinque glabris punctisque 
prominulis destitutis, racemis in axillis foliorum vivorum nisi jam 
delapsorum solitariis paucisve quam folia certe brevioribus laxifioris 
gracilibus glabris, pedicellis floribus longioribus, bracteis parvulis 
ovatis, calycis 5-meri alte partiti segmentis late ovatis obtusissimis 
minute crenulatis subtiliter rubro-lineatis necnon juxta marginem 
punctatis, corolla fere medium usque divisa lobis semi-orbiculari- 
bus per anthesin refiexis rubro-lineatis, staminibus subinclusis 
paullo infra fauces corollas insertis filamentis quam antheras 
brevioribus medio dorsifixis, ovario h infero, stylo brevi, stigmate 
obtuso. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, 3000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 90. 

Arbuscula sec. cl. Forbes + 20 ped. alt. Folia usque ad 
16 X 7 cm., saepe vero minora sc. 12 x 5 cm., supra in sicco 
griseola, subtus rubiginosa, obscure imperfecteque reticulata, 
costae laterales in toto 12 marginem versus arcuatae, ut costa 
centralis pag. inf. eminentes ; petioli validi, superne excavati, 
summum 1 cm. long. Eacemi 3-5 raro 6 cm. long. Pedicelli 
modice 2 mm. long. Bracteae -5 mm. long. Calyx 1-25 mm. long. 
Corolla dilute viridis, 1-75 mm. long. ; tubus 1 mm. ; lobi -75 mm. 
long. ; basi 1 mm. lat. Antherge ovatte, obtusissimae, "5 mm. long. 
Ovarium 1 mm. long., superne rugatum. Stylus incurvus, circa 
•4 mm. long. 

Near M. protracta F. Muell., also from British New Guinea, 
which has longer stalked lanceolate leaves and flowers different 
in several respects. M. lavigata Scheff., with larger similar 
foliage has, according to the description, more shortly pedicelled 
flowers, acute sepals and acute anthers. 

Ardisia (Acrardisia) Forbesii, sp. nov. Fruticosa, ramosa, 
ramis patentibus subteretibus basi dilatata cauli insidentibus 
microscopice lepidotis, foliis petiolatis obovato-oblongis acumina- 
tis apice obtusis basi obtusis margine crenulatis chartaceis utro- 
bique glabris punctulis prominulis omnino destitutis (rarissime 
perpaucis prope apicem sitis donatis), floribus pro rata parvis 
in paniculas terminales foliis saepius breviores subtilissime ferru- 
gineas ordinatis, inflorescentiis partialibus pluribus umbellatis 
corymbosisve, pedicellis gracilibus calyces excedentibus, calycis 
segmentis per anthesin apertis ultra medium sejunctis ovatis 



292 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

acutis margine ciliatis nigro-punctatis, corollae alte partitae seg- 
mentis ovatis acutis punctis perpaucis obscurioribus signatis, 
filamentis brevibus antheris corolla brevioribus apice acutis 
impunctatis, ovario ovoideo glabro stylo longiore coronato, bacca 
parva globosa levi. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, 2000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 120, 
483, 656. 

Folia usque ad 16 x 5 cm., complura + 10 X 3-4-5 cm., 
in sicco griseo-viridia ; petioli circa 5 mm. long., validi, late 
canaliculati. Inflorescentias circiter 10 cm. long. Pedicelli 
plerique 3-5 mm. long. Calyx 1 cm. long. Corolla dilutissime 
punicea, 2-5 mm. long. Filamenta "5 mm., antherae 1*5 mm. 
long., has basi cordatae. Ovarium 1 mm. long. Stylus crassi- 
usculus, glaber, ovario circa aequilongus. Bacca in sicco 5 mm. 
diam., brunnea. 

This, it is to be presumed, should be inserted next to 
A. javanica A. DC, a species with smaller, plentifully punctate 
leaves, much larger flowers, punctate stamens, &c. 

Ardisia (Tinopsis) venusta, sp. nov. Fruticosa, erecta, 
ramulis subteretibus sat crebro foliosis, foliis ovato-oblongis prope 
apicem attenuatis apice acutis basi in petiolum brevem validumque 
cuneatim angustatis margine integris tenuiter coriaceis glabris 
utrinque pagina tota punctulis parvis eminentibus praeditis, pani- 
cula terminali foliis breviore floribus apicem versus ramulorum 
patentum racemosis vix subcymosis, pedicellis flores plane exce- 
dentibus patentibus glandulis minutis lucentibus inspersis, calycis 
segmentis saepius dextrorsum obtegentibus basi connatis suborbi- 
cularibus margine purpureis microscopiceque serrulato-ciliolatis 
medio punctulis brunneis crebris indutis, corollae segmentis ima 
basi solummodo connatis latissime ovatis sursum rotundatis 
pluripunctatis, antheris sessilibus corollae segmentis paullo brevi- 
oribus acuminatis dorso fusco-punctatis, ovario late ovoideo glabro 
in stylum crassiusculum desinente, baccis coccineis purpureisve 
globosis stylo persistente acuminato terminatis. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, 2000 ft., Korkoko Eange, 
2500-3000 ft., and near Meroka ; H. 0. Forbes, 54, 118, 364, 490, 
665, 791. 

Folia pleraque circa 15 x 5-5 cm., summum 19 X 6 cm., 
supra in sicco fusco-subtus griseo-viridia ; costa centralis pag. inf. 
maxime eminens ; reticulum pag. eadem perspicuius ; petioli 
saepius 5-10 mm. long., canaliculati. Inflorescentiae ± 8 cm. 
long., usque ad 10 cm. lat., raro latiores. Pedicelli saepe fere 
15 mm. long., interdum vero + 12 mm. Flores rubro-purpurei, 
crassiusculi. Calyx 3 mm. long. Corollae segmenta 9 mm. long., 
6 mm. lat. Antherae 7 mm. long, ambitu triangulares. Ovarium 
2 mm., stylus 4 mm. long. Baccae in sicco 7 mm. diam. 

This should be inserted in the genus next A. lanccolata Roxb. 
The chief pecuharities are the leaves uniformly dotted all over 
instead of near the margin alone, the fleshy not hard and firm 
calyx and corolla, the very broad segments of the corolla, and the 
sharply pointed berries. 



PLANTS NOVJi] PAPUANS 293 

ASCLEPIADACE^. 

Hoya (§ Eu-Hoya) sogerensis, sp. nov. Planta scandens, 
caule satis valido folioso interdum radicante, foliis per rata magnis 
ellipticis vel elliptico-oblongis breviter acuminatis apice obtusis 
basi obtusis 5-nervibus carnoso-coriaceis glabris petiolis sat longis 
incrassatis insidentibus, pedunculis robustis foliis multoties brevi- 
oribus, umbellis circa 20-floris, pedicellis tenuibus pedunculo 
saepissime brevioribus et pedunculis omnino glabris, calycis parvuli 
segmentis ovatis obtusis glabris, corolla mediocri rotata ultra 
medium divisa lobis rbombeo-ovatis acutis recurvis intus props 
basin glabris alibi minute papillosis, coronae phyllis horizontalibus 
apice (interne) obtusis superne ovatis medio concavis postice 
acutis lafceribus oblongis crassiusculis, antherarum alis optime 
prominentibus, polliniis oblongo-pyriformibus apice obtusissimis, 
glandula ovata caudiculas teneras duplo excedente. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, 1750-2000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 
sine no. 

Caulis saepius 2-3 mm. diam., nonnunquam usque ad 4 mm. 
Folia pleraque 10-16 x 3-4 cm., in sicco viridi-grisea ; nervi 
utrinque eminentes ; petioli 1-2 cm. long., superne canaliculati, 
summum 5-6 mm. diam., siaepissime vero tenuiores. Pedunculi 
2-4 cm. long. ; pedicelli 17 mm. Flores pedicellique purpurei. 
Calycis segmenta gegre 2 mm. long. Corolla circa 12 mm. diam. ; 
lobi 4-5-5 X 5 mm. Coronas phylla (sensu radiato) 4 mm. long., 
superne 2 mm. lat. PoUinia "6 mm., glandula '25 mm. long. 

Judging from the description, this should be placed next 
H. marginata Schlechter, which, inter alia, has larger and broader 
acuminate leaves and a corona diverse in some respects. 

Hoya (§ Eu-Hoya) lactea, sp. nov. Caule scandenti crasso 
satis crebro folioso foliis petiolatis oblongo-ovatis apice rotundatis 
ipso interdum brevissime acuteque cuspidulatis basi rotundatis 
levissime cordatis carnoso-coriaceis utrinque glabris, umbellis cir- 
citer lO-Horis, pedunculis validis quam pedicelli gracillimi necnon 
puberuli brevioribus, calycis segmentis ovatis obtusis glabris, 
corolla pro rata mediocri rotata ultra medium lobata extus glabra 
intus basi glabra alibi et in lobis subtiliter puberula lobis rotundato- 
ovatis breviter acuminatis, coronae phyllis crassis apice (interne) 
erectis acutisque externe ascendentibus et gynostegium superan- 
tibus superne ovatis concavis postice obtusis lateribus rotundatis 
crassiusculis, polliniis oblongo-pyriformibus obtusissimis caudi- 
culis perbrevibus glandulae oblongge affixis. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Gandada, 3000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 872. 
"Without locality ; id., 925 in part. 

FoHa saepissime 9-12 cm. long., 4-5-6-5 cm. lat., in sicco 
viridi-grisea, pag. sup. aliquantulum nitidi ; costa media pag. inf. 
prominens ; costae laterales ut reticulum mediocriter eminentes ; 
petioli 10-18 mm. long. Pedunculi 1-5-2 cm., pedicelli 3 cm. 
long. Flores lactei. Calycis segmenta fere 2-5 cm. long. Corolla 
pansa circa 13 mm. diam., pars indivisa 3 mm. lobi 4-5 mm. long. 
Coronae phylla vix 3 mm. long, (sensu radiato). Pollinia -6 mm., 



294 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

glandula '35 mm. long. Folliculi 16 cm. long., juxta medium 
5-6 mm. lat., superne gradatim angustati, puberuli. 

This is perhaps near H. montana Schlechter, but the foliage 
and flowers are different in several respects. 

Hoya (§ Eu-Hoya) pachypus, sp. nov. Caule scandenti 
crasso distanter folioso glabro, foliis petiolatis late ovato-oblongis 
interdum fere subquadratis utrinque rotundatis apice ssepe mucro- 
natis crasse coriaceis pag. utraque glabris, umbellis circiter 20-floris, 
pedunculis incrassatis glabris foliis multo brevioribus, pedicellis 
teneris puberulis pedunculis subaequilongis.floribus submediocribus, 
calyce quam corolla plane breviori segmentis ovato-lanceolatis 
obtusis extus puberulis, corolla rotata ultra medium lobata lobis 
deltoideo-ovatis acutis marginem versus pag. sup. papillosis alibi 
glabris, corona parva a gynostegio facile superata phyllis horizon- 
talibus apice (interne) erectis obtusiusculisque superne ovatis 
necnon planis postice (externe) obtusis lateribus reflexis angustis, 
polliniis oblongis obtusis glandulse parvae anguste oblongge 
conjunctis. 

British New Guinea, Sogers Eegion ; H. 0. Forbes, sine no. 

Caules 5 mm. diam., in sicco subquadrangulares, dilute brunnei. 
Folia 6'5-8 x 4-5 cm., siccitate brunnescentia ; costa media subtus 
prominens ; nervatio baud perspicua ; petioli validi, superne 
canaliculati, puberuli, circa 1"5 cm, long., 2 mm. crass. Pedunculi 
1-2 cm. long., usque ad 2 mm. diam. ; inflorescentise axis incras- 
satus 4-12 mm. long. Pedicelli 1-1*5 cm. long. Calyx 2 mm. 
long. Corolla pansa 8 mm. diam. ; pars indivisa 1-5 mm. long., 
lobi 2 mm. Corona (sensu radiato) summum modo 1 mm. long. 
Pollinia '65 mm., glandula '3 mm. long. 

The relatively short and broad leaves with the small flowers 
and reduced corona shorter than the gynostegium are the chief 
points of the species. 

ACANTHACE^. 

Ruellia (Leptosiphonium) Forbesii, sp. nov. Caule herbaceo 
erecto tetragono puberulo dein glabrescente, foliis amplis petiolatis 
oblongo-ovatis prope apicem angustatis apice obtusis basi rotun- 
datis nisi obtusis margine undulatis firme membranaceis supra 
glabris leviterque nitentibus subtus opacis necnon subobsolete 
puberulis, floribus magnis in axillis summis solitariis vel cymam 
brevem terminalem perpaucifloram efformantibus, bracteis bracteo- 
lisque lineari-subulatis ut pedicelli quam calyx plane brevioribus, 
calycis alte partiti segmentis linearibus acuminatis puberulis, 
corolloe tubo maxime elongato attenuato extus pubescente limbo 
tubo multo breviore hujus lobis suborbicularibus, ovario oblongo 
ut stylus glabro, ovulis quove in loculo 16. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, at 2000 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 
839 a. 

Folia summum 12 x 5-5 cm., sa^pius vero minora, sc. + 8 x 
3"5 cm., in sicco griseo-viridia, pagina utravis cystolithis copiose 
inspersa. Pedicelli + 5 mm. long., validi. Bracteoe ± 5 mm., 
bracteolae circiter 3 mm. long. Calyx 18 mm. long. ; segmenta 
16 mm. long., sub lente minute puberula. Corolla dilute flava ; 



PLANTiK NOV^ PAPUAN55 295 

tubus 5-5 cm. long., in sicco 2 mm. lat. ; lobi circa 2 cm. long. 
Antherse subinclusas, lineari-oblongao, obtusae, clorso pilosulse, 
3 mm. long. Ovarium 5*5 mm. long. 

The same collector's No. 509, also from the Sogere region, is 
conspecific with this, differing from it only in its lanceolate leaves, 
8-13 cm. long and 3-3-5 cm. broad. 

This species is allied to the Papuan Ruellia Stricklandii 
Lindau {Leptosiphonium Stricklandii F. Muell.), known to me 
by description alone, but the leaves and calyx of the two are 
different. 

B. Stricklandii has honeycombed pollen, according to Lindau,''' 
who examined material F. Mueller sent him (Lindau incorrectly 
says the plant is a native of Australia). A specimen at Kew, not 
communicated by Mueller, the anthers of which contain spiny 
pollen, C. B. Clarke has supposed to be conspecific with Mueller's 
plant, in spite of Lindau's statement above, but neither this nor 
any other specimen seen at Kew answers Mueller's description of 
L. Stricklandi. 

Aporuellia versicolor, sp. nov. Caule herbaceo erecto ra- 
moso ramis sparsim piloso-pubescentibus delude glabrescentibus, 
foliis brevipetiolatis ovatis vel ovato-oblongis apicem versus 
attenuatis apice obtusis basi obtusis vel obtusissimis raro late 
truncatis margine undulatis membranaceis supra cito glabris 
subtus praesertim in nervis fulvo-pubescentibus tandem glabris, 
floribus magnis breviter pedicellatis in cymam terminalem brevem 
paucifloram digestis, bracteis bracteolisque calyce certe breviori- 
bus linearibus acuminatis puberulis, calycis alte partiti segmentis 
elongatis linearibus acuminatis puberuHs, corollae tubo calycem 
longe superante attenuato ipso sub limbo dilatato extus subtiliter 
pubescente basin versus glabro lobis suborbicularibus tubo multo 
iDrevioribus, antheris subinclusis, ovario anguste oblongo glabro, 
stylo pubescente, ovulis pro loculo circa 20. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Sogere, 1750-2500 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 
73, 781. 

Folia summum 14 x 5'5 cm., saepius 6-10 x 3-4 cm., in sicco 
griseo- vel brunneo-viridia, pag. inf. pallidiora, cystolithis obscuris 
dense obsita ; petioli ± 5 mm. long., late canaliculati, pubescentes. 
Pedicelli summum 7 mm. long., sed ssepe breviores. Bracteae 
bracteolaeque circa 7 mm. long. Calyx 22 mm. long. Corolla 
gilva (No. 73) vel vivide aurantiaca (No. 781) ; tubus 6 cm. long., 
2 mm. lat., basin versus 3 mm.; lobi circa 1*5 cm. long. Anthera? 
oblongaB, obtuste, glabrae, 4 mm. long. PoUinis grana tuberculis 
parvulis obsita. Ovarium 6 mm. long. 

Externally this is much like the plant just described, but, 
neglecting other features, the pollen of the two is quite different. 
Biiellia Guppyi Hemsl. is plainly a congener, for C. B. Clarke has 
notified it (MS. in Hb. Kew.) as having spiny pollen, and it thus 
becomes Aporuellia Guppyi Clarke ; from this plant, however. 



Pflanzenfam, iv. 3b, p. 309. 



296 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

A. versicolor differs in foliage, calyx and corolla. Neither can it, 
although in large measure homoplastic with, be referred to 

B. vestita Engl., B. Garckeana K. Schum., nor B. potamoxenos 
K. Schum., all of which, according to Lindau, have honeycombed 
pollen, and are thus true Ruellias, as is B. aruensis S. Moore from 
the Aru Islands. The fact is that in New Guinea and the neigh- 
bouring islands we have a series of homoplasts differing chiefly as 
to whether their pollen is honeycombed {Buellia), or spiny or at 
least tuberculate {Aporaellia). 

Aristolochiace^. 

Aristolochia pithecurus Eidl., sp. nov. Frutex scandens, 
elatus, caule 1"5 cm. crasso, cortice rugoso, ramis pubescentibus. 
Folia juvenia undique pubescentia, adulta coriacea, superne levia, 
glabra, subtus prassertim in nervis hirta, oblonga, cuspidata, basi 
cordata, 12 cm. longa, 6 cm. lata, nervis 3-paribus, subtus dis- 
tinctis, reticulatis, petiolis tortis, 1 cm. longis, pubescentibus. 
Flores sessiles. Bracteae tubulosse, dilatatse, latae, 1 cm. longae, 
hirtae. Corolla tubaeformis, 3-5 cm. longa, extus hirta, pallide 
viridis, purpureo-reticulata, basi dilatato 1 cm. longo, hinc angus- 
tato, superne dilatato, limbo 1*4 cm. lato, lobis tribus, rotundatis, 
4 mm. longis, uno filiformi, obtuso, gracili, hirto, 1-5 cm. longo. 
Andrcecium 2 mm. longum, sessile, antheris 6, linearibus, connatis. 
Styli cylindrici, obtusi, sulcati. 

British New Guinea, Mt. Korkoko, at 2500 ft. ; H. 0. Forbes, 
621. 

" A considerable climber. Flowers with ground colour pale 
green covered with a network of purple lines." 

This curious plant is allied to A. Balansce Franch. of Cambodia, 
differing in its cordate leaves. 

The corolla has three rounded short lobes, and one slender, 

filiform one slightly dilated towards the tip and resembling a 

monkey's tail. 
. -^ (To be continued.) | 



PETER EWING. 
(1849-1913.) 

Many field botanists, both in Scotland and England, must, 
like myself, have felt keen personal regret when they heard in the 
autumn of last year of the death on August 3, at Glasgow, of 
Peter Ewing. For nearly half a century he had devoted all his 
spare time to the study of the flora of his native land, and the 
knowledge which he had thus acquired he was always ready to 
impart to others. 

Peter Ewing was a native of Kinross, where he was born in 
1849. His father was a stationer in a small way, and to this 
business he afterwards added that of photographer. His children, 
of whom there were six sons and two daughters, had to learn at 
an early age that work is the lot of man. Peter, the second son, 



PETER EWING 



297 



received a somewhat meagre education, and after assisting his 
father for some years, at the age of seventeen was sent to learn 
the trade of joiner. Eemoving afterwards to Glasgow, where he 
attended evening classes for a time and thus to some extent made 
up for the defects of his early training, he ohtained a post in the 
Phoenix Fire Assurance Association. By the ability and by the 
zeal with which he performed his work, he obtained promotion 




and finally attained the important position of local or district 
secretary. This he held until his retirement shortly before his 
death, which took place on August 3, 1913. 

E wing's interest in plants began when he was still a boy, and in- 
creased as years went on. He took advantage of every opportunity 
to search for new plants, so that when in 1879 he became a 
member of the Glasgow Natural History Society he was already 
a competent field botanist as to flowering plants ; he had also 
devoted a good deal of attention to mosses and hepatics. He 
took a prominent part in the work of the Society, often acting as 
botanical leader at the excursions. He several times filled the office 
of Vice-President, and for a period occupied the President's chair. 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [November, 191-4.] z 



298 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Most of Ewing's published work consisted of papers contri- 
buted to the Transactions of the Society. The first of these — a 
list of the flora of Ben Laoigh, its phanerogams, mosses, and 
hepaticae — was pubHshed in 1883. Next year he gave an account 
of an excursion to Ben Lawers and Creag-an-lochan, with a 
long list of the plants found, and in the same year was read a 
valuable paper entitled "A week in Glen Shee." Several "Contri- 
butions to the Topographical Botany of the West of Scotland " 
appeared at intervals from 1887 onwards, and the results of these 
were embodied in the Glasgow Catalogue of Native and Established 
Plants in 1892. Of this a second edition, which was noticed in 
this Journal for 1899 (p. 276), was published in that year. 
During his later years Ewing paid special attention to our 
mountain Carices, upon which he held views which did not 
always coincide with those of experts : of these he contributed 
numerous specimens to the Botanical Exchange Club, of which 
he was a member. 

Ewing had an intimate acquaintance with the flora of our 
Scottish mountains, especially with that of Clova and Breadalbane. 
He was not happy unless he visited Ben Lawers once or twice 
every year. He was familiar with the mountain under all aspects, 
had climbed it in dry weather and in wet, in sunshine and in 
shade, in clear air and in dense mists, and to be in the west 
corry when one cannot see two yards in front is not a particularly 
enviable experience. 

Of tall stature, and of rather spare but sinewy build, Ewing 
could undertake the longest tramp and the stiffest climb, and w^as 
a skilful and daring cragsman. Few have so often explored the 
corries of our Highland hills, few could ascend or descend them 
with surer foot, and few have taken more delight in searching out 
and studying their floral treasures. 

When, not having seen him for many years, I met him in 
Dundee in the September before his death, Ewing appeared quite 
hale in body and mind. On one day of that week we walked up 
Glen Phee together, and spent the hours in botanical talk, re- 
calling excursions of former days with Buchanan White, Ferguson 
of Fearn, and others now no more, to me at least. Little did I 
then think that I should never meet him again ! 

Ewing was twice married ; by his first marriage he had three 
sons and four daugliters, all of whom survive. His widow is also 
an accomplished field botanist. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society in 1894. 

W. Barclay. 

[The accompanying portrait is, by the courtesy of Mr. George 
Goode, reproduced from the Keport for 1912-13 of the Watson 
Botanical Exchange Club, which contains a short notice of 
Ewing. A long and interesting account of him, by the late 
William West, appears in the Report of the Botanical Exchange 
Club for 1913, pp. 378-81.— Ed. Journ. Bot.] 



299 

JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES. 
By James Britten, F.L.S., and G. S. Boulger, F.L.S. 

It would be interesting to know more than we do of Dr. 
Jonathan Stokes, the editor of the second edition of Withoring's 
Botanical Arrangement. The fullest account of him that has yet 
appeared is that by Mr. Bagnall in his Flora of StaffordsJiirc.'''- 
From this we learn that Stokes was born at Chesterfield, Derby- 
shire, in 1755. He was thus fourteen years junior to Withering 
and to the younger Linnaous, four years older than James Edward 
Smith, and six years older than Richard Anthony Salisbury. He 
graduated as M.D. at Edinburgh in 1782, and was thus, like 
Pulteney, Withering, Smith and Rutherford, a pupil of John 
Hope (1725-1786), who was the first to teach the Linnean 
system in Scotland. Smith was probably his contemporary as an 
undergraduate ; and he probably, like Smith, made the acquaint- 
ance of Broussonet at Edinburgh in the year in which he 
graduated. If he ever actually met the younger Linnaeus (1741- 
1783), of whom he writes as his friend, it must apparently have 
been between May and August, 1781, when the Swede was staying 
with Banks in Soho Square. That Stokes was in London sihout 
this time is apparent from his own note {Commentaries, cxv.) 
that he drew up a catalogue of the garden of John Fothergill at 
the request of the executors, Fothergill having died on December 
20th, 1780, and the plants being sold by auction on August 20th, 
1781. Writing to congratulate Smith " on being the possessor 
of the cabinet and MSS. of the great Linnaeus and of his excellent 
and amiable son, whose loss I shall ever most sincerely regret as 
a friend as well as a lover of natural history," he signs himself 
" Your old fellow-student," and asks for the return of a letter of 
his " to young Linne." f 

Stokes was also personally acquainted with L'H6ritier, who 
sent him specimens for his herbarium: he writes: " L'Heritier 
and Broussonet I much esteem, and I remember with pleasure 
the civilities I received from several other naturalists of that 
nation." 

It would appear from references in the Commentaries that 
Stokes visited France, Holland, Germany and Austria, in which 
countries he speaks of having "gathered " plants. He apparently 
practised first at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, from which place 
the letter just quoted, in which he ofi'ers to buy any duplicates of 
British or European plants in the Linnean herbarium, is dated ; 
and there too he seems to have married in 1784. His bride, a 
Miss Rogers of Dronfield, Derbyshire, was an intimate friend of 
Anna Seward, " the Swan of Lichfield," and had herself 
written poetry. | 

* Journal of Botany, 1901, Supplement, p. 70. 

t Correspondence of J. E. Smith, i. 119-121, where are three letters from 
Stokes. 

\ Letters of Anna Seward (1811) vol. i. p. 167, ii. 61. Among these letters 
sixteen are addressed by Miss Seward to Mrs, Stokes. 

Z 2 



300 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Withering had an extensive practice in Birmingham. Born at 
WelUngton, Shropshire, in 1741, and the intimate contemporary 
of Pulteney at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1766, he 
had practised at Stafford from 1767 to 1775, and seems to have 
collected plants in that neighbourhood in company with Stokes, at 
a later period. The first edition of his Botanical Arrangement 
had been issued in 1776, within a year of his migration to 
Birmingham, which was nearly coincident with the arrival of 
James Watt as the partner of Boulton at the Soho Works. 
Chemical researches to combat the phlogiston theory, mineralogy, 
and the abolition of the slave trade, engaged much of his atten- 
tion ; and, after his move to Edgbaston Hall in 1786, he also 
amused himself by breeding Newfoundland dogs and French 
cattle. He may, therefore, have been glad to delegate much of 
the labour of preparing a new edition of his botanical work to 
younger hands. He constantly employed two collectors to bring 
him plants, and it is probable that Stokes, with whom he was then 
apparently on terms of close friendship, then lived for a time in 
Birmingham. " It is evident," as Mr. Bagnall says,'' " that Stokes 
had free access to Withering's extensive botanical library for the 
purpose of obtaining the new and valuable set of references " in 
the second edition of the Botanical Arrangement ; and, Mr. 
Bagnall adds : — " A schedule is still in existence showing that 
Withering lent Stokes one hundred and forty-five botanical works, 
ranging from the earliest botanical writers to those of the then 
most recent times. These Stokes took with him first to Shrews- 
bury,! and afterwards to Kidderminster, and retained them for 
more than three years. It seems to have been due to Stokes's 
refusing to return them that he and Withering ceased to be on 
friendly terms ; ultimately, by resorting to legal aid. Withering 
regained his botanical library." 

In the copy of Banks's correspondence in the Department of 
Botany is an interesting letter (hitherto unpublished) from 
Withering to Banks dated from Birmingham, 6th Oct. 1787. 
This evidently was accompanied by the first two volumes of the 
Botanical Arrangement which appeared in that year : vol. iii. was 
not published until 1792. It runs thus : 

" Sir, 

" Following, though at an humble distance, in that 
path of Science in which you so conspicuously lead the way, 
I presume to solicit your acceptance of the enclosed Volumes, 
as a small addition to your immense collection on the same 
subjects. 

" It was the inspection of your British Herbarium, when 
deposited many years ago at the house of our friend Sneyd at 
Bishton, which first aided and determined my pursuit in this 



* Loc. cit. 

f In a letter dated of August, 1786, Miss Seward promises to recommend 
Stokes as a young physician to friends in Shrewsbury. 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 301 

branch of Science, so that you have a sort of right to that which 
had probably never existed but for your previous labours. 
I remain, Sir, with the greatest respect, 

Your very obedient servS 

W. WiTHEEING." 

In the list of those who had assisted in the second edition 
(p. xii.) Stokes appears as " Dr. Stokes, Member of the Eoyal 
Medical Society of Edinburgh, corresponding Member of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Physician at Shrewsbury"; 
but his own "Advertisement by the Author of the Eeferences to 
Figures " is dated, on p. xxxviii. of the same volume, " Kidder- 
minster, 10th August, 1787 " ; and on the title-page he is 
described as " Late President of the Eoyal Medical Society " 
and as "Physician at Kidderminster." 

Withering in his Preface pleads " the multiplicity of his own 
professional engagements " as his reason for asking the assistance 
of others, and shows a full appreciation of the value of Stokes's 
work, though, both here and elsewhere, he evinces but little sense 
of the importance of synonymy as such. 

" The Latin Synonyms of Bauhine, Gerard, Parkinson and 
Eay, which occupied so much space in the first edition, are," he 
writes,-'' " now omitted ; partly because they could be of little use 
to those who do not understand the Latin language, for they who 
do, may get the references from Hudson's Flora Anglica ; and 
partly to make room for a new set of references to figures, which 
my friend Dr. Stokes undertook to furnish. These references 
make one of the most valuable parts of the present Edition. 
Nothing short of his extensive knowledge of the subject, joined to 
an indefatigable industry, could have effected the reformation 
required ; but the full force of his exertions will only be understood 
by such as have laboured at the subject themselves, and experienced 
the difficulty of marshalling error crowded upon error, into regular 
and beautiful order." An indication of the thoroughness of 
Stokes's work is the statement which he makes t that he had 
inserted no figures which he had " not examined and compared, 
unless the contrary is expressly noticed " : a further indication of 
this will be found in the " Catalogue of Botanical Works " which 
follows the " Advertisement." 

It would seem that Stokes's assistance did not extend to the 
whole work. This may be alluded to in the phrase " undertook 
to furnish" in the passage above quoted; whilst in his Preface to 
the third edition (1796) Withering writes \ : — " The references to 
figures so ably executed by Dr. Stokes for a great part of the 
second edition are mostly preserved in this, though not without 
some changes in the order of excellence, the erasure of a few 
which were found to be erroneous, and of others which were 
thought too bad to be quoted. The historical facts relative to the 

* Botanical Arrangement, ed. ii. vol. i. p. v. 

t "Advertisement," Botanical Arrangement, ed. ii. p. xxx. 

J Page vi. 



302 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

older figures, stating which are copies and which originals, though 
perhaps thought curious hy some few people, are omitted, partly 
because they are foreign to the purpose of this work, and partly to 
make room for additional references now given to infinitely better 
figures." 

This Preface was retained in subsequent editions ; but the 
interesting running comments with which Stokes accompanied 
his lists of authorities in the second edition of Withering, and 
in his own subsequent works, no longer appear in the editions 
of the former for which Withering and his son were solely 
responsible. 

The genus Stohisia was described by L'Heritier,''' during the 
fifteen months of assiduous toil in 1786-7 when he was in 
London with Eedoute, Broussonet, and the Dombey herbarium f ; 
but in founding it he says nothing as to the man whose name it 
bears. In 1790 Stokes was elected an Associate of the then 
recently founded Linnean Society ; and, though we have no 
evidence of his taking much, if any, part in the progress of 
British botany after the publication of his edition of Withering, 
his two later works were both essentially botanical. 

In the Linnean Society Lists for 1792 and 1794 Stokes is 
described as of Kidderminster, and in those from 1796 to 1830 
inclusive as of Chesterfield. 

In 1796 Miss Seward stayed ten days with Dr. and Mrs. 
Stokes at Chesterfield. | She writes § of Stokes as "a worthy and 
ingenious man, but a dissenter, and consequently a democrat," 
and she elsewhere ]j speaks of his political sentiments having been 
injurious to his interest. In 1798 Dr. and Mrs. Stokes stayed 
with Miss Seward for three days at Matlock and at this time Miss 
Seward writes *' to a friend : — 

" Dr. Stokes is an extremely skilful physician, on the 
testimony of the ingenious and candid of his own profession, and 
on the proofs of his successful treatment of several very difficult 
and dangerous cases. His devotion to the study of medicine, and 
those sciences most nearly connected with it, as chemistry, 
botany, and mineralogy, has not allowed him to cultivate his 
taste for eloquence and poetry, sufiiciently to authorize those 
unhesitating decisions on their subjects, which have often more 
tenacity than happiness. His voice in speaking, and his address, 
have each that insinuating softness which his wife's want, and 
which evince at once the man of education and the gentleman. 
It is curious to observe how totally these graces forsake him when 
he reads either oratoric prose or verse aloud. He has absolutely 
no impassioned or metrical intonation." 

In 1812 Stokes published A Botanical Materia Medica in four 
volumes, which is furnished, like his Withering, with a catalogue 
raisonne of his authorities and full synonymy and references to 

* Sertiim Anglicum (1788), p. 27. 

t See Journal of Botany, l'J05, pp. 2G6, 272, 325. 

J Letters of Anna Seward, iv. 253. § Ibid. iii. 229. 

11 iv. 268. H Vol. V. pp. 150-2. 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 303 

figures. The work is dedicated to Wright, from whom he received 
West Indian plants, and who visited him at Chesterfield in July, 
1808 '•' ; the preface is dated from Chesterfield. 

In this he describes the methods pursued in the descriptions 
contained in the work, and explains the abbreviation " Obs." 
which herein, as in the Commentaries, continually recurs in the 
course of the descriptions : " The figures subjoined to botanical 
observations refer to the numbers of a journal which I have kept 
ever since I began to investigate plants, my specimens having 
coiTesponding numbers affixed to them." This method he recom- 
mends to all students. " To these observations," he adds, " I 
have an index, which, consisting of separate papers arranged in 
a book, admits of occasional additions without the labour of 
transcription." There is a fuller description of this in the 
preface to the Commentaries (p. xvii.), whence it would appear 
that the index anticipated the " card catalogues " now in use. 
It is described as " moveable, composed of distinct labels, arranged 
alphabetically." 

From the "Abbreviations explained," which occupy pp. xiii.- 
xlv. of this work, we learn that Stokes's name " was inserted in 
the prospectus [of Rees's EncycloiJCBdia] by a deceased friend 
without [his] knowledge, but [he] never wrote anything in it": 
he also notes, in referring to John Thompson's Botany Displayed 
(1798), " The author sent me down the 1st number with my 
name in the title-page without my having had the least concern 
with it."f 

The extensive series of letters, most of them long and full of 
interest, extending from 1820 to 1828, preserved in the Winch 
correspondence at the Linnean Society, bears additional testimony 

* Memoir of Dr. Wright (1828), pp. 31, 151. 

t Of this book, which appears to be rare, there is a copy in the Banksian 
Library at the British Museum. Its full title is " Botany Displayed ; being a 
complete and compendious Elucidation of Botany, according to tlae system of 
Linnffius. By John Thompson. With plates Serving as Examples of the most 
beautiful, rare, and curious Plants, Indigenous and Exotic ; coloured from Nature 
by A. Nunes, Botanical Painter, No. l:i, Eobinsoa's Row, Kingsland, London: 
Printed for the Publishers, John Thompson and A. Nunes, 1798." It is in 
quarto and consists of a ten-page introduction and twelve plates, each with two 
unnumbered pages of letterpress. The introduction refers to Lee and Thornton, 
and contains four " lessons " ; the first giving a table of the Linnean system in 
Latin and English ; the second describing the Vegetable Kingdom under seven 
heads, fi^;. AlgsB, Musci, Fungi, Filices, Palms, Graraina, Plantae; the third 
giving a glossary based on Milne's Dictionary ; the fourth, on leaves, is 
apparently imperfect. The plates are dated (1 to 3) January 1st, (■! to 7) 
February 1st, (8 and 9) March 1st, and (10 to 12) April 1st, 1798, so that there 
seem to have been four monthly parts. They are fairly well drawn and coloured 
and have some analyses. All represent exotic plants, viz. Caiiiia Jlaccida, 
Hcemanthus coccineus, Datura arborea, Chelone formosa, Achania mollis, 
Amanjllis jagiis, Heliconia Bihai, ilescmbryantheinuin tigrinuin, Gardenia 
Thunbcrgia, Ccesalpinia pulcherrima, and Amaryllis yuccaides. The drawings 
are stated to have been made from David Lewis's nursery at Kingsland, the 
collection of B. liobertson, Esq., at Stockwell, that of Thomas Sykes at Hackney, 
Mr. Evans at Stepney, and Malcolm's nursery at Stockwell. The text contains 
short diagnoses in Latin and English of the species figured, and in English of 
a good many of their congeners. 



304 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

to the perseverance and painstaking accuracy of Stokes. The 
first — which from its formal beginning seems to mark the 
commencement of Stokes's share in the correspondence — is dated 
from Chesterfield, 26 March, 1820, and acknowledges the receipt 
of Winch's present of the Essay on the Geographical Distribution 
of Plants (1819). From this time until 1825 the letters are 
numerous : they are occupied mostly with botanical matters, but 
geology holds a considerable place, while birds, fishes, and insects 
are occasionally referred to. After the end of 1825 the 
correspondence seems to have ceased, save for a short letter in 
1827 and another in 1828. 

In 1830 Stokes published the one volume of his Botanical 
Commentaries. It is an octavo of cxxxiv.-272 pages, without 
illustrations, and is dedicated " to the memory of W. B. Johnson, 
M.B., of Coxbeach, near Derby, who died January 13th, 1830, 
aged 66," of whom he gives further particulars in a note hereafter 
to be quoted. In this work the marked originality of Stokes's 
treatment takes a further extension. His earliest works conform 
to the ordinary use in orthography and punctuation ; but in 
the Commentaries he anticipates the present movement in favour 
of a "reformed spelling," and adopts a comparative disuse of 
commas. He also discards double letters, as in " quils," and 
silent terminals, as in " activ," " opposit," " climat." Examples 
of these and other peculiarities, as in the use of capitals and the 
abandonment of the apostrophe which usually indicates the 
possessive case, will be found in the quotations made in the 
course of this paper. 

The preface, which consists of twenty-three pages, is full of 
interesting matter connected with the need of observation — 
"every naturalist should rise with the sun"; with horticulture 
(especially fruit-growing), travel (with special reference to the 
dangers of Welsh roads), "herbariums" (sic), collecting, medicine, 
gardens, ornithology (of which he seems to have had considerable 
knowledge), and other subjects. He is greatly impressed with the 
necessity of precaution against fire; and his remarks on this subject 
end in an amusing suggestion : — 

" Bankss herbarium, if I mistake not, is so constructed that 
in case of fire it may be readily transported. But our public her- 
bariums should be kept in incombustible buildings, which I fear 
the British Museum and the house lately occupied by Banks in 
Soho Square which contains the Linnean herbarium, are not. 
The Italians less liable to fire than we are build incombustible 
houses. I cannot help expressing a wish that the proprietors of 
solitary houses containing collections of books coins statues 
or paintings should be compelled by act of parliament to hold 
in readiness the means of extinguishing fires. Chatsworth is well 
defended by buckets engines and running water within its walls. 
The engines should be played on the festival of the saint to whom 
the parish church is dedicated." 

The preface also contains Stokes's views on nomenclature, 
which, he says, had " almost entirely changed " since he wrote 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 305 

the "Advertisement" to the second edition of Withering. In 
this (1787) he pointed out " the mischief of arbitrarily changing " 
specific names, but he now follows the line taken by Salisbury 
in his Prodromus (1796), considering that "where a name is 
susceptible of amendment every botanist should be as ready to 
suggest a better as to communicate an improved specific character 
or description," although he does not " approve of altering every 
name which is not good, considering it better to use the bad one 
till we discover one which is characteristic." As examples of the 
changes may be noted Circcea lutetiana and G. al^iina, which he 
names respectively C. ovatifolia and C. cordifolia ; Veronica 
Chamcedrys becomes V. biharhata ; Pinguicula vulgaris and P. 
lusitanica are changed to P. ovata and P. suhcequalis. 

The preface is followed by " an explanation of botanical terms," 
covering eighty pages, and the notes connected with the definition 
of each term show by their copious references to books and figures, 
as well as to plants which illustrate the terms and to his owui 
"observations," the painstaking industry which is manifest in all 
Stokes's work. The notes are often very full — those on "corolla" 
and " perispermum " may be cited as examples — and deal inci- 
dentally with other than botanical matters. This is succeeded by 
what is perhaps the most interesting feature of the volume — 
twenty-one pages of " Abbreviations explained ; many of gardens 
and persons, and titles of books not enumerated in the second 
edition of the Botanical Arrangement and the Botanical Materia 
Medica." The information as to " gardens and persons " con- 
tains so much matter of interest that copious extracts will follow 
at the conclusion of this paper. The prefatory matter concludes 
with a translation of the elder Von Schlechtendal's preface (dated 
1812) to the Supplement to Willdenow's Enumeratio. 

The body of the work consists of very full descriptions of the 
genera and species of the Linnean classes Monandria and Diandria 
with Monogynia Triandria; the genera are briefly diagnosed in 
Latin, with English translation ; and the species are similarly 
characterized; the English descriptions are very full, in accordance 
with the views expressed by the author in his preface. The 
treatment of Crocus and Iris is very elaborate, and should not be 
overlooked by workers on these genera. The bibliography, both of 
genera and species, is also very full ; the synonymy of the latter 
includes pre-Linnean nomenclature. The material from which each 
species is described, whether living or dried, is almost always in- 
dicated : from these indications we glean something as to Stokes's 
peregrinations ; he speaks of having gathered wild plants in various 
localities in Derbyshire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire, as 
well as at Cologne, and in gardens in various parts of England, 
as also at Paris (Trianon), Leyden, Utrecht, and Vienna. His 
Indian plants are mainly described from Koxburgh's specimens 
sent him by Wright, who also sent him Jamaican plants from 
Broughton ; other descriptions are based on specimens from 
Jaequin, Leske, Boehmer, Bartram, Broussonet, L'Heritier, Vahl, 
and Solander. Other main sources of Stokes's material will be 



306 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

found in the extracts from the Commentaries which follow these 
remarks : Fothergill's garden at Upton was chief among these. 
The continuation of this work was arrested by the author's death, 
which took place at Chesterfield, the place of his birth, on April 
30th, 1831. 

In Edwin Lees's Botany of Worcestershire (p. Ixxxix. 1867) 
there is the following anecdote : — 

" In the ' Worcestershire Miscellany ' (Supplement, 1831) is 
the following curious note in reference to the death of Dr. Stokes, 
and a plant recorded by him as growing at Worcester, where he 
once resided: — 'Till the last year (1830) the Scandix cercfolium 
grew as recorded by Dr. Stokes, " in considerable plenty, in the 
hedge on the south-west side of the Bristol road, just beyond the 
turnpike." Those Vandals (as respects botanists), the Eoad 
Surveyors, last year altered the course of the Bristol road, cut the 
bank away where the Scandix grew, and not even a stray plant is 
now to be met with there. Coincidences sometimes force them- 
selves upon our notice ; had anyone told Dr. Stokes that the 
removal of the plant he found in " May, 1775," would predicate his 
own removal from this mortal life, he would surely have smiled. 
Yet mark, this Scandix cerefolium grew unmolested in its habitat, 
as first remarked by Dr. Stokes, from May, 1775, to May, 1830. 
In the latter year the road was altered, and the plant eradicated, 
so that in May, 1831, it could be no longer found in its old home, 
and that same month '"' and year was Dr. Stokes gathered to his 
fathers."' The year previous to his death he published the first 
volume of a work entitled ' Botanical Commentaries,' the result 
of fifty years' observations and study. He made extensive collec- 
tions of plants, which were sold and dispersed after his death." 

If Stokes were living in Worcester in 1775 he may have been 
apprenticed there. In any case it would be interesting to know 
his relationship to the Jonathan Stokes, florist, who, as will be 
seen from the following notes, carried on with his son a garden in 
Worcester, or to the "J. and his daughter Penelope Stokes, 
florists," who cultivated " Eiddgreen garden," the situation of 
which is not specified. On p. 27 "Mr. Jos. Stokes" is mentioned 
as having gathered Olea lancifolia"n,B he believes in India, but 
probably at the cape of Good Hope": "Miss Stokes " gathered 
Veronica montana at Knaresborough (p. 55) : Jonathan Kogers 
Stokes, probably the son of Jonathan,! is mentioned (p. 27) as 
having sent a specimen from a square in Leeds and (p. 113) as 
having gathered Salvia nilotica in the Edinburgh garden. On 
p. 239 it is mentioned that " Mr. Stokes " gathered Iris fceti- 
dissima in a garden in Worcestershire and that " Mrs. Stokes " 
gathered the same plant in Devonshire. 

(To be concluded.) 



* This is not quite accurate, since he died in April. 

f His second name is his mother's maiden name. He was probably born 
in 1792 or 1793 {Letters of Anna Seward, iii. p. 229) ; and Stokes had apparently 
at least three other children {ibid. p. 10(5), one of whom, Honora, Miss Seward's 
goddaughter, died in 1792 {ibid. p. 1.5(i). 



307 

REPORT OF DEFT. OF BOTANY, BRITISH MUSEUM, 1913. 
By a. B. Eendle, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Acquisitions. 
(1) By Donation. 

Additions to the British Herbarium have been received from 
the following donors: — The Council of the South London Botanical 
Institute, seeds of 101 species, mainly British ; H. C. Baker, Esq., 
2 phanerogams; E. J. Bedford, Esq., 4 orchids; C. E. Britton, 
Esq., 148 phanerogams ; C. Bucknall, Esq., 3 species of Sym- 
fhytum ; E. M. Day, Esq., 2 phanerogams ; G. C. Druce, Esq., 62 
phanerogams; Mrs. F. L. Foord-Kelcey, 2 species of Galium; 
Miss G. Lister, 167 mycetozoa ; J. E. Little, Esq., 2 phanerogams ; 
Eev. E. S. Marshall, 200 phanerogams ; Mrs. Evelyn Northcote, 
2 species of Plantago ; Eev. H. J. Eiddelsdell, 152 phanerogams ; 
H. N. Eidley, Esq., C.M.G., 9 phanerogams from Cornwall ; Eev. 
W. M. Eogers, 4 species of Eubi ; C. E. Salmon, Esq., 41 
phanerogams ; W. E. Sherrin, Esq., 3 moss-slides for microscope, 
2 mosses, and 5 hepatics ; the Watson Botanical Exchange Club, 
71 phanerogams. 

The following donations have been made to the General 
Herbarium : — 

Europe. — Miss L. S. Gibbs, 24 phanerogams and 2 ferns from 
Iceland ; H. F. A. Mallock, Esq., F.E.S., diatom-material [Gom- 
pJwnema cajntatuvi) from South of Spain ; Hon. N. C. Eothschild, 
7 phanerogams, chiefly from Hungary ; C. E. Salmon, Esq., 4 
phanerogams ; W. E. Sherrin, Esq., 3 alpine mosses ; H. S. 
Thompson, Esq., 2 phanerogams from South of France ; Major 
A. H. WoUey-Dod, 20 Gibraltar plants. 

Asia. — Prof. F. O. Bower, specimens of a new species of fern 
from Darjeeling {Matteuccia) ; S. T. Dunn, Esq., fruits of Derris 
'parviflora from Ceylon ; Miss L. S. Gibbs, 304 phanerogams and 
128 cryptogams from British North Borneo ; Sir E. G. Loder, 
cones of Pinus 2^umila from S. Yakutsk in Siberia ; Dr. E. D. 
Merrill, 9 photographs of Philippine liuhiacece ; the Director of 
the Imperial Botanic Gardens, St. Petersburg, 2 new species from 
E. Asia; J. N. Sheffield, Esq., 10 ferns, 24 mosses, 24 hepatics, 
and 10 lichens from Perak ; and 1 fungus from C. G. Lloyd, Esq. 

Africa. — Mrs. W. E. Balston, 113 phanerogams from vicinity 
oi Cape Town ; Lieut. G. St. J. Orde Browne, 32 phanerogams 
from Kenya Province, Brit. E. Africa ; E. H. Bunting, Esq., 50 
phanerogams from Liberia ; Col. F. A. Chaves, sample of Cooron- 
gite containing diatoms from Lake Furnas, Azores ; T. F. Chipp, 
Esq., 52 phanerogams and 2 ferns from the Gold Coast; Dr. D. T. 
MacDougal, 195 phanerogams and 6 cryptogams from Egypt and 
Eed Sea Province ; E. E. Massey, Esq., 150 flowering plants from 
the Soudan ; C. F. H. Monro, Esq., 452 plianerogams and 6 ferns 
from Ehodesia ; Hon. W. Eothschild, 23 phanerogams and 1 fern 
from N.W. Algeria and 8 enlarged photographs of trees in the 
Public Gardens, Algiers ; the Percy Sladen Trustees, 22 plants 



308 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

collected in S.W. Africa by Prof. H. H. W. Pearson ; Mr. and Mrs. 
P. Amaury Talbot, 738 phanerogams and 3 ferns from the Eket 
District, South Nigeria. 

Australasia. — Miss B. de Pledge, specimen of Verticordia 
Forrestiana from Western Australia. 

Oceania. — Miss L. S. Gibbs, 8 phanerogams and 3 ferns from 
Hawaii. 

America.— My. E. Heber Howe, Junr., 24 Lichenes Novse 
Anglige ; Prof. H. Lecomte, 3 Buhiacea from Tropical America ; 
Kev. A. Miles Moss, 35 Brazilian plants ; T. A. Sprague, Esq., 21 
Buhiacem from Venezuela ; the Director, University Botanic 
Garden, Pennsylvania, 26 North American Scroplmlarinea. 

General. — Miss G. Lister, 340 exotic mycetozoa. 

Cultivated Plants. — W. E. Balston, Esq., 3 orchids; E. H. 
Beamish, Esq., inflorescence of Furcrcea and 3 other plants ; 
E. A. Bowles, Esq., 2 phanerogams ; Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., 
10 orchids; J. O'Brien, Esq., 2 orchids ; D. M. Moss, Esq., some 
abnormally developed pears ; Hon. N. C. Eothschild, 29 orchids. 

(2) By Purchase. 

British Isles. — Botanical Exchange Club, 108 phanerogams ; 
Eev. E. F. Linton, 17 specimens of British willows ; C. E. Hartley 
Smith, 10 specimens of prepared British fungi. Special mention 
should be made of the Moss-Herbarium of Dr. E. Braithwaite, 
estimated to contain 5300 specimens, representing 600 species, the 
types of his British ' Moss- Flora ' (1880-1905). 

Europe. — Through Dulau d; Co. — 0. Jaap, 50 fungi selecti, 
ser. XXV., xxvi., and 20 myxomycetes, ser. vii. ; J. E. Kabat and 
Bubak, 50 fungi imperfect!, fasc. xv. ; K. W. Krieger, 50 fungi 
Saxonici, fasc. xlv. ; A. Paulin, Flora exsiccata Carniolica, cent, ix., 
x. ; D. Saccardo, 169 fungi, Mycotheca Italica, cent, xvii., xviii., 
part i. ; J. Schiller, H. Cammerlohe, and G. Seefeldner, 30 Algae 
Adriaticse, cent, i., fasc. 2 ; H. and P. Sydow, 50 fungi, Mycotheca 
Germanica, fasc. xxiv. ; A. Toepffer, 50 specimens, Salicetum 
exsiccatum, fasc. viii. ; T. Vestergren, 150 micromycetes rariores 
selecti, fasc. Ixiii.-lxviii. 

Through B. Friedldnder A Sohn. — M. Britzelmayr, 144 lichenes 
Bavariae exsiccati, with figures. 

Through T. 0. Weigel. — V. F. Brotherus, 100 mosses, Bryo- 
theca Fennica, fasc. iii. ; A. Fiori et A. Beguinot, Flora Italica 
exsiccata, cent, xvii., xviii.; A. von Hayek, 50 specimens, Cen- 
taurese exsiccatse criticae, fasc. i.; F. Petrak, 100 specimens, Flora 
Bohemias et Moraviae exsiccata, lief. xii. 

From the Publishers.— H. Sudre, Batotheca Europaea, fasc. xi., 
50 specimens, and Herbarium Hieraciorum, fasc. iii., 50 specimens. 

Asia. — S. T. Dunn, 40 Chinese plants collected by E. E. Maire ; 
W. Siehe, 250 rare Oriental plants (selected). 

Africa. — E. Chiovenda, Flora della Colonia Eritrea, cent, i., ii., 
prepared by A. Pappi ; E. Gilg, 290 phanerogams and 10 vascular 
cryptogams from Cameroons, collected by G. Zenker ; E. M. 
Eeineck, 312 Algerian plants collected by A. Faure, and 276 plants 
collected in Morocco and Tunis by C. J. Pitard ; Eev. F. A. 



REPORT OP DEPT. OF BOTANY, BRITISH MLTSEUM 809 

Eogers, 120 phanerogams from Ehodesia and Congo District ; 
T. O. Weigel, 25 fungi, Mycotlieca Boreali-Africana, fasc. iv., 
prepared by E. Maire ; F. Wilms, 399 phanerogams and 69 crypto- 
gams collected in Natal by H. Eudatis, and 93 phanerogams 
collected in Uganda by G. Scheffler. 

America. — E. Bartholomew, 500 fungi Columbiani, cent, 
xxxviii.-xlii., and 300 North American Uredineales, cent, vi.-viii. ; 
E. W. Berger, exhibition specimens and photographs of parasitic 
fungi on scale insects ; T. S. Brandegee, 302 phanerogams and 
30 ferns collected in Mexico by C. A. Purpus ; W. E. Broadway, 
273 phanerogams and 27 cryptogams from Tobago ; O. Buchtien, 
147 phanerogams and 53 vascular cryptogams from Bolivia ; 
Collins, Holden, & Setchell, 50 algae, Phycotheca Boreali-Ameri- 
cana, fasc. xxxviii. (per Dulau & Co.) ; E. Hassler, 402 phanerogams 
and 11 cryptogams from Paraguay ; C. C. Haynes, 20 American 
hepaticse, decades xi., xii. ; E. M. Eeineck, 10 selected species of 
mosses, mostly from Central America ; H. von Tiirckheim, 226 
phanerogams and 15 vascular cryptogams from Guatemala (per 
T. O. Weigel) ; I. Urban, 633 phanerogams and 142 cryptogams 
collected in St. Domingo by M. Fuertes. 

General.- — Through Dulau d- Co. — H. Eehm, 118 Fungi, Asco- 
mycetes exsiccati, fasc. lii., liii. ; H. Sydow, 150 Fungi exotici 
exsiccati, fasc. ii.-iv. ; P. Sydow, 50 Uredinece, fasc. li., 25 Ustila- 
ginecs, fasc. xii., and 25 Phycomycetes and Protomycetes. 

Through V. Schroeder. — 101 ferns, mostly tropical, determined 
by E. Eosenstock. 

(3) By Exchange of Duplicates. 
Oakes Ames, 102 orchids from the Philippine Islands ; Director, 
Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Flora Hungarica ex- 
siccata, cent. i. ; Prof. K. Domin, 100 phanerogams from Monte- 
negro ; Director, Eoyal Gardens, Kew, 11 plants from Keeling 
Island ; Botanist, Bureau of Science, Manila, 1779 phanerogams 
and 868 cryptogams, mainly from the Philippine Islands ; Director, 
Botanical Garden, New York, 625 phanerogams and 31 crypto- 
gams from Bermuda, Cuba, and Jamaica ; Department of Botany, 
Eiksmuseet, Stockholm, 159 Brazilian Grasses ; Director, National 
Herbarium, Sydney, 48 Australian plants ; Curator, Botanical 
Department, Hofmuseum, Vienna, 100 Kryptogamae exsiccatse, 
cent, xxi., mostly European ; Director, Botanic Garden and 
Institute of the University, Vienna, 400 plants, Flora exsiccata 
Austro-Hungarica, cent, xxxvi.-xl. ; Curator, U.S. National Her- 
barium, Washington, 141 West Indian Grasses ; Director, Botanic 
Gardens, Zurich, 3 plants from Cameroons. 

(4) Departmental Library . 
A collection of 11,325 plates and original drawings formed by 
Isaac Swainson in the eighteenth century was presented by H. S. 
Cowper, Esq. ; a series of pencil sketches principally of pollen 
grains, with MS. notes and observations by the late Francis 
Buckell, was presented by his son Edward Buckell, Esq. 



310 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

SHORT NOTES. 

Habbnaria MONTANA Dur. & Schinz = H. chloroleuca Eidley 
IN Caithness. — Mr. G. Lillie has sent me a fine specimen of this 
orchis gathered from a hank near Loch Watenton on the east 
coast. The specimen is remarkahle in that it has only one tuber, 
and that globular — it may be the two ordinary ones have coalesced '? 
Mr. Eolfe, to whom I sent flowers and half the tuber, remarks : — 
" The globular bulb is, so far as I can see, quite unusual in 
Habenaria cJilorantlia, so that I shall keep it with the flowers. I 
do not yet see the signification of the variation, but will look at it 
again." Many years ago Dr. Ward told me he had gathered the 
plant in Strath Halladale, near the bridge, not far from the Reay 
Burn. But there must be some confusion of boundary here, as 
the source of the Reay Burn is quite two miles inside the Caithness 
border. So it may be he actually gathered it in Caithness. In 
Scotland it is recorded for East and West Sutherland and the 
Outer Hebrides. In__Norway it extends up to 63° 15' N. lat. 
(Blytt) ; in Sweden to Ostersunds lau. In South Finland it occurs 
only in the provinces of Abo and Alaud ; while H. hifolia reaches 
67° N. lat. (Hjelt) in Norway to 70° 20' (Norman), and in Sweden 
up to Swedish Lapland (Berlin). — Arthur Bennett. 

Linaria arenaria DC. in N. Devon (p. 276). — I am unable 
to account for the presence of this plant at Santon, Braunton, 
three specimens of which have been brought to me from that 
place by different persons during this autumn. I can state, 
however, that the sower of the seeds of the plants on Northam 
Barrows has not sown any elsewhere. I do not feel the difficulty 
experienced by Mr. Hanbury in believing that the wind may have 
been the agent by which seeds were conveyed to the habitat at 
Santon from that at Northam, distant a little over five miles 
S.S.W. No one who has had experience of the furious gales 
occasionally visiting these burrows could, I think, doubt that 
heavier objects than seeds could be transported by them between 
the two localities. I do not, however, feel much confidence in 
thus accounting for the existence of the plants at Santon, but 
think it more probable that the seeds here also may have been 
sown by human hands. Of one thing I feel sure — that the plant 
is of recent introduction. I have during the last forty years been 
a constant visitor to the part of Santon where the plants are 
found, and I could not have passed them over if they had been 
there before the present year. — Thos. Wainwright. 

Carum verticillatum Koch in Dorset. — This umbcllifor 
grows plentifully in a rough marshy meadow on the border of 
Slape Heath, between Stoborough and Arne, where it was 
pointed out to me in July last by the discoverer, Mr. T. H. 
Green, of Weston, Bath. The whole extent of the plant's area 
is rather more than an acre. It may be thought remarkable that 
this species should have hitherto escaped observation in a district 
so thoroughly worked and so frequently visited by botanists from 
all parts of the country ; and in that sense it was a very unlikely 



SHORT NOTES 311 

find. But as, according to Hooker and Syme, the plant may be 
looked for in meadows of the western counties from Argyle 
southwards, this new station should, I think, be accepted as 
natural and satisfactory. — Jas. W. White. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos in Somerset (p. 277). — The Cranberry 
is not new for this county, though very scarce ; in Topographical 
Botany it is duly recorded for both vice-counties. It still grew 
near Shapwick (v.-c. 6) in 1906 ! ; and Sir W. C. Trevelyan found 
it, long ago, on the Brendon Hills (v.-c. 5). The Exmoor station, 
however, is certainly a fresh one. — -Edward S. Marshall. 

It seems only right to say that before writing the note on 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos I consulted the index to the Flora of 
Somerset, in which the plant does not occur ; it appears in the 
addenda. It is, however, in Mr. White's Flora of Bristol, to 
which I should have referred, and there are various scattered 
records. Dr. Moss writes that Miss Saunders's record is the 
most southerly station for the plant, and indicates its probable 
occurrence in Devon and Cornwall. — James Britten, 

Orchis hircina in Sussex. — During the past summer three 
specimens of Orchis hircina have occurred in Sussex. I am 
informed that two specimens in bloom were found amongst 
collections of wild flowers which had been brought into the 
annual exhibition held during the season at the Brighton 
Museum. Unfortunately, the persons who brought them and 
the localities are unknown. The third specimen occurred in 
the Ouse district near Lewes, and was dug up by the finder. I 
did not hear of the find until late in the season, but managed to 
see the specimen after the flowering period while the seed vessels 
still hung on the stem. A note of the first specimen which I found 
in East Sussex is in Journ. Bot. 1911, 276. — E. J. Bedford. 



BE VIEW. 

An Introduction to the Study of Plants. By F. E. Fritsch & E. J. 

Salisbury. 8vo, pp. 397 ; 8 plates, 222 text-figures. Bell 

& Son. 1914. 4s. 6d. net. 
A new introduction to the study of botany would appear 
uncalled for if one had regard only to the number of elementary 
books on the market. Most of these, however, fail to a greater or 
lesser extent, and none can be considered wholly satisfactory. 
The present book is welcome in that it fully justifies its title, and 
can be thoroughly recommended to those about to study the life 
of plants, no matter what their future aims may be. There are 
twenty-eight chapters. The plant is first considered as a whole, 
and then the various vegetative organs are treated. Several 
chapters are devoted to physiology, then follow chapters on the 
inflorescence and the phenomena of pollination. Separate chapters 
are concerned with the soil, the commoner families of flowering 
plants,_ and the different forms of plant life. Four chapters are 
apportioned to ecology. An appendix gives certain supplementary 
suggestions as to the carrying out of some of the physiological 



312 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

expetnments. There is an exceedingly copious index (27 pages) 
which should prove invaluable to students. The book is well 
illustrated, and all the illustrations are original. The photo- 
graphs are excellent, but are reproduced on a rather too coarse 
screen. A few of the figures are a little crude, but the authors 
deserve thanks for not vainly repeating time-honoured drawings. 
Many new physiological experiments are described, and some of 
the older ones have been more or less altered. A chapter on soil 
is as welcome as it is rare in an elementary book. The account 
of ecological types — woodlands, heath and moorland, mai'sh- and 
water-floras, and the seashore — is perhaps a little too condensed to 
be easy reading. The chapter on classification fails, as in the 
case of all modern English text-books, to give students any idea 
of the p-inciples of plant classification. There is too much of the 
plant dictionary in our books, a kind of glorified floral formula 
with a list of exceptions generally sufficing for the description of 
a family. When students are as carefully and intelligently intro- 
duced to the principles of plant classification as they are to those 
of other branches of botany, the real importance of systematics 
will begin to be more clearly understood by professional botanists 
as a whole. The present book is cheap, well bound and printed, 
though the paper is very shiny. The authors have produced a 
work which will be very much used by those w^orking for the 

Matriculation examinations at the different universities. 

J. sx. 

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

Bryologists throughout the world will be grieved to hear of 
the calamity that has befallen M. Jules Cardot, of Charleville, 
through the war. Charleville, which is a suburb of Mezieres, was 
entered by the Germans on the 26th of August. On the previous 
night every inhabitant received sudden orders to leave at once, a 
battle being imminent. M. Cardot, his wife and daughter-in- 
law were thus compelled to leave all they had, taking with them 
but the clothes they wore and what little money was ready to 
hand. Everything else was abandoned to the Germans, house- 
hold goods, family possessions, library, collections, instruments ; 
and he and his family are now taking refuge in the house of a 
friend at Dinard in Brittany. To add to the calamity, M. Cardot's 
income was almost entirely derived from real property in Charle- 
ville, in all probability by now reduced to ruins. At the outbreak 
of the war M. Cardot had just completed an important work on 
the Moss-flora of Madagascar, which had been occupying him for 
many months past. Among the best known of liis published 
works are his valuable essay on the Leucobryaceae, his com- 
prehensive work on Antarctic Bryology, a preliminary Moss-flora 
of Mexico, a Monograph of the Fontinalacese, a treatise on the 
Sphagna of Europe, besides innumerable minor publications. 

The Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany), xlii. no. 237 
(Oct. 8), contains a Flora of the island of Shikotan, by Hisayoshi 
Takeda, and a long paper on the Evolution of the Inflorescence 
by Mr. John Parkin. 



313 

NEW RUBIACEiE FROM TROPICAL AMERICA.— V. 

By H. F. Wernham, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

(Department of Botany, British Museum.) 

(Continued from p. 227.) 

The present paper is confined to species of the large genus 
Psi/chotria, and its immediate ally Cephaelis, so abundantly 
represented in Tropical America. The types of all are, as indi- 
cated in each case, in either the National Herbarium or that at 
Kew, or both ; to the respective authorities of which I am indebted 
for the necessary facilities for examination of the specimens. 
'\^ Cephaelis thibaudiae folia Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex bi- 
orgyalis, ramulis validis novellis plus minus glandulose puberulis; 
foliis crassis margine revolutis, ovatis v. lanceolatis, 4-5-7'5cm.x 
l*4-2-4 cm., acuminatissimis apice acutissimis, basi brevissime 
acuminatis v. subrotundatis, supra glaberrimis nitentibus, subtus in 
vena centrali nonnunquam obscure puberulis nonnunquam glabris, 
venis secundariis utrinque 6-7 obscuriusculis v. subtus prominulis, 
petiolo minute glandulari-puberulo ad 8 mm. longo, stijmlis in 
vaginam brevem oblongam connatis aristis 2 brevibus distantibus. 
Flores inter minimos in capitulis involucratis ad 14 cm. diam. 
dispositis, pedunculis graciliusculis ad 4-5 cm. longis puberulis, 
bracteis exterioribus linearibus v. lineari-lanceolatis ad 8 mm. 
longis. Bacca sulcata pisiformi glaberrima. 

Guiana: Hostmcmn, 801! Potaro River, Kaieteur Savannah, 
Jcnman, 867! Hbb. Mus. Brit, and Kew. 

Readily recognized by the thick, acuminate leaves, recalling, 
save in their small size, those so common in the Thibaudia group 
of Vacciniacece. 

Cephaelis Jenmanii Wernham, sp. nov. Glaber, /oZi/s ellip- 
tico-oblanceolatis, + 17 cm. x 7 cm., brevissime acuminatis ob- 
tusis, basi acutis, petiolo graciliusculo ad 2-5 cm. longo, utrinque 
glabris, venis secundariis plurimis approximatis utrinque promi- 
nulis, stiindis late oblongis + 1 cm. longis apice bifidis vaginantibus. 
Floribus in capitulis pro genere parvis compositis plerumque 3, 
pedunculis primario 3 cm. v. longiore lateralibus + 1 cm., sulcatis 
validiusculis, bracteis involucellorum late ovatis ca. 4 mm. x 4 mm. 
minute ciliatis, bracteis primariis 2 lanceolatis acutis concaveis 
6 mm. longis ; calyce minute dentato v. subintegro ; corolla crassa 
tubo gracili 1-3 cm. longo, lobis vix 2 mm. longis revolutis. 

Guiana: Potaro River, Sheenabowa ; fl. Sept. -Oct., Jcnman, 
1291 ! Hb. Kew. 

Near the Bolivian C. conepJioroides Rusby; distinct in the 
divided stipules and slender, longer corolla. 

Cephaelis kaieteurensis Wernham, sp. nov. Glaber, ramulis 
gracilibus, foliis oblongo-oblanceolatis 10-15 cm. x 3-4 cm., 
caudato-acuminatis utrinque acutis glaberrimis, petiolo tenui ad 
2 cm. longo, venis secundariis plurimis approximatis vix pro- 
minulis, stiindis oblongis vaginantibus diutius persistentibus 
3-3-5 mm. longis apice acutissime bifidis. Floribus in capitulis 
JouRNALi OF Botany. — Vol. 52. [December, 1914.] 2 a 



314 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

ssepius 3, 5-8 mm. diam., pedimculo communi gracili 3-4 cm. 
longo, pedunculis secundariis validiusculis ca. 1 cm. longis, bracteis 
2 primariis lanceolatis + 1"2 cm. longis, involucellorum bracteis 
ovatis ca. 3 mm. x 2 mm. acutis ; calyce minusculo subintegro ; 
corolla gracili tubo 9 mm. longo, limbo + 5 mm. diametro reflexo. 

Guiana : Demerara, Kaieteur Falls, Appun ! Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Allied to the previous species, but of much more slender habit, 
thinner and narrower leaves, smaller heads, &c. 

Psychotria transiens Wernham, sp. nov. Glaber, ramulis 
valde complanatis nodis tumidis ; foliis coriaceis, ellipticis + 
6*5 cm. X 2'3 cm., brevissime acuminatis subacutis, basi saepe 
subobtusis, brevissime petiolatis, utrinque glaberrimis supra niten- 
tibus, reticulo praesertim subtus prominulo e quo venis lateralibus 
ssepe nee bene definitis, stipnlis late oblongis brevissimis breviter- 
que acutissime 2-aristatis. Florihus in capitulis trifidis paucifloris 
dispositis, pedunculis primariis 4-5 cm. vel longioribus, secundariis 
1'2 cm., laevissimis striatis validiusculis, bracteis 2 primariis lan- 
ceolatis acutis + 3'5 mm. longis carnosiusculis concaveis plus 
minus connatis intus minute pilosis, involucelli bracteis ovatis 
acuminatis paucis + 4 mm. x 3 mm. ; calycibus mox ex involu- 
cello exsertis campanulatis dentibus late triangularibus subacutis 
brevibus ; corolla extus glaberrima ca. ad medium in lobos oblongos 
5 obtusos divisa, tubo + 4 mm. longo insuper vix ampliato. 
Bacca ellipsoidea ca. 1-4 cm. x 9 mm. a calyce tubulari persistente 
3-4 mm. alto coronata. 

Guiana: Eoraima, upper slope, and "our path," /jm Thurn, 
191 ! 214 ! Hbb. Mus. Brit, and Kew. 

Clearly allied to Cepliaclis Jenmanii and C. haieteiLrensis just 
described. These species, the present one and the allied C. cone- 
phoroides Eusby, lie on the border-line between Psychotria and 
Ceyhaclis. The next two have the same affinity, but belong more 
decidedly to the genus Psychotria. 

Psychotria hemicephaelis Wernham, sp. nov. Frutex gla- 
berrimus, ramulis gracilibus ; foliis crassiuscule coriaceis ellipticis, 
5-8-5 cm. X l"5-3 cm., utrinque leniter angustatis basi in petiolum 
brevissimum v. obsoletum, apice acutis, venis secundariis multis 
approximatis, stipidis ovatis parvis subintegris v. apice breviter 
bifidis. Floribus glaberrimis in capitulis involucratis post anthesin 
in umbellis compositis laxescentibus, pedunculo ca. 3 cm. longo, 
bracteis ellipticis exterioribus ca. 1-8 cm. x 8 mm. interioribus 
minoribus ; calyce minuto subcarnoso limbo dentato ; corolla 
gracillima 9 mm. longa, lobis 5 vix 1 mm. longis obtusissimis. 
Bacca parva ellipsoidea glabrata costata a calyce persistente parum 
accrescente coronata. 

Guiana : Potaro River, Kaieteur Savannah ; fl. and fr., Sept.- 
Oct., Jcnman, 1223 ! Hb. Kew. 

Eelated to P. oblita, next to be described ; readily distinguished 
by the smaller and more slender corolla, and the more compact 
head, as w'ell as by the larger and relatively narrower leaves. 

Psychotria oblita Wernham, sp. nov. Glaberrimus, ramulis 
angulato-compressis ; foliis crassiusculis ellipticis, 4-5-8-5 cm. 



NEW RUBIACE^ PROM TROPICAL AMERICA 315 

X 1-5-3-4 cm., utrinque leniter angustatis apice obtusis, petiolo 
vix 5 mm. longo, utrinque glaberrimis, venis secundariis utrinque 
ca. 5-9 supra obscuriusculis subtus prominulis, sti'imlis brevissime 
vaginantibus vel saepius obscuris 2-denticulatis. Floribus in 
cymis subcapitatis paucifloris ca. 2-5 cm. x 1'5 cm., bracteis 
conspicuis lanceolatis + I'^cm. x 3 mm.; calyce minimo dentibus 
lanceolatis ; corolla pro genere inter maximas tubo subcylindrico 
1"8 cm. longo insuper parum ampliato, lobis suberectis lanceolatis 
ca. 4 mm. longis obtusissimis. 

Guiana : Eoraima, Appwi, 1103 ! ScJiomhurgk, 1018 B ! 
Upper slope, Im Thurn, 185 ! Hbb. Mus. Brit, and Kew. 

The affinity is with P. lujmlina Benth., but the leaves of 
our species are much smaller and tougher, the bracts much 
narrower, &c. 

Psychotria pseudinundata Wernham, sp. nov. Glaber, 
ramulis virgatis teretibus loevissimis ; foliis subcoriaceis lanceo- 
latis 6-9 cm. X l"5-2'3 cm., acuminatissimis acutissimis, 
basi acutis brevissime petiolatis vel subsessilibus, utrinque 
glaberrimis nitentibus, venis secundariis tenuissimis subtus tamen 
conspicuis utrinque ca. 9, stq^uUs fere ad basin in aristas 2 setaceas 
ad 1 cm. V. longiores divisis. Floribus in cymas subcorymbosas 
dispositis, pedunculis lateralibus ad 1-8 cm. longis, bracteis 
primariis 2 lineari-lanceolatis ca. 8 mm. longis acutissimis, 
secundariis pro rata latioribus necnon minoribus ; calyce minuto 
denticulato ; corolla tubo gracili insuper parum ampliato ca. 
5 mm. longo extus glabro intus densissime barbate, lobis angustis 
obtusis 3-4 mm. longis ; staminibus inclusis. 

Guiana : Cayenne, Hb. Sagot, 1299 ! (Collected by Melinon.) 
Hb. Kew. 

This specimen superficially resembles P. inundata Bth. ; in the 
latter, however, the corolla-lobes are relatively much shorter and 
the anthers far exserted. 

Psychotria boqueronensis Wernham, sp. nov. Eamosus, 
glaber, ramulis virgatis gracilibus teretibus ; foliis coriaceis crassi- 
usculis, obovatis ad ellipticis, 2-5-6-0 cm. x 1-3-2-7 cm., brevissime 
plerumque acuminatis acutis, basi subcuneato-acutis, brevissime 
petiolatis, utrinque glaberrimis, venis supra nisi centrali promi- 
nente obscuriusculis subtus secundariis utrinque ca. 9 prominulis, 
stipulis brevibus late oblongis breviter 2-3-aristatis, quorum parte 
persistente inferiore indurata. Inflorescentia subspicata, + 2- 
2-5 cm. longa, pedunculo 3-3-5 cm. longo, graciliusculo glabro ; 
bracteis setaceo-lanceolatis acuminatissimis acutissimis, vix 3 mm. 
excedentibus ; floribus subsessilibus, glabris ; calyce late campanu- 
lato, dentibus 5 brevibus triangularibus, acutis ; corolla latiuscule 
cylindrica, 5-6 mm. longa, lobis lanceolatis tardius reflexis. 
Bacca pisiformi, + 5 mm. diam., costata, glaberrima. 

Colombia: Bogota, El Boqueron, 8775 ft. Triana, 1684! 
Hbb. Mus. Brit, and Kew ; Triana, 80 ! Hb. Mus. Brit. 

Distinct principally in the subspicate inflorescence, and the 
bright yellow colour assumed by the leaves when dried. This 
species has, apparently, some affinity with Mapouria panurensis 

2 a2 



316 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

Milll. Arg. ; from which it is readily separated by the much 
smaller leaves, and smaller, more slender, inflorescence. 

Psychotria Everardii Wernham, sp. nov. Eamulis lignosis 
nodosis glabris ; foliis crassiusculis, ellipticis, 4-7'5 cm. x 1"7- 
3-5 cm., vix acuminatis obtusis v. subacutis, petiolo brevissimo, 
utrinque glaberrimis,venis supra prominulis subtus prominentibus, 
secundariis utrinque ca. 8, stijndis caducissimis parvis rotundatis. 
In/lorescenfia subcorymbosa multiflora, + 2-5 cm. x 2-3 cm., 
pedunculo 1-2 cm. longo ut ramuli minute puberulo ; hracteis 
obsoletis ; calyce minuto denticulate; corolla subcylindrica, in- 
super parum ampliata, tubo + 6 mm. longo extus minutissime 
pubescente, lobis ovato-lanceolatis acutis acuminatis, ca. 2-5 mm. 
longis, patentibus. 

Guiana : Roraima, path to Upper Savannah. Fl. 16 Dec. 
Im TJmrn, 291 ! Hbb. Mus. Brit, and Kew. 

Related to P. concinna Oliv., of the same locality, but readily 
distinguished by the much larger and differently shaped leaves, 
the many-flowered inflorescence, &c. 

Psychotria plocamipes Wernham, sp. nov. Glaber, ramulis 
complanatis striatis Itevibus ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis leniter 
acuminatis subacutis basi subrotundatis 8-10 cm. x l"7-3*2 cm., 
petiolo ad + 8 mm., utrinque glaberrimis, venis secundariis 
utrinque ca. 8, aliis plus minus conspicuis intervenientibus, 
stipuUs parvis breviuscule setaceo - aristatis. Floribus inter 
miniraos, 3 mm. longis, in cymis paniculatis laxis + 3'5 cm. 
X 1'5 cm., pedunculo nutante gracillimo ad 9 cm. v. longiore, 
ramulis lateralibus pedunculi apicem versus incurvatis ; calyce 
minuto plus minus irregulariter dentato ; corolla infundibulari- 
cylindrica tubo vix 2-3 mm. longo lobos oblongos obtusos 
subgequante ; antheris in filamentis versatilibus omnino exsertis. 

British Guiana: Scliombiirgk, s.n. ! Hb. Kew. 

Recognizable by the very long slender peduncles and minute 
flowers. The affinity is with P. breviflora Milll. Arg., but the 
two species are readily separalile from the description. 

Psychotria astrellantha Wernliam, sp. nov. Glaber, ramulis 
subteretibus ; foliis papyraceis elliptico-lanceolatis 11-16 cm. 
X 3-5-5-3 cm., utrinque angustatis acutis, utrinque glabris, 
venis secundariis prominulis utrinque + 8, petiolo 4- 1 cm. 
longo, stipulis latissime ovatis integris ca. 4 mm. x 5 mm. 
Floribus inter minimos vix 2-5 mm. longis, in umbellis terminali- 
bus cymosis saspius quinqueradiatis, pedunculo primario ca. 
5 mm. longo, radiorum pedunculis + 1 cm. longis ; calyce minuto 
limbo obscuriuscule sinuato-dentato; corolla infundibulari extus 
glabro, tubo vix 1-5 mm. longo, lobis patentibus oblongo-triangu- 
laribus obtusis limbum subtequantibus ; antheris nee longe 
omnino tamen exsertis. 

Guiana : Potaro River, below the Kaieteur. Fl. Sept. -Oct. 
Jenman, 959 ! Hb. Kew. 

Probably allied to my previous species, but separable at once 
by the short erect peduncle and umbellate inflorescence. 

<^j»-' (To be continued.) 



317 

JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES. 
By James Britten, F.L.S., and G. S. Boulgee, F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 30G.) 

The following extracts from the "Abbreviations explained" 
(pp. cx-cxxxiv) contain all the matter which appears to be of 
interest : the mere titles of books are not included. Stokes's 
spelling and punctuation have been preserved throughout : a few 
explanatory notes and cross-references have been added in square 
brackets. It has not been thought necessary to give the page of 
the Commentaries for each reference. 

Bakewell bath ijarden cultivated by Mr. Watson, autlior of 
Strata of Derbyshire, 4to, and [White Watson, fl. 1773-1831, 
F.L.S. 1800] of Matlock, 4to. 

Baker, Mr. T. rector of Whitburn, near Sunderland in 
Durham. The specimens given and lent to which his name is 
subjoined were collected in a tour through France Switzerland 
and Italy to Poestum. [He also gathered plants in Oxford 
garden (p. 134) ; many letters from him are in Winch's corre- 
spondence at the Linnean Society.] 

[Ballard — see Bobinson' s street garden.] 

Banks (b. 1748, d. 1820). Why have we not a life of this 
patron of natural history. Why are not the plates he engraved 
and their descriptions by his librarians given to the world at the 
expence of a society of subscribers, who may perform for natural 
science what the Dilettanti society has done for the illustration 
of ancient art. The descriptions should be published in 8vo. 
The plates are in largish folio. L'Heritiers to the best of 
my recollection are engraved on the model of them. [See Journ. 
Bot. 1905, 287, for an account of these plates.] 

Bath garden on oolitic limestone or lias, cultivated by Sole 
[William Sole (1741-1802) ] , apothecary and author of Menthae 
britannicae, who travelld every year over some part of the island 
in pursuit of indigenous plants. 

Bautrij garden in Nottinghamshire, cultivated by Dowager 
Lady Galway [printed Bawtry on p. 15. J 

Belmont garden in Staffordshire, the seat of J. Sneyd. See 
Soho garden and Bot. arr. ed. iv. i. p. xiv. On gritstone. 

Blymhill garden in Staffoi'dshire, between Penkridgc and 
Newport, on sand and gravel, cultivated by the amiable rector 
Dickenson who travelling in France with 0. Darwin the author of 
experiments on Pus, brought home many of the aromatic plants 
of Montpelier from Gouan. [Samuel Dickenson travelled as 
tutor with Charles Darwin (1758-1778), uncle of the author of The 
Origin of Species, in 1766-7. Life and Letters of C. Danuin, i, 7.] 

Bosicorth garden, in Leicestershire, cultivated by Dr. Power 
[John Power M.D. fl. 1778-1811, whose herbarium is now in 
the possession of the Holmesdale Natural History Society] , 
removed to Lichfield. 

Boraston, Mr. Gregory, clergyman in the diocese of Worcester, 
collected plants in Italy and Gibraltar. [pp. 23, 27.] 



318 



THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



Bromehoiise garden between Chesterfield and Dronfield on 
gritstone, cultivated by Miss Bromehead an investigator and 
collector of plants. 

Cavid. bij Gough. The greater number of the places of growth 
of plants supplied by Mr. E. Forster jun. Turn, and Dilkv. i. 332. 
When will our antiquaries get rid of their passion for folios and 
quartos, and print in portable volumes which may accompany a 
traveller. If reprinted in fol. the editor will do well to consider the 
convenience of the reader who consults the index, by following 
Gibson in paging the columns. 

Cha])el Allerton garden near Leeds, cultivated by E. Salisbury, 
probably removed to near London. [Salisbury did, no doubt, 
remove many plants to Mill Hill, tlie garden made by Peter 
Collinson which he occupied from 1802 till his removal to Queen 
Street, Edgware Eoad, about 1809. At this last residence he 
could only cultivate some hundreds of pot plants.] 

Clapham garden cultivated by Mr Bewick, I think a merchant 
of London. 

Clifton garden near Bristol hot wells, on redland limestone, 
cultivated by Lady de Clifford. 

Codnor garden near Alfreton in Derbyshire, on gritstone, 
cultivated by the late Miss Wood, a most zealous cultivator 
of hardy plants, the whole surface of whose garden was coverd 
with curious plants contiguous as in a state of nature and 
struggling for preeminence or life. Her art of gardening 
consisted in extirpating weeds and preventing one plant from 
destroying its neighbours. 

Crome garden near Upton in Worcestershire on blue lias, 
cultivated by G. W. Coventry Earl of Coventry and his gardener 
Graeffer afterwards partner with Gordon of Mile end nursery 
and at length gardener to the King of Naples. 

[Curtis. See Lambeth garden.] 

Darleij garden on gritstone in the valley of the Darwent 
between Bakewell and Matlock in Derbyshire. The collection 
was formed by T. Knowlton the celebrated gardener of the last 
century and cultivated by him and his grandson the present 
owner at Lonsborough in the E. riding of Yorkshire, whence 
it was removed to Edensor in Derbyshire and finally to Darley 
[p. 91]. [Thomas Knowlton senior (1692-1782) had been 
gardener to Sherard. Thomas Knowlton junior (1757-1837) 
was elected F.L.S. 1795. The latter had a herbarium (p. 110).] 

Dav. Daviess welsh botanology, 1813. 8vo. The first part is 
a flora of Anglesey and the second in Welsh an alphabetic list 
of the Welsh names of vegetables. The author was rector of Aber in 
Caernarvonshire but resided at Beaumaris in Anglesey, where I 
botanised with him for 3 or 4 weeks, looking through his her- 
barium. He gave me duplicates of the rarer phenogamous plants. 
I hope his heirs have attended to my exhortations to keep it in a 
room where there is a constant fire, for Anglesey is a flat island 
overrun with Iris Pseudacorus. The plants were very much 
eaten by the brown Dermestes though kept in a closet adjoining 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 319 

to a sitting room upstairs in which there was a constant fire. 
[Eev. Hugh Davies (1739?-1821), F.L.S. 1790, M.A. Oxon. 1763, 
Eector of Aber, 1787, was also the friend of Hudson.] 

Donn by Lindl. Hortus cantabrigiensis, ed. 11th, 1826. 12mo. 
The editor informs us that after the 4th or 5th edit, the author 
enlarged it by adding the names of all the ornamental plants 
known to be cultivated in the British gardens. The 5th edit, 
given me by Davies of Trin. coll. incapable of countenancing a 
fraud, I regard as the catalogue of the Cambridge garden. [James 
Donn (1758-1813) was under Alton at Kew and became Curator 
at Cambridge in 1796, the first edition of his Hortus being pub- 
lished in the same year.] 

[Dickenson. See Blymhill garden.] 

Edinhurgh garden on basalt, cultivated by Hope. Wright 
sent me a large collection of grasses gatherd in the garden since 
the death of Hope. The names are not in Wrights handwriting. 

Eivell grange garden near Bromsgrove in Worcestershire, on 
red ground, cultivated by the late Earl of Plymouth. 

Foth. cat. A catalogue of the collection of hot house and 
green-house plants late the property of J. Fothergill M.D. which 
will be sold by auction 20 Aug. 1781. 8vo. This collection was 
thrown into lots by Lee the numbers corresponding to those of 
the manuscript catalogue of Fothergills garden in my possession 
drawn up by me at the request of Fothergills executors. See 
Letts, upt. [See also Upton garden.] 

Gateshead nursery in the county of Durham, on coal measures? 
cultivated by Mr. Fala and son. 

Gisborne Mr. T. of Yoxal lodge in Staffordshire, prebendary 
of Durham and author of treatises on morals. [Eev. Thomas 
Gisborne (1758-1846), uncle of Charles Cardale Babington.] 

[Gordon. See Mile-end nursery.] 

Hall [Isaac] of Newton Cartmell near Ulverston. See Bot. 
arr. [ed. 2] i. p. xi. I consulted his herbarium in the possession 
of his widow in Kendal. 

Halifax garden on gritstone cultivated by Mr. Eawson. 

Handsivorth nursery E. of Sheffield on gritstone, cultivated by 
Littlewood and now by Messrs. Holmes and Fisher. 

Hammersmith nursery in the valley of the Thames cultivated 
by James Lee author of the introduction to botany and by Messrs. 
Lee and Kennedy. 

Has land garden near Chesterfield cultivated by Mr. Claughton 
and sons. 

Heringhay garden in Middlesex cultivated by Mr. Grey, 
contains many very rare plants. 

Highfield garden on gritstone, cultivated by Mr. Eyre and 
afterwards by Mrs. Thomas who removed thither plants cultivated 
in Chesterfield. 

Hollefear. See Bot. arr. [ed. 2] i. p. xi. Collected the plants of 
Worcestershire to which his name is subjoined, at Severn Stoke 
and Crome, when curate. The cultivator of Crome garden 
appointed him to the vicarage of Wolvey in Leicestershire, 



320 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

when relinquishing the study of nature and presenting me with 
his herbarium he gave himself up wholly to parochial duties. 

Hort. ketv. eel. II. Hort. kewensis 2nd edition enlarged by W. 
T. Alton. 5 vols. 1810-1813. It is not properly an edition, the 
description and plates of the former work being omitted. Nothing 
is said in either publication of the founder of the garden. 

Hudson apothecary in Panton street. He shewed me Peloria. 
The destruction of his herbarium and cabinet of insects by fire 
was a national loss and which Davies told me either caused or 
hastend his death. [WilHam Hudson (1730-1793), author of the 
Flora Anglica.] 

Islington garden in Middlesex, cultivated by W. Pitcairn 
physician, much employed in the city. [Plants from this garden 
are in Herb. Banks.] 

Johnson Dr. of Coxbench near Derby, author of Animal 
chemistry, and of the greater part of the places of growth of 
plants in Pilkingtons Derbyshire. The American specimens to 
which his name is subjoined were gatherd on Long island, the 
neighbourhood of New York, Trenton, Philadelphia, Lancaster 
(with Muhlenberg), Harrisburgh, Sunbury, Northumberland, 
where he visited Priestley, whence he passed 300 miles up the 
Susquehana, returning by the same course to New York. The 
European specimens were collected in Switzerland. 

Kew garden in Surry, in the valley of the Thames, laid out 
with great taste. Alton the father shewed it me introduced by a 
letter from Curtis. He explained to me the plan of the catalogue 
which appeared some years after under the title of Hort. Kew. 
Alton carried his specimens and doubts to Bankss library as I 
did those of the Upton garden, where they were examind and 
resolved by the polite and candid Solander, as his manuscript 
descriptions and specific characters in the British museum will 
testify (Alton, W. b. 1731 d. 1793). [For an account of these MSS. 
see The History of Alton's Hortus Keivensis, pp. 1-4 (Journ. Bot. 
1912, Supplement iii.) : also issued separately.] 

[Knowlton. See Darley garden.'] 

Lambeth garden in Lambeth marsh in the valley of the 
Thames, cultivated by Curtis who removed it to Brompton. 

Letts, upt. Hortus uptoniensis in Fothergills works 4to 
p. 493. "Though I have endeavourd " says Lettsom "to render 
"the catalogue as complete as possible I am aware of the possi- 
" bility of many inaccuracies and defects, but at the same time I 
"am conscious that I spared no labour to prevent them." As 
every plant enumerated is marked as kept in the stove or green- 
house it is apparently the sale catalogue of the hothouse and 
greenhouse plants sold on the 20th of Aug. 1781 thrown into an 
alphabetic form. See Foth. cat. This volume of Fotherg. by 
Letts. I saw for the first time a few years ago being with many 
others the gift of Wright. [John Coakley Lettsom (1744-1815).] 

Lichfield garden. Cultivated by J. Saville vicar choral in 
Lichfield cathedral and on his decease incorporated with May- 
tield garden, (b. 1736 d. 1803.) See Anna Sewards letters. [John 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 321 

Saville, who died 2nd August, 1803, aged 67, is spoken of by Miss 
Seward as her dearest friend, as sharing Dr. Stokes's botanical 
enthusiasm, as having a considerable fund of scientific knowledge, 
and as being an intense student of botany. He was forty-eight 
years Vicar Choral at Lichfield and Miss Seward erected a 
monument to him in the Cathedral.] 

Maresbrook garden near Sheffield. On gritstone. Cultivated 
by Mrs. Shore. 

Mayfield (jarden near Manchester, on red ground? cultivated 
by Leigh Philips, merchant of Manchester, who purchased 
Savilles plants. 

Mile-end nnrserij in Essex, in the valley of the Thames, culti- 
vated by Gordon and afterwards by Gordon and Graeffer. [Plants 
from this garden are in Herb. Banks.] 

Mount Pleasant garden near Sheffield, on gritstone, cultivated 
by Mr. Ward. 

Newark nursery, cultivated by Mr. Ordoyno author of Flora 
nottinghamiensis. 

Newbold garden near Chesterfield, on gritstone, cultivated by 
Mrs. M [argaret] Stovin an investigator and collector of plants. 
[The frequent references in the body of the work indicate that she 
had a considerable herbarium : it contained specimens from 
various parts of England and from many of the gardens mentioned 
by Stokes, some of them gathered by herself.] 

Norton garden ))etween Chesterfield and Sheffield, on gritstone, 

cultivated by Harriet Shore youngest daughter of Foy of Castle 

hill in Dorsetshire, an investigator and collector of plants (d. 1828). 

The Oaks garden in the parish of Norton in Derbyshire, near 
Sheffield, cultivated by Sir W. Bagshaw. 

Orford garden near Warrington in Lancashire, cultivated by J. 
and Ann Blackl)urne and the gardener Neal. See hiscatalogue. Aikin 
who studied in it carried me to see it. See Forst. J. and G. 12. 

Perryhill nursery between Birmingham and Hales Owen, on 
gravel found by Brunton, cultivated by Brunton and Hunter and 
removed by Mr. Hunter to Soho. 

[Pitcairn. See Islington garden.] 

Eeinj^ston garden in Nottinghamshire near Loughborough, on 
blue lias, cultivated by Dowager Lady Sitwell. 

Benishaw j/arc?<3?inear Eckington in Derbyshire, on gritstone, cul- 
tivated by Dowager Lady Sitwell and afterwards by Sir G. Sitwell. 

Biddgreen garden on stratified red clay, cultivated by J. and 
his daughter Penelope Stokes florists 

Robinsons street garden on the E. side of Malvern Chace at the 
eastern foot of Malvern hill, on the rubbish of Malvern hill, 
cultivated by E. Ballard surgeon, whose herbarium is in the 
possession of Mr. Eufford of Badsey. 

Bobson, E. son [nephew] of Steph. Eobson author of British 
flora, of Darlington in Durham. See Bot. arr. ed. iv. i. p. xiv. 

Salt, cutler of Sheffield, a very accurate investigator of plants 
and insects, whose herbarium and cabinet form a part of the 
Slieffield museum. 



322 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Sansom fields garden in Worcester, on siliceous sand and 
gravel, cultivated by Joiiathan Stokes florist, and his son. 

Sheffield nursery in the parish of Norton in Derbyshire, north 
of Sheffield, on gritstone and peat, cultivated by Messrs. Oldham. 

Sherards herbarium enriched by Dillenius and given by J. 
Sibthorp to the Oxford physic garden, I consulted for one genus 
but was greatly disappointed to find that the collectors had in no. 
instance that I observd noted whence the specimens were obtained, 
in which respect the Linnaean herbarium also is very deficient. 

[Sneyd. See Belmont garden, Soho garden.] 

SoJto garden N. of Birmingham on siliceous sand and gravel, 
cultivated by Boulton partner of Watt in the manufacture of 
Watts improved steam engine. Hither resorted on the Sunday 
nearest the full moon Jas. Watt engineer and fellow labourer with 
Black on latent heat, and who as well as Mrs. W. collected plants 
in Cornwal, Jas. Kier translator of Macquers chemical dictionary, 
Erasmus Darwin author of Zoonomia (a work which would be 
oftener consulted if it had an index to vols, and p.p.) and 
Phytologia, and who in conjunction with Boothby author of 
fables and Jackson the printer of the work, planned and published 
a translation of Linnaeuss gen. plant, and syst. veg. in 3 vols. 8vo, * 
and W. Withering who in conjunction with Sneyd of Belmont and 
Turtonof Stafford planned, and which he afterwards executed, the 
first version, revised by me, of Linnaeuss generic descriptions and 
specific characters of British plants under the title of a botanical 
arrangement. On Priestleys accepting the office of pastor of the 
Presbyterian congregation in New meeting street in Birmingham 
the Lunar society changed its day of meeting to Monday, the 
members dining in rotation at each others houses, and continuing 
to do so til the Birmingham riots drove Priestley to Northumber- 
land in the United States. 

Sol. Solander whose observations enrichd the first edit, of 
Hort. kew. with specific characters and descriptions, left in 
manuscript descriptions of the plants found in the voyage with 
Cook round the world, and others cultivated in Kew Chelsea 
Upton and Islington gardens, whose specific cliaracters are given 
in Hort. kew. a work which perhaps ought rather to have been 
stiled Hort. londinensis. (b. 1736 d. 1786.) [See Keio garden.] 
[Sole. See BatJi garden.] 

Staveley garden cultivated by Mr. and Mrs. Foxlowe. 

[Stovin, Margaret. See Neivbold garden.] 

Tapton garden near Chesterfield on gritstone, cultivated by 
Mr. Wilkinson. 

Taylor, C. surgeon in the navy, son of J. and Eliz. of Stanton 
in the parish of Youlgrave in Derbyshire, born in 1762, was 



* This translation, entitled The Families of Plants (1787), seems to have 
been made by Jackson, a self-taught proctor in Lichfield Cathedral under the 
editorial supervision of Erasmus Darwin and Su- Brooke Boothby, and these 
three were the only members of the Lichtield Botanical Society. (Anna Seward, 
Memoirs of Dr. Dnricin, pp. 98-100.) It was, in fact, published in four volumes 
as 'A System of Vegetables.' By a Botanical Society at Lichfield. Lichfield, 
1783 (2 vols.), and ' The Families of Plants ' (2 vols.) 1787. 



JONATHAN STOKES AND HIS COMMENTARIES 323 

appointed in 1791 surgeon mineralogist and botanist to the Sierra 
Leone company, but returning in 1792, was taken prisoner in the 
Alert and sent to Quimper and in 1796 shipwreckd in the Amazon 
on the French coast and detained prisoner at Verdun, where he 
collected the specimens to which his name is subjoined. He was 
appointed to the Naid and arrived in port accompanied by La 
Brigada and Tlietis register ship laden with dollars, w'hen quitting 
the service he devoted himself to botany and mineralogy, dicing in 
London 28 Nov. 1818 aged 56, leaving a son Adolphus by his first 
wife and his second wife a widow without issue. 

Toions. Townsons travels in Hungary, 1797, 4to. Nativ of 
Shropshire. Accompanying a brother who went in an official 
situation he died a wealthy planter in Australia. His heirs will I 
hope give us the observations he must have made on every branch 
of natural history. 

Trentham garden, on sand and gravel in the valley of the 
Trent, cultivated by the rector T. Butt is a very extensive 
collection of hardy plants. 

Upton garden in Essex between Stratford and Ilford, in the 
valley of the Thames, cultivated by Fothergill the physician, who 
engaged Miss Lee and professd artists to make colourd drawings 
of the rarer plants. In conjunction with Pitcairn and Banks he 
sent out persons to collect plants in the Alps. [See Letts, upt.'] 

Wkithiirn garden on the sea shore of Durham between the 
Tyne and Wear, cultivated by the rector Mr. Baker. 

Willd. hot. Willdenows principles of botany. 1805. 8vo. A 
book which should be in the hands of every student. The 
translators note at p. 464 stands in need of correction. In a 
future edition the translator will I hope give us t. 10 in colours 
more accordant with nature. Whatever the original may be that 
in the translation can only mislead. Surely some of our artists 
are competent to supply this deficiency. Those who may attempt 
it will do well to read what M. de Candolle has written on the 
subject in his theor. 520-526, and naturalists may note down 
the animals and plants whose colours Linnaeus has described, and 
discriminate the shades of brunneus badius fulvus ferrugineus in 
bay horses red cows red deer fawns dormice foxes, w^olves 
according to Decandolle and fulvous lions. 

Williams, Mr. J. minister of the presbyterian church in 
Mansfield. [Collected Utricularia minor at Altringham, Lane, 
(p. 126) and Valerianclla carinata at Calver, Derbyshire (p. 192).] 

Wilsons nursery near Sheffield in the valley of the Dun, on 
gritstone, contained a very extensive collection of hardy plants, 
dispersd on the death of the cultivator. 

Wright, W. M.D. memoir of, with a selection of his papers on 
medical and botanical subjects. 1828. 8vo. with an engraved 
portrait, which is a striking likeness. It is published by his 
three nieces as a memorial of their affection, (b. 1735, d. 1819.) 
[The memoir was, according to a letter, dated 1827, by Anne 
Wright (one of the nieces?) to Kobert Brown, written by Dr. 
Mitchell. See Edinburgh garden.] 



324 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

NOTUL.E AD ALGAS JAPONIyE.— I. 

By Seiitchi Narita. 

CODIUJI MUCRONATUM J. Ag. vau. CALIFORNICUM J. Ag. Till 

Algernes Systematik, viii. p. 44, t. 1, f. 3 ; Kjellm. Marin. Chloroph. 
Jap. p. 34 ; De-Toni, Syllog. Alg. i. p. 495 ; Setcb. et Gard. 
Algae North-west America, p. 232 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii ("A 
Synoptical List of Japanese Algae"), p. 188; id. Alg. Jap. Exsiccata, 
i. No. 50 ; Matsum. Ind. PI. Jap. i. 53. 

Hab. Japan : widely distributed. 

C. divaricatum Holmes in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxxi. p. 250, 
pi. viii. f. 2a, 26; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 189; Matsum. I.e. 
p. 52. C. fronde repetiter dichotoraa, saope trichotoma, axillis 
rotundatis, infra axillas cuneato-dilatata aut triangulo-dilatata 
complanata aut subcomplanata, apicibus divaricatis, superticie 
pi. m. granulosa ; segmentis omnibus elongatis aut inferioribus 
superioribusque contractis aut superioribus elongatis inferioribus 
contractis ; utriculis clavato-cylindraceis, apice dilatatis rotun- 
datis aut subtruncatis, diametro 2-5-plo longioribus ; colore 
saturate v. pallido-viridis. 

Var. INFLECTUM Narita, var. nov. Fronde irregulariter dicho- 
toma aut fere trichotoma aut prolifera, infra axillas cuneato-dilatata 
aut sensim dilatatiuscula aut non dilatata, ramulis saepe pi. m. 
inflectis. Cetera ut in typo. 

Forma a. dilatatum. Fronde infra axillas cuneato-dilatata aut 
subtriangulo-dilatata. 

Hab. Hamajima, Prov. Shima [S. Narita). 

Forma fS. cylindricum. Fronde cylindracea, infra axillis non 
dilatata aut sensim dilatatiuscula. 

Hab. Hamajima, Prov. Shima (&'. Narita) ; Wagu, Prov. 
Shima (Herb. Eith High School). 

This species has very variable forms in both the outer and 
inner shape; some of them resemble G, cylindricum Holm, in the 
length of the utricles, but differ in the shape of apex of utricles, kc. 

C. iNTRicATUM Okam. Icon. Jap. Alg. iii. p. 74, pi. cxx. 
figs. 9-13. 

Hal). Wagu, Prov. Shima (Herb. Sakishima Fisheries School, 
Prov. Shima). 

C. MAMiLLOSUM Harv. Phyc. Austr. tab. 41; De-Toni, Syll. 
Alg. i. p. 491; id. Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 63; Okam, Nippon-Sorui- 
Meii, p. 188; id. Alg. Jap. exsicc. i. No. 49; id. in Matsum. et 
Miyoshi, Crypt. Jap. Icon. Illust. i. t. 30 ; Matsum. Ind. PI. Jap. 
i. p. 52. 

Hab. Hamajima, Prov. Shima (S. Narita). 

C. LATUM Suring. Alga) Jap. p. 22, t. vii ; De-Toni, Syll. Alg. 
i. p. 497 ; Kjellm. Marin. Chloroph. Jap. p. 35 ; Okam. Nipp.- 
Suru.-Me. p. 189. C. Lindenbergii (non Bind.) Hariot, De-Toni, 
Phyc. Jap. p. 64 ; Matsum. /. c. p. 52. 

Hab. Oiso, Prov. Sagami {Mis. M. Manajama). 



N0TUL.1<: AD AL(;AS .TArONL?-: 325 

Amphiroa sp. A. fi'oncle ctuspitosa, ca. 1-1'5 cm. alta, ca. 
0-3-1 mm. latis ; ramis paucis, patentibus, lateralibus, irregulariter 
clichotomis v. ramosis vel secundate proliferis, sub axillis clicho- 
tomis non ramorum geniculis ; ai'ticulis cylindraceis ultimis 
sLibcomplauato-dilatatis vel subcompresso-obtusis, subequicrassis 
(ex. vilt.), ca. 0-3-1 mm. latis, ca. 0-3-5 mm. longis, apice 
obtusis vel subdilatatis ; geniculis lineai-ibus ; conceptaculis vevru- 
cieformibus. 

Hab. Takeshima, Prov. Mikawa (S. Narita). 

Amphiroa aberrans Yend. Cor. Ver. Jap. p. 16, pi. 1, figs. 1-5, 
pi. V. figs. 1-3 ; id. Eev. Lis. Corallin. p. 8. 

Hab. Oiso, Prov. Sagami {Mis. M. Maruyama). 

Cheilosporum californicum (Dene.) Yend. Corall. Ver. Port- 
Renfr. p. 715, pi. liv. fig. 20, pi. Ivi. fig. 3 ; id. Rev. Lis. Corall. 
p. 19. 

Hab. Kujiikurigahama, Prov. Bosbii [Kaho). 

CoRALLiNA SESsiLis Yend. Corall. Ver. Jap. p. 32, pi. iii. fig. 18, 
pi. vii. fig. 18 ; id. Rev. Lis. Corall. p. 31. 

Hab. Kujiikurigabama, Prov. Hitachi (Kako). 

C. OFFICINALIS L., C. Aresch. in J. Ag. Species, ii. p. 563 ; 
Yend. Corall. Ver. Jap. p. 28, pi. iii. figs. 11-13, pi. vii. figs. 10-13 ; 
id. Rev. Lis. Corall. p. 29. 

Hab. Takeshima, Prov. Mikawa (S. Narita) ; Shinojima, 
Prov. Owari (Herb. Eith High School) ; Beppu, Prov. Bungo 
(S. Narita). 

Chondria crassicaulis Harv., Holmes, oj;. cit., p. 256, pi. viii. 
figs. 4a, 4i, 4c ; J. Ag. Anal. Alg. (1892), p. 161 ; Okam. On the 
Veget. Multipl. of C. crassi. and its Syst. Posit. (Tokyo Bot. Mag. 
vol. xvii.), p. 1 ; id. Alg. Jap. Exsiccata, 1, No. 23 ; id. Icon Jap. 
Alg. i. p. 12, pi. iii. figs. 1-15 ; id. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 58 ; 
De-Toni, Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 32. 

Hab. Honsiu (= Mainland); Hokkaido (= Yezo). 

C. DASYPHYLLA (Woodw.) Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 205 ; Hauck, 
Meeresalg. p. 210 ; De-Toni, Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 32 ; Okam. 
Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 57; Falkenb. Rhodom. p. 197, Taf. 22, 
figs. 4-18. Laurencia dasypJujlla Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 112, t. 14, 
figs. 13-17 ; Harv. Phyc. Brit. pi. 152 ; Kuetz. Sp. Alg. p. 853 ; 
Martens, Tange (Preuss. Exped. n. Ost.-Asi.), p. 119. Chondri- 
opsis dasypJtijllus J. Ag. Species, ii. p. 809 ; id. Anal. Alg. p. 152. 
Fiicus dasyphyllus Woodw., Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 38 ; id. Hist. 
Fuc. t. 22. 

Hab. Hokkaido {T. Sato) ; Honsiu. 

C. TENuissiMA (G. et W.) Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 205 ; Hauck, 
Meeresalg. p. 212 ; Harv. Ner. Bor.-Ameri. Par. ii. p. 21, tab. xviii. 
F; De-Toni, Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 31 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, 
p. 57; Falkenb. /. c. p. 195. Laurencia tcnuissima Grev. Alg. Brit. 
p. 113 ; Harv. Phyc. Brit. PI. 198 ; Martens, /. c. p. 119. Chon- 
driopsis temdssimus (G. et W.) J. Ag. Species, ii. p. 804. Fucus 
tenuissimus G. et W., Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 35 ; id. Hist. Fuc. 
t. 100. 



326 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Hab. Beppu, Prov. Bungo (S. Narita) ; Shimmaiko, Prov. 
Owari (S. Narita). 

Laubencia obtusa Lamx. Essai, p. 42 ; Grev. Alg. Brit. p. Ill ; 
Harv. Phyc. Austral. Syn. No. 302 ; id. Phyc. Brit. PI. 148 ; J. Ag. 
Species, ii. p. 748 ; id. Epicr. p. 656 ; Martens, /. c. p. 119 ; 
De-Toni, Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 31 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 55 ; 
Hauck, I.e. p. 206; Migula, Kryptgam.-Flor. ii. Teil 2, p. 64. 
Ghondria obtusa Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 202. Fticus obtiisus Huds., 
Turn. Syn. p. 43 ; ul. Hist. Fuc. t. 21. 

Hab. Shimmaiko, Prov. Owari (S. Narita) ; Kamagori, Prov. 
Mikawa (&'. Narita) ; Morozaki, Prov. Owari {Taheuchi) ; Beppu, 
Prov. Bungo (S. Narita). 

L. PiNNATiFiDA Lamx. I. c. p. 42 ; Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 108, 
pi. xiv. ; Harv. Phyc. Brit. PI. 55 ; J. Ag. Species, ii. p. 764 ; id. 
Epicr. p. 656 ; Kuetz. Sp. Alg. p. 856 ; Hauck, I. c. p. 208 ; Harv. 
Ner. Bor.-Ameri. Par. ii. p. 70; Setch. et Gard. I. c. p. 326; 
Migula, I. c. p. 65 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 56. Ghondria 
pinnatifida Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 201. Fiicus pinnatifidus Huds., 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. p. 267 ; id. Hist. Fuc. t. 20. 

Hab. Wagu, Prov. Shima (Herb. Eith High School). 

Chondrus crispus (L.) Stackh., Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 129, t. 15 ; 
Harv. Phyc. Brit. PI. Ixiii. ; Kuetz. Sp. Alg. p. 735 ; J. Ag. Species, 
ii. p. 246 ; id. Epicr. p. 178 ; Schmitz und Haupt. in Engl. & 
Plant. Natur. Pflanzenfam. 142, p. 35, fig. 215; Martens, I.e. 
p. 117; De-Toni, Syll. Alg. iv. sect. 1, p. 180; id. Phyc. Jap. 
Nov. p. 24 ; Hauck, I. c. p. 134, fig. 53 (nach Kuetz.) ; Migula, I. c. 
p. 31 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 24. Fucus crisims L., Turn. 
Hist. Fuc. tt. 216-217. Ghondrus polymorphus Lamx., I. c. p. 39. 
Ghondrus incurvatus Kuetz., Sp. Alg. p. 735. 

Hab. Shinojima, Prov. Owari (Herb. Eith High School) ; Oiso, 
Prov. Sagami {Mis. M. Maruyama). 

C. ELATUS Holmes, oj). cit., p. 252, pi. ix. f. 1 ; De-Toni, Syll. 
Alg. iv. sect. 1, p. 182 ; Okam. Alg. Jap. Exsiccat. i. No. 8; id. 
Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 24. 

Hab. Oiso, Prov. Sagami (Mis. M. Maruyama). 

C. OCELLATUS Holmes, op. cit., p. 252, pi. ix. f. 2 ; De-Toni, 
Syll, Alg. iv. sect. 1, p. 182 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 24. 

Hab. Wagu, Prov. Shima (Herb. Eith High School). 

Clavis Chondri specierum Japonicarum hucusque 
cognitarum extra inquirendas. 

1. Fronde lineari, compresso-tereti baud complanata, 

apices versus bis terve furcata . . Gh. elatiis Holm. 

Fronde plana, pi. m. foliacea, segmentis variabilis . 2. 

2. Cystocarpiis minimis, ovalibus, in una pagina sub- 

prominentibus, altera impressa . Ch. crispus (L.). 

Cystocarpiis majoribus, in ramis numerosis, ocellatis, 

ovalis V. subsphaericis . . . Gh. oceUatus Holm. 
Ghondri species mihi inquirendse v. ignotae. 
C. AFFiNis Harv. Ner. Bor.-Amer. p. 181 ; J. Ag. Species, ii. 
p. 247 ; id. Epicr. p. 178 ; Kuetz. Sp. Alg. p. 737 ; De-Toni, Syll. 



NOTUL.E AD ALGAS .lAPONI^: 327 

Alg. iv. sect. 1, p. 181 ; id. Phyc. Jap. Nov. p. 23 ; Heydrich, I. c. 
p. 293 ; Okam. Nippon-Sorui-Meii, p. 25. 

Hab. Formosa {Warhunj, Heydrich). 

Species mihi ignota. 

C. PLATYNus (Ag.) J. Ag. Species, ii. p. 216 ; Martens, /. c. 
p. 118; De-Toni, Pliyc. Jap. Nov. p. 23. 

Hab. Yokosuka ; Nagasaki. 

Species mihi inquirenda. 

Chondrus, sp. nov., Yendo in litt. C!i. occllatus Holm. var. 
Okam. MS. Nippon- Surui-Meii. C. fronde elata, plana, cuneato- 
dilatata, carnoso-cartilaginea, pi. m. foliacea, margine secundate 
prolifera, furcata v. simplici, extreme 4-5 dm. alta ; ramis secun- 
darioe flexuosis oblongis longo-spatulatis v. cuneatis ad basin 
attenuatis ; junioribus roseo-purpureis adultis atro-purpureis ; 
cystocarpiis ut in Gli. ocellato. 

Hab. Prov. Awa ; Prov. Sagami. 

Species mihi ignota, diag. ex Yendoi (Jap.). 



NOTES ON CHANNEL ISLANDS PLANTS. 
By H. W. Pugsley, B.A. 

The following notes are the result of observations during a 
visit to Jersey and Guernsey in June last. Owing to the previous 
dry and warm spring some characteristic species, especially 
annual Leguminosce, were not to be seen, but a few other plants, 
which in normal seasons flower much later, were already in bloom. 

In Jersey the native flora appears fortunately to have sufl'ered 
comparatively little in quite recent years from the processes of 
civilisation, but this is not so in Guernsey ; and the present con- 
dition of Vazon Bay and the adjacent Grande Mare — evidently 
once a delightful botanical locality — is deplorable to the naturalist 
and a sad contrast to the somewhat similar district of St Ouen's 
Bay in Jersey. The preservation of this latter spot, if it likewise 
becomes threatened, might indeed be worthy of the consideration 
of the National Trust. 

FuMARiA MURALis Sond. subsp. B0R.EI Pugsley {F. Borai 
Jord.). Very abundant in the south-west portion of Jersey, 
occurring not only in cultivated fields but commonly on hedge- 
banks and walls with all the aspect of a true native. This Jersey 
form seems fairly uniform and is intermediate between Jordan's 
type and var. hritannica Pugsley. On the whole, it is rather 
nearer the variety, differing in its more floriferous racemes and 
rather larger flowers. 

The typical subspecies, a little dwarfed owing to the dry 
season and occasionally mixed with plants diverging towards var. 
hritannica, was seen abundantly in fields along the southern 
clift's of Guernsey ; and a very handsome form (almost identical 
with my forma ruhens), bearing large crimson flowers with 
whitish sepals, grew sparingly in a field at Cobo. In this field 



328 THE JOUHNAL OF P.OTANY 

F. Bastardi also occurred, and one hybrid plant [F. Bastardi x 
Borcei) was observed, which was quite barren, as is usual in 
Fumaria hybrids. 

F. PARADOXA Pugsley. Plentiful in a small field in Forest 
Parish, Guernsey. New to the Channel Islands. 

When fresh, this is an extremely beautiful fumitory owing 
to its long and graceful racemes and brilliantly coloured flowers. 
The plant referred to in Mr. Marquand's Flora (p. 48) as probably 
F. speciosa may belong here. 

F. Bastardi Bor. In Jersey, about Beaumont, and here and 
there west of St. Aubin's, but much less abundant than the sub- 
species Borcsi and rarely seen except in cultivated ground. In 
Guernsey, in fields along the southern cliff's and at Cobo. 

Var. HiBERNicA Pugsley. With the type in a field at Cobo. 
Very rarely, near Le Gouffre. Not before recorded for the 
Channel Islands. 

Of F. capreolata, F. Borai subvar. sarniensis and F. Bastardi 
var. Gussonei, which are already known to grow in these islands, 
I failed to meet with any examples. 

Spergularia atheniensis Ascherson. At the foot of walls 
about St. Helier's and in several places along the bay w'estwards, 
almost as far as St. Aubin's. 

This plant, which is either spreading in Jersey or has been 
generally passed over as ^S'. rubra, is reduced to a variety of 
S. diandra Boiss. by Mr. Druce (Journ. Bot. p. 401, 1907), but 
appears in Eouy & Foucaud's Fl. de France, iii. p. 311 (1896) as 
a subspecies of ;S'. rubra Pers., to which it is evidently closely 
related. 

Unless there is a difi'erence in the colour of the corolla which 
cannot be detected in the dry state, the Jersey specimens exactly 
match the Greek example " De Heldreich, Herb. Graec. Norm. 
No. 590. S. rubra Presl.'? var. fi atheniensis Held, et Sart." on 
which Ascherson's species is founded; and in addition, they agree 
well with the description of Lepigonum campestrc of Kindberg's 
Monograph, p. 35 (1863), which Ascherson cites as synonymous. 

As Kindberg points out, S. atheniensis is intermediate between 
S. rubra and S. salina Presl., and in general features it is perhaps 
rather nearer the latter. Its more branching and floriferous 
habit, greater glandular development, longer leaves, dull and 
broadly triangular instead of silvery, lanceolate stipules, shorter 
pedicels, and purplish-pink instead of lavender corollas separate 
it from S. rubra : while S. salina is distinguishable by its usually 
less branching habit and fewer glands, white-eyed instead of 
concolorous corollas, larger capsules, and roundish seeds at least 
twice as large as the very small pyriform seeds of S. atheniensis. 
These latter seeds seem indistinguishable both in size and shape 
from those of S. rubra. 

It would appear from the Botanical Exchange Club Report for 
1912 (p. 238) that specimens varying between S. atheniensis and 
S. salina have been collected by Mr. W. C. Barton in Guernsey, 



NOTES ON CHANNEL ISLAND PLANTS 329 

but no intermediates of this kind were noticeable among the plants 
I saw in Jersey. 

It has, perhaps, not been adequately pointed out that the 
corolla characters of the British Spergularias are usually constant 
and sufficient alone to determine the species. Of the two large- 
flowered kinds, S. rupestris Lebel has petals of a fine lilac colour 
(stated to be occasionally white by Linton in Fl. Bournemouth, 
p. 55), while in S. marginata Kittel., they are normally pale pink 
or almost white, except in a glandular form with relatively short 
pedicels (perhaps var. glandulosa Druce), in which they are some- 
times of a fuller pink, shading to white towards the base. Among 
the small-flowered species, purpHsh-pink flowers with a distinct 
white eye are characteristic of S. salina, while in *S. ruhra the 
corollas are pale lilac or lavender, and in S. atheniensis purplish- 
pink and concolorous. 

PoLYCARPON TETRAPHYLLUM L. var. DiPHYLLUM DC. Prodr. iii. 
p. 376. P. diplujllum Cavanilles Icones, ii. p. 40, t. 151, f. 1. 

Exsicc. — F. Schultz Herb. Norm. 53 bis, as P. tetraphyllum 
forma minor condensata. 

St. Aubin's Bay, Jersey. 

This distinct-looking Polycarpon, which seems to he one of 
the two forms noticed in Mr. Lester-Garland's Flora, p. 73, 
matches an authentic specimen from Cavanilles in Herb. Mus. 
Brit., and agrees well with his description if not with his some- 
what crude figure. From typical P. tetraphyllum, which is 
characterised by its largely tetramerous leaves and very numerous 
flowers in a lax and much branched corymbose cyme, this variety 
appears to differ permanently by its smaller size, fewer branches 
w^ith generally opposite leaves, and contracted, dense terminal 
cymes with much fewer but somewhat larger flowers. 

P. alsinifolium DC. may be distinguished by its oval rather 
than obovate leaves and still larger flowers, with subentire and 
not emarginate petals, and five instead of three stamens. 

In Kouy & Foucaud's Fl. de France, iii. p. 312, P. tetrajjhyUum 
is divided into two varieties : a laxum, which corresponds with 
the ordinary British form, and /5 densum, resembhng and perhaps 
identical with var. diplmjllum DC, to which the authors do not 
seem to refer. 

Hypericum humifusum L. var. decumbens Eeichb. Icon. vi. 
p. 68 (1844). {H. decumbens Peterman.) 

Greve de Lecq, Jersey, and probably also in other 
localities. 

This large form of H. humifusum agrees both with Peterman's 
diagnosis of his H. decumbens (Fl. Lips. p. 565) and with 
Eeichenbach's figure of that plant (Icones, 5176). There seems 
little reason for referring it to var. magnum. Bastard (Fl. Maine 
et Loire, Suppl. p. 45), which is not distinguished by acute and 
glandular-fringed sepals but by being four times as large as the 
type of H. humifusum in all its parts, with nearly cylindrical 
stems. 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 52. [December, 1914.] 2 b 



330 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

H. LiNARi^FOLiUM Vahl vai'. APPROxiMATUM Rouy ap. Magn. 
Scrinia, p. 245 (1892) ; Eouy & Foucaud Fl. Fr. iii. p. 345. 

Cliffs near Fiquet Bay, Jersey. 

This plant cliiTers widely from typical H. linaricBfolium (a 
(jenuinum Rouy & Foucaud) in its ascending and dwarfer habit, 
shorter, broader and more revolute leaves, more contracted cymes 
and shorter capsules. Babington's Jersey specimens in Herb. 
Mus. Brit, and others in Herb. C. Bailey belong to the same 
variety, and I was informed by Mr. Piquet Jun. that he regarded 
this plant as ordinary H. linaricBfolium and knew of no other form 
in the island. 

I have also a specimen of this variety collected in Alderney by 
Mr. C. R. P. Andrews in 1899. 

Geranium purpureum Villars. Near Vale Castle, Guernsey. 

This plant, which is similar to Verlot's specimens in Herb. 
Mus. Brit, from different localities in Dauphiny, is almost scent- 
less, glabrescent below but glandular-hairy above, especially on 
the sepals. Its leaves are finely divided, the flowers only half as 
large as those of G. Bobertianum L. and the carpels glabrous and 
strongly transversely wrinkled. It may well be a distinct species, 
as treated in Gremli's Swiss Flora, but G. modestum Jord. and 
other small-flowered forms which Rouy & Foucaud unite with it 
as varieties afford perhaps a series of gradations to G. Bober- 
tianum. 

Euphrasia occidentalis Wettst. Quenvais, Jersey. L'An- 
cresse, Guernsey (very dwarf). 

This is apparently the earliest flowering of our eyebrights. I 
have collected it in Devon and Cornwall during the month of 
June. 

Salvia Verbenaca L. var. oblongifolia Benth. (S. clandes- 
tina Syme non L. ; S. Marquandii Druce). 

This interesting plant seems now on the verge of extinction at 
Vazon Bay. The few remaining individuals seen showed great 
difference in glandular development, one or two plants being 
almost eglandular ; and the polymorphism of the corolla charac- 
teristic of all the forms of S. Verhenaca was still apparent, the 
corollas being mostly 12-14 mm. long and proterandrous, but in 
some racemes only 9 mm. in length and semi-cleistogamous 
with connivent lips. Vide Journ. Bot. pp. 103, 146, and 150 
(1908). 

Plantago maritima L. Occurs at Noirmont Point in Jersey, 
and about Fort George in Guernsey, in the clefts of dry rocks 
with a southern exposure in positions occasionally within reach of 
the salt spray. The plants of these situations, some of which are 
quite luxuriant, show no signs of the foliar depauperation which 
is generally obvious in this species when growing in maritime 
shingles. 

Herniaria ciliata Bab. Vazon Bay, Guernsey. 

According to Mr. Marquand's Flora this species is confined to 
one spot in Guernsey, while H. glabra L. is widely distributed. 



NOTES ON CHANNEL ISLAND PLANTS 331 

Syme states, however, that he had seen only H. ciliata from 
Guernsey (Eng. Bot. ed. 3, vii. p. 178), and Babington seems to 
have been latterly of the same opinion. Two gatherings from 
that island sent to the Watson Exchange Club as H. glabra in 
1902 by the late Dr. Play fair were certainly II. ciliata. {Vide 
Eeport, 1902-3, p. 19.) 

(3 ANGUSTiFOLiA nov. var. Perennis, habitu gracili laxoque et 
caulibus omnino pubescentibus vel etiam infra nodos paulo pilosis. 
Folia parva (3-5 mm. longa, 1-2 mm. lata), anguste elliptica 
oblanceolatave, subacuta, ciliata. Sepala saepius valde ciliata. 
Alitor ut in typo. 

Habitat in Csesarea (St, Aubin's Bay). 

This plant, which I unfortunately neglected to look for in 
Jersey, is described from specimens sent to the Watson Exchange 
Club in 1902 by Dr. Playfair as H. glabra var. subciliata Bab, and 
passed in the Eeport under that name. Similar specimens of an 
earlier date exist in Herb. Mus. Brit. 

From its pubescent stems and narrow leaves this plant no 
doubt recalls H. glabra rather than ordinary H. ciliata, but it is 
evident, upon examination of the flowers, fruits, and seeds, quite 
irrespective of its perennial habit, that it belongs to the latter 
species. It is in part the origin of Babington's var. subciliata, 
which was described from St. Aubin's Bay, under H. glabra, with 
the diagnosis " foliis plus minusve ciliatis " (Primit. Fl. Sarn. 
p. 39, 1839). But as Babington at the same time recorded the 
type of H. glabra from this locality, where one form only, varying 
in degree of hairiness, is apparently known, it is clear that he 
was led by its general facies to regard it as H. glabra, and noting 
the strong ciliation of some individuals, to distinguish them as a 
variety on this ground alone. His varietal name, therefore, can 
hardly be adopted for a plant which at that time was both his 
type and variety, and hence the name angustifoUa has been sub- 
stituted. It may indeed be doubted whether H. glabra L. occurs 
at all in the Channel Islands. 

A fragmentary specimen in Herb. Mus. Brit, labelled " H. 
glabra (annuente Babington), Euan Minor, 1840, W. Borrer," 
which apparently gave rise to the record of H. glabra for the 
Lizard, is also referable to this variety. 

The British Herniarias may be contrasted thus : — 

H. GLABRA L. Spec. Plant. 218 (1753). Icon. E. B. 206. 

Usually annual or biennial. Stem prostrate, herbaceous, finely 
pubescent, much branched from the base. Stipules membranous, 
greenish, small and inconspicuous. Leaves oblong-elliptical, 
generally broadest about the middle but at times attenuate below, 
subacute, glabrous or ciliate with deciduous hairs. Flowers very 
small, crowded, in clusters mostly in the axils of secondary 
branches, which hence assume a spike-like appearance. Sepals 
ovate-oblong, subacute, less than 1 mm. long, normally glabrous ; 
anthers yellow ; stigmas slightly divergent. Fruit ellipsoid, acute, 
exceeding the sepals ; seed ovate, minute. 

2 B 2 



332 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

As stated by Linnaeus, II. glabra is a plant of dry gravelly 
soils, and the form of the eastern counties of Great Britain here 
described, with which most of the Continental material in Herb. 
Mus. Brit, under this name agrees, is of annual or biennial 
duration. Eouy (Fl. France, xii. p. 8) says it is " rarement 
perennante," and although Babington formerly considered it 
perennial, in the later editions of the Manual this is altered to 
" annual or biennial." 

The Herniaria sold by nurserymen as H. glabra differs from 
this plant in being perennial, and is generally wholly glabrous 
except for a very few hairs about the apex of its oblong-obovate 
leaves. It may be a distinct species, and seems to be the H. glabra 
of Coste's Fl. de France (ii. p. 102), which is said to be perennial. 
I have collected a similar perennial and nearly glabrous form 
growing with Scleranthus jyerennia in the High Alps (Saas-Fee at 
6000 ft. alt.), but my specimens, though flowering freely, show no 
developed fruit. The following detailed descriptions may be 
useful : — 

H. ciLiATA Bab. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. p. 453 (1836) ; Eng. 
Bot. Suppl. 2857 (1843). Icon. E. B. S. 2857. 

Perennial. Stem prostrate, fruticose and naked below, finely 
pubescent above (usually on the upj)er side only), irregularly 
branched and often elongate. Stipules membranous, whitish, 
larger than in H. glabra. Leaves subrotund-ovate to oval or 
oblong, rarely attenuate below, obtuse, glabrous or ciliate with 
deciduous hairs. Flowers much larger tlian in H. glabra, less 
crowded, in smaller and rarely confluent clusters. Sepals oblong, 
obtuse, about 1 mm. long, sometimes glabrous but often tipped 
with a deciduous bristle and ciliate with pilose hairs ; anthers 
tipped with red ; stigmas strongly divergent. Fruit subrotund- 
oblong, obtuse, equalling the sepals. Seed subrotund-ovate, twice 
as large as in H. glabra. 

(i ANGUSTiFOLiA. Slender and lax in habit, with stem pubes- 
cent all round and almost pilose below the nodes. Leaves small, 
narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, subacute, ciliate. Sepals 
ciliate. 

H. ciliata, which invariably grows in maritime situations, was 
well described by Babington in Eng. Bot. Supplement. It is 
reduced by Eouy (Fl. France, xii. p. 8) to a variety of the Portu- 
guese H. mantima Link ap. Schrader Journ. i. p. 57 (1800), and 
Neues Journ. i. pars 2, p. 136 (1806). Portuguese specimens in 
Herb. Mus. Brit. (Schultz, Herb. Norm. nov. ser, cent. 29, 
no. 2829, and Welwitsch, Fl. Lusit. no. 528) show that the 
two plants are closely allied, but the woody rootstock, thick 
rugose stems, and strongly pilose leaves and calyx of H. maritima 
lead me to doubt whether they are conspecihc. Willkomm & 
Lange (Fl. Hisp. iii. p. 151) adopt the name H. ciliata Bab., 
showing H. maritima Link as a synonym. 



333 

ALABASTEA DIVEESA.— Part XXV. 

By Spencer Le M. Moore, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 296.) 

2. De Vernoniaceis Africanis notul^ ulteriores. 

Erlangea (§ Bothriocline) Rogersii, sp. nov. Caule erecto 
sat valido supenie ramulos paucos graciles procreante hispide 
pilose deinde glabrescente, foliis oppositis oblongo-oblanceolatis 
acutis basi in petiolum brevem angustatis margine serrato-dentatis 
membranaceis pag. sup. pilis strigillosis appressis inspersis subtus 
in nervis sparsim pubescentibus, capitulis submediocribus circa 
24-tiosculosis in corymbum laxum folia excedentem bracteatum 
pubescentem digestis, involucri 4-serialis phyllis ovatis obtusis 
intimis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis inteiioribus perspicue purpureo- 
marginatis fere nisi admodum glabris, Hosculis longe exsertis, 
achseniis cylindrico-turbinatis pi-ominenter 5-costatis glabris, 
pappi setis caducissimis scabridis dilutissime stramineis. Erlangea 
longipes S. Moore quoad specimina Swynnertoniana (Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. xl. 104). 

Hab. Belgian Congo, Elisabethville ; Archdeacon Rogers, 
10918. 

Folia profecto evoluta 6-9 x 2-5-3 cm., in sicco Igete viridia, 
subtus paullo pallidiora; petioli lati, pubescentes, 5-8 mm. long. 
Corymbus circa 10 x 13 cm. ; bujus rami sat distantes, 
saepissime 6-10-cephali ; bractete inf. foliaceae, 2-5 cm. long., 
summae lineares, + 5 mm. long. ; pedunculi proprii graciles, 
plerique 5-10 mm. long. Capitula pansa 8 x Toiim. Involucri 
pliylla ext. 2 mm., interiora 4 mm., intima 5 mm. long. Corollge 
fere a basi gradatim amplificatae, in toto 7 mm. long, (lobi 3 mm.). 
Achaenia pallida brunnea, 1'5 mm. long. ; pappi setae 1"75 mm. 
long. 

Differs from E. longipes S. Moore chiefly in the shape of the 
involucral leaves and in the achenes. 

Erlangea (§ Eu-Erlangea) schebellensis, sp. nov. Caule 
erecto inferne nudo superne pauciramoso foliosoque pluristriato 
pubescente cito glabrescente, foliis alternis sessilibus anguste 
obovato-oblongis obtusis margine calloso-dentatis membranaceis 
utrobique scabriuscule puberulis, capitulis pro rata parvis pani- 
culam corymbosam bracteatam pubescentem folia facile exce- 
dentem efformantibus, pedunculis propriis involucra excedentibus 
aequantibusve, involucri campanulati 4-serialis dilute straminei 
phyllis extimis abbreviatis exterioribus ovato-lanceolatisinterioribus 
lineari-lanceolatis omnibus obtusis margine ciliolatis dorso levitcr 
scabriusculis, achaeniis adhuc crudis cylindrico-turbinatis quam 
pappi setae caducissima^ scabriusculoe paullulum brevioribus. 

Hab. South x\byssinia, Schebelli ; Donaldson Smith. 

Eolia subapproximata (internodiis 1-1'5 cm. long.), + 4 cm. 
long., 1-5-2 cm. lat., in sicco dilute viridia. Panicula circiter 
10 X 8 cm. ; bracteac inferiores foliis similes sed minores, cetera^ 



334 THE JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

imminutae, ultimoe lineares + 3 mm. long. Pedunculi proprii ut 
paniculcB ramuli graciles, + 3mm. long. Involucra 3-5 x 3 mm.; 
phylla extima 1-2 mm. long., intermedia 2-5 mm., intima 3 mm. 
long. Pappi setae 1-5 mm. long. 

Although the florets are still only in bud, there can, I think, 
be no doubt as to this belonging to an undescribed species. 
E. nmenyoriensis S. Moore, to which it is nearest, has inter alia 
much larger leaves and acuminate involucral leaves. 

Vernonia Tufnella S. Moore. Since Mrs. Tufnell sent home 
from Uganda the type specimen, this plant has been gathered by 
Mr. Dummer at Kirirema, alt. 4000 ft. (No. 171). Zenker & Staudt 
217 from Kamerun (distributed as F. undulata 0. & H.) is con- 
specific with this, so that the species has a considerable range. 
Its affinity is with V. biafrcB 0. & H. 

Vernonia (§ Lepidella) oocephala Bak. var. nov. angustifolia. 
Ob folia angusta 2-5 rarius 7 mm. lat. primo obtutu recognoscenda. 

Hab. Angola, Kubango, in open Mumua woods at Gimbundo 
Jamaiambe, Eiver Kutato ; Gosstveiler, 3974. Belgian Congo, 
Kundelungu, under trees ; Kassner, 2777. 

The heads and florets of this variety are slightly smaller than 
those of the type at Kew which came from the Tanganyika 
district, otherwise no further difference is perceptible. Kassner's 
specimen has still narrower leaves than have the specimens 
of Gossweiler's collecting, and never, upon the specimen to hand, 
exceed 2-5 mm. in width. 

Heads oblong when young, afterwards becoming turbinate or 
even narrowly campanulate, each of 4-5 series of dirty white 
or very pale grey hairy involucral leaves enclosing about seventeen 
shortly exserted florets. Involucres 1 cm. long; the whole head, 
when the florets are expanded, 1-5 cm. long. Corollas sub- 
cylindrical 8 mm. long., apparently white. Achenes (unripe) 
1-5 mm. in length ; outer scales of pappus narrow-linear, 1 mm. 
or a little more long ; set® of pappus 2-3-seriate, 7 mm. long., 
dirty white or the palest straw colour. 

Vernonia Petersii 0. & H. Rhodesia, Deka siding ; F. Eyles, 
135. 

Vernonia Wollastonii S. Moore. Uganda, grassy lands, 
Kirirema ; Diimmer, 207. Ehodesia, Victoria ; Monro, 1550, 
1990. 

Vernonia Bainesii 0. & H. Rhodesia, Victoria ; Monro, 1272. 

Vernonia Melleri O. & H. Rhodesia, Mazoe district ; Eyles, 
185. Belgian Congo, Lakania ; Bogers, 10023. 

Vernonia (§ Lepidella) orgy alls, sp. nov. Caule elato 
erecto hispidulo-puberulo deinde glabrescente, foliis brevipetio- 
latis obovato-oblanceolatis acutis basi cuneatim angustatis mar- 
gine dentatis summis imminutis subsessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis 
margine denticulatis membranaceo-coriaceis utrobique scabridis, 
capitulis mediocribus circa 23-flosculosis in paniculam corym- 
bosam. terminalem bracteatam laxe pluricephalam digestis, pedun- 
culis propriis involucris longioribus hispidulo-pubescentibus sur- 
sum bracteis parvulis in involucri phylla transeuntibus onustis. 



DE VERNONIACEIS AFBICANIS NOTUL^ ULTERIORES 335 

involucri campanulati pluriserialis phyllis anguste lineari- 
lanceolatis (intimis lineari-oblongis) acutis deorsum coriaceis 
diluteque stramineis sursum membranaceis intimis apice atro- 
purpureis omnibus dorso hispidulis, corollis exsertis, achgeniis 
cylindi'icis basi callosis 10-costatis appresse setosis, pappi squamis 
parvulis linearibus setis apice aliquantulum compressiusculis 
dilute stramineis scabridis. 

Hab. Angola, Cazenzo, in waste places at Carmandai ; 
Gossioeiler, 5002, 5267. 

Planta perennis, orgyalis. Caulis sat robustus, 4-5 mm. 
diam. Folia inf. 8-12 x 3-5-5 cm., in sicco griseo-viridia, sub 
lente minutissime glandulosa; petioli circa 5 mm. long. Inliores- 
centiarum bracteaj inf. foliaceas, + 4x1-5 cm., sup. gradatim 
imminutae, summse lineares, circa 3 mm. long. Infiorescentia 
tota 17-20 X 16-18 cm. Pedunculi proprii saepissime circiter 
2-5 cm. long. Capitula pansa 16 x 18 mm. Involucri phylla 
exteriora 3-5 mm., intermedia 6-7 ram., intima 8 mm. long. 
Flosculi cupreo-virides. Corollarum tubus angustus, extus 
sparsim papillosus, 9 mm. long. ; lobi oblongi, acuti, 5 mm. long. 
Styli rami 3 mm. long. Achsenia 3-3-5 mm. long. Pappi 
squamae 1-1-5 mm., setae 9 mm. long. 

Differs from V. Mellcri 0. & H. in its broad leaves, small heads 
with shorter involucral leaves, small corollas and short pappus of 
fewer thicker setae and smaller scales. 

On p. 91 will be found a description of V. iMludigma, a 
species referred by an oversight to § Xiplioleiyis, whereas it really 
belongs to § Leiyidella. V. Melleri, iKiludicjena and orgyalis stand 
in close relationship ; the former was considered by Oliver and 
Hiern to belong to § Xipholepis. 

V. Migeodi S. Moore. The type specimen is from S. Nigeria 
(Lokoja or Abbeokuta). More lately it has been collected in the 
same country by A. E. Kitson at Nofia, and in N. Nigeria at 
Nupe by C. C. Yates, and on the Eiver Benue by P. A. Talbot. 
At Kew, Lagos, Phillips, No. 50 belongs to this species. 

Var. LEPTOLEPis (var. nov.). Involucri phylla interiora acu- 
minata, circa 8 x 1-25 mm. Cetera typi. South Nigeria, 
Ozobolo ] A. E. Kitson. [Also at Kew, Western Lagos ; Eowland.] 

V. guineensis Benth. Sierra Leone, Scaries Eiver ; Scott 
Elliot, 4842. (Distributed as " V. firma O. & H. ") 

Vernonia (§ Stengelia) Hierniana, sp. nov. Caule erecto 
fere a basi folioso molliter fulvo-tomentoso, foliis subsessilibus 
anguste obovato-oblongis obtusis margine crenato-dentatis coria- 
ceis supra scabridis subtus fulvo-tomentosis, capitulis medio- 
cribus in corymbum pauci vel pluricephalum dispositis, pedun- 
culis propriis quam involucra brevioribus saepissime bracteis 
linearibus perpaucis onustis, involucri campanulati phyllis 
6-seriatis ovato-oblongis (intimis oblongis) coriaceis glabris vel 
fere glabris appendice brevi ovata obtusissima apice s»pe mucro- 
nulata griseo-tomentosa praeditis, corollis exsertis, achaeniis 
cylindricis 6-costatis breviter sericeis, pappi setis pluriseriatis 
esterioribus brevioribus interioribus complanatis omnibus obscure 



336 THE JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

ciliolatis rubiginoso-stramineis. — V. guineensis 0. Hoffm. in Bol. 
See. Bret. xiii. p. 12, non Benth. V. tdophylla O. Hoffm. var. 
Hoffmanniana Hiern in Cat. Welw. PI. i., p. 534. 

Hab. Angola, Pundo Andongo, in forest between Calunda 
and Mangue ; Welioitsch, 3278. 

Folia 9-10 X 2-8-3 cm., exstant vero pleraque minora + 
6x2 cm., pag. sup. fusca; petioli modo 2-3 mm. long. Corymbi 
usque ad 16 x 12 cm., sed saepius breviora, rarissime ad capitulam 
unicam reducti. Bractea3 foliis similes sed multo minores, 
sc. + 15 x 5 mm. Pedunculi proprii + 6 mm. long., borum bractese 
+ 10 mm. long. Capitula pansa 2x2 cm. Involucri phylla 
extima circa 6 mm., intermedia 11 mm., intima 13 mm. long. ; 
appendix + 3x3 mm. Corollae caerulescentes ; tubus angustus, 
12-5 mm. long. ; iobi lanceolato-oblongi, 5 mm. long. Styli rami 
4 mm. long. Achsenia 3 mm. long.; pappi setae extimse 2-4 mm., 
interiores 11 mm. long. 

Eemarkably homoplastic with V. ulophylla 0. Hoffm. and 
V. guineensis Benth., but easily recognisable from the former by 
the short and broad appendices to the involucral leaves, from the 
latter by the differently shaped foliage leaves and the larger heads 
V7ith different involucres. 

V. Kaessneri S. Moore. British E. Africa, Ukamba, Lamuru ; 
Scheffler, 273. 

F. clithonocephala O. Hoffm. Belgian Congo, Elisabethville ; 
Bogers, 10009. 

F. nanclensis S. Moore. Uganda, Toro ; Mrs. Tufnell. 

V. subaphylla Bak. Belgian Congo, Elisabethville ; Rogers, 
10163, 10389. 

This belongs to § Stengelia, the affinity being with V. arvie- 
rioides 0. Hoffm.